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Full text of "Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History)"

7 



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BULLETIN OF x " "^ 



THE BRITISH MUSEUM 
(NATURAL HISTORY) 



ENTOMOLOGY 

VOL. XX 

1967 



BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 
LONDON: 1967 



DATES OF PUBLICATION OF THE PARTS 

No. i ...... 19 April 1967 

No. 2 ...... 19 April 1967 

No. 3 ...... 21 April 1967 

No. 4 ...... 2 May 1967 

No. 5 ...... i August 1967 

No. 6 ...... i August 1967 

No. 7 ..... 29 September 1967 



1 2 JAN i%3 



CONTENTS 



ENTOMOLOGY VOLUME XX 



No. i. An Index-Catalogue of the genus-group names of Oriental and Austra- 
lasian Tachinidae (Diptera) and their type-species. By R. W. CROSSKEY i 

No. 2. A taxonomic revision of the Australian Aeolothripidae (Thysanoptera). 

By L. A. MOUND 41 

No. 3. The Indo-Oriental tribe Cheritrini (Lepidoptera : Lycaenidae. By C. F. 

COWAN 75 

No. 4. Diptera from Nepal. Anthomyiidae. By D. M. ACKLAND 105 

No. 5. On the classification of the Anagyrine Encyrtidae, with a revision of 

some of the genera (Hymenoptera : Chalcidoidea) . By G. J. KERRICH 141 

No. 6. Rhyparochrominae types in the British Museum (Natural History) 

(Hemiptera : Lygaeidae). By G. G. E. SCUDDER 251 

No. 7. The types of the Scoliidae described by Frederick Smith (Hymenop- 
tera). By J. CHESTER BRADLEY & J. G. BETREM 287 

Index to Volume XX 329 





^. .c^/ 



1 7 APR J967 

V%. 
AN INDEX-CATALOGUE OF THE 

GENUS-GROUP NAMES OF ORIENTAL 

AND AUSTRALASIAN TACHINIDAE 

(DIPTERA) AND THEIR TYPE-SPECIES 



R. W. CROSSKEY 



BULLETIN OF 
THE BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 

ENTOMOLOGY Vol. 20 No. i 

LONDON: 1967 



17 APR|< 



AN INDEX-CATALOGUE OF THE GENUS-GROUP 

NAMES OF ORIENTAL AND AUSTRALASIAN 

TACHINIDAE (DIPTERA) AND THEIR 

TYPE-SPECIES 



BY 

R. W. CROSSKEY 



Commonwealth Institute of Entomology, London 



Pp- i- 



BULLETIN OF 
THE BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 

ENTOMOLOGY Vol. 20 No. i 

LONDON: 1967 



THE BULLETIN OF THE BRITISH MUSEUM 

(NATURAL HISTORY), instituted in 1949, is 
issued in five series corresponding to the Departments 
of the Museum, and an Historical series. 

Parts will appear at irregular intervals as they become 
ready. Volumes will contain about three or four 
hundred pages, and will not necessarily be completed 
within one calendar year. 

In 1965 a separate supplementary series of longer 
papers was instituted, numbered serially for each 
Department. 

This paper is Vol. 20, No. I of the Entomological 
series. The abbreviated titles of periodicals cited follow 
those of the World List of Scientific Periodicals. 



World List abbreviation : 
Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 



Trustees of the British Museum (Natural History) 1967 



TRUSTEES OF 
THE BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 

Issued 19 April, 1967 Price Seventeen Shillings 



AN INDEX-CATALOGUE OF THE GENUS-GROUP 

NAMES OF ORIENTAL AND AUSTRALASIAN 

TACHINIDAE (DIPTERA) AND THEIR 

TYPE-SPECIES 

By R. W. CROSSKEY 

CONTENTS 

Page 

SYNOPSIS ........... 3 

INTRODUCTION ........... 3 

ALPHABETICAL CATALOGUE OF GENUS-GROUP NAMES .... 5 

SUMMARY OF PREOCCUPIED AND REPLACEMENT NAMES .... 32 

SYNOPSIS OF GENUS-GROUP NAMES BASED ON AUSTRALIAN TYPE-SPECIES 33 

INDEX TO SPECIFIC NAMES OF TYPE-SPECIES ..... 34 

SYNOPSIS 

A catalogue is given of all genus-group names of Tachinidae based upon type-species from the 
Oriental Region, including Japan, and from the Australasian Region, including New Zealand. 
The type-species is cited for each genus-group name, together with the mode of fixation and the 
name of any valid senior synonym where known. The catalogue includes 514 genus-group 
names, of which 15 are replacement names for preoccupied homonyms (including five new 
names here proposed) and 3 are alternative original spellings : of the remaining 496 names, 
488 are nomenclaturally available (467 of them proposed for full genera and 21 as subgenera), 
and 8 are unavailable. A summary is given of the junior homonyms and their replacement 
names, and a synoptic list of genus-group names based on type-species from the Commonwealth 
of Australia is provided for the convenience of Australian dipterists. 

INTRODUCTION 

A PRIME difficulty in the taxonomy of Tachinidae arises from the very large number 
of genus-group names that have been proposed and the lack of any concise works 
bringing them together, even on a regional basis. Townsend's Manual of Myiology 
(1934-1942 in 12 parts, Sao Paulo), although helpful in many ways, is difficult to 
use and is now much outdated ; the only work containing an up-to-date catalogue 
of genus-group names of Tachinidae for any region is the recently-published Catalog 
of the Diptera of America North of Mexico (1965, U.S. Department of Agriculture). 
A basic requirement for revisionary work on the Tachinidae of the Oriental, 
Australasian and Ethiopian Regions is the compilation of, firstly, index-catalogues 
of genus-group names and type-species, and, at a later stage, of complete catalogues 
in systematic order containing full information on the status and whereabouts of 
the type-material of all described species. The present paper is a first contribution 
on these lines and provides a full index-catalogue of all genus-group names of 
Tachinidae based on type-species described from the Oriental and Australasian 
Regions. 

ENTOM. 20, I. I 



4 R. W. CROSSKEY 

This catalogue covers the Oriental Region (including those parts of southern China 
such as Szechwan that are normally considered Oriental) and the whole Australasian 
Region, of which New Zealand is considered an integral part. I have also included 
the genus-group names based upon type-species from Japan, although probably 
rather less than half of the Japanese tachinid fauna is of Oriental origin. I accept 
Weber's line (coinciding with the ethnic boundary between Indonesia and Melanesia) 
as the junction between the Oriental and Australasian Regions, as it appears to 
reflect the zoogeography of tachinidae rather better than Wallace's line. 

The 514 names in the catalogue comprise 280 names for the Oriental Region 
exclusive of Japan, 17 names for Japan, 140 names for the Commonwealth of 
Australia, 24 names for Melanesia and Polynesia and 53 names for New Zealand. 
The fact that there are twice as many names of the genus-group for the Oriental 
Region as for Australia does not indicate that there is a real difference in the generic 
composition of the tachinid fauna of the two areas merely that the Australian 
fauna is less well known and was not worked upon by Townsend (almost all of whose 
manifold genera were monotypic). The excessive splitting of Townsend (who 
provided 1491 new generic and 1555 new trivial names : Arnaud, 1958, Micro- 
entomology 23 : 4) has fortunately affected the taxonomy of the Old World fauna less 
drastically than that of the New World, and the present catalogue contains the 
relatively modest number of 198 Townsend names. Nevertheless, most of these 
are undoubtedly unnecessary, and many have already been sunk in synonymy by 
Mesnil (1944-1965, Flieg. Palaearkt. Reg. 64g : 1-879) an d Crosskey (1966, Proc. 
R. ent. Soc. Lond. (B) 35 : 95-104). 

Mesnil, in his papers on new Oriental Tachinidae (1953, Bull. Annls Soc. r. ent. 
Belg. 89 : 85-114 ; 146-178 and 1957, Mem. Soc. r. ent. Belg. 28 : 1-80) has published 
the descriptions of twenty- three genera in the form of combined " n.g., n. sp. " 
descriptions : in each case, however, the first part of the description compares the 
new genus with other genera and cites characters that may be regarded as differen- 
tiating the generic, rather than the specific, taxon, and I therefore accept the names 
concerned as available and satisfying Article 13 (i) of the International Code of 
Zoological Nomenclature. 

All but one of the twenty-four Oriental and Australasian genera described by Brauer 
& Bergenstamm (1889-1894, Denkschr. Akad. Wiss., Wien 56 : 69-180 ; 58 : 305- 
446 ; 60 : 89-240 and 61 : 537-624) were monotypic, but for nine of the twenty-three 
monotypic genera Brauer & Bergenstamm made it clear by the use of the word 
" fur " or " Type " that they were erecting the genus for a particular species. For 
these nine genera I have cited the type-species as fixed by original designation : 
the others are fixed by monotypy. 

The generic name Glossidionophora Bigot, 1885 is omitted, since it is based on the 
Neotropical species Glossidionophora nigra Bigot, 1885 by the subsequent designation 
of Townsend (1916, Insecutor Inscit. menstr. 4:7), an d not as Paramonov (1956, 
Aust. J. Zool. 4 : 368) has stated in error on the Australian species Glossidionophora 
bicolor Bigot, 1885. The name Biomyioides Matsumura, 1916 is also omitted as 
there seems no doubt at all that this name must apply to a species of Silbomyia 
Macquart (Calliphoridae ; Ameniinae), judging from the excellent description in 



GENERA OF ORIENTO- AUSTRAL ASIAN TACHINIDAE 5 

English, although I have been unable to trace the type-material of the type-species 
to confirm this (Biomyioides Matsumura, 1916, Thousand Insects of Japan, Addit. 
2 : 388 was overlooked by Townsend and omitted from the Manual of Myiology 
and the name has remained enigmatic) . 

The unique female holotype (in Zoologisch Museum, Amsterdam) of the type- 
species of Cypselopteryx Townsend, 1926, has been examined while preparing this 
paper and found to belong in the aberrant subfamily Eginiinae of the Muscidae, 
and the name Cypselopteryx is therefore omitted from the catalogue. Wagneriopsis 
Townsend, 1927, is omitted as despite the similarity of the name to Wagneria 
R.-D. this name applies to a Rhinophorid and is a synonym of Acampomintho 
Villeneuve, 1927 (synonymy in Townsend, 1938, Man. Myiol. 6 : 207). 

Finally it should be noted that Baranov spelt his name with either a terminal 
" v" or " ff " in his papers on Oriental Tachinidae : I have not differentiated in the 
catalogue but have adopted the " v " ending throughout. 

In the following list, available genus-group names are printed in bold italic capitals, 
preoccupied homonyms and unavailable names in italic capitals. 

ALPHABETICAL CATALOGUE OF GENUS-GROUP NAMES 

ACEPHANA Townsend, 1916, Can. Ent. 48 : 153. Type-species: Masicera rubrifrons 

Macquart, 1847 [ = Masicera rufifacies Macquart, 1847], by original designation. TASMANIA. 

ACTINOCHAETOPTERYX Townsend, 1927, Ent. Mitt. 16 : 277. Type-species: Actino- 
chaetopteryx actifera Townsend, 1927, by original designation. FORMOSA. 

ACUCERA Malloch, 1930, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. 55 : 328. Type-species: Acucera montana 
Malloch, 1930, by original designation. NEW SOUTH WALES. 

ACUPHOCERA Townsend, 1926, Supplta ent. 14 : 37. Type-species: Acuphocera suma- 

trensis Townsend, 1926 [ = Musca varia Fabricius, 1794], by original designation. SUMATRA. 

AGALMIA Enderlein, 1936, Veroff. dt. Kolon.-u. Vbersee-Mus. Bremen 1 : 433. Type-species: 
Rut ilia albopicta Thomson, 1869, by original designation. NEW SOUTH WALES. 

AKOSEMPOMYIA Villeneuve, 1932, Bull. Annls Soc. r. ent. Belg. 71 : 243. Type-species: 
Akosempotnyia caudata Villeneuve, 1932, by monotypy. FORMOSA. 

ALOPHOROPHASIA Townsend, 1927, Philipp. J. Sci. 33 : 287. Type-species: Alophoro- 
phasia alata Townsend, 1927, by original designation. PHILIPPINE REPUBLIC. 

ALTAIA Malloch, 1938, Trans. Proc. R. Soc. N.Z. 68 : 208. Type-species: Altaia geniculata 
Malloch, 1938, by original designation. NEW ZEALAND. 

AMPHIBOLIA Macquart, 1843, Mem. Soc. Sci. Agric. Lille 1843 : 278. Dipt. exot. 2, pt. 3:121. 
Type-species: Amphibolia valentina Macquart, 1843, by original designation. AUSTRALIA. 

AMPHITROPESA Townsend, 1933, // N.Y. ent. Soc. 40 : 463. Type-species: Amphi- 
tropesa elegans Townsend, 1933, by original designation. NEW SOUTH WALES. 

AMPLIPILA Curran, 1927, Ent. Mitt. 16 : 446. Type-species: Amplipila versicolor Curran, 
1927 [= Crypsina prima Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1889], by original designation. QUEENS- 
LAND. 

ANAEUDORA Townsend, 1933, Jl N.Y. ent. Soc. 40 : 468. Type-species: Anaeudora 
aureocephala Townsend, 1933, by original designation. FORMOSA. 

ANAGONIA Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1891, Denkschr. Akad. IViss., Wien 58 : 348. Muse. 
Schiz. 2 : 44. Type-species: Anagonia spylosioides Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1891 
= Masicera rufifacies Macquart, 1847], by monotypy. TASMANIA. 

ENTOM. 2O, I. I 



6 R. W. CROSSKEY 

ANAMASTAX Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1891, Denkschr. Akad. Wiss., Wien 58 : 349. Muse. 

Schiz. 2 : 45. Type-species: Anamastax australis Townsend, 1933 [ Blepharipeza 

goniaeformis Brauer & Bergenstamm, not of Macquart, by misidentification], by original 

designation. QUEENSLAND. 
ANAPERISTOMMYIA Townsend, 1926, Supplta ent. 14 : 15. Type-species: Anaperis- 

tornmyia optica Townsend, 1926, by original designation. SUMATRA. 

ANATROPOMYIA Malloch, 1930, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. 55 : 126. Type-species: Anatro- 

potnyia flavicornis Malloch, 1930, by original designation. NEW SOUTH WALES. 
ANAVORIA Mesnil, 1953, Bull. Annls Soc. r. ent. Belg. 89 : 170. Type-species: Voria 

(Anavoria) indica Mesnil, 1953, by monotypy. INDIA. (As subgenus of Voria Robineau- 

Desvoidy, 1830). 
ANDROCYPTERA Townsend, 1927, Philipp. J. Sci. 33 : 286. Type-species: Androcyptera 

anorbitalis Townsend, 1927, by original designation. PHILIPPINE REPUBLIC. 

ANEOGMENA Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1891, Denkschr. Akad. Wiss., Wien 58 : 385. Muse. 
Schiz. 2 : 81. Type-species: Aneogmena fischeri Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1891, by mono- 
typy. INDIA, EAST INDIES. 

ANUROPHYLLINA Mesnil, 1961, Flieg. Palaearkt. Reg. 64g : 693. Unavailable, no fixation 
of a type-species. 

This name was proposed for a subgenus of Urophyllina Villeneuve, 1937, with four included 
Oriental species; it is invalid under Article 13 (b) of the International Code of Zoological 
Nomenclature. 

APALPOSTOMA Malloch, 1930, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. 55 : 134. Type-species: Apal- 
postoma cinerea Malloch, 1930, by original designation. WESTERN AUSTRALIA. 

APALPUS Malloch, 1929, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. 54 : 318. Type-species: Apalpus dorsalis 

Malloch, 1929, by original designation. WESTERN AUSTRALIA. 

APATEMYIA Macquart, 1846, Mem. Soc. Sci. Agric. Lille 1844 : 325. Dipt. exot. Suppl. 1 : 
197. Type-species: Apatemyia longipes Macquart, 1846, by monotypy. TASMANIA. 

APHANTORHAPHOPSIS Townsend, 1926, Supplta ent. 14 : 34. Type-species: Aphan- 
torhaphopsis orientalis Townsend, 1926, by original designation. SUMATRA. 

APHRIMYOBIA Townsend, 1926, Supplta ent. 14 : 36. Type-species: Aphrimyobia 

simillima Townsend, 1926, by original designation. SUMATRA. 

APILIA Malloch, 1930, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. 55 : 345. Type-species: Apilia cilifera 
Malloch, 1930 [= Blepharella lateralis Macquart, 1851], by original designation. QUEENS- 
LAND. 

APROTHECA Macquart, 1851, Mem. Soc. Sci. Agric. Lille 1850 : 148. Dipt. exot. Suppl. 
4 : 175. Type-species: Aprotheca rufipes Macquart, 1851, by monotypy. TASMANIA 
(probably in error for NEW SOUTH WALES). 

ARCHIMERA Mesnil, 1954, Flieg. Palaearkt. Reg. 64g : 371. Type-species: Platymyia 
(Archimera) oncoperae Mesnil, 1954 [= Exorista diversicolor Macquart, 1847], by monotypy. 
TASMANIA. (As subgenus of Platymya Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830). 

ARGYROTHELAIRA Townsend, 1916, Proc. U.S. natn. Mus. 51 : 311. Type-species: 
Argyrothelaira froggat t ii Townsend, 1916, by original designation. SOLOMON ISLANDS. 

ARRHENOMYZA Malloch, 1929, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. 54 : 322. Type-species: Arrheno- 
myza conspicua Malloch, 1929, by original designation. WESTERN AUSTRALIA. 

ARRHINODEXIA Townsend, 1927, Ent. Mitt. 16 : 282. Type-species: Arrhinodexia 
atrata Townsend, 1927, by original designation. FORMOSA. 

ARTHURIA Malloch, 1938, Trans. Proc. R. Soc. N.Z. 68 : 166. Type-species: Arthuria 
dimorpha Malloch, 1938, by original designation. NEW ZEALAND. 

Name preoccupied by Arthuria Dall, 1881 (Mollusca), see Montanarturia Miller, 1945. 



GENERA OF ORIENTO- AUSTRAL ASI AN TACHINIDAE 7 

ASBELLOPSIS Townsend, 1927, Philipp. J. Sci. 34 : 378. Type-species: Asbellopsis 
luzonensis Townsend, 1927, by original designation. PHILIPPINE REPUBLIC. 

ASETULIA Malloch, 1938, Trans. Proc. R. Soc. N.Z. 68 : 187. Type-species: Asetulia 
nigropolita Malloch, 1938, by original designation. NEW ZEALAND. 

ASIOCARCELIA Baranov, 1934, Trans. R. ent. Soc. Land. 82 : 407. Type-species: Carcelia 
caudata Baranov, 1931, by original designation. FORMOSA. 

A TRACTOCEROPS Townsend, 1916, Proc. U.S. natn. Mus. 51 : 307. Type-species: Atrac- 
tocerops ceylanica Townsend, 1916, by original designation. CEYLON. 

ATRACTODEXIA Bigot, 1885, Bull. Soc. ent. Fr. 1885 : xxxii. Type-species: Atractodexia 
argentifera Bigot, 1885 [= Sumpigaster fasciatus Macquart, 1855], by monotypy. NEW 
CALEDONIA. 

AUSTRALOTACHINA Curran, 1938, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.IV. 63 : 194. Type-species: 
Australotachina calliphoroid.es Curran, 1938, by original designation. QUEENSLAND. 

AUSTRODEXIA Malloch, 1930, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.IV. 55 : 122. Type-species: Austro- 
dexia setigera Malloch, 1930, by original designation. NEW SOUTH WALES. 

AUSTROMACQUARTIA Townsend, 1934, // N.Y. ent. Soc. 42 : 248. Type-species: 
Macquartia claripennis Malloch, 1932, by original designation. NEW ZEALAND. 

AUSTROPHASIA Townsend, 1916, Insecutor Inscit. menstr. 4 : 45. Type-species: Hyalo- 
myia rufiventris Macquart, 1851, by original designation. TASMANIA (probably in error for 
NEW SOUTH WALES). 

AUSTROPHASIOPSIS Townsend, 1933, //. N.Y. ent. Soc. 40 : 448. Type-species: Austro- 
phasiopsis jormosensis Townsend, 1933, by original designation. FORMOSA. 

AUSTROPHOROCERA Townsend, 1916, Can. Ent. 48 : 157. Type-species: Phorocera 
biserialis Macquart, 1847, by original designation. TASMANIA. 

AUSTROPHRYNO Townsend, 1916, Can. Ent. 48 : 160. Type-species: Tachina densa 
Walker, 1852 [= Exorista diver sicolor Macquart, 1847], by original designation. NEW SOUTH 
WALES. 

A VIBRISSIA Malloch, 1932, Rec. Canterbury Mus. 3 : 436. Type-species: Avibrissia 
longirostris Malloch, 1932, by original designation. NEW ZEALAND. 

AVIBRISSINA Malloch, 1932, Rec. Canterbury Mus. 3 : 438. Type-species: Avibrissina 
brevipalpis Malloch, 1932, by original designation. NEW ZEALAND. 

BACTROMYIELLA Mesnil, 1952, Flieg. Palaearkt. Reg. 64g : 240. Type-species: Bactro- 
myiella aureocincta Mesnil, 1952 [= Masicera ? ficta Walker, 1861], by original designation. 
QUEENSLAND, FIJI. 

BALLARDIA Curran, 1927, Bttll. ent. Res. 18 : 166. Type-species: Ballardia pallipes 
Curran, 1927, by original designation. QUEENSLAND. 

BARYDEXIA Townsend, 1928, Philipp. J. Sci. 34 : 379. Type-species: Barydexia bivittata 

Townsend, 1928, by original designation. PHILIPPINE REPUBLIC. 

BELLINA Robineau-Desvoidy, 1863, Hist. nat. Dipt. Env. Paris 2 : 194. Type-species: 
Bellina melanura Robineau-Desvoidy, 1863, by monotypy. INDIA. 

BESSERIOIDES Curran, 1938, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.IV. 63 : 185. Type-species: Besserioides 
sexualis Curran, 1938, by original designation. QUEENSLAND. 

BEZZIOMYIOBIA Baranov, 1938, Vet. Arh. 8 : 172. Type-species: Bezziomyiobia 
nigripes Baranov, 1938, by original designation. SOLOMON ISLANDS. 

BIOMYOPSIS Townsend, 1927, Supplta ent. 16 : 60. Type-species: Biomyopsis sutnatren- 
sis Townsend, 1927, by original designation. SUMATRA. 

BLEPHARELLA Macquart, 1851, Mem. Soc. Sci. Agric. Lille 1850 : 176. Dipt. exot. Suppl. 
4 : 203. Type-species: Blepharella lateralis Macquart, 1851, by monotypy. INDIA. 



8 R. W. CROSSKEY 

BOROMYIA Mesnil, 1957, Mem. Soc. r. ent. Belg. 28 : 16. Type-species: Boromyia gastrula 
Mesnil, 1957, D Y monotypy. BURMA. 

BOTHROPHORA Schiner, 1868, Reise Novara, Zool. 2, Dipt. : 317. Type-species: Both- 
rophora zelebori Schiner, 1868, by original designation. NEW ZEALAND. 

BOTHROSTIRA Enderlein, 1936, Veroff. dt. Kolon-u. Ubersee-Mus. Bremen 1 : 413. Type- 
species: Bothrostira prisca Enderlein, 1936, by original designation. NEW BRITAIN. 

BOTRIOPSIS Townsend, 1928, Philipp. J. Sci. 34 : 389. Type-species: Botriopsis bakeri 

Townsend, 1928, by original designation. PHILIPPINE REPUBLIC. 

BRACHYMEROPSIS Townsend, 1926, Supplta ent. 14 : 36. Type-species: Brachymeropsis 

sumatrensis Townsend, 1926, by original designation. SUMATRA. 

CALCAGER Hutton, 1901, Trans. N.Z. Inst. 33 : 48. Type-species: Calcager apertum 
Hutton, 1901, by subsequent designation of Townsend, 1916, Insecutor Inscit. menstr. 4 : 6. 
NEW ZEALAND. 

CALCAGERIA Curran, 1927, Ent. Mitt. 16 : 442. Type-species: Calcageria incidens 
Curran, 1927, by original designation. NEW ZEALAND. 

CALOPYGIDIA Malloch, 1930, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. 55 : 349. Type-species: Calopygidia 
analis Malloch, 1930 [= Eurigaster tasmaniae Walker, 1858], by original designation. NEW 
SOUTH WALES. 

CALOSIA Malloch, 1938, Trans. Proc. R. Soc. N.Z. 68 : 233. Type-species: Zealandotachina 
(Calosia) binigra Malloch, 1938, by original designation. NEW ZEALAND. (As subgenus of 
Zealandotachina Malloch, 1938). 

CALOTACHINA Malloch, 1938, Trans. Proc. R. Soc. N.Z. 68 : 176. Type-species: Calo- 
tachina tricolor Malloch, 1938, by original designation. NEW ZEALAND. 

CALOTHERESIA Townsend, 1926, Supplta ent. 14 : 29. Type-species: Calotheresia 
sumatrensis Townsend, 1926, by original designation. SUMATRA. 

CALOTHERESIOPSISRaranov, 1932, Wien. ent. Ztg 49 : 214. Type-species: Calotheresia 

oHenfa/ts Baranov, 1932 [ Dexia basifera W r alker, 1860], by original designation. CELEBES. 
(As subgenus of Calotheresia Townsend, 1926). 

CALOZENILLIA Townsend, 1927, Supplta ent. 16 : 67. Type-species: Calozenillia auro- 

nigra Townsend, 1927, by original designation. SUMATRA. 

CALYPTROMYIA Villeneuve, 1915, Annls hist.-nat. Mus. natn. hung. 13 : 92. Type-species: 
Calyptromyia barbata Villeneuve, 1915, by original designation. FORMOSA. 

CAMPBELLIA Miller, 1923, Trans. N.Z. Inst. 54 : 432. Type-species: Campbellia campbelli 
Miller, 1923, by subsequent designation of Townsend, 1938, Man. Myiol. 7 : 43. NEW 
ZEALAND. 

Townsend (1938, Man. Myiol. 7 : 43) cites the type-species of Campbellia as fixed by 
original designation, but Miller did not designate either of the two originally included species 
as the type: the type-species is here held to be fixed therefore by subsequent designation of 
Townsend (loc. cit.). 

CAMPYLIA Malloch, 1938, Trans. Proc. R. Soc. N.Z. 68 : 239. Type-species: Calcager 
temerarium Hutton, 1901, by original designation. NEW ZEALAND. 

CARCELIELLA Baranov, 1934, Trans. R. ent. Soc. Lond. 82 : 398. Type-species: Carcelia 
octavo Baranov, 1931, by original designation. FORMOSA. 

CARCELIMYIA Mesnil, 1944, Flieg. Palaearkt. Reg. 64g : 26. Type-species: Exorista dispar 
Macquart, 1851, by original designation. AUSTRALIA. 

CARCELIOPSIS Townsend, 1927, Supplta ent. 16 : 66. Type-species: Carceliopsis sum- 
atrensis Townsend, 1927, by original designation. SUMATRA. 



GENERA OF ORIENTO- AUSTRAL ASI AN TACHINIDAE 9 

CATACARCELIA Townsend, 1927, Supplta ent. 16 : 66. Type-species: Catacarcelia 

kockiana Townsend, 1927, by original designation. SUMATRA. 

CATAPARIPROSOPA Townsend, 1927, Ent. Mitt. 16 : 285. Type-species: Catapari- 
prosopa curvicauda Townsend, 1927, by original designation. FORMOSA. 

CENTETER Aldrich, 1923, Proc. U.S. natn. Mus. 63 (6) : 3. Type-species: Centeter cinerea 
Aldrich, 1923, by original designation. JAPAN. 

CEROSOMYIA Hutton, 1901, Trans. N.Z. Inst. 33 : 57. Type-species: Cerosomyia usitata 
Hutton, 1901, by monotypy. NEW ZEALAND. 

CHAETEXORISTA Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1894, Denkschr. Akad. Wiss., Wien 61 : 616. 
Muse. Schiz. 4 : 80. Type-species: Chaetexorista javana Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1894, 
by monotypy. JAVA. 

CHAETOGASTRINA Malloch, 1929, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. 54 : 313. Type-species: 
Chaetogastrina stolida Malloch, 1929, by original designation. NEW SOUTH WALES. 

CHAETOMYIOBIA Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1894, Denkschr. Akad. Wiss., Wien 61 : 617. 
Muse. Schiz. 4 : 81. Type-species: Chaetomyiobia javana Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1894, 
by monotypy. JAVA. 

CHAETOPHTHALMUS Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1891, Denkschr. Akad. Wiss., Wien 58 : 383. 
Muse. Schiz. 2 : 79. Type-species: Micropalpus brevigaster Macquart, 1846, by subsequent 
designation of Townsend, 1916, Insecutor Inscit. menstr. 4 : 6. TASMANIA. 

Townsend (1939, Man. Myiol. 8 : 223) cites brevigaster as type-species of Chaetophthalmus by 
designation of Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1893 (Denkschr. Akad. Wiss., Wien 60 : 145; Muse. 
Schiz. 3 : 57), but Brauer & Bergenstamm do not give a valid type-fixation for Chaetoph- 
thalmus since brevigaster Macquart is cited as an example only (see Opinion 98 of the Inter- 
national Commission on Zoological Nomenclature): the fixation of Townsend (1916, loc. cit.) 
is therefore the first valid type-fixation. 

CHAETOPLETHA Malloch, 1938, Trans. Proc. R. Soc. N.Z. 68 : 194. Type-species: Pletho- 
chaetigera (Chaetopletha) centralis Malloch, 1938, by original designation. NEW 
ZEALAND. (As subgenus of Plethochaetigera Malloch, 1938). 

CHAETOPTILIOPSIS Baranov, 1938, Bull. ent. Res. 29 : 411. Type-species: Chaetoptili- 
opsis burmanica Baranov, 1938, by original designation. BURMA. 

CHAETOWEBERIA Villeneuve, 1932, Bull. Soc. ent. Fr. 1932 : 271. Type-species: Weberia 
rubiginans Villeneuve, 1932, by original designation. FORMOSA. (As subgenus of Weberia 
Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830). 

CHARITELLA Mesnil, 1957, Mem. Soc. r. ent. Belg. 28 : 31. Type-species: Charitella 
gracilis Mesnil, 1957, by monotypy. BURMA. 

CHETOGASTER Macquart, 1851, Mem. Soc. Sci. Agric. Lille 1850 : 198. Dipt. exot. Suppl. 
4 : 225. Type-species: Chetogaster violacea Macquart, 1851, by monotypy. AUSTRALIA. 

CHLORODEXIA Townsend, 1916, Can. Ent. 48 : 154. Type-species: Chlorodexia frog- 
gattii Townsend, 1916, by original designation. NEW SOUTH WALES. 

CHLOROGASTER Macquart, 1851, Mem. Soc. Sci. Agric. Lille 1850 : 157. Dipt. exot. Suppl. 
4 : 184. Type-species: Chlorogaster tasmanensis Macquart, 1851, by monotypy. TAS- 
MANIA (probably in error for NEW SOUTH WALES). 

Name preoccupied by Chlorogaster Swainson, 1839 (Pisces), see Chlorogastrina n. n. 

CHLOROGASTRINA n. n. for Chlorogaster Macquart, 1851, preoccupied by Chlorogaster 
Swainson, 1839. Type-species: Chlorogaster tasmanensis Macquart, 1851. 

CHLOROGASTROPSIS Townsend, 1926, Philipp. J. Sci. 29 : 544. Type-species: Chloro- 
gaster rufipes Schiner, 1868, by original designation, NEW ZEALAND, 



io R. W. CROSSKEY 

CHLOROPALES Mesnil, 1950, Flieg. Palaearkt. Reg. 64g : 109. Type-species: Chloropales 

luteifacies Mesnil, 1950, by original designation. NEW GUINEA. 

CHLOROTACHINA Townsend, 1915, Proc. biol. Soc. Wash. 28 : 21. Type-species: Chryso- 
soma flaviceps Macquart, 1851, by original designation. AUSTRALIA. 

CHROMOCHARIS Enderlein, 1936, Veroff. dt. Kolon.-u. Vbersee-Mus. Bremen 1 : 432. 
Type-species: Rutilia atribasis Walker, 1861, by original designation. BATCHIAN (= BAT- 
JAN). 

CHRYSOPASTA Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1889, Denkschr. Akad. Wiss., Wien 56 : 152. 
Muse. Schiz. 1 : 84. Type-species: Chrysopasta versicolor Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1889, 
by monotypy. AUSTRALIA. 

CHRYSOPYGIA Townsend, 1933, Jl N.Y. ent. Soc. 40 : 471. Type-species: Chrysopygia 
auricaudata Townsend, 1933, by original designation. JAVA. 

CHRYSORUTILIA Townsend, 1915, Proc. biol. Soc. Wash. 28 : 23. Type-species: Rutilia 
formosa Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830, by original designation. AUSTRALIA. 

CODIUM Enderlein, 1936, Veroff. dt. Kolon.-u. Ubersee-Mus. Bremen 1 : 417. Type-species: 
Rutilia oblonga Macquart, 1847, by original designation. AUSTRALIA. 

COMPSILUROIDES Mesnil, 1953, Bull. Annls Soc. r. ent. Belg. 89 : 105. Type-species: 
Compsiluroid.es communis Mesnil, 1953, by monotypy. BURMA. 

COMPSOPTESIS Villeneuve, 1915, Annls hist.-nat. Mus. natn. hung. 13 : 90. Type-species: 
Compsoptesis phoenix Villeneuve, 1915, by subsequent designation of Townsend, 1931, 
Ann. Mag. nat. Hist, (io) 8 : 388. FORMOSA. 

COSSIDOPHAGA Baranov, 1934, Encycl. ent. S6rie B II, 7 : 161. Type-species: Podomyia 
atkinsoni Aubertin, 1932, by original designation. INDIA. 

CROSSOTOCNEMA Bigot, 1885, Bull. Soc. ent. Fr. 1885 : cci. Type-species: Crossotoc- 
nema javana Bigot, 1885, by monotypy. JAVA. 

CRYPSINA Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1889, Denkschr. Akad. Wiss., Wien 56 : 97. Muse. 
Schiz. 1 : 29. Type-species: Crypsina prima Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1889, by monotypy. 
QUEENSLAND. 

CRYPTOSPLYOSIA Townsend, 1928, Philipp. J. Sci. 34 : 388. Type-species: Cryptospy- 
losia angustifrons Townsend, 1928, by original designation. PHILIPPINE REPUBLIC. 

CURTOCERA Macquart, 1835, Hist. nat. Ins. Dipt. 2 : 182. Type-species: Duvaucelia 
bicincta Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830. New name for Duvaucelia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830, 
preoccupied by Duvaucelia Risso, 1826. 

CYLINDROMYIELLA Malloch, 1926, Philipp. J. Sci. 31 : 508. Type-species: Cylindro- 
myiella bakeri Malloch, 1926, by original designation. PHILIPPINE REPUBLIC. 

CYSTOMETOPIA Townsend, 1926, Philipp. J. Sci. 29 : 531. Type-species: Heterometopia 
rufipalpis Macquart, 1847, by original designation. AUSTRALIA. 

DEGEERIOPSIS Mesnil, 1953, Bull. Annls Soc. r. ent. Belg. 89 : 104. Type-species: Degeeri- 
opsis xanthogastra Mesnil, 1953, by monotypy. BURMA. 

DELTA Malloch, 1930, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. 55 : 332. Type-species: Delta australiensis 
Malloch, 1930, by original designation. WESTERN AUSTRALIA. 

Name preoccupied by Delta de Saussure, 1855 (Hymenoptera) and Delta Saalmueller, 1891 
(Lepidoptera), see Deltomyza Malloch, 1931 and Mallochiola Strand, 1932. 

DELTOMYZA Malloch, 1931, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. 56 : 298. Type-species: Delta austral- 
iensis Malloch, 1930. New name for Delta Malloch, 1930, preoccupied by Delta de Saussure, 
1855 and Delta Saalmueller, 1891. 

DEMOTICOIDES Mesnil, 1953, Bull. Annls. Soc. r. ent. Belg. 89 : 150. Type-species; 
Demoticoides pallidus Mesnil, 1953, by monotypy. INDIA. 



GENERA OF OKI ENTO- AUSTRAL ASI AN TACHINIDAE n 

DE^.iOMIMA Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1894, Denkschr. Akad. Wiss., Wien 61 : 615. Muse. 
Schiz. 4 : 79. Type-species: Dexiomima javana Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1894, by mono- 
typy. JAVA. 

DEXIOMIMOPS Townsend, 1926, Supplta ent. 14 : 21. Type-species: Dexiomimops 
longipes Townsend, 1926, by original designation. SUMATRA. 

DEXIOTRIX Villeneuve, 1936, Bull. Soc. ent. Egypte 20 : 330. Type-species: Dexiotrix 
longipennis Villeneuve, 1936, by original designation. CHINA (SZECHWAN). 

DIAPHANIA Macquart, 1843, Mem. Soc. Sci. Agric. Lille 1843 : 277. Dipt. exot. 2, pt. 3 : 120. 
Type-species: Diaphania testacea Macquart, 1843, by monotypy. AUSTRALIA. 

Name preoccupied by Diaphania Huebner, 1818 (Lepidoptera), see Prodiaphania Townsend, 
1927. 

DIATRAEOPHAGA Townsend, 1916, Proc. U.S. natn. Mus. 51 : 320. Type-species: Dia- 
traeophaga striatalis Townsend, 1916, by original designation. JAVA. 

DICEPHALOMYIA Malloch, 1935, Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (10) 16 : 337. Type-species: 
Dicephalomyia rufiventris Malloch, 1935, by original designation. BORNEO. 

DIGLOSSOCERA Wulp, 1895, Tijdschr. Ent. 38 : 51. Type-species: Diglossocera biflda 

Wulp, 1895, by monotypy. JAVA. 

DODDIANA Curran, 1927, Ent. Mitt. 16 : 352. Type-species: Doddiana pollens Curran, 
1927, by original designation. QUEENSLAND. 

DOLESCHALLA Walker, 1861, /. Proc. Linn. Soc. 5 : 242. Type-species: Doleschalla 
cylindrica Walker, 1861, by monotypy. NEW GUINEA. 

DOLESCHALLOPSIS Townsend, 1933, // N.Y. ent. Soc. 40 : 459. Type-species: Doles- 
challa makilingensis Townsend, 1927, by original designation. PHILIPPINE REPUBLIC. 

DOLICHOCOXYS Townsend, 1927, Supplta ent. 16 : 57. Type-species: Dolichocoxys 

fetnoralis Townsend, 1927, by original designation. SUMATRA. 

DOLICHOPODOMINTHO Townsend, 1927, Ent. Mitt. 16 : 278. Type-species: Dolichopo- 
domintho dolichopiformis Townsend, 1927, by original designation. FORMOSA. 

DONOVANIUS Enderlein, 1936, Veroff. dt. Kolon.-u. Ubersee-Mus. Bremen 1 : 409. Type- 
species: Musca regalis Guerin-Meneville, 1830, by original designation. AUSTRALIA. 

DRINOMYIA Mesnil, 1962, Flieg. Palaearkt. Reg. 64g : 759. Type-species: Oswaldia 
bicoloripes Mesnil, 1957, by original designation. JAPAN. 

DUVAUCELIA Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830, Mem. pres. div. Sav. Acad. Sci. Inst. Fr. 2 : 227. 
Type-species: Duvaucelia bicincta Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830, by monotypy. BENGAL. 

Name preoccupied by Duvaucelia Risso, 1826 (Mollusca), see Curtocera Macquart, 1835. 

ECATOCYPTERA Townsend, 1927, Ent. Mitt. 16 : 285. Type-species: Ecatocyptera 
evibrissata Townsend, 1927, by original designation. FORMOSA. 

ECHRYSOPASTA Townsend, 1932, Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (10) 9 : 39. Type-species: Rutilia 
elegans Macquart, 1846, by original designation. NEW SOUTH WALES. 

EFFTAYLORIA Malloch, 1941, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. 66 : 64. Type-species: Tayloria 
testacea Malloch, 1930. New name for Tayloria Malloch, 1930, preoccupied by Tayloria 
Bourguignat, 1889. 

EIPOGONOIDES Curran, 1938, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. 63 : 195. Type-species: Eipogo- 
noides ruficornis Curran, 1938, by original designation. NEW SOUTH WALES. 

ELFRIEDELLA Mesnil, 1957, Mem. Soc. r. ent. Belg. 28 : 69. Type-species: Elfriedella 

amoena Mesnil, 1957, by monotypy. JAPAN. 
ELODIMYIA Mesnil, 1952, Flieg. Palaearkt. Reg. 64g : 242. Type-species: Elodimyia 

tricincta Mesnil, 1952, by original designation, SUNPA ISLANDS, 



12 R. W. CROSSKEY 

ENGYCERA Malloch, 1938, Trans. Proc. R. Soc. N.Z. 68 : 179. Type-species: Engycera 
politiventris Malloch, 1938, by original designation. NEW ZEALAND. 

Name preoccupied by Engycera Saunders, 1866 (Coleoptera), see Gracilicera Miller, 1945. 

EOACEMYIA Townsend, 1926, Philipp. J. Sci. 29 : 529. Type-species: Eoacemyia bakeri 
Townsend, 1926 [= Tachina errans Wiedemann, 1824], by original designation. SINGAPORE. 

EOCARCELIA Townsend, 1919, Proc. U.S. natn. Mus. 56 : 582. Type-species: Eocarcelia 
ceylanica Townsend, 1919, by original designation. CEYLON. 

EOCARCELIOPSIS Townsend, 1928, Philipp J. Sci. 34 : 392. Type-species: Eocarceliopsis 
bakeri Townsend, 1928, by original designation. PHILIPPINE REPUBLIC. 

EOCYPTERA Townsend, 1927, Ent. Mitt. 16 : 284. Type-species: Eocyptera orientalis 
Townsend, 1927, by original designation. FORMOSA. 

EOCYPTERULA Townsend, 1926, Philipp. J. Sci. 29 : 540. Type-species: Eocypterula 
atra Townsend, 1926, by original designation. PHILIPPINE REPUBLIC. 

EODEXIOSOMA Townsend, 1926, Supplta ent. 14 : 15. Type-species: Eodexiosoma 
sumatrense Townsend, 1926, by original designation. SUMATRA. 

EODOLICHOCOLON Townsend, 1933, // N.Y. ent. Soc. 40 : 478. Type-species: Dolicho- 
colon orientate Townsend, 1927, by original designation. SUMATRA. 

EOGYMNOPHTHALMA Townsend, 1926, Supplta ent. 14 : 35. Type-species: Eogym- 
nophthalma orientalis Townsend, 1926 [= Tachina orbata Wiedemann, 1830], by original 
designation. SUMATRA. 

EOMINTHO Townsend, 1926, Philipp. J. Sci. 29 : 531. Type-species: Eomintho equa- 
torialis Townsend, 1926, by original designation. SINGAPORE. 

EOMYOCERA Townsend, 1926, Philipp. J. Sci. 29 : 537. Type-species: Eomyocera 
carinata Townsend, 1926 [= Dexia divergens Walker, 1857], by original designation. 
PENANG. 

EOMYOCEROPSIS Townsend, 1926, Supplta ent. 14 : 29. Type-species: Eomyoceropsis 

longipennis Townsend, 1926, by original designation. SUMATRA. 

EOPARACHAETA Townsend, 1927, Supplta ent. 16 : 70. Type-species: Eoparachaeta 
orientalis Townsend, 1927, by original designation. SUMATRA. 

EOPHYLLOPHILA Townsend, 1926, Supplta ent. 14 : 19. Type-species: Eophyllophila 
elegans Townsend, 1926, by original designation. SUMATRA. 

EOPTILODEXIA Townsend, 1926, Philipp. J. Sci. 29 : 535. Type-species: Eoptilodexia 
longipes Townsend, 1926, by original designation. PHILIPPINE REPUBLIC. 

EOZENILLIA Townsend, 1926, Philipp. J. Sci. 29 : 542. Type-species: Eozenillia equa- 
torialis Townsend, 1926, by original designation. SINGAPORE. 

EPIXORISTA Townsend, 1927, Supplta ent. 16 : 61. Type-species: Epixorista episcopa 
Townsend, 1927 [= Isosturmia inversa Townsend, 1927], by original designation. SUMATRA. 

EPSEUDOCYPTERA Townsend, 1927, Philipp. J. Sci. 33 : 283. Type-species: Epseudo- 
cyptera epalpata Townsend, 1927, by original designation. PHILIPPINE REPUBLIC. 

EREBIOMIMA Mesnil, 1953, Bull. Annls Soc. r. ent. Belg. 89 : 166. Type-species: Erebio- 
mima luteisquama Mesnil, 1953, by monotypy. ? INDIA. 

ERISTALIOMYIA Townsend, 1926, Supplta ent. 14 : 37. Type-species: Eristaliomyia 

nitidifrons Townsend, 1926 [= Echinomyia brevipennis Walker, 1857], by original designa- 
tion. SUMATRA. 

ERYTHRONYCHIA Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1891, Denkschr. Akad. Wiss., Wien 58 : 360. 
Muse. Schiz. 2 : 56. Type-species: Demotions australensis Schiner, 1868, by monotypy. 
NEW ZEALAND, 



GENERA OF ORIENTO- AUSTRAL ASI AN TACHINIDAE 13 

EUAMPHIBOLIA Townsend, 1916, Proc. U.S. natn. Mus. 49 : 618. Type-species: Rutilia 
fulvipes Guerin-Meneville, 1843, by original designation. AUSTRALIA. 

EUCOMPSA Enderlein, 1936, Veroff. dt. Kolon.-u. Ubersee-Mus. Bremen 1 : 400. Type-species: 
Rutilia minor Macquart, 1846, by original designation. TASMANIA, NEW SOUTH WALES. 

EUCOMUS Aldrich, 1926, Proc. U.S. natn. Mus. 69 (22) : 22. Type-species: Eucornus 
strictus Aldrich, 1926, by original designation. CHINA (SZECHWAN). 

EUFISCHERIA Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1891, Denkschr. Akad. Wiss., Wien 58 : 374. Muse. 
Schiz. 2 : 70. Ty pe -species : Eufischeria ceytanica Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1891, by 
monotypy. CEYLON. 

EUGYMNOCHAETOPSIS Townsend, 1927, Ent. Mitt. 16 : 287. Type-species: Eugytn- 
nochaetopsis lateralis Townsend, 1927, by original designation. FORMOSA. 

EUHAPALIVORA Gardner, 1940, Indian J. Ent. 2 : 179. Nomen nudum, unavailable. 
Gardner (1940, Indian J. Ent. 2 : 179) published the name Euhapalivora in the binomen 
Euhapalivora indica which he attributed to Baranov; Baranov, however, never published 
this name. The specific name indica is available under Article 1 1 (g) (ii) of the International 
Code of Zoological Nomenclature and is attributable to Gardner, but the generic name Euhapa- 
livora is not accompanied by a definition of the generic taxon and does not fulfil the require- 
ments of Article 13 (a) of the Code; it is therefore an unavailable nomen nudum. 

EUHYGIA Mesnil, 1960, Flieg. Palaearkt. Reg. 64g : 645. Unavailable. 

The generic name Euhygia, proposed by Mesnil (1960, Flieg. Palaearkt. Reg. 64g : 645) for 
the Oriental species Hygia robusta Mesnil, 1952, is not accompanied by a definition of the 
generic taxon and is at present unavailable under Article 13 (a) of the International Code of 
Zoological Nomenclature. 

EUHYPOCHAETOPSIS Townsend, 1928, Philipp. J. Sci. 34 : 394. Type-species: Euhypo- 
chaetopsis orientalis Townsend, 1928, by original designation. PHILIPPINE REPUBLIC. 

EUPALPOCYPTERA Townsend, 1927, Ent. Mitt. 16 : 286. Type-species: Eupalpocyptera 

angusticauda Townsend, 1927, by original designation. FORMOSA. 

EUPHASIA Townsend, 1908. Smithson. misc. Collns 51 (1803) : 76. New name for Neophasia 
Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1893, preoccupied by Neophasia Behr, 1869. 

Name preoccupied by Euphasia Stephens, 1830 (Lepidoptera) and Euphasia Mulsant and 
Verreaux, 1876 (Aves), see Neximyia n.n. 

EUPROCTIMYIA Villeneuve, 1921, Ann. Soc. ent. Belg. 61 : 157. Type-species: Euproc- 
timyia pyrrhaspis Villeneuve, 1921, by monotypy. INDIA. 

EURYGASTROPSIS Townsend, 1916, Can. Ent. 48 : 158. Type-species: Eurigaster 
tasmaniae Walker, 1858, by original designation. TASMANIA. 

EUSTACOMYIA Malloch, 1927, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. 52 : 337. Type-species: Eusta- 
comyia breviseta Malloch, 1927, by original designation. NEW SOUTH WALES. 

EUTHELAIROSOMA Townsend, 1926, Supplta ent. 14 : 32. Type-species: Euthelairo- 
soma chaetopygiale Townsend, 1926, by original designation. SUMATRA. 

EUTOROCCA Townsend, 1919, Proc. U.S. natn. Mus. 56 : 554. Type-species: Eutorocca 
fasciata Townsend, 1919, by original designation. CEYLON. 

EUTRIXOPSIS Townsend, 1919, Insecutor Inscit.menstr. 6 : 166. Type-species: Eutrixopsis 
javana Townsend, 1919, by original designation. JAVA. 

EUVESPIVORA Baranov, 1942, Vet. Arh. 12 : 162. Type-species: Euvespivora orientalis 

Baranov, 1942, by original designation. JAVA. 

EVERESTIOMYIA Townsend, 1933, // N.Y. ent. Soc. 40 : 466. Type-species: Everestio- 
myia antennalis Townsend, 1933, by original designation. MOUNT EVEREST. 

ENTOM. 2O, I. I 



I4 R. W. CROSSKEY 

EXECHOPALPUS Macquart, 1847, Mem. Soc. Sci. Agric, Lille 1846 : 91. Dipt. exot. Suppl. 
2 : 75. Type-species: Exechopalpus ruflpalpus Macquart, 1847, by monotypy. AUS- 
TRALIA. 

FERIOLA Mesnil, 1957, Mem. Soc. r. ent. Belg. 28 : 77. Type-species: Feriola longicornis 
Mesnil, 1957, by monotypy. BURMA. 

FORMICOPHANIA Townsend, 1916, Proc. U.S. natn. Mus. 51 : 322. Type-species: Fortni- 
cophania elegans Townsend, 1916, by original designation. THAILAND. 

FORMOSIA Guerin-Meneville, 1843, Rev. Zool. Soc. Cuvier. 6 : 263. Type-species: Musca 
mirabilis Guerin-Meneville, 1830, by monotypy. OFFAK. 

FORMOSODORIA Townsend, 1933, // N.Y. ent. Soc. 40 : 475. Type-species: Sturmia 
dilabida Villeneuve, 1916, by original designation. SOUTH AFRICA. 

Townsend cited Formosa in the original description and the generic name alludes to this 
locality; although the type-species occurs in Formosa it was described from Natal. 

FORMOSOLOPHOSIA Townsend, 1927, Ent. Mitt. 16 : 280. Type-species: Formosolo- 
phosia hernydoides Townsend, 1927, by original designation. FORMOSA. 

FROGGATTIMYIA Townsend, 1916, Can. Ent. 48 : 155. Type-species: Froggattirnyia 
hirta Townsend, 1916, by original designation. NEW SOUTH WALES. 

FRONTINIELLOPSIS Townsend, 1927, Supplta ent. 16 : 61. Type-species: Frontiniel- 
lopsis sumatrensis Townsend, 1927, by original designation. SUMATRA. 

GAEDIOGONIA Townsend, 1927, Supplta ent. 16 : 71. Type-species: Gaediogonia 
jacobsoni Townsend, 1927 [= Tachina rufifrons Wiedemann, 1830], by original designation. 

SUMATRA. 

GASTROPTILOPS Mesnil, 1957, Mem. Soc. r. ent. Belg. 28 : 78. Type-species: Gastrop- 
tilops ater Mesnil, 1957, by monotypy. JAPAN. 

GENOTRICHIA Malloch, 1938, Trans. Proc. R. Soc. N.Z. 68 : 164. Type-species: Geno- 
trichia tonnoiri Malloch, 1938, by original designation. NEW ZEALAND. 

GERALDIA Malloch, 1930, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. 55 : 327. Type-species: Geraldia 
hirticeps Malloch, 1930, by original designation. WESTERN AUSTRALIA. 

GERMARIOCHAETA Villeneuve, 1937, Bull. Mus. r. Hist. nat. Belg. 13 (34) : 5. Type- 
species: Germariochaeta clavat a Villeneuve, 1937, by monotypy. CHINA (SOOCHOW). 

GEROCYPTERA Townsend, 1916, Ent. News 27 : 178. Type-species: Trichoprosopa 
marginalis Walker, 1860, by original designation. AMBOYNA. 

GEROTACHINA Townsend, 1916, Can. Ent. 48 : 152. Type-species: Tachina obtusa 
Walker, 1852, by original designation. NEW SOUTH WALES. 

GLOS SOS 'ALIA Mesnil, 1947, Encycl. ent. S6rie B II, 10 : 62. Invalid, no fixation of type- 
species (two included species). Mesnil, 1960, Flieg. Palaearkt. Reg. 64g : 606. Type-species: 
Phorocera grandis Macquart, 1851, by original designation. AUSTRALIA. (As subgenus 
of Spoggosia Rondani, 1859). Valid with date 1960. 

GONANAMASTAX Townsend, 1933, J l N - Y - ent - Soc - 40 ' 47 2 - Type-species: Blepharipeza 
goniaeformis Macquart, 1846, by original designation. TASMANIA. 

GONIOPHANA Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1889, Denkschr. Akad. Wiss., Wien 56 : 97. Muse. 
Schiz. 1 : 29. Type-species: Gonia heterocera Macquart, 1846, by original designation. 
AUSTRALIA. 

GONIOPHYTO Townsend, 1927, Ent. Mitt. 16 : 281. Type-species: Goniophyto formo- 
sensis Townsend, 1927, by original designation. FORMOSA. 

GRACILICERA Miller, 1945, Proc. R. ent. Soc. Lond. (B) 14 : 72. Type-species: Engycera 
politiventris Malloch, 1938. New name for Engycera Malloch, 1938, preoccupied by Engycera 
Saunders, 1866. 



GENERA OF ORIENTO- AUSTRAL ASIAN TACHINIDAE 15 

GRAPHIA Wulp, 1885, Tijdschr. Ent. 28 : 196. Type-species: Graph/a strigosa Wulp, 
1885, by monotypy. HALMAHERA. 

GRAPHOLOSTYLUM Macquart, 1851, Mem. Soc. Sci. Agric. Lille 1850 : 196. Dipt. exot. 
Suppl. 4 : 223. Type-species: Grapholostylum dorsomaculatum Macquart, 1851, by 
monotypy. TASMANIA (probably in error for NEW SOUTH WALES). 

GRAPHOTACHINA Malloch, 1938, Trans. Proc. R. Soc. N.Z. 68 : 238. Type-species: 
Graphotachina sinuata Malloch, 1938, by original designation. NEW ZEALAND. 

GYMNAMEDORIA Townsend, 1927, Ent. Mitt. 16 : 283. Type-species: Gymnamedoria 
medinoides Townsend, 1927 [= Succingulum transvittatum Pandelle, 1896], by original 
designation. FORMOSA. 

HABROTA Enderlein, 1936, Veroff. dt. Kolon.-u. Vbersee-Mus. Bremen 1 : 399. Type-species: 
Rutilia formosa Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830, by original designation. AUSTRALIA. 

HALIDA YOPSIS Townsend, 1927, Ent. Mitt. 16 : 282. Type-species: Halidayopsis 
fortnosensis Townsend, 1927, by original designation. FORMOSA. 

HAMAXIA Walker, 1860, /. Proc. Linn. Soc. 5 : 153. Type-species: Hamaxia incongrua 
Walker, 1860, by monotypy. AMBOYNA. 

HAPALIOLOEMUS Baranov, 1934, Encycl. ent. Serie B II, 7 : 162. Type-species: Hapa- 
lioloetnus tnachaeralis Baranov, 1934, by original designation. INDIA. 

In the original publication this name is spelled Hepalioloemus in the generic heading but 
Hapalioloemus in the description of the type-species : as the name is based on Hapalia, generic 
name of the host, the spelling Hepalioloemus is an inadvertent error. 

HEGA Enderlein, 1936, Veroff. dt. Kolon.-u. Vbersee-Mus. Bremen 1 : 421. Type-species: 
Hega viridicingens Enderlein, 1936, by original designation. BATJAN. 

HEMIDEGEERIA Villeneuve, 1929, Bull. Annls Soc. r. ent. Belg. 69 : 66. Type-species: 
Hemidegeeria bicincta Villeneuve, 1929, by subsequent designation of Townsend, 1932, 
Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (10) 9 : 36. FORMOSA. 

HEMILINNAEMYIA Villeneuve, 1932, Bull. Soc. ent. Fr. 1932 : 269. Type-species: Henri- 
linnaemyia decorata Villeneuve, 1932, by original designation. FORMOSA. 

HEPALIOLOEMUS Baranov, 1934. See Hapalioloemus. 

HERTINGIA Mesnil, 1957, Mem. Soc. r. ent. Belg. 28 : 12. Type-species: Crossocosmia 
(Hertingia) pauciseta Mesnil, 1957, by original designation. JAPAN. (As subgenus of 
Crossocosmia Mik, 1890). 

HETERIA Malloch, 1930, Rec. Canterbury Mus. 3 : 325. Type-species: Heteria appendi- 
culata Malloch, 1930, by original designation. NEW ZEALAND. 

HETEROMETOPIA Macquart, 1846, Mem. Soc. Sci. Agric. Lille 1844 : 298. Dipt. exot. 
Suppl. 1 : 170. Type-species: Heterometopia argentea Macquart, 1846, by monotypy. 
TASMANIA. 

HEXAMERA Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1889, Denkschr. Akad. Wiss., Wien 56 : 132. Muse. 
Schiz. 1 : 64. Type-species: Hystricia orientalis Schiner, 1868, by monotypy. NEW 
ZEALAND. 

HILLIA Malloch, 1929, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. 54 : 328. Type-species: Ililliu politu Malloch, 
1929, by original designation. NORTHERN TERRITORY (AUSTRALIA). 

HOBARTIA Malloch, 1930, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. 55 : 127. Type-species: Hobartia 
peculiaris Malloch, 1930, by original designation. TASMANIA. 

HOMOHEXAMERA Townsend, 1934, J l N - Y - ent - Soc - 42 : 2 47- Type-species: Proto- 
hystricia huttoni Malloch, 1930, by original designation. NEW ZEALAND. 

HOMOTRIXA Villeneuve, 1914, Annls hist.-nat. Mus. natn. hung. 12 : 437. Type-species: 
Homotrixa brevifacies Villeneuve, 1914, by monotypy. FORMOSA. 



16 R. W. CROSSKEY 

HUTTONOBESSERIA Curran, 1927, Ent. Mitt. 16 : 354. Type-species: Phania verecunda 
Hutton, 1901, by original designation. NEW ZEALAND. 

HYGIA Mesnil, 1952, Flieg. Palaearkt. Reg. 64g. : 222. Type-species: Blepharipoda euta- 
chinoides Baranov, 1932, by original designation. FORMOSA. 

Name preoccupied by Hygia Uhler, 1861 (Hemiptera). No replacement name is proposed 
as Hygia Mesnil is currently regarded as a junior subjective synonym of Chaetexorista Brauer 
& Bergenstamm, 1894. 

HYGIELLA Mesnil, 1957, Mem. Soc. r. ent. Belg. 28 : 28. Type-species: Hygiella pygidialis 
Mesnil, 1957, by monotypy. BURMA. 

HYLEORUS Aldrich, 1926, Trans. Amer. ent. Soc. 52 : 16. Type-species: Hyleorus furcatus 
Aldrich, 1926, by monotypy. QUEENSLAND. 

HYSTRICINA Malloch, 1932, Pec. Canterbury Mus. 3 : 433. Type-species: Musca lupina 

Swederus, 1787, by original designation. NEW ZEALAND. 

HYSTRICOVORIA Townsend, 1928, Philipp. J. Sci. 34 : 395. Type-species: Hystricovoria 
bakeri Townsend, 1928, by original designation. PHILIPPINE REPUBLIC. 

IDANIA Enderlein, 1936, Veroff. dt. Kolon.-u. Ubersee-Mus. Bremen 1 : 408. Type-species: 
Idania atrox Enderlein, 1936, by original designation. PHILIPPINE REPUBLIC. 

The spelling Jdania is given in the original description, but Enderlein cites Idania as the 
correct spelling in a footnote on the same page. 

ILLA Baranov, 1938, Vet. Arh. 8 : 171. Type-species: Ilia tnirabilis Baranov, 1938, by 
original designation. SOLOMON ISLANDS. 

INDOSTURMIA Townsend, 1932, Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (10) 9 : 49. Type-species: Indo- 
sturtnia indica Townsend, 1932 [= Crossocosmia indica Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1893, 
nomen nudum], by original designation. INDIA. 

ISOCARCELIOPSIS Baranov, 1934, Trans. R. ent. Soc. Lond. 82 : 406. Type-species: 
Isocarceliopsis hemimacquartioides Baranov, 1934, by original designation. FORMOSA. 

ISOCHAETINA Mesnil, 1950, Flieg. Palaearkt. Reg. 64g : 157. Type-species: Drino 
(Isochaetina) ditnorpha Mesnil, 1950, by monotypy. INDIA. (As subgenus of Drino 
Robineau-Desvoidy, 1863). 

ISOSTURMIA Townsend, 1927, Supplta ent. 16 : 67. Ty pe -species : Isosturmia inversa 
Townsend, 1927, by original designation. SUMATRA. 

JANTHINOMYIA Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1893, Denkschr. Akad. Wiss., Wien 60 : 141. 
Muse. Schiz. 3 : 53. Type-species: Janthinomyia felderi Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1893, 
by original designation. INDIA. 

JDANIA Enderlein, 1936. See Idania. 

KAMBAITIMYIA Mesnil, 1953, Bull. Annls Soc. r. ent. Belg. 89 : 163. Type-species: Kam- 
baitimyia carbonata Mesnil, 1953, by monotypy. BURMA. 

KINABALUIA Malloch, 1935, /. fed. Malay St. Mus. 17 : 683. Type-species: Kinabaluia 
viridifulva Malloch, 1935, by original designation. BORNEO. 

KORALLIOMYIA Mesnil, 1950, Flieg. Palaearkt. Reg. 64g : 114. Type-species: Korallio- 
myia portentosa Mesnil, 1950, by original designation. INDIA. 

KOSEMPOMYIA Villeneuve, 1932, Bull. Annls Soc. r. ent. Belg. 71 : 243. Type-species: 
Kosempomyia tibialis Villeneuve, 1932, by monotypy. FORMOSA. 

KOSEMPOMYIELLA Baranov, 1934, Encycl. ent. Serie B II, 7 : 165. Type-species: 
Kosempomyiella rufiventris Baranov, 1934 [= Austrophasiopsis formosensis Townsend, 
I 933] by original designation. FORMOSA. 

KURINTJIMYIA Townsend, 1926, Supplta ent. 14 : 38. Type-species: Kurintjimyia 
jacobsoni Townsend, 1926, by original designation. SUMATRA. 



GENERA OF ORIENTO- AUSTRAL ASI AN TACHINIDAE 17 

KUWANIMYIA Townsend, 1916, Proc. U.S. natn. Mus. 51 : 319. Type-species: Kuwani- 
tnyia conspersa Townsend, 1916, by original designation. JAPAN. 

LACCURA Enderlein, 1936, Veroff. dt. Kolon.-u. Vbersee-Mus. Bremen 1 : 431. Type-species: 
Rutilia saturatissima Walker, 1861, by original designation. BATCHIAN (= BATJAN). 

LASIOCALYPTER Malloch, 1930, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. 55 : 119. Type-species: Lasio- 
calypter flavohirta Malloch, 1930, by original designation. NEW SOUTH WALES. 

LASIOCALYPTRINA Malloch, 1930, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. 55 : 122. Type-species: 
Lasiocalyptrina modesta Malloch, 1930, by original designation. VICTORIA. 

LEIOSIA Wulp, 1893, Tijdschr. Ent. 36 : 185. Type-species: Leiosia flavisquama Wulp, 
1893, by monotypy. JAVA. 

LEIOSIOPSIS Townsend, 1927, Supplta ent. 16 : 62. Type-species: Leiosiopsis aristalis 

Townsend, 1927 [ = Isosturmia intermedia Townsend, 1927], by original designation. 
SUMATRA. 

LESKIOLA Mesnil, 1957, Mem. Soc. r. ent. Belg. 28 : 66. Type-species: Leskiola palpata 
Mesnil, 1957, by monotypy. BURMA. 

LEVERELLA Baranov, 1934, Vet. Arh. 4 : 473. Type-species: Leverella institutiimperialis 

Baranov, 1934, by original designation. SOLOMON ISLANDS. 

LOPHOSIOCYPTERA Townsend, 1927, Supplta ent. 16 : 59. Type-species: Lophosio- 
cyptera lophosioid.es Townsend, 1927, by original designation. SUMATRA. 

LOPHOSIODES Townsend, 1927, Ent. Mitt. 16 : 285. Type-species: Lophosiodes scutel- 
latus Townsend, 1927, by original designation. FORMOSA. 

LOPHOSIOPSIS Townsend, 1928, Philipp. J. Sci. 34 : 381. Type-species: Lophosiopsis 
costalis Townsend, 1928, by original designation. PHILIPPINE REPUBLIC. 

LYPHOSIA Mesnil, 1957, Mem. Soc. r. ent. Belg. 28 : 56. Type-species: Lypha (Lyphosia) 
barbata Mesnil, 1957, by monotypy. JAPAN. (As subgenus of Lypha Robineau-Desvoidy, 
1830). 

MACREUTHERA Bezzi, 1925, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. 50 : 281. Type-species: Euthera 
skusei Bezzi, 1925, by original designation. QUEENSLAND. (As subgenus of Euthera Loew, 
1866). 

MACROCHLORIA Malloch, 1929, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. 54 : 326. Type-species: Macro- 
chloria calliphorosoma Malloch, 1929 [= Nemoraea nitidiventris Macquart, 1851], by 
original designation. NEW SOUTH WALES. 

MACROLOPHOSIA Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1893, Denkschr. Akad. Wiss., Wien 60 : 144. 
Muse. Schiz. 3 : 56. Type-species: Macrolophosia felderi Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1893, 
by monotypy. " O.-Indien " (? EAST INDIES or INDIA). 

MACROPIA Malloch, 1930, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. 55 : 322. Type-species: Macropia 
rufiventris Malloch, 1930, by original designation. NEW SOUTH WALES. 

MACROPODEXIA Townsend, 1933, // N.Y. ent. Soc. 40 : 462. Type-species: Dexia 
longipes Macquart, 1846, by original designation. TASMANIA. 

MACROSOPHIA Townsend, 1933, Jl N.Y. ent. Soc. 40 : 459. Type-species: Macrosophia 
papua Townsend, 1933, by original designation. NEW GUINEA. 

MACROZENILLIA Townsend, 1927, Supplta ent. 16 : 68. Type-species: Macrozenillia 

aurescens Townsend, 1927, by original designation. SUMATRA. 

MAKILINGIMYIA Townsend, 1928, Philipp. J. Sci. 34 : 382. Type-species: Makilingimyia 
melanoptera Townsend, 1928, by original designation. PHILIPPINE REPUBLIC. 

MALAIOCROCUTA Townsend, 1933, J 1 N - Y - ent - Soc - 40 : 479- Type-species: Melano- 
phora molitor Wiedemann, 1824, by original designation, EAST INDIES. 



i8 R. W. CROSSKEY 

MALAISIMYIA Mesnil, 1953, Bull. Annls Soc. r. ent. Belg. 89 : 146. Type-species: Malaisi- 
tnyia flavicoxa Mesnil, 1953, by monotypy. BURMA. 

MALAYIA Malloch, 1926, Philipp. J. Sci. 31 : 510. Type-species: Malayia fuscinervis 

Malloch, 1926, by original designation. MALAYA. 

MALAYOCYPTERA Townsend, 1926, Supplta ent. 14 : 31. Type-species: Malayocyptera 

munita Townsend, 1926, by original designation. SUMATRA. 

MALA YODINERA Townsend, 1926, Supplta ent. 14 : 27. Type-species: Malayodinera 
montana Townsend, 1926, by original designation. SUMATRA. 

MALAYODORIA Townsend, 1926, Supplta ent. 14 : 35. Type-species: Malayodoria 
fumipennis Townsend, 1926, by original designation. SUMATRA. 

MALA YO MEDINA Townsend, 1926, Supplta ent. 14 : 20. Type-species: Malayomedina 

petiolata Townsend, 1926, by original designation. SUMATRA. 

MALLOCHIOLA Strand, 1932, Folia zool. hydrobiol. 4 : 195. New name for Delta Malloch, 
1930, preoccupied by Delta de Saussure, 1855 and Delta Saalmueller, 1891. (Invalid). 

Name preoccupied by Mallochiola Bergroth, 1925 (Hemiptera) ; no replacement name 
required as Deltomyza Malloch, 1931 pre-dates Mallochiola Strand, 1932, as a new name for 
Delta Malloch, 1930. 

MALLOCHOMACQUARTIA Townsend, 1934, // N.Y. ent. Soc. 42 : 247. Type-species: 
Macquartia vexata Hutton, 1901, by original designation. NEW ZEALAND. 

MASICERELLA Gardner, 1940, Indian J. Ent. 2 : 178. Nomen nudum, unavailable. 

Gardner (1940, Indian J. Ent. 2 : 178) published the name Masicerella in the binomen 
Masicerella indistincta which he attributed to Baranov; Baranov, however, never published 
this name. The specific name indistincta is available under Article II (g) (ii) of the Inter- 
national Code of Zoological Nomenclature and is attributable to Gardner, but the generic name 
Masicerella is not accompanied by a definition of the generic taxon and does not fulfil the 
requirements of Article 13 (a) of the Code; it is therefore an unavailable nomen nudum. 

MED INACEMYIA Townsend, 1928, Philipp. J. Sci. 34 : 377. Type-species: Medinacemyia 
sibuyana Townsend, 1928, by original designation. PHILIPPINE REPUBLIC. 

MEDINELLA Malloch, 1938, Trans. Proc. R. Soc. N.Z. 68 : 234. Unavailable. 

Malloch (1938, Trans. Proc. R. Soc. N.Z. 68 : 234-237) gave a generic description for Medin- 
ella and described four new originally included species from New Zealand. Malloch cited 
Medinella unispinosa n. sp. as type-species, but this is not one of the described species and 
remains a nomen nudum. Medinella is based on a nomen nudum, and the generic name is 
nomenclaturally unavailable. 

MEDINODEXIA Townsend, 1927, Supplta ent. 16 : 57. Type-species: Medinodexia 
fulviventris Townsend, 1927, by original designation. SUMATRA. 

MEDINOMYIA Mesnil, 1957, Mem. Soc. r. ent. Belg. 28 : 27. Type-species: Medinomyia 
canescens Mesnil, 1957, by monotypy. BURMA. 

MEGISTOGASTROPSIS Townsend, 1916, Ent. News 27 : 178. Type-species: Megisto- 
gaster wallacei Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1889 [= Dexia alulifera Walker, 1861], by original 
designation. AMBOYNA. 

MELANASOMYIA Malloch, 1935, J. fed. Malay St. Mus. 17 : 676. Type-species: Melana- 
sotnyia flavipalpis Malloch, 1935, by original designation. MALAYA. 

MENEVILLEA Enderlein, 1936, Veroff. dt. Kolon.-u. Vbersee-Mus. Bremen 1 : 416. Type- 
species: Rutilia pellucens Macquart, 1846, by original designation. AUSTRALIA. 

MESEMBRIOMINTHO Townsend, 1916, Can. Ent. 48 : 158. Type-species: Mesembrio- 
mintho compressa Townsend, 1916 [= Sumpigaster fasciatus Macquart, 1855], by original 
designation. QUEENSLAND. 



GENERA OF ORIENTO- AUSTRAL ASIAN TACHINIDAE 19 

METOPOMINTHO Townsend, 1927, Ent. Mitt. 16 : 283. Type-species: Metopomintho 

sauteri Townsend, 1927, by original designation. FORMOSA. 

METOPOSISYROPS Townsend, 1916, Proc. U.S. natn. Mus. 51 : 320. Type-species: 
Metoposisyrops oryzae Townsend, 1916, by original designation. JAVA. 

MICROCARCELIA Baranov, 1934, Trans. R. ent. Soc. Land. 82 : 400. Type-species: Car- 
celia septitna Baranov, 1931, by original designation. FORMOSA. 

MICROCEROMASIA Villeneuve, 1911, Wien. ent. Ztg 30 : 82. Type-species: Ceromasia 
sphenophori Villeneuve, 1911, by original designation. NEW GUINEA. 

MICROHYSTRICIA Malloch, 1938, Trans. Proc. R. Soc. N.Z. 68 : 177. Type-species: 
Microhystricia gourlayi Malloch, 1938, by monotypy. NEW ZEALAND. 

MICROPHYTOMYPTERA Townsend, 1927, Ent. Mitt. 16 : 287. Type-species: Micro- 
phytotnyptera minuta Townsend, 1927, by original designation. FORMOSA. 

MICRORUTILIA Townsend, 1915, Proc. biol. Soc. Wash. 28 : 23. Type-species: Rutilia 
minor Macquart, 1846, by original designation. TASMANIA, NEW SOUTH WALES. 

MICROTROPESA Macquart, 1846, Mem. Soc. Sci. Agric. Lille 1844 : 313. Dipt. exot. Suppl. 
1 : 185. Type-species: Musca sinuata Donovan, 1798, by monotypy. AUSTRALIA. 

MINTHOCYPTERA Townsend, 1926, Supplta ent. 14 : 31. Type-species: Minthocyptera 

tnalaya Townsend, 1926, by original designation. SUMATRA. 

MOLLIOPSIS Townsend, 1933, // N.Y. ent. Soc. 40 : 470. Type-species: Mollia malayana 

Townsend, 1926, by original designation. SUMATRA. 

MONOLEPTOPHAGA Baranov, 1938, Bull. ent. Res. 29 : 411. Type-species: Mono- 
leptophaga caldwelli Baranov, 1938, by original designation. QUEENSLAND. 

MONTANARTURIA Miller, 1945, Proc. R. ent. Soc. Lond. (B) 14 : 72. Type-species: 
Arthuria dimorpha Malloch, 1938. New name for Arthuria Malloch, 1938, preoccupied by 
Arthuria Dall, 1881. 

MYCTEROMYIA Mesnil, 1950, Flieg. Palaearkt. Reg. 64g : 107. Type-species: Mycterotnyia 
laetifica Mesnil, 1950, by original designation. NEW GUINEA. 

Name preoccupied by Mycterotnyia Philippi, 1865 (Diptera), see Mycteromyiella Mesnil, 
1965- 

MYCTEROMYIELLA Mesnil, 1965, Bull. Soc. ent. Fr. 70 : 232. Type-species : Mycterotnyia 
laetifica Mesnil, 1950. New name for Mycterotnyia Mesnil, 1950, preoccupied by Mycterotnyia 
Philippi, 1865. 

MYIOFIJIA Baranov, 1934, Vet. Arh. 4 : 478. Type-species: Myiofijia bezziana Baranov, 
1934, by original designation. FIJI ISLANDS. 

MYIOTRIXA Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1893, Denkschr. Akad. Wiss., Wien 60 : 96. Muse. 
Schiz. 3:8. Type-species: Myiotrixa prosopina Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1893, by original 
designation. NORTHERN AUSTRALIA. 

MYOBIOMIMA Townsend, 1926, Supplta ent. 14 : 22. Type-species: Myobiomitna 
longimana Townsend, 1926, by original designation. SUMATRA. 

MYXOCARCELIA Baranov, 1934, Trans. R. ent. Soc. Lond. 82 : 398. Type-species: Car- 
celia hirsuta Baranov, 1931, by original designation. FORMOSA. 

NEODUVAUCELIA Malloch, 1931, Ann. Mag. not. Hist. (10) 7 : 319. Type-species: Neo- 
duvaucelia aenescens Malloch, 1931, by original designation. MALAYA. 

NEOERYTHRONYCHIA Malloch, 1932, Rec. Canterbury Mus. 3 : 449. Type-species: Neo- 
erythronychia hirta Malloch, 1932, by original designation. NEW ZEALAND. 

NEOMEDINA Malloch, 1935, Insects Samoa, VI, Dipt. 9 : 362. Type-species: Neomedina 
atripennis Malloch, 1935, by original designation. SAMOA. 



20 R. W. CROSSKEY 

NEOPHASIA Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1893, Denkschr. Akad. Wiss., Wien 60 : 100. Muse. 

Schiz. 3 : 12. Type-species: Neophasia picta Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1893, by original 

designation. WESTERN AUSTRALIA. 

Name preoccupied by Neophasia Behr, 1869 (Lepidoptera), see Euphasia Townsend, 1908, 

and Neximyia n. n. 
NEOPHRYXE Townsend, 1916, Proc. U.S. natn. Mus. 51 : 318. Type-species: Neophryxe 

psychidis Townsend, 1916, by original designation. JAPAN. 
NEOPLECTOPS Malloch, 1930, J.fed. Malay St. Mus. 16 : 147. Type-species: Neoplectops 

nudibasis Malloch, 1930, by original designation. MALAYA. 
NEORUTILIA Malloch, 1936, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. 61 : 17. Type-species: Rutilia 

(Neorutilia) simplex Malloch, 1936, by original designation. QUEENSLAND. (As subgenus 

of Rutilia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830). 
NEOTACHINA Malloch, 1938, Trans. Proc. R. Soc. N.Z. 68 : 240. Type-species: 

Neotachina obtusa Malloch, 1938, by original designation. NEW ZEALAND. 
NEOTRYPHERA Malloch, 1938, Trans. Proc. R. Soc. N.Z. 68 : 217. Type-species: Neo- 

tryphera atra Malloch, 1938, by original designation. NEW ZEALAND. 

NEXIMYIA n. n. for Euphasia Townsend, 1908, preoccupied by Euphasia Stephens, 1830. 

Type-species: Neophasia picta Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1893. 

Euphasia Townsend was proposed as a replacement name for the preoccupied Neophasia 

Brauer & Bergenstamm, but Euphasia Townsend is itself preoccupied: Neximyia n. n., 

here proposed as a replacement name for Euphasia Townsend, is therefore the valid name for 

Neophasia Brauer & Bergenstamm. 
NOTHYPOSTENA Mesnil, 1957, Mem. Soc. r. ent. Belg. 28 : 63. Type-species: Nothy- 

postena aberrans Mesnil, 1957, by monotypy. BURMA. 
OCCISOR Hutton, 1901, Trans. N.Z. Inst. 33 : 52. Type-species: Occisor inscitus Hutton, 

1901, by subsequent designation of Townsend, 1916, Insecutor Inscit. menstr. 4:8. NEW 

ZEALAND. 
OCHROMEIGENIA Townsend, 1919, Proc. U.S. natn. Mus. 56 : 578. Type-species: Ochro- 

meigenia ortnioides Townsend, 1919 [ Hamaxia incongrua Walker, 1860], by original 

designation. JAVA. 
OCHROPHASIA Townsend, 1927, Philipp. J. Sci. 33 : 288. Type-species: Ochrophasia 

atripennis Townsend, 1927, by original designation. PHILIPPINE REPUBLIC. 
OCHROPLEURUM Macquart, 1851, Mem. Soc. Sci. Agric. Lille 1850 : 184. Dipt. exot. 

Suppl. 4 : 211. Type-species: Ochropleurum javanum Macquart, 1851 [= Dexia mac- 

ropus Wiedemann, 1830], by monotypy. JAVA. 
OCYPTEROPSIS Townsend, 1916, Proc. U.S. natn. Mus. 49 : 630. Type-species: Ocyptera 

flavifrons Macquart, 1851, by original designation. TASMANIA (probably in error for NEW 

SOUTH WALES). 
OESTROCARA Townsend, 1935, Ent. News 46 : 104. Type-species: Setnisuturia niti- 

diventris Malloch, 1927, by original designation. MALAYA. 

OPSOCYPTERA Townsend, 1927, Philipp. J. Sci. 33 : 284. Type-species: Opsocyptera 
optima Townsend, 1927, by original designation. PHILIPPINE REPUBLIC. 

OPSOPHANA Townsend, 1916, Can. Ent. 48 : 153. Type-species: Masicera rufifacies 
Macquart, 1847, by original designation. TASMANIA. 

OPSOPHASIOPS Townsend, 1915, Proc. biol. Soc. Wash. 28 : 22. Type-species: Myio- 
phasia flava Coquillett, 1900, by original designation. TASMANIA. 

Coquillett (1900, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. 25 : 390) cited West Australia as the type-locality 
of Myiophasia flava in the original description, but the type-material (in Washington) is 
labelled Tasmania. Aldrich (1922, Proc. U.S. natn. Mus. 62 (n) : 5) has noted the discrep- 
ancy and Townsend (1938, Man. Myiol. 7 : 217) accepts Tasmania, 



GENERA OF ORIENTO- AUSTR ALASI AN TACHINIDAE 21 

ORECTOCERA Wulp, 1881, Dipt. Sumatra-Exp.: 39. Type-species: Orectocera micans 

Wulp, 1 88 1, by monotypy. SUMATRA. 

ORECTOCERINA Malloch, 1924, Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (9) 14 : 521. Type-species: Orecto- 
cerina atratula Malloch, 1924 [= Trischidocera sauteri Villeneuve, 1915], by original designa- 
tion. MALAYA. 

ORIENTODORIA Townsend, 1933, // N.Y. ent. Soc. 40 : 477. Type-species: Tachina 
orientalis Wiedemann, 1830, by original designation. EAST INDIES. 

ORILLIOPSIS Townsend, 1928, Philipp. J. Sci. 34 : 396. Type-species: Orilliopsis orien- 
talis Townsend, 1928, by original designation. PHILIPPINE REPUBLIC. 

ORMIOMINDA Paramonov, 1955, Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (12) 8 : 125. Type-species: Ortnio- 
minda rieki Paramonov, 1955, by original designation. QUEENSLAND. 

OXYDEXIOPS Townsend, 1927, Philipp. J. Sci. 33 : 289. Type-species: Oxydexiops 
uramyoides Townsend, 1927, by original designation. PHILIPPINE REPUBLIC. 

OXYPHYLLOMYIA Villeneuve, 1937, Bul1 - Mus - v - H/ist - nat - Bel g- 13 (34) : Ir - T YP e - 
species: Oxyphyllomyia cordylurina Villeneuve, 1937, by monotypy. CHINA (SZECHWAN). 

OXYRUTILIA Townsend, 1926, Supplta ent. 14 : 30. Type-species: Oxyrutilia jacobsoni 

Townsend, 1926, by original designation. SUMATRA. 

PALEXORISTA Townsend, 1921, Insecutor Inscit. menstr. 9 : 134. Type-species: Tachina 
succini Giebel, 1862 [= Masicera solennis Walker, 1859], by original designation. Probably 
EAST INDIES. 

This genus is based on a specimen in copal, probably of East Indian origin, and at the time 
of description erroneously supposed to have been a fossil in Baltic amber. See Crosskey 
(1966, Proc. R. ent. Soc. Lond. (B) 35 : 133). 

PALI A Curran, 1927, Ent. Mitt. 16 : 443. Type-species: Palia aureocauda Curran, 1927, 
by original designation. QUEENSLAND. 

PALIANA Curran, 1927, Ent. Mitt. 16 : 445. Type-species: Paliana basalts Curran, 1927, 
by original designation. QUEENSLAND. 

PALPINA Malloch, 1927, Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (9) 20 : 423. Type-species: Palpina scutel- 
laris Malloch, 1927, by original designation. MALAYA. 

PALPOCYPTERA Townsend, 1927, Philipp. J. Sci. 33 : 283. Type-species: Palpocyptera 
pulchra Townsend, 1927, by original designation. PHILIPPINE REPUBLIC. 

PALPOSTOMA Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830, Me"m. pres. div. Sav. Acad. Sci. Inst. Fr. 2 : 429. 
Type-species: Palpostoma testacea Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830, by monotypy. AUSTRALIA. 

PALPOSTOMOTRIXA Townsend, 1927, Ent. Mitt. 16 : 277. Type-species: Palposto- 
motrixa paradoxa Townsend, 1927, by original designation. CEYLON. 

PANCALA Enderlein, 1936, Veroff. dt. Kolon.-u. Ubersee-Mus. Bremen 1 : 422. Type-species: 
Formosia callipygos Gerstaecker, 1860, by original designation. NEW GUINEA. 

PARABRACHELIA Townsend, 1916, Can. Ent. 48 : 159. Type-species: Masicera ruftpes 
Macquart, 1847, by original designation. TASMANIA. 

PARAGONIA Mesnil, 1950, Flieg. Palaearkt. Reg. 64g : 106. Type-species: Paragonia 
portentosa Mesnil, 1950, by original designation. WESTERN AUSTRALIA. 

PARALOPHOSIA Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1889, Denkschr. Akad. Wiss., Wien 56 : 164. 
Muse. Schiz. 1 : 96. Type-species: Ocyptera imbuta Wiedemann, 1819, by original desig- 
nation. INDIA. 

Brauer & Bergenstamm (loc. cit.) record the locality as " Ostindien ", but the lectotype of 
Ocyptera imbuta Wiedemann is almost certainly from India (see Crosskey, 1966, Ann. Mag. 
nat. Hist. (13) 8 : 667). 



22 R. W. CROSSKEY 

PARAMPHIBOLIA Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1891, Denkschr. Akad. Wiss., Wien 58 : 389. 
Muse. Schiz. 2 : 85. Type-species: Rutilia assimilis Macquart, 1851, by monotypy. 
AUSTRALIA. 

PARATROPEZA Paramonov, 1963, Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (13) 6 : 577. Type-species: Para- 
tropeza flavibasis Paramonov, 1963, by original designation. NEW GUINEA. 

PAREUPOGONA Townsend, 1916, Can. Ent. 48 : 157. Type-species: Masicera oblonga 
Macquart, 1847, by original designation. TASMANIA. 

PAROPSIVORA Malloch, 1934, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. 59 : 7. Type-species: Paropsivora 
grisea Malloch, 1934, by original designation. AUSTRALIAN CAPITAL TERRITORY. 

PENTATOMOPHAGA de Meijere, 1917, Tijdschr. Ent. 60 : 246. Type-species: Penta- 
tomophaga bicincta de Meijere, 1917, by monotypy. JAVA. 

PENTHOSIOSOMA Townsend, 1926, Philipp. J. Sci. 29 : 538. Type -species : Pentho- 
siosoma pictipennis Townsend, 1926, by original designation. PENANG. 

PEREMPTOR Hutton, 1901, Trans. N.Z. Inst. 33 : 56. Type-species: Peremptor egmonti 
Hutton, 1901, by subsequent designation of Townsend, 1916, Insecutor Inscit. menstr. 4 : 8. 
NEW ZEALAND. 

PERIGYMNOSOMA Villeneuve, 1929, Bull. Annls Soc. v. ent. Belg. 69 : 68. Type-species: 
Perigymnosoma globulum Villeneuve, 1929, by monotypy. FORMOSA. 

PERILOPHOSIA Villeneuve, 1927, Revue zool. afr. 15 : 221. Type-species: Perilophosia 
ocypterina Villeneuve, 1927, by monotypy. FORMOSA. 

PERRISSINA Malloch, 1938, Trans. Proc. R. Soc. N.Z. 68 : 182. Type-species: Perrissina 
crocea Malloch, 1938, by original designation. NEW ZEALAND. 

PERRISSINOIDES Dugdale, 1961, Trans. R. Soc. N.Z., Zool. 1 : 242. Type-species: Perris- 
sinoides cerambycivorae Dugdale, 1961, by original designation. NEW ZEALAND. 

PHAONJELLA Malloch, 1938, Trans. Proc. R. Soc. N.Z. 68 : 216. Type-species: Phaoniella 
biflda Malloch, 1938, by original designation. NEW ZEALAND. 

PHASIODEXIA Townsend, 1925, Ent. Mitt. 14 : 250. Type-species: Phasiodexia flavida 

Townsend, 1925, by original designation. SUMATRA. 

PHASIOORMIA Townsend, 1933, // N.Y. ent. Soc. 40 : 447. Type-species: Phasioormia 
pallida Townsend, 1933, by original designation. SINGAPORE. 

PHILIPPODEXIA Townsend, 1926, Philipp. J. Sci. 29 : 533. Type-species: Philippodexia 
longipes Townsend, 1926, by original designation. PHILIPPINE REPUBLIC. 

PHJLIPPODORIA Townsend, 1928, Philipp. J. Sci. 34 : 391. Type-species: Philippodoria 

fasciata Townsend, 1928, by original designation. PHILIPPINE REPUBLIC. 

PHILIPPOFORMOSIA Townsend, 1927, Philipp. J. Sci. 33 : 282. Type-species: Philip- 
poformosia splendida Townsend, 1927, by original designation. PHILIPPINE REPUBLIC. 

PHILIPPOLOPHOSIA Townsend, 1928, Philipp. J. Sci. 34 : 384. Type-species: Philip- 
polophosia ornata Townsend, 1928, by original designation. PHILIPPINE REPUBLIC. 

PHILOTRICHOSTYLUM Townsend, 1933, J 1 N - Y - ent - Soc - 40 : 4 6 - Type-species: 
Trichostylum fasciatum Townsend, 1928, by original designation. PHILIPPINE REPUBLIC. 

PHORCIDELLA Mesnil, 1947, Encycl. ent. Serie B II, 10 : 42. Type-species: Eutachina 
basalts Baranov, 1932, by original designation. FORMOSA. 

PHORINIOPHYLAX Townsend, 1927, Supplta ent. 16 : 62. Type-species: Phoriniophylax 
phoeda Townsend, 1927, by original designation. SUMATRA. 

PHOROCEROSOMA Townsend, 1927, Supplta ent. 16 : 61. Type-species: Phorocerosoma 
forte Townsend, 1927 [= Masicera vicaria Walker, 1857], by original designation. SUMATRA. 



GENERA OF ORIENTO- AUSTR AL AS I AN TACHINIDAE 23 

PHOROCEROSOMA Malloch, 1929, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. 54 : 327. Type-species: Phoro- 
cerosoma setiventris Malloch, 1929, by original designation. QUEENSLAND. 

Name preoccupied by Phorocerosoma Townsend, 1927 (Diptera), see Phorocerostoma Malloch, 
1930. 

PHOROCEROSTOMA Malloch, 1930, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. 55 : 326. Type -species : 
Phorocerosoma setiventris Malloch, 1929. New name for Phorocerosoma Malloch, 1929, pre- 
occupied by Phorocerosoma Townsend, 1927. 

PHRYNACTIA Townsend, 1926, Supplta ent. 14 : 34. Type-species: Phrynactia petiolata 
Townsend, 1926, by original designation. SUMATRA. 

PHRYXOSTURMIA Townsend, 1927, Supplta ent. 16 : 68. Type-species: Phryxosturmia 
jacobsoni Townsend, 1927 [= Blepharella lateralis Macquart, 1851], by original designation. 
SUMATRA. 

PHYTOROPHAGA Bezzi, 1923, Treubia 3 : 411. Type-species: Phytorophaga ventralis 

Bezzi, 1923, by original designation. JAVA. 

PILIMYIA Malloch, 1930, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. 55 : 329. Type-species: Pilimyia lasio- 
phthaltna Malloch, 1930, by original designation. NEW SOUTH WALES. 

PLAGIODEROPHAGUS Baranov, 1938, Bull. ent. Res. 29 : 412. Type-species: Plagio- 
derophagus niger Baranov, 1938, by original designation. INDIA. 

PLAGIOMYIA Curran, 1927, Ent. Mitt. 16 : 442. Type-species: Calcager turbidum 
Hutton, 1901, by original designation. NEW ZEALAND. 

PLATERYCIA Baranov, 1936, Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (10) 17 : no. Type-species: Platerycia 
compressa Baranov, 1936, by original designation. FORMOSA. 

PLATYTACHINA Malloch, 1938, Trans. Proc. R. Soc. N.Z. 68 : 210. Type-species: Platy- 
tachina major Malloch, 1938, by original designation. NEW ZEALAND. 

PLATYTAINIA Macquart, 1851, Mem. Soc. Sci. Agric. Lille 1850 : 178. Dipt. exot. Suppl. 
4 : 205. Type-species: Platytainia maculata Macquart, 1851, by monotypy. TASMANIA 
(probably in error for NEW SOUTH WALES). 

PLESIOCYPTERA Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1893, Denkschr. Akad. Wiss., Wien 60 : 144. 
Muse. Schiz. 3 : 56. Type-species: Ocyptera bicolor Wiedemann, 1819, by monotypy. 
INDIA. 

Brauer & Bergenstamm (loc. cit.) record the locality as " O. Ind.", suggesting East Indies, 
but the lectotype of Ocyptera bicolor Wiedemann is almost certainly from India (see Crosskey, 
1966, Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (13) 8 : 666). 

PLETHOCHAETIGERA Malloch, 1938, Trans. Proc. R. Soc. N. Z. 68 : 191. Type-species: 
Plethochaet igera fenwicki Malloch, 1938, by original designation. NEW ZEALAND. 

PODOM YIA Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1889, Denkschr. Akad. Wiss., Wien 56 : 96. Muse. 
Schiz. 1 : 28. Type-species: Eurigaster setosa Doleschall, 1858 [== Blepharella lateralis 
Macquart, 1851], by original designation. AMBOYNA. 

POGONAGALMIA Enderlein, 1936, Veroff. dt. Kolon.-u. Ubersee-Mus. Bremen I : 435. 
Type-species: Rutilia hirticeps Malloch, 1929, by original designation. NEW SOUTH WALES. 

POLYCHAETA Macquart, 1851, Mem. Soc. Sci. Agric. Lille 1850 : 154. Dipt. exot. Suppl. 
4 : 181. Type-species: Polychaeta nigra Macquart, 1851, by monotypy. TASMANIA 
(probably in error for NEW SOUTH WALES). 

POLYGASTROPTERYX Mesnil, 1953, Bull. Annls Soc. r. ent. Belg. 89 : 161. Type-species: 
Polygastropteryx bicoloripes Mesnil, 1953, by monotypy. BURMA. 

PROCEROMYIA Mesnil, 1957, Mem. Soc. r. ent. Belg. 28 : 35. Type-species: Ceromyia 
(Proceromyia) macronychia Mesnil, 1957, D Y monotypy. JAPAN. (As subgenus of Ceromya 
Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830). 



24 R. W. CROSSKEY 

PRODEGEERIA Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1894, Denkschr. Akad. Wiss., Wien 61 : 617. Muse. 

Schiz. 4 : 81. Type-species : Prodegeeria javana Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1894, by mono- 

typy. JAVA. 
PRODIAPHANIA Townsend, 1927, Ent. News 38 : 159. Type-species: Diaphania testacea 

Macquart, 1843. New name for Diaphania Macquart, 1843, preoccupied by Diaphania 

Huebner, 1818. 
PROFERIA Mesnil, 1953, Bull. Annls Soc. r. ent. Belg. 89 : 149. Unavailable, no fixation of a 

type-species. 

Proferia was described with two originally included species, neither of which was fixed as 

type-species; it is invalid under Article I3(b) of the International Code of Zoological Nomen- 
clature. 

PROHYPOTACHINA Townsend, 1933, // N.Y. ent. Soc. 40 : 464. Type-species: Prohypota- 
china rutilioides Townsend 1933, by original designation. NORTH VIETNAM (TONKING). 

PROMEDINA Mesnil, 1957, M6m. Soc. r. ent. Belg. 28 : 26. Type-species: Promedina 
japonica Mesnil, 1957, by original designation. JAPAN. 

PROMINTHO Townsend, 1926, Supplta ent. 14 : 23. Type-species: Promintho sungayana 
Townsend, 1926, by original designation. SUMATRA. 

PROPARATHELAIRA Townsend, 1928, Philipp. J. Sci. 34 : 378. Type-species: Propara- 
thelaira plutnosa Townsend, 1928, by original designation. PHILIPPINE REPUBLIC. 

PROPHORICHAETA Townsend, 1928, Philipp. J. Sci. 34 : 390. Type-species: Prophori- 
chaeta philippina Townsend, 1928, by original designation. PHILIPPINE REPUBLIC. 

PRORIEDELIA Mesnil, 1953, Bull. Annls Soc. r. ent. Belg. 89 : 164. Type-species: Prorie- 
delia petiolata Mesnil, 1953, by monotypy. BURMA. 

PROSCISSIO Hutton, 1901, Trans. N.Z. Inst. 33 : 54. Type-species: Proscissio montana 

Hutton, 1901, by subsequent designation of Townsend, 1916, Insecutor Inscit. menstr. 4:8. 
NEW ZEALAND. 

PROSENINA Malloch, 1930, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. 55 : 116. Type-species: Prosenina 
nicholsoni Malloch, 1930, by original designation. NEW SOUTH WALES. 

PROSENOSOMA Malloch, 1938, Trans. Proc. R. Soc. N.Z. 68 : 189. Type-species: Proseno- 
sorna greyi Malloch, 1938, by original designation. NEW ZEALAND. 

PROSENOSTOMA Townsend, 1932, Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (10) 9 : 39. Type-species: 
Senostorna flavipes Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1889, by original designation. WESTERN 
AUSTRALIA. 

PROSHELIOMYIA Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1891, Denkschr. Akad. Wiss., Wien 58 : 375. 
Muse. Schiz. 2 : 71. Type-species: Prosheliomyia nietneri Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1891, 
by monotypy. CEYLON. 

PROSOPHIA Townsend, 1927, Supplta ent. 16 : 58. Type-species: Prosophia kloofla 

Townsend, 1927, by original designation. SUMATRA. 
PROSOPODOPSIS Townsend, 1926, Philipp. J. Sci. 29 : 542. Type-species: Tachina 

/asc/afa Wiedemann, 1830, by original designation. MACAO. 

PROSOPOFRONTINA Townsend, 1926, Supplta ent. 14 : 33. Type-species: Prosopofrontina 

pulchra Townsend, 1926, by original designation. SUMATRA. 

PROSTURMIA Townsend, 1927, Supplta ent. 16 : 69. Type-species: Prosturmia pro/ana 

Townsend, 1927 [= Masicera solennis Walker, 1859], by original designation. SUMATRA. 

PROTOHYSTRICIA Malloch, 1929, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. 54 : 341. Type-species: 
Hystricia pachyprocta Nowicki, 1875 [= Hystricia orientalis Schiner, 1868], by original 
designation. NEW ZEALAND. 

PROTOMEIGENIA Townsend, 1916, Can. Ent. 48 : 156. Type-species: Prototneigenia 

diirea Townsend, 1916, by original designation. NEW SOUTH WALES, 



GENERA OF OKI ENTO- AUSTRAL ASIAN TACHINIDAE 25 

PROTONEMORAEA Baranov, 1935, Vet. Arh. 5 : 556. Type-species: Protonemoraea 
japanica Baranov, 1935, by original designation. JAPAN. 

PSARONIA Enderlein, 1936, Veroff. dt. Kolon.-u. Ubersee-Mus. Bremen 1 : 414. Type-species: 
Psaronia bisetosa Enderlein, 1936, by original designation. WESTERN AUSTRALIA. 

PSARONIELLA Enderlein, 1936, Veroff. dt. Kolon.-u. Ubersee-Mus. Bremen 1 : 417. Type- 
species: Rutilia castanipes Bigot, 1880, by original designation. AUSTRALIA. 

PSEUDACTIA Malloch, 1930, J. fed. Malay St. Mus. 16 : 124. Type-species: Actia (Pseud- 

actia) hirticeps Malloch, 1930, by monotypy. MALAYA. (As subgenus of Actia Robineau- 

Desvoidy, 1830). 
PSEUDOBRULLAEA Mesnil, 1957, Mem. Soc. r. ent. Belg. 28 : 74. Type-species: Pseudo- 

brullaea aberrans Mesnil, 1957, by monotypy. BURMA. 
PSEUDOCYPTERA Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1893, Denkschr. Akad. Wiss., Wien 60 : 143. 

Muse. Schiz. 3 : 55. Type-species: Pseudocyptera obscura Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1893, 

by monotypy. INDIA. 

Brauer & Bergenstamm (loc. cit.) cite the locality as " O. Ind.", but India and not East 

Indies is the more probable type-locality. 

PSEUDOFORMOSIA Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1889, Denkschr. Akad. Wiss., Wien 56 : 126. 
Muse. Schiz. 1 : 58. Type-species: Formosia moneta Gerstaecker, 1860, by monotypy. 
NEW GUINEA. 

PSEUDOKEA Townsend, 1928, Philipp. J. Sci. 34 : 393. Type-species: Pseudokea neowin- 
themioides Townsend, 1928, by original designation. PHILIPPINE REPUBLIC. 

PSEUDOPALPOSTOMA Townsend, 1926, Philipp. J. Sci. 29 : 533. Type-species: Pal- 
postoma desvoidyi Aldrich, 1922, by original designation. QUEENSLAND. 

PSEUDORECTOCERA Townsend, 1928, Philipp. J. Sci. 34 : 385. Type-species: Pseudo- 
rectocera albifacies Townsend, 1928 [= Tachina beelzebul Wiedemann, 1830], by original 
designation. PHILIPPINE REPUBLIC. 

PSEUDOSERVILLIA Townsend, 1916, Ent. News 27 : 178. Type-species: Echinomyia 
flavopilosa Bigot, 1888, by original designation. JAVA. 

PSEUDOTRICHOPODA Malloch, 1933, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. 58 : 77. Type-species: 
Pseudotrichopoda varipes Malloch, 1933 [= Saralba ocypteroides Walker, 1865], by original 
designation. QUEENSLAND. 

PYGIDIA Malloch, 1930, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. 55 : 330. Type-species: Pygidia rufola- 
teralis Malloch, 1930, by original designation. NEW SOUTH WALES. 

Name preoccupied by Pygidia Mulsant & Rey, 1861 (Coleoptera), see Pygidimyia n. n. 

PYGIDIMYIA n. n. for Pygidia Malloch, 1930, preoccupied by Pygidia Mulsant & Rey, 

1861. Type-species: Pygidia rufolateralis Malloch, 1930. 
PYGOCALCAGER Townsend, 1935, Ent. News 46 : 215. Type-species: Calcager humera- 

turn Hutton, 1901, by original designation. NEW ZEALAND. 

QUADRA Malloch, 1929, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. 54 : 320. Type-species: Quadra ornata 
Malloch, 1929, by original designation. WESTERN AUSTRALIA. 

RH APHIS Wulp, 1885, Tijdschr. Ent. 28 : 199. Type-species: Rhaphis elongata Wulp, 

1885, by monotypy. CEYLON. 
RHINAPLOMYIA Mesnil, 1955, Flieg. Palaearkt. Reg. 64g : 441. Type-species: Carcelia 

nasuta Villeneuve, 1937, by original designation. CHINA (SZECHWAN). 

RHINOMYOBIA Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1893, Denkschr. Akad. Wiss., Wien 60 : 140. 

Muse. Schiz. 3 : 52. Type-species: Rhinomyobia an s trails Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1893, 

by monotypy. AUSTRALIA. 
RHINOMYODES Townsend, 1933, // N. Y. ent. Soc. 40 : 474. Type-species: Rhinomyodes 

emporomyioid.es Townsend, 1933, by original designation. FORMOSA. 



26 R. W. CROSSKEY 

RHYNCHJODEXIA Bigot, 1885, Bull. Soc. ent. Fr. 1885 : xi. Type-species: Rhynchio- 
dexia tenuipes Bigot, 1885, by monotypy. NEW CALEDONIA. 

RUTILIA Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830, Me"m. pres. div. Sav. Acad. Sci. Inst. Fr. 2 : 319. Type- 
species: Tachina vivipara Fabricius, 1805, by PRESENT DESIGNATION (see discussion). 
Probably AUSTRALIA (Insulis maris pacifici). 

The citations of a type-species for Rutilia Robineau-Desvoidy until now existing in the 
literature are invalid under the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (for reasons 
discussed further below) as type-designations for this genus, and Tachina vivipara Fabricius, 
1805, is therefore here designated as type-species. 

The mention of the single species Rutilia desvoidyi Guerin-Meneville, 1843, in Rutilia by 
Brauer & Bergenstamm (1889, Denkschr. Akad. Wiss., Wien 56 : 152) does not constitute 
type-fixation since this species was cited only as an example of the genus (Opinion 98 of the 
International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature) and is not an originally included 
nominal species. To fix a type-species Townsend (1916, Insecutor Inscit. menstr. 4 : 8) desig- 
nated " Rutilia vivipara RD ", and this is the earliest type-designation for Rutilia (which has 
four originally included nominal species, one of which is Tachina vivipara Fabricius) : this 
designation is however invalid on two grounds. Townsend's designation is not amplified 
by any statement other than " Rutilia vivipara RD " and it is therefore not clear whether this 
is intended to mean the species supposedly misidentified by Robineau-Desvoidy as vivipara 
Fabricius or whether Townsend meant the true vivipara Fabricius ; the designation is made 
in an ambiguous manner and is invalid under Article 67 (c) of the Code. If, as seems probable 
from Townsend's later work, he meant vivipara in the sense of Robineau-Desvoidy, not of 
Fabricius, the designation is also invalid on the ground that " Rutilia vivipara RD " is not an 
originally included nominal species: a nominal species is a named species objectively defined 
by its type-specimen (Code, Glossary : 152), and the only species named vivipara and men- 
tioned by Robineau-Desvoidy is Tachina vivipara Fabricius defined by the Fabrician type- 
material (now lost) ; there is no nominal species Rutilia vivipara RD and the designation of 
Townsend is therefore an invalid subsequent designation (Article 69 (a)). 

Guerin-Meneville (1843, Rev. Zool. 1843 : 264), on the basis of discrepancies between the 
descriptions of Fabricius and Robineau-Desvoidy, considered that the latter author had 
misidentified Tachina vivipara Fabricius, and that the species actually seen by Robineau- 
Desvoidy was undescribed when Robineau-Desvoidy described Rutilia. Guerin-Meneville 
(1843, Rev. Zool. 1843 : 269) himself described the species supposedly misidentified by Robin- 
eau-Desvoidy as Rutilia desvoidyi Guerin-Meneville, and Engel (1925, Zool. Jb. 50 : 361) and 
Townsend (1936, Man. Myiol. 3 : 153) have cited Rutilia desvoidyi G.-M. as the type-species 
of Rutilia] but desvoidyi is not an originally included nominal species and neither of these 
citations is a valid type-designation. 

Enderlein (1936, Veroff. dt. Kolon.-u. Ubersee-Mus. Bremen 1 : 428429) and Townsend 
(1938, Man. Myiol. 7 : 422) both cited Rutilia desvoidyi Guerin-Meneville as the type-species 
of Rutilia but made it clear at the same time that they considered it to be the same as Rutilia 
vivipara Robineau-Desvoidy, nee Fabricius; however this does not provide a valid type- 
designation for Rutilia under Article 69 (a) (iv) since Rutilia vivipara Robineau-Desvoidy is 
not a nominal species (see above). Article 70 (b) on deliberate use of misidentification applies 
only to new nominal genera established by the designator and is not germane to the present 
case (which is not one requiring a Commission ruling under Article 70) . 

In the absence of a previous valid type-designation I am here designating Tachina vivipara 
Fabricius, 1805, as the type-species of Rutilia Robineau-Desvoidy. This selection does not 
affect the generic concept of Rutilia, but it should be noted that the generic name Stiraulax 
Enderlein, 1936, becomes a junior objective synonym of Rutilia since it is also based on 
vivipara Fabricius. The name Rutilia vivipara (Fabricius) is in current use for the commonest 
brown-coloured Rutilia species ranging from Cape York to Tasmania, and the choice of 
vivipara Fabricius (rather than another species) as type-species is preferred by Australian 
specialists (Colless, personal communication). 



GENERA OF ORIENTO- AUSTRAL ASIAN TACHINIDAE 27 

RUTILODEXIA Townsend, 1915, Proc. biol. Soc. Wash. 28 : 23. Type-species: Rut ilia 
angustipennis Walker, 1859, by original designation. ARU ISLANDS. 

RUTILOTRIXA Townsend, 1933, Jl N.Y. ent. Soc. 40 : 448. Type-species: Trixa lateralis 

Walker, 1849, by original designation. AUSTRALIA. 

No type-locality was cited by Walker (1849, List. Spec. dipt. Ins. Coll. Brit. Mus. 4 : 699) 
in the original description of Trixa lateralis but Austen has at some time labelled the female 
holotype (in British Museum) " Australia. Purchd. at Mr. Children's sale 407 a.", and Town- 
send therefore cited Australia in the description of Rutilotrixa. This locality may be accepted 
as correct, although no other Australian material has yet been identified as lateralis. 

SARALBA Walker, 1865, /. Proc. Linn. Soc. 8 : 114. Type-species: Saralba ocypteroid.es 
Walker, 1865, by monotypy. NEW GUINEA. 

SCAPH1MYIA Mesnil, 1955, Flieg. Palaearkt. Reg. 64g : 422. Type-species: Scaphimyia 
castanea Mesnil, 1955, by original designation. NORTH VIETNAM (TONKIN). 

SCHISTOCH1LUS Aldrich, 1932, Proc. U.S. natn. Mus. 81 (9) : 18. Type-species: Schis- 
tochilus aristatum Aldrich, 1932 [= Diatraeophaga striatalis Townsend, 1916], by original 
designation. JAVA. 

SCHIZACTIANA Curran, 1927, Ent. Mitt. 16 : 356. Type-species: Actia (Schizactiana) 

valida Curran, 1927, by original designation. QUEENSLAND. (As subgenus of Actia 
Robineau-Desvoidy, 1 830) . 

SCHIZOCEROMYIA Townsend, 1926, Philipp. J. Sci. 29 : 542. Type-species: Schizo- 
tachina fergusoni Bezzi, 1923, by original designation. NEW SOUTH WALES. 

SCOLOGASTER Aldrich, 1926, Insecutor Inscit. menstr. 14 : 52. Type-species: Scolo- 
gaster fuscipennis Aldrich, 1926 [= Janthinomyia felderi Brauer and Bergenstamm, 1893], 
by original designation. CHINA (SZECHWAN). 

SCOTIELLA Mesnil, 1940, Bull. Soc. ent. Fr. 45 : 39. Type-species: Exorista (Scotiella) 
bisetosa Mesnil, 1940, by original designation. CHINA, JAVA. (As subgenus of Exorista 
Meigen, 1803). 

Name preoccupied by Scotiella Delo, 1935 (Trilobita), see Spixomyia n. n. 

SEMISUTURIA Malloch, 1927, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. 52 : 339. Type-species: Semisu- 
turia australis Malloch, 1927, by original designation. QUEENSLAND. 

SENEXORISTA Townsend, 1927, Supplta ent. 16 : 63. Type-species: Senexorista suma- 

trana Townsend, 1927, by original designation. SUMATRA. 

SENOSTOMA Macquart, 1847, Mem. Soc. Sci. Agric. Lille 1846 : 96. Dipt. exot. Suppl. 
2 : 80. Type-species: Senostoma variegata Macquart, 1847, by monotypy. TASMANIA. 

SERICOTACHINA Townsend, 1916, Ent. News 27 : 178. Type-species: Paratachina 
vulpecula Wulp, 1896, by original designation. JAVA. 

SERICOZENILLIA Mesnil, 1957, Mem. Soc. r. ent. Belg. 28 : 18. Type-species: Zenillia 
(Sericozenillia) albipila Mesnil, 1957, by monotypy. JAPAN. (As subgenus of Zenillia 
Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830). 

SERVILLINA Malloch, 1932, Stylops 1 : 201. Type-species: Servillia (Servillina) vespi- 

fortnis Malloch, 1932, by original designation. MALAYA. (As subgenus of Servillia Robin- 
eau-Desvoidy, 1830). 

SERVILLIODES Townsend, 1926, Supplta ent. 14 : 37. Type-species: Servilliodes sutna- 

trensis Townsend, 1926, by original designation. SUMATRA. 

SER VILLIOPSIS Townsend, 1916, Proc. U.S. natn. Mus. 51 .-314. Type-species: Servilliop- 

sis buccata Townsend, 1916 [= Echinomyia flavopilosa Bigot, 1888], by original designation. 
JAVA. 

SETASIPHONA Townsend, 1934, J l N.Y. ent. Soc. 42 : 248. Type-species: Actia siphono- 

soma Malloch, 1930, by original designation. MALAYA. 



28 R. W. CROSSKEY 

SIGELOTROXIS Aldrich, 1928, Proc. U.S. natn. Mus. 74 (8) : 3. Type-species: Sigelotroxis 
parvus Aldrich, 1928, by original designation. CHINA. 

SIMOMA Aldrich, 1926, Proc. U.S. natn. Mus. 69 (22) : 20. Type-species: Sitnoma grahami 
Aldrich, 1926, by original designation. CHINA (SZECHWAN). 

SISYROPA Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1889, Denkschr. Akad. Wiss., Wien 56 : 163. Muse. 
Schiz. 1 : 95. Type-species: Tachina thermophila Wiedemann, 1830, by original designa- 
tion. JAVA. 

SISYROPODODEXIA Townsend, 1927, Philipp. J. Sci. 33 : 281. Type-species: Sisyropo- 
dodexia luteicornis Townsend, 1927, by original designation. PHILIPPINE REPUBLIC. 

SMIDTIOLA Mesnil, 1957, Mem. Soc. r. ent. Belg. 28 : 7. Type-species: Smidtiola varipes 
Mesnil, 1957, by monotypy. BURMA. 

SPIROGLOSSA Doleschall, 1858, Natuurk. Tijdschr. Ned.-Indie 17 : 107. Type-species: 
Spiroglossa tpus Doleschall, 1858, by monotypy. AMBOYNA. 

SPIXOMYIA n. n. for Scotiella Mesnil, 1940, preoccupied by Scotiella Delo, 1935. Type- 
species: Exorista (Scotiella) bisetosa Mesnil, 1940. 

STENODEXIOPSIS Townsend, 1926, Supplta ent. 14 : 17. Type-species: Stenodexiopsis 
sumatrensis Townsend, 1926, by original designation. SUMATRA. 

STIRAULAX Enderlein, 1936, Veroff. dt. Kolon.-u. Ubersee-Mus. Bremen 1 : 428. Type- 
species: Tachina vivipara Fabricius, 1805, by original designation. Probably AUSTRALIA 
(Insulis maris pacifici). 

STURMIODORIA Townsend, 1928, Philipp. J. Sci. 34 : 391. Type-species: Sturmiodoria 

facialis Townsend, 1928, by original designation. PHILIPPINE REPUBLIC. 

S TURMIOPSIS Townsend, 1916, Proc. U.S. natn. Mus. 51 : 313. Type-species: Sturmiop- 
sis inferens Townsend, 1916, by original designation. JAVA. 

STYLOGYNEMYIA Townsend, 1927, Ent. Mitt. 16 : 280. Type-species: Stylogynemyia 
cylindrica Townsend, 1927, by original designation. FORMOSA. 

STYLURODORIA Townsend, 1933, // N.Y. ent. Soc. 40 : 476. Type-species: Stylurodoria 
stylata Townsend, 1933, by original designation. FORMOSA. 

SUENSONOMYIA Mesnil, 1953, Bull. Annls Soc. r. ent. Belg. 89 : 99. Type-species: Suen- 
sonomyia setinerva Mesnil, 1953, by monotypy. CHINA. 

SUMATRODEXIA Townsend, 1926, Supplta ent. 14 : 26. Type-species: Sumatrodexia 

brevirostris Townsend, 1926 [= Dexia extendens Walker, 1857], by original designation. 
SUMATRA. 

SUMATRODORIA Townsend, 1927, Supplta ent. 16 : 64. Type-species: Sumatrodoria 
summaria Townsend, 1927, by original designation. SUMATRA. 

SUMATROSTURMIA Townsend, 1927, Supplta ent. 16 : 70. Type-species: Sumatrostur- 
mia orbitalis Townsend, 1927, by original designation. SUMATRA. 

SUMATROTACHINA Townsend, 1927, Supplta ent. 16 : 59. Type-species: Sumatrota- 
china facialis Townsend, 1927, by original designation. SUMATRA. 

SUMPIGASTER Macquart, 1855, Mem. Soc. Sci. Agric. Lille 1854 : 124. Dipt. exot. Suppl. 
5 : 104. Type-species: Sumpigaster fasciatus Macquart, 1855, by monotypy. QUEENS- 
LAND. 

TACHINEO Malloch, 1938, Trans. Proc. R. Soc. N.Z. 68 : 243. Type-species: Tachina 
clarkii Hutton, 1901, by original designation. NEW ZEALAND. (As subgenus of Neotachina 
Malloch, 1938). 

TACHINODEXIA Townsend, 1933, Jl N.Y. ent. Soc. 40 : 457. Type-species: Tachina 
flavipennis Wiedemann, 1824, by original designation. INDIA or EAST INDIES (cited by 
Wiedemann as " Ind. or." or " Ostindien "). 



GENERA OF OKI ENTO- AUSTRAL ASI AN TACHINIDAE 29 

TAKANOELLA Baranov, 1935, Vet. Arh. 5 : 558. Type-species: Takanoella parvicornis 
Baranov, 1935, by original designation. JAPAN. 

TAKANOMYIA Mesnil, 1957, Mem. Soc. r. ent. Belg. 28 : 10. Type-species: Takanotnyia 
scutellata Mesnil, 1957, by rnonotypy. JAPAN. 

TALARACTIA Malloch, 1930, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. 55 : 305. Type-species: Actia 
(Talaractia) baldwini Malloch, 1930, by original designation. QUEENSLAND. (As sub- 
genus of Actia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830). 

In the original publication this name is spelled Tararactia in the subgeneric heading but 
Talaractia in the description of the type-species: as the name is based on a comparison with 
Talarocera Williston the spelling Tararactia is an inadvertent error. 

TAMANUKIA Baranov, 1935, Vet. Arh. 5 : 551. Type-species: Tamanukia japanica 
Baranov, 1935, by original designation. JAPAN. 

TARARACTIA Malloch, 1930. See Talaractia. 

TASMANIOMYIA Townsend, 1916, Can. Ent. 48 : 152. Type-species: Masicera viridiven- 
tris Macquart, 1847, by original designation. TASMANIA. 

TA YLORIA Malloch, 1930, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. 55 : 98. Type-species: Tayloria testacea 
Malloch, 1930, by original designation. QUEENSLAND. 

Name preoccupied by Tayloria Bourguignat, 1889 (Mollusca), see Efftayloria Malloch, 1941. 

TERETROPHORA Macquart, 1851, Mem. Soc. Sci. Agric. Lille 1850 : 174. Dipt. exot. 
Suppl. 4 : 201. Type-species: Teretrophora fasciata Macquart, 1851, by monotypy. 
TASMANIA (probably in error for NEW SOUTH WALES). 

TETRAPTEROMYIA Malloch, 1930, J. fed. Malay St. Mus. 16 : 119. Type-species: Tetra- 
pterotnyia klossi Malloch, 1930, by original designation. MALAYA. 

THELAIROLESKIA Townsend, 1926, Supplta ent. 14 : 23. Type-species: Thelairoleskia 

bicolor Townsend, 1926, by original designation. SUMATRA. 

THELYCARCELIA Townsend, 1933, // N.Y. ent. Soc. 40 : 475. Type-species: Thelycar- 
celia thrix Townsend, 1933, by original designation. FORMOSA. 

THERESIOPSIS Townsend, 1916, Proc. U.S.natn. Mus. 51 : 300. Type-species: Theresiop- 
sis flcorutn Townsend, 1916, by original designation. JAVA. 

THEROBIA Brauer, 1862, Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien 12 : 1231. Type-species: Trypoderma 
abdominalis Wiedemann, 1830, by monotypy. BENGAL. 

THEROBIOPSIS Townsend, 1919, Insecutor Inscit. menstr. 6 : 166. Type-species: Aula- 
cephala braueri Kertesz, 1899, by original designation. NEW GUINEA. 

THRYPTODEXIA Malloch, 1926, Philipp. J. Sci. 31 : 509. Type-species: Thryptodexia 

polita Malloch, 1926, by original designation. PHILIPPINE REPUBLIC. 

THYELLINA Mesnil, 1949, Flieg. Palaearkt. Reg. 64g : 70. Type-species: Thyellina brevi- 
cornis Mesnil, 1949, by monotypy. QUEENSLAND. 

Name preoccupied by Thyellina Agassiz, 1838 (Pisces), see Winthellia n. n. 

TONGAMYIA Mesnil, 1953, Bull. Annls Soc. r. ent. Belg. 89 : 102. Type-species: Tongamyia 
cinerella Mesnil, 1953, by monotypy. TONGA. 

TOROCCA Walker, 1860, /. Proc. Linn. Soc. 4 : 131. Type-species: Torocca abdominalis 

Walker, 1860, by monotypy. CELEBES. 

TOXOCNEMIS Macquart, 1855, Mem. Soc. Sci. Agric. Lille 1854 : 123. Dipt. exot. Suppl. 
5 : 103. Type-species: Toxocnernis vittata Macquart, 1855, by monotypy. SOUTH 
AUSTRALIA. 

TRICHOFORMOSOMYIA Baranov, 1934, Encycl. ent. Serie B II, 7 : 163. Type-species: 
Trichoformosotnyia sauteri Baranov, 1934, by original designation. FORMOSA, 



30 R. W. CROSSKEY 

TRICHOSTYLUM Macquart, 1851, Mem. Soc. Sci. Agric. Lille 1850 : 181. Dipt. exot. 
Suppl. 4 : 208. Type-species: Trichostylum ruflpalpis Macquart, 1851, by monotypy. 
AUSTRALIA. 

TRISCHIDOCERA Villeneuve, 1915, Annls hist.-nat. Mus. natn. hung. 13 : 93. Type-species: 
Trischidocera sauteri Villeneuve, 1915, by monotypy. FORMOSA. 

TRITAXYS Macquart, 1847, Mem. Soc. Sci. Agric. Lille 1846 : 81. Dipt. exot. Suppl. 2 : 65. 
Type-species: Tritaxys australis Macquart, 1847, by monotypy. TASMANIA. 

TRIXOMORPHA Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1889, Denkschr. Akad. Wiss., Wien 56 : 163. 
Muse. Schiz. 1 : 95. Type-species: Trixomorpha indica Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1889, by 
original designation. BENGAL. 

TROPHOMYIA Aldrich, 1929, Proc. U.S. natn. Mus. 76 (15) : n. Type-species: Tropho- 
myia pictipennis Aldrich, 1929 [= Tachina tepens Walker, 1849], by original designation. 
MALAYA. 

TROPHOPS Aldrich, 1932, Proc. U.S. natn. Mus. 81 (9) : 22. Type-species: Trophops 
clauseni Aldrich, 1932, by original designation. JAPAN. 

TRUPHIA Malloch, 1930, Rec. Canterbury Mus. 3 : 310. Type-species: Truphia grisea 
Malloch, 1930, by original designation. NEW ZEALAND. 

TRYPHERINA Malloch, 1938, Trans. Proc. R. Soc. N.Z. 68 : 219. Type-species: Trypherina 
grisea Malloch, 1938, by monotypy. NEW ZEALAND. 

TYLODEXIA Townsend, 1926, Supplta ent. 14 : 27. Type-species: Tylodexia tennis Town- 
send, 1926 [= Dexia precedens Walker, 1860], by original designation. SUMATRA. 

UCLESIELLA Malloch, 1938, Trans. Proc. R. Soc. N.Z. 68 : 167. Type -species : Uclesiella 
irregularis Malloch, 1938, by original designation. NEW ZEALAND. 

UGIMEIGENIA Townsend, 1916, Proc. U.S. natn. Mus. 51 : 316. Type-species: Ugimei- 
genia elzneri Townsend, 1916, by original designation. BANKS ISLAND (Torres Strait, 
Queensland) . 

UGIMYIA Rondani, 1870, Boll. Soc. ent. ital. 2 : 137. Type-species: Ugimyia sericariae 
Rondani, 1870, by monotypy. JAPAN. 

The original descriptions of Ugimyia and its type-species are based on the larva and pupa, 
but the adult of Ugimyia sericariae Rondani is described by Cornalia (1870, Boll. Soc. ent. ital. 
2 : 223) on a later page in the same journal. 

URODEXIA Osten-Sacken, 1882, Annali Mus. civ. Star. nat. Giacomo Doria 18 : n. Type- 
species: Urodexia penicillutn Osten-Sacken, 1882, by monotypy. CELEBES. 

URODEXIOMIMA Townsend, 1927, Philipp. J. Sci. 33 : 280. Type-species: Urodexiomirna 
uramyoides Townsend, 1927, by original designation. PHILIPPINE REPUBLIC. 

UROEUANTHA Townsend, 1927, Philipp. J. Sci. 33 : 279. Type-species: Uroeuantho 
longipes Townsend, 1927, by original designation. PHILIPPINE REPUBLIC. 

UROMEDINA Townsend, 1926, Supplta ent. 14 : 18. Type-species: Urotnedina caudata 
Townsend, 1926, by original designation. SUMATRA. 

USCHIZACTIA Townsend, 1934, J 1 N.Y. ent. Soc. 42 : 248. Type-species: Actia uniseta 
Malloch, 1930, by original designation. MALAYA. 

VELUTA Malloch, 1938, Trans. Proc. R. Soc. N.Z. 68 : 207. Type-species: Veluta albicincta 
Malloch, 1938, by original designation. NEW ZEALAND. 

VERREAUXIA Robineau-Desvoidy, 1863, Hist. nat. Dipt. Env. Paris 1 : 893. Type-species: 
Verreauxia auripilis Robineau-Desvoidy, 1863, by original designation. TASMANIA. 

Name preoccupied by Verreauxia Hartlaub, 1856 (Aves). No replacement name is pro- 
posed as Verreauxia Robineau-Desvoidy is regarded as a junior subjective synonym of 
Rondahpr peaiani, 1856. 



GENERA OF OKI ENTO- AUSTR AL AS I AN TACHINIDAE 31 

VESPIVORA Malloch, 1930, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. 55 : 347. Type-species: Vespivora 
nigriventris Malloch, 1930, by original designation. QUEENSLAND. 

VESPOCYPTERA Townsend, 1927, Ent. Mitt. 16 : 279. Type-species: Vespocyptera 
petiolata Townsend, 1927, by original designation. FORMOSA. 

VORIELLA Malloch, 1930, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. 55 : 335. Type-species: Voriella uniseta 
Malloch, 1930, by original designation (cited as Voriella recedens, n. sp. by Malloch in error: 
see Malloch, 1931, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. 56 : 298). NEW SOUTH WALES. 

VORINA Malloch, 1930, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. 55 : 321. Type-species: Vorina setibasis 
Malloch, 1930, by original designation. NEW SOUTH WALES. 

WATTIA Malloch, 1938, Trans. Proc. R. Soc. N.Z. 68 : 162. Type-species: Wattia ferru- 
ginea Malloch, 1938, by original designation. NEW ZEALAND. 

WEINGAERTNERIELLA Baranov, 1932, Neue Beitr. syst. Insektenk. 5 : 74. Type-species: 
Sturtnia paradoxalis Baranov, 1932, by monotypy. FORMOSA. (As subgenus of Sturmia 
Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830). 

WIEDEMANNIOMYIA Townsend, 1933, // N.Y. ent. Soc. 40 : 469. Type-species: Tachina 
metallica Wiedemann, 1824, by original designation. EAST INDIES. 

WINTHELLIA n. n. for Thyellina Mesnil, 1949, preoccupied by Thyellina Agassiz, 1838. 

Type-species: Thyellina brevicornis Mesnil, 1949. 
WULPITACHINA Villeneuve, 1934, Rev. franc. Ent. 1 : 181. Type-species: Paratachina 

vulpecula Wulp, 1896, by original designation. JAVA. 

XANTHOERIGONE Townsend, 1927, Supplta ent. 16 : 71. Type-species: Xanthoerigone 

oralis Townsend, 1927, by original designation. SUMATRA. 

XANTHOOESTRUS Villeneuve, 1914, Annls hist.-nat. Mus. natn. hung. 12 : 438. Type- 
species: Xanthooestrus fastuosus Villeneuve, 1914, by monotypy. FORMOSA. 

XANTHOPTEROMYIA Townsend, 1926, Supplta ent. 14 : 24. Type-species: Xanthop- 
teromyia tegulata Townsend, 1926, by original designation. SUMATRA. 

XENOLOPHOSIA Villeneuve, 1926, Bull. Annls Soc. r. ent. Belg. 66 : 273. Type-species: 
Xenolophosia hamulata Villeneuve, 1926, by subsequent designation of Townsend, 1931, 
Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (10) 8 : 391. FORMOSA. 

XENORHYNCHIA Malloch, 1938, Trans. Proc. R. Soc. N.Z. 68 : 190. Type-species: Xeno- 
rhynchia peeli Malloch, 1938, by original designation. NEW ZEALAND. 

XENOSTURMIA Mesnil, 1944, Flieg. Palaearht. Reg. 64g : 26. Type-species: Xenosturmia 

testaceipes Mesnil, 1944 [= Eurygaster decipiens Walker, 1859], by original designation. 
NEW BRITAIN. 

ZAMBESA Walker, 1857, /. Proc. Linn. Soc. 1 : 21. Type-species: Zambesa ocypteroid.es 
Walker, 1857, by monotypy. SINGAPORE. 

ZAMBESOIDES Townsend, 1927, Philipp. J. Sci. 33 : 285. Type-species: Zambesoides 
satnarensis Townsend, 1927, by original designation. PHILIPPINE REPUBLIC. 

ZAMBESOPSIS Townsend, 1933, // N.Y. ent. Soc. 40 : 451. Type-species: Zambesa 
claripalpis Villeneuve, 1926, by original designation. FORMOSA. 

ZAMIMUS Malloch, 1932, Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (10) 10 : 319. Type-species: Zamimus 
pendleburyi Malloch, 1932, by original designation. BORNEO. 

ZEBROMYIA Malloch, 1929, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. 54 : 321. Type-species: Zebromyia 
obesa Malloch, 1929, by original designation. TASMANIA. 

ZEALANDOTACHINA Malloch, 1938, Trans. Proc. R. Soc. N.Z. 68 : 223. Type-species: 
Macquartia subtilis Hutton, 1901, by original designation. NEW ZEALAND. 

ZENARGOMYIA Crosskey, 1964, /. ent. Soc. Qd 3 : 18. Type-species: Zenargomyia 
moorei Crosskey, 1964, by original designation. NEW SOUTH WALES, 



32 R. W. CROSSKEY 

ZITA Curran, 1927, Ent. Mitt. 16 : 350. Type-species: Zita aureopyga Curran, 1927, by 
original designation. QUEENSLAND. 

ZORAMSCEUS Enderlein, 1936, Veroff. dt. Kolon.-u. Ubersee-Mus. Bremen 1 : 416. Type- 
species: Rutilia erichsonii Engel, 1925, by original designation. WESTERN AUSTRALIA. 

ZOSTEROMEIGENIA Townsend, 1919, Proc. U.S. natn. Mus. 56 : 579. Type-species: 
Zosterotneigenia rnitna Townsend, 1919, by original designation. QUEENSLAND. 

ZOSTEROMYIA Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1891, Denkschr. Akad. Wiss., Wien 58 : 376. 
Muse. Schiz. 2 : 72. Type-species: Zosteromyia braueri Townsend, 1933 [= Myobia 
cingulata Brauer & Bergenstamm, not of Macquart, by misidentification], by original desig- 
nation. TASMANIA, QUEENSLAND. 

ZOSTEROMYIOPSIS Townsend, 1933, // N.Y. ent. Soc. 40 : 456. Type-species: Myobia 
cingulata Macquart, 1851, by original designation. AUSTRALIA, TASMANIA. 

ZOSTEROPSIS Townsend, 1916, Proc. U.S. natn. Mus. 51 : 309. Type-species: Zosteropsis 
rutherfordi Townsend, 1916, by original designation. CEYLON. 

ZYGOCARCELIA Townsend, 1927, Supplta ent. 16 : 64. Type-species: Zygocarcelia 
cruciata Townsend, 1927, by original designation. SUMATRA. 



SUMMARY OF PREOCCUPIED AND REPLACEMENT NAMES 

The following list summarises the preoccupied junior homonyms in the genus-group names 
of Oriental and Australasian Tachinidae, together with their replacement names: 



Preoccupied name 

Arthuria Malloch, 1938 
Chlorogaster Macquart, 1851 
Delta Malloch, 1930 

Diaphania Macquart, 1843 
Duvaucelia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 
Engycera Malloch, 1938 
Euphasia Townsend, 1908 
Hygia Mesnil, 1952 



Mallochiola Strand, 1932 

Mycteromyia Mesnil, 1950 

Neophasia Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1893 

Phorocerosoma Malloch, 1929 

Pygidia Malloch, 1930 

Scotiella Mesnil, 1940 

Tayloria Malloch, 1930 

Thyellina Mesnil, 1949 

Verreauxia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1863 



Replacement name 

Montanarturia Miller, 1945 

Chlorogastrina n. n. 

Deltomyza Malloch, 1931 ; Mallochiola 
Strand, 1932 (preoccupied) 

Prodiaphania Townsend, 1927 

Curtocera Macquart, 1835 

Gracilicera Miller, 1945 

Neximyia n. n. 

none required (Hygi a Mesnil currently treated 
as synonym of Chaetexorista Brauer & 
Bergenstamm, 1894). 

none required (Deltomyza Malloch available 
as replacement name for Delta Malloch) 

Mycteromyiella Mesnil, 1965 

Euphasia Townsend, 1908 (preoccupied) 

Phorocerostoma Malloch, 1930 

Pygidimyia n. n. 

Spixomyia n. n. 

Efftayloria Malloch, 1941 

Winthellia n. n. 

none required (Verreauxia Robineau-Des- 
voidy currently treated as synonym of 
Blepharipa Rondani) 



GENERA OF OKI ENTO-AUST RAL ASIAN TACHINIDAE 33 

The following new combinations result from the new names proposed above: 

Chlorogastrina tasmanensis (Macquart, 1851) comb. n. 
Neximyia picta (Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1893) comb. n. 
Pygidimyia rufolateralis (Malloch, 1930) comb. n. 
Winthellia brevicornis (Mesnil, 1949) comb. n. 

The provision of the replacement name Spixomyia does not entail any new specific combinations 
since Scotiella Mesnil is currently regarded as a subgenus of Exorista Meigen, 1803 (Mesnil, 1960, 
Flieg. Palaearkt. Reg. 64g : 571). 

