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Lt.-Col, W. P. C. TENISON, d.s.o, 


SESSION 1946-1947. 






During the Session 1946-47 the Club was able to maintain its normal 
activities in spite of discomforts and difficulties imposed by the Fuel 
Crisis and exceptionally cold winter. 

The Annual General Meeting was held on Wednesday, October 16, 
1946, when it was decided to hold meetings on the third Wednesday 
of each month, November to June, following dinner at the Rembrandt 
Hotel, South Kensington, at 6.30 p.m. 

The number of attendances for the Session was as follows: — 241 
members of the Club, 85 members of the Union, 4 guests of the Club, 
and 85 other guests, a total of 415. 

Papers were read by members at the meetings, and these have been 
printed in the ' Bulletin '. 

Interesting cine-films were shown by Dr. H. N. Kluijver, Mr. J. Delacour 
and Mr. J. Fisher. 

New races were described by Mr. J. D. Macdonald, Dr. J. P. Chapin, 
Mr. C. M. N. White, Mr. C. W. Benson, Mr. P. A. Clancey, Col. R. 
Meinertzhagen, Mr. A. Morrison, and by Capt. C. H. B. Grant and Mr. C. W. 
Mackworth-Praed, who also continued their valuable notes on East 
African birds. 

There was no Chairman's Address again this year. 


London, July 1947. 



(Founded October 5, 1892.) 


The objects of the Club, which shall be called the 
"British Ornithologists' Club", are the promotion of social 
intercourse between Members of the British Ornithologists' 
Union and to facilitate the publication of scientific infor- 
mation connected with ornithology. 


(As amended, October 12, 1938.) 


I. The affairs of the Club shall be managed by a Committee, 
to consist of a Chairman, who shall be elected for three years, 
at the end of which period he shall not be eligible for re-election 
for the next term ; two Vice-Chairmen, who shall serve for one 
year, and who shall not be eligible for the next year ; an Editor 
of the ' Bulletin ', who shall be elected for five years, at the end 
of which period he shall not be eligible for re-election for 
the next term ; a Secretary and a Treasurer, who shall each 
be elected for a term of one year, but who shall be eligible 
for re-election. There shall be in addition four other Members, 
the senior of whom shall retire each year, and another Member 
be elected in his place ; every third year the two senior 
Members shall retire and two other Members be elected in 
their place. Officers and Members of the Committee shall 
be elected by the Members of the Club at a General Meeting, 
and the names of such Officers and Members of Committee 
nominated by the Committee for the ensuing year shall be 
circulated with the notice convening the General Meeting 
at least two weeks before the Meeting. Should any member 
wish to propose another candidate, the nomination of such, 
signed by at least two Members, must reach the Secretary 
at least one clear week before the Annual General Meeting. 

II. Any Member desiring to make a complaint of the 
manner in which the affairs of the Club are conducted 
must communicate in writing with the Chairman, who will, 
if he deem fit, call a Committee Meeting to deal with the 

III. If the conduct of any Member shall be deemed by 
the Committee to be prejudicial to the interest of the Club, 
he may be requested by the Committee to withdraw from 
the Club. In the case of refusal, his name may be removed 
from the list of Members at a General Meeting, provided 
that, in the notice calling the Meeting, intimation of the 
proposed resolution to remove his name shall have been 
given, and that a majority of the Members voting at such 
Meeting record their votes for his removal. 


IV. Any Member of the British Ornithologists' Union 
may become a Member of the Club on payment to the 
Treasurer of an entrance-fee of one pound and a subscription 
of one guinea for the current Session. On Membership 
of the Union ceasing, Membership of the Club also ceases. 

Any Member who has not paid his subscription before 
the last Meeting of the Session shall cease, ipso facto, to be 
a Member of the Club, but may be reinstated on payment 
of arrears. 

Any Member who has resigned less than five years ago 
may be reinstated without payment of another Entrance Fee. 

Any Member who resigns his Membership on going abroad 
may be readmitted without payment of a further Entrance 
Fee at the Committee's discretion. 

Temporary Associates. 

V. Members of the British Ornithologists' Union who are 
ordinarily resident outside the British Isles, and ornithologists 
from the British Empire overseas or from foreign countries, 
may be admitted at the discretion of the Committee as Tem- 
porary Associates of the Club for the duration of any visit to the 
British Isles not exceeding one Session. An entrance fee of 
five shillings shall be payable in respect of every such admission 


if the period exceeds three months. The privileges of 
Temporary Associates shall be limited to attendance at the 
ordinary meetings of the Club and the introduction of guests, 


VI. The Club will meet, as a rule, on the second Wednesday 
in every month, from October to June inclusive, at such 
hour and place as may be arranged by the Committee, but 
should such Wednesday happen to be Ash Wednesday, the 
Meeting will take place on the Wednesday following. At 
these Meetings papers upon ornithological subjects will 
be read, specimens exhibited and described, and discussion 

VII. A General Meeting of the Club shall be held on the 
day of the October Meeting of each Session, and the 
Treasurer shall present thereat the Balance- Sheet and Report ; 
and the election of Officers and Committee, in so far as their 
election is required, shall be held at such Meeting. 

VIII. A Special General Meeting may be called at the 
instance of the Committee for any purpose which they 
deem to be of sufficient importance, or at the instance of 
not fewer than fifteen Members. Notice of not less than 
two weeks shall be given of every General and Special General 

Introduction of Visitors. 

IX. Members may introduce visitors at any ordinary 
Meeting of the Club, but the same guest shall not be eligible 
to attend on more than three occasions during the Session. 
No former Member who has been removed for non-payment 
of subscription, or for any other cause, shall be allowed to 
attend as a guest. 

■ Bulletin ' of the Club. 

X. An Abstract of the Proceedings of the Club shall be 
printed as soon as possible after each Meeting, under the 
title of the 'Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club', 
and shall be distributed gratis to every Member who has 
paid Jus subscription. 


Contributors are entitled to six free copies of the ' Bulletin ', 
but if they desire to exercise this privilege they must give 
notice to the Editor when their manuscript is handed in. 
Members purchasing extra copies of the ' Bulletin ' are 
entitled to a rebate of 25 per cent, on the published price, 
but not more than two copies can be sold to any Member 
unless ordered before printing. 

Descriptions of new species may be published in the 
'Bulletin', although such were not communicated at the 
Meeting of the Club. This shall be done at the discretion 
of the Editor and so long as the publication of the ' Bulletin ' 
is not unduly delayed thereby. 

Any person speaking at a Meeting of the Club shall be 
allowed subsequently — subject to the discretion of the Editor — 
to amplify his remarks in the ' Bulletin', but no fresh matter 
shall be incorporated with such remarks. 

XI. No communication, the whole or any important part 
of which has already been published elsewhere, shall be 
eligible for publication in the ' Bulletin ' , except at the discretion 
of the Editor ; and no communication made to the Club 
may be subsequently published elsewhere without the written 
sanction of the Editor. 

Alteration and Repeal of Rules. 

XII. Any suggested alteration or repeal of a standing rule 
shall be submitted to Members to be voted upon at a General 
Meeting convened for that purpose. 

COMMITTEE, 1946-1947. 

Dr. J. M. Harrison, Chairman (elected 1945). 

Sir Philip Manson-Bahr, Vice-Chairman (elected 1946). 

Mr. B. G. Harrison, Vice-Chairman (elected 1946). 

Lt.-Col. W. P. C. Tenison, Editor (elected 1945), and Hon. 

Secretary (elected 1945). 
Miss E. P. Leach, Hon. Treasurer (elected 1942). 
Mr. C. W. G. Paulson (elected 1944). 
Captain C. H. B. Grant (elected 1944). 
Miss G. M. Rhodes (elected 1945). 
Mr. J. D. MacDonald (elected 1946). 

Officers of the British Ornithologists' Club, 
Past and Present. 




Lord Rothschild, F.R.S. 


W. L. Sclater. 




Dr. P. R. Lowe. 


Major S. S. Flower. 


D. A. Bannerman. 


G. M. Mathews. 


Dr. A. Landsborough 



D. Seth-Smith. 


Dr. J. M. Harrison. 



Lord Rothschild, F.R.S. 


W. L. Sclater. 




G. M. Mathews. 




H. Whistler. 


D. Seth-Smith. 


Col. R. Sparrow. 


Dr. G. Carmichael Low. 


Hon. Guy Charteris. 


W. L. Sclater. 


Dr. D. A. Bannerman. 


Captain C. H. B. Grant. 


W. B. Tucker. 


F. J. F. Barrington. 


Dr. E. Hopkinson. 


C. W. Mackworth-Praed 


Dr. J. M. Harrison. 


Sir Philip Manson-Bahr. 


B. G. Harrison. 





W. R. Ogilvie-Grant. 


D. A. Bannerman. 


D. Seth-Smith. 


Dr. P. R. Lowe. 





Editors (cont.). 

Dr. G. Carmichael Low. 1930-1935. 

Captain C. H. B. Grant. 1935-1940. 

Dr. G. Carmichael Low. 1940-1945. 

Lt.-Col. W. P. C. Tenison. 1945- 

Honorary Secretaries and Treasurers. 

Howard Saunders. 1892-1899. 

W. E. de Winton. 1899-1904. 

H. F. Witherby. 1904-1914. 

Dr. P. R. Lowe. 1914-1915. 

C. G. Talbot-Ponsonry. 1915-1918. 

D. A. Bannerman. 1918-1919 
Dr. Philip Gosse. 1919-1 920. 
J. L. Bonhote. 1920-1922. 
C. W. Mackworth-Praed. 1922-1923. 
Dr. G. Carmichael Low. 1923-1929. 
C. W. Mackworth-Praed. 1929-1935. 

Honorary Secretaries. 

Dr. A. Landsborough 

Thomson. 1935-1938. 

C. R. Stonor. 1938-1940. 

N. B. Kinnear. 1940-1943. 

Dr. G. Carmichael Low. 1943-1945. 

Lt.-Col. W. P. C. Tenison. 1945- 

Honorary Treasurers. 

C. W. Mackworth-Praed. 1935-1936. 

Major A. G. L. Sladen. 1936-1942. 

Miss E. P. Leach. 1942- 

JUNE 1947. 

Acland, Miss C. M. ; " 'Grassholm ", 2 Orchard Close, Ban- 
stead, Surrey. 

Alexander, H. G. ; 144 Oak Tree Lane, Selly Oak, Birming- 

Allen, R. C. R. ; Gorstage House, Weaverham, Cheshire. 

Bannerman, David A., M.B.E., M.A., Sc.D., F.R.S.E., 
H.F.A.O.U. (Chairman, 1932-1935); British Museum 
(Natural History), Cromwell Road, S.W.7. 
5 Barclay- Smith, Miss Phyllis ; 51 Warwick Avenue, W.9. 

Barnes, Mrs. E. ; Hungerdown, Seagry, Chippenham, Wilts. 

Barrington, Frederick J. F., M.S., F.R.C.S. ; 52 Harley 
Street, WM. 

Beal, Major N. A. G. H. ; 1 Auriol Road, W.14. 

Benson, C. W. ; c/o Secretariat, Zomba, Nyasaland. 
io Benson, J. P. ; Dept. of Agriculture, Meru, Kenya Colony and 
Dellfield, Felden, Hemel Hempstead, Herts. 

Best, Miss M. G. S. ; 10 a Cresswell Place, S.W.10. 

Boorman, S. ; Heath Farm, Send, Woking, Surrey. 

Boyd, A. W., M.C. ; Frandley House, near Northwich, 

Brown, George,; Combe Manor, Hungerford, Berks. 
15 Buxton, Major Anthony, D.S.O., D.L. ; Horsey Hall, near 
Great Yarmouth, Norfolk. 

Campbell, Dr. James W. ; Ardrermich, Strathtay, Perthshire. 

Cave, Colonel F. 0. ; Stoner Hill, Petersfield, Hants. 

Chadwyck-Healey, Mrs. G. M. ; 15 Cadogan. Court, Draycott 
Avenue, S.W.3. 

Chapin, Dr. James P. ; American Museum of Natural History, 
Central Park, New York City, U.S.A. 
20 Charteris, Hon. G. L. ; Old House, Didbrook, nr, Chelten- 
ham, Glos. 

Chislett, Ralph ; Brookside, Masham, near Ripon, Yorks. 


