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Full text of "Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History)"

BULLETIN OF 

THE BRITISH MUSEUM 

(NATURAL HISTORY) 



ENTOMOLOGY 
Vol. XXV 
1970 1971 



BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 
LONDON : 1971 



DATES OF PUBLICATION OF THE PARTS 

No. i . . . . . .27 May 1970 

No. 2 21 July 1970 

No. 3 3 July 1970 

No. 4 . . . . . .11 September 1970 

No. 5 . . . . .30 September 1970 

No. 6 ...... 2 March 1971 

No. 7 ...... 2 March 1971 

No. 8 ...... 9 March 1971 

No. 9 ...... 9 March 1971 



Printed in England by Staples Printers Limited at their Kettering. Northants, establishment 



CONTENTS 

ENTOMOLOGY VOLUME XXV 

PAGE 

No. i. A revision of the N.W. European species of Microplitis Forster 

(Hymenoptera : Braconidae). By G. E. J. NIXON I 

No. 2. A synonymic catalogue of the genera of Phycitinae (Lepidoptera : 

Pyralidae) of the World. By P. E. S. WHALLEY 31 

No. 3. The Amblycera (Phthiraptera : Insecta). By T. CLAY 73 

No. 4. A revision of the world species of Chilo Zincken (Lepidoptera: Pyrali- 
dae). By S. BLESZYNSKI 99 

No. 5. Re visional notes on African Char axes (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) 

Part VI. By V. G. L. van SOMEREN 197 

No. 6. The type-material of Australasian, Oriental and Ethiopian Tachinidae 

(Diptera) described by Macquart and Bigot. By R. W. CROSSKEY 251 

No. 7. A list of the type-specimens of Ephemeroptera in the British Museum 

(Natural History). By D. E. KIMMINS 307 

No. 8. A catalogue of the Membracid types (Homoptera: Membracidae) in 

the British Museum (Natural History). By P. S. BROOMFIELD 325 

No. 9. Gall-forming thrips and allied species (Thysanoptera : Phlaeothripinae) 

from Acacia trees in Australia. By L. A. MOUND 387 

Index to Volume XXV 467 



. 

r 

A REVISION OF THE I 4 

N.W. EUROPEAN SPECIES OF 

MICROPLITIS FORSTER 
(HYMENOPTERA : BRACONIDAE) 




G. E. J. NIXON 



BULLETIN OF 

THE BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 
ENTOMOLOGY Vol. 25 No. i 

LONDON: 1970 



A REVISION OF THE 
N.W. EUROPEAN SPECIES OF 

MICROPLITIS FORSTER 
(HYMENOPTERA : BRACONIDAE) 




BY 



GILBERT EDWARD JAMES NIXON 

Commonwealth Institute of Entomology 



Pp. 1-30; 29 Text-figures 



BULLETIN OF 

THE BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 

ENTOMOLOGY Vol. 25 No. i 

LONDON: 1970 



THE BULLETIN OF THE BRITISH MUSEUM 

(NATURAL HISTORY), instituted in 1949, is 
issued in five series corresponding to the Departments 
of the Museum, and an Historical series. 

Parts will appear at irregular intervals as they become 
ready. Volumes will contain about three or four 
hundred pages, and will not necessarily be completed 
within one calendar year. 

In 1965 a separate supplementary series of longer 
Papers was instituted, numbered serially for each 
Department. 

This paper is Vol. 25, No. i of the Entomological 
series. The abbreviated titles of periodicals cited 
follow those of the World List of Scientific Periodicals. 



World List abbreviation 
Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 



Trustees of the British Museum (Natural History), 1970 



TRUSTEES OF 
THE BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 

Issued 27 May, 1970 Price 



A REVISION OF THE 
N.W. EUROPEAN SPECIES OF 

MICROPLITIS FORSTER 
(HYMENOPTERA : BRACONIDAE) 

By G. E. J. NIXON 

CONTENTS 

Page 

SYNOPSIS ........... 3 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ......... 3 

THE GENUS Microplitis ......... 3 

KEY TO SPECIES (FEMALES) ........ 4 

DESCRIPTIONS OF SPECIES ......... 10 

REFERENCES ........... 29 

INDEX ............ 29 

SYNOPSIS 

The North West European species of Microplitis, in so far as they have been available to me 
in the British Museum (Natural History), are revised. These number twenty-eight species, of 
which eight are introduced as new. Two further species are placed in synonymy. 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

MY thanks are specially due to Mr A. W. Stelfox of Newcastle, Co. Down, N. Ireland 
for having lent me some years ago his collection of Microplitis, now the property of 
the U. S. National Museum. I wish to thank also the following gentlemen for the 
loan of material : Dr Miroslav Capek of the Forest Research Institute, Banska 
Stiavnica, Czechoslovakia, Dr Max Fischer of the Naturhistorisches Museum, 
Vienna and Dr Wolter Helle"n of the Helsinki Museum, Helsinki. 

The genus MICROPLITIS Forster 

In my revision of the Microgasterini I included Microplitis in my key to genera 
(1965 : 15) and made a brief reference to it on page 7. I made no attempt to split 
the genus into species-groups, though I remarked that this would need to be done 
eventually. I have not considered it either appropriate or practical to adopt such a 
course in this paper for the reason that the few species discussed, coming from a 
relatively small geographical region, do not cover the wide range of structure 
permitted by the generic definition of Microplitis. 

Being based solely on material I have had before me, the paper contains no 
reference to published host-records, since it is rarely possible to be certain, from the 
literature, what species of Microplitis is being referred to. 

Nothing, as far as I can discover, seems to be known about the complete annual 
life-cycle of the species occurring in N. W. Europe. Information is particularly 
needed not only about the range of hosts that the parasites may use at one time, but 
also what lepidoptera will be attacked when the next generation of parasites emerges. 



4 G. E. J. NIXON 

Some species emerge when the host in which they have developed is no longer 
available at a suitable stage for parasitization. For example, sordipes leaves its 
winter cocoon in the spring, its hosts being acronyctid larvae parasitized the previous 
autumn. The cocoon, described in the text, is very characteristic in appearance. 
Now specimens of Microplitis, bred during the summer months from various hosts 
but spinning a cocoon quite different from that of sordipes, seem to be inseparable 
from this species. I am therefore suggesting that sordipes makes two kinds of 
cocoon, a tough, cryptic one in which to pass the winter and a simple one, thinner in 
texture and of generalized form, on emergence from its summer hosts. This view 
is supported by the available information. 

I am not at all satisfied that I have been able to define clearly the limits of some of 
the species, for example, viduus and ruricola, mediator and tuber culif era. These 
two pairs of species are still in need of study. With few exceptions, among them 
sispes, spinolae, xanthopus and ocellatae, species of Microplitis, as far as my own 
experience allows me to judge, can be determined only by rather subtle combinations 
of characters. 

In my companion paper on Microgaster (1968), I was able to announce that I had 
discovered several useful characters that could be used in the separation of species of 
that genus. Microplitis has proved more resistant and I have been able to find only 
one new character and this, I think, has no more than species-group value. This 
structure is referred to as a ' hair-line ' ; it is composed of a fine, raised line running 
longitudinally along the inner side of the hind femur, somewhat nearer to its dorsal 
than its ventral edge. Usually this raised line or ridge is beset along its whole 
length with a row of minute setae ; adjacent to it and parallel with it along its 
dorsal side are frequently two or three finer ridges. This structure is by no means 
always well defined. It seems to occur in the solitary species and is certainly 
absent in the majority of those species that I definitely know to be gregarious. 

KEY TO SPECIES 

FEMALES 

1 First tergite distinctly, sometimes strongly, widened towards apex ... 2 
First tergite not widened towards apex, parallel-sided or more often narrowed 

apically ............. 7 

2 Hind tarsus entirely reddish yellow ; hypopygium strongly developed and ovipositor 

freely projecting (Text-fig. 28). 

Stigma bright orange-yellow on about basal third . xanthopus Ruthe (p. 28) 

Hind tarsus infuscate virtually throughout ; if not much darker than its tibia, 
then stigma dark throughout ; neither hypopygium strongly developed nor 
ovipositor freely projecting .......... 3 

3 Second tergite with at least some trace of rugosity, more distinct on lateral third . 5 
Second tergite polished and virtually smooth. 

Scutellum polished and smooth at least over most of its medial surface . . 4 

4 Flagellum slightly longer and thinner, dark throughout ; its preapical segment a 

little more than twice as long as wide ; lateral lobe of the mesoscutum polished 
and smooth right up to the anterior brow ; scutellum extensively and highly 
polished, strongly convex and with very few scattered hairs ; fore wing without 
a cloud beneath the stigma ; mesoscutum without trace of a medial keel 

capeki sp. n. (p. 27) 



A REVISION OF EUROPEAN SPECIES OF MICROPLITIS 5 

Flagellum slightly shorter and thicker, pale beneath ; its preapical segment only 
about one and one third times longer than wide ; lateral lobe of the mesoscutum 
dull because of fine surface sculpture ; mesoscutum almost always with a medial 
keel ; fore wing with a conspicuous cloud beneath the stigma ; scutellum less 
extensively polished, less convex and much more hairy . . sordipes Nees (p. 26) 

5 Scrobes above becoming smooth, polished, the shining area reaching the level of the 

anterior ocellus ; ist tergite about one and a half times longer than wide apically. 

Stigma bright orange-yellow on about basal third . . spinolae Nees (p. 27) 

Scrobes above dull, rugose, without this shining, polished space ; ist tergite 

shorter, and usually more obviously widened apically ..... 6 

6 First tergite shorter, more conspicuously widened behind (Text-fig. 2) ; 2nd 

tergite much more obviously, sometimes strongly, rugose ; mesoscutum usually 
with keel ; tegula brown or blackish .... ratzeburgi Ruthe (p. 25) 
First tergite less widened behind (Text-fig. 5) ; 2nd tergite with much weaker 
rugosity, often hardly indicated ; mesoscutum with at most a faint line of raised 
rugosity ; tegula bright reddish yellow . . . fumipennis Ratzeburg (p. 25) 

7 Antenna very short ; ist segment of flagellum very distinctly less than twice as 

long as wide. 

Notaulices showing as deeply impressed, rugose furrows ; front femur short, 
swollen ; ist tergite distinctly a little widened behind . heterocera Ruthe (p. 10) 
Antenna rarely as short as this and then the ist segment of the flagellum is fully twice 
as long as wide and the notaulices are indicated at most by a band of dull 
rugosity ............. 8 

8 Ovipositor sheath very thin (Text-fig. 29), freely projecting beyond the apex of the 

gaster by a length equal to that of the 2nd segment of the hind tarsus 

sispes sp. n. (p. 15) 

- Ovipositor sheath short, thicker, more or less concealed ..... 9 

9 First tergite subrectangular; if longer than wide, then not obviously narrowed 

apically ; if hardly longer than wide and a little constricted apically, then with a 
rather smooth, flattened appearance (ocellatae) ; in any case, never more than 
one and a half times longer than wide . . . . . . . .10 

First tergite usually markedly narrowed apically and terminating in a polished knob ; 
at least twice as long as its middle width. 

Notaulices not impressed or conspicuous though frequently indicated by a band 
of coarse rugosity ........... 22 

10 Hind femur entirely or in greater part reddish or reddish yellow . . . . n 

- Hind femur varying from blackish to pale brownish yellow flushed with darker 

colouring along dorsal surface ......... 17 

11 Apical ventrite with a deep, apical emargination (Text-fig. 20). Sculpture of 

mesoscutum much reduced, the lateral lobes strongly shining and smooth- 
looking ; ist tergite somewhat flattened and often reddened towards base ; 

tegula yellow ocellatae Bouch6 (p. 13) 

Apical ventrite not emarginate . ....... 12 

12 Tegula reddish or reddish yellow ...... 13 

- Tegula blackish ............ 15 

13 Scutellum polished and almost unsculptured over its greater, medial part ; stigma 

somewhat short and wide (Text-fig. 22), its inner, proximal margin somewhat 
convex ; preapical segment of the flagellum hardly one and two thirds times 

longer than wide . sordipes Nees (p. 26) 

Scutellum dull, rugulose all over, even if weakly at middle ; stigma of usual shape, 
its inner, proximal margin hardly convex (Text-fig. 23) ; preapical segment of 
the flagellum fully twice as long as wide. 

Stigma entirely dark ; flagellum long, thin, tapering to apex. . . . 14 



G. E. J. NIXON 













FIGS i 10. Microplitis, $ : petiole of i, mandibularis Thomson. 2, ratzeburgi Ruthe. 
3, 4, tuberculifera Wesmael. 5, fumipennis Ratzeburg. 6, idia sp. n. 7, sispes sp. n. 
8, capeki sp. n. 9, capeki sp. n., head (lateral). 10, ocellatae Bouche. 



A REVISION OF EUROPEAN SPECIES OF MICROPLITIS 7 

14 Fourth segment of the front tarsus hardly one and a half times longer than wide ; 

stigma less attenuated apically, the metacarp slightly shorter ; vannal lobe 
relatively smaller ....... strenuus Reinhard (p. 22) 

Fourth segment of the front tarsus about twice as long as wide ; stigma more 
attenuated apically, the metacarp somewhat longer ; vannal lobe relatively 
longer ......... eremita Reinhard (p. 22) 

15 Scutellum very coarsely rugose-reticulate, appearing intensely black and glistening. 

Scape reddish, except at extreme apex ; stigma brown, rather short and wide, 
its external margin showing 4-6 black bristles ; preapical segment of the flagellum 
hardly less than twice as long as wide ..... docilis sp. n. (p. 28) 
Scutellum without such coarse sculpture, though still rugose all over . . . 16 

1 6 Flagellum somewhat short and thick (Text-fig. 19), the preapical segment about 

one and a half times longer than wide ; hind femur often darkened in places 

viduus Ruthe (p. 23) 
Flagellum longer, thinner, not bristly, the preapical segment about twice as long as 

wide ; hind femur usually entirely red ..... ruricola Lyle (p. 24) 

17 Flagellum long, thin, the preapical segment fully twice as long as wide ; stigma 

entirely dark ............ 18 

Flagellum shorter, rather thick, the preapical segment not more than one and a half 

times longer than wide ; stigma usually conspicuously yellow basally . . 19 

18 Hind femur without a hair-line ; Scutellum shining and almost smooth idia sp. n. (p. 14) 
Hind femur with a hair-line ; scutellum dull, rugose all over . fordi sp. n. (p. 20) 

19 Flagellum somewhat bristly (Text-fig. 19) ; large species, c. 3-5 mm. 

Hind femur with a more or less distinct hair-line . . viduus Ruthe (p. 23) 

Flagellum not at all bristly ; smaller species, not exceeding 3 mm ... 20 

20 Stigma conspicuously marked with yellow at base ; hind tibia more or less uniformly 

dull reddish, without trace of apical infuscation ; hind femur without a hair-line. 
Setae of the gaster somewhat inconspicuous, often restricted to a single row 
on the tergites ; gregarious spp. . . . . . . . . .21 

Stigma with at most the faintest trace of yellow at base ; hind tibia rather pale 
yellow with faint, apical infuscation ; hind femur with a distinct hair-line. 

Gaster conspicuously hairy ...... fordi sp. n. (p. 20) 

21 Hind wing strongly embrowned, its basal vein deeply, almost angularly curved at 

middle (Text-fig. 12) ; front and middle femur markedly thickened ; inner spur 
of the hind tibia rather long. 

Scutellum almost polished ....... tristis Nees (p. 13) 

- Hind wing not thus embrowned, its basal vein only weakly curved at middle 

(Text-fig. 1 1) ; front and middle femur not markedly thickened ; inner spur of the 
hind tibia shorter. 

Flagellum frequently pale at base .... spectabilis Haliday (p. 12) 

22 Hind femur in greater part, or entirely, blackish or dark brown .... 23 

- Hind femur in greater part, or entirely, reddish or yellowish .... 27 

23 Mesoscutum with greatly reduced sculpture, posteriorly without an area of raised 

rugose-reticulation, the general surface decidedly shiny. 

Head distinctly widened behind the eyes ; antenna short ... 24 

Mesoscutum more strongly sculptured, posteriorly with a large area of raised rugose- 
reticulation that extends forwards along the course of the notaulices. 

First abscissa of the radius very obliquely placed on the stigma (Text-fig. 24) . 25 

24 Flagellum very short, the preapical segment hardly one and one third times longer 

than wide ; femora short and thick, especially the front pair ; stigma yellowish 
on about basal third ; ist abscissa of the radius very obliquely placed on the 
stigma ; vannal lobe small ...... aduncus Ruthe (p. 12) 



8 G. E. J. NIXON 

Flagellum longer, the preapical segment fully one and a half times longer than wide ; 
femora not unusually thickened ; stigma brown throughout ; ist abscissa of the 
radius placed almost at right angles to the stigma ; vannal lobe considerably 
longer than in aduncus. ....... naenia sp. n. (p. 14) 

25 Basal third to two fifths of stigma bright yellow ; ist tergite tending to be narrowed 

only at extreme apex. 

Preapical segment of the flagellum nearly twice as long as wide ; inner side of 
the hind femur on apical half with narrow, longitudinal band of delicate acicula- 
tion ; hind tibia straw-yellow, without or with only very faint, apical infuscation 

sofron sp. n. (p. 21) 

- Stigma dark virtually throughout ; ist tergite gradually narrowed from base to 

apex .............. 26 

26 Preapical segment of the flagellum hardly longer than wide ; hind femur without 

band of aciculation in apical half on inner side ; ist tergite polished and with 
only the most feeble indication of sculpture ; hind tibia reddish and becoming 
infuscate over fully apical third. 

Second discoidal cell deep (Text-fig. 24) .... lugubris Ruthe (p. 16) 

Preapical segment of the flagellum fully twice as long as wide ; hind femur with a 
well marked band of fine aciculation in apical half on inner side ; apical, horizontal 
part of ist tergite with strong rugosity ; hind tibia straw-yellow but becoming 
infuscate on about apical fifth ...... cebes sp. n. (p. 18) 

27 All, or most, of basal half of flagellum yellow or reddish yellow and sharply contrasting 

with an entirely dark scape. 

Spp. with tergite (2 + 3) yellow or reddish yellow . ..... 28 

- Flagellum entirely dark or if pale, then tergite (2 + 3) is entirely, or almost entirely, 

dark .............. 29 

28 Flagellum short, thick, the preapical segment not more than one and a half times 

longer than wide ; hypopygium small, inconspicuous ; ist tergite narrow, fully 
twice as long as wide at middle, almost parallel-sided, dull and quite strongly 
rugose ; anal vein of hind wing reaching distinctly beyond the middle of the 
vannal lobe (Text-fig. 15) ..... trochanterata Thomson (p. 19) 

Flagellum longer, the preapical segment twice as long as wide ; hypopygium very 
large and strongly produced (Text-fig. 26) ; ist tergite broader and a little shorter 
than in trochanterata ; more obviously narrowed apically, less rugose and frequently 
in part reddened ; anal vein of the hind wing not distinctly reaching beyond the 
middle of the vannal lobe (Text-fig. 17) . . . calcarata Thomson (p. 19) 

29 Flagellum pale on fully basal half ; ist tergite almost parallel-sided. 

Flagellum somewhat short, the preapical segment about one and a half times 
longer than wide ; hind tarsus virtually as yellow as its tibia 

tnandibularis Thomson (p. 15) 

Flagellum virtually blackish throughout, sometimes slightly pale beneath in 
tuber culif era. 

Spp. with ist tergite always much longer than wide, strongly tapered apically 
and ending in a polished knob ......... 30 

30 Antenna very distinctly shorter than the body, its preapical segment hardly one 

and a half times longer than wide ; sculpture of the mesoscutum reduced, the 
lateral lobes shining and almost polished .... naenia sp. n. (p. 14) 

Antenna about as long as the body, the preapical segment hardly less than twice as 
long as wide ; sculpture of the mesoscutum not reduced, the lateral lobes dull 
and with fine rugosity everywhere . . . . . . . .31 



A REVISION OF EUROPEAN SPECIES OF MICROPLITIS g 

12 




FIGS 11-20. Microplitis, $ : hind wing of n, spectabilis Haliday. 12, tristis Nees. 
13, sispes sp. n. 14, sispes sp. n., head (dorsal). 15, trochanterata Thomson, hind wing. 
16, idia sp. n., head (dorsal). 17, calcarata Thomson, hind wing. 18, tuberculifera 
Wesmael, <J, front tarsus. 19, viduus Ruthe, $, apical flagellar segments. 20, ocellatae 
Bouche", $, apex of gaster (ventral). 



io G. E. J. NIXON 

3 1 First tergite very narrow, about three times as long as its middle width ; pubescence 
of flagellum slightly longer, the sparse, erect bristles at middle and apex of segments 
slightly longer and more conspicuous ; pale parts of the legs almost straw- 
yellow ; hind tibia usually with well denned infuscation at extreme apex ; <$ with 
long, dense pubescence beneath front tarsus (Text-fig. 18) 

tuberculifera Wesmael (p. 17) 

First tergite less narrow, about twice as long as wide and ending in a much less 
conspicuous knob ; pubescence of flagellum slightly shorter, the erect bristles less 
noticeable ; pale parts of the legs more deeply yellow ; hind tibia usually without 
apical infuscation ; <$ without such pubescence beneath front tarsus 

mediator Haliday (p. 18) 



Microplitis heterocera (Ruthe) 

Microgaster heterocera Ruthe, 1860 : 135. 

$. Fore wing strongly darkened on proximal half ; a very dark cloud beneath the stigma ; 
stigma dark brown, with only the faintest indication of a pale basal spot ; basal quarter of 
hind wing hyaline. 

Head strongly transverse and clearly widened behind the eyes ; the surface between the 
ocelli and the eyes very shiny, only weakly rugose. Flagellum very short, much thickened 
basally ; ist flagellar segment distinctly less than twice as long as wide ; preapical segment 
about one and one third times longer than wide. 

Lobes of mesoscutum polished and almost unsculptured ; notaulices deep, flowing behind 
into an area of striate rugosity. Scutellum highly polished, with a few weak punctures laterally. 
Legs short, thick, the front femur strongly swollen ; inner spur of the hind tibia reaching slightly 
beyond the middle of the hind basitarsus. Metacarp unusually short, distinctly shorter than 
its distance from the apex of the radial cell ; stigma broad ; 2nd discoidal cell rather short and 
wide ; vannal lobe rather large. 

Caster appearing very shiny, owing to sparseness and shortness of hairs ; 2nd suture straight 
and defining tergite 2 which is short and without pale areas anterolaterally. 

Length : c. 3-3 mm. 

The above notes are based on the single female bred in Czechoslovakia by Capek. 
The type, which is in the BMNH, has the gaster and hind legs missing and scutellum 
and posterior part of the mesoscutum destroyed by a pin. In this female, the front 
femur is entirely pale ; the pale parts of the legs are paler than those of the female 
bred by Capek but this may be due to fading for the type is more than one hundred 
years old. 

Material examined. GERMANY : Berlin, Type $ in BMNH (Ruthe Coll.). 
CZECHOSLOVAKIA ; Sturovo, i $, bred 20^.1964 from Dicycla oo Linn. (M. Capek}. 

Host : Dicycla oo Linn. (Noctuidae). Cocoon greyish-white, without ribbing. 

I have examined two males, old and faded and labelled ' Conchylis zebrana. O. 
Hofman ' from the Naturhistorisches Museum, Vienna, that I am confident belong 
to this species. One specimen has the first tergite slightly widened to apex, the 
other more so ; in both specimens, this tergite is broadly polished and smooth along 
middle and across apex ; the hind tibiae are dirty yellow and the hind tarsi almost 
as pale. I am labelling these two specimens as ' heterocera Ruthe '. 



A REVISION OF EUROPEAN SPECIES OF MICROPLITIS 



21 




FIGS 21-29. Microplitis, <j> : fore wing of 21, cebes sp. n. 22, sordipes Nees. 23, eremita 
Reinhard. 24, lugubris Ruthe. 25, spectabilis Haliday. 26, calcarata Thomson. 
27, aduncus Ruthe, $, hind leg. 28, xanthopus Ruthe, $, apex of gaster (lateral). 
29, sispes sp. n., $, ovipositor sheath (lateral). 



12 G. E. J. NIXON 

Microplitis spectabilis (Haliday) 
(Text figs, ii, 25) 

Microgaster spectabilis Haliday, 1834 : 2 3^- 

Microplitis spectabilis (Haliday) Reinhard, 1880 : 359. 

Microgaster parvulus Ruthe, 1860 : 139. [Syn. Reinhard, 1880 : 359]. 

$. Tegula yellow. Wings often almost uniformly hyaline ; if the fore wing shows faint 
infuscation, then it is still strikingly paler than that of the related tristis. 

Head, seen from above, rather deep from back to front ; its upper surface evenly and, for 
the size of the insect, rather strongly rugose. Flagellum rather thick, somewhat smooth- 
looking towards apex ; preapical segment from one and one third to one and a half times 
longer than wide. 

Mesoscutum more strongly sculptured than in aduncus, a species of similar size ; its sculpture 
neither weak nor strong and hence not at all characteristic. Scutellum becoming strongly 
shining over most of its median surface and only vaguely sculptured. Stigma decidedly broad ; 
abscissa i of the radius never longer than the transverse cubitus, usually distinctly shorter ; 
vannal lobe small (Text-fig, n). Hind tibia, seen from the side, a little dilated before apex ; 
hind femur without trace of a hair-line. 

o*. Flagellum apparently always at least slightly paler beneath. 

Length : 2 -6-2 -8 mm. 

Material examined. GERMANY : Berlin district (Ruthe coll. in BMNH). 
ENGLAND : Kent, Bexley, long series bred 17^.1961 from Noctuid larva found 
ix.i96o (R. L. E. Ford] ; Gravesend, series bred .1938 from larva of Meristis 
trigrammica, found viii.1937 (R. L. E. Ford}. Hants, New Forest, series bred from 
Dyschorista fissipuncta (Lyle coll. in BMNH). MOROCCO : Gt. Atlas Mts., i <$ ; 
this male has the hind femur entirely yellow. 

Host : Dyschorista fissipuncta Haworth, now Enargia ypsilon Denis & Schiffer- 
miiller ; Meristis trigrammica Hufnagel, now Charanyca trigrammica Hutnagel. 
A gregarious parasite, spinning a loose heap of brown, unribbed cocoons. 

This species is largely characterized by the broad, bicoloured stigma and the 
general appearance of the 1st tergite. Another feature of some assistance in iden- 
tification is the dull, reddish or dingy yellow hind tibia with its complete absence of 
apical infuscation. The male differs from that of aduncus in not having the head 
widened behind the eyes. 

Microplitis aduncus Ruthe 
(Text-fig. 27) 

Microgaster aduncus Ruthe, 1860 : 129. 
Microplitis aduncus (Ruthe) Reinhard, 1880 : 359. 

<J ?. A dark-legged species ; hind femur dark brown ; all tibiae yellowish brown ; the hind 
tibiae almost as brown as their femora in one male ( Arolla) . Stigma weakly yellowish on basal 
quarter to basal third. 

$. Head conspicuously widened behind the eyes. Antenna very short, with segments 
14-17 only very slightly longer than wide ; flagellum not noticeably thickened basally, its ist 
segment fully twice as long as wide. 

Mesoscutum shiny, its sculpture much reduced ; the surface (for the genus) smooth-looking 
but duller along the course of the notaulices and behind. Scutellum almost polished but with 
some weak punctation. Radius very obliquely placed on the stigma. Legs short, thick, 



A REVISION OF EUROPEAN SPECIES OF MICROPLITIS 13 

especially the front femur ; hind femur without trace of a hair-line or fine, parallel aciculation ; 
inner spur of the hind tibia almost reaching to middle of hind basitarsus (Text-fig. 27). 

Vannal lobe small, narrow. 

Tergite i almost smooth, distinctly narrowed behind. Gaster otherwise having an evenly 
convex, highly polished appearance ; its setae short, inconspicuous compared with the majority 
of the species. 

<J. Differs from that of spectabilis in having the head markedly widened behind the eyes. 

Length : $ $, c. 2-8 mm. 

Material examined. FINLAND : Jomala, i $ (W. Hellen). SWEDEN ; Skane, 
i ? (D. M. S. 6- /. F. Perkins). SWITZERLAND : Arolla, i ?, i $ (R. B. Benson). 
Type in the BMNH. 

Like spectabilis, this species has the hind tibia uniformly dull brownish red. The 
two species are probably closely related and are most readily separated on the 
thickness of the front femur, the shape of the head and the shorter hind tarsus of 
aduncus with its relatively longer tibial spur. 

In many respects aduncus is transitional between the more generalized spectabilis 
and the extreme heterocera. 

Microplitis tristis Nees 
(Text-fig. 12) 

Microgaster tristis Nees, 1834 : 168. 

Microplitis tristis (Nees) Reinhard, 1880 : 359. 

Microplitis dolens Marshall, 1885 : 232. [Syn. Telenga, 1955 : 164.] 

$. Wings strongly embrowned, darker than in any other species but with conspicuous, 
yellow patch at base of stigma. Hind tibia uniformly dull reddish. 

Scutellum strongly shining and almost smooth over its greater, medial part. 

Setae of the gaster comparatively short and sparse. First tergite sometimes slightly widened 
apically, its sculpture weak, the general surface smooth-looking and shiny. 

EUROPE. Probably common. 

Host : Hadena cucubali Fuessly ; Hadena capsincola Hiibner (now synonym of 
H. bicruris Hufnagel). Material from both these noctuid hosts in BMNH. I have 
seen series belonging to the Naturhistorisches Museum, Vienna, labelled as bred 
from Plusia moneta Fabr. ; and Plusia consona Fabr. (Reinhard Coll.) (Noctuidae). 
A gregarious parasite, making greyish brown cocoons, without longitudinal ribs. 

This species is characterized essentially by the brown wings and curved basal 
vein of the hind wing. 

Microplitis ocellatae (Douche") 
(Text-figs 10, 20) 

Microgaster ocellatae Bouche, 1834 : 161. 
Microplitis ocellatae (Bouch6) Reinhard, 1880 : 358. 

This species is rather easily recognized by the deeply emarginate apex of the 
apical ventrite of the female (Text-fig. 20). The short, broad, very smooth-looking 
first tergite is also characteristic (Text-fig. 10). 



i 4 G. E. J. NIXON 

N. W. EUROPE. JAPAN (two examples in BMNH bred from Smerinthus planus 
Walker, del. Watanabe). 

Host : Sphingidae. Smerinthus ocellatus L., Smerinthus planus Walker ; Laothoe 
populi L., Mimas tiliae L. A gregarious parasite ; the numerous, dark, greyish 
brown cocoons, unribbed, are loosely heaped together around the body of the 
host-caterpillar. 

Microplitis idia sp. n. 

(Text-figs 6, 16) 

$. Wings faintly darkened ; stigma evenly brown ; tegula dark brown. Front and middle 
tarsus yellow. 

Head strongly transverse and clearly a little widened behind the eyes (Text-fig. 16). Clypeus 
flattened, rather shiny. Maxillary palpus rather long, the distal four segments together as long 
as the front tarsus. 

Sculpture of the mesoscutum on the whole very fine, except for the roughened, notaulic 
bands. Areolet of the fore wing very obviously four-sided. 

Tergite i about one and one third times longer than wide, flattened, very feebly sculptured 
and shiny ; very slightly narrowed apically but this hardly detracts from its essentially rect- 
angular appearance (Text-fig. 6). Hypopygium without trace of an apical emargination. 

Length : c. 4 mm. 

Type $. SWEDEN : Skane, Skaralid, 3^.1938 (D. M. S. & J. F. Perkins), 
BMNH. 

This species is chiefly characterized by its reduced sculpture and long, thin 
flagellum. Probably closely related to ocellatae, from which it differs at once in 
shape of hypopygium. Like ocellatae, it may turn out to be a gregarious parasite. 

Microplitis naenia sp. n. 

$. Wings virtually hyaline ; stigma with only a very weakly indicated basal spot ; tegula 
yellow or at least pale. Hind femur black in two out of four females (including the type) but 
yellow with basal infuscation in two others ; hind tibia infuscate almost throughout in type 
but with pale, basal ring ; in remaining females the hind tibia is yellow with extreme apical 
infuscation, more noticeable above. 

Head distinctly widened behind the eyes. 

Mesoscutum shiny, very weakly rugose for the genus ; notaulic courses indicated as dull, 
finely rugose bands ; these bands flow into a posterior area of fine rugosity in which there are 
traces of weak longitudinal striation (three females, Czechoslovakia). Scutellum flattened, 
shiny, a little less polished than in aduncus and with fine, superficial punctation. Sculpture of 
propodeum less coarse than in aduncus. Metacarp slightly longer than its distance from the 
apex of the radial cell and distinctly longer than the interior, distal margin of the stigma. Inner 
side of the hind femur without a hair-line. Mesosternal suture very narrow, hardly or only very 
weakly foveate. Mesopleural furrow long, narrow, sharply discrete. 

First tergite about twice as long as wide, markedly narrowed apically, its sculpture on the 
whole very fine and tending to fade out altogether on the apical, turned over part of the seg- 
ment ; rest of gaster highly polished, with very inconspicuous setae ; tergite (2 + 3) with a 
feebly indicated, raised median field ; 2nd suture very weakly indicated but markedly bisinuate. 

Length : c. 3-2 mm. 

Type ?. ENGLAND : Gloucester, High Meadow Woods, 4^.1936 (E. B. Britton 
6- J. F. Perkins), BMNH. 



A REVISION OF EUROPEAN SPECIES OF MICROPLITIS 15 

Paratypes. CZECHOSLOVAKIA : Sturovo, 2 $, 5^.1962, ex Taeniocampa pulver- 
ulenta (M. Capek} ; Banska Stiavnica, I , 1954 4^.1955, ex Scopelosoma satellit- 
ium (M. Capek}, Kalvaria, i $, 20^.1959, ex Scopelosoma satellitium (M. Capek} ; 
i $, labelled ' Tschek. 1872 ' in Naturhistorisches Museum, Vienna. 

Host : Taeniocampa piilverulenta Esper (now Orthosia cruda Schiffermuller) ; 
Scopelosoma (now Eupsilia} satellitia L. (Noctuidae). Cocoon brown with conspic- 
uous white ribs, solitary. 

Although this species could be confused with adunciis because of the shape of the 
head and the short antenna, it is, on the other hand, probably fairly closely related 
to idia, having like that species a relatively large vannal lobe and greatly reduced 
thoracic sculpture. It differs from idia on antennal structure and the shape of the 
first tergite. 

Microplitis mandibularis Thomson 
(Text-fig, i) 

Microplitis mandibularis Thomson, 1895 : 2251. 

cJ ?. At least the basal third of the stigma very pale yellow. Legs, excluding the hind coxae, 
entirely pale yellow. 

$. Sometimes tergite (2 + 3) is much marked with yellow ; such females can easily be con- 
fused with those of mediator ; but in mediator the hind tarsus is always strongly infuscated, the 
flagellum is always blackened and tergite i is more strongly narrowed behind. 

Inner side of the hind femur with a very weakly denned hair-line, the whole of the femoral 
area ventral to the line tending to be smooth and highly polished. 

Tergite i is almost parallel-sided (Text-fig, i), smooth-looking, except at apex, its sculpture 
very weak. 

cJ. Flagellum pale throughout though this is sometimes more obvious on the underside. 
This character alone will separate the species from tuberculifera. Front tarsus densely fringed 
beneath with pale pubescence, similar to that which occurs in the males of tuberculifera ; this 
pubescence is more easily seen and appreciated in larger males. 

Length : <J $, 2-4-3-2 mm. Very variable in size. 

Common and widely distributed in N. W. Europe. 

Host : A gregarious parasite of Jodio croceago Fabr. (pupated 28. vi ; emerged 
7.vii) ; Lampra fimbriata Schreber (pupated 26.iii ; emerged ly.iv) ; (Noctuidae) ; 
both series from S.E. ENGLAND in BMNH. 

My interpretation of this species is based on an examination of the type-series in 
Lund in 1948. 

Microplitis sispes sp. n. 

(Text-figs 7, 13, 29) 

$. Black ; tergite (2 + 3) with paler, antero-lateral areas. Wings entirely hyaline ; stigma 
dark brown throughout. Hind femur and hind tibia entirely reddish yellow in paratype ; in 
holotype, the hind femur shows extremely faint infuscation at extreme base. 

Head very strongly characteristically transverse, a little widened behind the eyes (Text-fig. 
14). Surface of frons and vertex somewhat shining, their sculpture fine for the genus. Antenna 
long, thin ; preapical segment of flagellum twice as long as wide (holotype), broken in paratype ; 
pubescence of flagellum extremely fine and not in the least upstanding. Ocelli in a low triangle, 
the posterior tangent to the anterior ocellus touching the posterior pair. 



16 G. E. J. NIXON 

Sculpture of the thorax greatly reduced, the general surface very smooth-looking compared 
with the other species dealt with in this paper. Mesoscutum finely rugose, faintly shining ; 
notaulices showing as narrow, dull bands of rugosity, that posteriorly flow into a large area of 
similar rugosity ; this posterior area is dull but without the raised rugosities found in most 
other species. Scutellum shining, smooth, weakly punctate. Mesopleurum with a narrow 
sharply defined sternaulus ; the surface below the furrow strongly shining and weakly punc- 
tate. Mesosternum rugulose, the medial suture very narrow, not obviously foveate. Wings 
rather large ; hind wing with relatively large vannal lobe (Text-fig. 13). 

Tergite I twice as long as its basal width, gradually narrowed to apex (Text-fig. 7), weakly 
rugose mostly along sides and ending apically in a polished knob. Ovipositor sheath very 
narrow, about as long as the hind basitarsus and projecting beyond the apex of the gaster by a 
length equal to the 2nd segment of the hind tarsus (Text-fig. 29). 

Length : $, 4 mm., without ovipositor sheath. 

Type $. GERMANY : Hanover, 22^.1943, ex Taeniocampa stabilis (R. Hinz), 
BMNH. 

Paratypes. I $, same data as above but 1953. CZECHOSLOVAKIA : Sikenica, 
i $, 2.V.I966 ex Taeniocampa stabilis (M. Capek). 

Host : Taeniocampa stabilis Vieweg (Noctuidae). Cocoon brown, tough, with 
strong, even, longitudinal ribs. 

Easily distinguished from all the other species in this paper by the narrow, 
strongly exserted ovipositor sheath. In general reduction of sculpture, sispes 
resembles idia but the shape of the ist tergite is different and the clypeus is not at 
all flattened. 

Microplitis lugubris (Ruthe) 
(Text-fig. 24) 

Microgaster lugubris Ruthe, 1860 : 135. 
Microplitis lugubris (Ruthe) Reinhard, 1880 : 359. 
Microplitis borealis Marshall, 1885 : 237, syn. n. 

$. A very dark species. Palpi blackish. Fore wing markedly and uniformly smoky ; 
stigma dark brown throughout. Middle and hind femora blackish ; hind tibia becoming 
gradually infuscate distal to middle, more especially on external side; otherwise reddish brown. 

Antenna rather short, with the three preapical segments varying from almost square in 
outline to about one and one quarter times longer than wide. 

Mesoscutum finely rugose ; notaulices showing as slightly rougher, rugulose bands but not 
impressed ; posterior part of mesoscutum finely, intricately rugose-reticulate. Scutellum 
strongly shining and with a variable amount of punctation. Metacarp very slightly shorter 
than its distance from the apex of the radial cell (Text-fig. 24). 

Tergite i strongly, evenly narrowed to apex, polished, almost smooth. Gaster having a very 
shining appearance owing to hairs being short and reduced almost to a single row on each 
segment ; the ill-defined tergite 2 with a blister-like swelling medially and with a pale, semi- 
circular membranous area at each antero-lateral corner. Hypopygium large and in dead 
specimens, at any rate, projecting slightly beyond the apex of the gaster. 

o*. Like the female except for the sexual differences. 

Length : 6* $. ca. 3-2 mm. 

N. W. EUROPE. Widely distributed. 

In a series of 13 males (SWITZERLAND : Valais and Engadine), the sculpture of 
the scutellum is very variable, some specimens having it finely rugose all over with 



A REVISION OF EUROPEAN SPECIES OF MICROPLITIS 17 

gradations between this condition and the shiny, predominantly punctate surface 
found in the scutellum of the female. 

All specimens that I. have identified as this species were taken in June. 

Characterized in both sexes by the position of the radius where it leaves the 
stigma and the shape and polished surface of the ist tergite. The short antenna of 
the female helps to make this sex particularly easy to identify. 

The types of both lugubris and borealis are in the BMNH. 



Microplitis tuberculifera (Wesmael) 
(Text-figs 3, 4, 18) 

Microgaster tuberculifera Wesmael, 1837 : 43. 
Microplitis tuberculifera (Wesmael) Reinhard, 1880 : 359. 

Females of this species are easily confused with those of mediator. That the two 
species are distinct is amply shown by the pubescence of the underside of the front 
tarsus of the male ; in the male of tuberculifera, the underside of the front tarsus is 
densely fringed with white silky pubescence (Text-fig. 18). 

In addition to the characters given in the key, tuberculifera may be compared 
with mediator as follows : 

$. More brightly coloured. Front and middle coxae usually entirely yellow and the hind 
coxa is frequently splashed with yellow beneath ; in mediator, the hind coxa is always blackish 
and the two front pairs are infuscated. 

Sculpture of posterior part of mesoscutum reduced, the surface being often predominantly 
granulate ; in mediator, the posterior part of the mesoscutum shows raised rugose-reticulation. 
The thoracic pubescence of tuberculifera is more conspicuous, more silky and paler (almost 
whitish) than in mediator. 

Tergite i considerably longer and narrower than in mediator, but evidently very variable in 
shape (Text-figs 3, 4). 

Length : 3-6 mm. 

N. W. EUROPE. Common and widespread. 

Host : Solitary parasite of various Noctuidae. Plusia chrysitis L., Phalaena 
typica L., Taeniocampa stabilis Vieweg. Cocoon similar to that of mediator. 

A series of sixteen females from various localities in Skane, Sweden are smaller in 
size than females from the British Isles with relatively larger head and narrower 
petiole. I was at first inclined to regard these and a corresponding series of males 
as a species distinct from tuberculifera. Nevertheless, I have several females from 
Skane that seem to be intermediate between the extreme Swedish series and the rest 
and in consequence I prefer to regard the whole of the material as belonging to one 
species, or species-aggregate, characterized in the male by the pubescence on the 
underside of the front tarsus. 



i8 G. E. J. NIXON 

Microplitis mediator (Haliday) 

Microgaster mediator Haliday, 1834 : 235. 
Microplitis mediator (Haliday) Reinhard, 1880 : 359. 
Microgaster medianus Ruthe, 1860 : 127. Syn. n. 
Microplitis medianus (Ruthe) Reinhard, 1880 : 359. 

The difficulty of finding a combination of characters for separating the female of 
this species from that of tuberculifera has already been discussed under the latter 
species. Most of the differences have been given in the key ; there is little to add. 

$. Slightly smaller and more compact in build. Although generally a darker insect, this 
species tends to be more brightly coloured than tuberculifera ; sometimes tergite (2 + 3) is 
entirely reddish yellow but I am unable to relate this either to locality or any other factor. 
Females with pale marked gaster could be confused with mandibularis but in this species the 
segments of the flagellum are shorter. 

The mesosternal suture is deeper and more obviously costate in this species than in tuber- 
culifera ; this applies also to the males. The mesoscutum of mediator posteriorly shows a 
strong tendency to develop raised reticulate rugosities. 

cJ. Distinguished from that of tuberculifera by the absence of erect silky pubescence on the 
underside of the front tarsus. 

Widespread and common in N.W. EUROPE. 

Host : Orthosia miniosa Fabr., Phalaena typica L., Amathes xanthographa Fabr., 
Cucullia verbasci L., (Noctuidae). 

A solitary species, making a greenish grey or brownish grey, feebly ribbed cocoon. 

In spite of all I have said above and even with the abundance of material that I 
have had at my disposal, I cannot claim to have denned clearly the limits of this 
species and tuberculifera. 

Microplitis cebes sp. n. 

(Text-fig. 21) 

$. Palpi dark throughout. Tegula dark brown. Wings more or less hyaline and without 
darker patches ; stigma with faint, pale, basal spot. Hind femur black or blackish (decidedly 
black in holotype) ; hind tibia somewhat pale yellow but infuscate in about apical fifth. 

Antenna markedly long, somewhat tapered distally ; the preapical segment fully twice as 
long as wide. Sculpture of vertex and temples somewhat coarse in comparison with the 
related tuberculifera. 

Notaulices defined by bands of coarse reticulation and posteriorly flowing into a large area of 
somewhat wide-meshed reticulation ; in this respect, the species differs from the tuberculifera- 
mediator complex in which the mesoscutal sculpture tends to be much more even, without or 
with hardly emphasized notaulic bands. Scutellar shield a little smoother and a little more 
shiny medially. Mesopleural furrow sharply delimited throughout. Wings : ist abscissa of 
the discoideus distinctly a little less than half as long as the 2nd (Text-fig. 21) ; metacarp as 
long as or slightly longer than its distance from the apex of the radial cell ; vannal lobe rela- 
tively larger than in tuberculifera and distally less obviously wedge-shaped. Hind femur on 
its inner side with fine hair-line in apical half, bordered above by narrow band of extremely 
fine aciculation. 

Tergite i more or less evenly narrowed to apex and with conspicuous, apical, polished knob. 

<J. Like the female, except that the hind femur may in part become suffused with paler 
colouring (i <$, Volosca). The underside of the anterior tarsus shows the normal short pubes- 
cence of the genus (but cf. tuberculifera). 

Length : <J <f>, 3-8-4-0 mm, larger than tuberculifera. 



A REVISION OF EUROPEAN SPECIES OF MICROPLITIS 19 

Type $. SWITZERLAND : Valais, near Verbier, 5000-6000 ft, 25-28^1.1959 
(/. E. & R. B. Benson], BMNH. 

Further material, paratypes. AUSTRIA : Lunz, i $ ; S. Tyrol, Radein, i $, 
both in Naturhistorisches Museum, Vienna. JUGOSLAVIA : Istria, Volosca, v., 
i <, i 9 in Nat. Mus. Vienna. CZECHOSLOVAKIA : Tatranska Polianska, Tatra 
Mts, 28. v. 1932, i $, in BMNH. SWITZERLAND : Valais, Les Haudieres, 4800 ft, 
7.vi.i935, i $ in BMNH. 

I am confident that cebes is a good species. What characterizes it is not easily put 
into words, though size, long flagellum of female, shape of first tergite and especially 
the shortness of the ist abscissa of the discoideus all play a part. In general facies, 
the species is like tuberculifera and mediator but in having stronger mesoscutal 
sculpture approaches the viduus-ruricola complex. It is noteworthy that all the 
material available is from mountainous regions in Central Europe. 

Microplitis trochanterata Thomson 

(Text-fig. 15) 
Microplitis trochanterata Thomson, 1895 : 2249. 

<$ 9- This species is essentially characterized in both sexes by the narrow, 
parallel-sided, strongly rugose petiole ; the rugosity of the petiole has a charac- 
teristic evenness. The unusually small vannal lobe of the hind wing is also a 
feature (Text-fig. 15) ; the anal vein reaches very distinctly beyond the middle of 
the vannal lobe. 

In 25 Swedish males examined, the hind femur, with two exceptions in which it 
is flushed with red along sides, is entirely dark brown ; the middle femur is usually 
sharply darkened on about basal half. Palpi infuscate, never yellow as in mediator. 

Unlike calcarata, the mesoscutum along the course of the notaulices and within a 
large, posterior area, shows an intricate rugose-reticulation ; the granulate sculp- 
ture, so much a feature of calcarata, is absent in trochanterata. 

The general appearance of the petiole is remarkably constant in all specimens 
examined, of both sexes. 

9. Striking on account of the appearance of the antenna ; the flagellum is thick, 
rather short, the first 8-9 segments bright yellowish ; the preapical segment is 
about one and one third times longer than wide ; scape dark brown. Hind femur 
with more or less distinct hair-line, bordered anteriorly by 2-3 delicate striations. 

SWEDEN : various localities in Skane, 25 <?, 3 $. ENGLAND : Hants, Stock- 
bridge, i c? ; Cornwall, Botusfleming, i ; Herts, 2 $ ; Cambridge, i <J. All 
specimens taken in late June and July. I have seen the type of this species. 

Microplitis calcarata Thomson 

(Text-figs 17, 26) 
Microplitis calcarata Thomson, 1895 : 2249. 

This species, the type of which I have seen, is easily recognized in the female by the 
strongly produced hypopygium and the largely fulvous flagellum. Of the five 



20 G. E. J. NIXON 

females I have seen (Finland, 4, England, i) all have tergite (2+3) reddish yellow 
and the hind coxa red ; one (England) has tergite I red. The males usually have 
tergite i blackened but occasionally it is wholly or in part reddened ; the hind 
femur is dull red. The wings in both sexes are brownish and the stigma shows 
hardly a trace of pallor at base. The petiole in both sexes tends to become 
smoother along the middle line towards apex and here is somewhat greasy-looking. 
Inner side of hind femur of female without any kind of modification. 

Material examined. FINLAND (both sexes). GERMANY (males). ENGLAND : 
Hants and Cambridge (males). SWEDEN (males). FRANCE. HOLLAND. Only 
one British female seen, S. ENGLAND, with stout, unevenly ribbed cocoon. 

All specimens taken in May, July and August. 



Microplitis fordi sp. n. 

9. Wings virtually hyaline ; stigma more or less evenly dark brown, sometimes very faintly 
paler at base ; tegula black. Hind femur black ; middle femur black but sharply yellowish 
on apical quarter ; hind femur predominantly yellow ; at most faintly darkened in apical 
quarter, above. 

Antenna long, rather thick, the preapical segment about one and one third times longer than 
wide ; flagellum not at all bristly. 

Notaulices not or hardly impressed but their course marked by a band of coarser rugosity 
Scutellum sculptured all over. Prescutellar fovea markedly bowed, the lateral costae being 
shorter than the medial ones. Propodeum more or less evenly convex, its reticulate sculpture 
considerably finer and closer than in the species belonging to the spinolae-fumipennis complex. 
Inner side of the hind femur with distinct ridge. 

Tergite i about one and two thirds longer than wide, its sculpture on the whole rather fine, 
slightly narrowed at extreme apex and here with transverse polished swelling rather than a 
rounded knob. 

(J. Sometimes the hind femur faintly flushed with red on inner side. 

Length : <J $, c. 3-2 mm. 

Type $. ENGLAND : Kent, Dartford Heath, ex Chesias legatella, emerged 
I7.vi.ig53 from cocoon found 20^.1953 (R. L. E. Ford), BMNH. 

Paratypes. Same data as above, 36 $, 23 $. 

Further material. ENGLAND : Surrey, Barnes, 10 $, 24 <$, bred viii.igGS from 
Chesias rufata (C. Wall). ENGLAND : no locality, 7 , 2 $, bred 29.xii.i8g2 from 
C. oblicuaria (now Chesias rufata}. Hants., New Forest, 26^.1958, i $ (J. Clark). 
SCOTLAND : Aviemore, 2 $, bred viii-ix.i936, ex Thera juniperata (R. L. E. Ford}. 

Host : Chesias legatella Schiffermiiller ; Chesias rufata Fabr., on Broom (Cytisus). 
Thera juniperata L. (All Geometridae). 

The cocoons of the early summer generation are grey, evenly fusiform and with- 
out emphasized ribs ; those of the later generation from rufata tend to be more 
pointed at each end and have sharply emphasized, whitish ribs. 

I have been much puzzled by a series of specimens in the BMNH bred from 
Eudidia mi Clerck (Plusiidae) from the following localities : ENGLAND : Kent, 
Sevenoaks, i , bred 20. vi. 1925. Cambridge, Gog Magog Hills, i J, bred 8.V.I92O, 
i <$, bred 25.^.1920 (G. T. Lyle Coll. in BMNH). Lines, Limber, i <J, 29.^.1915 



A REVISION OF EUROPEAN SPECIES OF MICROPLITIS 21 

(Cockayne). Sussex, Hailsham, io.vi.i953, i <J, (no host !) (R. L. E. Ford] ; 
Eastbourne, I <j>, bred 25^.1915. 

All females recorded as having been bred from Euclidia mi differ slightly from 
fordi in that the preapical segment of the flagellum is always fully twice as long as 
wide. The ocelli, too, are placed slightly further from the eye, the distance between 
a posterior ocellus and the eye-margin being slightly greater than twice the diameter 
of the posterior ocellus ; in fordi, this distance is generally slightly less than twice 
the diameter of the posterior ocellus. 

The cocoons of specimens from Euclidia mi are exactly like those of fordi from 
Chesias rufata. It is possible that fordi parasitizes Euclidia mi as well as Chesias 
rufata in late summer, though I do not rule out the possibility that two very closely 
related species may be involved. I should incline more to this view were it not 
for certain females of fordi bred from Chesias that approach very closely these 
specimens from Euclidia mi in respect to the two characters mentioned above. 

Lyle, who named the specimens he had from Euclidia mi as viduus Ruthe (1914 : 
no page number) states that the parasites spend the winter in the larval state within 
their cocoon and emerge in April and May. This being so, the host Chesias legatella 
would be available to them. 

Males of Microplitis are always difficult to identify but I think I have correctly 
named the two from Scotland. Their having been bred from Thera juniperata 
indicates that there is still much to be clarified concerning the range of hosts of 
fordi. 

Microplitis fordi is very close to viduus, the main difference being the pubescence 
of the flagellum of the female. 

With regard to coloration, the rather pale yellow hind tibia of fordi contrasts 
sharply with the black femur and is a useful aid towards recognizing the species. 

Microplitis sofron sp. n. 

A small species, similar in colour to fordi, with which it may be compared as 
follows : 

$. Antenna rather thin with the preapical segment twice as long as wide. Raised, rugose- 
reticulations of the posterior part of the mesoscutum more in evidence than in fordi. Vannal 
lobe relatively smaller. Tergite i narrower and more obviously narrowed behind. 

cJ. Like the female and separable from the male of fordi virtually only on wing details. 

Length : Q* $, c. 3 mm. 

Type ?. SWEDEN : Skane, Loderup, vii.igaS (D. M. S. &J. F. Perkins), BMNH. 

Further material, paratypes. SWEDEN: Loderup, vii. 1938, 2 $, i<$. ENGLAND: 
Kent, Dartford Heath, 1-7/^.1958, 2 ?, 7 <$, v.1937. i <$, ex M. cespitis, i.vi.i949, 
i o, swept from flowers of Cytisus, i.viii.i937, i $, with cocoon but no host data 
(all fl. L. E. Ford). Hants, near Lyndhurst, 30. v. 1955, i (J. Clark}. ITALY : 
Laguna Venetia, i $ (G. Soika). SCOTLAND : MP, Duncaves and Ballingling, 
vii, 2 ? ; Aviemore, vi.vii, i , 2 <j> (all A. W. Stelfox). IRELAND : Kildare, v, 
I , X ; Westmeath, Riverdale, vi, i $ ; Antrim, Bushfoot, vi, i < (all A. W. S.). 

Host : Melanchra (error for T holer a ?) cespitis Fabr. on the evidence of a single 
male. Cocoon pale brown, without obvious ribbing. 



22 G. E. J. NIXON 

This species is characterized by the brightly bicoloured stigma and the obliquely 
placed radius. A comparison of data reveals that it frequently occurs with fordi. 

Microplitis strenuus Reinhard 

Microgaster gracilis Ruthe, 1860 : 142. 

Microplitis strenuus Reinhard, 1880 : 360 (n. n. for Microgaster gracilis Ruthe, 1860, nee Curtis, 
1830). 

This species is extremely like eremita, differing from it by little more than the 
characters given in the key. But see discussion under eremita. 

Material examined. ENGLAND : Cambridge, Fleam Dyke, 20.vii.i955, i $ 
(R. L. E. Ford) ; Herts, Brickett Wood, 13. vi. 1943, i $, 17.^.1957, i <$ (R. B. 
Benson) ; Surrey, Dorking, 20.vi.i953, i <$ (G. J. Kerrich], Newdigate, 2 $, emerged 
8.vi.i959, ex Episema caeruleocephala, collected 23^.1959 (M. Schaffer). GERMANY : 
neighbourhood of Berlin, type $, in BMNH. SWEDEN : Skane, Kivik, i8.vii.i938, 
i $ (D. M. S. &J. F. Perkins). TURKEY : Ankara, 3000 ft, 26.vi.i959, i $ (K. M. 
Guichard) ; this female has the hind femur extensively infuscate along the dorsal 
surface. 

Host : Episema caeruleocephala Linn. (Noctuidae). Cocoon rather small, 
evenly cylindrical, dark grey with greenish tint and without obvious ribbing ; 
hardly distinguishable from the cocoon of fordi from Chesias legatella but a little 
darker. 

Apart from its deceptive resemblance to eremita, strenuus is characterized by the 
combination of long thin flagellum and bright reddish yellow tegula. It is less 
heavily built and less strongly sculptured than the ruricola-viduus complex and the 
wings are much more nearly hyaline. 

Microplitis eremita Reinhard 
(Text-fig. 23) 

Microplitis eremita Reinhard, 1880 : 360. 

cj $. Tegula, hind tibia and hind femur bright reddish yellow. Wings almost hyaline ; 
only the merest trace of a cloud beneath the stigma ; stigma with only the merest trace of 
pallor at base. 

9- The flagellum is paler beneath with the articulations of the segments showing as faintly 
darker rings ; in strenuus the segments are more uniformly darkened. Fore wing (Text-fig. 
23). 

Material examined. AUSTRIA : 5 <, 2 $, all with their cocoon, bred from Litho- 
campa ramosa. One male and one female in BMNH ; rest in Naturhistorisches 
Museum, Vienna. 

Host : Lithocampa (now Callierges) ramosa Esper (Noctuidae). Reinhard 
records the host as Dryocampa ramosa. The moth occurs in Central Europe but is 
not known from the British Isles. The remarkable cocoon is greyish brown and 
appears unusually long because of a somewhat flattened, basal pad that forms an 
extension of the cocoon and by means of which the cocoon is fastened to a twig ; 
the cocoon proper bears three dark, transverse bands. 



A REVISION OF EUROPEAN SPECIES OF MICROPLITIS 23 

The two characters that link eremita and strenuus are the yellow tegula and the 
long, thin flagellum. So deceptively alike are the two species that, without their 
cocoons, I should have regarded them as one. 

The seven specimens of eremita are all labelled ' Silesia '. Two are dated ' Decem- 
ber ' and two ' May ' and from this may be inferred, I think, that the species passes 
the winter in its very distinctive cocoon. The host-larva, C. ramosa, feeds in the 
autumn. If this host occurred in England, I should not hesitate to put forward the 
suggestion that a single species is present, spinning a tough, cryptic, winter cocoon 
(eremita) and a simple, unmodified, early summer cocoon (strenuus). How strenuus 
passes the winter is not yet known ; that it may parasitize an autumn feeding host 
related to Callierges ramosa and make a cocoon similar to that of eremita cannot be 
ruled out. 

Microplitis viduus (Ruthe) 
(Text-fig. 19) 

Microgaster viduus Ruthe, 1860 : 134. 
Microplitis viduus (Ruthe) Reinhard, 1880 : 358. 

$. The type is more than one hundred years old and is somewhat faded. The 
hind femur is brown but flushed with paler colouring on each side within apical half ; 
the hind tibia is entirely reddish yellow, without apical infuscation. Stigma evenly 
brown. Antennae missing. 

A bred series that I confidently believe to be this species (England, Bucks, Slough) 
differs from the type in that the stigma shows a bright yellow patch at base, covering 
about basal third ; the hind femur is black in all five females and the hind tibia 
shows weak, apical infuscation. 

In five females from the Eastern Mediterranean region (Greece, Cyprus, Palestine), 
the hind femur varies in colour from that shown by the type to entirely reddish 
yellow ; these females also have the base of the stigma much more extensively 
yellow than in the bred series from Slough but they agree with these specimens in 
the important antennal characters (see key) and (Text-fig. 19). 

Material examined. ENGLAND : Bucks, Slough, 5 $, bred viii.1939, ex larva of 
Hadena serena, found same month on Crepis vireus (0. W. Richards] ; Dorset, 
Wareham, i <j>, 27^11.1954 (J. Clark) ; Kent, Bexley, i <j>, vii.i945 (R. L. E. Ford}. 
GERMANY : neighbourhood of Berlin, type-locality. CYPRUS : iv, 2 $. GREECE : 
Mt. Penteli, v, 2 $. PALESTINE : i . 

Type in BMNH. 

Host : Hadena serena Fabr. (Noctuidae). Cocoon brown, without ribs or paler, 
transverse bands ; one of the cocoons is green. 

This species is clearly related to fordi, from which it differs in being much more 
heavily sculptured ; this applies particularly to the propodeum, which is much 
more coarsely reticulate-rugose in viduus than in fordi ; the structural details of 
the flagellum are abundantly different in the two species. In coloration and 
sculpture, viduus approaches much more closely to ruricola and here again, the only 
reliable differences are provided by the antenna. 



24 G. E. J. NIXON 

I have found no satisfactory character for separating the male of viduus from that 
of ruricola. 



Microplitis ruricola Lyle 

Microplitis ruricola Lyle, 1918 : 132. 

$. Hind femur sometimes entirely bright reddish yellow ; sometimes darkened at base and 
apex but apparently never entirely black. Tegula black as in viduus. Stigma at most with a 
very faint, basal spot. 

As in viduus, the sternaulus in front, where it bends upwards, tends to lose defini- 
tion, its rugosities merging with the coarse sculpture of the mesopleurum immediately 
above the front coxa ; in this respect, compare strenuus. 

Material examined. ENGLAND : Hants, New Forest, type-series, bred from 
Anarta myrtilli (G. T. Lyle Coll. in BMNH). Cambridge. Herts. Kent. Surrey. 
GERMANY : Freiburg. 

Host : Anarta myrtilli L. (Noctuidae), host of type-series. Amphipyra berbera 
Rungs (Noctuidae) ; parasites emerged in June and July. Calophasia lunula 
Hufnagel (Noctuidae) in Germany. Of the type-series in the BMNH only the 
lectotype male has its cocoon ; this is greyish white with faint greenish tint and is 
similar to the nine cocoons preserved with the series of five females and four males 
bred from A. berbera. 

The only difference between this species and viduus that I think can be said really 
to have specific value, lies in the length and vestiture of the apical antennal seg- 
ments ; all other characters appear to overlap. It can be said, however, that most 
specimens of ruricola, whether male or female, have predominantly reddish yellow 
hind femora with uniformly dark stigma, while in viduus, at least in N. European 
specimens, the hind femur is black and the stigma shows a conspicuous yellow, basal 
blotch. 

The position is further complicated by the presence in the BMNH of a female bred 
from Hadena ochroleuca Esper (Eremobia o.) which has the flagellum, and colour of 
hind femur as in ruricola but a fairly conspicuous yellow spot at the base of the 
stigma as in viduus. There is also in the BMNH a male, bred from the same host, 
as the female, in July ; this male has the conspicuous pale spot at base of stigma as 
in viduus but the hind femur is predominantly reddish yellow with darkening only 
at base above. 

There is yet another male in the BMNH, bred from Anepia irregularis Hufnagel 
(Noctuidae), clearly conspecific with the above male but with the hind femur 
darkened at apex as well as at base and a much more conspicuous yellow blotch at 
base of stigma. These three specimens have the same kind of cocoon as the bred 
specimens from Amphypyra berbera and Anarta myrtilli. I am labelling them as 
ruricola in spite of colour gradations towards viduus. 



A REVISION OF EUROPEAN SPECIES OF MICROPLITIS, 25 

Microplitis fumipennis (Ratzeburg) 
(Text-fig. 5) 

Microgaster fumipennis Ratzeburg, 1852 : 49. 
Microplitis fumipennis (Ratzeburg) Reinhard, 1880 : 358. 

cj ?. Tegula bright reddish yellow ; dark brownish in 2 <, i $, from Switzerland, Valais. 
Fore wing strongly embrowned ; more so on proximal half than in the related sordipes, though, 
as in that species, with a darker cloud beneath the stigma ; stigma with or without a yellow 
spot at base. Hind femur reddish yellow ; hind basitarsus, at least on outer side, as reddish 
over basal half as the tibia. 

$. Middle lobe of the mesoscutum without a medial keel ; at most with a faintly raised line 
of rugosities. Preapical segment of the flagellum about twice as long as wide. Scutellum 
tending to become smooth right at middle and here with a few, ill-defined punctures. Stern- 
aulus very coarsely rugose and losing definition in front, its rugosities merging with those of the 
mesosternum anterior to it. Hind tarsus somewhat tapered towards apex ; outer spur of the 
hind tibia very slightly longer than the inner one. Rugosity of the second tergite generally 
very weak, variable and more or less absent in the male. 

Length : $ $, c. 4 mm ; one of the largest species. 

Material examined. ENGLAND : Lanes, Burnley, i $, labelled ' ex geo. larva, 
v.'. IRELAND : i $, ex Acronycta rumicis, found 28.vii.iQ35, parasite emerged 
vi.i-936 (Stelfox Coll., now in U.S. Nat. Mus.). POLAND : 4 $, 9 <$, bred from 
Chamaepora auricoma, i 9 ex Acronycta rumicis. SCOTLAND : Aberdeen, i <$, i 9, 
bred v., ex Acronycta menyanthidis. 

Type in BMNH. 

Host : With the exception of the specimen from Burnley, this species seems to be 
confined to the genus A crony eta (now Apatele] and has been bred from the following 
species : A. rumicis L., A. auricoma Fabr. (Chamaepora auricoma}, A. menyan- 
thidis Vieweg. 

All the Polish specimens bred from auricoma are with their cocoons and bear 
various dates from October to April. These cocoons, like those of the single Irish 
example from rumicis and the Scottish examples from menyanthidis are large, 
greyish brown, with or without two or three indistinct, longitudinal ribs and un- 
usually broadly flattened along the side of attachment. This is certainly the tough, 
cryptic cocoon in which the parasite passes the winter. 

If the adult emerges in late spring or early summer, it presumably makes use of 
an alternative host before attacking its acronyctid hosts in the late summer and 
early autumn ; the single female from Burnley, without cocoon, suggests that this 
alternative host may be found among the Geometridae. 

Microplitis ratzeburgi (Ruthe) 
(Text-fig. 2) 

Microgaster ratzeburgi Ruthe, 1960 : 143. 
Microplitis ratzeburgi (Ruthe) Reinhard, 1880 : 359. 
Microplitis cerurae Matsumura, 1921 : 52. Syn. n. 

< $. This species has tergite i much more widened towards apex than fumi- 
pennis (Text-fig. 2) and tergite 2 much more rugose. 



26 G. E. J. NIXON 

Material examined. JAPAN : Sapporo, i 9, in BMNH, bred from Centra lanigera. 
GERMANY : Baden, i <$, bred from Cerura sp., on poplar (Populus) ; Berlin Dist., 
i $, (Ruthe Coll., in BMNH.) These three specimens have the tegula dark brown. 

Type in BMNH. 

Host : Cerura lanigera Butler, Cerura sp. (Notodontidae). Cocoon uniformly 
brown, smoother-looking than that of fumipennis and without ribbing ; it is more 
cylindrical in appearance than that of fumipennis and more narrowly attached to 
the substratum. 

Microplitis sordipes (Nees) 

Microgaster sordipes Nees, 1834 : 167. 
Microplitis sordipes (Nees) Reinhard, 1880 : 359. 

$. A species characterized by the absence of sculpture over the middle part of the scutellum ; 
this becomes smooth, almost polished and with a few scattered punctures. 

Flagellum pale beneath. All the femora and tibiae bright reddish yellow ; front tarsus 
reddish yellow. Fore wing with a cloud beneath the stigma. 

Flagellum rather thick. Middle lobe of the mesoscutum with very weak, longitudinal keel. 
Sides of the scutellar disc with rugosity that merges very gradually into the strong costae of 
the lateral area. 

Tergite i about one and one third times longer than its middle width and evenly rugose. 

Material examined. ENGLAND : Bucks, Slough, i $, from cocoon collected 
I7.ix.i946; adult emerged iv. 1947 (0. W. Richards). GERMANY. POLAND: 2<$<$, 
bred from Acronycta rumicis (Wiackowski). FINLAND : Kyarvi, i -, labelled 
' 8.ix.i939, ex larva of Pygaera pigra (Mus. Helsinki) ; Ta. Saaksmaki, i -> 21. xi. 
1936, ex Acronycta psi (Mus. Helsinki). CZECHOSLOVAKIA : Junovice, i -> 17-x. 
1950, ex Pygaera anachoreta (M. Capek) ; BOHEMIA : Praha-Ruzyne, i $, 25. xi, 
ex Acronycta psi L. (M. Capek). 

Host : Acronycta psi L. ; Acronycta rumicis L. (Acronyctidae). Pygaera ana- 
choreta Fabr. ; Pygaera pigra Hufnagel (Notodontidae). The larvae of all these 
moths show a certain degree of hairiness ; this may play an important part in 
host-selection by the parasite. 

Cocoon of very characteristic appearance, rather small, barrel-shaped, grey with 
brown ends and a brown, medial band ; usually fastened to a thin twig. Being 
brown-banded, the cocoon bears a superficial resemblance to that of eremita. 

Although I have seen only seven cocoons of sordipes, these were all found in the 
autumn, with adults emerging the following spring. Their tough texture and 
cryptic coloration suggest an adaptation to winter conditions. 

I provisionally include in my concept of sordipes a series of specimens bred during 
the summer months that make a cocoon entirely different from that of typical 
sordipes. These cocoons are evenly fusiform, thin in texture, pale grey with greenish 
tint or, more rarely, entirely greenish. The insects emerging from them and which 
I am unable to separate satisfactorily from sordipes I am labelling as ' sordipes, 
summer generation '. The material is as follows : 

CZECHOSLOVAKIA : Holic, i $, 10^.1967, ex Scopelosoma satellitia (M. Capek) ; 
Banska Stiavnica, i ., i6.vii-i.viii, ex Acronycta psi (M. Capek) ; Zap. Nemecke, 



A REVISION OF EUROPEAN SPECIES OF MICROPLITIS 27 

i , i.viii.i963, ex Acronycta alni (M. Capek). ENGLAND : Surrey, Godalming, i 
cJ, bred 7.viii.i946 from cocoon found 25.vii.i946 ; Gloucester, Shalford, i <, bred 
3.vii. from Noctuid larva on Glyceria aquatica (0. W. Richards}. FINLAND : 
Jomala, i $ (W. Hellen). JAPAN : Sapporo, i , exPorthesia similis (C. Watanabe). 

Host : Acronycta alni L., Acronycta psi L., Scopelosoma satellitia L. (now Eupsilia 
transversa L.) ; all Noctuidae. Porthesia similis Fuessly (Lymantriidae). 

In ascribing two different types of cocoon to sordipes, I have taken a course of 
action that helps me out of a taxonomic difficulty but at the same time finds some 
support in the available information. Nevertheless, I do not exclude the possibility 
that I have been unable to separate two closely related species. 



Microplitis spinolae (Nees) 

Microgaster spinolae Nees, 1934 : J 66. 
Microplitis spinolae (Nees) Reinhard, 1880 : 358. 

$. Basal half of ventral surface of gaster yellow. Hind femur and hind tibia entirely reddish 
yellow. 

Flagellum long, slightly tapered apically, the preapical segment fully twice as long as wide. 

Distribution. N. W. EUROPE and eastwards as far as PERSIA and DAGHESTAN 
on the material available for examination. 

Host unknown. 

This species is rather easily recognized by the antennal scrobes above being smooth 
and polished ; the shining, unsculptured zone sometimes reaches as far as the 
posterior ocelli. Once appreciated, this feature will alone separate spinolae from all 
the other large species of similar coloration. 



Microplitis capeki sp. n. 

(Text-figs 8, 9) 

$. In general body form and shape of first tergite extremely like sordipes. Fore wing to the 
naked eye faintly but evenly brownish ; the absence of a dark cloud beneath the stigma makes 
the fore wing of this species markedly different in appearance from that of sordipes. Hind 
femur and hind tibia entirely red. Flagellum only faintly paler beneath. 

In a lateral view of the head, the temple is almost angled (Text-fig. 9), a feature absent in 
sordipes. The polished scutellum is more broadly triangular than in sordipes and occupies 
virtually the whole of the disc ; in sordipes, the polished area is more narrowed behind and has 
a broader area of rugosity along the lateral margin. Tergite i not, or only very slightly, 
widened towards apex (Text-fig. 8). 

Length : c. 3-8 mm, a little smaller than sordipes. 

Type $. CZECHOSLOVAKIA : Veseli, 13^1.1954, ex Hypogymna morio (leg. 
Netopil), (in coll. Capek). 

Paratypes. Three females, same data. 

Host : Hypogymna morio L. (now Penthophera morio) (Lymantriidae). A 
solitary parasite making a bright grass-green cocoon. 



28 G. E. J. NIXON 

With its long thin antenna, this species is much like strenuus, but strenuus has a 
dull, sculptured mesoscutum and scutellum and the first tergite is slightly longer 
arid narrower. 

Microplitis xanthopus (Ruthe) 
(Text-fig. 28) 

Microgaster xanthopus Ruthe, 1860 : 147. 
Microplitis xanthopus (Ruthe) Reinhard, 1880 : 358. 

9. Easily recognized on the characters given in the key. The flagellum is rather thick, 
with the preapical segment about one and a half times longer than wide. The scutellum is 
dull and strongly rugose all over. The 2nd tergite shows a variable amount of rugosity and in 
some specimens is almost absent. 

<J. In 16 males examined, the sculpture of the mesoscutum is very variable with 
regard to the degree of rugosity shown on the posterior half ; sometimes the pos- 
terior area is deeply impressed and filled with very coarse rugosities ; more rarely, 
the impression is shallow and rugosities correspondingly weak. The more strongly 
sculptured males are thus very like those of fumipennis but can always be separated 
from that species by having the hind tarsus more or less entirely yellow and the 
scutellum more or less evenly rugose ; male xanthopus can even more reliably be 
separated from male fumipennis by having the parameres of the genitalia broadly 
truncate at apex ; in fumipennis they are more or less evenly tapered to apex. 

Material examined. GERMANY : i $. IRELAND : 9 $, 15 <$. SWEDEN : 2 $, 
i c. WALES : i 9. 

Host unknown. 

Microplitis docilis sp. n. 

9- Legs, except coxae, bright reddish yellow ; hind tarsus weakly infuscate. Scape of 
antenna bright reddish yellow. Wings faintly darkened ; stigma faintly paler at base. Ter- 
gite (2 + 3) reddish, a little more darkened medially. 

Head above, and the temples, very coarsely rugose. Antenna rather thick ; preapical 
segment fully one and two thirds longer than wide ; pubescence of flagellum conspicuous and 
somewhat bristly. 

Mesoscutum very strongly shining, and, for the size of the insect, unusually strongly rugose ; 
prescutellar furrow half as long as the scutellar shield itself. Reticulation of the propodeum 
very coarse and very wide-meshed. Sternaulus very coarsely foveate and hardly differentiated 
from the rugose sculpture of the mesosternum ventral to it. The distal third of the subcostalis 
and the edge of the stigma show several, widely spaced but clearly differentiated black bristles. 

Tergite i very slightly narrowed apically, rugose and about one and a half times longer than 
wide. Tergite 2, as denned by the weak 2nd suture, with a trace of rugosity on each side of 
median swollen area. Hypopygium very short, the ovipositor completely concealed. 

Length : c. 3-2 mm. 

Type $. Ruokolahti, 17^1.1948 (W. Hellen], Helsinki Museum. 

This species is largely characterized by its coarse, glistening sculpture which, 
with regard to mesoscutum and scutellum, is enhanced to some extent by the 
relatively sparse pubescence. 



A REVISION OF EUROPEAN SPECIES OF MICROPLITIS 29 

REFERENCES 

BOUCHE, P. F. 1834. Naturgeschichte der Insekten, besonders in Hinsicht ihrer ersten 

Zustande als Larven und Puppen. 216 pp. Berlin. 
LYLE, G. T. 1918. Contributions to our knowledge of the British Braconidae. Entomologist, 

51 : 129-137. 
WESMAEL, C. 1837. Monographic des Braconides de Belgique. Nouv. Mem. Acad. R. Sci. 

Bruxelles 10 : 68 pp. 

All other references will be found in : 

NIXON, G. E. J. 1968. A Revision of the Genus Microgaster Latreille (Hymenoptera : 
Braconidae). Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.). 22 (2) : 23-72. 



INDEX 



aduncus, Microgaster, 12 

aduncus, Microplitis, 7, 12, 15 

Acronycta, 25, 26 

alni, Acronycta, 27 

Amathes, 18 

Amphipyra, 24 

anachoreta, Pygaera, 26 

Anarta, 24 

Anepia, 24 

Apatele, 25 

aquatica, Glyceria, 27 

auricoma, Chamaepora, 25 

berbera, Amphipyra, 24 

bicruris, Hadena, 13 

borealis, Microplitis, 16, 17 

Broom, 20 

caeruleocephala, Episema, 22 

calcarata, Microplitis, 8, 19 

Calophasia, 24 

capeki, Microplitis, 4, 27 

capsincola, Hadena, 13 

cebes, Microplitis, 8, 18 

Cerura, 26 

cerurae, Microplitis, 25 

cespitis, Melanchra 

Chamaepora, 25 

Charanyca, 12 

Chesias, 20 

chrysitis, Plusia, 17 

consona, Plusia, 13 

Crepis, 23 

croceago, Jodio, 15 

cruda, Orthosia, 15 

cucubali, Hadena, 13 

Cucullia, 1 8 

Cytisus, 20 

Dicycla, 10 

docilis, Microplitis, 7, 28 

Dyschorista, 12 



Enargia, 12 

Episema, 22 

eremita, Microplitis, 7, 22, 23 

Eremobia, 24 

Euclidia, 20 

Eupsilia, 27 

fimbriata, Lampra, 15 

fissipuncta, Dyschorista, 12 

fordi, Microplitis, 7, 20, 21, 22, 23 

fumipennis, Microgaster, 25 

fumipennis, Microplitis, 5, 25, 28 

gracilis, Microgaster, 22 

Glyceria, 27 

Hadena, 13, 23, 24 

hererocera, Microplitis, 5, 10, 13 

Hypogymna, 27 

idia, Microplitis, 7, 14, 15 

irregularis, Anepia, 24 

Jodio, 15 

juniperata, Thera, 20, 21 

Lampra, 15 

lanigera, Cerura, 26 

Laothoe, 14 

legatella, Chesias, 20, 22 

lugubris, Microplitis, 16 

lugubris, 8 

lunula, Calophasia, 24 

Lymantriidae, 27 

mandibularis, Microplitis, 8, 15 

menyanthidis, Acronycta, 25 

mediator, Microgaster, 18 

mediator, Microplitis, 4, 10, 18, 19 

medianus, Microgaster, 18 

medianus, Microplitis, 18 

Melanchra, 21 

Meristis, 12 

mi, Euclidia, 20, 21 

Mimas, 14 

miniosa, Orthosia, 18 



INDEX 



moneta, Plusia, 13 

morio, Hypogymna, 27 

morio, Penthophera, 27 

myrtilli, Anarta, 24 

naenia, Microplitis, 8, 14 

Noctuidae, 23, 24 

Notodontidae, 26 

oblicuaria, Chesias, 20 

ocellatae, Microplitis, 4, 5, 13, 14 

ocellatus, Smerinthus, 14 

ochroleuca, Eremobia, 24 

ochroleuca, Hadena, 24 

oo, Dicycla, 10 

Orthosia, 15, 18 

Penthophera, 27 

Phalaena, 18 

pigra, Pygaera, 26 

planus, Smerinthus, 14 

Plusia, 13, 17 

Plusiidae, 20 

poplar, 26 

populi, Laothoe, 14 

Populus, 26 

Porthesia, 27 

psi, Acronycta, 26 

pulverulenta, Taeniocampa, 15 

Pygaera, 26 

ratzeburgi, Microplitis, 5, 25 

ratzeburgi, Microgaster, 25 

rufata, Chesias, 20 

rumicis, Acronycta, 25, 26 

ruricola, Microplitis, 4, 23, 24 

ruricola-viduus complex, 22 

Taeniocampa, 15, 16 



Thera, 20 

Tholera, 21 

tiliae, Mimas, 14 

trans versa, Eupsilia, 27 

trigrammica, Charanyca, 12 

trigrammica, Meristis, 12 

tristis, Microplitis, 7, 13 

trochanterata, Microplitis, 8, 19 

tuberculifera, Microplitis, 4, 10, 17, 18, 19 

typica, Phalaena, 17, 1 8 

satellitia, Eupsilia, 15 

satellitia, Scopelosoma, 15, 26 

Scopelosoma, 15, 26 

serena, Hadena, 23 

similis, Porthesia, 27 

sispes, Microplitis, 4, 5, 15 

Smerinthus, 14 

sofron, Microplitis, 8, 21 

spectabilis, 7 

sordipes, Microplitis, 4, 5, 26 

spectabilis, Microplitis, 12, 13 

spinolae, Microgaster, 27 

spinolae, Microplitis, 4, 5, 27 

stabilis, Taeniocampa, 16, 17 

strenuus, Microplitis, 7, 22, 24 

verbasci, Cucullia, 18 

viduus, Microgaster, 23 

viduus, Microplitis, 4, 7, 21, 23, 24 

viduus-ruricola complex, 19 

vireus, Crepis, 23 

xanthographa, Amathes, 18 

xanthopus, Microgaster, 28 

xanthopus, Microplitis, 4, 28 

ypsilon, Enargia, 12 



GILBERT EDWARD JAMES NIXON, B.A., 
COMMONWEALTH INSTITUTE OF ENTOMOLOGY 
c/o BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 
LONDON, S.W.7, ENGLAND 



Printed in England by Staples Printers Limited at their Kettering, Northants, establishment 



A SYNONYMIC CATALOGUE 

OF THE GENERA OF PHYCITINAE 

(LEPIDOPTERA : PYRALIDAE) 

OF THE WORLD 




P. E. S. WHALLEY 



BULLETIN OF 

THE BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 
ENTOMOLOGY Vol. 25 No. 2 

LONDON: 1970 



A SYNONYMIC CATALOGUE OF THE GENERA 
OF PHYCITINAE (LEPIDOPTERA : PYRALIDAE) 

OF THE WORLD 




BY 



PAUL ERNEST SUTTON WHALLEY 



Pp. 31-72 



BULLETIN OF 

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TRUSTEES OF 
THE BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 

Issued 21 July, 1970 Price i 55. 



A SYNONYMIC CATALOGUE OF THE GENERA 
OF PHYCITINAE (LEPIDOPTERA : PYRALIDAE) 

OF THE WORLD 

By PAUL E. S. WHALLEY 

CONTENTS 

Page 

INTRODUCTION ........... 33 

NOMENCLATURE CHANGES ......... 34 

ABBREVIATIONS .......... 34 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ......... 34 

SYNONYMIC CATALOGUE ......... 34 

REFERENCES ........... 65 

INDEX OF SPECIES .......... 66 

SYNOPSIS 

This synonymic catalogue includes all generic and subgeneric names of the Phycitinae 
(Lepidoptera : Pyralidae) of the world. Designation of type-species and their localities are 
given. 

INTRODUCTION 

PRESENT views differ on the relative status of the Phycitinae and the Anerastiinae 
and they are variously regarded as distinct subfamilies or as two tribes of one large 
family. In this catalogue all the generic names which are at present attributed to 
the Phycitinae are included, and a subsequent catalogue will deal with the Aner- 
astiinae. In a few cases, genera which should, perhaps, be in the Anerastiinae are 
included in the present catalogue, and their exact status will have to await a generic 
revision. The synonymy, with a few exceptions noted in the text, is from published 
literature. The junior synonyms of genera are given under their appropriate senior 
one, although referred to in the alphabetic sequence. 

The information is arranged in the following sequence, following the generic name ; 

Author, date, original reference. Type-species (followed by an author, date and 
reference in some cases, see below), designation. Type-species locality. Author, 
date, page, (in brackets following the junior synonym.) 

The references are abbreviated to follow the ' World List ' except in a few cases 
(see under Abbreviations). 

The type-species are given with their original genus, abbreviated if the species 
was originally described in the genus concerned, otherwise with the generic name 
in full. 

A reference after the type-species is given when the type-species designation was 
made after the original description (i.e. type by subsequent designation). A few 
type-species designations are given for the first time and these are indicated in the 
text. 

The designation of the type-species of the genus is given as original designation, 
subsequent designation, present designation or by monotypy, as appropriate. 

The locality is for the type-specimen only and is not intended as the distribution 
of the species. 



34 P. E. S. WHALLEY 

A reference in brackets follows the locality in the case of junior synonyms. This 
gives the reference to the origin of the subjective synonymy accepted. 

NOMENCLATURE CHANGES 

Homonyms have been replaced where no junior synonymic name was available 
for use. The following new names are proposed ; Abareia, Infinita, Keradere, 
Plagoa, Zynodes (details in text). 

New synonymy is given under Oncocera Stephens, Addyme Walker, and Amyelois 
Amsel. 

ABBREVIATIONS 

Dem. Rep. Congo. Democratic Republic of the Congo (= former Belgian 

Congo). 

Inaugural Dissertation, A doctoral dissertation of Dr U. Roesler, Saarbriicken, 
Saarbriicken. which has been produced in sufficient quantity and suit- 

ably reproduced to be considered as published (see also 
references). 

N. Am. Phycit. North American Phycitidae, see references under 

Ragonot. 

nom. n. New name, indicates a replacement name for a homonym. 

Nouv. Phycit. Nouveaux Phycitidae, see references under Ragonot. 

orig. desig. Type designation by the original author (original desig- 

nation). 

Rom. Mem. Memoirs on the Lepidoptera edited by N. M. Romanoff, 

see references under Ragonot. 

subseq. desig. Type designation by a subsequent author (subsequent 

designations). 
While all the type-species localities have been taken from the original references, 

the names of the major units have been altered to conform with the present day 

terminology. 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

This catalogue is based on work started by the late R. J. Collins. 
To my colleagues in the British Museum (Natural History) I am indebted for 
their comments and advice. 

SYNONYMIC CATALOGUE 

ABAREIA nom. n. for Abarys Turner. Abarys amaurodes Turner, by monotypy of Abarys 
Turner. Australia : Queensland. 

Abarys Turner, 1947, Trans. R. Soc. S. Aust. 71 : 40. Abarys amaurodes Turner, by 
monotypy. Australia : Queensland. Preoccupied by Abarys Agassiz, 1846. 

Abarys Turner, see Abareia nom. n. 

ABREPHIA Amsel, 1953, Beitr. naturk. Forsch. SudwDtl. 12 : 15. Phycis compositella 
Treitschke, by monotypy of Brephia Heinemann. Europe. 

Brephia Heinemann, 1865, Schmett. Dtl. u. d. Schweiz 11 : 173. Phycis compositella 
Treitschke, by monotypy. Europe. (Preoccupied by Brephia Hiibner, 1825.) 



SYNONYMIC CATALOGUE OF GENERA OF PHYCITINAE 35 

ACOLASTODES Meyrick, 1934, Exot. Microlepidopt. 4 : 489. A. oenotripla Meyrick, by 
monotypy. Fiji. 

ACORNIGERULA Amsel, 1935, Veroff. dt. Kolon. u. Ubersee-Mus. Bremen 1 : 207. A. 
bilineella Amsel, by monotypy. Israel. 

ACROBASIS Zeller, 1839, Isis, Leipzig 1839 : 176. Phycis tumidella Zincken, subseq. 
desig., Hulst, 1890, Trans. Am. ent. Soc. 17 : 120. Europe. 

Acrocaula Hulst, 1900, Can. Ent. 32 : 169. A. comacornella Hulst, by monotypy. 
U.S.A. : Texas. (Heinrich, 1956 : 12.) 

Mineola Hulst, 1890, Trans. Am. ent. Soc. 17 : 126. Myelois indigella Zeller, orig. desig. 
U.S.A. (Heinrich, 1956 : 12.) 

Seneca Hulst, 1890, ibid. 17 : 177. Cateremna tumidulella Ragonot, orig. desig. U.S.A. : 
Florida. (Heinrich, 1956 : 12.) 

ACROBASOPSIS Amsel, 1958, Beitr. naturk. Forsch. SudwDtl. 17 : 71. A. talhouki Amsel, 
orig. desig. Arabia. 

Acromeseres Dyar, see Ulophora Ragonot. 

ACRONCOSA Barnes & McDunnough, 1917, Can. Ent. 49 : 404. A. albiflavella Barnes & 
McDunnough, subseq. desig., Heinrich, 1956, Bull. U. S. natn. Mus. 207 : 174. U.S.A.: 
California. 

ACTINOCRATES Meyrick, 1934, Exot. Microlepidopt. 4 : 492. A. euryniphas Meyrick, by 
monotypy. Fiji. 

ACTRIX Heinrich, 1956, Bull. U. S. natn. Mus. 207 : 139. Tacoma nyssaecolella Dyar, orig. 
desig. U.S.A. : Washington, D.C. 

ADANARSA Heinrich, 1956, Bull. U. S. natn. Mus. 207 : 35. Rhodophaea intransitella Dyar, 
orig. desig. U.S.A. : New Mexico. 

ADDYME Walker, 1863, List Spec. Lepid. Ins. B. M. 27 : Si. A. occultans Walker, by 
monotypy. Malaysia : Sarawak. 

Coleothrix Ragonot, 1888, Nouv. Phycit. : 12. C. crassitibiella Ragonot, by monotypy. 
Malaysia : Sarawak, syn. n. 

ADELOSEMIA Ragonot, 1887, Annls Soc. ent. Fr. 1887 : 230. Myelois crepusculella Lederer, 
orig. desig. Europe. 

ADELPERGA Heinrich, 1956, Bull. U. S. natn. Mus. 207 : 187. Heterographis cordubensiella 
Ragonot, orig. desig. Argentine : Cordoba. 

ADELPHIA Heinrich, 1956, Bull. U. S. natn. Mus. 207 : 168. Pempelia petrella Zeller, orig. 
desig. U.S.A. 

AFRICELLA Hampson, 1930, Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (io)5 : 50. A. micraeola Hampson, orig. 
desig. Ghana. 

AHWAZIA Amsel, 1949, Bull. Soc. Fouad I. Ent. 33 : 285. A . albocostalis Amsel, by monotypy. 
Iran. 

Alata Walker, see Etiella Zeller. 

ALBERADA Heinrich, 1939, Proc. U. S. natn. Mus. 86 : 350. Melitara parabates Dyar, orig. 
desig. Mexico. 

Albinia Briosi, see Cryptoblabes Zeller. 

ALISPA Zeller, 1848, Isis, Leipzig 1848 : 606. Tinea angustella Hiibner, by monotypy. 
Europe. 

ALISPOIDES Ragonot, 1888, Nouv. Phycit. 130. A. vermiculella Ragonot, by monotypy. 
South Africa : Natal. 

ALLOEA Turner, 1947, Trans. R. Soc. S. Austr. 71 : 37. A. xylochroa Turner, by monotypy. 
Australia : Western Australia, Wyndham. 



36 P. E. S. WHALLEY 

ALOPHIA Ragonot, 1893, Rom. Mem. 7 : 433. Pyralis combustella Herrich-Schaffer, by 
monotypy. Europe. 

AMALAFRIDA Heinrich, 1939, Proc. U. S. natn. Mus. 86 : 385. Cactoblastis leithella Dyar, 
orig. desig. Dutch West Indies : Cura9ao. 

AMBESA Grote, 1880, North Am. Ent. 1 : 98. A. laetella Grote, by monotypy. U.S.A.: 
Colorado. 

AMBLUNCUS Amsel, 1954, -Ark. Zool. (2)6 : 301. A. nervosellus Amsel, orig. desig. Iran. 
AMECHEDIA Amsel, 1961, Ark. Zool. (2)13 : 385. A. pagmanella Amsel, orig. desig. Iran. 

AMETALLOSTICHA Amsel, 1935, Veroff. dt. Kolon u. Ubersee-Mus. Bremen 1 : 208. A. 
aigneri, by monotypy. Israel. 

AMMATUCHA Turner, 1922, Proc. R. Soc. Viet. 35 : 43. A. lathria Turner, by monotypy. 
Australia : Queensland. 

AMPHIGNOSTIS Meyrick, 1934, Exot. Microlepidopt. 4 : 494. A. nephelocentra Meyrick, by 
monotypy. Mozambique. 

AMPHITHRIX Ragonot, 1893, Rom. Mem. 7 : 185. Nephopteryx sublineatella Staudinger, 
by monotypy. Spain : Andalusia. 

Amphycitopsis ; Dyar, see Piesmopoda Zeller. 

AMYELOIS Amsel, 1954, Bol. ent. Venezol. 10 : 42. Myelois venipars Dyar, orig. desig. 
Mexico, gen. rev. 

Paramyelois Heinrich, 1956, Bull. U. S. natn. Mus. 207 : 46. Myelois solitella Zeller, 
orig. desig. Colombia, syn. n. 

ANABASIS Heinrich, 1956, Bull. U. S. natn. Mus. 207 : 25. Myelois ochrodesma Zeller, orig. 
desig. Colombia. 

ANADELOSEMIA Dyar, 1919, Insecutor Inscit. menstr. 7 : 51 . Nephopteryx senesciella Schaus, 

orig. desig. Costa Rica. 
Anagasta Heinrich, subgenus, see Ephestia Guen6e. 

ANARESCA Turner, 1947, Trans. R. Soc. S. Austr. 71 : 37. A. xuthochroa Turner, by mono- 
typy. Australia : North Queensland, Lindeman Is. 

ANCOVA Ragonot, 1893, Rom. Mem. 7 : 149. Nephopyterx meridionalis Walker, by mono- 
typy. India. 

ANCYLODES Ragonot, 1887, Annls Soc. ent. Fr. 1887 : 250. A. pollens Ragonot, orig. 
desig. Spain. 

ANCYLODINJA de Joannis, 1913, Boll. Soc. ent. Ital. 44 : 142. A. rectilineela de Joannis, by 
monotypy. Ethiopia : Adi Caie. 

ANCYLOSIS Zeller, 1839, Isis, Leipzig 1839 : 178. Phycis dilutella Treitschke (= cinna- 
monella Duponchel). Subseq. desig., Ragonot, 1901, Rom. Mem. 8 : 212. Europe. 

ANCYLOSTOMIA Ragonot, 1893, Rom. Mem. 7 : 567. Myelois stercorea Zeller, by mono- 
typy. Brazil. 

ANDERIDA Heinrich, 1956, Bull. U. S. natn. Mus. 207 : 211. Euzophera sonorella Ragonot, 
orig. desig. Mexico. 

ANEGCEPHALESIS Dyar, 1917, Insecutor Inscit. menstr. 5 : 46. A. cathaeretes Dyar, by 
monotypy. Bahamas. 

ANEPHOPTERYX Amsel, 1955, Beitr. naturk. Forsch. SudwDtl. 14 : 121. A. designella 
Amsel, orig. desig. Iraq. 

Anhomoeosoma Roesler, subgenus, see Homoeosoma Curtis. 

ANONAEPESTIS Ragonot, 1894, Indian Mus. Notes 3 : 106. A. bengallella Ragonot, by 
monotypy. India : Calcutta. 



SYNONYMIC CATALOGUE OF GENERA OF PHYCITINAE 37 

ANORISTIA Ragonot, 1887, Annls Soc. ent. Fr. 1887 : 236. A. umbrifasciella Ragonot, orig. 
desig. U.S.S.R. : Namangan. 

A nousterunia Hampson, see Pogonotrophus Sauber. 

ANTHOPTERYX Dyar, 1915, Proc. U. S. natn. Mus. 47 : 335. A. inchampa Dyar, orig. 
desig. Panama. 

ANYPSIPYLA Dyar, 1915, Proc. U. S. natn. Mus. 47 : 327. A. univitella Dyar, orig. desig. 
Panama. 

APHYCITA Amsel, 1968, Stuttg. Beitr. Naturk. 191 : 9. A. sindella Amsel, orig. desig. 

Pakistan : Karachi. 

Aphycitopsis Dyar, see Piesmopoda Zeller. 
APHYLETES Ragonot, 1893, Rom. Mem. 7 : 444. Salebria nigrisparsella Ragonot, orig. 

desig. U.S.S.R.: Derbent. 
APOMYELOIS Heinrich, 1956, Bull. U. S. natn. Mus. 207 : 42. Dioryctria bistriatella Hulst. 

orig. desig. U.S.A.: Washington, D.C. 
APROCERATIA Amsel, 1950, Ark. Zool. (2)! : 224. Proceratia rhectogramma Meyrick, orig. 

desig. Iraq. 
APROPHTHASIA Amsel, 1968, Stuttg. Beitr. Naturk. 191 : 5. A. variianae Amsel, orig. 

desig. Pakistan : Karachi. 
APTUNGA Heinrich, 1956, Bull. U. S. natn. Mus. 207 : 211. Vitula macropasa Dyar, orig. 

desig. Guatemala. 
Araxes Stephens, see Hypochalcia Hiibner. 

ARCHIEPHESTIA Amsel, 1955, Bull. Inst. r. Sci. nat. Belg. 31 : 39. A. murciella Amsel, 
orig. desig. Spain : Murcia, Espuna. 

ARCHIGALLERIA Rebel, 1901, in Staudinger, Cat. Lepid. Pal. 2 : 2. Aphomia proavitella 
Rebel, orig. desig. Canary Islands. 

Argyrodes Guen6e, see Eucarphia Hiibner. 
Agyrorhabda Hampson, see Eucarphia Hiibner. 
Aria Ragonot, see Auxacia Ragonot. 

ARIMANIA Amsel, 1954, Ark. Zool. (2)6 : 289. Salebria komaroffi Ragonot, orig. desig. 

U.S.S.R.: Caucasus. 
ARSISSA Ragonot, 1893, Rom. Mem. 7 : 131. Pyralis ramosella Herrich-Schafifer, by mono- 

typy. Europe. 

Arucha Walker, see Etiella Zeller. 
ASALEBRIA Amsel, 1953, Revue fr. Ent. 20 : 226. Salebria venustella Ragonot, by monotypy. 

U.S.S.R.: Krasnoarmiejsk. (Sarepta.) 
AS ART A Zeller, 1848, Isis, Leipzig 1848 : 686. Phycis aethiopella Duponchel, by subseq. 

desig., Ragonot, 1901, Rom. Mem. 8 : i. France. 

Chionea Guen<e, 1845, Annls Soc. ent. Fr. (2)3 : 311. Preoccupied by Chionea Dalman, 1816. 
ASARTODES Ragonot, 1893, Rom. Mem. 7 : 617. Ennichia monospessulalis Duponchel, 

orig. desig. France : Montpellier. 
ASEMIA Hampson, 1930, Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (io)5 : 69. A. aprepia Hampson, orig. desig. 

Ceylon. 

Aspithra Ragonot, see Ernophthora Meyrick. 
AS SARA Walker, 1893, List Spec. Lepid. Ins. B. M. 27 : 79. A. albicostalis Walker, by 

monotypy. Malaysia : Sarawak. 

Cateremna Meyrick, 1882, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W.I: 156. C. microdoxa Meyrick, 

subseq. desig., Hampson, 1912, /. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 21 : 1252. Australia : Tasmania. 

(Roesler, 1965 : 37.) 



38 P. E. S. WHALLEY 

ATHELOCA Heinrich, 1956, Bull. U. S. natn. Mus. 207 : 81. Nephopteryx subrufella Hulst, 
orig. desig. U.S.A.: Florida. 

AUCHMERA Hampson, 1930, Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (io)5 : 64. Heterographis falsalis 
Hampson, orig. desig. India : Madras. 

AUDEOUDIA de Joannis, 1927, Bull. Soc. Upidopt. Geneve 5 : 214. A. grisella de Joannis, 
orig. desig. Mozambique. 

Aurana Walker, see Eurhodope Hiibner. 

AUTOCYROTA Meyrick, 1933, Exot. Microlepidopt. 4 : 388. A. diacma Meyrick, by mono- 
typy. Dem. Rep. Congo [former Belgian Congo]. 

AUXACIA Ragonot, 1888, Nouv. Phycit. : 25. A. bilineella Ragonot, by monotypy of Aria 
Ragonot. U.S.S.R. : Turkestan. 

Aria Ragonot, 1887, Annls Soc. ent. Fr. 1887 : 235. A. bilineella Ragonot, by monotypy. 
U.S.S.R. Preoccupied by Aria Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830. 

AZAERA Schaus, 1913, Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (8)11 : 250. A. muciella Schaus, orig. desig. 
Costa Rica. 

Calamophleps Dyar, 1915, Proc. U. S. natn. Mus. 47 : 342. C. squalidella Dyar, orig. desig. 
Panama. (Heinrich, 1956 : 282). 

BALANOMIS Meyrick, 1887, Trans, ent. Soc. Lond. 1887 : 264. B. encyclia Meyrick, by 
monotypy. Australia: New South Wales. 

Ballovia Dyar, see Fundella Zeller. 

BAPHALA Heinrich, 1956, Bull. U. S. natn. Mus. 207 : 235. Euzophera homoeosella Zeller, 
orig. desig. Colombia. 

BARBIFRONTIA Hampson, 1901, Rom. Mem. 8 : 525. B. hemileucella Hampson, by 
monotypy. Australia : Coomoo. 

BAZARIA Ragonot, 1887, Annls Soc. ent. Fr. 1887 : 234. B. pempeliella Ragonot, orig. desig. 
U.S.S.R. : Krasnowodsk. 

BELUTCHISTANIA Amsel, 1951, Ark. Zool. (2)! : 539. B. squamalis Amsel, by monotypy. 
Iran. 

BEMA Dyar, 1915, Proc. U. S. natn. Mus. 47 : 336. B. myja Dyar, orig. desig. Panama. 

Relmis Dyar, 1915, Proc. U. S. natn. Mus. 47 : 336. R. ydda Dyar, orig. desig. Panama. 
(Heinrich, 1956 : 217.) 

BERTELIA Barnes & McDunnough, 1913, Contr. Lepid. N. Am. (3)2 : 140. B. grisella Barnes 
& McDunnough, orig. desig. U.S.A. : Arizona. 

BETHULJA Ragonot, 1888, Nouv. Phycit. : 37. B. championella Ragonot, by monotypy. 

Guatemala. 
BIGNATHOSIA Amsel, 1955, Bull. Inst. r. Sci. nat. Belg. 31 : 42. Euzopherodes adpiscinella 

Chretien, orig. desig. Tunisia. 
BIRINUS Heinrich, 1956, Bull. U. S. natn. Mus. 207 : 36. B. russeolus Heinrich, orig. desig. 

British Guiana. 

Blabioides Hampson, see Zynodes nom. n. 

BOROSIA Gozmany, 1959, Annls hist.-nat. Mus. natn. hung. (N.S.) 51 : 363. B. aegyptiaca 
Gozmany, orig. desig. Egypt. 

BRACHIOLODES Amsel, 1953, Bull. Inst. fr. Afr. noire 15 : 1443. B. ziczac Amsel, orig. 
desig. Mauretania. 

BRADYRRHOA Zeller, 1848, Isis, Leipzig 1848 : 68 1. Phycis gilveolella Treitschke, subseq. 
desig., Ragonot, 1893, Rom. Mem. 7 : 550. Hungary. 

Brephia Heinemann, see Abrephia Amsel. 



SYNONYMIC CATALOGUE OF GENERA OF PHYCITINAE 39 

Bussa Ragonot, see Thylacoptila Meyrick. 

Cabima Dyar, see Diatomocera Ragonot. 

CABNIA Dyar, 1904, Jl N. Y. ent. Soc. 12 : 108. C. myronella Dyar, by monotypy. U.S.A. 

CABOTIA Ragonot, 1888, Nouv. Phycit. : 30. C. semidiscella Ragonot, by monotypy. 
Brazil. 

Encystia Hampson, 1901, Ann. mag. nat. Hist. (j}l : 256. E. bonhoti Hampson, by mono- 
typy. Bahamas. (Heinrich, 1956 : 200.) 

CABRAGUS Moore, 1886, Lepid. Ceylon 3 : 370. C. auritipalpus Moore, by monotypy. 

Ceylon. 
CACOZOPHERA Dyar, 1919, Insecutor Inscit. menstr. 7 : 58. C. venosa Dyar, by monotypy. 

Guatemala. 
CACTOBLASTIS Ragonot, 1901, Rom. Mem. 8:15. Zophodia cactorum Berg, by monotypy. 

Uruguay. 

Neopyralis Brethes, 1920, [15. iv.] An. Soc. rur. argent. (54)50 : 284, and [i5.vii.] in Ronna, 

Chacaras e Quinaes, 20 : 18. N. ronnai Brethes, orig. desig. Brazil, [described in both 

publications in 1920.] (Heinrich, 1956 : 245.) 

CACTOBROSIS Dyar, 1915, Proc. U. S. natn. Mus. 47 : 407. Moodna elongatella Hampson, 

orig. desig. Mexico. 
Cadra Walker, subgenus, see Ephestia Guene"e. 

CAHELA Heinrich, 1939, Proc. U. S. natn. Mus. 86 : 361. Olyca ponderosella Barnes & 

McDunnough, orig. desig. U.S.A. 
CAINA Ragonot, 1893. Rom. Mem. 7 : 463. C. deletella Ragonot, orig. desig. India : 

Poona. 
Calamophleps Dyar, see Azaera Schaus. 

CALGUIA Walker, 1863, List Spec. Lepid. Ins. B. M. 27 : 83. C. defiguralis Walker, by 
monotypy. Malaysia : Sarawak. 

Campyloplesis Dyar, see Moodnopsis Dyar. 

CANARSIA Hulst, 1890, Trans. Am. ent. Soc. 17 : 179. Nephopteryx ulmiarrosorella Clemens, 
orig. desig. U.S.A. : Massachusetts. 

Canarsiana Strand, 1920, Arch. Naturgesch. 85, Ai2 : 123. C. discocellularis Strand, orig. 
desig. U.S.A.: Massachusetts. (McDunnough, 1924 : 249.) 

Canarsiana Strand, see Canarsia Hulst. 

CANDIOPE Ragonot, 1888, Nouv. Phycit. : 14. C. joannisella Ragonot, subseq. desig., 

Ragonot, 1893, Rom. Mem. 7 : XLVIII. India. 
CANTHELEA Walker, 1866, List Spec. Lepid. Ins. B. M. 35 : 1726. Homoeosoma gratella 

Walker, by monotypy. Ceylon. 

CARISTANIUS Heinrich, 1956, Bull. U. S. natn. Mus. 207 : 97- Oligochroa pellucidella 
Ragonot, orig. desig. Puerto Rico. 

CARTHADE Snellen, 1899, Tijdschr. Ent. 42 : 91. C. caecalis Snellen, by monotypy. 

Colombia. 
CASSIANA Heinrich, 1956, Bull. U. S. natn. Mus. 207 : 212. Vitula malacella Dyar, orig. 

desig. Mexico. 
CATACROBASIS Gozmany, 1958, Annls hist. nat. Mus. natn. hung. (N.S.) 9 : 224. Tinea 

obtusella Hiibner, orig. desig. Europe. 
CATASTIA Hiibner, 1825, Verz. bekannt. Schmett. : 372. Noctua marginea [Denis & Schiffer- 

muller], subseq. desig., Ragonot, 1893, Rom. Mem. 7 : 479. Europe. 



40 P. E. S. WHALLEY 

Diosia Duponchel, 1832, Hist. Nat. Lep. Fr. 8(5)2 : 12. Pyralis marginalis [Denis & 
Schiffermuller], orig. desig. Europe. 

(marginalis is an unjustified replacement name for margined.) 

Cateremna Meyrick, see Assara Walker. 

CATHY ALIA Ragonot, 1888, Nouv. Phycit. : 7. C. fulvella Ragonot, by monotypy. Indo- 
nesia : Sulawesi [Celebes]. 

CATOPYLA Bradley, 1968, Bull. ent. Res. 57 : 609. C. dysorphnaea Bradley, orig. desig. 
Nigeria. 

CAUDELLIA Dyar, 1904, Proc. ent. Soc. Wash. 6 : 116. C. apyrella Dyar, subseq. desig., 
Heinrich, 1956, Bull. U. S. natn. Mus. 207 : 292. U.S.A.: Plummets Is., Ma. 

CAV STELLA Hampson, 1930, Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (io)5 : 55. Heterographis micralis 
Hampson, orig. desig. Ceylon. 

CAVIPALPIA Ragonot, 1893, Rom. Mem. 7 : 154. C. translucidella Ragonot, by monotypy. 
India. 

CAYENNIA Hampson, 1930, Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (io)5 : 62. C. rufitinctalis Hampson, orig. 
desig. French Guiana. 

Centolopha, misspelling, see Ceutholopha Zeller. 

CENTROMETOPIA Ragonot, 1887, Annls Soc. ent. Fr. 1887 : 236. C. interruptella Ragonot, 
subseq. desig., Ragonot, 1893, Rom. Mem. 7 : 491. U.S.S.R. : Askhabad. 

CERACANTHIA Ragonot, 1893, Rom. Mem. 7 : 230. C. vepreculella Ragonot, by monotypy. 
Ecuador. 

Procandiope Dyar, 1919, Insecutor Inscit. menstr. 7 : 50. P. mamella Dyar, by monotypy. 
Panama. (Heinrich, 1956 : 85.) 

CERATAGRA Meyrick, 1932, Exot. Microlepidopt. 4 : 235. C. mitrophora Meyrick, by mono- 
typy. Fiji. 

Ceratamna Butler, see Etiella Zeller. 
Ceratium Thienmann, see Phycita Curtis. 

CEROPREPES Zeller, 1867, Stettin, ent. Ztg 28 : 401. C. patriciella Zeller, by monotypy. 

India : Darjeeling. 
CEUTHOLOPHA Zeller, 1867, Stettin, ent. Ztg 28 : 375. C. isidis Zeller, by monotypy. 

United Arab Republic (Egypt). 

Hypophana Meyrick, 1863, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W. 7 : 169. H. petalocosma Meyrick, 

subseq. desig., Ragonot, 1893, Rom. Mem. 7 : 254. Australia. (Ragonot, 1893 : 253.) 
CHARARICA Heinrich, 1956, Bull. U. S. natn. Mus. 207 : 38. Myelois annuliferella Dyar, 

orig. desig. Mexico. 
CHERCHERA Dumont, 1932, Soc. ent. Fr. Livre centen. : 711. C. abatesella Dumont, by 

monotypy. North Africa. 
CHILOCREMASTIS Meyrick, 1934, Exot. Microlepidopt. 4 : 492. C. castanias Meyrick, by 

monotypy. Dem. Rep. Congo [Belgian Congo]. 
Chionea Guene"e, see Asarta Zeller. 
CHORRERA Dyar, 1915, Proc. U. S. natn. Mus. 47 : 330. C. idiotes Dyar, orig. desig. 

Panama. 
CHRISTOPHIA Ragonot, 1887, Annls Soc. ent. Fr. 1887 : 233. C. callipterella Ragonot, 

orig. desig. U.S.S.R. : Askhabad. 
CHRYSOSCINIA Hampson, 1930, Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (io)5 : 54. C. plicata Hampson, 

orig. desig. New Guinea. 

CILIOCERODES Amsel, 1961,^^. Zoo/. (2)13 : 366. C. belutschistanella Amsel, orig. desig. Iran. 
CILIOPEMPELIA Amsel, 1961, Ark. Zool. (2)13 : 355. C. hyrcanella Amsel, orig. desig. Iran. 



SYNONYMIC CATALOGUE OF GENERA OF PHYCITINAE 41 

CITRIPESTIS Ragonot, 1893, Rom. Mem. 7 : 151. Nephopteryx sagittiferella Moore, by 
monotypy. Malaysia : Perak. 

CNEPHIDIA Ragonot, 1892, Bull. Soc. ent. Fr. 1892 : 235. C. kenteriella Ragonot, by mono- 
typy. U.S.S.R.: Siberia. 

COLEOCORNUTIA Amsel, 1961, Ark. Zool. (2)13 : 372. C. shirazella Amsel, orig. desig. 
Iran. 

Coleothrix Ragonot, see Addyme Walker. 

COMOTIA Dyar, 1915, Proc. U. S. natn. Mus. 207 : 343. C. torsicornis Dyar, orig. desig. 
Panama. 

COMPSOTELES Meyrick, 1935, Exot. Microlepidopt. 4 : 581. C. heliochyta Meyrick, by 
monotypy. Spain : Estepar. 

CONOBATHRA Meyrick, 1886, Trans, ent. Soc. Land. 1886 : 271. C. automorpha Meyrick, 

by monotypy. New Guinea. 
COPAMYNTIS Meyrick, 1934, Exot. Microlepidopt. 4 : 495. Elegia alectryonura Meyrick, by 

monotypy. Indonesia : Java. 

COPTARTHRIA Ragonot, 1893, Rom. Mem. 7 : 251. Myelois daspyga Zeller, by monotypy. 

Colombia. 
CORNIGERULA Amsel, 1935, Veroff. dt. kolon. u. Ubersee-Mus. Bremen 1 : 206. C. eremicola 

Amsel, by monotypy. Israel. 

CREMNOPHILA Ragonot, 1892, Bull. Soc. ent. Fr. 1892 : ccxxxvi. C. auranticiliella Rago- 
not, by monotypy. U.S.S.R. : Siberia. 
CREOBOTA Turner, 1931, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W. 56 : 342. C. coccophthora Turner, by 

monotypy. Australia : Canberra. 
CROCIDOMERA Zeller, 1848, Isis, Leipzig 1848 : 865. C. turbidella Zeller, by monotypy. 

Dominican Rep. : Santo Domingo. 
CROCYDOPHORA Meyrick, 1882, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W. 1882 : 158. Nephopteryx 

stenopterella Meyrick, by monotypy. Australia : New South Wales. 
CRYPT 'ADIA Turner, 1913, Proc. R. Soc. Qd 24 : 121. Cryptoblabes xuthobela Turner, by 

monotypy. Australia. 

CRYPTOBLABES Zeller, 1848, Isis, Leipzig 1848 : 644. C. bistriga Haworth, subseq. desig., 
Ragonot, 1893, Rom. Mem. 7 : XLIV. Great Britain. 

Albinia Briosi, 1877, Atti Staz. chim. Agrar. sper. Palermo 1 : 61. A. wockiani Briosi, by 
monotypy. Sicily. (Preoccupied by Albinia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830.) 

CRYSTALLOZYGA Meyrick, 1937, Exot. Microlepidopt. 5 : 130. C. alicia Meyrick, by 
monotypy. Dem. Rep. Congo [Belgian Congo]. 

CTENOMEDES Meyrick, 1935, Exot. Microlepidopt. 4 : 582. C. neuractis Meyrick, by 
monotypy. India : Dehra Dun. 

CTENOMERISTIS Meyrick, 1929, Trans, ent. Soc. Lond. 77 :, 159. C. ochrodepta Meyrick, 
by monotypy. Marquesas Is. 

Cuba Dyar, see Sarasota Hulst. 

CULCITA Amsel, 1959, Stuttg. Beitr. Naturk. 28 : 17. C. djiroftella Amsel, orig. desig. Iran. 

CUNIBERTA Heinrich, 1956, Bull. U. S. natn. Mus. 207 : 34. Nephopteryx subtinctella 
Ragonot, orig. desig. U.S.A. : California. 

Cymbalorissa Gozmany, subgenus, see Euzophera Zeller. 

Cyphomima Meyrick, see Singhalia Hampson. 

CYPRUSIA Amsel, 1958, Z. wien. ent. Ges. 43 : 54. C. wiltshirei Amsel, orig. desig. Cyprus. 

CYIZA Walker, 1864, List Spec. Lepid. Ins. B. M. 30 : 965. C. punctalis Walker, by mono- 
typy. Malaysia : Sarawak. 



42 P. E. S. WHALLEY 

Dakruma Grote, see Zopohdia Hiibner. 
Dannemora Hulst, see Diviana Ragonot. 

DARIA Ragonot, 1888, Nouv. Phycit. : 13. D. coenosella Ragonot, by monotypy. U.S.S.R.: 
Marghilan. 

DASYPYGA Ragonot, 1887, N. Amer. Phycit. : 5. D. alternosquamella Ragonot, by mono- 
typy. U.S.A. : California. 

DAVARA Walker, 1859, List Spec. Lepid. Ins. B. M. 19 : 1020. D. azonaxsalis Walker, by 
monotypy. Brazil. 

Eucardinia Dyar, 1918, Insecutor Inscit. menstr. 6 : 138. Ulophora caricae Dyar, by 
monotypy. Cuba. (Heinrich, 1956 : 73.) 

Homalopalpia Dyar, 1915, Proc. U. S. natn. Mus. 47 : 332. H. dalera Dyar, by monotypy. 
Panama. (Heinrich, 1956 : 73.) 

DECTOCERA Ragonot, 1887, Annls Soc. ent. Fr. 1887 : 243. D. pseudolimbella Ragonot, by 
monotypy. Italy. 

DELATTINIA Roesler, 1965, Inaugural Dissertation, Saarbriicken : 27. Ephestia vapidella 
Mann, orig. desig. Turkey : Amasia. 

DELOGENES Meyrick, 1918, Trans. N. Z. Inst. 50 : 132. D. limnoxa Meyrick, by mono- 
typy. New Zealand. 

DENTICERA Amsel, 1961, Ark. Zool. (2)13 : 366. D. sardzeella Amsel, orig. desig. Iran. 

DENTINODIA Ragonot, 1887, Annls Soc. ent. Fr. 1887 : 251. D. craticulella Ragonot, by 
monotypy. U.S.S.R. : Marghilan. 

Dentinosa Caradja, 1937, Dt. ent. Z. Iris 51 : 152. Mis-spelling, Dentinodia Ragonot. 

DENTITEGUMIA Amsel, 1961, Ark. Zool. (2)13 : 374. Pristophora nigrigranella Ragonot, 
orig. desig. Iran. 

DIALEPTA Turner, 1913, Proc. R. Soc. Qd 24 : 119. D. micropolia Turner, by monotypy. 
Australia. 

DIATOMOCERA Ragonot, 1893, Rom. Mem. 7 : 250. Homeosoma tenebricosa Zeller, by 
monotypy. Colombia. 

Cabima Dyar, 1915, Proc. U. S. natn. Mus. 47 : 329. C. dosia Dyar, orig. desig. Panama. 
(Heinrich, 1956 : 50.) 

DIDIA Ragonot, 1893, Rom. Mem. 7 : 60. D. subramosella Ragonot, by monotypy. Mozam- 
bique: Delagoa Bay. 

DIFUNDELLA Dyar, 1915, Proc. U. S. natn. Mus. 47 : 327. D. corynophora Dyar, orig. 
desig. Panama. 

DIORYCTRIA Zeller, 1846, Isis, Leipzig 1846 : 732. Tinea abietella [Denis & Schiffer- 
muller], subseq. desig., Hulst, 1890, Trans. Am. ent. Soc. 17 : 134. Europe. 

Pinipestis Grote, 1878, Can. Ent. 10 : 19. Nephopteryx zimmermani Grote, by monotypy. 
U.S.A. : New York. (Heinrich, 1956 : 149.) 

Diosia Duponchel, see Catastia Hiibner. 

DIPSOCHARES Meyrick, 1937, Exot. Microlepidopt. 5 : 71. D. nephelopa Meyrick, by 
monotypy. Dem. Rep. Congo [= Belgian Congo]. 

Discopalpia Ragonot, see Piesmopoda Zeller. 

DITRACHYPTERA Ragonot, 1893, Rom. Mem. 7 : 227. Candiope verruciferella Ragonot, 
by monotypy. S. Africa: Natal. 

DIVIANA Ragonot, 1888, Nouv. Phycit. : 27. D. eudoreella Ragonot, by monotypy. Central 
America. 

Dannemora Hulst, 1890, Trans. Am. ent. Soc. 17 : 212. D. edentella Hulst, orig. desig. 
U.S.A.: Florida. (Heinrich, 1956 : 206.) 



SYNONYMIC CATALOGUE OF GENERA OF PHYCITINAE 43 

Palatka Smith, 1891, Lep. Boreal Am. : 84. Nomen nudum. (See also Hulst, 1892, 

Canad. Ent. 24 : 62.) 
DIVITIACA Barnes & McDunnough, 1913, Contr. Lepid. N. Am. 2 : 183. D. ochrella Barnes 

& McDunnough, orig. desig. U.S.A. : Florida. 
Divona Ragonot, see Megasis Guenee. 
Dolichorrhinia Ragonot, see Macrorrhinia Ragonot. 

DRESCOMA Dyar, 1915, Proc. U. S. natn. Mus. 47 : 328. D. cyrdipsa Dyar, orig. desig. 

Panama. 
DRESCOMOPSIS Dyar, 1919, Insecutor Inscit. menstr. 7 : 61. D. subelisa Dyar, by mono- 

typy. Guatemala. 
DYSPHYLIA Ragonot, 1888, Nouv. Phycit. : 5. D. viridella Ragonot, by monotypy. 

Madagascar. 

ECBATANIA Amsel, 1961, Ark. Zool. (2)13 : 358. E. alvandella Amsel, orig. desig. Iran. 

ECBLETODES Turner, 1904, Proc. R. Soc. Qd 18 : 124. E. psephenias Turner, by monotypy. 

Australia : Brisbane. 

Encryphodes Turner, 1913, Proc. R. Soc. Qd 24 : 123. E. aenictopa Turner, by monotypy. 

Australia. (Turner, 1947 : 41.) 
ECCOPIDIA Hampson, 1899, /. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 12 : 311. E. strigata Hampson, 

orig. desig. Ceylon. 

ECCOPISA Zeller, 1848, Isis, Leipzig 1848 : 648. E. effractella Zeller, by monotypy. Italy. 
Eccopsia Dyar, see Vitula Ragonot. 

ECTOHOMOEOSOMA Roesler, 1965, Inaugural Dissertation, Saarbrucken : 66. E. kasyel- 
lum Roesler, orig. desig. Hungary. 

ECTOMYELOIS Heinrich, 1956, Bull. U. S. natn. Mus. 207 : 43. Myelois decolor Zeller, 
orig. desig. Colombia. 

Spectrobates sensu Roesler, 1965, nee Meyrick, 1935. 

Ectyposa de Joannis, see Psorosa Zeller. 

EDULICA Hampson, 1901, Rom. Mem. 8 : 122. Euzophera compedella Zeller, orig. desig. 

Colombia. 
ELASMOPALPUS Blanchard, 1852, Gay, Hist. Chile 7 : 104. E. angustella Blanchard, by 

monotypy. Chile. 

ELEGIA Ragonot, 1887, Annls Soc. ent. Fr. 1887 : 229. E. atrifasciella Ragonot, by mono- 
typy. U.S.S.R. : Lagodechi. 

ELEUSINA Hampson, 1901, Rom. Mem. 8 : 210. Ephestia guttela Snellen, orig. desig. 
Indonesia : Java. 

Emmerita Hampson, see Meroptera Grote. 

EMPORIA Ragonot, 1887, Annls Soc. ent. Fr. 1887 : 239. E. grisescens Ragonot, by mono- 
typy. Tunisia : Gabes. 

Encryphodes Turner, see Ecbletodes Turner. 

Encystia Hampson, see Cabotia Ragonot. 

ENDOLASIA Hampson, 1896, Fauna Br. India Moths 4 : 74. E. melanoleuca Hampson, 

orig. desig. India : Sind. 
Endommasis Hampson, see Oncolabis Zeller. 
ENTMEMACORNIS Dyar, 1919, Insecutor Inscit. menstr. 7 : 58. E. proselytes Dyar, by 

monotypy. Guatemala. 
EPHEDROPHILA Dumont, 1928, Encyc. ent. B. 3, Lepid. 3 : 28. Ulotricha lucasi Mabille, 

orig. desig. Tunisia. 



44 P. E. S. WHALLEY 

% 

Ephesia, mis-spelling, see Ephestia Guene. 

EPHESTIA Guenee, 1845, Annls Soc. ent. Fr. (2)3 : 319. Tinea elutella Hubner, subseq. 
desig., Hulst, 1890, Trans. Am. ent. Soc. 17 : 197. Europe. 

CADRA Walker, 1864, List Spec. Lepid. Ins. B. M. 30 : 961. C. defectella Walker, by 
monotypy. Ceylon. [Subgenus.] 

ANAGASTA Heinrich, 1956, Bull. U. S. natn. Mus. 207 : 299. Ephestia kuehniella. 
Zeller, orig. desig. Europe. [Subgenus.] 

Hyphantidium Scott, 1859, Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 1859 : 207. H. sericarium Scott, by 
monotypy. Australia. 

Xenephestia Gozmany, 1958, Annls hist.-nat. Mus. natn. hung. (NS) 9 : 223. Pempelia 
cautella Walker, orig. desig. India. (Whalley, 1960 : 183.) 

EPHESTIODES Ragonot, 1887, N. Amer. Phycit. : 16. E. gilvescentella Ragonot, orig. 
desig. U.S.A.: California. 

EPHESTIOPSIS Ragonot, 1893, Rom. Mem. 7 : 24. Myelois oenobarella Meyrick, by mono- 
typy. Australia, Sydney. 

EPICHALCIA Roesler, 1969, Ent. Z. Frankf. a. M. 79 : 14. E. amasiella Roesler, orig. desig 
Turkey. 

EPICROCIS Zeller, 1848, Isis, Leipzig 1848 : 878. E. festivella Zeller, by monotypy. 
Indonesia : Java. 

Gabra Walker, 1866, List Spec. Lepid. Ins. B. M. 35 : 1727. G. tinealella Walker, by 
monotypy. Indonesia : Java. (Ragonot, 1893 : 438.) 

EPIEPISCHNIA Amsel, 1954, Ark - Zo l - ( 2 ) 6 : 3 8 - E - pseudolydella Amsel, orig. desig. 
Iran. 



EPILYDIA Amsel, 1954, -^ r ^- Zool. (2)6 : 282. Myelois liturosella Erschoff, orig. desig. 
Turkey. 

EPIPARTHIA Amsel, 1935, Veroff. dt. kolon. u. Ubersee-Mus. Bremen 1 : 216. E. vasta 
Amsel, by monotypy. Jordan : Jericho. 

EPISCHIDIA Hampson, 1901, Rom. Mem. 8 : 113. Phycisfulv ostrigella Eversmann, orig. 
desig. U.S.S.R.: Urals. 

Epischnia auct. nee Hubner, see Pima Hulst. 

EPISCHNIA Hubner, 1825, Verz. bekannt. Schmett. : 370. E. prodromella Hubner, subseq. 
desig., Ragonot, 1885, Entomologist's man. Mag. 22 : 19. Europe. 

EPISCHNOPSIS Amsel, 1954, ^^- Zool. (2)6 : 302. Epischnia oculatella Ragonot, orig. 
desig. Iran. 

EPISCYTHRASTIS Meyrick, 1937, Exot. Microlepidopt. 5 : 74. E. elaphitis Meyrick, by 
monotypy. Dem. Rep. Congo [= Belgian Congo]. 

EREBOENIS Meyrick, 1935, Exot. Microlepidopt. 4 : 552. E. saturata Meyrick, by mono- 
typy. India (South). 

ERELIEVA Heinrich, 1956, Bull. U. S. natn. Mus. 207 : 309. Pempelia quantulella Hulst, 
orig. desig. U.S.A. : Texas. 

EREMBERGA Heinrich, 1939, Proc. U. S. natn. Mus. 86 : 375. Cactobrosis leuconips Dyar, 
orig. desig. U.S.A. : Arizona. 

EREMOGRAPHA Meyrick, 1932, Exot. Microlepidopt. 4 : 238. Cercoprepes sebasmia Meyrick, 
orig. desig. South Australia. 

ERNOPHTHORA Meyrick, 1887, Trans, ent. Soc. Lond. 1887 : 263. E. phoenicias Meyrick, 
by monotypy. Australia : Queensland. 

Mimistis Hampson, 1896, Fauna Br. India, Moths 4 : 65. M. actiosoides Hampson, orig. 
desig. Ceylon. (Ragonot, 1901 : 307.) 



SYNONYMIC CATALOGUE OF GENERA OF PHYCITINAE 45 

Aspithra Ragonot, 1888. Nouv. Phycit. : 37. A. maculicostella Ragonot, by monotypy. 
Marquesas Is. (Meyrick, 1931 : 116.) 

ETHIOPSELLA Hampson, 1930, Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (io)5 : 59. E. nasuta Hampson, orig. 
desig. Nigeria. 

ETIELLA Zeller, 1846, Isis, Leipzig 1846 : 733. Phycis zinckenella Treitschke, by monotypy. 
Sicily. 

Alata Walker, 1863, List Spec. Lepid. Ins. B. M. 27 : 108. A. anticella Walker, by mono- 
typy. Sierra Leone. (Preoccupied by Alata Linck, 1783.) 

Arucha Walker, 1863, List Spec. Lepid. Ins. B. M. 27 : 201. A. indicalis Walker, by 
monotypy. South Africa. (Ragonot, 1893 : 572.) 

Ceratamma Butler, 1880, Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 1880 : 689. C. hobsoni Butler, orig. desig. 
Formosa. (Shibuya, 1923 : 93.) 

Mella Walker, 1859, List Spec. Lepid. Ins. B. M. 19 : 1017. M. dymnusalis Walker, by 
monotypy. Sierra Leone. (Ragonot, 1893 : 572.) 

Modiana Walker, 1863, List Spec. Lepid. Ins. B. M. 27 : 82. M. scitivittalis Walker, by 
monotypy. Australia. (Ragonot, 1893 : 572.) 

Rhamphodes Guene"e, 1845, Annls Soc. ent. Fr. (2)3 : 319. Phycis etiella Treitschke, by 
monotypy. Europe. (Ragonot, 1893: 572.) 

ETIELLOIDES Shibuya, 1928, Insecta matsum. 2 : 21. E. curvella Matsumura, orig. desig. 
Japan. 

EUAGETA Turner, 1947, Trans. R. Soc. S. Austr. 71 : 47. E. arestodes Turner, by monotypy. 
Australia : Queensland. 

EUCAMPYLA Meyrick, 1882, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W. 7 : 159. E. etheiella Meyrick, by 

monotypy. Australia : Sydney. 
Eucardina Dyar, see Davara Walker. 

EUCARPHIA Hiibner, 1825, Verz. bekannt. Schmett. : 364. Tinea vinetella Fabricius, 

subseq. desig. Ragonot, 1885, Entomologist's mon. Mag. 22 : 18. Germany. 

Argyrorhabda Hampson, 1926, Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (g)18 : 634. Tinea vinetella Fabricius, 

orig. desig. Europe (Unnecessary replacement name for Argyrodes Guene"e). 

Argyrodes Guenee, 1845, Annls Soc. ent. Fr. (2)3 : 322. Tinea vinetella Fabricius, by 

monotypy. Europe. 
EULOGIA Heinrich, 1956, Bull. U. S. natn. Mus. 207 : 275. Ephestia ochrifrontella Zeller, 

orig. desig. U.S.A. : Texas. 
EULOPHOTA Hampson, 1926, Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (9)18 : 633. Pristarthria caustella 

Hampson, orig. desig. South Africa. 
EUMYSIA Dyar, 1925, Insecutor. Inscit. menstr. 13 : 220. Yosemetia [sic] mysiella Dyar, 

orig. desig. U.S.A.: Utah. 

EURHODOPE Hiibner, 1825, Verz. bekannt. Schmett. : 371. E. pudoralis [Denis & Schiffer- 
miiller] (= rosella Scopoli), subseq. desig., Ragonot, 1885, Entomologist's mon. Mag. 22 : 19 
(as rosella Scopoli). Europe. 

Semnia Guenee, 1845, Annls Soc. ent. Fr. (2)8 : 322. Ilithyia cruentella Duponchel, by 
monotypy. Spain. (Ragonot, 1893 : 67.) 

RHODOPHAEA Guenee, 1845, Annls Soc. ent. Fr. (2)3 : 312. Phycis advenella 
Zincken, subseq. desig., Ragonot, 1893, Rom. Mem. 7 : xliv. Europe. [Subgenus.] 

Aurana Walker, 1863, List Spec. Lepid. Ins. B. M. 27 : 122. A. actiosella Walker, by 
monotypy. Ceylon. (Ragonot, 1893 : 68.) 

Gaana Walker, 1866, List Spec. Lepid. Ins. B. M. 35 : 1729. G. basiferella Walker, by 
monotypy. S. Africa. (Ragonot, 1893 : 72.) 

RHODOPHAEOPSIS Amsel, 1950, Ark. Zool. (2)! : 238. R. iranalis Amsel, orig. 
desig. Iran. [Subgenus.] 



46 P. E. S. WHALLEY 

EURHOPHAEA Amsel, 1961, Ark. Zool. (2)13 : 387. E. hyrcanella Amsel, orig. desig. (as 
E. flavella hyrcanella Amsel). Iran. 

EURYTHMASIS Dyar, 1915, Proc. U. S. natn. Mus. 47 : 338. E. ignefatua Dyar, orig. 
desig. Panama. 

EURYTHMIA Ragonot, 1887, N. Amer. Phycit. : 16. Ephestia hospitella Zeller, orig. desig. 
U.S.A. : Texas. 

EURYTHMIDIA Hampson, 1901, Rom. Mem. 8 : 208. E. ignidorsella Ragonot, by mono- 
typy. U.S.A. : Arizona. 

EUZOPHERA Zeller, 1867, Trans, ent. Soc. Lond. (3)6 : 456. Phycis pinguis Haworth, 
subseq. desig., Hulst, 1890, Trans. Am. ent. Soc. 17 : 174. Great Britain. (Euzophera was 
proposed by Zeller as a replacement for Stenoptycha Heinemann.) 

Melia Heinemann, 1863, Schmett. Dtld u. Schweiz (n)l : 209. Phycis terebrella Zincken, 
here designated. Europe. (Replacement name for Stenoptycha.) Preoccupied by Melia 
Billberg, 1820. 

Pistogenes Meyrick, 1937, Exot. Microlepidopt. 5 : 73. P. mercatrix Meyrick, by monotypy. 
Iraq. (Amsel, 1940 : 42.) 

Stenoptycha Heinemann, 1863, Schmett. Dtld u. Schweiz (n)l : 190. Phycis terebrella 
Zincken, here designated. Europe. (Preoccupied by Stenoptycha Zeller, 1863.) 

CYMBALORISSA Gozmany, 1958, Annls hist.-nat. Mus. natn. hung. (NS)9 : 223. 
Stenoptycha fuliginosella Heinemann, orig. desig. Austria : Vienna. [Subgenus.] 

EUZOPHERODES Hampson, 1901, Rom. Mem. 8 : 79. E. albicans Ragonot, orig. desig. 
India : Calcutta. 

Phloeophaga Chretien, 1911, Annls Soc. ent. Fr. (i9io)79 : 510. Euzophera pusilla Mabille, 
subseq. desig., Amsel, 1940, Veroff. dt. Kolon. u. Vbersee-Mus. Bremen 3 : 40. Algeria : 
Biskra. (Amsel, 1940 : 40.) 

Trigonopyralis Amsel, 1935, Mitt. zool. Mus. Berl. 20 : 280. T. keltella Amsel, by mono- 
typy. Jordan. (Amsel, 1940 : 40.) 

EXODESIS Hampson, 1919, Ann. Mag. not. Hist. (9)4 : 313. E. vaterfieldi Hampson, orig. 
desig. Sudan (described in the Schoenobiinae, transfer to Phycitinae probably not 
previously published). 

EXUPERIUS Heinrich, 1956, Bull. U. S. natn. Mus. 207 : 274. E. negator Heinrich, orig. 
desig. Peru : Patamayo Distr., La Chorerra. 

FARNOBIA Heinrich, 1956, Bull. U. S. natn. Mus. 207 : 276. Euzophera quadripuncta 
Zeller, orig. desig. Colombia. 

FARSIA Amsel, 1961, Ark. zool. (2)13 : 375. F. pallorella Amsel, orig. desig. Iran. 

FAVERIA Walker, 1859, List Spec. Lepid. Ins. B. M. 19 : 888. F. laiasalis Walker by mono- 
typy. Australia : Sydney. 

FULRADA Heinrich, 1956, Proc. U. S. natn. Mus. 207 : 71. Dasypyga querna Dyar, orig. 
desig. Panama. 

FUNDELLA Zeller, 1848, I sis, Leipzig 1848 : 866. F. pellucens Zeller by monotypy. West 
Indies : St. Thomas. 

Ballovia Dyar, 1913, Proc. U. S. natn. Mus. 44 : 323. B. cistipennis Dyar, orig. desig. 
Barbados. (Heinrich, 1956 : 59.) 

Gaana Walker, see Eurhodope Hiibner. 

GABINIUS Heinrich, 1956, Bull. U. S. natn. Mus. 207 : 84. Promylea paulsoni Ragonot, 
orig. desig. Chile : Quillota. 

Gabra Walker, see Epicrocis Zeller. 

GENNADIUS Heinrich, 1956, Bull. U. S. natn. Mus. 207 : 277. G. junctor, Heinrich, orig. 
desig. French Guiana. 



SYNONYMIC CATALOGUE OF GENERA OF PHYCITINAE 47 

GENOPHANTIS Meyrick, 1888, Trans, ent. Soc. Land. 1888 : 241. G. iodora Meyrick, by 
monotypy. Hawaiian Is. 

GETULIA Ragonot, 1888, Nouv. Phycit. : 26. G. institella Ragonot, by monotypy. Gambia. 

GLYPTOCERA Ragonot, 1889, Entomologica am. 5 : 114. Nephopteryx consobrinella Zeller, 
orig. desig. U.S.A.: Texas. 

GLYPTOTELES Zeller, 1848, Isis, Leipzig 32 : 646. G. leucarinella Zeller, by monotypy. 
Germany. 

GNATHOMORPHA Amsel, 1959, Stuttg. Beitr. Naturk. 28 : 18. G. makranella Amsel, orig. 
desig. Iran. 

GORAMA Walker, 1866, List Spec. Lepid. Ins. B. M. 35 : 1749. G. strenuella Walker, by 
monotypy. Indonesia : Sula. 

GOZMANYIA Roesler, 1965, Inaugural Dissertation, Saarbriicken : 36. Ephestia crassa 
Amsel, orig. desig. Jordan : Jericho. 

GREGORMPISTA Roesler, 1969, Ent. Z., Frank/, a. M. 79 : 23. Nephopteryx validella 
Christoph, orig. desig. U.S.S.R. : Krasnowodsk. 

Guastica Walker, see Piesmopoda Zeller. 

GYMNANCYLA Zeller, 1848, Isis, Leipzig 1848 : 744. Tinea canella [Denis & Schiffer- 
miiller], by monotypy. Europe. 

GYMNANCYLODES Amsel, 1968, Stuttg. Beitr. Naturk. 191 : 8. G. psorosella Amsel, 
orig. desig. Pakistan : Karachi. 

Gyra Gistl, see Phycita Curtis. 

GYROPTERA Bradley, 1968, Bull. ent. Res. 57 : 611. G. robertsi Bradley, orig. desig. 
Nigeria. 

HAFISIA Amsel, 1950, Ark. Zool. (2)! : 242. H. lundbladi Amsel, by monotypy, Iran. 

HANNEMANNEIA Roesler, 1967, Ent. Z., Frank/, a. M. 77 : 278. Hyphantidium tacapella 
Ragonot, orig. desig. Algeria. 

HARNOCHA Dyar, 1915, Proc. U. S. natn. Mus. 47 : 337. H. velessa Dyar, orig. desig. 
Panama. 

HARRARIA Hampson, 1930, Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (io)5 : 66. H. rufipicta Hampson, orig. 
desig. Ethiopia. 