SYNOPSIS OF GENUS-GROUP NAMES BASED ON 
AUSTRALIAN TYPE-SPECIES 



Acephana Townsend, 1916 

Acucera Malloch, 1930 

Agalmia Enderlein, 1936 

Amphibolia Macquart, 1843 

Amphitropesa Townsend, 1933 

Amplipila Curran, 1927 

Anagonia Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1891 

Anamastax Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1891 

Anatropomyia Malloch, 1930 

Apalpostoma Malloch, 1930 

Apalpus Malloch, 1929 

Apatemyia Macquart, 1846 

Apilia Malloch, 1930 

Aprotheca Macquart, 1851 

AY chimera Mesnil, 1954 

Arrhenomyza Malloch, 1929 

Australotachina Curran, 1938 

Austrodexia Malloch, 1930 

Austrophasia Townsend, 1916 

Austrophorocera Townsend, 1916 

Austrophryno Townsend, 1916 

Bactromyiella Mesnil, 1952 
Ballardia Curran, 1927 
Besserioides Curran, 1938 

Calopygidia Malloch, 1930 
Carcelimyia Mesnil, 1944 
Chaetogastrina Malloch, 1929 
Chaetophthalmus Brauer & Bergenstamm, 

1891 

Chetogaster Macquart, 1851 
Chlorodexia Townsend, 1916 
Chlorogaster Macquart, 1851 
Chlorogastrina n. n. 
Chlorotachina Townsend, 1915 
Chrysopasta Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1889 
Chrysorutilia Townsend, 1915 
Codium Enderlein, 1936 
Crypsina Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1889 
Cystometopia Townsend, 1926 



Delta Malloch, 1930 
Deltomyza Malloch, 1931 
Diaphania Macquart, 1843 
Doddiana Curran, 1927 
Donovanius Enderlein, 1936 

Echrysopasta Townsend, 1932 
Efftayloria Malloch, 1941 
Eipogonoides Curran, 1938 
Euamphibolia Townsend, 1916 
Eucompsa Enderlein, 1936 
Euphasia Townsend, 1908 
Eurygastropsis Townsend, 1916 
Eustacomyia Malloch, 1927 
Exechopalpus Macquart, 1847 

Froggattimyia Townsend, 1916 

Geraldia Malloch, 1930 
Gerotachina Townsend, 1916 
Glossosalia Mesnil, 1960 
Gonanamastax Townsend, 1933 
Goniophana Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1889 
Grapholostylum Macquart, 1851 

Habrota Enderlein, 1936 
Heterometopia Macquart, 1846 

Hillia Malloch, 1929 
Hobartia Malloch, 1930 
Hyleorus Aldrich, 1926 

Lasiocalypter Malloch, 1930 
Lasiocalyptrina Malloch, 1930 

Macreuthera Bezzi, 1925 
Macrochloria Malloch, 1929 
Macropia Malloch, 1930 
Macropodexia Townsend, 193 3 
Mallochiola Strand, 1932 



34 



R. W. CROSSKEY 



Menevillea Enderlein, 1936 
M esembriomintho Townsend, 1916 
Microrutilia Townsend, 1915 
Microtropesa Macquart, 1846 
Monoleptophaga Baranov, 1938 
Myiotrixa Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1893 

Neophasia Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1893 
Neorutilia Malloch, 1936 
Neximyia n. n. 

Ocypteropsis Townsend, 1916 
Opsophana Townsend, 1916 
Opsophasiops Townsend, 1915 
Ormiominda Paramonov, 1955 

Palia Curran, 1927 

Paliana Curran, 1927 

Palpostoma Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 

Parabrachelia Townsend, 1916 

Paragonia Mesnil, 1950 

Paramphibolia Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1891 

Pareupogona Townsend, 1916 

Paropsivom Malloch, 1934 

Phorocerosoma Malloch, 1929 

Phorocerostoma Malloch, 1930 

Pilimyia Malloch, 1930 

Platytainia Macquart, 1851 

Pogonagalmia Enderlein, 1936 

Polychaeta Macquart, 1851 

Prodiaphania Townsend, 1927 

Prosenina Malloch, 1930 

Prosenostoma Townsend, 1932 

Protomeigenia Townsend, 1916 

Psaronia Enderlein, 1936 

Psaroniella Enderlein, 1936 

Pseudopalpostoma Townsend, 1926 

Pseudotrichopoda Malloch, 1933 

Pygidia Malloch, 1930 

Pygidimyia n. n. 



Q^tadra Malloch, 1929 

Rhinomyobia Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1893 
Rutilia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 
Rutilotrixa Townsend, 1933 

Schizactiana Curran, 1927 
Schizoceromyia Townsend, 1926 
Semisuturia Malloch, 1927 
Senostoma Macquart, 1847 
Stiraulax Enderlein, 1936 
Sumpigaster Macquart, 1855 

Talaractia Malloch, 1930 
Tararactia alt. orig. spelling 
Tasmaniomyia Townsend, 1916 
Tayloria Malloch, 1930 
Teretrophora Macquart, 1851 
Thyellina Mesnil, 1949 
Toxocnemis Macquart, 1855 
Trichostylum Macquart, 1851 
Tritaxys Macquart, 1847 

Ugimeigenia Townsend, 1916 

Verreauxia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1863 
Vespivora Malloch, 1930 
Voriella Malloch, 1930 
Vorina Malloch, 1930 

Winthellia n. n. 

Zebromyia Malloch, 1929 

Zenargomyia Crosskey, 1964 

Zita Curran, 1927 

Zoramsceus Enderlein, 1936 

Zoster omeigenia Townsend, 1919 

Zosteromyia Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1891 

Zosteromyiopsis Townsend, 1933 



INDEX TO SPECIFIC NAMES OF TYPE-SPECIES 



abdominalis, Torocca, 29 
abdominalis, Trypoderma, 29 
aberrans, Nothypostena, 20 
aberrans, Pseudobrullaea, 25 
actifera, Actinochaetopteryx, 5 
aenescens, Neoduvaucelia, 19 
alata, Alophorophasia, 5 
albicincta, Veluta, 30 
albifacies, Pseudorectocera, 25 
albipila, Zenillia, 27 



albopicta, Rutilia, 5 
alulifera, Dexia, 18 
amoena, Elfriedella, u 
analis, Calopygidia, 8 
angusticauda, Eupalpocyptera, 13 
angustifrons, Cryptospylosia, 10 
angustipennis, Rutilia, 27 
anorbitalis, Androcyptera, 6 
antennalis, Everestiomyia, 13 
apertum, Calcager, 8 



INDEX 



35 



appendiculata, Heteria, 15 
argentea, Heterometopia, 15 
argentifera, Atractodexia, 7 
aristalis, Leiosiopsis, 17 
aristatum, Schistochilus, 27 
assimilis, Rutilia, 22 
ater, Gastroptilops, 14 
atkinsoni, Podomyia, 10 
atra, Eocypterula, 12 
atra, Neotryphera, 20 
atrata, Arrhinodexia, 6 
atratula, Orectocerina, 21 
atribasis, Rutilia, 10 
atripennis, Neomedina, 19 
atripennis, Ochophasia, 20 
atrox, Idania, 16 
aurea, Protomeigenia, 24 
aureocauda, Palia, 21 
aureocephala, Anaeudora, 5 
aureocincta, Bactromyiella, 7 
aureopyga, Zita, 32 
aurescens, Macrozenillia, 17 
auricaudata, Chrysopygia, 10 
auripilis, Verreauxia, 30 
auronigra, Calozenillia, 8 
australensis, Demotions, 12 
australiensis, Delta, 10 
australis, Anamastax, 6 
australis, Rhinomyobia, 25 
australis, Semisuturia, 27 
australis, Tritaxys, 30 

bakeri, Botriopsis, 8 
bakeri, Cylindromyiella, 10 
bakeri, Eoacemyia, 12 
bakeri, Eocarceliopsis, 12 
bakeri, Hystricovoria, 16 
baldwini, Actia, 29 
barbata, Calyptromyia, 8 
barbata, Lypha, 17 
basalis, Eutachina, 22 
basalis, Paliana, 21 
basifera, Dexia, 8 
beelzebul, Tachina, 25 
bezziana, Myiofijia, 19 
bicincta, Duvaucelia, 10, n 
bicincta, Hemidegeeria, 15 
bicincta, Pentatomophaga, 22 
bicolor, Ocyptera, 23 
bicolor, Thelairoleskia, 29 
bicoloripes, Oswaldia, n 
bicoloripes, Polygastropteryx, 23 
bifida, Diglossocera, n 
bifida, Phaoniella, 22 



binigra, Zealandotachina, 8 
biserialis, Phorocera, 7 
bisetosa, Exorista, 27, 28 
bisetosa, Psaronia, 25 
bivittata, Barydexia, 7 
braueri, Aulacephala, 29 
braueri, Zosteromyia, 32 
brevicornis, Thyellina, 29, 31 
brevifacies, Homotrixa, 15 
brevigaster, Micropalpus, 9 
brevipalpis, Avibrissina, 7 
brevipennis, Echinomyia, 12 
brevirostris, Sumatrodexia, 28 
breviseta, Eustacomyia, 13 
buccata, Servilliopsis, 27 
burmanica, Chaetoptiliopsis, 9 

caldwelli, Monoleptophaga, 19 
calliphoroides, Australotachina, 7 
calliphorosoma, Macrochloria, 17 
callipygos, Formosia, 21 
campbelli, Campbellia, 8 
canescens, Medinomyia, 18 
carinata, Eomyocera, 12 
carbonata, Kambaitimyia, 16 
castanea, Scaphimyia, 27 
castanipes, Rutilia, 25 
caudata, Akosempomyia, 5 
caudata, Carcelia, 7 
caudata, Uromedina, 30 
centralis, Plethochaetigera, 9 
cerambycivorae, Perrissinoides, 22 
ceylanica, Atractocerops, 7 
ceylanica, Eocarcelia, 12 
ceylanica, Eufischeria, 13 
chaetopygiale, Euthelairosoma, 13 
cilifera, Apilia, 6 
cinerea, Apalpostoma, 6 
cinerea, Centeter, 9 
cinerella, Tongamyia, 29 
cingulata, Myobia, 32 
claripalpis, Zambesa, 31 
claripennis, Macquartia, 7 
clarkii, Tachina, 28 
clauseni, Trophops, 30 
clavata, Germariochaeta, 14 
communis, Compsiluroides, 10 
compressa, Mesembriomintho, 18 
compressa, Platerycia, 23 
conspersa, Kuwanimyia, 17 
conspicua, Arrhenomyza, 6 
cordylurina, Oxyphyllomyia, 21 
costalis, Lophosiopsis, 17 
crocea, Perrissina, 22 



R. W. CROSSKEY 



cruciata, Zygocarcelia, 32 
curvicauda, Catapariprosopa, 9 
cylindrica, Doleschalla, u 
cylindrica, Stylogynemyia, 28 

decipiens, Eurygaster, 31 
decorata, Hemilinnaemyia, 15 
densa, Tachina, 7 
desvoidyi, Palpostoma, 25 
desvoidyi, Rutilia, 26 
dilabida, Sturmia, 14 
dimorpha, Arthuria, 6, 19 
dimorpha, Drino, 16 
dispar, Exorista, 8 
divergens, Dexia, 12 
diversicolor, Exorista, 6, 7 
dolichopiformis, Dolichopodomintho, n 
dorsalis, Apalpus, 6 
dorsomaculatum, Grapholostylum, 15 

egmonti, Peremptor, 22 
elegans, Amphitropesa, 5 
elegans, Eophyllophila, 12 
elegans, Formicophania, 14 
elegans, Rutilia, u 
elongata, Rhaphis, 25 
elzneri, Ugimeigenia, 30 
emporomyioides, Rhinomyodes, 25 
epalpata, Epseudocyptera, 12 
episcopa, Epixorista, 12 
equatorialis, Eomintho, 12 
equatorialis, Eozenillia, 12 
erichsonii, Rutilia, 32 
errans, Tachina, 12 
eutachinoides, Blepharipoda, 16 
evibrissata, Ecatocyptera, n 
extendens, Dexia, 28 

facialis, Sturmiodoria, 28 
facialis, Sumatrotachina, 28 
fasciata, Eutorocca, 13 
fasciata, Philippodoria, 22 
fasciata, Tachina, 24 
fasciata, Teretrophora, 29 
fasciatum, Trichostylum, 22 
fasciatus, Sumpigaster, 7, 18, 28 
fastuosus, Xanthooestrus, 31 
felderi, Janthinomyia, 16, 27 
felderi, Macrolophosia, 17 
femoralis, Dolichocoxys, n 
fenwicki, Plethochaetigera, 23 
fergusoni, Schizotachina, 27 
ferruginea, Wattia, 31 
ficorum, Theresiopsis, 29 



ficta, Masicera, 7 
fischeri, Aneogmena, 6 
flava, Myiophasia, 20 
flavibasis, Paratropeza, 22 
flaviceps, Chrysosoma, 10 
flavicornis, Anatropomyia, 6 
flavicoxa, Malaisimyia, 18 
flavida, Phasiodexia, 22 
flavifrons, Ocyptera, 20 
flavipalpis, Melanasomyia, 18 
flavipennis, Tachina, 28 
flavipes, Senostoma, 24 
flavisquama, Leiosia, 17 
flavohirta, Lasiocalypter, 17 
flavopilosa, Echinomyia, 25, 27 
forniosa, Rutilia, 10, 15 
formosensis, Austrophasiopsis, 7, 16 
formosensis, Goniophyto, 14 
formosensis, Halidayopsis, 15 
forte, Phorocerosoma, 22 
froggattii, Argyrothelaira, 6 
froggattii, Chlorodexia, 9 
fulvipes, Rutilia, 13 
fulviventris, Medinodexia, 18 
fumipennis, Malayodoria, 18 
furcatus, Hyleorus, 16 
fuscinervis, Malayia, 18 
fuscipennis, Scologaster, 27 

gastrula, Boromyia, 8 
geniculata, Altaia, 5 
globulum, Perigymnosoma, 22 
goniaeformis, Blepharipeza, 6, 14 
gourlayi, Microhystricia, 19 
gracilis, Charitella, 9 
grahami, Simoma, 28 
grandis, Phorocera, 14 
greyi, Prosenosoma, 24 
grisea, Paropsivora, 22 
grisea, Truphia, 30 
grisea, Trypherina, 30 

hamulata, Xenolophosia, 31 
hemimacquartioides, Isocarceliopsis, 16 
hemydoides, Formosolophosia, 14 
heterocera, Gonia, 14 
hirsuta, Carcelia, 19 
hirta, Froggattimyia, 14 
hirta, Neoerythronychia, 19 
hirticeps, Actia, 25 
hirticeps, Geraldia, 14 
hirticeps, Rutilia, 23 
humeratum, Calcager, 25 
huttoni, Protohystricia, 15 



INDEX 



37 



imbuta, Ocyptera, 21 
incidens, Calcageria, 8 
incongrua, Hamaxia, 15, 20 
indica, Crossocosmia, 16 
indica, Euhapalivora, 13 
indica, Indosturmia, 16 
indica, Trixomorpha, 30 
indica, Voria, 6 
indistincta, Masicerella, 18 
inferens, Sturmiopsis, 28 
inscitus, Occisor, 20 
institutiimperialis, Leverella, 17 
intermedia, Isosturmia, 17 
in versa, Isosturmia, 12, 16 
irregularis, Uclesiella, 30 

jacobsoni, Gaediogonia, 14 
jacobsoni, Kurintjimyia, 16 
jacobsoni, Oxyrutilia, 21 
jacobsoni, Phryxosturmia, 23 
japanica, Protonemoraea, 25 
japanica, Tamanukia, 29 
japonica, Promedina, 24 
javana, Chaetexorista, 9 
javana, Chaetomyiobia, 9 
javana, Crossotocnema, 10 
javana, Dexiomima, n 
javana, Eutrixopsis, 13 
javana, Prodegeeria, 24 
javanum, Ochropleurum, 20 

kloofia, Prosophia, 24 
klossi, Tetrapteromyia, 29 
kockiana, Catacarcelia, 9 

laetifica, Mycteromyia, 19 
lasiophthalma, Pilimyia, 23 
lateralis, Blepharella, 6, 7, 23 
lateralis, Eugymnochaetopsis, 13 
lateralis, Trixa, 27 
longicornis, Feriola, 14 
longimana, Myobiomima, 19 
longipennis, Dexiotrix, n 
longipennis, Eomyoceropsis, 12 
longipes, Apatemyia, 6 
longipes, Dexia, 17 
longipes, Dexiomimops, n 
longipes, Eoptilodexia, 12 
longipes, Philippodexia, 22 
longipes, Uroeuantha, 30 
longirostris, Avibrissia, 7 
lophosioides, Lophosiocyptera, 17 
lupina, Musca, 16 
luteicornis, Sisyropododexia, 28 



luteifacies, Chloropales, 10 
luteisquama, Erebiomima, 12 
luzonensis, Asbellopsis, 7 

machaeralis, Hapalioloemus, 15 
macro nychia, Ceromyia, 23 
macropus, Dexia, 20 
maculata, Platytainia, 23 
major, Platytachina, 23 
makilingensis, Doleschalla, n 
malaya, Minthocyptera, 19 
malayana, Mollia, 19 
marginalis, Trichoprosopa, 14 
medinoides, Gymnamedoria, 15 
melanoptera, Makilingimyia, 17 
melanura, Bellina, 7 
metallica, Tachina, 31 
micans, Orectocera, 21 
mima, Zosteromeigenia, 32 
minor, Rutilia, 13, 19 
minuta, Microphytomyptera, 19 
mirabilis, Ilia, 16 
mirabilis, Musca, 14 
modesta, Lasiocalyptrina, 17 
molitor, Melanophora, 17 
nioneta, Formosia, 25 
montana, Acucera, 5 
montana, Malayodinera, 18 
montana, Proscissio, 24 
moorei, Zenargomyia, 31 
munita, Malayocyptera, 18 

nasuta, Carcelia, 25 
neowinthemioides, Pseudokea, 25 
nicholsoni, Prosenina, 24 
nietneri, Prosheliomyia, 24 
niger, Plagioderophagus, 23 
nigra, Polychaeta, 23 
nigripes, Bezziomyiobia, 7 
nigriventris, Vespivora, 31 
nigropolita, Asetulia, 7 
nitidifrons, Eristaliomyia, 12 
nitidiventris, Nemoraea, 17 
nitidiventris, Semisuturia, 20 
nudibasis, Neoplectops, 20 

obesa, Zebromyia, 31 
oblonga, Masicera, 22 
oblonga, Rutilia, 10 
obscura, Pseudocyptera, 25 
obtusa, Neotachina, 20 
obtusa, Tachina, 14 
octava, Carcelia, 8 
ocypterina, Perilophosia, 22 



R. W. CROSSKEY 



ocypteroides, Saralba, 25, 27 
ocypteroides, Zambesa, 31 
oncoperae, Platymyia, 6 
optica, Anaperistommyia, 6 
optima, Opsocyptera, 20 
oralis, Xanthoerigone, 31 
orbata, Tachina, 12 
orbitalis, Sumatrosturmia, 28 
orientale, Dolichocolon, 12 
orientalis, Aphantorhaphopsis, 6 
orientalis, Calotheresia, 8 
orientalis, Eocyptera, 12 
orientalis, Eogymnophthalma, 12 
orientalis, Eoparachaeta, 12 
orientalis, Euhypochaetopsis, 13 
orientalis, Euvespivora, 13 
orientalis, Hystricia, 15, 24 
orientalis, Orilliopsis, 21 
orientalis, Tachina, 21 
ormioides, Ochromeigenia, 20 
ornata, Philippolophosia, 22 
ornata, Quadra, 25 
oryzae, Metoposisyrops, 19 

pachyprocta, Hystricia, 24 
pallens, Doddiana, n 
pallida, Phasioormia, 22 
pallidus, Demoticoides, 10 
pallipes, Ballardia, 7 
palpata, Leskiola, 17 
papua, Macrosophia, 17 
paradoxa, Palpostomotrixa, 21 
paradoxalis, Sturmia, 31 
parvicornis, Takanoella, 29 
parvus, Sigelotroxis, 28 
pauciseta, Crossocosmia, 15 
peculiaris, Hobartia, 15 
peeli, Xenorhynchia, 31 
pellucens, Rutilia, 18 
pendleburyi, Zamimus, 31 
penicillum, Urodexia, 30 
petiolata, Malayomedina, 18 
petiolata, Phrynactia, 23 ' 
petiolata, Proriedelia, 24 
petiolata, Vespocyptera, 31 
philippina, Prophorichaeta, 24 
phoeda, Phoriniophylax, 22 
phoenix, Compsoptesis, 10 
picta, Neophasia, 20 
pictipennis, Penthosiosoma, 22 
pictipennis, Trophomyia, 30 
plumosa, Proparathelaira, 24 
polita, Hillia, 15 
polita, Thryptodexia, 29 



politiventris, Engycera, 12, 14 
portentosa, Koralliomyia, 16 
portentosa, Paragonia, 21 
precedens, Dexia, 30 
prima, Crypsina, 5, 10 
prisca, Bothrostira, 8 
profana, Prosturmia, 24 
prosopina, Myiotrixa, 19 
psychidis, Neophryxe, 20 
pulchra, Palpocyptera, 21 
pulchra, Prosopofrontina, 24 
pygidialis, Hygiella, 16 
pyrrhaspis, Euproctimyia, 13 

recedens, Voriella, 31 
regalis, Musca, n 
rieki, Ormiominda, 21 
robusta, Hygia, 13 
rubiginans, Weberia, 9 
rubrifrons, Masicera, 5 
ruficornis, Eipogonoides, n 
rufifacies, Masicera, 5, 20 
rufifrons, Tachina, 14 
rufipalpis, Heterometopia, 10 
rufipalpis, Trichostylum, 30 
rufipalpus, Exechopalpus, 14 
rufipes, Aprotheca, 6 
rufipes, Chlorogaster, 9 
rufipes, Masicera, 21 
rufiventris, Dicephalomyia, n 
rufiventris, Hyalomyia, 7 
rufiventris, Kosempomyiella, 16 
rufiventris, Macropia, 17 
rufolateralis, Pygidia, 25 
rutherfordi, Zosteropsis, 32 
rutilioides, Prohypotachina, 24 

samarensis, Zambesoides, 31 
saturatissima, Rutilia, 17 
sauteri, Metopomintho, 19 
sauteri, Trichoformosomyia, 29 
sauteri, Trischidocera, 21, 30 
scutellaris, Palpina, 21 
scutellata, Takanomyia, 29 
scutellatus, Lophosiodes, 17 
septima, Carcelia, 19 
sericariae, Ugimyia, 30 
setibasis, Vorina, 31 
setigera, Austrodexia, 7 
setinerva, Suensonomyia, 28 
setiventris, Photocerosoma, 23 
setosa, Eurigaster, 23 
sexualis, Besserioides, 7 
sibuyana, Medinacemyia, 18 



INDEX 



39 



simillima, Aphrimyobia, 6 
simplex, Rutilia, 20 
sinuata, Graphotachina, 15 
sinuata, Musca, 19 
siphonosoma, Actia, 27 
skusei, Euthera, 17 
solennis, Masicera, 21, 24 
sphenophori, Ceromasia, 19 
splendida, Philippoformosia, 22 
spylosioides, Anagonia, 5 
stolida, Chaetogastrina, 9 
striatalis, Diatraeophaga, n, 27 
strictus, Eucomus, 13 
strigosa, Graphia, 15 
stylata, Stylurodoria, 28 
subtilis, Macquartia, 31 
succini, Tachina, 21 
sumatrana, Senexorista, 27 
sumatrense, Eodexiosoma, 12 
sumatrensis, Acuphocera, 5 
sumatrensis, Biomyopsis, 7 
sumatrensis, Brachymeropsis, 8 
sumatrensis, Calotheresia, 8 
sumatrensis, Carceliopsis, 8 
sumatrensis, Frontiniellopsis, 14 
sumatrensis, Servilliodes, 27 
sumatrensis, Stenodexiopsis, 28 
summaria, Sumatrodoria, 28 
sungayana, Promintho, 24 

tasmanensis, Chlorogaster, 9 
tasmaniae, Eurigaster, 8, 13 
tegulata, Xanthopteromyia, 31 
temerarium, Calcager, 8 
tenuipes, Rhynchiodexia, 26 
tenuis, Tylodexia, 30 
tepens, Tachina, 30 
testacea, Diaphania, n, 24 
testacea, Palpostoma, 21 
testacea, Tayloria, n, 29 
testaceipes, Xenosturmia, 31 
thermophila, Tachina, 28 



thrix, Thelycarcelia, 29 
tibialis, Kosempomyia, 16 
tonnoiri, Genotrichia, 14 
tpus, Spiroglossa, 28 
transvittatum, Succingulum, 15 
tricincta, Elodimyia, n 
tricolor, Calotachina, 8 
turbidum, Calcager, 23 

uniseta, Actia, 30 
uniseta, Voriella, 31 
unispinosa, Medinella, 18 
uramyoides, Oxydexiops, 21 
uramyoides, Urodexiomima, 30 
usitata, Cerosomyia, 9 

valentina, Amphibolia, 5 
valida, Actia, 27 
varia, Musca, 5 
variegata, Senostoma, 27 
varipes, Pseudotrichopoda, 25 
varipes, Smidtiola, 28 
ventralis, Phytorophaga, 23 
verecunda, Phania, 16 
versicolor, Amplipila, 5 
versicolor, Chyrsopasta, 10 
vespiformis, Servillia, 27 
vexata, Macquartia, 18 
vicaria, Masicera, 22 
violacea, Chetogaster, 9 
viridicingens, Hega, 15 
viridifulva, Kinabaluia, 16 
viridiventris, Masicera, 29 
vittata, Toxocnemis, 29 
vivipara, Tachina, 26, 28 
vulpecula, Paratachina, 27, 31 

wallacei, Megistogaster, 18 
xanthogastra, Degeeriopsis, 10 
zelebori, Bothrophora, 8 



A LIST OF SUPPLEMENTS 
TO THE ENTOMOLOGICAL SERIES 

OF THE BULLETIN OF 
THE BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 



1. MASNER, L. The types of Proctotrupoidea (Hymenoptera) in the British 
Museum (Natural History) and in the Hope Department of Entomology, Oxford. 
Pp. 143. February, 1965. 5. 

2. NIXON, G. E. J. A reclassification of the tribe Microgasterini (Hymenoptera : 
Braconidae). Pp.284; 348 Text-figures. August, 1965. 6. 

3. WATSON, A. A revision of the Ethiopian Drepanidae (Lepidoptera). Pp. 177 ; 
18 plates, 270 Text-figures. August, 1965. 4 45. 

4. SANDS, W. A. A revision of the Termite Subfamily Nasutitermitinae (Isoptera, 
Termitidae) from the Ethiopian Region. Pp. 172 ; 500 Text-figures. October, 

1965- ^35s. 

5. AHMAD, I. The Leptocorisinae (Heteroptera : Alydidae) of the World. Pp. 156 ; 

475 Text-figures. November, 1965. 2 155. 

6. OKADA, T. Diptera from Nepal. Cryptochaetidae, Diastatidae & Drosophilidae. 
Pp. 129 ; 328 Text-figures. 3. 

7. GILIOMEE, J. H. Morphology and Taxonomy of Adult Males of the Family 
Coccidae (Homoptera : Coccoidea). Pp. 168 ; 43 Text-figures. February, 1967. 

33*. 

8. FLETCHER, D. S. A revision of the Ethiopian species and a check list of the 
world species of Cleora (Lepidoptera : Geometridae). Pp. 119; 14 plates, 146 
Text-figures, 9 maps. February, 1967. 3 los. 

9. HEMMING, A. F. The Generic Names of the Butterflies and their type-species 
(Lepidoptera : Rhopalocera). In press. 

10. STEMPFFER, H. The Genera of the African Lycaenidae (Lepidoptera : Rhopa- 
locera). In press. 



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^ 



A TAXONOMIC REVISION \*<, 

OF THE AUSTRALIAN 
AEOLOTHRIPIDAE (THYSANOPTERA) 



L. A. MOUND 



BULLETIN OF 
THE BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 

ENTOMOLOGY Vol. 20 No. 2 

LONDON : 1967 



17 APR 1967 

A TAXONOMIC REVISION 

OF THE AUSTRALIAN AEOLOTHRIPIDAE 

(THYSANOPTERA) 



BY 

L. A. MOUND v 

Kt 

British Museum (Natural History) 



Pp. 41-74 ; 54 Text-figs. 



BULLETIN OF 

THE BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 
ENTOMOLOGY. Vol. 20 No. 2. 

LONDON: 1967 



THE BULLETIN OF THE BRITISH MUSEUM 

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issued in five series corresponding to the Departments 
of the Museum, and an Historical series. 

Parts will appear at irregular intervals as they become 
ready. Volumes will contain about three or four 
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within one calendar year. 

In 1965 a separate supplementary series of longer 
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This paper is Vol. 20, No. 2 of the Entomological 
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A TAXONOMIC REVISION 
OF THE AUSTRALIAN AEOLOTHRIPIDAE 
(THYSANOPTERA) 

By L. A. MOUND 

CONTENTS 

Page 

INTRODUCTION ........... 43 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ......... 45 

CHECK LIST OF SPECIES WITH STATE RECORDS ..... 45 

KEY TO GENERA .......... 46 

DESCRIPTION OF GENERA AND SPECIES ...... 47 

REFERENCES ........... 73 

INDEX TO SPECIES AND GENERA ........ 74 

SYNOPSIS 

Nineteen species of Aeolothripidae are recognized from Australia and these are distributed in 
seven genera. One of these species, fasciatus, is Holarctic, one of them, cinctus, is here recorded 
from India, but the others are known only from Australia. The type specimens of all the 
Australian species except cinctus have been examined, and all the species are re-described and 
keys provided for their recognition. Six new combinations and three new synonymies are 
included and three species are recalled from synonymy. Three new species and two new 
genera are described, and one of these genera includes two South American species originally 
described in Desmothrips. 

INTRODUCTION 

THE systematics of the order Thysanoptera have been little studied in Australia, 
although there are records and descriptions of more than three hundred nominal 
species. About half of these names were published privately by A. Girault in a series 
of very brief descriptions (see de Santis, 1961), and almost all the other species were 
described in various journals by one of the following authors : Bagnall ; Karny ; 
Hood ; Morison ; Moulton ; Priesner. With this widely scattered literature the 
identification of species is a serious problem, especially as the total number of species 
involved probably far exceeds the figure of three hundred quoted above. The only 
keys that have been published refer to the fifteen species of common flower thrips and 
potential pests (Steele, 1935), and the annotated check list published by Kelly & 
Mayne (1934) is in need of revision. The object of the present paper is the production 
of keys for the recognition of the described species in the smallest of the three major 
families, in order to provide a framework for future studies. Most of the species 
are known only from a single sample and many from a unique specimen, and this is 
due to the lack of collectors. Most species have been collected by one of the following 
three workers : Girault in Brisbane, Kelly in Melbourne and Newman in Perth. 
In view of the problems raised by the variation within species, further work must 
begin with both extensive and intensive collecting. 

ENTOM. 2O, 2. 2 



44 L- A. MOUND 

Many of the earlier descriptions of Australian Thysanoptera species refer mainly to 
colour patterns and characters derived from a study of the silhouette of the insects, 
but modern microscopes have made possible the examination of a wider range of 
characters, such as the integumental sculpture and chaetotaxy of the ventral surface. 
For the full examination of these characters however, specimens must be fully 
dehydrated and cleared and the present author usually macerates some specimens 
from each series in 5% sodium hydroxide solution for about one hour. This destroys 
the body contents and pigments, thus facilitating dehydration and clearing in clove 
oil, but if prolonged it lightens the cuticular colour and damages the wings. The 
period of maceration varies with the material available even within a species. In 
general however very small pale thripids require longer treatment than larger 
specimens, although very large black species may require partial bleaching to 
demonstrate some details. 

The inadequacy of the silhouette type of character by itself for recognizing species 
is evident from the data Karny (1924) gave for separating the four then known 
species of Desmothrips. He gave the following ratios between antennal segments 
III and IV as the most important differences between the species : bagnalli 100/90 ; 
propinquus 108/102 ; australis 104/82 ; tenuicornis 165/126. When reduced to unity 
these figures become : i/i-n ; 1/1-06 ; 1/1-27; I / I '3 I '> whilst comparable figures 
produced during the course of the present study gave the following ranges : australis 
1/1-04 to i/i'3i and tenuicornis 1/1-15 to 1/1-37. The other distinguishing characters 
used included the relative lengths of the dark and light areas on the fore wing, and 
the extent of brown shading on the apex of the third antennal segment. The 
variation in these characters is discussed below under D. australis. 

In the present revision considerable emphasis is laid on the chaetotaxy of both the 
mesonotum and the abdominal sternites, and also on the sculpture of the metanotum. 
These characters may be of considerable importance in defining and working out the 
relationships between genera. In Arcuthrips species the antennal sensoria have faint 
internal markings but this character may not be of any great value at the generic 
level. The sensoria of Desmothrips bagnalli have well developed internal markings 
but these are only visible in certain australis specimens mounted in Berlese Mountant. 
At the specific level, in Desmothrips, it has been found that the colour of the costal 
vein around the distal pale area of the fore wing is more constant than the colouration 
of the wing membrane itself. 

Aeolothrips and Desmothrips have been considered to belong in two different tribes, 
the Aeolothripini and the Orothripini. This grouping was based on the number of 
divisions found in the second segment of the maxillary palps. In Orothripini the 
second maxillary palp segment is clearly broken into about six divisions. In 
Aeolothripini this segment has about four pale transverse lines, each accompanied by 
a constriction, and at the apex only a single division is clearly free (Text-figs. 24-26). 
This difference appears to be a matter of degree rather than a fundamental distinction, 
especially as in some specimens the left and right palps do not have the same number 
of divisions, and the males of some Desmothrips species have fewer divisions than the 
females. Bagnall regarded the subdivision of the maxillary palps in Desmothrips as a 
primitive character, but in view of the supposed Hemipteroid ancestry of the 



REVISION OF AUSTRALIAN AEOLOTHRI PI D AE 45 

Thysanoptera it is possible that the multisegmented condition is secondary. 

The relationships between the genera treated here are not clear. In view of the 
presence of laterally placed sternal accessory setae, none of the Australian genera 
appear to have any close relationship to the Holarctic Aeolothrips. However the two 
pairs of median accessory setae found on sternite' VII in Aeolothrips species may be 
homologous with the two submedian pairs of marginal setae on sternite VII in 
Desmothrips species (cf. Text-figs. 40 & 45). These two pairs of setae are usually 
smaller than the other marginals and Desmothrips species have more marginal setae 
than are present in Aeolothrips. Cranothrips is closely related to the Holarctic 
Ankothrips, and on account of their long setae these genera are placed in the sub- 
family Melanthripinae. It may be significant that other genera of the Melanthripinae 
have well developed sternal accessory setae. Andrewarthaia is clearly derived from 
Desmothrips, but Lamprothrips and Arcuthrips are rather more distant. Franklino- 
thrips species show the geographical distribution pattern often associated with 
relict groups. 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

This revision has been made possible by the assistance of a number of persons to 
all of whom the author would like to express his gratitude. In particular Mrs. H. G. 
Andrewartha (nee H. Vevers Steele) kindly made available her important collection of 
Desmothrips species. Mr. E. Reed of C.S.I.R.O., Canberra, compared the Check List 
given below with his own unpublished list of Australian Thrips, and also supplied 
copies of Girault's papers and loaned many specimens collected in New South Wales. 
Type material was loaned by Dr. H. Priesner, Dr. L. de Santis, Dr. J. Pelikan, 
Miss H. Brookes of the Waite Institute, Dr. E. C. Dahms of the Queensland Museum, 
the Naturhistoriska Riksmuseum, Stockholm, and the Moulton Collection, California. 
The author is grateful to Miss Kellie O'Neill of the U.S.D.A., Washington, for her 
frequent advice and the loan of many specimens, and also to Mr. E. R. Speyer for his 
help in determining Aeolothrips species. 

The location of the material which has been examined and is listed below under 
each species is shown by the following abbreviations : Mrs. H. G. Andrewartha, 
Adelaide (HVS Coll.) ; British Museum (Natural History), London (BMNH) ; 
Moulton Collection, California Academy of Sciences (Cal. A. Sci.) ; National Insect 
Collection, C.S.I.R.O., Canberra (ANIC) ; National Museum of Victoria, Melbourne 
(VM) ; University of Queensland, Brisbane (UQ) ; United States National Museum, 
Washington (USNM) ; Waite Institute, Adelaide (WI). 

AUSTRALIAN AEOLOTHRIPIDAE WITH STATE RECORDS 

Aeolothrips fasciatus (Linnaeus) : Vic. 
Andrew arthaia aurea (Moulton) : W. Aust. 

kellyana (Bagnall) : S. Aust. ; N.S.W. ; Qu. 

minor sp. n. : N.S.W. 
Arcuthrips cinctus (Hood) : Qu. 
Cranothrips emersoni Girault : Qu. 

poultoni Bagnall : W. Aust. 



4 6 L. A. MOUND 

Desmothrips australis (Bagnall) : Vic. ; N.S.W. ; W. Aust. 
bagnalli Karny : Qu. 
mendozai Girault : W. Aust. 
obsoletus Bagnall : Vic. ; ?Qu. 

propinquus (Bagnall) : Tas. ; S. Aust. ; Vic. ; N.S.W. ; Qu. 
reedi sp. n. : N.S.W. 
steeleae sp. n. : N.S.W. 

tenuicornis (Bagnall) : S. Aust. ; Vic. ; N.S.W. ; Qu. 
uniguttus Girault : Qu. 

Franklinothrips variegatus Girault : Qu. 

Lamprothrips maculosus Moulton : W. Aust. 
miltoni (Girault) : Qu. 



KEY TO GENERA 

Sternite VII of female with two pairs of accessory setae closer to the midline than the 
submedian pair of marginal setae (Text-fig. 40) ; no accessory setae laterally on 
sternite VII ; sternites III to VI without any accessory setae, only with marginal 
setae AEOLOTHRIPS (p. 47) 

Sternite VII of female with accessory setae lateral to the submedian marginal setae ; 

sternites III to VI usually with accessory setae laterally at least .... 2 

Antennal III about five times as long as II ; body brown, with abdominal segments 
I to IV and X, and antennals III and IV yellow ; wings brown with transverse pale 
bands sub-basally, subapically and medially ; basal abdominal segments strongly 
constricted FRANKLINOTHRIPS (p. 71) 

Antennal III about three times as long as II or less ...... 3 

Antennal I with a median serrate lobe extending nearly to apex of II ; antennal 
segments all clearly separated from each other, bearing rings of microtrichia 
(Text-figs. 9-10) CRANOTHRIPS (p. 53) 

Antennal I without a serrate prolongation ; antennal segments V to IX connate . 4 

Metanotum strongly reticulate ; mesonotum usually with more than one pair of 

median setae. ............ 5 

Metanotal sculpture arcuate, consisting of a series of parallel lines arched around 

anterior margin ; mesonotum with only one pair of median setae . 6 

Pronotum with one pair of major setae at posterior angles ; sternite VII with median 
marginal setae about three times as long as accessory setae (Text-fig. 54) ; fore 
wings broad, scale with about twelve setae (Text-fig. 12) 

ANDREWARTHAIA gen. n. (p. 47) 

Pronotum without any long setae ; sternal marginal setae about twice as long as 

accessory setae or shorter ; fore wing scale with fewer setae . DESMOTHRIPS (p. 54) 

Sensorium on antennal III short and broad, not curving around apex of segment 
(Text-fig. 14) ; sternal marginal setae not longer than accessory setae 
(Text-fig. 42) LAMPROTHRIPS (p. 72) 

Sensorium on antennal III long and narrow, curving around apex of segment, with 
weak internal markings ; sternal marginal setae longer than accessory setae 
(Text-figs. 43 & 44) . . . . . ; . ARCUTHRIPS gen. n. (p. 51) 



REVISION OF AUSTRALIAN AEOLOTHRI PI D AE 47 

DESCRIPTION OF GENERA AND SPECIES 

AEOLOTHRIPS Haliday 

Aeolothrips Haliday, 1836 : 451. Type-species : Aeolothrips (Aeolothrips) albicinctus Haliday by 

monotypy of nominate sub-genus. 
Aeolothrips Haliday ; Bailey, 1951 : 43-80 ; Priesner, 1964 : 18-28. 

This is a large genus, including about eighty species which are largely Holarctic in 
distribution. The sternal chaetotaxy is quite distinctive and the fore wings are 
usually banded. Antennal segments V to IX are connate, and, as VI is usually 
about as long as it is broad, these terminal antennal segments form a distinct compact 
unit. The sensoria on III and IV are usually short and broadly linear, that on IV 
curving slightly around the apex of the segment. The mesonotum has a single pair 
of median setae, and the males commonly have terminal claspers. Only one species 
has been recorded from Australia. 

Aeolothrips fasciatus (Linnaeus) 

(Text-figs. 26, 36 & 40) 

Thrips fasciata Linnaeus, 1758 : 457. 

Aeolothrips fasciatus (Linnaeus) ; Priesner, 1964 : 21. 

A single female, apparently of this widespread Holarctic species, is present in the 
Steele Collection. This is a new record for Australia although the species is known 
from New Zealand. The data on the slide are as follows : VICTORIA, Melbourne 
University, on rose, 31.111.1934. 

ANDREWARTHAIA gen. n. 

Antennae nine-segmented ; sensorium on IV linear, curving around apex of segment ; 
sensorium on III linear and straight. Dorsal surface of head with numerous stout recurved 
setae, one pair of interocellar setae a little larger ; distal segment of maxillary palp with one or 
two apical divisions as in Aeolothrips ; labial palp four-segmented. Prothorax with numerous 
small stout recurved setae ; posterior margin with the fourth or fifth pair of setae from the 
midline twice as large as the other prothoracic setae. Mesonotum with about ten pairs of 
accessory median setae. Metanotum reticulate, reticles without internal markings ; a pair of 
pores medially ; metanotal setae as in Desmothrips, rather slender. Fore tarsus with typical 
Aeolothripid claw and tooth. Surface of legs, head, prothorax and lateral part of tergites 
covered with rows of fine microtrichia. Fore wing broad, venal setae numerous, short and stout 
except at apex, distance between them little greater than their length ; scale with 12 to 15 short 
stout setae. Abdominal sternites III to VII with a transverse row of short accessory setae, each 
seta less than half as long as the median marginal setae. Male abdomen as in Desmothrips, 
with sternal accessory setae but without sickle-shaped bristles, claspers or tubercles. 

Type-species : Rhipidothrips kellyanus Bagnall, 1924. 

The species included in the Holarctic genus Rhipidothrips have lenticular sensoria 
on the third and fourth antennal segments (Bailey, 1954). In kellyana (Bagnall) and 
aurea (Moulton) these sensoria are linear. These two species and the new one 
described below, are related to Desmothrips in having accessory mesonotal setae, a 
reticulate metanotum and sternal accessory setae. They can be distinguished 



L. A. MOUND 
1 







7 " 





FIGS. 1-8. Shading of fore wings of Australian Aeolothripid species, i, Desmothnps 
ausiralis. 2, D. steeleae. 3, D. tenuicornis. 4, D. bagnalli. 5, D. propinquus. 
6, D. uniguttus. j, D. propinquus. 8, Andrewarthaia kellyana. 



REVISION OF AUSTRALIAN AEOLOTHRI PI D AE 49 

however by the presence of a pair of stout setae near the hind angles of the pronotum, 
and the greater length of the sternal marginal setae. The three known species, all 
Australian, lack the dark red internal body pigments of Desmothrips species and the 
cuticular colour is also much lighter. The genus is named in honour of the extensive 
studies on Thrips imaginis in South Australia by Professor H. G. Andrewartha and 
his colleagues. 

KEY TO SPECIES 

1 Wings uniformly shaded ; antennal III largely brown, antennals IV to IX dark brown 

minor sp. n. (p. 51) 

- Wings largely pale ; antennal III yellow basally, antennals IV to TX blackish brown . 2 

2 Fore wings with posterior border shaded ...... kellyana (p. 49) 

- Fore wings without any shading at posterior margin .... aurea (p. 49) 

Andrewarthaia aurea (Moulton) comb. n. 

Rhipidothrips aureus Moulton, 1935 : 98. 

The following notes are based on the holotype and three paratypes mounted on 
one slide from the Moulton Collection. The species is very similar to kellyana in its 
chaetotaxy and sculpture, and the only distinguishing character appears to be the 
absence of shading along the hind border on the membrane of the fore wing. The 
type specimens are probably not fully mature but the fore wing ring vein is quite 
dark. Even in teneral females of kellyana, in which the ring vein is not fully 
pigmented and the body quite pale, the posterior border of the fore wing is distinctly 
shaded. 

The golden yellow colour of aurea is due to the body contents, and in addition the 
hypodermal pigment consists of numerous small orange-red globules. The abdominal 
tergites and sternites are shaded grey, and the tip of the abdomen, the mouth parts, 
and the base of the head are darker brown. 

Measurements (in /i). Antennals III-IX ; 130 ; 107 ; 68 ; 49 ; 42 ; 10 ; 16. 
Fore wing length /breadth : 1,000/180. Hind tibia : 320. 

Material examined. Holotype $. WESTERN AUSTRALIA : Northam, on blossom 
of native tree, n.iv.i932, (Moulton No. 5088) (Cal. A. Sci.). 
Paratypes. 3 $ with data as for holotype. 

Andrewarthaia kellyana (Bagnall) comb. n. 
(Text-figs. 8, 12, 13, 35 & 54) 

Rhipidothrips kellyanus Bagnall, 19240 : 584-585. 
Aeolothrips hyalinipennis Girault, 1930 : i, syn. n. 

Bagnall described this species from the fragmented remains of two females, which 
did not include the hind wings nor the prothoracic and mesothoracic legs. The more 
complete specimen is here designated as the LECTOTYPE, but for the following 
redescription a long series of females from New South Wales with one male has been 
examined. Most of these specimens were collected on Eucalyptus, but Girault 
collected the specimens on which he based hyalinipennis from the window of a house. 



L. A. MOUND 



10 



1 3 





FIGS. 9-14. 9-11, Cranothrips poultoni. 9, Antenna. 10, Head. 11, 
12-13, Andrewarthaia kellyana. 12, Fore wing scale. 13, Antenna. 
maculosus, antennal segments III and IV. 



Fore wing scale. 
14, Lamprothrips 



$. Length 1-7 to 2-5 mm. Colour greyish yellow with dark setae ; abdominal segments 
IX and X dark brown, tergites III to VIII dark medially. Antennal I yellow with dark apex ; 
II dark medially but yellow laterally ; III yellow in basal third ; antennae otherwise blackish 
brown. Fore wing pale, area between second vein and hind margin shaded ; ring vein dark 
except basally in costal region (Text-fig. 8). Sensorium on antennal III linear, straight ; 
sensorium on IV linear, curving around distal margin of segment ; segments V to IX connate 
(Text-fig. 13). Head with numerous setae between and behind eyes ; one pair of interocellar 
setae stouter than the rest. Pronotal setae very numerous, about 20 along fore margin, small 
but stout and dark ; hind margin with about seven pairs, the fourth pair from the midline twice 
as large as the rest. Mesonotum with about ten pairs of accessory median setae (Text-fig. 35). 
Metanotum reticulate, reticles without internal markings, with two pairs of setae much finer 



REVISION OF AUSTRALIAN AEOLOTH RIPID AE 51 

than the mesonotal setae. Fore wing costal setae small ; scale with about twelve setae (Text- 
fig. 12). Abdominal sternite VII with median pair of accessory setae just lateral to median 
marginal setae ; sternites V and VI with almost complete row of accessory setae (Text-fig. 54). 

Measurements (in /u) 

Antennal segments Fore wing 

, * > c * 4 Hind 

III IV V VI VII VIII IX Length Breadth tibia 

Lectotype $ 145 130 78 57 44 14 14 1250 240 380 

Small $ 119 112 71 52 39 10 16 1000 190 320 

Material examined. LECTOTYPE $. SOUTH AUSTRALIA : Mount Lofty Ranges, 
Eucalyptus leucoxylon, 22.^.1923 (R. Kelly] (BMNH). 
Paratype. I $, with similar data to lectotype. 

NEW SOUTH WALES : Parkes, Eucalyptus albens, 5 $, 5.viii.i959 (E. M. Reed) ; 
Carrathool, Eucalyptus longiflorens , 4 $, i <$, 12. ix. 1959 (E. M. Reed) ; Leeton, 
Eucalyptus melliodora, 4 9, 19 ix . 1959 (E. M. Reed) ; Ashford, Eucalyptus melliodora, 
i -, 21. x. 1960 (E. M. Reed) ; Dubbo, Eucalyptus sideroxylon, 8 9, 3.viii.i959 
(E. M. Reed) ; Cowra, Eucalyptus sp., 6 9> 1959 (M. Casimir) ; Hillston, no host, 
6 $, 22. ix. 1959 (E. M. Reed) (ANIC). QUEENSLAND: Gatton, no host, i <j>, 
i6.x.i932 (UQ) ; 3 QsyntypesoiAeolothripshyalinipennis, Indooroopilly (Brisbane), 
on window, xii . 1929 and 22 . ix . 1929 (Brisbane Museum T6525) . 

Andrewarthaia minor sp. n. 

$. Length about 1-7 mm. Colour medium brown, abdominal segments II to VII and 
extreme base of antennal III a little paler ; wings uniformly fuscous. Body sculpture and 
chaetotaxy apparently not differing from small examples of kellyana. 

Measurements (in n) 

Antennal segments Fore wing 

, <*> , r ^ -^ Hind 

III IV V VI VII VIII IX Length Breadth tibia 

Holotype $ 8 7 68 52 35 29 13 16 900 160 270 

Material examined. Holotype 9- NEW SOUTH WALES : Hillston, no host, 
22. ix. 1959 (E. M. Reed) (ANIC). 



ARCUTHRIPS gen. n. 

Antennae nine-segmented, segments V-IX connate ; sensorium on III straight, long and 
narrow ; sensorium on IV recurved in a broad U-shape around apex ; both these sensoria with 
weak internal markings. Dorsal surface of head with two irregular rows of setae behind eyes ; 
interocellar and postocellar setae a little stouter than postoculars ; maxillary palps three- 
segmented, i.e. one small apical division. Pronotum without major setae ; posterior margin 
with median pair of setae at least three times as far from each other as from the submedians. 
Mesonotal sculpture arcuate around anterior midpoint of sclerite (Text-fig. 39) ; posterior setae 
weak. Fore tarsus with stout claw. Fore wings fasciate. Abdominal sternites III-VII with 
accessory setae laterally ; marginal setae twice as long as accessory setae or longer. 

ENTOM. 2O, 2. 2 



52 L. A. MOUND 

Type-species : Desmothrips monrosi De Santis. 

Three species are included in this new genus, two from South America, Desmothrips 
monrosi De Santis, 1959 and D. topali Pelikan, 1964, and one from Australia and 
India, Rhipidothrips cinctus Hood, 1918. The metanotal sculpture of these species 
resembles that found in Lamprothrips but the antennal sensoria and abdominal 
chaetotaxy are quite different. Unfortunately neither of the two original females of 
cinctus have been examined during the present study. The species is known to the 
present author only from three females provisionally determined as this species by 
Miss Kellie O'Neill of the U.S.D.A., Washington, after comparison with the holotype. 
Miss O'Neill indicated that the three specimens could be interpreted as three different 
species as they differ in both size and colour, but such action would not be justified 
without further material from Queensland. 

KEY TO SPECIES. 

1 Median pair of posteromarginal setae on sternite VII closer to each other than to the 

submedians (Text-fig. 43) ........ cinctus (p. 52) 

- Median posteromarginal setae on sternite VII nearer to submedian setae than to each 

other (Text-fig. 44) 2 

2 Antennal IV about o'8 as long as III ; sensoria on III and IV about 0^75 the length 

of the segments .......... monrosi (p. 52) 

- Antennal IV almost equal in length to III ; sensorium on III about o'55, on IV about 

o - 7 the length of the segment ........ topali (p. 52) 

The holotype of monrosi was kindly loaned by Professor Luis de Santis, La Plata 
University, Argentina, and paratype males and females of topali were loaned by 
Dr. J. Pelikan of the Czechoslovak Academy of Science. 

Arcuthrips cinctus (Hood) comb. n. 

(Text-fig. 43) 
Rhipidothrips cinctus Hood, 1918 : 121-122. 

This species was based on two females collected by A. Girault at Cooktown, 
Queensland, on the 4th and 24th February, 1912. As indicated above, there is a 
possibility that the two Australian specimens on which the following notes are based 
are not conspecific with the holotype of cinctus, and the redescription is therefore 
limited to characters visible in both preparations. 

$. Length 1-3 to i-6mm. Colour brown; abdominal segments IV and V, and antennals 
III and IV yellow (in the smaller specimen antennal IV is shaded brown and II is pale) . Antennae 
with nine segments ; sensoria on III and IV linear, not quite straight, curving around apex of 
segments, with internal markings similar to D. bagnalli (Text-fig. 23). Head with two irregular 
rows of setae behind eyes ; setae between and behind ocelli a little stouter than those behind 
eyes ; transverse lines of sculpture on vertex bear numerous microtrichia ; maxillary palps 
three-segmented. Pronotum without major setae ; mesonotum with one pair of median setae ; 
metanotal sculpture arcuate around anterior midpoint but with a few broader reticulations at 
posterior. Fore tarsi with a stout tooth. Fore wings dark in apical eighth and median third 
(wings missing in dark specimen). Abdominal sternite VII with five pairs of long postero- 
marginal setae, the median pair closer to each other than to the submedian ; about five pairs of 



REVISION OF AUSTRALIAN AEOLOTHRIPID AE 53 

accessory setae on VII, much shorter than the marginal setae ; accessory setae also present 
laterally on sternites III to VI (Text-fig. 43). 

Measurements (in /*) 

Antennal segments 



Ill 


IV 


V 


VI 


VII 


VIII 


IX 


j..iiii<a 

tibia 


i'UJ-C 

wing 


83 


72 


45 


3 1 


33 


20 


15 


? 


830 


80 


74 


45 


35 


33 


26 


16 


240 


830 



Holotype $ (Hood, 1918) . 

Pale ? . 

Dark $ . . . . 117 105 65 55 42 29 19 300 ? 

Material examined. QUEENSLAND : Halifax, sweeping along roadside, i 9 (dark 
specimen), 4.^.1913 (A. Girault) ; Nelson, sweeping in forest, i $ (pale specimen), 
10. iv. 1914 (A. Girault). USNM. 

INDIA: Secunderabad, on grass, i $, 3. ^.1964 (T. N. Ananthakrishnan 176) 

(USNM). 



CRANOTHRIPS Bagnall 

Cranothrips Bagnall, 1915 : 315-316. Type-species : C. poultoni Bagnall, 1915, by monotypy. 

Antennae nine-segmented, all segments distinctly separate ; segments III to IX with rings of 
microtrichia as in Orothrips, major setae restricted to apex of segments ; sensoria on III and IV 
short, parallel to apical border of segment ; antennal I produced at inner margin into serrate 
lobe almost reaching apex of II. Head without interantennal projection, with three pairs of 
ocellar setae and four pairs of postoculars ; maxillary palps three-segmented. Pronotal setae 
long, two pairs of postero-angulars, five pairs along hind margin, and one medial pair just within 
the hind margin. Mesonotum with one pair of long median setae. Fore tarsi without the claw 
found in many Aeolothripidae. Wings broad, narrowed to apex ; venal and scale setae long 
(fig. n). Abdominal tergite VIII with two pairs of long setae submedially close to posterior 
margin ; sternites with accessory setae ; <$ abdomen without appendages. 

This genus is very close to Ankothrips, from which it can be separated by the 
presence of a serrate lobe on antennal I, whereas Ankothrips species have a similar 
lobe on antennal II. In view of the variation in length of this lobe in the South 
African species Cranothrips karrooensis Jacot-Guillarmod, 1937 it is possible that 
these two genera are not truly distinct. There are three species included in Crano- 
thrips, two Australian and one South African, and these may be separated as follows. 

1 Sternite VII with the two pairs of submedian marginal setae much shorter than the 

median marginals ; tergite VIII with the median setae further from the hind 
margin than the median pori ; wings weakly shaded ; process on antennal I some- 
times not developed ........ karrooensis (p. 53) 

- Sternite VII with the submedian marginal setae as long as the median marginals ; 

tergite VIII with the median setae closer to the hind margin than the pori . . 2 

2 Fore wing with dark and light transverse bands ; pronotum with submedian pair of 

anteromarginal setae twice as long as median pair ; metanotal sculpture arcuate 
around anterior midpoint ........ poultoni (p. 54) 

- Fore wing uniformly fuscous ; anterior margin of pronotum without any longer setae ; 

metanotal sculpture arcuate around posterior margin . . . emersoni (p. 54) 



54 L. A. MOUND 

Cranothrips emersoni Girault 
Cranothrips emersoni Girault, 1929 : i. 

Girault described this species as follows : " From genotype : all black, wings grey, 
bristles on costa only 29 ; antennal appendage pale, apex obliquely truncate, 
serrate." 

The only known specimens are the two syntype females. 

$. Length 1-3 to 1-4 mm. Colour uniform mid -brown, scale of antennal I paler; wings 
uniformly fuscous ; hypodermal pigment light red ; head and antennae very similar to poultoni 
(fig. 10). Pronotum with two pairs of postero-angular setae (75 fi) ; five pairs of postero- 
marginal setae, the submedian longest (55 ju), the lateral three pairs small (25 yw) ; midlateral and 
antero-angular setae rather longer than remaining pronotal setae. Metanotum with weak 
sculpture arcuate around posterior. Wing chaetotaxy similar to poultoni, fore wing 85 fi long. 
Tergites and sternites with rows of microtrichia laterally ; median setae of tergite VIII 35 p 
long ; sternites III to VI with complete transverse row of accessory setae. 

Syntypes, 2 $. QUEENSLAND: Sunnybank (Brisbane) , Boronia, forest, 14 . viii . 1929 
(Brisbane Museum 76523 & 76524). 

Cranothrips poultoni Bagnall 

(7ext-figs. 9, 10, ii & 41) 
Cranothrips poultoni Bagnall, 1915 : 316. 

$. Length 1-6 to 1-7 mm. Colour mid-brown, setae dark ; tarsi paler, scale of antennal I 
yellow. Antennae and head as in generic description (Text-figs. 9 & 10). Pronotal postero- 
angular setae 85-90 /LI long ; submedian posteromarginal setae 70 p long ; submedian antero- 
marginal setae 55 fj, long ; midlateral and antero-angular setae elongate, and at least one pair of 
major setae on pronotal disc. Mesonotum with a pair of pores at anterior, one pair of median 
setae (65 /u}. Metanotal sculpture arcuate around anterior midpoint, similar to Lamprothrips ; 
posterior setae minute. Fore wing with first and third quarters pale ; costa dark around distal 
pale band. Fore wing 95 n long, maximum breadth 16 ft ; posteromarginal cilia straight (cf. 
wavy in original description). Abdominal tergites and sternites with rows of microtrichia 
laterally ; median setae of tergite VIII 70 (i long ; sternite VII with six pairs of posteromarginal 
setae, three pairs of accessory setae laterally ; sternites III to VI with four pairs of marginal 
setae, about nine pairs of accessory setae in a continuous transverse row (Text-fig. 41). 

<J. Length i-i mm. Colour paler than female. Abdomen without tubercles or sickle 
shaped bristles ; sternites III to VIII with six to eight pairs of setae not clearly distributed on 
margin or submargin. 

LEC7O7YPE $. WESTERN AUSTRALIA: nr. Freemantle, on flowers, viii. 1914 
(E. B. Poulton no. 17) (BMNH). 

7he specimen here designated as lectotype was marked " 7ype " by the original 
author, although not mentioned as such in his description. 7here are one female 
and two males bearing the same data as the type in the British Museum (Natural 
History) . 

DESMOTHRIPS Hood 

Desmothrips Hood, 1915 : 57. Type-species, Orothrips australis Bagnall, 1914, by monotypy. 
Archaeolothrips Bagnall, 19246 : 627. Type-species, A. fontis Bagnall, 1924, by monotypy. 
Desmothrips Hood ; Bagnall & Kelly, 1928 : 204. 
Desmothrips Hood ; Steele, 1940 : 353-354. 



REVISION OF AUSTRALIAN AEOLOTHRIPID AE 



55 




1 6 




*S 





FIGS. 15-18. 15-17, Desmothrips steeleae. 15, Head. 16, Pronotum. 
17, Abdominal tergites I and II. 18, D. reedi, abdominal tergites I and II, 



56 L. A. MOUND 

Vespiform appearance similar to Aeolothrips. Antennae nine-segmented ; V-IX connate but 
not forming so distinct a club as in Aeolothrips ; sensoria on III and IV elongate, linear, occasion- 
ally sinuate, curving around distal extremity of segment (Text-figs. 19-22). Numerous small 
setae between and behind eyes on dorsal surface of head (Text-fig. 15) ; mouth cone long, 
reaching almost to base of prothorax. Distal (second) segment of maxillary palps divided into 
six in female but sometimes only into two in male. Labial palps three- or four-segmented. 
Pronotum without major setae but with numerous small setae (Text-fig. 16). Fore tarsi with 
stout recurved claw and spine. Mesonotum usually with accessory median setae in addition to 
the usual pair of major median setae, without a pair of pores at the anterior apex (Text-figs. 
27 & 28). Metanotum completely reticulate, reticles usually with pronounced internal mark- 
ings ; two pairs of metanotal setae, one pair at anterior rather widely spaced, one pair at 
posterior (Text-figs. 27-34). Fore wings usually fasciate (Text-figs. 1-7), not strongly con- 
stricted at base ; costal fringe not much enlarged, posterior fringe cilia straight. Abdominal 
sternites of female with accessory setae laterally and frequently medially as well. Sternite VII 
with five or more pairs of marginal setae (except mendozai) (Text-figs. 45-53). Male abdomen 
without dorsal tubercles, claspers or the sickle shaped setae found in some Aeolothrips species, 
but with a variable number of sternal accessory setae. 

The species included in Orothrips have all the antennal segments clearly distinct 
from each other as in Cranothrips (Text-fig. 9), whereas in Desmothrips species 
segments five to nine are connate, broadly articulated one to another, forming a more 
or less distinct club. 

The genus Desmothrips was last revised by Steele (1940), who established that the 
characters originally used for the separation of the species were too variable to be of 
value by themselves. Steele only recognized three species as valid, australis, 
davidsoni and tenuicornis, regarding the other forms as synonyms of australis. 
Unfortunately the types were not examined. In the present study it has been found 
possible to establish new characters upon which many of the original taxa may be 
distinguished by comparing Miss Steele's material with the type specimens as well 
as much other material. 

KEY TO SPECIES 

1 Reticulations on metanotum without internal markings ..... 2 

- Reticulations on metanotum with internal sculpture of either lines, dots or wrinkles 

(Text-figs. 29-33) .... 3 

2 Antennal III yellow at apex but brown at base ; fore wing dark with a pale area on the 

anterior margin sub-basally and subapically (Text-fig. 6) ; sternite VII with 5 pairs 
of marginal setae, these are not much longer than the accessory setae (Text-fig. 53) 

uniguttus (p. 71) 

- Antennal III brown, a little paler at base than apex ; fore wing shaded with a sub- 

basal diffuse pale area near the hind margin ; sternite VII with 3 pairs of marginal 
setae, these are about twice as long as the accessory setae (Text-fig. 47) ; male 
sternite IX without accessory setae, sternites III-VIII with about 10 accessory 
setae ............ mendozai (p. 62) 

3 Body strongly bicoloured, abdominal segments II and III and antennal III yellow, 

remainder of body brown ....... reedi sp. n. (p. 66) 

- Body not strongly bicoloured although antennal III sometimes yellow ... 4 

4 Metanotal reticles with only a few linear markings (Text-figs. 32 & 33) ; sternites V 

and VI of female with less than three pairs of accessory setae, usually only one . 5 

Metanotal reticles with numerous small wrinkles or dots (Text-figs. 29-31) ; sternites 
V and VI of female with three or more pairs of accessory setae, although these are 
sometimes placed laterally ,,,,,,,,,, 6 



REVISION OF AUSTRALIAN AEOLOTHRIPI D AE 57 

Sensoria on III and IV vermiform (Text-fig. 22) ; distal pale area of fore wing 
continuous across wing, almost parallel-sided, with marginal veins much paler than 
around dark areas (Text-fig. 2) ; male sternite IX usually without accessory setae, 
sternites VII and VIII with 6 to 10 accessory setae in an irregular transverse row 

steeleae sp. n. (p. 66) 

Sensoria on III and IV linear, scarcely wavy ; distal pale area not continuous across 

fore wing, costal vein dark in region of pale area ; male unknown . . obsoletus (p. 63) 

Costal vein as dark around distal pale area of fore wing as around the dark areas ; 
distal pale area much wider at costal margin than at posterior margin of fore wing, 
or not reaching posterior margin at all . . . . . . . . 7 

Costal vein much paler around distal pale area of fore wing than around dark areas, 
usually not shaded at all ; distal pale area continuous across wing, almost parallel- 
sided 8 

Sensoria on antennals III and IV with internal discoid markings (Text-fig. 23) ; 
antennal III dark in apical half or more ; distal pale area of fore wing reduced to a 
spot between anterior margin and second vein (Text-fig. 4) ; male sternite IX with 
4 accessory setae, sternites VII and VIII with i or 2 pairs placed laterally bagnallt (p. 60) 

Antennal sensoria without internal markings ; antennal III dark only at extreme 
apex in female but in apical third or more in male ; distal pale area of fore wing 
variable, sometimes as in bagnalli but commonly extending to or almost to hind 
margin of wing, in this case much wider at anterior than posterior margin (Text- 
figs. 5 & 7) ; male sternite IX with 2 to 4 pairs of accessory setae, sternite VIII 
with 2 to 3 pairs, sternite VII with 3 to 4 pairs . . . propinquus (p. 65) 

Antennal III clear yellow, rarely shaded at extreme apex ; distal pale area of fore wing 
longer than wing breadth ; antennal IX two-thirds as long as VIII or shorter ; 
male sternite IX with 3 or 4 pairs of accessory setae, sternites III to VIII with 
almost complete row of accessory setae ..... tenuicornis (p. 68) 

Antennal III dark in apical third or half ; distal pale area of fore wing shorter than 
wing breadth ; male sternite IX with about 6 pairs of accessory setae, sternites VII 
and VIII with two transverse rows of accessory setae . . . australis (p. 57) 



Destnothrips australis (Bagnall) 
(Text-figs, i, 20, 27, 29 & 45) 

Orothrips australis Bagnall, 1914 : 287. 

Desmothrips australis (Bagnall) Hood, 1915 : 57. 

Archaeolothrips fontis Bagnall, 19246 : 627. 

Desmothrips australis (Bagnall) ; Bagnall & Kelly, 1928 : 204. 

Desmothrips australis (Bagnall) ; Steele, 1940 : 353-354 (in part). 

Bagnall first described this species from a single female collected at Healesville, 
Victoria, and most of the subsequent records are from that locality. In the latest 
revision of the group the name australis was used by Steele to include bagnalli, 
obsoletus and propinquus. These species may be separated by means of the above 
key but it may be useful to consider their differences here in more detail. 

The relative lengths of antennal segments III and IV are quite variable, not only 
in these four species but also in tenuicornis. As Steele has shown, these relative 
measurements are not sufficient by themselves to separate the species. For example 
the ratio, antennal Ill/antennal IV, is 1-17 for the right and 1-31 for the left antenna 
in the type specimen of australis. The extent of the brown shading on the apex of the 
third antennal segment is variable in both bagnalli and australis, in both of which 



L. A. MOUND 



J 




\A 





V 







24 




FIGS. 19-26. 19-23, Antennae of Desmothrips species. 19, Z). tenuicornis. 20, D. australis. 
21, Z>. y^^i. 22, Z). steeleae. 23, D. bagnalli, sensorium on antennal III. 24-26, 
Maxillary palps. 24, Z). steeleae, <$. 25, D, steeleae, $. 26, Aeolothrips fasciatus. 



REVISION OF AUSTRALIAN AEOLOTHRI PI D AE 



59 



species the apical half or apical third is brown, but in propinquus this shading is 
restricted fairly constantly to the extreme apex. On the other hand the extent of 
the distal pale area on the fore wing is highly variable in propinquus but is quite 
constant in australis. In propinquus the costal vein around the distal pale area is 
dark, and the pale area may barely reach the second vein or may extend fully to the 
hind margin. In australis the costal vein is not dark at the distal pale area, and this 
pale area is parallel-sided, extending fully across the wing. The wing colour of 
bagnalli is very like an extreme form of propinquus, with the pale area restricted 
anterior to the second vein, but this species is easily recognized by the beaded 
antennal sensoria. The fourth species mentioned above, obsoletus, can be recognized 
from the metathoracic sculpture as belonging in a very different section of the genus. 
Figure " A " in the paper by Steele is here considered to represent the wing of 
australis Bagnall. 

Archaeolothrips fontis was described by Bagnall from a single male which was later 
recognized by Bagnall and Kelly as the male of Desmothrips australis. This specimen 
was collected with two females of tenuicornis, but comparison with the known male 
of that species and one other male specimen of australis makes its identity clear. 
Pigmentation is very similar to the female, and the seventh, eighth, and ninth 
abdominal sternites have two irregular transverse rows of accessory setae. 

$. Length 1-4-1 -8 mm. Colour dark brown; antennal III yellow in basal half or two- 
thirds ; distal pale area of fore wing usually parallel-sided, extending right across wing, marginal 
veins pale around this area. Sensoria on antennals III and IV linear, almost straight, two-thirds 
the length of these segments, usually without internal markings (Text-fig. 20). Sensoria on 
antennals V and VI less than half the length of these segments. Mesonotum with two or three 
pairs of accessory median setae. Metanotum reticulate, reticles completely filled with fine 
wrinkles (Text-figs. 27 & 29). Sternite VII with median pair of accessory setae usually just 
lateral to the submedian pair of marginals (Text-fig. 45). 

<. Length 1-3 mm. Colour similar to female but median abdominal segments paler. Head 
and thorax as in female, distal maxillary palp segment with one small apical subdivision. 
Sternites III to IX with accessory setae, VIII with about 8 pairs in two transverse rows. 



Measurements (in 



Antennal segments Fore wing Tergite IX Tergite X 

^ Hind 



III IV V VI VII VIII IX L B tibia BI B 2 B 3 BI B 2 

Holotype $ 89 68 44 28 19 14 14 830 130 250 130 ? ? 140 ? 

$ (RK 150) 82 77 47 26 21 14 14 850 140 260 130 135 130 135 150 

$ (RK 147) 94 73 47 28 26 14 14 910 150 270 130 150 130 145 150 

c? (fontis) 74 61 42 26 16 14 14 730 no 240 45 45 115 ? 115 

Material examined. Holotype .. VICTORIA : Healesville, Xanthorrhoea australis 
flowers, 12. x. 1913 (A. E. Shaw) (BMNH). 

VICTORIA : Box Hill, on roses, 7 $, 3 . xi . 1927 (R. Kelly n.s. 37) (BMNH & VM) ; 
Box Hill, no host, 9 $, x.1928 (R. Kelly n.s. 147) (BMNH & Cal. A. Sci.) ; Box Hill, 
"general", 2 $, 21. x. 1928 (R. Kelly n.s. 149) (BMNH & USNM) ; Box Hill, 
" general ", i $, xi.i928 (R. Kelly n.s. 150) (BMNH) ; Box Hill, " general ", i $, 
15. xi. 1928 (R. Kelly n.s. 151) (BMNH) ; Kalorama, Prunella vulgaris, 2 $, 9.^.1933 



60 L. A. MOUND 

(H. V. Steele) (HVS Coll.) ; Healesville, Erythraea australis, i $ (holotype of A. 
fontis), 2i.xii.i9i3 (A E. Shaw & R. Kelly] (BMNH) ; Box Hill, on rose, i <$, 
3.xi.ig27 (R. Kelly n.s. 37) (BMNH). NEW SOUTH WALES: Brooklyn, sweeping 
forest lowland, i $, 9.xi.igi4 (A. Girault) (USNM). WESTERN AUSTRALIA: 
Northam, blossom of native tree, i $, n.iv.i932 (Cal. A. Sci) ; Perth, Michaelmas 
Daisy, i $, 5 .iv. 1932 (L. J. Newman) ; Perth, Dahlia, i $, 5 .iv. 1932 (L. J. Newman); 
Perth, flowers, i $, 6.iv.i932 (W. Read] ; Perth, flowers, i $, 14.^.1932 (B. A. 
O'Connor] ; Mundaring, Gum blossom, i $, v . 1932 (B. A . O'Connor) ; Spearwood, 
Acacia, i $, 3i.viii.i932 (BMNH). 

Desmothrips bagnalli Karny sp. rev. 
(Text-figs. 4, 23 & 46) 

Desmothrips bagnalli Karny, 1920 : 36. 
Desmothrips bagnalli Karny ; Karny, 1924 : 7-11. 
Orothrips unguttipennis Girault, 1926^ ; Girault, 19266. 
Desmothrips comparabilis Priesner, 1928 : 643-645. 
Desmothrips australis ; Steele, 1940 nee Bagnall, 1914 (in part). 

The type specimen of unguttipennis Girault has been re-examined during the 
present study and compared with the holotype of bagnalli. As Girault (19266) 
pointed out, his species is to be regarded as a synonym of Karny's. Kelly & Mayne 
(1934 : 13) indicated that comparabilis was the male of bagnalli, and through the 
courtesy of Dr. Priesner the present author has been able to examine the unique 
holotype and confirm this synonymy. No other species of Desmothrips are known to 
have the distinct discoid markings in the sensoria of antennals III and IV. 

The figure labelled " F " in Steele (1940) of a specimen collected at Montville, 
Queensland, and considered by her to represent a form of australis, is here considered 
to refer to bagnalli. This specimen is a male, but a female was collected in the same 
month from Nambour, a town about five miles distant from the Montville locality. 
These two localities are within one hundred miles of the type locality, Mount 
Tambourine, near Brisbane. 

?. Length about 1-7 mm. Colour dark brown, fore tarsi and apex of fore tibiae paler. 
Antennal III yellow in basal half or two-thirds. Distal pale area of fore wing restricted anterior 
to second vein, costal vein dark in this region (Text-fig. 4). Sensoria on antennals III and IV 
weakly sinuate, with internal discoid markings (Text-fig. 23), rather more than three-quarters of 
the length of these segments. Sensoria on V and VI about half the length of the segments. 
Mesonotum with two pairs of accessory median setae ; metanotum reticulate, very similar to 
australis. Accessory setae absent medially on sternites V, VI and VII (Text-fig. 46). 

cJ. Length 1-2-1-3 mm. Colour dark brown similar to female, median abdominal segments 
paler and antennal III with more extensive brown shading. Head and thorax as in female, 
distal maxillary palp segment with one small apical subdivision. Sternites VI to IX with 
accessory setae, VI to VIII with i or 2 pairs laterally, IX with 2 pairs medially. 

Measurements (in /u). Fore wing length /breadth : 940/150. Hind tibia : 310. Antennals 
I-IX : 39 ; 57 ; 104 ; 83 ; 47 ; 37 ; 26 ; 13 ; 13. Tergite X setae i, 2 and 3 : 170, 180, 185. 
Tergite X setae i and 2 : 170, 1 80. 

Material examined. Holotype $. QUEENSLAND : Mt. Tambourine, in flowers, 
October, 1910-1913 (E. Mjoberg) (Naturhistoriska Riksmuseum, Sweden). 



REVISION OF AUSTRALIAN AEOLOTHRI PID AE 



61 



27 




28 





29 




30 





32 




35 




3 4 




FIGS. 27-35. 27, Desmothrips australis, mesonotum and metanotum. 28, D. steeleae, 
mesonotum and metanotum. 29-33, Details of metanotal reticulations. 29, D. australis. 
30, D. tenuicornis. 31, D. propinquus. 32, D. obsoletus. 33, D. steeleae. 34, D. reedi, 
mesonotum and metanotum. 35, Andrewarthaia kellyana, mesonotum (sculpture 
omitted). 



62 



L. A. MOUND 







FIGS. 36-39. Metanotal sculpture. 36,Aeolothripsfasciatus. 37, Lamprothrips maculosus. 
38, Desmothrips mendozai. 39, Arcuthrips monrosi. 

QUEENSLAND : Nambour, in garden flowers, i $, g.ix.ig^S (N. E. H. Caldwett) 
(HVS Coll.) ; Montville, in garden flowers, i <$, 15. ix. 1938 (N. E. H. Caldwell) 
(HVS Coll.) ; Botanic Garden, Brisbane, on rose, i <$ (holotype of comparabilis) 
(Hardy) (Priesner Collection, Austria) ; Beenleigh, forest, 2 $ (syntypes of ungutti- 
pennis), 4.xii. 1922 (1923 in description) (Brisbane Museum T6526). 



Desmothrips mendozai Girault 
(Text-figs. 38 & 47) 

Desmothrips mendozai Girault, 1932 : 6. 

The original description of this species was as follows : " From uniguttus : Wing i 
fuscous save basal 1/4, antennae entirely fuscous. Second ring- vein half-way to 
third. Mundaring, W. Aus., L. J. Newman, Feb. 25, 1931. Second wing hyaline." 
Unfortunately no material of mendozai could be found in the Girault Collection at 
Brisbane Museum, but two females and one male determined as this species apparently 
by L. J. Newman and bearing the original data of mendozai were kindly made 
available by the Department of Agriculture of Western Australia. One of these 
females, bearing the Moulton Collection Number 5085, is labelled " Type ", although 
this is not in Girault's handwriting, and this specimen is now deposited at the 
Brisbane Museum. The species is distinguished from other Desmothrips species by 
having only three pairs of marginal setae on sternite VII. 

$. Length 1-8-2-0 mm. Colour dark brown with orange-red hypodermal pigment; fore 
tibiae with longitudinal pale brown mark ; antennal III paler at base than at apex ; fore wing 



REVISION OF AUSTRALIAN AEOLOTHRIPID AE 63 

shaded, paler in basal quarter but base of scale very dark. Antennal segments as in other 
Desmothrips species, but sensorium on III not curving around apex of segment, and sensoria on 
V and VI with circular not elongate bases. Head crushed laterally in available specimens but 
the male has only one row of setae behind eyes ; distal maxillary palp segment with six divisions ; 
labial palps with four divisions. Pronotum without major setae ; mesonotum with two pairs of 
accessory median setae ; elongate reticles of metanotum without internal sculpture (Text- 
fig. 38). Fore tarsi with stout claw and seta. Fore wings rather broad, venal setae shorter than 
the distance between them, scale with eight marginal setae. Sternites II to VII with accessory 
setae in an irregular transverse row ; sternite VII with only three pairs of marginal setae ; 
median pair of accessory setae about anterior to median marginals and only half their length 
(Text-fig. 47). 

cJ. Length 1-5 mm. Colour paler than in female, anterior abdominal segments yellowish. 
Distal maxillary palp segment with six small divisions. Mesonotum without accessory median 
setae. Sternite IX without accessory setae ; sternites III to VIII with about 10 accessory 
setae in an irregular transverse row. 

Measurements (in jn). Fore wing length /breadth : 900/180. Hind tibia : 280. Antennals 
I-IX : 23 ; 35 ; 61 ; 51 ; 35 ; 28 ; 28 ; 10 ; 13. Tergite IX setae i, 2 and 3 : 135, 145, 145. 
Tergite X setae i and 2 : 135, 135. Male tergite IX setae i, 2 and 3 : 32, 48, 113. 

Material examined. WESTERN AUSTRALIA : Mundaring, sweepings, 2 $, i <$, 
25.11.1931 (L. J. Newman) (BMNH, and Brisbane Museum). 

Desmothrips obsoletus Bagnall sp. rev. 

(Text-figs. 32 & 48) 
Desmothrips obsoletus Bagnall, 1924^ : 626-627. 

Steele (1940), from the original description, considered that obsoletus was a synonym 
of australis. However on the basis of the sternal chaetotaxy and the markings 
within the metanotal reticulations, these two species fall in very different sections 
of the genus. The species is known only from the holotype female which is mounted 
laterally on a slide. It has not proved possible to remount this specimen dorso- 
ventrally and so the metanotum and wings have been dissected free to allow them to 
be examined. Two females loaned from the Brisbane University collection bear the 
following data : QUEENSLAND, Crows Nest, on Wattle, 26.viii.i949 (C. S. Andrew). 
The wings of these specimens are fuscous, the distal pale area being little paler than 
the rest of the fore wing. They are otherwise very similar to the obsoletus holotype. 

$. Length 2-0 mm. Colour dark brown, fore tarsus and distal part of fore tibia lighter 
brown. Antennal III light brown basally, but darker at apex and along dorsal surface of apical 
half. Antennal II lighter in apical third, antennal IV very little paler than rest of body. Dark 
area of fore wing extensive, distal pale area extends to second vein in one wing and just posterior 
to this in the other ; costal vein dark around distal pale area. Sensoria on antennals III and IV 
linear, broad, barely sinuate, rather more than half the length of these segments. Head 
apparently very short, with only one row of setae behind the eyes. Metanotum reticulate, each 
reticle marked internally with short lines (Text-fig. 32). Sternites V and VI without accessory 
setae, VII with 3 pairs placed laterally (Text-fig. 48). 

Measurements (in ju). Fore wing length /bread th : 1100/210. Hind tibia : 350. Antennals 
I-IX : 39 ; 57 ; 96 ; 80 ; 52 ; 34 ; 24 ; 13 ; 13. Tergite IX setae i, 2 and 3 : 150 ; 180 ; 145. 
Tergite X setae i and 2 : 210 ; 210. 

Material examined. Holotype $. VICTORIA : Melbourne, Brighton Beach, 
Mesembryanthemum growing in sand, 8 .xii. 1923 (R. Kelly) (BMNH). 



L. A. MOUND 




44 



v 




FIGS. 40-44. Chaetotaxy of sternites VI and VII. 40, Aeolothrips fasciatus. 41, Crano- 
thrips poultoni. 42, Lamprothrips maculosus. 43, Arcuthrips cinctus. 44, Arcuthrips 
monrosi. 



REVISION OF AUSTRALIAN AEOLOTHRIPID AE 65 

Desmothrips propinquus (Bagnall) sp. rev. 
(Text-figs. 5, 7, & 49) 

Orothrips propinquus Bagnall, 1916 : 397. 

Desmothrips propinquus (Bagnall) Bagnall & Kelly, 1928 : 205. 
Desmothrips elegans Morison, 1931 : 451-453, syn. n. 
Desmothrips australis ; Steele, 1940 nee Bagnall, 1914 (in part). 

The differences between propinquus and australis have been discussed above under 
the latter species. The illustrations B, C, D and E given by Steele (1940) are regarded 
here as representing various wing forms of propinquus. Morison (1930) suggested 
that elegans might be related to bagnalli and stated that his species differed from 
propinquus by the markings of the fore wings. However in the specimen of 
propinquus here designated as lectotype the distal pale area of the fore wing does not 
reach the hind margin contrary to the impression given by Bagnall's description. 
In the right wing about half of the area between the hind margin and the second vein 
is dark, and in the left wing about a third. The difference is small between this 
condition and elegans, in which the whole of the area posterior to the second vein 
is dark. 

$. Length 1-7-2-0 mm. Colour dark brown, fore tarsi and tibiae paler. Antennal III 
yellow, brown at extreme apex with some shading extending proximally along inner apical 
margin ; base of IV and apex of II paler brown. Distal pale area of fore wing variable, some- 
times restricted anterior to second vein, sometimes extending to hind margin ; costal vein dark 
in region of distal pale area (Text-figs. 5 & 7). Sensoria on antennals III and IV linear, straight, 
without internal markings, two-thirds to three-quarters the length of these segments ; sensoria 
on IV and V about half the length of these segments. Vertex with numerous small setae 
between and behind eyes. Mesonotum with three or more pairs of accessory median setae. 
Metanotum reticulate, internal markings of reticles not as extensive within each reticule as in 
australis. Sternite VII with median pair of accessory setae often mesad of the second pair of 
marginal setae. Accessory setae on sternite VI form an almost complete transverse row 
(Text-fig. 49). 

<J. Length 1-2-1 -5 mm. Colour similar to female, but median abdominal segments paler 
and brown shading on antennal III more extensive. Head and thorax as in female, distal 
maxillary palp segment with six small subdivisions. Accessory setae present on sternites III 
to IX, irregular in number (4 to 8) but in a single transverse row on sternites III to VIII, in 
two rows on sternite IX. 

Measurements (in /u) 

Tergite IX Tergite X 

Antennal segments Fore wing setae setae 

Hind , * > , * w ^ , * s 

tibia III IV V VI VII VIII IX L B i 2 3 12 

Lectotype $ 300 90 90 45 32 26 16 16 990 170 ? ? 175 ? 170 

$exHillston 260 80 71 42 29 26 13 13 93 140 140 M5 J 45 *55 l6 

$exHillston 330 105 90 49 33 26 16 16 1080 190 150 165 170 160 175 

Material examined. LECTOTYPE $ (present designation). VICTORIA, Creswick, 
on sweet pea, 17.1.1915 (R. Kelly) (BMNH). This specimen was labelled "Type" 
by the original author. No material is deposited in the University Museum, Oxford, 
although this was given as the depository in the original description. 



66 L. A. MOUND 

Paratype. i $ collected with the lectotype (BMNH). VICTORIA : Mildura, 

1 ?, 5 cJ, 29. ix. 1926 (H. W. Davy] (Cal. A. Sci.) ; Warrugal, I $, 23. x. 1944 (HVS 
Coll.). TASMANIA: no locality or host, i <j>, ?i942 (/. W. Evans) (HVS Coll.). 
SOUTH AUSTRALIA : Adelaide, on lucerne and rose bushes, 4 $ (holotype and para- 
types of elegans), x.ig2g (/. Davidson) (BMNH & WI) ; Adelaide, on roses, 8 $, 

2 <J, 1932 (/. W. Evans) (HVS Coll.) ; Jamestown, lucerne flowers, 2 -, 15.11.1953 
(D.C.S.) ; Waite Institute, on lucerne, 3 -, 24.^.1953 (D.C.S.) (WI) ; NEW SOUTH 
WALES: Gogeldrie, Hordeum leporinum, i -, 19. ix. 1959 (E. M. Reed) ; Hillston, 
Polygonum hydropiper, 14 $, 4 <, 23. ix. 1959 (. M. Reed) (ANIC). QUEENSLAND : 
Kingaroy, on cotton and lucerne, 7 $, 15.1.1941 (UQ). 

Desmothrips reedi n. sp. 

(Text-figs. 18, 21, 34 & 50) 

This new species is based on a single micropterous female which is very reminiscent 
of the common Holarctic species Aeolothrips albicinctus Haliday. The second and 
third abdominal segments are clear yellow contrasting with the remainder of the 
brown body. In Arcuthrips cinctus the fourth and fifth abdominal segments are 
yellow. The species is named in honour of Mr. E. M. Reed who collected much of 
the material upon which this paper is based. 

$ (micropterous) : Length fully expanded 2-0 mm. Colour brown, tarsi light brown ; antenna 
III yellow with apical rim dark, antennal IV with base light brown ; abdominal segments II and 
III clear yellow, apical margin of II brown. Sensoria on antennals III and IV rather sinuate, 
about three-quarters the length on these segments ; sensoria on V and VI linear, about half the 
length of these segments (Text-fig. 21). Eyes prolonged posteriorly on ventral surface of head 
with a few large ommatidia. Ocelli reduced, numerous small setae between and behind eyes. 
Prothoracic setae numerous, small ; fore tarsus with stout recurved tooth. Mesonotum with 
only one pair of median setae. Metanotum without a pair of pores, transversely reticulate, 
numerous wrinkles within each reticle (Text-fig. 34). Abdominal tergite I with numerous 
transverse anastomozing lines (Text-fig. 18) ; tergites II to VIII with four or five pairs of setae 
each one-third to one-half the length of the tergite. Major setae on segments IX and X not very 
long, extending little beyond apex of abdomen. Median pair of accessory setae on sternite VII 
lateral to the submedian pair of marginal setae (Text-fig. 50). 

Measurements (in p). Antennals I-IX : 39; 52; 117; 104; 57; 45; 34; 21; 18. Head 
length /breadth : 160/160. Pronotum length /breadth : 200/200. Wing length : 160. Hind 
tibia : 350. Tergite IX setae i, 2 and 3 : 117 ; 130 ; 130. Tergite X setae i and 2 : 117 ; 130 

Material examined. Holotype $ (micropterous). NEW SOUTH WALES : Tunder- 
brine, nr. Gilgandra, Medicago hispida var. denticulata, 4.viii.i959 (E. M. Reed) 
(ANIC). 

Desmothrips steeleae n. sp. 

(Text-figs. 2, 15, 16, 17, 22, 24, 25, 28, 33 & 51) 

Both males and females of this new species have been collected in Eastern Australia. 
It is easily recognized from its congeners by the exaggerated development of the 
vermiform sensoria on the third and fourth antennal segments. The species is 
named in recognition of the work of Miss H. Vevers Steele (Mrs. H. G. Andrewartha) 
on Australian Thysanoptera. 



REVISION OF AUSTRALIAN AEOLOTH RI PI D AE 



67 




46 




// 



/-/-/- 




47 



\ 




T -V 




49 \ I / / , / 




FIGS. 45-49. Chaetotaxy of sternites VI and VII. 45, Desmothrips austmlis. 
46, D. bagnalli. 47, D. mendozai. 48, D. obsoletus. 49, D. propinquus. 



68 



L. A. MOUND 



$. Length 1-7-1 -8 mm. Colour dark brown (most of the specimens in the type series are 
teneral with pale median abdominal segments) ; antennal II pale distally ; antennal III yellowish 
in basal half or two-thirds with dark brown at apex extending proximally along inner margin. 
Fore wing dark at base and apex, with a transverse pale area on either side of the median dark 
band ; distal pale area irregularly parallel-sided (Text-fig. 2). Sensoria on antennals III and IV 
strongly vermiform, almost encircling apex and extending to basal quarter of segments ; 
sensoria on antennals V and VI linear, about half the length of these segments (Text-fig. 22). 
Head a little broader than long, dorsal surface with two rows of small setae behind eyes (Text- 
fig. 15). Prothorax with numerous small setae (Text-fig. 16). Mesonotum with three or more 
pairs of accessory median setae (Text-fig. 28) . Metanotum reticulate, each reticle with internal 
linear markings (Text-fig. 33). Abdominal tergite I almost devoid of sculpture, tergite II with 
some weak transverse reticulations medially (Text-fig. 17); tergites III to VIII with an anterior 
submarginal transverse ridge. Accessory setae on sternite VII lateral to the third pair of 
marginal setae (Text-fig. 51). 

<J. Length 1-2-1-3 mm. Colour brown similar to female, median abdominal segments 
yellowish, antennal III dark in apical third. Head and thorax as in female, distal maxillary 
palp segment with one small apical subdivision (Text-figs. 24 & 25). Sternites III to VIII with 
i to 5 pairs of accessory setae, irregular in number and arrangement ; sternite IX with 3 acces- 
sory setae in one specimen but these are absent from the other four available males. 



Measurements (in 



Antennal segments 



Fore 
wing 



Tergite IX Tergite X 



setae 



Hind 



I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX L. B. tibia i 2 

$ Holotype 31 52 96 78 44 31 26 13 10 1000160 280 ? 145 

$exRoseville 31 52 96 81 44 29 21 13 13 880150 250 130 140 

$ ex Black Mt. 31 42 78 71 39 26 21 10 8 810120 200 120 130 

(J ex Roseville 26 44 81 71 42 26 19 10 10 810130 240 34 34 



setae 



145 155 

140 150 

125 130 

130 I2O 



Material examined. Holotype $. NEW SOUTH WALES : Sydney, Roseville, 
Pultanaea stipularis flowers, ix . 1960. (ANIC) . 

Paratypes. 6 $, 5 ^, collected with holotype ; Woodford, Pultanaea ericifolia, 
3 $, 22.viii.i959 (M. Casimir] (ANIC & BMNH). AUSTRALIAN CAPITAL TERRI- 
TORY : Black Mountain, on mixed grasses, 4 $, 8.xi.i96o (E. M. Reed] (ANIC). 



Desmothrips tenuicornis (Bagnall) 
(Text-figs. 3, 19, 30 & 52) 

Orothrips tenuicornis Bagnall, 1916 : 397-398. 
Desmothrips tenuicornis (Bagnall) Bagnall & Kelly, 1928 : 205. 
Desmothrips davidsoni Morison, 1931 : 449451, syn. n. 
Desmothrips davidsoni Morison ; Steele, 1940 : 353-354. 
Desmothrips sp., Steele, 1935 : 16. 

In his description of davidsoni Morison states that this species differs from tenui- 
cornis in " the proportionate length of antennal segments III-IX and in the banding 
of the fore wings ". Although the holotype of tenuicornis has the ratio of antennal 
segments III/IV larger than in the holotype of davidsoni, the variation of this ratio 
in the other specimens listed below suggests that this difference is not significant. 



REVISION OF AUSTRALIAN AEOLOTHRI PID AE 



69 




51 



W f^ r/: 




V 



-\W\- -Hi-f-rr 



52 




\ \ 



/ ,'/' ; / 



-'- 




*^=* 



53\V 



V -f+H- 




FIGS. 50-54. Chaetotaxy of sternites VI and VII. 50, Desmothrips reedi. 51, D. steeleae. 
52, D. tenuicornis. 53, D. uniguttus. 54, Andrewarthaia kellyana. 



7 



L. A. MOUND 



It should be noted that the type of tenuicornis is much larger than the type of 
davidsoni, the wings are 25% longer and the hind tibiae 30% longer. However in a 
direct comparison of the two specimens there appears to be little difference in the 
banding of the fore wings. 

The unidentified species referred to by Steele (1935) as having been seen in South 
Australia in both brachypterous and macropterous forms is probably D. tenuicornis. 
The Steele Collection includes a single brachypterous female of this species from 
Echium plantagineum, Waite Institute, S. Australia. 

$. Colour brown, antennal III and sometimes base of IV clear yellow, extreme apex of III 
rarely shaded. Wings dark at base and apex, distal pale area a little broader at anterior margin 
than at posterior ; marginal veins pale around distal pale area of wing (Text-fig. 3). Antennal 
IX about two-thirds as long as VIII ; antennal segments variable in length as shown in the table 
below ; sensoria on III and IV rather sinuate, more than three-quarters the length of these 
segments ; sensoria on V and VI straight, more than half the length of these segments (Text- 
fig. 19). Mesonotum usually with two pairs of accessory setae close to the median setae. 
Metanotal sculpture very similar to propinquus, the internal markings of the reticles weaker 
than in australis (Text-fig. 30). Sternite VI with median pair of accessory setae just mesad of 
median pair of marginal setae. Sternite VII with median pair of accessory setae almost anterior 
to median marginal setae (Text-fig. 52). 

(. Length 1-5 mm. Colour dark brown as in female, median abdominal segments paler. 
Head and thorax as in female, distal maxillary palp segment with six small subdivisions. 
Accessory setae present on sternites III to IX, 14 in two irregular transverse rows on VIII, 
3 or 4 on IX. 



Measurements (in 



tenuicornis Type $ 
davidsoni Paratype 
$ ex Healesville 
$ ex Queensland 
davidsoni Type 9 
brachypterous $ 



Antennal segments 



Ill 


IV 


V 


VI 


VII 


VIII 


IX 


145 


106 


56 


40 


42 


23 


M 


133 


109 


49 


38 


38 


23 


14 


124 


99 


49 


35 


35 


21 


14 


no 


96 


47 


28 


33 


21 


M 


117 


94 


47 


35 


35 


21 


14 


125 


96 


47 


34 


34 


21 


M 



Fore Hind Ratio 

wing tibia III/IV 

1000 400 1-37 

940 380 1-22 

880 360 1-25 

850 340 1-15 

810 310 1-24 

310 380 1-30 



Material examined. Holotype $. VICTORIA : Healesville, Erythraea australis, 
2i.xii.i9i3 (A. W. Shaw 6- R. Kelly). (BMNH). 

VICTORIA : Warburton, white clover, i $, 17.1.1926 (R. Kelly) (BMNH) ; Heales- 
ville, i $, 1926 (R. Kelly) (BMNH) ; Melbourne, on Daisy, i $, 17. ix. 1932 (H. V. 
Steele} (HVS Coll.). SOUTH AUSTRALIA : Adelaide, lucerne & rose bushes, 3 9, i c? 
(holotype, allotype and paratypes of davidsoni}, x . 1929 (/. Davidson) (BMNH & WI) ; 
Adelaide, on roses, 7 $, 1932 (/. W. Evans) (HVS Coll. & BMNH) ; Waite Institute, 
Echium plantagineum, i $ (brachypterous), 12. x. 1932 (/. W. Evans) (HVS Coll.) ; 
Waite Institute, on soil surface, i <$, i8.x.i933. (WI). NEW SOUTH WALES: 
Wilberforce, on lucerne, 4 $, I2.ix.i96o (C. R. Wallace) ; Concord West, on mixed 
grasses, 2 $, 6.11.1960 (E. M. Reed} ; Belong, i $, iii.1962 (E. M. Reed) (ANIC). 
QUEENSLAND : Brisbane, on cotton, i $, 11.1.1926 (E. Bollard} (BMNH) ; Kingaroy, 
lucerne and cotton, 3 9, 15.1.1941. (UQ). HAWAII: Honolulu, ex Australia, 
radish leaf, i 9, 1.^.1947 (USNM). 



REVISION OF AUSTRALIAN AEOLOTHRI PI D AE 71 

Desmothrips uniguttus Girault 
(Text-figs. 6 & 53) 

Desmothrips uniguttus Girault, 19276 : i. 

Desmothrips uniguttatus [sic] Girault ; de Santis, 1961 : 168. 

The original description of this species was as follows : "As bagnalli but antennal 
3 white, first area wing on cephalic 1/2, wing 2 as wing i as to colour, narrower. 
Stanthorpe, forest, April 24, 1924." Although related to the other Desmothrips 
species in the reticulate metanotum and in possessing accessory setae on abdominal 
sternites V, VI and VII, uniguttus has no internal markings within the metanotal 
reticles and there is only one pair of setae medially on the mesonotum. The 
species is known only from the Holotype. 

$. Length 1-5 mm. Colour brown ; antennal III yellow, but basal third shaded brown. 
Distal pale area on fore wing restricted anterior to second vein, costal vein in this region pale ; 
proximal pale area similarly restricted anterior to second vein (Text-fig. 6). Sensoria on 
antennals III and IV linear, about three-quarters the length of these segments. Head with about 
two rows of small setae posterior to the eyes. Mesonotum with only the major pair of median 
setae. Metanotum reticulate, reticles without internal sculpture. Median pair of accessory 
setae on sternite VII far apart, anterior to third pair of marginal setae (Text-fig. 53). 

Measurements (in n). Fore wing length /breadth : 890/115. Hind tibia : 270. Head length/ 
breadth: 180/180. Antennals I-IX : 34; 52; 78; 65; 39; 35; 31; 13; 13. 

Material examined. Holotype $. QUEENSLAND: Stanthorpe, forest, 24.^.1924 
(Brisbane Museum, T.6507). 



FRANKLINOTHRIPS Back 

Franklinothrips Back, 1912 : 75-77. Type-species : Aeolothrips vespiformis D. L. Crawford, 

1909, by monotypy. 
Franklinothrips Back ; Stannard, 1952 : 14-23. 

The species included in this genus are remarkable for their very long and slender 
antennae. The wings are narrow and the head somewhat reflexed into the prothorax. 
The anterior abdominal segments are more strongly constricted than other Aeolo- 
thripids. Only one species of this genus has been recorded from Australia, one 
species is known from South and East Africa and another from the Congo, and four 
are known from South and Central America and the Southern United States. The 
genus has been revised by Stannard with figures and redescriptions. 



Franklinothrips variegatus Girault 

Franklinothrips variegatus Girault, 19276 : i. 
Franklinothrips variegatus Girault ; Stannard, 1952 : 19-21. 

The original description of this species was as follows : " Black ; pterothorax 
brown ; first 4 and ultimate abdomens white ; so antennals 2-4, i brown ; abdomen 
narrowing to base ; wing fasciate, ocula near apex ; long marginal fringes over 
twice length regular placed setae of veins ; antennal 3 elongate, 5-7 I + 4 which 
is shorter than 3." 



72 L. A. MOUND 

The holotype is the only known specimen and Stannard has redescribed this with 
figures of the head and antenna. 

Holotype $. QUEENSLAND: Brigalow-Jandowie, 17.^.1924 (Brisbane Museum 
T.6522). 

LAMPROTHRIPS Moulton 
Lamprothrips Moulton, 1935 : 97. Type-species : L. maculosus Moulton, 1935, by monotypy. 

Antennae nine-segmented, segments V-IX connate ; sensorium on III straight, broadly 
linear; sensorium on IV similar but slightly curved around apex of segment (Text -fig. 14). 
Dorsal surface of head with two irregular rows of setae behind eyes ; distal maxillary palp 
segment with one small apical division, i.e. palp three-segmented. Pronotum typically Aeolo- 
thripoid, without major setae or any interval in the row of minor posteromarginal setae. 
Mesonotum with one pair of median setae. Metanotal sculpture arcuate about the anterior 
midpoint of the sclerite (Text-fig. 37). Fore wings with or without dark bands. Abdominal 
sternites III-VII with accessory setae laterally but not medially ; sternal marginal setae about 
as long as accessory setae (Text-fig. 42). 

The original description of this genus refers to a swelling on the apex of antennal 
III. These swellings are only present on one of the three original females and are 
due to the sensoria expanding when the specimens were mounted in Berlese Mountant. 
The genus is similar to Arcuthrips described above. Only two species are known, 
and these are both Australian. 

KEY TO SPECIES 

i Fore wing with median transverse dark band, apex also shaded ; antennal III yellow, 

much paler than the rest of antenna which is brown .... miltoni (p. 72) 

- Fore wing without dark bands ; antennae almost uniformly coloured, pale brownish 

yellow . . . . . . . \' . . maculosus (p. 72) 

Lamprothrips maculosus Moulton 

(Text-figs. 14, 37 & 42) 
Lamprothrips maculosus Moulton, 1935 : 97-98. 

The original description refers to a dark marking on antennal III. This is only 
present on one of the three original females, and apparently is an internal artifact 
due to the inferior preparation in Berlese Mountant. The light coloured markings 
on the body referred to by Moulton are not unusual in Aeolothrips species, particularly 
on the pronotum, and their significance is not understood. 

Material examined. Holotype $. WESTERN AUSTRALIA : Perth, Eucalyptus 
rudis, 20.xii.i928. (B. A. O'Connor}. Moulton No. 5184 (not 5084). (Cal. A. Sci.). 

Lamprothrips miltoni (Girault) comb. n. 
Desmothrips miltoni Girault, 1927^ : i. 

The unique holotype of this species is a very badly damaged teneral female upon 
which very little detail can be observed. There is an extensive distal pale area on 
the fore wing with little more than the apical ring vein shaded. The original 



REVISION OF AUSTRALIAN AEOLOTH RI PID AE 73 

description was " Middle band wing over %, distal very short, none costal ; short 
marginal fringe cephalad. As other species else wise." 

Measurements (in fi). Antennals III-IX : 96 ; 65 ; 42 ; 26 ; 32 ; 16 ; 13. Fore wing 
length /breadth : 1,000/130. Hind tibia : 300. 

Material examined. Holotype $. QUEENSLAND: Flaxton, jungle, 3.vii.i923 
(Brisbane Museum 7.6508) . 

REFERENCES 
BACK, E. A. 1912. Notes on Florida Thysanoptera, with description of a new genus. Enl. 

News 23 : 73-77. 
BAGNALL, R. S. 1914. Brief descriptions of new Thysanoptera III. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (8) 

13 : 287-297. 

- 1915. Brief descriptions of new Thysanoptera V. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (8) 15 : 315-324. 

- 1916. Brief descriptions of new Thysanoptera VIII. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (8) 17 : 

397-4 12 - 

I924a. On a new species of Rhipidothrips (R. kellyanus n. sp.) from Australia. Ann. Mag. 
nat. Hist. (9) 13 : 584-585. 

- 19246. Brief descriptions of new Thysanoptera XIV. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (9) 14 : 
625-640. 

BAGNALL, R. S. & KELLY, R. 1928. The genus Desmothrips Hood : with special reference to 

dimorphism in the sexes. Entomologist's mon. Mag. 64 : 204-206. 
BAILEY, S. F. 1951. The Genus Aeolothrips in North America. Hilgardia 21 : 43-80. 

1954. A review of the genus Rhipidothrips Uzel (Thysanoptera : Aeolothripidae) . 
Pan-Pacif. Ent. 30 : 209-220. 

GIRAULT, A. A. i926a. New pests from Australia II. 3 pp. Published privately, Brisbane. 

19266. New pests from Australia III. 2 pp. Published privately, Brisbane. 

1927^. Some new wild animals. 3 pp. Published privately, Brisbane. 

- 19276. New Australian animals so far overlooked by outsiders. 2 pp. Published privately, 
Brisbane. 

1929. New pests from Australia VI. 4 pp. Published privately, Brisbane. 

- 1930. New pests from Australia VII. 3 pp. Published privately, Brisbane. 

1932. New pests from Australia X. 6 pp. Published privately, Brisbane. 

HALIDAY, A. H. 1836. An epitome of the British genera, in the Order Thysanoptera, with 

indications of a few of the species. Ent. Mag. 3 : 439-451. 
HOOD, J. D. 1915. An outline of the subfamilies and higher groups of the Insect Order 

Thysanoptera. Proc. biol. Soc. Wash. 28 : 53-60. 

1918. New genera and species of Australian Thysanoptera. Mem. Qd Mus. 6 : 121-150. 
jACOT-GuiLLARMOD, C. F. 1937- Ten new species of Thysanoptera and a catalogue of the 

known South African forms. Publs. Univ. Pretoria, Nat. Sci. 3. 62 pp. 

KARNY, H. H. 1920. Die neuen australischen Thysanopteren der Mjoberg-Ausbeute. Cos. 
csl. Spol. ent. 17 : 35-44. 

1924. Results of Dr. E. Mjoberg's Swedish Scientific Expeditions to Australia 1910-1913. 
38. Thysanoptera. Ark. Zool. 17A (2) : 1-56, 6 pis., 9 figs. 

KELLY, R. & MAYNE, R. J. B. 1934. The Australian Thrips. Australasian Medical Publishing 

Co. Ltd. Glebe, New South Wales. 81 pp. 

MORISON, G. D. 1931. New Thysanoptera from South Australia. Bull. ent. Res. 21 : 449-454. 
MOULTON, D. 1935. New species of Thrips from South Western Australia. /. Proc. R. Soc. 

West. Aust. 21 : 97-100. 

NEWMAN, L. J. 1935. Thrips Census. /. Proc. R. Soc. West. Aust. 21 : 93-97. 
PELIKAN, J. 1964. The Zoological results of Gy. Topal's collectings in South Argentina. 

Annls hist. -nat. Mus. natn. hung. 56 : 267-279. 



74 



L. A. MOUND 



PRIESNER, H. 1928. Uber australische Thysanopteren. Sber. Akad. Wiss. Wien. Math.- 

nat., Abt I. 137 : 643-659. 
1964. Ordnung Thysanoptera, in Bestimmungsbucher zur Bodenfanna Europas. 242 pp. 

Akademie-Verlag, Berlin. 
SANTIS, L. DE. 1959. Adiciones a la Fauna Argentina de Tisanopteros. II. Acta zool. 

lilloana 17 : 87-93. 
1961. Las publicaciones entomologiques privadas de Arsene A. Girault. Revta Mus. La 

Plata, Seccion zoologia 7 : 123-172. 
STANNARD, L. J. 1952. Phylogenetic studies of Franklinothrips (Thysanoptera : Aeolo- 

thripidae). /. Wash. Acad. Sci. 42 : 14-23. 
STEELE, H. V. 1935. Thrips investigation : some common Thysanoptera in Australia. 

Pamph. Coun. sclent, ind. Res. Aust. 54 : 59 pp. 
- 1940. A revision of the genus Desmothrips Hood (Thysanoptera) in Australia. Trans. 

R. Soc. S. Aust. 64 : 353-354. 



Aeolothrips, 44, 45, 47 
albicinctus, 47, 66 
Andrewarthaia, 45, 47 
Ankothrips, 45, 53 
Archaeolothrips , 54 
Arcuthrips, 44, 45, 51 
aurea, 47, 49 
australis, 44, 57, 60, 65 

bagnalli, 44, 60 

cinctus, 52, 66 
comparabilis, 60 
Cranothrips, 45, 53 

davidsoni, 68 
Desmothrips, 44, 45, 54 

elegans, 65 
emersoni, 54 

fasciatus, 47 
fontis, 57, 59 
Franklinothrips, 45, 71 

hyalinipennis 49 

karrooensis, 53, 
kellyana, 47, 49 



INDEX TO SPECIES AND GENERA 

Synonyms in italics 

Lamprothrips, 45, 72 

maculosus, 72 
mendozai, 56, 62 
miltoni, 72 
minor, 51 
monrosi, 52 

obsoletus, 63 
Orothrips, 53, 56, 68 

poultoni, 54 
propinquus, 44, 65 

reedi, 66 
Rhipidothrips, 47 

steeleae, 66 

tenuicornis, 44, 68 
topali, 52 

unguttipennis , 60 
uniguttatus, 71 
uniguttus, 62, 71 

variegatus, 71 
vesiformis, 71 




A LIST OF SUPPLEMENTS 
TO THE ENTOMOLOGICAL SERIES 

OF THE BULLETIN OF 
THE BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY), 



1. MASNER, L. The types of Proctotrupoidea (Hymenoptera) in the British 
Museum (Natural History) and in the Hope Department of Entomology, Oxford. 
Pp. 143. February, 1965. 5. 

2. NIXON, G. E. J. A reclassification of the tribe Microgasterini (Hymenoptera : 
Braconidae). Pp. 284 ; 348 Text-figures. August, 1965. 6. 

3. WATSON, A. A revision of the Ethiopian Drepanidae (Lepidoptera) . Pp. 177 ; 
18 plates, 270 Text-figures. August, 1965. 4 45. 

4. SANDS, W. A. A revision of the Termite Subfamily Nasutitermitinae (Isoptera, 
Termitidae) from the Ethiopian Region. Pp. 172 ; 500 Text-figures. October, 

1965- 3 5s. 

5. AHMAD, I. The Leptocorisinae (Heteroptera : Alydidae) of the World. Pp. 156 ; 
475 Text-figures. November, 1965. 2 155. 

6. OKADA, T. Diptera from Nepal. Cryptochaetidae, Diastatidae & Drosophilidae. 
Pp. 129 ; 328 Text-figures. 3. 

7. GILIOMEE, J. H. Morphology and Taxonomy of Adult Males of the Family 
Coccidae (Homoptera : Coccoidea). Pp. 168 ; 43 Text-figures. February, 1967. 

33s. 

8. FLETCHER, D. S. A revision of the Ethiopian species and a check list of the 
world species of Cleora (Lepidoptera : Geometridae) . Pp. 119; 14 plates, 146 
Text- figures, 9 maps. February, 1967. 3 los. 

9. HEMMING, A. F. The Generic Names of the Butterflies and their type-species 
(Lepidoptera : Rhopalocera) . In press. 

10. STEMPFFER, H. The Genera of the African Lycaenidae (Lepidoptera : Rhopa- 
locera). In press. 



PRINTED IN GREAT BRITIANBY ADLARD & SON LI MITED, B A RTH OLOM E W PRESS, DORKING 






2 APR 1967 

THE INDO-ORIENTAL TRIBE %^ 
CHERITRINI 

(LEPIDOPTERA : LYCAENIDAE) 



C. F. COWAN 



BULLETIN OF 

THE BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 
ENTOMOLOGY Vol. 20 No. 3 

LONDON: 1967 



THE INDO-ORIENTAL TRIBE CHERITRINI 
(LEPIDOPTERA : LYCAENIDAE) 



BY 

C. F. COWAN 



Little Gaddesden House, Berkhamsted, Herte.v England 






Pp. 75-103 ; 4 P/s. 



BULLETIN OF 

THE BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 
ENTOMOLOGY Vol. 20 No. 3 

LONDON: 1967 



THE BULLETIN OF THE BRITISH MUSEUM 

(NATURAL HISTORY), instituted in 1949, is 
issued in five series corresponding to the Departments 
of the Museum, and an Historical series. 

Parts will appear at irregular intervals as they become 
ready. Volumes will contain about three or four 
hundred pages, and will not necessarily be completed 
within one calendar year. 

In 1965 a separate supplementary series of longer 
papers was instituted, numbered serially for each 
Department. 

This paper is Vol. 20, No. 3 of the Entomological 
series. The abbreviated titles of the periodicals cited 
follow those of the World List of Scientific Periodicals. 



World List abbreviation 
Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.). 



Trustees of the British Museum (Natural History) 1967 



TRUSTEES OF 
THE BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 

Issued 21 April, 1967 Price i 



THE INDO-ORIENTAL TRIBE CHERITRINI 
LEPIDOPTERA : LYCAENIDAE 

By C. F. COWAN 

CONTENTS 

Page 

INTRODUCTION ........... 77 

STATUS OF THE TRIBE ......... 78 

WING PATTERN .......... 78 

MALE GENITALIA .......... 79 

SEXUAL INSIGNIA .......... 80 

EARLY STAGES ........... 81 

EXTRANEOUS TAXA .......... 81 

GEOGRAPHICAL NOTE : NORTHEAST BORNEO . . . . . 81 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ......... 82 

KEY FOR IDENTIFICATION OF THE GENERA AND SPECIES ... 82 

Cheritrella de Niceville ........ 84 

Ticherra de Niceville ......... 85 

Cheritra Moore .......... 88 

Ritra de Nic6ville ......... 97 

SYSTEMATIC LIST .......... 100 

REFERENCES ........... 100 

INDEX ............ 103 

SYNOPSIS 

Like the Horagini, this small tribe comprises eight species. It has, however, been divided into 
four genera, three being monospecific, and musters only 29 taxa in its nomenclature. All these 
are discussed and four new ones are described. 

INTRODUCTION 

THE Cheritrini comprises the genera Cheritrella and Ticherra de Niceville, Cheritra 
Moore and Ritra de Niceville, which are discussed in that sequence. It is one of three 
isolated tribes in oriental Lycaenidae of which the others are the Horagini (see 
Cowan, 19666) and the much more numerous Drupadiini (formerly referred to as 
Marmessini, but Marmessus Hiibner must be used for American Riodinidae, and 
Drupadia Moore stands ; see Cowan, 19660). 

De Niceville's three genera are monospecific, structurally distinct, and easily 
separated. Cheritra by contrast has four or five species of diverse appearance but 
which scarcely overlap. To the taxa hitherto included in Ticherra one is here added 
which extends the range to Borneo and which till now had floated uneasily between 
several other widely different genera. Though of distinctive appearance it conforms 
to the general subspeciation trend of the tribe and is treated as the Bornean sub- 
species rather than a second species in the genus. 

ENTOM. 20, 3. 3 



78 C. F. COWAN 

Compared with that of Horagini the history of the nomenclature of the tribe has 
been straightforward and uneventful. The aim of the present work is to emphasize 
its entity, to include all its taxa, and to list all the primary references. A catalogue 
of the specimens in the British Museum (Natural History), hereafter abbreviated to 
B.M. (N.H.), is given. 

STATUS OF THE TRIBE 

Evans (1932) and Corbet (1956) are the two modern authors cover ng the oriental 
Rhopalocera, the former having been brought up to date for the Lycaenidae portion, 
in nomenclature but not in arrangement, in the valuable contribution by Cantlie 

(1963). 

For our tribes, Corbet is to be regarded as an advancement on the arrangement in 
Evans-Cantlie in that his keys will bring Cheritrella (though, not yet found in 
Malaya, it is not included) next to the other members of the tribe, instead of inter- 
posing the unrelated Neomyrina. This improved grouping is achieved by employing 
as a key character the position in the fore wing of vein 5 in preference to that of the 
much more mobile vein 9. The grouping thus achieved is confirmed by anatomical 
dissection, and " looks " equally natural. 

Prior to this, comparative hind wing tail-lengths were resorted to as differential 
key characters. That this ultimate resource proved sufficiently reliable can hardly 
have been fortuitous, but its significance is not clear. The three filamentous tails at 
veins 1-3 of the Horagini hind wing are unique among the smooth-eyed genera, 
where they are paralleled only by Semanga which is lobed at vein I and tailed at veins 
2-4, and they are matched among the hairy-eyed genera only in Catapaecilma. There 
are several broadly " fluffy-tailed " genera with the longest tail at vein 2 as in the 
Cheritrini, but they are well keyed out by Corbet to the Drupadiini (" Marmessus "), 
to the rightful exclusion of Eooxylides and Thamala. 

In all these tribes and associated genera the venation of the sexes is alike, and 
fore wing vein 8 is always absent. In the Cheritrini vein 9 always stems from the 
middle of vein 7, originating well before the end of vein 10, whereas in the Horagini 
and nearly all the Drupadiini it is absent and vein 7 is unbranched. 

The basal recurrent spur of fore wing vein i, mentioned as occurring in most of the 
' Theclinae " by Corbet (1956 : 257), is present throughout this tribe, though not 
shown in his illustration of the Cheritra venation (I.e. : 347, fig. 129). 

The Cheritrini is the only tribe of the three with a species known to occur in Hainan. 
Like the Horagini it has one species which reaches Ceylon, but like the Drupadiini 
it does not range south or east of Bali, Borneo (though one highly differentiated 
subspecies of a Drupadia appears in Celebes), and Mindanao. 

WING-PATTERN 

As the Horagini broadly conform to a tribal wing-pattern, so do the Cheritrini, but 
the latter are not so exclusive, having a more basic Lycaenine design found in several 
other tribes and individuals. The typical pattern is simple ; a plain unicolorous 
upperside with white tornal markings on the hind wing, and a pale underside with 
simple linear cell-end bars and postdiscal lines on both wings, and hind wing tornal 
black spots and metallic blue scaling. 



INDO-ORIENTAL CHERITRINI 79 

In this tribe also, the species show a marked parallel subspeciation when entering 
the tropics and passing round them. In passing from Ceylon through India, East 
Pakistan and Yunnan, to the Kra Isthmus and Mergui Archipelago, the underside 
colour changes from pure white with faint grey lines to white with broadly orange 
flushed outer margins and fulvous lines. Thereafter, through Sumatra and Malaya 
eastwards, the underside becomes more uniformly fulvous, obscuring the markings 
except in the tornal half of the hind wing, where they become broader and black. 
This applies to Cheritra. Cheritrella, restricted to the north, is aberrant. Ticherra 
is also aberrant in the north but conforms remarkably well in Sumatra, Malaya and 
Borneo. Ritra represents an extreme development of the eastern trend of Cheritra. 

In this tribe, unlike the Horagini and nearly half the Drupadiini, there is complete 
sexual dimorphism in that, whereas the female upperside is plain dark brown (in the 
east with a basal orange flush), that of the male is plain shining purplish, orange, or 
deep green. Exceptional again is Cheritrella, whose female upperside is marked with 
dull blue and white. 

MALE GENITALIA 

Probably because the inter-specific distinctions in India and Malaya have never 
been in doubt, no work seems to have been done on the genitalia of this tribe before. 
Only those of C. freja have ever been figured (Shirozu & Saigusa, 1962 : 55). For 
Lycaenidae they are unusually small and squat, so small that the figures on the 
accompanying plates are to a scale about 40% greater than that used for the 
physically much smaller Horagini. 

The vinculum is short, broad and deep, tapered dorsally and ventrally ; there is 
no saccus, the ventral end being curved out distally to seat the valvae. The twin 
uncal lobes are simple, lacking brachia or falces, but each with a thin tapered anterior 
process directed within the vinculum towards the maneca, like the root of a tooth. 
This uncal " radix " may serve the same purpose as a gnathos, or as a brachium, in 
more elongate armatures, to lead or guide the aedeagus from above. It may be 
actually the peniculus of the otherwise obsolete tegumen. 

The valvae are ventrally bulbous and basally fused ; their hemispherical sacculi 
are united. Directed caudad from the base of the costa, or dorsal edge, of each is a 
prominent long horn or style ending in a recurved or inturned spike. Cephalad 
from the extreme base of the costa, representing the footstalk or transtilla always 
present in Horagini and prominent in Drupadiini, there is a tenuous connection to 
the anellus. The juxta, present in Horagini, is lacking in Cheritrini and Drupadiini. 

The typical shape of the Cheritra valva is exaggerated in the larger but more 
attenuate Ritra armature, and modified in the other two genera. In Ticherra the 
dorsal horns are flattened vertically and the broad, spiked tips incurved, while the 
solid tapered horns of Cheritrella are sinuous. This last genus has a prominent apical 
projection on the ventral lobe. The fore and aft elongation of the Ritra valva results 
in the unusual situation that its base, and consequently the bulk of the aedeagus, lie 
cephalad of the vinculum. The extended, comparatively upright unci of Cheritrella, 
its elongate and upright valvae, and their distal dentation, are all interesting trends 
to the format of the Drupadiini. 



80 C. F. COWAN 

The aedeagus in Cheritra is short and stout, and is strongly armoured along its 
dorsal and ventral surfaces, both before and after the rim (i.e. outside and inside), 
with long narrow rasps of minute cephalad directed dentations. These rasps may 
assist in retaining the aedeagus in cop. and, though quite different in appearance, are 
perhaps analogous to the radulae of Roepke (1938) in Nymphalidae. The rasps are 
reduced in extent and size in Cheritrella, and are replaced in the oblique-rimmed, 
spout-like aedeagus of Ticherra by lateral flaps or flanges. The long, fragile but 
better suspended aedeagus of Ritra is slightly broadened and distinctly fluted at the 
tip, but no serrations are visible. 

The slim aedeagus of Ritra is firmly suspended in position by a strongly sclerotized 
strap-like structure which emanates rigidly from near its base and, tapering, is slung 
over the dorsal saddle between the valvae like the curl of a leaf-spring. This 
structure is only weakly developed, but still traceable, in the other genera, where it 
appears much nearer the apex of the aedeagus. It is presumably a modification of 
the anellifer, analogous to the fulcrum in Everes described by Bethune-Baker (1913 : 
153, pi. 5). But it is an inversion of the fulcrum, which was a prop rather than a 
strap, being pivoted to the base rather than the dorsum of the valvae, while being 
of equivalent length "so as to reach up to the top edge of the clasp ", where it 
forked the aedeagus near the rim. 

The aedeagus is primed with cornuti in all species. Cheritrella has a pair ; one 
large and pear-shaped, the other still larger and elongate, both in a voluminous vesica. 
The tenuous vesica of Ritra, like that of Ticherra, contains a single, minute granular 
cornutus, and Cheritra is intermediate with a single, stout, more or less curved spicule. 

Over 30 genitalia preparations of Cheritrini have been made for me by Mr. Bennett. 
These, with further examples by Fruhstorfer, Corbet and others, have sufficed for this 
tribe. A total of 70 were used for Horagini, and over 100 are under study for the 
Drupadiini. 

SEXUAL INSIGNIA 

This term was introduced (Cowan, 19666 : 107) for the cumbersome phrase 
" secondary sexual characters ", but the explanation was omitted. 

There are no female insignia in this or any related tribe, apart from the usual 
disparity in fore leg size. Both sexes have the usual integument of downy hairs about 
the wing bases and inner margins on the uppersides of the wings which undoubtedly 
provide protection for the body from damp and cold (cf. Wheeler, 1946). In the 
female, with the stouter body, there is rather more of this down on the hind wing than 
in the male. On the other hand, in the male the down, being brown, is considerably 
more conspicuous. 

There are no male insignia in Cheritrella and Ticherra. All Cheritra have a small 
tuft of dark hairs rising from the basal portion of the radial vein of the male hind 
wing. Often the base of space 7 of this wing, which underlies the tuft, is bare of 
scales and white. Sometimes there is trace of a polished or ochreous brand on the 
fore wing underside, about the centre of the basal half of vein i. 

In Ritra males there is a large ovate discal patch of modified scales on the upperside 
of the fore wing and concolorous with it, centred about the origin of vein 4. This 



INDO-ORIENTAL CHERITRINI 81 

brand seems to recur in a few random species of Lycaenidae (e.g. Arhopala atosia 
Hewitson, Hypolycaena erylus Godart) and appears to be of different function, though 
it may prove analogous, to the more frequent subcostal brand near the upper end of 
the cell. The latter varies in size (e.g. in Charana jalindra Horsfield, Strymonidia 
Tutt spp., and, very small, Neolycaena de Niceville spp.) and has not apparently been 
investigated, but must surely be associated with the antennal club. Such patches 
of modified scales are often referred to as androconial, but androconia proper are very 
different and some revision of terminology is needed here. Hereafter the various 
insignia referred to are called either " tufts ", " brands ", or " polished areas " 

EARLY STAGES 

The only traceable original account of the early stages of any species is that of 
Davidson, Bell & Aitken (1896 : 388, pi. 5, figs. 6, 6a), often requoted since. 

Their descriptions of the mature larva and pupa of C. freja show distinct affinities 
with those of the still more aberrant ones of Horagini. The larva, varying from 
pink to green with some brown dorsal markings, has only six pointed dorsal humps, 
none paired. The similarly coloured pupa is fastened to a stalk rigidly at the tail, 
standing free. It also has rough brown dorsal protuberances. 

The recorded foodplants include Xylia dolabriformis and other Leguminosae, and 
Cinnamomum (Lauraceae) . 

EXTRANEOUS TAXA 

The following two taxa have from time to time been included by authors in this 
tribe. Both are Drupadiini. 

Myrina cinesia Hewitson, 1863 : 29, pi. 13, figs. 18, 19. 
Biduanda cinesoides de Niceville, 18896 : 166, pi. A, fig. 7. 

GEOGRAPHICAL NOTE: NORTHEAST BORNEO 

It will be seen in discussing Drupadiini that northeast Borneo, particularly east and 
south of Kina Balu, is considered a most interesting " clinocentre " where 3 or 4 
subspecies (Malayan, Bornean proper, and Philippine) of one species apparently fly 
together and mingle. This seems more certain as recent material is found, and 
needs investigation. It is not the effect of altitude, being evident at sea level. It is 
not seasonal, occurring at all dates. But it may well be climatic, extreme local 
weather variation causing different conditions either at critical phases of individual 
specimens' development, or on different sides of a hill, promontory, or other geo- 
graphical minor feature. A similar but less pronounced situation exists round the 
Sumatran highlands. 

This phenomenon is relevant here in perhaps accounting for the sudden prolifera- 
tion of Cheritra species at this centre. From Ceylon eastwards to this point only 
one, freja, has been known so far. In east Borneo there flies a second, pallida ; and 
in the islands to the east occur orpheus and aenea, either of which might yet be 
found here. 

However, the well documented view of Everett (1889) that the two island chains 
north and south of the Sulu Sea which link northeast Borneo and the Philippines 



82 C. F. COWAN 

align zoologically with Borneo rather than the Philippines was not greatly supported 
by the Horagini, and is not confirmed by the Cheritrini. The Philippine orpheus 
flies strongly in Palawan but not in Borneo, while freja and pdllida do not occur east 
of Borneo. However, Ritra aurea has Palawan as its eastern limit. 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

I am most grateful to the Trustees and the Keeper of Entomology, the British 
Museum (Natural History), for permission to study the collections and libraries, 
without which facilities and the help of their staff this review could not have been 
contemplated. 

Mr. N. H. Bennett prepared the genitalia slides from which the figures were 
photographed, and his care and patience have been of great help. 

Specimens have been lent to me by Col. J. N. Eliot, Mr. J. A. Hislop, M.C., Dr. 
T. Norman and Mr. G. C. Stubbs, to all of whom I would like to express my thanks. 



KEY TO THE GENERA & SPECIES OF CHERITRINI 

Note. In each subhead, wing-structure is given first, 
then markings, and finally <$ genitalia characteristics. 

Fore wing truncate ; termen angled at vein 4 and excavate thence to vein 7 ; conse- 
quently the cell exceeds half fore wing length and vein 12 is shorter than cell ; 
nevertheless vein 9 is long, with origin before mid vein 7 and well before end of 10. 
Hind wing termen evenly dentate from apex to vein 2 ; dorsum deeply excavate 
before the pendulous lobe ; dorsal vein sinuous and short, scarcely exceeding 
abdomen. 

No male insignia. 

Upperside blue or purple in both sexes, the black terminal border expanding at 
the fore wing apex ; no white markings at hind wing tornus. Underside more or 
less uniformly mottled dark and light brown ; no black, white, or metallic blue 
markings at hind wing tornus. 

Uncus lobes very oblique, subtriangular. Valvae distally dentate, and horns 
originate from mid-costa as in Ticherra. Aedeagus large and robust, particularly 
the phallobase which is quadrate ; vesica with two prominent cornuti. 

CHERITRELLA (one species) C. truncipennis (p. 84) 

Fore wing termen simple, at least below vein 6 ; cell not exceeding half fore wing 
length ; vein 12 about = cell ; vein 9 not long, origin at or just after mid 7 and just 
before end 10. Hind wing termen strongly produced and castellate between vein 3 
and tornus ; dorsum normal. 

Male insignia present except in Ticherra. 

Upperside sexually dimorphic ; male uniformly coloured with a uniform or linear 
black border, female brown or dull orange-brown ; hind wing tornus always with 
black and white markings. Underside (except in extreme dry-season form of 
Ticherra) ground colour simple, pale, and always with hind wing tornal black spots 
and metallic blue scales. 

Uncus lobes nearly erect and scarcely tapered. Valvae distally simply ovate ; 
dorsal horns (except Ticherra) from base of costa. Aedeagus short and stout.or 
long and slim, basally tapered ; vesica with one cornutus ..... 2 

In India-Burma, particularly in dry season, wings produced ; fore wing apex falcate 
and distinctly excavate at end of vein 6 ; at and near the equator, wings more 
rounded and normal. 



INDO-ORIENTAL CHERITRINI 83 

No male insignia. 

Upperside, male with comparatively broad black terminal border ; female very 
dark brown. Underside buff, dark orange, or pale ochreous according to season and 
race. The tails are brown, buff or white, never black. 

Uncus lobes short, broadly ovate. Valvae dorsal horns rising from apex, ends 
flattened, tip rounded and incurved with a fine point. Aedeagus rim oblique, with 
two lateral flaps. Cornutus small, conical. TICHERRA (one species) T. acte (p. 85) 
Fore wing normal. Male insignia always present. 

Male upperside black border linear (except in C. pallida). Underside markings 
simple. Tails white, often with black centre and shading. 

Uncus lobes digitate. Valve horns solid, simple, originating from base of costa. 
Aedeagus rim not oblique, nor with lateral flaps ...... 3 

3 Size average. Shape orthodox ; fore wing vein 9 rising just before end of vein 10. 

Male hind wing upperside with sub-basal tuft ; fore wing underside may be 
polished or branded about mid-vein i. 

Markings normal. 

Male genitalia compact, sturdy. Aedeagus with long rasps on dorsal and ventral 
surfaces at apex. Vesica and cornutus well developed. CHERITRA (five species 1 ) 4 

- Large. Fore wing broad and short ; costa short, apex produced, termen slightly 

concave, tornus rectangular. Fore wing vein 9 comparatively short, originating 
just after end of vein 10. 

Male fore wing with ovate discal patch of modified scales. Upperside ; male 
uniform cupreous red, female brown with basal orange suffusion. Underside 
abnormal ; plain grey-brown, with a white band from mid-dorsum to apex of hind 
wing, followed by a postdiscal curved undulate black band, a white band, and a 
submarginal series of black lunules before the marginal markings ; the black lunules 
bearing metallic blue scales in the tornal region. Tails more black than white. 

Male genitalia all parts attenuated. Aedeagus apically slightly swollen and 
fluted. Vesica small ; cornutus minute, pear-shaped. 

RITRA (one species) R. aurea (p. 97) 

4 East Borneo. Underside like the local race of freja. Smaller, wings rather rounded. 

Male upperside dull deep purple with a cloudy light blue suffusion and 2 mm. 
wide black terminal borders ; hind wing tornal markings and tails clear white. 

Male genitalia large. Uncus lobes long and narrow. Aedeagus ventrally convex 
throughout its length ........ C. pallida (p. 88) 

- Male upperside shining and without broad black borders. 

Uncus lobes broader, shorter. Aedeagus ventrally convex only at its base . . 5 

5 Widely distributed from Ceylon to Borneo. 

Male upperside dark purple brown, obscurely shot dark purple, often with a cold 
steely sheen. Female dark brown ; the three hind wing subtornal white spots vary 
in size and may almost unite to form a band. 

Uncus lobes broad and squat. Aedeagus ventral edge recurved . C. freja (p. 89) 

- Rare and restricted. Male upperside with green or orange ; female usually orange- 

brown, darker outwardly. 

Uncus lobes longer. Aedeagus straighter ....... 6 

6 Male upperside uniform dark shining green. 

Male genitalia at least as large as pallida and freja ..... 7 

- Palawan Philippines. Small (fore wing 17-19 mm.). 

Male upperside shining purple with all veins broadly shining golden orange. 
Female dark brown, each wing centrally rufous. Underside white, shading to 
orange at termen and apex ; postdiscal lines broadly black below hind wing vein 4, 
above it faint orange or obsolete ; the usual tornal markings. 

1 C. freja and orpheus are well known ; pallida, aenea and aenigma are very rare, with similar under- 
sides, and known for certain only from a few male specimens. 

ENTOM. 20, 3. 4 



84 C. F. COWAN 

Male genitalia uniformly 20% smaller than any other species. Aedeagus 
ventrally straight ....... ^ . C. orpheus (p. 96) 

7 South Sumatran (unique). Large (fore wing 22 mm.). Wings fuller and rounded. 

Male upperside uniform shining pure green when viewed with frontal light, 
heavily shot purple with back light, and cupreous in a side light ; tails white 
narrowly centred black. Underside as freja frigga from Sumatra. 

Male with the usual hind wing tuft, also a prominent pale ochreous subdorsal 
brand on the fore wing underside. Aedeagus longer and stouter than aenea ; 
vesica thicker, and cornutus substantially straight . . C. aenigma (p. 94) 

- Philippines (Mindoro). Smaller (fore wing 20-21 mm.). Wings more angular. 

Male upperside much duller and browner than aenigma. Female, and underside, 
as orpheus. Tails mostly black. 

Male tufted but without brand. 

Cornutus tip sharply curved. Valve horns much longer than in other species 

C. aenea (p. 95) 

CHERITRELLA de Niceville 

Cheritrella de Niceville, 1887 : 456. Type-species, C. truncipennis de Niceville, 1887, by 
monotypy. 

The name, derived from Cheritra, is of feminine gender. 

The main characters are given in the key. Both sexes have a peculiar prominent 
rufous brown scaling on the palpi, face, abdomen (ventral), wing fringes, tails and 
hind wing lobe. The antennae are naked and rufous brown throughout their length 
on the underside. 