Clancey, P. A. ; 9 Craig Road, Catheart, Glasgow, S.4. 
Clarke, John P. Stephenson ; Broadhurst Manor. Horsted 

Keynes, Sussex. 
Clarke, Colonel S. R., C.B. ; Borde Hill, Cuckfield, 

25 Cohen, E. ; Hazelhurst, Sway, Hampshire. 

Coltart, N. B. ; 8 Half Moon Hill, Haslemere, Surrey. 
Conover, H. B. ; 6 Scott Street, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.A. 
Cunningham, Captain Josias ; 3 Donegall Square East, 

Dalgety, C. T. ; Lockerley Hall, Romsey, Hampshire. 
30 Delacour, Jean ; Stanhope Hotel, Fifth Avenue and 81st 

Street, New York, N.Y. 
Dewhurst, Lieut. -Colonel F. W. ; Wisdome Cot, Cornwoocl, 

S. Devon. 
Donaldson, R. Preston ; c/o Royal Society for Protection 

of Birds, 82 Victoria Street, S.W.I. 
Duffin, Charles J. ; 26 Mount Ephraim Road, Streatham, 

Duncan, A. B. ; Lannhall, Tynron, Dumfriesshire. 
35 Ezra, A., O.B.E. ; Foxwarren Park, Cobham, Surre}\ 
Ferrier, Miss J. M. ; Blakeney Downs, Blakeney, Norfolk. 
Fisher, James (Committee) ; The Old Rectory, Ashton, 

Fitter, R. S. R., B.Sc, F.Z.S. ; Greyhounds, Burford, 

Foulkes-Roberts, Captain P. R., M.C. ; Lamb hill, Bride, 

near Ramsey, I. of M. 
40 Gilbert, Captain H. A. ; Bishopstone, near Hereford. 
Glegg, W. E. ; c/o Zoological Museum, Tring, Herts. 
Glenister, A. G. ; The Barn House, East Blatchington, 

Seaford, Sussex. 
Godman, Miss C. E. ; South Lodge, Horsham, Sussex. 
Godman, Miss Eva M. ; South Lodge, Horsham, Sussex. 
45 Grant, Captain C. H. B. (Committee) ; 8 Cornwall Gardens 

Court, Cornwall Gardens, S.W.7. 
Gudmundsson, Dr. F. ; Museum of Natural History, Reyk- 
javik, Iceland. 
Hachisuka, The Marquess ; Mita Shiba, Tokio, Japan. 
Harrison, Bernard Guy ; 45 St. Martin's Lane, W.C.2. 


Harrison, James M., D.S.C., M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P. (Vice- 
Chairman) ; Bowerwood House, St. Botolph's Road, 
Sevenoaks, Kent. 

50 Harrison, Jeffery G. ; Bowerwood House, St. Botolph's 

Road, Sevenoaks, Kent.. 
Hartley, P. H. T. ; 91 Banbury Road, Oxford. 
Haverschmidt, F. ; 14 Waterkant, Paramaribo, Dutch 

Heath, R. E. ; 2 Pembroke Court, Edwardes Square, W.8. 
Hohn, E. 0. ; 32 Priory Road, N.8. 
55 Hollom, P. A. D. ; Rolverden, Hook Heath, Woking, Surrey. 
Homes, R. C. ; Park Cottage, Wisborough Green, Sussex. 
Hopkinson, Emilius, C.M.G., D.S.O., M.B. ; Wynstay, 

Balcombe, Sussex. 
Hunt, G. H. ; White Chimneys, Cheveney Road, Quorn, 

Loughborough, Leicestershire. 
Htjtson, Major-General H. P. W., C.B., M.C. ; Forestry 

Commission, 25 Savile Row, W.l. 
60 Inglis, C. McFarlane ; Natural History Museum, Darjeeling, 

Ingram, Captain Collingwood ; The Grange, Benenden, 

Cranbrook, Kent. 
Jabouille, Pierre ; c/o Monsieur J. Delacour, New York 

Zoological Society, New York, U.S.A. 
James, Miss Celia K. ; Blake's Wood, Barnt Green, Birm- 
Jordan, H. E. Karl, Ph.D., F.R.S., F.R.E.S., F.Z.S. ; Zoo- 
logical Museum, Tring, Herts. 
65 Kinnear, Norman B. ; British Museum (Natural History), 

Cromwell Road, S.W.7. 
Kuroda, The Marquis Nagamichi ; Fukuyoshicho, Akasaka, 

Tokio, Japan. 
Lack, David ; Edward Grey Institute of Field Ornithology, 

7 Keble Road, Oxford. 
Laurie, M. .V ; c/o Mrs. Powell, Curtis Farm, Headley, 

Bordon, Hants. 
Leach, Miss E. P. (Hon. Treasurer) ; 94 Kensington Court, W. 8. 
70 Lewis, John Spedan ; Leckford Abbas, Stockbridge, Hants. 
Longfield, Miss Cynthia ; 11 Iverna Gardens, W.8. 


Low, George Carmichael, M.A., M.D., CM., F.R.C.P., F.Z.S.; 

7 Kent House, Kensington Court, Kensington, W.8. 
Lowe, P. R., O.B.E., M.B., B.C. (Chairman, 1927-1920); 

2 Hugo House, 179 Sloane Street, S.W.I ; and Parkland, 

Burley, Ringwood, Hants. 
McCulloch, Captain G. ; 65 Chester Road, Northwood, 

75 Macdonald, J. D., B.Sc.(For)., B.Sc. ; British Museum 

(Natural History), Cromwell Road, S.W.7. 
Mackenzie, John M. D., B.A., C.M.Z.S. ; Sidlaw Fur Farm, 

Tullaeh Ard, Balbeggie, Perthshire. 
McKittrick, T. H. ; Bank for International Settlements, 

Basle, Switzerland. 
Mackworth-Praed, C. W. (Vice-Chairman) ; Castletop, 

Burley, near Ringwood, Hants. 
McMillan, Dr. Arnold ; Ivy House, New Romney, Kent. 
80 Macmillan, Captain W. E. F. ; 42 Onslow Square, S.W.7. 
McNeile, J. H. ; Nonsuch, Bromham, Chippenham, Wilts. 
Macpherson, D. W. K. ; P.O., Lilongwe, Nyasaland. 
Mansfield, The Right Hon. the Earl of ; Scone Palace, Perth. 
Manson-Bahr, Sir Philip, C.M.G., D.S.O., M.D., F.R.C.P. ; 

149 Harley Street, W.l. 
85 Mathews, G. M., C.B.E., F.R.S.E., H.F.A.OJJ. (Chairman, 

1935-1938) ; Meadway, St. Cross, Winchester, Hants. 
Mavrogordato, J. G. ; c/o Legal Dept., Sudan Govt., Khar- 
toum, Sudan. 
May, E. S. ; 19 Berceau Walk, Watford, Herts. 
Mayaud : Noel ; 36 rue Hoche, Saumur, Maine-et-Loire, 

Meiklejohn, Lieut. -Colonel R. F. ; c/o Lloyd's Bank, Ltd. 

(Section F.2), 6 Pall Mall, S.W.I. 
90 Meinertzhagen, Colonel R., D.S.O., F.Z.S., H.F.A.O.U. ; 

17 Kensington Park Gardens, W.ll. 
Momiyama, Toku Taro ; 1146 Sasazak, Yoyohata-mati, 

Tokio, Japan. 
Monk, Dr. J. F. ; 344 b Woodstock Road, Oxford. 
Morrison, A. F. ; P.O. Box 473, Dar-es- Salaam, Tanganyika 

Munn, Captain P. W., F.Z.S. ; Hotel Mar y Sol, Puerto 

Alcudia, Majorca, Balearic Isles, Spain. 


95 Murton, Mrs. CD.; Cranbrook Lodge, Cranbrook, Kent. 
Naumburg, Mrs. W. W. ; 121 East 64th Street, New York 

City, U.S.A. 
Nicholson, E. M. ; 13 Upper Cheyne Row, S.W.3. 
North, Major M. E. W. ; c/o Secretariat, Nairobi, Kenya 

Osmaston, Bertram Beresford ; 116 Banbury Road, Oxford, 
ioo Pakenham, R. H. W. ; Kingsley, Hurtis Hill, Crowborough, 

Sussex ; and c/o Secretariat, Zanzibar, Eastern Africa. 
Parrinder, E. R. ; 27 Gwalior House, Chase Road, N.14. 
Paulson, C. W. G. (Committee) ; Woodside Cottage, Wheeler's 

Lane, Smallfield, Surrey. 
Payn, Lt.-Col. W. A. ; The Gables, Osborne Road, Andover, 

Peall, Mrs. D. ; Hatfield Farm, Oare, Marlborough, Wilts. 
105 Pease, H. J. R. ; The Savile Club, 69 Brook Street, W. 1. 

Phillips, A. S. ; Frewin's Close, South Stoke, Reading, Berks. 
Pitman, Captain C. R. S., D.S.O., M.C. ; c/o Grindlay & Co., 

54 Parliament Street, S.W.I. 
Prestwich, A. A. ; Chelmsford Road, Southgate, N.14. 
Priestley, Mrs. J. B., O.B.E. ; B. 3, Albany, Piccadilly, W.l. 
1 10 Pye-Smith, Major G. H. R. ; New House, Langham, Col- 
chester, Essex. 
Reynolds, R. A. W. ; Fernham, Torquay Road, Paignton, 

S. Devon. 
Rhodes, Miss G. M. (Committee) ; Hildersham Hall, Cambridge. 
Riviere, B. B., F.R.C.S. ; The Old Hall, Woodbastwick, 

Roberts, B. B. ; 9 Pelham Court, 145 Fulham Road, S.W.3. 
115 Sandeman, R. G. C. C. ; Dan-y-parc, Crickhowell, Brecon. 
Schauensee, R. M. de ; Devon, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. 
Schoitteden, Dr. H. ; Musee du Congo Beige, Tervueren, 

Scott, Peter, D.S.C. ; 8 Edwardes Square, W.8. 
Serle, Dr. W. ; The Manse, Duddingston, Edinburgh. 
120 Seth-Smith, David (Chairman) ; " Brabourne ", Poyle Road, 

Sherriff, Albert ; 8 Ranulf Road, Hampstead, N. W.2. 
Simonds, Major Maurice H. ; Fines Baylewick, Binfield, 



Sladen, Major A. G. Lamb art, M.C. ; Crab tree Furlong, 

Haddenham, Aylesbury, Bucks ; and 39 St. James's 

Street, S.W.I. 
Southern, H. N. ; University Museum, Oxford. 
125 Sparrow, Colonel R., C.M.G., D.S.O. ; The Lodge, Colne 

Engaine, Earls Colne, Essex. 
Staples, Lt.-Commdr. (S.) C. P., Royal Navy ; Hedgerows, 

Ickenham, Middx. 
Stevens, Herbert ; Clovelly, Beaconsfield Road, Tring, 

Stevens, Noel ; Walcot Hall, Lydbury, North Salop. 
Stonor, Lieut. C. R. ; Parkgates, near Southampton, Hants. 
130 Taka-tsukasa, Prince Nobusuke ; 1732 Sanchome, Kami- 

meguro, Meguro-Ku, Tokio, Japan. 
Tenison, Lt.-Col. W. P. C, D.S.O., F.L.S., F.Z.S. (Editor and 

Hon. Sec.) ; 2 Wool Road, Wimbledon Common, S.W.20. 
Thomson, A. Landsborough, C.B., O.B.E., D.Sc.', F.R.S.E. 

[Chairman, 1938-1943) ; 16 Tregunter Road, S.W.10. 
Ticehurst, N. F., O.B.E., M.B., F.R.C.S. ; 24 Pevensey 

Road, St. Leonards-on-Sea, Sussex. 
Tucker, B. W., M.A. ; 9 Marston Ferry Road, Oxford. 
135 Turtle, Lancelot J. ; 17-21 Castle Place, Belfast. 

Urquhart, Catpain A., D.S.O. ; Latimer Cottage, Latimer, 

Chesham, Bucks. 
Van Someren, G. R. C. ; P.O. Box 651, Nairobi, Kenya 

van Someren, Dr. V. G. L. ; P.O. Box 1682, Nairobi, Kenya 

Vincent, Lieut. -Colonel Jack. M.B.E. ; " Firle ", Mooi River, 

Natal, South x\frica. 
140 Wade, Colonel G. A., MC. ; St. Quintin, Sandy Lane, New- 

castle-under-Lyme, Staffs. 
Waite, H. W., C.I.E. ; c/o Messrs. Grindlay & Co., Ltd., 

Bombay, India. 
Walter, C. N. ; 32 Stanley Avenue, Beckenham, Kent. 
Watt, Mrs. H. Winifred Boyd, F.Z.S. ; The Gate House, 

17 Alumdale Road, Bournemouth West, Hants. 
White, Charles M. N. ; 8 Ansdell Road South, Ansdell, 

Lytham St. Annes, Lanes. 
145 Williams, A. ; 80 Troy Court, Kensington High Street, W.8. 


Workman, W. H. ; Lismore, Windsor Avenue, Belfast. 
Worms, Charles de ; Milton Park, Egham, Surrey. 
Wynne, Colonel 0. E. ; Court Wood, Sandleheath, Fording- 

bridge, Hants. 
Yamashina, The Marquis ; 49 Minami Hiradei, Shikuya-ku, 

Tokio, Japan. 

Total number of Members 149 

[Members are specially requested to keep the Hon. Secretary 
informed of any changes in their addresses, and those 
residing abroad should give early notification of coming home 
on leave.] 



-Accounts, Statement of 2 

Benson, C. W. 