HEDEMANNIA Ragonot, 1887, Annls Soc. ent. Fr. 1887 : 244. H. lineatella Ragonot, by 
monotypy. U.S.S.R.: Askhabad. 

HEMIPTILOCERA Ragonot, 1888, Nouv. Phycit. : 9. H. chinographella, by monotypy. 
Peru : Chanchamayo. 

HEOSPHORA Meyrick, 1882, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W. 7 : 158. H. psamathella Meyrick, 
subseq. desig., Ragonot, 1901, Rom. Mem. 8 : 381. Australia : Sydney. 

HERAS Heinrich, 1956, Bull. U. S. natn. Mus. 207 : 34. H. disjunctus Heinrich, orig. desig. 
Colombia. 

HETEROCHROSIS Hampson, 1926, Ann. Mag. nat. Hist (g)18 : 631. Heterographis molyb- 
dophora Lower, orig. desig. Australia. 

HETEROGRAPHIS Ragonot, 1885, Entomologist's mon. Mag. 22 : 31. Ephestia samarit- 
anella Zeller, subseq. desig., Bisset, 1938 in Pierce and Metcalfe, The Genitalia of the British 
Pyrales with the Deltoids and Plumes : 59. Europe. [Also referred to in 1885 by Ragonot in 
Bull. Soc. ent. Fr. 1885 : 149.] 

Mona Hulst, 1888, Entomologica am. 4 : 115. M. olbiella Hulst, orig. desig. U.S.A.: 
Colorado. Preoccupied by Mona Reichenbach, 1863. 

Trissonca auct., nee Meyrick, 1882. 



48 P. E. S. WHALLEY 

HOENEIA Caradja, 1938, Stettin, ent. Ztg 99 : 248. H. sinensis Caradja, by monotypy. 
China : Yunnan. 

Homalopalpia Dyar, see Davara Walker. 

HOMODIGMA Hampson, 1930, Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (io)5 : 69. H. geera Hampson, orig. 
desig. Ceylon. 

HOMEOGRAPHA Ragonot, 1888, Nouv. Phycit. : 24. H. lanceolella Ragonot, by monotypy. 
Peru : Callao. 

HOMEOGRAPTA Hampson, 1930, Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (io)5 : 67. Staudingeria spectri- 
fasciella Ragonot, orig. desig. U.S.S.R. : Turkestan. 

HOMOEOSOMA Curtis, 1833, Entomological Mag. 1 : 190. H. gemina Haworth, by mono- 
tyPY- (= H. sinuella Fabricius). Great Britain. 

Lotria Guen6e, 1845, Annls Soc. ent. Fr. (2)8 : 320. Tinea sinuella Fabricius, subseq. 
desig., Desmarest, 1857 in Chenu, Encyc. d'hist. Nat. : 225. Europe. 

Phycidea Zeller, 1839, Isis, Leipzig, 1839 : 178. Tinea sinuella Fabricius, subseq. desig. 
Heinrich, 1956, Bull. U. S. natn. Mus. 207 : 219. Europe. 

Phycitodes Hampson, 1917, Novit. zool. 24 : 26. P. albistriata Hampson, orig. desig. 
East Africa. (Heinrich, 1956 : 219.) 

ANHOMOEOSOMA Roesler, 1965, Inaugural Dissertation : 64. Phycis nimbella 
Duponchel, orig. desig. France. [Subgenus.] 

HONORA Grote, 1878, Bull. U. S. geol. geogr. Survey Territ. 1878 : 702. H. mellinella Grote, 
by monotypy. U.S.A.: Texas. 

HONORINUS Heinrich, 1956, Bull. U. S. natn. Mus. 207 : 199. H. fuliginosus Heinrich, 
orig. desig. Peru : Angasmarca. 

HORISTARCHA Meyrick, 1935, Exot. Microlepidopt. 4 : 581. H. ogmosema Meyrick, by 
monotypy. Spain. 

Hornigia Ragonot, see Manhatta Hulst. 
Hulstea, mis-spelling, see Hulstia Hampson. 

HULSTIA Hampson, 1901, Rom. Mem. 8 : 127. Nephopteryx undulatella Clemens, orig. desig. 
U.S.A.: Pennsylvania . 

HYALOSPILA Ragonot, 1888, Nouv. Phycit. : u. H. stictoneurella Ragonot, orig. desig. 
Central America. [? Guatemala.] 

HYDASPIA Ragonot, 1888, Nouv. Phycit. : 22. H. dorsipunctella Ragonot, by monotypy. 
India : Kashmir. 

HYLOPERCNAS Meyrick, 1934, Exot. Microlepidopt. 4 : 493. H. eribolax Meyrick, by 
monotypy. Fiji. 

HYLOPHORA Meyrick, 1934, Exot. Microlepidopt. 4 : 391. H. craterantis Meyrick, by mono- 
typy. Dem. Rep. Congo [= Belgian Congo]. 

HYPARGYRIA Ragonot, 1888, Nouv. Phycit. : 9. H. metalliferella Ragonot, by monotypy. 
Ghana. 

Hypermescinia Dyar, see Nonia Hampson. 

Hyphantidium Scott, see Ephestia Guen6e. 

HYPOCHALCIA Hiibner, 1825, Verz. bekannt. Schmett. : 467. Tinea ahenella [Denis & 
Schiffermiiller], subseq. desig., Ragonot, 1885, Entomologist's mon. Mag. 22 : 18. Europe. 
Araxes Stephens, 1834, Brit. Ent. Haust. 4 : 315. Tinea ahenella [Denis & Schiffermiiller], 
subseq. desig., Westwood, 1840, Syn. Gen. Brit. Ins. : 113. Europe. 

(Bleszynski's designation for Araxes, 1963, Acta zool. cracov. 8 : 106 is incorrect.) 

HYPODARIA Hartig, 1939, Z. ost. EntVer. 24 : 10. Paradaria myeloisiformis Hartig, by 
monotypy of Paradaria Hartig. Afghanistan. 



SYNONYMIC CATALOGUE OF GENERA OF PHYCITINAE 49 

Paradaria Hartig, 1937, Z. ost. EntVer. 22 : 70. Paradaria myeloisiformis Hartig. Pre- 
occupied by Paradaria Kuznetzov, 1908. 

Hypographia Ragonot, see Hypogryphia Ragonot. 

HYPOGRYPHIA Ragonot, 1890, Bull. Soc. ent. Fr. 1890 : 119. H. uncinatella Ragonot, by 
monotypy of Hypographia Ragonot. Algeria. 

Hypographia Ragonot, 1890, Bull. Soc. ent. Fr. 1890 : no. H. uncinatella Ragonot, by 
monotypy. Preoccupied by Hypographia Guen6e, 1858. 

Hypophana Meyrick, see Ceutholopha Zeller. 

HYPORATASA Ragonot, 1901, Rom. Mem. 8 : 5. Pyralis allotriella Herrich-Schaffer, by 
monotypy. Europe. 

HYPSIPYLA Ragonot, 1888, Nouv. Phycit. : 10. H. pagodella Ragonot, by monotypy. 
India. 

ICHORARCHIS Meyrick, 1937, Exot. Microlepidopt. 5 : 132. /. iozona Meyrick, by mono- 
typy. Iraq. 

IDIOBROTIS Meyrick, 1937, Exot. Microlepidopt. 5 : 132. /. oxygrapha Meyrick, by mono- 
typy. India : Madras. 

Ilithyia Berthould, 1827, in Latreille, Nat. Fam. Thier. : 485. Transferred to Galleriinae, 
Whalley, 1964 Acta. zool. cracov. 9 : 574. 

ILLATILA Dyar, 1915, Proc. U. S. natn. Mus. 47 : 334. I. gurbyris Dyar, orig. desig. 
Panama. 

Ilythia, mis-spelling of Ilithyia Berthould. 

IMMYRLA Dyar, 1906, // N. Y. ent. Soc. 14 : 107. /. nigrovittella Dyar, by monotypy. 
U.S.A.: Pittsburgh. 

INFINITA notn. n. for Lydia Ragonot. Myelois lutisignella Mann, by orig. desig. of Lydia 
Ragonot. Yugoslavia. 

Lydia Ragonot, 1901, Rom. Mem. 8 : 200. Myelois lutisignella Mann, orig. desig. Yugo- 
slavia. Preoccupied by Lydia Gistl, 1848. 

INGRIDIOLA Roesler, 1969, Bonn. zool. Beitr. 20 : 263. Heterographis conchyliella Ragonot, 
orig. desig. China : Kouldja. 

INSALEBRIA Filipjev, 1924, Ezheg. gosud. Muz. N. M. Martiyanova 2(3) : 17. 1. kozhants- 
chikovi Filipjev, by monotypy. U.S.S.R. : Siberia, Minusinsk. 

INTERJECTIO Heinrich, 1956, Bull. U. S. natn. Mus. 207 : 106. Ambesa columbiella 
McDunnough, orig. desig. Canada. 

IRAKI A Amsel, 1955, Beitr. naturk. Forsch. SudwDtl. 14 : 122. /. pollens Amsel, orig. desig. 
Iraq. 

IRANSHARIA Amsel, 1959, Stuttg. Beitr. Naturk. 28 : 15. /. nigripunctella Amsel, orig. 
desig. Iran. 

ISAURIA Ragonot, 1887, Annls Soc. ent. Fr. 1887 : 228. /. kuldgensis Ragonot, by mono- 
typy. China : Kouldja. 

Melitene Ragonot, 1888, Nouv. Phycit. : 13. Isauria kuldgensis Ragonot, by monotypy 
of Isauria Ragonot. Unnecessary replacement name. 

JACUTSCIA Hampson, 1930, Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (io)5 : 58. /. strigata Hampson, orig. 
desig. U.S.S.R. : Siberia. 

JAKUARTE Viette, 1953, Bull. mens. Soc. Linn. Lyon 22 : 206. /. martinalis Viette, orig. 

desig. Madagascar. 
KERADERE nom. n. f or Praesalebria Amsel, 1954 (21 March). Pempelia noctivaga Staudinger, 

orig. desig. of Praesalebria Amsel, 1954 ( 2I March). Turkey : Keradere. 



50 P. E. S. WHALLEY 

Praesalebria Amsel, 1954 ( 2I March), Ark. Zool. (2)6 : 295. Pempelia noctivaga Staudinger, 
orig. desig. Turkey. Preoccupied by Praesalebria Amsel, 1954 ( Z 5 March.) 

KHORASSANIA Amsel, 1951, Ark. Zool. (2)! : 534. K. hartigi Amsel, by monotypy. 
Iran. 

KHUZISTANIA Amsel, 1959, Stuttg. Beitr. Naturk. 28 : 12. K. richteri Amsel, orig. desig. 
Iran. 

KLIMESCHIOLA Roesler, 1965, Inaugural Dissertation, Saarbrucken : 112. Ephestia 
philetella Rebel, orig. desig. Crete. 

Kyra Gozmany, see Myelois Hubner. 

LACIPEA Walker, 1863, List Spec. Lepid. Ins. B. M. 27 : 138. L. muscosella Walker, by 
monotypy. Ceylon. 

LAETILIA Ragonot, 1889, Entomologica am. 1889 : 116. Dakruma coccidivora Comstock, 
subseq. desig., Ragonot, 1890, Bull. Soc. ent. Fr. 1890 : viii. U.S.A. 

Laosticha Dyar, 1902, Bull. U. S. natn. Mus. 52 : 431. Dakruma ephestiella Ragonot, by 
monotypy. U.S.A.: Arizona. (Heinrich, 1956 : 230.) 

LAMBESIA Rebel, 1903, Dt. ent. Z. Iris 16 : i. L. caradjae Rebel, by monotypy. Algeria. 

Laodamia Ragonot, see Oncocera Stephens. 

Laosticha Dyar, see Laetilia Ragonot. 

LARISTANIA Amsel, 1951, Ark. Zool. (2)! : 536. L. sardzella Amsel, by monotypy. Iran. 

LASCELINA Heinrich, 1956, Bull. U. S. natn. Mus. 207 : 264. L. canens Heinrich, orig. 
desig. U.S.A.: Texas. 

Lasiocera Meyrick, see Lasiosticha Meyrick. 

LASIOSTICHA Meyrick, 1887, Trans, ent. Soc. Land. 1887 : 261. L. canilinea Meyrick, by 
monotypy of Lasiocera Meyrick. Australia. 

Lasiocera Meyrick, 1878, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W. 3 : 209. L. canilinea Meyrick, by 
monotypy. Australia. Preoccupied by Lasiocera Dejean, 1831. 

LETOA Walker, 1866, List Spec. Lepid. Ins. B. M. 35 : 1737. L. patulella Walker, by mono- 
typy. N. India. 

LIPOGRAPHIS Ragonot, 1887, N. Amer. Phycit. : 10. Pempelia fenestratella Packard, orig. 
desig. U.S.A. : California. 

Lispe Treitschke, see Myelois Hubner. 

LONGIGNATHIA Roesler, 1965, Inaugural Dissertation, Saarbrucken : 26. L. cornutella 
Roesler, orig. desig. China : Hunan. 

LOPHOTHORACIA Hampson, 1901, Rom. Mem. 8 : 537. L. omphalella Hampson, by 
monotypy. Australia : Queensland. 

Lotria Guene"e, see Homoeosoma Curtis. 
Luconia Ragonot, see Thiallela Walker. 
Lydia Ragonot, see Inftnita nom. n. 

LYMPHA Ragonot, 1901, Rom. Mem. 8 : 10. Phycis chalybella Eversmann, by monotypy. 
U.S.S.R.: Urals. 

Mabillia Ragonot, see Plagoa nom. n. 
Macrochilota Turner, see Parramatta Hampson. 

MACRORRHINIA Ragonot, 1887, N. Amer. Phycit. : 13. M. aureofasciella Ragonot, by 
monotypy. U.S.A. : Arizona. 

Dolichorrhinia Ragonot, 1888, Nouv. Phycit. : 28. Macrorrhinia aureofasciella Ragonot, 
by monotypy of Macrorrhinia Ragonot. Unnecessary replacement name. 



SYNONYMIC CATALOGUE OF GENERA OF PHYCITINAE 51 

MADIAMA Walker, 1864, List Spec. Lepid. Ins. B. M. 30 : 963. M. nigroscitalis Walker, by 
monotypy. Sierra Leone. 

MAGIRIA Zeller, 1867, Stettin, ent. Ztg 28 : 392. M. imparella Zeller, by monotypy. East 
Indies. 

MAGIRIOPS1S Heinrich, 1956, Butt. U. S. natn. Mus. 207 : 94. Sematoneura denticostella 
Dyar, orig. desig. Mexico. 

MAHELA Ragonot, 1888, Nouv. Phycit. : 6. M. saalmulleri Ragonot, by monotypy. 
Madagascar. 

Makela, mis-spelling, see Mahela Ragonot. 

MAKRANIA Amsel, 1959, Stuttg. Beitr. Naturk. 28 : 12. M. belutschistanella Amsel, orig. 
desig. Iran. 

MANHATTA Hulst, 1890, Trans. Am. ent. Soc. 17 : 196. Ephestia biviella Zeller, by orig. 
desig. of Hornigia Ragonot. Austria. 

Hornigia Ragonot, 1887, N. Amer. Phycit. : 16. Ephestia biviella Zeller, orig. desig. 
Austria. Preoccupied by Hornigia Ragonot, 1885. 

MARICOPA Hulst, 1890, Trans. Am. ent. Soc. 17 : 205. Ciris lativittella Ragonot, orig. 
desig. U.S.A. : Arizona. 

Valdivia Ragonot, 1888, Nouv. Phycit. : 27. V. coquimbella Ragonot, by monotypy. 
Chile. Preoccupied by Valdivia White, 1847. (No replacement name proposed as a junior 
synonym is available.) 

MASCELIA Hampson, 1930, Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (io)5 : 57. Euzophera ectophaea Hampson, 
by monotypy. Ceylon. 

MASTHALA Walker, 1864, List Spec. Lepid. Ins. B. M. 30 : 962. M. favillalella Walker, by 
monotypy. ? Australia. 

Maxillaria Staudinger, see Paramaxillaria Inoue. 

MECHEDIA Amsel, 1951, Ark. Zoo/. (2)! : 531. M. pristophorella Amsel, by monotypy. 
Iran. 

MEGALOPHYCITA Amsel, 1953, Bull. Inst. fr. Afr. noire 15 : 1442. M. albicostella Amsel, 
orig. desig. Mauretania. 

Megaphysis Grote, see Melitara Walker. 

MEGARTHRIA Ragonot, 1893, Rom. Mem. 7 : 156. Myelois peterseni Zeller, by monotypy. 
Colombia. 

MEGASIS Guen6e, 1845, Annls Soc. ent. Fr. (2)3 : 309. M. dilucidella Duponchel, subseq. 

desig., Hulst, 1890, Trans. Am. ent. Soc. 17 : 97. France. 

Divona Ragonot, 1893, Rom. Mem. 7 : 535. Myelois ilignella Zeller (= dilucidella 

Duponchel), orig. desig. Europe. 
MELANISTIA Hampson, 1930, Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (io)5 : 72. M. bicolor Hampson, orig. 

desig. Nigeria. 
MELATHRIX Ragonot, 1893, Rom - Mem. 7 : 435. Pempelia praetextella Christoph, by 

monotypy. U.S.S.R.: Krasnowodsk. 
Melia Heinemann, see Euzophera Zeller. 
MELITARA Walker, 1863, List Spec. Lepid. Ins. B. M. 27 : 136. M. prodenialis Walker, by 

monotypy. U.S.A. 

Megaphycis Grote, 1882, Can. Ent. 14 : 30. M. bolli Zeller, by monotypy. U.S.A. 

(Ragonot, 1901 : 12.) 
Melitene Ragonot, see Isauria Ragonot. 
Mella Walker, see Etiella Zeller. 



52 P. E. S. WHALLEY 

MEROPTERA Grote, 1882, Can. Ent. 14 : 30. Pempelia pravella Grote, orig. desig. U.S.A. : 
Maine. 

Emmerita Hampson, 1930, Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (io)5 : 76. Meroptera mirandella 
Hampson, orig. desig. U.S.A.: Colorado. (Heinrich, 1956 : 121.) 

MERULEMPISTA Roesler, 1967, Ent. Z. Frank/, a. M. 77 : 274. Pempelia cingilella Zeller, 
orig. desig. Hungary. 

MESCINIA Hampson, 1901, Rom. Mem. 8 : 83. Ephestia commatella Zeller, orig. desig. 
Colombia. 

MESCINIADIA Hampson, 1901, Rom. Mem. 8 : 121. Nephopteryx infractalis Walker, by 
monotypy. Malaysia : Sarawak. 

Meseiniadia Turner, 1913, Proc. R. Soc. Qd 24 : 123. Mis-spelling, Mesciniadia 
Hampson. 

MESCINIELLA Hampson, 1930, Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (io)5 : 55. Euzophera micans 
Hampson, orig. desig. Ceylon. 

MESCINIODES Hampson, 1901, Rom. Mem. 8 : 27. M. subinfractalis Hampson, by mono- 
typy. Malaysia : Sarawak. 

Meseiniadia Turner, see Mesciniadia. 

METALLOSTICHA Hampson, 1901, Rom. Mem. 8 : 68. Myelois argyrogrammos Zeller, 
orig. desig. Turkey : Bithynie. 

METALLOSTICHODES Roesler, 1967, Ent. Z. Frank/, a. M. 77 : 276. Myelois nigrocyanella 
Constant, orig. desig. France. 

METEPHESTIA Hampson, 1901, Rom. Mem. 8 : 87. Ephestia simplicula Zeller, by mono- 
typy. Colombia. 

METOECIS Mabille, 1879, Annls Soc. ent. Fr. 1879 : 340. M. lepidocerella Mabille, by 
monotypy. Madagascar. 

Zophodiopsis Fromholz, 1883, Berl. ent. Z. 27 : 12. Z. hyaenella Fromholz, by monotypy. 
Tanzania (Zanzibar). (Ragonot, 1893 : 134.) 

METRIOSTOLA Ragonot, 1893, Rom. Mem. 7 : 478. Epischnia vacciniella Zeller, by 
monotypy. Finland. 

MEYRICKIALIS Hampson, 1930, Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (io)5 : 79. Hypophana homosema 
Meyrick, by monotypy of Meyrickiella Hampson. Australia : Perth. 

Meyrickiella Hampson, 1901, Rom. Mem. 8 : 86. Hypophana homosema Meyrick, by 
monotypy. Australia. Preoccupied by Meyrickiella Berg, 1898. 

MICROMESCINIA Dyar, 1915, Proc. U. S. natn. Mus. 47 : 347. M. pygmaea Dyar, orig. 
desig. Panama. 

MICROPHESTIA Dyar, 1915, Proc. U. S. natn. Mus. 47 : 346. M. animalcula Dyar, orig. 
desig. Panama. 

MICROPHYCITA Dyar, 1915, Proc. U. S. natn. Mus. 47 : 346. M. titillella Dyar, orig. 
desig. Panama. 

MICROTHRIX Ragonot, 1888, Nouv. Phycit. : 25. M. fuscidorsella Ragonot, by monotypy. 

S. Africa : Natal. 
MILDRIXIA Dyar, 1915, Proc. U. S. natn. Mus. 47 : 405. M. constitutionella Dyar, orig. 

desig. Mexico. 
Mimistis Hampson, see Ernophthora Meyrick. 

MIMOPOLYOCHA Matsumura, 1925, /. Coll. Agric. Hokkaido Imp. Univ. (3)15 : 184. 
M. obscurella Matsumura, by monotypy. Japan : Saghalien. 

Mineola Hulst, see Acrobasis Zeller. 
Modiana Walker, see Etiella Zeller. 



SYNONYMIC CATALOGUE OF GENERA OF PHYCITINAE 53 

MOERBES Dyar, 1915, Proc. U. S. natn. Mus. 47 : 337. Zophodia dryopella Schaus, orig. 
desig. Costa Rica. 

Mono, Hulst, see Heterogmphis Ragonot. 

MONOPTILOTA Hulst, 1900, Can. Ent. 32 : 13. M. nubillella Hulst, by monotypy. 
U.S.A.: Maryland. 

MONOTONIA Amsel, 1955, Bull. Inst. r. Sci. nat. Belg. 31 : 44. Adelosemia straminella 
Zerny, orig. desig. Turkey : Taurus Mts. 

MOODNA Hulst, 1890, Trans. Am. ent. Soc. 17 : 193. M. pelviculella Hulst, orig. desig. 
U.S.A.: New York. 

MOODNELLA Heinrich, 1956, Bull. U. S. natn. Mus. 207 : 289. M. paula Heinrich, orig. 
desig. Guatemala. 

MOODNOPSIS Dyar, 1915, Proc. U. S. natn. Mus. 47 : 408. M. decipiens Dyar, by mono- 
typy. Mexico. 

Campyloplesis Dyar, 1919, Insecutor. Inscit. menstr. 7 : 61. C. inveterella Dyar, by mono- 
typy. Guatemala. (Heinrich, 1956 : 269.) 

MUSSIDIA Ragonot, 1888, Nouv. Phycit. : 10. M. nigrivenella Ragonot, by monotypy. 

Mozambique. 
MYELODES Hampson, 1930, Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (io)5 : 77. M. jansei Hampson, orig. 

desig. Rhodesia. 

^MYELOIS Hiibner, 1825, Verz. bekannt. Schmett. : 371. Tinea cribrella Hiibner, subseq. 
desig., Ragonot, 1885, Entomologist's mon. Mag. 22 : 19 (cited as medullalis Hiibner). 
Europe. 

Lispe Treitschke, 1832, Schmett. Eur. 9(i) : 204. Tinea cribrella Hiibner, by monotypy. 
Europe. Preoccupied by Lispe Latreille, 1796. 

Myelophila Treitschke, 1835, Schmett. Eur. 10(3) : J 74- Tinea cribrella Hiibner, by 
monotypy. Europe. 

Kyra Gozmany, 1958, Annls hist.-nat. Mus. natn. hung. (N.S.)9 : 224. Phycis cirigerella 
Zincken, orig. desig. Europe. (Hannemann, 1964 : 196.) 

Spectrobates auct., nee Meyrick. 

MYELOISIPHANA Hartig, 1937, z - ost. EntVer. 22 : 71. M. afghana Hartig, by mono- 
typy. Afghanistan. 
Myelophila Treitschke, see Myelois Hiibner. 

MYELOPSIS Heinrich, 1956, Bull. U. S. natn. Mus. 207 : 40. Myelois coniella Ragonot, 

orig. desig. U.S.A.: Nevada. 
MYRLAEA Ragonot, 1887, Annls Soc. ent. Fr. 1887 : 234. Pempelia albistrigata Staudinger, 

orig. desig. Turkey : Anatolia, Amasia. 

NANAIA Heinrich, 1939, Proc. U. S. natn. Mus. 86 : 353. N. substituta Heinrich, orig. 

desig. Peru : Cuzco. 
NEASARTA Hampson, 1908, J. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 18 : 263. N. nyctichroalis Hampson, 

orig. desig. Ceylon. 
NEFERTITIA Gozmany, 1960, Annls hist.-nat. Mus. natn. hung. (N.S.) 52 : 413. N. Candida 

Gozmany, orig. desig. U.A.R.: Egypt. 

NEOCORISTIS Meyrick, 1937, Exot - Microlepidopt. 5 : 133. N. entomophaga Meyrick. 
Indonesia : Java. 

NEONONIA Hampson, 1930, Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (io)5 : 52. N. taprobalis Hampson, 
orig. desig. Ceylon. 

NEOPEMPELIA Amsel, 1954, Ark. Zool. (2)6 : 272. Pempelia hieroglyphella Ragonot, orig. 
desig. Iran : Astrabad. 

Neopyralis Brethes, see Cactoblastis Ragonot. 
J See footnote, p. 55. 



54 P. E. S. WHALLEY 

NEPHOPTERIX Hiibner, 1825, Verz. bekannt. Schmett. : 370. Phycis rhenella Zincken, 
subseq. desig., Ragonot, 1885, Entomologist's mon. Mag. 22 : 19. Germany. 

Nephopteryx, unjustified emendation, Zeller, 1839, Isis, Leipzig, 1839 : 176. 

Sciota Hulst, 1888, Entomologica am. 4 : 115. S. croceella Hulst, orig. desig. U.S.A.: 
Texas. (Heinrich, 1956 : 123.) 

PARANEPHOPTERIX Roesler, 1969, Bonn. zool. Beitr. 20 : 259. Salebria barteli 
Caradja, orig. desig. U.S.S.R.: Uralsk. [Subgenus.] 

NEPHOPTERYGIA Amsel, 1965, Annln naturh. Mus. Wien 68 : 596. N. austeritella Amsel, 
orig. desig. Sudan : Wadi Haifa. 

Nephopteryx, mis-spelling, see Nephopterix Hiibner. 

NEUROTOMIA Chretien, 1911, Annls Soc. ent. Fr. 79 : 515. N. algeriella Chretien, by 
monotypy. Algeria. 

NICETIODES Schaus, 1923, Zoologica, Stuttg. 5 : 48. N. apianella Schaus, orig. desig. 
Galapagos Islands. 

NIETHAMMERIODES Roesler, 1969, Bonn. zool. Beitr. 20 : 274. Ancylosis diremptella 
Ragonot, orig. desig. Spain. 

NONIA Hampson, 1901, Rom. Mem. 8 : 260. Homoeosoma exiguella Ragonot, by monotypy. 

Colombia. 

Hypermescinia Dyar, 1915, Proc. U. S. natn. Mus. 47 : 341. H. lambella Dyar, orig. 

desig. Panama. (Heinrich, 1956 : 215.) 
NUMONIA Ragonot, 1893, Rom. Mem. 7 : 4. N. cymindella Ragonot, by monotypy. 

U.S.S.R.: Vladivostok. 

NYCTEGRETIS Zeller, 1848, Isis, Leipzig 1848 : 650. Tinea achatinella Hiibner, by mono- 
typy. Europe. 

NYCTIGENES Meyrick, 1937, Exot. Microlepidopt. 5 : 132. N. euphrontis Meyrick, by 
monotypy. Dem. Rep. Congo [= Belgian Congo]. 

NYLONALA Gozmany, 1960, Annls hist.-nat. Mus. natn. hung. (NS)52 : 415. N. infidelis 
Gozmany, orig. desig. U.A.R. : Egypt. 

OCALA Hulst, 1892, Can. Ent. 24 : 61. O. dryadella Hulst, by monotypy. U.S.A.: Florida. 

OCRISIA Ragonot, 1893, Rom. Mem. 7 : 525. Myelois robiniella Milliere, by monotypy. 
France : Celles les Bains. 

OCRISIODES Amsel, 1950, Ark. Zool. (2)! : 225. O. chirazalis Amsel, by monotypy. Iran. 

ODONTARTHRIA Ragonot, 1893, Rom. Mem. 7 : 147. O. ochrivenella Ragonot, by mono- 
typy. Portugal : Thomar. 

OEDILEPIA Hampson, 1930, Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (io)5 : 67. Nephopteryx striginervella 
Hampson, orig. desig. Ceylon. 

OEDOTHMIA Hampson, 1930, Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (io)5 : 60. O. endopyrella Hampson, 
orig. desig. Mexico. 

Synothmia Hampson, 1930, Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (io)5 : 61. 5. bahamasella Hampson, 
orig. desig. Bahamas. (Heinrich, 1956 : 205.) 

OGILVIA Hampson, 1930, Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (io)5 : 60. Hypogryphia pulverealis Hampson, 

orig. desig. Sokotra. 
OLIGOCHROA Ragonot, 1888, Nouv. Phycit. : 20. Pempelia dionysia Zeller, orig. desig. 

Sicily : Syracuse. 

OLIGOCHROIDES Strand, 1909, Arch. Naturgesch. 75, i : 385. O. nigritella Strand, orig. 
desig. [Zambia], Old Livingstone. 

OLYBRIA Heinrich, 1956, Bull. U. S. natn. Mus. 207 : 113. Myelois aliculella Hulst, orig 
desig. U.S.A.: Arizona. 



SYNONYMIC CATALOGUE OF GENERA OF PHYCITINAE 55 

OLYCA Walker, 1857, List Spec. Lepid. Ins. B. M. 11 : 725. O. phryganoides Walker, by 
monotypy. Dominican Republic. 

OLYCELLA Dyar, 1928, Proc. ent. Soc. Wash. 30 : 134. Melitara junctolineella Hulst, orig. 
desig. U.S.A. : Texas. 

2 ONCOCERA Stephens, 1829, Nomen. Brit. Ins. 11 : 217. Phalaena carnella Linnaeus, 
subseq. desig., Westwood, 1840, Syn. Gen. Brit. Ins., : 113. Europe. 

Laodamia Ragonot, 1888, Nouv. Phycit. : 22. Pempelia faecella Zeller, orig. desig. 
Europe, syn. n. 

SALEBRIA Zeller, 1846, Isis, 1846 : 779. Tinea palumbella [Denis & Schiffermiiller], 
subseq. desig., Ragonot, 1885, Entomologist's mon. Mag. 22 : 19. Europe. [Subgenus]. 

ONCOLABIS Zeller, 1848, Isis, Leipzig 1848 : 877. O. anticella Zeller, by monotypy. 
Brazil. 

Endommasis Hampson, 1901, Rom. Mem. 8 : 124. E. nigritella Hampson, by monotypy. 
Brazil. (Heinrich, 1956 : 199.) 

OREANA Hulst, 1888, Entomologica am. 4 : 115. Dioryctria unicolorella Hulst, orig. desig- 
U.S.A. : Washington. 

ORMUDZIA Amsel, 1954, Ark. Zool. (2)6 : 291. Ormuzdia (sic) cameratella Amsel, orig. 
desig. Iran. 

Ormuzdia, mis-spelling, see Ormudzia Amsel. 

ORTHOLEPIS Ragonot, 1887, N. Amer. Phycit. : 6. O. jugosella Ragonot, by monotypy. 
[Central America]. No locality given in original description. 

ORYC TOME TOPIA Ragonot, 1888, Nouv. Phycit. : n. O. fossulatella Ragonot, by mono- 
typy. Costa Rica : Irazu. 

OXYBIA Hampson, 1901, Rom. Mem. 8 : no. Tinea transversella Duponchel, by monotypy. 
Europe. 

OXYDISIA Hampson, 1901, Rom. Mem. 8 : 535. O. hyperythrella Hampson, by monotypy. 
Australia : Peak-Downs. 

OZAMIA Hampson, 1901, Rom. Mem. 8 : 34. Trachonitis lucidalis Walker, by monotypy. 
Dominican Republic. 

PACONIUS Heinrich, 1956, Bull. U. S. natn. Mus. 207 : 210. P. corniculatus Heinrich, orig. 
desig. Puerto Rico. 

Palatka Smith, nomen nudum, see Diviana Ragonot. 

PALIBOTHRA Ragonot, 1889, Bull. Soc. ent. Fr. 1889 : 218. P. fuscogrisella Ragonot, by 
monotypy. New Guinea : Port Moresby. 

PALLORIA Amsel, 1961, Ark. Zool. (2)13 : 362. P. bicornutella Amsel, orig. desig. Iran. 

PALPUSOPSIS Amsel, 1959, Stuttg. Beitr. Naturk. 28 : 15. P. roseella Amsel, orig. desig. 
Iran. 

Paradaria Hartig, see Hypodaria Hartig. 

PARADARIA Kuznetzov, 1908, Izv. turkest. Old. imp. russ. geogr. Obschch. 4 : 118. P. 
tshetverikovi Kuznetzov, by monotypy. U.S.S.R. : Aral Sea. 

PARAEMPORIA Amsel, 1951, Ark. Zool. (2)! : 544. P. monotona Amsel, by monotypy. 
Iran. 

PARAMAXILLARIA Inoue, 1955, Check-list lepid. Japan 2 : 133. Maxillaria meretrix 
Staudinger, by monotypy of Maxillaria Staudinger. Turkey. 

Maxillaria Staudinger, 1879, Trudy russk. ent. Obshch. 15 : 208. M. meretrix by mono- 
typy. Turkey. Preoccupied by Maxillaria Gistl, 1848. 

Paramyelois Heinrich, see Amyelois Amsel. 

2 An earlier type-citation for Oncocera is given by Boisduval, 1836, Hist. nat. Ins. Spec. Gen. Le'p. 1 : 
150, which, if accepted, would make it a junior synonym of Myelois Hubner. 



56 P. E. S. WHALLEY 

Paranephopterix Roesler, subgenus, see Nephopterix Hiibner. 

PARAROTRUDA Roesler, 1965, Inaugural Dissertation, Saarbrucken : 67. Homoeosoma 
nesiotica Rebel, orig. desig. Canary Is. 

PARASEFIDIA Amsel, 1950, Ark. Zool. (2)! : 235. P. benderella Amsel, by monotypy. 
Iran. 

PAROLYCA Dyar, 1928, Proc. ent. Soc. Wash. 30 : 137. Olyca asthenosoma Dyar, orig. 
desig. French Guiana. 

PARRAMATTA Hampson, 1901, Rom. Mem. 8 : 366. Eucarphia ensiferella Meyrick, by 
monotypy. Australia. 

'Parramatta Ragonot', auct. 

Macrochilota Turner, 1913, Proc. R. Soc. Qd 24 : 129. M. araeosticha Turner by 
monotypy. Australia : New South Wales. (Turner, 1942 : 81.) 

PARTHIA Ragonot, 1887, Annls Soc. ent. Fr. 1887 : 235. P. christophorella Ragonot, by 
monotypy. U.S.S.R.: Krasnowodsk. 

PASSADENA Hulst, 1900, Can. Ent. 32 : 171. P. constantella Hulst, by monotypy. U.S.A.: 
California. 

PATAGONIA Hampson, 1901, Rom. Mem. 8 : 226. Homoeosoma magellanella Ragonot, by 
monotypy. Chile : Punta Arenas. 

PATRICOLA Heinrich, 1956, Bull. U. S. natn. Mus. 207 : 209. P. semicana Heinrich, orig.' 
desig. U.S.A.: Utah. 

PEADUS Heinrich, 1956, Bull. U. S. natn. Mus. 207 : 83. Piesmopoda burdettella Schaus, 
orig. desig. Costa Rica. 

PEMPELIA Hiibner, 1825, Verz. bekannt. Schmett. : 369. Tinea ornatella [Denis & Schiffer- 
miiller], subseq. desig., Ragonot, 1885, Entomologist's mon. Mag. 22 : 18. Europe. 

Pempeliella Caradja, 1916, Dt. ent. Z. Iris, 30 : 8. P. fraternella Ragonot, by monotypy. 
Algeria. (It is possible that this genus is a mis-spelling of Pempelia Hiibner. In the original, 
Caradja does not indicate Pempeliella as new but in all other cases the second and subsequent 
species in a genus are indicated only by the initial letter of the genus. Following Pempelia 
in Caradja's paper is the unabbreviated, Pempeliella. This suggests that a new genus was 
intended.) 

PENETIANA Hampson, 1930, Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (io)5 : 63. P. proleucia Hampson, orig. 
desig. Indonesia : Borneo. 

PHALOBATHRA Meyrick, 1932, Exot. Microlepidopt. 4 : 234. P. escigera Meyrick, by 
monotypy. Fiji. 

PHESTINIA Hampson, 1930, Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (io)5 : 57. P. costella Hampson, orig. 
desig. Jamaica. 

PHILODEMA Heinrich, 1956, Bull. U. S. natn. Mus. 207 : 165. Sarata rhoiella Dyar, orig. 
desig. U.S.A.: Colorado. 

PHILOSAURITIS Meyrick, 1935, Exot. Microlepidopt. 4 : 522. P. pyrrhostrota Meyrick, by 
monotypy. Dem. Rep. Congo [== Belgian Congo]. 

PHILOTROCTIS Meyrick, 1933, Exot. Microlepidopt. 4 : 387. P. eutraphea Meyrick, by 
monotypy. Indonesia : Java. 

Phloeophaga Chretien, see Euzopherodes Ragonot. 

PHOBUS Heinrich, 1956, Bull. U. S. natn. Mus. 207 : 138. Dioryctria brucei Hulst, orig. 
desig. U.S.A. : Colorado. 

Phycidea Zeller, see Homoeosoma Curtis. 
Phycis Fabricius, see Phycita Curtis. 



SYNONYMIC CATALOGUE OF GENERA OF PHYCITINAE 57 

PHYCITA Curtis, 1828, Brit. Ent. 5 : 233. Phycis spissicella Fabricius, orig. desig. Europe. 

Phycis Fabricius, 1798, Ent. Syst. Suppl., : 420. Phycis spissicella Fabricius, subseq. 
desig., Curtis, 1828, Brit. Ent. 5 : 233. Europe. Preoccupied by Phycis Walbaum, 1792. 

Ceratium Thienmann, 1828, Lehrb. Zool. : 218. Replacement name for Phycis Fabricius. 
Preoccupied by Ceratium Schrank, 1793. 

Gyra Gistl, 1848, Nat. Thier. : 10. Unnecessary replacement name for Phycis Fabricius. 

Phycitodes Hampson, see Homoeosoma Curtis. 

PHYCITOPSIS Ragonot, 1887, N. Amer. Phycit. : 4. P. flavicornella Ragonot, by mono- 
typy. U.S.A.: Texas. 

PIESMOPODA Zeller, 1848, Isis, Leipzig 1848 : 863. P. rubicundella Zeller, by monotypy. 
Brazil. 

Aphycitopsis Dyar, 1919, Insecutor Inscit. menstr. 7 : 45. A. Isabella Dyar, by monotypy. 
Costa Rica. (Heinrich, 1956 : 78.) 

Amphycitopsis ; mis-spelling, Heinrich, 1956, Bull. U. S. natn. Mus. 207 : 78. 

Discopalpia Ragonot, 1893, Rom. Mem. 7 : 167. Myelois flavicans Zeller, by monotypy. 
Colombia. (Heinrich, 1956 : 78.) 

Guastica Walker, 1863, List Spec. Lepid. Ins. B. M. 27 : 80. G. semilutea Walker, by 
monotypy. Malaysia : Sarawak. (Ragonot, 1901 : 527.) 

P1MA Hulst, 1888, Entomologica am. 4 : 114. P. forsterella Hulst, orig. desig. U.S.A.: 
Colorado. Epischina auct. nee Hiibner. 

Pinipestis Grote, see Dioryctria Zeller. 

PIRIZANIA Amsel, 1954, Ark. Zool. (2)6 : 288. P. salebrosella Amsel, orig. desig. Iran. 
PIRIZANODES Amsel, 1961, Ark. Zool. (2)13 : 378. P. farsella Amsel, orig. desig. Iran. 
Pistogenes Meyrick, see Euzophera Zeller. 

PLATYCRATES Meyrick, 1932, Exot. Microlepidopt. 4 : 235. P. gypsopeda Meyrick, by 
monotypy. Fiji. 

PL AGO A nom. n. for Mabillia Ragonot. Mabillia cerostomella Ragonot, by monotypy of 
Mabillia Ragonot. Mozambique. 

Mabillia Ragonot, 1888, Nouv. Phycit. : 6. M. cerostomella Ragonot, by monotypy. 
Mozambique. Preoccupied by Mabillia Bourguignot, 1876. 

PLEUROCHILA Ragonot, 1888, Nouv. Phycit. : 17. P. erschoffella Ragonot, by monotypy. 
U.S.S.R.: Turkestan. 

PLODIA Guen6e, 1845, Annls Soc. ent. Fr. (2)8 : 318. Tinea interpunctella Hiibner, by mono- 
typy. Europe. 

POGONONEURA Ragonot, 1888, Nouv. Phycit. : 17. P. hirticostella Ragonot, by mono- 
typy. Central African Republic. 

Pogonophorus Sauber, see Pogonotrophus Sauber. 

POGONOTROPHA Zeller, 1852, Lep. Caffr. : 76. P. wahlbergi Zeller, by monotypy. South 
Africa. 

POGONOTROPHUS Sauber, 1899, Verh. Ver. naturw. Unterh. Hamb. 10 : errata slip. 
(Correction on errata slip inserted with volume at time of issue) P. tancrei Sauber, by mono- 
typy of Pogonophorus Sauber. Central Asia. 

Pogonophorus Sauber, 1899, Verh. Ver. naturw. Unterh. Hamb. 10 : 63. P. tancrei Sauber, 
by monotypy. Central Asia. Preoccupied by Pogonophorus Latreille, 1802. 

Pogonophoris (mis-spelling in index), 1899, ibid. 10 : 89. 

Anousterunia Hampson, 1930, Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (io)5 : 79. P. tancrei Sauber, orig. 
desig. Unnecessary replacement name for Pogonophorus Sauber. 

POLOPEUSTIS Ragonot, 1893, Rom. Mem. 7 : 232. P. annulatella Zetterstedt, by mono- 
typy. U.S.S.R.: Altai. 



58 P. E. S. WHALLEY 

Postsalebria Amsel, see Praesalebria Amsel, 1954 ( 1 5 March). 
Postsalebria Hanneman, see Salebriopsis Hanneman. 

PRAECOMOTIA Amsel, 1954, Bl- en ^- Venezol. 10 : 51. P. minimella Amsel, orig. desig. 
Venezuela. 

PRAEDONULA Heinrich, 1956, Bull. U. S. natn. Mus. 207 : 82. Phycita almonella Dyar, 
orig. desig. Panama. 

PRAEEPISCHNIA Amsel, 1954, Ark. Zoo/. (2)6 : 306. Myelois lydella Lederer, orig. desig. 
Turkey. 

Praesalebria Amsel, 1954 (March 21), see Keradere nom. n. 

PRAESALEBRIA Amsel, 1954 ( X 5 March), Z. wien. ent. Ges. 39 : 131. Nephopteryx pseudo- 
florella Schmidt, orig. desig. Spain. 

Postsalebria Amsel, 1954, Z. wien. ent. Ges. 40 : 357. Unnecessary replacement name for 
Praesalebria Amsel, 1954 ( 1 5 March). 

PRETORIA Ragonot, 1893, Rom. Mem. 7 : 624. P. hutchinsoni Ragonot, by monotypy. 
South Africa : Natal. 

PRISTARTHRIA Ragonot, 1893, Rom. Mem. 7 : 326. Salebria minutella Ragonot, by 
monotypy. Ceylon. 

Pristocera Ragonot, see Pristocerelia Kieffer. 

PRISTOCERELIA Kieffer, 1909, Bull. Soc. Hist. nat. Metz 26 : 35. Myelois solskyi Christoph, 
by orig. desig. of Pristocera Ragonot. Iran. 

Pristocera Ragonot, 1893, Rom. Mem. 7 : 228. Myelois solskyi Christoph, orig. desig. 
Iran. Preoccupied by Pristocera Klug, 1808. 

Pristophora Ragonot, see Susia Ragonot. 
Pristophorodes Amsel, see Susia Ragonot. 
Procandiope Dyar, see Ceracanthia Ragonot. 

PROCERATIA Hampson, 1901, Rom. Mem. 8 : 197. P. caesariella Hampson, by monotypy. 
Syria. 

PROCUNEA Hampson, 1930, Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (io)5 : 70. P. sidera Hampson, orig. 
desig. Australia : Queensland. 

PROMYLEA Ragonot, 1887, N. Amer. Phycit. : 5. P. lunigerella Ragonot, by monotypy. 
Canada : Vancouver. 

PROROPHORA Ragonot, 1887, Annls Soc. ent. Fr. 1887 : 252. P. curvibasella Ragonot, by 
monotypy. U.S.S.R. : Turkestan. 

PROSOEUZOPHERA Heinrich, 1956, Bull. U. S. natn. Mus. 207 : 275. Euzophera impletella 
Zeller, orig. desig. Colombia. 

PROTASIA Heinrich, 1956, Bull. U. S. natn. Mus. 207 : 193. Valdivia mirabilicornella Dyar, 
orig. desig. U.S.A. : California. 

PROTOETIELLA Inoue, 1959, Tinea 5 : 299. P. bipunctella Inoue, orig. desig. Japan. 

PROTOMOERBES Heinrich, 1956, Bull. U. S. natn. Mus. 207 : 49. P. aberrans Heinrich, 
orig. desig. Colombia. 

PSAMMIA Hampson, 1930, Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (io)5 : 71. P. flavipicta Hampson, orig. 
desig. U.S.A.: Florida. 

PSEUDOCABIMA Heinrich, 1956, Bull. U. S. natn. Mus. 207 : 53. Myelois euzopherella 
Dyar, orig. desig. Panama. 

PSEUDOCADRA Roesler, 1965, Inaugural Dissertation Saarbrucken, : 150. P. obscurella 
Roesler, orig. desig. China : Chekiang. 



SYNONYMIC CATALOGUE OF GENERA OF PHYCITINAE 59 

PSEUDODIVONS Dyar, 1915, Proc. U. S. natn. Mus. 47 : 405. P. commensella Dyar, orig. 
desig. Mexico. 

PSEUDOMEGASIS Chretien, 1931, Amat. Papillons 5 : 162. P. gabalitella Chretien, by 
monotypy. Morocco. 

PSEUDOPHYCITA Roesler, 1969, Bonn. zool. Beitr. 20 : 257. Pempelia deformella Moeschler, 
orig. desig. U.S.S.R. : Krasnoarmiejsk (Sarepta). 

PSEUDOSYRIA Rebel, 1926, Bull. Soc. ent. Egypte 10 : 180. P. gracilis Rebel, by mono- 
typy. U.A.R.: Egypt. 

PSOROSA Zeller, 1846, Isis, Leipzig 1846 : 749. Phycis dahliella Treitschke, subseq. desig., 
Ragonot, 1901, Rom. Mem. 8 : 103. Europe. 

Ectyposa de Joannis, 1929, Amat. Papillons 4 : 265. Phycis dahliella Treitschke, orig. 
desig. Europe. 

PSOROSANA Strand, 1915, Arch. Naturgesch. 80 Aio : in. P. testaceipennis Strand, orig. 
desig. Sudan. 

PSOROSINA Dyar, 1904, Proc. ent. Soc. Wash. 6 : 113. P. angulella Dyar, subseq. desig., 
Heinrich, 1956, Bull. U. S. natn. Mus. 207 : 208. U.S.A. : Iowa. 

PSOROSODES Amsel, 1954, Ark. Zool. (2)6 : 274. P. dalakiella Amsel, orig. desig. Iran. 
Pterothrix Ragonot, see Pterothrixidia Amsel. 

PTEROTHRIXIDIA Amsel, 1954, Ark - Zo l - ( 2 ) 6 : 28 5- Phycis rufella Duponchel, by orig. 
desig. of Pterothrix Ragonot. Corsica. 

Pterothrix Ragonot, 1888, Nouv. Phycit. : 8. Phycis rufella Duponchel, orig. desig. 
Corsica. Preoccupied by Pterothrix Nees, 1834. 

PTYOBATHRA Turner, 1905, Proc. R. Soc. Qd 19 : 48. P. hypolepidota Turner, by mono- 
typy. Australia. 

PTYOMAXIA Hampson, 1903, /. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 15 : 26. P. trigonifera Hampson, 
orig. desig. Ceylon. 

PTYONOCERA Hampson, 1901, Rom. Mem. 8 : 526. P. atrifusella Hampson, by monotypy. 
Gambia. 

PYLA Grote, 1882, Check-list N. Amer. Moths : 55. Nephopteryx scintillans Grote, by mono- 
typy. U.S.A. : California. 

Pyla Ragonot, 1887, N. Amer. Phycit. : 9. P. scintillans Grote, orig. desig. Unnecessary 
replacement name for Pyla Grote. 

QUASISALEBRIA Heinrich, 1956, Bull. U. S. natn. Mus. 207 : 118. Q. admixta Heinrich, 

orig. desig. U.S.A.: Utah. 
RABIRIA Heinrich, 1956, Bull. U. S. natn. Mus. 207 : 311. Microphycita conops Dyar, orig. 

desig. Panama. 
RADIESTRA Hampson, 1927, Entomologist's Rec. J. Var. 39 : 170. Euzopherodes albistri- 

gella Hampson, orig. desig. Ceylon. 
RAMPYLLA Dyar, 1919, Insecutor Inscit. menstr. 7 : 84. R. orio Dyar, subseq. desig., 

Heinrich, 1956, Bull. U. S. natn. Mus. 207 : 70. Mexico. 
RAT AS A Herrich-Schaffer, 1851, Schmett. Eur. 4 : 93. Pyralis alienalis Eversmann, by 

monotypy. U.S.S.R. : Urals. 
Relmis Dyar, see Bema Dyar. 
Repetekia Amsel, see Repetekiodes Amsel. 

REPETEKIODES Amsel, 1961, Ark. Zool. (2)13 : 364. Repetekia gozmanyi Amsel, by mono- 
typy, of Repetekia Amsel. U.S.S.R., Transcaspia : Repetek. 

Repetekia Amsel, 1955, Bull. Inst. r. Sci. nat. Belg. 31 : 48. R. gozmanyi Amsel, orig. 

desig. U.S.S.R.: Repetek. Preoccupied by Repetekia Oshanin, 1912. 



60 P. E. S. WHALLEY 

RHAGEA Heinrich, 1956, Bull. U. S. natn. Mus. 207 : 237. Zophodia packardella Ragonot, 

orig. desig. U.S.A. : California. 
Rhamphodes Guenee, see Etiella Zincken. 
Rhodophaea Guenee, subgenus, see Eurhodope Hiibner. 
Rhodophaeopsis Amsel, subgenus, see Eurhodope Hiibner. 

RHYNCHEPHESTIA Hampson, 1930, Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (io)5 : 51. R. rhabdotis Hampson, 
orig. desig. Hawaii. 

RHYNCHOPSELAPHUS Zerny, 1917, Denkschr. Akad. Wiss. Wien 93 : 437. R. porrigens 
Zerny, by monotypy. Sudan. 

RIBUA Heinrich, 1940, Proc. ent. Soc. Wash. 42 : 31. R. innoxia Heinrich, orig. desig. Cuba. 

RIOJA Heinrich, 1956, Bull. U. S. natn. Mus. 207 : 267. R. nexa Heinrich, orig. desig. 
Argentine : La Rioja. 

ROTRUDA Heinrich, 1956, Bull. U. S. natn. Mus. 207 : 225. Homoeosoma mucidella 
Ragonot, orig. desig. U.S.A.: California. 

ROTRUDOSOMA Roesler, 1964, Boll. Ass. romana Ent. 19 : 21. R. parvellum Roesler, 
orig. desig. Libya. 

RUMATHA Heinrich, 1939, Proc. U. S. natn. Mus. 86 : 363. Zophodia bihinda Dyar 
orig. desig. U.S.A. : New Mexico. 

SALAMBONA Heinrich, 1939, Proc. U. S. natn. Mus. 86 : 379. Zophodia analamprella Dyar, 
orig. desig. Argentine : Carmen Patagones. 

Salebria Zeller, subgenus, see Oncocera Stephens. 

SALEBRIACUS Heinrich, 1956, Bull. U. S. natn. Mus. 207 : 114. Nephopteryx odiosella 
Hulst, orig. desig. U.S.A. : Colorado. 

SALEBRIARIA Heinrich, 1956, Bull. U. S. natn. Mus. 207 : 115. Salebria ademptandella 
Dyar, orig. desig. U.S.A.: Texas. 

SALEBRIODES Amsel, 1950, Ark. Zool. (2)! : 234. S. ephestiella Amsel, by monotypy. 
Iran. 

SALEBRIOPSIS Hanneman, 1965, Dt. ent. Z. (NS)12 : 279. Nephopterix albicilla Herrich- 
Schaffer, by orig. desig. of Postsalebria Hanneman. Europe. 

Postsalebria Hanneman, 1964, Tierwelt Dtl. Microlepid. 11 : 162. Nephoptenx albicilla 
Herrich-Schaffer, orig. desig. Europe. Preoccupied by Postsalebria Amsel, 1955. 

Turdoempista Roesler, 1967, Z. Wien. ent. Ges. 52 : 40. Nephopterix albicilla Herrich- 
Schaffer, by desig. of Postsalebria Hanneman. Unnecessary replacement name. 
SALINARIA Ragonot, 1901, Rom. Mem. 8 : n. Myelois diffusella Christoph, by monotypy. 
Europe. 

SAMARIA Ragonot, 1893, Rom. Mem. 7 : 58. S. indentella Ragonot, orig. desig. Lebanon. 
SANDRABATIS Ragonot, 1893, Rom. Mem. 7 : 203. S. crassiella Ragonot, by monotypy. 

India : Assam. 
SARASOTA Hulst, 1900, // JV. Y. ent. Soc. 8 : 222. 5. plumigerella Hulst, by monotypy. 

U.S.A.: Florida. 

Cuba Dyar, 1919, Insecutor Inscit. menstr. 7 : 50. C. furculella Dyar, by monotypy. 

Cuba. (Heinrich, 1956 : 76.) 

SARATA Ragonot, 1887, N. Am. Phycit. : u. 5. dophnerella Ragonot, orig. desig. U.S.A.: 

California. 

SARDZEA Amsel, 1961, Ark. Zool. (2)13 : 371. S. diviselloides Amsel, orig. desig. Iran. 
SCHENECTADIA Dyar, 1915, Proc. U. S. natn. Mus. 47 : 348. 5. merilesella Dyar, orig. 

desig. Panama. 
Sciota Hulst, see Nephopterix Hiibner. 



SYNONYMIC CATALOGUE OF GENERA OF PHYCITINAE 61 

SCLEROBIA Ragonot, 1893, Rom. Mem. 7 : 528. Hypochalcia tritalis Walker, by monotypy. 
Australia : Sydney. 

SCLEROBIODES Amsel, 1951, Ark. Zool. (2)! : 535. 5. persica Amsel, by monotypy. 
Iran. 

SCORYLUS Heinrich, 1956, Bull. U. S. natn. Mus. 207 : 72. S. cubensis Heinrich, orig. 
desig. Cuba. 

SCYTHROPHANES Turner, 1947, Trans. R. Soc. S. Aust. 71 : 45. Unadilla apatelia 
Turner, orig. desig. Australia : Brisbane. 

SEEBOLDIA Ragonot, 1887, Annls Soc. ent. Fr. 1887 : 253. S. korgosella Ragonot, by 
monotypy. U.S.S.R. : Krasnoarmiejsk (Sarepta). 

SEFIDA Amsel, 1950, Ark. Zool. (2)! : 235. 5. persica Amsel, by monotypy. Iran. 

SELAGIA Hiibner, 1825, Verz. bekannt. Schmett. : 371. Tinea argyrella [Denis & Schiffer- 
muller], subseq. desig., Hulst, 1890, Trans. Am. ent. Soc. 17 : 15. Europe. 

SELGA Heinrich, 1956, Bull. U. S. natn. Mus. 207 : 265. Heterographis arizonella Hulst, 
orig. desig. U.S.A.: Arizona. 

SEMATONEURA Ragonot, 1888, Nouv. Phycit. : 9. S. atrovenosella Ragonot, by monotypy. 
Peru : Chanchamayo. 

Semnia Guenee, see Eurhodope Hiibner. 

SEMPRONIA Ragonot, 1888, Nouv. Phycit. : 24. S. stygella Ragonot, by monotypy. 
Australia : Sydney. 

Seneca Hulst, see Acrobasis Zeller. 

SENGANIA Amsel, 1951, Ark. Zool. (2)! : 538. S. ruhmekorfi Amsel, by monotypy. Iran. 

SERRULACERA Amsel, 1955, Bull. Inst. r. Sci. nat. Belg. 31 : 45. Phycis gregella Eversmann, 

orig. desig. U.S.S.R.: Urals. 
SIGELGAITA Heinrich, 1939, Proc. U. S. natn. Mus. 86 : 382. 5. chilensis Heinrich, orig. 

desig. Chile. 
SIGMARTHRIA Ragonot, 1888, Nouv. Phycit. : 23. S. palpella Ragonot, by monotypy. 

Malaysia : Sarawak. 
SINGHALIA Hampson, 1899, /. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 12 : 309. Critonia sarcoglauca 

Hampson, by monotypy. Ceylon. 

Cyphomia Meyrick, 1933, Exot. Microlepidopt. 4 : 385. C. cymogramma Meyrick, by 

monotypy. India : Madras. (Martin, 1956 : 163.) 
SOSIPATRA Heinrich, 1956, Bull. U. S. natn. Mus. 207 : 294. Ephestia rileyella Ragonot, 

orig. desig. U.S.A.: Utah. 
SPATULIPALPIA Ragonot, 1893, Rom. Mem. 7 : 19. 5. effrosella Ragonot, by monotypy. 

India : Assam. 
SPECTROBATES Meyrick, 1935, Exot. Microlepidopt. 4 : 553. 5. artonoma Meyrick, by 

monotypy. Indonesia : Java. 

Ectomyelois, sensu Roesler, 1965, nee Heinrich, 1956. 
SPERMATOPHTHORA Lederer, 1852, Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien 2 : 132. S. hornigii 

Lederer, by monotypy. Austria. 
SPOROPHYLA Meyrick, 1905, Trans, ent. Soc. Lond. 1905 : 224. Crocydophora oenospora 

Meyrick, by monotypy. New Zealand. 
STANEMPISTA Roesler, 1969, Ent. Z. Frank/, a. M. 79 : 21. Staudingeria schawerdae 

Zerny, orig. desig. Spain. 
STAUDINGERIA Ragonot, 1887, Annls Soc. ent. Fr. 1887 : 249. Ancylosis morbosella 

Staudinger, orig. desig. Turkey : Amasia. 
Stenoptycha Heinemann, see Euzophera Zeller. 



62 P. E. S. WHALLEY 

STEREOBELA Turner, 1905, Proc. R. Soc. Qd 19 : 51. S. leucomera Turner, by monotypy. 
Australia : Queensland. 

STHENOBELA Turner, 1904, Proc. R. Soc. Qd 18 : 135. 5. niphostibes Turner, by monotypy. 
Australia : Queensland. 

STOMOCLISTA Meyrick, 1932, Exot. Microlepidopl. 4 : 232. S. diplosema Meyrick, by 
monotypy. Indonesia : Java. 

STOMOPHYLACTIS Meyrick, 1933, Exot. Microlepidopt. 4 : 389. 5. improba Meyrick, by 
monotypy. Indonesia : Java. 

STREPHOMESCINIA Dyar, 1919, Insecutor Inscit. menstr. 7 : 60. S. schausella Dyar, by 
monotypy. Cuba. 

Strymax Dyar, see Unadilla Hulst. 

STYLOBASIS Hampson, 1901, Rom. Mem. 8 : 198. 5. rubripurpurea Hampson, by mono- 
typy. Mexico. 

STYLOPALPIA Hampson, 1901, Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (j)7 : 257. S. luniferella Hampson, 

by monotypy. Bahamas. 
STYPHLORACHIS Hampson, 1930, Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (io)5 : 76. S. mesophaea Hampson, 

orig. desig. Malawi. 
SUCCADANA Ragonot, 1888, Nouv. Phycit. : 13. S. marmorella Ragonot, by monotypy. 

Malaysia : Sarawak. 
SUSIA Ragonot, 1888, Nouv. Phycit. : 5. 5. discomaculella Ragonot, by monotypy. Iran : 

Schahkuh. 

Pristophora Ragonot, 1877, Annls Soc. ent. Fr. 1877 : 229. P. ruptifasciella Ragonot, 

orig. desig. U.S.S.R. : Askhabad. Preoccupied by Pristophora Newman, 1837. (Ragonot, 

1893: 422.) 
Pristophorodes Amsel, 1953, Beitr. naturk. Forsch. SudwDtl. 12 : 14. P. ruptifasciella 

Ragonot, by designation of Pristophora Ragonot. Unnecessary replacement name. 
SYMPHESTIA Hampson, 1930, Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (io)5 : 58. Euzopherodes ephestiella 

Hampson, orig. desig. Sikkim. 
SYMPHONISTIS Turner, 1904, Proc. R. Soc. Qd 18 : 135. Nephopteryx monospila Lower, by 

monotypy. Australia. 
SYNALLOREMA Gozmany, 1958, Annls hist.-nat. Mus. natn. hung. (NS)9 : 223. Nephop- 

terix triangulella Ragonot, orig. desig. Japan. 
SYNORIA Ragonot, 1888, Nouv. Phycit. : 27. Pyralis antiquella Herrich-Schaffer, orig. 

desig. Turkey : Amasia. 
Synothmia Hampson, see Oedothmia Hampson. 
SYNTYPICA Turner, 1905, Proc. R. Soc. Qd 19 : 44. 5. aleurodes Turner, by monotypy. 

Australia : Victoria, Birchip. 
SYRIA Ragonot, 1887, Annls Soc. ent. Fr. 1887 : 244. Anerastia arenosella Staudinger, 

orig. desig. Spain : Chiclana. 
TACOMA Hulst, 1888, Entomologica am. 4 : 115. T. feriella Hulst, orig. desig. U.S.A.: 

Texas. 

TAFTANIA Amsel, 1951, Ark. Zool. (2)! : 533. Pristophora oxycyma Meyrick, by monotypy. 

Iraq. 
TAPROBANIA Hampson, 1930, Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (io)5 : 51. Homoeosoma glaucochroa 

Hampson, orig. desig. Ceylon. 
TARQUITIA Ragonot, 1893, Rom. Mem. 7 : 215. T. jacksoni Ragonot, by monotypy. 

Tanzania, (70 mis from coast opposite Zanzibar). 
TELEOCHYTIS Meyrick, 1933, Exot. Microlepidopt. 4 : 389. T. porphyrorphna Meyrick, by 

monotypy. Indonesia : Java. 



SYNONYMIC CATALOGUE OF GENERA OF PHYCITINAE 63 

TELETHUSIA Heinrich, 1956, Bull. U. S. natn. Mus. 207 : 136. Pempelia ovalis Packard, 
orig. desig. U.S.A. : Maine. 

TENELLOPSIS Amsel, 1961, Ark. Zool. (2)13 : 379. T. microphycita Amsel, orig. desig. 
Iran. 

TEPHRIS Ragonot, 1893, Rom. Mem. 7 : 446. Pempelia cyriella Erschoff, orig. desig. 
U.S.S.R. : Turkestan. 

THERMOPTERYX Hampson, 1912, /. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 21 : 1254. T. rubrifusa 
Hampson, orig. desig. Ceylon. 

TH1ALLELA Walker, 1863, List Spec. Lepid. Ins. B. M. 27 : 120. T. signifera Walker, by 
monotypy. Malaysia : Sarawak. 

Luconia Ragonot, 1888, Nouv. Phycit. : 7. L. pallidobasella Ragonot, by monotypy. 
Malaysia : Sarawak. (Ragonot, 1901 : 511.) 

THOSPIA Ragonot, 1888, Nouv. Phycit. : 28. T. crassipalpella Ragonot, orig. desig. Iran : 
Schahkuh. 

THYLACOPTILA Meyrick, 1885, Entomologist's man. Mag. 22 : 105. T. paurosema Meyrick, 
by monotypy. Cape Verde Is : St. Vincent. 

Bussa Ragonot, 1888, Nouv. Phycit. : 24. B. maculella Ragonot, by monotypy. Ghana. 
(Ragonot, 1901 : 547) 

TINESTRA Hampson, 1908, /. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 18 : 260. T. micralis Hampson, 
orig. desig. Ceylon. 

TLASCALA Hulst, 1890, Trans. Am. ent. Soc. 17 : 146. Nephopteryx reductalis Walker, 
orig. desig. Honduras. 

TORNOCOMETIS Meyrick, 1934, Exot - Microlepidopt. 4 : 496. T. chrysopila Meyrick, by 
monotypy. Fiji. 

TOTA Heinrich, 1956, Bull. U. S. natn. Mus. 207 : 170. Elasmopalpus galdinella Schaus, 
orig. desig. Galapagos Islands. 

TRACHONITIS Zeller, 1848, Isis, Leipzig 1848 : 606. Tinea cristellaHiibner, by monotypy. 
Europe. 

TRACHYCERA Ragonot, 1893, Rom. Mem. 7 : 2. Rhodophaea pallicornella Ragonot, by 
monotypy. U.S.A.: Texas. 

TRACHYPTERYX Ragonot, 1893, Rom. Mem. 7 : 566. Myelois magella Zeller, orig. desig. 
South Africa. 

TRANSCASPIA Amsel, 1955, Bull. Inst. r. Sci. nat. Belg. 31 : 50. T. repetekella Amsel, 
orig. desig. Jordan : Repetek. 

TRIAEONONEURA Ragonot, 1893, Rom. Mem. 7 : 312. Acrobasis laticinctella Walker, by 
monotypy. Egypt. 

TRICHORACHIA Hampson, 1930, Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (io)5 : 65. T. leonina Hampson, 
orig. desig. Sierra Leone. 

Trigonopyralis Amsel, see Euzopherodes Ragonot. 

TRISIDES Walker, 1863, List Spec. Lepid. Ins. B. M. 27 : 78. T. bisignata Walker, by 
monotypy. Malaysia : Sarawak. 

TRISSONCA Meyrick, 1882, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W. 7 : 158. Spermatophthora mesactella 
Meyrick, by monotypy. Australia : New South Wales. 

TRYCHNOCRANA Turner, 1925, Trans. R. Soc. S. Aust. 49 : 44. T. abditiva Turner, by 
monotypy. Australia : Queensland. 

TUCUMANIA Dyar, 1925, Insecutor Inscit. menstr. 13 : 224. T. tapiacola Dyar, orig. desig. 
Argentine. 



64 P. E. S. WHALLEY 

TULSA Heinrich, 1956, Bull. U. S. natn. Mus. 207 : 134. Nephopteryx finitella Walker, 
orig. desig. U.S.A. 

Turdoempista Roesler, see Salebriopsis Hanneman. 

TYLOCHARES Meyrick, 1883, Entomologist's man. Mag. 19 : 256. Myelois cosmiella 
Meyrick, by monotypy. Australia. 

UFA Walker, 1863, List Spec. Lepid. Ins. B. M. 27 : 79. U. venezuelalis Walker, by monotypy. 
U.S.A. : Colorado. 

ULOPHORA Ragonot, 1890, Bull. Soc. ent. Fr. (6)10 : vii. U. groteii Ragonot, by monotypy. 
U.S.A.: California . 

Acromeseres Dyar, 1919, Insecutor Inscit. menstr. 7 : 41. A. dialithus Dyar, by monotypy. 
Cuba. (Heinrich, 1956 : 176.) 

UNADILLA Hulst, 1890, Trans. Am. ent. Soc. 17 : 197. U. nasutella Hulst, orig. desig. 
U.S.A.: New Mexico. 

Strymax Dyar, 1915, Proc. U. S. natn. Mus. 47 : 344. S. dome Dyar, orig. desig. Panama. 
(Heinrich, 1956 : 227.) 

UNADILLIDES Hampson, 1930, Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (io)5 : 53. Homoeosoma distichella 
Meyrick, orig. desig. Sierra Leone. 

UNCINOMORPHA Amsel, 1958, Sber. ost. Akad. Wiss. (i)167 : 555. U. bamella Amsel, by 
monotypy. Iran. 

UNCINUS Amsel, 1951, Ark. Zool. (2)! : 537. U. hypogryphellus Amsel, by monotypy. 
Iran. 

URBANIA Hampson, 1901, Rom. Mem. 8 : 81. U. lophopterella Hampson, by monotypy. 
South Africa, Natal. 

'Urbania Ragonot', auct. 

VAGOBANTA Heinrich, 1956, Bull. U. S. natn. Mus. 207 : 289. Cryptoblabes divergens 

Butler, orig. desig. Chile. 
Valdivia Ragonot, see Maricopa Hulst. 

VALVA Amsel, 1961, Ark. Zool. (2)13 : 373. V. candiopella Amsel, orig. desig. Iran. 
VARNERIA Dyar, 1904, Proc. ent. Soc. Wash. 6 : 114. V. postremella Dyar, by monotypy. 

U.S.A.: Kentucky. 

VELDTICOLA Hampson, 1930, Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (io)5 : 73. V. striatella Hampson, 

orig. desig. South Africa : Transvaal. 
VERINA Heinrich, 1956, Bull. U. S. natn. Mus. 207 : 288. Moodna suplicella Dyar, orig. 

desig. Panama. 

VEZINA Heinrich, 1956, Bull. U. S. natn. Mus. 207 : 291. V. parasitaria Heinrich, orig. 
desig. Argentine : Jose C. Paz, Prov. of Buenos Aires. 

VIETTEIA Amsel, 1955, Bul1 - In ^- * Sci. nat. Belg. 31 : 36. Myelois terstrigella Chretien, by 
monotypy. U.S.S.R. : Krasnowodsk. 

VINICIA Ragonot, 1893, Rom. Mem. 7 : 461. Salebria gypsopa Meyrick, orig. desig. 
Australia : Adelaide. 

VITULA Ragonot, 1887, N. Amer. Phycit. : 14. V. dentosella Ragonot, orig. desig. U.S.A.: 
Florida. 

Eccopsia Dyar, 1902, Bull. U. S. natn. Mus. 52 : 430. Vitula serratilineella Ragonot, by 
monotypy. U.S.A.: California. (Heinrich, 1956 : 285.) (Attributed by Dyar to Ragonot, 
'in manuscript'.) 

VOGTIA Pastrana, 1961, Revta Invest, agric. B. Aires 15 : 265. V. malloi Pastrana, orig. 
desig. Argentine. 

VOLATICA Heinrich, 1956, Bull. U. S. natn. Mus. 207 : 290. Zophodia pachytaeniella 
Ragonot, orig. desig. Brazil. 



SYNONYMIC CATALOGUE OF GENERA OF PHYCITINAE 65 

VOLOBILIS Walker, 1863, List Spec. Lepid. Ins. B. M. 27 : in. V. biplaga Walker, by 
monotypy. Malaysia : Sarawak. 

WUNDERIA Grossbeck, 1917, Bull. Am. Mus. nat. Hist. 37 : 133. W. neaenatella Grossbeck, 
orig. desig. U.S.A. : Florida. 

Xenephestia Gozmany, see Ephestia Guenee. 

YOSEMITIA Ragonot, 1901, Rom. Mem. 8 : 17. Spermatophora graciella Hulst, by monotypy. 
U.S.A. : Texas. 

ZAMAGIRIA Dyar, 1915, Proc. U. S. natn. Mus. 47 : 329. Z. dixolophella Dyar, orig. desig. 
Panama. 

ZOPHODIA Hiibner, 1825, Verz. bekannt. Schmett. : 370. Tinea convolutella Hiibner, subseq. 
desig., Hulst, 1890, Trans. Am. ent. Soc. 17 : 172. Europe. 

Dakruma Grote, 1878, Bull. U. S. geol. geogr. Surv. Territ. 4 : 702. D. turbatella Grote, by 
monotypy. U.S.A.: Illinois. (Heinrich, 1956 : 238.) 

ZOPHODIODES Ragonot, 1887, Annls Soc. ent. Fr. 1887 : 241. Z. leucocostella by monotypy 
Turkey : Amasia. 

Zophodiopsis Fromholz, see Metoecis Mabille. 

ZYNODES nom. n. for Blabioides Hampson. Blabioides strigerella Hampson, by monotypy 
of Blabioides Hampson. Ceylon. 

Blabioides Hampson, 1903, /. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 15 : 25. B. strigerella Hampson, by 
monotypy. Ceylon. (Preoccupied by Blabioides Hampson, 1900.) 



REFERENCES 

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Veroff. dt. Kolon. u. Ubersee-Mus. Bremen 3 : 37-56. 

HANNEMANN, H. J. 1964. Tierwelt Deutschlands und der angrenzenden Meeresteile. 50 (n) : 
Die Winckler(s.l.), Cochliidae und Carposinidae. Die Ziinslerartigen, Pyralidae. G. 
Fischer, Jena. Pp. 1-401. 

HEINRICH, C. 1956. American moths of the subfamily Phycitinae. Bull. U. S. natn. Mus. 
207 : 1-581. 

McDuNNouGH, J. 1924. Some synonymical notes on Lepidoptera. Can. Ent. 56 : 249. 

MARTIN, E. 1956. On the systematic position and status of some Pyralid genera and species. 
Entomologist 89 : 163-165. 

MEYRICK, E. 1931. Exotic Microlepidoptera 4 (pt. 4) : 97-128. London. 

RAGONOT, E. L. 1885. A revision of the British species of Phycitidae and Galleridae. Ento- 
mologist's mon. Mag. 22 : 17-32. 
1887. Diagnoses of North American Phycitidae and Galleridae. Pp. 1-52. Paris. 

1887. Diagnoses d'especes de Phycitidae d'Europe et des pays limitrophes. Annls Soc. 

ent. Fr. 1887 : 225-260. 

1888. Nouveaux Genera et Especes de Phycitidae et Galleridae. Pp. 1-52. Paris. 

1893. Mtmoires sur les Ltpidopteres, par N. M. Romanoff. VII, Monographic des 

Phycitinae et des Galleriinae. Pp. 1-658. St. Petersbourg. 

RAGONOT, E. L., and HAMPSON, G. F. 1901. Mlmoires sur les L6pidopteres, par N. M. 

Romanoff. VIII, Monographic des Phycitinae et des Galleriinae. Pp. 1-602. 
ROESLER, U. 1965. Untersuchungen iiber die Systematik und Chorologie des Homoeosoma- 

Ephestia Komplexes (Lepidoptera, Phycitinae) . Inaugural Dissertation der Universitdt des 

Saarlandes. Saarbriicken. 

1966. Beschreibung von neuen Taxa des Homoeosoma-Ephestia Komplexes. Beitr. 

naturk. Forsch. Sudw. Dtl. 25 : 43-69. 



66 



P. E. S. WHALLEY 



SHIBUYA, J. 1923. The Formosan Pyralidae. /. Fac. Agric. Hokkaido Imp. Univ. 22 : i- 

300. 
TURNER, A. J. 1942. Fragmenta Lepidopterologica. Proc. R. Soc. Qd 53 : 61-69. 

- 1947. A Revision of the Australian Phycitinae. Trans. R. Soc. S. Aust. 71 : 28-53. 
WHALLEY, P. E. S. 1960. The genus Ephestia Guen6e (Lepid., Phycitinae). Entomologist's 

Gaz. 11 : 183. 



INDEX OF SPECIES 



abatesella Dumont, Cherchera, 40 
abberans Heinrich, Protomoerbes, 58 
abditiva Turner, Trychnocrana, 63 
abietella Denis & Schiffermiiller, Dioryctria, 

42 

achatinella Hiibner, Nyctegretis, 54 
actiosella Walker, Eurhodope, 45 
actiosoides Hampson, Ernophthora, 44 
ademptandella Dyar, Salebriaria, 60 
admixta Heinrich, Quasisalebria, 59 
adpiscinella Chretien, Bignathosia, 38 
advenella Zincken, Eurhodope, 45 
aegyptiaca Gozmany, Borosia, 38 
aenictopa Turner, Ecbletodes, 43 
aethiopella Duponchel, Asarta, 37 
afghana Hartig, Myeloisiphana, 53 
ahenella Denis & Schiffermuller, 

Hypochalcia, 48 

aigneri Amsel, Ametallosticha, 36 
albicans Ragonot, Euzopherodes, 46 
albicilla Herrich-Schaffer, Salebriopsis, 60 
albicostalis Walker, Assara, 37 
albicostella Amsel, Megalophycita, 51 
albiflavella Barnes & McDunnough, 

Acroncosa, 35 

albistriata Hampson, Homoeosoma, 48 
albistrigata Staudinger, Myrlaea, 53 
albistrigella Hampson, Radiestra, 59 
albocostalis Amsel, Ahawazia, 35 
alectryonura Meyrick, Copamyntis, 41 
aleurodes Turner, Syntypica, 62 
algeriella Chretien, Neurotomia, 54 
alicia Meyrick, Crystallozyga, 41 
aliculella Hulst, Olybria, 54 
alienalis Eversmann, Ratasa, 59 
allotriella Herrich-Schaffer, Hyporatasa, 49 
almonella Dyar, Praedonula, 58 
alternosquamella Ragonot, Dasypyga, 42 
alvandella Amsel, Ecbatania, 43 
amasiella Roesler, Epichalcia, 44 
amaurodes Turner, Abareia, 34 
analamprella Dyar, Salambona, 60 
angulella Dyar, Psorosina, 59 



angustella Blanchard, Elasmopalpus, 43 
angustella Hiibner, Alispa, 35 
animalcula Dyar, Microphestia, 52 
annulatella Zetterstedt, Polopeustis, 57 
annuliferella Dyar, Chararica, 40 
anticella Walker, Etiella, 45 
anticella Zeller, Oncolabis, 55 
antiquella Herrich-Schaffer, Synoria, 62 
apatelia Turner, Scythrophanes, 61 
apianella Schaus, Nicetiodes, 54 
aprepia Hampson, Asemia, 37 
apyrella Dyar, Caudellia, 40 
araeosticha Turner, Parramatta, 56 
arenosella Staudinger, Syria, 62 
arestodes Turner, Euageta, 45 
argyrella Denis & Schiffermuller, Selagia, 61 
argyrogrammos Zeller, Metallosticha, 52 
arizonella Hulst, Selga, 61 
artonoma Meyrick, Spectrobates, 61 
asthenosoma Dyar, Parolyca, 56 
atrifasciella Ragonot, Elegia, 43 
atrifusella Hampson, Ptyonocera, 59 
atrovenosella Ragonot, Sematoneura, 61 
auranticiliella Ragonot, Cremnophila, 41 
aurantipalpus Moore, Cabragus, 39 
aureofasciella Ragonot, Macrorrhinia, 50 
austeritella Amsel, Nephopterygia, 54 
automorpha Meyrick, Conobathra, 41 
azonaxsalis Walker, Davara, 42 

bahamasella Hampson, Oedothmia, 54 
bamella Amsel, Uncinomorpha, 64 
barteli Caradja, Nephopterix, 54 
basiferella Walker, Eurhodope, 45 
belutschistanella Amsel, Ciliocerodes, 40 
belutschistanella Amsel, Makrania, 51 
benderella Amsel, Parasefidia, 56 
bengallella Ragonot, Anonaepestis, 36 
bicolor Hampson, Melanistia, 51 
bicornutella Amsel, Palloria, 55 
bihinda Dyar, Rumatha, 60 
bilineella Amsel, Acornigerula, 35 
bilineella Ragonot, Auxacia, 38 



INDEX 



67 



biplaga Walker, Volobilis, 65 
bipunctella Inoue, Protoetiella, 58 
bisignata Walker, Trisides, 63 
bistriatella Hulst, Apomyelois, 37 
bistriga Haworth, Cryptoblabes, 41 
biviella Zeller, Manhatta, 51 
bolli Zeller, Melitara, 51 
bonhoti Hampson, Cabotia, 39 
brucei Hulst, Phobus, 56 
burdettella Schaus, Peadus, 56 

cactorum Berg, Cactoblastis, 39 

caecalis Snellen, Carthade, 39 

caesariella Hampson, Proceratia, 58 

callipterella Ragonot, Christophia, 40 

cameratella Amsel, Omudzia, 55 

Candida Gozmany, Nefertitia, 53 

candiopella Amsel, Valva, 64 

canella Denis & Schiffermiiller, Gymnancyla, 

47 

canens Heinrich, Lascelina, 50 
canilinea Meyrick, Lasiosticha, 50 
caradjae Rebel, Lambesia, 50 
caricae Dyar, Davara, 42 
carnella Linnaeus, Oncocera, 55 
castanias Meyrick, Chilocremastis, 40 
cathaeretes Dyar, Anegcephalesis, 36 
caustella Hampson, Eulophota, 45 
cautella Walker, Ephestia, 44 
cerostomella Ragonot, Plagoa, 57 
chalybella Eversmann, Lympha, 50 
championella Ragonot, Bethulia, 38 
chilenis Heinrich, Sigelgaita, 61 
chinographella Ragonot, Hemiptilocera, 47 
chirazalis Amsel, Ocrisiodes, 54 
christophorella Ragonot, Parthia, 56 
chrysopila Meyrick, Tornocometis, 63 
cingilella Zeller, Merulempista, 52 
cinnamonella Zeller, Ancylosis, 36 
cirrigerella Zincken, Myelois, 53 
cistipennis Dyar, Fundella, 46 
coccidivora Comstock, Laetilia, 50 
coccophthora Turner, Crebota, 41 
coenosella Ragonot, Daria, 42 
columbiella McDunnough, Interjectio, 49 
comacornella Hulst, Acrobasis, 35 
combustella Herrich Schaffer, Alophia, 36 
commatella Zeller, Mescinia, 52 
commensella Dyar, Pseudodivona, 59 
compedella Zeller, Edulica, 43 
compositella Treitschke, Abrephia, 34 
conchyliella Ragonot, Ingridiola, 49 
coniella Ragonot, Myelopsis, 53 
conops Dyar, Rabiria, 59 



consobrinella Zeller, Glyptocera, 47 
constantella Hulst, Passadena, 56 
constitutionella Dyar, Mildrixia, 52 
convolutella Hiibner, Zophodia, 65 
coquimbella Ragonot, Maricopa, 51 
cordubensiella Ragonot, Adelperga, 35 
corniculatus Heinrich, Paconius, 55 
cornutella Roesler, Longignathia, 50 
corynophora Dyar, Difundella, 42 
cosmiella Meyrick, Tylochares, 64 
costella Hampson, Phestinia, 56 
crassa Amsel, Gozmanyia, 47 
crassiella Ragonot, Sandrabatis, 60 
crassipalpella Ragonot, Thospia, 63 
crassitibiella Ragonot, Addyme, 35 
craterantis Meyrick, Hylophora, 48 
craticulella Ragonot, Dentinodia, 42 
crepusculella Lederer, Adelosemia, 35 
cribrella Hiibner, Myelois, 53 
cristella Hiibner, Trachonitis, 63 
croceella Hulst, Nephopterix, 54 
cruentella Duponchel, Eurhodope, 45 
cubensis, Heinrich, Scorylus, 61 
curvella Matsumura, Etielloides, 45 
curvibasella Ragonot, Prorophora, 58 
cymindella Ragonot, Numonia, 54 
cymogramma Meyrick, Singhalia, 61 
cyrdipsa Dyar, Drescoma, 43 
cyriella Erschorf, Tephris, 63 

dahiella Treitschke, Psorosa, 59 
dalakiella Amsel, Psorosodes, 59 
dalera Dyar, Davara, 42 
daspyga Zeller, Coptarthria, 41 
decipiens Dyar, Moodnopsis, 53 
decolor Zeller, Ectomyelois, 43 
defectella Walker, Ephestia, 44 
defiguralis Walker, Calguia, 39 
deformella Moeschler, Pseudophycita, 59 
deletella Ragonot, Caina, 39 
denticostella Dyar, Magiriopsis, 51 
dentosella Ragonot, Vitula, 64 
designella Amsel, Anephopteryx, 36 
diacma Meyrick, Autocyrota, 38 
dialithus Dyar, Ulophora, 64 
diffusella Christoph, Salinaria, 60 
dilucidella Duponchel, Megasis, 51 
dilutella Treitschke, Ancylosis, 36 
dionysia Zeller, Oligochroa, 54 
diplosema Meyrick, Stomoclista, 62 
diremptella Ragonot, Niethammeriodes, 54 
discocellularis Strand, Canarsia, 39 
discomaculella Ragonot, Susia, 62 
disjunctus Heinrich, Heras, 47 



68 



INDEX 



distichella Meyrick, Unadillides, 64 
divergens, Butler, Vagobanta, 64 
diviselloides Amsel, Sardzea, 60 
dixolophella Dyar, Zamagira, 65 
djiroftella Amsel, Culcita, 41 
dophnerella Ragonot, Sarata, 60 
dorae Dyar, Unadilla, 64 
dorsipunctella Ragonot, Hydaspia, 48 
dosia Dyar, Diatomocera, 42 
dryadella Hulst, Ocala, 54 
dryopella Schaus, Moerbes, 53 
dymnusalis Walker, Etiella, 45 
dysorphnaea Bradley, Catopyla, 40 

ectophaea Hampson, Mascelia, 51 
edentella Hulst, Diviana, 42 
effractella Zeller, Eccopisa, 43 
effrosella Ragonot, Spatulipalpia, 61 
elaphitis Meyrick, Episcythrastis, 44 
elongatella Hampson, Cactobrosis, 39 
elutella Hiibner, Ephestia, 44 
encyclia Meyrick, Balanomis, 38 
endopyrella Hampson, Oedothmia, 54 
ensiferella Meyrick, Parramatta, 56 
entomophaga Meyrick, Neocoristis, 53 
ephestiella Amsel, Salebriodes, 60 
ephestiella Hampson, Symphestia, 62 
ephestiella Ragonot, Laetilia, 50 
eremicola Amsel, Cornigerula, 41 
eribolax Meyrick, Hylopercnas, 48 
erschoffella Ragonot, Pleurochila, 57 
escigera Meyrick, Phalobathra, 56 
etheiella Meyrick, Eucampyla, 45 
etiella Treitschke, Etiella, 45 
eudoreella Ragonot, Diviana, 42 
euphrontis Meyrick, Nyctigenes, 54 
euryniphas Meyrick, Actinocrates, 35 
eutraphea Meyrick, Philotroctis, 56 
euzopherella Dyar, Pseudocabima, 58 
exiguella Ragonot, Nonia, 54 

faecella Zeller, Oncocera, 55 
falsalis Hampson, Auchmera, 38 
farsella Amsel, Pirizanodes, 57 
favillalella Walker, Masthala, 51 
fenestratella Packard, Lipographis, 50 
feriella Hulst, Tacoma, 62 
festivella Zeller, Epicrocis, 44 
finitella Walker, Tulsa, 64 
flavella Amsel, Eurhophaea, 46 
flavicans Zeller, Piesmopoda, 57 
flavicornella Ragonot, Phycitopsis, 57 
flavipicta Hampson, Psammia, 58 
forsterella Hulst, Pima, 57 



fossulatella Ragonot, Oryctometopia, 55 
fraternella Ragonot, Pempelia, 56 
fuliginosus Heinrich, Honorinus, 48 
fuliginosella Heinemann, Euzophera, 46 
fulvella Ragonot, Cathyalia, 40 
fulvostrigella Eversmann, Epischidia, 44 
furculella Dyar, Sarasota, 60 
fuscidorsella Ragonot, Microthrix, 52 
fuscogrisella Fagonot, Palibothra, 55 

gabalitella Chretien, Pseudomegasis, 59 
galdinella Schaus, Tota, 63 
geera Hampson, Homodigma, 48 
gemina Haworth, Homoeosoma, 48 
gilveolella Treitschke, Bradyrrhoa, 38 
gilvescentella Ragonot, Ephestiodes, 44 
glaucochroa Hampson, Taprobania, 62 
gozmanyi Amsel, Repetekiodes, 59 
graciella Hulst, Yosemitia, 65 
gracilis Rebel, Pseudosyria, 59 
gratella Walker, Canthelea, 39 
gregella Eversmann, Serrulacera, 61 
grisella Barnes & McDunnough, Bertelia, 38 
grisella de Joannis, Audeoudia, 38 
grisescens Ragonot, Emporia, 43 
groteii Ragonot, Ulophora, 64 
gurbyris Dyar, Illatila, 49 
guttela Snellen, Eleusina, 43 
gypsopa Meyrick, Vinicia, 64 
gypsopeda Meyrick, Platycrates, 57 

hartigi Amsel, Khorassania, 50 
heliochyta Meyrick, Compsoteles, 41 
hemileucella Hampson, Barbifrontia, 38 
hieroglyphella Ragonot, Neopempelia, 53 
hirticostella Ragonot, Pogononeura, 57 
hobsoni Butler, Etiella, 45 
homoeosella Zeller, Baphala, 38 
homosema Meyrick, Meyrickialis, 52 
hornigii Lederer, Spermatophthora, 61 
hospitella Zeller, Eurythmia, 46 
hutchinsoni Ragonot, Pretoria, 58 
hyaenella Fromholz, Metoecis, 52 
hyperythrella Hampson, Oxydisia, 55 
hypogryphellus Amsel, Uncinus, 64 
hypolepidota Turner, Ptyobathra, 59 
hyrcanella Amsel, Eurhophaea, 46 
hyrcanella Amsel, Ciliopempelia, 40 

idiotes Dyar, Chorrera, 40 
ignidorsella Ragonot, Eurythmidia, 46 
ignefatua Dyar, Eurythmasis, 46 
ilignella Zeller, Megasis, 51 
imparella Zeller, Magira, 51 
impletella Zeller, Prosoeuzophera, 58 



INDEX 



69 



improba Meyrick, Stomophylactis, 62 
indentella Ragonot, Samaria, 60 
indicalis Walker, Etiella, 45 
indigella Zeller, Acrobasis, 35 
infidelis Gozmany, Nylonala, 54 
infractalis Walker, Mesciniadia, 52 
innoxia Heinrich, Ribua, 60 
institella Ragonot, Getulia, 47 
interpunctella Hiibner, Plodia, 57 
interruptella Ragonot, Centrometopia, 40 
intransitella Dyar, Adanarsa, 35 
inveterella Dyar, Moodnopsis, 53 
iodora Meyrick, Genophantis, 47 
iozona Meyrick, Ichorarchis, 49 
iranalis Amsel, Eurhodope, 45 
irichampa Dyar, Anthopteryx, 37 
isabella Dyar, Piesmopoda, 57 
isidis Zeller, Ceutholopha, 40 

jacksoni Ragonot, Tarquitia, 62 
jansei Hampson, Myelodes, 53 
joannisella Ragonot, Candiope, 39 
jugosella Ragonot, Ortholepis, 55 
junctolineella Hulst, Olycella, 55 
junctor Heinrich, Gennadius, 46 

kasyellum Roesler, Ectohomoeosoma, 43 
keltella Amsel, Euzopherodes, 46 
kenteriella Ragonot, Cnephidia, 41 
komarofn Ragonot, Arimania, 37 
korgosella Ragonot, Seeboldia, 61 
kozhantschikovi Filipjev, Insalebria, 49 
kuehniella Zeller, Ephestia, 44 
kuldgensis Ragonot, Isauria, 49 

laetella Grote, Ambesa, 36 
laisalis Walker, Faveria, 46 
lambella Dyar, Nonia, 54 
lanceolella Ragonot, Homoeographa, 48 
lathria Turner, Ammatucha, 36 
laticinctella Walker, Triaenoneura, 63 
lativittella Ragonot, Maricopa, 51 
leithella Dyar, Amalafrida, 36 
leonina Hampson, Trichorachia, 63 
lepidocerella Mabille, Metoesis, 52 
leucarinella Zeller, Glyptoteles, 47 
leucocostella Ragonot, Zophodiodes, 65 
leucomera Turner, Stereobela, 62 
leuconips Dyar, Eremberga, 44 
limodoxa Meyrick, Delogenes, 42 
lineatella Ragonot, Hedemannia, 47 
liturosella Erschoff, Epilydia, 44 
lophopterella Hampson, Urbania, 64 
lucasi, Mabille, Ephedrophila, 43 



lucidalis Walker, Ozamia, 55 
lundbladi Amsel, Hafisia, 47 
luniferella Hampson, Stylopalpia, 62 
lunigerella Ragonot, Promylea, 58 
lutisignella Mann, Infinita, 49 
lydella Lederer, Praeepischnia, 58 

macropasa Dyar, Aptunga, 37 
maculella Ragonot, Thylacoptila, 63 
maculicostella Ragonot, Ernophthora, 45 
magella Zeller, Trachypteryx, 63 
magellanella Ragonot, Patagonia, 56 
makranella Amsel, Gnathomorpha, 47 
malacella Dyar, Cassiana, 39 
malloi Pastrana, Vogtia, 64 
mamella Dyar, Ceracanthia, 40 
marginalis Denis & Schiffermiiller, Catastia, 

40 

marginea Denis & Schiffermiiller, Catastia, 39 
marmorella Ragonot, Succadana, 62 
martinalis Viette, Jakuarte, 49 
medullalis Hiibner, Myelois, 53 
melanoleuca Hampson, Endolasia, 43 
mellinella Grote, Honora, 48 
mercatrix Meyrick, Euzophera, 46 
meretrix Staudinger, Paramaxillaria, 55 
meridionalis Walker, Ancova, 36 
merilesella Dyar, Schenectadia, 60 
mesactella Meyrick, Trissonca, 63 
mesophaea Hampson, Styphlorachis, 62 
metalliferella Ragonot, Hypargyria, 48 
micans Hampson, Mesciniella, 52 
micraeola Hampson, Africella, 35 
micralis Hampson, Caustella, 40 
micralis Hampson, Tinestra, 63 
microdoxa Meyrick, Assara, 37 
microphycita Amsel, Tenellopsis, 63 
micropolia Turner, Dialepta, 42 
minimella Amsel, Praecomotia, 58 
minutella Ragonot, Pristarthria, 58 
mirabilicornella Dyar, Protasia, 58 
mirandella Hampson, Meroptera, 52 
mitrophora Meyrick, Ceratagra, 40 
molybdophora Lower, Heterochrosis, 47 
monospessulalis Duponchel, Asartodes, 37 
monospila Turner, Symphonistis, 62 
monotona Amsel, Paraemporia, 55 
morbosella Staudinger, Staudingeria, 61 
mucidella Ragonot, Rotruda, 60 
muciella Schaus, Azaera, 38 
murciella Amsel, Archiephestia, 37 
muscosella Walker, Lacipea, 50 
myeloisiformis Hartig, Hypodaria, 48 
myja Dyar, Bema, 38 



7 o 



INDEX 



myronella Dyar, Cabnia, 39 
mysiella Dyar, Eumysia, 45 

nasuta Hampson, Ethiopsella, 45 
nasutella Hulst, Unadilla, 64 
neaeriatella Grossbeck, Wunderia, 65 
negator Heinrich, Exuperius, 46 
nephelocentra Meyrick, Amphignostis, 36 
nephelopa Meyrick, Dipsochares, 42 
nervosellus Amsel, Ambluncus, 36 
nesiotica Rebel, Pararotruda, 56 
neuractis Meyrick, Ctenomedes, 41 
nexa Heinrich, Rioja, 60 
nigrigranella Ragonot, Dentitegumia, 42 
nigripunctella Amsel, Iransharia, 49 
nigrisparsella Ragonot, Aphyletes, 37 
nigritella Hampson, Oncolabis, 55 
nigritella Strand, Oligochroides, 54 
nigrivenella Ragonot, Mussidia, 53 
nigrocyanella Constant, Metallostichodes, 52 
nigroscitalis Walker, Madiama, 51 
nigrovitella Dyar, Immyrla, 49 
nimbella Duponchel, Homoeosoma, 48 
niphostibes Turner, Sthenobela, 62 
noctivaga Staudinger, Keradere, 49 
nubillella Hulst, Monoptilota, 53 
nyctichroalis Hampson, Neasarta, 53 
nyssaecolella Dyar, Actrix, 35 

obscurella Roesler, Pseudocadra, 58 
obscurella Matsumura, Mimopolyocha, 52 
obtusella Hiibner, Catacrobasis, 39 
occultans Walker, Addyme, 35 
ochrella Barnes & McDunnough, Divitiaca, 43 
ochrifrontella Zeller, Eulogia, 45 
ochrivenella Ragonot, Odontarthria, 54 
ochrodepta Meyrick, Ctenomeristis, 41 
ochrodesma Zeller, Anabasis, 36 
oculatella Ragonot, Epischnopsis, 44 
odiosella Hulst, Salebriacus, 60 
oenobarella Meyrick, Ephestiopsis, 44 
oenospora Meyrick, Sporophyla, 61 
oenotripta Meyrick, Acolastodes, 35 
ogmosema Meyrick, Horistarcha, 48 
olbiella Hulst, Heterographis, 47 
omphalella Hampson, Lophothoracia, 50 
orio Dyar, Rampylla, 59 
ornatella Denis & Schiffermuller, Pempelia, 

56 

ovalis Packard, Telethusia, 63 
oxycyma Meyrick, Taftania, 62 
oxygrapha Meyrick, Idiobrotis, 49 

pachytaeniella Ragonot, Volatica, 64 
packardella Ragonot, Rhagea, 60 



pagmanella Amsel, Amechidia, 36 
pagodella Ragonot, Hypsipyla, 49 
pallens Amsel, Irakia, 49 
pallens Ragonot, Ancylodes, 36 
pallicornella Ragonot, Trachycera, 63 
pallidobasella Ragonot, Thiallela, 63 
pallorella Amsel, Farsia, 46 
palpella Ragonot, Sigmarthria, 61 
palumbella Denis & Schiffermuller, Oncocera, 

55 

parabates Dyar, Alberada, 35 
parasitaria Heinrich, Vezina, 64 
parvellum Roesler, Rotrudosoma, 60 
patricella Zeller, Ceroprepes, 40 
patulella Walker, Letoa, 50 
paula Heinrich, Moodnella, 53 
paulsoni Ragonot, Gabinius, 46 
paurosema Meyrick, Thylacoptila, 63 
pellucens Zeller, Fundella, 46 
pellucidella Zeller, Caristanius, 39 
pelviculella Hulst, Moodna, 53 
pempeliella Ragonot, Bazaria, 38 
persica Amsel, Sclerobiodes, 61 
persica Amsel, Sefida, 61 
petalocosma Meyrick, Ceutholopha, 40 
peterseni Ragonot, Megarthria, 51 
petrella Zeller, Adelphia, 35 
philetella Rebel, Klimeschiola, 50 
phoenicias Meyrick, Ernophthora, 44 
phryganoides Walker, Olyca, 55 
pinguis Haworth, Euzophera, 46 
plicata Hampson, Chrysocinia, 40 
plumigerella Hulst, Sarasota, 60 
ponderosella Barnes & McDunnough, Cahela, 

39 

porphyrorphna Meyrick, Teleochytis, 62 
porrigens Zerny, Rhynchopselaphus, 60 
postremella Dyar, Varneria, 64 
praetextella Christoph, Melathrix, 51 
pravella Grote, Meroptera, 52 
pristophorella Amsel, Mechedia, 51 
proavitella Rebel, Archigalleria, 37 
prodenialis Walker, Melitara, 51 
prodromella Hiibner, Epischnia, 44 
proleucia Hampson, Penetiana, 56 
proselytes Dyar, Entmemacornis, 43 
psamathella Meyrick, Heosphora, 47 
psephenias Turner, Ecbletodes, 43 
pseudoflorella Schmidt, Praesalebria, 58 
pseudolimbella Ragonot, Dectocera, 42 
pseudolydella Amsel, Epiepischnia, 44 
psorosella Amsel, Gymnanclodes, 47 
pudoralis Denis & Schiffermuller, Eurhodope, 

45 



INDEX 



pulverealis Hampson, Ogilvia, 54 
punctalis Walker, Cyiza, 41 
pusilla Mabille, Euzopherodes, 46 
pygmaea Dyar, Micromescinia, 52 
pyrrhostrota Meyrick, Philosauritis, 56 

quadripuncta Zeller, Farnobia, 46 
quantulella Hulst, Erelieva, 44 
querna Dyar, Fulrada, 46 

ramosella Herrich-Schaffer, Arsissa, 37 
rectilineela de Joannis, Ancylodinia, 36 
reductalis Walker, Tlascala, 63 
repetekella Amsel, Transcaspia, 63 
rhabdotis Hampson, Rhynchephestia, 60 
rhectogramma Meyrick, Aproceratia, 37 
rhenella Zincken, Nephopterix, 54 
rhoiella Dyar, Philodema, 56 
richteri Amsel, Khuzistania, 50 
rileyella Ragonot, Sosipatra, 61 
robertsi Bradley, Gyroptera, 47 
robiniella Milliere, Ocrisia, 54 
ronnai Brethes, Cactoblastis, 39 
roseella Amsel, Palpusopsis, 55 
rosella Scopoli, Eurhodope, 45 
rubicundella Zeller, Piesmopoda, 57 
rubrifusa Hampson, Thermopteryx, 63 
rubripurpurea Hampson, Stylobasis, 62 
rufella Duponchel, Pterothrixidia, 59 
rufitinctalis Hampson, Cayennia, 40 
rufipicta Hampson, Harraria, 47 
ruhmekorfi Amsel, Sengania, 61 
ruptifasciella Ragonot, Susia, 62 
russeolus Heinrich, Birinus, 38 

saalmulleri Ragonot, Mahela, 51 
sagittiferella Moore, Citripestis, 41 
salebrosella Amsel, Pirizania, 57 
samaritanella Zeller, Heterographis, 47 
sarcoglauca Hampson, Singhalia, 61 
sardzeella Amsel, Denticera, 42 
sardzella Amsel, Laristania, 50 
saturata Meyrick, Ereboenis, 44 
schausella Dyar, Strephomescinia, 62 
schawerdae Zerny, Stanempista, 61 
scintillans Grote, Pyla, 59 
scitivittalis Walker, Etiella, 45 
sebasmia Meyrick, Eremographa, 44 
semicana Heinrich, Patriciola, 56 
semidiscella Ragonot, Cabotia, 39 
semilutea Walker, Piesmopoda, 57 
senesciella Schaus, Anadelosemia, 36 
sericarium Scott, Ephestia, 44 
serratilineella Ragonot, Vitula, 64 



shirazella Amsel, Coleocornutia, 41 
sidera Hampson, Procunea, 58 
signifera Walker, Thiallela, 63 
simplicula Zeller, Metephestia, 52 
sindella Amsel, Aphycita, 37 
sinensis Caradja, Hoeneia, 48 
sinuella Fabricius, Homoeosoma, 48 
solitella Zeller, Amyelois, 36 
solskyi Christoph, Pristocerelia, 58 
sonorella Ragonot, Anderida, 36 
spectrifasciella Ragonot, Homeograpta, 48 
spissicella Fabricius, Phycita, 57 
squalidella Dyar, Azaera, 38 
squamalis Amsel, Belutchistania, 38 
stenopterella Meyrick, Crocydophora, 41 
stercorea Zeller, Ancylostomia, 36 
stictoneurella Ragonot, Hyalospila, 48 
straminella Zerny, Monotonia, 53 
strenuella Walker, Gorama, 47 
striatella Hampson, Veldticola, 64 
strigata Hampson, Eccopidia, 43 
strigata Hampson, Jacutscia, 49 
strigerella Hampson, Zynodes, 65 
striginervella Hampson, Oedilepia, 54 
stygella Ragonot, Sempronia, 61 
subelisa Dyar, Drescomopsis, 43 
subinfractalis Hampson, Mesciniodes, 52 
sublineatella Staudinger, Amphithrix, 36 
subramosella Ragonot, Didia, 42 
subrufella Hulst, Atheloca, 38 
substituta Heinrich, Nanaia, 53 
subtinctella Ragonot, Cuniberta, 41 
suplicella Dyar, Verina, 64 

tacapella Ragonot, Hannemanneia, 47 
talhouki Amsel, Acrobasopsis, 35 
tancrei Sauber, Pogonotrophus, 57 
tapiacola Dyar, Tucumania, 63 
taprobalis Hampson, Neononia, 53 
tenebricosa Zeller, Diatomocera, 42 
terebrella Zincken, Euzophera, 46 
terstrigella Chretien, Vietteia, 64 
testaceipennis Strand, Psorosana, 59 
tinealella Walker, Epicrocis, 44 
titillella Dyar, Microphycita, 52 
torsicornis Dyar, Comotia, 41 
translucidella Ragonot, Cavipalpia, 40 
trans versella Duponchel, Oxybia, 55 
triangulella Ragonot, Synallorema, 62 
trigonifera Hampson, Ptyomaxia, 59 
tritalis Walker, Sclerobia, 61 
tshetverikovi Kuznetzov, Paradaria, 55 
tumidella Zincken, Acrobasis, 35 
tumidulella Ragonot, Acrobasis, 35 



72 

turbatella Grote, Zophodia, 65 
turbidella Zeller, Crocidomera, 41 

ulmiarrosorella Clemens, Canarsia, 39 
umbrifasciella Ragonot, Anoristia, 37 
uncinatella Ragonot, Hypogryphia, 49 
undulatella Clemens, Hulstia, 48 
unicolorella Hulst, Oreana, 55 
univitella Dyar, Anypsipyla, 37 

vacciniella Zeller, Metriostola, 52 
validella Christoph, Gregorempista, 47 
vapidella Mann, Delattinia, 42 
vartianae Amsel, Aprophthasia, 37 
vasta Amsel, Epiparthia, 44 
vaterfieldi Hampson, Exodesis, 46 
velessa Dyar, Harnocha, 47 
venezuelalis Walker, Ufa, 64 
venipars Dyar, Amyelois, 36 
venosa Dyar, Cacozophera, 39 



INDEX 



venustella Ragonot, Asalebria, 37 
vepreculella Ragonot, Ceracanthia, 40 
vermiculella Ragonot, Alispoides, 35 
verruciferella Ragonot, Ditrachyptera, 42 
vinetella Fabricius, Eucarphia, 45 
viridella Ragonot, Dysphylia, 43 

wahlbergi Zeller, Pogonotropha, 57 
Wiltshire! Amsel, Cyprusia, 41 
wockiana Briosi, Cryptoblabes, 41 

xuthobela Turner, Cryptadia, 41 
xuthochroa Turner, Anaresca, 36 
xylochroa Turner, Alloea, 35 

ydda Dyar, Bema, 38 

ziczac Amsel, Brachiolodes, 38 
zimmermani Grote, Dioryctria, 42 
zinckenella Treitschke, Etiella, 45 



PAUL ERNEST SUTTON WHALLEY, M.Sc. 
Department of Entomology 
BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 
LONDON, S.W.7, ENGLAND 



A LIST OF SUPPLEMENTS 
TO THE ENTOMOLOGICAL SERIES 

OF THE BULLETIN OF 
THE BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 



2. NIXON, G. E. J. A reclassification of the tribe Microgasterini (Hymenoptera : 
Braconidae). Pp. 284 : 348 text-figures. August, 1965. 6. 

3. WATSON, A. A revision of the Ethiopian Drepanidae (Lepidoptera). Pp. 177 : 
18 plates, 270 text-figures. August, 1965. 4 45. 

4. SANDS, W. A. A revision of the Termite Subfamily Nasutitermitinae (Isoptera, 
Termitidae) from the Ethiopian Region. Pp. 172 : 500 text-figures. Sep- 
tember, 1965. 3 5s. 

5. AHMAD, I. The Leptocorisinae (Heteroptera : Alydidae) of the World. 
Pp. 156 : 475 text-figures. November, 1965. 2 155. 

6. OKADA, T. Diptera from Nepal. Cryptochaetidae, Diastatidae and Droso- 
philidae. Pp. 129 : 328 text-figures. May, 1966. 3. 

7. GILIOMEE, J. H. Morphology and Taxonomy of Adult Males of the Family 
Coccidae (Homoptera : Coccoidea). Pp. 168 : 43 text-figures. January, 1967. 
33s. 

8. FLETCHER, D. S. A revision of the Ethiopian species and a check list of the 
world species of Cleora (Lepidoptera : Geometridae). Pp. 119 : 14 plates, 146 
text-figures, 9 maps. February, 1967. 3 los. 

9. HEMMING, A. F. The Generic Names of the Butterflies and their type-species 
(Lepidoptera : Rhopalocera). Pp. 509. 8 los. 

10. STEMPFFER, H. The Genera of the African Lycaenidae (Lepidoptera : Rho- 
palocera). Pp. 322 : 348 text-figures. August, 1967. 8. 

11. MOUND, L. A. A review of R. S. Bagnall's Thysanoptera Collections. Pp. 172 : 
82 text-figures. May, 1968. 4. 

12. WATSON, A. The Taxonomy of the Drepaninae represented in China, with 
an account of their world distribution. Pp. 151 : 14 plates, 293 text-figures. 
November, 1968. 5. 

13. AFIFI, S. A. Morphology and Taxonomy of Adult Males of the families 
Pseudococcidae and Eriococcidae (Homoptera: Coccoidea). Pp. 210 : 52 text- 
figures. December, 1968. 5. 

14. CROSSKEY, R. W. A Re-classification of the Simuliidae (Diptera) of Africa 
and its Islands. Pp. 198 : i plate, 331 text-figures. July, 1969. 4 155. 

15. ELIOT, J. N. An analysis of the Eurasian and Australian Neptini (Lepidoptera : 
Nymphalidae). Pp. 155 : 3 plates, 101 text-figures. September, 1969. 

4- 

16. GRAHAM, M. W. R. DE V. The Pteromalidae of North-Western Europe 
(Hymenoptera : Chalcidoidea). Pp. 908 : 686 text-figures. November, 1969. 
19. 



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THERESA CLAY 



BULLETIN OF 

THE BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 
ENTOMOLOGY Vol. 25 No. 3 

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those of the World List of Scientific Periodicals. 



World List abbreviation 
Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 



Trustees of the British Museum (Natural History) 1970 



TRUSTEES OF 
THE BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 

Issued 3 July, 1970 Price i 45. 

(1-20) 



THE AMBLYCERA 
(PHTHIRAPTERA : INSECTA) 

By THERESA CLAY 



CONTENTS 

Page 

INTRODUCTION .......... 75 

CHARACTERS FOR THE SEPARATION OF FAMILIES ..... 76 

1. Head Setae and Sensilla ....... 76 

2. Antennal sensilla ......... 76 

3. Mouthparts .......... 78 

4. Tentorium .......... 78 

5- Legs . 79 

6. Thorax and Abdomen ........ 80 

7. Abdominal Sclerites and Spiracles . . . . . . 82 

8. Female Gonapophyses ........ 86 

9. Tracheal System ......... 87 

DEFINITION OF AMBLYCERA AND INCLUDED FAMILIES ... 87 

MENOPONIDAE 88 

BOOPIDAE 88 

LAEMOBOTHRIIDAE 89 

RICINIDAE 89 

TRIMENOPONIDAE 9 o 

GYROPIDAE 9 o 

THE SUPRAGENERIC CLASSIFICATION OF THE AMBLYCERA ... 91 

KEY TO GENERA OF BOOPIDAE 96 

CLASSIFICATION OF THE PHTHIRAPTERA 96 

KEY TO GROUPINGS IN THE PHTHIRAPTERA 97 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ......... 98 

REFERENCES ........... 98 

SYNOPSIS 

The taxonomic characters used for the separation of the families comprising the Amblycera 
are described and the relationships of these families discussed, with special reference to the lice 
of the Marsupials. A discussion on the suprageneric divisions of the Phthiraptera and a key 
to these are included. 



INTRODUCTION 

ELSEWHERE (Clay, 1969), a key to the genera of the Menoponidae together with an 
assessment of the taxonomic characters of that family has been published. Such 
characters have now been studied in the other families of the Amblycera with a view 
to finding a more reliable basis for the relationships within the superfamily. For 
the purpose of this review the Amblycera are divided as follows: Menoponidae; 



76 THERESA CLAY 

Boopidae; Laemobothriidae ; Ricinidae; Trimenoponidae ; Gyropidae (Protogyro- 
pinae, Gyropinae, Gliricolinae). 

CHARACTERS FOR THE SEPARATION OF FAMILIES 

1. Head Setae and Sensilla. It has been shown (Clay, 1969) that in the Meno- 
ponidae these conform to certain patterns. Parts of the setal patterns are similar in 
the Boopidae and to a lesser extent in the Laemobothriidae ; usually in this latter 
family and in the Boopidae, with the exception of Latumcephalum and Paraboopia, 
the alveoli of two of the temple head setae (26 and 27 ; Clay, 1969, figs. 2-3) are 
contiguous as in many of the Menoponidae. In the other families the chaetotaxy 
is different, although some of the setae as numbered in the Menoponidae are 
identifiable ; in the New World mammal-infesting families the differences are 
largely due to the increase in the number of setae. Some of the genera of the 
Boopidae have the number and position of the head sensilla similar to the con- 
dition in most of the Menoponidae. 

2. Antennal Sensilla. The antenna of the Phthiraptera never has more than 
five segments : the scape, pedicel and a flagellum of three segments, the last two in 
the Amblycera frequently being fused to form a single segment. In addition to the 
sensory setae, there are sense organs on the last two segments of the flagellum or, 
in those species in which these two segments are fused, the sense organs are found 
on the terminal segment only. The Menoponidae have a sensillum coeloconicum 
on each of the last two segments in the five-segmented antenna and two on the 
terminal segment in the four-segmented antenna (Clay, 1969). The Boopidae (PI. i, 
fig. i) and the Ricinidae (PI. i, fig. 2) also have this arrangement of the sensilla ; 
the Laemobothriidae with four segments differ in having three sensilla on the ter- 
minal segment (PI. i, fig. 3). 

Unlike these groups, the Trimenoponidae and Gyropidae show considerable 
superficial diversity in the form of the antennal sense organs even within genera. 
As the antenna is always four-segmented in these families the sense organs, also 
probably modified sensilla coeloconica, are on the terminal segment. Examination 
with the light and scanning electron microscopes 1 (SEM) shows that there are four 
adjacent sense pegs forming the sense organ (PI. 3, fig. 13). Two of these pegs are 
conspicuous furrowed structures, visible from the surface view and two are smaller 
and of a different form, each arising within an inner cavity and frequently not 
visible from the surface. The differences between the sense organs are shown in 
the types of cavities in which the pegs occur, the following being examples : a. Two 
surface cavities, so that superficially this type appears rather similar to that of the 
Menoponidae, but it has four, not two, sense pegs (PI. i, fig. 4, Gyropus ovalis). 
b. The four pegs are in four cavities with four separate small openings on the 
lateral surface of the antenna (PI. i, fig. 5, Macrogyropus dicotylis). c. Four larger 

iSEM photographs. The antenna of the Phthiraptera have presented certain problems of cleaning 
and coating for the SEM. It has, however, been an agreeable surprise that specimens originally treated 
with KOH and mounted in Canada Balsam can be removed from the slide and used ; also, after approp- 
riate treatment, so can dried material collected from skins. This has made it possible to photograph 
the antennal sense organs of such South American genera as Protogyropus, Harrisonia and Cummingsia, 
which are rare in collections. 



THE AMBLYCERA 77 

separate openings on the tip of the terminal segment, some of which may be pro- 
tected by outgrowths from the margin, the two larger sense pegs are easily visible 
from the surface but the two cavities with the smaller pegs usually appear empty 
from this view (PI. i, fig. 6). This type is found in Gyropus freitasi, G. lenti, 
Macrogyropus heteronychus and Protogyropus ; in Phtheiropoios wetmori the cavities 
containing the larger pegs are wider and the inner sides are tuberculate (PI. 2, fig. 7). 
d. In this there is virtually one cavity, the walls between not reaching to the 
surface (PI. 2, fig. 8. Macrogyropus amplexans). Types a-d are found in the 
Gyropinae. e. A single outer cavity with the two large pegs each end and a central 
inner cavity divided into two with the other two sense pegs, which are sometimes 
visible from the surface ; the outer cavity may or may not be protected by processes 
from the cavity margin (PI. 2, figs 9-11 ; PI. 3, figs 13-14). This type is found in 
Gliricola and Pitrufquenia (Gliricolinae) and Cummingsia, Harrisonia and Philandesia 
(Trimenoponidae) . Trimenopon hispidum (Trimenoponidae) has a similar organ 
but the base of the cavity is composed of a number of small cavities and the organ 
is large and may incorporate one of the antennal setae (PI. 2, fig. 12). 

In the New World Amblycera there is a tendency for a breakdown of the inter- 
vening walls of the four cavities to form one large cavity. This type of organ could 
have been developed only in a group with a four-segmented antenna in which the 
sense organs are adjacent to each other. In the Menoponidae the antenna may be 
four- or five-segmented and the sensilla either adjacent or on separate segments. 
These facts together with evidence (Symmons, 1952) suggesting that the Menoponidae 
are the most primitive of the Phthiraptera, make it probable that the type of an- 
tennal sense organ found in this family is the most primitive. If the characters of 
the antennal sense organ reflect relationships, then in the Amblycera these would 
suggest a relationship between the Menoponidae, Boopidae, Ricinidae and Laemo- 
bothriidae on one hand and between the Gyropidae and Trimenoponidae on the 
other, with perhaps a closer relationship between the Trimenoponidae and the 
Gliricolinae. These sense organs have been considered entirely from the point of 
view of their value in taxonomy ; further studies by other methods are necessary 
to understand their histology and physiology. 

As the Ischnocera are believed to be less primitive than the Amblycera (Hopkins, 
1949, Symmons, 1952) and differ from them in many features it is of interest to 
consider their antennal sense organs. These differ markedly from those of the 
Amblycera, having in addition to cavities with a sense peg, other sensory areas. 
These areas in Trichodectes, when studied by means of a stereo pair of SEM photo- 
graphs, are seen to be saucer-shaped structures, each with a central raised area and a 
varying number of radiating ridges separated by narrow grooves (PI. 3, fig. 18). 
In the Philopteridae, in which there are five antennal segments, the organ on seg- 
ment V comprises two of the saucer-like sensilla and a third sensillum with a central 
cavity containing the sense peg ; the whole sometimes surrounded by a number of 
grooves. The position of these three sensilla relative to one another may prove to 
be of taxonomic value (PI. 3, figs 15, 16). On segment IV there is a similar organ, 
but this has only one of the saucer-like sensilla. In Trichodectes metis (Tricho- 
dectidae), in which the terminal segments of the antenna are fused, the sensilla 



78 THERESA CLAY 

are similar to those of the Philopteridae but lie adjacent to each other on the last 
segment (PI. 3, fig. 17). A more detailed study of the antennal sense organs of the 
Ischnocera is being undertaken. 

Haematomyzus (Rhynchophthirina) has antennal sense organs similar to those of 
the Ischnocera ; a cavity and two saucer-like areas with raised ridges on segment V 
(PI. 4, figs 19, 20) and a single saucer-like area and a cavity on segment IV. The 
cavity on both segments differs from that found in the Ischnocera in having the 
sense peg surrounded by a number of protruding leaf -like filaments (PI. 4, fig. 21). 
In at least some of the Anoplura (e.g. Haematopinus tuberculatus) , the sense organ 
on segment V is similar to that found in the Ischnocera in having a cavity and two 
saucer-like areas with internal ridges, each area and the whole group being sur- 
rounded by a number of grooves. 

The similarity of these antennal sense organs in the Ischnocera, Rhynchopthirina 
and Anoplura and their differences from those of the Amblycera, is further support 
for the taxonomic division between the Amblycera and the former three groups. 

3. Mouthparts. These are fundamentally the same in all the Amblycera, with 
the exception of some of the Ricinidae (Clay, 1949). The mandibles of the 
Menoponidae, Laemobothriidae and Philopteridae (Ischnocera) have a conspicuous 
bunch of filaments attached posteriorly, which are here considered to be the pros- 
theca ; some at least of the Trichodectidae (Ischnocera) also have this but the 
filaments are shorter and less conspicuous. A prostheca of this form has not been 
seen in the examination of whole mounts and dissections of specimens belonging to 
the Ricinidae, Boopidae, Trimenoponidae and Gyropidae, in which it is perhaps 
secondarily lost. This form of filamentous prostheca is found in at least some of 
the Psocoptera. The number of segments forming the maxillary palpus is rarely 
five (Trimenopori), commonly four and frequently less in the New World mammal- 
infesting forms. Apart from the majority of the Menoponidae, only the Boopidae 
and Laemobothriidae have the pair of subterminal setae, one of which is peglike, 
on the terminal segment of the maxillary palpus (Clay, 1968, PI. i, figs 6-7). The 
labial palpi are present in all the families with the exception of the Ricinidae. In 
all the Menoponidae there are five terminal setae on this palp, four or five in the 
Boopidae and the Gyropinae, four in the Trimenoponidae and not more than three 
in the Gliricolinae. The hypopharynx shows so much variation in reduction and 
modification of its parts between and within generic and suprageneric taxa that its 
form is of doubtful use in the consideration of relationships. 

4. Tentorium. Symmons (1952) placed the tentorium of the Amblycera in five 
groups based on the amount of reduction in its sclerotization. She showed that 
there was no obvious correlation between the form of the tentorium and of the 
mouth parts or with the degree of sclerotization of the head and suggested that its 
form, therefore, might be of phylogenetic significance. However, Symmons herself 
(1952 : 388) showed that there was some parallel reduction in the amount of 
sclerotization, citing the non-sclerotization of the posterior part of the anterior 
arms in Trinoton and Piagetiella (Menoponidae), Heterodoxus (Boopidae), Gyropus 
(Gyropidae) and the non-sclerotization of the bridge in Piagetiella, Heterodoxus, 
Gyropus, Gliricola, Trimenopon Laemobothrion and Ricinus; this may also be the case 



THE AMBLYCERA 



79 



in Pacifimenopon (Menoponidae). Thus, although there is a reduction in the 
tentorial sclerotization in the mammal-infesting Amblycera, there is a similar 
though lesser reduction in some of the Menoponidae, so that this does not necessarily 
denote relationship in all cases. There is variation within the Menoponidae of the 
position of the base of the antenna relative to the posterior articulation of the 
mandible and also of the position of the ommatidia, or the ocular seta where the 
former are not apparent, in relation to the posterior end of the antennal fossa. This 
variation is presumably due to the shortening or lengthening of different areas of the 
head, which also effects the position of the tentorial pits. One of the features, 
according to Symmons, showing the similarity between Ricinus and Laemobothrion 
is the position of the posterior tentorial pits near the occipital foramen. Ricinus 
and Laemobothrion have a superficial resemblance due to the elongation of the head 
in an antero-posterior direction and to the posterior elongation of the parietal areas 
(temples). In fact, the heads in the two families are rather different. In the 
Ricinidae the elongation of the head has taken place in the clypeal area in front of 
the anterior tentorial pits, which thus appear to lie rather more posteriorly than in 
other genera. The antennae and ommatidia are in a posterior position on the head 
and in Trochiloecetes, in which there is no posterior lengthening of the parietal area, 
the posterior point of the antennal fossa is almost on the postero-lateral corner of 
the head. In Laemobothrion, although the antennal base and the ommatidia are 
rather far removed from the posterior mandibular articulation, they are approxi- 
mately in the middle of the head and the anterior tentorial pits in their most 
common position, that is at the level of the posterior mandibular articulation. 
Symmons showed that Ricinus and Laemobothrion have a fine ligament in place of 
the usual sclerotized bridge, although in L. opisthocomi (not seen by Symmons) the 
bridge is as broad as in some of the Menoponidae. Symmons ( : 379) has shown that 
Laemobothrion differs from Ricinus in the absence of the ventral prothoracic muscles, 
there being no trace of their apodemes from the bridge in the former genus. 
Symmons placed Ricinus and Laemobothrion together in one of her phylogenetic 
groups, but perhaps there is no reason to consider the Ricinidae to be nearer related 
to the Laemobothriidae than either are to the Menoponidae. This is further dis- 
cussed below. 

5. Legs. These show considerable diversity even within families and between 
genera parasitic on the same host species, where the same adaptive forces might 
be presumed to operate. There is variation in the length of the tarsal segments, 
the angle at which the second tarsal segment joins the first and the presence or 
absence of a well-developed first euplantula, apart from the extreme modifications 
of the tarsus and tarsal claws found in the Gyropidae. Even if the first euplantula 
is well developed in the Boopidae, Trimenoponidae and Gyropidae it does not have 
the typical striated or banded appearance found in most of the Menoponidae (Clay, 
1969 : 14), although in species of the former families it may be tuberculate. Many 
of the Boopidae have processes (PI. 5, fig. 25) on the second tarsal segment similar 
to the condition in Pseudomenopon (Clay, 1969) and believed by Keler to represent 
the second euplantula. All the Amblycera have two tarsal claws, with the exception 
of the Gyropidae, which never have more than one claw on the second and third 



8o THERESA CLAY 

legs. There is some controversy about the presence or absence of claws in the 
Gliricolinae (Ke'ler, 1955 ; Mayer, 1954). Ke"ler's interpretation of the Gliricola 
leg is followed here, that is a two-segmented tarsus, the second bearing a narrow 
seta-like claw and a large euplantula. The majority of the Menoponidae have 
either ctenidia or brushes of setae on the venter of the third femur ; one genus 
(Microctenia) has comb-like projections in this position (Clay, 1969, PI. 6, fig. 32) ; 
the Laemobothriidae also have comb-like projections (PI. 4, fig. 22), but quite dis- 
similar from those of Microctenia. All the remaining families, as in some of the 
Menoponidae, have no definite ctenidia or brushes. The Gyropidae with the ex- 
ception of Protogyropus have at least one pair of legs modified for clasping the hair 
of the host as described by Ewing, 1924. An important feature of the leg separating 
the Boopidae and avian-infesting Amblycera from the New World mammal -infesting 
families is the form of the first coxa. It has been described in Myrsidea 
(Menoponidae) by Mayer (1954 : 100) as an elongate bladder lying flat on the body 
with its caudal end on the sternum in the form of a closed sac and its cranial end 
joined to the first pleural ridge by a single condylar joint ; this makes the first coxa 
a characteristic feature of the Boopidae and avian-infesting Amblycera. 

6. Thorax and Abdomen. These two parts of the body are considered together 
as in many Amblycera there is a close association between the thorax and the first 
abdominal segment. In the mammal-infesting Amblycera there is a tendency 
towards the reduction of the anterior segmentation by various degrees of fusion of 
the thoracic segments, reduction of the first abdominal segment and its fusion with 
the metathorax. In the Boopidae the mesonotum is distinct but there has been 
some confusion about the metanotum and its relation to tergum I. Tergum II, 
identified by being next to the first spiracle-bearing segment which is always III, 
is fully developed and it seems probable that the plate immediately anterior to this 
is the fused metanotum and tergum I. Each side of a typical Menoponid metano- 
tum (Text-fig. 3) is a narrow suture separating off the metapleurite, the inner dorsal 
seta (d) of which is frequently spine-like ; the outermost posterior marginal seta (o) 
of the metanotum is usually long. In the Boopidae it is possible to make out a 
similar pattern : immediately posterior to the mesonotum (Text-figs 4, 5) is a plate 
separated or partly separated each side by a suture from a lateral sclerite bearing 
spiniform setae at two levels. The central plate is transversely divided by an 
indistinct suture, anterior to which is a line of setae, the outermost one being long 
and here identified as the outer metanotal seta ; lateral to this seta is a spiniform 
seta, presumably homologous with the metapleural seta of the Menoponidae. 
Near the posterior margin of the central plate are other setae, presumed to be 
those of tergum I ; at this level laterally is a spiniform seta, presumed to be that of 
pleurite I. The SEM picture on PI. 5, fig. 26 shows the dual nature of the central 
plate. Further evidence is seen in the species of Paraheterodoxus (Text-fig. 5) 
in which there is a pair of strongly spiniform setae in the posterior row of the central 
plate similar in form and position to the pair found on each of terga II-VIII. There 
seems little doubt therefore that in the Boopidae tergum I is present but fused to the 
metanotum. In the Trimenoponidae, according to Keler (in press), the fusion of the 
thoracic segments shows much variation : the meso- and metanotum may be 



fused (Harrisonia), the meso- and pronotum fused (Trimenopon and Cummingsia) 
or the mesonotum free (Philandesia) . Tergum I in all the Tnmenoponidae is 
reduced to a greater or lesser extent, but is free. The Gyropidae also show con- 
siderable variation in the amount of fusion of the thoracic segments, and the fusion 
and reduction of tergum I. All three thoracic nota may be fused (Monothoracius), 





FIGS 1-2. Eidmanniella sp. Dorsal view of part of metathorax and anterior abdominal 
segments, somewhat diagramatic. i, Second nymphal instar. 2, Third instar. 



82 THERESA CLAY 

or the meso- and metanotum fused or all may be separate (M acrogyropus dicotylis). 
Tergum I may be free and well developed (Pitrufquenia) or considerably reduced in 
size but free or fused to the metanotum (Protogryropus) . In Protogyropus the meso- 
and metanotum and tergum I are all fused together. The mesonotum is free in the 
Menoponidae and Boopidae but fused with the metanotum in the Laemobothriidae 
and the Ricinidae. Tergum I and II are fully developed in the Menoponidae and 
Laemobothriidae, except in some female Menoponidae in which the anterior seg- 
ments of the abdomen are modified ; in the Ricinidae tergum I is fused with the 
pteronotum as in Protogyropus. This variation in the fusion of the thoracic and 
abdominal segments and the similarity of the condition in unrelated groups and the 
differences within related groups indicates that these modifications must have taken 
place independently on many occasions ; they are probably of little value in con- 
sidering relationships. 

The oblong heavily sclerotized postnotum as found in the majority of the Meno- 
ponidae is present in the Boopidae, together with the cluster of four anterior (medio- 
anterior) mesonotal setae, also characteristic of most of the Menoponidae. A 
postnotum of this type is present in some species of the Gyropidae and 
Trimenoponidae but the associated cluster of small setae has not been seen in these 
forms. 

There are certain setae and groups of setae on the abdomen remaining constant 
in number and in position relative to each other within the higher taxonomic cate- 
gories ; these may form useful landmarks in the study of homologies. In previous 
papers (Clay, 1962, 1966) these setae, such as those of the post-spiracular complex, 
have been omitted from the tergal counts which are given to show variation and 
should not preferably include non-variable setae. In all the Menoponidae and 
Laemobothriidae there is a small to minute seta (Text-fig. 3, a) each end of the 
anterior region of tergites I or II or both, perhaps having a proprioceptive function 
for the movements of the thorax and anterior segments. In the Boopidae this seta 
is present on tergum II in Heterodoxtis, in which the post-spiracular seta is on the 
tergite. In Boopia, with the post-spiracular seta on the lateral plate, there is no seta 
a on tergite II but a small anterior seta on the lateral plate (absent in Heterodoxus) 
probably represents a. The most important group of setae are those associated 
with the spiracle and discussed below in section 7. 

7. The Abdominal Sclerites and the Spiracles. For the purpose of the following 
discussion an abdominal segment is considered to have basically three sclerotized 
plates : a tergal (tergite), a sternal (sternite) and a lateral. All the Amblycera 
have one pair of thoracic spiracles and six pairs of abdominal ones opening on 
segments II I- VII I, with the exception of the Trimenoponidae and the Gliricolinae 
which have five pairs on segments III-VII. The apparent position of the spiracles 
on the segment varies in different families and in one case within a family, but before 
discussing the significance of this it is necessary to consider the post-spiracular 
complex of setae. In the Menoponidae this complex comprises four setae as follows : 
the post-spiracular seta, marginal or submarginal each end of tergites I-VIII, 
usually long and stout on at least some segments (Text-fig. 3, c) ; two minute setae 
closely associated with the alveolus of the post-spiracular seta on segments II-VIII 



THE AMBLYCERA 83 

(PI. 5, fig. 28) and usually the lateral seta (b). This last seta, short and frequently 
spiniform, is found on segments II-VIII lying on the mediad side of the post- 
spiracular seta ; it is often close to the alveolus of this latter seta and with it sub- 
marginal to the marginal row of tergal setae. In some species or on some segments 
it may appear as part of the tergal row except for being shorter and may not be 
readily distinguishable ; in other species it may become confused with the anterior 
tergal setae. However, when the post-spiracular seta appears to change its position 
this associated lateral seta changes with it, suggesting that it has some develop- 
mental and functional connection. The two minute associated setae are useful in 
identifying the post-spiracular seta ; thus their presence within the alveolus of the 
trichobothria (PI. 5, fig. 29), found on segments II-IV (Text-fig. 4) in most genera of 
the Boopidae, shows that these are modified post-spiracular setae. The only 
Amblycera in which these two minute setae appear to be absent are in some species 
of Gliricola, being replaced by a single circular, presumably sensoty, area without a 
seta. This is similar in appearance to the circular sensillum associated with the 
post-spiracular seta in many Philopteridae (Clay, 1954). In Haematomyzus the 
sensillum is not associated with a seta but is in the form of a papilla-like structure 
lying immediately below the spiracle (PI. 5, fig. 30). In the majority of the Meno- 
ponid genera the post-spiracular seta is the outermost seta each end of the tergite, 
but sometimes on one or more segments there is a small seta (d) laterad to the 
post-spiracular seta, its presence being constant and serving as a useful generic 






FIGS 3_ 5 . Dorsal view of part of metathorax and anterior abdominal segments, somewhat 
diagramatic. 3, Eidmanniella sp. 4, Heterodoxus sp. 5, Paraheterodoxus sp. a, anterior 
tergal seta ; b, lateral seta associated with post-spiracular seta ; c, post-spiracular 
seta ; d & e, ' pleural ' setae ; o, outermost metanotal seta. 



84 THERESA CLAY 

character (Clay, 1969). However, this is not a new seta but is one usually found on 
the lateral plate, which in some segments of some species is on the tergite. In 
Eidmanniella (Text-fig. 3), for instance, on the metapleurite there is a short spiniform 
seta with a longer one on its outer side ; on segments I and II there is a spiniform 
seta laterad to the post-spiracular seta on the tergite and the inner seta (e) on the 
lateral plate is no longer spiniform but is similar to the longer seta on the meta- 
pleurite ; on segment III the spiniform seta is once more on the lateral plate. In 
other genera the spiniform seta may disappear and not be found on the lateral plates 
of the posterior segments. The explanation of the differing position of this seta will 
be discussed below. 

There are no spiracles on segments I- 1 1 in any of the Phthiraptera, but in the 
Menoponidae there is a seta, usually elongate each end of tergites I-II, that on II 
having the two minute associated setae, suggesting that functional spiracles were at 
one time associated with these setae. The spiracles may open on the tergites 
(most of the Menoponidae, Heterodoxus), or the lateral plates (Boopia, Trimeno- 
ponidae and Gyropidae) or on the mediad part of a partially divided lateral plate 
(Paraheterodoxus). In the Colpocephalum species parasitic on the Phoenicopteridae, 
as shown by Price (1965 : 128), and in some species of Myrsidea the spiracles of the 
female open on the lateral plates ; while those of the male open on the tergite, the 
usual position in the Menoponidae. In both sexes the post-spiracular setal complex 
is on the tergite. In species belonging to the Boopidae, Trimenoponidae and 
Gyropidae the post-spiracular complex follows the spiracles, both occuring on the 
same abdominal plate. It is interesting from the taxonomic point of view to con- 
sider the significance of the apparent change of position of the spiracles. In a 
typical Menoponid the metanotum is separated each side by a narrow suture from 
the pleural epimeron (Mayer, 1954), the suture being apparent from the dorsal 
surface owing to the flattened nature of the body. The first abdominal segment 
shows a similar condition, with the chaetotaxy of the lateral edge of the tergal plate 
and that of the lateral plate being similar to that of the metanotum and meta- 
pleurite ; this suggests that the lateral plate of segment I in the Menoponidae is 
also pleural. Segments II- VI 1 1 are similar in this respect, with the spiracles (on 
III-VIII) and post-spiracular setal complex lying near the lateral edge of the tergite. 
However, an examination of the nymphs shows that the arrangement of the ab- 
dominal plates during development is different. 

In Eidmanniella sp. n. (Ryan & Price, in press) of which all three nymphal stages 
are available, the different instars, in addition to size differences, can be recognized 
as follows : first instar, tergite VIII with four setae and sternites II-VIII each with 
four setae ; second instar, tergite VIII with six setae and sternites II-VIII with full 
rows of setae ; third instar, tergite VIII with 11-12 setae and sternites with full 
rows of setae and incipient lateral brushes on some sternites. It is not possible to 
identify the abdominal plates in the available material of the first instar. In the 
second instar each segment has a central tergal plate separated at each end by an 
unhardened area from a lateral plate (Text-fig, i) ; this latter plate bears the post- 
spiracular complex together with the usual marginal setae found on the lateral (or 
pleural) plate and the spiracles on segments III-VIII. In the third instar (Text-fig. 



THE AMBLYCERA 



2) the lateral plate is divided or partly divided into two by a vertical suture which 
separates the post-spiracular complex, and the spiracle if present, from the rest of 
the lateral setae. In some specimens of second instar nymphs there is an indication 
of a narrow suture where the wider gap is found in the third instar. In those 
species in which the adult has a seta laterad to the post-spiracular seta on some 
segments, differentiation of the suture takes place either on one side of this seta so 
that it lies on the same plate as the post-spiracular seta, or on the other side so that 
it is with the rest of the lateral seta (Text-fig. 2). When in the adult this small 
plate bearing the post-spiracular complex merges with the central tergal plate by 
the hardening of the intervening area, only a lateral plate, appearing similar in 
position and chaetotaxy to the metapleurite, and perhaps also pleural, is left. 

Within the family Boopidae there is variation in the adult arrangement of the 
abdominal sclerites. The setae which are useful landmarks are the same as those 
found in the Menoponidae, comprising the post-spiracular complex, seta b, and the 
lateral setae d and e. Seta d usually lies somewhat anterior to the longer seta e 
and as in the Menoponidae may be absent on the posterior segments. In adults of 
the species of Boopia and in those nymphs available for study, there is a single 
lateral plate on each segment bearing the post-spiracular complex, the spiracles 
when present, the two lateral setae d and e and sometimes other setae usually 
designated as pleural. This lateral plate is similar to that found in second instar 
Menoponidae. Third instar nymphs and adults of Paraheterodoxus resemble third 
instar Menoponidae in having a partially subdivided lateral plate. In both Para- 
heterodoxus and some Menoponid nymphs the apparent division of the lateral plate 
is conspicuous by transmitted light, but the SEM shows it to be a complete plate 
with only a line of slight unevenness (PI. 5, figs 27, 28). This lack of surface 
differentiation probably means that the outer region of the cuticle is almost, if not 
completely, uniformly sclerotized ; the suture shown with transmitted light is 
probably due to lack of sclerotization in the lower regions of the cuticle. Dr B. K. 
Tandan has suggested that a small portion of the cuticle thus becomes less rigid 
than the adjoining areas and is capable of folding or distortion ; it is probably this 






FIGS 6-8. 6, Boopia sp. Dorsal view of abdominal segments II and III. 7-8. Female 
terminalia. 7, Damalinia ovis. 8, Goniodes assimilis. 