Cheritrella truncipennis de Niceville 
(PI. i, fig. i ; PI. 2, fig. 13 ; PI. 3, fig. 25) 

Cheritrella truncipennis de Niceville, 1887 : 456, pi. 39, figs. 3, 4. Sikkim. 

C. truncipennis de Niceville; Elwes, 1893 : 639. Karen Hills, mid-Burma. 

C. truncipennis nagana Rober, 1926 (10 Oct.) : 376. Naga Hills, Assam. 

C. truncipennis de Niceville ; Seitz, 1926 (30 Nov.) : 991, pi. 159, fig. ai. 

C. truncipennis de Niceville ; Godfrey, 1930 : 343. North Thailand. 

C. truncipennis de Niceville, syn. nagana Rober ; Evans, 1932 : 287, pi. 29, fig. 68. 

Well figured by Seitz for the male upperside of a dry-season specimen. Also 
figured by most of the principal works on Indian Rhopalocera. 

The species seems to be commonest on the Burma- Yunnan border near Bhamo, 
and not to descend far into the tropics. 

The contrast between fore and hind wing ground colour on the male upperside is 
unusual in this subfamily, but not unique, recalling one or two species in the 
Arhopalini and the Pratapini. 

There are no sexual insignia. The female palpi are as usual longer than those of 
the male. Both sexes have rather more clothing of hairs than usual on both surfaces 
of the subdorsal area of the hind wing. On the upperside these are densest between 
veins i and 2 in the male, but, in the female, in the cell. 

There is slight variation between a dark, broad-bordered wet-season form (as in 
my figures) with richly coloured and boldly marked underside (f. nagana Rober, 
stat. n.), and the dry-season form which is paler and duller, and on the upperside has 



INDO-ORIENTAL CHERITRINI 85 

narrow borders with the hind wing blue area almost reaching the dorsum. The 
latter is often small. 

The fore wing length varies from (16) 18-19 mm. 

B.M. (N.H.). < Holotype, ? Allotype, SIKKIM, June 1886 (Moller). 81 <J, 21 ?, 
SIKKIM, ASSAM, N. BURMA, YUNNAN ; i <, Victoria Point, S. BURMA (!). 

TICHERRA de Niceville 

Ticherra de Niceville, 1887 : 457. " Type Ticherra acte Moore." 

The name, an anagram of Cheritra, is of feminine gender. 

An interesting genus whose one species undergoes marked seasonal dimorphism 
north of Latitude 6, where the wings are narrow and angular, but none in the 
equatorial area where the wings become increasingly rounded and normal, and the 
underside markings much more like those of Cheritra. It appears to be nearly as 
intolerant of the equatorial belt as Cheritrella, but slightly more adaptable. It 
would be interesting if Cheritrella were found in Sumatra, or more so in Borneo, to see 
what parallel subspeciation it showed there. It should logically much resemble the 
compatriot race of Ticherra. 

The isolated staudingeri from Kinabalu, Borneo looks so distinct from acte as to 
warrant the view that it is a separate species, but its points of difference follow the 
geographical trends so well that it is included as a remote subspecies, emphasizing 
that it belongs to this genus. 

The one species then has three named subspecies, to which is here added a fourth, 
and two infra-subspecific names. 

The male genitalia vary geographically ; in the Indo-Burmese area they are 
relatively small ; they are heavier and more robust, like the insects themselves, in 
Malaya and Sumatra ; more so in Hainan and Borneo ; while in the last the pointed 
apices of the valvae are less incurved, so appearing longer, and the flaps at the tip of 
the aedeagus are closed. 

Ticherra acte acte (Moore) 
(PL i, fig. 2 ; PL 2, fig. 14 ; PL 4, fig. 31) 

Myrina acte Doubleday, 1847 : 21. Silhet. [nomen nudum]. 

M. acte Moore, 1857 : 47. N. India. 

M. acte Moore ; Hewitson, 1863 : 30, pi. 12, figs. 8, 9. 

M. symira Hewitson, 18766 : 152. Darjiling. 

M. symira Hewitson, 1878 : Suppl. 26, pi. 3b, figs. 107, 108. 

Cheritra acte (Moore) Doherty, 1886 : 127. East Kumaon. 

Ticherra acte (Moore) de Niceville, 1887 : 457, pi. 40, fig. 5 (d.s.f.). 

Sithon acte (Moore) Staudinger, 1888 : 277, pi. 95, fig. (ds) (w.s.f.). 

T. acte (Moore) ; de Niceville, 1890 : 407, pi. 28, fig. 225. 

T. symira (Hewitson) idem : 408, as ? ab. 

T. acte acte (Moore) ; Fruhstorfer, 1912 : 245. Sikkim-Burma-Tongking. 

T. acte acte f. idina Fruhstorfer, 1912 : 245. (d.s.f.). 

T. acte acte (Moore) ; Seitz, 1926 : 994, pi. 146, figs. g5, 6 (d.s.f.), pi. 158, figs, hj, 8 (w.s.f. $). 

T. acte (Moore) ; Godfrey, 1930 : 344. North Thailand. 

The male upperside is very constant ; that of the female occasionally has the three 



86 C. F. COWAN 

spots at the hind wing tornus widened, almost forming a white band as in Seitz' 
illustration. 

The underside varies from the intense plain orange of the wet season extreme form 
(acte) to the dull buff with pencil-grey mottling of the dry season f . idina Fruhstorfer. 
Intergrades are more frequent than extremes, and occasional dwarfs occur in both 
sexes of both forms (ab. symira Hewitson) . 

As with Cheritrafreja, the upperside hind wing white tornal spots become distinctly 
wider in the Tavoy-Mergui area. In fact some South Burmese and Thailand 
examples closely approach liviana but they still show seasonal variation, and the 
acte I liviana cline is probably athwart the Thai-Malaya border, as a broad transitional 
area. 

Fore wing length is (13) 18-20 mm. 

B.M. (N.H.). ? Holotype acte (no loc. label). 

<$ Holotype symira (no loc.). 

<$ Holotype idina, SIKKIM. 

2 35 c?> I 74 ? i KUMAON, SIKKIM, THIBET, BHUTAN, ASSAM, BURMA to MERGUI, 
CAMBODIA, THAILAND. 

Ticherra acte retracta ssp. n. 

(PI. i, fig. 3 ; PI. 2, fig. 15 ; PL 3, fig. 26) 
The latin adjective retractus means " revealed ", and also " remote ". 

Two males and a female from interior Hainan represent this large dark subspecies, with wings 
less angular than in acte but with similar dark coloration. 

The male upperside has much narrower terminal borders than any other race, and the two 
hind wing subtornal white spots are nearly obsolete. The female similarly has the subtornal 
white band much reduced, and the upperside colour is very dark brown. The tails are mostly 
black. 

The underside is uniform dull ochreous with no markings internal to the postdiscal lines, but 
with prominent black and metallic green markings at the hind wing tornus. 

Fore wing length is 20-21 mm. 

B.M. (N.H.). (^Holotype; HAINAN: Interior Hainan, July, 1919 (Bowring). 
$ Allotype, i <$ ; HAINAN: Mt. Wuchi, May 1903. 

Ticherra acte liviana Fruhstorfer 
(PL i, fig. 4 : PL 2, fig. 16 ; PL 4, fig. 32) 

T. acte (Moore) ; de Niceville & Martin, 1896 : 479. N.E. Sumatra. 
T. acte liviana Fruhstorfer, 1912 : 245. N.E. Sumatra. 
T. acte (Moore) ; Corbet, i94oa : 6. Perlis, N.W. Malaya. 
T. acte liviana Fruhstorfer ; Eliot, 1959 : 382. Malaya. 

Not previously illustrated. 

Martin reported the species as " common throughout the year " in northeast 
Sumatra. Though the first record for Malaya (from the extreme north) was not 
made till 1940, there is a female in B.M. (N.H.) labelled " Perak, 3-4,000 ft., June 
1897 ; Curtis " (i.e. Charles Curtis, cf. Corbet, 1956 : 69), and the species is now well 
known from cleared slopes of the Selangor-Pahang hills. 



INDO-ORIENTAL CHERITRINI 87 

Sumatran and Malayan specimens show a similar range of variation. The forewings are 
much less angular than in acte, and the underside colour shades evenly from bright ochreous at 
the fore wing apex to pale cream at the hind wing tornus, while the postdiscal black lines are 
narrow, faint on the fore wing but bold on the hind, and the tornal markings are well developed. 
The male upperside is rather lighter, bluer, than in the northern races, and in both sexes, 
particularly the female, the tornal white spots are more prominent. The fore wing length is 
(16) 18-19 mm. 

In all these respects this subspecies is exactly intermediate between the wet season form of 
acte and staudingeri. 

The figure of the genitalia clearly shows the lateral lobes at the apex of the aedeagus, and the 
incurved flattened horns of the valvae, each with its apical spine. These features are present 
but less pronounced in acte and retracta, and are rather differently developed in staudingeri. 

" Type in coll. Morton, Lausanne." Fruhstorfer (1912). 

B.M. (N.H.). 3 <?, 14 $, SUMATRA (N.E., & W. coast) ; i ?, MALAYA. 

Ticherra acte staudingeri (H. H. Druce) comb. & stat. n. 

(PL i, fig. 5 ; PL 2, fig. 17 ; PL 4, fig. 33) 

Biduanda staudingeri H. H. Druce, 1895 : 615, pi. 34, figs. 5, 6. Kina Balu. 

B. staudingeri H. H. Druce ; Moulton, 1912 : 164. 

B. staudingeri H. H. Druce ; Swinhoe, 1912 : 190. 

Eooxylides staudingeri (H. H. Druce) Seitz, 1926 : 993, pi. 156, figs. g5, g6. 

The illustrations quoted are good. The fore wing length is 20-21 mm. 

This isolated subspecies appears to have found a congenial habitat for survival. 
Though there is only negative evidence (e.g. Moulton did not see it in Sarawak), it is 
suggested that it is not fully montane, but that it lives at about 6,000 ft. on sheltered 
uplands in N.E. Borneo, not exclusively on Mount Kina Balu. Little enough 
collecting has been done on this mountain ; far less on the lower ones round it. 

Two points about the series in B.M. (N.H.) are noteworthy ; one specimen is 
labelled Brunei (whose shrunken territory still contains some areas of over 6,000 ft.) ; 
and the great majority of specimens were collected by Waterstradt, and are labelled 
with the same date and in good condition, suggesting a lucky local large-scale 
emergence. 

According to Moulton (1915 : 161), Waterstradt made three lengthy visits to Kina 
Balu ; about 1894, about 1899 when he visited the summit, and about 1908. He also 
mentions further on that a later party found at the summit " Mr. Waterstradt's 
bottle ", but the date of his ascent is not given. These dates, which were verbal 
from the natives who helped, but were carefully checked, do not reconcile with our 
label data by several years. Possibly these printed labels of Oberthur's refer to a 
date of receipt from Waterstradt, or are otherwise in error. 

" The types are in his [Staudinger's] collection." Druce (1895). 

B.M. (N.H.). N. E. BORNEO: 9 $, 13 $, Kina Balu, 5 Aug. 1903, Waterstradt (ex coll. 
Oberthur) ; 2 $, Kina Balu, Waterstradt (coll. Adams, ex coll. Van der Poll) ; 
i $, Brunei, Waterstradt (idem) ; i $, Kina Balu, 1896, (coll Oberthur, ex coll. 
Staudinger ; a paratype?) ; i <, 2 $, Kina Balu. (? a Pryer label). 



88 C. F. COWAN 

CHERITRA Moore 
Cheritra Moore, 1881 : 109. " Type C. jafra." (sic). 

The name is probably a diminutive derived from the Greek word for a hand, 
referring to the palmate silhouette of the insect at rest, and is of feminine gender. 

The status of at least three of the five species in the genus is conjectural. Females 
are similar where they fly together, but the males fall into three groups by upperside 
coloration ; freja and pallida are dark purple, aenea and aenigma shining green, and 
orpheus is purple half eclipsed by broad shining orange vein-striping. Never more 
than two species fly together. The common freja ranges from Ceylon through India 
to Borneo, flying with the unique aenigma in Sumatra and with the strange pallida 
in N.E. Borneo. Then the common orpheus ranges in the Philippines and Palawan, 
flying with aenea in Mindoro. The <$ genitalia of all are constantly, albeit slightly, 
distinct, and it seems that they must be regarded as differentiated relict species 
derived from an ancient stem from which freja and orpheus are the most recent 
parallel twigs. 

Further evidence that they are separate species is afforded by the shape of the rim 
of the aedeagus when in the continent state. In freja the dorsal and ventral surfaces 
at the apex are parallel and not swollen, the rasps folded closely back on themselves ; 
in pallida these surfaces are appreciably swollen, and in aenea and aenigma very 
much so ; while in orpheus they are thin but converge abruptly. These features were 
not given in the Keys, only the one aenigma being available for examination, one 
aenea, and three pallida (one more being left unmolested), but they appear constant. 

Seitz, in dealing with the genus, illustrates nine specimens, but the undersides of 
only two Philippine ones. The boldly marked undersides in this area contrast with 
the uniform chalky white one with faint markings in Ceylon. Intervening sub- 
species have greater or less ochreous flush and prominence of the hind wing postdiscal 
black line. 

Cheritra pallida (H. Druce) 
(PL i, fig. 7 ; PI. 2, fig. 19 ; PI. 4, figs. 34, 35) 

Sithon pallida H. Druce, 1873 : 352, pi. 33, fig. 3. " Borneo ". 

5. pallida H. Druce; Distant & Pryer, 1887 : 41, 268. Sandakan. 

Cheritra pallida (H. Druce) H. H. Druce, 1895 : 610. Labuan (Low] (sic) ; Sandakan (Pryer}. 

C. pallida (H. Druce) ; Moulton, 1912 : 159. Labuan (Low) ; Sandakan (Pryer). 

Ignored by Fruhstorfer and Seitz. 

The specific characters and appearance are covered in the key and the illustrations. 
The apparent brightness of the upperside figured results from the unusual powdering 
of pale dull blue scales, and is quite distinct from the silky sheen of freja and other 
species. The hind wing upperside white tornal markings are much more prominent 
than in any male freja form, and they are preceded by a distinct black postdiscal 
band. The superficial resemblance to Ticherra acte is startling but irrelevant. The 
fore wing length is 17-19 mm. 

The female is probably almost identical with freja ochracea, with smaller, rounder 
wings and perhaps blacker subtornally on the hind wing upperside. It is possible 



INDO-ORIENTAL CHERITRINI 89 

that the wing bases on the upperside may be suffused with ochreous. 

The <$ genitalia illustrated are those of a specimen from S.E. Borneo, and of the 
Holotype. They show different conditions of the aedeagus ; the former in fully 
continent state, clearly showing the vesica and cornutus, and also the two long rasps, 
dorsal and ventral, each running outside and into the inner surface of the orifice ; 
the latter shows the vesica and cornutus partially everted, and the rasps consequently 
unfurled and almost straight. 

It is interesting that this rare and elusive species was caught and named so early 
in the generic nomenclature. The type specimen was said by H. Druce (1873 : 337) 
to have been in one of the collections sent from Borneo " by Mr. Lowe during the 
years 1867, 1869 and 1872 ". The collector in fact must have been Mr. H. (later 
Sir Hugh) Low, who " came out to Sarawak in 1845 as a naturalist. In 1848 he 
became Colonial Secretary of Labuan where he [made the first recorded ascent of 
Kina Balu in 1851 and] remained till 1877, when he was appointed Resident of 
Perak. He retired in 1884 and died April i8th. 1895." [recte 1905] (Moulton, 
1915 : 141). It was after him that the well-known Satyrid Neorina lowii (Doubleday, 
1849 : pl- 61, fig- 4) was name d. It was first referred to with the data " Sarawak, 
from Mr. H. Low's collection " (Doubleday, 1848 : 31, as nomen nudum). This entry 
in the 1848 appendix to Doubleday's List, and not in Part I (1844) or Part 2 (1847) 
suggests that Low sent his whole Sarawak collection back when he moved to Labuan, 
and that his subsequent " Borneo " specimens all came from the northeast ; in other 
words that pallida was from N.E. Borneo, not Sarawak. This view is supported by 
Druce junior's change of data for the Holotype from Borneo (Lowe) to Labuan (Low], 
and the presence of a printed Druce label " Labuan, Low " on the specimen. 
Moreover, Moulton's 1912 list of Bornean records repeats H. H. Druce's data verbatim, 
confirming that no Sarawak specimens were known. The specimen illustrated here 
is one from S.E. Borneo, an interesting addition to the range. 

B.M. (N.H.). $ Holotype, LABUAN (Low) ; i <$, i ?, Tameang Lajang, S.E. 
BORNEO (Wahne) ; i <$, S.E. Borneo ; i <$, S.E. Borneo (Schonberg) ; i 9, Melikop 
(i.e. 65 miles south of Kina Balu, and 100 miles S.W. of Sandakan, near Penungah) 
(Cator). 

The two female identifications are presumptive. 

Cheritra freja (Fabricius) 
(PL i, figs. 6, 8 ; PI. 2, figs. 18, 20 ; PL 3, figs. 27, 28) 

The subspeciation of this well-known species has already been referred to. Its 
upperside is remarkably constant ; in all races the tint of the male varies slightly, 
and in the female the hind wing white subtornal spots may widen to form a band. 

The nomenclature of the nominate subspecies was investigated by Corbet (1941^ : 
105, 1956 : 65), and the repercussions on other subspecies by Cowan (19650 : 68-72). 
Unfortunately the typescript of the last paper was revised unknown to me and proofs 
were not circulated, resulting in the publication of several stupid misspellings and a 
complete additional sentence in the vital paragraph which is wrong and misleading. 
After explaining that two of the names in current use were incorrectly applied to 



go C. F. COWAN 

certain subspecies which therefore lacked names, I proposed two new names to fill the 
voids, and naturally designated holotypes for them in accordance with Articles 13 (a) 
(ii) and 72 (c) of the Rules of Nomenclature. These new names were not " replace- 
ment names " for existing valid ones, and the case did not come under Articles 13 (a) 
(iii) and 72 (d) of the Rules, in a no doubt well-intentioned attempt to comply with 
which my script was altered. The two commas in line 6 of page 70 of the article as 
published, and the sentence from " and deliberately " (sic !) in line 7 to the end of 
line 9 should be deleted. And the dates " 1927 " in lines 12 and 15 of that page 
should be changed back to 1932, thus agreeing with the References (as descriptions 
for the new names, reference was made to the most recent widely known and acces- 
sible work on the region affected ; Evans 1932, not 1927 which was only a reprint 
of the 1925 articles). 

For illustration of the $ genitalia of C. freja, again two examples are used. The 
first, from a Sumatran specimen, shows the vesica at the mouth of the aedeagus, 
whose rasps are partly unfurled. In Mr. Bennett's beautiful preparation for the 
second, a Ceylon specimen, the vesica and cornutus are seen at full ejaculation, 
giving the aedeagus a remarkable and completely different appearance. 

Cheritra freja pseudojafra Moore 
(PL 3, ng. 28) 

Cheritra pseudojafra Moore, 1881 : no. Ceylon. 

C. jaffra Butler, 1867 syn. pseudojafra Moore ; de Niceville, 1890 : 410. S. India ; Ceylon. 

C. freja pseudojafra Moore ; Fruhstorfer, 1912 : 243. S.India; Ceylon. 

C. freja pseudojaffra Moore ; Evans, 1925 : 766. Ceylon. 

C. freja pseudojafra Moore ; Seitz, 1926 : 993, pi. 158, fig. f 6. Ceylon. 

C. freja pseudojafra Moore ; Evans, 1927 : 185. Ceylon. 

C. freja pseudojaffra Moore ; Evans, 1932 : 288. Ceylon. 

C. freja pseudojaffra Moore ; Woodhouse, 1952 : 137, pi. 21, figs. 18, 19. 

Seitz figures only the female upperside. Woodhouse gives good illustrations of 
both sides of each sex. 

The plain white underside with very fine grey broken postdiscal lines and sub- 
marginal lunules is distinctive. The tornal metallic scales are pale blue and more 
extensive than in any other subspecies. The uppersides are darker in colour in both 
sexes than in other races. 

B.M. (N.H.). 10 <J, 15 ?, CEYLON. 

Cheritra freja butleri Cowan 

Myrina jaffra Godart ; Hewitson, 1863 : 30. " Assam ". (recte jafra & Java). 

M. jaffra Godart ; Butler, 1867 : 34. " S. India, nee Assam ". 

Cheritra jaffra (Butler) de Niceville, 1890 : 410. Ceylon, S. India. 

C. freja jaffra (Butler) ; Evans, 1925 : 766 ; 1932 : 288. S. India. 

C. freja joffra (Butler) ; Seitz, 1926 : 993. S. India. 

C. freja butleri Cowan, ig6^a : 70. S. India. 

Indian specimens of this species were originally identified in that country as jafra 
Godart (q.v. below), of which the erroneous spelling jaffra, which first appeared in 



INDO-ORIENTAL CHERITRINI 91 

1829, soon became universal. The name freja (Fabricius) could not be placed 
(Hewitson, 1865 : 53). 

Then Butler recognized that freja and "jaffra Godart " were conspecific, North 
Indian specimens being nearer the former and South Indian ones the latter. Ignoring 
their type-localities, he suggested that they should be known by those respective 
names to avoid making "jaffra " a synonym of freja. This line was followed by 
Kirby (1871), who had the constant advice of Butler. 

Unfortunately the old erroneous spelling jaffra became attributed to Butler and 
applied to the S. Indian race, an inadmissible procedure and one Butler had not 
intended. As the true locality of Myrina jafra Godart is Java, the S. Indian sub- 
species had no valid name, and butleri Cowan was introduced to fill the vacancy. 

It is emphasized here tha.t jaffra, joffra, pseudojaffra, etc. are " erroneous subsequent 
spellings " ; they do not rank as names or synonyms, and are not mentioned in the 
systematic list. 

The white-banded female specimen used by Butler to illustrate his article is in the 
B.M. (N.H.) Type Collection. 

The subspecies is similar to pseudojafra of Ceylon but the underside is creamier, 
more often with slight ochreous terminal shading. All markings are better defined, 
but the fore wing cell-end bar is still usually absent. 

B.M. (N.H.). <J Holotype, $ Allotype, North Kanara ; 55 , 57 ?, S. INDIA. 

Cheritra freja evansi Cowan 

Myrina jaffra Godart; Hewitson, 1863 : 30. " Assam ". (recte jafra & Java). 

Hesperia freja Fabricius ; Butler, 1867 : 34. " N. India ". 

Cheritra freja (Fabricius) de Niceville, 1890 : 410. N. India. 

C. freja freja (Fabricius) ; Swinhoe, 1912 (March) : 207. India-Borneo. 

C. freja freja (Fabricius) ; Fruhstorfer, 1912 (April) : 243. India-Siam. 

C. freja freja (Fabricius) ; Evans, 1925 : 766. N. India-Burma. 

C. freja freja (Fabricius) ; Seitz, 1926 : 993, pi. 146, fig. g4 ; pi. 159, fig. b7. N. India. 

C. freja freja (Fabricius) ; Evans, 1932 : 288, pi. 29, No. 70. N. India, etc. 

Hesperia freja Fabricius ; Corbet, 19416 : 105 ; 1956 : 65. Mergui nee India. 

C. freja evansi Cowan, 19650 : 70. N. India-Tonkin, Burma, Laos. 

Corbet, after careful investigation of Fabricius' type-specimens and material, 
found that freja was taken by Koenig in the Mergui Archipelago on one of his voyages 
from Tranquebar (S. India) and not, as Butler had assumed, in Tranquebar itself, 
still less in N. India whither Butler had shifted the name. Thus the widespread 
continental subspecies had no valid name, and evansi was proposed to fill the vacancy. 

The subspecies is always more tawny and duller on the underside than the others ; all markings 
are distinct including the fore wing cell-end bar ; the fore wing markings are now ochreous not 
black. The tails, hitherto almost plain white, now have a distinct black centre line. There is 
considerable variation in size and a certain amount in appearance, reflecting the wide range in 
climate over the large area covered. Males often have traces of a small colourless area of polished 
scales about mid-vein i on the fore wing underside. Fore wing length is 16-22 mm., with a 
norm of 19-21 mm. 

Seitz figures only the uppersides. The specimen figured underside by Evans is 
identifiable in the collection by minute blemishes as well as appearance, as one of his 

ENTOM. 20, 3. 5 



92 C. F. COWAN 

from Myitta, Tavoy, on the cline with the next subspecies. Its whiteness and bright 
marking are more typical of the latter. 

There are no clear cut seasonal forms but some extreme dry season specimens have 
the tornal spots tawny instead of black. An isolated series of i^, 3 $ from Vietnam 
(S. Annam, Xom Gom ; February, Fruhstorfer ; Suoi Dai, Nha Trang, 1916, 
Gaullois) ex coll. Rothschild, are all large, and bright on the underside as in true 
freja, and may represent a coastal subspecies on the S. China Sea. Otherwise, 
specimens from the entire continental region appear to fall within the variation range 
of the one subspecies. 

B.M. (N.H.). ^ Holotype, $ Allotype; ASSAM: Khasi Hills; 64 $, 13 ?, N. INDIA, 
SIKKIM & BHUTAN ; 70 <$, 21 $, ASSAM & MANIPUR ; 47 <J, 23 <j>, N. BURMA to 
TONKIN ; 82 <$, 32 $, continental BURMA & THAILAND, VIETNAM. 

Cheritra freja freja (Fabricius) 

Hesperia freja Fabricius, 1793 : 263. " Tranquebar ". 

Cheritra freja regia Evans, 1925 : 766. Mergui. 

C. freja freja (Fabricius) ; Corbet, 19416 : 105. Mergui nee India. 

C. freja freja (Fabricius) ; Corbet, 1956 : 65, 347, 464. Langkawi Is. 

C. freja freja (Fabricius) ; syn. regia Evans ; Cowan, 19650 : 69. 

As Evans found, the underside of this subspecies is much more vivid, a clear white 
with sharply contrasted orange costa and termen to the fore wing and apex to the 
hind wing, and with prominent orange markings, including cell-end bar, on the fore 
wing, which are replaced by black ones in the tornal half of the hind wing. The 
upperside tornal white markings in both sexes are clearer than in any other race ; 
these quadrate spots in the females of all the preceding subspecies have been large 
and almost conjoined to form a white band, but hereafter the veins separating them 
are much more broadly black. 

The males in a series from Langkawi, all taken in November or January, are shot 
on the upperside with a faintly greenish steely grey. This effect appears in individuals 
of all subspecies, and may be incidental, seasonal, or a maritime form. Langkawi 
specimens also show a tendency to the Malayan race in having the postdiscal black 
markings on the underside of the hind wing appreciably wider, comprising narrow 
bars rather than thick lines. 

The fore wing length is 17-20 mm. (19-21 mm. in Langkawi). 

The subspecies appears common, so it is not surprising that Koenig found it on his 
visit to Mergui. 

B.M. (N.H.). 43 $, 26 $, PENINSULAR BURMA & THAILAND, Mergui Archipelago 
(including holotype and allotype of regia Evans) ; 6 <^, 5 $, Langkawi Is. 

Cheritra freja sabanga Toxopeus 
C. freja sabanga Toxopeus, 1929 : 213. Pulau Weh (off N. Sumatra). 

Not seen by me. Described from two specimens of each sex, it appears to lie 
between the Ceylon and the Mergui subspecies. 



INDO-ORIENTAL CHERITRINI 93 

Wings very rounded. The upperside white spotting at the hind wing tornus prominent ; the 
female with a distinct violet tint. Underside hind wing white, fore wing creamy, termens 
narrowly bright ochreous ; the markings ochreous, prominent but narrow ; the metallic scaling 
bright and intense. Tails with a broad black centre line. (Adapted from Toxopeus). Size ? 

It is interesting to note that none of the Cheritrini have ever been recorded from the 
well-worked Andaman and Nicobar Isles, where the Horagini are represented ; nor 
from Pulau Nias where both the Horagini and the Drupadiini have several species ; 
yet here is C.freja apparently flourishing on an intervening islet without either of the 
other tribes. Admittedly the Weh collection comprised only eleven species of 
Lycaenidae ; if the other tribes do occur they should be interesting. 

Cheritra freja frigga 2 Fruhstorfer 
(PI. 3, fig. 27) 

Cheritra freja (Fabricius) ; Distant, 1885 : 251, pi. 20, fig. 10. Malaya. 

C.freja (Fabricius) ; de Niceville & Martin, 1896 : 479. N.E. Sumatra. 

C. freja frigga Fruhstorfer, 1912 : 243. N.E. (type) & W.C. Sumatra ; Malaya. 

C. freja frigga Fruhstorfer ; Seitz, 1926 : 993, pi. 159, fig. b6. 

C. freja frigga Fruhstorfer ; Corbet, 1956 : 347, pi. 46, fig. 193. 

Seitz illustrates only the ^ upperside, but Distant's and Corbet's figures of the 
underside (the latter specimen taken by me in Johore) well show the much more 
ochreous fore wing of the subspecies and the wider postdiscal black bars below vein 4 
on the hind wing. The fore wing cell-end bar is again prominent, and the tails are 
more heavily black-centred. The fore wing length is 17-20 mm. 

Little or nothing is known of the species from the whole of the 60,000 sq. miles of 
the southern third of Sumatra. There is one female specimen, very large (fore wing 
24 mm.) and well marked, from Gunong Talang, Padang Bovenlanden ; ex colls. 
Van der Poll and Adams (a mountain exceeding 8,500 ft. which lies about 20 miles 
inland from Padang ; ioo| E, i S). This specimen might indicate a large south- 
western submontane race, or might conceivably pair with aenigma (q.v. below). 

B.M. (N.H.). J LECTOTYPE (selected May, 1941 by G. Talbot from Fruhstorfer's 
type series and here designated), " N.O. Sumatra ; Martin (i.e. N.E. Sumatra). 
47 <$> 33 ?, N. SUMATRA (all north of equator) ; i $, BATU Is. (Fruhstorfer) ; 4 3, 
2 $, SUMATRA: Lebong Tandai, W. coast (3 S) (Brooks) ; 24 $, 23 $, MALAYA and 
SINGAPORE. 

Cheritra freja fracta ssp. n. 

(PI. i, fig. 6 ; PI. 2, fig. 18) 

This is an interesting subspecies, intermediate between those of Sumatra, Java 
and Borneo. 

The underside is much paler than those of frigga and ochracea, thus approaching jafra. But 
though the fore wing postdiscal lines are still present, the cell-end bar is very faint, and the 
hind wing markings are broad and emphatic as in ochracea. 

The fore wing length is 19-20 mm. 

* Like Friday, frigga is named after Frigg, the wife of Odin (whence Wednesday). Third of the 
ancient Norse and Teutonic gods after Odin and Thor (cf. Thursday) came Frey, after whose sister 
freja is named. 

ENTOM. 20, 3. 5 



94 C. F. COWAN 

B.M. (N.H.). <$ Holotype, $ Allotype, 5 $, 14 $, BANKA ISLAND (Hagen). 

Cheritra freja jafra (Godart) 

Myrina jafra Godart, 1824 : 592, 593. " <J ", recte $. Java. 

M. jafra Godart ; Horsfield, 1829 : 118. $. Java. 

M. jaffra Godart ; idem : pi. 2, figs. 5, 5. 

M. jaffra Godart ; Boisduval, 1836 : pi. 7, fig. 4. 

Cheritra freja joffra Butler ; Piepers & Snellen, 1918 : 108-9, pi- 2 7> fig- I 74- 

C. freja jafra (Godart) Cowan, 1965(3 : 68-72. Java. 

Reversing the subspeciation trend, this race from Latitude 8 south is much closer 
to freja from 12 north than to the intervening equatorial frigga, fracta and ochracea. 

Piepers & Snellen well illustrate the underside, which is as white as freja but whose 
wing margins are less bright, ochreous rather than orange, with the slender postdiscal 
lines and fore wing cell-end bar uniformly dark and distinct. 

The fore wing length is 18-21 mm., though dwarfs to 15 mm. occur in either sex. 

The authorship and date Godart, 1824 are discussed by Cowan, 1967. 

B.M. (N.H.). 20 c?, 12 ?, JAVA (all parts) ; i <?, BALI (Doherty}. 

Cheritra freja ochracea H. H. Druce 

(PL i, fig. 8 ; PL 2, fig. 20) 

Cheritra freja var. ochracea H. H. Druce, 1895 : 610. Borneo. 
C. freja (Fabricius) ; Moulton, 1912 : 158. 

Not previously figured. 

Druce noted the strong orange flush over the underside of both wings, and the 
broad hind wing postdiscal black bars. The fore wing cell-end bar is usually imper- 
ceptible against the ground colour, and the postdiscal lines are often similarly 
obscured. Moulton found less well emphasized examples among Sarawak specimens, 
and chose to disregard the subspecific name, but there is now no doubt that Bornean 
specimens in general conform to this distinctive type and that freja-\ike individuals 
are exceptional. 

The subspecies varies in size, usually tending to be small, the fore wing length being 
(17-) 18-20 (-22) mm. 

Three specimens from Pulo Laut off the south coast are small (16-17 mm -) an d 
noticeably pale below. They are rather worn but may indicate a further peripheral 
subspecies. 

B.M. (N.H.). 33 3, 19 $, BORNEO (west, north, east & south) ; 2 ^, i $, PULO 
LAUT. 

Cheritra aenigma sp. n. 

(PL i, fig. 12 ; PL 2, fig. 24 ; PL 4, fig. 37) 
The name is from the Latin noun meaning a " puzzle ". 

Male upperside uniform lustrous deep yellow-green except for the normal black and clear white 
hind wing tornal markings and the hairy brown dorsum ; the usual black costal and terminal 
lines, but the extreme base of the hind costa white ; tails very white, with thin black centre line. 



INDO-ORIENTAL CHERITRINI 95 

The colour is brilliant Zephyrus-green in normal diffused light, but assumes a pinkish or violet 
lustre if viewed in direct sunlight. 

Underside pure white, shading to bright orange in the apical half of the fore wing and at the 
hind wing apex ; the usual markings at the hind wing tornus ; the postdiscal line broad and 
black on the hind wing up to vein 4, thereafter and on the fore wing faint and fulvous ; the 
fore wing cell-end bar well marked, and a broad nacreous area along the dorsum bearing a 
prominent broad ochreous brand about the centre of vein i . Apart from this brand the under- 
side resembles a large and well-marked specimen of the compatriot freja frigga. The fore wing 
length is 22 mm. 

The unique specimen ex coll. Oberthur bears one of his printed labels reading 
" Liwa, S.O. Sumatra, 1400 metres. W. Doherty. 1890." By S.O., Oberthur 
means S.W., whereas to Fruhstorfer it would mean S.E. In 1890 the energetic 
Doherty collected successively in Malaya, Burma and Singapore, had an unsuccessful 
stay in Java (Batavia, Soekaboemi and Buitenzorg), and then sailed to Kroe in 
S.W. Sumatra ; from here he made trips " to Miva in the mountains, Marang on the 
coast " and for 3 weeks in September to the island of Engano, finally returning via 
Singapore, Perak, Penang, Ranawng (Renong) and S. Burma to Calcutta. Neither 
Liwa nor Miva are shown on available large-scale maps ; in manuscript the names are 
alike and I fancy they are the same ; the locality, which will be mentioned again in 
discussing the Drupadiini, lies in the mountain range inland from Kroe which, owing 
to the oblique lie and shape of the island, might equally be termed S.E., S.W., or 
South Sumatra. This visit of Doherty's seems to be one of the very few ever made 
for collecting in the southern third of the island. 

Horsfield (1829 : 118), in describing the Javan male of C. freja for the first time, 
said " Wings above blackish brown covered with a beautiful saturated cupreous gloss 
slightly varying to purple . . ." . The phrase italicized by me is startling. No freja 
(or jafra) has a beautiful nor saturated cupreous gloss, and no such specimens are 
known. Horsfield had two males, which his figures show had the normal Javanese 
underside pattern. He surely could not have had two male aenigma, which might 
almost fit the description. The more probable explanation is that he was over- 
enthusiastic about the dull purple gloss which on occasion very slightly varies to 
steel-grey. 

B.M. (N.H.). JHolotype. S. SUMATRA: Liwa, 4,000 ft., S. Aug. /Sep., 1890 (Doherty}. 

Cheritra aenea Semper stat. n. 
(PL i, fig. ii ; PL 2, fig. 23 ; PL 4, fig. 36) 

Cheritra aenea Semper, 1890 : 215. Mindoro. 

C. orpheus aenea Semper ; Fruhstorfer, 1912 : 243. 

C. orpheus aenea Semper ; Seitz, 1926 : 994, pi. 158, figs. g5, 6. 

Male upperside similar to aenigma but of a yellower green, and the hind wing tornus, dorsum 
and tails are almost entirely black. Underside similar to orpheus ; white sharply shading to 
fulvous at the fore wing termen, with all markings obsolete except those below hind wing vein 4, 
which are prominent. Size as orpheus, smaller and with less rounded wings than aenigma ; 
fore wing length 19-21 mm. 

Seitz' figures are good, though the upperside colour might be greener. 



96 C. F. COWAN 

The female upperside is probably dark brown with diffuse orange discal areas on 
each wing, that on the fore wing large, on the hind wing small ; the usual hind wing 
tornal markings clearly denned. 

Semper described this species from six males, after discussing 73 specimens of 
orpheus from Luzon and Mindanao. The rarity of orpheus in Mindoro though 
common in Palawan to the west and the other islands in the east, and the presence of 
aenea apparently exclusively in Mindoro, remain unexplained. 

B.M. (N.H.). 2 (, MINDORO (i, lacking abdomen ex coll. Hewitson, labelled 
orpheus; i, Everett, Dec. 1894) ; (?) I ?, Mindoro, Laguna di Nanjan, 13 Mar., 1910. 

Cheritra orpheus (Felder) 

There can be no mistaking the male of this species. The upperside is violet but 
the outer margins, and all veins except the two along the black hind wing dorsum, 
are rich bright orange, giving the effect illustrated at PI. i, fig. 12. This effect is 
enhanced in side lighting, when the wings may appear completely shot with pinkish, 
metallic orange, or metallic golden according to the angle of incidence. There is no 
trace of green, and the separation of this species from aenea is quite evident by its 
appearance as well as structurally. 

The species is of particular interest in that the orange veining indicates, in addition 
to all extant veins, those now obsolete in all Rhopalocera ; the anterior extension of 
hind wing vein 4 through the cell to the base ; similar extensions of fore wing veins 
4 and 5, which merge about mid-cell to run concurrent to the base ; and the obsolete 
subdorsal vein from fore wing base to termen between veins i and 2. This pheno- 
menon, materializing the phantom neuration of the complete Median and Second 
Cubitus, is closely but less completely paralleled in Drina tnaneia (Hewitson) (cf. 
Corbet, 1956 : 336), another individualistic species of a distinct tribe of " Theclinae ", 
and the only species of the subfamily known to carr true androconia (Corbet, 
1956 : 306). No androconia can be detected in orpheus. 

Subspeciation, again, is evinced mainly on the underside. 

One female specimen from Luzon bears the small round Felder label " Jalajala ". 
It happens that the next species described by the Felders after orpheus was Myrina 
jalajala (a species in the Pratapini) . The locality has been traced on an old map to 
a small promontory on the north shore of Lake Bai near Manila, which on modern 
maps is shown as Halahala, Talatala, or a variant. 

Cheritra orpheus eurydice Fruhstorfer 
(PL 4, fig- 39) 

C. orpheus eurydice Fruhstorfer, 1912 : 243. Palawan. 

C. orpheus eurydice Fruhstorfer ; Seitz, 1926 : 994, pi. 158, rigs. 3, 4. 

The male upperside orange shading is very vivid. The female is dark brown with the usual 
hind wing tornal markings, and with a broad dull orange-brown suffusion over the central half 
of the fore wing and spaces 2 to 4 of the hind wing. 

The underside is whitish, bordered along the fore wing termen and at the hind wing apex with 
bright orange ; the postdiscal markings in the tornal half of the hind wing are comparatively 
narrow and irregular, 



INDO-ORIENTAL CHERITRINI 97 

B.M. (N.H.). 7 $, 10 ?, PALAWAN. 

Cheritra orpheus orpheus (C. & R. Felder) 
(PI. 4, fig. 38) 

Myrina orpheus Boisduval in Hit. C. & R. Felder, 1862 : 292. Luzon. 

M. orpheus Felder syn. massiva Hewitson ; Hewitson, 1863 : 30, pi. 12, figs. 10, n ; pi. 16, 

fig- 45- 

Cheritra orpheus orpheus (Felder) Fruhstorfer, 1912 : 243. 
C. orpheus orpheus (Felder) ; Seitz, 1926 : 994, pi. 146, fig. h8. 

Hewitson's name massiva, already engraved on his plate, was a stillborn synonym, 
as he explained in his text. 

A rather variable subspecies, but generally the male upperside is more yellowish orange, 
rendering the purple patches more apparent ; the female orange-brown areas are very variable 
in extent but usually the wing bases are darker. The underside of the fore wing is usually more 
suffused with orange, and the postdiscal black bars in the tornal half of the hind wing are slightly 
more heavily marked than in eurydice. 

B.M. (N.H.). <? Holotype, $ Allotype, 13 <$, 9 9, LUZON ; 3 <$, i $, MINDORO ; 
i 9, TICAO. 

Cheritra orpheus orphnine ssp. n. 

(PL i, fig. 9 ; PI. 2, fig. 21) 

The name is from the Greek adjective meaning " dusky ", comprising red, white 
and black pigments. 

In Mindanao a much more distinct race has evolved. The male upperside is bright like 
eurydice, but the female is normally uniform plain dark brown. The underside, particularly in 
the female, is much more suffused with orange, and the hind wing black postdiscal markings are 
broader and more regular. 

The fore wing lengths of all subspecies vary from 17-19 mm. 

B.M. (N.H.). < Holotype, 9 Allotype, MINDANAO, 1903-4 (Waterstradt) ; 12 <J, 
3 9> Mindanao. 

RITRA de Niceville 

(PL i, fig. 10 ; PL 2, fig. 22 ; PL 3, figs. 29, 30) 
Ritra de Niceville, 1890 : 399, 411. Type-species, Sithon aurea Druce. 

An euphonic derivative of Cheritra, Ritra is of feminine gender. 

The characteristics of this genus and species have already been discussed. 
Fruhstorfer described three subspecies as distinct from the nominal one. The 
senior, volumnia, is sound, but it is with some hesitancy that cuprea is retained 
separately, and likewise that panowa is upheld apart from aurea. 

Fruhstorfer's collection passed to the B.M. (N.H.), but his unique female type of 
panowa is not there, nor is one female from his type-series of cuprea, nor his single 
Perak volumnia male. It is noticed that each of these was illustrated by Seitz, and it 
would seem that the originals for all Seitz' illustrations were kept separately. 



98 C. F. COWAN 

The hind wing postdiscal black band follows parallel geographical subspeciation to 
that of Cheritra. In Sumatra and Malaya it is relatively narrow and disjointed ; in 
Borneo broad and solid. 

It is interesting that R. aurea is found in Palawan but not further east. It thus 
overlaps C. orpheus, which there reaches its western limit. 



Ritra aurea cuprea (Fruhstorfer) comb. n. 

Ritra aurea (H. Druce) ; de Niceville & Martin, 1896 (i Feb.) : 479. N.E. Sumatra. 

R. aurea (H. Druce) ; de NiceVille, 1896 (24 Mar.) : 185, pi. T, fig. 45. $. N.E. Sumatra. 

Cheritra aurea cuprea Fruhstorfer, 1914 : 175. N.E. Sumatra. 

C. aurea cuprea Fruhstorfer ; Seitz, 1926 : 994. 

Fruhstorfer described this race from 5 <$, i $, as being considerably smaller than 
any other, the male having smaller tornal white spots on the hind wing upperside 
than volumnia, and the female clearer white ones than aurea. He said the underside 
was blackish grey instead of brownish as in those two subspecies. 

I find the size range the same, and the appearance almost identical with volumnia. 
Fore wing length 20-24 mm. 

The name should be retained for the Sumatran subspecies pending the collection 
of more material from that island. 

B.M. (N.H.). c Holotype, $ Allotype, 3 ^ Paratypes, N.E. SUMATRA (Martin), 
ex coll. Fruhstorfer ; 4 <$, 3 $, N.E., E. & W. coasts of Sumatra. 



Ritra aurea volumnia (Fruhstorfer) 

Ritra aurea (H. Druce) de NiceVille, 1890 : 411. Perak & Borneo. 

Cheritra aurea volumnia Fruhstorfer, 1912 : 243. Perak (Type loc.) & Sumatra. 

C. aurea volumnia Fruhstorfer ; Seitz, 1926 : 994, pi. 158, fig. gi. 

R. aurea volumnia (Fruhstorfer) Corbet, 1956 : 347. Malaya. 

Seitz' illustration of the male upperside is good. 

Fruhstorfer's description from one Perak male and some Sumatran specimens 
starts with the phrase " almost double the size of aurea from Borneo ". He must 
have had an extreme dwarf of the latter. He then gave two features ; the upperside 
of all wings was somewhat darker and more strongly metallic (in the male) ; and the 
black postdiscal band on the underside of the hind wing was much narrower than in 
Borneo. Both these points are equally valid for Sumatran and Malayan specimens 
as compared to the majority of Bornean ones. The males furthermore tend to be 
slightly more purple-shot in certain lights. The fore wing length is 20-24 mm. 

Corbet (1956 : 347) said that he had seen one Malayan male specimen without the 
fore wing brand. He gave no data, and it has not been possible to trace it. The size 
of the brand varies appreciably, but no examples have been seen where it even 
approaches obsolescence. 

B.M. (N.H.). 3 & i ?, MALAYA. 



INDO-ORIENTAL CHERITRINI 99 

Ritra aurea panowa (Fruhstorfer) comb. n. 

Cheritra aurea panowa Fruhstorfer, 1914 : 175. W. Borneo, Sintang. 
C. aurea panowa Fruhstorfer ; Seitz, 1926 : 994, pi. 158, fig. g2. 

Described from one $, as differing from aurea in the white subtornal band on the 
hind wing being darkened and formed of smaller neat grey components ; in the 
considerably darker, blackish rather than brownish, underside (which Seitz amends 
to " uniform dark yellowish grey, not brown "), on which the hind wing median and 
subtornal white bands are narrower, and the black spots being less dusted with blue. 

Seitz' illustration shows the underside postdiscal black band to be unusually wide, 
thus reducing the width of the two white ones referred to by Fruhstorfer. But one 
can hardly agree with his repeated reference to the underside of aurea as brown ; it 
is grey in all subspecies. Females often have slight terminal fulvous suffusion at the 
fore wing termen, and when males are viewed against the light a slight orange flush 
is apparent by transparency. 



Ritra aurea aurea (H. Druce) 
(PL i, fig. 10 ; PL 2, fig. 22) 

Sithon aurea H. Druce, 1873 : 352, pi. 33, fig. i. <$. Borneo. 
Ritra aurea (H. Druce) ; H. H. Druce, 1895 : 610. $. 
R. aurea (H. Druce) ; Moulton, 1912 : 159. Sarawak & N. Borneo. 
Cheritra aurea aurea (H. Druce) ; Seitz, 1926 : 994, pi. 158, fig. f 7. 

The original male was faithfully described and figured upperside, but the colour 
below was called " sooty brown " instead of mid-grey. This may have misled 
Fruhstorfer. 

The male specimen here illustrated is typically marked but the fore wing upperside 
patches of modified scales cover rather smaller than average areas. These patches 
are often large and dark, but the dark appearance is probably due to age and wear. 

The female is often described as coppery above. This is misleading, as it is in no 
way metallic. It is dull orange-brown with dark brown borders round each wing. 
Seitz gives a good illustration of a female with rather narrow borders. 

The fore wing length is 21-25 mm., but throughout Borneo individuals as small 
as 17 mm. are not infrequent. Palawan specimens also are rather small. 

Moulton says the female is rather the commoner. That this is not so in collections 
is probably due, in the case oifreja and others as well as aurea, to the greater beauty, 
and freshness, of the male, and the selectiveness of the collector. In a total of about 
4 years in Malaya I caught but one aurea, a female, and certainly found the female 
freja the more frequent. 

This species was another of those first found by Sir Hugh Low. 

B.M. (N.H.). c Holotype, 31 J, 15 $, SARAWAK, BRUNEI, SABAH ; i <, Tameang 
Lajang, S.E. BORNEO ; 2 $, i <j>, PALAWAN. 



100 



C. F. COWAN 



SYSTEMATIC LIST OF THE CHERITRINI 



CHERITRELLA de Niceville, 1887 
C. truncipennis de Niceville, 1887 

f. nagana Rober, 1926 (wet season f.) 
TICK ERR A de Niceville, 1887 
T. acte acte (Moore, 1857) 

f. idina Fruhstorfer, 1912 (dry season f.) 
ab. symira (Hewitson, 1876) (dwarf) 
retracta ssp. n. 
liviana Fruhstorfer, 1912 
staudingeri (H. H. Druce, 1895) 
CHERITRA Moore, 1881 
C. pallida (H. Druce, 1873) 
C. freja pseudojafra Moore, 1881 
butleri Cowan, 1965 
evansi Cowan, 1965 

freja (Fabricius, 1793) 

syn. regia Evans, 1925 
sabanga Toxopeus, 1929 
frigga Fruhstorfer, 1912 
fracta ssp. n. 
jafra (Godart, 1824) 
ochracea H. H. Druce, 1895 
C. aenigma sp. n. 
C. aenea Semper, 1890 
C. orpheus eurydice Fruhstorfer, 1912 

orpheus (C. & R. Felder, 1862) 

syn. massiva (Hewitson, 1863) 
orphnine ssp. n. 
RITRA de Niceville, 1890 
R. aurea cuprea (Fruhstorfer, 1914) 

volumnia (Fruhstorfer, 1912) 
panowa (Fruhstorfer, 1914) 
aurea (H. Druce, 1873) 



Sikkim-Yunnan, continenta 
Burma & Thailand. 

N. India & Thibet-Burma & 
Thailand. 

Hainan. 

Sumatra ; Malaya. 

N.E. Borneo. 

N.E. & S.E. Borneo. 

Ceylon. 

S. India. 

N. India-Tonkin, Burma, Thai- 
land & Viet Nam. 

Mergui, Peninsular Burma & 
Thailand. 

Weh Is. (N. Sumatra). 

Sumatra ; Malaya. 

Banka Is. 

Java ; Bali. 

Borneo ; Po. Laut. 

S.W. Sumatra. 

Mindoro. 

Palawan. 

Luzon ; Mindoro ; Ticao. 

Mindanao. 

Sumatra. 
Malaya. 
W. Borneo. 
Borneo ; Palawan. 



The references Corbet 194012, 



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INDEX 

Cheritrini taxa are in bold type, synonyms and common 
erroneous spellings in italics. The Systematic List is on p. 100. 



*acte, 83, 85, 86, 88 
*aenea, 81, 83, 84, 88, 95, 96 
*aenigma, 83, 84, 88, 93, 94, 95 
Arhopala atosia, 81 
Arhopalini, 84 
*aurea, 82, 83, 97, 98, 99 
* Illustrated on Plates i & 2. 



butleri, 90 

Catapaecilma, 78 
Charana jalindra, 81 
Cheritra, 77-81, 83, 85, 88 
Cheritrella, 77-81, 82, 84, 85 



INDEX 



103 



Cheritrini, 77-82 

cinesia, 81 
cinesoides, 81 
cuprea, 97, 98 

Drina maneia, 96 
Drupadia, 77, 78 
Drupadiini, 77-81, 93, 95 

Eooxylides, 78 
eurydice, 96 
evansi, 91 

Everes, 80 

*fracta, 93, 94 

freja, 79-83, 88, 89, 92, 93, 94, 99 

frigga, 8 4 , 93, 94 

Horagini, 77-81, 93 
Hypolycaena erylus, 81 

*idina, 85, 86 

jalajala, 96 
jaffra, go, 91, 94 
jafra, 90, 91, 94, 95 
joffra, go, 91, 94 

*liviana, 86, 87 

Marmessus, 77 
massiva, 97 



nagana, 84 

Neolycaena, 8r 
Neomyrina, 78 
Neorina lowii, 89 

*ochracea, 94 
orpheus, 81-83, 
*orphnine, 97 



5, 96, 97 



*pallida, 81, 82, 83, 88 
panowa, 97, 99 
Pratapini, 84, 96 
pseudo jaffra, 90, 91 
pseudojafra, 90, 91 

regia, 92 

Tetracta, 86, 87 
Ritra, 77-82, 83, 97 

sabanga, 92 

Semanga, 78 
*staudingeri, 85, 87 
Strymonidia, 81 
symira, 85, 86 

Thamala, 78 
Ticherra, 77-82, 83, 85 
"truncipennis, 82, 84 

volumnia, 97, 98 



* Illustrated on Pis. i & 2. 

ENTOM. 2O, 3. 



PLATE i 

Uppersides of $ specimens of Cheritrini. 
The Holotypes of the four new taxa are in the right column. 

FIG. i. Cheritrella truncipennis de Niceville. Sadon, N.E. Burma, 8 Nov. 1927 (Tytler). 

FIG. 2. Ticherra acte acte (Moore) f. idina Fruhstorfer (d.s.f.). Sikkim, 1886 (Moller). 

*FiG. 3. T. acte retracta ssp. n. Holotype. Interior Hainan, July 1919 (Bowring). 

*FiG. 4. T. acte liviana Fruhstorfer. N.E. Sumatra, Dec. 1892 (Martin). 

FIG. 5. T. acte staudingeri (H. H. Druce). Kina Balu, Aug. 1903 (Water stradt). 

*FiG. 6. Cheritra freja fracta ssp. n. Holotype. Banka (Hageri). 

FIG. 7. C. pallida (H. Druce). S.E. Borneo (Schoenberg). 

*FiG. 8. C. freja ochracea H. H. Druce. Mengkuago, N.E. Borneo, 19 Apr. 1891 [Pryer]. 

*FiG. 9. C. orpheus orphnine ssp. n. Holotype. Mindanao, 1903-4 (Water stradt). 

FIG. 10. Ritra aurea aurea (H. Druce). Kina Balu (ex coll. Druce). 

FIG. ii. Cheritra aenea Semper. Mindoro (ex coll. Hewitson). 

*FiG. 12. C. aenigma sp. n. Holotype. Liwa, S.W. Sumatra, Aug.-Sep. 1890 (Doherty}. 

Colour note : Figs 1-8 are shades of purple ; 9, purple veined orange ; 10, bright orange 
n, 12 green. 

Photographic note : To distinguish the dark borders from the dark ground, figs 1-5, 7, i 
were photographed in blue light. 

* Not previously illustrated. 



Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 20, 3 



PLATE i 




ENTOM. 20, 3. 



FIG. 13. 

FTG. 14. 

*Fic. 15- 

*Fic. 16. 

FIG. 17. 

*Fic. 18. 

FIG. 19. 

*FlG. 20. 
*FlG. 21. 

FIG. 22. 

FIG. 23. 

*Fic. 24. 

* Not previously illustrated. 



PLATE 2 

Undersides of <J specimens of Cheritrini. 
(same specimens as on Plate i) 

Cheritrella truncipennis de Niceville. 

Ticherra acte acte (Moore) f. idina Fruhstorfer (d.s.f.). 

T. acte retracta ssp. n. Holotype. 

T. acte liviana Fruhstorfer. 

T. acte staudingeri (H. H. Druce). 

Cheritra freja fracta ssp. n. Holotype. 

C. pallida (H. Druce). 

C. freja ochracea H. H. Druce. 

C. orpheus orphnine ssp. n. Holotype. 

Ritra aurea aurea (H. Druce). 

Cheritra aenea Semper. 

C. aenigma sp. n. Holotype. 



Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 20, 3 



PLATE 2 



j,/ 



r, 
. Vj' * 




PLATE 3 

<J genitalia of representative Cheritrini. 
Lateral aspect from the left of, except fig. 30, the complete parts. 

FIG. 25. Cheritrella truncipennis de Nic6ville. Gen. Prep. NHB. 1965/2530. Note large 
quadrate phallobase of aedeagus, large curved cornutus (the smaller being in the partially everted 
vesica), the long oblique unci, and the elongate, upright, dentate valvae. 

Specimen : Darjiling ; 28 May 1898 (Bingham). 

FIG. 26. Ticherra acte retracta ssp. n. Holotype. Gen. Prep. NHB. 1955/1471. Note 
evenly tapered aedeagus, here seen with the vesica and minute cornutus fully everted and 
deflected from the uncus ; and the incurved pointed tips (like envelope flaps) of the flattened 
horns of the valvae. 

Specimen : as Pis. i, 2 ; figs. 3, 15. 

FIG. 27. Cheritra freja frigga Fruhstorfer. Gen. Prep. NHB. 1955/1447. Compact, with a 
dense vesica and large cornutus. Note strong " rasps " on dorsal and ventral surfaces of rim of 
aedeagus. 

Specimen : Sumatra (Buxtori). 

FIG. 28. C. freja pseudojafra Moore. Gen. Prep. NHB. 1965/2532. Same species as fig. 27, 
but here seen with vesica and cornutus fully everted and at extreme stretch. 

Specimen : Ceylon, 1892 (Doncaster). 

FIG. 29. Ritra aurea cuprea (Fruhstorfer). Gen. Prep. NHB. 1955/1436. This and fig. 25 
above represent the extremes of the Cheritrini pattern. 

Specimen : Holotype, N.E. Sumatra (Martin). 

FIG. 30. R. aurea aurea (H. Druce). Gen. Prep. NHB. 1955/1437. An " exploded " 
preparation showing (a) the usual Cheritrine vinculum and uncus ; (b) aedeagus ; note suspen- 
sory process, small vesica and minute cornutus near the swollen apex ; (c) the right valva. 

Specimen : Holotype, Borneo (Low). 



Bull. BY. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 20, 3 



PLATE 3 





28 




29 




30-a 



2 m.m, 



PLATE 4 

<$ genitalia of Ticherra and species of Cheritra 
(complete, lateral aspect from left). 

FIG. 31. T. acte acte (Moore) f. idina Fruhstorfer. Gen. Prep. NHB. 1955/1445. 

Specimen : Mergui, Jan. 1926 (Evans). 

FIG. 32. T. acte liviana Fruhstorfer. Gen. Prep. NHB. 1955/1472. The tips of the valvae 
of this subspecies are differently recurved. The aedeagus is here shown slightly rotated about 
its axis, displaying its lateral apical lobes. 

Specimen : N.E. Sumatra (Martin). 

FIG. 33. T. acte staudingeri (H. H. Druce). Gen. Prep. NHB. 1955/1446. A still further 
evolved subspecies. 

Specimen : Kina Balu. 

FIG. 34. C. pallida (H. Druce). Gen. Prep. NHB. 1955/1552. The cornutus is fully with- 
drawn to base of aedeagus. 

Specimen : S. E. Borneo [Pryer]. 

FIG. 35. C. pallida (H. Druce). Gen. Prep. NHB. 1955/1453. The vesica and cornutus are 
everted, causing a restriction at rim of aedeagus ; the dorsal rasp is fully unfurled. 

Specimen : Holotype, [N.E.] Borneo (Low}. 

FIG. 36. C. aenea Semper. Gen. Prep. NHB. 1955/1441. Short, thick-lipped aedeagus ; 
comparatively large vinculum, uncus, and valvae. 

Specimen : Mindoro, Dec. 1894 (Everett). 

FIG. 37. C. aenigma sp. n. Gen. Prep. NHB. 1955/1442. Very similar to aenea, but 
differences in valvae and aedeagus. 

Specimen : Holotype, Liwa, S.W. Sumatra, Aug. -Sep. 1890 (Doherty). 

FIG. 38. C. orpheus orpheus (C. & R. Felder). Gen. Prep. NHB. 1955/1440. Genitalia less 
aedeagus. Constantly small, and ; 

Specimen : Luzon (Fruhstorfer). 

FIG. 39. C. orpheus eurydice Fruhstorfer. Gen. Prep. NHB. 1955/1473. the lips of the 
aedeagus are always compressed. 

Specimen : Palawan. 



Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 20, 3 



PLATE 4 



0-5 1-0 1*5 

(mm. 




39 




m H\* 



A LIST OF SUPPLEMENTS 
TO THE ENTOMOLOGICAL SERIES 

OF THE BULLETIN OF 
THE BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 



1. MASNER, L. The types of Proctotrupoidea (Hymenoptera) in the British 
Museum (Natural History) and in the Hope Department of Entomology, Oxford. 
Pp. 143. February, 1965. 5. 

2. NIXON, G. E. J. A reclassification of the tribe Microgasterini (Hymenoptera : 
Braconidae). Pp.284; 348 Text-figures. August, 1965. 6. 

3. WATSON, A. A revision of the Ethiopian Drepanidae (Lepidoptera) . Pp. 177 ; 
18 plates, 270 Text-figures. August, 1965. 4 45. 

4. SANDS, W. A. A revision of the Termite Subfamily Nasutitermitinae (Isoptera, 
Termitidae) from the Ethiopian Region. Pp. 172 ; 500 Text-figures. October, 

1965- 3 5s. 

5. AHMAD, I. The Leptocorisinae (Heteroptera : Alydidae) of the World. Pp. 156; 
475 Text-figures. November, 1965. 2 155. 

6. OKADA, T. Diptera from Nepal. Cryptochaetidae, Diastatidae & Drosophilidae. 
Pp. 129 ; 328 Text-figures. 3. 

7. GILIOMEE, J. H. Morphology and Taxonomy of Adult Males of the Family 
Coccidae (Homoptera : Coccoidea). Pp. 168 ; 43 Text-figures. February, 1967. 

335. 

8. FLETCHER, D. S. A revision of the Ethiopian species and a check list of the 
world species of Cleora (Lepidoptera : Geometridae) . Pp. 119; 14 plates, 146 
Text-figures, 9 maps. February, 1967. 3 IDS. 

9. HEMMING, A. F. The Generic Names of the Butterflies and their type-species 
(Lepidoptera : Rhopalocera) . In press. 

10. STEMPFFER, H. The Genera of the African Lycaenidae (Lepidoptera : Rhopa- 
locera). In press. 



PRINTED IN GREAT BRITAIN BY ADLARD & SON LIMITED BARTHOLOMEW PRESS, DORKING 



DIPTERA FROM NEPAL 



ANTHOMYIIDAE 



D. M. ACKLAND 



BULLETIN OF 
THE BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 

ENTOMOLOGY Vol. 20 No. 4 

LONDON: 1967 



DIPTERA FROM NEPAL , 1 MAYI967 



ANTHOMYIIDAE 



BY 

D. M. ACKLAND 



Hope Department of Entomology, University Museum, Cfecford 



Pp. 105-139 ; 83 Text-figures 



BULLETIN OF 

THE BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 
ENTOMOLOGY Vol. 20 No. 4 

LONDON: 1967 



THE BULLETIN OF THE BRITISH MUSEUM 

(NATURAL HISTORY), instituted in 1949, is 
issued in five series corresponding to the Departments 
of the Museum, and an Historical series. 

Parts will appear at irregular intervals as they become 
ready. Volumes will contain about three or four 
hundred pages, and will not necessarily be completed 
within one calendar year. 

In 1965 a separate supplementary series of longer 
papers was instituted, numbered serially for each 
Department. 

This paper is Vol. 20, No. 4 of the Entomological 
series. The abbreviated titles of periodicals cited 
follow those of the World List of Scientific Periodicals. 



World List abbreviation 
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Trustees of the British Museum (Natural History) 1967 



TRUSTEES OF 
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Issued 2 May, 1967 Price Fifteen Shillings 



DIPTERA FROM NEPAL 



ANTHOMYIIDAE 



By D. M. ACKLAND 

SYNOPSIS 

The Anthomyiidae collected on the 1954 an d 1961-62 British Museum (N.H.) Expeditions, by 
Mr. J. B. Tyson in 1953, and by Prof. H. Janetschek in 1961 are systematically treated. Eleven 
new species are described, including one new species from Tadzhikistan, one new combination is 
created, and the relationship between them is discussed. 

INTRODUCTION 

THIS paper is based on material collected on four expeditions to Nepal : by Mr. 
R. L. Coe, entomologist on the 1961-62 British Museum (Natural History) Expedi- 
tion to Eastern Nepal ; Mr. J. Quinlan on the 1954 Expedition ; Mr. J. B. Tyson 
in 1953 ; and Prof. H. Janetschek in 1961, this latter material being in the Deutsches 
Entomologisches Institut, Berlin. One new species from Tadzhikistan is also 
described in this paper. 

My thanks are due to the following, who have generously given me advice and 
help, and loaned material : Prof. W. Hennig of the Staatliches Museum fur Natur- 
kunde, Stuttgart ; Dr. P. Freeman, Mr. R. L. Coe and Mr. A. C. Pont of the British 
Museum (Natural History), London ; Dr. G. Morge of the Deutsches Entomolo- 
gisches Institut, Berlin ; and Mr. H. Andersson of the Zoological Institute, Lund. 

The Anthomyiidae have in the past generally been considered as a subfamily 
within the Muscidae. They are here treated as a separate family, in line with the 
work of Huckett (19656) and Hennig (1966). No attempt is made to divide the 
Anthomyiidae into subfamilies. Previously accepted sub-groupings (i.e. Fucelliinae 
to include Myopina Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830) have been shown (Herting, 1957 : 
434 ; Hennig, 1966 : 25) to be heterogeneous. 

On the other hand, most of the generic and subgeneric groupings of recent Euro- 
pean and American authors have been accepted as genera. The exact status of 
these supra-specific groups is still in dispute. For the correct assignment of species 
to genera, an examination of the male genitalia is essential. The common possession 
of a non-genitalic character (e.g. an anteroventral seta on the mid tibia) within a 
limited fauna, in a group of species which on other grounds is clearly monophyletic, 
has often led to that character being accepted as a " generic " character ; the 
absence of it in a species from a different fauna (which on other grounds is clearly 
related) has sometimes delayed the recognition of their close relationship. As 
examples of characters which have often in the past been considered as of generic 

ENTOM. 20, 4. 6 



io8 D. M. ACKLAND 

value, but which can be shown to be either present or absent in undoubted closely 
related species, the following can be mentioned : a projecting epistome, an ante- 
roventral seta on the mid tibia, the costa with hairs on the ventral surface, an apical 
posteroventral seta on hind tibia, and hairy eyes. 

The generic key given in this paper is therefore designed mainly to deal with the 
species included in the paper, and will not necessarily work with material from 
another area. Where the characters specifically apply to species which are the 
only known representative of the genus in Nepal, I have keyed out to the species. 

The following measurements are used : the width of the parafacials is measured 
at about the level of the middle of the third antennal segment, and is the real width, 
with the angle of vision at right angles to the plane of the parafacial, not the apparent 
width with the head viewed in profile ; the width of the third antennal segment is 
the greatest width ; the lengths of the second and third antennal segments are 
measured with the head viewed from in front ; the width of the gena is the narrowest 
width. 

The following characters are considered to be present normally in the Antho- 
myiidae, if not stated to be otherwise : two presutural and three postsutural pairs of 
dorsocentral setae, propleural depression, prosternum, pteropleuron and hypo- 
pleuron completely bare, sixth abdominal tergite hidden and without setae, anal 
vein reaching wing margin, even if only faintly. 

No species of Anthomyiidae appear to have been recorded from Nepal. In the 
present paper eleven new species are described, and five previously described species 
are recorded. Altogether eleven genera (including two genera represented by 
females only, and not determined to species) are now known to occur in Nepal. 
All the material is in the British Museum (Natural History), London, unless otherwise 
stated. 

The terminology of the genitalia follows Hennig and van Emden (in Tuxen, 1956). All the 
drawings of genitalia have been made from macerated abdomina. The setae on the epandrium 
have not been drawn. The structures of the aedeagus are labelled in some of the figures as 
follows : ph = phallapodeme, h = hypandrium, pi = processus longus, e = epiphallus, 
d = distiphallus, po = postgonite, pr = praegonite. 

KEY TO GENERA OF ANTHOMYIIDAE s. STR. KNOWN FROM NEPAL (MALES) 

1 Frons wide, at least as wide as eye width . . . PSEUDOMYOPINA (p. 133) 
- Frons narrower, at most as wide as ocellar tubercle ...... 2 

2 Sternopleural setae 2 + 2 ; costa on ventral surface with fine setulae or hairs ; 

costal spine distinct and strong, at least 0-75 times length of r-m ; prostigmatal 
setae with only a few (1-3) associated hairs ; mesopleuron with a developed 
upper anterior setula .......... 3 

Sternopleural setae i + 2 or i + i ; costa on ventral surface bare, at least beyond 
apex of subcostal vein ; costal spine absent or generally very small ; prostigmatal 
setae generally with more (4-9) associated hairs (Delia flavibasis with stronger 
costal spine and 1-2 prostigmatal hairs, but then pra seta absent) ; mesopleuron 
generally without a developed upper anterior setula ...... 4 

3 Arista with long rays, total width of plumosity at least as wide as width of third 

antennal segment ; hind tibia with about 3-4 ad and 2 pd setae 

HYLEMYA s. str. (p. 120) 



DIPTERA FROM NEPAL 109 

Arista only long pubescent, longest hairs not more than twice width of basal dia- 
meter of arista ; hind tibia with about 5 ad and 3 pd setae ; tergite 7+8 shining 
black CRASPEDOCHOETA (p. no) 

Prosternum with lateral setulae ; hypopleuron with fine hairs posterior to spiracle 

CALYTHEA (p. 109) 

Prosternum bare ; hypopleuron bare ........ 5 

Pteropleuron with 1-3 setae on upper margin, below wing base 

EMMESOMY1A (p. 120) 

Pteropleuron without setae on upper margin ....... 6 

Mid tibia with an av seta at apical third ; epistome projecting ; hind tibia with 

2 ad and 2 pd setae ............ 7 

Mid tibia without an aw seta ; epistome not so strongly projecting (in Delia nepalensis 

somewhat projecting, but then pra seta absent) ; hind tibia generally with at least 

3 ad setae ............. 8 

Blackish species ; face below lunule with a swelling (surstyli forked at apex) 

Nupedia aestiva (Mg.) (p. 132) 

Yellowish grey pollinose species ; second antennal segment with some small tubercles 

on anterior surface (surstyli simple, slender) . . Paregle cinerella (Fall.) (p. 125) 

Hind tibia with 13-15 unequal ad setae, which in basal half are not strictly uniserial, 
and with numerous erect fine setulae on p and pv surfaces ; eyes with short and 
rather sparse but distinct hairs ; abdomen with dense, short setae on margins of 
tergite 5 ; about 3 longer posthumeral setae 

Lasiotnma eriophthalmutn (Zett.) (p. 124) 

Hind tibia with at most 9 ad setae ; eyes bare or with only microscopic hairs, only 

visible under high magnification ......... 9 

pra seta about 1-25 times length of posterior notopleural seta ; ratio of distance 
between prst dc rows and prst acr rows about 4:1:4; head in profile with pro- 
frons rather projecting in front of level of epistome ; postabdomen strongly swollen 
in profile PHORBIA (p. 129) 

pra seta at most as long as posterior notopleural seta, or absent ; ratio of prst acr and 
prst dc rows between 2:1:2 and i : i : i ; postabdomen not strongly swollen 
in profile ............. 10 

Mid tibia with 2 pd setae (in unique holotype of Pegohylemyia nupera this character 
not ascertainable, but 2 pd are probably present) ; genitalia with praegonites re- 
duced, small and more or less fused to hypandrium, but with distinct setae, disti- 
phallus small and largely membranous . . . PEGOHYLEMYIA (p. 126) 

Mid tibia with only i pd seta, or pd absent ; genitalia with praegonites more de- 
veloped, generally with short, fine setae, weakly joined to hypandrium ; disti- 
phallus long and slender, at least partly sclerotized . . . DELIA (p. 112) 



CALYTHEA Schnabl & Dziedzicki 

Calythea Schnabl and Dziedzicki, 1911, Nova Ada Acad. Caesar. Leap. Carol 95 : in (as 
subgenus of Pegomya R.D.). 

Type-species : Musca albicincta Fallen, 1825, by monotypy. 

This genus occurs in the Palaearctic, Nearctic and Neotropical regions. Only 
two rather damaged females are represented in the material, which agree in most 
characters with the widely distributed C. albicincta (Fallen). Several undescribed 
species of Calythea are known to me from India, which are closely related to albi- 
cincta, so the Nepal females are not determined at the present time. 



no D. M. ACKLAND 

Calythea sp. 

Similar to C. albicincta (Fallen), with a few fine hairs on hypopleuron posterior 
to hind spiracle, and on prosternum laterally. 

NEPAL : 2 mis S.E. of Sikha, 7-8,000 ft., i , 20. v. 1954 (/. Quintan) ; Ulleri, 
6-7,000 ft., i $, 19. v. 1954 (/. Quintan). 

CRASPEDOCHOETA Macquart 

Craspedochoeta Macquart, 1851, Mem. Soc. Sci. Agric. Lille 1850 : 241 ; Dipt. Exot., Suppl. 

4 : 268. 

Craspedochaeta auctt. [Unjustified emendation]. 
Melinia Ringdahl, 1929, Ent. Tidskr. 50 : 271. 

Type-species of Craspedochoeta : Anthomyia punctipennis Wiedemann, 1830, by 
monotypy. 

This genus is almost world- wide in distribution, and is particularly well represented 
in the Neotropical region. The Holarctic species C. pullula (Zett.) occurs in India, 
where it differs slightly in the structure of the aedeagus ; a detailed examination 
of Indian material may indicate subspecific status. C. pullula is not, so far, known 
from Nepal. One new species is now described from Nepal and India. 

Craspedochoeta hamata sp. n. 

(Text-figs. 1-6) 

(J Head : ground colour black. Interfrontal area black, parafrontals, parafacials and genae 
whitish grey pollinose in certain lights. Eye-margins in front of ocellar tubercle almost touch- 
ing, separated by about half diameter of anterior ocellus, interfrontalia and parafrontals at this 
point linear, and interfrontalia above constriction practically absent. Paraf rental at level of 
lunule about equal to width of third antennal segment, parafacials at narrowest point slightly 
narrower. In profile frons at lunule projecting further than epistome, face almost flat, slightly 
receding, hardly reflexed on lower margin. Gena about as wide as third antennal segment, 
one-sixth of eye-height (0-16). Antennae black, third segment twice as long as second ; apex 
falling short of epistome by two-thirds its own width ; arista long pubescent, longest hairs 
about twice basal diameter. Occiput swollen ventrally, lower margin of head straight posteri- 
orly, curved upwards anteriorly towards epistome, the strong epistomal seta level with lower 
eye-margin. 7-8 pairs of frontal setae, upper pair about halfway between anterior ocellus and 
lunule, a pair of rather strong interfrontal setulae above them. Upper postocular setulae 
rather short, not much longer than the setulae on disc of occiput. Haustellum rather short, 
mentum about 2-5 times as long as wide, pollinose ; palpi black, linear, hardly wider at apex 
than base. Thorax : black in ground colour, with rather dense greyish green and brown pollen. 
Mesonotum, viewed from in front, with a brownish median vitta along acr setae, and perhaps 
traces of narrow lateral vittae. acr setae distinct but rather short, bi-serial, 4-5 rather irregular 
prst acr, which are closer together than to prst dc ; no fine hairs between acr rows, pro, seta 
distinct, about two-thirds length of posterior npl seta, and finer, distance between pra and 
suture only half distance between pra and sa seta. One or two developed upper anterior 
mesopleural setulae, and 2-3 longer setulae in front of lower part of mesopleural row. One 
long atxd strong, and one finer and shorter propleural seta, and one strong and two shorter 
prostigmatal setae ; no fine hairs around their bases, stpl 2 -(-2, lower anterior seta short and 
fine, lower posterior three-quarters length of upper seta. Fringe of hairs surrounding anterior 
spiracle pale brownish yellow, on posterior spiracle dark brown. Scutellum concolorous with 
mesonotum, bare in central and basal parts of disc, some fine hairs present ventrally at apex. 



DIPTERA FROM NEPAL 




FIGS. i-io. Craspedochoeta spp. Figs. 1-6. C. hamata sp. n. (paratype) : i, hypopy- 
gium, caudal view ; 2, hypogium, profile ; 3, aedeagus ; 4, 4th and 5th sternite ; 5, 5th 
sternite, profile ; 6, sperm pump. Figs. 7-10. C. pullula (Zett.) (England) : 7, (J 
hypopygium, cereal plate and surstylus ; 8, aedeagus ; 9, 4th and 5th sternite ; 10, 5th 
sternite, profile. 



H2 D. M. ACKLAND 

Wings : membrane very slightly pale brownish tinged, not darkened at base. Costal spine 
distinct, a little shorter than r-m ; r-m and m-m distinctly suffused brownish, m-m sinuous, 
last section of M 1+2 about one and three-fifths (1-6) times length of preceding section. Costa 
with fine setulae or hairs ventrally on whole length. Calyptrae concolorous with wing base, 
lower calypter not projecting beyond upper. Halteres yellow. Legs : black ; fore tibia with 
a strong median pv seta. Mid femur without distinct av, 5-6 long basal pv setae. Mid tibia 
with one strong ad seta at apical third, one pd at same level, a slightly shorter pd just above 
middle, 1-2 short p setae, and a strong pv seta just below the strong ad and pd. Hind femur 
with av and pv setae on whole length. Hind tibia with 5-6 unequal ad, 3 pd (upper one shorter), 
about 4 av and about 6 semi-erect fine setulae posteriorly in basal half, one of which is more 
robust, and the middle ones irregularly placed, biserial. The strong pv seta apically, which 
is often present in Craspedochoeta, is very small or absent. Abdomen : rather robust, viewed 
from above, widest at posterior margin of Ti + 2, tapering slightly from there to apex, slightly 
less than twice as long as wide (1-8). In profile semi-depressed at base, becoming almost 
cylindrical at T4 and T5. Viewed from behind, densely greyish pollinose, with a distinct black 
interrupted median vitta (width equal to diameter of hind femur), the breaks occurring on hind 
margins of tergites ; on T5 the vitta occupies only half length of tergite. Ty + 8 shining black, 
in sharp contrast to other tergites ; TQ black, with light greyish pollen. 5th sternite, in profile, 
slightly elbowed. 

Body-length 6 mm., wing-length 6 mm. 

9 unknown. 

Holotype <$. INDIA: Simla, W. Himalayas, 7-8,000 ft., 7. v. 1910 (Annandale). 
Paratype. NEPAL: Sukhwani, i ^, 1 5-16. ii. 1908. 

I have also seen a female, which may belong to this species, from BALUCHISTAN : 
Quetta, iii.i93i (A. C. Ben), but which is not included in the type series. 

C. hamata differs from pullula as follows : hind tibia with the PV apical seta very 
short or absent, costa with anterior setulae shorter, pra seta slightly shorter than 
posterior npl seta, abdomen less flattened in basal half. Details of the genitalia of 
C. pullula (England) are given in Text-figs. 7-10 ; the most conspicuous difference 
is in the form of the postgonites (Text-figs. 3, 8). Examples of Indian pullula have 
the same form of postgonite as European examples, though the distiphallus is slightly 
different. 

DELIA Robineau-Desvoidy 
Delia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830, Mem. pres. div. Sav. Acad. Sci. Inst. Fr. 2 : 571. 

Type-species : Delia floricola Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830, by designation of Coquil- 
lett, 1910, Proc. U.S. natn. Mus. 37 : 531 (Anthomyia cardui Meigen, 1826). 

The synonymy of D. floricola is somewhat doubtful. In the original description 
of floricola Robineau-Desvoidy states : " . . . il se distingue de toutes les autres 
especes par le premier article des tarses intermediares un peu concave en dedans, 
tandis que le second article est un peu dilate, au sommet ". This would indicate 
that floricola, if not synonymous with cardui, at least must belong to that group of 
species (which includes cardui) with a ventral swelling on the second segment of the 
middle tarsi. I therefore follow Collin (1931) in the use of the name Delia for 
this group of species, and include with it other species which do not have the middle 
tarsal character, but are related by the structure of the surstyli, form of distiphallus, 



DIPTERA FROM NEPAL 113 

and sometimes the possession of male secondary sexual chaetotactic characters. 
Three new, and one previously described species are now recorded from Nepal. 



KEY TO NEPALESE SPECIES OF DELIA (MALES) 

1 pra seta absent ............ 2 

- pra seta distinct, even if short and fine ........ 3 

2 acr setae almost completely absent, at most 1-2 fine prst pairs, and 2 pairs of fine 

prescutellar setae ; epistome somewhat projecting ; 5th sternite with long 
ventrally directed setae on whole length of lobes (Text-fig. 14) ; calyptrae paler 
than darkened wing base ........ nepalensis sp. n. 

acr setae fine and short, but distinct on either side of suture ; calyptrae pale yellowish 

brown, concolorous with wing base ...... flavibasis Stein 

3 Middle metatarsus dorsally with a fringe of curved setulose hairs ; mid tibia with 

i pd and i ad seta ; 4-5 pairs of frontal setae ; pra seta only about three-quarters 
length of posterior npl seta ; hind tibia with 7-9 ad setae ; 5th sternite with lobes 
bearing strong short apical spines (Text-fig. 19) but not long ventrally directed 
setae ............ coei sp. n. 

- Middle metatarsus without dorsal fringe ; mid tibia without pd or ad setae ; 7-8 

pau*s of frontal setae ; pra seta equal to length of posterior npl seta ; hind tibia 
with 3-4 ad setae ; 5th sternite with long ventrally directed setae on apical half of 
lobes (Text-fig. 24) ......... repens sp. n. 

Delia nepalensis sp. n. 

(Text-figs. 11-16) 

$ Head : ground colour of whole head black, parafrontals, parafacials and genae with whitish 
grey pollen in certain lights, occiput with darker pollen ; interfrontalia matt black, except when 
viewed from a low angle in front ; viewed in profile, parafrontals at level of lunule with a darker 
shifting patch which reaches on the parafacials to the level of insertion of arista. Eye-margins 
on frons nearly touching, separated at narrowest part by a little more than diameter of anterior 
ocellus ; parafrontal at level of lunule equal to width of third antennal segment, parafacial 
slightly narrowing towards lower margin of eye ; width of gena about one-quarter of eye- 
height (0-28). Lower part of occiput rather swollen ; lower margin of gena straight, then 
obliquely turned upwards at a point level with anterior margin of eye (Text-fig. 15). Epistome 
projecting as far as frons at lunule. Antennae completely black, third antennal segment about 
2-5 times length of second segment, the apex almost reaching epistome ; arista distinctly 
pubescent, total width of hairs at least one-third width of third antennal segment. Frontal 
setae about 4 pairs, a very short pair of cruciate interfrontal setulae present above uppermost 
pair. Postocular setulae uniserial, rather short and becoming even shorter laterally, the vertical 
setae slightly stronger and differentiated from the adjacent upper postocular setulae ; upper 
part of occiput bare. Palpi black, hardly widened at apex ; haustellum rather long and slender, 
the pollinose mentum parallel-sided, about 6 times as long as wide, total length of proboscis 
nearly equal to head height. Thorax : completely black in ground colour ; mesonotum viewed 
from in front with rather dense greyish pollen, a brownish pollinose median vitta along acr, 
2 paramedian brownish vittae along dc setae, which are slightly narrower, and 2 brownish 
pollinose lateral patches covering the bases of the ph and ia setae, the humeral and notopleural 
areas being lighter grey pollinose. All these brownish vittae reach anteriorly only as far as the 
level of the first prst dc. Pleurae greyish pollinose. acr practically absent, only 1-2 fine prst 
setulae, rather close together, and 2 pairs of fine post acr, the prescutellar pair stronger. Meso- 
notum almost completely devoid of accessory setulae, a few in setae rows, on humeri, and 12 
between anterior ia seta and suture, area between ia and sa seta bare, pra completely absent. 



H 4 D. M. ACKLAND 

Notopleuron bare apart from the two setae. No developed upper anterior mesopleural setula. 
One long and one short propleural seta ; the prostigmatal setae appear to be absent, only a 
few fine hairs present, stpl 1 + 2, lower posterior seta about two-thirds length of upper. 
Scutellum black with brownish grey pollen, practically bare on disc, at most two setulae later- 
ally ; ventrally at apex with a few fine pale hairs. Wings : slightly light brownish suffused, 
base distinctly brownish. Costal spine not differentiated from costal setulae. Costa bare on 
ventral surface, m-m almost straight, last section of M 1+2 about one and three-quarters (1-76) 
times length of preceding section. Calyptrae whitish, contrasting with brownish wing base, 
lower calypter much shorter than upper. Halteres yellow. Legs : black, including tarsi. 
Fore tibia with a p seta. Mid femur without av setae, a pv row in basal three-quarters, becoming 
shorter medially. Mid tibia with one ad and one pd median seta, equal in length, the ad more 
distal by half diameter of tibia ; 2-3 short pv setulae. Hind femur without pv, a few short av 
in apical half only. Hind tibia with 3 pd, proximal one short, 2 ad setae, 2 av setae, no pv 
preapical seta present. Abdomen : black, with greyish and brownish pollen. A little longer 
than thorax, dorsoventrally compressed, viewed from above with slightly curved margins. 




FIGS. 11-16. Delia nepalensis sp. n. (holotype) : u, <$ hypopygium, profile; 12, hypo- 
pygium, caudal view ; 13, 5th sternite ; 14, postabdomen, profile ; 15, $ head ; 16, $ 
ovipositor, ventral view. 



DIPTERA FROM NEPAL 115 

Viewed from behind with a suffused black median vitta which is as wide as diameter of hind 
femur, and is weakly connected to more light brownish pollen on the basal margins of T2-T5, 
the remaining part of tergites with rather greenish grey pollen. 5th sternite in profile (Text- 
fig. 14) with long strong ventrally directed, and slightly inwardly curved setae, which are about 
as long as half length of abdomen, those towards apices of lobes being directed posteriorly. 

Body-length 4-5 mm., wing-length 4 mm. 

$. Agrees generally with the $, except for the following : mid tibia with a small median av 
seta, lower posterior sternopleural seta absent or hair-like, prst acr setae absent, costal spine 
small, but distinct from anterior costal setulae. Head with the interfrontal area brownish 
anteriorly, black posteriorly ; eye : frons : eye ratio is 7 : n : 7. Frontal setae and cruciate 
interfrontals rather weak, inner verticals stronger, outer verticals two-thirds length of inner. 
Width of gena 0-41 times height of an eye. The ovipositor is figured in Text-fig. 16. 

Holotype <$. NEPAL : 2 mis S.E. Sikha, 7,000-8,000 ft., 23^.1954 (/. Quinlan}. 
Paratypes. Same locality as holotype, 3 $, 23^.1954 ; i $, 20. v. 1954 (/. Quin- 
lan} ; Ulleri, 6-7,000 ft., 2 $, 19^.1954 (/. Quinlan). 

D. nepalensis agrees in nearly all details with the description of Chortophila 
nigribasis Stein, (1908) from Tibet. Prof. Hennig (in litt.) has kindly supplied me 
with a drawing of the genitalia of a syntype of nigribasis, and the two species, al- 
though very closely related, differ in the chaetotaxy of the 5th sternite. In nigri- 
basis the lobes of the 5th sternite are much longer, and the ventrally directed setae 
are more crowded together at the base, whereas in nepalensis they are more or less 




FIGS. 17-20. Delia coei sp. n. (paratype) : 17, <J hypopygium, caudal view; 18, hypo- 

pygium, profile ; 19, 5th sternite ; 20, aedeagus. 
ENTOM. 20, 4. 6 



Ii6 D. M. ACKLAND 

evenly distributed along the length of the lobes (Text-fig. 14). Stein, in the original 
description of nigribasis, gives the genae as nearly half an eye-height, but in a profile 
drawing of the head sent by Prof. Hennig, the genae are about the same width as in 
nepalensis (0-28 times eye-height). The hypopygium is very similar in the two 
species. 

Delia coei sp. n. 

(Text-figs. 17-21) 

cJ Head : eye-margins on frons almost touching, separated by less than diameter of anterior 
ocellus ; interfrontalia and parafrontals at this point linear. Width of parafrontal at level of 
lunule equal to width of third antennal segment ; parafacial then narrowing to about two- 
thirds this width at level of lower eye-margin. Interfrontal area orange in ground colour, with 
greyish white pollinosity, parafacials adjacent lunule also orange, but towards genae becoming 
brownish, with greyish or whitish pollen ; face grey. Gena about one-fifth (0-2) height of eye. 
Occiput black with dark greyish pollen. Upper postocular setulae uniserial, moderately long, 
but becoming much shorter laterally ; upper part of occiput without setulae below postocular 
row. Vertical and ocellar setae about 4-5 pairs, slightly stronger than postocular setae. Frontal 
setae about 4-5 pairs, upper pairs hardly shorter than lower ; a pair of fine proclinate cruciate 
interfrontal setulae present above upper frontal setae. Antennae completely black, third 
segment about i -5 times length of second, falling slightly short of epistome ; arista thickly 
long pubescent, the total width of hairing at widest part nearly half width of third antennal 
segment. Palpi black, very slender at base, becoming a little wider at apex. Mentum of 
haustellum black, semi-shining, but with thin whitish pollen, rather stout (nearly half as wide 
as long). Thorax : completely black in ground colour, with brownish and greyish pollen. 
Mesonotum, viewed from in front, with shifting indistinct vittae and patches, but at certain 
angles a rather wide darker vitta is visible between the acr setae, and faint dark patches around 
the bases of the dc setae, the lateral areas of mesonotum also darker. Pleurae with rather thin 
greyish pollinosity. acr setae strictly biserial, rows separated from each other by a distance 
equal to that between acr and dc rows ; one pair of stronger prst acr (at least three-quarters 
length of first prst dc), the remaining acr very fine, short and hair-like, including prescutellar 
pair, no hairs between acr rows. Accessory setulae and hairs of mesonotum very sparse, a few 
in bristle rows, and laterally around suture. 2 unequal propleural setae, 2 unequal prostigmatal 
setae, with 3-4 associated hairs, pra seta about three-quarters length of posterior npl seta, 
situated almost equidistant from suture and sa. Notopleural area bare apart from the two 
strong setae. No developed upper anterior mesopleural setulae. stpl 1+2, lower posterior 
seta about three-quarters length of upper. Scutellum black with greyish pollen ; completely 
devoid of setulae on disc apart from 2 fine setae laterally, apex ventrally with a few fine pale 
hairs. Wings : slightly brownish suffused, especially anteriorly at base. Veins brown. Costal 
spine absent or indistinguishable from anterior setulae. Costa bare ventrally on whole length. 
m-m straight but rather oblique. Last section of M 1+2 about 1-66 times length of preceding 
section. Upper calypter brownish suffused, with brown margin and brown fringe, lower calypter 
much smaller and paler, with orange-brown margin and fringe. Halteres yellow. Legs : black. 
Fore tibia with one strong median pv seta, and at apex with a strong blunt pv apical seta. Mid 
femur with a complete row of pv setae. Mid tibia with a strong pd just before middle, a smaller 
ad below middle, and 2-3 short pv setae ; mid metatarsus with a dorsal fringe of curved setulae. 
Hind femur with some very short fine av setae on apical half only, those at middle hardly one- 
third as long as diameter of femur, becoming longer at apex ; a few pv setae on apical third 
only. Hind tibia with about 7-9 unequal ad setae, 3 long pd setae ; a and av surfaces with 
numerous short erect setulae in more than one row, those towards apex becoming shorter ; 
p and pv surfaces with numerous slightly longer semi-erect setulae at base, becoming shorter 
towards middle of tibia, the rows ending at apical two-thirds ; pv apical seta absent. Abdomen : 



DIPTERA FROM NEPAL 117 

black in ground colour, with rather thin brownish grey pollen ; about as long as thorax, elongate- 
ovate, dorsoventrally compressed, only weakly swollen at apex. Viewed from behind with a 
very suffused wide median vitta, connected with basal dark suffusion of tergites. 

Body-length 3-5 mm., wing-length 3 -6 mm. 

>. The two female paratypes are teneral. They agree in most respects, apart from the male 
secondary sexual characters, with the male. They differ in having the acr setae even finer 
(apart from a stronger prescutellar pair), and lower stpl seta very fine or absent. 

Holotype <$. NEPAL : Taplejung District, damp evergreen oak forest above 
Sangu, c. 8,500 ft., 2-26. xi. 1961 (R. L. Coe). 

Paratypes. 2 <, 2 $, same data as holotype (except I <$, I $ collected at 9,000 ft.). 

D. coei is related to the widely distributed D. liturata (Meigen, 1838) (tricho- 
dactyla Rondani, 1866) and those species of Delia which possess in the male a comb- 
like fringe of erect setulae on the hind tibia, and a dorsal fringe on the middle meta- 
tarsus. The arrangement of strong spines on the 5th sternite (Text-fig. 19), and 
the longer membranous bifurcation of the distiphallus (Text-fig. 20) appear to be 
characteristic of coei. 

Delia repens sp. n. 

(Text-figs. 21-24) 

cJ Head : black in ground colour, with dark greyish pollen which in certain directions is whitish 
grey. Eye-margins on frons at narrowest part separated by nearly twice diameter of anterior 
ocellus, interfrontalia distinct throughout ; parafrontals at level of lunule, and parafacials 
rather wide, at least one and a half times width of third antennal segment, this width being well 
maintained towards lower part of parafacial. Gena at narrowest part wide, between two-fifths 
(0-42) of eye-height in holotype, and slightly more than one-quarter (0-29) in paratype. Occiput 
rather strongly swollen in ventral two-thirds. Epistome in profile not projecting, face rather 
straight and only slightly and evenly curved. Antennae black, third segment twice as long as 
second, apex not reaching epistome by about its own width, arista swollen at base, very short 
pubescent, the longest hairs not as long as basal diameter of arista. Palpi black, slender. 
Mentum of haustellum black, dark grey pollinose, not shining, about three times as long as 
wide, parallel-sided. 7-8 pairs of frontal setae, and one pair of fine cruciate interf rental setulae 
present. Upper postocular setulae fine, mainly uniserial, with at most 1-2 scattered hairs 
immediately below. Thorax : completely black in ground colour, with greyish, bluish grey 
and brownish pollen. Mesonotum with diffused brown pollen between dc setae, which tends to 
form an indistinct median vitta between acr setulae, and a wider diffused brown vitta along 
the ia setae, which contrasts (when viewed from in front) with the faintly bluish white noto- 
pleural area. Viewed from behind, the dark median prst vitta is bordered by very narrow 
lighter pollinose streaks. Posterior part of mesopleuron with a brown pollinose patch. Pleurae 
lighter grey pollinose. acr setulae very fine and hairlike, not stronger than accessory setulose 
hairs of mesonotum ; biserial, rows close together, distance between prst acr and dc setae twice 
distance between acr rows, post acr becoming longer, but not stronger, and more widely 
separated in front of scutellum. pra seta equal to posterior npl, twice as distant from sa as 
from suture. Notopleural area bare in holotype, but with one hair on each side between strong 
setae in paratype. Mesopleuron without any developed upper anterior setulae. One strong 
and one weak propleural seta, one or two prostigmatal setae, and 5-6 fine associated hairs. 
stpl setae i + i. Scutellum black, dark grey pollinose, with disc brownish ; central part of 
disc bare, only 2-3 setulose hairs at sides close to the strong marginal setae, ventral surface with 
some fine pale hairs apically. Wings : membrane light brownish tinged. Veins dark brown. 
Costa without fine hairs or setulae ventrally, at least beyond subcostal vein, m-m very weakly 
sinuate, rather oblique, last section of M 1+2 slightly more than one and a half (1-62) times length 



n8 



D. M. ACKLAND 



of preceding section. Costal spine hardly differentiated from anterior costal setulae. Calyptrae 
pale whitish yellow, contrasting with brownish wing base, fringe whitish yellow, lower calypter 
much shorter than upper. Halteres brownish yellow. Legs : black, including tarsi. Fore 
tibia with a short median pv seta. Mid femur with about 5 pv setae in basal half. Mid tibia 
apparently without ad or pd setae, no av seta, only 2 p setae. Hind femur with about 5 av in 
apical half, rather short in middle, becoming longer at apex, pv surface bare except for 1-2 
short setae at extreme apex. Hind tibia with 3-4 ad setae, apical one the longest, the one 
above it short ; about 5 pd setae of unequal length, the apical one longest ; 2-5 short fine p 
setulose hairs in basal half. Abdomen : black, with grey pollen. About as long as head and 
thorax combined, dorsoventrally compressed, more or less parallel-sided, T2 and T3 the same 
width, T4 narrower on hind margin. Viewed from behind with a distinct black median vitta, 
which is wider on fore-margins of each tergite, and is joined there to distinct black hind-marginal 
cross-bands which cover about one-third lengtn of tergites on T3 and T4. 4th sternite with 
2-3 long lateral, ventrally directed setae, 5th sternite with some long ventrally directed setae 
at apex. 

Body-length 5-5 mm., wing-length 6mm. 

$ unknown. 

Holotype <$. NEPAL : Mingoo Ersttrip der Hilary-Expedition,* Hang oberhalb 
beweidete Zwergstrauchheide, rund 4,900 m., 28 . v . 1961 (H. Janetschek) [in Deutsches 
Entomologisches Institut, Berlin]. 

Paratype. NEPAL: Baitadi, Tinkar Khola, 13,000 ft., i <$, 3.vii.i953 (/. B. 
Tyson) [in British Museum (Nat. Hist.)]. 

D. repens is remarkably similar in general appearance to the European Delia 
(Erioischia) pilipyga (Villeneuve, 1917), having the same robust form of head with 

* Probably Mingbo Airstrip of the Hillary Expedition. 




21 



FIGS. 21-24. Delia repens sp. n. (paratype) : 21, <$ hypopygium, caudal view, d, disti- 
phallus ; 22, hypopygium, profile ; 23, 5th sternite ; 24, 5th sternite, profile. 



DIPTERA FROM NEPAL 



119 



wide parafacials, and long setae on the lobes of 5th sternite. Erioischia Lioy, 
1864 (type-species : Anthomyia brassicae Wiedemann, 1833 (=floccosa Macquart, 
1835)) can apparently only be separated from Delia by the possession of hairs on 
the ventral surface of the costa, and on notopleural area between strong setae ; 
it is doubtful if it can be maintained as a distinct group, and Huckett (19656) has 
treated the group as part of his subgenus Delia in the genus Hylemya. Delia repens 
differs from pilipyga (apart from the characters mentioned above) in the more 
slender surstyli, shorter distiphallus, stpl i : i (in pilipyga the lower posterior seta 
about half as long as upper), no stronger prst acr setae. 



Delia flavibasis (Stein) 
(Text-figs. 25-28) 

Chortophila flavibasis Stein, 1903, Mitt. zool. Mus. Berl. 2 : 121. 

Hind tibia without a comb-like fringe of fine pv setulae, pro. seta absent, arista rather distinctly 
pubescent, setae of legs rather short and fine, acr setae very short. 

D. flavibasis was originally described from Egypt. It is probably a widely distri- 
buted species in the southern Palaearctic region, and occurs in India. 

NEPAL : 2 mis S.W. Ulleri, 6-7,000 ft., 2 <$, i $, 18^.1954 (/. Quinlan) ; Ulleri, 
6-7,000 ft., i c, i $, 19. v. 1954 (/. Quinlan) ; Bakhri Kharka, 5,500 ft., i <, 4 $, 
24. iv. 1954, i $, 25. iv. 1954 (J. Quinlan) ; Silgarhi-Doti, Chainpur, 6,000 ft., i $, 
27.vii.i953 (/. B. Tyson) ; 2 mis S.W. of Rambrong, 8,000 ft., 29, 26.^.1954 
(J. Quinlan). 




FIGS. 25-28. Delia flavibasis (Stein) : 25, hypopygium, caudal view; 26, hypopygium, 
profile ; 27, 5th sternite ; 28, distiphallus. 



120 D. M. ACKLAND 

EMMESOMYIA Malloch 
Emmesomyia Malloch, 1917, Bull. Brooklyn ent. Soc. 12 : 114. 

Type-species : Emmesomyia unica Malloch, 1917, by original designation. (Spilo- 
gaster socialis Stein, 1898). 

Two species of Emmesomyia were represented in the material, both by rather 
badly damaged females. No attempt has been made to identify them to species, 
as the Oriental species of Emmesomyia are greatly in need of revision. 

Emmesomyia sp. A $ 

This specimen has only one seta on the upper part of the pteropleuron. 
NEPAL : Ulleri, 6-7,000 ft., i $, 19^.1954 (/. Quintan). 

Emmesomyia sp. B $ 

This specimen has three setae on the upper part of the pteropleuron. 
NEPAL : Taplejung District, Sangu, c. 6,200 ft., on yellow blooms of cultivated 
Composite, I $, io-i6.xii.i96i (R. L. Coe). 

HYLEMYA Robineau-Desvoidy 

Hylemya Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830, Mem. pres. div. Sav. Acad. Sci. Inst. Fr. 2 : 550. 
Hylemyia auctt. [Unjustified emendation]. 

Type-species : Hylemya strenua Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830, by designation of 
Coquillett, 1910, Proc. U.S. natn. Mus. 37 : 554 (Musca strigosa Fabricius, 1794, 
preocc. Linnaeus, 1790). 

An earlier designation of Musca strigosa Fall, [sic] by Rondani (1856, Dipt. Ital. 
Prodr. 1 : 96) is invalid (Int. Code zool. Nomencl., Art. 69 (a) (iv)). 

In this paper I have used the name Hylemya for the restricted group of species 
related to H. strenua by the following characters : arista long plumose, the longest 
rays at least as long as width of third antennal segment ; sternopleural setae 2 -f 2 ; 
a developed upper anterior mesopleural setula ; costa with ventral setulae ; disc 
of scutellum not covered with setulae ; aedeagus with distiphallus slender and 
simple ; surstyli simple. Two species are recorded below from Nepal, one being 
described as new. In the following key I have included two Palaearctic species, 
H. strenua R.D. and variabilis Stein, which have rather similar genitalia. H. variata 
(Fallen), which is another Palaearctic species, has much longer backwardly curved 
surstyli, if Stein (1916 : 155, footnote) is correct in his limitation of Fallen's name 
to this species. Huckett (1924) has apparently used the name variata for variabilis 
in dealing with the Nearctic fauna. H. strenua genitalia are figured in Text-figs. 
33, 34, 38, 39 ; H. variabilis in Text-figs. 31 and 32. 

KEY TO SPECIES OF HYLEMYA (MALES) 

i Legs partly yellow (at least mid and hind tibia yellow) ; arista with longer rays 
(Text-figs. 40, 42) ; surstyli with more numerous and longer hairs or setulae on 
outer margins (Text-figs. 33, 44) ......... 2 



DIPTERA FROM NEPAL 121 

- Legs completely black, or at most only a trace of reddening on mid and hind tibia ; 

arista with shorter rays (Text-figs. 37, 43) ; surstyli with only a few short hairs 

on outer margins (Text-figs. 29, 31) ........ 3 

2 Femora in part yellow, coxae and trochanters more or less yellow ; acr setae absent on 

either side of suture (i.e. only anterior prst and prescutellar setae present) ; anterior 
margins of surstyli in profile with longer hairs (Text-figs. 45) ; 5th sternite gener- 
ally with yellow apices to lobes ; hind tibia with 2 pd setae ; mesonotum and 
abdomen more shining in parts ...... detracta (Walker) 

- Femora black ; acr setae rows complete ; 5th sternite lobes dark ; hind tibia with 

34 pd setae ; mesonotum and abdomen not so shining 

strenua R.D. (= strigosa F.) 

3 The black interfrontalia obsolescent for a short distance on frons (eye-margins 

separated by almost half diameter of anterior ocellus) ; anterior spicules on first 
costal section less distinct and less erect ; cereal plate narrower (Text-fig. 29) 

probilis sp. n. 

- The black interfrontalia linear but distinct throughout (eye-margins separated by 

1-25 times diameter of anterior ocellus) ; anterior spicules on first costal section 
more distinct and erect ; cereal plate wider (Text-fig. 31) . . . variabilis Stein 

Hylemya probilis sp. n. 

(Text-figs. 29, 30, 35, 36, 37) 

(J Head : black in ground colour, with light grey pollen. Eye-margins on frons almost touch- 
ing, separated by less than half diameter of anterior ocellus, the black interfrontalia obsolescent 
on part of frons. Parafrontal at level of lunule slightly less than width of third antenna.1 seg- 
ment, parafacial becoming slightly less wide at level of middle of third antennal segment. 
Antennae black, third segment twice length of second, apex falling slightly short of epistome. 
Arista long plumose, total width of hairing nearly twice width of third antennal segment. 
Gena slightly less than one-fifth (0-18) of eye-height. Frontal setae about 6 paiis, and one pair 
of cruciate interfrontal setulae. Upper postocular setulae uniserial, rather short except for 
upper ones next to ocellar triangle ; space immediately below upper postocular row bare. 
Palpi black, almost parallel-sided. Mentum of haustellum black, grey pollinose, not shining, 
at least 4 times as long as wide. Epistome slightly projecting. Thorax : black, with light 
grey and brownish pollen. Mesonotum with a distinct brown pollinose median vitta, which 
is slightly wider than width of acr rows, brown spots at the bases of all dc setae, and brown lateral 
vittae along the ia setae. Pleurae grey pollinose, with a brown patch on upper part of meso- 
pleuron. acr setae biserial, without hairs between rows, anterior pair of prst acr slightly stronger 
than second prst pair (equal to two-thirds length of first prst dc) ; prst acr rows slightly closer 
together than to dc rows ; post acr short, becoming longer in front of scutellum. pra seta rather 
short, about two-thirds length of posterior npl seta. One long and one shorter propleural seta, 
one strong prostigmatal seta with 2-3 associated hairs ; a developed upper anterior meso- 
pleural setula present, stpl 2 + 2, lower anterior seta short (half length of upper), lower 
posterior seta as long and strong as upper posterior. Scutellum concolorous with mesonotum, 
the median brown pollinose vitta of mesonotum continued on to disc of scutellum, disc of the 
latter bare, apart from 2-3 fine setulae on lateral parts near strong marginal setae. Wings : 
membrane faintly brownish suffused, veins brownish. Costa with hairs on ventral surface. 
Anterior spicules of costa (especially in basal section as far as costal spine) not very erect or 
distinct, hardly differentiated from the semi-erect hairs and setulae. m-m oblique and rather 
sinuous, last section of M 1+2 about one and two-thirds (1-68) length of preceding section. Costal 
spine nearly as long as r-m. Calyptrae whitish yellow, with whitish yellow fringe, lower calypter 
at most two-thirds length of upper. Legs : black, including tarsi. Fore tibia with a d or ad 
seta at apical third, and a longer pv almost at middle. Mid femur with 2 pv at extreme base. 
Mid tibia with one ad at apical third, 2 pd, the distal seta stronger and nearly at the same level 



122 



D. M. ACKLAND 



as ad, one p or pv seta also at same level. Hind femur with about 8 av, and 4-5 pv setae, the 
latter only in basal two-thirds. Hind tibia with 3 ad, 2 pd, about 3 erect p setulae in basal 
half, and 2-3 av in apical half. Abdomen : black in ground colour, with greyish pollen, and a 
narrow dark median vitta ; only slightly dorsoventrally compressed. 

Body-length 7-5 mm., wing-length 6 mm. 

$ unknown. 

Holotype <$. NEPAL : Taplejung District, damp evergreen oak forest above 
Sangu, c. 8,500 ft., 2-26. xi. 1961 (R. L. Coe). 

Apart from the differences in the genitalia, H. probilis differs from strenua R.D. 
in having completely black legs, mentum of haustellum at least 4 times as long 
as wide (in strenua hardly 3 times) , hind tibia with only 2 pd setae (strenua with 3-4 
pd setae) . From variabilis Stein it differs in having the eye-margins on f rons almost 
touching, with the black interfrontalia obsolescent for some distance, and anterior 
spicules of costa less distinct and not so erect. 




FIGS. 20-34. Hylemya spp. Figs. 29-30. H. probilis sp. n. (holotype) : 29, $ hypopy- 
gium, caudal view ; 30, hypopygium, profile. Figs. 31-32. H. variabilis Stein (Eng- 
land) : 31, (J hypopygium, caudal view ; 32, hypopygium, profile. Figs. 33-34. H. 
strenua R.D. ( = strigosa F.) (England) : 33, <$ hypopygium, caudal view ; 34, hypopy- 
gium, profile. 



DIPTERA FROM NEPAL 



123 



Hylemya detracta (Walker) 
(Text-figs. 41, 42, 44, 45, 46) 

Anthomyia detracta Walker, 1852, Insect. Saund. 1 : 356. 

H. detracta appears to be very variable in both size and colour. The holotype <$ 
(from the East Indies) is in the British Museum (Nat. Hist.), and I have examined 
it. Its condition is rather poor, and the abdomen is missing. It has completely 
yellow legs and a yellow apex to scutellum ; this condition is perhaps due to the 
age of the specimen, or it may have been rather teneral. In a long series of detracta 
from various localities in the Oriental region that I have examined, no specimen 
without some darkening on the legs, or with a yellow apex to the scutellum could 
be found ; nevertheless the holotype of detracta possesses all the essential characters 
of the widely distributed species represented in the series examined, i.e. a long 
plumose arista, sternopleural setae 2+2, and a well developed upper anterior 
mesopleural setula. I consider the specimens from Nepal to be conspecific with the 
holotype of detracta, which may be separated from other species of Hylemya by 
the following characters : only one pair of prst acr setae, and 2-3 pairs of post acr ; 




FIGS. 35-43. Hylemya spp. Figs. 35-37. H. probilis sp. n. (holotype) : 35, aedeagus 
36, 5th sternite ; 37, arista. Figs. 38-40. H. strenua R.D. (= strigosa F.) (England) 
38, aedeagus ; 39, 5th sternite ; 40, arista. Figs. 41-42. H. detracta (Walker) (Nepal) 
41, aedeagus ; 42, arista. Fig. 43, H. variabilis Stein, arista. 



I2 4 



D. M. ACKLAND 



mesonotum and abdomen more shining, especially the dark pattern ; arista with 
longer rays ; legs generally mainly yellow, including coxae and trochanters, but 
not tarsi ; fore femur often with a dark dorsal streak, and mid and hind femora 
with a dark dorsal apical streak or band ; 5th sternite generally with yellow apices 
to lobes. The genitalia of the Nepal male has long hairs laterally on surstyli, and 
in profile, some long hairs on anterior margin. The specimens from Darjiling and 
Mussoorie, India, determined by Stein (1918 : 178) as Hylemya nigrimana (Meigen) 
and strigosa (Fabricius) almost certainly refer to detracta. 

NEPAL : 2 mis S.E. Sikha, 7-8,000 ft., 1^,1$, 22. .1954 (/. Quintan) ; Taple- 
jung District, damp evergreen oak forest above Sangu, c. 8,500 ft., I $, 2-26. xi. 1961 
(R. L. Coe). 




44 



FIGS. 44-46. Hylemya detracta (Walker) : 44, <J hypopygium, caudal view ; 45, hypo- 

pygium, profile ; 46, 5th sternite. 

LASIOMMA Stein 

Lasiomma Stein, 1916, Arch. Naturgesch. [1915] A, 81 : 44 (footnote), 183 (as subgenus of 
Chortophila Macq.). 

Type-species : Lasiops ctenocnema Kowarz, 1880, designated by Seguy, 1937, 
Genera Insect. 205 : 123 (=Aricia eriophthalma Zetterstedt, 1860). 

According to Collin (1939 : 146), ctenocnema Kow. and roederi Kow. are the same 
species ; Ringdahl (1933 : 32) has synonymised roederi with eriophthalma Zett. It 
should be noted that Collin's eriophthalma Zett. (sensu Kowarz) is another species, 
probably anthomyinum Rondani. The termination must be changed to eriophthal- 
mum as Lasiomma is neuter. 

Lasiomma eriophthalmum (Zetterstedt) 

(Text-figs. 47-50) 
Aricia eriophthalma Zetterstedt, 1860, Dipt. Scand. 14 : 6236. 

The Nepal specimens agree in essential details, including genitalia, with European 
specimens. They differ in having the eyes much less densely haired, with the hairs 



DIPTERA FROM NEPAL 



125 



shorter, the narrow pale presutural median vittae on mesonotum more distinct, 
and the abdominal median vitta slightly wider. The variation in eye-hair length 
in other species in different parts of their range has also been observed, and it seems 
inadvisable to create any formal status for this variation in L. eriophthalmum. 

NEPAL : Taplejung District, above Sangu, leaves of shrubs on sunny ridge, 
c. 7,500 ft., 10 (, 14.1.1962 (R. L. Coe). 




FIGS. 47-50. Lasiomma eriophthalmum (Zett.) (Nepal) : 47, hypopygium, caudal 
view ; 48, hypopygium, profile ; 49, 5th sternite ; 50, aedeagus. 



PAREGLE Schnabl 
Paregle Schnabl, 1911, Dt. ent. Z. 1911 : 71 (as subgenus of Hylemya R.D.). 

Type-species : Musca radicum Linnaeus, 1758, by designation of Huckett, 1924 : 
39- 

Paregle cinerella (Fallen) 

Musca cinerella Fallen, 1825, Man. Muscidum Sveciae [Pars 8] : 77. 
Hylemyia (Paregle) cinerella (Fallen) ; Schnabl, 1911, Dt. ent. Z. 1911 : 71. 

As pointed out by Huckett (1924 : 39), P. cinerella does not readily conform to 
the concept of Paregle as suggested by the type-species ; the different hind tibial 
chaetotaxy (2 : 2 dorsal setae in cinerella, and about 3 : 6 in radicum}, and the different 
structure of the distiphallus in the male, do not imply very close affinity. Never- 
theless cinerella is probably more closely related to Paregle radicum than to any 
other species. 

P. cinerella is a widely distributed species, having been recorded from the whole 
of the northern hemisphere. 



126 D. M. ACKLAND 

NEPAL : Baitadi, Tinkar Khola, 13,000 ft., 7 <3, 5 $, 3^.1953 (/. B. Tyson) ; 
Siklis, 7,000 ft., i $, 22. iv. 1954 (/. Quintan] ; Bakhri Kharka, 5,500 ft., i <J, 
24. iv. 1954 (/. Quintan]. 

PEGOHYLEMYIA Schnabl 
Pegohylemyia Schnabl, 1911, Dt. ent. Z. 1911 : 75 (as subgenus of Hylemyia). 

Type-species : Musca cinerea Fallen, 1824, by designation of Huckett, 19656 : 852. 

The name Pegohylemyia was first published (Schnabl, 1911 : 75) on January 2nd, 
1911. Three species were included, one of which was cinerea Fall., but no description 
of the characters of Pegohylemyia was given. According to the International Code, 
Art. 12 and 16, the name Pegohylemyia is valid from this date. The name was again 
published in 1911 (Schnabl & Dziedzicki, 1911 : 98) ; the exact date is uncertain, 
but the paper was not communicated to the Academy until I2th December, 1910, 
and therefore is unlikely to have been published before 2nd January, 1911. Four 
additional species were added (including gnava Meigen) to the original three. Collin 
(1931 : 87) stated that " gnava Bouche (sic) may be taken as typical " with reference 
to Pegohylemyia. According to Art. 69 (a) (iv) this cannot be accepted as a valid 
type-species designation. It is unfortunate that Musca cinerea Fall, appears to 
have been misidentified by several of the earlier authors ; for the time being, I 
accept Ringdahl's interpretation of the species. 

KEY TO THE NEPALESE SPECIES OF PEGOHYLEMYIA (MALES) 

i Larger species, about 4 mm. ; about 12 pairs of frontal setae and hairs of unequal 
strength ; acr setae irregularly quadriserial, mainly hair-like ; gena about 0-23 
times eye-height ; wing base bright yellow ..... quinlani sp. n. 
Smaller species, about 3 mm. ; at most about 8 pairs of frontal setae ; acr setae 

biserial ; gena about 0-17 times eye-height ..... nupera sp. n. 

Pegohylemyia quinlani sp. n. 

(Text-figs. 51-54) 

$ Head : eye-margins on frons nearly touching, at narrowest part separated by less than 
diameter of anterior ocellus. Interfrontal area, parafrontals, parafacials and genae orange- 
yellow in ground colour, with yellow pollen, only darkened brownish on interfrontal area in 
front of ocellar triangle, and on genae posteriorly. Face yellowish in ground colour, with light 
brownish yellow pollen. Frontal setae about 12 pairs, 5-6 of which are stronger, these alter- 
nating with the remaining ones which are finer and more hair-like. A distinct pair of proclinate 
cruciate interfrontal setulae present. Antennae black, third segment about one and two-thirds 
(1-7) times length of second segment, apex reaching level of epistome. Arista pubescent, 
longest hairs fully as long as diameter of the slightly swollen base. Parafrontals at level of 
lunule as wide as width of third antennal segment, parafacials narrowing slightly towards level 
of lower margin of eye. Gena at narrowest part about one quarter of eye-height (0-23), setae 
on lower part of genae multiserial. Epistome in profile not projecting, behind level of frons 
at lunule. Occiput black, with dark grey pollen, lower half swollen. Upper postocular setulae 
long and fine, length maintained laterally, and some fine black setulae on upper part of occiput. 
Vertical, postvertical and ocellar setae not differentiated from the postocular setulae. Palpi 
black, slender, not swollen at apex. Haustellum rather short, the lightly pollinose brownish 
mentum slightly shorter than palpi. Eyes appearing bare, but under high magnification with 
very short sparse hairs, only visible in certain lights. Thorax : black in ground colour though 



DIPTERA FROM NEPAL 



127 



pleurae and scutellum rather translucent brownish in parts, with light greyish pollen. Viewed 
from in front there are no apparent vittae ; viewed from behind with a faint suggestion of a 
pair of lighter pollinose vittae along the dc setae. One or two pairs of developed prst acr anteri- 
orly, the strongest of which is about three-quarters as long as the first prst dc ; distance between 
prst acr rows equal to distance between acr and dc rows ; remaining acr represented by fine 
bi- to quadriserial setulose hairs, hardly discernible from the accessory hairs of mesonotum, 
only one strong pair immediately in front of scutellum. pra seta equal in length to posterior 
npl seta, and much closer to suture than to sa seta. No developed upper anterior mesopleural 
setula. Two unequal prostigmatal setae, with about 6-9 associated hairs, two propleural setae, 
stpl 1 + 2, lower posterior seta nearly as long as upper. Scutellum blackish brown in ground 
colour, with greyish pollen, median basal part of disc bare, ventral surface at apex with some 
fine pale hairs. Wings : membrane clear pale yellowish orange at base, otherwise almost clear, 
veins pale brownish. Costal spine absent. Costa bare on ventral surface, m-m nearly straight 
and rather upright. Last section of M 1+2 about 1-4 times length of preceding section. Calyp- 
trae yellowish orange with pale yellow fringe ; lower calypter slightly smaller than upper. 
Legs : brownish black, the tibiae, especially mid and hind pair, translucent yellowish brown 
medially ; tarsi brownish black. Fore tibia with a distinct median p or pv seta. Mid femur 
with a row of long pv setae in basal half, becoming shorter apically. Mid tibia with 2 subequal 
pd setae, a shorter ad at level of distal pd, and 2 much shorter pv setae. Hind femur with com- 
plete rows of long av and pv setae, the setae of the pv row slightly shorter, especially at base. 
Hind tibia with 4 ad, median pair the longest, and 3 pd, basal seta short, apical one longest ; 
2 av setae in apical half, 2-3 fine pv hairs in basal half ; pv apical seta absent. Abdomen : very 
short, not quite as wide as thorax, dorsoventrally compressed, and only slightly swollen at apex. 
Black in ground colour, with greyish pollen ; a narrow brownish black parallel-sided median 
vitta (about as wide as hind tibia) on all segments. 
Body-length 4 mm., wing-length 5 mm. 
unknown. 



Holotype 

lan). 



NEPAL : 2 mis S.W. of Rambrong, 8,000 ft., 26.^.1954 (/. Quin- 




51 



FIGS. 51-54. Pegohylemyia quinlani sp. n. (holotype) : 51, <$ hypopygium, caudal view 
52, hypopygium, profile ; 53, 5th sternite ; 54, 5th sternite, profile. 



128 



D. M. ACKLAND 



Paratype. INDIA : Darjiling, i $, 20-24. v. 1917 (E- Brunetti}. 

P. quinlani appears to have some affinity with the European P. seneciella (Meade) , 
especially in the form of the genitalia. This latter species has been figured by 
Ringdahl (1959 : 322) under the name gnava (Mg.). 



Pegohylemyia nupera sp. n. 

(Text-figs. 55-57) 

cj Head : interfrontalia, parafrontals, parafacials and genae orange-yellow in ground colour, 
with shining whitish pollen when viewed from above (except interfrontalia). Occiput black 
with dark grey pollen. Upper part of interfrontalia rather darker brownish. Eye-margins at 
narrowest part on frons separated by diameter of anterior ocellus. Parafrontals at level of 
lunule rather projecting, about as wide as width of third antennal segment, this width main- 
tained on parafacials towards epistome, which is at same level as frons at lunule. Gena the 
same width as a parafacial, about one-sixth of eye-height (0-17). Antennae black, third segment 
about i -5 times length of second, but almost reaching epistome. Arista swollen at base, pubes- 
cent, the hairs not longer than basal diameter. Palpi dark brown or black, slender. Mentum 
of haustellum brown or black, length about three-quarters length of fore tibia. Frontal setae 
about 7-8 pairs ; a pair of small cruciate interfrontal setulae above uppermost frontal seta. 
Upper postocular setulae rather long, apparently more than uniserial, the length well main- 
tained laterally, where the setulae curve forwards. Thorax : black, with dark grey pollen. 
No distinct vittae on mesonotum in holotype, but the acr area is somewhat darker when viewed 
from behind, acr setae fine, biserial, one pair of longer fine prst acr (equal to first prst dc), 
which are separated from each other by the same distance between them and the prst dc ; 
post acr very fine and short, hardly discernible from accessory mesonotal hairs, pra seta distinct 
(partly broken off in holotype) and at least as robust as posterior npl seta, length not ascertain- 
able. Scutellum concolorous with thorax. Legs : in very bad condition. Black, mid tibia 
with one ad seta, and one (probably two) pd setae. Wings : costal spine absent. Costa bare 
ventrally. Membrane almost clear, veins pale brownish. Calyptrae pale whitish yellow. 
Abdomen : in very bad condition. Dorsoventrally compressed, hardly swollen at apex. 

Body-length about 3 mm. 

$ unknown. 




55 



FIGS. 55-57. Pegohylemyia nupera sp. n. (holotype) : 55, <J hypopygium, caudal view 
56, hypopygium, profile ; 57, 5th sternite. 



DIPTERA FROM NEPAL 129 

Holotype <. NEPAL: Baitadi, Tinkar Khola, 13,000 ft., 3.vii.i953 (/. B. 

Tyson) . 

P. nupera appears to be related to the recently described Nearctic P. vallaris 
Huckett, 1965, especially in the form of the 5th sternite, though the apex of the 
cereal plate in vallaris is not produced into a point. P. vallaris is also a very small 
species. In spite of the rather poor condition of the holotype, it should be recog- 
nisable through the structure of the genitalia. 



P HO RBI A Robineau-Desvoidy 
Phorbia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830, Mem. pres. div. Sav. Acad. Sci. Inst. Fr. 2 : 559. 

Type-species : Phorbia musca Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830, designated by Coquillett, 
1910, Proc. U.S. natn. Mus. 37 : 589. 

For discussion of the use of the name Phorbia, see Huckett (1947) . In this paper 

1 follow the generally accepted application of the name to the group of species with 
a swollen postabdomen in the male, and a laterally compressed, sclerotized ovipositor 
in the female. Two new species are described from Nepal, which can only be 
separated at present by the structure of the male genitalia. 

Phorbia tysoni sp. n. 

(Text-figs. 58-63) 

<J Head : ground colour black, parafacials and parafrontals silvery white pollinose. Eye- 
margins at narrowest part of frons separated by width of anterior ocellus. Head in profile of 
usual Phorbia-sh&pe. Parafrontals at level of lunule slightly wider than width of third antennal 
segment, parafacials at narrowest part slightly less wide. Epistome, in profile, slightly behind 
level of profrons, width of gena about one-fifth (0-19) of eye-height. Antennae black, third 
segment about one and three-quarters (1-75) length of second, arista short pubescent, with 
longest hairs not longer than diameter of the slightly swollen base. Haustellum black, mentum 
slightly shining, but with some pollen, about 3 times as long as wide, rather slender. Thorax: 
black, dark grey pollinose, lighter grey pollen on humeri, a trace of two narrow pale grey pol- 
linose presutural vittae between acr and dc rows, acr setae short and fine, biserial, prst acr 
hardly one-third length of first prst dc setae (in some examples even shorter), and rows close 
together, distance between acr and dc rows at least 4 times the distance between acr rows ; 
one longer pair of prescutellar acr setae, pra seta long, about 1-25 times length of posterior 
npl seta, and placed very close to suture, at least 4 times as distant from sa as from suture. 
stpl 1 + 2, lower posterior seta nearly as long as upper. Scutellum black, almost bare on disc, 
with only 2-4 fine setulae laterally inside level of strong marginal setae ; apex ventrally with a 
few very fine short pale hairs, almost imperceptible. Wings : membrane dark brown at base, 
and brownish suffused along anterior margin, apex and hind margin almost clear. Veins brown. 
Costa without setulae on ventral surface, except 2-3 in basal section (not discernible in dried 
specimens). Costal spine very short and hardly distinct, not much longer than costal setulae. 
m-m almost straight, not very oblique. Last section of M 1+z about one and a half (1-6) times 
length of preceding section. Calyptrae whitish yellow, with whitish fringe, contrasting with 
brown wing base, lower calypter very small. Halteres yellow. Legs : black. Mid tibia 
apparently without an av seta, though one may be present in well preserved specimens (females 
belonging to this or the next species possess a well developed av on the mid tibia) ; one ad, 

2 pd. Hind femur with av and pv setae. Hind tibia with 3-4 ad, 3-4 pd, and 3 rather long 
av setae ; pv apical seta absent. Abdomen : black, with dark grey pollen. In profile strongly 



1 3 o 



D. M. ACKLAND 



swollen apically, somewhat compressed dorsoventrally at base, but not completely flattened. 
Lobes of 5th sternite very distinct, projecting slightly beyond apex of Tg in profile, lower margins 
(i.e. inner) with dense inwardly curved comb-like short setulae. <$ genitalia : this species is 
remarkable in having asymmetrical genitalia, the cereal plate being produced into a lobe-like 
swelling on the left side only, and the surstyli also being slightly asymmetrical. The right 
praegonite is much larger than the left. This condition is present in three of the paratypes, as 
well as the holotype, and is therefore very unlikely to be due to parasitism. 

Body-length 4 mm., wing-length 3-75 mm. 

$ unknown. 

Holotype <. NEPAL: Baitadi, Tinkar Khola, 3.vii.i953 (/. B. Tyson). 
Paratypes. 4 <$, same data as holotype (one paratype mounted on a slide). 

Phorbia morula sp. n. 

(Text-figs. 64-69) 

(J : only differs from P. tysoni in the form of the genitalia : cereal plate with the apical lobes 
the same length, but the left side produced posteriorly (when viewed in profile) ; in caudal view 




60 



FIGS. 58-63. Phorbia tysoni sp. n. (holotype) : 58, <$ hypopygium, caudal view ; 59, 
hypopygium, profile ; 60, 5th sternite ; 61, 5th sternite, profile ; 62, aedeagus, lateral 
view. d. rieht oraeeonite : 6^. aedeaeus. ventral view. 



view, d, right praegonite ; 63, aedeagus, ventral view. 



DIPTERA FROM NEPAL 131 

the two sides are only very slightly asymmetrical. Aedeagus with the praegonites nearly 
symmetrical, indentation on dorsal surface of praegonite between setae larger. 5th sternite 
with the lobes shorter in relation to median length of basal part. The paratype from the same 
locality as the holotype has a slightly differently shaped 5th sternite to the holotype, but the 
genitalia are otherwise identical. 
$ unknown. 

Holotype <$. NEPAL: Baitadi, Tinkar Khola, 3.vii.i953 (/. B. Tyson). 

Paratypes. I <$, same data as holotype [in British Museum (Nat. Hist.)] ; I <$, 
Mingoo Ersttrip der Hilary-Expedition,* Hang oberhalb beweidete Zwergstrauch- 
heide, rund 4,900 m. (H. Janetschek) [in Deutsches Entomologisches Institut, 
Berlin]. 



Phorbia sp. $ 

Nine females of a Phorbia species were collected at the same time and place as 
the two species described above. No morphological characters can be found to 
separate them into two species, or to associate them with either one or the other of 
the above species. 

NEPAL: Baitadi, Tinkar Khola, 9$, 3.vii.i953 (/. B. Tyson). 

* Probably Mingbo Airstrip of the Hillary Expedition. 




FIGS. 64-69. Phorbia morula sp. n. (holotype) : 64, $ hypopygium, caudal view ; 65, 
hypopygium, profile ; 66, 5th sternite ; 67, 5th sternite, profile ; 68, aedeagus, lateral 
view ; 69, aedeagus, ventral view. 



132 D. M. ACKLAND 

NUPEDIA Karl 

Nudaria Karl, 1928, Die Tienvelt Deutschlands 13 Teil, Diptera III Muscidae : 171 (as subgenus 

of Chortophila Macq.) [preocc. Haworth, 1809, Lepidoptera] . 
Nupedia Karl, 1930, Zool. Anz. 86 : 174 [n. n. for Nudaria Karl]. 

Type-species of Nudaria (and hence of Nupedia} : Anthomyia dissecta Meigen, 
1826, by original designation. 

The type-species has been shown (Ackland, 1965) to be misidentified, and an 
application to change the type-species has been made to the International Commis- 
sion on Zoological Nomenclature (1965, Bull. zool. Nomencl. 22 : no). In this 
paper the previously accepted usage of Nupedia is followed. 



Nupedia aestiva (Meigen) comb. nov. 

Anthomyia aestiva Meigen, 1826, Syst. Beschr. 5 : 169. 

Egle aestiva (Meigen) ; Schnabl and Dziedzicki, 1911, Nova Acta Acad. Caesar. Leop. Carol. 

95 : 105. 
Hylemyia (Paregle) aestiva (Meigen) ; Seguy, 1923, Faune de France 6 Dipteres Anthomyides : 

105. 

N. aestiva has previously been placed in Paregle Schnabl, 1911, no doubt because 
it possesses a projecting epistome. Its true affinities (as pointed out by Collin, 
1931 : 88) are with Nupedia infirma (Meigen, 1826) (Nupedia dissecta auctt. not 
Meigen), see Ackland (1965). Nupedia may be characterized by the following 
combination of characters : praegonites and postgonites well developed, but of 
simple form, and both with setae, distiphallus large, robust and sclerotized, apically 
enlarged, and with teeth or sharp latero ventral projections, 5th sternite more or 
less heart-shaped, and with numerous short strong setulae on posterior part (along 
inner margins of lobes) ; there also appear to be two ad and two pd setae on the 
hind tibia ; the costa may be hairy or bare ventrally, and the surstyli simple or 
forked at apices. Most of these characters are shared by Pegoplata Schnabl, 1911, 
and the two groups are probably closely related ; Pegoplata species have however, 
rather different surstyli, and the 6th tergite is exposed and bears several setae. 
Nupedia aestiva is the only species of Nupedia known to me with a projecting epi- 
stome and an av seta on the mid tibia. 

N. aestiva is a common and widely spread species in Europe, and has also been 
recorded from North America. 

NEPAL : Mingoo Ersttrip der Hilary-Expedition,* Hang oberhalb beweidete 
Zwergstrauchheide, rund 4,900 m., 2^, i $, 28. v. 1961 (H. Janetschek}; Zwerg- 
rhododendrenbestande beim Basislager bei Pangpoche, rund 3,900 m., Katscherfang, 
i $, 12. v. 1961 (H. Janetschek} ; Katscherfang im Rodoretum beim Basislager bei 
Pangpoche, rund 3,900 m., I <^, 26. v. 1961 (H. Janetschek} [in Deutsches Entomolo- 
gisches Institut, Berlin]. 

* Probably Mingbo Airstrip of the Hillary Expedition. 



DIPTERA FROM NEPAL 133 

PSEUDOMYOPINA Ringdahl 

Pseudomyopina Ringdahl, 1933, Ent. Tidskr. 54 : 31 (as subgenus of Hylemya R.D.). 
Type-species : Aricia moriens Zetterstedt, 1845, by monotypy. 

Aricia moriens was described from two specimens taken in Sweden (Jamtland, 
Mullfjallet) and both sexes from Norway (Kalahog). The subgenus Pseudomyopina 
was erected for it by Ringdahl in order to separate it from other species with a wide 
frons in the male (Myopina R.D., 1830) from which it differed in a number of charac- 
ters, especially in having a rather wide, dorsoventrally compressed abdomen, not 
laterally compressed as in Myopina myopina (Fallen). 

Among the material from Nepal submitted by Dr. Morge was an undescribed 
species which appeared to agree quite closely with the essential characters given 
by Ringdahl for Pseudomyopina. Prof. Hennig has also sent me a further closely 
related undescribed species from Tadzhikistan, which he has kindly allowed me to 
describe in this paper. 

In order to make a detailed examination of the type-species of Pseudomyopina, 
I wrote to Mr. H. Andersson of the Zoological Institute, Lund, who very kindly 
sent me a male syntype of Aricia moriens from Kalahog. The genitalia of this 
syntype are figured in Text-figs. 70-73. Huckett (1965, figs. 58, 135, 229) has 
given figures of the genitalia of a North American species determined as moriens 
Zett., but which is not the same species as the Norwegian syntype. The Kalahog 
syntype has genitalia which are closer to defector Huckett, described and figured in 
the same paper. Because of the possibility that the other syntypes of moriens 
from Sweden may not be conspecific with the Kalahog syntype (Mr. Andersson, 
in litt. mentions that there is a male and a female syntype from Mullfjallet in the 
collection) I am not designating the Kalahog syntype as lectotype. 

The two new species described below have the following characters in common 
with A . moriens : 

Frons in male wide, at least 0-37 times head-width (moriens) to 0-47 (pamirensis) ; one pair 
of strong cruciate interfrontal setae present, and frontal setae long and robust ; epistome pro- 
jecting in front of level of vibrissal setae ; genae wide, from 0-27 times eye-height (moriens) to 
0-8 (fumidorsis) ; arista bare, rather swollen at base ; palpi long and slender ; pra seta long ; 
stpl setae i -)- 2 ; 1-2 developed prostigmatal setae ; acr setae represented by fine setulae or 
hairs ; scutellum with fine pale hairs ventrally at apex ; costal spine strong, at least as long as 
cross-vein r-m, sometimes longer ; lower calypter small ; cross-vein m-m straight and rather 
upright ; fore tibia with at least 2 ad and 2 pd setae (fine in pamirensis) ; mid and hind femora 
with rows of av and pv setae ; mid tibia with at least 2 ad and 2 pd setae ; hind tibia with at 
least 5 av setae, and pv apical spur absent ; claws and pulvilli small ; abdomen strongly dorso- 
ventrally compressed, rather flat and wide. Male genitalia : hypandrium large and well de- 
veloped, epandrium large and wide ; cereal plate wide, with the apical corners slightly produced 
(pamirensis and fumidorsis} or with long slender processes (moriens) ; surstyli incised at apices ; 
praegonites reduced, with 2 short setae, postgonites simple, swollen at base, with 2 fine setae ; 
distiphallus simple, mainly membranous, only the basal part sclerotized ; 4th sternite nearly 
as wide as 5th sternite. 