Two new races of Larks, Pseudalsemon fremantlii megaensis, and 
Calandrella somalica megaensis from Southern Abyssinia, and a new race 
of Green-headed Oriole, Oriolus chlorocephalus amani from Tanganyika 
Territory 25-28 

Notes on Eastern and Southern African Birds : — 

1. On the races of Sheppardia gunningi 28-31 

2. On the characters and distribution of Francolinus natalensis neavei. 31-32 

3. On the specific status of Erythropygia quadrivirgata 32-33 

On a change of coloration in Lybius zombse 33-35 

Notes on Nyasaland Birds 36-38 

A new race of Double-banded Sand-Grouse (Eremialector bicinctus 
usheri) from Portuguese East Africa 44-45 

A new race of Double-banded Sand-Grouse (Eremialector bicinctus 
ansorgei) from Angola 79-80 

Chairman, the. 

Welcome to distinguished foreign Ornithologists 87 

Chapin, Dr. J. P. 

A new Lark (Mirafra malbranti) from the French Congo 6-8 

Chear, J. 

Exhibited a film on " Birds and Man " 49 

Glancey, P. A. 

A new race, Sylvia melanocephala carmichael-lowei, from the Heath- 
lands of South-eastern Italy 66-67 

On the races of Parus palustris indigenous to England and Wales .... 67-69 

A new race of Bullfinch (Pyrrhula pyrrhula wardlawi) from Scotland . . 76-77 

A new race of Redstart (Phosnicurus phcenicurus csesitergum) from the 
British Isles 77-78 

On the Wrens of South-eastern England, France and Belgium 78-79 



Cockayne, Dr. E. A. 

Parallel variation in Shrikes and Moths 75 

Committee for 1945-47 3 

Delacour, J. 

Showed films of the display of the Umbrella Bird, and the flight of the 

Humming-bird 5 

Faixa, R. H. 

Spoke on the present-day position of the birds of New Zealand 49 

Fisher, J. 

Exhibition of Cine-film, " Birds of the Village " 23 

Grant, Captain C. H. B., and Mackworth-Praed, C. W. 
Notes on Eastern African Birds : — 

1. On the Validity of Capella nigripennis angolensis 10-11 

2. On the relationship of Bycanistes bucinator and Bycanistes sharpii . 1 1 

3. On the specific name of the South African Crowned Hornbills .... 11-12 

4. On the status of Caprimulgus ludovicianus 12 

5. On the status of Tricholsema diadematum mustum 12 

6. On Phyllastrephus fischeri cabanisi and Phyllastrephus fischeri sucosus 12-13 

Notes on Eastern African Birds : — 

1. On the status of Cossypha polioptera kungwensis 38 

2. On the status of Cisticola natalensis matengorum 38-39 

3. On the distribution of Hirundo senegalensis saturatior 39 

4. On the Shrikes recorded in Ibis, 1928, p. 87, under Laniarius funebris 39 

5. On the status of Chlorophoneus andaryse 39-40 

6. On the status of Symplectes eremobius 40 

New races of a Paradise Flycatcher (Tchitrea perspicillata unguja- 

ensis), Apalis melanocephala muhuluensis and Eremomela griseoflava belli 

from Eastern Africa 42-44 

Notes on East African Birds : — 

1. On the status of Coturnix cotumix erlangeri 46 

2. On Charitillas minor 46 

3. On the status of (Enanthe deserti atrogularis 47 

4. On the status of Spreo hildebrandti helloggorum 47 

5. On the migratory Stonechats in Eastern Africa 47-48 


•Grant, Captain C. H. B., and Mackworth-Praed, C. W. (cont.). 

Notes on Eastern African Birds : — 

1. On the specific name of the South African Crowned Hornbill 55 

2. On the conspecific status of Lybius guifsobalito 56 

3. On the status of Cercomela scotocerca enigma '. 56 

4. On the status of Opifex alius 56 

5. On the status of Parus albiventris curtus 57 

6. On the races of Passer griseus and on the status of Passer swainsonii . 57-58 

7. On the status of Euodice cantans inornata and E. c. meridionalis . . . 58-59 

8. On the status of Erythropygia brunneiceps and E. leucoptera sclateri 59-60 

9. On the species and races of the genus Prionops 60-62 

10. On the races of Corvinella corvina corvina 62-63 

Notes on Eastern African Birds : — 

1. On the status of Nilaus afer brevialatus 81-82 

2. On the status of Laniarius funebris degener 82 

3. On the status of Onychognathus tenuirostris raymondi 82 

4. On the type of Nectarinia cupreonitens and the Eastern African races 

of Nectarinia famosa 82-83 

5. On the races of Cinnyris chalybeus occurring in Eastern Africa. . . . 83-85 

6. On the status of Anthreptes collaris jubaensis 85 

7. On the status of Ploceus pelzelni tuta 85-86 

8. On the status of Ploceus aureoflavus pallidiceps and Ploceus aureo- 

fiavus reicherti 86 

Harrison, Dr. J. M. 

Exhibition of a Northern Tree-Creeper from Lincolnshire 65 

Hens, P. A. 

On the validity of Troglodytes troglodytes indigenus Clancey, from 
South-western Scotland 69-71 

Kluijver, Dr. H. N. 

Showed a film of the Nesting habits of the Great Reed-Warbler 5 

Lack, D. 

The Names of the Geospizinse (Darwin's Finches) 15-22 

An account of his recent visit to the United States of America, with a 
discussion on English vernacular names of birds 50 

A Further Note on the Taxonomy of the Robin 51 

JVIacdonald, J. D. 

A new species of Wood Hoopoe (Scoptelus cavei) from the Sudan 5 

Mackworth-Praed, C. W. See under Grant, Captain C. H. B. 



Mayaud, Monsieur Noel. 

Phalaropes and Gannets off the West Coast of Africa 54 

Meeting, Annual General 1 

Meinertzhagen, Colonel. R. 

Two Continental forms of Birds in Ireland new to the British List ... 76- 
Notes on Western Palaearctic Birds, with two new races : — 

1. Emberiza calandra claneeyi from West Ireland 91 

2. On the British Form of Emberiza citrinella 91-93 

3. On the Validity of Emberiza schceniclus mackenziei 9$ 

4. A new Race, Alauda arvensis theresse, from Ireland 93-94 

5. On the Validity of Anthus pratensis whistleri 94-95 

6. On the British and French Races of Anthus spinoletta 95-96 

7. On the Validity of Turdus merula ticehursti 97-98 

Moreau, R. E. 

The relationship between Phyllastrephus placidus grotei, P.f.fischeri and 
P. p. miXnzneri 88-90" 

Morrison, A. 

A new Race of Spine-Tail (Asthenes d'orbignyi usheri) from Peru .... 80-81 
A new Race of Atlapetes rufigenis forbesi from Peru 88 

Nicholson, E. M. 

Damage by Military Operations 45-4fr 

Payn, Colonel. 

Exhibition of Skins of Wrens 22-23 

Redpols from Norway 41-42 

Exhibition of Kentish Plovers 50' 

van Someren, Dr. V. G. L. 

Some apparently new Records for Uganda 35-36 

Watt, Mrs. H. W. Boyd. 

Exhibited a specimen of White's Thrush, this being the first British 
record 49' 

White, C. M. N. 

Notes on the Pipits of the Anthus richardi Group, including a new race, 
Anthus richardi Iwenarum, also a new race of Waxbill (Lagonosticta 
senegala dilutior) from Northern Rhodesia 8-10' 

A new Bush-Shrike (Telophorus viridis vieirse) from Angola 23-24 

A Lew race of Warbler (Calamonastes fasciolatus buttoni) from Northern 
Rhodesia 55- 

Two new races of Francolins, Pternistis afer aylwinse and Pternistis 
swainsoni lundazi, from Northern Rhodesia, and some records from 
Lundazi 72-7$ 






Chairman : Mr D. Seth-Smith. 

This was held at the Rembrandt Hotel, Thurloe Place, S.W. 7, on 
Wednesday, October 16, 1946, at 5.45 p.m. ; 25 Members were present. 

Lt.-CoL W. P. C. Tenison, the Honorary Secretary, read his report 
for the Session 1945-46. He said that the Club had resumed its regular 
monthly meetings, but on the third instead of the second Wednesday,, 
owing to catering difficulties at the hotel. There was an average atten- 
dance of over fifty at each meeting. An attempt had been made to 
provide programmes including cine-films or lantern lectures of a more 
or less popular nature in response to requests by some members, and also 
owing to the lack of scientific papers of a type suitable for discussion 
being submitted. 

The membership of the Club had increased by six, new members 
being A. Graham Brown, E. Cohen, C. T. Dalgety, R. P. Donaldson, 
Miss C. E. Godman, E. 0. Holm, R. C. Homes, E. S. May, D. A. T. Morgan, 
Lt.-Col. W. A. Payn, B. B. Roberts, and Lt.-Col. W. Serle. Count Nils 
Gylden^tolpe had resigned and Mr. G. S. Hett's name had been removed 
under Rule 4. The deaths of three members have regretfully to be re- 
ported, namely, Dr. W. H. Dobie, Kenneth Fisher and Major Stanley 
Flower. He wished to thank all those members and others who had, 
at considerable personal expense, read papers or given lectures to the 
Club, and would appeal to members to bring forward suitable papers 
and material for discussion during the coming session. 

Miss E. P. Leach, the Hon. Treasurer, announced that the finances 
of the Club were in a satisfactory position. The balance of the Current 
Account at the Bank was almost the same as at this time last year, 
namely £177, as against £181 at the end of the previous financial ye*ar. 

[November 7, 1946.] a vol, lxvii. 

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194&-47] 3 [Vol. lxvii. 

The Club's investments in Government securities were valued at cost 
at £750. 

It was agreed that a request from the Secretary of the Zoological 
Society should be complied with, and the Hon. Treasurer was instructed 
to send him the usual contribution of ten guineas towards the production 
of the ' Zoological Record '. 

Election of Officers. 

On the recommendation of the Committee the following officers were 
duly elected : — Dr. James M. Harrison to be Chairman for the ensuing 
three sessions ; Sir Philip Manson-Bahr and Mr. B. Guy Harrison to 
be Vice-Chairmen for the coming Session ; Mr. J. D. Macdonald to serve 
on the Committee vice Mr. James Fisher, who retires by seniority. 
Miss E. P. Leach was re-elected Honorary Treasurer and Lt.-Col. W. P. C. 
Tenison Honorary Secretary. 

Arrangements for Session. 

It was decided to hold nine meetings, October to June, on the third 
Wednesday of each month after dinner at 6.30 p.m. 

Committee, 1945-47. 

Dr. J. M. Harrison, Chairman (elected 1946). 

Sir Philip Manson-Bahr, Vice-Chairman (elected 1946). 

Mr. B. G. Harrison, V ice-Chairman (elected 1946). 

Lt.-Col. W. P. C. Tenison, Editor (elected 1945) ; Hon. Secretary 

(elected 1945). 
Miss E. P. Leach, Hon. Treasurer (elected 1942). 
Mr. C. W. G. Paulson (elected 1944). 
Captain C. H. B. Grant (elected 1944). 
Miss G. M. Rhodes (elected 1945). 
Mr. J. D. Macdonald (elected 1946). 


The four-hundred-and-sixty-first Meeting of the Club was held at 
the Rembrandt Hotel, Thurloe Place, S.W. 7, on Wednesday, October 16, 
1946, following dinner at 6.30 p.m. 

Chairman : Dr. J. M. Harrison. 

Members present : — Miss C. M. Acland ; Dr. D. A. Bannerman ; 
Miss P. Barclay-Smith; Mr-<. E. C. Barnes; F. J. F. Barrington ; 


Vol. lxvii.] 4 [1946-47 

C. W. Benson ; Dr. J. W. Campbell ; Col. F. 0. Cave ; Hon. G. L. 
Charteris ; E. Cohen ; C. T. Dalgety ; J. Delacour ; R. P. Donaldson 

C. J. Duffin ; A. Ezra ; J. Fisher ; R. S. R. Fitter ; Miss C. E. 
Godman ; Miss E. M. Godman ; Capt. C. H. B. Grant ; B. G. 
Harrison (Vice-Chairman) ; J. G. Harrison ; R. E. Heath ; E. O. 
Hohn ; P. A. D. Hollom ; R. C. Homes ; Maj.-Gen. H. P. W. Hutson ; 
Capt. C. Ingram ; N. B. Kinnear ; D. Lack ; Miss E. P. Leach 
(Hon. Treasurer) ; Miss C. Longfield ; J. D. Macdonald ; C. W. 
Mackworth-Praed ; G. M. Mathews ; E. R. Parrinder ; C. W. G. 
Paulson ; Lt.-Col. W. A. Payn ; H. J. R. Pease ; Miss G. M. Rhodes ; 
B. B. Roberts ; D. Seth-Smith ; Col. R. Sparrow ; Lt.-Col. W. P. C. 
Tenison (Editor and Hon. Secretary) ; Dr. A. Landsborough Thomson ; 
B. W. Tucker ; Mrs. H. W. Boyd Watt. 

Member of the Union present :•— F.-M. Viscount Alanbrooke ; Rev. 