86 THERESA CLAY 

distortion which has made the surface of the plate slightly but definitely uneven. 
In the adult Menoponid the suture becomes complete, dividing the lateral plate in 
two, one half of which merges with the central tergal plate, while in Paraheterodoxus 
the nymphal stage persists. Nymphs and adults of Heterodoxus resemble those of 
the Menoponidae. Thus, within the family Boopidae there are three arrangements 
of the lateral and tergal plates all of which are found during the ontogeny of the 
Menoponidae. A study of the available material shows that third instar nymphs 
and adults of Trimenopon and adults of other Trimenoponidae and the Gyropidae 
resemble second instar Menoponid nymphs in having the single lateral plate bearing 
the spiracles, the post-spiracular complex and other setae usually considered pleural. 
In Boopia and the Trimenoponidae the lateral plates lie dorsal, in the Gyropinae 
dorsal, lateral or ventral and in the Gliricolinae ventral. 

It is apparent from the foregoing that there are not only differences in the arrange- 
ment of the abdominal sclerites between nymphs and adults of the same species 
but also between families and within one family, between genera. Further, although 
the position of the spiracles and post-spiracular complex appears to differ, they are 
morphologically in the same position ; the apparent differences being due to where 
the differentiation of the suture takes place and whether the unhardened area be- 
tween laterotergite and tergite becomes hardened or that between laterotergite and 
' pleurite '. These processes are perhaps not very fundamental or phylogenetically 
permanent. Boopia (Phacogalia) brevispinosus, for instance, shows further divisions 
of the tergal plate so that the adult has segments with six abdominal plates : three 
tergal, two lateral and one sternal. 

It is difficult to give a satisfactory name to the lateral plate which may have some 
pleural elements but as it bears the spiracles, either in the nymph or adult, must also 
have tergal elements. As Snodgrass (1935 : 71) has said ' sclerites do not define 
anatomical areas ' and the flattened condition of the Mallophaga make it difficult 
to identify the dorso-pleural and pleuro- ventral lines. It is possible that the true 
pleuron is largely represented by the unhardened area usually present between the 
sternite and lateral plate and that the lateral plate is either entirely tergal or has a 
pleural sclerite which is sometimes free and sometimes fused with a laterotergite ; 
Mayer, 1954 has shown that part of the pleuron of the prothorax in the Menoponidae 
is incorporated in the pronotum. Taking all these points into consideration the 
name lateral plate is perhaps the most satisfactory tor a plate which may perhaps 
sometimes be pleural (e.g. Menoponid adults), tergopleural (e.g. Menoponid nymphs, 
Boopia adults) or entirely laterotergal, if it is believed that it contains no pleural 
elements. 

8. Female Gonapophyses. This name has been used for various structures found 
in some of the Phthirapterous groups, but it is doubtful whether they are homologous 
throughout the order. Keler (in press) describing the gonapophyses of the Boopidae 
as sickle-shaped bluntly or sharply pointed appendages, shows that the anal margin 
extends into the inner wall of these structures. It seems therefore that the setae- 
bearing appendage each side of the anus in Chapinia (Menoponidae) may be homo- 
logous with the gonapophyses of the Boopidae. In the Trichodectidae, according 
to Keler (1938), the structures referred to as gonapophyses are of a different origin 



THE AMBLYCERA 87 

and were named by him ' copulatory valves ', He shows that their margins merge 
directly with the wall of the genital chamber (Text-fig. 7). The structures in the 
Anoplura called ' gonapophyses ' by Ferris (1951) are the same, being continuous 
with the vulval margin. Ferris (1951 : 30) considered that the tufts of setae or 
lobes each side of segment IX in the Anoplura represented the gonapophyses of 
that segment. It seems probable that the setiferous lobes continuous with the 
lateral margins ot the vulva (Text-fig. 8) in some species of Goniodes (Philopteridae) 
are homologous with the copulatory valves of Trichodectidae. The various lobes 
and processes on the venter of the posterior segments in the Philopterid genera 
Goniodes, Rallicola, Wilsoniella and Osculotes may be vestiges of gonapophyses as 
described by Ferris for the Anoplura. The structures in Haematomyzus called 
' gonapophyses ' (Ferris, 1931 : 124) are rather difficult to interpret, but also appear 
to be the copulatory valves of Keler as found in the Anoplura and Trichodectidae. 
There seems to be a tendency in the lice parasitic on mammals to retain gonapo- 
physes or to develop gonapophyses-like structures ; these possibly being used in 
attaching the egg to a hair. Murray (1967 : 21) found that Damalinia utilized the 
copulatory valves during egg-laying. If this view of the different origin of the 
' gonapophyses ' in the Amblycera on one side and in the Anoplura and Ischnocera 
on the other is correct, it supports other evidence used for dividing the Phthiraptera 
taxonomically into these two groups. 

9. Tracheal System. A posterior commissure joining the two main abdominal 
trunks, believed to be a primitive character, has been demonstrated in the Anoplura, 
Haematomyzus, Boopidae, Trimenopon, some of the Trichodectidae and in Nesiotinns 
(Philopteridae) by Harrison, 1915 and Ferris, 1931. 

Piagetiella (Menoponidae) has a transverse commissure in the fourth abdominal 
segment ; a character, according to Harrison (1915), probably directly associated 
with its habitat in the gular pouch of the host. The form of the tracheal system 
may therefore be partly ecological and partly phylogenetic. Harrison, 1915 
demonstrated two head commissures in Gyropus ovalis and Gliricola porcelli. How- 
ever, apart from the number and position of the spiracles already discussed, too 
little is known concerning the respiratory system of most forms to make any use 
of it in taxonomy. 



DEFINITION OF AMBLYCERA AND INCLUDED FAMILIES 

AMBLYCERA 

Antenna four- or five-segmented, third segment pedunculate ; total of two to 
four sensilla coeloconica on fourth and fifth segments. Mandibles with articulations 
dorsal and ventral : filiform maxillary palpus. Tentorium complete with exception 
of dorsal arms ; presence of a muscle homologous with ligament of Denis in those 
forms examined by Symmons, 1952 : 373. At least one pair of post-spiracular 
setae with two minute adjacent setae, rarely absent and replaced by a single circular 
sensillum. Crop a simple enlargement between oesophagus and midgut, with crop 
teeth at its posterior end ; the figures of the crop of Trinoton in Blagoveshtschensky 



88 THERESA CLAY 

(1949, pi. i, figs 1-3) however suggest that there may be a small diverticulum at 
each end of the crop. The testis of the Amblycera usually consists of three follicles 
but Blagoveshtschensky (1956) found only two in the three species of Myrsidea 
he examined ; this is also the case in Myrsidea sp. from Gymnorhina dorsalis. 

MENOPONIDAE Mjoberg, 1910 

i. Antenna four- or five-segmented. 2. Two sensilla coeloconica : one on 
each of segments four and five in the five-segmented antenna and both on the last 
segment in the four-segmented antenna. 3. Labial palpi present. 4. Five distal 
setae on labial palpus. 5. Maxillary palpus four-segmented. 6. Head chaetotaxy 
conforms to certain patterns (Clay, 1969). 7. Pro-, meso- and metanotum separate. 
8. Coxa I elongated antero-posteriorly. 9. Legs II and III with two tarsal 
claws. 10. Tergum I not fused with metanotum and normally developed, at 
least in males, n. Six pairs of spiracles, present on abdominal segments III-VIII. 
12. Post-spiracular setal complex each end of central tergites. 

In addition the following are characteristic of most of the Menoponidae, although 
not present in all genera : a. Two subterminal setae on last segment of maxillary 
palpus, one of which is usually peg-like, b. Two of the dorsal submarginal setae 
(26 and 27) on temples with the alveoli contiguous, c. Subocular comb row. 
d. Transverse prontotal carina. e. Typical oblong well-sclerotized postnotum. 
f. Females with typical anal corona of setae. 

BOOPIDAE Mjoberg, 1910 

The Boopidae agree with the Menoponidae in characters i, 2, 3, 6-9, n. There 
may be four or five distal setae on the labial palpus (4) ; the number of segments 
in the maxillary palpus is usually four but may be reduced to two or three (5) ; 
the spiracles and the post-spiracular complex may be on the central tergites or the 
lateral plates (12). Tergum I is always fused with the metanotum (10). Members 
of this family also agree with the Menoponidae in characters a, d, e and sometimes c, 
and except for the genera Paraboopia and Latumcephalum, all agree with b. One 
character common to all the Boopidae and apparently not found elsewhere in the 
Amblycera is the presence of a seta, usually spiniform, borne on a protuberance 
each side of the mesonotum (PI. 5, fig. 26, s). This character together with the 
fusion of tergum I with the metanotum and the presence of gonapophyses of a 
distinctive form separates the members of the Boopidae from the Menoponidae. 
As shown above Harrison demonstrated in some species of the Boopidae a posterior 
abdominal tracheal commissure not found as yet in any of the Menoponidae. 
Symmons (1952) showed that Heterodoxus differed from the majority of the Meno- 
ponidae in the non-sclerotization of the posterior part of the anterior arms and by 
the reduction of the bridge to a ligament. Harrison & Johnston (1916 : 339) 
considered that the main characters separating the Boopidae from all other known 
Mallophaga was the ' large accessory sac associated with the male genitalia '. 
However, Ke*ler (in press) has shown that this is the spermatophore, a structure also 
found in some of the Menoponidae (Clay, 1968). 



THE AMBLYCERA 89 

Paraboopia and Latumcephalum resemble each other and differ from the rest of 
the Boopidae in having a reduction in the number of segments of the maxillary 
palpus, a somewhat atypical pattern of head setae and with setae 26 and 27 not 
contiguous ; post-spiracular setae of segments II-IV not modified as trichobothria 
and a reduction in the length of the tarsus in Latumcephalum. Keler (in press) 
considered this last character to be transitional between the condition in the Boopidae 
and the Trimenoponidae. In both genera the last segment of the antenna is greatly 
reduced but the line of division between four and five can be seen and the two sensilla 
coeloconica lie one each side of this line. As in Boopia the spiracles open on the 
lateral plates. Although some of these characters are also found in the New World 
mammal-infesting Amblycera it does not follow that the two genera are inter- 
mediate between these New World groups and the rest of the Boopidae. The 
characters are not of the kind which necessarily denote relationships (see discussion 
below) and some of them are also found in the Menoponidae. Further, Paraboopia 
and Latumcephalum have the majority of the characters listed above for the Boopidae 
and in addition the male genitalia, gonapophyses and the presence of spermatophores 
are all typical of that family. 

LAEMOBOTHRIIDAE Mjoberg, 1910 

The Laemobothriidae agree with the Menoponidae in characters i, 2 (except that 
there are three not two sensilla coeloconica), 3-5 and 8-12. The head chaetotaxy (6) 
is not quite typical and the meso- and metanotum are fused (7). Characters a, d 
and usually b as in the Menoponidae ; the typical oblong postnotum (e) is absent 
and there is no typical anal corona (f ) . 

Members of this family have the following characters in common not known 
elsewhere in the Amblycera : an area of sculpturing on the temples (PI. 4, fig. 23) 
with outer rows of peg-like projections (Nelson & Price, 1965) ; venter of third 
femur and some sternites with patches of microtrichia of characteristic form (PI. 4, 
fig. 22) ; tibiae II and III distally with terminal dorsal patch of microtrichia (PL 4, 
fig. 24) and an anterior patch of smaller microtrichia ; the mentum (sensu Symmons, 
1952, fig. 18) with bladder-like lobe, conspicuous in untreated specimens. 

RICINIDAE Neumann, 1890 

The Ricinidae agree with the Menoponidae in characters i, 2, 5, 8, 9, n and 12. 
There are no labial palpi (3, 4) ; the head chaetotaxy is atypical (6) and tergum I 
is fused with the pteronotum. The family has none of the characters a-f. They 
are distinguished from all other Amblycera by the absence of labial palpi ; presence 
of a conspicuous flap-like protrusion (pulvinus) attached each side to two horizontal 
sclerites of the labrum ; and in having the meso- and metanotum and the first 
abdominal tergum fused together with a continuous lateral buttress of internal 
tergal thickening each side. They also show reduction and modification of the 
mouthparts (Clay, 1949). 

In published descriptions and keys the Ricinidae and Laemobothriidae have been 
separated from the Menoponidae by the position of the antennal fossae which are 



90 THERESA CLAY 

said to be ventral on the head, not lateral. In fact, a number of the Menoponidae 
genera have the antennal fossae located entirely on the ventral surface of the head. 
There is a superficial resemblance in the shape of head, thorax and abdomen in 
some of the Ricinidae and the Laemobothriidae that has suggested a relationship 
between the two families (Hopkins, 1942 : 105). However, there is considerable 
difference in head and body shape within the Ricinidae, for instance between 
Ricinus and Trochiloectes. Symmons (1952) considered that the form of the 
tentorium suggested a relationship between the two families, but it has been shown 
(under tentorium above) that this is not necessarily so. Perhaps the greatest point 
of similarity is the form of the lateral margins of the abdomen and the elongated 
internal buttresses of tergal thickening in the Laemobothriidae and some of the 
Ricinidae. This may be, however, a method of solving the problem of strengthening 
the elongated abdomen ; an internal thickened buttress is also present in some of the 
elongated Philopteridae (Ischnocera) parasitic on the Procellariiformes. 

TRIMENOPONIDAE Harrison, 1915 

The Trimenoponidae agree with the Menoponidae only in characters i, 3, 9 and 
usually 5. The four sensilla (2) open to the exterior in a single cavity on the 
terminal segment of the four segmented antenna ; the labial palpus has 4 distal 
setae (4) ; the maxillary palpus is four to five-segmented (5). The fusion of the 
thoracic nota varies (7), tergum I is always reduced both antero-posteriorly and 
from side to side (10) and there are five pairs of abdominal spiracles (n) which open 
on lateral plates III-VII (12). Characters 2, 4, 6, 8, u, 12, a, b, c and f are not as 
found in the Menoponidae ; d and e may be present or absent. 

The Trimenoponidae (sensu Hopkins & Clay, 1952 : 12 and including Chinchillo- 
phaga Emerson, 1964 and Hoplomyophilus Mendez, 1967) contains a number of 
genera with rather diverse characters especially in the degree of fusion of the thoracic 
segments and the features of the head. The distinctive features of the Trimeno- 
ponidae are the character of tergum I and the reduction or absence of pleurite I. 
These characters, together with the presence of the two-clawed tarsus and the five 
pairs of abdominal spiracles, separate the members of this family from the rest of 
the Amblycera. They resemble the rest of the New World mammal-infesting 
Amblycera in having the abdominal spiracles and the post-spiracular setae on the 
lateral plates and in the form of the antennal sense organ. 

GYROPIDAE Kellogg, 1896 

The Gyropidae as a whole agree with the Menoponidae only in characters i and 3, 
although some of the Menoponid characters are found in certain of the genera. 
The family comprises three main groups which resemble each other in the general 
characters of the mouthparts ; general chaetotaxy of the head and abdomen ; 
the antenna and the antennal sensilla ; reduction of the sclerotization of the 
tentorium ; two head commissures in the tracheal system (based on two species 
only) ; spiracles and post-spiracular setal complex on the lateral plates ; legs II 
and III with a single tarsal claw and in all but one genus, extreme modification of 



THE AMBLYCERA 91 

at least one pair of legs to form an organ for clasping the hair. This modification 
of the leg has been achieved on quite different lines in the two main groups of the 
Gyropidae and has probably developed independently ; the two groups also differ 
in the number of abdominal spiracles, one resembling the Trimenoponidae in having 
none on segment VIII. Although it is possible that the Gyropidae are polyphyletic, 
for the present they are best kept in one family using Ewing's subfamilies to show 
the differences. 

PROTOGYROPINAE Ewing, 1924. This subfamily, represented by a single genus, 
agrees with the Menoponidae in characters i, 3, u and d. The antennal sense 
organ is type c (2) ; labial palpus with four distal setae (4) ; maxillary palpus 
three-segmented (5) ; meso- and metanotum fused (7) ; all legs with one simple 
claw (9) ; tergum I fused with pteronotum (10). 

GYROPINAE Ewing, 1924. This subfamily agrees with the Menoponidae in 
characters i, 3, n and d ,and also with 4, 5, 7, 10, and e in some species. The 
antennal sense organ varies as described above (2) ; the labial palpus has four or 
five distal setae (4) ; fusion of meso- and metanotum varies (7) ; development and 
fusion of tergum I varies (10) ; the spiracles and post-spiracular setal complex on 
the lateral plates. Although Werneck (1936 : 419) in his diagnosis of Gyropus 
states that the maxillary palpus (5) has four segments, Gyropus ovalis has only three. 

GLIRICOI.INAE Ewing, 1924. This subfamily is the most unlike the Menoponidae, 
resembling them only in characters i, 3, d, and sometimes 5 and e. Labial palpus 
with not more than three distal setae (4) ; maxillary palpus two- or four-segmented 
(5) ; legs II-III with single modified tarsal claw (9) ; five pairs of abdominal 
spiracles (n) opening on lateral plates III-VII (12). 

THE SUPRAGENERIC CLASSIFICATION OF THE AMBLYCERA 

There is no agreed suprageneric classification within the Ambtycera ; it varies 
with different workers. Harrison (1915 : 124) considered that the Trimenoponidae 
and the Boopidae showed only a superficial resemblance to each other and believed 
(1922 : 154, repeated in 1926 : 1585) that the Boopidae were most nearly related 
to the Gyropidae, but no reasons were given. In his description of a new genus 
(Acanthomenopon = Cummingsia), Harrison (1922 : 154) stated that it must be 
placed in the Trimenoponidae, but it showed some marked features of resemblance 
to the Boopidae, and some points of contact with the Gyropidae ; these features 
were not enumerated. Harrison believed that all the mammal Amblycera were 
monophyletic and originated on the marsupials. Ewing (1929 : 96) considered 
that the boopids were near the menoponids, recognizing the Boopinae and the 
Menoponinae as two subfamilies of the Menoponidae. Werneck (1948 : 5-6, as 
quoted by Vanzolini & Guimaraes, 1955 : 23-24) considered, apart from the 
Gyropidae, that the division of the Amblycera should be : i) trimenoponids ; 
ii) menoponids and boopids ; iii) ricinids. Hopkins (1947 : 537) considered that 
the Trimenoponidae showed no evidence of any close relationship with the Gyropidae, 
but were quite closely related to the Boopidae ; he gave no reason for this. 



Q2 THERESA CLAY 

In considering the relationships neither the retention of a primitive character nor 
the complete loss of a character necessarily denotes relationship, as in either case 
this can happen independantly. However, the presence of an identical derived 
character does suggest a common ancestor for the forms which show it. A character, 
if complex, once lost is probably not developed again in the same form so that a 
species with such a character is probably not descended from a stock which has 
lost it. A character which shows much variation within related groups of species 
cannot generally be used to infer relationships between less similar groups ; in the 
Amblycera such characters are the degree of development of the hypopharynx, 
development of the ommatidia, the fusion of the thoracic segments and the arrange- 
ment of the abdominal sclerites. Using these criteria the possible relationships 
within the Amblycera are discussed. 

It is unlikely that the pedunculate third antennal segment, similar throughout the 
Amblycera, was developed more than once. If so it was present in the ancestral 
form and is evidence that the Amblycera are monophyletic. Other characters 
(Table I A, a) probably found in the proto-amblyceran were : a five-segmented 
antenna with a sensillum coeloconicum on segments four and five ; labial palpi ; 
a four-segmented maxillary palpus ; an eye formed of two ommatidia ; a tentorium, 
fully developed except for the dorsal arms ; a thorax with three separate segments ; 
abdominal segment I fully developed and free ; two tarsal claws ; a transverse 
pronotal carina ; an oblong strongly sclerotized postnotum ; six pairs of ab- 
dominal spiracles opening on segments I II- VI 1 1 ; at least one pair of gonapophyses 
and a testis formed of three follicles. It is difficult to conjecture the form of the 
lateral plates in the ancestral amblyceran as there are differences between adults 
and between adults and nymphs of the same species. In Table I only the condition 
found in adult Menoponidae is used ; this is considered as a proto-menoponid 
character as it is found in those families most similar to the Menoponidae. 

The loss or modification of some of these characters can be used to differentiate 
the families, but sometimes they are also variable within families. Table i shows 
that the Menoponidae (8A + 3a) and the Boopidae (8A -f- 2a) have retained more 
of these proto-amblyceran characters (the A-group) than the other families. By 
the arguments already used the retention of supposedly ancestral characters does 
not necessarily denote a relationship between the two families. However, they both 
possess certain derived characters (Mm) possibly already present in the proto- 
menoponid ; this together with the fact that there are no distinctive derived 
characters separating the two groups, indicates that they may be relatively closely 
related. The position is perhaps best represented by Ewing (1929 : 26) who divided 
the Menoponidae into the Boopinae and Menoponinae. This change is not adopted 
here as it would be better considered as part of a revision of the family-group classifi- 
cation of the Amblycera as a whole. A resemblance between certain characters 
found in Paraboopia and Latumcephalum (Boopidae) and those of some of the New 
World mammal-infesting Amblycera has been discussed under the diagnoses of the 
families. As the two genera are fundamentally boopid in character it would seem 
that any resemblance to the S. American mammal-infesting forms is likely to be 
the result of convergent adaptation of an avian-infesting menoponid stock to a 



THE AMBLYCERA 93 

mammalian environment; while many of their other features are directly derived 
from that ancestral stock. 

The Laemobothriidae (8A) and the Ricinidae (5A) differ from the Menoponidae 
not only in the loss and modification of some of the A-group characters, but in the 
development of further differentiating characters as given in the diagnoses of the 
families. However, as shown by the M-group characters, the difference especially 
in the Laemobothriidae, are not very marked and there is little doubt that both 
families have arisen from a protomenoponid stock. 

The remaining families and subfamilies, all parasitic on New World mammals, 
have fewer of the A-group characters. All have one derived character in common, 
the presence of four sensilla coeloconica, usually opening to the surface by a single 
cavity or four wide-mouthed cavities. The Gliricolinae differ most markedly from 
the Menoponidae in the absence or modification of the A-group characters. In 
addition to the form of the antennal sense organ, they have a derived character, 
that of the highly modified leg, as a differentiating feature. The Gyropinae are 
less modified than the Gliricolinae and again have characters of the leg which separate 
them from the Menoponidae. The presence, loss or modification of most of the 
A-group characters in the Trimenoponidae is similar to those in the less modified 
members of the Gyropidae, this not necessarily denoting relationship. However, 
the form of the antennal sense organ in the Trimenoponidae is so similar to that of 
the Gliricolinae that a relationship between them can be presumed. The loss of the 
spiracles on segment VIII in both Trimenoponidae and the Gliricolinae may have 
happened independently. The Trimenoponidae differ from the Gliricolinae in having 
two tarsal claws, but again this character is of doubtful use in considering relation- 
ships. There is much variation within the Gyropidae : leg I may have two tarsal 
claws and legs II and III one (Macrogyropus), all legs may have a single unmodified 
claw (Protogyropus) or at least one pair of legs may be highly modified for clasping 
(Gyropus, Gliricola) . This clasping modification is so different in the Gyropinae arid 
Gliricolinae that each type could have developed independently from the normal 
tarsus. The presence of one claw, as Hopkins (1949 : 391) has pointed out, is a 
characteristic feature of the lice of mammals, as it is of the Hippoboscidae parasitic 
on mammals, and does not necessarily indicate relationship. 

Hopkins (1949) considered that the evidence from the present distribution of the 
Boopidae showed their occurrence on the Australian marsupials to be primary. 
Since then considerably more species of Boopidae have become known : Keler (in 
press) recognizes 35 species belonging to seven genera taken from 38 species belonging 
to four families of marsupials. No species have been collected from the Notoryctidae 
(Dasyuroidea) or the Phalangeridae (Phalangeroidea), but whether this is due to 
absence of parasites or to lack of collecting is not at present known. The mar- 
supials of Australasia are divided by Simpson (1945) into three superfamilies 
(Dasyuroidea, Perameloidea and Phalangeroidea) containing a total of six families. 
However, Ride (1964 : 98) has re-emphasized the inconsistency in the classification 
of the marsupials and the Eutheria, the former being considered as a single order 
although containing many forms as diverse as those comprising the Eutheria ; the 
latter are now subdivided into 26 orders. In spite of the Boopidae being contained 



94 THERESA CLAY 

in seven genera they do not, with the exception of Latumcephalum and Paraboopia, 
differ greatly from each other (see key below). All three groups of marsupials 
contain members parasitized by species of Boopidae but there is no genus, except 
lor the doubtfully distinct Phacogalia, restricted to the first two superfamilies. 
Three genera of the Dasyuroidea (Dasyurops, Dasyurinus and Satanellus) are 
parasitized by the same species of Boopia (uncinata) and two other genera (Phascogale 
and Antechinus) of this superfamily each have a species (spinosa and brevispinosa) 
of Phacogalia (? = Boopia). Two genera (Perameles and Isoodon) of the Perameloidea 
are parasitized by one species of Boopia (bettongia) while the Phalangeroidea have 
eight species of Boopia and all the remaining genera and species of the Boopidae. 

If a primary infestation is postulated then all the present Boopidae would be 
descended from a common ancestor parasitic on the ancestral stock giving rise to 
the three superfamilies of marsupials (X in Text-fig. 9). According to Ride (1964) 
these superfamilies have been separated from each other since at least early Eocene ; 
if this is so it would be expected that the present Boopidae would show greater 
diversity and that each superfamily of the marsupials would have a specific genus or 
genera of parasite. 

If the suggestion (Hopkins, 1949) that the Trimenoponidae, parasitic on the New 
World marsupials and probably secondarily on New World rodents, are more closely 
related to the Boopidae than to any other of the Amblycera, then a common ancestor 
for these two would have existed in the Cretaceous. However, the morphological 
similarity between the Boopidae and the Menoponidae and the disimilarity between 
the former and the Trimenoponidae makes this theory rather unlikely. The hypo- 
thesis which seems to fit the known facts most satisfactorily is that the infestation 



AUSTRALO-PAPUAN MARSUPIALS 




\ / 

) I 

> I 

> > 

DASYUROIDEA 



RECENT 



PERAMELOIDEA . 

\\ \ ; 

*\\ \\ EOCENE 




PALAEOGENE 

/ ' 

.CRETACEOUS 

FIG. g. A family tree of marsupials. Adapted from Ride, 1964. To agree with the 
text Simpson's superfamilies have been used for Ride's orders : Dasyuroidea for Mar- 
supicarnivora ; Perameloidea for Peramelina ; Phalangeroidea for Diprotodonta. 



THE AMBLYCERA 



95 



of the Australian marsupials was comparatively late and that it arose from an 
avian menoponid stock, as suggested without elaboration by Ewing, 1929. This 
stock might have become established on an ancestral stock of Phalangeroidea, 
on which superfamily the diversity took place ; the parasites now found on the 
other two superfamilies being due to secondary infestations. The ancestral stock 
giving rise to the Boopidae would have had the M-group characters (Table i) and 
probably most of the A-group characters now found in the Menoponidae and 
Boopidae. Waterhouse (1953 : 266) has shown that in Heterodoxus species 
(Boopidae) there is re-gurgitation of fluid from the midgut to the crop, a charac- 
teristic feature of the digestion of the feather-eating Menoponidae and Philopteridae, 
but absent in Gliricola and Damalinia, perhaps suggesting a not too distant feather- 
eating ancestor for Heterodoxus. 



10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 



MENOPONIDAE 



M 



M M m m 



BOOPIDAE 



A a-d 



M 



M 



D A m-+ M m 1-m 



n 



LAEMOBOTHRIIDAE DAAAAmDMA AAMMmLALD 
RICINIDAE AALLA + D M A DAMM+ LLLD 



TRIMENOPONIDAE 



D D 



D 



a-d 



D 



L a-1 a-1 D 



PROTOGYROPINAE 



D D 



D D 



D D 



GYROPINAE 



D D A a-d 



a-d 



D a-d A 



A a-1 D 



GLIRICOLINAE 



D D 



D a-d 



A a-1 D 



TABLE i. Characters of the Amblyceran Families. A, Probable proto-amblyceran char- 
acter in all species ; a, in most species. M, Probable proto-menoponid character 
(derived) in all species ; m, in most species. D, Derived character in all species ; 
d, in most species. L, Character absent. T, Character different. V (at top of column), 
Character although derived may have been acquired independently in the different 
groups. 

i, Antenna, A, 5-segmented. 2, Sensilla coeloconica, A, 2-3 with separate surface openings; 
D, 4 with i, 2 or 4 surface openings. 3, Labial palpi, A, present. 4, Labial palpus with 
5 terminal setae, A. 5, Maxillary palpus, A, 4-segmented. 6, Setal pattern of head. 
7, Mesonotum, A, independent. 8, Coxa I, M, antero-posteriorly extended. 9, Tarsal 
claws, A, 2 on legs II & III. 10, Tergum I, A, independent, n, Abdominal spiracles, 
A, six pairs. 12, Position of post-spiracular setal complex, M, on central tergites. 13, 
Pair of subterminal setae on maxillary palp. 14, Temple setae 26 & 27 with alveoli 
contiguous. 15, Subocular comb-row, M, present. 16, Transverse pronotal carina, 
A, present. 17, Typical oblong postnotum. A, present. 18, Tentorial bridge, A, fully 
sclerotized. 



96 THERESA CLAY 

The Trimenoponidae and Gyropidae might have been descended from a common 
amblyceran stock, probably avian-infesting, which became established first on the 
S. American marsupials giving rise to the Trimenoponidae. Perhaps part of this 
stock, before great divergence had taken place, became established on the New 
World Hystricomorph rodents, giving the Gyropidae ; secondary infestation by 
Trimenoponidae on this group of rodents would also have taken place. It can be 
postulated that the Hystricomorphs arrived in S. America without any Amblyceran 
parasites. This hypothesis would explain the presence of both Trimenoponidae 
and Gyropidae on the New World Hystricomorphs and the absence of members of 
both families on any of the Old World Mammals. The Gyropidae were also able 
to establish themselves on other mammals which entered S. America at a later date. 
Vanzolini and Guimaraes (1955) have given a full account and discussion of the 
distribution of the lice of South American mammals. 

KEY TO THE GENERA OF THE BOOPIDAE 2 

1 Post-spiracular setae on segments II-IV modified as trichobothria ; maxillary 

palpus 4-segmented .......... 2 

Post-spiracular setae on segments II-IV unmodified ; maxillary palpus 2- or 

3-segmented. ........... 6 

2 (i) Spinous process arising near base of each maxillary palpus ; spiracles on central 

tergal plates (Text-fig. 4) ......... 3 

Head without such spinous processes ; spiracles not on central tergal plates . 4 

3 (2) Abdominal lateral plates of VII & VIII broad and darkly pigmented 

MA CR OP O PHIL A 
Abdominal lateral plates of VII & VIII not as above . . HETERODOXUS 

4 (2) Pair of short, stout spiniform gular setae ; segments I-VIII each with pair of 

stout spiniform setae on tergites (Text-fig. 5) and sternites ; abdominal 
lateral plates partly divided by suture (Text-fig. 5) . PARAHETERODOXUS 
Without such gular setae ; segments I-VIII without such spiniform setae ; 

lateral plates not so divided ......... 5 

5 (4) Head with sinus occipitalis (sensu Keler in press) forming dorsal horizontal 

line across head immediately caudad to occipital setae (21-23) ; plantar 
pulvillus of tarsal claws with freely projecting point. . PHACOGALIA 

Head without sinus occipitalis ; plantar pulvillus without projecting point 

BO OP I A 

6 (i) Maxillary palpus 2 -segmented ; ocular seta on process . LATUMCEPHALUM 

Maxillary palpus 3-segmented ; ocular seta not on process . PARABOOPIA 

THE CLASSIFICATION OF THE PHTHIRAPTERA 

It is generally accepted that the Phthiraptera are derived from a Psocopteran 
ancestor but there is controversy on the relationships of the groups within the order. 
Konigsmann, 1960 has made a wide review of the literature and given a full discussion 
of the characters in which the Phthiraptera resemble the Psocoptera. He considers 
the Phthiraptera to be a monophyletic group and not descended from more than one 
Psocid ancestor. Further, he has considered in detail the evidence lor the view 
expressed by various authors (Harrison, 1928 ; Webb, 1946 and Hopkins, 1949) 

2 This is a simplified key including some of the characters used by Keler (in press) ; this author has 
been followed in recognizing Macrophila andPhacogalia as genera, although it is perhaps doubtful whether 
this serves any useful purpose. 



THE AMBLYCERA 97 

that the Anoplura are more nearly related to the Ischnocera than either is to the 
Amblycera. Konigsmann considers that the evidence supports this view and that 
the Phthiraptera can be divided into two main groups : the Amblycera on one side 
and a group A on the other ; this latter group comprises the Ischnocera, Rhyncho- 
phthirina and the Anoplura. Additional evidence strengthening this view which 
has emerged from the present study is the similarity of the antennal sense organs in 
the species belonging to group A and their difference from those of the Amblycera 
and the different origins of the ' gonapophyses ' in the two groups. 

It seems probable that the Mallophaga (Amblycera and Ischnocera) are not 
monophyletic and the present nomenclature of the groups within the Phthiraptera 
does not therefore reflect the true state of the relationships. The most satisfactory 
way of amending this would be to drop the name ' Mallophaga ' and have four sub- 
orders within the Phthiraptera as follows : Amblycera, Ischnocera, Rhynchoph- 
thirina and Anoplura. 

KEY TO GROUPINGS IN THE PHTHIRAPTERA 

1 Third antennal segment pedunculate ; maxillary palpus present. 

Post-spiracular seta of at least one abdominal segment with 2 minute 
associated setae or rarely with single minute circular sensillum only, in which 
case only one tarsal claw on legs II and III . . . Amblycera 2 

Third antennal segment not pedunculate ; maxillary palpus absent. 

Post-spiracular setae without 2 minute associated setae .... 9 

2 (i) Spiracles absent on segment VIII (5 pairs) ....... 3 

Spiracles present on segment VIII (6 pairs) ...... 4 

3 (2) Two tarsal claws on legs II & III . . . . TRIMENOPONIDAE 

One tarsal claw on legs II & III GLIRICOLINAE 

4 (2) One tarsal claw on legs II & III ........ 5 

Two tarsal claws on legs II & III ........ 6 

5 (4) At least one pair of legs strongly modified for clasping hair . GYROPINAE 

Legs not modified for clasping hair (single unmodified claw on each leg) 

PRO TOG YROPINAE 

6 (4) Labial palpi undeveloped ; labrum with hyaline extension each side (pulvinus) ; 

meso- and metanotum and tergum I fused together . . RICINIDAE 

Labial palpi at least one-segmented ; no pulvinus ; meso- and metanotum 

and tergum I not all fused together ....... 7 

7 (6) Temples with area of sculpturing with outer rows of peg-like projections (PI. 4, 

fig. 23) ; venter of 3rd femur and some sternites with patches of microtrichia 
of characteristic form (PL 4, fig. 22) ; meso- and metanotum fused 

LAEMOBO THRIIDAE 
Temples without such sculpturing ; venter of 3rd femur and sternites without 

such patches of microtricha ; meso- and metanotum not fused ... 8 

8 (7) Mesonotum with pair of seta-bearing protruberances ; tergum I fused to 

metanotum BOOPIDAE 

Mesonotum without pair of seta-bearing protuberances ; tergum I not fused to 

metanotum . . . MENOPONIDAE 

9 (i) Piercing mouthparts (sac containing 3 stylets) ; pronotum not apparent 

Anoplura 

Manibulate mouthparts ; pronotum reduced or fully developed . . . 10 

10 (9) Mandibles borne at end of long proboscis . . . Rhynchophthirina 

Mandibles not borne at end of long proboscis .... Ischnocera 



98 THERESA CLAY 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

I am greatly indebted to many persons for the provision of specimens and other 
assistance ; these include : T. H. G. Aitken, J. H. Calaby, K. C. Emerson, J. E. 
Hill, P. N. Lawrence and especially the staff of the British Museum (N.H.) Electron 
Microscope Unit. I am also grateful to Dr B. K. Tandan for much profitable 
discussion, and to members of the Mammal Section and to Mr C. Moreby for the 
collection of material from dried skins. 

REFERENCES 

In order to save space and repetition the authors of genera and species included in Hopkins & 
Clay, 1952, 1953 and 1955 and Ferris, 1951 are not cited and those papers listed in Keler, 1960 
and Clay, 1969 are not included. 

CLAY, T. 1969. A key to the genera of the Menoponidae (Amblycera : Mallophaga : Insecta). 

Bull. Br. Mus. Nat. Hist. (Ent.) 24 : 1-26. 

FERRIS, G. F. 1951. The Sucking Lice. Mem. Pacif. Cst ent. Soc. 1 : 1-320. 
KELER, S. VON. 1960. Bibiographie der Mallophagen. Mitt. zool. Mus. Berl. 36 : 146-403. 

In press. Revision of Australian Boopidae (Insecta : Phthiraptera) . 
KONIGSMANN, E. 1960. Zur Phylogenie der Parametabola. Beitr. Ent. 10 : 705-744. 
MURRAY, M. D. 1957. The distribution of the eggs of mammalian lice on their hosts. I. 

Aust. J. Zool. 5 : 13-18. 
NELSON, R. C. & PRICE. 1965. The Laemobothrion (Mallophaga) of the Falconiformes. 

J. med. Ent. Honolulu 2 : 249-257. 
RIDE, W. D. 1964. A Review of Australian fossil marsupials. // R. Soc. W. Aust. 47 : 97- 

131- 

SIMPSON, G. G. 1945. The principles of classification and a classification of mammals. Bull. 
Am. Mus. nat. Hist. 85 : 1-250. 



THERESA R. CLAY, D.Sc. 

Department of Entomology 

BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 

CROMWELL ROAD, 

LONDON, S.W-7 



PLATE i 

FIG. i. Heterodoxus longitarsus. Terminal segments of antenna, X 980. S, sensillum 

coeloconicum on 2nd segment. 

FIG. 2. Ricinus elongatus. Terminal segments of antenna, X 933. 

FIG. 3. Laemobothrion (L.) vulturis. Terminal segments of antenna, X 620. 

FIG. 4. Gryopus ovalis. Antennal sense organ, x 3870. 

FIG. 5. Macrogyropus dicotylis. Terminal antennal segment, X 734. 

FIG. 6. Gyropus sp. from Cercomys canicularis. Terminal antennal segment, X 8400. 



Bull. Br. A/MS. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 25, 3 



PLATE i 




PLATE 2 

FIG. 7. Phtheiropoios wetmori. Part of antennal sense organ, X 8334. 

FIG. 8. Macrogyropus amplexans. Terminal segment of antenna, X 1200. 

FIG. 9. Gliricola porcelli. Antennal sense organ, X 4934. 

FIG. 10. Cummingsia sp. Antennal sense organ, X 3334. 

FIG. ii. Trimenopon (Philandesia) chinchillae. Antennal sense organ, X 7334. 

FIG. 12. Trimenopon (T.) hispidum. Antennal sense organ, X 1600. 



Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 25, 3 



PLATE 2 




PLATE 3 

FIG. 13. Pitrufquenia coy pus. Antennal sense organ, x 5067. 

FIG. 14. Harrisonia sp. Antennal sense organ, x 5373. 

FIG. 15. Goniodes lagopi. 4th and 5th antennal segments, X 667. 

FIG. 16. Naubates prioni. 4th and 5th antennal segments, X 1400. 

FIG. 17. Trichodectes melis. Antennal sense organ on terminal segment, X 1300. 

FIG. 1 8. Trichodectes melis. One of the circular areas shown in fig. 17, X 10,334. 



Bull. BY. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 25, 3 



PLATE 3 




PLATE 4 

FIG. 19. Haematomyzus elephantis. Sense organ of 5th antennal segment, x 4667. 

FIG. 20. Haematomyzus elephantis. Upper circular sense organ of fig. 19, X 9333. 

FIG. 21. Haematomyzus elephantis. Sense peg and surrounding filaments from terminal 

antennal segment, X 15,334. 

FIG. 22. Laemobothrion (L.) vulturis. Combs from abdominal sternites, X 867. 

FIG. 23. Laemobothrion (Eulaemobothrion] chloropodis. Edge of temple, X 886. 

FIG. 24. Laemobothrion (L.) vulturis. Distal end of tibia, X 400. 



Bull. BY. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 25, 3 



PLATE 4 




PLATE 5 

FIG. 25. Boopia grandis. Second tarsus of second leg, X 440. 

FIG. 26. Heterodoxus longitarus. Meso- and metanotum and terga I and II, X 140. s, 

mesonotal protuberance with spiniform seta ; m, metanotum ; t, tergum I. 
FIG. 27. Paraheterodoxus insignis. Parts of lateral plates and tergites of segments III, IV 

and V, X 161. 

FIG. 28. Trinoton sp. Lateral plate of nymph, X 440 ; c, post-spiracular seta. 
FIG. 29. Heterodoxus longitarsus. Trichobothrium of segment II showing the two minute 

associated setae, X 7000. 
FIG. 30. Haematomyzus elephantis. Sense organ associated with spiracle, X 7667. 




Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 25, 3 



PLATE 5 




A LIST OF SUPPLEMENTS 
TO THE ENTOMOLOGICAL SERIES 

OF THE BULLETIN OF 
THE BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 



2. NIXON, G. E. J. A reclassification of the tribe Microgasterini (Hymenoptera : 
Braconidae). Pp. 284 : 348 text-figures. August, 1965. 6. 

3. WATSON, A. A revision of the Ethiopian Drepanidae (Lepidoptera). Pp. 177 : 
18 plates, 270 text-figures. August, 1965. 4 45. 

4. SANDS, W. A. A revision of the Termite Subfamily Nasutitermitinae (Isoptera, 
Termitidae) from the Ethiopian Region. Pp. 172 : 500 text-figures. Sep- 
tember, 1965. 3 55. 

5. AHMAD, I. The Leptocorisinae (Heteroptera : Alydidae) of the World. 
Pp. 156 : 475 text-figures. November, 1965. 2 155. 

6. OKADA, T. Diptera from Nepal. Cryptochaetidae, Diastatidae and Droso- 
philidae. Pp. 129 : 328 text-figures. May, 1966. 3. 

7. GILIOMEE, J. H. Morphology and Taxonomy of Adult Males of the Family 
Coccidae (Homoptera : Coccoidea). Pp. 168 : 43 text-figures. January, 1967. 

335. 

8. FLETCHER, D. S. A revision of the Ethiopian species and a check list of the 
world species of Cleora (Lepidoptera : Geometridae) . Pp. 119 : 14 plates, 146 
text-figures, 9 maps. February, 1967. 3 los. 

9. HEMMING, A. F. The Generic Names of the Butterflies and their type-species 
(Lepidoptera : Rhopalocera). Pp. 509. 8 los. 

10. STEMPFFER, H. The Genera of the African Lycaenidae (Lepidoptera : Rho- 
palocera). Pp. 322 : 348 text-figures. August, 1967. 8. 

11. MOUND, L. A. A review of R. S. BagnalTs Thysanoptera Collections. Pp. 172 : 
82 text-figures. May, 1968. 4. 

12. WATSON, A. The Taxonomy of the Drepaninae represented in China, with 
an account of their world distribution. Pp. 151 : 14 plates, 293 text-figures. 
November, 1968. 5. 

13. AFIFI, S. A. Morphology and Taxonomy of Adult Males of the families 
Pseudococcidae and Eriococcidae (Homoptera: Coccoidea). Pp. 210 : 52 text- 
figures. December, 1968. 5. 

14. CROSSKEY, R. W. A Re-classification of the Simuliidae (Diptera) of Africa 
and its Islands. Pp. 198 : i plate, 331 text-figures. July, 1969. 4 155. 

15. ELIOT, J. N. An analysis of the Eurasian and Australian Neptini (Lepidoptera : 
Nymphalidae) . Pp. 155 : 3 plates, 101 text-figures. September, 1969. 

4- 

16. GRAHAM, M. W. R. DE V. The Pteromalidae of North-Western Europe 

(Hymenoptera : Chalcidoidea) . Pp. 908 : 686 text-figures. November, 1969. 
19- 



Printed in England by Staples Printers Limited at their Kettering, Northants, establishment 



A REVISION OF THE WORLD SPECIES 

OF CHILO ZINCKEN 
(LEPIDOPTERA : PYRALIDAE) 




S. BLESZYNSKI 



BULLETIN OF 

THE BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 
ENTOMOLOGY Vol. 25 No. 4 

LONDON : 1970 



A REVISION OF THE WORLD SPECIES 

OF CHILO ZINCKEN 
(LEPIDOPTERA : PYRALIDAE) 




BY 

STANISLAW BLESZYNSKI 

-Xr^ 



Pp. 99-195; 5 Plates, 130 Text-figures 



BULLETIN OF 

THE BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 

ENTOMOLOGY Vol. 25 No. 4 

LONDON: 1970 



THE BULLETIN OF THE BRITISH MUSEUM 

(NATURAL HISTORY), instituted in 1949, is 
issued in five series corresponding to the Departments 
of the Museum, and an Historical series. 

Parts will appear at irregular intervals as they become 
ready. Volumes will contain about three or four 
hundred pages, and will not necessarily be completed 
within one calendar year. 

In 1965 a separate supplementary series of longer 
papers was instituted, numbered serially for each 
Department. 

This paper is Vol. 25 No. 4 of the Entomological 
series. The abbreviated titles of periodicals cited 
follow those of the World List of Scientific Periodicals. 



World List abbreviation : 
Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 



Trustees of the British Museum (Natural History), 1970 



TRUSTEES OF 
THE BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 

Issued ii September, 1970 Price 4 2s. 



A REVISION OF THE WORLD SPECIES 

OF CHILD ZINCKEN 
(LEPIDOPTERA : PYRALIDAE) 

By S. BLESZYNSKI 1 

CONTENTS 

Page 

SYNOPSIS ............ 101 

INTRODUCTION ........... 101 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS. ....... . . 102 

GENERIC SYNONYMY .......... 102 

GENERIC AFFINITIES AND TAXONOMIC CHARACTERS .... 103 

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION ........ 106 

BIOLOGY AND ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE ....... 106 

LIST OF SPECIES REMOVED FROM Child . . . . . . . IOJ 

KEY TO SPECIES . . . . . . . . . .111 

MAIN TAXONOMIC PART . . . . . . . . .114 

REFERENCES ........... 188 

INDEX ............ 192 

SYNOPSIS 

A revision is given of the taxonomy and distribution of the 41 species of the World Chilo. 
Five new species are described. Eight names are newly placed in synonymy, one name is 
extracted from synonymy, two species are transferred from specific to sub-specific rank and 
two new combinations of species-groups are made. A key to the species of Chilo is given. 
The taxonomic characters and generic affinities of Chilo are discussed. The geographical 
distribution of the World species of Chilo is analysed. The biology and economic importance 
of Chilo are briefly discussed. A list of species removed from Chilo is given. 

INTRODUCTION 

IN 1961, 1963, 1964 and 1966 I was able to study and revise the Chilo collection at 
the British Museum (N.H.) as well as important material at the Naturhistorisches 
Museum, Vienna ; Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris ; United States 
National Museum, Washington, D.C. ; American Museum of Natural History, 
New York, U.S.A. ; Canadian National Collection, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada ; 
Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y., U.S.A. ; Zoologische Sammlung d. Bayerischen 
Staates, Munich ; Museum A. Koenig, Bonn ; Zoologitscheskij Institut Akademii 
Nauk SSSR, Leningrad ; Institut de Recherches Agronomiques et des Cultures 
Vivieres, Paris ; Musee Royal de 1'Afrique Centrale, Tervuren ; Muzeul Grigorie 
Antipa, Bucharest ; Commonwealth Institute of Biological Control, Kampala, 
Uganda ; as well as from the collection of Dr H. G. Amsel, Karlsruhe. In addition 
some types have been lent to me from the Institute fur Spezielle Zoologie, Berlin ; 
Museum van Natuurlijke Historic, Leiden ; Naturhistoriska Riksmuseet, Stock- 
holm ; and Division of Entomology of the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial 
Research Organisation, Canberra, Australia. Dr H. Inoue, Fujisawa, Japan, has 

1 We regret to record that Dr. Bleszynski died as a result of a car accident in Germany on the 
24th December, 1969, shortly after submitting this paper for publication. 



102 S. BLESZYNSKI 

kindly made and sent me the microphotographs of the genitalia of the holotype of 
Chilo izuensis Okano. 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

I should like to acknowledge the generous co-operation ot the following workers 
who have helped by arranging loans of material or in other ways : Dr H. G. Amsel, 
Karlsruhe ; Mr T. Berberich, Bad Godesberg ; Mr L. A. Berger, Tervuren ; 
Mr E. W. Classey, Hampton (Middx.) ; Dr I. F. B. Common, Canberra, Australia ; 
Dr W. D. Duckworth, Washington, D.C., U.S.A. ; Dr W. Forster, Munich ; 
Prof. J. Franclemont, Ithaca, N.Y. ; Dr H. J. Hannemann, Berlin ; Dr G. P. 
Holland, Ottawa, Ont., Canada ; Dr H. Inoue, Fujisawa, Japan ; Dr F. Kasy, 
Vienna ; Dr A. B. Klots, New York, N.Y., U.S.A. ; Dr V. I. Kuznetsov, Lenin- 
grad ; Dr E. Milner, Kampala, Uganda ; Dr E. Munroe, Ottawa, Ont., Canada ; 
Dr M. Okano, Morioka, Japan ; Dr L. L. Pechuman, Ithaca, N.Y., U.S.A. ; Dr A. 
Popescue-Gorj, Bucharest ; Prof. E. Rivnay, Rechovot, Israel ; Dr U. Roesler, 
Bonn ; Mr M. Shaffer, London ; Dr P. L. Viette, Paris ; Mr A. Watson and Mr 
P. E. S. Whalley, London. 

The photographic work was done by the author, except for the photographs made 
on the white background, which were dome in the Photographic Section of the 
British Museum (Natural History) under the supervision of Mr M. G. Sawyers. 

All text-figures were drawn by the author. 

BM(NH) is an abbreviation of British Museum (Natural History), and GS-SB 
is an abbrevation of genitalia slide made by Stanislaw Bleszynski. 

GENERIC SYNONYMY 

The genus Chilo was erected by Zincken in 1817, for a heterogeneous cluster of 
species from which Duponchel, 1836, selected Tinea phragmitella Hbn. as the type- 
species. Only one of the remaining originally included species (plejadellus Zck.) 
is now considered congeneric with the type-species. Subsequently described 
genera, Proceras Bojer, Borer Guenee, Diphryx Grote, Hypiesta Hmps., Nephalia 
Turner, Silveria Dyar and Chilotraea Kapur are considered by the present author as 
junior synonyms of Chilo. Proceras, erected for one species, sacchariphagus from 
Mauritius, was for some time included in the synonyms of Diatraea Guilding, but 
was removed from synonymy by Tarns, 1942. Borer was established for saccharellus , 
and was treated by Tarns, 1942 as a synonym of Proceras. In fact saccharellus is a 
junior synonym of sacchariphagus. Until 1966, Proceras was considered as a distinct 
genus because of the reduction of the ocelli and a good deal of detail on this subject 
was published by Kapur, 1950. However, in 1966, the present author synonymized 
Proceras with Chilo on the basis of a study of the World species of this genus. Diphryx 
Grote, erected for one species prolatella, from Georgia, U.S.A., proved to be the 
same as Chilo and prolatella synonymous with plejadellus. Nephalia, described for 
crypsimetalla from Australia, was sunk under Chilo in 1966 by the present author. 
Hypiesta, established for one species, argyrogramma from Kenya, was synonymized 
with Chilo in 1965 by the present author. Silveria was erected for two species, 



REVISION OF THE GENUS CHILO 103 

hexhex and adelphilia from Mexico. Dyar selected hexhex as the type-species of 
Silveria. Subsequently, both species proved to be synonymous with Chilo chiri- 
quitensis (Z.), and consequently the genus Silveria a junior synonym of Chilo (Bleszyn- 
ski, 1962^ : 108, 1967 : 92). In 1950, Kapur split the genus Chilo into two genera, 
Chilo and Chilotraea, based on the differences in the structure of face and in fore 
wing neuration. However, I regard Chilotraea as a synonym of Chilo (Bleszynski, 
19626 : i). 

The interpretation of the genus Chilo has for a long time been confused, chiefly 
because the taxonomy has been based on the wing venation. Dyar & Heinrich, 
1927, in their revision of the American species of the genus Diatraea and allies, 
based on the genitalia of both sexes, write : ' The genitalia of the Crambinae offer 
excellent characters for the separation of species and to some extent (especially in 
the males) of genera. The generic characters, however, are more in habitus than 
definable structural differences ; and are further obscured by the fact that in the 
genus Chilo most of the types of the other allied genera are repeated.' This opinion 
was quite without foundation. In fact, Chilo and Diatraea represent two of the 
best defined genera, on the genitalic characters, within the subfamily Crambinae. 
Dyar & Heinrich did not fully understand the genus Chilo. They put one species, 
idalis Fernald into two genera ; the female they diagnosed as Diatraenopsis idalis 
(Fernald), and the male of idalis they described as a new species Chilo fernaldalis 
(in fact idalis is a junior synonym of Chilo demotellus Walk.), based on the difference 
in the size of the ocelli, which, in fact, are variable in idalis (Klots, i. 1.). The genus 
Diatraenopsis Dyar and Heinrich (sunk under Epina Walk, by Kapur, 1950) is very 
different from Chilo, as shown by the genitalia of both sexes. 

The first good definition of Chilo was given by Kapur, 1950, but he split this 
genus into two genera as mentioned above. A preliminary paper on Chilo was 
published in 1962 by the present author, who transferred to Chilo several Ethiopian 
species from the genera Argyria Hbn. and Diatraea Guild. I dealt with the 
Palaearctic species of Chilo in Microlepidoptera Palaearctica, 1965. A discussion 
of the CTwTo-complex of genera can be found in Bleszynski, 1966 : 477. 

GENERIC AFFINITIES AND TAXONOMIC CHARACTERS 

Chilo is very close to the American genus Diatraea Guild. The external appearance 
and general structure of the male and female genitalia are similar in both genera. 
Diatraea is restricted to North and South America, but is poorly represented in 
North America. Chilo has only four representatives in North America, and only 
one of these, chiriquitensis is found also in Central America. All the species of 
Diatraea are without ocelli, many species have well differentiated uncus (which is 
little modified in Chilo}, peculiar lobes on the tegumen (absent in Chilo}, tufts of 
hair on the second abdominal segment and on the hind tibia in males. Such tufts 
never occur in Chilo species. It seems that Diatraea is an American derivative of 
Chilo and that all the above mentioned characters of Diatraea are probably secondary 
features. It is 01 interest to note also that the metallic scales so often found on 
the fore wing in Chilo never occur in Diatraea. 

The most important characters distinguishing the C/w/o-complex from the closely 



104 S. BLESZYNSKI 

allied Acigona-complex are : the presence of a saccus and pseudosaccus, the rather 
simple structure of the valva, the lack of a bridge linking the ostial pouch with the 
eighth tergite in the females and the undilated posterior apophyses. 

Other genera of C/w70-complex are : Leonardo Blesz., Zacatecas Blesz., Chilandrus 
Blesz., Myelobia H.-S., Chiqua Blesz., Malgasochilo Blesz., Epina Walk, and 
Japonichilo Okano. All these genera are characterized by presence of a saccus and 
pseudosaccus, similar structure of the male and female genitalia, and a triple frenulum 
in the female. Leonardo (PI. 2, fig. 3), is separated from Chilo by the position of 
MI in the hind wing which arises from the lower angle of cell somewhat similar to 
Prionapteryx Steph. and allies. The position of Zacatecas is not clear as only the 
female of the single species ankasokellus Viette is known. This species is charac- 
terized by 7^2 in the fore wing which is stalked with R& R$ and #5. R$ is always 
free in Chilo. Chilandrus (PI. 4, fig. 18) is distinct from Chilo by the structure of 
the female genitalia which are peculiar in having papillae anales transformed into a 
triangular organ adapted to cutting the stems of the food plant. Moreover, the 
apex of gnathos in Chilandrus is rounded, being always pointed in Chilo. The genus 
Myelobia is restricted to the Neotropical Region. The external appearance of 
Myelobia species often resembles that of the Sphingidae. In many respects the 
genitalia of the species of Myelobia are very much like those in Chilo and Diatraea 
but they differ in having a very peculiarly shaped uncus. In the female genitalia 
the ostial pouch is usually not demarcated from the ductus bursae. The latter 
forms with corpus bursae an elongate bag. 

The systematic position of the next two genera, viz. Chiqua and Malgasochilo 
is queer. Chiqua contains one species distributed in Peru and Bolivia. It has 
fully developed ocelli, convex, but rounded face, small chaetosemata, wing neuration 
similar to that in Chilo ; the hind wing pecten is peculiar as, instead of hairs, there 
are very long broad scales, and an additional row of such scales on the vein i A ; 
in the male genitalia the valva is much broader than in Chilo and Diatraea. 

Malgasochilo is known only by a single male from Madagascar. Ocelli are absent, 
chaetosemata reduced, face not protruding beyond eye ; R% in the fore wing is 
stalked with R% and R^ ; the lower part of the cell in the hind wing is long, but the 
upper part is much shorter than in Chilo. In the genitalia, the gnathos is broader 
than in Chilo, otherwise the genitalia resemble those in Diatraea. In general, 
Malgasochilo in the genitalia has more Diatraea than Chilo resemblance. 

Eschata is an Oriental genus characterized by reduced chaetosemata, presence of 
ocelli, wing neuration similar to that in Chilo, strong pars basalis and often numerous 
cornuti ; female genitalia are somewhat similar to those in Myelobia ; externally 
the species of Eschata are very distinct by the snow-white coloration of the fore 
wing and two distinct transverse fasciaes. 

Epina is a small American genus and Japonichilo is represented by one east 
Asiatic species ; both are similar to each other being characterized by very strong 
pars basalis in the male genitalia. 

Ocellus in most of Chilo species is well developed ; chaetosemata are moderate, 
labial palpus porrect, usually at least three times as long as the diameter of an eye, 
in male shorter than female ; face round or conical, sometimes with a strong ventral 



REVISION OF THE GENUS CHILO 105 

ridge formed by clypeus ; antenna in male serrate ; frenulum in female triple ; 
in fore wing RI free, approximate to or coincident with Sc, R% always free, #3 and R$ 
always stalked, R$ always free ; MI present ; in hind wing cell closed, MI from 
upper angle of cell, M% present ; fore wing in most species yellow or brown, in 
many species with metallic scales ; discal dot often present ; median dot absent in 
most species ; subterminal line present in most species, median line present or 
absent ; no longitudinal light stripe. 

Male genitalia of Chilo : Uncus short and stout, sharply pointed ; gnathos as 
long as uncus ; uncus and gnathos do not offer specific characters ; valva rather 
simple, often with slight pars basalis (a process at base of costa) ; sacculus without 
process ; vinculum greatly elongate ; saccus and pseudosaccus well developed ; 
aedeagus greatly elongate with or without cornuti ; often with bulbose basal 
projection and ventral arm ; juxta-plate in most species with long arms, sometimes 
asymmetrical. 

Female genitalia of Chilo : Papillae anales broad with ends coalescent with each 
other ; posterior apophyses slender ; membrane linking eighth to seventh segment 
without spikes ; anterior apophyses present ; seventh sternum often with heavily 
sclerotized plate ; ostial pouch linked to eighth segment by a membrane ; signum 
present or absent, in some species two signa. 

Very good specific characters are offered by the shape of the face, the presence or 
absence of metallic scales on the fore wing, the shape of the arms of the juxta-plate 
and of the aedeagus, the presence or absence of the bulbose basal projection and 
ventral arms of the aedeagus, size of the cornuti, presence or absence of a signum 
and the shape of the ostial pouch ; the heavily sclerotized plate of the seventh 
sternum in the female often offers good specific characters, but in some species it 
varies considerably. 

The shape of the face is a relatively constant character in most species of Chilo. 
However, orichalcocilielhis Strand shows face variable ; it may be slightly or 
strongly conical, with or without a sharp point. It is interesting that the very 
closely allied aleniellus Strand and thyrsis Blesz. always seem to have a rounded 
face without a trace of a point. A few Palaearctic species have a strongly conical 
and pointed face plus a ventral ridge. Such a ridge occurs in many species of the 
genus Acigona Hon., but rarely in Chilo. The ridge may be triangular or semi- 
circular, but it may vary slightly in its shape in one species. As mentioned above, 
Kapur erected a genus Chilotraea characterized by rounded face and RI coincident 
with Sc in the fore wing. However, both characters have only specific value in 
Chilo. The position of RI may vary within an individual species. Moreover, 
several species, i.e. pulverosellus, agamemnon, ceylonicus have the face rounded 
as in Chilo, sensu Kapur and RI in the fore wing free as in Chilotraea. 

The presence of metallic scales in the fore wing is one of the best characters in 
distinguishing species of Chilo. However, it should be noted that some specimens 
bear only a small number of metallic scales, e.g. pulveratus Wileman & South or 
crypsimetallus Turner. 

The shape and armature of the arms of the juxta-plate are also good taxonomic 
characters, but are variable in some species, particularly in orichalcociliellus. It is 



io6 S. BLESZYNSKI 

worth noting that an incorrect preparation of a genitalic slide often distorts arms of 
the juxta-plate and may make determination difficult. 

The number and size of cornuti seem to be constant except in sacchariphagus and 
its subspecies. 

The presence, shape and number of signa is constant except in species which 
have a weakly developed signum, for example auricicilius Dudgeon. 

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION 

Most species of Chilo are represented in the Ethiopian and Oriental Regions. 
Only one species, chiriquitensis Z. is confined to the Neotropical Region, four are 
confined to the Nearctic Region. The Palaearctic Region has 13 species, but five 
of them represent the Oriental element in the Palaearctic fauna, and one species, 
agamemnon Blesz. invaded the Near East from East Africa. The Oriental Region 
is inhabited by 14 species of Chilo. The Australian Region has only three species, 
terrenellus Pag., louisiadalis Hmps. and crypsimetallus. C. terrenellus and louisiadalis 
are also known from Vulcan Island. The present centre of distribution ot Chilo, 
however, is the Ethiopian Region where are found 18 species, one of which, partellus, 
may be of Oriental origin. It is known from East Africa and the Comores. 

The distribution of some species may have been affected by the fact that they are 
notorious pests of rice, sugar-cane, maize, sorghum and other graminaceous crops, 
so that artificial introductions may play a role in the geographical distribution of 
suppressalis Walk., partellus Swinhoe, infuscatellus, and particularly sacchariphagus. 
The latter is widely distributed in India, China, Formosa, Malaya, Indonesia, the 
Philippines, but is known also from Madagascar, Reunion and Mauritius. The 
population occurring in Madagascar, Reunion and Mauritius is very similar to the 
form from Indonesia and the Philippines. So far there is no record of this species 
from the African continent. In recent times agamemnon spread from central to 
northern Israel. This species seems to be of Ethiopian origin with subsequent 
invasion (or artificial introduction) to Middle East. C. suppressalis, an Oriental 
species, with intrusion to the south-east of the Palaearctic Region, is found in rice 
fields in Spain and in Hawaii. 

BIOLOGY AND ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE 

The larvae of all Chilo are stem-borers. The females lay from 200 to 300 eggs 
on the surface of the host-plant. Copulation generally occurs at night. Eggs are 
often laid a few hours after copulation. The eggs develop within 4-8 days. The 
larva bores in the stalk, and is fully developed within about 2-3 weeks. Depending 
on the species and climatic conditions there are one to six generations a year. In 
Central Europe, there is only one generation of phragmitellus. Rivnay (1967 : 15) 
writes about agamemnon in Israel : ' The offspring of the September moths enter 
diapause in the larval stage ; some of these constitute the sixth generation, which 
is in hibernation. The percentage of diapausing larvae is low at the beginning of 
September and increases until October, except when extraordinary temperature 
conditions prevail.' Gupta (1904 : 796) states that the larvae of infuscatellus are 
very active, often dispersing themselves on their silken threads from plant to 



REVISION OF THE GENUS CHILO 107 

plant. The larvae eat into the centre of the plant, causing the characteristic 
' dead-heart ' appearance. Later the larvae bore into the stems between the nodes. 
Gupta also states that the larval moult takes about one hour and that the number of 
moults varies, increasing to 7 or 8 in larvae which had hibernated. The pupal 
period varies from 10-12 days in February but is reduced to 6-8 days in summer. 
The adults emerge in the early morning, generally before sunrise. 

Several Chilo species are known as notorious pests of graminaceous crops : for 
example, sacchariphagus, partellus, tiimidicostalis, auricilius and infuscatellus are 
pests of sugar-cane in Southern and Eastern Asia and Eastern Africa. Rice is 
mostly attacked by supressalis and partellus, but also by agamemnon. C. agamemnon, 
zacconius, diffusilineus, partellus and orichalcociliellus are known to attack maize. 
For details the reader is referred to the very extensive literature on the biology and 
control of Chilo. The detailed bibliography of the Chilo literature was published 
by Katiyar (1964). 

SPECIES DESCRIBED IN CHILO WHICH HAVE BEEN TRANSFERRED TO 

OTHER GENERA 

Chilo acuminatus Butler, 1878 (referable to Plutellidae) . 
Chilo aditellus Walker, 1864 (referable to Schoenobiinae) . 
Chilo aeneociliella Eversmann, 1844 (referable to Agriphila Hbn.). 
Chilo aglaopis Turner, 1911 (referable to Neargyrioides Blesz.). 
Chilo albimarginalis Hampson, 1919 (referable to Acigona Hbn.). 
Chilo alfoldellus Schaus, 1922 (referable to Acigona obliquilineella Hampson). 
Chilo ambiguellus Snellen, 1890 (referable to Schoenobiinae). 
Chilo angustipennis Zeller, 1877 (referable to Orocrambus Purdie). 
Chilo aracalis Schaus, 1934 (referable to Acigona Hbn.). 
Chilo araealis Hampson, 1912 (referable to Acigona Hbn.). comb. n. 
Chilo argentifascia Hampson, 1919 (referable to Corynophora Berg). 
Chilo argentosus Snellen, 1893 (referable to Hemiptocha Dognin). 
Chilo argyrostola Hampson, 1919 (referable to Argyria Hbn.). 
Chilo ascriptalis Hampson, 1919 (referable to Acigona Hbn.). 
Chilo aureliellus Fischer v. Roesslerstamm, 1841 (referable to Calamotropha Z.). 
Chilo aurescellus Fischer v. Roesslerstamm, 1841 (mis-spelling of aureliellus). 
Chilo bivittellus Moore, 1872 (referable to Charltona Swinhoe). 
Chilo bostralis Hampson, 1919 (referable to Pyraustinae, Pyrausta Schrank). 
Chilo calamistis Hampson, 1919 (referable to Acigona Hbn.). 
Chilo carnifex Coquerel, 1855 (referable to Phycitinae, Metoecis Mabille). 
Chilo centrelhis Moschler, 1883 (referable to Diatraea Guild.). 
Chilo ceres Butler, 1883 (referable to Thopeutis respersalis Hbn.). 
Chilo cervinellus Moore, 1872 (referable to Charltona Swinhoe). 
Chilo chabilalis Schaus, 1834 (referable to Acigona Hbn.). 
Chilo chillanicus Butler, 1883 (referable to Fernandocr ambus Aurivillius) . 
Chilo chrysographellus Kollar, 1844 (referable to Ancylolomia Hbn.). 
Chilo comparellus Felder and Rogenhofer, 1875 (referable to Acigona infusella 
Walk.). 



io8 S. BLESZYNSKI 

Chilo crambidoides Grote, 1880 (referable to Diatraea Guild.). 

Chilo culmicolellus Zeller, 1863 (referable to Diatraea lineolata (Walk.). 

Chilo cuneellus Treitschke, 1835 (referable to Catoptria pyramidella fir.)). 

Chilo cynedradellus Schaus, 1922 (referable to Acigona Hbn.). 

Chilo densellus Zeller, 1881 (referable to Acigona Hbn.). comb. n. 

Chilo diffiisifascia Hampson, 1919 (referable to Thopeutis Hbn.). 

Chilo diletantellus Dyar, 1912 (referable to Acigona Hbn.). 

Chilo discellus Walker, 1867 (referable to Calamotropha Z.). 

Chilo dodatellus Walker, 1864 (referable to Schoenobiinae, Schoenobius Dup.). 

Chilo duomita Dyar, 1912 (referable to Acigona Hbn.). 

Chilo excerptalis Walker, 1863 (referable to Schoenobiinae, Apurima Walk.). 

Chilo eximiellus Zincken, 1821 (referable to Cervicr ambus Blesz.). 

Chilo forbesellus Fernald, 1896 (referable to Thopeutis Hbn.). 

Chilo funerellus Hampson, 1896 (referable to Schoenobiinae, Schoenobius Dup.). 

Chilo furcatellus Zetterstedt, 1840 (referable to Catoptria Hbn.). 

Chilo fuscicilia Hampson, 1910 (referable to Acigona Hbn.). comb. n. 

Chilo fuscidentalis Hampson, 1896 (referable to Pyraustinae). 

Chilo gildasellus Schaus, 1924 (referable to Schoenobiinae, Schoenobius Dup.). 

Chilo gratiosellus Walker, 1864 (referable to Schoenobiinae, synonym of Schoenobius 

incertulas W T alker). 

Chilo griseoradians J. de Joannis, 1930 (referable to Acigona steniella Hmps.). 
Chilo hederalis Amsel, 1935 (referable to Thopeutis galleriella (Rag.). 
Chilo heracleus Zeller, 1877 (referable to Schoenobiinae, Erupa Walk.), comb. n. 
Chilo hypenalis Rebel, 1910 (referable to Pseudobissetia terrestrella (Christ.). 
Chilo ignitalis Hampson, 1896 (referable to Acigona infusella (Walk.). 
Chilo incanellus Hampson, 1896 (referable to Myelobia H.-S.). 
Chilo incertellus Zincken, 1821 (referable to Mesolia Rag.). 
Chilo incertuUs Walker, 1863 (referable to Schoenobiinae, Schoenobius Dup.). 
Chilo inconspicuellus Moore, 1872 (referable to Charltona Swinhoe). 
Chilo infusellus Walker, 1863 (referable to Acigona Hbn.). 

Chilo ingloriellus Moschler, 1882 (referable to Schoenobiinae, Schoenobius Dup.). 
Chilo interlineatus Zeller, 1881 (referable to Acigona Hbn.). 
Chilo interruptellus Moore, 1872 (referable to Charltona Swinhoe). 
Chilo irrectellus Moschler, 1882 (referable to Pseudometachilo Blesz.). 
Chilo lativittalis Dognin, 1910 (referable to Diatraea Guild.). 
Chilo latmiadelis Dognin, 1923 (referable to Diatraea lativittalis (Dognin). 
Chilo lathoniellus Zincken, 1817 (referable to Crambus nemorellus (Hbn.). 
Chilo leachellus Zincken, 1818 (referable to Crambus F.). 
Chilo leptigrammalis Hampson, 1919 (referable to Acigona Hbn.). 
Chilo leptogrammelhis Meyrick, 1879 (referable to Calamotropha Z.). 
Chilo leucanialis Butler, 1877 (referable to Orocrambus Purdie). 
Chilo leucocraspsis Hampson, 1919 (referable to Acigona Hbn.). 
Chilo locupletellus Kollar, 1844 (referable to Ancylolomia Hbn.). 
Chilo loftini Dyar, 1917 (referable to Acigona Hbn.). 
Chilo maculalis Predota, 1934 (referable to Thopeutis galleriella (Rag.). 



REVISION OF THE GENUS CHILO 109 

Chilo majorellus Costa, 1836 (referable to Phycitinae, synonym of Etiella zinckenella 

Treitschke) . 

Chilo marcella Schaus, 1913 (referable to Acigona Hbn.). 
Chilo matanzalis Schaus, 1922 (referable to Epina dichromella Walk.). 
Chilo mercurellus Zetterstedt, 1840 (referable to Scopariinae, Scoparia Curt.). 
Chilo mesostrigalis Hampson, 1919 (referable to Calamotropha Z.). 
Chilo morbidellus Dyar, 1913 (referable to Acigona Hbn.). 
Chilo multipunctellus Kearfott, 1908 (referable to Acigona Hbn.). 
Chilo neuricellus Zeller, 1863 (referable to Diatraea lineolata (Walk.). 
Chilo nigristigmellus Hampson, 1896 (referable to Myelobia H.-S.). 
Chilo nivellus Kollar, 1844 (referable to Crambus F.). 
Chilo obliquilineellus Hampson, 1896 (referable to Acigona Hbn.). 
Chilo obliteratellus Zeller, 1863 (referable to Diatraea saccharalis (F.). 
Chilo obtusellus Stainton, 1856 (referable to Calamotropha pdludella (Hbn.). 
Chilo ocellellus Zetterstedt (referable to Crambus aliendlus (Germar & Kaulfuss)). 
Chilo opinionellus Dyar, 1917 (referable to Acigona Hbn.). 
Chilo ortellus Swinhoe, 1886 (referable to Charltona Swinhoe). 
Chilo oxyprora Turner, 1904 (referable to Nechilo Blesz.) 

Chilo parramattellus Meyrick, 1879 (referable to Calamotropha paludella (Hbn.)). 
Chilo pauperellus Treitschke, 1832 (referable to Catoptria Hbn.). 
Chilo phlebitalis Hampson, 1919 (referable to Acigona Hbn.). 
Chilo poliellus Treitschke, 1832 (referable to Agriphila Hbn.). 
Chilo porrectellus Walker (referable to Plutellidae, Plutella Schrank). 
Chilo powelli D. Lucas, 1862 (referable to Ancylolomia disparella (Hbn.)). 
Chilo praefectellus Zincken, 1821 (referable to Crambus F.). 
Chilo prophylactes Meyrick, 1934 (referable to Acigona Hbn.). comb. n. 
Chilo puritellus Kearfott, 1908 (referable to Acigona Hbn.). comb. n. 
Chilo purpurealis Hampson, 1896 (referable to Acigona infusella (Walk.)). 
Chilo Pyramidellus Treitschke, 1832 (referable to Catoptria Hbn.). 
Chilo pyrocaustalis Hampson, 1919 (referable to Acigona ignefusalis (Hmps.)). comb. 

n. 

Chilo rabatellus D. Lucas, 1939 (referable to Ancylolomia inornata Stgr.). 
Chilo repugnatalis Walker, 1863 (referable to Schoenobiinae, Apurima Walk.). 
Chilo rufulalis Hampson, 1919 (referable to Acigona Hbn.). comb. n. 
Chilo semivittalis Dognin, 1907 (referable to Acigona Hbn.). 
Chilo simplex Butler, 1877 (referable to Orocrambus Purdie). 
Chilo sordidellus Zincken, 1821 (referable to Schoenobiinae). 
Chilo spectabilis Felder & Rogenhofer, 1875 (referable to Myelobia zeuzeroides 

(Walk.)). 

Chilo spurcatellus Walker (referable to Schoenobiinae, Schoenobius (Dup.)). 
Chilo squamulellus Zeller, 1881 (referable to Acigona Hbn.). comb. n. 
Chilo steniellus Hampson, -1899 (referable to Acigona Hbn.). 

Chilo stenziellus Treitschke, 1835 (referable to Catoptria conchella (D. & Schiff.). 
Chilo strigatellus Hampson, 1919 (referable to Acigona Hbn.). comb. n. 
Chilo strigellus Treitschke, 1833 (referable to Acigona cicatricella (Hbn.)). 



no S. BLESZYNSKI 

Chilo submedianalis Hampson, 1919 (referable to Thopeutis galleriella (Rag.)). 

Chilo surinamellus Moschler, 1822 (referable to Acigona infusella (Walk.)). 

Chilo terrestrellus Christoph, 1885 (referable to Pseudobissetia Blesz.). 

Chilo teterrellus Zincken, 1821 (referable to Pediasia Hbn.). 

Chilo torpidellus Zeller, 1852 (referable to Calamotropha Z.). 

Chilo truncatellus Schaus, 1922 (referable to Acigona leucocraspis (Hmps.)). 

Chilo truncatellus Zetterstedt, 1840 (referable to Pediasia Hbn.). 

Chilo trypetes Bisset, 1939 (referable to Acigona steniella (Hmps.)). 

Chilo unicolorellus Zeller, 1863 (referable to Calamotropha Z.). 

Chilo venatella Schaus, 1922 (referable to Argyria Hbn.). 

Chilo verellus Zincken, 1817 (referable to Catoptria Hbn.). 

Chilo vinosellus Hampson, 1896 (referable to Schoenobiinae, Schoenobius Dup.). 

Chilo virgatus Felder & Rogenhofer, 1875 (referable to Schoenobiinae, Erupa Walk.). 

Chilo xylinalis Hampson, 1896 (referable to Thopeutis Hbn.). 

SPECIES OF CHILO UNRECOGNIZED 

C. batri (Fletcher), 1928 : 59 (described in Diatraea Guild.). Type-locality : India, 

Bihar. Type : not traced. 
C. cinnamomellus Berg, 1875 : 88. Type-locality : Patagonia. Type : location 

unknown. 
C. ikri (Fletcher), 1928 : 60, pi. 7, fig. 2, pi. 8, fig. 2, pi. 9, fig. i (described in Diatraea 

Guild.). Type-locality : India, Bihar. Type : not traced. 
C. kanra (Fletcher), 1928 : 59, pi. 5, fig. i, pi. 6, fig. i (described in Diatraea Guild.). 

Type-locality : India. Type : not traced. 
C. recalvus Wallengren, 1876 : 126. Type-locality : Transvaal. Type : location 

unknown. 
C. saccharicola Fletcher, 1928 : 59, pi. 6, fig. 2. Type-locality : India. Type : 

not traced. 
C. spatiosellus Moschler, 1882 : 436, pi. 18, fig. 41. Type-locality : Surinam. 

Type : lost. 

CHILO Zincken 

Chilo Zincken, 1817 : 23. Type-species : [Tinea] phragmitella Hiibner, [1805] [Selected by 
Duponchel, 1836 : 9]. 

Proceras Bojer, 1856 : (not paginated). Type-species : Proceras sacchariphagus Bojer, 1856, by 
monotypy [Syn. Bleszynski, 1966 : 477]. 

Borer Guenee in Maillard, 1862. Type-species : Borer saccharellus Guenee, 1862, by monotypy 
[Syn. Tarns, 1942 : 67]. 

Diphryx Grote, 1822 : 273. Type-species : Diphryx prolatella Grote, 1882, by monotypy 
[Syn. Hampson, i8g6a : 954]. 

Chilo Zincken ; Fernald, 1896 : 77. 

Chilo Zincken ; Hampson, 18960 : 954 [In part]. 

Nephalia Turner, 1911 : 113. Type-species : Nephalia crypsimetalla Turner, 1911, by mono- 
typy [Syn. Bleszynski, 1966 : 478]. 

Hypiesta Hampson, 1919 : 538. Type-species : Hypiesta argyrogramma Hampson, 1919, by 
monotypy [Syn. Bleszynski, 1966 : 478]. 



REVISION OF THE GENUS CHILO in 

Silveria Dyar, 1925 : 10. Type-species : Silveria hexhex Dyar, 1925, by original designation 

[Syn. Bleszynski, 19626 : 108]. 

Diatraenopsis Dyar & Heinrich. 1927 : 39 [In part]. 
Silveria Dyar ; Dyar & Heinrich, 1927 : 31. 
Proceras Bojer ; Tarns, 1942 : 67. 
Chilo Zincken ; Kapur, 1950 : 394. 
Proceras Bojer ; Kapur, 1950 : 410. 
Chilotraea Kapur, 1950 : 402. Type-species : Chilo infuscatelhis Snellen, 1890, by original 

designation [Syn. Bleszynski, 1962^ : i]. 
Chilo Zincken ; Okano, 1950 : 122. 
Chilo Zincken ; Bleszynski, 19626 : 98. 
Chilo Zincken ; Bleszynski, 1965 : 102. 
Proceras Bojer ; Bleszynski, 1965 : 122. 
Chilo Zincken ; Bleszynski, 1966 : 478. 
Chilo Zincken ; Bleszynski, 1969 : 12. 



KEY FOR THE IDENTIFICATION OF SPECIES 

1 In fore wing R free .......... 2 

In fore wing RI coincident with Sc ........ 36 

2 (i) Face conical with distinct point ........ 3 

Face rounded without point ......... 23 

3 (2) Face with distinct ventral ridge ........ 4 

Face with vestigial ridge or ventral ridge absent . . . . . . 15 

4 (3) <? 5 

? . . . . 10 

5 (4) Aedeagus with ventral arm ......... 6 

Aedeagus without ventral arm ......... 9 

6 (5) Costa of valva with strong median projection ...... 15 

Costa of valva without distinct median projection ..... 7 

7 (6) Arms of juxta-plate not swollen ........ 8 

Arms of juxta-plate distinctly swollen (Text-fig. 18) . suppressalis (p. 120) 

8 (7) Juxta-plate as in Text-fig. 19 ....... hyrax (p. 122) 

Juxta-plate as in Text-fig. 23 . . . . . christophi (p. 124) 

9 (5) Arms of juxta-plate distinctly unequal in length (Text-fig. 13) 

phragmitellus (p. 114) 
Arms of juxta-plate almost equal in length (Text-fig. 14) . luteellus (p. 116) 

10 (4) Signum absent (except of area of scobinations) . . . . . . n 

Signum present ........... 12 

11 (10) Ductus bursae with distinct swelling (Text-fig. 16) . . luteellus (p. 116) 

Ductus bursae without distinct swelling (Text-fig. 15) . phragmitellus (p. 114) 

12 (10) Signum elongate ........... 13 

Signum lamellate, rectangular or almost rectangular . . . . . 15 

13 (12) Ductus bursae twisted at ostial pouch ....... 14 

Ductus bursae not twisted at ostial pouch . . . . . . . 15 

14 (13) Ostial pouch large (Text-fig. 21) ..... christophi (p. 124) 

Ostial pouch small, slightly demarcated (Text-fig. 17) . . suppressalis (p. 120) 

15 (6) Fore wing with at least a few metallic scales . . . erianthalis (p. 176) 

Fore wing without metallic scales ........ 16 

1 6 (15) Fore wing with small discal dot, or discal dot absent . . . . . 17 

Fore wing with very distinct, large discal dot. unknown . . tamsi (p. 128) 
i? (16) 6* 18 

$ 21 



H2 S. BLESZYNSKI 

1 8 (17) Aedeagus with bulbose basal projection . . . . . . . 19 

Aedeagus without bulbose basal projection . . tumidicostalis (p. 134) 

19 (18) Costa with stong median projection (Text-fig. 26) . . partellus (p. 126) 

Costa without strong median projection ....... 20 

20 (19) Arms of juxta-plate very long, ventral arm of aedeagus very long (Text-fig. 24). 

$ unknown . vergilius (p. 119) 

Arms of juxta-plate moderately long, ventral arm of aedeagus rather short 
(Text-fig. 108) demotellus (p. 172) 

21 (17) Signum present (Text-fig. 28) partellus (p. 126) 

Signum absent ........... 22 

22 (21) Indian species. Genitalia as in Text-fig. 36 . . tumidicostalis (p. 134) 

North American species. Genitalia as in Text-fig, no . demotellus (p. 172) 

23 (2) Fore wing with at least a few metallic scales ...... 24 

Fore wing without metallic scales ........ 29 

24 (23) 6 A 25 

9 27 

25 (24) Aedeagus with ventral arm ........ 26 

Aedeagus without ventral arm (Text-fig. 37) . . . ceylonicus (p. 138) 

26 (25) Aedeagus with cornuti; juxta-plate with median long projection (Text-fig. 72). 

Ethiopian species mesoplagalis (p. 1 56) 

Aedeagus without cornuti; juxta-plate without median projection (Text-fig. 

109). North American species ..... plejadellus (p. 174) 

27 (24) Signum much elongate (Text-fig, in) .... plejadellus (p. 174) 

Signum not elongate .......... 28 

28 (27) Oriental species. Costa of fore wing not edged with brown. Genitalia as in 

Text-fig. 41 . . . . . . . . . ceylonicus (p. 138) 

Ethiopian species. Costa of fore wing distinctly darkened with brown. 

Genitalia as in Text-fig. 78 . . . . . mesoplagalis (p. 156) 

29 (23) Face slightly conical tumidicostalis (p. 172) 

Face rounded . ........... 30 

30 (29) <J 31 

34 

31 (30) Cornuti in aedeagus absent (Text-fig. 25) . . . pulverosellus (p. 124) 

Cornuti in aedeagus present ......... 32 

32 (31) Aedeagus with bulbose basal projection (Text-fig. 55) . . agamemnon (p. 145) 

Aedeagus without bulbose basal projection ...... 33 

33 (32) Arms of juxta-plate almost equal in length (Text-fig. 66) . luniferalis (p. 152) 

Arms of juxta-plate distinctly not equal in length, right arm much longer than 
valva (Text-fig. 67) . . . . . . . . perfusalis (p. 155) 

34 (30) Ductus bursae with projection near ostial pouch (Text-fig. 55) agatnemnon (p. 145) 

Ductus bursae without projection near ostial pouch . . . ; . 35 

35 (34) Ductus bursae entirely lightly sclerotized (Text-fig. 22) pulverosellus (p. 124) 

Ductus bursae partly heavily sclerotized (Text-figs 68-71) 

luniferalis (p. 152) & perfusalis (p. 155) 

36 (i) Fore wing with metallic scales . . . . . . . . -37 

Fore wing without metallic scales ........ 63 

37 (36) Neotropical species. Genitalia as in Text-figs 114-118 chiriquitensis (p. 178) 

Old World species ........... 38 

38 (37) Oriental and Australian species ........ 39 

Ethiopian species . . . . . . . . . . .51 

39 (38) c? 40 

9 45 

4 (39) Juxta-plate symmetrical . . . . . . . . . .41 

Juxta-plate asymmetrical ......... 25 



REVISION OF THE GENUS CHILO 113 

41 (40) Aedeagus with ventral arm ......... 42 

Aedeagus without ventral arm ......... 44 

42 (41) Ventral arm of aedeagus notched ........ 43 

Ventral arm of aedeagus without notch (Text-fig. 31) . . pulveratus (p. 132) 

43 (42) Pars basalis absent ; notch of juxta-plate small (Text-fig. 38) auricilius (p. 135) 

Pars basalis present ; notch of juxta-plate very deep (Text-fig. 46) 

polychrysus (p. 140) 

44 (41) Arms of juxta-plate long ; cornuti absent (Text-fig. 33) . . bandra (p. 133) 

Arms of juxta-plate very short ; cornuti present (Text-fig. 39) 

crypsimetallus (p. 138) 

45 (39) Signum present ...... 46 

Signum absent ........... 48 

46 (45) One signum .......... 47 

Two signa (Text-fig. 34) ....... pulveratus (p. 132) 

47 (46) Signum very distinct, lamellate (Text-figs 40-42) . . . ceylonicus (p. 138) 

Signum weak ........... 48 

48 (45) Genitalia as in Text-fig. 35 bandra (p. 133) 

Genitalia as in Text-figs 43-45 and 52 ....... 49 

49 (48) Genitalia as in Text-fig. 43. Signum present or absent . auricilius (p. 135) 

Genitalia as in Text-figs 44, 45 and 52. Signum absent . 50 

50 (49) Genitalia as in Text-figs 44, 45 crypsimetallus (p. 138) 

Genitalia as in Text-fig. 52 polychrysus (p. 140) 

51 (38) <J -52 

? 57 

52 (51) Cornuti very distinct, medium-sized (Text-figs 72, 74, 80, 81) . . . 53 

Cornuti small (Text-figs 85-90, 94-96) .... 55 

53 (52) Aedeagus with bulbose basal projection (Text-fig. 74) . argyrogrammus (p. 158) 

Aedeagus without bulbose basal projection ... 54 

54 (53) Ventral arm of aedeagus very short (Text-fig. 72) . . . costifusalis (p. 155) 

Ventral arm of aedeagus very long (Text-figs 80-8 1) . . argyropastus (p. 159) 

55 (5 2 ) Valva broad, slightly tapering (Text-figs 85-87) . . orichalcociliellus (p. 162) 

Valva distinctly tapering caudad (Text-figs 88-90, 94-96) ... 56 

56 (57) Arms of juxta-plate equal in length, or right arm at most three-quarters of 

length of left arm (Text-figs 88-90) .... aleniellus (p. 165) 

Right arm of juxta-plate much shorter than left arm (Text-figs 94-96) 

thyrsis (p. 167) & quirimbellus (p. 170) 

57 (5 1 ) O ne signum ....... 5^ 

Two signa (Text-figs 75-77) costifusalis (p. 155) 

58 (57) Ductus bursae very short (Text-figs 82, 83) . 59 

Ductus bursae very long (Text-figs 91-93, 97-99) ... 60 

59 (58) Signum rounded (Text-fig. 82) argyropastus (p. 159) 

Signum elongate, with slight median ridge (Text-fig. 83) argyrogrammus (p. 158) 

60 (58) Seventh sternum with short spined plate and two almost triangular spined 

patches (Text-figs 91, 100) orichalcociliellus (p. 162) 

Triangular spined patches absent .... 61 

61 (60) Ostial pouch with two distinct, heavily sclerotized rings (Text-figs 98, 107) 

quirimbellus (p. 170) 

Ostial pouch with only one heavily sclerotized ring (Text-figs 92, 93, 97, 99, 
101-106) . 62 

62 (61) Ostial opening very small (Text-figs 92, 93, 101, 102) . aleniellus (p. 165) 

Ostial opening large (Text-figs 97, 99, 103-105) 

thyrsis (p. 167) & zoriandellus (Text-fig. 106 (p. 170) 



ii4 S. BLESZYNSKI 

6 3 (36) Ocellus reduced ....... sacchariphagus (p. 181) 

Ocellus well developed .......... 64 

64 (63) <J - . . 65 

73 

65 (64) Aedeagus with one big cornutus (Text-fig. 27) . . . infuscatellus (p. 129) 

Aedeagus without big cornutus ......... 66 

66 (65) Aedeagus with ventral arm ......... 67 

Aedeagus without ventral arm ......... 72 

67 (66) Ventral arm of aedeagus very short ........ 68 

Ventral arm of aedeagus long ......... 69 

68 (67) Arms of juxta-plate equal in length, very thin (Text-fig. 79) tnercatorius (p. 158) 

Arms of juxta-plate not equal in length (Text-fig. 56) . . diffusilineus (p. 147) 

69 (67) Ventral arm of aedeagus broad with very deep notch ..... 70 

Ventral arm of aedeagus narrow, without notch . . . . . . 71 

70 (69) Basal margin of main part of ventral arm of aedeagus almost perpendicular to 

stem of ventral arm (Text-figs 50, 51). Fore wing without distinct, light, 
longitudinal lines ........ terrenellus (p. 145) 

Basal part of main part of ventral arm of aedeagus distinctly oblique (Text- 
figs 48, 49). Fore wing with several light, longitudinal lines (PL 2, fig. 2) 

louisiadalis (p. 142) 

71 (69) Ventral arm of aedeagus very long (Text-fig. 65) . . psammathis (p. 151) 

Ventral arm of aedeagus rather short ....... 43 

72 (66) Pars basalis present ; arm of juxta-plate short (Text-fig. 39) 

crypsimetallus (p. 138) 
Pars basalis absent ; arms of juxta-plate very long (Text-fig. 57) 

zacconius (p. 149) 

73 (64) Signum present ........... 74 

Signum absent ........... 76 

74 (73) One signum . 75 

Two signa ......... pulveratus (p. 132) 

75 (74) Ostial pouch distinctly incised (Text-fig. 30) . . . infuscatellus (p. 129) 

Ostial pouch not incised (Text-fig. 77) .... psammathis (p. 151) 

76 (75) Ostial pouch with heavily sclerotized projection in ductus bursae (Text-figs 59, 

60, 61) ........ diffusilineus (p. 147) 

Ostial pouch without heavily sclerotized projection into ductus bursae . . 77 

77 (76) Ostial pouch with lightly sclerotized projection (Text-fig. 62) zacconius (p. 149) 

Ostial pouch without lightly sclerotized projection ..... 78 

78 (77) Ostial pouch very distinctly demarcated (Text-fig. 63) . . . incertus (p. 150) 

Ostial pouch not distinctly demarcated ....... 79 

79 (78) Termen of fore wing distinctly oblique . . . crypsimetallus (p. 138) 

Termen of fore wing slightly oblique ........ 80 

80 (79) Fore wing with several light, longitudinal lines (PL 4, fig. 4) louisiadalis (p. 142) 

Fore wing without longitudinal light lines (PL 4, fig. 3) terrenellus (p. 145) 

Chilo phragmitellus (Hiibner) 
(PI. 3, figs i, 2 ; Text-figs i, 2, 13, 15) 

[Tinea] phragmitella Hiibner, [1805], pi. 43, figs 297, 298. 

Palparia rhombea Haworth, [1811] : 483. 

Chilo phragmitellus (Hiibner) Zincken, 1817 : 36. 

Topeutis [sic] phragmitalis (Hiibner) Hiibner, [1825] : 366 [unjustified emendation]. 

Chilo gigantellus (Denis & Schiffermiiller) Stephens, 1834 : 332 (mis-identification]. 

Chilo gigantellus (Denis & Schiffermiiller) ; Wood, 1839 : 220, fig. 1527 [mis-identification]. 

Chilo phragmitellus (Hiibner) ; Wood, 1839 : 220, fig. 1526. 



REVISION OF THE GENUS CHILO 




FIG. i. Chilo phragmitellus. Wing venation. 














FIGS 212. Chilo, faces. 2, phragmitellus. 3, suppressalis. 4, partellus. 5, tumidicos- 
talis. 6, infuscatellus . 7, pulveratus. 8, agamemnon. 9, orichalcociliellus. 10, 
aleniellus. n, plejadellus. 12, sacchariphagus . 



n6 S. BLESZYNSKI 

Chilo phragmitellus (Hiibner) ; Okano, 1962 : 125, pi. 15, fig. 4 [$ genitalia]. 

Chilo phragmitellus (Hiibner) ; Bleszynski, 1965 : 104, figs 55-1 [wing venation], 55-2 [head], 

55-3. 4. 5. 6 [larva], 55-7, 8 [face], pi. 4, figs 55-1, 2 [imago], pi. 41, fig. 55 [<J genitalia], pi. 93, 

fi g- 55 [? genitalia]. 

Ocellus well developed. Face strongly conical with distinct point and strong ventral ridge 
(Text-fig. 2). Labial palpus 4-5 (<$) to 5-5 ($) times as long as diameter of eye. Fore wing : 
length 12-0-22-0 mm, 6* generally smaller than $ : R\ free ; ground colour dull, varying from 
straw-yellow to dark brown, in some instance with an ochreous hue ; variably dusted with 
dark scales over basal and dorsal areas ; transverse lines absent ; metallic scales absent 
discal dot in most specimens distinct. Hind wing grey or beige in $ and silky white or white 
in $. 

f. intermediellus Raebel, 1925 : 100. Specimens with brown fore wing. 

f. nigricellus Raebel, 1925 : 100. Fore wing unicolorous very dark brown. Both forms 
described from Germany. 

cj genitalia (Text-fig. 13) : valva without pars basalis ; arms of juxta-plate asymmetrical, 
the left one much shorter than right, each provided with subapical tooth ; aedeagus without 
ventral arm or bulbose basal projection. 

$ genitalia (Text-fig. 15) : ostial pouch not demarcated from ductus bursae ; the latter 
with caudal one-third heavily sclerotized, smooth middle portion moderately sclerotized ; 
proximal one-third lightly sclerotized ; signum absent. 

The larva feeds from September to June on Phragmites communis and Glyceria 
aquatica. For details on biology the reader is referred to Sorhagen, 1886 : 34, 
Reutti, 1898 : 158, Spuler, 1910 : 197, Schiitze, 1931 : 21, Heinrich, 1925 : 159, 
Raebel, 1925 : 100. The chaetotaxy of the larva was figured by Hasenfuss, 
1960 : 156, fig. 164. The adults are on the wing in Europe from June to August. 

Distribution. North, Central and South Europe ; Ukraine ; Near East ; Central 
Asia ; Prov. Shantung, China ; Hokkaido, Japan. So far I have not seen any 
specimen from Spain or Portugal. The range of phragmitellus partly overlaps 
that of luteellus. 

C. phragmitellus is similar to luteellus but is easily separable by the absence of the 
metallically lustrous scales present on the fore wing in luteellus. The genitalia of 
the two species show very good specific characters : in luteellus the arms of the 
juxta-plate are equally long, but are unequal in phragmitellus ; in the female 
genitalia of luteellus the ductus bursae has a distinct swelling lacking in phragmitellus. 

Type-material of phragmitellus is lost . 

Type material examined. Rhombea. LECTOTYPE < (present designation). 
' rhombea ', England, in BM(NH). 

Other material. HUNGARY : 16 ex. in BM(NH) and in author's coll ; POLAND : 
Lower Silesia, viii, 7 ex. in author's coll. CENTRAL ASIA : Buchara, i $ ; Syr- 
Darja, i <, Semipalatinsk, 21 ex., in Zoologitscheskij Institut, Leningrad ; Dshar- 
kent, i <, in Zoologische Sammlung d. Bayerischen Staates, Munich. CHINA : 
Prov. Shantung, i $ in Muzeul G. Antipa, Bucharest. 

Chilo luteellus (Motschulsky) 
(PI. 3, fig. 3 ; Text-figs 14, 16) 

Schoenobius luteellus Motschulsky, 1866 : 199. 



REVISION OF THE GENUS CHILO 

Chilo concolorellus Christoph, 1885 : 149, pi. 8, fig. 15 a, b [syn. Bleszynski, 19626 

Chilo gensanellus Leech, 1889 : 108, pi. 5, fig. 9 [syn. Kapur, 1950 : 397]. 

Chilo dubia Bethune-Baker, 1894 : 48, pi. i, figs 18, 19 [syn. Rebel, 1901 : 9]. 

Chilo lutellus (Motschulsky) Hampson, 1896 : 956 [mis-spelling]. 

Chilo boxanus E. Hering, 1903 : in [syn. Bleszynski, 19626 : 108]. 

Chilo plumbosellus Chretien, 1910 : 366 [syn. Bleszynski, 19626 : 108]. 

Chilo luteellus (Motschulsky) ; Shibuya, 19280 : 144, pi. 2, fig. 30. 

Chilo pseudoplumbellus Caradja, 1932 : 117 [syn. Bleszynski, 19626 : 108]. 



117 



108]. 




FIGS 13-14. Chilo, $ genitalia. 



13, phragmitellus. 
molydellus. 



14, luteellus , Syria, holotype of 



n8 



S. BLESZYNSKI 



Chilo luteellus (Motschulsky) ; Marumo, 1933 : 55. 

Chilo molydellus Zerny, in Osthelder, 1935 : 79 [syn. Bleszynski, 19626 : 108]. 

Chilo molybdellus (Zerny) ; Osthelder, 1941, pi. 15, fig. 9 [emendation of molydellus]. 

Chilo luteellus (Motschulsky) ; Bleszynski, 19626 : 108, figs i [<J genitalia], 17-19 [9 genitalia], 

pi. 13, figs i, 2 [adults]. 
Chilo luteellus (Motschulsky) ; Okano, 1962 : 124, pi. 6, fig. 4 [<$ genitalia], pi. 14, fig. 2 [$ 

genitalia] . 
Chilo luteellus (Motschulsky) ; Bleszynski, 1965 : 106, figs 56-1, 2 [face], pi. 4, fig. 56-1, 2 

[adults], pi. 41, fig. 56 [$ genitalia], pi. 93, fig. 56 [$ genitalia]. 

Head similar as in phragmitellus except for labial palpus which is proportionately slightly 
shorter in luteellus : 4 (<) to 5 ($) times as long as diameter of eye. Fore wing : length 13-0- 
18-0 mm ; RI free ; termen in $ less oblique than in phragmitellus ; ground-colour varying 
from brownish yellow to brown, with variable irroration of metallically lustrous scales arranged 
in longitudinal rows along veins ; some specimens with a very slight trace of subterminal line. 
Hind wing silky white to creamy. 




FIGS 15-17. Chilo, 9 genitalia. 15, phragmitellus, Europe. 16, luteellus, Japan. 17, 

suppressalis, Manchuria. 



REVISION OF THE GENUS CHILO ng 

genitalia (Text-fig. 15) : similar to phragmitellus but with arms of juxta-plate equal in 
length and much longer. 

$ genitalia (Text-fig. 17) : ductus bursae with distinct swelling which is lacking in phrag- 
mitellus ; corpus bursae with scobinate area. 

The adults are on the wing from May to August. The data on the chaetotaxy 
of the larva are to be found in Kodama, 1958 : 15, pi. 4, figs 10-15. The larva and 
pupa were also treated by Yamanaka Mochizuki, 1960 : 24, figs 2, 5, 6. 

Distribution. Spain ; south Italy ; south Roumania ; north Africa ; Near 
East ; Central Asia ; Prov. Shantung, China ; Korea ; Japan, Hokkaido, Honshu, 
Kyushu and Shikoku ; Philippines. 

Type material examined, luteellus. Neotype 9- ' [Japan], Kugenuma, Fuji- 
sawa, i6.ix.i959, H. Inoue ' [Selected by Bleszynski, 1965 : 106], in BM(NH). 

concolorellm. Lectotype ^. ' [Transcaspia], Askhabad, 21.9.82, Ch. concolorellus ' 
[Selected by Bleszynski, 19626 : 108] ; i $ paralectotype, Askhabad [the other $ 
syntype from AMUR, Baranovka is referable to christophi], in Zoologitscheskij 
Institut, Leningrad. 

gensanellus. Lectotype <$, ' [Korea], Gensan, July 1887, Leech ', GS-86o8-BM 
[Selected by Bleszynski, 1965 : 106], in BM(NH). 

boxanus. Lectotype $. ' China, Wu-Sung, Seitz ', GS-653-SB, in Institute of 
Zoology, Warsaw [Selected by Bleszynski, 19626 : 108] [the <$ syntype is referable 
to suppressalis]. 

dubia. LECTOTYPE $ (present designation). ' Egypt, Alexandria, W. M. 
Malsden ', GS-i3Oi8-BM, in BM(NH). 

plumbosellus. 6 <$Q syntypes, Biskra, Algeria, y.vi and 4.ix, in Museum National 
d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris. 

pseudoplumbellus. Lectotype <. ' China Tientsin ', in Muzuel G. Antipa, 
Bucharest [Selected by Bleszynski, 19626 : 108]. 

molydellus. Lectotype <. ' Syr [ia] sept. Amanus s. Jiiksek Dagh, vii./ix.i932 ; 
Chilo molydellus Type <$ ', GS-76i-SB [Selected by Bleszynski, 1965 : 106], in 
Naturhistorisches Museum, Vienna. 

Other material. SPAIN : i $, in coll. Agenjo, Madrid ; ITALY : i <$, Lazio, in 
author's coll. ROUMANIA : Mangalia, i $, i $, vii-viii, in author's coll. ; Mangalia, 
3 9, vii-viii, in coll. Popescu-Gor j , Bucharest ; ALGERIA : Biskra, 12 -, in Museum 
A. Koenig, Bonn ; ISRAEL : Upper Jordan Valley, 1^2$, i6.v., in author's coll. ; 
CHINA : Prov. Shantung, i <$, in Muzeul G. Antipa, Bucharest ; JAPAN : Honshu, 
2 9 m author's coll. ; PHILIPPINES : Luzon, Mt. Makiling, i $, in United States 
National Museum, Washington, D.C. 

Chilo vergilius sp. n. 

(Text-fig. 24) 

Ocellus well developed. Face moderately produced forward with distinct point ; ventral 
ridge absent. Labial palpus 3 times as long as diameter of eye. Fore wing : RI free ; length 
10-5 mm ; ground-colour very light dull white-grey ; subterminal and median lines distinct, 
ochreous brown ; suffusion of brown scarce scales ; discal dot absent ; terminal dots very 



120 S. BLESZYNSKI 

distinct ; fringe slightly glossy, concolorous with ground-colour of wing, with darker basal line. 
Hind wing light brown with whitish fringe. 

<$ genitalia (Text-fig. 24) : valva strongly tapering with rather distinct basal-costal projection; 
arms of juxta-plate equal in length, very long, thin, without subapical teeth ; aedeagus with 
long ventral arm and bulbose basal projection ; cornuti absent. 

This species is described from one <. The genitalia are perfectly distinct from 
those in allied species ; arms of juxta-plate are somewhat similar as in luteellus, 
but shorter, thinner and without subapical teeth. The aedeagus is similar to 
suppressalis, but suppressalis has no bulbose basal projection. The colour and 
maculation somewhat resemble those in suppressalis, which, however, has no 
ochreous brown transverse lines. Moreover, the face of suppressalis has a distinct 
ventral ridge, which is absent in vergilius. 

Holotype <. India, ' Bombay ', slide H3I7-BM, in BM(NH). 

Chilo suppressalis (Walker) 
(PI. 3, figs 4, 5 ; Text-figs 6, 17, 18) 

Cr 'ambus suppressalis Walker, 1863 : 166. 

Jartheza simplex Butler, 1880 : 690 [syn. Kapur, 1950 : 397]. 

Chilo suppressalis (Walker) Hampson, 1896(7 : 957. 

Chilo simplex (Butler) Rebel, 1901 : 257. 

Chilo box anus E. Hering, 1903 : in [<J], [in part]. 

Chilo simplex (Butler) ; Leech, 1901 : 397 [in part]. 

Chilo suppressalis (Walker) ; Leech, 1901 : 398. 

Chilo simplex (Butler) ; Shibuya, 1928(3 : 143, pi. 2, figs 28, 29. 

Chilo simplex (Butler) ; Shibuya, 19286 : 54, pi. 4, fig. 10. 

Chilo oryzae Fletcher, 1928 : 59, pis 3, 4 [syn. Kawada, 1930 : 145]. 

Chilo simplex (Butler) ; Kawada, 1930 : 145. 

Chilo simplex (Butler) ; Marumo, 1933 : 51, pi. 2, fig. 10, pi. 3, fig. 7 [labial palpus], pi. 4, fig. 4 

[head], pi. 5, fig. i [wing venation]. 

Chilo orizae (Fletcher) ; Rebel, 1940 : 116, pi. 18, figs 1-4 [larva] [mis-spelling.] 
Chilo suppressalis (Walker) ; Kapur, 1950 : 397, pi. 2, fig. 2 [<J genitalia], pi. 3, figs i, 6, 7 

[$ genitalia], 12, 13 [$ genitalia]. 
Chilo suppressalis (Walker) ; Zimmerman, 1958 : 342, fig. 279 [head and wing- venation], 

280 [adult], 281 [ genitalia]. 
Chilo suppressalis (Walker) ; Okano, 1962 : 124, pi. 6, fig. 5 [<$ genitalia], pi. 14, fig. i [$ 

genitalia]. 
Chilo suppressalis (Walker) ; Bleszynski, 1965 : 109, fig. 58 [larva and pupa], pi. 4, figs. 58-1, 2 

[adults], pi. 41, fig. 58 [< genitalia], pi. 93, fig. 58 [? genitalia]. 

Ocellus well developed. Face strongly protruding forward beyond eye, with very distinct 
corneous point and ventral ridge. Labial palpus 3 (<$) to 3-5 (?) times as long as diameter of 
eye. Fore wing : length 1 1-0-14-0 mm ; R free ; ground-colour varying from dirty white to 
yellow-brown, variably sprinkled with grey-brown scales ; subterminal line ill-defined or 
absent ; median line oblique, brown, often reduced, particularly in light coloured specimens ; 
metallic scales absent. Hind wing white to yellow brownish. 

cJ genitalia (Text-fig. 18) : pars basalis small ; juxta-plate symmetrical, arms equally long, 
very distinctly swollen near apices ; subapical teeth absent ; aedeagus with long, thin, ventral 
arm ; bulbose basal projection absent. 

? genitalia (Text-fig. 17) : ostial pouch heavily sclerotized, slightly demarcated from ductus 
bursae ; the latter posterior to ostial pouch distinctly swollen, with heavily sclerotized band ; 
signum distinct, elongate, with median ridge. 



REVISION OF THE GENUS CHILO 



This species is one of the most important pests of rice in East Asia, India and 
Indonesia. The larva of suppressalis bores into the stem of rice. Fletcher and 
Ghosh (1920 : 390, pis 57, 58) gave detailed study of the biology and immature 
stages of this species in India under the name ' Rice Chilo '. The full bibliography 



78 




FIGS 18-19. Chilo, (J genitalia. 1 8, suppressalis, Manchuria. 19, hyrax, Ussuri, holotype. 



122 S. BLESZYNSKI 

of the literature dealing with biology and control of suppressalis is found in Jepson, 
1954 and Katiyar, 1964. 

Distribution. Spain ; China ; Korea ; Japan, Honshu, Hokkaido, Shikoku, 
Kyushu ; Formosa ; Malaya ; Indonesia ; India ; Hawaii. In Spain and 
probably also in Hawaii suppressalis was presumably introduced by man. In 
East Asia suppressalis occurs in some places together with allied hyrax and christophi. 

C. suppressalis is similar to hyrax and christophi, but is generally smaller and 
has often a more distinct pattern of the fore wing. The ground-colour of the fore 
wing is generally yellow, being more greyish in suppressalis. However, many 
females of suppressalis are also yellow. The male genitalia of three species are 
distinct. The female genitalia are, however, much less diagnostic. The ostial 
pouch of suppressalis is generally much smaller than that in christophi, and the 
swelling of the ductus bursae in hyrax is larger than in suppressalis. 

C. suppressalis has for a long time been recorded from the Near East as ' Chilo 
simplex ' , but all these records are referable to agamemnon. So far I have found no 
specimen of suppressalis from Near East. 

Type material examined, suppressalis. Holotype $. ' [China] Shanghai, 58.60', 
GS-2742-BM, in BM(NH). 

simplex. Lectotype <$. (Selected by Bleszynski, 1965 : 109). ' Formosa, 
80.115.204 ; Jartheza simplex $ Butler, Type ', GS-2743-BM ; i <$ paralectotype, 
Formosa, GS-iaoiy-BM, in BM(NH). 

oryzae. Holotype $. ' i.ii. Rice stubble, Pusa no. 1677. A. ' abdomen missing, 
in BM(NH). 

Other material. SPAIN : 3 $, in Naturhistorisches Museum, Vienna. USSURI : 
Vinogradovka, 34 ex. in Zoologitscheskij Institut, Leningrad ; CHINA : Kiangsu, 
Szetschwan, Shantung, Kwangtung and Fukien, 35 ex. in Muzeul G. Antipa, Buch- 
arest, A. Koenig Museum, Bonn, Canadian National Collection, Ottawa, Ont., 
Canada and author's coll. ; SUMATEA : 2 $ in BM(NH) ; CELEBES : Goa, Malino, 
i <j>, in BM(NH) ; JAPAN : Honshu, Kyushu, Shikoku, v-ix, in BM(NH) and in 
author's coll. ; HAWAII : 80 ex. in United States National Museum, Washington, 
B.C., U.S.A. 

Chilo hyrax Bleszynski 
(PI. 3, figs 6, 7 ; Text-figs 19, 20) 

Chilo hyrax Bleszynski, 1965 : 108, fig. 57 [head], pi. 4, figs 57-1, 2 [adults], pi. 41, fig. 57 
[6* genitalia], pi. 93, fig. 57 [$ genitalia]. 

Similar to suppressalis, but generally larger : length of fore wing, 12-0-16-5 mm ' ground- 
colour of fore wing yellow to brown, variably dusted with brown scales ; subterminal line 
reduced ; median line marked by row of brown specks, or completely reduced ; metallic 
scales absent. 

o* genitalia (Text-fig. 19) : similar to those in suppressalis but distinguished by the different 
shape of juxta-plate, the arms of which are narrower, not dilated in the middle ; in addition, 
subapical teeth present. 

$ genitalia (Text-fig. 20) : ostial pouch small, well demarcated from ductus bursae ; the 



REVISION OF THE GENUS CHILO 



123 



latter distinctly swollen, not twisted, with distinct, heavily sclerotized, elongate patch ; signum 
much larger than in suppressalis and christophi. 
Early stages and biology unknown. 

Distribution. China, Mokanshan and Manchuria ; Russia, Ussuri ; Japan, 
Honshu. 

Type material examined. Holotype <^. ' Ussuri ', 08-3086-86, in author's 
coll. 

Paratypes : Manchuria, Djalantun, 2 $, 08-901-86 and 08-2946-86, in author's 
coll. ; Ussuri, Jakovlevka, 5 $, 08-2404-86 and 08-2411-86, in Zoologitscheskij 
Institut, Leningrad ; Ussuri, Kasakewitsch, 2 $, 08-2407-86 and 08-1709-86, 
in Muzeul G. Antipa, 6ucharest. 

Other material. CHINA : Ussuri, Kasakewitsch, i $, in author's coll. ; Manchuria, 




22 



FIGS 20-22. Chilo, $ genitalia. 20, hyrax, Manchuria. 21, christophi, Ussuri, paratype. 

22, pulverosellus, Syria, holotype. 



124 S. BLESZYNSKI 

Hsiaoling, i ?, in author's coll. ; Mokanshan, i $ in Muzeul G. Antipa, Bucharest ; 
JAPAN : Honshu, Kinku-Osaka, i $ in Canadian National Collection, Ottawa, Ont., 
Canada. 

Chilo christophi Bleszynski 
(PI. 3, figs 8, 9 ; Text-figs 21, 23) 

Chilo concolorellus Christoph, 1885 : 149 [in part]. 

Chilo christophi Bleszynski, 1965 : 112, pi. 4, figs 59-1, 2 [adults], pi. 42, fig. 59 [<$ genitalia], 

Pi- 93. fig- 59 [$ genitalia]. 
Chilo antipai Popescu-Gorj, 1968 : 845, figs 7 and 8 [head] 9 [ genitalia], 10 [$ genitalia], pi. i, 

figs 1-3 [adults]. Syn. n. 

Similar to suppressalis but much larger and with pattern of fore wing less distinct. Length 
of fore wing, 14 -0-19-0 mm. 

o* genitalia (Text-fig. 23) : as in suppressalis except for juxta-plate, the arms of which are 
stouter and not dilated, without distinct subapical teeth. 

$ genitalia (Text-fig. 21) : ostial pouch usually larger than in suppressalis. 

The examined specimens were taken in May and June. 

Distribution. Russia, South Ural and Armenia, Central Asia, Ussuri ; North 
China. The range of christophi overlaps that of suppressalis and hyrax in Ussuri. 

Type material examined. Holotype $. ' Ussuri Baranovka, Hed., concolorellus ', 
GS-24o8-SB, in Zoologitscheskij Institut, Leningrad. 

Paratypes : Ussuri, Chabarovka, i <j>, 08-2407-86 ; Ussuri, Winogradovka, i $>, 
GS-2654-SB ; Ussuri, Lake Chaicha, i , GS-24IO-SB ; Ussuri, Frolovka, i <$, 
GS-24I2-SB, in Zoologitscheskij Institut, Leningrad ; China, Tsingtao, i <, GS-8i8- 
Toll ; Manchuria, Yablonya, i <?, GS-Sgo-SB ; Thian-Shan, i $, 08-2413-86, in 
author's coll. ; Central Asia, Kuldja, i $ ; South Ural, Uralsk, 2 $, 08-1667-86, 
in Muzeul G. Antipa, Bucharest ; Central Asia, Issyk-Kul, i <j>, in Naturhistorisches 
Museum, Vienna. 

Other material. JAPAN : ' Japan ', i <J, in BM(NH). 

Chilo pulverosellus (Ragonot) 
(PI. i, fig. i ; Text-figs 22, 25) 

Chilo pulverosellus Ragonot, 1885 : xcviii. 

Chilo brevipalpellus Zerny, 1914 : 303, pi. 25, fig. 6 [syn. Bleszynski, 19626 : 109). 
Eschata fernandezi J. de Joannis, 1932 : 192 [syn. Bleszynski, 19626 : 109]. 
Chilo lemarchandellus D. Lucas, 1945 : 7 [syn. Bleszynski, 19626 : 109]. 

Chilo pulverosellus Ragonot ; Bleszynski, 1965 : 115, pi. 4, figs 61-1, 2, pi. 42, fig. 61 [<J 
pl- 93. genitalia], pi. 93, fig. 61 [$ genitalia]. 

Ocellus well developed. Face broadly rounded, moderately protruding forward beyond eye ; 
corneous point and ventral ridge both absent. Labial palpus 2 (<$) to 2-5 ($) times as long as 
diameter of eye. Fore wing : length 11-0-13-0 mm ; RI free ; white to cream, variably 
dusted with brown scales ; some specimens with indistinct longitudinal brown lines along 
veins ; some females almost unicolorous white ; subterminal line ill-defined or absent ; median 
line absent or ill-defined ; discal dot absent or indistinct ; metallic scales absent. Hind wing 
silky white to cream. 



REVISION OF THE GENUS CHILO 



125 



c genitalia (Text-fig. 25) : pars basalis weak ; arms of juxta-plate very long and thin ; 
each arm provided with heavily sclerotized strengthening ending in minute tooth ; cornuti 
absent ; basal projection and ventral arm both absent. 




25 



FIGS 23-25. Chilo, cJ genitalia. 23, christophi, China, Prov. Shantung, paratype. 24, 
vergilius, India, Bombay, holotype. 25, pulvewsellus, Jordan, holotype of brevipalpellus . 



126 S. BLESZYNSKI 

5 genitalia (Text-fig. 22) : eighth tergum long ; ostial pouch long, rather well demarcated 
from ductus bursae ; signum absent. 

The larva was found to be a pest of maize (Bodenheimer, 1930 : 310 ; Kuznetsov, 
1960 : 51). The adults are on the wing from May till August. The species pro- 
bably has two or three generations a year. 

Distribution. South France ; Bulgaria ; Russia, Ukraine, Daghestan, Trans- 
caucasus, Buchara, Transcaspia ; Turkey ; Israel ; Syria. 

Type material examined, pulverosellus. Holotype <J>. ' Syrie ', GS-3648-Viette, 
in Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris. 

brevipalpdlus. Holotype^. ' Jordan-Nutzdorf ', GS~9O34-Mus. Vind., in Natur- 
historisches Museum, Vienna. 

fernandezi. Holotype $. ' [France] Trinquetaille, 18.8.31 ', GS-36i5-Viette, 
in Museum National d' Historic Naturelle, Paris. 

lemarchandellus. Lectotype $ (selected by Bleszynski, 1965 : 116). ' [France] 
Herault, St. Guilhem-le-Desert, 2O.-30.7.I945 ', GS-3649-Viette, in Museum National 
d'Historie Naturelle, Paris ; I $ paralectotype, same locality and same coll. 

Other material. BULGARIA : Nessebar, viii, i <J, in author's coll. TURKEY : 
Anatolia, 4 $, in BM(NH) ; SYRIA : i <, i 2 , in Naturhistorisches Museum, Vienna ; 
ISRAEL : Jordan Valley, i <, in author's coll. 



Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) 
(PL i, figs 2, 3 ; PI. 3, fig. 13 ; Text-figs 7, 26, 28) 

Crambus zonellus Swinhoe, 1884 : 528, pi. 48, fig. 16 [preoccupied by Crambus zonellus Zeller, 

1847 ; syn. Hampson, 18960. : 957 ; Bleszynski & Collins, 1962 : 243]. 
Crambus partellus Swinhoe, 1885 : 879. 
Chilo simplex (Butler) ; Hampson, 18960 : 957 [in part]. 
Chilo simplex (Butler) ; Hampson, 18966 : 26 (mis-identification]. 
Chilo simplex (Butler) ; Rebel, 1901 : 259 [in part]. 
Diatraea calamina Hampson, 1919 : 544 [in part]. 

Chilo simplex (Butler) ; Fletcher & Ghosh, 1920 : 285, pis 45-47 [early stages]. 
Chilo zonellus (Swinhoe) Fletcher, 1928 : 58. 

Argyria lutulentalis Tarns, 1932 : 127, pi. 4, figs 6, 7 [syn. Martin, 1954 : 120]. 
Chilo zonellus (Swinhoe) ; Gupta, 1940 : 806, pi. 36, fig. 4 a, b [wing venation], pi. 37, figs 7, 8 

[cJ genitalia], text-fig. 5 [larva]. 
Chilo zonellus (Swinhoe) ; Isaac & Venkatraman, 1941 : 810, pi. 46, fig. 4 [pupa], pi. 49, figs 1-3 

[pupa]. 
Chilo zonellus (Swinhoe) ; Isaac & Venkatraman, 1941 : 801, pi. 42, fig., pi. 43, fig., pi. 45, fig 

[larva]. 
Chilo zonellus (Swinhoe) ; Kapur, 1950 : 399, pi. i, fig. 8 [head], pi. 2, fig. 3 (<J genitalia], pi. 3, 

figs 2, 8 [< genitalia], 15 ($ genitalia]. 

Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) Bleszynski & Collins, 1962 : 243. 
Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) ; Bleszynski, 1965 : 119, figs 63-1, 2 [larva and pupa], pi. 5, figs 

63-1, 2 [adults], pi. 42, fig. 63 [< genitalia], pi. 94, fig. 63 [$ genitalia]. 

Ocellus well developed. Face distinctly conical, with distinct corneous point ; ventral ridge 
slight. Labial palpus 3 (<$) to 3-5 ($) times as long as diameter of eye. Fore wing : length 
7-0-17-0 mm ; J?i free ; ground-colour varying from yellow to brown, variably dusted with 



REVISION OF THE GENUS CHILO 



127 



fuscous scales ; subterminal line a delicate brown line ; median line ill-defined ; discal dot 
present ; metallic scales absent. Hind wing dirty white to grey. 

(J genitalia (Text-fig. 26) : costa with median, strong, tapering projection ; juxta-plate 
symmetrical, with large central part, projected caudad, base with two notches ; arms stout, 
not extending beyond costa of valva, each with a strong sub-apical tooth ; adeagus with 
bulbose basal projection and ventral arm. 

$ genitalia (Text-fig. 28) : ostial pouch very heavily sclerotized ; delicately longitudinally 
wrinkled ; well demarcated from ductus bursae ; deeply notched caudally ; signum lamellate 
with median ridge. 

The larva of partellus is a notorious pest of maize, sorghum and rice, but also 
attacks sugar-cane when it is grown in the neighbourhood of infested rice or maize 




FIGS 26-27. Chilo, (J genitalia. 26, partellus, Afghanistan. 27, infuscatellus , Central 
Asia, Tadzhikistan, lectotype of tadzhikiellus . 



128 S. BLESZYNSKI 

fields. Ingram (1959) listed the following host plants of partellus in Uganda : 
Hyparrhenia rufa, Rottboelia compressa, Saccharum officinarum, Sorgum vulgare, 
S. verticilliflorum, Vossia cuspidata, Eleusine coracana, Zea mays, Oryza sativa, 
Pancum maximum, and Pannisetum purpureum. For details on the biology and early 
stages of partellus see Fletcher and Ghosh (1920 : 385, ' Chilo simplex ') and Gupta 
(1940). The descriptions of the larva and the pupa were given by Isaac and Rao 
(1941) (larva) and Isaac and Venkatraman (1941) (pupa). 

Hampson (18960, 18966) regarded partellus and zonellus as synonyms of simplex 
( suppressalis) . Only Fletcher (1928) considered simplex and zonellus as distinct 
species. 

Judging by the female genitalia, partellus is close to tamsi (<$ of tamsi is unknown) . 
C. tamsi is easily separable from partellus by much smaller ostial pouch, which is 
elongate being rounded in partellus. 

Distribution. Afghanistan ; India ; West Pakistan ; Sudan ; Uganda ; 
Tanzania ; Malawi ; Comores Is. Detailed data on the distribution of partellus 
in Africa are given by Ingram (1948) and Williams (1959). 

Type material examined, zonellus. LECTOTYPE $ (present designation). 
' [Pakistan] Kurrachee, 5.80 ', GS-42J-5-BM, in BM(NH). 

partellus. Lectotype < (selected by Bleszynski, 1965 : 119). ' [India] Poona, 
87-88 (1148). 10.82 ', GS-42i6-BM, in BM(NH). Paralectotypes. 12 ex. from 
Poona and Bombay, India. 

lutulentalis. Holotype $. ' 7.2311.1500 ft. Ft. Johnston, Nyasaland H. I4.iv. 
1929 $ C. Smee ', GS-I37I-BM, in BM(NH). 

Other material. INDIA : Khasis, Nilgiris, Bombay, Sikkim, Coimbatore, Mean 
Meer, 25 ex., in BM(NH) ; AFGHANISTAN : Sarobi, 6 ex., in coll. Amsel, Karlsruhe ; 
SUDAN : Ed Damar, 5 ex. 31. x, in Zoologische Sammlung d. Bayerischen Staates, 
Munich and in author's coll. TANZANIA : 2 $ in author's coll. ; COMORES Is. : 
5 $ in Museum National d'Historie Naturelle, Paris. 



Chilo tamsi Kapur 
(PI. 5, fig. i ; Text-fig. 29) 

Chilo tamsi Kapur, 1950 : 400, pi. 3, fig. 14 [$ genitalia]. 

Ocellus small. Labial palpus 3 -5 times as long as diameter of eye ($) . Face conical, pointed, 
without ventral ridge. Fore wing length 19-0 mm ; RI free ; ground-colour light straw- 
yellow with very sparse, irregular sprinkling of brown to dark brown scales and with a distinct 
discal dot ; transverse lines absent. Hind wing white. 

$ genitalia (Text-fig. 29) : ostial pouch much elongate and heavily sclerotized, tubular, 
deeply incised ; ductus bursae distinctly swollen in caudal part ; signum sub-rectangular 
bearing median ridge. 

Distribution. South India. 

Type material examined. Holotype $. ' [India] : Travancore, Peermade, 
Mrs Imray, 1904-226 ', GS-6i7-BM, in BM(NH). 



REVISION OF THE GENUS CHILD 



129 



Chilo infuscatellus Snellen 
(PI. 3, figs 10-12 ; Text-figs 6, 27, 30) 

Chilo infuscatellus Snellen, 1890 : 94, pi. i, figs 5-8. 

Argyria sticticraspis Hampson, 1919 : 449 [syn. Kapur, 1950 : 404]. 

Argyria coniorta Hampson, 1919 : 449 [syn. Fletcher, 1928 : 58]. 

Diatraea calamina Hampson, 1919 : 544 [syn. Kapur, 1950 : 404]. 

Diatraea auricilia (Dudgeon) Fletcher & Ghosh, 1920 : 387, pi. 48, fig. i [larva], 2 [pupa], 

pi. 49, fig. i [egg], 4 [life-cycle]. 
Argyria sticticraspis Hampson ; Fletcher, 1928 : 50. 
Chilo infuscatellus Snellen ; Shibuya, 1928^ : 54. 
Argyria sticticraspis Hampson ; Gupta, 1940 : 788, fig. i [larva], pi. 36, fig. i [wing venation], 




FIGS 28-30. Chilo, $ genitalia. 28, partellus, Ethiopia. 29, tamsi, India, holotype. 
30, infuscatellus, Central Asia, Tadzhikistan, paralectotype of tadzhikiellus. 



130 S. BLESZYNSKI 

pi. 37, figs i, 2 [<J genitalia]. 

Diatraea shariinensis Eguchi, 1933 : 3, 19, pi. i [syn. Kapur, 1950 : 404]. 
Argyria sticticraspis Hampson : Isaac & Rao, 1941 : 799, 802, pis 42, 43, 45 [larva]. 
Argyria sticticraspis Hampson ; Isaac & Venkatraman, 1941 : 806, 814, pi. 46, fig. 2 [pupa]. 
Chilo tadzhikiellus Gerasimov, 1949 : 704, figs i [wing- venation], 2 [head], 3 [<J genitalia], 

4 [? genitalia], 5, 6 [larva] [syn. Bleszynski, 19626 : in]. 
Proceras infuscatellus (Snellen) Kalshoven, 1950 : 413, fig. 234 [pupa]. 

Chilotraea infuscatellus (Snellen) Kapur, 1950 : 404, pi. i, fig. 2 (head), pi. 4, figs 1-4 [<$ genitalia], 

5 [? genitalia]. 

Chilo infuscatellus Snellen ; Bleszynski, 19626 : in, figs 4 [<$ genitalia], 20 [$ genitalia]. 
Chilo infuscatellus Snellen ; Bleszynski, 1965 : 116, figs 62 [head], 62 [larva and pupa], pi. 5, 

fig. 62 [adult], pi. 42, fig. 62 [o* genitalia], pi. 94, fig. 62 [$ genitalia]. 
Chilo infuscatellus Snellen ; Bleszynski, 1969 : 15, figs 3 [<J genitalia], 36 [$ genitalia]. 

Ocellus well developed. Labial palpus 3 ($) to 3-5 ($) times as long as diameter of eye. 
Face rounded, slightly protruding forward beyond eye. Fore wing : length 10-0-13-0 mm ; 
RI confluent with Sc ; ground-colour and maculation very variable, dull, from light sand- 
yellow to chocolate-brown ; discal dot present or variably reduced ; transverse lines present 
or absent ; terminal dots present ; metallic scales absent. Hind wing dirty white ($) to 
silky white ($). 

o* genitalia (Text-fig. 27) : pars basalis slight ; juxta-plate symmetrical, arms reaching the 
basal-costal angle of valva ; each arm provided with a toothed strengthening ; aedeagus with 
strong ventral swelling ; a single, tapering, curved, large cornutus present. 

$ genitalia (Text-fig. 30) : ostial pouch well demarcated from ductus bursae, heavily 
sclerotized, deeply incised anteriorly ; signum lamellate with median ridge. 

C. infuscatellus is a serious pest of sugar-cane, but also attacks juar (Andropogon 
sorghum), rarhi and batri (Saccharum spontaneum), ikri (Saccharum fuscum) and 
Jove grass (Rottboelia compressa). The details on the biology of infuscatellus are 
found in papers of Fletcher and Ghosh (1920), Fletcher (1928) and others (see biblio- 
graphy of Chilo, Katiyar, 1964). The larva and pupa have been described by 
Eguchi (1933), Isaac and Roa (1941), and Isaac and Venkatraman (1941). 

Three female syntypes of calamina, from Cownpur, Mogla Serai and Pusa, India 
are referable to partellus. 

Distribution. Afghanistan ; India ; Upper Burma ; Formosa ; Tadzhikistan, 
Central Asia ; Java ; Timor ; Philippine Is. ; Vulcan Is. 

Type material examined, infuscatellus. Lectotype $ (selected by Munroe, 
Diakonoff and Martin, 1958). ' Java ', in Museum van Natuurlijke Historic, 
Leiden. 

sticticraspis. Holotype $. ' S. India, Coimbatore, 4.11.1912, T.B. Fletcher, 1915- 
208 ', GS-2i8i-BM, in BM(NH). 

coniorta. LECTOTYPE ^ (present designation). ' Bengal, Behar, Pusa, 1915- 
48, Sugar cane ', GS-2i82-BM ; i <$ paralectotype, same locality, taken on 11.111.1914, 
abdomen missing, in BM(NH). 

calamina. LECTOTYPE $ (present designation). ' Kinuya, Upper Burma, 
23. ix. 1900, coll. Bingham, 1901-157 ' ; 4 o lectoparatypes, same data, GS-I3OI4-BM 
and GS-I30I5-BM, in BM(NH). 

shariinensis. Lectotype $ (selected by Bleszynski, 1965 : 116). ' Korea- 
Shariin, 22.vii.ig29, M. Eguchi, Brit. Mus. 1931-372 ' ; 2 $ paralectotypes, same 
data, different dates ; abdomens missing, in BM(NH). 



REVISION OF THE GENUS CHILO 




33 



FIGS 31-33. Chilo, <$ genitalia. 31, pulveratus, China, Chungking. 32, tumidicostalis, 

India. 33, bandra, India, holotype. 



132 S. BLESZYNSKI 

tadzhikiellus. Lectotype <$ (selected by Bleszynski, 1965 : 117). Central Asia, 
Tadzhikistan, GS-4i7-Leningrad [specimen missing, ? lost, slide present] ; genitalia 
slide of i $ paralectotype ; in Zoologitscheskij Institut, Leningrad. 

Other material. AFGHANISTAN : Polichomri and Sarobi, 700-1100 m, 5.vi.- 
3.vii.ig56, 7 $ in coll. Amsel, Karlsruhe ; INDIA : Coimbatore, 3 $, in BM(NH) ; 
TIMOR : i ?, in BM(NH) ; FORMOSA : i <? i $, 19.111.1931, in BM(NH) ; 2 $ in 
author's coll. ; PHILIPPINES : Luzon, Klondyke, i <j>, in BM(NH) ; VULCAN Is., 
6 ? in BM(NH). 

CMlo pulveratus (Wilemaii & South) 
(PI. 2, fig. 9 ; PI. 4, figs n, 12 ; Text-figs 7, 31, 34) 

Diatraea pulverata Wileman & South, 1917 : 147. 
Diatraea pulverata Wileman & South ; Shibuya, 19286 : 51. 
Chilo pulverata (Wileman & South) Bleszynski, 19626 : 115. 
Chilo izuensis Okano, 1962 : 123, pi. 6, fig. 6 [ genitalia]. Syn. n.. 

Chilo izouensis (Okano) ; Bleszynski, 1965 : 115, pi. 5, fig. 60 [adult], pi. 42, fig. 60 [<J genitalia] 
[mis-spelling] . 

Ocellus well developed, slightly variable in size. Face broadly rounded without point. 
Labial palpus 3 (<$} to 4 (?) times as long as diameter of eye. Fore wing : length 8-0-10-5 mm ' 
RI confluent with Sc ; ground-colour light yellowish cream dusted with brown scales ; pattern 
brown ; subterminal line well marked ; in specimens from the Philippines distinctly dentate 
and edged with silvery scales proximally ; in Formosan specimen a dark line without metallic 
scales ; discal dot indistinct ; median line traceable, with metallic scales in Formosan speci- 
mens ; terminal dots distinct ; fringe glossy. Hind wing whitish. 

<$ genitalia (Text-fig. 31) : juxta-plate symmetrical, arms thin, moderate in length, hairy, 
rather excurved, without subapical teeth ; aedeagus with short ventral arm (hairy in Formosan 
specimens) ; a subapical long patch of thorns in aedeagus ; numerous rather small cornuti 
arranged in an elongate patch ; bulbose basal projection absent. 

$ genitalia (Text-fig. 34) : ostial pouch elongate, rather heavily sclerotized ; two distinct 
lamellate signa with median ridges. 

This species shows considerable variation in size and coloration. C. izuensis 
was described from a single <. Because of an inaccurate diagnosis (Okano men- 
tioned ' cornutus wanting ') I have hitherto considered izuensis as a distinct species. 
I have had no opportunity to examine the holotype. However, recently I have 
received from Dr H. Inoue, in whose possession is the type of izuensis, the photo- 
micrographs, which proved to be identical with those of pulveratus. Consequently I 
regard izuensis as a junior synonym of pulveratus. The holotype of izuensis was 
taken in Japan, Central Honshu, Shizuoka Pref., Kamo-gun, Nashimoto, 29.~3i.vii. 
J 957> leg- H. Inoue, in coll. Dr H. Inoue, Fujisawa, Japan. 

Distribution. China, Szetschwan ; Japan, Honshu ; Formosa ; Philippines, 
Luzon ; Timor ; Sumatra. 

Type material examined, pulveratus. Holotype <. ' Formosa, Kanshirei, 
26.vii.i9o8, A. E. Wileman ', GS-i3Oi6-BM, Paratypes. Formosa, Koanania, 
i cJ, GS-7662-BM ; Formosa, Takow, GS-7046-NM ; all in BM(BH). 

Other material. CHINA : Prov. Szetschwan, Chunking, i $, in BM(NH) ; 
PHILIPPINES : Luzon, Klondyke, i < i ?, in BM(BH) ; TIMOR : Oinanissa i ?, 
in BM(NH) ; Oinanissa i ?, in author's coll. ; SUMATRA : i <j>, in author's coll. 



REVISION OF THE GENUS CHILO 



133 



Chilo bandra (Kapur) 
(Text-figs 33, 35) 

Chilotraea bandra Kapur, 1950 : 407, pi. 5, figs 6-9 [$ genitalia], 10 [$ genitalia]. 
Chilo bandra (Kapur) Bleszynski & Collins, 1962 : 239. 

Ocellus well developed. Face rounded, very slightly protruding forward beyond eye ; 
corneous point and ventral ridge both absent. Labial palpus 2 (<$) to 2-5 (?) times as long as 
diameter of eye. Fore wing : length 5-0-8-5 mm ; RI coincident with Sc ; ground-colour 







36 



FIGS 34-36. Chilo, $ genitalia. 34, pulveratus, Philippine Is, Luzon. 35, bandra, India, 

paratype. 36, tumidico stalls, India. 



134 S. BLESZYNSKI 

yellowish ; subterminal line edged with steely shiny scales ; median line yellow with patch of 
silvery scales ; area between lines longitudinally streaked with brown. Hind wing whitish. 

< genitalia (Text-fig. 33) : basal proximal angle of valva produced and pointed ; juxta- 
plate with symmetrical, long, pointed, hairy arms ; aedeagus with short and thin ventral arm ; 
bulbose basal projection present. 

$ genitalia (Text-fig. 35) : genital opening surrounded by small rough, moderately sclerotized 
area; one small signum present. 

Distribution. India, Bombay. 

Type material examined. Holotype $. ' [India] : Bombay, Bandra, 20.vi.O2 ', 
GS-7I77-BM, in BM(NH). 

Paratypes. i <, same data, GS-5Q6-BM, in author's coll. ; i $, same data, GS- 
595-BM, in BM(NH). 

Chilo tumidicostalis (Hampson) 
(PI. i, fig. 7 ; Text-figs 32, 36) 

Argyria tumidicostalis Hampson, 1919 : 448. 

Chilo gemininotalis Hampson, 1919 : 59 [syn. Fletcher, 1928 : 59]. 

Chilo gemininotalis Hampson ; Fletcher, 1928 : 59. 

Chilo tumidicostalis (Hampson) Kapur, 1950 : 401, pi. i, fig. 5 [head], pi. 2, fig. 5 [<$ genitalia], 

pi. 3, figs 3, 9 [<J genitalia], n [9 genitalia]. 
Chilo tumidicostalis (Hampson) ; Bleszynski, 1969 : 14, figs 2 [<J genitalia], 35 [$ genitalia]. 

Ocellus well developed. Face moderately produced forward, with corneous point, which, 
in some specimens, is only poorly developed ; ventral ridge absent. Labial palpus 2-5 (<$) to 
3-5 ($) times as long as diameter of eye. Fore wing : length 9-0-10-5 mm ; RI free ; ground- 
colour dull grey to brown ; with dark shade from base to short distance beyond cell ; number 
of dark scales scattered irregularly over wing except on area immediately below longitudinal 
shade and along margin ; transverse lines absent ; terminal dots present, alternating with 
small white dots ; fringe shiny brown. Hind wing silky white. 

c? genitalia (Text-fig. 32) : valva with apex broadly rounded ; apical portion more heavily 
sclerotized than the remainder of the area ; costal portion densely clothed with minute hairs ; 
pars basalis absent ; juxta-plate symmetrical, arms long, apically rounded, each armed with 
strengthening, provided with two distinct, widely separated teeth ; ventral arm of aedeagus 
deeply notched, rounded, its dorsal margins clothed with minute hairs subapically and near 
base ; vesica with numerous tiny spikes, but without distinct cornutus. 

$ genitalia (Text-fig. 36) : ostium pouch poorly demarcated from ductus bursae, with heavily 
sclerotized caudal ring and two rather heavily sclerotized bars at sides ; signum absent. 

