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Dr, g. carmichael low. 

VOLUME L X I 1 1 . 

SESSION 1942-1943. 






There is little to report about the Session 1942-1943. The Annual 
General Meeting was held on Saturday, October 24, 1942, when 20 
members were present. It was agreed to have meetings similar to those 
of last session again, where possible, and a suggestion was also made 
that evening meetings might be resumed in summer. 

Four meetings of the Club were held. In October (Annual General 
and Ordinary Meeting), in November, in May (in conjunction with the 
British Ornithologists' Union in place of their usual Annual General 
Meeting in March) and in June. No meeting of the Club was held in 
February, but a Bulletin was published for that month in March (1943). 
The first three meetings were held on Saturday afternoons, the fourth 
and last for session (the June Meeting) in the evening after a dinner. 

The number of attendances for the Session was as follows : — 81 members 
of the Club, 5 members of the B.O.U., 1 guest of the Club and 22 other 
guests, a total of 109, a reduction from the previous session, partly 
accounted for by there being one meeting less. 

There was no Chairman's Address. 

Mr. B. W. Tucker gave an interesting talk on " Some Ornithological 
Trips on the Continent " (illustrated by lantern-slides). Dr. Carmichael 
Low read a paper for Count K. A. Wodzicki, Consul- General for Poland 
in New Zealand, on " Observations on the Avifauna and Ornithological 
Work in New Zealand", and Dr. Landsborough Thomson opened a 
discussion on " Physiological Races ". At the combined Meeting of the 
Union and the Club, Major Anthony Btjlrton showed a series of slides AX j 
and films which were much appreciated by those present. 

New forms were described by Mr. P. A. Clancey, Captain C. H. B. Grant 
and Lt.-Colonel Mackworth-Praed, Mr. C. W. Benson, Mr. C. M. N. White, 
Mr. Hugh Whistler and Dr. D. A. Bannerman. 



Mr. N. B. Kinnear exhibited, on behalf of Mr. C. W. Benson, a specimen 
of the rare Zavattariomis stresemanni Moltoni, from Southern Abyssinia, 
and Dr. Carmichael Low showed a photograph from Count Wodzicki of 
a Royal Albatross and exhibited a specimen of the Andean Gull. 

Captain C. H. B. Grant and Lt. -Colonel Mackworth-Praed have con- 
tinued their notes on Eastern African Birds. 

As war restrictions were relaxed luncheons were again permitted, and 
as stated above, the last Meeting of the Club for the session, held in 
June, was an evening one following a Dinner. 

The Club entertained as a distinguished Guest W. J. Sillem from 

London, July 1943, 


(Founded October 5, 1892.) 


The objects of the Club, which shall be called the 
" British Ornithologists' Club," are the promotion of social 
intercourse between Members of the British Ornithologists' 
Union and to facilitate the publication of scientific infor- 
mation connected with ornithology. 


(As amended, October 12, 1938.) 


I. The affairs of the Club shall be managed by a Committee, 
to consist of a Chairman, who shall be elected for three years, 
at the end of which period he shall not be eligible for re-election 
for the next term ; two Vice-Chairmen, who shall serve for one 
year, and who shall not be eligible for the next year ; an Editor 
of the ' Bulletin,' who shall be elected for five years, at the end 
of which period he shall not be eligible for re-election for 
the next term ; a Secretary and a Treasurer, who shall each 
be elected for a term of one year, but who shall be eligible 
for re-election. There shall be in addition four other Members, 
the senior of whom shall retire each year, and another Member 
be elected in his place ; every third year the two senior 
Members shall retire and two other Members be elected in 
their place. Officers and Members of the Committee shall 
be elected by the Members of the Club at a General Meeting, 
and the names of such Officers and Members of Committee 
nominated by the Committee for the ensuing year shall be 
circulated with the notice convening the Genera: Meeting 
at least two weeks before the Meeting. Should any Member 
wish to propose another candidate, the nomination of such, 
signed by at least two Members, must reach the Secretarj 7 
at least one clear week before the Annual General Meeting. 


II. Any Member desiring to make a complaint of the 
manner in which the affairs of the Club are conducted 
must communicate in writing with the Chairman, who will, 
if he deem fit, call a Committee Meeting to deal with the 

III. If the conduct of any Member shall be deemed by 
the Committee to be prejudicial to the interests of the Club, 
he may be requested by the Committee to withdraw from 
the Club. In the case of refusal, his name may be removed 
from the list of Members at a General Meeting, provided 
that, in the notice calling the Meeting, intimation of the 
proposed resolution to remove his name shall have been 
given, and that a majority of the Members voting at such 
Meeting record their votes for his removal. 


IV. Any Member of the British Ornithologists' Union 
may become a Member of the Club on payment to the 
Treasurer of an entrance-fee of one pound and a subscription 
of one guinea for the current Session. On Membership 
of the Union ceasing, Membership of the Club also ceases. 

Any Member who has not paid his subscription before 
the last Meeting of the Session shall cease, ipso facto, to be 
a Member of the Club, but may be reinstated on payment 
of arrears. 

Any Member who has resigned less than five years ago 
may be reinstated without payment of another Entrance Fee. 

Any Member who resigns his Membership on going abroad 
may be readmitted without payment of a further Entrance 
Fee at the Committee's discretion. 

Temporary Associates. 

V. Members of the British Ornithologists' Union who are 
ordinarily resident outside the British Isles, and ornithologists 
from the British Empire overseas or from foreign countries, 
may be admitted at the discretion of the Committee as Tem- 
porary Associates of the Club for the duration of any visit to the 
British Isle's not exceeding one Session. An entrance fee of 
five shillings shall be payable in respect of every such admission 


if the period exceeds three months. The privileges of 
Temporary Associates shall be limited to attendance at the 
ordinary meetings of the Club and the introduction of guests. 


VI. The Club will meet, as a rule, on the second Wednesday 
in every month, from October to June inclusive, at such 
hour and place as may be arranged by the Committee, but 
should such Wednesday happen to be Ash Wednesday, the 
Meeting will take place on the Wednesday following. At 
these Meetings papers upon ornithological subjects will 
be read, specimens exhibited and described, and discussion 

VII. A General Meeting of the Club shall be held on the 
day of the October Meeting of each Session, and the 
Treasurer shall present thereat the Balance-sheet and Report ; 
and the election of Officers and Committee, in so far as their 
election is required, shall be held at such Meeting. 

VIII. A Special General Meeting may be called at the 
instance of the Committee for any purpose which they 
deem to be of sufficient importance, or at the instance of 
not fewer than fifteen Members. Notice of not less than 
two weeks shall be given of every General and Special General 

Introduction of Visitors. 

IX. Members may introduce visitors at any ordinary 
Meeting of the Club, but the same guest shall not be eligible 
to attend on more than three occasions during the Session. 
No former Member who has been removed for non-payment 
of subscription, or for any other cause, shall be allowed to 
attend as a guest. 

' Bulletin ' or the Club. 

X. An Abstract of the Proceedings of the Club shall be 
printed as soon as possible after each Meeting, under the 
title of the ' Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club/ 
and shall be distributed gratis to every Member who has 
paid his subscription. 


Contributors are entitled to six free copies of the ' Bulletin, 
but if they desire to exercise this privilege they must give 
notice to the Editor when their manuscript is handed in. 
Members purchasing extra copies of the ' Bulletin ' are 
entitled to a rebate of 25 per cent, on the published price, 
but not more than two copies can be sold to any Member 
unless ordered before printing. 

Descriptions of new species may be published in the 
' Bulletin,' although such were not communicated at the 
Meeting of the Club. This shall be done at the discretion 
of the Editor and so long as the publication of the ' Bulletin ' 
is not unduly delayed thereby. 

Any person speaking at a Meeting of the Club shall be 
allowed subsequently — subject to the discretion of the Editor — 
to amplify his remarks in the ' Bulletin,' but no fresh matter 
shall be incorporated with such remarks. 

XL No communication, the whole or any important part 
of which has already been published elsewhere, shall be 
eligible for publication in the ' Bulletin,' except at the discretion 
of the Editor ; and no communication made to the Club 
may be subsequently published elsewhere without the written 
sanction of the Editor. 

Alteration and Repeal or Rules. 
Xll. Any suggested alteration or repeal of a standing rule 
shall be submitted to Members to be voted upon at a General 
Meeting convened for that purpose. 

COMMITTEE, 1942-1943. 
Dr. A. Landsborough Thomson, Chairman (elected 1938), 
Captain C. H. B. Grant, V ice-Chairman (elected 1940). 
Mr. B. W. Tucker, Vice-Chairman (elected 1940). 
Dr. G. Carmichael Low, Editor (elected 1940). 
Mr. N. B. Kinnear, Hon. Secretary (elected 1940). 
Miss E. P. Leach, Hon. Treasurer (elected 1942). 
Miss Phyllis Barclay-Smith (elected 1940). 
Mr. B. G. Harrison (elected 1940). 
Mr. James Fisher (elected 1942). 
Mrs. Winifred Boyd Watt (elected 1942). 

Officers of the British Ornithologists' Club, 
Past and Present. 


P. L. Sclater, F.R.S. 1892-1913. 

Lord Rothschild, F.R.S. 1913-1918. 

W. L. Sclater. 1918-1924. 

H. F. Witherby. 1924-1927. 

Dr. P. R. Lowe. 1927-1930. 

Major S. S. Flower. 1930-1932. 

D. A. Bannerman. 1932-1935. 

G. M. Mathews. 1935-1938. 
Dr. A. Landsborough 

Thomson. 1938- 


Lord Rothschild, F.R.S. 1930-1931. 

W. L. Sclater. 1931-1932. 

H. F. Witherby. 1932-1933. 

G. M. Mathews. 1933-1934. 

N. B. Kinnear. 1934-1935. 

H. Whistler. . 1935-1936. 

D. Seth-Smith. 1936-1937. 

Col. R. Sparrow. 1937-1938. 

Dr. G. Carmichael Low. 1938-1939. 

Hon. Guy Charteris. 1938-1939. 

W. L. Sclater. 1939-1940. 

Dr. D. A. Bannerman. 1939-1940. 

Captain C. H. B. Grant. 1940- 

Mr. W. B. Tucker. 1940- 


R. Bowdler Sharpe. 1892-1904. 

W. R. Ogilvie-Grant. 1904-1914. 

D. A. Bannerman. 1914-1915. 

D. Seth-Smith. 1915-1920. 

Dr. P. R. Lowe. 1920-1925. 

N. B. Kinnear. 1925-1930. 

Dr. G. Carmichael Low. 1930-1935. 

Captain C. H. B. Grant. 1935-1940. 

Dr. G. Carmichael Low. 1940- 

Honorary Secretaries and Treasurers. 

Howard Saundebs. 






Dr. P. R. Lowe. 


C. G. Talbot-Ponsonby. 


D. A. Bannebman. 


Dr. Philip Gosse. 


J. L. Bonhote. 


C. W. Mackwobth-Pbaed. 


Dr. G. Cabmichael Low. 


C. W. Mackwobth-Pbaed. 


Honorary Secretaries. 

Dr. A. Landsbobough 



C. R. Stonob. 




Honorary Treasurers. 

C. W. Mackwobth-Pbaed. 1935-1936. 

Major A. G. L. Sladen. 1936-1942. 

Miss E. P. Leach 1942- 

JUNE 1943. 

Acland, Miss C. M. ; Walwood, Banstead, Surrey. 
Alexander, H. G. ; 144 Oak Tree Lane, Selly Oak, Birming- 
Aylmer, Commdr. E. A., R.N. ; Wyke Oliver, Preston, 

Baker, E. C. Stuart, C.I.E., O.B.E., F.L.S., H.F.A.O.U. ; 

6 Harold Road, Upper Norwood, S.E. 19. 
5 Bannerman, David A., M.B.E., M.A., Sc.D., F.R.S.E., 

H.F.A.O.U. (Chairman, 1932-1935) ; British Museum 

(Natural History), Cromwell Road, S.W. 7. 
Barclay- Smith, Miss Phyllis (Committee) ; 51 Warwick 

Avenue, W. 9. 
Barrington, Frederick J. F., M.S., F.R.C.S. ; 48 Wimpole 

Street, W. 1. 
Benson, Captain C. W. ; c/o Secretariat, Zomba, Nyasaland. 
Best, Miss M. G. S. ; 10 a Cresswell Place, S.W. 10. 
„ 10 Boorman, S. ; Heath Farm, Send, Woking, Surrey. 

Boyd, A. W., M.C. ; Frandley House, near Northwich, Cheshire. 
Brown, George ; Combe Manor, Hungerford, Berks. 
Buxton, Major Anthony, D.S.O., D.L. ; Horsey Hall, near 

Great Yarmouth, Norfolk. 
Campbell, Dr. James W. ; Layer Marney Hall, Kelvedon, 

15 Cave. Colonel F. 0. ; Stoner Hill, Petersfield, Hants. 

Chapin, Dr. James P. ; Musee du Congo Beige, Tervueren, 

Belgium ; and American Museum of Natural History, 

Central Park, New York City, U.S.A. 
Charteris, Hon. G. L. ; 24 Oxford Square, W. 2. 
Chasen, Frederick N. ; Raffles Museum, Singapore. 
Chislett, Ralph ; Larkspur, 42 Broom Crescent, Rotherham, 

20 Clancey, P. A. ; 9 Craig Road, Cathcart, Glasgow, S. 4. 


Clarke, Brig.-General Goland van Holt, C.M.G., D.S.O. ; 

Maudlyn House, Steyning, Sussex. 
Clarke, John P. Stephenson ; Broadhurst Manor, Horsted 

Keynes, Sussex. 
Clarke, Col. Stephenson Robert, C.B. ; Borde Hill, Cuck- 

field, Sussex. 
Cleave, Henry P. O. ; Mansfield House, Kendrick Road, 

25 Coltart, Capt. N. B. ; c/o Lloyds Bank Ltd., Epsom, Surrey. 
Conover, H. B. ; 6 Scott Street, Chicago, Illinois, U.S .A. 
Cunningham, Capt. Josias, R.A. ; 3 Donegall Square East, 

Delacour, Jean ; Stanhope Hotel, Fifth Avenue and 81st 

Street, New York, N.Y. 
Dewhurst, Lieut. -Col. F. W., R.M. ; Wisdome Cot, Corn- 
wood, S. Devon. 
30 Dobie, William Henry, M.R.C.S. ; 32 St. Martin's Fields, 

Duffin, Charles J. ; 4 Pendennis Road, Streatham, S.W. 16. 
Duncan, Arthur Bryce ; Gilchristlands, Closeburn, Dum- 
Ellis, H. W. ; Friary Hill, Weybridge, Surrey. 
Ellis, Ralph, F.L.S. ; 2420 Ridge Road, Berkeley, California, 

35 Ezra, A., O.B.E. ; Foxwarren Park, Cobham, Surrey. 

Fisher, James (Committee) ; Zoological Gardens, Regent's 

Park, N.W. 8. 
Fisher, Kenneth ; School House, Oundle, Northamptonshire. 
Fitter, R. S. R. ; 39 South Grove House, Highgate, N. 0. 
Flower, Major S. S. (Chairman, 1930-1932) ; 27 Park Road, 

Tring, Herts. 
40 Foulkes-Roberts, Captain P. R., M.C. ; Westwood, Goring- 

on-Thames, Oxon ; and c/o The Administrator of the 

Colony, Lagos, Nigeria. 
Gilbert, Captain H. A. ; Bishopstone, near Hereford. 
Glegg, W. E. ; c/o Zool. Mus., Tring, Herts. 
Glenister, A. G. ; The Barn House, East Blatchingtou , 

Seaford, Sussex. 
Godman, Miss Eva ; South Lodge, Horsham, Sussex. 


45 Grant, Captain C. H. B. (V ice-Chairman) ; 8 Cornwall Gardens 
Court, Cornwall Gardens, S.W. 1 , 
Gyldenstolpe, Count Nils ; Royal (Natural History) 

Museum, Stockholm, Sweden. 
Hachisuka, The Marquess ; Mita Shiba, Tokio, Japan. 
Hale, Rev. James R., M.A. ; Yalding Vicarage, Maidstone, 

Harrison, Bernard Guy (Committee) ; 45 St. Martin's Lane, 
W.C. 2. 
50 Harrison, James M., D.S.C.,M.R.C.S.,L.R.C.P. ; Bowerwood 
House, St. Botolph's Road, Sevenoaks, Kent. 
Heath, R. E. ; 2 Pembroke Court, Edwardes Square, W. 8. 
Hett, Geoffrey Seccombe, M.B., F.R.C.S. ; 86 Brook 

Street, Grosvenor Square, W. 1. 
Hodgkin, Mrs. T. Edward ; Old Ridley, Stocksfield, North- 
Hollom. P. A. D. ; Rolverden, Hook Heath, Woking, 
55 Hopkinson, Emilius, C.M.G., D.S.O., M.B. ; Wynstay, 
Balcombe, Sussex. 
Hutson, Lieut-Col. H. P. W., R.E. ; Chatham House, Rome 

Gardens, Abassia, Cairo, Egypt. 
Inglis, C. McFarlane ; Natural History Museum, Darjiling, 

Ingram, Capt. Collin gwood ; The Grange, Benenden, 

Cr an brook, Kent. 
Jabouille, Pierre ; c/o Monsieur J. Delacour, New York 
Zoological Society, New York, U.S.A. 
60 James, Miss Celia K., Blake's Wood, Barnt Green, Birm- 
Jeffrey, T. C. ; Thorpe Grange, Ashbourne, Derbyshire. 
Jordan, Dr. Karl ; Zoological Museum, Tring, Herts . 
Joy, Norman H., M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P. ; 46 Maidstone Road, 

Rochester, Kent. 
Kinnear, Norman B. \Hon. Secretary) ; British Museum 
(Natural History], Cromvveli Road, S.W. 7. 
65 Kuroda, The Marquis Nagamichi ; Fukuyoshicho, Akasaka, 
Tokio, Japan. 


Lack, David ; 100 Church Road, Richmond, Surrey. 
Leach, Miss E. P. {Hon. Treasurer) ; 94 Kensington Court, 

W. 8. 
Lewis, John Spedan ; Leckford Abbas, Stockbridge, Hants. 
Longfield, Miss Cynthia ; 20 Pont Street, S.W. 1. 
70 Low, George Carmichael, M.A., M.D., CM., F.R.C.P., 
F.Z.S. {Editor of the ' Bulletin ') ; 7 Kent House, Ken- 
sington Court, Kensington, W. 8. 
Lowe, P. R., O.B.E., M.B., B.C. {Chairman, 1927-1930); 

Parkland, Burley, Ringwood, Hants. 
Macdonald, J. D. ; 81 Priory Road, Kew, Surrey. 
Mackenzie, John M. D., B.A., C.M.Z.S. ; Sidlaw Fur Farm, 

Tullach Ard, Balbeggie, Perthshire. 
McKittrick, T. H. ; Bank for International Settlements, 
Basle, Switzerland. 
75 Mackworth-Praed, Major C. W. ; Castletop, Burley, near 
Ringwood, Hants. 
Macmillan, Captain W. E. F. ; 42 Onslow Square, S.W. 7. 
McNeile, J. H. ; Nonsuch, Bromham, Chippenham, Wilts. 
Macpherson, D. W. K. ; P.O., Lilongwe, Nyasaland. 
Mansfield, The Right Hon. the Earl of; Scone Palace, 
80 Manson-Bahr, Sir Philip, C.M.G., D.S.O., M.D., F.R.C.P. ; 
149 Harley Street, W. 1. 
Mathews, G. M., C.B.E., F.R.S.E., H.F.A.O.U. {Chairman, 

1935-1938) ; Meadway, St. Cross, Winchester, Hants. 
Mavrogordato, J. G. ; Mariners, Westerham, Kent. 
May, W. Norman, M.D. ; The White House, Sonning, 

*Mayaud, Noel ; Le Lys, par le Puy-Notre-Dame, Maine-et- 
Loire, France. 
85 Meinertzhagen, Colonel R., D.S.O., F.Z.S., H.F.A.O.U. ; 
17 Kensington Park Gardens, W. 11. 
Momiyama, Toku Taro ; 1146 Sasazka, Yoyohata-mati, 

Tokio, Japan. 
Munn, P. W. ; c/o British Consulate, Lisbon, Portugal. 
Mttrton, Mrs. C. D. ; Cranbrook Lodge, Cranbrook, Kent. 
Naumburg, Mrs. W. W. ; 121 East 64th Street, New York 
City, U.S.A. 


90 Newman, T. H. ; Verulam, 46 Forty Avenue, Wembley Park, 

Nicholson, E. M. ; 13 Upper Cheyne Row, S.W. 3. 
North, Captain M. E. W. ; c/o Secretariat, Nairobi, Kenya. 
Osmaston, Bertram Beresford ; 116 Banbury Road, 

Pakenham, R. H. W. ; Kingsley, Hurtis Hill, Crowborough, 

Sussex ; and c/o Secretariat, Zanzibar, Eastern Africa. 
95 Paulson, C. W. G. ; Woodside Cottage, Wheeler's Lane, 

Smallfield, Surrey. 
Pease, H. J. R. ; The Savile Club, 69 Brook Street, 

W. 1 
Phillips, A. S. ; Frewin's Close, South Stoke, Reading, Berks. 
Pitman, Capt. C. R. S., D.S.O., M.C. ; c/o Grindlay & Co., 

54 Parliament Street, S.W. 1. 
Priestley, Mrs. J. B. ; 3 Whitehall Court, S.W. 1. 
100 Rhodes, Miss G. M. ; Hildersham Hall, Cambridge. 

Riviere, B. B., F.R.C.S. ; The Old Hall, Woodbastwick, 

Sandeman, R. G. C. C. ; Dan-y-parc, Crickhowell, Brecon. 
Schauensee, R. M. de ; Devon, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. 
Schouteden, Dr. H. ; Musee du Congo Beige, Tervueren, 

105 Sclater, William Lutley, .M.A. (Chairman, 1918-1924) ; 

10 Sloane Court, S.W. 3. 
Seth-Smith, David ; " Brabourne," Poyle Road, Guildford. 
Sherriff, Albert ; 8 Ranulf Road, Hampstead, N.W. 2. 
Simonds, Major Maurice H. ; Fines Baylewick, Binfield, 

Sladen, Major A. G. Lambart, M.C. ; Horsenden Manor, 

Princes Risborough, Bucks ; and 39 St. James's Street, 

S.W. 1. 
no Sparrow, Col. R., C.M.G., D.S.O. ; The Lodge, Colne Engaine, 

Earls Colne, Essex. 
Stevens, Herbert ; Clovelly, Beaconsfield Road, Tring, 

Stevens, Noel ; Walcot Hall, Lydbury North, Salop. 
Stonor, Lieut. C. R. ; British Museum (Natural History), 

Cromwell Road, S.W. 7, 


Taka-Tsukasa, Prince Nobusuke ; 1732 Sanchome, Kami- 

meguro, Meguro-Ku, Tokio, Japan. 
115 Thomson, A. Landsborough, C.B., O.B.E., D.Sc., F.R.S.E. 

{Chairman) ; 16 Tregunter Road, S.W. 10. 
Ticehurst, N. F., O.B.E., M.B., F.R.C.S. ; 24 Pevensey 

Road, St. Leonards-on-Sea, Sussex. 
Tucker, B. W., M.A. (V ice-Chairman) ; 9 Marston Ferry 

Road, Oxford. 
Turtle, Lancelot J. ; 17-21 Castle Place, Belfast. 
Urquhart, Capt. Alastair, D.S.O. ; Latimer Cottage, 

Latimer, Chesham, Bucks. 
120 van Someren, Dr. V. G. L. ; P.O. Box 1682, Nairobi, Kenya 

Vincent, J. ; " Firle," Mooi River, Natal, South Africa. 
Wade, Colonel G. A., M.C. ; St. Quintin, Sandy Lane, New- 

castle-under-Lyme, Staffs. 
Waite, Herbert William, CLE. ; c/o Messrs. Grindlay & 

Co., Ltd., Bombay, India. 
Ware, R. ; Leafwood, Frant, Tunbridge Wells, Kent. 
125 Watt, Mrs. H. Winifred Boyd, F.Z.S. {Committee) ; at 

Holmbury, 12 Campbell Road, Boscombe, Bournemouth, 

White, Charles M. N. ; Park- View, Garstang Road, 

Brought on, near Preston, Lanes. 
Witherby, Harry, F., M.B.E., {Chairman, 1927-1927) ; 

Gracious Pond Farm, Chobham, near Woking, Surrey. 
Workman, William Hughes : Lismore, Windsor Avenue, 

Worms, Charles de ; Milton Park, Egham, Surrey. 
130 Yamashina, The Marquis ; 49 Minami Hiradei, Shikuya-ku, 

Tokio, Japan. 

Total number of Members .... 130 

[Members are specially requested to keep the Hon. Secretary 
informed of any changes in their addresses, and those 
residing abroad should give early notification of coming home 
on leave.] 



Accounts, Statement of 3 

Annual General Meeting 1 

Bannerman, Dr. D. A. 

A new race of Brown-capped Weaver (Phormoplectes insignis okuensis) 

from the Cameroon highlands 64-65 

On the Races of Onychognathus morio 67-68 

Remarks on " Physiological Races " 77-78 

Benson, C. W. (See N. B. Kinnear.) 

Notes on a recent tour in southern Abyssinia, together with a new 
species Hirundo megaensie and ten new Races Vinago waalia jubaensis, 
An thus coffer australoabyssinicus, Mirafra pozcilosterna australoabyssinicus, 
Turdus tephronotus australoabyssinicus, Erythropygia leucoptera pallida, 
Zosterops senegalensis australoabyssinicus, Anthreptes collaris djamdja- 
mensis, Passer griseus tertale, Passer griseus jubaensis and Pseudonigrita 
arnaudi australoabyssinicus 8-19 

Buxton, Major A. # 

Showed a series of slides and films 62 

Jlancey, P. A. 

A melanistic Example of the Great Tit 6 

A new Race of Meadow-Pipit Anthus pratensis whistleri from Northern 

Scotland 6 

A Race of Greenfinch 7 

On the Validity of Alauda arvensis scotica 39-41 

A new Race of Rock-Pipit (Anthus spinoletta ponens) from France. . . . 41-42 
A new Race of Tree -Creeper (Certhia familiaris meinertzhageni) from 

S.W. Ireland 42 

The Occurrence of Fringilla c. cozlebs and Turdus ericetorum catherinse 

in Wiltshire 42 

On the exact Type-locality of Sitta europeea affmis 56-57 

The Continental Chaffinch in Wiltshire 57 

Some Supplementary Notes on Emberiza citrinella caliginosa 57 

i VOL. LXIII. d 


Clancey, P. A. (cont.). , Page 
A new race of the Greenfinch (Chloris chloris restricta) from the 

British Isles 05-66 

| A new race of Coal Tit. (Parus ater pinicolus) from Northern Scotland 66-67 

The Subspecific Status of Northern Scottish Fringilla cozlebs 71 

On the race of Regulus regulus occurring in Sutherlandshire 71 

Committee fob 1942-1943 4 

Grant, Captain C. H. B., and Lt.-Colonel C. W. Mackworth-Praed. 
A new Race of Violet -backed Starling Cinnyricinclus leucogaster 

arabicus from Arabia 7 

Notes on East African Birds : — 

1 . On the Races of Pogoniulus p. pusillus 1 9_20 

2. On the Relationship of Hirundo r. rustica and H. angolensis 20-21 

3. On the status of Lanius somalicus mauritii 21 

4. Extension of Distribution of Lanius mackinnoni 21-22 

5. On the Type-locality of Corvinella affinis 22 

6. On the Distribution of the Races of Laniarius r. ruficeps 22-23 

7. On the Status of Laniarius ruficeps nuchalis 23 

8. On the Races of Tchagra a. australis 23-24 

9. On the Colour Phases of Chlorophoneus nigrifrons 24-26 

10. On the Status of Malaconotus polioceplialus and M. hypopyrrhus. . . 26-28 

Notes on Eastern African Birds : — 

1 . On the Status of Merops persicus erythrsaus 43 

2. On the Status of Parus afer parvirostris 43 

3. On the Relationship of Parus niger and P. iusignis 44-45 

4. On the Status of Parus niger purpurascens 45 

5. On the Races of Anthoscopus caroli and A. roccatii 45-46 

6. On the Type-locality of Oriolus monaclia 47 

7. On the Type-locality of Corvultur albicollis 47 

Notes on Eastern African Birds : — 

1. On the Races of Tchagra senegalus 49-50 

2. On the Races of Oriolus monacha 51-52 

3. On the Characters of Corvus edithse 52-53 

4. On the Status of Pyrrhocorax p. docilis 54 

5. On the Races of Onyclwgnathus morio 54-55 

6. On the Status of Spreo pulcher rufiventris 55-56 

Extension of Distribution of Heteropsar acuticaudus 58 

A new Race of Sunbird, C yanomitra verticalis bannermani, from the 

Southern Belgian Congo 63 

Notes on Eastern African Birds : — 

1. On the Relationship, Status and Distribution of Egretta garzetta 

and Egretta gularis 68-69 

2. On the Races of Onychognathus morio 69 

3. On the Distribution of Zosterops pallida 69-70 

4. Extension of Distribution of Cinnyris oustaleti 70-71 


Ktnnear, N. B. Page 

A recently described Genus and Species of Bird from Southern 
Abyssinia, on behalf of Mr. C. W. Benson 7 

Low, Dr. Carmichael 

Exhibition of a Photograph of a Royal Albatross, on behalf of Count 

Wodzicki 5 

Exhibition of an Andean Gull 5 

Remarks on " Physiological Races " 76-77 

Mackworth-Praed, Lt. -Colonel C. W. (See under Grant, Captain C. H. B.) 

Meeting, Annual General 1 

Meinertzhagen, Colonel R. 

Remarks on " Physiological Races " 78-80 

Moreau, R. E. Correction to previous Bull. B. O. C, lxii. p. 42, 1942 ... 28 

Sparrow, Col. R. 

On the Breeding Habits of Hirundo atrocserulea 72 

Thomson, Dr. A. Landsborough. 

Discussion on " Physiological Races " 73-75 

Tucker, B. W. 

Some Ornithological Trips on the Continent 29-31 

Correction to Mr. B. W. Tucker's paper, antea, p. 29 59 

Van Someren, Dr. V. G. L. 

On the exact Type-locality of Gisticola chiniana ukamba 58 

Letter to the Editor 58 

Whistler, H. 

A new Race of the Indian Red- billed Leiothrix (Leiothrix lutea 
kumaiensis) from the United Provinces . . . 62 

White, C. M. N. 

A new Race of Green Pigeon (Vinago australis clayi) from Northern 
Rhodesia 63-64 

Witherby, H. F. 

A Note on the Scottish Sky-Lark 67 

Remarks on " Physiological Races " 75-76 

Wodzicki, Count. (See Dr. Carmichael Low.) 

Observations on the Avifauna and Ornithological Work in New 
Zealand 31-39 






Chairman : Dr. A. Landsborottgh Thomson. 

This was held at the Rembrandt Hotel at 2.30 p.m. on Saturday, 
October 24, 1942, preceded by a luncheon at 1.30 p.m. ; 20 Members 

( 1 ) The Minutes of the last Annual General Meeting, held at the Rembrandt 

Hotel on Saturday, October 18, 1941, which had been published in 
the' Bulletin ' (lxii. 1941, pp. 1-4), were confirmed and signed. 

(2) Mr. N. B. Kinnear, the Honorary Secretary, read his report for the 

past Session, 1941-42. * 

He regretted to say that this showed a further decrease in membership 
(144 to 137). The following three members had died : Dr. Casey Wood, 
Charles Oldham and H. M. Wallis. Four members (H. D. Cunyngham, 
Miss J. M. Ferrier, Bertram- Lloyd and K. B. Rooke) had resigned. No 
new members had joined the Club. 