E. A. Armstrong ; Maj. G. Aylmer ; Lt.-Col. F. M. Bailey ; J. Berry 

F. K. Boston ; Sir B. H. Bourdillon ; P. E. Brown ; J. Buxton 
R. H. Chester-Master ; Dr. T. A. Cockburn ; R. A. H. Coombes 
R. Da Cunha ; H. G. Elton ; R. Etchecopar ; J. F. M. Floyd 
Sir Hugh Gladstone ; T. R. Goddard ; R. H. Greaves ; R. Green 

G. S. Hett ; H. G. Hurrell ; N. H. Joy ; Mrs. H. M. Rait Kerr 
W. P. Lowe ; R. E. Moreau ; S. Porter ; M. N. Rankin ; P. Scott 

D. W. Seth-Smith ; Miss B. A. Solly ; Lt.-Col. J. K. Stanford 
Miss S. Ticehurst ; Dr. W. H. Thorpe ; N. Tracy ; C. H- Wells 
Col. O. Wynne ; and two others. 

Guest of the Club : — Dr. H. N. Kluijver. 

Other Guests : — Laa^y Alanbrooke ; Mrs. E. J. Armstrong ; Hon. Mrs. 
Bailey ; Miss B. Bannerman ; Duke of Bedford ; Mrs. C. W. Benson ; 
Miss E.M. Boyd ; Mrs. Charteris ; Miss V. Charteris ; Mrs. Cockburn ; 
Mrs. Cohen ; Mrs. Coombes ; Miss A. Ezra ; Miss R. Ezra ; T. D. 
Fairgrieve ; Hon. L. Fiennes ; Mrs. Fitter ; Miss L. P. Grant ; 
Mrs. Hett ; E. R. Humphreys ; Miss Hutson ; Mrs. Ingram ; R. S. 
Jenyns ; Mrs. D. Seth-Smith ; Mrs. D. W. Seth-Smith ; Mrs. Sparrow ; 
M. Spooner ; Mrs. Thorpe ; Mrs. Tucker ; Dr. J. W. Whimster ; 
and others. 

Club Members, 48 : Members of B. 0. IT., 40 ; Guests, 37 ; Total, 125, 

1946-47] 5 [Vol. lxvii. 

Nesting of the Great Reed- Warbler. 

Dr. H. N. Kluijver showed a remarkable film of the nest -building 
habits of Acrocephalus arundinaceus and exhibited some nests. It was 
greatly appreciated, and it is hoped to publish an account of it in the 
* Bulletin ' shortly. 

Cine-films from New York Zoo. 

Mr. J. Delacour showed some educational films, including one o! 
the display of the Umbrella Bird and another of the flight of the Humming 
bird slowed down 185 times. These were greatly appreciated. 

A new Species of Wood Hoopoe from the Sudan. 

Mr. J. D. Macdonald exhibited and described the following : — 
Scoptelus eavei, sp. no v. 

Description. — Differs from other species in this genus by the whole 
plumage being iridescent in the juvenile stage, and by the short and 
relatively stumpy bill. The presence of a white wing bar and smoky 
subterminal ends to the primaries places it closest to Scoptelus aterrimus 
(Stephens). The colour is distinctive : above is steel blue with a slight 
violet wash on the mantle ; and below, black with a slight glossy green 
wash. Wings and tail are steel blue : there is no white in the tail. 

Distribution. — Western foot-hills of the Boma Hills, south-eastern 

Type. — Juvenile male from just west of Boma Hills, south-eastern 
Sudan. Collected by J. D. Macdonald on February 24, 1939 ; no. 666. 
In British Museum ; reg. no. 1939 : 1.1.779. 

Measurement of Type. — Culmen from base 25 mm. ; tarsus 19 mm. 
The wing and tail measurements are not recorded as both are not fully 

Remarks. — Only a single specimen was obtained. This and the fact 
that it is a young bird has deterred me for six years from describing 
it as something new. Efforts have been made to obtain additional 
specimens, but the area in which it was found is not one often visited, 
especially by anyone prepared to collect Wood Hoopoes. Moreover, 
the roving habits of these birds reduce the chances of coming across 
any except by accident. There seems no choice therefore but to name 
it and thus bring it to the attention of others. 

I have great pleasure in naming the new species after Colonel F. 0. Cave, 
who has done so much to extend our knowledge of Sudan birds. 

Vol. lxvii,] 6 [1946-4: 

A new Lark from the French Congo* 

Dr. James P. Chapin sent the following note and description :— 

In 1945 Dr. R. Malbrant, Chief Veterinarian of French Equatorial 
Africa, presented a very interesting collection of birds to the American 
Museum of Natural History. Among them were three specimens of 
a Lark collected in the grasslands of the French Congo near Djambala 
and Ossele, a region close to 2° S. lat. and 15° 20' E. long. In size and 
proportions they resemble Mirafra africana Smith, but they are far less 
streaked than any representative of this wide-ranging species. 

The only race of M . africana ever reported from that region of western 
Africa was M. a. occidentalis (Hautlaub), the type of which was stated 
to have come from the Gaboon, although most specimens have since 
been obtained in south-western Angola. These are heavily streaked 
above, and their identification is certain, for Dr. Hartert (Bull. B. O. C. 
xix. 1907, p. 93) compared several with the type of M . occidentalis. 

Suspicion next fell on the " Mirafra fasciolata " Sundevall reported 
by Rear-Admiral Lynes (Rev. Zool. Bot. Afr. xxxi. 1938, p. 73) from 
Petianga and Kilembe in the southern Belgian Congo and from Chisengue 
and Missao de Luz in Angola. I recalled them as rather plain- coloured 
birds, but I was quite unfamiliar then with M . fasciolata or M . hewitti 
(Roberts) of South Africa. Count Gyldenstolpe told me that he had 
examined one of Lynes's specimens and believed it allied to M . fasciolata, 
though probably of a new race. That explains how the name came 
to be used. 

In the meantime Mr. C. M. N. White (Bull. B.O.C. lxvi. 1945, p. 14) 
questioned the occurrence of Mirafra hewitti or M . fasciolata in Angola 
or the southern Congo, because he failed to find the species in Northern 
Rhodesia, and felt that it might be replaced there by M. rufocinnamomea 

One of the puzzling Larks from Kilembe was given by Lynes to 
the Congo Museum at Tervueren, Belgium, and now has kindly been 
lent me by Dr. Schouteden. It clearly is not conspecific with the 
M . fasciolata group, of which I have been able to borrow seven skins 
from the Chicago Natural History Museum and the Museum of Compara- 
tive Zoology at Harvard College. The Kilembe specimen is a larger 
bird, with different colour-pattern and feet relatively much longer. 
In size and proportions it agrees fairly well with Dr. Malbrant's birds 
from the French Congo, so they doubtless are of one species. The spotting 
of the chest of the Kilembe specimen suggests immaturity, yet after 
dissection Lynes labelled it as an adult male. The plumage of its upper- 
parts certainly seems that of an adult. 

1946^7] 1 [Vol. lxvii. 

I propose to name the French Congo Lark 

Mirafra malbranti, sp. no v. 

Description. — Resembling M . africana Smith in size and proportions, 
though much less noticeably streaked than any known race of that 
species. Forehead and crown light rufous, each feather with a dark 
marking at its tip or a blackish shaft-streak on the longer crown-feathers. 
Lores whitish, supercilium pale buff, ear-coverts washed with rufous. 
Hind neck light brown with indistinct dusky streaking. Back, rump, 
and upper tail- coverts greyish brown, each feather with a median stripe 
of dark brown, broad and diffuse on the back, narrow on the rump. 
Rectrices dull grey-brown, the median pair margined with rufous 
toward base, outermost with outer web buffy white. 

Upper wing-coverts light reddish brown, with dusky centres in middle 
and greater series. Most of the primaries and outer secondaries have 
rufous on outer webs for about two-thirds of their length, the inner 
webs also rufous at base ; and that colour extends out obliquely along 
the inner margins, distal areas grey-brown. Innermost secondaries 
brown with dark shafts and buff borders. Under wing- coverts pale 

Throat buffy white, changing to rufous buff on fore neck, chest, and 
flanks, with only a few scattered dots of rufous on fore neck. Middle 
of underparts pale buff, the longest under tail- coverts with blackish 

Bill rather light brown, darkest on culmen ; feet light brown. 

Type.— Male, adult, Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. no. 308,622 ; collected 30 km. 
south of Djambala, French Congo, September 29, 1942, by Dr. R. Malbrant. 

Remarks. — Wing in males 92-95, tail 55-57, culmen from base 20, 
metatarsus 30-31, hind-claw, from top of base, 10-12-5 mm. Although 
at first glance this Lark seems so conspicuously different from most forms 
of Mirafra africana, I believe it will come to be regarded as one more 
race of that species. It has much the same dimensions, and similar 
hind claw, slightly curved. In general coloration of the upper parts 
Rsar- Admiral Lynes's specimen from Kilembe in the western Kasai District 
is approximately intermeliate between M . malbranti and M. africana 
gomesi White from the eastern edge of Angola. I cannot say whether 
the curious rounded spots on the chest of the Kilembe bird are shown 
by Lynes's three other examples, now in the British Museum. 

It should be pointed out that the type locality of M. a. gomesi is only 
about 180 miles south-west of that of the dark- coloured M. a. chapini 

Vol. lxvii.] 8 [1946-47 

,Grant & Praed. In the whole southern Congo the Larks of this group 
seem closely restricted to open plains of special character, so that they 
have only rarely been collected. M. a. occidentalis occupies a fairly 
large area in south-western Angola, and extends northward along the 
dry coast at least to Lobito Bay. Whether it reaches the Congo mouth 
I cannot say, and no specimen I have yet seen of M . occidentalis shows 
any approach to the new M. malbranti. 

Notes on Pipits of the Anthus richardi Group and 
a new Race of Waxbill from Northern Rhodesia. 

Mr. C. M. N. White sent the two following notes : — 

1. The Races of Anthus richardi Vieillot in South and Central Africa. 

I have recently examined some 200 skins of this Pipit from the area 
between the Cape Province and the Katanga and Nyasaland, and the 
present notes on the races in this area are the result of studying this 
material. The following races are considered recognizable. 

Anthus richardi rufuloides Roberts. 

Distribution. — Cape Province to Natal, Zululand, Swaziland, and 
Southern Portuguese East Africa, Basutoland, Transvaal, Orange Free 
State, Bechuanaland nprth to the Chobe River, South-west Africa except 
Ovampoland, Southern Rhodesia and Northern Rhodesia at Kalomo and 

In the large series of over 100 birds examined there is some variation 
which can be associated with geographical distribution but not sufficiently 
consistently to justify the naming of further races. The general aspect 
of the upperside is light sandy olive-brown with moderately well defined 
dark centres ; Natal birds average darker and redder above, whilst 
those from the dry western Cape Province tend to be paler and more 
sandy above ; similar pallid birds occur in the dry country of Zululand 
and southern Portuguese East Africa. Birds from the Transvaal on 
the other hand average darker above. In Bechuanaland, and particularly 
in South-west Africa, the populations tend to be colder and greyer on 
the upperside. Stresemann (Orn. Mon. 1938, pp. 149-151) uses A. r. 
bocagei Nicholson for birds from Windhuk, Quickborn and Omaruru, 
but in my opinion birds from these areas cannot be safely separated 
from the variable aggregate of A. r. rufuloides. 

He also named from Erongo Mountain Anthus hoeschi. This was 
said to have the wing emargination of the A. richardi group but to be 
redder, less grey above, and more tawny below than Damaraland 

1946-47] 9 [Vol. lxvii. 


A. richardi and to be larger (unique type female with wing 96 mm.), 
• and to have the pale spot on the tail confined to the outer pair of 
feathers and pale isabelline in colour. If the type were a male it would 
be similar in size to A. r. rufuloides and none of the colour characters 
seem to be of any value. I regard it as a probable synonym of 
A. r. rufuloides. (One hundred and fifteen examined.) 

Anthus richardi lichen y a Vincent. / 

Distribution. — Nyasaland to the Eastern Province of Northern Rhodesia ; 
birds from Kalomo and Mazabuka and from Southern Rhodesia are 
somewhat intermediate between this and the last race. 

This race differs from A. r. rufuloides in being rather darker above, 
the dark feather- centres darker and more pronounced and .the underside 
more strongly washed with reddish fawn. Variation is considerable, 
as is well illustrated in a fine series of fourteen collected by E. L. Button 
at Lundazi, Northern Rhodesia. (Twenty examined.) ■ 

Anthus richardi katang^ Chapin. 

Distribution. — The Katanga area of the Belgian Congo and adjacent 
part of Northern Rhodesia from Ndola to Mwinilunga. 

This is altogether darker than the preceding races, the upperside 
being colder and more olive fawn, the edges of the wing- coverts more 
ochre, less rufous, and the underside strongly washed with ochraceous 
and less reddish than the preceding forms. (Ten examined.) 

Anthus richardi lwenarum, subsp. no v. 

Description. — Differs from A. r. katangm Chapin in the colour of the 
upperside, which is altogether colder and greyer, the rump very markedly 
so ; underside as in A. r. katangse. 

Distributibn. — North-west Northern Rhodesia from Balovale south 
at least to Mongu. 