Of the characters which are present in moriens, and which might be considered 
to be of generic importance, but which are not included above, the following should 
be mentioned. Two anteroventral setae are present on the mid tibia in moriens, 



134 



D. M. ACKLAND 



and also in fumidorsis but are absent in pamirensis. The presence or absence of 
this character in two such obviously monophyletic species as fumidorsis and pamiren- 
sis indicates that it is of little generic importance. The ventral surface of the costa 
of the wing in moriens has a few hairs, especially in the basal part, but they are 
close to the antero ventral setulae in the apical part, and difficult to see ; in fumidorsis 
and pamirensis the ventral surface of the costa is virtually bare, although some 
longer, more erect hairs are discernible very close to the anteroventral setulae. The 
two species would, however, certainly be normally considered as having the costa 
bare ventrally. The character of ventral costal hairs is unfortunately not as clear 
cut as it might at first appear, as numerous different kinds of hairing can be observed, 
and the effect may be sometimes due to a displacement of anterior hairs, rather than 
the presence of extra true ventral hairs. 

A. moriens has a developed upper anterior mesopleural setula, which is absent in 
the other two species. 

Although it is not possible at the present time to indicate which are the apomorphic 
characters by which Pseudomyopina might differ from other genera, the following 




FIGS. 70-73. Pseudomyopina moriens (Zett.) (syntype) : 70, <$ hypopygium, caudal view 
71, hypopygium, profile ; 72, aedeagus ; 73, 4th and 5th sternite. 



DIPTERA FROM NEPAL 135 

may be useful in separating the species from closely or superficially related genera : 
Myopina has a developed praegonite and a very complicated sclerotized distiphallus, 
and the 6th abdominal tergite bears numerous setulae ; in addition the overall 
structure of the abdomen is quite different, and the epistome is not projecting. 
Fucellia R.D. has no setae on the postgonite, the distiphallus is more sclerotized, 
and the costa ventrally has fine hairs basally, but rather widely spaced strong 
spicules in apical half. Monochrotogaster Ringdahl, according to Hennig (1966), has 
a slender bifurcate cereal plate, no setae on the postgonite, the distiphallus is short 
and almost fully membranous ; in addition the pulvilli are very large. 



KEY TO OLD WORLD SPECIES OF PSEUDOMYOPINA (MALES) 

1 Genae narrower, at most 0-3 times height of eye ; costa of wing with some fine hairs 

on ventral surface, more distinct in basal half ; a developed upper anterior meso- 
pleural setula present ; thorax with yellowish or brownish pollen, mesopleuron 
darker brownish .......... moriens (Zett.) 

- Genae wider, at least 0-6 times height of eye ; costa of wing bare on ventral surface ; 
no developed upper anterior mesopleural setula ; thorax with greyish green or 
greyish pollen, at most some brownish pollen on mesonotum .... 2 

2 pra seta as long as posterior notopleural seta ; costal spine at least i -5 times length 

of cross-vein r-m ; anterior costal setulae about twice as long as diameter of 
costa ; mesonotum with extensive lateral brownish pollen, contrasting with a 
greyish pollinose median vitta ; mid tibia with 2 av setae, hind tibia with about 
5 strong av setae ....... (Nepal) fumidorsis sp. n. 

pra seta slightly shorter than posterior notopleural seta ; costal spine only as long 
as length of r-m ; anterior costal setulae only about as long as diameter of costa ; 
mesonotum with only greyish green or bluish pollen ; mid tibia without av setae, 
hind tibia with only 3 strong av setae . . (Tadzhikistan) pamirensis sp. n. 

Pseudomyopina fumidorsis sp. n. 

(Text-figs. 74-79) 

<J Head : black in ground colour, with greenish grey and brownish pollen. Eyes widely 
separated, frons wide, at vertex 0-44 times head-width. Interfrontalia matt black, with 
brownish pollen when viewed from in front, constricted in front of anterior ocellus, where it is 
about twice as wide as a parafrontal at this level, widening out in anterior half of frons ; one 
pair of strong cruciate interfrontal setae, and numerous short hairs across anterior part of inter- 
frontalia. Parafrontal greyish pollinose, with a trace of brownish pollen towards inner margin ; 
5-6 strong frontal setae, and some short fine hairs outside their bases. Parafacial at lunule 
wide, about 1-3 times width of third antennal segment, width maintained ventrally, gena very 
wide (hence eyes small) about 0-8 times height of an eye. Epistome strongly projecting, the 
margin in profile reaches beyond level of vibrissal setae ; about 6 other strong setae below 
vibrissae on anterior lateral margins of mouth opening, which is obliquely cut off when viewed 
in profile. Antennae black, third segment hardly twice as long as second, arista bare, basal 
segments rather long, third segment rather distinctly swollen at base. Mentum of haustellum 
black with greyish pollen, matt, length difficult to determine in holotype, but probably rather 
long ; palpi black, long and slender. Two pairs of vertical setae, inner pair very robust and 
long, outer pair equal in length to frontal setae. Occiput swollen and rounded, greyish green 
pollinose, with numerous short, stiff black setulae on upper part, those on lower part more 
hair-like. Thorax : black in ground colour, with greyish green pollen, and patches of brownish 
pollen, especially on dorsum. Mesonotum, viewed from in front, with a paler greyish median 



136 



D. M. ACKLAND 



vitta presuturally, which is about half as wide as distance between prst dc setae ; the rest of 
mesonotum, apart from humeri, brownish pollinose. Viewed from the side this brownish pollen 
tends to form a darker vitta along the lines of the dc setae, but the area immediately in front of 
scutellum, and this itself, clear greenish or bluish grey pollinose. acr setae represented by 
irregularly bi- to triserial fine erect hairs, indistinguishable from accessory mesonotal hairs, 
only slightly longer, but not stronger in front of scutellum ; prst acr hairs separated by a bare 
space, equal to width of acr rows, from dc setae, pra seta long and strong, equal to posterior 




79 



FIGS. 74-79. Pseudomyopina fumidorsis sp. n. (holotype) : 74, <$ hypopygium, caudal 
view ; 75, hypopygium, profile ; 76, aedeagus ; 77, 4th and 5th sternite ; 78, $ head, 
profile ; 79, <J head, dorsal view. 



DIPTERA FROM NEPAL 137 

npl seta, situated much closer to suture than to sa seta. Two long posthumeral setae. Noto- 
pleuron bare apart from the two strong seta. Two unequal propleural setae, one strong and 
one finer prostigmatal seta, with about 7-9 fine associated hairs. No developed upper anterior 
mesopleural setula. stpl setae 1 + 2, lower posterior seta about two-thirds length of upper 
posterior seta. Scutellum concolorous with posterior part of mesonotum, one pair of strong 
basal lateral setae, one pair of strong apicals, and one pair of fine preapicals, which are about 
half as long as, and as distant from each other as the apicals ; lateral setulose hairs uniserial, 
about 3-4 apical hairs which are rather long ; ventral surface of scutellum with a few fine pale 
hairs at apex. Wings : membrane very faintly greyish tinged, base of wing distinctly yellowish, 
veins brownish. Anterior costal setulae rather long, those between apices of subcostal vein 
and 7?! about 1-5-1-75 times diameter of costa. Ventral surface of costa virtually bare, though 
there is a row of fine, semi-erect hairs very close to the anteroventral row of setulae ; these are 
probably not true ventral hairs. Costal spine long, about 1-6 times length of r-m. Cross-vein 
m-m straight, and rather upright. Last section of M 1+2 1-28 times length of preceding section. 
Calyptrae yellowish, with yellow fringe, concolorous with wing base ; lower calypter narrow, 
at widest part not wider than diameter of hind tibia. Halteres yellow. Legs : black, with 
thin greyish pollen. Fore tibia with 2 ad, 3 pd and one pv seta ; two strong preapical setae 
present. Mid femur with almost complete av and pv rows, the setae of the pv row longer, 
especially at base, and mixed with fine setulose hairs. Mid tibia with 2 av, 3 ad (basal one 
shorter), 3-4 pd, and about 3 pv setae, all rather strong. Hind femur with complete rows of 
av and pv setae mixed with setulose hairs. Hind tibia with about 7 ad, 6-7 pd, 5-6 av setae, 
all strong, and about 7-8 finer unequal pv setulae ; pv apical spur absent. Claws and pulvilli 
rather small. Abdomen : black in ground colour, with dense greyish pollinosity, slightly 
bluish or greenish tinged. Dorsoventrally compressed, postabdomen somewhat swollen ; 
viewed from above elongate-oval, widest at T3 which is 3 times as wide as median length of 
tergite ; ratio of total length of abdomen to greatest width is 8 : 5. Viewed from behind with 
a diffused median vitta (about as wide as diameter of hind femur) on T3 and T4 and basal part of 
T 5, hardly distinct on Ti + 2. T6 apparently without any hairs. T7 + 8 pollinose. 

Body-length 6-5 mm., wing-length 7 mm. 

$ unknown. 

Holotype <$. NEPAL : Umgebung der Griinen Hiitte der Hilary -Expedition 
21. v. 1961 (H. Janetschek) [in Deutsches Entomologisches Institut, Berlin]. 

Pseudomyopina pamirensis sp. n. 

(Text-figs. 80-83) 

o*. Very similar in general appearance to the preceding species, so that a detailed description 
is unnecessary. The main differences are given in the table below. 

fumidorsis pamirensis 

Costal spine longer, about i -5 times length of Costal spine shorter, not longer than length 

r-m. of r-m. 

Anterior costal setulae longer than diameter Anterior costal setulae not longer than 

of costa. diameter of costa. 

Mesonotum with extensive brown pollen. Mesonotum without brown pollen, except 

around base of prescutellar dc seta. 

pra seta as long as post npl. pra seta slightly shorter than post npl. 

Fore tibia with 2 strong ad and 3 strong pd Fore tibia with 1-2 ad, and 1-2 pd setae, 

setae. rather fine. 



138 D. M. ACKLAND 

Hind tibia with 5 strong av setae. Hind tibia with 3 strong and 2 fine av setae. 

Mid tibia with 2 av setae. Mid tibia without av setae. 



5-6 pairs of frontal setae. 



7-8 pairs of frontal setae. 



The male genitalia has the cereal plate divided into two pads, which are more setulose than 
in fumidorsis, and the surstyli are more deeply cleft at their apices. The postgonite is less 
produced below in pamirensis than in fumidorsis, and the lobes of the fifth sternite are much 
shorter. The sixth abdominal tergite in the holotype of pamirensis has some fine setulose hairs. 

2 unknown. 




83 



80 



FIGS. 80-83. Pseudomyopina pamirensis sp. n. (paratype) : 80, < hypopygium, caudal 
view ; 81, hypopygium, profile ; 83, 4th and 5th sternite. 

Holotype <. TADZHIKISTAN : E. Pamir, 12 km. from Tschetchsekty,Tzirk Zor, 
4,800 m., 25. 11.1962 (Sychevskaya) . 

Paratype. I <$, same data as holotype. [Both in Staatliches Museum fur Natur- 
kunde, Stuttgart]. 

REFERENCES 

ACKLAND, D. M. 1965. The identity of Anthomyia dissecta Mg. and A. infirma Mg. (Dipt., 

Anthomyiidae) . Entomologist's mon. Mag. 100 : 207-209. 
COLLIN, J. E. 1931. The Oxford University Expedition to Greenland, 1928. Diptera (Orthor- 

rhapha Brachycera and Cyclorrhapha) from Greenland. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (10) 7 : 

67-91. 



DIPTERA FROM NEPAL 139 

COLLIN, J. E. 1939. On various new or little known British Diptera, including several 

species bred from the nests of birds and mammals. Entomologist's mon. Mag, 75 : 134154. 
HERTING, B. 1957. Das weibliche Postabdomen der calyptraten Fliegen und sein Merk- 

malswert fur die Systematik der Gruppe. Z. Morph. Okol. Tiere. 45 : 429-461. 
HENNIG, W. 1966. In LINDNER, Die Fliegen der Palaearktischen Region 7 6$a. Anthomyiidae 

(Lief. 262) : 1-48. Stuttgart. 
HUCKETT, H. C. 1924. A systematic study of the Anthomyiinae of New York, with especial 

reference to the male and female genitalia. Mem. Cornell Univ. agric. Exp. Stn 77 : 1-91. 

1947. The subgenus Phorbia Robineau-Desvoidy in North America, genus Hylemyia 
sens. lat. (Diptera, Muscidae). Bull. Brooklyn ent. Soc. 42 : 109-125. 

I965. The Muscidae of Northern Canada, Alaska, and Greenland (Diptera). Mem. ent. 
Soc. Can. 42 : 1-369. 

19656. In A Catalog of the Diptera of America North of Mexico. Washington. 
RINGDAHL, O. 1933. Oversikt av i Sverige funna Hylemyia-arter. Ent. Tidskr. 54 : 1-35. 

1939. Diptera der Fam. Muscidae, (die Gattungen Aricia und Anthomyza) von Zetter- 
stedt in " Insecta Lapponica " und " Diptera Scandinaviae " beschrieben. Opusc. ent. 

4 : i37~ I 59- 
~~ J 959- Svensk Insektfauna. 11. Tvavingar. Diptera Cycloraphia Schizophora Schizo- 

metopa i. Muscidae. Hafte 3. pp. 197-334. 
SCHNABL, J. 1911. Anthomyidae in BECKER, T., KUNTZE, A., SCHNABL, J. & VILLENEUVE, J. 

Dipterologische Sammelreise nach Korsika (Dipt.). Dt. ent. Z. 1911 : 62-100. 
SCHNABL, J. & DZIEDZICKI, H. 1911. Die Anthomyiden. Nova Acta Acad. Caesar. Leop. Carol. 

95 : 53-358. 
STEIN, P. 1907. Zur Kenntnis der Dipteren von Central- Asien. II. Ezheg. zool. Muz. 

12 : 318-372. 

1916. Die Anthomyiden Europas. Tabellen zur Bestimmung der Gattungen und aller 
mir bekannten Arten, nebst mehr oder weniger ausfiihrlichen Beschreibungen. Arch. 
Naturgesch. [1915] Abt. A, 81 : 1-224. 

1918. Zur weitern Kenntnis aussereuropaeischer Anthomyiden. Annls. hist.-nat. Mus. 
natn. hung. 16 : 147-244. 

TUXEN, S. L. 1956. Taxonomist's glossary of genitalia in insects. 1-284. Copenhagen. 




A LIST OF SUPPLEMENTS 
TO THE ENTOMOLOGICAL SERIES 

OF THE BULLETIN OF 
THE BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 



1. MASNER, L. The types of Proctotrupoidea (Hymenoptera) in the British 
Museum (Natural History) and in the Hope Department of Entomology, Oxford. 
Pp. 143. February, 1965. 5. 

2. NIXON, G. E. J. A reclassincation of the tribe Microgasterini (Hymenoptera : 
Braconidae). Pp.284; 348 Text-figures. August, 1965. 6. 

3. WATSON, A. A revision of the Ethiopian Drepanidae (Lepidoptera). Pp. 177 ; 
18 plates, 270 Text-figures. August, 1965. 4 45. 

4. SANDS, W. A. A revision of the Termite Subfamily Nasutitermitinae (Isoptera, 
Termitidae) from the Ethiopian Region. Pp. 172 ; 500 Text-figures. October, 

1965- 3 5*. 

5. AHMAD, I. The Leptocorisinae (Heteroptera : Alydidae) of the World. Pp. 156 ; 
475 Text-figures. November, 1965. 2 155. 

6. OKADA, T. Diptera from Nepal. Cryptochaetidae, Diastatidae & Drosophilidae. 
Pp. 129 ; 328 Text-figures. 3. 

7. GILIOMEE, J. H. Morphology and Taxonomy of Adult Males of the Family 
Coccidae (Homoptera : Coccoidea). Pp. 168 ; 43 Text-figures. February, 1967. 

33s. 

8. FLETCHER, D. S. A revision of the Ethiopian species and a check list of the 
world species of Cleora (Lepidoptera : Geometridae) . Pp. 119; 14 plates, 146 
Text-figures, 9 maps. February, 1967. 3 IDS. 

9. HEMMING, A. F. The Generic Names of the Butterflies and their type-species 
(Lepidoptera : Rhopalocera) . In press. 

10. STEMPFFER, H. The Genera of the African Lycaenidae (Lepidoptera : Rhopa- 
locera). In press. 



PRINTED IN GREAT BRITAIN BY ADLARD & SON LIMITED, BARTHOLOMEW PRESS, DORKING 






ON THE CLASSIFICATION OF if"*' 

ANAGYRINE ENCYRTIDAE, WITH 

A REVISION OF SOME OF THE 

GENERA (HYMENOPTERA : 

CHALCIDOIDEA) 



G. J. KERRICH 



BULLETIN OF 

THE BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 
ENTOMOLOGY Vol. 20 No. 5 

LONDON: 1967 



ON THE CLASSIFICATION OF THE 
I ANAGYRINE ENCYRTIDAE, 

WITH A REVISION OF SOME OF THE GENERA 

(HYMENOPTERA : CHALCIDOIDEA) 




BY 

G. y. KERRICH y 

Commonwealth Institute of Entomology, London 



Pp. 141-250, 114 Text-figs., 4 Plates 



BULLETIN OF 
THE BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 

ENTOMOLOGY Vol. 20 No. 5 

LONDON: 1967 



THE BULLETIN OF THE BRITISH MUSEUM 

(NATURAL HISTORY), instituted in 1949, is 
issued in five series corresponding to the Departments 
of the Museum, and an Historical series. 

Parts will appear at irregular intervals as they become 
ready. Volumes will contain about three or four 
hundred pages, and will not necessarily be completed 
within one calendar year. 

In 1965 a separate supplementary series of longer 
papers was instituted, numbered serially for each 
Department. 

This paper is Vol. 20, No. 5 of the Entomological 
series. The abbreviated titles of periodicals cited 
follow those of the World List of Scientific Periodicals. 



World List abbreviation 
Butt. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.). 



Trustees of the British Museum (Natural History) 1967 



TRUSTEES OF 
THE BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 

Issued i Aiigust, 1967 Price 2 los. 



ON THE CLASSIFICATION OF THE 

ANAGYRINE ENCYRTIDAE, 

WITH A REVISION OF SOME OF THE GENERA 
(HYMENOPTERA : CHALCIDOIDEA) 

By G. J. KERRICH 

CONTENTS 

Page 

KEY TO THE TRIBES OF THE ENCYRTINAE Ashmead .... 144 

CLASSIFICATION OF ANAGYRINI ........ 145 

DESCRIPTIVE TECHNIQUE ......... 146 

KEY TO GENERA OF THE ERICYDNINA . . . . . . . 146 

DISCUSSION OF SOME GENERA ........ 151 

HUNGARIELLA Erdos 154 

Key to species .......... 164 

ERICYDNUS Walker 166 

Key to species . ......... 176 

GRAN 'DOR I ELLA Domenichini 180 

CLAUSSENIA Ishii 181 

Key to species .......... 187 

KEY TO GENERA OF THE AENASIINA subtrib. n. . . . . 188 

METAPHAENODISCUS Mercet 190 

CHALCASPIS Howard 191 

Key to species .......... 194 

AENASIUS Walker . 195 

Key to species .......... 219 

BLEPYRUS Howard 225 

Key to species .......... 227 

NEODISCODES Compere 228 

Key to species .......... 235 

EURYRHOPALUS Howard 235 

KEY TO SPECIES ......... 243 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS .......... 246 

ADDENDUM ........... 247 

INDEX TO NAMES IN HYMENOPTERA . . . . . . .248 

INDEX TO HOST NAMES ......... 250 

SYNOPSIS 

The classification of the main Encyrtid subfamily Encyrtinae is discussed, and a revised key 
is given for its division into the three generally recognized tribes. 

The tribe Anagyrini ( Ectromini Ashmead) is classified into five subtribes, which are 
characterized. The genera recognized by the author as belonging to three of these are listed or 
are indicated by reference to literature. 

A dichotomous key is given for separation of the genera of the subtribe Ericydnina in both 
sexes, and some of the genera are briefly discussed. Systematic revisions are given of the 
species of Hungariella Erdos, Ericydnus Walker, Grandoriella Domenichini and Clausenia Ishii. 

In the Aenasiina subtrib. n. only the female sex has been studied. A dichotomous key is 
given for the separation of the six genera, and systematic revisions are given of the species of 
five of these, for which sufficient material was available. 

ENTOM. 20, 5. 7 



I 4 4 G - J- KERRICH 

THE division of the Encyrtidae into three subfamilies, Encyrtinae, Arrenophaginae 
and Antheminae is generally agreed; but authors have subdivided the largest sub- 
family, the Encyrtinae, in various ways. This situation has been reviewed by 
Tachikawa (1963). 

Compere has, in various papers, but especially in 1947 and in a rather recent joint 
communication with Annecke (1960), emphasized the importance of the structure and 
function of the female gaster in Encyrtid classification. On this basis, the two authors 
of the latter paper gave a revised key (p. 376) in which Ashmead's tribes of the 
Encyrtinae were redefined. Tachikawa, in his excellent study of the Japanese 
Encyrtidae (1963) has accepted this standpoint. Like that Japanese author I give, 
though in somewhat different form, an expanded version of their key for the purpose 
of more general generic identification, the nomenclature adopted being that which I 
have already considered most appropriate (Kerrich, 1964). 

ENGYRTINAE 

KEY TO THE TRIBES OF THE ENCYRTINAE Ashmead 

1 Styli and paratergites absent. Mandibles apically truncate. Costal cell of hind wing 

broad ENCYRTINI Ashmead 

Styli or paratergites or both present. Mandibles dentate ..... 2 

2 Paratergites almost always present: sty li in most genera absent. Mandibles slender, 

generally bidentate, sometimes tridentate with three sharp teeth, but never with 
two sharp teeth and a truncation: female hypopygium usually boat-shaped and 
usually enclosing the ovipositor ..... ANAGYRINI Hoffer 1954 

( = Ectromini Ashmead) 

Paratergites absent. Styli always present and distinct, generally movable apart 
from the plates which bear them. Mandibles never bidentate with equal teeth, 
generally tridentate, frequently with two sharp teeth and a truncation; female 
hypopygium very rarely boat-shaped and very rarely enclosing the ovipositor 

BOTHRIOTHORACINI Howard 1895 
(=Mirini Ashmead) 

Compere & Annecke (1960) defined the terms " styli " and " paratergites ", which 
are used in the key to tribes. Paratergites are illustrated by Compere (1947, fig. 6) 
and on PI. I of the present paper. In the Anagyrini the entire ovipositor is everted, 
and apparently the paratergites serve as hinge plates: in repose the ovipositor is 
completely enclosed by the sterna to the apex of the abdomen, the apical sternum 
being enlarged and pointed. In the Bothriothoracini the recurved sides of the true 
eighth tergum adhere closely to the lateral margins of the tenth tergum without 
having any plate between them, and the styli are present and generally movable 
apart from the plates that bear them : the styli are seldom completely enclosed by the 
apical sternum, and in the act of oviposition only the shaft of the ovipositor extrudes. 
The Anagyrini are parasites of mealybugs. 

I became interested in Dr. Compere's ideas on Encyrtid classification in the course 
of prolonged correspondence with him on the subject of a number of genera, prin- 
cipally Anagyrine, that I had received for study (e.g., Kerrich, 1953). When I 
visited him in 1956, he not only enabled me to study the incomparable material 
located at Riverside, but also initiated me into his ideas on the subdivision of the 



CLASSIFICATION OF THE ANAGYRINI 145 

Anagyrini. He has not wished to undertake the furtherance of these ideas himself, 
but has desired me to develop them in connection with the revision of a number of 
the genera. For this enlightenment and impetus I wish to express my deepest 
gratitude. 

CLASSIFICATION OF ANAGYRINI 

ANAGYRINI 

The Anagyrini are here divided into five sub-tribes in the following manner: 

1. Anagyrina (sec. Anagyrini Hoffer, 1954). This sub-tribe is characterized by 
having the tenth tergum of the female enormously enlarged, so as to cover the greater 
part of the abdomen (PL I, fig. I and Compere, 1947, fig. 6). The paratergites are 
long and narrow. The head is of normal shape, and is neither strongly sclerotized 
nor coarsely punctate. Many of the genera were included in the key given by Com- 
pere, and others were adduced by Burks (1952). Other genera belonging here are 
Anusia Forster, 1856, Doliphoceras Mercet, 1921, Ectromatopsis Compere, 1947, 
Paraenasioidea Hoffer, 1954, Leptanusia De Santis, 1964 Aglyptoideus De Santis, 
1964 and Alamella Man Molven, 1966. 

2. Ericydnina (sec. Ericydnini Hoffer, 1955, also Ericydnina Erdos & Novicky, 
I 955)- This group is negatively characterized by not having the tenth tergum 
of the female enormously enlarged, as in the first subtribe, nor the head as in the two 
following. The paratergites, usually present, are long (PI. I, fig. 2), and still more 
slender than in the first group. The male antennae are long-hairy in several genera 
and ramose in some (e.g., Text-fig. 19). A key to the genera is given below, for both 
sexes where known, except for the close relatives of Xanthoencyrtus already dealt 
with in the important paper of Ghesquiere (1956). 

3. /Vena si inn subtrib. n. These are stout-bodied forms with a rigid integument, 
and some of them have a close superficial resemblance to such genera as Bothriothorax. 
The head is strongly sclerotized and coarsely punctate, often with strong thimble- 
punctures, and in some genera it is menisciform (see numerous Text-figures following). 
The fore femora are decidedly stout. The mandibles are often tridentate, in which 
case the middle tooth is the longest. The paratergites are widened basally near the 
cerci and taper to hairline thickness apically (PL II, fig. i). Short, wide styli are 
present. The males have not been studied, but for the females a key to the six 
genera is given below, and the species of all but one of these genera are revised. 

4. Dinocarsiina (sec. Dinocarsiini Hoffer, 1952). These genera are characterized 
by having a rather strongly sclerotized, broadened head, usually with the facial 
area sunk, and bordered by a very sharp ridge, and by having relatively much 
broader paratergites (PL II, fig. 2). In most genera the submarginal vein runs up to 
junction of the postmarginal and radial, and the marginal is virtually absent; but 
in the European genera Dinocarsis and Dicarnosis, which lack the sharp margin to the 
facial impression, the marginal vein is distinct but not contiguous with the wing 
margin, and the postmarginal is absent or vestigial. A cleared preparation of 
Dinocarsis shows the broad paratergites. The genera belonging here are Dinocarsis 
Forster, 1856, Dicarnosis Mercet, 1921, Zarhopalus Ashmead, 1900, Acroaspidia 



146 G. J. KERRICH 

Compere & Zinna, 1955, Coelaspidia Timberlake, 1923, Chrysoplatycerus Ashmead, 
1889, Hambletonia Compere, 1936, Tropidophryne Compere, 1931, Neoplatycerus 
Subba Rao, 1965 and Zaplatycerus Timberlake, 1925. The present author plans a 
study of these genera to be published in a subsequent paper. 

5. Aphycina (sec. Aphycini Hoffer, 1954). A key to the genera was given by 
Compere & Annecke (1960, p. 37). The group is characterized as small, not heavily 
sclerotized insects, with frontovertex and dorsum of thorax often more or less 
velvety in appearance. The female hypopygium is boat-shaped and sharp to flatter 
or even more roundedly truncate at apex, and the ovipositor often projects by about a 
quarter the length of the gaster. Paratergites are present in some genera. The 
fore wings have the marginal vein not much longer than broad, the radial rather 
short and the postmarginal very short. Kerrich (1964) has transferred Dusmetia 
Mercet, 1921 to this group. The curious Anagyrietta Ferriere, 1955 seems best placed 
here. 

DESCRIPTIVE TECHNIQUE 

Descriptions and redescriptions have been made comparatively. All species 
treated have been compared in all respects mentioned with the species most closely 
related to them and, where relative terms are used, it is to be assumed that " very 
weakly ", " weakly ", " rather weakly ", " moderately ", " rather strongly ", etc. 
represent gradations. 

It is important that the conditions of illumination under which the descriptions 
have been made should be understood. Whereas a strong spotlight has been used 
for illumining shapes, especially those of smaller structures such as mandibles and 
antennal segments, it has not been used for colour or finer sculpture, which have 
been studied with good daylight supplemented by an ordinary bench lamp. When 
an insect having structural colour is examined with a spotlight, this penetrates to 
the underlying melanin, and the structural colour disappears from view or becomes 
greatly changed. Likewise, a spotlight eliminates or reduces fine shadow, so that 
fine striation or microsculpture may disappear from view, and all but the coarsest 
punctures may appear smaller than they really are. Punctures seem more reliably 
viewed from the side than from in front or behind. It may be necessary to view the 
punctures without a spotlight, and then to turn the spotlight on in order to view the 
hairs that arise from them. 

Venation has been viewed, so far as possible, with good transmitted daylight only. 
Artificial light, even from a bench lamp, may cause reflections from the wing margin, 
and the edges of the veins and even from hairs, making the precise limits of the veins, 
especially when they are almost colourless, very difficult to observe. 

Where wing proportions are quoted, the length has been measured from the apex 
of the tegula. 

ERICYDNINA 

KEY TO GENERA OF THE ERICYDNINA 

i Antennal funicle 5-segmented in both sexes, ramose in male: [frontovertex 

relatively broad] ............ 2 

Antennal funicle 6-segmented in both sexes, seldom ramose in male ... 4 



CLASSIFICATION OF THE ANAGYRINI 147 

Brachypterous in both sexes: whole thorax flattened in both sexes, the scutellum 
very little raised above metanotum: antennae of female moderately compressed 
and strongly clavate, of male with three long rami: New Zealand, Campbell Is. 

ANTIPODENCYRTUS Kerrich, 1964 
Brachypterous forms unknown: scutellum well raised above metanotum: 

antennae of female otherwise, of male with more than three rami ... 3 

Scutellum normally convex and moderately shining: fore wings more or less clear, 
and with submarginal vein strongly arcuate in both sexes (Text-figs. 21-24) : male 
antennae with four long rami and a vestige (Text-fig. 19) : female antennae 
moderately compressed and moderately clavate (Text-fig. 20) 

HUNGARIELLA Erdos, 1955 
( = Tetracnemus Timberlake, 1929 non Westwood, 1837) 

Male very much as above, but antennae with a small but distinct fifth ramus. 
Female having scutellum flattened above and dull, the fine reticulate microsculpture 
strongly outstanding : antennae notably stout and very strongly compressed : fore 
wings with a broad band of infuscation across middle and with submarginal vein 
only moderately arcuate: Australia . . . ANARHOP US Timberlake, 1929 
Brachypterous, i.e. very short -winged forms ....... 5 

Macropterous, or with wings not greatly reduced ...... 8 

Head, seen from above, semilunar: eyes nearly reaching back of head, always 
distinctly pubescent : lateral ocelli close to eye margins : frontovertex not shining, 
but with reticulate microsculpture very fine to moderate, and beset with moderate 
punctures that commonly are separated by about their own diameters though 
they may be very sparse in middle before median ocellus : mesoscutum of normal 
proportions, its median length decidedly greater than that of pronotum : scutellum 
laminate at apex: propodeum of normal length, with a pair of transverse keels 
(Text-figs. 27-29) and also a pair of longitudinal keels which run back from the 
spiracles and often border a spiracular sulcus . . . ERICYDNUS Walker, 1837 

Head otherwise, more or less lenticular: eyes not nearly reaching back of head, 
not or not distinctly pubescent: lateral ocelli remote fiom eye margins: fronto- 
vertex shining, with punctures extremely sparse and fine : mesoscutum uncommonly 
strongly transverse, its median length approximately equal to that of pronotum, or 
sometimes considerably less: scutellum not laminate: propodeum without such 
keels .............. 6 

Head, seen from above, very strongly transverse (Text-fig, i): toruli distinctly a 
little above lower level of eyes, separated from mouth by much more than their 
own length: antennae with scape elongate and slender, reaching far above top of 
head, and with funicle segments all decidedly longer than broad : scutellum with a 
pair of basal fossae (N.B. not in macropterous form !) : propodeum of normal 
proportions, with a distinct median area bordered by sharp keels (Text-fig. 2) 

AGLYPTUS Forster, 1856 
(= Ectroma auctt. non Westwood) 

Head less strongly transverse: toruli below lower level of eyes, separated from 
mouth by about their own length: antennae with scape not over-reaching top of 
head, and with funicle segments less elongate, the sixth about quadrate or trans- 
verse : scutellum without basal fossae : propodeum very short in middle and with 
no distinct median area .......... 7 

Eyes of normal proportion, each one, as seen from above, about half breadth of 
frontovertex (Text-fig. 4) : antennal scape rather slender, over four times as long 
as broad : pronotum conical, about half as long as broad and one and a half times 
median length of the mesoscutum (Text -fig. 5) : axillae contiguous or almost so : 
first large tergite about half the total length of gaster . AQUAENCYRTUS Hoffer,i953 



148 



G. J. KERRICH 










10 




CLASSIFICATION OF THE ANAGYRINI 149 

Eyes relatively small, each one, as seen from above, about a quarter the breadth 
of frontovertex : antennal scape stout, much less than twice as long as broad; 
pronotum little more than a quarter as long as broad and about equal in length to 
the mesoscutum : axillae widely separated : first large tergite much less than half 
the total length of gaster NEODUSMETIA Kerrich, 1964 

8 Lateral ocelli remote, i.e. much more than their own diameters, from eye margins . 9 
Lateral ocelli close to eye margins, i.e. about their own diameters therefrom, or 

sometimes still closer ........... 16 

9 Male antennae ramose: ovipositor strongly exserted: in both sexes antennal club 

solid and postmarginal vein very short . . . . . . . . 10 

Male antennae not ramose: ovipositor not or only weakly exserted, or if it is 
strongly exserted (Ericydnus caudatus Erdos) the antennal club is 3-segmented and 
the postmarginal vein is decidedly long . . . . . . . . 1 1 

10 Head more or less rounded in front: frontovertex with reticulate microsculpture (as 

microsculpture) regular, coarse and strongly outstanding: mandibles bidentate: 
marginal vein several times as long as broad, and radial emitted at nearly a right 
angle to it: antennal flagellum in female strongly compressed, in male with four 
long rami borne on segments 2-5: female with fore wings strongly bifasciate; 
with scutellum strongly shining, beset with very fine and sparse piliferous punctures 
in about basal half, and with microsculpture exceedingly fine 

TETRACNEMUS Westwood, 1837 

(= Tetracladia Howard, 1892, Masia Mercet, 1919, Comperencyrtus De Santis, 1964) 
Head quite strongly emarginate in front: frontovertex with reticulate micro- 
sculpture fine, not strongly outstanding : mandibles sharply tridentate, the lowest 
tooth a little set back; marginal vein rather short, i.e. hardly three times as long as 
broad, and radial emitted at about 45 with it: antennal flagellum in female not 
strongly compressed, in male with five long rami borne on segments 1-5 : female 
with wings hyaline ; with scutellum rather dull, beset with sparse piliferous punc- 
tures, the reticulate microsculpture becoming coarser toward apex but not strongly 
outstanding. . . . . . PENTACLADOCERUS Erdos, 1964 

11 Head markedly broader than thorax (Text-figs. 1-2): antennae with scape elongate 

and slender, reaching far above top of head : scrobes absent or shorter than toruli: 
marginal vein several times as long as broad, almost parallel-sided (Text-fig. 3 and 
Timberlake, 1926, fig. i) : males unknown ....... 12 

Head not or little broader than thorax : antennae with scape not reaching, or at 
any rate not reaching far above, top of head : scrobes longer than toruli : marginal 
vein shorter, markedly expanded to point at which radius is emitted . . . 13 

12 Eyes not nearly reaching occiput, which is not sharply margined: ocelli in a very 

obtuse triangle (Text-fig, i) : scrobal impression distinct though not sharp: toruli 
higher on face, their lower margins about on lower level of eyes : mesoscutum with 
fore and hind margins sub-parallel, with notauli sharply but weakly impressed: 
scutellum not small, about twice length of mesoscutum, obtusely round-pointed at 
apex (Text-fig. 2) : fore wings rather narrow but of more or less normal shape, 



FIGS. i-io. 1-3. Aglyptus lindus Forst., female, i, head, seen from above ; 2, thorax, 
propodeum and base of gaster of brachypterous form, seen from above ; 3, part of right 
fore wing. 4-5. Aquaencyrtus bohemicus Hffr., female. 4, head, seen from above ; 
5, part of thorax, seen from above. 6. Grandoriella lamasi Domen., female head, seen 
from above. 7. Parastenoterys bollowi (Mercet), female head, seen from above ; 8. P. 
flaviclava De S., propodeum, drawn from specimen in Madrid museum ; 9. Dinocarsiella 
alpina (Grit.), right antennal scape of female in dextro-lateral view ; 10. Xanthoectroma 
aquilinum Mercet, female, left antennal scape in dextro-lateral view. 



150 G. J. KERRICH 

hyaline except for some weak inf uscation below the radial vein but normally hairy : 
radial vein longer than marginal, and postmarginal very short (Text-fig. 3) : Europe 

AGLYPTUS Forster, 1856 
( = Ectroma auctt. non Westwood) 

Eyes nearly reaching occiput, which is sharply margined: ocelli in a slightly 
obtuse triangle : face without scrobal impressions : toruli lower on face, their upper 
margins about on lower level of eyes: mesoscutum considerably longer medially 
than at sides: scutellum small, about two-thirds length of mesoscutum, acutely 
round-pointed at apex: fore wings spatulate, broadly constricted before marginal 
vein and with apical half oval, in greater part strongly infuscated and hairy, but 
with five bare hyaline areas: radial vein decidedly shorter, and postmarginal 
slightly shorter, than marginal: Australia . . VOSLERIA Timberlake, 1926 

13 Fore wings strongly infuscate and dark-hairy, with hyaline areas densely beset with 

paler hairs : ocelli in a small, acute-angled triangle, the lateral about three times as 
far from orbital as from occipital margin : antennal scape several times as long as 
broad, rather strongly dilated below for its whole length, and sub-parallel sided for 
about half its length (Text-fig. 9) : [funicle segments much longer than broad, 
beset with rather strong, and in male rather long, hairs] 

DINOCARSIELLA Mercet, 1921 
Fore wings hyaline or with inf uscation weak: ocelli in a large, obtuse-angled 

triangle : antennal scape shaped differently . . . . . . . 14 

14 Notauli sharply and strongly impressed, very distinct (Mercet, 1925, fig. i); in 

position rather as in Aglyptus illustrated in Text-fig. 2 but much stronger: 
propodeum relatively long, about half length of scutellum : antennal scape (Text- 
fig. 10) about reaching top of head, elongate, about six times length of its greatest 
breadth, in about basal two-thirds distinctly but weakly dilated below, in apical 
third narrower than greatest width of pedicellus : funicle segments all much longer 
than broad, not markedly hairy: male unknown XANTHOECTROMA Mercet, 1925 
Notauli not distinct: propodeum short: antennae with scape relatively much 
shorter, not nearly reaching top of head, and with funicle segments relatively 
shorter and markedly hairy .......... 15 

15 Males: rather stout-bodied, moderately sclerotized insects of medium brown colour: 

head normally hypognathous : eyes not appreciably hairy : pronotum moderately 
emarginate behind: antennae sparsely beset with short, stiff hairs, the funicle 
segments about quadrate to transverse and the club solid: wings with post- 
marginal vein not very much shorter than radial NEODUSMETIA Kerrich, 1964 
Both sexes: rather elongate, flattened insects, the females pale yellow to pale 
brown but the males darker : head of male somewhat f orwardly-directed, of female 
strongly so and with toruli very close to oral margin : eyes strongly though rather 
sparsely hairy: pronotum deeply emarginate behind: antennae of female rather 
densely hairy, with funicle segments sub-quadrate to strongly transverse and club 
3-segmented, of male bearing rather long hairs, with funicle segments well 
separated, elongate-moniliform, and with club solid : wings with postmarginal vein 

very short XANTHOENCYRTUS Ashmead, 1902 

(and closely related genera, see Ghesquiere, 1956) 

1 6 Marginal vein stout, about twice as long as broad: sub-marginal greatly and sharply 

expanded near apex, i.e. at junction of the obsolete basalis: postmarginal very 
short and frontovertex decidedly broader than an eye : small, stout-bodied insects, 
of length about 0-7 mm., with proportionately short antennae and legs, and 
without green or purple coloration: eyes relatively densely hairy 

PAURIDIA Timberlake, 1919 

Marginal vein relatively slender, usually quite three times as long as broad, at 
least in female : submarginal vein not thus expanded : if the postmarginal is very 
short, the frontovertex is narrower than an eye : larger insects with bright coloration 1 7 



CLASSIFICATION OF THE ANAGYRINI 151 

17 Frontovertex decidedly broader than an eye : marginal vein long and narrow, several 

times as long as broad (in case of doubt the scutellum laminate at apex), and 
postmarginal distinctly longer than marginal : propodeum with a pair of transverse 
keels which, at sides, bend round and run to hind margin, not with a distinct median 
keel (Text-figs. 27-29) : elongate, slender forms, with antennae and legs of female 
decidedly elongate: antennae of female slightly compressed, of male generally 
rather more so, and not with long stout hairs . . . . . . . 18 

Frontovertex of female generally decidedly narrower than an eye, seldom slightly 
broader: marginal vein about three times as long as broad : scutellum not laminate 
at apex: forms not especially elongate and slender, and with antennae otherwise 19 

1 8 Scutellum sharply margined at apex but not laminate, strongly raised above propo- 

deum: propodeum with no keel running back from spiracle and with no distinct 
median area : head in both sexes relatively broad (Text-fig. 6) : styli (ovipositor 
sheaths) not developed : no distinct sexual dimorphism in form of antennae, which 
have the pedicellus relatively short in both sexes: micropterous forms unknown: 
Peru to southern California .... GRANDORIELLA Domenichini, 1951 
Scutellum weakly to strongly laminate at apex, not strongly raised above propo- 
deum : propodeum having a keel (present but difficult to see in japonicus (Tachi- 
kawa)) that runs back from the spiracle and often borders a sulcus, and usually 
having a distinct median area: head of female generally relatively narrow: styli 
strongly developed, though often concealed : distinct sexual dimorphism in form of 
antennae, the males having the pedicellus relatively short and the flagellum 
relatively elongate, the females not so: Europe, Japan, California 

ERIC YDNUS Walker, 1837 

19 Antennae of female having scape greatly dilated below and flagellum greatly 

flattened, of male compressed and ordinarily strongly hairy, not with long, stout 
hairs, the funicle segments strongly transverse in both sexes: postmarginal vein 
very short : fore wings of female deeply infuscate, with a hyaline fascia : Australia 

ANUSOIDEA Girault, 1926 

Antennae of female having scape not greatly dilated and flagellum not greatly 
flattened, the funicle segments not strongly transverse in either sex: marginal vein 
about three times as long as broad and postmarginal a little longer or shorter than 
marginal: wings hyaline .......... 20 

20 Head rather elongate : eyes with pilosity sparse but strong (Text-fig. 7) : frontovertex 

with reticulate microsculpture regular and of moderate strength, giving the surface 
a more shining appearance, the punctures before the ocelli large and of almost 
moderate depth (Text-fig. 7) : upper mandibular tooth very sharp and much the 
longer: propodeum rather shining above, with a strongly raised median keel, and 
sharply margined at sides (Text-fig. 8) : larger, quite strongly sclerotized insects : 
South America . . . PARASTENOTERYS Girault, 1915, De Santis, 1964 

(= Parencyrtus Mercet, 1928 non Ashmead, 1900) 

Head much more transverse: eyes with pilosity of moderate strength and density 
(Text-figs. 36-37) : frontovertex with reticulate microsculpture fine but irregular, 
giving the surface a dull appearance, the punctures before the ocelli small and 
superficial: mandibles clearly bidentate, the teeth subequal, the upper tooth 
rather rounded at apex : propodeum with very superficial reticulate microsculpture, 
with no distinct median area or keel, and not sharply margined at sides : smaller, 
rather weakly sclerotized insects, predominately purple and green in colour : Asia, 
Africa CLAUSENIA Ishii, 1923 

DISCUSSION OF SOME GENERA 

Dinocarsiella Mercet. Dr. A. Hoffer kindly sent me material of Dinocarsiella 
Mercet. A cleared preparation of a female specimen shows slender paratergites. 



152 



G. J. KERRICH 



I consider the genus not to be closely related to Dinocarsis Forster but to belong in 
the Ericydnina, and in consequence I have included it in the above key. 

Pentacladocerus Erdos. The position of this genus is more problematic. Dr. J. 
Erdos kindly sent me on loan a female specimen of P. matranus Erdos, which has 
enabled me to make direct comparison with Tetracnemus Westwood. There is 
considerable resemblance between the two, notably in the boat-shaped female 
hypopygium and projecting ovipositor and in the ramose male antennae. However 
Pentacladocerus has the mandibles, which Erdos did not describe, sharply tridentate, 
with the lowest tooth a little set back. 

Comperencyrtus De Santis, 1965. De Santis gave a careful description and 
figure of a new genus Comperencyrtus based on a single male. A paratype in the 
British Museum (Natural History) of Tetracladia hispanica Mercet agrees with this 
description in all respects except that it lacks the pair of longitudinal carinae on the 
middle of the propodeum, that the sixth funicle segment is relatively a little longer, 
and that I believe the eyes to be hairy, though only very weakly and sparsely so. 
Consequently I place Comperencyrtus De Santis in synonymy with Tetracnemus 
Westwood (syn. n.). 

Parastenoterys Girault, De Santis. I have examined material from the Madrid 
museum treated by Mercet (1928) as Parencyrtus Ashmead, and also female paratypes 
oiParastenoterysflavidava De Santis, and am fully satisfied that these are congeneric. 
I agree with De Santis that Mercet should not have placed the species he treated in 
Parencyrtus, since Ashmead placed this genus in the " Mirini ", with tridentate 
mandibles, and also described the postmarginal vein as much longer than the mar- 
ginal, and the propodeum as short. Dr. Burks has informed me that the unique 
type of Parencyrtus brasiliensis Ashmead was missing from the pin when the H. H. 
Smith collection came to Washington. 





\2 



FIGS, ii-ia. Parastenoterys species, females. 
12, P. bollowi (Merc.). 



Scutellum of n, P. flaviclava De S. and 
G. Viggiani del. 



CLASSIFICATION OF THE ANAGYRINI 153 

Provisionally, I accept De Santis' placement of the South American species in the 
genus Parastenoterys Girault, though I am not fully convinced that this will stand. 
The South American species have the two mandibular teeth very unequal, the pro- 
podeum with a median area of normal proportions containing a strong median keel, 
and the styli absent or concealed. Parastenoterys punctatus Girault was described 
as having two equal mandibular teeth, and this is to be accepted since, from Girault's 
method of crushing the head on a slide, they should have been clearly visible. The 
propodeum is strongly margined at sides as in the South American species, but has 
the median area more than a third the width of the sclerite and strongly reticulate 
rugose, with no denned median keel. The very regular, close thimble-punctation of 
the mesopleura is a remarkable feature. Contrary to Girault's description there are, 
in fact, shortly projecting styli as indicated by Girault for Parectromoides, which he 
himself declared to be congeneric. 

The specimen in the Madrid museum labelled as Parencyrtus brasiliensis Ashmead 
in Mercet's writing I believe to be a large, pale form of Parastenoterys flaviclava De S. 
The frontovertex is one-quarter wider than an eye, with ocelli in a slightly obtuse 
triangle : the scutellum in greater part has the reticulate microsculpture very strongly 
outstanding, but on hinder part and at sides is quite smooth and strongly shining 
(Text-fig, n): the antennal scape is five times as long as broad. In bollowi Mercet 
the frontovertex is narrower than an eye, with ocelli in a decidedly acute triangle 
(Text-fig. 7) : the scutellum in greater part has the reticulate microsculpture rather 
strong, though decidedly less outstanding than in flaviclava De S., and in hinder part 
is more shining but not strongly so, with the reticulate microsculpture, though weak, 
quite distinct (Text-fig. 12): the antennal scape is seven times as long as broad. 
I believe the other specimens placed by Mercet as brasiliensis to belong to a different 
species. 

Calliencyrtus De Santis, 1959 and Heteroleptomastix Ishii, 1928. De Santis, 
in describing his new genus Calliencyrtus, related it to Heteroleptomastix Ishii. 
Conversely Tachikawa (1963, p. 51) considered Heteroleptomastix as allied to 
Calliencyrtus. The latter author further (pp. 51, 56-8) compared Heteroleptomastix 
and Calliencyrtus with a form that he considered to be a Grandoriella but which is 
shown below to be an Ericydnus. He stated " To determine whether Heterolepto- 
mastix belongs to a true Ectromini or not, further study may be necessary." 

I have not seen any Heteroleptomastix, but Prof. De Santis has very kindly sent me 
on loan the unique type of his species C. bucculentus. This confirms the general 
resemblance between the two genera evident from the drawings of De Santis (1959) 
and Ishii (1928, p. 105) respectively, though I do not see that the pronotum is signi- 
ficantly more strongly developed in Calliencyrtus. 

Examination of Calliencyrtus shows the following: (i) mandibles decidedly stout, 
with three sharp teeth, the uppermost slightly the weakest, (2) paratergites absent, 
(3) ovipositor arising well before apex of gaster. I consider that the genus should be 
excluded from the Anagyrini. Ishii figured the mandible of Heteroleptomastix as 
being stout, and as having two rather sharp teeth and something of a truncation: 
I believe this genus should be excluded from the Anagyrini also. 



154 G. J. KERRICH 

HUNGARIELLA Erdos, 1946 

1946 Hungariella Erdos, Annls hist.-nat. Mus. natn. hung. 39 : 144-5. 

1929 Tetracnemus Westwood ; Timberlake, Univ. Calif. Publs Ent. 5 (2) : 5-11 [Mis- 
identification] . 

1951 Tetracnemus Westwood ; Kryger, Ent. Meddr 26 : 116-21 [Mis-identification]. 
1955 Hungariella Erdos, Acta zool. hung. 1 (3-4) : 216-8. 

Our knowledge of this genus really dates from the paper of Timberlake (1929), who 
gave a very full description of a new species pretiosa, which was being cultured at the 
Citrus Experiment Station, Riverside, California. Timberlake's generic identification 
followed that of Howard who at first (1890, 1892) quoted Westwood's description of 
Tetracnemus diversicornis, redrew his figure of that insect, and in the latter paper 
proposed a tribal name Tetracnemini for a group of genera of Encyrtidae having 
branched antennae in the male. Later, as stated by Timberlake, Howard received 
from New Zealand a species of the genus now under review, attributed it to Tetrac- 
nemus Westwood and gave it the manuscript name brounii. Timberlake (1929) 
validated brounii by a brief comparison with pretiosa. 

Ashmead (1904) and, following him, Schmiedeknecht (1909) placed Tetracnemus 
in the tribe Ectromini, containing a number of other genera such as Leptomastix 
Forster, Anagyrus Howard and Aglyptus Forster (Ectroma auctt. non Westwood), 
which were not included by Howard in his concept of the Tetracnemini. 

The Howard-Timberlake interpretation was accepted by Compere (1939), Peck 
(1951), Kryger (1951), Nikol'skaya (1952) and Ferriere (1955, 1957). Kryger (op. cit.) 
redescribed the species believed to be Tetracnemus diversicornis Westwood. It was 
not accepted by Mercet (1921, 1922, 1932), Erdos (1955), who considered Tetracnemus 
Westwood to be a genus dubium, and Hoffer (1959). Erdos meanwhile (1946) had 
described Hungariella piceae gen. et sp. nov. In 1955 he established the identity of 
Hungariella with Tetracnemus auctt. and considered his species piceae to be the same 
as that attributed by Kryger to diversicornis. 

The supposed diversicornis were redescribed further and in both sexes by Ferriere 
(1955). Ferriere in 1955 considered diversicornis Westwood Kryger and piceae 
Erdos as provisionally distinct, but in 1957 he wrote that they were probably 
synonymous. I have compared a male paratype of piceae with material redescribed 
by Ferriere, and am quite satisfied that they belong to the same species. 

The various arguments need not be repeated here, for the controversy has now been 
settled by Graham (1959), who has rediscovered the long-lost type of Tetracnemus 
diversicornis and shown it to be a senior synonym of Tetracladia hispanica Mercet. 
We must, therefore, follow Erdos in placing all species of Tetracnemus auctt. in his 
genus Hungariella. 

Head from above biconcave, rather strongly to strongly emarginate anteriorly and posteriorly 
(Text-figs. 13, 15, 17) ; with eyes nearly reaching or over-reaching the occipital margin, pubes- 
cent : frontovertex decidedly broader than an eye, more or less finely reticulate : toruli obovate, 
separated from mouth by about their own breadth (Text-figs. 14, 16, 18) : common scrobal 
impression large, extending to about half way up orbits or more. Mandibles bidentate. 
Antennae of moderate length, distinctly but not strongly clavate : scape in female not or but 
little dilated below : funicle 5-segmented, usually with first segment the longest and second the 
shortest (Text-fig. 20). Thorax convex and moderately deep dorsoventrally : axillae slightly 



CLASSIFICATION OF THE ANAGYRINI 155 

separated. Propodeum with distinct, fine reticulation in middle, then almost smooth to 
spiracles, reticulate again on sides. Legs of ordinary length and structure. Fore wings differing 
from description of those of Clausenia Ishii as follows : submarginal strongly arcuate at junction 
with the obsolete basalis, so that the costal cell is not nearly parallel-sided, having several stout 
hairs on the basal abscissa and a closer row of rather smaller ones on prestigma : marginal vein 
about twice or less as long as broad, and postmarginal reduced to a mere stub (Text-figs. 21-24). 

Species prominently a rather bright green, at least on frontovertex and mesoscutum, and 
usually on propodeum : scutellum in most bronzy : legs mostly stramineous, yellow-stramineous 
or pale testaceous. Mandibles, unless otherwise stated, pale brown, darker at apices. 

Male differs as follows head with frontovertex relatively much wider than in female, and with 
ocelli larger and more outstanding. Toruli separated from mouth by a little less than their own 
length. Antennae (Text-fig. 19, see also Compere, 1939, fig. 2, Ferriere, 1955, fig. 26) with scape 
always shorter and broader than in the female of the same species, not nearly reaching top of 
head even in piceae Erdos ; ramose, having one long ramus arising from base of first funicle 
segment and one arising at apex of each of the three following : funicle sparsely long-hairy on 
segments and rami, and club more densely hairy, with shorter but still prominent hairs. 

Altogether duller coloured than the female, having the green colour much darker, sometimes 
indistinct or replaced by blue, and having a greater amount of dark colour on the legs. 

Type-species H. piceae Erdos, 1946. 

The species that has been best known, H. pretiosa (Timberlake) , 1929, is prob- 
ably also the most typical, and in this work the other species are described mainly 
in relation to it. H. piceae is a rather isolated species. 

Hungariella pretiosa (Timberlake) 
(Text-figs. 15-16, 21 ) 

1929 Tetracnemus pretiosus Timberlake, Univ. Calif. Publs Ent. 5 (2) : 5-11. 
T 939 Tetracnemus pretiosus Timberlake ; Compere, Ibidem, 1 (4) : 60 i. 

Head from above (Text-fig. 15) rather strongly emarginate anteriorly and strongly so pos- 
teriorly ; with eyes not quite reaching occipital margin ; with lateral ocelli about their own 
diameters from orbital margin ; in facial view with cheeks almost straight and, as described by 
Timberlake, converging to the rather broad oral margin (Text-fig. 16). Eyes moderately hairy, 
distinctly so X 65. Frontovertex with reticulation of moderate strength and rather regular, 
the superimposed punctures mentioned by Timberlake difficult to discern : sides of face and 
inter-scrobal prominence more finely scaly-reticulate, the cheeks very weakly so. 

Antenna as described and figured by Timberlake (1929), notably the scape elongate but not 
nearly reaching top of head, and the first funicle segment about 2 \ times as long as broad, longer 
than any of the four following segments. 

Reticulation on mesoscutum about as on frontovertex, less outstanding on axillae and often 
finer on scutellum. 

Fore wings moderately infuscate beyond speculum ; with prestigma considerably thickened ; 
with marginal vein nearly twice as long as broad ; with speculum traversing the radius, which is 
emitted at a not very acute angle (Text-fig. 21). 

Head in greater part, mesoscutum and sides of propodeum metallic green with brassy to, in 
places, bronzy reflections : propodeum above a paler, brighter green (weakly developed in 
paratype series) : scrobal impressions, pronotum at sides, axillae, scutellum and usually meso- 
pleura bright bronzy : occiput, pronotum above and sternal regions brownish to blackish with 
weaker metallic reflections, gaster the same, but with first large tergite mainly blue-green. 
Antennae pale brown, with weak metallic green reflections, much paler on about basal third of 
scape, and on pedicellus at apex and beneath. Legs having hind coxae except at extreme apex, 



156 G. J. KERRICH 

and mid coxae at extreme base, as sides of gaster but paler ; otherwise mainly yellow- 
stramineous, the tarsi, tibiae and hind femora above tending to rufo-testaceous, the tarsi 
infuscate at apex. 

Male differs as follows : punctation on frontovertex less difficult to discern and reticulations 
rather finer than in female, but on sides of face and inter-scrobal prominence similar to that on 
frontovertex. Antennae, as in most species, with fourth ramus very distinctly over-reaching 
fifth funicle segment : club about one-fifth longer than scape without radicle. Sculpture of 
mesoscutum, scutellum and mesopleura about as in female. Fore wings relatively considerably 
broader, and with postmarginal more reduced. 

Altogether duller coloured than female : head and mesoscutum a very much darker green or 
almost blue, the scrobal impressions not markedly different : axillae, scutellum and mesopleura 
much less bronzy : remainder of body mostly brownish black with weak metallic reflections, the 
propodeum green only at sides and the first large tergite not markedly green. Antennae pale 
brown, with weak metallic reflections ; with scape flavo-testaceous in about basal two-thirds. 
Fore and mid coxae broadly at base, hind femora and tibiae except at base and beneath, and 
hind tarsi brown with metallic reflections : fore and mid tibiae very slightly darkened in part. 

Redescribed from a series of 18 $, n <. The stocks originated from AUSTRALIA: 
New South Wales, Sydney, ex Pseudococcus fragilis Brain, em. i-iii.i928 (H. Compere) 
(see Timberlake, 1929) and have since been reared in California in the insectaries at 
Riverside and Fontana. The series also includes 3 $, 2 $ reared vi-vii.i93i from 
Pseudococcus longispinus Targ. (=adonidum auctt.) at Epping, N.S.W., by S. 
Flanders. 

Timberlake (1929) figured the antennae in both sexes of this species as did Compere 
(1939) for his species peregrina. Comparison of these published figures of the male 
antennae would appear to show a considerable difference not only in the relative 
length but also in the proportion of the antennal club, but a study of dry specimens 
indicates that this is largely illusory. Compere evidently drew an antenna in which 
the whole width of the compressed club segment was apparent, whereas Timberlake 
must have drawn one in which the club was turned more or less sideways. 

Hungariella piceae Erdos 
(Text-fig. 14, PI. Ill) 

1946 Hungariella piceae Erdos, Annls hist.-nat. Mus. natn. hung. 39 : 145-7. 
1951 Tetracnemus diver sicornis Westwood ; Kryger, Ent. Meddr 26 : 119-21. 
1955 Tetracnemus diver sicornis Westwood ; Ferriere, Mitt, schweiz. ent. Ges. 28 (i) : 133-5. 

Head from above shaped about as in pretiosa (Timb.) (Text-fig. 15), but with eyes over- 
reaching occipital margin ; in facial view also similar, but relatively longer (Text-fig. 14, cf. 
Text-fig. 1 6) : lateral ocelli less than their own diameters from orbital margin. Eyes moderately 
hairy, distinctly so X 65. Frontovertex much more finely reticulate than in pretiosa (Timb.), 
almost as finely so as in the much smaller coffeicola sp. n. but less regularly : sides of face, cheeks 
and inter-scrobal prominence finely scaly-reticulate. 

Antenna (see Ferriere, 1955, fig. 25) decidedly elongate and slender : scape much more so than 
in pretiosa (Timb.), reaching or over-reaching top of head : flagellum not sharply clavate but 
increasing gradually in width to the club : funicle with first segment quite four times as long as 
broad, and one and a half times as long as the second, third and fourth segments each shorter 
but fifth longer than the preceding. 

Reticulation on mesoscutum coarser than on frontovertex, much less outstanding and in 
greater part much finer on scutellum, axillae and mesopleura. 



CLASSIFICATION OF THE ANAGYRINI 157 

Fore wings weakly infuscate beyond speculum ; with prestigma considerably thickened ; with 
marginal about two and a half times as long as broad ; with speculum not traversing the 
relatively elongate radius. 

Differs from pretiosa (Timb.) as follows : green coloration much less extensive, on head 
reaching neither occiput nor lower level of eyes and on propodeum only on upper part of sides : 
hind margin of frontovertex, cheeks, remainder of face and pronotum above bronzy like the 
scutellum : mesopleura and sternum, propodeum in greater part, and sides of gaster pale brown 
with weak metallic reflections, the gaster above darker and with the reflections stronger. 
Mandibles stramineous, darker at apices. Antennae pale brown, paler than sides of gaster, and 
with weak metallic reflections ; having the following stramineous : radicle except at base, scape 
broadly beneath in about basal half, pedicellus almost wholly, funicle above to about middle of 
first segment and beneath to about apex of third, though merging gradually to the brown colour. 
Legs, including hind coxae, mostly stramineous ; having mid and hind femora at extreme apex, 
fore femora and all tarsi pale testaceous ; having hind coxae at extreme base, third quarter or 
more of hind femora, and apical segment of all tarsi pale brown, with weak metallic reflections. 

Male differs as follows : reticulation on frontovertex finer than in female but sharper and 
more outstanding : sides of face and inter-scrobal prominence finely scaly-reticulate, cheeks very 
weakly so. Antennae with rami appearing long but actually not relatively so, the fourth ramus 
not far over-reaching the fifth funicle segment. Reticulation on mesoscutum about as on 
frontovertex, much weaker and less regular on scutellum, axillae and mesopleura. Fore wings 
relatively a little broader, with marginal vein markedly shorter and stouter. 

Green coloration about as extensive as in female but darker : remainder of body medium to 
dark brown with more or less weak metallic reflections, only the scutellum and axillae pale 
bronzy and decidedly shining. Antennae pale brown, with weak metallic reflections ; with 
scape stramineous in about basal two-thirds, and with pedicellus pale testaceous at apex and 
beneath. Mid coxae at base, hind coxae wholly, and hind femora except at extreme base brown 
with metallic reflections : hind tibiae dark marked broadly at apex and before base. 

Redescribed from the following material: HUNGARY: Kalocsa, 3 <, 30. .1951, on 
Picea excelsa (J. Erdos) (paratypes). GERMANY: Erlangen, 2 $, 3 <$, io.v.ig5o, 
ex Phenacoccus piceae (Loew) (H. Schmutterer). 

Hungariella spilococci (Ferriere) 

1957 Tetracnemus spilococci Ferriere, Opusc. zool., Munch. 10 : 4-5. 
1963 Hungariella spilococci (Ferriere) Bachmaier, Beitr. Ent. 13 : 560-1. 

Head from above strongly emarginate anteriorly and posteriorly ; with eyes not quite reaching 
occipital margin ; with lateral ocelli about ij times their own diameters from orbital margin ; 
in facial view as described for pretiosa (Timb.) but relatively even longer than in piceae Erdos. 
Eyes strongly but not very densely hairy, very distinctly so X 45. Frontovertex much more 
finely reticulate and shining than in pretiosa (Timb.) but distinctly less so than in piceae Erdos : 
sides of face with reticulation as outstanding as it is between ocelli, but cheeks very finely 
scaly-reticulate . 

Antenna more elongate and slender than in pretiosa (Timb.), the scape reaching about to level 
of top of eyes, the first funicle segment three and a half times as long as broad, much longer than 
any of the following segments. 

Reticulation on dorsum of thorax as described for pretiosa (Timb.), i.e. on mesoscutum much 
coarser than on frontovertex of this species : reticulation on mesopleura decidedly finer than on 
scutellum. 

Fore wings moderately infuscate beyond speculum ; with prestigma considerably thickened ; 
with marginal vein about twice as long as broad ; with speculum traversing the apex of the 
radius, which is emitted at a much acuter angle than in pretiosa (Timb.). 

Green coloration about as extensive as in piceae Erdos : hind margin of frontovertex, remainder 
of face, and pronotum purplish bronzy like the scutellum : cheeks and remainder of body 

ENTOM. 20, 5. 8 



158 G. J. KERRICH 

brownish black, with strong metallic reflections on cheeks, gaster and sides of pronotum. 
Antennae blackish brown, with weak metallic reflections ; pale testaceous on scape at extreme 
base, and on pedicellus at apex and beneath. 

Legs mainly stramineous : fore and mid coxae at base, hind coxae and femora almost totally, 
and tarsal apices brown with metallic reflections : fore and mid coxae in greater part and femora 
broadly at base, and all trochanters stramineous. 

Male differs as follows : reticulation on frontovertex and sides of face as in female, but not 
nearly so fine on cheeks. Antennae with fourth ramus distinctly a little over-reaching the fifth 
funicle segment. Sculpture on thorax about as in female. Fore wings relatively only a little 
broader than in female. 

Frontovertex, except for the purplish bronzy hind margin, and mesoscutum green to blue- 
green with weak brassy reflections : face and cheeks very dull green to steel-blue, with similar 
reflections : axillae and scutellum coloured about as in peregrina (Comp.) : occiput, pronotum, 
mesopleura, propodeum and gaster brownish black, with metallic reflections. Antennae pale 
brown with weak metallic reflections, having scape almost stramineous at extreme base. Leg 
colour about as described for female. 

Redescribed from the holotype $ and 3 $ reared from Spilococcus nanae Schmutterer 
in southern Bavaria by F. Bachmaier (see Ferriere, 1957). 

Hungariella mediterranea sp. n. 

(Text-figs. 13, 22) 

Head from above (Text-fig. 13) relatively broad, less deeply emarginate than in pretiosa 
(Timb.) both anteriorly and posteriorly ; with eyes not quite reaching occipital margin ; in 
facial view similar : lateral ocelli about their own diameters from orbital margin. Eyes strongly 
and rather densely hairy, very distinctly so x 45. Reticulation of frontovertex a little finer and 
less outstanding than in pretiosa (Timb.) : sides of face, cheeks and inter-scrobal prominence 
more finely scaly-reticulate. 

Antenna similar in proportion to that of pretiosa (Timb.), notably the first funicle segment 
2^ to nearly 3 times as long as broad. 

Reticulation on mesoscutum about as on frontovertex, much less outstanding and usually 
much finer on scutellum, axillae and mesopleura. 

Fore wings much as described for pretiosa (Timb.), but relatively much broader, quite strongly 
infuscate beyond and before the speculum, the prestigma rather less thickened and bearing 
stronger hairs, the marginal rather longer, and the radius having a long, sharp uncus (Text-fig. 22). 

Head and pronotum blue-green to blue and reddish violet, with brassy reflections on fronto- 
vertex : mesoscutum and propodeum brassy green or, in smaller specimens, more blue-green, 
the mesoscutum usually with peripheral violet reflections, the propodeum more indefinitely 
metallic coloured in middle : scutellum and mesopleura reddish violet, or the scutellum more 
bronzy : gaster about as head, but the colours less pronounced, having the first large tergite 
mainly blue-green. Antennal coloration as described for pretiosa (Timb.), but scape more 
broadly pale on inner side. 

Legs having hind coxae as sides of gaster ; otherwise mainly yellow-stramineous, the tarsi, 
tibiae, hind femora above and mid coxae at extreme base darker. 

Male differs as follows : reticulation on frontovertex and mesoscutum rather finer than in 
female, on sides of face and inter-scrobal prominence about as on frontovertex, on cheeks, 
scutellum, axillae and mesopleura about as in female. Antennae with fourth ramus very 
distinctly over-reaching the fifth funicle segment. Fore wings about as in female. 

Frontovertex, pronotum and mesoscutum a very dark green with metallic reflections : cheeks, 
lower parts of face and sides of propodeum mostly a much brighter blue-green : scutellum 
bronzy, mesopleura and often axillae blue and reddish violet : gaster, middle and sides of 
propodeum blackish brown with metallic reflections. Antennal colour as described for pretiosa 
(Timb.) male. Legs much as described for female, but the hind femora and tibiae dark, except 
at base and above. 



CLASSIFICATION OF THE ANAGYRINI 159 

Holotype $. FRANCE: Antibes, 1956, ex Pseudococcus sp. on Choisya (Benassy). 

Paratypes. FRANCE: 4 $, 4 <$ (same data as holotype), i $, 4 <, 1956, # Pseudo- 
coccus sp. on Pittosporum (Benassy). 

Holotype and paratypes in Museum d'Histoire Naturelle, Geneva, paratypes in 
British Museum (Natural History). 

Hungariella brounii (Howard Ms.) (Timberlake), comb. n. 
(Text-fig. 23) 

1929 Tetracnemus brounii Timberlake, Univ. Calif. Publs Ent. 5 (2) : 6. 
J 939 Tetracnemus brounii Timberlake ; Compere, Ibidem, 7 (4) : 60. 

Head from above rather strongly but narrowly emarginate anteriorly, about as deeply so 
behind as in mediterranea sp. n. ; relatively less broad than in pretiosa (Timb.) ; with eyes not 
quite reaching occipital margin ; in facial view similar to pretiosa (Timb.) but relatively some- 
what longer : ocelli relatively small, the lateral ones twice their own diameters from orbital 
margin. Eyes moderately hairy, just distinctly so X 65. Reticulation on frontovertex more 
strongly outstanding than in pretiosa (Timb.), about as in peregrina (Comp.), and on sides of face 
equally strong : inter-scrobal prominence more weakly reticulate, and cheeks very finely 
scaly-reticulate . 

Antenna with scape and pedicellus about as in pretiosa (Timb.) ; with first funicle segment 
cylindrical, about 2j times as long as broad ; with remainder of funicle broadening markedly to 
the club, with second to fourth funicle segments each about three-fifths the length of the first, 
the fifth distinctly longer (the fourth and fifth subequal in pretiosa) . 

Reticulation on scutellum and axillae less outstanding than on frontovertex but coarser, on 
mesoscutum as outstanding as on head and still coarser, on mesopleura much weaker and finer. 

Fore wings (Text-fig. 23) clear, not infuscate, relatively narrower than in pretiosa (Timb.) ; 
with prestigma considerably thickened ; with marginal vein nearly twice as long as broad ; 
with speculum not traversing the radius, which is emitted at about the same angle as in pretiosa 
(Timb.). 

Head in greater part and mesoscutum colour about as described for peregrina (Comp.), but the 
head often in part violescent : axillae dull bronzy ; scutellum pale brassy green : mesopleura 
pale brown, with very weak metallic reflections : propodeum pale brown, with metallic reflec- 
tions rather weak even on sides : gaster usually much darker, with greenish, purplish and 
brighter reflections. Antennal coloration as described for pretiosa (Timb.) but paler, the scape 
pale stramineous in about basal half to two-thirds. 

Legs whitish stramineous : hind coxae pale brown like the mesopleura but darker : tarsi, 
tibiae, and often mid coxae at base slightly tinged with the same, the tarsi dark at apex. 

Male differs as follows : reticulation on frontovertex decidedly finer than in female and on 
sides of face still finer. Antennae with fourth ramus distinctly over-reaching fifth funicle 
segment. Sculpture of mesonotal sclerites and mesopleura about as in female. Fore wings 
relatively a little broader than in female. 

Altogether duller coloured than female : head mostly a dull blue-green, with infusions of 
bronzy : mesoscutum the same, or mostly overspread with bronzy : scutellum a relatively bright 
bronzy, axillae duller : mesopleura and propodeum rather duller than in female, but gaster 
about the same. Antennae pale brown, with weak metallic reflections ; with scape pale 
stramineous in about basal half to two-thirds. Legs stramineous, the following pale brown 
with weak metallic reflections : hind coxae, mid coxae weakly at base, hind femora except at 
base and apex, hind tibiae except at base, and all tarsi : mid femora and tibiae just weakly 
darkened above. 

Redescribed from the following material: NEW ZEALAND: Nelson, 6 $, 5 <$, 
I9.iii.i927, ex Pseudococcus sp. (E. S. Gourlay). These specimens are part of the 



160 G. J. KERRICH 

material which was reared by Mr. Gourlay from mealybug on the " black passion- 
fruit vine ", as he has informed me by letter. Material is to be deposited in the 
British Museum (Natural History), and in the Cawthron Institute and the Depart- 
ment of Entomology, Nelson, N.Z. 

The holotype $ and allotype are in the U.S. National Museum, but the paratypes, 
i.e. the remaining specimens seen by Mr. Timberlake, cannot be traced either as 
having been retained by him at Riverside or as having been received back by Mr. 
Gourlay. 

Hungariella peregrina (Compere) 

J 939 Tetracnemus peregrinus Compere, Univ. Calif. Publs Ent. 7 (4) : 5961. 

Head from above about same shape as pretiosa (Timb.) (Text-fig. 15), but with eyes just 
over-reaching occipital margin ; in side view more strongly narrowed to mouth than in pretiosa 
(Timb.) ; in facial view with cheeks more rounded than in pretiosa (Timb.) : lateral ocelli slightly 
less than their own diameters from orbital margin. Eyes strongly and densely hairy, very 
distinctly so X 45. Reticulation on head more strongly outstanding than in pretiosa (Timb.). 

Antenna as described and figured by Compere (1939), notably the scape much less elongate 
than in pretiosa (Timb.) and the first funicle segment hardly longer than broad, shorter than any 
of the four following segments. 

Reticulation on mesoscutum and also scutellum finer than in pretiosa (Timb.) : mesopleura 
much more weakly reticulate than scutellum. Fore wings rather weakly infuscate beyond and 
before speculum ; with prestigma scarcely thicker than first abscissa of submarginal ; with 
marginal not nearly twice as long as broad ; with speculum not traversing the radius, which is 
emitted at a much acuter angle than in pretiosa (Timb.). 

Differs from pretiosa (Timb.) as follows : head, mesoscutum and propodeum a duller, decidedly 
blue-green with reflections less pronounced : axillae and scutellum duller, something between 
brassy and bronzy, the scutellum distinctly green at sides : mesopleura pale brown, with weak 
metallic reflections. 

Antennal coloration as described for pretiosa (Timb.), but scape often much more broadly pale. 

Legs mainly a paler stramineous than in pretiosa (Timb.), the hind coxae beneath often also of 
this colour : hind femora, except broadly at base and narrowly at apex and beneath, usually 
brown with metallic reflections, and fore femora in part occasionally so (Moroccan specimen). 

Male differs as follows : reticulation on head, mesoscutum, scutellum and mesopleura about 
as in female. Antennae with fourth ramus very distinctly over-reaching fifth funicle segment. 
Fore wings relatively distinctly broader ; with postmarginal very reduced. 

Green coloration much less prominent than in female, usually obvious on sides of face, but 
often indistinct on fronto vertex and mesoscutum. Antennal colour as described for pretiosa 
(Timb.) male. Leg colour much as described for the male of pretiosa (Timb.) but the stramineous 
coloration paler, and the hind femora not markedly pale beneath. 

Redescribed from the following material: BRAZIL: Rio de Janeiro, i $, 3 <, 
io.ix.i934, ex Pseudococcus longispinus (Targ.), (H. Compere) (paratypes). U.S.A.: 
California, San Diego, Balboa Park, i $, 3.1.1940, ex Ps. longispinus (Targ.) on 
Dracaena (S. E. Flanders}', Fontana, 5 $, i <, 1953, ex Ps. longispinus (Targ.), 
Commonwealth Inst. of Biological Control. SOUTH AFRICA: Cape Town, 2 $, 2 <#, 
24 . vii-i3 . viii . 1924, ex " black scale " (E. W. Rust) (reared at Riverside) ; Elsenburg, 
3 $, 2 $, 1926, ex mealybug on pear (F. W. Petty) ; Camps Bay, 2 $, I <#, ex Coccid on 
Oleander (H. Compere); Malmesbury, 17 <^, 7.1.1937, ex Pseudococcus fragilis Brain 
(H. Compere); Natal, Durban, i <, viii. 1947, ex mealybug material (H. Compere); 



CLASSIFICATION OF THE ANAGYRINI 161 

Transvaal, Pretoria, I $, I $, xi.1954, ex scale infested plant material (E. G. C. 
Bedford}. ST. HELENA: Thomson's Wood, I $, 29.^1.1959, "on gumwood " 
(C. R. Wallace). MOROCCO: i ?, 5.^.1953, " ^B 518 ", " Vanden Bosch Skipper ". 
FRANCE: Menton, i $, 2 <, iv.i952, ex Ps. longispinus (Targ.) on Chamaerops 
humilis (L.) (Palmae), i $, 3 ^, vi.1952, ex Ps. longispinus (Targ.) on Pittosporum 
tobira Ait. (/. Ghesquiere). Material in Citrus Experiment Station, Riverside, in 
Department of Agriculture, Pretoria, in collection of Monsieur J. Ghesquiere, in 
Narodni Museum, Prague, and in British Museum (Natural History). 

Hungariella coffeicola sp. n. 

(Text-figs. 17-18, 24) 

Head from above (Text-fig. 17) much longer than in pretiosa (Timb.) ; strongly emarginate 
anteriorly and rather strongly so posteriorly ; with eyes distinctly over-reaching occipital 
margin ; in facial view (Text-fig. 18) with cheeks more rounded than in pretiosa (Timb.) ; lateral 
ocelli about their own diameters from orbital margin. Eyes weakly hairy (x 100). Fronto- 
vertex much more finely reticulate than in pretiosa (Timb.) : sides of face, cheeks and inter- 
scrobal prominence very finely scaly-reticulate. 

Antenna with scape about as in peregrina (Comp.), with first funicle segment not quite twice 
as long as broad, longer than any of the four following, which are more strongly expanded from 
base to apex than in pretiosa and peregrina. 

Reticulation on mesoscutum and scutellum about as on frontovertex ; that on mesopleura 
decidedly finer but still sharp and outstanding. 

Fore wings (Text-fig. 24) moderately infuscate before speculum ; with prestigma considerably 
thickened, bearing three hairs that are about as strong as those on first abscissa of submarginal ; 
with marginal less than twice as long as broad, bearing two hairs that also are especially con- 
spicuous ; with radius short and stout, having a distinct but not sharp uncus. 

Colour of head, thorax, propodeum and gaster as described for pretiosa (Timb.). Antennal 
coloration as described for peregrina (Comp.). Legs having the following coloured as sides of 
gaster but paler : hind coxae except at extreme apex, mid coxae in about basal three-fifths, and 
hind femora except at base and apex : otherwise mainly pale stramineous, the fore and mid 
femora at apex, tibiae and tarsi tending to rufo-testaceous, the mid and hind tarsi infuscate at 
apex : sometimes having fore and mid femora and hind tibiae weakly infuscate in part. 

Male differs as follows : reticulation on frontovertex slightly coarser than in female but much 
sharper and more outstanding ; on sides of face about the same as on frontovertex but on cheeks 
much finer. Antennae with fourth ramus not so distinctly over-reaching fifth funicle segment 
as in peregrina (Comp.). Reticulation on thorax about as in female. Fore wings relatively a 
little broader than in female. 

Differs from female as follows : frontovertex and mesoscutum a duller brassy green or blue- 
green with more bronzy reflections ; face and cheeks almost blue ; scutellum a duller bronzy : 
in contrast with pretiosa (Timb.) the scrobal impression is bright bronzy as in the female. 
Antennae pale brown, with weak metallic reflections : scape sometimes wholly flavo-testaceous, 
but more often in large part darkened. Leg colour much as described for female, but the hind 
tibiae and tarsi often more strongly and extensively infuscate. 

Holotype $. UGANDA : Bukalasa, 20 . iii . 1938, ex Planococcus kenyae (Le Pelley) 
on Coffea robusta (A. R. Melville). 

Paratypes. UGANDA: 5 $>, 4 <$ (same data as holotype), 8 $, same data but 2.v. 
1928; Entebbe, i ?, 16.111.1938, Mbarara, i $, vi.i938, Toro, 10 ?, 4 $, 2.viii.i928, 
ex PI. kenyae on C. robusta (A. R. Melville); Kimiriri, 2 $, 4 o, ix.1953, ex Pseudo- 
coccus sp. (A. A. Talbot). KENYA: Nairobi, National Agricultural Laboratory, 
5 $, 4 <$, 1938, propagated on PL kenyae (R. Le Pelley). 



1 62 



G. J. KERRICH 



Holotype in British Museum (Natural History); paratypes in British Museum 
(Natural History), in U.S. National Museum, in Citrus Experiment Station, Riverside, 
in Australian National Collection, in Museum d'Histoire Naturelle, Geneva, in 
Narodni Museum, Prague, in Coryndon Museum, Nairobi, and in Department of 
Agriculture, Pretoria. 

Additional material studied. UGANDA: Kangundo, 5 <$, vi.i955, ex Planococcus 
citri (Risso) on Coffea arabica (D. J. McCrae). Mr. McCrae wrote in a letter dated 
28th January, 1958 that the form reared from P. citri would attack P. kenyae but 
that no progeny were reared. No female specimen of this rearing was received in 
London ; the males do not appear to me to differ significantly from specimens reared 
from P. kenyae, in particular, the marginal vein bears the two conspicuous hairs. 

Hungariella indica (Ramakrishna Ayyar), comb. n. 

(Text-figs. 19-20) 
1929 Tetracnemus indicus Ramakrishna Ayyar, Rec. Indian Mus. 34 : 287-8. 

Head collapsed in all specimens available for study, but apparently shaped about as in 
coffeicola sp. n. (Text-figs. 17-18). Lateral ocelli about their own diameters from orbital margin. 
Eyes weakly hairy (x 100). Pronto vertex reticulate about as in pretiosa but a little finer : 
sides of face and inter-scrobal prominence not much more finely sculptured than fronto vertex. 

Antenna with scape and first four funicle segments about as in coffeicola sp. n., the fifth funicle 
very much larger, more resembling a club segment (Text-fig. 20) . 

Reticulation of mesoscutum, scutellum and mesopleura about as coarse as on frontovertex but 
much less outstanding, the surfaces more shining. 





16 



18 




FIGS. 13-18. Hungariella species, females. 13, H. mediterranea sp. n., head, seen from 
above ; 14, H. piceae Erdos, head in facial view ; 15, H. pretiosa (Timb.), head, seen 
from above ; 16, the same in facial view ; 17, H. coffeicola sp. n., head, seen from above ; 
1 8, the same, in facial view. 



CLASSIFICATION OF THE ANAGYRINI 



163 



Fore wings rather weakly infuscate beyond and before speculum ; with prestigma not much 
thickened ; with marginal about twice as long as broad ; with radius emitted about as in 
peregrina (Comp.). 

Head for the most part, mesoscutum, scutellum, propodeum and first large tergite a rather 
bright brassy green : occiput, pronotum, mesopleura, sternal regions and most of gaster pale 
brown, with weak metallic reflections : antennae having scape wholly stramineous ; having 
pedicellus and flagellum pale brown, with multicoloured metallic reflections. Legs with hind 
coxae above coloured as mesopleura but paler : otherwise pale testaceous to dull stramineous, 
the segments tending to rufous at their apices. 




20 



21 




23 





FIGS. 19-24. Hungariella species. 19-20. H. indica (Ram. Ayyar), right antenna, in 
dextro-lateral view, of 19, male and 20, female. 21-23. Right fore wing of female of 
21, H. pretiosa (Timb.) ; 22, H. mediterranea sp. n. ; 23, H. brounii (Timb.). 24, Part of 
right fore wing of female, on larger scale, of H. coffeicola sp. n. 



164 G. J. KERRICH 

Male differs as follows : reticulation on frontovertex, sides of face and inter-scrobal promi- 
nence about as in female. Antennae with fourth ramus very distinctly over-reaching the fifth 
funicle segment. Sculpture of thorax as described for female, but the surfaces not so shining. 
Fore wings relatively markedly broader, and with marginal vein stouter. 

Not much green coloration on first large tergite, and scutellum mainly bronzy : green parts 
otherwise as in female, the green, however, much darker, but less dark than in male pretiosa 
(Timb.). Antennal colour as described for female. Leg colour much as described for female, 
but the hind femora at apex and hind tarsi more darkened. 

Redescribed from the following: INDIA: Madras, Coimbatore, 3 $, viii.1924, on 
Planococcus citri (Risso), (T.V. Ramakrishna Ayyar} (holotype and paratypes); 
Coimbatore, 5 ?, 3 c, 25.viii.i937, ex Planococcus sp. Hilacinus (Ckll.) (R.H. Le 
Pelley}. 

Through the kindness of Dr. S. Pradhan I have been able to examine the type of 
Tetracnemus indicus Ramakrishna Ayyar from the Zoological Survey of India, 
Calcutta, and I am satisfied that it is the same as the species later reared at Coimbatore 
by R. H. Le Pelley. There are certain obscurities in the original description. The 
type is mounted on a slide with the head detached. The artist has evidently drawn 
the text-figure from the facial view but has so altered the focus of the microscope that 
the base of the antennal scape is not shown as being above the lower face and genae. 
The author has described the scape as projecting far beyond the anterior margin of 
the head, which evidently applies to the same view in which these structures are 
seen: the scape at rest does not reach the top of the head, in fact the length of 
scape and radicle is decidedly less than the distance from the base of the radicle to 
the median ocellus, as is shown accurately in the figure. The petiole of the first 
funicle segment does appear, in the slide mount, to consist of two rings. 

Two other male specimens, mounted on slides and labelled in the same hand- 
writing with the same data were among material on loan from Dr. Compere. These 
were probably among material given to him when he visited Dr. Ramakrishna Ayyar 
at Coimbatore on 28th June, 1932, and are evidently the two paratypes. Compere 
has generously agreed that they may be deposited in the British Museum (Natural 
History) and the U.S. National Museum respectively. 

Further material in Zoological Survey of India, Calcutta, at Citrus Experiment 
Station, Riverside, and in British Museum (Natural History). 

KEY TO SPECIES OF HUNGARIELLA Erdos : FEMALES 

1 Of more slender and elongate build than its known congeners, with gaster about equal 

to combined length of head, thorax and propodeum : antennae decidedly elongate 
and slender, with scape reaching top of head, with flagellum not sharply clavate, 
and with first funicle segment quite four times as long as broad : pedicellus almost 
wholly stramineous and flagellum conspicuously so at base : Europe . piceae Erdos 
Less slenderly built, with gaster much less than combined length of head, thorax 
and propodeum : antennae much stouter, with scape not reaching top of head, with 
flagellum more or less sharply clavate, and with first funicle segment plainly less 
than four times as long as broad : pedicellus only stramineous at apex and beneath, 
and funicle not pale at base .......... 2 

2 First funicle segment i\ to 3^ times as long as broad [a compact group of species 

separable also on individual characters from those in alternate] .... 3 

First funicle segment plainly less than twice as long as broad .... 6 



CLASSIFICATION OF THE ANAGYRINI 165 

First funicle segment 3^ times as long as broad : head, in facial view, even longer than 
in piceae Erdos (Text-fig. 14) : hind femora almost wholly brown: Europe 

spilococci (Ferriere) 

First funicle segment about 2^ times as long as broad: head, in facial view, much 

less elongate (e.g. Text-fig. 16) : hind femora mostly yellow-stramineous . . 4 

Antennal funicle strongly expanded towards the club, the fifth segment distinctly longer 
as well as broader than the fourth and thus appearing transitional : ocelli relatively 
small, the lateral ones twice their own diameters from orbital margin: fore wings 
hyaline, relatively narrow (Text-fig. 23) : scutellum pale brassy green : mesopleura 
pale brown, with very weak metallic reflections: New Zealand 

brounii (Howard MS.) (Timberlake) 

Antennal funicle slightly expanded towards the club, the fifth segment subequal in 
length to the fourth and not appearing transitional : lateral ocelli about their own 
diameters from orbital margin: fore wings at least moderately infuscate, broader: 
scutellum and mesopleura more or less bronzy or reddish violet, the metallic colour 
on the mesopleura strong .......... 5 

Head from above (Text-fig. 15): eyes moderately hairy, distinctly so X 65: fore 
wings moderately broad, with uncus normal (Text-fig. 21): distribution wide- 
spread .......... pretiosa (Timberlake) 

Head from above (Text-fig. 13) relatively broad and less deeply emarginate: eyes 
strongly and rather densely hairy, very distinctly so X 45 : fore wings still 
broader, the radius having a long, sharp uncus (Text-fig. 22) : Mediterranean area 

mediterranea sp. n. 

First funicle segment hardly longer than broad, shorter than any of the following (see 
Compere, 1939, fig. 2): head about same shape as in pretiosa Timb. (Text-fig. 15): 
eyes strongly and densely hairy, very distinctly so X 45 : frontovertex and 
mesoscutum blue-green, duller: distribution widespread . . peregrina (Compere) 

First funicle segment nearly twice as long as broad, longer than any of the three 
following: head from above much longer (e.g. Text-fig. 17): eyes weakly hairy 
( x 100) : frontovertex and mesoscutum medium green to bright brassy green . 7 

Fifth funicle segment about as long as the first and much larger than any of the 
preceding, more like a club segment (Text-fig. 20) : marginal vein not bearing two 
very conspicuous hairs: scape wholly stramineous: hind femora pale testaceous, 
rufous towards apex : southern India . . . indica (Ramakrishna Ayyar) 

Fifth funicle segment decidedly shorter than first and not much larger than fourth: 
marginal vein bearing two very conspicuous hairs (Text-fig. 24) : scape pale brown 
on about apical half: hind femora, except at base and apex, brownish black with 
metallic reflections: East Africa ...... coffeicola sp. n. 

KEY TO SPECIES OF HUNGARIELLA Erdos : MALES 

Antennae with fourth ramus hardly or only a little over-reaching the fifth funicle 

segment : species known from northern and middle Europe ..... 2 

Antennae with fourth ramus very distinctly over-reaching the fifth funicle segment : 

Mediterranean region and extra-European ....... 3 

Antennal scape pale in about basal two-thirds : eyes less strongly hairy (see descrip- 
tion) ............ piceae Erdos 

Antennal scape pale at extreme base only : eyes more strongly hairy spilococci (Ferriere) 

Antennal scape pale at extreme base only: radius more slender, and emitted at an 

acuter angle ......... cf. spilococci (Ferriere) 

Antennal scape flavo-testaceous in about basal two-thirds: radius stouter, and 

emitted at a less acute angle .......... 4 

Antennal club about one-fifth longer than scape without radicle : eyes distinctly hairy 

X 65 . . . . . . . . . . pretiosa (Timberlake) 



166 G. J. KERRICH 

Antennal club about equal in length to scape without radicle .... 5 

5 Ocelli relatively small, the lateral ones twice their own diameters from orbital margin : 

fore wings relatively narrow, though less narrow than in female of same species : eyes 
moderately hairy, just distinctly so X 65: mesopleura rather pale, with weak 
metallic reflections: New Zealand . . . brounii (Howard MS.) (Timberlake) 

Ocelli relatively larger, the lateral ones about or even less than their own diameters 
from orbital margin: fore wings relatively broader: eyes decidedly either more 
strongly or more weakly hairy : mesopleura darker ...... 6 

6 Eyes strongly hairy, very distinctly so X 45 : larger species ..... 7 
Eyes weakly hairy ( x 100) : smaller species ....... 8 

7 Reticulation of frontovertex finer, less regular and outstanding: eyes less densely 

hairy : fore wings with prestigma markedly thickened, and with radius having a long, 
sharp uncus : antennal scape and club relatively longer : scrobal impressions bright 
blue-green : mesopleura blue and reddish violet : Mediterranean area tnediterranea sp. n. 
Reticulation of frontovertex coarser, more regular and outstanding: eyes decidedly 
more densely hairy than in any other known species: fore wings with prestigma 
scarcely thicker than first abscissa of submarginal, and with uncus of radius normal : 
antennal scape and club relatively shorter: scrobal impressions bronzy: distribu- 
tion widespread including Mediterranean area .... peregrina (Compere) 

8 Fore wings with marginal vein nearly twice as long as broad, not bearing two especially 

conspicuous hairs: scrobal impressions green: hind femora dull stramineous, 
weakly infuscate in about apical third . . . indica (Ramakrishna Ayyar) 

Fore wings with marginal vein not nearly twice as long as broad, bearing two very 
conspicuous hairs (see Text-fig. 24): scrobal impressions bronzy: hind femora, 
except at base and apex, brownish black with metallic reflections . . coffeicola sp. n. 

ERICYDNUS Walker, 1837 

1837 Ericydnus (Haliday MS.) Walker, Ent. Mag. 4 : 363. 

1875 Ericydnus Walker ; Thomson, Hymenoptera Scandinaviae 4 : 123-4. 

1876 Ericydnus Walker ; Mayr, Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien 25 : 762-3. 

1909 Ericydnus Walker ; Schmiedeknecht, Genera Insectorum 97 : 1958, 203. 

1921 Ericydnus Walker; Mercet, Trab. Mus. nac. Cienc. nat., Madr.\ 60-1, 73-5, 158-9. 

1952 Ericydnus Walker ; Nikol'skaya, Opred. Faune SSSR 44 : 324-6, 356. 

1953 Ericydnus Walker ; Ferriere, Mitt, schweiz. ent. Ges. 26 : 6-20. 

1964 Ericydnus Walker ; Peck, Bouc"ek & Hoffer, Mem. ent. Soc. Canada 34 : 64-77. 

Elongate, slender Encyrtidae, with antennae and legs of female decidedly elongate : moderately 
strongly sclerotized, so that in death the head is not especially liable to collapse or distortion as 
it is in some allied genera. 

Head from above reniform (Text-figs. 25-26), in this view not or but little emarginate 
anteriorly on account of the scrobal impression, rather strongly to strongly emarginate posteriorly : 
eyes rather sparsely but always distinctly pubescent, generally distinctly so x 25, nearly but 
never quite reaching the posterior margin, which is sharp and distinctly raised : frontovertex 
broader than an eye, bearing punctures of no more than moderate depth, that commonly are 
separated by about their own diameters : lateral ocelli close to eyes : toruli obovate, separated 
from mouth by less than their own length : common scrobal impression extending less than half 
way up orbits. Mandibles greatly narrowed from base, bidentate, with upper tooth the longer. 
Antennae of female not strongly clavate : scape elongate, not dilated : funicle 6-segmented, the 
segments increasing gradually in breadth : club 3-segmented, the first segment a little broader 
than the sixth funicle. Thorax rather flattened above, not deep dorsoventrally : axillae 
contiguous, with a short longitudinal suture between them 1 : scutellum elongate except in very 
short-winged forms, having a weak to strong laminate apical margin (Text-figs. 27-29). 

1 In very short-winged specimens the axillae may appear separate owing to the hind margin of the 
mesoscutum, when bent back, overlying the common suture. 



CLASSIFICATION OF THE ANAGYRINI 167 

Propodeum with a pair of transverse keels, weakly or strongly developed, which bend round at 
sides to near apices of the longitudinal keels which run back from the inner side of the spiracles. 
Fore wings (Text-figs. 30-34) of normal breadth to narrow : marginal vein several times as long 
as broad, and postmarginal at least about as long as marginal, usually considerably longer : 
brachypterous forms frequent. 

The species of this genus have been very much confused. Thanks, to a large 
extent, to the loan of really extensive material by Drs. Z. Boucek and A. Hoffer, it 
has proved possible to achieve a satisfactory separation of the macropterous forms : 
in Europe there are here recognized six species, of which one may be a mutant form. 
The micropterous forms are more difficult to separate since they are, to a greater or 
lesser extent, more weakly characterized: the head shape, proportions of antennal 
segments, and the propodeum are particularly affected. 

Precise data of the Czechoslovak specimens are not included here, partly because 
the material is so extensive, and partly because I understand it to be the intention of 
Dr. Hoffer to make a more intensive study of the fauna of his own country in due 
course. 

Ericydnus ventralis (Dalman) 
(Text-figs. 25, 30) 

1820 Encyrtus longicornis var. ventralis Dalman, K. svenska Vetensk-Akad. Handl. 41 : 166. 

1837 Ericydnus paludatus (Haliday MS.) Walker, Ent. Mag. 4 : 363-4. 

1876 Ericydnus ventralis Dalman ; Mayr, Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien 25 : 763-5 (non var. 

biplagiatus}. 

1921 Ericydnus dichrous Mercet ($ non ), Trab. Mus. nac. Cienc. nat., Madr.: 159, 164-7. 

1957 Ericydnus dichrous Mercet ; Erdos, A eta zool. hung. 3 : 21-3. 

1966 Ericydnus ventralis Dalman ; Kerrich, Opusc. ent. 31 : 119. 

Head, seen from above (Text-fig. 25) narrow and rather elongate, very weakly rounded or 
broadly emarginate in front, having occiput extending back so that it is clearly visible behind the 
occipital margin from above, in facial view with cheeks well rounded. Fro nto vertex very finely 
reticulate ; with piliferous punctures of less than moderate size, nearly all separated by more 
than their own diameters, and the orbitals not very small, separated by about their own 
diameters : face and cheeks very finely scaly-reticulate. Eyes rather densely hairy. 

Antenna with scape nearly reaching the median ocellus ; with pedicellus about twice as long 
as broad and a little shorter than the first funicle segment : funicle broadening rather gradually, 
having first segment about twice as long as broad and a little shorter than the second or third, 
with the following decreasing in length gradually : club about equal to combined length of 
segments four and five. 

Pronotum, mesoscutum, axillae and scutellum very finely and weakly reticulate and densely 
beset with weak piliferous punctures that are separated, some by more but many by less than 
their own diameters. Scutellum sharply margined, very weakly laminate at apex, little raised 
above metathorax. Mesopleura behind scaly -reticulate about as on cheeks, in front very finely 
alutaceous. Propodeum on sides with reticulation about as on scutellum ; having a partly 
reticulate median area bordered by or containing fine longitudinal keels, often a median keel, and 
distinctly raised at mid base ; elsewhere very finely alutaceous and shining, with transverse 
keels rather weak. 

Wings relatively narrow, as in Text-fig. 30 or even considerably narrower, with postmarginal 
vein extending relatively far beyond uncus. In this species only slight wing reduction is known, 
and this condition is scarce. 

Male antenna with scape reaching a little beyond the median ocellus ; with pedicellus 
relatively shorter than in female, much shorter than the first funicle segment ; with flagellum 



168 G. J. KERRICH 

almost filiform : first funicle segment about twice as long as broad, second a little longer than 
first and third a little longer than second, the remainder about equal : club less than the 
combined length of the two preceding segments. 

Frontovertex normally in greater part and inter-scrobal prominence red-violet, though 
frontovertex broadly blue-green along hind margin and sometimes more extensively : scrobes, 
temples and cheeks bronzy with bright reflection. Pronotum almost entirely dull blue-green. 
Mesoscutum, axillae, scutellum and propodeum varying from almost entirely dull blue-green, 
usually with a little testaceous colouring just above the tegulae, to (in a Spanish and, more 
curiously, a Norwegian specimen) chrome-yellow, with little dark colouring except on upper 
surface of propodeum : light red- violet reflection is widespread. Post-spiracular sclerite and 
mesopleura varying from undarkened chrome-yellow (in a Spanish specimen) to dull testaceous, 
the mesopleura almost wholly darkened. Gaster varying from bright testaceous, moderately 
darkened in middle above (Spanish specimen) to dull testaceous, mostly darkened. Antennae 
brownish black, with weak metallic reflections ; having scape often beneath and sometimes 
almost wholly, pedicellus at apex and beneath, and sometimes basal segments of funicle, more 
or less pale brown. Legs yellow-testaceous, with the following darkened : tarsal apices, hind 
femora, at least in part, and tibiae and tarsi above, and often, especially in male, the fore and 
mid femora and tibiae in part. 

Dalman described this species, recording it as having been taken by Boheman in 
the Swedish province of Smaland. 

Six specimens stand in the Boheman collection as ventralis Dalman: all were 
taken by Boheman in Smaland with the exception of the fourth, which was captured 
in the Stockholm area, and the second, which seems to be a Zetterstedt specimen. 

I designate the third specimen in the series as LECTOTYPE : this specimen is also 
considered by Dr. M. de V. Graham to agree best with the original description. All 
specimens in the series, except the first, which is now determined as sipylus Walk., 
belong to this species. 

The first, second, third and fifth specimens in the series are marked as having been 
seen by Thomson. In the Thomson collection there are specimens of this species 
standing in the series named as both longicornis and ventralis. 

I have studied the type of paludatus Walker, which is in the Haliday collection and 
is a male from Portmarnock with very slightly reduced wings. 

I believe Mayr's diagnosis (1876) to refer to this species. 

I have not seen the female holotype of dichrous Mercet but feel confident of the 
identity of the insect described. The male from the same locality, associated by 
Mercet and illustrated by Professor Ceballos in his work, I have been able to study : 

1 have not been able to identify this micropterous specimen with confidence, but 
place it provisionally as a form of the species now determined as strigosus Nees. 
The lamina at apex of the scutellum is more strongly developed than in any macrop- 
terous male specimen of ventralis Dalm. that I have been able to study. 

Material studied. IRELAND: Co. Down, Portmarnock, i $, type of paludatus 
(Haliday ms.) Walker. ENGLAND : unlocalized, 2 $, 2 <, Dale coll. ; Oxon., Lewknor, 

2 $, 2.V1.IQ57, Otmoor, 2 $, 5.vi.i958, Bald Hill, i <j>, 3 $, vi.igsy, Berks., Bagley 
Wood, i <j>, 3i.vii.ig54, Wytham Wood, i <, I7.viii.i952, i <J, 5^.1958, 2 ?, 
8.vii.T_959 (M. de V. Graham or M. F. Claridge); Berks., Silwood Park, i $, 22. v. 
1950, on grass (0. W. Richards) ; Cambridge, i $, Hope-Westwood coll. NORWAY : 
Jaeren Orre, i $, n.vii.i953, (Ardo). SWEDEN: Skane, Smaland and Stockholm 
district, n specimens including lectotype, Dalman and Thomson colls. ; Narke, 



CLASSIFICATION OF THE ANAGYRINI 169 

Orebro district, i ex., 2i.v~4.vii (A. Jansson). SPAIN: Fuenterrabia, i $, I4.viii. 
1919 (G. Mercet). GERMANY: Aachen, 6 $, coll. Forster. AUSTRIA: i $, i <, ? 
Ruschka. CZECHOSLOVAKIA: 59 $, 37 ^, iv.-iy.ix (Z. Boucek and ^4. Hoffer colls.). 
HUNGARY: Tasnad, i $, Vacz. Tudosdomb, i <?, 6.vii.i93o, (/. Biro), Tompa, 
2 $, i6.v, 2 ?, 25. v. 1950, Kelebia, 2 $, io.vi.i949, 2 ?, 19. v. 1950 (/. Erdos) 
(mostly det. Erdos as dichrous Merc.). U.S.S.R., Tbilisi, Lisci, 2 $ vi.i957 (A. 
Hoffer and /. Dlabola). 

Ericydnus caudatus Erdos 

1957 Ericydnus caudatus Erdos, Acta Zool. hung. 3 : 23-4. 

Differs from ventralis Dalman as follows : ovipositor sheaths projecting by about two-fifths 
length of gaster : microsculpture on frontovertex and dorsum of thorax decidedly more out- 
standing. 

So exceeding like ventralis Dalman in all other respects that I can only regard it as 
a mutant form that is perhaps evolving into a distinct species through the develop- 
ment of different oviposition habits. 

Material studied. CZECHOSLOVAKIA: 9 <j>, 2 <, iv.-25.viii, (Z. Boucek and A. Hoffer 
colls.). HUNGARY: Tompa, 2 $, 16, r $, 30. vi. 1950, i $, i ^, 7.vii.i95i, (/. Erdos) 
(cotypes). 

Ericydnus japonicus (Tachikawa) 

1963 Grandoriella japonica Tachikawa, Mem. Ehime Univ. VI 9 (i) : 58-61, figs. 11-12. 
1966 Ericydnus japonicus Tachikawa ; Kerrich, Opusc. ent. 31 : 119. 

The following redescription was made from a single female paratype kindly sent on 
loan by Professor Tachikawa, by direct comparison with the European species of 
Ericydnus, especially E. ventralis Dalman. 

Head, seen from above, resembling that of ventralis Dalman in being relatively narrow and 
rather elongate, but with eyes nearly reaching back of head, and not having the occiput visible 
behind the occipital margin : in facial view more elongate and with cheeks little rounded. 
Frontovertex with reticulate microsculpture relatively coarse and sharp, though less outstanding 
than in caudatus Erdos ; with piliferous punctures, except in inter-ocellar area, relatively small 
and sparse, the orbitals not small but also sparse, separated by much more than their own 
diameters : cheeks finely striate-reticulate. Eyes rather coarsely and sparsely hairy. 

Antenna (see description and figure of Tachikawa (1963)) with scape relatively elongate, 
slightly over-reaching the median ocellus, and with pedicellus (according to Tachikawa's figure) 
decidedly but not greatly shorter than the first funicle segment (15 : 17). 

Pronotum, mesoscutum, axillae and scutellum very finely and weakly reticulate, sparsely 
beset with weak piliferous punctures that mostly are separated by much more than their own 
diameters. Scutellum sharply margined, very weakly laminate at apex, little raised above 
metathorax. Mesopleura extremely finely alutaceous in front, weakly reticulate behind. 
Propodeum on sides weakly reticulate, a little finer than on hinder part of mesopleura, above 
finely alutaceous, with a scarcely defined median area that is not markedly raised at mid base : 
keels running back from inner side of spiracles developed but difficult to see. 

Fore wings as described and figured for ventralis Dalman, but the radial and postmarginal 
relatively longer (see Tachikawa's illustrations) . 

Frontovertex a deep blue-green behind, merging to strong red-violet just above the inter- 
scrobal prominence ; the latter again deep blue-green, together with areas to the side of it and 
the mouth region : cheeks dull bronzy. Pronotum, except at sides below, dull green with 



170 G. J. KERRICH 

bright reflection. Remainder of thorax and abdomen bright testaceous, the mesoscutum having 
weak red-violet reflection : lateral areas of metanotum, and gaster in large part above and at 
sides, blackish with weak green reflection. Mandibles pale testaceous, darkened at apices. 
Antennae with scape and pedicellus bright testaceous, the latter considerably darkened above : 
flagellum (according to original description) black. Legs bright testaceous, with fore and mid 
tarsi somewhat darkened, and hind tibiae and tarsi mostly blackish. 

Ericydnus strigosus (Nees) 

(Text-figs. 28, 31) 

Ericydnus longicornis auctt. plur. (non Dalman, 1820). 

1834 Encyrtus strigosus Nees ab Esenbeck, Hymenopterorum Ichneumonibus affinium Mono- 
graphiae 2 : 2278. 

1837 Ericydnus strigosus (Nees) Walker, Ent. Mag. 4 : 334. 

1872 Metallon atriceps Walker, Notes on Chalcidiae 7 : 115-6. 

1876 Ericydnus longicornis Dalman ; Mayr, Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien 25 : 763-4 [Mis- 
identification] . 

1876 Ericydnus apterogenes (Forster MS.) Mayr, Ibidem, 25 : 763-4. 

1921 ? Ericydnus dichrous Mercet <$ (non $), Trab. Mus. nac. Cienc. nat., Madr.: 159-60, 165-7, 
fig. 50- 

1966 Ericydnus strigosus (Nees) ; Kerrich, Opusc. ent. 31 : 119. 

Head, seen from above, rather narrow (i.e. narrower than in macropterous forms of sipylus 
Walk.) ; in facial view with cheeks slightly to moderately rounded. Frontovertex with reti- 
culate microsculpture fine to very fine ; with piliferous punctures within and beside ocellar area 
mostly separated by less than their own diameters, those before median ocellus much sparser 
but not absent from the median area, and with orbitals not very small : face and cheeks very 
finely scaly-reticulate. Eyes moderately densely hairy, distinctly so x 25. 

Antenna with scape not reaching median ocellus ; with pedicellus nearly twice as long as 
broad, and about equal in length to first segment : funicle broadening rather gradually, with 
segments gradually decreasing in length, the first about one and a half times as long as broad, 
the sixth almost as broad as long : club distinctly more than combined length of the two 
preceding segments. 

Pronotum, mesoscutum, axillae and scutellum with reticulate microsculpture fine, beset with 
moderate piliferous punctures that are not very superficial and mostly are separated by about 
their own diameters. Scutellum (Text-fig. 28) relatively narrow, dorsally almost flat, strongly 
laminate at apex. Mesopleura rather strongly scaly -reticulate, often quite coarsely so behind. 
Propodeum (Text-fig. 28) reticulate on sides, and with a reticulate median area which sometimes 
contains a strong median keel ; elsewhere very finely alutaceous and shining, with transverse 
keels rather weak to rather strong. 

Fore wings (Text-fig. 31) moderately narrow. 

In this species there is a considerable range of microptery, from forms with fore wings hardly 
reaching apex of propodeum to others with fore wings covering the gaster for about two-thirds 
its length. Micropterous are much less frequently found than macropterous forms. 

Male antennae with scape reaching about to median ocellus ; with pedicellus twice as long as 
broad or less, decidedly shorter than first funicle segment ; with flagellum longer than that of 
female ; funicle almost filiform, showing considerable intra-specific variation in proportions of 
the individual segments, but the segments gradually increasing in length : club about equal to 
combined length of the two preceding segments, tapering strongly to apex. 

Coloration in middle European latitudes frontovertex, inter-scrobal prominence usually, 
pronotum above, mesoscutum above, axillae, scutellum and sides of propodeum a rather dark 
green, with reddish violet and bronzy reflections in very varying proportion : colour from 
frontovertex merging through peacock-blue, which is seen also on inter-scrobal prominence, to 
the upper face which usually is mostly reddish violet ; lower face, cheeks, temples, occiput and 



CLASSIFICATION OF THE ANAGYRINI 171 

propleura brownish black with indeterminate metallic coloured reflections of moderate strength : 
remainder of thorax, propodeum above and gaster brownish black (faded to medium brown in 
old specimens), with mostly weak and indeterminate metallic reflections, but the gaster above 
often determinately dark green in part. Male gaster generally largely pale brown at base. 
Mandibles pale brown, darker at apices. Antennae brownish black, the scape and pedicellus 
with faint dark green reflections. Legs dull testaceous, to a greater or lesser extent darkened 
more especially on hind legs, the fore coxae usually only darkened at extreme base though 
sometimes much more extensively. 

Coloration in Madeira head a decidedly brighter green, with duller reflections little in 
evidence : thorax and abdomen for the most part chrome-yellow : mesopleura except in front, 
and propodeum between spiracles and median area, blackish with metallic reflections : gaster 
above in about apical half dark green. Antennae with scape and pedicellus usually paler. 
Legs bright testaceous, with only the tarsal apices more than slightly darkened. 

The main collection of Nees ab Esenbeck is known to have been destroyed. Three 
specimens of this species, two female and one male, stand as strigosus Nees in the 
Walker collection, and I accept the interpretation of Walker as first reviser. Further, 
although Mayr (1875) stated that Forster also determined another species as strigosus, 
the only two specimens now in the Vienna museum labelled by Forster as strigosus 
belong to this species. 

A single mount in the Vienna museum is labelled " Er. apterogenes Forster, type " 
and also "Aachen ". It bears five very small pins, from one of which the specimen 
is missing. The four remaining specimens I determine as brachypterous males of 
strigosus Nees: one of these, as indicated by my own label, I designate as LECTO- 
TYPE. 

Of Spanish material determined by Mercet as longicornis Dalm., I have seen one 
female and one male of this species, and one female of a species only subsequently 
recognized as distinct. 

In the British Museum collection there have stood as atriceps Walker a macrop- 
terous male, and one macropterous and five brachypterous females. The macrop- 
terous female bears the green Walker type label and the label Metallon atriceps in 
Walker's writing, but from the original publication one would deduce that the male 
was the type. Fortunately this series is clearly conspecific. A study of inter- 
mediates from southern Italian islands confirms my conclusion that this is a colour 
form of strigosus Nees. 

Material studied. ENGLAND: unlocalized, 2 $, I <$, Walker coll., 2 $, 2 $, Hope- 
Westwood coll., i $, 2 <, Dale coll. ; N. Devon, Martinhoe Common, I $, 22 . vii . 1955 
(/. A. & D. J. Clark); Oxon., Lewknor, I $, 2.vi.i957, Bald Hill, 2 $, 18. vii. 1957; 
Bucks., Hell Coppice, i <$, 23. vii. 1957; Kent, West Wood, i $, 6.ix.i957; Lines., 
Woodhall Spa, i ^, 25. vii. 1951 (M. de V. Graham or M. F. Claridge); Berks., 
Silwood Park, 3 $, 2 $, em. 4.vii-i3.ix.i949, ex Heterococcus pulverarius (Newst.) 
(K. Boratynski). SWEDEN : Skane, Smaland, and Vastergotland, 3 $, 4 J, Thomson 
coll.; Skane, Dalby, i $, 13. v., i <$, 7^.1938 (D. M. S. &J. F. Perkins); Stockholm 
district, i $, 3i.viii.i95i, Narke, Orebro district, i ^, 9^.1954 (A. Jansson). 
MADEIRA : 6 $ i $ (Wollaston) (material of atriceps Walker). SPAIN : Madrid province, 
Cercedilla, i $, viii.i9i6, i $, 20. vii. 1917 (C. Bolivar). ITALY, Pantelleria, 2 $, 
vii. 1954 (Pippa); Sicily, Madonia, 9 $, 2 ^, ix.i954 and 1955 (Gendago). AUSTRIA: 
4 $> 5 c? (? all Ruschka); Leithagebirge, i $, 26. vii. 1951, coll. of G. Domenichini. 



172 G. J. KERRICH 

GERMANY: Aachen, 3 $, 4 <$ (A.Forster) (including syntypes of apterogenes (Forst. MS.) 
Mayr. CZECHOSLOVAKIA: 136 $, 133 , iv-x (Z. Boucek & A. Hoffer colls.). 
HUNGARY: Szigetszentmiklos, I $, X.IQII, Nagyened, i ?, 1917, Vacduka, I $, 
3.ix.i925, Fejervarcsvrgo, I J, 29.vii.i923, Tihany, i <$, 25. ix. 1930 (/. Biro}; 
Tompa, i <$, x.1954 (Z. Boucek}. U.S.S.R.: Odessa, i <j>, vi.1957, Tbilisi, 4 <j>, 3 $ 
(A Ho/f &/. Dlabola). 

Ericydnus robustior Mercet 
(Text-figs. 26, 29, 32) 

1921 Ericydnus ventralis var. robustior Mercet, 7>a>. Mus. nac. Cienc. nat., Madr. : 164. 
1952 Ericydnus aeneus Nikol'skaya, Opred. Faune SSSR, 44 : 356-7. 
1966 Ericydnus robustior Mercet ; Kerrich, Opusc. ent. 31 : 119. 

Head, seen from above (Text-fig. 26) broad, broadly and distinctly emarginate in front ; in 
facial view with cheeks very little rounded. Frontovertex with punctation as described for 
strigosus Nees, but with reticulation sharper and more outstanding : face and cheeks finely 
scaly-reticulate. Eyes moderately densely, conspicuously white-hairy, very distinctly so x 25. 

Antenna relatively more elongate than in strigosus Nees, with scape generally over-reaching 
the median ocellus : funicle broadening more gradually and with segments hardly decreasing in 
length, the first one-third longer than the pedicellus, the sixth one-third longer than broad : 
club a little more or less than combined length of the two preceding segments. 

Thorax structure as described for strigosus Nees, but scutellum (Text-fig. 29) weakly laminate 
at apex : scutellum dorsally almost flat in female, but moderately convex in male. Propodeum 
with reticulation on median area weaker than in strigosus Nees, often hardly developed. 

Male antennae with pedicellus not much longer than broad : flagellum stouter in basal half 
than in strigosus Nees, tapering markedly and with segments becoming gradually shorter from 
middle ; club about equal to combined length of the two preceding segments. 

Fore wings (Text-fig. 32) of breadth normal in the Encyrtidae, i.e. decidedly broader relatively 
than in other species of this genus. Micropterous forms scarce. 

Coloration normally (f. aeneus Nik.) very much as described for middle European populations 
of strigosus Nees, but antennae and legs tending to be darker, the fore coxae generally pale only 
at extreme apex. 

Coloration of the unique female type of robustior Merc, is as follows : head a decidedly brighter 
green, with duller reflections little in evidence : thorax and propodeum for the most part 
chrome-yellow : pronotum except broadly behind, and mesoscutum medially in front, blackish 
with blue-green reflection : mesoscutum and scutellum in middle with extensive light red-violet 
reflection : metanotum, and propodeum above between spiracles, black with bright reflection : 
gaster mostly blackish, overspread with dark green to bronzy reflections, dull testaceous at 
sides near base. Antennal scape dull testaceous. Legs dull testaceous, with hind tibiae and 
tarsi, and about apical half of fore tarsi, decidedly darkened. Fore wings moderately infuscate 
around about apical half. 

It is noteworthy that the mesopleura are chrome-yellow in this form, whereas in the similarly 
coloured Madeiran form of strigosus Nees they are mainly blackish. 

I have been able to make direct comparison between the unique type of robustior 
Merc., a paratype of aeneus Nik. and other material of the green-bodied form. 
Despite the striking colour difference, and that both yellow-bodied and green-bodied 
forms have been taken within the province of Madrid, I find no significant difference 
in structure, and have to regard the forms as conspecific. 

Holotype studied. SPAIN: Madrid province, El Escorial, ^..vi 
(G. Mercet). 



CLASSIFICATION OF THE ANAGYRINI 173 

Material studied of f. aeneus Nik. SWEDEN: Narke, Orebro, Brickebacken, I $, 
4.viii.i955 (A. Jansson). SPAIN: Madrid province, Cercedilla, i $, 24.viii.i9iy 
(C. Bolivar). FRANCE: Montpellier, 2 $, 20. ix. 1951, associated with Pinus (E. 
Biliotti). CZECHOSLOVAKIA: 17 $, 14 <$, 5.v-2.ix. (Z. Boucek and A. Hoffer colls.). 
U.S.S.R. : Bukhara region, i $, 8.ix.i948 (Petrova) (paratype of aeneus Nik.). 

Ericydnus longicornis (Dalman) 
(Text-fig. 33) 

1820 Encyrtus longicornis Dalman, K. svenska Vetensk-Akad. Handl. 41 : 165-6. 
1861 Ericydnus atripes Forster, Programm Realschule Aachen 1860-61 : xxxiii. 
1966 Ericydnus longicornis (Dalman) ; Kerrich, Opusc. ent. 31 : 119. 

Head from above broad, scarcely emarginate anteriorly ; in facial view with cheeks distinctly 
rounded. Fronto vertex with reticulate microsculpture relatively sharp and outstanding, and 
with piliferous punctation relatively sparse ; the punctures in and beside the ocellar area are 
mostly separated by more than their own diameters, and there is a sparse row of comparable 
sized punctures on each side close to the orbital rows, leaving the frontovertex very broadly 
impunctate before the median ocellus. Eyes relatively weakly and sparsely hairy. 

Antenna with scape distinctly over-reaching median ocellus : with pedicellus one and a half 
times as long as its greatest breadth and two-thirds length of the first funicle segment : funicle 
broadening strongly to middle, the first segment one and two-thirds times as long as broad, the 
fourth only slightly longer than broad, and the fifth and sixth slightly broader than long ; club 
equal to the combined length of the two preceding segments, and equal to them in width. 

Reticulate microsculpture on pronotum and mesoscutum extremely fine, that on axillae and 
scutellum sharper : piliferous punctures on these sclerites fine and superficial, mostly separated 
by distinctly more than their own diameters. Scutellum relatively broad and convex, weakly 
laminate at apex. Mesopleura shining, no more than finely alutaceous. Propodeum finely 
reticulate on sides, shining and very finely alutaceous above, with no distinct median area. 

Fore wing of moderate breadth, with marginal vein relatively shorter than in strigosus Nees 
but with postmarginal relatively longer, more than twice the length of the marginal ; in female 
with a broad fascia of infuscation along outer half of fore margin and a weaker one along outer 
half of hind margin (Text-fig. 33). Micropterous forms unknown. 

Male flagellum relatively stout, slightly spindle-shaped, i.e. tapering markedly from middle 
to both base and apex ; club appreciably less than the combined length of the two preceding 
segments. 

Frontovertex, pronotum above, mesoscutum, axillae and scutellum very dark green to indigo, 
merging to red-violet or bronzy on face and cheeks : pleura and abdomen a more or less bright 
testaceous, the pleura usually in greater part, and propodeum and gaster largely above, over- 
spread with blackish. Mandibles pale brown, darker at apices. Antennae having scape 
testaceous, slightly to moderately darkened above, and pedicellus and flagellum brownish black 
with weak metallic reflections. Legs testaceous, with darkening on usually only the fore coxae 
at base, on all femora above in about apical half, and on all tibiae and tarsi. 

Male differs as follows : pleura, propodeum and gaster brownish black with weak reflections. 
Antennal scape much less markedly paler than pedicellus and flagellum. 

It would not have been possible for me to gain an adequate idea of this species but 
for the loan of a series of specimens from the collections of Drs. Z. Boucek and A. 
Hoffer, and it is no wonder that the unique type in the Stockholm museum, which I 
have studied, has invariably been misinterpreted in literature. 

I have also studied the unique male type of atripes Forster, which is in the Vienna 
museum. The locality, in eastern Switzerland, appears to be the furthest west that 
the species is known. 

ENTOM. 20, 5. 9 



174 G. J. KERRICH 

Material studied. SWEDEN: unlocalized, <$ type. SWITZERLAND, Roseg Tal, 
<$ type of atripes Forster. AUSTRIA : Lower Austria, Gars, I ^, 5 . vii . 1904 (tRuschka}. 
CZECHOSLOVAKIA: 7 ?, i.vi.-i8.viii, 33 <J, iS.v.-iy.ix (Z. Boucek and yl. ^Tq^r 
colls.). U.S.S.R. : Caucasus, Mt. Elbruz, 2,200-2,500 m., i $, viii.i96o (E. S. 
Sugonyaev). 

Ericydnus sipylus (Walker) 
(Text-figs. 27, 34-35) 

1837 Encyrtus sipylus Walker, Ent. Mag. 4 : 445. 

1838 Encyrtus baleus Walker, Ibidem, 5 : 428. 

1861 Encyrtus basalis Forster, Programm Realschule Aachen 1860-61 : xxxiii. 

1875 Ericydnus latiusculus Thomson, Hymenoptera Scandinaviae 4 : 125. 

1876 Ericydnus ventralis var. biplagiatus (Forster MS.) Mayr, Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien 25 : 

763, 765- 
1921 Ericydnus ventralis Dalman ; Mercet, Trab. Mus. nac. Cienc. nat. Madr., 159-60, 162-4 

[Mis-identification] . 

1949 Ericydnus ventralis var. biplagiatus Mayr ; Hellen, Notul. ent. 29 : 43. 
1952 Ericydnus bicolor Nikol'skaya, Opred. Faune SSSR 44 : 356-7. 
1966 Ericydnus sipylus (Walker) ; Kerrich, Opusc. ent. 31 : 120. 

Head, seen from above, moderately broad, regularly rounded or scarcely emarginate in front, 
in facial view with cheeks generally almost rectilinear. Frontovertex with reticulate micro- 
sculpture regular and rather outstanding ; with piliferous punctures relatively sparse, usually 
nearly all being separated by more than their own diameters, and the orbitals very small ; face 
and cheeks moderately reticulate. Eyes moderately densely hairy, very distinctly so X 25. 

Antenna with scape not reaching median ocellus ; with pedicellus greatly narrowed to base, 
twice as long as broad and slightly longer than first funicle segment : funicle broadening 
gradually, with segments gradually decreasing in length from the second, the first one and 
three-quarter times as long as broad, the sixth almost as broad as long : club gradually broaden- 
ing from funicle, almost the combined length of the three preceding segments. 

Pronotum, mesoscutum, axillae and scutellum dull, finely alutaceous, beset with piliferous 
punctures that are sharp but fine, and are separated by more than their own diameters. Scutel- 
lum (Text-fig. 27) relatively broad, markedly more convex than in most species, strongly 
laminate at apex. Mesopleura moderately reticulate. Propodeum with sides moderately 
reticulate ; with median area bordered by and containing longitudinal keels, but not much less 
finely alutaceous than the areas flanking it ; with transverse keels sharp, the segment rather 
sharply declived behind them. 

Fore wing (Text-fig. 34) relatively a little broader than in strigosus (Nees), and with marginal 
vein relatively short. 

Head for the most part blue-green, with indeterminate metallic reflections, very occasionally 
red-violet, the upper face more bronzy. Thorax and abdomen bright testaceous, having large, 
pale blackish marks with weak green reflection which normally are as follows : pronotum except 
at sides extending on to mesoscutum, axillae almost wholly, large central mark on scutellum, 
mesopleura, propodeum except on median area, and about hinder half of gaster above. 
Mandibles testaceous, only slightly darkened at apices. Antennae with scape and pedicellus 
pale brown, to a greater or lesser extent darkened above ; with flagellum brownish black, with 
weak metallic reflections. Legs pale testaceous, with only the tarsal apices more than slightly 
darkened. 

Male antenna with scape over-reaching median ocellus : with pedicellus ij times as long as 
broad, decidedly shorter than first funicle segment ; with flagellum longer than that of female : 
funicle almost filiform, the segments increasing gradually in length : club decidedly less than 
combined length of the two preceding segments (9 : u), tapering strongly to apex. 



CLASSIFICATION OF THE ANAGYRINI 175 

Brachypterous forms of both sexes have the legs often much more darkened, especially the 
hind femora near apex and the hind tibiae ; the undarkened parts are a duller testaceous. 
Brachypterous males have the darkened parts of the thorax and abdomen a decidedly brighter 
blue-green : macropterous males are unknown. 

E. sipylus f . baleus Walker differs as follows : head sometimes as bright a blue-green but usually 
duller, often with bronzy reflection : thorax and abdomen dull blue-green, with no testaceous 
colouring or almost none, sometimes a little on and adjoining the tegulae. Antennal scape and 
pedicellus generally considerably darkened. Legs, as in brachypterous specimens of f. sipylus, 
generally darkened. 

Text-fig. 35 illustrates a wing typical of this form. There is not much size range, for the wing 
covers the first large tergite to about half its length ; but there is considerable variation in 
shape, for the wing may be much more or much less pointed than as shown. 

In this species, macropterous female specimens with extensive bright testaceous 
coloration are normal in middle European latitudes, and those without such colora- 
tion extremely rare. Micropterous females have been collected in perhaps larger 
numbers than the macropterous, and of these, forms with little or no testaceous 
coloration (f . baleus Walker) and those coloured more like the normal macropterous 
specimens are about equally numerous. Micropterous females and males have been 
collected in about equal numbers, but macropterous males are unknown. This is 
the only species of the genus known in North America, where it has been found only 
in California and only in the micropterous form. 

In the British Museum collection are two female specimens labelled sipylus in 
Walker's writing : the micropterous specimen must be the type, but fortunately it is 
a relatively well characterized specimen with coloration so similar to that of the 
macropterous that one can be confident of its identity. 

A single brachypterous green-bodied female specimen is labelled baleus, and this 
I take to be the type. 

In the Thomson collection there are two mounts standing as latiusculus. One is 
labelled " Him. Stal " and bears a specimen of sipylus f. baleus, while the other is 
labelled " O " (=0land) and bears two specimens, the upper a female sipylus f. baleus 
and the lower a brachypterous male of strigosus Nees. Professor C. H. Lindroth 
writes that, despite extensive search, no specimen standing as latiusculus from 
Smaland has been found among Thomson's duplicate material. Consequently I 
designate the specimen collected by Stal in the Stockholm district as NEOTYPE of 
latiusculus Thomson, which thus falls in synonymy with sipylus f. baleus Walker. 
It is possible that Thomson made a lapsus in recording the locality, for he had other 
Ericydnus collected in Smaland by Boheman, who had a country house in that pro- 
vince. 

In the Vienna museum there are eight mounts labelled " Er. basalis Forster, type ", 
but only three of these are also labelled to indicate the locality Roseg Tal in the 
Engadine, Switzerland. From these I select and designate the one remaining 
female specimen as LECTOTYPE and determine it as a brachypterous sipylus 
Walker. The specimens on the five other mounts are Protyndarichus britannicus 
Alam. All twelve specimens standing as biplagiatus Forst. are brachypterous forms 
of sipylus Walk. The first four mounts comprising five specimens are labelled 
" Er. biplagiatus Forster, type ". I select and designate the first specimen as 
LECTOTYPE. 



176 G. J. KERRICH 

I have studied a Spanish specimen determined by Mercet as ventralis. I have also 
been able to study a paratype of bicolor Nik. 

Material studied of f. sipylus Walker. ENGLAND: near London, 2 $ (including 
type), F. Walker coll. ; unlocalized 3 $, Hope-Westwood coll. ; Berks., Silwood Park, 
2 $, 15-30. viii. 1949, one ex Heterococcus pulverarius (Newst.), (K. Boratynski}; 
Kent, Bedgebury, i <, 4. viii. 1935 (0. W. Richards}. SWEDEN: unlocalized, i $, 
18 . viii . , Zetterstedt coll. ; Smaland and Gotland, i $, 2 <$, Thomson coll. FINLAND : 
Nystad, i $, (W. Hellen). SPAIN: El Pardo, i $, lo.vi.igig (C. Bolivar}. GER- 
MANY: Aachen, 14 $, (A. Forster) (as biplagiatus (Forst. MS.) Mayr). SWITZERLAND: 
Roseg Tal, i $, 4 $, (A. Forster} (as basalis Forst.). CZECHOSLOVAKIA: 105 $, 8 $, 
5.vi.-i6.ix. (Z. Boucek and A. Hoffer colls.). U.S.S.R. : Crimea, Sebastopol, 
i $, 2.iii.i9ii (W. Pliginskii} (paratype of bicolor Nik.). U.S.A.: California, Los 
Angeles, i $, Provancher coll.; San Bernadino, Mill Creek, i <$, 5.x. 1947, on 
Erigonum subscapum (P. H. Timberlake}. 

Material studied of f. baleus Walker. ENGLAND: Oxon. i $, 2.vi., i <, 5.vii. 
1957 (M. F. Claridge); Surrey, Box Hill, i $, 2.vii.i964 (Z. Boucek}. SCOTLAND: 
Ross-shire, Gairloch, i $, 3.vii.i934 (0. W. Richards}. SWEDEN: Stockholm 
district, I $ (Stdl) (neotype of latiusculus Thomson); Oland, i $, Thomson coll.; 
Gotska Sandon, i $, Narke, Orebro, i $, 21. vi. 1941 (A. Jansson). FRANCE: 
Fontainebleau forest, i $ (F. Walker) (type). CZECHOSLOVAKIA: 175 $, 44 $, 
i.iv.-20.ix. (Z. Boucek & A. Hoffer colls.). HUNGARY: Tasnad, i $, 8.vii.i9i2, 
Vacduka, i $, 6.vii.i930 (/. Bird). U.S.S.R.: Odessa, 2 $, i <$, Tbilisi, 5 <j>, 2 g, 
vi.i957 (A. Hoffer &J. Dlabola). 

KEY TO SPECIES OF ERICYDNUS WALKER : MACROPTEROUS FORMS 

1 Head, seen from above (e.g. Text-fig. 25) relatively elongate and narrow: scutellum 

hardly or very weakly laminate at apex: fore wings (Text-fig. 30) relatively very 
narrow: frontovertex, at least in part, and mesoscutum in middle at least tinged 
with, reddish violet ........... 2 

Head, seen from above (Text-fig. 26) shorter and broader, scutellum rather weakly 
to strongly laminate at apex (Text-figs. 27-29); fore wings (Text-figs. 31-34) 
relatively broader ............ 4 

2 Head, seen from above (Text-fig. 25) with eyes not nearly reaching back of head, and 

having occiput extending back so that in this view it is clearly visible behind the 
occipital margin; in facial view with cheeks well rounded: antennal scape (.) 
nearly reaching the median ocellus: eyes rather densely hairy: punctation of 
frontovertex and dorsum of thorax (see description) : propodeum distinctly raised 
at mid base: Europe ........... 3 



FIGS. 25-35. Ericydnus species, females. 25-26. Head, seen from above, of 25, E. ventralis 
(Dalm.) and 26, E. robustior Merc. f. aeneus Nik. 27-29. Scutellum and propodeum, seen 
from above, of 27, E. sipylus (Walk.) ; 28, E. strigosus (Nees) and 29, E. robustior Merc. f. 
aeneus Nik. 30-35. Right fore wing of 30, E. ventralis (Dalm.) ; 31, E. strigosus (Nees) ; 
32, E. robustior Merc. f. aeneus Nik. ; 33, E. longicornis (Dalm.) ; 34, E. sipylus (Walk.) 
and 35, E. sipylus Walk. f. baleus (Walk.), teg. = tegula. 