Owing to the prevailing war conditions there had only been five meetings 
of the Club, these having been held on Saturday afternoons in October, 
December, February, April and June. The attendance had been quite 
satisfactory, and better than in the Session 1940-41 (142 in place of 110), 
this being made up as follows : 96 Members of the Club, 9 Members of 
the B. 0. U., 1 Guest of the Club and 36 other Guests, a total of 142. 

(3) Major A. G. Lambart Sladen, the Honorary Treasurer, sent his 

Annual Report and Financial Statement for the year ended 
August 31, 1942. 

In submitting the accounts for the 12 months ended August 31, 1942, 
he said : — 

I think members may be well satisfied that the financial position of the 
Club is so satisfactory in all the difficulties created by present circumstances. 

\ November 20, 1942.] a vol. lxiii. 

Vol. briii.] 2 [1942. 

This is due very largely to the loyalty and support of members, who 
have continued their subscriptions in spite of the increasing financial 
burdens which are common to all of us. 

There is an increase in the Bank Balance, and no liabilities relative to 
the period under review remain outstanding. No account has been taken 
of the appreciation in value of National Savings Certificates or 3|% War 
Loan, which, it will be noted, are taken at cost. 

During the past year increased difficulties have arisen with regard to 
correspondence with foreign members, and, of course, it has been im- 
possible to communicate with or receive subscriptions from those of our 
members who are in Axis countries or enemy occupied territory. 

The Balance Sheet will, as usual, be printed in, and issued with, the 
coming number of the ' Bulletin' (see opposite page). 

Major Sladen, in a covering letter accompanying his report, said he 
wished to resign from the Treasurership, a post which he had held since 
1936. He said that it was with great regret that he found himself 
compelled to relinquish this very interesting post, but in the circum- 
stances had no alternative. The members, in accepting his resignation, 
wished it to be put on record how much the Club owed to him for the 
valuable work he had done in the past, especially for keeping the financial 
affairs of the Club going in the difficult times we were passing through. 

(4) Election of Officers. 

Acting on the resolution passed at the Annual General Meeting, 
Saturday, October 18, 1941, l ' That the provision of Rule I. as regards 
non- eligibility for immediate re-election to office be suspended during 
the war", the Committee recommend that the Chairman (Dr. A. 
. Landsborough Thomson) and Vice-Chairmen (Captain C. H. B. Grant 
and Mr. W. B. Tucker) be re-elected for a further year. 

The Committee also recommend that the Hon. Secretary (Mr. N. B. 
Kinnear) be re-elected and that Miss E. P. Leach be elected Hon. 
Treasurer in place of Major A. G. L. Sladen, who wishes to retire ; that 
Mr. James Fisher be elected to the Committee in place of Mr. H. J. R. 
Pease, retiring through seniority, and that Mrs. Winifred Boyd Watt 
also be elected to the Committee to replace Miss Leach on her appointment 
as Hon. Treasurer. 

The Meeting unanimously adopted these proposals. 


[Vol. lxiii. 






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Vol. lxiii.] 4 . [1942. 

(5) Arrangements for Session. 

It was agreed to have meetings similar to those of last Session where 
possible, and the possibility of having evening meetings in the summer 
months was also suggested, the dates of these meetings to be decided by 
the Officers of the Club. Due notice of such decisions would be forwarded 
to the members from time to time. 

(6) Under any other business Dr. Norman May brought up the question 
as to whether Japanese members of the Club should be removed. 

Dr. Carmichael Low reported what the Committee of the British 
Ornithologists' Union had decided to recommend to the Annual General 
Meeting, which would be held some time next year. 

After discussion by some of the members present the matter was left 
sub judice for the moment. 

This concluded the business. 

Committee, 1942-43. 

•— Dr. A. Landsborough Thomson, Chairman (elected 1938). 
Captain C. H. B. Grant, V ice-Chairman (elected 1940). 
Mr. B. W. Tucker, Vice-Chairman (elected 1940). 
Dr. G. Carmichael Low, Editor (elected 1940). 
Mr. N. B. Kinnear, Hon. Secretary (elected 1940). 
Miss E. P. Leach, Hon. Treasurer (elected 1942). 
Miss Phyllis Barclay-Smith (elected 1940). 
Mr. B. G. Harrison (elected 1940). 
Mr. James Fisher (elected 1942). 
Mrs. Winifred Boyd Watt (elected 1942). 


The four-hundred-and-thirty-ninth Meeting of the Club was held at 
the Rembrandt Hotel, Thurloe Place, S.W. 7, on Saturday, October 24, 
1942, immediately after the Annual General Meeting at 2.30 p.m. 

Chairman : Dr. A. Landsborough Thomson. 

Members present : — Miss P. Barclay-Smith ; Miss M. G. Best ; J . 
Fisher; Captain C. H. B. Grant (V ice-Chairman) ; B. G. Harrison; 
N. B. Kinnear {Hon. Sec.) ; D. Lack ; Miss E. P. Leach ; Dr. G. 
Carmichael Low (Editor) ; Dr. P. R. Lowe ; J. D. Macdonald ; 
Dr. W. N. May ; Mrs. J. B. Priestley ; Miss G. M. Rhodes ; W. L. 
Sclater ; D. Seth-Smith ; B. W. Tucker (Vice-Chairman) ; H. 
Whistler ; H. F. Witherby. 

Guests : — Miss E. S. Barclay-Smith ; Miss L. P. Grant ; Miss A. 
Lightfoot ; G. E. Lodge ; Miss B. N. Solly ; Mrs. H. F. Witherby. 

Members, 20 ; Guests, 6. Total, 26. 

1942.] 5 [Vol. lxiii. 

Exhibition of a Photograph of a Royal Albatross. 

Dr. Carmichael Low read a letter from Count Wodzicki, now Consul- 
General for Poland in Wellington, New Zealand, sending his kindest 
regards to the Chairman and members of the Club. Count Wodzicki, 
members will remember, lunched with the Club as our guest on Saturday, 
December 7, 1940. With his letter he also sent an excellent photograph 
of a Royal Albatross with a three -weeks-old chick taken at Taiaroa Head, 
situated on the most northerly tip of the Otago Peninsula overlooking 
the entrance to the harbour. He thought this would interest members. 

The Royal Albatross, which used to be known as Diomedea regia, is 
now known as Diomedea epomophorasanfordi, and belongs to the Chatham 
Island race and not to the Auckland and Campbell Islands one. 

Under the heading " A Royal Albatross nesting on the Otago Peninsula, 
New Zealand", L. E. Richdale ('Emu', xxxviii. 1939, pp. 467-488, and 
xli. 1942, pp. 169-184 and 253-264) gives an excellent account of the 
breeding biology and other habits of this interesting bird. 

In concluding these papers Richdale places on record the splendid 
part played by the Otago Harbour Board for the protection of these 
birds. A most effective fence has been placed across the headland 
some distance back from the nesting area, and at the same time Parliament 
passed the Otago Harbour Empowering Bill, which has enabled the 
Board to frame a bye-law rendering liable to a heavy penalty any person 
caught on the Albatross reserve without authority. That this was 
necessary is indicated by the fact that vandals stoned the birds in 
November 1938. 

Exhibition of an Andean Gull. 

Dr. Carmichael Low exhibited a specimen of the Andean Gull (Larus 
serranus Tschudi). The history of the bird, he said, was interesting. 

Mr. Alastair Morrison got three specimens of this Gull at Huancavelica, 
Peru, in the later end of 1937 (Ibis, 1939, p. 463) and brought them home 
to England, where they were presented to the Zoological Gardens on 
June 21, 1938. Two of these died, but the third one, a female, lived 
till October 6, 1942, e.g., a little over four years. It died eventually of 
congestion and oedema of the lungs, and he, Dr. Carmichael Low, got the 
body, which he was presenting to the British Museum (Natural History). 
These Gulls inhabit the lakes of the high ranges of the Andes in summer, 
where they breed, and some of them go down to the coast in winter. They 
resemble our Black-headed Gull {Larus ridibundus) in getting a black 
head in summer, the black, Col. Hamerton says, going down to the nape 
of the neck ; in winter they lose this colour, the head becoming grey, with 
some dark streaks. 

Vol. Jxiii.] 6 [1942. 

Dr. Carmichael Low showed three exhibits for Mr. P. A. Clancey, 
who was unable to be present himself. 

(l) A Melanistic Example of the Great Tit. 

Mr. P. A. Clancey sent the following note on a melanistic example of 
the Great Tit, Parus major newtoni Prazak : — 

Dr. J. M. Harrison and P. Pateff (Ibis, 1937, p. 603) describe in detail 
an erythristic female Parus major collected on the island of Samothraki 
on May 19, 1935. 

As such aberrations appear to be decidedly scarce in this species, 
I think it advisable to record the collecting of a melanistic female specimen 
near Carmunnock, Lanarkshire, S.W. Scotland, on October 16, 1942. 
In this bird the under-surface is pale cream in colour, as opposed to rich 
yellow in a typical example, and is washed with black pigment on the 
breasts and flanks. The general tone is extremely dull throughout, 
and the crown lacks the usual lustre. 

I concur with Harrison and Pateff that such aberrations should be 
carefully recorded — their description as new geographical races can only 
lead to endless confusion. 

(2) A new Race of Meadow-Pipit. 

Mr. P. A. Clancey sent what he considers to be a new race of Anthus 
pratensis (L.) for exhibition. 

Anthus pratensis whistleri, subsp. nov. 

Description. — £ and ?, Autumn : Separable from Anthus pratensis 
pratensis (Linn.) — restricted type-locality : Sweden — on account of the 
darker and more heavily striated upper side, richer and more intensely 
spotted under-surface, and by having the wings and tail darker in tone 
(seven examined). Breeding : Scarcely separable from nominate form, 
but darker and more heavily marked in series (twelve examined; collected 
June, 1942). Juvenile: Striae of upper side broader and darker than 
juvenile of Anthus pratensis pratensis (Linn.). General tone variable, but 
richer (three examined). 

Range. — Northern Scotland. Birds from south-west Scotland form a 
promiscuous and intermediate population. 

Type. — <£, 1st autumn. Collected near Dornoch, Sutherlandshire, 
northern Scotland, on September 2, 1938. A few bleached feathers of 
the juvenile plumage still retained. In my collection. Wing 83 mm. 

1942.] 7 [Vol. ixiii. 

Remarks.— C. M. N. White (' British Birds ', vol. xxxi. 1938, p. 231) 
refers to a very dark juvenile Anthus pratensis collected on North Uist, 
Outer Hebrides. I have seen none from the Outer Hebrides, but White 
considers that adults show no peculiar characteristics. 

Named after Mr. Hugh Whistler — an ornithologist to whom I owe 

(3) A Race of Greenfinch. 

Mr. Clancey also sent for exhibition some skins of the Greenfinch, viz., 
the nominate race, Chloris c. chloris, and what he has described as Chloris c. 
harrisoni (Ibis, 1940, p. 92). 

A recently described Genus and Species of Bird 
from Southern Abyssinia. 

On behalf of Mr. C. W. Benson, Mr. N. B. Kinnear exhibited a 
specimen of Zavattariornis stresemanni Moltoni, from Southern Abyssinia, 
field-notes and remarks on which will be found in Mr. Benson's paper 
appearing in this number of the ' Bulletin ' (vide p. 9). 

A new Race of Violet-backed Starling from Arabia. 

Captain C. H. B. Grant and Lieut. -Colonel C. W. M ack worth- Pea ei> 
exhibited and described the following new race : — 

Ginnyricinclus leucogaster arabicus, subsp. no v. 

Description. — The female differs from the female of Cinnyricinclu6 
I. leucogaster (Gmelin) and Ginnyricinclus I. verreauxi Bocage in being 
duller above — earth- brown, not black — with feather -edging dull- coloured 
and sparse or entirely absent. 

Distribution. — Eastern Sudan at Roseires, Abyssinia, French and British 
Somaliland and Arabia. 

Type. — In the British Museum. Female adult. Hajeilah, Yemen, 
southern Arabia, April 17, 1913. Collected by G. W. Bury ; collector's 
no. 650. Brit. Mus. Reg. no. 1913.8.6.115. 

Measurements of type. — Wing 106, culm en from base 19 ; tail 64 ; 
tarsus 23 mm. 

Remarks. — The adult male is similar to that of C. I. leucogaster. The 
young male is similar to the adult female. Neither Sclater, Ibis, 1917, 
p. 140, nor Bates, Ibis, 1937, p. 792, make any comment on the Arabian 
birds. (Thirty specimens examined.) 

Vol. hriii.] 8 [1942. 

Mr. C. W. Benson sent the following notes on a recent tour in southern 
Abyssinia : — 

A new Species and Ten new Races from 
Southern Abyssinia. 

General Introduction. 

I have recently spent ten months in Southern Abyssinia, from June 
1941 until March 1942. I was able to take with me my native collector 
and skinner, who had worked for me for eight years in Nyasaland. My 
duties as a Political Officer necessitated a considerable amount of travelling, 
and this, in conjunction with the keenness of my native assistant, enabled 
me to get together a very representative collection of over 2400 specimens. 
I spent most of the month of April 1942 on leave in Nairobi, and that 
time was largely spent in studying my collection with Dr. van Someren. 
Dr. van Someren put his magnificent collection of Kenya Colony, Uganda 
and Jubaland birds entirely at my disposal, and he devoted the whole of 
the time of my leave to collaborating with me. 

Moreover, as the collection was gradually being built up, I was able 
to send to Dr. van Someren 200-300 birds at a time, and these were 
tentatively identified and an indication was given as to what species 
were of particular interest from the ecological and geographical point of 
view, and a point was made of securing sufficient comparative material. 
I am under a debt of deep gratitude to him, and the notes and descriptions 
of new birds which follow are based on his advice and wide experience. 
Dr. van Someren has allowed me to describe certain material from his 
Jubaland collection. My Southern Abyssinian collection will be kept 
by me in Africa until the war is over, when it is my intention to present 
it to the British Museum (Natural History). 

Before dealing with the descriptions of the birds which appear to be 
new (one species and ten races), I take the opportunity to allude to 
certain other birds which, although previously known, were extremely 
rare and represented by very few specimens indeed. 

Falco fasciinucha Reichw. & Neum., O. M. hi. 1895, p. 114 : Teita, 
Kenya Colony. 

This bird was previously only known from two specimens, both taken 
in the Voi- Teita area. I secured three specimens at Yavello, thus 
extending its range for hundreds of miles to the northward. 

Material collected. — Two males, wings 205, 208, tails 90, 86 mm. ; one 
female, wing 232, tail 102 mm. 

A conspicuous feature of this bird is the very short tail, which does 
not extend as far as the wing-tips. Apart from colour differences, it is 

1942.] < 9 [Vol. lxiii. 

at once distinguishable from Falco cuvieri in this respect. All three 
specimens were associated with a cliff about 300 ft. high among juniper - 
clad hills surrounding Yavello, at about 6000 ft. altitude. 

Tauraco ritspolii Salvadori, Ann. Mus. Genova, (2) xvi. 1896, p. 44 : 
Lake Abbaia, Southern Abyssinia. 

The type of this bird was unique." Five specimens (two males, two 
females and one unsexed) were obtained. They inhabited the extensive 
juniper woods with a dense evergreen undergrowth at Arero about 
60 miles east of Yavello at about 6000 ft. They have been compared 
with the coloured plate (PI. L, Ibis, 1913) and the re-description given 
by Salvadori {op. cil. pp. 1-2), and they agree very well with these. The 
sexes are alike in size and colour. 

- Zavattariornis strbsemanni Moltoni, O. M. xlvi. 1938, p. 80 : 

Twenty specimens of this new genus and species were obtained from 
the type-locality. Nothing was recorded regarding its habitat and 
habits, and observations in these respects may be of interest. In the 
" thorn-acacia " country within a few miles of Yavello, to the north 
and south, it is very common. In the non- breeding season it goes 
about in parties of half a dozen. The call is a high-pitched " chek ". 
It was found breeding in March, when many nests were seen. It is not 
colonial in its nesting. The normal site is at the top of a 20-ft. high 
thorn-tree. The nest is an untidy structure composed of thorn -twigs 
about 1 ft. long and 20 mm. thick. It is roughly globular in shape, 
with an external diameter of about 2 ft. Inside is a globular chamber of 
about 1 ft. in diameter ; on the floor of this is a mixture of dung and short 
pieces of dry grass. The entrance to the chamber is from the top, and 
this .is protected by a vertical tubular tunnel of about 6 in. in height, 
12 in. in outside diameter, but with internal diameter of not more than 
3 in. This superstructure is added to the body of the nest just before 
the eggs are laid. The general appearance of a completed nest is of a 
vertical cylinder tapering towards the top, with the entrance tunnel at 
the summit. 

Several clutches of eggs were taken. The largest clutch of six held 
embryos of equal development and can be taken as complete. The 
eggs are cream-coloured, with blotches of pale lilac, the markings being 
especially plentiful, and in the form of a ring toward the larger end. 
They are slightly glossy and smooth in texture. An average measurement 
is 27 by 20 mm. It was normal to observe three birds emerge from a 
single nest, but there is no evidence from the clutches to suggest that 
more than one female was responsible for the eggs. 


Vol. Ixiii.] 10 [1942. 

The foregoing field-notes may suggest affinity of Zavattariornis with 
the Sturnidae, though, on the other hand, the rather long bill with curved 
culmen, the rictal bristles extending well over the nostrils and the bare 
area around the eye, which in fresh specimens is bright blue in colour, 
fading in twenty-four hours to blackish, and the general scutation of the 
tarsus, suggest that Moltoni was correct in placing the bird among 
the Corvidae. Specimens of the Mallophaga have been submitted to 
Mr. G. H. E. Hopkins for report. It will be of interest to know if they 
resemble those of the Sturnidae rather than Corvidae, or vice versa. 

Francolinus coqtti. maharao Sclater, Bull. B. O. C. xlviii. 1927, 
p. 51 : Dugata Sasabin, 4000 ft., Southern Abyssinia. 

Previously known from the type, a single male. This very well- 
marked race was plentiful in the open short-grassed plains at 4000 to 
4500 ft. between Yavello and Mega. A long series of adults and young 
was taken. „ 

N PsEUDALiEMON fremantlii (Phillips) ; Calandrella sp. ; and Aetho- 
corys personata (Sharpe). 

Examples of the above three species were collected in the short-grassed 
plains between Yavello and Mega. The first two have been compared 
with Pseudalsemon delamerei Sharpe and Calandrella athensis (Sharpe) 
respectively. They differ markedly. The former is possibly similar to 
the nominotypical P. fremantlii, which is a rare bird in collections. 
- A'eihocorys personata is equally rare and is quite different to the Kenya 
Colony race Ae. p. intensa Rothschild, Bull. B. O. C. li. 1931, p. 100, from 
the northern Guasso Nyiro. 

Hirundo megaensis, sp. nov. 

Description. — Nearest to Hirundo leucosoma Swainson, Bds. W. Afr. 
ii. 1837, p. 74 : West Africa, in general scheme of plumage, but at once 
distinguishable by the absence of the white line in the wing and the 
different tail-pattern. 

Adult male. — The whole of the upper surface from front to upper 
tail-coverts, including the wings, steely blue. Ear-coverts, side of neck, 
and a small patch on either side of the breast the same colour. Whole 
of under-surface from chin to under tail-coverts, including under wing- 
coverts and axillaries, pure white. Tail moderately forked, the differ- 
ence between the central feathers and the elongated ones about 20 mm. ; 
outer tail-feathers abruptly attenuated, blue-black on outer web to tip, 
with a large area of white on the inner web ; penultimate pair less blue- 

1942.] 11 [Vol, lxiii. 

black on outer web, and on the inner web this colour extends for about 
3 mm. from the tip ; next pair only slightly greyish towards tip of outer 
web ; remainder of tail-feathers white with black shaft-streaks running 
almost from tip to base. In other words, the tail expanded exhibits a 
white triangle, apex toward base of tail, outlined on either side by 

Adult female. — Differs from the male in being much less strongly 
blue, with the white on the tail limited to a large white area on the inner 
web of each feather toward the distal half, the tip being dark. Central 
pair bluish-grey toward centre, whitish at margins. 

Sub-adult. — Three males are very similar to the adult female and 
have the same tail-pattern. No sub-adult females available. 

Nestling plumage. — Duller and less blue-glossed on upper side than 
adult female or sub- adult male. The amount of white on the tail is 
restricted to a subterminal patch on the inner web, of about 10 mm. in 

Distribution. — The open short-grassed country with scattered low bush 
between Yavello and Mega in Southern Abyssinia, at about 4000-4500 ft. 
Also extending to about 30 miles north of Yavello and about 30 miles 
south-east of Mega, toward the Kenya- Abyssinia frontier, in the same 
general type of country and at the same elevation. South of Mega 
and Moyale there is a sharp escarpment, and the general elevation drops 
to 3000 ft. ; the bird appears to be entirely absent from this lower 

Type. — Adult male. 10 miles north of Mega, Southern Abyssinia, at 
4000 ft., September 10, 1941. Collected by C. W. Benson; coUector's 
no. E.833. Measurements of type : wing 100, tail 158 mm. 

Remarks. — This new Swallow appears to have a very limited dis- 
tribution, which no doubt accounts for it not having been previously 
discovered. In this restricted area it is, however, common. The large 
amount of white in the tail of the adult male is a very conspicuous feature 
when in flight. Whereas Hirundo leucosoma is stated to be associated 
with human dwellings and nesting therein (c/. Bds. Trop. W. Afr. v. 
p. 246), this is not so with H. megaensis ; there are no buildings in its 
habitat. I suspect that it nests in holes in the tall chimney- shaped ant- 
hills which are common in the area, but I have been unable to prove this. 
It probably breeds in January-February, as a specimen taken in March 
showed no ossification of the skull. No call-note is recorded. 

Three adult males, including the type, were collected, also two adult 
females, three sub-adult males and two females and one male in nestling 

Vol. lxiii.J 12 [1942. 

(1) Vinago waalia jubaensis, subsp. now 

Description. — Differs from Vinago waalia waalia (Meyer), Syst. Sum. 
Uebers. Zool. Entdeck. 1793, p. 128 : Tcherkin, near Lake Tsana, as 
follows : — Head and neck darker grey, mantle olive-green with a brownish- 
gold tinge, "thus less bright ; " shoulder- patch " more reddish, less 
purplish ; grey of the breast darker ; belly a duller yellow, dull chrome as 
compared to a brighter lemon- chrome. Size smaller, vide measurements 

Distribution. — Upper reaches of the Juba River at Unsi, Beila and 
Mandera, at 1000 ft. 

Type. — Male. Beila, Juba River, Jubaland, January 1923. Collected 
by Dr. van Someren and in his private collection. Measurements of 
type : wing 171, tail 94, tarsus 24, culmen from base 20 mm. 

Remarks. — Five specimens in Dr. van Someren's collection, from the 
localities cited, have been compared with four from Southern Abyssinia 
(Yavello, Burgi and Arero) collected by C. W. Benson. The colour 
differences described above are striking. Dr. van Someren had long ago 
noted the differences (J. E. A. & U. N. H. Soc. no. 35, 1930), but owing 
to poor northern material had not described the race. 

Wing -measurements of Juba birds : males, 170-171 : females, 168, 172, 
173 mm. Southern Abyssinian birds : males, 175, 179, 181 mm. ; one 
female, 171 mm. 

(2) Anthus caffer australoabyssinicus, subsp. nov. 

Description. — Differs from A. c. blayneyi van Someren (Bull. B. O. C. 
xl. 1919, p. 56 : Olgerei, Kenya Colony) in that the spotting of the chest, 
though diminishing in size, is carried well up the throat, almost on to 
the chin. Thus the white area of the throat is reduced to a minimum, 
whereas in A. c. blayneyi the white throat is a conspicuous feature. 

Distribution. — Only so far known from 30 miles south of Yavello, 
Southern Abyssinia, 10-15 miles north of Yavello, and 10 miles north 
of Mega, at 4500-5000 ft., in arid, park-like acacia country. 

Type.— Male. 30 miles south of Yavello, 4500 ft., September 12, 1941. 
C. W. Benson ; collector's no. E.841. Measurements : wing 70, tail 
49 mm. 

Remarks. — In addition to the type, five other males and three females 
were collected. These give measurements as follows : — Five males, 
wings 66-69, tails 44-47 mm. ; three females, wings 65-67, tails 43-44 mm. 
Compared with five examples of A. c. blayneyi from southern Kenya 
Colony, three in Dr. van Someren's private collection and two in his 
collection in the Coryndon Museum. In one sub-adult of these five the 
spotting is present as in my birds, but this is a character of immaturity 

1942.] 13 [Vol. lxiii. 

and it is entirely lacking in the other four specimens, which include a 
breeding male and female, while in A. c. australoabyssinicus it is a 
character of the adult. 

The range of A. c. blayneyi is from the Southern Masai Reserve east- 
ward to the Ukamba country to west of the Tana River. 

(3) Mirafra pcecilosterna australoabyssinicus, subsp. no v. 

» Description. — Differs from M. p. poscilosterna Reichw., Orn. Centralb. 
1879, p. 155 : Kibaraja, Tana River, Kenya Colony, in the much greyer 
tone of the upper side, with no rusty wash, while on the underside the 
ground-colour is whiter and the spotting of the breast more distinct. No 
comparison is needed with M. p. massaica Fisch. & Reichw., J. f. O. 1884, 
p. 55 : Klein Arusha, Tanganyika Territory, which is very strongly 
washed with rufous on the mantle and very dark rufous on the underside, 

Distribution. — Only so far definitely known from the arid country at 
3000 ft., 20-25 miles south of Mega, S. Abyssinia ; but other birds from 
Southern Abyssinia are probably referable to this race, cf. Sclater, Syst. Av. 
iEthiop. p. 317, who includes birds from this area in the nominotypical 

Type. — Male. 20 miles south of Mega, S. Abyssinia, 3000 ft., February 
15, 1942. Collected by C. W. Benson ; collector's no. E.2143. Measure- 
ments : wing 96, tail 68 mm. 

Remarks. — In addition to the type, ten other specimens were taken, 
i. a., eight males, one female and one sex undetermined. They have been 
compared with nine, including two topotypical, of M. p. poscilosterna 
seven of M.p. massaica and six from the Upper Juba River (Serenliand 
Neboi). My birds resemble more closely these Juba birds, but they 
are darker grey on the mantle and crown and are larger : wings 88, 93 (2), 
94 (2), 95 (2), 96 and 97 mm. ; female 89 mm., one unsexed 94 mm. 
Juba birds : four males 90 mm. (2), 92 mm. (2) ; two females 85 and 
90 mm. In my series, birds taken in February, March and Qn June 1 
had enlarged gonads. 

(4) Turdus tephronotus australoabyssinicus, subsp. nov. 
Description. — Dilf'ers from T. tephronotus tephronotus Cabanis, J.f. O. 

1878, pp. 205-218 : Ndi, Teita district, Kenya Colony, in having the 
breast-band of a darker grey, less tinged with sandy ; the flanks and upper 
abdomen are richer orange -cinnamon ; the streaking on the throat is 
on the whole more pronounced ; the lower throat is usually more washed 
with ochreous, and the upper side is purer, darker grey. 

Distribution. — Dense thorn bush at 3000-4500 ft. around Mega, Yavello 
and Arero, 60 miles east of Yavello, S. Abyssinia. 


Vol. lxiii.] 14 [1942. 

Type.—- Male. Near Yavello, 4500 ft., January 14, 1942. Collected by 
C. W. Benson ; collector's no. E.1836. Measurements of type : wing 
107, tail 81 mm. 

Remarks. — In addition to the type, seventeen other specimens were 
taken (thirteen males, two females and two juv. males in spotted dress). 
They have been compared with the following in Dr. van Someren's 
collection : — Three males and two females of topotypical T. tephronotus ; 
four males and two females from the Juba River (Dolo, Neboi, Serenli 
and Mandera) ; and three males from Lamu and Manda Island. The two 
birds in the above series which most closely resemble mine are from 
Dolo and Neboi, localities which are, in fact, closest to areas from which 
mine were taken. The three birds from Lamu and Manda Island are the 
palest of any. Friedmann, in Bull. 153, U.S. Nat. Mus. 1937, p. 128, 
remarks that two birds from S. Abyssinia, taken in the same general area 
as mine, are somewhat darker on the sides and flanks than birds from 
Kenya, but a female from Dodoma is just as dark. But the fact that one 
can pick out one dark bird from Tanganyika Territory does not invalidate 
this new race in accordance with the 75 per cent, convention. 

(5) Erythropygia leucoptera pallida, subsp. nov. 

Description. — Crown paler grey and mantle much less rufous than in 
E. leucoptera leucoptera (Riippell), S}^st. Uebers. 1845, p. 38 : Schoa, or 
E. 1. vulpina Reichenow, J. f. 0. 1891, p. 62 : Ndf, Teita District, Kenya 
Colony. On the underside less rufous on the flanks, and streaking on 
the upper breast only slightly indicated in comparison with E. I. leucoptera 
and E. I. vulpina. This new race is also smaller, vide j>ost. 

Distribution. — The Juba River at and below 1000 ft. (Serenli, Neboi, 
Mandera) . 

Type. — Male. Serenli, ' Juba River, February 1923. Collected by 
Dr. van Someren, and is in his private collection. Measurement of type : 
wing 70, tail 66 mm. 

Remarks. — The type and ten others in Dr. van Someren's collection 
have been compared with eight specimens taken by C. W. Benson near 
Yavello, Southern Abyssinia, which is comparatively close to the type- 
locality of E. leucoptera leucoptera, and these S. Abyssinian specimens are 
presumably referable to that race. 

These Juba birds have also been compared with eight from the Northern 
Guasso River and Kerio River west of Rudolf, and with six topotypical 
E. leucqptera vulpina. The N. Guasso birds and those from West Rudolf 
are paler on the mantle than Southern Abyssinian birds, and represent 
an intermediate between the nominotypical race and E. I. vulpina. 

1942.] 15 [Vol. lxiii. 

Comparative wing -measurements :— 
E. I. pallida.— Eight males, 68 mm. (3), 69 mm. (3), 69-5 mm., 

70 mm. ; three females, 64-5 mm. (2), 65 mm. 
E. I. leucoptera. — Five males, 71, 72, 73 mm. (3) ; two females, 

68 and 73 mm. ; one (sex ?), 68 mm. 
E. leucoptera intermediates (Northern Guasso, W. Rudolf) .—Six 

males, 69, 70 mm. (2), 71 mm. (2), and 75 mm. ; one female, 

66 mm. ; one juv. 66 mm. 

E. I. vulpina. — Four males, 71 mm. (3), 76 mm. ; two females, 

67 and 68 mm. 

(6.) Zosterops senegalensis australoabyssinicus, subsp. nov. 

Description. — -Differs from Zosterops senegalensis jubaensis Erlanger, 
Orn. Monatsb. ix. 1901, p. 182 : Domasso, Lower Juba River, in being 
greener above and brighter yellow below, and in the male the forehead 
is not so bright yellow. Differs from Z. s.fricki Mearns, Smith. Misc. Coll. 
lxi. no. 20, p. 7 : Bowlder Hill, Thika River, Kenya Colony, in lacking any 
greyish tinge to the green of the mantle. 

Distribution.— Yavello and Arero, 60 miles east of Yavello. and 
surrounding country, Southern Abyssinia. Occurring both in arid thorn 
scrub at 4000 ft. and in juniper woods at 6000 ft. 