C. tumidicostalis is reported to feed exclusively on sugar-cane. Descriptions of 
the larva and pupa are given by Fletcher and Ghosh (1920), Isaac and Rao (1941) 
and Isaac and Venkatraman (1941). 

Distribution. India, Bengal and Assam ; Nepal. 

Type material examined, tumidicostalis. LECTOTYPE ^ (present designation). 
' Bengal, Pabna, S.ix.ign. 1915-408. Sugar cane stem. Platytes tumidicostalis 
Hampson type $ ', GS-6i8-BM ; i <$ paralectotype, same data but taken on n.ix., 
bothinBM(NH). 

gemininotalis. Holotype $. ' India Coll. 721. Kanny Coory Cachar. July '07. 
Chilo gemininotalis Hmps. $ type ', GS-6i9-BM, in BM(NH). 



REVISION OF THE GENUS CHILO 135 

Other material. INDIA : Assam, 2 <$, i $, in BM(NH) ; i ^ in Canadian National 
Collection, Ottawa, Ont., Canada ; NEPAL : i $ in author's coll. 

Chilo auricilius Dudgeon 
(PI. 2, fig. 6 ; Text-figs 38, 43) 

Chilo auricilia Dudgeon, 1905 : 405. 

Diatraea auricilia (Dudgeon) Fletcher, 1928 : 58. 

Diatraea auricilia (Dudgeon) ; Gupta, 1940 : 799, fig. 3 [larva], pi. 36, fig. 2 [wing venation]. 

pi. 37, figs 3, 4 [<J genitalia]. 

Chilotraea auricilia (Dudgeon) Kapur, 1950 : 408, pi. 5, figs 1-4 [<$ genitalia], 5 [? genitalia]. 
Chilo popescugorji Bleszynski, 1963 : 179, fig. 63 [? genitalia]. Syn. n. 
Chilo auricilia Dudgeon ; Bleszynski & Collins, 1962 : 239. 
Chilo auricilius Dudgeon ; Bleszynski, 1965 : 113, fig. 59 bis [larva and pupa], pi. 31, fig. 59 bis 

[imago], pi. 42, fig. 59 bis [<J genitalia], pi. 93, fig. 59 bis [? genitalia]. 
Chilo auricilius Dudgeon ; Bleszynski, 1969 : 16, figs 4 [<J genitalia], 37 [$ genitalia]. 

Ocellus small but distinct. Face produced forward, smooth, or with small point; ventral 
ridge absent. Labial palpus 3 (<$} to 4 ($) times as long as diameter of eye. Fore wing : 
length 8-0-13-0 mm, maximum width 3-0-4-0 mm ; R\ confluent with Sc ; ground-colour 
yellow, in some instances brownish, variably irrorated with brown scales ; discal dot present ; 
subterminal line close to termen, represented by row of metallic scales ; median line con- 
colorous with subterminal line ; few small silvery specks in middle of wing ; terminal dots 
large ; fringe shiny golden. Hind wing light brownish. 

Coloration and pattern of fore wing is variable : in some specimens fore wing almost uni- 
colorous yellow ; one examined specimen has very strongly developed silvery specks covering 
most of the wing surface ; sometimes the silvery specks are irregularly dispersed, while in other 
specimens they form two parallel transverse lines. 

o" genitalia (Text-fig. 38) : pars basalis absent ; saccus large ; juxta-plate with two sym- 
metrical arms ending well before basal-costal angle of valva ; aedeagus with distinct, sub- 
apical conical projection ; ventral arm long, with notched apex ; bulbose basal projection 
small ; cornutus absent. 

? genitalia (Text-fig. 43) : ostial pouch slightly demarcated from ductus bursae, moderately 
or heavily sclerotized ; small ; signum absent, but several examined specimens with a patch 
of scobinations or rather distinct irregularly shaped signum. 

The life history of auricilius was dealt with by Fletcher and Ghosh (1920), (Diatraea 
sp., p. 389, pi. 55, fig. i, larva, 2, pupa), Fletcher (1928) and Gupta (1940). The 
immature stages were figured by Isaac and Rao (1941 : 800, larva) and Isaac and 
Venkatraman (1941 : 809, pupa). 

C. auricilius is a pest of sugar-cane in South-East Asia. It was also reported 
as feeding on rice, but the interpretation of the name auricilius has for a long time 
been in much confusion. Hampson (1912) sunk auricilius under suppressalis. 
Fletcher (1917) followed the Hampson synonymy, but in 1918 he regarded auricilius 
as a distinct species. However, in 1928, Fletcher stated that he made an error and 
that his ' auricilius ' was in fact ' Argyria sticticraspis ' (= infuscatellus) . The 
true auricilius was named in Fletcher's paper as ' Diatraea sp. '. 

Distribution. India ; Nepal ; Formosa ; Philippines ; Thailand ; Indonesia, 
Moluccas, Celebes, Borneo, Sangir. The range of auricilius overlaps that of poly- 
chrysus, which is, in many instances, externally indistinguishable from auricilius. 
Both species are easily separable by the genitalia of both sexes. 



S. BLESZYNSKI 




39 



FIGS 37-39. Chilo, $ genitalia. 37, ceylonicus, Ceylon. 38, auricilius, Thailand. 39, 
crypsimetallus, Australia, Pt. Darwin, holotype. 



REVISION OF THE GENUS CHILO 137 

Type material examined, auricilius. Holotype <$. ' [India] Burogah N. Bihar 
(Mackenzie) ; Brit. Mus. 1905-70 ; Chilo auricilius type^ Dudgeon ', GS-8995-BM, 
in BM(NH). 

popescugorji. Holotype $. ' Formosa ', GS-2043-SB, in Muzeul G. Antipa, 
Bucharest. 

Paratypes, 3 $, same data, in Muzeul G. Antipa, Bucharest ; i $ paratype in 
author's coll. 

Other material. INDIA : Pusa, i <$, 3 Q, in BM(NH) ; Darjeeling, 2 $, in Zoolo- 
gische Sammlung d. Bayerischen Staates, Munich ; NEPAL : Rapti Tal, Megouli, 
300 m, 29.iii.-4.iv., 5 $ ; Sunkosi, 2 $ ; Bhimpedi, 2 Q, in Zoologische Sammlung 
d. Bayerischen Staates, Munich ; PHILIPPINES : Luzon, 2 $ in United States National 
Museum, Washington, D.C. ; MOLUCCAS : Ternate, i $, in BM(NH) ; CELEBES : 





42 



FIGS 40-42. Chilo, $ genitalia. 40, ceylonicus, China, Tongking, holotype of torquatellus , 
41, ceylonicus, Ceylon. 42, ceylonicus, Hainan. 



138 S. BLESZYNSKI 

Paloe, i (J, x, in BM(NH); SANGIR : i ?, in BM(NH) ; BORNEO : Pulo Laut, i $, 
in BM(NH) ; THAILAND : Krabi, 2 $, in Zoologische Sammlung d. Bayerischen 
Staates, Munich ; Krabi, i $, in author's coll. 

Chilo ceylonicus Hampson 
(PL 3, fig. 14 ; Text-figs 37, 40-42) 

Chilo ceylonica Hampson, 18966 : 957. 

Chilo torquatellus J. de Joannis, 1930 : 602, pi. 3, fig. 12. Syn. n. 

Chilotraea ceylonicus (Hampson) Kapur, 1950 : 406, pi. 4, figs 6 [head], 7-9, n [<J genitalia], 

10 [$ genitalia]. 
Chilo ceylonica Hampson ; Bleszynski & Collins, 1962 : 239. 

Ocellus well developed. Face rounded, moderately protruding forward beyond eye ; 
cornous point and ventral ridge both absent. Labial palpus 3 ($) to 3-5 (9) times as long as 
diameter of eye. Fore wing : length 9-0-12-0 mm ; R\ confluent with Sc ; ground-colour 
straw-yellow, beige or brown ; subterminal line silvery, without sub-dorsal tooth ; median 
line yellowish, edged with brown and silvery scales ; some scattered silvery scales in basal and 
medial areas ; holotype of torquatellus dark brown with median line reduced but rather distinct 
discal dot. Hind wing white to dirty white. 

<J genitalia (Text-fig. 37) : pars basalis small but distinct ; juxta-plate asymmetrical arms 
unequal in length, each arm with a subapical blunt knob ; aedeagus with bulbose basal pro- 
jection but without ventral arm ; cornutus absent. 

$ genitalia (Text-figs. 40-42) : ostial pouch moderately or heavily sclerotized, rather variable 
in shape, well demarcated from ductus bursae, bulbose ; one lamellate signum with median 
ridge. 

C. torquatellus is probably an extreme colour variation of ceylonicus and is here 
sunk under ceylonicus. It was described from a single $ from Tong-king. Biology 
of ceylonicus is unknown. 

Distribution. Ceylon ; Tong-king ; Hainan. 

Type material examined, ceylonicus. LECTOTYPE $ (present designation). 
' Ceylon, 95-37 ; Hambantota ; Eromene ceylonica Type $ Hampson ', GS-586-BM ; 
i $ lectoparatype, same data, both in BM(NH). 

torquatellus. Holotype $. ' Tong-king Phu-tho-far, Juillet ', GS-3655-Viette, in 
Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris. 

Other material. CEYLON : Hambantota, Hapusale, Gampola and Madulsima, 
5 ex., in BM(NH) ; HAINAN : i $, in author's coll. 



Chilo crypsimetallus (Turner) comb. n. 
(PI. 5, %. 2 ; Text-figs 39, 44, 45) 

Nephalia crypsimetalla Turner, 1911 : 114. 

Diatraea ochrileucalis Hampson, 1919 : 547. Syn. n. 

Chilo ochrileucalis (Hampson) Bleszynski, 1962 : 19, figs 12 [<$ genitalia], 24 [ genitalia]. 

Ocellus well developed. Face broadly rounded ; corneous point and ventral ridge both 
absent. Labial palpus 2-5 (g) to 3-5 (?) times as long as diameter of eye. Fore wing : length 
7-5-10-5 mm; ground-colour dull light brown to dirty yellow, variably dusted with brown ; 
discal dot distinct ; subterminal line ill-defined, often reduced in costal half, formed by row of 



REVISION OF THE GENUS CHILO 



139 



metallically shiny silvery scales ; a small patch of silvery scales well above dorsum in the 
middle of wing ; terminal dots distinct. Hind wing light brownish to silky white. 

<$ genitalia (Text-fig. 39) : pars basalis distinct, armed with numerous small bristles ; juxta- 
plate ovate, with rather short, equally long, tapering pointed arms ; aedeagus with bulbose 
basal projection ; ventral arm absent ; large patch of small cornuti present. 

$ genitalia (Text-figs 44, 45) : ostial pouch slightly demarcated from dustus bursae, rather 
lightly sclerotized ; no signum. 

Distribution. Australia, Northern Territory, Queensland, Prince of Wales I. 

This is the only species of Chilo known to occur in Australia. The specimens from 
Prince of Wales I. are larger and lighter coloured than the typical crypsimetallus ; 




FIGS 43-45. Chilo, $ genitalia. 43, auricilius, Thailand. 44, crypsimetallus, Australia, 
Cedar Bay, holotype of ochrileucalis. 45, ? crypsimetallus, Australia, Prince of Wales I. 



i 4 o S. BLESZYNSKI 

all these are females and have the genitalia slightly different from Queensland 
specimens. Perhaps a distinct species is involved ; only discovery of a male from 
Prince of Wales I. may solve the problem. 

The female genitalia are similar to those in terrenellus and louisiadalis, which, 
however, have small ocelli and no metallic scales on the fore wing. The ranges of 
crypsimetallus and the latter two do not overlap. 

Type material examined, crypsimetallus. Holotype <$. ' [Australia, Northern 
Territory] P. Darwin, Dec. '08. F. P. Dodd', GS-49OI-SB, in Commonwealth Scientific 
and Industrial Research Organization, Division of Entomology, Canberra. 

ochrileucalis. Holotype ?. ' [Australia, Queensland] Cedar Bay, s. of Cook- 
town, Meek, 97-23 ; Diatraea ochrileucalis $ Type Hmpsn. ', GS-IH54-BM, in 
BM(NH). 

Other material. AUSTEALIA : Cedar Bay, Queensland, i <$, in BM(NH) ; i 2 in 
author's coll. ; Prince of Wales I., 5 $, in Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y., U.S.A. 
and in author's coll. 



Chilo polychrysus (Meyrick) 
(PI. 2, fig. 4 ; PL 3, fig. 15 ; Text-figs 46, 47, 52) 

Diatraea polychrysa Meyrick, 1932 : 321. 

Proceras polychrysa (Meyrick) Kalshoven, 1950 : 413, figs 229, 235a [pupa], 236 [larva]. 
Chilotraea polychrysa (Meyrick) Martin, 1954 : I2O > &g s 9 [o* genitalia], 18 [$ genitalia]. 
Chilo polychrysa (Meyrick) Bleszynski, ig62b : 115, fig. 5 [<$ genitalia]. 

Head similar as in auricilius, except for labial palpus which is proportionately slightly shorter 
in polychrysus. Fore wing : length 6-7-7-5 mm ; #1 confluent with Sc ; ground-colour 
varying from whitish to yellow variably suffused with ochreous brown scales ; median line a 
distinct, oblique, ochreous brown shade with median line represented by shiny silvery scales ; 
discal dot reduced ; subterminal line ill-defined, white, with a few silvery scales ; area between 
both transverse lines darkened with ochreous brown below costa ; subterminal area darkened ; 
terminal dots ill-defined or absent ; fringes slightly glossy. Hind wing varying from white to 
dirty cream, with apical area slightly suffused with darker colour ; fringe whitish. 

cj genitalia (Text-figs 46, 47) ; valva decidely tapering to a narrowly rounded apex ; bunch of 
stout hairs close to ventral margin at one-third distance from base ; distinct, rather heavily 
sclerotized, notched pars basalis ; juxta-plate with arms short, tapering, nearly symmetrical ; 
aedeagus a little longer than valva ; ventral process of aedeagus bifurcate into two long, 
narrow arms, each arm with subbasal flap and minute subapical dentation ; cornuti absent. 

$ genitalia (Text-fig. 52) ; seventh sternum with rather heavily sclerotized area surrounding 
ostium bursae, with long band posteriorly divided longitudinally in some specimens ; ostial 
pouch slightly demarcated from ductus bursae, armed with small sclerite at either side ; 
ductus bursae behind ostial pouch with a short, rather heavily sclerotized portion, then lightly 
sclerotized, sometimes swollen in caudal portion ; signum absent. 

Some of the examined adults were bred from stem of ' paoli '. 

Distribution. India, Assam ; Thailand ; Indonesia, Malacca ; Malaysia ; South 
China, Kanton. 

Externally this species comes very close to auricilius, but it is easily separated 
by the genitalia of both sexes as is shown in the figures. Similarities in the genitalia 



REVISION OF THE GENUS CHILO 



141 




FIGS 46-48. Chilo, (J genitalia. 46, polychrysus, Malaya, paralectotype. 47, polychrysus, 
Malaya, paralectotype. 48, louisiadalis, Vulcan I. 



142 S. BLESZYNSKI 

suggest that polychrysus comes very near terrenelhis and louisiadalis, from which it 
differs by the presence of the pars basalis of the valva and the lack of cornuti ; 
moreover, polychrysus has more strongly tapered valva, a differently shaped ventral 
arm of aedeagus and a smaller juxta-plate. In the $ genitalia polychrysus is dis- 
tinguished by the heavily sclerotized area surrounding ostium bursae. Externally 
polychrysus is readily separated from terrenellus and louisiadalis by the presence of 
metallic scales on the fore wing, the much smaller size and the yellow coloration 
of the fore wing. The ranges of polychrysus, terrenellus and louisiadalis do not 
overlap. The ranges of polychrysus and auricilius overlap in Indonesia, Thailand 
and Assam, India. 

Type material examined. LECTOTYPE (present designation). ' Malaya Pen. 
Malacca 8.1.1925. Larvae boring stems of Paoli. G. H. Corbett and B. A. R. 
Gater ', GS-iO3i3-BM, in BM(NH). 

Paralectotypes. 15 <$, Perak, Selangor, Alor Star, Sungei Tua, Kuan, Parit 
Buntar, Titi Serong, Pekan, Sungai Kepar, Malaysia, in BM(NH) and in author's 
coll. 

Other material. INDONESIA : Kuala Lumpur, 15 ex., in BM(NH) ; THAILAND : 
Bangkok, 5 $, in BM(NH) ; INDIA : Assam, i 2, in BM(NH) ; Khasis, i $, in 
BM(NH). * 

Chilo louisiadalis (Hampson) 
(PI. 4, figs 4, 7 ; Text-figs 48, 49, 53) 

Diatraea louisiadalis Hampson, 1919 : 545. 

Chilo louisiadalis (Hampson) Bleszynski, 19626 : 119, fig. 6 [$ genitalia]. 

Ocellus small. Face broadly rounded, very slightly protruding forward beyond eye ; 
corneous point and ventral ridge both absent. Labial palpus 3 (J) to 4 ($) times as long as 
diameter of eye. Fore wing : length 9-0-15-0 mm ; RI confluent with Sc ; ground-colour 
dull yellow-brown, markings brown ; a brown shade from apex, obliquely to discal dot, the 
latter in most instances very distinct ; wing longitudinally indistinctly streaked with brown ; 
subterminal line and median line present ; subterminal line a row of brown specks, rather 
distant from termen ; subdorsal tooth absent ; median line a brown shade ; discal dot present ; 
terminal dots present ; fringe slightly glossy. Hind wing varying cream to brown. 

cj genitalia (Text-figs 48, 49) : pars basalis absent ; hairs stout ; juxta-plate broad, with 
arms of equal length, rather short, without subapical teeth ; aedeagus with bulbose basal 
projection rather small ; ventral arm very strong, from near base of aedeagus ; its basal 
portion stem-like, narrow, the distal part very broad, tapering, with two long, thin, pointed 
arms of equal length ; basal margin of arm oblique ; a row of small cornuti present. 

$ genitalia (Text-fig. 53) : seventh sternite without a heavily sclerotized plate ; ostial 
pouch small, rather heavily sclerotized, well demarcated from ductus bursae ; signum absent. 

Host plant of the larva is unknown. 

Distribution. Louisiade Archipelago ; New Guinea ; Vulcan Island. 

This species is very close to terrenellus, which has no longitudinal streaks on the 
fore wing ; in < genitalia the basal margin of the arms of the ventral arm of the 
aedeagus is almost perpendicular to the stem, being oblique in louisiadalis. The $ 
genitalia of the two species are nearly indistinguishable from each other, however, 



REVISION OF THE GENUS CHILO 



143 




57 



FIGS 49-51. Chilo, $ genitalia. 49, louisiadalis, Louisiade Arch. 50, terrenellus, 
Vulcan I. 51, terrenellus, Papua, New Britain. 



144 S. BLESZYNSKI 

generally the semi-circular sclerite near the ostium bursae in louisiadalis is rather 
better developed, broader than in terrenellus, and the ductus seminalis is narrower 
than in terrenellus. Another close species is polychrysus, which, however, has 
metallic scales on the fore wing and is very easy to separate from louisiadalis. 
The ranges of both louisiadalis and terrenellus overlap. 

Type material examined. Holotype <. ' [Louisiade Archipelago] St. Aignan, 
Nov. 1897, Meek ; Dialraea louisiadalis type <$ Hmpsn.', abdomen missing, in 
BM(NH). 




54 



FIGS 52-54. Chilo, genitalia. 52, polychrysus, India, Assam. 53, louisiadalis, Dutch 
New Guinea. 54, terrenellus, Papua, New Britain. 



REVISION OF THE GENUS CHILO 145 

Other material. LOUISIADE ARCHIPELAGO : St. Aignan, i <j>, in BM(NH) ; 
NEW GUINEA: Hydrographer Mts., 2500', i <j>, in BM(NH); Morobe District, Wan 
and Padwi, 6 <$, 8 $, in Canadian National Collection, Ottawa, Ont., Canada ; 
VULCAN ISLAND : i <$, i $, in BM(NH). 

Chilo terrenellus Pagenstecher 
(PI. i, fig. 10 ; PI. 4, figs 2, 3 ; Text-figs 50, 51, 54) 

Chilo terrenellus Pagenstecher, 1900 : 160. 

Chilotraea terrenellus (Pagenstecher) Martin, 1954 : I2O > n g s I0 [c? genitalia], 17 [$ genitalia]. 

Chilo terrenellus Pagenstecher ; Bleszynski, 19626 : 7, fig. 7 [<J genitalia]. 

Ocellus vestigial or small. Face similar to that in louisiadalis . Labial palpus 3 (<$) to 4 (?) 
times as long as diameter of eye. Fore wing : length 12-5-18-0 mm ; J?x confluent with Sc ; 
coloration rather similar as in louisiadalis, but longitudinal streaks absent ; some specimens 
very dark brown. Hind wing varying from dirty white to grey. 

$ genitalia (Text-figs 50, 51) : generally similar to those in louisiadalis, but with basal edge 
of the main part of the ventral arm of the aedeagus almost perpendicular to the stem. 

$ genitalia (Text-fig. 54) : very similar to those in louisiadalis ; for more details see under 
louisiadalis. 

Distribution. New Guinea ; Bismarck Archipelago ; Vulcan Island. 

Type material examined. Lectotype $ (selected by Martin, 1954 : 120). ' [Bis- 
marck Achipelago] Neu Pommern C. Ribber ', in Institut f. Spezielle Zoologie, 
Berlin. 

Paralectotypes. i $, same data, GS-7663-BM, in BM(NH) ; i $, same data, 
GS-759-SB, in Institut f. Spezielle Zoologie, Berlin. 

Other material. NEW GUINEA : 2 ^, i $, in BM(NH) ; Mt. Goliath, i $, in 
author's coll. ; 4 $, in Canadian National Collection, Ottawa, Ont., Canada ; 
NEW BRITAIN : 2 <$, i $, in Canadian National Collection, Ottawa, Ont. ; VULCAN 
ISLAND : 7 ex., in BM(NH) and author's coll. 

Chilo agamemnon Bleszynski 
(PI. 2, fig. 7 ; PI. 4, fig. 10 ; Text-figs 8, 5, 58) 

Chilo agamemnon Bleszynski, 19626 : 119, figs 13 [<J genitalia], 28 [$ genitalia], pi. 13, fig. 6 

[adult]. 
Chilo agamemnon Bleszynski ; Bleszynski, 1965 : 122, pi. 5, figs 64-1, 2 ; pi. 43, fig. 64 [<J 

genitalia], pi. 94, fig. 64 [$ genitalia]. 
Chilo simplex (Butler) ; auct. in part, [mis-identifications]. 

Ocellus well developed. Face broadly rounded, slightly protruding forward beyond eye ; 
corneous point and ventral ridge both absent. Labial palpus 3 (<$) to 4 ($) times as long as 
diameter of eye. Fore wing : length 8-0-14-5 mm ; J?i free ; ground-colour dull yellow to 
brown ochreous ; subterminal line rather distinct in <$, reduced in $, brown, weakly dentate, 
excurved, without subdorsal tooth ; median line present in $, ill-defined or absent in $ ; discal 
dot present, but diffused or absent in some specimens : a well developed brown shade extending 
obliquely from apex to discal dot ; terminal dots present. Hind wing glossy cream greyish 
to silky wnite. 

cJ genitalia (Text-fig. 55) : pars basalis distinct, pointed, minutely toothed ; arms of juxta- 
plate equally long, gradually tapering to points, without subbasal teeth ; aedeagus distinctly 



I 4 6 



S. BLESZYNSKI 




57 



FIGS 55-57. Chilo, <J genitalia. 55, agamemnon, Uganda. 56, diffusilineus, Northern 
Rhodesia. 57, zacconius, Senegal, holotype. 



REVISION OF THE GENUS CHILO 147 

curved, bulbose basal projection present ; ventral arm absent ; row of minute cornuti present. 
$ genitalia (Text-fig. 58) : ostial pouch well demarcated from ductus bursae, bowl-shaped, 
rather lightly sclerotized, with wrinkled margins ; with lateral projection with a heavily 
sclerotized patch ; signum absent. 

Distribution. Israel ; north Egypt ; Sudan ; Uganda. 

In Israel this species is an important pest of maize and other cereal crops. In 
Uganda, specimens of agamemnon were bred from Esege (Vossia cuspidata}. The 
specimens bred in Israel emerged from June to December, but those from Uganda 
in April and September ; the specimens from Sudan were taken in February. The 
species has three or four broods a year. For details on biology of agamemnon see 
Rivnay, 1963 and 1967. 

C. agamemnon has for a long time been recorded from the Near East as ' Chilo 
simplex Butler ' (synonym of suppressalis) , which does not occur in the Near East. 
This species seems to have spread northward in Israel during past several years. 
It is rather similar externally to diffusilineus and zacconius, which are also charac- 
terized by an oblique shade running from the apex of the fore wing. So far zacconius 
is known only from the west coast of Africa ; it is easily separable from agamemnon 
by the genitalia of both sexes as is shown in the figures. The ranges of agamemnon 
and diffusilineus overlap in Sudan, but the two species are perfectly distinct on the 
genitalia of both sexes, as is shown in the figures. 

Type material examined. Holotype <. ' [Egypt] Gemmaiza, 2.9.31 ', 68-9184- 
Mus. Vind., in Naturhistorisches Museum, Vienna. 

Paratypes. 1^,1$, Egypt, in Naturhistorisches Museum, Vienna ; i <, i $, 
Egypt, in author's coll. ; 2 $, Cairo, Egypt, coll. Amsel, Karlsruhe. 

Other material. ISRAEL : Beer Tuvia, 2 $, 3 <j>, in author's coll. ; Rehovot, 
5 ex., in Mahon Vulcani, Bet-Dagan, Israel. SUDAN : Malek, 2 <j>, Kosti, White 
Nile, i <j>, in BM(NH) ; UGANDA : Tirynyi, i $, 2 $, in Commonwealth Institute of 
Biological Control, Kampala, Uganda, and in author's coll. 



Chilo diffusilineus (J. de Joannis) 
(PI. 2, figs 10, ii ; Text-figs 56, 59-61) 

Diatraea diffiisilinea J. de Joannis, 1922 : 194, pi. 8, fig. 5. 

Chilo phaeosema Martin, 1958 : 189, figs 2 [< genitalia], 6 [$ genitalia], pi. 6, fig. 4 [adult] 

Syn. n. 
Chilo diffusilineus (J. de Joannis) Bleszynski, 1963 : 113. 

Similar to agamemnon. Fore wing : length 8-0-13-0 mm ; J?i free ; ground-colour varying 
from orange-yellow to dirty yellow. 

<? genitalia (Text-fig. 56) : pars basalis absent ; juxta-plate with two long arms of equal 
length, but in some specimens the right arm shorter than the left arm ; each arm provided 
with a distinct, subapical tooth and several short hairs ; aedeagus with basal part curved ; 
bulbose basal projection varying in size, ventral arm very short ; cornuti absent. 

$ genitalia (Text-figs 59-61) : ostial pouch very well demarcated from ductus bursae ; 
heavily sclerotized, produced as a long, heavily sclerotized rod into ductus bursae ; in some 
specimens, a distinct, lateral, thorn-like projection ; signum absent. 



r 4 8 



S. BLESZYNSKI 



Distribution. Sudan ; Ethiopia ; Rhodesia ; Tanzania ; Mozambique ; Guinea ; 
Senegal ; Nigeria ; Sierra Leone. 

C. diffusilineus is very similar externally to agamemnon and zacconius, but it is 
easily distinguishable on the genitalia of both sexes as is shown in the figures. 
The ranges of diffusilineus and zacconius overlap in West Africa, and those of 
diffusilineus and agamemnon in Sudan. The specimens from Rhodesia are much 
darker and brighter orange-yellow than from any other locality. The species is 
rather variable in both external appearance and the genitalia of both sexes. 

Type material examined, diffusilineus. Holotype $. ' [Mozambique] Makulane, 
xii.o7~i.o8 ; Type ; Diatraea diffusilinea $ de Joannis ', GS-2837-SB, in Museum 
d'Histoire Naturelle, Geneva. 

phaeosema. Holotype <$. ' [Rhodesia] Makaholi. Rice borer. Dept. Agric. 
S. Rhodesia, 15.4.1955 ; holotype ', GS-2607-BM, in BM(NH). 

Paratypes. i $, same data as holotype, in BM(NH) ; 2 <^, i $, Malawi, Mt. 
Mlanje, in BM(NH) and in author's coll. 

Other material. SUDAN : White Nile, i $, 3 $, in BM(NH) ; ETHIOPIA : Ogolok 
and Drgira, 2 $, in BM(NH) ; RHODESIA : Lialui, 2 <$, 2 $, in BM(NH) and in 




61 



FIGS 58-61. Chilo, $ genitalia. 58, agamemnon, Egypt, paratype. 59, diffusilineus, 
Southern Rhodesia, paratype of phaeosema, 60, diffiisilineus, Senegal. 61, diffusilineus, 
Northern Rhodesia. 



REVISION OF THE GENUS CHILO 



149 



author's coll. ; SENEGAL : Sedhiou, 22 $, in BM(NH) and in author's coll. ; SIERRA 
LEONE : i $, 2 $, in BM(NH) ; GUINEA : Konakry, i <$, in Museum National 
d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris. 

Chilo zacconius sp. n. 

(PI. 4, fig. 13 ; PI. 5, fig. 3 ; Text-figs 57, 62) 

Ocellus moderately sized but distinct. Face rounded ; corneous point and ventral ridge 
both absent. Labial palpus as in diffusilineus. Fore wing : length 10-0-14-0 mm ; R\ 
confluent with Sc ; ground-colour and maculation very similar to those in diffusilineus, but 
ground-colour less variable, always ochreous yellow. 

(J genitalia (Text-fig. 57) : pars basalis absent ; arms of juxta-plate slightly asymmetrical, 




FIGS 62-64. Chilo, $ genitalia. 62, zacconius, Senegal, paratype. 63, incertus, Sudan. 
64, psammathis, Northern Nigeria, holotype. 



150 S. BLESZYNSKI 

very long and thin, with slight subapical dentation ; aedeagus without ventral arm ; bulbose 
basal projection distinct ; a subapical thorn on a long base. 

$ genitalia (Text-fig. 62) : seventh sternum without plate ; ostial pouch broad, partly 
heavily sclerotized, well demarcated from ductus bursae ; the latter twisted ; no signum. 

Most of examined specimens were bred from rice. 

Distribution. Senegal ; Mali ; Ivory Coast ; Nigeria. The range of zacconius 
overlaps that of diffusilineus in West Africa. 

The genitalia of diffusilineus and zacconius are very distinct as is shown in the 
figures ; the arms of the juxta-plate in diffusilineus are much shorter, and the 
ductus bursae is not twisted. Both species are very similar in external appearance. 

Type material examined. Holotype . ' Senegal, Ziguinchor io.v.68 ; on rice 
165', GS-4734-SB, in author's coll. 

Paratypes. 9 ex., same data, in Institut de Recherches Agronomiques Tropicales 
et des Cultures Vivieres, Paris and in author's coll. ; IVORY COAST : Ferkessedougou, 
5 ex., 2.x. 1968 ; SENEGAL : from Richard Toll, i ex., 2.x. 1966, in Institut de 
Recherches Agronomiques Tropicales et des Cultures Vivieres, Paris ; MALI : 
Kogoni, 3 ex., 6.x. 1967, from rice, in Institut de Recherches Agronomiques Tropicales 
et des Cultures Vivieres, Paris and in author's coll., 05-7624-86 ; SOUTH NIGERIA : 
Ilesha, i $, (Capt. Humphrey], GS-7900-BM, in BM(NH) ; NIGERIA : Baddegi, 
from rice stem, i <J i <j>, GS-IO72I-BM, in BM(NH). 



Chilo incertus (Sjostedt) comb. n. 
(PI. 4, fig. 14 ; Text-fig. 63) 

Diatraea incerta Sjostedt, 1926 : 10. 

Parerupa incerta (Sjostedt) Bleszynski & Collins, 1962 : 331. 

$. Ocellus present. Face rounded, moderately protruding forward beyond eye ; corneous 
point and ventral ridge both absent. Labial palpus 4 times as long as diameter of eye. Fore 
wing : length 12-0 mm (type in poor condition, but obviously smaller) ; RI in type confluent 
with Sc, but fused with Sc for a long distance in the other $ studied ; ground-colour dull yellow ; 
discal dot small ; subterminal line as ill-defined, yellow-brown line ; median line probably 
ill-defined or reduced (difficult to detect in poorly preserved specimens studied) ; terminal dots 
present ; metallic scales absent ; a brown oblique shade from near apex to about middle of 
the width of the wing ; type almost uniformly brown. Hind wing silky white. 

? genitalia (Text-fig. 63) : ostial pouch heavily sclerotized, bulbous ; ductus bursae con- 
stricted behind ostial pouch, adjacent portion rather heavily sclerotized and swollen, but slightly 
narrower than the remainder of ostial pouch ; signum absent. 

cj unknown. 

Distribution. Sudan. 

The presence of an oblique shade in the fore wing suggests that this species comes 
close to agamemnon, diffusilineus and zacconius from which it is, however, very 
distinct in the $ genitalia as is shown in the figures. The ranges of incertus, agamem- 
non and diffusilineus overlap in Sudan. The type of incertus is in extremely poor 
condition, but the genitalia are well preserved. 

Type material examined. Holotype $. ' Sudan Nilen ; Pr. W. Exp. Gyld. ; 



REVISION OF THE GENUS CHILO 151 

Diatraea incerta Rothsch. ; 425 58 ; 128 ', GS-ygg-SB, in Naturhistoriska Riks- 
museet, Stockholm. 

Other material. SUDAN : i $ in author's coll. 

Chilo psammathis (Hampson) 
(PI. 5, fig- 5 i Text-figs 64, 65) 

Argyria psammathis Hampson, 1919 : 450. 

Diatraea perpulverea Hampson, 1919 : 53 [syn. Martin, 1954 : 120]. 




65 




FIG 65-65a. Chilo, <$ genitalia. 65, psammathis, Southern Nigeria, paratype. <$ genitalia. 
65a, mercatorius, Congo, Elisabethville, holotype. 



152 S. BLESZYNSKI 

Chilotraea psammathis (Hampson) Martin, 1954 : 120, figs 8 [^ genitalia], 20 [$ genitalia]. 
Chilo psammathis (Hampson) Bleszynski, 19626 : 115, fig. 8 [<J genitalia]. 

Ocellus rather small, but distinct. Face rounded, slightly protruding forward beyond eye ; 
corneous point and ventral ridge both absent. Labial palpus 2-5 ($) to 3 (?) times as long as 
diameter of eye. Fore wing : length 8-0-9-0 mm ; RI confluent with Sc ; apex narrowly 
rounded ; ground-colour dull, almost unicolorous brown without markings except for in- 
distinct terminal dots ; metallic scales absent ; fringes strongly shiny brown. Hind wing 
silky whitish, in some specimens with termen greyish. 

cj genitalia (Text-fig. 65) : valva decidedly tapering to a narrowly rounded apex ; pars 
basalis distinct, glabrose, moderately sclerotized ; juxta-plate characteristic in shape, with 
strong, elongate, sub-ovate arms, without subapical teeth ; aedeagus without bulbose basal 
projection ; ventral arm of aedeagus from very near base, very thin, almost reaching end of 
aedeagus, densely clothed ventrally with minute bristles ; row of tapering moderately long, 
thin cornuti present. 

$ genitalia (Text-fig. 64) : ostial pouch very strongly sclerotized, small, poorly demarcated 
from ductus bursae ; the latter very narrow just beyond ostial pouch, then suddenly dilated, 
bulbose, heavily sclerotized ; with some longitudinal distinct grooves ; signum lamellate 
without median ridge. 

Distribution. Nigeria ; Ghana. 

Type material examined, psammathis. Holotype $. ' N. Nigeria, Bida, 23. ix. 
1910, Scott Macfie ; Type H.T. ; Argyria psammathis type Hmpsn. ', GS-2I75-BM, 
in BM(NH) ; I $ paratype, Ghana ; Bibianaha, abdomen missing, in BM(NH). 

perpulverea. LECTOTYPE $ (present designation). ' Nigeria, Minna, 28.viii. 
1919. Scott Macfie, 1911-389 ; Diatraea perpulverea type ^ Hmpsn. ', GS-2i85-BM, 
in BM(NH) ; 2 $ paralectotypes, same data, in BM(NH). 

Other material. NIGERIA : North Nigeria, i <J, i $, in BM(NH) ; GHANA : 
Northern Territories, 2 <?, in BM(NH), i ^ in author's coll. 

Chilo luniferalis Hampson 
(PI. i, fig. ii ; PI. 4, fig. 6; Text-figs 66, 68) 

Chilo luniferalis Hampson, 1 896*2 : 957. 

Ocellus small. Face rounded, slightly protruding forward beyond eye ; corneous point and 
ventral ridge both absent. Labias palpus 3 (<J) to 4 ($) times as long as diameter of eye. Fore 
wing : length 10-0-15-0 mm ; RI free ; ground-colour dull dirty cream dusted with brown 
scales ; metallic scales absent ; discal dot double ; terminal dots very distinct ; median line 
reduced ; subterminal line a poorly traceable brown shade, in some specimens almost absent ; 
fringes slightly glossy. Hind wing dirty cream, termen edged with greyish. 

<$ genitalia (Text-fig. 66) : pars basalis distinct, lightly sclerotized ; juxta-plate with two 
long, thin arms, one of these slightly longer than the other ; length of juxta-plate plus longer 
arm about equal to length of valva ; each arm of juxta-plate with apex lightly sclerotized and 
with tooth remote from apex ; aedeagus much longer than valva plus saccus ; angulate, narrow, 
divided apically ; basal projection and ventral arm both absent ; vesica armed with apical 
patch of numerous cornuti. 

$ genitalia (Text-fig. 68) : ostial pouch heavily sclerotized, flattened, well demarcated from 
ductus bursae ; the latter narrow behind ostial pouch, then much swollen, partly heavily 
sclerotized, longitudinally grooved ; another swelling present near bursa copulatrix. 

Distribution. Ethiopia ; Sudan ; Central African Republic ; Democratic 
Republic of the Congo. 



REVISION OF THE GENUS CHILO 



153 




FIGS 66-67. Chilo, cj genitalia. 66, luniferalis, Congo, Uelle. 
67, perfusalis, Ghana. 



154 



S. BLESZYNSKI 



Type material examined. LECTOTYPE $ (present designation). ' [Ethiopia] 
76.59. Abyss. ; Chilo luniferalis $ type Hmpsn.', GS-7o6i-BM(NH). 

Other material. SUDAN : Prov. Wad Medani, Blue Nile, 2.vm.K)62, i $, in 
Zoologische Sammlung d. Bayerischen Staates, Munich ; Gondokoro, White Nile, 
3 $ in BM(NH) and in author's cool. ; CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC : Fort Crampel, 
i g, in Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris ; DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF 
THE CONGO : Upper Uelle District, Dungu, 2 $, in BM(NH) and in author's coll. 




FIGS 68-71. Chilo, $ genitalia. 68, luniferalis, Sudan. 69, perfusalis, Sierra Leone. 
70, perfusalis, Northern Nigeria. 71, perfusalis, Southern Nigeria, paralectotype. 



REVISION OF THE GENUS CHILO 155 

Chilo perfusalis (Hampson) 
(PI. 4, fig. 15 ; Text-figs 67, 69-71) 

Diatraea perfusalis Hampson, 1919 : 55. 

Chilo perfusalis (Hampson) Bleszynski, 19626 : 115, fig. 25 [$ genitalia]. 

Similar to luniferalis. Fore wing considerably varying in size and colour, from brownish 
yellow to almost unicolorous brown. 

<$ genitalia (Text-fig. 67) : similar to those in luniferalis but much larger, and with much 
longer arms of juxta-plate ; left arm decidedly longer than right arm ; left arm plus juxta- 
plate almost twice as long as valva ; each arm with apical strengthening terminating in a strong 
tooth. 

9 genitalia (Text-figs 69-71) : similar to those in luniferalis, but ductus bursae with heavily 
sclerotized area much larger than in luniferalis. 

Distribution. Senegal ; Sierra Leone ; Nigeria ; Ghana. 

Both lectotype and lectoparatype are smaller and darker than other examined 
specimens. Perhaps the material examined contains two species, but too little 
material is available to clarify this problem. 

Type material examined. LECTOTYPE $ (present designation). ' South 
Nigeria, Ogbomoso, Yorubaland (Carter) 1901-224 ; Diatraea perfusalis type $ 
Hmpsn.', GS-7058-BM, in BM(NH) ; i $ lectoparatype, same locality, in BM(NH). 

Other material. SENEGAL : 6 $ in BM(NH) and in author's coll. ; SIERRA 
LEONE : Pt. Lokko, in BM(NH) ; NIGERIA : North Nigeria, 2 <J, in BM(NH) ; 
GHANA : Northern Territory, Navaro, viii.ig23, in BM(NH) ; Gambaga, 3 $, 
in BM(NH) and in author's coll. 



Chilo costifusalis (Hampson) 
(PI. i, figs 6, 9, 12 : PI. 4, fig. 9 ; Text-figs 72, 75-77) 

Diatraea costifusalis Hampson, 1919 : 55. 

Diatraea costifusalis Hampson ; Rothschild, 1921 : 221. 

Chilo costifusalis (Hampson) Bleszynski, 19626 : 113, figs 10 [<$ genitalia], 22 [$ genitalia]. 

Ocellus rather small. Face rounded, slightly protruding forward beyond eye ; corneous 
point and ventral ridge both absent. Labial palpus 3 (<$) to 4 ($) times as long as diameter of 
eye. Fore wing : length 7-5-11-5 mm ; 7?i confluent with Sc ; ground-colour dull yellow to 
ochreous, darkened along costa ; sometimes veins and intervenular spaces outlined with 
brown ; subterminal line rather distinct, consisting of brown, rather metallically shiny scales ; 
median line present or absent, concolorous with subterminal line, often reduced in dorsal half 
of the wing ; some patches of rather metallically shiny scales in middle area ; in lectotype a 
large, contrasting spot ; in one $ median line strongly dilated on costa ; terminal specks very 
distinct ; fringes varying from glossy to metallically shiny. Hind wing silky cream to white. 

cj genitalia (Text-fig. 72) : pars basalis small, rounded, lightly sclerotized ; arms of juxta- 
plate long, well extended beyond costa of valva ; delicately hairy near base ; both arms with 
single subapical teeth ; aedeagus without bulbose basal projection ; ventral arm present, 
short, situated just beyond middle of aedeagus ; a row of thin, small cornuti present. 

$ genitalia (Text-figs 75-77) : ostial pouch not demarcated from adjacent part of ductus 
bursae but being slightly broader than it ; rather heavily sclerotized ; two lamellate signa with 
distinct median ridges are present. 



156 S. BLESZYNSKI 

Distribution. Malawi ; Tanzania ; Democratic Republic of the Congo ; Angola. 
Rothschild (1921) mentioned this species from Nigeria, but his record was probably 
a misidentification of the similar mesoplagalis. 

Type material examined. LECTOTYPE $ (present designation). [Malawi :] 
' Nyasaland, Mt. Mlanje, 3.12.1913. S. A. Neave. 1914-171 ; Diatraea costifusalis 
typec? Hmpsn.', GS-7O59-BM, in BM(NH) ; i 9. lectoparatype, same data, taken on 
December ist, GS-7o6o-BM, in BM(NH). 

Other material. TANZANIA : Nyassa Lake, Mango, 600 m, i $, 20. xi, in Zoolo- 
gische Sammlung d. Bayerischen Staates, Munich ; DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE 
CONGO : Elisabeth ville, 40 ex., in Musee Royal de 1'Afrique Centrale, and in author's 
coll. ; ANGOLA : Cambo River to Cugho River, 4 ^, in BM(NH) and in author's 
coll. ; Luimbale, Mt. Moco, 15.^.1934, i $, in BM(NH). 



Chilo mesoplagalis (Hampson) 
(PI. i, fig. 5 ; Text-figs 73, 78) 

Diatraea mesoplagalis Hampson, 1919 : 54. 

Chilo mesoplagalis (Hampson) Bleszynski, 19626 : 188, fig. n [<$ genitalia]. 

Ocellus well developed. Face rounded ; corneous point and ventral ridge both absent. 
Labial palpus 3-5 times as long as diameter of eye. Fore wing : length 9-5-11-5 mm ; RI 
free ; ground-colour yellowish, sparsely dusted with dark scales ; subterminal line close to 
termen, consisting of metallically shiny, silvery scales ; broadly excurved without subdorsal 
tooth ; median line also silvery, edged with brown at either side, reduced in dorsal half, forming 
a large contrasting spot ; a semicircular dark spot apical of median line ; terminal specks dis- 
tinct ; fringes slightly glossy, grey-brown. Hind wing silky white. 

cj genitalia (Text-fig. 73) : valva broad, ventral edge slightly projected medially, basal 
process absent, arms of juxta-plate long with single teeth well before apices ; a third, very 
lightly sclerotized, apically hairy arm, which is slightly shorter than other two ; aedeagus with 
bulbose basal projection ; ventral arm of aedeagus from near base, rather broad basally, then 
very narrow, nearly reaching apex ; thin portion clothed ventrally with numerous small 
bristles ; a row of moderate, very thin cornuti present. 

9 genitalia (Text-fig. 78) : seventh sternite without any differentiation ; ostial pouch well 
demarcated from ductus bursae, rather heavily sclerotized ; ductus bursae lightly sclerotized, 
longitudinally wrinkled ; one elongate, lamellate signum with median ridge ; one $ from 
Sudan has slightly differently shaped ostial pouch. 

Distribution. Sierra Leone ; Nigeria ; Ghana ; Sudan. 

C. mesoplagalis is somewhat similar to costifusalis, but has larger ocelli and RI 
free in the fore wing ; in addition, in the $ genitalia of costifusalis there are two 
signa and only one in mesoplagalis ; in <$ genitalia, the third, median part of the 
juxta-plate is absent in costifusalis. 

Type material examined. LECTOTYPE $ (present designation). ' Sierra 
Leone, W. G. Clements. 99-116 ; Chilo mesoplagalis type <$ Hmpsn.', GS-IO940-BM 
in BM(NH) ; paralectotypes : Sierra Leone, i <$, GS-7OI3-BM, in BM(NH) ; 
North Nigeria, i $, in BM(NH) ; Nigeria, Zungeru, 3 $, one GS-7O83-BM, in 
BM(NH) ; Sudan, Gondokoro, White Nile, i ?, GS-I094I-BM, in BM(NH). 

Other material. GHANA : Kete-krachi, 8 $ in BM(NH) and in author's coll. 



REVISION OF THE GENUS CHILO 



'57 




74 



FIGS 72-74. Chilo, (J genitalia. 72, costifusalis, Nyasaland, lectotype. 73, mesoplagalis, 
Sierra Leone, paralectotype. 74, argyrogrammus, Kenya. 



158 S. BLESZYNSKI 

Chilo mercatorius sp. n. 

(PI. 5, fig. 7 ; Text-fig. 65a) 

cj. Ocellus present. Face slightly protruding forward beyond eye, corneous point and 
ventral ridge both absent. Labial palpus 3-5 times as long as diameter of eye. Fore wing : 
length 7-5 mm ; RI confluent with Sc ; ground-colour dark grey ; subterminal line whitish, 
bordered with brown exteriorly ; dorsal-middle area whitish ; discal dot double, very distinct ; 
median line absent ; terminal dots very distinct, black ; fringes strongly shiny, almost metallic ; 
otherwise no metallic scales in fore wing. Hind wing light grey. 

J genitalia (Text-fig. 65a) : pars basalis absent ; valva with basal, curved, thin strengthening; 
juxta-plate with very thin, distinctly emarginate base and very long and thin arms, each 
terminating in a knob-like projection ; aedeagus with very short, broad ventral arm ; basal 
bulbose process absent ; patch of minute spikes. 

9 : unknown. 

Distribution. Democratic Republic of the Congo. 

C. mercatorius resembles some aberrant greyish specimens of argyrogrammus , 
which species, however, is characterized by the presence of the metallic scales in 
the fore wing and very different genitalia as is shown in the figures. The absence 
of the basal bulbose projection of the aedeagus, the short ventral arm of the aedeagus, 
and very long and thin arms of the juxta-plate are diagnostic. 

Type material examined. Holotype <. ' Coll. Mus. Congo, Elisabethville, 
9.xii.i949, Ch. Seydel ', GS-6i78-SB, in Musee Royal de 1'Afrique Centrale, Tervuren. 

Chilo argyrogrammus (Hampson) comb. n. 
(PI. 2, fig. 8 ; Text-figs 74, 83) 

Hypiesta argyrogramma Hampson, 1919 : 538. 

Ocellus rather well developed, sometimes vestigial. Face rounded ; corneous point and 
ventral ridge both absent. Labial palpus 3 times as long as diameter of eye. Fore wing : 
length 7-0-9-5 mm ; ground-colour dull white, well dusted with grey-brown scales ; sub- 
terminal line shiny silvery, edged with yellow-brown at either side, broadly excurved, without 
subdorsal tooth ; discal dot very distinct ; median line traceable, brown ; terminal area 
darkened ; area between subterminal and median lines longitudinally streaked ; fringes 
distinctly shiny, unicolorous grey. Hind wing light grey or dirty white. 

<J genitalia (Text-fig. 74) : pars basalis absent ; left arm of juxta-plate unusually long, 
extending far beyond apex of valva, without teeth or hair ; right arm reduced ; bulbose basal 
projection of aedeagus broad, distinct ; ventral arm of aedeagus curved, very narrow, rather 
short, situated before middle of aedeagus ; a long row of thin, moderately sized cornuti present. 

$ genitalia (Text-fig. 83) : seventh sternum without heavily sclerotized plate ; ostial pouch 
rather well demarcated from ductus bursae which is reduced to constriction between ostial 
pouch and corpus bursae ; corpus bursae unusually large, considerably elongate, with caudal 
portion finely wrinkled longitudinally ; one lamellate signum with distinct median ridge 
present. 

Distribution. Kenya ; Tanzania. 

This species was the only one placed by Hampson in his genus Hy-piesta, a synonym 
of Chilo. 

C. argyrogrammus is very well characterized by the reduction of the right arm of 
the juxta-plate and the reduction of the ductus bursae. The extent of the wrinkled 



REVISION OF THE GENUS CHILO 159 

portion of the corpus bursae seems to be variable. The specimens from Tanzania 
have the ocelli atrophied, whereas individuals from Kenya have the ocelli rather 
well developed. It is important to note that variation in the size of ocelli is present 
also in other species of Chilo, e.g. demotellus. 

Type material examined. Holotype <$. [Kenya] ' Nairobi, Kikuyu, B. E. Africa, 
R. Crawshay. 1900-151. 24.v.i899 ; Hypiesta argyrogramma type <$ Hmpsn.', 
GS-I0942-BM, in BM(NH). 

Other material. KENYA : Taveta, i <, in Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, 
Paris ; Nairobi, Thika Road, i $ in author's coll. ; Voi, i $, in BM(NH) ; i $, in 
National Museum, Nairobi. TANZANIA : Banagi Hill, Musoma, i $, in BM(NH). 

Chilo argyropastus (Hampson) 
(PL i, fig. 8 ; pi. 4, figs 16, 17 ; Text-figs 79-82) 

Argyria argyropasta Hampson, 1919 : 449. 

Diatraea argentisparsalis Hampson, 1919 : 55 [syn. Martin, 1954 : 120]. 




FIGS 75-78. Chilo, $ genitalia. 75, costifusalis, Nyasaland, paralectotype. 76, costifusalis, 
Angola. 77, costifusalis, Tanzania. 78, mesoplagalis, Nigeria, paralectotype. 



i6o 



S. BLESZYNSKI 




81 



FIGS 79-81. Chilo, <$ genitalia. 79, argyropastus. 80, argyropastus , Angola. 81, argyropastus , 

paralectotype of argentisparsalis. 



REVISION OF THE GENUS CHILO 



161 



Diatraea argentisparsalis Hampson ; Janse, 1922 : 5. 

Chilotraea argyropasta (Hampson) Martin, 1954 : I2 . n g s 6 [6* genitalia], 16 [? genitalia]. 

Chilo argyropasta (Hampson) Bleszynski, 19626 : 117, fig. 9 [^ genitalia]. 

Ocellus present. Face rounded, slightly protruding forward beyond eye ; corneous point 
and ventral ridge both absent. Labial palpus 3 (<$) to 4(9) times as long as diameter of eye. 
Fore wing : length 8-o-u-o mm ; R\ confluent with Sc ; ground-colour cream, variably 
dusted with brown scales ; sometimes fore wing almost unicolorous brown : transverse lines 
traceable ; silvery scales present ; discal dot often absent ; terminal dots present ; fringes 
unicolorous shiny golden. Hind wing greyish. Form fuscata Janse, 1922 : 5. Fore wing 
densely irrorated with fuscous. From Natal. Form pallidifascia Janse, 1922 : 6. Fore 
wing with a long cream stripe. From Natal. 

cj genitalia (Text-figs 79-81) : pars basalis absent ; juxta-plate with two narrow, moderately 




FIGS 82-84. ? genitalia. 



82, argyropastus, Tanzania. 83, argyrogrammus, Kenya. 
84, sp., Kenya. 



162 S. BLESZYNSKI 

long arms, the right arm rather shorter than left arm ; each arm with subapical tooth ; saccus 
about as long as valva ; aedeagus tapering apicad ; bulbose basal projection absent ; ventral 
arm from base, very thin, as long as three quarters of aedeagus ; a row of very thin small 
cornuti present. 

$ genitalia (Text-fig. 82) : seventh sternum without heavily sclerotized plate ; ostial pouch 
heavily sclerotized, rectangular ; ductus bursae as broad as ostial pouch, distinctly, longi- 
tudinally wrinkled ; shorter than bursa copulatrix ; one rounded, scobinate signum present. 

Distribution. South Africa ; Rhodesia ; Kenya ; Tanzania ; Angola. 

This is a considerably variable species in both external appearance and the 
genitalia. One <$ from Dongo, Angola can be separated from the typical form by the 
longer labial palpi, which are about four times as long as diameter of eye, and by the 
longer ventral arm of the aedeagus, reaching almost to the apex of the aedeagus. 
Forms fuscata and pallidifascia can not be considered as geographical races. Speci- 
mens with densely irrorated with fuscous fore wings are found among the typical 
specimens ; a specimen with a distinct cream stripe on the fore wing is found in the 
material from Angola. Both forms were cited as subspecies of argyropastus by 
Bleszynski and Collins, 1962 : 239. 

One <$ syntype of Diatraea argyrolepia Hmps. [synonym of orichalcociliellus], 
from Malawi, is conspecific with the type of argyropastus. 

Type material examined, argyropastus. Holotype <. ' [South Africa] Cape 
97-185 ; Argyria argyropasta type ^ Hmpsn.', GS-2i88-BM, in BM(NH). 

argentisparsalis. Lectotype $ (selected by Martin, 1954 : 120) [Malawi] ' Nyasa- 
land, Mt. Mlanje, 28.11.1913. S. A. Neave. 1914-171 ; Diatraea argentisparsalis type 
<$ Hmpsn.', GS-I734-BM, in BM(NH) ; paralectotypes : Malawi, Mt. Mlanje, lo.iii. 
and 28.ii., 2 $ and I ?, GS- ^-5363-86 and GS-?-2i95-BM, in BM(NH) and in 
author's coll. ; Rhodesia, Mashonaland, i $, GS-7OIO-BM, in BM(NH). 

Other material. MALAWI : i ^ (syntype of Diatraea argyrolepia}, GS-J-735-BM, 
in BM(NH) ; TANZANIA : Nyassa Lake, i $, in author's coll. ; Mbinga, i g, in 
author's coll. ; RHODESIA : Salisbury, i $, in BM(NH) ; SOUTH AFRICA : Karkloof, 
2 o of f. fuscata, in BM(NH), 3 <$ of f. pallidifascia, in BM(NH) ; ANGOLA : Dongo, 
2 (, in Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, and in author's coll. 

Chilo orichalcociliellus (Strand) 
(PI. 2, fig. 5 ; Text-figs 85-87, 91, 100) 

Diatraea orichalcociliella Strand, 1911 : 91. 

Diatraea argyrolepia Hampson, 1919 : 54. Syn. n. 

Chilo argyrolepia (Hampson) Bleszynski, 19626 : 112, figs 14 [<J genitalia], 26 [$ genitalia]. 

Chilo orichalcociliella (Hampson) Bleszynski, 19626 : 112, fig. 16 [<J genitalia]. 

Ocellus moderately or fully developed. Face produced forward, conical, in many specimens 
with distinct corneous point, sometimes broadly rounded without corneous point, or with 
weak point ; ventral ridge always present. Labial palpus 3 (<$) to 4 ($) times as long as dia- 
meter of eye. Fore wing : length 8-5-15-5 mm, maximum width 3-6-6-5 mm ; R\ confluent 
with Sc ; ground-colour straw-yellow to ochreous yellow dusted with brown scales ; sub- 
terminal line formed by row of metallically shiny, golden specks ; median line distinct, con- 
colorous with subterminal line ; discal dot absent ; terminal dots present ; fringes metallically 
shiny, golden, unicolorous. Hind wing cream-yellow, in some instances darkened with grey. 



REVISION OF THE GENUS CHILO 



163 




87 



FIGS 85-87. Chilo orichalcociliellus, $ genitalia. 85, Madagascar. 86, Madagascar. 

87, Kenya. 



164 S. BLESZYNSKI 

cJ genitalia (Text-figs 85-87) : valva short and broad, with broadly rounded apex ; saccus 
normal ; juxta-plate with two long arms densely clothed with short bristles ; the arms are 
evenly long, or the right arm is longer than the left arm ; aedeagus thin with bulbose basal 
projection ; ventral arm absent ; subapical patch of small cornuti. 

$ genitalia (Text-figs 91, 100) : seventh sternum with large, almost triangular, heavily 
sclerotized plate, densely clothed with minute spikes and with two rather triangular patches 
also clothed with spikes, situated at either side of ostial pouch ; caudal part of plate with deep, 
window-shaped notch with membrane ; genital opening small ; ductus seminalis narrow ; 
ostial pouch lightly sclerotized ; one distinct, elongate, scobinate signum ; corpus bursae 
reaching almost base of abdomen. 

Distribution. Kenya ; Tanzania ; Democratic Republic of the Congo ; South 
Africa ; Madagascar. 

Specimens from Kenya and Tanzania were bred from maize. 

C. orichalcociliellus is easily distinguishable from allied aleniellus, thrysis, quirim- 
bellus and zoriandellus by proportionately short, scarcely tapering valva with broadly 
rounded apex, and by the presence of two additional, spined triangles on the seventh 
sternum in $. Moreover, Ihyrsis and quirimbellus (probably also zoriandellus) are 
characterized by a digitate, subapical process of the aedeagus, which is absent in 
orichalcociliellus and aleniellus. The corneous point of the face is almost always 
present in orichalcociliellus, but has not been observed either in aleniellus nor in 
quirimbellus or zoriandellus ; in thyrsis only one $ in the material examined has 
slight point. Externally, orichalcociliellus is practically indistinguishable in colour 
and pattern from the allied species. 

The range of this species overlaps in central Africa with that of aleniellus, thyrsis 
and quirimbellus. In Kenya are known both orichalcociliellus and thyrsis. 

Three of the syntypes of argyrolepia are referable to aleniellus ; they were taken 
in West Africa, where orichalcociliellus does not occur. 

Type material examined, orichalcociliellus. Holotype <. ' [Tanzania] Diatraea 
orichalcociliella m. Strand det ; Type ; Diatraea orichalcociliella n. sp. ($) ; Zoolog. 
Mus. Berlin. Fundort D. O. Afr. Diatraea orichalcociliella Strand. Sammler. 
Institut etmans. i Cap. (i ins. No. 29). Gef. am Juni 12-14/1910 ', GS-2672-BM, 
in Institut f. Spezielle Zoologie, Berlin. 

argyrolepia. LECTOTYPE $ (present designation). ' [Malawi] Nyasaland. 
Mt. Mlanje. 13.11.1914. S. A. Neave. 1914-171 ; Diatraea argyrolepia type $ 
Hmpsn.', slide I737-BM, in BM(NH) ; paralectotypes : i <$, i $, same data as 
lectotype, GS-$-70i6-BM, $ not dissected ; Kola Valley, Kenya, i $ ; Weenen, 
South Africa, i <j>, GS-7Oog-BM ; Natal, South Africa, i $, GS-7022-BM, all in 
BM(NH). 

Other material. KENYA : 4 ex. bred from Maize, in author's coll. ; Mombasa, 
i $>, in BM(NH) ; Kilin, i $, in BM(NH). TANZANIA : 4 ex. bred from maize, in 
author's coll. ; Lushoto, Usambara and Soni, 3 <^, 3 $, in Zoologische Sammlung 
d. Bayerischen Staates, Munich ; DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO : Lusambo, 
Stanleyville, Kamina, Stan a Coq, Kabinda, Kapanga, Kibombo, Uvira, Pania a 
Mutombo, Katako-Kombe, Dimbelange and Kasai, taken in ii, iv, v, vi, vii, viii, 
x, xi, and xii, 15 ex., in Musee Royale de 1'Afrique Centrale, Tervuren and in author's 



REVISION OF THE GENUS CHILO 



165 



coll. ; MADAGASCAR : Betroka, 4 J, 5 ?, in BM(NH) and in author's coll. ; 8 ex. 
in Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris. 

Chilo aleniellus (Strand) 
(Text-figs 88-90, 92, 93, 101, 102) 

Diatraea aleniella Strand, 1913 : 77. 

Chilo aleniella (Strand) Bleszynski, 19626 : 112, fig. 15 [<$ genitalia]. 

Externally very similar to orichalcociliellus, except face, which scarcely protrudes forward 
beyond eye, broadly rounded, without point. 




FIGS 88-90. Chilo aleniellus, $ genitalia. 88, Ghana, syntype of argyrolepia. 

Guinea, holotype. 90, Congo. 



89, Spanish 



1 66 



S. BLESZYNSKI 



o* genitalia (Text-figs 88-90) : valva narrower than in orichalcociliellus , distinctly tapering 
caudad ; arms of juxta-plate varying in length, but always longer than in orichalcociliellus ; 
aedeagus very similar to that in orichalcociliellus. 

$ genitalia (Text-figs 92, 93, 101, 102) : triangular spiny patches of seventh sternum absent ; 
membranous window of heavily sclerotized plate of seventh sternum much larger and deeper 
than in orichalcociliellus ; plate larger ; ostial pouch lightly sclerotized in specimens from 
west Africa, but asymmetrical, heavily sclerotized ring in specimens from central Africa. 

Distribution. Ghana ; Rio Murii ; Nigeria ; Fernando Po : Cameroon ; 
Democratic Republic of the Congo ; Uganda. 

The problem of this species is rather strange. The specimens from Congo have 
the female genitalia rather distinct from those from west Africa (Text-fig. 102) 




FIGS 91-93. Chilo, $ genitalia. 91, orichalcociliellus, Mozambique. 92, aleniellus, 
Ivory Coast. 93, aleniellus, Nigeria. 



REVISION OF THE GENUS CHILO 167 

in having a smaller " window " in the seventh sternum, much broader ductus 
seminalis and an asymmetrical, heavily sclerotized ring on the ostial pouch. The 
populations of aleniellus from the Democratic Republic of the Congo probably 
form a distinct subspecies, or perhaps they represent a separate species. Because of 
the variation of the female genitalia in aleniellus, sometimes it is not easy to separate 
some specimens of this species from those of thyrsis. The latter has the female 
genitalia very variable (perhaps several races are involved) as is shown in Text- 
figs 103, 104 and 1 06). However, the genital opening in thyrsis seems always to be 
larger, while being very small in aleniellus. 

The range of aleniellus overlaps in central Africa that of orichalcociliellus, thrysis 
and quirimbelhis. C. orichalcociliellus has not as yet been found in west Africa. 

Type material examined. Holotype <$. [Rio Muni] ' Alen ; Span. Guinea 
Benitogbt. 16-31. viii. 06. G. Tessmann S. G. ; Type ; Diatraea alenieUa 
Strand det. ; 2579 ; Fu.g.5/4.2 ', slide 267I-BM, in Institut f. Spezielle Zoologie, 
Berlin. 

Other material. GHANA : Bibianaha, i <$, 2 $ (syntypes of Diatraea argyrolepia] , 
in BM(NH) ; NIGERIA : south Nigeria, i $ (syntype of Diatraea argyrolepia), in 
BM(NH) ; Warri, 3 $, in BM(NH) ; IVORY COAST : Abidou, i $, in Zoologische 
Sammlung d. Bayerischen Staates, Munich ; FERNANDO Po : i -> in BM(NH) ; 
CAMEROON : Efulen, 380 ex., in Carnegie Museum, Pittsburgh, Penn., U.S.A. and in 
author's coll. ; SIERRA LEONE : 3 ex., in BM(NH) ; UGANDA : Ruwenzori Range, 
Semliki Forest, 2 <$, i $, in BM(NH) ; DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO : 
Upper Uelle District, Dungu, i <, in BM(NH) ; Elisabeth ville and Eala, 25 ex. 
taken in i-iv, vi, viii, and xi, in Canadian National Collection, Ottawa, Ont., Canada, 
Musee Royale de 1'Afrique Centrale, Tervuren, and in author's coll. 

Chilo thyrsis Bleszynski 

(PI. 4, fig. 8 ; Text-figs 94, 95, 99, 103-105) 

Chilo thyrsis Bleszynski, 1963 : 178, figs 59 [<$ genitalia], 60 [$ genitalia]. 

Externally almost indistinguishable from orichalcociliellus and allies. Face variable in 
shape, broadly rounded ; slightly or moderately produced, in most instances without corneous 
point, but vestigial in one $ from Malawi. 

$ genitalia (Text-figs 94, 95) : similar to those in aleniellus except for arms of juxta-plate and 
aedeagus ; apical part of right arm slightly bent ; left arm much shorter than right arm, 
with strong apical spine and several small setae ; aedeagus with subapical digitate process. 

$ genitalia (Text-figs 99, 103, 104, 105) : very variable ; genital opening large ; ' window ' 
in seventh sternum varying in size, large in typical specimens from Tanzania (Text-fig. 103), 
or reduced in specimens from central Africa and Kenya (Text-figs 104, 106) ; spikes of seventh 
sternum variably developed ; in most instances covering almost whole of plate ; the latter 
large, distinct ; caudal margin of ostial pouch distinctly strengthened in specimens from 
Tanzania, otherwise ostial pouch lightly sclerotized throughout ; caudal strengthening of 
ostial pouch in central African specimens larger ; Kenya specimens with heavily sclerotized, 
slightly asymmetrical ring on ostial pouch, varying in size ; the latter in all specimens bulbose ; 
one elongate, scobinate signum. 

Distribution. Tanzania ; Kenya ; Democratic Republic of the Congo ; Uganda ; 
Rhodesia. 



i68 



S. BLESZYNSKI 




FIGS 94-96. Chilo, $ genitalia. 94, thyrsis, Tanzania. 95, thyrsis ssp. 96, quirimbellus, 

Angola, paratype. 



REVISION OF THE GENUS CHILO 169 

The problem of identity of this species is difficult. Particularly it is extremely 
difficult to find any diagnostic characters which would distinguish ^ of thyrsis 
from (3$ of zoriandellus. From aleniellus and orichalcociliellus , this species is easy to 
separate. C. orichalcociliellus has almost always a distinct corneous point on face ; 
valva is much wider and less tapered than in thyrsis, and the arms of the juxta-plate 
greatly differ from those in thyrsis, as is shown in the figures ; in the female genitalia 
of orichalcociliellus the genital opening is smaller than in thyrsis ; the plate of 
seventh sternum in orichalcociliellus is much shorter and accompanied by two 
additional small, triangular side plates clothed with spikes. The aedeagus in 
aleniellus has no subapical digitate process ; the left arm of juxta-plate is much 
longer than in thyrsis and is not terminated in a strong spine ; moreover the setae 
of the left arm in aleniellus are stronger and more numerous. 

Very close to thyrsis are quirimbellus and zoriandellus. C. quirimbellus is well 
characterized by the straight apical part of the right arm of the juxta-plate ; more- 
over, the apical spine of the left arm of the juxta-plate is relatively much longer 
than in thyrsis and the central part of the juxta-plate is not so strongly developed, 
which is well seen in the slides made in dorso- ventral aspect. The $$ of quirimbellus 
are very easily separable from those of thyrsis as follows : the plate of the seventh 
sternum has the peripheries free of spikes, which are concentrated in the central and 
caudal parts of the plate ; the ostial pouch has two heavily sclerotized rings which 
are always symmetrical ; the ostial opening is rather smaller than in thyrsis ; 
the plate of the seventh sternum forms two weak ridges commencing at the genital 
opening and running slightly obliquely cephalad. 

The (3$ of zoriandellus are either unknown, or they are practically indistinguishable 
from those of thyrsis. Both species occur in Kibwezi, Kenya, from whence come the 
type-specimens of zoriandellus. The $$ of zoriandellus have the caudal part of the 
ostial pouch broadly heavily sclerotized, the ostial pouch is always asymmetrical, 
and does not have another heavily sclerotized ring, which occurs in the specimens 
of thyrsis from Kenya ; the area covered with spikes of the seventh sternum, is in 
zoriandellus much smaller than in thyrsis. 

C. thyrsis occurs in several local forms. It maybe that more than one species 
is involved, but probably only biological studies will clarify this obscure problem. 

Type material examined. Holotype g. Tanzania, ' Tanganyika-Terr., Matengo- 
Hochland, wsw.v. Songea, 2i.-3i.i/36 ; Linda, 13-1400 mm ', GS-2575-SB, in Natur- 
historisches Museum, Vienna. 

Paratypes. Tanzania, 56 ex. Matengo ; Nyassa Lake ; Mbamba Bai ; and 
Songea, GS-g847-Mus. Vind., GS-g848-Mus. Vind., GS-9849-Mus. Vind., 08-9850- 
Mus. Vind., GS-2572-SB, GS-2573-SB, 4168-86, 08-4169-86, 08-4178-86, 08-5344- 
SB, and 08-6285-86, in Naturhistorisches Museum, Vienna, and in author's coll. ; 
Tanzania, Morogoro, 25^.1925, I <, bred from maize, in BM(NH). 

Other material. KENYA : Mtito Andei, xii.igso, i ?, in BM(NH) ; Mombasa, 
i c, 4 ?, in 6M(NH) and in author's coll. ; Kibwezi, iv.i922, 6 ex., in 6M(NH) ; 
RHODESIA : Fort Jameson, 4 $, in BM(NH) ; UGANDA : Kampala, i 9, in 8M(NH) ; 
TANZANIA : Dar-es-Salam, i $, in 8M(NH) ; Nachingwea, 2 ?, in BM(NH) ; 



1 7 o 



S. BLESZYNSKI 



DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO, Dungu, Upper Uelle District, i <$, in BM(NH) ; 
Elisabethville ; Kasenyi ; West Kivu ; Kashusha, Ituri ; Nioka, i-iv and viii, 
9 ex., in Muse'e Royale de 1'Afrique Centrale, Tervuren and in author's coll. 

Chilo quirimbellus sp. n. 

(Text-figs 96, 98, 107) 

Externally very similar to thyrsis, but with fore wing more heavily irrorated with brown 
scales ; length of fore wing 8-0-12-0 mm. 




FIGS 97-99. Chilo, $ genitalia. 97, zorandiellus, Kenya. 98, quirimbellus, Angola, 
paratype. 99, thyrsis, Tanzania, paratype. 



REVISION OF THE GENUS CHILO 171 

<$ genitalia (Text-fig. 96) : differing from those in thyrsis in that apical part of right arm of 
juxta-plate straight, apical spine of left arm of juxta-plate much longer than in thyrsis, central 
part of juxta-plate much weaker. 

9 genitalia (Text-figs 98, 107) : similar to those in thyrsis, except for the ostial pouch which 
has symmetrical double, heavily sclerotized ring ; area of spikes of seventh sternum much 
smaller than in thyrsis, forming two weak ridges, commencing at genital opening and running 
obliquely cephalad ; ' window ' in seventh sternum reduced ; ductus seminalis thin ; genital 
opening large ; one elongate, scobinate signum. 

Distribution. Angola ; Democratic Republic of the Congo. 

Type material examined. Holotype $. Angola, ' Ouirimbo, 75 km. E. of P- 
Amboim, 300 m. 7-12 May 1934 ; (Dr K. Jordan) ', GS-76o7-BM, in BM(NH). 

Paratypes : Angola, Quirimbo, v.ig34 (Dr K. Jordan), GS-H252-BM, i <$, 12 $, 
in BM(NH) and in author's coll. ; Fazenda Congulu, Amboim, Angola, 700-800 m, 
i $, i2-22.iv.i934, GS-7596-BM, in BM(NH) ; N'Dalla Tando, north Angola, 
2700 ft, i <$, 2i.xii.i9o8 (Dr J. W. Ansorge), GS-76i4-BM, in BM(NH) ; N'Dalla 
Tando, north Angola, i $, 25.x. 1908 (Dr J. W. Ansorge), GS-7659-BM, in BM(NH) ; 
Canhoca, Angola, i <$, (Dr J. W. Ansorge), GS-7636-B6, in BM(NH) ; Benguella, 
Fort Quilinges, i ?, 12.1.1904 (Dr J. W. Ansorge), GS^S-BM, in BM(NH) ; 
Democratic Republic of the Congo, Lusambo, 2 ?, 2i.ii and 25. xi. 1949 (Dr M. 
Fontaine), GS-6i55-Sb and 6460-86, in Musee Royale de 1'Afrique Centrale, Ter- 
vuren and in author's coll. ; Democratic Republic of the Congo, Sankuru, Komi, 
i-ii.1930 (/. Ghesquiere), GS-6i68-SB, in Musee Royale de 1'Afrique Centrale, 
Tervuren. 

Chilo zoriandellus sp. n. 

(Text-figs 97, 1 06) 

Externally practically indistinguishable from thyrsis ; length of fore wing 9-5-12-0 mm. 

$ genitalia (Text-figs 97, 106) : genital opening large ; ostial pouch asymmetrical, with 
caudal part broadly heavily sclerotized and cephalic part bulbose, always lightly sclerotized. 
Area of spikes in plate of seventh sternum much smaller than in thyrsis. 

The problem of ^ of this species is not clear. Either the <$ genitalia of zoriandellus 
are indistinguishable from those in thyrsis, or the material from Kibwezi, Kenya 
does not contain the males of zoriandellus at all. 

Distribution. Kenya. 

The $ genitalia of thyrsis and of zoriandellus are very similar, but the caudal part 
of the ostial pouch in thyrsis has only very narrow heavily sclerotized ring (in 
Tanzania specimens), or moderately broad (in specimens from Kenya and central 
Africa), while about half of the ostial pouch is heavily sclerotized in zoriandellus. 
However, the small area of spikes of the seventh sternum is diagnostic for zoriandellus. 
For more details see under thyrsis. 

Type material examined. Holotype $. ' Kenya, Kibwezi, B. E. A. April 1922 
(W. Feather] ', GS-H25O-BM, in BM(NH). 

Paratypes : Kenya, Kibwezi, 10 , iv.i922 and xii.igiS (W. Feather), GS-672I- 
BM, GS-7655-BM, GS-H248-BM, GS-H249-BM, GS-H253-BM, GS-H254-BM, 
GS-H255-BM, GS-5348-BM and GS-6283-BM, in BM(NH) and in author's coll. 



172 S. BLESZYNSKI 

Chilo demotellus Walker 
(PI. 4, fig. i ; Text-figs 108, no) 

Chilo demotellus Walker, 1866 : 1749. 

Chilo demotellus Walker ; Hampson, i8g6a : 956 [in part]. 
Diatraea idalis Fernald, 1896 : 76, pi. 6, fig. 12 [adult]. Syn. n. 
Diatraea idalis Fernald ; Fernald, in Dyar, 1903 : 412. 
Diatraea idalis Fernald ; Forbes, 1923 : 591. 





100 



106 



101 





107 



102 





I 



.vi 



FIGS 100-107. Chilo, seventh segments and caudal parts of $ genitalia. 100, orichal- 
cociliellus, Katanga. 101, aleniellus, Kameroon. 102, aleniellus, ? ssp., Katanga. 
103, thyrsis, Tanzania, paratype. 104, thyrsis ? ssp., Democratic Republic of the Congo, 
Kivu. 105, thyrsis ? ssp. Kenya, Kibwezi. 106, zoriandellus, Kenya, Mombasa. 107, 
quirimbellus , Democratic Republic of the Congo, Lusambo, paratype. 



REVISION OF THE GENUS CHILD 173 

Diatraenopsis idalis (Fernald) Dyar & Heinrich, 1927 : 40, fig. 78 [^ genitalia]. 

Chilo fernaldalis Dyar & Heinrich, 1927 : 40, fig. 31 [<$ genitalia]. Syn. n. 

Diatraenopsis idalis (Fernald) ; McDunnough, 1939 : 25. 

Chilo fernaldalis Dyar & Heinrich ; McDunnough, 1939 : 25. 

Chilo fernaldalis Dyar & Heinrich ; Bleszynski & Collins, 1962 : 240. 

Diatraea idalis Fernald ; Bleszynski & Collins, 1962 : 292. 

Chilo demotellus Walker ; Bleszynski, 1965 : 20, pi3, pi. 43, fig. 64 D [<$ genitalia]. 

Ocellus light, small, or vestigial. Face strongly produced forward, conical with sharp 
point ; ventral ridge absent. Labial palpus 2-5 () to 3-5 ($) times as long as diameter of eye. 
Fore wing : length 10-5-1 7-0 mm ; R i free ; sexual dimorphism similar to that in phragmitellus ; 
$ with apex of fore wing distinctly more pointed and termen more oblique than in $ ; ground- 
colour dull grey, beige or brown, 9? lighter than $<$ ; <$ with ill-defined subterminal and median 
lines formed by yellowish specks ; $ fore wing unicolorous ; terminal dots present in both 
sexes ; metallic scales absent ; fringes slightly glossy, concolorous with ground-colour. Hind 
wing light brown in $, creamy white in $. 

<$ genitalia (Text-fig. 108) : pars basalis a distinct lobe ; juxta-plate with arms equally 
long, dilated posteriorly, each with subapical tooth ; aedeagus with bulbose basal projection 
and moderately long, hairy ventral arm ; a heavily sclerotized, posterior rod ending in a distinct 
spine. 

$ genitalia (Text-fig, no) : ostial pouch moderately sclerotized, rather poorly demarcated 
from ductus bursae ; the latter twisted, lightly sclerotized, with swelling ; signum absent. 

Distribution. U.S.A. : New Jersey, New York, Florida, Georgia. 

The identity of this species has hitherto been confused. The Walker description 
was based on a single ^ with no locality label ; moreover the type has the abdomen 
missing. However, the collection of the British Museum (N.H.) contains three 
additional <$, two of which have no locality labels and one bears a label : 
' Japan '. Hampson, 1896^ : 956, gave Japan as the distribution of demo- 
tellus, and his opinion was certainly based on the <$ with label ' Japan '. A 
comparison of the Japanese <$ with the two other $ (with no locality labels) was 
rather difficult as the abdomen of the Japanese <$ was partly destroyed by mildew 
and Dermestidae. However, a careful comparison of the structure of the face and 
other external characters proved that it belongs to christophi, and is specifically 
perfectly distinct from demotellus type and two $ with no locality labels. It is 
very likely that the type of demotellus and two other $ come from one locality as 
having similar labels and way of mounting. Finally my recent study of some <$<$ 
of idalis from the collection of the American Museum of Natural History has thrown 
some more light on this problem. I have stated without doubt that some fresh <& 
of idalis have the transverse lines in the fore wing identical with those in the type of 
demotellus. It is of much importance to note that such yellow lines on the grey 
background do not appear in any other Chilo. A comparison of the structure of the 
face and the genitalia of idalis and the two demotellus proved identity of both species. 
I am much obliged to Dr A. B. Klots with whom I have had a discussion on the 
problem of the synonymy of idalis. 

C. fernaldalis was described from three <$ syntypes of idalis. Dyar & Heinrich 
in the description of fernaldalis stated that ocelli are absent in idalis, but they are 
present in fernaldalis. In fact, the type and the paratypes of fernaldalis have small 
ocelli. The female of idalis has vestigial ocelli and this was probably overlooked 
by Dyar & Heinrich. According to opinion of Dr. A. B. Klots and on the evidence 



174 S. BLESZYNSKI 

of the variation of other Chilo, fernaldalis is conspecific with idalis. Consequently I 
consider both idalis and fernaldalis as junior synonyms of demotellus. 

This species externally resembles somewhat phragmitellus , but is very different 
in the genitalia. In addition, phragmitellus has a distinct ventral ridge of the face, 
which is absent in demotellus. The ranges of the two species do not overlap. 

Type material examined, demotellus. Holotype <. U.S.A. ' 252 ; Type ', 
abdomen missing, in BM(NH). 

idalis. Lectotype $ (selected by Dyar & Heinrich, 1927 : 40). ' New Jersey ; 
Diatraea idalis Fern, type ; Fernald collection ', GS-28. Nov. 25 Me No. 2, in 
United States National Museum, Washington, D.C., U.S.A. 

fernaldalis. Holotype <$. ' [Georgia] Ga (A. Oemler collector) ; Diatraea idalis 
Fern. $ ; Type No. 29437 U.S.N.M. ', GS-2I Oct. 1925 C.H. no. 2, in United States 
National Museum, Washington ,D.C. 

Paratypes (fernaldalis} : 2 <$, Georgia, in United States National Museum, 
Washington, D.C. 

Other material. U.S.A., New York : Long Island, i <, lo.vii, in American 
Museum of Natural History, New York, U.S.A. ; Georgia : Brunswick, Glenn 
County, i 9, 29. v., in American Museum of Natural History, New York ; Florida : 
Pensacole, i $, in American Museum of Natural History, New York ; no locality, 
probably U.S.A., 2 <$, in BM(NH). 

Chilo plejadellus Zincken 
(PI. 5, fig. 6 ; Text-figs 109, in) 

Chilo plejadellus Zincken, 1821 : 251. 

Jartheza sabulifera Walker, 1863 : 185 [syn. Fernald, 1896 : 78]. 
Crambus plejadellus (Zincken) Zeller, 1863 : 26. 
Diphryx prolatella Grote, 1882 : 273 [syn. Fernald, 1896 : 78]. 
Chilo oryzeellus Riley, 1882 : 135, pi. 7, fig. i [syn. Fernald, 1896 : 78]. 

Chilo plejadellus Zincken ; Fernald, 1896 : 78, pi. 5, figs 10, n [adults], text-fig. 3 [adult, 
larva, pupa]. 

Ocellus well developed. Face strongly protruding forward beyond eye, conical, with distinct 
point ; ventral ridge absent. Labial palpus 4 times as long as diameter of eye. Fore wing : 
length 9-0-15-0 mm ; R\ free ; ground-colour dull yellow, variably dusted with brown scales ; 
median line with some lustrous golden brown scales ; subterminal line formed by series of 
lustrous metallic, golden scales ; terminal dots distinct ; fringes strongly shiny golden, in some 
specimens darker than ground-colour. Hind wing white. 

cJ genitalia (Text-fig. 109) : valva greatly elongate with apex rounded ; pars basalis absent ; 
arms of juxta-plate equally long, each with subapical tooth ; aedeagus with long, hairy, apically 
pointed, ventral arm ; bulbose basal process small ; cornuti absent. 

$ genitalia (Text-fig, in) : ostial pouch well demarcated from ductus bursae, heavily sclero- 
tized, about twice as broad as ductus bursae ; the latter with heavily sclerotized elongate 
patch inside ; one very distinct, narrow, elongate signum (almost as long as half length of 
corpus bursae). 

Riley (1882) gave an account of the biology of this species. The larva was found 
to be a stem-borer of rice. The adults are on the wing in August until the beginning 
of September. 



REVISION OF THE GENUS CHILO 



175 



Distribution. CANADA : Ontario and Quebec ; U.S.A.: Pennsylvania, Georgia, 
Louisiana and Wisconsin. 

The type of plejadellus, Savannah, Georgia, U.S.A. ; is lost. 

Type material examined, sabulifera. Holotype <$. ' 39.1.19.1388 ; sabulifera 
m.', GS-703I-BM, in BM(NH). 

prolatella. Holotype $. ' DiphryxprolatellaG. ; [Wisconsin] Wis ; L ', abdomen 
missing, in BM(NH). 




109 



FIGS 108-109. Chilo, genitalia. 108, demotellus, U.S.A., Georgia, paralectotype of 
idalis (holotype of fernaldalis) . 109, plejadellus, Canada, Quebec. 



1 7 6 



S. BLESZYNSKI 



oryzeellus. Holotype <^. ' Borer in stem of rice. Aug. 25-81 ; Chilo oryzeellus 
Riley type ; Type No. 3740 U.S.N.M.', in United States National Museum, Washing- 
ton, B.C. 

Other material. CANADA : Trenton, Ontario, 2 <$, i $, in Canadian National 
Collection, Ottawa, Ont., Canada ; Quebec, i $, in author's coll. ; U.S.A.: i $, i $, 
in BM(NH). 

Chilo erianthalis Capps 

(Text-figs 112, 113) 
Chilo erianthalis Capps, 1963 : 31, figs i [adult], 2 [$ genitalia], 3, 3a [<$ genitalia]. 




7/2 



FIGS 110-112. Chilo, $ genitalia. no, demotellus, U.S.A., New Jersey, lectotype of 
idalis. in, plejadellus, Canada, Ontario. 112, erianthalis, U.S.A., Louisiana, paratype. 



REVISION OF THE GENUS CHILD 



177 



Ocellus fully developed. Face strongly protruding forward beyond eye, conical with dis- 
tinct corneous point ; ventral ridge vestigial. Labial palpus about 3-5 times as long as diameter 
of eye. Fore wing : length 1 1-0-13-0 mm ; R free ; ground-colour dull brown with very 
slight violet reddish hue, heavily dusted with fuscous ; veins and intervenular spaces edges 
with light beige, giving the wing a lined appearance ; subterminal line very close to termen, 
slightly dentate in costal portion, consisting of series of silvery, metallically shiny scales ; 
median line formed by some patches of metallically cupreous scales ; terminal dots distinct ; 
fringes shiny. Hind wing grey-beige. 

(J genitalia (Text-fig. 113) : pars basalis vestigial ; arms of juxta-plate somewhat longer 
and thinner than in plejadellus ; aedeagus with distinct, bulbose, basal projection ; ventral 
projection vestigial, ending well before middle of aedeagus ; one large cornutus. 







FIGS 113-114. Chilo, {J genitalia. 113, erianthalis, U.S.A., Florida, 114, chiriquitensis , 

Mexico, Yucatan. 



i?8 S. BLESZYNSKI 

$ genitalia (Text-fig. 112) : seventh sternum without heavily sclerotized plate ; ostial pouch 
moderately sclerotized ; ductus bursae shorter than corpus bursae, constricted near middle ; 
signum slightly scobinate situated near mouth of corpus bursae. 

Larva feeds on Erianthus. 

Distribution. U.S.A. : Louisiana and Florida. 

Type material examined. Holotype <$. ' [Louisiana] Host Erianthus, loc. Port 
Blarre (La.), Jan. i, 61 <$, R. A. Agarwal ; Type No. 66663 U.S.N.M.', 08-15144- 
H. W. Capps. 

Paratypes. 4 $, same locality, one GS-I5I45-H. W. Capps ; all in United States 
National Museum, Washington, D.C., U.S.A. 

Other material. U.S.A. : Myrtle Grove, Florida, i $, 5.v., in American Museum of 
Natural History, New York, U.S.A. ; Oneco, Manate County, Florida, 4 $, iii, in 
coll. Prof. J. G. Franclemont, Ithaca, N.Y., U.S.A. and in author's coll. 

Chilo chiriquitensis (Zeller) 
(PI. 2, fig. i ; Text-figs 114-118) 

Eromene chiriquitensis Zeller, 1877 : 70, pi. i, fig. 25. 

Silveria adelphilia Dyar, 1925 : n [syn. Dyar & Heinrich, 1927 : 32]. 

Silveria hexhex Dyar, 1925 : u [syn. Bleszynski, 1967 : 92]. 

Silveria chiriquitensis (Zeller) Dyar & Heinrich, 1927 : 31, figs 43 [$ genitalia], 44 [<J genitalia]. 

Silveria hexhex Dyar ; Dyar & Heinrich, 1927 : 31, fig. 45 [$ genitalia]. 

Chilo chiriquitensis (Zeller) Bleszynski, 19626 : 117, pi. 13, fig. 5 [adult]. 

Chilo chiriquitensis (Zeller) ; Bleszynski, 1967 : 92, 100. 

Ocellus well developed. Labial palpus 2-5 (<J) to 3-0 ($) times as long as diameter of eye. 
Face broadly rounded ; corneous point and ventral ridge both absent. Fore wing : length 
6-5-8-5 mm ; R confluent with Sc ; ground-colour dull white, dusted with dark brown scales ; 
discal dot absent ; median line very distinct, almost perpendicular to costa, uniform from 
costa to termen, metallically shiny, silvery, edged with an equally distinct, but broader, ochreous 
line distally ; subterminal line concolorous with medial line, also very distinct, broadly ex- 
curved, close to termen, edged at either side with ochreous ; terminal dots very distinct ; 
fringes shiny, with golden basal stripe. Hind wing whitish. 

cJ genitalia (Text-fig. 114) : pars basalis very distinct, trapezoidal ; juxta-plate with two 
strongly curved, very long, thin, equally long arms, each of these armed with apical strengthen- 
ing terminated by a little tooth ; aedeagus strongly angulate, much longer than valva plus 
saccus, thin ; cornuti absent ; ventral arm and basal projection absent. 

$ genitalia (Text-figs 115-118) : ductus bursae proportionately long and broad ; signum 
absent ; genitalia variable. 

Distribution. Mexico, Colima, Yucatan, Sinaloa ; Panama ; Guatemala. 

Dyar and Heinrich (1927 : 32) stated that hexhex differs from chiriquitensis in 
the differently shaped ductus bursae and the black irrorations along the veins of the 
fore wing, but those characters have no diagnostic value as they are subject to 
individual variation (confirmed by Dr A. B. Klots, in litt.). 

Type material examined, chiriquitensis. Holotype $. ' Panama Eromene 
chiriquitensis Z. ; 897 ; Chiriqui Ribbe ; Origin. ; Type ', GS-598-SB, in Institut 
f. Spezielle Zoologie, Berlin. 



REVISION OF THE GENUS CHILO 



179 



adelphilia. Holotype <$. ' Mexico, Colima Mex. ; July 1923 ; R. Miiller collec- 
tor ; 14570 ; Type No. 27508 U.S.N.M. ; <$ genitalia slide 15. Jan. 1926 Me No. 3 ; 
Silveria adelphilia Dyar ', in United States National Museum, Washington, D.C., 
U.S.A. 

hexhex. LECTOTYPE (present designation) $. ' Mexico, Colima Mex. ; July 
1293 ; R. Miiller collector ; Type No. 27506 U.S.N.M. ; $ genitalia slide 15. 
Jan. 1926 ME No. 7 ; Silveria hexhex Dyar ' ; paralectotype : Colima, Mexico, 
i $ ; both in United States National Museum, Washington, D.C., U.S.A. 

Other material. MEXICO : Sinaloa, Venadio, 7 $, in United States National 
Museum, Washington, D.C., U.S.A. ; Yucatan, Chichen Itza, I $, i8.vi.i954, in 
coll. A. B. Klots, New York, U.S.A. ; i <j>, in author's coll. ; GUATEMALA : i $, 
in author's coll. 




FIGS 115-118. Chilo chiriquitensis, genitalia. 115, Mexico, Colima, paratype of 
hexhex, 116, Mexico, Venadio. 117, Mexico, Campecha. 118, Mexico, Yucatan. 



:8o 



S. BLESZYNSKI 







FIGS 119120. Chilo sacchariphagus, $ genitalia. 119, sacchariphagus sacchariphagus, 
Madagascar. 120, sacchariphagus sacchariphagus, Philippines, Luzon. 



REVISION OF THE GENUS CHILO 

Chilo sacchariphagus sacchariphagus (Bojer) 
(Text-figs 119-121, 125, 126) 

Proceras sacchariphagus Bojer, 1856. [Pagination un-numbered.] 

Borer saccharellus Guenee, 1862. [Pagination un-numbered.] [Syn. Tarns, 1942 : 67.] 



181 




122 



FIGS 121-122. Chilo sacchariphagus, <$ genitalia. 121, sacchariphagus sacchariphagus, 
Java, lectotype of striatalis. 122, sacchariphagus indicus, India. 



182 S. BLESZYNSKI 

Chilo mauriciellus Walker, 1863 : 141. [syn. Tams, 1942 : 67]. 

Chilo venosatus Walker, 1863 : 144. Syn. n. 

Diatraea striatalis Snellen, 1890 : 98, pi. 2, figs 1-4. [syn. Hampson, 18966 : 953]. 

Diatraea striatalis Snellen ; Snellen, 1891 : 349, pi. 19, figs 1-4. 

Diatraea mauriciella (Walker) Hampson, 18966 : 953. 

Diatraea venosata (Walker) Hampson, 18966 : 954. 

Diatraea mauriciella (Walker) ; Vinson, 1941 : 148. 

Proceras sacchariphagus Bojer ; Tams, 1942 : 67. 

Diatraea mauriciella (Walker) ; Vinson, 1942 : 39. 

Proceras sacchariphagus Bojer ; Kapur, 1950 : 412, pi. 6, figs 2, 4, 9 [_<$ genitalia], 

n [$ genitalia]. 
Proceras venosatus (Bojer) Kapur, 1950 : 413 [in part], pi. 6, figs i, 5, 8 [<J genitalia], [nee figs 6 

and 12, which are referable to sacchariphagus stramineellus]. 

Proceras sacchariphagus Bojer ; Kalshoven, 1950 : 411, figs 232 [larva], 234 [pupa]. 
Proceras venosatus Bojer ; Bleszynski, 19620 : 9 [in part] [nee fig. of $ genitalia, which is 

referable to sacchariphagus stramineellus]. 
Chilo sacchariphagus (Bojer) Bleszynski, 1966 : 494. 
Chilo sacchariphagus (Bojer) ; Bleszynski, 1969 : 18, figs 7 [<$ genitalia], 40 [$ genitalia], 

70 c [imago], 70 d [larva]. 

Ocellus reduced. Face rounded, not protruding forward beyond eye ; corneous point and 
ventral ridge both absent. Labial palpus 3 ($) to 4 ($) times as long as diameter of eye. Fore 
wing : J?i confluent with Sc ; length 12-0-18-0 mm, maximum width 4-5-6-0 mm ; apex 
acute ; ground-colour dull light brown ; veins and interneural spaces outlined with whitish 
beige ; discal dot distinct, often double ; terminal dots present ; transverse lines absent ; 
fringes slightly glossy, concolorous or lighter than the ground-colour. Hind wing dirty white 
to light brown in , silky whitish in $. 

$ genitalia (Text-figs 119-121) : valva slightly tapering to a rounded apex, which is very 
slightly concave ; pars basalis absent ; juxta-plate short, broad, deeply notched, arms tapered 
without teeth ; saccus V-shaped ; aedeagus variable in width ; ventral arm and basal process 
both absent ; row of strong tapering cornuti present and subapical large patch of scobinations 
absent. 

9 genitalia (Text-figs 125, 126) : Ostial pouch rather well demarcated from ductus bursae, 
heavily sclerotized, broad ; ductus bursae with heavily sclerotized longitudinal ribs ; corpus 
bursae greatly elongate, longer than ductus bursae, with large area of scobinations. 

This species is a major pest of sugar-cane in Indonesia, Mauritius, India (ssp. 
indicus), Formosa and China (ssp. stramineellus). Most data on the early stages 
and biology are referable to ssp. indicus and ssp. stramineellus. 

Distribution. Indonesia, Borneo, Java, Bali, Sumatra, Celebes ; Singapore ; 
Malaya ; Philippines ; Madagascar ; Mauritius ; Reunion. The populations in 
Madagascar, Reunion and Mauritius have probably been introduced by man. 

The identity of this species has for a long time been uncertain as several names 
are involved and the variation in the genitalia of both sexes is considerable. Until 
1942 the species was known as Diatraea mauriciella (Walk.). Hampson (18966 : 953) 
considered it distinct from Diatraea striatalis Snell., which he cited as a synonym of 
the venosatus Walk. Vinson, in 1942, synonymized striatalis with mauriciella, 
and he regarded venosatus from India as a distinct species. In 1942, Tams revived 
the name Proceras sacchariphagus Bojer for the sugar-cane borer from Mauritius. 
Fletcher & Ghosh (1921), Fletcher (1928) and Gupta (1940), Isaac & Rao (1941) and 
Isaac & Venkatraman (1941) used the name Diatraea venosata for the Indian popula- 
tion, which has subsequently been described by Kapur (1950) as Proceras indicus. 



REVISION OF THE GENUS CHILD 183 

Kalshoven (1950) mentioned correctly this species from Indonesia as Proceras 
sacchariphagus. The present author (19620; : 9) sank Argyria stramineella Car. 
under Proceras venosatus (Walk.), but this was incorrect, as straminedlus is a 
distinct subspecies of sacchariphagus. In 1965, the present author recorded 
Proceras venosatum from China but the diagnosis and figures of the genitalia are of 
ssp. stramineellus. In 1966, I transferred sacchariphagus, venosatus and indicus to 
Chilo and sank Proceras under Chilo. After a study of the genitalia of a series of 
specimens from China, Formosa, Philippines, Indonesia, Malaya, Madagascar, India, 
Reunion and Mauritius I concluded that : 

All populations belong either to one widely spread species, or to several phylo- 
genetically very young species. The differences in the genitalia of the populations 
of sacchariphagus, stramineellus and indicus are rather slight, and considerable 
individual variation is present. The populations from China and Formosa agree in 
genitalia (except for slightly differently shaped saccus in the <$ genitalia) and differ 
from those from Indonesia and the Philippines. In the <$ genitalia of the specimens 
from China and Formosa the aedeagus is wider and has an apical patch of small 
cornuti and scobinations ; moreover the saccus in the specimens from China is 
truncate ; in the $ genitalia the ductus bursae consists a heavily sclerotized, elon- 
gate patch. The aedeagus in the specimens from Indonesia and Philippines is 
thinner and lacks the apical scobinations ; in the $ genitalia the ductus bursae 
lacks the sclerite, but shows distinct longitudinal ribbing absent in the specimens 
from China and Formosa. The genitalia of the holotype of Diatraea striatalis 
(Java) agree with those in the specimens from Sumatra and other localities in 
Indonesia (except aedeagus which is slightly broader), and I consider striatalis as 
conspecific with venosatus, the holotype of which (from Borneo, Sarawak) has no 
abdomen. The opinion that venosatus occurs in China has no logical basis. The 
synonymy of sacchariphagus, mauriciella and striatalis seems to be correct, and 
accordingly, venosatus is here sunk under sacchariphagus. The species was most 
probably introduced to Madagascar, Mauritius and Reunion. It is of interest to 
note that the genitalic differences between populations from Madagascar, Reunion, 
Mauritius and from Indonesia are weaker, than between Indonesian specimens 
and those from China, Formosa, or from India. The specimens from the Philippines 
are slightly different in the genitalia of both sexes from the Indonesian specimens, 
but I consider them all as representatives of sacchariphagus sacchariphagus. It is 
also important to note that the ranges of the three forms do not overlap, indicating 
that they probably belong to one species. 

It has also to be noted that very slight differences between the female genitalia 
in the specimens from Madagascar and from Mauritius were found. Then, the 
ductus bursae in the $$ from the Philippines is slightly more constricted than in the 
$$ from Indonesia and Madagascar, Mauritius and Reunion. 

The isolation of the individual populations has resulted in slight genitalic differ- 
ences, while the external appearance of the moths was unchanged. Under such 
circumstances, in spite of existing constant genitalic differences, the distinctness of 
stramineellus and indicus might seem rather doubtful. In indicus the aedeagus is 
broader than in sacchariphagus, is terminated in a heavily sclerotized and minutely 



184 



S. BLESZYNSKI 



spined oval, elongate projection, and the cornuti are arranged in two distinct 
elongate patches. C. sacchariphagus sacchariphagus lacks the terminal projection 
and the cornuti are arranged in one patch. In C. sacchariphagus stramineellus the 
aedeagus is also thick, but the terminal projection is weaker. So far I have not 
found any constant differences between the female genitalia of sacchariphagus 
sacchariphagus and sacchariphagiis indicus, except the ductus bursae seems to be 





123 





FIGS 123-124. Chilo sacchariphagus $ genitalia. 123, sacchariphagus indicus, India. 
124, sacchariphagus stramineellus , China. 



REVISION OF THE GENUS CHILD 



185 



shorter in sacchariphagus indicus and the corpus bursae more heavily scobinate ; 
however, in view of the variation of the female genitalia of sacchariphagus, and the 
small number of examined $$ of sacchariphagus indicus, those differences can not 
be considered as diagnostic. It is of much importance to note that from some 
localities especially in Indonesia, only single specimens are available for study 
which sometimes bring more confusion than clarification to the matter. 

Type material examined, sacchariphagus sacchariphagus. NEOTYPE^ (present 
designation). (Detailed text of the labels received from P. L. Viette, Paris) : ' Diatraea 
striatalis Snell. lie Maurice. De la canne a sucre ; coll. E. L. Ragonot, Museum 




125 



FIGS 125-127. Chilo sacchariphagus $ genitalia. 125, sacchariphagus sacchariphagus, 
West Celebes. 126, sacchariphagus sacchariphagus, Philippines, Luzon. 127, sacchari- 
phagus indicus, India. 



186 S. BLESZYNSKI 

Paris ; 08-4904 <$ Chilo sacchariphagus Boj. det. Bleszynski '65 ', in Museum 
National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris. 

striatalis. Lectotype^ (selected by Kapur, 1950 : 413). [Indonesia] ' JavaTegal 
$ Lucay ; Diatraea striatalis Snellen Lectotype made by : A. P. Kapur 1949 ', 
GS-45I4-SB, in Museum van Natuurlijke Historie, Leiden. 

Other material. MALAYA : Perak, i <, in BM(NH) ; Singapore, i^, in BM(NH) ; 
INDONESIA : West Sumatra, i 3, in BM(NH) ; Celebes, i <J, in author's coll. ; 
PHILIPPINES : Luzon, Benguet and Passay Rizal, 6 ex., v and xii, in BM(NH) 
and in author's coll. ; Luzon, Los Banos, 2 <, in United States National Museum, 
Washington, B.C., U.S.A. ; MAURITIUS : 2 <J, in BM(NH) 4 ex. in author's coll. ; 
REUNION : i <$, in Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris ; MADAGASCAR : 
6 ex., in Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, and in author's coll. 

Chilo sacchariphagus stramineellus (Caradja) stat. n., nom. rev. 

(PI. 4, fig. 5 ; Text-figs 124, 128-130) 

Argyria stramineella Caradja, 1926 : 168. 

Diatraea venosata (Walker) ; Shibuya, 19286 : 51, pi. 4, fig. 28. 

Proceras venosatus (Walker) ; Kapur, 1950 : 413 [in part], pi. 6, figs 6, 10 [<$ genitalia], ? fig. 12 

[(J genitalia]. 

Proceras venosatus (Walker) ; Bleszynski, 1 962*3 : 9 [in part], pi. 6, fig. 24 [<$ genitalia]. 
Proceras venosatum (Walker) ; Bleszynski, 1965 : 123 [in part], pi. 5, fig. 65 [adult], pi. 43, 

fig- 6 5 [6* genitalia], pi. 94, fig. 65 [? genitalia]. 
Chilo venosatus Walker ; Bleszynski, 1969 : 16 [in part], figs 5 [<$ genitalia], 38 [9 genitalia]. 

Externally strikingly similar to sacchariphagus sacchariphagus. 

cJ genitalia (Text-figs 124) : aedeagus broader than in typical subspecies, with apical scobina- 
tions which are absent in sacchariphagus sacchariphagus. In $$ from China the saccus is 
truncate, but in those from Formosa it is V-shaped, similar to typical subspecies. One row of 
cornuti. 

$ genitalia (Text-figs 128-130) : ductus bursae decidedly twisted with an elongate, distinct 
sclerite lacking in typical subspecies ; ostial pouch always very broad. 

Takano (1934, 1937, 1940) and Takahashi (1938) gave brief accounts of the 
biology of this subspecies in Formosa. 

Distribution. China: Shantung, Kiangsu, Fokien, Kwangtung ; Formosa. 
Type material examined. Holotype $. ' [China] Tsingtau ', GS-i6g2-SB, in 
Muzeul Grigorie Antipa, Bucharest. 

Other material. CHINA : Shantung, Tsinan, i $, in BM(NH) ; I-Shang, i $, 
in BM(NH) ; Shantung, Taishan, 1550 m, 8 ex., in Museum A. Koenig, Bonn and 
in author's coll. ; Pekin, i $, in author's coll. ; FORMOSA : 8 ex., in BM(NH) and 
in author's coll. 

Chilo sacchariphagus indicus (Kapur) stat. n. 
(Text-figs 122, 123, 127) 

Diatraea venosata (Walker) ; Fletcher & Ghosh, 1920 : 388. 

Diatraea venosata (Walker) ; Gupta, 1940 : 803, fig. 4 [larva], pi. 36, figs 3 a, b [wing-neuration], 
pi. 37, figs 5, 6 [<? genitalia]. 



REVISION OF THE GENUS CHILO 



187 



Diatraea venosata (Walker) ; Isaac & Rao, 1941 : 800, pis 42, 43, 45 [larva]. 

Diatraea venosata (Walker) ; Isaac & Venkatraman, 1941 : 808, pi. 46, fig. 5, pi. 48, figs 5-8 

[pupa]. 

Proceras indicus Kapur, 1950 : 414, pi. 6, figs 3, 7 [$ genitalia], 13 [? genitalia]. 
Chilo indicus (Kapur) Bleszynski, 1966 : 493. 
Chilo indicus (Kapur) ; Bleszynski, 1969 : 6, figs 6 [ genitalia], 39 [$ genitalia]. 

Externally strikingly similar to sacchariphagus sacchariphagus. 

genitalia (Text-figs 122, 123) : aedeagus broader than in sacchariphagus sacchariphagus 
and terminated in oval, elongate, heavily sclerotized projection ; cornuti arranged in two 
distinct patches. 

9 genitalia (Text-fig. 127) : similar to those in sacchariphagus sacchariphagus. 

This subspecies is reported also to be a pest of sugar-cane. 
Distribution. India : Assam, Bihar and Madras. 





130 



FIGS 128-130. Chilo sacchariphagus stramineellus ? genitalia. 128, China, holotype. 

129, China. 130. China. 




i88 S. BLESZYNSKI 

According to Kapur, the 8 <^$ paratypes are in the collection of the Indian Museum, 
Calcutta. For full details on the taxonomy of this subspecies see comments under 
sacchariphagus sacchariphagus. 

Type material examined. Holotype <. ' India Cage No. 4 on Sugar Cane. 
Pusa Bihar 15^.14. R. S. ', GS-5g8-BM, in BM(NH). 

Paratypes, India, 6 <$$, in BM(NH). 

Other material. INDIA : i <, in Canadian National Collection, Ottawa, Ont., 
Canada. 



REFERENCES 

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1962^. Studies on the Crambidae (Lepidoptera). Part xxxvii. Changes in the nomen- 
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BLESZYNSKI, S. & COLLINS, R. J. 1962. A short catalogue of the World species of the family 

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17 : 31-32, 3 text-figs. 
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40 : 168-170. 

- 1932. Dritter Beitrag zur Kleinfalterfauna Chinas nebst kurzer Zusammenfassung der 
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CHRETIEN, P. 1910. Descriptions de trois nouvelles especes de Pyralides de Mauritanie. 
Bull. Soc. ent. Fr. 1910 : 366-369. 



REVISION OF THE GENUS CHILO 189 

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Romanoff 2 : 119-171, pis 6-8 and 15. 
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Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 16 : 399-405. 
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de France. Vol. 10. Nocturnes. Tome septieme. 388 pp., pis 267-286, Paris. 
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INDEX 
Principal references in bold figures 



Acigona Hiibner, 104, 105, 107-110 

acuminatus Butler, 107 

adelphilia Dyar, 103, 178, 179 

aditellus Walker, 107 

aeneociliella Eversmann, 107 

agamemnon Bleszynski, 105-107, 112, 115, 

122, 145-148, 150 

aglaopis Turner, 107 

Agriphila Hiibner, 107, 109 

albimarginalis Hampson, 107 

aleniellus Strand, 105, 113, 115, 164, 165- 

167, 169, 172 
alfoldellus Schaus, 107 
alienellus Germar & Kaulfuss, 109 
ambiguellus Snellen, 107 
Ancylolomia Hiibner, 107-109 
angustipennis Zeller, 107 
ankasokellus Viette, 104 
antipai Popescu-Gorj, 124 
Apurima Walker, 108, 109 
aracalis Schaus, 107 
araealis Hampson, 107 
argentifascia Hampson, 107 
argentisparsalis Hampson, 159-1 62 
argentosus Snellen, 107 
Argyria Hiibner, 103, 107, no 
argyrogrammus Hampson, 102, no, 113, 157, 

158, 159, 161 

argyrolepia Hampson, 162, 164, 165, 167 
argyropastus Hampson, 113, 159-i62 
argyrostola Hampson, 107 
ascriptalis Hampson, 107 
aureliellus F. v. Roesslerstamm, 107 
aurescellus F. v. Roesslerstamm, 107 
auricilius Dudgeon, 106, 107, 113, 129, 135- 

137. 139, 140 

bandra Kapur, 113, 131, 133 
batri Fletcher, no 
bivittellus Moore, 107 



Borer Guenee, 102, 110 
bostralis Hampson, 107 
boxanus E. Hering, 117, 119, 120 
brevipalpellus Zerny, 124-126 

calamina Hampson, 126, 129, 130 

calamistis Hampson, 107 

Calamotropha Zeller, 107-110 

carnifex Coquerel 107, 

Catoptria Hiibner, 108-110 

centrellus Moschler, 107 

ceres Butler, 107 

Cervicrambus Bleszynski, 108 

cervinellus Moore, 107 

ceylonicus Hampson, 105, 112, 113, I3&-138 

chabilalis Schaus, 107 

Charltona Swinhoe, 107-109 

Chilandrus Bleszynski, 104 

Chillanicus Butler, 107 

Chilo Zincken, loi-llO, in 

Chilotraea Kapur, 102, 103, 105, in 

Chiqua Bleszynski, 104 

chiriquitensis Zeller, 103, 106, 112, 177, 178, 

179 
christophi Bleszynski, 111, 119, 122-124, 125, 

173 

chrysographella Kollar, 107 
cicatricella Hiibner, 109 
cinnamomellus Berg, 110 
comparellus Felder & Rogenhofer, 107 
conchella Denis & Schiffermuller, 109 
concolorellus Christoph, 117, 119, 124 
coniorta Hampson, 129, 130 
Corynophora Berg, 107 
costifusalis Hampson, 113, 155-157, 159 
crambidoides Grote, 108 
Crambus Fabricius, 108, 109 
crypsimetallus Turner, 102, 105, 106, no, 

113, 114, 136, 138-140 
culmicolellus Zeller, 108 



INDEX 



cuneellus Treitschke, 108 
cynedradellus Schaus, 108 

demotellus Walker, 103, 112, 159, 172-1 76 

densellus Zeller, 108 

Diatraea Guilding, 102-104, IO 7> IIQ 

Diatraenopsis Dyar & Heinrich, 103, in 

dichromella Walker, 109 

diffusifascia Hampson, 108 

diffusilineus J. de Joannis, 107, 114, 146, 

147-150 

diletantelhis Dyar, 108 
Diphryx Grote, 102, 110 
discellus Walker, 108 
disparella Hubner, 109 
dodatellus Walker, 108 
dubia Bethune-Baker, 117, 119 
duomita Dyar, 108 

Epina Walker, 103, 104, 109 
erianthalis Capps, in, 176, 177 
Eromene Hiibner, 138, 178 
Erupa Walker, 108, no 
Eschata Moore, 104, 124 
Etiella Zeller, 109 
excerptalis Walker, 108 
eximiellus Zincken, 108 

fernaldalis Dyar & Heinrich, 103, 173-175 
fernandezi J. de Joannis, 124, 126 
Fernandocrambus Aurivillius, 107 
forbesellus Fernald, 108 
funerellus Hampson, 108 
furcatellus Zetterstedt, 108 
fuscata Janse, 161, 162 
fuscicilia Hampson, 108 
fuscidentalis Hampson, 108 

galleviella Ragonot, 108, no 
gemininotalis Hampson, 134 
gensanellus Leech, 117, 119 
gigantellus Denis & Schiffermiiller, 114 
gildasellus Schaus, 108 
gratiosellus Walker, 108 
griseoradians J. de Joannis, 108 

hederalis Amsel, 108 

Hemiptocha Dognin, 107 

hevacleus Zeller, 108 

hexhex Dyar, 103, in, 178, 179 

hypenalis Rebel, 108 

Hypiesta Hampson, 102, 110, 158, 159 

hyrax Bleszynski, in, 121, 122-124 




idalis Fernald, 103, 172-1 76 

ignefusalis Hampson, 109 

ignitalis Hampson, 108 

ikri Fletcher, no 

incanellus Hampson, 108 

incertellus Zincken, 108 

incertulus Walker, 108 

incertus Sjostedt, 114, 149, 150, 151 

inconspicuellus Moore, 108 

indicus Kapur, 181-185, 186, 187 

infuscatellus Snellen, 106, 107, in, 114, 115, 

127, 129, 130, 135 
infusellus Walker, 107-110 
ingloriellus Moschler, 108 
inornata Staudinger, 109 
interlineatus Zeller, 108 
intermediellus Rebel, 116 
interruptellus Moore, 108 
irrectellus Moschler, 108 
izouensis misspelling, 132 
izuensis Okano, 132 

Japonichilo Okano, 104 
Jartheza Walker, 120, 122, 174 

kanra Fletcher, no 

lathoniellus Zincken, 108 

lativittalis Dognin, 108 

latmiadelis Dognin, 108 

leachellus Zincken, 108 

lemarchandellus D. Lucas, 124, 126 

Leonardo Bleszynski, 104 

leptigrammalis Hampson, 108 

leptogrammellus Meyrick, 108 

leucaniellus Butler, 108 

leucocraspis Hampson, 108, no 

lineolata Walker, 108, 109 

locupletellus Kollar, 108 

loftini Dyar, 108 

louisiadalis Hampson, 106, 114, 140-142, 

M3-I45 

luniferalis Hampson, 112, 152-155 
luteellus Motschulsky, in, 116, 118-120 
lutellus misspelling, 117 
lutulentalis Tarns, 126, 128 

maculalis Predota, 108 
majorellus Costa, 108 
Malgasochilo Bleszynski, 104 
marcella Schaus, 109 
matanzalis Schaus, 109 
mauriciellus Walker, 182, 183 
mercatorius sp.n., 114, 151, 158 
mercurellus Zetterstedt, 109 



194 



INDEX 



Mesolia Ragonot, 108 

mesoplagalis Hampson, 112, 156, 157, 159 

mesostrigalis Hampson, 109 

Metoecis Mabille, 107 

molybdellus misspelling, 118 

molydellus Zerny, 117, 118, 119 

morbidellus Dyar, 109 

multipunctellus Kearfott, 109 

Myelobia Herrich-Schaffer, 104, 108, 109 

Neargyrioides Bleszynski, 107 
Nechilo Bleszynski, 109 
nemorellus Hiibner, 108 
Nephalia Turner, 102, 110, 138 
neuricelhis Zeller, 109 
nigricellus Rebel, 116 
nigristigmellus Hampson, 109 
nivellus Kollar, 109 

obliquilineella Hampson, 107, 109 

obliteratellus Zeller, 109 

obtusellus Stainton, 109 

ocellellus Zetterstedt, 109 

ochrileucalis Hampson, 138, 140 

opinionellus Dyar, 109 

orichalcociliellus Strand, 105, 107, 113, 115, 

162-167, 169, 172 
orizae misspelling, 120 
Orocrambus Purdie, 107-109 
ortellus Swinhoe, 109 
oryzae Fletcher, 120, 122 
oryzaeellus Riley, 174 
oxyprora Turner, 109 

pallidifascia Janse, 161, 162 

Palparia Haworth, 114 

paludella Hiibner, 109 

Parerupa Hampson, 150 

parramattellus Meyrick, 109 

partellus Swinhoe, 106, 107, 112, 115, 126-130 

pauperellus Treitschke, 109 

Pediasia Hiibner, no 

perfusalis Hampson, 112, 143-155 

perpulverea Hampson, 151, 152 

phaeosema Martin, 147, 148 

phlebitalis Hampson, 109 

phragmitellus Hiibner, 102, 106, no, in, 

114-119, 173. i?4 
Phycitinae, 107, 108 
Platytes Guenee, 134 

plejadellus Zincken, 102, 112, 115, 174177 
plumbosellus Chretien, 117, 119 
Plutella Schrank, 109 
Plutellidae, 107, 109 



poliellus Treitschke, 109 

polychrysus Meyrick, 113, 135, 140-142, 144 

popescugorji Bleszynski, 135, 137 

porrectellus Walker, 109 

powelli D. Lucas, 109 

praefectellus Zincken, 109 

Prionapteryx Stephens, 104 

Proceras Bojer, 102, 110, in 

prolatella Grote, 102, no, 174, 175 

prophylactes Meyrick, 109 

psammathis Hampson, 114, 149, 151, 152 

Pseudobissetia Bleszynski, 108, no 

Pseudometachilo Bleszynski, 108 

pseudoplumbellus Caradja, 117, 119 

pulveratus Wileman & South, 105, 113-115, 

131, 132, 133 

pulverosellus Ragonot, 105, 112, 123, 124-126 
puritellus Kearfott, 109 
purpurealis Hampson, 109 
pyramidellus Treitschke, 108, 109 
Pyrausta Schrank, 107 
Pyraustinae, 107, 108 
pyrocaustalis Hampson, 109 

quirimbellus sp.n., 113, 164, 167-! 70, 172 

rabatellus D. Lucas, 109 
recalvus Wallengren, no 
repugnatalis Walker, 109 
respersalis Hiibner, 107 
rhombea Haworth, 114, 116 
rufulalis Hampson, 109 

sabulifera Walker, 174, 175 

saccharalis Fabricius, 109 

saccharellus Guenee, 102, no, 181 

saccharicola Fletcher, no 

sacchariphagus Bojer, 102, 106, 107, no, 114, 

115, 180, 181-188 
Schoenobiinae, 107-110 
Schoenobius Duponchel, 108-110, 116 
Scoparia Curtis, 109 
Scopariinae, 109 
semivittalis Dognin, 109 
shariinensis Eguchi, 130 
Silveria Dyar, 102, 103, 111 
simplex Butler, 1877, 109, 122 
simplex Butler, 1880, 120, 126, 128, 145, 147 
sordidellus Zincken, 109 
spatiosellus Moschler, no 
spectabilis Felder & Rogenhofer, 109 
spurcatellus Walker, 109 
squamulellus Zeller, 109 
steniellus Hampson, 108-110 



INDEX 



195 



stenziellus Treitschke, 109 

sticticraspis Hampson, 129, 130, 135 

stramineellus Caradja, 182-184, 186, 187 

striatalis Snellen, 181, 182, 183, 185, 186 

strigatellus Hampson, 109 

strigellus Treitschke, 109 

submedianalis Hampson, no 

suppressalis Walker, 106, 107, in, 115, 118- 

120, 121-124, 128, 135, 147 
surinamellus Moschler, no 

tadzhikiellus Gerasimov, 127, 129, 130, 131 

tamsi Kapur, in, 128, 129 

terrenellus Pagenstecher, 106, 114, 140, 142- 

145 

terrestrellus Christoph, 108, no 
teterrellus Zincken, no 
Thopeutis Hiibner, 107, 108, no 
thyrsis Bleszynski, 105, 113, 164, 166, 167, 

168-172 

Tinea Linnaeus, 102, no, 114 
Topeutis misspelling, 114 
torpidellus Zeller, no 
torquatellus J. de Joannis, 137, 138 



truncatellus Schaus, 110 

truncatellus Zetterstedt, no 

try petes Bisset, no 

tumidico stalls Hampson, 107, 112, 115, 131, 

133, 134 
unicolorellus Zeller, no 



venatella Schaus, no 

venosatum emendation, 183, 186 

venosatus Walker, 182, 183, 186, 187 

verellus Zincken, no 

vergilius sp.n., 112, 119, 120, 125 

vinosellus Hampson, no 

virgatus Felder & Rogenhofer, no 

xylinalis Hampson, 110 

Zacatecas Bleszynski, 104 

zacconius sp.n., 107, 114, 146-149, 150 

zeuzeroides Walker, 109 

zinckenella Treitschke, 109 

zonellus Swinhoe, 126, 128 

zoriandellus sp.n., 113, 164, 169-1?!, 172 



The late Dr. STANISLAW BLESZYNSKI 
Enquiries concerning this paper to 
Department of Entomology, 
BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY), 
LONDON, S.W.7. 



PLATE i 

FIG. i, Chilo pulverosellus, $, Bulgaria. 

FIG. 2, C. partellus, <J, Tanzania. 

FIG. 3, C. partellus, $, India. 

FIG. 4, C. orichalcociliellus, $, South Africa. 

FIG. 5, C. mesoplagalis, $, Nigeria. 

FIG. 6, C. costifusalis, $, Malawi. 

FIG. 7, C. tumidicostalis, <$, India. 

FIG. 8, C. argyropasta, <$, Tanzania. 

FIG. 9, C. costifusalis, $, Angola. 

FIG. 10, C. terrenellus, $, Vulcan Island. 

FIG. ii, C. luniferalis, <J, Democratic Republic of the Congo. 

FIG. 12, C. costifusalis <$, Tanzania. 

PLATE 2 

FIG. i, C/M/O chiriquitensis, $, Guatemala. 

FIG. 2, C. lousiadalis, $, New Guinea. 

FIG. 3, Leonardo davincii, $, Senegal. [Not included in text.] 

FIG. 4, C. polychrysus, <?, Malaya. 

FIG. 5, C. orichalcociliellus, <$, Kenya. 

FIG. 6, C. auricilius, $, India, Darjeeling. 

FIG. 7, C. agamemnon, $ paratype, Egypt. 

FIG. 8, C. argyrogrammus, $, Kenya. 

FIG. 9, C. pulveratus, <$, Philippine Is., Luzon. 

FIG. 10, C. diffusilineus , $, Rhodesia. 

FIG. ii, C. diffusilineus, <$ paratype of phaeosema, Malawi. 

FIG. 12, C. ceylonicus, <J, Ceylon. 



Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 25, 4 

I 



PLATES i & 2 





PLATE 3 

FIG. i, Chilo phragmitellus, <J, Hungary. 

FIG. 2, C. phragmitellus, $, Hungary. 

FIG. 3, C. luteellus, $, Algeria. 

FIG. 4, C. suppressalis, $, China. 

FIG. 5, C. suppressalis, $, China. 

FIG. 6, C. hyrax, <$, holotype, East Asia, Ussuri. 

FIG. 7, C. hyrax, $, paratype, East Asia, Ussuri. 

FIG. 8, C. christophi, <$, paratype, China. 

FIG. 9, C. christophi, $, paratype, Central Asia, Thian-Shan. 

FIG. 10, C. infuscatellus , <$, India. 

FIG. ii, C. infuscatellus, $, Afghanistan. 

FIG. 12, C. infuscatellus, $, Vulcan Island. 

FIG. 13, C. partellus, $, Kenya. 

FIG. 14, C. ceylonicus, $, Hainan. 

FIG. 15, C. polychrysus, $, India. 



Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 25, 4 



PLATE 3 




15 



PLATE 4 

FIG. i, Chilo demotellus, locality unknown, $. 

FIG. 2, C. terrenellus, <$, Louisiade Arch. 

FIG. 3, C. terrenellus, $, Louisiade Arch. 

FIG. 4, C. lousiadalis, $, Louisiade Arch. 

FIG. 5, C. sacchariphagus stramineellus, <$, China. 

FIG. 6, C. luniferalis, <$, Democratic Republic of the Congo. 

FIG. 7, C. louisiadalis, <$, Louisiade Arch. 

FIG. 8, C. thyrsis, <$, Kenya. 

FIG. 9, C. costifusalis, $, paralectotype, Nigeria. 

FIG. 10, C. agamemnon, $, Egypt. 

FIG. ii, C. pulveratus, $, Philippine Is. 

FIG. 12, C. pulveratus, $, Philippine Is. 

FIG. 13, C. zacconius, <$, holotype, Senegal. 

FIG. 14, C. incertus, $, Sudan. 

FIG. 15, C. perfusalis, $, paralectotype, Nigeria. 

FIG. 1 6, C. argyropastus, aberrant <$, Tanzania. 

FIG. 17, C. argyropastus, aberrant $. 

FIG. 18, Chilandrus chrysistes, $, Ceylon. [Not included in text.] 



Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 25, 4 



PLATE 4 




PLATE 5 

FIG. i, Chilo tamsi, , holotype, India. 

FIG. 2, C. crypsimetallus, $, holotype, Australia, Cedar Bay. 

FIG. 3, C. zacconius, $, paratype, Nigeria. 

FIG. 4, C. sp. $, Kenya. 

FIG. 5, C. psammathis, <$ lectotype of perpulverea, Nigeria. 

FIG. 6, C. plejadellus, 9, holotype of prolatella, U.S.A., Wisconsin. 

FIG. 7, C. mercatorius, <J, holotype, Democratic Republic of the Congo. 



Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 25, 4 



PLATE 5 




I 2 








A LIST OF SUPPLEMENTS 
TO THE ENTOMOLOGICAL SERIES 

OF THE BULLETIN OF 
THE BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 



2. NIXON, G. E. J. A reclassification of the tribe Microgasterini (Hymenoptera : 
Braconidae). Pp. 284 : 348 text-figures. August, 1965. 6. 

3. WATSON, A. A revision of the Ethiopian Drepanidae (Lepidoptera). Pp. 177 : 
18 plates, 270 text-figures. August, 1965. 4 45. 

4. SANDS, W. A. A revision of the Termite Subfamily Nasutitermitinae (Isoptera, 
Termitidae) from the Ethiopian Region. Pp. 172 : 500 text-figures. Sep- 
tember, 1965. 3 55. 

5. AHMAD, I. The Leptocorisinae (Heteroptera : Alydidae) of the World. 
Pp. 156 : 475 text-figures. November, 1965. 2 155. 

6. OKADA, T. Diptera from Nepal. Cryptochaetidae, Diastatidae and Droso- 
philidae. Pp. 129 : 328 text-figures. May, 1966. 3. 

7. GILIOMEE, J. H. Morphology and Taxonomy of Adult Males of the Family 
Coccidae (Homoptera : Coccoidea). Pp. 168 : 43 text-figures. January, 1967. 

^33s. 

8. FLETCHER, D. S. A revision of the Ethiopian species and a check list of the 
world species of Cleora (Lepidoptera : Geometridae). Pp. 119 : 14 plates, 146 
text-figures, 9 maps. February, 1967. 3 los. 

9. HEMMING, A. F. The Generic Names of the Butterflies and their type-species 
(Lepidoptera : Rhopalocera). Pp. 509. 8 los. 

10. STEMPFFER, H. The Genera of the African Lycaenidae (Lepidoptera : Rho- 
palocera). Pp. 322 : 348 text-figures. August, 1967. 8. 

11. MOUND, L. A. A review of R. S. BagnalTs Thysanoptera Collections. Pp. 172 : 
82 text-figures. May, 1968. 4. 

12. WATSON, A. The Taxonomy of the Drepaninae represented in China, with 
an account of their world distribution. Pp. 151 : 14 plates, 293 text-figures. 
November, 1968. 5. 

13. AFIFI, S. A. Morphology and Taxonomy of Adult Males of the families 
Pseudococcidae and Eriococcidae (Homoptera: Coccoidea). Pp. 210 : 52 text- 
figures. December, 1968. 5. 

14. CROSSKEY, R. W. A Re-classification of the Simuliidae (Diptera) of Africa 
and its Islands. Pp. 198 : i plate, 331 text-figures. July, 1969. 4 155. 

15. ELIOT, J. N. An analysis of the Eurasian and Australian Neptini (Lepidoptera : 
Nymphalidae). Pp. 155 : 3 plates, 101 text-figures. September, 1969. 

4- 

16. GRAHAM, M. W. R. DE V. The Pteromalidae of North-Western Europe 
(Hymenoptera : Chalcidoidea). Pp. 908 : 686 text-figures. November, 1969. 
19- 



Printed in England by Staples Printers Limited at their Kettering, Northants. establishment 



> &/' ' *- 



REVISIONAL NOTES ON AFRICAN 

CHARAXES 

(LEPIDOPTERA : NYMPHALIDAE) 

PART VI 




V. G. L. van SOMEREN 



BULLETIN OF 

THE BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 
ENTOMOLOGY Vol. 25 No. 5 

LONDON: 1970 



REVISIONAL NOTES ON AFRICAN 

CHARAXES 

(LEPIDOPTERA : NYMPHALIDAE) 
PART VI 




BY 

VICTOR GURNER LOGAN van SOMEREN 

The Sanctuary, Ngong 
P.O. Box 24947, Karen, Kenya 



Pp. 197-250; 6 Maps, ii Plates 



BULLETIN OF 

THE BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 
ENTOMOLOGY Vol. 25 No. 5 

LONDON: 1970 



THE BULLETIN OF THE BRITISH MUSEUM 

(NATURAL HISTORY), instituted in 1949, is 
issued in five series corresponding to the Departments 
of the Museum, and an Historical Series. 

Parts will appear at irregular intervals as they become 
ready. Volumes will contain about three or four 
hundred pages, and will not necessarily be completed 
within one calendar year. 

In 1965 a separate supplementary series of longer 
papers was instituted, numbered serially for each 
Department. 

This paper is Vol. 25, No. 5, of the Entomological 
series. The abbreviated titles of periodicals cited follow 
those of the World List of Scientific Periodicals. 



World List abbreviation 
Bull. Br. Mus. not. Hist. (Ent.) 



Trustees of the British Museum (Natural History), 1970 



TRUSTEES OF 
THE BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 

Issued 30 September, 1970 Price 3 115. 

(3-55) 



REVISIONAL NOTES ON AFRICAN 

CHA RAXES 
(LEPIDOPTERA : NYMPH ALIDAE) 

PART VI 

By V. G. L. van SOMEREN 

CONTENTS 

Page 
SYNOPSIS ........... 199 

1. Charaxes guderiana DEWITZ, Ch. opinatus HERON AND Ch. blanda 

ROTHSCHILD AND THEIR SUBSPECIES ..... 199 

2. Charaxes achaemenes FELDER AND ITS SUBSPECIES .... 206 

Systematic List . . . . . . . . . 212 

3. Charaxes phoebus BUTLER, Ch. brutus CRAMER AND ITS SUBSPECIES 

AND Ch. andara WARD ........ 212 

Systematic List ......... 222 

4. Charaxes boueti FEISTHAMEL AND Ch. lasti GROSE SMITH AND THEIR 

SUBSPECIES .......... 223 

Systematic List ......... 235 

5. Charaxes richelmanni ROBER AND Ch. eudoxus DRURY AND ITS SUB- 

SPECIES .......... 236 

Systematic List ......... 247 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ......... 248 

REFERENCES ........... 248 

INDEX ............ 249 

SYNOPSIS 

The species and their subspecies are dealt with, one new subspecies and a new form are 
described and one new name is given in place of a nomen oblitum, and one name has been 
synonymized. 

i. CHARAXES GUDERIANA DEWITZ, C. OPINATUS HERON AND C. BLANDA 

ROTHSCHILD AND THEIR SUBSPECIES 

Charaxes guderiana (Dewitz) 
(PI. i, figs 1-2, Map i) 

Nymphalis guderiana Dewitz, 1879 : 200. 

Charaxes pelias var. tanganika Robbe, 1892 : 133 [?]. 

MALE. Fore wing length 31-33 mm. Shape falcate. Upperside. Ground colour blue- 
black, shading to strong greenish blue at base of wing. Fore wing with a bold pattern of white 
spots arranged as follows : a large triangular spot, base toward costa, at end of cell ; two large 
elongate spots in discal line 5-6, occasionally a thin white streak at costa ; a series of bluish 



2OO 



V. G. L. VAN SOMEREN 




a .a 

3 



i-i ^ 

^3 v. C 

. . -3 






REVISIONAL NOTES ON AFRICAN CHARAXES 201 

white spots in postdiscal line, three in line in subapex 7-5, spot in 5 often small, spot in 3 large, 
followed by spots in 2-ia of decreasing size, the mark in ib sometimes faint, that in la often 
missing, the spots from 4-ib set out toward the border ; margin with large spots of decreasing 
size from ib to apex. Hind wing ground colour black, shading to greyish on inner fold ; a 
conspicuous greenish blue bar in the postdiscal line, extending from above the anal angle to 5, 
where the spot may be vestigial ; submargin with series of blue spots with white centres extend- 
ing from anal angle to costa ; margin with strong white border, interrupted by black veins, 
shading to olive-green between tails and at anal angle ; anal angle with two black spots. Tails 
sharp-pointed, upper 4 mm, lower 6 mm. Underside. Fore wing ground colour light purplish 
grey-brown with a darker brown band crossing the disc ; base of wing with short black bars in 
the cell and sub-bases of ib-2 ; a white spot at end of cell ; a series of black curved lines out- 
lined distally with greyish, terminating in the two white spots in the discal line ; postdiscal 
whitish spots accentuated internally with black ; larger black spots at tornus and space above ; 
margin with light greyish marks, darker in interspaces at end of veins. Hind wing ground 
colour similar to fore wing, with slightly more vinaceous tint ; pattern rather suppressed, basal 
area with a fine black line ; discal area crossed by an irregular brownish band outlined finely in 
black and white, fading out toward inner fold ; postdiscal row of ochreous olive and maroon 
lunules complete, extending from costa to above anal angle ; submargin with whitish lunules 
well-spaced, with orange centres, strong to upper tail then shading to olive at the anal angle ; 
margin brownish black with white fringe. 

FEMALE. Larger than the male, fore wing length 46-48 mm ; outer border usually slightly 
less falcate. Base of wing to end of cell and discal line xa to ib rufescent tawny, sometimes 
darker ; ground colour of distal portion of wing black with a large orange-ochre spot at end of 
cell, a smaller one sub-basal in 4, sometimes vestigial or absent ; in the discal line two large 
quadrate orange spots followed by larger spots of increasing size in 3 to hind margin at la ; 
postdiscal spots of same colour, elongate in subapex, increasing in size and more rounded, 
extending to 2 ; border of wing with large more rusty lunules, mostly separated by black at 
vein-ends but tending to be confluent toward apex. Hind wing basal area rufous tawny, 
sometimes dark, shading to more greyish on the inner fold ; discal orange bar, widest at costa, 
-68 mm, and tapering towards the inner fold where it is ill-defined, is clear-cut distally, and often 
with bluish scaling at tapered end, where it meets the broad black border which carries large 
bluish white lunules increasing in size from upper angle to anal angle ; border with strong 
marginal orange lunules to upper tail, then bluish olive to anal angle ; edge black ; tails long 
and rounded at ends, upper 7-8 mm, lower 5-6 mm. Underside. Fore wing ground colour 
drab greyish brown with vinaceous tinge ; strength of pattern variable ; three white-ringed 
dots in the cell ; a wavy black line crosses the subapex of the cell and goes through sub-base of 
2, followed by a crescentic mark sub-basal in ib. A buffish spot at end of cell ; buffish spot in 
discal row proximally accentuated by black lines ; postdiscal buffish spots, which are not strong 
at the apical end, become clear toward the hind angle and defined proximally by black lines and 
distally by large black marks in 2, double in ib, shaded distally at tornus with whitish which 
extends up the submargin as ill-defined greyish lunules ; border rusty ochre. Hind wing ground 
colour as forewing, slightly paler at base and more greyish on inner fold ; sub-base with two 
fine black lines, the distal one bordering a darker brown zone which defines the inner edge of the 
discal band and which is again accentuated by a black line, the distal border of the band irregular, 
especially where it tapers to the inner fold, where it may be represented by a whitish mark ; 
the postdiscal zone is slightly darker in ground colour and is traversed by a series of rather ill- 
defined greyish olive and maroon lunules, strongest above the anal angle ; submargin with a 
series of greyish white lunules outlined distally in black, and represented as three black dots 
opposite the tails and a double spot in the anal angle ; border with greyish white lunules with 
orange centres as far as upper tail, then olive to anal angle ; margin darker grey to blackish, 
ill-defined. 



202 V. G. L. VAN SOMEREN 

Charaxes guderiana rabaiensis Poulton 

(PI. i, figs 3-4, Map i) 
Charaxes guderiana rabaiensis Poulton, 1929 : 482. 

The male differs from nominate guderiana in being generally darker, with smaller 
and fewer spots in the fore and hind wings, and in lacking the postdiscal blue bar 
in the hind wing. The female has a much darker ground colour than nominate 
female, but the bars on fore and hind wing are paler, creamy ochre instead of orange. 

MALE. Fore wing length 30-32 mm ; shape as in nominate race. Upper side. Ground 
colour deep black, with only a slight greenish sheen at base of wing. Spots arranged as in 
nominate race, the subcostal spots equally large, but the spots in the postdiscal row much 
smaller, not extending beyond 2, rarely a vestigial spot in ib, all spots white ; marginal spots 
generally smaller. Hind wing usually without or with only the faintest trace of a postdiscal 
green-blue bar, submarginal spots much smaller ; marginal white lunules smaller, those at 
tails and anal angle with larger orange-bronze spots. Tails shorter. Underside. Ground 
colour very similar to nominate race, but basally paler, and the dark brownish band in fore wing 
in disco-postdiscal interspaces in more contrast. On the hind wing the postdiscal row of olive 
and maroon lunules stronger and more distinct. 

FEMALE. Fore wing length 35-40 mm. Upperside. Fore wing basal area blackish brown 
usually without any rufous tinge ; pattern of spots as in nominate race, but spot at end of cell 
often small or vestigial ; discal spots wider, more extended distad especially in ia-2, but post- 
discal spots smaller, all spots creamy ochre ; marginal spots smaller, less defined and paler. 
Hind wing basal area darker ; discal bar creamy ochre, usually wider ; submarginal spots 
almost obsolete ; rufous orange border strong to upper tail then olive at tails and anal angle. 
Underside. Much as in nominate race, but fore wing discal band stronger and wider ; tornal 
spots bolder. On the hind wing the creamy white band rather wider and more distinct ; 
postdiscal series of olive and maroon lunules more denned and distinct on a paler ground ; 
submarginal greyish lunules less strong. 

This subspecies is common in the savanna and bush-veldt and most plentiful in 
the Brachystegia woodlands, Miombo country. The larvae feed on Brachystegia 
spp. (Leguminosae). 

Charaxes opinatus Heron 
(PL i, figs 5-8, Map 2) 

Charaxes opinatus Heron, 1909 : 156, pi. 5, fig. 7. 

Charaxes opinatus Heron ; Jackson, 1956 : 65, pi. 3, fig. 5 ; pi. 4, fig. 5 ; pi. 6, fig. 4 ; pi. 7, 
fig. 4. 

This is an alpine species which is confined to the montane forests of western 
Uganda, and the highlands of the Kivu region. The male is one of the commonest 
Charaxes in the high forests of the Kigezi country, coming readily to bait (fermenting 
bananas) and ' droppings ' of carnivores ; but in spite of intensive trapping over 
several years only two females have been taken, both at Mafuga. Heron compared 
the species with Charaxes ethalion, and drew attention to the similarity of the 
underside to that of Charaxes anticlea. 