CLASSIFICATION OF THE ANAGYRINI 



177 




25 





27 





29 



30 




178 G. J. KERRICH 

Head, seen from above, with eyes nearly reaching back of head, and with occiput 
not visible in this view behind the occipital margin ; in facial view with cheeks little 
rounded : antennal scape ($) relatively elongate, slightly over-reaching the median 
ocellus: eyes rather sparsely hairy: punctation of frontovertex and dorsum of 
thorax much finer and sparser : propodeum not markedly raised at mid base : Japan 

japonicus (Tachikawa) 

3 Styli not or hardly projecting: frontovertex and dorsum of thorax with very finely 

reticulate microsculpture ....... ventralis (Dalman) 

Styli projecting by about two-fifths length of gaster: frontovertex and dorsum of 

thorax with microsculpture decidedly more outstanding . . . caudatus Erdos 

4 Scutellum rather weakly laminate at apex (Text-fig. 29) : head relatively broad 

(Text-fig. 26) : fore wings relatively broad or with postmarginal vein more than 
twice length of marginal : f unicle of male antenna stout ..... 5 

Scutellum strongly laminate at apex (Text-figs. 27-28): head narrower: fore wings 
narrow or moderately narrow (Text-figs. 31, 34), the postmarginal vein not twice the 
length of the marginal : f unicle of male antenna almost filiform .... 6 

5 Frontovertex with a row of moderate punctures on each side close to the orbitals, 

broadly impunctate between these before median ocellus: cheeks distinctly 
rounded : eyes relatively weakly and sparsely hairy : mesopleura shining, no more 
than finely alutaceous: fore wing of moderate breadth, with postmarginal vein 
more than twice length of marginal, in female with a broad fascia of infuscation 
along outer half of fore margin and a weaker one along outer half of hind margin : 
scutellum moderately convex in both sexes: funicle of female antenna broadening 
strongly to middle, thence about parallel-sided, the sixth segment slightly broader 
than long: funicle of male antenna stoutest in middle tapering to both base and 
apex, with club appreciably less than combined length of the two preceding 

segments longicornis (Dalman) 

Frontovertex distinctly though sparsely beset with moderate punctures in middle 
before median ocellus: cheeks very little rounded: eyes moderately densely, 
conspicuously white-hairy: mesopleura scaly-reticulate: fore wing broad, with 
postmarginal vein less than twice length of marginal, almost hyaline in both sexes : 
scutellum flatter dorsally in female: funicle of female antenna broadening much 
more weakly right to apex, the sixth segment distinctly longer than broad : funicle 
of male antenna stoutest near base, tapering to apex, with club equal to combined 
length of the two preceding segments . robustior Mercet ( = aeneus Nikol'skaya) 

6 Scutellum relatively broad and convex (Text-fig. 27): propodeum sharply declived 

behind the transverse keels, with surface of median area little more strongly 
alutaceous than the dorsal areas to the side of it: orbital piliferous punctures 
minute, mostly separated by more than their own diameters: head regularly 
rounded anteriorly, in facial view with cheeks almost rectilinear: fore wings 
(Text-fig. 34) of moderate breadth, with marginal vein relatively short : thorax and 
base of gaster with extensive bright testaceous coloration (Spain to Finland) : 
macropterous males unknown, and brachypterous male very scarce . sipylus (Walker) 
Scutellum relatively narrow, dorsally almost flat (Text-fig. 28): propodeum not 
sharply declived behind the transverse keels, the median area with stronger reticu- 
late microsculpture: orbital piliferous punctures, though small, not minute, 
separated by about their own diameters : head shallowly emarginate anteriorly, in 
facial view with cheeks moderately rounded: fore wings (Text-fig. 31) narrow, with 
marginal vein relatively longer : dorsum of thorax, in middle-European populations, 
a rather dark green (though chrome-yellow in Madeira and intermediates occurring 
in Mediterranean area) ; macropterous males and females about equally often 
encountered strigosus (Nees) 



CLASSIFICATION OF THE ANAGYRINI 179 

KEY TO SPECIES OF ERICYDNUS : REDUCED WINGED FORMS 

1 Head, seen from above, having occiput extending back so that it is clearly visible 

behind the occipital margin : [forms with very reduced wings unknown] ventralis (Dalman) 
Head, seen from above, having occiput not thus extending back, and not seen in 

this view behind the occipital margin ........ 2 

2 Orbital piliferous punctures minute, mostly separated by distinctly more than their 

own diameters: propodeum sharply declived behind the transverse keels: scutel- 

lum broad, strongly laminate at apex ........ 3 

Orbital piliferous punctures, though small, not minute, separated by about their 
own diameters : propodeum not sharply declived behind the transverse keels : if the 
scutellum is strongly laminate at apex it is less broad ...... 4 

3 Thorax and base of gaster with extensive bright testaceous coloration . sipylus (Walker) 
Thorax without, or with very little, testaceous coloration 

sipylus (Walker) f . baleus (Walker) ( = latiusculus Thomson of neotype) 

4 Scutellum rather weakly laminate at apex (Text-fig. 29) and tending to be broader: 

head relatively broad (Text-fig. 26) . . . . . . robustior Mercet 

Scutellum strongly laminate at apex (Text-fig. 27) and tending to be narrower: 

head narrower .......... strigosus (Nees) 

Species incorrectly placed in Ericydnus Walker 

Ericydnus megalarus (Walker) 

1838 Eulophus megalarus Walker, Ent. Mag. 5 : 477. 

1909 Ericydnus megalarus (Walker) ; Schmiedeknecht, Genera Insectorum 97 : 203. 

This species was collected at St. George's Sound, Australia, by C. Darwin. The 
type specimen was deposited in the British Museum (Natural History), but today 
there remain only two fore wings largely gummed together and two parts of a leg 
or legs. These parts seem more likely to be Pteromalid than Encyrtid. 

Ericydnus chryscus (Walker) 

1839 Pteromalus? chryscus Walker, Monographia Chalciditum 2 : 34-5. 

1909 Ericydnus chryscus (Walker) Schmiedeknecht, Genera Insectorum 97 : 203. 

This unique specimen has precisely the same data as the preceding. The head and 
gaster are missing, but the thorax, propodeum and wings are intact, and also the legs 
except for one tarsus. My colleague Mr. R. D. Eady has kindly examined this type, 
and has determined it as genus near Tanaostigmodes(Eupelmida.e, Tanaostigminae). 

Ericydnus reinhardi Mayr 

1875 Ericydnus reinhardi Mayr Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien 25 : 763-5. 

Graham (1958, Ent. Tidskr. 79 : 151) identified this as a species of Ectroma 
Westwood, but did not see the type. Through the kindness of Dr. E. Konigsmann I 
have examined the undoubted type, a specimen in the Reinhard collection from 
Dresden labelled with the data quoted by Mayr. I confirm Graham's conclusion. 
See also Hoffer 1957, Cas. csl. Spot. ent. 54 : 45-6, 51-2 + PI. fig. 4. 

Ericydnus hemipterus Girault 

1915 Ericydnus hemipterus Girault Mem. Queensland Mus. 4 : 172. 

Riek (1962, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. 87 (2) : 151-2) has transferred this species 
to Xenoencyrtus Riek, a genus related to Ooencyrtus. There are specimens in the 
collection of the British Museum (Natural History). 



i8o G. J. KERRICH 

Ericydnus clavicornis Compere 

1939 Ericydnus clavicornis Compere Univ. Calif. Publs Ent. 7 (4) : 62-3. 

Compere has long since recognized the true generic placement of this species, which 
is treated in the present work below (p. 225). 

Ericydnus ivorensis Risbec, 1953 

Through the kindness of Dr. R. M. Quentin of Bondy, I have been able to examine 
the unique type of this species in London. It is clearly not an Ericydnus: my 
colleague Mr. R. D. Eady considers it closely related to Ooencyrtus. 

GRANDORIELLA Domenichini, 1951 

This genus is very closely related to Ericydnus Walker, and the single species has 
been studied with and is here redescribed in comparison with the Ericydnus species. 

Grandoriella lamasi Domenichini 

(Text-fig. 6) 
1951 Grandoriella lamasi Domenichini, Boll. Zool. agr. Bachic. 17 (3) : 18-21. 

Head from above (Text-fig. 6) relatively short and broad, with anterior emargination scarcely 
perceptible ; in facial view (Domenichini, 1951, fig. vii, 4) with cheeks long, almost straight. 
Frontovertex regularly, rather finely reticulate, beset with very distinct but superficial piliferous 
punctures, a row along each inner orbit, another row inward of each of these, and other punctures 
scattered irregularly between and around the ocelli ; the median area, however, between median 
ocellus and scrobal impression, impunctate : face and cheeks much more finely scaly -reticulate. 

Antennae [the figure of Domenichini 1951 is apparently inverted] with scape slightly over- 
reaching median ocellus ; with pedicellus short, hardly a quarter longer than broad and hardly 
longer than the breadth of the first funicle segment ; funicle broadening very gradually, the 
first segment about three times length of its greatest breadth, the sixth about one and two-thirds 
times : club very little broader than sixth funicle segment, about three-quarters the combined 
length of the two preceding. 

Pronotum, mesoscutum, axillae and scutellum covered with reticulation finer than that on 
frontovertex and densely beset with weak, superficial piliferous punctures. Scutellum raised 
well above propodeum, sharply margined but not laminate at apex. Mesopleura scaly-reticulate 
as on face. Propodeum on sides with reticulation about as on scutellum, between spiracular 
sulci almost smooth, with no trace of median area or keel, and with transverse keels weakly 
developed and placed well forward. 

Fore wings (see Domenichini, 1951, figs, vi, vii, i, 3). 

Frontovertex, pronotum, mesoscutum, axillae, scutellum and sides of propodeum green, with 
reflections mostly brassy but on hind margin of frontovertex and on scutellum more bronzy : 
propodeum a rather duller green : colour from frontovertex merging through peacock-blue, 
which in Californian specimens is seen also on inter-scrobal prominence, to the face and cheeks 
which are reddish violet : temples, occiput, mesopleura and mesosternum blackish green, with 
more or less strong metallic reflections : tegulae, postspiracular sclerite and gaster yellow- 
testaceous, the last tergites, however, more or less extensive green to violet but always leaving 
the gaster broadly yellow-testaceous at base. Mandibles pale brown, darker at apices. 
Antennae brownish black, with weak metallic reflections ; having scape, except for a line 
above, and pedicellus at apex and beneath, more or less pale brown. Legs yellow- testaceous, 
with the following blackened : fore and mid tarsi from about apex of metatarsus, hind femora 
above, hind tibiae in about apical two-thirds, and hind tarsi. 



CLASSIFICATION OF THE ANAGYRINI 181 

Redescribed from the following. U.S.A. : California, Fillmore, 2 $, 2 ^, 15 . v . 1935, 
ex Phenacoccus sp. (/. D. Maple}. MEXICO: Morelos, Cuernavaca, I $, ii.1945, from 
fruit of Lantana camara (N. L. H. Krauss). Material in U.S. National Museum and 
in British Museum (Natural History). 



CLAUSENIA Ishii, 1923 

It may happen that a description of a monobasic new genus makes mention of 
characters that prove later to be of only specific significance ; but not many points in 
Ishii's description have been contra-indicated by the study of further species. 
However, I should describe the toruli as nearer obovate than oblong. The description 
of the thorax as elevated at the suture of the mesoscutum and axillae was presumably 
made from specimens artificially bent in that position. The gaster is normally 
shorter than the thorax rather than longer, especially in one of the new species ; and 
the ovipositor is not or very little exserted when in a position of rest. Ishii's des- 
cription "hypopygium prominent; ovipositor extruded" was presumably made 
from specimens in which these are at least partly everted and not in the normal 
resting position, and such specimens of purpurea Ishii do appear to have the gaster 
a little longer than the thorax. The proportions given for the wing veins do not 
apply to all the species; and the hairs distal to the speculum appear to become 
gradually finer and denser towards wing apex. 

The generic description may now be given as follows : integument metallic coloured, weakly 
sclerotized and weakly sculptured. Head from above sub-reniform (Text-figs. 36-37) ; with 
eyes over-reaching occipital margin, pubescent : frontovertex not narrow, finely reticulate, with 
superficial piliferous punctures : toruli obovate, separated from mouth by less than their own 
length : scrobal impressions wide and rather deep, meeting above and extending back to a level 
about a third to half way up orbits. Mandibles bidentate, the upper tooth rounded at apex. 
Antennae of moderate length and not strongly clavate : scape elongate, not or but little dilated 
below : funicle 6-segmented, sub-cylindrical, the first segment relatively short, the following 
slightly and progressively increasing in size : club only moderately wider than funicle. Thorax 
convex and moderately deep dorsoventrally : mesoscutum with notauli short but discernible : 
axillae hardly separated : in certain lights a weak subapical furrow, suggesting a frenal furrow, 
can be traced on the scutellum laterally, reaching the large, sub-apical bristles, in all species 
except purpurea Ishii. Propodeum finely to very finely reticulate. Mid tarsus and tibial spur 
rather short and stout. Wings relatively short and broad. Fore wings with the usual diagonal 
speculum arising from near radius ; proximal to this with coarse hairs, and with a large hairless 
area in region of basal cell ; distally covered with normal hairs, which become finer and denser 
towards wing apex : submarginal vein thin and, in African species, hyaline just before its 
meeting with marginal, gently curved at junction with the obsolete basalis, so that the costal 
cell is almost parallel-sided for most of its length ; having about seven stout hairs on the basal 
abscissa and a double row on prestigma : marginal vein usually quite three times as long as 
broad, distinctly longer than radial, and moderately longer or shorter than postmarginal. 
Gaster usually a little shorter, in one species much shorter, than thorax and propodeum. 

Male differs as follows : frontovertex relatively much wider than in female, distinctly wider 
than an eye ; with lateral ocelli separated by about their own diameter from eye (much less in 
female) : toruli higher on face, separated from mouth by distinctly more than their own length. 
Antennae with scape relatively much shorter, more dilated below ; with flagellum sparsely and 
coarsely hairy (Rosen, 1965, figs. 10 and 21). 



i8a G. J. KERRICH 

Since the species of this genus are weakly sclerotized, specimens easily become 
distorted ; so care must be taken in interpreting some generic and specific characters, 
especially the shape of the head. 

Parthenogenesis is evidently very frequent in this genus. Tachikawa (1963) 
states that, in C. purpurea Ishii, females are commonly produced by unmated females. 
Rosen (1965) states that males are abundant in josefi Rosen but extremely rare in 
Purpurea Ishii. I have studied males of confusor sp. n., but have seen none of the 
other three African species. 

Clausenia purpurea Ishii 
(Text-figs. 36, 38) 

1923 Clausenia purpurea Ishii, Bull. imp. Plant Quarant. Sin 3 : 98-101, PI. XVIII, figs. 1-8. 
1963 Clausenia purpurea Ishii ; Tachikawa, Mem. Ehime Univ. VI, 9 : 70-72. 
1965 Clausenia purpurea Ishii ; Rosen, Proc. R. ent. Soc. (B) 34 : 61-63. 

Female : head from above (Text-fig. 36) with frontovertex nearly a third the total breadth ; 
in side view with cheeks not sharply narrowed to mouth ; in facial view (Text-fig. 38) : scrobes 
moderately impressed. Eyes strongly and densely hairy, very distinctly so x 25. Fronto- 
vertex with reticulate microsculpture relatively strong, with piliferous punctation neither fine 
nor sparse but rather irregular, the punctures separated by once to twice their own diameters : 
scrobal impressions and genae with reticulation very definite, the latter bearing scattered 
punctures. 

Antenna (Rosen, 1965, fig. 15) with scape distinctly a little dilated below, contracting some- 
what to base ; with pedicellus somewhat elongate : funicle with first four segments distinctly 
longer than broad, but fifth and sixth only a very little longer : club moderately stouter than 
sixth funicle segment, with first suture moderately oblique, and second strongly oblique and 
curved, nearly obliterating the lower margin of the second segment. 

Pronotum, mesoscutum, axillae and scutellum covered with fine reticulation, as on head, the 
mesoscutum densely beset with piliferous punctures of moderate strength, separated by about or 
rather more than their own diameters, the scutellum much more sparsely punctate. 

Fore wings with marginal vein distinctly longer than radial, and postmarginal about as long 
as marginal. 

Head blue-green to blackish, with bronzy reflections, the inter-scrobal prominence usually 
bronzy. Pronotum, mesopleura and propodeum above blackish with bright reflections : 
mesoscutum steely green to bronzy or purplish : scutellum and sides of propodeum mainly a 
bright reddish purple, occasionally more green. Gaster blue-green, reddish purple and bright 
bronzy. Antennae having scape pale testaceous, usually darkened above ; having pedicellus 
and flagellum blackish brown, darkened above and with weak metallic reflections, the pedicellus 
above often distinctly green or purplish. Legs having coxae and fore femora except at apex, 
mid and hind femora and fore tibiae except at base and broadly at apex, blackish brown with 
green or purplish metallic reflections ; otherwise yellowish testaceous, the mid and hind tibiae 
darkened above near base, or sometimes more extensively, and the tarsi infuscate at apex. 

Redescribed from the following. JAPAN: i $, ix.i9i3, ex Pseudococcus comstocki 
Kuwana (S. J. Kuwand), per H. H. Smith; I $, x. 1917, ex mealybug on citrus (C. P. 
Clausen). CHINA: Hunan, i $, 9.vii.i949, coll. Djou; unlocalized, 2 $, " ex no. 
A4I4 " (/. L. Gressitt); no further data, i $, 23. vi. 1950. FORMOSA: 2 $, xii.1950, 
i $, xi.igsi (T. C. Mao). " PALESTINE " unlocalized, 10 $, xi.i938, ex Pseudococcus 
comstocki Kuwana (N. Bergen) (imported into U.S.A.), no data, 17 $, per H. Compere. 
Material in Citrus Experiment Station, Riverside, and British Museum (Natural 
History). 



CLASSIFICATION OF THE ANAGYRINI 183 

Clausenia corrugata sp. n. 

(Text-fig. 37) 

Female : head from above (Text-fig. 37) relatively slightly broader than in purpurea Ishii ; 
frontovertex relatively narrower, about a quarter the total breadth ; in side view with cheeks 
sharply narrowed to mouth ; in facial view longer, with cheeks narrowed at about half a right 
angle : scrobes weakly impressed. Eyes moderately hairy, distinctly so X 25. Head sculp- 
ture differing from that described for purpurea Ishii in having the punctures larger, those on 
genae quite large, and the frontovertex with transverse corrugations between median ocellus and 
top of scrobal impression : scrobal impression smooth just beside and above inter-scrobal 
prominence. 

Antenna with scape narrow, not distinctly dilated below ; with pedicellus and flagellum much 
as described for purpurea Ishii. 

Dorsum of thorax decidedly more shining than that of purpurea Ishii, the reticulation clear-cut 
but much finer, and the piliferous punctation on mesoscutum sparser and much sharper, the 
punctures separated by about or rather less than twice their own diameters. Mesosternum 
much more strongly sclerotized than in the other species, and produced backwards broadly 
in middle. 

Fore wings with marginal vein almost twice as long as radial, and postmarginal distinctly 
longer than marginal. 

More shining than the other species. Head, pronotum above, metathorax, and propodeum 
above blackish, with weak, mostly bronzy, metallic reflections : sides of pronotum, mesoscutum, 
scutellum, and sides of propodeum bright blue-green, with very conspicuous infusion of reddish 
purple, or propodeum sides may be more blue : mesopleura a much weaker reddish purple on a 
blackish or brownish background. Gaster blue-green above, bright bronzy in middle ; with 
metallic reflections much weaker below. Antennae blackish brown with weak metallic reflec- 
tions : pedicellus above and scape above and at sides coloured almost as mesoscutum. Legs 
having coxae and trochanters except at apex, and femora except at base and apex, pale blackish 
brown with weak, mostly purplish, metallic reflections ; otherwise pale testaceous, except that 
the tibiae are a little darkened above near base, and the tarsi infuscate at apex. 

Holotype $. GHANA: Tafo, 19.1.1953, ex Pseudococcus concavocerarii James on 
Theobroma cacao (R. G. Donald). 

Paratypes. GHANA: 3 $, same data as holotype. NIGERIA: Ibadan, i $, 17. v. 
1951 (/. T. Davey). 

Holotype and paratypes in British Museum (Natural History), paratype in U.S. 
National Museum. 

Clausenia josefi Rosen 

1965 Clausenia josefi Rosen, Proc. R. ent. Soc. Land. (B) 34 : 61-63. 

Head from above shaped similarly to that of purpurea Ishii though more deeply emarginate 
behind ; in side view with cheeks sharply narrowed to mouth ; in facial view rather short, 
narrowed at more than half a right angle. Eyes just distinctly hairy x 25. Frontovertex 
with reticulate microsculpture fine, extending on to the scrobal impressions but there becoming 
much weaker : piliferous punctures before the median ocellus fine and rather sparse, but those 
on genae considerably larger than in purpurea Ishii. 

Antenna as described and illustrated by Rosen (1965), notably the scape very slightly dilated 
below, the lower margin of the second club segment very short, as in purpurea and corrugata, but 
the fifth and sixth funicle segments about one and a half times as long as broad. 

Pronotum, mesoscutum, axillae and scutellum with microsculpture finer than on frontovertex, 
and sparsely beset with piliferous punctures that are very fine, rather difficult to discern x 65, 
and mostly separated by much more than twice their own diameters. 



184 G. J. KERRICH 

Fore wings (see Rosen, 1965, fig. 7) with marginal vein widened to apex, only slightly longer 
than radial, and postmarginal slightly longer than marginal. 

Head steely green to blackish, with bronzy reflections. Thorax and propodeum reddish purple 
with strong bronzy and occasional weak green reflections : scutellum with conspicuous bright 
blue-green colouring near apex ; propodeum above blackish with bright reflections. Gaster 
bright blue-green, with slight bronzy and reddish purple reflections above, very much duller 
below. Antennae brownish black with moderate metallic reflections, the scape very narrowly 
paler at base. Legs having coxae and fore femora except at apex, mid and hind femora and 
fore tibiae except at base and apex, and mid and hind tibiae except at base and on about apical 
third to half, brownish black with green or purplish reflections ; otherwise pale testaceous, the 
tarsi infuscate at apex. 

ISRAEL: redescribed from two female paratypes and one further specimen: two 
male paratypes also studied. Despite the excellent description published by Rosen, 
it was found necessary to write this redescription in order to make my study of the 
species fully comparative with that of the other species treated. 

Paratypes female and male are deposited in the British Museum (Natural History). 

Clausenia guineensis sp. n. 

(Text-figs. 39, 42) 

Female : head from above about as broad, relatively, as in purpurea Ishii, but more deeply 
emarginate behind ; in side view (Text-fig. 42) with cheeks not sharply narrowed to mouth ; 
in facial view (Text-fig. 39) long, with cheeks narrowed at less than half a right angle : scrobes 
moderately impressed. Eyes just distinctly hairy x 65. Head sculpture much finer than in 
purpurea Ishii, the reticulate microsculpture very fine, and the punctures before median ocellus 
smaller and much sparser : scrobes and upper part of inter-scrobal prominence shining and 
almost smooth. 

Antenna with scape distinctly a very little dilated below, and with flagellum more slender and 
elongate than in purpurea Ishii : funicle with segment 6 about one and a half times as long as 
broad, and 5 relatively longer than that : club moderately stouter than sixth funicle segment, 
with first suture at about a right angle to the axis, and second rather strongly oblique, but leaving 
the lower margin of the second segment more than half the length of the upper. 

Dorsum of thorax covered with fine reticulation, about as strong as that on purpurea Ishii 
and stronger than on head of this species : piliferous punctures on mesoscutum sparser and finer 
than in purpurea, mostly separated by considerably more than their own diameters though less 
than twice, those on scutellum very fine and sparse. 

Fore wings with marginal vein almost twice as long as radial, and postmarginal about as long 
as marginal. 

Head, thorax and propodeum brownish black with metallic reflections : mesoscutum and 
scutellum reddish purple, often with infusions of bluish, on a background of green : sides of 
propodeum seldom a decidedly bright purple. Gaster blue-green, reddish purple and bright 
bronzy. Antennae blackish brown, darkened above and with weak metallic reflections, the 
pedicellus above and scape above and at sides distinctly purplish, or more rarely greenish, and 
the scape pale at base. Leg colour as described for purpurea Ishii except that the hind femora 
are more or less narrowly pale at apex. 

Holotype $. NIGERIA: Ibadan province, Idiayunre, 3i.viii.i954, ex Planococ- 
coides njalensis (Laing) on Theobroma cacao (R. G. Donald). 

Paratypes the following: NIGERIA: i $, same data as holotype but y.xi.1954; 
Abeokuta province, Ilaro, I $, 15. vi. 1953, ex Planococcus kenyae (Le P.), I $, 
27 . i . 1954, ex Planococcus sp. ; Benin province, Utbogiobo, I $, 15 . v . 1954, Cameroons 



CLASSIFICATION OF THE ANAGYRINI 185 

province, near Kumba, I $, 2i.iii.i954, ex Planococcus citri (Risso), (all R. G. Donald); 
6 $, Olofin, Agaloke, Otun, Olavo, Akasan and Ojokoro, 6.iii.-i5.v.i95i (/. T. 
Davey). GHANA: all ex Planococcoides njalensis (Laing) on Theobroma cacao, Tafo, 
5 <j>, xi.i949 (F. E. Decker), 4 <j>, iS.iii, 3 $, v.1949, i <J>, 6.iv.i95o, Oyoko, i <j>, 
30.iv. 1950 (R. G. Donald). 

Holotype in British Museum (Natural History); paratypes in British Museum 
(Natural History), in U.S. National Museum, in Citrus Experiment Station, Riverside, 
in Australian National Collection, in Museum d'Histoire Naturelle, Geneva, in 
Narodni Museum, Prague, in West African Cacao Research Institute, in Coryndon 
Museum, Nairobi, and in Department of Agriculture, Pretoria. 

Clausenia comperei sp. n. 

(Text-fig. 41) 

Head from above about as broad, relatively, as in purpurea Ishii, and about as deeply emargi- 
nate behind ; in side view (Text-fig. 41) with cheeks rather sharply narrowed to mouth ; in 
facial view long, with cheeks narrowed at less than half a right angle : scrobes deeply impressed. 
Eyes distinctly hairy x 45. Head sculpture even weaker than in guineensis sp. n., the fronto- 
vertex shining, with microsculpture and punctures extremely fine : scrobes and the inter-scrobal 
prominence shining and almost smooth. 

Antenna with scape almost parallel-sided in about apical half, regularly narrowed from before 
middle to base, where it is very narrow ; with pedicellus and flagellum much as described for 
guineensis sp. n., but club perhaps a little less swollen. 

Dorsum of thorax with reticulation very fine, and beset with punctures that are very fine, 
mostly separated by well over twice their own diameters. 

Fore wings with marginal vein about twice as long as radial, and postmarginal about as long 
as marginal. 

Head, thorax and propodeum as described for guineensis sp. n., but sides of propodeum a 
bright purple. Gaster blue-green, reddish purple and bright bronzy, the first large tergite mainly 
blue-green. Antennal coloration much as described for guineensis sp. n., but the brighter colour 
on scape and pedicellus less distinct. Leg colour as in guineensis sp. n. except that the hind 
tibiae are rather narrowly pale at apex. 

Holotype $. SOUTH AFRICA: Cape Province, 1924-5, " Rust's no. L2 ". This 
number refers to specimens obtained by E. W. Rust in various localities in the Cape 
Province and recorded as reared from Baccacoccus sp. and Saissetia spp. : H. Compere 
suspects, however, that they issued from overlooked mealybugs (Pseudococcinae). 

Paratypes. SOUTH AFRICA, 3 $, same data as holotype ; Transvaal, Pienaarspoort 
i $, ii.i954, 2 $, v.1955, ex Diaspine scale, (E. C. G. Bedford). ERITREA: Asmara, 
i $, 19. iv. 1930 on Acacia cyanophylla, Eztaclesan, i $, n.v.i93o on Croton macro- 
stachys, Cheren, i $, 15.^.1930 (H. Compere). 

Holotype in British Museum (Natural History); paratypes in British Museum 
(Natural History), in Citrus Experiment Station, Riverside, in Department of 
Agriculture, Pretoria and in Coryndon Museum, Nairobi. 

Clausenia confusor sp. n. 

(Text-fig. 40) 

Head from above very similar in proportion to that of purpurea Ishii ; in side view (Text-fig. 
40) with cheeks sharply narrowed to mouth ; in facial view short, with cheeks narrowed at more 
than half a right angle : scrobes moderately impressed. Eyes just distinctly hairy x 45. 
Head sculpture much as in guineensis sp. n. 



1 86 



G. J. KERRICH 



Antenna with scape as described for purpurea Ishii ; with pedicellus relatively shorter than in 
that species : flagellum altogether relatively short and stout : funicle segments 5 and 6 only 
one and a quarter times as long as broad : club considerably stouter than sixth funicle segment, 
with first suture at about a right angle to the axis, and second not very strongly curved or 
oblique, not nearly obliterating the margin of the second segment. 

Mesoscutum very finely reticulate, irregularly beset with piliferous punctures that are separated 
by about their own diameters : scutellum very finely and sparsely punctate, very finely 
alutaceous and shining. 

Fore wings with marginal vein about as long as postmarginal, and almost twice length of 
radial. 

Caster much shorter than thorax : apical sternite semitruncated and notched in the middle. 

Head, thorax and propodeum brownish black or blackish brown with metallic reflections : 
mesoscutum and scutellum blue-green, with a greater or lesser infusion of reddish purple, or 
sometimes in part bright bronzy (the purple appearing the more dominant the less the back- 




purp 






39 






FIGS. 36-42. Clausenia species. 36-37. Head, seen from above of 36, C. purpurea Ishii 
and 37, C. corrugata sp. n. 38-39. Head, in facial view of 38, C. purpurea Ishii and 39, 
C. guineensis sp. n. 40-42. Head, in dextro-lateral view, of 40, C. confusor sp. n. ; 41, 
C. comperei sp. n. and 42, C. guineensis sp. n. 



CLASSIFICATION OF THE ANAGYRINI 187 

ground colour is high-lighted) : sides of propodeum greenish, purplish or bronzy. Gaster 
blue-green, reddish purple and bright bronzy above, much duller below. Antennae having 
scape blue-green to blue, with infusion of reddish purple, and pedicellus and flagellum blackish 
brown, with weak metallic reflections. Leg colour as in guineensis sp. n., but hind tibiae varying 
from only moderately darkened in about basal half above to only rather narrowly pale at apex. 
Male : head, dorsum of thorax and gaster, and sides of propodeum with bright metallic 
reflections on a mostly dark green background ; antennae similar but, except sometimes for 
scape, more weakly coloured ; pleura, propodeum above, coxae except at apex, and femora and 
tibiae more or less broadly in middle, similar but still more weakly so ; legs otherwise stramineous 
to pale testaceous. 

Holotype $. GHANA, Tafo, 9.111.1950, ex Planococcoides njalensis (Laing), 
(R. G. Donald). 

Paratypes. GHANA: Tafo, 2 ?, 2 ^, 1947, i $, 11.1949, 4 $, xi.i949, Oyoko, 3 $, 
111.1950, Bunsu, 3 $, iv.i95o, Adonkwanta, 2 $, 13.111.1950, all ex Planococcoides 
njalensis (Laing) (A. H. Strickland, R. G. Donald or F. E. Decker}; Akwadum, I $, 
i <$, 30.111.1951, Tafo, 2 $, 30. iv. 1954 (F. E. Decker). NIGERIA: Ibadan Province, 
Idiayunre, 3 $, 7.!, 6 $, 28. ix. 1954, ex Planococcoides njalensis (Laing) on Theobroma 
cacao, Benin Province, Ugbogiobo, 2 $, 15. v. 1954, ex Planococcus citri (Risso) on 
Theobroma cacao, Abeokuta Province, Ilaro, i <$, 26.1.1954, ex Pseudococcine nymph 
on Theobroma cacao (all R. G. Donald). 

Holotype in British Museum (Natural History); paratypes in British Museum 
(Natural History), in U.S. National Museum, in Citrus Experiment Station, Riverside, 
in Australian National Collection, in Narodni Museum, Prague, in West African 
Cacao Research Institute, in Coryndon Museum, Nairobi, and in Department of 
Agriculture, Pretoria. 

KEY TO SPECIES OF CLA U SEN I A ISHII : FEMALES 

1 Gaster much shorter than thorax: hypopygium semitruncated and notched in the 

middle, scarcely boat-shaped: [antennal club with second suture not strongly 
curved or oblique: frontovertex shining, with reticulate microsculpture very fine 
and punctation sparse] : Africa ....... confusor sp. n. 

Gaster not much shorter than thorax : hypopygium boat-shaped, pointed at apex 2 

2 Antennae having f unicle segments 5 and 6 only a little longer than broad : frontovertex 

more strongly sculptured, hardly shining (see couplet 3) : eyes strongly or rather 
strongly hairy (Text-figs. 36-37) : [mesoscutum beset with punctures of moderate 
strength] ............. 3 

Antennae having sixth funicle segment about one and a half times as long as broad 
and fifth still longer: frontovertex more shining, with reticulate microsculpture 
very fine and punctation sparse: eyes moderately or weakly hairy ... 4 

3 Head from above less broad (Text-fig. 36), and in side view with cheeks not sharply 

narrowed to mouth : frontovertex not having transverse corrugations : mesoscutum 
more densely punctate: marginal vein of fore wing only moderately longer than 
radial : head usually dominantly dark green : antennal scape pale testaceous, usually 

darkened above : Asia, introduced to U.S. A purpurea Ishii 

Head from above broader (Text-fig. 37), and in side view with cheeks sharply nar- 
rowed to mouth: frontovertex having weak but distinct transverse corrugations 
between median ocellus and top of scrobal impression: mesoscutum less densely 
punctate: marginal vein of fore wing almost twice length of radial: head not 
dominantly dark green : antennal scape blackish brown with metallic reflections, not 
testaceous beneath: West Africa ...... corrugata sp. n. 



i88 G. J. KERRICH 

4 As in the two preceding species, second suture of antennal club strongly oblique and 

curved, leaving the lower margin of the second club segment very short (especially 
apparent on inner side), and also head in facial view shorter (cf. Text-fig. 38) : fore 
wings with marginal vein widened to apex, only slightly longer than radial: eyes 
moderately hairy, just distinctly so X 25; Israel . . . . josefi Rosen 

Antennae having second suture of club rather strongly oblique yet leaving the 
lower margin of the second club segment more than half length of upper : head in facial 
view longer (e.g. Text-fig. 39) : fore wings with marginal vein parallel-sided, almost 
or quite twice length of radial : eyes more weakly hairy : Africa .... 5 

5 Head in side view (Text-fig. 42) with cheeks not sharply narrowed to mouth: punc- 

tures on mesoscutum not very fine, many separated by less than twice their own 
diameters : hind tibiae usually mainly pale, darkened above, but if more extensively 
darkened then at least broadly pale at apex : West Africa . guineensis sp. n. 

Head in side view (Text-fig. 41) with cheeks rather sharply narrowed to mouth: 
punctures on mesoscutum very fine, mostly separated by well over twice their own 
diameters: hind tibiae only rather narrowly pale at apex: South Africa, Eritrea 

comperei sp. n. 

Species incorrectly placed in Clausenia Ishii 
Clausenia saissetiae Yasumatsu & Yoshimura, 1945, Mushi, 16 : 31-32. 

Those authors stated that the position of this species within the genus was 
anomalous. The species is treated in the present work below (p. 226). 

AENASIINA 

KEY TO GENERA OF THE AENASIINA : FEMALES 

1 Head, seen from above, menisciform: frontovertex relatively broad, at narrowest 

about twice as broad as an eye; covered with coarse, umbilicate, contrastingly- 
coloured punctures that are well-separated above, at least beside the interocellar area, 
but become more reticulate near the malar groove, to which they extend (Text-fig. 
43) : head in side view regularly rounded down to mouth, with facial impression 
weak or virtually absent (Text-fig. 44) : mesoscutum relatively short, hardly more 
than half the length of the scutellum: costal cell bearing a single row of hairs on 
both upper and under surface, rarely with a few other hairs near apex (Text -fig. 45) : 
[antennal scape never more than slightly dilated below] ..... 2 

Head, seen from above, not or hardly menisciform: frontovertex at narrowest 
never more than slightly broader than an eye, usually much narrower; its punctation 
various but if coarse, then almost wholly closely reticulate above (e.g. Text-fig. 55) : 
head in side view not so regularly rounded, with facial impression always more or 
less large and strong (Text-figs. 61-66 and 109-110) : mesoscutum relatively longer, 
always much more than half the length of the scutellum ..... 3 

2 Facial impression virtually absent, not reaching lower level of eyes, the ill-defined 

scrobes shorter than the toruli: antennal scape, except in Australian species, almost 
cylindrical, very slender and elongate: costal cell sub-parallel to apex, the wing 
margin, except in Australian species, very little emarginate there: marginal vein 
several times as long as broad, much longer than postmarginal and radial (Text-fig. 
45): southern Europe, Africa, Australia . . . METAPHAENODISCUS Mercet 
Facial impression weak but distinct, reaching well above lower level of eyes, the 
scrobes quite distinct, much longer than the toruli: antennal scape slightly but 
distinctly dilated below, much less elongate (Text-figs. 46-48) : wing margin 
emarginate at apex of costal cell : marginal vein not or hardly twice as long as broad, 
much shorter than postmarginal and radial (Text-figs. 49-50) : America and Africa 

CHALCASPIS Howard 



CLASSIFICATION OF THE ANAGYRINI 



189 



Frontovertex of moderate breadth, one-third to one-sixth the total head breadth; 
covered, except near occiput, with coarse, umbilicate punctures, which are wholly 
or almost wholly reticulate, especially just above facial impression (Text-figs. 54-58 
and 67-68) : punctures that are at least moderately coarse descend at least some 
way between eyes and facial impression : [venation not as in Neodiscodes, see below] 4 

Frontovertex nearly always less than one-sixth the total head breadth [but cf. 
venation of Neodiscodes : punctation shallow to moderate, frequently in large part, 
but usually not almost wholly, reticulate (Text-figs. 94-95) : none but fine punctures 
descend between eyes and facial impression ....... 5 

Postmarginal vein not, or not very much, longer than radial (Compere, 1937, fig- 3) : 
reticulate punctation descending at least some of the way between eyes and facial 
impression (Text-figs. 65-66 and 83-87) : a large group of species has the female 
antennal scape strongly dilated below ..... AENASIUS Walker 

Postmarginal vein very much longer than radial (Text-fig. 89) : reticulate puncta- 
tion reaching top of facial impression but stopping short there, the punctures 
descending between eye and facial impression being scattered, shallower, and only 
moderately coarse (Text-figs. 90-91): female antennal scape not strongly dilated 
below BLEPYR US Howard 

Antennal scape (female) strongly dilated below, 2 to 2 times length of its greatest 
breadth (Compere, 1931, fig. 3e) : postmarginal and radial veins both rather long, 
the postmarginal slightly the longer, the radial emitted at a very acute angle with 
it (Text-figs. 96-98) : frontovertex with punctation rather coarse and deep, stronger 
before than behind median ocellus, and often in large part reticulate (Text-figs. 
94-95) : scutellum, except at sides, about as shining as the mesoscutum : Africa and 
Asia NEODISCODES Compere 



44 






45 



FIGS. 43-45. Metaphaenodiscus species, females. 43, M. nemoralis Mercet head, seen 
from above ; 44, the same, in sinistro-lateral view ; 45, right fore wing of African species. 



ENTOM. 20, 5. 



IQO G. J. KERRICH 

Antennal scape (female) weakly dilated below, 3^ to 6 times length of its greatest 
breadth (Text-figs. 106-108) : postmarginal vein generally considerably longer than 
radial, the latter emitted at a less acute angle with it and also relatively shorter than 
in alternate (Text-figs. 111-112): frontovertex with punctation shallow to moder- 
ate, stronger behind than before median ocellus, and seldom reticulate: scutellum 
generally decidedly less shining than the mesoscutum: America 

E UR YRHOPAL US Howard 

METAPHAENODISCUS Mercet, 1921 

(Text-figs. 43-45) 
1921 Metaphaenodiscus Mercet, Trab, Mus. nac. Cienc. nat., Madr. : 59, 60-64, 626-9. 

Material of this genus is not adequate for a revision, but the diagnosis of two 
undescribed species will give further information on the distribution and range of 
structure. The Australian species is clearly the most nearly related to the next 
genus, Chalcaspis Howard. 

DIAGNOSES OF THE SPECIES OF METAPHAENODISCUS MERCET : FEMALES 

A. Antennal scape very slender and elongate, almost cylindrical: all funicle segments 

distinctly longer than broad: club suddenly expanded from funicle, about four- 
fifths length of combined funicle segments. 

Mesoscutum closely reticulate-punctate: scutellum rather loosely so. 

Spiracles of propodeum moderately large, clearly transverse, and clearly less than 
their shorter diameter from both anterior margin and declivity. 

Fore wings strongly infuscate. 
SPAIN : (see Mercet, 1921) . . . . . . nemoralis Mercet 

Material in Instituto Espanol de Entomologia, Madrid. 

B. Antennal scape as described for nemoralis Mercet: all funicle segments, except the 

first, distinctly broader than long : club not suddenly expanded from funicle, about 
equal in length to pedicellus and all funicle segments combined. 

Mesoscutum very loosely reticulate-punctate: scutellum with piliferous punc- 
tures, except at sides, well separated. 

Spiracles of propodeum small, weakly transverse, clearly further than their 
longitudinal diameter from both anterior margin and declivity. 

Fore wings strongly infuscate. 

SOUTH AFRICA : Transvaal, (D. P. Annecke) ...... sp. 

Material in Plant Protection Research Institute, Pretoria. 

C. Antennal scape slightly but distinctly dilated below, five times length of its greatest 

breadth (rather similar to that of Chalcaspis lucidus sp. n., Text-fig. 46): first 
funicle segment slightly, the remainder distinctly, transverse: club not suddenly 
expanded from funicle, a little shorter than pedicellus and all funicle segments 
combined. 

Mesoscutum rather loosely reticulate-punctate : scutellum with punctures sharply 
marked but relatively shallow, many almost contiguous in transverse though much 
further separated in longitudinal direction. 

Spiracles of propodeum almost circular, about their own diameter from both 
anterior margin and declivity. 

Fore wings moderately infuscate in about basal two-fifths, beyond that weakly so. 

AUSTRALIA : Queensland, S.E., (R. E. Turner) ...... sp. 

Material in British Museum (Natural History). 



CLASSIFICATION OF THE ANAGYRINI 191 

CHALCASPIS Howard, 1895 

1895 Chalcaspis Howard, Proc. U.S. natn. Mus. 17 : 606. 
1915 Chalcaspis Howard; Girault, Ann. ent. Soc. Am. 8 : 280. 

Three species of this genus were previously known, all occurring in the U.S.A. 
Dr. B. D. Burks has kindly compared the types of all three, which are located in 
Washington, with specimens I had studied, having at hand typescript copies of my 
descriptions and keys, and photocopies of my figures. A new species from the 
Caribbean is now described. 

Two species have been received from southern Africa, each in a single specimen 
caught in a trap. They have in common several characters by which they differ 
from the American species. In this paper they are diagnosed but not validated. 
The specimens are located in the Plant Protection Research Institute, Pretoria. 



Chalcaspis lucidus sp. n. 

(Text-figs. 46, 51) 

Frontovertex shining, with reticulate microsculpture extremely fine, just comfortably dis- 
cernible x 65 ; with orbital piliferous punctures conspicuous, separated by about their own 
diameters, and punctures near median ocellus well separated by about their own diameters. 

Antenna with scape (Text-fig. 46) over 5^ times length of its greatest breadth, very slightly 
expanded below to about middle, almost parallel-sided beyond this ; with pedicellus twice 
length of its greatest breadth ; with funicle segments short cup-shaped to short cylindrical, the 
sixth one and a half times as broad as long, and club one and a quarter times length of combined 
funicle segments. 

Mesoscutum with reticulate microsculpture fine, beset with rather shallow piliferous punctures 
that mostly are separated by rather more than their own diameters : axillae and scutellum 
similarly shining and with fine reticulate microsculpture, beset with shallow piliferous punctures 
that mostly are separated by considerably more than their own diameters (Text-fig. 51). 

Fore wings with fore margin moderately emarginate at apex of costal cell and beyond post- 
marginal : radial and postmarginal stouter than in pergandei How., extending the same distance 
to the narrow hyaline streak : radius almost rectilinear before the decidedly broadened stigma. 

Head coppery, with punctures and sometimes also the scrobal impressions bright brassy green. 
Dorsum of thorax and sides of propodeum brassy green with infusions of coppery which, in the 
type, are strong on mesoscutum. Pleura and propodeum above dull green : gaster green with 
infusions of coppery to brassy. Antennae with scape a bright testaceous ; with pedicellus pale 
castaneous ; with flagellum a pale testaceous, the club darkened to pale, dull brown in about 
apical half or almost to base. Legs mainly a bright testaceous, the tarsi paler, but dark at apex : 
coxae dull green, and femora and mid tibiae to some extent from base infuscate with metallic 
reflection. 

Holotype $. CUBA: Rio Cauto, 21. xi. 1930, ex Phenacoccus solani (Ferris), 
" C.S.C. Ent. no. 5119 ". 
Paratype: i ? (same data as holotype). 
Holotype in U.S. National Museum, paratype in British Museum (Natural History). 



IQ2 G. J. KERRICH 

Chalcaspis pergandei Howard 
(Text-figs. 47, 50, 52) 

1895 Chalcaspis pergandei Howard, Proc. U.S. natn. Mus. 17 : 606-7. 

Frontovertex shining, with reticulate microsculpture extremely fine, just comfortably dis- 
cernible x 65 ; with orbital pilif erous punctures large, separated by less than their own diameters, 
and punctures near median ocellus in a loose reticulation. 

Antenna with scape (Text-fig. 47) nearly five times length of its greatest breadth, expanded to 
about two-fifths its length, then almost parallel-sided ; with pedicellus twice length of its 
greatest breadth ; with funicle segments short cup-shaped to short cylindrical, the sixth nearly 
twice as broad as long, and club about one-third longer than combined funicle segments. 

Mesoscutum, axillae and scutellum rather dull, with reticulate microsculpture rather fine to 
moderate, beset with coarse piliferous punctures that are almost in a loose reticulation 
(Text-fig. 52). 

Fore wings (Text-fig. 50) with fore margin moderately emarginate at apex of costal cell, rather 
strongly emarginate beyond postmarginal : radial and postmarginal relatively slender, extending 
the same distance to the broad hyaline streak : radius decidedly curved and with stigma scarcely 
broadened. 

Head coppery, with punctures, marginal parts and mouth region bright brassy green. Dorsum 
of thorax and sides of propodeum a fundamental brassy green, with infusions of coppery to 
brassy. Pleura and propodeum above steely green ; gaster a much brighter green, with strong 
brassy to coppery reflections. Antennae having scape a dull testaceous, narrowly dark-marked 
on upper and lower margins ; having pedicellus blackish, with metallic reflections ; having 
funicle pale testaceous, the basal segments considerably darkened, and club dull brown with 
weak metallic reflections. Leg coloration much as described for lucidus sp. n., but the testaceous 
colouring duller and the infuscation more extensive. 

Redescribed from the following: U.S.A.: Arizona, Sabino Co., i $, 14.^.1937 
(R. A. Fleck); New Mexico, 13^ m. N. of Roswell, i $, 2i.vm.ig2g on L. alyssoides 
(V. E. Romney); Texas, Brown Co., i $, I2.vii.i937 on peach (ref. T 5344), Bangs, 
i $, i8.viii.i937 on peach (Christenson & Jones) (ref. C 3269); Kansas, Onaga, i $, 
Crevecoeur; Nebraska, Halsey, i $, 6.viii.i958 (H. Henzlik). Material in U.S. 
National Museum and in British Museum (Natural History). 

Chalcaspis arizonensis Girault 
(Text-fig. 48) 

1915 Chalcaspis arizonensis Girault, Ann. ent. Soc. Am. 8 : 280. 

Frontovertex less shining than in pergandei How. and lucidus sp. n., with reticulate micro- 
sculpture extremely fine yet more outstanding than in those species ; with orbital piliferous 
punctures large, separated by less than their own diameters, and punctures near median ocellus 
and on inter-ocellar area in a loose reticulation. 

Antenna with scape (Text-fig. 48) over four times length of its greatest breadth, broadest about 
in middle, almost parallel-sided beyond this, with upper margin markedly bowed downward 
before middle ; with pedicellus long-necked then strongly expanded, twice length of its greatest 
breadth ; with funicle segments short-cylindrical, the sixth one and a half times as broad as 
long, and club one and a quarter times length of combined funicle segments. 

Mesoscutum with reticulate microsculpture rather fine, beset with piliferous punctures of 
moderate depth that mostly are separated by much less than their own diameters : axillae and 
scutellum dull, with reticulate microsculpture regular and of moderate strength, beset with 
piliferous punctures that are smaller and shallower but denser. 



CLASSIFICATION OF THE ANAGYRINI 193 

Fore wings with fore margin moderately emarginate at apex of costal cell and beyond post- 
marginal : radial and postmarginal stouter than in pergandei How., the radial the stouter : 
radius rather strongly curved and with stigma scarcely broadened, extending very slightly 
beyond postmarginal, but the broad hyaline streak is perpendicular to the wing margin. 

Head coppery, with punctures and marginal parts a more or less bright brassy green. Dorsum 
of thorax and sides of propodeum dull blue-green, mainly overspread with infusions of dull 
bronzy. Pleura and propodeum above steely green ; gaster a brighter green, with weak, mostly 
brassy, infusions. Antennal coloration as described for pergandei How., but the scape and basal 
funicle segments not always dark-marked. Legs having coxae steely green ; having femora 
and tibiae dull brown overspread to some extent, often mainly, with infuscation which has 
metallic reflection, the tibiae and sometimes femora paler at apex : tarsi stramineous, a little 
darkened at apex. 

Redescribed from the following. U.S.A.: Arizona, Phoenix, 2 $, i6.vii.i943, 
ex Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (R. Fleck) (Lot no. 43. 8395); Utah, St. George, 
I $, 15. iv. 1930 on Salsola pestifer (D. E. Fox}] Idaho, Burley, I $, i6.ix.i930 on 
Salsola pestifer, I $, 13 . x . 1932 in wind vane trap (P. N. Annand) ; Texas, Brownwood, 
I $, 26.viii.i937 on peach (Christensen & Jones) (ref. c 3776); Missouri, Maplewood, 
" mealybug parasite issued by 4.ix.3o" (Satterthwait) (Webster Grvs. no. 30276). 
Material in U.S. National Museum and in British Museum (Natural History). 

Chalcaspis phenacocci (Ashmead) 
(Text-fig. 53) 

1902 Blepyrus phenacocci Ashmead, Can. Ent. 34 : 301. 

1922 Chalcaspis phenacocci (Ashmead) Timberlake, Proc. Hawaii ent. Soc. 5 (i) : 170. 

Frontovertex with reticulate microsculpture regular, very fine, very comfortably discernible 
X 65 ; with orbital piliferous punctures small, separated by about their own diameters, and 
punctures near median ocellus relatively small, well separated. 

Antenna with scape over five times length of its greatest breadth, slightly expanded to about 
middle, almost parallel-sided beyond this ; with pedicellus over two and a half times length of 
its greatest breadth ; with funicle segments cup-shaped to cylindrical, the sixth one and a third 
times as broad as long, and club one-third longer than combined funicle segments. 

Mesoscutum with reticulate microsculpture rather fine, beset with rather sharp piliferous 
punctures that are separated by rather less to rather more than their own diameters ; axillae 
and scutellum rather dull, with reticulate microsculpture of moderate strength, beset with 
piliferous punctures that are smaller and denser, mostly separated by less than their own 
diameters, and not so shallow as in arizonensis Grit. (Text-fig. 53). 

Fore whig with fore margin moderately emarginate at apex of costal cell, very weakly 
emarginate beyond postmarginal : radial and postmarginal stouter than in pergandei How. : 
radius decidedly curved and with stigma scarcely broadened, extending not quite as far as tip of 
postmarginal, the rather narrow hyaline streak sloping outward to the wing margin. 

Head coppery, with punctures and marginal parts brassy green. Dorsum of thorax dull 
blue-green, with indefinite bright to dull bronzy reflections. Pleura and propodeum above 
steely blue to green : gaster a brighter blue-green, with moderate brassy to coppery reflections. 
Antennae having scape and funicle a more or less dull testaceous with dark marking ; and 
having pedicellus blackish and club dull brown, both with metallic reflections. Leg coloration 
much as described for arizonensis Grit., but the tarsi often extensively darkened at apex. 

Redescribed from the following. U.S.A.: California, Rialto, i $, vi.1934, ex 
Phenacoccus solani Ferris (Jourbert), Riverside, i $, viii.1935, ex P. solani (J. D. 
Maple), Fontana, i $, 1953, ex P. solani (Commonwealth Inst. Biol. Control] ; 



194 



G. J. KERRICH 



Colorado, Rocky Ford, I $, 20.viii.i909, "bred from Syrphid " (H. 0. Marsh), 
Texas, Roma, i $, 23.x. 1950 (T. P. Chapman). Material in U.S. National Museum 
and in British Museum (Natural History). 

KEY TO SPECIES OF CHALCASPIS HOWARD : FEMALES 

i Postmarginal vein very much shorter than radial (Text-fig. 49) : hyaline streak absent: 
marginal and postmarginal contiguous with costal margin: costal cell bearing, on 
upper surface only, a row of rather large hairs, comparable in size with the larger 
ones on postmarginal (Text-fig. 49) : antennal scape with upper margin bowed 
downward much more strongly than in arizonensis Grit, (cf . Text-fig. 48) : antennal 
club markedly shorter than combined funicle segments: scutellum with piliferous 
punctures sharply marked and rather large but very shallow : African species . 2 



46 



47 



48 




49 





52 





FIGS. 46-53. Chalcaspis species, females. 46-48. Right antennal scape, in dextro-lateral 
view, of 46, lucidus sp. n. ; 47, pergandei How. and 48, arizonensis Grit. 4950. Part of 
right fore wing of 49, African species A and 50, pergandei How. 51-53. Axillae and 
scutellum, seen from above, of 51, lucidus sp. n. ; 52, pergandei How. and 53, phenacocci 
(Ashm.). 



CLASSIFICATION OF THE ANAGYRINI 195 

Postmarginal and radial veins of similar length (Text-fig. 50) : hyaline streak 
present : marginal and postmarginal not quite contiguous with costal margin : costal 
cell bearing, on upper and under surfaces, a row of very much smaller hairs (Text-fig. 
50) : antennal scape bowed downward as in arizonensis Grit. (Text-fig. 48) or less 
strongly: antennal club markedly longer than combined funicle segments: scutel- 
lum with piliferous punctures markedly impressed : American species ... 3 

2 Mesoscutum rather shallowly yet sharply piliferous-punctate, the punctures mostly 

separated by less than their own diameters : antennae infuscate, with weak metallic 
reflections: fore wings rather strongly infuscate in basal, and moderately so in 
apical half ........... African species A 

Mesoscutum beset with moderate piliferous punctures that mostly are separated by 
about their own diameters : antennae with scape and funicle yellow-testaceous, each 
a little darkened at base : fore wings moderately and more evenly infuscate 

African species B 

3 Scutellum and axillae decidedly shining, with piliferous punctures relatively shallow, 

mostly separated by considerably more than their own diameters (Text-fig. 51) : fore 
wings with radius almost rectilinear before the decidedly broadened stigma: 
Caribbean ........... lucidus sp. n. 

Scutellum and axillae much duller and with punctation otherwise: fore wings with 

radius decidedly curved, the stigma scarcely broadened: U.S.A. ... 4 

4 Dorsum of thorax a fundamental brassy green with infusions of coppery to brassy: 

scutellum and axillae with piliferous punctures large and rather deep, almost in a 
loose reticulation (Text-fig. 52) : fore wing margin rather strongly emarginate 
beyond postmarginal (Text-fig. 50) ...... pergandei Howard 

Dorsum of thorax dull blue-green, with weak bronzy reflections: scutellum and 
axillae with piliferous punctures relatively much smaller: fore wing margin 
moderately to weakly emarginate beyond postmarginal ..... 5 

5 Head with punctures on inter-ocellar area in a loose reticulation: scutellum and 

axillae with piliferous punctures rather shallow : antennal scape with upper margin 
markedly bowed downward before middle (Text-fig. 48) : fore wing margin 
moderately but very distinctly emarginate beyond postmarginal : radius extending 
very slightly beyond postmarginal, the hyaline streak broad, perpendicular to the 
wing margin .......... arizonensis Girault 

Head with punctures on inter-ocellar area well separated: scutellum and axillae 
(Text-fig. 53) with piliferous punctures deeper: antennal scape with upper margin 
not markedly bowed downward before middle: fore wing margin very weakly 
emarginate beyond postmarginal : radius not extending quite as far as tip of post- 
marginal, the hyaline streak rather narrow, sloping outward to the wing margin 

phenacocci (Ashmead) 

AENASIUS Walker, 1846 

1846 Aenasius Walker, Ann. Mag. nat. Hist, (i) 18 : 181. 

1937 Aenasius Walker ; Compere, Proc. Hawaii, ent. Soc. 9 (3) : 383-8. 

Aenasius hyettus Walker 

(Text-figs. 54, 59, 69) 

1846 Encyrtus hyettus Walker, Ann. Mag. nat. Hist, (i) 18 : 181 [designated on same page as 
type -species of Aenasius Walker]. 

Head from above (Text-fig. 54) moderately long, median length about half breadth ; fronto- 
vertex about one-fifth total breadth ; in side view rather evenly curved to mouth ; in facial 
view (Text-fig. 59) with cheeks sharply narrowed to mouth : facial impression nearly half height 



ig6 G. J. KERRICH 

of head, bordered by a distinct keel above and at sides. Frontovertex with microsculpture very 
fine, with orbital piliferous punctures distinct but small, and at narrowest with four rows of 
large punctures, which are relatively shallow, between these. 

Mandibles slender, bidentate, the teeth about equal. 

Antenna with scape (Text-fig. 69) about three-quarters longer (dorsally) than its greatest 
breadth, the lamina curving slightly inward from apex ; with pedicellus not much longer than 
apically broad ; with funicle segments rather short and broad, the first five saucer-shaped, the 
club longer than the combined funicle segments. Greatest width of scape 1-3 times narrowest 
width of fronto vertex. 

Pronotum, mesoscutum, axillae and scutellum finely reticulate, beset with moderate, shallow, 
piliferous punctures that mostly are separated by much more than their own diameters. 

Fore wings with outer margin distinctly a little curved (i.e. not almost straight as in the 
species closest related to caeruleus Brues), and with anal angle moderately rounded : post- 
marginal extending almost to level of tip of uncus, the radial rather strongly curved : hyaline 
streak very distinct but narrow : costal cell bearing three rows of rather strong hairs. 

Head blue-green to brassy green, with red-violet weakly on most of frontovertex, but more 
strongly above and at sides of facial impression, and also at sides of scrobes and across inter- 
scrobal prominence. Pronotum, mesoscutum, tegulae, axillae and scutellum dull blue-green, 
with weak bronzy reflections (thus in igth century specimens, possibly stronger in recent 
material). Pleura, propodeum and gaster dull brown to brownish black, with moderate metallic 
reflections. Antennae blackish brown to brownish black, with weak metallic reflections. 
Legs brownish black, with weak metallic reflections, merging to testaceous brown : mid femora 
much paler at apex, mid tibiae almost whitish before apex, and mid and hind tarsi whitish 
except at apex. 

Redescribed from the following material. ST. VINCENT: i $, Lansdown Guilding. 
GRENADA: windward side, 2 $, leeward side, Mount Gay Estate, i $ (H. H. Smith). 

Holotype in University Museum, Oxford: two specimens in British Museum 
(Natural History) and one in U.S. National Museum. 

This species is not known from reared material; but male specimens from Grenada, 
in the British Museum (Natural History) and the U.S. National Museum, from the 
series determined by L. O. Howard, have the antennae rather much as figured by 
Compere (1937), though the antennal club is clearly 3-segmented. 

Aenasius similis sp. n. 

(Text-figs. 61, 70) 

1937 Aenasius hyettus Walker ; Compere, Proc. Hawaii, ent. Soc. 9 (3) : 388-90, 395-7 [Mis- 
identification]. 

Head from above moderately broad, median length to breadth = i : 2-0 to 2-2 ; frontovertex 
to total breadth = i : 4-1 to 4-8 ; in side view (Text-fig. 61) somewhat angled above sides of 
facial impression ; in facial view with cheeks narrowed at about half a right angle : facial 
impression about four-ninths height of head, bordered by a distinct keel above and at sides. 
Frontovertex with microsculpture extremely fine, with orbital piliferous punctures scarcely 
distinct above, and at narrowest with four rows of large, relatively shallow, punctures between 
them. 

Mandibles slender, bidentate, the teeth about equal. 

Antenna with scape (Text-fig. 70) about one-half longer (dorsally) than its greatest breadth, 
the lamina falling almost vertically at apex ; with pedicellus about a quarter longer than broad ; 
with funicle segments rather short and broad, the first four saucer-shaped, the club shorter than 
the combined funicle segments. Greatest width of scape 1-7 times narrowest width of fronto- 
vertex. 



CLASSIFICATION OF THE ANAGYRINI 197 

Pronotum, mesoscutum, axillae and scutellum finely reticulate, shining, regularly beset with 
rather small to moderate piliferous punctures that are separated by much more than their own 
diameters. 

Fore wings as described for hyettus Walker. 

Head colour as described for hyettus Walker. Pronotum, mesoscutum, tegulae, axillae and 
scutellum blue-green, with bronzy to red-violet reflections. Pleura, etc. as described for 
hyettus Walker. Antennae brownish black to blackish brown, with weak metallic reflections. 
Leg colour as described for hyettus Walker. 

Holotype $. PANAMA: Montelirio, 111.1924 (D. T. Fullaway). 

Paratypes the following. PANAMA : Montelirio, i ?, v . 1924, 2 ?, iv . 1924 and 1929, 
on banana, Barro Colorado, i $, viii.1932, on banana, unlocalized, i $, vii.i9i4 
(D. T. Fullaway); Canal Zone, Paraiso, r $, 20.111.1911 (E. A. Schwarz); Canal 
Zone, Summit, 2 $, Aquadulce, i $, xi.i946 (N. L. H. Krauss). GUATEMALA: 
I ?, 20.vii.i934, on banana debris (taken at Philadelphia, U.S.A.). VENEZUELA: 
San Esteban, i $, xi.i939 (Pablo Anduze). PERU: Piura, i $ (reared at South 
American Parasite Lab.) (P. A. Berry}. 

Holotype in U.S. National Museum: paratypes in U.S. National Museum and in 
British Museum (Natural History). 

Males taken with female specimens on banana in Panama have the antennal club 
solid. Compere's figure of the male antenna of hyettus Walker is most probably to be 
attributed to this species. 

Aenasius maplei Compere 

(Text-figs. 55, 62, 71) 
1937 Aenasius maplei Compere, Proc. Hawaii, ent. Soc. 9 (3) : 384, 388-91, 397-8. 

Head from above (Text-fig. 55) broad, median length to breadth = i : 2-3, with frons rather 
prominent, and facial impression in this view deep ; frontovertex relatively broad, to total 
breadth about i : 3-4, with ocelli in a slightly obtuse triangle (95) ; in side view (Text-fig. 62) 
curved rather evenly to sides of facial impression and then bent round sharply to mouth region ; 
in facial view with cheeks decidedly rounded, sharply narrowed to mouth : facial impression 
about two-fifths height of head, bordered by distinct keels at sides but not above. Frontovertex 
with microsculpture of moderate strength, with orbital piliferous punctures very distinct, and at 
narrowest with four to five rows of coarse punctures between these. 

Mandibles slender, bidentate, the upper tooth much the longer and broader. 

Antenna with scape (Text-fig. 71) about one-half longer (dorsally) than its greatest breadth, 
the upper margin rising relatively steeply from base, the lamina bulging outward at apex ; with 
pedicellus not much longer than broad ; with first five funicle segments saucer-shaped but the 
sixth much longer, and club about one-half longer than the combined funicle segments. Greatest 
width of scape 0-9 to i-i times narrowest width of frontovertex. 

Pronotum, mesoscutum, axillae and scutellum with reticulate microsculpture regular and 
strong, beset with piliferous punctures that are separated by about their own diameters and 
usually are very shallow. 

Shape of fore wings as described for personatus sp. n. but the wings distinctly less broad. 
Veins relatively stout : postmarginal clearly not extending to level of tip of uncus, the radial 
distinctly curved : hyaline streak relatively narrow and with two or three small hairs intruding 
into it : costal cell bearing four rows of strong hairs. 

Head blue-green, with reflections merging from brassy, in region of ocelli, through golden to 
bronzy ; and with weak red-violet coloration beside the facial impression and on genae. 



ig8 G. J. KERRICH 

Antennae brownish black to blackish brown, with bright reflections. Pronotum, mesoscutum, 
tegulae, axillae and scutellum steely green with indefinite bright reflections, more definitely 
bronzy at sides. Pleura, propodeum and gaster brownish black or paler, with bright reflections. 
Legs brownish black, merging to dark testaceous-brown, with metallic reflections, the mid 
tibiae moderately dark : mid and hind tarsi whitish, dark toward apex. 

Redescribed from the following material. U.S.A.: California, Fillmore, 4 $, 
6 and 25.111.1936, ex Puto yuccae (Coq.) (/. D. Maple). Material in U.S. National 
Museum, Citrus Experiment Station, Riverside, and British Museum (Natural 
History). 

The male has the facial impression bordered above by a sharp fold. The antenna 
was figured by Compere (1937, p. 384). 



Aenasius personatus 2 sp. n. 

(Text-figs. 56, 60, 72) 

Head from above (Text-fig. 56) moderately broad, median length to breadth about 1:2-1; 
frontovertex to total breadth about i : 4-5 ; in side view curved evenly above, and then bent 
round sharply to mouth region ; in facial view (Text-fig. 60) with cheeks narrowed to mouth at 
about half a right angle : facial impression about one-third height of head, not distinctly keeled 
on upper margin but sharply so at sides : eyes less strongly divergent than in hyettus Walker. 
Frontovertex with reticulate microsculpture regular and of moderate strength, with orbital 
piliferous punctures moderate, and at narrowest with four rows of coarse punctures between 
these. 

Mandibles slender, bidentate, the upper tooth longer and rather broader. 

Antenna with scape (Text-fig. 72) about one-third longer (dorsally) than its greatest breadth, 
the lamina bulging outward at apex ; with pedicellus scarcely longer than broad ; with first 
five funicle segments saucer-shaped, the sixth decidedly longer, and club about one-half longer 
than the combined funicle segments. Greatest width of scape 1-8 times narrowest width of 
frontovertex. 

Pronotum, mesoscutum, axillae and scutellum very finely reticulate, beset with shallow 
piliferous punctures that mostly are separated by about or rather more than their own diameters. 

Fore wings with lower part of outer margin almost straight and with anal angle relatively 
sharp : postmarginal clearly not extending to level of tip of uncus, the radial slightly curved : 
hyaline streak present : costal cell bearing four or sometimes three, rows of rather strong hairs. 

Head, for the most part, red-violet and blue-green, or sometimes almost blue : these colours 
vary in proportion, but generally the violet is on the ridges of the reticulations and in a band 
above the toruli, and the green in the punctures and on the less heavily sculptured parts : mouth 
region often more brassy. Pronotum, mesoscutum, tegulae, axillae and scutellum blue-green 
with strong red-violet reflection. Pleura, propodeum and gaster brownish black with pale 
metallic reflections, the gaster beneath and propodeum above paler, the propodeum in region 
of spiracles with brighter coloured reflections. Antennae brownish black, overspread with 
bright pale bronzy reflection. Legs brownish black, with weak metallic reflections, merging to 
testaceous-brown, the mid tibiae palest : mid metatarsi, except at apex, and first three hind 
tarsal segments, whitish. 

Holotype $. U.S.A.: Florida, Hialeah, 24.viii.i953, on Hibiscus tiliaceus (0. D. 
Link). 

z Etym. " masked ", also the " masquerader ". 



CLASSIFICATION OF THE ANAGYRINI 



igg 










FIGS. 54-60. Aenasius species, females. Head, seen from above, of 54, Aen. hyettus 
Walker ; 55, Aen. maplei Comp. ; 56, Aen. personatus sp. n. ; 57, Aen. caeruleus Brues 
and 58, Aen. masii Domen. Head, in facial view, of 59, hyettus Walk, and 60, personatus 
sp. n. 



200 G. J. KERRICH 

Paratypes the following. U.S.A.: 4 $ (same data as holotype). TRINIDAD: 
I.C.T.A., i $, v.1952, i $, vi.i953, 14 $, 6.ix.i953, ex Ferrisia virgata (Ckll.) on 
cacao, 2 $, ix . 1953, San Juan, i $, 5 . xi . 1953, ex Ferrisia on Gliricidia (F. D. Bennett}. 

Holotype in U.S. National Museum: paratypes in U.S.N.M., Citrus Experiment 
Station, Riverside, Imperial College of Tropical Agriculture and British Museum 
(Natural History). 

Aenasius caeruleus Brues 
(Text-fig. 57) 

1910 Aenasius caeruleus Brues, Bull. Am. Mus. nat. Hist. 28 : 84-85. 

1937 Aenasius caeruleus Brues ; Compere, Proc. Hawaii, ent. Soc. 9 (3) : 388-90, 395. 

Head from above (Text-fig. 57) decidedly broad, median length to breadth = 1:2-2 to 2-4 ; 
frontovertex to total breadth i : 4-2 to 4-9 : in side view curved almost evenly to mouth : 
in facial view with cheeks narrowed to mouth at more than half a right angle : facial impression 
relatively shallow, about two-fifths height of head, not distinctly keeled on upper margin but 
sharply so at sides. Frontovertex with microsculpture regular and of moderate strength, with 
orbital piliferous punctures moderate, at narrowest with four rows of coarse punctures between 
them. 

Mandibles conspicuous, bidentate, 3 the smaller lower tooth sharply ridged below. 

Antenna with scape three-fifths longer (dorsally) than its greatest breadth, the lamina bulging 
outward at apex ; with pedicellus about one-third longer than broad ; with funicle segments 
very short and broad, saucer-shaped, and club about one-half longer than combined funicle 
segments. Greatest width of scape i times narrowest width of frontovertex. 

Pronotum, mesoscutum, axillae and scutellum with reticulate microsculpture rather fine, 
beset with rather shallow piliferous punctures that mostly are separated by less than their own 
diameters. 

Fore wings as described for personatus sp. n. 

The colour of the type and one other specimen may be described as follows : head for the 
most part red-violet and peacock blue, with bronzy reflections above the facial impression, 
and with blue-green coloration in region of malar space and on inter-scrobal prominence. 
Pronotum, mesoscutum, tegulae, axillae and scutellum red-violet and bronzy, with streaks and 
patches of blue-green. Pleura and propodeum pale brown with metallic reflections mostly 
very weak, strong and bright in region of propodeal spiracles : gaster blackish with strong 
metallic reflections. Antennae brownish black to blackish brown, with weak, mostly pale 
bronzy, reflections. Leg colour as described for regularis sp. n. 

Four other specimens differ as follows : head and thorax above dominantly a very blue-green, 
sometimes brassy green in region of ocelli, with much red-violet, especially beside facial im- 
pression and on scutum and scutellum. 

Redescribed from the following material. MEXICO: Vera Cruz, Santa Rosa, 
La Buena Ventura, i $, I3.vii (holotype) (A. Petrunkevitch}. PORTO Rico: Maya- 
guez, on coffee, i $, 23.^.1936 (M. R. Smith}. PANAMA, Canal Zone, Paraiso, 2 $, 
6.ii.i9ii (E. A. Schwarz). VENEZUELA: Barinas, i $, 1.1943 (P. Anduze}. URU- 
GUAY: Montevideo, S. Amer. Parasite Lab., i $, 31.^1.1942 (P. A. Berry}. 

Holotype in American Museum of Natural History, other specimens in U.S. 
National Museum and in British Museum (Natural History) , 

3 Brues described the mandibles as having three teeth, but I believe him to have been mistaken. 
The mandibles are piliferous and have, on the upper surface (i.e. nearest the clypeus) a few smaller hairs 
which, according to the angle of viewing, can create the impression of a minute, set-back, uppermost tooth. 



CLASSIFICATION OF THE ANAGYRINI 201 

Aenasius regularis sp. n. 

(Text-fig. 73) 

Head from above broad, mostly a little broader than in personatus sp. n. and in well developed 
specimens sharply menisciform ; median length to breadth = i : 2-0 to 2-1 ; frontovertex to 
total breadth about i : 4-3 : in side view curved evenly above, then bent round, but not sharply, 
to mouth region ; in facial view with cheeks rather sharply narrowed to mouth : facial impres- 
sion about one-third height of head, not distinctly keeled on upper margin though sharply so at 
sides. Frontovertex with microsculpture regular, rather fine ; with orbital piliferous punctures 
moderate ; at narrowest with four rows of coarse punctures between these. 

Mandibles slender, bidentate, the upper tooth rather the broader. 

Antenna with scape (Text-fig. 73) about three-fifths longer (dorsally) than its greatest breadth, 
the lamina bulging outward at apex ; with pedicellus about one-half longer than broad ; with 
funicle segments very short and broad, saucer-shaped, the club nearly twice as long as the 
combined funicle segments. Greatest width of scape i J times narrowest width of frontovertex. 

Pronotum, mesoscutum, axillae and scutellum with reticulate microsculpture regular and of 
moderate strength, regularly beset with rather small and ill-defined piliferous punctures that are 
separated by much more than their own diameters. 

Shape of fore wings as described for personatus sp. n. : postmarginal extending very nearly to 
level of tip of uncus, the radial distinctly curved : costal cell bearing only two rows of strong 
hairs, the remaining hairs much smaller. 

Head blue-green, bronzy on ridges of reticulations, and with red-violet coloration on genae 
and in a band above the toruli. Pronotum, mesoscutum, tegulae, axillae and scutellum dull 
blue-green, with bright bronzy, or in part red-violet, reflections. Pleura, etc. as described for 
personatus sp. n. Antennae brownish black, with weak metallic reflections. Leg colour as 
described for personatus sp. n., but the hind tarsi a little darkened above. 

Holotype $. TRINIDAD: I.C.T.A., iv.1952, ex Ferrisia virgata (Ckll.) on cacao 
(F. D. Bennett). 

Paratypes the following. TRINIDAD: I.C.T.A., 14 -, 1952-53, ex Ferrisia virgata 
(Ckll.) on cacao, i $, v.1953 on guava, 4 <j>, V.IQ53, ex Ferrisia on guava, 2 ?, vi-ix. 
I 953 ex Ferrisia on Gliricidia (F. D. Bennett). SALVADOR: Rosario, Cuscattan, 
i ?, 1955 (P. A. Berry). 

Holotype and paratypes in British Museum (Natural History), paratypes in 
U.S. National Museum, in Citrus Experiment Station, Riverside, California, and in 
Imperial College of Tropical Agriculture. 

Aenasius punctatus Compere 
(Text-fig. 74) 

1937 Aenasius punctatus Compere, Proc. Hawaii, ent. Soc. 9 (3) : 388-9, 391, 394-5. 

Head, pro- and mesothorax, and to a lesser extent metathorax, propodeum and sides of 
gaster with reticulate microsculpture very strong and regular : this gives the species a velvety 
appearance which is in striking contrast with that of its shining congeners. 

Head from above relatively long, median length about half breadth ; frontovertex to total 
breadth = i : 3-7 ; with ocelli in a decidedly to moderately acute triangle ; in facial view with 
cheeks strongly curved, narrowed to mouth at more than half a right angle ; in side view rather 
long and strongly curved : facial impression about two-fifths height of head, not bordered by a 
distinct keel above or at sides. Frontovertex with orbital piliferous punctures small, but very 
distinct and regular, and at narrowest with four rows of large punctures, which are relatively 
clear-cut and deep, between these. 



202 G. J. KERRICH 

Mandibles slender, bidentate. 

Antenna with scape (Text-fig. 74) twice as long (dorsally) as its greatest breadth, the lamina 
bulging very slightly outward at apex ; with pedicellus about as long as broad ; with first five 
funicle segments saucer-shaped, the sixth a little longer, and club about 1-3 times length of 
combined funicle segments. Greatest width of scape 0-9 times narrowest width of frontovertex. 

Pronotum, mesoscutum, axillae and scutellum beset with rather strong piliferous punctures 
that mostly are separated by much less than their own diameters. Propodeum with spiracles 
large and sub-circular. 

Fore wings relatively narrow, with outer margin strongly curved and anal angle strongly 
rounded : marginal vein relatively very short, the postmarginal extending about to tip of uncus 
or beyond it, the radial stout, a little curved : hyaline streak from tip of uncus absent : speculum 
not free of small hairs : prebasal area regularly beset with hairs which are not so very much 
larger than those on postbasal area and do not tend so much to be in distinct rows as in other 
species, the costal cell rather similar. 

Head a medium green, with brassy and bronzy reflections, and with some red-violet coloration 
especially beside the facial impression and on genae. Pronotum, mesoscutum, axillae and 
scutellum a medium green, usually with bronzy to red-violet reflections : mesopleura and sides 
of propodeum usually much like mesoscutum but sometimes paler : tegulae usually paler, often 
in part quite a pale brown. Gaster beneath and on sides much like mesopleura, though some- 
times paler ; on its smooth upper surface blackish to brownish, with bronzy to purplish reflec- 
tions. Antennae brownish black to blackish brown, with metallic reflections, the lamina of scape 
strongly shining, the remainder of antenna much less so : scape and pedicellus above sometimes 
a dull green. Legs with coxae coloured about like mesopleura : fore and hind femora and 
tibiae in part similar, but paler : legs otherwise brownish, the mid and hind tarsi whitish, 
dark at apex. 

Redescribed from the following material. BRAZIL: Sao Paulo, Orchidarum, ex 
Phenacoccus sp. on Tabouchina granulosa, I $ (paratype), 5.xi.i934 (H. Compere); 
Limeira, i $, 3.vii.i958 (S. Flanders}. URUGUAY: Montevideo, Carrasco, i $, ex 
Pseudococcus sp., 1943, 2 $, ex leaf galls on Baccharis, 21. v. 1943 (H. L. Parker); 
S. Amer. Parasite Lab., i $, 24. .1946 (P. A. Berry). Material in U.S. National 
Museum, Citrus Experiment Station, Riverside, and British Museum (Natural 
History). 

Aenasius vexans sp. n. 

(Text-fig. 63) 

Head from above moderately broad, median length about half breadth ; frontovertex about 
a quarter total breadth ; in side view rather long and strongly curved (Text-fig. 63) ; in facial 
view with cheeks narrowed to mouth at more than half a right angle ; facial impression over 
two-fifths height of head, bordered by a distinct keel above but not at sides. Frontovertex 
sculpture as described for hyettus Walker. 

Mandibles slender, bidentate, the upper tooth a little the longer. 

Antenna with scape one-half longer (dorsally) than its greatest breadth, the lamina bulging 
very slightly outward at apex ; with pedicellus a little longer than broad ; with first four 
funicle segments saucer-shaped, the fifth and sixth longer, and club one-fifth longer than the 
combined funicle segments. Greatest width of scape i-i times narrowest width of frontovertex. 

Pronotum, mesoscutum, axillae and scutellum finely reticulate, beset with shallow piliferous 
punctures that mostly are separated by rather more than their own diameters on mesoscutum, 
and are rather sparser on scutellum. 

Fore wings relatively narrow, with outer margin strongly curved and with anal angle very 
well rounded : postmarginal extending beyond tip of uncus, the radial hardly curved : hyaline 
streak absent : costal cell narrow, bearing two rows of strong hairs. 



CLASSIFICATION OF THE ANAGYRINI 203 

Head blue-green with much red -violet coloration. Pronotum, mesoscutum in greater part, 
axillae and scutellum blue-green with bright reflections and sometimes with red-violet colora- 
tion : tegulae and sides of mesoscutum pale brown, with weak metallic reflections. Pleura, 
propodeum and gaster pale brown, darkened in part, with weak metallic reflections. Antennae 
brownish black to blackish brown, with bright metallic reflections, the scape distinctly pale at 
apex above. Legs usually paler than in most species, from blackish brown on coxae, merging 
to pale testaceous : mid and hind tarsi usually whitish, dark towards apex. 

Holotype $. BRAZIL, Sao Paulo, xii.1935, ex Phenacoccus sp. (E. Hambleton). 

Paratypes the following. BRAZIL, Sao Paulo, i $, 28.xii.ig34, ex Phenacoccus sp. 
on Bougainvillea, i $, xii.1935, ex Phenacoccus sp. (E. Hambleton}. MEXICO, 
Magdalena Is., Tres Marias, $, 26^.1925 (H. H. Kiefer}. 

Holotype $ in U.S. National Museum, paratypes in collection of Citrus Experiment 
Station, Riverside, and in British Museum (Natural History). 



Aenasius phenacocci Bennett 
(Text-fig. 75) 

1957 Aenasius phenacocci Bennett, Can. Ent. 89 (12) : 569-70. 

Head from above rather long, median length to breadth i : 1-7 to 2-0 ; fronto vertex about 
a quarter total breadth ; in side view rather strongly and evenly curved, though more strongly 
just above side of facial impression : face rather long, with cheeks narrowed to mouth at about 
half a right angle : facial impression about two-fifths height of head, not bordered by a distinct 
keel above or at sides. Frontovertex with microsculpture extremely fine : head sculpture 
otherwise as described for hyettus Walker. 

Mandibles bidentate, the upper tooth the longer and broader. 

Antenna with scape (Text-fig. 75) one-half longer (dorsally) than its greatest breadth, the 
lamina curving inward from apex ; with pedicellus one-half longer than broad ; with funicle 
segments short and broad, the club about one-half longer than the combined funicle segments. 
Greatest width of scape i-i times narrowest width of fronto vertex. 

Pronotum, mesoscutum, axillae and scutellum very finely reticulate, somewhat shining, beset 
with shallow piliferous punctures that are separated by about their own diameters on meso- 
scutum but are sparser on scutellum, especially near apex. Propodeum with spiracles broad- 
oval to sub-circular and very large. 

Fore wings with outer margin distinctly curved and with anal angle well rounded : post- 
marginal clearly not extending to level of tip of uncus, the radial slightly curved : hyaline 
streak absent : costal cell bearing three rows of rather strong hairs. 

Head blue-green, in part brassy green, with some red-violet coloration near facial impression, 
sometimes much more widespread : mouth region more bronzy. Pronotum, mesoscutum, 
tegulae, axillae and scutellum blue-green, with reflections weak but bright. Pleura, propodeum 
and gaster brownish black, with moderate metallic reflections. Antennae blackish brown, 
overspread with bright, pale bronzy reflection, the scape and pedicellus very distinctly pale 
brown, sometimes almost whitish, at apex. Leg colour much as described for hyettus Walker, 
but the whitish parts infused with pale brown. 

Redescribed from the following. ST. VINCENT, i $ (H. H. Smith], (mixed with 
hyettus Walk, in Brit. Mus. coll.). TRINIDAD, I.C.T.A., 2 9, v.1955, ex Phenacoccus 
gossypii Towns. & Ckll. on Acalypha; ri $, v.1953, ex P. gossypii on Hibiscus; 
St. Augustine, 3 $, in. 1961, "ex mealybugs" (F. D. Bennett}. BRITISH GUIANA, 
Georgetown, 3 $, 15. x. 1961, "on ornamentals" (F. D. Bennett). Material in 



204 G - J- KERRICH 

Imperial College of Tropical Agriculture, Trinidad, in Citrus Experiment Station, 
Riverside, in U.S. National Museum and in British Museum (Natural History). 
This and the two following species are very closely related. 

Aenasius masii Domenichini 

(Text-fig. 58) 
1951 Aenasius masii Domenichini, Boll. Zool. agr. Bachic. 17 (3) : 168-71. 

Head from above (Text-fig. 58) decidedly broad, median length to breadth = 1:2-1 to 2-3 ; 
frontovertex to total breadth = i : 4-6 to 4-9, with ocelli in an acute triangle ; in side view more 
strongly curved above than in middle : face rather long, with cheeks narrowed to mouth at about 
or less than half a right angle : facial impression about half height of head, not bordered by a 
distinct keel above or at sides. Frontovertex with microsculpture of moderate strength ; 
with orbital piliferous punctures small, and at narrowest with three or four rows of coarse 
punctures between these, the coarse punctation irregular and relatively deep. 

Mandibles bidentate, the upper tooth the longer and broader. 

Antenna with scape one-half longer (dorsally) than its greatest breadth, the lamina curving 
well inward from apex ; with pedicellus about one-half longer than broad ; with first five funicle 
segments saucer-shaped, the sixth longer, and club about one-half longer than the combined 
funicle segments. Greatest width of scape 1-5 times narrowest width of frontovertex. 

Pronotum, mesoscutum, axillae and scutellum with reticulate microsculpture regular and 
rather strong, beset with piliferous punctures that mostly are separated by about or rather less 
than their own diameters on mesoscutum but are rather sparser on scutellum. 

Shape of fore wings as described for phenacocci Bennett : postmarginal reaching nearly as far 
as tip of uncus, the radius moderately curved : hyaline streak absent (or only indicated) : 
costal cell bearing three rows of rather strong hairs. 

Head for the most part red-violet with some bronzy reflections, and with patches of green and 
blue in region of ocelli and lower part of inter-scrobal prominence, or more widespread. Pro- 
notum, mesoscutum, tegulae, axillae and scutellum a dull, steely to olive-green, with bronzy to 
red- violet reflections. Pleura, propodeum and gaster blackish or paler, with metallic reflections. 
Antennae blackish brown with weak, mostly pale bronzy, reflections, the scape sometimes paler 
at extreme apex. Legs darker coloured than in most known members of the hyettus group, 
mostly deep brownish black with metallic reflections, including even the mid tibiae : mid 
femora sometimes mostly pale brown : mid and hind tarsi whitish with infusion of pale brown, 
dark at apex. 

Redescribed from the following. PERU, Valle Carabayllo, i $ (paratype) " paras- 
sita di Pseudococcus citri e P. maritimus " (/. Lamas] ; Canete, i $, 10. v. 1941 (P. A. 
Berry}. Material in collection of G. Domenichini and in U.S. National Museum. 

Aenasius flander si sp. n. 

Head from above decidedly broad, median length to breadth = i : 2-0 to 2-4 ; frontovertex a 
quarter the total breadth ; in side view much as in masii Domen. ; in facial view with cheeks 
narrowed to mouth at more than half a right angle : facial impression about one-third height of 
head, not bordered by a distinct keel above or at sides. Frontovertex with microsculpture of 
moderate strength ; with orbital piliferous punctures small, and at narrowest with about four 
rows of relatively shallow, coarse punctures between them, not so irregular as in masii Domen. 

Mandibles slender, bidentate, the upper tooth broader and much the longer. 

Antenna with scape one-half longer (dorsally) than its greatest breadth, the lamina curving 
well inward from apex ; with pedicellus moderately longer than broad ; with first four funicle 
segments saucer-shaped, the fifth and sixth longer, and club slightly longer than the combined 
funicle segments. Greatest width of scape equal to that of frontovertex. 



CLASSIFICATION OF THE ANAGYRINI 205 

Pronotum, mesoscutum, axillae and scutellum with reticulate microsculpture regular and of 
moderate strength, beset with piliferous punctures that are separated by about their own 
diameters on mesoscutum but are much sparser on scutellum. 

Fore wings with outer margin more curved and anal angle more rounded than in phenacocci 
Bennett : postmarginal not reaching level of tip of uncus, the radial moderately curved : 
hyaline streak absent : costal cell bearing four rows of rather strong hairs. 

Head blue-green, with reflections brassy to bronzy, and with some red-violet coloration on 
genae. Pronotum, mesoscutum, tegulae, axillae and scutellum dull blue-green to steely green, 
with indefinite metallic reflections. Pleura, propodeum and gaster blackish, with bright 
reflections. Antennae brownish black, with bright metallic reflection, the scape very distinctly 
pale at apex. Leg colour much as described for masii Domen., or rather paler. 

Holotype . U.S.A.: California, San Diego, Balboa Park, I5.viii.i958 on 
Pittosporum (S. Flanders). 

Paratypes. PERU: unlocalized, 3 $, io.vi.iQ58, ex mealybug on cotton (S. 
Flanders) ; Canete, 9 $, v-vi . 1941, ex caged cotton buds (P. A . Berry), 2 $, (no further 
data) (E. J. Hambleton); Piura, I $ (P. A. Berry). URUGUAY, Montevideo, I $, 
24.viii.i942 (P. A. Berry). 

Holotype in U.S. National Museum, paratypes in U.S. National Museum, in 
Citrus Experiment Station, Riverside, and in British Museum (Natural History). 



Aenasius connectens sp. n. 

(Text-figs. 64, 76, 83) 

Head, seen from above, moderately long, median length to breadth = 1:1-9; frontovertex 
over a quarter total breadth ; in side view (Text-fig. 64) more strongly curved below than above 
middle, and bent round rather sharply from sides of facial impression to mouth region : facial 
impression about two-fifths height of head, decidedly broad (Text-fig. 83), bordered by a distinct 
keel above but not at sides. Frontovertex dull, with microsculpture fine to moderate, with 
orbital piliferous punctures small and rather indistinct, and at narrowest with four rows of 
coarse punctures, which are not very shallow, between these : one to two rows of large punctures 
descend between eye and facial impression, and do not nearly reach the malar line (Text-fig. 83). 

Antenna with scape (Text-fig. 76) about three-fifths longer than its greatest breadth, the 
lamina falling almost vertically at apex ; with pedicellus one-half longer than apically broad ; 
with first three funicle segments saucer-shaped, the remainder short-cylindrical, the sixth three 
times as broad (apically) as long, the club about one-fifth longer than combined funicle segments. 

Mandibles bidentate, the upper tooth slightly the longer and larger. 

Pronotum, mesoscutum, tegulae, axillae and scutellum with reticulate microsculpture regular 
and strong, beset with weak piliferous punctures that mostly are separated by more than their 
own diameters. 

Fore wings with outer margin strongly curved and anal angle strongly rounded ; costal cell 
sub-parallel almost to apex, where the wing margin is sharply incised : marginal vein relatively 
short, the postmarginal extending well beyond tip of uncus, the radial emitted at a very acute 
angle, slightly curved : hyaline streak absent : costal cell bearing two rows of strong hairs on 
upper surface, the remaining hairs much smaller. 

Head blue-green, with brassy to coppery reflections strongest above, and with red-violet 
strongest above the facial impression. Pronotum blue-green, mesoscutum duller, and axillae 
and scutellum still duller, with bright reflections which are more definitely bronzy to red-violet 
on scutellum. Postspiracular sclerite pale testaceous-brown ; mesopleura and sides of pro- 
podeum duller, and having dark patches bearing weak metallic green reflection : propodeum 
above and gaster dark brown, largely overspread with dull blue-green. Antennae blackish brown, 

ENTOM. 20, 5. ii 



206 



G. J. KERRICH 



61 




62 






65 




66 






FIGS. 61-68. Aenasius species, females. 61-66. Head, in dextro-lateral view of 61, Aen. 
similis sp. n. ; 62, Aen. maplei Comp. ; 63, Aen. vexans sp. n. ; 64, Aen. connectens sp. n. ; 
65, Aen. advena Comp. and 66, Aen. frontalis Comp. 67-68. Head, seen from above, of 
67, Aen. frontalis Comp. and 68, Aen. cariocus Comp. f. theobromae Kerrich (drawn from 
holotype of theobromae). 



CLASSIFICATION OF THE ANAGYRINI 207 

with metallic reflections, the scape on outer side and pedicellus above distinctly green : scape 
and pedicellus narrowly at apex, and funicle segments 4 and 5 pale yellow-testaceous, the first 
three and sixth funicle more or less dusky. Legs having coxae and trochanters dull brown with 
green metallic reflections, merging to pale testaceous-brown : mid tibiae dark at apex and 
mid tarsi largely whitish. 

Holotype $. URUGUAY: near Montevideo, S. American Parasite Lab., reared 
24. .1946 (P. A. Berry). 

Paratype. URUGUAY: i $ (same data as holotype). 

Holotype in U.S. National Museum: paratype in British Museum (Natural 
History). 

This species forms a clear connecting link between advena Comp. and the group 
composed of paulistus Comp. and insularis Comp. It shares with paulistus and 
insularis the incision of the fore margin of the wing at the apex of the costal cell, the 
broad facial impression, and the feature of the large punctures not descending to 
near the malar line, though they do descend further than in those species. It differs 
from them most notably in having the frontovertex relatively narrow, with the ocelli 
in an obviously acute triangle, the facial impression sharply bordered above, and the 
mandibles not tridentate. The broadly laminate antennal scape places it near 
advena Comp., whereas paulistus and insularis have the scape of a form not found in 
any other known species (cf. Text-fig. 79). 



Aenasius advena Compere 
(Text-figs. 65, 77, 84) 

1937 Aenasius advena Compere, Proc. Hawaii, ent. Soc. 9 (3) : 384, 388-9, 393. 
1937 Aenasius ianthinus Compere, Ibidem: 388, 391, 393-4, here considered as variety of 
the above, stat. n. 

Head, seen from above, more or less broad, breadth at least about twice median length, about 
2-3 times in best developed specimens ; frontovertex about one-fifth total breadth ; in side view 
(Text-fig. 65) rather evenly curved to mouth ; facial impression about one-third height of head, 
narrow, especially narrowed above, not bordered by a distinct keel above or at sides (Text-fig. 84). 
Frontovertex with microsculpture very fine, with orbital piliferous punctures small but regular, 
and at narrowest with four rows of large punctures, which are relatively shallow, between these : 
two to three rows of large punctures descend between eye and facial impression, and nearly 
reach the malar line. 

Antenna with scape (Text-fig. 77) 1-5 times to nearly twice as long as its greatest breadth, the 
lamina curving strongly inward from apex ; with pedicellus about twice as long as apically 
broad ; with funicle segments more short-cylindrical than saucer-shaped, the sixth three times 
as broad (apically) as long, the club one-half longer than the combined funicle segments. 
Greatest width of scape 0-9 times narrowest width of frontovertex. 

Mandibles bidentate, the upper tooth the longer and broader. 

Pronotum, mesoscutum, axillae and scutellum with reticulate microsculpture regular and 
rather strong, beset with piliferous punctures that mostly are separated by about their own 
diameters on mesoscutum but are sparser on scutellum. 

Fore wings with lower part of outer margin moderately curved, with anal angle rather sharp : 
postmarginal clearly not extending to level of tip of uncus, the radial emitted at a relatively 
acute angle, slightly curved : hyaline streak absent : costal cell bearing usually four rows of 
rather strong hairs. 



2o8 G. J. KERRICH 

Coloration of the type series and of similar specimens is as follows : head blue-green, in large 
part with brassy reflections, around median ocellus more coppery and golden ; with a little 
red-violet before occipital margin and on hinder genae. Pronotum blue-green, with red-violet 
especially on shoulders : mesoscutum, tegulae, axillae and scutellum more a steely green, with 
indefinite bright reflections. Pleura, propodeum and gaster blackish or paler, with bright 
reflections. Antennae blackish brown, with metallic reflections : scape and pedicellus at apex, 
and first four, or sometimes only three, segments pale yellow-testaceous : pedicellus often 
distinctly green above. Legs brownish black, the mid legs rather paler : tarsi testaceous to 
whitish, dark at apex. 

Specimens attributed to var. ianthinus Compere are coloured as follows : head a much deeper 
blue-green, with a triangular red-violet mark extending forward from occiput between ocelli, and 
with red-violet strong above, beside and to some extent across the facial impression, and on 
genae : brassy reflections on frontovertex absent, or weak and indeterminate. Red-violet 
coloration strong on scutellum and strong to very strong on scutum. 

Compere (1937) described this form as a species, though he wrote that it was 
structurally much like advena Compere and might be a variant of it. I now know 
numerous intermediate colour gradations and find, moreover, that the colour is not 
always approximately constant in all specimens of a reared series. In consequence, 
the form is here reduced to varietal status. Dr. B. D. Burks has compared the type 
with several colour forms and with reference to my manuscript description, and he 
concurs. 

Redescribed from the following material. BRAZIL: Bahia, Sao Salvador, i $, 
4.x. 1934, ex Pseudococcus on Macquilla tomentosa (H. Compere); unlocalized, I $, 
I 953> " ex 6526 " (D. C. Lloyd] (propagated at Riverside by S. Flanders); Rio de 
Janeiro, 2 $, 27.x. 1962, i $, ^.1963, on citrus (A. Perachi & F. D. Bennett). 
TRINIDAD: I.C.T.A., 3 $, 1952-53, exFerrisia virgata (Ckll.) on cacao, 7 $, viii.1953, 
exFerrisia on Gliricidia, Toco, I $, v.1953, Manzanilla, 8 $, v-vi. 1952-53, exFerrisia 
virgata on cocoanut (F. D. Bennett). PANAMA: 7 $, 23. iv. 1911 (E.- A. Schwarz). 
ST. THOMAS : Charlotte Amalie, i $, 31 . v. 1917, " parasite of Pseudococcus virgatus " 
(H. Morrison). PORTO Rico: Isabela, i $, 27. ix. 1935, on mealybug (L. C. Fife). 
MEXICO: " Laredo POE ", i <j>, 17.^.1953 (Baker). HAWAII: Oahu, Koko Head, 

1 $, 13. ii, i $, 27. ii., i $, I5.iii.i934 (0. H. Swezey) (paratypes); Honolulu, i $, 
27.xii.i943 (N. L. H. Krauss); Johnston Is., i $, i.vi.i952 (K. L. Maehler), 

2 $, 8.vii.i948, on Vitex trifolia L. (L. B. Laring). FIJI: Naduruloulou, 4 $, 
ii.i949, ex mealybug on Albizzia lebbek (B. A. O'Connor). PHILIPPINES: Manila, 

3 $, xii.i958, on guava (Krauss). MALAYA, Selangor, Rubber Research Institute, 
2 $, ii. 1958, Bukit Rotan, 2 $, 16. vii. 1961, exFerrisia virgata (Ckll.) per (^4. Newsam). 
E. PAKISTAN: Dacca, 2 $, 1963, ex Ferrisia virgata (Ckll.), per (Government Entomolo- 
gist). INDIA: Madhya Pradesh, Jabalpur, 2$, 25. xi. 1966, ex Ferrisia virgata 
(Ckll.) (B. N. Modi). Material in U.S. National Museum, Citrus Experiment 
Station, Riverside, Imperial College of Tropical Agriculture and British Museum 
(Natural History). 

This is the only species of the genus known to have a distribution extending outside 
the neotropical region and southern U.S.A. Specimens of quite typical coloration 
have been examined from Mexico, Hawaiian Islands and Philippines, specimens 
attributed to var. ianthinus from Brazil, West Indies and Hawaiian Islands. 



CLASSIFICATION OF THE ANAGYRINI 209 

Aenasius advena Compere var. 

Small specimens : large punctures on frontovertex and punctures on mesoscutum abnormally 
shallow : antennal scape twice or just over twice as long as its greatest breadth : antennae with 
whole funicle a rich yellow-testaceous, with scape at least broadly at apex, and in one specimen 
also with club similarly coloured, having only weak infuscation. 

Described from the following. U.S.A.: Florida, Key Largo, 2 $, 26.xii.iQ54 
(H. V. Weems Jr.). 

Aenasius frontalis Compere 

(Text-figs. 66-67, 7 8 ) 
1937 Aenasius frontalis Compere, Proc. Hawaii, ent. Soc. 9 (3) : 388-9, 391-2. 

Head, seen from above (Text-fig. 67), elongate, median length to breadth = i : 1-8, with 
frontal emargination deep ; frontovertex between a fifth and a quarter the total head breadth, 
with ocelli in a moderately acute triangle (80) ; in side view (Text-fig. 66) seen to be falling 
forward and then bent round at almost a right angle to mouth region : facial impression about 
one-third height of head, bordered by a sharp keel above and at sides. Frontovertex strongly 
shining, with microsculpture very fine to rather fine, with orbital piliferous punctures quite 
small but regular, and at narrowest with four rows of large punctures, which are coarse but 
usually rather shallow between these : two rows of large punctures descend between eye and 
facial impression, and rather nearly reach the malar line. 

Mandibles bidentate, the upper tooth much the longer. 

Antenna with scape (Text-fig. 78) 1-5 to 1-8 times length of its greatest breadth, the upper 
margin rising relatively steeply from base, the lamina curving well inward from apex ; with 
pedicellus twice as long as its apical breadth ; with funicle segments cup-shaped to short- 
cylindrical, the sixth about 2^ times as broad as long ; with club about i times length of 
combined funicle segments. 

Reticulate microsculpture fine on pronotum, sides of mesoscutum, tegulae and axillae, of 
moderate strength on scutellum, sharp and strikingly transverse on most of mesoscutum : 
mesoscutum and scutellum sharply beset with piliferous punctures that, except sometimes at 
sides, are separated by more, usually much more, than their own diameters. 

Fore wings relatively rather narrow, with lower part of outer margin slightly emarginate and 
with anal angle relatively sharp : radial strongly curved, without a defined uncus, the post- 
marginal clearly not reaching level of its tip : hyaline streak present : costal cell bearing two 
rows of strong hairs, the remaining hairs much smaller. 

Head bright blue-green to peacock-blue, with red-violet reflection, which is strongest beside 
the facial impression ; brassy-green before occipital margin, narrowly along orbits, and in 
region of mouth and toruli. Pronotum, mesoscutum, tegulae, axillae and scutellum a much 
duller blue-green than the head, sometimes almost a steely green, with red-violet and bronzy 
reflections especially at sides. Pleura, propodeum and gaster pale brown to brownish black, with 
reflections which on gaster in part and sides of propodeum are green. Antennae with scape in 
greater part, pedicellus and club brownish black, with bright metallic reflection : scape quite 
broadly at apex above, pedicellus at extreme apex, and funicle segments yellow-testaceous, the 
sixth funicle segment slightly darkened, or quite dark like the club. Legs with coxae and 
trochanters mostly blackish brown, with femora, tibiae and fore tarsi testaceous, often rather 
pale : mid and hind tarsi more whitened, dark toward apex. 

Redescribed from the following material. PANAMA: Montelirio, i $, Taboga, 
i $, iii.1924 (D. T. Fullaway] (paratypes); Canal Zone, Paraiso, i $, iii.igii (E. A. 
Schwarz). TRINIDAD: I.C.T.A., i $, V.IQ52, 2 $, 1952-53, exFerrisia virgata (Ckll.) 
on cacao (F. D. Bennett}. Material in U.S. National Museum, Citrus Experiment 
Station, Riverside, and British Museum (Natural History). 



210 G. J. KERRICH 

Aenasius chapadae Ashmead 

1900 Aenasius chapadae Ashmead, Proc. U.S. natn. Mus. 22 : 371. 

1904 Aenasius chapadae Ashmead; Ashmead, Mem. Carneg. Mus. 1 (4) : 496, PI. XXXVIII, 

fig. i. 
1937 Aenasius chapadae Ashmead ; Compere, Proc. Hawaii, ent. Soc. 9 (3) : 388, 394. 

Thinking that the more bluish form of frontalis Comp. might be chapadae, I sent 
one such specimen in 1962 to Dr. B. D. Burks. He kindly compared it with the type, 
referring to my manuscripts, and replied that chapadae ran down in my key with 
frontalis but was not the same as the species sent. He kindly supplied the dif- 
ferentiating characters now incorporated in the key, adding that Ashmead's figure 
represented accurately the relative breadth of the frontovertex in chapadae. 



Aenasius paulistus Compere 
(Text-figs. 79, 85) 

1937 Aenasius paulistus Compere, Proc. Hawaii, ent. Soc. 9 (3) : 385, 388-92, 401-3. 

Head from above with median length to breadth = 1:2-0 to 2-2 ; frontovertex to total 
breadth i : 3-3 to 3-6, with ocelli in about a right-angled triangle ; in side view rather long 
and almost evenly curved, almost as in advena Comp. (Text-fig. 65) : cheeks rather short and 
sharply narrowed : facial impression broad, about two-fifths height of head, not sharply 
bordered except beside lower half of toruli. Frontovertex with reticulate microsculpture fine, 
with orbital piliferous punctures rather strong, and at narrowest with five rows of large punctures, 
which are of fully normal depth, between them : large punctures descending not far below 
upper margin of facial impression (Text-fig. 85). 

Mandibles obscurely tridentate, with an uppermost tooth much the smallest and well set back. 

Antenna with scape (Text-fig. 79) two and a half times length of its greatest breadth ; with 
pedicellus nearly twice as long as broad ; with funicle segments short-cylindrical to broad 
saucer-shaped, the club 1-7 times length of the combined funicle segments. 

Pronotum, mesoscutum, tegulae, axillae and scutellum with microsculpture rather fine, beset 
with piliferous punctures that on mesoscutum are regular, relatively deep, and mostly separated 
by about or rather less than their own diameters, but are shallower and sparser on axillae and 
scutellum. Propodeum with spiracles large, very broad-oval. 

Fore wings with lower part of outer margin rather strongly curved, and anal angle well 
rounded : fore margin moderately incised at apex of costal cell (Compere, 1937, fig. 4) : marginal 
vein rather long, the postmarginal extending just beyond tip of uncus, the radial moderately 
curved : hyaline streak not fully developed (though it may be indicated) : costal cell bearing 
three rows of strong hairs on upper surface, the lower two merging in about distal half : wing 
infuscation fading out towards outer margin. 

Head blue-green, with light brassy reflections ; sometimes bronzy around ocelli, in mouth 
region and on hinder genae. Pronotum, mesoscutum, tegulae, axillae and scutellum a duller 
blue-green, with considerable bronzy reflection. Sometimes there is much violet on the fronto- 
vertex, especially on the ridges of the reticulations, and much red-violet on pronotum and 
mesoscutum. Pleura, propodeum and gaster dull brown to brownish black, with moderate 
metallic reflections which in parts are blue-green. Antennae with scape largely, pedicellus at 
apex, and funicle segments yellow-testaceous ; with scape at base and along much of lower 
margin and part of upper margin, pedicellus mainly, and club blackish brown with green metallic 
reflections. Legs with coxae, trochanters, and femora in part brownish black, with metallic 
reflections, merging to dull testaceous on femora and tibiae : tarsi pale testaceous, darkened 
at apex. 



CLASSIFICATION OF THE ANAGYRINI 211 

Redescribed from the following. BRAZIL : Sao Paulo, 3 $, 4 . xi . 1934, with Pseudo- 
coccus fragilis Brain and P. longispinus Targ. (=aonidum auctt.) on Hedera helix, 
i $, 4.xii.i934 (H. Compere); Sao Paulo, i $, 28.xii.i934, ex Phenacoccus sp. on 
Bougainvillea (E. Hambleton). Material in collection of Citrus Experiment Station, 
Riverside and in British Museum (Natural History). 

Aenasius insularis Compere 

1937 Aenasius insularis Compere, Proc. Hawaii, ent. Soc. 9 (3) : 388-92, 400-1. 

Head shape much as in paulistus Comp., but the cheeks more rounded : large punctures 
descending even less far below upper margin of facial impression (cf. Text-fig. 85), the impression 
similar in shape but very ill-defined at sides. Head median length about half breadth ; fronto- 
vertex to total breadth = about i : 3-6, with ocelli in about aright-angled triangle. Pronto vertex 
with reticulate microsculpture fine, with orbital piliferous punctures small above, moderate 
below, and at narrowest with four to five rows of large punctures, which are relatively shallow, 
between them. 

Mandibles as in paulistus Compere, obscurely tridentate. 

Antenna with scape of the same general shape as in paulistus Compere but rather longer, over 
two and a half but well under three times length of its greatest breadth ; with pedicellus one 
and a half times to nearly twice as long as broad ; with funicle segments short cup-shaped to 
saucer-shaped, the club one and two-thirds times length of the combined funicle segments. 

Pronotum, mesoscutum, tegulae, axillae and scutellum with microsculpture finer than in 
paulistus Comp., the piliferous punctures on mesoscutum rather shallower and mostly separated 
by more than their own diameters, and on axillae and scutellum quite shallow and sparse. 
Propodeum with spiracles transverse-oval, not abnormally large. 

Fore wings much as described for paulistus Comp., but the costal cell sometimes bearing only 
two rows of strong hairs on upper surface : wing infuscation curving outward from apex of 
radial, leaving the wing very broadly hyaline by outer margin. 

Head blue-green, with light brassy reflections, bronzy in part on frontovertex, mouth region 
and on hinder genae. Pronotum, mesoscutum, tegulae, axillae and scutellum with some blue- 
green, but scarcely discernible beneath the overspread of red-violet to bronzy. Coloration of 
pleura, propodeum and gaster as described for paulistus Comp., but the brown much paler in 
one small specimen. Antennal colour much as in paulistus Comp., but the club largely dull 
yellow-testaceous, pale blackish brown near base. Leg colour much as described for paulistus 
Comp. 

MEXICO. Redescribed from two paratypes and one specimen with similar data. 

Aenasius nitens sp. n. 

Head, seen from above, elongate, median length (measured from above scrobal impression) to 
breadth = 1:1-9; frontovertex relatively broad, to total breadth = 1:2-6, with ocelli in a 
decidedly obtuse triangle ; in side view very gently curved both above and below middle, where 
it is almost angled, then at level of toruli more sharply bent round to mouth region ; in frontal 
view with cheeks long and well rounded, with facial impression small, about a quarter the height 
of head, sharply margined at sides, and with inter-scrobal prominence broad, and so convex that 
it is visible when the head is viewed from above. Frontovertex strongly shining, with micro- 
sculpture so extremely fine as to be almost imperceptible x 65, with orbital piliferous punctures 
strong, and with larger punctures in a loose reticulation, four of them in transverse line with the 
median ocellus but a transverse row of six immediately in front of these : three rows of large 
punctures, merging to two, and the orbitals, descend between eye and facial impression and 
almost reach the malar line. 

Mandibles bidentate, the upper tooth slightly the longer. 



212 G. J. KERRICH 

Antenna with scape 3-4 times length of its greatest breadth, broadest in basal third ; with 
pedicellus twice length of its greatest breadth ; with funicle segments cup-shaped to cylindrical, 
the sixth not twice as broad as long : club only moderately expanded from funicle, relatively 
elongate, 2^ times length of its greatest breadth and equal in length to funicle and pedicellus 
together. 

Pro- and mesonota decidedly shining, though less strongly than the frontovertex : reticulate 
microsculpture on mesoscutum and axillae fine but very distinct, and on scutellum appreciably a 
little stronger : these sclerites sharply piliferous-punctate, the punctures separated by, on 
average, about their own diameters. 

Fore wing narrow, with lower part of outer margin moderately emarginate and with anal 
angle somewhat sharp : radial strongly curved, without a defined uncus, the postmarginal not 
quite reaching level of its tip : hyaline streak present : costal cell bearing two rows of strong 
hairs, which merge to one row in apical fifth. 

Head bright green, with brassy reflections on the ridges, merging to coppery from before the 
median ocellus down to the malar line. Pro- and mesonota bright green, overspread with brassy 
and, in small patches, bronzy reflection. Pleura and propodeum above blackish brown with 
weak reflection : propodeum at sides and gaster the same, but with reflections brighter and in 
part green. Antennae with scape a rich orange-testaceous, slightly darkened along upper and 
lower margins ; having pedicellus except at apex black, with bright reflection ; having pedi- 
cellus at apex and first five funicle segments dull brown, somewhat infuscate above, and sixth 
funicle segment and club blackish brown with weak reflection. Legs blackish with bright 
reflections, the femora at apex and tibiae in greater part brown : tarsi testaceous, the mid 
metatarsi whitish except at apex. 

Holotype $. U.S.A.: Nebraska, Halsey, I5.vii.ig57 (R. Henzlik}. Holotype in 
U.S. National Museum. 

This is the species most resembling a Chalcaspis, on account of the strongly 
shining, relatively broad frontovertex. 

Aenasius pacificus Compere 
(Text-figs. 80, 86) 

1937 Aenasius pacificus Compere, Proc. Hawaii, ent. Soc. 9 (3) : 388-91, 399-400. 

Head from above moderately broad, median length to breadth = i : 1-8 to 2-2 ; frontovertex 
to total breadth = i : 3-4 to 3-9, with ocelli in about a right-angled triangle ; in side view rather 
short, evenly curved round to mouth : cheeks short, sharply narrowed : facial impression small 
and shallow, about a third the height of the head, not sharply bordered. Frontovertex with 
reticulate microsculpture regular and rather fine, with orbital piliferous punctures moderate 
above, strong below, and at narrowest with four rows of large punctures, which are rather 
shallow, between them : two rows of large punctures and the orbital punctures descend between 
eye and facial impression, and reach just below level of bottom of eye (Text-fig. 86). 

Mandibles bidentate, the upper tooth longer than the lower. 

Antenna with scape (Text-fig. 80) 3 to 3^ times length of its greatest breadth, broadest just 
before middle ; with pedicellus almost twice length of its greatest breadth ; with funicle 
segments broad cup-shaped to short-cylindrical, the sixth 2^ times as broad as long : club 
(see Compere, 1937) equal in length to pedicellus and funicle together. 

Reticulate microsculpture on pronotum, mesoscutum and axillae very fine, on scutellum much 
stronger and more regular : punctures on mesoscutum coarse though shallow, clearly separated 
by less than their own diameters ; on axillae and scutellum finer and sparser, especially towards 
apex of scutellum. 

Fore wing shape much as infrontalis Comp., relatively rather narrow, with lower part of outer 
margin slightly emarginate and with anal angle somewhat sharp ; subcostal vein markedly 



CLASSIFICATION OF THE ANAGYRINI 213 

expanded before apex, marginal vein relatively short, the postmarginal clearly not reaching tip 
of uncus, the radial very strongly curved : hyaline streak present : costal cell bearing two rows 
of strong hairs, the lower fading out in apical quarter. 

Head blue-green, with frontovertex largely overspread with purplish bronzy reflections, 
merging further forward to red-violet on the ridges and more brassy in the punctures and on 
facial impression : mouth region and sometimes hinder genae rather bronzy. Pronotum, 
mesoscutum, tegulae, axillae and scutellum with fundamental dull blue-green showing weakly 
through the bright, rather bronzy, reflection. Pleura, propodeum and gaster brownish black to 
blackish brown with bright reflections, more strongly blue-green around propodeal spiracles and 
on parts of gaster. Antennae with pedicellus in upper half and club on outer face blackish brown, 
with metallic green reflection : scape yellow-testaceous, darkened narrowly at base and half way 
along upper margin, and more broadly along lower margin to beyond middle : remainder 
yellow-testaceous, the basal funicle segments sometimes, on outer surface, and the club to some 
extent, a little darkened. Legs with coxae and trochanters, fore and hind femora in greater 
and mid femora usually in lesser part, and hind tibiae above, brownish black to blackish brown 
with weak metallic reflections, otherwise dull testaceous : tarsi dull white, darkened at apex. 

Redescribed from two female paratypes. MEXICO. 

Aenasius longiscapus Compere 

1937 Aenasius longiscapus Compere, Proc. Hawaii, ent. Soc. 9 (3) : 388-91, 398-9. 

Head from above with median length to breadth = i : 1-8 ; frontovertex to total breadth = 
i : 3-4 to 3-9, with ocelli in a slightly obtuse triangle ; in side view longer than in pacificus Comp., 
bent round rather sharply from sides of facial impression to mouth region (rather as in frontalis 
Comp., Text-fig. 66, but less strongly) : facial impression rather small, about one-third height 
of head, strongly narrowed above, bordered by sharp keels at sides up to level of large punctures 
but not higher. Frontovertex markedly shining, with reticulate microsculpture very fine, with 
orbital piliferous punctures moderate above, strong below, and at narrowest with four rows of 
large punctures, which are of normal depth, between them : three rows of large punctures 
merging to two, and the orbital punctures, descend between eye and facial impression and 
reach well below bottom of eye. 

Mandibles bidentate. 

Antenna with scape (see Compere, 1937, P- 3^9) nearly four times length of its greatest breadth, 
broadest just beyond basal third ; with pedicellus i times length of its greatest breadth ; 
with funicle segments cup-shaped to short-cylindrical, the sixth twice as broad as long and as 
broad as the pedicellus is long : club a little longer than pedicellus and funicle combined. 

Microsculpture very fine on pronotum, mesoscutum and axillae, regular and of moderate 
strength on scutellum (i.e. weaker than in pacificus Comp.) : punctures on mesoscutum coarse, 
separated by less than their own diameters, on scutellum similar, but rather sparser in posterior 
half. 

Fore wings as described for pacificus Comp., but the marginal rather longer. 

Head blue-green, overspread with pale bronzy in region of ocelli, and red-violet on the ridges 
further forward : facial impression brassy green, the mouth region more bronzy : genae a duller 
blue-green, with strong brassy reflection. Pronotum, mesoscutum, tegulae, axillae and scutel- 
lum with fundamental blue-green showing weakly through the bright bronzy reflection. Pleura, 
propodeum and gaster as described for pacificus Comp. Antennae with scape for the most part, 
pedicellus at apex, and funicle yellow-testaceous ; the scape at base and half way along lower 
margin, pedicellus for the most part, and club blackish brown, with very distinct green reflec- 
tions. Leg colour of similar pattern to that of pacificus Comp. but darker, the brownish black 
deeper and more shining, and the tarsal colour pale testaceous. 

Redescribed from the following. TRINIDAD: Wallerfield, i $, xi.ig^S, on Piper; 
I.C.T.A., I $, iv.i954, ex, Ferrisia sp. on Gliricidia (F. D. Bennett}. 



2i 4 G. J. KERRICH 

The unique holotype was deposited in the U.S. National Museum, but a slide mount 
of the left antenna and pair of wings remained with H. Compere, and this has been 
available on loan to the present author. In the type, the sixth funicle segment is 
blackish brown like the club. The slight discrepancy between the proportion of the 
antennal scape given in the present work and that given by Compere (1937) is due to 
the angle at which the scape settled in the slide mount. Dr. B. D. Burks kindly com- 
pared the specimen taken on Piper with the type in Washington, with reference to 
my manuscripts, and wrote on 26th September, 1962 as follows: " In the type the 
mesoscutum and mesopleuron are more heavily sculptured than in your specimen, 
but in the absence of other differences I finally convinced myself that they are the 
same. Certainly the type runs to longiscapus in your key." 

This species is very closely related to pacificus Comp. 



Aenasius vadosus sp. n. 

Head from above with median length to breadth = 1:2-2; fronto vertex to total breadth = 
i : 4-8, with ocelli in an acute triangle ; in side view curved more strongly in lower than in 
upper half, but nowhere sharply bent : cheeks short, sharply narrowed at well over half a right 
angle, though well rounded : facial impression small, about a third the height of head, bordered 
by sharp keels at sides up to level of large punctures but not higher. Frontovertex with reti- 
culate microsculpture regular and of moderate strength, with orbital piliferous punctures weak 
above, moderate below, with large punctures irregular and relatively very shallow and loosely 
reticulate in region of ocelli : two rows of large punctures and the orbital punctures descend 
between eye and facial impression, and reach just below bottom of eye. 

Mandibles bidentate, the upper tooth slightly the longer. 

Antenna with scape just over three times length of its greatest breadth, broadest at basal 
two-fifths, then almost rectilinearly narrowed ; with pedicellus i times as long as broad ; with 
funicle segments short, the sixth two and a third times as broad as long : club broad, i times 
length of combined funicle segments. 

Reticulate microsculpture extremely fine on mesoscutum and axillae, very fine on scutellum : 
punctures very shallow, mostly separated by much more than their own diameters on scutum, 
still sparser on scutellum. 

Fore wings as described for pacificus Comp., but quite strongly emarginate above the hyaline 
streak. 

Head with blue-green scarcely discernible beneath the overspread of bright, pale bronzy in 
region of ocelli, normal bronzy further forward ; brassy green on facial impression and in the 
punctures above and beside it, the mouth region bronzy : genae blue-green, with brassy to 
bronzy reflections. Pronotum, mesoscutum, tegulae, axillae and scutellum bright bronzy. 
Antennae with scape, funicle and club yellow-testaceous, the scape only darkened at extreme 
base and the club only slightly darkened : pedicellus, except beneath, brownish black with 
green metallic reflections. Legs with coxae, trochanters, fore femora wholly and hind femora, 
except at apex, brownish black with metallic reflections : there is similar but paler colour on 
fore tibiae in about basal two-thirds, on hind tibiae above, and on mid femora and tibiae in 
about basal three-quarters and at extreme apex, merging to a rich testaceous : mid femora and 
tibiae before apex and tarsi at base almost whitish, the tarsi otherwise pale testaceous. 

Holotype $. PORTO Rico, Mayaguez, xi . 1959 on coffee (F. D. Bennett}. Holotype 
in British Museum (Natural History). 



CLASSIFICATION OF THE ANAGYRINI 215 

Aenasius acuminatus sp. n. 

(Text-fig. 81) 

Head from above with median length half breadth : frontovertex a quarter the total breadth, 
with ocelli in an acute triangle : in side view weakly curved in upper, more strongly in lower 
half : cheeks much longer than in vadosus sp. n., narrowed at well under half a right angle : 
facial impression rather small, just over one-third the height of head, bordered by sharp keels up 
to level of large punctures but not higher. Frontovertex with reticulate microsculpture of 
moderate strength, with orbital piliferous punctures moderate, and at narrowest with four rows 
of piliferous punctures, which are of normal depth, between them : three rows of large punctures 
and the orbital punctures descend between eye and facial impression and reach well below 
bottom of eye. 

Mandibles bidentate, the upper tooth slightly the longer. 

Antenna with scape (Text-fig. 81) five times length of its greatest breadth, broadest at basal 
third, then almost rectilinearly narrowed ; with pedicellus 2 J times length of its greatest breadth ; 
with funicle segments broad cup-shaped to short-cylindrical : club elongate and having the 
sutures very oblique, over 2\ times as long as broad and over i times length of combined 
funicle segments. 

Reticulate microsculpture on pronotum, mesoscutum and axillae very fine, less fine and more 
regular towards apex of scutellum ; punctures rather coarse, not exceptionally shallow ; mostly 
separated by rather more than their own diameters on mesoscutum, if anything a little denser 
on scutellum except near its apex. 

Fore wings as described for pacificus Comp., but the marginal rather longer. 

Head blue-green, largely overspread above with bronzy, merging to red-violet on the ridges 
above and beside the facial impression : mouth region and genae with much brassy to bronzy 
reflection. Pronotum, mesoscutum, tegulae, axillae and scutellum blue-green, almost wholly 
overspread with bright bronzy. Antennal colouring as described for longiscapus Comp., but the 
club paler. Legs with the same fundamental colour-pattern as in vadosus sp. n., but considerably 
paler. 

Holotype $. TRINIDAD: Maracas, .1953, ex Dysmicoccus brevipes (Ckll.) on 
cacao (F. D. Bennett). Holotype in British Museum (Natural History). 

Aenasius brasiliensis (Mercet) 

1926 Chalcaspis brasiliensis Mercet, Eos 2 : 46-48. 

1937 Aenasius brasiliensis (Mercet) Compere, Proc. Hawaii, ent. Soc. 9 (3) : 288-90, 398. 

Head from above moderately broad, median length to breadth = 1:2-1; frontovertex to 
total breadth = i : 3-3, with ocelli in a slightly obtuse triangle ; in side view short and almost 
evenly curved : facial impression shallow and not sharply bordered, nearly half height of head. 
Frontovertex with reticulate microsculpture regular and strong, with orbital piliferous punctures 
rather strong, and at narrowest with four to five rows of punctures between these. 

[Conformation of mandibles not clearly visible on unique type specimen.] 

Antenna with scape weakly laminate, almost four times length of its greatest breadth, broadest 
a little before the middle ; with pedicellus i times length of its greatest breadth ; with funicle 
segments short-cylindrical, the sixth not twice as broad as long ; with club about equal in 
length to combined funicle segments. 

Mesoscutum finely transversely striate-reticulate, beset with moderate, rather deep, clear-cut 
punctures that mostly are separated by rather more than their own diameters : scutellum and 
axillae with reticulate microsculpture shallow but wide, beset with coarse but rather shallow 
piliferous punctures that mostly are separated by less than their own diameters but are smaller 
and sparser at sides and on axillae. Propodeum with spiracles large, broad-oval. 



216 G. J. KERRICH 

Fore wings with lower part of outer margin distinctly a little curved, and with anal angle well 
rounded : subcostal vein markedly expanded before apex, postmarginal clearly not extending 
to level of tip of uncus, the radial narrow, very strongly curved : hyaline streak present, though 
with a row of hairs in it : costal cell broad, bearing two rows and a half row of rather strong, 
rather sparse, hairs. 

Head blue-green, with bronzy coloration in area of ocelli, merging to red-violet and developed 
mainly on the ridges of the reticulations forward of this and to sides of facial impression. 
Mesoscutum, axillae, scutellum and tegulae a fundamental dull blue-green, almost entirely 
overspread with purplish bronzy reflection. Pleura, propodeum and gaster blackish brown to 
brownish black, with bright reflections, blue-green around propodeal spiracles and in part on 
gaster above. Antennal scape at base, above and along lower margin, pedicellus except at 
extreme apex, and club blackish brown with bright reflections, the scape and pedicellus green 
above : scape in greater part, pedicellus at extreme apex, and funicle yellow-testaceous, the 
funicle segments a little darkened above. Legs medium brown, with metallic reflections very 
weak, merging to pale yellow-brown, the tarsi all pale but with apical segment dark, the mid 
and hind metatarsi whitish in basal half, the mid tibiae dark at apex. 

Redescribed from the unique holotype from Corumba, Matto Grosso, Brazil. 

Mercet (1926) described the colour of the tegulae as " azules ", and Compere (1937) 
gave " tegulae blue " as a key character. However the colour may have appeared 
in the specimen when almost fresh, it does not now appear as more than a dull 
blue-green. Moreover, Mercet described blue-green coloration as " azul " in other 
cases. 

Aenasius cariocus Compere 
(Text-figs. 68, 82) 

1921 ? Blepyrus tachigaliae Brues, Zoologica 3 (9) : 229-30. New York. 

1937 Aenasius cariocus Compere, Proc. Hawaii, ent. Soc. 9 (3) : 388-91, 399. 

1937 Aenasius colombiensis Compere, Ibidem,*) (3) : 403-4, syn. n. 

1953 Aenasius theobromae Kerrich, Bull. ent. Res. 44 (4) : 796-7, syn. n. 

Head from above variable in breadth, median length to breadth = i : 1-7 to 2-3 ; frontovertex 
to total breadth = i : 2-8 to 3-9, with ocelli in a slightly obtuse triangle (Text-fig. 68) ; in side 
view more strongly curved below than above : facial impression moderately deep, over two- 
fifths height of head. Frontovertex shining, with reticulate microsculpture very fine to moderate 
in strength, with orbital piliferous punctures normally moderate, and at narrowest with four, 
occasionally five, rows of relatively rather shallow punctures between them. 

Antenna with scape (Text-fig. 82) moderately laminate, 3 to 3^ times length of its greatest 
breadth, broadest about in middle ; with pedicellus scarcely a quarter longer than apically 
broad ; with funicle segments cup-shaped to short-cylindrical, the sixth not quite twice as broad 
as long ; with club one-fifth to one-half longer than combined funicle segments. 

Mandibles bidentate, the upper tooth slightly the longer and larger. 

Pronotum, mesoscutum, axillae and scutellum with reticulate microsculpture very fine to 
rather fine, beset with moderate piliferous punctures that are separated by rather more to rather 
less than their own diameters. Propodeum with spiracles large, broad-oval. 

Fore wings much as described for brasiliensis (Mercet) , but with hyaline streak usually sharper : 
costal cell occasionally bearing only two rows of rather strong hairs, which may merge in apical 
quarter. 

Head blue-green, overspread in region of ocelli with bright, pale bronzy merging to red-violet 
above and beside the facial impression on the ridges, almost blue in the punctures : facial 
impression blue-green to brassy green, the mouth region more bronzy : genae dull blue-green 
with weak reflections. Pronotum, mesoscutum, axillae, scutellum and tegulae dull blue-green, 



CLASSIFICATION OF THE ANAGYRINI 217 

which is scarcely discernible beneath the overspread of purplish-bronzy reflection. Pleura, 
propodeum and gaster brownish black to blackish brown, with bright reflections, blue-green in 
region of propodeal spiracles and sometimes on gaster above. Antennal scape very broadly 
above and below blackish with metallic reflections, yellow-testaceous along middle in about 
apical half, and more or less broadly at apex : pedicellus except at extreme apex and club 
brownish black, the pedicellus green above : pedicellus at extreme apex and funicle yellow- 
testaceous, the first four funicle segments somewhat darkened above : the sixth funicle segment 
sometimes, like the club, brownish black, and rarely the fifth also darkened. Leg colour as 
described for brasiliensis (Mercet), but in one series the mid and hind femora are paler and more 
extensively so. 

Redescribed from the following material. BRAZIL: Sao Paulo, Garuja, 5 $, vii. 
r 935> " ex Pseudococcus sp. 16 " (E. Hambleton); Sao Paulo, 2 $, 111.1935, "ex 
Pseudococcus sp. 15 " (E. Hambleton); Campinas, 7 $, ^.1936, " ex Pseudococcus sp. 
12 " (E. Hambleton). COLOMBIA: Barbosa, 6 <j>, x.1935, ex Pseudococcus sp. (E. G. 
Salas) (paratypes of colombiensis Comp.); Bucaramanga, 5 $, ix.1935, ex Pseudo- 
coccus sp. (E. G. Salas); River Vaupes, 7 $, x-xii.1952, " ex Coccid D 334 ", I $, 
x-xii.i952, " ex Coccid D 257 on pineapple " (D. J. Taylor). PANAMA: Canal Zone, 
Paraiso, 2 $, 20.1.1911 (A Busck); Montelirio, I $, 17.^.1924, unlocalized, 2 $, 
iii.i924 (D. T. Fullaway); Barro Colorado, i $, 1.1941, on Heliconia marina 
(J. Zetek}. TRINIDAD: Maracas, 3 $, x.1949, ex Dysmicoccus brevipes (Ckll.) on 
cacao pod (T. W . Kirkpatrick], (holotype and paratypes of theobromae Kerrich), 
5 $, 6.ix.i953, same locality and host data (F. D. Bennett}. Material in U.S. 
National Museum, in Citrus Experiment Station, Riverside and in British Museum 
(Natural History). 

Compere (1937) described colombiensis as a species differing only in colour from the 
two series of cariocus he then had. From a study of the greater number of series 
now available, I consider these colour differences not to have significance. In 
particular I find that some qualities of metallic coloration are revealed by a mixture 
of moderate artificial light and good daylight, whereas they may be obscured by 
stronger artificial light which penetrates to the melanin. It is apparent that in 
some other species with the antennal funicle partly yellow, one more funicle segment 
than is usual may be dark. Consequently I place colombiensis as a straight synonym 
of cariocus. Dr. B. D. Burks, after studying the two types in comparison with speci- 
mens from several of the above series and with reference to my manuscripts, has 
expressed agreement with this synonymy. 

In 1953 I described, as a new species theobromae, a form that appeared to differ 
from cariocus Comp. in four structural and two colour key characters. It should be 
noted that the frontovertex was described as having six rows of punctures at 
narrowest, but that these six include the orbital punctures which are exceptionally 
large in that series of specimens (Text-fig. 68). This form has the head, seen from 
above, over half as long as broad, the punctation of the mesoscutum relatively 
coarse, the frontovertex more obviously green, the antennal scape with relatively 
little dark marking, the antennal club relatively swollen, and the propodeal spiracles 
relatively large. Prolonged study, however, of the type series and another series, 
in conjunction with the numerous series previously placed as cariocus Comp., lead 
me to regard this as a form of cariocus exhibiting extremes of variation in several 
respects. I cannot now maintain it as a distinct species. 



2i8 G. J. KERRICH 

This species is so variable that it seems possible that brasiliensis (Mercet) is another 
aberrant form of it. 

H. Compere has recognized Blepyrus tachigaliae Brues as belonging to the genus 
Aenasius, and specimens that I place as cariocus have been determined as tachigaliae 
by D. T. Fullaway, A. B. Gahan and B. D. Burks. I would think it premature, 
however, to accept this as definite synonymy before the type has been re-examined. 
The type is not in the U.S. National Museum, and cannot be traced in the American 
Museum of Natural History, the collection of the New York Zoological Society, or the 
Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard. 



Aenasius brethesi De Santis 

(Text-figs. 87-88) 
1964 [1963] Aenasius brethesi De Santis, An. Comn Invest, dent. Prov. Bs Aires 4 : 255, 257-60. 

Head from above broad, median length to breadth = i : 2-2 ; frontovertex to total breadth 
= 1:3-9, with ocelli in a right-angled triangle ; in side view almost regularly rounded : cheeks 
of moderate length and well rounded : facial impression over a third the height of head. Fronto- 
vertex with reticulate microsculpture fine, with orbital piliferous punctures small, and at 
narrowest with four rows of large punctures between them : facial impression broad and no- 
where sharply bordered, about two-fifths height of head, the large punctures descending only a 
short way below its upper margin (Text-fig. 87). 

Mandibles (De Santis, fig. 124) bidentate. 

Antenna (according to measurements cited and fig. 122) with scape 3-9 times length of its 
greatest breadth, broadest well beyond middle ; with pedicellus twice length of its greatest 
breadth ; with funicle segments short cup-shaped, the sixth twice as broad as long : [club 
incomplete] . 

Reticulate microsculpture on mesoscutum and axillae rather fine, on scutellum of moderate 
strength : these sclerites beset with moderate piliferous punctures that mostly are separated by 
rather more than their own diameters. 

Fore wing with lower part of outer margin strongly curved and with anal angle regularly 
rounded : radial straight in basal two-thirds, then curved, and sharply pointed at apex, the 
postmarginal clearly extending beyond its tip (Text-fig. 88) : hyaline streak absent : costal cell 
bearing three rows of strong hairs, merging to two in about apical third. 

Head dull blue-green with occasional patches of bronzy reflection, on facial impression merging 
to more strongly bronzy below. Pronotum, mesoscutum, axillae and scutellum dull blue-green, 
with bronzy reflection especially at sides. Pleura and propodeum blackish brown, and gaster 
brownish black, with weak reflections. Legs brownish black, with bright reflections, merging 
to dull testaceous. 

Holotype $. ARGENTINA: Buenos Aires, Delta del Parana, 25.1.1908 (/. Brethes). 

I wish to express my gratitude to Dr. Manuel J. Viana for according me the loan 
of this type from the collection of the Museo Argentine de Ciencias Naturales 
" Bernadino Rivadavia ", Buenos Aires. This has enabled me to make direct 
comparison between the species and its closer relatives. I have not, however, seen 
the antennae, mandibles and right wings, which had been dissected off for illustration. 



CLASSIFICATION OF THE ANAGYRINI 219 

Aenasius bolowi Mercet 

1928 Aenasius sp. Mercet, Eos 4 : 11-12. 

1947 Aenasius bolowi Mercet, Revta R. Acad. Cienc. exact, fis. nat. Madr. 41 : 466-7, species 
dubium. 

This species was validated in a paper consisting of manuscript descriptions pieced 
together and published 14 years after their distinguished author's death. The 
description of Aenasius bolowi was evidently based on a specimen that Mercet had 
for study, and referred to but did not validate in a paper published in 1928. Un- 
luckily this specimen cannot be traced in the Madrid museum at this time, nor is it 
in the Zoologisches Museum der Umversitat, Berlin or the Deutsches Entomolo- 
gisches Institut. The description does not appear to fit any species of Aenasius 
treated in the present paper, and it is possible that Aen. bolowi belongs to some other, 
similar genus. 