Sclater, in Syst. Av. iEthiop. p. 673, records the distribution of 
Z. s. jubaensis as extending west to the Omo and Lake Stephanie, but 
birds from these localities are presumably referable to this new race. 

Type.— Male. Near Yavello, S. Abyssinia, 6000 ft., July 26, 1941. 
Taken by C. W. Benson ; collector's no. E.516. Measurements of type : 
wing 55, tail 33-5 mm. 

Remarks. — Sixteen specimens, as well as the type, were collected. 
Wing-measurements : males, 52, 54 mm. (3), 55 mm. (2), 56 mm. (2) ; 
females, 53 mm. (2), 54 mm. (2), 55 mm. (2), and two, sex undetermined, 
54 and 55 mm. 

They have 'been compared with three topotypical Z. s. jubaensis in 
Dr. van Someren's collection ; wings, two males 53 and 54 mm. ; one 
female 52 mm. 

Seven specimens from the coastal belt of Kenya which are nearest to 
Z. s. jubaensis also examined ; also six topotypical Z. s. jiavilateralis 
Reichenow, J. f. O. 1892, p. 193 : Ndi, Teita, Kenya Colony, and seven 
topotypical Z. s. fricki. 

Sclater, in ' Systema Avium iEthiopicarum ', regards Z. s. fricki as a 
synonym of Z. s. flavilateralis , but Z. s. fricki has a greyish tinge to the 
mantle which is lacking in Z. s . flavilateralis , and is slightly paler yellow 
below. Friedmann, in Bull. 153, U.S. Nat. Mus. pt. 2, 1937. p. 369, 
also upholds Z. s. fricki. 

Vol. lxiii.] 16 [1942. 

(7) Anthreptes collaris djamdjamensis, subsp. nov. 

Description. — -Nearest to Anthreptes collaris jubaensis van Someren, 
J. E. A. & U. N. H. Soc. no. 37, 1931 p. 95 : HeUescheid, Juba River' 
with which it agrees with regard to the bright canary- yellow of the under- 
side in both the male and female, but the flanks are oh ve- tinged, a feature 
lacking in the Juba birds. The female of A. c. djamdjamensis also has a 
slight olive wash on the breast and lower throat ; this is lacking in A. c. 
jubaensis. The mantle of both these races is bright grass-green without 
a yellow tinge, present in Kenya Colony races. 

The male of A . c. djamdjamensis also appears to be a somewhat larger 
bird (wing -measurements of seven adult males 52-5, 53 mm. (5), 54 mm. ; 
four adult females 48, 49, 51, 53 mm. ; one adult male and one adult 
female of A. c. jubaensis give the following : 48 and 5d mm.). 

A. c. garguensis Mearns, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. xlviii. 1915, p. 389 : 
Mt. Garguess, N. Guasso Nyiro, Northern Frontier, Kenya Colony, is an 
altogether darker, less bright bird than A. c. djamdjamensis. 

Distribution. — Southern Abyssinia, from Alghe (Agheremariam) at 
6000 ft., south-east to the Daua Parma River between Yavello and Neghelli, 
at 3000 ft.; and south-west to the Sagan River between Yavello and 
Giarso, at 3000 ft. Habitat, dense overgreen scrub. 

Type. — Breeding male. Alghe, S. Abyssinia, 6000 ft., September 22, 
1941. CoUected by C. W. Benson ; collector's no. E.896. 

Female type : same locality and collector. December 3, 1941. No. 

Measurements : wing 53, tail 36, exposed portion of culmen 13-5 mm. 
Female : wing 48, tail 32, exposed portion of culmen 13 mm. 

Remarks. — My birds have been compared with the following in Dr. van 
Someren's collection : — 

A. c. jubaensis, one male and one female. 

A. c. garguensis, five males and one female. 

A. c. elachior Mearns, Smith. Misc. Coll. lvi. 1910, no. 14, p. 5 : 

Changamwe, near Mombasa, 23 males and 15 females. 
A. c. ugandse van Someren, Bull. B*. O. C. xli. 1921, p. 113 : Maraquet, 

Kenya Colony, nine males and six females. 
A. c. teitensis van Someren, Bull. B. 0. C. xli. 1921, p. 113 : Teita, 

Kenya Colony, four males and three females. 

All these races appear to be recognizable. It has been stated above 
that this new race appears to be somewhat larger than A. c. jubaensis. 
If a series of A. c. jubaensis were available for comparison it would probably 
be found that it is smaller than A. c. djamdjamensis in both sexes. In 

1942.] 17 [Vol. Ixiii. 

working out my collection from Southern Abyssinia I have had to con- 
tinually refer to Dr. van Someren's collection from the Juba River area 
at 1000 ft. and under, and it may be stated as a rule of wide application 
that the birds of this low-level area tend to run very small. 

(8) Passer griseus tertale, subsp. nov. 

Description. — Similar , to Passer griseus gongonensis (Oustalet), ' Le 
Naturaliste ', 1890, p. 274 : Gongoni, near Mombasa, but darker on the 
crown and mantle and darker grey on the throat and upper breast, and 
although possessing the same type of heavy bill, with curved culmen, the 
bill is definitely smaller. Distinguishable from P. g. sivainsonii Riippell, 
N. Wirbelt., Vog. 1840, p. 94, pi. 33 : " Abyssinia, Sennar, Kordofan ", 
by the larger size, heavier bill and darker, purer brown mantle. 

Distribution. — The neighbourhood of Gardulla and Tertale, the latter 
between Yavello and Giarso, at comparatively low elevations (i. e., about 
3000 ft.), Southern Abyssinia. 

Type. — Male. 30 miles west of Yavello, Southern xlbyssinia, 3000 ft., 
January 16, 1942. Collected by C. W. Benson ; collector's no. E.1865. 
Measurements of type : wing 98, tail 61, culmen, from base of skull, 
17 mm. 

Remarks. — The view here adopted is that P. gongonensis is conspecific 
with P. griseus, thus agreeing with van Someren in Nov. Zool. xxix. 
1922, p. 168. If, on the other hand, P. gongonensis is regarded as a 
distinct species, then this new race would have to be known as P. gongon- 
ensis tertale. The position in the Yavello area of Southern Abyssinia is 
that in the higher country at 4500-5000 ft. at Yavello and Alghe 
(Agheremariam) we find P. g. swainsonii occurring, with wing- 
measurements of eight specimens collected as follows : — Four males, 
83, 84, 86, 91 mm. ; four females, 80, 81, 82, 82 mm. 

In the lower country at 3000-4000 ft. to the west of Yavello we find 
P. griseus gongonensis, with wing -measurements as follows : — Six males, 
89, 90, 93, 98 mm. (3) ; one female, 93 mm. ; one (sex 1), 95 mm. 

It will be observed- from the foregoing figures that there is an overlap 
in size, which may be taken as evidence of intergradation. Moreover, 
the male with wing 91 mm. in the first group, from Alghe at 6000 ft., 
has bill very little less heavy than a male with wing 89 mm. in the second 
group, from 30 miles west of Yavello at 3000 ft. On the other hand, 
Dr. van Someren has at Kisumu in the immediate neighbourhood of the 
town collected both P. griseus ugandse and a heavy- billed bird belonging 
to the P. gongonensis group. 

Vol. lxiii.] 18 [1942. 

My specimens of this new race have been compared with fourteen 
topotypical specimens of P. griseus gongonensis from the coastal strip 
of Kenya Colony. Apart from the bill-difference already cited, the 
coast ai birds appear to be rather larger, wings 95-102 mm. in the male, 
85-90 mm. in the female. I have also taken the opportunity to examine 
part of the material from the country between Ukamba and Lake Rudolf, 
referred to by van Someren in Nov. Zool. xxix. 1922, p. 168, as inter- 
mediate in point of size, including the bill, between P. g. gongonensis 
and P. g. swainsonii. There are nine of these birds still in Dr. van 
Someren's collection. They have less robust bills than in the case of 
topotypical P. gongonensis, and they (the bills of these birds) are only 
slightly heavier than are the bills of my series of P. g. tertale. They are 
thus intermediate between the Kenya Colony coastal and the Southern 
Abyssinian birds, as they are also geographically. Wing -measurements 
of these intermediate birds : male 90-95 mm. ; female 91-96 mm. 

With regard to the bill- differences referred to above, although measure- 
ments do not adequately illustrate them, they are at once apparent to 
the eye. 

Friedmann, in Bull. 153, U.S. Nat. Mus. part 2, Passeres, 1937, pp. 390- 
391, refers birds collected by the Childs-Frick expedition in Southern 
Abyssinia near Gardulla and Tertale to P. gongonensis, and Gardulla 
is, therefore, included above in the distribution of this new race. 

(9) Passer griseus jubaensis, subsp. nov. 

Description. — Differs from P. griseus gongonensis in its smaller bill 
(length and depth). Distinguishable from both P. griseus gongonensis 
and P. g. tertale by being paler below but more rufescent above on the 
mantle and rump. 

Distribution. — Middle and upper waters of the Juba River, at below 
1000 ft. 

Type. — -Male. Mandera, Juba River, October 1922. Collected by 
Dr. van Someren and in his private collection. Measurement of type : 
wing 96, tail 59, culmen from base 16 mm. 

Remarks. — Seven specimens in Dr. van Someren's collection, in addition 
to the type. Wing -measurements : six males, 91, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97 mm.; 
one female, 88 mm. ; one, sex undetermined, 87 mm. These specimens 
are referred to by Dr. van Someren in J. E. A. & U. N. H. Soc. no. 35, 
March 1930, " Notes on birds from Jubaland and the Northern Frontier 
of Kenya Colony ", under the name P. g. swainsonii, and were said to 
be intermediate between P. g. swainsonii and P. g. gongonensis. This 
new race certainly belongs to the larger-billed P. g. gongonensis group. 

1942.] 19 [Vol. lxiii. 

(10) Pseudonigrita arnaudi australoabyssinicus, subsp. nov. 

Description. ^-Differs from P. arnaudi arnaudi (Bonaparte), Consp. Gen. 
Av. i. 1850, p. 444 : White Nile, and P. a. kapitensis Mearns, Smith. Misc. 
Coll. lvi. 1910, no. 14, p. 5 : Juja Farm, Kapiti Plains, Kenya Colony — 
the latter synonymized by Sclater with P. arnaudi arnaudi, vide Syst. 
Av. .Ethiop. p. 719, though recognized, on account of its larger size, by 
both van Someren, Nov. Zool. Tring, xxix. 1922, p. 146, and Friedmann, 
Bull. 153, U.S. Nat. Hist. Mus. pt. 2, 1937, p. 383, in that the crown is 
of a darker, more ashy-grey, and the mantle is darker, with an appearance 
of obscure mottling. The contrast between the crown and mantle is less 
marked in P. a. australoabyssinicus than in the other two races referred to. 

Distribution. — Southern Abyssinia, between Mega and Yavello, at 
4000-4500 ft., in " arid thorn-acacia " country. 

Type. — Breeding male. Yavello, S. Abyssinia, June 15, 1941. Collected 
by C. W. Benson ; collector's no. E.100. Measurements of type : wing 
66, tail 33 mm. 

Remarks. — In addition to the type, four males, wings 65-66 mm., 
seven females, wings 64-66-5 mm., and one, sex undetermined, wing 
64 mm., were collected. It is as well to emphasize that the slight degree 
of mottling already referred to is not indicative of immaturity, for most 
of the birds were in breeding condition. 

My birds have been compared with ten, including seven topop typical 
P. a. kapitensis and three P. a. arnaudi, from western Rudolf area in 
Dr. van Someren's collection. 

This species does not appear to have been previously recorded from 
Southern Abyssinia. 

Notes on Eastern African Birds. 

Captain C. H. B. Grant and Lieut. -Colonel C. W. Mackworth-Praed 
sent the following ten notes : — 

(1) On the Races of Pogoniulus pusillus pusillus (Dumont) occurring in 
Eastern Africa. 

In the Bull. B. O. C. lviii. 1938, p. 140, we considered, on the evidence 
before us, that both P. p. lollesheid van Someren and P. p. eupterus Grote 
were synonyms of P. p. affinis (Reichenow). 

In the O. M. 1939, p. 83, Grote gives his reasons for recognizing 
P. p. eupterus and for placing P. p. lollesheid as a synonym of P. p. affinis. 
He places P. p. affinis as a coastal race from southern Italian Somaliland 
to Tanganyika Territory with a wing of 46-52 mm., and P. p. eupterus 
as an inland race covering the Kilimanjaro area with a wing of 53-58 mm. 

Vol. lxiii.] 20 [1942. 

He quotes van Someren, J. E. A. & U. N. H. Soc. xiv. 1939, p. 41, who 
gives reasons for the recognition of P. p. lollesheid and who gives for 
Kipini specimens (the type-locality of P. p. affinis) the wing-measurement 
of 58 mm. (p. 42). Reichenow gives the wing of the type of P. p. affinis 
as 50 mm. and G-rote gives it as 51 mm. 

On the evidence as given by Grote his argument is clear, but, unfor- 
tunately, he does not give all the available evidence. The evidence 
before us is as follows : — 

Wing : Juba River area, 46-50 ; Kipini, 51-58 ; Tana River, 50-53 ; 
Voi, 51-53 ; Dar-es- Salaam, 51-53 ; Kilimanjaro, 54-58 ; south-western 
Kenya Colony, 54-58 ; Ukerewe Island, 53-58 ; Chanlers Falls, 51 mm. 

We therefore find that Kipini birds equal Ukerewe birds, and that 
therefore P. p. eupterus must be a synonym of P. p. affinis. 

The evidence in support of P. p. lollesheid is better, and as van Someren 
has found that P. p. affinis has a wing up to 58 mm., from its type-locality, 
it does show that P. p. lollesheid is smaller than P. p. affinis. Therefore 
three races can be recognized in Eastern Africa, as follows : — 


Barbatula uropygialis Heuglin, J. f. O. 1862, p. 37 : Ain Saba, Eritrea. 
Mantle streaked yellow and black. Wing 53-59 mm. 
Distribution. — Eritrea to south- central Abyssinia and western British 


Barbatula affinis Reichenow, O. C. 1879, p. 114 : Kipini, mouth of 
Tana River, eastern Kenya Colony ; of which Pogoniulus pusillus eupterus 
Grote, 0. M. 1928, p. 78 : Ukerewe Island, Lake Victoria, Tanganyika 
Territory, is a synonym. 

Mantle streaked with black and white. Wing 50-58 mm. 

Distribution. — South-western Abyssinia to Kenya Colony and Tan- 
ganyika Territory as far south as the Rufigi River. 

Pogoniulus pusillus lollesheid (van Som.). 

Barbatula pusillus lollesheid van Someren, Nov. Zool. xxxvii. 1932, 
p. 280 : Serenli, Juba River, southern Italian Somaliland. 
Smaller than P. p. affinis. Wing 46-50 mm. 
Distribution. — Juba River valley, southern Italian Somaliland. 

(2) On the Relationship of Hirundo rustica. rustica Linnaeus and Hirundo 
angolensis Bocage. 
In the Bull. B. 0. C. lxii. 1942, p. 47, we have stated that Hirundo 
angolensis builds a nest similar to that of the European House-Martin, 

1942] 21 [Vol. lxiii. 

i.e., attached to an overhanging projection, but not supported below; 
it is not closed in at the sides and top, and is an open cup nest. In a 
letter dated July 26, 1942, Captain C. R. S. Pitman has kindly informed 
us that he has " probably examined thousands of nests of H . a. arcticincta, 
and they have all been of the Hirundo rustica type ", i. e., open cup-shaped 
nests placed on rafters or some similar support below. 

All the nests examined by Captain C. H. B. Grant in western Tanganyika 
Territory were on European houses and were all attached to the walls 
directly beneath an overhang without support from below ; but it may 
be they were started on and attached below to a nail or some small 
projection which would not be visible unless the nest was removed. 

It would therefore appear that Hirundo angolensis adapts its nest 
according to the situation available, i. e., either with or without support 
from below, on rafters or ledges or attached to a perpendicular face in 
houses or caves. 

(3) On the Status of Lanius somalicus mauritii Neumann, J. f. O. 1907, 

p. 595 : Karoli Mts., northern Kenya Colony. 

Neumann in the original description gives grey, not black, shoulder - 
feathers, but this is a variable character found in all young and immature 
specimens of the typical race. Van Someren, Nov. Zool. xxix. 1922, 
p. 122, gives as characters : rump and upper tail-coverts white, and the 
under wing -coverts dark ashy grey. The lower rump is white in the 
typical race as well as the upper tail-coverts, and surely by " under wing- 
coverts " van Someren means the axillaries. In the typical race the 
axillaries are usually black in the adult, but occasionally grey, and in 
the immature and young bird they are grey. The immature bird is 
similar to the adult, but has the black of the head duller, axillaries ashy 
to blackish, bill not usually so deep a black, and often horn-coloured 
at base. 

We find that the characters given for L. s. mauritii Neumann are not 
constant, and are of opinion that it must become a synonym of Lanius 
somalicus Hartlaub, Ibis, 1859, p. 342 : Bender Gam (Gaan), north- 
eastern British Somaliland. 

(4) Extension of Distribution of Lanius mackinnoni Sharpe, Ibis, 1891, 

p. 444, pi. xiii. : Bugemaia, western Kenya Colony. 

In a small collection made by R. H. Braun in Angola, and deposited 
in the British Museum, there is an adult male specimen of this Shrike, 
collected at Quicolungo, Cuanza district, northern Angola, on May 10, 
1939; collector's no. 90. Sclater, Syst. Av. iEthiop. ii. 1930, p. 611, 

Vol. Ixiii.] 22 [1942. 

gives the southern limit in Western Africa as Spanish Guinea, and 
Bannerman, Bds. Trop. W. Afr. v. 1939, p. 364, gives the southern limit 
as Gabon and the Mayombe district of the lower Congo . This is apparently 
a new record for Angola. 

(5) On the Type-locality of Corvinella affinis Hartlaub, Syst. Orn. West 

Afr. 1857, p. 104. 

Hartlaub states that he had a male specimen from Nubia and gives 
references to Corvinella affinis Heuglin, Syst. Uebers. Vog. N. Ostafr. 
1856, p. 34 (Sitz. Kais. Akad. Wissensch. Wien, xix. 1856, p. 286) and 
Beitr. pi. 19, fig. 3. Heuglin gives Bahr-el-Abiad (White Nile), south 
of lat. 7° N. 

In the Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, xlvi. 1933, p. 121, Friedmann 
and Bowen correctly state that this bird is not found in Nubia, which 
was that part of the Sudan north of Khartoum. As this species does 
not occur in that area, Hartlaub 's Nubia cannot be accepted as the type- 
locality, and we must take the next in order of priority. This is clearly 
Heuglin's, and, therefore, the correct type-locality for Corvinella affinis 
Hartlaub is White Nile, south of lat. 7° N., southern Sudan. 

It should be remarked that apparently Heuglin's Beitr. pi. 19 was 
never published. 

(6) On the Distribution of the Races of Laniarius ruficeps ruficeps 


Sclater, in the Syst. Av. JCthiop. ii. 1930, p. 621, gives the distribution 
of the typical race from Burao in British Somaliland to the upper waters 
of the Juba River, and of L. r. rufinuchalis (Sharpe) as the western parts 
of Somaliland and in the Ogaden country. The distribution of the former 
to the Juba River is based on a specimen in the British Museum col- 
lection (Brit. Mus. Reg. no. 1898.12.11.20) which has no original label 
and bears in the late Mr. Thomas Wells's handwriting on a British Museum 
label, " Somaliland. A. E. Atkinson (C), Lord Delamere (P.).", and 
in the late Dr. Bowdler Sharpe's handwriting, " Telephonus ruficeps 
Shelley (Lugh, Juba River) ". 

Dr. A. E. Atkinson travelled with Lord Delamere on his trip from 
Berbera to Lugh, and thence to Lake Rudolf and Kenya Colony in 
1896-97, and specimens were collected at various localities along this 
route. This specimen of L. ruficeps does not agree with L.r. rufinuclialis, 
but agrees perfectly with the typical race, and, therefore, could not have 
come from Lugh, and must have been collected in British Somaliland. 

1942.] 23 [Vol. lxiii. 

The distribution of the three races is as follows : — 

Laniarius ruficeps ruficeps (Shelley). 

Dryoscopus ruficeps Shelley, Ibis, 1885, p. 402, pi. x. : Burao, British 

Distribution. — British Somaliland . 

Laniarius ruficeps rufinuchalis (Sharpe). 

Dryoscopus rufinuchalis Sharpe, P. Z. S. 1896, p. 479 : Durro, Southern 

Distribution. — Southern Abyssinia and southern Italian Somaliland 
from Dabuli to El Wak and Bardera. 

Laniarius ruficeps kismayensis (Erlanger). 

Dryoscopus ruficeps kismayensis Erlanger, O. M. 1901, p. 182: Kismayu, 
Italian Somaliland ; of which we consider Laniarius ruficeps cooler 
van Someren, Bull. B. O. C. xl. 1919, p. 23 : Tsavo, Kenya Colony, to be 
a synonym, although we have been unable to examine specimens. 

Distribution. — Coastal area of southern Italian Somaliland and Kenya 
Colony from the Juba River to Taru. 

(7) On the Status of Laniarius ruficeps nuchalis van Someren, Bull. 

B. O. C. xl. 1919, p. 23. 
This name is presumably meant for L. r. rufinuchalis (Sharpe), but it 
has been introduced into nomenclature as Laniarius ruficeps nuchalis 
and must stand. It must be treated as a substitute name for L. r. rufi- 
nuchalis and be placed in the synonymy of that race. 

(8) On the Races of Tchagra australis australis (Smith), Rep. Exp. C. Afr. 

1836, p. 44 : north of Kurrichane, occurring in Eastern Africa. 

Sclater, Syst. Av. JLthiop. ii. 1930, p. 626, recognizes four races in 
Eastern Africa, but remarks in a footnote that two of these are not 
satisfactory, and in Jackson's Bds. Kenya Colony & Uganda, hi. 1938, 
p. 1226, recognizes three races. Van Someren, Nov. Zool. xxix. 1922, 
p. 110, lists four races and gives the wing-measurement of his Tchagra 
australis littoralis as 63-73 mm., and in Nov. Zool. xxxvii. 1932, p. 304, 
disagrees with Sclater's footnote (p., 626), producing no evidence in support 
of this. Friedmann, Bull. 153, U.S. Nat. Mus. 1937, p. 287, recognizes three 
races. Van Someren, J. E. A. & U. N. H. Soc. xiv. 1939, p. 106, discusses 
his Chyulu Hills specimens, but gives no wing-measurements. 

Examination of the series in the British Museum shows that individual 
variation has to be considered, and it is only on general characters that 
races can be recognized. 

Voi.lxiii.] 24 \IWI. 

We have measured three coastal specimens from Gazi, Kenya Colony, 
and Dar-es-Salaam, Tanganyika Territory, i. e., 70-75 mm. as com- 
pared with inland birds of 71-78 mm. The Gazi bird has a wing of 
70 mm., the two Dar-es-Salaam specimens wing of 72 and 75 mm. 
This does not appear to support T. a. littoralis, and the other characters 
given are not constant. Lynes, J. f. O. 1934, p. 106, states that he 
compared his Iringa specimens with the type of T. a. congener ; but we 
can see no characters by which this race can be separated from T. a. minor, 

We can therefore only recognize two races in Eastern Africa, as follows : — 


Telephonus minor Reichenow, J. f. 0. 1887, p. 64 : Kagehi, Mwanza 
district, northern Tanganyika Territory ; of which Pomatorhynchus 
australis congener Reichenow, J. f. O. 1902, p. 258 : Songea district, 
south-western Tanganyika Territory ; Telephonus australis dohertyi 
Neumann, J. f. O. 1907, p. 370 : Escarpment, western Kenya Colony ; 
and Harpolestes australis littoralis van Someren, Bull. B. 0. C. xli. 1921, 
p. 102 : Changamwe, south-eastern Kenya Colony, are swionyms. 

Distribution. — Kenya Colony to Tanganj'ika Territory, Nyasaland, and 
Portuguese East Africa as far south as Inhambane. Wing 63-78 mm. 
Twenty- four specimens measured. 


Telephonus australis emini Reichenow, O. M. 1893, p. 60 : Bukoba, 
north-western Tanganyika Territory. 

Darker brown above than T. a. minor. Wing 77-82 mm. Four 
specimens measured. 

Distribution. — Southern Sudan, Uganda and north-western Tanganyika 

(9) On the Colour Phases of Chlorophoneus nigrifrons (Reichenow). 

Sclater, Syst. Av. ^Ethiop. ii. 1930, p. 633, gives four races, and places 
C. miinzneri Reichenow as a race of C. rubiginosus (Sundevall), casting 
doubt on the validity of C. elgeyuensis van Someren. 

Hartert, Nov. Zool. xxxiv. 1928, p. 210, places C. elgeyuensis as a 
" variety (mutation) " of C. nigrifrons, and says that the twenty-one 
specimens examined from Mt. Kenya vary from flame-scarlet or orange- 
scarlet to bright yellow with hardly an orange tinge, and that in fourteen 
specimens from Kiambu the variation is from yellow with only an orange 
tinge to orange -yellow. Bangs, Proc. New Engl. Zool. Club, xii. 1931, 
p. 70, recognizes five races, placing C. abbotti (Richmond) and C. elgeyuensis 
together as races of each other ; but suggests the alternative that they 
are colour phases. Boulton, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 1931, p. 56, rightly 

1942.] 25 [Vol. Ixiii. 

points out that G. miinzneri is not a race of G. rubiginosus, as the latter 
has white lores and a white superciliary streak ; and we may add that, 
although the bill in C. r. rubiginosus is practically the same size as in 
C. miinzneri, in C. r. bertrandi (Shelley) it is appreciably larger. Bowen, 
Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Philad. lxxxiii. 1931, p. 66, records C. nigrifrons 
from Meru, north-east of Mt. Kenya; Moreau, Bull. B. 0. C. li. 1931, 
p. Ill, states that C. nigrifrons and C. rubiginosus may be seen feeding 
in company, their voices are indistinguishable, and that the call of C. 
nigrescens is exactly like that of G. nigrifrons and C. rubiginosus. 
Moreau's reference to C. rubiginosus is no doubt to C. miinzneri. Sclater 
and Moreau, Ibis, 1933, p.. 201, state that on one occasion two C. 
nigrescens were seen together, and that the type-specimen was shot in 
company with a normal female of C. nigrifrons. Lynes, J. f. O. 1934, 
p. 107, places C. miinzneri under C. nigrifrons, and records a male C. 
nigrifrons and a female C. miinzneri as being in company, and although 
this was not accepted as absolute proof, he felt convinced that the one 
was no more than a mutation of the other. Vincent, Ibis, 1935, p. 755, 
recognizes five races, placing C. abbotti, C. elgeyuensis and G. manning i 
as races of each other. He supports C. abbotti as a species, as both this 
and C. nigrifrons occur side by side on Mt. Kilimanjaro, " and no specimens 
have been collected which could be said to show intergradation ". 
Vincent also places G. sandgroundi Bangs as a synonym of C. manningi, 
and on p. 757 considers that the relationship of C. nigrescens, if any, is 
confined to C. nigrifrons, and it is probable that C. miinzneri is specifically 
distinct from G. rubiginosus and C. bertrandi. 

Moreau, P. Z. S. 1935, p. 884, further discusses the relationship of 
these birds, and remarks that "it is noteworthy that no intermediate 
specimens have been obtained". Zimmer, 0. M. 1939, p. 46, places 
C. miinzneri as a synonym of G. nigrifrons, and remarking on these birds 
in south-western Tanganyika Territory, says that two C. nigrifrons 
have not been seen together, but always both sexes of C. miinzneri or a 
male of C. nigrifrons with a female C. miinzneri. Moreau, Rev. Zool. 
Bot. Afr. 1939, p. 10, records G. miinzneri from Kilimanjaro as taken in a 
tree which also contained birds of C. nigrifrons and C. abbotti. 

Hartert, Bangs, Moreau, Lynes, Vincent and Zimmer all suggest the 
possibility of these birds being colour phases. Boulton and Vincent 
mention the specific distinction between G. miinzneri and C. rubiginosus, 
and Vincent and Moreau both mention the fact that there are no inter- 

We have examined the series in the British Museum collection and 
agree with those authors who have produced evidence in support of 
these seven forms being colour phases of each other ; and that G. miinzneri 
has nothing to do with G. rubiginosus. 

Vol. lxiii.] 26 [1942 

In the size and in the colour of the upper side the seven forms are 
exactly the same. Black, yellow and scarlet are well known to be inter- 
changeable colours, and we find an analogous case in the under wing 
of the moth Panaxia dominula and the Zygsena, where the yellow and 
black are recessives. With this Shrike the black and yellow are 
probably recessives to the scarlet, as is also the coloration of the under - 
parts of the form C. miinzneri, and as they are not caused by a change 
in colour due to overlapping of areas, but are caused by a change of gene, 
each colour phase would be sharply defined and there could not be any 
intermediates. The yellow, orange-yellow and scarlet may be determined 
by three allelomorphic genes, or orange -yellow may be the hetero- 
zygote ; whereas the black and pale forms are probably determined 
by different genes from each other and from the yellow, orange -yellow 
and scarlet genes. This being so, we find one form predominant in 
certain areas, as, for instance, the scarlet in Nyasaland and Southern 
Rhodesia, but the black form, C. nigrescens, has been found in two widely 
separated localities. In this form black covers the area of the chin 
and breast and has turned the yellow of the belly to green. In Kenya 
Colony and north-eastern Tanganyika Territory three colour phases 
occur together, but in what proportion is not definitely known, though 
the yellow appears to be predominant. It seems clear that all seven 
names apply to the same bird, and, therefore, Chlorophoneus abbotti 
(Richmond), Chlorophoneus miinzneri Reichenow, Chlorophoneus manningi 
(Shelley), Chlorophoneus elgeyuensis van Someren, Chlorophoneus sand- 
groundi Bangs, and Chlorophoneus nigrescens Sclater are all synonyms 
of Chlorophoneus nigrifrons nigrifrons (Reichenow). 

We have to thank Dr. E. A. Cockayne for information and advice on 
this question of colour phases. 

(10) On the Status of Malaconotus poliocephalus (Lichtenstein) and 
Malaconotus hypopyrrhus Hartlaub. 

Sclater, Syst. Av. iEthiop. ii. 1930, p. 636, recognizes four races. 
Van Someren, Nov. Zool. xxix. 1922, p. 121, places Malaconotus catharo- 
xanthus Neumann as a race of Malaconotus monteiri (Sharpe), separates 
the yellow- breasted and saffron-breasted into two species, and doubtfully 
keeps Malaconotus interpositus Hartert as a species ; and in Nov. Zool. 
xxxvii. 1932, p. 310, gives a valuable list of wing -measurements, but 
does not come to any definite conclusion. 

Neumann, J. f. O. 1905, p. 226, recognizes six races and places 
Malaconotus monteiri (Sharpe) as a race of Malaconotus poliocephalus 
(Lichtenstein). Sclater, Jackson's Bds. Kenya Colony & Uganda, iii. 1938, 
p. 1238, places Malaconotus catharoxanthus Neumann as a synonym of 

1942.] 27 [Vol. lxiii. 

M. p. poliocephalus (Lichtenstein). Friedmann, Bull. 153, U.S. Nat. 
Mus. 1937, p. 307, follows Neumann, 1905. Van Someren, J. E. A. & 
U. N. H. Soc. xiv. 1939, p. 103, adds further suggestions to the systematics 
of this Shrike. 