Type. — In my collection. Male adult collected at Balovale, Northern 
Rhodesia on 23 October, 1943. (Twenty-two examined.) 

Anthus richardi bocagei Nicholson. 

Distribution. — Ovampoland to South-west Angola ; as a migrant 
recorded from the Balovale district of Northern Rhodesia in July. 

This is a very striking race, being a pale whitish sandy colour above 
and very pallid below, with the breast- spotting only lightly indicated. 

The evidence suggests that this form may be somewhat migratory, 
for one example from Balovale is identical and another very close to it. 
These birds were collected in July and had the gonads extremely small, 

Vol. lxvii.] 10 [1946-47 

whilst local birds at that time were beginning to enlarge appreciably. 
(Five examined.) 

Note. — The Anthus richardi group provides an interesting cline which 
may be arranged in the following sequence of races : A. r. rufuloides, 
A. r. lichenya, A. r. Jcatangse, A. r. Iwenarum, A. r. rufuloides (greyer 
types common in South-west Africa) ; A. r. bocagei, however, falls outside 
the cline on present knowledge, but material from the country between 
south-west Angola and the Mashi country of Northern Rhodesia may 
reveal the continuation of the cline there also. In making comparisons 
I have used only fresh plumaged birds and avoided specimens which are 
abraded or bleached or stained. Within the cline proper it is evident 
that there is a tendency to form local populations, at any rate in the 
range of A. r. rufuloides, and there is some suggestion that these are 
associated with climate, the paler populations occurring in the drier 
areas and the darker in the more humid areas. It follows, therefore, 
that good series of this Pipit must be examined in defining the races 
of it to avoid misleading non- geographical variation. Single specimens 
of one race can be matched with examples of other races, especially 
in the case of A. r. rufuloides and A. r. lichenya. 

2. A new Race of Lagonosticta. 

Lagonosticta senegala dilutior, s ibsp. nov. 

Description. — Differs from L. s. rendalli Hartert in having the centre 
of the crown and the upperside much paler and greyer, without the 
warm olive brown tinge of L. s. rendalli. The flanks, lower abdomen 
and under tail- coverts differ in a similar manner. 

Distribution. — So far known from the Balovale district of Northern 
Rhodesia. . 

Type. — In my collection. Male collected at Balovale, Northern 
Rhodesia, on December 7, 1944. 

Remarks.— The pallo • of the new race is equally marked when compared 
with the juvenile plumage, that of L. s. dilutior being much paler than 
the juvenile of L. s. rendalli. Five examples of L. s. dilutior examined. 

Notes on Eastern African Birds. 

Captain C. H. B. Grant and Mr. C. W. Mackworth-Praed sent 
the following six notes : — 

(1) On the Validity of Capella nigripennis angolensis (Bocage), Jorn. 
Ac. Sc. Lisboa, 1868, p. 49 : Huilla, southern Angola. 

In 'The Ibis ', 1945, p. 465, Mr. C. M. N. White has shown that this 

1946-47] 11 [Vol. lxvii. 

Angolan race can be recognized by the longer bill, i.e., eight males 89-99, 
twelve females 90-102 mm.* It may be of interest to record the measure- 
ments (in mm.) of the bills * of G. nigripennis Bonaparte of the 
sixty-six specimens in the British Museum collection : — 

Males. Females. Unsexed. 

Abyssinia 69-84 (7) 73-88 (4) 73-92 (4) 

Uganda 68-79 (7) 71-75 (2) 73 (1) 

Kenya Colony 68-76(2) 72-80(3) 78(1) 

Tanganyika Territory. . . . . 83 (1) 

Nyasaland 81(1) 84(1) 78(1) 

Transvaal 79-80 (2) 75-83 (5) 71-77 (4) 

Damaraland . . . . 75 (1) 

Cape Province . . 60 (1) 69-85 (4) 

Natal and Zululand . . . 66-86 (6) 76-81 (5) 73-79 (2) 

The British Museum do33 not appear to have any specimens from 
Angola or the Rhodesias. 

The above measurements do support White's conclusions, and in only 
one unsexed bird from Abyssinia does the bill measurement of 92 mm. 
fall within those given by White. 

(2) On the Relationship of Bycanistes bucinator (Temminck) and Bycanistes 

sharpii (Elliot). 
Peters, ' Birds of the World', 5, 1945, p. 268, places these together as 
one species. We have re-examined specimens and find that B. bucinator 
has the white extending to the chest, and white ends to the innermost 
primaries, the secondaries and the outer tail-feathers, whereas B. sharpii 
has the white extending to the breast, and the innermost primaries, 
secondaries, and outer tail-feathers wholly white. These very different 
characters in our opinion are specific and preclude Bycanistes sharpii 
(Elliot) being placed as a race of Bycanistes bucinator (Temminck). 

(3) On the Specific Name of the South African Crowned Hornbills. 
Peters, 'Birds of the World', 5, 1945, p. 256, in a footnote, states that 

" Roberts is entirely correct in rejecting Buceros melanoleucus Lichtenstein, 
and that " Lichtenstein's description does not apply ", but gives no data 
or reasons for this statement, apparently basing it on Roberts, Ann. Trans. 
Mus. 15, i. 1932, p. 26, who merely states that the description applies 
to the Trumpeter Hornbill except for the red bill. Peters . appears to 
have entirely overlooked Vincent's remarks in Bull. B. O. C. 55, 1934, p. 76, 
where Vincent has gone thoroughly into this question and not merely 
made an unsupported statement. 

* All measurements are of exposed part of culmen. 

Vol. lxvii.] 12 [1946-47 

We have again examined Lichtenstein's description and are of opinion 
that Vincent's views are sound. Therefore Tockus melanoleucus (Lichten- 
stein) is the correct name for the South African Crowned Hornbill and 
Protockus suahelicus australis Roberts, Ann. Trans. Mus. 15, i. 1932, 
p. 26 : Riet River, Bathurst district, is a synonym of T. melanoleucus. 

(4) On the Status of Caprimulgus ludovicianus S. Clarke, Bull. B. 0. C. 

31, 1913, p. 108 : North Kaffa, south-western Abyssinia. 

Recent specimens received at the British Museum show that the 
wing measurements of Caprimulgus inornatus Heuglin, go to 173 mm., 
i.e., 149-173 mm. The type of C. ludovicianus has a wing of 175 mm., 
but is otherwise similar to C. inornatus. 

We do not see how this species can be supported on an extra wing 
measurement of only 2 mm., and, therefore, place Caprimulgus ludovicianus 
S. Clarke as a synonym of Caprimulgus inornatus Heuglin. 

(5) On the Status of Tricholsema diadematum mustum Friedmann, Proc. N. 

Engl. Zool. cl. II. 1929, p. 35 : Northern Uaso Nyiro, central 
Kenya Colony. 

In the Benson collection, now in the British Museum, there are eight 
adults of this Barbet from Yavello and 20 miles south of Yavello which 
have wings 77-82 mm. ; three from Yavello of 81 (2) and 82 mm. The 
wing measurements of nine others in the National Collection have wing3 
80-84 mm. and nineteen specimens of T. d. diadematum (Heuglin) have 
wings 75-81 mm. 

These measurements show that the^ character of the larger size of 
T. d. mustum is not very good, and we are of opinion that it should be 
placed as a synonym of Tricholsema diadematum diadematum. 

(6) On Phyllastrephus fischeri cabinisi (Sharpe) and Phyllastrephus 

fischeri sucosus Reichenow. 

Chapin, ' The Ibis ', 1944, p. 543, has cleared up a very important 
point in nomenclature which has shown that Phyllastrephus sylvicultor 
Neave becomes a synonym of Phyllastrephus cabanisi (Sharpe). 
Reichenow, J. f. 0. 1903, p. 544, recognized P. cabanisi and placed 
P. c. sucosus as a race of it. Moreau, Bull. B. O. C. 57, 1937, p. 125, 
reviewed the P. fischeri Reichenow group and placed P. sucosus as a race 
of it, giving wing measurements for P. f. sucosus : males 77-85, females 
70-76 mm., and for P. f. sylvicultor : males 89-97, females 82-87 mm. 

1946-47] 13 [Vol. lxvii. 

Since 1937 the British Museum has received many more specimens 
from Eastern Africa, and on re- examination of the series now available 
we can see no difference in colour between specimens from the southern 
Sudan to Northern Rhodesia. Wing measurements give : Sudan, males 
84-91, females 79-83 mm. Uganda, Kenya Colony, Tanganyika Territory 
west of the Rift Valley : males 83-88, females 72-89 mm. Southern Belgian 
Congo and Northern Rhodesia : males 88-97, females 83-86 mm. This 
shows a gradual increase in size from north to south with one exceptional 
male of 91 mm. from the Sudan. 

In view of the above we place Phyllastrephus fischeri sucosus Reichenow, 
J. f. 0. 1903, p. 544 : Bukoba, north-western Tanganyika Territory, 
as a synonym of Phyllastrephus fischeri cabanisi (Sharpe), Cat. Bds. B.M. 
6, 1881, p. 83 : Eastern Angola, with a distribution from the southern 
Sudan, Uganda, Kenya Colony west of the Rift Valley to eastern Angola, 
Northern Rhodesia and western Tanganyika Territory as far east as 
Mount Kilimanjaro and the headwaters of the Nyamanse River. 


The next meeting will be held at the Rembrandt Hotel, South 
Kensington, following dinner at 6.30 p.m., on Wednesday, November 20, 




. o i% No. CCCCLXIX. 

The four-hundred-and-sixty-second Meeting of the Club was held at the 
Rembrandt Hotel, Thurloe Place, S.W. 7, on Wednesday, November 20, 
1946, following a dinner at 6.30 p.m. 

Chairman : Dr. J. M. Harrison 

Members present : — Miss C. M. Acland ; Miss P. Barclay-Smith ; 
Mrs. R. Barnes ; F. J. F. Barrington ; C. W. Benson ; Miss C. E. 
Godman ; Miss E. M. Godman ; R. E. Heath ; R. C. Homes ; Maj.-Gen. 
H. P. W. Hutson ; D. Lack ; Miss E. P. Leach (Hon. Treasurer) ; 
Miss C. Longfield ; P. R. Lowe ; J. D. Macdonald ; C. W. Mack- 
worth-Praed ; J. H. McNeile ; Col. R. Meinertzhagen ; D. A. T. 
Morgan ; E. M. Nicholson ; E. R. Parrinder ; Lt.-Col. W. A. Payn ; 
Miss G. M. Rhodes ; H. N. Southern ; Dr. A. Landsboroitgh Thomson ; 
B. W. Tucker ; Mrs. H. W. Boyd Watt. 

Guests:— Maj. N. A. G. H. Beale ; Mrs. F. M. Benson; Dr. H. C. 
Howard ; Miss G. Hutson ; R. S. Jenyns ; Mrs. Lowe ; Miss C. 
Meade Waldo ; R. R. Meinertzhagen ; Mrs. K. T. Morgan ; Mrs. A. 
L. Thomson ; J. S. Watson. 

Members, 28 ; Guests, 11. Total, 39. 

The Names of the Geospizinae (Darwin's Finches). 

Mr. David Lack sent the following in amplification of his remarks : — 

Island birds frequently provide a taxonomic difficulty, as subspecific 
and specific differentiation tends to take a form somewhat different from 
that found in a continental area. In particular, as pointed out by 
Sushkin and others, closely related species more often differ from each 
other in structural character on islands than on a continent. One might 
instance the three species of Zosterops on Norfolk Island, or the geospizine 
finches of the Galapagos. 

December 31, 1946] a VOL. lxvii. 

Vol. lxvii.] 16 [1946-47 

For this difference, there is a biological reason. In most continental 
regions, the bird fauna is comparatively old, and species evolved to fill the 
main ecological niches a long time back. Corresponding structural adapt- 
ations (in beak, etc.) also evolved a long time back, and the forms possessing 
them have had time to diverge in other respects, and are usually classified 
in separate genera. On the other hand, in isolated archipelagos like the 
Galapagos, the bird fauna is comparatively new, and indigenous species 
have evolved to fill the ecological niches only in comparatively recent times. 
Such species, like the Galapagos finches, show marked adaptive differences 
in beak, etc., but differ in very little else — plumage, eggs, nests, breeding 
behaviour, songs and calls, etc. In continential areas, forms differing as 
markedly in beak would unhesitatingly be placed in separate genera. 
But in the Galapagos finches the close similarities in everything except 
beak indicate that there should be few rather than many genera. This 
view is further supported by the fact that there are only a few species. 
The existence of many monotypic genera defeats the object of a binomial 

A parallel difficulty arises over forms which replace each other geo- 
graphically. In archipelagos, such forms are sometimes as distinctive as 
closely related continental species. Nevertheless, I think it preferable 
to treat them as subspecies (geographical races) rather than as full species, 
provided it is reasonably certain that the forms in question are closely 
related and provided they are not too distinctive. 