KEY TO SPECIES OF AENASIUS WALKER : FEMALES 

Antennal scape expanded into a broad lamina, only about one and one-third times to 

about twice length of its greatest breadth (Text-figs. 69-78) : mandibles bidentate 2 

Antennal scape less strongly laminate, at least 2^ times length of its greatest 

breadth (Text-figs. 79-82) : mandibles bidentate, in two species obscurely tridentate 16 

Antennal funicle blackish brown to brownish black, with weak metallic reflections, 

the first 4 or 5 segments very broad, rather saucer-shaped ..... 2 

Antennal funicle with at least two segments pale yellow-testaceous, the segments 
usually short-cylindrical, none more than about 3 times as broad as long [in one 
species in which the first three are saucer-shaped the wing margin is sharply 
incised at apex of the sub-parallel costal cell] . . . . . . . 13 

Fore wing with a hyaline streak running from tip of radial to tip of postmarginal 
(Compere, 1937, n - 3> longiscapus and others), with lower part of outer margin 
less strongly curved and with anal angle less rounded : facial impression bordered 
by a distinct keel at least at sides ......... 4 

Fore wing without such streak (Compere, 1937, fig. 3, punctatus and others), with 
outer margin distinctly to strongly curved and with anal angle well rounded: 
facial impression not bordered by a distinct keel at sides and seldom above . . 9 

Facial impression also bordered by a distinct keel above (almost as distinct as in 
frontalis Comp.), the face distinctly angled in this position: punctation of fronto- 
vertex relatively shallow: lamina of antennal scape not bulging outward at apex 
(Text-figs. 69 and 70) : fore whig with outer margin distinctly a little curved and 
with anal angle moderately rounded ........ 5 

Facial impression bordered by distinct keels at sides but not above : punctation of 
fronto vertex deep: lamina of antennal scape bulging outward at apex (Text-figs. 
71-73) : fore wings with lower part of outer margin almost straight and with anal 
angle relatively sharp ........... 6 

Antennal scape three-quarters longer than its greatest breadth, the lamina curving 
inward from apex (Text-fig. 69) : antennal club longer than the combined funicle 
segments ........... hyettus Walker 

Antennal scape one-half longer than its greatest breadth, the lamina falling almost 
vertically at apex (Text-fig. 70) : antennal club shorter than the combined funicle 
segments ........... sitnilis sp. n. 



220 



G. J. KERRICH 




69 



hyet 




72 




pers. 



mapl. 




70 




73 



reg. 



74 



75 




76 



punc t. 



V J 

phen. >> * X 




77 





78 



79 



Paul. 



front. 



80 



81 



82 



pacif. 

cari. 

FIGS. 69-82. Aenasius species, females. Left antennal scape, in dextro-lateral view, of 
69, Aen. hyettus Walk. ; 70, Aen. similis sp. n. ; 71, Aen. maplei Comp. ; 72, Aen. 
personatus sp. n. ; 73, ^4gw. regularis sp. n. ; 74, ylew. punctatus Comp. ; 75, ylew. phena- 
cocci Bennett ; 76, Aen. connectens sp. n. ; 77, Aen. advena Comp. ; 78, Aen. frontalis 
Comp. ; 79, Aen. paulistus Comp. ; 80, Aen. pacificus Comp. ; 81, Aen. acuminatus sp. n. 
and 82, Aen. cariocus Comp. 



CLASSIFICATION OF THE ANAGYRINI 221 

6 Fron to vertex relatively broad, nearly a third the total head width, with ocelli in a 

slightly obtuse triangle (95) (Text-fig. 55), antennal scape not or but little broader 
than the f rontovertex : frons rather prominent, the facial impression rather deep 
as seen from above, the head in side view bent round rather sharply to mouth 
region (Text-fig. 62) ......... maplei Compere 

Frontovertex less than a quarter total head width, with ocelli in a decidedly acute 
triangle (65-70) (Text-figs. 56-57), antennal scape much broader than the fronto- 
vertex : frons less prominent, the facial impression appearing less deep from above, 
the head in side view more evenly curved, less sharply bent round to mouth region 7 

7 Antennal scape (Text-fig. 72) very broad, about one-third longer (dorsally) than its 

greatest breadth : head from above moderately broad (Text-fig. 56) . personatus sp. n. 
Antennal scape (Text-fig. 73) about three-fifths longer (dorsally) than its greatest 

breadth: head from above mostly broader (Text-fig. 57) ..... 8 

8 Mesoscutum beset with shallow but well-defined piliferous punctures that mostly 

are separated by less than their own diameters: fore wing with radial vein only 
slightly curved : head and thorax usually with much red-violet . . caeruleus Brues 
Antennal club nearly twice as long as combined funicle segments: mesoscutum 
beset with rather small and ill-defined piliferous punctures that are separated by 
much more than their own diameters : fore wing with radial vein distinctly curved : 
head and thorax with little red-violet ...... regularis sp. n. 

9 Head, pro- and mesothorax, and to a lesser extent metathorax, propodeum and sides 

of gaster with reticulate microsculpture very strong and regular, giving the species 
a velvety appearance : antennae with scape twice as long (dorsally) as its greatest 
breadth, the lamina bulging very slightly outward at apex (Text-fig. 74) : wings with 
prebasal area regularly beset with hairs which are not so much larger than those on 
postbasal, and do not tend so much to be in distinct rows as in other species 

punctatus Compere 
Not as above: antennal scape about one-half longer than its greatest breadth, 

with lamina, except in the next species, curving inward from apex . . . 10 

10 Facial impression bordered by a sharp keel above but not at sides : head in side view 

rather long and strongly curved (Text-fig. 63) : lamina of antennal scape bulging 
outward slightly at apex : postmarginal extending beyond tip of uncus : costal cell 
bearing two rows of strong hairs ....... vexans sp. n. 

Facial impression not bordered by a distinct keel above or at sides: head in side 
view shorter: lamina of antennal scape curving inward from apex (Text-fig. 75): 
postmarginal not reaching level of tip of uncus; costal cell bearing three or four 
rows of strong hairs ........... n 

11 Head from above moderately long, median length to breadth = 1:1-7 to 2-0: reti- 

culation on frontovertex, mesoscutum and scutellum very fine: propodeal 
spiracles broad-oval to sub-circular and large: mid tibiae pale testaceous-brown 

phenacocci Bennett 

Head from above decidedly broad, median length to breadth = 1:2-0 to 2-4: 
reticulation on mesoscutum and scutellum of at least moderate strength : propodeal 
spiracles transverse-oval, not abnormally large : mid tibiae usually blackish brown 
to brownish black, sometimes paler . . . . . . . . 12 

12 Punctation of frontovertex (as in phenacocci) relatively shallow and rather regular: 

greatest width of scape about equal to narrowest width of frontovertex : antennal 
club only slightly longer than combined funicle segments: head with little 
red- violet ........... flandersi sp. n. 

Punctation of frontovertex deeper and less regular: greatest width of scape about 
i times narrowest width of frontovertex: antennal club about one-half longer 
than combined funicle segments: head with much red-violet . masii Domenichini 

13 Costal cell sub-parallel almost to apex, where the wing margin is sharply incised: 

antennal scape with lamina falling almost vertically from apex (Text-fig. 76) : 

ENTOM. 20, 5. 12 



222 



G. J. KERRICH 








88 



89 



FIGS. 83-87. Aenasius species, females. Head, in facial view, of 83, Aen. connectens sp. n. ; 
84, Aen. advena Comp. ; 85, Aen. paulistus Comp. ; 86, Aen. pacificus Comp. and 87, 
Aen. brethesi De S. 



FIGS. 88-89. Part of left fore-wing of 88, Aenasius brethesi De S. and 
89, Blepyrus clavicornis (Comp.). 



CLASSIFICATION OF THE ANAGYRINI 223 

head in side view (Text-fig. 64) neither so evenly curved as in advena Comp. nor so 
sharply bent round as in frontalis Comp. (Text-figs. 65 and 66) : facial impression 
decidedly broad (Text-fig. 83), bordered by a distinct keel above but not at sides: 
one to two rows of large punctures descend between the eye and facial impression, 
and do not nearly reach the malar line: postmarginal vein clearly extending 
beyond tip of uncus : [hyaline streak absent] .... connectens sp. n. 

Costal cell distinctly tapered to apex, where the wing margin is not sharply in- 
cised : antennal scape with lamina curving well inward from apex : head hi side view 
(see Text-figs. 65 and 66 and following couplet): facial impression less broad, 
either not bordered by a distinct keel or bordered by a sharp keel above and at 
sides: two to three rows of large punctures descend between eye and facial im- 
pression, and nearly reach the malar line: postmarginal vein not reaching tip 
of uncus ............. 14 

14 Head from above decidedly broad, about twice or more as broad as long, with frontal 

emargination shallow; in side view rather evenly curved to mouth (Text-fig. 65): 
frontovertex hardly shining, about one-fifth the total head width : facial impression 
narrow above (Text-fig. 84), not bordered by a distinct keel: fore wings with lower 
part of outer margin moderately curved : hyaline streak absent . . advena Compere 

a. Head blue-green, in large part with brassy reflections, around median ocellus 
more coppery and golden: antennae with club and last two funicle segments 
blackish brown ........... type form 

b. Head dominantly red -violet above, blue-green near the median ocellus (but 
intermediates are now known) ..... var. ianthinus Compere 

c. Small specimens: antennae with scape twice or just over twice as long as its 
greatest breadth and with whole funicle a rich yellow-testaceous: U.S.A., Florida . var. 

Head from above elongate, much less than twice as broad as long, with frontal 
emargination deep (Text-fig. 67); in side view (Text-fig. 66) seen to be falling 
forward and then bent round at about a right angle to mouth region : frontovertex 
strongly shining, about a quarter the total head width: facial impression less 
narrow above, bordered by a sharp keel above and at sides : fore wings with lower 
part of outer margin slightly emarginate : hyaline streak present . . . 15 

15 Frontovertex between a fifth and a quarter the total head breadth: mesoscutum 

with relatively fine, transversely lineolate microsculpture : legs, except coxae and 
trochanters, mainly testaceous ...... frontalis Compere 

Frontovertex one-third the total head breadth: mesoscutum shagreened between 

the punctures : legs blackish, with only the tarsi paler . . chapadae Ashmead 

1 6 Antennal scape two and a half to less than three times as long as broad, and shaped 

as in Text-fig. 79 : fore wing rather sharply incised at apex of costal cell, without a 
definite hyaline streak, and with postmarginal extending beyond tip of radius: 
facial impression broad, the large punctures not descending far below its upper 
margin (Text-fig. 85) : mandibles obscurely tridentate . . . . . 17 
Antennal scape at least about three times as long as broad and shaped differently 
(Text-figs. 80-82) : fore wing not sharply incised at apex of radial cell: except in 
brethesi De S., fore wing with a hyaline streak and with postmarginal not extending 
as far as tip of radius, and facial impression less broad, the large punctures descend- 
ing much further: mandibles bidentate . . . . . . . . 18 

17 Cheeks and large punctures as in Text-fig. 85: large punctures on frontovertex of 

fully normal depth: piliferous punctures on mesoscutum regular and relatively 
deep, mostly separated by about or rather less than their own diameters, on 
scutellum not inconspicuous; propodeum with spiracles large, very broad-oval: 
fore wing with infuscation fading out towards outer margin: antennal club 
blackish brown with green metallic reflections : tarsi pale testaceous, darkened at 
apex : Brazil ......... paulistus Compere 



224 G. J. KERRICH 

Cheeks more rounded, and large punctures descending even less far below upper 
margin of facial impression: large punctures on frontovertex relatively shallow; 
piliferous punctures on mesoscutum rather shallower and mostly separated by more 
than their own diameters, on scutellum rather inconspicuous: propodeum with 
spiracles transverse-oval, not abnormally large : fore wing with inf uscation curving 
outward from apex of radial vein, leaving the wing very broadly hyaline by outer 
margin: antennal club largely dull yellow-testaceous, blackish brown near base: 
tarsi rather darker : islands of Mexico ..... insular is Compere 

1 8 Fore wing shape much as in frontalis Comp., relatively rather narrow, with lower 

part of outer margin slightly emarginate and with anal angle relatively sharp: 
cheeks usually short, sharply narrowed, and facial impression relatively small, not 
more than about a third the height of head (Text-fig. 86) . . . . . 19 
Fore wings broader, with lower part of outer margin curved gently outward, and 
with anal angle more rounded: cheeks longer and less narrowed, and facial 
impression relatively large, about two-fifths or more the height of head . . 23 

19 Frontovertex at narrowest well over a quarter the total head breadth: ocelli in about 

a right angled or slightly obtuse triangle : punctures on mesoscutum separated by 

less than their own diameters . . . . . . . . .20 

Frontovertex at narrowest a quarter or less the total head breadth: ocelli in a 
decidedly acute triangle: punctures on mesoscutum mostly separated by rather 
more than their own diameters . . . . . . . . .22 

20 Head, seen from above, with orbital piliferous punctures strong, and with larger 

punctures in a loose reticulation: inter-scrobal prominence visible when the head 
is viewed from above ; mesoscutum conspicuously bright green, markedly shining 
(though less strongly so than the frontovertex), and with punctation notably 
sharp: U.S.A. .......... nitens sp. n. 

Head, seen from above, with orbital piliferous punctures not strong, and with 
larger punctures in a close reticulation : inter-scrobal prominence not visible when 
the head is viewed from above: mesoscutum dull blue-green showing weakly 
through the rather bronzy reflection, not markedly shining, the microsculpture 
stronger, and with punctation not notably sharp . . . . . . 21 

21 Frontovertex not especially shining, the dull blue-green coloration largely over- 

spread, with punctures rather shallow: head in side view rather short, evenly 
curved round to mouth : antennal scape 3 to 3 \ times length of its greatest breadth, 
broadest just before middle (Text-fig. 80): antennal club equal in length to pedi- 
cellus and funicle combined ....... pacificus Compere 

Frontovertex decidedly shining and more conspicuously green, with punctures of 
normal depth: head in side view rather longer, bent round rather sharply from 
sides of facial impression: antennal scape nearly 4 times length of its greatest 
breadth, broadest just beyond basal third: antennal club longer than pedicellus 
and funicle combined ........ longiscapus Compere 

22 Frontovertex with punctures relatively very shallow: cheeks very short, narrowed 

at well over half a right angle : two rows of large punctures and the orbitals descend 
between eye and facial impression, and reach just below bottom of eye: antenna 
with scape just over 3 times, and club about i^ times, length of its greatest 
breadth : punctures on mesoscutum and scutellum very shallow, mostly separated 
by much more than their own diameters ..... vadosus sp. n. 

Frontovertex with punctures of normal depth: cheeks longer, narrowed at less 
than half a right angle: three rows of large punctures and the orbitals descend 
between eye and facial impression, and reach well below bottom of eye : antenna 
with scape (Text-fig. 81) 5 times, and club 2^ times, length of its greatest breadth: 
punctures on mesoscutum and scutellum not exceptionally shallow, mostly 
separated by little more than their own diameters except near apex of scutellum 

acuminatus sp. n. 



CLASSIFICATION OF THE ANAGYRINI 225 

23 Facial impression broad, the large punctures descending only a little way below its 

upper margin (Text-fig. 87): sixth funicle segment 2- times as broad as long: 
fore wing with hyaline streak absent, with radius emitted at a relatively acute 
angle and straight in basal two-thirds, the postmarginal clearly extending beyond 
tip of uncus (Text-fig. 88) : frontovertex and mesonotum very conspicuously dull 

blue-green : Argentina brethesi De Santis 

Facial impression less broad, the large punctures descending to about bottom of 
eye : sixth funicle segment not quite twice as broad as long : fore wing with hyaline 
streak present, with radius emitted at well over 45 and strongly curved, the 
postmarginal clearly not reaching level of tip of uncus: frontovertex and meso- 
notum with blue-green coloration mainly overspread ..... 24 

24 Antennal scape almost 4 times length of its greatest breadth, broadest just before 

middle: facial impression relatively shallow, almost half height of head: meso- 
scutum with moderate, rather deep, clear-cut punctures that are smaller than the 
coarse but shallower punctures on the middle of the scutellum (but this character 
is not especially obvious) ....... brasiliensis (Mercet) 

Antennal scape (Text-fig. 82) not more than about 3^ times length of its greatest 
breadth : facial impression of normal depth and somewhat smaller : punctures on 
scutellum not coarser than those on mesoscutum . . . cariocus Compere 

BLEPYRUS Howard, 1898 

1898 Blepyrus Howard, Proc. U.S. natn. Mus. 21 : 233-4. 

1922 Blepyrus Howard ; Timberlake, Proc. Hawaii, ent. Soc. 5 : 168-70. 

Blepyrus clavicornis (Compere) comb. n. 
(Text-figs. 89, 90, 92) 

1939 Ericydnus clavicornis Compere, Univ. Calif. Publs Ent. 7 (4) : 62-3. 

Head from above with median length to breadth = i : 2-1 ; frontovertex to total breadth = 
i : 4-6 to 4-9, with ocelli in an acute triangle ; in side view curved rather evenly to mouth : 
cheeks rather long, strongly curved (Text-fig. 90) : facial impression shallow and not sharply 
bordered, nearly half height of head. Frontovertex with reticulate microsculpture regular and 
of moderate strength, with orbital piliferous punctures small, and at narrowest with four rows 
of large punctures between them : large punctures descending between eye and facial impression 
rather scattered below. Piliferous punctures in malar area moderate. 

Mandibles bidentate, the upper tooth somewhat the larger and longer. 

Antenna (see Compere, 1939, fig. 3) with scape hardly expanded beneath, seven times length 
of its greatest breadth ; with pedicellus twice length of its greatest breadth ; with funicle 
segments cup-shaped to short cylindrical, the sixth 1-4 times as broad as long : club a little 
longer than combined funicle segments and with sutures very oblique. 

Mesoscutum with reticulate microsculpture rather strong, beset with shallow piliferous 
punctures that mostly are separated by less than their own diameters. Axillae and scutellum 
with microsculpture finer and much more outstanding, giving these sclerites a duller appearance : 
piliferous punctures fine : scutellum quite sharply pointed at apex (Text-fig. 92). 

Fore wings relatively elongate, with outer margin and anal angle well rounded : marginal vein 
about half length of radial, the latter emitted at an angle of about 45 (Text-fig. 89) : costal cell 
bearing four rows of hairs on upper surface. 

Head blue-green to blue, on frontovertex with much red-violet, and below that with slight 
infusion of red-violet to bronzy. Mesoscutum, except peripherally, strongly red-violet with 
some infusion of blue at sides : otherwise the dorsum of thorax is a fundamental blue-green to 
blue, mainly overspread with dull red-violet to bronzy reflections. Mesopleura, propodeum 



226 G. J. KERRICH 

above and gaster blackish with weak reflections, but sides of propodeum conspicuously blue- 
green. Antennal scape yellow : pedicellus and flagellum brownish black, with weak green 
reflections. Legs blackish at base to brownish, with weak reflections, the hind tibiae paler in 
apical third : fore and mid tibiae in apical two-thirds, and all tarsi yellow. 

Redescribed from two paratypes. BRAZIL. 

Blepyrus insularis (Cameron) 
(Text-figs. 91, 93) 

1886 Encyrtus? insularis Cameron, Mem. Proc. Manchr lit. phil. Soc. (3) 10 : 243-5. 
1922 Blepyrus insularis (Cameron) ; Timberlake, Proc. Hawaii, ent. Soc. 5 : 167-73. 
1945 Clausenia saissetiae Yasumatsu & Yoshimura, Mushi 16 : 31-2, syn. n. 

Head from above with median length to breadth i : 1-9 to 2-3 ; fronto vertex to total breadth 
= i : 3-6 to 4-8, with ocelli in an acute triangle ; in side view curved very evenly : cheeks short 
and sharply narrowed though strongly curved (Text-fig. 91) : facial impression shallow and not 
sharply margined, nearly half height of head. Frontovertex with reticulate microsculpture 
regular and of moderate strength, with orbital piliferous punctures small but regular, and at 
narrowest with five rows of large punctures, which are rather shallow, between them : one row 
of large punctures, diminishing in size from above, descends obscurely between eye and facial 
impression. Piliferous punctures in malar area rather fine. 

Mandibles tridentate, all teeth sharp, the middle one much the longest. 

Antenna (see Timberlake, 1922, fig. i) with scape very little expanded beneath, five to six 
times length of its greatest breadth ; with pedicellus twice length of its greatest breadth ; with 
funicle segments saucer-shaped, and club more than one-half longer than the combined funicle 
segments. 

Dorsum of thorax with reticulate microsculpture fine, that on axillae and scutellum little 
more outstanding than that on mesoscutum. Piliferous punctures on mesoscutum and axillae 
of moderate depth, mostly separated by less than their own diameters, those on scutellum finer, 
mostly separated by more than their own diameters : scutellum less pointed than in clavicornis 
(Comp.) and axillae more widely separated (Text-fig. 93). 

Fore wings as described for clavicornis Comp., but radial emitted at a slightly acuter angle : 
costal cell bearing three rows of hairs on upper surface, rather broadly glabrous next the sub- 
marginal vein. 

Head a fundamental dull blue-green overspread, usually in greater part, with dull red-violet 
and bronzy. Dorsum of thorax a fundamental blue-green showing weakly through the 
reflection, which normally is very conspicuously red-violet on mesoscutum, pale bronzy on 
scutellum. Mesopleura, propodeum, and gaster in greater part, blackish with bright reflection, 
the gaster conspicuously blue-green near base above. Antennal scape yellow to yellow- 
testaceous ; pedicellus and flagellum dull testaceous below, and pale brown with weak greenish 
reflections above. Coxae, trochanters, fore femora wholly, and mid and hind femora in about 
basal half, blackish with weak reflections : legs otherwise yellow-testaceous except that the 
mid femora are dull brown in apical half and the mid tibiae strongly infuscate in basal half. 

Redescribed from the following. HAWAIIAN Is.: Honolulu, 6 $, 2-5.^.1916, ex 
Ferrisia virgata (Ckll.) (P. H. Timberlake). MARIANNA Is.: Saipan, i $, 12. v. 1940, 
on Terminalia sp. supposedly ex Saissetia sp. (K. Yasumatsu & S. Yoshimura), 
(type of saissetiae Yasu. & Yoshi.). PAPUA: Milne Bay, 3 ?, 12. x. 1958, ex ^Piano- 
coccus citri (Risso) on coffee (W. C. Dormer}. SARAWAK: 10 $, ex mealybug 
(C. R. Wallace). MALAYA: Selangor, i $, viii.1948 (no further data), i $, vi.i95i, 
" ex ovisac of Pulvinaria maxima ", I $, ^.1952, ex F. virgata (Ckll.), per Rubber 
Research Institute; Selangor, Kuala Lumpur, 4 $, 24.^.1956, per Department of 



CLASSIFICATION OF THE ANAGYRINI 



227 



Agriculture. CEYLON: Peradeniya, 3 $, 20. v. 1954, exF. mrgata (Ckll.) per Depart- 
ment of Agriculture. INDIA: Madras, I $, 4.11.1958, ex mealybug on guava, per 
V. P. Rao. NIGERIA: Ibadan, 3 $, viii. 1954, ex F. mrgata (Ckll.) on Theobroma cacao, 
3 $, viii. 1954 on Gliricidia sp. (R. G. Donald). Much of this material in British 
Museum (Natural History). 

The mount which bore the Cameron type specimen is in the British Museum 
(Natural History), but the type specimen, which was examined by J. Waterston, is 
now missing. 

This species is evidently a tropicopolitan parasite of Ferrisia mrgata (Ckll.). 

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF BLEPYRUS Howard : FEMALES 

A. Cheeks rather long (Text-fig. 90) : antennal scape seven times length of its greatest 
breadth: funicle segments cup-shaped to short-cylindrical: mandibles bidentate: 
scutellum more pointed than in alternate (Text-fig. 92), and much less shining 
than mesoscutum : costal cell bearing four rows of hairs on upper surface : flagel- 
lum brownish black: hind tibiae considerably darkened . . clavicornis (Compere) 





92 



93 





FIGS. 90-93. Blepyrus species, females. 90-91. Head, in facial view, of 90, B. clavicornis 
(Comp.) and 91, B. insularis (Cam.). 92-93. Scutellum and axillae of 92, B. clavicornis 
(Comp.) and 93, B. insularis (Cam.). 



228 G. J. KERRICH 

B. Cheeks much shorter (Text-fig. 91): antennal scape five to six times length of its 
greatest breadth: funicle segments saucer-shaped: mandibles tridentate: scutel- 
lum less pointed than in alternate (Text-fig. 93), and little less shining than 
mesoscutum: costal cell bearing three rows of hairs on upper surface: flagellum 
pale brown: hind tibiae yellow-testaceous .... insularis (Cameron) 

Species incorrectly placed in Blepyrus Howard 

Blepyrus tachigaliae Brues, 1921 is discussed in the present work (pp. 216-8). 
Blepyrus saccharicola Gahan, 1942 is treated in the present work (p. 237). 

NEODISCODES Compere, 1931 

1931 Neodiscodes Compere, Univ. Calif. Publs Ent. 5 (14) : 272-4. 

1939 Neodiscodes Compere; Compere, Bull. ent. Res. 30 (i) : 24. 

JQ53 Neodiscodes Compere ; Kerrich, Bull. ent. Res. 44 (4) : 793 ex parte. 

In this study of the genus, seven species are recognized; but they are closely 
related, and only two are represented by long series, so that the range of variation in 
other cases has yet to be determined. 

Compere (1939) examined two specimens in a rearing from Pseudococcus sp. on 
Kei Apple in Kenya, but did not consider them distinct from the type species. One 
of these specimens was deposited in the British Museum collection and Kerrich (1953) 
did consider it specifically distinct but did not validate it. A further reared series 
agreeing closely with this specimen having been received, the species is now validated ; 
yet two other specimens show variation in either direction from the form considered 
as typical. 

Neodiscodes parvus sp. n. 

Head, seen from above, relatively strongly emarginate behind : median length to breadth 
about i : 1-8 ; frontovertex to total breadth = i : 4-5, with median ocellus one and a half times 
its own diameter from orbital margin : in side view relatively long, relatively much longer than 
in lepelleyi Kerrich (cf. Text-fig. 96) ; in facial view with cheeks well rounded. Frontovertex 
with reticulate microsculpture of moderate strength ; with orbital piliferous punctures small ; 
with larger punctures between ocelli of moderate strength, rather shallow, but mostly not well 
separated, those before median ocellus much coarser and deeper, and in a reticulation. Eyes 
very distinctly and not sparsely hairy (x 45). 

Antennal scape 2-5 times length of its greatest breadth. 

Mesoscutum with reticulate microsculpture very fine, a little coarser and more outstanding at 
sides, beset with fine, rather sparse, piliferous punctures : axillae and scutellum very similar, 
but the punctation still sparser. Scutellum narrowly rounded at apex. 

Fore wing twice length of its greatest breadth, with outer margin moderately curved and with 
anal angle well rounded : radius emitted at an angle of about 45, decidedly expanded from 
base and moderately curved, with a long uncus that does not extend nearly as far as apex of 
postmarginal. 

Head deep blue-green, with dull bronzy reflections strong on frontovertex, weak on facial area. 
Thorax above a fundamental dull blue-green, overspread with weak bronzy reflection. Pleura, 
propodeum and gaster blackish brown, with weak bronzy reflection and some blue-green on 
first large tergite. Antennae blackish brown, with metallic reflections weak to moderate : 
pedicellus narrowly paler at apex. Legs brownish black, the mid and hind femora and tibiae 
very largely a rather pale brown : tarsi stramineous, pale brown at segmental apices. 



CLASSIFICATION OF THE ANAGYRINI 229 

Holotype $. CHINA: Hunan, ii.vii.i94g, "ex A524 ", Djou coll. 

Paratype. I $ "shipment no. A2ii ". 

Holotype in British Museum (Natural History): paratype in Citrus Experiment 
Station, Riverside. Two males have similar data to the holotype, and one is to be 
deposited in each institution. 



Neodiscodes comperei sp. n. 

(Text-fig. 94) 

1953 Neodiscodes sp. Kerrich, Bull. ent. Res. 44 : 795-6. 

Head, seen from above (Text-fig. 94), relatively long, with median length to breadth = i : 
1-5 to 1-9 ; frontovertex to total breadth = i : 5-5, with median ocellus one and a half times its 
own diameter from orbital margin : in side view relatively long, sharply curved ; in facial view 
with cheeks weakly rounded. Frontovertex with reticulate microsculpture of moderate 
strength ; with orbital piliferous punctures very small but not minute ; having larger punctures 
between ocelli of moderate strength with some wide interspaces, those just before median ocellus 
scarcely larger and denser, but increasing in size and density forwards so as normally to form a 
reticulation above the facial area (Text-fig. 94). Eyes weakly and rather sparsely hairy ( x 45). 

Antennal scape 2-6 times length of its greatest breadth. 

Mesoscutum with reticulate microsculpture fine in middle and not much more outstanding at 
sides, beset with piliferous punctures that mostly are separated by less than their own diameters 
in middle, and are not much smaller and sparser at sides. Axillae and greater part of scutellum 
with microsculpture a little less fine than on middle of mesoscutum, and with piliferous punctures 
markedly sparser, mostly separated by much more than their own diameters. Scutellum 
moderately pointed at apex. 

Fore wing two and a quarter times length of its greatest breadth, with outer margin almost 
straight but with anal angle well rounded : radius emitted at a moderately acute angle, 
moderately to quite strongly curved, with a long, sharp uncus that extends just beyond apex of 
postmarginal. 

Head a fundamental blue-green, mainly overspread with dull bronzy reflection. Thorax 
above dull blue-green to steely green. Pleura, propodeum and gaster brownish black, with weak 
bronzy reflection. Antennae blackish to paler, with weak metallic reflections, the pedicellus 
paler at apex. Leg colour much as described for lepelleyi Kerrich. 

Holotype $. SOUTH AFRICA, Cape Province, Addo, ii. 1963, ex Allococcus quaesitus 
(Brain) on citrus (W. Hannekom). 

Paratypes. KENYA: Nairobi, National Agricultural Laboratory, i $, 6.iii.i937, 
ex Pseudococcus sp. on Kei Apple (Albizzia sp.) (A. R. Melville) (see Kerrich, 1953). 
SOUTH AFRICA: 2 $ (same data as holotype). 

Holotype, and paratype from Kenya, in British Museum (Natural History); 
paratypes in collection of Department of Agriculture, Pretoria and in United States 
National Museum. 

This species, received in series from Dr. D. P. Annecke and described by the present 
author, is named in gratitude for the inspiration given to both of us by Dr. H. 
Compere. 



230 G. J. KERRICH 

Neodiscodes lepelleyi Kerrich 

(Text-fig. 96) 
J 953 Neodiscodes lepelleyi Kerrich, Bull. ent. Res. 44 : 794-6. 

Head, seen from above, about twice as broad as median length : frontovertex to total breadth 
about i : 8-5, with median ocellus half its own diameter from orbital margin : in side view 
(Text-fig. 96) relatively short ; in facial view with cheeks moderately rounded. Frontovertex 
with reticulate microsculpture moderate to rather strong ; with orbital piliferous punctures 
minute ; having larger punctures between ocelli of moderate strength, mostly with wide inter- 
spaces, those before median ocellus larger, becoming coarser and closer just above facial area 
but mostly well separated. Eyes weakly and rather sparsely hairy (x 45). 

Antennal scape 2-6 times length of its greatest breadth. 

Mesoscutum with reticulate microsculpture very fine except at sides, where it is a little coarser 
and considerably more outstanding, beset with piliferous punctures that in middle are mostly 
separated by a little more than their own diameters, but at sides are much finer and sparser. 
Axillae similar to middle of mesoscutum. Scutellum duller, the microsculpture less fine : 
piliferous punctures markedly sparser. Scutellum very bluntly pointed, almost rounded, 
at apex. 

Fore wing twice length of its greatest breadth, with outer margin moderately curved and with 
anal angle sharply rounded : radius emitted at a very acute angle, almost straight, with a 
markedly enlarged pterostigma and with uncus not extending quite as far as apex of postmarginal. 

Head blue-green, with bronzy reflections on frontovertex strong and more or less extensive, on 
facial area weak or absent. Thorax above steely green, with some very weak violescent reflec- 
tions when viewed obliquely. Pleura, propodeum and gaster brownish black, with pale bronzy 
reflection. 

Antennae blackish to paler, with weak metallic reflections. Legs blackish brown, the mid 
and hind femora and tibiae paler in part, least so the hind tibiae : tarsi stramineous, the fore 
tarsi extensively, the mid and hind tarsi below and at segmental apices, pale brownish. 

Redescribed from the following material. CEYLON: Peradeniya, 2 $, n.vii.i937 
(including holotype), ex Planococcus lilacinus (Ckll.), i $, 5.viii.i937, supposedly 
ex Scymnus sp. (Coccinellidae), (R. H. Le Pelley). INDIA: Orissa, Bhubaneswar, 
i $, 3.^.1962, ex mealybug on " Paladhua " (G. N. Das). Material in British 
Museum (Natural History) and in Citrus Experiment Station, Riverside. 



Neodiscodes martinii Compere 
(Text-figs. 97, 99) 

1931 Neodiscodes martinii Compere, Univ. Calif. Publs Ent. 5 (14) : 273-4. 
*953 Neodiscodes martinii Compere; Kerrich ex parte, Bull. ent. Res. 44 (4) : 794-6 (excluding 
fig- 9). 

Head, seen from above, with median length to breadth = i : i -8 to 1-9 ; frontovertex to total 
breadth = about i : 5-6, with median ocellus about its own diameter from orbital margin : in 
side view longer than in lepelleyi Kerrich (cf. Text-fig. 96), not sharply curved ; in facial view 
with cheeks moderately rounded. Frontovertex with reticulate microsculpture of moderate 
strength ; with orbital piliferous punctures distinct, separated by about their own diameters or 
less; with larger punctures between ocelli large, in a loose reticulation, those before median 
ocellus decidedly larger, reticulate. Eyes moderately strongly hairy, the hairs discernible with 
difficulty x 25. 

Antennal scape 2-2 times length of its greatest breadth. 



CLASSIFICATION OF THE ANAGYRINI 231 

Mesoscutum with reticulate microsculpture rather fine, moderately finer and more outstanding 
at sides, beset with piliferous punctures that mostly are separated by less than their own 
diameters in middle, but are finer and very much sparser at sides. Axillae and scutellum with 
microsculpture much coarser and more outstanding, with piliferous punctures about equally 
coarse but rather sparser, mostly separated by more than their own diameters. Scutellum 
relatively sharply pointed at apex (Text-fig. 99). 

Fore wing twice length of its greatest breadth, with outer margin rather strongly curved and 
with anal angle rather strongly rounded (decidedly less so than in Aenasius punctatus Comp.) : 
radius emitted at an angle approaching 45, quite strongly curved, with a poorly defined stigma, 
but tapering to a small uncus that does not extend quite as far as apex of postmarginal (the 
apex of which is difficult to make out with precision) (Text-fig. 97). 

Head blue-green with bronzy reflections, merging to blue on facial area, fore part and hind 
margin of frontovertex. Thorax above a very dull blue-green. Pleura, propodeum and gaster 
brownish black, with weak bronzy reflection. Antennae blackish to paler, with weak metallic 
reflections, the pedicellus narrowly pale at apex. Leg colour as described for lepelleyi Kerrich. 

Redescribed from the following. ERITREA: Nefasit, i $, 16.^.1930, ex Piano- 
coccus citri (Risso) on Olea chrysophylla (H. Compere), (paratype) : i $, same data but 
" ex L. viridis ". Material in British Museum (Natural History). 



Neodiscodes abengouroui (Risbec) sp. rev. 
(Text-fig. 95) 

1951 Coccophoctonus abengouroui Risbec, Mem. Inst. franf . Afr. noire 13 : 128, 145-6, 149. 
1953 Neodiscodes martinii Compere ; Kerrich, Bull. ent. Res. 44 (4) : 793-5 ex parte (including 

fig. 9) [Mis-identification]. 
J 955 Neodiscodes martinii Compere ; Risbec, Agron. Trop., Nogent 10 (2) : 236. 

Head, seen from above (Text-fig. 95), with median length to breadth = 1:1-7 to 2 ' 2 ' fronto- 
vertex to total breadth i : 5-6 to 7-3, with median ocellus about two-thirds its own in diameter 
from orbital margin : in side view about as in martinii Comp., in facial view with cheeks weakly 
rounded. Frontovertex with reticulate microsculpture fine ; with orbital piliferous punctures 
distinct and sharp, separated by about their own diameters or much less ; with larger punctures 
between ocelli large, in a reticulation that sometimes is loose, those before median ocellus 
decidedly larger, reticulate (Text-fig. 95). Eyes densely and very strongly hairy, very 
distinctly so x 13. 

Antennal scape about 2-1 times length of its greatest breadth. 

Mesoscutum with reticulate microsculpture rather fine, more regular and outstanding than in 
martinii Comp., less regular and more outstanding at sides, beset with piliferous punctures that 
mostly are separated by less, often much less, than their own diameters in middle but are smaller 
and much sparser at sides. Axillae and scutellum with microsculpture about as on middle of 
mesoscutum, and with punctures about equally coarse or less so, usually sparser and separated 
by more than their own diameters. Scutellum bluntly pointed at apex. 

Fore wing twice length of its greatest breadth, with outer margin moderately curved and with 
anal angle rather sharp : radius emitted at a slightly less acute angle than in indicus Naray. & 
Subba Rao, moderately curved near base but almost straight in more than apical half, with 
uncus that does not extend quite as far as apex of postmarginal. 

Head blue-green to blue, with bronzy reflections more or less strong and extensive, on facial 
area often tending more to brassy. Thorax above steely green, with bronzy reflection weak to 
rather strong. Antennae blackish brown, with weak metallic reflections : scape and pedicellus 
markedly pale at apex, and basal flagellar segments similarly pale. Leg colour as described 
for lepelleyi Kerrich. 



232 G. J. KERRICH 

Redescribed from the following. GHANA: Tafo, i $, xi.i945, 7 $, 1947, 4 ?, 1949, 
ex Planococcoides njalensis (Laing) on cacao (A. H. Strickland}. IVORY COAST: 
Abengourou, 2 $, ex Planococcoides njalensis (Laing) (F. Datiguy); Divo, 5 $, 21. x. 
1951, 0* Planococcoides njalensis (Laing) (/. Magnin). 

This species, when reared from Planococcoides njalensis (Laing) on cacao in Ghana, 
was determined as martinii Compere. Later Mr. R. G. Donald, on the basis of host 
data, suspected that Coccophoctonus abengouroui Risbec was the same species. This 
identity was confirmed both by myself, and also by Monsieur Risbec who published 
the synonymy (1955). When studying the genus more intensively in 1966, 1 requested 
the loan of Risbec's type. Dr. R. M. Quentin kindly sent two slides, both labelled 
as type. One contains two female specimens from Ivory Coast, Abengourou, 
reared from PI. njalensis (Laing), and I am convinced that these are the same as the 
species reared from the same host in nearby Ghana. I hereby restrict the selection 
of lectotype to these two specimens, but refrain from choosing between them since, 
on the mount, some features can be seen better on one and some on the other. The 
other slide contains the single specimen from Senegal, Bambey : this is in poor con- 
dition and I cannot determine it with confidence as the same species, though I 
believe it to be so. The specimens recorded from Kenya (Kerrich, 1953) as female 
and male are two males. 

Text-fig. 95 of the present work was drawn from the same specimen as Fig. 9 of 
Kerrich, 1953, but at a very different angle, in order to correspond with Text-fig. 94 
and to illustrate the macrosculpture in both species. 

Neodiscodes subbaraoi sp. n. 

Head, seen from above, relatively long, with median length to breadth = 1:1-7; fronto- 
vertex to total breadth = about i : 6-5, with median ocellus half its own diameter from orbital 
margin : in side view rather as in lepelleyi Kerrich (cf. Text-fig. 96) but more evenly curved ; 
in facial view with cheeks scarcely rounded. Fronto vertex with reticulate microsculpture fine ; 
with orbital piliferous punctures distinct, separated by about their own diameters or less ; 
with larger punctures between ocelli large and mostly not well separated, those before median 
ocellus very large and in a loose reticulation. Eyes strongly hairy, very distinctly so X 25. 

Antenna relatively stout, the scape 2-0 times length of its greatest breadth, the pedicellus less 
than twice as long as broad, the sixth funicle segment more than 2^ times as broad as long, and 
the club about as broad as long. 

Mesoscutum with reticulate microsculpture fine and regular, decidedly denser but little more 
outstanding at sides, beset with shallow piliferous punctures that mostly are separated by more 
than their own diameters in middle, and are very much sparser at sides. Axillae and scutellum 
with microsculpture a little more outstanding than on middle of mesoscutum, and with piliferous 
punctation sparse and irregular. Scutellum rounded at apex. 

Fore whig twice length of its greatest breadth, with outer margin well curved and with anal 
angle well rounded : radius emitted at a moderately acute angle, moderately curved, with uncus 
that does not quite extend as far as apex of postmarginal. 

Head deep blue-green, with weak bronzy reflections, the facial area and adjacent part of 
frontovertex deep blue. Thorax above with fundamental dull blue-green scarcely evident 
except peripherally, strongly overspread with dull bronzy. Pleura, propodeum and gaster as 
described for indicus Narayanan & Subba Rao. Antennae blackish, with metallic reflections 
very weak. Legs brownish black, with all femora and tibiae in large part much paler : tarsi 
stramineous, weakly darkened beneath and at segmental apices. 



CLASSIFICATION OF THE ANAGYRINI 233 

Holotype $. HONG KONG: " ex mealybug " (5. Flanders) (given to H. Compere, 



Paratypes. HONG KONG: i $ (same data as holotype). JAVA: Bogor, i $, 
5. v. 1937, ex Planococcus lilacinus (Ckll.) (R. H. le Pelley). 

Holotype and the paratype from Java in British Museum (Natural History), 
paratopotype in Citrus Experiment Station, Riverside. 

This species is named for Dr. B. R. Subba Rao in recognition of his contributions 
to our knowledge of the Chalcidoidea of economic importance in India. 



Neodiscodes indicus Narayanan & Subba Rao 
(Text-figs. 98, 100) 

1960 Neodiscodes indicus Narayanan & Subba Rao, Indian J. Ent. 22 : 75-77. 

Head, seen from above, with median length to breadth = i : 1-7 to 2-1 ; frontovertex to total 
breadth = i : 5-1 to 7-3, with median ocellus its own diameter from orbital margin or rather 
less : in side view about as in lepelleyi Kerrich (Text-fig. 96); in facial view with cheeks moderately 
rounded below, conspicuously though shallowly emarginate above. Frontovertex with reti- 
culate microsculpture strong ; with orbital piliferous punctures very distinct, separated by 
rather more than their own diameters ; with larger punctures between ocelli rather large but 
mostly well separated, those before median ocellus larger, mostly well separated in hinder half 
but becoming reticulate above facial area. Eyes rather strongly hairy, distinctly so X25. 

Antennae rather stouter than in most species : antennal scape two and a quarter times length 
of its greatest breadth, sixth funicle segment about three times as broad as long, and club 
almost as broad as long. 

Mesoscutum in middle shining, having reticulate microsculpture very fine, but at sides dull, 
with the microsculpture coarser and much more outstanding, beset with piliferous punctures that 
usually are mostly separated by more than their own diameters in middle, but at sides are 
markedly shallower and much sparser. Axillae and scutellum with microsculpture decidedly 
more outstanding than on middle of mesoscutum but not much less shining, more sparsely beset 
with piliferous punctures of very mixed sizes. Scutellum rounded at apex (Text-fig. 100). 

Fore wing twice length of its greatest breadth, with outer margin moderately curved and with 
anal angle relatively sharp : radius emitted at a very acute angle, slightly, sometimes moderately, 
curved, with a defined stigma, and with a small to moderate uncus that extends as far as apex 
of postmarginal (Text-fig. 98). 

Head blue-green, often paler on frontovertex and deeper on facial area ; with reflections 
brassy to red-coppery, on frontovertex usually extensive, on facial area usually confined to 
lower part of inter-scrobal prominence but sometimes more extensive. Pronotum and meso- 
scutum dull blue-green, axillae and scutellum steely-green, all with considerable bright bronzy 
reflection. Pleura, propodeum and gaster brownish black to blackish brown, with weak bronzy 
reflection, the pleura and the propodeum at sides dull, with very weak reflection. Antennae 
having scape and pedicellus blackish with weak reflections, the scape sometimes markedly paler 
near apex ; having flagellum normally with two to five basal segments dull stramineous to pale 
testaceous, at least below, merging to the blackish brown funicle apex and club. Leg colour 
much as described for lepelleyi Kerrich but the amount of darkening very variable. 

Redescribed from the following material. INDIA: New Delhi, i $, 4~x.i957, ex 
" citrus scale " (G. W. Angalet); Puri, r $, 9.^.1960, ex mealybug on Casuarina; 
Gwalior, Madhya Prad., 4 $, g.ix.ig^g, ex grape-fruit mealybug (S. U. Kittur}; 
Gwalior, 5 $, ex grape-fruit mealybug, per B. R. Subba Rao. W. PAKISTAN, nr. 



234 



G. J. KERRICH 



Rawalpindi, Wah, 4 <j>, n.viii.igGi, ex mealybug on Morus alba, per Comm. Inst. 
Biol. Control. Material in British Museum (Natural History) and in U.S. National 
Museum. 




SiSdHW 

Kjcaoob; 

\> 00 

CDOf 

*Q a C. 

ffl O O 



'"o_2- 





96 







FIGS. 94-100. Neodiscodes species, females. 94-95. Head, seen from above, of 94, N. 
comperei sp. n. and 95, N. abengouroui (Risb.). 96. Head, in dextro-lateral view, of 
N. lepelleyi Kerrich. 97-98. Part of right fore-wing, of 97, N. martinii Comp. and 98, 
N. indicus Naray. & Subba Rao. 99-100. Scutellum and axillae of 99, N. martinii Comp. 
and 100, N. indicus Naray. & Subba Rao. 



CLASSIFICATION OF THE ANAGYRINI 235 

KEY TO SPECIES OF NEODISCODES COMPERE : FEMALES 

Smaller species of length scarcely i mm. : fron to vertex at narrowest two-ninths the 
total head breadth: uncus not nearly reaching apex of postmarginal : [median 
ocellus about i^ times its own diameter from orbital margin: radius emitted at 
about 45] : Hong Kong ........ parvus sp. n. 

Larger species, length i to 2 mm.: fronto vertex less than a fifth the total head 
breadth: uncus reaching very nearly to apex of postmarginal or even slightly 
beyond: [the other two characters not combined, the radius emitted at a much 
acuter angle except in martinii Comp. (Text-fig. 97)] ...... 2 

Fore wing 2j times length of its greatest breadth, with outer margin almost straight: 
median ocellus about i times its own diameter from orbital margin: head, seen 
from above (Text-fig. 94), in side view relatively long, especially below, and sharply 
curved: frontovertex with green coloration mainly overspread with dull bronzy: 
Africa ............ comperei sp. n. 

Fore wing twice length of its greatest breadth, with outer margin moderately 
curved : median ocellus about its own diameter from orbital margin or less : head in 
side view relatively shorter, less sharply curved : frontovertex normally with green 
coloration conspicuous ........... 3 

Eyes weakly and rather sparsely hairy ( x 45) : inter-ocellar area having punctures 
of only moderate strength with wide interpsaces (as in comperei sp. n., Text-fig. 94) : 
antennal scape 2-6 times length of its greatest breadth: [median ocellus half its own 
diameter from orbital margin] : Ceylon and India . . . lepelleyi Kerrich 

Eyes moderately to strongly hairy: inter-ocellar area with stronger punctures in a 
reticulation or almost so (e.g. Text-fig. 95) : antennal scape 2 J times length of its 
greatest breadth or less .......... 4 

African species : head in side view longer than in alternate : antennae of normal build 

for the genus: scutellum somewhat pointed at apex (e.g. Text-fig. 99) ... 5 

Asiatic species: head in side view of length about as in lepelleyi Kerrich (Text-fig. 
96): antennae relatively stouter: scutellum rounded at apex (Text-fig. 100): [eyes 
not so very strongly and densely hairy as in abengouroui (Risb.) .... 6 

Median ocellus about its own diameter from orbital margin : eyes moderately strongly 
hairy, the hairs discernible with difficulty x 25 : microsculpture on axillae and 
scutellum much coarser than on middle of mesoscutum : scutellum relatively sharply 
pointed at apex (Text-fig. 99) : radius emitted at an angle approaching 45, 
moderately curved (Text-fig. 97) ...... martinii Compere 

Median ocellus about two-thirds its diameter from orbital margin: eyes densely 
and very strongly hairy, very distinctly so x 13 (Text-fig. 95) : microsculpture on 
axillae and scutellum about as on middle of mesoscutum: scutellum more bluntly 
pointed at apex: radius emitted at a much acuter angle and less curved 

abengouroui (Risbec) 

Median ocellus half its own diameter from orbital margin : frontovertex with reticulate 
microsculpture fine: mesoscutum with reticulate microsculpture little more 
outstanding at sides than in middle : antennae without paler colouring : Hong Kong, 
Java ............ subbaraoi sp. n. 

Median ocellus its own diameter from orbital margin or rather less: frontovertex 
with reticulate microsculpture strong : mesoscutum with reticulate microsculpture 
much more outstanding at sides than in middle : antennae having flagellum normally 
with two to five basal segments pale, at least below: India and W. Pakistan 

indicus Narayanan & Subba Rao 

EURYRHOPALUS Howard, 1898 
Only two species have previously been ascribed correctly to this genus. 



236 G. J. KERRICH 

Euryrhopalus pretiosus (Timberlake) 
(Text-fig. 113) 

1924 Synaspidia pretiosa Timberlake, Proc. Hawaii ent. Soc. 5 (3) : 397-402. 
1942 Euryrhopalus pretiosus (Timberlake) Gahan, Proc. U.S. natn. Mus. 92 : 49. 

Head, seen from above, less than twice as broad as median length : frontovertex one-sixth 
the total head breadth, with median ocellus two-thirds its own diameter from orbital margin 
(similar to Text-fig. 101) : in side and facial views as described for kirkpatricki (Kerrich). 
Frontovertex with reticulate microsculpture fine behind median ocellus, very fine before it ; 
with orbital piliferous punctures very fine ; with larger punctures between ocelli of less than 
moderate strength, separated by less than their own diameters, those before median ocellus of 
moderate strength, situated in two rows diverging with the orbits. Piliferous punctures in 
malar area rather fine. Eyes rather sparsely hairy, discernibly so x 25. 

Mandibles tridentate, the middle tooth the longest. 

Antenna with scape four times length of its greatest breadth ; with pedicellus twice as long 
as its greatest breadth ; with funicle segments short cup-shaped to short cylindrical, the club 
one-sixth longer than the combined funicle segments and two-thirds as broad as long. 4 

Mesoscutum and axillae shining, with reticulate microsculpture very fine, beset with piliferous 
punctures that are rather fine and of moderate depth, separated by about or more than their 
own diameters : scutellum similar, but with piliferous punctures finer, often very much finer, 
and relatively more separated. Scutellum very obtuse at apex (Text-fig. 113), margined by a 
sharp ridge or fold. Propodeum with spiracles sub-circular, larger than in other species of this 
genus (Text-fig. 113). 

Fore wings, except on speculum, uniformly weakly infuscate, markedly broader, relatively, 
than in kirkpatricki (Kerrich), their length (from apex of tegula) under twice their greatest 
breadth, with outer margin and anal angle moderately rounded : postmarginal three and 
two-thirds times length of marginal, and radial, which has a long, pointed uncus, two and 
two-thirds times. 

Head blue-green to blue, the frontovertex often with some red-violet and bronzy reflection, 
the mouth region and hinder genae dull bronzy. Dorsum of thorax with fundamental blue-green 
overspread with metallic reflection which on scutellum and axillae is bright bronzy, on meso- 
scutum weaker and sometimes more violaceous. Coloration of pleura, propodeum and gaster 
as described for kirkpatricki (Kerrich). Antennal coloration as described for kirkpatricki 
(Kerrich), but weaker. Legs blackish brown with metallic reflections, the tarsi pale brown to 
whitish, somewhat darkened, the mid femora at apex and mid tibiae at base translucent. 

Redescribed from the following. MEXICO : Vera Cruz, 5 $, 1922-23 (holotype and 
paratypes), ex mealybug on Tillandsia and ex Dysmicoccus brevipes (Ckll.) on Brome- 
liaceous plants (H. J. Osborn). GUATEMALA: San Sebastian, I $, V.IQ34, per W. 
Carter; Guatemala, unlocalized, i $, 26.1.1937, ex Dysmicoccus brevipes (Ckll.), 
(E. G. Solas] (shipped to Hawaii). 

Holotype in Bishop Museum, Honolulu : material in collections of Hawaiian Sugar 
Planters' Association and of State Department of Agriculture, Honolulu, in Citrus 
Experiment Station, Riverside, in U.S. National Museum and in British Museum 
(Natural History). 

4 In the figure of Timberlake (1924), the pedicellus and flagellum are represented as one would wish 
them to be but, in the specimen illustrated, the scape was evidently foreshortened either by lateral 
curvature or by coming to rest in a different plane when the slide mount was made. 



CLASSIFICATION OF THE ANAGYRINI 237 

Euryrhopalus schwarzi Howard 
(Text-fig. 102) 

1898 Euryrhopalus schwarzi Howard, Proc. U.S. natn. Mus. 21 : 237. 
1942 Euryrhopalus schwarzi Howard ; Gahan, Ibidem, 92 : 49. 

The unique type of this species is located in the U.S. National Museum. The 
head was fragmented on a slide by A. A. Girault. Dr. B. D. Burks, referring to 
specimens oipretiosus (Timb.) and kirkpatricki (Kerrich), my manuscript description 
of those species and copies of certain figures, very kindly sent me a description of 
the type of schwarzi and answered supplementary questions. Girault's slide of the 
head was made available to me on loan. From this slide I was not able to describe 
the sculpture or colour, but I was able to draw two fragments separately and piece 
the two drawings together, thus producing Text-fig. 102, and also to measure the 
antennal segments. The following description is compounded from these sources. 

Head with frontovertex very narrow, the median ocellus a quarter its diameter from orbital 
margin (Text-fig. 102). 

Antenna with scape nearly five times length of its greatest breadth; with pedicellus more 
than twice length of its greatest breadth; with funicle segments short cup-shaped to 
short cylindrical, the sixth 2-3 times as long as broad, the club slightly longer than the com- 
bined funicle segments and three-quarters as broad as long. 

" Mesoscutum and axillae subshining, with surface almost smooth, only very indistinct 
surface sculpture present: piliferous punctures extremely shallow, separated by more than 
their own diameters. Scutellum slightly less shining, with faint reticulate microsculpture : 
piliferous punctures as on mesoscutum." Scutellum very obtuse at apex (cf. Text-fig. 113), 
margined by a sharp ridge or fold. Propodeum with spiracles very large (cf. Text-fig. 113), 
and with white hair lateral to them "very dense and long". 

"Fore wing twice as long as broad (75 : 38), with outer and anal margins rounded much as 
in kirkpatricki : postmarginal 3^ times length of marginal, and radial 2^ times length of 
marginal: apex of radial vein vaguely defined, with a faint uncus present." 

"Thorax and abdomen uniformly black: fore and hind legs, except for tarsi, black: mid 
legs, except for tarsi, dark brown," the femur at apex and tibia at base not noticeably paler : 
"all tarsi white, apical segment of each slightly darkened. Fore wing with a prominent dark 
brown shadow enveloping apex of submarginal vein, marginal, postmarginal and radial veins, 
and extending across wing to its middle ". 

Redescribed from the following: U.S.A.: Florida, Biscayne (Bay), i ?, i6.v. 
(holotype). Holotype in U.S. National Museum (cat. no. 5029). 



Euryrhopalus saccharicola (Gahan) comb. n. 
(Text-fig, in) 

1942 Blepyrus saccharicola Gahan, Proc. U.S. natn. Mus. 92 : 47-49. 

Head from above moderately broad, median length to breadth = i : 2-1 to 2-3 ; frontovertex 
about one-seventh the total head breadth (more in small specimens), with median ocellus more 
than half its diameter from orbital margins : in side view relatively distinctly shorter than in 
kirkpatricki (Kerrich), rather evenly curved ; in facial view with cheeks relatively short and 
evenly rounded. Frontovertex with reticulate microsculpture regular and of moderate strength 

ENTOM, 20, 5. 13 



238 G. J. KERRICH 

behind median ocellus, rather fine before it ; with orbital piliferous punctures very fine ; with 
larger punctures between ocelli of moderate strength and before median ocellus obviously finer, 
in both positions not scattered or in rows, but separated by much less than their own diameters. 
Piliferous punctures in malar area rather fine. Eyes rather closely hairy, discernibly so X 45. 

Mandibles tridentate, the middle tooth the longest. 

Antenna with scape slightly expanded below, five times length of its greatest breadth ; with 
pedicellus twice length of its greatest breadth ; with funicle segments short cup-shaped to 
short-cylindrical, the sixth i times as broad as long, and club one-quarter longer than combined 
funicle segments and 1-7 times as long as broad. 

Mesoscutum with reticulate microsculpture fine, beset with fine but dense piliferous punctures, 
which are separated by about or less than their own diameters. Scutellum with reticulate 
microsculpture still finer but much more outstanding, giving the sclerite a velvety appearance : 
pilosity less dense than on mesoscutum. Axillae intermediate in sculpture between mesoscutum 
and scutellum. 

Fore wings relatively elongate, about 2-3 times as long as broad, with outer margin and anal 
angle well rounded : marginal vein relatively long, just over half length of postmarginal, and 
almost as long as the radial, which has a large uncus (Text-fig, in) : hair rows on costal cell 
relatively dense. 

Head blue-green to dull blue, almost entirely overspread with dull violet to bronzy. Pro- 
notum, mesoscutum, tegulae, axillae and scutellum with fundamental blue-green to blue 
showing, often rather weakly, through the bronzy to red-violet reflection. Pleura, propodeum 
and gaster brownish black, with weak but bright blue-green and bronzy reflection. Antennal 
scape yellow, slightly darkened at apex : pedicellus and flagellum blackish brown with weak 
green reflections, the pedicellus pale at apex and beneath. Legs having coxae, femora and fore 
trochanters blackish brown, with weak metallic reflections, the femora at apex and the mid 
and hind trochanters paler : tibiae and tarsi yellowish white, the tibiae a little darkened near 
base. 

Redescribed from the following. U.S.A. : California, Fontana, 4 $, 1953, reared 
on Phenacoccus solani Ferr., Commonwealth Institute of Biological Control. Material 
in British Museum (Natural History). 



Euryrhopalus pulchrior sp. n. 

(Text-figs. 104, 112) 

Head, seen from above, with median length to breadth i : 1-8 ; frontovertex nearly 
one-seventh the total head breadth, with median ocellus two-thirds its own diameter from 
orbital margin : in side view hardly shorter than in kirkpatricki (Kerrich) and almost evenly 
rounded ; in facial view with cheeks well rounded, very much shorter : toruli slightly less than 
their own length from eye (Text-fig. 104). Frontovertex with reticulate microsculpture fine but 
rather outstanding ; with orbital piliferous punctures relatively strong, separated by about or 
rather more than their own diameters ; with larger punctures between ocelli of moderate 
strength, separated by less than their own diameters ; with punctation for some distance before 
median ocellus shallower and smaller, but then again becoming larger and attaining an almost 
reticulate condition above scrobal impression. Piliferous punctures on malar area fine. Eyes 
coarsely and closely hairy. 

Mandibles tridentate, the middle tooth the longest. 

Antenna with scape slightly expanded beneath, about five times length of its greatest breadth ; 
with pedicellus twice length of its greatest breadth ; with first five funicle segments short 
cup-shaped, the sixth 2^ times as broad as long and club strongly expanded, three-quarters 
longer than the combined funicle segments and twice as long as broad. 



239 

Mesoscutum and axillae with reticulate microsculpture strong and sharp, beset with moderate 
piliferous punctures that mostly are separated by rather more than their own diameters. 
Scutellum with microsculpture similar, but becoming gradually a little finer towards apex, and 
with punctures much shallower, finer and sparser. 

Fore wings up to and below radius rather strongly infuscate, weakly so above it, and beyond 
rather broad, about 2-1 times as long as broad, with outer margin and anal angle well rounded : 
postmarginal vein 2-0 times and radial, which has a sharp uncus, 1-8 times length of marginal ; 
thus, the marginal is relatively long, the postmarginal is relatively short and does not extend far 
beyond the radial (Text-fig. 112). 

Head bright green, around and before the median ocellus with bright brassy reflections, 
behind median ocellus and on hinder genae more blue-green. Pronotum bright blue-green 
above. Mesoscutum, axillae, scutellum, sides of propodeum and gaster a rather duller green 
than the head, and overspread with duller brassy to bronzy reflections : mesopleura and pro- 
podeum above steely black with weak reflections. Antennae yellow-testaceous : scape in about 
basal half, pedicellus except at apex and beneath, and club infuscate with moderate metallic 
reflections, the basal funicle segments slightly darkened above. Coxae a similar green to the 
sides of propodeum : legs otherwise yellow-testaceous, the fore and hind femora in about basal 
half, and the trochanters infuscate with metallic reflections, and the fore tibiae and mid femora 
with slight darkening. 

Holotype $. JAMAICA: Hope Gardens, V.IQ64, on Acalypha (F. D. Bennett}. 
Holotype in British Museum (Natural History). 

This species is not a typical Euryrhopalus in appearance but is more suggestive of 
an Aenasius. 



Euryrhopalus tenuiscapus sp. n. 

(Text-fig. 106) 

Head, seen from above, moderately broad, median length to breadth = i : 2-1 ; frontovertex 
one-sixth the total head breadth, with median ocellus nearly its own diameter from eye : in side 
view relatively distinctly shorter than in kirkpatricki (Kerrich), quite strongly curved above but 
weakly so below ; in frontal view with cheeks moderately curved and evenly narrowed to mouth : 
toruli much more than their own length from eye. Frontovertex with reticulate microsculpture 
rather strong behind median ocellus, of moderate strength before it ; with orbital piliferous 
punctures relatively close together and only moderately fine ; with larger punctures between 
ocelli of less than moderate strength and irregular, some separated by about their own diameters 
and others almost contiguous, those before median ocellus of similar strength, situated in two 
rows diverging with the orbits but also with others between. Piliferous punctures on malar 
area fine. Eyes closely hairy, distinctly so X 45. 

Mandibles tridentate, the middle tooth the longest, the uppermost small and well set back. 

Antenna (Text-fig. 106) with scape weakly expanded below, slender, 6 times length of its 
greatest breadth ; with pedicellus ^\ times length of its greatest breadth ; with funicle segments 
short cup-shaped, the sixth twice as broad as long, and club very strongly expanded, over a 
quarter longer than combined funicle segments and twice as long as broad. 

Mesoscutum and axillae with reticulate microsculpture fine, beset with piliferous punctures 
that are very shallow and rather fine, and are mostly separated by more than their own diameters. 
Scutellum with microsculpture much more regular and outstanding, and beset with fine piliferous 
punctures that are about as dense as on mesoscutum. 

Fore wing shape as described for kirkpatricki (Kerrich) : postmarginal five times length of 
marginal, and radial, which has a small uncus, three times. 

Head blue-green to blue, almost entirely overspread with dull violet to bronzy. Colour of 
thorax, propodeum and gaster as described for saccharicola (Gah.). Antennae blackish brown, 



240 G. J. KERRICH 

with weak metallic reflections, the scape and pedicellus paler at apex. Legs brownish black to 
blackish brown, with weak metallic reflection : tarsi, and mid and hind tibiae narrowly at apex, 
pale brown to whitish. 

Holotype $. U.S.A.: California, Fillmore, 7.x. 1936, ex Phenacoccus sp. (/. D. 
Maple). Holotype in U.S. National Museum. 

Euryrhopalus rhopoideus sp. n. 

(Text-figs. 105, 107, 109, 114) 

Head, seen from above, a little less than twice as broad as its median length ; frontovertex 
one-seventh the total head breadth, with median ocellus two-thirds its diameter from orbital 
margin : in side view relatively much shorter than in kirkpatricki (Kerrich), but rather evenly 
curved (Text-fig. 109) ; in frontal view with cheeks rather long and evenly curved : toruli nearly 
twice their own length from eye (Text-fig. 105). Sculpture of frontovertex as described for 
pretiosus (Timb.), but the punctures before median ocellus of less than moderate strength. 
Piliferous punctures on malar area fine. Eyes closely hairy, just distinctly so x 25. 

Mandibles tridentate, the uppermost tooth small and well set back, the lower two very sharp, 
the middle one the longer (Text-fig. 105). 

Antenna (Text-fig. 107) with scape slightly expanded beneath, more than five times length of 
its greatest breadth ; with pedicellus twice length of its greatest breadth ; with flagellum 
relatively only moderately clavate, the club not abruptly broader than the funicle : with first 
five funicle segments very short cup-shaped, the sixth twice as broad as long, and club one-third 
longer than the combined funicle segments and twice as long as broad. 

Dorsum of thorax as described for tenuiscapus sp. n. : see also Text-fig. 114. 

Fore wing shape as described for saccharicola (Gah.), but broader than in that species, about 
two and a quarter times as long as broad : postmarginal four times length of marginal, and 
radial, which has a moderate uncus, two and a third times. 

Head blue-green to blue, almost entirely overspread with dull violet to bronzy. Colour of 
thorax, propodeum and gaster as described for saccharicola (Gah.). Antennae a rather pale 
brownish black, with weak, predominantly green, metallic reflections : scape, pedicellus, and 
club beneath, paler at apex. Legs brownish black, the fore tibiae at extreme base and apex and 
the mid tibiae a rich brown ; tarsi pale brown to whitish. 

Holotype $. U.S.A.: Texas, Denison, 15. vi. 1938, on peach (Christenson & 
Clancy). Holotype in U.S. National Museum. 

Euryrhopalus carolinensis sp. n. 

(Text-fig. 101) 

Head, seen from above, twice as broad as its median length : frontovertex one-seventh the 
total breadth, with ocelli relatively large, the median ocellus just under half its diameter from 
orbital margins (Text-fig. 101) : in side view relatively distinctly shorter than in kirkpatricki 
(Kerrich), quite strongly curved above but weakly so below ; in frontal view with cheeks longer 
than in kirkpatricki (Kerrich), weakly narrowed to where they turn sharply in to mouth region. 
Frontovertex sculpture as described for pretiosus (Timb.). Piliferous punctures in malar area 
rather fine. Eyes closely hairy, quite distinctly so X 25. 

Mandibles rather stout, tridentate, the middle tooth the longest, the uppermost small and 
well set back. 

Antenna with scape more than slightly expanded, four times length of its greatest breadth ; 
with pedicellus relatively elongate, three times length of its greatest breadth ; with funicle 
segments short cup-shaped to short-cylindrical, the sixth nearly twice as broad as long, and club 
one-half longer than combined funicle segments and nearly two-thirds as broad as long. 



CLASSIFICATION OF THE ANAGYRINI 241 

Mesoscutum and axillae with reticulate microsculpture fine, beset with piliferous punctures 
that are of moderate depth and mostly are separated by less than their own diameters. 
Scutellum with microsculpture more regular and outstanding, and beset with fine piliferous 
punctures that are about as dense as on mesoscutum. Propodeum weakly hairy behind spiracle. 

Fore wing shape as described for kirkpatricki (Kerrich), about two and a quarter times as long 
as broad : postmarginal five times length of marginal, and radial, which has a moderate uncus, 
about two and a half times length of marginal. 

Head dull blue-green, almost steely green, overspread on frontovertex weakly and on lower 
face and genae strongly with blackish violet. Colour of dorsum of thorax as described for 
saccharicola (Gah.). Pleura, propodeum and gaster brownish black, with weak metallic reflec- 
tion. Antennae brownish black, with blue-green to bronzy reflections which are strongest on 
scape and pedicellus. Legs brownish black with metallic reflections, the tibiae and fore femora 
only narrowly paler at apex : tarsi stramineous with infusions of pale brown, the fore and hind 
tarsi above and all at apex slightly darkened. 

Holotype $. U.S.A.: N. Carolina, L. Junaluska, 24. v. 1954 (H. V. Weems). 
Holotype in U.S. National Museum. 

Euryrhopalus kirkpatricki (Kerrich), comb. n. 
(Text-figs. 103, 108, no) 

X 953 Neodiscodes kirkpatricki Kerrich, Bull. ent. Res. 44 (4) : 793-5. 

I954 5 Neodiscodes kirkpatricki Kerrich ; Kirkpatrick, Rep. Cacao Res. (1952) : 68. Imperial 
College of Tropical Agriculture, Trinidad. 

Head, seen from above, about twice as broad as its median length : frontovertex exceptionally 
narrow, at narrowest less than a tenth the total head breadth, with median ocellus about a 
quarter its diameter from orbital margin (Text-fig. 103) : in side view (Text-fig, no) relatively 
long and evenly curved ; in facial view with cheeks relatively short and evenly rounded. 
Frontovertex with reticulate microsculpture regular and of moderate strength behind median 
ocellus, very fine before it ; with orbital piliferous punctures very fine but regular ; with larger 
punctures between ocelli of moderate strength, mostly separated by less than their own diameters, 
and before median ocellus obviously finer and more scattered. Piliferous punctures in malar 
area moderate. Eyes moderately closely hairy, just distinctly so X 45. 

Mandibles tridentate, the middle tooth much the longest. 

Antenna (Text-fig. 108) with scape slightly expanded below, about 4^ times length of its 
greatest breadth ; with pedicellus almost twice length of its greatest breadth ; with funicle 
segments short cup-shaped to short-cylindrical, the sixth at longest over twice as broad as long, 
and club about one-half longer than combined funicle segments and two-thirds as broad as long. 

Mesoscutum and axillae shining, with microsculpture extremely fine, beset with rather 
shallow piliferous punctures that mostly are separated by about or less than then* own diameters. 
Scutellum much less shining, with reticulate microsculpture moderately coarse, regular and 
outstanding ; with piliferous punctures sharper than on mesoscutum, in greater part rather dense 
but posteriorly separated by much more than their own diameters. Scutellum margined at 
apex by a sharp ridge or fold. Propodeum coarsely and densely white-hairy round spiracle. 

Fore wings relatively considerably broader than in saccharicola (Gah.), but well over twice 
as long as broad, with outer margin rather weakly and anal angle only moderately rounded : 
postmarginal 3^ times length of marginal, and radial, which has a small uncus, i\ times length 
of marginal. 

5 This part was published bearing the date November 1953, which was actually the date on which the 
material was sent from the London office of the College to the printer. The late Dr. W. J. Hall was 
definite that the publication was not available earlier than nth January, 1954. Kirkpatrick attributed 
this and other species to Kerrich and not to himself : his brief but possibly valid descriptions were not 
intended to, and did not in fact antedate the descriptions of Kerrich published on I5th December, 1953. 



242 G. J. KERRICH 

Head blue-green to blue, often with much red-violet on frontovertex ; the shining facial area 
blue-green with brassy reflection, the mouth region and sometimes hinder genae or ocellar area 
dull bronzy. Pronotum, mesoscutum, tegulae, axillae and scutellum fundamentally blue- 
green, the mesoscutum, except peripherally, with conspicuous red-violet reflection, the remaining 
parts, notably the scutellum generally, strongly bronzy. Pleura, propodeum and gaster brownish 
black with metallic reflections predominantly blue-green and bronzy, the blue-green most 
conspicuous at sides of propodeum, the gaster paler beneath. Antennae blackish brown, with 
rather weak green metallic reflections, which are strongest on scape and pedicellus ; the two 
latter segments narrowly pale at apex. Legs brownish black, with weak metallic reflections, 
merging to pale brown : tarsi pale brown to whitish, very little darkened at apex. 

Redescribed from the following material. COLOMBIA: nr. Palmira, 3 $, 1.1953, 
" ex Coccid " (D. J. Taylor}. TRINIDAD: I.C.T.A., 14 $ (including holotype) 1950 
ex Dysmicoccus sp. near brevipes (Ckll.) on cacao (T. W. Kirkpatrick). PANAMA: 
Canal Zone, Paraiso, i <j>, i . 1911 (E. A . Schwarz). Material in U.S. National Museum, 
Citrus Experiment Station, Riverside, Bishop Museum, Honolulu, and British 
Museum (Natural History). 



Euryrhopalus propinquus sp. n. 

Very closely related to kirkpatricki (Kerrich), differing as follows : head, seen from above, 
relatively long, 1-5 to 1-7 times as broad as its median length ; frontovertex between an eighth 
and a tenth the total head breadth, with median ocellus over a quarter its diameter from orbital 
margin (more obviously separated therefrom than in kirkpatricki) : in facial view with eyes 
diverging less strongly. Frontovertex with microsculpture behind median ocellus fine, with 
larger punctures between ocelli of more than moderate strength and sometimes almost con- 
tiguous, those before median ocellus rather irregularly placed though tending to be in two 
diverging rows. Eyes weakly and sparsely hairy. 

Antenna with scape somewhat broader, 3 \ to 4 times length of its greatest breadth. 

Mesoscutum and axillae with small piliferous punctures that are clearly separated by more 
than their own diameters : scutellum with piliferous punctures shallow, rather inconspicuous 
and relatively sparse. 

Fore wings relatively elongate, about 2-3 times as long as broad, with outer margin weakly and 
anal angle rather well rounded ; postmarginal four times length of marginal, and radial, which 
has a large uncus, 2% times length of marginal. 

Head a rather bright blue-green ; pronotum and mesoscutum conspicuously dark blue-green 
except peripherally : pleura, propodeum and gaster paler than in kirkpatricki. 

Holotype $. HAWAIIAN Is.: Oahu, 25.viii.i94r, ex Dysmicoccus brevipes (Ckll.) 
on Carissa sp. (D. T. Fullaway). 

Paratypes the following. BRAZIL: 27 n' S., 52 23' W., i $, 1937 (F. Plaumann). 
BRITISH GUIANA: i $, 23. xi. 1936, " parasitic on P. brevipes " (E. G. Salas) (shipped 
to Hawaii). HAWAIIAN Is.: Oahu, i $ (same data as holotype); i $, io.iii.i956, 
ex Dysmicoccus brevipes (Ckll.) on sugarcane (/. W. Beardsley); Barber's Point, i $, 
iv.T_959, ex Dysmicoccus neobrevipes Beardsley on " cat's claw " (/. W. Beardsley); 
Lanikai, 3 $, x. 1965, ex Dysmicoccus neobrevipes Beardsley on sea grape (C. J. Davis). 

Holotype in Bishop Museum, Honolulu: paratypes in collection of Hawaiian 
Sugar Planters' Association, in Hawaii Agricultural Experiment Station, in U.S. 
National Museum and in British Museum (Natural History). 



CLASSIFICATION OF THE ANAGYRINI 243 

KEY TO SPECIES OF EURYRHOPALUS HOWARD : FEMALES 

Scutellum shining, very obtuse at apex, where it is margined by a sharp ridge or fold : 

propodeum with spiracles especially large (Text-fig. 113) . . . . 2 

Scutellum not shining, much less obtuse at apex, and not margined there in all 

species; propodeum with spiracles smaller (e.g. Text-fig. 114) .... 3 

Head with frontovertex less narrow, the median ocellus two-thirds its own diameter 
from orbital margin (similar to Text-fig. 101) : antennal scape four times length of 
its greatest breadth: pilosity around propodeal spiracle of moderate length and 
density: fore wings, except on speculum, uniformly weakly infuscate; propodeum 
conspicuously blue-green on sides: mid femora at apex and mid tibiae at base 
translucent ......... pretiosus (Timberlake) 

Head with frontovertex very narrow, the median ocellus a quarter its own diameter 
from orbital margin (Text-fig. 102): antennal scape nearly five times length of its 
greatest breadth: pilosity beside propodeal spiracle very dense and long: fore 
wings with prominent dark brown infuscation enveloping apex of submarginal, the 
marginal, postmarginal and radial veins and extending across to middle of wing: 
no blue-green colour on the propodeum : mid femora at apex and mid tibiae at base 
not noticeably paler ........ schwarzi Howard 

Marginal vein relatively long, the postmarginal not quite twice the length of the 
marginal (Text-fig, in): scutellum of velvety appearance, due to the reticulate 
microsculpture being very fine and outstanding .... saccharicola (Gahan) 

Marginal vein relatively shorter, the postmarginal at least three times length of 
marginal: scutellum not presenting a velvety appearance, the microsculpture being 
only moderately fine and outstanding ........ 4 

Median ocellus more than half its diameter from orbital margin (Text-figs. 104-5): 
antennal scape only slightly expanded beneath, about five times length of its 
greatest breadth or more .......... 5 

Median ocellus half its diameter from orbital margin or less: antennal scape more 
distinctly expanded below, about four and a half times length of its greatest breadth 
or less .............. 7 

Head, in facial view, with cheeks short and toruli slightly less than their own length 
from eye (Text-fig. 104): punctation before median ocellus of moderate strength, 
and attaining an almost reticulate condition above scrobal impression: eyes 
coarsely hairy: microsculpture on scutellum similar to that on mesoscutum, the 
punctation moderately coarse and dense on mesoscutum but much finer and sparser 
on scutellum : postmarginal vein only a little longer than radial : head bright green, 
and dorsum of thorax very conspicuously green: hind tibiae yellow- testaceous : 
Jamaica .......... pulchrior sp. n. 

Head, in facial view, much longer, and toruli much more than their own length from 
eye (e.g. Text-fig. 105): punctation before median ocellus of less than moderate 
strength, the punctures mostly in longitudinal rows and well-separated: eyes not 
coarsely hairy: microsculpture much more outstanding on scutellum than on 
mesoscutum, the punctation rather fine and about equally dense on both: post- 
marginal vein much longer than radial: head and dorsum of thorax mainly over- 
spread with dull colouring : hind tibiae in greater part darkened .... 6 

Antennal scape exceptionally slender, six and a half times length of its greatest breadth, 
and club abruptly broader than funicle (Text-fig. 106): larger punctures before 
median ocellus arranged in two rows diverging with the orbits but with other 
punctures between: mid tibiae blackish brown, rather narrowly paler at apex: 
California .......... tenuiscapus sp. n. 

Antennal scape rather over five times length of its greatest breadth, and club not 
abruptly broader than funicle (Text-fig. 107) : frontovertex between those diverging 
rows impunctate or almost so : mid tibiae mainly a rich brown, very little darkened : 
Texas ........... rhopoideus sp. n. 



244 G. J. KERRICH 

7 Frontovertex wider, one-seventh the total head breadth: ocelli relatively large 
(Text-fig. 101): eyes closely and strongly hairy, very distinctly so X 25: head 
in side view considerably shorter, weakly curved below: pedicellus three times length 
of its greatest breadth : microsculpture of mesoscutum moderately fine : scutellum 
not margined at apex: propodeum weakly hairy behind spiracle: N. Carolina 

carolinensis sp. n. 






/7^^ 
// ^r~^ 



// ^ s 



^ 




FIGS. 101-108. Euryrhopalus species, females. 101-103. Head, seen from above, of 101, 
E. carolinensis sp. n., 102, E. schwarzi How. (fragmented) and 103, E. kirkpatricki 
(Kerrich). 104-105. Head, in facial view, of 104, E. pulchrior sp. n. and 105, E. rhopoideus 
sp. n. 106-108. Left antenna, in dextro-lateral view, of 106, E. tenuiscapus sp. n., 107, 
E. rhopoideus sp. n. and 108, E. kirkpatricki (Kerrich). 



CLASSIFICATION OF THE ANAGYRINI 



245 



Frontovertex narrow, one-eighth to one-tenth the total head breadth or less: 
ocelli relatively smaller: eyes weakly and sparsely hairy, just discernibly so X 45: 
head in side view longer, strongly curved below (Text-fig, no): pedicellus under 
twice length of its greatest breadth (Text-fig. 108) : microsculpture of mesoscutum 
extremely fine: scutellum at apex margined by a sharp fold: propodeum coarsely 
and densely white-hairy round spiracle ........ 8 

Head, seen from above, about twice as broad as its median length: frontovertex less 
than a tenth the total head breadth, with median ocellus about a quarter its 
diameter from orbital margin (Text-fig. 103) : reticulate microsculpture behind 
median ocellus of moderate strength: mesoscutum and axillae with moderate 
piliferous punctures separated by about or less than their own diameters : scutellum 
with piliferous punctures moderately fine and dense . . . kirkpatricki (Kerrich) 

Head, seen from above, relatively long, 1-5 to 1-7 times as broad as its median length: 
frontovertex one-eighth to one-tenth the total head breadth, with median ocellus 
over a quarter its diameter from orbital margin (and more obviously separated 
therefrom than in alternate): reticulate microsculpture behind median ocellus 
finer : mesoscutum and axillae with small piliferous punctures clearly separated by 
more than their own diameters : scutellum with piliferous punctures relatively small, 
shallow and sparse propinquus sp. n. 







12 




13 




FIGS. 109-114. Euryrhopalus species, females. 109-110. Head, in dextro-lateral view, of 
109, E. rhopoideus sp. n. and no, E. kirkpatricki (Kerrich). 111-112. Part of right 
fore wing of in, E. saccharicola (Gah.) and 112, E. pulchrior sp. n. 113-114. Propodeum 
and part of thorax of 113, E. pretiosa (Timb.) and 114, E. rhopoideus sp. n. 



246 G. J. KERRICH 

Species incorrectly placed in Euryrhopalus Howard 

Euryrhopalus diaphorocerus Masi 1917, Novit. zool. 24 : 148-9, figs. 19-20 = Coccidoxenus 
diaphorocerus (Masi), comb. n. 

This species was described from a single female. The type is located in the British 
Museum (Natural History). A series of both sexes was received with the following 
data: MAURITIUS: Reduit, 1.1950, ex Saissetia hemispherica Targ. (/. R. Williams}. 
The species is hereby transferred to the genus Coccidoxenus Crawford : my colleague 
Mr. R. D. Eady concurs. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

For information and/or loan or exchange of material, as mostly acknowledged in the 
text, the author wishes to thank Dr. D. P. Annecke, Dr. F. Bachmaier, Dr. J. Beards- 
ley, Dr. F. D. Bennett, Dr. Z. Boucek, Dr. B. D. Burks, the late Prof. G. Ceballos, 
Dr. M. F. Claridge, Mr. H. Compere, Prof. L. De Santis, Prof. G. Domenichini, 
Mr. R. G. Donald, Mr. R. D. Eady, Dr. J. Erdos, Dr. C. Ferriere, Dr. M. Fischer, 
the late Mr. D. T. Fullaway, Mr. J. Ghesquiere, Mr. E. S. Gourlay, Dr. M. de V. 
Graham, Dr. A. Hoffer, Dr. E. Konigsmann, Dr. S. Pradhan, Dr. R. M. Quentin, 
Prof. O. W. Richards, Mr. E. F. Riek, Dr. D. Rozen, Dr. J. G. Rozen, Dr. B. R. 
Subba Rao, Prof. T. Tachikawa, Dr. V. A. Tryapitsyn, Prof. K. Yasumatsu and 
Dr. C. Yoshimoto. Through the kindness of Mr. H. Compere and Dr. D. P. Annecke 
the types of African and Asiatic species described in this paper on their material are 
deposited in the British Museum (Natural History). Mr. H. Compere very kindly 
provided the photographs and drawing for Plates I and II, and Dr. G. Viggiani very 
kindly made the skilful drawings for Plates III and IV and text-figures n and 12. 
Text-figures 82, 96, 103, 108 and no were taken or adapted from some published by 
Kerrich (1953) by kind permission of the Editor of the Bulletin of Entomological 
Research. Dr. D. J. Williams kindly reviewed the names of the Coccid hosts. 

REFERENCES 

ASHMEAD, W. H. 1904. Classification of the Chalcid Flies or the superfamily Chalcidoidea, 
with descriptions of new species in the Carnegie Museum, collected in South America by 
Herbert H. Smith. Mem. Carneg. Mus. 1 (4), i-xi + 225-555 + 9 pis. 

BURKS, B. D. 1952. A new mealybug parasite (Hymenoptera : Encyrtidae). JIN.Y. ent. 
Soc. 60 : 179-182. 

COMPERE, H. 1937. The species of Aenasius, Encyrtid parasites of mealybugs. Proc. Hawaii. 

ent. Soc. 9 : 383-404. 
1939. Mealybugs and their insect enemies in South America. Univ. Calif. Publs Ent. 

7 : 57-74- 
- 1947- A report on a collection of Encyrtidae with descriptions of new genera and species. 

Ibidem, 8 : 1-23. 
COMPERE, H. & ANNECKE, D. P. 1960. A reappraisal of Aphycus Mayr, Metaphycus Mercet, 

and allied genera (Hymenopt. : Encyrtidae). /. ent. Soc. sthn Afr. 23 : 375-389. 
DE SANTIS, L. 1959. Descripci6n de un nuevo genero y de una nuevo especie de Encirtido del 

Brasil (Hymenoptera : Chalcidoidea). Adas Trab. prim. Congr. sudamer. Zool. 3 : 61-65. 

La Plata. 
1964 [1963]. Encirtidos de la Republica Argentina (Hymenoptera Chalcidoidea). An. 

Comn Invest, dent. Prov. B. Aires 4 : 11-398 + 12 PI. 



CLASSIFICATION OF THE ANAGYRINI 247 

ERDOS, J. 1946. Genera nova et species novae Chalcidoidarum (Hym.). Annls hist.-nat. 

Mus. natn. hung. 39 : 131-165. 
FERRIERE, C. 1955. Encyrtides nouveaux ou peu connus. Mitt, schweiz. ent. Ges. 28 : 

H5-I39. 
I957- Die Parasiten von Spilococcus nanae Schmutterer in Siid-Bayern. Opusc. zool., 

Munch. 10 : 1-9. 
GHESQUIERE, J. 1956. Remarques taxonomiques et biologiques sur quelques Encyrtides 

(Hym. Chalcidoidea) . Boll. Lab. Zool. gen. agr. Portici 33 : 683-707. 
GRAHAM, M. W. R. DE V. 1959. The identity of Tetracnemus diver sicornis Westwood (Hym., 

Chalcidoidea, Encyrtidae) as shown by the rediscovery of its type ; and a second British 

record of the species. Entomologist's mon. Mag. 95 : 66. 
HOFFER, A. 1959. Miscellanea Encyrtidologica III (Hym. Chalcidoidea). Shorn, ent. Odd. 

ndr. Mus. Praze 33 : 5-36 + 8 PI. 
HOWARD, L. O. 1892. Insects of the subfamily Encyrtinae with branched antennae. Proc. 

U.S. natn. Mus. 15 : 361-9 + 2 PI. [Quotes Howard, 1890]. 

ISHII, T. 1928. The Encyrtinae of Japan. Bull. imp. agric. Exp. Stn Japan, 3 (2) : 79-160. 
KERRICH, G. J. 1953. Report on Encyrtidae associated with mealybugs on cacao in Trinidad, 

and on some other species related thereto. Bull. ent. Res. 44 : 789-810. 
1964. On the European species of Dusmetia Mercet, and a new oriental genus (Hym., 

Chalcidoidea, Encyrtidae). Entomophaga 9 : 75-79. 
1964. Comment on the proposed replacement of Mirini Ashmead, 1900. Bull. zool. 

Nom. 21 : 267. 

KRYGER, J. P. 1951. Notes on Chalcids II. Ent. Meddr 26 : 98-121. 
MERCET, R. G. 1921. Himen6pteros, fam. Encirtidos. Trab. Mus. nac. Cienc. nat., Madr. 

i-xi + 1-732. 
1922. Los g6neros Tetracnemus y Charitopus (Him. Chalcfdidos) . Boln R. Soc. esp. Hist. 

nat. 22 : 51-54. 

1928. Nota sobre algunos Encirtidos americanos. Eos 4 : 5-12. 

NIKOL'SKAYA, M. N. 1952. [Chalcids of the Fauna of the USSR (Chalcidoidea)]. Opred. 

Faune SSSR, Moscow 44 : 1-575. 
PECK, O. 1951. Superfamily Chalcidoidea. In MUESEBECK, C. F. W. et al. Hymenoptera of 

America north of Mexico : synoptic catalog. Agriculture Monogr. 2 : 410-594. 
ROSEN, D. 1965. A new species of Clausenia Ishii (Hymenoptera : Encyrtidae) from Israel. 

Proc. R. ent. Soc. (B) 34 : 61-64 + 3 PI. 
SCHMIEDEKNECHT, O. 1909. Hymenoptera fam. Chalcididae. Genera Insectorum 97. 

Brussels. 
TACHIKAWA, T. 1963. Revisional studies on the Encyrtidae of Japan (Hymenoptera : 

Chalcidoidea). Mem. Ehime Univ. VI 9 (i) : 1-264. 
TIMBERLAKE, P. H. 1929. Three new species of the Hymenopterous family Encyrtidae from 

New South Wales. Univ. Calif. Publs Ent. 5 : 5-18. 



ADDENDUM 

A paper by Man Mohan (195.6 Taxonomy of Encyrtid parasites (Hymenoptera: 
Chalcidoidea) of Indian Coccoidea. Ada hymenopt., Tokyo 2(2): 37-97) in which 
that author described a new species Ericydnus ceroplastis, was not received in London 
until April 1967. Dr Man Mohan kindly sent me the unique holotype on loan. 
It had been dissected, and the parts mounted on two slides. The species appears 
to me not to conform with Ericydnus but, from the form of the gaster, to belong in 
some genus of the subtribe Anagyrina. 



2 4 8 



G. J. KERRICH 



INDEX TO NAMES IN HYMENOPTERA 
Principal references in bold type: junior or invalid synonyms in italics. 



abengouroui Risbec, 231, 235, 235 

Acroaspidia Compere & Zinna, 145 

acuminatus sp.n., 215, 224 

advena Compere, 207, 207, 208, 209, 223 

Aenasiina, 143, 145 

Aenasius Walker, 189, 195, 239 

aeneus Nikol'skaya, 172, 173 

Aglyptoideus De Santis, 145 

Aglyptus Forster, 147, 150, 154 

Alamella Man Mohan, 145 

Anagyrietta Ferriere, 146 

Anagyrina, 145 

Anagyrini, 144, 145, 153 

Anagyrus Howard, 154 

Anarhopus Timberlake, 147 

Antheminae, 144 

Antipodencyrtus Kerrich, 147 

Anusia Forster, 145 

Anusoidea Girault, 151 

Aphycina, 146 

Aphycini, 146 

apterogenes Mayr, 170, 171, 172 

Aquaencyrtus Hoffer, 147 

arizonensis Girault, 192, 193, 194, 195, 195 

Arrenophaginae, 144 

atriceps Walker, 170, 171 

atripes Forster, 173 

baleus Walker, 174, 175, 176, 179 
basalis Forster, 174, 175, 176 
bicolor Nikol'skaya, 174, 176 
biplagiatus Mayr, 167, 174, 175, 176 
Blepyrus Howard, 189, 225 
bollowi Mercet (Parencyrtus), 153 
bolowi Mercet (Aenasius), 219 
Bothriothoracini, 144 
Bothriothorax, 145 
brasiliensis Ashmead, 152, 153 
brasiliensis (Mercet), 215, 216, 218, 225 
brethesi De Santis, 218, 225 
britannicus Alam, 175 
brounii Timberlake, 154, 159, 165, 166 
bucculentus De Santis, 153 

caeruleus Brues, 196, 200, 221 
Calliencyrtus De Santis, 153 
cariocus Compere, 216, 217, 218, 225 
carolinensis sp.n., 240, 244 
caudatus Erdos, 149, 169, 176 
ceroplastis Man Mohan, 247 



Chalcaspis Howard, 188, 190, 191, 212 
Chalcaspis species not named, 194, 195 
chapadae Ashmead, 210, 223 
chryscus Walker, 179 
Chrysoplatycerus Ashmead, 146 
Clausenia Ishii, 143, 151, 181 
clavicornis (Compere), 180, 225, 226, 227 
Coccidoxenus Crawford, 246 
Coelaspidia Timberlake, 146 
coffeicola sp.n., 156, 161, 162, 165, 166 
colombiensis Compere, 216, 217 
comperei sp.n. (Clausenia), 185, 188 
comperei sp.n. (Neodiscodes), 229, 235, 235 
Camper encyrtus De Santis, 149, 152 
confusor sp.n., 182, 185, 187 
connectens sp.n., 205, 223 
corrugata sp.n., 183, 183, 187 

diaphorocerus (Masi), 246 
Dicarnosis Mercet, 145 
dichrous Mercet, 167, 168, 169, 170 
Dinocarsiella Mercet, 150, 151 
Dinocarsiina, 145 
Dinocarsiini, 145 
Dinocarsis Forster, 145, 152 
diversicornis Westwood, 154 
Doliphoceras Mercet, 145 
Dusmetia Mercet, 146 

Ectroma auctt., 147, 150, 154 

Ectromatopsis Compere, 145 

Ectromini Ashmead, 144, 153, 154 

Encyrtidae, 143, 144, 179 

Encyrtinae, 143, 144 

Encyrtini, 144 

Ericydnina, 143, 145, 146, 152 

Ericydnini, 145 

Ericydnus Walker, 147, 151, 153, 166, 179 

Eulophus Geoffrey, 179 

Eupelmidae, 179 

Euryrhopalus Howard, 190, 235, 239 

flandersi sp.n., 204, 221 
flaviclava De Santis, 152, 153 
frontalis Compere, 209, 210, 212, 219, 223, 
223, 224 

Grandoriella Domenichini, 143, 151, 153, 180 
guineensis sp.n., 184, 185, 188 



INDEX TO NAMES IN HYMENOPTERA 



249 



Hambletonia Compere, 146 

hemipterus (Girault), 179 

Heteroleptomastix Ishii, 153 

hispanica Mercet, 152, 154 

Hungariella Erdos, 143, 147, 154 

hyettus Walker, 195, 197, 198, 202, 203, 219 

ianthinus Compere, 207, 208, 223 

indica Ramakrishna Ayyar, 162, 165, 166 

indicus Narayanan & Subba Rao, 232, 233, 

235 

insularis (Cameron), 226, 228 
insularis Compere, 207, 211, 224 
ivorensis Risbec, 180 

japonicus (Tachikawa), 169, 176 
josefi Rozen, 182, 183, 187 

kirkpatricki (Kerrich), 236, 237, 239, 240, 
241, 241, 245 

lamasi Domenichini, 180 
latiusculus Thomson, 174, 175, 176 
lepelleyi Kerrich, 228, 229, 230, 230, 231, 

232, 235, 235 

Leptanusia De Santis, 145 
Leptomastix Forster, 154 
longicornis auctt., 170 
longicornis Dalman, 168, 171, 173, 178 
longiscapus Compere, 213, 215, 219, 224 
lucidus sp.n., 190, 191, 195 

maplei Compere, 197, 221 

martini! Compere, 230, 231, 235, 235 

Masia Mercet, 149 

masii Domenichini, 204, 204, 205, 221 

matranus Erdos, 152 

mediterranea sp.n., 158, 159, 165, 166 

megalarus Walker, 179 

Metaphaenodiscus Mercet, 188, 190 

Metaphaenodiscus species not named, 190 

Mirini Ashmead, 144, 152 

nemoralis Mercet, 190, 190 
Neodiscodes Compere, 189, 189, 228 
Neodusmetia Kerrich, 149, 150 
Neoplatycerus Subba Rao, 146 
nitens sp.n., 211, 224 

pacificus Compere, 212, 213, 214, 215, 224 
paludatus Walker, 167, 168 
Paraenasioidea Hoffer, 145 
Parastenoterys Girault, 153 
Parastenoterys Girault, De Santis, 151, 152 



Parectromoides Girault, 153 

Parencyrtus Ashmead, 152 

Parencyrtus Mercet, 151 

parvus sp.n., 228, 235 

paulistus Compere, 207, 210, 211, 223 

Pauridia Timberlake, 150 

Pentacladocerus Erdos, 149, 152 

peregrina (Compere), 158, 159, 160, 161, 163, 

165, 166 

pergandei Howard, 191, 192, 193, 195 
personatus sp.n., 197, 198, 200, 201, 221 
phenacocci (Ashmead), 193, 195 
phenacocci Bennett, 203, 204, 221, 221 
piceae Erdos, 154, 155, 156, 157, 164, 165, 

165 
pretiosa (Timberlake) (Hungariella), 154, 

155, 156, 157, 158, 159, 160, 161, 162, 164, 

165 
pretiosus (Timberlake) (Euryrhopalus), 236, 

237, 243 

propinquus sp.n., 242, 245 
Pteromalidae, 179 
pulchrior sp.n., 238, 243 
punctatus Compere, 201, 219, 221, 231 
punctatus Girault, 153 
purpurea Ishii, 181, 182, 182, 183, 184, 185, 

186, 187, 187 

regularis sp.n., 200, 201, 221 
reinhardi (Mayr), 179 
rhopoideus sp.n., 240, 243 
robustior Mercet, 172, 178, 179 

saccharicola (Gahan), 228, 237, 239, 240, 243 

saissetiae Yasumatsu & Yoshimura, 226 

schwarzi Howard, 237, 243 

similis sp.n., 196, 219 

sipylus Walker, 168, 174, 175, 176, 178, 179 

spilococci Ferriere, 157, 165 

strigosus (Nees), 168, 170, 171, 172, 174, 

178, 179 

subbaraoi sp.n., 232, 235 
Synaspidia Timberlake, 236 

tachigaliae Brues, 216 
Tanaostigminae, 179 
Tanaostigmodes, 179 
tenuiscapus sp.n., 239, 240, 243 
Tetracladia Howard, 149 
Tetracnemini, 154 
Tetracnemus Timberlake, 147, 154 
Tetracnemus Westwood, 149, 152, 154 
theobromae Kerrich, 216, 217 



250 



G. J. KERRICH 



Tropidophryne Compere, 146 

vadosus sp.n., 214, 215, 224 

ventralis Dalman, 167, 168, 169, 174, 176, 

176, 179 

vexans sp.n., 202, 221 
Vosleria Timberlake, 150 



Xanthoectroma Mercet, 150 
Xanthoencyrtus Ashmead, 145, 150 
Xenoencyrtus Riek, 179 



Zaplatycerus Timberlake, 146 
Zarhopalus Ashmead, 145 



INDEX TO COCCID HOST NAMES 



aonidum auctt. (Pseudococcus) 
see longispinus Targ. 

Baccacoccus sp., 185 

brevipes (Ckll.) (Dysmicoccus), 215, 217, 236, 
243 

citri (Risso) (Planococcus), 162, 164, 185, 

187, 204, 226, 231 
" citrus scale ", 233 

comstocki Kuwana (Pseudococcus), 182 
concavocerarii James (Pseudococcus), 183. 

" Diaspine scale ", 185 

Dysmicoccus sp. near brevipes (Ckll), 242. 

Ferrisia sp., 200, 201, 208, 213 

fragilis Brain (Pseudococcus), 156, 160, 211 

gossypii Towns. & Ckll. (Phenacoccus), 203 
" grape-fruit mealy-bug ", 233 

hemispherica Targ. (Saissetia), 246 

kenyae Le Pelley (Planococcus), 161, 162, 184 

lilacinus (Ckll.) (Planococcus), 164, 230, 233 
longispinus Targ. (Pseudococcus), 156, 160, 
161, 211 



maritimus (Ehrhorn) (Pseudococcus), 204 
maxima Green (Pulvinaria), 226 
" mealybug on Albizzia ", 208 
" mealybug on cotton ", 205 

nanae Schmutterer (Spilococcus), 158 
neobrevipes Beardsley (Dysmicoccus), 245 
njalensis (Laing) (Planococcoides), 184, 185, 
187, 232 

Phenacoccus sp., 181, 202, 203, 211, 240 

piceae (Loew), 157 

Planococcus sp., 184 

Pseudococcinae, 185 

Pseudococcus sp., 159, 161, 202, 208, 217, 

228, 229 
pulverarius Newstead (Heterococcus), 171, 

176 

quaesitus (Brain) (Allococcus), 229 

Saissetia sp. or spp., 185, 226 

solani Ferris (Phenacoccus), 191, 193, 238 

solenopsis Tinsley (Phenacoccus), 193 

virgata (Ckll.) (Ferrisia), 200, 201, 208, 209, 
226, 227 

yuccae (Coq.) (Puto), 198 



Bull. BY. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 20, 5 



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PLATE 4 




A LIST OF SUPPLEMENTS 
TO THE ENTOMOLOGICAL SERIES 

OF THE BULLETIN OF 
THE BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 



1. MASNER, L. The types of Proctotrupoidea (Hymenoptera) in the British 
Museum (Natural History) and in the Hope Department of Entomology, Oxford. 
Pp. 143. February, 1965. 5. 

2. NIXON, G. E. J. A reclassification of the tribe Microgasterini (Hymenoptera : 
Braconidae). Pp.284; 348 Text-figures. August, 1965. 6. 

3. WATSON, A. A revision of the Ethiopian Drepanidae (Lepidoptera). Pp. 177 ; 
18 plates, 270 Text-figures. August, 1965. 4 45. 

4. SANDS, W. A. A revision of the Termite Subfamily Nasutitermitinae (Isoptera, 
Termitidae) from the Ethiopian Region. Pp. 172 ; 500 Text-figures. October, 

1965- 355. 

5. AHMAD, I. The Leptocorisinae (Heteroptera : Alydidae) of the World. Pp. 156 ; 

475 Text-figures. November, 1965. 2 15$. 

6. OKADA, T. Diptera from Nepal. Cryptochaetidae, Diastatidae & Drosophilidae. 
Pp. 129 ; 328 Text-figures. 3. 

7. GILIOMEE, J. H. Morphology and Taxonomy of Adult Males of the Family 
Coccidae (Homoptera : Coccoidea). Pp. 168 ; 43 Text-figures. February, 1967. 

33s. 

8. FLETCHER, D. S. A revision of the Ethiopian species and a check list of the 
world species of Cleora (Lepidoptera : Geometridae) . Pp. 119; 14 plates, 146 
Text-figures, 9 maps. February, 1967. 3 los. 

9. HEMMING, A. F. The Generic Names of the Butterflies and their type-species 
(Lepidoptera : Rhopalocera). In press. 

10. STEMPFFER, H. The Genera of the African Lycaenidae (Lepidoptera : Rhopa- 
locera). In press. 



PRINTED IN GREAT BRITAIN BY ADLARD & SON LIMITED, EARTH OLOMEW PRESS, DORKING 



RHYPAROCHROMINAE TYPES 
IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM 

(NATURAL HISTORY) 
(HEMIPTERA : LYGAEIDAE) 




G. G. E. SCUDDER 



BULLETIN OF 

THE BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 
ENTOMOLOGY Vol. 20 No. 6 

LONDON: 1967 



RHYPAROCHROMINAE TYPES 

IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 

(HEMIPTERA : LYGAEIDAE) 




BY 



G. G. E. SCUDDER__y JL 

\J 

University of British Columbia, Vancouver, 8, B.C., Canada 



Pp. 251-285 



BULLETIN OF 

THE BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 
ENTOMOLOGY Vol. 20 No. 6 

LONDON: 1967 



THE BULLETIN OF THE BRITISH MUSEUM 

(NATURAL HISTORY), instituted in 1949, is 
issued in five series corresponding to the Departments 
of the Museum, and an Historical series. 

Parts will appear at irregular intervals as they become 
ready. Volumes will contain about three or four 
hundred pages, and will not necessarily be completed 
within one calendar year. 

In 1965 a separate supplementary series of longer 
papers was instituted, numbered serially for each 
Department. 

This paper is Vol. 20, No. 6 of the Entomological 
series. The abbreviated titles of periodicals cited 
follow those of the World List of Scientific Periodicals. 



World List abbreviation : 
Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.). 



Trustees of the British Museum (Natural History) 1967 



TRUSTEES OF 
THE BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 

Issued I August, 1967 Price Fifteen Shillings 



RHYPAROCHROMINAE TYPES IN THE BRITISH 

MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 

(HEMIPTERA : LYGAEIDAE) 

By G. G. E. SCUDDER 

CONTENTS 

Page 

INTRODUCTION ........... 253 

LIST OF SPECIES .......... 255 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ......... 284 

REFERENCES ........... 284 

APPENDIX. List of Rhyparochrominae holotypes in British Museum (Nat. 

Hist.) not considered in this paper ..... 285 

SYNOPSIS 

This paper is concerned with the selection and designation of lectotypes for taxa belonging 
to the Lygaeid subfamily Rhyparochrominae. The material studied in the British Museum 
(Nat. Hist.) was described by Champion, Dallas, Distant, Douglas & Scott, Germar, Kirby, 
Kirkaldy, Rambur, Saunders, Scott, Uhler, Walker, White and Wollaston. The stabilization 
of taxa is necessary for future work on a monograph of the subfamily. Two neotypes are also 
selected, and some new synonymy and new combinations given. 

INTRODUCTION 

IN the entomological collections of the British Museum (Nat. Hist.) is to be found 
type material of species described by a number of early workers including G. C. 
Champion, W. S. Dallas, W. L. Distant, J. W. Douglas & J. Scott, E. F. Germar, 
W. F. Kirby, G. W. Kirkaldy, J. P. Rambur, E. Saunders, J. Scott, P. R. Uhler, 
F. Walker, F. B. White and T. V. Wollaston. These Hemipterists, like other 
entomologists of the time, when describing new species from more than one specimen, 
did not designate a single specimen as the 'Type' or if they did, they did not cite the 
specimen so that it conforms to the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, 
1964 edition, Article 73a or 73b, and so all material may be regarded as syntypic 
(Article 73c). 

In the Museum collections, type labels have been added to many specimens, 
sometimes erroneously. This is unfortunate because it does not constitute a lecto- 
type designation and can lead to much confusion in the taxon. In 1964-65, the 
material in the British Museum (Nat. Hist.) was studied by the author, and the 
opportunity taken to designate lectotypes where this was necessary. This was 
undertaken in connection with the preparation of a monograph on the subfamily. 

In the selection of lectotypes, reference has been made to the original description, 
in order to confirm the description and locality listing. In the following list, arranged 
alphabetically under specific names, the original binomen is given, followed by a 
coded reference to the original description: the code is the same as that used by 
Slater (1964). Following the reference is listed the sex and status of the specimen, 

ENTOM. 20, 6. I5 



254 G. G. E. SCUDDER 

with new lectotype designations cited in CAPITALS. After this is given details of 
the label (s) borne by the specimen, each label being enclosed in quotation marks and 
the individual label(s) separated by a semicolon (;). The circular red B.M. type 
label referred to is the standard British Museum (Nat. Hist.) type label (as used in 
the Department of Entomology), a circular label with the word Type' encircled 
with a red ring. The circular green B.M. type label, on the Walker material, is 
similar to the red label, but is encircled with green instead of red. In order to save 
space, in referring to the specimens described in the Biologia Centrali-Americana 
by Distant (1880-93) I have not given the full data from each label, but only noted 
such labels as 'the B.C.A. label'. This is done because these labels merely give the 
name of the species and the B.C.A. information as follows for Ozophora pallescens 
(Distant) 'B.C.A., Hem. I Davila pallescens.': this information is available from 
the coded reference given in the text of this paper and the original binomen given 
for each species. 

All lectotypes here designated have been labelled with a purple B.M. lectotype 
label. In addition, each lectotype has been labelled with a pink label which cites 
the original binomen, etc. as shown for Metochus abbreviatus Scott as follows 
'METOCHUS ABBREVIATUS Scott 1874 LECTOTYPE G. G. E. Scudder 1965'. These 
lectotype labels are not listed in the paper. Holotype specimens in the collection 
also have been clearly labelled with pink labels containing comparable data. 

Since Walker (1871-73) clearly indicated the number of specimens before him 
(by letters, a, b, c, etc.) it has been possible to recognize when only a single specimen 
was present in the original material. Thus, some of Walker's material, can unques- 
tionably be labelled 'holotype' : the sex of these as listed in the original description 
is not always correct. Dallas (1852) used a series of letters in his listing of material, 
but it is clear that the letters in this case indicate different localities and not number 
of specimens. Therefore, in all of the Dallas species, the number of specimens in the 
original series is indefinite and so lectotypes have been selected in all cases. Finally, 
for most of the Distant species, there is no indication of the number of specimens in the 
type series. Further, a search through the accessions in the Museum has turned up 
specimens which obviously could be regarded as type material, but there is no label 
on them to indicate this. Distant did label some specimens 'type', but this does not 
constitute a type designation since the information was not included in the original 
description and has not been published subsequently, as far as known. Where 
possible, lectotypes for the Distant species have been selected from the specimens 
bearing determination labels in Distant's handwriting; furthermore, the one 
labelled 'type' by Distant has been selected whenever possible. 

Taxa in the British Museum (Nat. Hist.) collection, described by recent workers 
(China, Kiritshenko, Lindberg, Miller, Scudder, Southwood) are not considered in 
the main text of this paper, since holotype designations have been published. 
However, as recommended in the International Code (720(4)), the list of additional 
species in the collections is given as an Appendix. 

Finally, I have included in the paper the Distant types that are located in other 
Museums. This is done so that workers will have a complete listing of the location 
of the Distant material. Lectotype designations for the Distant material in the 



RHYPAROCHROMINAE TYPES 255 

Museo Civico di Storia Naturale, Geneva have already been published (Scudder, 
1966). The lectotype for Pseudopamera aurivilliana Distant is designated in this 
paper, the lectotype being in the Naturhistoriska Riksmuseum, Stockholm. 



LIST OF SPECIES 

abbreviatus (Metochus) Scott, 18740: 434. LECTOTYPE <$ with labels: circular red B.M. 
type label; 'JAPAN'; 'Type. Scott Coll. 98 n.'; ' abbreviatus, n sp.' Pinned 

through scutellum; left antenna, end two segments of right antenna, left fore and middle 
leg and all of right legs missing; first two segments of left antenna and right hind leg glued 
to card below specimen. 

acuminatus (Rhyparochromus) Dallas, 18520: 567. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular 
red B.M. type label; 'Ent. Club. 44 12.'; 'N. Holl.'; '184. RHYPAROCHROMUS ACUMINATUS,'. 
Glued to card; end segment of left antenna, end three segments of right antenna, middle and 
hind left tarsi and right middle leg missing. Present combination Myocara acuminata (Dallas) . 

adtnistus (Caridops) Distant, igogc: 333. LECTOTYPE ? with labels: circular red B.M. 
type label; 'Maramaldus admistus Dist. type' [Distant's handwriting]; 'BniM TAL 4500 FT. 
KUMAON N.A. 22-27-IX-o6' ; 'Distant Coll. 1911- 383.' Micropinned through scutellum 
from below and mounted on card ; abdomen missing. Present combination Caridops admistus 
(Distant). 

aeruginosus (Peritrechus) Distant, 19040: 76. Lectotype in Genoa, designated by Scudder 
(1966). Paralectotype in collection $ with labels: circular red B.M. type label; 'aeruginosus 
Dist.' [Distant's handwriting] ; 'Mandalay Birmania Fea IV 1885'; 'Distant Coll. 1911 383'. 
Present combination Orieotrechus aeruginosus (Distant). 

aethiopica (Exopatnera) Distant, 19186: 258. LECTOTYPE ^ with labels: circular red 
B.M. type label; 'Exopamera aethiopica Dist. type' [Distant's handwriting] ; 'Brit. E. Afr. 
Kibwezi. 3000 ft. Apl. 2-4, 1911. S. A. Neave.'; '1911 177'. Pinned through scutellum ; 
left fore and hind leg, end three segments of right antenna and right hind leg missing. 

aethiops (Calyptonotus) Douglas & Scott, 18686: 28. Holotype $ with labels: circular red 
B.M. Type H.T. label; 'aethiops D & S.' [Saunders* handwriting]; 'Saunders Coll. Brit. Mus. 
1910 357.' Micropinned through pronotum and mounted on card; left antenna with 
terminal three segments missing and all of right antenna missing. Present combination 
Aphanus rolandri aethiops (Douglas & Scott). Comb. n. 

aethiops (Cligenes) Distant, 19045 : 435. LECTOTYPE <$ with labels: circular red B.M. type 
label; 'Cligenes aethiops Dist. 1 [Distant's handwriting]; 'Hex River, C.G.H. i6th Aug. '02 
1420' ; 'Distant Coll. 1911 383'. Glued to card point; end segment of right antenna missing. 
Present combination Botocudo aethiops (Distant). 

affinis (Daerlac) Distant, 19016: 1901. LECTOTYPE <$ with labels: circular red B.M. type 
label; 'affinis Dist.' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Launceston 91 155'. Glued to card point: 
right hind leg and end segment of left antenna missing. Synonym of Daerlac tricolor Signoret, 
1 88 1. Syn. n. 

affinis (Trapezus) Distant, 19016: 500. LECTOTYPE <$ with labels: '88'; circular red B.M. 
type label; 'affinis Dist.' [Distant's handwriting] ; '64' ; 'Grand Etang (Windward side) 1900 ft. 
Grenada, W.I. H. H. Smith'; '95 206'. Glued to card point ; end segment of both antennae 
missing. Present combination Cryphula affinis (Distant). 

africanus (Lethaeus) Dallas, 18520: 557. Described from a. Sierra Leone (Pres. Rev. D. F. 
Morgan), b. S. Africa (Pres. Earl of Derby), c. S. Africa (Pres. Dr. A. Smith). The Sierra 
Leone specimen is not in the British Museum (Nat. Hist.); South African specimen in collec- 
tion does not fit original description in essential detail and selection of this as lectotype would 
change present concept of africanus. A South African specimen in collection and with labels: 
'S. Africa 43.19'; 'i. LETHAEUS AFRICANUS' is identical with Lethaeus tartareus Stal. NEO- 



256 G.G.E.SCUDDER 

TYPE $ selected with labels: 'SIERRA LEONE NJALA at light DATE i3.vi.25 E. Hargreaves'; 
'BRIT. Mus 1925 280'; 'Lethaeus africanus Dall. W.E. CHINA, det.'; 'NEOTYPE 
LETHAEUS AFRICANUS Dallas 1852 det. Scudder 1966'. 

africanus (Maxaphanus) Distant, 19186: 265. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red 
B.M. type label; 'Maxaphanus africanus Dist. type' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Mlanje, 
Nyasaland. 21.11.1912. S. A. Neave.'; '1913 140.' Pinned through scutellum; right 
antenna missing. Present combination Dieuches africanus (Distant). 

alacer (Thaumastopus ?) Walker, 18720: 147. Holotype (sex unknown) with labels: cir- 
cular green B.M. type label; 'Canary's'; 'Saunders. 65.13'; '2. THAUMASTOPUS ? ALACER.' 
Pinned through scutellum and mounted on polyporus strip ; end two segments of left antenna, 
end segment of right antenna, left middle tarsus, left hind leg, right fore and hind legs, abdo- 
men and wings missing. Synonym of Noualhieria quadripunctata (Brulle 1838). 

alacris (Thaumastopus ?) Walker, 18720: 147. Holotype $ with labels: circular green B.M. 
type label; circular dark green label; '404 3 521'; '2. THAUMASTOPUS ? ALACRIS.' Pinned 
through pronotum; end two segments of right antenna, middle left tarsus, left hind leg 
missing. Synonym of Cnemodus mavortius (Say 1831). 

albicollis (Mirrhina) Distant, 19200: 155. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red B.M. 
type label; 'Mirrhina albicollis Dist. type' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Houadou, New Cale- 
donia. 26.x. 1914. P.D.Montague. 1918 87'. Glued to card. 

albidomaculatus (Lachnophorus) Distant, 19130: 1913. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: 
'Mahe, '08-9. Seychelles Exp.'; circular red B.M. type label; 'Lachnophorus albidomaculata 
Dist. type' [Distant's handwriting] ; 'Percy Sladen Expedition. 1911 497.' Glued to card; 
left antenna and hind leg missing; abdomen dissected and in vial. Present combination 
Lachnesthus albidomaculatus (Distant). 

albigera (Aphanus) Distant, 19186: 264. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: 'Durham. F. Muir. 
1902.'; circular red B.M. type label; 'Aphanus albigera Dist. type' [Distant's handwriting]; 
'Sharp Coll. 1905 313.' Pinned through scutellum and mounted on cork; end segment of 
left antenna and right middle leg missing. Present combination Rhyparochromus albigerus 
(Distant). 

alboannulata (Pamera) Champion, 19130: 6. LECTOTYPE <$ with labels: circular red 
B.M. type label; 'Pamera alboannulata Ch' [Champion's handwriting]; ' <$' ; 'Orosi, Costa 
Rica, ex C. Picado.'; 'Found in Bromeliads.'; '1913 83.' Glued to card point; right hind 
leg missing. Present combination Lygofuscanellus alboannulatus (Champion). 

albomaculata (Plociomera) Distant, 18930: 400. Holotype $ with labels: circular red B.M 
type label; 'Plociomera albomaculata Dist.' [Distant's handwriting]; 'S. Geronimo, Guate- 
mala. Champion.'; 'Sp. figured.' Glued to card: right fore leg missing. Present combina- 
tion Exptochiomera albomaculata (Distant). 

albomaculatus (Calyptonotus) Scott, 18740: 439. LECTOTYPE <J with labels: circular 
red B.M. type label; 'Calyptonotus albomaculatus n. sp.'; 'JAPAN'; '21'; 'Pachymeris 
(Raglius) n. sp. see remarks in list'; 'Type Scott Coll. 88 n'. Pinned through scutellum; 
end of right antenna, right foreleg, left middle tarsus and left hind leg missing. Present 
combination Graptopeltus albomaculatus (Scott). 

albomarginatus (Gyndes) Scott, 18740: 437. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red 
B.M. type label; 'Gyndes albomarginatus, n. sp.'. Glued to card. Present combination 
Eucosmetus albomarginatus (Scott). 

alien us (Rhyparochromus) Walker, 18720: 105. Holotype $ with labels: circular green 
B.M. type label; *SAR.'; 'Saunders. 63.13.'; '175. RHYPAROCHROMUS ALIENUS.' Pinned 
through scutellum and mounted on card ; both antennae and left middle leg missing. Present 
combination Neolethaeus alienus (Walker). Comb. n. 

andrewsi (Pamera) Distant, 19016: 481. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red B.M. type 
label; 'Andrewsi Dist.' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Flying-fish cove. VIII. 97.'; 'Christmas I. 



RHYPAROCHROMINAE TYPES 257 

C. W. Andrews. 92 20.' Glued to card point; end segment of both antennae, left hind 
leg and right middle leg missing. Present combination Remaudiereana andrewsi (Distant) . 

antennalis (Diniella) Distant, igiSc: 243. LECTOTYPE <J with labels: circular red B.M. 
type label; 'Diniella antennalis Dist. type' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Tonkin. Hoabinh. 
Dec. 1916. R. V. de Salvaza.' Glued to card. Present combination Lamproceps antennalis 
(Distant). 

antennatus (Thebanus) Distant, 19180: 197. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red 
B.M. type label; 'Thebanus antennatus Dist. type' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Nandidrig 
V.I3 S.India. T.V.C.'; Thebanus politus Dist.?'; '401'; 'S.India. E.A.Butler. 1915-60.' 
Glued to card; right hind leg missing. Also in the collection are i <J, 2 $ labelled 'S. India, 
T.V.C.'. Synonym of Thebanus mysorensis (Distant, 1918). 

antennatus (Tropistethus) Scott, 18740: 429. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red 
B.M. type label; 'Tropistethus antennatus, n. sp.'; 'JAPAN'; 'Type. Scott Coll. 88 n.' 
Glued to card. Present combination Lamproceps antennatus (Scott). 

anticus (Rhyparochromus) Walker, 18720: 100. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular 
green B.M. type label; 'E. Ind. 58 50'; '159. RHYPAROCHROMUS ANTICUS.' Pinned through 
scutellum and mounted on polyporus strip ; left antenna, end three segments of right antenna, 
left middle leg, right fore and middle tibiae and tarsi, right hind tarsus missing. Synonym 
of Dieuches femoralis (Dohrn, 1 860) . 

apicalis (Pamera) Distant, 1904^: 268. LECTOTYPE <J with labels: circular red B.M. type 
label; 'apicalis Dist.' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Townsville, Qld. 11.10.02. F. P. Dodd'; 
'1903 356'. Glued to card, with another <$ above. Present combination Daerlac apicalis 
(Distant). 

apicalis {Rhyparochromus) Dallas, 18520: 562. LECTOTYPE <$ with labels: circular red 
B.M. type label; 'Int: S. Africa 43 19'; '126. RHYPAROCHROMUS APICALIS,'. Pinned through 
scutellum and mounted on polyporus strip; end two segments of left antenna, end three 
segments of right antenna, left fore and hind leg, and right hind leg missing. Present com- 
bination Naphius apicalis (Dallas). 

apicatus (Trapezus) Distant, 18820: 217. LECTOTYPE <J with labels: circular red B.M. 
type label; 'Trapezus apicatus Dist.' [Distant's handwriting]; 'S. Geronimo, Guatemala. 
Champion.'; and the B.C. A. label. Glued to card; end segment of left antenna missing. 
There are several additional specimens in the collection. Present combination Cryphula 
apicata (Distant). 

archetypus (Entisberus) Distant, 19030": 74. LECTOTYPE <J with labels: circular red 
B.M. type label; 'Entisberus archetypus Dist.' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Peradeniya, Ceylon, 
11.1901'; 'Distant Coll. 1911 383.' Pinned through scutellum and mounted on polyporus 
strip ; end segment of left antenna and tibia and tarsus of left hind leg missing. 

armatipes (Rhyparochromus) Walker, 18720: 91. Holotype with labels: circular green 
B.M. type label; '5i2a'; '116. RHYPAROCHROMUS ARMATIPES.' Represented by head and 
prothorax only. Synonym of Dieuches armipes (Fabricius, 1794). 

assamensis (Lethaeus) (Distant, 19016: 507. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red 
B.M. type label; 'assamensis Dist.' [Distant's handwriting] ; 'Naga Hills (Doherty)'; 'Distant 
Coll. 1911 383.' Pinned through scutellum; end segment of left antenna, end two segments 
of right antenna, left fore leg, left middle tarsus and left hind leg missing. 

assimilandus (Petissius) Distant, 18930: 407. LECTOTYPE <J with labels: circular red 
B.M. type label; 'Petissius assimilandus Dist.' [Distant's handwriting] ; 'Bugaba, 800-1500 ft. 
Champion.'; 'Sp. figured'; and the B.C.A. label. Glued to card. There are other specimens 
in the collection in addition. 

assimilis (Rhyparochromus) Dallas, 18520: 572. Type material not located in the collec- 
tions. Present combination Metochus assimilis (Dallas). 

ater (Prytanes) Distant, 18930: 402. Holotype $ with labels: circular red B.M. type label; 
'Amula, Guerrero 6000 ft. Aug. H. H. Smith'; 'Sp. figured.'; 'Prytanes ater Dist.' [Distant's 



258 G. G. E. SCUDDER 

handwriting]. Glued to card; left antenna missing and abdomen dissected and mounted on 
slide. 

atotnarius (Aphanus) Distant, 19040*: 353. LECTOTYPE <J with labels: circular red B.M. 
type label; 'atomarius Dist.' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Zoutpansberg. Transvaal. J. Junod. 
1903 202.' Glued to card point; both antennae and both hind legs missing. In addition 
there are 2 $, i $ in the collection. Present combination Rhyparothesus atomarius (Distant). 
Comb. n. 

atratus (Locutius) Distant, 19180: 192. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red B.M. type 
label; 'Locutius atratus Dist. type' [Distant's handwriting]; 'L26'; 'Chikkaballapura, S. 
India. T. V. Campbell.' Glued to card; left middle tibia and tarsus missing. Present 
combination Plinthisus atratus (Distant) . 

attenuatus (Rhyparochromus) Dallas, 18520: 579. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular 
red B.M. type label; '64035226'; '28. PLOCIOMERUS ATTENUATUS,' Pinned through 
scutellum and mounted on polyporus strip; both antennae, left fore and hind leg, and right 
middle and hind leg missing. Present combination Paromius attenuatus (Dallas). 

aurantiacus (Lethaeus) Distant, 19146: 382. Type material apparently not in the collec- 
tions. Present combination Hebrolethaeus aurantiacus (Distant). 

aurantiacus (Tropistethus) Distant, 19180: 197. LECTOTYPE with labels: circular red 
B.M. type label; 'Tropistethus aurantiacus Dist type' [Distant's handwriting] ; 'Chikkaballa- 
pura. S.India. T.V.C.'; '3/2'; 'S.India. E.A.Butler. 1915-60.' Glued to card with a 
$ specimen to left; right fore leg and end segment of left antenna detached. Synonym of 
Camptocera glaberrima (Walker, 1872). 

aurifera (Potamiaena) Distant, 19100: 61. LECTOTYPE ^ with labels: circular red B.M. 
type label; 'Potamiaena aurifera Dist. type' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Paresnath W. Bengal 
4300-4400 ft. 15. IV. 09'; 'Distant Coll. 1911 383.' Glued to card; end two segments of 
left antenna, end three segments of right antenna, and both hind legs missing; abdomen 
dissected. 

aurivilliana (Pseudopamera) Distant, 18820: 209. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: Tehuan- 
tepic'; 'Type'; 'Typus'. Pinned through scutellum ; right middle tibia and tarsus and both 
hind tarsi missing. In the Naturhistoriska Riksmuseum, Stockholm. 

australis (Aphanus) Distant, 19016: 502. LECTOTYPE <$ with labels: circular red B.M. 
type label; '5176'; 'australis Dist.' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Troughton Island. 92 i.' 
Glued to card. Present combination Elasmolomus australis (Distant). 

australis (Arrianoides) Distant, 19186: 491. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: Townsville, 
Qld. 1902 F. P. Dodd.'; circular red B.M. type label; 'Arrianoides australis Dist. type' 
[Distant's handwriting] . Glued to card ; end segment of right antenna missing and abdomen 
dissected. Present combination Myocara australis (Distant). 

australis (Bosbequius) Distant, 19186: 260. LECTOTYPE ^ with labels: circular red B.M. 
type label; 'Bosbequius australis Dist. type' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Adelaide R., N.W. 
Australia, J. J. Walker'. Glued to card. 

balteatus (Phaeax) Distant, 18930: 413. Lectotype $ with labels: circular red B.M. type 
label; 'Phaeax balteatus Dist.'; 'Bugaba, 800-1500 ft., Champion' ; 'Sp. figured.'. Glued to 
card. Lectotype designated by Woodward (1962). 

basalts (Rhyparochromus) Dallas, 18520: 575. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red 
B.M. type label; 'North Amer E.D.'; '99. RHYPAROCHROMUS BASALTS,'. Glued to card 
with <$ to right. Present combination Pachybrachius basalis (Dallas). 

bengalensis (Aphanus) Distant, igogc: 337. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red B.M. 
type label; 'Aphanus bengalensis Dist. type' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Pusa Bengal'; 'Dis- 
tant Coll. 1911 383.' Pinned through scutellum and mounted on card; end segment of left 
antenna, left middle and hind leg missing. Present combination Rhyparothesus bengalensis 
(Distant). Comb. n. 



RHYPAROCHROMINAE TYPES 259 

bengalensis (Diniella) Distant, igogc: 334. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red B.M. 
type label; 'Diniella bengalensis Dist. type' [Distant's handwriting] ; 'Pusa Bengal'. Pinned 
through right clavus and mounted on polyporus strip. 

bengalensis (Rhyparochromus) Dallas, 18520: 572. LECTOTYPE <$ with labels: circular 
red B.M. type label; 'N. Bengal 42. 25.'; '151. RHYPAROCHROMUS BENGALENSIS'. Pinned 
through scutellum; left antenna, end three segments of right antenna, right fore tibia and 
tarsus, and right hind leg missing. Present combination Metochus bengalensis (Dallas). 

bicolor (Drymus) Distant, 19016: 508. LECTOTYPE <J with labels: circular red B.M. type 
label; 'bicolor Dist.' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Mungphu'; 'Atkinson Coll. 92-6.' Glued to 
card point; end two segments of left antenna and right middle leg missing. There is also a 
$ in the collection. 

bicolor (Nabis) Walker, 18730: 145. Holotype <$ with labels: circular green B.M. type label; 
'39. NABIS BICOLOR.'; 'Nabis bicolor. Walker's Catal.' Glued to card; left antenna 
missing. Synonym of Paromius piratoides (Costa, 1864). 

biplagiatus (Noliphus ?) Walker, 18710: 177. Holotype $ with labels: circular green B.M. 
type label; 'Gil.'; 'Saunders. 65.13.'; '7. NOLIPHUS ? BIPLAGIATUS.' Pinned through 
pronotum and mounted on polyporus strip ; end segment of left antenna, end three segments 
of right antenna, left and right hind legs missing. Present combination Narbo biplagiatus 
(Walker). 

bipunctatus (Ligyrocoris) Kirby, 18900: 547. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red 
B.M. type label; 'Fern Na'; 'Ligyrocoris bipunctata Kb' [Kirby 's handwriting]. Glued to 
card point ; end segment of both antennae, left middle and hind leg, right hind tibia and tarsus 
missing. Synonym of Pachybrachius vinctus (Say, 1831). 

borealis (Rhyparochromus) Dallas, 18520: 565. LECTOTYPE ? with labels: 'Hudson's 
Bay 44.17'; 'Rhyparochromus ferus. Walker's Catal.' Pinned through thorax; end two 
segments of left antenna and end segment of right antenna, left middle leg missing. Also in 
collection are $ with labels: 'R'; '760'; '97. RHYPAROCHROMUS FERUS.'. and i ex. with 
labels: 'R'; '761'; 'Rhyparochromus ferus. Walker's Catal.' Synonym of Eremocoris ferus 
(Say, 1831). 

brevipennis (Budaeus) Distant, 19040: 76. LECTOTYPE a nymph with labels: circular 
red B.M. type label; 'Budaeus brevipennis Dist.' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Lohardaga'; 
'Atkinson Coll. 92-6.' Glued to card point; antennae except for basal segments, and left 
fore leg missing. A synonym of Pachybrachius pallicornis (Dallas 1852). 

brevis (Scolopostethus) Saunders, 18670: 221. Not located. 

brunneus (Locutius) Distant, 19180: 193. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red B.M. 
type label; 'Locutius brunneus Dist. type' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Chikkaballapura, 
S. India. T. V. Campbell'; 'L3i'; 'S. India. E. A. Butler. 1915-60.' Glued to card; 
end segment of left antenna, right antenna, left middle leg and all three right legs missing. 
Present combination Plinthisus brunneus (Distant) . 

brunneus (Prosomoeus) Scott, 18740: 436. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red B.M. 
type label; '24'; 'JAPAN'; 'Prosomoeus nov. gen. brunneus, n. sp.' Pinned 
through scutellum and mounted on polyporus strip; right antenna, left and right hind legs 
missing. 

burmanicus (Usilanus) Distant, igogc: 341. LECTOTYPE <? with labels: circular red 
B.M. type label; 'Usilanus burmanicus Dist. type' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Carin Asciuii 
Ghecu 1400-1 5oom. L. Fea. III-IV.88.'; 'Distant Coll. 1911 383.' Pinned through right 
hemielytron and mounted on card ; right antenna missing. 

caeca (Plociomera) Distant, 18820: 210. LECTOTYPE <$ with labels: circular red B.M. 
type label; 'Quiche Mts., 7-9,000 ft. Champion.'; and the B.C.A. label. Glued to card with 
a $ to right. Present combination Exptochiomera caeca (Distant). 

caliginosus (Trapezonotus) Distant, 18820: 216. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red 
B.M. type label; 'Trapezonotus caliginosus' [Distant's handwriting] ; 'Quezaltenango, 7800 ft. 



260 G. G. E. SCUDDER 

Champion.'; and the B.C. A. label. Glued to card with a $ to left; both fore legs and right 
middle leg missing. 

capensis (Aphanus) Dallas, 18520: 559. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red B.M. type 
label; '12. APHANUS CAPENSIS,'. Glued to card; end two segments of left antenna, end 
segment of right antenna, and all legs on right side missing; abdomen dissected. Present 
combination Sinierus capensis (Dallas). 

capitatus (Vertomannus) Distant, 1903^: 46. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red 
B.M. type label; 'capitatus Dist.' [Distant's handwriting] ; 'Carin Asciuii Ghecu 1400-1500 m. 
L. Fea. III-IV.88.'; 'Distant Coll. 1911 383.' Glued to card. 

carbonarius (Pachymerus) Rambur, 18390: 148. LECTOTYPE $ with label : 'Pachymerus 
carbonarius'. Pinned through scutellum; left hind leg missing. Present combination 
Microtomideus carbonarius (Rambur). 

cardui (Dieuches) Distant, 19130: 155. LECTOTYPE <$ with labels: '204'; 'Mahe, '08-9. 
Seychelles Exp.'; circular red B.M. type label; 'Dieuches cardui Dist. type' [Distant's hand- 
writing]; 'Percy Sladen Trust Expedition. 1911 497.' Glued to card: both fore legs and 
right hind leg missing ; right hemielytron detached and glued to card beside lectotype. 

castaneus (Bubaces) Distant, 18930: 409. Holotype $ with labels: circular red B.M. type 
label; 'Bubaces castaneus Dist.' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Sp. figured.'; 'Temax, N. Yucatan, 
Gaumer'. Glued to card; end segment of both antennae and all legs except fore legs (less 
tarsi), missing; abdomen dissected. 

cephalotes (Rhyparochromus) Dallas, 18520: 577. LECTOTYPE <J with labels: circular 
red B.M. type label; 'New Holl. 444'; '188. RHYPAROCHROMUS CEPHALOTES'. Glued to 
card ; end three segments of both antennae missing. In addition in the collection are 2 $ with 
labels: '44 40 V.D.L.'; 'Rhyparochromus cephalotes. Walker's Catal.' Present combination 
Daerlac cephalotes (Dallas). 

ceromatica (Mahisa) Distant, 19060: 413. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red B.M. 
type label; 'Mahisa ceromatica Dist. type' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Wellawaya. Ceylon, 
XI-O5.'; 'Distant Coll. 1911 383.' Pinned through scutellum and mounted on polyporus 
strip; right antenna and right hind leg missing ; abdomen dissected. 

championi (Acolhua) Distant, 18930: 394. Holotype with labels: circular red B.M. type 
label; 'Acolhua championi Dist.' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Sp. figured.'; 'Zapote, Guatemala, 
G. C. Champion.' Glued to card; abdomen missing. 

chinensis (Rhyparochromus) Dallas, 18520: 566. LECTOTYPE <$ with labels: circular 
red B.M. type label; 'Hong Kong 48 : 60'; '149. RHYPAROCHROMUS CHINENSIS,'. Micro- 
pinned through right clavus and mounted on polyporus strip; end two segments of right 
antenna, left hind leg missing; abdomen detached and in gelatine capsule. Present combina- 
tion Dieuches chinensis (Dallas). 

cincticornis (Ophthalmicus) Walker, 18720: 138. Holotype $ with labels: circular green 
B.M. type label; '32. OPHTHALMICUS CINCTICORNIS'. Glued to card; underside of card 
with number '67.25'. Present combination Appolonius cincticornis (Walker). 

cincticornis (Rhyparochromus) Walker, 18720: 108. LECTOTYPE $ with labels : circular 
green B.M. type label; 'Batchian (Molucc.)'; 'Saunders 65.13'; '181. RHYPAROCHROMUS 
CINCTICORNIS'. Glued to card with a $ ; last segment of antennae missing. Present combina- 
tion Pachybrachius cincticornis (Walker) . 

cingalensis (Sinierus) Distant, 19040: 65. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red B.M. 
type label; 'cingalensis Dist.' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Peradeniya, Ceylon, n 1901'; 
'Distant Coll. 1911 383.' Pinned through pronotum from below and mounted on card; 
end segment of both antennae missing. Synonym of Sinierus brevis (Motshulsky, 1863). 

circumcinctus (Rhyparochromus) Walker, 18720: 97. LECTOTYPE a nymph with labels: 
circular green B.M. type label; '147. RHYPAROCHROMUS CIRCUMCINCTUS'. Glued to card; 
underside of card with 'Wright, Seychelles' ; left antenna and left middle leg missing. Present 
combination Pachybrachius circumcinctus (Walker) . 