Our examination of the series in the British Museum shows that 
both the yellow-breasted and the saffron- breasted forms occur in northern 
Abyssinia, though the former are in the north, Garrat Mariam Tana- 
Gallabat road and Labalaba Marat Valley, and the latter in central 
and eastern Abyssinia. In the eastern and south-eastern Belgian Congo 
specimens are found with a slight, but distinct, wash of saffron on the 
breast, and from Elizabeth ville there are two males and one female, 
all breeding birds, one male having no trace of saffron below and the other 
male, as well as the female, having a saffron wash on the breast. Several 
specimens, also from the southern Sudan, have indications of saffron on 
the side of the chest and flanks. 

Except for the saffron, or lack of it, on the underparts, there is no 
character for supporting a specific difference, and as we find the saffron 
colouring is not altogether absent from specimens as far west as the 
Belgian Congo, and at Elizabeth ville find both yellow- breasted and 
saffron -breasted in the same area, we are of opinion that they must be 
considered as colour phases ; the yellow- breasted phase predominating 
in north-west Africa and the saffron- breasted phase predominating in 
south-eastern Africa. It is unfortunate that only one specimen was 
collected of the three breeding birds from Elizabethville, as it would 
have been most instructive to have known with which phase the yellow- 
breasted male was paired and with which phase the saffron- breasted 
male and female were respectively paired. All three were taken on 
different dates. This question could, however, be easily settled by 
anyone residing in an area where both colour phases occur. 

Accepting the differences as colour phases, and not as specific or racial 
characters we can only recognize two races on general size, as follows : — 

Malaconotus poliocephalus poliocephalus (Lichtenstein). 

Lanius poliocephalus Lichtenstein, Verz. Doubl. 1823, p. 45 : Sene- 
gambia ; of which Malaconotus catharoxanthus Neumann, J. f. O. 1899, 
p. 391 : Bongo, Bahr-el-Ghazal, south-western Sudan ; Malaconotus 
poliocephalus schoanus Neumann, O. M. 1903 p. 89 : Ambukarra, 
southern Shoa, central Abyssinia; and Malaconotus interpositus Hartert, 
Bull. B. O. C. xxix. 1911, p. 36 : north-west of Lake Tanganyika, are 

With or without saffron on the underparts. Wing 116-132 mm. 
Sixteen specimens measured. 

Distribution. — Gambia, Sierra Leone, Gold Coast, Nigeria and 

Vol. lxiii.] 28 [1942. 

Cameroon to the Sudan, Abyssinia, Uganda, British Somaliland, Angola, 
and eastern and south-eastern Belgian Congo. 

Malaconotus poliocephalus hypopyrPvHus Hartlaub. 

Malaconotus hypopyrrhus Hartlaub, Verz. Brem. Samml. 1844, p. 61 : 
Durban, Natal, South Africa ; of which Archolestes approximans Cabanis, 
in von der Decken's Reise, hi. pt. i. 1869, p. 27 : Dalaon River (Daluni), 
north-east end of East Usambara Mts., north-eastern Tanganyika 
Territory, is a synonym. 

Smaller than M. p. poliocephalus. Wing 105-118 mm. Seventy- one 
specimens measured. 

Distribution. — Southern Italian Somahland, Kenya Colony, Tan- 
ganyika Territory, Nyasaland to eastern Cape Colony and Natal. 

Note. — The Turkana area, Meuressi and West Rudolf, from where 
van Someren gives wing-measurements of 110-125 mm., would appear to 
be the meeting-place of M . p. poliocephalus and M. p. hypopyrrhus. 

Our examination of specimens of Malaconotus monteiri (Sharpe) and 
Malaconotus lagdeni (Sharpe) shows that both these are deeper billed 
than Malaconotus poliocephalus and are correctly treated as species by 
Sclater, Syst. Av. ^thiop. ii. 1930, pp. 636, 637. We have not been able 
to examine any specimens of Malaconotus alius Friedmann. 

Mr. R. E. Moreau sent the following correction : — Vol. lxii. 1942, p. 42, 
last paragraph under " Remarks " should read : 'I have been unable to 
examine specimens of Bradypterus a.alfredi Hartlaub, of which, apparently, 
only the type is known, but judging from its description its upper parts 
do not differ from those of B. a. albicrissalis , the type of which is in the 
British Museum ". 

The next Meeting of the Club will be held at the Rembrandt Hotel, 
Thurloe Place, S.W. 7, on Saturday, November 28, 1942, at 2 o'clock. 
This will be preceded by a luncheon at 1 o'clock. 

A paper entitled " Observations on the Avifauna and Ornithological 
Work of New Zealand ", by Count K. Wodzicki (Consul -General for 
Poland in Wellington, New Zealand), will be read, 


7 - ' 1343 



The four-hundred-and-fortieth Meeting of the Club was held at the 
Rembrandt Hotel, Thurloe Place, S.W. 7, on Saturday, November 28, 
1942, at 2 p.m. 

Chairman : Mr. B. W. Tucker. 

Members present : — Dr. D. A. Bannerman ; J. Fisher ; P. A. D. 
Hollom ; N. B. Kinnear {Hon. Sec.) ; D. Lack ; Miss E. P. Leach (Hon. 
Treas.) ; Dr. G. Carmichael Low (Editor) ; Col. R. Meinertzhagen ; T. H. 
Newman ; Mrs. J. B. Priestley ; Miss G. M. Rhodes ; W. L. Sclater ; 
D. Seth-Smith ; Dr. A. Landsborough Thomson ; H. F. Witherby. 

Guests : — L. C. Bushby ; Miss A. Wyndham Lewis ; Mrs. H. F. 

Members, 16 ; Guests, 3. Total, 19. 

Owing to Government restrictions being relaxed, it was possible to 
hold the usual luncheon before the Meeting. 

Some Ornithological Trips on the Continent. 

Mr. B. W. Tucker gave a talk, illustrated by lantern slides, on various 
ornithological trips on the Continent. He said that he had no new or 
remarkable results to present, but proposed to talk in a more or less 
random fashion about visits to several countries or places which were no 
longer accessible under war conditions. These were as follows : — 

Corsica. — One of the attractive features of this very pleasant island is 
the wide variety of country and climatic conditions to be found in a 
comparatively small compass. The visitor can ascend in a quite short 
space of time from the hot Mediterranean littoral into scrub -covered hills 
and fine beech forests, thence into the cool pine forest of the higher 
mountains and, finally, on the highest summits to the zone of Alpine Pipits 
(Anthus spinoletta littoralis), Alpine Accentors (Prunella collaris) and 
Eagles. Slides were shown of some of the main types of country and 
scenery, including typical haunts of such characteristic Corsican species 
as La Marmora's Warbler (Sylvia sarda) and Whitehead's Nuthatch (Sitta 
canadensis whiteheadi). The latter, as is well known, affords a most 
[December 22, 1942.] a vol. lxiii. 

Vol. lxiii.] 30 [1942. 

remarkable example of discontinuous distribution, the only other repre- 
sentatives of the species being found in North America and North China. 

The French Pyrenees. — Slides were shown of the Cirque de Gavarnie 
and some of the neighbouring country. Reference was made to Wall- 
Creepers (Tichodroma muraria) on the cliffs behind the Cirque and to the 
numbers of large birds-of-prey to be seen in the late summer. Griffon 
Vultures {Gyps fulvus) are then frequent, apparently ranging from 
breeding-places in the more southern sierras ; the Golden Eagle (Aquila 
chrysaetos) is not uncommon, and on one occasion the speaker had an 
excellent view of a Lammergeier (Gypaetus barbatus), which had been 
feeding on the carcase of a sheep. 

The Camargue. — Slides were shown of various bird-haunts in the 
Camargue proper (Rhone delta), of a breeding -place of Savi's and 
Moustached Warblers (Locustella hiscinioides and Lusciniola melanopogon) 
near Aries, of the neighbouring limestone hill country round Les Beaux, 
and of the Pont du Gard, the famous Roman aqueduct near Nimes, 
which is a breeding place of Alpine Swifts (Apus melba). The extra- 
ordinary tract of stony desert -like country known as the Crau, between 
the Camargue and Marseilles, was also described and illustrated. This 
is the only European haunt outside the Iberian peninsula of the Pin-tailed 
Sand-Grouse (Pterocles alchata), which is still not uncommon. 

Holland. — Slides were shown of the well-known bird resorts of Texel 
and the Naardermeer, but the speaker stressed that there were many 
other quite different types of bird- haunts in Holland, which were of much 
interest and little known to British ornithological visitors. Some examples 
described and illustrated were the closely protected colony of Spoonbills 
(Platalea leucorodia) in the dunes of North Holland — much larger than 
that at the Naardermeer, the vast Sandwich Tern (Sterna sandvicensis) 
colony on the sandbank of Griend, breeding-ground of White-spotted 
Bluethroat (Luscinia svecica cyanecula) in Friesland and of Little Bittern 
(Ixobrychus minutus) near Gouda, a sewage-farm at Waschmeer on the 
outskirts of Hilversum, and the Cormorant colonies at Wanneperveen 
and Lekkerkerk. The Waschmeer sewage-farm is a regular haunt of 
Black-necked Grebe (Podiceps nigricollis). Garganey (Anas querquedula) , 
Little Ringed Plover (Charadrius dubius curonicus), etc., and is much 
visited by migratory waders in the late summer, especially Wood-Sand- 
pipers (Tringa glareola). The Southern Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo 
sinensis) in Holland breeds in large colonies in trees. The Wanneperveen, 
colony is in a wood of alders round a duck decoy and had about 1000 
nests in 1936. The occupied trees, long since dead from the intense 
manuring, and fairly loaded with nests, present a remarkable spectacle. 
The Lekkerkerk colony, though exceeded in size by Wanneperveen, is 
scenically the best worth seeing of the Dutch Cormorant colonies. It is 

1942.] 31 [Vol. lxiii. 

situated on the banks of a large pond at the foot of a dike along which 
the road runs. The trees are much larger than at Wanneperveen and, 
having their branches also absolutely loaded with nests, are perhaps even 
more impressive. 

Observations on the Avifauna and Ornithological 
Work in New Zealand. 

The following paper by Count K. A. Wodzicki, Consul-General for 
Poland in New Zealand, was read : — 

The Ornitho-fauna of New Zealand, consisting of 230 species, is rather 
peculiar owing to several zoo-geographical and ecological factors, both 
in the past and at present. According to ecology, the birds in this country 
belong to the following four main groups : migrants, sea and water birds, 
endemic New Zealand birds and introduced birds. 

The God wits (Limosa lapponica baueri and L. hsemastica) and the 
Shining and Long-tailed Cuckoos (Lamprococcyx lucidus and Urodynamis 
taitensis) may be quoted as representatives of migratory birds of New 
Zealand. But as no banding records are as yet available in this Dominion, 
very little is known of their respective migrations and biology, and a full 
list of migratory birds is not yet completed. It must be pointed out that 
of the species above mentioned, the two former breed in the Northern 
Hemisphere, spending one or two winters here, while the two latter migrate 
up to the North for the duration of the New Zealand winter. 

The sea and shore birds are numerous both in species and numbers, 
especially in some of the species. Edgar Stead, in his notes made during 
visits to some islands around Steward Island in November 1941, reports 
that an area of two hundred acres of Green Island was populated by about 
a million nests of Prions (Pachyptila vittata and turtur). This group 
includes in New Zealand waters seven species of Penguins (Megadyptes 
antipodes, Eudyptes chrysocome, schlegeli, pachyrhynchus and sclateri, 
Eudyptula minor and albosignata) , common off both islands of New 
Zealand, while the Little Blue Penguin (E. minor) is found nesting as far 
as the southern part of the North Island. Three Storm Petrels, the 
Cape Pigeon and three Prions are common off-shore on both islands. The 
latter were recently the subject of an interesting paper by C. A. Fleming (5). 
The Shearwaters (Puffinus carneipes, griseus, gavia and tenuirostris) are 
frequently washed ashore after heavy gales. In February last I was 
fortunate in having the opportunity of visiting the nesting grounds of 
the Sooty Shearwater (New Zealand Mutton Bird), with their long 
runways, on the tree-clad steep slopes of Kapiti Island sanctuary. 

The Petrels are represented by six species, and two Albatrosses and 
three species of Mollymawks haunt the waters between and around the 


Vol. lxiii.] 32 [1942. 

two islands. At the Dunedin Heads, South Island, five pairs of the Royal 
Albatross (Diomedea epomophora sanfordi) have been nesting regularly 
since 1919. 

Apart from the rather ubiquitous Black Shag, representatives of six 
other species (Phalacrocorax varius, sulcirostris, melanoleucus and chal- 
conotus, and Stictocarbo punctatus and steadi of Steward Island) were 
reported in the records of the Ornithological Society of New Zealand in 
1940 and 1941. 

The Australian Gannet (Morus serrator), common off-shore, is protected 
in its nesting colony at the Cape Kidnappers, North Island, which is 
claimed to be the only one on the mainland. 

The Ducks are represented by six native and the introduced Mallard. 
Unfortunately, owing to inadequate protection, without a proper biological 
supervision some of them (e. g., the Paradise Duck, Casarca variegata, the 
Grey Teal, Anas gibberifrons, and the Blue Duck, Hymenolaimus malaco- 
rhynchus) are in some parts of New Zealand well on the way to disappear 
within the next ten years or so. 

Of the four Terns (Chlidonias albistriata, Hydroprogne caspia, Sterna 
striata and nereis), the Fairy Tern only is a rare bird. 

The Black-backed Gull (Larus dominicanus) , adapting itself to the 
present ecological conditions of this country, represents one of the most 
numerous species on the shores, and also to some extent inland, while the 
two other species, the Red-billed Gull (L. scopulinus) and Black-billed 
Gull (L. bulleri), are confined mostly to North and South Island re- 

The North Island and South Island Pied Oyster- catchers (Hsematopus 
reischeki a,ndfinschi) are a not uncommon feature of both islands' estuaries 
and also an unsettled systematical problem, as some people distinguish 
H. unicolor, a black Oyster- catcher, as a third distinct species. 

Among other waders a few have to be mentioned especially : the New 
Zealand Dotterel (Pluviorhynchus obscurus) is very rare, while the Banded 
Dotterel (Charadrius bicinctus), present on many estuaries and shingle 
river beds, is the subject of an extensive study by some ornithologists, 
both in breeding and its rather obscure movements after the breeding 
season. Another common feature on the estuaries, swamps or rivers is 
the Stilt (Himantopus leucocephalus) , while the Wrybill (Anarhynchus 
frontalis), with its reversed beak, is in summer confined to some parts of 
the South Island and moves in winter to North Island. The Pukeko (Por- 
phyrio melanotus) and the Reef- Heron (Demigretta sacra), the latter a bird 
of a large geographical range, are rather common, while both the Bittern 
(Botaurns poiciloptilus) and the beautiful White Heron (Egretta alba) are 
confined to few scattered places only. 

The Kiwi is still represented in small numbers by the three mainland 

1942.] 33 [Vol. bdii 

species (Apteryx mantelli, A . oweni and A . haasti) and the Steward Island 
Kiwi (Apteryx lawryi) in remote parts of the bush in these three islands. 

Through the South Island Weka (Gallirallus australis), a flightless bird, 
and the Spotless Crake (Porzana plumbea) of an isolated small island off 
the North Island, we pass to native land birds of New Zealand. They are 
decreasing in numbers year after year, not perhaps so much owing to 
extermination by man, but more probably owing to the tremendous 
general ecological changes and to the introduction of several overseas 
mammals, also to a lack of proper biological control. 

The problem of all these native land birds of New Zealand deserves a 
paper to itself. I would for the time being stress two points only : to 
give a few instances of birds which, like the Black-backed Gull, have 
adapted themselves to the new conditions, and afterwards, those who, 
owing to their particular insular biological habits, are at present retreating 
to their last haunts in the few not yet settled parts of both islands. 

The Harrier (Circus gouldi), the Grey Warbler (Pseudogerygone igata), 
the Pipit (Anihus novsezeelandide) , and perhaps the Fantail (Rhipidura 
flabellifera), belong to the few species which, sometimes adapting themselves 
to the pastoral conditions of the country, still find some possibility, if not 
to increase in numbers, at least not to decrease in the last few years. 

Unfortunately, some of the unique characteristic birds of New Zealand, 
e. g., the North Island Kiwi (Apteryx mantelli), the Kea (Nestor notabilis), 
the Brown Kaka (Nestor occidentalis) , two species of the New Zealand 
Parrakeet (Cyanorhamphus auriceps and novsezelandise) , the two Robins 
(Miro longipes and australis), the Whitehead (Mohoua albicilla), the 
Saddleback (Creadion carunculatus) , and even the Tui (Prosthemadera 
novse seelandiss) and the Bell-bird (Anthornis melanura), are likely to be 
under death sentence, except, perhaps, on the two bird sanctuaries at 
Kapiti and Little Barrier Islands, where some of them may be preserved 
for posterity. 

The problem of the introduced birds is similar to that in very many 
colonized countries, though through the progressing reduction in numbers 
of native birds and the lack of biological survey of the problem as a whole, 
it is even more important in New Zealand than anywhere else. The num- 
ber and range of the introduced species is large, ranging from waterfowl 
(Mallard and the Australian Black Swan) through the game-birds (Pheasant 
and Calif ornian Quail) to many Passeriformes. There are also self -intro- 
duced birds, e. g., the White-eye, which came from Australia some 80 to 90 
years ago, and which presents a problem of its own. 

Several species, fortunately, did not survive, but many others spread 
up throughout the whole country and present an important problem, not 
only in respect to native birds, but to agriculture. One of the problems 
awaiting attention is an extensive study of their stomach contents : the 

Vol. ixiii.) 



number of species and the conditions of life of the insects in New Zealand, 
for instance, seem to be smaller and different than in most European 
countries. It seems likely that many of these birds, at present in large 
numbers all over the country, have adapted themselves to a rather 
different staple food which is not very well known at present. Such 
studies would not only give an indication of their biological and economical 
position, but would also give an indication in respect to placing or removing 
them from the list of protected birds. 

Here is an incomplete list of different introduced birds more or less 
common at present in New Zealand : — 


1. Mallard 

(Anas platyrhynchos) . 

2. Canada Goose 

(Branta canadensis). 

3. Black Swan 

(Chenopis atrata). 

4. Pheasant 

(Phasianus colchicus). 

5. Brown-Quail 

(Synoicus australis). 

6. Calif ornian Quail 

(Lophortyx calif ornica). 

7. Swamp -Quail 

(Synoicus ypsilophorus). 

8. Rock -Pigeon 

(Columba livia). 

9. White-eye 

(Zosterops lateralis). 

10. Greenfinch 

(Chloris chloris). 

11. Chaffinch 

(Fringilla coelebs). 

12. Redpoll 

(Acanthis cabaret). 

13. Goldfinch 

(Carduelis carduelis). 

Constantly liberated, in some places 

equally common with the native 

A. super ciliosa. 
Confined to the South Island. 

Australian species, spread all over the 
country ; protected. Presents a serious 
competition to native Ducks. 

Although constantly liberated, does not 
increase in numbers. 

North of Auckland only ; not common. 

Fairly common wherever suitable cover 
in North Island and in the warm dis- 
trict of Nelson, South Island. 

Scarce in some localities, North Island. 

On suitable cliffs and buildings in both 

Self- introduced from Australia ; plentiful 

all over the country. 
Common in many districts. 

Common and breeding all over the 
country, but does not go more than 
100 yards into the bush. 

Well distributed in some districts from 
the extreme north to the south. 

As above species, and even more plentiful. 



[Vol. lxiii. 

14. House-Sparrow 

(Passer domesticus). 

15. Yellow Hammer 

(Emberiza citrinella). 

16. Cirl-Bunting 

(Emberiza cirlus). 

17. Song-Thrush 

(Turdus ericetorum). 

18. Blackbird 

(Turdus merula). 

19. Hedge- Sparrow 

(Prunella modularis). 

20. Sky-Lark 

(Alauda arvensis). 

21. Starling 

(Sturnus vulgaris). 

22. Mynah 

(Acridotheres tristis). 

23. White-backed Magpie 

(Gymnorhina hypoleuca) 

24. Rook 

(Corvus frugilegus). 

Well spread all over the country. 
Well spread in the open country. 
Mostly in the South Island. 

One of the most plentiful birds all over 
the country, both in towns and planta- 
tions and farms. 

Very plentiful all over the country, even 
more numerous than the Thrush, both 
in townships and in the country. Also 
present in isolated and uninhabited 
bird islands. 

Common, but not north of Auckland. 

Spread all over the country and common 
in all open places, especially in tussock 

Very plentiful all over the country, 
nesting in holes of trees, banks and 
cliffs and in houses, but seems to be less 
numerous in the extreme south. Be- 
longs probably to a non-migrating 

Fortunately restricted to the middle of 
the North Island and also to townships. 

One of the most conspicuous and abun- 
dant birds, dominating the Harrier but 
dominated by the Rook. Increasing 
lately in numbers. 

Confined to arable, cultivated areas of 
both islands (Canterbury and South 
Hawkes Bay), where numerous. 

The modern ornithological research work in New Zealand, initiated in 
the last century by Buller and Guthrie -Smith, and sporadically continued 
by different ornithologists, Dr. R. A. Falla, Edgar Stead, Dr. W. R. B. 
Oliver and others, in recent times, started really in 1939 with the establish- 
ment of the Ornithological Society of New Zealand, with Dr. R. A. Falla 
as President, Dr. W. R. B. Oliver and Edgar E. Stead as Vice-Presi- 
dents, Professor B. J. Marples as Secretary-Editor and C. A. Fleming 

Vol. lxiii.] 36 [19^. 

as Recorder. In spite of the war, which at once took some of its active 
supporters, ranging from people engaged in research work to field ornitho- 
logists and school-groups, a large part of them play an active part in 
exploring the neglected and interesting ornithological problems of New 
Zealand. The Society, owing to scarcity of funds, does not at present have 
its own journal, the two publications, i. e., Annual Reports and Quarterly 
Bulletin, being duplicated and circulated to the members. The Society 
is also a member of the Royal Australasian Ornithological Union of 
Melbourne, Australia, and larger scientific papers are published in its 

Here are some of the most important items of research carried out by 
the O.S.N.Z., or by some of its members. As stated in the Constitution : 
" The object of the Society is to encourage, organize, and carry out field 
work on birds on a national scale. The collecting of specimens of birds 
or their eggs plays no part in the activities of the Society, which is con- 
cerned with the study of living birds in their natural state." 

The three Annual Reports of the O.S.N.Z. which have been published 
brought forward a very large amount of material. Through short notes 
and lists of species a large amount of information has been collected, 
especially in the distribution of many birds, giving thus in many cases 
evidence as to the steps taken to preserve some species or to introduce a 
biological control in others. We will deal more extensively with some in 
the conclusion in the final paragraph on Bird Preservation in this country. 

The O.S.N.Z. also encouraged its members to collect information in 
ocal investigations undertaken by some of its members. R. H. D. 
Stidolph, Masterton and C. A. Fleming, Wellington, are now engaged on 
an investigation of the biology and movements of the Banded Dotterel 
(Charadrius bicinctus), which is supposed to be a migrant, sometimes 
crossing the Tasman Sea to Australia. Another survey by R. B. Sibson, 
Auckland, included the status and distribution of the Dabchick {Podiceps 
ruficollis). Enquiries on behalf of the O.S.N.Z. are also being made on 
the nesting and biology of the Reef-Heron (Demigretta sacra), which is 
widespread in the tropical Pacific, Northern Australia and also in New 
Zealand, and on the White-throated Shag (Phalacrocorax melanoleucus 

Considerable attention has been paid in the last few years by individual 
members of the Ornithological Society of New Zealand to several other 
more general problems of biology, ecology or ornithological monographs 
of certain species or territoriies. 

L. E. Richdale, Dunedin (8), (9), (10), during the last years has been 
devoting his untiring energy to the breeding habits of the Erect- crested 
Penguin (Eudyptes sclateri) and the Royal Albatross (Diomedea epomophora 
sanfordi), both nesting at the Taiaroa Heads, Dunedin. 

1942.] 37 [Vol. lxiii. 

A. A. Kirk and Count K. A. Wodzicki will shortly publish a survey 
of bird life during one year's observation at the Waikanae River estuary, 
North Island ; this will be the first study of this kind, including more 
than a year of systematic observations. 

E. G. Turbott, Auckland, is progressing in his studies on the food and 
ecological conditions of the Grey Duck (Anas superciliosa). This is, I 
think, the first study on biology of waterfowl in this hemisphere on the 
lines of the latest publications of the International Committee for Bird 

Professor B. J. Marples, Dunedin, is making an extensive study of the 
White-eye (Zosierops lateralis) , the self-introduced Australian bird, and 
now very well distributed throughout New Zealand. . A paper including 
a large volume of field observation, also some data on banding, and with 
a large amount of laboratory work, is to be published shortly. 

Count K. A. Wodzicki, Wellington, is collecting information about the 
breeding habits of the Blackbird and the White-eye, and especially to 
determine the effect of geographical position, that is to say, of different 
lengths of day, upon the dates of breeding. This study is, generally 
speaking, on the lines of the work done by Rowan in Canada and Bisson- 
nette in the United States of America. 

C. A. Fleming, Wellington, Recorder of the O.S.N.Z., besides his many 
and very valuable contributions in field ornithology, contributes new 
points on the ornithology of the Chatham Islands (5). In a recent 
paper he deals with the Neozelanic forms of the subgenus Cookilaria (6), 
and his latest paper on the phylogeny of Prions (7) gives an entirely new 
point of view of the Genus Pachyplila ; it is a genuine attempt based 
on ontogeny of the bill, geographical distribution and its possible relation 
between environment and morphology. 

Major G. A. Buddie (4), the well-known bird photographer, has 
described recently new features of the bird life on some isolated islands 
north of Auckland. 

Finally, Dr. R. A. Falla, widely known through his many contributions 
to New Zealand and Antarctic ornithology, is at present engaged in an 
extensive study of the extinct Moas of New Zealand. During recent 
years much research has been done, particularly in the Pyramid Valley 
Swamp, South Island, where bones and other parts have been found in a 
splendid state of preservation in the peat. This work, done in collabora- 
tion with R. S. Allan, Professor E. Parcival and R. S. Duff (1), pro- 
duced fresh prehistoric evidence, and, incidentally, a specimen of an egg- 
was recorded. It seems likely that the Moa was still present during the 
time the Maoris Were living in the South Island. No doubt this study 
wilLcontribute largely to our knowledge of the systematic and prehistoric 
conditions of these birds, and also elucidate some of the controversies 


Vol. lxiii.] 38 [1942. 

which have arisen with the publication of the extensive monograph of 
Dr. Gilbert Archey, Auckland (2). 

The problem of bird preservation in New Zealand was depicted in a 
gloomy, though, fortunately, not entirely correct, way in a recent article 
by H. Barraclough Fell (3) in ' Nature '. It has to be emphasized that 
very many factors were, and are, responsible for the present conditions 
of the New Zealand fauna, and the blame does not rest entirely with 
the natural history collectors of specimens. Some of these factors are 
beyond any control at present, and New Zealanders of to-day cannot 
be blamed for everything, though no doubt there was, and still is, not 
enough done, and there exists some local apathy. 

The problem of preserving New Zealand's fauna deserves a special 
paper which should be written on the basis of an extensive biological study 
of the present biological conditions of New Zealand. Such a study should 
be made by trained biologists, who should also have an adequate under- 
standing of the economic and social problems involved. Many changes 
have occurred, and are still occurring, since the dawn of that day when 
Captain Cook landed here and was awakened by a bird chorus. Besides the 
shooting and collecting by some exotic collectors, both of which fortunately 
are now completely supervised by the present Government, we have, for 
instance, a tremendous change in the environment of the landscape all 
over the country. Furthermore, the unfortunate, indiscriminate intro- 
duction of many species of overseas birds and mammals, the changed 
ratio of numbers of different birds, the problem of erosion seriously 
affecting this country at present, and other reasons, are undoubtedly 
much more important than the alleged extermination through shooting. 
The example of the Pukeko (Porphyrio melanotus) , which is increasing in 
some districts in spite of shooting, may be an instance of some larger, 
primary causes of decline existing and remaining unremedied. The 
present Government of this Dominion, keenly interested in preserving 
this part of New Zealand's patrimony, has enforced the protection of 
previously- established bird sanctuaries, and has also established very 
restrictive laws on collecting and shooting. But as with human beings, a 
protective legislation is of little use so far as wild life is concerned unless 
at the same time social welfare is introduced and the general standard of 
life raised. The example of the achievements of Canada and the United 
States of America, based on a substantial collaboration of the biologists 
of those two nations, should be an encouragement for the future policy of 
New Zealand in this respect, and though some unique species are already 
completely destroyed, there is still plenty of scope for future work, 
provided these matters are taken on a very broad basis and with a 
perspective of many years ahead. 

1942.] 39 [Vol. briii 

Regretably the New Zealand Forest and Bird Protection Society, 
though belonging in principle to the International Committee for Bird 
Preseryation, is, I believe, the only one within the British Empire working 
without the slightest collaboration of biologists. As seen from the above 
paragraphs, some of these biologists have already done splendid work 
for New Zealand birds, bringing up-to-date evidence of what has to 
be done, in this country ; but despite this attempts were made in some of 
the publications of the Society to describe scientists as being exclusively 
interested in collecting specimens for museums or aviaries. 

I sincerely hope that the day will come when this outlook will change 
and serious new attempts be made to solve in a more adequate way the 
New Zealand bird problem and preserve in a more effective way some 
of these unique jewels of nature, both for New Zealand posterity and for 
other people. 


(i) Allan, R. S., Parcival, E., Duff, R. S., and Falla, R. A. Preliminary 
Report on Excavation at Pyramid Valley Swamp. Rec. Cant. Mus. iv. 7 

(2) Abchey, Gilbert. The Moa. Bull. Auckland Mus. & Inst. 1 (1941). 

(3) Barraclough Fell, H. Protecting New Zealand's Fauna. Nature, Lond., 

cxlvii. (March 1, 1941). 

(4) Btjddle, G. H. The Birds of the Poor Knights. The Emu, xli. 1 (1941). 

(5) Fleming, C. A. Chatham Islands Birds. The Emu, xxxviii. 1 (1939). 

(6) Fleming, C. A. Notes on Neozelanic Forms of the Subgenus Cookilaria 

The Emu, xli. 1, (1941). 

(7) Fleming, C. A. The Phylogeny of the Prions. The Emu, xli. 2 (1941). 

(8) Richdale, L. E. The Erect-crested Penguin. The Emu, xli. 1 (1941). 

(9) Richdale, L. E. Supplementary Notes on the Royal Albatross.- — I. The Emu, 

xli. 3 (1942). 
t(io) Richdale, L. E. Supplementary Notes on the Royal Albatross. — II. The 
Emu, xli. 4 (1942). 

Mr. P. A. Clancey sent the following four communications : — 

(i) On the Validity of Alauda arvensis scotica 

Tschusi, 1903. 

In ' The Ibis ', 1938, p. 748, I pointed out that Scottish examples of 
Alauda arvensis were separable from Continental specimens on account 
of their richer and more heavily marked plumage. 

Tschusi, ' Ornithologisches Jahrbuch ', xiv. 1903, p. 162, described the 
Scottish bird as distinct under the name Alauda arvensis scotica, and 
designated birds collected in Kirkcudbrightshire in 1883 as types. His 
description is thorough, and should be consulted by all those interested 
in this question. 

Vol. lxiii.] 40 [1942. 