MALE. Fore wing length 30-32 mm. Shape not falcate. The males exhibit three forms on 
the upperside. Form i. Upperside. Ground colour rather a dull purplish black ; fore wing 



REVISIONAL NOTES ON AFRICAN CHARAXES 



203 



Bunia* 
ORIENTAL PROVINCE 

Beni, 
Ruwenzori:-! 

CONGO 




Rutshuru 9 

Mufumbiro Ranger"-. ^Kk' 
io' Muhavura 
.--Karisimbi 



MAP 2. C. opinatus 



20 4 v - G- L- VAN SOMEREN 

immaculate except for a very fine white fringe on margin. Hind wing ground colour as fore 
wing, slightly more brownish on inner fold, immaculate, except for a row of submarginal bluish 
linear marks with white centres, largest at hind angle to upper tail, then decreasing in size to 
upper angle ; margin with conspicuous brick-red border commencing just short of upper angle 
and extending to lower tail, then olive at anal angle ; extreme margin black with fine white 
fringe ; margin only slightly dentate. Tails moderately long and slender, upper 7 mm, lower 
5 mm, black-edged, with red central line. Forma. This is the nominate form. Similar to form i, 
but with a row of dull brick-red spots in the postdiscal line on the hind wing extending from 
above the anal angle at 2, to the upper angle at 6, the lower marks to 4 conjoined, the rest free ; 
on the margin the brick-red border is more developed. Form 3. Very similar to form 2, but with 
a conspicuous series of brick-red linear marks in the postdiscal of the fore wing, extending from 
ib to 5 following the contour of the outer margin ; the spot in 5, small and set in. Hind wing 
as in form 2. Underside. Ground colour satiny brownish grey, the fore wing crossed by two 
darker brownish bands, that in sub-base broad, passing through the upper end of the cell where 
it is 5 mm wide, then tapering very slightly through sub-bases ib-2, the band is narrowly out- 
lined in black and white. A discal brown band, widest at costa and through 6-5, becomes 
narrower and irregular through 4-ib. Outer marginal border in curve of the wing brownish, 
broad at centre but tapering at both apex and tornus. Basal area of cell with three white- 
ringed black dots. Hind wing ground colour as fore wing, disc of wing crossed by a strong 
brownish band, in line with that of the fore wing, edged black and white ; the postdiscal band 
narrow at costa, widens in the middle area and then tapers toward the inner fold above the 
anal angle, where the edges are more defined ; submargin with a series of linear black marks 
edged whitish internally and greenish distally, spots double at anal angle ; margin with dull 
reddish extending from upper angle to lower tail, where the border becomes olive at the anal 
angle ; extreme edge fringed with reddish. 

FEMALE. Fore wing length 35 mm ; apex rather more pointed than male. Upperside. 
Ground colour black ; wing crossed by a white band, divided at costal end into discal and post- 
discal spots which become conjoined at 3, forming more quadrate spots and extending to the 
hind margin in za. No spots on margin. Hind wing ground colour black ; disc of wing crossed 
by a white band, commencing at costa where it is 5 mm wide, is almost parallel-sided to 2, 
where it tapers toward the inner fold but does not cross it. Submargin with a series of well 
separated linear white marks, double at anal angle and slightly blue-ringed ; margin with 
slight rusty lunules from upper angle to upper tail. Tails long and slender, upper 7 mm, lower 
5 mm. Underside. Fore wing somewhat as in the male, slightly less satiny brown, the ground 
colour slightly darker ; the discal white band of upperside well represented. Hind wing basal 
area slightly darker, sub-basal brownish band stronger ; discal white band in strong contrast, 
offset by a dark postdiscal zone, the white band not crossing the fold but there represented by 
a greyish mark. Submarginal series of white and black lunules complete ; marginal border as 
in the male. 

Range : This species seems to be confined to the mountains of the western area 
of Uganda, the Kivu Mountains and is also recorded from the forests N.W. of Lake 
Tanganyika, no specific locality being given (Grauer). It was first taken on the 
eastern side of the Ruwenzori Mountains, Mubuku Valley, 5000 ft by the BM(NH) 
Expdt. 1905, and subsequently at the Namwamba Valley, 6500 ft, BM(NH) Expdt. 
1934-35. Then there is an apparent break until one reaches the montane forests of 
the Kigezi area at Mafuga, Rutenga and Ruhiza, 6000-9000 ft. It is also recorded 
from the Niragongo forest, N.E. Kivu (T. A. Barnes). 



REVISIONAL NOTES ON AFRICAN CHARAXES 205 

Charaxes blanda blanda Rothschild 

(PI. i, figs 9-10, Map i) 
Charaxes blanda Rothschild, 1897 : 507 ; Rothschild & Jordan, 1898 : pi. 6, fig. 3 (blandus). 

The unique type of this species was taken by Reimer in the Mikindani area of 
Tanzania, which lies to the north of the mouth of the Ruvuma River on the Tan- 
zania-Mozambique border. It has remained the sole example of the species trom 
that area in spite of intensive search of recent years ; the female is still unknown. 
This is the more surprising since the subspecies blanda kenyae of the Kenya coast has 
been taken in some numbers. 

MALE. Fore wing length 31 mm ; shape rather falcate, though the apex of wing is rather 
rounded ; margin bluntly dentate. Upperside. Fore wing ground colour black, with greenish 
sheen at base of wing. Pattern not strong, consisting of a small obscure spot at distal upper end 
of cell ; four blue spots in discal line (no spot in 4), subcostal mark elongate, one below small, 
spots in 3 and 2 larger and more rounded ; the postdiscal series of spots are bluish white, three 
subapical in a line followed by spots of increasing size more or less parallel to the margin of the 
wing, those in ib and la more diffuse and bluish ; margin without marks except for slight 
white fringe between dentations. Hind wing, basal area black, shading to brownish on inner 
fold ; disc of wing crossed by a bluish white band, represented at subcosta by a small free spot, 
the rest conjoined and of increasing width to 2, then tapering toward the inner fold, where it 
is represented by a whitish triangular mark above the anal angle. Well separated submarginal 
linear marks pale blue, more purplish at anal angle ; marginal lunules present, commencing 
above upper tail, greenish blue to golden olive at anal angle. Margin dentate, tails long and 
thin, pointed, upper 5 mm, lower 6 mm, black with thin median line. Underside. Boldly 
patterned. Fore wing basal area greyish brown, with black spots and lines crossing the cell, 
one at base, a double spot beyond, followed by an angled line in subapex and a straighter line 
at apex continued through sub-base 3 with a line sub-base in 2. These lines define the inner 
edge of a darker brown bar, which in turn is accentuated by a wavy black line where it meets 
the discal bar ; the latter is silvery grey and rather ill-defined distally, where it borders on a 
broader dark greyish brown zone. It is fairly straight on its inner border but irregular on outer, 
where it is crossed by the postdiscal row of silvery grey spots, bordered with blackish in 2 and 
ib but ill-defined at upper half, where it merges into the submarginal silvery grey band. The 
latter is forked at the costal end, fading out at the tornus, where there is a double blackish mark ; 
the curved outer border of wing dark greyish brown. Hind wing basal area greyish brown to 
discal silvery white bar, sub-base crossed by a silvery bar outlined in black stopping short of 
the inner fold ; the narrow discal bar crosses the wing from the costa to inner fold, where it 
stops short but is represented on the inner fold by a whitish line, the inner edge of the bar 
accentuated by black. The outer edge merges into a dark brownish zone which carries a series 
of black and olive lunules extending from costa to above the anal angle ; submargin with a 
continuous series of whitish lunules, distally edged in black, which forms loops between the 
tails and at anal angle, these all have lilac centres ; admargin maroon to upper tail then golden 
olive, edged white, then black. Margin dentate, tails black with olive mid-line. 

Range : The only known locality for this race is Mikindani, north of the mouth of 
the Ruvuma River on the Tanzania-Mozambique border. 



206 V. G. L. VAN SOMEREN 

Charaxes bland a kenyae Poulton 

(PI. i, figs 11-12, Map i) 
Charaxes blanda kenyae Poulton, 1926 : 552. 

MALE. Fore wing length 31-34 mm ; more falcate than nominate race. Upper side. Fore 
wing, the spot in the cell well developed and blue ; the upper spots in the discal and postdiscal 
lines as far as 2 larger and white, the spot in ib of the postdiscal line larger and often extended 
proximad to discal line, the mark in la a long streak, these latter marks strongly blue. Hind 
wing, the broad disco-postdiscal band brighter iridescent blue ending in whitish toward the 
inner fold, at the costal end the blue is continuous to the subcosta, and in addition, a discal 
subcostal spot is present ; the spots on the black border as in the nominate race. Underside, 
Fore wing much as in the nominate race but discal and postdiscal spots more distinct, the dark 
quadrate brown mark in subapex stronger, and the black surrounding the postdiscal spots in 
ib and 2 stronger. Hind wing, the discal silvery bar is more angled on the outside in 5, and the 
inner fold to as far as the discal bar is distinctly buff ; the postdiscal row of black and olive 
lunules is more distinct on a paler ground ; the submarginal whitish lunules distinctly more 
bluish distally ; the admargin more reddish to upper tail, then golden olive to anal angle, which 
has the two bluish white spots ; margin as in the nominate race. 

FEMALE. Larger than the male, fore wing length 36-37 mm ; shape slightly less falcate. 
Upperside. Fore wing ground colour less intense black and with less greenish at base of wing. 
Pattern as in the male but all spots larger, the spots in la-ib conjoined, all spots bluish white ; 
some dark scaling indicating the line of junction of the two rows in 2 and ib, the mark in la 
a long streak. Hind wing discal patch bluish white, more strongly blue on distal border, 
represented at subcosta by a free white spot in the discal line and conjoined spots in the post- 
discal line ; submarginal spots bluish white ; admarginal angled marks somewhat orange 
above upper tail, then olive to tails but bronzy at anal angle. Tails long with rounded ends, 
upper 8 mm, lower 7 mm. Underside. Pattern essentially similar to that of male, but fore 
wing ground colour paler and more satiny, the silvery sub-basal area and that of the discal row 
of spots more distinct ; tornal double black mark strong. On the hind wing the silvery discal 
bar strong ; the zigzag postdiscal line of lunules stronger and the border of the wing more 
satiny ; the admarginal reddish lunules above upper tail strong, golden olive at anal angle 
with greyish blue spots outlined in black, strong. 

The female oviposits on Dalbergia (Papilionaceae) and also on Brachystegia spp. 
(Caesalpinaceae). 

Range : Occurs in the forests north of Mombasa ; the types are from the Sekoke 
forest, 1921 (van Someren), but it is now known to occur not only in the Sekoke- 
Arabuko forest but also in the forest patch around Gedi and Kilifi. 



2. CHARAXES ACHAEMENES FELDER AND ITS SUBSPECIES 

A species with a very wide distribution, extending from the Natal area of South 
Africa to northern Ethiopia and Sudan, then westward to the West Coast. It is 
found in the savannah country and light woodland, wherever its food plants, Ptero- 
carpus spp., are abundant. 

Various ' forms ' have been described, but no attempt has been made to divide 
the species into geographical races or subspecies, though there is an obvious difference 
between the females of the southern group and those of the northern and western 
areas ; the males however exhibit no great difference in pattern or colour. 



REVISIONAL NOTES ON AFRICAN CHARAXES 207 

In 1904, Suffert described the form (subsp.) fasciatus, based on males and females 
from the Mhonda area of the Morogoro district of Tanzania. In 1925, Joicey & 
Talbot described a female from the southern Sudan as f. monticola. Poulton (1926) 
refers to these two ' forms ' as ' Abs '. Up to this time, the species was represented 
in most collections mainly by male specimens, this sex being much in evidence 
throughout its range. Since the introduction of the ' hanging trap ' method of 
capture, large numbers of females have been taken, and these indicate clearly that 
the species can be divided up into two main groups, achaemenes of the southern areas 
and those of the northern zone, north of the Equator. 

The first reference in literature to a recognition of a northern subspecies is that of 
Carpenter & Jackson, 1950, when they refer to examples of the species from the Suk 
area of Kenya, trinominally, as achaemenes monticola Joicey & Talbot. This is a 
reference in the text, but there is no formal elevation of the name monticola to sub- 
specific rank. 

Having examined a large quantity of material from throughout the range of the 
species, the following division is submitted. It is supported by ecological factors. 

Charaxes achaemenes achaemenes Felder 

(PI. i, figs I3-I4> Map 3) 

Charaxes achaemenes Felder, 1866 : 446, n. 739, pi. 59, figs 6-7. 

MALE. Fore wing length 36-38 mm. Shape rather falcate, but degree of inward curvature 
of the outer margin at 4-6 variable ; strongly falcate forms commoner in dry areas of distribu- 
tion. Upper side. Fore wing ground colour of basal area to just beyond mid cell and proximal 
border of discal bar, la-ib, brownish olive, shading into the brownish black ground colour of 
the rest of the wing ; a small creamy spot occasionally present at end of cell, a sub-basal spot 
in 4. Discal bar pale creamy white : two upper spots, rounded or irregular in shape at about 
mid-point areas 6-5, no spot in 4, sub-basal spots in 3-2 larger and more rounded on inner side, 
slightly indented distally, large quadrate mark in ib, a linear mark in ia, the bar is widest in 
ib : 5-6 mm. Postdiscal series of spots : three in line in sub-apex, the lower small, spot in 4 
set in, followed by angular marks in 3-2, in contact with, or slightly separate from discal marks 
in same areas. Margin with small linear marks in centres from 7 to hind angle, double mark 
in ib. Hind wing, brownish olive at base, more greyish on inner fold. Discal creamy white 
bar clearly denned in upper part at costa and on outer edge to cell it fades out into the greyish 
inner fold, width 4-6 mm at cell. Distal half of wing black or brownish black, submargin with 
series of slightly angular or crescentic white marks from upper angle to anal angle, those opposite 
tails slightly blue-edged distally ; margin with narrow bluish line in tail region, the blue extend- 
ing into the mid-line of tails which are thin, upper 5-6 mm, lower 7-8 mm long. Underside. 
Fore wing, ground colour brownish grey, slightly paler in the cell, which is crossed by thick 
chestnut lines, one at base, a short bar at mid point, followed by a curved line and a transverse 
one at end of cell. The pale whitish discal bar is accentuated proximally with thick chestnut 
lines in 3 and 2, the latter with an additional sub-basal line, the chestnut line in ib in the form 
of a U, the outer arm continuous with the sub-basal line in area above. The division between 
the discal and postdiscal whitish spots indicated by a dark area in 6-7, then by brownish black 
marks in 5-2 ; the postdiscal pale spots accentuated distad by black dots becoming larger in 2, 
and conspicuous in ib, where the mark is double and bold. The submargin is ornamented by 
a brownish line interrupted distally by marginal whitish marks which extend from apex to 
hind angle. Hind wing, ground colour brownish grey, the basal area crossed by heavy chestnut 
lines at the base, and by finer interrupted ones toward the inner fold and over lower end of 



208 



V. G. L. VAN SOMEREN 



discal zone, the two lower ones crossing at right angles to the fold above the anal angle. Post- 
discal zone with a series of brownish grey lunules strongly accentuated proximally in black in 
the upper half but less strongly in 4 to above the anal angle. Submargin with whitish lunules 
distally accentuated in black, with strong black at base of upper tail, and two black dots in the 
olive anal angle. Margin with some rufous orange coloration above the upper tail ; margin 
narrowly black with some white scales. 

FEMALE. Fore wing length 40-42 mm. Shape similar to that of male or less falcate. 
Upperside. Fore wing, base rufous or rufous chestnut to as far as the discal line in ia-2 and 
to the end of the cell ; remainder of the wing brownish black ; an ochre spot indicated at end 
of cell, a more distinct spot sub-basal in 4 ; disco-postdiscal bar as in the male, but spots 
larger and ochre-orange in colour, the upper spots in 4-5 conjoined by rufous scaling ; margin 
with large orange-ochre, rather quadrate marks from apex to hind angle, the marks twice the 
size of the intervening black. Width of discal bar in ib-2, 5-6 mm wide, the conjoined bar 



SIERRA LEONE {--. IVORY COAST'- \ ; , 

' v '*i O /GHANA! { ; 
\ 



< CENTRAL AFRICAN'*. 
REPUBLIC 




CHARAXES ACHAEMENES 
^k C. achaemcncs achaemcnes 
d C. achaemcnes achaemencs, 

f. Jasciatus 

t C. achaemcncs monticola 
O C. achaemcnes crythraea 
9 C. achaemcncs 'cline' 
O C. achaemenes atlantica 



MAP 3 



REVISIONAL NOTES ON AFRICAN CHARAXES 209 

almost parallel-sided up to 3. Hind wing basal area rufous, merging into proximal edge of 
discal bar in cell area and into the more greyish of the inner fold ; the upper end of the bar 
slightly paler than fore wing bar ; distal portion of wing black with a well marked series of 
white lunules edged with bluish opposite the tails in submarginal zone ; marginal border 
slightly orange toward upper angle, more strongly blue opposite tails, then olive at anal angle. 
Tails thin and long, upper 8-9 mm, lower 10 mm. Underside. Much as in the male, pattern 
slightly bolder ; the disco-postdiscal and discal bars in hind wing creamy white. 

Variation. The males are remarkably constant ; a few may show a slight increase in size of 
the submarginal spots in the hind wing. Females also hardly vary ; there may be an increase 
in the degree of blue around the submarginal spots in the hind wing, this colour sometimes 
tending to encircle the spots of the lower end opposite the tails ; these slight variations seem 
to occur more often in the low coastal areas of Mozambique. Occasional aberrations exhibiting 
partial melanism have been recorded. Overlaet figures a gynandromorph from Upemba Park, 
Katanga. 

Range : The type is said to have come from Port Natal (Durban), but probably 
came from further inland. The species occurs commonly in Transvaal, S. Mozam- 
bique, Rhodesia, Zambia, eastern Angola and Katanga ; western and central 
Tanzania ; also in the savannah country of Kenya around Taveta, Voi and Kibwezi. 
In south-eastern and eastern Tanzania the ' form ' fasciatus Suffert occurs, and is 
dealt with separately hereafter. 

Charaxes achaemenes form or var. fasciatus Suffert 
(PI. 2, figs 15-16, Map 3) 

Charaxes achaemenes form/subspecies fasciatus Suffert, 1904 : 123. 
Charaxes achaemenes f. ab. fasciatus Suffert ; Poulton, 1926 : 573. 

Special mention is made of this variation since it appears to be dominant in eastern 
parts of Tanzania, and is probably a climatic variant. 

MALE. Upper side. Fore wing, ground colour rather darker than nominate race, the white 
bar sometimes very narrow in la-ib, but variable. The marginal white spots often larger. 
On the hind wing the submarginal white spots are large and often blue-ringed, especially the 
lower ones opposite the tails ; the marginal border usually more strongly marked, sometimes 
extending beyond the upper tail. Underside. Ground colour darker. 

FEMALE. Fore wing length 42-43 mm. Upperside. Fore wing, ground colour darker, 
especially at base. The disco-postdiscal bar tending to be wider in ia-3 ; the hind wing bar 
paler than that of fore wing, strongly encroached upon by the basal rufous colour. Submarginal 
white spots larger with strong blue surround, the blue scaling more often extending inward 
over the distal portion of the black band ; marginal border orange in upper portion, bluish 
white in region of tails, olive at anal angle. Underside. Ground colour often paler. 

Range : Tanzania. From Lindi to Songea and north to the Morogoro area at 
Mhondo and (?) Turiani. 

Charaxes achaemenes monticola Joicey & Talbot 
(PI. 2, figs 17-12, Map 3) 

Charaxes achaemenes f. monticola Joicey & Talbot, 1925 : 645. 

Charaxes achaemenes ab. $ monticola Joicey & Talbot ; Poulton, 1926 : 573. 



2io V. G. L. VAN SOMEREN 

Charaxes achaemenes monticola Joicey & Talbot ; Carpenter & Jackson, 1950. [Referred to 

trinominally in text, but no formal elevation of status.] 

Charaxes achaemenes Felder ; Carpenter, 1935 : 359 . [Referred to binominally.] 
Charaxes achaemenes Felder ; Wilson, 1950 : 231. 

C. achaemenes of the northern regions, north of the Equator, from north of Lake 
Victoria to Ethiopia and Sudan represents an ecological aggregate sufficiently 
distinct from nominate southern achaemenes, deserving of recognition, as a good 
subspecies. Representatives of this aggregate in the more western areas of the 
Central African Republic, N. Cameroons and N.E. Nigeria differ slightly and are 
referred to separately. 

Males of monticola are very stable, but females are rather variable within the 
restrictions which separate them from nominate achaemenes. 

MALE. Fore wing length 35-36 mm ; shape usually rather falcate. Upperside. Fore 
wing pattern as in the nominate race, the junction of the olive base with the black beyond, more 
strongly greenish ; the disco-postdiscal bar rather narrow as a rule, seldom exceeding 5 mm in 
ib. The marginal spots very small. On the hind wing the submarginal spots are usually 
small with little or no blue distally. Upper tails short, 4-5 mm, lower 8 mm. Underside. 
Pattern as in nominate race, but distal portions of both wings more brownish ; the postdiscal 
lunules stronger. 

FEMALE. Fore wing length 41-45 mm ; shape less falcate than in the male. Upperside. 
Fore wing pattern generally similar to that of the nominate race but spots rather more restricted, 
the marginal spots smaller. 

Three forms occur : Form i. The ground colour is very similar to that of the male ; the 
fore wing disco-postdiscal bar creamy white except for the spots in the postdiscal line, which are 
slightly tinged ochreous ; the marginal spots small and ochreous. Hind wing black band 
broad, the submarginal spots moderately large. This form is thus somewhat ' male-like ', and 
is exceptional. Wing length 41 mm. 

Form 2. Ground colour of fore wing as in form i, but disco-postdiscal spots orange-ochre 
except for lower ones in ib & la, which are creamy white. Marginal spots small, ochre-orange. 
This is the dominant form and agrees with the type. (PI. 2, fig. 19.) 

Form 3. The base of the fore wing rufous chestnut ; the spot at end of cell more distinct ; 
the disco-postdiscal bar more orange-ochre to hind margin ; the marginal spots larger. The 
bar on the hind wing ochreous ; the submarginal spots larger. Undersides in all three forms 
much as in the male, but pattern bolder. (PI. 2, fig. 18.) 

Range : Kenya : West of Rift Valley, at Baringo, Suk and Turkana. Uganda : 
Karamoja ; Nile Province, Madi, Metu. Lake Albert area at Masindi and Budongo 
area outside forest. Sudan : southern and mid Sudan. Ethiopia : in the south- 
western regions. 

Charaxes achaemenes f. erythraea Storace 
(PI. 2, fig. 22, Map 3) 

Charaxes achaemenes f. erythraea Storace, 1948 : 13241. 
Charaxes achaemenes Felder ; Wilson, 1950 : 231. 

This ' form ' of uncertain status was described from a single male taken at Asmara, 
Eritrea on the Red Sea coast. It was described as being ' a little smaller than the 
nominate form. Dorsal pubescence of the thorax the same colour as the adjoining 
parts of the wings ; otherwise colour and pattern of body as in typical form'. There 



REVISIONAL NOTES ON AFRICAN CHARAXES 211 

is nothing in the detailed description which follows to distinguish it from males 
from further south in S. Sudan, i.e. monticola. Storace compared it with males 
from S. Congo (Katanga). 

Butler records achaemenes from Atbara and Karidera on the Nile in northern 
Sudan, and Wilson (1950) notes the species as common in ' Central Sudan ' around 
Khartoum. 

The female has not been recorded so far as I know. The status of this taxon 
requires re-investigation. 

Charaxes achaemenes cline monticola x atlantica 

(Map 3) 

Specimens from the northern Cameroons were originally associated with monticola 
but examination of material from the Central African Republic west to northern 
Cameroons and eastern Nigeria suggests that this aggregate really represents a 
cline between typical monticola and the more western race of Senegal, Gambia etc. 

MALE. Fore wing length 40 mm. Upper side. Coloration and pattern similar to monticola. 
Underside. Ground colour paler throughout, but pattern similar. 

FEMALE. Variable. Form i. Very similar to Form 2 of monticola. Upperside. The disco- 
postdiscal bar similar in colour but rather broader throughout, orange-ochre to 2, then creamy 
to hind margin. Underside. Very similar to monticola but paler. 

Form 2. Upperside. Somewhat similar to Form 3 of monticola but fore wing disco-post- 
discal bar broader and rich rufous orange ; the marginal spots larger. On the hind wing the 
basal area more rufous, the black band less wide, the submarginal spots bolder, those in the 
lower half with strong blue distally. Marginal border orange at upper half, then white with 
strong blue scaling to anal angle. Underside. As in Form i. 

Mr R. G. T. St Leger suggests that the forms are ' climatic ', Form i being found 
in the Enugu area and the rufous orange form further north-west near the border 
between east and north Nigeria, but in the Cameroons they occur together. 

Range : Central African Republic, northern Cameroons and eastern Nigeria. 

Charaxes achaemenes atlantica ssp. n. 

(PI. 2, figs 20-21, Map 3) 

Charaxes jocaste Butler, 1965 : 274 footnote. [Application submitted for the proposed suppres- 
sion of this name under the plenary powers of the International Commission on Zoological 
Nomenclature. See van Someren, 1967 : 255.] 

MALE. Fore wing length 35-37 mm. Upperside. Pattern rather similar to those of the 
Cameroon area but disco-postdiscal bar broader, the upper spots larger. The submarginal 
spots in the hind wing tending to be small ; the marginal border more greenish blue. Under- 
side. Discal areas of both wings paler, more whitish. 

FEMALE. Fore wing length 43 mm. Form i. Upperside. Ground colour at base brownish 
olive to mid cell and inner border of discal bar. Spots at end of cell distinct ; disco-postdiscal 
bar broader than in monticola or Cameroon cline, all spots creamy ochre, spots in 6-4 conjoined 
by rays ; marginal spots large, creamy ochre. Hind wing bar broader, creamy white, extending 
beyond the cell area toward inner fold where it is bluish white, brownish grey beyond. Black 



212 V. G. L. VAN SOMEREN 

band broad ; submarginal spots large, white with blue surround. Tails long, more robust, 
10-11 mm. Underside. Ground colour paler but row of dark spots in hind wing well marked. 
Form 2. Upperside. Differs by being slightly smaller, with more rufous at base of fore wing ; 
the bars in fore and hind wing broad as in Form i, the spots in fore wing orange-ochre to 2, 
then whitish to hind margin. Hind wing bar creamy. This corresponds to Form i of the 
intermediate ' cline '. 

Holotype male. SENEGAL : ' jocaste Bdv.', ' Charaxes jocaste, 5. ^ Sene '. 
Allotype female. SENEGAL : ' jocaste Bdv.', ' Charaxes jocaste, 3. $ Sene '. 
Range : West Africa: Senegal, Gambia, Guinea and Ivory Coast. 

SYSTEMATIC LIST 

Charaxes achaemenes Felder 

Charaxes achaemenes achaemenes Felder, 1866. Type locality : ' Natal '. 

Range : South Africa ; N. Natal, Delagoa Bay ; Mozambique ; 

Transvaal ; Botswana ; eastern S. W. Africa. Central Africa ; 

Rhodesia, Zambia, Manicaland, Malawi, Katanga, eastern 

Angola. Eastern Africa; southern Tanzania to east side of 

Lake Tanganyika, central Tanzania to south of Lake Victoria. 

Kenya ; coast and savannah country of hinterland to Ukambani, 

Voi, Kibwezi. (Small form). 
Charaxes achaemenes f. fasciatus Suffert, 1904. S.E. Tanzania ; at Mondo, Moro- 

goro Distr. 
Charaxes achaemenes monticola Joicey & Talbot, 1925. Type locality, S. Sudan. 

Range : Kenya ; west of the Rift Valley, Baringo, Suk, Turkana. 

Uganda ; Karamoja, Nile Province, Lake Albert area, Masindi, 

Budongo. Ethiopia ; S.W. area. Sudan ; southern Sudan. 
Charaxes achaemenes f. erythraea Storace, 1948. Type locality: Asmara, Red Sea. 

Doubtfully distinct from monticola. 
Charaxes achaemenes cline monticola. 

Range : Northern Central African Republic ; N. Cameroons ; 

Eastern Nigeria. 

Charaxes achaemenes atlantica ssp. n., n. n. for 'jocaste' Butler, 1896. Nomen 
oblitum. Type locality : Senegal. 

Range : West Africa ; Senegal, Guinea, northern Ivory Coast, 
N. Ghana. 

3. CHARAXES PHOEBUS BUTLER, C. BRUTUS CRAMER AND ITS SUBSPECIES 

AND C. ANDARA WARD. 

Charaxes phoebus Butler 
(PI. 3, figs 23-24) 

Charaxes phoebus Butler, 1865 : 625. 



REVISIONAL NOTES ON AFRICAN CHARAXES 213 

The upperside of the male bears a superficial resemblance to Charaxes druceanus, 
but the underside is totally different. 

MALE. Fore wing length 4144 mm. Upperside. Fore wing, ground colour of basal area 
rufous tawny ; discal band more orange ; distal border of wing black ; there is a short black 
narrow bar in subcostal area before the end of the cell, followed by larger black bars, basal in 
4, 5, 6 ; then an irregular black bar beyond on inner border of discal orange band in 6-5 followed 
by a larger mark in 4 and larger rounded marks in 3-2 with a smaller spot in ib ; a triangular 
black subcostal mark, apex down, separates the ' fork ' of the rufous orange band at its costal 
end and is represented in 5-2 by smaller spots indicating the line of fusion between the discal 
and postdiscal series ; width of band at hind margin 10 mm. Margin of wing with strong 
orange spots, double in ib. Hind wing, basal area slightly duller rufous, shading to dull rusty 
on the inner fold ; discal band, more orange, 10 mm wide at costa, is uniform in width to cell 
area, then tapers toward the inner fold above the anal angle. It is ill-defined on inner edge, 
clearly defined on outer margin where it is bordered by a black band, tapering at both ends 
but is rounded at the anal lobe which carries one elongate or two mauve spots. Margin with 
strong tawny orange lunules separated only by black veins ; edge black with slight white fringe 
within the bluntly dentate margin ; tails short, robust, sharply pointed, at 2 & 4, 4-5 mm long. 
Underside. Fore wing, basal area rufescent chestnut, more olive-russet on outer border. 
Discal band rusty ochre, paler at hind end, the ' forked ' upper portions accentuated by black 
lines with buff surround ; the subcostal bars narrowly black with silvery white outlines, the 
bars in sub-bases of ib-3 more strongly black, outlined whitish. The postdiscal series of black 
spots, narrowly edged bluish grey distally, complete, the spots increasing in size from apex to 
the double mark at the tornus ; edge of wing slightly orange with a series of black marks at 
ends of veins, interrupted by whitish ochre in between. Hind wing, ground colour in basal 
triangle rufescent chestnut to discal line where the band is hardly indicated, but is crossed by 
transverse buff lines along the veins, offset proximally by a series of short black lines strongly 
edged with white distally and extending to the inner fold above the anal angle ; the basal area 
crossed by three white-edged fine black lines ; the three lines on the inner fold above the anal 
angle more or less parallel. The border of the wing more orange-olive ; edge black with white 
fringe. 

FEMALE. Larger than the male, fore wing length 46-48 mm, with a straighter outer border 
than the male. Upperside. Fore wing, basal area as in the male, the black marks similarly 
placed, but discal band paler creamy yellow from hind margin to 2-3 proximally, shading to 
orange-rufous distally, the ' fork ' of the band rufous orange with paler centres ; border black 
with large rufous orange marks on margin. Hind wing, extreme basal triangle rufous tawny, 
shading to greyish ochre on inner fold ; discal band yellowish creamy, not sharply defined on 
inner border and distally shading to tawny orange at the broad black border, which carries a 
black ocellus with lilac spots at the anal angle. Margin with conspicuous orange lunules ; 
edge black, slightly dentate ; tails on 2 & 4 black, upper 6 mm, lower 4-5 mm. Underside. 
Ground colour as in the male but duller, though bars and spots are strong ; discal band buff- 
white and clear-cut and extending through the inner fold ; the postdiscal and submarginal 
alternate black and whitish marks on a duller more olive ground are well represented, the white 
marks of the two rows connected by white streaks. Margin as in the male. 

The female thus bears a resemblance to that of Ch. druceanus teita on the upper side. 

This species was reared in some numbers by the late Malcolm Berkeley, from eggs 
and larvae found on Bersama abyssinicus (Melianthaceae) in the Adola district of 
southern Ethiopia. 

Range : This species is somewhat restricted, being confined to the north-west, 
west and southern districts of Ethiopia. It is recorded from Shoa : Mahal-Uong, 
Axelena, Feleklek and Scioatalit, where it was originally discovered by Antinori in 



214 V. G. L. VAN SOMEREN 

1865 ; it also occurs at Youbdo in south-west Ethiopia where it was common 
(Ungemach) and was plentiful at Adola in southern Ethiopia. 

Charaxes brutus Cramer 

The species Charaxes bmtus ranges through a large part of Africa, from Ethiopia to 
the Atlantic coast of Senegal and Sierra Leone, then south to Angola. On the 
eastern side, it extends to the Natal area of South Africa. It has evolved into 
several distinct subspecies, but where two of these converge and tend to overlap, 
there is evidence of intergradation ; thus brutus brutus intergrades with brutus 
angustus in the mid Nigerian area, and angustiis intergrades to an even greater 
extent with alcyone in the eastern Rift Valley ; and alcyone with natalensis in 
Tanzania. There is evidence to suggest that junius meets somalicus in the south- 
west of Ethiopia. It is a forest, woodland and heavy savanna species, and since 
suitable habitats exist in almost continuous sequence throughout its range, clear- 
cut ecological barriers hardly exist. The species has extended to some of the 
islands in the Gulf of Guinea, and also to the islands off the east coast. 

The insular race antiquus Joicey & Talbot of Sao Thom6 clearly exhibits relation- 
ship to mainland bruttis, but that of Fernando Po has not diverged from the mainland 
race. On the other hand, the insect found in Madagascar, andara Ward, has a very 
distinctive female which has resulted from complete separation over millions of 
years. It should, in my opinion, be considered a distinct species. The fact that the 
genitalia of andara is very similar to that of brutus is of little significance, for many 
well-defined species of Charaxes have almost identical genitalia. 

Rothschild (1900) recognized five subspecies and since that date one more insular 
race has been added ; several forms have been described. I propose to deal with 
each in geographical sequence. 

Charaxes brutus brutus Cramer 
(PI. 3, figs 25-26, Map 4) 

Papilio eques Achivus brutus Cramer, 1779 : 82, pi. 241. Locality : Cape d. g. Hoffn. [Patria 

falsa.]. 
Papilio Eques Achivus cajus Jablonsky & Herbst, 1790 : 65. Locality : Cap. d. g. Hoffn. 

[Patria falsa.]. 

For full synonomy vide Rothschild, 1900 : 423. Corrected type-locality : 
Guinea-Sierra Leone. 

This is a black species with white bands crossing both wings, the hind portion of 
the fore wing band coinciding with the costal portion of the hind wing band. 

MALE. Fore wing length 42-44 mm. Upperside. Fore wing, ground colour black, with 
slight greeny sheen toward base. Disc of wing crossed by a white or slightly yellowish creamy 
band, widest at the hind margin at la-ib, 8-9 mm wide and contiguous ; spots from 2-7 of 
decreasing size and well separated so that the band appears broken and tapers toward the costa. 
Margin with small internervular white dots or lines, distinct or vestigial. Hind wing, ground 
colour as fore, slightly more greyish toward inner fold, which shades to rufous along the inner 



REVISIONAL NOTES ON AFRICAN CHARAXES 




2i6 V. G. L. VAN SOMEREN 

edge and above the anal angle. Disc of wing crossed by a white band, widest at costa, the band 
almost parallel-sided, then tapering at inner fold to above the anal angle. Average width of 
band 8-10 mm, usually bordered by bluish scaling. Tornus or anal lobe with two bluish dots 
and sometimes one in space above. Margin of wing serrate, with sharply pointed tails at veins 
2 and 4, of about equal length, 5 mm. Underside. Fore wing, ground colour at bases of wing 
chestnut, shading to greyish at bases of la-ib in fore wing. Basal half of costal vein white. 
Subcostal area, including the cell, crossed by irregular shaped black bars boldly outlined in 
silvery white ; two similar marks in ib and 2 and one sub-basal in 3 ; the outer spots accen- 
tuating the graduated white bar on its inner border. Ground colour on distal portion of wing 
olive-brown, with a continuous series of somewhat triangular black marks narrowly outlined 
distally in white in the postdiscal line ; the black marks at tornus with more conspicuous 
bluish white margins ; margin with black marks at end of veins, with white fringe in between. 
Hind wing ornamented with angular black marks, long ovoid in subcostal area, more elongate 
to linear toward inner fold, all marks boldly outlined in silvery white ; a series of black marks 
boldly accentuating the proximal edge of the white discal bar. Ground colour of distal portion 
of wing olive-brown, crossed by an intricate pattern of two rows of black marks connected by 
silvery blue criss-cross lines on a chestnut ground ; spot at anal angle more solidly black, with 
two bluish white central dots ; margin with strong black lunules narrowly bluish internally. 

FEMALE. Very similar to the male but generally larger ; fore wing length 45-47 mm. 
Upperside. Fore wing, ground colour black as in the male but slightly more brownish toward 
the base of the wing. Hind wing, as in the male. Discal bars white or slightly creamy yellow- 
ish, in general form conforming to that of the male, but bolder, the hind wing bar extending into 
the inner fold above the anal angle. In this sex also, the fore and hind wing bars are of about 
equal width at the point of overlap, so that the bands appear continuous and unbroken. (Cf. 
angustus, in this respect.) Border of wing black to edge ; margin serrate ; tails longer than in 
the male, the upper one usually the longer. 

Range : The nominate race is distributed from Guinea-Sierra Leone, Liberia and 
Ivory Coast to western Nigeria. There appears to be some intergrading with the 
next race in N.E. Nigeria. 



Charaxes brutus angustus Rothschild 
(PI. 3, figs 27-30, Map 4) 

Charaxes brutus angustus Rothschild, 1900 : 432. 

Rothschild compared this race with the southern natalensis Staudinger which is 
confusing, and not with nominate brutus, which it more closely resembles. The 
conspicuous difference on the upper side is the narrowness of the fore and hind wing 
discal bars which do not coincide at the point of overlap, that of the upper wing 
being offset. 

MALE. Fore wing length 43-46 mm. Upperside. Fore wing, ground colour black, with 
slight greenish sheen over basal area. Discal bar white or slightly tinged yellowish cream, 
extending from the hind margin to subcosta, arranged as in the nominate race, but differing 
markedly in the width of the marks in ia-ib-2 which are reduced to 3-4mm wide on the proximal 
side, so that at the point of overlap with the band of the hind wing is offset distally to the band 
of the fore wing. Margin with very slight trace of whitish spots, or immaculate ; margin 
slightly incurved above 3. Hind wing band white, widest at costa, 5-6 mm, tapering toward 
the inner fold above the anal angle, but not crossing it ; the band almost straight on inner 
border but slightly curved on outer. Basal area greenish black shading to brownish on inner 
fold. Anal lobe with two blue dots, a blue spot in area above, and a trace of one beyond, 



REVISIONAL NOTES ON AFRICAN CHARAXES 217 

opposite upper tail ; margin with narrow white interspaces present or absent. Margin serrate ; 
tails 4 mm long, of equal length, or lower one slightly shorter. Underside. Colour and pattern 
as in nominate race but slightly paler, the white bars narrower. 

FEMALE. Fore wing length 46-52 mm, thus larger than the male ; the outer margin only 
slightly incurved. Upperside. Fore wing, ground colour as in the male, but basal areas more 
greenish brown ; bands of wings similar in shape but bolder, bar of hind wing extending through 
the inner fold above anal angle. Two blue spots in anal lobe larger ; margin serrate and tails 
well formed as in the male. Underside. As in the male, but ground colour slightly paler and 
the submarginal black marks and those in the postdiscal row showing up more clearly. 

Specimens from the island of Fernando Po are similar in pattern and colour to those of the 
mainland ; they may be slightly larger, but not always so. 

Variations : Two aberrations have been described and named, viz. fractifascia Le Cerf, 
1923 : 365. Gabon ; nigrescens Le Moult, 1933 : 17, T. 4, fig. 9. Etoumbe, Moyen Congo. 

Two aberrations taken by Mr T. H. E. Jackson's African collector in the Moyen Congo are 
figured (PL 3, figs 29-30). 

Fig. 29 depicts a male with the fore wing bar almost completely obliterated by black scaling, 
and barely indicated. The hind wing however is normal. On the underside the usual chestnut 
ground colour of the basal area is replaced by creamy white ; the margin border is greyish, so 
that the postdiscal series of black triangular spots are conspicuous. The hind wing is however 
more or less normal though the chestnut ground colour is paler. Locality : French Equatorial 
Africa, Kata Forest, Ouesso, vii-59. 

Fig. 30 depicts a male with the usual white bars of the fore and hind wings reduced to a 
series of dyslegnic spots, those of the fore wing not reaching the subcosta, and only slightly 
indicated in la. The underside exhibits a strong development of melanism in the basal 2/3rd 
of the fore wing up to the discal line which is reduced in width. On the hind wing the 
normal chestnut ground colour is replaced by white, but with heavy black streaks in the 
subcostal region and with a large black mark at the base of the cell. Locality : French 
Equatorial Africa, Kata Forest, Ouesso, viii. 59. 

Range : The subspecies angustus ranges from northern Angola, Kasai and 
Katanga, central Congo and the Kivu region to the Semliki Valley and western 
Uganda in an eastward direction ; on the western side it extends from Moyen 
Congo, Gabon, Central African Republic and Cameroon to eastern Nigeria. It also 
occurs on the island of Fernando Po. 

We must now consider an aggregate occurring in the southern Sudan, the northern 
and eastern areas of Uganda and in N.W. Kenya. These specimens have usually 
been referred to in literature as brutus brutus Cramer. (Vide Rothschild, 1900 ; 
Carpenter, 1928 ; van Someren, 1928 ; Stoneham, 1964.) However, this aggregate 
is separated from nominate brutus by brutus angustus. (Vide distribution ante, and 
Map 4.) They are variable, some exhibiting the characters of angustus, i.e. the narrow 
fore wing bars in areas la-ib, and the comparatively narrow hind wing bar ; others 
have an expansion of the fore wing bar on the hind margin, and a widening of the 
bar in the costal region of the hind wing. 

In my view, they represent a transitional aggregate between brutus angustus and 
brutus alcyone Stoneham, and are unstable. (Vide note on brutus alcyone, post.) 

Charaxes brutus junius Oberthur 1883 
(PI. 3, fig. 31. PI. 4, fig. 32, Map 4) 

Charaxes brutus vox. junius Oberthiir, 1880 : 166. 



2i8 V. G. L. VAN SOMEREN 

Charaxes junius Oberthiir, 1883 : 728. 

Char axes junius f. ragazzi Storace, 1948 : 132. 

Characterized by the very narrow creamy yellowish white bars of fore and hind 
wings and strong marginal spots on both fore and hind wings. 

MALE. Fore wing length 42-44 mm. Upperside. Fore wing, ground colour black, with 
slight olive-brown at base of fore wing, more brownish on hind wing, shading to greyish brown 
on inner fold. Fore wing with comparatively narrow yellowish cream bar crossing the wing 
from about mid hind margin to subcosta ; widest at hind margin, 6 mm, the spots gradually 
decreasing in size ; the marks in la-ib separated by black vein ; the general arrangement of 
the spots similar to that of angustus. Margin of wing with conspicuous ochreous spots between 
veins. Hind wing, bar very slightly wider than that of fore at costa, of even width to 4, then 
narrowing slightly toward inner fold and crossing this above anal angle. Anal lobe with two 
blue dots. Margin of wing only slightly serrate, more dentate. Tails robust and sharply 
pointed, 5-4 mm long. Underside. The basic pattern similar to that of other brutus ssp., but 
the ground colour is less deep chestnut and the distal portion of the fore wing more brownish, 
less olive ; the bars are less strongly black-centred ; the postdiscal black spots less intense 
black except toward the hind angle. The discal band is creamy ; margin of wing distinctly 
ochreous, broken by intermediate black spots. On the hind wing the basal bars are mainly 
chestnut, thinly outlined in silvery white ; the discal bar creamy, while the postdiscal black is 
limited, the upper marks are more arrow-shaped, but the two toward the anal angle are distinct 
black rings with bluish ocelli. The marginal border is strongly ochreous, black edged with white 
internervular fringe. 

FEMALE. Very similar to the male but much larger, fore wing length 46-48 mm. Upperside. 
Ground colour rather browner than male especially at base of wings and along the inner fold of 
the hind wing. Creamy discal bands on fore and hind wing broader throughout ; marginal 
spots on fore wing distinct. Hind wing ochreous lunules well marked. Underside. As in the 
male, but pattern bolder. 

I have not been able to examine the form ragazzi Storace. 

Range : This race is apparently limited to the Shoa districts of western Ethiopia, 
and is recorded from Sciotalit and Feleklek (Antinori). 

Charaxes brutus somalicus Rothschild 

(PI. 4, fig. 33, Map 4) 
Charaxes brutus somalicus Rothschild, 1900 : 432. 

Characterized by the very narrow discal bars of both wings which are yellowish 
cream to ochre. Spots on margin of both wings small. 

MALE. Fore wing length 40-43 mm. Upperside. Fore wing, ground colour black with 
slight purplish brown sheen on bases of wings, more greyish on inner fold. The fore wing band 
yellow-creamy white, very narrow throughout, the spots in za-ib not more than 3-4 mm wide ; 
the remaining spots gradually reduced in size as the band tapers toward the costa. Marginal 
spots small but clear. Hind wing, the band is widest at costa, 4 mm, then tapers to 2 mm at 
inner fold where it is slightly ochreous ; the mark at the costa set in so that the hind wing band 
is ' stepped ' and not in line with the hind marginal spot of the fore wing. The margin carries 
dark ochreous lunules, sometimes obscured ; two blue spots present in the anal angle ; margin 
of wing slightly dentate. Tails short, robust, 3-4 mm long. Underside. Fore wing, ground 
colour deep chestnut-brown at basal 2/3rds, the distal portion of the wing brownish olive ; 
the bars and spots of the fore wing greyish rather than black, with narrow black and white 



REVISIONAL NOTES ON AFRICAN CHARAXES 219 

edges. The discal band creamy ; the postdiscal triangular black spots narrowly edged greyish, 
those at the tornus with more greyish distally ; margin with ochreous spots, slightly blackish 
in between. Hind wing basal bars and lines chestnut finely outlined in white ; discal creamy 
bars strong and clear-cut. Distal portion of wing paler chestnut ; the postdiscal series of black 
spots distinct, narrowly edged greyish distally ; the black spot with double purplish blue dots 
in anal angle ringed with deep ochreous which is continued up the margin ; edge black. 
FEMALE. I have not been able to examine this sex, and can find no description. 

Range : Found mainly in the southern districts of Ethiopia, ranging from the 
Harar highlands in the east to Adola in the south, then crossing the Rift to Youbdo 
in the west. Carpenter reports some evidence of transition toward ' bmtus ' [sic] in 
the Didinga Mts region, but this needs clarification. 



Charaxes brutus alcyone Stoneham 
(PI. 4, figs 34-35, Map 4) 

Charaxes brutus alcyone Stoneham, 1943 : 3. 

Charaxes brutus natalensis van Someren & Rogers, 1928 [nee Staudinger & Schatz, 1886]. 

Very similar to natalensis Staudinger & Schatz, with which it has hitherto been 
associated. It is of interest to note that when Rothschild wrote his Charaxes 
Monograph in 1900, he records the statement, under the heading brutus natalensis, 
' not yet recorded from the coast districts of British East Africa.' He, however, 
records this race from Kilimanjaro and the coastal belt of German East Africa (now 
Tanzania). Specimens from Nandi, N.W. Kenya, are stated to agree better with 
nominate brutus than with angustus. I have already pointed out that these insects 
are not typical brutus but are a mixed aggregate. We now know that a race of 
brutus does extend all along the Kenya coast and inland to the Kikuyu country east 
of the Rift Valley and that west of the Rift we find a mixed aggregate or cline, 
largely tending toward angustus. The coastal insect has received the name alcyone 
Stoneham, and though the characters of the race are not outstandingly different 
from those of natalensis, they are sufficient to warrant recognition. 

MALE. Fore wing length 40 mm (average). Upper side. Differs from natalensis mainly in 
the formation of the creamy white bar of the fore wing, which is straighter on the distal border, 
less strongly curved, the three upper spots being in line ; the mark in area 2 is larger, thus the 
band does not taper so rapidly from this point to the costa. The marginal white spots usually 
larger and more distinct. The white band on the hind wing slightly wider, being extended 
basad ; the margin with more conspicuous white triangles or lunules. 

FEMALE. The same characters as those of the male are present, to a greater degree, in the 
female, the hind wing band being very wide and expanded proximad. Underside. Very similar to 
that of natalensis, the white bands stronger generally, while the distal portion of the fore wing 
ground colour is paler, the angular marks less extended. 

Range : The coastal belt of Kenya and hinterland, extending inland to the eastern 
side of the Rift Valley ; also in the adjacent coast of Tanzania. 



220 V. G. L. VAN SOMEREN 

Charaxes brutus natalensis Staudinger & Schatz 

(PI. 4, figs 36-37. Map 4) 

Charaxes brutus var. natalensis Staudinger & Schatz, 1886 : 169. 
Charaxes brutus var. Butler, 1865 : 625. 

MALE. Fore wing length 40-41 mm. FEMALE. Fore wing length 45 mm. Upperside. 
This race is characterized in both sexes by the white fore wing bar, which tapers from the hind 
margin to 2, then more rapidly up to subcosta. Margin with small ochreous spots on veins in 
fore wing and some indication of white dashes in the serrations of the hind wing. Hind wing 
white bar with bluish borders wider than in brutus brutus. Underside. Ground colour slightly 
paler chestnut in basal areas but black, white-outlined marks strongly developed ; white bars 
strong ; submarginal triangular marks well developed in fore wing ; those of the hind wing 
more in the form of irregular ocelli ; marginal border broad, edge black ; margin of hind wing 
strongly serrate. 

Range : From the Natal district of South Africa, northward through Rhodesia, 
Zambia, Malawi and northern Mozambique to Tanzania. 

Biological note. The early stages of most of the races have been recorded. 
Numerous food plants are recorded and these include : Euphorbiaceae, Fluggea 
microcarpa ; Tiliaceae, Grewia forbesi & Grewia sp. ; Melanthaceae, Bersama sp. ; 
Meliaceae, Turraea sp., Ekebergia reupelliana, Melia volkensii, Melia azarach ; 
Sapindaceae, Philodiscus zambesiacus. The great variety of food plants accounts 
for the wide distribution of the species. It is of interest to note that although 
eggs are freely laid on Melia azarach (Tiliaceae) (an exotic, often called Cape or 
Persian Lilac), the larvae when hatched, refuse to feed and die ; they can however 
be raised on this plant in captivity. 

On three occasions I have found a female brutus ' in cop ' with a male candiope in 
a ' charaxes trap '! One such female was caged and she laid a batch of eggs which 
all produced normal brutusl 

Charaxes brutus antiquus Joicey & Talbot 
(PI. 4, figs 38-39* Ma P 4) 

Charaxes brutus antiquus Joicey & Talbot, 1926 : 1-5. 

Characterized by the thick tails in both sexes and the presence of a series of pale 
lunules along the admargin of the hind wing. 

MALE. Fore wing length 42 mm. Upperside. Ground colour black with a slight greeny 
sheen at base of fore wing, more greenish on hind wing ; the inner fold of the hind wing more 
greyish. Fore wing, creamy white bar widest at the hind margin, 6 mm in la, the inner end of 
the mark oblique, the remaining marks decreasing in size rather rapidly toward the costa ; 
margin of wing with small white spots. Hind wing, discal bar extending from the costa, where 
it is 7 mm wide, and slightly inset to the mark on the fore wing in la ; the bar is of about equal 
width or slightly expanded over the cell area, then tapers to the inner fold above the anal angle ; 
the bar is slightly greenish on its borders. Admargin of wing with whitish lunules which are 
rather obscured in the region of the tails ; margin black and slightly dentate, but tails are thick 
and robust, upper 6 mm, lower 5 mm and more pointed ; anal lobe with double bluish dots. 
Underside. Fore wing, ground colour chestnut at base, rather more ferruginous on distal 



REVISIONAL NOTES ON AFRICAN CHARAXES 221 

portion of wing. Bars and spots in basal area black with strong white edging, the spots border- 
ing the white discal band stronger black. Postdiscal triangular black marks lightly bordered 
with greyish white, the marks at the tornus strong ; margin with alternating black and white 
spots. Hind wing, basal area chestnut ground colour with silvery white marks enclosing chest- 
nut, but smaller spots adjoining the discal bar, blacker. Discal bar silvery white with irregular 
outer border offset by a zigzag line of strong chestnut turning to black above the anal angle. 
Postdiscal row of chestnut triangles, edged greyish internally, is offset by a row of black lunules 
which form ocelli at the anal angle. Admargin with a more orangy line, edges whitish distally, 
and accentuated by the black margin. Tails black. 

FEMALE. Fore wing length 50 mm. Upperside. Pattern of wing generally similar to that 
of the male but ground colour rather more brownish black. Fore wing creamy bar similar to 
that of male but bolder, the mark on hind margin la n mm wide. Margin with rather obscure 
white internervular spots, more distinct toward the apex of the wing. Hind wing basal area 
brownish black with slight olive tinge, shading to greyish on the inner fold. Discal band broad, 
10 mm at costa, creamy white, with irregular outer border in mid area, tapers toward the inner 
fold but does not cross it. Admarginal pale lunules somewhat obscured ; edge black, with a 
very narrow white fringe. Tails thick and robust, upper 10 mm long. Underside. Generally 
similar to that of the male ; fore and hind wing bands silvery white and strong. 

Range : Known only from the island of Sao Tome in the Gulf of Guinea. 

Charaxes andara Ward 
(PI. 5, figs 40-42, Map 4) 

Charaxes andara Ward, 1873 : 209. 

I referred to this insect, very briefly, in the introductory remarks, where I gave 
my opinion that andara should rank as a species, distinct from bmtus, and stated 
my reasons. The sexes are dissimilar, thus differing markedly from any mainland 
race of brutus. That andara may have been derived, many millions of years ago, 
from a common ancestor with brutus is not denied, but one must realize that Madagas- 
car now has several endemic species peculiar to the island. The relationship, 
if any, of andara to brutus might be clarified by inter-breeding. 

MALE. Fore wing length 40-42 mm. Upperside. Fore wing, ground colour black with a 
strong greenish sheen over the cell and base, blacker on distal portion. Margin bluntly dentate, 
with a distinct projection at upper part of ib, the dentate appearance enhanced by the strong 
ochreous white internervular spots ; the wing appears strongly incised in area 2. Discal white 
band, strongly bluish on borders at la-ib where the marks are 7-8 mm wide and conjoined, 
tapers to 2-3 where the marks are free ; the spot in 4 is much smaller and linear, that in 5 set 
out, followed by two smaller spots in 6-7, so that the bar is strongly ' kinked ' at 4-5. Hind 
wing, basal area black with slight greenish sheen, becoming greyish on the inner fold which is 
edged with rufous. Discal white band, which is 5-7 mm wide at costa, bulges inward over the 
cell area ; the outer border is here slightly curved and strongly edged with blue, but on the 
inner border the band tapers toward the inner fold, but stops short at this point. The outer 
border of the wing is blacker, with a bluish sheen ; the margin strongly serrate ; each serration 
with a white V at base ; anal lobe greenish on edge, carrying two lilac spots ; the tails long, 
thin and sharply pointed, 7 mm. Underside. Fore wing, basal ground colour light chestnut, the 
distal portion of the wing more orange-olive. The subcostal marks are very strongly edged 
with satiny white, the marks at bases of cellules blacker, with narrower white edging. The 
discal white bar strong but irregular in outline, especially on the outer border at 2-4. The 
postdiscal series of black marks rather rounded, outlined in bluish grey, particularly on the 
O uter aspect, thus forming ocelli, the black marks more angled at the tornus ; margin with 



222 V. G. L VAN SOMEREN 

black at end of veins with white in between. Hind wing, basal area lighter chestnut, the basal 
marks and longitudinal lines narrowly black-centred with white borders ; the discal satiny 
white bar, narrower than above, narrowly crosses the inner fold at an angle and is flanked 
proximally by black linear marks, and distally by a darker chestnut zone carrying a zigzag 
olive line. The submarginal row of linear marks shaded with lilac-grey proximally, terminates 
at the anal angle in a chestnut ocellus bearing lilac dots ; margin orange-olive, more olive at 
anal lobe ; edge black. 

FEMALE. Usually larger than the male, but occasionally as small ; fore wing length 42- 
47 mm. Upperside. Fore wing, differs from the usual brutus female in that the bar is expanded 
from 4-7 and consists of conjoined discal and postdiscal marks, the mark in 4 extending toward 
the end of the cell ; moreover, the bar is largely rufous orange in colour. Ground colour in 
basal area deep brownish black with slight greeny sheen ; the discal area blacker with distinct 
orange spots on the margin, though small at tornus below the projection at upper part of ib. 
Margin of wing less incurved than in the male. The discal bar is unusually wide, white in areas 
za-ib, slightly orange distally, width at hind margin 12 mm in large specimens, usually 10 mm 
in average females, the mark in 2 quadrate and orange, that in 3 smaller and quadrate or angled 
distally, followed by a long linear orange mark basal in 4, the long orange mark in 5 set out ; 
above this the bar divides into two, discal and postdiscal, two marks each in 67, though those 
in 6 may be slightly conjoined. Hind wing, basal area more greyish with slight greenish bloom 
turning grey on inner fold and slightly rufous on margin. The discal bar white, edged with 
bluish particularly on outer border, 7-8 mm wide at costa expanding over the cell area to 10-12 
mm, then tapering towards but not crossing the inner fold. Border of wing deep brownish 
black ; anal lobe with two bluish green dots. Margin with conspicuous orange lunules shaded 
greenish at anal lobe ; margin strongly serrate ; tails long and thin, sharply pointed, 10 mm, 
with a definite tail at 3 in between, 6 mm long. Underside. Pattern as in the male but bolder, 
the basal chestnut paler but the orange border wider. 

There is some superficial resemblance on the upperside between these females and those of 
Charaxes cacuthis ; both are limited to Madagascar. 

Range : Limited to Madagascar, the species is generally distributed on the island 
but the majority of specimens come from the eastern side. Variation in size has been 
noted. The species has been bred in numbers but unfortunately no record kept of 
the foodplant. 



SYSTEMATIC LIST 

Charaxes phoebus Butler 

Charaxes phoebus Butler, 1765. Type locality : ' Abyssinia '. 

Range : Somewhat restricted and confined to N.W., W. & S. 
Ethiopia. 



Charaxes brutus (Cramer) 

Charaxes brutus brutus (Cramer, 1779). Type locality (corrected) : Guinea-Sierra 
Leone. 

Range : Guinea-Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana to 
western Nigeria. 



REVISIONAL NOTES ON AFRICAN CHARAXES 223 

brutus angustus Rothschild, 1900. Type locality : Upoto, Bangala 
country, Kasai in southern Congo. 

Range : northern Angola, Kasai, central Congo, Moyen Congo, 
Central African Republic, Fernando Po, Cameroon to eastern 
Nigeria ; eastward to the Kivu region and the Semliki Valley to 
western Uganda, where it meets a cline in eastern Uganda, S. 
Sudan toward alcyone Stoneham. 

A cline toward alcyone, in the high country east ot the Rift Valley. 

brutus junius Oberthur, 1883. Type locality : Ethiopia, Shoa. 

Range : western Ethiopia in the Shoa country ; Sciotalit and 
Feleklek. 

brutus somalicus Rothschild, 1900. Type locality : Harar Highlands. 

Range : the southern districts of Ethiopia, Adola, and crossing 
the Rift into Youbdo country to the west, and S.E. Sudan. 

brutus alcyone Stoneham, 1943. Type locality : Dida Creek, north of 
Mombasa, Kenya. 

Range : the coastal belt of Kenya, extending inland to the 
eastern side of the Rift to Mt Kenya. Also in adjacent coastal 
area of Tanzania. 

brutus natalensis Staudinger & Schatz, 1886. Type locality : Natal, 
South Africa. 

Range : from the Natal district northward through Rhodesia to 
Malawi, northern Mozambique to Tanzania, where it meets 
alcyone in the north east. 

brutus antiquus Joicey & Talbot, 1926. Type locality : Sao Tome, in the 
Gulf of Guinea. 

Range : only known from the island of Sao Tome. 

Charaxes andara Ward 

Charaxes andara Ward, 1873. Type locality : Madagascar. 

Range : Known only from the island of Madagascar. 

4. CHARAXES BOUETI FEISTHAMEL and CHARAXES LASTI GROSE SMITH 

Charaxes boueti Feisthamel 

References to this species in literature present a rather confused picture, due 
mainly to the following factors, the paucity of nominotypical material, the vari- 
ability of the species and the association with it of a rather similar though distinct 
species, Ch. lasti Grose Smith. The picture is further complicated by the curious 
discontinuity of distribution, which is difficult to explain. 

The species can be divided into two groups, on evidence of pattern, as detailed 
below ; 

GROUP i. boueti boueti, boueti ghanaensis, and boueti macdounii ; 
GROUP 2. boueti rectans and boueti alticola. 



224 v - G. L. VAN SOMEREN 

Originally described from Casamanca, Senegambia, in 1850, this species is still 
badly represented in collections ; the few examples of the nominate race all come 
from the extreme west : Senegal, Portuguese Guinea and Sierra Leone. It has not 
been recorded from Liberia (Fox, 1965), nor from the Ivory Coast in spite of extensive 
collecting. A distinct race is recorded from the borders of Togo and Ghana. The 
species is not recorded from Nigeria, Cameroons nor the northern area of the Central 
African Republic. This is difficult to explain, since suitable habitats containing the 
known food-plant Oxytenanthera (Solid Bamboo), Gramineae, occur throughout the 
savannah belt which extends from western Abyssinia to Senegal ; (Zones 16 & 17, 
UNESCO Vegetational Map, 1959). Even more remarkable is the fact that in the 
eastern extremity of these zones, a representative of Group 2, viz., boueti redans, 
occurs. Equally strange is the fact that the third representative of Group i, viz., 
boueti macclounii occurs in the areas of south Katanga, Zambia, Malawi, S. Tanzania 
and Rhodesia, and this is separated from western representatives by the whole of 
the vast low tropical forest of the Congo. The food plants are Oxytenanthera 
abyssinica and 0. brounii. 

The second member of Group 2, viz., boueti alticola, is limited to the high Bamboo 
zones of the Kivu-Kigezi countries, where it feeds on the Alpine Bamboo, Arun- 
dinaria alpinus, a hollow species. 

Variability of the species takes two forms : a) a pale, lightly marked form ; b) a 
dark, heavily marked one. Moreover, the undersides may be lightly or heavily 
marked in the two forms. This variation is not seasonal as they can be taken at 
one and the same time. 

Talbot (1927) expressed the view that alticola Griinberg was a distinct species, 
basing this opinion on the evidence of the very strong pattern and rather distinctive 
white area in the hind wings of the males. He suggested that alticola was mimetic 
of Char axes ansorgei ruandana. Though the two may occur in the same general 
area, their habitats are different and do not coincide ; alticola is restricted to bamboo 
zones and ansorgei to forest, and where the two habitats may be contiguous, alticola 
outnumbers ansorgei in the ratio 100-1. This was my experience at the Kanaba 
Gap, in Kigezi, where I spent three weeks in 1950 and again in 1952. 

Talbot failed to note that in female boueti rectans there is a pattern transitional 
between that of alticola and macclounii, but tending more to the former, as is to be 
expected. 

GROUP i. 

Charaxes boueti boueti Feisthamel 

(PI. 5, figs 43-48, Map 5) 

Charaxes boueti Feisthamel, 1850 : 261. 

There are two forms, one with strongly marked pattern on an orange ground, the 
other lightly marked on a paler ground. 

MALE. Fore wing length 34-36 mm. Upperside. Fore wing, ground colour rufous orange, 
slightly darker at basal triangle, border black with conspicuous orange spots on outer edge, 
increasing in size from apex to ib. Median black spots arranged as follows : an inverted 



REVISIONAL NOTES ON AFRICAN CHARAXES 



225 




226 V. G. L. VAN SOMEREN 

' comma ' mark beyond end of cell, a linear mark crosses the sub-bases of 5-6, followed by 
crescentic marks of diminishing size sub-basal in 3-ib, and a larger black mark crosses the sub- 
bases of 7 & 6. The upper part of the disco-postdiscal orange bars are separated by a broader 
series of black spots crossing 7-6 & 5-4 in a curve and slightly in 3. Hind wing, ground colour 
rufous orange in the base, followed by a brighter orange discal band, slightly paler at the costa 
and tapering to above the anal angle ; inner fold paler with some long greyish hair-like scales 
along ic. Submargin with a bold black line of contiguous spots from costa in 7-3, then separate 
smaller spots in 2 to anal angle, the spot at anal angle with two white dots ; anal angle greenish. 
Marginal border orange with narrow black edge ; tails sharply pointed, 3 mm long. Under- 
side. Rather variable, pattern may be strong or almost completely suppressed, irrespective of 
upperside pattern. 

Variation : a. Fore wing, ground colour ochreous buff, the discal and postdiscal zones 
paler, the distal border of the wing more greyish. Cell area paler, crossed by 3 wavy rusty 
lines, a comma mark at end of cell, then rusty lines in median series at sub-base 3, becoming 
black and double in 2-ib, that in sub-base ib usually strong ; the double black mark at tornus 
ib strong and sometimes extended linearly towards border on a greyish ground. Discal and 
postdiscal pattern suppressed, but border with ochreous buff spots on admargin. Hind wing, 
ground colour ochreous buff, paler in the discal line, accentuated proximally by a median greyish 
brown line with rusty borders extending from costa to above the anal angle but not crossing the 
end of the discal band ; the discal band often with a strong silvery sheen, bordered distally by a 
series of lunate buff spots outlined in rusty greyish ; submarginal band more greyish toward 
anal angle, which is greenish with two black dots. Admarginal spots buff, edged distally on 
edge by more rusty lunules. 

Variation : b. Ground colour more strongly ochreous buff, slightly more greyish on the 
outer borders. Fore wing pattern almost completely suppressed except for the faint rusty lines 
in the cell. Black marks in sub-bases of ib and 2 distinct but reduced in size ; tornal black 
marks distinct but smaller. Hind wing ground colour strongly ochreous buff ; pattern sup- 
pressed, although the silvery median line is still well marked but narrow. 

FEMALE. Fore wing length 40-42 mm. Upperside. Fore wing, ground colour rufous 
chestnut at base up to discal band in areas la 2 ; distal portion of wing blackish brown, margin 
with series of ochreous spots from apex to ib, all spots well separated. The disc of the wing 
with creamy ochre spots, the discal series as follows : two elongate marks in 6-5 followed by 
an elongate mark at base of 4, the marks in 3-1 b of increasing size, that in la, a streak. The 
postdiscal series of spots more rounded, the three subapical spots in 7-5 set in a curve, that in 
4 set in and followed by rounded free spots in 3-2, that in ib usually fused with discal mark in 
same area. Hind wing, basal area brownish, merging into the paler inner fold. Discal band 
creamy ochreous, clear-cut on the inner edge but distally flanked by more rufous ocelli with pale 
centres in 7-6. Submarginal band black, rather irregular on outer border, carrying white dots 
in 4-3 ; the anal angle olive-green with double white and black dots ; marginal border rufous 
ochreous, edged with black. Tails mostly black with slight ochre in mid line, 5 & 6 mm long. 
Underside. Fore wing, pattern strong ; the cell crossed by three rusty wavy lines ; the mark 
beyond the cell end U-shaped. The discal series of creamy spots as above but accentuated 
proximally with chestnut to black marks, double in 2, ovoid in ib ; the postdiscal series of 
creamy spots accentuated distally, and slightly less strongly proximally with black-brown, 
blacker in ib ; distal to this line is a zone of greyish lilac with the dark marks in ib & 2 linear. 
Hing wing with a strong pattern, the base and sub-base traversed by strong bands of brown 
with slight greyish mid line ; the creamy ochre discal band strong, extending from costa to 
above anal angle, tapering slightly and crossing the inner fold ; this band is distally bordered by 
creamy spots, largest toward costa and diminishing to lines toward the anal angle ; submargin 
with a series of greyish brown lunules accentuated proximally by a wavy dark brown line ; 
the admargin is ornamented by a series of creamy ochreous lunules accentuated distally by a 
more rusty zone, the lunules from anal angle to 4 with black dots, double in the olive anal 
angle ; extreme edge black with some white fringing between the veins. 



REVISIONAL NOTES ON AFRICAN CHARAXES 227 

Habitat : Savannah and light woodland with patches of Solid Bamboo. 

Range : The extreme western countries of the West Coast : Senegal, Portuguese 
Guinea, Sierra Leone. 

Charaxes boueti ghanaensis Rousseau-Decelle & Johnson 
(PI. 6, figs 49-50, Map 5) 

Charaxes boueti ghanaensis Rousseau-Decelle & Johnson, 1957 : I 5 I . P 1 - 62 - 

MALE. Fore wing length 37 mm. Upper side. Differs from nominate boueti of the western 
regions, in being more richly coloured ; the basal rufous orange more intense, but the discal 
and postdiscal orange spots of a lighter shade and in strong contrast to the base ; the black 
marks stronger. On the hind wing the basal area is deeper rufous brownish ; the discal rufous 
orange band is more intense ; the black sub-marginal band wider ; the marginal rufous orange 
border strongly edged with black. Tails slightly longer, 5-6 mm. Underside. Fore wing, 
pattern similar to the dark form in the nominate race, but stronger, the black marks at tornus 
and space above stronger ; the black mark in sub-base in ib in the form of a ring. Hind wing 
pattern stronger, the dark median bar strong and the silvery cream bands on either side well 
marked. 

FEMALE. Fore wing length 46 mm. Upperside. Fore wing, pattern very similar to that of 
the nominate form, but basal rufous orange strong ; the discal and postdiscal spots bolder, 
richer ochreous, well separated to area 2 ; admarginal spots more orange. Hind wing, basal 
area darker brownish and extending to the inner fold above the anal angle ; the discal band 
clear-cut on inner border, but upper spots of postdiscal line tending to be separated as distinct 
spots, more fused on lower section as a rufous orange band ; submarginal black band wider ; 
marginal orange border strong with marked black edge. Tails longish, 8-9 mm, lower one 
slightly upturned. Underside. Fore wing, generally similar to that of the nominate race but 
bolder, the submarginal row of ochreous spots well ringed in black ; the sub-basal black marks 
in ib and 2, strong. Hind wing, pattern bolder, the submarginal wavy dark line particularly 
strong, followed by a greenish grey zone ; the admarginal ochreous lunules bordered distally 
with rusty ochreous, strongly marked. 

Descriptions taken from a pair of paratypes in the British Museum (Nat. Hist.). 

Range : Known only from the savannah woodland around Vane near Amedzofe 
on the Togo-Ghana border at 3000 ft. Three males and three females taken by 
African collectors for F. L. Johnson. 

Charaxes boueti macclounii Butler 
(PI. 6, figs 51-53, Map 5) 

Charaxes lasti Trimen [nee Grose Smith], 1894 : 59, pi. 5, fig. 6. 
Charaxes macclounii Butler, 1895 : 252, pi. 15, fig. i. 
Charaxes ' lasti ' var. flav escens Lanz, 1896 : 142. 
Charaxes boueti var. macclounii Butler ; Aurivillius, 1899 : 235. 
Charaxes boueti macclounii Butler ; Talbot, 1927 : 109. 

MALE. Fore wing length 36-38 mm. Upperside. Fore wing, general ground colour richer 
rufous orange than nominate race, more closely approaching ghanaensis, but rather variable. 
Basal areas darker than disco-postdiscal bands ; black spots in median line stronger and 
extending to ib ; intermediate black spots between discal and postdiscal orange spots in upper 
half larger and more defined and extending to 2, and often to ib, thus separating the two rows ; 



228 V. G. L. VAN SOMEREN 

the upper postdiscal spots in 7-5 in a curve as in the nominate race and ghanaensis ; marginal 
rufous orange present but not so defined. Hind wing, basal area often darker ; the discal 
rufous orange, paler at costa, in discal line strongly offset by the black submarginal band, which 
is widest at upper half then tapering toward anal angle and often separated into spots, cul- 
minating in the greenish anal angle with its lilac and black spots. Orange border thus wider 
but black edge less strong. Tails short, upper 23 mm, lower 4-5 mm. The upperside may 
thus be strongly or lightly marked. (vide PI. 6, figs 51-52). Underside. The pattern may 
be strong or weak on a variable ground colour of pale sandy ochreous to dark greyish ochre. 
The forms are not seasonal. 

Variation : a. With a strong pattern. Fore wing, cell with three rusty brown irregular 
lines, and two lines beyond cell end. Marks in median line on proximal side of discal bar rusty 
brown in 6, 5 and 3, then black in 2, double in ib ; the discal bar creamy ochre, paler in xa-ib ; 
the postdiscal series of stronger ochreous spots, curved in sub-apex, are ringed in brownish to 
black ; a double black streak at tornus in ib ; margin with indistinct ochreous spots. Hind 
wing, basal area more greyish ochre crossed by rusty brown lines ; the median line strong and in 
line with the median series of the fore wing, accentuating the inner edge of the discal creamy 
band, which is widest at the costa and tapering to the inner fold above anal angle ; on its distal 
side is a series of lunate ochre spots accentuated by rusty brown internally and by brownish grey 
distally ; submarginal ochre line distinct, accentuated distally by an orange admarginal line ; 
edge ochreous with narrow black edge and some white internervular fringing. 

Variation : b. The whole ground colour more sandy ochreous. Fore wing, pattern only 
slightly indicated except for the two black marks in ib and the tornal black line on a greyish 
ground. Hind wing, pattern also obscured except for the median brownish line proximal to the 
discal band, which is narrow and may fade out above the anal angle. The anal black dots on a 
greenish ground well represented. 

Intermediates between these two variations often occur. 

FEMALE. A somewhat similar variation occurs in the females though the differences are not 
so striking. Fore wing length 43-45 mm. Upperside. Differing from those of the nominate 
race and ghanaensis in its generally bolder pattern. Basal area bright rufous chestnut ; 
median black spots bold ; the discal and postdiscal yellow-ochre bars bolder, the two series 
well separated to 2, and slightly in ib ; the marginal rufous orange spots not so bold and may 
be obscured. Hind wing discal band wider, clearcut on inner border, some rufous shading on 
the outer border ; an occasional dark spot present in 6-5 indicating a slight separation of the 
discal and postdiscal rows in these areas. Submarginal black band bold ; marginal rufous 
border wider, edged black. Anal angle greenish with black spots well marked. Underside. 

Variation : a. The basal and distal portions of the wings greyish ochre, paler in the fore 
wing cell. Pattern mainly as above but subdued ; rusty brown lines in the cell and in upper 
part of median line, black in ib and 2 ; the postdiscal creamy ochre spots margined proximally 
and distally in greyish ; the double mark at tornus black ; marginal spots subdued. Hind 
wing basal area greyish ochre with rusty brown lines faintly indicated ; median brownish line 
strong and clearly defining the inner edge of the discal ochre-cream band, the outer border 
carrying the row of postdiscal ochre lunules edged with brownish, and outwardly defined in 
greyish ; the submarginal area paler greyish ; the admarginal line ochre with the border more 
orange, finely edged in black. 

Variation : b. Pattern similar, but whole surface yellowish ochre. The median lines on 
both wings clearly defined. 

Intermediates between these two varieties occur and can be bred in one family. 

Range : South Katanga, Zambia, Rhodesia, Malawi, western, southern and 
eastern Tanzania to coast of Kenya. 



REVISIONAL NOTES ON AFRICAN CHARAXES 229 

GROUP 2. 

Charaxes boueti rectans Rothschild & Jordan 
(PI. 6, figs 54-55, Map 5) 

Charaxes boueti rectans Rothschild & Jordan, 1903 : 540. 

MALE. Very similar in general appearance on the upperside to the dark form of male mac- 
clounii but darker, and at once distinguished by the straight arrangement in the formation of 
the fore wing postdiscal spots, without any curving toward the costa in the sub-apex. Fore 
wing length 35-36 mm. Upperside. Fore wing, ground colour rich rufous orange slightly 
darker at the bases, distal portion of the fore wing black. A large black mark at end of the 
cell ; the median black spots strong often extending to ib. The rufous orange discal spots 
tend to be separated in ib-3 by intrusion of the black median spots in these areas ; the post- 
discal rufous orange spots arranged in a straight line from costa to 2, then conjoined with the 
discal mark in ib, but often with some black scales indicating line of junction. Marginal 
rufous orange spots of increasing size from apex to tornus in ib. Hind wing basal area dark as 
in fore wing, clearly defined from the rufous orange discal band in the subcostal area where it 
is paler, by a dark line ; there is also a suggestion of a division of the band into discal and post- 
discal by a slight line in this area ; the band is relatively broad to area 4 then tapers toward the 
inner fold above the anal angle. The submarginal black band of fairly uniform width ends at 
the anal angle in the olive patch with its lilac and black dots ; there are also two white dots on 
the margin between the tails ; the rufous orange border, widest at 7-6, tapers gradually to 
between the tails ; margin black. Tails thin, upper 5 mm, lower 7-8 mm. Underside. Fore 
wing, ground colour fore wing ochre-buff, slightly greyer on the border. Cell with three distinct, 
rather strong, wavy lines, followed by a double mark beyond cell end ; median marks strong, 
rusty brown at costa and becoming strongly black in 2 and double or conjoined in ib. Post- 
discal series of spots silvery to ochre, accentuated on both sides by brownish to black, the black 
marks strongest in 2 and at tornus in ib with slight darkening in za. Hind wing strongly 
patterned on a buffish ochre ground ; a narrow brown line at sub-base ; median brown band 
strongly accentuated on either side by silvery white, strongest in disc but fading out at inner 
fold ; postdiscal line of lunules silvery toward costa but fading out above anal angle ; the 
postdiscal brownish marks shading to greyish on submargin followed by a silvery ochre ad- 
marginal line which shades to greenish at the region of the tails, more green at anal angle, 
enhanced by black dots, double at anal angle. Border orange to upper tail narrowly edged with 
greyish to black. There is no great variation on the undersides in a long series of males available. 

FEMALE. Fore wing length 40-42 mm. Upperside. Coloration generally very similar to 
that of macclounii, but pattern considerably different. Fore wing, base of wing bright rufous 
chestnut ; distal portion of wing black ; median black marks strong. Discal yellow-ochre 
spots smaller, and more discrete : two costal marks of about same size, one above the other, 
elongate-rectangular, spot at base of 4 small and triangular, spots in 3-2 ovoid, that in ib large, 
rectangular with indent on inner side, mark in la a streak. Postdiscal spots arranged in a 
straight line from subcosta to hind margin, yellowish ochre to 3, then more rufous to hind margin, 
contiguous to but contrasting with the discal marks in same area. Admarginal spots orange- 
ochre from apex to hind angle in ib, where the spot is double. Hind wing, basal triangle 
darker and browner than fore, shading to greyish on the inner fold. Discal band narrow, ochre- 
yellow in colour, fading out toward the anal angle, flanked distally by more rufous postdiscal 
spots clearly defined at the costal end, ill-defined and merging into discal band in area 3 ; 
submarginal band black, wide but not strongly defined proximally but with white lines opposite 
the tails and at anal angle with its two black dots ; marginal border rusty ochre to lower tail, 
edged black. Tails long, orange at mid base, margins black, 7-9 mm. Underside. Generally 
similar to that of the male, with strongly contrasting pattern. Fore wing, ground colour in cell 
creamy ochre with three strong brown bars crossing it ; a double bar beyond, often U-shaped. 
Discal creamy marks strongly accentuated proximally by dark brown to black median lines, 



230 V. G. L. VAN SOMEREN 

double in ib ; postdiscal straight row of spots silvery ochre to silvery white accentuated on 
both sides by black, particularly in 2 and at tornus in ib ; admargin with ochreous lunules, 
clearly marked as a rule. Hind wing, basal area with strongly marked sub-basal and median 
bars forming a V enclosing a silvery line slightly edged in black. Discal band clearcut silvery 
whitish on inner border, more buffish grey distally, where it is outlined by an irregular tapering 
silvery line on the proximal side of the darker submarginal line, which extends to just above the 
anal angle ; admargin with silvery creamy lunules with black dots in spaces between the tails ; 
anal angle with greenish ground colour and two black dots ; margin golden-ochre shading 
olive toward the anal angle, lightly margined in black and white. 

Range : S.W. Ethiopia to Sudan and northern Uganda ; Karamoja and Metu, 
West Nile. Associated with areas of Solid Bamboo in savannah or low rockv hills. 



Charaxes boueti alticola Griinberg 
(PI. 6, figs 56-58, Map 5) 

Charaxes boueti var. alticola Griinberg, 1912 : 559. 

Charaxes alticola Griinberg ; Talbot, 1927 : 109 ; Id., 1932 : 9. 

Charaxes boueti alticola Griinberg ; Jackson, 1957 : 66. 

As will be noted from the above synonymy and the brief reference in the introduc- 
tion to this insect, some difference of opinion exists as to its status. My personal 
view is that it is a member of Group 2 of this species-complex, allied to boueti redans, 
since both are characterized by the almost straight arrangement of the postdiscal 
spots in the fore wing pattern in both sexes. Moreover, it will be noted that the 
underside coloration and pattern conform to that of other members of this species. 

Upper and underside coloration is variable, but the pattern is constant. 

FORM i. MALE. Fore wing length 35-38 mm. Upper side. Fore wing, ground colour at 
base bright rufous chestnut ; distal portion of wing black or blackish brown. A large quadrate 
black mark at end of cell followed by large median black marks which extend to the hind margin 
at i a. Discal rufous orange spots well separated and in almost a straight line except for that 
at base of 4, which is set well in, the mark in za and in lower part of ib extended distad and may 
be in contact with the postdiscal spots in these areas ; postdiscal rufous orange spots in an almost 
straight line from subcosta to la-ib, these spots usually well separated. Admarginal rufous 
orange spots large and distinct. Hind wing, basal area dark blackish brown, fading to greyish 
and buff on the inner fold. The discal band is narrow and pale orange to white at the costa 
widening in areas 5-2, where it is white in colour ; there is no indication of postdiscal spots 
but the band merges into the rufous orange zone, which is flanked by a row of contiguous black 
marks in the submarginal line ; border rufous orange, edged black ; anal angle with greenish 
spots ringed in black. Tails orange at base, black-bordered, short, thick at base 4-5 mm. 
Underside. Fore wing ground colour, greyish ochreous, paler in the cell and base of ib, usual 
rufous lines in the cell and at cell end ; discal and postdiscal spots barely indicated and separated 
by a series of brownish, rather dyslegnic marks from costa to ib ; a dark U-shaped mark, sub- 
basal in ib with a vertical double brownish mark at tornus. Hind wing, ground colour greyish 
ochre, base with a slightly darker greyish brown area, adjacent to the darker median band form- 
ing an open V and enclosing a silvery bar, the outer arm accentuated by narrow brownish edges ; 
the silvery discal bar is comparatively narrow, extending from costa to above anal angle, where 
it turns in toward the inner fold ; this bar narrowly edged distally by a narrow brown line ; 
postdiscal lunules hardly visible ; submarginal zone slightly greyish but hardly differentiated 
from the paler marginal border, which is narrowly edged with black ; anal angle with lilac and 
black dots on a greenish ground. 



REVISIONAL NOTES ON AFRICAN CHARAXES 231 

A slight variation of this form is characterised by its generally paler, more orange colour and 
less deep black in the fore wing. The hind wing, though dark at base, is brighter orange over 
the distal portion and the submarginal black spots are smaller and well separated. The under- 
side also exhibits a general paler colour, but the silvery bars are strong. 

FORM 2. Variation : a. A very dark form in which the basal area is the same colour as the 
distal portion of the wing, both being a very dark chestnut. The discal and postdiscal orange 
spots stand out in the darker ground. In the hind wing the basal triangle is very dark brownish 
black, but fading to greyish then buff on the inner fold. The white area of the discal bar in 
strong contrast, its upper portion may be whitish or all orange ; the submarginal spots are 
larger and contiguous ; the ocelli at the anal angle strong ; the marginal border darker rufous 
chestnut, edged in black. Underside. Ground colour greyish ochre or putty-coloured. Discal 
spots ochreous and separated from the postdiscal series by a wide band of chocolate from costa 
to ib. Submarginal area of wing greyish ochre with almost complete suppression of the 
marginal lunules ; the sub-basal U-mark in ib chocolate and the tornal double vertical mark 
strong. 

Hind wing pattern as in Form i, but with only the proximal discal band, silvery. The sub- 
basal area divided up by rufous lines especially in the inner fold. The rest of the pattern as in 
Form i, but stronger. 

Variation : b. The ground colour is more greyish ochre, except in the fore wing cell, which 
is buffish ; the discal spots are obscured in the upper portion ; the postdiscal spots also slightly 
obscured but the brownish intermediate band is stronger up to ib. On the hind wing, the 
pattern is stronger, the sub-basal and discal bands strongly silvery, the latter with dark brownish 
edges, but the pattern in the postdiscal zone and margin rather obscured. (PL 6, figs 56-57.) 

FEMALE. Fore wing length 42-45 mm. There are two forms. 

FORM i . Upper side. The base of the fore wing is chestnut and in contrast with the blacker 
distal portion of the wing. There are indications of two dark spots in the cell ; median black 
spots distinct. The discal creamy spots are arranged as in the male, well separated up to la ; 
the postdiscal spots in a straight line from apex to ib are slightly more ochreous ; marginal 
spots ochreous. Hind wing basal area brownish black to greyish on inner fold. Discal band 
white, widest at costa to 3, then tapering to above anal angle. Postdiscal spots, contiguous in 
7, are clear in the upper half but fading out toward area 4. Submarginal zone black, with olive 
anal mark with black dots surmounted by white to lilac lines well developed ; border of wing 
rufous brown, ornamented with distinct internervular ochre streaks. Underside. Fore wing, 
pattern very bold, and reminiscent of rectans. The ground colour is completely broken up by a 
series of more or less parallel vertical bars. Cell creamy, crossed by three wavy rusty bars ; 
the discal creamy spots, as above, divided from the postdiscal straight series by a rusty brown 
band extending from the costa to upper part of ia, flanked distally by dark marks, ib-3 and by 
a greyish ochre submargin in which the creamy ochre spots show up plainly. The creamy 
ochre line of spots are slightly silvery on margin. Hind wing, basal area greyish brown, joining 
up with the median bar toward the inner fold, which has three parallel brown lines. The basal and 
median bars outlined with darker rufous brown, the intervening creamy bars and the discal bar 
strongly silvery, as also are the series of creamy spots in postdiscal line, outlined distally in 
blackish which is continuous from costa to anal angle ; submarginal band is complete and 
greyish brown ; the admarginal ochreous lunules distinct, accentuated proximally with black 
and distally with double rusty brown spots ; edge black and white. 

FORM 2. Upperside. Fore wing, ground colour is a deep brown-black, the basal area only 
slightly browner. The discal and postdiscal creamy spots well separated ; the admarginal 
spots richer rufous but rather indistinct toward the apex. Hind wing basal area brownish 
black, browner toward costa. The inner fold greyish ochre. The discal band white, widest at 
costa then tapering from 3 to the inner fold. Postdiscal white spots distinct in upper portion 
of the line, then becoming obscured. The admarginal band rufous, with distinct ochreous 
internervular streaks. Underside. Similar to form i, but pattern stronger and light areas 
more silvery. 

Range : Ruanda & Kivu districts, Uganda and S.W. Kigezi, Kanaba Gap, Ruhiza. 



232 V. G. L. VAN SOMEREN 

Charaxes lasti Grose Smith 
(PI. 7, figs 59-65, Map 5) 

Charaxes lasti Grose Smith, 1889 : 131. 

Charaxes lasti Grose Smith ; Grose Smith & Kirby, 1890 : 8, pi. 4, figs 4-5. 

Charaxes boueti var. lasti Grose Smith ; Aurivillius, 1899 : 235. 

Charaxes boueti lasti Grose Smith ; Rothschild, 1900 : 409. 

Charaxes boueti lasti Grose Smith ; Poulton, 1925 : 570 [= var. alticola Griinberg]. 

Charaxes boueti centralis Neustetter, 1929 : 391. Syn. n. 

Charaxes lasti Grose Smith ; Talbot, 1932 : 9. 

Described as a species, this insect has, in varying degree, been linked with 
Charaxes boueti Feisthamel, because of its somewhat general resemblance to that 
species. (See Talbot, 1929 : 148.) Since the two overlap to a considerable extent, 
and do not interbreed, they must be considered distinct species. Moreover, they 
have different habitats and food plants, lasti laying on Julbernardia, Macrolobium 
and Afzelia, Caesalpinaceae, and boueti on species of Bamboo, Gramineae. The 
wing-antennae ratio is different (teste Dr van Son) . 

The shape of the two insects is different, in lasti the fore wing being less elongate, 
but outer border more incised ; the hind wing is more rounded on outer border but 
margin is more serrate or dentate at vein ends. 

The upper and undersides are subject to considerable variation, which is not 
seasonal. 

There are two forms in both sexes, a strongly marked form and a lightly marked 
one. These occur in about equal numbers, irrespective of season, and there are many 
intergrades. 

MALE. FORM i. Fore wing length 35-38 mm. Upperside. Fore wing, general colour 
rufous orange, slightly darker at the base, distal border of wing black. A rounded black spot 
beyond end of cell conjoined to or separate from a black line at end of cell ; median black 
marks in 6-5 larger and rounded or elongate, spots in sub-bases 3-2 and an indication of a mark 
in ib. The discal and postdiscal rufous orange bands separated in the subapex by a solid 
black mark in 7-6, a slightly smaller spot in 5, a streak in 4 and smaller spots in 3-2, otherwise 
the bands are conjoined. The upper postdiscal spots are arranged in a curve. Marginal 
border black with rufous orange spots on margin increasing in size from apex to double mark in 
tornus at ib. Hind wing, basal area slightly darker, sometimes with a dark costal triangular 
mark or line defining the costal inner edge of the discal band, which may be paler, the rest of the 
discal band ill-defined proximally especially toward the inner fold which is pale and buffish in 
its upper half. The submarginal black band, widest at its costal end where the spots are contig- 
uous, narrows rapidly, the spots decreasing in size and well separated. The anal angle olive- 
green with double lilac and black dots. Marginal border rufous orange, narrowly edged in 
black ; margin serrate at veins. Tails thin, upper 5 mm, lower 6-7 mm. Underside. Varia- 
tion : a. Fore wing, ground colour rufescent greyish with slight vinaceous tinge, paler in the 
cell and mid area of la-ib ; cell with three rusty transverse lines, a double or U-mark beyond. 
Discal and postdiscal series of ochreous spots hardly indicated, except for rusty lines on margins ; 
margin without spots but tornal mark consisting of two triangular horizontal black marks, 
edged with bluish grey, strong, double black lunate mark sub-basal in ib strong. Hind wing 
ground colour as fore, basal half with faint rusty lines ; discal area crossed by an almost straight 
silvery white bar proximally edged in black, and on its distal side, faint greyish white lunules 
followed by an irregular zigzag rusty band in postdiscal zone. Submargin slightly more greyish 



REVISIONAL NOTES ON AFRICAN CHARAXES 233 

with distinct buff-white dots from tornus to anal angle, which is greenish with two black dots : 
edge of wing rusty, with slight black fringe and whitish bases to the serrations and tails. 

Variation : b. The fore wing very similar to var. a, or even more uniform, the hind wing less 
strongly patterned, the discal silvery line almost lacking, but the dark line on distal edge, strong. 

MALE. FORM 2. Upperside coloration and pattern of fore wing much as in form i but 
ground colour slightly paler, the marginal black border less strong, especially in the hind angle, 
so that the large marginal orange spot merges with the orange of the postdiscal bar in ib & la. 
On the hind wing the submarginal black spots are missing or only slightly represented, except 
for the two at upper angle. Underside. Variation : a. Ground colour more ochreous, less 
greyish vinaceous, so that the pattern shows up very distinctly. In the fore wing the rusty 
brown lines are strong in the basal half ; the discal and postdiscal bars are indicated more 
strongly. The two black lunules sub-basal in ib enclose greyish spots, and the tornal black 
marks are strong. In the hind wing the rusty lines show up more on the paler ground ; the 
silvery line is broader and proximally lined with black ; the postdiscal pale lunules are stronger 
while the submarginal rufous wavy line is strong ; the border more greyish ochre, the edge 
more rusty. 

Variation : b. Ground colour is more rufescent grey with a vinaceous tinge ; the pattern 
is almost suppressed except for the conspicuous black lunules enclosing grey in sub-base ib, 
and the tornal black mark is strong. On the hind wing the pattern is subdued except for the 
narrow silvery discal line. 

Intermediates are common. (PI. 7, fig. 60) 

FEMALE. There are two main forms with many intermediates ; they occur at all times and 
are not seasonal. 

FORM i. Fore wing length 39-42 mm. Upperside. Fore wing, base bright rufous orange ; 
distal portion of wing brownish black. Median black marks, one heavy rectangular subcostal 
at sub-bases 7-6, a mark at end of cell separate from or contiguous with marks sub-basal in 3-2 
and slightly represented in ib. Discal and postdiscal series of spots yellowish ochre, spot in 4 
in discal line set well in, the postdiscal spots shaded with rufous distally, conjoined with discal 
marks in la-ib, slightly separated in 2, the remainder free. Border black with rufous orange 
marginal spots, increasing in size from apex to ib at hind angle. Hind wing basal area greyish 
rufous, paler on the inner fold, sharply defined from the yellowish ochre band at the costa by a 
narrow black line, distal border of band shaded with rufous. Submarginal black band strong, 
consisting of contiguous marks angled on outer border ; anal angle greenish with two black 
dots surmounted by lilac-white lines ; marginal border orange rufous, edged with black ; 
margin serrate at vein ends. Tails long and thin, upper 7 mm, lower 9 mm. Underside. 
Variable. Fore wing, base greyish ochre, cell paler ochre, crossed by well marked rusty lines, 
one sub-basal, one in mid area, the third at end of cell, this last sometimes united to black 
mark at base of 4 ; median lines strong, rusty coloured in upper half then black in sub- 
bases 3-2 and ib, which has a sub-basal black line. Discal and postdiscal series of spots as 
above but less strong ; submarginal border more greyish with brownish spots along distal edge 
of postdiscal row, becoming black in 2 and, at hind angle where the black marks are, two hori- 
zontal triangles on a bluish grey ground. Hind wing basal area greyish ochre with vertical 
rusty lines in sub-base ; median line rusty brown by a silvery white line defining the discal 
creamy yellow bar, which is broad at the costa, tapering rapidly to another silvery line which 
runs parallel to the median line, both taking an angle toward the inner fold above the anal angle. 
Postdiscal zone with large diffuse rusty spots, which extend from the costa to above the anal 
angle ; submarginal band greyish ochre with a satiny sheen, distally bounded by a series of 
whitish elongate marks accentuated distally by rusty lunules ; border with orange-ochre 
lunules outlined in whitish ; extreme edge black ; margin serrate at veins. 

FORM 2. Upperside. Paler and brighter than form i, the basal area a clearer orange, the 
discal and postdiscal spots larger and more confluent ; the outer border of the postdiscal spots 
extended more distad, so that the black border is more restricted, but the marginal spots are 
larger. Hind wing paler, the basal area not defined and paler ; the discal yellow-ochre band 
merging into a broad bright rufous orange zone which carries a series of submarginal dyslegnic 



234 V. G. L. VAN SOMEREN 

well separated dark spots, well defined from the more orange border with black edge. Tails 
long and thin. Anal angle pale olive-green with usual black spots. Underside. Paler and 
more ochreous ; pattern less strong in the disco-postdiscal bands ; border less dark, but greyish 
lunules more satiny. There is also a satiny patch at the costa between the disco-postdiscal 
creamy spots. Hind wing pattern less strong ; the median silvery line narrower ; the discal 
band less defined ; the rusty postdiscal zigzag narrow but clear ; the border less dark ; the 
admarginal zone more ochre and the margin rusty with narrow black edge. 

Range : In coastal forests from Tana River to Shimba Hills, Kwale & Dalgube, 
Kenya to the Pugu Forest & Tanga district in the Usambara Mts, Tanzania. 

Biological notes, by D. G. Sevastopulo 

OVUM. Shape as is usual in the genus, spherical, with a fluted and flattened top. Colour 
very pale green when first laid, developing the usual brown ring round the top after twenty-four 
hours. Later the whole ovum becomes speckled with brown, the ring broadens and there is a 
brown dot over the micropyle. Laid singly on the upper surface of a leaf of the food-plant. 

Laid 5.X.64, hatched g.x.64. 

IST INSTAR. Head very dark mottled brown, the horns very short and stout, the upper pair 
more or less straight, the lateral upcurved, the tips paler. Body purplish olive when first 
hatched, becoming green after feeding, with a subdorsal series of minute white specks. Anal 
somite ending in a pair of incurved, purplish brown processes. 

Moulted I7.X.&4 (PI. n, fig. 90.) 

2ND INSTAR. Head blackish olive, edged very narrowly with pale buff, the horns also pale 
buff and with numerous lateral teeth, the points between the upper horns prominent. Body 
dull green, with a subdorsal series of white specks. Many larvae with a round, whitish, dorsal 
spot on the 6th somite. 

Moulted 23.X.&4 (PI. n, fig. 91.) 

3RD INSTAR. Head brown, studded with minute pale specks, the horns paler and with a pale 
stripe from the base of the lateral horn to outside the jaws. Body similar to previous instar, 
the dorsal mark outlined with black. 

Moulted 3I.X.64 (PI. n, fig. 92.) 

4TH INSTAR. Head brown, the facial disc green, the horns paler, fairly straight, a pale stripe, 
edged behind with blackish, from the base of the lateral horn to outside the jaws. Body rather 
dull green, minutely shagreened with white. A subdorsal series of white specks and also a 
lateral series consisting of an outer anterior and an inner posterior on each somite. Dorsal 
mark on the 6th somite white, outlined with black, roughly semicircular in shape, the straight 
edge anterior and produced into three lobes. Some larvae with an additional white dot outside 
the main mark. Some with a similar additional mark on the 8th somite, and a few with an 
additional elongate dorsal bar on the loth. Anal processes small, white and joined by a trans- 
verse white bar, the processes and the bar itself edged below with black. 

Moulted y.xii.64. (PL 11, fig. 93.) 

FINAL (STH) INSTAR. Head green, speckled minutely and sparsely with white, and outlined 
with pale pinkish lavender ; horns slate-grey in front, greenish behind, and studded with minute 
black points, upper pair fairly long, straight, divergent, lateral pair slightly stouter and shorter, 
straight, the points between the horns black ; a blackish line behind the pinkish lavender 
margin. Body fairly dark, bright green, minutely papillated with yellow and with a series of 
slightly larger white specks laterally. Dorsal mark on the 6th somite roughly semicircular with 
the straight edge forward and expanded into three rounded lobes, a white spot lateral to the 
main mark, which may be separate, conjoined or absent. Mark on the 8th somite roughly 
diamond-shaped, with or without a white spot lateral to it. loth somite with a short longitudi- 
nal dorsal bar, which may be absent. A pale sublateral line. Venter, legs and prolegs glaucous 
green. Anal claspers and last two segments of venter dull purplish. Anal somite slightly 
concave, edged with a white line, below which is a purplish one. (PL n, fig. 95.) 



REVISIONAL NOTES ON AFRICAN CHARAXES 235 

Some larvae undergo an additional moult, a thing I have not observed before in Charaxes. 
These larvae are slightly smaller than normal in the 4th instar, they undergo no change in 
appearance in the 5th instar except a slight increase in size, and the 6th instar is similar to the 
normal 5th, but very slightly larger. The extra moult appears to have no sexual significance. 

The larvae turn dull olive-brown when preparing for pupation, the dorsal marks become 
slightly tinged with pinkish. 

PUPA suspended by the cremaster. The dorsum of the thorax and the first two abdominal 
somites pale lavender, shading into pale brownish olive posteriorly, this area tapering towards 
the cremaster and shading into darker laterally. A fine, darker dorsal line on the thorax. 
Lateral area whitish, very faintly tinged with pinkish, due to numerous fine punctures filled in 
with that colour. Wing cases similar, with an oval, olive-brown spot on the outer margin 
below the tornus. Leg sheaths with an indistinct olive-brown spot. The pupa is very similar 
in appearance to that of Charaxes protoclea Feisthamel, azota Hewitson. The pupa is dimorphic, 
another form having the pale lavender areas very pale blue, the olive-brown areas olive-green, 
and the areas faintly tinged with pink in the first described form, very pale green. (PL n, 
figs 96, 97.) 

Food-plant. Julbernardia magnistipulata Harms, and Macrolobium coeruleum 
Harms, (both Caesalpinaceae) . Dr van Someren (Butterflies of Kenya < Uganda) 
records seeing a female laying on Afzelia quanzensis, and females also lay freely on 
this in captivity. Newly hatched larvae however, usually refuse to eat Afzelia, but 
if they do, fail to thrive and do not get through the first moult. 

Described from larvae reared from ova laid by a female caught in the Marere 
Forest, of which one pupated 22.xi.64 and a male emerged 2.xii.64. 

Another brood, reared from ova laid by a Kwale-caught female, were without 
dorsal markings up to the 4th instar, when they developed a rough diamond-shaped 
mark on the 6th somite (PI. n, fig. 94). 



SYSTEMATIC LIST 

Charaxes boueti Feisthamel 
GROUP i 

Charaxes boueti boueti Feisthamel, 1850. Type locality : Gambia, Casamanca. 

Range : West Africa ; Senegambia, Guinea, Sierra Leone. 

Charaxes boueti ghanaensis Rousseau-Decelle & Johnson, 1957. Type locality : 
Ghana-Togo border, Volta River area, 3000 ft, Vane near Amedzofe. 

Range : Volta River area, Ghana-Togo. 
Charaxes boueti macclounii Butler, 1895. Type locality : Malawi, Zomba. 

Range : Malawi ; Rhodesia, Manicaland ; Zambia ; Katanga ; 

N.E. Angola ; Tanzania, Kigoma, Mpanda, Songea, Njombe, 

Usambara Mts. (foothills) ; Kenya, Kwale, Shimba Hills, Rabai. 

Charaxes ' lasti ' f . flavescens Lanz, 1896. Type locality : Tanzania, Parumbira. 

Considered to be a $ of macclounii. Type was destroyed during 
1939-45 war. 



236 V. G. L. VAN SOMEREN 

GROUP 2 

Charazes boueti redans Rothschild & Jordan, 1903. Type locality : Ethiopia, 
Schoa, Kollu, Ob Urga. 

Range : W. Ethiopia ; S. Sudan (Imatong Mts.) ; N. Uganda, 
W. Madi, Metu, Karamoja. 

Char axes boueti alticola Griinberg, 1912. Type locality : Ruanda, Karisimbia 
Volcano. 

Range : Ruanda and Kivu district ; Uganda, S.W. Kigezi, 
Kanaba Gap, Ruhiza. 



Charaxes lasti Grose Smith 

Charaxes lasti Grose Smith, 1889. Type locality : Kenya, Mombasa. 

Range : The coastal forests of Kenya from the Tana River to 
the Shimba Hills, Kwale, and Dalgube ; extending to the Tanga 
district of Tanzania on the foothills of the Usambara Mts and in 
the Pugu Forest. 

Synonym : Charaxes ' boueti ' centralis Neustetter, 1929. Type locality : Trench 
Congo ' error! Type examined and considered to be a female lasti. 

CHARAXES RICHELMANNI ROBER AND C. EUDOXUS DRURY 

AND ITS SUBSPECIES 

Charaxes richelmanni Rober 
(PI. 7, fig. 66, Map 6) 

Charaxes fallax Richelmann, 1931 : 105. 

Charaxes fallax Richelmann ; Poulton, 1926 : 571. 

Charaxes richelmanni Rober, 1936 : 578. 

Charaxes fallax Richelmann ; Carpenter, 1937 : 9^- 

The superficial resemblance of this insect to some forms of Charaxes eudoxus has 
given rise to some confusion ; thus, when Holland, 1920, reported on the Lepidoptera 
of the Congo, he recorded three specimens taken at Medje, as Charaxes eudoxus 
eudoxus Cramer, distinguishing them from Charaxes mechowi Rothschild (also taken 
at Medje) which he considered to be a distinct species, by ' the great reduction in 
width of the silvery bands on the lower surface of the hind wing '. This identifica- 
tion was accepted by Carpenter (1937), who suggested that the reduction of the 
silvery lines might indicate that the specimens were transitional towards eudoxus 
cabacus ab. amaurusl 

I have examined these specimens and consider them to be, without doubt, richel- 
manni Rober, fallax auctt. 

MALE. Fore wing length 37-38 mm. Upperside. Fore wing, base deep chestnut with a 
slight vinaceous bloom, extending from the cell end to sub-bases of la-ib, shading into the 
black of the discal zone and the distal part of the wing ; there may be an extension of the black 
into the cell end. The postdiscal rufous orange bar is almost complete, extending from the 
hind margin in xa to 6-7, rather narrow and with little reduction in the size of the spots, the 



REVISIONAL NOTES ON AFRICAN CHARAXES 



237 




238 V. G. L. VAN SOMEREN 

spots in la-ib 4 mm, conjoined, the remainder well separated, the upper ones more rounded ; 
marginal rufous orange spots large and distinct, extending from ib, with a double spot, to the 
apex. Hind wing basal triangle darker than fore, almost black, with a suggestion of chestnut 
at base ; the postdiscal orange band, widest and pale at the costa, narrows and becomes shaded 
over as it approaches the inner fold above the anal angle, thus not sharply denned on the prox- 
imal border ; the submarginal black band starts just short of the costa, widens in 7-5, thence to 
anal angle where there are two lilac spots, the inner border of the band ill-defined but the outer 
clear-cut and dentate ; border of wing rufous orange, of almost equal width tapers at anal 
angle, edged black, margin serrate and the anal angle rather more marked than in eudoxus ssp. 
Tails thin and sharply pointed, 3-4 mm long. Underside. Fore wing, ground colour of basal 
half up to postdiscal line bright chestnut ; cell and just beyond with four transverse black lines 
outlined in silver ; a silver and black transverse bar sub-basal in 6-7 in discal line, followed by 
bolder black marks of irregular shape finely outlined in silver sub-base of 3, a double or con- 
joined mark in 2, a larger black mark in ib extended basad, and a smaller mark in la. Post- 
discal bar tawny orange in ia-3, finely outlined proximally in white, the spots above with greater 
amount of white follow the contour of postdiscal bar of above ; this is outwardly bordered by a 
series of black triangular horizontal marks, large at tornus and decreasing in size to the apex ; 
these marks are outlined distally in greyish, this greyish colour extending distad along the 
veins, thus separating the orange lunules on the border of the wing. Hind wing, ground colour 
in basal area to postdiscal band bright chestnut ; the inner fold with three vertical black lines 
edged white, the upper discal area with a darker chestnut solid V, boldly outlined in silvery 
white ; the postdiscal zone distally outlined in silver from costa to above anal angle, with a 
white line at mid point connecting to the outer arm of the discal V. Zone corresponding to the 
black submarginal bar of upperside, here represented by dark chestnut and black horizontal 
triangles, apices distad, finely outlined in silvery grey ; an admarginal line of contiguous lilac 
marks finely accentuated with black and ending in the olive anal angle with lilac ' eye-spots ', 
sets off the tawny orange border, which is edged in black finely accentuated white proximally. 
The FEMALE is unknown. 

Range : Cameroon, Central African Republic, Moyen Congo, Upper Congo to 
Medje in the Ituri area. 



Charaxes eudoxus Drury and its subspecies 

The species Charaxes eudoxus has a very wide range, extending from the forested 
areas of West Africa eastward through the Congo to northwest Kenya and the 
eastern shores of Lake Tanganyika and to the northern block of Zambia. Its 
distribution tallies more or less with the Zones 5, 7, & 8 as shown on the Vegetational 
Map published by UNESCO in 1958, and described as ' moist forest at low elevations ' 
and ' forest-savanna mosaic '. 

It is not surprising to find that within this vast area, the species has evolved into 
several ' aggregates ', not all of which are sharply and clearly differentiated, and in 
some cases there is a transition from one group to another. 

Poulton (1929) dealt with some aspects of this subspeciation, based on specimens 
then available, when he described the subspecies amaurus from north-west Kenya, 
Mt Elgon area. This was followed by a more detailed survey by Carpenter in 1937. 
This survey was carried out in order to ascertain the ranges of the several subspecies, 
their validity, and relationship to each other, and to describe a race from the western 
shores of Lake Victoria to which I had drawn attention in 1936. Carpenter went to 
considerable length in trying to find stable characters by which the several races 



REVISIONAL NOTES ON AFRICAN CHARAXES 239 

could be distinguished, selecting certain features which he tabulated (Op. cit. p. 86) 
and comparing these measurements in the several races then recognized. These 
comparative measurements were not entirely satisfactory or conclusive, because of 
the degree of pattern variation in each race ; moreover, exact topotypical material 
in sufficient numbers was not available for a basis. It is also regrettable that in this 
review some of the plates do not figure topotypical specimens. 

It is surprising to note that Carpenter accepted Holland's identification of three 
males taken at Medje, North Ituri, Congo, as eudoxus eudoxus Drury (vide Carpenter, 
I 937 : 97 > distribution of races) and did not take the trouble to examine these 
specimens. They were kindly sent to me by the late Dr R. M. Fox of the Carnegie 
Museum, Pittsburgh, U.S.A. and they are in fact Ch. richelmanni Rob. =Ch. fallax 
Rich., Carpenter et al., which is a distinct species, with distinctive genitalia, occurring 
within the range of Ch. eudoxus mechowi in the Congo. Examples of mechowi were 
also taken at Medje, which Holland considered to be a distinct species, unrelated to 
eudoxusl 

In spite of extensive material which has accumulated since Carpenter's review, one 
is still hampered by the lack of topotypical material of both sexes. The division 
which follows must therefore be taken as tentative. 

Charaxes eudoxus eudoxus Drury 
(PI. 8, figs 67-68, Map 6) 

Charaxes eudoxus Drury, 1782 : 44, Index, pi. 33, fig. 4. 
Charaxes eudoxus Drury ; Carpenter, 1937. 

MALE. Fore wing length 38 mm ; outer margin slightly incurved. Upper side. Fore wing, 
basal triangle dark chestnut, with slight chestnut along costa to mid point, merging into the 
black ground of the distal portion ; slight encroachment of the chestnut colour toward end of 
cell. Postdiscal bar paler and more developed than in other races, extending from the hind 
margin to 7, widest at ib (5 mm), the spots gradually decreasing in size and becoming more 
discrete from hind margin to 7 ; margin with distinct rufous orange internervular lunules, 
double at ib and extending to the apex. Hind wing basal triangle darker chestnut inclining 
to blackish towards costa ; discal band orange-rufous, paler and widest at costa, slightly 
constricted at 7, then widening slightly and tapering toward anal angle but not crossing the 
inner fold ; outer edge straight, contiguous with the black postdiscal band, which extends 
from just short of the costa to just above the anal angle, of about even width to area opposite 
tails, then narrowing slightly, outer margin dentate. Border paler rufous orange ; margin 
black. Tails relatively short, upper 4 mm, lower 3 mm, black. Anal angle black with slight 
indication of one or two purple-blue spots. Underside. Fore wing, basal ground colour 
chestnut in subcostal area to subapex, crossed by black lines strongly bordered in silver ; 
bases of 10-3 with large black marks edged in silver and bordering the postdiscal bar, which is 
ochreous on inner edge but orange distally, bordered distally by a black tapering zone, widest 
at hind margin and carrying bluish grey triangles and lunules to subapex ; border with orange 
lunules separated by black. Hind wing basal area chestnut, traversed by narrow black lines 
bordered in silver, most pronounced in the discal line which is Y-shaped at the costa, extending 
to and widening above the anal angle, bordered outwardly with chestnut, interrupted on the 
outer postdiscal line by slightly darker chestnut triangles outlined in greyish olive, accentuated 
basally by a series of black lunular marks edged distally with purplish grey and bordering the 
paler chestnut border which extends to anal angle which is olive, carrying two violet- white dots ; 
edge black, bordered internally with purple-grey. 



240 V. G. L. VAN SOMEREN 

Description based on a male specimen from Sierra Leone, Freetown. (Univ. Mus. Oxford.) 
FEMALE. Fore wing length 45 mm ; outer margin of wing less incurved than in the male. 
Upperside. Fore wing, basal area paler chestnut and more extended towards the discal line 
and in the cell, where there are two dark marks, one subcostal and the other at the cell end ; 
rest of wing black, traversed by an ochreous orange bar in the postdiscal line, widest at the hind 
margin (8 mm), gradually tapering to 7, but there are indications of orange scaling sub-basal in 
5-7 in the upper discal line. Margin with small orange internervular spots. Hind wing basal 
area darker chestnut, shading to brownish towards costa ; orange discal band wide, slightly 
paler towards costa, of equal width, 7 mm, to upper tail then gradually decreasing to above 
anal angle, inner edge almost straight but outer edge slightly dentate ; outer border pale 
tawny orange ; anal angle black with two lilac spots ; edge strongly black ; tails short, rather 
stumpy, upper 3 mm, lower slightly shorter. Underside. Pattern as in the male, but bolder ; 
the discal bars of both wings wider and paler, more whitish ochre, bordered orange distally. 
Description based on a female taken at Freetown, Sierra Leone. (Univ. Mus. Oxford.) 

Range : Sierra Leone, Ghana, Ashanti ; ? Ivory Coast ; thus not crossing the 
Togo-Dahomey divide. Records from Buea, Cameroons doubtful, since south- 
eastern Nigerian specimens are not nominate eudoxus eudoxus. Hollands' record 
from Medje, Ituri, accepted by Carpenter, is erroneous (vide introductory remarks). 



Charaxes eudoxus mechowi Rothschild 
(PI. 8, figs 69-74. PI. 9, figs 75-77 Map 6) 

Charaxes eudoxus mechowi Rothschild in Rothschild & Jordan, 1899 : 454, [in index], pi. 8, 

fig- 3- 

Charaxes eudoxus mechowi Rothschild ; in Rothschild & Jordan, 1900 : 418-420. 
Charaxes eudoxus mechowi Rothschild ; Carpenter, 1937 : 93> pi- 3> n g- 9- 

Specimens allocated to this subspecies represent a variable aggregate occurring 
within a very wide area. The variations are not associated with definable areas, 
but turn up here and there. 

It is advisable therefore to quote Rothschild's description (1900) of the type of 
this race. 

MALE. 'Length of fore wing 43 mm. Band of fore wing above about 6 mm distant from tip 
of vein SM2, strongly tapering costad, stopping at SC5, four upper spots small, luniform (type) 
or rounded elongate. 

Black postdisco-marginal band of hind wing interrupted at veins R3-M2, or Mi & M2, 
anteriorly as wide as or a little wider than posteriorly, considerably narrower than the ad- 
marginal band. On the underside the submedian and median bars Mi-M2 very heavy, patch- 
like ; black costal and subcostal bars of submedian and median series absent.' 

This description is quoted because no topotypical North Angolan examples are available to 
me. However, I have a specimen from the southern Kasai which agrees with the type, and a 
comparative description of this with nominate eudoxus is desirable. 

The main features on the upper surface of the male are : basal area of fore wing brighter 
reddish chestnut ; the distal portion of the wing blacker ; the postdiscal row of rufous orange 
spots much reduced in extent, widest in ib, it tapers rapidly to 3, remainder of spots vestigial. 
Hind wing basal area as in nominate race ; disco-postdiscal rufous orange band wider, encroach- 
ing on the submarginal black bar from above anal angle to 5, thus reducing this bar in its lower 
half very considerably ; the marginal rufous orange border wider and richer ; the marginal 
black narrower ; the tails longer and thinner. 



REVISIONAL NOTES ON AFRICAN CHARAXES 241 

Area i 

Northern Angola, Kasai and western Katanga, Moyen Congo, Central African 
Republic, Cameroons to eastern Nigeria. Dominant form. 

MALE. Fore wing length 39-40 mm. Upperside. Fore wing, basal area reddish chestnut ; 
distal 2/3rds of wing black, extending from the proximal edge just short of the apex of the cell 
to just internally of the postdiscal orange bar on hind margin ; this bar richer in colour than 
nominate eudoxus, less wide in la-ib and tapering rapidly to 2-3, then represented by spots of 
decreasing size to 4, obsolete beyond. Margin with small rufous orange spots, double in ib, 
and extending to the apex. Hind wing basal area chestnut, shading to blackish toward costa ; 
the rufous orange discal band, very slightly paler at the costa where it is 6 mm wide, is strongly 
indented on its inner border at 6-7 then expands slightly, to taper again to above the anal 
angle, the band is thus of uneven width and ill-defined in its lower half ; the submarginal black 
bar is widest at its upper half and then represented by contiguous spots from 5 to the anal 
angle where the last spot has two lilac spots. Border mainly rufous orange of even width, but 
tapers slightly near the anal angle ; edge narrowly black with slight white fringe in interspaces ; 
margin slightly serrate ; tails thin, upper 4-5 mm, lower 3-4 mm. Underside. Fore wing, 
basal area up to postdiscal zone, chestnut, but basal half of costa silvery white ; cell and sub- 
bases 5-7 with irregular black marks outlined in silver ; a large elongate black mark at base 
ib filling the whole area up to the postdiscal zone, thinly outlined in white ; space above in 2 
with two rounded black spots outlined in silver, one basal, the other touching the postdiscal line 
where there is a smaller black mark similarly outlined ; postdiscal zone orange in la-ib, 
becoming more rufous to sub-apex and ornamented with greyish loops decreasing in size up to 
costa ; border of wing rufous chestnut in apical half but with black triangular marks con- 
tiguous in ib-2 and with greyish between apices on orange ground. Hind wing, basal area 
rufous chestnut with a V-shaped silvery mark, apex toward inner fold where there are three 
black lines widely bordered in silver ; a slightly curved silvery line extends from costa to above 
anal angle, touching the outer angled arm of the V-mark ; the postdiscal zone slightly darker 
and carrying a series of greyish V-marks apices directed outward, followed up by a line of broken 
dark marks abutting on the more reddish border which is edged outwardly in black ; anal 
angle more ochreous olive, with a large and small lilac ' eye-spots '. 

FEMALE. Upperside. Somewhat similar to nominate female but with brighter chestnut at 
base ; fore wing bar narrower and placed nearer to the margin which has larger orange spots. 
Hind wing, generally brighter orange, with discal band considerably wider and more curved on 
outer edge, thus reducing the width of the postdiscal band which, though slightly irregular on the 
inner edge is dentate on the outer, the band slightly decreasing in width toward anal angle 
where it expands slightly ; border wider than in nominate eudoxus, more uniform in width and 
more narrowly edged in black. Tails longer, more pointed, upper 6 mm, lower 5 mm. Under- 
side. Basal areas of both wings bright chestnut with similar silvery bars and black marks as in 
the male, but fore wing bands more orange, darkening slightly toward apex of fore wing ; 
tornal black marks strong. Hind wing border brighter rufous orange. 

These descriptions are based on specimens from southern Kasai, and are applicable 
to a large majority of specimens from further north, but individual variation is 
considerable. In the area from Leopoldville to Cameroons and east to the Semliki 
Valley we encounter an aggregate which, though conforming to the general pattern 
of mechowi, differs mainly in the extent of the rufous orange spots in the fore wing 
bar and the shape and extent of the black submarginal bar in the hind wing. 

Variation : a. The fore wing bar though narrow, consists of rufous orange spots of decreasing 
size from ib to 6 ; the marginal spots larger than in nominate mechowi. The hind wing basal 
area blacker toward costa ; the submarginal black bar slightly heavier though similar in shape. 

Variation : b. Upperside generally darker, the fore wing postdiscal bar being limited to 



242 V. G. L. VAN SOMEREN 

rather obscure rufous spots in ra-ib ; hind wing pattern as usual but darker. Ouesso, Moyen 
Congo (Jackson). 

Area 2 
The Congo forests east of the Congo River to Ituri and the Semliki Valley. 

In this area there is a noticeable tendency towards increase in size and darkening 
of colour, but the pattern is, in the vast majority, that of mechowi. 

Area 3 
Western Uganda, Kigezi Province, Kayonza forests south of the Ishasha River. 

In this aggregate, males and females are more intensely coloured above and below. 

MALE. Upperside. Fore wing postdiscal bar is more extended, the rufous orange spots 
usually reaching 5, occasionally 6, but a noticeable feature is the narrowness of the bar in la, 
ib-2, so that there is not the rapid tapering of the bar from the hind margin, the marginal 
orange lunules strongly developed. Hind wing, the black costal patch in the basal area is 
stronger, thus contrasting with the upper end of the discal band which is here pale and wide, 
but constricted in 7 then widening to 4 and tapering to above the anal angle ; the submarginal 
black bar is strong and similar in form to that of mechowi, more solid and in its widest upper 
section, the black is extended distad into the rufous orange border along the veins ; the black 
edge is well marked. Underside. General pattern similar to typical mechowi but stronger. 

FEMALE. Upperside. Generally more richly coloured, the reddish chestnut at the bases of 
the wings stronger. Fore wing, rufous orange bar is deeper in colour and the whole bar is 
narrower, especially in la, ib & 2, and extends to 6 or even 7. There is often an orange spot 
subcostal in 7 and another mark beyond end of cell. Marginal spots pronounced. Hind wing, 
discal band, pale at the costal end and narrow, widens in 5, then gradually tapers to above the 
anal angle, reaching the inner fold ; pale in the mid area, it is strongly shaded orange on the 
distal border ; submarginal black bar stronger than in mechowi, the anal angle with two distinct 
lilac spots ; marginal border richer rufous orange, olive at anal angle ; edge black with white 
internervular fringe. Underside. Pattern generally similar to typical mechowi but stronger. 

Range : Area i, northern Angola, Kasai and western Katanga, Moyen Congo, 
Central African Republic, Cameroons to eastern Nigeria. 

Area 2, Congo, east of the Congo River to Ituri and Semliki Valley. S.W. Sudan? 

Area 3, Uganda, Kigezi District, Western Province, in the Kayonza forests of the 
Ishasha River Valley. 

Note that this area (3) abuts on the Ruanda-Urundi and Lake Kivu areas. 

Charaxes eudoxus theresae Le Cerf 
(PI. 9, fig. 78, Map 6) 

Charaxes eudoxus theresae Le Cerf, 1932 : 405. 

Charaxes eudoxus theresae Le Cerf ; Carpenter, 1937, P^ 5- 

I have before me the <$ type and three <$ paratypes kindly sent to me by Dr P. 
Viette of the Paris Museum. Carpenter (1937) upheld this race, citing as diagnostic 
characters : Fore wing postmedian band very wide at base, (8 mm entire 1-2) 
rapidly decreasing in 2 to 2 mm ; beyond nerve 3 there are 3 spots, the last minute. 



REVISIONAL NOTES ON AFRICAN CHARAXES 243 

Marginal spots smaller than in mechowi. The general lorm of the hind wing rufous 
orange band is broader than in mechowi ; the postdiscal black band also wider and 
less tapering. This description refers to the type. The paratypes show that in the 
fore wing, postdiscal bar is widest in ib, tapering rapidly to 3-4 ; marginal spots 
may be strong. Hind wing black submarginal bar variable, wide as in the type or 
reduced to a series of discrete spots in the lower half, but upper half with conjoined 
spots. The female is not known. 

This aggregate is thus unstable and shows a transition between mechowi and 
the Kigezi form. 

Range : The western shores of Lake Kivu. 

I have two specimens from the north-east shore of Lake Tanganyika taken at 
Kigoma. They are rather darker overall than Kivu specimens, but the fore wing 
pattern is very similar ; the hind wing rufous orange band is more restricted in 5-6, 
where the bar is at its widest, tapering rather rapidly to above the anal angle. The 
submarginal black bar is rather heavy in its upper half, then tapering to the anal 
angle which has the usual lilac-white dots. Marginal rufous orange border less wide, 
being encroached upon at the upper angle by the black bar. 

These Kigoma specimens are not mechowi but show an approach towards eudoxus 
of the Kigezi area and theresae. The female has not been taken. 

Charaxes eudoxus katerae Carpenter 
(PI. 9, figs 79-82, Map 6) 

Charaxes eudoxus subsp. nov.? van Someren, 1936 : 178-184, pis 19-23. 
Charaxes eudoxus katerae Carpenter, 1937 : 9 1 . pi- x > n g- 5> pi- 2 > n &- 5- 

On an average slightly smaller than the aggregate from the Kigezi area and agree- 
ing more with nominate cabacus Jordan from the Entebbe forests. The general 
impression of the upperside is that this insect might be a melanistic variant of 
cabacus. It was for this reason that I hesitated to apply a name to it in 1936, when 
it was represented by a single male. In recent years, and on different occasions, 
several males and females have been trapped in the Katera forest, near Sango Bay. 
The males are remarkably constant on the upper surface and the female is quite 
unlike those of other races of eudoxus, but both are subject to variation on the 
underside. 

MALE. Fore wing length 39-40 mm. Upperside. Fore wing, ground colour almost black, 
with a slight indication of deep chestnut at the base of the wing ; the postdiscal zone with a 
trace of rufous spots in la-ib, and occasionally a mere trace in 2. Margin with small rufous 
spots seldom extending to the apex. Hind wing with very obscured pattern ; basal area 
mostly black, a slight trace of a rufous chestnut band most apparent at the costa, but suffused 
over in the disc ; submarginal black band wide at upper end near the costa, then tapering 
slightly to the anal angle ; border narrow, dark rufous ; tails short and thick at base, 4-5 mm 
long, edge narrowly black. Underside. Pattern generally similar to that of cabacus, but 
chestnut ground colour over distal portion of wings suffused with a vinaceous bloom ; ad- 
marginal greyish triangles well marked in fore wing, marginal orange present only at tornus. 
Silvery lines and bars as usual in the species. 



2 4 4 V. G. L. VAN SOMEREN 

An interesting variation has the outer border of both wings shot with bluish grey, due to 
increased size of the greyish admarginal triangles in the fore wing, and in the hind wing, beyond 
the submarginal chestnut area shot with grey, there follows a thin black line outwardly bordered 
with mauve and chestnut internervular lunules. 

Form resembling amaurus Poulton. Upperside. Fore wing, in this form the suppressed 
pattern is more noticable, the basal chestnut is slightly more extended, and the trace of the 
postdiscal bar may extend to 3 ; the marginal spots are larger. On the hind wing, the discal 
band is more apparent, and the submarginal black band correspondingly more sharply defined ; 
the rufous border slightly wider. Underside. Ground colour paler rufous, with practically all 
trace of the silvery lines wanting, or just slightly indicated, but black marks still present. 
(PI. 9, fig. 79.) 

FEMALE. Upperside. Bears a strong resemblance to the female of Charaxes lucretius Cr. 
but the fore wings are more pointed. Fore wing length 44-45 mm. Base chestnut, with an 
occasional paler subcostal mark at cell end, but extent of chestnut variable toward hind area, 
rest of wing black, traversed by a postdiscal row of creamy ochreous spots contiguous in la-ib, 
but free from 2-6, spot in 2 usually round, remainder rather ovoid ; margin with distinct 
rufous orange spots, double in ib, and extending to apex. Hind wing, basal area blackish 
brown, paler on inner fold ; discal band creamy ochre with rufous orange shading on distal 
border in lower half ; inner border with slight kink at 5, outer border almost straight ; sub- 
marginal black band strong, rather wide, with dentate outer border ; border orange-ochre ; 
edge black. Tails thin, 5 & 4 mm long. Underside. Very similar to male, especially the varia- 
tion mentioned above, but pale bands of upperside well represented below. 

Form resembling amaurus Poulton. Upperside. Basal area fore wing brighter chestnut ; 
postdiscal bar with creamy ochre spots more irregular in shape. Hind wing ochre band less 
shaded with orange rufous ; submarginal black zone bolder. (The resemblance to female 
lucretius is thus enhanced.) Underside. Reddish brown, devoid of silvery bars and lines, but 
black marks in fore wing strong ; bands of upperside strongly represented below. (PI. 9, fig. 80.) 

Range : Uganda, western shore of Lake Victoria in Buddu district in the Mala- 
bigambo forest area at Katera. 

Charaxes eudoxus cabacus Jordan 
(PI. 10, figs 83-84, Map 6) 

Charaxes eudoxus cabacus Jordan, 1925 : 288. 

Charaxes eudoxus cabacus Jordan ; Carpenter, 1937. [partim.]. 

When considering this race, we are faced with the problem of dealing with an 
aggregate which has evolved into two distinct ecological groups from west to east. 
This was remarked on by Carpenter (1937 : 89), but he was content to refer to the 
two groups as nominate cabacus Jordan. Furthermore, he drew attention to the 
fact that Jordan did not have a female associated with his male from Entebbe, but 
he mentions that I had described a female from Kitale in 1929 and figured it in the 
same journal in 1936, under the name cabacus Jordan. He therefore suggested 
that this insect should be considered the neallotype. 

The problem is further complicated by the fact that in 1929, Poulton described 
Ch. eudoxus amaurus as a distinct race from the Kitale district, S.E. of Mt. Elgon, 
the chief character of which was the total suppression of the silvery marks on the 
underside in both male and female. As quoted by Carpenter (1937 : 90), I sub- 
sequently bred a family from a known parent which contained examples of both 



REVISIONAL NOTES ON AFRICAN CHARAXES 245 

amaurus and ' cabacus '. I therefore came to the conclusion that amaurus was a 
variety and not a geographical race, on the assumption that Kitale specimens were 
indeed cabacus Jordan. Having examined numerous specimens from both Entebbe 
and S.E. Elgon, I can confirm Carpenter's remark that material from the eastern 
areas differs from nominate Entebbe specimens. It is unfortunate that Carpenter 
should have figured an example of the eastern aggregate (Tiriki Hills) as typical 
cabacus (pi. i, figs 2 & 3), and not a topotypical example from Entebbe. Carpenter 
notes that some Entebbe examples ' come quite near to the new subspecies ...katerae 
from a locality further west, on the west coast of the northern part of Lake Victoria '. 
I therefore propose to deal with this complex as representing two distinct geo- 
graphical races, cabacus Jordan from the Entebbe area and amaurus Poulton from 
N.W. Kenya. 

MALE. Size generally smaller, fore wing length average 38 mm. Upper side. General 
colour as in more western examples (Toro and Kalinzu), but basal rufous chestnut slightly more 
restricted toward hind margin ; a black mark often present in the cell toward end. Postdiscal 
rufous orange bar very narrow in la-ib, seldom wider than 4 mm, the marks here contiguous, 
the remainder free and of decreasing size to 6 ; marginal spots well developed. Hind wing 
basal area chestnut shading to black over bases of 6-7 where it encroaches on the rufous orange 
discal band. The latter is slightly paler at the costa and kinked in 6, where it is narrow, 
widening slightly, but still comparatively narrow ; the submarginal bar is wide to 3 then taper- 
ing toward the anal angle ; thus the rufous orange border is narrow as a rule ; edge black. 
Tails short, 5 mm. Underside. General pattern as in mechowi, but chestnut ground colour 
paler, with full complement of silvery lines and bars ; black marks ib-2 moderately strong. 

FEMALE. No topotypical females are available for study. The female figured by Carpenter 
(1937, pl s - 3 & 4> fig 8 - Io & Ioa ) belongs to the eastern race. 

Range : Forests around Entebbe : Zika, Kisube, and ? Mabira. 



Charaxes eudoxus amaurus Poulton 
(PI. 10, figs 85-88, Map 6) 

Charaxes eudoxus amaurus Poulton, 1929 : 478-81. 

Charaxes eudoxus cabacus f. amaurus Poulton ; van Someren, 1929, 1936. 

Charaxes eudoxus cabacus ab. amaurus Poulton ; Carpenter, 1937 : 94> pi- I n - 4> P^ 2 - fig- 4 
pis 3 & 4, figs 10 & ii. 

It is unfortunate that when Poulton described the race eudoxus amaurus, only one 
form was available to him. It is now known that there are two forms within this 
aggregate. If this aggregate is to be considered a valid subspecies, the name 
amaurus must be utilized for it. Since the original description applies to only one 
form, it would appear desirable to refer to the second form by an infra-subspecific 
name... form nzoia, described below. 

The nominate form of amaurus is comparatively common amongst the aggregate 
of N.W. Kenya. 

MALE. Upperside. There is little or no difference from males of the eastern block, but on 
the underside the characteristic silvery lines are entirely wanting or vestigial ; the black marks 
are reduced in size, but otherwise normal. 



2 4 6 V. G. L. VAN SOMEREN 

FEMALE. Upperside. Identical with females of the eastern area, either with or vvithout 
rufous orange spots in subcostal area of fore wing. Underside without silvery lines. 

Form nzoia forma n. 

MALE. Upperside. Differs from the nominate cabacus by having the basal areas of fore and 
hind wing brighter chestnut ; the rufous orange bar of the fore wing not so restricted in the hind 
portion in ia-2, the remaining spots decreasing in size and reaching 3-4. The hind wing rufous 
orange band wider, not so narrow and suffused over in lower half, where it merges into the inner 
fold above the anal angle ; the black submarginal bar thus narrower in its upper half ; border 
slightly narrower. Underside. Pattern as in nominate cabacus, but black marks in fore wing 
less solid and large. 

FEMALE. Upperside. Fore wing basal area brighter rufous, black area in disc tapering 
rapidly and not reaching la, Subcostal area invaded by trace of rufous marks, one beyond cell 
and two smaller in 5-6. The postdiscal orange band is broad in la-ib, lessening in width from 
2 upwards to 6, 7. Marginal spots strong. Hind wing basal area rufous without darkening 
toward costa ; discal band tawny orange, broad, widest in 5 then tapering to above anal angle. 
Marginal border relatively narrow ; tails rather short and stumpy at base, upper 5 mm, lower 
4 mm. Underside. Pattern as in the male but pale bars on both wings conspicuous ; silvery 
lines less strong ; black marks in fore wing less strong. 

Holotype male. N.W. KENYA : Kitale, ix.i933. (PI. 10, fig. 87.) 
Allotype female. Same data. (PI. 10, fig. 88.) 

Distribution : Both forms occur in about equal numbers in the forested areas east 
of the Nile. Recorded localities are : Tiriki Hills, Kakamega, Kaimosi, Nandi, 
TransNzoia, in S.E. Elgon area, Kitale. 



Charaxes eudoxus zambiae ssp. n. 

(PI. 10, fig. 89, Map 6) 

The discovery of this very distinct subspecies extends the south-eastern range of 
Charaxes eudoxus very considerably. 

MALE. Fore wing length 39 mm. Upperside. Fore wing, pattern somewhat like eudoxus 
amaurus f. nzoia but distinguished by the duller basal chestnut and the much paler tawny 
orange bar, which extends from the hind margin where the marks are conjoined in ia-2, then 
as discrete spots of diminishing size to 6. Marginal spots large and distinct. Hind wing basal 
area chestnut, shading to black in the costal region and to greyish brown on the inner fold. 
Discal band pale tawny orange of about equal width almost throughout, then tapering toward 
the anal angle ; submarginal black bar wide, tapering only at anal angle, almost straight on 
inner border, dentate on outer ; border pale tawny orange narrowly edged in black. Under- 
side. Ground colour rather paler rufous chestnut, with paler rufous on outer border of wings. 
Silvery lines and bars as usual ; black marks in fore wing strong. Tails thin, 6 & 5 mm long. 

The FEMALE is still unknown. 

Holotype male. ZAMBIA : Shiwa Ngandu, [near Danger Hill, east side Upper 
Loangwe Valley], 2Q.xi.62 (C. B. Cottrell) in B.M.(N.H.). 

Range : Known only from Loangwe Valley, Zambia. 



REVISIONAL NOTES ON AFRICAN CHARAXES 247 

Charaxes eudoxus ? subspecies, status uncertain 

Under this heading we have to consider specimens from the Sudan, one taken in 
the Imatong Mts in the Mongala Province and one from Bendi, south west of Yambio. 
There is also a specimen taken in the forests at Arua in north-western Uganda. 

Carpenter (1937) placed the two Sudan specimens as mechowi, but if this is correct 
they represent a very dry form of that race. They are characterized by the upper- 
side having brighter chestnut to the bases of the wings ; paler more extended rufous 
orange bar up to 6. In the hind wing the orange band is broad, the submarginal 
black bar much reduced, the upper portion not being more than 4 mm and the 
remainder of the spots below 5, well separated and decreasing in size. On the 
underside, it is interesting to note that the Imatong example is devoid of silvery 
lines and bars, thus analagous to the form nzoia of eudoxus amaurus but simulating 
lucretius to an even greater extent. It should be noted that amongst the dozens of 
mechowi I have examined, none are without silvery lines below. The specimen from 
Arua is fully marked with silver lines on the underside. 

SYSTEMATIC LIST 

Charaxes richelmanni Rober 

Charaxes richelmanni Rober, 1936. Type locality : ' Kamerun '. 

Range : Cameroon, Central African Republic, Moyen Congo, 
Upper Congo at Medje in the Ituri area. 

Charaxes eudoxus Drury 

Charaxes eudoxus eudoxus Drury, 1782. Type locality : Sierra Leone. 

Range : Sierra Leone, Gold Coast, Ivory Coast ; thus not crossing 
the Togo-Dahomey Divide. 
eudoxus mechowi Rothschild, 1899. Type locality : N. Angola. 

Range : Area i ; northern Angola, Kasai and western Katanga, 
Moyen Congo, Central African Republic, Cameroons & E. Nigeria. 
Area 2 ; Congo, east of the Congo River to Ituri and 
Semliki Valley ; S.W. Sudan. 

Area 3 ; Uganda : Kigezi Province, Kayonza forests 
along the Ishasha River. (Note that this area abuts on the 
Ruanda-Urundi-Kivu areas.) PKigoma, N.E. shore of Lake 
Tanganyika. 

eudoxus theresae Le Cerf, 1932. Type locality : Kitumbo, Lake Kivu, 
E. Congo. 

Range : the western shores of Lake Kivu. 

eudoxus katerae Carpenter, 1937. Type locality, Katera Forest, Budu, 
western shore of Lake Victoria. 

Range : Uganda, western shore of Lake Victoria, Budu area in 
the Katera and Malabigambo Forests. 



248 V. G. L. VAN SOMEREN 

eudoxus cabacus Jordan, 1925. Type locality : Entebbe, Uganda. 

Range : Forests around Entebbe ; Zika, Kisubi ; ? Mabira 

Forest. 

eudoxus amaurus Poulton, 1929. Type locality : Trans Nzoia, S.E. 
Elgon, Nandi Hills, Tiriki, Kakamega, Kaimosi, all east of the Nile in 
N.W. Kenya. 
eudoxus amaurus i. nzoia forma n. Type locality : N.W. Kenya, Kitale. 

Range : Timki Hills, Kakamega, Nandi, TransNzoia, in S.E. 

Elgon area, Kitale. 
eudoxus zambiae ssp. n. 