It will therefore be seen that, so far as the Geospizinse are concerned, I 
believe in conserving names, rather than " splitting ". Judgement in such 
matters is inevitably arbitrary, but I believe my procedure is not only 
more practical, but also more truly reflects biological relationships than 
previous classifications of the Geospizinse. I might once again emphasize 
the invaluable work of Swarth (1931), who cleared up nearly all the 
previous confusion in this group, and would point out that I differ from 
Swarth only in nomenclature, not as regards relationships, except for two 
minor points (the resurrection of Geospiza conirostris darwini and the 
extinction of Geospiza magnirostris magnirostris). 

Some of the changes tabulated below have already been published 
(Lack, 1945), but I have made further changes from this ear Her account in a 
forthcoming book (Lack, in press ) . A note on these two accounts therefore 
seems needed. Early in 1940, I completed a first full account of the 
Geospizinee (based (i) on field work with W. H. Thompson and L. S. V. 
Venables in the Galapagos Islands from December 1938 to March 1939, 
and (ii) on a study of collected skins between April and September 1939), 

194^47] 17 [Vol. lxvii. 

This account was, I now realize, somewhat hastily written, but there was 
threat of invasion and I could not work further at it. Its revision for the 
press, including certain rewriting and the proof-reading, was undertaken 
entirely by the staff of the California Academy of Sciences, to whom I am 
extremely grateful, and after inevitable war-time delays it has now 
appeared (Lack, 1945). 

Some years later, I found time to start on a book, ' Darwin's Finches ', 
(Lack, in press), concerned primarily with evolutionary problems. Un- 
expectedly, a reconsideration of the data led to one marked and several 
minor changes in interpretation, and some changes in nomenclature were 
also made. To prevent possible confusion, it seems desirable to summarize 
these changes in an ornithological journal, especially as my two accounts of 
the Geospizinse are appearing within two years of each other, though 
separated by nearly five years in the writing. 

Changes in Nomenclature. 

The forms Camarhynchus affinis and C. habeli, which have previously 
been treated as separate species, I now regard as races of C. psittacula. 
They replace C. psittacula (sens, strict.) geographically, and obviously are 
closely related to it. They show greater differences in beak than is usual 
among subspecies of the same species, but in every other respect are very 
similar, and the Geospizina? are exceptionally variable in beak. 

The above treatment leaves only three species in the genus Camarhyn- 
chus as used by Swarth (1931), the two others being C. pauper and C. 
parvulus. However, there are three other species closely related to 
Camarhynchus, namely, crassirostris, which was placed by Swarth in the 
monotypic genus Platyspiza, and pallida and heliobates, which were placed 
by Swarth in another genus, Cactospiza. I now, and in the book, treat 
Platyspiza and Cactospiza as subgenera of Camarhynchus. This judgement 
is inevitably arbitrary. However, the species concerned are closely 
similar except in beak, the number of generic names is thereby reduced, 
and, in my view, a better picture is provided of geospizine affinities, as all 
the " tree-finches " are thereby united under one name, and are thus 
clearly separated from the " ground-finches " of the genus Geospiza. 
Some of the species in the latter genus differ from each other in beak by 
quite as much as some of the species in the enlarged genus Camarhynchus. 

The genus Camarhynchus may be redescribed as follows : (a) a group of 
six geospizine species confined to the Galapagos ; (b) in habits primarily 
" tree finches ", as distinct from the " ground- finches " of the genus 
Geospiza, and also from the warbler-like Certhidea, which primarily 


Vol. lxvii.] 18 [1945-47 

frequents bushes ; (c) females and juveniles paler and less streaked in 
plumage than those of Geospiza or Pinaroloxias, but only a few forms 
immaculate, like Certhidea ; (d) fully plumaged males with black extending 
no further than head and breast, but in some individuals to head only, and 
in subgenus Cactospiza black absent entirely. The group is thus distin- 
guished from Geospiza and Pinaroloxias, in which the fully plumaged 
males are normally black all over the body, and from Certhidea, in which 
the males have no black but usually have an qrange-tawny throat-patch ; 
(e) size varying from small to large among the Geospizinse, mean wing- 
length from 63 to 87 mm. ; (/) beak variable, but in all species thick, 
which separates the group from Certhidea or Pinaroloxias, which have 
slender pointed beaks. Beak in most species short, stout and compressed 
with strongly convex culmen, but with a longer and less convex culmen in 
subgenus Cactospiza ; (g) food primarily insects, except in the subgenus 
Platyspiza, in which fruits, buds and leaves form the bulk of the diet. 
This distinguishes the group from Geospiza, in which most species feed 
primarily on seeds and some on Opuntia. 

For use in the book I have provided a complete set of English names for 
the species. Some of these have been used before, but many are new. I 
have tried to make them as simple and descriptive as possible. An earlier 
set of names was given by Hellmayr (1938), many of these being mere 
translations of the Latin names. I have rejected most of Hellmayr's 
English specific names, for one of the following reasons : (a) those denoted 
by the name of an island, because in no case is the species concerned the 
only geospizid found there ; (b) those denoted by the name of an ornitho- 
logist, because these have no descriptive value, nor any specific association 
with the ornithologist in question ; (c) those with descriptive names which 
could as well, or better, be applied to some other species, e.g. " striped- 
breasted ", " small-billed ", " black-headed ", " sooty " and others. I 
further differ from Hellmayr in that I have not given English names for 
subspecies or island forms. These are most clearly and simply referred to 
by the name of the species together with the name of the island or islands 
concerned. Hellmayr's English names are so new that they cannot be 
said to be sanctioned by tradition, and as priority rules do not apply to 
English names, I can see no serious objection to change on conservative 

A full list of Hellmayr's and my nomenclature follows. Differences 
between these lists which have not been discussed in the present paper were 
already adopted in Lack (1945), 



[Vol. lxvii. 

Table 1. — Scientific names of the Geospizinse. 

(i.) As used by Hellmayr (1938). 
Geospiza magnirostris Gould. 

Geospiza fortis Gould. 

Geospiza fuliginosa fuliginosa Gould. 

G. f. minor Rothschild & Hartert. 

Geospiza difficilis difficilis Sharpe. 

G. d. acutirostris Ridgway. 

Geospiza difficilis debilirostris Ridgway. 

Geospiza difficilis septentrionalis Roth- 
schild & Hartert. 

Geospiza difficilis nigrescens Swarth. 

Geospiza scandens scandens (Gould). 

Geospiza s. intermedia Ridgway. 

Geospiza s. abingdoni (Sclater & Salvin). 

Geospiza s. rothschildi Heller & Snod- 

Geospiza conirostris conirostris Ridgway 

Geospiza c. propinqua Ridgway. 

Platyspiza crassirostris (Gould). 
Camarhynchus psittacula Gould. 
Camarhynchus affinis Ridgway. 
Camarhynchus habeli Sclater & Salvin. 

Camarhynchus pauper Ridgway. 
Camarhynchus parvulus parvulus (Gould) . 
Camarhynchus p. salvini Ridgway. 
Camarhynchus conjunctus Swarth. 
Camarhynchus aureus Swarth. 
Cactospiza pallida paljida (Sclater &""] 

Salvin). V 

Cactospiza pallida producta (Ridgway). J 
Cactospiza pallida striatipecta Swarth. 

Cactospiza gijfordi Swarth. 

Cactospiza heliobates (Snodgrass & 

Certhidea olivacea Gould (with eight 

Pinaroloxias inomata (Gould). 

(ii.) As used by Lack (in press). 

Geospiza magnirostris Gould. 

(It might be desirable to term 
Darwin's extinction form G. magni- 
rostris magnirostris Gould and the 
extant form G. magnirostris strenua 
Gould ; see para. vi. below.) 
Geospiza fortis Gould. 

Geospiza fuliginosa Gould. 

Geospiza difficilis difficilis Sharpe. 

Geospiza difficilis debilirostris Ridgway. 

Geospiza difficilis septentrionalis Roth- 
schild & Hartert. 

Geospiza scandens (Gould). 

(Races merged tentatively, but they 
are partially differentiated, as is an 
unnamed form from Chatham.) 

Geospiza conirostris conirostris Ridgway. 
Geospiza c. propinqua Ridgway. 
Geospiza conirostris darwini Rothschild & 

Hartert (revived). 
Camarhynchus crassirostris Gould. 
Camarhynchus psittacula psittacula Gould. 
Camarhynchus psittacula affinis Ridgway. 
Camarhynchus psittacula habeli Sclater & 

Camarhynchus pauper Ridgway. 
Camarhynchus parvulus parvulus (Gould). 
Camarhynchus p. salvini Ridgway. 
Not a valid species. 
Not a valid species. 

Camarhynchus pallidus pallidus (Sclater 
& Salvin). 

Camarhynchus pallidus striatipectus 

Not a valid species. 
Camarhynchus heliobates (Snodgrass & 

Certhidea olivacea Gould (with eight 

Pinaroloxias inomata (Gould). 

Vol. lxvii.J 



Table I] 


Geospiza magnirostris . . 

Geospiza fortis 

Geospiza fuliginosa .... 

Geospiza difficilis 

Geospiza scandens 

Geospiza conirostris .... 

Camarhynchus crassi- 

Camarhynchus psittacula. 

. — English Names of the Geospizinse, 

Hellmayr (1938). Lack (in press). 

Large-billed Ground-Finch. 
Sturdy Ground -Finch. 
Sooty Ground-Finch. 
Lesser Sooty Ground-Finch. 
Sharpe's Ground-Finch. 
Sharp-billed Ground-Finch. 
Slender-billed Ground-Finch. 
Northern Ground-Finch. 
Blackish Ground -Finch. 
Gould's Ground-Finch. 
Intermediate Ground-Finch. 
Abingdon Island Ground-Finch 
Rothschild's Ground-Finch. J 

Cone-billed Ground-Finch. 1 Large Cactus Ground- 

Tower Island Ground-Finch. J Finch. 
Darwin's Ground-Finch. Vegetarian Tree-Finch 

Large Ground-Finch. 
Medium Ground-Finch. 

> Small Ground-Finch. 

Sharp -beaked Ground" 

Cactus Ground-Finch. 

Camarhynchus pauper . . 
Camarhynchus parvulus 
Camarhynchus pallidus 

Camarhynchus heliobates 
Certhidea olivacea .... 

Pinarolaxias inornata 

Parrot Ground-Finch. 
Allied Ground-Finch. 
Habel's Ground -Finch. 
Small-billed Ground-Finch. 

Black-headed Ground-Finch. 

Salvia's Ground-Finch. 

Pale Ground-Finch. 

Albemarle Island Ground - 

Striped-breasted Ground- 

Heller's Ground-Finch 

Becks' Certhidea. 

Dusky Certhidea. 

Lead-coloured Certhidea. 

Olivaceous Certhidea. 

Bidgway's Certhidea. 

Yellowish Certhidea. 

Barrington Island Certhidea 

Ashy Certhidea. 

Cocos Island Finch. 


Large Insectivorous 
Tree -Finch. 

Large Insectivorous 

Tree-Finch on Charles. 
Small Insectivorous 

>■ Woodpecker-Finch. 


y Warbler-Finch. 


Differences in interpretation. 

In the following summary, " A " refers to the California Academy of 
Sciences paper of 1945, and " B " to the book in press, the page references 
being to the works in question. Reasons for the differences in inter- 

1946-47] 21 [Vol. lxvii. 

pretation are given in the book, so need not be repeated here. Much the 
most important difference is the first, the two following ones being related 
to it. 

(i.) I formerly supposed that the sole function of the marked beak 
differences between the closely related species of Geospiza and Camarhyn- 
chus was in specific recognition. I now consider that the beak differences 
are primarily correlated with differences in diet, the latter enabling the 
species to persist in the same habitat without effectively competing 
(A, pp. 43, 50, 119-20 ; B, pp. 60-4). For a discussion of the general 
principles involved, see also Lack (1944), and for a consideration of overlap 
in diet Lack (1946). 

(ii.) I formerly thought that all the beak differences between island forms 
of the same species were non-adaptive. However, some seem adaptively 
correlated with differences in food and ecological niche (A, p. 117 ; B, 
pp. 66-71, 117). 

(iii.) On the islets of Daphne and Crossman are forms intermediate in 
appearance between Geospiza fortis and G. fuliginosa. These, I formerly 
suggested, might be of hybrid origin, but I now agree with Swarth (1931) 
that the Daphne birds are a small form of G. fortis and the Crossman birds 
are a large form of G. fuliginosa. Likewise the Culpepper form Geospiza 
conirostris darwini is, I now consider, a true race of G. conirostris, and not 
of hybrid origin between the latter and G. magnirostris (A, pp. 90, 96, 
103-5, 124 ; B, pp. 68, 84-5, 96-7). 

(iv.) I now consider that some, though not all, of the plumage differences 
between races of the same species are adaptive, instead of non-adaptive 
(A, p. 72 ; B, pp. 37, 40). 

(v.) Originally I suggested that Geospiza fuliginosa was the most 
primitive of the Geospizinae, and derived G. difficilis from it. However, 
taking plumage into account, G. difficilis seems the more primitive, and the 
resemblance between the Tower form of G. difficilis and G. fuliginosa seems 
due in part to parallel evolution (A, pp. 122-3, 128 ; B, pp. 101-2). 