Since the publication of my note (loc. cit.) on the question of the distinct- 
ness of the Scottish form I have been assiduously collecting and comparing 
material from all parts of the British Isles. I will admit that the breeding 
plumage of Alauda arvensis is well represented in most private and public 
collections, but the inadequacy of fresh autumn skins has for long been a 
source of worry. Indeed, shortly before his death, Dr. C. B. Ticehurst 
asked me to pay particular attention to the collecting of fresh autumn 
specimens on the breeding grounds, but it was not until the autumn of 1942 
that I was able to find the necessary otiose moments. This free time 
resulted in the collection in south-western England (Wiltshire) of a large 
series in fresh dress, and this material has been largely instrumental in 
proving incontestably and irrevocably the distinctness of Alauda arvensis 
scotica Tschusi. Autumn skins of the typical race Alauda arvensis arvensis 
Linmeus, from Sweden, were not procurable, but through the kindness 
of a few friends I have been able to examine comparable series of skins 
from most European countries. All this material has led me to support, 
without further question, the validity of Tschusi's Alauda arvensis scotica. 
I note with considerable interest that H. P. Witherby, ' Handbook of 
British Birds ', 1938, dismisses the race as an absolute synonym of Alauda 
arvensis arvensis Linnaeus, and without comment. It is a great pity that 
Mr. Witherby did not deem it advisable to consult the rich collections 
available from Scotland, and I am afraid that he will be forced to re- 
consider many of his findings on Scottish races — findings invariably 
based on inadequate and badly collected material. 

To conclude my prolegomenary remarks I should like to offer my thanks 
to my many collaborators, and particularly to Col. R. Meinertzhagen, 
Mr. Hugh Whistler, and Dr. J. M. Harrison, for allowing me to examine 
material in their collections. 

Scottish birds in my series are mostly from the south-west — the region 
from which Tschusi got his specimens — but I also possess a good repre- 
sentative collection in breeding dress from the extreme north of Scotland 
(Sutherlandshire : collected June 1942), and I now intend to discuss the 
whole series of just under eighty skins from Scotland. 

Generally speaking, birds from the area south of the Grampian Mountains 
form a reasonably constant population, but it should be noted that examples 
from the western districts are usually more richly pigmented than those 
from the east, where the form appears to be less stable, and the criteria 
are scarcely so palpable. My northern Scottish birds from Sutherland- 
shire are in worn dress, but, nevertheless, extremely heavily marked and 
richly tinted on the upper surfaces. Abrasion has rendered the underparts 
practically useless for comparative purposes, but I can still detect traces 
of deep colouring on the breasts and flanks of several specimens in the 
series. Breast-spots tend to be large and of an intense black colour. 

1942.] 41 [Vol. lxiii. 

They probably represent a new subspecies, but until I see birds in fresh 
plumage from northern Scotland, I hesitate to describe them as new to 
science. The same may be said of Irish birds, which strike me as being 
distinct from any described race of Alauda arvensis. 

Carefully formed collections of unworn birds from northern Scotland 
and Ireland are needed before further races are separated in the British 
Isles. English examples are difficult to place with certainty, but are 
nearest Alauda arvensis arvensis Linnaeus. 

It is now my intention to deal with topotypical Alauda arvensis scotica 
Tschusi from south-west Scotland. The late Dr. C. B. Ticehurst (in litt., 
1940) was very dubious about the validity of the Scottish race, and 
informed me that some of my abraded examples of A. a. scotica were very 
close to Alauda arvensis cantarella Bonaparte, described from Italy. I 
agree that the skins examined by Dr. Ticehurst (all in my collection) are 
rather worn, but they are still noticeably richly tinted and heavily marked, 
and I am quite unable to match them with any of the many examples of 
Alauda arvensis cantarella Bonaparte examined. I am inclined to dis- 
regard Dr. Ticehurst 's findings. A. a. cantarella is a very grey bird, and 
lacks the warm brown tones of Larks from western, central and northern 

From the typical race Alauda arvensis scotica is separable in fresh 
autumn plumage on account of the more richly coloured upper surface 
and deeper tone of the wings, tail, breast and flanks. In this plumage 
the race is not obviously more heavily marked than the nominate form, 
but as the plumage wears the darker and more pronounced striae become 
at once apparent. In breeding dress A. a. scotica stands well apart from 
the typical race on account of the more powerfully accentuated markings, 
especially on the crown. This is particularly true of summer birds. I 
can detect no differences in measurements. 

The distinctions listed above are, in my opinion, sufficient to warrant 
the immediate resuscitation of this form from the synonymy. It is 
indeed lamentable that a good race such as Alauda arvensis scotica Tschusi 
should have been allowed to vegetate in the synonymy for nearly 40 years. 

(2) A new Race of Rock-Pipit. 

Since I wrote on the races of the Rock-Pipit, Bull. B. 0. C. lxii. 1942, 
p. 57, I have had the opportunity to examine further material, and now 
find myself able to separate another race, as follows : — 

Anthus spinoletta ponens, subsp. nov. 

Description. — Nearest to Anthus spinoletta petrosus (Montagu) : Wales — 
frcm which it differs by being paler and browner above, less olive. Under- 
surface very pale, and sulphur-yellow suffusion found in A. s. petrosus, and 

Vol. Lriii.] 42 [1942. 

other forms, usually entirely lacking. Striae tend to be rather nebulous 
and not so distinct as in the case of Anthus spinoletta petrosus (Montagu). 
Small series examined. 

Distribution. — Ushant, Finistere, France. None from the mainland of 
France available for comparison. 

Type. — Male, first autumn, moulting. Obtained by Col. R. Meinertz- 
hagen on Ushant, Finistere, France, September 20, 1933. In my collec- 

Co-type. — Male ad. Ushant, Finistere, France. September 22, 1933. 
In the collection of Colonel Meinertzhagen. 

(3) A new Race of Tree-creeper. 

Certhia familiaris meinertzhageni, subsp. no v. 

Desertion. — Separable from Certhia familiaris brittanica Ridgway : 
England, on account of its much richer rufous upper parts, darker ear- 
coverts, and by having the flanks and belly copiously washed with rufous. 
(Two specimens from the type-locality examined). 

Distribution. — As known at present, south-western Ireland. 

Type. — Male. Caragh Lake, Co. Kerry, south-west Ireland, January 6, 
1935. In the collection of Colonel Meinertzhagen. 

Remarks. — Witherby's ' Handbook of British Birds ', vol. i. 1938, 
p. 236, states that the buff wash on the underparts is more often prominent 
in Irish birds. My observations confirm this. It may here be remarked 
that birds from the north of Scotland show a tendency towards the northern 
European race Certhia familiaris familiaris Linnaeus, * Systema Naturae ', 
ed. x, 1, 1758, p. 118, restricted type-locality : Sweden. 

Named in honour of Colonel R. Meinertzhagen, whose ceaseless research 
has added much to our knowledge of Palsearctic birds. 

(4) The Occurrence of Fringilla coelebs coelebs 
Linnaeus and Turdus ericetorum catherinae 
Clancey in Wiltshire. 

An example of the Continental Chaffinch, Fringilla coelebs coelebs Linnaeus, 
was shot from a flock of similar birds near Amesbury, Wiltshire, on 
October 29, 1942. The bird, an adult male, was very fat and in good 

A male (first autumn) specimen of Turdus ericetorum catherinae, Clancey 
was obtained on Salisbury Plain near Amesbury, Wiltshire, on October 
31, 1942. I have no other records of this dark Song-Thrush from Wiltshire. 

Dr. Carmichael Low exhibited these specimens for Mr. Clancey. 

1942.] 43 [Vol. lxiii. 

Notes on Eastern African Birds. 

Captain C. H. B. Grant and Lieut. -Colonel C. W. Mackworth-Praed 
sent the following seven notes : — 

(1) On the Status of Merops persicus erythrseus Moltoni, Atti Soc. Ital. 

Sci. Nat. lxvii. 1928, p. 179 : Cunama, Eritrea. 

Moltoni had two specimens, apparently both being unsexed and undated. 
We have studied the description and plate iv., together with a large 
number of Merops superciliosus persica Pallas. Many specimens of the 
typical race have blue feathers or blue edges to the feathers of both the 
upper and underparts, blue edges to the flight -feathers and blue central 
tail-feathers. This may be partly due to fading. This blue coloration 
is well shown, in three adult birds collected by Boyd Alexander on the 
Zambezi River on November 21 and 24, 1928. The female collected 
on November 21 is more pale blue-green below than green, and is in 
moult, the old flight -feathers being blue -edged, but the new primaries 
are green-edged. An adult taken at Khartoum, Sudan, on May 12, 1900, 
Brit. Mus. Reg. no. 1934.1.1.3479 (Witherby Coll.), has one central 
tail-feather green and the other blue. Moltoni's main characters are blue 
below, tending towards verdigris, and white throat. There seems little 
doubt that in Moltoni's two specimens the yellow pigment in the normal 
green is deficient, and thus causing the blue to become dominant and the 
throat to become white. Judging by the description, the plate is much 
too highly coloured, especially the underparts. 

We are therefore of the opinion that Merops persicus erythrseus Moltoni 
is a colour phase of Merops superciliosus persica Pallas, and must be placed 
as a synonym of it. 

(2) On the Status of Parus afer parvirostris Shelley, Bds. Afr. ii. 1900, 

p. 241 : Salisbury, Southern Rhodesia. 

Shelley compared this race to Parus afer Gmelin, and Reichenow com- 
pared his Parus griseiventris (J. f. 0. 1882, p. 210 : Kakoma, Tabora 
district, Tanganyika Territory) to Parus rufiventris Bocage. Shelley's 
type is a male, wing 78 mm. and bill from gape 12 mm. Reichenow's 
type is a male, wing 80 mm. and bill from gape 12 mm. 

Parus afer parvirostris has a small bill as against Pa? us afer afer when 
sexes are compared, and so has Parus griseiventris when compared with 
Parus afer afer, but when compared with Parus afer parvirostris the bills 
are found to be the same, as are the wing -measurements and colour. We 
can see no characters by which they can be separated, and are of opinion 
that Parus afer parvirostris Shelley must become a synonym of Parus 
afer griseiventris Reichenow. 

Vol. lxiii.] 44 [1942. 

(3) On the Relationship of Parus niger Vieillot and Paras insignis 

All authors have placed Parus insignis as a race of Parus niger, and 
Austin Roberts, Bds. S. Africa, 1940, p. 219, appears to be the only 
author to cast doubt on this, correctly pointing out that Parus niger has 
white on the lower abdomen and in the under tail-coverts which Parus 
insignis lacks, and has kept Parus niger as a separate species from Parus 
insignis, placing this latter as a race of Parus leucomelas Riippell. 

There is no doubt that Austin Roberts is correct, and we have found 
support for this decision in the distribution of these two birds. In 
addition, we find that Parus niger has broad white edges to the outer tail- 
feathers and broad white tips to all tail-feathers, whereas Parus leucomelas 
insignis has very narrow white edges and tips or no white at all ; and 
whereas in Parus niger the sexes differ appreciably in colour, in Parus 
leucomelas insignis there is practically no sexual difference. 

The characters and distribution are as follows : — 

Parus niger Vieill. 

Parus niger Vieillot, N. Diet. d'Hist. Nat. xx. 1818, p. 325 : Sondag 
River, eastern Cape Province, South Africa. 

Male above glossy blue-black ; below chin to chest duller blue-black ; 
breast to belly dull blackish-grey ; lower belly and under tail-coverts 
mixed black and white ; broad white edges to outer tail-feathers and broad 
white tips to all tail-feathers. 

The female is duller above than the male ; below dull slatey grey ; 
under tail-coverts and tail as in male. Wing, male 81-87 mm., eight 
specimens measured ; female 76-84 mm., seven specimens measured. 

Distribution. — Northern Nyasaland at Lake Kasuni to southern Nyasa- 
land, Northern Rhodesia as far west as Lusaka, Portuguese East Africa 
as far north as Mirrote on the Lurio River, and south to Bechuanaland, 
Transvaal, eastern Cape Province and Natal. 

Parus leucomelas insignis Cab. 

Parus (Pentheres) insignis Cabanis, J. f. O. 1880, p. 419 : Malandje, 
northern Angola. 

Male : above and below glossy blue-black, glossier than P. niger ; lower 
belly and under tail-coverts black ; very narrow white edges to outer tail- 
feathers and very narrow white tips to all tail-feathers and often tail- 
feathers wholly black. The female is slightly less bright than the male, 
but not constantly so. Wing, male 86-96 mm., eleven specimens 
measured ; female 84-87 mm., five specimens measured. 

Distribution. — Angola to southern Belgian Congo, Northern Rhodesia 
at Mankoya and Sesheke, Nyasaland at Vipya, Mzimba, Mkocha, Mphunzi, 

1942.] 45' [Vol. lxiii. 

and Dedza, eastern and southern Tanganyika Territory from Bagamoyo 
to the Njombe area, the Tete district, northern Portuguese East Africa 
at Villa Coutinho and 30 miles north of Tete. 

This shows that there is a considerable overlap in distribution in 
Northern Rhodesia and northern Nyasaland, and precludes Parus niger 
and Parus insignis being treated as races of each other. 

(4) On the Status of Parus niger purpurascens van Someren, Bull. B. O. C. 

xli. 1921, p. 112 : Entebbe, southern Uganda. 

Van Someren compared this race with Parus leucomelas Riippell, Parus 
niger lacuum Neumann, and Parus insignis Cabanis, and gives wings in 
males as 83-85 and in females as 78-82 mm. 

A comparison of specimens of Parus leucomelas guineensis Shelley and 
Parus niger purpurascens shows that both have the purple wash, and that 
there is no difference in colour. Wing -measurements give north-western 
Uganda, male 78, female 75 mm. ; south-eastern Sudan, female 81 ; 
Uelle, male 82 ; Gold Coast, male 81 ; Nigeria, male 84, female 77 mm. 
Dr. Bannerman has kindly given us wing-measurements as follows : — 
Senegal to Nigeria, 70-81 ; Darfur and Bahr-el-Ghazal, 75-84 mm. ; 
Cameroon, males 80-86, females 78-80 mm., and for P. purpurascens, 
males 81-86, females 78-83 mm. 

There is therefore no difference in size between West African and 
Uganda birds, and as there is no difference in colour, Parus niger purpur- 
ascens van Someren must become a synonym of Parus leucomelas guineensis 

(5) On the Races of Anthoscopus caroli Sharpe and Anihoscopus roccatii 

Salvadori occurring in Eastern Africa. 

These two species are equal in size and general characters and differ 
only in colour, A . caroli having a grey upper side and A . roccatii a green 
upper side. Although below A . caroli is generally buffy or tawny and 
A. roccatii is generally not buffy or tawny, this colour is to be seen on the 
lower belly and under tail-coverts. The races that have been described 
must therefore be attached to these species mainly by the colour of the 
upper side. 

Our examination of the series in the British Museum shows that A . caroli 
has three races and A . roccatii also three races in Eastern Africa. Outside 
Eastern Africa we find that Anthoscopus ansorgei rhodesise W. L. Sclater, 
Bull. B. O. C. lii. 1932, p. 143 : Mt. Sunzu, near Abercorn, north-eastern 
Northern Rhodesia, should also be treated as a race of Anthoscopus 
roccatii, as the upper parts are distinctly washed with green. The known 
distribution of this race is from Abercorn to Elizabethville and Ndola. 

Vol. lxiii.] 46 [1942. 

The races we are able to recognise in Eastern Africa are as follows : — 

Anthoscopus caroli sylvtella Reichw. 

Anthoscopus sylviella Reichenow, O. M. 1904, p. 27 : Usafua, Rungwe 
district, south-western Tanganyika Territory. 

Above grey, below wholly deep buff. 

Distribution. — North-eastern (east of Lake Natron) to south-western 
Tanganyika Territory. 

Anthoscopus caroli sharpei Hart. 

Anthoscopus sharpei Hartert, Bull. B. O. C. xv. 1905, p. 75 : Usambiro, 
Tabora district, central Tanganyika Territory. 

Above and below darker ; forehead tawny, not pale buffy. 

Distribution. — Kenya Colony and Tanganyika Territory from the 
Kikuyu area to the Tabora district and west of Lake Natron. 

Anthoscopus caroli rothschildi Neum. 

Anthoscopus rothschildi Neumann, J. f. O. 1907, p. 597 : Simba, south- 
eastern Kenya Colony. 
Above clearer ash-grey. 
Distribution. — South-eastern Kenya Colony. (No specimens examined.) 

Anthoscopus roccatii roccatii Salvad. 

Anthoscopus roccatii Salvadori, Bull. Mus. Torino, xxi. no. 542, 1906, 
p. 2 : Entebbe, southern Uganda. 

Above pale olive-green, forehead yellowish ; below dull yellowish ; 
lower belly and under tail- coverts slightly buffy. 

Distribution. — Southern half of Uganda. 

Anthoscopus roccatii robertsi Haagn. 

Anthoscopus robertsi Haagner, Ann. Trans. Mus. i. 1909, p. 233 : Villa 
Pereira, Boror, Portuguese East Africa. 

Below paler yellow ; belly and under tail-coverts more distinctly warm 
buff. Wing 51 to 58 mm. 

Distribution. — Western Northern Rhodesia at Mongu and Mankoya to 
Nyasaland and the southern half of Portuguese East Africa, north of the 

Anthoscopus roccatii taruensis van Som. 

Anthoscopus roccatii taruensis van Someren, Bull. B. O. C. xli. 1921, 
p. 112 : Samburu, eastern Kenya Colony. 

Similar to A. r. robertsi but smaller. Wing 50 mm. and under. 

Distribution. — South-eastern Kenya Colony from the Tana River area 
to Taru, Samburu and Chamganwe. 

1942.] 47 [Vol. lxiii. 

(6) On the Type-locality of Oriolus monacha (Gmelin), Syst. Nat. i. pt. 2, 

1799, p. 824. 

Gmelin gives as locality " Abyssinian woods ", and two references as 
follows : — Buffon, Hist. Nat. des Ois, 3, 1775, p. 405 : no locality, and 
Latham, Syn. ii. 1, 1783, p. 77, no. 102 : woods of Abyssinia. Latham 
gives a reference to Buffon, but Buffon gives no references. The Abyssinia 
of 1775-1799 was restricted to Eritrea and northern Abyssinia, and we 
can therefore fix the type-locality of Oriolus monacha (Gmelin) as Eritrea. 

(7) On the Type-locality of Corvultur albicollis (Latham), Ind. Orn. i. 

1790, p. 151. 

Sclater, Syst. Av. ZEthiop. ii. 1930, p. 651, gives Africa, as does Latham 
in his original description. 

Latham gives a reference to Latham, Syn. Supp. 1787, p. 75, no. 2, 
where no locality is given. In this Latham gives a reference to Gen. Syn. 
i. 1781, p. 369, no. 2, where the erroneous locality of the Friendly Isles 
is given. In the Gen. Syn. Suppl. ii. 1802, Latham gives Corvus albicollis 
and Corbeau vautourin Levaill., Ois. d'Afrique, pi. 50, 1799, and states that 
Levaillant found this Crow " among the Great Namaquas . . . ", and in 
Gen. Hist. Bds. iii. 1822, p. 8, gives references to his original description 
and Corbiveau, Levaillant, Ois. d'Afr. ii. pi. 50. 

It is clear that the Corvus albicollis of Latham is the same as Levaillant's 
Le Corbivau, no. 50, Ois d'Afr. ii. 1799, who gives Grand Namaquois, 
Cape Town and Swarte-Land. We can therefore fix the type-locality of 
Corvultur albicollis (Latham) as Great Namaqualand, southern south-west 


Treasurer's Address. 
Will Members kindly note that the address of the new Treasurer, Miss 
E. P. Leach, will be : — 

c/o The British Museum (Natural History), 
Cromwell Road, South Kensington, 
London, S.W. 7. 
Those who do not pay their annual subscription by Banker's Order 
should send this to that address as soon after the opening of the new 
Session as possible. 

Date of next Meeting. 
The date of the next Meeting of the Club has not yet been decided. 
Members will be notified in due course some time in the beginning of 
next year. 




„,__ No. CCCCXLVI. 


Owing to difficulties of accommodation and absence of Members, 
no Meeting of the Club was held in February. 

Notes on Eastern African Birds. 

Captain C. H. B. Grant and Lieut. -Colonel C. W. Mackworth-Praed 
sent the following six notes : — 

(1) On the Races of Tchagra senegalus (Linnaeus) occurring in Eastern 

Sclater, Syst. Av. iEthiop. ii. 1930, p. 627, states, in footnote 2, that 
in his opinion only Tchagra senegalus should be recognized and perhaps 
Tchagra senegalus camerunensis (Neumann), and in Jackson's Bds. K. C. 
and Uganda, 1938, p. 1224, gives the distribution of T. s. senegalus 
as Senegal to Uganda, Kenya Colony and to eastern Cape Province. 
Van Someren, Nov. Zool. xxix. 1922, p. Ill, recognizes four races, and 
in Nov. Zool. xxxvii. 1932, p. 304, recognizes a fifth race. Friedmann, 
Bull. 153, U.S. Nat. Mus. 1937, p. 292, gives a useful list of all the names 
which have been given to this bird, and recognizes seven races in Eastern 
Africa. Van Someren, J. E. A. & Uganda N. H. Soc. xiv. 1939, p. 104, 
discusses this question. Bannerman, Bds. Trop. W. Afr. v. 1939, p. 418, 
restricts the typical race to West Africa. 

In view of this diversity of opinion, we have examined the good series 
in the British Museum collection and agree with Sclater that the typical 
race extends from Senegal to the Cape Province. There is considerable 
individual variation, and it is only on general characters that races can 
be recognized. 

We can recognize six races throughout Africa, three of which occur in 
Eastern Africa, as follows : — 

Tchagra senegalus senegalus (Linnaeus). 

Lanius senegalus Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. 12th ed. i. 1766, p. 137 : Senegal ; 
i of which Pomalorhynchus orientalis Cabanis, in V. d. Decken's Reise, iii. 

11869, p. 27 : Mombasa, eastern Kenya Colony ; Pomatorhynchus senegalus 
{March 10, 1943.] a vol. Lxm. 

Vol. lxiii.] 60 [1943. 

armenus Oberholser, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. xxx. 1906, p. 809 : Taveta, 
southern Kenya Colony ; Telephonus senegalus pallidus Neumann, 
J. f. 0. 1907, p. 375 : Accra, Gold Coast Colony ; Telephonus senegalus 
catholeucus Neumann, J. f. O. 1907, p. 377 : Karo Lola, Italian Somali- 
land ; and Harpolestes senegalus mozambicus van Someren, Bull. B. O. C. 
xli. 1921, p. 103 : Lumbo, northern Portuguese East Africa, are 

Mantle brown. Wing 79-92 mm. One hundred and seventy-eight 
specimens examined. 

Distribution. — Senegal, south-western Sudan, Uganda, Kenya Colony, 
and southern Italian Somaliland to Angola and Cape Province. 


Lanius senegalus var. habessinica Hemprich & Ehrenberg, Symb. Phys. 
i. 1823, fol. E : Eritrea ; of which Telephonus senegalus erlangeri Neumann, 
J. f. O. 1907, p. 373 : Lake Abaya, southern Abyssinia, and Tchagra 
senegala warsangliensis Clarke, Bull. B. O. C. xl. 1919, p. 50 : Mush 
Haled, eastern British Somaliland, are synonyms. 

Mantle darker, more earth-brown. Wing 80-91 mm. Sixty-two 
specimens examined. 

Distribution. — Eritrea and Abyssinia to British Somaliland and southern 

Tchagra senegalus remigialis (Hart. & Finsch). 

Telephonus remigialis Hartlaub & Finsch, Vog. Ost. Afr. in Von der 
Decken's Reise, iv. 1870, p. 34 : Blue Nile, Eastern Sudan. 

Mantle tawny brown, below whiter. Wing 83-92 mm. Thirty- three 
specimens examined. 

Distribution. — The Sudan from Darfur to the Blue Nile and south to 
Lake No. 

Note. — Tchagra senegalus camerunensis (Neumann) J. f. 0. 1907, 
p. 375 : Jaunde, Cameroon (seven specimens examined), and Tchagra 
senegalus nothus (Reichenow), J. f. O. 1920, p. 399 : Lake Chad District 
(eight specimens examined), are good races and occur south and north 
respectively of T. s. senegalus, T. s. camerunensis occurring in southern 
Nigeria, southern half of Cameroon, and southern French Equatorial 
Africa as far east as the Ubangi River, and T. s. nothus occurring from 
the French Niger to Lake Chad area, including the northern areas of 
Nigeria. Tchagra senegalus timbuktana Bates, Bull. B. O. C. liii. 1932, 
p. 74 : Timbuktu (three specimens examined), is also a good race, confined 
to the Timbuktu area. 

1943.] 51 [Vol.lxiiu 

(2) On the Races of Oriolus monacha Gmelin occurring in Eastern 

Sclater, Syst. Av. iEthiop. ii. 1930, p. 648, recognizes five races in 
Eastern Africa. Van Someren, Nov. Zool. xxix. 1922, p. 127, describes 
Oriolus larvatus kikuyuensis from the Kenya highlands as having a wing 
of 137-147 mm. As birds of Uganda and Tanganyika Territory have 
wings up to 145 mm., and from south-eastern Belgian Congo and Nyasa- 
land up to 142 mm., the wing length is not a racial character. Meinertz- 
hagen, Ibis, 1923, p. 76, places 0. m. kikuyuensis as a race of 0. m. rolleti, 
as does Granvik, Rev. Zool. Bot. Afr. xxv. 1934, p. 127. Friedmann, 
Bull. 153, U. S. Nat. Mus. 1937, p. 66, discusses the races, and on p. 70 
gives a table of measurements, but appears to have overlooked the fact 
that O. m. permistus was described from Gofa between the Omo River 
Valley and Lake Abaya, and, therefore, his table of measurements under 
0. m. rolleti is surely applicable to 0. m. permistus. Friedmann on 
p. 68 figures some tail feathers showing that 0. m. monacha has the outer 
tail feathers wholly yellow. This is not the case, as in the most northern 
specimens from Eritrea and Shoa only a few specimens have wholly 
yellow outer tail feathers. This character of a wholly yellow outer tail 
feather is therefore not a racial one. In the area from Eritrea to Lake 
Zwai we find the pattern in the tail changes from green in the north, 
with little or no black, to a black pattern in the south, these characters 
overlapping in the Shoa area. We have examined ten specimens from 
Eritrea and northern Abyssinia and twenty-two from central and southern 
Abyssinia, and find the pattern in the tail varies considerably individually, 
as is shown by Friedmann in his figure 7. The mantle is also variable 
individually and is not a character for racial distinction. 

Oriolus monachus larvatus Lichtenstein, Verz. Doubl. 1823, p. 20 : 
Eastern Cape Province, shows only one character by which it can be dis- 
tinguished, i. e., the length of the bill (culmen from base), 27-31 mm., 
twelve specimens measured. General colour, amount of black in tail and 
other characters are not constant, and the young bird has the head and 
neck markings of 0. m. rolleti, but is more variable, and some specimens 
approach 0. m. permistus. 

The distribution of O. m. larvatus is : Southern Rhodesia and southern 
Portuguese East Africa to the Cape Province and Natal. 

The evidence before us shows that only three races can be recognized 
in Eastern Africa, as follows : — 

Oriolus monacha monacha (Gmelin). 

Turdus monacha Gmelin, Syst. Nat. i. pt. 2, 1799, p. 824 : Eritrea. 
Tail yellow-green, with broad golden-yellow ends to all except central 
feathers, outermost tail feathers sometimes wholly golden yellow. 

Vol. bdii] 52 [1943. 

Wing 128-145 ; culmen from base 25-28 mm. Ten specimens 

Distribution. — Eritrea and northern Abyssinia, as far south as the 
Shoa area. 

Oriolus monacha rolleti Salvad. 

Oriolus rolleti Salvadori, Atti Acad. Torino, vii. 1864, p. 151 : Lat. 7° N. 
on White Nile, southern Sudan ; of which Oriolus percivali O. -Grant, 
Bull. B. 0. C. xiv. 1903, p. 18 : Kikuyu, Kenya Colony, and Oriolus 
larvatus kikuyuensis van Someren, Nov. Zool. xxix. 1922, p. 127 : 
Nairobi, Kenya Colony, are synonyms. 

Differs from O. m. monacha in having the green pattern in the tail 
replaced by black, central tail feathers varying from yellow-green with 
no black to some black or wholly black. 

Wing 123-149 ; culmen from base 22-27 mm. Ninety-seven specimens 

Distribution. — Central Abyssinia from the Shoa area and west of the 
Omo River Valley to southern Sudan, Angola, Nyasaland, northern 
Portuguese East Africa and Bechuanaland. 

Oriolus monacha permistus Neumann. 

Oriolus monachus permistus Neumann, 0. M. 1904, p. 145 : Gadat, Gofa, 
south- western Abyssinia ; of which Oriolus larvatus reichenowi Zedlitz, 
J. f. O. 1916, p. 1 : Afgoi, southern Italian Somaliland, is a synonym. 

Smaller, but not constantly so, than 0. m. rolleti. The young bird 
has the chin and throat yellow streaked with black, which extends in 
some on to the upper chest ; not black and yellow and more sharply 
defined from the chest as in the young of 0. m. rolleti. 

Wing 115-132 ; culmen from base 23-25 mm. Sixteen specimens 

Distribution. — Southern Abyssinia, east of the Omo River Valley to 
southern Italian Somaliland, and eastern Tanganyika Territory as far 
south as Dar-es- Salaam and west to Morogoro, where it intergrades with 
O. m. rolleti. 

(3) On the Characters of Corvus edithse Phillips, Bull. B. O. C. iv. 1895, 
p. 36 : Dejamio, Hainwana Plain, British Somaliland. 
In the original description this bird was compared to Corvus corone 
Linnaeus, and not to Corvus ruficollis Lesson, Traite d'Orn. 1831, p. 329 : 
Cape Verde Islands. The type is an unsexed adult and agrees perfectly 
in coloration with specimens of C. ruficollis, but has a culmen of 51 mm. 
and a wing of 325 mm. Meinertzhagen, Nov. Zool. 1926, p. 105, gives 
for C. ruficollis, wing 353-420 mm., culmen 57-75 mm., and for C. edithse, 

1943.] 53 [Vol. lxiiL 

wing 321-356, culinen 50-52 mm. The character of the base of the 
breast feathers, being whiter in C. edithse than in C. rvficollis, as given 
by Friedmann, Bull. 153, U.S. Nat. Mus. 1937, p. 76, does not hold 
good, and we cannot see any difference in this respect between Eastern 
African and Cape Verde Island specimens. 

Our measurements give for Cape Verde Island specimens : males (eight), 
wing 361-385, culmen 63-72 ; females (nine), wing 373-392, culmen 
61-67 mm. French Sudan : female (one), wing 393, culmen 67 mm. 
Lake Chad : male (one), wing 414, culmen 68 mm. ; female (one), wing 
408, culmen 63 mm. Egypt : male (one), wing 420, culmen 70 mm. ; 
female (one), wing 395, culmen 66 mm. ; unsexed (three), wing 364-383, 
culmen 62-73 mm. Anglo -Egyptian Sudan : male (six), wing 385-409, 
culmen 64-71 mm. ; females (two), wing 369-377, culmen 65-66 mm. 
Abyssinia, the Somali lands and Kenya Colony : males (eight), wing 
311-366, culmen 51-57 mm. ; females (four), wing 311-367, culmen 
49-52 mm. ; unsexed (two), wing 323-354, culmen 50-55 mm. Socotra : 
males (two), wing 376-392, culmen 65-70 mm. ; females (two), wing 
347-378, culmen 63-64 mm. ; Arabia : males (four), wing 376-406, 
culmen 67-71 mm. ; females (four), wing 365-388, culmen 62-70 mm. ; 
unsexed (two), wing 387-393, culmen 63-65 mm. Persian Gulf: female 
(one), wing 370, culmen 61 mm. India : males (three), wing 372-395, 
culmen 66-68 mm. ; females (three), wing 364-388, culmen 62-65 mm. ; 
unsexed (three), wing 383-408, culmen 62-70 mm. 