Range : Zambia, Shiwa Ngandu, nr Danger Hill, east side of 

Upper Loangwe Valley. 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

I wish to record my grateful thanks to all those who have contributed toward the 
completion of Part VI of my Revisional Notes on African Charaxes, especially the 
following : 

Mr T. G. Howarth, Mr D. E. Kimmins, Mr C. F. Huggins and Mr T. Backus, 
Department of Entomology, BM(NH), London ; Mr E. Taylor, Hope Dept., 
University Museum, Oxford ; Major Iain Grahame, Lamarsh, Suffolk, England ; 
Dr Viette and Dr Bernardi, Museum nationale d'Histoire naturelle, Paris ; the late 
Dr R. M. Fox, Carnegie Museum, Pittsburgh, U.S.A. ; the late Dr G. van Son, 
Transvaal Museum, Pretoria, S. Africa ; Dr C. B. Cottrell, Salisbury, Rhodesia ; 
Dr R. H. Carcasson, National Museum, Nairobi, Kenya ; Dr C. H. McCleery, Zomba, 
Malawi ; Mr P. T. Martin, Limbe, Malawi ; the late T. H. E. Jackson, Kitale, 
Kenya ; Mr R. G. T. St Leger, late of Enugu, Nigeria ; and finally my special 
thanks to Dr D. G. Sevastopulo, Mombasa, Kenya, for supplying me with photo- 
graphs and notes on the early stages of Charaxes lasti, and for giving me permission 
to publish them. 

REFERENCES 
References not given here will be found in Parts I-V of this revision. 

CARPENTER, G. D. H. 1935. The Rhopalocera of Abyssinia, a faunistic study. With notes 
on particular points by W. H. Evans, C.S.I., C.I.E., D.S.O., Francis Hemming, C.B.E., and 
E. J. Wayland. Trans. R. ent. Soc. Lond. 83 : 313-444, pis viii-xii, i map. 
1937. Charaxes eudoxus Drury (Lep.). A revision, with description of a new subspecies. 
Trans. R. ent. Soc. Lond. 86 : 85-100, 5 pis, 6 figs. 

DEWITZ, H. 1879. Afrikanische Tagsschmetterlinge. Nova Acta Acad. Caesar. Leop. Carol. 
41 (2) : 173-212, 2 pis. 

DRURY, D. 1782. Illustrations of Natural History, 1, 130 pp., 50 pis; 2, 92 pp., 50 pis; 3, 76 pp., 

50 pis, London. 
FELDER, C. & R. 1886. Reise der osterreichischen Fregatte ' Novara ' um die Erde 6-c. Zool. 

2, Lep. 2 : 1-549, 74 pis. Wien. 
HOLLAND, W. J. 1920. Lepidoptera of the Congo, being a systematic list of the butterflies 

and moths collected by the American Museum of Natural History, Congo Expedition, 

together with descriptions of some hitherto undescribed species. Bull. Am. Mus. nat. 

Hist. 43 (6) : 109-369, pis. 6-14. 



REVISIONAL NOTES ON AFRICAN CHARAXES 249 

JABLONSKY, C. G. & HERBST, J. F. W. 1783-1804. Natur system aller bekannten in-und 
auslandischen Insekten. Der Schmetterlinge. n vols., 327 pis. Berlin. 

JACKSON, T. H. E. 1956. Notes on the Rhopalocera of the Kigezi district of Uganda, with 
descriptions of new species and subspecies. // E. Africa nat. Hist. Soc. 23 : 63-102, 13 pis. 

JOICEY, J. J. & TALBOT, G. 1925. Notes on some Lepidoptera, with descriptions of new forms. 

Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (9) 16 : 633-653. 

- 1926. New forms of Lepidoptera from the Island of Sao Thome, West Africa. Ento- 
mologist 59 : 220-226. 

LANZ, H. 1896. Besprechung der von Dr Bumiller 1893 aus Ostafrika mitgebrachten Schmet- 
terlinge. Dt. ent. Z. Iris 9 (i) : 113-147. 

NEUSTETTER, H. 1929. Neue exotische Tagfalter. Int. ent. Z. 22 : 389-392. 

OBERTHUR, C. 1880. Spedizione Italiana nell' Africa Equatoriale Lepidotteri della Scioa. 
Part I. Annali Mus. civ. Stor. nat. Giacomo Doria 15 : 129-186, pi. i. 

1883. Part 2. Op. cit. 18 : 709-740, pi. 9. 

RICHELMANN, D. VON. 1913. Einige neue afrikanische Tagfalter. Int. ent. Z. 7 : 105-106. 

ROBBE, H. 1892. Lepidopteres du Congo. Annls Soc. ent. Belg. 36 : 132-134. 

ROBER, J. 1936. Ueber einiger afrikanische Charaxes- Arten und andere exotische Falter. 

Ent. Rundsch. 53 : 575-580, 7 figs. 

ROTHSCHILD, W. 1897. On some new butterflies and moths. Novit. zool. 4 : 507-513. 
ROTHSCHILD, W. & JORDAN, K. 1903. Lepidoptera collected by Oscar Neumann in North- 
east Africa. Novit. zool. 10 : 491-542. 
ROUSSEAU-DECELLE, G. & JOHNSON, F. L. 1957. Note sur une sous-espece nouvelle de 

Charaxes africain. Bull. Soc. ent. Fr. 62 : 151-153, 2 figs. 
STAUDINGER, O. & SCHATZ, E. 1884-1888. Exotische Schmetterlinge, I, pp. 1-333, IO pis- 

Fiirth. 
STONEHAM, H. F. 1943. New forms of Lepidoptera of the subfamily Charaxidinae, from 

East Africa. Bull. Stoneham Mus. 46, 3 pp. 
STORAGE, L. 1948. Descrizione di nuove forme africane del gen. Charaxes O. (Lepidoptera, 

Nymphalidae) . Annali Mus. civ. Stor. nat. Giacomo Doria 63 : 132-141. 
TALBOT, G. 1927. Charaxes alticola Griinb. -, and remarks on Charaxes boueti Feisth. (Lep. 

Nymphalidae). Entomologist 60 : 109-110. 

1929. A note on Charaxes boueti centralis Neustt. (1929). Bull. Hill Mus. Witley 3 : 148. 

1932. The female of Charaxes alticola Griinb., associated with the female of C. ansorgei 
ruandana Talb., as a mimic of C. brutus Cram. &c. Proc. ent. Soc. Lond. 7 : 9. 

VAN SOMEREN, V. G. L. 1963. Revisional Notes on African Charaxes (Lepidoptera : Nym- 
phalidae). Part I. Bull. BY. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 13 (7) : 195-242, 19 pis, 5 text-figs. 

1964. Part II. Bull. BY. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.), 15 (7) : 181-235, 2 3 P\ s > 4 maps. 
- 1966. Part III. Bull. BY. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.), 18 (3) : 45-100, 16 pis, 5 maps. 

1966^. Part IV. Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.), 18 (9) : 277-316, 9 pis, 4 maps. 

1967. Charaxes jocaste Butler 1865. (Insecta Lepidoptera) . Proposed suppression under 
the Plenary Powers. Z.N.(S.) 1806. Bull. zool. Nom. 24 (4) : 255-256. 

1969. Revisional Notes on African Charaxes (Lepidoptera : Nymphalidae). Part V. 

Butt. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.), 23 (4) : 75-164, 29 pis, 8 maps, 31 text-figs. 
WARD, C. 1873. Descriptions of new species of African Lepidoptera. Entomologist's man. 

Mag. 9 : 147-148, 209-210. 
WILSON, C. E. 1950. Butterflies of the Northern and Central Sudan. Mem. Res. Div. Min. 

Agr. Sudan, no. 12 : 222-224. 

INDEX 

Synonyms in italics 

achaemenes, 206, 207 andara, 221 

alcyone, 219 angustus, 216 

alticola, 230, 232 antiquus, 220 

amaurus, 245 atlantica, 211 



250 

blanda, 205 
boueti, 223, 224 
brutus, 214 



cabacus, 244 
cajus, 214 
centralis, 232 



erythraea, 210 
eudoxus, 238, 239 
eudoxus ssp., 247 

fallax Richelmann, 236 
fasciatus, 209 
flavescens, 227 
fractifascia, 217 



ghanaensis, 227 
guderiana, 199 



jocaste, 210 
junius, 217 



INDEX 



macclounii, 227 
mechowi, 240 
monticola, 209 
monticola X atlantica, 211 



nigrescens, 217 

natalensis Staud. & Schatz, 220 
natalensis van Som. & Rogers, 219 
nzoia, 246 



opinatus, 202 



pelias, 199 
phoebus, 212 



rabaiensis, 202 
ragazzi, 218 
rectans, 229 
richelmanni, 236 



somalicus, 218 



katerae, 243 
kenyae, 206 



lasti Grose Smith, 232 
lasti Trimen, 227 



tanganika, 199 
theresae, 242 



zambiae, 246 




Dr VICTOR GURNER LOGAN VAN SOMEREN 
THE SANCTUARY, NGONG 
P.O. Box 24947 
KAREN, KENYA 



PLATE i 

Charaxes 

FIGS i & 2. guderiana guderiana Dewitz, < and $ (Zambia and W. Tanzania), upper and 
undersides. 

FIGS 3 & 4. g. rabaiensis Poulton, $ and $ (Kenya coastal belt, Shimba and Rabai Hills), 
upper and undersides. 

FIGS 5-8. opinatus Heron, 3 variations and i $ (Uganda : Kigezi, Mafuga), upper and 

undersides. 

FIGS 9 & 10. blanda blanda Rothschild, $ Type (Tanzania : Mikindani), upper and under- 
side. Photo B.M.(N.H.) No. 38827. 

FIGS ii & 12. b. kenyae Poulton, $ and (Kenya : Rabai and Arabuko-Sekke Forest), 
upper and undersides. 

FIGS 13 & 14. achaemenes achaemenes Felder, $ and $ (S. Rhodesia), upper and undersides. 



Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 25, 5 



PLATE i 




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>. n., 6* and $ (Senegal), upper and undersides. 


d, lunate, less bluish. Upper and undersides. 


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Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 25, 5 



PLATE 3 




PLATE 4 
Char axes 

FIG. 32. brutus junius Oberthur, $ (N.W. Ethiopia : Shoa, Faleklek, Sciotalit), upper 

and underside. 

FIG. 33. b. somalicus Rothschild, $ (S. Ethiopia), upper and underside. 

FIGS 34 & 35. b. alcyone Stoneham, <$ and $ Types (Kenya : Dida, north of Mombasa), 

upper and undersides. 
FIGS 36 & 37. b. natalensis Staudinger and Schatz, (J and $ (South Africa : Natal, Durban), 

upper and undersides. 
FIGS 38 & 39. b. antiquus Joicey and Talbot, <$ and $ (Sao Tom6), upper and undersides. 



Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 25, 5 



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Bull. Br. Mus. not. Hist. (Ent.) 25, 5 



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Charaxes 

FIGS 59-63. lasti Grose Smith, <$ dark form (Tanzania : Usambara Mts.), $ intermediate 
form (Kenya : Shimba Hills), <$ light form (Usambara), $ intermediate form 
(Usambara) and $ dark form (Kenya : Ribbe Forest) respectively. Upper 
and undersides. 

FIGS 64 & 65. lasti Grose Smith, $ Type of Charaxes centralis Neustetter. Said to have come 
from ' French Congo ', it is undoubtedly an example of a slightly marked $ 
lasti. Upper and underside. Photos B.M.(N.H.) Nos 42561-2. 

FIG. 66. reichelmanni Rober (fallax auctt.), <$ (Congo : Medje and Cameroon), upper 

and underside. 



Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 25, 5 



PLATE 7 







PLATE 8 
Charaxes 



FIGS 67 & 68. eudoxus eudoxus Drury, <J and ? (Sierra Leone), upper and undersides. 

FIGS 69-74. e - mechowi Rothschild, 4 <J (Uganda : Kigezi district, Kayonza), i $ (S. 

Congo : Katanga, Kashimuna), i $ (S. Congo : Katanga, Kafakumba) 

respectively. Upper and undersides. 



Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 25, 5 



PLATE 8 





PLATE 9 
Charaxes eudoxus Drury 

FIGS 75-77. mechowi Rothschild, $ illustrating variation in this race within the Moyen 
Congo. Upper and undersides. 

FIG. 78. theresae Le Cerf, <$ (E. Congo : Lake Kivu area, Kitembo), upper and under- 

side. 

FIGS 79-82. katerae Carpenter, $ and $ atypical, with underside pattern suppressed as in 
ssp. amaurus Poulton, <$ and $ specimens with strongly marked undersides, (all 
Uganda : Masaka District, Katera Forest, Sango Bay), upper and undersides. 



Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 25, 5 



PLATE 9 




76 




77 





PLATE 10 

Charaxes eudoxus Drury 

FIGS 83 & 84. cabacus Jordan, <$, topotypical, showing partial suppression of underside 

pattern, and $ Type (both Uganda : Forests adjacent to Entebbe), upper and 

undersides. Photos B.M.(N.H.) Nos 43248-9. 
FIGS 85 & 86. amaurus Poulton, <$ and $, topotypical, showing suppression of silvery pattern 

on underside. (Kenya : Mt Elgon, Kitale), upper and undersides. 
FIGS 87 & 88. amaurus f. nzoia forma nov., $ and $ Types, undersides with strong silvery 

pattern. (Kenya : Mt. Elgon, Kitale), upper and undersides. 
FIG. 89. zambiae ssp. n., $ Type (Zambia : Shiwa Ngandu, Upper Loangwe Valley), 

upper and underside. 



Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 25, 5 



PLATE 10 










PLATE ii 
Larvae and pupae of Charaxes lasti Grose-Smith 

FIGS 90-95. 90. Larvae, first instar. 91. Larva, second instar. 92. Larva, third instar. 
93. Larva, fourth instar. 94. Larva, fourth instar, another with only 
diamond-shaped mark on dorsum of 6th somite. 95. Larva, fifth instar. 

FIGS 96 & 97. Pupae. 



Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 25, 5 



PLATE ii 



90 




92 



94 



91 



93 



96 




95 



97 



A LIST OF SUPPLEMENTS 
TO THE ENTOMOLOGICAL SERIES 

OF THE BULLETIN OF 
THE BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 



2. NIXON, G. E. J. A reclassification of the tribe Microgasterini (Hymenoptera : 
Braconidae). Pp. 284 : 348 text-figures. August, 1965. 6. 

3. WATSON, A. A revision of the Ethiopian Drepanidae (Lepidoptera). Pp. 177 : 
18 plates, 270 text-figures. August, 1965. 4 45. 

4. SANDS, W. A. A revision of the Termite Subfamily Nasutitermitinae (Isoptera, 
Termitidae) from the Ethiopian Region. Pp. 172 : 500 text-figures. Sep- 
tember, 1965. 3 55. 

5. AHMAD, I. The Leptocorisinae (Heteroptera : Alydidae) of the World. 
Pp. 156 : 475 text-figures. November, 1965. 2 155. 

6. OKADA, T. Diptera from Nepal. Cryptochaetidae, Diastatidae and Droso- 
philidae. Pp. 129 : 328 text-figures. May, 1966. 3. 

7. GILIOMEE, J. H. Morphology and Taxonomy of Adult Males of the Family 
Coccidae (Homoptera : Coccoidea). Pp. 168 : 43 text-figures. January, 1967. 

33s. 

8. FLETCHER, D. S. A revision of the Ethiopian species and a check list of the 
world species of Cleora (Lepidoptera : Geometridae). Pp. 119 : 14 plates, 146 
text-figures, 9 maps. February, 1967. 3 los. 

9. HEMMING, A. F. The Generic Names of the Butterflies and their type-species 
(Lepidoptera : Rhopalocera). Pp. 509. 8 los. 

10. STEMPFFER, H. The Genera of the African Lycaenidae (Lepidoptera : Rho- 
palocera). Pp. 322 : 348 text-figures. August, 1967. 8. 

11. MOUND, L. A. A review of R. S. BagnalTs Thysanoptera Collections. Pp. 172 : 
82 text-figures. May, 1968. 4. 

12. WATSON, A. The Taxonomy of the Drepaninae represented in China, with 
an account of their world distribution. Pp. 151 : 14 plates, 293 text-figures. 
November, 1968. 5. 

13. AFIFI, S. A. Morphology and Taxonomy of Adult Males of the families 
Pseudococcidae and Eriococcidae (Homoptera: Coccoidea). Pp. 210 : 52 text- 
figures. December, 1968. 5. 

14. CROSSKEY, R. W. A Re-classification of the Simuliidae (Diptera) of Africa 
and its Islands. Pp. 198 : i plate, 331 text-figures. July, 1969. 4 155. 

15. ELIOT, J. N. An analysis of the Eurasian and Australian Neptini (Lepidoptera : 
Nymphalidae). Pp. 155 : 3 plates, 101 text-figures. September, 1969. 

4- 

16. GRAHAM, M. W. R. DE V. The Pteromalidae of North-Western Europe 

(Hymenoptera : Chalcidoidea). Pp. 908 : 686 text-figures. November, 1969. 



Printed in England by Staples Printers Limited at their Kettering. Northants, establishment 



THE TYPE-MATERIAL OF 

AUSTRALASIAN, ORIENTAL AND 

ETHIOPIAN TACHINIDAE (DIPTERA) 

DESCRIBED BY 
MACQUART AND BIGOT 




R. W. CROSSKEY 



BULLETIN OF 

THE BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 
ENTOMOLOGY Vol. 25 No. 6 

LONDON: 1971 



THE TYPE-MATERIAL OF AUSTRALASIAN, 

ORIENTAL AND ETHIOPIAN TACHINIDAE 

(DIPTERA) DESCRIBED BY 

MACQUART AND BIGOT 



BY 



ROGER WARD CROSSKEY 

Commonwealth Institute of Entomology 



f , * f 




Pp. 251-305 ; i Plate 



BULLETIN OF 

THE BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 
ENTOMOLOGY Vol. 25 No. 6 

LONDON : 1971 



THE BULLETIN OF THE BRITISH MUSEUM 

(NATURAL HISTORY), instituted in 1949, is issued 
in five series corresponding to the Departments of the 
Museum, and a Historical series. 

Parts will appear at irregular intervals as they 
become ready. Volumes will contain about three or 
four hundred pages, and will not necessarily be com- 
pleted within one calendar year. 

In 1965 a separate supplementary series of longer 
papers was instituted, numbered serially for each 
Department. 

This paper is Vol. 25, No. 6 of the Entomology 
series. The abbreviated titles of periodicals cited 
follow those of the World List of Scientific Periodicals. 



World List abbreviation : 
Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 



Trustees of the British Museum (Natural History) 1971 



TRUSTEES OF 
THE BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 

Issued 2 March 1971 Price 1-80 



THE TYPE-MATERIAL OF AUSTRALASIAN, 

ORIENTAL AND ETHIOPIAN TACHINIDAE 

(DIPTERA) DESCRIBED BY 

MACQUART AND BIGOT 

By R. W. CROSSKEY 

CONTENTS 

Page 

SYNOPSIS ........... 253 

INTRODUCTION .......... 253 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ......... 256 

PART I. MACQUART ......... 256 

Macquart's work and recognition of his type-material . . . 256 
Macquart's type-material of Australasian, Oriental and Ethiopian 

Tachinidae .......... 263 

PART II. BIGOT .......... 293 

Bigot's work and recognition of his type-material .... 293 

Bigot's type-material of Australasian, Oriental and Ethiopian 

Tachinidae .......... 296 

REFERENCES ........... 301 

INDEX TO SPECIFIC NAMES ........ 303 

SYNOPSIS 

Alphabetical catalogues are given of the 168 nominal species of Tachinidae described from the 
Old World (exclusive of Palaearctic Region) by J. Macquart and J. M. F. Bigot, with an account 
of all located type-material on which the names are based. Thirty-nine lecto types are newly 
designated. The few relevant nomina nuda published by Macquart and Bigot are included, 
together with those nominal species recorded from the area covered but now known either not 
to be Tachinidae or to have come from other regions. 

INTRODUCTION 

THE development of Tachinid taxonomy from the alpha to the beta stages (as 
Mayr, 1969, defines these), and the preparation of synthesizing revisionary works 
which this will necessitate, is much hampered by the multiplicity of names involved 
and the lack of catalogues bringing these together (even on a regional basis). From 
the Australasian, Oriental and Ethiopian Regions together slightly more than 700 
genus-group segregates and 2,400 nominal species-group segregates have been 
described, but undoubtedly there is much synonymy of generic and specific names, 
and systematic catalogues are needed for the Tachinidae of each of these zoogeo- 
graphical regions which will render some order out of the present chaos. The 
preparation of such catalogues is currently in hand (Crosskey, in preparation), 



254 R. W. CROSSKEY 

but depends entirely on detailed study of the large numbers of types involved, 
for in a family such as the Tachinidae where nomenclatural confusion has reached 
almost classic proportions it is vital to see as many as possible of the types in 
order to get the nominal species assigned correctly to recognizable generic and tribal 
concepts, and more especially to study the types of the older authors which have too 
often been neglected (and their nominal species, as a consequence, often wildly 
misinterpreted). 

Although a few earlier authors (particularly Wiedemann and Robineau-Desvoidy) 
had described some Tachinidae from the exotic and mainly tropical regions of the 
Old World, it was Macquart between the years 1835 and 1855 who first described a 
really significant number of forms and to whom so many of the names of Palaeo- 
tropical genera and species date back in priority. Consequently the types of 
Macquart have an almost unique importance for the taxonomy of non-European 
Tachinidae, and an account of his type-material of Australasian, Oriental and 
Ethiopian Tachinidae is therefore here presented in advance of the projected regional 
catalogues. Bigot's work, though very extensive on the New World Tachinidae, 
is of minor significance in the Old World fauna, but as many of Macquart's nominal 
species were based upon specimens he received from Bigot's collection and as 
Bigot was an immediate and important successor to Macquart as a describer of 
exotic Tachinidae I have considered it natural to take account of Bigot's type- 
material in the same paper as that of Macquart's. There is much need of a similar 
paper to the present one which would deal with Macquart's and Bigot's types of 
Tachinidae from the Western Hemisphere (for Bigot, especially, described many 
species from the Neotropical Region), but preparation of papers of this kind is 
laborious and time-consuming, and I shall be unable to undertake such a paper 
myself in the foreseeable future ; it is hoped, however, that a North American 
specialist on the Tachinidae will be able to prepare such a companion paper. 

I have presented this paper in two parts, the first dealing with the nominal species 
described by Macquart, and the second part with those described by Bigot. The 
alphabetical lists include not only the available species-group names, but also (for 
completeness) the very few nomina nuda which Macquart and Bigot published. 
Included, too, in square brackets, are the names of those nominal species which 
Macquart and Bigot assigned to apparently Tachinid genera, but which are now 
known to belong to taxa in other families, and also the few Tachinid nominal species 
which though described from the area covered are now known to have a New World 
provenance. 

All names given in Parts I and II are listed alphabetically in their original com- 
binations, and for each taxon the entry is arranged to show the following information 
in the sequence indicated : 

Name ; author ; date and page reference of original publication ; status and 
sex of primary type ; authority for lectotype designation (if relevant) ; 
data of primary type ; type-depository. 

Number and sex of paralectotypes (if any) , with data and despository. 
Explanatory comments and annotations. 



TACHINIDAE TYPES OF MACQUART AND BIGOT 255 

The following points should be noted with regard to the foregoing sequence-list 
of type-information. In a few instances the type-material is lost or has not been 
accessible, and in the absence of definite information about the number of original 
specimens it has sometimes been necessary to cite the types as " ? holotype or 
syntypes ". Most of the lectotype fixations are new, as indicated by the words 
"LECTOTYPE" and "by present designation", and a total of 39 lectotypes are 
newly designated in the paper. The type-data usually amounts to no more than the 
name of the country or island-group of origin, but if anything more precise is known 
then the additional information is given : e.g. "AUSTRALIA" if there is no further 
information, but "QUEENSLAND, Moreton Bay" if the further detail is possible. 
In a few instances the name of the collector of the type-material is known, and where 
so this is cited in parentheses and italics after the locality, e.g. "INDIA, Pondicherry 
(Perrottet)" . I have often thought it helpful, after citing the type-locality in its 
modern form, to show between single inverted commas and in parentheses the name 
of the locality actually cited in the original publication, e.g. "AUSTRALIA ('Nouvelle- 
Hollande, cote orientale')". If the provenance cited in the original publication 
appears to be in error, but cannot be proved to be so, then I have indicated this by 
giving the cited locality in single inverted commas followed by an annotation in 
square brackets, e.g. " TASMANIE' [probably in error for New South Wales]". 

Almost all of Macquart's type-material is in Paris and London, and all of Bigot's 
type-material (of Tachinidae) is in London. The Macquart types now in London, 
and Bigot's own types, formerly were part of Bigot's collection, and though they 
are now incorporated into the general Diptera collection of the British Museum 
(Natural History) I have thought it best to indicate that they came from Bigot's 
collection by adding "(ex coll. Bigot)" after the type-depository. In the case of 
Macquart's types in Paris I have indicated the serial reference numbers after the 
type-depository initials. To condense the text the following abbreviations have 
been used for the type-depositories : 

BMNH British Museum (Natural History), London. 

MHN Musee d'Histoire Naturelle, Lille. 

MNHN Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris. 

Townsend saw some of Macquart's types in Paris, and apparently some of Bigot's 
types when the Bigot collection was formerly in the hands of J. E. Collin at New- 
market (see p. 296), and some of these together with others he had not seen he 
referred to in his Manual of Myiology (1934-1942, 12 Parts, Itaquaquecetuba), 
and occasionally in his earlier papers. Unfortunately, several of the specimens 
referred to by Townsend as "Ht" [= holotype] for various nominal species of 
Macquart and Bigot are not original type-material at all, while some others are 
specimens arbitrarily referred to by Townsend as "holotypes" though actually only 
specimens from syntypic series. In a few cases it happens, however, that Townsend's 
citation of "Ht" can apply only to one recognizable specimen of the type-series of a 
particular nominal species and I have then reluctantly accepted Townsend's action 
as valid fixation of a lectotype (for it provides a restriction of the name to one 
specimen, even though such specimen was not labelled by Townsend to show its 



256 R. W. CROSSKEY 

status). All cases of this kind, and others where Townsend's citations of types were 
based on faulty recognition of type-material, have been annotated throughout the 
text. 

Lectotypes fixed by Townsend and lectotypes newly designated in the present 
paper have been appropriately labelled, and all available paralectotypes have also 
been labelled to show their status. 

Finally, it should be explained that this paper deals only with the type-material 
of the nominal species discussed, and no attempt has been made to assign the species 
to currently recognized genera or to investigate possible synonymies ; this will be 
done when the projected regional catalogues are published. 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

It gives me much pleasure to thank Monsieur L. Matile and Dr L. Tsacas for their 
generous help during my visit to the Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle in 
Paris in September 1969, and to thank Mrs M. E. Crosskey for her invaluable help 
in taking down copious notes on Macquart's types during this visit. 

I am grateful also to Professor R. Defretin, Conservateur of the Musee d'Histoire 
Naturelle at Lille, for information on specimens in Macquart's collection in that 
Museum and to Dr Curtis Sabrosky for information on some relevant specimens in 
the U.S. National Museum, Washington, B.C. For valuable information in reply 
to enquiries I am much indebted to Monsieur Matile and Dr J. Verbeke. 

PART I MACQUART 
MACQUART'S WORK AND RECOGNITION OF HIS TYPE-MATERIAL 

Justin Macquart was born at Hazebrouck (Departement du Nord) in northern 
France in 1778 and died on the 25th November 1855 at Lille, where he had been 
prominent among the savants for more than fifty years. In 1803, at the age of 
twenty-five, he was a founder-member of the Societe d' Amateurs des Sciences et 
Arts de la ville de Lille, which was later renamed the Societe des Sciences, d' Agriculture 
et des Arts de Lille, and in later years he held various offices in this Society including 
the Presidency ; many of his major works, and virtually all of those concerned with 
exotic Diptera, were published in the Memoires of the Society. Macquart was 
largely responsible for the creation of the Muse"e d'Histoire Naturelle in Lille, 
of which he was director for many years and where he built up an important insect 
collection (which was later largely destroyed through neglect). It seems quite 
certain that Macquart was held in much esteem during his lifetime, most especially 
among his scientific confreres in Lille, and it is interesting to read the honorific 
address that was presented to Macquart on the I7th July 1853 to mark the fiftieth 
anniversary ("jubile" acade"mique") of his entry into the Lille Society (see p. 6 of the 
Supplement a I'annee 1853 et table generate de la Ire serie, Lille, 1856, published as a 
separately paginated supplement to the Memoires de la Societe imperiale des Sciences, 
de I' Agriculture et des Arts de Lille, Anne"e 1853). An obituary notice of Macquart 
by the president of the Lille Society can be found in the Mem. Soc. Sci. Agric. 
Lille Ser. II, 3 (1856) : 469, published in 1857. 



TACHINIDAE TYPES OF MACQUART AND BIGOT 257 

Before considering Macquart's works some brief mention must be made of dis- 
crepancies which exist in the literature concerning Macquart's Christian names 
(prdnoms) . Some standard bibliographical and entomological sources cite Macquart's 
first name as Jean, others as Justin, and others as Pierre- Justin-Marie ; Macquart 
himself always published only the initial 'J'. Different editions of the French 
Larousse encyclopaedia cite different names : in the 1873 edition ("Grand Diction- 
naive universel du XI Xe siecle" 10 : 880) the names Pierre- Justin-Marie are given, 
but in the 1933 edition ('Larousse du XXe siecle" 4 : 581) only the pre"nom Jean is 
given. I have no completely conclusive evidence about which is correct, and have 
found no certain explanation for the discrepancies, but I have here accepted as 
probably correct (and have cited above) the pre"nom Justin : this is the single name 
cited by friends and colleagues of Macquart in the Memoires of the Lille Society 
(mentioned above), and is given for example in the obituary notice of Macquart 
already mentioned and in a bibliography of Macquart's works published in 1856 
(the year after his death) (see pp. 67-68 in the Supplement a I'annee et 1853 table 
generate de la Ire serie to the Mem. Soc. imp. Sci. Agric. Lille, Anne"e 1853) ; these 
may be considered sufficiently authoritative sources, at least for the purpose of this 
paper. 

Macquart's interest in natural history began at a young age, and while travelling 
with the French armies as a young man he studied the botany and entomology of 
the countries that he passed through ; later on, he studied particularly the insects 
of France and Switzerland and visited Meigen in Germany (in 1840 he personally 
brought Meigen's collection from Stolberg to Paris). Some of Macquart's earliest 
published work was on the Orthoptera and Hemiptera, and from time to time he 
published also on Coleoptera, plants and birds, but it was to the Diptera that he 
devoted most of his later life's work. His early publications on Diptera comprised 
monographic works on the flies of northern France, but in the later years of his life 
Macquart devoted himself more and more to a study of the exotic (i.e. non-French) 
Diptera, of which material was beginning to accumulate in collections in France 
(especially in the Natural History Museum in Paris) as a result of the French voyages 
of the first half of the nineteenth century. 

The studies made by Macquart on the "exotic" Diptera culminated in the appear- 
ance of his great work, published between 1838 and 1855 in two volumes and five 
supplements, entitled Dipteres exotiques nouveaux ou peu connus (the volumes and 
supplemental parts of this are, for convenience, referred to simply as the Dipteres 
exotiques and the Supplements in the discussion which follows) . This work contains 
the descriptions, according to Macquart's (1855 : 30) own count, of 2,300 species of 
exotic Diptera described by Macquart himself, and has therefore always been an 
extremely important taxonomic text for students of the Diptera, especially of the 
non-European forms ; it establishes Macquart as one of the most important dip- 
terists of the nineteenth century, and in many ways as the father of extra-European 
and tropical dipterology. 

Before the work of Macquart only Wiedemann and Robineau-Desvoidy had 
made extensive contributions to descriptive dipterology for the extra-European 
parts of the world, but the standard of work attained by these earlier workers was 



258 R. W. CROSSKEY 

in the main significantly lower than that attained by Macquart, and Macquart's 
work in the Dipteres exotiques and its Supplements represents a real advance in 
extra-European dipterology when compared to anything that had gone before. It is 
perhaps true that Wiedemann's specific descriptions are as a rule superior to Mac- 
quart's, and sometimes that Robineau-Desvoidy had a better eye for affinity ; but 
Wiedemann's work shows a slavish adherence to the European genera recognized by 
Meigen, into which he pressed many curious exotic forms that were really impossible 
to fit into the framework of European genera. It is one of Macquart's major con- 
tributions that he realized that the baffling welter of newly discovered forms coming 
from the tropics or Australia or South America simply could not be fitted into 
European genera, or only occasionally could, and that he described many new genera 
to accommodate them ; today we treat as valid the majority of the genera which 
Macquart established. 

It is easy to fault the Dipteres exotiques and Supplements on the grounds (relatively 
rather trivial) that in this work Macquart several times described the same species 
so that some of his own names are synonyms, or that he occasionally published a 
name for a new species that is a junior primary homonym of one of his own names. 
But it is far more important to remember that the work contains standards of 
taxonomic presentation well above those that had normally obtained in dipterology 
before his time, and often far higher than that of his contemporaries (e.g. Walker) 
and many of his later successors (e.g. Bigot or Curran) : even a casual acquaintance 
with the work shows that in it Macquart provided, for example, keys to all tribes 
and genera, and diagnoses of all tribes and genera, in a style that would be creditable 
in modern taxonomy ; furthermore, Macquart, to the best of my knowledge, was 
the first dipterist who clearly labelled his original specimens of a new species and 
new genus with "n.sp." or "n.g." suffixed to the names, and this is a striking advance 
on the very imprecise and casual labelling (or indeed total lack of labelling) that 
had often characterized the work of earlier dipterists (Macquart's labelling of speci- 
mens is considered in more detail later in this section). 

Each volume and Supplement of the Dipteres exotiques is copiously illustrated with 
figures of whole flies and such parts as heads and wings which Macquart drew himself, 
and the extensiveness of the illustration is another feature of Macquart's work which 
makes it outstanding for its time. It is true that the figures have a crude look 
about them to a modern taxonomist's eye, but it has to be borne in mind by anyone 
inclined to criticize these figures that they were delineated by an elderly or old man 
(Macquart was 60 years old when the first volume of Dipteres exotiques was published 
and 77 years old when the last (fifth) Supplement appeared in the year of his death) , 
and that the figures of entire flies with outstretched wings had almost all to be 
mock-up drawings because few of the actual specimens were set in the postures shown : 
among the Tachinidae, for instance, of which many were illustrated by Macquart, 
only some specimens of Rutiliini are actually set with outstretched wings and legs. 
Despite the rather unnatural appearance of Macquart's figures it is possible to 
recognize some of the species accurately or to get a shrewd idea of what species 
Macquart had before him, and when the figures are compared against the types it is 
the fair degree of accuracy that impresses one (bearing in mind the conditions of the 



TACHINIDAE TYPES OF MACQUART AND BIGOT 259 

times) though undoubtedly the few figures which Wiedemann provided before 
Macquart's work look more like real flies. In the main we should be appreciative 
of the very large number of figures which Macquart provided rather than critical of 
their blemishes. 

Most of Macquart's nominal species were described from specimens in the collection 
of the Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle in Paris or from the collection of 
Bigot, and the great majority of the original types still exist in the Paris Museum or 
(in the case of those from Bigot's collection) in the British Museum (Natural History) 
in London and the Hope Department of Entomology in the University Museum at 
Oxford. Many of the original specimens are still in good or fair condition, but others 
(especially in the Paris collection) are in dreadful condition as the result of neglect 
at one time or another ; undoubtedly Macquart described some species from speci- 
mens that were far from perfect at the time of description, but it is equally certain 
that those types found now to be coated in a brittle deposit or concealed in thick 
mould must have been in reasonably good condition when Macquart saw them. 
In addition to describing specimens from the collections of the Paris Museum and of 
Bigot, Macquart also described some species from specimens that he saw in the 
collections of other French naturalists, including for example Dejean and Fairmaire, 
but the types of such species appear never to have been located and must now be 
considered lost (no Diptera from the collections of Dejean or Fairmaire have been 
found, so far as I know). There is a possibility that a box of Diptera from Java 
recently located in the Municipal Museum at Tournai in Belgium contains the 
original specimens of the Javanese species which Macquart described in the Suite 
du 2me Supplement (commonly called the third Supplement) from material collected 
by Monsieur Payen, who was administrator of the Museum at Tournai when these 
species were described : at present, as I have not yet been able to see the material, 
this is uncertain, and in the text of the present paper where the relevant nominal 
species are involved the type-material is recorded as "possibly lost". One other 
collection known to contain Macquart types is that which Macquart formed as a 
personal collection from specimens given to him and which is now in the Musee 
d'Histoire Naturelle at Lille, where it had been neglected for many years after 
Macquart's death or actually mislaid : when found again in 1899, in its original 
cartons, Macquart's own collection had suffered serious damage from humidity and 
Anthrenus attacks, and many specimens had been badly damaged or completely 
destroyed ; but the remnants of this collection certainly contain original specimens 
on which those nominal species are based that Macquart (in Dipteres exotiques and 
Supplements) cited as in "Ma collection" or in "Mon cabinet". (Here it may be 
useful to note that the Diptera section of the Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle 
in Paris possesses a manuscript catalogue, prepared by Julien Salmon in 1899, 
of the Diptera existing in Macquart's own collection in Lille.) 

Macquart's types of those species he described from Bigot's collection have been 
incorporated into the general collection of the British Museum (Natural History) 
for those families of which the BMNH possesses the Bigot material, but they are 
left as part of a separate Bigot collection at Oxford for those parts of the Bigot 
collection possessed by the Hope Department of Entomology. In the Museum 



260 R. W. CROSSKEY 

National d'Histoire Naturelle in Paris the material worked upon and described by 
Macquart is housed as a "Macquart collection" separate from the general Diptera 
collection, and is contained in 87 serially numbered hinge-lid glass-topped boxes, 
with the species serially numbered and arranged together by zoogeographical region ; 
the different regions are indicated by a colour code shown on the ends of the boxes 
and on circular accession labels attached to most of the specimens, in which yellow 
denotes European and Oriental, blue denotes African, mauve-pink denotes Austra- 
lasian and green denotes American material. The circular labels on the specimens 
have the colour on one side only, and the plain white side bears figures in faded ink 
which indicate a serial number given to the collection of which the specimens formed 
part, followed by the year of accession (last two digits only) ; for example, a circular 
accession label on a Macquart specimen in the MNHN collection which is mauve-pink 
on one side and has the figures"i3 44" on the other indicates an Australasian specimen 
of the thirteenth collection registered in the accessions ledger in the year 1844. 
The accession labels are of great importance for the recognition of the true type- 
specimens, as discussed further below. 

Recognition of the original type-specimens of Macquart's species is normally not 
difficult, but is complicated by the fact that Macquart often identified specimens 
that were collected or studied after the time of the original descriptions and added 
them to the Paris Museum collection so that they stood together with the original 
(type) specimens ; because of this, it is often the case that not all of the specimens 
standing in the MNHN collection under a particular name are actually type- 
specimens, and it is then necessary to distinguish the true types from the later 
material by taking into account not only the handwritten labels of Macquart but 
also the accession date labels. 

Macquart's handwriting is easily recognized (see Plate i, A-F). He was extremely 
punctilious in labelling specimens with both a generic and specific name, and (at 
least from the time of the first Supplement, 1846) at indicating whether the specimen 
labelled represented a new species or new genus and species. The label for a new 
species nearly always bears the suffix "n.sp." after the name (Plate i, B), or occasion- 
ally the suffix "nov.sp." (Plate i, C), and the label for both a new genus and a new 
species normally has the suffix "n.g., n.sp." after the name (Plate i, A) ; labels with 
suffixes of this kind always indicate that the specimens so labelled are types. But 
from a study of Macquart's material it is evident that up to the time of the second 
volume of Dipteres exotiques in 1843 Macquart had not yet formed a consistent 
habit of adding the suffixes, and most of the types of his species described before 
1843 (and some of those described in this year in Dipteres exotiques, second volume) 
have labels which show only the generic and specific name ; in these instances, 
the evidence of type status rests on the finding of specimens bearing Macquart's 
own name label in conjunction with agreement with description, and other ancillary 
evidence (e.g. no discrepancy with accession date labels). 

Macquart only labelled one specimen of a new nominal species with the name and 
suffix, though he often had more than one original specimen, and it is often necessary 
to determine whether some or all of a series of specimens standing under a particular 
name are syntypes. Macquart himself (unlike his predecessors and contemporaries, 



TACHINIDAE TYPES OF MACQUART AND BIGOT 261 

and unlike too many of his successors) had seen the need to distinguish clearly the 
original specimens of a species from those identified later, and many specimens exist 
m the MNHN and BMNH collections which bear Macquart's determination labels 
that can be easily distinguished from his labels on original types : later deter- 
mination labels lack the suffixes but give the binomen and author (see Plate i, F), 
and frequently also indicate the Supplement in which the species was described and 
the provenance of the specimen labelled ; for example, a typical later identification 
label written by Macquart reads "Gonia heterocera $ Macq. i. supp. Tasm.", this 
indicating that the species was described earlier in the first Supplement and that the 
specimen came from Tasmania ; labels of this kind at once eliminate the specimens 
so labelled from the type-series. Other specimens, in the MNHN collection, though 
not bearing later determination labels, can often be eliminated on the evidence from 
their accession labels : specimens which bear circular accession labels indicating 
that they were registered as part of the MNHN collection in 1847 (e.g. those with 
accession number "4 47") are not type-specimens of nominal species described 
earlier than this date, and it is certain also that no specimens with 1846 registrations 
(e.g. those with accession number "4 46") were described in that year (i.e. specimens 
that are types of species described in 1846 in the first Supplement always have 
accession numbers earlier than this year, normally 1844). The accession dates are 
most helpful in determining the type or non-type status of specimens, because of the 
close link with the dates of publication of the Dipteres exotiques and the Supplements : 
specimens registered in 1844 were not seen by Macquart earlier than this date and 
cannot therefore be described in Dipteres exotiques, Volume 2, published in 1843, 
but are frequently described in the first Supplement of 1846 : specimens registered 
in 1846 and 1847 are not involved in Supplements earlier than 1847 an d 1848 res- 
pectively, and some were not described until the fourth Supplement (1850/1851) 
or the fifth Supplement (1855) ; not all specimens from the 1844 registrations were 
covered by Macquart in the first Supplement, and many of them were not described 
until later Supplements. The accession year numbers are always indicative of the 
earliest possible date at which a specimen could have been described, and invaluable 
for determining syntype status in doubtful cases. 

In the present work any specimen standing in the MNHN collection with 
Macquart's originally-labelled specimen has been accepted as a syntype provided 
that it agrees with the description and that its accession number makes it eligible 
for admission as an original specimen. Macquart did not indicate in publication the 
number of specimens available to him (though in a very few instances it can be 
deduced from some statement attached to the description) and all specimens that 
could have been seen by him at the time of description are acceptable as part of the 
type-series if there is no contrary evidence. The lectotypes designated, and the 
paralectotypes, have been labelled to show their status. Macquart rarely mistook 
the sex of his specimens of Tachinidae, but any discrepancies between the published 
sex and the actual sex of his type-specimens are annotated in the text when relevant. 

The majority of Macquart's types that formed part of Bigot's collection are 
holotypes which are easily recognized as such by bearing Macquart's original name 
labels, but a few of the species described from Bigot's collection are based on syn- 



262 R. W. CROSSKEY 

types, though they do not in this case have accession labels from which deductions 
about status can be made. The syntypic status has to be assumed from the finding 
of two or more specimens standing together which all answer to the original des- 
cription and of which one bears Macquart's label. Bigot sometimes removed 
Macquart's original name labels from the specimens and gummed them on to his 
own rectangular black-edged card cabinet labels (see Plate i, E), often adding 
information on locality and Macquart's authorship in his own handwriting ; he did 
this especially among the Rutiliini (Tachinidae) , and the labels from several of 
Macquart's Rutiliine primary types are mounted in this way (as in the case of 
Rutilia fulgida shown in Plate I, E). 

Macquart nearly always recorded in the Dipteres exotiques and Supplements the 
actual collection (depository) which contained the specimens on which each nominal 
species was based, and these recorded depositories assist greatly in determining 
whether any specimen ought or ought not to be considered an original type (though 
other evidence is normally available also). The great majority of specimens are 
recorded as being in "Museum", which refers to the Museum National d'Histoire 
Naturelle, and many others are cited as being in the collection of "M. Bigot" ; 
almost always the cited depository is found to be correct, for it still contains the 
material referred to, but there are a very few cases of discrepancy. For a few 
species the cited depository is the collection not of the Paris Museum or of Bigot 
but of another naturalist or collector, but it appears that for all or nearly all of these 
the types are lost (or at least have never been located) and are now unlikely to be 
found. Reference has been made above to Macquart's method of citing specimens 
in his own collection in Lille by the use of the words "Ma collection" or "Mon 
cabinet". 

The exact origins of the specimens with which Macquart worked, that is to say 
the type-localities of the nominal species that he described, are sometimes doubtful 
as the localities were only imprecisely noted by the expedition workers who collected 
the specimens. This is specially true of Australia, from which specimens may be 
cited in the Dipteres exotiques and Supplements as "De la Nouvelle-Hollande" 
(sometimes with the addition of "cote orientale"), or "De la Tasmanie" or even as 
"De l'Oce"anie" ; it is necessary to be cautious about attributing too definite a 
provenance to Macquart's Australian species, though the following information 
derived from Macquart's Australian Tachinidae and their accession labelling is 
believed to be a useful guide to the type-localities of his Australian species for 
which the type-material is in the MNHN, Paris, collection. 

Four accession reference numbers are found on the Australian Tachinid types of 
Macquart in Paris (and probably are the normal accession numbers to be found on 
Australian specimens of other families) ; they are "13 44", "4 46", "2 47" and "3 
47". Species whose types have the "13 44" reference were almost all described by 
Macquart as being from Tasmania, though a few were recorded as from Oceania : 
these appear on present evidence to be correctly recorded from Tasmania, and those 
recorded as from "Oceanic" are also probably from Tasmania (they are certainly 
from mainland Australia if not from Tasmania). Species whose types have the 
"4 46" reference were described from Tasmania, but many of them appear not to have 



TACHINIDAE TYPES OF MACQUART AND BIGOT 263 

been found in Tasmania in recent collecting whereas they are known from eastern 
mainland Australia : these appear on present evidence to be mainly wrongly recorded 
from Tasmania, though possibly some may occur there. Species whose types have 
the "2 47" reference were recorded by Macquart as coming from the east coast of 
Australia ("Nouvelle-Hollande, cote orientale") and all evidence suggests that this is 
correct, New South Wales being the most likely provenance though possibly Queens- 
land for some species. Finally, species whose types have the "3 47" reference were 
described from Tasmania : later knowledge of several of these species suggests that 
the eastern Australian mainland (especially New South Wales) is a more probable 
provenance, though the distribution ranges might include Tasmania and this 
could be the correct type-locality for at least some of the types bearing the "3 47" 
label. 



MACQUART'S TYPE-MATERIAL OF AUSTRALASIAN, ORIENTAL AND ETHIOPIAN 

TACHINIDAE 

[Note : the following list includes in square brackets those nominal species which 
are not Tachinidae but which might be assumed to belong to this family because of 
their original generic assignments by Macquart, and those Tachinidae which were 
wrongly recorded from the Old World areas covered and are now known to be 
American. Names that are not included in square brackets but are printed in 
non-bold italic type are unavailable or are junior primary homonyms.] 

Amphlbolia valentina Macquart, 1843 : 279 (122). ? holotype or syntypes <$, AUSTRALIA 
('Nouvelle-Hollande'): MHN, Lille (Macquart coll., box G.IQ). 

In the original description Macquart stated that the material was in his personal collection 
("Mon cabinet") and not in that of the Paris Museum. Macquart's own collection (what little 
remains of it) is in the Musee d'Histoire Naturelle at Lille and contains four specimens standing 
under the name Amphibolia valentina, of which one or some must be original type-material; 
the specimens cannot be loaned, and as I have not yet been able to see them it is not possible 
to say at present which specimens are types and whether all are males. 

Macquart's material in Paris (MNHN) contains twelve specimens (6 <, 6 $) standing under 
the name valentina, but these have accession dates later than the original publication and 
none of them are type-specimens; they represent later material determined by Macquart, 
as do a $ and a $ from Bigot's collection in BMNH which bear identification labels in 
Macquart's writing. 

Apatemyia longipes Macquart, 1846 : 325 (197). LECTOTYPE <$, by present designation, 
TASMANIA: MNHN, Paris (No. 2379). 

Paralectotypes : 4 <, 2 $, same data as lectotype (MNHN). 

The lectotype bears Macquart's label "Apatemyia longipes Macq. n.sp." and is in poor 
condition with both mid legs missing; both it and the paralectotypes (also in bad condition, 
some lacking the abdomen) have accession labels "13 44". Standing with the type-material 
are two $ specimens with accession labels "3 47" without type-status. 

As the type-material contains more than one male the citations of "Male Ht" by 
Townsend (1932 : 37, 1938 : 317) do not provide a valid fixation of lectotype for longipes. 
Aprotheca rufipes Macquart, 1851 : 149 (176). Lectotype <J, by fixation of Townsend 
(1932 : 49), TASMANIA: MNHN, Paris (No. 2266). 

Paralectotype : i $, same data as lectotype (MNHN). 

The lectotype bears Macquart's label "Aprotheca rufipes Macq. n.g., n.sp. Tasm." and is 



264 R - W. CROSSKEY 

in poor condition with both hind legs missing; the paralectotype $ is in appalling condition 
and probably mis-associated with the lectotype. 

Townsend (1932 : 49, 1941 : 87) referred to the male syntype as "Ht" (= holotype) and 
to the female syntype as "At" ( = allotype), and thereby provided a valid restriction of the 
male as lectotype. 

Aulacephala maculithorax Macquart, 1851 : 139 (166). LECTOTYPE ?, by present 
designation, MADAGASCAR, 1832 (Houdot): MNHN, Paris (No. 927). 

Paralectotype: i $, same data as lectotype (MNHN). 

The lectotype bears Macquart's label "Aulacephala maculithorax $. Macq. n.g., n.sp.", 
and both it and the paralectotype have an accession label "86 39"; both specimens in poor 
condition, mouldy and with some legs missing. 

Townsend's (1938 : 256) statement that the type is in Lille or lost is in error. 

Blepharella later alls Macquart, 1851 : 177 (204). Holotype $, INDIA, Pondicherry 
(Perrottet): MNHN, Paris (No. 670). 

The holotype bears Macquart's label "Blepharella lateralis <J. n.g., n.sp. Macq." and is in 
fair condition except for loss of left wing; the pin pierces the prosternum, but even so this is 
clearly bare (mentioned as this is an exceptional feature in Sturmiines). 

Blepharipeza goniaefortnis Macquart, 1846 : 285 (157). Lectotype ?, by fixation of 
Townsend (1932 : 50), TASMANIA: MNHN, Paris (No. 2274). 

Paralectotype: i <?, same data as lectotype (MNHN). 

The lectotype bears Macquart's label "Blepharipeza goniaeformis Macq. n.sp." and is in 
appalling condition, all that remains being the eaten out shells of the head and thorax, both 
wings, and one complete leg. Both lectotype and paralectotype have accession labels 
"13 44", and the male paralectotype is mis-associated with the lectotype. 

It is very regrettable that Townsend (1932 : 50, 1933 : 472), having seen that the male 
and female syntypes of goniaeformis in Paris Museum were wrongly associated, should have 
restricted the name to the female and then based his genus Gonanamastax Townsend, 1933, 
on the specimen; the male syntype is obviously a specimen of Blepharipa Rondani and 
is in much better condition than the female selected by Townsend, which he himself pointed 
out lacks the abdomen. However, Townsend has provided a technically valid restriction 
of the name goniaeformis to the female and his action, though ill advised, must be accepted 
as providing a lectotype fixation which in turn determines the characters of Gonanamastax 
Townsend. 

The BMNH contains a female specimen from Bigot's collection with Bigot's label as "B. 
goniaeformis" but this specimen is not a type. 

Calliphora rufiventris Macquart, 1847 : 98 (82). Holotype $, TASMANIA: BMNH, London 
(ex coll. Bigot). 

The holotype bears Macquart's label "Calliphora rufiventris. $ n.sp. Macq." and is in bad 
condition; all legs are missing, the left wing missing, the abdomen and right wing damaged 
and there is some mould. 

This is a Tachinid, not Calliphorid, and will be generically assigned in a later work. 

Chetogaster violacea Macquart, 1851 : 198 (225). Holotype <J, AUSTRALIA ('Nouvelle- 
Hollande, c6te orientale': probably New South Wales): MNHN, Paris (No. 2336). 

The holotype bears Macquart's label "Chetogaster violacea, $. Macq. n.g., n.sp." and an 
accession label "2 47", also a white rectangular ink label reading "1090", and is in good 
condition. 

Chlorogaster tasmanensis Macquart, 1851 : 157 (184). LECTOTYPE <J, by present 
designation, TASMANIA: MNHN, Paris (No. 2273). 

Paralectotypes : 2 <J, i ?, same data as lectotype (MNHN). 

The lectotype bears Macquart's label "Chlorogaster tasmanensis <? Macq. n.g., n.sp." 
and an accession label "3 47", and is in good condition. The paralectotypes bear accession 
labels "4 46" and one of the males is concealed in mould. 



TACHINIDAE TYPES OF MACQUART AND BIGOT 265 

Townsend (1932 : 45, 1940 : 159) referred to a "Male Ht" for tasmanensis but as there 
are three original male syn types this is not a valid lectotype fixation. 

Chrysosoma flaviceps Macquart, 1851 : 158 (185). Holotype <J, AUSTRALIA ('Nouvelle- 
Hollande, cote orientale' : probably New South Wales) : MNHN, Paris (No. 2294) 

The holotype bears Macquart's label "Chrysosoma flaviceps <$. Macq., n.sp." and an 
accession label "2 47"; it is in fair condition except for a hole in the thorax and the head 
slightly crushed. 

Townsend (19390 : 10) gave the type-location as "Paris or Lille" and the type-locality as 
"Brisbane, Queensland". The holotype is in Paris, and I know of no evidence that it came 
from Brisbane ; this statement of Townsend is apparently mere assumption, probably derived 
from Macquart's citation of the "cote orientale" of Australia. 

[Clytia senegalensis Macquart, 1843:221 (64). Not Tachinidae: belongs in Calliphoridae, 
tribe Rhiniini, genus apparently Rhyncomya Robineau-Desvoidy (syntype <$ and syntype $ 
in MNHN, Paris, ref. no. 939, examined, <$ syntype with Villeneuve determination label as 

Rhyncomya) .] 

Degeeria albiceps Macquart, 1851 : 175 (202). Holotype $, JAVA: BMNH, London (ex coll. 
Bigot). 

The holotype bears Macquart's label "Degeeria albiceps $. Macq. n.sp." and is in extremely 
bad condition; all mid and hind legs lost, thorax pierced by enormous large-headed pin 
through one side and out of the opposite supra-alar area, wings damaged, chaetotaxy rubbed. 
Sufficient remains to be certain, however, that albiceps belongs to a genus of the Campyloche- 
tini. 

Degeeria australis Macquart, 1847 : 84 (68). Holotype $, TASMANIA: BMNH, London 
(ex coll. Bigot). 

The holotype bears Macquart's label "Degeeria australis n.sp. Macq. $"; it is in bad con- 
dition, head slightly crushed, large hole in scutellar region, left fore and mid legs lost and 
antennae lost, apical half of right wing missing. 

Degeeria lateralis Macquart, 1851 : 176 (203). Holotype <$, TASMANIA (publ. as 'De l'Oc6anie') : 
MNHN, Paris (No. 2293). 

The holotype bears Macquart's label "Degeeria lateralis Q*. Macq. n.sp. Tasm." and an 
accession label "13 44". The condition is dreadful, entire specimen coated in a brittle deposit 
and thickly covered with mould, only one wing remaining. 

Tasmania is here accepted as type-locality because the word "Tasm." appears on Macquart's 
own label, though the original description cited Oceania, and because the "13 44" accession 
reference signifies a Tasmanian origin. 

The name is a junior primary homonym of Degeeria lateralis Macquart, 1848 (Mem. Soc. 
Sci. Agric. Lille 1847 : 208; Dipt. exot. 3 : 48), but no replacement name is proposed at the 
present time. The senior homonym applies to a valid North American species of Metopia 
Meigen in the Sarcophagidae and not to a Tachinid (see Sabrosky & Arnaud, 1965 : 937). 

Dexia appendiculata Macquart, 1851 : 202 (229). Holotype <$, TASMANIA: MNHN, Paris 
(No. 2344). 

The holotype bears Macquart's label "Dexia appendiculata Macq. n.sp.", an accession label 
"4 46", and a rectangular white label with "1112" in ink. Condition fairly good. 

Dexia brunnicornis Macquart, 1843 : 243 (86). Holotype <$, LA REUNION (Tile Bourbon'): 
MNHN, Paris (No. 941). 

The holotype bears a label in Macquart's writing "Dexia brunnicornis", a circular 
(apparently accession) label "86.3117" (the meaning of these figures not clear), and a 
rectangular label in faded ink "194. bis". The condition is fair, some dirt and rubbing, 
wings frayed, large hole in right base of abdomen. 

Dexia javanensis Macquart, 1835 : 214. Holotype <$, JAVA: not located, possibly lost. 

Macquart described Dexia javanensis from a specimen which he stated to be from the 



266 R. W. CROSSKEY 

"collection de M Robyns de Bruxelles". The Robyns collection was bought by the Institut 
Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique (as it is now called) in 1856, but none of the 
entomologists working at this Institute in Brussels during this century have been able to 
trace the collection (Verbeke, personal communication), and the type-material of javanensis 
is therefore possibly lost. 

Dexia longipes Macquart, 1846 : 315 (187). LECTOTYPE <$, by present designation, 
TASMANIA: MNHN, Paris (No. 2341). 

Paralectotypes : 3 6*. same data as lectotype (MNHN). 

The lectotype bears Macquart's label "Dexia longipes $. Macq. n.sp." and is in good 
condition. Two of the $ paralecto types are mis-associated with the lectotype, and belong 
to two different allied species. 

Standing under the name longipes with the original type-material in MNHN there are four 
other specimens, two females and two males, the males differing from the syntypes by having 
the legs all black; these specimens are not original material, but are later material determined 
by Macquart and mentioned by him in the 3* Supplement (1848 : 212-213 (5 2 ~53))l the 
smaller of the two females has Macquart's determination label reading "Dexia longipes. 
$. Macq. i. supp.". 

For some inexplicable reason Townsend (1932 : 37, 1938 : 343) referred to a specimen in 
Westermann's collection in Copenhagen as the male holotype, but there is no justification for 
this. None of Macquart's types are in Copenhagen, the original description of longipes 
indicated that the material was in Paris Museum, and the type-material is still present in 
Paris. It is puzzling why Townsend overlooked longipes when he studied the Macquart 
collection in Paris, and also why he did not realize that the label on the specimen in Copen- 
hagen (quoted by Townsend, 1932 : 37, as "Dexia longipes Macq. Diemens Land: Bigot") 
was so obviously not an original Macquart label. 

Dexia punctipennis Macquart, 1846 : 315 (187). Holotype <$, AUSTRALIA ('Nouvelle- 
Hollande'): BMNH, London (ex coll. Bigot). 

The holotype bears Macquart's label "Dexia punctipennis <. Macq. n.sp." and is in poor 
condition; the specimen is very dirty with much mould, scutum crushed, right wing and 
right mid and hind legs lost, apices of left mid and hind tarsi missing. 

Dexia rubricarinata Macquart, 1846 : 315 (187). Holotype $, TASMANIA: MNHN, Paris 
(No. 2342). 

The holotype bears Macquart's label "Dexia rubricarinata Macq., n.sp." and an accession 
label "13 44"; it is in poor condition, dirty, abdomen greasy, thorax crushed, both hind legs 
missing. 

There is a female specimen in extremely bad condition standing with the holotype, but 
this specimen has no type-status. 

Dexia tessellata Macquart, 1851 : 202 (229). Holotype $, TASMANIA: MNHN, Paris (No. 

2345)- 

The holotype bears Macquart's label "Dexia tessellata $. Macq. n.sp.", an accession label 
"3 47", and a rectangular white label with the ink figures "59"; the condition is poor, scutum 
crushed, both mid legs and one hind leg missing, one fore leg and most of the tarsus of remain- 
ing hind leg also lost, but head and wings good. 

Dexia testaceicornis Macquart, 1851 : 201 (228). Holotype <$, TASMANIA (publ. as 'De 
1'Oceanie'): MNHN, Paris (No. 2343). 

The holotype bears Macquart's label "Dexia testaceicornis <$. Macq. n.sp." and an accession 
label "13 44"; condition extremely bad, head, thorax and fore legs enmeshed in fungal growth, 
one mid leg and both hind legs missing. 

Though published as from Oceania the actual type-locality is Tasmania, as indicated on a 
label below the specimen in the Macquart collection; the holotype has the same accession 
reference as Degeeria later alls Macquart, 1851 (see above), which is also from Tasmania 
though recorded as from Oceania. 



TACHINIDAE TYPES OF MACQUART AND BIGOT 267 

Dexia triquetra Macquart, 1843 : 243 (86). Holotype <$, LA REUNION (Tile Bourbon'): 
MNHN, Paris (No. 942). 

The holotype bears a label in Macquart's writing "D. triquetra", a circular (apparently 
accession) label "86.3117" (the meaning of these figures not clear), and a rectangular label in 
faded ink "156". The left mid and hind legs and the left wing are missing, but the condition 
otherwise very good. 

This species was described on the same page as Dexia brunnicornis (q.v., above) and the 
two types were evidently collected on La Reunion during the same expedition. Each bears 
an accession (or apparently an accession) label which appears to read "86.3117", though I 
am not fully certain that I have read the somewhat illegible figures correctly and am un- 
certain what they signify. Macquart's own label on triquetra holotype is more cryptic than 
usual, with the generic name abbreviated. 

Diaphania ruflcornis Macquart, 1851 : 193 (220). Holotype $, TASMANIA: MNHN, 
Paris (No. 2331). 

The holotype bears Macquart's label "Diaphania ruficornis. Q*. Macq. n.sp.", and an 
accession label "3 47"; the condition is good except for loss of both third antennal segments. 

A female specimen stands with the holotype but it has no type-status. This is certain 
because in the original description Macquart stated "Je n'ai observe qu'un seul individu 
male et pas de femelle". 

Diaphania testacea Macquart, 1843 : 278 (121). ? holotype or syntypes <$, AUSTRALIA 
('Nouvelle-Hollande') : MHN, Lille (Macquart coll., box G.tg). 

In the original description Macquart stated that the material was in his personal collection 
("Ma collection") and not in that of the Paris Museum. Macquart's own collection (what 
little remains of it) is in the Mus6e d'Histoire Naturelle at Lille and contains ten specimens 
standing under the name Diaphania testacea, of which one or some must be original type- 
material; the specimens cannot be loaned, and as I have not yet been able to see them it is 
not possible to say at present which specimens are types and whether all are males. According 
to a label with the specimens in Lille some of them are from "Van Diemen" (i.e. Tasmania) 
and these would not be original syntypes. 

Macquart's material in Paris (MNHN) contains six specimens (3 <$, 3 $) standing under the 
name testacea, but these have accession dates later than the original publication and none of 
them are type-specimens; they are later material identified by Macquart, and one of the 
males has Macquart's determination label reading "Diaphania testacea. o*- Macq.". 

Echinomyia rufoanalis Macquart, 1851 : 142 (169). Lectotype (J, by designation of Crosskey 
(19676 : 103), INDIA ('Indes orientales') : BMNH, London (ex coll. Bigot). 

The lectotype bears Macquart's label "Echinomyia rufo-analis <J. Macq. n.sp." and is in 
fair condition; the abdomen and thorax are very rubbed, hole at base of scutellum, both hind 
legs missing. 

Macquart described rufoanalis from two male syntypes ("Des deux individus $ observes, 1'un 
a le duvet de la face et du thorax blanc, 1'autre d'un blanc jaunatre") but only the lectotype 
specimen has been located. The other specimen (paralectotype) must be presumed lost. 
The type-locality is certainly India and not East Indies, because as shown by Crosskey 
(19676 : 102) the name rufoanalis applies to a species of Servillia from Himalayan India. 

Elomyia marginata Macquart, 1851 : 188 (215). ? holotype or syntypes <$, SENEGAL: not 
located, presumed lost. 

The MNHN, Paris, collections and indexes contain no references to this species, and my 
own search in the Paris collections revealed no trace of the type(s), and the type-material is 
almost certainly lost. Macquart recorded in the original description that he received the 
material from M. de Leseleur, to whom it might have been returned, but it seems unlikely 
that it will ever be found. 

Eurigaster later alis Macquart, 1843 : 215 (58). Holotype (J, AUSTRALIA ('Nouvelle-Hollande') 
MNHN, Paris (No. 937). 



268 R. W. CROSSKEY 

The holotype bears a name label "Eurigaster lateralis" in Macquart's writing, and two blue 
printed labels reading, respectively, "Museum Paris, He Maurice" and "Museum Paris Col. 
Guerin-Meneville" ; it is in excellent condition except for loss of one mid leg. 

Macquart, in the original description, attributed this name to Gu6rin-M6neville and cited 
the type-locality as 'Nouvelle-Hollande' (i.e. Australia) ; however, the name was published 
by Macquart and not by Gue'rin-Meneville, and authorship attributes to Macquart. The 
type-locality of Australia cited by Macquart is accepted as correct, because lateralis is a 
Winthemiine of which other material has been seen from Australia, but it should be noted that 
a printed label attached to the holotype indicates "He Maurice" (i.e. Mauritius) as the 
locality; it is believed that Eurigaster lateralis holotype (MHNH number 937) must at some 
time have been labelled in error, and that it is by mistake that it is still to be found in the 
African material (and not among the Australian material) in the Macquart collection in Paris. 

Exechopalpus ruflpalpus Macquart, 1847 : 92 (76). Holotype <, AUSTRALIA ('Nouvelle- 
Hollande'): BMNH, London (ex coll. Bigot). 

The holotype bears Macquart's label "Exechopalpus rufipalpus. <$ n.g., n.sp. Macq" and is 
in poor condition, dirty, much mould, the right mid and left hind legs missing and the 
chaetotaxy rubbed; the enormously elongated and projecting palpi (to which Macquart's 
generic name Exechopalpus refers) are, however, both present on the type. 

Exorista auriceps Macquart, 1851 : 158 (185). Holotype (J, TASMANIA (publ. as 'De 
1'Oceanie'): MNHN, Paris (No. 2276). 

The holotype bears Macquart's label "Exorista auriceps. <$. Macq. n.sp. Ocean" and an 
accession label "13 44", and is in good condition except for a few threads of mould on the 
abdomen. 

Macquart's description and label indicate Oceania as type-locality but Tasmania is the 
provenance indicated by the "13 44" reference number. 

Exorista dispar Macquart, 1851 : 159 (186). LECTOTYPE <$, by present designation, 
AUSTRALIA ('Nouvelle-Hollande, cote orientale' : probably New South Wales) : MNHN, Paris 
(No. 2277). 

Paralectotypes : i <J, 3 $, same data as lectotype (MNHN). 

The lectotype bears Macquart's label "Exorista dispar. <J$ Macq. n.sp. n.holl." and an 
accession label "2 47", and is in good condition. The <J paralectotype and one of the $ 
paralecto types are correctly associated with the lectotype, but the other two $ paralecto types 
(which bear accession labels "13 44" and "3 47" respectively) are specimens of the genus 
Winthemia R.-D. and are wrongly associated with the lectotype. It should be noted that all 
five specimens standing under the name dispar in the MNHN collection have been accepted 
as syntypes, because Macquart described the species from both sexes, and there is no evidence 
that any of the specimens were received later than the date of description. 

Mesnil (1944 : 27) referred to "die australische Art C. dispar Macq. $, deren Type im Pariser 
Museum ist" when he described the genus Carcelimyia Mesnil, based on dispar, but his state- 
ment does not restrict the name to a single recognizable specimen from the type-series and 
therefore does not constitute valid lectotype fixation. The lectotype is therefore here newly 
designated. 

Exorista diversicolor Macquart, 1847 : 83 (67). Holotype <J, TASMANIA: BMNH, London 
(ex coll. Bigot). 

The holotype bears Macquart's label "Exorista diversicolor. $ n. sp. Macq." and is in 
good condition except for the loss of both mid legs, most of the right wing and a few setae. 

Exorista flaviceps Macquart, 1847 : 83 (67). Holotype 6", TASMANIA: BMNH, London (ex 
coll. Bigot). 

The holotype bears Macquart's label "Exorista flaviceps. n.sp. Macq." and is in very 
good condition except for loss of the left mid leg and slight greasing of the thorax. 

Exorista flavipes Macquart, 1851 : 160 (187). Holotype $, TASMANIA (publ. as 'De 
1'Oceanie 1 ): MNHN, Paris (No. 2278). 



TACHINIDAE TYPES OF MACQUART AND BIGOT 269 

The holotype bears Macquart's label "Exorista flavipes. $. Macq. n.sp. Oceanic" and 
an accession label "13 44", and is in good condition. The holotype belongs to a hairy-eyed 
species of the Apatemyia Macquart and Toxocnemis Macquart complex, which is confined 
to Australia and Tasmania, and the type-locality is here accepted as Tasmania because of 
the "13 44" accession reference. 

Exorista lata Macquart, 1848 : 207 (47). Holotype $, AUSTRALIA ('Nouvelle-Hollande') : 
BMNH, London (ex coll. Bigot). 

The holotype bears Macquart's label "Exorista lata. $. nov.sp."; the condition is fair, 
slightly dirty with mould, large hole in abdomen and depression in scutellum, right mid 
and left hind legs missing. 

Exorista marginata Macquart, 1851 : 161 (188). LECTOTYPE 6*. by present designation, 
TASMANIA: MNHN, Paris (No. 2281). 

Paralectotypes : 4 $, same data as lectotype (MNHN). 

The lectotype bears Macquart's label "Exorista marginata 6*- Macq. n.sp. Tasm." and an 
accession label "4 46"; the condition is fair, some mould and abdomen greasy, thorax badly 
damaged around the pin. The paralectotypes are all conspecific with the lectotype. 

Mesnil (1949 : 82) placed marginata in the genus Winthemia R.-D. and the name as a 
synonym of W. brevisetosa (Macquart), remarking that "Die beiden Macquartschen 
Typen befinden sich im Pariser Museum"; this statement does not provide a valid lectotype 
fixation for marginata. 

Exorista rufomaculata Macquart, 1851 : 160 (187). Holotype $, TASMANIA: MNHN, 
Paris (No. 2280). 

The holotype bears Macquart's label "Exorista rufomaculata (J. Macq. n.sp. Tasm." and 
an accession label "3 47"; the condition is bad, whole specimen very dirty with mould and 
greasy, one fore leg and both mid legs missing. 

Exorista translucens Macquart, 1851 : 162 (189). Holotype 6*, TASMANIA: MNHN, Paris 
(No. 2282). 

The holotype bears Macquart's label "Exorista translucens. Q*. Macq. n.sp. Tasm." and 
an accession label "3 47", and is in good condition except for slight mould and loss of one 
mid leg. 

Exorista varipes Macquart. - See Masicera varipes. 

Gonia heterocera Macquart, 1846 : 281 (153). LECTOTYPE $, by present designation, 
TASMANIA: MNHN, Paris (No. 2267). 

Paralectotypes: 2 <$, same data as lectotype (MNHN). 

The lectotype bears Macquart's label "Gonia heterocera $ Macq. n.sp." and an accession 
label "13 44", and is in very good condition except for loss of one hind leg and a little 
dirtiness. The (J paralectotypes are correctly associated with the lectotype, and also bear 
accession labels "13 44". 

Standing with the type-material in MNHN are two female specimens (one without the 
abdomen) from Tasmania, but though Macquart described the female sex of heterocera these 
specimens are not original syntypes; they bear Macquart's labels reading, respectively 
"Gonia heterocera $ Macq. i. suppl Tasm." and "Gonia heterocera $. Macq. sup." and are 
clearly therefore later determined material. 

Macquart's original description of heterocera is unusual in that a description is given first 
of a female specimen cited as "De la Nouvelle-Hollande. Collection de M. le marquis Spinola" 
and this is followed by a description in larger type of some males cited as "De la Tasmanie. 
Museum". However, as Macquart does not express any doubts about the correctness of 
the association of the Tasmanian males with Spinola's specimen of the female from Australia, 
all the specimens are syntypes and one of the original males has therefore been here designated 
as lectotype. It should be noted, however, that Townsend (1932 : 50, 1941 : 75) cited a 
female specimen in Paris from Tasmania at "Ht" f= holotype], but he did not provide a 



270 R. W. CROSSKEY 

valid fixation of a lectotype thereby, because there are two females from Tasmania in the 
MNHN collection and neither of them is an original type-specimen. The original female 
syntype from Australia described from Spinola's collection is not in Paris, and is almost 
certainly lost. 

Townsend (1932 : 50) cited a "female Pt [i.e. paratype] in Lima" of Gonia heterocera, and 
later (Townsend, 1941 : 75) cited the same specimen as being in Washington. This specimen 
(which is still present in the United States National Museum, Washington D.C.) was obtained 
by Townsend from MNHN, Paris, and placed in his Tachinid genotype collection in Lima, 
Peru, before this was moved to Washington; it is, as Townsend stated, a $, but it bears a 
circular pink-backed Paris Museum accession label reading "3 47", and this indicates beyond 
doubt that it was not an original type-specimen (syntype) ; it has, in fact, no type-status, 
and was clearly added to Macquart's collection at some time after the original description. 
The specimen has a handwritten label by Townsend indicating that in his opinion it belongs 
to "Tritaxys australis Mq (Gonia heterocera Mq)", but Townsend is in error in this synonymy 
(published by him, 1941 : 75). 

The BMNH contains three specimens of heterocera from Bigot's collection (though probably 
not this species) of which one has Macquart's label "Gonia heterocera <?. Macq." (though it 
is actually a female) ; the specimens are not type-material. 

Gonia javana Macquart, 1848 : 203 (43). ? holotype or syntypes , JAVA: not located, 
possibly lost. 

Macquart stated that this was described "De Java. Collection de M. Payen". I have 
been unable to locate the type-material of javana and it is possibly lost. 

Gonia javana Macquart, 1851 : 151 (178). LECTOTYPE <$, by present designation, JAVA: 
BMNH, London (ex coll. Bigot). 

Paralectotype : i $, same data as lectotype (BMNH). 

The lectotype bears Macquart's label "Gonia javana $. M. n.sp", and is in good condition 
except for some damage to the scutum and loss of the right mid leg. 

In the original description Macquart gave the depository as "Museum" (i.e. MNHN, Paris), 
but it is considered that this is an error and that Macquart should have cited "M. Bigot" 
in his usual style for material received from Bigot. The MNHN collection has never, so far 
as known, contained a specimen of Gonia javana and though a reference (No. 667) occurs [to 
the species in the Oriental box No. 17 of the Macquart collection and in the typescript 
catalogue to that collection, these entries are based on Macquart's "Muse'um" statement 
only. On the other hand, the Bigot collection (now incorporated in BMNH, London) con- 
tains two specimens (a $ and a $) fitting Macquart's original description and of which the $ 
bears an original label (cited above) in Macquart's writing as G. javana ; without doubt the 
specimens in the Bigot collection were the original material. Though Macquart mentioned 
only "<$" in the description, I have accepted the $ specimen standing with the <$ as an original 
syntype because it is mounted exactly similarly to the <?, the female sex is extremely similar 
to the male, and the probability is that both specimens were together when Macquart made 
his description. 

Gonia javana Macquart, 1851, is a junior primary homonym of G. javana Macquart, 1848 
(above). Wulp (1896 : 127) noted the homonymy with the statement "Nomen bis lectum" 
without providing a new name, and de Meijere (1924 : 222) published the replacement name 
braueri, at the same time assigning the species to the genus Goniophana Brauer & Bergen- 
stamm. Thus the lectotype of javana Macquart, 1851, is type of Goniophana braueri de 
Meijere, 1924. 

Gonia rubriventris Macquart, 1851 : 150 (177). Holotype $, SOUTH AFRICA, Cape of Good 
Hope: BMNH, London (ex coll. Bigot). 

The holotype bears Macquart's label "Gonia rubriventris $. Macq. n.sp." and is in poor 
condition, specimen dirty and chaetotaxy rubbed, scutum party obscured by glue, left fore 
leg and some of the tarsi missing. 



TACHINIDAE TYPES OF MACQUART AND BIGOT 271 

Gonia rufitibialis Macquart, 1851 : 151 (178). Holotype $, INDIA, Pondicherry (Pevrottet): 
MNHN, Paris (No. 666). 

The holotype bears Macquart's label "Gonia rufitibialis $. Macq. n.sp." and an accession 
label "2906 40"; it is in fair condition only, some mould and all right legs missing. 

Grapholostylum dorsomaculatum Macquart, 1851 : 196 (223). LECTOTYPE $, by 
present designation, TASMANIE' [probably in error for New South Wales]: MNHN, Paris 
(No. 2334). 

Paralectotypes : 2 <J, same data as lectotype (MNHN) . 

The lectotype bears Macquart's label "Grapholostylum dorso-maculatum $. Macq. n.g., 
n.sp." and an accession label "4 46", and is in very good condition. The two paralectotypes 
are conspecific with the lectotype and they also bear the accession number "4 46". 

Townsend (1938 : 416) referred to a specimen in Bigot's collection as the holotype of 
dorsomaculatum with the statement "(Ht from Australia, in Newmarket)"; I have not found 
a specimen named as dorsomaculatum among Bigot's material of Rutiliini (to which tribe 
Grapholostylum belongs), but the specimen seen by Townsend, or at least recorded by him, 
cannot have been a type-specimen. Lectotype designation from the true type-material in 
Paris is therefore here necessary. 

Recent knowledge of this species from collecting in Australia suggests that the true type- 
locality is probably New South Wales and not Tasmania (as cited by Macquart). 

[Gymnostylia quadrimaculata Macquart, 1851 : 200 (227) (as Gymnostylia, 4 maculata). Re- 
corded provenance "Triton Bay" (Indonesian New Guinea) undoubtedly in error. $ holotype 
assignable to Dasyuromyia or closely allied genus from southern Neotropical Region.] 

Gymnostylia setosa Macquart, 1843 : 245 (88). Syntypes <J and <j>, SOUTH AFRICA ('Du 
Cap') : lost. 

Macquart described this species from male and female specimens stated to be in Serville's 
collection. No type-material exists in the MNHN, Paris, and is considered to be lost. 

The BMNH, London, collection contains a male specimen in very bad condition from 
Bigot's collection which bears an identification label in Macquart writing which reads 
"Gymnostylia setosa <J. Macq."; although it is from the Cape of Good Hope (and labelled 
"Cap. b. Spe." by Bigot) it is almost certainly a specimen that was identified by Macquart at 
some time after the original description of G. setosa, and therefore not an original type- 
specimen. Brauer (1898 : 511) referred to this dirty and damaged specimen from Bigot's 
collection as a $ (though it is male, as Macquart's own label correctly records), and compared 
it to the Australian Rutiliini, relating it to Paramphibolia assimilis (Macquart); actually 
it is a Billaea s.l. species, as van Emden (1947 : 648) recognized. 

Heterometopia analis Macquart, 1851 : 182 (209). LECTOTYPE $>, by present designation, 
TASMANIA: MNHN, Paris (No. 2305). 

Paralectotype : i <J, same data as lectotype (MNHN). 

The lectotype bears Macquart's label "Heterometopia analis. $. Tasm [deleted on label] 
Macq. n.sp. Tasm" and an accession label "3 47"; the condition is fair, except for loss of 
one third antennal segment, both mid legs and half of one hind leg. The $ paralectotype is 
conspecific with the lectotype and also bears a "3 47" accession label; all legs are present on 
the paralectotype, but it was not fixed as lectotype because both its third antennal segments 
are lost and there is extensive damage to the scutum and scutellum. 

Standing under the name analis with the type-material are four other specimens (i <, 3 $) 
in appalling condition, of which the females are Heterometopia specimens but the male not this 
genus. As the male was not described by Macquart, and these four specimens have a 
different accession number from the two good type-specimens (i.e. good in comparison to 
these other specimens), these four extra specimens are considered not to be original material. 

Heterometopia argentea Macquart, 1846 : 298 (170). LECTOTYPE , by present desig- 
nation, TASMANIA (Verreaux): MNHN, Paris (No. 2304). 
Paralectotypes: 5 <$, same data as lectotype (MNHN). 



272 R. W. CROSSKEY 

The lectotype bears Macquart's label "Heterometopia argentea n.g., n.sp. Macq." and an 
accession label "13 44" and is in poor condition; both third antennal segments and all legs 
except left fore leg are missing, the chaetotaxy is damaged and there is a large hole in the 
abdominal dorsum. The $ paralectotypes, each with accession label "13 44" as the lectotype, 
are mainly very dirty and one lacks the head, but they appear to be conspecific with lectotype. 

Standing with the type-material are two other male specimens without type-status, one 
with accession label "2900 40" and the other with a later determination label in Macquart's 
writing "Heterometopia argentea Macq. i. supp Tasm". 

Townsend (1932 : 35, 19396 : 222) referred to a male "Ht" (= holotype) in Paris, but did 
not thereby provide a valid lectotype restriction since there are several males to which his 
statement could apply. Paramanov (1960 : 696) referred to "Type in the Paris Museum", 
a statement not providing a lectotype fixation. 

The BMNH collection contains a $ specimen bearing an identification label "Heterometopia 
argentea Macq." in Macquart's writing (Plate i, F). It has no type status. 

Heterometopia rufipalpis Macquart, 1847 : 90 (74). Holotype $ [not $], AUSTRALIA 
('Nouvelle-Hollande') : BMNH, London (ex coll. Bigot). 

The holotype bears Macquart's label "Heterometopia rufipalpis, $ n.sp. Macq."; the 
condition is dreadful, specimen filthy with most characters completely obscured, right fore 
and mid legs and left fore leg lost, left wing lost, very mouldy. 

Despite the condition this is undoubtedly a Heterometopia species, but the holotype is male 
and not female. This is one of the rare instances where Macquart mistook the sex, but in 
view of the extremely unusual appearance of the frons in the males of Heterometopia the 
mistake is not surprising. Brauer (1899 : 501) queried whether the sex was $, and Townsend 
(1932 : 35) cited it positively as $ although he had not seen the type; Townsend (loc. cit.} 
also refers to a male specimen in Vienna labelled "rufipalpis Mq. Type BB" but this specimen 
(not seen by me) cannot be part of the original type-material. 

Hyalomyia rufiventris Macquart, 1851 : 188 (215). Holotype <J, TASMANIA: MNHN, Paris 
(No. 2308). 

The holotype bears Macquart's label "Hyalomyia rufiventris <$. Macq. n.sp." and an 
accession label "3 47"; it is in good condition except for a thin shroud of mould. 

Townsend (19166 : 45) erected the genus Austrophasia for this species on the basis of 
Macquart's wing figure alone, v. ot having seen the holotype. He must evidently have over- 
looked this when he later visited Paris, for in the Manual of Myiology (Townsend, 1938 : 41) 
he was unable to give the type sex and stated "location, Paris or lost". Presence of the 
holotype in MNHN, Paris, is here confirmed. 

Hystricephala nigra Macquart, 1846 : 283 (155). Holotype <$, SOUTH AFRICA ('Cafrerie' = 
Caffraria) : not located, presumed lost. 

This is the type-species of Hystricephala Macquart, and the holotype has unfortunately 
never been located; it was described from a specimen collected by Monsieur Delegorgue in 
Caffraria, but this specimen is not in the MNHN, Paris, collection and is almost certainly 
lost. Townsend (1938 : 298) thought that it might be in Lille, but it is not in fact present 
in the Macquart collection there. 

The generic name Hystricephala, as the type of the type-species is lost, has remained 
enigmatic, and the placements of the genus in Trichoprosopini by Townsend (1938 : 298) 
and Dexiinae by van Emden (1947 : 630) are based on unconfirmed guess-work. From 
Macquart's description H. nigra might well belong in some quite different Tachinid tribe, or 
conceivably not be a Tachinid at all. 

Lydella boscii Macquart, 1843 : 217 (60). Holotype <$, MAURITIUS (Tile de France') (Bosc): 
not located, presumed lost. 

This was stated by Macquart to be in the collection of M. Serville, of which the Diptera 
are believed to be lost. The type is recorded as lost in the typescript catalogue of the 
Macquart collection in Paris (No. 938). 



TACHINIDAE TYPES OF MACQUART AND BIGOT 273 

[Jurinia australis Macquart, 1855 : 117 (97). Recorded provenance "Nouvelle-Hollande" in 
error. $ holotype (in BMNH, ex coll. Bigot) belongs in New World genus Archytas Jaennicke, 
possibly to A. analis (Fabricius), as correctly established by Brauer (1898 : 500).] 

Masicera argenticeps Macquart, 1851 : 166 (193). Holotype <$ [not $], ? SOUTH-EAST ASIA 
(publ. as 'De 1'Oceanie'): MNHN, Paris (No. 2296). 

The holotype bears Macquart's label "Masicera argenticeps $. Macq. n.sp.", and is in 
good condition except for loss of most of the frontal setae. This is one of the few types for 
which Macquart mistook the sex, labelling and publishing it as female in error; Mesnil 
(1949 : u, 1951 : 163) has also drawn attention to this. 

This species is known from South-East Asia (India, Formosa, Thailand, Malaya) and not 
from the Pacific area, so that Macquart's citation of Oceania as the provenance is almost 
certainly in error. 

Masicera auriceps Macquart, 1851 : 168 (195). LECTOTYPE $, by present designation, 
'TASMANIE' [or possibly New South Wales]: MNHN, Paris (No. 2300). 

Paralectotype : i $, same data as lectotype (MNHN). 

The lectotype bears Macquart's label "Masicera auriceps. $ Macq. n.sp. Tasm" and an 
accession label "4 46" and is in good condition except for loss of part of one mid leg and a 
hole in the abdomen. The $ paralectotype appears to be conspecific with the lectotype and 
bears a white rectangular label "653" (there is no evidence that it was not available to 
Macquart at the time of description and it is therefore held to be original material) . 

The name is a junior primary homonym of Masicera auriceps Macquart, 1843 (Mem. Soc. 
Sci. Agric. Lille 1843 : 216; Dipt. exot. 2 (3) : 59), but no replacement name is proposed at 
the present time. 

Masicera cqffra Macquart, 1846 : 290 (162). Holotype or syntypes $, SOUTH AFRICA 
('Cafrerie' = Caffraria) : not located, presumed lost. 

This species was described from a $ specimen (or possibly more than one specimen) collected 
by Monsieur Delegorgue in Caffraria, but the material is not in MHNH, Paris, and is almost 
certainly lost. Villeneuve (1916 : 490) erected the genus Lydellina for this species, though in 
the absence of type-material the species was recognized only from the original description; 
I see no reasons why Villeneuve's identification of Macquart's caffra should be in error, 
and there is no evidence to support Townsend's (1933 : 469) statement that caffra of 
Villeneuve "is quite distinct from Lydella caffra Mcq." (which was based simply on the 
assumption that, as Macquart had not mentioned the tiny setulae on the facial ridges which 
are present in caffra as recognized by Villeneuve, there must have been a misidentification 
involved) . 

Masicera capensis Macquart, 1855 : 120 (100). ? holotype <$, SOUTH AFRICA ('cap de Bonne- 
Esperance'): BMNH, London (ex coll. Bigot). 

The holotype bears Macquart's label "Masicera capensis. $ Macq" and is in good condition 
except for a hole in the scutum and another on the side of the thorax (clearly due to specimen 
originally having been on a larger pin and subsequently re-pinned) ; a few frontal setae 
missing. 

This is one of the few of Macquart's holotypes described in the Supplements on which his 
label lacks the usual "n.sp." inscription. 

Masicera coesiofasciata Macquart, 1851 : 165 (192). Holotype $, AUSTRALIA ('Nouvelle- 
Hollande, cote, orientale' : probably New South Wales) : MNHN, Paris (No. 2295). 

The holotype bears Macquart's label "Masicera coesiofasciata Macq. n.sp. n. holl." and an 
accession label "2 47"; it is in fair condition, except for some dirt and mould, hole in scutum, 
and one missing mid leg. 

Masicera consanguinea Macquart, 1851 : 167 (194). Holotype <$, TASMANIA: (publ. as 
'De 1'Oceanie'): MNHN, Paris (No. 2297). 

The holotype bears Macquart's label "Masicera consanguinea <J. Macq. n.sp. n. holl.", 



274 R- W. CROSSKEY 

an accession label "13 44" and a rectangular white label reading "49" in faded ink; condition 
extremely bad, specimen completely coated in brittle deposit and fungal threads, little of the 
characters visible except for thick golden hairing of <J hypopygium and wing venation. 
Belongs in the Exoristini. 

Masicera fulvivent ris Macquart, 1851 : 165 (192). LECTOTYPE $, by present designation, 
TASMANIE' [probably in error for New South Wales or Queensland] : MNHN, Paris (No. 2299). 

Paralectotypes : i <$, 4 $, same data as lectotype (MNHN). 

The lectotype bears Macquart's label "Masicera fulviventris Macq. n.sp. Tasm." and an 
accession label "4 46"; it is in good condition except for some dirtiness. The four $ para- 
lectotypes appear to be conspecific with the lectotype; one of them has an accession label 
"2 47" but the others have the same accession number as the lectotype. The one $ para- 
lectotype is mis-associated with the lectotype, and is a specimen of Winthemia R.-D. 

All specimens standing under the name fulviventris in the MNHN collection have been 
accepted as original syntypes, as there is no evidence to the contrary. The specimen chosen 
as lectotype preserves the concept of the name given in Mesnil (1950 : 138). 

Masicera lateralis Macquart, 1846 : 291 (163). LECTOTYPE $, by present designation, 
AUSTRALIA ('Nouvelle-Hollande'), Sydney: BMNH, London (ex coll. Bigot). 

Paralectotype : i <$, same data as lectotype (BMNH). 

The lectotype bears Macquart's label "Masicera lateralis <J. Macq. n.sp.", and is in fair 
condition; specimen extremely dirty and thorax slightly greased, right wing frayed, both 
third antennal segments lost, abdominal chaetotaxy rubbed, but all legs are present. The $ 
paralectotype is apparently conspecific with the lectotype, and in bad condition, extremely 
dirty and all fore and mid legs missing; it does, however, retain the left third antennal 
segment and arista. Macquart cited the provenance as simply "Nouvelle-Hollande", but 
Bigot's own label from his collection indicates "Sidney" ( Sydney), New South Wales. 

Masicera niveiceps Macquart, 1851 : 164 (191). Holotype <J, JAVA: BMNH, London (ex 
coll. Bigot). 

The holotype bears Macquart's label "Masicera niveiceps. $. Macq. n.sp" and is in very 
bad condition: left third antennal segment, mouthparts, right wing and all legs except left 
hind leg lost, dorsum of thorax smashed and rubbed bare, some setae of pleural regions and 
head lost. 

Masicera niveifacies Macquart, 1851 : 164 (191). Holotype ? <J or $ (publ. as $), ASIA 
('Asie'): MNHN, Paris (No. 669). 

The holotype bears Macquart's label "Masicera niveifacies $. Macq. n.sp." and an accession 
label "2108 42"; the condition is extremely bad, with the antennae, mouthparts, one wing, 
all legs except one fore leg, and the abdomen lost, and the thorax damaged. 

The head of the holotype possesses proclinate orbital setae and the sex therefore appears 
at first glance 'to be female, as published and labelled by Macquart. However, despite the 
appalling condition, it is certain that niveifacies is a Carceliine extremely close to and 
perhaps even the same as Argyrophylax proclinata Crosskey in which the male as well as the 
female has proclinate orbital setae; there is a possibility therefore that the holotype is a male. 

The true provenance of niveifacies is unfortunately unknown having been cited by 
Macquart simply as Asia; the label under the holotype in MNHN gives the locality as "Java" 
but I suspect that this is through confusion with niveiceps, which was described from Java on 
the same page as niveifacies. Argyrophylax proclinata Crosskey is known from New Guinea 
and New Britain, and Macquart's niveifacies is undoubtedly very close to this species, if not 
actually the same ; it has not yet been possible to make a critical comparison directly between 
Macquart's holotype and Oriental material of Argyrophylax species, but such comparison 
might possibly determine with more certainty whether niveifacies is a senior synonym of 
proclinata based upon a male specimen with proclinate orbital setae. 

The foregoing discussion implies assignment of niveifacies to the genus A rgyrophylax Brauer 
& Bergenstamm, but I am not establishing a definite new combination at this time. 



TACHINIDAE TYPES OF MACQUART AND BIGOT 275 

Masicera oblonga Macquart, 1847 : 86 (70). Holotype $, TASMANIA: BMNH, London (ex 

coll. Bigot). 

The holotype bears Macquart's label "Masicera oblonga. <$. n.sp. Macq" and is in good 

condition except for some dirtiness, fraying of the wings, and slight rubbing of base of 

abdomen and scutellum. 
Masicera rubrifrons Macquart, 1847 : 85 (69). Holotype $, TASMANIA: BMNH, London 

(ex coll. Bigot). 

The holotype bears Macquart's label "Masicera rubrifrons. $ n.sp. Macq."; it is in very 

bad condition, left antennae, all right legs and left mid leg lost, wings damaged, body greasy, 

chaetotaxy disarranged. 
Masicera rufifacies Macquart, 1847 : 87 (71). Holotype <J, TASMANIA: BMNH, London 

(ex coll. Bigot). 

The holotype bears Macquart's label "Masicera rufifacies. <J n.sp. Macq." on which 

Macquart has also written in slightly smaller writing the words "Van Diemen.", these words 

having been inserted between the second and third lines of the inscription. The condition 

is poor, body greased, aristae, right mid leg and one fore leg lost, right wing and base of 

abdomen damaged, eyes and scutellar base dented, some chaetotaxy lost ; the remaining fore 

leg not articulated, adhered to thoracic venter. The <$ genitalia are removed from the 

holotype and slide-mounted (slide in BMNH). 
Masicera ruftpes Macquart, 1847 : 86 (70). Holotype , TASMANIA: BMNH, London (ex 

coll. Bigot). 

The holotype bears Macquart's label "Masicera rufipes. <$ n.sp. Macq."; the condition is 

fair, slightly dirty, left side of head collapsed, all legs present but left hind leg detached and 

adhered to pin, traces of glue on left of abdomen and on scutum, some damage to bristling. 
Masicera similis Macquart, 1851 : 167 (194). Holotype $, TASMANIA: MNHN, Paris (No. 

2298). 

The holotype bears Macquart's label "Masicera similis <j> Macq. n.sp. Tasm.", an accession 

label "3 47" and a rectangular white label "49" in faded ink. The condition of the specimen 

was bad when described, for Macquart stated in the original description that it was "en 

grande partie denuded"; it is now in dreadful condition, completely and thickly coated with 

fungus though structurally complete. 
Masicera simplex Macquart, 1847 : 87 (71). Holotype <$, TASMANIA: BMNH, London (ex 

coll. Bigot). 

The holotype bears Macquart's label "Masicera simplex. $ n.sp. Macq."; it is in fair 

condition, except for loss of both mid legs and left fore and hind legs, large hole in abdominal 

base and glue obscuring scutellum. 
Masicera tenuisetosa Macquart, 1848 : 206 (46). ? holotype or syntypes^, JAVA: not located, 

possibly lost. 

Macquart stated that this was described "De Java. Collection de M. Payen". I have 

been unable to locate the type-material of tenuisetosa and it is possibly lost. 

Masicera varipes Macquart, 1846 : 291 (163). Holotype <$, TASMANIA (Verreaux): MNHN, 
Paris (No. 2283). 

The holotype bears Macquart's label "Exorista varipes. <J. Macq. n.sp." and an accession 
label "13 44" ; although the body shell is eaten out, the holotype is otherwise in good condition. 

This is the only case known to me among Macquart's types (apart from Rutilia fuscotestacea, 
q.v.) in which the original label in Macquart's writing shows a different generic combination 
with the specific name than the published binomen ; despite the discrepancy there is no doubt 
that the specimen labelled as "Exorista varipes" is actually the holotype of Masicera varipes, 
for no specimen exists in the Paris Museum bearing the latter name and the specimen labelled 
as "Exorista varipes" agrees in every respect with the information published by Macquart 
for M. varipes. I have annotated the MNHN collection to show that the specimen standing 
in the collection under No. 2283 as "Exorista varipes" is in fact holotype of Masicera varipes 



276 R. W. CROSSKEY 

(which in the MNHN typescript catalogue of the Macquart collection was wrongly recorded 
as lost) . 

Robineau-Desvoidy (1863 : 543) re-described the specimen labelled as "Exorista varipes" 
and referred to it as "Phryno varipes, Macq.", perhaps without realizing that it had been 
described by Macquart, for below the heading he cited "Exorista varipes: Macq. - Collect, 
du Museum."; Mesnil (1954 : 34 1 )" however, noted that Phryno varipes (Macquart) was 
described as a Masicera. It could be maintained that there is a nominal species Phryno 
varipes of Robineau-Desvoidy, but if so it would be a junior objective synonym of Masicera 
varipes Macquart through being based on the same type-specimen, and I see no point in 
treating Phryno varipes of Robineau-Desvoidy as anything other than a later citation of 
varipes Macquart. 

Masicera viridiventris Macquart, 1847 : 84 (68). Lectotype Q*. by fixation of Townsend 
(i939 : 15), TASMANIA: BMNH, London (ex coll. Bigot). 

Paralectotype(s) : none located, probably lost. 

The lectotype bears Macquart's label "Masicera viridiventris n.sp. Macq."; it is in poor 
condition and head and abdomen have at some time been re-attached with adhesive to the 
thorax, both hind legs and right mid leg are missing, the third antennal segment of left side 
is lost, and some setae are rubbed off ; the right fore leg is detached from the body and glued 
to the circular lectotype label. 

Macquart described this species from both sexes, but only the one specimen here recorded 
was present in Bigot's collection when this was incorporated into the BMNH collection. 
Townsend (19390! : 15) referred to the one available <J syntype in Bigot's collection as "Ht 
male", and since this provides a restriction of the name to one definitely recognizable 
specimen I accept it as valid lectotype fixation. A thorough search has been made of the 
Bigot material in BMNH but no original female syntypes have been found, and their loss 
must be presumed. 

[Masicera viridiventris Macquart, 1851 : 163 (190): second use of name by Macquart, junior 
primary homonym of Masicera viridiventris Macquart (above). Recorded provenance 
"Egypte". Townsend (igi6a : 152) stated that the given locality Egypt was in error, and 
that viridiventris Macquart, 1851, was the female and a synonym of viridiventris Macquart, 
1847, and therefore from Australia or Tasmania by presumption; he stated the same view in 
the Manual of Myiology (Townsend, I939 : 15) though he had not seen the types of either 
nominal species. The type-material cannot be found of viridiventris Macquart, 1851 among 
the Bigot material and the supposed synonymy given by Townsend cannot be confirmed; 
neither is there any evidence that viridiventris Macquart, 1851, had an Australasian proven- 
ance. Pending such evidence the stated type-locality Egypt must be accepted as correct, 
and the synonymy given by Townsend must be rejected as unproven.] 

[Megistogaster fuscipennis Macquart, 1851 : 186 (213). Recorded provenance "Java" in error. 
The <$ holotype (in BMNH ex coll. Bigot) is a specimen of Cordyligaster Macquart, as known 
and accepted since being first noticed by Brauer (1897 : 365), and undoubtedly had a South 
American provenance. Name applies in the Neotropical fauna.] 

Micropalpus analis Macquart, 1855 : 118 (98). Holotype $, GABON ('royaume de Gabon'): 
BMNH, London (ex coll. Bigot). 

The holotype bears Macquart's label (incomplete) reading "Micropalp analis. $. Macq." 
and is in good condition except for some dirtiness, a crack in the scutum, slight tear in left 
wing, and loss of a few setae. 

This is a species of Linnaemya R.-D., and the name is a junior secondary homonym in this 
genus of L. analis R.-D., 1830. Van Emden (1960 : 462) has noted the homonymy and 
pointed out that no replacement name is required because the synonym L. laxiceps (Villeneuve) 
applies. 

Micropalpus assimilis Macquart, 1847 : 81 (65). ? holotype or syntypes ?, MADAGASCAR: 
lost. 






TACHINIDAE TYPES OF MACQUART AND BIGOT 277 

The type-material of this species is stated to be lost in the typescript catalogue of the 
Macquart collection in MNHN, Paris, and none was found from my own searches. It is 
considered truly lost. 

Micropalpus bicolor Macquart, 1848 : 204 (44). Holotype $, AUSTRALIA ('Nouvelle- 
Hollande') : not located, presumed lost. 

Macquart described this species from a single female from Monsieur Fairmaire's collection; 
that he had only one specimen is clear from his comment "L'individu que nous d^crivons a 
la trompe et les palpes mutil6s". 

The Diptera from Fairmaire's collection are apparently lost, and it is now unlikely that 
the holotype will be found. There are however specimens of bicolor determined, and some 
labelled, by Macquart in both the MNHN, Paris, and the BMNH, London, collection as 
detailed below. 

Standing in MNHN Macquart collection are eight $ specimens under the name Micropalpus 
bicolor, one of which has Macquart's determination label "Micropalpus bicolor. $. Macq. i. 
supp. Tasm."; in the BMNH collection there are two $ specimens, each with Macquart's 
determination labels reading respectively "Micropalpus bicolor. var. $. Macq. J.B." and 
"Micropalp bicolor $ Macq.", both specimens from Bigot's collection (the initials "J.B." on 
one of Macquart's labels signify J. Bigot). Bigot's specimens were from Sydney, according 
to the locality written on his label. Townsend (1932 : 42), in his discussion of M. brevigaster, 
cited one of the Bigot collection specimens from Sydney as "female Ht" of M. bicolor, but 
this was in error, as the specimens from Bigot's collection are not type-material. 

Micropalpus brevigaster Macquart, 1846 : 277 (149). Holotype Q*. TASMANIA: BMNH, 
London (ex coll. Bigot). 

The holotype bears Macquart's label "Micropalpus brevigaster Q\ Macq. n.sp." and is in 
fair condition; both fore legs and both hind tarsi lost, tibia and tarsus of left mid leg lost, 
some fraying of wings. 

The Bigot collection, when incorporated into BMNH collection, contained a series of two 
$ and three $ specimens of brevigaster standing with the holotype, but as the female sex was 
not originally described and as one of the males bears a later determination label of Macquart 
reading "Micropalpus brevigaster. <$ Macq.", none of these specimens (now all in BMNH) 
are considered to be original material. 

Micropalpus concavicornis Macquart, 1851 : 146 (173). Holotype Q* [not $], AUSTRALIA 
('Nouvelle-Hollande, cote orientale': probably New South Wales): MNHN, Paris (No. 2263). 

The holotype bears Macquart's label "Micropalpus concavicornis $. Macq. n.sp. nov. 
holl." and an accession label "2 47"; it is in fair condition, but right fore and mid legs lost, 
eyes partially collapsed, and thorax and abdomen greasy. 

This is one of the few instances where Macquart mistook the sex of the holotype, which 
is <$ (not $ as published and labelled) . 

Micropalpus longirostris Macquart, 1843 : 203 (46). Syntypes <J, SOUTH AFRICA ('Du Cap') : 
lost. 

Macquart described this species from specimens in the "collections de MM. Serville et 
Guerin" (a statement which confirms that longirostris was based on more than one syntype). 
The original material cannot be found in MNHN collection, and is considered to be lost; 
it is recorded as lost in the typescript catalogue of Macquart's collection in Paris (ref. no. 929). 

However, the BMNH collection contains one $ and two <$ specimens of M. longirostris from 
the Bigot collection, of which one of the males has an identification label in Macquart's writing 
which reads "Micropalpus longirostris <J. Macq."; this is the $ specimen to which Brauer 
(1897 ' 3 6 9) referred, and the obverse side of Macquart's label bears Brauer's reference. 
Townsend (i939a : 215) erroneously referred to "Ht male - Origin, Cape Good Hope; 
location Newmarket" for M. longirostris, wrongly assuming that the <$ specimen seen by 
Brauer was the holotype, and clearly overlooking the fact that the species was originally 
described by Macquart from specimens in the collections of Serville and Guerin-M6neville. 



278 R. W. CROSSKEY 

The specimens from Bigot's collection have no type-status, though it may be noted that the 
specimen from Bigot's collection named by Macquart himself is undoubtedly correctly 
identified and establishes the identity of Micropalpus longirostris without doubt. 

Micropalpus pilifacies Macquart, 1851 : 146 (173). Holotype $ [not ?], AUSTRALIA 
('Nouvelle-Hollande, cote oriental': probably New South Wales): MNHN, Paris (No. 2262). 

The holotype bears Macquart's label "Micropalpus pilifacies. $ Macq. n.sp. n.holl." and an 
accession label "2 47"; it is in fair condition, both third antennal segments and both mid 
legs lost, scutum slightly crushed. 

This is one of the few instances where Macquart mistook the sex ; the holotype, though <$, 
has a very wide frons and proclinate orbital setae and therefore resembles a $. 
Micropalpus vittatus Macquart, 1846 : 278 (150). Holotype Q*, TASMANIA: MNHN, Paris 
(No. 2265). 

The holotype bears Macquart's label "Micropalpus vittatus. $. Macq. n.sp." and an 
accession label "13 44"; it is in very good condition except for loss of some setae and one 
mid leg. 

Standing in MNHN collection with the holotype are five other specimens (4 $, i $) but none 
of these are considered to be original type-material for these reasons: the $ specimen (even 
though it bears a "13 44" accession number like the $ holotype) was recorded later by 
Macquart (1851 : 146 (173)), when he stated that he had seen the female since describing 
the male earlier, and the $ bears a later determination label of Macquart reading "Micropalpus 
vittatus. cJ$ Macq. i. supp. Tasm."; this label on the $ mentions the <$ sex as well, and this 
makes it evident that there were specimens of both sexes which were not seen by Macquart 
at the time of original description, even though they were received in MNHN in 1844 - three 
of the four males, labelled "13 44" are considered to be later material in this category; the 
one remaining <$ has an accession label "3 47" and is therefore certainly not an original 
specimen. One other point thought to give further confirmation that only one male was 
original material (therefore holotype) is the fact that it is mounted on a different type of 
much thicker pin than all the other specimens. 

There is a possibility that Australia and not Tasmania is the true provenance of this 
species. 

Microtropesa ignipennis Macquart, MS name. Name published by Brauer (1899 : 510-511) 
as Microtropeza ignipennis Mcq. and placed in synonymy with Microtropesa sinuata (Donovan), 
therefore unavailable from first publication by Brauer under Article 1 1 (d) of the International 
Code of Zoological Nomenclature, 1961. 

The Macquart collections in MNHN, Paris, and in MHN, Lille, contain specimens standing 
under the name Microtropesa ignipennis Macquart and identified as such by Macquart; as 
the name ignipennis was unpublished by Macquart and unavailable from publication by 
Brauer they have no status. They are, in fact, specimens of M. sinuata, though no direct 
comparison can be made as Donovan's type-material of sinuata is lost (Townsend's state- 
ments, 1932 : 40 and I939<z : 13, of a female holotype in London are in error). 

Microtropesa nigricornis Macquart, 1851 : 199 (226). LECTOTYPE $, by present designa- 
tion, TASMANIA: MNHN, Paris (No. 2338). 

Paralectotypes : i <$, i $, same data as lectotype (MNHN). 

The lectotype bears Macquart's label "Microtropesa nigricornis. (J.$. Macq. n.sp.", an 
accession label "3 47" and a rectangular white label with "107" in faded ink; it is in very 
good condition. 

The $ paralectotype is conspecific with the lectotype and has no accession label, but the <J 
paralectotype is mis-associated with the lectotype and has an accession label "2 47"; the 
latter specimen has the abdominal ground colour blue-black and only one pair of median 
marginal setae on tergite 3 (instead of ground colour dark tawny brown and five pairs of 
median marginals on tergite 3 as in the lectotype), and appears to be a specimen of Micro- 
tropesa intermedia Malloch. The syntype <$ which has been fixed as lectotype is the one 
agreeing most closely with Macquart's description and plate figure. 



TACHINIDAE TYPES OF MACQUART AND BIGOT 279 

Myobia cingulata Macquart, 1851 : 179 (206). LECTOTYPE <$, by present designation, 
'TASMANIE' [more probably New South Wales, see annotation]: MNHN, Paris (No. 2303). 

Paralectotypes : 9 <$, same data as lectotype (8 in MNHN, i in BMNH). 

The lectotype bears Macquart's label "Myobia cingulata. $? Macq. n.sp. Tasm. n.holl." 
and an accession label "4 46"; it is in rather poor condition (though better than other syn- 
types) and has both third antennal segments and left fore and mid legs lost, holes in eyes and 
thorax, part of left hind femur missing. 

This species was described from both <$ and $ sexes (as shown by Macquart's label on the 
lectotype as well as the original description) but no $ syntype has been found. With the 
lectotype in MNHN are eight males which are all considered syntypes, in the absence of 
contrary evidence, of which six have the "4 46" accession label like the lectotype and of which 
the others have each an accession label "2 47"; the BMNH collection also has one male 
syntype (paralectotype) with a "2 47" label, and this specimen has another label reading 
"Reed, in exchange from Mus. Nat. d'Hist. Nat., Paris. B.M. 1924-101" (an exchange 
arranged by Austen in 1924). 

Special attention must be drawn to the locality information for cingulata published by 
Macquart. In the original description he stated that the provenance was "Nouvelle- 
Hollande, cote orientale, et de la Tasmanie", and his own label (on the lectotype) bears the 
words "Tasm. n.holl." (i.e. Tasmania and Australia). The individual syntypes do not 
carry data labels showing which were from Australia and which from Tasmania, but this 
can be deduced from the accession labels: labels "2 47" refer to specimens from "Nouvelle- 
Hollande, cote orientale" (see also, for example, Chetogaster violacea and Exorista dispar), 
whereas specimens with accession reference "4 46" are recorded in MNHN and by Macquart 
as being from Tasmania; however, no subsequent material of Trigonospila cingulata 
(Macquart) or of, for example Grapholostylum dorsomaculatum Macquart (q.v.), species whose 
types bear the "4 46" reference and are said to be from Tasmania, has been found in Tasmania, 
and it seems likely that for such species there is an error in the published locality data. 
Probably the original material came from New South Wales. 

Townsend (1932 : 36, 1933 : 457, 19396 : 155) referred in error to a male holotype of 
cingulata from east Australia; as however there are several such original syntypes the state- 
ment of Townsend does not provide fixation of a lectotype, which is here newly designated. 
Myobia ruficeps Macquart, 1847 : 89 (73). Holotype <$, TASMANIA: BMNH, London (ex coll. 
Bigot). 

The holotype bears Macquart's label "Myobia ruficeps. (J n.sp. Macq." and is in very bad 
condition, with all legs lost, head partly collapsed, thorax and abdomen slightly rubbed and 
greasy. 

Myobia tenuisetosa Macquart, 1847 : 90 (74). Holotype $, TASMANIA: BMNH, London 
(ex coll. Bigot). 

The holotype bears Macquart's label "Myobia tenuisetosa. $ n.sp. Macq." and is in bad 
condition ; both hind legs and left mid leg are lost, apex of remaining mid tarsus and right fore 
leg from base of tibia also missing, right arista lost, specimen slightly dirty and thorax and 
abdomen rubbed and a little greasy. 

Nemoraea brevisetosa Macquart, 1846 : 282 (154). Holotype <J, TASMANIA: MNHN, Paris 
(No. 2271). 

The holotype bears Macquart's label "Nemoraea brevisetosa (J. Macq. n.sp.", and an 
accession label "13 44"; it is in bad condition because the head, left fore leg and right mid 
and hind legs are missing (though what remains of the specimen is in good condition). 
Nemoraea nitidiventris Macquart, 1851 : 155 (182). Holotype 6*, AUSTRALIA ('Nouvelle- 
Hollande, cote orientale': probably New South Wales): MNHN, Paris (No. 2270). 

The holotype bears Macquart's label "Nemoroea nitidiventris <J Macq. n.sp.", an accession 
label "2 47" and a rectangular white label with "46" in faded ink; it is in very good condition 
except for loss of left fore leg. The generic name is spelt Nemoroea on Macquart's original 
label but his published spelling was Nemoraea. 



a8o R. W. CROSSKEY 

Nemorea rufipes Macquart, 1843 : 211 (54). Holotype <$, SOUTH AFRICA ('cap de Bonne- 
Esperance'): MNHN, Paris (No. 936). 

The holotype bears the label "Nemoroea rufipes" in Macquart's writing, a small rectangular 
label reading "Cap" in faded ink, and a circular blue label with the words "Guerin/Menne-/ 
ville" in mauve print; the holotype is in appalling condition, all that remains being the 
dorsal shell of the thorax and scutellum with wings attached and the dorsal shell of the 
abdomen, plus part of one hind leg ; these remains are gummed to a card attached to a carrier 
pin. The generic name is spelt Nemoroea on Macquart's original label, but Nemorea was the 
published spelling. 

Despite the condition it can be confirmed without doubt that this is a true Nemoraea 
R.-D., because both the calyptrae are undamaged and show the complete covering of long 
soft pale hair characteristic of most true Nemoraea species. 

Nemoroea bicolor Macquart, 1851 : 155 (182). Holotype $, JAVA: BMNH, London (ex 
coll. Bigot). 

The holotype bears Macquart's label "Nemoroea bicolor $ Macq. n.sp."; the condition is 
fair, left fore and mid legs lost and right fore and hind tarsi lost (except for basitarsal 
segment), dorsum of thorax greased and its chaetotaxy rubbed. 

Ochroplevrum javanum Macquart, 1851 : 185 (212). Holotype $, JAVA: BMNH, London 
(ex coll. Bigot). 

The holotype bears Macquart's label "Ochroplevrum javanum <. Macq. n.sp" and is in 
rather poor condition; the body is greased and head very dirty, the right fore leg and left 
mid legs are missing, the scutum is perforated and base of the abdomen constricted. The $ 
hypopygium is in good condition and contained in a small vial attached to the specimen. 

Ocyptera flavifrons Macquart, 1851 : 187 (214). LECTOTYPE <$, by present designation, 
'TASMANIE' [more probably New South Wales, see annotation]: MNHN, Paris (No. 2307). 

Paralectotype : i Q*, same data as lectotype (MNHN) . 

The lectotype bears Macquart's label "Ocyptera flavifrons. <$. Macq. n.sp. Tasm." and 
an accession label "4 46"; the specimen is very dirty, lacks some setae and has a dent in left 
eye, but otherwise is in good condition. The $ paralectotype is conspecific with the lectotype 
and also bears the "4 46" accession reference (it is certainly an original syntype because it 
bears this number and also because Macquart indicated a size range for flavifrons, showing 
that there was more than one specimen). 

It is probable that Tasmania is not the correct provenance, as this is one of the "4 46" 
reference species for which no later material has been found in Tasmania; Paramonov 
(J956 : 369-370) has recorded many specimens from the Australian mainland, but none 
from Tasmania, and it is probable that New South Wales is the true provenance of the 
original material. 

Ocyptera pictipennis Macquart, 1835 : 186. Holotype^, SENEGAL: MNHN, Paris (No. 940). 
The holotype bears a label in Macquart's writing "Ocyptera pictipennis Macq." and a 
circular white label reading "Senegal Guerin"; the specimen is largely destroyed, all that 
remains is one wing and part of the thorax which are glued to the pin. 

Despite the condition, the wing pattern (to which Macquart's specific name refers), the 
scutellar setae and the scutal pattern confirm that this species is correctly recognized in van 
Emden (1945 : 405, 407). 

Omalogaster appendiculatus Macquart, 1846 : 318 (190). Nomen nudum, cited in description 
of Omalogaster limbinevris. 

Omalogaster brevipalpis Macquart, 1846 : 317 (189). LECTOTYPE <J, by present desig- 
nation, TASMANIA: MNHN, Paris (No. 2347). 

Paralectotype: i $, same data as lectotype (MNHN). 

The lectotype bears Macquart's label "Omalogaster brevipalpis. Macq. n.sp." and an 
accession label "13 44"; it is in fair condition, both hind legs missing and abdomen crushed. 
The $ paralectotype also has the "13 44" accession label, and is probably mis-associated 



TACHINIDAE TYPES OF MACQUART AND BIGOT 281 

with the lectotype; it is in very bad condition, with abdomen, one wing and all but one leg 
lost and thorax badly smashed. 

Omalogaster limbinevris [sic] Macquart, 1846 : 317 (189). Holotype $ [publ. as '$', labelled 
as '$'], TASMANIA: MNHN, Paris (No. 2348). 

The holotype bears Macquart's label "Omalogaster limbinevris. $. Macq. n.sp." and an 
accession label "13 44"; it is in poor condition, very dirty, scutum damaged, all legs lost 
except right hind leg (even this lacks the tarsus except for basitarsus), right third antennal 
segment lost, wings torn. 

The spelling limbinevris is accepted as correct, because it is consistent both in original 
publication and on Macquart's original label, and also because Macquart repeated this spelling 
in his table of species described in the Dipteres exotiques work and its first four Supplements 
(see p. 358 of Suppl. 4, 1851) ; it is therefore considered not to be an incorrect original spelling, 
by inadvertent error, of 'limbinervis'. 

Omalogaster nitidus Macquart, 1846 : 318 (190). ? holotype or syntypes $, TASMANIA: not 
located, probably lost. 

This species was described from female specimen (or possibly more than one specimen) 
recorded by Macquart as "De la Tasmanie. Museum", and the type-material should be in 
MNHN, Paris. The name appears in one of the boxes of Australian material in the Macquart 
collection in Paris, and also in the typescript catalogue to this collection (No. 2350), but the 
original material can no longer be found in MNHN and is presumably lost or destroyed. 

However, the BMNH collection in London contains one $ specimen from the Bigot collec- 
tion which fits Macquart's description and is a later specimen identified by Macquart, for it 
bears his label "Omalogaster nitidus. $. Macq." and the pencilled word "Sydney" ; Bigot's label 
also gives the locality Sydney for this specimen, which can be accepted as correctly identified 
(and enables nitidus to be correctly placed). 

Phorocera acutangulata Macquart, 1848 : 208 (48). Holotype <$, AUSTRALIA ('Nouvelle- 
Hollande'): BMNH, London (ex coll. Bigot). 

The holotype bears Macquart's label "Phorocera acutangulata o*. nov.sp."; it is in very 
bad condition, body dirty and with some mould, both mid legs and left fore and hind legs 
lost, scutal chaetotaxy rubbed off, right wing and apical half of left wing missing, abdomen 
distorted basally. 

Phorocera biserialis Macquart, 1847 : 89 (73). Lectotype <?, by fixation of Townsend 
(1940 : 158), TASMANIA: BMNH, London (ex coll. Bigot). 

The lectotype bears Macquart's label "Phorocera biserialis n.sp. Macq." and is in fair 
condition; the antennae and palpi, the head setae, the left fore leg, parts of both mid legs 
and most of the right hind tarsus are lost. 

Macquart described this species from both sexes, but no original female material has been 
found and is certainly lost. Only one male syntype was present in Bigot's collection when 
examined by Brauer (1897 : 347), and this specimen was referred to by Townsend (1940 : 158) 
as "Ht male"; as this statement restricts the name to one recognizable specimen I accept it 
as valid lectotype fixation. The lectotype has been accordingly labelled. 

Phorocera cilipes Macquart, 1847 : 88 (72). Holotype <J, TASMANIA: BMNH, London (ex 
coll. Bigot). 

The holotype bears Macquart's label "Phorocera cilipes. c?. n.sp. Macq." and is in fair 
condition; the right antenna, left mid leg and right hind leg are missing, scutum and scutellum 
damaged, wings torn, and the abdomen slightly greasy; the head (believed correctly asso- 
ciated) is detached from the cervical region and glued to the anterior edge of the prescutum. 
Macquart (1848 : 209 (49)) later briefly described the supposed $ of cilipes from a specimen 
from 'Nouvelle-Hollande' in Fairmaire's collection; this specimen has not been found and is 
almost certainly lost. 

Phorocera flavipalpis Macquart, 1855 : 122 (102). Holotype $ [publ. as '$', labelled as '$'], 
NEW SOUTH WALES, Sydney: BMNH, London (ex coll. Bigot). 



282 R. W. CROSSKEY 

The holotype bears Macquart's label "Phorocera flavipalpis $. Macq. n.sp. Sydney" and is 
in poor condition; the body is dirty, right fore leg and both mid legs and the antennae are 
lost, the wings damaged and thoracic dorsum rubbed. 

Though published as <J the holotype is actually $, as Macquart noted on his original label, 
and as noted by Brauer (1897 : 345). 

Phorocera graciliseta Macquart, 1847 : 88 (72). Holotype <$, TASMANIA: BMNH, London 
(ex coll. Bigot). 

The holotype bears Macquart's label "Phorocera graciliseta. <$. n.sp. Macq." and is in very 
bad condition; specimen covered in mould, right mid and hind legs, left fore tarsus and 
apices of other left tarsi lost, right wing and apical half of left wing missing, hole in scutellum. 

A specimen (<$) of this species from "Tasmania" was found standing unnamed in Bigot's 
collection when this was incorporated into BMNH collection, and has no type-status. 

Phorocera grandis Macquart, 1851 : 171 (198). Holotype <J, AUSTRALIA ('Nouvelle-Hollande, 
c6te orientale' : probably New South Wales or Queensland) : MNHN, Paris (No. 2284). 

The holotype bears Macquart's label "Phorocera grandis. . Macq. n.sp. n.holl." and 
an accession label "2 47"; it is in fair condition, but head crushed dorsally with some setae 
and apical part of left third antennal segment missing, both mid legs lost, thorax badly dis- 
torted ventrally at pin emergence site, generally slightly dirty. 

Standing in MNHN collection with the holotype is a small $ specimen with the same 
"2 47" accession reference as the holotype, and lacking the head; the specimen was not men- 
tioned in the original description, is much smaller than the size measurement given for the $, 
and is certainly not an original syntype. 

Phorocera hyalipennis Macquart, 1851 : 170 (197). Holotype 9. JAVA: BMNH, London 
(ex coll. Bigot). 

The holotype bears Macquart's label "Phorocera hyalipennis $. Macq. n.sp." and is in 
fairly good condition except for loss of left fore and mid legs and holes in scutum and left 
sternopleural region; the head is in exceptionally good condition. 

Phorocera hyalipennis Macquart, 1855 : 122 (102). ? holotype or syntypes <$, SOUTH 
AUSTRALIA, Adelaide ('Nouvelle-Hollande; colonie d'Adelai'de') : not located, presumed lost. 

Macquart gave no indication of the source of his material of this species in the original 
description, but it is known from Macquart's (1855 : 25 (5)) introduction to the 5* Supplement 
of Dipteres exotiques that the material he described from the "colonie d'Ad&aiide" formed part 
of Bigot's collection. Brauer (1897 : 346) saw the <$ holotype of Phorocera hyalipennis 
Macquart, 1855 [not Macquart, 1851] and noted that it stood in Bigot's collection with a 
"? Java" locality label by Bigot, and also that it lacked the abdomen. The $ holotype 
should therefore be present in Bigot's collection, but in spite of careful search of Bigot's 
material while incorporating it into the BMNH collection I have been unable to find it, and 
believe that it must be lost. 

Phorocera hyalipennis Macquart, 1855, is a junior primary homonym of P. hyalipennis 
Macquart, 1851 (above) but as the former name remains completely enigmatic because of 
loss of the holotype I am not proposing any replacement name at this time. 

Phorocera javana Macquart, 1851 : 170 (197). Holotype $, JAVA: BMNH, London (ex coll. 
Bigot). 

The holotype bears Macquart's label "Phorocera javana. $ Macq. n.sp." and is in fair 
condition except for loss of left fore leg and left mid tarsus, rubbing of mid dorsum of scutum, 
smashed scutellum and mould on abdominal venter and left hind leg. 

Phorocera lateralis Macquart, 1846 : 293 (165). LECTOTYPE Q*, by present designation, 
TASMANIA: MNHN, Paris (No. 2286). 

The lectotype bears Macquart's label "Phorocera lateralis Macq. n.sp." and an accession 
label "13 44"; the condition is poor, very dirty and wings coated with dirt, head much dis- 
torted with facial regions and eyes pushed in and twisted on neck so that mouthparts are 
upwards. 






TACHINIDAE TYPES OF MACQUART AND BIGOT 283 

Macquart described this species from both sexes, but no original female material has been 
found and is presumed to be lost. 

Standing in MNHN collection with the lectotype is a second specimen which might possibly 
be an original male syntype, but as it is a Sarcophagid in filthy condition (with body tagmata 
reunited by glue) which does not satisfactorily fit Macquart's description, it is thought 
probable that it was added later in error and therefore that it has no type-status. 

Phorocera maculata Macquart, 1851 : 173 (200). Holotype $, AUSTRALIA ('Nouvelle- 
Hollande cote orientale': probably New South Wales): MNHN, Paris (No. 2285). 

The holotype bears Macquart's label "Phorocera maculata <$. Macq. n.sp. n.holl." and an 
accession label "4 46"; it is in very bad condition, largely coated with a gummy filth, 
both antennae and left mid leg missing, most of right hind leg lost, large hole in right base 
of abdomen and hypopygium lost. 

Phorocera mucrocornis Macquart, 1851 : 174 (201). Holotype , TASMANIA: MNHN, 
Paris (No. 2289). 

The holotype bears Macquart's label "Phorocera mucrocornis. $. Macq. n.sp. Tasm." 
and an accession label "3 47" ; it is in extremely bad condition, thickly and completely coated 
with mould and filth (which, although the structure is more or less complete, makes it almost 
impossible to distinguish the features). 

Phorocera ornata Macquart, 1851 : 172 (199). LECTOTYPE <$, by present designation, 
'TASMANIE' [more probably New South Wales, see annotation]: MNHN, Paris (No. 2291). 

Paralectotypes : i <$, 2 ?, same data as lectotype (MNHN). 

The specimen selected as lectotype, though $, bears Macquart's label "Phorocera ornata. 
$!. Macq. n.sp. Tasm." and an accession label "4 46" ; it is in fair condition, some mould, right 
hind leg lost, some deposit on the head. All the paralectotypes also have the accession 
reference label "4 46", and the $ paralectotype is in extremely bad condition, being com- 
pletely concealed in a dirty deposit. 

Macquart cited only the $ in the original description, but as the sexes are superficially 
very alike and easily confused in this species, and as all the four specimens of both sexes in 
MNHN collection have the same accession reference, they are all considered to be original 
syntypes. 

It is possible that New South Wales and not Tasmania is the true provenance of the type- 
material, as this is one of the Macquart species with MNHN accession reference "4 46" for 
which later specimens have not yet been found in Tasmania, though well known from 
Australia. 

Phorocera scutellata Macquart, 1846 : 293 (165). Holotype $, TASMANIA: MNHN, Paris 
(No. 2287). 

The holotype bears Macquart's label "Phorocera scutellata. (J. Macq. n.sp." and an 
accession label "13 44"; it is in fair condition, head reattached (but presumed correctly 
associated), one antenna and arista of other antenna, left fore leg, right fore tarsus and right 
mid leg lost, thorax damaged. 

Standing with the holotype in MNHN is a mis-associated <$ specimen that has no type- 
status, and does not fit the original description. 

Phorocera subpubescens Macquart, 1851 : 172 (199). Holotype $ [not $\, TASMANIE' 
[probably in error for New South Wales]: MNHN, Paris (No. 2290). 

The holotype bears Macquart's label "Phorocera subpubescens. $. Macq. n.sp.", an 
accession label "4 46" and a rectangular white label reading "47"; it is in fair condition, but 
left mid and hind legs lost, frontal setae rubbed off, dorsum of thorax smashed. 

The holotype is $ but has a somewhat (J-like facies, and this probably accounts for Macquart 
mistaking the sex and publishing it (as well as labelling the specimen) as <$. 

Phorocera tessellata Macquart, 1846 : 293 (165). Holotype <$, TASMANIA: MNHN, Paris 

(No. 2288). 

The holotype bears Macquart's label "Phorocera tessellata. #. Macq. n.sp." and an 



284 R. W. CROSSKEY 

accession label "13 44"; it is in fair condition only, extremely dirty, left hind leg lost, head 
crushed in at antennal bases. 

Standing with the holotype in MNHN are two correctly associated <$ specimens, which are 
later-determined material and not type-material (as confirmed by their labelling) ; they bear 
accession labels "2 47" and "3 47" respectively, and the latter-labelled specimen also bears 
Macquart's determination label "Phorocera tessellata. Macq. i. supp. Tasm.". 

The BMNH, London, collection contains one <J specimen (labelled as from Tasmania and 
ex Bigot's collection) which has an identification label "Phorocera tessellata <J. Macq." in 
Macquart's writing and appears to be correctly named. 

Platytainia maculata Macquart, 1851 : 179 (206). Holotype <j>, TASMANIA: MNHN, Paris 
(No. 2302). 

The holotype bears Macquart's label "Platytainia maculata. $. Macq. n.g., nov.sp. Tasm.", 
an accession label "3 47" and a rectangular white label reading "48."; it is in bad condition, 
head lost, left mid leg missing, body greasy. 

Townsend (1936 : 232, I939 : 373) also noted that the head of the holotype is lost. This 
fact makes it particularly difficult to place the genus Platytainia Macquart, of which maculata 
is type-species, and at present the genus is enigmatic. 

Polychaeta nigra Macquart, 1851 : 154 (181). Holotype $, TASMANIA: MNHN, Paris (No. 
2269) . 

The holotype bears Macquart's label "Polychaeta nigra. $ Macq. n.g., n.sp. Tasm." and 
an accession label "3 47", and is in fair condition; much mould, head coated in grimy deposit, 
right mid leg lost, some thoracic bristling rubbed (Townsend, 1932 : 50, described the head 
as "covered with mycelia and grime"). 

Prosena dispar Macquart, 1851 : 203 (230). LECTOTYPE $, by present designation, 
'TASMANIE' [probably in error for New South Wales]: MNHN, Paris (No. 2352). 

Paralectotype : i $, same data as lectotype (MNHN) . 

The lectotype bears Macquart's label "Prosena dispar. $. Macq. n.sp." and an accession 
label "4 46"; it is in fair condition, head slightly crushed, thorax dirty, scutum damaged, and 
left mid leg lost. 

The paralectotype $ also has the "4 46" accession label, and is probably correctly associated 
with the lectotype, although it differs slightly in abdominal colour and in colouring of the 
pleural and humeral hair. 

This is one of the species for which the stated provenance of Tasmania is suspect, and for 
which New South Wales is a more probable locality of origin. 

Prosena dorsalis Macquart, 1847 : 97 (81). Holotype <?, TASMANIA: BMNH, London (ex 
coll. Bigot). 

The holotype bears Macquart's label "Prosena dorsalis. <$ n.sp. Macq." and (except for 
the good head) is in bad condition; both mid and both hind legs are lost, apical halves of 
wings lost, body greasy and chaetotaxy partially rubbed off. 

Prosena rufiventris Macquart, 1847 : 96 (80). Holotype $, TASMANIA: BMNH, London (ex 
coll. Bigot). 

The holotype bears Macquart's label "Prosena rufiventris. $ n.sp. Macq." and is in poor 
condition; antennae and frontal chaetotaxy lost, right mid and hind legs lost, left mid tarsus 
lost, only basitarsi remaining of fore legs and left hind leg, thorax greased and dorsum rubbed, 
abdominal chaetotaxy lost. 

Prosena vittata Macquart, 1843 : 249 (92). Holotype $, NEW SOUTH WALES, Sydney ('Port 
Jackson'): MNHN, Paris (No. 2351). 

The holotype bears Macquart's label "Prosena vittata Guer. nov.sp.", a circular label 
reading "Guerin/Menne-/ville" in mauve print and a rectangular label reading "Prosena 
vittata guer" in pencil and "Ports jacks" [i.e. Port Jackson] in faded ink. 

The specimen which Macquart described as Prosena vittata is also, by a curious error made 
by Macquart, the holotype of Prosena vittata Guerin-Meneville, 1838. It appears certain that 



TACHINIDAE TYPES OF MACQUART AND BIGOT 285 

Macquart overlooked the fact that Gue'rin-Me'neville (1838 : 299) had already described 
P. vittata, and clearly he thought that he was describing the species for the first time (for he 
suggested that it might be the female of P. conica Gue'rin-Me'neville, of whose description he 
was aware, and also because he cites "Guer." on his own original label). The two specimens 
(holotypes) of P. vittata and P. conica are both from Port Jackson and are mounted exactly 
similarly on the same type of unusual short thick pin and are similarly labelled (except for 
Macquart's label on vittata), and undoubtedly the specimen of vittata is the holotype of 
Prosena vittata Gue'rin-Me'neville. Hence it follows that Macquart in fact redescribed P. 
vittata from Guerin-Meneville's holotype, and P. vittata Macquart is therefore a junior 
objective synonym and a junior primary homonym of P. vittata Guerin-Meneville. 

The holotype of P. vittata Macquart ( = holotype of P. vittata Gue'rin-Me'neville) is in poor 
condition, dirty, abdomen (except for Ti + 2) lost, right mid leg and both hind legs lost, left 
hind tarsus lost, thorax damaged by very large pin (both wings are, however, complete) . 

Rut ilia analoga Macquart, 1851 : 191 (218). Holotype <j> [publ. as <J], 'TASMANIE' [probably 
in error for New South Wales] : MNHN, Paris (No. 2322). 

The holotype bears Macquart's label "Rutilia analoga $. Macq. n.sp.?", and an accession 
label "4 46", and is in very good condition. 

The sex was published as $ in the original description, but is actually $ as Macquart in- 
dicated on his original label cited above. This is one of the species for which the published 
provenance of Tasmania is almost certainly wrong, and for which New South Wales is probably 
the true provenance. 

Rutilia angustecarinata Macquart, 1848 : 211 (51). ? holotype or syntypes Q*, JAVA: not 
located, possibly lost. 

Macquart stated that this was described "De Java. Collection de M. Payen". I have 
been unable to locate the type-material of angustecarinata and it is possibly lost. 

Rutilia assitnilis Macquart, 1851 : 192 (219). LECTOTYPE (J, by present designation, 
TASMANIA: MNHN, Paris (No. 2317). 

Paralectotypes : 2 $, same data as lectotype (MNHN) ; i spec, (sex ?), same data as lectotype 
(MHN, Lille, box G.ig of Macquart's coll. and with number "379"). 

The lectotype bears Macquart's label "Rutilia assimilis $$. Macq. n.sp." and an accession 
label, "4 46", and is in good condition except for loss of both third antennal segments and the 
right hind leg. The $ paralectotypes in MNHN bear the same "4 46" accession reference 
and are conspecific with the lectotype. 

Macquart cited "Nouvelle-Hollande, cote orientale et Tasmanie" as the provenance of the 
type-material, but none of the specimens now in MNHN have the "2 47" accession reference 
which refers to material from the "cote orientale" of Australia, and all have the "4 46" 
reference for which the locality is recorded as Tasmania. Because of this, combined with the 
fact that R. assimilis is common in Tasmania, the lectotype and paralectotype type-locality 
is here accepted as Tasmania. 

Townsend's (1938 : 419) statement of "Ht male - Origin, east coast Australia; location, 
Lille or lost" has no validity as a fixation of lectotype, because it is based on a mere guess 
about the types, their origin and locations; he evidently did not see the material in Paris 
(which Macquart cited as the depository) and there is no specimen now in MNHN, Paris, 
with a reference number indicating an east Australian origin. Present designation of a 
lectotype is therefore necessary. 

The "type" is not in the Vienna Museum, as Paramonov (1968 : 375) wrongly stated. 
[Rutilia dubia Macquart, 1846 : 311 (183). Not Tachinidae: belongs in Calliphoridae, tribe 
Rhiniini, synonym of Thelychaeta viridaurea (Wiedemann), synonymy established by Peris 
(1952 : 158) and here confirmed (holotype <J in BMNH, London, examined).] 

Rutilia elegans Macquart, 1846 : 309 (181). Holotype #, NEW SOUTH WALES, Sydney 
(Tile Sydney'): BMNH, London (ex coll. Bigot). 

The holotype bears Macquart's label "Rutilia elegans. $. Macq. n.sp." which is gummed to 
another label from Bigot's collection with the additional words "Sidney" and "nom par. 



286 R. W. CROSSKEY 

Macq" in Bigot's writing: the holotype is in fair condition, left mid tarsus and both hind legs 
missing, scutum damaged, abdomen glued to thorax and damaged at right side of base. 

The holotype of this species was incorporated into BMNH, London, collection in 1904, 
and has a printed label "Ex coll. Bigot. Pres. by G. H. Verrall, Oct. 1904" on which Austen 
has added "Sydney, New South Wales." in pencil. 

Rutilia flavipennis Macquart, 1848 : 210 (50). ? holotype or syntypes $, JAVA: not located, 
possibly lost. 

Macquart stated that this was described "De Java. Collection de M. Payen". I have been 
unable to locate the type-material of flavipennis and it is possibly lost. 

Rutilia fulgida Macquart, 1846 : 308 (180). LECTOTYPE <J, by present designation, NEW 
SOUTH WALES, Sydney ('De 1'Oceanie, ile Sydney'): BMNH, London (ex coll. Bigot). 

Paralectotypes : 3 <$, same data as lectotype (BMNH). 

The lectotype bears Macquart's label "Rutilia fulgida <. Macq. n.sp" which is gummed to 
another label from Bigot's collection with the additional words "Sidney." and "nomm. par. 
Macq." in Bigot's writing; the lectotype is in good condition, except for loss of the tips of 
both antennae. The <J paralectotypes are conspecific with the lectotype, also in good con- 
dition except that the right wing of two of them is damaged. 

The syntypes of this species were incorporated into BMNH, London, collection in 1904, 
and each has a printed label "Ex coll. Bigot. Pres. by G. H. Verrall, Oct. 1904." on which 
Austen has added "Sydney, New South Wales." in pencil. 

Rutilia fuscotestacea Macquart, 1846 : 306 (178). Holotype $, NEW SOUTH WALES, Sydney 
('De l'Oc6anie, ile Sydney') : BMNH, London (ex coll. Bigot). 

The holotype bears Macquart's label "Lucilia [sic, lapsus'] fuscotestacea $. Macq. n.sp." 
which is gummed to another label from Bigot's collection with the additional words "Sydney" 
and "Nomm. par. Macq." in Bigot's writing; it is in good condition except for loss of a few 
tarsal segments and a few thoracic setae. 

The holotype of this species was incorporated into BMNH, London, collection in 1904, and 
has a printed label "Ex coll. Bigot. Pres. by G. H. Verrall, Oct. 1904." on which Austen has 
added "Sydney, New South Wales." in pencil. 

Standing under this name in BMNH, with the holotype, are seven $ specimens, each with 
a label reading "Australia" in pencil in Austen's writing and "Ex coll. Bigot. Pres. by G. H. 
Verrall, Oct. 1904." in print, but none of these are types; six of them stood in Bigot's collection 
as later identified material of Rutilia viridinigra Macquart, and the remaining one stood in 
Bigot's collection as a later identified specimen of R. fuscotestacea; this last specimen, and two 
of the other six, have pencilled annotation labels by Austen to this effect. 

The holotype of this species is the only primary type of a Tachinid described by Macquart 
(apart from Masicera varipes, q.v.) which, so far as I know, has a different generic name on 
Macquart's original label from that in the binomen published by him; the word "Lucilia" on 
the label in this case is an obvious mistake. 