(vi.) Darwin obtained an exceptionally large form of Geospiza mag- 
nirostris found by no later expedition. He also collected typical present- 
day G. magnirostris, named G. strenua by Gould, which is readily separable. 
Earlier authors concluded that Darwin's large form came from either 
Charles or Chatham, where G. magnirostris does not live to day, and hence 
that it represents an extinct form. Swarth (1931) thought that Darwin's 
large form did not come from Charles or Chatham, and hence concluded that 
the form of the species had changed since Darwin's time. I formerly 

Vol. lxvii.] 22 [1946-47 

agreed with Swarth, but I now think the evidence supports earlier authors 
(A, p. 9 ; B, pp. 22-3). If this conclusion is accepted, then present-day 
magnirostris should presumably be referred to as Geospiza magnirostris 
strenua Gould, G. magnirostris magnirostris being retained for the extinct 
form (see previous summary). 

(vii.) I now see no reason for postulating former land connections 
between the various Galapagos islands, as Mayr (1944) and others have 
shown that reptiles apparently cross areas of sea not infrequently (A, 
pp. 109-10 ; B, p. 111). 


Hellmayr, C. E., 1938. — Catalogue of Birds of the Americas and adjacent islands 

in the Field Museum of Natural History. — Part XI. Ploceidae-Catambly- 

rhynchidae-Fringillidae, pp. 130-46. 
Lack, D. 1944. — Ecological aspects of species-formation in passerine birds. Ibis, 

86, 260-86. 
Lack, D. 1945. — The Galapagos finches : a study in variation. Occ. Pap. Calif. 

Acad. Sci. 21. 
Lack, D. 1946. — Competition for food by birds of prey. J. Anim. Ecol. 15, 123-9. 
Lack, D. (in press). — ' Darwin's Finches ' (Cambridge University Press). 
Mayr, E. 1944.— The birds of Timor and Sumba. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 83, 

Swarth, H. S. 1931. — The avifauna of the Galapagos Islands. Occ. Pap. Calif. 

Acad. Sci. 18. 

Exhibition of Skins of Wrens. 

Col. Payn exhibited a series of Wrens from the Continent compared with 
a series from Great Britain and made the following remarks : — 

"lam exhibiting a series of Wrens (Troglodytes t. troglodytes (Linnaeus)) 
from Blois, on the River Loire, in the centre of France, as compared with 
a series from Great Britain, mostly the south. There has been no special 
selection of either series. As far as I know, the only races of Troglodytes 
troglodytes, that have been made so far in Europe, have been from islands 
or the coast of Western Europe, or from the Mediterranean. 

On examination it will be seen that the main differences between the 
two series are : — 

{a) On the upper parts. — The British bird is much darker on the back, 
while the Continental bird is paler and redder. Also in the 
Continental bird the bars on the wings seem to be continued over 
the head. 

1946-47] 23 [Vol. lxvil 

(b) On the underparts. — The bars on the lower part of the Continental 
bird are much blacker and more pronounced. 

I may say that I have no intention of making a separate race, or giving 
a name to the Continental bird. To begin with, we don't know how far 
this variety extends : it may be merely the valley of the Loire, or most of 
France, or even the whole of the mainland of Europe ; or it may be just a 
connecting link between the Eastern European and the British forms. 
Anyone who may undertake to separate the various forms on the 
mainland of the continent, will require to have access to specimens 
collected from most parts of Europe. 

Col. Meinertzhagen congratulated the speaker on his first exhibition of 
skins before the Society, and also congratulated him on having pointed out 
what seemed to be a perfectly good form without giving it a name. He 
added that already, in addition to the typical form, there were four other 
forms of Troglodytes described from the British Islands and that he had in 
his collection yet another undescribed form from Ushant. But the races 
of Troglodytes sadly needed revision. He did not know of any collection 
which contained adequate material and he hoped that until such material 
was available, it would not be undertaken. The piecemeal manner of 
describing new forms until the complete cline or clines were known, is 
most reprehensible and brings ornithology into disrepute — a most mis- 
chievous habit. Such procedure can only be justified where the race is 
known to be isolated or where it is clearly at the end of its cline. 

Exhibition of Cine-film "Birds of the Village ." 

The educational film which has been prepared by Mr. James Fisher was 
exhibited and much appreciated. 

A new Bush-Shrike from Angola. 

Mr. C. M. N. White sent the following description : — 

Telophorus viridis vieirae, subsp. nov. 

Description. — Similar to Telephones viridis viridis (Vieillot) but larger 
and with a marked sexual dimorphism which is said to be lacking in 
T. viridis. The male of the new race differs but slightly from the male of 
the typical race in having the red band below the black collar changing 
to yellow at the sides of the breast and the chocolate abdominal stripe 
broadening at its upper end to form a large patch on the breast below the 
red band. 

a 5 

Vol. lxvii.] 24 [1946-47 

The female differs from the male in being more yellow green below, 
forehead dull golden brown without any golden yellow spot before the eye ; 
throat much lighter and with yellowish bases to the feathers showing 
through ; black breast band much narrower, bordered at the lower margin 
with an indistinct yellow band stained slightly with red in the middle ; 
central abdominal stripe lighter, pale milk chocolate colour ; under tail- 
coverts milk chocolate not maroon red ; tail feathers not plain black 
but all margined basally with green and the centre pair margined with 
green for their whole length and tipped with green. 

Distribution. — Only known from the Kamano river, Cavungu district, 
Alto Zambesi division, Eastern Angola. 

Type. — In my collection : adult female, not breeding, collected at 
Kamano river, Cavungu, Alto Zambesi division, Eastern Angola, in 
August 1946 by an African collector, Sakayombo. 

Measurements. — Wing of six birds, 4 males, 2 females, 86-91 mm. 
against 80-86 in 9 of the typical race measured by Bannerman (Bds. 
Tropical W. Afr. v. p. 434) ; tail 85-90 against 78-83 mm. ; culmen from 
skull, 22-23 mm. 

Remarks. — Named after Senor D. Damaso de Magalhaes Vieira, O.S.B., 
of Cazombo, Angola, as a mark of appreciation for his kindness and help 
to me whilst in Angola. 

The discovery of this striking Bush-Shrike at Cavungu was quite 
unexpected, for the typical race occurs hundreds of miles to the west, from 
the Portuguese Congo to Ndala Tando, Malanje and Benguella. Accord- 
ing to Bannerman nothing has been recorded of its habits. Field notes 
made by Sakayombo may be translated as follows : " found in patches of 
very dense thickets of trees of types not found at Balovale or Mwinilunga, 
the nearest parts of Northern Rhodesia and resembling somewhat the 
vegetation of evergreen forest patches. Its loud call of ko-ko-kwi attracts 
attention to its presence, but when one searches for it it has usually 
vanished in the undergrowth. It is largely found near ground level and 
can be trapped quite easily by snares set in the runs of the Giant Elephant 
Shrews, which inhabit the same undergrowth. It feeds on insects. I 
never saw it outside the thickets, but it is said sometimes to come out to 
the guavas when they are ripe in Senor Cardozo's garden ". 

Telophorus quadricolor (Cassin) of s.outh-east and c ast Africa seems to 
me to be conspecific ; it differs mainly in having the lower breast and 
belly yellow, and its habits and call are very similar to those now recorded 
for the Angola bird. 

194&-47] 25 [Vol. lxvii. 

Two New Races of Larks from Southern Abyssinia, 
and a New Race of Green-headed Oriole from 
Tanganyika Territory. 

Mr. C. W. Benson exhibited and described : — 

Pseudalsemon fremantlii megaensis, subsp. nov. 

Description. — Differs from Pseudalsemon fremantlii fremantlii (Phillips) 
in having the chest and flanks more brightly washed with pinky buff, 
and the sepia streaks on the chest bolder ; the upperside much darker 
in general appearance, the centres of the feathers being a darker sepia, 
and the margins rusty rather than sandy. Differs from Pseudalsemon 
fremantlii delamerei Sharpe in being larger ; the chest and flanks more 
brightly washed with pinky buff ; and the feathers of the crown and 
mantle margined with rusty rather than with pale isabelline. 

Distribution. — Only so far known from the short grassed plains at 
4000-4500 ft., between Yavello and Mega, southern Abyssinuia. 

Type. — In the British Museum. Adult male. 15 miles north of Mega, 
southern Abyssinia. 12th October, 1941. Collected by C. W. Benson. 
Brit. Mus. Reg. No. 1946.5.10. Collector's No. E1154. 

Measurements of Type. — Wing 91, culmen from base 20, tail 49, tarsus 
22 mm. 

Remarks. — A series of seven males and three females of this new race 
was collected. They have been compared with the following : — 

Four males and three females oi P . f . fremantlii from British Somaliland, 
in the British Museum. 

Twelve males and one female, topotypical of P. f. delamerei, in Dr. van 
Someren's collection. 

One female of P. f. delamerei from Ardai, near Arusha, Tanganyika 
Territory, in the British Museum. 

The following are comparative wing-measurements, in mm., of P. /. 
megaensis and P. f. delamerei : — 

P.f. megaensis. Seven males, 89 (two), 90 (two), 91 (three). 
Two females, 85, 89. 

P.f. delamerei. Eleven males, 80 (two), 81, 84, 85 (three), 86, 87 
( three). ( 
Two females, 84, 84-5. 

This species has akeady been referred to by me in my general account 
of the collection made by me in southern Abyssinia, see Ibis, 1946, p. 39. 

Vol. lxvii.] 26 [1946-47 

I am indebted to Captain C. H. B. Grant, who drew my attention to the 
differences between this new race and P. f. fremantlii. 

Calandrella somalica megaensis, subsp. no v. 

Description. — Differs from Calandrella somalica somalica (Sharpe) in 
being more boldy streaked on the upperside, the centres of the feathers 
being blacker, with the margins rufous, rather than pale isabelline. 
Differs from Calandrella somalica athensis (Sharpe) in having the margins 
of the feathers of the upperside rufous rather than whitish, and on the 
underside the chest and flanks more rufous. 

Distribution. — Only so far known from the short grassed plains at 
3000-4500 ft., near Yavello, Mega and Neghelli, southern Abyssinia. 

Type. — In the British Museum. Adult male. 10 miles north of Mega, 
southern Abyssinia. 5th September, 1941. Collected by C. W. Benson. 
Brit. Mus. Reg. No. 1946.5.11. Collector's No. E806. 

Measurements of Type. — Wing 85, culmen from base 15, tail 51, tarsus 
20 mm. 

Remarks. — A series of nine males, nine females and one unsexed, of this 
new race was collected. They have been compared with the following : — 

Four males and two unsexed specimens of C. s. somalica from British 
Somaliland, in the British Museum. 

Twenty-six specimens topotypical of C. s. athensis, in Dr. van Someren's 
collection, and four males and three females, also topotypical of this 
race, in the British Museum. 

One male and one female of C. s. athensis from northern Tanganyika 
Territory, in the British Museum. 

There is no doubt that C. megsensis and C. athensis should be regarded as 
races of C. somalica, and Grant and Mackworth-Praed, who have examined 
all the specimens in the British Museum, including my Abyssinian series, 
are in agreement with this. 

The colour differences in the three races are closely analogous to those in 
the three races of Pseudalsemon fremantlii, vide ante. As with that species, 
Calandrella has already been referred to by me in my general account of the 
collection made by me in southern Abyssinia : see Ibis, 1046, p. 40. 

I am indebted to Captain C. H. B. Grant, who drew my attention to 
the differences between this new race and C. s. somalica. 

Oriolus chlorocephalus amani, subsp. nov. 

Description.— Differs from Oriolus chlorocephalus chlorocephalus Shelley 
in its smaller size. Male, wing 123-134, tail 91-99-5 mm., compared to 

1946-47] 27 [Vol lxvii. 

wing 133-141, tail 100-110 mm. in 0. c. chlorocephalus. Female, wing 
123-127, tail 90-95 mm., compared to wing 129-132, tail 98-104 mm. in 
0. c. chlorocephalus. 

Distribution. — From the Usambara Mountains, north-eastern Tangan- 
yika Territory, south to the Rondo Plateau, south-eastern Tanganyika 

Type. — In the British Museum. Adult male. Amani, Usambara 
Mountains, Tanganyika Territory, at 1600 ft. 21st March, 1931. Collec- 
ted by R. E. Moreau. Brit. Mus. Reg. No. 1931.12.19.242. 

Measurements of Type. — Wing 126, culmen from base 26, tail 93, tarsus 
26 mm. 

Remarks. — The following are more detailed comparative measurements 
of wing and tail : — 
0. c. chlorocephalus (southern Nyasaland east of the Shire Valley — 

Cholo ; Soche ; Chiradzulu ; Chikala, at 4500-5000 ft.). 
Six males. Wing 133 (three), 138-5, 139, 141 mm. 

Tail 100, 101, 102, 109 (two), 110 mm. 
Five females. Wing 129, 130 (two), 131, 132 mm. 

Tail 98, 99, 103 (two), 104 mm. 
In addition, the type has wing 136, tail 106 mm. It is sexed as a female, 
but would appear from these measurements to be a male. All these 
specimens of O. c. chlorocephalus are in the British Museum, except one, 
in the Transvaal Museum. 