- Sclater, Syst. Av. iEthiop. ii. 1930, p. 650, casts doubt on a specimen 
in the British Museum from Brava, southern Italian Somaliland, and 
Meinertzhagen, Nov. Zool. 1926, p. 106, considers this specimen could be 
either C. ritficollis or C. edithse. 

The wing measurement of adults of C. rvficollis is 347-420 mm. and 
of C. edithse 311-367 mm., showing an overlap of 20 mm. 

The culmen measurement of adults of C. rvficollis is 61-73 mm. and of 
C. edithse 49-57 mm. Meinertzhagen gives culmen of C. rvficollis down 
to 57 mm. for Southern Algeria, quoted from Geyr, for'Muscat, Southern 
Arabia and the Sinai Peninsula. Even allowing for this, we find that 
there is no overlap in the culmen measurements between C. rvficollis and 
C. edithse, and our measurements give a difference of 4 mm. 

These figures show that although C. edithse is smaller than C. rvficollis , 
the wing measurements are not a decisive character, but that the culmen 
is, and that therefore there can be no question that the specimen from 
Brava, wing 367, culmen 56 mm., is C. edithse, and that it is correctly 
localized. Judging by the measurements it would appear that the type 
of C. edithse is an adult female and the specimen from Brava an adult 
male. Corvvs corax edithse Phillips can therefore be recognized by 
having a smaller bill than Corvvs rvficollis rvficollis Lesson, as is well 
shown on pis. x. and xi. in Nov. Zool. xxxiii. 1926. 

a 3 

Vol. Ixiii.] 54 [1943. 

(4) On the Status of Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax docilis (Gmelin), Reise 

Russland, iii. Theil, pi. 39, p. 365, 1774 : Gilan, Iran. 

Hartert in Vog. pal. Faun., Erganz. 1932, p. 27, states that this race 
has the upper wing -coverts more or less green, and gives the wing as 
280-327 mm., as against 253-260 in the European race. An examination 
of the series in the British Museum collection shows that the character 
of the colour of the wing -coverts is not constant, but that the size of 
the males does support this race. Our wing measurements give : 
British Isles, males 255-275 mm. (seven). ; Iran, Syrian Desert and 
Persian Gulf, 287-320 mm. (six) ; Crete, 295-315 mm. (two) ; Marocco, 
315 mm. (one) ; Abyssinia, 310-313 mm. (two). In the females there is 
a considerable overlap in measurement : British Isles, 253-292 mm. (six) ; 
Iran and Syrian Desert, 284-300 mm. (three) ; Crete, 288-290 mm. (two) ; 
Marocco, 265 mm. (one) ; Abyssinia, 305-322 mm. (two). 

The distribution of Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax docilis is : — Marocco and 
Algeria to Crete, Syria, the Caucasus, Iran, Afghanistan, Baluchistan, 
Arabia and Abyssinia. 

Wing in males, 287-320 ; females, 265-322 mm. 

(5) On the Races of Onychognaihus morio (Linn.). 

Sclater, Syst. Av. ^thiop. ii. 1930, p. 665, recognizes five races, and 
in the Bull. B. O. C. xlv. 1924, p. 5, discusses the races and figures the 
bills. Our examination of the series in the British Museum shows that 
the size and shape of the bill in O.m. shelleyi (Hartert) are so close to that 
of 0. m. riippellii (Verreaux) that no real division is recognizable. 

We therefore recognize four races, three of which occur in Eastern 
Africa : — 

Onychognathus morio morio (Linn.). 

Turdus morio Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. 12th ed. i. 1766, p. 297 : Cape of 
Good Hope. 

Bill as shown in fig. a, Bull. B. O. C. xlv. 1914, p. 6. Twenty speci- 
mens examined. 

Distribution. — Nyasaland and Portuguese East Africa to South Africa. 

Onychognathus morio ruppellh (Verr.). 

Amydrus riippellii Verreaux, in Chenu's Encycl. d'Hist. Nat., Ois. v. 
1865, p. 166 : Abyssinia ; of which Amydrus morio shelleyi Hartert, 
Kat. Vog. Mus. Senck. 1891, p. 75, note : Ugogo, Dodoma District, 
Tanganyika Territory, is a synonym. 

Bill longer and heavier, with a more curved culmen. Forty-five 
specimens examined. 

1943.] 55 [Vol. lxiii. 

Distribution. — Sudan and Abyssinia to Mt. Elgon (foothills), Kenya 
Colony and Tanganyika Territory. 

Onychognathus morio neumanni (Alex.). 

Amydrus neumanni Alexander, Bull. B. 0. C. xxiii. 1908, p. 41 : Petti, 
Northern Nigeria. 

Bill rather shorter, heavy and deep. Thirteen specimens examined. 

Distribution. — Northern Nigeria and northern Cameroon to French 
Equatorial Africa. 

Note. — Does not occur in southern Sudan ; the race in that area 
being O. m. ruppellii. 

Onychognathus morio montanus (van Som.). 

Amydrus montanus van Someren, Bull. B. 0. C. xl. 1919, p. 52 : Mt. 

Bill more slender than 0. m. ruppellii. 

Distribution. — Mt. Elgon, above 9000 feet. No specimens seen. 

(6) On the Status of Spreo pulcher rufiventris (Riippell), N. Wirb. Vog. 
1835, pp. 24 and 27, pi. ii. fig. i. : Northern Abyssinia. 

Our examination of the small series in the British Museum collection 
shows that Eritrean and Northern Abyssinian birds are richer coloured 
than Senegal specimens, and that this race can be recognized, thus 
agreeing with Reichenow, O. M. 1910, p. 9 ; Zedlitz, J. f. O. 1911, p. 9, 
and Hartert, Nov. Zool. 1915, p. 261. Sclater and M.-Praed, Ibis, 1918, 
p. 429, do not recognize this race, and Sclater, Syst. Av. iEthiop. ii. 1930, 
p. 669, does not mention it. The distribution of the two recognizable 
races is as follows : — 

Spreo pulcher pulcher (Mull.). 

Turdus pulcher P. L. S. Miiller, Syst. Nat., Suppl. 1776, p. 139 : Senegal ; 
of which Spreo pulcher intermedins Zedlitz, 1910, p. 9 ; Giddar, Adamaua, 
Cameroon, is a synonym. 

Distribution. — Senegal to French Equatorial Africa. Eight specimens 

Spreo pulcher rufiventris (Rupp.). 

Lamprotornis rufiventris Riippell, N. Wirb. Vog. 1835, pp. 24 and 27, 
pi. 11, fig. i. : Northern Abyssinia ; of which Lamprotornis chrysogaster var . 
abyssinica Riippell, N. Wirb. Vog. pp. 24 and 27, pi. 11, fig. i. is a sub- 
stitute name. 

VOL lxiii.] 56 [1943. 

Generally richer coloured than S. p. pulcher. 

Distribution. — Central and eastern Sudan to Eritrea and Northern 
Abyssinia. Three specimens examined. 

The other specimens in the British Museum collection are not available. 

On the exact Type-locality of Sitta europaea 
affinis Blyth, 1846. 

Mr. P. A. Clancey sent the following note : — 

Recent investigations into the subspecific status of Sitta europsea affinis 
Blyth have shown that the race is not constant throughout its entire 
range. Generally speaking, for the purpose of this short communication 
birds from the extreme east of England are richly pigmented on the 
underparts, pale above (East Suffolk, 1941), and are scarcely separable 
from examples of Sitta europsea cassia from Holland and Germany. 
Specimens from Hertfordshire, Kent and western districts of Essex 
examined are paler below but darker above when compared with East 
Suffolk skins ; while birds collected in the valley of the River Avon, 
near Amesbury, Wiltshire, in the autumn of 1942, are extremely pale, 
both above and below, and are quite distinct from eastern English 
examples of Sitta europaea from all the above-mentioned localities. 

This information points to the instability of the British race of 
Nuthatch, and to the advisability of restricting the type locality of 
Sitta europaea affinis Blyth, 1846. 

Blyth's name affinis first appears in the Journal of the Asiatic Soc. 
Bengal, xv. p. 289, 1846, descriptive notes on p. 288. The type-locality 
is given as England. When Blyth described the new Sitta he said that 
he had just received collections of British birds from Mr. H. E. Strick- 
land, Mr. Kirtland of the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, Mr. Bartlett of 
London, and Mr. Davison of the Alnwick Museum. No information is 
supplied as to which collection contained Nuthatches, but in the * Cata- 
logue of Birds in the Collection of the Asiatic Society ' by Blyth, printed 
in 1849, but not published until 1852, under Sitta cassia, syn. Sitta affinis, 
three specimens are listed. The first specimen was presented by Mr. H. E. 
Strickland, the second by Mr. Kirtland, and the third by the Cornish 
Institute (1847). As the third bird was received after 1845, we can 
ignore it, and we are now free to deal with the first two donors. 

H. E. Strickland lived at Tewkesbury, Gloucestershire, and Evesham, 
Worcestershire, and Kirtland was in the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford ; 
therefore it is reasonable to assume that the birds sent by them to Blyth 
came from western England ; and as Blyth's first reference is to Strickland 
I propose to restrict the type-locality of Sitta europaea affinis Blyth, 1846, 
to Gloucestershire. 

1943.] 57 [Vol. lxiii. 

Hartert's Sitta europsea britannica, Nov. Zool. 1900, p. 526, was 
separated on Hertfordshire birds. Type : Tring Park, Hertfordshire, 
October 1898. 

On the production of further material it may be found possible to 
recognize two or three distinct races of the Nuthatch in England and 

I am deeply indebted to Mr. N. B. Kinnear for his help with the 

Mr. P. A. Clancey sent the following two notes : — 

1. The Continental Chaffinch in Wiltshire. 

Two adult male Continental Chaffinches, Fringilla coslebs ccelebs 
Linnaeus, were shot from a small flock on the Salisbury Plain near 
Amesbury, Wiltshire, on December 19, 1942. A further example has 
already been recorded (Bull. B. O. C. lxiii. 1942, p. 42), and this race of 
Chaffinch would appear to be of not infrequent occurrence in Wiltshire. 

2. Some Supplementary Notes on Emberiza 
citrinella caliginosa Clancey, 1940. 

In June 1942 a series of breeding specimens of Emberiza citrinella 
caliginosa Clancey, Ibis, 1940, p. 94, was collected in the type-locality : 
Dornoch, Sutherlandshire, northern Scotland. They were tolerably 
common in scattered pine growth on the hillsides, and by no means 
confined to cultivation. 

The series has been compared with material in a similar state of 
plumage from S.W. Scotland, England and western Europe, and the 
criteria ascribed to Emberiza citrinella caliginosa in the original description 
are still quite apparent, despite extensive wear. My remark (Ibis, 1943, 
p. 89), " Birds for comparison should be completing the autumn moult ; 
specimens taken at a later date are of little value ", must now be modified 
on the production of this additional material from northern Scotland. 

In the case of the breeding male Emberiza citrinella caliginosa, the head 
markings are of an intense glossy black colour — much darker than in 
fresh autumn skins — and serve at once to separate this race from the 
typical bird, which is quite dull in comparison. Emberiza citrinella, 
caliginosa is a very much more heavily pigmented bird throughout, 
and the distinctions noted in the autumn plumage, instead of being 
lost in the breeding season, become more pronounced. This is equally 
true of females, which are richer and more heavily striated than examples 
in similar dress of Emberiza citrinella citrinella Linnseus, 1758 : Sweden. 

Vol. lxiii.] 68 [1943. 

Extension of Distribution of Heteropsar acuti- 
caudus (Bocage), Jorn. Lisboa, ii. 1870, p. 345: 
Huilla, Angola. 

Captain C. H. B. Grant and Lieut. -Colonel C. W. Mackworth-Praed 
sent the following note : — 

In the Lynes collection from the south-eastern Belgian Congo, and 
now in the British Museum of Natural History, there is an adult male 
specimen of this Glossy Starling, collected at Upper Lufira River Valley, 
about lat. 10° 8' S., long. 27° E., south-eastern Belgian Congo, on Feb- 
ruary 1, 1934 ; collector's no. 906. Sclater, Syst. Av. ^thiop. ii. 1930, 
p. 662, gives the distribution as Southern Angola to Ovampoland and 
the Okavango River. 

On the exact Type-locality of Cisticola chiniana 
ukamba Lynes. 

Dr. V. G. L. van Someren sent the following note : — 

Messrs. Grant and Mackworth-Praed (Bull. B. O. C. lxii. 1942, p. 47), 
under the impression that Lynes had not given an exact type-localit} 7 
for this race, proposed Simba. However, if we consult Lynes's paper, 
' Ibis ', Supplement, 1930, we find on page 17, and again on page 269, 
that Masongaleni is given as the type-locality. This is again repeated 
on page 670. 

Letter to the Editor. 

P.O. Box 1682, Nairobi. 
The Editor, Bull. B. O. C. October 20, 1942. 

Dear Sir, 

On page 44, Bull. B. O. C. vol. lxii., Messrs. Mackworth-Praed and 
Grant refer to a published record of mine on the breeding of Hirundo 
atrocserulea in Uganda (Ibis, 1916, p. 375). The following data were 
taken from the label attached to a specimen taken by my brother, 
Dr. R. van Someren: — '"Male, breeding ... 3 eggs, nest of ' puella\ 
lined rootlets and feathers of all sorts ; white eggs. Buzerinjovu, 7/5/12." 
As I had no reason to doubt the accuracy of these data, they were pub- 
lished. I have observed the species on many occasions, but have no 
personal knowledge of its nesting habits. The data on the label suggest 
that the " puella " nest was being made use of, which is a possibility, but 
the evidence produced by Mackworth-Praed and Grant would indicate 
that my brother's observation is inaccurate. 

Yours, etc., 

V. G. L. van Someren. 

1943.] 59 [Vol. lxiii. 


In Mr. B. W. Tucker's paper, " Some Ornithological Trips on the 
Continent ", antea p. 29, Anthus spinoletta littoralis (5 lines from bottom 
of page) should read Anthus spinoletta spinoletta. 


Date of next Meeting. 

This has not yet been decided upon. When it has been, Members will 
be notified. 

2 3tf AR1943 


£fc$lflM 8 s BULLETIN 




The four-hundred-and-forty-first Meeting of the Club was held at the 
Rembrandt Hotel, Thurloe Place, S.W. 7, on Saturday, May 29, 1943, 
preceded by a luncheon at 1.30 p.m., in conjunction with the Annual 
General Meeting of the British Ornithologists' Union. 

Mr. N. B. Kinnear, the new President of the Union, took the chair 
at the luncheon, and Dr. A. Landsborough Thomson, Chairman of the 
Club, at the Meeting which followed. 

Members of the Union present : — Major Anthony Buxton ; R. Preston 
Donaldson ; Mrs. Rait Kerr ; Mrs. M. L. Lemon ; Miss Averil 

Members of the Club present : — Miss C. Acland ; Miss P. Barclay- 
Smith ; Miss M. G. Best ; G. Brown ; H. P. 0. Cleave ; C. J. Duffin ; 
Miss E. M. Godman ; Captain C.H. B. Grant (Vice-Chairman) ; Dr. J. M. 
Harrison ; P. A. D. Hollom ; Dr. E. Hopkinson ; N. H. Joy ; 
N. B. Kinnear ; D. Lack ; Miss E. P. Leach ; Miss C. Longfield ; 
Dr. G. Carmichael Low (Editor) ; Dr. P. R. Lowe ; J. D. Macdonald ; 
Sir P. Manson-Bahr ; P. H. Maxwell ; T. H. Newman ; H. J. R. 
Pease ; Mrs. J. B. Priestley ; Miss G. M. Rhodes ; W. L. Sclater ; 

D. Seth-Smith ; Col. R. Sparrow ; Dr. A. Landsborough Thomson 
(Chairman) ; Mrs. W. Boyd Watt ; H. F. Witherby. 

Quests : — Miss E. S. Barclay-Smith ; Miss E. Best ; R. Carter ; 

E. Flack ; Miss L. Godman \ Miss L. P. Grant ; Miss M. Penrose ; 
E. Russell ; Lieut. J. Skibicki ; Mrs. Sparrow ; Mrs. Landsborough 

No Meetings of the Club took place in March or April. 

[June 17, 1943.] a vol. am, 

Vol. lxiii.] 62 [1943. 

Members of the Union, 5 ; Members of the Club, 31 ; Guests, 11 ; 
Total, 47. 

Major Anthony Buxton, D.S.O., D.L., showed a series of slides and 

1. Red Deer and Blackcock, the latter at the " lek ", taken in 


2. A roll depicting (i.) The mere at Horsey, Pochard, etc. ; (ii.) Water- 

Rail ; (iii.) the Sparrow-Hawk at its nest. 

3. A roll of the Honey Buzzard. 

These excellent pictures were much appreciated by the audience, and 
the Chairman thanked Major Buxton for the trouble he had taken in 
coming and showing them. 

A new Race of the Indian Red-billed Leipthrix. 

Mr. Hugh Whistler sent the following communication : — 

According to Baker, in the ' Fauna of British India *, 2nd edition, 
Leiothrix lutea calipyga inhabits the Himalayas from Simla to E. Assam. 
On examining my own series with that in the British Museum I find 
specimens from Kumaon westwards can be distinguished from Sikkim 
birds, while skins from Nepal, the type locality of Bahilia calipyga of 
Hodgson, are intermediate, but nearer to Sikkim examples than those 
from the western Himalayas. I therefore propose to distinguish these 
birds as 

Leiothrix lutea kumaiensis*, subsp. no v. 

Description. — Distinguished from L. lutea calipyga from Sikkim by 
the greyer and colder tinge of the green on the upper parts, the yellowish 
wash on the crown greener, less golden and restricted in extent, while 
the red on the outer edge of the inner primaries is reduced or absent. 

Measurements. — Wing 73, bill from skull 14-5, tail 48 mm. Specimens 
examined : 19 of kumaiensis and 14 of calipyga. 

Distribution. — Simla to Kumaon ; west of Simla this race is far from 
common, though it has been recorded as far as Dharmsala by Hingston. 
There are several records for " Kashmir " but none of recent date. 

Type. — Male. December 28, 1870. Dehra Dun, United Provinces. 
Collected by G. King, Brit. Mus. Reg. no. 1886.10.1.6902. 

* The old name for the inhabitants of Kumaon, 

1943.] 63 [Vol. lxiii. 

A new Race of Sunbird from the Southern 
Belgian Congo. 

Captain C. H. B. Grant and Lieut. -Colonel C. W. Mackworth-Praed 
sent the following description : — 

Cyanomitra verticalis bannermani, subsp. nov. 

Description. — Differs from Cyanomitra verticalis bohndorffi (Reichenow) 
and Cyanomitra verticalis viridisplendens (Reichenow) in having the chin 
and throat duller matt metallic steel blue with greenish reflections. 
The bill is also shorter. 

Distribution. — Southern Belgian Congo (Kayoyo, Lualaba River and 
Lufupa River). 

Type. — In the British Museum. Male adult. Kayoyo, southern 
Belgian Congo, September 1, 1933. Collected by Rear- Admiral H. 
Lynes ; collector's no. 276. 

Measurement of type. — Wing 71, culmen from base 25, tail 50, tarsus 
17 mm. 

Remarks. — Four adult males examined. No females or young birds 
examined. The three other males measure : wing 70-72, culmen from 
base 22-25, as against 26-29 mm. in C. v. bohndorffi (thirteen adult 
males) and 25-5-30 mm. in C. v. viridisplendens (twenty-six adult males). 

Named in honour of Dr. D. A. Banner man, who has remarked on the 
labels of these specimens that they probably represent a new race, and 
desires that we should give it a name. 

A new Race of Green Pigeon from Northern 


Mr. C. M. N. White sent the following description of a new race of 
Green Pigeon from Northern Rhodesia : — 

Vinago australis clayi, subsp. nov. 

Description. — Nearest to Vinago australis chobiensis Roberts of western 
Northern Rhodesia, but with the back and scapulars dark olive-green, 
without the greyish wash found in V. a. chobiensis. Differs from 
V. a. wakefieldii (Sharpe) of coastal Kenya Colony in its larger size and 
from V. a. salvadorii Dubois in the yellower head and under surface 
and in the tail colour, which resembles V. a. chobiensis, and is not slate 
as in V. a. salvadorii. 

Wing measurements. — 4 males 174-180,1 female imm. 169 mm., against 
145-155 in V. a. wakefieldii and 155-175 mm. in V. a. salvadorii. 

Vol. lxiii.] 64 [1943. 

Type.— Male adult. Collected at Isoka, Northern Rhodesia on 
February 15, 1943, by my African collector, Kabali Muzeya. In my 
collection. Wing 180 mm. 

Named after Mr. G. Clay, District Commissioner, Isoka, who made it 
possible for my collector to make a small but interesting collection at 

Material. — 2 males, 1 female, Isoka ; 2 males, Mpika. In addition, 
in studying the Green Pigeons of Northern Rhodesia I have examined 
the following material of these races : — 

V. a. chobiensis : Chobe River, 1 ; Machili River, 5 ; Monze, 1 ; 
Lusaka, 1 ; Mwinilunga, 4 ; Kasenga, Luapula River, 1. V. a. schalowi : 2 ; 
V. a. wakefieldii : 1. 

Remarks. — This new race is at present known to me from the two 
localities from which I have examined material ; in addition, the Green 
Pigeons mentioned by Pitman (' Faunal Survey of Northern Rhodesia ', 
1934, p. 208) as seen at Kasama and Chinsali no doubt were the same 
race. I have so far failed to find any evidence of more than one race 
of Green Pigeon in any single locality, and incline to Chapin's view in 
his ' Birds of the Belgian Congo ', vol. ii., that most of them are con- 
specific. The new form, whilst retaining the head, underside and tail 
of V. a. schalowi and V. a. chobiensis, approaches V. delalandii (Bonaparte) 
in the colour of the back and scapulars, but is darker, less yellow-green 
on those parts. Care should be taken in comparing Green Pigeons to 
ensure that comparisons are made with adult birds. 

I must also thank Mr. R. Moffat, who enabled the specimens to be 
collected at Mpika. 

A new Race of Brown-capped Weaver. 

Dr. D. A. Bannerman sent the following note on the Brown- capped 
Weaver-bird inhabiting the highlands west of Kumbo, 7000-9000 ft., of 
the Cameroons, which he proposed to distinguish as 

Phormophlectes insignis okuensis, subsp. nov. 

Description. — Separable from P. insignis insignis on account of its 
darker under parts, which are dull olive-yellow instead of bright golden 

Distribution. — Cameroon highlands above Oku, 7000-9000 ft. 

Type. — Female. Oku, west of Kumbo, 7000 ft., Cameroon high- 
lands, February 11, 1925. G. L. Bates collection. Brit. Mus. Reg. 
no. 1926.8.8.561. 

1943.] 65 [Vol. lxiii. 

Remarks. — As pointed out by Bates in Bull. B. O. C. xlix. 1928, 
pp. 31-32, most of the species collected in the very high altitudes above 
Oku proved to be separable from the race living at lower altitudes in 
the same mountainous region. 

See also Bull. B. O. C. xlvi. 1926, pp. 87-93, where other races from 
Oku have been described. 

A new Race of the Greenfinch from the British Isles. 

Mr. P. A. Clancey sent the following description of a new race of 
Greenfinch : — 

As the direct result of a prolonged investigation into the status of 
European races of Greenfinch I find myself in a position to separate an 
additional form from the British Isles. 

The distribution and range limits of European races are still imperfectly 
known, and only careful collecting in the early period of autumn, before 
the birds disperse, can help towards a more accurate understanding of 
racial differentiation in the species. 

Chloris chloris restricta, subsp. nov. 

Description. — Male adult, autumn. Nearest Chloris chloris chloris 
(Linnaeus), ' Systema Naturae ', ed. x. i. 1758, p. 174 ; restricted type 
locality : Sweden — from which it differs by having the crown, nape and 
mantle duller brown, not so rufous ; rump paler and greener ; underside 
pale green, never so yellow ; yellow wash on abdomen much reduced, 
and frequently replaced by green tinge ; flanks paler brown. Generally 
very much paler and greener than the typical form, which is richly 
pigmented in comparison. Thirty examined. 

Distribution. — Apparently confined to the Salisbury Plain area of 
Wiltshire, South England. See " Remarks ". 

Type. — Male, 1st autumn. Amesbury, Wiltshire, southern England, 
September 27, 1942. Moult. In my collection. 

Material examined. — Chloris chloris chloris : long series from Sweden, 
Norway, Finland, Estonia, Denmark, Germany, France, N. Italy. 
U.S.S.R. and eastern England (Suffolk, Kent, Sussex, etc.). 

Chloris chloris aurantiiventris : series from southern France. 

Chloris chloris muhlei : series from Greece. 

Chloris chloris harrisoni : series from S. W. Scotland. 

Remarks. — Examples from Andover, Hampshire, in the collection of 
Colonel W. A. Payn, are nearest this form, and, indeed, one or two are 
quite inseparable. 


Vol. Ixiii] 66 [1943. 

Generally speaking, fresh autumn skins of this species are exceedingly 
scarce in most collections, and even where fresh material is available 
for comparison there is often no guarantee that the birds were indigenous 
to the locality in which they were obtained. This is abundantly true 
of those collected in Great Britain, where the native birds are largely 
sedentary, vast immigrations of continental visitants taking place in 
late autumn. The inability of most workers to differentiate between 
endemic British birds and continental immigrants is not surprising 
when the paucity of available fresh autumn (native) birds is brought 
into consideration. 

Witherbjr, ' Handbook of British Birds ', vol. v. 1941, p. 257, discusses 
the validity of Chloris chloris harrisoni Clancey, Ibis, 1940, p. 92 : 
Thorntonhall, Lanarkshire, S.W. Scotland, on the strength of two 
males collected in Argyllshire. The birds were collected by Meinertzhagen 
on November 8, 1924, at Loch Gair, Argyll, and are correctly placed as 
Chloris chloris chloris (Linnaeus) hy Witherby. They are without doubt 
winter visitants from the Continent. The same is true of two males 
collected in Ross-shire by the late Mrs. A. C. Meinertzhagen. 

A new Race of Coal-Tit from Northern Scotland. 

Mr. P. A. Clancey sent the following description of a new race of 
Coal Tit :— 

The Northern Scottish Coal Tit is now considered to represent a 
geographical form new to science, and for it I propose the name 

Parus ater pinicolus, subsp. no v. 

Descr%2)tion. — Nearest Paras ater britannicus (Sharpe & Dresser), but 
purer and darker grey on upper surfaces, not so washed with buff, and 
in this respect approximates closely to Parus ater ater Linnaeus : under- 
side as in P. a. britannicus, but flanks browner in colour, not so buff. 
Twenty-five specimens examined (five from the type locality.) 

Distribution. — Northern Scotland : Caithness, Sutherlandshire, Ross- 
shire and Inverness-shire. 

Type. — Male adult. Rothiemurchus Forest, Inverness -shire, northern 
Scotland, March 27, 1943. In my collection. 

Material examined. — Parus ater britannicus : long series from south 
west Scotland and many districts of England. 

Parus ater ater : Europe, from Sweden to Balkan Peninsula. 

Remarks. — Col. R. Meinertzhagen in a letter dated December 31, 
1942, states that he considers the northern Scottish bird to be distinct, 
but that he had only two specimens from northern Scotland for purposes 

1943:] 67 [Vol. lxiii. 

of comparison. The differences noted by Meinertzhagen agree closely 
with my findings. 

Attention is drawn to my remarks on the northern Scottish bird in 
< The Ibis ', 1940, p. 95. 

The Scottish Sky-Lark. 

Mr. H. F. Witherby sent the following note : — 

In the ' Bulletin ' of our last meeting (vol. lxiii. p. 40) Mr. P. A. Clancey 
t^akes me to task for not commenting in the * Handbook ' on the 
separation of Scottish Sky-Larks by Tschusi in 1903. This is a very 
old question which I considered as settled by Hartert in 1905 (long 
before the , publication of the ' Practical Handbook ' — much more the 
present ' Handbook '). Hartert discussed the separation in his great 
work on Palsearctic birds and refused to accept it. He agreed that 
British birds were inclined to be dark and rust-coloured, but pointed out 
that in the huge collection of Sky-Larks at Tring there were so many 
entirely similarly coloured birds from the European continent that a 
separation would not be of any advantage (" Die Vogel der palaarktischen 
Fauna ', vol. i. pp. 245-246). No doubt Mr. Clancey has larger Scottish 
material, but unfortunately the wonderful continental series formerly at 
Tring is not now available. 

If one took the extreme view of separating races on slight differences 
no doubt Sky- Larks all over their range could be split into a vast number 
of races. Mr. Clancey threatens us with further splittings of the bird 
in this country, and I should like to express the view that to name local 
groups of such birds with a continuous range in a small area like the 
mainland of Great Britain can but lead to great confusion. That there 
are these slight local differences is a matter of interest ; but if such groups 
all through the range of a species were to be named and acknowledged 
as subspecies we should in many cases have such a confused mass of 
subspecies of unequal merit that the trinomial system would cease to 
be of value. 

On the Races of Onychognathus morio Linnaeus. 

Dr. D. A. Bannbrman sent the following note : — 

In the last number of the ' Bulletin ', vol. lxiii. 1943, p. 54, Messrs 
Grant and Mackworth-Praed discuss the races of Onychognathus morio 
and give their views as to which races should be recognized, and the 
ranges of each. In the (first place they correctly give the characters 
which distinguish 0. moriariippellii (Verr.) and 0. morio nei<manni(Alex.). 

Vol.lxiii.] 68 [1943. 

They include in the range of 0. m. ruppellii " the Sudan ", and in a 
note under 0. m. neumanni remark : — " Does not occur in Southern 
Sudan ; the race in that area being 0. m. ruppellii." 

Now in that assertion I disagree. Sclater was perfectly right when he 
pointed out that the birds collected by Rear- Admiral Lynes in Darfur 
should be allied with 0. m. neumanni and are not 0. m. ruppellii (see 
Lynes, Ibis, 1924, p. 654, footnote). They have the shorter bill and 
distinctly more arched culmen of 0. m. neumanni. 

I would therefore omit Sudan from the range of 0. m. ruppellii and 
would give the range of 0. m. neumanni as Northern Nigeria and northern 
Cameroon, east to Darfur and Ubangi Shari. Moreover, Messrs. Grant 
and Mackworth-Praed in their review have overlooked Onychognathus 
morio modicus Bates, Bull. B. O. C. liii. 1932, p. 7 : French Sudan, a 
perfectly good race. 

Notes on Eastern African Birds. 

Captain C. H. B. Grant and Lieut. -Colonel C. W. Mackworth-Praed 
sent the following four notes : — 

(1) On the Relationship, Status and Distribution of Egretta garzetta 
(Linnfeus) and Egretta gularis (Bosc). 

In the Bull. B. O. C. liii. 1933, p. 189 : liv. 1933, p. 73 ; and lix. 1938, 
p. 24, we discussed the races and colour phases of these Egrets. 

In the ' Bulletin du Museum Paris ', 2nd ser. x. no. 6, 1938, p. 570, 
J. Berlioz and R. Rousselot take up this interesting question. The 
table on p. 571 enumerates twelve specimens, but there is no indication 
to which species or races these specimens should be assigned. 

Judging by the descriptions, nos. 6, 8, 11 and 12 should be 
Egretta garzetta garzetta and the others are all probably Egretta gularis. 
They confirm that young birds have a less intensely coloured bill than 
the adults. The interesting fact is brought out that the Egrets are on 
the Niger River between August and March and in the other months 
on the seaboard, but which species is not stated. This appears to be 
a movement both in the breeding and non-breeding seasons, and it is 
therefore important to establish whether this is a movement of E. garzetta 
or of E. gularis. Some such interesting movement may also occur 
elsewhere in Africa. 