Rutilia media Macquart, 1846 : 310 (182). LECTOTYPE <J, by present designation, 
TASMANIA: MNHN, Paris (No. 2319). 

Paralectotypes: 2 $, same data as lectotype (MNHN). 

The lectotype bears Macquart's label "Rutilia media. <$. Macq. n.sp." but has no accession 
label; it is in very good condition, except for loss of right mid leg, and slight denting of left 
side of head. The < paralectotypes are correctly associated with the lectotype, and also lack 
accession labels. 

Standing in MNHN collection with the type-material is a later added <$ specimen bearing 
Macquart's determination label "Rutilia media <$. Macq. supp." and an accession label 
"i 46", and also one $ specimen with a printed label reading "Tasmanie" which has also 
clearly been added to the collection at a later date from the original material (Macquart did 
not describe the female and the specimen is not a syntype). 

Rutilia minor Macquart, 1846 : 310 (182). LECTOTYPE $, by present designation, TAS- 
MANIA: MNHN, Paris (No. 2320). 






TACHINIDAE TYPES OF MACQUARTAND BIGOT 287 

Paralectotypes : i <J, 2 $, same data as lectotype (MNHN) ; i <$, NEW SOUTH WALES, Sydney 
(BMNH, ex coll. Bigot); 2 specimens (? sex), TASMANIA ('van Diemen') (MHN, Lille, box 
G.IQ of Macquart's coll.). 

The lectotype bears Macquart's label "Rutilia minor. <J. Macq. n.sp." and an accession 
label "13 44"; the right fore and right mid legs are lost and the thoracic dorsum slightly 
crushed, but the condition is otherwise very good with all hairing and bristling especially 
well preserved. The paralectotypes are believed to be correctly associated with the lectotype 
(though legs of the females are red and those of males black, and it is not yet completely 
proven that this sexual dimorphism exists in the one species), and those in MNHN have the 
same "13 44" Tasmanian accession reference as the lectotype. 

The o* paralectotype in BMNH is certainly an original syntype, as it bears Macquart's 
original label "Rutilia minor. $. Macq. n.sp."; this label is gummed to another label from 
Bigot's collection with the additional words "Syney" [ lapsus for Sydney], "nom. par. 
Macq." and "<J & $." in Bigot's writing (the sex symbols clearly refer to the fact that minor 
was described from both sexes); in addition it has a printed label "Ex coll. Bigot. Pres. by 
G. H. Verrall, Oct. 1904", which refers to the date of its incorporation into BMNH collection 
in 1904, and on this label is the extra word "Australia" in pencil in Austen's hand. 

Standing in BMNH, London, collection with the paralectotype specimen there is a second 
$ specimen (headless and in bad condition) which was identified later by Macquart and bears 
his determination label "Rutilia minor. $ Macq." (sex sign in error) gummed to a Bigot label 
on which Bigot has written "nomm. par. Macq. V.Diemen" (this bears also the same type of 
printed Verrall presentation label as the paralectotype, and on this is the word "Tasmania" 
in pencil by Austen). 

Standing in MNHN, Paris, collection with the four syntypes (i.e. lectotype and three para- 
lectotypes) are five other specimens, which, from their accession date labels and Macquart's 
later determination labels, are provenly later added material and not type-material. These 
consist of one <J and three $ specimens with accession labels "3 47" (the o* and two of the 
females also with Macquart determination labels), and of one other <J in very bad condition 
which has a "4 46" accession label and a Macquart determination label. 

Box G.I9 of Macquart's collection in MHN, Lille, contains two specimens from Tasmania 
which are believed to be original syntypes; they have not been seen by me, and their sex is 
unknown at present. 

Townsend (1932 : 39, 1938 : 417) cited a female "Ht" (= holotype) from Tasmania in 
Paris Museum, but as there are two such females (syntypes) and no means of knowing to 
which specimen Townsend 's statement refers this cannot be accepted as valid lectotype 
fixation. As it is not a valid fixation, and also as it is undesirable to have a restriction of 
the name to the female sex, I have here designated a male syntype to be the lectotype. 

Rutilia nigra Macquart, 1846 : 305 (177). Unavailable nomen nudum, cited in the original 
description of Rutilia pellucens Macquart, 1846. 

Following the description of R. pellucens, Macquart wrote "II serait possible que 1'individu 
decrit fut le male du R. nigra; mais jusqu'a de plus amples observations, nous devons les 
considerer comme especes distinctes" and this is the only place in the works of Macquart 
where the name R. nigra appears. The description of the male of pellucens cannot be held to 
apply to nigra, and the latter name is therefore a nomen nudum; Brauer (1899 : 513) cited 
the name but did not make it available. 

The BMNH, London, collection contains two male specimens (standing under the name of, 
and apparently belonging correctly to, Rutilia regalis Guerin-Meneville) which were found 
by Austen to be standing above the name "Rutilia nigra" in Bigot's collection of Rutiliini 
when this was incorporated into BMNH in 1904. One of these specimens bears a label 
"Rutilia nigra n.sp." in Macquart's handwriting, which is gummed to another label from 
Bigot's collection on which Bigot has written "$. N.holl. (Coll. Fairmaire) Macq. D.la Nom"; 
a folded note is also attached to this specimen in the small pencil writing of Austen which 
reads "N.B. - The above two <Js were, in the Bigot collection, placed above the appended 



288 R. W. CROSSKEY 

label [i.e. Macquart's original label attached to Bigot's label] in Macquart's handwriting, 
which is mounted on another label, with notes by Bigot. The specimens are referred to by 
Brauer, Stz. K. Akad. Wiss. Math.-naturw. Cl., CVIIL, Abth. I. (1899). p. 513 (bottom of 
page) ; but the species appears never to have been described, & the name is consequently a 
MS one. E.E. Austen, ay.x.o^". (Austen evidently did not spot the name R. nigra pub- 
lished in the description of pellucens.} The specimen with Macquart's and with Austen's 
labels and the second specimen each have a printed label "Ex coll. Bigot. Pres. by G. H. 
Verrall, Oct. 1904" with the pencilled word "Australia" in Austen's writing. No $ specimen 
has been seen which is labelled as "nigra" by Macquart, although his statement quoted 
above from the description of pellucens implies that he had a $ which he regarded as "nigra"; 
possibly this was in Fairmaire's collection, of which the Diptera appear to be lost (as in the 
case of the $ holotype of pellucens itself, q.v.). 

Rutilia nigrithorax Macquart, 1851 : 190 (217). LECTOTYPE <$, by present designation, 
AUSTRALIA (publ. as 'De 1'Oceanie'): MNHN, Paris (No. 2316). 

Paralectotypes : 4 <$, same data as lectotype (MNHN) ; i $, AUSTRALIA, east coast (MNHN). 

The lectotype bears Macquart's label "Rutilia nigrithorax (J$. [latter symbol cancelled by 
stroke] Macq. n.sp." and an accession label "4 46", and is in good condition except for loss 
of both third antennal segments ; selected as lectotype despite loss of third antennal segments 
because it is otherwise by far the best specimen, and antennae can be seen complete on the 
paralectotypes. All the paralectotypes appear to be conspecific with the lectotype and the 
males have the same "4 46" accession reference; the $ paralectotype has an original Macquart 
label "Rutilia nigrithorax $. Macq. n.sp.", an accession label "2 47", and a rectangular 
white label reading "1142" in faded ink. 

This is the species which Paramonov (1968) made type-species of his genus Ola Paramonov, 
and it is known from south-eastern Australia, from Tasmania to New South Wales ; Macquart 
cited the locality as Oceania, but this clearly must refer to Australia, and this is confirmed by 
the $ syntype (listed under paralectotypes above) which has the "2 47" reference alluding to 
the east coast of "New Holland". 

Rutilia nitens Macquart, 1851 : 189 (216). Holotype $, INDIA: MNHN, Paris (No. 673). 

The holotype bears Macquart's label "Rutilia nitens. $ Macq. n.sp." and an incompletely 
legible accession label with (apparently) the numbers "301" followed by two completely 
unreadable numbers; the condition is very poor, specimen mouldy and dirty, facial regions 
damaged, left mid leg and right hind leg lost, left fore tibia and tarsus missing, parts of right 
mid and left hind tarsi also missing, thorax cracked, wings damaged. 

Rutilia oblonga Macquart, 1847 : 92 (76). Holotype <J, AUSTRALIA ('Nouvelle-Hollande') : 
BMNH, London (ex coll. Bigot) . 

The holotype bears Macquart's label "Rutilia oblonga. <$ n.sp. Macq" which is gummed to 
another label from Bigot's collection with the additional words "Diaphan [this struck through 
for deletion] (Diaphania) N. holland." in Bigot's writing. The condition is fair, some dirtiness, 
left fore leg lost, right mid tarsus and part of left mid tarsus lost, some chaetotaxy lost, 
abdomen slightly rubbed. 

Rutilia pellucens Macquart, 1846 : 305 (177). Holotype $, AUSTRALIA ('Nouvelle- 
Hollande') : not located, presumed lost. 

This species was described from one specimen (this is known from Macquart's statement 
of "1'individu" in the singular) stated by Macquart to be in Fairmaire's collection; the Diptera 
from this collection are believed to be lost. However, the BMNH, London, contains five 
male specimens of R. pellucens from Bigot's collection which were identified by Macquart, 
and one of which has a determination label in Macquart's writing "Rutilia pellucens Macq" 
gummed to another label from Bigot's collection on which Bigot has added "<$ Macq. nomit 
v. id. D. Exot. Australia"; these specimens were incorporated in BMNH in 1904 and each 
has printed label "Ex coll. Bigot. Pres. by G. H. Verrall, Oct. 1904." on which Austen has 
added "Australia" in pencil. 

The specimens from Bigot's collection which were identified as pellucens by Macquart fit 



TACHINIDAE TYPES OF MACQUART AND BIGOT 289 

his description perfectly, and, in the absence of the lost holotype, serve to confirm the 
identity of pellucens correctly. There are no specimens of pellucens in MNHN Macquart 
collection. 

Rutilia plumicornis Macquart, 1843 : 239 (82). Holotype <$, NEW GUINEA, Fak-Fak 
('Offak'): lost (but see annotation below). 

Macquart, in the original description, attributed this name to Guerin-M6neville and based 
the description on a specimen from "Offak" (in Papua or New Guinea) sent to him by 
Guerin-Mneville. In his next publication, however, i.e. the i e Supplement to Dipteres 
exotiques, Macquart (1846 : 302 (174)) wrote that "L'espece que nous avons pr^cedemment 
decrite sous le nom de R. plumicornis est la meme que la R. mirabilis, Gu6rin, voyage autour 
du monde de la Coquille", and this statement apart from definitely implying the synonymy 
of the names might possibly imply that by some error the descriptions of both nominal 
species were based on the same specimen. 

Guerin-M6neville's name mirabilis is also based on a specimen (holotype), which still 
exists in MNHN, Paris, from Offak, and the name is available from publication of a plate- 
figure in 1831, though a text description did not appear until the account of the voyage of 
La Coquille was published in 1838. It appears very likely, since Macquart and Guerin- 
Meneville were closely acquainted, that the specimen that Macquart received from Guerin- 
Meneville and described as plumicornis was the very same specimen that Gu6rin-M6neville 
had already described as mirabilis, but that Macquart did not realize at the time (1843) 
when he described plumicornis that a name had already been published for the species in- 
volved. If this supposition is true, then the extant type-specimen (believed to be holotype) 
of mirabilis is also the holotype of plumicornis. However, there is no means of proving this 
since the mirabilis type does not bear any label in Macquart's hand, and it is equally possible 
that there were originally at least two specimens from Offak of which Gu6rin-Meneville des- 
cribed one (mirabilis) and Macquart another (plumicornis), with subsequent loss of all but 
one specimen. It is considered best to regard the type-material of plumicornis as lost, 
though bearing in mind the possibility that it might actually be represented by the topotypic 
holotype of mirabilis. No practical question of nomenclature is involved, as plumicornis 
is unquestionably a synonym of mirabilis, as Macquart himself established in 1846. 

Rutilia rubriceps Macquart, 1847 : 92 (76). Holotype $, TASMANIE' [probably in error, see 
annotation]: BMNH, London (ex coll. Bigot). 

The holotype bears Macquart's label "Rutilia rubriceps. ? n.sp. Macq." which is gummed 
to another label from Bigot's collection on which the words "nomm. par Macq. V.id. D. 
Exot. Van Diemen" have been added by Bigot; the holotype is in very good condition, 
except for the loss of the left fore tarsus and tip of left hind tarsus. 

The holotype of this species was incorporated into BMNH, London, collection in 1904, 
and, in addition to Macquart's label, it bears a pencilled label in Austen's writing "Tasmania. 
Ex coll. Bigot. Pres. by G. H. Verrall, Oct. 1904.". Standing with the holotype in Bigot's 
collection, and now in BMNH, is a male specimen of rubriceps which bears the same type of 
pencilled label in Austen's hand, but this specimen was evidently not seen by Macquart and 
is not a type-specimen. 

There is doubt about the provenance of the holotype (and also of the <$ specimen from 
Bigot's collection), because rubriceps appears to be a mainland Australian species best known 
from Queensland ; no subsequent material has been seen from Tasmania, and this stated type- 
locality might be in error. 

Rutilia setosa Macquart, 1847 : 94 (78). Syntypes ?, TASMANIE': lost (see annotation). 

Macquart described this species from female specimens which he recorded as being in Bigot's 
collection from Tasmania ("De la Tasmanie. M. Bigot") . At the same time he explained that he 
had previously thought that these females belonged to another of his species, Rutilia testacea 
(Macquart), but that now (having seen the true females of testacea) it was clear that the females 
having the arista bare and a row of 8-12 strong setae on the middle hind margin of the second 
abdominal segment were not testacea (as he had recorded earlier: Macquart, 1846 : 305 (177)), 



2QO TACHINIDAE TYPES OF MACQUART AND BIGOT 

but the new species setosa; hence the statement "Rutilia testacea <j>. Macq." cited beneath 
the name "Rutilia setosa, Nob." heading the original description of setosa. 

Unfortunately no female specimens of Rutiliini now exist from Bigot's collection (in 
BMNH, London) which fit with Macquart's description of R. setosa, nor are there any speci- 
mens labelled by Macquart as either setosa or testacea (although there are correctly identified 
males of the latter species from Bigot's collection in BMNH). It must be concluded that the 
type-material of R. setosa, which consisted of female syntypes, is lost. (The evidence that it 
consisted of syntypes comes from Macquart's statement under the heading R. testacea, 
following the original description of R. setosa, that "Nous croyons qu'elles [i.e. true testacea 
females] sont les femelles du R. Testacea, et que celles que nous avions conside're'es comme 
telles, et qui appartiennent a une espece nouvelle, a la setosa".) 

In the earlier Macquart (1846 : 305 (177)) work dealing with supposed females of R. 
testacea he appears to imply that the specimens are in Paris Museum, and the MNHN 
Macquart collection has therefore been checked for any specimens that could possibly be 
types of R. setosa (in case, for example, the statement of "M. Bigot" in the original description 
of setosa was an error for "Museum") ; however, there are no specimens in Paris that could be 
setosa types, which supports the conclusion above that the actual type-material is now lost. 

Rutilia subtustomentosa Macquart, 1851 : 191 (218). Holotype $, TASMANIA: MNHN, 
Paris (No. 2323). 

The holotype bears Macquart's label "Rutilia subtustomentosa <$. Macq. n.sp.", and an 
accession label "3 47", and is in perfect condition. It may be noted that the specific name 
is not hyphenated on Macquart's label, but was hyphenated in the original publication. 

Rutilia viridinigra Macquart, 1846 : 307 (179). LECTOTYPE <j>, by present designation, 
TASMANIA: MNHN, Paris (No. 2318). 

Paralectotypes : i $, same data as lectotype (MNHN) ; i $, Tasmania or Australia (MNHN) ; 
i ?, 'Sydney' (BMNH, ex coll. Bigot). 

The lectotype bears Macquart's label "Rutilia viridinigra Macq. n.sp." and an accession 
label "13 44", and is in good condition except for loss of hind legs and some scutellar setae. 
One of the paralectotypes in MNHN has the same "13 44" accession reference as the lecto- 
type, but the other has an accession label "229 35". 

The $ paralectotype in BMNH from Bigot's collection is correctly associated with the 
lectotype, and bears an original Macquart label "Rutilia viridinigra $. Macq. n.sp" which is 
gummed to another label from Bigot's collection on which Bigot has added in his writing the 
words "Sydney" and "Nomm. par. Macq."; although in the original description Macquart 
only mentioned the locality "Tasmanie", this $ is nevertheless considered to be an original 
syntype because of the original Macquart label which it bears, and also because there is often 
doubt about the accuracy of Bigot's localities (the "Sydney" in his writing could be in error). 
Furthermore, as Macquart described the species from "plusieurs individus" it is possible 
that he did not record all the localities. The original Macquart label is accepted as con- 
clusive evidence that the Bigot specimen is an original one. 

Standing with the syntype series in MNHN, Paris, there is another $ specimen, but this has 
an accession label "4 46" and is not an original specimen; in the same collection there is a o* 
specimen with "4 46" accession reference, and this also is not part of the original material 
(it is probably the male which Macquart, 1851 : 192 (219) described later in the 4* Supplement) 
The BMNH collection contains one $ specimen received in exchange with Paris Museum in 
1924 and bearing the "4 46" accession reference of that Museum; it has no type-status. 
Rutilia viriditestacea Macquart, 1851 : 190 (217). LECTOTYPE <$, by present designation, 
TASMANIA: MNHN, Paris (No. 2321). 

Paralectotype: i <$, same data as lectotype (MNHN). 

The lectotype bears Macquart's label "Rutilia viriditestacea. Macq. n.sp. $.", and an 
accession label "3 47", and is in very good condition (except for a few small holes in the thorax) . 

The paralectotype specimen is labelled "3 47" like the lectotype, but is incorrectly asso- 
ciated with the lectotype (having narrower frons, all dark thoracic hair, lacking bluish violet 
reflections) . 



R. W. CROSSKEY 291 

Standing in MNHN collection with the syntype specimens there are two unlabelled and 
wrongly associated male specimens, which appear without doubt to have been added later to 
the collection; they have therefore no type-status. 

Rut Hi a vittata Macquart, 1855 : 126 (106). Holotype $, SOUTH AUSTRALIA ('colonie 
d' Adelaide') : BMNH, London (ex coll. Bigot). 

The holotype bears Macquart's label "Rutilia vittata $. Macq" and is in fair condition 
except for loss of both fore legs, right mid leg, and tips of hind tarsi, and damage to scutellum 
and right wing. Macquart's label lacks the usual "n.sp." inscription. 

The holotype of this species was incorporated into BMNH, London, collection in 1904, 
and has a printed label "Ex coll. Bigot. Pres. by G. H. Verrall, Oct. 1904." on which Austen 
has added "S.Australia." in pencil. 

Senostoma variegata Macquart, 1847 : 96 (80). Holotype ?, TASMANIA: BMNH, London 
(ex coll. Bigot). 

The holotype bears Macquart's label "Senostoma variegata. $ n.g., n.sp. Macq."; it is in 
very bad condition, both third antennal segments, both fore legs, right mid leg and left hind 
leg missing, body dirty and greasy, some chaetotaxy lost, hole in scutum and scutellar base. 

Townsend (1932 : 40, 1938 : 426) referred to a specimen, which I have not seen, in the 
Naturhistorisches Museum, Vienna, as being the female holotype from Tasmania of 5. 
variegata, and (in the 1932 paper) stated that it is labelled "variegata Macq. Type Bigot". 
This is almost certainly a label attached to a specimen by Brauer, and cannot signify the true 
type of Macquart, which (as shown above) bears Macquart's own label and is still correctly 
present among Bigot's material in BMNH, London. Brauer's meaning of the word "Type" 
is undoubtedly different from present usage, and it is quite certain that the specimen in 
Vienna recorded by Townsend is both wrongly identified and not a type of Senostoma variegata. 
S. variegata is type-species of Senostoma Macquart and Macquart's original label on the 
holotype bears the formula "n.g." as well as "n.sp.". For many years the generic name 
Senostoma was mis-applied to a genus of Rutiliini, but Senostoma although belonging in the 
subfamily Proseninae is not a Rutiliine, and Paramonov (1968 : 384) has recently and rightly 
drawn attention to this. 

Sumpigaster fasciatus Macquart, 1855 : 125 (105). Holotype <$, QUEENSLAND, Moreton 
Bay: BMNH, London (ex coll. Bigot). 

The holotype bears Macquart's label "Sumpigaster fasciatus <$. n.g., n.sp. Macq"; it is in 
extremely bad condition, body largely concealed (less so on abdomen) in mould, all legs lost 
except left hind leg, eyes partially collapsed, some chaetotaxy (including all scutellar bristles) 
lost. 

Macquart published the locality as "De 1'Oceanie. Moreton-Bay.". 

Tachina cilipes Macquart, 1843 : 219 (62). Holotype (J, EAST INDIES (Marc): MNHN, 
Paris (No. 672). 

The holotype bears an original label in Macquart's writing reading "No. 18 Tachina cilipes", 
and an accession label "1196 36"; it is in poor condition, head glued to thorax (but certainly 
correctly associated), body dirty, chaetotaxy of frons, mesonotum and scutellum rubbed off, 
right third antennal segment and the left fore and right mid legs missing. 

Tachina javana Macquart, 1851 : 177 (204). Holotype $, JAVA: BMNH, London (ex coll. 
Bigot). 

The holotype bears Macquart's label "Tachina javana <J, Macq. n.sp." and is in good 
condition except for loss of right third antennal segment and left mid leg, small hole in 
scutum and loss of a few setae. 

Standing with the holotype in BMNH there are two other <J specimens from the Bigot 
collection, but as there is no definite evidence that Macquart saw these specimens they are 
excluded from the type-series. 

This name is here considered not to be a homonym of Tachina iavana Wiedemann, 1819, 



292 R. W. CROSSKEY 

even though both names allude to Java, because the "i" and the "j" difference is not one of 
the cases of variable spelling covered by Article 53 of the International Code of Zoological 
Nomenclature, 1961, but undoubtedly the names ought to be considered homonyms by the 
spirit, if not the letter, of this Article. 

Teretrophora fasciata Macquart, 1851 : 175 (202). Holotype ?, TASMANIA: MNHN, Paris 
(No. 2292). 

The holotype bears Macquart's label "Teretrophora fasciata. $ Macq. n.g., n.sp. Tasm." 
and an accession label "3 47"; it is in appalling condition, mounted very near head of very 
long pin and completely coated in and obscured by brittle deposit and mould, with legs stuck 
down to body, the features only discernible with greatest difficulty ; legs appear to be almost 
complete, though tips of several tarsi missing. Townsend (1932 : 48) described the holotype 
as "covered with mycelia and grime". 

This is type-species of Teretrophora Macquart, a genus which has remained enigmatic since 
its description. Fortunately, despite the condition, the holotype shows a very striking 
feature in the extraordinarily elongate and conical fifth tergite and elongate ovipositor, and 
it has now been possible to identify recently collected specimens from New South Wales 
which show this feature as T. fasciata, and to confirm other features on the holotype by 
prising off small pieces of the brittle deposit which invests the specimen. The type-locality is 
accepted as Tasmania as given by Macquart, but confirmation is required by future collecting 
of this species. 

Toxocnemis vittata Macquart, 1855 : 124 (104). Holotype <$, SOUTH AUSTRALIA ('Colonie 
d'Adelaide') : BMNH, London (ex coll. Bigot). 

The holotype bears Macquart's label "Toxocnemis vittata. <$. Macq. n.g."; it is in good 
condition except for a thin covering of mould and loss of the right mid leg. 

This is type-species of Toxocnemis Macquart and Macquart's original label bears the "n.g." 
formula indicating the new genus; the label, however, lacks the usual "n.sp." but this may 
be due to subsequent cutting off to reduce label size (for instance by Bigot, who appears at 
times to have reduced the size of some of Macquart's original labels) . 

Trichostylum rufipalpis Macquart, 1851 : 182 (209). Holotype , AUSTRALIA ('Nouvelle- 

Hollande, cote orientale' : probably New South Wales or Queensland) : MNHN, Paris (No. 2306). 

The holotype bears Macquart's label "Trichostylum rufipalpis. $ n.g., n.sp. Macq." and an 

accession label "2 47"; it is in fair condition, left side of head dirty, both fore legs and right 

mid leg lost, tips of remaining left tarsi lost, scutum slightly rubbed. 

Tritaxys australis Macquart, 1847 : 82 (66). LECTOTYPE <J. by present designation, 
TASMANIA: BMNH, London (ex coll. Bigot). 

Paralectotypes : i $, i $, same data as lectotype (BMNH). 

The type-material of this species consists of two male syntypes and one female syntype 
which were incorporated into the BMNH collection from Bigot's collection in 1904, and each 
syntype bears a printed label "Ex coll. Bigot. Pres. by G. H. Verrall, Oct. 1904." on which the 
word "Tasmania" has been added by Austen in pencil, and each has also a circular yellow- 
edged "Co-type" label on which Austen has written "Tritaxys australis Macq." in ink; none 
of the specimens (though they are undoubtedly all original syntypes) has a label by Macquart 
although it is reasonable to assume that there was originally such a label but that this has 
been lost (T. australis appears to be the only Old World nominal species described by 
Macquart of which his original label is missing from the primary type) . 

The lectotype is in bad condition, body dirty with legs and abdomen partly invested in 
glue, both aristae and mid tarsi lost, left wing missing, hole in scutellum; the paralectotypes 
are also in very bad condition, and the female lacks the abdomen and third antennal segments, 
but the male paralectotype (though the head is dirty and much distorted) possesses both 
aristae. 

Townsend (1941 : 75) referred to "Ht from Tasmania, in Newmarket" for T. australis, 
but as it is impossible to tell from this statement which sex and specimen Townsend was 
referring to there is no valid lectotype fixation; a lectotype is therefore here designated. 



TACHINIDAE TYPES OF MACQUART AND BIGOT 293 

PART II BIGOT 
BIGOT'S WORK AND RECOGNITION OF HIS TYPE-MATERIAL 

Jacques Marie Frangile Bigot was born in 1818 and died, after an attack of 
influenza, on i^ih April 1893 at his country estate of Petit-Quincy (near Brunoy, 
Seine-et-Oise) on the southern outskirts of Paris ; here he had lived and worked 
most of his life, except when wintering in Algiers. Bigot's lifelong interest was in 
the Diptera ; at the age of 26 he became a member of the Societe entomologique de 
France, and in the following year (1845) he published the first of his long series of 
papers on Diptera in the Annales (and associated Bulletin des Seances) of that Society. 

Macquart (1848 : 161 (i)), at the time when Bigot was 30 years old, wrote of him 
as a young scholar who was a hope of French entomology, but it is fair to say that 
the promise shown by Bigot's early works was not maintained; he became a dilet- 
tante dipterist, toying with descriptive work at a very superficial level, and in the 
later years of his lifetime was criticized for this (an obituary notice in The Ento- 
mologist's Monthly Magazine, 1893, 29 : 145, records that "the quality of his work 
did not find favour amongst the students of that Order [Diptera], and did not 
escape severe criticism"). Osten Sacken (1904 : 232), who was long acquainted 
with Bigot, tells how he once told Bigot that his most useful work had been in 
accumulating a large collection of exotic Diptera and how it would be a gain lor 
science if almost all of Bigot's publications could be suppressed: harsh though this 
judgement sounds, it does not lack justification, for without reference to the type- 
specimens it is virtually impossible to recognize any of the genera and species which 
Bigot described, though the collection assembled by Bigot (which contains his types) 
is invaluable. 

Bigot formed his collection from specimens received from all parts of the world, 
but it became extremely rich in material from the Americas, and the species which 
he described from Mexico, Central and South America exceed in number those 
from all other parts of the world together. The importance of his collection was 
widely recognized, and when Bigot's death was announced on 26th April 1893 at a 
meeting of the Societe entomologique de France (see Bull. Soc. ent. Fr. 1893 : clxxxvii) 
the President, Lefevre, remarked that "La Collection de Bigot a une valeur scien- 
tifique de premier ordre, car elle contient un nombre considerable de types" and 
added the hope that the Museum d'Histoire Naturelle in Paris would find the means 
to acquire the collection. Osten Sacken, too, urged the authorities of the Paris 
Museum to buy the Bigot collection, but they were unable or unwilling to offer the 
8,000 francs which Bigot himself had fixed as the minimum sale price, and offered 
instead only 5,000 francs (see Bull. Soc. ent. Fr. 1893 : ccxx) ; in the absence of a 
sale to the Museum d'Histoire Naturelle in Paris, the Bigot collection was bought, 
on the advice of Osten Sacken, by the English dipterist G. H. Verrall, for the 8,000 
francs required by Bigot's heirs. Bigot's collection then came to Verrall's home at 
Newmarket, England, in June 1893 ; but Verrall gave Osten Sacken to understand 
that the collection would ultimately find its place in the British Museum (Osten 
Sacken, 1904 : 232). 

Unfortunately it now appears unlikely that Verrall's apparent intentions about 



294 R. W. CROSSKEY 

Bigot's collection will be fulfilled, and improbable that all the collection will find 
its way to the British Museum (Natural History). Following on Verrall's death in 
1911, the Bigot collection passed to his nephew, J. E. Collin, who continued to 
house most of it at Newmarket, but the collection has now become divided; in 1960 
the Nematocera, Calyptrata and some Brachycera from the collection (approximately 
6,000 specimens, BMNH registration no. B. M. 1960-539) were transferred by 
Collin from his possession to the British Museum (Natural History), where they 
will now remain, but the rest of Bigot's collection (which Collin did not transfer to 
the BMNH in 1960) passed to the Hope Department of Entomology, at the Oxford 
University Museum, when Collin died in 1968. 

The very large part of Bigot's collection which came to the British Museum 
(Natural History) in 1960 is being gradually incorporated into the general Diptera 
collection of the Museum, but only after careful study of the specimens to ensure 
that their type status (if any) is correctly determined and after careful and appro- 
priate labelling of each specimen. For the Tachinidae from Bigot's collection, all 
of which are in the BMNH, all the Old World specimens (including the types) have 
now been incorporated, and all of the type-specimens of New World forms. 

The great importance of Bigot's collection lies in the fact that it contained not 
only the types of the large number of nominal species described by Bigot himself, 
but also the types of a very large number of species described by Macquart (1846- 
1855) in the Supplements to his works on the Dipteres exotiques nouveaux ou peu 
connus (in the case of the Tachinidae, such Macquart types are now incorporated in 
the British Museum (Natural History) collection). The specimens which Macquart 
described from Bigot's collection were loaned to him for study by Bigot, who was a 
young man just beginning to assemble his collection at the time when Macquart 
was publishing his Supplements (Bigot was forty years younger than Macquart). 

The recognition of Macquart's types in Bigot's collection has been considered 
earlier in Part I, and the following notes are concerned only with the recognition of 
the types of Bigot's own nominal species. Bigot was in every respect a much more 
casual worker than Macquart, and his type-specimens were not labelled to show their 
status (e.g. with "n.sp." or some equivalent), in the way that Macquart had labelled 
at least one specimen of his own type-series; indeed, the vast majority of Bigot's 
specimens stood in his collection (and still stand in those parts of the collection not 
yet incorporated into the BMNH general collection) without any labels at all on the 
specimens themselves. Bigot's method of indicating identity was to place a specific 
name label below the specimen (s) and a generic name label above, the standard 
labels being rectangular in form with a narrow black border, as shown in Plate i, 
G and H. Specific labels are white, and generic labels yellow or pale yellow; the 
specific labels show the generic initial letter, the specific name (commencing normally 
with a capital letter), and the sex symbol towards the top, the type-locality on the 
bottom left and Bigot's name and "J." initial on the bottom right of the label 
(though some variations from this usual arrangement are found) (Plate i, H) ; the 
generic labels show the letter "G." followed by the generic name at the centre of the 
label, and the generic author's name at the bottom right (Plate i, G). The writing 
on the labels is in black ink in Bigot's own hand. 



TACHINIDAE TYPES OF MACQUART AND BIGOT 295 

It is important to note here that some specimens from the New World in Bigot's 
collection (especially among the Tachinidae) carry a completely different kind of 
label from that described above, attached to the pin of the specimen. This second 
kind of label consists of a piece of white or blue paper bearing an inscription in 
Bigot's spidery handwriting in either purple or black ink. The information given 
on each label of this kind comprises a generic and specific name, a sex symbol 
(sometimes omitted), an inscription indicating an unpublished new species, a state- 
ment apparently indicating when Bigot acquired the specimen for his collection 
at Quincy, and a locality of origin. The inscription showing that the specimen was 
of an unpublished new species is always given on this kind of label as "n.sp. inedict." 
(= unpublished), and it seems clear that Bigot intended such labels to be temporary 
until the species concerned had been described. I at first thought that all names 
found on specimens labelled in this way were unpublished manuscript names, and 
therefore that none of the specimens involved could have any type-status, but I 
have now found that Bigot did in fact publish a few of the names in papers dealing 
with New World forms: a few of Bigot's types of Tachinidae from the Americas 
therefore carry the kind of "manuscript" label just described. 

With the foregoing details about Bigot's labelling in mind it is normally possible 
to be certain that the type-material of his described species is correctly recognized, 
even though he labelled them so poorly and never as types. Often his published 
descriptions indicate the number of specimens he had available and holotype or 
syntype status is then easily determinable, and for those nominal species for which 
he did not indicate how many specimens he had it is usually possible to accept all 
specimens standing under the name as holotype or syntypes (except very occasion- 
ally when one or more specimens bears some unusual label indicating a different 
locality from that published for the type-material, when such specimens must be 
excluded from the type-series). It is important to note here that discrepancy 
between the actual sex of the types and the sex published by Bigot is common in 
Bigot's works, for, with all his experience as a dipterist, he was either notoriously 
unable to recognize sex accurately or very careless in recording it. The provenance 
of Bigot's type-specimens is normally only known to the country, only a few speci- 
mens having locality data which pinpoint the type-locality more accurately: in 
general, the localities cited by Bigot in publication and on his labels are so far as 
they go correct, but some errors clearly exist. 

A part of Bigot's collection of Tachinidae was transferred from Newmarket to the 
British Museum (Natural History) in 1904, as the result (it is inferred) of a special 
arrangement made between Verrall and E. E. Austen. The accession register of 
the BMNH for the year 1904 records (under serial number 274) that G. H. Verrall 
presented 187 specimens of Australian and Austromalayan Rutilia, Formosia and 
allied genera to the Museum in October of that year; these specimens are still in 
BMNH and they represent all the Rutiliini and some other Prosenines that were in 
Bigot's collection. Each of the specimens that came to the BMNH collection in 
this consignment has a printed accession label which reads "Ex coll. Bigot. Pres. 
by G. H. Verrall, Oct. 1904. 1904-274.", and on each such label there is usually a 
locality indicated in pencil in Austen's writing. All of Bigot's Rutiliine types, and 



296 R. W. CROSSKEY 

a few others, have such labels (in addition to Bigot's own labels from his collection), 
as indicated where appropriate in the account of Bigot's types that follows (but I 
have, in the latter, omitted the "1904-274" accession reference which occurs on the 
labels in the interest of brevity). 

Specimens which Townsend in the Manual of Myiology (and also elsewhere in a 
few of his papers) records as in "Newmarket" are now to be found in the BMNH 
collection, following the presentation of the Tachinidae of Bigot's collection to the 
British Museum (Natural History) in 1960. 

All Tachinid specimens from Bigot's collection (omitting those above mentioned 
that were received in 1904) that have already been incorporated into the general 
collection of the British Museum (Natural History) which includes all of his 
Tachinid types have been labelled with a printed label reading "ex. Bigot Coll: 
B.M. 1960-539." on which the name, sex, type-status (if any), and locality have 
been added in black ink. I have not thought it necessary to quote these recent 
incorporation labels in the information on Bigot's types which follows, since they 
all have the same standard form. 



BIGOT'S TYPE-MATERIAL OF AUSTRALASIAN, ORIENTAL AND ETHIOPIAN TACHINIDAE 

[Note : the following list includes in square brackets those nominal species which 
are not Tachinidae, but which might be assumed to belong to this family because of 
their original generic assignments by Bigot.] 

Atractodexia argentifera Bigot, 1885^ : xxxii. Holotype $, NEW CALEDONIA: BMNH, 
London (ex coll. Bigot). 

The holotype bears Bigot's label "A. argentifera. <J. Nouv. Caledon. J. Bigot." and his 
yellow generic label reading "G. Atractodexia. J. Bigot."; it is in good condition except for 
loss of right fore leg and apex of left mid tarsus. The head has at some time been glued back 
to thorax. 

Bogosia rufiventris Bigot, 1876 : 399. Holotype <$, SOUTH AFRICA, Natal: BMNH, London 
(ex coll. Bigot). 

The holotype bears Bigot's label "B. Rufiventris. $. Natal. J. Bigot." and is in good con- 
dition except for loss of right mid leg and apices of some tarsi. 

Chetogena tricolor Bigot, 1891 : 377. Holotype <J, IVORY COAST, Assinie: not located, 
presumed lost. 

I have been unable to find the holotype of Chetogena tricolor while incorporating Bigot's 
Tachinid collection into BMNH, and believe that it must be lost. In the absence of the type 
the generic position is completely uncertain, and there is even some doubt as to whether 
C. tricolor Bigot is a Tachinid. 

Crossotocnema javana Bigot, 18850 : ccu - Holotype ., JAVA: BMNH, London (ex coll. 
Bigot). 

The holotype bears Bigot's label "C. Javana. $ Java. J. Bigot." and his yellow generic 
label "G.Crossotocnema. J. Bigot."; it is in fair condition, but both fore legs, the left mid leg 
and right hind leg are lost. 

The holotype has long soft entirely white hair on the pleural regions (as also on the scutum) ; 
Mesnil's (1949 : 80-81) use of javana Bigot, which he places in his key as a species with 
brownish black mesopleural hair, appears to be a misidentification. 



TACHINIDAE TYPES OF MACQUART AND BIGOT 297 

Dejeania crocea Bigot, 1888 : 77. LECTOTYPE ., by present designation, SOUTH AFRICA, 
Cape of Good Hope: BMNH, London (ex coll. Bigot). 

Paralectotypes : 3 -, same data as lectotype (BMNH) . 

This species was described by Bigot from four specimens (syntypes) for which he indicated 
the sex as "$, $?"; all four specimens are in BMNH ex coll. Bigot and all are females, as 
van Emden (1960 : 474) has also noted. Each syntype has a label "Brauer WIEN. CVII. 
(No. 57)", but the original name label as D. crocea (which van Emden, loc. cit., records as 
"D. crocea $ F.Big. A. Cap. B. Esp.") was not found in Bigot's collection when this came to 
BMNH in 1960. All four syntypes are in bad condition; the specimen selected and here 
designated as lectotype has been chosen because it retains the antennae and palpi complete, 
but it is dirty with some glue on the thorax and abdominal base, has lost the left mid leg and 
right wing, and has the chaetotaxy disarranged; the paralectotypes show a few features 
better than the lectotype, but lack several legs and parts of the head, and one is much greased 
and the others eaten out. The paralectotypes are all conspecific with the lectotype. 

Doleschalla consobrina Bigot, 1888 : 98. Holotype $, MOLUCCA ISLANDS: BMNH, London 
(ex coll. Bigot). 

The holotype bears Bigot's label "D. Consobrina. <$. Moluques. J. Bigot" and his yellow 
generic label "G. Doleschalla. Walker."; it is in fair condition, except for some dirtiness with 
mould and loss of left fore leg and right hind leg. 

The holotype of this species was incorporated into BMNH collection in 1904, and bears a 
printed label "Ex coll. Bigot. Pres. by G. H. Verrall, Oct. 1904." on which Austen has added 
"Molucca Is." in pencil. 

Doleschalla maculifera Bigot, 1888 : 100. Holotype <j>, NEW GUINEA: BMNH, London (ex 
coll. Bigot). 

The holotype bears Bigot's label "D. maculifera. $.. Nouv. Guinee. J. Bigot" and a small 
rectangular white label with the printed word "N-GUIN" (i.e. New Guinea). It is in dreadful 
condition, all that remains being distorted head and thorax both completely concealed in 
thick mould, both fore legs and left mid leg (legs also mouldy) ; one wing also remains, this 
gummed to Bigot's name label. 

The holotype specimen was evidently in very bad condition when first described, as Bigot 
headed the Latin description with the word "Detrita", and the following French description 
with the word "De'teriore'". 

Doleschalla nigra Bigot, 1888 : 98. Holotype ?, MOLUCCA ISLANDS: BMNH, London (ex 
coll. Bigot). 

The holotype bears Bigot's label "D. Nigra. $. Moluques. J. Bigot" on which the generic 
name has been completed by the addition of "oleschalla" in an unknown handwriting; it is in 
fair condition, slightly mouldy, left fore leg and right fore tarsus lost, right mid and hind legs 
lost. 

The holotype of this species was incorporated into BMNH collection in 1904, and bears a 
printed label "Ex coll. Bigot. Pres. by G. H. Verrall, Oct. 1904." on which Austen has added 
"Molucca Is." in pencil. 

Doleschalla picta Bigot, 1888 : 99. LECTOTYPE <J, by present designation, NEW GUINEA: 
BMNH, London (ex coll. Bigot). 

Paralectotype : i $, same data as lectotype (BMNH). 

The lectotype bears Bigot's label "D. ? Picta. <J. Nouv. Guinee. J. Bigot." and a small 
rectangular white label with the printed word "N-GUIN" (i.e. New Guinea) ; it is in fair con- 
dition except for some mould on the thorax, loss of left third antennal segment, loss of both 
mid legs and left hind leg, and some damage to wings. The <J paralectotype is conspecific 
with the lectotype ; it lacks the data labels mentioned for lectotype, and is in poor condition 
with head and thorax covered in mould, and both wings and several legs missing. 

Bigot was doubtful of the assignment to Doleschalla and headed the description "D.? 
picta", also putting the question-mark on his name label. The provenance he cited as 



298 R. W. CROSSKEY 

"Nouvelle-Guinee : Batchian", and New Guinea is here accepted as type-locality (not Batjan 
Island = Batchian) as there is an old label on one of the syntypes indicating New Guinea, 
and Bigot himself put this as the locality on his own label. 

Doleschalla venosa Bigot, 1888 : 100. Holotype ?, NEW GUINEA: BMNH, London (ex coll. 
Bigot). 

The holotype bears Bigot's label "D. Venosa. <$. Nouv. Guinee. J. Bigot." and a small 
rectangular white label with the printed word "N-GUIN" (i.e. New Guinea); it is in fair 
condition, slightly dirty, right fore and hind legs and ring lost. 

The holotype of this species was incorporated into the BMNH collection in 1904, and bears 
a printed label reading "Ex coll. Bigot. Pres. by G. H. Verrall, Oct. 1904." on which Austen 
has added "New Guinea" in pencil. 

Echinomyia flavopilosa Bigot, 1888 : 80. Holotype $, JAVA: BMNH, London (ex coll. 
Bigot). 

The holotype bears Bigot's label "E. flavopilosa. <J. Java. J. Bigot." and is in fair condition, 
slightly mouldy, legs lost except for left fore and hind legs, left third antennal segment lost, 
body slightly greasy. 

Exorista melas Bigot, 1889:256. Holotype $, TASMANIA ('Van-Diemen') : not located, 
presumed lost. 

I have been unable to find the holotype of Exorista melas while incorporating Bigot's 
Tachinid collection into BMNH, and believe that it must be lost. In the absence of the type 
the generic position is completely uncertain. Bigot added the word "Detrita" after the 
Latin description of melas, and the holotype specimen was presumably therefore in very 
bad condition when described. 

Exorista ornata Bigot, 1889 : 256. Holotype $ [not <|, INDIA ('Indes'): BMNH, London 
(ex coll. Bigot). 

The holotype bears Bigot's label "D. Ornata <J (olim. Exorista id. J. Bigot) J. Bigot. Inde", 
on which "exiosoma" has been added to the generic initial letter (making "Dexiosoma") in 
an unknown handwriting; it is in good condition except for a hole in the scutum and loss of 
part of the right fore tarsus. 

The holotype of this species was incorporated into the BMNH collection in 1904, and bears 
a printed label reading "Ex coll. Bigot. Pres. by G. H. Verrall, Oct. 1904". on which Austen 
has added "India." in pencil. 

Formosia papua Bigot, 1880 : 87. LECTOTYPE $ [not <J], by present designation, NEW 
GUINEA (L. Laglaise): BMNH, London (ex coll. Bigot). 

Paralectotype : i $, same data as lectotype (BMNH) . 

The lectotype bears Bigot's label "F. papua. o*- Nov. Guinea. Mas. J. Bigot." and is in good 
condition except for loss of both mid legs. The $ paralectotype is correctly associated with 
the lectotype, and is a slightly teneral specimen with collapsed facial region and right mid 
and left hind legs missing. 

The syntypes of this species were incorporated into the BMNH collection in 1904, and each 
bears a printed label reading "Ex coll. Bigot. Pres. by G. H. Verrall, Oct. 1904." on which 
Austen has added "New Guinea. L. Laglaise." in pencil. Both are $, not $ as published and 
labelled by Bigot. 

Formosia smaragdifera Bigot, 1874 : 462. LECTOTYPE <J, by present designation, 
MOLUCCAS, Batjan ('Batchian'): BMNH, London (ex coll. Bigot). 
Paralectotype: i $, same data as lectotype (BMNH). 

The lectotype is in very good condition except for loss of the left third antennal segment 
and the left hind leg. The $ paralectotype is conspecific with the lectotype and is in fair 
condition, slightly flattened, right third antennal segment lost, both mid legs and right hind 
leg lost. In the original description of the male Bigot mentioned the presence of eight macro- 
chaetae on the middle of the hind margin of the second (i.e. T3) abdominal segment, but this 
feature occurs actually in the $ syntype and not the . 






TACHINIDAE TYPES OF MACQUART AND BIGOT 299 

The syntypes of this species were incorporated into the BMNH collection in 1904, and 
each bears a printed label reading "Ex coll. Bigot. Pres. by G. H. Verrall, Oct. 1904." on which 
Austen has added "Batjan, Molucca Is." in pencil. 

Standing with the type-material in the BMNH collection are two other conspecific female 
specimens from Bigot's collection which were incorporated into the BMNH collection in 1904, 
and bear the same type of printed label as the syntypes ; neither of these specimens is part of 
the original type-material, and both are from the island of Ternate; Austen's pencilled words 
"Ternate, Molucca Is." are present on the printed labels, and one of the two specimens also 
has an old very faded printed label reading "Ternate". 

Formosia variegata Bigot, 1874 : 461. LECTOTYPE $, by present designation, AUSTRALIA: 
BMNH, London (ex coll. Bigot). 

Paralectotype : i $, same data as lectotype (BMNH). 

The lectotype bears Bigot's label "F. Variegata. $. J. Bigot. N.Holl."; it is in fair con- 
dition, left fore and right mid legs lost, apices of right fore tarsus and left mid tarsus lost, 
right third antennal segment lost. The paralectotype $ is correctly associated with the 
lectotype, and is the smaller specimen which Bigot referred to at the end of his main 
description and which he thought (wrongly) might be the male. 

The syntypes of this species were incorporated into the BMNH collection in 1904, and 
each bears a printed label reading "Ex coll. Bigot. Pres. by G. H. Verrall, Oct. 1904." on 
which Austen has added "Australia." in pencil. 

Formosia velutina Bigot, 1874 : 463. LECTOTYPE $, by present designation, TASMANIA: 
BMNH, London (ex coll. Bigot). 

Paralectotypes : 2 $, same data as lectotype (BMNH) . 

The lectotype bears Bigot's label "F. Velutina. $. J. Bigot. V.Diemen." on which the 
generic name has been completed by the addition of "ormosia" in an unknown hand; it is in 
very good condition. Both paralectotypes are in fairly good condition and correctly 
associated with the lectotype. 

The type-material of this species was incorporated into the BMNH collection in 1904, and 
each of the three original syntypes bears a printed label "Ex coll. Bigot. Pres. by G.H. 
Verrall, Oct. 1904." on which Austen has added "Tasmania." in pencil. 

Formosia viridithorax Bigot, 1874 : 457. Unavailable nomen nudum, cited in list of the 
species of Formosia Guerin-Meneville and attributed in error to Macquart. 

[Frerea tetropsis Bigot, 1891 : 376. Not Tachinidae: belongs in Calliphoridae, tribe Rhiniini, 
valid species of Rhyncomya Robineau-Desvoidy, see Zumpt (1958 : 135) (holotype $ from 
Assinie, West Africa, in BMNH, London, ex coll. Bigot examined).] 

Glossidionophora bicolor Bigot, i88$d : Iv. Holotype $, AUSTRALIA: BMNH, London 
(ex coll. Bigot). 

The holotype bears Bigot's label "G. Bicolor. $. Australia J. Bigot."; it is in fair condition, 
slightly collapsed and teneral, right third antennal segment and right fore tarsus lost, slightly 
dirty. 

Paramonov (1956 : 368) assigned bicolor to the genus Cylindromyia Meigen and pointed 
out that the name was then a junior secondary homonym in this genus, but he did not provide 
a replacement name; none is proposed at the present time, pending future study of the 
genera of Cylindromyiini. Paramonov (loc. cit.) incorrectly stated that Bigot made bicolor 
the type-species of Glossidionophora Bigot (which contained two original species) : see 
Crosskey (1967^ : 4). 

[Homodexia obscuripennis Bigot, 18856 : xxvi. Not Tachinidae: belongs in Calliphoridae, 
tribe Calliphorini, nominal species of the genus Bengalia Robineau-Desvoidy, see Senior 
White et al. (1940 : 91) (holotype $ [not <j>] from Ceylon in BMNH, London, ex coll. Bigot 
examined) .] 

Ocyptera tristis Bigot, 1878 : 45. Holotype $, 'AUSTRALIA' (perhaps in error): BMNH, 
London (ex coll. Bigot). 



300 R. W. CROSSKEY 

The holotype bears Bigot's label "O. Tristis. ?. Australia. J. Bigot."; it is in fair condition, 
except for loss of right mid leg, both hind tarsi and apices of fore tarsi. 

Although no other specimens are known which belong to this species, the general appearance 
of this Cylindromyiine resembles that of Gerocyptera Townsend species from the East Indian 
Archipelago and the western Pacific rather than an Australian species; the cited provenance 
of Australia is possibly, therefore, not quite correct. 

Rhynchiodexia tenuipes Bigot, 18850 : xi. Holotype $, NEW CALEDONIA: BMNH, London 
(ex coll. Bigot). 

The holotype does not bear any name label from Bigot's collection, but was incorporated 
into the BMNH collection in 1904, and bears a printed label reading "Ex coll. Bigot. Pres. 
by G.H.Verrall, Oct. 1904." on which Austen has added "New Caledonia, Oceania." in pencil. 
The condition is fair, except for loss of right mid and hind legs and of left hind tarsus, loss of 
tip of right wing, and partially collapsed eyes. 

Rutiliu argentifera Bigot, 1874 : 464. LECTOTYPE <$, by present designation, NEW SOUTH 
WALES, Sydney: BMNH, London (ex coll. Bigot). 

Paralectotype : i <, same data as lectotype (BMNH) . 

The lectotype bears Bigot's label "R. Argentifera. <$. J. Bigot. Sydney" and is in good 
condition except for loss of right mid and hind legs and tip of left hind tarsus. The <J para- 
lectotype is conspecific with the lectotype, and in good condition except for left wing broken 
loose basally, and missing right hind tarsus, left mid tarsus, left hind tibia and tarsus. 

The type-material of this species was incorporated into the BMNH collection in 1904, and 
each syntype bears a printed label reading "Ex coll. Bigot. Pres. by G.H.Verrall, Oct. 1904." 
on which Austen has added "Sydney, New South Wales." in pencil. 

Rutiliu castanifrons Bigot, 1880 : 88. Holotype $, AUSTRALIA: BMNH, London (ex coll. 
Bigot). 

The holotype bears Bigot's label "R. Castanifrons. $. Australia. J. Bigot." on which Austen 
has written in pencil "(Original label, in Bigot's handwriting.) E.E.A. 5.x. 04."; it is a dis- 
coloured and teneral specimen, slightly collapsed with left costal margin torn medially, but 
is in good condition in the sense that all structures are present. 

The holotype was incorporated into the BMNH collection in 1904, and bears a printed 
label reading "Ex coll. Bigot. Pres. by G.H. Verrall, Oct. 1904." on which Austen has added 
"Australia." in pencil. 

Rutilia castanipes Bigot, 1880 : 87. LECTOTYPE ?, by present designation, AUSTRALIA: 
BMNH, London (ex coll. Bigot). 

Paralectotypes : 2 <J, i ?, same data as lectotype (BMNH). 

The lectotype bears Bigot's label "R. Castanipes. $. Australia. J. Bigot." on which Austen 
has added in pencil "(Original, label in Bigot's handwriting) E.E.A. 5.xi.O4." ; it is in fair condi- 
tion, dirty and greased, both wings damaged, right mid and hind tarsi lost, left hind tarsus lost 
except for basitarsus. The paralectotypes appear to be conspecific with the lectotype and 
are in rather poor condition ; one of the paralectotypes (one lacking the left wing) bears an 
exactly similar label in Bigot's writing to that on the lectotype (cited above) except that the 
sex symbol is given as '<J'. 

The type-material of castanipes was incorporated into the BMNH collection in 1904, and 
each of the four syntypes bears a printed label reading "Ex coll. Bigot. Pres. by G.H. Verrall, 
Oct. 1904." on which Austen has added "Australia." in pencil. 

Rutilia echinomides Bigot, 1874 : 466. Holotype $, AUSTRALIA: BMNH, London (ex coll. 
Bigot). 

The holotype bears Bigot's label "R. Echinomides. ?. J. Bigot. N. holl." on which Austen 
has written in pencil "(Original label, in Bigot's handwriting) E.E.A. 5.X.O4-"; it is in fair 
condition, thorax and abdomen very greasy, some damage in prescutellar region, right third 
antennal segment and right fore leg lost (the specimen was not in good condition when 
described as Bigot recorded it as "en assez mauvais 6tat"). 



TACHINIDAE TYPES OF MACQUART AND BIGOT 301 

The holotype was incorporated into the BMNH collection in 1904, and bears a printed label 
reading "Ex coll. Bigot. Pres. by G.H. Verrall, Oct. 1904." on which Austen has added 
"Australia." in pencil. 

Rutili a fulvi ventris Bigot, 1874 : 465. LECTOTYPE ?, by present designation, TASMANIA: 
BMNH, London (ex coll. Bigot). 

Paralectotypes : 3 $, same data as lectotype (BMNH). 

The lectotype bears Bigot's label "R. Fulviventris. <^.. J. Bigot. V.Diemen.", and is in 
very good condition. The paralectotypes are conspecific with the lectotype, and in fair 
condition except that one has lost the abdomen. 

The type-material of this species was incorporated into the BMNH collection in 1904, and 
each syntype bears a printed label reading "Ex coll. Bigot. Pres. by G.H. Verrall, Oct. 1904." 
on which Austen has added "Tasmania." in pencil. 

Riitilia ruficornis Bigot, 1880 : 88. Holotype <$. AUSTRALIA: BMNH, London (ex coll. 
Bigot). 

The holotype bears Bigot's label "R. Ruficornis. $. Australia. J. Bigot." on which Austen 
has written in pencil "(Original label, in Bigot's handwriting) E.E.A. 5.x. 04"; it is in poor 
condition, teneral specimen, head dirty with mould, left thorax dirty with glue, scutum and 
scutellum smashed, right wing broken, right fore and mid legs lost, left fore tarsus and both 
hind tarsi missing except for basitarsal segment. The sex is as Bigot correctly cited in the 
description : the '$' indication on his label is in error. 

The holotype of this species was incorporated into the BMNH collection in 1904, and bears 
a printed label reading "Ex coll. Bigot. Pres. by G.H. Verrall, Oct. 1904." on which Austen 
has added "Australia." in pencil. 

This name is a junior secondary homonym of R. ruficornis (Macquart) but no replacement 
name is proposed as it is believed that another of Bigot's names is a synonym of ruficornis 
Bigot, which will be available as replacement name. 

Riitilia semifulva Bigot, 1880 : 89. LECTOTYPE <$, by present designation, AUSTRALIA: 
BMNH, London (ex coll. Bigot). 

Paralectotype : i $, same data as lectotype (BMNH) . 

The lectotype bears Bigot's label "R. Semifulva. <$. Australia. J. Bigot."; it is in fair con- 
dition, head and abdomen greasy, eyes partially collapsed, left mid and right hind legs lost. 
The ^ paralectotype is conspecific with the lectotype, and retains all legs except the left 
hind leg. 

The type-material of this species was incorporated into the BMNH collection in 1904, and 
each syntype bears a printed label reading "Ex coll. Bigot. Pres. by G.H. Verrall, Oct. 1904." 
on which Austen has added "Australia." in pencil. 

[Xysta obtusa Bigot, 1891 : 377. Not Tachinidae: belongs in Calliphoridae, tribe Rhiniini, 
valid species of Rhyncomya Robineau-Desvoidy, see Zumpt (1958 : 164) (holotype $ from 
Assinie, West Africa, should be in BMNH, London, ex coll. Bigot but has not been located).] 



REFERENCES 

Note : the references to Macquart's works commonly known by the abbreviated title Dipteres 
exotiques show the reprint pagination in parentheses immediately after the journal pagination. 

BIGOT, J. M. F. 1874. Dipteres nouveaux ou peu connus. 3? partie, IV. Genres Rutilia et 

Formosia. Annls Soc. ent. Fr. (5) 4 : 451-467. 
1876. Dipteres nouveaux ou peu connus. 6 e partie, VIII. Curie des Phasides (Phasidae, 

mihi). Genres Trichopoda (Macq.) et Bogosia (Rond.). Annls Soc. ent. Fr. (5) 6 : 389-400. 
1878. Dipteres nouveaux ou peu connus. g e partie, XIII. Genres Ocyptera (Latr.), 

Ocypterula, Exogaster (Rond.). Annls Soc. ent. Fr. (5) 8 : 40-47. 



302 R. W. CROSSKEY 

BIGOT, J.M.F. 1880. Dipteres nouveaux ou peu connus. i2 e partie, XVIII. Genres Plagiocera 
(Macq.), Formosia (Gu6rin) et Rutilia (Rob.-Desv.). Annls Soc. ent. Fr. (5) 10 : 85-89. 

18850. (Diagnoses de trois genres nouveaux de Dipteres du groupe des Dexiaires.) 

Annls Soc. ent. Fr. (6) 5 (1885) (Bull. S6anc.) : xi-xii. 

18856. (Diagnoses de deux genres nouveaux de Dipteres du groupe des Dexiaires.) 

Annls Soc. ent. Fr. (6) 5 (Bull. Seanc.) : xxv-xxvi. 

i885c. (Diagnoses de deux genres nouveaux de Dipteres du groupe des Dexiaires.) 

Annls Soc. ent. Fr. (6) 5 (Bull. S<anc.) : xxxii-xxxiii. 

1885^. (Diagnoses generiques de deux genres nouveaux de Dipteres du groupe des 

Tachinides.) Annls Soc. ent. Fr. (6) 5 (Bull. Seanc.) : liv-lvi. 

18850. (Description d'un nouveau genre de Dipteres.) Annls Soc. ent. Fr. (6) 5 (Bull. 

S6anc.) : cci-ccii. 

1888. Dipteres nouveaux ou peu connus. 33 e partie, XLI. Tachinidae. Annls Soc. 

ent. Fr. (6) 8 : 77-101. 

1889. Dipteres nouveaux ou peu connus. 34 e partie, XLII. Diagnoses de nouvelles 

especes. Annls Soc. ent. Fr. (6) 8 (1888) : 253-270. 

1891. Voyage de M. Ch. Alluaud dans le territoire d'Assinie, 8 e Memoire (Afrique 

occidentale) en juillet et aout 1886. Dipteres. Annls Soc. ent. Fr. 61 (1891) : 365-386. 

BRAUER, F. 1897. Beitrage zur Kenntnis der Muscaria schizometopa und Beschreibung von 
zwei Hypoderma-Arten. Sber. Akad. Wiss. Wien 106 : 329-382. 

1898. Beitrage zur Kenntnis der Muscaria schizometopa. Sber. Akad. Wiss. Wien 

107 : 493-546. 

1899. Beitrage zur Kenntnis der Muscaria schizometopa. Sber. Akad. Wiss. Wien 

108 : 495-529- 

CROSSKEY, R. W. 19670. An index-catalogue of the genus-group names of Oriental and 
Australasian Tachinidae (Diptera) and their type-species. Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. 
(Ent.) 20 : 1-39. 

19676. New generic and specific synonymy in Oriental Tachinidae (Diptera). Proc. 

R. ent. Soc. Land. (B) 36 : 95-108. 

EMDEN, F. I. VAN. 1945. Keys to the Ethiopian Tachinidae. I. Phasiinae. Proc. zool. 

Soc. Lond. 114 : 389-436. 
1947- Keys to the Ethiopian Tachinidae. II. Dexiinae. Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 116 : 

627-674. 

1960. Keys to the Ethiopian Tachinidae. III. Macquartiinae. Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 

134 : 313-487- 
GUERIN-MENEVILLE, F. E. 1838. Crustaces, arachnides et insectes. In Duperry, ed., 

Voyage autour du monde sur la corvette de sa majeste La Coquille, pendant les annees 1822, 

1823, 1824-1825. Zool. 2, pt. 2, Div. i, 319 pp. Paris. 

MACQUART, J. 1835. Histoire naturelle des Insectes. Dipteres. 2, 710 pp. Paris. 
1843. Dipteres exotiques nouveaux ou peu connus. 2 (3). Mem. Soc. Sci. Agric. Lille 

1843 : 162-460 (5-304). 

1846. Dipteres exotiques nouveaux ou peu connus. [i er ] Supplement. Mem. Soc. Sci. 

Agric. Lille 1844 : 133-364 (5-238). 

1847. Dipteres exotiques nouveaux ou peu connus. m Supplement. Mem. Soc. Sci. 

Agric. Lille 1846 : 21-120 (5-104). 

1848. Dipteres exotiques nouveaux ou peu connus. Suite du 2 me Supplement [known as 
3rd Supplement]. Mem. Soc. Sci. Agric. Lille 1847 : 161-237 C 1 "??)- 

1851. Dipteres exotiques nouveaux ou peu connus. Suite du 4 e Supplement publie 

dans les Memoires de 1849. Mem. Soc. Sci. Agric. Lille 1850 : 134-294 (161-364). [Note: 
reprint version contains "Tableau general des especes decrites dans les deux volumes et les 
quatre supplements avec 1'indication de la patrie" on pp. 337-364 which is not present 
in the journal.] 

J 855. Dipteres exotiques nouveaux ou peu connus. 5 e Supplement. Mem. Soc. Sci. 

Agric. Lille (2) 1 (1854) : 25-156 (5-136). -i'- 



TACHINIDAE TYPES OF MACQUART AND BIGOT 303 

MAYR, E. 1969. Principles of systematic zoology, xiv + 428 pp. McGraw Hill, New York. 
MEIJERE, J. C. H. DE 1924. Studien iiber siidostasiatische Dipteren XVI. Tijdschr. Ent. 

67 : 197-224. 
MESNIL, L. P. 1944- Larvaevorinae (Tachininae) . In Lindner, Fliegen palaearkt. Reg. 

64g : 1-48. 

1949- Larvaevorinae (Tachininae). In Lindner, Fliegen palaearkt. Reg. 64g : 49-104. 

- 1951- Larvaevorinae (Tachininae). In Lindner, Fliegen palaearkt. Reg. 64g : 161-208. 

- 1954. Larvaevorinae (Tachininae). In Lindner, Fliegen palaearkt. Reg. 64g : 305-368. 
OSTEN SACKEN, C. R. 1904. Record of my life work in entomology. Part third. List of my 

entomological publications from 1854 to J 94- P P- 205-240. Heidelberg. [Continuously 

paginated from first and second parts published in Cambridge, Mass., 1903.] 
PARAMONOV, S. J. 1956. A review of the Australian species of Cylindromyia Meigen and 

Saralba Walker (Tachinidae: Diptera). Aust. J. Zool. 4 : 358-375. 
1960. Notes on Australian Diptera (XXIX-XXX) . XXIX. A review of Heterometopia 

species (Tachinidae). Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (13) 2 (1959) : 691-696. 
1968. A review of the tribe Rutiliini (Diptera: Tachinidae). I. Genera other than Rutilia 

Robineau-Desvoidy and Formosia Gu6rin-Meneville. Aust. J. Zool. 16 : 349-404. 
PERIS, S. V. 1952. La subfamilia Rhiniinae (Dipt. Calliphoridae) . An. Estac. exp. Aula 

Dei 3, No. i : 1-224. 
ROBINEAU-DESVOIDY, J. B. 1863. Histoire naturelle des Dipteres des environs de Paris. 1, 

1143 pp. Paris. 
SABROSKY, C. W. & ARNAUD, P. H. 1965. Family Tachinidae (Larvaevoridae) . In Stone 

et al. A catalog of the Diptera of America north of Mexico, Agric. Handb. No. 276, U.S. 

Department of Agriculture, Washington D.C., 1696 pp. 
SENIOR WHITE, R., AUBERTIN, D. & SMART, J. 1940. Family Calliphoridae. Fauna Br. 

India, Diptera 6, 288 pp., London. 
TOWNSEND, C. H. T. I9i6a. New genera and species of Australian Muscoidea. Can. Ent. 

48 : 151-160. 

19166. On Australian Muscoidea, with description of new forms. Insecutor Inscit. 

menstr. 4 : 44-45. 

1932. Notes on Old-World Oestromuscoid types. Part II. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. 

(10) 9 : 33-57. 

1933. New genera and species of Old-World Oestromuscoid flies. // N.Y. ent. Soc. 

40 (1932) : 439-479- 

1936. Manual of Myiology. Part III. 255 pp. Itaquaquecetuba, Sao Paulo. 
-1938. Manual of Myiology. Part VII. 434 pp. Itaquaquecetuba, Sao Paulo. 

- 19390. Manual of Myiology. Part VIII. 408 pp. Itaquaquecetuba, Sao Paulo. 

- I939&- Manual of Myiology. Part IX. 270 pp. Itaquaquecetuba, Sao Paulo. 
-1940. Manual of Myiology. Part X. 335 pp. Itaquaquecetuba, Sao Paulo. 
-1941. Manual of Myiology. Part XI. 342pp. Itaquaquecetuba, Sao Paulo. 

VILLENEUVE, J. 1916. A contribution to the study of the South African higher Myodarii 

(Diptera Calyptratae) based mainly on the material in the South African Museum. Ann 

S. Afr. Mus. 15 : 469-515. 
WULP, F. M. VAN DER. 1896. Catalogue of the described Diptera from South Asia. 219 pp. 

The Hague. 
ZUMPT, F. 1958. Calliphoridae (Diptera Cyclorrapha) Part II: Rhiniini. Explor. Pare. nat. 

Albert Miss, de Witte 87 : 1-207. 



INDEX TO SPECIFIC NAMES 

acutangulata, Phorocera, 281 analis, Micropalpus, 276 

albiceps, Degeeria, 265 analoga, Rutilia, 285 

analis, Heterometopia, 271 angustecarinata, Rutilia, 285 



304 



INDEX 



appendiculata, Dexia, 265 
appendiculatus, Omalogaster, 280 
argentea, Heterometopia, 271 
argenticeps, Masicera, 273 
argentifera, Atractodexia, 296 
argentifera, Rutilia, 300 
assimilis, Micropalpus, 276 
assimilis, Rutilia, 285 
auriceps, Exorista, 268 
auriceps, Masicera, 273 
australis, Degeeria, 265 
australis, Jurinia, 273 
australis, Tritaxys, 292 

bicolor, Glossidionophora, 299 
bicolor, Micropalpus, 277 
bicolor, Nemoroea, 280 
biserialis, Phorocera, 281 
boscii, Lydella, 272 
brevigaster, Micropalpus, 277 
brevipalpis, Omalogaster, 280 
brevisetosa, Nemoraea, 279 
brunnicornis, Dexia, 265 

caffra, Masicera, 273 
capensis, Masicera, 273 
castanifrons, Rutilia, 300 
castanipes, Rutilia, 300 
cilipes, Phorocera, 281 
cilipes, Tachina, 291 
cingulata, Myobia, 279 
coesiofasciata, Masicera, 273 
concavicornis, Micropalpus, 277 
consanguinea, Masicera, 273 
consobrina, Doleschalla, 297 
crocea, Dejeania, 297 

dispar, Exorista, 268 
dispar, Prosena, 284 
diversicolor, Exorista, 268 
dorsalis, Prosena, 284 
dorsomaculatum, Grapholostylum, 271 
dubia, Rutilia, 285 

echinomides, Rutilia, 300 
elegans, Rutilia, 285 

fasciata, Teretrophora, 292 
fasciatus, Sumpigaster, 291 
flaviceps, Chrysosoma, 265 
flaviceps, Exorista, 268 
flavifrons, Ocyptera, 280 
flavipalpis, Phorocera, 281 



flavipennis, Rutilia, 286 
flavipes, Exorista, 268 
flavopilosa, Echinomyia, 298 
fulgida, Rutilia, 286 
fulviventris, Masicera, 274 
fulviventris, Rutilia, 301 
fuscipennis, Megistogaster, 276 
fuscotestacea, Rutilia, 286 

goniaeformis, Blepharipeza, 264 
graciliseta, Phorocera, 282 
grandis, Phorocera, 282 

heterocera, Gonia, 269 

hyalipennis, Phorocera, 282 (2 entries) 

ignipennis, Microtropesa, 278 

javana, Crossotocnema, 296 
javana, Gonia, 270 (2 entries) 
javana, Phorocera, 282 
javana, Tachina, 291 
javanensis, Dexia, 265 
javanum, Ochroplevrum, 280 

lata, Exorista, 269 
lateralis, Blepharella, 264 
lateralis, Degeeria, 265 
lateralis, Eurigaster, 267 
lateralis, Masicera, 274 
lateralis, Phorocera, 282 
limbinevris, Omalogaster, 281 
longipes, Apatemyia, 263 
longipes, Dexia, 266 
longirostris, Micropalpus, 277 

maculata, Phorocera, 283 
maculata, Platytainia, 284 
maculifera, Doleschalla, 297 
maculithorax, Aulacephala, 264 
marginata, Elomyia, 267 
marginata, Exorista, 269 
media, Rutilia, 286 
melas, Exorista, 298 
minor, Rutilia, 286 
mucrocornis, Phorocera, 283 

nigra, Doleschalla, 297 
nigra, Hystricephala, 272 
nigra, Polychaeta, 284 
nigra, Rutilia, 287 
nigricornis, Microtropesa, 278 
nigrithorax, Rutilia, 288 



INDEX 



305 



nitens, Rutilia, 288 
nitidiventris, Nemoraea, 279 
nitidus, Omalogaster, 281 
niveiceps, Masicera, 274 
niveifacies, Masicera, 274 

oblonga, Masicera, 275 
oblonga, Rutilia, 288 
obscuripennis, Homodexia, 299 
obtusa, Xysta, 301 
ornata, Exorista, 298 
ornata, Phorocera, 283 

papua, Formosia, 298 
pellucens, Rutilia, 288 
picta, Doleschalla, 297 
pictipennis, Ocyptera, 280 
pilifacies, Micropalpus, 278 
plumicornis, Rutilia, 289 
punctipennis, Dexia, 266 

quadrimaculata, Gymnostylia, 271 

rubricarinata, Dexia, 266 
rubriceps, Rutilia, 289 
rubrifrons, Masicera, 275 
rubriventris, Gonia, 270 
ruficeps, Myobia, 279 
ruficornis, Diaphania, 267 
ruficornis, Rutilia, 301 
rufifacies, Masicera, 275 
rufipalpis, Heterometopia, 272 
rufipalpis, Trichostylum, 292 
rufipalpus, Exechopalpus, 268 
rufipes, Aprotheca, 263 
rufipes, Masicera, 275 
rufipes, Nemorea, 280 
rufitibialis, Gonia, 271 
rufiventris, Bogosia, 296 
rufiventris, Calliphora, 264 
rufiventris, Hyalomyia, 272 
rufiventris, Prosena, 284 



rufoanalis, Echinomyia, 267 
rufomaculata, Exorista, 269 
scutellata, Phorocera, 283 
semifulva, Rutilia, 301 
senegalensis, Clytia, 265 
setosa, Gymnostylia, 271 
setosa, Rutilia, 289 
similis, Masicera, 275 
simplex, Masicera, 275 
smaragdifera, Formosia, 298 
subpubescens, Phorocera, 283 
subtustomentosa, Rutilia, 290 

tasmanensis, Chlorogaster, 264 
tenuipes, Rhynchiodexia, 300 
tenuisetosa, Masicera, 275 
tenuisetosa, Myobia, 279 
tessellata, Dexia, 266 
tessellata, Phorocera, 283 
testacea, Diaphania, 267 
testaceicornis, Dexia, 266 
tetropsis, Frerea, 299 
translucens, Exorista, 269 
tricolor, Chetogena, 296 
triquetra, Dexia, 267 
tristis, Ocyptera, 299 

valentina, Amphibolia, 263 
variegata, Senostoma, 291 
varipes, Exorista, 269, 275 
varipes, Masicera, 275 
velutina, Formosia, 299 
venosa, Doleschalla, 298 
violacea, Chetogaster, 264 
viridinigra, Rutilia, 290 
viriditestacea, Rutilia, 290 
viridithorax, Formosia, 299 
viridiventris, Masicera, 276 (2 entries) 
vittata, Prosena, 284 
vittata, Rutilia, 291 
vittata, Toxocnemis, 292 
vittatus, Micropalpus, 278 



Dr. R. W. CROSSKEY, D.Sc., A.R.C.S., F.I.Biol. 
COMMONWEALTH INSTITUTE OF ENTOMOLOGY 
c/o BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 
CROMWELL ROAD 
LONDON, S.W.7., ENGLAND 



PLATE i 
Examples of labels in the handwriting of Macquart (A-F) and Bigot (G & H), actual size. 

A. Label of Macquart for new genus and new species. 

Reads: "Exechopalpus rufipalpus. <J n.g., n.sp. Macq". 

B. Label of Macquart for new species. 

Reads: "Masicera rubrifrons. $ n.sp. Macq.". 

C. Unusual label of Macquart for new species, with "nov." in place of "n.". 

Reads: "Phorocera acutangulata <$. nov. sp.". 

D. Label of Macquart for new species, with locality cited. 

Reads: "Phorocera flavipalpis $. Macq. n.sp. Sydney". 

E. Label of Macquart for new species, mounted on another label from Bigot's 
collection. 

Reads: "Rutilia fulgida $. Macq. n.sp." in Macquart's writing, with 
additions "Sidney" on the left and "Nomm. par. Macq." on the right in 
Bigot's writing. 

F. Later identification label of Macquart. 

Reads: "Heterometopia argentea Macq.". 

G. Label of Bigot for a genus in Bigot's collection. 

Reads: "G. Atractodexia. J. Bigot". 

H. Label of Bigot for a species in Bigot's collection. 

Reads: "A. Argentifera. J. Nouv. Caledon. J. Bigot.". 



Bull. BY. A/MS. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 25, 6 



PLATE i 



A . y 



"1 



B 



X* Alt-a c{ o i/exi a 



H 



S<\\* n /r/ ^5VV 



Vs> 






A LIST OF SUPPLEMENTS 
TO THE ENTOMOLOGICAL SERIES 

OF THE BULLETIN OF 
THE BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 



2. NIXON, G. E. J. A reclassification of the tribe Microgasterini (Hymenoptera : 
Braconidae). Pp. 284 : 348 text-figures. August, 1965. 6. 

3. WATSON, A. A revision of the Ethiopian Drepanidae (Lepidoptera). Pp. 177 : 
18 plates, 270 text-figures. August, 1965. 4 45. 

4. SANDS, W. A. A revision of the Termite Subfamily Nasutitermitinae (Isoptera, 
Termitidae) from the Ethiopian Region. Pp. 172 : 500 text-figures. Sep- 
tember, 1965. 3 55. 

5. AHMAD, I. The Leptocorisinae (Heteroptera : Alydidae) of the World. 
Pp. 156 : 475 text-figures. November, 1965. 2 15$. 

6. OKADA, T. Diptera from Nepal. Cryptochaetidae, Diastatidae and Droso- 
philidae. Pp. 129 : 328 text-figures. May, 1966. 3. 

7. GILIOMEE, J. H. Morphology and Taxonomy of Adult Males of the Family 
Coccidae (Homoptera : Coccoidea). Pp. 168 : 43 text-figures. January, 1967. 

33. 

8. FLETCHER, D. S. A revision of the Ethiopian species and a check list of the 
world species of Cleora (Lepidoptera : Geometridae). Pp. 119 : 14 plates, 146 
text-figures, 9 maps. February, 1967. 3 los. 

9. HEMMING, A. F. The Generic Names of the Butterflies and their type-species 
(Lepidoptera : Rhopalocera). Pp. 509. 8 los. 

10. STEMPFFER, H. The Genera of the African Lycaenidae (Lepidoptera : Rho- 
palocera). Pp. 322 : 348 text-figures. August, 1967. 8. 

11. MOUND, L. A. A review of R. S. BagnalTs Thysanoptera Collections. Pp. 172 : 
82 text-figures. May, 1968. 4. 

12. WATSON, A. The Taxonomy of the Drepaninae represented in China, with 
an account of their world distribution. Pp. 151 : 14 plates, 293 text-figures. 
November, 1968. 5. 

13. AFIFI, S. A. Morphology and Taxonomy of Adult Males of the families 
Pseudococcidae and Eriococcidae (Homoptera: Coccoidea). Pp. 210 : 52 text- 
figures. December, 1968. 5. 

14. CROSSKEY, R. W. A Re-classification of the Simuliidae (Diptera) of Africa 
and its Islands. Pp. 198 : i plate, 331 text-figures. July, 1969. 4 155. 

15. ELIOT, J. N. An analysis of the Eurasian and Australian Neptini (Lepidoptera : 
Nymphalidae). Pp. 155 : 3 plates, 101 text-figures. September, 1969. 

4- 

16. GRAHAM, M. W. R. DE V. The Pteromalidae of North-Western Europe 
(Hymenoptera : Chalcidoidea). Pp. 908 : 686 text-figures. November, 1969. 
19- 



Printed in England by Staples Printers Limited at their Kettering, Northants, establishment 



A LIST OF THE TYPE-SPECIMENS 

OF EPHEMEROPTERA 
IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM^ 
(NATURAL HISTORY) f " 






D. E. KIMMINS 



BULLETIN OF 

THE BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 
ENTOMOLOGY Vol. 25 No. 7 

LONDON: 1971 



A LIST OF THE TYPE-SPECIMENS 

OF EPHEMEROPTERA IN THE 
BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 



BY 

DOUGLAS ERIC KIMMINS 



Pp- 307-324 



BULLETIN OF 

THE BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 

ENTOMOLOGY Vol. 25 No. 7 

LONDON: 1971 



THE BULLETIN OF THE BRITISH MUSEUM 

(NATURAL HISTORY), instituted in 1949, is 
issued in five series corresponding to the Departments 
of the Museum, and an Historical series. 

Parts will appear at irregular intervals as they become 
ready. Volumes will contain about three or four 
hundred pages, and will not necessarily be completed 
within one calendar year. 

In 1965 a separate supplementary series of longer 
papers was instituted, numbered serially for each 
Department. 

This paper is Vol. 25, No. 7, of the Entomological 
series. The abbreviated titles of periodicals cited follow 
those of the World List of Scientific Periodicals. 



World List abbreviation : 
Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 



Trustees of the British Museum (Natural History), 1971 



TRUSTEES OF 
THE BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 

Issued 2 March, 1971 Price 






* V 

1 MAR 1 97 1 



A LIST OF THE TYPE-SPECIMENS 

OF EPHEMEROPTERA IN THE 
BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 

By D. E. KIMMINS 

SYNOPSIS 

Three hundred and five taxa are listed. Thirteen lectotypes are designated and the status 
of the other type-specimens is given. 

The present paper follows the general pattern of my previous lists of type-specimens in the 
British Museum (Natural History) but fewer lectotypes are designated in it. In 1960, I pub- 
lished a list of the Ephemeroptera types of species described by the three major British workers 
on the order, namely Eaton, McLachlan and Walker, in which lectotypes were designated where 
necessary. This list included species whose types were in museums other than in the BMNH. 
In the present list, in the references to taxa dealt with in Kimmins (1960), the status of the type- 
specimen is given in square brackets. In that paper, 72 lectotypes were designated from BMNH 
material, bringing the total designated up to 109 and thirteen more are designated in the 
present work. 

Three hundred and five taxa are dealt with in the present list, and of these, the type-specimens 
of 14 taxa (mostly described by Stephens) are either lost, or are unlabelled and not recognizable 
from Stephens' descriptions. Some were already lost or unrecognizable when Eaton was 
preparing his 1871 monograph. 

Additional information as to the locality data of the types, either not given or abbreviated 
in the original description, has been included here in square brackets. LECTOTYPE indicates 
present designation. 

This list was completed in March, 1970. 

aapta Harker (Mirawara), 1954 : 261-263, text-figs 69-71. Holotype 6*- N[ew] S[outh] 
W[ales], Upper Murrumbidgee R., Adaminaby, n.xii.i936 (R. J. Tillyard) / Abdomen in 
slide cabinet / Genitalia, slide XIII / Mirawara aapta [J.E.H.j. 

abyssinicus Ulmer (Tricorythus), 1930 : 502-505, text-figs 23, 24. LECTOTYPE <$. 
Abyssinia, Akaki Ravine, 6500-7000 ft, 17. x. 1926, to candle light in tent (H. Scott) / 
Tricorythus abyssinicus Ulm[er], Typen! 
Currently placed in the genus Neurocaenis. 

aequatorialis Kimmins (Ephemera), 1956 : 86-87, text-figs 26-31. Holotype 6* (in 2% 
formaldehyde solution). Uganda, Jinja, At light, xii.1954 ( p - s - Corbet). Ephemera 
aequatorialis Kim., Type. 

Currently placed in the genus Afromera. The # & ? types are now somewhat reddish, 
having absorbed some of the red dye from the margin of the type-label. 

aestivalis Eaton (Siphlurus). Kimmins, 1960 : 272, text-fig. 3 [<$ Lectotype]. 

affinis Eaton (Ecdyurus). Kimmins, 1960 : 282, text-fig. 17 [<J Lectotype]. 

africanum Gillies (Prosopistoma), 1954 : 359-362, text-figs 1-3, 5-16, 18, 20, 22. Holotype 
nymph (in 2% formaldehyde solution). [East Africa], Tanganyika] Territory], E. Usam- 
baras, 1500 ft, [Amani], Sigi River, i4.ix.[ig]52 [M. T. Gillies], Prosopistoma africanum [M. 
T. Gillies det.] 



310 D. E. KIMMINS 

albifilum Walker (Palingenia). Kimmins, 1960 : 312, text-fig. 61 [Q* Holotype]. 
albivitta Walker (Baetis). Kimmins, 1960 : 309 [<J Lectotype]. 
algiricutn Eaton (Centroptilum). Kimmins, 1960 : 290 [Q* Lectotype]. 

alpestris Eaton (Rhithrogena). Kimmins, 1960 : 283, text-fig. 20 [<J Lectotype, fig. incorrectly 
given as 25]. 

alpicola Eaton (Heptagenia). Kimmins, 1960 : 280, text-fig. 13 [<J Holotype]. 
atnabilis Eaton (Rhoenanthus). Kimmins, 1960 : 306, text-fig. 51 [<J Lectotype]. 

amenia Marker (Kirrara), 1954 : 2 ^ text-figs 42, 60, 61. Holotype^. [New South Wales], 
Mt Kosciusko, Spencers Creek, 6000 ft, 2o.xii.i932 (R. J. Tillyard) / Kirrara amenia. 

atrmicus Eaton (Baetis). Kimmins, 1960 : 286, text-fig. 23 [<J Lectotype]. 

ampla Eaton (Palingenia (Anagenesia)). Kimmins, 1960 : 314, text-fig. 63 [<J Lectotype]. 

anceps Eaton (Euthyplocia). Kimmins, 1960 : 307, text-fig. 52 [<J Holotype]. 

anceps Eaton (Metamonius). Kimmins, 1960 : 270, text-fig, i [<J Lectotype]. 

angulata Walker (Baetis). Kimmins, 1960 : 309 [$ Lectotype]. 

annulata Walker (Baetis). Kimmins, 1960 : 272 [<J Holotype]. 

annulifera Walker (Palingenia). Kimmins, 1960 : 279 [5* Holotype]. 

[apicalis Stephens (Ephemera), 1836 : 59. According to Eaton, 1871 : 9, the Stephens 
Collection then contained 2 <$ Ephemerella ignita (Poda) and i $ Baetis phaeops Eaton over the 
label 'apicalis' ; on page 26 of the same work, Eaton placed Ephemera apicalis Stephens in 
the synonymy of Ephemerella ignita (Poda) but does not refer to apicalis Stephens in the 
synonymy of his Baetis phaeops. It is not possible to recognize which examples of Ephemer- 
ella ignita were the types of Stephens' apicalis. The example labelled apicalis in the Stephens 
Collection is a o* Baetis, lacking anal appendages. I know of no recent usage of the name 
Ephemera apicalis Stephens and it seems desirable to treat it as a nomen oblitumJ] 

armatus Eaton (Siphlonurus). Kimmins, 1960 : 272 [<J Lectotype]. 

assamensis Kimmins (Cinygmina), 1937 : 435~436, text-fig. 3. Holotype <$. Assam, 
Khasia Hills, Eaton Bequest / Cinygmina assamensis Kimmins, <$ Type, det. D. E. Kimmins. 
The $ type now lacks its setae. 

assimilis Eaton (Epeorus). Kimmins, 1960 : 280, text-fig. 14 [6* Lectotype]. 
atrebatinus Eaton (Baetis). Kimmins, 1960 : 286 [<J Lectotype]. 
auriculata Eaton (Leptophlebia). Kimmins, 1960 : 294, text-fig. 36 [6* Lectotype]. 
australis Walker (Ephemera). Kimmins, 1960 : 294 [< Lectotype]. 

austriacus Kimmins (Ecdyonurus), 1958 : 226-230, text-figs 1-8. Holotype <$ (in 2% 
formaldehyde solution). Austria, Brodingbach, 700 m, 2 5. viii. 195 5 / Ecdyonurus austriacus 
Kim., <J Type, D. E. Kimmins det. 1956. 

basalts Walker (Baetis). Kimmins, 1960 : 286 [<J Holotype]. 

bellus Eaton (Thraulus). Kimmins, 1960 : 303, text-fig. 49. [Lectotype]. 

bengalense Kimmins (Cloeon), 1947 : 95-96, text-figs 3, 7, n. Holotype $ (in 2% formalde- 
hyde solution). [Bengal], Calcutta distr., x.i945 (D. E. Kimmins), Cloeon bengalense Kim., 
Type?. 

bengtssoni Miiller-Liebenau (Baetis), 1966 : 65-79, 8 text-figs. Holotype <J (in 2% formalde- 
hyde solution). Baetis bengtssoni 5*, Hangelsbach (Eifel), 7 Juli 1965, Miiller-Liebenau leg. 
et det. 

berneri Kimmins (Caenis), 1955 : 879-880, text-fig. 13. Holotype <J (in 2% formaldehyde 
solution). Nyasaland, L. Nyasa, Chipoka, 6. viii. 1952 (Lewis Berner )/ Caenis berneri Kim., 
cJ Holotype, D. E. Kimmins det. 1953. 



EPHEMEROPTERA TYPE-SPECIMENS IN BMNH 311 

bicolor Kimmins (Cloeon), 1947 : 97-98, text-figs 4, 8, 12. Holotype $ (in 2% formaldehyde 
solution). [Bengal], Calcutta distr., xi.i945 (D. E. Kimmins), Cloeon bicolor Kim., Type $. 

bicolor Walker (Palingenia) . Kimmins, 1960 : 274 [$ Holotype]. 

bimaculatum Eaton (Cloeon). Kimmins, 1960 : 292, text-fig. 35 [$> Lectotype]. 

binotatus Eaton (Siphlurus). Kimmins, 1960 : 272, text-fig. 4 [<$ Lectotype]. 

bocagii Eaton (Baetis). Kimmins, 1960 : 286-288, text-fig. 24 [Q* Holotype]. 

brevipes Kimmins (Caenis), 1956 : 84-86, text-figs 24, 25. Holotype <$ (mounted with allo- 

type ? on microscope slide, in euparal). Uganda, Jinja, At light, xii.i954 (* 5- Corbet) / 

Caenis brevipes Kim., $ Type, $ allotype. 

brevissimus Eaton (Leptohyphes). Kimmins, 1934 : 347. fi g- I2 [ as 'tyP 6 ']- 

brunnea Tillyard (Atalophlebia), 1936 : 43-44, text-figs 8, 14, 21. Holotype $ (in 2% 

formaldehyde solution). [Northern] Tas [mania], [South Esk River], Clarendon (Eric Scott), 

Atalophlebia brunnea Till. 
buceratus Eaton (Baetis). Kimmins, 1960 : 288 [$ Lectotype]. 

bugandensis Kimmins (Euthraulus), 1956 : 79-80, text-figs 12, 13, 15. Holotype Q* (in 2% 
formaldehyde solution). Uganda, Entebbe, 3.111.1954 (R. Hartland-Rowe) j Euthraulus 
bugandensis Kim., $ Type, D. E. Kimmins det. 1954. 

bundutum Harker (Deleatidium), 1954 : 256-257, text-figs 39, 49, 50, 53-57. Holotype $ 
(in 2% formaldehyde solution, genitalia mounted as microscope preparation). N[ew] 
S[outh] W[ales], Armidale, [Dumaresque Cr.], 3000 ft, 6.vii.i948 (/. E. Harker], Deleatidium 
bundutum Hark. Type. 

campestre Gillies (Centroptilum), 1949 : 172, text-fig. 19. Holotype Q* (in 2% formaldehyde 
solution). India, C[entral] Provinces], River Sonar, near Saugor, n.iii[i9]45 [M. T. Gillies], 
Centroptilum campestre sp. n. $, holotype [M. T. Gillies det.]. 

canadense Walker (Baetis). Kimmins, 1960 : 284 [6* Lectotype]. 

Candida Eaton (Elassoneuria). Kimmins, 1960 : 274-275, text-fig. 8 [$ Holotype]. 

chilensis Eaton (Atalophlebia). Kimmins, 1960 : 294 [6* Lectotype]. 

[chironomiformis (Curtis) Stephens (Caenis), 1836 : 62. This specimen is in rather poor 
condition, but the form of the antennal bristle and the abdominal markings recall those of 
Caenis moesta Bengtsson. Whether Stephens correctly identified Curtis' species can only be 
settled by an examination of the type in the National Museum of Victoria.] 

cibaria Eaton (Caenis). Kimmins, 1960 : 305 [6* Lectotype]. 

cingulata Stephens (Baetis), 1836 : 67. LECTOTYPE <J. Stephens Coll. / cingulata Step. / 
Baetis cingulata Steph., $ Lectotype, D. E. Kimmins det. 1969- 
Currently placed as a synonym of Habrophlebi a fusca (Curt.). 

cognatum Stephens (Cloeon), 1836 : 69. Holotype <J. Stephens Coll. / cognatum Step. / C. 
dipterum L., det. K. G. Blair / Cloeon cognatum Steph., 6* Holotype, D. E. Kimmins det. 1969. 
The type now lacks its abdomen. Currently placed as a synonym of C. dipterum (L.). 

cognata Stephens (Ephemera), 1836 : 56. LECTOTYPE $. Stephens Coll. / From its size 
and general appearance, I believe this to be one of the type-series of Ephemera cognata 
Stephens, D. E. Kimmins det. 1953 / Ephemera cognata Stephens, $ Lectotype, D. E. 
Kimmins det. 1969. 

This appears to be the only example with measurements approximating to those given by 
Stephens. An example bearing a label '2 cognata' is much too small to be considered as 
part of the type-series. Placed by Eaton as a synonym of Ephemera danica Muller. 

colombiae Walker (Ephemera). Kimmins, 1960 : 302 [$ Holotype]. 
concinna Walker (Palingenia). Kimmins, 1960 : 300 [<J Holotype]. 



312 D. E. KIMMINS 

concinnum Eaton (Cloeon). Kimmins, 1960 : 292 [<J Lectotype]. 
continua Walker (Palingenia). Kimmins, 1960 : 309 [<$ Holotype]. 

corbeti Kimmins (Centroptilum), 1956 : 75-76, text-figs 6-8. Holotype $ (in 2% formalde- 
hyde solution). Uganda, Jinja, at light, xii.i954 (P- S. Corbet) / Centroptilum corbeti Kim., 
$ Holotype. 

The type and allotype are now much more reddish in color, having absorbed the red color 
bordering the type label. 

costale Kimmins (Dicercomyzon), 19576 : 130-132, text-figs i, 3. Holotype <J (in 2% 
formaldehyde solution). Gold Coast, Afram R., Mankrong, I3.ix.i95o (Lewis Berner) / 
Dicercomyzon costale Kim., <$ Type, D. E. Kimmins det. 1956. 

crassi Gillies (Prosopistotna), 1954 : 362-364, text-figs 4, 17, 19, 21. Holotype nymph (in 
2% formaldehyde solution). S. A[frica], Natal, Umgeni River, 1200 ft, xii.[i9]53, (R. S. 
C[rass]). Prosopistoma crassi Holotype nymph [M. T. Gillies det.]. 

cupulata Eaton (Heptagenia). Kimmins, 1960 : 283 [<J Lectotype]. 

curtus Eaton (Campsurus). Kimmins, 1960 : 312, text-fig. 60 [< Lectotype]. 

curtus Kimmins (Euthraulus), 1956 : 80-81, text-figs 14, 16. Holotype $ (mounted as two 
microscope preparations in euparal). Uganda, Kazi, 8.iii.i954 (R- Hartland-Rowe) / Eu- 
thraulus curtus Kim., $ Type. 

cylindroculum Kimmins (Procloeon), 1955 : 865-866, text-fig. 2. Holotype <J (mounted as 
microscope preparation). Nyasaland, Tengadzi [Camp], 22.vii.i952 (Lewis Berner) / Pro- 
cloeon cylindroculum Kim., $ Type. 

debilis Walker (Baetis). Kimmins, 1960 : 302 [6" Holotype]. 

debilis Walker (Cloeon). Kimmins, 1960 : 292, text-fig. 33. [$ Lectotype]. 

decipiens Harker (Deleatidium), 1954 : 2 55 text-figs 38, 47, 48. Holotype <J. N[ew] 
S[outh] W[ales], Upper Murrumbidgee R[iver], Adaminaby, n.xii.i936 (R. J. Tillyard) / 
Deleatidium decipiens. 

decora Walker (Ephemera). Kimmins, 1960 : 308 [$ Holotype]. 

decoratus Kimmins (Adenophlebiodes), 1956 : 77-78, text-figs 10, n. Holotype $ (in 2% 
formaldehyde solution). Uganda, Jinja, 6.iii.i954 (P. 5. Corbet) / Adenophlebiodes decoratus 
Kim., 6* Type, D. E. Kimmins det. 1954. 

Adenophlebiodes decoratus Kim., 1956 is a secondary homonym of A. decorata (Navas), 
1931, and has been renamed Adenophlebiodes (Hyalophlebia) demoulini Kim., 1960. 

delicatula Tillyard (Atalophlebia), 1936 : 47-49, text-figs 10, 16, 23. Holotype $. Atalo- 
phlebia delicatula Till., Holotype <$, R.J.T., N. Esk [River], Tas [mania], 2i.i.[ig]33 
[R. J. Tillyard]. 

demoulini Kimmins (Adenophlebiodes), 19600 : 352 [n.n. for decoratus Kim., 1956, nee 

Navas, 1931. 
dentata Eaton (Leptophlebia). Kimmins, 1960 : 295, text-fig. 38 [$ Lectotype]. 

dentatum Kimmins (Cloeon), 1956 : 76-77, text-fig. 9. Holotype <$ (mounted as a prepara- 
tion in euparal). Uganda, Jinja, ix-x, 1954 (P- S- Corbet) / Cloeon dentatum Kim., $ Type. 

determinates Walker (Baetis). Kimmins, 1960 : 285 [<$ Holotype]. 
dilnta Stephens (Ephemera), 1836 : 58. Eaton, 1871 : 9 reported that the type was missing.] 

dimidiata Stephens (Caenis), 1836 : 61. LECTOTYPE <J. minimus / Stephens Coll. / 
Caenis dimidiata Stephens $ Type, D. E. Kimmins det. 1953 / Caenis dimidiata Stephens, 
$ Lectotype, D. E. Kimmins det. 1969. 

Currently placed as a synonym of Caenis horaria (L.). 

diminuta Walker (Caenis). Kimmins, 1960 : 395 [ Holotype]. 



EPHEMEROPTERA TYPE-SPECIMENS IN BMNH 313 

dipsicus Gillies (Baetis), 1949 : 163-164, text-figs i, 10. Holotype <$ (in 2% formaldehyde 
solution). India, Poona, R. Mutha, io.ix.[i9]45 (M. T. Gillies]. Baetis dipsicus sp. n. 
Holotype <$. 

Although Gillies refers in the description to 'the type-specimens, four males and two 
females', he has labelled a holotype and I am accepting this as a designation of holotype. 

dislocans Walker (Ephemera). Kimmins, 1960 : 294 [$ Holotype]. 

dispar Stephens (Ephemera), 1836 : 58. LECTOTYPE . Stephens Coll. / ? Ephemera 
dispar Steph., D. E. Kimmins det. 1953 / Ephemera dispar Stephens, $ Lectotype, D. E. 
Kimmins det. 1960. 

This example agrees well with the description of the imago. The specimen bearing the 
label 'dispar Steph.' is the 'pseudimago' ; it now consists of the mesothorax and anterior wings. 

dissitus Eaton (Ameletus). Kimmins, 1960 : 270 [<$ Lectotype]. 

distans Eaton (Oniscigaster). Kimmins, 1960 : 271 [? Lectotype]. 

dobbsi Eaton (Oligoneuria). Kimmins, 1960 : 276-277, text-figs 9, 10 [$ Holotype]. 

[dubia Stephens (Ephemera), 1836 : 59-60. Type not recognizable from description. 

Placed by Eaton as synonymous with his Baetis phaeops. It is probably best treated as 
a nomen oblitum.'] 

eatoni Kimmins (Baetis), 1934 : 349~35 n g- I 5- Holotype $. Mexico, N. Sonora (Morrison) 
I B.C. A. Neuropt., Baetis sp. / Baetis eatoni sp. n., det. D. E. Kimmins. 

eatoni Kimmins (Ecdyonurus), 1937 : 438-439, pi. n, fig. 3; text-fig. 5. Holotype <$. 
Assam, Khasia Hills, Eaton Bequest / Ecdyonurus eatoni Kimmins, $ Type, det. D. E. 
Kimmins. 

edwardsi Kimmins (Caenis), 1939 : 107-108, text-fig, i. LECTOTYPE . Uganda, 
Ruwenzori Range, xii. 1934-1.1934. 1935 (B. M. E. Afr. Exp.) / Fort Portal, 5000 ft (F. W. 
Edwards) / Caenis edwardsi Kimm. [$] type, det. D. E. Kimmins / Caenis edwardsi Kim., <$ 
Lectotype, D. E. Kimmins det. 1969. 

elongatula McLachlan (Leptophlebia). Kimmins, 1960 : 304 [$ Lectotype]. 

erromangense Kimmins (Cloeon), 1936 : 80-81, text-figs 9, 10. Holotype <J (mounted as 
two microscope preparations). New Hebrides, Erromanga, Man -o'- War, N. C., 3.ix.i93o 
(L. E. Cheesman) / Cloeon erromangense Kim., <$ Type. 

exigua Eaton (Choroterpes). Kimmins, 1960 : 296, text-fig. 44 QJ Lectotype]. 
exspectans Walker (Potamanthus). Kimmins, 1960 : 308 [$ Holotype]. 

explicatus Eaton (Tricorythus). Kimmins, 1934 : 34^ [designation of <$ Lectotype (as 

'type')]. 

exquisitus Eaton (Ameletus). Kimmins, 1960 : 270 [<$ Lectotype]. 

facialis Gillies (Cryptopenella), 1951 : 127, text-figs n, 12, 14. Holotype < (so labelled by 
author) (in 2% formaldehyde solution). Hong Kong [Colony], River Shing Man, near 
Kowloon, 22.iii.[i9]47, Cryptopenella facialis, $ Holotype [M. T. Gillies det.]. 

fasciatus Eaton (Bleptus). Kimmins, 1960 : 278, text-fig. 12. [(J Holotype]. 

fasciatus Kimmins (Hagenulus), 1956 : 81-82, text-figs 17, 18. Holotype < (in 2% formalde- 
hyde solution). Uganda, Kaazi, I2.viii.i954 (R. Hartland-Rowe), Hagenulus fasciatus Kim., 



flnitimus Eaton (Baetis). Kimmins, 1960 : 288, text-fig. 25 [<J Lectotype]. 

flaveola (Pictet) Walker, 1853 : 559; Spieth, 1940 : 338. 

Spieth places the $ imago as a synonym of Stenonema luteum Clemens, one $ subimago 
as Stenonema rubromaculatum Clemens and the other $ subimago as Heptagenia hebe McD. 



3 i4 D. E. KIMMINS 

fluitans Gillies (Baetis), 1949 : 166-167, text-figs 3, 18. Holotype < [so labelled by author] 
(in 2% formaldehyde solution). India, Poona, R. Mutha, io.ix.[i9]45 [M. T. Gillies], Baetis 
fluitans sp. n. [M. T. Gillies det.]. 

formosus Eaton (Potamanthus) . Kimmins, 1960 : 306, text-fig. 50 [Q* Lectotype]. 

fradgleyi Blair (Rhithrogena), 1929 : 253-254, text-fig, i. Holotype <$. Bickham, i.vi. 
[ig]28 (K. F. F[radgley~\) / Rhithrogena fradgleyi Blair, Type, det. K. G. Blair. 
Currently placed as a synonym of R. haarupi Esben-Petersen. 

frater Tillyard (Baetis), 1936 : 50-53, text-figs 20, 24, 26-28. Holotype 6* (in 2% formalde- 
hyde solution). Baetis frater, Weldborough, N.E. Tasmania, Type Male. 

[fusca (Curtis) Stephens (Ephemera), 1836 : 58. Synonymized by Eaton with Ephemerella 
ignita (Poda). Example not recognized.] 

fusca Walker, nee Burmeister, (Baetis), 1853 : 568; Spieth, 1940 : 334. Re-named Rhithrogena 
jejuna Eaton, 1885. 

fuscata Walker (Baetis). Kimmins, 1960 : 304 [<$ Lectotype]. 

According to Spieth, 1940 : 335, the second (subimaginal) example is probably a Rhithro- 
gena. 

fuscula Tillyard (Atalophlebia), 1936 : 44-47, text-figs 9, 15, 19, 22. Holotype $. Atalo- 
phlebia fuscula Till., Holotype <, R. T. J., R. Shannon, Tas[mania], 27-i.[i9]33. 

gallica Eaton (Heptagenia). Kimmins, 1960 : 282, text-fig. 18 [<$ Lectotype]. 
gemellus Eaton (Baetis). Kimmins, 1960 : 288 [<J Lectotype]. 
geminatum Eaton (Cinygma). Kimmins, 1960 : 283 [$ Lectotype]. 
geminus Eaton (Epeorus). Kimmins, 1960 : 280, text-fig. 16 [6* Lectotype]. 

giganteus Tillyard (Coloburiscus), 1933 : 22-29, text-figs 32-45; pi. i, figs 7, 8. Holotype <J. 
[New South Wales], Mt Kosciusko, 5000 ft, [Digger's Creek], 30.1.1930 (R. J. Tillyard) / 
Coloburiscus giganteus Till., Q* Holotype Imago, R. J. T. 
Currently placed in Coloburiscoides. 

gilliesi Corbet (Afronurus), 1962 : 573-575, text-figs 1-3. Holotype <J (in 2% formaldehyde 
solution). [Tanganyika], Sigi R., Amani, 1800 ft, 2.v.[i9]53 (M. T. Gillies), Afronurus II / 
Afronurus gilliesi sp. n., P. S. Corbet det. / $ Type. 

grandis Eaton (Ephemerella). Kimmins, 1960 : 304 [$ Lectotype]. 
gravastellus Eaton (Blasturus). Kimmins, 1960 : 300 [<J Holotype]. 
gregalis Eaton (Leptophlebia). Kimmins, 1960 : 300 [< Holotype]. 

harrisoni Barnard (Afronurus), 1932 : 257-258, text-figs 45, 46b, c, 48; Schoonbee, 1968 : 
24 (Lectotype designation). Lectotype <J. Groot Drakenstein [A. C. H.], Afronurus 
harrisoni Brnd., $ Lectotype, H. Schoonbee det. 1964. 

Lectotype label written by D. E. K. at Mr. Schoonbee's request. 

harveyi Kimmins (Procloeon), 1947 : 94-95, figs 2, 6, 10. Holotype $ (in 2% formaldehyde 
solution). [Bengal], Calcutta distr., Nov. 1945 (D. E. Kimmins), Procloeon harveyi Kim., 
Type?. 

Hebe Walker (Ephemera). Kimmins, 1960 : 300 [$ Holotype]. 
helveticus Eaton (Ecdyurus). Kimmins, 19420 : 125 [Q* Lectotype]. 

helvipes Stephens (Ephemera), 1836 : 59. Holotype $. Small red label / helvipes Step. / 
Stephens Coll. / Ephemera helvipes Steph., $ Holotype, D. E. Kimmins det. 1969. 
Currently placed as a synonym of Paraleptophlebia submarginata (Stephens). 

hilaris Eaton (Thraulus). Kimmins, 1934 : 345 n - IO [designation of lectotype Q* (as 
'type')]. 



EPHEMEROPTERA TYPE-SPECIMENS IN BMNH 315 

hindustanicus Gillies (Thraulus), 1951 : 122-124, text-figs i, 2, 5, 7. Holotype (so 
labelled by author) (in 2% formaldehyde solution). India, N. Bengal, [Darjeeling Distr.,] 
Mirik, [3500-4000 ft] i8.ix.[i9]46 [M. T. Gillies'], Thraulus hindustanicus sp. n., $ holotype. 
[M. T. Gillies det.] 

hudsoni McLachlan (Ephemera). Kimmins, 1960 : 311, text-fig. 59 [<J Lectotype]. 
humeralis Walker (Palingenia). Kimmins, 1960 : 274 [$ Holotype]. 
humilis Eaton (Choroterpes). Kimmins, 1960 : 296, text-fig. 42 [6* Lectotype]. 

[hyalinatutn Stephens (Cloeon). Type not distinguishable from Centroptilum luteolum 
series.] 

hybrida Eaton (Rhithrogena). Kimmins, 1960 : 284, text-fig. 21 [<$ Lectotype]. 

ida Tillyard (Atalophlebia), 1936 : 42-43, pi. i, fig. 10; text-fig. 7. Holotype $. Tasmania, 
7.ii.i933 (R. J. Tillyard), Atalophlebia ida Tillyard, $ Holotype, D. E. Kimmins det. 1969. 

This example originally bore a BM paratype label, but has been relabelled Holotype to 
agree with Tillyard 's description. 

ignota Walker (Baetis). Kimmins, 1960 : 274, text-fig. 5 [<J Holotype]. 
illustris Eaton (Hexagenia). Kimmins, 1960 : 307 [Q* Holotype]. 
inopinatus Eaton (Ameletus). Kimmins, 1960 : 270 [$ Lectotype]. 

inopinum Gillies (Pseudocloeon), 1949 : 171-172, text-fig. 2. Holotype 5* (so labelled by 
author) (in 2% formaldehyde solution). [India], N. Bengal, 4000 ft, 20. ix. [19^6 [M. T. 
Gillies], Pseudocloeon inopinum sp. n., $ Holotype. [M. T. Gillies det.] 

inornata Eaton (Choroterpes). Kimmins, 1934 : 34. n g- 2 [designation of Lectotype (as 

'type')]. 

insignis Eaton (Heptagenia). Kimmins, 1960 : 279 [Q* Lectotype]. 
integrum Eaton (Cinygma). Kimmins, 1960 : 278 [<J Lectotype]. 
intermedia Eaton (Chirotonetes) Kimmins, 1960 : 274 [<J Holotype]. 
intermedius Eaton (Oniscigaster). Kimmins, 1960 : 271 [$ Holotype]. 

interrupta Stephens (Caenis), 1836 : 62. LECTOTYPE 6*. macrura Step. / Caenis macrura 
Steph. o* [abdomen in glycerine], D. E. Kimmins det. 1961 / Caenis interrupta Steph., <$ 
Lectotype, D. E. Kimmins det. 1969. 

There is no example bearing this name in the Stephens Coll. According to Eaton (1871 : 2 1 ) , 
it was a female of Caenis macrura Steph., but he does not refer to it earlier (1871 : 9), possibly 
because it had no Stephens Coll. label. The style of mounting is similar, it agrees well with 
the description and I have therefore designated it as Lectotype. Currently placed as a 
synonym of Caenis macrura Steph. 

invar ia Walker (Baetis). Kimmins, 1960 : 304 [<$ Lectotype]. 

it aliens Eaton (Ecdyurus). Kimmins, 19420 : 125 [Q* Lectotype]. 

japonica McLachlan (Ephemera). Kimmins, 1960 : 308 QJ Lectotype]. 

jejuna Eaton (Rhithrogena). Kimmins, 1960 : 284 [<$ Lectotype]. 

jinjana Kimmins (Caenodes), 1956 : 84-86, text-figs 22, 23. Holotype <$ (mounted as 

microscope preparation). Uganda, Jinja, at light, ix-x.i954 (P- S- Corbet) / Caenodes 

jinjana Kimmins, 6* Type. 

Julia Gillies (Cloeon), 1949 : 176, text-fig. 22. Holotype $ (unique) (in 2% formaldehyde 
solution). Malaya, Johore, Kluang, 9.vii.[i9]46 (M. T. Gillies], Cloeon julia sp. n. $ Holotype 
[M. T. Gillies det.]. 

kala Harker (Atalophlebia), 1954 : 247-248, text-figs 7, 8, 36. Holotype <J. [New South 
Wales], Mt. Kosciusko, Lake Albina, 2.^.1929 (R. J. Tillyard) / Atalophlebia kala [J.E.H.] / 
Abdomen in slide cabinet. 



316 D. E. KIMMINS 

kiboensis Gillies (Ephemerythus), 1960 : 37-38, text-figs 5, 8. Holotype $ (in 2% form- 
aldehyde solution). Tanganyika, Kilimanjaro, [4000 ft], Marungu, 25.x. [19^4 [M. T. 
Gillies], Ephemerythus kiboensis sp. n. $ holotype [M. T. Gillies det.]. 

kokunia Harker (Atalophlebia), 1954 : 244-246, text-figs 5, 6, 13. Holotype $. Q[ueens- 
land], Eidsvold, 28.viii.[i9]29 [R. J. Tillyard] / Atalophlebia kokunia [J. E. H. handwriting]. 
kungu Eaton (Caenis). Kimmins, 1960 : 305 [<J Holotype]. 

lacusalbinae Tillyard (Ameletoides), 1933 : 6-n. text-figs i-n, pi. i, figs 1-2. Holotype 
6*. N[ew] S[outh] W[ales], Mt. Kosciusko, Lake Albina, 6350 ft, 2.^.1929 (R. J. Tillyard) / 
Ameletoides lacus-albinae Till., Holotype, Imago, R.J.T. 

lacuscaerulei Tillyard (Tasmanophlebia), 1933 : 13-17, text-figs 17-30; pi. i, figs 3-6. 
Holotype $. N[ew] S[outh] W[ales), Mt Kosciusko, Blue Lake, (6200 ft), i.ii.i93O (R. J. 
Tillyard), Tasmanophlebia lacus-caerulei Till., $ Holotype Imago, R.J.T. 

lacustre Eaton (Centroptilum). Kimmins, 1960 : 290, text-fig. 28 [<? Lectotype]. 
lacustris Eaton (Siphlonurus). Kimmins, 1960 : 272 [<J Holotype]. 

lacustris Tillyard (Tasmanophlebia), 1921 : 410-412, pi. 34; text-figs i, 2. Holotype <$ 
(imago). Tas[mania], Cradle Mt., [Lake Lilla, 3000 ft], 23-i.[i9]i7 [reared from subimago] 
[R. J. Tillyard) / Tasmanophlebia lacustris Till., Type <$ im[ago], R.J.T. 

laetus Eaton (Thraulus). Kimmins, 1960 : 302 [6* Holotype]. 

lanceolatus Kimmins (Tricorythus), 19600 : 353-355, text-fig. 10. Holotype Q* (mounted 
as microscope preparation). Uganda, West Nile, near Laropi, 27-28.^.1956 (P. S. Corbet) / 
Tricorythus lanceolatus Kim., $ Holotype. 

lata Walker (Palingenia). Kimmins, 1960 : 314, text-fig. 64 [<J Lectotype]. 
latipennis Walker (Palingenia). Kimmins, 1960 : 313, text-fig. 62 [$ Lectotype]. 
lepidus Eaton (Thraulus). Kimmins, 1960 : 303 [<J Holotype]. 
Ullii Eaton (Deleatidium). Kimmins, 1960 : 298, text-fig. 43. [<J Lectotype]. 
lineata Eaton (Ephemera). Kimmins, 1960 : 308 [<J Lectotype]. 

longicauda Stephens (Baetis), 1836 : 63. LECTOTYPE $. Stephens Coll. / annulata 
Schaef.l / Baetis longicauda Stephens, <J Type, D. E. Kimmins det. 1953. / Baetis longicauda 
Steph., <J Lectotype, D. E. Kimmins det. 1969. 

Currently placed as Heptagenia longicauda (Stephens). 

longimanus Eaton (Iron). Kimmins, 1960 : 282 [<J Lectotype]. 

loweae Kimmins (Centroptilum), 1949 : 829-830, text-figs 1-4. Holotype <$ (in 2% form- 
aldehyde solution). Nyasaland, L. Nyasa, Chipoka II, 27-x.[i9]46 (R. H. Lowe) / Centrop- 
tilum loweae Kim., Type <J- 

luridipennis Walker [nee Burmeister] (Baetis). Kimmins, 1960 : 284. 
lusitanica Eaton (Choroterpes). Kimmins, 1960 : 296, text-fig. 45. [<J Lectotype]. 

[lutea (L.) Stephens (Ephemera), 1836 : 57. Eaton (1871 : 9, 145) placed this as a synonym 
of Heptagenia elegans (Stephens), but I have been unable to trace the specimen (s) in the 
Stephens Collection.] 

lutheri Miiller-Liebenau (Baetis), 1967 : 48-64, 8 text-figs. Holotype 6* (in 2% formaldehyde 
solution). Baetis lutheri <J, Ahr oberhalb Altenahr (Eifel), 30 August 1967. Miiller-Liebenau 
leg. et det. 

macani Kimmins (Baetis), 19570 : 27-29, text-figs iM, 2M. Holotype 6* (in 2% formaldehyde 
solution, genitalia in small tube of glycerine). N. Finland, [Mt] Sanna, c. 800 m, [near 
Kilpisjarvi, [bred from nymphs in a] small [stony] lake, I5.viii.i956 (T. T. Macan) / Baetis 
macani Kim. <J Holotype, Genitalia in small tube of glycerine, D. E. Kimmins det. 1957. 



EPHEMEROPTERA TYPE-SPECIMENS IN BMNH 317 

[macrura Stephens (Caenis), 1836 : 60-61. Type stated by Eaton (1871 : 9) to be missing. 
There is in the Stephens Coll. an example without Stephens Coll. label, but similarly mounted 
and labelled 'macrura Step.', but in view of Eaton's statement, it cannot be considered as the 
type of macrura. It has been designated the Lectotype of Caenis inter rupta Stephens.] 

maculatus Kimmins (Tricorythus), 1949 : 834-836, text-figs 8-10. Holotype $ (in 2% 
formaldehyde solution). Nyasaland, L. Nyasa, Chipoka II, 3.vii.[i9]46-27.x.[i9]46. Tri- 
corythus maculatus Kim., Holotype <$. 

major Eaton (Teloganodes). Kimmins, 1960 : 304 [<j> Lectotype]. 
tnanca Eaton (Isonychia). Kimmins, 1960 : 274 [? Lectotype]. 

marginatum Kimmins (Dicercomyzon), 19576 : 132-136, text-figs 2, 4-8. Holotype <$ 
(in 2% formaldehyde solution). Tanganyika Terr., E. Usambara Mts (M. T. Gillies) / 
Afrohyphes 1 I, $ imago from nymph, 2.7-[i9]53, Sigi R., 700' / Dicercomyzon marginatum 
Kim., <$ Holotype, D. E. Kimmins det. 1956. 

[marginata (L.) Stephens (Ephemera), 1836 : 57. The specimen bearing this label does not 
agree with the description; it is a $ Rhithrogena semicolorata (Curtis), as stated by Eaton 
(1871 : 9)]. 

maurus Kimmins (Baetis), 1938 : 302-305, pi. 10, 5 text-figs. Holotype (in 2% formalde- 
hyde solution). Morocco, Atlas Mountains, R. Amengous [an upper tributary of the Oumer 
Rebia], v.1937 M- H- Batten-Pooll), Baetis maurus Kimm. [<J] Type, det. D. E. Kimmins. 

melanonyx Pictet (Cloe), 1845 : 258, pi. 40, fig. 6. A neotype <J is being designated by 
Dr I. Miiller-Liebenau in her revision of the European species of Baetis (in press), based upon 
an example from Eaton's series of Baetis melanonyx Pictet in BMNH. 

mimus Eaton (Cinygma). Kimmins, 1960 : 278 [<J Lectotype]. 

minor Stephens (Ephemera), 1836 : 60. Holotype $. Small green label / Stephens Coll. / 
Ephemera minor Stephens, det. D. E. Kimmins, 1953 / Ephemera minor Steph., $ Holotype, 
D. E. Kimmins det. 1969. 

Currently placed as a synonym of Habrophlebia fusca (Curtis) . 

miunga Harker (Atalophlebia), 1954 : 2 4 6 > text-figs 9, 10, 35. Holotype <$ (in 2% formalde- 
hyde solution). New South Wales, Armidale, 3000 ft, xi.i948 [/. E. Harker], Atalophlebia 
miunga Hark., Type. 

The figures of <$ genitalia are from a paratype; the holotype was not dissected. 

monstratus Eaton (Hagenulus). Kimmins, 1960 : 300 QJ Lectotype]. 
montanus Eaton (Callibaetis). Kimmins, 1960 : 290 [$ Lectotype]. 

montanus Kimmins (Centroptilum), 19600 : 345, text-figs 4, 5. Holotype <J (mounted as 
two microscope preparations). [Uganda], Mt. Elgon, 11,600 ft, R. Sasa, 2g.xii.i954 (P. S. 
Corbet). Centroptilum montanum Kim., $ Holotype. 

munionga Tillyard (Coloburiscus), 1933 : 29-31, text-figs 44-45; pi. i, figs 9, 10. Holotype 

6*. [New South Wales], Mt Kosciusko, [Digger's Creek], 4000 ft, I2.xii.[i9]3i (R. J. Tillyard) / 

Coloburiscus munionga Till., <$ Holotype Imago. 
nanatum Harker (Deleatidium), 1965 : 255, text-figs 44-46. Holotype $, N[ew] S[outh] 

W[ales], Upper Murrumbidgee River, Adaminaby, n.xii.i936 (R. J. Tillyard) / Deleatidium 

nanatum. 

The year of capture was wrongly recorded as 1926 in the original description. 

natata Walker (Palingenia). Kimmins 1960 : 308 [$ Lectotype]. 
nebulosus Walker (Palingenia). Spieth, 1940 : 327 [<J Lectotype]. 

1 The quotation here of Gillies' manuscript generic name Afrohyphes constitutes publication in 
synonymy, and under Art. 1 1 (d) of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (and Edition) , 
the name is not thereby made available. 



3 i8 D. E. KIMMINS 

negi Corbet (Afronurus), 1960 : 68-70, text-figs 1-9. Holotype 6* (in 2 % formaldehyde 
solution). [Uganda], Sebire River, Toro, 28-30. iii.[i9]59 (P. S. Corbet) / Notonurus negi 
sp. n. Cbt / (J Type. 

nemorale Eaton (Centroptilum). Kimmins, 1960 : 290, text-fig. 29 [<J Holotype]. 

nervosa Eaton (Choroterpes). Kimmins, 1960 : 303 [<$ Holotype]. 

nervulosa Eaton (Habrophlebia). Kimmins, 1960 : 299, text-fig. 46. [<$ Lectotype]. 

niger Gillies (Ephemerythus), 1960 : 35-36, text-figs 1-3, 6, 9. Holotype $ (in 2% form- 
aldehyde solution). Tanganyika, [Tanga Province], Amani, 25.vi.[i9]56 [M. T. Gillies'] 
Ephemerythus niger sp. n., $ holotype [M. T. Gillies det.]. 

nigrescens Tillyard (Tasmanophlebia), 1933 : 18-20, text-figs 28, 29, 306; pi. i, figs 5, 6. 
Holotype <J. N[ew] S[outh] W[ales], Mt. Kosciusko, Spencer's Creek, [5700 ft], 6000 ft, 
29.1.1930 (R. J. Tillyard) / Tasmanophlebia nigrescens Till., Holotype <$ Imago. 
The description gives the altitude as 5700 ft, the label 6000 ft. 

nitidus Eaton (Iron). Kimmins, 1960 : 283 [<J Lectotype]. 
nivata Eaton (Heptagenia). Kimmins, 1960 : 284 [<J Lectotype]. 

njalensis Kimmins (Afronurus), 1937 : 433-434. text-fig. 2. Holotype <J. Sierra Leone, 
Njala, 9.xi.[i9]30 (E. Hargreaves) / Afronurus njalensis Kimmins, <$ Type, det. D. E. Kimmins. 

nodularis Eaton (Leptophlebia). Kimmins, 1960 : 295, text-fig. 41 [<J Lectotype]. 
norvegicus Eaton (Metretopus). Kimmins, 1960 : 286 [<J Lectotype]. 

notabile Kimmins (Centroptilum), 1956 : 73-75, text-figs 3-5. Holotype $ (as microscope 
preparation in euparal). Uganda, Jinja, at light, xii.i954 (-P- S- Corbet) / Centroptilum 
notabile Kim., 6* Type. 

notata Eaton (Ephemerella). Kimmins, 1960 : 304 [<$ Lectotype]. 

nubecularis Eaton (Baetis). Kimmins, 1960 : 289 [<J Holotype]. 

nubila Kimmins (Heptagenia), 1937 : 437-43^, pi- n, fig. 2; text-fig. 4. Holotype <J. Assam, 
Khasia Hills, Eaton Bequest / Heptagenia nubila Kimmins, < Type, det. D. E. Kimmins. 

obscura Stephens (Baetis), 1836 : 65. Holotype $. Stephens Coll. / obscura Step. / Baetis 
obscura Steph., $ Holotype, D. E. Kimmins det. 

Currently placed as a synonym of Ephemerella ignita (Poda) . The type now lacks the left 
fore wing. 

occidentalis Eaton (Siphlurus). Kimmins, 1960 : 273 [<J Lectotype]. 
occulta Walker (Palingenia) . Kimmins, 1960 : 311 QJ Lectotype]. 

[ochraceum Stephens (Cloeon). Type not recognizable in the series of Centroptilum 
lutoleum (Miiller).] 

ornatus Eaton (tChirotonetes). Kimmins, 1960 : 270-271 [$ Neotype]. 
pallipes Eaton (Spaniophlebia). Kimmins, 1960 : 276 [<J Lectotype]. 
pallipes Walker (Palingenia). Kimmins, 1960 : 301 [$ Lectotype]. 

palmyrae Gillies (Baetis), 1949 : 164-166, text-figs 2, 14, 15. Holotype <J (specimen so 
labelled by author) (in 2% formaldehyde solution). India, Poona, R. Mutha, io.ix.[i9]45 
[M. T. Gillies'], Baetis palymrae sp. n. / [M. T. Gillies det.]. 

par Eaton (Cinygma). Kimmins, 1960 : 278 [ Lectotype]. 

parvulus Gillies (Thraululus), 1951 : 124-125, text-figs 3, 4, 6, 8. Holotype <J (so labelled 
by author) (in 2% formaldehyde solution). [India, Central Provinces], R. Sonar, nr Saugor, 
n.iii.[i9]45 [M. T. Gillies'], Thraululus parvulus sp. n. [M. T. Gillies det.]. 

pennata Stephens (Caenis (Brachycercus)), 1836 : 61. LECTOTYPE [?sex]. pennata 
Step. I Stephens Coll. / Brachycercus pennata Steph., Lectotype, D. E. Kimmins det. 1969. 






EPHEMEROPTERA TYPE-SPECIMENS IN BMNH 319 

Type somewhat damaged. Apex of left wing and apex of abdomen missing, only a hind 
leg present. Synonym of Brachycercus harrisella Curtis. 

pennulatum Eaton (Centroptilum). Kimmins, 1960 : 290 [<$ Lectotype]. 
perpusilla Walker (Caenis). Kimmins, 1960 : 305. [<J Holotype]. 
perscitus Eaton (Ameletus). Kimmins, 1960 : 270 [? Holotype]. 

picea Kimmins (Caenis), 1947 : 99-100, text-fig. 14. Holotype <J (in 2% formaldehyde 
solution). [India], Bengal, Calcutta, reservoir of Baranagar[-Kamarhati] Waterworks 
29.xii.i945 (D. E. Kimmins}, Caenis picea Kim., Type Q*. 

pictiventris McLachlan (Ephemera). Kimmins, 1960 : 308 [$ Lectotype]. 
pictus Eaton (Baetis). Kimmins, 1960 : 290 [<J Lectotype]. 

pictus Gillies (Ephemerythus), 1960 : 36, text-figs 4, 7, 10, u. Holotype^ (in 2% formalde- 
hyde solution). Tanganyika, [Tanga Province], Sigi R., Amani, 20. ix. [19354 \M- T. Gillies], 
Ephemerythus pictus sp. n., <$ Holotype [M. T. Gillies det.]. 

pierda Harker [Atalophlebia), 1954 : 2 4^. text-figs n, 12, 37. Holotype Q\ N[ew] S[outh] 
W[ales], Hornsby, bred 2i.ix.[i9]i7 (R. J. Tillyard) / Abdomen in slide cabinet / Genitalia, 
slide V / Atalophlebia pierda [J.E.H. handwriting]. 

piscina Kimmins (Caenis), 1947 : 99, text-fig. 13. Holotype Q*. [Bengal], Calcutta distr., 
x.i945 (D. E. Kimmins) / Caenis piscina Kim., Q* Type. 

praepedita Eaton (Leptophlebia). Kimmins, 1960 : 302 [ Lectotype]. 

primanus Eaton (Thraulus). Kimmins, 1934 : 34 2 [designation of <J Lectotype (as 'type')]. 

[procera Harker (Kirrara), 1954 : 259-260, text-figs 43, 58, 59. The $ holotype has not been 
traced in our collection, the $ allotype bears a BM Type-label.] 

pseudorufulum Kimmins (Procloeon), 1957 : 3 x -3 2 . text-figs A, B. Holotype <J (in 2% 
formaldehyde solution). [England], Hereford, Kington, R. Arrow, 17-20^.1947 (D. E. 
Kimmins) / Procloeon pseudorufulum Kim., Q* Type, D. E. Kimmins det. 195-. 

pulcher Ulmer (Afronurus), 1930 : 507-511, text-figs 26-28. LECTOTYPE o* (subimago) 
Abyssinia, Muger River Valley, c. 5500 ft, 29.xii.ig26 (H. Scott) / Afronurus pulcher Ulmer <$ 
[subimago] Lectotype, D. E. Kimmins det. 1969. 

Currently placed as a synonym of Afronurus collar ti Navds. 

pulcherrima Eaton (Ephemera). Kimmins, 1960 : 308 [$ Holotype]. 

pulchrum Eaton (Centroptilum). Kimmins, 1960 : 290, text-fig. 30 [o* Lectotype]. 

purpurea Gillies (Isca), 1951 : 128-130, text-figs 15-22. Holotype g (so labelled by author) 
(in 2% formaldehyde solution). Hong Kong, San Wai, 30.^.1947 [M. T. Gillies], Isca 
purpurea, Holotype. 

pusillum Harker (Deleatidium), 1956 : 253, text-figs 40, 51, 52. Holotype <J. N[ew] 
S[outh] W[ales], Bolaro, 10.^.1936 (R. J. Tillyard) / Deleatidium pusillum [J.E.H.]. 
o* genitalia mounted in Canada balsam and attached to type-pin. 

[quaesitor Eaton (Ecdyurus). Kimmins, 1960 : 279-280 [Type presumed lost]]. 
[remotus Walker (Baetis). Kimmins, 1960 : 274 [Type presumed lost]]. 
rivulorum Eaton (Caenis). Kimmins, 1960 : 305 [<J Lectotype]. 
robust a Eaton (Caenis). Kimmins, 1960 : 305 [6* Lectotype]. 

rosea Stephens (Ephemera), 1836 : 59. LECTOTYPE <J. Small green label / Stephens 
Coll. / rosea Step, j Ephemera rosea Steph., <J Lectotype, D. E. Kimmins det. 1969. 

Placed by Eaton as a synonym of Ephemerella ignita (Poda) . The type has been damaged 
by insect pests, and part of the abdomen, including the anal appendages, is missing. 



320 D. E. KIMMINS 

rothschildi Navas (Ecdyonurus), 1929 : 59-60, text-fig. 2. Holotype 5*. [Algeria], Biskra, 
March i3-April 8, 1914 (W. R[othschild] & E. H[artert]) / Ecdyonurus Rothschildi 6* Nav., 
P. Navas S. J. det. / Red label Typus'. 

[rufescens Stephens (Ephemera), 1836 : 59. Type not recognizable with certainty. 

Eaton placed this species as a synonym of Ephemerella ignita (Poda) but the example 
bearing the label 'rufescens' was removed from Ephemerella ignita by Blair and placed as 
Leptophlebia sp. It is a female, possibly Leptophlebia marginata. This appears to be a case 
of the label having been changed since Eaton's time. I do not propose to make a lectotype.] 

ruftvenosa Eaton (Leptophlebia). Kimmins, 1960 : 302 [? Lectotype]. 

salvini Eaton (Baetis). Kimmins, 1960 : 289 [$ Lectotype]. 

salvini Kimmins (Heptagenia), 1934 : 35 J -353. text-figs 16-17. Holotype <$. Mexico, N. 
Sonora (Morrison) / B. C. A. Neuropt., Genus ? near Cinygma sec Eaton / Heptagenia salvini 
sp. n. Type <$, det. D. E. Kimmins. 

salviniae Eaton (Homoeoneuria). Kimmins, 1960 : 276 [<$ Lectotype]. 

satnoense Tillyard (Cloeon), 1928 : 45-47, text-figs 1-2. Holotype <$. Samoan Is., Upolu, 
Vailima, 25.x. 1924 (P. A. Buxton & G. H. Hopkins) / Cloeon samoense Till., Q* imago holotype, 
R.J.T. / Abdomen in slide cabinet. 

scambus Eaton (Baetis). Kimmins, 1960 : 289 [<$ Topotype]. 

scita Walker (Baetis). Kimmins, 1960 : 295, text-fig. 40 [5* Lectotype]. 

scitulum Kimmins (Cloeon), 1955 : 863-865, text-figs la-c. Holotype <$ (mounted as 
microscope preparation in euparal). Nyasaland, Chiromo, 26.vii.i952 (Lewis Berner) / 
Cloeon scitulum Kim., Q* Holotype. 

scotti Eaton (Hagenulus). Kimmins, 1960 : 300, text-fig. 48 [<J Holotype]. 

[scotti Tillyard (Caenis), 1936 : 56-58, text-figs 31-33. Type mounted whole on slide, 
possibly in Canberra, unless slides in our collection have wrong locality data. C. scotti 
Tillyard is a homonym of C. scotti Ulmer, 1930 and has been renamed C. tillyardi Lestage]. 

scotti Ulmer (Caenis), 505-507, text-fig. 25. LECTOTYPE <J. Abyssinia, near Addis 
Allem, c. 8000 ft, 19. ix. 1926 (H. Scott) / Caenis Scotti Ulm., Typen / Caenis scotti Ulm., <J 
Lectotype, D. E. Kimmins det. 1969. 

semicastanea Gillies (Habrophlebiodes), 1951 : 125, text-figs 9, 10, 13. Holotype Q* (so 
labelled by author) (in 2% formaldehyde solution). [India], Poona, R. Mutha, 20. ix. [19345 
[M. T. Gillies] / Habrophlebiodes semicastanea sp. n. [M. T. Gillies det.]. 
Currently placed in the genus Masharikella. 

septimum Gillies (Cloeon), 1949 : 174-175, text-fig. 21. Holotype $ (so labelled by author) 
(in 2% formaldehyde solution). Malaya, Johore, Batu Pahat, 25.iv.[ig]46 [M. T. Gillies'], 
Cloeon septimum sp. n. <$ Holotype [M. T. Gillies det.]. 

serica Eaton (Ephemera). Kimmins, 1960 : 309, text-fig. 53 [<$ Lectotype]. 

sibirica McLachlan (Palingenia). Kimmins, 1960 : 314-315, text-fig. 65 [6* Holotype]. 

siccum Gillies (Cloeon), 1949 : 174. Holotype 6* (so labelled by author) (in 2% formaldehyde 
solution). India, C[entral] Provinces], branch of the River Sonar, where it crosses the 
Saugor-Damoh road at the i2th milestone, n.iii.[i9]45 [M. T. Gillies], Cloeon siccum sp. n. 
[M. T. Gillies det.]. 

simile Eaton (Cloeon). Kimmins, 1960 : 292 [<J Lectotype]. 

simulans Walker (Ephemera). Kimmins, 1960 : 309 [6* Holotype]. 

sinensis Walker (Caenis). Kimmins, 1960 : 292 [<J Holotype almost completely destroyed]. 

sogeriensis Harker (Baetis), 1954 : 26 4> text-figs 72-74. Holotype <J (in 2% formaldehyde 
solution). New Guinea, Sogeri, i.vi.i947 (^- Wharton), Baetis sogeriensis Hark., Type. 



EPHEMEROPTERA TYPE-SPECIMENS IN BMNH 321 

solitarius Gillies (Baetis), 1949 : 170, figs 6, n. Holotype $ (in 2% formaldehyde solution). 

India, N. Bengal, Mirik, 4000 ft, 2O.ix.[ig]46 [M. T. Gillies], Baetis solitarius sp. n. <$ holotype 

[M. T. Gillies det.]- 
son t hi Blair (Haplogenia), 1929 : 255, text-figs 2-4. Holotype (J. [Middlesex], Stanmore, 

4.vi.[i9]2o [R. South] / Left wings in slide cabinet / Haplogenia southi Blair, Type, det. K. G. 

Blair. 

Currently placed as a synonym of Arthroplea congener Bengtsson. 

stenopteryx Eaton (Centroptilum). Kimmins, 1960 : 291, text-fig. 31 [6* Lectotype]. 

stigma Stephens (Ephemera), 1836 : 56-57. Holotype <$. Stephens Coll. / stigma Step. / I 
believe this to be the type of Ephemera stigma Stephens, in spite of the slightly banded setae. 
D. E. Kimmins det. 1953 / Ephemera stigma Stephens, 6* Holotype, D. E. Kimmins det. 1969. 
Placed by Eaton as a synonym of Leptophlebia marginata (Linnaeus) . 

strigata Eaton (Ephemera). Kimmins, 1960 : 309, text-fig. 55 [6* Lectotype]. 
strigata Eaton (Leptophlebia). Kimmins, 1960 : 299 [$ Holotype]. 

subfusca Stephens (Baetis), 1836 : 64. Holotype $. Stephens Coll. / subfusca Step. / Baetis 
subfusca Steph., $ Holotype, D. E. Kimmins det. 1969. 
Probably a synonym of Ecdyonurus dispar (Curtis) . 

subfuscus Kimmins (Ecdyonurus), 1937 : 439~44> text-fig. 6. Holotype <J. Assam, 
Khasia Hills, Eaton Bequest / Ecdyonurus subfuscus Kimmins, <$ Type, det. D. E. Kimmins. 
Holotype with apex of abdomen cleared and mounted in canada balsam. 

submarginata Stephens (Ephemera), 1836 : 58. LECTOTYPE <. Stephens Coll. (with 
small green label) / NB. Right f.w. is Ephemerella ignita, det. K. G. Blair / ? Type of Ephemera 
submarginata Steph., D. E. Kimmins det. 1953 / Ephemera submarginata Stephens, $ 
Lectotype, D. E. Kimmins det. 1969. 

The head of the lectotype is missing. Currently placed in the genus Paraleptophlebia. 

subnotatus Eaton (Ameletus). Kimmins, 1960 : 270 [6* Lectotype]. 
tabularis Eaton (Atalophlebia). Kimmins, 1960 : 294 [Type not located].] 

talcosa Stephens (Ephemera), 1836 : 57. Holotype $. Stephens Coll / talcosa / Ephemera 
talcosa Stephens, $ Holotype, det D E. Kimmins, 1969. 