RHYPAROCHROMINAE TYPES 261 

clavatus (Aphanus) Dallas, 18520: 560. Specimens not traced in the collection. Synonym 
of Ptochiomera nodosa Say, 1831. 

clypeatus (Gonatas) Distant, 19040: 90. Lectotype in Genoa, designated by Scudder (1966). 
Paralectotype in collection $ with labels: circular red B.M. type label; 'clypeatus Dist.' 
[Distant's handwriting]; 'Birmania Shwego Myo Fea X 1885'; 'Distant Coll. 1911 383.' 
Glued to card ; end segment of left antenna and right middle leg missing. Present combina- 
tion Kanigara clypeata (Distant). 

coleopteroides (Rhyparochromus) Walker, 18720: 108. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: 
circular green B.M. type label; 'Cer E'; 'Saunders 65.15.'; '180. RHYPAROCHROMUS 
COLEOPTEROIDES.' Glued to card; right hind leg missing. Present combination Telocoris 
coleopteroides (Walker). Comb. n. 

collaris (Rhyparochromus) Walker, 18720: in. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: 'Adelaide 
59 52' ; '195. RHYPAROCHROMUS COLLARIS'. Pinned through right hemielytron and mounted 
on polyporus strip ; left hind tarsus, right middle tarsus and right hind leg missing. Present 
combination Fontejus collaris (Walker). 

As noted by Distant (1901) and Gross (1962) there is no specimen labelled 'type' in the 
collections. In the original description, Walker (1872) lists material from Adelaide and 
Tasmania, and a Var B. with fore wings ferruginous from Australia. Only the latter specimen 
is present in the collections and since it is the only syntype remaining, it can be selected as 
lectotype as has been done above. By so doing, Fontejus collaris Stal, 1874 becomes a syn- 
onym of Fontejus collaris (Dallas). 

collina (Rhaptus) Distant, 18930: 410. LECTOTYPE <J with labels: circular red B.M. type 
label; 'Rhaptus collina Dist.' [Distant's handwriting] ; 'Quiche Mts., 7-9,000 ft. Champion.'; 
and the B.C. A. label. Glued to card to left of an additional $ specimen; left middle leg 
missing. Present combination Xestocoris collinus (Distant). 

coloratus (Abanus) Distant, 19096: 493. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red B.M. type 
label; 'Abanus coloratus Dist. type' [Distant's handwriting]; 'CHAPRA BENGAL MACKENZIE'; 
'Distant Coll. 1911383.' Pinned through pronotum and mounted on polyporus strip; left 
hind leg missing. Present combination Dieuches coloratus (Distant). 

concavus (Davila) Distant, 18930: 395. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red B.M. type 
label; 'Bugaba, Panama. Champion.'; 'Sp. figured.'; and the B.C. A. label. Glued to card, 
with an additional $ to left; end two segments of left antenna missing. Present combina- 
tion Ozophora concava (Distant). 

This species was described from Mexico: Orizaba, Atoyae in Vera Cruz, Teapa in Tabasco; 
Guatemala: El Tumbador, Cerro Zunil, Zapote, Teleman; Panama: Bugaba, Caldera, 
Volcan de Chiriqui. Within the syntypic series there at least four distinct species. Only 
specimens from Orizaba, Atoyae, Teapa, Teleman and Bugaba are true concava. O. concava 
is a large species with clavus dark brown and with a pale streak; the hemielytra are hirsute. 

concinnulus (Rhyparochromus) Walker, 18720: 93. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular 
green B.M. type label; 'Rhyp. concinnulus 5 Mad'; '121. RHYPAROCHROMUS CONCINNULUS.' 
Glued to card ; end segment of right antenna missing. 

As noted by Slater (1964) the type specimen is identical with Tropistethus seminitens Puton, 
1889, but the description is of Raglius alboacuminatus (Goeze, 1778). 

consanguineus (Davila) Distant, 18930: 395. LECTOTYPE with labels: circular red 
B.M. type label; 'Davila consanguineus Dist.' [Distant's handwriting] ; 'Cerro Zunil, 4000 ft. 
Champion.'; 'Sp. figured.'; and the B.C.A. label. Glued to card with an additional $ to 
right; end segment of left antenna missing. Present combination Ozophora consanguinea 
(Distant). 

consanguineus (Dieuches) Distant, 19041;: 268. LECTOTYPE <J with labels: 'Townsville, 
Qld. 16.1.03. F- P- Dodd'; circular red B.M. type label; 'consanguineus Dist.' [Distant's 
handwriting]; '1903 322.' Glued to card with an additional <$ above. 
ENTOM. 20, 6. i5 



262 G. G. E. SCUDDER 

consimilis (Dieuches) Distant, 19186 : 266. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red B.M. 
type label; 'Dieuches consimilis Dist. type' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Entebbe, Uganda. 
14.8.11. C. C. Gowdey. 1912 101.' Glued to card point; end segment of left antenna, 
end three segments of right antenna and hind tarsi missing. 

consocialis (Aphanus) Distant, 19130: 154. LECTOTYPE <J with labels: circular red B.M. 
type label; 'Aphanus consocialis Dist. type' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Mahe, '08-9. Sey- 
chelles Exp.'; 'Percy Sladen Trust Expedition. 1911 497.' Glued to card; end segment 
of left antenna, right middle leg missing; card has the number '107' Present combination 
Elasmolomus consocialis (Distant). Comb. n. 

consuta (Orthaea) Dallas, 185213 : 580. LECTOTYPE <$ with labels: circular red B.M. type 
label; 'Pudognolugua'?; 'Columbia 4620'; 'i. ORTHAEA CONSUTA,'. Micropinned through 
pronotum and mounted on polyporus strip ; end segment of right antenna, right middle and 
hind leg missing. Present combination Pachybrachius consutus (Dallas). 

contractus (Sisamnes) Distant, 18930: 402. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red B.M. 
type label; 'Sisamnes contractus Dist.' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Duenas, Guatemala, G. C. 
Champion.'; 'Sp. figured'. Glued to card. 

convelatus (Rhyparochromus) Distant, 19016: 485. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular 
red B.M. type label; 'convelatus Dist.' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Bombay'; 'Distant Coll. 
1911 383.' Glued to card; right antenna missing. Synonym of Lachnesthus singalensis 
(Dohrn, 1860). 

costaricensis (Gonatas) Distant, 1903^: 526. LECTOTYPE with labels: circular red 
B.M. type label; 'costaricensis Dist.' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Costa Rica (Beverly)'; 
'Distant Coll. 1911 383.' Glued to card. Present combination Paragonatas costaricensis 
(Distant). 

crassa (Agunga) Distant, 19060: 413. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red B.M. type 
label; 'Agunga crassa Dist. type' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Peradeniya. Ceylon 1-05'; 
'Distant Coll. 1911 383.' Covered with fungal hyphae, micropinned from below through 
scutellum and mounted on card; end segment of both antennae missing. Present combination 
Appolonius crassus (Distant). 

crassicornis (Rhyparochromus) Dallas, 18520: 571. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular 
red B.M. type label; 'Rhyparochrom. crassicornis, Dallas. (Type)'; '4043489'; circular 
green label; 'Type'; 'crassicornis'. Pinned through metathorax and mounted on polyporus 
strip; end three segments of left antenna and end segment of right antenna missing. Syn- 
onym of Peritrechus angusticollis (Sahlberg, 1848). 

cuneata (Pamerana) Distant, igogc: 332. LECTOTYPE with labels: circular red B.M. 
type label; 'Pamerana cuneata Dist. type' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Calcutta i8-VIII-o8 
N.A.'; 'Distant Coll. 1911 383.' Pinned through scutellum and mounted on card; end 
segment of right antenna, and right fore wing missing; abdomen dissected. Synonym of 
Pamerana nigritula (Walker, 1872). 

cupreus (Adauctus) Distant, 19096: 492. LECTOTYPE 6* with labels: circular red B.M. 
type label; 'Adauctus cupreus Dist. type' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Pusa Bengal 189'; 
'Distant Coll. 1911 383.' Micropinned through scutellum and mounted on polyporus strip; 
last three segments of left antenna and end segment of right antenna, left hind leg missing. 

dallasi (Lethaeus) Scott, 18740: 438. LECTOTYPE <$ with labels: circular red B.M. type 
label; 'JAPAN'; 'Type. Scott Coll. 88 n.'; 'Lethaeus Dallasi, n. sp.' Pinned through 
scutellum and mounted on polyporus strip; end two segments of both antennae and right 
hind leg missing. Present combination Neolethaeus dallasi (Scott). Comb. n. 

dallasi (Pamera) Distant, 18820: 208. New name for Rhyparochromus lineatus Dallas 1852 nee 
Fabricius. Synonym of Pachybracius bilobatus (Say, 1831). 

delineata (Salacia ?) Distant, 18930: 406. Holotype $ with labels: circular red B.M. type 
label; 'Salacia ? delineata Dist.' [Distant's handwriting]; Pena Blanca, 3,000-4,000 ft. 



RHYPAROCHROMINAE TYPES 263 

Champion.'; 'Sp. figured.'; and the B.C.A. label. Glued to card; end segment of right 
antenna missing. Present combination Botocudo delineatus (Distant) . 

delineatus (Pachymerus) Rambur, 18390: 151. LECTOTYPE with labels: 'Grenada'; a 
green square label; 'P. delineatus Ramb.' Pinned through scutellum and mounted on poly- 
porus strip; abdomen missing. Present combination Ragliodes delineatus (Rambur). 

delineatus (Rhyparochromus) Walker, 18720: 103. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular 
green B.M. type label; 'Cer.'; 'Saunders. 65.13.'; '169. RHYPAROCHROMUS DELINEATUS.' 
Pinned through metathorax from below and mounted on card point ; head and all legs except 
right hind leg missing; abdomen and pronotum detached and glued back to specimen. 
Synonym of Pachybrachius pallicornis (Dallas, 1852). 

delitus (Ligyrocoris) Distant, 18820: 201. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red B.M. 
type label; 'Ligyrocoris delitus Dist.' [Distant's handwriting] ; 'Guatemala City. Champion.' 
Glued to card ; end three segments of right antenna and both hind legs missing. 

denotatus (Usilanus) Distant, igogc: 342. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red B.M. 
type label; 'Usilanus denotatus Dist. type' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Bhamo Birmania Fea 
VIII 1880'; 'Distant Coll. 1911 383.' Glued to card; both antennae and both middle and 
hind legs missing. 

descriptus (Rhyparochromus) Walker, 18720: 103. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular 
green B.M. type label; 'Sul'; '170. RHYPAROCHROMUS DESCRIPTUS.' Pinned through 
scutellum and mounted on card ; left antenna, end segment of right antenna, left middle leg, 
right fore leg, right middle tibia and tarsus, right hind tarsus missing. Present combination 
Neolethaeus descriptus (Walker). Comb. n. 

diffinis (Rhyparochromus) Walker, 18720: no. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular green 
B.M. type label; 'Moreton Bay 57 130'; '193. RHYPAROCHROMUS DIFFINUS'. Pinned 
through scutellum and mounted on polyporus strip; left and right fore tarsi, left middle and 
hind legs, right middle tarsus and right hind leg missing ; terminal segment of both antennae 
missing; abdomen dissected. There is also a <$ in collection with the same locality data. 
Present combination Aristaenetus diffinis (Walker). 

ditnidiatus (Rhyparochromus) Walker, 18720: 107. Holotype $ with labels: circular 
green B.M. type label; 'Dor.'; 'Dorey Wallace'; 'Saunders. 65.13.'; '179. RHYPARO- 
CHROMUS DIMIDIATUS.' Glued to card; left middle tarsus missing. Synonym of Mizaldus 
woodwardi Slater & Carayon, 1963, a new name for Rhyparochromus dimidiatus Walker, which 
is preoccupied. 

discifer (Nabis) Walker, 18700: 2380. Type material not located. Synonym of Paromius 
gracilis (Rambur, 1839). 

discoguttatus (Aphanus) Distant, 19180: 199. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red 
B.M. type label; 'Aphanus discoguttatus Dist. type' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Kodai Kanal 
S.India. Campbell.'; '64'; 'S.India. E.A.Butler. 1915-60.' Glued to card; underside 
of card with data 'K.K. 4.14 64'. Present combination Dieuches discoguttatus (Distant). 

dispar (Ophthalmicus) Walker, 18720: 139. Holotype $ with labels: circular green B.M. 
type label; 'Thwaites. 67.25'; '33. OPHTHALMICUS DISPAR.' Glued to card; end segment 
of left antenna missing; right antenna oligomerous. Synonym of Rhodiginus ceylonicus 
(Lethierry & Severin, 1894) which is a new name for Ophthalmicus dispar Walker, 1872, the 
latter being preoccupied. 

dispositus (Perigenes) Distant, 18930: 396. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red B.M. 
type label; 'Perigenes dispositus Dist.' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Chiacaman, Vera Paz. 
Champion.'; 'Sp. figured.'; and the B.C.A. label. Glued to card, to right of an additional -. 

dissimilis (Dieuches) Distant, 18830: 438. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red B.M. 
type label; 'dissimilis Dist.' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Japan (Lewis)'; 'Distant Coll. 
1911 383.' Glued to card. Present combination Paradieuches dissimilis (Distant). 

dissimilis (Lygaeus) Walker, 18720: 61. Holotype $ (not <$) with labels: circular green B.M. 
type label; 'N.G.?'; 'SAR.'; 'Saunders. 65.13.'; '128. LYGAEUS DISSIMILIS.' Pinned 



264 G. G. E. SCUDDER 

through scutellum ; end segment of both antennae, middle left leg and both hind tarsi missing ; 

abdomen dissected. Present combination Dyakana dissimilis (Walker). 
distinctus (Cligenes) Distant, 1893*3: 405. Holotype $ with labels: circular red B.M. type 

label; 'Caldera, Panama. Champion.'; 'Sp. figured.'; the B.C. A. label; 'Cligenes distinctus 

Dist.' [Distant's handwriting]. Glued to card; end two segments of both antennae missing. 
distinctus (Noliphus?) Walker, 18710: 176. Holotype $ with labels: circular green B.M. type 

label; 'SAR.'; 'N.G.?'; '6. NOLIPHUS? DISTINCTUS.'; 'Saunders. 65.13.' Pinned through 

scutellum; end three segments of left antenna, end segment of right antenna, right and left 

middle legs missing. Synonym of Narbo longipes Stal, 1867. 
distinctus (Petizius) Distant, 19016: 501. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red B.M. 

type label; 'distinctus Dist.' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Balthazar (Windward side) Grenada, 

W.I. H. H. Smith. 42.' Glued to card; right antenna oligomerous. There are about 

22 additional specimens in the collection from the same locality. Present combination 

Valtissius distinctus (Distant). 
divergens (Gonatas) Distant, 18820: 219. LECTOTYPE <$ with labels: circular red B.M. 

type label; 'Gonatas divergens Dist.' [Distant's handwriting]; 'S. Geronimo, Guatemala. 

Champion.'; and the B.C. A. label. Glued to card, to left of a $. Present combination 

Paragonatas divergens (Distant). 
diversus (Petissiusl) Distant, 18930: 407. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red B.M. 

type label; 'Petissius? diversus Dist.' [Distant's handwriting]; 'David, Panama. Champion.'; 

the B.C. A. label; 'Sp. figured.' Glued to card; end segment of left antenna and abdomen 

missing. Present combination Valtissius diversus (Distant). 
dominica (Mar gar eta) White, 18780: 75. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red B.M. 

type label; 'Margareta dominica B.W.' [White's handwriting]; 'New Zealand'; 'Pres. by 

Perth Museum. B.M. 1953 629.'; '25. Margareta dominica BW.' Glued to card; right 

antenna, left hind tibia and tarsus missing. 
douglasi (Plociomerus) White, 18760: 105. LECTOTYPE ^ with labels: circular red B.M. 

type label; 'Plociomerus douglasi B.W. TYPE'; 'New Zealand'; 'Pres. by Perth Museum. 

B.M. 1953 629.'; '20. Plociomerus Douglasi, Buch. White.' Glued to card, with an 

additional 3 <J to left; end three segments of both antennae and left hind leg missing. Syn- 
onym of Remaudiereana nigriceps (Dallas, 1852). 
dubius (Pachymerus) Rambur, 18390: 152. LECTOTYPE $ with label: 'Pachymerus 

dubius' on green paper. Pinned through scutellum; end segment of right antenna, end three 

segments of left antenna, right middle and hind legs, left fore leg, left middle tarsus and left 

hind leg missing. Synonym of Stygnocoris sabulosus (Schilling, 1829). 
dudgeoni (Aphanus) Distant, igogc: 336. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red B.M. 

type label; 'Aphanus dudgeoni Dist. type' [Distant's handwriting] ; 'Kangra Valley 4500 ft. 

June 1899 Dudgeon.'; 'Distant Coll. 1911 383.' Pinned through scutellum and mounted on 

card; end two segments of left antenna missing. Present combination Rhyparothesus 

dudgeoni (Distant). Comb. n. 
ejuncida (Pamera) Distant, 18830: 433. LECTOTYPE ? with labels: circular red B.M. type 

label; 'ejuncida Dist.' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Japan (Lewis)'; 'Distant Coll. 1911 383.' 

Glued to card. Synonym of Paromius pallidus (Montrouzier, 1865). 
electa (Targarema) White, 18780: 74. LECTOTYPE ? with labels: circular red B.M. type 

label; 'Targarema electa B.W.'; 'New Zealand Broun'; 'Pres. by Perth Museum. B.M. 

1953 629.' Glued to card; end two segments of both antennae and left hind tibia and 

tarsus missing. Card has data '17.3 N.Z. Broun'. 
elegans (Nabis) Walker, 18730: 144. Holotype <$ with labels: circular green B.M. type label; 

'Nabis elegans. Walker's Catal.'; '31. NABIS ELEGANS.'; TETROPOLIS Feby. 1857. 

J. Gray 5757'. Glued to card. Present combination Heraeus elegans (Walker). 
emersoni (Pamera) Distant, 19096: 491. Said to be in the Vienna Museum, but not located. 

Synonym of Pachybrachius nietneri (Dohrn, 1860). 



RHYPAROCHROMINAE TYPES 265 

erosus (Aphanus) Distant, 19016: 503. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red B.M. 
type label; 'erosus Dist.' [Distant's handwriting]; 'E. Africa, 92 23.' Pinned through 
scutellum and attached to card ; both antennae, left fore leg, right middle leg and left corium 
and membrane missing. Present combination Naphius erosus (Distant). 

erosus (Rhyparochromus) Walker, 18720: 113. Holotype $ with labels: circular green 
B.M. type label; '199. RHYPAROCHROMUS EROSUS.' Pinned through scutellum and mounted 
on polyporus strip; end two segments of left antenna, end segment of right antenna, left 
fore and hind tibia, right middle tarsus and right hind leg missing. Present combination 
Metochus erosus (Walker). 

erubescens (Pamera) Distant, 18830: 434. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red B.M. 
type label; 'erubescens Dist.' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Japan (Lewis)'; 'Distant Coll. 
1911 383.' Glued to card; legs and antennae somewhat damaged and glued to card. Syn- 
onym of Pachybrachius luridus (Hahn, 1826). 

excavatus (Arrianus) Distant, 19040 : 74. LECTOTYPE <$ with labels : circular red B.M. type 
label; 'Arrianus excavatus Dist.' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Mungphu'; 'Distant Coll. 
1911 383.' Glued to card point; antennae, left fore leg, left hind leg, right middle and hind 
leg missing; abdomen dissected. 

exigua (Pamera) Distant, 18830: 434. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red B.M. type 
label; 'exigua Dist.'; 'Japan (Lewis)'; 'Distant Coll. 1911 383.' Glued to card; end 
segment of right antenna missing. Present combination Paromius exiguus (Distant). 

eximius (Heraeus) Distant, 18820: 204. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red B.M. type 
label; 'Heraeus eximus Dist.' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Las Mercedes, 3000 ft. Champion.'; 
and the B.C. A. label. Glued to card; right fore leg missing. 

extremus (Rhyparochromus) Walker, 18720: 99. Holotype <$ (not $) with labels: circular 
green B.M. type label; 'Siam'; 'Saunders. 65.13.'; '157. RHYPAROCHROMUS EXTREMUS.' 
Pinned through pronotum and mounted on card point ; end three segments of both antennae, 
left middle and hind leg, right fore and hind leg missing. Present combination Neolethaeus 
extremus (Walker). Comb. n. 

Jasciatus (Narbo) Distant, 19016: 505. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red B.M. type 
label; 'fasciatus Dist.' [Distant's handwriting]; 'S.E.Borneo'; 'Atkinson Coll. 92-6.' Pinned 
through scutellum. 

fasciatus (Trapezus) Distant, 18820: 217. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red B.M. 
type label; 'Trapezus fasciatus Dist.' [Distant's handwriting]; 'San Isidro, 1600 ft. 
Champion.'; and the B.C. A. label. Glued to card. Present combination Cryphula fasciata 
(Distant). 

ferrugineus (Aphanus) Distant, 19186: 263. LECTOTYPE <J with labels: circular red 
B.M. type label; 'Aphanus ferrugineus Dist. type' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Nyassa (Cotter- 
ell)'; 'Distant Coll. 1911 383.' Pinned through scutellum and mounted on polyporus strip; 
end three segments of left antenna, right antenna, left fore leg, right fore and hind leg missing. 
Present combination Naphiellus ferrugineus (Distant). Comb. n. 

festiva (Pamera) Distant, 18830: 436. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red B.M. type 
label; 'festiva Dist.' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Japan (Lewis)'; 'Distant Coll. 1911 383.' 
Glued to card. Present combination Pachybrachius festivus (Distant). 

festivus (Poeantius) Distant, 19016: 506. LECTOTYPE <J with labels: circular red B.M. type 
label; 'Poeantius festivus Dist. '[Distant's handwriting]; 'Calc. 5913/11'; 'Distant Coll. 
1911 383.' Pinned through pronotum and mounted on card; left antenna, end segment of 
right antenna and left hind leg missing. 

firmus (Neocattarus) Distant, 18820: 213. Holotype $ with labels: circular red B.M. type 
label; 'Neocattarus firmus Dist.' [Distant's handwriting] ; 'Caldera, 1200 ft. Champion.'; and 
the B.C.A. label. Glued to card. 

flavomarginata (Kanigara) Distant, 19060: 415. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red 
B.M. type label; 'Kanigara flavomarginata Dist. type' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Peradeniya, 



266 G. G. E. SCUDDER 

Ceylon, 10 05'; 'Distant Coll. 1911 383.' Micropinned from below through scutellum and 

mounted on polyporus strip ; end segment of both antennae and both hind legs missing. 
flavonotata (Pamera) Distant, 19146 : 380. LECTOTYPE $ with labels : circular yellow B.M. 

cotype label; 'Pamera flavonotata Dist cotype' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Oubatche, N. 

Caledonia. Sept. 1911;' 'Distant Coll. 1911 383.' Glued to card; end three segments of 

left antenna, end two segments of right antenna, both fore tarsi and both fore wings missing. 

Synonym of Pachybrachius nietneri (Dohrn, 1860). 

flori (Lasiocoris) Douglas & Scott, 18686: 67. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red B.M. 
type label; 'Flori D. & S. Type'; 'Saunders Coll. Brit. Mus. 1910 357.' Micropinned 

through pronotum and mounted on card; right hind leg missing. Synonym of Lasiocoris 

anomalus (Kolenati, 1845). 
forbesii (Aspilocoryphus) Kirkaldy, 18996: 46. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red 

B.M. type label; 'Aspilocoryphus forbesii Kirk type* [Kirkaldy 's handwriting]; 'Jean- 

agahan, Socotra. 1200 feet. 29. Jan. 99. W. R. O. Grant. 29-85.'; 'Socotra. W. R. 

Ogilvie Grant. 1901 289.' Pinned through hind part of pronotum. Present combination 

Dieuches forbesii (Kirkaldy) . 
formicarius (Phaeax) Distant, 1893(2: 413. Lectotype <J with labels: circular red B.M. 

type label; 'Phaeax formicarius Dist.' [Distant's handwriting]; 'V. de Chiriqui, 25-4000 ft. 

Champion.'; 'Sp. figured.'; and the B.C.A. label. Glued to card. Lectotype designated 

by Woodward (1962). 
formosa (Plociomera) Distant, 18820: 210. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red B.M. 

type label; 'S. Geronimo, Guatemala. Champion.'; and the B.C.A. label. Remounted on 

card point. Present combination Exptochiomera formosa (Distant) . 
forreri (Pseudopamera) Distant, 18930: 399. LECTOTYPE Q* with labels: circular red B.M. 

type label; 'Pseudopamera forreri Dist.' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Presidio Mexico Forrer'; 

'Sp. figured.' Glued to card. Present combination Caenopamera forreri (Distant). 
fraternus (Cligenes) Distant, 19180: 197. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red B.M. 

type label; 'Cligenes fraternus Dist. type' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Ceylon. E. E. Green.'; 

'Distant Coll. 1911 383.' Remounted on card point; end two segments of both antennae 

missing. Present combination Botocudo fraternus (Distant) . Comb. n. 

The type series of this species consisted of 2 $ specimens mounted on the same card: the 

two were not congeneric. Both were similar in coloration, but one has a median longitudinal 

fuscous streak on the hind lobe of the pronotum. The original description says 'the pale 

posterior area sometimes crossed by a central castaneous line' and at the end 'Allied to C. 

patricius Dist.' A study of the lectotype of patricius in Genoa shows that the specimen of 

'fraternus' with the dark streak on the hind part of the pronotum, is very similar to patricius, 

so this $ has been selected lectotype of fraternus. 
fulgida (Agunga) Distant, igogc: 334. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red B.M. type 

label; 'Agunga fulgida Dist. type' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Calcutta, N.A. 3/4.viii.O7'; 

'Distant Coll. 1911 383.' Micropinned through scutellum from below and mounted on pith; 

left hind leg missing; abdomen dissected. Synonym of Appolonius cincticornis (Walker, 

1872). Syn. n. 
funestus (Aphanus) Distant, igi8c : 243. LECTOTYPE <J with labels : circular red B.M. type 

label; 'Aphanus funestus Dist. type' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Indo-China. Kompong 

Kedey, V. R. de Salvaza 1917-98.' Glued to card; end two segments of both antennae 

missing. Present combination Rhyparothesus funestus (Distant) . Comb. n. 
fuscans (Dieuches) Distant, 19040: 83. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red B.M. 

type label; 'fuscans Dist.' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Seebsanga. S.E. Peal.'; 'Distant Coll. 

1911 383.' Pinned through scutellum and mounted on polyporus strip; end segment of 

both antennae, right hind leg, left fore and hind leg missing; abdomen dissected. 
gardineri (Cligenes) Distant, 19130 : 153. LECTOTYPE <J with labels : circular red B.M. type 

label; 'Cligenes gardineri Dist. type' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Mahe, '08-9 Seychelles Exp.'; 



RHYPAROCHROMINAE TYPES 267 

'Percy Sladen Trust Expedition. 1911 497'. Glued to card; end segment of left antenna 
missing. Present combination Botocudo gardineri (Distant). Comb. n. 

gemtnata (Pamera) Distant, igiSc: 242. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red B.M. type 
label; 'gemmatus Dist. type' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Tonkin. Hoabinh. Jan. 1917. 
R. V. de Salvaza.' Glued to card; left middle and hind leg, right hind leg missing. Present 
combination Pachybrachius gemmatus (Distant) . 

gemmatus (Fabulinus) Distant, 19180: 196. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red B.M. 
type label; 'Fabulinus gemmatus Dist. type' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Lovedale Nilgiri 
Hills. S. India. T. V. Campbell.'; '136'; 'S. India. E. A. Butler. 1915-60.' Glued to 
card. Present combination Bocundostethus gemmatus (Distant). 

germanus (Eremocoris) Distant, 18930: 407. LECTOTYPE <$ with labels: circular red 
B.M. type label; 'Eremocoris germanus Dist.' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Sp. figured.'; 'Totoni- 
capam, 85-10,500 ft. Champion'. Glued to card. Present combination Bergidia germana 
(Distant). 

glaberrimus (Rhyparochromus) Walker, 18720: 94. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circulai 
green B.M. type label; '122. RHYPAROCHROMUS GLABERRIMUS.' Glued to card; end 
segment of both antennae and left hind leg missing. Present combination Camptocera 
glaberrima (Walker). 

globosus (Pry tones) Distant, 18930: 401. LECTOTYPE <J with labels: circular red B.M. 
type label; 'Prytanes globosus Dist.' [Distant's handwriting] ; 'R. Sarstoon. B.Honduras. 
Blancaneau.'; 'Sp. figured.'; and the B.C. A. label. Glued to card; left antenna and right 
hind leg missing. 

gracilis (Neocattarus) Distant, 18820: 215. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red B.M. 
type label; 'gracilis Dist.' [Distant's handwriting]; 'San Isidro, 1600 ft. Champion.'; and the 
B.C.A. label. Glued to card. 

gracilis (Porta) Distant, 1903^: 246. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red B.M.: type 
label; 'Porta gracilis Dist.' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Bulsit Besar. Siam: Malay States 
No. P'. 1 Pinned through pronotum and mounted on card; left antenna, end segment of 
right antenna, and both fore legs missing. There is also i $ in collection with the same data. 

gracilis (Sphaerobius) Uhler, iSgy: 711. LECTOTYPE <J with labels: circular red B.M. 

type label; 'Sphaerobius gracilis Uhler 1 ; 'Leeward side St. Vincent, W.I. H. H. Smith. 

88.'; '95-206.' Glued to card point ; left fore leg missing. 
gracilis (Stenocoris) Rambur, 18390: 140. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: 'Corse'; '28.'; 

'Stenocoris R gracilis R' on green paper; 'Paromius gracilis R.' Glued to card; pronotum, 

left antenna, end segment of right antenna and both fore legs missing. Present combination 

Paromius gracilis (Rambur) . 
greeni (Altomarus) Distant, 19030": 73. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red B.M. type 

label; 'Altomarus greeni Dist.' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Gampola Ceylon. 2.1902'; '906'; 

'Distant Coll. 1911 383.' Micropinned through scutellum from below and mounted on card; 

abdomen dissected. 
greeni (Rhyparochromus) Kirby, 18910: 100. LECTOTYPE with labels: circular red 

B.M. type label; 'Rhyparochr. Greeni, Kb. type'; 'Pundalova Ceylon 4'. Glued to card 

point; end three segments of right antenna, left middle tibia and tarsus, left hind leg and 

right hind leg missing. Present combination Neolethaeus greeni (Kirby) . Comb. n. 
gutta (Rhyparochromus) Dallas, 18520: 573. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red 

B.M. type label; 'N. India 48 13'; '152. RHYPAROCHROMUS GUTTA,'. Glued to card. 

Present combination Pachybrachius guttus (Dallas) . 
guttata (Orthaea?) Dallas, 18520: 580. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red B.M. type 

label; 'Jam Gope'; '2. ORTHAEA GUTTATA,'; 'Saunders. 65. 13.' Pinned through apex 

1 A somewhat illegible pencil number, first numeral struck out (?), other possibly 70. 



268 G. G. E. SCUDDER 

of right clavus and mounted on polyporus strip ; all legs except right fore leg, both antennae 

except first segment of right, and right hemielytron missing. Present combination Heraeus 

guttatus (Dallas). 

Note: Distant's B.C.A. material from Guatemala is not conspecific. 
hemipterus (Diplonotus) Scott, 18740,: 431. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red 

B.M. type label; '28'; 'JAPAN'; 'hemiptera n. sp.'. Pinned through scutellum; left hind 

leg missing. Present combination Togo hemipterus (Scott). 
hewitti (Aphanus) Distant, 19060: 415. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red B.M. type 

label; 'Aphanus hewitti Dist. type' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Kuching April 1906 JH'; 

'133'; 'Distant Coll. 1911 383.' Pinned through base of abdomen and mounted on poly- 
porus strip. Present combination Elasmolomus hewitti (Distant). 
holsti (Metochus) Distant, 19186 : 265. LECTOTYPE <J with labels: circular red B.M. type 

label; 'Metochus holsti Dist. type' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Tsur I. Hoist. 98-214.'; 

'Tsuchima I. P. Hoist. 98-214.' Pinned through scutellum ; left antenna, end segment of 

right antenna, left fore leg, right fore and hind leg missing. 
horvathi (Plinthisus) Saunders, 18770: 104. Holotype $ with labels: circular red B.M., 

Type H.T. label; 'Plinthisus Horvathi E.S. Type'; 'Saunders Coll. Brit. Mus. 1910 357. 

Glued to card; end three segments of left antenna missing. Underside of card has letters 

'B.B.' Synonym of Plinthisus marginatus (Ferrari, 1874). 
illitus (Heraeus) Distant, 18820: 205. LECTOTYPE <J with labels: circular red B.M. type 

label: 'Heraeus illitus Dist.' [Distant's handwriting]; 'San Juan, Vera Paz. Champion.' 

Glued to card. 
illuminatus (Dorochosa) Distant, 18930: 409. Lectotype <J with labels: circular red 

B.M. type label; 'Dorochosa illuminatus Dist.' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Quiche Mts., 

7-9000 ft Champion.' Glued to card to left of another Q\ Designated by Slater & Ashlock 

(1966). Present combination Delochilocoris illuminatus (Distant). 
illuminatus var. umbrosus (Dorochosa) Distant, 18930: 409. See umbrosus. 
illustris (Metochus) Distant, 19180: 200. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red B.M. 

type label; 'Dieuches illustris Dist. type' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Chikkaballapura. S. 

India. T. V. Campbell'; 'Li5*; 'S.India. E.A.Butler. 1915-60.' Glued to card. Syn- 
onym of Pachybrachius nietneri (Dohrn, 1860). 
incisus (Rhyparochromus) Walker, 18720: 100. Holotype $ (not <J) with labels: circular 

green B.M. type label; 'incisus W. type'; 'Thwaites 67.25'; 'Rhyparochromus incisus.' 

Glued to card; left fore leg missing. Original description says specimen a <$. Present 

combination Eucosmetus incisus (Walker). 
inconspicuus (Rhyparochromus) Dallas, 18520: 574. Type material not located. Present 

combination Pachybrachius inconspicuus (Dallas) . 
indicus (Aphanus) Dallas, 18520: 559. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red B.M. 

type label; 'N. India'; '14. APHANUS INDICUS,'. Glued to card. Present combination 

Lamproceps indicus (Dallas). 
indicus (Lethaeus) Dallas, 18520: 558. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red B.M. type 

label; 'N. Bengal 42.25'; '2. LETHAEUS INDICUS,'. Pinned through scutellum and mounted 

on polyporus strip ; end two segments of left antenna, end segment of right antenna, left hind 

leg and right middle tarsus missing. 
indicus (Primierus) Distant, 19016 : 478. LECTOTYPE $ with labels : circular red B.M. type 

label; 'indicus Dist.' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Calcutta'; 'Atkinson Coll. 92-6.' Glued to 

card ; left antenna, end segment of right antenna and both fore legs missing. In the collec- 
tion, in addition there are i <J, 2 $. 
inermibus (Myodocha) Distant, 18820: 204. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red B.M. 

type label; 'Myodocha inermibus Dist.' [Distant's handwriting]; 'V. de Chiriqui, 25-4000 ft. 

Champion.' Glued to card; right fore leg missing. 



RHYPAROCHROMINAE TYPES 269 

infumatus (Ligyrocoris) Distant, 18820: 202. LECTOTYPE <J with labels: circular red 

B.M. type label; 'Ligyrocoris infumatus Dist.' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Quiche Mts., 

7-9000 ft. Champion.'; 'Distant Coll. 1911 383.' Glued to card, with an additional to 

left; both hind legs missing. 
inornatus (Rhyparochromus) Walker, 18720: 112. LECTOTYPE <$ with labels: circular 

green B.M. type label; 'N. Zeal. 54.4'; '196. RHYPAROCHROMUS INORNATUS.' Pinned 

through scutellum and mounted on card point. Present combination Remaudiereana inornatus 

(Dallas). Comb. n. 
insignis (Critobulus) Distant, 1903/1: 250. LECTOTYPE a nymph with labels: circular red 

B.M. type label; 'Critobulus insignis Dist.' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Margherita' ; 'Distant 

Coll. 1911 383.' Pinned through pronotum; end segment of both antennae missing; left 

hind leg, right fore and hind leg missing. Present combination Dieuches insignis (Distant) . 
insignis (Diniella) Distant, 19180: 198. LECTOTYPE <J with labels: circular red B.M. type 

label; 'Diniella insignis Dist. type' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Chikkaballapura. S. India. 

T.V.C.'; '471'; 'S. India. E. A. Butler. 1915-60.' Glued to card; underside of card has 

number '47'. 
insignis (Eucosmetus) Distant, 19016: 482. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red B.M. 

type label; 'Eucosmetus insignis Dist.' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Margherita 9318'; 'Distant 

Coll. 1911 383.' Micropinned through anterior lobe of pronotum and mounted on cork; 

end three segments of both antennae missing. Present combination Caridops insignis 

(Distant). 
insignis (Pamerd) Distant, 19016: 481. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red B.M. type 

label; 'insignis Dist.' [Distant's handwriting] ; 'Jan 98 North Coast'; 'Christmas I. C. W. 

Andrews. 98 20.' Glued to card point; end three segments of left antenna missing. 

Present combination Pachybrachius insignis (Distant). 
insignis (Pephysena) Distant, 18820: 121. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red B.M. 

type label; 'Pephysena insignis Dist.' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Bugaba, 800-1500 ft. 

Champion.' Glued to card; right hind leg missing. Present combination Distingphyses 

insignis (Distant). 
insititia (Erlacda?) Distant, 18820: 401. Holotype $ with labels: circular red B.M. type label; 

'Erlacda? insititia Dist.' [Distant's handwriting] ; 'Amula, Guerrero 6000 ft. Aug. H. H. 

Smith' ; 'Sp. figured.' Glued to card; end three segments of right antenna missing. Present 

combination Ligyrocoris insititius (Distant). 
intaminatus (Abdolominus) Distant, 19040: 91. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red 

B.M. type label; 'intaminatus Dist.' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Carin Cheba. 900-1 loom. 

L. Fea V XII-88'; 'Distant Coll. 1911 383.' Glued to card; end two segments of left 

antenna and end segment of right antenna missing. Present combination Diniella intaminata 

(Distant). 
intermedia (Myodocha) Distant, 18820: 203. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red 

B.M. type label; 'intermedia Dist.' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Aceituno, Guatemala. 

Champion.'; 'Distant Coll. 1911 383.' Glued to card. 

The original description mentions material from Mexico : Orizaba ; Guatemala : Pantaleon, 

Aceituno and Senahu. Later Distant added intermedia from Mexico: Jalapa, Atoyae in 

Vera Cruz, Chilpaningo in Guerrero; Guatemala: Les Mercedes. Only the specimens from 

Orizaba, Jalapa, Chilpaningo, Aceituno and Les Mercedes are conspecific with the lectotype. 
intrusa (Ampera) Distant, 19190: 41. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red B.M. type 

label; 'Ampera intrusa Dist. type' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Java 1918 Dr. Van Horn, 

From stored rice'; '1919 125'. Glued to card; last two segments of left antenna and last 

segment of right antenna missing; abdomen dissected. In the collection in addition there 

are 2 <J. 
irrorandus (Neocattarusl) Distant, 18930: 404. Holotype $ with labels: circular red 

B.M. type label; 'Neocattarus irrorandus Dist.' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Cubilguitz, Vera 



270 G. G. E. SCUDDER 

Paz. Champion.'; 'Sp. figured.'; and the B.C.A. label. Glued to card; end segment of left 

antenna missing. 
japonica (Plociomera) Distant, 18830: 437. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red B.M. 

type label; 'japonica Dist.' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Japan (Lewis)'; 'Distant Coll. 1911 

383.' Glued to card. Present combination Stigmatonotum japonicum (Distant). 
jejunus (Patnera) Distant, 18830: 434. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red B.M. type 

label; 'jejunus Dist.' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Japan (Lewis)'; 'Distant Coll. 1911 383.' 

Glued to card. Present combination Paromius jejunus (Distant). 
karenia (Uzza) Distant, igogc: 339. LECTOTYPE <$ with labels: circular red B.M. type 

label; 'Uzza karenia Dist. type' [Distant's handwriting] ; 'Carin Ghecu 1400-1500 m. L. Fea. 

III-IV.88.'; 'Distant Coll. 1911 383.' Glued to card; end segment of left antenna missing; 

right antenna apparently oligomerous. There is also i $ in the collection in addition. 
kydippe (Ptochiomera) Kirkaldy, 19050: 346. LECTOTYPE 6* with labels: 'TYPE'; 

'Lifu Loyalty Is. A. Willey D.Sc. Reg. Mar. i. 1898.'; circular red B.M. type label; 'Brit. 

Mus. 1950-82' ; 'Ptochiomera Kydippe Kirk. Type.' Glued to card; left fore leg, right middle 

tibia and tarsus missing. Present combination Remaudiereana kydippe (Kirkaldy). 
later alis (Aphanus) Distant, 19180: 198. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red B.M. type 

label; 'Aphanus lateralis Dist. type' [Distant's handwriting]; '54' ; 'Kodai Kanal S. India, 

Campbell.'; 'S.India. E.A.Butler. 1915-60.' Glued to card; underside of card has data 

'K.K. 4.14. 54' Synonym of Dieuches neolateralis Scudder, 1962, a new name for Dieuches 

lateralis (Distant) which is preoccupied. 
lateralis (Diplonotus) Scott, 18740: 432. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red B.M. 

type label; 'JAPAN'; ' lateralis, n. sp.' Glued to card; part of end segment of left 

antenna and tibia and tarsus of left hind leg missing. Present combination Pachybrachius 

lateralis (Scott). 
laticeps (Ischnocoris) Saunders, 18930: 100. Holotype <J with labels: circular red B.M. Type 

H.T. label; 'Tetuan, Morocco. J. J. Walker.'; 'laticeps Mihi' [Saunders' handwriting]. 

Glued to card ; left fore leg missing. 
latus (Aphanus) Distant, 19040: 81. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red B.M. type 

label; 'latus Dist.' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Rangoon'; 'Distant Coll. 1911 383.' Glued to 

card; end two segments of both antennae missing. Present combination Naphiellus latus 

(Distant). 

latus (Bosbequius) Distant, 19040: 65. Lectotype in Genoa, designated by Scudder (1966). 
leucoceras (Rhyparochromus) Walker, 18720: 101. Holotype <J with labels: circular 

green B.M. type label; 'Ceylon 52 62'; 'leucoceras W. type' [Walker's handwriting]; '161. 

RHYPAROCHROMUS LEUCOCERAS.' Glued to card point; all appendages except hind legs 

missing; pronotum crushed. Present combination Dieuches leucoceras (Walker). 
leucospilus (Rhyparochromus) Walker, 18720: 98. Holotype $ with labels: circular green 

B.M. type label; 'Sylhet'; 'Bowring. 63.47'; <]: 55- RHYPAROCHROMUS LEUCOSPILUS.' 

Pinned through metathorax and mounted on polyporus strip; left antenna, left middle leg, 

left hind tarsus and right hind leg missing. Present combination Lachnesthus leucospilus 

(Walker). 
levis (Pephysena) Distant, 18820: 211. LECTOTYPE <J with labels: circular red B.M. type 

label; 'Pephysena levis Dist.' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Tamahu, Vera Paz. Champion.' 

Glued to card, with an additional $ on right; right hind leg missing. There are in addition 

7 ^ from Tamaha and i $ from Senahu in the collection. 

The two males from which the lectotype has been selected, differ in the length of the 'neck', 

and were figured by Distant (18820: PL 18, figs. 24 & 25) : that figured with the short 'neck' 

(fig. 24) has been selected as lectotype. 
lewisi (Lethaeus) Distant, 18830: 440. LECTOTYPE <$ with labels: circular red B.M. type 

label; 'lewisi Dist'. [Distant's handwriting]; 'Japan (Lewis)'; 'Distant Coll. 1911 383.' 

Glued to card. Present combination Neolethaeus lewisi (Distant). Comb. n. 



RHYPAROCHROMINAE TYPES 271 

lewisi (Mizaldus) Distant, 19016: 484. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red B.M. type 

label; 'Mizaldus Lewisi Dist.' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Ceylon (Lewis)'; 'Distant Coll. 

1911 383.' Glued to card; abdomen dissected. 
lewisi (Paradieuches) Distant, 18830: 439. LECTOTYPE <J with labels: circular red B.M. 

type label; 'lewisi Dist.' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Japan (Lewis)'; 'Distant Coll. 1911 383.' 

Glued to card. 
lineatus (Rhyparochromus) Dallas, 185201: 575. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red 

B.M. type label; '5 41 232 17'; '98. RHYPAROCHROMUS LINEATUS,'. Glued to card on side; 

right hind leg missing. Synonym of Pachybrachius bilobatus (Say, 1831). 
lineosus (Aphanus) Distant, 19016: 503. LECTOTYPE <J with labels: circular red B.M. 

type label; 'lineosus Dist.' [Distant's handwriting] ; 'Ceylon (Lewis)'; 'Distant Coll. 1911 

383.'. Glued to card; fore and middle legs on left side missing; underside of card has date 

'27/1/84". Present combination Elasmolomus lineosus (Distant). 
littoralis (Aphanus) Distant, 19186: 262. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red B.M. 

type label; 'Aphanus littoralis Dist. type' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Blue Nile. E. S. 

Crespin. 1905 329.' Glued to card point; of appendages only left antenna present. 

Synonym of Elasmolomus sordidus (Fabricius, 1787). 
longicollis (Rhyparochromus) Dallas, 18520: 570. LECTOTYPE <J with labels: circular 

red B.M. type label; '185. RHYPAROCHROMUS LONGICOLLIS,'. Pinned through scutellum 

and mounted on polyporus strip; head, pronotum, scutellum, left middle and right fore leg 

only present. Present combination Dieuches longicollis (Dallas). 
longulus (Rhyparochromus) Dallas, 18520: 578. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red 

B.M. type label; '40 4 3 657'; '198. RHYPAROCHROMUS LONGULUS,'. Pinned through 

scutellum; head, pronotum, fore legs and right hind leg missing. Present combination 

Paromius longulus (Dallas). 
lounsburyi (Pamera) Distant, 19040: 435. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red B.M. 

type label; 'lounsberyi Dist.' [Distant's handwriting] ; 'Paarl, C.G.H. i Sept. '01'; 'Distant 

Coll. 1911 383.' Glued to card point; end segment of both antennae missing. Synonym 

of Pachybrachius capicolus (Stal, 1874). 
luridus (Diplonotus) Scott, 18740: 432. LECTOTYPE with labels: circular red B.M. type 

label; '26.'; 'JAPAN'; ' luridus, n. sp.' Pinned through scutellum and mounted on 

polyporus strip ; metathorax and hemielytra only present. Synonym of Pachybrachius scotti 

(Distant, 1901), new name for P. luridus (Scott) which is preoccupied. 
tuscinus (Rhyparochromus) Walker, 18720: 93. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular 

green B.M. type label; '120. RHYPAROCHROMUS LUSCINUS.' Glued to card and joined to a $ 

in copula. Synonym of Beosus maritimus (Scopoli, 1763). 
luteicornis (Rhyparochromus) Walker, 18720: 107. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular 

green B.M. type label; 'Mak'; 'Celebes Saunders'; '178. RHYPAROCHROMUS LUTEICORNIS.' 

Remounted on card point; right hind leg missing. Present combination Faelicianus lutei- 
cornis (Walker). 
luteovaria (Lachnophoroides) Distant, 19200: 153. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular 

red B.M. type label; 'Lachnophoroides luteovaria Dist. type' [Distant's handwriting]; 

'Central New Caledonia. 30. xi. 1914. P. D. Montague. 1918-87.' Glued to card; 

abdomen dissected. 

macularia (Baladeana) Distant, 19146: 381. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular yellow 
B.M. cotype label; 'Baladeana macularia Dist. cotype' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Panic, 
N. Caledonia. 500 m. 27.6.11."; 'Distant Coll. 1911 383.' Glued to card; end three 
segments of left antenna missing; abdomen dissected. 

maculatus (Bathycles) Distant, 18930: 403. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red B.M. 
type label; 'Bathycles maculatus Dist.' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Pantaleon, 1700 ft. 
Champion'; and the B.C. A. label. Glued to card; right middle leg missing. 



272 G. G. E. SCUDDER 

maculatus (Lethaeus) Distant, 19016: 507. LECTOTYPE <$ with labels: circular red B.M. 
type label; 'maculatus Dist.' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Flying Fish Cove. Oct. 97.'; 'Christ- 
mas I. C. W. Andrews. 98 20.' Glued to card point; end segment of right antenna, left 
hind leg and right middle leg missing. Present combination Elasmolomus maculatus (Distant) . 
Comb. n. 

maculatus (Neocattarus) Distant, 18930: 403. Holotype $ with labels: circular red B.M. 
type label; 'Neocattarus maculatus Dist.' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Chilpancingo, Guerrero, 
4600 ft. June. H. H. Smith.'; 'Sp. figured.'; and the B.C. A. label. Glued to card; left 
antenna, end two segments of right antenna and right hind leg missing. 

maculicollis (Rhyparochromus) Walker, 18720: in. Holotype $ with labels: circular 
green B.M. type label; 'Adelaide 59 52'; '194. RHYPAROCHROMUS MACULICOLLIS.' Pinned 
through right clavus and mounted on polyporus strip ; left legs and end three segments of left 
antenna missing. Present combination Dieuches maculicollis (Walker). 

maculipennis (Lethaeus) Distant, igiSc: 244. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red 
B.M. type label; 'Lethaeus maculipennis Dist. type' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Indo-China. 
Kompong Kedey, V. R. de Salvaza 1917-98.' Glued to card; end segment of left antenna, 
end two segments of right antenna missing. Present combination Usilanus maculipennis 
(Distant). 

maderensis (Rhyparochromus) Wollaston, 18580: 123. LECTOTYPE ? with labels: 
circular red B.M. type label; 'Rhyparochromus Maderensis. Woll.'; 'Madeira. Wollaston. 
55.7'. Pinned through scutellum. There are in addition i <$, i $ with similar data in the 
collection, and i $ with '1480' on underside of card. Present combination Eremocoris maderen- 
sis (Wollaston). 

majusculus (Gonatas) Distant, 1904*1 : 90. LECTOTYPE ,$ with labels: circular red B.M. 
type label; 'majusculus Dist.' [Distant's handwriting] ; 'Tenasserim M. Mooleyit 1800-1900 m. 
Fea. Marzo 1887.'; 'Distant Coll. 1911 383.' Glued to card. Present combination Tricho- 
drymus majusculus (Distant). 

manipurensis (Naudarensia) Distant, 1909^: 339. LECTOTYPE ^ with labels: circular 
red B.M. type label; 'Naudarensia manipurensis Dist. type' [Distant's handwriting] ; 'Ukhrul 
Manipur. 6400 feet. Lat 25. Long 94-95 E. VIII-o8. Revd. W. Pettigrew'; 'Distant 
Coll. 1911 383.' Pinned through scutellum from below and mounted on card; end segment 
of left antenna, end three segments of right antenna missing. 

marginatus (Drymus) Distant, 18830: 440. NEOTYPE $ with labels: 'Ichiuchi 30. iv.- 
2.v.8i.'; 'Japan. G. Lewis. B.M. 1926 269'. Glued to card; underside of card with 
'1.5.81'. The Distant type material has been destroyed, although a pin with labels is present. 
The neotype is selected from material which was added to the collections in 1926. 

membraneus (Lamproplax) Distant, 18330: 440. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red 
B.M. type label; 'membraneus Dist.' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Japan (Lewis)'; 'Distant 
Coll. 1911 383.' Glued to card. In addition in the collection there are 1^,1$ with the 
same data. 

membraneus var. pallescens (Lamproplax) Distant, 18830: 441. See pallescens. 

merula (Lachnophorus) Distant, 19040: 70. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red B.M. 
type label; 'merula Dist.' [Distant's handwriting] ; 'Burma Karenee'; 'Distant Coll. 1911 
383.' Glued to card; end three segments of left antenna and end segment of right antenna 
missing. Present combination Lachnesthus merulus (Distant). 

mimicus (Eucosmetus) Distant, igogc: 332. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red B.M. 
type label; 'Eucosmetus mimicus Dist. type' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Palon (Pegu)'; 
'Distant Coll. 191 1 383.' Glued to card point ; end two segments of left antenna, left middle 
tarsus and both hind tibia and tarsus missing. Present combination Caridops mimicus 
(Distant). 

mirabilis (Aphanus) Distant, 19036: 471. LECTOTYPE with labels: circular red B.M. type 
label; 'mirabilis Dist.' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Fernando Poo, Sa. Isabel. 1903 188.' 



RHYPAROCHROMINAE TYPES 273 

Glued to card point; end two segments of both antennae, left middle and hind leg, all right 

legs and abdomen missing. Present combination Exopamera mirabilis (Distant). 
moerens (Pachymerus) Germar, 18370: 139. LECTOTYPE <J with labels: circular red 

B.M. type label; 'Cape Gd. Hope. 42-77. Ex. coll. Drege. No. 1209'; '42/77 C.G.H.'; 

'1209'; 'Pachymerus moerens Germar det. (type)'. Glued to card; head, pronotum, right 

middle and hind legs missing. Present combination Rhyparochromus moerens (Germar). 
tnoesta (Reclada) White, 18786: 370. LECTOTYPE <J with labels: circular red B.M. type 

label; '19. Reclada moesta TYPE'; '19 Honolulu'; 'Reclada moesta B.W.'; '19'; 'Pres. 

by Perth Museum. B.M. 1953 629.' Glued to card; left hind leg missing. 
montanus (Manatanus) Distant, 19096: 495. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red 

B.M. type label; 'Manatanus montanus Dist. type' [Distant's handwriting]; 'under stones'; 

'Matiana 8000 ft. Simla hills N.A.'; 'Distant Coll. 1911 383.' Pinned through metathorax 

and mounted on card; end segment of both antennae and left fore leg missing. Present 

combination Scolopostethus montanus (Distant). 

multicolorata (Albanyaria) Distant, 19186: 259. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red 

B.M. type label; 'Albanyaria multicolorata Dist. type' [Distant's handwriting]; '4283'; 

'Albany, W. Australia. 91-155.' Glued to card; abdomen dissected. Present combination 

Euander multicolorata (Distant). Comb. n. 
muttilinea (Ischnodemus) Walker, 18720: 131. Holotype $ with labels: circular green 

B.M. type label; 'Cape'; 'Saunders 65.13.'; '29. ISCHNODEMUS MULTILINEA.' Pinned 

through scutellum and mounted on card; head and pronotum detached and glued to card; 

left antenna, end segment of right antenna, both middle and hind legs missing. Synonym of 

Phorcinus albofasciatus (Stal, 1865). 
munda (Tomopelta) Uhler, 1893^ 709. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red B.M. type 

label; 'Tomopelta munda Uhler'; '95-206.' Glued to card point. Synonym of Cligenes 

distinctus Distant, 1893. 
mundulus (Rhyparochromus) Walker, 18720 : 94. Holotype $ with labels: circular green 

B.M. type label; 'Blissus ? mundus 15 Mad'; '123. RHYPAROCHROMUS MUNDULUS'. Glued 

to card ; left fore leg, right hind tarsus and part of abdomen missing. Synonym of Ischnocoris 

mundus (Walker, 1872). 
mundus (Nysius) Walker, 18720: 69. Type material not located in the collections. Present 

combination Ischnocoris mundus (Walker). 
murrhea (Pamerd) Distant, 19016: 482. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red B.M. type 

label; 'murrhea Dist.' [Distant's handwriting]. Glued to card. Present combination 

Pachybrachius murrheus (Distant). 
mysorensis (Fabulinus) Distant, 19180: 195. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red 

B.M. type label; 'Fabulinus mysorensis Dist. type' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Nandidrig. 

S.India. T.V.C.'; 'L28'; 'S.India. E.A.Butler. 1915-60.' Glued to card to right of <J. 

In the collection also is i $ with data as lectotype and i $ with data 'Mysore State. S. India. 

T.V.C.' Present combination Thebanus mysorensis (Distant). 

naini (Eremocoris) Distant, 19096: 494. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red B.M. 
type label; 'Eremocoris naini Dist. type' [Distant's handwriting]; 'NAINI TAL KUMAON: 
6400 ft. N.A.'; 'Distant Coll. 1911 383.' Pinned through scutellum and mounted on 
card; left hind leg missing. Present combination Drymus naini (Distant). Comb. n. 

natalensis (Gonatas) Distant, 19186: 270. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red B.M. 
type label; 'Gonatas natalensis Dist. type' [Distant's handwriting] ; 'Natal. Bell-Morley.'; 
'Distant Coll. 1911 383.' Glued to card; end two segments of left antenna, end three seg- 
ments of right antenna and right fore leg missing. Present combination Stilbocoris natalensis 
(Distant). 

nereis (Pachymerus) Kirkaldy, 19050: 347. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: 'Pachymerus 
nereis'; 'TYPE'; 'Lifu Loyalty Is. A. Willey, D.Sc. Reg. Mar. i 1898'; circular red B.M. 



274 G - G. E. SCUDDER 

type label; 'Brit. Mus. 1950-82.'; 'Pachymerus nereis Kirk. Type'. Glued to card with, 
another $ on left. Present combination Elasmolomus nereis (Kirkaldy). 

nexus (Polycrates) Distant, 1904*3: 64. Lectotype in Genoa, designated by Scudder (1966). 

niger (Lethaeus) Dallas, 1852(1: 592. Refers to same type material as Lethaeus africanus 
Dallas 1852, of which it is a synonym. 

nigrellus (Aphanus) Distant, 19186: 264. LECTOTYPE 6" with labels: circular red B.M. 
type label; 'Aphanus nigrellus Dist. type' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Nyasaland. Btwn. Ft. 
Mangoche & Chikala Boma. about 4,000 ft. 20-25 Mch. 1910. S. A. Neave.'; '1912 216.' 
Glued to card ; end segment of left antenna, left middle leg and right fore leg missing. Syn- 
onym of Lachnesthus singalensis (Dohrn, 1860). 

nigricans (Daerlac) Distant, 19186: 492. LECTOTYPE cj with labels: circular red B.M. 
type label; 'Daerlac nigricans Dist. type' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Sydney, N.S.W. 1900- 
1903. J. J. Walker. 1910 384.' Glued to card. 

nigriceps (Rhyparochromus) Dallas, 1852*1: 577. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red 
B.M. type label; '502. d'; '168. RHYPAROCHROMUS NIGRICEPS,'. Glued to card; end seg- 
ment of left antenna, end three segments of right antenna and left fore leg missing. Present 
combination Remaudiereana nigriceps (Dallas). 

nigrinus (Thebanus) Distant, 19186: 261. LECTOTYPE <$ with labels: circular red B.M. 
type label; 'Thebanus nigrinus Dist. type' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Carin Asciuii Ghecu, 
1400-1500 m. L. Fea II-IV. 88'; 'Distant Coll. 1911 383.' Glued to card; end two seg- 
ments of right antenna missing. Present combination Lemnius nigrinus (Distant). Comb.n. 

nigripes (Rhyparochromus) Dallas, 1 852*1: 578. Type material not located in the collec- 
tions. Synonym of Daerlac cephalotes (Dallas, 1852). 

nigritulus (Rhyparochromus) Walker, 1872^: 106. Holotype $ with labels: circular green 
B.M. type label; 'SAR.'; 'Saunders 65. 13'; '176. RHYPAROCHROMUS NIGRITULUS.' Pinned 
through scutellum and mounted on polyporus strip; end two segments of both antennae, 
right fore and hind leg missing. Present combination Pamerana nigritula (Walker) . 

nigrocapitatus (Adauctus) Distant, igiSa: 195. LECTOTYPE $ with, labels: circular red 
B.M. type label; 'Adauctus nigrocapitatus Dist type' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Chik- 
kaballapura S. India T. V. Campbell' ; '1342'; 'India. T. V. Campbell 1913 535'. Glued 
to card with an additional <$ and to right. Synonym of Adauctus cupreus (Distant, 1909). 
Syn. n. 

nigronitens (Eucosmetus) Distant, igiSa: 191. LECTOTYPE <^ with labels: circular red 
B.M. type label; 'Eucosmetus nigronitens Dist. type' [Distant's handwriting] ; 'Kodai Kanal. 
S.India. Campbell.'; '124'; 'S.India. E.A.Butler. 1915-60.' Glued to card. Present 
combination Caridops nigronitens (Distant) . Comb. n. 

nitidus (Mimicus) Douglas & Scott, 18686: 66. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: 'Mimicus 
nitidus DS Type.'; circular red B.M. type H.T. label; 'Saunders Coll. Brit. Mus. 1910 357.' 
Pinned through pronotum and mounted on card; both antennae, left fore tarsus, left middle 
tibia and tarsus missing. Present combination Lethaeus nitidus (Douglas & Scott). 

niveomaculatus (Cligenes) Distant, 1920^: 154. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red 
B.M. type label; 'Cligenes niveomaculatus Dist. type' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Houadou, 
New Caledonia. 26. X. 1914. P.D.Montague. 1918-87.' Glued to card. Present com- 
bination Sylvacligenes niveomaculatus (Distant). 

noctis (Lachnophorus) Distant, 1904^ 69. LECTOTYPE <J with labels: circular red B.M. 
type label; 'noctis Dist.' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Burma, Karennee'; 'Distant Coll. 1911 
383.' Glued to card; right hind tarsus and end segment of right antenna missing. Present 
combination Lachnesthus noctis (Distant) . 

noctua (Clerada) Distant, 19016: 476. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red B.M. type 
label; 'noctua Dist.' [Distant's handwriting]; 'N. Borneo'; 'Distant Coll. 1911 383.' 
Glued to card ; end segment of left antenna missing. 



RHYPAROCHROMINAE TYPES 275 

notabilis (Lethaeus) Distant, 19116: 310. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red B.M. 
type label; 'Lethaeus notabilis Dist. type' [Distant's handwriting] ; 'Sigiriya Ceylon. 8.09'; 
'2740'; 'Distant Coll. 1911 383.' 

notutus (Rhyparochromus) Dallas, 18520: 569. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red 
B.M. type label; 'New S. Wales 54 2'; '186. RHYPAROCHROMUS NOTATUS,'. Pinned 
through right clavus and mounted on polyporus strip ; middle right leg only present. Present 
combination Dieuches notatus (Dallas). 

notulata (Bedunia) Distant, 19016 : 478. LECTOTYPE $ with labels : circular red B.M. type 
label; 'Bedunia notulata Dist.' [Distant's handwriting] ; 'M'; 'Saunders 65. 13'. Glued to 
card point; left antenna, both hind legs and left middle tarsus missing. 

novitius (Caeneus) Distant, 18930: 404. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red B.M. type 
label; 'Caeneus novitius Dist.' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Bugaba, Panama. Champion'; 
'Sp. figured.' Glued to card; abdomen dissected. Synonym of Bathydema quadristillata 
(Stal, 1858). 

novitius (Nysius) Distant, 18926: 254. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red B.M. type 
label; 'novitius Dist.' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Pretoria (W.L.D.)'; 'Distant Coll. 1911 
383.' Glued to card. Present combination Graphoraglius novitius (Distant). Comb. n. 

oblitus (Ligyrocoris) Distant, 18820: 202. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red B.M. 
type label; 'Ligyrocoris oblitus Dist.' [Distant's handwriting]; 'S. Geronimo, 3000 ft. 
Champion.' Glued to card; left hind leg missing. 

obscura (Metagerra) White, 1 878*3 : 34. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red B.M. type 
label; 'Metagerra obscura B.W. TYPE'; 'New Zealand'; 'Pres. by Perth Museum. B.M. 
1953- 629.'; '22. M. obscura, n. sp.' Glued to card; underside of card with 'N. D. Wake- 
field.' 

obscuripes (Rhyparochromus) Walker, 18720: 104. Holotype <J with labels: circular green 
B.M. type label; 'Dorey Wallace'; 'Dor'; 'Saunders 65.13.'; '171. RHYPAROCHROMUS 
OBSCURIPES.' Glued to card; right hind tarsus missing. Present combination Dieuches 
obscuripes (Walker). 

oceanicus (Aphanus) Distant, 19016: 502. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red B.M. 
type label; '1361'; 'oceanicus Dist.' [Distant's handwriting]. Glued to card; right hind 
leg missing. Present combination Dieuches oceanicus (Distant). 

orientalis (Aphanus) Distant, 19040: 81. LECTOTYPE # with labels: circular red B.M. 
type label; 'Aphanus orientalis Dist. type' [Distant's handwriting] ; 'Ranchi Irvine' ; 'Distant 
Coll. 1911 383.' Glued to card point; end two segments of right antenna, right fore tarsus, 
right middle tarsus, right hind tibia and tarsus, and left hind tarsus missing. Present combina- 
tion Rhyparothesus orientalis (Distant). 

ornandus (Scolopostethus) Distant, 19040: 93. Lectotype in Genoa, designated by Scudder 
(1966). Paralectotype in collections <$ with labels: circular red B.M. type label; 'ornatus 
Dist.' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Carin Asciuii Ghecu 1400-1500 m. L. Fea. III-IV.88.'; 
'Distant Coll. 1911 383.' Glued to card. 

ornata (Edulica) Distant, 19036: 45. LECTOTYPE with labels: circular red B.M. type 
label; 'Edulica ornata Dist.' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Peradeniya, Ceylon, 3. 1902'; '1124'; 
'Distant Coll. 1911 383.' Micropinned through scutellum from below and mounted on 
polyporus strip; end segment of left antenna missing. Present combination Harmostica 
ornata (Distant). 

ornatipennis (Lachnophoroides) Distant, 19146: 381. Type material not in B.M. collec- 
tions. 

ornatulus (Aphanus) Distant, 19096 : 336. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red B.M. 
type label; 'Aphanus ornatus Dist. type' [Distant's handwriting] ; 'Dhakna Bagh Nepal Terai 
23-34. IV. 07'; 'Distant Coll. 1911 383.' Pinned through scutellum and mounted on card; 
right fore tibia and tarsus, and right hind leg missing. Present combination Rhyparothesus 
ornatulus (Distant). Comb. n. 



276 G.G.E.SCUDDER 

ornatus (Aphanus) Distant, 19180: 199. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red B.M. type 
label; 'Aphanus ornatus Dist. type' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Chikkaballapura, S. India. 
T. V. Campbell.'; '245'; 'S. India. E. A. Butler. 1915-60.' Glued to card; underside of 
card with data 'C.B. 9.14'. Present combination Dieuches ornatus (Distant). 

ovalis (Rhyparochromus) Dallas, i852a: 568. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red 
B.M. type label; 'Colombia 46 20'; '104. RHYPAROCHROMUS OVALIS,'. Pinned through 
scutellum and mounted on polyporus strip ; end segment of left antenna, end two segments of 
right antenna, right fore and middle leg missing. Present combination Ozophora ovalis 
(Dallas). 

ovatus (Lemnius) Distant, 19040: 67. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red B.M. type 
label; 'Lemnius ovatus Dist.' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Ceylon (Lewis)'; 'Distant Coll. 
1911 383.' Glued to card; end segment of left antenna missing; abdomen dissected. 

pallens (Rhyparochromus) Dallas, 18520: 567. This species was described from a female 
taken in North Bengal (Lieut. Campbell's Coll.). Walker (1872) lists material as follows: 

'a. North Bengal. From Lieut. Campbell's collection, b. ? Presented by W. W. 

Saunders Esq.' In the collections, I can only locate the latter specimen, a male in poor 
condition. It is pinned through the pronotum and mounted on a polyporus strip; end three 
segments of left antenna, end segment of right antenna, all legs on left side, right fore tarsus, 
middle leg and right hind tarsus missing. It has labels 'Saunders. 65 . 13.' ; '150. RHYPARO- 
CHROMUS FALLENS,'. Since this specimen was not apparently included in the original des- 
cription, it has not been selected as the lectotype, although no other material is present. 
Synonym of Elasmolomus sordidus (Fabricius, 1787). 

pallescens (Davila) Distant, 18930: 395. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red B.M. type 
label; 'Davila pallescens Dist.' [Distant's handwriting] ; 'V. de Chiriqui, 2-3000 ft. Champion.' ; 
'Sp. figured.'; and the B.C. A. label. Glued to card; end two segments of left antenna, end 
segment of right antenna missing. Present combination Ozophora pallescens (Distant). 

pallescens, membraneus var. (Lamproplax), Distant 18830: 441. LECTOTYPE $ with 
labels: 'Japan (Lewis)'; 'Distant Coll. 1911 383'. Glued to card with written data on 
underside '8 4 81'. 

pallescens (Locutius) Distant, 19180: 193. LECTOTYPE <J with labels: circular red B.M. 
type label; 'Locutius pallescens Dist. type' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Chikkaballapura, 
S. India. T. V. Campbell.'; '356'; 'S. India. E. A. Butler. 1915-60.' Glued to card. 
Present combination Plinthisus pallescens (Distant) . 

pallicornis (Rhyparochromus) Dallas, 18520: 573. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular 
red B.M. type label; 'E. India 48 22'; '153. RHYPAROCHROMUS PALLICORNIS,'. Glued to 
card; left fore and middle leg, right middle leg missing membrane and end of abdomen 
damaged. Present combination Pachybrachius pallicornis (Dallas). 

pallidulus (Dieuches) Distant, 19040: 85. LECTOTYPE ? with labels: circular red B.M. 
type label; 'pallidulus Dist.' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Sind'; 'Distant Coll. 1911 383.' 
Evidently a little teneral; pinned through pronotum and with end three segments of left 
antenna, right antenna and both hind legs missing. 

pallidus (Pygaeus) Uhler, 18946: 187. LECTOTYPE <J with labels: circular red B.M. type 
label; '169'; 'Grand Etang Rd. (Leeward side) Grenanda, W.I. H. H. Smith.'; '67'; 
'95-206'. Glued to card point; end segment of both antennae, both middle and hind legs 
missing. Present combination Antillocoris pallidus (Uhler). 

pallipes (Lasiosomus) Scott, 18740: 429. LECTOTYPE ? with labels: circular red B.M. 
type label; 'JAPAN'; 'Lasiosoma pallipes, n. sp.'; 'Type Scott Coll. 88~n.' Glued to card. 
Present combination Diniella pallipes (Scott). 

pallipes (Paradieuches) Distant, 19180: 201. LECTOTYPE <J with labels: circular red 
B.M. type label; 'Paradieuches pallipes Dist. type' [Distant's handwriting] ; 'Chikkaballapura 
S. India. T. V. Campbell.'; 'L 40'; 'S. India. E. A. Butler. 1915-60.' Pinned through 
scutellum ; end segment of right antenna, both fore tibia and tarsi and left middle leg missing. 
Present combination Dieuches pallipes (Distant) . Comb. n. 



RHYPAROCHROMINAE TYPES 277 

papuanus (Aphanus) Distant, 19016: 502. LECTOTYPE with labels: circular red B.M. 
type label; 'papuanus Dist.' [Distant's handwriting] ; 'Peak Downes' ; 'Distant Coll. 1911 
383.' Glued to card and damaged; end segment of both antennae, wings, abdomen and both 
hind legs missing. Present combination Elasmolomus papuanus (Distant). 

parvipictus (Dieuches) Distant, 19186: 266. LECTOTYPE <$ with labels: circular red 
B.M. type label; 'Dieuches parvipictus Dist. type' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Lufira R. 
Katanga. 3,500 ft. 31-8-07'; 'Neave Coll. 1907 230.' Glued to card point; left antenna, 
end two segments of right antenna, right middle leg and most tarsi missing. 

parvulus (Rhyparochromus) Dallas, 18520: 576. LECTOTYPE <$ with labels: circular 
red B.M. type label; 'North AmerE.D.'; '9. PLOCIOMERUS PARVULUS,'. Of male and female 
glued to same card, male to left selected lectotype; end segment of left antenna missing. 
Synonym of Pachybrachius vinctus (Say). 

parvus (Neocattarus) Distant, 18820: 215. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red B.M. 

type label; 'parvus Dist.' [Distant's handwriting]; 'V. de Atitlan, 23-3500 ft. Champion.'; 

and the B.C.A. label. Glued to card. 
patricius (Cligenes) Distant, 19040: 72. Lectotype in Genoa, designated by Scudder (1966). 

Present combination Botocudo patricius (Distant) . 

pedata (Naudarensia) Distant, 19040 : 86. LECTOTYPE $ with labels : circular red B.M. type 
label; 'Naudarensia pedata Dist. type' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Shillong LaTouche.'; 
'Distant Coll. 1911 383.' Glued to card; end three segments of both antennae, left hind leg, 
right fore and middle tarsi missing; abdomen dissected. 

percultus (Heraeus) Distant, 18820: 205. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red B.M. 
type label; 'percultus Dist.' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Guatemala City, 5000 ft. Champion.' 
Glued to card; left hind tarsus missing. Synonym of Heraeus setosus (Stal.). 

phaeophilus (Rhyparochrotnus) Walker, 18720: 106. Holotype $ (not $,) with labels: 
circular green B.M. type label; 'Mak. 40'; 'Celeb Wallace'; 'Saunders. 65.13.'; '177. 
RHYPAROCHROMUS PHAEOPHILUS.' Glued to card. Present combination Navarrus phaeo- 
philus (Walker). 

picinus (Abdolominus) Distant, 19040: 91. Lectotype in Genoa, designated by Scudder 
(1966). Paralectotype in collection $ with labels: circular red B.M. type label; 'picinus Dist.' 
[Distant's handwriting]; 'Carin Cheba, 900-1100 m., L. Fea. V.XII-88"; 'Distant Coll. 
1911 383.' Glued to card; left antenna damaged and abdomen dissected. 

pictipennis (Rhyparochromus) Dallas, 18520: 571. LECTOTYPE <J with labels: circular 
red B.M. type label; '44 40 V.D.L.'; '187. RHYPAROCHROMUS PICTIPENNIS,'. Pinned 
through scutellum; both antennae, left middle tarsus, right fore tarsus and right middle and 
hind legs missing. Synonym of Euander lacertosus (Erichson). 

picturata (Salacia ?) Distant, 18930: 406. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red B.M. 
type label; 'Salacia? picturata Dist.' [Distant's handwriting]; 'V. de Chiriqui, 2-3000 ft. 
Champion'; and the B.C.A. label. Glued to card and to left of another female specimen. 
Present combination Botocudo picturata (Distant). 

Described from eight specimens from Guatemala: Cerro Zunil and Panama: Volcan de 
Chiriqui and Bugaba. The original description states that the antennae are variable in hue, 
with the first and fourth segments usually ochraceous. The specimen figured however, has 
the fourth antennal segment brown. There thus seems to be more than one species in the 
original series. The lectotype selected has the fourth antennal segment ochraceous. 

picturatus (Appolonius) Distant, 19180: 191. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red 
B.M. type label; 'Apollonius picturatus Dist. type' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Chikkaballa- 
pura, S. India. T. V. Campbell'; 'S.India. E.A.Butler. 1915-60.' Glued to card. 

We may note the difference in spelling of the published generic name and that given on the 
data label: presumably Distant based his spelling on Apollo, the Greek Olympian god of the 



278 G. G. E. SCUDDER 

picturatus (Pamera) Distant, 1904^: 267. LECTOTYPE ? with labels: circular red B.M. 
type label; 'picturatus Dist.' [Distant's handwriting]; Townsville, Qld. Oct. '02. F. P. 
Dodd.'; '1903 356'. Glued to card; middle left leg missing. Present combination Daerlac 
picturata (Distant). 

picta (Pamera) Scott, 18800: 306, 311. Not traced. Present combination Pachybrachius 

pictus (Scott). 
pictus (Lethaeus) Distant, igiSc: 243. LECTOTYPE <$ with labels: circular red B.M. type 

label; 'Lethaeus pictus Dist. type' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Laos, Luang Prabang. R. V. 

de Salvaza 1917-98.'. Pinned through metathorax. Present combination Usilanus pictus 

(Distant). 
plenus (Rhyparochromus) Distant, 18820: 216. LECTOTYPE with labels: circular red 

B.M. type label; 'Rhyparochromus plenus Dist.' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Quezaltenango, 

7800 ft. Champion.'. Partially brachypterous and glued to card. Present combination 

Kolenetrus plenus (Distant). 

politus (Thebanus) Distant, 19040: 67. Lectotype in Genoa, designated by Scudder (1966). 
Paralectotypes i <J, i <j> in collection with labels: circular red B.M. type label; 'politus Dist.' 
[Distant's handwriting] ; 'Carin Ghecu 1400-1500 m. L. Fea. III-IV.88.'; 'Distant Coll. 
1911 383. Glued to card. 

porrectus (Catenes) Distant, 18930: 397. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red B.M. 
type label; 'Catenes porrectus Dist.' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Sp. figured.'; 'Zapote, Guate- 
mala, G.C. Champion.' Glued to card; abdomen dissected. 

proximus (Rhyparochromus) Dallas, 18520: 579. LECTOTYPE with labels: circular red 
B.M. type label; 'Sierra Leone Morgan' ; '29. PLOCIOMERUS PROXIMUS,'. In poor condition, 
pinned through scutellum and mounted on polyporus strip; meso and metathorax, middle 
and hind legs, right fore and hind wings only present. Synonym of Paromius gracilis (Ram- 
bur). 

punctata (Salacia ?) Distant, 18930: 406. Holotype $ with labels: circular red B.M. type 
label; 'Salacia? punctata Dist.' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Sp. figured.'; 'Pena Blanca, 
3,000-4,000 ft. Champion.'; and the B.C. A. label. Glued to card; end segment of both 
antennae missing. Present combination Stygnocoris punctatus (Distant). Comb. n. 

purpurata (Esuris) Distant, 18930: 410. Holotype $ with labels: circular red B.M. type 
label; 'Esuris purpurata Dist.' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Sp. figured.'; 'Paso Antonio, 400 ft. 
Champion.' Partially brachypterous and glued to card. Synonym of Lipostemmata 
humeralis Berg, 1879. Comb. n. 

pusillus (Rhyparochromus) Dallas, 18520: 577. Represented by abdomen of $ only, and 
lectotype not selected. Pin bears labels: circular red B.M. type label; '197. RHYPARO- 
CHROMUS PUSILLUS,'. Glued to card. Present combination Pachybrachius pusillus (Dallas). 

putoni (Calyptonotus) Saunders, 18760: 221. Holotype <$ with labels: circular red B.M. 
type label; 'Putoni E.S. Type'; 'Algeria'. Glued to card; terminal three segments of both 
antennae, left fore tibia and tarsus, left hind leg, right fore and middle tibia and tarsus and 
right hind leg missing. Synonym of Raglius pineti (Herrich-Schaeffer, 1835). 

putoni (Scolopostethus) White, 18780: 75. LECTOTYPE <J with labels: circular red B.M. 
type label; 'Scolopostethus Putoni B.W.'; 'New Zealand'; 'Pres. by Perth Museum B.M. 
X 953 629'. Glued to card; last two segments of left antenna, all of right antenna, left hind 
leg and right hind tibia and tarsus missing. Present combination Brentiscerus putoni (White) . 

raja (Aphanus) Distant, 19060: 415. LECTOTYPE <J with labels: circular red B.M. type 
label; 'Kuching Dec 1905 JH'; '123'; 'Aphanus raja Dist. type' [Distant's handwriting]; 
'Distant Coll. 1911 383.'. Pinned through abdomen; end segment of both antennae and 
right hind leg missing. Synonym of Neolethaeus descriptus (Walker, 1872). 

reductus (Plociomerus) Walker, 18720: 120. LECTOTYPE $ (not <J) with labels: circular 
green B.M. type label; '34. PLOCIOMERUS REDUCTUS.' Glued to card, with data 'Wright' 



RHYPAROCHROMINAE TYPES 279 

and two undetermined words on underside; left antenna missing. Present combination 

Pachybrachius reductus (Walker). 

relatus (Dieuches) Distant, 19016: 505. LECTOTYPE <J with labels: circular red B.M. type 
label; 'relatus Dist.' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Umfili R. Mashonaland (Guy Marshall)'; 
'Distant Coll. 1911 383.' Pinned through scutellum and mounted on polyporus strip; in 
poor condition with left antenna, end two segments of right antenna, left fore and hind legs, 
right middle and hind legs missing ; head and pronotum partly detached from rest of body. 

repressus (Rhyparochromus) Walker, 18720,: 104. Holotype with labels: circular green 
B.M. type label; 'Mak'; 'Celeb Wallace'; 'Saunders. 65.13.'; '172. RHYPAROCHROMUS 
REPRESSUS.' Pinned through scutellum and mounted on polyporus strip; head and thorax 
only present; end three segments of left antenna, end segment of right antenna and all legs 
missing. Synonym of Pachybrachius nietneri (Dohrn, 1860). 

reticulatus (Atkinsonianus) Distant, igogc: 344. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red 
B.M. type label; 'Atkinsonianus reticulatus Dist. type' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Sikkim'; 
'Atkinson Coll. 92 6.' Pinned through scutellum and mounted on card ; legs and antennae 
missing. 

rolandri (Naudarensia) Distant, 19186: 492. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red 
B.M. type label; 'Naudarensia rolandri Dist. type' [Distant's handwriting]; 'S.W. Australia. 
Yallingup. Nov. 1913. R. E. Turner. 1914 190.' Glued to card point; end three 
segments of both antennae, and right middle leg missing. Present combination Udeocoris 
rolandri (Distant). 

rudolflanus (Lachnophoroides) Distant, 19186: 262. LECTOTYPE <$ with labels: circular 
red B.M. type label; 'Lachnophoroides rudolfianus Dist. type' [Distant's handwriting]; 
'Soudan. Kaig. 9.111.04. C. Singer. 1906-78.'; '1911 177.' Pinned through scutellum 
and mounted on polyporus strip; in poor condition, with both antennae, all legs on left, and 
right middle leg missing. Present combination Dieuches rudolfianus (Distant). 

rufocinctus (Aphanus) Distant, 19016: 501. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red 
B.M. type label; 'rufocinctus Dist.' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Perim I. 90-106.' Glued to 
card to right of a female. Synonym of Liolobus pallidicornis Reuter, 1891. Syn. n. 

rusticus (Diplonotus) Scott, 1874*1: 430. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red B.M. type 
label; 'JAPAN'; 'Diplonotus rusticus, n. sp.' Glued to card. Present combination Pachy- 
brachius rusticus (Scott). 

sanguineus (Calyptonotus) Douglas & Scott, 18686:28. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: 
circular red B.M. type H.T. label; 'Sanguineus Type D.S.'; 'Saunders Coll. Brit. Mus. 
1910 357.' Pinned through pronotum, right hind tibia and tarsus missing. Present com- 
bination Rhyparochromus phoeniceus sanguineus (Douglas & Scott). 

scotti (Patnera) Distant, 19016: 479. New name for Diplonotus luridus Scott 1874, which is 
preoccupied. Present combination Pachybrachius scotti (Distant). 

scutellatus (Dieuches) Distant, 1904*;: 268. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red B.M. 
type label ; 'scutellatus Dist.' [Distant's handwriting] ; 'Townsville, Qld. 14 . 5 . 03 F. P. Dodd' ; 
'1904-27.' Glued to card with a <$ specimen above. 

scutellatus (Rhyparochromus) Dallas, 18520: 575. LECTOTYPE <? with labels: circular 
red B.M. type label; 'North Amer'; '100. RHYPAROCHROMUS SCUTELLATUS,'. Glued to 
card to left of another $ specimen; end three segments of right antenna missing. Present 
combination Pachybrachius bilobatus scutellatus (Dallas) . 

scutellatus (Udalricus) Distant, 19040: 49. Lectotype in Genoa, designated by Scudder 
(1966). 

segtnentata (Bedunia) Distant, 19016: 479. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red B.M. 
type label; 'segmentata Dist.' [Distant's handwriting]; 'PERAK, DOHERTY'; 'Distant Coll. 
1911 383.' Pinned through scutellum and in poor condition; right antenna, right fore leg, 
left middle and hind leg, much of right middle and hind legs missing; abdomen dissected. 



28o G.G.E.SCUDDER 

semidolens (Rhyparochromus) Walker, 18700: 2378. Not located in the collections. 

semilucens (Rhyparochromus) Walker, 18720: 99. Holotype 9 with labels: circular green 
B.M. type label; 'North Ind'; 'Saunders. 65.13.'; '156. RHYPAROCHROMUS SEMILUCENS.' 
Pinned through scutellum and mounted on polyporus strip; left antenna oligomerous ; end 
segment of right antenna and left middle tarsus missing. Synonym of Lachnesthus singalensis 
(Dohrn, 1860). 

serripes (Rhyparochromus) Walker, 18720: 92. Holotype (J (not $) with labels: 'PETRO- 
PILIS Feby 1857. J. Gray'; '117. RHYPAROCHROMUS SERRIPES.' Glued to card ; right hind 
leg missing. 

sevosus (Dinia) Distant, 19016: 497. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red B.M. type 
label; 'sevosus Dist.' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Ceylon (Lewis)'; 'Distant Coll. 1911 383.' 
Glued to card, with data '12 12. 87' on underside. Present combination Diniella sevosa 
(Distant). 

seychellesus (Plociomerus) Walker, 18720: 120. LECTOTYPE $ with labels : circular green 
B.M. type label; '33. PLOCIOMERUS SEYCHELLESUS.' Glued to card, with data 'Round Is. 
70 46' on underside. Synonym of Paromius gracilis (Rambur, 1839). 

siamicus (Rhyparochromus) Walker, 18720: 102. Holotype $ (not <$} with labels: circular 
green B.M. type label; 'Siam'; 'Saunders. 65.13.'; '163. RHYPAROCHROMUS SIAMICUS.' 
Pinned through pronotum and mounted on polyporus strip ; end segment of both antennae, 
left middle leg missing; specimen covered in fungal hyphae. Present combination Dieuches 
siamicus (Walker). 

signanda (Salacia) Distant, 1903^ 46. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red B.M. type 
label; 'signanda Dist.' [Distant's handwriting] ; 'Green Ceylon'; 'Distant Coll. 1911 383.' 
Glued to card point ; last two segments of left antenna and left hemielytron missing. Present 
combination Botocudo signanda (Distant). Comb. n. 

signatus (Lethaeus) Distant, 19016: 506. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red B.M. 
type label; 'signatus Dist.' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Ceylon'; 'Distant Coll. 1911 383.' 
Pinned through pronotum and mounted on card ; left antenna, end segment of right antenna, 
right middle and hind leg missing. Present combination Neolethaeus signatus (Distant). 
Comb. n. 

simpsoni (Lethaeus) Bergroth, 19120": 195. LECTOTYPE with labels: circular red B.M. 
type H.T. label; 'Badagri S. Nigeria. J. J. Simpson. 1910 213. i 2 10'; 'Lethaeus 
simpsoni Bergr.' [Bergroth's handwriting]; '1914-65.' Pinned through scutellum and 
mounted on card ; end three segments of left antenna, right fore tibia and tarsus, wings and 
abdomen missing. Synonym of Lethaeus africanus Dallas, 1852. Syn. n. 

simulans (Tropistethus) Distant, 19060: 414. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red 
B.M. type label; 'Tropistethus simulans Dist. type' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Peradeniya, 
Ceylon, 3 05'; 'Distant Coll. 1911 383.' Pinned through scutellum from below and 
mounted on polyporus strip. Present combination Lamproceps simulans (Distant). 

sladeni (Pamera) Distant, 19130: 152. LECTOTYPE <$ with labels: circular red B.M. type 
label; 'Pamera sladeni Dist. type' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Silhouette, '08. Seychelles 
Exp.'; 'Percy Sladen Trust Expedition. 1911 497.' Glued to card; right antenna missing; 
card with number '29'. Present combination Pachybrachius sladeni (Distant). 

sloggetti (Dieuches) Distant, 19186: 267. LECTOTYPE <J with labels: circular red B.M. 
type label; 'Dieuches sloggetti Dist. type' [Distant's handwriting]; '6 3 02 Deelfontein 
C.C.'; 'Deelfontein S.A. Col. Sloggett. 1903 109.' Glued to card point; end segment of 
left antenna, right antenna, left fore and hind leg, right middle and hind leg missing. 

smithi (Dieuches) Distant, 19186: 267. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red B.M. type 
label; 'Dieuches smithi Dist. type' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Dr. Smith. S. Afr. 44-6'; 
'Rhyparochromus armipes. Walker's Catal.' Pinned through scutellum and in poor 
condition; end segment of left antenna, right antenna, left fore and hind legs, middle right 
leg and all tarsi missing. 



RHYPAROCHROMINAE TYPES 281 

sobrina (Pamera) Distant, 19016: 480. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red B.M. type 
label; 'sobrina Dist.' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Calcutta'; 'Atkinson Coll. 92-6.' Glued to 
card with an additional male to left and a female abdomen to right; right antenna missing. 
Present combination Remaudiereana sobrina (Distant). 

soda (Bathydema) Uhler, i8gy. 710. LECTOTYPE <$ with labels: circular red B.M. type 
label; 'Bathydema socia Uhler' [Uhler's handwriting]; 'Soufriere volcano. Apr. 3000 ft. 
In moss.'; 'St. Vincent'; '95-206'. Glued to card point; end segment of both antennae 
missing. 

sparsus (Aphanus) Distant, 19040 : 81. LECTOTYPE ? with labels: circular red B.M. type 
label; 'sparsus Dist.' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Bor Ghat Dixon'; 'Distant Coll. 1911 383.' 
Glued to card point. Present combination Rhyparothesus sparsus (Distant). Comb. n. 

spinosus (Gonsalvus) Distant, igogc: 344. LECTOTYPE <J with labels: circular red B.M. 
type label; 'Gonsalvus spinosus Dist. type' [Distant's handwriting]; 'at light Calcutta 
IO-XI-O7. Mus. Coll.'; 'Distant Coll. 1911 383.' Pinned through scutellum and mounted 
on polyporus strip ; end segment of both antennae and left fore leg missing. Present combina- 
tion Proderus spinosus (Distant). 

splendens (Scythinus) Distant, 18930: 405. Holotype <J with labels: circular red B.M. type 
label; circular green B.M. type label; 'Scythinus splendens Dist.' [Distant's handwriting]; 
'V. de Chiriqui, 25-4000 ft. Champion.'; 'Sp. figured.' Glued to card; left hind leg missing; 
abdomen dissected. 

splendens (Speusippas) Distant, 19016: 499. Not traced in the collections. 

stali (Targarema) White, 18780:73. LECTOTYPE $ with labels : circular red B.M. type label; 
'Targarema Stali B.W. TYPE' ; 'N. Zealand Broun'; 'Pres. by Perth Museum. 1953 629.' 
Glued to card on right of a male specimen. 

staphylinus (Pachytnerus) Rambur, 18390: 154. LECTOTYPE $ with green label : 'Pachy- 
merus staphilinus'. Glued to card point; head, pronotum and right middle leg missing. 
Present combination Piezoscelis staphylinus (Rambur). 

stellatus (Lethaeus) Distant, 19130: 155. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red B.M. 
type label; 'Lethaeus stellatus Dist. type' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Aldabra, '08-9. J. C. F. 
Fryer.'; 'Percy Sladen Trust Expedition. 1911 497.' Glued to card, with the number 
'308'; end segment of left antenna and tarsi of both hind legs missing. 

strictus (Rhyparochrotnus) Walker, 18720: 108. This species belongs in the Heterogastrinae. 

suratensis (Aphanus) Distant, igogc: 338. LECTOTYPE with labels: circular red B.M. 
type label; 'Aphanus suratensis Dist. type' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Surat Bombay'; 
'Distant Coll. 1911 383.' Micropinned through metathorax and mounted on polyporus 
strip ; in poor condition with end segment of left antenna, end two segments of right antenna, 
abdomen and all legs (except left front) missing. Present combination Dieuches suratensis 
(Distant). 

tartarea (Lua) Distant, igogc: 343. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red B.M. type label; 
'Lua tartarea Dist. type' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Nolanda Ceylon. x-o6'; 'S. India. 
E. A. Butler. 1915-60.' Micropinned from below and mounted on polyporus strip; right 
fore leg missing. Present combination Diniella tartarea (Distant). 

tenebrosus (Lethaeus) Distant, 19146: 382. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular yellow 
B.M. Cotype label ; ' Lethaeus tenebrosus Dist. Cotype.' [Distant's handwriting] ; 'Oubatche, 
N. Caledonia Sept. 1911 '; 'Distant Coll. 1911-383.'. Pinned through scutellum; end two 
segments of left antenna, and end three segments of right antenna missing. Present combina- 
tion Neolethaeus tenebrosus (Distant) . 

terminalis (Gastrodes) Walker, 18720: 122. Holotype $ with labels: circular green B.M. 
type label; 'Mak 43'; 'GASTRODES TERMINALIS.'; 'Saunders. 65.13.' Glued to card. 
Synonym of Clerada apicicornis (Signoret, 1863). 

terminalis (Rhyparochromas) Walker, 18720: 105. Holotype $ with labels: circular green 
B.M. type label; 'Cer.'; 'Saunders. 65.13.'; '173. RHYPAROCHROMUS TERMINALIS.' 



282 G. G. E. SCUDDER 

Pinned through scutellum and mounted on polyporus strip; end three segments of both 

antennae and all legs on right side, missing. Synonym of Narbo biplagiatus (Walker 1871). 
testaceipes (Rhyparochrotnus) Walker, 18720: 101. Holotype - with labels: circular green 

B.M. type label; 'Ceylon 60 34'; 'R. testaceipes W. type' [Walker's handwriting]; '160. 

RHYPAROCHROMUS TESTACEIPES.' Glued to card point, but previously has been pinned 

through pronotum ; end two segments of left antenna, end segment of right antenna, middle 

left tarsus, left hind leg, right hind tibia and tarsus missing; right fore leg detached and glued 

to card point beside specimen. Synonym of Dieuches punctipes Dohrn, 1860. 
thoracica (Pamera) Distant, 19016: 481. LECTOTYPE ? with labels: circular red B.M. 

type label; 'thoracica Dist.' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Peak Downes'; 'Distant Coll. 1911 

383.' Glued to card; end segment of left antenna and end three segments of right antenna 

missing. Present combination Pachybrachius thoracicus (Distant) . 
thoracicus (Neocattarus) Distant, 18930: 403. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red 

B.M. type label; 'Neocattarus thoracicus Dist.' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Bugaba, Panama. 

Champion.'; 'Sp. figured.'; and the B.C.A. label. Glued to card. 
tibialis (Polycrates) Distant, 1918*1: 194. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red B.M. 

type label; 'Polycrates tibialis Dist. type' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Chikkaballapura, S. 

India. T. V. Campbell'; 'L4i'; 'S. India. E. A. Butler. 1915-60.' Glued to card; 

antennae missing and most legs detached. 
tineoides (Lamprodema) Distant, 19016: 500. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red 

B.M. type label; 'Lamprodema tineoides Dist.' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Ceylon (Lewis)'; 

'Distant Coll. 1911 383.' Glued to card. Present combination Plinthisus tineoides (Distant). 
trabeatus (Dinia) Distant, 19010: 498. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red B.M. type 

label; 'trabeatus Dist.' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Nagpur Atkinson.'; 'Distant Coll. 1911 

383.' Glued to card point; end three segments of left antenna, right antenna, right middle 

and hind leg missing. Present combination Lamproceps trabeatus (Distant). 
tricolorata (Pamera) Distant, 19186: 489. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red B.M. 

type label; 'Pamera tricolorata Dist. type' [Distant's handwriting]; 'N. Queensland. 

Kuranda, 1,100 ft. May 3-June 20, 1913. R. E. Turner. 1913 438.' Glued to card point; 

antennae missing. Synonym of Pachybrachius nietneri (Dohrn, 1860). 
trimaculatus (Trapezus) Distant, 18820: 217. LECTOTYPE $ with circular red B.M. type 

label; 'Trapezus trimaculatus Dist.' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Guatemala City, 9000 ft. 

Champion.'; and the B.C.A. label. Glued to card; end segment of both antennae missing; 

hind legs partly detached and abdomen dissected. Present combination Cryphula trimaculata 

(Distant). 
tropicus (Eremocoris) Distant, 18820: 218. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red B.M. 

type label; 'Eremocoris tropicus Dist.' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Quiche Mts., 7-9000 ft. 

Champion.' Glued to card; end segment of both antennae and left middle leg missing. 

Present combination Scolopostethus tropicus (Distant). 
turneri (Austropamera) Distant, 19186: 490. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red 

B.M. type label; 'Austropamera turneri Dist. type' [Distant's handwriting] ; 'N. Queensland. 

Kuranda, i.iooft. May 3-June 20, 1913. R.E.Turner. 1913 438.' Glued to card point ; 

end segment of left antenna and left hind tarsus missing; abdomen in a vial. Present 

combination Bedunia turneri (Distant). 
typicalis (Laxamana) Distant, 19060: 416. LECTOTYPE <J with labels: circular red B.M. 

type label; 'Laxamana typicalis Dist. type' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Kuching Dec 1905 

JH'; '2'; 'Distant Coll. 1911 383.' Pinned through thorax and mounted on card; end 

segment of both antennae missing. Synonym of Narbo longipes (Stal, 1867). 
typicus (Gonatas) Distant, 1882: 219. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red B.M. type 

label; 'Gonatas typicus Dist.' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Bugaba, 800-1500 ft. Champion.'; 

and the B.C.A. label. Glued to card on right of another female specimen. Present combina- 
tion Gonatoides typicus (Distant). 



RHYPAROCHROMINAE TYPES 283 

typicus (Neolethaeus) Distant, igogc: 340. LECTOTYPE <$ with labels: circular red B.M. 
type label; 'Neolethaeus typicus Dist. type' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Palon (Pegu) L. Fea. 
VIII. IX 87'; 'Distant Coll. 1911 383.' Glued to card; end two segments of both antennae, 
left hind leg, right hind tibia and tarsus missing; abdomen dissected. 

typicus (Orbellis) Distant, 19130: 156. LECTOTYPE <J with labels: circular red B.M. type 
label; 'Orbellis typicus Dist. type' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Mahe'; 'Percy Sladen Trust 
Expedition. 1911 497.' Glued to card with number '79'. 

typus (Gonsalvus) Distant, 19040: 93. Lectotype in Genoa, designated by Scudder (1966). 
Present combination Proderus typus (Distant). 

ugandensis (Abanus) Distant, 19186: 269. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red B.M. 
type label; 'Abanus ugandensis Dist. type' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Entebbe, Uganda. 
Aug. 1912. C. A. Wiggins.' Pinned through scutellum; right antenna missing. Present 
combination Dieuches ugandensis (Distant). 

uhleri (Rhaptus) Distant, 19016: 189. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red B.M. type 
label; 'uhleri Dist.' [Distant's handwriting]; '100'; '8.289'; 'Mount Gay Est. (Leeward side) 
Grenada, W.I. H. H. Smith.'; '61'; '95-206'. Glued to card point; end segment of left 
antenna and legs on left side (except middle femur) missing. Present combination Bubaces 
uhleri (Distant). Comb. n. 

umbrosis (Dorachosa illuminatus) Distant, 18930: 409. Lectotype $ with labels: 'Boll 
Texas 1875'; 'Distant Coll. 1911 383' Pinned through scutellum; end segment of right 
antenna missing. 

This Texas specimen is not conspecific with the other type material from Guatemala and 
Panama. Slater and Ashlock (1966) have considered the identity of this material and have 
designated the lectotype. Present combination Atrazonotus umbrosus (Distant). 

uniformis (Dieuches) Distant, 19040: 84. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red B.M. type 
label; 'uniformis Dist.' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Yatiyantota, Ceylon 3.1902' Glued to 
card; end segment of left antenna, end two segments of right antenna and right middle leg 
missing. 

uniformis (Polycrates) Distant, 19180: 194. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red B.M. 
type label; 'Polycrates uniformis Dist. type' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Chikkaballapura, 
S. India. T. V. Campbell'; 'L4i'; 'S. India. E. A. Butler. 1915-60.' Glued to card; 
end segment of right antenna missing. 

variabilis (Balboa) Distant, 18930: 408. LECTOTYPE <J with labels: circular red B.M. type 
label; 'Balboa variabilis Dist.' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Sp. figured.'; 'V. de Chirique, 
2-3000 ft. Champion.'; and the B.C. A. label. Glued to card to left of another male. 

variegatus (Heraeus) Kirby, 18900: 547. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red B.M. type 
label; '01 88'; 'Heraeus variegatus Kb type'. Pinned through pronotum and mounted on 
card; end segment of both antennae missing. Present combination Ozophora variegata 
(Kirby). Comb. n. 

variegatus (Poeantius) Distant, 19186: 268. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red B.M. 
type label; 'Poeantius variegatus Dist. type' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Nr. Chirinda Forest. 
Gaza L'd. Mch '07. G. A. K. Marshall. 1908 212.' Pinned through scutellum and 
mounted on card ; end segment of left antenna, end three segments of right antenna, left hind 
leg and right middle leg missing. Synonym of Poeantius nigropictus (Stal, 1855). Syn. n. 

vegetus (Neocattarus) Distant, 18820: 214. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red B.M. 
type label; 'Neocattarus vegetus Dist.' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Bugaba, 800-1500 ft. 
Champion.'; and the B.C. A. label. Glued to card; end segment of left antenna missing. 

vicinalis (Pamera) Distant, 18820: 207. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red B.M. type 
label; 'Pamera vicinalis Dist.' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Chiacaman, Vera Paz. Champion.'; 
and the B.C. A. label. Glued to card of left of a female specimen. Present combination 

Pachybrachius vicinalis (Distant). 



284 G. G. E. SCUDDER 

vicinus (Rhyparochrotnus) Dallas, 18520: 576. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red 
B.M. type label; 'N. Am'; '27'; '101. RHYPAROCHROMUS VICINUS/ Pinned through 
scutellum; both antennae, both fore legs, left middle leg and right hind leg missing. Synonym 
of Ligyrocoris sylvestris (Linnaeus, 1758). 

vigens (Neocattarus) Distant, 18820: 214. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red B.M. 
type label; 'vigens Dist.' [Distant's handwriting]; 'S. Geronimo, Guatemala. Champion.'; 
and the B.C.A. label. Glued to card. 

vitalisi (Pamera) Distant, 19180: 242. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red B.M. type 
label; 'vitalisi Dist. type' [Distant's handwriting]; 'Indo-China. Kompong Kedey, V. R. 
de Salvaza. 1917-98.' Glued to card; end two segments of left antenna and all legs (except 
right middle) missing. Present combination Pachybrachius vitalisi (Distant). 

vittata (Lamprodema) Distant, 19016: 500. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red B.M. 
type label; 'vittata Dist.' [Distant's handwriting]; '5219'; 'Parry Harbour. C. Bougain- 
ville. 92-1.' Present combination Telocoris vittata (Distant). 

vivida (Pamera) Distant, 18820: 208. LECTOTYPE <J with labels: circular red B.M. type 
label; 'Pamera vivida Dist.' [Distant's handwriting]; 'S. Geronimo, Guatemala. Champion.'; 
and the B.C.A. label. Glued to card. Present combination Pachybrachius vividus (Distant). 

walkeri (Calyptonotus) Saunders, 18760: 221. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: circular red 
B.M. type label; 'Walkeri Type ES' [Saunders' handwriting]; 'Malta Walker'; 'Saunders 
Coll. Brit. Mus. 1910 357.' Glued to card; left hind leg missing. Present combination 
Liolobus walkeri (Saunders). 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

The collection was studied while I was in receipt of a Royal Society and Nuffield 
Foundation Commonwealth Bursary. The research was supported by grants from 
the National Research Council of Canada and the University of British Columbia. 
For the period 1964-65, I was able to study the European collections while on study 
leave from the University of British Columbia and in receipt of a travel grant from 
the National Research Council of Canada. I am indebted to Dr. W. E. China, 
Mr. ]. P. Doncaster, Dr. W. J. Knight and the Trustees of the British Museum (Nat. 
Hist.) for help and permission to study the collections. I would also like to thank 
Mr. B. J. Clifton and Miss P. Gilbert of the Entomology Library at the Museum, for 
invaluable assistance with obtaining original descriptions. Prof. O. W. Richards, 
F.R.S. kindly provided facilities at the Imperial College of Science & Technology, 
University of London. 

REFERENCES 

DALLAS, W. S. 1852. List of the specimens of Hemipterous insects in the collection of the British 

Museum. Part II. London. 
DISTANT, W. L. 1880-93. Insects. Rhynchota. Hemiptera-Heteroptera. Biologia Cen- 

trali- Americana. London. 
DISTANT, W. L. 1901. Rhynchotal notes. XI. Heteroptera : Fam. Lygaeidae. Ann. 

Mag. nat. Hist. (7) 8 : 497-510. 
GROSS, G. F. 1962. Aberrant Australian brachypterous Myodochine Bugs (Lygaeidae, 

Rhyparochrominae) . Rec. S. Austr. Mus. 14 : 371-396. 
SCUDDER, G. G. E. 1966. Type designations for the Distant Rhyparochrominae (Hemiptera: 

Lygaeidae) in the Museo Civico di Storia Naturale, Genova. Doriana 4 (170) : 1-4. 
SLATER, J. A. 1964. A Catalogue of the Lygaeidae of the World. University of Connecticut, 

Storrs. 



RHYPAROCHROMINAE TYPES 



285 



SLATER, J. A. & ASHLOCK, P. D. 1966. Atrazonotus, a new genus of Gonianotini from North 
America (Hemiptera : Lygaeidae). Proc. ent. Soc. Wash. 68 : 152-156. 

WALKER, F. 1871-73. Catalogue of the specimens of Hemiptera Heteroptera in the collection of 
the British Museum. London. 

WOODWARD, T. E. 1962. Phaeax Distant transferred from Pyrrhocoridae (Larginae) to 
Lygaeidae (Hemiptera : Heteroptera). Proc. R. ent. Soc. Lond. (B) 31 : 122-126. 

APPENDIX 
List of Rhyparochrominae holotypes in British Museum (Nat. Hist.) not considered in this paper. 



acanthothorax (Plinthisus (Plinthisus)) Kirit- 

shenko, 19310 : 375- 
aeneiventris (Trapezonotus) Kiritshenko, 

19310: 377- 
annulicornis (Eucosmetus) Kiritshenko, 

193 372. 

ashanti (Botacudo) [sic] Southwood, 19630 : 
172. Present combination Botocudo 
ashanti Southwood. 

cephalotes (Orthaea) Kiritshenko, 1931 a : 373. 
Present combination Stigmatonotum 
cephalotes (Kiritshenko) . 

distanti (N audarensia) Kiritshenko, 1931 a : 
380. 

garnhami (Harmosticana) Miller, 1957*? : 206. 
Present combination Pholeolygaeus garn- 
hami (Miller). 

insignis (Ruavatua) Miller, 19566 : 655. 

longicornis (Bryanella) China, 19306 : 136. 
Present combination Bryanellocoris 
longicornis (China). 

maculatus (Locutius) Kiritshenko, 1931 a : 376. 
Present combination Plinthisus macu- 
latus (Kiritshenko). 

melleus (Hexatrichocoris) Kiritshenko, 1931 a : 

379- 

minuta (Clerada) China, 19246 : 435. Syn- 
onym of Reclada moesta White, 1878. 

minuta (Retoka) China, 19350 : 302. 



mungus (Lethaeus) Scudder, 19586 : 139. 
Synonym of Neolethaeus tenebrosus 
(Distant, 1914). 

myrmecoides (Aegyptocoris) China, 19360 : 
165. 

puberula (Orthaea) China, 19306 : 131. Pre- 
sent combination Pachybrachius puber- 
ulus (China). 

quadratus (Appolonius) Scudder, 19566 : 359. 

rennellensis (Cligenes) Scudder, 19586 : 140. 
Present combination Botocudo rennell- 
ensis (Scudder). Comb. n. 

rodriguezensis (Lachnesthus) China, I925C : 
163. 

sikkimensis (Lachnodrymodes) Kiritshenko, 
19310 : 382. Present combination Tri- 
chodrymus sikkimensis (Kiritshenko). 

slateri (Drymus) Southwood, 19630 : 172. 

snelli (Lethaeus) China, 19246 : 434. 

swezeyi (Cligenes) China, 19306 : 138. 
Present combination Botocudo swezeyi 
(China). Comb. n. 

swezeyi major (Cligenes) China, 19306 : 139. 
Present combination Botocudo swezeyi 
major (China). Comb. n. 

typica (Chotekia) China, 19350 : 300. 

ventralis (Orthaea) China, 19306 : 130. Pre- 
sent combination Pachybrachius ven- 
tralis (China). 

wollastoni (Microthisus) Lindberg, 19586 : 66. 




A LIST OF SUPPLEMENTS 
TO THE ENTOMOLOGICAL SERIES 

OF THE BULLETIN OF 
THE BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 



1. MASNER, L. The types of Proctotrupoidea (Hymenoptera) in the British 
Museum (Natural History) and in the Hope Department of Entomology, Oxford. 
Pp. 143. February, 1965. 5. 

2. NIXON, G. E. J. A reclassification of the tribe Microgasterini (Hymenoptera : 
Braconidae). Pp. 284 ; 348 Text-figures. August, 1965. 6. 

3. WATSON, A. A revision of the Ethiopian Drepanidae (Lepidoptera). Pp. 177 ; 
18 plates, 270 Text-figures. August, 1965. 4 45. 

4. SANDS, W. A. A revision of the Termite Subfamily Nasutitermitinae (Isoptera, 
Termitidae) from the Ethiopian Region. Pp. 172 ; 500 Text-figures. October, 

1965- 3 5*. 

5. AHMAD, I. The Leptocorisinae (Heteroptera : Alydidae) of the World. Pp. 156 ; 

475 Text-figures. November, 1965. 2 155. 

6. OKADA, T. Diptera from Nepal. Cryptochaetidae, Diastatidae & Drosophilidae. 
Pp. 129 ; 328 Text-figures. 3. 

7. GILIOMEE, J. H. Morphology and Taxonomy of Adult Males of the Family 
Coccidae (Homoptera : Coccoidea). Pp. 168 ; 43 Text-figures. February, 1967. 

33s. 

8. FLETCHER, D. S. A revision of the Ethiopian species and a check list of the 

world species of Cleora (Lepidoptera : Geometridae). Pp. 119; 14 plates, 146 
Text-figures, 9 maps. February, 1967. 3 los. 

9. HEMMING, A. F. The Generic Names of the Butterflies and their type-species 
(Lepidoptera : Rhopalocera). In press. 

10. STEMPFFER, H. The Genera of the African Lycaenidae (Lepidoptera : Rhopa- 
locera). In press. 



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OCTI967 

THE TYPES OF THE SCOLIIDAE 

DESCRIBED BY FREDERICK SMITH 

(HYMENOPTERA) 



J. CHESTER BRADLEY 
and 

J. G. BETREM 



BULLETIN OF 

THE BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 
ENTOMOLOGY Vol. 20 No. 7 

LONDON: 1967 



THE TYPES OF THE SCOLIIDAE 

DESCRIBED BY FREDERICK SMITH 

(HYMENOPTERA) 




BY 

J. CHESTER BRADLEY (v 

Cornell University, I thaca U.S.A. 

and 
J. G. BETREM Xv , / , 

Rubensstraat 65, Deventer, Netherlands) 



Pp. 287-327 



BULLETIN OF 
THE BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 

ENTOMOLOGY Vol. 20 No. 7 

LONDON: 1967 



THE BULLETIN OF THE BRITISH MUSEUM 

(NATURAL HISTORY), instituted in 1949, is 
issued in five series corresponding to the Departments 
of the Museum, and an Historical series. 

Parts will appear at irregular intervals as they become 
ready. Volumes will contain about three or four 
hundred pages, and will not necessarily be completed 
within one calendar year. 

In 1965 a separate supplementary series of longer 
papers was instituted, numbered serially for each 
Department. 

This paper is Vol. 20, No. 7 of the Entomological 
series. The abbreviated titles of periodicals cited 
follow those of the World List of Scientific Periodicals. 



World List abbreviation 
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Trustees of the British Museum (Natural History) 1967 



TRUSTEES OF 
THE BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 

Issued 29 September, 1967 Price Sixteen Shillings 



THE TYPES OF THE SCOLIIDAE 

DESCRIBED BY FREDERICK SMITH 1 

(HYMENOPTERA) 




By J. CHESTER BRADLEY and J. G. BETREM 

IN 1926 J. G. Betrem spent a few days at the British Museum and at Oxford 
intensively studying the type-material of Smith's Indo-Australian Scoliidae. The 
results were published in his great monograph of those wasps (1928). His frequent 
statement ' Hololectotype Smith's B.M. ' or ' Oxford ' was actually intended, in 
many cases, to serve as equivalent to a selection of lectotype, but we are agreed that 
it is insufficient to meet all the technicalities of lectotype selection, and in this paper 
we have tried to make clear the status of individual specimens as holotypes or 
lectotypes, following Betrem's original intent wherever another course is not 
clearly indicated. Betrem continued his study at Oxford in July, 1958, and 
subsequently, and at the British Museum on several subsequent dates up to and 
including August, 1966. 

In the autumn of 1928 and in 1929 Bradley spent many months at the British 
Museum, and a period at Oxford, working on Scoliidae, and giving particular atten- 
tion to the study of types. He placed red holotype or lectotype labels on many of 
Smith's, Cameron's and Kirby's specimens. 

Frederick Smith was born in London in 1805. As a boy he was a close friend of 
W. E. Shuckard, who, himself developing a taste for entomology, introduced his 
companion to its pleasures. Smith became a professional engraver. From about 
1841 to 1850 he held the post of Curator of the Collections and Library of the Ento- 
mological Society of London. Then he became Assistant Keeper of Insects in the 
British Museum. Up to this time, Smith's numerous papers (Horn and Schenkling 
list 150 up to 1863) were mostly on bees or ants, but thereafter he broadened his 
field to include aculeate Hymenoptera in general with a few papers on beetles. 
Although often thought of as only a museum taxonomist, we are told that Smith 
had in reality an extensive field knowledge of British aculeate Hymenoptera. He 
died in London in 1879, in his 74th year. 

Dr M. W. R. de Vere Graham, curator of insects in the Oxford Museum, has 
prepared and sent to us through courtesy of Professor G. C. Varley, the following 
statement concerning Scoliidae in that institution: 

1 This paper was completed with aid of a grant from the National Science Foundation of the U.S.A. 
ENTOM. 20, 7. i6 



2QO J. CHESTER BRADLEY & J. G. BETREM 

' The collections of Hymenoptera made by Alfred Russel Wallace in the eastern 
part of Indonesia and in New Guinea passed (at least mainly) into the hands of W. W. 
Saunders. 2 They form the entire substance of the series of papers subsequently 
published by Frederick Smith in the Journal of the Linnean Society. This material 
is now divided between the British Museum (Natural History) and the Hope Depart- 
ment of the Oxford University Museum. The old museum collection of the latter 
institution (Hope-Westwood collection) also contains Scoliidae, including Gray's 
type of Scolia fulva, and some species given manuscript names by Westwood; 
another, the Rottney collection, contains Scoliidae studied by Cameron '. 

' It is clear that in some cases, syntypes of a particular species may exist both in 
the B.M. and in the Hope Department; such cases must be examined individually 
in order to decide on a lectotype.' 

Before selecting a lectotype Bradley has endeavoured to locate each syntype, 
wherever located, and to select the one that is most suitable to become lectotype, 
taking into account its sex, its conformity with the original description, its locality 
of capture, and the collection in which it is located; also whether Betrem, 1928, 
intended to make a selection. 

[I have found two more places in the literature which confirm that the Wallace 
insect-collections, except the Coleoptera, were the property of W. W. Saunders. 

I. Wallace stated in the introduction to his book The Malay Archipelago (4th 
ed., 1872 : VIII) : ' The remaining orders of insects . . . are in the collection of Mr. 
William Wilson Saunders . . . The Hymenoptera alone amounted to more than nine 
hundred species . . . ' 

II. Smith (1862 : 36) wrote: ' Many fine additions of the Aculeata are contained 
in the present collections which are the property of William Wilson Saunders, Esq.' 

It seems reasonable to me that Smith sent back to Saunders the specimens that 
we now consider as typical (syntypes) and that he retained the duplicates. Therefore 
we must select lectotypes in the first place from the Wallace material in the Saunders 
collection. It follows that a lectotype may be selected from the duplicates in the 
British Museum only if it can be demonstrated that there is no material that accords 
with the description in the Saunders collection. 

It has been assumed that all the material that Wallace collected is either in the 
museum at Oxford or in the British Museum. Therefore I was greatly astonished 
to find some Wallace material in New York in the collection of the American Museum 
of Natural History when I restudied their scoliid collection in December, 1965. A 

2 The evidence for this is contained in Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. (Zool.) 1857, 1 : 4 where Saunders states 
' A large portion of Mr. Wallace's entomological collections pass into my hands ' . . . Saunders further 
states that he asked Francis Walker to catalogue the Diptera ; presumably, in the same way, he must 
have asked Smith to deal with the Hymenoptera. 

[Smith, 1861 : 94 wrote ' This fine collection is the property of W. W. Saunders ', a note which may 
indicate that the other Wallace material was also Saunders' property. In the paper in question he 
described Scolia culta, morosa, and ducalis as new. The following entries in the accessions book of the 
British Museum show that some of the material collected by Wallace was sold to Stevens : ' ff. n 
April, purchased from Stevens, coll. by Alfred Wallace, 75 Hym., plus many other insects ', and ' gf 
from Salawaty of New Guinea, purchased of Stevens, coll. by A. R. Wallace '. 

Horn (1926, Suppl. Ent. 12 : 107) stated that the Hymenoptera of the W. W. Saunders collection 
went to the Hope Museum via J. O. Westwood, which is certainly not, in general, true. J.G.B.] 

In describing the majority of his oriental species, Smith has stated that the material is in the Saunders 
collection. 



SMITH'S TYPES OF SCOLIIDAE 291 

female of Scolia apicata and a specimen of Scolia dimidiata are there. The former is 
probably type of the species. Furthermore there is a syntype of Scolia zonata, a 
species that Smith described from the British Museum collection. All three were 
derived from the collection of J. Angus that was obtained by the American Museum 
many years ago. That gentleman was an old-timer who had a large private collec- 
tion. He exchanged material with entomologists all over the world. Very likely 
he obtained this material from the British Museum, possibly through Smith. It is 
not at all probable that he exchanged with the museum at Oxford, because one of 
the species, Scolia zonata, definitely comes from the British Museum. 

There are many indications (see, e.g. 5. indica, ignita, erratica, and fasciatopennis] 
that Smith studied the older material of the Museum at Oxford before he wrote the 
scoliid portion of his Catalogue of the hymenopterous insects in the collection of the 
the British Museum. It is not improbable that some of his types were originally 
part of the material in the Oxford Museum. J.G.B.] 

[Notes on the localities where Wallace or Allen collected in the East Indies 

Smith wrote the following two lists dealing with the distribution of the Hymenop- 
tera that are of interest to us: 

I. Notes on the geographical distribution of the aculeate Hymenoptera collected 
by Mr A. R. Wallace in the Eastern Archipelago (1863). This list gives more 
localities than the second one, but does not contain the localities mentioned in Smith's 
1864 paper. 

II. A catalogue of the Aculeate Hymenoptera and Ichneumonidae of India and 
the Eastern Archipelago, with introductory remarks by A. R. Wallace (1870). 

The introduction by Wallace is important because of its biological notes. The 
list of localities of the scoliids is very incomplete. In this paper Smith followed the 
system of the catalogue of de Saussure & Sichel and accepted Elis, now Campsomeris, 
as a good genus. 

More peculiarities about the localities where Wallace collected may be found in 
the second list and in his book: The Malay Archipelago (ist ed., 1869). 

Wallace did not himself visit all of the localities from where material in his col- 
lection came. Many were visited only by his assistant Charles Allen, especially 
many of the islands in the Moluccas. I have indicated the localities which were 
visited especially by the latter. 

Singapore. Wallace collected especially in the central hills where primary forests 
still existed. 

Penang. This island was not mentioned by Wallace in his publications. It 
seems that he or Allen collected there during the journey to or from the Malay 
Archipelago. 

Malacca. This is a country in the south-eastern portion of Malaya. Almost all 
the collecting was done on Mount Ophir; cf. Smith, 1857. 

Borneo. Wallace collected there only in the south-western portion of what is 
now called Sarawak. The town of Sarawak, which he mentioned, is Kutching 
(Koetjong). The different localities are not indicated on the labels. 



292 J. CHESTER BRADLEY & J. G. BETREM 

Sumatra. Wallace collected in the residency Palembang, mostly along the river 
Ogan, probably near the present Batu Radjah. 

Java. Wallace collected in east Java mostly in the village of Djapanan near 
Wonosalam in the district of Bareng, according to his map near Modjo-Agung. This 
locality is not on the slopes of Mt Ardjuno as he stated, but on the slopes of Mt 
Welirang. 

In west Java, Wallace collected mostly on Mt Megamedong on Pundjakpas, at 
4,500 ft, 20 miles south-east of Bogor (Buitenzorg) . 

Bali. Wallace collected at Bileling (Buleleng). 

Lombok. Collecting was done by Wallace at Ampenan and Labuan Tring. 

Flores. Allen collected here, not Wallace. 

Timor. Wallace collected at Coupang (Kupang) in the Indonesian half and at 
Belli (Dilly) in the Portuguese portion. 

Celebes. Wallace visited this island three times, the first time from September 
to November, 1856. He collected at Makassar and the district Goah, east of Makas- 
sar. Smith reported about this collection in 1858. 

The second time Wallace was in the Celebes was from July to September, 1857; 
he collected then at Maros, 30 miles north of Makassar. Smith enumerated the 
collected species in his paper of 1861. No scoliids were caught. It seems that all 
specimens were labelled Makassar. 

The third time Wallace collected in the north of Celebes in the country called 
Minahassa, from June to September, 1859. Menado or Tondano is written on the 
labels. Smith published about this collection in 1864. 

Wallace himself collected on the Banda Islands, Ambon, Burn, Goram, Martabello 
(Ceram Laut Islands), Waigiou (Waigeou), Ternate, Tidore, Makian, Kaisaa (Kaioa), 
Batchian (Batjan), Aru-ls\a.nds and the X^y-Islands. 

Charles Allen collected on the Sw/a-Islands (Isle Mangolal), Morty (Morotai), 
My sol, and Salwatty (Salawaty). 

Both men collected on Ceram. The specimens labelled Wahai were perhaps 
collected by Allen. Both collected on Gilolo. The specimens recorded in the paper 
of 1864 by Smith were probably collected by Allen in north Gilolo. 

Wallace and Allen both collected in New Guinea. Wallace's insects were labelled 
' Dorey ', those of Allen probably: ' New Guinea '. They were collected in Sorong 
(Mai. Arch. : 571) one of most western localities on this island, and on a trip inland. 
The specimens collected by Allen were treated by Smith in his publications of 1863 
and 1864. J.G.B.] 

In his 1855 Catalogue, Smith printed ' B.M. ' in the margin if the museum con- 
tained specimens of a given species. But that does not necessarily mean type- 
material. 

The serious error that can arise from abbreviated pin-labels is illustrated by 
Wallace's specimens from Makassar in the South Celebes, which, Betrem points 
out, are all labelled just ' Mak '. This was invariably interpreted by Betrem, 1928, 
to mean ' Makian ', an island in a region that is zoogeographically quite different. 
Since ' Makian ' was therefore erroneously published as the type-locality of a number 
of species in Betrem's monograph, corresponding corrections must be made. 



SMITH'S TYPES OF SCOLIIDAE 293 

Betrem states that in the Wallace material, according to the museum authori- 
ties, the locality-label was placed on the pin of only the first of a series of specimens 
from the same locality. This explains why we often encounter unlabelled syntypes. 

Betrem & Bradley have considered all points in this paper, and are in agreement 
upon each. Where the manuscript has been written by Betrem it is followed by 
his initials and enclosed in square brackets. Bradley is author of the remainder. 
Betrem's manuscript was written at Ithaca, N.Y., in March, 1962, November, 1964, 
November, 1965, September, 1966 and in London in July, 1966. Bradley's manu- 
script was written much earlier. 

The synonymies that follow the centre-headings are not complete bibliographies 
of the species. All of Smith's new names or nominal species and what is believed 
at the moment to be the correct formula for the taxonomic species involved, are 
entered. The latter are indicated by a preceding ' equals ' sign (=). In Palaearctic 
and Indo-Australian species, as well as African Campsomerinae, these have usually 
been determined by Betrem, and all such have been verified by him. In addition, 
references have been entered that indicate the origin of senior synonyms, or that 
indicate shifting generic or subgeneric position, as well as some others for special 
reasons. 

In work in progress on the Scoliidae, Betrem will create certain new subgenera, 
and he, Mr C. Jacot Guillarmod and myself are agreed, that, in revising the classi- 
fication of the family, certain taxa, heretofore ranked as subgenera, should be 
accorded full generic rank. These changes will have been published in a paper in 
press, it is hoped, before this paper appears. 

Betrem proposed many years ago in a letter to me that Austroscolia, Carino- 
scolia, Laeviscolia, Microscolia, Liacos, and Diliacos should each be elevated to the 
status of genus. He accepted my representation that the time was not then ripe 
for such action. Since then we have learned so much more about the world fauna, 
especially the Ethiopian, that it is clear that in order properly to represent the 
taxonomy and zoogeography of the Scoliidae, Betrem's proposal should now be put 
into effect. 

Betrem, 1967 : 25 has raised Campsomeriella to generic rank. 

All new combinations of generic and specific names that appear in the list of 
species are to be accredited to Betrem. 

[DESCRIPTIONS OF NEW GENERA AND SUBGENERA 

Here follow the descriptions of one new genus and three new subgenera in order 
that their names may be used in the list of species that follows, without being nomina 
nuda. 

GAMPSOMERINAE, tribe TRIELINI 

GUIGLIANA gen. n. 

Type-species: Scolia aliena Klug, 1835 = Guigliana aliena (Klug, 1835) comb. n. 

$. Anterior rim of the clypeus complete, not interrupted at the sides; disc of the clypeus 
usually not strongly elevated, but strongly elevated in one subgenus, with a semicircular marginal 
carina. No frontal cross-furrow above the spatium frontale; punctuation of the spatium 
frontale not extending beyond the upper end of the laminae frontales, as is the case in the genus 

ENTOM. 20, 7. i6 



2Q 4 J- CHESTER BRADLEY & J. G. BETREM 

Campsomeris. Mesopleura with a distinct elevation below the forewings as in Scolia. Transi- 
tion between the dorsal area and the vertical portions of the metapleura gradual. Three sub- 
marginal cells; two recurrent veins. First submarginal cell not setose. Black wasps, usually 
with black, but rarely with yellow-brown, vestiture. 

(J. Quite like the female, almost no sexual dimorphism. 

Habitat: Ethiopian Region. 

Tribe CAMPSOMERINI 

CAMPSOMERIS 
MEGAMERIS subgen. n. 

Type-species: Campsomeris mansuefacta Bradley, 1931 = Campsomeris (Megameris) 
soleata (Gerstaecker, 1870). 

$. Front usually impunctate medially, short ; carina occipitalis complete above. Transition 
between the dorsal and the vertical areas of the mesopleura not strongly elevated either medially 
or anteriorly, straight or almost straight; transition between the dorsal and the vertical areas 
of the metapleura sharp but not like a carina. First submarginal cell setose only above. Longer 
spur of tibia III usually very dark; acute, blunt, or rarely spatulate. Basal portion of the 
carina lateralis attaining the spiracles ; transition between the area horizontalis lateralis and the 
area lateralis sharp, usually with a high carina that has a groove on the inner side. Basal 
tergites usually opaque, rarely more or less shining. Vestiture on the thorax often dense and 
long. Large to very large species. 

cJ. Spatium frontale densely punctate. Basal tergites usually with broad, yellow, apical 
bands that are strongly broadened medially in front. Volsellae very densely covered with 
long setae. 

Habitat: Ethiopian Region. 

This subgenus is allied to Megacampsomeris Betr., 1928 of the Indo- Australian 
Region. 

MICROMERIS subgen. n. 

Type-species: Scolia marginella Klug, 1805 = Campsomeris (Micromeris) margin- 
ella marginella (Klug, 1805). 

$. Front impunctate medially; carina occipitalis complete above; temporal groove absent. 
Transition between the dorsal and the vertical areas of the mesopleura gradual, somewhat 
elevated medially; transition between the dorsal and the vertical areas of the metapleura very 
gradual; upper plate of the metapleura impunctate. First submarginal cell bare, setose only 
along its upper margin. Area posterior medialis impunctate or with fine punctures; transition 
between the area horizontalis lateralis and the area lateralis rounded, without a distinct carina 
lateralis except for an apical indication; basal portion of the carina lateralis attaining the 
spiracles. Basal tergites opaque. Vestiture never entirely dark. Small species. 

<J. Interspaces between the punctures of the spatium frontale larger than their diameters. 
Volsellae not densely setose. 

Habitat: Ethiopian Region, Southern Palaearctic Region, Indo- Australian Region 
as far as, but not including, New Guinea. 

PHALERIMERIS subgen. n. 

Type-species: Elis (Campsomeris) phalerata Sauss., 1858 = Campsomeris (Phaleri- 
meris) phalerata (Sauss., 1858). 



SMITH'S TYPES OF SCOLIIDAE 295 

9. A group of deep punctures on the front before the anterior ocellus; temporal groove 
usually not deep but present; carina occipitalis usually more or less interrupted above. No 
shallow groove on the scapulae; transition between the dorsal and the vertical areas of the 
mesopleura not elevated medially, practically straight; transition between the dorsal and the 
vertical areas of the metapleura not gradual, sometimes almost without an edge, sometimes 
with a distinct edge, never like a carina. First submarginal cell setose in greater part. Spurs 
white, longer spur of tibia III blunt or acute, never spatulate. Basal portion of the carina 
lateralis attaining the spiracles. Basal tergites opaque. Vestiture usually in greater part 
brown-yellow. Tergites often with yellow apical bands. 

(J. Area frontalis densely punctate. Scutellum and metanotum usually yellow. Paramera 
with an angular circumference. 

Habitat: Indo- Australian Region including New Guinea and adjacent islands, 
but not Australia. J.G.B.] 

THE LIST OF SPECIES 

i. agilis 

1859. Scolia agilis Smith, <J : 10. ' Hab. Celebes '. 
1864. Elis (Dielis) agilis Saussure & Sichel, <J: 203, n. 8. 

1928. Campsomeris leefmansi leefmansi Betrem, $, $: 130, syn. n., teste Betrem. 
1928. Campsomeris leefmansi problematica Betrem, $: 131, syn. n., teste Betrem. 
1967. Campsomeriella (Campsomeriella) agilis Betrem, $ : 28. 
= Campsomeriella (Campsomeriella} agilis (Smith) Betrem. 

There is a male of agilis in the Saunders collection. It bears the pin-label ' Mak '. 
(Makassar, South Celebes) and also Smith's manuscript label ' Scolia agilis ' . It 
was marked by Betrem ' lectotype '. Its palettes are exposed, and as Betrem's 
key stands it runs quite certainly to manokwariensis on p. 78, but this is without 
significance, since the males of related species cannot be distinguished, as Betrem 
notes below, and since the male that he described as leefmansi (actually agilis} is 
not included in his key. 

[I referred in 1928 : 130, to the male from Makassar as holotype of agilis but 
placed it as the male of C. micans bernsteini, because I thought at that time that 
' Mak. ' was an abbreviation of Makian. A second male came from Celebes 
and is in the British Museum. On p. 124 of the same work I referred to it as ' type 
of agilis Smith ', but queried it there as a probable synonym of C. manokwariensis 
Cam. My label ' lectotype ' on the specimen in the Oxford Museum is therefore 
correct, and its publication as ' holotype ' in my monograph must be correspondingly 
corrected. The males of the species of Campsomeriella in the eastern part of Indo- 
nesia cannot be distinguished from one another with certainty. They can be named 
only by the locality in which they were caught. The identity of the Celebes male 
in the British Museum therefore remains questionable. The only species that occurs 
in the South Celebes is C. leefmansi Betr., 1928. This name must now be replaced 
by C. agilis (Smith). The subspecies problematica that I described from the South 
Celebes, and the subspecies leefmansi that occurs in Eastern Java, must both be 
suppressed, because it appears, now that more material is available, that these 
nominal taxa cannot be distinguished. There is a second male of C. agilis in the 
Saunders collection from ' Wag. ' (Waigiou). This cannot be a syntype. Probably 
it is a male of C. loriae Cam., because it has only three yellow bands on the abdomen. 
J.G.B.] 



296 J. CHESTER BRADLEY & J. G. BETREM 

2. albofimbriata 

1879. Scolia (Dielis} albofimbriata Smith, $, <$: 189. ' Hab., Costa Rica, Cache '. 
1893. Elis albofimbriata Cameron, $, Biol. Centr. Amer., Hym. 2 : 229, pi. 12, f. 13. 
= 1957. Campsomeris (Lissocampsomeris) columba albofimbriata (Smith) Bradley: 75. 

The holotype is in the British Museum and bears the number: ' 15.1378 '. For 
details cf. Bradley, 1945 : 30. 

3. alecto 

1858. Scolia alecto Smith, $, <$: 10. ' Hab. Celebes '. 

1864. Scolia (Triscolia) alecto Saussure & Sichel, $, <$: 48, n. 24. 

1928. Scolia (Triscolia) alecto Betrem, , <fj: 237. 

= 1964. Megascolia (Regiscolia) alecto alecto (Smith) Betrem & Bradley: 443, n. 4a. 

The lectotype is the only female in the Saunders collection without locality label, 
but bearing Smith's mss. label ' Scolia alecto Sm.' It has been marked by Betrem 
and published by him (1928 : 237) as ' Hololectotype '. 

The male specimen which Betrem (1928 : 237) referred to as ' allotype ' bears the 
pin-label ' Mak ' (Makassar, S. Celebes). There are also a male and a female in the 
British Museum which Betrem referred to as paratypes. 