The authors cast some doubt on our findings, but they do not suggest 
any alternative arrangement. It would appear that they had not seen 
our last note in the 1938 ' Bulletin '. We would invite attention to 
Pakenham, Ibis, 1943, p. 169, who records both white and coloured 
birds at the same breeding colony in Zanzibar and Pemba, and this 

1943.] 69 [Vol. lxiii. 

confirms the record for Madagascar (Bull. B. 0. C. liii. 1933, p. 190), on 
which we based some of our conclusions. 

(2) On the Races of Onychognathus morio (Linnaeus). 

With reference to Dr. D. A. Bannerman's note in this number of the 
Bull. B. O. C, we agree with him that 0. m. neumanni (Alexander) 
occurs in the western Sudan. Our note is unfortunately worded and 
should have read " On the Races of Onychognathus morio (Linn.) occurring 
in Eastern Africa ", and " We therefore recognize four races in Eastern 
Africa ". Under 0. m. riippellii (Verreaux) the distribution should read : — 
" Sudan (except western area) and Abyssinia to Mt. Elgon (foothills), 
Kenya Colony and Tanganyika Territory ", and under 0. m. neumanni 
the distribution should read " Northern Nigeria and northern Cameroon 
to French Equatorial Africa and the western Sudan ". Our note under 
this race refers only to the southern Sudan. 

We did not mention 0. m. modicus Bates, as it has nothing to do with 
Eastern Africa, to which area we had meant to restrict our remarks. 

We regret the misleading wording of our note and hope the above 
will make the matter more clear. We thank Dr. Bannerman for 
publishing his note. 

(3) On the Distribution of Zosterops pallida Swainson and its Races. 

We must first invite attention to the dates of Z. pallida, 1838, and 
Zosterops capensis Sundevall, 1850, and that these names have been 
transposed by Roberts, Bds. S. Afr. 1940, p. 330. We agree with 
Roberts that these are races of each other, and on examining specimens 
of Zosterops winijredx Moreau, Zosterops poliogastra Heuglin, and 
Zosterops simplex Swinhoe, we have come to the conclusion that all can 
be placed as one species. Zosterops simplex is very close indeed to 
Zosterops capensis in general characters, and they should be considered 
as conspecific. The grouping we propose is as follows : — 

Zosterops pallida pallida Swainson, Anim. Menag. 1838, p. 294 : 
Southern Africa. 

Distribution. — Valleys of Orange (but not Lower Orange River) and 
Vaal Rivers. 

Zosterops pallida capensis Sundevall, (Efv. K. Sv. Vet.-Akad. Forh. 
vii. 1850, p. 102 : Rondebosch, near Cape Town. 

Distribution. — Cape Peninsula to Olifants River, Knysna and Uitenhage. 

Zosterops pallida poliogastra Heuglin, Ibis, 1861, p. 357, pi. 13 : High- 
lands of Abyssinia. 

Distribution. — Lake Tana and Tigre to Shoa and Gofa. 

Vol. lxiii.] 70 [1943. 

Zosterops pallida simplex Swinhoe, P. Z. S. 1863, p. 203 : Canton, 

Other eastern races recognized as belonging to Z. simplex would also 
be attached to Z. pallida. 

Distribution. — India and Ceylon to Burma and China ; also Laccadives, 
Andamans and Nicobars. 

Zosterops pallida atmorii Sharpe, in Layard's Bds. S. Afr. 2nd ed. 
1877, p. 326 : Grahamstown, Cape Province. 

Distribution. — Eastern Cape Province from Port Elizabeth to King 
William's Town. 

Zosterops pallida deserticola Reichenow, Vog. Afr. iii. 1905, p. 433 : 
Lower Orange River, south-west Africa. 

Distribution. — South-west Africa. 

Doubt is thrown on this race by Sclater, Syst. Av. iEthiop. ii. 1930, 
p. 677. 

Zosterops pallida winifredse Sclater & Moreau, Bull. B. 0. C. Iv. 1934, 
p. 14 : Chome, Pare Mts., north-eastern Tanganyika Territory. 
Distribution. — North-eastern Tanganyika Territory. 

Zosterops pallida basuticus Roberts, Ann. Trans. Mus. xviii. 3, 1936, 
p. 256 : Mamathes, Basutoland. 

Distribution. — Basutoland, South Africa. 

Zosterops silvanus Peters & Loveridge differs from Z. p. winifredse in 
having a large broad white eye -ring and a bright yellow edge to the 
wings. This broad eye-ring is the specific character that distinguishes 
the Z. virens group from the Z. euricricotus and Z. kikuyuensis groups, 
and this being so, we consider that Z. silvanus is better left as a species 
and not placed as a race of Z. pallida, and Z. tvinifredse and Z. silvanus 
may yet be found to occur together. 

(4) Extension of distribution of Cinnyris oustaleti (Bocage), J. Lisboa, 
vi. 1878, p. 254 : Caconda, Benguella, southern Angola. 

In the collections of A. M. Chapman presented to the British Museum 
of Natural History there is a male of this bird which was collected at 
Mwenzo, north-eastern Northern Rhodesia, on August 18, 1938. 

This specimen is in non-breeding dress ; it has the mixed orange and 
yellow pectoral tufts and the maroon tips to the metallic chest feathers. 
The bill is also shorter than that of males of Cinnyris talatala A. Smith. 

The distribution of Cinnyris oustaleti is, therefore, from southern Angola 
to north-eastern Northern Rhodesia, and the proximity of Mwenzo to 

1943.] 71 [Vol. lxiii. 

the Northern Rhodesia-Tanganyika Territory boundary suggests that it 
may occur in the latter area between the south end of Lake Tanganyika 
and the north end of Lake Nyasa. 

The Subspecific Status of Northern Scottish 
Fringilla coelebs Linnaeus. 

Mr. P. A. Clancey sent the following note : — 

Fresh autumn birds collected in Sutherlandshire in 1938 were tenta- 
tively assigned to the typical form, Fringilla ccelebs coelebs Linnaeus, 
1758 : Sweden (see Ibis, 1940, pp. 93, 94). 

Breeding birds from Sutherlandshire collected in June 1942 are 
clearly referable to the British form, Fringilla ccelebs gengleri Klein - 
schmidt, 1909 : England *. The majority of skins in the series (8) are 
on the whole paler and brighter below than most examples of T. c. 
gengleri. This paleness is most noticeable in the fresh autumn dress, 
but without extensive material from the extreme north of Scotland its 
significance cannot be appreciated at the present time. 

On the Race of Regulus regulus (Linnaeus) 
occurring in Sutherlandshire. 

Mr. P. A. Clancey sent the following note : — 

I have examined a series of moulting autumn birds collected in August 
and early September 1938 in the natural pine forest of south-east 
Sutherlandshire. These birds have been compared with birds of similar 
date from S.W. Scotland, North, South and East England and the 
Continent. They agree closely with the continental race Regulus regulus 
regulus (Linnaeus) in the greyness of their napes, and are readily 
separable from the much darker and more golden Regulus regulus anglorum 

As the continental passage migrants do not generally arrive before 
the third week of September, and many of the Sutherlandshire birds 
are in full moult, it is safe to assume that the birds collected represent 
the native breeding population of this part of Scotland. 

Three examples collected in the Rothiemurchus Forest, Inverness - 
shire, in March 1943 appear to be intermediate. 

* Ross-shire breeding birds (Meintrtzhagen collection) have already been placed 
as T, c. gengleri, Ibis, 1943, p. 88, 

Vol. lxiii.] 72 [1943. 

On the Breeding Habits of Hirundo 
atrocaerulea Sundevall. 

Colonel R. Sparrow sent the following note : — 

With reference to Messrs. Grant & Mackworth-Praed's note in the 
Bull. B. O. C. lxii. 1942, p. 44, and van Someren's note in the ' Bulletin', 
lxiii., p. 58, all the nests I found in the highlands of Natal were open 
and cup-shaped and always in the roof of an Ant bear hole. The eggs 
were not white, but were spotted like those of Hirundo smithi smithi 


The next Meeting of the Club will be held at the Rembrandt Hotel, 
Thurloe Place, S.W. 7, on Wednesday, June 30, 1943, following a dinner 
at 6.45 p.m. Dr. A. Landsborough Thomson, Chairman of the 
Club, will open a discussion upon " Physiological Races, with special 
reference to recent work by Bullough, Blanchard and others ". 


pY)tt r ' 




The four-hundred-and-forty-second Meeting of the Club was held at the 
Rembrandt Hotel, Thurloe Place, S.W. 7, on Wednesday, June 30, 1943, 
following a dinner at 7 p.m. 

Chairman : Dr. A. Landsborough Thomson. 

Members present : — Dr. D. A. Bannerman ; F. J. F. Barrington ; 
Captain C. H. B. Grant {Vice-chairman) ; B. G. Harrison ; Dr. E. 
Hopkinson ; N. B. Kinnear (Hon. Sec.) ; Miss C. Longfield ; Dr. G. 
Carmichael Low (Editor) ; Captain J. H. MacNeile ; Colonel R. 
Meinertzhagen ; Miss G. Rhodes ; W. L. Sclater ; D. Seth-Smith. 

Guest of the Club : J. Sillem. 

Guests : — Miss Theresa Clay ; Miss L. P. Grant. 

Members, 14 ; Guest of the Club, 1 ; Guests, 2 ; Total, 17. 

Discussion on "Physiological Races". 

Dr. A. Landsborough Thomson, opening the discussion, said : — 
Recent work has provided further facts about what have been called 
;i physiological races ". It has also aroused some controversy about the 
appropriate method of describing or naming them for purposes of reference, 
but that is, of course, a secondary consideration. 

" Physiological races " are aggregations of individuals within a species 
which are differentiated not by morphological characters but by physio- 
logical characters, such as differences in their reproductive cycles and 
related behaviour. The latter may include not only sexual behaviour 
but also migratory behaviour. Indeed, the fact that migration may 
bring two such "races" into the same environment, without * losing 
their differentiation, is one of the most significant points. It indicates 

[July 23, 1943.] a tol. izm, 

Vol. lxiii.] 74 [1943. 

that the physiological differences are to some extent inherent, or at least 
dependent on the total environmental influences to which the birds are 
subject throughout the year. In what degree the rhythm of the cycle 
would be stable in the individual under a complete change of environment, 
or in what degree it may be a heritable quality, cannot be said with 

Another point is that differences in the reproductive cycles may be a 
barrier to interbreeding. In that event there is effective segregation, 
and one might therefore expect some morphological differentiation to 
appear in course of time. There are, in fact, cases where both physio- 
logical and morphological differences have been recognized ; but it does 
not follow that the two sets of characters necessarily run parallel 
throughout the whole range of the species — there is evidence that they 
sometimes do not. 

Wolfson * has given data relating to the one resident and four migratory 
subspecies of the Oregon Junco (Junco oreganus) found in winter at 
Berkeley, California. Residents and migrants differ in their reproductive 
cycles, although flocking together and subject for the time being to the 
same environment. The testes of the residents recrudesce earlier and 
faster : and at the time of departure in spring the migrants show a heavy 
deposit of fat not found among residents. In this case subspecific 
morphological differences had already been recognized, so that (at least 
in the particular locality) the question of purely physiological separation 
does not arise. 

Also at Berkeley, Blanchard | has compared the resident and wintering 
migrant communities of the White -crowned Sparrow (Zonotrichia 
leucophrys). The adult residents stay permanently paired on territories, 
and the young begin to mate in January. The migrants wintering there 
remain in huge flocks till departure in April. Recrudescence of the 
gonads is earlier in the residents ; the prenuptial moult is slight and 
the birds never acquire much fat. In the migrants the moult is intensive 
and the birds become very fat before departure. The song-patterns of 
the two aggregates are distinct. 

Contrasts in behaviour were also found between the residents breeding 
at Berkeley and the migrants breeding at Friday Harbour, Washington, 
a thousand miles to the north, where the species is found only in summer. 
Between these extremes a complicated intermediate state of affairs was 
found near the northern limit of the winter range. 

The southern birds belong to the subspecies Z. I. nuttalli, and the 

* A. Wolfson, ' Condor ', xliv, p. 237 (1942). 
f B. D f Blanchard, ' Auk ', lix, p. 47 (1942). 

1943.] 75 [Vol. lxiii. 

northern to Z. I. pugetensis. The author suggests that the slight colour- 
differences on which this separation is based are less important than 
the differences in physiology and behaviour which she describes. More- 
over, the transition from subspecies to subspecies, as morphologically 
understood, does not coincide geographically with the transition in the 
other respect. 

Bullough* has shown that significant differences exist in the times 
and rates of growth of the testes and ovaries of the Starling (Sturnus 
vulgaris), between British resident birds and Continental birds wintering 
in the British Isles. As a result of the earlier beginning and more rapid 
progress of gonad development in the resident birds, the accessory 
sexual organs and the secondary sexual characters (notably colour of 
beak) undergo changes which are not seen in the wintering migrants until 
much later. 

The residents pair in autumn and show many trains of sexual behaviour 
during the winter, including attachment to nesting sites rather than to 
communal roosts. The winter visitors exhibit no sexual behaviour 
during their stay in this country except that the males sing in early 
March, and they continue to roost communally up to the time of de- 
parture. The same is true of migrants wintering on the Continent. 

As the migrants do not pair until they return to their breeding area, 
there is effective segregation from the British resident birds with which 
they mingle here in winter. There is also a suggestion, difficult to prove, 
that the two stocks have preserved their identities after introduction 
into North America. 

These examples will serve to illustrate the general points mentioned 
at the beginning. Various problems of biological interest are obviously 
involved. On the secondary question, it may be urged that " physio- 
logical races " are facts of nature, and that their due recognition as such 
may necessitate some convenient method of designation. Most ornitho- 
logists will probably agree, however, that the existing conventions of 
systematic nomenclature cannot be appropriately used for this purpose — 
for reasons which other speakers will doubtless give — and even the 
term " race " may be open to objection. 

Mr. H. F. Witherby, who was unable to attend the meeting, sent the 
following remarks : — 

While recognising the importance of kt physiological races ", I hope 
systematists on Wednesday will protest against the name Sturnus 
vulgaris britannicus and the use of the trinomial system for such 

* W. S. Bullough, Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. Lond. B, ccxxxi, p. 165 (1942). 

Vol. lxiii.] 76 [1943. 

forms. There is no external distinguishing character, and the difference 
is only a difference in the time of development of characters common 
to all — there is no qualitative difference. How is a systematist to dis- 
tinguish them ? The Linnsean system and the trinomial extension of it 
are for systematists. Biologists must invent some other distinct system 
to label such " races ". 

Doubtless there are many birds in which comparable differences of 
time exist in northern and southern or other populations. I have little 
doubt that Starlings themselves could be divided into many more such 
" races ". For instance, Bullough lumps all our continental immigrants, 
but if these periods of change could be split up doubtless those breeding 
in Holland, for instance, would be found to change before those breeding 
in N. Norway or Prussia or Russia. We might be inflicted with a name 
for each weekly or fortnightly group. 

In our ' Handbook ' Supplement we definitely make this S. vulgaris 
britannicus a synonym. 

Dr. G. Carmichael Low, who read Mr. Witherby's remarks to the 
meeting, said he agreed with him that physiological forms should not 
have systematic names applied to them. Further work on such forms 
was necessary before naming them ; and if after that they were found 
to be good and could be separated, then some other system of nomenclature 
would have to be adopted, as Mr. Witherby had said. Dr. Bullous h 
had dealt with Starlings in Yorkshire only, but if birds in the south of 
England, which bred earlier than those in the north of Scotland, for 
example, had their gonadal development compared, it was almost certain 
that it would differ. It would be interesting also to see how Sturnus v. 
zetlandicus behaved. Personally he (Dr. Low) was not convinced that 
all the Continental Starlings that came over to England in winter returned 
to the Continent in spring. Granted that this was so, what became of 
those that remained, did they breed with British birds or with them- 
selves, and did the^ environment change their breeding habits ? The 
British breeding Starlings, according to ringing returns, are said to be 
largely stationary — or even entirely sedentary (Bullough) — and not to 
migrate. How explain the following then ? : — In my diary for 1931 I 
have the note, Saturday, September 19, 1931, " On the road from Lydd 
to Rye Harbour behind the Midrips a great migration on. Swallows 
pouring south and enormous numbers of Starlings. At one place the 
telegraph wires and posts were blackened with them. Wheat ears also 
on the move, and most bushes had Warblers in them." I take it these 
Starlings were preparing to push south across the Channel, especially so 

1943.] 77 [Vol. lxiii. 

as most of them were all facing south. It is possible, of course, that they 
were Continental birds from the N.E. just passing through the south 
of England on their way further south. There was no evidence that 
they were coming the reverse way from France to England for the winter. 

These physiological researches, Dr. Low said, were very interesting, 
and experimental work might help materially. 

Why not collect these Continental birds in winter, keep them in a large 
aviary, with breeding holes in stumps of trees, etc., and see what happens ? 
Will the environment change their habits and gonadal development ? 
Will they breed (a) with themselves, or (b) with English resident ones ? 
These points would help to clear the matter up, and, as I have said, 
until more work on the subject has been done it is to be hoped that no 
new systematic names will be employed for such races, as this can only 
cause endless confusion. Once such a name is given it has to stand. 

Dr. D. A. Bannerman said he would like to endorse Mr. Witherby's 
communication, which had been read to the meeting by the Editor in 
his absence. While agreeing with the Chairman as to the undoubted 
importance of physiological characters, where such were proved to exist, 
as Dr. Bullough had shown to be present in the Starling which bred 
in Great Britain, he did not consider it advisable to give any special 
designation to the members of such a community. Apart from drawing 
attention to the fact, he believed that any attempt to label them would 
court disaster, and was best left alone. As to employing the Linnaean 
system of nomenclature to designate a group such as the British Starlings, 
he considered that Dr. Bullough had done a great disservice to zoology 
by giving a Latin name to these birds. It was an unfortunate example 
to set, and he could not condemn too strongly his action in 
employing the trinomial system to that end. If this procedure was 
followed the result would be chaos. Where individual races inhabited a 
wide area as, for instance, in Africa, climate and environment played no 
small part in governing their breeding time with consequent physiological 
changes taking place in the bird population in different areas at different 
seasons. Were we to give all these birds different names ? Take, for 
instance, the Grass Warblers (Cisticola) living near the Equator, where 
the rains are persistent, which have only one " perennial " dress, moulting 
at the end of the year, whereas the same birds living to the north and 
to the south have the normal winter and summer dress, moulting regularly 
twice a year. Are we to saddle these communities, showing such differ- 
ences, with " physiological names ". Such cases could be multiplied 
almost without limit. These are all very interesting and instructive facts 

Vol. lxui.] 78 [1943. 

to record, though it is by no means a new discovery that they exist, but 
it was a veiy new and unfortunate departure in Ornithology to employ 
the Linnsean system to establish their identity. 

Dr. Bannerman said that he had been surprised that the Royal Society 
— our premier scientific society — had agreed to publish in its ' Philo- 
sophical Transactions ' a new scientific name which had not been pre- 
sented in accordance with modern usage, in that no type-specimen had 
been designated. The Editors of the British Ornithologists' Club's 
1 Bulletin ' and of ' The Ibis ' rightly insist on the observance of this 
procedure, and it is unfortunate that the distinguished editor who had 
accepted Dr. Bulloughs communication had not been equally exacting. 

Col. R. Meinertzhagen said the discussion had centred round breeding 
cycles, and it is rather unfortunate that the Starling has been selected 
as the type of physiological characters, for I think it can be argued that 
those characters which Bullough gave for his race are, in fact, morpho- 
logical (differences in throat feathers and earlier development of gonads). 
But that does not lessen the importance of physiological characters 
which really rest on a much wider basis. 

Physiological characters are fundamentally more important than 
morphological characters, but I doubt if they have any taxonomic value, 
because they are susceptible to environmental conditions. Systematists 
demand a recognizable morphological character, and our present trinomial 
system is unsuited to physiological characters. That does not mean 
that we must not recognize and devise some means of classifying physio- 
logical characters, though to do so by the modern trinomial system 
would entail hopeless confusion. 

A morphological character is but the visible form of a physiological 
character and it seems doubtful if any morphological character occurs 
without a physiological basis, for physiology is function and morphology 
is form, and function does in the main regulate foim. 

A physiological character dies with the specimen and cannot be pre- 
served except on the label or in notes. The skin of a bird is but a part 
of the bird and not the most important part. This makes it more than 
ever necessary that the man who makes a collection in the field should 
work out his own specimens, and that the museum systematist should 
himself obtain the material on which he works. The study of habit 
and environment must be coupled with taxonomy. I believe that the 
true differences between species are physiological, and that these have 
been largely neglected by systematists is due to the fact that physiological 
characters are lost in the dried or preserved specimen, and also to the 

1943.] 79 [Vol. lxiii. 

fact that many of our systematists are museum naturalists pure and 

Physiological characters will have to be taken into account in future. 
They are field characters and can only be studied in the field. This 
makes it imperative that no systematist should monograph a group 
without having studied it in the field. Lynes realised this and practised 
it. In many difficult groups captivity specimens can help, and a greater 
use could be made of living specimens at the Zoo in Regent's Park. 

Physiological characters are closety related to both morphological 
characters and ecological variations, and in some cases these are 
inextricably interwoven. 

Take the case of Loxia pytyopsittacus, which I regard as an ecological 
form of Loxia curvirostris. The heavier bill is a morphological character 
produced by ecology but with a physiological basis. 

How are we to regard the Cuckoo, which may have one community 
favouring parasitism on the Meadow Pipit and another on the Reed 
Warbler ? Adult Cuckoos would be identical, but eggs and habit and 
habitat would be different. In the bird the character would be 
physiological and in the egg the character would be morphological. 

Then we have many birds which are indistinguishable in winter plumage 
and identifiable in breeding plumage, a physiological form in winter and a 
morphological form in summer. 

The cases of migratory and non-migratory communities within the 
same species is legion, all physiological and some directly due to ecology. 

If it were not for physiological characters, should we regard the Marsh 
and Reed Warbler (Acrocephalus palustris and scirpaceus) as anything 
but ecological forms ? The same applies to Marsh and Willow Tits 
(Parus palustris and atricapillus) . 

In the Anophelene group of Mosquitoes we find adults with no 
morphological characters but with recognizable differences of a morpho- 
logical character in the early stages of development, even down to the 
eggs, and in the adults such important physiological characters as some 
being carriers of malaria and others not. These have been named 

Many bacteria are probably physiological races and bear names, 
the microbe (in the case of the common cold) being apparently identical 
though having different incubation periods and infecting their victims 
with slightly different types of cold or influenza. In viruses we only 
know the physiological characters. 

As typical physiological races we have the Chaffinch in Russia with 
two different types of song in two distinct areas (Promptoff, Biol, Zbl, 

Vol. lxiii.] 80 [1943. 

1, 1930), we find the Raven (Corvus corax) of western Europe with a 
different note to those of Asia, Jackson's Francolin has a quite different 
call on the top of Mount Kenya to what it has at 4,000 feet in the Aberdare 
Mountains, and the Black Partridge (Francolinus francolinus) of the 
Himalayas has a call so different to that of Persia and Iraq that one 
would never recognize it as the same bird. Among certain fungi parasitic 
on Conifers species unrecognizable on morphological characters can be 
split up into species by their specialization in parasitism, for among 
parasites the host is the most important factor in environment. 

Then we have the important factor of isolation which, among birds, 
we are apt to look on in terms of geography only, such as physical barriers 
or ecological tolerances. There are also, just as important, physiological 
barriers, barriers to interbreeding from physiological causes (different 
timings in genital development), and in the insect group Mallophaga 
almost complete identity in adults except for easily recognizable differ- 
ences in genital armature ; and, finally, there is genetic isolation such as 
difference in chromosomes. 

I think we owe a great debt to Dr. Bullough for introducing ornitho- 
logists to this most interesting subject, which is new to many of us. 
Do not let us discard it as a nuisance, because it may upset our 
systematics, this new light on variation which, far from cramping our 
style, will enhance our interest in systematic and field ornithology. 

Mr. W. L. Sclater and Mr. N. B. Kinnear also spoke. 

The Chairman, summing up, said he thought the discussion had been 
interesting and useful. Colonel Meinertzhagen had widened its scope in a 
valuable way in respect of physiological differences other than those of 
reproductive cycle and migration. On the subsidiary issue there had 
been the expected agreement that the application of systematic nomen- 
clature to " physiological races " was undesirable. 


The next Meeting of the Club will be held in October, after the 
Annual Genera! Meeting. Members will be notified of the date, place 
and time when the Notices and Agenda for this are sent out. 


[Names of new species and subspecies are indicated by clarendon type 

under the generic entry only ; vernacular, or common, 

names are shown in ordinary type.] 

abbotti, Chlorophonens, 24, 25, 26. 

abyssinica, Lamprotornis chrysogaster, 

Acanthis cabaret, 34. 

Accentor, Alpine, 29. 

Acridotheres tristis, 35. 

Acrocephalus palustris, 79. 

scirpaceus, 79. 

acuticaudus, Heteropsar, 58. 

Aethocorys per sonata, 10. 

intensa, 10. 

afer parvirostris, Parus, 43. 

affmis, Barbatula, 20. 

, Corvinella, 22. 

, Pogoniulus pusillus, 19, 20. 

, Sitta europsea, 56. 

Alauda arvensis arvensis, 35, 40, 41. 

cantarella, 41. 

— scotica, 39, 40, 41. 

alba, Egretta, 32. 

Albatross, 31, 32. 

— , Royal, 5, 36, 39. 

albicilla, Mohoua, 33. 

albicollis, Corvultur, 47. 

albicrissalis, Bradypterus alfredi, 28. 

albistriata, Chlidonias, 32. 

albosignata, Eudyptula, 31. 

alchata, Pterocles, 30. 

alfredi albicrissalis, Bradypterus, 28. 

, Bradypterus alfredi, 28. 

alius, Malaconotus, 28. 
Amydrus montanus, 55. 

morio shelleyi, 54. 

neumanni, 55. 

riippellii, 54. 

Anarhynchus frontalis, 32. 
^4n«s gibberifrons, 32. 
platyrhynchos, 34. 

— querquedula, 30. 

— superciliosa, 34, 37. 

anglorum, Regulus regulus, 71. 

angolensis, Hirundo, 20, 21. 

ansorgei rhodesise, Anthoscopus, 45. 

Anthornis melanura, 33. 

Anthoscopus ansorgei rhodesise, 45. 

caroli, 45. 

rothschildi, 46. 

sharpei, 46. 

sylviella, 46. 

roccatii robertsi, 46. 

roccatii, 45, 46. 

taruensis, 46. 

Anthreptes collaris djamdjamensis, 
subsp. no v., 16. 

collaris elachior, 16. 

— garguensis, 16. 

ugandse, 16. 

Anthus caffer australoabyssinicus, 
subsp. no v., 12, 13. 

blayneyi, 12, 13. 

novsezeelandiee, 33. 

pratensis pratensis, 6. 

whistleri, subsp. nov., 6. 

spinoletta litloralis, 29, 59. 

petrosus, 41, 42. 

ponens, subsp. nov., 41. 

spinoletta, 59. 

antipodes, Megadyptes, 31. 
approximans, Archolestes, 28. 
Apteryx haasti, 33. 

lawyri, 33. 

mantelli, 33. 

oweni, 33. 

Apus melba, 30. 

Aquila chrysaetos, 30. 

arabicus, Cinnyricinclus leucogaster, 7. 

ArcJwlestes approximans, 28. 

arcticincta, Hirundo, 21. 


Vol. lxiii.] 



armenus, Pomatorhynchus senegalus, 49- 

arnaudi australoabyssinicus, Pseudoni- 

grita, 19. 

kapitensis, Pseudonigrita, 19. 

, Pseudonigrita arnaudi, 19. 

arvensis, Alauda arvensis, 35, 40, 41. 

cantarella, Alauda, 41. 

scotica, Alauda, 39, 40, 41. 

ater britannicus, Parus, 66. 

, Parus ater, 66. 

■ pinicolus, Parus, 66. 

athensis, Calandrella, 10. 
atmorii, Zoster ops pallida, 70. 
atrata, Chenopis, 34. t 

atricapillus, Pants, 79. 
atrocserulea, Hirundo, 58, 72. 
aurantiiventris, Chloris chloris, 65. 
auriceps, Cyanoramphus, 33. 
australis chobiensis, Vinago, 63, 64. 

cZa^/z, Vinago, 63. 

congener, Pomatorhynchus, 24. 

, Tckagra, 24. 

dohertyi, Telephonus, 24. 

— temini, Tchagra, 24. 

-, Telephonus, 24. 

, Qallirallus, 33. 

littoralis, Harpolestes, 24. 

, Tchagra, 23, 24. 

minor, Tchagra, 24. 

, .Mm>, 33. 

* salvadorii, Vinago, 63. 

schalowi, Vinago, 64. 

, Tchagra australis, 23. 

wakefieldii, Vinago, 63, 64. 

australoabyssinicus, Anthus caffer, 12, 13. 

, Mirafra pozcilostema, 13. 

, Pseudonigrita arnaudi, 19. 

, Turdus tephronotus, 13. 

, Zosterops senegalensis, 15. 

Bahilia calipyga, 62. 

banner mani, Cyanomitra verticalis, 63. 

Barbatula affinis, 20. 

pusillus lollesheid, 20. 

uropygialis, 20. 

barbatus, Gypaetus, 30. 

basuticus, Zosterops pallida, 70. 

baueri, Limosa lapponica, 31. 

Bell-bird, 33. 

bertrandi, Chlorophoneus rubiginosus, 25. 

bicinctus, Charadrius, 32, 36. 

Bittern, 32. 

, Little, 30. 

Blackbird, 35. 

Blackcock, 62. 

blayneyi, Anthus caffer, 12, 13. 

Bluethroat, White-spotted, 30. 

bohndorffi, Cyanomitra verticalis, 63. 
Botaurus poiciloptilus, 32. 
Bradypterus alfredi albicrissalis, 28. 

alfredi, 28. 

brevirostris, Phalacrocorax melanoleucus, 

britannica, Sitta europsea, 57. 
britannicus, Sturnus vulgaris, 75, 76. 

ater, Parus, 66. 

brittanica, Certhia familiaris, 42. 
bulleri, Larus, 32. 
Bunting, Cirl-, 35. 
Buzzard, Honey, 62. 

cabaret, Acanthis, 34. 

csesia, Sitta europsea, 56. 

caffer australoabyssinicus, Anthus, 12, 13. 

blayneyi, Anthus, 12, 13. 

Calandrella athensis, 10. 
californica, Lophortyx, 34. 
caliginosa, Emberiza citrinella,, 57. 
calipyga, Bahilia, 62. 

, Leiothrix lutea, 62. 

camerunensis, Tchagra senegalus, 49, 50. 
canadensis whitehead i, Sitta, 29. 
cantarella, Alauda arvensis, 41. 
capensis, Zosterops pallida, 69. 
car&o sinensis, Phalacrocorax, 30. 
Carduelis carduelis, 34. 
carneipes, Puffmus, 31. 
caroli, Anthoscopus, 45. 

rothschildi, Anthoscopus, 46. 

sharpei, Anthoscopus, 46. 

sylviella, Anthoscopus, 46. 

carunculatus, Greadion, 33. 
Casarca variegata, 32. 
caspia, Hydroprogne, 32. 
catharoxanthus, Malaconotus, 26, 27. 
Catherine, Turdus ericetorum, 42. 
catholeucus, Telephonus senegalus, 50. 
Certhia familiaris brittanica, 42. 
familiaris, 42. 

meinertzhageni, subsp. no v., 


Chaffinch, 34, 42, 79. 