Placed by Eaton as a synonym of Leptophlebia marginata (L.). 

taprobanes Walker (Baetis). Kimmins, 1960 : 296, text-fig. 37 [<$ Holotype]. 
tarsalis Eaton (Atopopus). Kimmins, 1960 : 177, text-flag, n (Q* Lectotype]. 

tasmaniae Tillyard (Cloeon), 1936 : 53-55. Holotype <$ (in 2% formaldehyde solution). 
Cloeon tasmaniae Till., Holotype $ Tas[mania], Stewarton, 8.ii.[ig]33 (Eric Scott). 

tenax Eaton (Baetis). Kimmins, 1960 : 289 [<J Topotype]. 

tessellatum Walker (Baetis). Kimmins, 1960 : 284 [$ subim. Holotype]. 

thurbonis Gillies (Baetis), 1949 : 168-170, text-figs 5, 16. Holotype $ (so labelled by author) 
(in 2% formaldehyde solution). [India], N. Bengal, Mirik, [Thurbo Tea Estate], 4000 ft, 
20.ix.[ig]46 [M. T. Gillies], Baetis thurbonis sp. n. [M. T. Gillies det.]. 

tigroides Gillies (Baetis), 1949 : 167-168, text-figs 4, 8, 9. Holotype <$ (so labelled by author) 
(in 2% formaldehyde solution). [India], N. Bengal, Mirik, 4000 ft, 21. ix. [19^6 [M. T. 
Gillies], Baetis tigroides sp. n. [M. T. Gillies det.]. 

tinctus Kimmins (Tricorythus), 1956 : 82-84, text-figs 19-21. Holotype 6* (in 2% formalde- 
hyde solution). Uganda, Owen Falls Dam, at light, 24.^.1954, (P. S. Corbet) / Tricorythus 
tinctus Kim., $ Type, D. E. Kimmins det. 1954. 

torrentis Gillies (Masharikella), in Peters, Gillies and Edmunds, 1964 : 120, text-figs 2-3, 
10, 13-22. Holotype <J (in 2% formaldehyde solution). Tanganyika, Amani, 2000-3000 ft, 



322 D. E. KIMMINS 

East Usambara Mountains, 20. iv. 1958 (M. T. Gillies), / Masharikella torrentis Det. 1964, 
W. L. Peters / Holotype 1964. 

torrentis Kimmins (Ecdyonurus), 1942 : 492-497, figs 2T, 3T, 4-5. Holotype $. N. Lanes. 
Blelham Fishpond Beck, 20. v. 1941 (D. E. Kimmins) / Ecdyonurus torrentis Kim., [<J] Type, 
det. D. E. Kimmins i6/2/[i9J4i. 

torrentium Eaton (Epeorus). Kimmins, 1960 : 282, text-fig. 15 [<J Lectotype]. 

torridus Walker (Baetis). Kimmins, 1960 : 284 [$ Holotype]. 

trailiae Eaton (Spaniophlebia). Kimmins, 1960 : 277 [<J Lectotype]. 

trimeniana McLachlan (Oligoneuria). Kimmins, 1960 : 275, text-fig. 7. [$ Holotype]. 

tristis Harker (Jappa), 1954 : 2 57~259, text-figs 62, 63, 66. Holotype <$. Tas[mania], 
Cradle Mt., 2i.i.[i9]i7 (R. J. Tillyard) / Abdomen in slide cabinet / Jappa tristis [J.E.H.] / 
Genitalia slide XL 

The holotype now lacks all legs and left fore wing. 

tropicalis Gillies (Euthraulus), 1957 : 44~45 text-figs 2-5, 8-9. Holotype $ (in 2% formalde- 
hyde solution). Tanganyika, [Tanga Province, c. 12000 ft], Mombo, x.[ig]54 [M. T. Gillies], 
Euthraulus tropicalis, $ holotype [M. T. Gillies det.]. 

tuhla Harker (Atalophlebia), 1954 : 2 47> text-figs i, 2, 3, 4. Holotype Q\ N[ew] S[outh] 
W[ales], Kiandra, I5_i.[i9]3o (R. J. Tillyard) / Atalophlebia tuhla [J.E.H.] / Abdomen in 
slide cabinet / Genitalia, slide III. 

typicus Eaton (Siphlurus). Kimmins, 1960 : 274 [^ Lectotype]. 

ugandanus Kimmins (Afronurus), 1956 : 71-73, text-fig, i. Holotype <$ (in 2% formalde- 
hyde solution, apex of abdomen as microscope preparation). Uganda, Entebbe, 8.iii.i954 
(R. Hartland-Rowe) j Afronurus ugandanus Kim., Q* Type, D. E. Kimmins det. 195-. 

umbratilts Eaton (Habrophlebia). Kimmins, 1960 : 300, text-fig. 47 [$ Lectotype]. 

usambarae Gillies (Euthraulus), 1957 : 46-48, text-figs 6-7, 10-11. Holotype 6* ( m 2 % 
formaldehyde solution). Tanganyika, E. Usambara, Mpandeni, ao.vi.[i9]55 [M. T. Gillies], 
Euthraulus usambarae, $ holotype [M. T. Gillies det.]. 

vaciva Eaton (Leptophlebia), Eaton. Spieth. 1941 : 96 [<J Lectotype]. 

valens Eaton (Thraulus). Kimmins, 1934 : 344 [designation of $ Lectotype (as 'type)]. 

venusta Eaton (Hexagenia). Spieth, 1940 : 88 [<$ Lectotype]. 

venustulus Eaton (Baetis). Kimmins, 1960 : 289 [<J Lectotype]. 

versicolor Eaton (Atalophlebia). Kimmins, 1960 : 296, text-fig. 39 [Q* Lectotype]. 

versicolor Eaton (Thraulus). Kimmins, 1960 : 303 [< Lectotype]. 

vicaria Walker (Baetis). Kimmins, 1960 : 284 [<J Holotype]. 

viridescens Walker (Palingenia). Kimmins, 1960 : 311 [$ Holotype]. 

viridis Kimmins (Cloeon), 1947 : 98. Holotype $ (in 2% formaldehyde solution). [Bengal], 
Calcutta distr., x.i945 (D. E. Kimmins), Cloeon viridis Kim., Type $. 

vitrea Walker (Palingenia). Kimmins, 1960 : 283 [$ Holotype, subimago]. 
volitans Eaton (Heptagenia). Kimmins, 1960 : 282 [<J Lectotype]. 
wakefieldi McLachlan (Oniscigaster). Kimmins, 1960 : 272, text-fig. 2 [<J Lectotype]. 
walker i Eaton (Ephemerella). Kimmins, 1960 : 304 [Type as for Ephemerella fuscata] . 
zelleri Eaton (Ecdyurus). Kimmins, 19420 : 125 (6* Lectotype). 

zettana Kimmins (Ephemera), 1937 : 43 I ~433 pi- IJ n g- X J text-fig, i. Holotype^ (in 2% 
formaldehyde solution). Montenegro, R. Zetta, 1933 (A. H. Batten Pooll) / Ephemera zettana 
Kimmins, Type $, det. D. E. Kimmins. 



EPHEMEROPTERA TYPE-SPECIMENS IN BMNH 323 

REFERENCES 

BARNARD, K. H. 1932. South African Mayflies (Ephemeroptera) . Trans. R. Soc. S. Afr. 

20 : 201-259, 48 text-figs. 
BLAIR, K. G. 1929. Two new British Mayflies (Ephemeroptera). Entomologist's mon. Mag. 

65 : 253-255, 4 text-figs. 
CORBET, P. S. 1960. A new species of Afronurus (Ephemeroptera) and its association with 

Simulium in Uganda. Proc. R. ent. Soc. Lond. (B)29 : 68-72, 9 text-figs. 

- 1962. A new species of Afronurus (Ephemeroptera) from Tanganyika and records of 
Simulium associated with Afronurus larvae. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (13)4 : 573-576, 3 text- 
figs. 

EATON, A. E. 1871. A monograph on the Ephemeridae. Trans, ent. Soc. Lond. 1871 : 1-164, 

6 pis. 
GILLIES, M. T. 1949. Notes on some Ephemeroptera Baetidae from India and South-East 

Asia. Trans. R. ent. Soc. Lond. 100 : 161-177, 22 figs. 

1951. Further notes on Ephemeroptera from India and South East India. Proc. R. 

ent. Soc. Lond. (B)20 : 121-130, 22 text-figs. 

1954. T ne adult stages of Prosopistoma Latreille (Ephemeroptera), with descriptions of 

two new species from Africa. Trans. R. ent. Soc. Lond. 105 : 355-372, 22 text-figs. 

- 1957. New records and species of Euthraulus Barnard (Ephemeroptera) from East 
Africa and the Oriental Region. Proc. R. ent. Soc. Lond. (B)26 : 43-48, 15 text-figs. 

- 1960. A new genus of Tricorythidae (Ephemeroptera) from East Africa. Proc. R. ent. 
Soc. Lond. (B)29 : 35-40, n text-figs. 

MARKER, JANET E. 1954. The Ephemeroptera of Eastern Australia. Trans. R. ent. Soc. 

Lond. 105 : 241-268, 90 text-figs. 
KIMMINS, D. E. 1934. Notes on the Ephemeroptera of the Godman and Salvin Collection, 

with descriptions of two new species. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (io)14 : 338-353, 17 text-figs. 
1936. Odonata, Ephemeroptera, and Neuroptera of the New Hebrides and Banks Island. 

Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (io)18 : 68-88, i pi., n text-figs. 

- 1937. Some new Ephemeroptera. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (io)19 : 430-440, pi. n, 6 text- 
figs. 

1938. A new Moroccan Ephemeropteron. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (u)l : 302-305, pi. 10, 
5 text-figs. 

- 1939. Ephemeroptera and Neuroptera. Ruwenzori Exped. 1934-35. 3(5) : 107-115, 
pi. 10, text-figs 1-6. BM(NH), London. 

1942. The British species of Ecdyonurus (Ephemeroptera). Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (n)9 : 
486-507, 10 text-figs. 

19420. Notes on Ephemeroptera. Entomologist 75 : 121-125, i text-fig. 

1947- New species of Indian Ephemeroptera. Proc. R. ent. Soc. Lond. (B)16 : 92-100, 

14 text-figs. 

1949. Ephemeroptera from Nyasaland, with descriptions of new species. Ann. Mag. 

nat. Hist. (21)! : 825-836, 10 text-figs. [Issue of Nov. 1948, published March 1949]- 

1955. Ephemeroptera from Nyasaland, with descriptions of three new species and some 
interesting nymphal forms. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (12)8 : 859-880, 13 text-figs. 

- 1956. New species of Ephemeroptera from Uganda. Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 
4(2) : 69-87, 31 text-figs. 

1957- Notes on Procloeon pseudorufulum sp. n. (=Procloeon rufulum (Eaton)) and on 

Cloeon simile Eaton. Ent. Gaz. 8 : 29-35. 

- 19570. A new lentic species of the genus Baetis (Ephemeroptera) from North Finland. 
Notul. ent. 37 : 27-29, text-figs 1-2. 

- 1957^- New species of the genus Dicercomyzon Demoulin (Ephemeroptera, fam. 
Tricorythidae). Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 6(5) : 127-136, 8 text-figs. 

1958. The Ecdyonurus helveticus (Eaton) Complex (Ephemeroptera). Annln naturh. 

Mus. Wien 62 : 225-232, 23 text-figs. 



324 D. E. KIMMINS 

KIMMINS, D. E. 1960. The Ephemeroptera Types of species described by A. E. Eaton, 
R. McLachlan and F. Walker. Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 9(4) : 269-318, 65 text-figs. 

19600. Notes on East African Ephemeroptera, with descriptions of new species. Bull. 

Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 9(6) : 337-355, 10 text-figs. 

MtJLLER-LiEBENAU, I. 1966. Beschreibung einer neuen Eintagsfliegen-Art. Gewdss. Abwdss. 
43 : 65-69, 8 text-figs. 

1967. Zur Frage der Baetis 'venustuhts' , zugleich Beschreibung der neuen Art Baetis 

lutheri n. sp. (Insecta, Ephemeroptera). Gewdss. Abwdss. 44/45 : 48-64, 9 text-figs. 

NAvAs, L. 1929. Insectes NeVropteres et voisins de Barbaric. Bull. Soc. Hist. nat. Afr. N. 

20 : 57-60, 2 text-figs. 
PETERS, W. L., GILLIES, M., & EDMUNDS, G. F. 1964. Two new genera of mayflies from the 

Ethiopian and Oriental Regions (Ephemeroptera : Leptophlebiidae) . Proc. R. ent. Soc. 

Land. (B) 33 : 117-124, 38 text-figs. 
PICTET, F.-J. 184345. Histoire naturelle gin&vale et particuliere des Insectes N6vropteres. 

Famille des Ephe'me'rines , X + 3OO+I9 pp., 47 pis. Paris & Geneva. 
SCHOONBEE, H. J. 1968. A revision of the genus Afronurus Lestage (Ephemeroptera : 

Heptageniidae) in South Africa. Mem. ent. Soc. sth. Afr. 10 : 1-44, 7 pis in col., 59 text- 
figs. 
SPIETH, H. T. 1940. The North American Ephemeroptera Species of Francis Walker. Ann. 

ent. Soc. Am. 33 : 324-338, i text-fig. 

1941. The North American Ephemeroptera Types of the Rev. A. E. Eaton. Ann. ent. 

Soc. Am. 34 : 87-98, pi. i, figs 1-8. 

STEPHENS, J. F. 1835-36. Illustrations of British Entomology; or, a synopsis of indigenous 
insects : containing their generic and specific distinctions; with an account of their meta- 
morphoses, times of appearance, localities, food, and economy, as far as possible. Mandibulata. 
vol. VI. London. 

TILLYARD, R. J. 1921. A new genus and species of Mayfly (Order Plectoptera) from Tas- 
mania belonging to the family Siphluridae. Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. 46 : 409-412, pi. 34, 
2 text-figs. 

1928. Plectoptera. Insects Samoa 7(2) : 45-47, 2 text-figs. BM(NH), London. 

- 1933. The Mayflies of the Mount Kosciusko Region. I. Introduction and Family 
Siphlonuridae. Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. 48 : 1-32, pi. i, 45 text-figs. 

1936. The Trout-Food Insects of Tasmania. Part II. A monograph of the mayflies of 
Tasmania. Pap. Proc. R. Soc. Tasm. 1935 : 23-59, pi. i, figs i-io; text-figs 1-33. 

ULMER, G. 1930. Entomological Expedition to Abyssinia, 1926-27: Trichoptera and 
Ephemeroptera. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (10)6 : 479-511, 28 text -figs. 



DOUGLAS ERIC KIMMINS 

Department of Entomology 

BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 

CROMWELL ROAD 

LONDON, S.W.7 



A LIST OF SUPPLEMENTS 
TO THE ENTOMOLOGICAL SERIES 

OF THE BULLETIN OF 
THE BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 



2. NIXON, G. E. J. A reclassification of the tribe Microgasterini (Hymenoptera : 
Braconidae). Pp. 284 : 348 text-figures. August, 1965. 6. 

3. WATSON, A. A revision of the Ethiopian Drepanidae (Lepidoptera). Pp. 177 : 
18 plates, 270 text-figures. August, 1965. 4 45. 

4. SANDS, W. A. A revision of the Termite Subfamily Nasutitermitinae (Isoptera, 
Termitidae) from the Ethiopian Region. Pp. 172 : 500 text-figures. Sep- 
tember, 1965. 3 5s. 

5. AHMAD, I. The Leptocorisinae (Heteroptera : Alydidae) of the World. 
Pp. 156 : 475 text-figures. November, 1965. 2 155. 

6. OKADA, T. Diptera from Nepal. Cryptochaetidae, Diastatidae and Droso- 
philidae. Pp. 129 : 328 text-figures. May, 1966. 3. 

7. GILIOMEE, J. H. Morphology and Taxonomy of Adult Males of the Family 
Coccidae (Homoptera : Coccoidea). Pp. 168 : 43 text-figures. January, 1967. 

33. 

8. FLETCHER, D. S. A revision of the Ethiopian species and a check list of the 
world species of Cleora (Lepidoptera : Geometridae). Pp. 119 : 14 plates, 146 
text-figures, 9 maps. February, 1967. 3 zos. 

9. HEMMING, A. F. The Generic Names of the Butterflies and their type-species 
(Lepidoptera : Rhopalocera). Pp. 509. 8 IDS. 

10. STEMPFFER, H. The Genera of the African Lycaenidae (Lepidoptera : Rho- 
palocera). Pp. 322 : 348 text-figures. August, 1967. 8. 

11. MOUND, L. A. A review of R. S. BagnalTs Thysanoptera Collections. Pp. 172 : 
82 text-figures. May, 1968. 4. 

12. WATSON, A. The Taxonomy of the Drepaninae represented in Chkia, with 
an account of their world distribution. Pp. 151 : 14 plates, 293 text-figures. 
November, 1968. 5. 

13. AFIFI, S. A. Morphology and Taxonomy of Adult Males of the families 
Pseudococcidae and Eriococcidae (Homoptera: Coccoidea). Pp. 210 : 52 text- 
figures. December, 1968. 5. 

14. CROSSKEY, R. W. A Re-classification of the Simuliidae (Diptera) of Africa 
and its Islands. Pp. 198 : I plate, 331 text-figures. July, 1969. 4 155. 

15. ELIOT, J. N. An analysis of the Eurasian and Australian Neptini (Lepidoptera : 
Nymphalidae). Pp. 155 : 3 plates, 101 text-figures. September, 1969. 

4- 

16. GRAHAM, M. W. R. DE V. The Pteromalidae of North-Western Europe 
(Hymenoptera : Chalcidoidea) . Pp. 908 : 686 text-figures. November, 1969. 
19- 



Printed in England by Staples Printers Limited at their Kettering, Northants, establishment 



A CATALOGUE OF THE 

MEMBRACID TYPES 

(HOMOPTERA : MEMBRACIDAE) 

IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM 

(NATURAL HISTORY) 



P. S. BROOMFIELD 




BULLETIN OF 

THE BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 
ENTOMOLOGY Vol. 25 No. 8 

LONDON : 1971 



A CATALOGUE OF THE MEMBRACID 

TYPES (HOMOPTERA : MEMBRACID AE) 

IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 




BY 

PETER SAINSBURY BROOMFIELD 



- 325-386 



BULLETIN OF 

THE BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 
ENTOMOLOGY Vol. 25 No. 8 

LONDON: 1971 



THE BULLETIN OF THE BRITISH MUSEUM 

(NATURAL HISTORY), instituted in 1949, is 
issued in five series corresponding to the Departments 
of the Museum, and an Historical series. 

Parts will appear at irregular intervals as they become 
ready. Volumes will contain about three or four 
hundred pages, and will not necessarily be completed 
within one calendar year. 

In 1965 a separate supplementary series of longer 
papers was instituted, numbered serially for each 
Department. 

This paper is Vol. 25 No. 8 of the Entomolog- 
ical series. The abbreviated titles of periodicals cited 
follow those of the World List of Scientific Periodicals. 



World List abbreviation 
Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.). 



@ Trustees of the British Museum (Natural History) 1971 



TRUSTEES OF 
THE BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 

Issued 9 March, 1971 Price 1*85 



A CATALOGUE OF THE MEMBRACID 

TYPES (HOMOPTERA: MEMBRACID AE) IN 

THE BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 

By PETER S. BROOMFIELD 

SYNOPSIS 

The purpose of this paper is to provide a record of the Membracid holotypes, lectotypes and 
neotypes present in the collection of the British Museum (Natural History) and to designate 
additional lectotypes where necessary. The present totals are: holotypes 492, lectotypes 446 
(of which all but one are designated in this paper), and I neotype. 

IN the following list the taxa are arranged alphabetically by specific name. This is 
followed in each case by the genus in which it was described, the author and a coded 
reference to its original description. The code is the same as that used in Metcalf's 
bibliography of the Membracoidea (1963), in which full bibliographic references are 
given. The complete references to works published after 1955 are given at the 
end of the present paper. The coded reference is followed by the kind of type- 
specimen and a description of the data labels. The extent of each label is indicated 

by quotation marks (' ') and the individual lines of the label are separated 

by semicolons (;). The condition of the type-specimen, if damaged, is noted. 

Lectotypes designated in this paper are indicated thus : LECTOTYPE. These 
specimens are labelled ' LECTOTYPE ' and with the name of the taxon and its author, 
followed by ' P. S. Broomfield 1969 ' : such labels are not quoted in the text of the 
present paper. Additional syntypes, where present in the collection, are also noted : 
these specimens are now labelled as paralectotypes. In certain species the number 
of specimens in the type-series was clearly indicated by the author (e.g. Walker, 
i85ia & i858b). Where such species were described from a single specimen it 
has been possible to label this as the holotype. In the absence of information on 
the number of specimens in the type-series (e.g. Walker, i858a) single specimens 
have been desginated as lectotypes. Lectotypes have not been selected in those 
cases in which the greater part of the type-series is known to be located in another 
institution, or where the author has clearly indicated that the type is among material 
lodged elsewhere. 

The label ' Type ' referred to in this catalogue is a circular printed label used 
throughout the coDection. It is edged in red except in the case of Walker's types 
where it is edged in green. Specimens bearing these labels have been regarded by 
common usage as types, though, as in most cases they were not so labelled by the 
author of the species, such an assumption is not always justified. However, since 
in most cases the same specimen also bears the author's own taxonomic label and 
is in every way consistent with being the specimen before, him at the time of des- 
cription, it is regarded here as being the holotype, or, where there is more than one 



328 P. S. BROOMFIELD 

specimen in the series, is designated lectotype. Instances where a specimen so 
labelled is not regarded by the writer as being eligible for such designation are 
indicated in the text. 

The taxonomic labels printed in block capitals on some of Walker's types have 
been cut from his British Museum catalogues. Those including a number (e.g. 
' 8. ENTYLIA ACCISA,') are cut from the i85ia catalogue, and those without a number 
(e.g. ' CENTROTUS ACER.') from the i858b catalogue. It is not known who placed 
these labels on the specimens. The majority of Fowler's taxa described in the 
Biologia Centrali-Americana bear a label which states : ' B.C. A. Homopt. II ' and 
the name of the taxon. To save space such labels are here referred to simply as the 
' B.C.A. label '. 

Many errors and omissions in some of the earlier descriptions are not commented 
upon in the present paper, though those that may lead to confusion at generic or 
higher level are noted. Some of the illustrations in certain works are also mis- 
leading and where necessary redescriptions of these will follow later. 

I should like to thank Dr W. J. Knight of the British Museum (Natural History) 
for his guidance in the preparation of this catalogue, and Mr A. L. Capener of the 
Plant Protection Research Institute, Pretoria, for reading the manuscript and for 
his helpful criticisms. 



abbreviata (Polyglypta) Walker, i858b : 136. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type' and 'Mexico; 

53; 86' and 'POLYGLYPTA ABBREVIATA.'. 
abcisus (Heteronotus) Walker, 18510, : 595. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: 'Type' and 

'Para; 49.; 2' and '16. HETERONOTUS ABCISUS'. 

Of the four other specimens originally in the type-series, only one female now remains in 

the collection. 
abdullah (Leptocentrus) Distant, 19166 : 290. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type' and 

'Annandale & Robinson.; Siamese Malay States.; 1903-127.' and 'Bulsit Besar. ; 2,500 ft; 

Siam.; Malay States; 27/8/01' and 'Leptocentrus; abdullah; type Dist.'. 
accisa (Entylia) Walker, 18513. : 548. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type' and 'N. Amer' and 

'Ent. Club.; 44-12.' and '8. ENTYLIA ACCISA,'. 
acer (Centrotus) Walker, i858b : 163. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type' and 'Malacca; 56; 

140' and 'CENTROTUS ACER.'. 

The posterior pronotal process is broken. 
acuminata (Membracis) Fabricius, i775a : 675. LECTOTYPE with labels: 'Pennsylvania' 

and '63; 47' and associated with it, though not mounted on the same pin, 'Type' and 

'Membr. acuminata; Fab. Entom. p. 675. 5.'. 

The abdomen and left tegmen are missing. The specimen is from the Joseph Banks Collec- 
tion and the 'Type' label is handwritten. 
acuminata (Oxyrhachis) Capener, 1962 : 90. Holotype $ with labels: 'HOLOTYPE' and 

'DRAWING; No 419; A. L. CAPENER.' and 'Oxyrhachis; acuminata; CAPENER; 1962.' and 

'Ceres,; Cape Province; Febr. 1921.' and 'S. Africa.; R. E. Turner.; Brit. Mus.; 1921-115.'. 

The allotype and two other male paratypes are also in the collection. 
acuticornis (Periaman) Funkhouser, i93&d : 187. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type' and 

'MALAYA; Kuala lumpur. ; Sel: Museum; Nr: L. Gardens.; Coll. H. M. Pendlebury.; 

29.12.1935' and 'Periaman; acuticornis; HOLOTYPE; W. D. Funkhouser'. 

There are only two discoidal cells in the tegmen, not three as described. The allotype 

and two other paratypes, one male, one with the abdomen lost, are also in the collection. 



CATALOGUE OF THE MEMBRACID TYPES IN BMNH 329 

acutus (Hebeticoides) Fowler, 18940 : 53. Holotype <$ with labels: 'Type' and 'Pancina,; 
Vera Paz.; Champion.' and 'Brit. Mus.; 1904-55.' and 'Hebeticoides; acutus Fowler.; TYPE' 
and the B.C.A. label. 

addahensis (Gargara) Distant, 19150 : 489. LECTOTYPE <J with labels: 'Type' and 

'Addah.; Gold Coast.; N. J. Palmer.; 1912. 142.' and 'Gargara; addahensis; type Dist.'. 

There are four other male specimens from the type-series in the collection. 
aduncus (Leptocentrus) Buckton, igoaa : 236. LECTOTYPE <J with labels: 'Type' and 

'Distant Coll.; 1911-383.' and 'Leptocentrus; aduncus Type; Buckt.'. 

One of three specimens glued to the same card, the lectotype is indicated by an adjacent 

red ink spot. The other two specimens are female and one is badly damaged. 
aenea (Gargara) Distant, 19150 : 491. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: 'Type' and 'Uganda 

Prot.; Entebbe.; i-n Sep. 1911.; S. A. Neave.' and '1912-193' and 'Gargara; aenea; type 

Dist.'. 

There are four other females from the type-series in the collection. 
aeneosparsa (Aconophora) Butler, i8y8a : 348. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type' and 'Mex.; 

56.; 143' and 'A. xneosparsa [sic]; Butler Type.'. 
aeneus (Tricentrus) Distant, igi6a : 167. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: Type' and 'Ind. 

Mus.; Kurseong; 5000 ft.; E. Himalayas; g.ix.og; N.A.' and 'Tricentrus; aeneus; Dist.; type'. 

There are six other females from the type-series in the collection. 
aequalis (Smilia) Walker, i858b : 133. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type' and 'Ega; Brazil; 

51.; 43' and 'SMILIA AEQUALIS.'. 
aethiops (Heniconotus) Butler, i8j8a, : 359. Holotype with labels: 'Type' and 'Ecuador.; 

73.; 18.' and 'Heniconotus; aethiops; Butler Type.'. 
affinis (Aphetea) Haviland, ig25a : 252. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: 'Type' and 'Kartabo,; 

Brit. Guiana.; B.M. 1924-519.' and 'Kartabo, Brit. Guiana; July, 1922; e coll. M. D. Haviland; 

d.d. Collegium Newnhamense' and 'Aphetea; affinis; Haviland.'. 

The tegmina are missing. There are four other females from the type-series in the 

collection. 

affinis (Darnoides) Fowler, 18950 : 82. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: 'Type' and 'David,; 

Chiriqui.; Champion.' and 'Brit. Mus.; 1904-55.' and 'Darnoides; affinis Fowler; TYPE.' and 

'like Darnoides; brunnea &; nigroapica but not' and the B.C.A. label. 

There is another female from the type-series in the collection. 
affinis (Gargara) Distant, igoSg : 61. LECTOTYPE <$ with labels: 'Type' and 'Distant 

Coll.; 1911-383.' and 'Tenass Vail; Myitta; (Doherty).' and 'Gargara; affinis; type Dist.'. 

There is another male from the type-series in the collection. 
affinis (Parayasa) Distant, I9i6a : 179. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type' and '207' and 

'Nandidrug; S. India; T. V. Campbell' and 'S. India.; E. A. Butler.; 1915-60.' and 'Parayasa; 

affinis; type Dist.'. 
affinis (Poppea) Fowler, i8g5d : 100. Holotype <$ with labels: 'Type; H.T.' and 'Teleman,; 

Vera Paz.; Champion.' and 'Poppaea [sic]; affinis Fowler; TYPE.' and the B.C.A. label. 
affinis (Sertorius) Distant, igi6d : 25. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type' and 'Sydney: N.S.W.; 

1900-1903.; J. J. Walker.; 1910-384.' and 'Sertorius; affinis; type Dist.'. 
affinis (Sphongophorus) Fowler, 18940 : 29. LECTOTYPE <J with labels: 'Type' and '<J' 

and 'Quiche Mts.,; 7-9000 ft.; Champion.' and 'Sphongophoros; affinis. Fowler; TYPE' and 

'Brit. Mus.; 1904-55.' and the B.C.A. label. 

There is another male from the type-series in the collection. 
affixa (Parayasa) Distant, igi6a : 178. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type' and 'Nilgiri Hills,; 

S. India.; T. V. Campbell.' and 'S. India.; E. A. Butler.; 1915-60.' and '622' and 'Parayasa; 

affixa; type Dist.'. 
africanus (Platybelus) Distant, 19160 : 325. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: 'Type' and 

'Cameroons.; Escalera.; 1903-355.' and 'Platybelus; africanus; type Dist.'. 
There are four other females from the type-series in the collection. 



33 P. S. BROOMFIELD 

agnatus (Emphusis) Distant, 19160 : 319. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type' and '68.4' and 
'Chaut; Mouhot' and 'Emphusis; agnatus.; type Dist.'. 

agrestis (Oxyrhachis) Capener, 1962 : 39. Holotype $ with labels : 'HOLOTYPE' and 'DRAWING' 
No 447.' and 'Oxyrhachis; agrestis; CAPENER; 1962' and 'Zululand:; Eshowe.; 6-31. v. 1926.; 
and 'S. Africa.; R. E. Turner.; Brit. Mus.; 1926-232.'. 

The allotype and nine other paratypes are in the collection also. 

aguae (Polyglypta) Fowler, 1895! : 126. LECTOTYPE <$ with labels: 'Type' and '<$' and 'V. 
de Agua, ; 85-10500 ft.; Champion.' and 'Brit. Mus.; 1904-55.' and 'Polyglypta; aguae. 
Fowler; TYPE.' and the B.C.A. label. 

There is one other male from the type-series in the collection. 

alatus (Centrotypus) Buckton, igo3a : 237. Holotype with labels: 'Type' and 'Distant 
Coll.; 1911-383.' and 'Centrotypus; alatus; type Buckt.' and 'perakensis; Dist.; n. nom'. 
The abdomen and one wing and tegmen are lost. 

alba (Leptocentrus) Funkhouser, ig2ga : 470. Holotype $ with labels: 'Brit. Mus.; 1930- 
324.' and 'N. BORNEO.; BETTOTAN.; NR. SANDAKAN.; Aug: gth 1927.; C. B. K. & H. M. P.; 
F.M.S.; Museums.' and 'HOLOTYPE; Leptocentrus alba; W. D. Funkhouser'. 

albescens (Leptocentrus) Funkhouser, i935d: 427. Holotype . with labels: 'Type; H.T.' 

and 'SIERRA LEONE; NJALA; Bauninia; 24.ix.32; E. HARGREAVES' and 'Leptocentrus albescens; 

HOLOTYPE; W. D. Funkhouser'. 

The allotype is also in the collection. 
albidorsata (Telamona) Fowler, i8g6d: 145. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type' and 'Rinco- 

nada, ; Vera Cruz.; Schaus.' and 'Brit. Mus; 1904-55.' and 'Telamona; albidorsata; Fowler. 

TYPE.' and the B.C.A. label. 
albidutn (Enchophyllutn) Fowler, i894b : 7. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type' and 'S. 

Geronimo, ; Guatemala.; Champion.' and 'Brit. Mus.; 1904-55.' and 'Enchophyllum; albidum 

Fowler; TYPE' and the B.C.A. label. 
albidus (Centrotus) Walker, i87oa : 188. LECTOTYPE 6* with labels: 'Type' and 'M' and 

'68.4' and 'Wallace' and 'albidus'. 
albifrons (Hypamastris) Fowler, i8g5d : 93. Holotype <$ with labels: 'Type; H.T.' and 

'S. Geronimo,; 3000 ft.; Champion.' and 'Brit. Mus.; 1904-55.' and 'Amastris Stal; n.s. or 

Stali Gdng' and 'Hypamastris; albifrons Fowler.; TYPE.'. 
albigutta (Centrotus) Walker, i87oa : 184. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: 'Type' and 'N' 

and '68.4' and 'N Gui; Wallace' and 'albigutta'. 
albilatus (Centrotus) Walker, i87oa : 184. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: 'Type' and 'N' and 

'68.4' and 'N Gui; Wallace' and 'albilatus.'. 
albipes (Tricentrus) Funkhouser, ig27b : 4. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type' and 'Brit. 

Mus.; 1926-401.' and 'Sumatra.; Pres. by; E. Jacobson.' and 'Fort de Kock; (Sumatra) 

92oM.; 1926; leg. E. Jacobson.' and 'HOLOTYPE; Tricentrus albipes; - W. D. Funkhouser'. 
alboapicata (Gargara) Distant, igoSg : 66 LECTOTYPE 6* with labels: 'Type' and 'Distant 

Coll.; 1911-383.' and 'Tenass Vail; Myitta; (Doherty).' and 'Gargara; albopicata [sic]; type 

Dist.'. 

There are two females from the type-series in the collection also. 
albolinea (Gargara) Funkhouser, 1927!! : 255. Holotype $ with labels: 'Brit. Mus. ; 1930-324.' 

and '147' and 'MALAY PENIN:; Selangor, F.M.S.; Kuala Lumpur; April 5th 1926.; H. M. 

Pendlebury. ; EX COLL:; F.M.S.; MUSEUM.' and HOLOTYPE; Gargara albolinea; W. D. Funk- 
houser'. 
albolineatum (Anchon) Buckton, i9O3a : 216. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: 'Type' and 

'cv' and 'B.; 259' and 'Distant Coll.; 1911-383.' and 'Anchon; albolineatum.' and 'Mono- 

centrus; bipennis Walk.; Det. CAPENER.; 1963.'. 
albomacula (Gargara) Funkhouser, 1927!! : 254. Holotype <$ with labels: 'Brit. Mus.; 

I 930~324.' and '146' and 'MALAY PENIN:; Selangor, F.M.S.; Kuala Lumpur; on "Bauhinia" 






CATALOGUE OF THE MEMBRACID TYPES IN BMNH 331 

sp; March 24th 1926; H. M. Pendlebury. ; EX COLL:; F.M.S.; MUSEUM.' and 'Gargara; albo- 
macula; HOLOTYPE; W. D. Funkhouser'. 

albomaculatus (Indicopleustes) Distant, igoSg : 25. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: 'Type' 
and '1285' and 'Peradeniya, ; Ceylon, 12.02' and 'Indicopleustes; albomaculatus; type Dist.'. 
There are two other males and a female from the type-series in the collection. 

albomaculatus (Otinotus) Distant, igi6a : 159. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: 'Type' and 
'386' and 'Nilgiri Hills; S. India; T. V. Campbell' and 'Otinotus; albomaculatus; type Dist.'. 
There are eight other specimens from the type-series in the collection. 

albomaculatus (Tricentrus) Distant, igoSg : 56. LECTOTYPE <J with labels: 'Type' and 
'Distant Coll.; 1911-383.' and 'Tenass Vail; Myitta; (Doherty).' and 'Tricentrus; albomacu- 
latus; type Dist.'. 

There is one other male from the type-series in the collection. 

albonotata (Leptocentrus) Distant, 19166 : 289. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type' and 'Pusa 
Coll.; 1915-164.' and *3i.viii.o8; on coffee; 4600 ft; Hillgrove; Nilgiris Y.R.' and 'Lepto- 
centrus; albonotata; type Dist.'. 

albosignatum (Pogon) Distant, I9i6a : 161. LECTOTYPE <J with labels: 'Type' and 
'Distant Coll.; 1911-383.' and 'Hakjala; Ceylon 3.07' and 'Pogon; albosignatum; type Dist.'. 
There is one other male from the type-series in the collection. 

albosignatus (Otinotus) Distant, igi6d : 40. Holotype ? with labels: 'Type' and 'Queens- 
land.; F. P. Dodd.; 1907-54.' and 'Otinotus; albosignatus ; type Dist.'. 
The head is missing. 

albospinosus (Heteronotus) Haviland, ig25a : 245. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: 'Type' 
and 'Kartabo, ; Brit. Guiana.; B.M. 1924-519.' and 'Kartabo, Brit. Guiana; September, 
1922; e coll. M. D. Haviland; d.d. Collegium Newnhamense' and 'Heteronotus; albispinosus 
[sic]; Haviland.'. 

allabens (Tricentrus) Distant, igi6a : 166. LECTOTYPE ? with labels: 'Type' and '1998; 
21' and 'Distant Coll. ; 1911-383.' and 'Ind. Mus.; Kurseong; E. Himalayas; alt. 4700-5000 ft.; 
24.vi.io.; Annandale' and 'Tricentrus; allabens; type Dist.'. 
There is another female from the type-series in the collection. 

alta (Ceresa) Walker, i85ia : 529. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type' and '1892' and '12' and 

'15. CERESA ALTA,'. 

Both tegmina are missing. 
alta (Membracis) Walker, i85ia : 476. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type' and 'Vene-; zuela; 

47; 24' and 'II. MEMBRACIS ALTA.'. 

The right wing and tegmen are lost. 
alticeps (Centrotus) Walker, i87oa : 183. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: 'Type' and 'Aru' 

and '68.4' and 'alticeps'. 
altifrons (Centrotus) Walker, i85ia : 608. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type' and '15' and 

'Congo; 43; 56' and '21. CENTROTUS ALTIFRONS,'. 
altifrons (Oxygonia) Walker, i85ia : 553. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: 'Type' and 'Brazil' 

and 'Ent. Club.; 44. 12.' and '19. OXYGONIA ALTIFRONS.'. 

The right tegmen and the tip of the anterior pronotal horn are lost. 
anatina (Hypsoprora) Fowler, 18940 : 26. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: Type' and 'Bugaba, ; 

Panama.; Champion.' and 'Brit. Mus.; 1904-55.' and 'Hypsoprora; anatina Fowler; TYPE.' 

and the B.C.A. label. 

The lectotype is one of two females glued to the same card and is indicated by an adjacent 

red ink spot. There is also a male from the type-series in the collection. 
angulata (Pyrgauchenia) Funkhouser, i932a : 114. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type' and 

'Brit. Mus.; 1933-360' and 'B. N. BORNEO.; Mt. Kinabalu,; Kiau, 3,000 ft.; 7. 4. 1929-; H. M. 

Pendlebury; coll.; F.M.S. Museums.' and 'HOLOTYPE; Pyrgauchenia angulata; W. D. Funk- 
houser'. 



332 P. S. BROOMFIELD 

The anterior and posterior pronotal processes are missing. There are eight paratypes in 
the collection. 

angulata (Thelia) Walker, i85ia : 558. Holotype <$ with labels: 'Type' and '41.; 5.17; 
291' and 'E. Doubleday. ; Warm Springs,; N. Carolina.' and '10. THELIA ANGULATA'. 
The specimen was erroneously described as female. 

anodonta (Hypsauchenia) Buckton, i9O3a : 212. LECTOTYPE <$ with labels: 'Type' and 
'Distant Coll.; 1911-383.' and 'Perak; Doherty.' and 'Hypsauchenia; anodonta; type 140.'. 
There are four other males and two females from the type-series in the collection ; only one 
is undamaged. 

ansatus (Ibiceps) Buckton, 19033. : 239. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: 'Type' and 'Distant 
Coll.; 1911-383.' and 'Mt. Alexandre; to Mt. Nisbet; Brit. N. G., 1.96; Anthony.' and 
'Ibicips [sic]; ansatus; Buckt; type'. 
The head is missing. 

antonina (Enchenopa) Walker, i85ia : 488. Holotype <J with labels: 'Type' and 'N.; 
America' and 'N. Amer' and 'Ent. Club.; 44-12.' and '32. ENCHENOPA ANTONINA,'. 

aperta (Enchenopa) Walker, 18580 : 337. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type' and 'Tejuca; 
Jany. 1857; H. Clark; 57.50.' and 'ENCHENOPA APERTA.'. 

The dorsal pronotal horn is missing. 

apicalis (Ceresa) Walker, i85ia : 533. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type' and 'N. Amer' and 
'Ent. Club.; 44-12.' and '33. CERESA APICALIS' and 'Amastris; or Vanduzea Gdg' and 
'Vanduzea; arcuata Say.; fide F. W. G.'. 

The right tegmen is missing. 
apicalis (Hemiptycha) Walker, 1851 a : 572. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type 1 and '191' and 

'20. HEMIPTYCHA APICALIS,'. 

The right tegmen is missing. 
apicalis (Urnbonia) Walker, i85ia : 518. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type' and 'Colum-; 

bia; 47; 25' and '4. UMBONIA APICALIS,'. 
apriformis (Hemiptycha) Walker, i858b : 144. LECTOTYPE <$ with labels: Type' and 

'mex; 56; 143' and 'HEMIPTYCHA APRIFORMIS.'. 

arcuata (Enchenopa) Walker, i858b : 125. Holotype with labels: 'Type' and 'PETROPOLIS; 
Feby. 1857.; H. Clark.; 57. 43' and 'ENCHENOPA ARCUATA.'. 

The head, abdomen, and posterior pronotal process are missing and the tegmina are 
damaged. 

articularia (Umbonia) Buckton, igoia : 89. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: 'Type' and 
'Belize; Brit. Honduras' and 'Umbonia; articularia; 235ns'. 

There are two other females from the type-series in the collection. 

ascendens (Enchenopa) Walker, i85ia : 493. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type' and 'Colum-; 
bia; 47; 25' and '40. ENCHENOPA ASCENDENS,'. 

The anterior and posterior pronotal horns and the tips of the tegmina are damaged. 
asmodeus (Centrotypus) Distant, igoSg : 36. LECTOTYPE < with labels: 'Type' and 
'Distant Coll.; 1911-383.' and 'Tenass Vail; Myitta; (Doherty).' and 'Centrotypus; asmodeus; 
type Dist.' and 'Centrotus; asmodeus.; M.S.'. 

There are two other males from the type-series in the collection. 

aspera (Hypsoprora) Haviland, ig25a : 242. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type' and 'Kartabo, ; 
Brit. Guiana.; B.M. 1924-519.' and 'Kartabo, Brit. Guiana; August, 1922; e coll. M. D. 
Haviland; d.d. Collegium Newnhamense' and 'Hypsoprora; aspera,; Haviland'. 

In the description it is dated 'July 23rd' ; I believe the label to be in error. 
aspera (Tragopa) Walker, i858b : 151. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type' and 'Villa; Nova; 

55; 44' and 'TRAGOPA ASPERA.'. 

asperulus (Centrotus) Walker, i858b : 162. Holotype <$ with labels: 'Type' and 'Sierra; 
Leone.; Morgan; 49; 31' and 'CENTROTUS ASPERULUS.'. 



CATALOGUE OF THE MEMBRACID TYPES IN BMNH 333 

The legs, right wing and tegmen are lost, the posterior pronotal process is broken, and the 
abdomen is glued on upside-down. 

aspidistrae (Bolbonota) Haviland, 19253. : 241. LECTOTYPE ? with labels: 'Kartabo,; 
Brit. Guiana.; B.M. 1924-519.' and 'Kartabo, Brit. Guiana; September. 1922; e coll. M. D. 
Haviland; d.d. Collegium Newnhamense.' and 'Bolbonota; aspidistrae; Haviland'. 

Of the twelve specimens from the type-series in the collection, the one bearing the 'Type' 
label is badly damaged and is not, therefore, selected as the lectotype. 

assamensis (Tricentrus) Distant, igoSg : 57. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: 'Type' and 
'Margherita' and 'assamensis; type Dist.'. 

There is another female from the type-series in the collection. 

assitnilis (Stictopelta) Fowler, i895a : 57. LECTOTYPE $ with labels : 'Type' and 'Duenas, ; 
Guatemala,; G. C. Champion.' and 'affinis' and 'Brit. Mus. ; 1904-55.' and 'Stictopelta; 
assimilis Fowler; TYPE.' and the B.C. A. label. 

There is another male from the type-series in the collection. 

aterrima (Gargara) Distant, 19150 : 491- LECTOTYPE $ with labels: 'Type' and '1912-193' 
and 'Uganda Prot. ; Budongo Forest,; Unyoro, 3,400 ft.; 11-15 Dec. 1911.; S. A. Neave.' 
and 'Gargara; aterrima; type Dist.'. 

There are two other females from the type-series in the collection. 

atomarius (Tetraplatys) Walker, 18513. : 510. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: 'Type' and 
'Brazil; 43; 86' and 'i. TETRAPLATYS ATOMARIUS,.' 

The five specimens from the type-series in the collection are all female, though they were 
described by Walker as males. The confusion probably arose from the extremely small size 
of the ovipositor sheath in this genus. 

atratus (Centrotus) Walker, 18513. : 624. Holotype <$ with labels: 'Type' and '38.11.8; 563.' 
and 'Sierra Leone; Rev. D. F. MORGAN' and '60. CENTROTUS ATRATUS,'. 
The posterior pronotal process is missing. 

atricapilla (Parayasa) Distant, I9i6a : 179. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type' and 'Nilgiri 
Hills,; S. India.; T. V. Campbell.' and 'S. India.; E. A. Butler.; 1915-60.' and 'Parayasa; 
atricapilla; type Dist.'. 

atricoxis (Centrotus) Kirby, iSgia : 164. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type' and '44' and 

'Centrotus; atricoxis; Kb. type; Ceylon.; Green Coll.; 90-115.'. 

atrornaculatus (Sextius) Distant, I9i6d : 35. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type' and 'Queens- 
land.; F. P. Dodd.; 1907-54.' and 'Sextius; atrornaculatus; type Dist.'. 
attenuata (Hemiptycha) Walker, i858b : 144. Holotype <J with labels: Type' and 'Brazil; 

53; 2' and 'HEMIPTYCHA ATTENUATA.'. 
attenuata (Xiphistes) Distant, igi5b : 324. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type' and 'Lesapi R.; 

Mashona I'd 3-10-97.; G. A. K. Marshall; 1908-212.' and 'Xiphistes; attenuata; type Dist.'. 
aureomaculatus (Leptocentrus) Distant, igi6c : 315. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: 'Type' 

and 'Uganda Prot.; Valley of Kafu R.; Unyoro. 3,400 ft.; 23-28 Dec. 1911.; S. A. Neave.' 

and 'Leptocentrus; aureomaculatus; type Dist.'. 

There are four other females and a male from the type-series in the collection. 
aurifascia (Centrotus) Walker, i85ia : 618. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: 'Type' and 

'Jamaica; 46; 84.' and '49. CENTROTUS AURIFASCIA,'. 

There is another male and a female from the type-series in the collection. 
auriflua (Oxygonia) Walker, 18513, : 550. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: 'Vene-; zuela.; 

47; 52'. 

Of the two specimens from the type-series in the collection, the one bearing the 'Type' 

label is very badly damaged and is therefore not chosen as the lectotype. 
auritus (Otaris) Buckton, igosa : 249. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type' and 'Distant Coll.; 

1911-383.' and 'Sumatra.' and 'e.' and 'Otaris; auritus; type Buckt.' and 'Oticephalus ; 

obtusus.'. 



334 P. S. BROOMFIELD 

australasiae (Xiphistes) Distant, igi6d : 21. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type' and 'Distant 
Coll.; 1911-383.' and 'b.c.' and 'Sud-Austral.' and 'Xiphistes; australasiae; type Dist.', 

Capener (1962) believes the above locality to be incorrect and that the specimen was prob- 
ably captured at the Cape of Good Hope, South Africa. 

australis (Leptocentrus) Distant, igi6d : 24. LECTOTYPE with labels: 'Type' and 
'Malvern,; Natal. Oct. '97.; G. A. K. Marshall.; 1908-212.' and 'Leptocentrus; australis; 
type Dist.'. 

The abdomen is missing. There are three other specimens from the type-series in the 
collection: one is female, and the others are without abdomens. 

australis (Otinotoides) Distant, I9i6d : 40. Holotype < with labels: 'Type' and 'Queens- 
land.; F. P. Dodd.; 1907-54.' and 'Kuranda; Qld.; Sepr. 04; F. P. Dodd.' and 'Otinotoides; 
australis; type Dist.'. 

bajulans (Leptocentrus) Distant, igi6a : 155. LECTOTYPE <$ with labels: 'Type' and 
'CALCUTTA; 21-2-07' an d 'Distant Coll.; 1911-383.' and 'Leptocentrus; bajulans; type Dist.'. 
There is another male from the type-series in the collection. 

balteata (Telingana) Distant, igi6a : 151. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: 'Type' and 'K.K.; 
4.14; 364' and 'Kodai Kanal; S. India. Campbell.' and 'S. India; E. A. Butler.; 1915-60.' 
and 'Telingana; balteata; type Dist.'. 

There are three other females and three males from the type-series in the collection. 

basalts (Centrotus) Walker, i85ia : 626. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: 'Type' and 'Hong; 
Kong; 48; 60' and '65. CENTROTUS BASALIS.'. 

The suprahumeral horns and the posterior pronotal process are broken. There is another 
female from the type-series in the collection ; its head is missing. 

basalis (Ceresa) Walker, i85ia : 527. LECTOTYPE <$ with labels: 'Type' and '815' and 
'R' and '12. CERESA BASALIS,'. 

There are two other males from the type-series in the collection. 

beebei (Leioscyta) Haviland, ig25a : 239. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type' and 'Kartabo, 
Brit. Guiana; September. 1922; e coll. M. D. Haviland; d.d. Collegium Newnhamense' and 
'Kartabo,; Brit. Guiana.; B.M. 1924-519.' and 'Leioscyta; beebei.; Haviland.'. 

bellicosa (Stegaspis) Walker, i858b : 165. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: 'Type' and 'Rio 
Janeiro; Deer. 1856.; H. Clark; 57.57.' and 'STEGASPIS BELLICOSA.'. 

There is another female from the type-series in the collection; its pronotum is badly dam- 
aged. 

belliger (Heniconotus) Butler, i878a : 359. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type' and 'St; Paulo; 
65; 3' and 'H. belliger; Butler Type'. 

The posterior pronotal process and the left suprahumeral horn are broken. 
bicolor (Centrotus) Walker, i85ia : 625. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type' and '63. CENTROTUS 

BICOLOR,'. 

The posterior pronotal process is missing and the tegmina are damaged. 

bicolor (Enchenopa) Walker, i85ia : 492. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type' and 'Brasil; 43; 
86' and '38. ENCHENOPA BICOLOR,'. 

The head is damaged. 
bicolor (Erechtia) Walker, i858b : 141. Holotype ? with labels: 'Type' and 'Santar; em; 

54; 63' and 'ERECHTIA BICOLOR.'. 

bicolor (Gargara) Funkhouser, ig27b : 9. Holotype - with labels: 'Brit. Mus.; 1926-401.' 
and 'Sumatra.; Pres. by; E. Jacobson.' and 'Gunung Singgalang; (Sumatra's Westkust) ; 
iSooM. vii 1925; leg. E. Jacobson.' and 'HOLOTYPE $; Gargara bicolor; W. D. Funkhouser'. 

The allotype is also in the collection. 

bicolor (Maurya) Funkhouser, I93&C : 246. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type' and '262' and 
'Brit. Mus.; 1936-222' and 'Debrepani, 6000'; Darjeeling, Bengal; J. C. M. Gardner.; 
i8.ix.i929' and 'HOLOTYPE; Maurya bicolor; W. D. Funkhouser'. 



CATALOGUE OF THE MEMBRACID TYPES IN BMNH 335 

There are two discoidal cells in the tegmen, not three as described. The allotype is also 
in the collection. 

bicolor (Philya) Walker, 18585 : 126. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: 'Type' and 'CONSTANCIA; 
Jany. 1857.; H. Clark.' and 'PHILYA BICOLOR.'. 

Walker erroneously refers to only one specimen ('a') in his description; there are another 
male and two females from the type-series in the collection, the existence of which is indicated 
in the description. 

bicolor (Tricentrus) Distant, igoSg : 55. LECTOTYPE ? with labels: 'Type' and 'Distant 
Coll.; 1911-383.' and 'Bombay.; Dixon.' and 'bicolor; Dist.; type'. 

There are two other females from the type-series in the collection. 
bicuspis (Enchenopa) Walker, i85ia : 487. Holotype ? with labels: 'Type' and '31. 

ENCHENOPA BICUSPIS,'. 

The pronotum is damaged. 

bifacies (Tragopa) Walker, i8$8b : 150. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type' and 'Villa; Nova; 
55; 44' and 'TRAGOPA BIFACIES.'. 

The 'horns' referred to in the description are the greatly developed humeral angles. 
bifasciata (Rhexia) Butler, i878a : 356. Holotype with labels: 'Type' and 'Amazon; 
St Paul; 60; 32' and 'R. bifasciata; Butler Type.'. 

The greater part of the abdomen has been eaten away. 

bifurcus (Tricentrus) Distant, igi6a : 165. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: 'Type 1 and 'Distant 
Coll.; 1911-383.' and 'Darjiling' and 'Tricentrus; bifurcus; type Dist.'. 

There is another specimen from the type-series in the collection, its abdomen is missing. 
bifusifera (Enchenopa) Walker, i858b : 125. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type' and 'Vera; 
Cruz; 54; 66' and 'ENCHENOPA BIFUSIFERA.'. 

The anterior pronotal process is broken. 
bigutta (Hemiptycha) Walker, i858b : 142. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type' and 'Guatema.; 

55.71.' and 'HEMIPTYCHA BIGUTTA'. 
bilinea (Tragopa) Walker, i858b : 152. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type' and 'Santar; em; 

53; 72' and 'TRAGOPA BILINEA.'. 
bi macula (Enchenopa) Walker, 1851 a : 491. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type' and '41. ; 5.17. ; 

285.' and 'E. Doubleday. ; Trenton Falls,; New York.' and '37. ENCHENOPA BIMACULA,'. 
binaria var. mutabilis (Micrutalis) Fowler, 18956 : 117. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: 
'Type' and 'Orizaba.' and 'Mexico.; Salle Coll.' and 'Brit. Mus.; 1904-55.' and 'Micrutalis; 
binaria var. mutabilis; Fowler. TYPE.' and the B.C. A. label. 

The left wing and both tegmina are missing. There are two other females, one male, and 
a specimen without an abdomen from the type-series in the collection. 

binotatus (Centrotus) Walker, 1858% : 81. LECTOTYPE with labels: 'Type' and '68.4' and 
'N.S.W.' and 'binotatus Walk'. 

The abdomen is missing. 

binsarus (Oxyrhachis) Distant, igi6a : 148. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type' and '21' and 
'United Prov.,; Forest Dept.,; Dehra Dun.; Dr. A. W. Imms. ; 1915-228.' and 'Binsar; 
(Kumaon) ; 7.700 ft.' and 'Oxyrhachis; binsarus; type Dist.'. 

bioculatus (Centrotus) Kirby, iSgia : 166. LECTOTYPE <$ with labels: 'Type' and '39' 
and 'Pundaloya; Ceylon. I' and 'Centrotus; bioculatus; Kb. type; Ceylon.; Green Coll.: 
90-115.'. 

There is another male from the type-series in the collection. 
bipennis (Centrotus) Walker, i85ia : 606. Holotype with labels: 'Type' and '46; 88' and 

'19. CENTROTUS BIPENNIS.'. 

The abdomen is missing and the anterior pronotal horn is damaged. 

biplaga (Centrotus) Walker, i87oa : 191. LECTOTYPE 6* with labels: 'Type' and 'Mak.' 
and '68.4' and 'Celeb; Wallace' and 'biplaga'. 

The head and abdomen have become detached and are glued separately. 



336 P. S. BROOMFIELD 

biplaga (Enchenopa) Walker, 18583. : 60. LECTOTYPE ? with labels: 'Type' and 'Columb' 
and 'Colombia' and 'biplaga Walk'. 

biplaga (Horiola) Walker, i862a : 318. Holotype with labels: 'Type' and 'Rio' and 'Miss 
Pascoe, ; 96-41.' and 'Horiola; biplaga; type Walk' and 'Horiola; biplaga Wr.'. 
The head only, the rest of the specimen is lost. 

bipuncta (Thelia) Walker, i85ia : 556. LECTOTYPE ? with labels: Type' and 'Para; 
50; 2.' and '6. THELIA BIPUNCTA,'. 

There is another female from the type-series in the collection. 

bipunctata (Membracis) Fabricius, iy75a : 677. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: 'Australia.' 
and '63 ; 47.' and associated with it, though not mounted on the same pin, 'Type' and 'Membr. 
2punctata; Fab. Entom. p. 677. n.'. 

The head is missing. There is another badly damaged specimen from the type-series 
Both specimens are from the Joseph Banks Collection and the 'Type' label is handwritten. 

bisenti (Oxyrhachis) Distant, igisb : 322. LECTOTYPE with labels: 'Type' and '1913-140.' 

and 'Nyasaland.; Mlanje. ; Aug. 15. 1913.; S. A. Neave.' and 'Oxyrhachis; bisenti; type Dist.'. 

The abdomen is missing and the posterior pronotal process is glued to a card beneath the 

specimen. There are two males and five females from the type-series in the collection also. 

biseratensis (Polonius) Distant, 19166 : 291. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type' and 'Annan- 
dale & Robinson.; Siamese Malay States.; 1903-127.' and 'Biserat. ; Siam:; Malay States; 
No 188' and 'Polonius; biseratensis; type Dist.'. 

bistriga (Darnis) Walker, i8$8a, : 74. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: 'Type' and '68.4' and 

'Amaz' and 'bistriga Walk.'. 
bituberculata (Pterygia) Fowler, i8g4b : 24. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: 'Type' and 

'David,; Chiriqui.; Champion.' and 'Brit. Mus.; 1904-55.' and 'Pterygia; bituberculata; 

Fowler, TYPE.' and the B.C. A. label. 

One of two females glued to the same card, the lectotype is indicated by an adjacent red 

ink spot. There are twenty-four other specimens from the type-series in the collection. 
biturris (Centrotus) Walker, i858b : 164. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: 'Type' and '56.; 

85' and 'CENTROTUS BITURRIS.'. 

There are three other females and a male from the type-series in the collection. The 

lectotype has the right tegmen missing. 

borneensis (Centrochares) Distant, igi6c : 314. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type' and 'Distant 

Coll.; 1911-383.' and 'Kuching; May 16; 1900' and 'Centrochares; borneensis; type Dist.'. 
bovillus (Tricentrus) Distant, igi6a : 164. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type' and 'Distant 

Coll.; 1911-383.' and 'Moulmein; L. Burma; 6-iii-o8' and 'Tricentrus; bovillus; type Dist.'. 
bovinus (Centrotus) Distant, igi6c : 323. LECTOTYPE <$ with labels: 'Type' and '1914- 

348.' and 'Uganda.; Kadunguru.; Eastern Province.; i-io Jan. 1914.; C. C. Gowdey.' and 

'Centrotus; bovinus; type Dist.'. 

There are also four females from the type-series in the collection. 
bowringi (Centrotypus) Distant, igi6e : 291. Holotype $ with labels: Type' and 'Pulo; 

Penang; 61 ; 46.' and 'Centrotypus; bowringi; type Dist.'. 
brevicornis (Catnpylocentrus) Fowler, i8g6d : 151. LECTOTYPE <$ with labels: 'Type' 

and 'V. de Chiriqui.; 2-3000 ft.; Champion.' and 'Brit. Mus.; 1904-55.' and 'Campylocentrus ; 

brevicornis. Fowler; TYPE.' and the B.C. A. label. 

There is another male from the type-series in the collection. 
brevicornis (Centruchus) Funkhouser, i936c : 247. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type' and 

'239' and 'Brit. Mus.; 1936-222' and 'Putshai 6000; Lolab Valley,; Kashmir. 23^.1928.; 

C. F. C. Beeson.; 160' and 'Centruchus; brevicornis; HOLOTYPE; W. D. Funkhouser'. 

The allotype is also in the collection. 
brevicornis (Otinotoides) Funkhouser, i935d : 432. Holotype Q* with labels: 'Type; H.T.' 

and 'British Solomons; Jan. 1932; R. J A. W. Lever; Lur. ; Guardalcanal.' and 'Pres. by; 



CATALOGUE OF THE MEMBRACID TYPES IN BMNH 337 

Imp. Inst. Ent. ; B.M. 1935-224.' and 'HOLOTYPE; Otinotoides brevicornis; W. D. Funk- 
houser'. 

The tegmina have three discoidal cells, not four as stated in description. 

brevicornis (Otinotus) Distant, igi6a : 160 LECTOTYPE <$ with labels: 'Type' and 
'Distant Coll ; 1911-383.' and 'Lahore; Punjab.; 9-v-o8; N.A.' and 'Otinotus; brevicornis; 
type Dist.'. 

There is another male from the type-series in the collection. 

brevicornis (Potnia) Fowler, i8g4C : 46. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: 'Type' and 'Boquete,; 
3500 ft.; Champion.' and 'Brit. Mus.; 1904-55.' and 'Potnia; brevicornis.; Fowler. TYPE' 
and the B.C. A. label. 

Glued to the same card as the fragments of another specimen, the lectotype is indicated by 
an adjacent red ink spot. There are eleven other specimens from the type-series in the 
collection. 

brevinota (Pyrgauchenia) Funkhouser, I932a : 115. Holotype . with labels: 'Type' and 

'Brit. Mus.; 1933-360.' and 'B. N. BORNEO.; Mt. Kinabalu,; Kiau, 3,000 ft.; 7.4.1929.; H. M. 

Pendlebury; coll.; F. M. S. Museums.' and 'HOLOTYPE; Pyrgauchenia brevinota; W. D. 

Funkhouser.'. 

The anterior pronotal horn is broken. There are three other females and two males from 

the type-series in the collection. 
brevis (Anchon) Distant, igoSg : 52. Holotype <$ with labels: 'Type' and 'Distant Coll.; 

1911-383.' and 'Anaradhapura; Ceylon. 2. 1904' and 'Anchon; brevis Dist.; type'. 
brevis (Ceresa) Walker, i85ia : 528. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type' and 'NY' and '1891' 

and '13. CERESA BREVIS,'. 
brevis (Enchenopa) Walker, i85ia : 492. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type' and '41.; 5: 17.; 

287.' and 'United; States' and 'binotatus SY' and '39. ENCHENOPA BREVIS,'. 

The tips of the anterior and posterior pronotal horns are broken. 
brevis (Hemiptycha) Walker, i85ia : 571. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type' and 'Ent. Club.; 

44-12.' and 'ig. HEMIPTYCHA BREVIS,'. 

brevis (Oxyrhachis) Capener, 1962 : 147. Holotype $ with labels: 'HOLOTYPE' and 'Oxy- 
rhachis; brevis; CAPENER; 1962.' and 'DRAWING; No. 240; A. L. CAPENER.' and 'S. Africa.; 
R. E. Turner.; Brit. Mus.; 1930-480.' and 'Cape Province:; Somerset East.; Sept. 1930.'. 

The allotype and six female paratypes are also in the collection. 

brevivitta (Centrotus) Walker, i87oa : 185. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: 'Type' and 'N.' 
and '68.4' and 'N. Gui; Wallace' and 'brevivitta'. 

The right tegmen is lost. 
brevivitta (Polyglypta) Walker, 1851 a : 545. Holotype <J with labels: 'Type' and 'Vene-; 

zuela; 47; 52' and '13. POLYGLYPTA BREVIVITTA,'. 

brunnea (Hypamastris) Fowler, i8g5d : 94. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: 'Type; H.T.' 
and '58.135 Mex.; (Oajaca.)' and 'Brit. Mus.; 1904-55.' and 'Hypamastris; brunnea. Fowler.; 
TYPE.'. 

There is another female from the type-series in the collection. 

brunnea (Maguva) Funkhouser, i937b : 100. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type' and 'Figg' 
and 'Beaten from; trees.' and 'SARAWAK:; Mt. Dulit.; 4000 ft.; Moss forest.; 25.x. 1932.' 
and 'Oxford Univ. Exp. ; B. M. Hobby &; A. W. Moore.; B.M. 1933-254.' and 'HOLOTYPE; 
Maguva brunnea; W. D. Funkhouser'. 

The tegmina have two discoidal cells, not three as stated in the description. There is also 
a female paratype in the collection. 

brunnea (Pyrgauchenia) Funkhouser, i932a : 113. Holotype <$ with labels: 'Type' and 
'Brit. Mus.; 1933-360.' and 'B. N. BORNEO.; Mt. Kinabalu,; Kiau, 3,000 ft.; 7.4.1929.; H. M. 
Pendlebury; coll.; F. M. S. Museums.' and 'HOLOTYPE; Pyrgauchenia brunnea; W. D. Funk- 
houser'. 

The anterior pronotal horn is missing. There are three male paratypes in the collection. 



338 P. S. BROOMFIELD 

brunneus (Campylocentrus) Fowler, i8g6d : 151. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type' and 
'Omilteme; Guerrero; 8000 ft.; July. H. H. Smith.' and 'Brit. Mus. ; 1904-55.' and 'Campylo- 
centrus; brunneus. Fowler; TYPE.' and the B.C. A. label. 

brunneus (Leptocentrus) Funkhouser, I935d : 428. Holotype Q* with labels: 'Type; H.T.' 
and 'NAIROBI; Jan. 1921.; V. van Someren.' and 'Pres. by; Imp. Inst. Ent.; B.M. 1935-297.' 
and 'HOLOTYPE; leptocentrus brunneus; W. D. Funkhouser'. 

bruneipennis (Telamona) Buckton, i903a : 197. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: 'Type' and 
'B.; 199' and 'New; York; C. ; 8.18' and 'Telemona [sic]; brunnipennis [sic]'. 
The right wing and tegmen are lost. 

bubalus (Centrotus) Kirby, iSgia. : 167. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type' and '80' and 
'Pundaloya.' and 'Centrotus; bubalus; Kb type; Ceylon.; Green Coll.; 90-115.'. 

bucephalus (Sextius) Distant, I9i6d : 34. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type' and 'Sydney, 

N.S.W. ; 1900-1903.; J. J. Walker.; 1910-384.' and 'Sextius; bucephalus; type Dist.'. 
bugabensis (Tragopa) Fowler, i895c : 85. LECTOTYPE ^ with labels: 'Type' and 'Bugaba,; 

800-1,500 ft.; Champion.' and 'Brit. Mus.; 1904-55.' and 'Tragopa; bugabensis.; Fowler. 

TYPE' and the B.C. A. label. 

Glued to the same card as a female, the lectotype is indicated by an adjacent red ink spot. 

There are two other males and a female from the type-series in the collection. 
bulbaceus (Tiberianus) Distant, igi5c : 494. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type' and 'Stellen- 

bosch, C.C. ; Nov. 1904.; G. A. K. Marshall.; 1908-212.' and 'Distant Coll.; 1911-383.' and 

'Tiberianus; bulbaceus; type Dist.'. 
bulbicornis (Pyrgonotta) Funkhouser, 192711 : 253. Holotype $ with labels: '155' and 

'Brit. Mus.; 1930-324.' and 'MALAY PENIN:; Selangor, ; Bukit Kutu; 3500 ft. ; April igth 1926.; 

H. M. Pendlebury, ; EX COLL:; F.M.S.; MUSEUMS.' and 'HOLOTYPE; Pyrgonotta bulbicornis; 

W. D. Funkhouser'. 
bulbifer (Emphusis) Funkhouser, ig27d : 106. Holotype - with labels: 'Brit. Mus.; 1928- 

174.' and 'Lubuksikaping; (Sumatra's Westkust) ; 45oM. 1926; leg. E. Jacobson.' and 

'Emphusis sp.; det. W. E. China 1926.' and 'HOLOTYPE; Emphusis bulbifer; W. D. Funk- 
houser'. 
bulbosa (Hypsauchenia) Buckton, igosa : 211. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: 'Type' and 

'Distant Coll.; 1911-383.' and 'Perak; Doherty' and 'Hypsauchenia; bulbosa; type 141.'. 

There are three other females from the type-series in the collection. 
bulbosa (Tropidocyta) Haviland, ig25a : 236. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: 'Type' and 

'Kartabo, ; Brit. Guiana.; B.M. 1924-519.' and 'Kartabo, Brit. Guiana; July, 1922; e coll. M. 

D. Haviland; d.d. Collegium Newnhamense' and 'Tropidocyta; bulbosa; Haviland.'. 

The lectotype is one of two females pinned together and is indicated by a small square of 

red paper beneath. There are another female and four males from the type-series in the 

collection. 
caelata (Gargara) Distant, igi6a : 172. Holotype - with labels: 'Type' and 'Distant Coll.; 

1911-383.' and 'NILGIRI; (HAMPSON)' and 'Gargara; caelata; type Dist.'. 
caliginosa (Aconophora) Walker, i858b : 135. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type' and 'Guatim; 

ala; 52; 119' and 'ACONOPHORA CALIGINOSA.'. 
caliginosus (Centrotus) Walker, i857a : 93. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: 'Type' and '68.4' 

and 'Wallace' and 'MAL-; CA' and 'caliginosus Walk'. 
campbelli (Otinotus) Distant, igi6a : 158. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type* and 'O. ; 5.15.; 

406' and '406' and 'Nilgiri Hills; S. India; T. V. Campbell' and 'S. India.; E. A. Butler.; 

1915-60.' and 'Otinotus; campbelli; type Dist.'. 
campbelli (Telingana) Distant, igi6a : 150. LECTOTYPE $ with labels : 'Type' and 'K. K. ; 

5.14,; 197' and 'S. India.; E. A. Butler.; 1915-60.' and 'Kodai Kanal.; S. India.; T. V. Camp- 
bell.' and '197' and 'Telingana; campbelli; type Dist.'. 

There are two other females from the type-series in the collection. 



CATALOGUE OF THE MEMBRACID TYPES IN BMNH 339 

canescens (Leptocentrus) Buckton, igo3a : 234. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type' and 
'Distant Coll.; 1911-383.' and 'Belize; Honduras' and 'Centrotus; odu... eo. ..pennis; bi' 
[this label is illegible] and 'Leptocentrus, canescens; type Buckt.'. 
The head is missing. The locality label is probably erroneous. 

capistrata (Telingana) Distant, igoSg : 19. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: 'Type' and 
'Distant Coll.; 1911-383.' and 'Ruby Mines; Burma' and 'Telingana; capistrata; type Dist.'. 
There are two other females from the type-series in the collection. 

capreolus (Centrotus) Walker, i85ia : 627. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: 'Type' and 'Phil.; 
Isl.; 45; 49' and '66. CENTROTUS CAPREOLUS,'. 

capricornis (Poppea) Fowler, iSg^d : 99. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: 'Type; H.T.' and 
'Bugaba, ; Panama.; Champion.' and 'Poppaea [sic]; capricornis. Fowler; TYPE.' and the 
B.C.A. label. 

There is one other female and two males from the type-series in the collection. 

carbonaria (Aspasiana) Distant, I9i6d : 26. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type' and 'N' and 
'N Gui. ; Wallace' and 'carbonaria' and 'Aspasiana; carbonaria; type Dist.' and 'carbonaria; 
m.s. : Walk'. 

carinata (Darnoides) Walker, i85ia : 590. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type' and 'Brazil; 
43; 86' and '3. DARNOIDES CARINATA,'. 
The right tegmen is lost. 

carteri (Takliwa) Funkhouser, i935d : 430. Holotype $ with labels: Type; H.T.' and 
'Pres. by; Imp. Inst. Ent.; B.M. 1935-297.' and 'Gold Coast; 1921-22.; G. S. Cotterell.' and 
'HOLOTYPE; Takliwa carteri; W. D. Funkhouser,'. 

caseoscalpris (Alcmeone) Butler, i878a : 344. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type' and 'Ent. 
Club.; 44-12.' and 'A. caseoscalpris; Butler Type.'. 
The specimen is badly damaged. 

cassis (Hypsoprora) Buckton, igoia : 60. Holotype with labels: 'Type' and 'Hypsoprora; 
cassis; type Buckt.' and 'Kranos; insignis; australia.'. 

The abdomen is lost and the posterior pronotal process is broken. 

castaneus (Sertorius) Distant, I9i6d : 25. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type* and 'Australia.' 
and 'Distant Coll.; 1911-383.' and 'Sertorius; castaneus; type Dist.'. 

cavendus (Convector) Distant, igi6a : 153. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type' and '625' and 
'Nilgiri Hills,; S. India.; T. V. Campbell.' and 'S. India.; E. A. Butler.; 1915-60.' and 'Con- 
vector; cavendus; type Dist.'. 

cavipennis (Gnamptocentrus) Fowler, i896d : 153. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: 'Type' 
and 'Brit. Mus.; 1904-55.' and 'V. de Chiriqui, ; 25-4000 ft.; Champion.' and 'Gnampto- 
centrus; cavipennis; Fowler. TYPE.' and the B.C.A. label. 

One of two females glued to the same card, and lectotype is indicated by an adjacent red 
ink spot. There are two other females from the type-series in the collection. 

celsa (Membracis) Walker, i85ia : 475. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type' and 'Brasil.' and 

'1938' and '9. MEMBRACIS CELSA.'. 

centrotoides (Thelia) Walker, i858b : 138. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type' and 'S. Amer; 
napo; 51; 70' and 'THELIA CENTROTOIDES.'. 

cerulea (Tynelia) Funkhouser, i935d : 434. Holotype <$ with labels: 'Type; H.T.' and 
'BRITISH GUIANA; Cattle Trail Survey; Canister Falls; June 1920.; A. A. Abraham. Coll.' 
and 'Pres. by; Imp. Inst. Ent.; B.M. 1935-297.' and 'Tynelia; cerulea; HOLOTYPE; W. D. 
Funkhouser'. 

cerviceps (Pterygia) Fowler, i894b : 24. LECTOTYPE <$ with labels: 'Type' and 'Teleman,; 
Vera Paz.; Champion.' and 'Brit. Mus.; 1904-55.' and 'Sp. figured.' and 'Pterygia; cerviceps; 
Fowler. TYPE' and the B.C.A. label. 

There is also a female from the type-series in the collection. 



340 P. S. BROOMFIELD 

chatnpioni (Sphongophorus) Fowler, 18940 : 28. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: 'Type' 
and 'San Isidro, ; 1600 ft.; Champion ' and 'Brit. Mus.; 1904-55.' and 'Sponghophorus [sic]; 
Championi Fowler; TYPE' and the B.C. A. label. 

There is another male from the type-series in the collection. 

championi (Stylocentrus) Fowler, 18966 : 164. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: Type' and 
'V. de Chiriqui, ; 2-3000 ft.; Champion.' and 'Brit. Mus.; 1904-55.' and 'Stylocentrus; cham- 
pioni. Fowler; TYPE.'. 

There are two other females from the type-series in the collection. 

chloroticus (Centrotus) Walker, i858a : 82. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: 'Type' and 
'Spain.' and 'Centrotus; chloritus; nr Sopi Espagne' and 'chloroticus Walk.'. 

The posterior pronotal horn is broken. 

cicadiformis (Centrotus) Walker, i85yb : 164. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: 'Type' and 
'SAR.' and 'Wallace' and '68.4' and 'cicadiformis Walk'. 

The suprahumeral horns and the posterior pronotal process are missing. 

cinctata (Boethoos) Haviland, ig25a : 249. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type' and 'Kartabo,; 
Brit. Guiana.; B.M. 1924-519.' and 'Kartabo, Brit. Guiana; September, 1922; e coll. M. D. 
Haviland; d.d. Collegium Newnhamense' and 'Boethoos; cinctata; Haviland'. 
cinerea var. obfuscata (Hoplophora) Fowler, 18940 ; 40. LECTOTYPE <$ with labels: 
'Type' and 'Capetillo, ; Guatemala,; G. C. Champion.' and 'Brit. Mus.; 1904-55.' and 'H. 
cinerea; v. obfuscata; TYPE' and the B.C. A. label. 

There is another male from the type-series in the collection. 
citrea (Gargara) Distant, igoSg : 63. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type' and 'Distant Coll.; 

1911-383.' and 'Tenass Vail; Myitta; (Doherty).' and 'Gargara; citrea; type Dist.'. 
cognata (Telingana) Distant, I9i6a : 149. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: 'Type' and '4.; 
4.15.' and '396' and 'S. India.; E. A. Butler.; 1915-60.' and 'Nilgiri Hills; S. India; T. V. 
Campbell.' and 'Telingana; cognata; type Dist.'. 

There is another female from the type-series in the collection. 
collina (Thelia) Walker, 18513. : 565. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: 'Type' and 'NY' and 

'1874' and '35. THELIA COLLINA,'. 

colorata (Pyrgauchenia) Distant, igisb : 326. LECTOTYPE . with labels: 'Type' and '63' 
and 'Sarawak; Museum.; 1914-253.' and 'Mt. Kinabalu.; 3.000 ft.; Sep. 1913.' and 'Pyr- 
gauchenia; colorata; type Dist.'. 

There are two other females from the type-series in the collection. All three specimens 
have the anterior pronotal horn missing. 

compacta (Thelia) Walker, i8$8b : 140. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type' and 'Santar; em; 
54; 63' and 'THELIA COMPACTA.'. 

composita (Horiola) Walker, i85ia : 587. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type' and 'Vene-; 
zuela; 47; i' and '9. HORIOLA COMPOSITA,'. 

The right tegmen and the posteror pronotal process are lost. 
compressa (Aconophora) Walker, i85ia : 541. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type' and 'Mexico; 

43; 13' and '18. ACONOPHORA COMPRESSA,'. 

compressa (Antianthe) Buckton, igo3a : 191. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: 'Type' and 
'5' and 'New; York; C. ; 8.13' and 'Antianthe; compressa'. 

The left tegmen is lost and the right tegmen and pronotum are damaged. 

concinna (Adippe) Fowler, i8g6b : 135. LECTOTYPE <J with labels: 'Type' and 'Bugaba,; 
Panama.; Champion.' and 'Brit. Mus.; 1904-55.' and 'Adippe; concinna Fowler; TYPE.' and 
the B.C.A. label. 

There are also two females from the type-series in the collection. 

concinna (Ceresa) Fowler, i8g^d. : 106. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type' and 'Vera Cruz.; 
H.H.S.; Jan. 1888.' and 'Brit. Mus.; 1904-55.' and 'Ceresa; concinna; Fowler. TYPE' and the 
B.C.A. label. 

The tegmina, wings and abdomen are broken. 



CATALOGUE OF THE MEMBRACID TYPES IN BMNH 341 

concinna (Hoplophora) Fowler, 18940 : 41. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type' and '<J' and 'V. 
de Chiriqui, ; 2-3000 ft.; Champion.' and 'Brit. Mus.; 1904-55.' and 'Hoplophora; concinna 
Fowler. ; TYPE' and the B.C. A. label. 

concinna (Popped) Fowler, i8g5d : 100. LECTOTYPE ? with labels: 'Type; H.T.' and 
'V. de Chiriqui,; 2-3000 ft.; Champion.' and 'Poppaea [sic]; concinna. Fowler; TYPE' and the 
B.C.A. label. 

There is another female from the type-series in the collection. 

concisa (Entylia) Walker, i85ia : 547. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: 'Type' and 'E.; Florida' 
and '41.; 5.17.; 310.' and 'E. Doubleday.; St. John's Bluff,; E. Florida.' and '6. ENTYLIA 
CONCISA,'. 

There are two other females from the type-series in the collection. 

concolor (Aconophora) Walker, i85ia : 540. Holotype <$ with labels: 'Type' and 'Mexico; 
43. 13' and '17. ACONOPHORA CONCOLOR.'. 
The head is missing. 

concolor (Hoplophora) Walker, i85ia : 514. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type' and 'Colum; 

-bia; 47; 25' and '17. HOPLOPHORA CONCOLOR,'. 
concolor (Oxyrhachis) Buckton, 1903% : 224. LECTOTYPE with labels: Type' and 

'Distant Coll.; 1911-383.' and 'Capetown,; C.G.H.; 28 Jan. '01.; 1147' and 'Oxyrhachis; 

concolor; type Buckt. ay'. 

The left suprahumeral horn is broken. There is another specimen from the type-series in 

the collection; its abdomen is missing. 
conficita (Thelia) Walker, i858b : 139. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type' and 'Brazil; 51; 55' 

and 'THELIA CONFICITA.'. 
confusa (Gargara) Distant, I9i6a : 171. LECTOTYPE <J with labels: 'Type' and 'Distant 

Coll.; 1911-383.' and 'Calcutta; 8-vii-o7; Mus. Coll.' and 'Gargara; confusa; type Dist.'. 

There is another male from the type-series in the collection. 
confusus (Hebeticoides) Fowler, 18940 : 54. Holotype <$ with labels: 'Type' and 'V. de 

Chiriqui,; 4000-6000 ft.; Champion.' and 'Brit. Mus.; 1904-55.' and 'Hebeticoides; confusus. 

Fowler; TYPE.' and the B.C.A. label. 
confusus (Leptocentrus) Distant, I9i6b : 151. Lectotype <$ with labels: 'Type' and '1911- 

177' and 'Brit. E. Afr. ; W. Slopes of Kenya.; on Meru - Nyeri Rd.; 6000 to 8,500 ft.; Feb. 

16-23, 1911-; S. A. Neave.' and 'Leptocentrus; confusus; type Dist.' and 'LECTOTYPE: Lepto- 
centrus; confusus; DIST.; A. L. Capener.'. 

There are one male and two female paralectotypes in the collection (Capener 1968 : 25). 
congestus (Centrotus) Walker, i858a : 79. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: 'Type' and 'Ind' 

and 'congestus Walk'. 
congestus (Centrotus) Walker, i87oa : 187. LECTOTYPE <J with labels: 'Type' and 

'68.4' and 'Sul' and 'Sula; Wallace' and 'congestus'. 
conica (Thelia) Walker, i85ia : 557. Holotype <$ with labels: 'Type' and 'E. Doubleday.; 

St. John's Bluff,; E. Florida.' and '41.; 5-17.; 288.' and '9. THELIA CONICA,'. 
conifera (Aconophora) Butler, i878a : 350. Holotype <$ with labels: 'Type' and 'Mex' and 

'68.4' and 'A. conifera; Butler Type.' 

The legs are glued separately to a card. 
consobrina (Telingana) Distant, I9i6a : 152. LECTOTYPE 6* with labels: 'Type' and 'S. 

India. ; E. A. Butler. ; 1915-60.' and 'Kodai Kanal. ; S. India. ; T. V. Campbell.' and 'Telingana; 

consobrina; type Dist.'. 

Orininally one of two specimens mounted on the same card, the lectotype has the tips of 

the tegmina and the apical part of the posterior pronotal process missing : the other specimen 

is lost. There are eight other specimens from the type-series in the collection. 
consobrinus (Eufairmairia) Distant, igi6d : 37. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: 'Type' and 

'Distant Coll.; 1911-383.' and 'Rockhampton.' and 'Eufairmairia; consobrinus; type Dist.'. 
There are nine other specimens from the type-series in the collection. 



342 P. S. BROOMFIELD 

consocius (Centrotus) Walker, 18575 : 164. LECTOTYPE ? with labels: 'Type' and 
'SAR.' and '68.4' and 'Wallace' and 'consocius Walk*. 
The abdomen is glued separately. 

constans (Thelia) Walker, i85ia : 563. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type' and 'Ent. Club.; 
44-12.' and 'C. Doubleday; Wanbough' and '27. THELIA CONSTANS/. 

constipatus (Centrotus) Walker, i87oa : 192. LECTOTYPE <J with labels : 'Type' and 
'M' and '68.4' and 'Wallace' and 'constipatus'. 

constrictus (Clepsydrius) Fowler, i8Q5d : 95. Holotype <$ with labels: 'Type; H.T.' and 
'La Venta, ; Guerrero,; 300 ft.; Sept. H. H. Smith' and 'Clepsydrius; constrictus. Fowler; 
TYPE.' and the B.C. A. label. 

The left wing and tegmen are glued separately. 

conterminus (Centrotus) Walker, i87oa : 190. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: 'Type' and 
'Aru' and 'Wallace' and 'conterminus'. 

continua (Membracis) Walker, i858b : 123. Holotype with labels: 'Type' and 'Ega; 
Brazil; 57; 43' and 'MEMBRACIS CONTINUA.'. 
The abdomen is missing. 

contorta (Oxyrhachis) Walker, 1858% : 66. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: Type' and 'N S W 
and 'contorta Walk'. 

The posterior pronotal process is broken. There is another female and a male from the 
type-series in the collection. The type-series is erroneously described as being from Tasmania. 

contractus (Centrotus) Walker, i85ia : 622. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type' and 'New; 
Holld; 44; 4' and '56. CENTROTUS CONTRACTUS,'. 

contractus (Centrotus) Walker, i87oa : 188. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: 'Type' and 
'68.4' and 'Aru' and 'Wallace' and 'contractus'. 

The tips of the pronotal horns are broken. 

contraria (Gargara) Distant, igi6a : 170. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type' and 'Distant Coll.; 
1911-383.' and 'Lahore; Punjab' and 'Gargaria [sic]; contraria; type Dist.'. 

The abdomen is glued separately below the specimen. 

convergens (Centrotus) Walker, i85ia : 623. Holotype <$ with labels: 'Type' and 'Phil; 
Isl; 42; 22' and '59. CENTROTUS CONVERGENS,'. 
The abdomen is glued separately. 

convoluta (Membracis) Fabricius, I78ia : 318. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: 'Braz.' and 
'63; 47' and associated with it, though not mounted on the same pin, 'Type' and 'Membr. 
Convoluta; Fabr. Mant.'. The last part of this label is illegible. The 'Type' label is hand- 
written. 

Described as 'Membracis conuoluta' [misprint], the type is from the Joseph Banks Collec- 
tion. 

cornuta (Beaufortiana) Distant, I9i6d : 31. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type' and '4' and 
'Distant Coll.; 1911-383.' and 'Beaufort West,; C. G. H.; 20" May: 01.' and 'Beaufortiana; 
cornuta; type Dist.'. 

The tegmina have five apical cells, not four as stated in the description. 

cornuta (Hyphinoe) Distant, i879a : 12. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type' and 'Irazu,; 

6-7000 ft.; H. Rogers.' and 'Brit. Mus. ; 1904-55.' and 'cornuta; (type) Dist.'. 
cornuta (Maguva) Funkhouser, i932a : 116. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type' and 'Brit. Mus.; 

1933-360' and 'B. N. BORNEO.; Mt. Kinabalu,; Lumu Lumu, ; 5,500 ft.; 13 : 4 : 1929.; H. M. 

Pendlebury; coll.; F.M.S. Museums.' and 'HOLOTYPE; Maguva cornuta; W. D. Funkhouser'. 
cornuta (Stictocephala) Fowler, 1895^ : no. LECTOTYPE <J with labels: 'Type' and 

'Bugaba, ; Panama.; Champion.' and 'Brit. Mus.; 1904-55.' and 'Stictocephala; <$ cornuta; 

Fowler. TYPE' and the B.C. A. label. 

There are two other males from the type-series in the collection. 



CATALOGUE OF THE MEMBRACID TYPES IN BMNH 343 

cornutus (Leprechaunus) Capener, iQ53b : 116. Holotype $ with labels: 'Holo-; type' 
and Tang. Terr. ; Ukerewe I ; Father Conrads' and 'ix; 162' and 'Pres. by; Coryndon Museum. ; 
B.M. 1960-258.' and 'HOLOTYPE' and 'Leprechaunus; cornutus; CAPENER'. 

The allotype and female paratype are in the collection also. 

corrugata (Bolbonota) Fowler, i8g4b : 19. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: 'Type' and 'Taboga 
Isl.,; Panama.; Champion.' and 'Brit. Mus.; 1904-55.' and 'Bolbonota; corrugata Fowler.; 
TYPE' and the B.C. A. label. 

One of three females glued to the same card, the lectotype is indicated by an adjacent red 
ink spot. 

corrugata var. minor (Bolbonota) Fowler, i894b : 19. LECTOTYPE 9 with labels: 'Type' 
and 'Bugaba, ; 800-1,500 ft.; Champion.' and 'Brit. Mus.; 1904-55.' and '32' and the B.C. A. 
label. 

There are four other females from the type-series in the collection. 

costalis (Centrotus) Walker, i85ia : 615. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type' and 'Colum-; 
bia; 47; 25.' and '44. CENTROTUS COSTALIS,'. 

costalis (Centrotus) Walker, 1858% : 82. Holotype with labels: 'Type' and 'costalis Walk'. 
The abdomen is missing. 

costata var. nigridorsis (Polyglypta) Fowler, 1895$ : 123. LECTOTYPE with labels: 
'Type' and 'San Juan,; Vera Paz.; Champion.' and 'Brit. Mus.; 1904-55.' and 'v. nigridorsis.; 
Fowler. TYPE' and the B.C. A. label. 

The abdomen is missing. There are five females from the type-series in the collection. 
costigera (Thelia) Butler, i8y8a : 353. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type' and 'British; Guiana' 
and '58; 60' and 'Br. Guiana; Schonburgh' and 'T. costigera; Butler Type'. 
The head is missing. 

crassicornis (Xiphistes) Distant, igi5b : 323. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type' and 'Lesapi 
R.,; Mashonal'd 3-10-97.; G. A. K. Marshall; 1908-212.' and 'Xiphistes.; crassicornis; type 
Dist.'. 

crassus (Xiphistes) Distant, I9i6c : 313. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type' and 'Salisbury,; 

5000 feet,; Mashonaland.; Capt. Oct. 1901; & Pres. 1902 by; Guy Marshall.' and 'Xiphistes; 

crassus; type Dist.'. 

The head is missing. 
cribratus (Centrotus) Walker, i85ia : 619. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type' and 'Jamaica; 

47; 62' and '51. CENTROTUS CRIBRATUS,'. 

The pronotum is damaged and the head is missing. 
crinitus (Centrotus) Buckton, igosa : 247. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: 'Type' and 'Kaits; 

Ceylon. 3.01' and 'cy' and '756' and 'Distant Coll.; 1911-383.' and 'Centrotus; crinitus; 

type. Buckt.'. 

There are nine other specimens from the type-series in the collection. 
cucullatus (Glischrocentrus) Fowler, 18966 : 161. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type' and 'V. 

de Chiriqui; 25-4000 ft; Champion.' and 'Brit. Mus.; 1904-55.' and 'Glischrocentrus; cucul- 
latus Fowler; TYPE.' and the B.C. A. label. 
cucullatus (Polyglyptodes) Fowler, i8g5f : 128. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: Type' and 

'Guatemala; City.; Champion.' and 'Brit. Mus.; 1904-55.' and 'Polyglyptodes; cucullatus.; 

Fowler. TYPE' and the B.C. A. label. 

There is another female from the type-series in the collection. 
cultellata (Aconophora) Walker, i858a : 70. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: Type' and 

'68.4' and 'Amaz' and 'cultellata Walk'. 
cumulata (Hemiptycha) Walker, i858b : 145. Holotype $ with labels: Type' and 'Santar; 

em; 53; 72' and 'HEMIPTYCHA CUMULATA.'. 
cuneata (Aspona) Fowler, 18940 : 51. Holotype $ with labels: Type' and 'V. de Chiriqui,; 

4000-6000 ft.; Champion.' and 'Brit. Mus.; 1904-55.' and 'Aspona; cuneata; Fowler. TYPE' 

and the B.C.A. label. 



344 p - s - BROOMFIELD 

cuneata (Bolbonota) Fowler, 18945 : 17. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: 'Type' and 'Bugaba, ; 
800-1,500 ft.; Champion.' and 'Brit. Mus. ; 1904-55.' and 'Bolbonota; cuneata Fowler; TYPE' 
and the B.C.A. label. 

There are five other males from the type-series in the collection. 

cuneata (Hebetica) Butler, i8y8a : 341. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: 'Type' and 'CON- 
STANCIA; Jany. 1857.; H. Clark.; 57.43' and 'H. cuneata; Butler Type.'. 
There is another female from the type-series in the collection. 

cuneatus (Tricentrus) Distant, igoSg : 56. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type' and 'Distant 
Coll.; 1911-383.' and 'SOOKNA; 533 feet' and 'Centrotypus ; cuneatus; type Dist.' and 'Tri- 
centrus; cuneatus DIST.; det. Capener 1963'. 

cupreus (Centrotus) Kirby, iSgia : 168. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: 'Type' and '40' and 
'Pundaloya; Ceylon.' and 'Centrotus: cupreus; Kb type; Ceylon.; Green Coll.; 90-115.'. 
There are two other females from the type-series in the collection. 

cupreus (Eufairmairia) Distant, igi6d : 38. Holotype 6* with labels: 'Type' and 'S. W. 
Australia.; Yallingup. ; 23 Dec. 13-23 Jan. 14.; R. E. Turner.; 1914-190.' and 'Eufairmaria 
[sic]; cupreus; type Dist.'. 

curtulus (Centrotus) Walker, i87oa : 190. LECTOTYPE <J with labels: 'Type' and 'M.' 
and '68.4' and 'Wallace' and 'curtula'. 

curvicorne (Enchenopa) Walker, 1858% : 62. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: 'Type' and 
'68.4' and 'V Cruz' and 'Vera; Cruz.' and 'curvicorne Walk'. 
The anterior pronotal process is damaged. 

curvicornis (Ophicentrus) Buckton, i903a : 250. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type' and 
'Buckton; (Coll)' and 'Stephansort; D.N.Guin.ae; Centrotus; strigata West.' and 'Ophi- 
centrus; curvicornis; (type) Buckt. ; = Otinotoides; strigatus; Walk.'. 

curvidens (Otinotus) Distant, I9i6b : 154. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type' and 'Cameroons.; 
Escalera. ; 1903-355.' and 'Otinotus; curvidens; type Dist.'. 

curvilinea (Ceresa) Walker, i8$8b : 132. LECTOTYPE ? with labels: 'Type' and 'Brazil; 
51; 55' and 'CERESA CURVILINEA.'. 

There is also a male from the type-series in the collection. 

curvilinea (Membracis) Walker, 18583. : 58. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: 'Type' and '68.4' 
and '28' and 'Para' and 'curvilinea Walk'. 

curvispina (Formula) Walker, i858b : 152. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type' and 'Brazil; 
Santarem; 52; 96' and 'PARMULA CURVISPINA.'. 

curvispina (Tricoceps) Distant, I9i6c : 322. LECTOTYPE 6* with labels: 'Type' and 'Neave 

Coll.; 1907-230.' and 'Kambove, ; Katanga.; 25. III. 1907.; 4,000-5,000 ft.' and 'Trioceps 

[sic]; curvispina; type Dist.'. 

There are two other males and two females from the type-series in the collection. 
darnioides (Thelia) Walker, i858b : 140. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type' and 'CONSTANCIA; 

Jany. 1857.; H. Clark.; 57.43.' and 'THELIA DARNIOIDES.'. 
decipiens (Centrotus) Kirby, iSgia : 165. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type' and 'Ceylon; 60; 

34' and 'decipiens; Walk; M.S.; Kirby; type.' and 'Telingana; curvispina; (STAL); det. 

CAPENER.' and 'COMPARED; WITH TYPE; A. L. Capener; Aug. 1963.'. 
decisa (Entylia) Walker, i85ia : 548. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type' and 'E.; Florida' and 

'41.; 5.17.; 311.' and 'E. Doubleday. ; St. John's Bluff.; E. Florida.' and 'decisa'. 
decisus (Centrotus) Walker, i85ia; 621. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type' and 54. CENTROTUS 

DECISUS,'. 

declivis (Urnfilianus) Distant, igisc : 496. Holotype^ with labels: 'Type' and 'Umfili River; 
Mashunulad; (Guy Marshall)' and 'Distant Coll.; 1911-383.' and 'Umfilianus; declivis; type 
Dist.'. 

The tips of the tegmina are missing. 



CATALOGUE OF THE MEMBRACID TYPES IN BMNH 345 

decoloratus (Coccosterphus) Distant, igoSg : 71. LECTOTYPE <J with labels: 'Type' and 
'Cal' and 'Distant Coll.; 1911-383.' and 'Coccosterphus; decoloratus; type Dist.'. 

Glued to the same card as three females, the lectotype is indicated by an adjacent red ink 
spot. There are three other females from the type-series in the collection. 

decorata (Umbonia) Walker, i858b : 130. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type* and 'mex.; 56; 
143' and 'UMBONIA DECORATA.'. 

decoratus (Tricentrus) Distant, igoSg : 58. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type' and 'Distant 
Coll; 1911-383.' and 'Momeit; (Doherty)' and 'decoratus; type Dist..' 
The posterior pronotal process is lost. 

deflectens (Demanga) Distant, i9i$c : 494. LECTOTYPE <$ with labels: 'Type' and 
'German E. Af. ; Ruanda Dist.; Dr C. H. Marshall.; 1912-528.' and 'Demanga; deflectens; 
type Dist.'. 

There are two females from the type-series in the collection also. 

delalandei (Oxyrhachis) Fairmaire, i846a : 268. Neotype $ with labels: 'Type* and 'Cape' 
and '68.4' and 'Cape of Good Hope; Drege Coll.; Brit. Mus. 1868-4.' an d 'Gongroneura; 
Oxyrhachis; fasciatum = ; delalandei Fairm.; det. R. J. Izzard. 195; NEOTYPE.' and 
'Oxyrhachis; delalandei; FAIRMAIRE; NEOTYPE; A. L. CAPENER; 1960'. 
The neotype designation was published by Capener (1962 : 25). 

delitnitata (Gargara) Distant, igoSg : 66. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type' and 'Distant Coll.; 
1911-383.' and 'Margherita' and 'Gargara; delimenata [sic]; type Dist.'. 

delineatus (Heteronotus) Walker, i858b : 154. Holotype o* with labels: 'Type' and 'Ega; 
Brazil; 57; 43'. 

The apex of the posterior pronotal process is missing. 

densa (Enchenopa) Walker, i85ia : 490. Holotype <3 with labels: 'Type' and 'Colum; -bia; 

47; 25' and '35. ENCHENOPA DENSA,'. 

The anterior pronotal process is broken. 

densus (Centrotus) Walker, i857b : 163. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: Type' and 'SAR' 
and 'Borneo; 57; 36' and 'CENTROTUS DENSUS.'. 

It was erroneously described as a male. It is stylopized. 

densus (Centrotus) Walker, i87oa : 189. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: 'Type' and 'Wallace' 
and 'Densus'. 

The left tegmen is missing. 

diabolica (Hyphinoe) Butler, i878a : 346. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type' and '68.4' and 
'H. diabolica; Butler Type.'. 

difficilis (Beaufortiana) Distant, igi6d : 31. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type' and 'Distant 
Coll.; 1911-383.' and 'Beaufort West; C. G. H.; 20" May. 'or.' and 'Beaufortiana; difficilis; 
type Dist.' and 'Beaufortiana; cornuta DIST.; det. CAPENER.'. 

diffusa (Hemiptycha) Walker, i8s8b : 143. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type' and 'Canada; 
W; 56; 13' and 'HEMIPTYCHA DIFFUSA.'. 

dilatatus (Centrotus) Walker, 185 la : 630. Holotype - with labels: 'Type* and 'Phil; Isl; 

42; 22* and '74. CENTROTUS DILATATUS.'. 

The head is missing. 
dilaticornis (Oxyrhachis) Walker, i85ia : 507. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type' and '1934* 

and '9. OXYRHACHIS DILATICORNIS,'. 

dipteroides (Parantonae) Fowler, i895d : 101. Holotype with labels: 'Type' and 'Aceytuno; 
5100' and '75.28.' and 'Parantonae; dipteroides. Fowler; TYPE.'. 

The abdomen is lost. 

discalis (Horiola) Walker, i858b : 154. Holotype with labels: 'Type' and 'Vera; Cruz; 54; 
66' and 'HORIOLA DISCALIS.'. 
The abdomen is lost. 



346 P. S. BROOMFIELD 

discontinua (Cotnbophora) Walker, 18585 : 157. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: 'Type' and 
'Ega; 56; 84' and 'COMBOPHORA DISCONTINUA.'. 

There is a male from the type-series in the collection also. 

discrepans (Tragopa) Walker, 18585 : 150. LECTOTYPE with labels: Type' and 
'Santar; em; 53.; 60.' and 'TRAGOPA DISCREPANS.'. 

The lectotype is one of three specimens (two males and a female) previously mounted on the 
same pin, which I have now mounted separately. 

discreta (Platycotis) Fowler, 18940 : 42. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: 'Type' and 'San 
Joaquin, ; Vera Paz. ; Champion.' and 'Brit. Mus. ; 1904-55.' and 'Platycotis; discreta Fowler; 
TYPE' and the B.C. A. label. 

There is another female from the type-series in the collection, labelled 'var', but not 
described as such. 

dispar (Polyglypta) Fowler, i895f : 126. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: 'Type' and '$' and 
'V. de Chiriqui, ; 4,000-6,000 ft.; Champion.' and 'Brit. Mus.; 1904-55.' and 'Polyglypta; 
dispar Fowler; $ TYPE.' and the B.C. A. label. 

There are two other females and three males from the type-series in the collection. 

disparicornis (Aconophora) Fowler, i8g5a : 69. LECTOTYPE <$ with labels: 'Type' and 
'<J' and 'V. de Chiriqui,; 2-3000 ft.; Champion.' and 'Brit. Mus.; 1904-55.' and 'Aconophora; 
disparicornis. 6*i Fowler. TYPE.' and the B.C. A. label. 

There is another male and a female from the type-series in the collection. 

disparipes (Hoplophora) Fowler, 18940 : 40. LECTOTYPE 6" with labels: 'Type' and 
'S. Geronimo, ; Guatemala.; Champion.' and 'Brit. Mus.; 1904-55.' and 'Hoplophora; dis- 
paripes Fowler; <J TYPE' and the B.C. A. label. 

There is another male and two females from the type-series in the collection. 

disrupta (Darnis) Walker, 1858% : 74. LECTOTYPE with labels: 'Type' and 'Amaz' and 
'68.4' and 'disrupta Walk'. 
The abdomen is missing. 

dissimilis (Parayasa) Distant, igi6a : 179. Holotype <J with labels: 'Type' and 'Kodai 
Kanal.; S. India.; T. V. Campbell.' and 'S. India.; E. A. Butler.; 1915-60.' and 'Parayasa; 
dissimilis; type Dist.'. 

dissitnilts (Pogontypus) Distant, igi6a : 173. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type' and 'Green.; 
Ceylon.; 95-221.' and 'Pogontypus?; dissimilis; type Dist.'. 
The pronotum is damaged. 

distorts (Ceresa) Butler, i877a : 218. Holotype with labels: Type' and 'Para; 48; 133' and 
'C. distans; Butler Type'. 
The abdomen is missing. 

distinctus (Eufairmairia) Distant, igi6d : 38. Holotype $ with labels: Type' and '541' 
and 'Distant Coll. ; 1911-383.' and 'G. F. Hill; 30 m. E; Darwin, N. T.' and 'Eufairmaria [sic]; 
distinctus; type Dist.'. 

distinguenda (Parmula) Fowler, 18953 : 91. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: Type' and 
Teleman, ; Vera Paz.; Champion.' and 'Brit. Mus.; 1904-55.' and 'Parmula; distinguenda; 
Fowler. TYPE' and the B.C. A. label. 

One of two females glued to the same card, the lectotype is indicated by an adjacent red 
ink spot. There are two other females and a male from the type-series in the collection. 

distinguenda (Trachytalis) Fowler, 18956 : 115. LECTOTYPE <J with labels: Type' and 
'Cuernavaca, ; Morelos. ; June. H. H. S.' and 'Brit. Mus.; 1904-55.' and Trachytalis; distin- 
guenda; Fowler. TYPE' and the B.C. A. label. 

There is another male from the type-series in the collection. 

distinguendus (Cyrtolobus) Fowler, 18960 : 141. Holotype $ with labels: Type' and 
'Amula, ; Guerrero,; 6000 ft.; Aug. H. H. Smith.' and 'Brit. Mus.; 1904-55.' and '36' and 
'Cyrtolobus; distinguendus; Fowler. TYPE' and the B.C. A. label. 



CATALOGUE OF THE MEMBRACID TYPES IN BMNH 347 

divisa (Membracis) Walker, i858b : 123. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type' and 'Brazil; 
Santarem; 52; 96' and 'MEMBRACIS DIVISA.'. 
The pronotum is damaged. 

divisus (Heteronotus) Walker, 18585 : 156. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type' and '68.4' and 
'Para; Ipr'. 

The posterior pronotal process is missing and the wings and tegmina are damaged. 

doddi (Otinotus) Distant, igi6d : 40. Holotype $ with labels: Type' and 'Townsville, Qld; 
July '03; F. P. Dodd.' and 'Queensland.; F. P. Dodd.; 1907-54.' and 'Otinotus; doddi; type 
Dist.'. 

dorsalis (Telantona) Buckton, igo^a. : 197. LECTOTYPE with labels: 'Type' and 'B; 202' 
and 'New; York; C.; 8.17' and 'Telemona [sic]; dorsalis'. 
The abdomen is missing. 

doryensis (Arimanes) Distant, 19160 : 290. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type' and '59-58. 
Dory,; New Guinea.' and 'Arimanes.; doryensis; type Dist.'. 
The left suprahumeral horn is damaged. 

dubia (Micrutalis) Fowler, 18956 : 119. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type' and 'V. de Chiriqui, ; 
25-4000 ft.; Champion.' and 'Brit. Mus. ; 1904-55.' and 'Micrutalis; dubia. Fowler; TYPE' 
and the B.C. A. label. 

The right tegmen is glued separately. 

dubia (Ochropepla) Fowler, i8g4C : 45. Holotype <$ with labels: 'Type' and 'V. de Chiriqui,; 
25-4000 ft.; Champion.' and 'Brit. Mus.; 1904-55.' and 'Ochropepla; dubia. Fowler; TYPE.' 
and the B.C. A. label. 

dubia (Phacusa) Fowler, iSg^d : 112. LECTOTYPE <J with labels: 'Type' and 'Cerro Zunil,; 
4-5000 ft.; Champion.' and 'Brit. Mus.; 1904-55.' and 'Phacusa; dubia Fowler.; TYPE.' and 
the B.C.A. label. 

There are three females from the type-series in the collection also. 

dubia (Philya) Fowler, i8g4b : 22. Holotype 9 with labels: 'Type' and 'Chilpancingo, ; 
Guerrero, 4600 ft.; June. H. H. Smith.' and 'Brit. Mus.; 1904-55.' and 'Philya; dubia 
Fowler.; TYPE.' and the B.C.A. label. 

Only the abdomen and legs remain, the rest of the specimen being lost. 

dubia (Stictocephala) Fowler, i895d : 109. LECTOTYPE <$ with labels : 'Type' and Teapa, ; 
Tabasco.; Feb. H. H. S' and 'Brit. Mus.; 1904-55.' and 'Stictocephala; dubia. Fowler; 
TYPE.' and the B.C.A. label. 

There are sixteen other specimens from the type-series in the collection. 

dubia VAT. major (Stictocephala) Fowler, i895d : 109. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: 'Type' 
and '$' and 'Chilpancingo, ; Guerrero, 4600 ft. ; June. H. H. Smith.' and 'Brit. Mus. ; 1904-55.' 
and 'Stictocephala; dubia. v. major; Fowler. TYPE' and the B. C. A. label. 

There are two males from the type-series in the collection also. 

dubium (Enchophyllum) Fowler, i894b : 8. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: 'Type' and 'V. de 
Chiriqui,; 25-4000 ft.; Champion.' and 'Brit. Mus.; 1904-55.' and '$' and 'Enchophyllum; 
dubium Fowler; TYPE.' and the B.C.A. label. 

There are two other females from the type-series in the collection. 

echinatutn (Anchon) Distant, igoSg : 51. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type' and 'Distant 

Coll.; 1911-383.' and 'Tenass Vail.; Myitta; (Doherty).' and 'Anchon; echinatus; type Dist.'. 
egyptianus (Oxyrhachis) Distant, igisb : 322. Holotype <$ with labels: 'Type' and 'Upper 

Egypt,; Northern Etbai.; D. MacAlister.; 1900-223.' and 'Oxyrhachis; egyptianus; type 

Dist.'. 
elegans (Centrogonia) Fowler, 18956. : 107. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type' and 'V. de 

Chiriqui,; 25-4000 ft.; Champion.' and 'Brit. Mus.; 1904-55.' and 'Centrogonia; elegans. 

Fowler; TYPE.' and the B.C.A. label. 



348 P. S. BROOMFIELD 

elegantula (Parayasa) Distant, igi6a : 178. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: 'Type' and 'Pusa 
Coll.' and 'Pusa Coll.; 1915-164.' and 'Somerdale; Ootacamund. ; E. E. Green.; May. 1910.' 
and 'Parayasa; elangatula [sic]; type Dist.'. 

There is another female from the type-series in the collection. 

elephas (Foliatrotus) Capener, i953b : 120. Holotype with labels: 'Type' and 'HOLOTYPE' 
and 'DRAWING; No 198; A. L. Capener' and 'Brit. Mus; 1954-606.' and 'COLL. NO. C52o; 
IDENT. NO.' and 'Uganda, Elgon. 6000 ft; Bulago. ; Arabica.; on Coffee 22/7/1948; A. P. G. 
Michelmore' and 'Foliatrotus; elephas; CAPENER.'. 

elevatus (Otinotoides) Funkhouser, i935d : 431. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type; H.T.' 
and 'SOLOMON is.; Bougainville; H. W. Simmonds' and 'Pres. by; Imp. Inst. Ent. ; B.M. 
1935-224.' and 'HOLOTYPE; Otinotoides elevatus; W. D. Funkhouser'. 

elongata (Stictocephala) Fowler, iSgsd : no. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type' and '$' and 
'Ciudad, Mex.,; 8100 ft.; Forrer.' and 'Brit. Mus.; 1904-55.' and 'Stictocephala; elongata 
Fowler; TYPE' and the B.C. A. label. 

elongatus (Otinotus) Distant, igoSg : 41. LECTOTYPE 6* with labels : 'Type' and 'Calcutta.' 
and 'Distant Coll.; 1911-383.' and 'Otinotus; elongatus; type Dist.'. 

The head and legs are missing. There is a female from the type-series in the collection also. 
ensata (Aconophora) Fowler, 18953. : 68. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: 'Type' and 'V. de 
Chiriqui.; 2-3000 ft.; Champion.' and 'Brit. Mus.; 1904-55.' and 'Aconophora; ensata Fowler; 
TYPE.' and the B.C.A. label. 

One of two females glued to the same card, the lectotype is indicated by an adjacent red 
ink spot. There are five other females from the type-series in the collection. 

erectus (Xiphopoeus) Distant, igi4b : 152. LECTOTYPE 6* with labels: 'Type' and 
'1912-193' and 'Uganda Prot. ; Kafu R. near Hoima; Kampala Rd. 3,500 ft.; 29-31. Dec. 
1911.; S. A. Neave.' and 'Xiphophoeus [sic]; erectus; type Dist.'. 
There is another male from the type-series in the collection. 

erigens (Centrotus) Walker, i85ia : 614. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type' and 'Phil; Isla; 

42; 22* and '43. CENTROTUS ERIGENS,'. 

The head is missing. 

escateranus (Platybelus) Distant, igi6c : 324. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: 'Type' and 
'Cameroons. ; Escalera. ; 1903-355.' and 'Platybelus; escaleranus; type Dist.'. 
There is another female from the type-series in the collection. 

euschistus (Tricentrus) Distant, igi6a : 164. Holotype with labels: 'Type' and 'Distant 
Coll.; 1911-383.' and 'Tenass Vail; Myitta; (Doherty).' and 'Tricentrus; euschistus; type 
Dist.'. 

exaltata (Pterygia) Walker, i85ia : 502. Holotype <$ with labels: 'Type' and 'Brasil; 43; 86' 
and '16. PTERYGIA EXALTATA,'. 

exaltata (Thelia) Walker, i858b : 140. Holotype ? with labels: 'Type' and 'Santar; em; 53; 
72' and 'THELIA EXALTATA.'. 

excelsior (Enchenopa) Walker, i8s8a : 61. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: 'Type' and 'Venez' 
and 'Venezuela' and '68.4' and 'excelsior Walk.'. 
The anterior pronotal process is damaged. 

excisa (Ceresa) Walker, 18583. : 68. LECTOTYPE with labels: 'Type' and '68.4' and 'excisa 
Walk'. 

The abdomen, both wings, and the left tegmen are lost. 

excisus (Heteronotus) Walker, 18513. : 593. Holotype <$ with labels: 'Type' and 'Para; 49.; 
2' and '5. HETERONOTUS EXCISUS,'. 

exemplificatus (Insitor) Distant, igi6a : 176. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type' and 'Nilgiri 
Hills; S. India; T. V. Campbell' and '446' and '4; 515; 44; 6' and 'Insitor; exemplificatus; 
type Dist.'. 



CATALOGUE OF THE MEMBRACID TYPES IN BMNH 349 

exigua (Otinotus) Buckton, iQO3a : 232. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: 'Type' and 'Distant 
Coll.; 1911-383.' and 'Centruchoides; exigua Type; Natal Buckt.'. 

There are two other males and a female from the type-series in the collection. 

expansa var. humilis (Antianthe) Fowler, 18960 : 138. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: 'Type' 
and 'Temax, ; N. Yucatan.; Gaumer.' and 'Brit. Mus.; 1904-55.' and 'Janthe expansa; var 
humilis. Fowler; TYPE' and the B.C. A. label. 

There are seventeen other specimens from the type-series in the collection. 

expansa (Membracis) Walker, i85ia : 475. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type' and 'Vene; 
zuela; 47; .1' and '8. MEMBRACIS EXPANSA.'. 

extensa (Ceresa) Walker, i858a : 69. LECTOTYPE ? with labels: 'Type' and 'extensa 
Walk'. 

extensa (Oxygonia) Walker, i85ia : 554. LECTOTYPE <$ with labels: 'Type' and 'Ent. 
Club.; 44-12.' and '20. OXYGONIA EXTENSA/. 

There is another male from the type-series in the collection. 

extrema (Gargara) Distant, I9i6a : 171. Holotype <J with labels: 'Type' and 'Distant Coll.; 
1911-383.' and 'Peradeniya, ; Ceylon, 5-09' and 'Gargara; extrema; type Dist.'. 

falcatus (Centrotus) Walker, i85ia : 622. Holotype 6* with labels: 'Type' and '38; 10 22; 
88' and '57. CENTROTUS FALCATUS,'. 
The left tegmen is missing. 

falcatus (Ibiceps) Buckton, igo3a : 239. LECTOTYPE ? with labels: 'Type' and 'Distant 
Coll.; 1911-383.' and 'Taurcus; falcatus' and 'Ibiceps; falcatus; type gen. Buckt.'. 
There is another female from the type-series in the collection. 

falco (Campylocentrus) Buckton, igosa : 243. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: 'Type' and 

'Distant Coll.; 1911-383.' and 'Campylocentrus; falco Buckt; type; Luzon'. 

There is another female from the type-series in the collection. 
fasciata (Adippe) Buckton, 19033. : 189. LECTOTYPE <J with labels: 'Type' and 'Rio 

Dagua; Columbia* and 'Adippe; fasciata.'. 
fasciata (Cryptaspidia) Funkhouser, 19360 : 248. Holotype <J with labels: 'Type' and 

'Berenag; 3-6,000' Almora, ; U. P. R. N. Parker; 30-31. vii. 1923.' and '226' and 'Brit. Mus.; 

1936-222' and 'HOLOTYPE; Cryptaspidia fasciata; W. D. Funkhouser'. 
fasciata (Cyphonia) Butler, i877a : 214. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type' and 'Brazil; 43; 

86' and 'C. fasciata; Butler Type' and '3. CYPHONIA CAPRA?'. 

fasciatum (Pedalion) Buckton, i903a : 253. Holotype <$ with labels: 'Type' and 'Cape- 
town.; C. G. H.; Mch. 8".oo' and 'cf; Pedalion; fasciatum; Type Buckt.'. 

The suprahumeral horns are broken. 
felinus (Centruchoides) Haviland, I925a : 257. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: Type' and 

'Kartabo; Brit. Guiana; B.M. 1924-519.' and 'Kartabo, Brit. Guiana; July, 1922; e. coll M. 

D. Haviland; d.d. Collegium Newnhamense.' and 'Centruchoides; felinus; Haviland.'. 

There is a male from the type-series in the collection also. 
femoratus (Centrotus) Walker, i87oa : 186. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: Type' and 

'Celeb; Wallace' and 'Mak.' and 'femoratus'. 

The head is missing. 
fenestrata (Tragopa) Walker, i8$8b : 151. Holotype $ with labels: Type' and 'Santar; 

-em; 53.; 60.' and 'TRAGOPA FENESTRATA.'. 
ferruginea (Aconophora) Fowler, 18953, : 69. LECTOTYPE ^ with labels: Type' and 

'Bugaba, ; 800-1,500 ft.; Champion.' and 'Brit. Mus.; 1904-55.' and 'Aconophora; ferruginea; 

Fowler. TYPE.' and the B.C. A. label. 

There are two other males from the type-series in the collection. 
ferruginea (Enchenopa) Walker, i85ia : 489. Holotype $ with labels: Type' and '68.4' 

and 'Colum-; bia; 47; 25' and 'Colombia' and '34. ENCHENOPA FERRUGINEA,'. 



350 P. S. BROOMFIELD 

ferrugineus (Centrotus) Walker, i87oa : 187. LECTOTYPE ? with labels: 'Type' and 'N' 
and '68.4' and 'N Gui; Wallace' and 'ferrugineus'. 

The posterior pronotal process is missing. 

festivus (Acanthuchus) Distant, igi6d : 28. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type' and 'Queens- 
land.; F. P. Dodd.; 1907-54.' and 'Kuranda; Qld.' and 'Sept 04* F. P. Dodd.' and 'Acanthus 
[sic]; festivus; type Dist.'. 

The generic name is also mis-spelt in the description. 
festivus (Crito) Distant, igi6d : 43. Holotype 6* with labels: 'Type' and 'Queensland.; F. P. 

Dodd.; 1907-54.' and 'Crito; festivus; type Dist.'. 

fidelis (Kombazana) Distant, igoSh : 218. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: Type' and 'Distant 
Coll.; 1911-383.' and 'Johsbg. T. ; 5/5/01.' and 'Kombazana; fidelis; type Dist.'. 

There are two other females and a male from the type-series in the collection also. 
figurata (Oxygonia) Walker, i8$8b : 137. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: 'Type' and 'Mexico.' 
and '58.135 MEX.; (Oajaca.)' and 'OXYGONIA FIGURATA.'. 

Though the description mentions only two specimens, there are three others in the collection 
which appear to be from the type-series; two are female and the other has the abdomen 
missing. 

flnitimus (Centrotus) Walker, 18513, : 628. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type' and 'Hong; 
Kong; 48; 60' and '67. CENTROTUS FINITIMUS,'. 

The abdomen and right tegmen are glued separately. 

fissa (Enchenopa) Walker, i85ia : 485. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type' and 'BZ' and '42; 
16' and '26. ENCHENOPA FISSA,'. 

The pronotal horns are broken and most of the legs are missing. 

flavescens (Centrotypus) Distant, igoSg : 35. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: 'Type' and 
'68.4' and 'Ind' and 'Centrotypus; flavescens; type. Dist.'. 

There is another female from the type-series in the collection. 
flavipes (Centrotus) Kirby, iSgia : 165. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type' and '45' and 'N. 

pitia' and 'Centrotus; flavipes; Kb. type; Ceylon.; Green Coll.; 90-115.'. 

flavivitta (Centrotus) Walker, i85ia : 617. LECTOTYPE 6* with labels: 'Type' and 
'Jamaica; 46; 84.' and '48. CENTROTUS FLAVIVITTA,'. 

There is another male from the type-series in the collection. 

flavocarinata (Gargara) Funkhouser, ig27b : 8. Holotype $ with labels: 'Brit. Mus.; 
1926-401.' and 'Sumatra.; Pres. by; E. Jacobson.' and 'Fort de Kock; (Sumatra) 92oM; 
1925; leg. E. Jacobson.' and 'Gargara; flavocarinata; $ HOLOTYPE; W. D. Funkhouser'. 
flavocostatus (Polyglyptodes) Haviland, ig25a : 255. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type' and 
'Kartabo, ; Brit. Guiana.; B.M. 1924-519.' and 'Kartabo, Brit. Guiana; August, 1922; e coll. 
M. D. Haviland; d.d. Collegium Newnhamense' and 'Polyglyptodes.; flavocostatus; Haviland'. 
flavolineata (Gargara) Distant, igoSg : 65. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: 'Type' and 'Distant 
Coll; 1911-383.' and 'Ranchi; Irvine.' and 'Gargara; flavolineata; type Dist.'. 

Glued to the same card as three males, the lectotype is indicated by an adjacent red ink 
spot. There is another male and a female from the type-series in the collection. 
flavolineatus (Centrotus) Buckton, igo3a : 247. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: 'Type' and 
'Distant Coll. ; 1911-383.' and 'Tenass Vail; Myitta; (Doherty).' and 'Centrotus; flavolineatus; 
type; cd; type'. 

There are two males and a specimen with the abdomen missing also from the type-series in 
the collection. 

flexa (Membracis) Walker, i858a : 58. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: 'Type' and '68.4' and 
'Venez' and 'flexa Walk'. 

The right tegmen is missing. 

flexicorne (Centrotus) Walker, i858a : 78. LECTOTYPE with labels : Type' and 'North; 
Ind' and 'flexicorne Walk'. 

The abdomen and the posterior pronotal process are missing. 



CATALOGUE OF THE MEMBRACID TYPES IN BMNH 351 

floralis (Hypsauchenia) Buckton, 19033. : 210. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type' and 'Pegu' 
and 'Distant Coll; 1911-383.' and 'Hupsochenia [sic]; floralis; type Buckt.'. 

Though published as 'Hypsauchenia floralis, var?', successive authors have regarded the 
name as valid and assumed the inclusion of the word Var?' to be in error. 

formicarius (Ebhul) Distant, I9i6a : 169. LECTOTYPE <$ with labels: Type' and 'Pusa 
Coll' and 'Pusa Coll.; 1915-164.' and 'U. Burma; Maymyo: 3500 ft,; 19-21 viii 14; Fletcher 
coll' and 'Common on garden; plants at Maymyo.; Attended by ants.; T. B. F.' and 'Ebhul; 
formicarius; type Dist.'. 

There is also a female from the type-series in the collection. 

Jormidabilis (Oxyrhachis) Distant, igi6a : 146. LECTOTYPE <J with labels: Type' and 
'United Prov.,; Forest Dept.,; Dehra Dun.; Dr. A. W. Imms. ; 1915-228.' and 'For Zool. coll; 
suraj Bagh; Dehra Dun; 9-7-17.' and 'Oxyrhachis; f ormidabilis ; type Dist.'. 
There are another male and a female from the type-series in the collection. 
formidanda (Micreune) Walker, i857a : 94. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: 'SING.' and '91; 
1 1 8' and 'Wallace.'. 

The specimen in the collection which previously bore the Type' label was not of Walker's 
original series and was not, therefore, selected as lectotype. 
formosa (Cyphonia) Butler, i877a : 214. Holotype $> with labels: Type' and '68.4' and 

'C. formosa; Butler Type.'. 

forticornis (Centrotus) Walker, i87oa : 185. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: Type' and 
'68.4' and 'Mak.' and 'Celeb; Wallace' and 'firticornis [sic]'. 

The head is missing. 

fortis (Ceresa) Walker, i858b : 132. Holotype <$ with labels: Type' and 'TEJUCA; Jany. 
1857.; H. Clark; 57.50' and 'CERASA [sic] FORTIS.'. 

The generic name is similarly mis-spelt in the description. 
fraterna (Gargara) Distant, 19150 : 490. Holotype $ with labels: Type' and 'Addah, ; 

Gold Coast.; H. T. Palmer.; 1912. 142.' and 'Gargara; fraterna; type Dist'. 
fraterna (Stictopelta) Butler, i878a : 340. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: Type' and '58.135 
MEX.; (Oajaca.)' and 'S. fraterna; Butler Type.'. 

There is another female from the type-series in the collection. 

fraternus (Eufairmairia) Distant, I9i6d : 36. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: Type' and 
'Distant Coll.; 1911-383.' and 'Gayndah; Queensland' and 'Eufairmaria [sic]; fraternus; 
type Dist.'. 

There are four other females and two males from the type-series in the collection. 
trigida (Enchenopa) Walker, i85ia : 490. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: Type' and 'R' and 

'803' and '36. ENCHENOPA FRIGIDA,'. 

There are four other females from the type-series in the collection. 
funkhouseri (Amastris) Haviland, i925a : 251. Holotype $ with labels: Type' and 'Kar- 

tabo, ; Brit. Guiana.; B.M. 1924-519.' and 'Kartabo, Brit. Guiana; August, 1922; e coll. 

M. D. Haviland; d.d. Collegium Newnhamense' and 'Amastris; funkhouseri; Haviland'. 
fusca (Polyglypta) Butler, i877a : 208. Holotype $ with labels: Type' and 'Mexico.' and 

'Mex' and '68.4' and 'P. fusca; Butler Type'. 
fusca (Stictocephala) Fowler, 18953 : 109. LECTOTYPE $ with labels : Type' and 

'Presidio,; Mexico.; Forrer.' and 'Brit. Mus.; 1904-55.' and 'Stictocephala; fusca; Fowler. 

TYPE' and the B.C. A. label. 

There are another female and a specimen without an abdomen from the type-series in the 

collection. 
fuscata (Cyphonia) Buckton, igo2a : 165. Holotype $ with labels : Type' and 'Para' and 

'Miss Pascoe; 69-41.' and 'Cyphonia; fuscata; (type) Buckt.'. 
fuscata (Ochropepla) Fowler, i8g7a : 173. Holotype with labels: Type' and 'Omilteme, 

Guerrero,; '8000 ft.; July. H. H. Smith.' and 'Brit. Mus. ; 1904-55.' and 'Ochropepla; fuscata 

Fowler.; TYPE' and the B.C. A. label. 



352 P. S. BROOMFIELD 

fuscipennis (Centrotus) Germar, i835a : 256. Holotype <$ with labels: Type' and '1231.' 
and 'C. G. H.; 42; 77' and '1281 Centrotus fuscipennis G ....'. 
The abdomen is glued separately. 

fusifera (Membracis) Walker, 1858% : 58. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: 'Type' and '68.4' 
and 'Para' and 'fusifera Walk'. 

fusifortnis (Aconophora) Fowler, i895a : 69. LECTOTYPE . with labels: 'Type' and '<' 
and 'V. de Chiriqui, ; 25-4000 ft.; Champion.' and 'Brit. Mus.; 1904-55.' and 'Aconophora; 
fusiformis $; Fowler. TYPE' and the B.C. A. label. 

The labels referring to the lectotype as '$' are in error. There is another female from the 
type-series in the collection. 

galeata (Enchenopa) Walker, i85ia : 486. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type' and 'Para; 50; 

2' and '29. ENCHENOPA GALEATA.'. 

gibba (Telamona) Buckton, igoaa : 197. LECTOTYPE ? with labels: 'Type' and 'Bogota' 
and 'Telemona [sic]' and 'Pres. by; National Museum; of Wales; ex Rip[p]on Coll.; B.M. 
1931-199.' and 'Telamona; gibba Buckt. ; TYPE; det. W. E. China 1931.'. 

gibbicorne (Centrotus) Walker, i858a : 76. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: Type' and 'S.; 
America.' and '68.4' and 'gibbicorne Walk'. 

The tip of the posterior pronotal process is missing. 

gibbosa (Hemiptycha) Walker, i858b : 142. Holotype $ with labels : Type' and 'Ega ; 56. ; 24* 
and 'HEMIPTYCHA GIBBOSA'. 

gibbosa (Hypsauchenia) Distant, igoSg : 12. Holotype $ with labels: Type' and 'Distant 
Coll.; 1911-383.' and 'Ruby Mines; (Doherty)' and 'Hypsauchenia; type gibbosa Dist.'. 

gibbosulus (Centrotus) Walker, 1858*1 : 80. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: Type' and 'Ind' 
and 'gibbosulus Walk'. 

The specimen is badly damaged. 

gibbosulus (Centrotus) Walker, i87oa : 187. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: Type' and 'M.' 
and 'Wallace' and '68.4* and 'gibbosulus'. 
The right wing and tegmen are lost. 

gigantea (Aconophora) Butler, i878a : 352. Holotype $ with labels: Type' and 'Ega; 58; 6' 
and 'A. gigantea; Butler Type'. 

gladiator (Thelia) Walker, i85ia : 567. Holotype $ with labels: Type' and 'Para; 40; 2' 

and '38. THELIA GLADIATOR,'. 

globosa (Boethoos) Haviland, ig25a : 250. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: Type' and 'Kar- 
tabo, ; Brit. Guiana.; B.M. 1924-519.' and 'Kartabo, Brit. Guiana; August, 1922; e coll. 
M. D. Haviland; d.d. Collegium Newnhamense' and 'Boethoos; globosa; Haviland'. 

gnomon (Rabduchus) Buckton, i903a : 251. LECTOTYPE <$ with labels: Type' and 

'Distant Coll.; 1911-383.' and 'Cammeroons; W. Africa' and 'Rhabdouchus [sic]; type 

gnomon.; Buckt.'. 

There is a female from the type-series in the collection also. 
godingi (Cebes) Distant, igi6d : 39. Holotype with labels: Type' and 'Distant Coll.; 1911- 

383.' and 'Buckton; Coll.' and 'Australia' and 'Centruchoides ; rubridorsi' and 'Cebes; godingi; 

type Dist.'. 

The head, abdomen and right tegmen are missing. 
godmani (Alcmeone) Fowler, i8g^a : 72. Holotype with labels: Type 1 and 'Jalisco, 

Mex.; July.; Schumann.' and 'Brit. Mus.; 1904-55.' and 'Alcmeone; Godmani Fowler; TYPE.' 

and the B.C.A. label. 
gowdeyi (Platybelus) Distant, I9i6c: 325. Holotype $ with labels: Type' and 'Mabira 

Forest.; Chagwe.; 17-20. VII. n.' and 'Uganda.; C. C. Gowdey.; 1912-461.' and 'Platybelus; 

gowdeyi; type Dist.'. 
grahami (Amitrochates) Distant, igi6c : 328. LECTOTYPE 2 with labels: Type' and 



CATALOGUE OF THE MEMBRACID TYPES IN BMNH 353 

'Obuasi, ; Ashanti. ; Dr. W. M. Graham.; 1908-272.' and 'on leaf; 9. 7. 07.' and 'Amitochrates 

[sic]; grahami; type Dist.'. 

There are two other females from the type-series in the collection. 
granulatus (Centrotus) Kirby, iSgia : 166. LECTOTYPE <$ with labels: 'Type' and 

'Pundaloya; Ceylon. 8' and 'Centrotus; granulatus; Kb type; Ceylon.; Green Coll.; 90-115.'. 

There is also a female from the type-series in the collection. 
greeni (Yasa) Distant, igoSg : 74. LECTOTYPE $ with labels; 'Type' and 'Peradeniya, ; 

Ceylon, 4.05' and 'Distant Coll.; 1911-383.' and 'Yasa; greeni; type Dist.'. 

There are two other females from the type-series in the collection. 
grisea (Adippe) Fowler, i8g6b : 136. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type' and 'Bugaba, ; 800- 

1500 ft.; Champion.' and 'Brit. Mus. ; 1904-55.' and 'Adippe; grisea Fowler; TYPE.' and the 

B.C.A. label. 
grossus (Leptocentrus) Distant, igi6c : 315. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: 'Type' and 

'1913-171.' and 'Entebbe,; Uganda.; Aug. 1912.; C. A. Wiggins.' and 'Leptocentrus; grossus; 

type Dist.'. 

There are four other females from the type-series in the collection. 
guerreroensis (Godingia) Fowler, i8g6c : 139. LECTOTYPE <$ with labels: 'Type' and '$' 

and 'Omilteme, ; Guerrero,; 8000 ft.; July. H. H. Smith.' and 'Brit. Mus.; 1904-55.' and 

'Godingia; guerrensis [sic]. Fowler; TYPE. <$' and the B.C.A. label. 
There are also two females from the type-series in the collection. 
guianae (Tragopa) Haviland, ig25a : 247. LECTOTYPE $ with labels : 'Type' and 'Kartabo, 

Brit. Guiana.; B.M. 1924-519.' and 'Kartabo, Brit. Guiana; August, 1922; e coll. M. D. 

Haviland; d.d. Collegium Newnhamense' and 'Tragopa; guianae; Haviland'. 
guttifera (Aconophora) Walker, i85ia : 539. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type' and 'E. 

Doubleday. ; St. John's Bluff,; E. Florida.' and '41.; 517.; 286' and '15. ACONOPHORA GUTTI- 
FERA,'. 

guttipes (Cyphonia) Walker, i858b : 157. Holotype with labels: 'Type' and 'S. Amer; 

napo; 51; 70' and 'CYPHONIA GUTTIPES.'. 

The abdomen and right tegmen are missing. 
hadina (Aconophora) Butler, i878a : 349. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type' and 'Brasil; 43; 

86' and 'A. hadina; Butler Type' and 'INCUMBENS.'. 
haeretica (Adippe) Distant, igooa : 694. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: Type' and 'Chon- 

tales, ; Nicaragua; Janson.' and 'Brit. Mus.; 1904-55.' and 'Adippe; haeretica, (type) Dist.' 

and 'Adippe; maculata; Distant.' and the B.C.A. label. 

The description of this species is in Fowler, i8g6b : 134. There are two other females 

and two males from the type-series in the collection. 
harrisi (Eufairmairia) Distant, igi6d : 35. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type' and '113.' and 

'Distant Coll.; 1911-383.' and 'Queensland; Museum.' and 'Eufairmairia; harrisi.; type Dist.'. 
hebes (Triquetra) Walker, i85ia : 525. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type' and 'Colum-; bia; 

47; 25' and '17. TRIQUETRA HEBES,'. 

The tegmina and the left wing are missing. 

herbicola (Hille) Haviland, ig25a : 255. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: 'Type 1 and 'Kartabo,; 
Brit. Guiana.; B.M. 1924-519.' and 'Kartabo, Brit. Guiana; June, 1922; e coll. M. D. Havi- 
land; d.d. Collegium Newnhamense' and 'Hille herbicola; Haviland'. 

There are five other females and two males from the type-series in the collection. 

hirsuta (Gelastigonia) Haviland, I925a : 256. LECTOTYPE 6* with labels: Type' and 
'Kartabo,; Brit. Guiana.; B M. 1925-519.' and 'Kartabo, Brit. Guiana; July, 1922; e coll. 
M. D. Haviland; d.d. Collegium Newnhamense' and 'Oxygonia; hirsuta; Haviland'. 

hispida (Cyphonia) Walker, i858b : 156. Holotype 6* with labels: Type' and TEJUCA; 
Jany. 1857.; H. Clark.; 57.50' and 'CYPHONIA HISPIDA.'. 

histrio (Oxygonia) Walker, i858a : 71. LECTOTYPE with labels: Type' and '68.4' and 
'G Berrnel' and 'histrio Walk'. 



354 p - s - BROOMFIELD 

hordeacea (Polyglypta) Butler, iSyya; : 209. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: Type' and 'Peru' 

and '68.4' and 'P. hordeacea; Butler Type'. 

There is another female from the type-series in the collection. 
horizontalis (Hybandoides) Distant, 19150 : 327. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: Type' and 

'Sarawak; Museum.; 1914-253.' and 'Mt. Kinabalu.; 3.000 ft.; Sep. 1913' and 'Hybandoides; 

horizontalis; type Dist.'. 

There are four other females and three males from the type-series in the collection. 
horizontalis (Tricentrus) Distant, igi6a : 164. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type' and 'Distant 

Coll.; 1911-383.' and 'Moulmein; L. Burma' and 'Tricentrus; horizontalis; type Dist.'. 
horrescens (Stnerdalea) Fowler, 18966 : 163. LECTOTYPE 6* with labels: 'Type' and 

'V. de Chiriqui, ; 25-4000 ft.; Champion.' and 'Brit. Mus. ; 1904-55.' and 'Smerdalea; 

horrescens.; Fowler. TYPE.' and the B.C. A. label. 

There are another male and a female from the type-series in the collection. 
horridulus (Centrotus) Walker, i85ia : 605. Holotype $ with labels: 'Type' and 'Port; 

Natal; 49:29' and 'validicornis Stal.' and '17. CENTROTUS HORRIDULUS,'. 
horvathi (Pogontypus) Distant, igoSg : 67. LECTOTYPE <J with labels: ' Yatiyantota, ; 

Ceylon, 3-1902' and 'Distant Coll.; 1911-383.'. 

The specimen previously bearing the Type' label and Distant's 'horvathi; type Dist.' 

label was not selected as lectotype as it was not from the published type locality. It is 

possible that these labels have been mis-placed. 
hutnilior (Enchenopa) Walker, 18583. : 62. LECTOTYPE ? with labels: Type' and 'Venez' 

and 'Venezuela' and 'humilior Walk'. 
hum His (Hoplophora) Walker, 1851 a : 514. Holotype Q* with labels: Type' and 'Gallia.' 

and '1933' and '18. HOPLOPHORA HUMILIS,'. 
humilis (Membracis) Fowler, i894b : 6. Holotype 9 with labels: Type' and 'Atoyac, ; 

Vera Cruz.; Schumann.' and 'Brit. Mus.; 1904-55.' and 'M. humilis. Fowler; TYPE' and the 

B.C.A. label. 
hyalifascia (Gargara) Funkhouser, ig27b : 8. Holotype $ with labels : 'Brit. Mus. ; 1926-401.' 

and 'Sumatra.; Pres. by; E. Jacobson.' and 'Fort de Kock; (Sumatra) 92oM; 1925; leg. 

E. Jacobson.' and 'HOLOTYPE; Gargara hyalifascia; W. D. Funkhouser -'. 
ignidorsutn (Enchenopa) Walker, i858b : 124. Holotype $ with labels: Type' and 'Mexico' 

and 'Mex.; 56; 143' and 'ENCHENOPA IGNIDORSUM.'. 

This specimen is badly damaged. 
ignipes (Centrotus) Walker, 18513, : 616. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: Type' and 'Jamaica' 

and '47. CENTROTUS IGNIPES,'. 
imitator (Centrotus) Kirby, iSgia : 167. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: 'Pundaloya; Ceylon.' 

and '43' and 'Ceylon.; Green Coll.; 90-115.'. 

The specimen previously bearing the Type' label was of an MS species of Walker's. There 

is another female from the type-series in the collection. 
impedita (Entylia) Walker, i858b : 137. Holotype $ with labels: Type' and 'Canada; W; 56; 

13' and 'ENTYLIA IMPEDITA.'. 
inaequalis (Adippe)' Fowler, i8g6b : 136. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: Type and 'Bugaba,; 

8-1500 ft.; Champion.' and 'Brit. Mus.; 1904-55.' and 'Adippe; inaequalis; Fowler. TYPE' and 

the B.C.A. label. 

There are two other females and two specimens without abdomens from the type-series in 

the collection. 
inaequalis (Cyrtolobus) Fowler, i89&c : 142. Holotype <$ with labels: Type' and 'Xucuma- 

natlan, ; Guerrero,; 7000 ft.; July. H. H. Smith' and 'Brit. Mus.; 1904-55.' and 'Cyrtolobus; 

inaequalis. Fowler; TYPE.' and the B.C.A. label. 

inaequalis (Entylia) Butler, i877a : 211. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: Type' and 'Guate- 
mala; 5000' and '75.28.' and 'E. inaequalis.; Butler Type.'. 
There is a male from the type-series in the collection. 



CATALOGUE OF THE MEMBRACID TYPES IN BMNH 355 

inaequalis (Ochropepla) Fowler, 18940 : 44. LECTOTYPE $ with labels: 'Type' and 'V. de 
Chiriqui,; 25-4000 ft.; Champion.' and 'Brit. Mus. ; 1904-55.' and 'Ochropepla; inaequalis; 
Fowler. TYPE' and the B.C. A. label. 

There are another male and eight females from the type-series in the collection. 

incerta (Darnis) Walker, iS^Sb : 149. Holotype 9 with labels: 'Type' and 'Mex.; 56; 143' 
and 'DARNIS INCERTA.'. 

incisa (Entylia) Walker, 1851% : 548. Holotype with labels: 'Type' and '38.' and '38.' and 

'9. ENTYLIA INCISA,'. 

The abdomen is missing. 

incongrua (Combophora) Walker, i858c : 340. LECTOTYPE ? with labels: 'Type' and 
'Tun-; antin; 57; 125' and 'COMBOPHORA INCONGRUA.'. 

inconspicua (Adippe) Fowler, i8g6b : 135. LECTOTYPE ? with labels: 'Type' and 'David,; 
Chiriqui.; Champion.' and 'Brit. Mus.; 1904-55.' and 'Adippe; inconspicua; Fowler TYPE' 
and the B C.A. label. 

One of two females glued to the same card, the lectotype is indicated by an adjacent red 
ink spot. There is another female from the type-series in the collection. 

inconspicua (Aphetea) Fowler, i895d : 95. LECTOTYPE ? with labels: '$' and 'Cahabon,; 
Vera Paz.; Champion.' and 'Aphetea; inconspicua; Fow