[The mesoscutum of the female lectotype is more densely punctate anteriorly 
than in Megascolia alecto regnatrix (i.e. cincta) ; it is broadly impunctate medially, 
very remotely punctate posteriorly as well as along the parapsidal grooves. The 
carina behind the tubercle on tergite 2 (i) is blunter and longer than in M. alecto 
regnatrix. Wings reflecting blue- violet; the veins dark; no distinct pale area in 
the first submarginal cell. J.G.B.] 

4. ambigua 

1862. Scolia ambigua Smith, : 52. ' Hab. Gilolo '. 
1864. Scolia (Discolia) ambigua Saussure & Sichel, $: 108, n. 99. 
1928. Campsomeris (Dielis) nigerrima ambigua Betrem, : 106. 
1963. PCampsomeris (Laevicampsomeris) nigerrima Krombein, $: 568. 

= Campsomeris (Laevicampsomeris) nigerrima (Smith) Betrem, infrasubspecific form ambigua 
Smith. 

The lectotype is in the Saunders collection and bears a label ' Gil ' and a Smith 
mss. label ' Scolia ambigua Sm. '. It has been labelled and published by Betrem as 
' Hololectotype ' (1928 : 106). [There are two other female syntypes in the Oxford 
Museum, one labelled ' Gil ', the other ' G '. One of these has three punctures on 
one side of the scutellum, while the scutellum of the other is impunctate. Krombein 
regards ambigua as only a variant of nigerrima. J.G.B.] 

5. apicata 

1862. Scolia apicata Smith, $: 52. ' Hab. Celebes ' (Tondano). 
1864. Scolia (Triscolia) apicata Saussure & Sichel, $: 46, n. 21. 
1928. Scolia (Microscolia) apicata Betrem, >, <J: 208. 
= Microscolia apicata (Smith) Betrem, comb. n. 

[There is one female of Scolia apicata Smith in the American Museum of Natural 
History. It bears three labels : (i) a round, white label ' Tond. ' (Tondano) such 



SMITH'S TYPES OF SCOLIIDAE 297 

as is normal for Wallace material; (2) ' 349 '; (3) ' Collection J. Angus '; cf. the 
introduction. 

Since neither of us could find the type nor any specimen whatsoever of apicata 
in either Oxford or London, and since this specimen belongs to the Wallace material 
and came from the type-locality, Tondano, it must be presumed to be the holotype, 
although it would seem that Smith or the British Museum would only have sent 
the unique type to Angus through some error. The specimen agrees exactly with 
the description. J.G.B.] 

6. ardens 

1854. Scolia fervida Burmeister, <$, $: 20, n. 12. 

1855. Scolia ardens Smith: 112, n.n. for fervida Burm., 1854, nee Smith, 1852. ' Hab. Mexico '. 

1864. Scolia (Triscolia) fervida Saussure & Sichel, $: 53, n. 30. 
= 1964. Triscolia ardens (Smith) Betrem & Bradley: 437. 
1966. Triscolia ardens Bradley & Betrem, $, <J: 75. 

A new name tor fervida Burmeister and therefore with the same type. 

7. arrogans 

1853. Scolia decorata Burmeister, <J, <j>: 20, n. 39. 

1865. Scolia arrogans Smith, cj: 81. ' Hab. Sumatra ', syn. n. Betrem.. 
1928. Campsomeris arrogans Betrem, <$: 332. 

= 1964. Scolia (Discolia) decorata Betrem & Bradley: 93, n. 66. 
1966. Scolia (Discolia) decorata decorata Bradley & Betrem, $, <$: 75. 

The unique male in the Saunders collection is the holotype and has been so labelled 
by Betrem. It bears a pin-label ' Sum ' and Smith's mss. label ' Scolia arrogans Sm.' 

aureipennis 

1855. 'Scolia aureipennis St. Fargeau ' Smith, $: 94. ' Hab. South Africa (Gambia) B.M. ', 

a misidentification. 

1864. PScolia (Discolia) smithii Saussure & Sichel, ?$, $: 86, n. 64, nee Fox, 1896. 
1906. ? Scolia (Discolia) smithii Schulz. 

Smith cited St. Fargeau as author, but the material in the British Museum, seen 
in 1929, that he had before him, as well as the Gambian locality, shows that he 
misidentified Lepeletier's oriental species. As a consequence Smith established no 
new name and no type. 

[I could not find any material in the British Museum from Gambia in 1966 that 
Smith could have studied. J.G.B.] 

Saussure & Sichel described both $ and $ of smithii, the former with a query. 
They cited Smith's misidentification of aureipennis as a synonym of the probable 
female, but whether rightly or wrongly can only be determined after the lectotype 
of smithii Saussure & Sichel has been selected. The material of Saussure & Sichel 
came from Cape of Good Hope, not Gambia, and the female is excluded from selection 
as a lectotype, because it was attached to smithii with a query. 

Since this taxon involves no Smith type, I have assigned it no number in the 
heading. 



298 J. CHESTER BRADLEY & J. G. BETREM 

8. aurulenta 

1855. Scolia aurulenta Smith, $, ' Habitat Philippine Ids. B.M. '. 
1864. Elis (Dielis) aurulenta Saussure & Sichel, $: 206, n. 221. 
1928. Campsomeris (Dielis) aurulenta aurulenta Betrem, $, $: 98. 
= Campsomeris (Phalerimeris) aurulenta aurulenta (Smith) Betrem. 

[The holotype is in the British Museum, and bears the following labels: (i) ' 53/71' 
which means ' Philippine Islands, purchased from Cuming ' ; (2) ' aurulenta Smith 
type '; (3) ' B.M. type Hym. 15.1318 '; (4) ' Holotype ', added by Betrem in 1966. 

The vestiture on the head, thorax, and femora is yellow-brown, except that it is 
partly white on femora III, and is white on the base of the abdomen. 

There are three other females that stand as aurulenta in the British Museum, none 
of them syntypes: One is C. aurulenta defectiva Betr., and bears the following labels: 
( I ) ' 55/8 ', which means ' Ceram, purchased of S. Stevens, collected by Mrs Ida 
Pfeiffer '. 

The structure is as in typical aurulenta, but the vestiture on the under side of the 
head, on the propleura, mesopleura, base of t. 2(1), and on all femora is white. 
This colouration agrees with that of the subspecies tondanensis Betr., but in that 
subspecies the yellow-brown apical bands on the basal tergites are narrow. 

The second specimen is C. aurulenta tondanensis and comes from Tondano in the 
Celebes. 

The third specimen is C. extrania leveri Krombein. It bears the following label: 
' 56/85 ', which means, ' Salomon Island, 467 collected by Sir Y. Siddel. Purchased 
by the B.M. after 1855 '. J.G.B., July, 1966]. 



9. bifasciata 

1775. Scolia bicincta Fabricius, $, $, Syst. ent. : 356, n. 6, nee Scopoli, 1786, nee Rossi, 1792. 
1855. Scolia bifasciata Smith: 97. ' Hab. North America ', n.n. for bicincta Fabricius. 
1864. Scolia (Discolia) bicincta Saussure & Sichel, $, <$: 129-130, n. 135. 
= Scolia (Discolia) bicincta Fabricius. 

Smith gave no description, but intended bifasciata as a new name for bicincta 
Fabr. which he mistakenly quoted as from the Ent. syst., 1793, and therefore invali- 
dated by bicincta Rossi, 1792, whereas bicincta Fabr. actually dates from the Syst. 
ent., 1775, and itself preoccupies all the other uses of Scolia bicincta. Smith also 
included obscura Klug and radula Sulz. in the synonymy of bifasciata. The former 
is a synonym of bicincta F., and the latter is not an American species. From a 
nomenclatural standpoint it can be questioned whether Smith did anything more 
than create a nomen nudum, or if it be held that he proposed a new name for one 
of the three that he cited, and that the first reviser has settled which, then Saussure 
& Sichel, 1864 : 130, have restricted it to being a replacement-name for bicincta F. 
The matter is of only academic interest, since bifasciata was itself preoccupied by 
Rossi, 1792, and bicincta F. is a valid name. For somewhat similar cases see erratica 
and soror. 



SMITH'S TYPES OF SCOLIIDAE 299 

ro. bimaculata 

1854. Scolia frontalis Saussure, $, <J, Mem. Soc. Phys. Hist. nat. Genzve 14 : 38, n. 16, fig. 13; 
teste Betrem, syn. n. 

1855. Scolia bimaculata Smith, $: 115, ' Hab. New Holland, Port Stephen. B. M. '. 
1855. Scolia coronata Smith, $: 112, ' Hab. Australia (Adelaide)'; teste Betrem, syn. n. 
1928. Scolia (Laeviscolia} frontalis frontalis Betrem, $, <J: 222. 

= Laeviscolia frontalis (Saussure, 1854) Betrem, comb. n. and syn. n. 

[There is one female in the British Museum with the label ' 44/105 ', on the reverse 
' P. Stephen'; this means: ' Port Steven(s) ' (harbour in New South Wales, Co. 
Gloucester, 32 E., 42 S.) ' pres. by the Earl of Derby, coll. by Mac Gillavry '. 

This specimen is the holotype of Sc. bimaculata. It agrees with Smith's description, 
and the type locality is so extraordinary, that there can be no doubt about it. I 
have labelled it ' Holotype '. It is registered as B.M. type, Hym. 15.1423. 

There is one male of the same species in the British Museum collection with 
the label ' Adelaide ' and ' Smith coll. pres. by Mrs Farren- White 99-303 '. It is 
not a syntype, because Smith did not mention a male. 

Betrem (1928 : 113) synonymized this species with Elis anthracina var. consangu- 
inea Saussure, 1854, probably on the authority of Saussure & Sichel (1864 : 140, 
n. 148), although he had seen the type in the British Museum in 1926. 

Smith placed bimaculata in the wrong division. The type has no second 
recurrent vein in the fore wings. This fact and the very obvious transverse yellow 
band on the vertex leave no doubt that bimaculata is a synonym of 5. frontalis 
Saussure, 1854. J.G.B.] 

n. captiva 

1862. Scolia captiva Smith, <$: 52. ' Hab. Gilolo '. 

1862. Scolia ambigua Smith, $: 52. ' Hab. Gilolo '. 

1864. Scolia (Discolia) captiva Saussure & Sichel, $: 107, n. 98. 

1928. Campsomeris (Dielis) captiva Betrem, $: 107. 

T 933- Campsomeris (Laevicampsomeris) captiva Betrem: 240. 

= Campsomeris (Laevicampsomeris) captiva (Smith) Betrem, <$. 

A male from Gilolo (i.e. Halmahera) in the Saunders collection agrees with Smith's 
description and was referred to by Betrem, 1928 : 107, as Smith's holotype. I 
hereby designate it to be the LECTOTYPE. There is also a male from Gilolo in 
the British Museum bearing the Smith collection printed label on which someone, 
but not Smith, has written ' type '. It may be a syntype or it may be from later 
material, probably the former. 

[The male of Scolia captiva in the British Museum bears the pin-label ' Gil ', not 
' Cel ' as I had thought in 1926. The locality that I gave for ' Paratype Smith's, ' 
1928 : 107, should therefore be Gilolo, not Celebes. This male also bears the follow- 
ing information on its labels: ' F. Smith Coll. 19-22 ', and ' type no. 15-1392 '. 
In 1864 : 28, Smith recorded this species also from Waigeou and Martabella. A 
specimen marked ' Wag. ' is in the Saunders collection. 3 

I placed Scolia captiva in my monograph in the synonymy of Scolia (Austroscolia) 

3 Krombein, 1963 : 566, regards Smith's Waigiou and New Guinea specimens as being C. (L.) bonguensis 
Betrem, 1933. 



300 J. CHESTER BRADLEY & J. G. BETREM 

nitida also (1928 : 210). I indicated that the male allotype of nitida is the holotype 
of Scolia captiva Smith. These references must be deleted. They probably were 
inserted by an error, the nature of which cannot now be ascertained, since the notes 
that I made in 1926 were lost in Java during the war. On re-examining the collec- 
tions of the Hope Museum at Oxford in 1964, I could not find a specimen of any 
species of Austroscolia. This erroneous citation has already caused some confusion 
in the literature, ex. gr. Krombein, 1963 : 566. 

There are two females of Carinoscolia opalina Smith under the label captiva in 
the Oxford Museum, which must have been placed there by accident. 

It is not known with which female C. captiva belongs, because the males of almost 
all species of the subgenus Laevicampsomeris are so similar. 

Krombein (1963 : 159), could also not distinguish the males of C. bonguensis 
from those of C. nigerrima. The male type of captiva and the female type of ambigua 
are each from Gilolo so that they appear to belong together. If we synonymize 
ambigua Sm. with nigerrima Sm., captiva Sm. would become a synonym of the last 
mentioned nominal species. J.G.B.] 

12. cincta 

1858. Scolia cincta Smith, <j>: 89. ' Hab. Borneo ' (Sarawak), nee Scolia cincta Klug. 

1864. Scolia (Triscolia) cincta Saussure & Sichel, $: 45, n. 19. 

1928. Scolia (Triscolia) alecto cincta Betrem, $: 226. 

= 1964. Megascolia (Regiscola) alecto regnatrix Betrem & Bradley: 442. 

There are two females in the Saunders collection each bearing Smith's mss. label 
' Scolia cincta Sm. '. One bears a pin-label ' Sum ', the other ' Sar. '. Betrem has 
correctly labelled the latter ' Holotype '. On the back of Smith's name label on 
this specimen is written: ' New sp. most like patricialis but without pale maculae 
on abd. '. The specimen agrees with Smith's description. The other female from 
' Sum ' is not a type. It is a different species, azurea according to Betrem (see 
below). Betrem, 1928 : 226, has included ' alecto subsp. cincta Sm. ' in his key, but 
has omitted the subspecies cincta under his account of the species alecto on p. 237. 
He therefore gives a short description here of the holotype. 

[Description of the Holotype of Scolia cincta 

?. Spatium frontale above, front, vertex and upper temples yellow. Vestiture black except 
long setae on the central apical part of tergite 2(1), the fringes of tergite 3(2), long setae on the 
epipygium, and fringes on the sides of the last sternite yellow-red. 

Mesonotum densely punctate anteriorly, broadly impunctate medially and posteriorly, more 
densely punctate along the parapsidal furrows. Tubercle of tergite 2(1) not very large, elongate 
in the form of a carina. 

Wings with a greenish, yellow -golden effulgence; a distinct transverse pale area in the first 
submarginal cell; veins yellowish. 

The female from Sumatra in the Saunders collection, bearing Bradley's label ' i . 4 . 2 . 29 
alecto ' is a specimen of azurea, as is proven by the presence of a deep groove behind the tubercle 
of tergite 2(1). It has red setae only on the epipygium, and there are two obscure red spots on 
tergite 4(3). The pale colour on the head is yellow. J.G.B.] 



SMITH'S TYPES OF SCOLIIDAE 301 

13. conspicua 

1845. Colpa wesmaeli Lepeletier, $: 536, n. 3. 

1855. Scolia conspicua Smith, $: 107. ' Hab. Brazil (Para) (H. W. Bates) B.M.'. 

1864. Elis (Dielis) conspicua Saussure & Sichel, $, <J: 228, n. 243. 

1945. Campsomeris wesmaeli Bradley, ?, <J: 25. 

= 1957. Campsomeris (Lissocampsomeris] wesmaeli (Lepeletier) Bradley: 76. 

The holotype is in the British Museum, cf. Bradley, 1945 : 26. 



14. coronata 

1854. Scolia frontalis Saussure, $, <$, Mem. Soc. Phys. Hist. nat. Geneve, 14 : 38, n. 16, fig. 13. 

1855. Scolia coronata Smith, $: 112. ' Hab. Australia (Adelaide) B.M. '. 
1928. Scolia (Laeviscolia} frontalis frontalis Betrem, $, $: 222. 

= Laeviscolia frontalis frontalis (Saussure, 1854) Betrem, comb. n. 

[The specimens in the British Museum are: 

A. A female bearing the following labels: (i) ' S. coronata Sm. type ', a white 
label with red margin; (2) ' lectotype ', attached by Betrem in 1966. There is no 
locality label. It is registered as B.M. Type, Hym. 15 . 1427. Smith did not observe 
the three submarginal cells, because the very dark wings are folded over the back. 

B. A female labelled: (i) ' 52/9 ', with ' Adelaide ' on the reverse. This label 
means ' S. Australia (Adelaide), purchased from Stevens, collected by Dr. Wilson '; 
(2) ' paralectotype ' attached by Betrem in 1966. 

C. A male also labelled ' 52/9 '. 

D. A male labelled: '99-303' meaning 'Adelaide, Smith coll., presented by 
Mrs Farren- White '. 

E. Another male, with the same label as D, but actually a male of bimaculata Sm. 
The males are not syntypes, since Smith did not describe that sex. J.G.B., 1966.] 



15. culta 

1838. Scolia formosa Gu6rin, $, in Duperry, Voy. Coquille., Zool., 2, pt 2 : 252. 
i86i. 4 Scolia culta Smith, <j>: 117. ' Hab. Dory ' (N. Guinea). 
1864. Scolia (Discolia) culta Saussure & Sichel, $: 122, n. 123. 
1928. Campsomeris (Pseudotrielis] formosa culta Betrem, $, <J: 87. 
1963. Campsomeris (subg.?) formosa Krombein, $, $: 571, fig. 16. 

= Campsomeris (Laevicampsomeris] formosa formosa (Gu^rin, 1838) Turner, infrasubspecific 
form culta Smith. 

A specimen in the British Museum was collected by Wallace at Dory and was 
purchased in 1858 from Stevens; it is the only culta in that museum. But Smith 
described culta as from the Saunders collection (cf. Smith, 1861 : 94) and there is a 
specimen in that collection which bears Smith's mss label ' Scolia culta Sm ', but 
not ' type '. Betrem has marked but not recorded it as ' type '. I hereby confirm 
it as LECTOTYPE, assuming that Smith saw also the British Museum specimen. 
The latter agrees with Smith's description, except that the hind tibiae are not black 

4 This is a correction of the reference to the preceding volume 4, 1860, both by Dalla Torre and by 
Betrem, 1928 : 87. 

ENTOM. 20, 7. i6 



302 J. CHESTER BRADLEY & J. G. BETREM 

beneath at base, and the line on tergite 5(4) is very weak. The type in Oxford has 
a much stronger second recurrent vein, as also the line on tergite 5(4) and the hind 
tibiae dark at base within. 

The strength of the second recurrent vein is variable. The types agree with 
typical formosa (Guerin) as described by Betrem, 1928 : 86. The taxonomic sub- 
species identified by Betrem as culta must be abandoned, certainly the name culta, 
as has been suggested by Tuijn, 1961, and by Krombein, 1963 : 572, to which Betrem 
agrees. 



16. dub in 

1864. Scolia dubia Smith, <$: 28, nee Say, 1837. ' Hab. Ceram '. 

1889. Diliacos dubia Kirby, ?, Trans. Ent. soc. Lond. : 444, a misidentification. 

1896. Scolia loewitii Dalla Torre: 168, n.n. 

1928. Scolia (Austroscolia) aruicola Betrem, ^, : 216. 

1933. Scolia (Austroscolia) loewitii Betrem,: 254. 

= Austroscolia loewitii (Dalla Torre, 1896) comb. n. 

Three males in the Saunders collection bear Smith's mss. label ' dubia '. One, 
from ' Wag ' is not a syntype, another is from ' Ceram. '. The third bears the label 
' Cer. E. ' (East Ceram) and is the lectotype. It is the specimen called ' Holotype ' 
of loewitii by Betrem, 1928 : 212, although it does not belong in the taxonomic 
species in which he placed it. 

[This is the taxonomic species that I described as aruicola, 1928 : 216, but which 
is in fact Sc. loewitii Dalla Torre, 1896. The taxon that I erroneously called Sc. 
(Austroscolia) loewitii Dalla Torre (loc. cit.: 212), I renamed Scolia (Austroscolia) 
nitidella dallatorrei in 1933 : 354. 

A female stands under the label dubia in the British Museum with the pin-label 
' Ceram -/-'. It is Diliacos gracilipes Micha, 1927 : 75. I think that it cannot be 
a syntype of dubia, because it seems to have been already acquired in 1855. The 
females recorded by Kirby from the Solomon Islands are Diliacos glabrata Micha, 
subspecies praslini Bradley, according to the specimens in the British Museum. 
Another female from Ceram in the British Museum standing as dubia, was presented 
by Turner (1913-438) but is in reality a specimen of Micha's gracilipes mentioned 
above. J.G.B.] 



17. ducalis 

1861. Scolia ducalis Smith, $: 118. ' Hab. Kaisaa '. 

1864. Scolia (Triscolia) ducalis Saussure & Sichel, $: 49, n. 25. 

1928. Scolia (Megascolia) ducalis ducalis Betrem, $: 244. 

= 1964. Megascolia (Megascolia) velutina ducalis (Smith) Betrem & Bradley: 444, n. 3a. 

An unique female in the Saunders collection bears the pin-label ' Kai ' and also 
Smith's mss. label ' Scolia ducalis Sm. '. It is the holotype, and has been so labelled 
by Betrem, who (1928 : 244) recorded it erroneously as being in the British Museum. 



SMITH'S TYPES OF SCOLIIDAE 303 

18. erratica 

1854. Scolia verticalis Burmeister, <$: 37, n. 61. A misidentification of S. verticalis Fabricius. 

1855. Scolia erratica Smith, <$, not $: 88. ' Hab. India, Sumatra', a new name for Scolia 
verticalis Fabricius, as misidentified by Burmeister. 

1911. Scolia erratica Turner, Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (8) 8 : 619. 
1928. Scolia (Scolia) erratica erratica Betrem, $, <: 271. 
1964. Scolia (Discolia) erratica Betrem & Bradley: 92, n. 29. 
Scolia (Discolia} erratica erratica Smith, 1855. 

Burmeister in 1854 described a male Scolia from Sumatra under the name verticalis 
Fabricius. This was a misidentification of the Fabrician species, which came from 
' New Holland ' (Australia). 

The following year Smith proposed a replacement name for verticalis sense of 
Burmeister, not of Fabricius. This new name was ' erratica '. He did not say 
' new name ', to use those words was not his custom, but he did write as a synonym 
' Scolia verticalis Burm., Abh. Nat. Ges. Halle, 1.37.61 (nee. Fabr.) ' and he backed 
up the synonymy by translating Burmeister's Latin description of the male (the 
only sex described by Burmeister 5 ). 

To this he added a single character (' the prothorax sometimes red ') drawn from 
a female of another species 6 which he erroneously supposed to be the female of 
erratica. 

The case obviously comes under Article 72 (d) of the code 7 and the type must be 
sought for among Burmeister's specimens. 

The fact that Saussure misidentified erratica Smith in 1858 and that he and 
Sichel, 1864 : in, n. 104, renamed his misidentified material molesta, has no bearing 
on the matter. 

Turner, 1911 : 619, noted that Saussure's description of molesta answers well 
' to Smith's type ' (of erratica}, but it is not possible to construe this as having any 
bearing upon the identity of the latter. 

[There is a specimen in the British Museum labelled in Smith's handwriting 
' erratica Sm. type '. It bears a second label: ' B.M. type Hym. 15 : 311. '. It 
has no locality label. In July, 1962, I marked it ' lectotype ', but probably wrongly. 
Smith's label suggests that he intended to establish a new species, but our present 
rules do not seem to admit that interpretation. Since it is a male of Scolia erratica 
erratica the matter is not of great significance. Its fore wings are dark, with a 
coppery reflection, more rose-purple at apex. J.G.B.] 

[There is a male in the old collection of the Oxford Museum that is labelled ' Sc. 
erratica verticalis '. This is further indication that Smith studied the material in 
that museum. J.G.B.] 

5 Betrem, 1928 : 271, under the synonymy of erratica refers to verticalis Burmeister ' <$, nee $ ' ; but 
as Burmeister described only the male, ' nee $ ' must be struck out. For the same reason the entire 
first line in the synonymy of vollenhoveni on p. 289 must be struck out. 

[The specimen is in the collection of the British Museum and is a female S. vollenhoveni Saussure. 
1859. J.G.B.] 

7 ' Article 72(d). Types of replacement nominal species. 

If an author proposes a new specific name expressly as a replacement for a prior name, but at the 
same time applies it to particular specimens,' (the male erratica and mistakenly identified female that 
Smith had before him) ' the type of the replacement nominal species ' (here erratica) ' must be that 
of the prior nominal species ' (verticalis Burmeister, nee Fabricius) ' despite any contrary designation of 
type-specimen or different taxonomic usage of the replacement name '. 



304 J. CHESTER BRADLEY & J. G. BETREM 

19. eximia 

1854. Scolia guttata Burmeister, $: 36, n. 57. 

1855. Scolia eximia Smith, $: 99. ' Hab. India, B.M. '. 
1864. Elis (Dielis) eximia Saussure & Sichel: 195, n. 208. 
1928. Campsomeris eximia Betrem, $: 333. 

1964. Scolia (Discolia) guttata, var. eximia Betrem & Bradley: 96, n. 134. 
= Scolia (Discolia} guttata Burmeister, infrasubspecific form eximia Smith. 

A female in the British Museum (type no. 15 . 1282) has no locality label but bears 
Smith's mss. label ' eximia Sm. type '. It is the holotype, and is a specimen of 
guttata Burm., the published locality ' India ' being incorrect. Bingham reported, 
incorrectly, that the type is not in the British Museum. This species should be 
deleted from Betrem's key to Campsomeris, 1928 : 66, couplet ib, and from p. 333. 
It is a neotropical taxon. 

20. facilis 

1839. Elis elegans Brulle, <$, $, Hist. nat. des lies Canaries, 2, pt. 2 : 91, n. 50, pi. 3, fig. 18, <J, 

19, ? 

1855. Scolia facilis Smith, $: 98. ' Hab. Canary Ids. (Coll. W. W. Saunders, Esq.) '. 
1864. Elis (Dielis) elegans Brulle, Saussure & Sichel, $, <^: 174, n. 177. 
= Campsomeris (Micromeris) aureola elegans (Brulle) comb. n. and stat. n., teste Betrem. 

There are two female syntypes in the Saunders collection from the Canary Islands. 
They stand in front of the label ' facilis Smith ' . I hereby designate the one with a 
large spot at each side of the third tergal band ' LECTOTYPE ', and I have so 
labelled it. It is an elegans with an exceptional amount of yellow on the first three 
tergites. 

[There are also two females labelled ' Can'y ' (Canary Islands) in the old collection 
at Oxford. They have an exceptional amount of yellow on the basal tergites. I 
suppose that these are syntypes. J.G.B.] 

Betrem is responsible for giving elegans the status of a subspecies of aureola 
in the subgenus Micromeris, but Turner transferred aureola to Campsomeris. 

[The wings not pilose except extreme anterior margin; longer spur of tibiae III 
distinctly but slightly spatulate; transition between the horizontal area and the 
vertical parts of the metapleura forming a blunt angle. Clypeus striate anteriorly. 
The preceding characters appertain to the lectotype and paratype. J.G.B.] 

21. fasciatopennis 

1855. Scolia fasciatopennis Smith, $, <$: 103. ' Hab. West Africa (Coll. F. Smith) '. 
1864. Elis (Dielis) fasciatipennis [sic!] Saussure & Sichel, $, <$: 169, n. 171, an emendation. 
1889. Discolia fasciatipennis Kirby, , $, Trans, ent. Soc. Lond.: 448. 
= 1964. Scolia (Discolia) fasciatipennis Betrem & Bradley: 94, n. 95. 

There is a female in the British Museum that bears a mss. label 'fasciatipennis 
Sm. ' [sic\] and a second printed label ' F. Sm. Coll. 79 : 22 ' with ' type ' written 
on it. It is the British Museum Type 15.1287. It agrees with the description. 
I hereby designate it LECTOTYPE and Betrem has labelled it, July, 1966. 
Another female in the British Museum has no label except ' W. Afr. ' but there is 
nothing to indicate that it came from the Smith collection. The two are identical. 



SMITH'S TYPES OF SCOLIIDAE 305 

The male allotype, from ' Gambia ' is also in the British Museum. It is one of a 
series of types purchased by the Museum from the Smith collection after his death. 

The original description of this species was included among those having two 
recurrent veins, but the lectotype has only one. Kirby says this was done inad- 
vertently, but it caused Saussure & Sichel to confound fasciatopennis with a species 
of Campsomeris. 

[There is a specimen marked ' type ' in the Oxford Museum and it is in drawer 
43 of the type-collection, but has been extracted from drawer 40 of the old Hope 
collection. It is a Scolia from Sierra Leone as indicated by the initials ' S. L. ' on 
the label. 

The following specimens are labelled fasciatipennis [sicl] in drawer 40 : (i) a 
female Campsomeris with dark anterior wing-margin from Sierra Leone; (2) a 
female Liacos labelled ' Raddon, W. Africa ' ; (3 and 4) two male Scoliae from Sierra 
Leone; (5) a male Scolia labelled ' Raddon, Gold Coast '; (6) a female Liacos from 
Lake N'Gami, Castelneau, 1862. It is possible that Smith saw this mixture of 
specimens that all look alike but have different wing- venation, and that it is the 
explanation of his confusion. 

Except the Castelneau specimen, I suppose that the other specimens are old 
because William Raddon published in 1835 and 1836 according to Horn. J.G.B.] 

22. fascinatus 

1873. Scolia (Discolia) fascinatus Smith, <$: 185. ' Hab. Hiogo Japan '. 
1917. Discolia fascinatus Matsumura, <$, Konchu Bunruiguku 2 : 307. 
1928. Scolia (Carinoscolid) vittifrons vittifrons Betrem, <$, nee $: 186. 
1941. Scolia (Carinoscolid) fascinatus fascinatus Betrem, <$, $: 113. 
= Carinoscolia fascinatus fascinatus (Smith) Betrem, comb. n. 

There is only one male from Japan in the British Museum. It bears a printed 
label ' Hiogo Japan ', a museum printed type-label, a mss. label ' Scolia fascinatus 
Smith ', and a printed label ' Smith Coll. ' on one end of which is written ' type '. 
It is the holotype. In Betrem's key (1928 : 177) it runs to vittifrons with which 
Betrem at that time identified it. 

[I could not find the type in the British Museum in 1966. I now regard the 
Japanese fascinatus as a species distinct from the Chinese vittifrons. I have stated 
the reason in my 1941 paper. J.G.B.] 

23. fenestrata 

1854. Elis dimidiatipennis Saussure, $, Mem. Soc. Phys. Hist. nat. Geneve 14 : 64, n. 32. 

1855. Scolia fenestrata Smith, <j>: 104. ' Hab. Congo = Gambia '. 
1864. Elis (Dielis) dimidiatipennis Saussure & Sichel, : 168, n. 170. 
1896. Scolia dimidiatipennis Dalla Torre : 154. 

= Campsomeriella (Campsomerielld) dimidiatipennis (Saussure) Betrem. 

Although Betrem, 1947 (1945) : 413, listed dimidiatipennis as a subspecies of 
thoracica, he no longer so regards it. There are three female syntypes in the British 
Museum, two from ' Congo ' and one from ' Gambia '. One of those from Congo is 
marked ' type ' on Smith's mss. label, and I hereby designate it LECTOTYPE. 



306 J. CHESTER BRADLEY & J. G. BETREM 

[The lectotype bears the labels: (i) ' Congo '; (2) a white label with red margin, 
' fenestrata Sm. type ' ; (3) ' lectotype ', label added by Betrem, 1966. It is registered 
as B.M. Type, Hym. 15.1425. I find two syntypes from Gambia. 

A female in the old collection at Oxford is labelled ' S. L. ' (= Sierra Leone). 
Since Smith did not mention this locality it is not a syntype. J.G.B.] 

24. fervida 

1805. Scolia analis Klug, ?, Beitr. z. Naturk. 1 : 36, n. 31, nee Fabricius, 1804. 

1810. Scolia cruenta Klug, $, loc. cit. 2 : 168, n.n. for analis Klug, nee Fabricius. 

1852. Scolia fervida Smith, $: 46, ' Hab. Poona, collected by Ezra T. Downes. Presented 

to the Honorable The East India Company '. 
1928. Scolia (Scolia) sexpustulata Betrem, 1928: 310. 
= 1964. Scolia (Discolia) cvuenta Klug, Betrem & Bradley: 93, n. 59. 

[The holotype, a female in the British Museum, bears the following labels: (i) 
' Ind ' (India) ; (2) a blue paper label, ' fervida Smith ' ; (3) ' 99-303 ', which means: 
' Smith coll., presented by Mrs Farren- White '; (4) ' holotype ', added by Betrem 
in 1966. It is registered as B.M. Type, Hym. 15.1430. 

This is Scolia cruenta Klug without any doubt. Some difficulty arises in my key, 
1928 : 257, because the type has a distinct, but faint, red cross-band on the front. 
J.G.B., July, 1966.] 

25. flavidula 

1855. Scolia flavidula Smith, $: 115. ' Hab. Australia, B.M. '. 

1864. Elis (Trielis} flavidula Saussure & Sichel, $: 143, n. 151. 

1909. Campsomeris (Trielis) flavidula Turner, 9. c?. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (8) 4 : 171. 

1928. Campsomeris (Pseudotrielis) flavidula Betrem, $: 85. 

Trisciloa (Pseudotrielis) flavidula (Smith) Betrem, comb. n. 

The holotype in the British Museum bears Smith's mss. label 'flavidula Sm. 
type ', and the type-number: 15.1518. 

26. flavopicta 

1854. Scolia decorata Burmeister, $, <$: 30, n. 39. 

1855. Scolia flavopicta Smith, $: 91. ' Hab. Java. B.M. '. 

1864. Scolia (Discolia) decorata Saussure & Sichel, $, <$: 122, n. 122. 
1928. Scolia (Scolia) decorata decorata var. flavopicta Betrem, $: 321. 

= Scolia (Discolia) decorata decorata Burmeister, infrasubspecific form flavopicta Smith, teste 
Betrem. 

[The holotype, a female in the British Museum, bears the following labels: (i) 
' 49/5 ' with ' Java ' on the reverse, means ' 14 Hym. Java purchased of Argent ' ; 

(2) ' holotype ', attached by Betrem in 1966. It is registered as B.M. Type, Hym. 

I5-I432. 

There is another female of flavopicta in the British Museum labelled ' 54/76 ', 
on the reverse ' Sumatra ' ; the reference means ' various localities, purchased of 
Stevens '. A specimen of Megascolia (Regiscolia) azurea is similarly labelled, and 
bears additional labels: (i) 'flavopicta, type '; (2) ' B.M. type Hymen. 15.1296 '; 

(3) a white label with red margin, ' type '. Type-labels on this female are of course 
false. J.G.B., 1966]. 



SMITH'S TYPES OF SCOLIIDAE 307 

27. fraterna 

1855. Scolia fraterna Smith, $, <$: 94. ' Hab. Port. Natal'. 

1864. Scolia (Discolia) fraterna Smith, Saussure & Sichel, $, <J: 82, n. 59. 

A female in the British Museum from ' Port Natal ' bears Smith's mss. label 
' Sc. fraterna Sm. type ' and ' B.M. Hym. 15 . 1285 '. I hereby designate it LECTO- 
TYPE. It does not exactly agree with the description which fails to mention red 
antennae, and the punctation on the abdomen is very fine and sparse, especially on 
tergite 2(1). 

28. fulgidipennis 

1859. Scolia fulgidipennis Smith, $, : 152. ' Hab. Aru '. 

1864. Scolia (Discolia) fulgidipennis Saussure & Sichel, ?: 109, n. 101. 

1889. Diliacos fulgidipennis Kirby, Trans, ent. Soc. Lond.: 444. 

1928. Scolia (Liacos) fulgidipennis Betrem, $, (J: 175. 

1963. Scolia (Liacos) fulgidipennis Krombein, $, <: 609. 

= Liacos fulgidipennis (Smith) Betrem, comb. n. 

A female and a male are in the Saunders collection labelled ' Aru ', and a female 
labelled ' Dor ' (= Dorey). I hereby select the female labelled ' Aru ' to be LECTO- 
TYPE (Betrem, 1928 : 175, referred to it as holotype). It agrees with Betrem's 
description but its wings reflect brilliant green, more yellow-green toward the margin. 
Seen in a certain light their reflection is violet-blue on the basal part, green-blue at 
the margins. A specimen in the British Museum bears, incorrectly, the label ' type 

I5-I374'- 

29. fulvipennis 

1859. Scolia fulvipennis Smith, <$: 10. ' Hab. Celebes '. 

1864. Scolia (Discolia) fulvipennis Saussure & Sichel, $: 125, n. 129. 

= 1928. Scolia (Scolia) fulvipennis Smith, Betrem, $, $: 276. 

There are two male syn types in the Saunders Collection. Betrem has labelled 
' lectotype ' the one that bears Smith's mss. label 'fulvipennis ', but he referred to 
it (1928 : 276) as ' holotype Smith's ' from Makian, misinterpreting its locality 
label ' Mak ' as meaning the island of Makian, instead of Makassar in the South 
Celebes. I hereby confirm the status of this specimen as LECTOTYPE. It. agrees 
with Betrem's interpretation of the species 1928 : 276. 

30. habrocoma 

1855. Scolia habrocoma Smith, $: 100, ' Hab. India (Coll. W. W. Saunders, Esq.) '. 

1864. Elis (Dielis) habrocoma Saussure & Sichel, $: 198, n. 212. 

= 1928. Campsomeris (Megacampsomeris) habrocoma (Smith) Betrem, $, $: 144. 

An unique female in the Saunders collection agrees exactly with the original 
description. It stands in front of the label ' habrocoma Sm. Ind. '. It bears a 
pin-label ' E.I. ', but, as pointed out by Betrem, it bears a label ' E. servillei Guer.? 
Voy. Coq. '. This label, if not indeed present by mischance, is without significance. 
It can represent nothing more than someone's incorrect endeavour to identify the 
specimen with servillei which is South American. The pin label ' E.I. ' is correct, 



308 J. CHESTER BRADLEY & J. G. BETREM 

since the taxonomic species habrocoma occurs in Java, but not in India. Smith 
published a wrong type-locality. Betrem, 1928 : 144, referred to this specimen as 
' holotype ' and I have so labelled it. 

31. hirtipennis 

1855. Scolia oryctophaga Coquerel, $, Ann. Soc. ent. France (3) 3 : 170, pi. 10, fig. 2. 
1855. Scolia hirtipennis Smith, $, <J: 95. ' Hab. Madagascar (coll. F. Smith) '. 
= 1864. Scolia (Discolia) oryctophaga Coquerel, Saussure & Sichel, $, $: 78, n. 52. 

A female in the British Museum bears Smith's mss. label ' Scolia oryctophaga Co. 
5. hirtipennis Smith ' and also a museum printed label ' Smith Coll. ' with the word 
' type ' written on it. Another female bears Smith's mss. label ' hirtipennis Smith 
type ' but there is nothing to indicate that it came from the Smith collection. This 
specimen has a hairy propodeum which does not appear sericeous and which has its 
punctures more or less obscured by hair. In the former the propodeum is denuded, 
therefore appears ' more finely punctate and covered with a sericeous pile ' as 
described by Smith. I hereby designate the female with Smith's mss. type-label 
to be LECTOTYPE, and have so labelled it (B.M. type, Hym. 15.1421), despite the 
fact that the other agrees better with his description. 

32. ignita 

1854. Scolia indica Saussure, $, Mem. Soc. Phys. Hist, nat., Geneve, 14 : 46, fig. 10. 

1855. Scolia ignita Smith: 101, $, ' Hab. Silhet, North Bengal; Travan, B.M. '. 
1928. Campsomeris (Campsomeris) indica Betrem, $, <$: 116. 

1928. Campsomeris (Trielis) assamensis Betrem, $: in, syn. n., Betrem. 

1941. Campsomeris (Colpacampsomeris) indica Betrem: 101. 

= Campsomeris (Colpacampsomeris} indica indica (Saussure) Betrem, stat. n. teste Betrem. 

[The holotype was in the British Museum labelled ' type T % 5 T Sylhet ' but I could 
not locate it in 1966, and it is not in the card-index of types. This species is identical 
with indica Saussure for which that author mentioned no type-locality. I distinguish 
four subspecies as follows: 

1. C. (Colpacampsomeris} indica indica (Saussure, 1854) Betrem [ ignita Smith, 

J 855] [= assamensis Betrem, 1928, syn. n.]. Silhet. 

2. C. (Colpacampsomeris} indica eliformis (Saussure), stat. n. Ceylon. 

3. C. (Colpacampsomeris) indica salvazai Betrem, 1941. Cochin China (South 

Vietnam) . 

4. C. (Colpacampsomeris} indica pseudojavanica Betrem, 1928, stat. n. Taiping, 

in Perak, Malay Peninsula. 

Saussure & Sichel, 1864, give ' Bengalia, Silhet ' as locality for indica Saussure, 
1854. This may be construed as fixing a type-locality for that species, and as it is 
the type-locality for ignita one may conclude that Saussure & Sichel were correct 
in synonymizing the two. Sylhet is in extreme north-eastern East Pakistan, in 
what was formerly Assam, but prior to 1874 was partly Bengal. 

There are three females named ' indica ' in the Oxford Museum. Their pin-labels 
are respectively ' Sylhet ', ' Travancore ', and ' India '. They may be syntypes of 
ignita. J.G.B.] 



SMITH'S TYPES OF SCOLIIDAE 309 

33. instabilis 

1854. Scoliajurinei Saussure, ?, <$, Mem. Soc. Phys. Hist, nat., Geneve, 14 : 45, n. 21. 

1855. Scolia instabilis Smith, ?, ^ : 88. ' Hab. India. B.M. '. 

1864. Scolia (Discolia} aureipennis Saussure & Sichel, -, <J: 109, n. 102. Misidentification of 

aureipennis Lepeletier. 

1928. Scolia (Scolia) aureipennis Betrem, <j>, <J : 280. Misidentification of aureipennis Lepeletier 
1941. Scolia (Scolioides} jurinei Betrem : 136. 
= 1964. Scolia (Discolia} jurinei Saussure, Betrem & Bradley: 93, n. 34. 

[There is only a single female in the British Museum that agrees with the original 
description and that is old enough to be a syntype; it bears the following labels: 
(i) ' Madras ', (mss.), and (2) ' instabilis Smith ' on blue paper in Smith's mss. I 
hereby designate it LECTOTYPE, and have added a label to that effect. It is 
registered as B.M. Type, Hym. 15.1424. The male syntype referred to by Smith 
was in the extension collection of the British Museum. It was presented by Mrs 
Farren- White. J.G.B., August, 1966]. 

34. insularis 

1859. Scolia insularis Smith, $: 153. ' Hab. Key Islands. Saunders Coll. '. 
1864. Scolia (Discolia} insularis Saussure & Sichel, <J: 107, n. 97. 
= 1927. Diliacos insularis (Smith) Micha, <, nee $: 73. 
1928. Scolia (Diliacos} insularis Betrem: 191. 

Four males in the Saunders collection bear Smith's mss. label ' Scolia insularis 
One is from Aru, one has no locality label, one is from ' Cer. E. ' and the fourth is 
labelled ' Ke ' which I assume to mean Key Id. This last one agrees with the original 
description and I hereby designate it LECTOTYPE and have so labelled it. It 
was referred to by Betrem, 1928 : 192, as ' holotype ' but not labelled. Since the 
male without pin-label may be a syntype it is safer to say lectotype rather than 
holotype. 

[The male lectotype in the Saunders collection labelled ' Ke ' has somewhat 
reddish effulgence of the wings. That of the male from Aru is more golden. There 
is some difference between the two in the punctation of the mesoscutum. The male 
from eastern Ceram is Diliacos gracilipes Micha, 1927, which was described from 
Ambon. The apical half of the disc of its tergite 2(1) is impunctate, whereas in 
insularis it is entirely, rather densely, punctate. 

The material labelled insularis in the British Museum consists of two males of 
insularis from ' Ke I. ' from the Smith collection, one presented by Mrs Farren- 
White, and another male from the Smith collection no. 79-22 that is not an insularis, 
because the lower plate of the mesopleura is deeply, roughly, punctate, possibly it 
is the male of Liacos schindleri (Betrem), 1933, comb. n. J.G.B.] 

35. intrudens, 1862 

1862. Scolia intrudens Smith, cJ, ?: 53. ' Hab. Celebes (Tondano) ' nee 1868 : 241. 

1864. Scolia (Triscolia) intrudens Saussure & Sichel, <J: 42, n. 14. 

1928. Scolia (Megascolid) ducalis gribodoi Betrem: 244, syn. n., teste Betrem. 

= 1964. Megascolia (Megascolia} velutina intrudens (Smith) Betrem & Bradley: 441, n. 3b. 



3 io J. CHESTER BRADLEY & J. G. BETREM 

The holotype, a male, is in the Saunders collection. It bears a label ' Tond. ' 
(i.e. Tondano, N. Celebes) and Smith's mss. label ' Scolia intrudens Smith ' and has 
been noted by Betrem, 1928 : 246. It is a male of the taxonomic species to which 
Betrem, (1928 : 245) applied the name ' velutina Sauss. '. The two other males in 
the Saunders collection are neither one from the type locality, hence are not syntypes. 

36. intrudens, 1868 

1775. Tiphia radula Fabricius, $ Syst. ent.: 354, n. 5. 

1868. Scolia (Dielis) intrudens Smith, $: 241. ' Hab. Champion Bay (Australia) '. 

1909. Campsomeris radula Turner, Ann. & Mag. nat. Hist. (8) 3 : 484. 

1928. Campsomeris (Dielis} radula Betrem, $, : 88. 

= 1962. Campsomeris (Radumeris) radula (Fabricius) Betrem, teste Betrem, Ent. News: 206. 

[The holotype, a female in the British Museum, bears the following labels: (i) 
' Champion Bay '; (2) ' H. du Boulay, Smith coll. '; (3) ' Scolia (Dielis] intrudens '. 

Smith, 1868 : 231, stated ' The species not indicated as being in the National 
collection are in my own collection '. 

Without a doubt this is radula F. There are specimens in the British Museum 
that have a narrow, yellow, apical line on tergite 2(1), but none with red tibiae and 
tarsi. J.G.B., July, 1966]. 

37. iridicolor 

1855. Scolia iridicolor Smith, <J: 95. ' Hab. Madagascar (Coll. F. Smith) '. 
= 1864. Scolia (Discolia) iridicolor Smith, Saussure & Sichel, <$: 79, n. 54. 

The holotype male is in the British Museum, and I have so labelled it. It bears 
the museum type number 15.1422. It agrees with the description and bears a 
label ' F. Sm. Coll. 79 . 22 ' and a mss. label (probably Smith's) ' Scolia iridicolor Sm. '. 
Another specimen in the British Museum that bears the museum ' type ' label and 
also Smith's mss. label ' iridicolor Sm. type ' is not a type, for it is a female, much 
too large to fit the description and did not come from the Smith collection but was 
purchased in 1858 from Stevens. 

38. irregularis 

1793. Scolia variegata Fabricius, Ent. syst., 2 : 230, n. 10. 

1855. Scolia irregularis Smith, $, : 107. ' Hab. Brazil. B.M. '. 

1864. Elis (Dielis) variegata Saussure & Sichel, $, <J: 226, n. 242. 

= 1957. Campsomeris (Aelocampsomeris) variegata (Fabricius) Bradley, 1957: 74. 

In 1940 : 6, I incorrectly referred to the ' holotype ' from Brazil. As the species 
was described from syntypes representing each sex, this must now be corrected to 
lectotype, $. The LECTOTYPE, by present designation, is in the British Museum; 
it agrees with Smith's description. 

[The female lectotype bears the labels: (i) ' Braz '; (2) ' irregularis Sm. Type '; 
(3) a round white paper label with red margin ' type ' ; (4) a red label ' lectotype ', 
added by Betrem in 1966 to replace the former holotype label ; (5) ' stands as varie- 
gata in the Smith coll.'. It is registered as B.M. Type, Hym. 15.1426. There 
are no males. J.G.B., July, 1966]. 



SMITH'S TYPES OF SCOLIIDAE 311 

39. japonica 

1787. Tiphia histrionica Fabricius, 9. Mant. ins. 1 : 243, nee Scolia histrionica F., 1798. 

1873. Scolia japonica Smith, $, <$: 185. ' Hab. Hiogo (Japan) '. 

1928. Scolia (Scolia) japonica Betrem, 9. <$: 322. 

1941. Scolia (Scolioides) japonica Betrem, 9> <3- if>6. 

= 1964. Scolia (Discolia) histrionica histrionica (Fabricius) Bradley & Betrem: 15. 

Betrem (1928 : 322) referred to Smith's female syntype in the British Museum 
as the holotype, but since there are at least two syntypes, female and male, it is 
necessary to designate the female LECTOTYPE. Its bears the museum type- 
number 15.1298. 



40. laeviceps 

1855. Scolia laeviceps Smith, 9. <$, p. 91. ' Hab. Hong Kong. B.M. '. 
1864. Scolia (Discolia) laeviceps Smith, Saussure & Sichel, 9. c? : IJ 8, n. 116. 
1928. Scolia (Scolia) laeviceps Betrem, 9. <: 265. 
= Scolia (Discolia) laeviceps Smith. 

The lectotype (' Hololectotype ') male, selected by Betrem, 1928 : 266, is in the 
British Museum. 

[The lectotype bears the following labels: (i) ' 48/60 ', on the reverse: ' Hong 
Kong'; (2) 'laeviceps Sm., type'; (3) ' B.M. type Hymen. 15.1401 '; (4) a white 
paper label with red margin ' Type '. J.G.B., 1966]. 



41. larradiformis 

1864. Scolia larradiformis Smith, $: 28. ' Hab. Waigeou '. 

1864. Scolia morata Smith, $: 28. ' Hab. Mysol ', new probable synonymy, Betrem. 

1927. Diliacos larradiformis Micha : 140, 9. 

1928. Scolia (Diliacos) larradiformis Betrem, 9 : 196. 

1963. Scolia (Diliacos) larradiformis larradiformis Krombein, 9. c? : 615. 
Diliacos quadriceps larradiformis (Smith) Micha, stat. n. 

The unique type is in the Saunders collection, as already indicated by Betrem, 
1928 : 196, and I have labelled it ' Holotype '. It bears a pin-label ' Waig. ' and 
Smith's blue mss. label 'Scolia larradiformis Sm. '. One wing is half torn. It 
agrees with Smith's description. [I re-examined the types of larradiformis and of 
quadriceps Smith in 1964 and regard them as subspecies, differing only in wing- 
colour. J.G.B.] 



42. litigiosa 

1855. Scolia litigiosa Smith, $: 113. ' Hab. India. B.M. '. 
1864. Elis (Trielis) litigiosa Saussure & Sichel, 9 : T 58, n. 164. 
1950. Campsoscolia (Campsoscolia) litigiosa Bradley: 436. 
= Trielis (Trielis) litigiosa (Smith) Betrem, comb. n. 

The holotype is an unique female in the British Museum bearing a mss. label 
' litigiosa Smith type '. Its number is 15 . 1362. It agrees with Smith's description. 



3 i2 J. CHESTER BRADLEY & J. G. BETREM 

[Description of the holotype of Scolia litigiosa Smith. 

$. Black, the following parts brown-yellow: the sides of the clypeus, area frontalis, spatium 
frontale, front, vertex, upper temples, scapulae, tergites 4(3) and 5(4) each except for a median 
line. 

Clypeus with a broad anterior margin, the median part rather finely striate, scarcely raised, 
the sides coarsely punctate. Spatium frontale with only a few coarse punctures, somewhat 
raised, the transverse groove deep, dark-brown; fissura frontalis deep on the spatium frontale, 
slightly indicated on the front. Front with only a few rather coarse punctures ; the postfrontal 
suture distinct on the sides of the front, forming a depression; front outside of this depression 
impunctate. Vertex very broad with coarse punctures behind the lateral ocelli. 

Scapulae with sparse, coarse, punctures; mesoscutum punctate except for a rather large 
impunctate median area; scutellum impunctate except for some punctures anteriorly and at 
the sides; metanotum in greater part impunctate; metapleura strongly raised medially below 
the front wings; the upper anterior area of the mesopleura densely, coarsely, punctate; the 
upper posterior area densely punctate, except for a small area ; the posterior, lower, part of the 
mesopleura punctate except anteriorly and posteriorly; mesopleural crest not sharp, with 
sparse punctures; metapleura impunctate except for some punctures below the hind wings; 
transition between the horizontal and vertical parts very gradual. 

Area horizontalis medialis densely, coarsely, deeply, punctate. Area horizontalis lateralis 
with the same kind of punctures except for an impunctate area on the inner basal corner. 
Area before the stigma impunctate; carina lateralis distinct; area lateralis punctate above, 
sparsely below ; area posterior medialis punctate except below ; area posterior lateralis regularly 
punctate. 

Wings dark, reflecting blue, not setose, a transverse brown-yellow line in the first submarginal 
cell. Longer spur of tibia III absent on the type on both sides. Vestiture black. 

Tergites sparsely, rather coarsely, punctate; tergite 2 (i) without a tubercle. 

This description was drawn from the type in the British Museum, which bears 
three pin-labels : ist label, ' B.M. type Hymenoptera 15 . 1362 ' ; 2nd label, ' litigiosa 
Smith, type '; 3rd label, ' Ind. '. I doubt whether India is the correct locality, at 
most it could have come from West Pakistan. 

This species is allied to Trielis intermpta (Fabricius). It differs from Trielis klugii 
(v.d. Linden), comb, n., its closest ally, by its more punctate vertex, the deeper 
depression on the front, the more sparsely punctate scapulae, and the darker wings. 
J.G.B.] 

43. luctuosa 

1854. Scolia ^-guttulata Burmeister, $: 21, n. 17. 

1855. Scolia luctuosa Smith, $: 101. ' Hab. Silhet (India) B.M.'. 
1864. Elis (Dielis) luctuosa Saussure & Sichel, $, <$: 194, n. 206. 

1928. Campsomeris (Colpa) peregrina Lepeletier var. ^-guttulata Betrem, $: 115. 

1941. Campsomeris (Sericocampsomeris] ^-guttulata Betrem: 92. 

= Campsomeris (Sericocampsomeris} quadriguttulata quadriguttulata (Burm.) Betrem, stat. n. 

[The holotype is a female in the British Museum. It bears the following labels: 
(i) ' Silhet '; (2) ' luctuosa Sm., type '; (3) a white label with red margin, ' type '; 
(4) ' B.M. type Hymen. 15.1343 '; (5) ' Holotype ', added by Betrem, 1966. An- 
other old specimen in the British Museum is from Sarawak. It was purchased from 
Stevens. There are two females in the Oxford Museum that may be syntypes. 
Both are from Silhet in the extreme north-eastern part of East Pakistan (Bengal in 
1855). One has an entirely black abdomen. The other has four yellow spots on it. 
J.G.B.] 



SMITH'S TYPES OF SCOLIIDAE 313 

44. minuta 

1859. Scolia minuta Smith, $: n. ' Hab. Celebes '. 
1864. Scolia (Discolia) minuta Saussure & Sichel, <$: 125, n. 128. 
1928. Campsomeris (Campsomeris) marginella terminata (Smith) Betrem: 137. 
T 937- Campsomeris marginella terminata var. minuta Betrem, $: 41, footnote. 
1941. Campsomeris (Campsomeriella) marginella terminata Betrem: 90. 

= Campsomeris (Micromeris) marginella terminata (Smith) Betrem, infra-subspecific form minuta 
Smith, teste Betrem. 

A male in the Saunders collection bears a label ' Mak ' and has been correctly 
labelled ' holotype ' by Betrem (1928 : 137). But its pin-label 'Mak' refers to 
Makassar in the South Celebes, not to the island of Makian. 

[The holotype belongs to the subspecies terminata of Campsomeris (Micromeris} 
marginella but differs as a variety in being much smaller, having only two yellow 
scutellar spots, and in having its metanotum yellow medially. Its abdominal bands 
are normal. J.G.B.] 

45. modest a 

1855. Scolia modesta Smith, ?, <J: 91. ' Hab. Philippine Islands, B.M. '. 
1864. Scolia (Discolia) modesta Saussure & Sichel, $, $: 124, n. 126. 
1893. Discolia modesta Gribodo, $, Bull. Soc. ent. ital. 25 : 178. 
1928. Campsomeris (Campsomeris) marginella modesta Betrem, $, $: 136. 
1941. Campsomeris (Campsomeriella) marginella modesta Betrem : 90. 
= Campsomeris (Micromeris) marginella modesta (Smith) Betrem. 

Betrem (1928 : 136) stated that the holotype is in the British Museum and indicated 
that a male syntype belongs to a different species. Since modesta was described 
from syntypes, I hereby designate the female to be LECTOTYPE, not holotype, 
and it has been so labelled. 

[The lectotype bears the following labels: (i) ' 42/22 ', on its reverse ' Philip. Isl ' ; 
(2) ' modesta type Smith '; (3) ' B.M. type Hym. 15.1332 '; (4) a white paper label 
with red margin. J.G.B., 1966]. 

46. morata 

1864. Scolia morata Smith, <$: 28, ' Hab. Mysol '. 
1864. Scolia larradiformis Smith, <j>: 28, ' Hab. Waigeou '. 
1963. Scolia (Diliacos) larradiformis morata Krombein, (J: 615, 619, fig. 30. 
= Diliacos quadriceps larradiformis (Smith) Micha or possibly Diliacos quadriceps morata (Smith) 
Micha. 

[There are two males in the Saunders collection. Specimen A bears a circular 
label on which is written just ' M ', which presumably stands for Mysol. Specimen B 
bears no label, but undoubtedly is also a syntype from Mysol, being an instance of 
what is referred to in the introduction where only the first of two specimens from the 
same locality bears the locality label. Specimen B bears my label ' Holotype ' 
but since the species was described from syntypes, I now select it to be the LECTO- 
TYPE, and have so labelled it. 

Professor Varley of the Oxford Museum very kindly loaned these two syntypes to 
Dr Krombein, who sent them to me for re-examination here in Ithaca, March, 1962. 
I examined them again in 1964. Both agree with Smith's original description. 



3 i4 J. CHESTER BRADLEY & J. G. BETREM 

Both belong to the same taxon, but differ slightly in structure. Specimen (A) has 
the disc of the clypeus and of the mesonotum less punctate than has specimen (B). 
My description of the male of morata (1928 : 192) was drawn from specimen (B), 
the lectotype. The male lectotype of morata Smith is probably the male of Diliacos 
larradiformis (Smith, 1864), which was described from the female. Krombein 
established morata as a subspecies of larradiformis; on p. 615 he says: ' The female 
of larradiformis larradiformis may not be separable from that of /. morata. I 
have examined the male type of S. morata from Mysol. It differs slightly in the 
shape of the parameres (squamae), the volsellae (fig. 30) are slightly more slender 
and the wings have greenish golden reflection '. 

The female from Mackay that I assigned to morata (1928 : 192) is not the female of 
that species. In 1933, I made it the holotype of a new species, papuasiae, which 
Krombein (1963 : 622) has synonymized with D. glabrata glabrata Micha. He also 
has described the male (loc. cit.). I agree with him. J.G.B.] 

47. morosa, 1861 

1859. Scolia velutina Saussure, <$, Stettin, ent. Ztg 20 : 175. 

1861. Scolia morosa Smith, $: 118. ' Hab. Amboyna, Saunders Collection ', nee 1862 : 53. 
1864. Scolia (Triscolia) velutina Saussure & Sichel, <$: 41, n. 13. 

1927. Triscolia velutina velutina Micha: 102. 

1928. Scolia (Megascolia) velutina velutina Betrem, $, : 245. 

= 1964. Megascolia (Megascolia) velutina velutina (Saussure) Betrem & Bradley: 441, n. 3c. 

The female ' holotype ' of morosa in the Saunders collection has been so labelled 
by Betrem and is referred to in his monograph, 1928 : 246. It agrees with Smith's 
description. It belongs to the taxonomic species and subspecies to which Betrem 
applied there the name velutina. 

[There is a second female in the Saunders collection labelled ' Scolia morosa Smith, 
Sul. ' i.e. Sulu Islands. It stands above a label ' nigrita Fabr. '. It cannot be a 
syntype. J.G.B.] 

48. morosa, 1862 

1862. Scolia morosa Smith, $: 53. ' Hab. Celebes (Tondano), Saunders Coll. ', nee 1861. 
1864. Elis (Dielis) morosa Saussure & Sichel, $: 193, n. 204. 

1897. Scolia celebesiaca Dalla Torre : 151. 

Campsomeris (Sericocampsomeris) quadriguttulata celebesiaca (Dalla Torre) Betrem, comb. n. 
and stat. n. 

Betrem was originally unable to find the type in the Saunders collection, where it 
should be. There is, however, a female labelled ' Tond ' in that collection that is 
not labelled as morosa '62, but that agrees precisely with Smith's description of that 
species. We agree that it is undoubtedly the holotype. Probably Saunders or 
someone noted that it did not agree with specimens in the collection labelled ' morosa 
Smith ' (but which are morosa 1861, not 1862) and set it aside without a label, not 
realizing that Smith had described a second morosa. I have labelled it ' Holotype 
morosa Smith 1862, nee 1861 '. Since celebesiaca D. T. was a new name for morosa, 
1862, both have the same type. 



SMITH'S TYPES OF SCOLIIDAE 315 

S. celebesiaca D.T. as defined by Smith's type of morosa '62, is not the species to 
which Betrem misapplied the name morosa Sm. (1928 : no). The latter taxonomic 
species at present stands without a name but Betrem is here establishing a name for 
it. See below. 

Provision for celebesiaca D.T. (= morosa Smith '62, nee '61) can be made by the 
following addition to Betrem's key to the females of Campsomeris, 1928 : 74 (for 
revision of couplet 76 see Betrem, 1933 : 239). 

In lieu of 77a, read: 

yya. V. und Tempera fast ganz glatt . . . . . . . . 77 1/2 

77 i/2a. T. nicht matt, glanzend, deutlich fein punktiert, hinter der subapikalen 
Punktreihe nur schmal glatt; Scut, fein, ziemlich dicht, eingestochen p., 
hinten glatt (? auch in sitolensis) ........ 78 

b. T. matt; Scut, glanzend, vorn und auf den Seiten mit einigen groben P. 

celebesiaca D.T. 
In lieu of 7ga read: 
7Qa. P. der Ar.h.m. feiner, ziemlich fein p. so gross wie die Zwischenraume zwischen 

ihnen; P. der T. dichter ...... bradleyi Betrem. 

[Description of the holotype of Scolia morosa Smith, 1862. 

$. Anterior margin of the clypeus rounded, broader medially than at the sides of its central 
portion, the lateral lobes flattened, disc uneven, its anterior border striate. Impunctate part 
of the front short; fissura frontalis deep; a small group of punctures just below the front 
ocellus. Vertex impunctate except its declivous portion deeply and densely punctate; a row 
of punctures next to the orbits; temples impunctate; sides of the front near the orbits deeply 
punctate. 

Scapulae densely and deeply punctate with a deep longitudinal depression, their posterior 
margin broadly impunctate; sides behind the punctate callosity impunctate, sharply limited 
above from the punctate scapulae. Upper area of the mesopleura almost entirely impunctate 
except for a small area below the fore wings ; the upper half of the lower posterior area of the 
mesopleura impunctate. Transition below the hind wings blunt; metapleura with only minute 
punctures. Carina lateralis long, extending to the sides of the area horizontalis lateralis and the 
area posterior lateralis. Mesoscutum impunctate medially, deeply, coarsely, and densely 
punctate anteriorly and laterally; scutellum impunctate except for lateral anterior, triangular, 
coarsely punctate areas; metanotum densely, deeply punctate, except at the sides, posteriorly, 
and a narrow impunctate median strip. Area horizontalis medialis not so coarsely punctate 
as the metanotum, laterally finely punctate, an indication of a blunt transverse carina at its 
apex; area horizontalis lateralis with a transverse punctate area; area posterior impunctate 
except for fine punctures on the upper third of its median plate. 

Fore wings without setae, except along their anterior margins. Inner spur of tibia III brown, 
blunt, not spatulate. Basal tergites opaque. Tergite 2(1) truncate anteriorly. Description 
drawn from the holotype of Scolia morosa Smith, from Tondano. J.G.B.]. 

[Campsomeris (Tristimeris) bradleyi Betrem, sp. n. 

1928. Campsomeris (Trielis) morosa Betrem, ?, ^: no. A misidentification of Scolia morosa 

Smith, 1862, nee 1861. 
1938. Campsomeris bradleyi Betrem, nomen nudum: 358 and 360. 

In discussing the Scoliidae of the Celebes I twice mentioned a Campsomeris 
bradleyi (Betrem, 1938 : 358 and 360). This is a manuscript name which I now wish 
to validate. 



316 J. CHESTER BRADLEY & J. G. BETREM 

$. The description of the female applied incorrectly to Campsomeris morosa 
(Smith, 1862) by Betrem, 1928 : no, is the description of the female of this species. 

Holotype $. The holotype is the female referred to by me, loc. cit., as ' Plesio- 
type (Paratype Smith's?) Celebes, leg. Pfeiffer, Coll. Smith, pres. by Farren- White, 
B.M. '. It is registered as B.M. Type, Hym. 15.1431. 

(J. The description of a male applied incorrectly to C. morosa Smith by Betrem, 
1928 : no, is the description of the male of this species. 

Allotype, J. The allotype is the male referred to by me, loc. cit., as ' Allotype: 
Pagoewat, Celebes, leg. Rosenberg, M. L. '. J.G.B.] 



49. nigerrima 

1861. Scolia nigerrima Smith, $: 116. ' Hab. Dory, Saunders Coll. '. 
1864. Scolia (Discolia) nigerrima Saussure & Sichel, $: 105, n. 93. 
1928. Campsomeris (Dielis) nigerrima nigerrima Betrem, $: 106. 
I 933- Campsomeris (Laevicampsomeris) nigerrima (Smith) Betrem: 238. 
1963. Campsomeris (Laevicampsomeris) nigerrima Krombein, $: 568. 

The holotype is in the Saunders collection and bears a label ' Dor ' and Smith's 
mss. label ' Scolia nigerrima. ' Betrem has labelled it ' type ' and recorded it as 
' Holotype ', 1928 : 106. 



50. nitida 

1859. Scolia nitida Smith, $: 152. ' Hab. Aru '. 

1864. Scolia (Discolia) nitida Saussure & Sichel, $: 108, n. 100. 

1928. Scolia (Austroscolia) punctatissima cupreopennis Betrem, $, <$: 212. 

1963. Scolia (Austroscolia) nitida nitida Krombein, $, $: 641. 

= Austroscolia nitida nitida (Smith) Betrem, comb. n. 

This is not the taxonomic species which Betrem (1928 : 210) termed nitida and 
which (1933 : 254) he renamed nitidella. A female specimen in the Saunders 
collection has been labelled ' Lectotype ' by Betrem, but not published. Thinking 
that it was the only example from Aru I incorrectly labelled it holotype. 

[I hereby designate the female from Aru in the Saunders collection to be the 
LECTOTYPE. 

There is also a female syntype in the British Museum labelled as follows : (i) ' Sc. 
nitida Sm. Aru '; (2) ' Smith coll., presented by Mrs. Farren- White '; (3) ' Type '. 

A male from Aru (variety) and a female and a male from Morty Island are not 
syntypes. J.G.B., July, 1966]. 

The following characters appertain to the lectotype of nitida'. Wings green-gold 
to gold-green, with the apical third purplish red. Dorsal surface of the propodeum 
polished and almost impunctate, but with very fine, sparse, shallow punctures ; disc 
of tergite 2(1) highly polished and impunctate behind the middle; sides of the 
tergites punctate, but not closely so; propodeum and sides of the tergites not 
long-hairy. 



SMITH'S TYPES OF SCOLIIDAE 317 

51. nudata 

1855. Scolia nudata Smith, .: no. ' Hab. North Bengal. B.M. '. 
1864. Scolia (Triscolia) nudata Saussure & Sichel, $, : 38, n. 7. 
1928. Scolia (Austroscolia) nudata Betrem, $: 219. 
= Austroscolia nudata (Smith) Betrem, comb. n. 

There are only two females among the older material in the British Museum. 
One is from ' Madras ', hence not the type. The other bears the museum ' Type ' 
label, a label ' N. Bengal ', and Smith's mss. label ' nudata Sm. type. '. It is the 
specimen from which Betrem (1928 : 219) drew his description and referred to as 
' holotype '. I have labelled it ' Holotype '. It is registered as B.M. Type, Hym. 
15.1400. It agrees with nudata, female, in couplet yb of the key to species of 
Austroscolia, Betrem, 1928 : 209. 

52. opalina 

1858. Scolia opalina Smith, $, <J: 89. ' Hab. Sarawak '. 
1864. Scolia (Triscolia) opalina Saussure & Sichel, $, <J: 42, n. 15. 
1928. Scolia (Carinoscolia) opalina opalina Betrem, ?, $: 178. 
= Carinoscolia opalina opalina (Smith) Betrem, comb. n. 

Betrem, 1928 : 178, incorrectly stated that the holotype is from Borneo in the 
British Museum. He should have said ' in the Saunders collection '. Since there 
are two male, and one female syntypes in the Saunders collection it is necessary to 
select a lectotype labelled ' Sarawak '. I hereby designate a female in the Saunders 
collection to be LECTOTYPE and have so labelled it. It is the female above 
mentioned that Betrem labelled and published as holotype. It bears labels ' Sar ' 
and in Smith's mss. ' Scolia opalina Sm. ' and Betrem's label ' Holotype '. The 
type agrees with opalina subspecies opalina in Betrem's key, 1928 : 178, couplet 
ga, Bb. 

[There are also two females in the British Museum, both representing a manuscript 
species that Smith never described. One bears the labels : (i) ' Sar ' ; (2) ' 56/44 ' ; 
(3) ' type ' ; (4) ' type, Hym. 15 . 1407 '. It has no card in the index. J.G.B., 1966]. 

53. ornata 

1830. Scolia maculata Guerin, $, in Duperry, Voy. Coquille, Zool., 2, pt. 2 : 255. 

1855. Scolia ornata Smith: 96. ' Hab. Georgia ', nee ornata Lep., 1845. 

1864. Scolia (Discolia) nobilitata var. maculata Saussure & Sichel: 132, n. 138. 

= Scolia (Discolia) nobilitata Fabricius, infrasubspecific form maculata Guerin, stat. n. 

This was proposed as a new name for Scolia maculata Guerin, nee Drury, and 
therefore takes the same type. Both maculata and ornata are invalid as subspecific 
names for this variety, but as an infrasubspecific variant, although a name is not 
essential, maculata is available. 

54. personata 

1854. Scolia fulvifrons Saussure, <j>, Mem. Soc. Phys. Hist, nat., Geneve, 14 : 43, pi. 19, fig. n. 

1855. Scolia personata Smith, $ : 91. ' Hab. Silhet. B.M.'. 

1864. Scolia (Discolia) fulvifrons Saussure & Sichel, $, <J: 116, n. n. 

1928. Scolia (Triscolia) fulvifrons Betrem $, <J: 238. 

= 1964. Megascolia (Regiscolia) fulvifrons (Saussure) Betrem & Bradley: 444, n. 7. 



318 J. CHESTER BRADLEY & J. G. BETREM 

[The holotype, a male, is in the British Museum and bears the following labels: 
(i) ' 45/107 ' with ' Silhet ' on the reverse (3 Hymenoptera from Silhet, purchased 
of Rev. Stainsforth) ; (2) ' personata Sm., type '; (3) a white label with red margin 
'type'; (4) ' Lectotype ', attached by Betrem, 1966. It is registered as B.M. 
Type, Hym. 15 . 1428. There is also a female from Silhet, but Smith did not describe 
it. J.G.B., July, 1966]. 

55. prismatica 

1855. Scolia prismatica Smith, $: 102. ' Hab. Shanghai. B.M. '. 
1864. Elis (Dielis) prismatica Saussure & Sichel, $: 199, n. 214. 
= 1928. Campsomeris (Megacampsomeris) prismatica (Smith) Betrem, $, ^: 152. 

[The holotype, a female, is in the British Museum. It bears four labels: (i) 
' 52/28 ' (meaning from Shanghai, collected by Mr Fortune) and on the reverse 
' Shanghai ' ; (2) a white mss. label ' prismatica Sm. type ' ; (3) a white label with red 
margin ' type '; (4) ' B.M. type Hym. 15.1329 '. I have added a holotype label. 
J.G.B.] 

[Characters of the holotype of S. prismatica 

$. Front imp. except deeply p. laterally; v. entirely deeply p., medially, anteriorly rather 
coarsely, densely p., interspaces between the p. very narrow; mesoscut. imp. medially, its hind 
margin p. ; scut, heavily damaged by the pin, but probably p. in greater part (cf. S. farrenwhitei 
below). J.G.B., July, 1966]. 

[There are two other female specimens in the British Museum named ' S. prismatica 
by Smith but probably not syntypes. The one, which I designate ' A ', bears two 
labels: (i) a mss. label on blue paper ' prismatica Smith '; (2) ' F. Sm. coll. 79-22 '. 
It is a true specimen of prismatica. Fr. p. only laterally; fiss.fr. distinct; mesoscut. 
p. along its posterior margin; scut, densely p., except its posterior margin. 

The second specimen, which I designate ' B ' is the holotype of S. farrenwhitei 
Betrem, 1928, a valid species. It bears six labels: (i) a white, triangular, mss. 
label ' E. Ind ' ; (2) a blue mss. label ' prismatica Smith ' ; (3) ' Campsomeris farren- 
whitei Holotype det. Betrem ' ; (4) ' Smith coll. pres. by Mrs. Farren- White 99-303 ' ; 
(5) a white label with red margin ' Type '; (6) ' B.M. type Hym. 15.1335 '. Fr. 
imp., fiss.fr. deep; anterior portion of v. more or less p., its left half more so; post 
frontal suture deep and distinct, entirely obscured by p. in the holotype of prismatica ; 
posterior margin of the mesosc. imp.; scut, broadly imp. medially. J.G.B.] 

56. pulchra 

1854. Scolia picteti Saussure, $, Mem. Soc. Phys. Hist, nat., Geneve, 14 : 42, n. 18. 

1855. Scolia pulchra Smith, : 88. ' Hab. India. B.M. '. 

1864. Scolia (Discolia) histrionica Saussure & Sichel, $: 121, n. 121, nee Fabricius, 1787. 
1928. Scolia (Scolia) histrionica Betrem, $: 330. 
1941. Scolia (Scolioides) picteti Betrem: 166. 
= 1964. Scolia (Discolia) picteti Saussure, Betrem & Bradley: 94, n. 73. 

[The female holotype in the British Museum bears the following labels: (i) ' $, 
Ind. '; (2) 'pulchra Sm. type '; (3) ' histrionica F. pulchra Sm. of Smith's coll. '; 
(4) a white label with red margin ' type '; (5) ' B.M. type Hym. 15.1373 '; (6) 
' Holotype ' attached by Betrem in 1966. J.G.B., July, 1966]. 



SMITH'S TYPES OF SCOLIIDAE 319 

57. quadriceps 

1859. Scolia quadriceps Smith, , $: 153. ' Hab. Aru. Saunders Collection '. 
1864. Liacos (Diliacos) quadriceps Saussure & Sichel, $: 37, n. 6. 
1928. Scolia (Diliacos) quadriceps Betrem, $, <$: 194. 
1963. Scolia (Diliacos) quadriceps Krombein, $: 613, 615. 
Diliacos quadriceps quadriceps (Smith) Betrem, comb. n. 

There are two females but no males in the Saunders collection. One of the females 
bears the pin-label ' Bac ' meaning Bachian and Smith's white mss. label ' Scolia 
quadriceps Smith '. Since this specimen does not come from Aru it is not a syntype 
of quadriceps, and has, in fact, been made the holotype of poultoni Betrem, 1928. 
The second female bears no locality label. As Betrem, 1928 : 194, pointed out, it 
does not belong to the same taxon as the female from Bachian, and is in fact the 
specimen of quadriceps which he used when differentiating poultoni from that species. 
A third female is in the British Museum. It bears the pin-label ' Aru ' and also a 
printed Smith collection label on which has been written (but not by Smith) the 
word 'type'; Betrem (1928 : 194) referred to this specimen as Smith's holotype, 
but we must now say LECTOTYPE. He has re-examined it in 1964, and finds it 
identical with the unlabelled female in the Saunders collection. Doubtless the two 
originally stood together, the second one also from Aru, but not given a pin-label. 

[S. quadriceps differs from larradiformis only in the colour of the wings. Krom- 
bein, 1963 : 613, has written ' 5. quadriceps Smith from Aru is an earlier name and 
may replace either larradiformis or ribbei for one of those polytypic species '. 
J.G.B.] 

58. rubromaculata 

1855. Scolia rubromaculata Smith, $: 99. ' Hab. India. B.M. '. 

1864. Elis (Dielis) rubromaculata Saussure & Sichel, 9 : T 96, n. 209. 

1928. Campsomeris (Dielis) rubromaculata rubromaculata Betrem, $: 119. 

= 1941. Campsomeris (Sericocampsomeris) rubromaculata rubromaculata Betrem, $: 94, 95. 

[There are three females in the old collection of the British Museum, one is un- 
labelled, the other two bear old labels ' Ind? '. Probably they belonged originally 
with the series in Oxford (a female from India and another without pin-label). I 
believe that the lectotype should be selected from among the three females in the 
British Museum. J.G.B., July, 1966]. 

59. ruficeps 

1855. Scolia ruficeps Smith, $, : in. ' Hab. Philippine Islands. B.M. '. 

1927. Triscolia ruficeps ruficeps Micha, <$ : 96. 

1928. Scolia (Austroscolia) ruficeps ruficeps Betrem, $, $: 217. 
= Austroscolia ruficeps ruficeps (Smith) Betrem, comb. n. 

There are only three specimens amongst the old material in the British Museum : 
two males from the Philippines and one female with the labels ' E. Ind ' and ' 43 : 43 ' 
as well as Smith's mss. label ' ruficeps Smith type '. The notation '43 : 43 ' refers 
to an accession book which shows the specimen came from ' Moulmein, E. India ' 
i.e. Burma. Since the typical subspecies, well-characterized by its cupreo-violaceous 



320 J. CHESTER BRADLEY & J. G. BETREM 

wings in both sexes, is widely distributed over the Philippines, Java, Burma, eastern 
India, and elsewhere, it seems very likely that the female from Moulmein is actually 
the specimen from which Smith drew his description, and that he merely failed to 
publish that locality in addition to the Philippines from which his males came. 
Betrem, 1928 : 217, wrote ' Holotype Smith's Philippinen, B.M. $ ', but there is no 
female from the Philippines to be found and he and I are forced to conclude that he 
had reference to the Moulmein female, and that recording it from the Philippines 
was an error in his notes, which unfortunately were destroyed during the war. 

[Smith published an eight-line description of the female, and only a two-line 
description of the male. Although he gave only the Philippines as locality, his 
female did not come from there, because he stated for that sex ' Wings dark fuscous, 
and having a bright coppery effulgence, dashed with purple in certain lights '. 
This is true of all Asian females, but not those from the Philippines, the wings of 
which have a blue-violet effulgence. This species has been split into a number of 
subspecies in the East Indies. Philippine material is of a subspecies different from 
the Asian. 

From these considerations I hereby designate the female from Moulmein to be the 
LECTOTYPE. It bears the following labels: (i) '43/43', on the reverse ' E. 
Indies', the number means: 'Six Hymenoptera, E. Inclies (Moulmein) purchased 
from Archdeacon Clerk ' ; (2) ' ruficeps Sm. type ' ; (3) a white label with red margin 
' type '; (4) a red label ' lectotype ' attached by Bradley in 1929; (5) ' B.M. type 
15.1889'. The wings of the lectotype are more bronze, without purple. This 
involves a correction of the published type-locality. 

The subspecincally different males bear the label ' 55/77 ' meaning: ' 6 Hymenop- 
tera. Philippine Isl. purchased from Cuming '. J.G.B., July, 1966]. 



60. rufipes 

1855. Scolia rufipes Smith, <J: 95. ' Hab. Port Natal. B.M. ' nee Illiger, 1802. 

1864. Scolia (Discolid) rufipes Saussure & Sichel, $, $: 91, n. 75. 

= 1964. Scolia (Discolia} rufipes Smith, teste Betrem & Bradley: 95, n. 118. 

This is a species which I cannot at present place. An unique male in the British 
Museum labelled ' Port Natal, 52-79 ' and bearing Smith's mss. label ' rufipes Sm. 
Type ' is the holotype. It is not advisable to rename this nominal species before 
its synonymy is known. 



61. senex 

1855. Scolia senex Smith, (J: 94. ' Hab. Cape of Good Hope (Coll. Saunders, Esq.) '. 
= 1864. Scolia (Discolia} senex Smith, Saussure & Sichel: 98, n. 87. 

There is only one male in the Saunders collection. It bears a label ' S. incana mss. 
C. G. H. Drege ' (i.e. Cape of Good Hope), and a mss. label, not written by Smith, 
that it is Scolia senex Sm. I have labelled it ' Holotype '. 



SMITH'S TYPES OF SCOLIIDAE 321 

62. signata 

1855. Scolia signata Smith, $: 105. ' Hab. South Africa (Gambia). B.M. ' nee Panzer, 1799. 
1864. Elis (Dielis) signata Saussure & Sichel, ?$: 176, n. 180. 
1906. Scolia (Dielis) labilis Schulz n.n., Spolia hymen.: 164. 
= Campsomeris (Megameris) labilis (Schulz) Betrem, comb. n. 

The holotype, an unique female, is in the British Museum marked ' type ' on 
Smith's mss. pin-label. [This specimen bears four labels, as follows: ' B.M. Type 
Hym. 15 . 1355 ', ' Holotype signata Smith teste 1928, J. C. Bradley ', ' signata type, 
Smith' ' Gambia '. J.G.B.] It is registered as B.M. Type, Hym. 15 . 1227. 

[Description of the type of Scolia signata Smith 

?. Black; mandibles and anterior margin of the clypeus dark-brown; the following parts 
yellow; the apical half of tergite 2(1), the apical 2/3 of tergite 3(2), except for dark lateral in- 
cisions, and the apical 2/3 of tergite 4(3), narrowed laterad at halfway from the centre. Vesti- 
ture almost white except for the setae on abdominal segments 5(4) and following, those on the 
sides of tergite 4(3) and the fringes of sternites 3(2) and 4(3). Wings yellow-hyaline; veins 
brown, the costa and subcosta very dark. Longer apical spur of tibiae III somewhat spatulate 
but not very broad, dark brown; spines of tibiae almost black. 

The structure is quite like that of Campsomeris soleata (Gerstaecker), but is more punctate 
between the ocellar triangle and the upper part of the eyes; the mesoscutum medially is more 
impunctate, the scutellum and metanotum have fewer punctures, the latter being rather sparsely 
punctate. The very sharp crest of the mesopleura is notable. 

Described 5th July, 1964 from the holotype in the British Museum. J.G.B.] 

63. soror 

1845. Scolia cyanipennis Lepeletier, $, Hist. nat. ins. Hymen. 3 : 524, n. 7. A misidentification 

of Scolia cyanipennis Fabricius, 1804. 
1855. Scolia soror Smith: 96, n. 50, n.n. 
1855. Scolia viridipennis Smith; 96, n. 52, n.n. 
1864. Scolia (Discolia) soror Saussure & Sichel: 126, n. 131. 
1928. Scolia (Austroscolia) soror Betrem, $, <J: 213. 
= Austroscolia soror (Smith) Betrem, comb. n. 

Four lines apart on p. 96 of his catalogue Smith rechristened Lepeletier's mis- 
identification of cyanipennis Fabr. first soror, then viridipennis. Lepeletier, p. 254, 
printed a description of a female from ' Port- Jackson, Nouvelle Holland ' which he 
misidentified as cyanipennis F. He did not use cyanipennis as a name for a new 
species, homonym of cyanipennis F., but the description that he gave applies to a 
species that had not at that time been given a name of its own. Consequently there 
is neither holotype nor syntypes of cyanipennis Lepeletier, because the type of that 
nominal species is Fabrician. 

The type-material of both soror and viridipennis must be identical, and can only 
be that upon which Lepeletier's new description of what he misidentified as cyani- 
pennis was based. In searching for Lepeletier's types, I paid no attention to cyani- 
pennis for that was not one of Lepeletier's nominal species. However, Saussure & 
Sichel, p. 126, referred to material from ' Nova Hollandia ' in ' Musea Guerinianum, 
Parisiense, Saussurianum. '. Some of these collections may contain Lepeletier's 
specimens, especially Paris. But search must also be made in Turin. 



322 J. CHESTER BRADLEY & J. G. BETREM 

Which name, soror or viridipennis , shall be retained has been settled by Saussure 
& Sichel, 1864, as first revisers. They adopted soror. 

[The use of two new names by Smith for Scolia cyanipennis, sense of Lepeletier, 
not of Fabricius, may be explained by the fact that he had before him two forms: 
the one that he called soror has wings with blue effulgence, the other that he called 
viridipennis has wings with green effulgence. Wings of the latter type occur among 
subspecies of Austroscolia nitida Smith, a form of which occurs in Australia, but I 
have no specimens from there for comparison. 

I was unable to find a specimen in the British Museum that Smith had labelled 
viridipennis. J.G.B., September, 1966.] 

[I am uncertain about the real identity of Scolia cyanipennis in the sense of Lepele- 
tier, not Fabricius. As long as the type is unknown we are agreed that it is better 
to accept my interpretation (1928, p. 213) which is based on specimens in my col- 
lection. 

There is only one specimen of soror, a male, in the British Museum that predates 
the establishing of the name soror; it bears the following labels: (i) ' 63/56 ' with 
' Sydney, NSW. ' on the reverse, the numerals meaning also: ' NSW. Sydney pres. 
by Dr. Andrew St. Clair '; (2) ' cyanipennis St. F. soror Sm. of Smith coll. '. 

The mesonotum in soror is entirely, very remotely, punctate. J.G.B., July, 1966]. 



64. specified 

1855. Scolia specified Smith, $: 89. ' Hab. India (Coll. W. W. Saunders, Esq.) '. 

1864. Scolia (Discolia) specfica Saussure & Sichel, $: 89, n. 13. 

1928. Scolia (Scolia) decorata specfica Betrem, <j>: 322. 

1964. Scolia (Discolia) decorata Betrem & Bradley: 93, n. 66. 

= Scolia (Discolia) decorata specfica Smith. 

Betrem has indicated that a female in the British Museum is the holotype, but 
it is only a syntype. Smith stated that his description is based on material in the 
Saunders collection. There is an unique female in the Saunders collection which it 
is necessary to designate LECTOTYPE and I hereby do so. 

An interrupted yellow line on the shoulders of the type, mentioned by Smith, 
throws the species into couplet 3ga on p. 260 of Betrem's key, 1928. Sc. histrionica 
[= japonica] also comes under couplet 



65. speciosa 

1858. Scolia speciosa Smith, : 90. ' Hab. Sarawak '. 
1864. Scolia (Triscolia) speciosa Saussure & Sichel, $: 44, n. 17. 
1928. Scolia (Megascolia) speciosa Betrem, $>, <$: 243. 
- 19640. Megascolia (Megascolia) speciosa (Smith) Betrem & Bradley: 441, n. 4. 

The holotype (so labelled by Betrem, although he does not mention it in his mono- 
graph, 1928 : 243) is in the Saunders collection. It is an unique female labelled 
' Sar ' and bearing Smith's mss. label ' Scolia speciosa Sm. '. It agrees exactly with 
Smith's description. 



SMITH'S TYPES OF SCOLIIDAE 323 

66. subobscura 

1845. Colpa infuscata Lepeletier, ' $ ' (recte <J) Hist. nat. ins. Hymen., 3 : 537, n. 4, nee Klug, 
1832. Cayenne. 

1854. Scolia infuscata Burmeister, $: 23, n. 23. 

1855. Scolia subobscura Smith: 102, n. n. for infuscata Lepeletier. 

1855. Scolia vitripennis Smith, $: 108. ' Hab. Brazil (Amazonas) Coll. W. W. Saunders, Esq. '. 
1864. Elis (Dielis) infuscata Saussure & Sichel: 215, n. 230. 
1864. Elis (Dielis} vitripennis Saussure & Sichel, <J: 216, n. 231. 
- 1957. Campsomeris (Campsomeris} vitripennis (Smith) Bradley: 75. 

Subobscura was a new name for infuscata Lep., hence based on Lepeletier's type. 
In 1957, as first reviser, I selected vitripennis as the valid name of the species, 
rejecting subobscura. For a full discussion of this case see Bradley, 19640 : 106. 



67. terminata 

1859. Scolia terminata Smith, <$; 10. ' Hab. Celebes '. 

1864. Scolia (Discolia} terminata Saussure & Sichel, $: 124, n. 127. 

1928. Campsomeris (Campsomeris} marginella terminata Betrem, 9. 3'- I 37- 

I 937- Campsomeris marginella terminata Betrem, g : 92. 

1941. Campsomeris (Campsomeriella} marginella terminata Betrem: 90. 

= Campsomeris (Micromeris} marginella terminata (Smith) Betrem. 

The holotype is an unique male labelled ' Mak ' in the Saunders collection. This 
label refers to Makassar and not Makian. This specimen bears Smith's mss. label 
' Scolia terminata Sm. ' and Betrem's holotype label. It runs to ' marginella sub- 
species terminata ' in Betrem's key, 1928 : 79, couplet 47a. Betrem (1937 : 93) has 
published a revised key. Betrem, from a re-examination of the type, notes that the 
scutellum and metanotum are yellow, and that the band on tergite 3(2) turns abruptly 
forward at each side; compare also minuta. 



68. undulata 

1775. Tiphia tricincta Fabricius, <, Syst. ent.: 354, n. 6. 
1855. Scolia undulata Smith, $: 104. ' Hab. Africa (Coll. F. Smith.) '. 
1864. Elis (Dielis} undulata Saussure & Sichel, $, <: 175, n. 179. 
1927. Campsomeris tricincta Rohwer, : 153. 
1957. Campsomeris (Xantho campsomeris} tricincta Bradley: 71. 
= Campsomeris (Xanthocampsomeris} tricincta (Fabricius) Rohwer. 

Two females from the Smith collection are in the British Museum, labelled respec- 
tively in the same mss. ' Afr. ' and ' W. Afr. '. The former also bears Kirby's mss. 
blue label ' undulata Sm. ' and a museum type-label ' 15. 1361 '. It agrees with the 
description, while the other varies in detail of colour markings and has black anten- 
nae. I have labelled the former ' Holotype '. One antenna is broken at the third 
segment and the other is lacking. The three segments are rufous, infuscated above. 
The locality is false, for the type is a specimen of the West Indian tricincta. 



3 2 4 J. CHESTER BRADLEY & J. G. BETREM 

69. ventralis 

1873. Scolia ventralis Smith, <$: 186. ' Hab. Hiogo (Japan) '. 
1928. Campsomeris ventralis Betrem, $ : 337. 
1941. Scolia (Scolioides) histrionica ventralis Betrem, ?, <J: 165. 
= Scolia (Discolia) decor ata ventralis Smith. 

[The holotype is in the British Museum, it bears the museum number ' 15.1333 ', 
' Ihogo ' [sid] ' Japan, Scolia ventralis Smith type <$',' type ', and ' Smith collection 
79-22'. J.G.B.] 



70. venusta 

1855. Scolia venusta Smith, $, <$: go. ' Hab India (Coll. Saunders, Esq.) '. 

= 1864. Scolia (Discolia) venusta Smith, teste Saussure & Sichel, $, <J: 120, n. 120. 

1928. Scolia (Scolia) venusta, $, $ Betrem: 292. 
1941. Scolia (Scolioides) venusta Betrem: 147. 

There are a male and a female in the Saunders collection, labelled ' Ind ' and a 
female labelled ' Ceylon '. Betrem, 1928 : 292, referred to the female from India 
as ' Holotype ' but since the species was described from both sexes it is only a syn- 
type. I hereby designate it LECTOTYPE, and have so labelled it. 



71. viridipennis 

1845. Scolia cyanipennis Lepeletier, : 524, n. 7, nee Fabricius. 

1855. Scolia soror Smith: 96, n. 50, n. n. 

1855. Scolia viridipennis Smith: 96, n. 52, n. n. 

1864. Scolia (Discolia) soror Saussure & Sichel, $, (J: 126, n. 131. 

= Austroscolia soror (Smith) Betrem, comb. n. 

See under ' 63 soror ' for details of this case. 



72. vitripennis 

1845. Colpa infuscata Lepeletier, ' $ ' (recte ^): 357, n. 4, nee Klug, 1832. 

1854. Scolia infuscata Burmeister, $: 33, n. 33. 

1855. Scolia subobscura Smith: 102, n. n. for infuscata Lep., nee Klug. 

1855. Scolia vitripennis Smith, <J: 105. ' Hab. Brazil (Amazonas) (Coll. W. W. Saunders, 

Esq.) '. 

1864. Elis (Dielis) infuscata Saussure & Sichel, ' $ ' (recte <J): 215, n. 230. 
1864. Elis (Dielis) vitripennis Saussure & Sichel, <$: 216, n. 231. 
1957. Campsomeris (Campsomeris) vitripennis (Smith) Bradley: 75. 

The holotype, which I have so labelled, is in the Saunders collection. It bears a 
label : ' Amaz. ' and agrees with the description. For a detailed discussion of this 
case, see Bradley, 19646 : 106. Also see under infuscata Smith, above. 

[There are also two males in the British Museum, one incorrectly labelled type. 
They are: (A) labelled (i) ' Mex. 61/118 '; (2) ' vitripennis Sm. type '; (B) labelled 
' Para, 70/16 '. Neither can be a syntype, since they were obtained by the British 
Museum later than 1855. J.G.B., July, 1966]. 



SMITH'S TYPES OF SCOLIIDAE 325 

73. vivida 

1855. Scolia vivida Smith, (J: 89. ' Hab. Madras, B.M. '. 

= 1864. Scolia (Discolia) vivida Smith, teste Saussure & Sichel, <$: 123, n. 125. 

1928. Scolia (Scolia) vivida Betrem, $, <J: 329. 

[There are two males in the British Museum. I hereby designate the LECTOTYPE 
to be the one bearing the following labels : (i) ' Madras ' ; (2) ' 99/303 ' which means 
' Smith coll. presented by Mrs. Farren- White '; (3) ' Lectotype ', label attached by 
Betrem, 1966. It is registered as B.M. Type, Hym. 15.1429. The second speci- 
men, without a label, is probably a syntype. J.G.B., July, 1966]. 



74. zo nn tu 

1855. Scolia zonata Smith, $, $: 116. ' Hab. New Holland. B.M. '. 
1864. Elis (Trielis) zonata Saussure & Sichel, $, <J: 141, n. 150. 
1928. Campsomeris (Pseudotrielis) zonata Betrem, $, <J: 83. 
Trisciloa (Pseudotrielis) zonata (Smith) Betrem, comb. n. 

A female in the British Museum bears a museum type-label ' 15.1310 ', a label 
' 56/94 ' (which means ' Between Sydney and Moreton Bay or in S. Australia ') 
and Smith's mss. label reading ' Zonata. Sm. Type '. I hereby designate this female 
to be the LECTOTYPE and have so labelled it. Betrem, 1928 : 84, called it ' Holo- 
type ' but the species was described from two sexes without specification of the type. 

[There is one female of Scolia zonata in the American Museum of Natural History. 
It bears the following labels: (i) ' Austr. ' on a round blue label, characteristic 
for Smith; (2) ' Collection J. Angus 346 '; (3) ' Scolia zonata Sm. '; (4) ' Australia '. 
It came from the collection of J. Angus, along with the presumptive holotype of 
Sc. apicata, referred to above. This female may be regarded as an additional syn- 
type. J.G.B.] 



REFERENCES 
BETREM, JOHAN GEORGE. 1928. Monographic der indo-australischen Scoliiden (Hym. Acul.) 

mit zoogeographischen Betrachtungen. Treubia 9, suppl., 388 pp., 5 pi. 
1933- Die Scoliiden der indoaustralischen und palaarktischen Region aus dem Staatlichen 

Museum fur Tierkunde zu Dresden (Hym.). Stettin, ent. Ztg 94 : 236-263. 

1937. Males of the Indo-Australian Campsomeris-species with yellow metanotum (Hymen- 
optera, Scoliidae). Proc. R. ent. Soc. Lond. (B) 6 : 91-96. 

1938. Die Scoliiden-fauna van Celebes en haar ontstaan. Hand, ned.-indisch. natu- 

urw. Congr. Soerabaya 8 : 357-360. 

1941. fitude systematique des Scoliidae de Chine et leurs relations avec les autres groupes 
de Scoliidae. Notes Ent. chin. 8 : 45-188. 

1947. Analyse van enkele fauna-elementen van de Maleische Scoliiden. Tijdschr. Ent., 
1945 (1947), Feestbundel 88 : 409-416. 

1962. The taxon Trielis (Hym. Scoliidae) and its type. Ent. News 73 : 146. 

1967. The natural groups of Campsomeriella Betrem, 1941 (Hymenoptera Scoliidae). 
Ent. Ber., Amst. 27: 25-29. 

& BRADLEY, JAMES CHESTER. 1964. Annotations on the genera Triscolia, Megascolia 

and Scolia (Hymenoptera: Scoliidae). Zool. Meded. First part, 39 : 433-444. Second 
part, 40 : 89-96. 



326 J. CHESTER BRADLEY & J. G. BETREM 

BRADLEY, JAMES CHESTER. 1945. The Scoliidae (Hymenoptera) of northern South America, 
with especial reference to Venezuela, i. The genus Campsomeris. Boln Ent. venez. 
4 : 1-36. 

1950. The most primitive Scoliidae. 05, Madr., Tomo extraordinario : 427-438. 

1957. The taxa of Campsomeris (Hymenoptera-Scoliidae) occurring in the New World. 
Trans. Am. ent. Soc. 83 : 65-77. 

1964. The type-specimens of the Scoliidae described by Amedee Lepeletier, Comte de 

Saint-Fargeau (with notes by J. G. Betrem) and by the Marchese Massimiliano Spinola. 
Annali Mus. civ. Stor. nat. Giacomo Doria 75 : 186-196. 

ig64a. Further notes on the American taxa of Campsomeris (Hymenoptera: Scoliidae). 
Ent. News 75 : 101-108. 

& BETREM, JOHAN GEORGE. 1964. The Fabrician types of Scoliidae (Hymenoptera) 

with notes and an appendix by J. G. Betrem. Spolia zool. Mus. haun. 21 : 38 pp. 

1966. Burmeister's work on Scoliidae with especial reference to types and synonymy. 

Beitr. Ent. 16 : 73-84. 

BURMEISTER, HERMANN CARL CONRAD. 1854. Bemerkungen iiber den allgemeinen Bau und 
die Geschlechtsunterschiede bei den Arten der Gattung Scolia Fabricius. Abh. naturforsch. 
Ges. Halle 1 : 1-46. 

DALLA TORRE, KARL WILHELM VON. 1897. Catalogus Hymenopterorum hucusque descriptorum 
systematicus et synonymicus 8. Lipsiae. 

KROMBEIN, KARL VON VORST. 1963. The Scoliidae of New Guinea, Bismarck Archipelago 
and Solomon Islands. Nova Guinea, Zoology, 22 : 543-651. 

LEPELETIER, AMEDEE Louis MICHEL, Comte de Saint-Fargeau. 1845. Histoire naturelle des 
insectes. Hym6nopteres, 3. Paris. 

MICHA, ILSEMARIE. 1927. Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Scoliiden (Hym. Acul.) (Liacos Guer., 
Diliacos Sauss. Sich., und Triscolia Sauss. Sich.). Mitt. zool. Mus. Berl. 13 : 1-156. 

ROHWER, SIEVERT ALLEN. 1927. Some scoliid wasps from tropical America. Proc. Wash. 
Acad. Sci. 17 : 150-155. 

SAUSSURE, HENRI DE & JULES SICHEL. 1864. Catalogus specierum generis Scolia (sensu 
latiori). Geneve et Paris. 

SMITH, FREDERICK. 1852. Descriptions of some Hymenopterous insects captured in India, 
with notes on their economy, by Ezra T. Downes, Esq., who presented them to the Honour- 
able the East India Company. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (2) 9 : 4450. 

1855. Catalogue of Hymenopterous insects in the collection of the British Museum. Part 
III. Mutillidae. 206 pp., 6 pis. London, Trustees of the British Museum. 8 

1858. Catalogue of the Hymenopterous insects collected at Sarawak, Borneo; Mount 

Ophir, Malacca; and at Singapore, by A. R. Wallace. /. Linn. Soc. Land. (Zool.) 2 : 42- 
130, 2 pi. 

1859. Catalogue of Hymenopterous insects collected at Celebes by Mr. A. R. Wallace. 
Loc. cit. 3 : 4-27. 

1859. Catalogue of the Hymenopterous insects collected by Mr. A. R. Wallace at the 
islands of Aru and Key. Loc. cit. 3 : 132-178. 

1861. Catalogue of Hymenopterous insects collected by Mr. A. R. Wallace in the islands 
of Bachian, Kaisaa, Amboyna, Gilolo, and at Dory in New Guinea. Loc. cit. 5 : 93-143, 
i pi. 

1862. Catalogue of Hymenopterous insects collected by Mr. A. R. Wallace in the islands 

of Ceram, Celebes, Ternate, and Gilolo. Loc. cit. 6 : 36-66, i pi. 
1863. Notes on the geographical distribution of the aculeate Hymenoptera collected by 

Mr. A. R. Wallace in the Eastern Archipelago. Loc. cit. 7 : 109-145. 
1864. Catalogue of Hymenopterous insects collected by Mr. A. R. Wallace in the islands 

of Mysol, Ceram, Waigiou, Bouru, and Timor. Loc. cit. 7 : 48. 

8 [I did not find the exact date of publication known in the British Museum, but the preface is dated 
March 7, 1855. J.G.B.] 



SMITH'S TYPES OF SCOLIIDAE 327 

SMITH, FREDERICK. 1865. Descriptions of new species of Hymenopterous insects from the 
islands of Sumatra, Sula, Gilolo, Salwatty, and New Guinea, collected by Mr. A. R. 
Wallace. Loc. cit. 8 : 61-94, i pi. 

1868. Descriptions of aculeate Hymenoptera from Australia. Trans, ent. soc. Lond. 
1868 : 231-258. 

1871. A catalogue of the aculeate Hymenoptera and Ichneumonidae of India and the 
Eastern Archipelago. /. Linn. Soc. Lond. (Zool.) 11 : 285-415. 

1873. Descriptions of aculeate Hymenoptera of Japan, collected by Mr. George Lewis 
at Nagasaki and Hiogo. Trans, ent. soc. Lond. : 181-206. 

1879. Descriptions of new species of Hymenoptera in the collection of the British Museum. 

xxii, 240 pp. London, Trustees of the British Museum. 
TUIJN, P. 1961. Annotated list of the Scoliidae of New Guinea in the Leiden Museum 

(Hymenoptera). Nova Guinea (n.s.) 10 : 227-244. 
WALLACE, ALFRED RUSSEL. 1869. The Malay Archipelago: The land of the orang-utan, and 

the bird of paradise. A narrative of travel, with studies of man and nature. London, Mac- 

millan and Co., 2 vols. 




INDEX TO VOLUME XX 



New taxonomic names are in bold type 



abbreviatus, Metochus 

abengouroui, Neodiscodes 

Acephana 

acte acte, Ticherra 

acte liviana, Ticherra 

acte retracta, Ticherra 

Actinochaetopteryx 

Acucera 

acuminatus, Aenasius 

acuminatus, Rhyparochromus 

Acuphocera . 

admistus, Caridops 

advena, Aenasius 

aenea, Cheritra . 

aenigma, Cheritra 

aeruginosus, Peritrechus 

aestiva, Nupedia 

aethiopica, Exopamera . 

aethiops, Calyptonotus . 

aethiops, Cligenes .... 

affinis, Daerlac 

affinis, Trapezus 

africanus, Lethaeus 

africanus, Maxaphanus 

Agalmia ..... 

agilis, Campsomeriella (Campsomeriella) 
Akosempomyia .... 

alacer, Thaumastopus 
alacris, Thaumastopus 
albicollis, Mirrhina 
albidomaculatus, Lachnophorus 
albigera, Aphanus 
alboannulata, Pamera 
albomaculata, Plociomera 
albomaculatus, Calyptonotus . 
albomarginatus, Gyndes . 
alecto alecto, Megascolia . 
aliena, Guigliana 
alienus, Rhyparochromus 
Alophorophasia .... 

Altaia ...... 

Amphitropesa .... 

Amplipila ..... 

Anaeudora ..... 

Anagonia ..... 

Anamastax ..... 

Anaperistommyia .... 

Anatropomyia .... 

Anavoria ..... 

Andrewarthaia .... 

andrewsi, Pamera .... 

Androcyptera .... 

Aneogmena ..... 



255 
231, 234 (fig.) 

5 

. 85 

86, Pis. i, 2, 4 
86 
5 
5 

215, 220 (fig.) 

255 

5 

255 
2O6 (fig.), 207, 22O (figS.) 

95, PI. i, 2, 4 
94, PI. i, 2, 4 

255 

132 

255 

255 

255 

255 

255 

255 

256 

5 

295 

5 

256 
256 
. 256 

256 

256 
256 

. 256 
. 256 

256 
296 

293 

256 

5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
6 
6 
6 
6 

47-51 

256 

6 
6 



antennalis, Diniella .... 257 

antennatus, Thebanus . . . .257 

antennatus, Tropistethus . . .257 

anticus, Rhyparochromus . . . 257 
Apalpostoma ..... 6 

Alpalpus ...... 6 

Apatemyia ...... 6 

Aphantorhaphopsis .... 6 

Aphrimyobia ..... 6 

apicalis, Pamera . . . . .257 

apicalis, Rhyparochromus . . .257 

apicata, Microscolia .... 296 

apicatus, Trapezus .... 257 

Apilia ....... 6 

Aprotheca ...... 6 

archetypus, Entisberus . . . .257 

Archimera ...... 6 

Arcuthrips . . . . . . 51-53 

ardens, Triscolia ..... 297 

Argyrothelaira ..... 6 

arizonensis, Chalcaspis . . 192, 194 (fig.) 
armatipes, Rhyparochromus . 
Arrhenomyza .... 

Arrhinodexia . .... 

arrogans, Campsomeris 
Asbellopsis ..... 

Asetulia ..... 

Asiocarcelia ..... 

assamensis, Campsomeris . 
assamensis, Lethaeus 
assimilandus, Petissius . 
assimilis, Rhyparochromus 
ater, Prytanes .... 

atomarius, Aphanus 

Atractocerops .... 

Atractodexia .... 

atratus, Locutius .... 

attenuatus, Rhyparochromus . 

aurantiacus, Tropistethus 

aurea, Andrewrthaia . 

aurea aurea, Ritra . . 99, 

aurea cuprea, Ritra 

aurea volumnia, Ritra 

aureipennis, Scolia 

aureola elegans, Campsomeris . 

aurifera, Potamiaena 

aurivilliana, Pseudopamera 

aurulenta aurulenta, Campsomeris . 

australis, Aphanus 

australis, Arrianoides 

australis, Bosbequius 

australis, Desmothrips 



. 297 
7 
7 
7 

. 308 

257 

257 

257 

257 
. 258 

7 
7 

. 258 
. 258 
. 258 
49 
PI. i, 2 



48 (fig-). 57, 
61 (fig.), 



. 297 

34 

. 258 

. 258 

. 298 

. 258 

. 258 

. 258 

58 (fig.), 
67 (fig.) 



33 



INDEX 



Australotachina 
Austrodexia . 
Austromacquartia 
Austrophasia . 
Austrophasiopsis 
Austrophorocera . . 
Austrophryno 
Avibrissia 
Avibrissina . 

Bactromyiella 
bagnalli, Desmothrips 



7 
7 
7 

7 
7 
7 
7 

7 
7 

7 

48 (fig.), 58 (fig.), 60, 
67 (fig.) 

7 
. 258 

7 
. 258 

7 

. 258 
259 



Ballardia .... 

balteatus, Phaeax 

Barydexia .... 

basalis, Rhyparochromus 
Bellina .... 

bengalensis, Aphanus 

bengalensis, Diniella 

bengalensis, Rhyparochromus . . .259 

Besserioides ...... 7 

Bezziomyiobia ..... 7 

bicincta, Scolia ..... 298 

bicolor, Drymus ..... 259 

bicolor, Nabis . . . . .259 

bifasciata, Scolia ..... 298 

bimaculata, Scolia ..... 299 

Biomyopsis ...... 7 

biplagiatus, Noliphus .... 259 

bipunctatus, Ligyrocoris . . .259 

Blepharella ...... 7 

bolowi, Aenasius . . . . .219 

borealis, Rhyparochromus . . . 259 
Boromyia ...... 8 

Bothrophora ..... 8 

Bothrostira ...... 8 

Botriopsis ...... 8 

Brachymeropsis ..... 8 

bradleyi, Campsomeris (Tristimeris) . . 315 
brasiliensis, Aenasius . . . .215 

brethesi, Aenasius . . . 218, 212 (figs.) 
brevicornis, Winthellia 33 
brevipennis, Budaeus .... 259 

brevis, Scolopostethus . . . .259 

brounii, Hungariella . . 159, 163 (fig.) 
brunneus, Locutius .... 259 

brunneus, Prosomoeus . . . .259 

burmanicus, Usilanus . . . .259 



Caeca, Plociomera . 

caeruleus, Aenasius 

Calcager 

Calcageria 

caliginosus, Trapezonotus 

Calopygidia . 

Calosia 

Calotachina . 

Calotheresia . 

Calotheresiopsis 



259 
199 (fig.), 200 



259 



Calozenillia . 

Calyptromyia 

Campbellia . . . 

Campylia 

capensis, Aphanus . 

capitatus, Vertomannus . 

carbonarius, Pachymerus 

Carceliella 

Carcelimyia . 

Carceliopsis 

cardui, Dieuches . . 



8 
8 
8 
8 

260 

260 

260 

8 

8 

8 

260 



cariocus, Aenasius . 206 (fig.), 216217, 220 (fig.) 
carolinensis, Euryrhopalus 240, 244 (fig.) 
castaneus, Bubaces .... 260 

Catacarcelia ...... 9 

Catapariprosopa ..... 9 

caudatus, Ericydnus . . . .169 

Centeter ...... 9 

cephalotes, Rhyparochromus . . . 260 

ceromatica, Mahisa .... 260 

Cerosomyia ...... 9 

Chaetexorista ..... 9 

Chaetogastrina ..... 9 

Chaetomyiobia ..... 9 

Chaetophthalmus ..... 9 

Chaetopletha ..... 9 

Chaetoptiliopsis ..... 9 

Chaetoweberia ..... 9 

championi, Acolhua .... 260 

chapadae, Aenasius . . . .210 

Charitella ...... 9 

Cheritra ...... 88-97 

Cheritrella ...... 84 

Chetogaster ...... 9 

chinensis, Rhyparochromus . . . 260 
Chlorodexia ...... 9 

Chlorogastrina ..... 9 

Chlorogastropsis ..... 9 

Chloropales . . . . . .10 

Chlorotachina . . . . .10 

Chromocharis . . . . .10 

Chrysopasta . . . . . .10 

Chrysopygia . . . . . .10 

Chrysorutilia . . . . .10 

cincta, Scolia. ..... 300 

cincticornis, Ophthalmicus . . . 260 
cincticornis, Rhyparochromus . . 260 

cinctus, Arcuthrips .... 52 

cinerella, Paregle . . . . .125 

cingalensis, Sinierus . . . .260 

circumcinctus, Rhyparochromus . . 260 
clavatus, Aphanus .... 261 

clavicornis, Blepyrus 222 (fig.), 225, 227 (figs.) 
clypeatus, Gonatas. . . . .261 

Codium ...... 10 

coei, Delia . . . 115 (figs.), 116-7 

coffeicola, Hungariella 161, 162-3 ( n g s -) 

coleopteroides, Rhyparochromus . . 261 
collaris, Rhyparochromus . . .261 
collina, Rhaptus ..... 261 



INDEX 



331 



coloratus, Abanus .... 261 

columba albofimbriata, Campsomeris (Lisso- 
campsomeris) ..... 295 

comperei, Neodiscodes . 229, 234 (fig.) 
Compsiluroides . . . . .10 

Compsoptesis . . . . .10 

concavus, Davila . . . . .261 

concinnulus, Rhyparochromus . . 261 

confusor, Clausenia . . 185, 186 (fig.) 
connectens, Aenasius 205, 206 (fig.), 220 (fig.) 
consanguineus, Davila .... 261 

consanguineus, Dieuches. . . .261 

consimilis, Dieuches .... 262 

consocialis, Aphanus .... 262 

consuta, Orthaea ..... 262 

contractus, Sisamnes .... 262 

convelatus, Rhyparochromus . . . 262 
coronata, Scolia ..... 299 

coronata, Scolia ..... 301 

corrugata, Clausenia . . 183, 1 86 (fig.) 
Cossidophaga . . . . .10 

costaricensis, Gonatas .... 262 

Cranothrips ..... -53-54 

crassa, Agunga ..... 262 

crassicornis, Rhyparochromus . . 262 

Crossotocnema . . . . .10 

cruenta, Scolia ..... 306 

Crypsina ...... 10 

Cryptosplyosia . . . . .10 

culta, Scolia . . . . .301 

cuneata, Pamerana .... 262 

cupreus, Adauctus .... 262 

Curtocera . . . . . .10 

Cylindromyiella . . . . .10 

Cystometopia . . . . .10 

dallasi, Lethaeus ..... 262 
dallasi, Pamera ..... 262 
davidsoni, Desmothrips ... 68 

decorata, Scolia ..... 297 

decorata specifica, Scolia . . .322 

decorata ventralis, Scolia . . . 324 
Degeeriopsis ..... 10 

delineata, Salacia . . . . .262 

delineatus, Pachymerus . . . 263 

delineatus, Rhyparochromus . . . 263 
delitus, Ligyrocoris .... 263 

Deltomyza . . . . . .10 

Demoticoides . . . . .10 

denotatatus, Usilanus .... 263 

descriptus, Rhyparochromus . . . 263 
Desmothrips ..... 54-7 1 

detracta, Hylemya . 123 (figs.), 124 (figs.) 

Dexiomima . . . . . .11 

Dexiomimops . . . . .11 

Dexiotrix . . . . . .11 

Diatraeophaga . . . . .11 

Dicephalomyia . . . . .11 

diffinis, Rhyparochromus . . . 263 

Diglossocera . , . , n 



dimidiatipennis, Campsomeriella (Campsomeri- 
ella) ...... 305 

dimidiatus, Rhyparochromus . . . 263 
discifer, Nabis ..... 263 

discogutatus, Aphanus .... 263 

dispar, Ophthalmicus .... 263 

dispositus, Perigenes . . . .263 

dissimilis, Dieuches . . . .263 

dissimilis, Lygaeus . . . .263 

distinctus, Cligenes .... 264 

distinctus, Noliphus .... 264 

distinctus, Petizius. .... 264 

divergens, Gonatas. .... 264 

di versus, Petissius . . . . .264 

Doddiana . . . . . .11 

Doleschalla . . . . . .n 

Doleschallopsis . . . . .11 

Dolichocoxys . . . . . .11 

Dolichopodomintho . . . .11 

dominica, Margareta .... 264 

Donovanius . . . . . .11 

douglasi, Plociomerus .... 264 

Drinomyia . . . . . .11 

dubia, Scolia ..... 302 

dubius, Pachymerus .... 264 

ducalis, Scolia ..... 302 

ducalis gribodoi, Scolia . . . 309 
dudgeoni, Aphanus .... 264 

Ecatocyptera . . . . .11 

Echrysopasta . . . . .11 

Efftayloria . . . . . .11 

Eipogonoides . . . . . .11 

ejuncida, Pamera ..... 264 

electa, Targarema . . . .264 

elegans, Desmothrips .... 65 

elegans, Nabis ..... 264 

Elfriedella n 

Elodimyia . . . . . .n 

emersoni, Cranothrips .... 54 

emersoni, Pamera ..... 264 

Eoacemyia . . . . . .12 

Eocarcelia . . . . . .124 

Eocarceliopsis . . . . .12 

Eocyptera . . . . . .12 

Eocypterula . . . . .12 

Eodexiosoma. . . . . .12 

Eodolichocolon . . . . .12 

Eogymnophthalma . . . .12 

Eomintho . . . . . .12 

Eomyocera . . . . . .12 

Eomyoceropsis . . . . .12 

Eoparachaeta . . . . .12 

Eophyllophila . . . . .12 

Eoptilodexia . . . . .12 

Eozenillia . . . . . .12 

Epixorista . . . . . .12 

Epseudocyptera . . . . .12 

Erebiomima . . . . . .12 

eriophthalmum, Lasiomma , 124, 125 (figs.) 



332 



INDEX 



Eristaliomyia .... 

erosus, Aphanus .... 
erosus, Rhyparochromus 
erratica erratica, Scolia (Discolia) 
erubescens, Pamera 
Erythronychia .... 
Euamphibolia .... 
Eucompsa ..... 
Encomus ..... 
Eufischeria ..... 
Eugymnochaetopsis 
Euhypochaetopsis .... 
Eupalpocyptera .... 
Euproctimyia .... 

Eurygastropsis .... 
Eustacomyia .... 

Euthelairosoma .... 
Eutorocca ..... 
Eutrixopsis ..... 
Euvespivora ..... 
Everestiomyia .... 
excavatus, Arrianus 
Exechopalpus .... 
exigua, Pamera .... 
exima, Scolia .... 

eximius, Heraeus .... 
extremus, Rhyparochromus 

facilis, Scolia .... 

fasciatopennis, Scolia 

fasciatus, Aeolothrips 

fasciatus, Narbo .... 

fasciatus, Trapezus 

fascinatus fascinatus, Carinoscolia 

fenestrata, Scolia .... 

Feriola ..... 

ferrida, Scolia .... 

ferrugineus, Aphanus 

festiva, Pamera .... 

festivus, Poeantius 

firmus, Neocattarus 

flandersi, Aenasius 

flavibasis, Delia .... 

flavidula, Scolia .... 

flavidula, Trisciloa 

flavomarginata, Kanigara 

flavonotata, Pamera 

flavopicta, Scolia .... 

flori, Lasiocoris .... 

forbesii, Aspilocoryphus 

formicarius, Phaeax 

Formicophania .... 

formosa, Plociomera 

Formosia ..... 

Formosodoria .... 

Formosolophosia . . . 

forreri, Pseudopamera 

fraterna, Scolia .... 

fraternus, Cligenes 

freja, Cheritra . . . 89, 



12 
265 
265 

303 
265 

12 
13 
13 
13 
13 
13 
13 
J 3 

13 
13 
13 
13 
13 
13 

!3 

13 

265 

14 

265 

304 

265 

265 

304 
304 

47 
265 
265 
305 

305 

14 

306 

. 266 

265 

. 265 

. 265 

204205 

119 (figs.) 

306 

306 

. 265 

. 266 

36 
. 266 
. 266 
. 266 

14 

. 266 

14 

14 

14 

. 266 

37 
. 266 

Pis. i, 2, 3 



freja butleri, Cheritra . 

freja evansi, Cheritra . 

freja fracta, Cheritra . 

freja freja, Cheritra . 

freja frigga, Cheritra . 

freja jafra, Cheritra . 

freja ochracea, Cheritra . 
freja pseudojafra, Cheritra 

freja sabanga, Cheritra . 

Froggattimyia . . 
frontalis, Aenasius . 
frontalis, Scolia 
frontalis, Laeviscolia 



. 90 
.91 

93, PI. i, 2 

. 92 
93, PI. 3 
. 94 

94, PI. i, 2 
90, PI. 3 

... 92 
. . .14 
206 (fig.), 209, 220 (fig.) 
299 
. 299 



frontalis frontalis, Laeviscolia . .301 
Frontiniellopsis . . . . .14 
fulgida, Agunga ..... 266 
fulgidipennis, Liacos . . . 307 

fulvifrons, Megascolia (Regiscolia) . . 317 
fulvipennis, Scolia ..... 307 
f u mi dors is, Pseudomyopina 135, 136 (figs.), 



funestus, Aphanus 
fuscans, Dieuches 



Gaediogonia 

gardineri, Cligenes . 

Gastroptilops 

gemmata, Pamera . 

gemmatus, Fabulinus 

Genotrichia . 

Geraldia 

germanus, Eremocoris 

Germariochaeta 

Gerocyptera . . . , 

Gerotachina . 

glaberrimus, Rhyparochromus 

globosus, Prytanes 

Glossosalia 

Gonanamastax 

Goniophana . 

Goniophyto . 

Gracilicera 

gracilis, Neocattarus 

gracilis, Porta 

gracilis, Sphaerobius 

gracilis, Stenocoris 

Graphia . 

Grapholostylum 

Graphotachina 

greeni, Altomarus . 

greeni, Rhyparochromus 

Guigliana . 

guineensis, Clausenia . 

gutta, Rhyparochromus . 

guttata, Orthaea 

Gymnamedoria . 

habrocoma, Campsomeris 
Habrota 



266 
266 



14 

. 266 
14 

. 267 

. 267 

14 

14 

267 

14 

14 

14 

. 267 

267 

14 

14 

14 

14 

14 

267 

267 

267 

. 267 

15 

15 

15 

267 

. 267 

293-4 

184, 186 (figs.) 

267 

267 

15 

37 
I 5 



INDEX 



Halidayopsis .... 

hamata, Graspedochoeta no, in 
Hamaxia ..... 
Hapalioloemus .... 

Hega 

Hemidegeeria .... 

Hemilinnaemyia .... 
hemipterus, Diplonotus . 
Hertingia ..... 
Heteria ..... 

Heterometopia .... 
hewitti, Aphanus .... 
Hexamera ..... 

Hillia 

hirtipennis, Scolia 
histrionica histrionica, Scolia . 
Hobartia ..... 
holisti, Metochus .... 
Homohexamera .... 
Homotrixa ..... 
horvathi, Plinthisus 
Hungariella ..... 
Huttonobesseria .... 
hyalinipennis, Aeolothrips . 
hyettus, Aenasius . . . 195, 
Hygiella ..... 
Hyleorus ..... 
Hystricina ..... 
Hystricovoria .... 



15 

(figS.), 112 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
. 268 

15 

15 

15 

. 268 

15 

15 

. 3 08 

3" 

15 
. 268 

15 
15 

. 268 

154-166 

16 

49 

199 (figs.) 
16 
16 
16 
16 



Idania ...... 16 

ignata, Scolia ..... 308 

Ilia 16 

illitus, Heraeus ..... 268 
illuminatus, Dorochosa . . . 268 

illuminatus v. umbrosus, Dorochosa . 268 

illustris, Metochus ..... 268 
incisus, Rhyparochromus . . . 268 

inconspicuus, Rhyparochromus . . 268 
indica, Hungariella . . 162, 163 (figs.) 
indica eliformis, Campsomeris (Colpa- 

campsomeris) ..... 308 
indica indica, Campsomeris . . 308 
indica pseudojavanica, Campsomeris (Col- 

pacampsomeris) .... 308 
indicus, Aphanus ..... 268 
indicus, Lethaeus ..... 268 
indicus, Neodiscodes . . 233, 234 (figs.) 
indicus, Primierus .... 268 

Indosturmia ..... 16 

inermibus, Myodocha .... 268 
infumatus, Ligyrocoris . . . .269 
inornatus, Rhyparochromus . . . 269 
insignis, Critobulus .... 269 

insignis, Diniella ..... 269 
insignis, Eucosmetus .... 269 
insignis, Pamera ..... 269 
insignis, Pephysena .... 269 

insititia, Erlacda ..... 269 
instabilis, Scolia , 309 



insularis, Aenasius 
insularis, Blepyrus 
insularis, Scolia 
intaminatus, Abdolominus 
intermedia, Myodocha 
intrudens, Scolia 
intrusa, Ampera 
iridicolor, Scolia 
irregularis, Scolia . 
irrorandus, Neocattarus 
Isocarceliopsis 
Isochaetina . 
Isosturmia 

Janthinomyia 
japonica, Plociomera 
japonica, Scolia 
japonicus, Ericydnus 
jejunus, Pamera 
josefi, Clausenia 
jurinei, Scolia (Discolia) . 



333 

. 211 

226, 227 (fig.) 

. 309 

269 

. 269 

309 
269 

. 310 

. 310 

269 

16 
16 
16 

16 
270 

3" 
169 
270 

. 183 

39 



Kambaitimyia . . . . .16 

karenia, Uzza . . . . .270 

kellyana, Andrewarthaia 49 (fig.), 49, 50 (fig.), 

61 (fig.), 69 (fig.) 
Kinabaluia . . . . . .16 

kirkpatricki, Euryrhopalus 241, 244 (fig.), 

255 (fig-) 
Koralliomyia . . . . .16 

Kosempomyia . . . . .16 

Kosempomyiella . . . . .16 

Kurintjimyia. ..... 16 

Kuwanimyia . . . . .17 

kydippe, Ptochiomera . . . .270 

labilis, Campsomeris (Megameris) . 321 

Laccura . . . . . .17 

laericeps, Scolia . . . . .311 

lamasi, Grandoriella . . 148 (fig.), 180 
larradiformis, Scolia . . . .311 

Lasiocalypter . . . . .17 

Lasiocalyptrina . . . . -17 

lateralis, Aphanus .... 270 

lateralis, Diplonotus . . . .270 

laticeps, Ishnocoris .... 270 

latus, Aphanus ..... 270 

latus, Bosbequius ..... 270 

leefmansi leefmansi, Campsomeris . 295 
leefmansi problematica, Campsomeris 295 
Leiosia . . . . . .17 

Leiosiopsis . . . . . .17 

lepelleyi, Neodiscodes . . 230, 234 (fig.) 
Leskiola . . . . . .17 

leucoceras, Rhyparochromus . . . 270 
leucospilus, Rhyparochromus . . . 270 
Leverella . . . . . .17 

levis, Pephysena ..... 270 

lewisi, Lethaeus ..... 270 

lewisi, Mizaldus , . . . .271 



INDEX 



lewisi, Paradieuches . . . .271 

lineatus, Rhyparochromus . . .271 

lineosus, Aphanus . . . . .271 

litigiosa, Trielis (Trielis) . . .311 

littoralis, Aphanus . . . . .271 

longicollis, Rhyparochromus . . .271 

longicornis, Ericydnus . . 173, 177 (fig.) 

longiscapus, Aenasius . . . .213 

longulus, Rhyparochromus . . .271 

Lophosiocyptera . . . . .17 

Lophosiodes . . . . .17 

Lophosiopsis . . . . .17 

lounsburyi, Pamera . . . .271 

lucidus, Chalcaspis . . 191, 194 (figs.) 

luctuosa, Scolia . . . . .312 

luridus, Diplonotus . . . .271 

luscinus, Rhyparochromus . . .271 

luteicornis, Rhyparochromus . . .271 

luteovaria, Lachnophoroides . . .271 

loewittii, Austroscolia . . . 302 

Lyphosia . . . . . .17 

Macreuthera . . . . . .17 

Macrochloria . . . . .17 

Macrolophosia . . . . .17 

Macropia . . . . . .17 

Macropodexia . . . . .17 

Macrosophia . . . . . .17 

Macrozenillia . . . . .17 

macularia, Baladeana . . . .271 

maculatus, Bathycles . . . .271 

maculatus, Lethaeus . . . .272 

maculatus, Neocattarus . . .272 

maculicollis, Rhyparochromus . . 272 
maculipennis, Lethaeus .... 272 

maculosus, Lamprothrips ... 72 

maderensis, Rhyparochromus . . .272 
majusculus, Gonatas .... 272 

Makilingimyia . . . . .17 

Malaiocrocuta . . . . .17 

Malaisimyia . . . . . .18 

Malayia . . . . . .18 

Malay ocyptera . . . . .18 

Malayodinera . . . . .18 

Malayodoria . . . . .18 

Malayomedina . . . . .18 

Mallochomacquartia . . . .18 

manipurensis, Naudarensia . . .272 

maplei, Aenasius . . . 197, 199 (figs.) 

marginatus, Drymus . . . .272 

marginella modesta, Campsomeris (Campsomeris) 

313 

marginella terminata, Campsomeris . . 323 
marginella terminata, Campsomeris (Micromeris) 

313 

martinii, Neodiscodes . . 230, 234 (figs.) 

massi, Aenasius . . . 199 (fig.), 204 

Medinacemyia . . . . .18 

Medinodexia . . . . . .18 

Medinomyia , , , , 18 



mediterranea, Hungariella 

Megameris . 

Megistogastropsis . 

Melanasomyia 

membraneus, Drymus 

membraneus, Lamproplax 

mendozai, Desmothrips 62 

Menevillea 

merula, Lachnophorus 

Mesembriomintho . 

Metopomintho 

Metoposisyrops 

Microcarcelia 

Microceromasia 

Microhystricia 

Micromeris 

Microphytomyptera 

Microrutilia . 

Microtropesa 

miltoni, Lamprothrips 

mimicus, Eucosmetus 

minor, Andrewarthaia 

Minthocyptera 

miiiuta, Scolia 

mirabilis, Aphanus 

modesta, Scolia 

moerens, Pachymerus 

moesta, Reclada 

Molliopsis . 

Monoleptophaga 

Montanarturia 

montanus, Manatanus 

morata, Scolia 

morula, Phorbia 

multicolorata, Albanyaria 

multilinea, Ischnodemus 

munda, Tomopelta 

mundulus, Rhyparochromus . 

mundus, Nysius 

murrhea, Pamera . 

Mycteromyiella 

Myiofijia . . . . 

Myiotrixa . 

Myobiomima 

mysorensis, Fabulinus 

Myxocarcelia 



naini, Eremocoris . 
natalensis, Gonatas 
Neoduvaucelia 
Neoerythronychia 
Neomedina . 
Neophryxe 
Neoplectops . 
Neorutilia 
Neotachina . 
Neotryphera . 
nepalensis, Delia 



1 58-159, 162-163 

(figs.) 

294 

18 

.18 

272 

. 272 

(fig.), 63, 67 (fig.) 
18 

. 272 
18 
19 
19 
19 
19 
19 

294 

19 

19 
19 

72 
272 

5i 
19 

3i3 

272 

313 

273 

273 

19 
19 
19 

273 

3i3 
130, 131 (figs.) 

273 

273 

273 

273 

273 

273 

19 

19 
19 
19 

273 

19 



273 

273 

19 
19 

19 
20 
20 
20 
20 
20 
113, 114 (figs.) 



INDEX 



335 



nereis, Pachymerus . . . -273 
Neximyia ...... 20 

nexus, Polycrates . . . . .274 

niger, Lethaeus . . . . .274 

nigerrima, Campsomeris . . . .316 

nigerrima, Scolia . . . . .316 

nigrellus, Aphanus . . . .274 

nigricans, Daerlac . . . . .274 

nigriceps, Rhyparochromus . . . 274 

nigrinus, Thebanus . . . .274 

nigripes, Rhyparochromus . . .274 

nigritulus, Rhyparochromus . . .274 

nigrocapitatus, Adauctus . . .274 

nigronitens, Eucosmetus . . .274 

nitens, Aenasius .... 211-212 

nitida, Scolia . . . . .316 

nitida nitida, Austroscolia . . .316 

nitidus, Mimicus . . . . .274 

niveomaculatus, Cligenes . . . 274 
nobilata muculuta, Scolia (Discolia) . 317 

noctis, Lachnophorus . . . .274 

noctua, Clerada . . . . .274 

notabilis, Lethaeus. . . . .275 

notatus. Rhyparochromus . . .275 

Nothypostena . . . . .20 

notulata, Bedunia .... 275 

novitius, Caeneus ..... 275 

novitius, Nysius . . . . .275 

nudata, Austroscolia . . . -317 

nudata, Scolia . . . . .317 

nupera, Pegohylemyia . . 128 (figs.) 129 



oblitus, Ligyrocoris 

obscura, Metagerra 

obscuripes, Rhyparochromus . 

obsoletus, Desmothrips 61 (fig.) 

Occisor .... 

oceanicus, Aphanus 

Ochromeigenia 

Ochrophasia 

Ochropleurum 

Ocypteropsis 

Oestrocara 

opalina, Scolia 

opalina opalina, Garinoscolia 

Opsocyptera .... 

Opsophana .... 

Opsophasiops 

Orectocerina .... 

orientalis, Aphanus 

Orientodoria .... 

Orilliopsis .... 

Ormiominda .... 

ornandus, Scolopostethus 

ornata, Edulica 

ornata, Scolia 

ornatipennis, Lachnophoroides 

ornatulus, Aphanus 

ornatus, Aphanus . 



275 

275 

275 
63. 67 (fig.) 

20 

275 

20 



orpheus, Cheritra . . . .96 

orpheus eurydice, Cheritra . . 96, PI. 4 

orpheus orpheus, Cheritra . . 97, PI. 4 

orpheus orphnine, Cheritra. 97, PI. i, 2 

oryctophaga, Scolia (Discolia) . . . 308 
ovalis, Rhyparochromus .... 276 

ovatus, Lemnius . . . . .276 

Oxydexiops . . . . . .21 

Oxyphyllomyia . . . . .21 

Oxyrutilia . . 21 



pacificus, Aenasius 

Palexorista . 

Palia . 

Paliana. 

pallens, Rhyparochromus 

pallescens, Davila . 

pallescens, Locutius 



212, 220 (fig.), 222 (fig.) 
21 
21 
21 

. 2 7 6 
276 
276 



pallicornis, Rhyparochromus . . .276 

pallida, Cheritra . . .88, Pis. i, 2, 4 

pallidulus, Dieuches .... 276 

pallidus, Pygaeus . . . . .276 

pallipes, Lasiosomus . . . .276 

pallipes, Paradieuches . . . .276 

Palpina . . . . . .21 

Palpostoma . . . . . .21 

Palpostomotrixa . . . . .21 

I >:im iron sis, Pseudomyopina 137, 138 (figs.) 

Pancala . . . . . .21 

papuanus, Aphanus . . . .277 

Parabrachelia . . . . .21 

Paragonia . . . . . .21 

Paralophosia . . . . .21 

Paramphibolia ..... 22 

Paratropeza . . . . . .22 

Pareupogona . . . . .22 

Paropsivora . . . . .22 

parvipictus, Dieuches . . . .277 

parvulus, Rhyparochromus . . .277 

parvus, Neocattarus . . . .277 

parvus, Neodiscodes . . . 228-229 

patricius, Cligenes .... 277 

paulistus, Aenasius, . . 210, 220 (figs.) 

pedata, Naudarensia . . . .277 

Pentatomophaga . . . . .22 

Penthosiosoma . . . . .22 

percultus, Heraeus .... 277 

peregrina, Hungariella . . . .160 

Peremptor . . . . . .22 

pergandei, Chalcaspis . . . 192, 194 

Perigymnosoma . . . . .22 

Perilophosia . . . . .22 

Perrissina . . . . . .22 

Perrissinoides . . . . .22 

persona