, Continental, 57. 

chalconotus, Phalacrocorax, 32. 
Charadrius bicinctus, 32, 36. 

dubius curonicus, 30. 

Chenopis atrata, 34. 
chiniana ukamba, Cisticola, 58. 
Chlidonias albistriata, 32. 
Chloris chloris aurantiivent?'is, 65. 
Chloris chloris chloris, 7, 34, 65, 66. 

harrisoni, 7, 65, 66. 

muhlei, 65. 

restricta, subsp. no v., 65. 


[Vol lxiii. 

Chlorophoneus abbotti, 24, 25, 26. 

elegeyuensis, 24, 25, 26. 

manningi, 25, 26. 

munzneri, 25, 26. 

nigrescens, 25, 26. 

nigrifrons, 24, 25, 26. 

— rubiginosus, 25. 

bertrandi, 25. 

sandgroundi, 25, 26. 

chobiensis, Vinago australis, 63, 64. 

chrysaetos, Aquila, 30. 

chrysocome, Eudyptes, 31. 

chrysogaster abyssinica, Lamprotornis, 55. 

Cinnyricinelus leucogaster arabicus, sub- 
sp. nov., 7. 

leucogaster, 7. 

verreauxi, 7. 

Ginnyris oustaleti, 70. 

talatala, 70. 

Circus gouldi, 33. 
cirlus, Emberiza, 35. 
Cisticola, 77. 

chiniana ukamba, 58. 

citrinella caliginosa, Emberiza, 57. 

, Emberiza citrinella, 35, 57. 

clayi, Vinago australis, 63. . 

coelebs, Fringilla cozlebs, 34, 42, 57, 71. 

gengleri, Fringilla, 71, 90. 

colchicus, Phasianus, 34. 

collaris djamdjamensis, Anthreptes, 16. 

elachior, Anthreptes, 16. 

garguensis, Anthreptes, 16. 

jubaensis, Anthreptes, 16. 

, Prunella, 29. 

teiiensis, Anthreptes, 16. 

ugandse, Anthreptes, 16. 

Columba livia, 34. 

congener, Pomatorhynchus australis, 24. 

, Tchagra australis, 24. 

cooki, Laniarius ruficeps, 23. 
Cookilaria, 37, 39. 
eogw* maharao, Francolinus, 10. 
cor ax, Corvus, 80. 

edithse, Corvus, 53. 

Cormorant, Southern, 30. 
corone, Corvus, 52. 
Corvinella affinis, 22. 
Corvultur albicollis, 47. 
Corvus cor ax, 80. 

corone, 52. 

edithse, 52, 53. 

frugilegus, 35. 

ruficollis, 52, 53. 

Crake, Spotless, 33. 
Creadon carunculatus, 33. 
Cuckoo, 79. 

, Long-tailed, 31. 

, Shining, 31. 

curonicus, Charadrius dubius, 30. 

cuvieri, Falco, 9. 

cyanecula, Luscinia svecica, 30. 

Cyanomitra verticalis bannermani, subsp. 

nov., 63. 
Cyanomitra verticalis bbhndorffi, 63. 

viridisplendens, 63. 

Cyanoramphus auriceps, 33, 90. 
novsezelandise, 33. 

Dabchick, 36. 
delalandii, Vinago, 64. 
delamerei, Pseudald&mon, 10. 
Demigretta sacra, 32, 36. 
deserticola, Zoster ops pallida, 70. 
Diomedea epomophora sanfordi, 5, 32, 36. 

regw, 5. 

djamdjamensis, Anthreptes collaris, 16. 
docilis, Pyrriwcorax pyrriwcorax, 54. 
dohertyi, Telephonus australis, 24. 
domesticus, Passer, 35. 
dominicanus, Larus, 32. 
Dotterel, Banded, 32, 36. 

, New Zealand, 32. 

Dryoscopus ruficeps, 23. 

kismayensis, 23. 

rufinuchalis, 23. 

dubius curonicus, Chadrius, 30. 
Duck, Blue, 32. 

, Grey, 37. 

, Paradise, 32. 

Eagle, Golden, 30. 

edithse, Corvus, 52, 53. 
Egretta alba, 32. 

garzetta garzetta, 68. 

gularis, 68. 

elachior, Anthreptes collaris, 16. 
elgeyuensis, Chlorophoneus, 24, 25, 26. 
Emberiza cirlus, 35. 

citrinella caliginosa, 57. 

citrinella, 35, 57. 

emini, Tchagra australis, 24. 

, Telephonus australis, 24. 

epomophora sanfordi, Diomedea, 5, 32, 

ericetorum catherinse, Turdus, 42. 

, Turdus, 35. 

erlangeri, Telephonus senegalus, 50. 
erythseus, Merops persicus, 43. 
Erythropygia leucoptera leucoptera, 14, 15. 
— pallida, subsp. nov., 14, 15. 
vulpina, 14, 15. 

Eudyptes chrysocome, 31. 

pachyrhynchus, 3 J 

schlegeli, 31. 

sclateri, 31, 36. 

Vol. lxiii.] 



Eudyptula albosignata, 31. 

minor, 31. 

eupterus, Pogoniulus pusillus, 19, 20. 
eurycricotus, Zosterops, 70, 90. 
europsea affinis, Sitta, 56. 

britannica, Sitta, 57. 

csesia, Sitta, 56. 

Gull, Black-billed, 32. 

, Black-headed, 5. 

, Red-billed, 32. 

Gynmorhina hypoleuca, 35. 
Gypaetus barbatus, 30. 
Gyps fulvus, 30. 

Falco cuvieri, 9. 

fasciinucha, 8. 

familiaris brittanica, Certhia, 42. 

, Certhia familiaris, 42. 

Fantail, 33. 
fasciinucha, Falco, 8. 
finschi, Haematopus, 32. 
flabellifera, Rhipidura, 33. 
flavilateralis, Zosterops senegalensis, 15. 
Francolin, Jackson's, 80. 
Francolinus coqui maharao, 10. 

francolinus, 80. 

fremantlii, Pseudalsemon, 10. 
fricki, Zosterops senegalensis, 15. 
Fringilla cozlebs cozlebs, 34, 42, 57, 71. 

gengleri, 71, 90. 

frontalis, Anarhynchus, 32. 
frugilegus, Corvus, 35. 
fulvus, Gyps, 30. 

Gallirallus australis, 33. 

Gannet, Australian, 32. 

Garganey, 30. 

garguensis, Anthreptes collaris, 16. 

garzetta, Egretta garzetta, 68. 

gavia, Puffinus, 31. 

gengleri, Fringilla cmlebs, 71, 90. 

gibberifrons, Anas, 32. 

glareola, Tringa, 30. 

Godwit, 31. 

Goldfinch, 34. 

gongonensis, Passer griseus, 17, 18. 

Goose, Canada, 34. 

gouldi, Circus, 33. 

Grebe, Black-necked, 30. 

Greenfinch, 7, 34, 65. 

griseiventris, Parus, 43. 

griseus gongonensis, Passer, 17, 18. 

jubaensis, Passer, 18. 

, Puffinus, 31. 

swainsonii, Passer, 17, 18. 

tertale, Passer, 17, 18. 

ugandee, Passer, 17. 

guineensis, Parus leucomelas, 45. 

gularis, Egretta, 68. 

Gull, Andean, 5. 

, Black-backed, 32, 33. 

haasti, Apteryx, 33. 

habessinica, Lanius senegalus, 50. 

, Tchragra senegalus, 50. 

hsemastica, Limosa, 31. 
Hsematopus finschi, 32. 

reischeki, 32. 

unicolor, 32. 

Hammer, Yellow, 35. 
Harpolestes australis littoralis, 24. 

senegalus mozambicus, 5(1. 

Harrier, 33. 

harrisoni, Chloris chloris, 7, 65, 66. 

Heron, Reef-, 32, 36. 

— , White, 32. 

Heteropsar acuticaudus, 58. 

Himantopus leucocephalas, 32. 

Hirundo angolensis, 20, 21. 

arcticincta, 21. 

atrocserulea, 58, 72. 

leucosoma, 10, 11. 

megaensis, sp. nov., 10, 11. 

puella, 58. 

rustica rustica, 20, 21. 

smithi smithi, 72. 

Hydroprogne caspia, 32. 
Hyinenolaimus ntalacorhynchus, 32. 
hypoleuca, Qymnorhina, 35. 
hypopyrrJius, Malaconotus pholiocepafu*, 
26, 27, 28. 

igata, Pseudogerygoue, 33. 

insignis okuensis, Phormoplectes, 64, 90. 

, Parus, 44, 45. 

, Pentheres, 44. 

, Phormoplectes insignis, 64. 

intensa, Aethocorys per sonata, 10. 
intermedins, Spreo pulcher, 55. 
inter positus, Malaconotus, 26, 27. 
Ixobrychus minutus, 30. 

jubaensis, Anthreptes collaris, 16. 

, Passer griseus, 18. 

, Fmio70 waalia, 12. 

, Zosterops senegalensis, 15. 

Junco oregonus, 74, 90. 
Junco, Oregon, 74. 



[Vol. lxiii. 

Kaka, Brown, 33. 

kapitensis, Pseudonigrita arnaudi, 19. 

Kea, 33. 

kikuyuensis, Oriolus larvatus, 51, 52. 

, Zosterops, 70. 

kismayensis, Dryoscopus rujiceps, 23. 

, Laniarius rujiceps, 23. 

Kiwi, 32, 33. 

kumaiensis, Leiothrix lutea, 62. 

lacuum, Parus niger, 45. 
lagdeni, Malaconotus, 28. 
Lammergeier, 30. 
Lamprococcyx lucidus, 3 1 . 
Lamprotornis chrysogaster abyssinica, 


rufiventris, 55. 

Laniarius rujiceps cooki, 23. 

kismayensis, 23. 

— ■ nuchalis,2S. 

ruficeps, 22, 23. 

rujinuchalis, 22, 23. 

Lanius mackinnoni, 21. 

somalicus mauritii, 21. 

poliocephalus, 27. 

senegalus, 49. 

habessinica, 50. 

Lark, Scottish Sky-, 67. 
lapponica baueri, Limosa, 31. 
Larus bulleri, 32. 

dominicanus, 32. 

ridibundus, 5. 

scopulinus, 32. 

serranus, 5. 

larvatus kikuyuensis, Oriolus, 51, 52. 

, Oriolus monachus, 5 1 . 

reichenowi, Oriolus, 52. 

lateralis, Zosterops, 34, 37. 
lawyri, Apteryx, 33. 
Leiothrix lutea calipyga, 62. 

kumaiensis, subsp. nov., 62. 

leucocephalus, Himantopus, 32. 
leucogaster arabicus, Cinnyricinclus, 7. 

, Cinnyricinclus leucogaster, 7. 

verreauxi, Cinnyricinclus, 7. 

leucomelas guineensis, Parus, 45. 

insignis, Parus, 44. 

*-, Parus, 44, 45. 

leucophrys nuttalli, Zonotrichia, 74. 

pugetensis, Zonotrichia, 75. 

, Zonotrichia, 74. 

leucoptera, Erythropygia leucoptera, 14, 


pallida, Erythropygia, 14, 15. 

vulpina, Erythropygia, 14, 15. 

leucorodia, Platalea, 30. 

leucosoma, Hirundo, 10, 11. 
Limosa hsemastica, 31. 

lapponica baueri, 31. 

littoralis, Anthus spinoletta, '29, 59. 

, Harpolestes australis, 24. 

, Tchagra australis, 23, 24. 

liwa, Columba, 34. 
Locustella luscinioides , 30. 
lollesheid, Barbatula pusillus, 20. 

, Pogoniulus pusillus, 19, 20. 

longipes, Miro, 33. 
Lophortyx calijornica, 34. 
Loxia pytyopsittacus, 79. 
lucidus, Lamprococcyx, 31. 
Luscinia svecica cyanecula, 30. 
luscinioides, Locustella, 30. 
Lusciniola melanopogon, 30. 
fetea calipyga, Leiothrix, 62. 
kumaiensis, Leiothrix, 62. 

mackinnoni, Lanius, 21. 
Magpie, White-backed, 35. 
maharao, Francolinus coqui, 10. 
major newtoni, Parus, 6. 
Malaconotus alius, 28. 

catharoxanthus, 26, 27. 

interpositus, 26, 27. 

lagdeni, 28. 

monteiri, 26, 28. 

poliocephalus hypopyrrhus, 26, 27, 


poliocephalus, 26, 27, 28. 

schoanus, 27. 

malacorhynchus, Hymenolaimus, 32. 

Mallard, 33, 34. 

manningi, Chlorophoneus, 25, 26. 

mantelli, Apteryx, 33. 

massaica, Mirafra poecilostema, 13. 

mauritii, Lanius somalicus, 21. 

Megadyptes antipodes, 3 1 . 

megaensis, Hirundo, 10, 11. 

meinertzhageni, Certhia familiaris, 42. 

melanoleucus brevirostris, Phalacrocorax , 


, Phalacrocorax, 32. 

melanopogon, Lusciniola, 30. 
melanotus, Porhyrio, 32, 38. 
melanura, Anthornis, 33. 
melba, Apus, 30. 
Merops persicus erythrseus, 43. 

superciliosa persica, 43. 

merula, Turdus, 35. 
minor, Eudyptula, 31. 

, TcJiagra australis, 24. 

, Telephonus, 24. 

minutus, Ixobrychus, 30. 

Vol. lxiii.] 



Mirafra poecilosterna australoabyssinicus, 

subsp. nov., 13, 

— massaica, 13. 
poecilosterna, 13. 

Miro australis, 33. 

longipes, 33. 

modicus, Onychognathus morio, 68, 69. 

modularis, Prunella, 35. 

Mohoua albicilla, 33. 

Mollymawk, 31. 

monacha, Oriolus monacka, 47, 51, 52. 

permistus, Oriolus, 51, 52. 

rolleti, Oriolus, 51, 52. 

, T urdus, 51. 

monachus larvatus, Oriolus, 51. 
montanus, Amydrus, 55. 

, Onychognathus morio, 55. 

■monieiri, Malaconotus, 26, 28. 

morio modicus, Onychognathus, 68, 69. 

montanus, Onychognathus, 55. 

neumanni, Onychognathus, 55, 67, 

68, 69. 

, Onychognathus rnorio, 54, 67, 69. 

ruppellii, Onychognathios, 54, 55, 67, 

68, 69. 9 

shelleyi, Amydrus, 54. 

, Onychognathus, 54. 

, Turdus, 54. 

Morus serrator, 32. 

mozambicus, Harpolestes senegalus, 50. 

rnuhlei, Chloris chloris, 65. 

miinzneri, Chlorophoneus, 25, 26. 

muraria, Tichodroma, 30. 

Mynah, 35. 

nereis, Sterna, 32. 
Nestor notabilis, 33. 

occidentalis, 33. 

neumanni, Amydrus, 55. 

, Onychognathus morio, 55, 67, 68, 

newtoni, Parus major, 6. 
niger lacuum, Parus, 45. 

, Parus, 44, 45. 

purpurascens, Parus, 45. 

nigrescens, Chlorophoneus, 25, 26. 

nigricollis, Podiceps, 30. 

nigrifrons, Chlorophoneus, 24, 25, 26. 

notabilis, Nestor, 33. 

nothus, Tchagra senegalus, 50. 

novBeseelandise., Prosthemadera, 33. 

nov&zeelandiee, Anthus, 33. 

— — , Cyanoramphus, 33, 90. 

nuchalis, Laniarius ruficeps, 23. 

Nuthatch, Whitehead's, 29. 

nuttalli, Zonotrichia leucophrys, 74. 

obscurus, Phwiorhynchus, 32. 
occidentalis, Nestor, 33. 
okuensis, Phormoplectes insignis, 64, 90. 
Onychognathus morio modicus, 68, 69. 

montanus, 55. 

mono, 54, 67, 69. 

— neumanni, 55, 67, 68, 69. 
ruppellii, 54, 55, 67, 68, 69. 
' i, 54. 

oregonus, Junco, 74, 90. 
orientalis, Pomatorhynchus, 49. 
Oriolus larvatus kikuyuensis, 51, 52. 

reichenowi, 52. 

monacha monacha, 47, 51, 52. 

permistus, 51, 52. 

— rolleti, 51, 52. 

monachus larvatus, 51 

percivali, 52. 

oustaleti, Cinnyris, 70. 
oweni, Apteryx, 33. 
Oyster-catchers, 32. 

Pachyptila, 37. 

turtur, 31. 

vittata, 31. 

puchyrhynchus, Eudyptes, 31. 

pallida atmorii, Zosterops, 70. 

basuticus, Zosterops, 70. 

capensis, Zosterops, 69. 

deserticola, Zosterops, 70. 

, Erythropygia leucoptera, 14, 15 

poliogastra, Zosterops, 69. 

simplex, Zosterops, 69, 70. 

winifredse, Zosterops, 69, 70. 

, Zosterops pallida, 69, 70. 

pallidus, Telephonus senegalus, 50. 
palustris, Acrocephalus, 79. 

, Parus, 79. 

Parrakeet, 33. 
Partridge, Black, 80. 
Parus ajer parvirostris, 43. 

a£er ater, 66. 

— britannicus, 66. 

pinicolUS, subsp. now, 66. 

atricapillus, 79. 

griseiventris, 43. 

insignis, 44, 45. 

leucomelas, 44, 45. 

guineensis, 45. 

insignis, 44. 

major newtoni, 6. 

niger, 44, 45. 

lacum, 45. 

purpurascens, 45. 

palustris, 79. 

rujiventris, 43. 

parvirostris, Parus ajer, 43. 



[Vol. lxiii. 

Passer domesticus, 35. 

griseus gongonensis, 17, 18. 

jubaensis, subsp. nov., 18. 

swainsonii, 17, 18. 

tertale, subsp. nov., 17, 18. 

ugandse, 17. 

i eriguin, 31. 

, Erect-crested, 36, 39. 

Pentheres insignis, 44. 

percivali, Oriolus, 52. 

permistus, Oriolus monacha, 51, 52. 

persica, Merops superciliosus, 43. 

persicus erythrseus, Merops, 43. 

personata, Aethocorys, 10. 

intensa, Aethocorys, 10. 

petrosus, Anthus spinoletta, 41, 42. 
Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis, 30. 

chalconotus, 32. 

melanoleucus, 32. 

brevirostris, 36. 

sulcirostris, 32. 

varius, 32. 

Phasianus colchicus, 34. 

Pheasant, 33, 34. 

Phormoplectes insignis insignis, 64, 90. 

Okliensis, subsp. nov., 64, 90. 

Pigeon, Cape, 31. 

, Green, 63. 

— , Rock-, 34, 41. 
pinicolus, Parus ater, 66. 
Pipit, 33. 

, Alpine, 29. 

, Meadow-, 6, 79. 

Platalea leucorodia, 30. 

platyrhynchos, Anas, 34. 

Plover, Little Ringed, 30. 

plumbea, Porzana, 33. 

Pluviorhynchus obscurus, 32. 

Pochard, 62. 

Podiceps nigricollis, 30. 

— — ruficollis, 36. 

pcecilosterna australoabyssinicus, Mirafra, 


massaica, Mirafra, 13. 

, Mirafra pcecilosterna, 13. 

Pogoniulus pusillus affinis, 19, 20. 

eupterus, 19, 20. 

lollesheid, 19, 20. 

pusillus, 19. 

uropygialis, 20. 

poiciloptilus, Botaurus, 32. 
poliocepkalus hypopyrrhus, Malaconotus, 

26, 27, 28. 

, Lanius, 27. 

, Malaconotus poliocepkalus, 26, 27, 


schoanus, Malaconotus, 27. 

poliogastra, Zosterops pallida, 69. 

Pomatorhynchus australis congener, 24. 

orientalis, 49. 

senegalu>s ar menus, 49-50. 

ponens, Anthus spinoletta, 41. 
Porphyrio melanotus, 32, 38. 
Porzana plumbea, 33. 
pratensis, Anthus pratensis, 6. 

■ whistleri, Anthus, 6. 

Prion, 31, 39. 

Prosihemadera novseseelandise, 33. 

Prunella collaris, 29. 

modularis, 35. 

Pseudalsemon delamerei, 10. 

fremantlii, 10. 

Pseudogerygone igata, 33. 
Pseudonigrita arnaudi arnaudi, 19. 

australoabyssinicus, subsp. 

nov., 19. 

kapitensis, 19. 

Pterocles alchata, 30. 
puella, Hirundo, 58. 
Pujfinus carneipes, 31. 

gavia, 3 1 . 

griseus, 31. 

tenuirostris, 31. 

pugetensis, Zonotrichia leucophrys, 75. 

Pukeko, 32, 38. 

pulcher intermedins, Spreo, 55. 

rufvoentris, Spreo, 55. 

, Spreo pulcher, 55, 56. 

■ — — , Turdus, 55. 
punctatus, Stictocarbo, 32. 
purpurascens, Parus niger, 45. 
pusillus affinis, Pogonmlus, 19, 20. 

eupterus, Pogoniulus, 19, 20. 

lollesheid, Barbatula, 20. 

, Pogoniulus, 19, 20. 

, Pogoniulus pusillus, 19. 

uropygialis, Pogoniulus, 20. 

PyrrJ/ocorax pyrrhocorax docilis, 54. 
pytyopsittacus, Loxia, 79. 

Quail, Brown, 34. 

, Californian, 33. 

, Swamp, 34. 

querquedula, Anas, 30. 

Rail, Water-, 62. 

Raven, 80. 

Redpoll, 34. 

regia, Diomedea, 5. 

Regulus regulus anglorum, 71. 

regulus, 7 1 . 

anglorum, Regulus, 71. 

reichenoioi, Oriolus larvatus, 52. 
reischeki, Hsematopus, 32, 

Vol. lxiii.] 



remigialis, Tchagra senegalus, 50. 

, Telephonus, 50. 

restricta, Chloris clitoris, 65. 
Rhipidura flabellifera, 33. 
rhodesise, Anthoscopus ansorgei, 45. 
ridibundus, Larus, 5. 
robertsi, Anthoscopus roccaiii, 46. 
roccatii, Anthoscopus roccatii, 45, 46. 

robertsi, Anthoscopus, 46. 

taruensis, Anthoscopus, 46. 

rolleti, Oriolus monacha, 51, 52. 
Rook, 35. 

rothschildi, Anthoscopus caroli, 46. 
rubiginosus bertrandi, Chlorophoneus, 25. 

, Chlorophoneus, 25. 

ruficeps cooki, Laniarius, 23. 

, Dryoscopus, 23. 

kismayensis, Dryoscopus, 23. 

■ — — , Laniarius, 23. 

, Laniarius ruficeps, 22, 23. 

nuchalis, Laniarius, 23. 

rufinuchalis, Laniarius, 22, 23. 

, Telephonus, 22. 

ruficollis, Corvus, 52, 53. 

, Podiceps, 36. 

rufinuchalis, Dryoscopus, 23. 

, Laniarius ruficeps, 22, 23. 

rufiventris, Lamprotornis. 55. 

, Parus, 43. 

, Spreo pulcher, 55. 

ruppellii, Amydrus, 54. 

, Onychognathus morio, 54, 55, 67, 

68, 69. 
ruspolii, Tauraco, 9. 
rustica, Hirundo rustica, 20, 21. 

sacra, Demigretta, 32, 36. 
Sad leback, 33. 

salvadorii, Vinago anstralis, 63. 
sandgroundi, Chlorophoneus, 25, 26. 
Sand-Grouse, Pin-tailed, 30. 
Sandpiper, Wood-, 30. 
sandvicensis, Sterna, 30. 
sanfordi, Diomedea epomophora, 5, 32. 36. 
sarda, Sylvia, 29. 
schalowi, Vinago australis, 64. 
schlegeli, Eudyptes, 31. 
schoanus, Malaconotus poliocephalus, 27. 
scirpaceus, Acrocephalus, 79. 
sclateri, Eudyptes, 31, 36. 
scopulinus, Larus, 32. 
scotica, Alauda arvensis, 39, 40, 41. 
senegala warsangliensis, Tchagra, 50. 
senegalensis australoab yssinicUs, Zosterops, 

flavilateralis, Zosterops, 15. 

fricki, Zosterops, 15, 

senegalensis jubaensis, Zosterops, 15. 
senegalus armenus, Pomatorhynchus, 49- 

camerunensis, Tchagra, 49, 50. 

catholeucus, Teleplwnus, 50. 

erlangeri, Telephonus, 50. 

habessinica, Lanius, 50. 

, Tchagra., 50. 

, Lanius, 49. 

mozambicus, Harpolestes, 50. 

nothus, Tchagra, 50. 

pallidus, Telephonus, 50. 

remigialis, Tchagra, 50. 

, Tchagra senegalus, 49, 50. 

timbuktana, Tchagra, 50. 

serranus, Larus, 5. 
serrator, Morus, 32. 
Shag, Black, 32. 

, White-throated, 36. 

sharpei, Anthoscopus caroli, 46. 

Shearwater, 31. 

shelleyi, Amydrus morio, 54. 

j Onychognathus morio, 54. 

silvanus, Zosterops, 70. 
simplex, Zosterops pallida, 69, 70. 
sinensis, Phalacrocorax carbo, 30. 
$*«« canadensis whiteheadi, 29. 

europsea ajfinis, 56. 

britannica, 57. 

cassia, 56. 

Sky-Lark, 35. 
smithi, Hirundo smithi, 72. 
somalicus mauritii, Lanius, 21. 
Sparrow-Hawk, 62. 
Sparrow, Hedge-, 35. 

, House-, 35. 

, White -crowned, 74. 

spinoletta, Anthus spinoletta, 59. 

littoralis, Anthus, 29, 59. 

petrosus, Anthus, 41, 42. 

ponens, Anthus, 41. 

Spoonbill, 30. 

Spreo pulcher intermedins, 55. 

pulcher, 55, 56. 

rufiventris, 55. 

Starling, 35, 75. 
Starling, Violet-backed, 7. 
steadi, Stictocarbo, 32. 
Sterna nereis, 32. 

sandvicensis, 30. 

striata, 32. 

Stictocarbo punctatus, 32. 

steadi, 32. 

Stilt, 32. 

stresemanni, Zavattariornis, 7, 9. 

striata, Sterna, 32. 

Sturnus vulgaris, 35, 75. 

britannicus, 75, 76. 



[Vol. lxiii. 

sulcirostris, Phalacrocorax, 32. 

Sunbird, 63. 

superciliosa, Anas, 34, 37. 

superciliosus persica, Merops, 43. 

svecica cyanecula, Luscinia, 30. 

swainsonii, Passer griseus, 17, 18. 

Swan, Black, 33, 34. 

Swift, Alpine, 30. 

Sylvia sarda, 29. 

sylviella, Anthoscopus caroli, 46. 

Synoicus ypsilophorus, 34. 

taitensis, Urodynamis, 31. 

talatala, Cinnyris, 70. 

taruensis, Anthoscopus roccatii, 46. 

Tauraco ruspolii, 9. 

Tchagra australis australis, 23. 

congener, 24. 

emini, 24. 

littoralis, 23, 24. 

minor, 24. 

senegala warsangliensis, 50. 

senegalus carrier unensis, 49, 50. 

habessinica, 50. 

■ — nothus, 50. 

remigialis, 50. 

sengalus, 49, 50. 

timbuktana, 50. 

Teal, Grey, 32. 

teitensis, Anthreptes collaris, 16. 

Telephonus australis dohertyi, 24. 

emini, 24. 

minor, 24. 

remigialis, 50. 

ruficeps, 22. 

senegalus catholeucus, 50. 

— erlangeri, 50. 
pallidus, 50. 


tenuirostris, Puffmus, 31. 
tephronotus australoabyssinicus, Turdus, 

, Turdus tephronotus, 13, 14. 

Tern, Fairy, 32. 

, Sandwich, 30. 

tertale, Passer griseus, 17, 
Thrush, Song-, 35, 42. 
Tichodroma muraria, 30. 
timbuktana, Tchagra 
Tit, Great, 6. ' 

, Marsh, 79. 

— — , Northern Scottish Coal, 66. 

, Willow, 79. 

Tree -creeper, 42. 
Tringa glareola, 30. 
tristis, Acridotheres, 35. 
Tui, 33. 



Turdus ericetorum, 35. 

ericetorum catherinse, 42. 

merula, 35. 

monacha, 51. 

morio, 54. 

pulcher, 55. 

tephronotus australoabyssinicus, 

subsp. nov., 13. 

tephronotus, 13, 14. 

turtur, Pachyptila, 31. 

ugandae, Anthreptes collaris, 16. 

, Passer griseus, 17. 

ukamba, Cisticola chiniana, 58. 
unicolor, Hsematopus, 32. 
Urodynamis taitensis, 31. 
uropygialis, Barbatula, 20. 
, Pogoniulus pusillus, 20. 

variegata, Casarca, 32. 
varius, Phalacrocorax, 32. 
verreauxi, Cinnyricinclus leucogaster, 7. 
verticalis banner mani, Cyanomitra, 63. 

bohndorffi, Cyanomitra, 63. 

Vinago australis chobiensis, 63, 64. 

Clayi, subsp. nov., 63. 

salvadorii, 63. 

schalowi, 64. 

wakefieklii, 63, 64. 

delalandii, 64. 

waalia jubaensis, subsp. nov., 12. 

waalia, 12. 

virens, Zosterops, 70. 

viridisplendens, Cyanomitra verticalis, 63. 

vittata, Pachyptila, 31. 

vulgaris britannicus, Sturnus, 75, 76. 

, Sturnus, 35, 75. 

vulpina, Erythropygia leucoptera 14, 15. 
Vulture, Griffon, 30. 

waalia jubaensis, Vinago, 12. 

, Vinago waalia, 12. 

wakefieldii, Vinago australis, 63, 64. 
Wall-Creeper, 30. 
Warbler, Grass, 77. 
— — , Grey, 33. 

, La Marmora's, 29. 

, Marsh, 79. 

, Moustached, 30. 

— — , Reed, 79. 

, Savi's, 3U 

warsangliensis, Tchagra senegala, 50. 
Weaver, Brown-capped, 64. 
Weka, 33. 

whistleri, Anthus pratensis, 6. 
White-eye, 33, 34, 37. 
Whitehead, 33. 

Vol. Ixiii.] 



whiteheadi, Sitta canadensis, 29. 
winijredse, Zosterops pallida, 69, 70. 
Wrybill, 32. 

ypsilophorus, Synoicus, 34. 

Zavattariornis stresemanni, 7, 9. 
Zonotrichia leucophrys, 74. 

nuttalli, 74. 

pugetensis, 75. 

Zosterops eurycricotus, 70, 90. 

kikuyuensis, 70. 

lateralis, 34, 37. 

pallida atmorii, 70. 

Zosterops pallida basuticus, 70. 

capensis, 69. 

deserticola, 70. 

pallida, 69, 70. 

poliogastra, 69. 

simplex, 69, 70. 

vdnifredse, 69, 70. 

senegalensis australoabyssinicus, 

subsp. nov., 15. 

flavilateralis, 15. 

fricki, 15. 

jubaensis, 15. 

silvanus, 70. 

virens, 70. 


Page 33, line 24, for " CyanorJiamphus " read Cyanoramphus. 

,, 64, line 31, for Phormophlectes read Phormoplectes. 

„ 70, line 25, for Z. euricricotus read Z. eurycricotus. 

„ 71, footnote, for T\ c. gengleri read jP. c. gengleri. 

„ 74, line 16, for J unco oreganus read J unco oregonus.