0. c. amani (Nchingidi, Rondo Plateau, south-eastern Tanganyika 

Territory, at 2700 ft.). 
Two males. Wing 123, 128 mm. 

Tail 95, 99-5 mm. 
0. c. amani (Turiani, Nguru Mountains, eastern Tanganyika Territory, 

at 1400 ft.). 
One male. Wing 134, tail 99-5 mm. 

0. c. amani (Amani and Bungu, Usambara Mountains, north-eastern 
Tanganyika Territory. According to Moreau, in litt., character- 
istically a lowland bird in the Usambaras, common from 500 to 
3000 ft., and probably never occurring higher than 4500 ft.). 
Five males. Wing 126 (two), 127, 128, 131 mm. 

Tail 91, 93, 94-5, 95, 98 mm. 
Three females. Wing 123 (two), 126 mm. 

Tail 90, 91-5, 93 mm. 
Of these specimens of 0. c. amani, two males and a female, from Amani, 
are in the British Museum. The Nguru bird was kindly loaned by the 

Vol. Ixvii.] 28 [1946-^7 

Director of the Agricultural Research Institute at Amani. The remainder 
are in the American Museum of Natural History, New York, and the 
Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard, and I am very grateful to 
Dr. James P. Chapin, and Mr. James L. Peters, of these two institutions 
respectively, for their measurements (wings measured flattened, as is 
customary in England). 

In addition, Dr. Chapin has provided measurements of three other 
specimens in the American Museum : — male, Bungu, wing 127, tail 95 ; 
female, Bungu, wing 130, tail 98 ; unsexed, Nguru Mountains, wing 130, 
tail 98 mm. In regard to the two Bungu specimens, Chapin suggests that 
the labels may have been transposed. Both were collected by Loveridge, 
in September 1921 . The Nguiu bird would appear to be a male. 

It is noteworthy that the Nyasaland race is a bird of higher altitudes 
than the Tanganyika Territory race, and one would therefore expect it to 
be the larger of the two *. Both are restricted to evergreen forest. 

Notes on Eastern and Southern African Birds. 

Mr. C. W. Benson sent the following three notes : — 

(1) On the Races of Sheppardia gunningi Haagner. 

Macdonald, in his paper on the genus Sheppardia (Ibis, 1940, pp. 
663-671), places Sheppardia sokokensis (van Someren) and Sheppardia 
bensoni Kinnear as races of Sheppardia gunningi. With this arrangement 
I am in agreement, Some further remarks on the races of this species 
should be of value, however, as I have had for examination not only all the 
material that Macdonald had, but also four specimens of S. gunningi,- of 
which Macdonald had none, and through the kindness of Dr. V. G. L. van 
Someren four additional specimens of S. sokokensis, of which Macdonald 
had only one. My observations are summarized as follows : — 

Sheppardia gunningi gunningi Haagner. 

Sheppardia gunningi Haagner, Ann. Trans. Mus. 1, 1909, p. 180: 
Mzimbiti, near Beira, Portuguese East Africa. 

Characteristics. — Lores and superciliary streak, also primary coverts 
and outer edges of outer primaries pale bluish grey. Underside brownish 

Distribution. — Only known from the type-locality, below 200 feet. 

Remarks. — In February 1946, I was able to send my African collector, 

* See Mayr, Systematics and the Origin of Species (Columbia University Press, 
1942), p. 92. 

1946-47] 29 [Vol. lxvii. 

Jali Makawa, to the type-locality, where he collected four specimens — 
two adult males and two immature birds, with some of the feathers of the 
upperside tipped with rufous. They have been presented to the British 
Museum. Three of my specimens (the fourth is a very young bird) do not 
differ in any essential from the original description, but the colouring of 
the underside is not at all like that in the coloured plate accompanying 
the description. In my specimens the colour is essentially orange, 
whereas the plate shows it as yellow. The specimen which was figured is in 
the Transvaal Museum. Dr. Austin Roberts informs me that the colouring 
of the underside in the plate is quite incorrect, and that the colouring in the 
specimen itself is actually very like the orange of the underside in the 
uppermost figure of a Batis on the same plate. This is so in three of my 
specimens too. From this it is evident that they are very similar to this 
specimen in the Transvaal Museum. My fourth specimen is still in the 
fledgeling stage. It is more yellowish, as it happens, below. There is one 
further error in the plate to which attention must be drawn. The white 
supraocular stripe is in reality hidden by the bluish grey superciliary, which 
extends further behind the eye than the white colour. Also, this colouring 
of the superciliary, and of the lores, is not very distinctly shown in the 

Measurements. — Two males, wing 66-72, tail 45 mm. (one in moult). 
Imm. unsexed, wing 68, tail 47 mm. Imm. female, wing 65, tail 46 mm. 
Roberts, " The Birds of South Africa ", gives wing 69-5-71, tail 51-54 mm., 
without stating the sex. 

Sheppardia gunningi sokokensis (van Someren). 

Callene sokokensis van Someren, Bull. B. O. C. xli. 1921, p. 125 : 
Sokoke Forest (coast of Kenya Colony, near Malindi). 

Characteristics. — Differs from 8. g. gunningi in the lores, superciliary 
streak, primary coverts and outer edges of outer primaries being brighter, 
more markedly bluish, and the underside a pure orange, in some indi- 
viduals yellow, and always lacking any brownish tinge. 

Distribution. — Littoral of East Africa, at 1100 feet or lower. (Kenya 
Colony : — Sokoke, near Malindi ; Rabai, near Mombasa ; Shimba Hills, 
Kwale district. Tanganyika Territory : — Pugu, near Dar-es-Salaam.) 

Remarks. — Two males from the Shimba Hills, near the Kenya Colony- 
Tanganyika Territory boundary, which had gonads much enlarged, are 
much richer orange below, and somewhat darker olive above, than two 
males from Sokoke, which are yellowish below (no indication as to state of 
gonads). One would be strongly inclined to regard the Shimba birds as 

Vol. lxvii.] 30 [1946-47 

racially distinct, but for the fact that a male from Pugu, also with gonads 
enlarged, agrees better with the Sokoke birds. It is only slightly more 
orange, and is practically identical on the upperside. It should be 
emphasized that Shimba lies between Sokoke and Pugu. 

Measurements (all of males). — Sokoke, wing 72 (both), tail 50-52 mm. 
Shimba, wing 71-5-72, tail 52-56 mm. Pugu, wing 71, tail 50 mm. 

Sheppardia gunningi bensoni Kinnear. 

Sheppardia bensoni Kinnear, Bull. B. O. C. lviii. 1938, p. 138 : near 
Nkata Bay, West Nyasa district, Nyasaland. 

Characteristics. — Lores, superciliary streak, primary coverts and outer 
edges of outer primaries as in S. g. sokokensis, and the only constant 
colour-difference from that race is that the white of the abdomen is res- 
tricted to the lower portion only, not extending up towards the chest. 
Rather larger than either S. g. gunningi or S. g. sokokensis. 

Distribution. — Chinteche district (formerly known as West Nyasa 
district), Nyasaland, between Chinteche and Nkata Bay, at 1600 feet, also 
recorded from 30 miles south-west of Chinteche at 4000 feet. 

Remarks. — Through the kindness of Dr. Austin Roberts I have had the 
loan of a male in the Transvaal Museum (TM. no. 23086), which is a paler, 
less reddish, orange below, the olive of the upperside less rufous tinged, 
than in any other specimens. In colour, but for the character of the 
abdomen given above, it could be regarded as intermediate between the 
Sokoke and Shimba birds (S. g. sokokensis). This is probably the only 
fully adult specimen examined. Certainly some of the others are young, 
having a few feathers on the upperside tipped with rufous, and the skull 
not fully ossified. The bird figured in Ibis, 1940, plate x, is of this more 
generally rufous type. It is curious that in S. g. gunningi the young tends 
to be more yellowish, less orange below than in the adult, rather the 
contrary to S. g. bensoni. 

Measurements. — Five males, wing 72 (one), 75 (four), tail 54 (two), 
58 (one), 59 (two) mm. Two females, wing 68, 70, tail 50 mm. (one in 

Sheppardia gunningi is a low-level species, frequenting evergreen forest. 
The races are as strictly isolated as in most species frequenting montane 
evergreen forest. Thus my experience of the country between Chinteche 
and Mzimbiti leads me to believe that it is not found in any intermediate 
localities, certainly not so in Nyasaland. Lt.-Col. Jack Vincent informs 
me that he is certain that he saw the species at Netia, near the coast of 

1946-47] 31 [Vol.lxvii. 

northern Portuguese East Africa, during his 1931-2 expedition. The 
Chinteche race inhabits rather higher altitudes than the other two, and this 
is the probable explanation of its rather larger size : see Mayr, ' System- 
atics and the Origin of Species ' (Columbia University Press, 1942), 
p. 92. 

(2) On the Characters and Distribution of Francolinus natalensis neavei 
Mackworth-Praed, Bull. B. O. C. xl. 1920, p. 140 : Loangwa River, 
Northern Rhodesia. 

My collector, Jali Makawa, worked for ten days, commencing 23rd 
November 1945, at Tambara, on the River Zambesi, Portuguese East 
Africa. Tambara is sited at approximately 16° 42' S., 34° 10' E., and is 
at an altitude of less than 200 feet. In the collection made are seven 
specimens of Francolinus natalensis, all females. They have been pre- 
sented to the British Museum, and the remarks which follow are based 
on these and the other specimens of this species in the British Museum. 

Only one bird of my series is completely adult. On the underside the 
others are washed with rufous to a greater or lesser degree, and less 
profusely marked with black. 

I have examined the type, a spurred adult male, and another such male 
from the Kafue Valley, Northern Rhodesia, also a nearly adult female, 
unspurred, from the Loangwa Valley. Three other specimens from this 
same general area are immature, even younger than any of my series, 
being strongly washed with rufous and having comparatively few black 
markings, on the underside. 

Comparing the adult Northern Rhodesia and Tambara birds with a 
series of F. n. natalensis Smith, consisting of one male, spurred, and eight 
females, unspurred, all adult, from the Transvaal and Natal, the former are 
distinguishable by being less heavily marked with black on the underside, 
and these markings are disposed more longitudinally (there is a more 
streaked appearance) and do not extend onto the centre of the abdomen. 
These differences apply to both sexes, in which there is no difference of 
colour. I do not find that there are any other constant colour- differences 
between the two races. Mackworth-Praed, in his original description, 
remarks that on the underside the female oiF.n. neavei has the markings 
brownish, and that there is a brownish rufous wash. But my Tambara 
adult female has the markings black, and lacks any such wash. 

Chapin, ' The Birds of the Belgian Congo ', i. p. 702, states that 
F. n. neavei is a little smaller than F. n. natalensis, and this is borne out 

Vol. Ixvii.] 32 [1946-47 

by the wing-measurements of the specimens which I have examined, as 
follows : — 

Natal, Transvaal (F. n. natalensis). 

One male, 185 mm. 

Eight females, 159, 160, 160, 162, 165, 168, 170, 175 mm. 

Tambara (F. n. neavei). 

Seven females, 155, 155, 155, 162, 162, 163, 165 mm. 

The four largest measurements of this series are of not completely adult 

birds, which are probably fully grown in size, however. 
Northern Rhodesia (F. n. neavei). 
Two males, 162, 165 mm. 
One female, 162 mm. 

Sclater, ' Systema Avium iEthiopicarum ', includes the Zambesi 
region within the range of F. n. natalensis, but I attribute Tambara birds 
to F. n. neavei. 

This species does not appear to extend into Nyasaland, where my 
collector searched for it specially, and for long periods, in the Lower Shire 
area, in similar country to that at Tambara, and only some fifty miles to 
the eastward. 

(3) On the Specific Status of Erythropygia quadrivirgata (Reichenow). 

Belcher ("' The Birds of Nyasaland ', 1930) regards Erythropygia 
barbata barbata (Finsch & Hartlaub) as the race occurring in northern 
and central Nyasaland, and E. b. rovumse Grote in southern Nyasaland. 
Benson (Ibis, 1940, p. 613), from the further data by then available, finds 
that in northern Nyasaland E.b. barbata is a high-level (4000-5000 ft.) 
form, E. b. rovumse a low-level (1600-2000 ft.) form. 

I have recently obtained two specimens, now in the British Museum, of 
E. b. barbata at Kota-kota, as low as 1650-1700 ft. Both were collected 
in November, one of them at its nest, and there can be no question of their 
having been off-season wanderers from higher levels. E.b. rovumse has 
been found at these levels both to the north and the south of Kota-kota. 
There is a specimen undoubtedly of E. b. rovumse in the British Museum 
from Chinteche, 80 miles north of Kota-kota, at 1700 ft., and Benson 
(Ibis, 1942, p. 312) records two more such, which are in the Transvaal 

In view of the foregoing, it is best to regard E.b. barbata and E.b. 
rovumse as separate species. There is no evidence of intergradation 
between the two, which are easily distinguishable, E. b. rovumse being 
olive-brown rather than grey on the upperside ; the stripe above the white 

1946-47] 33 [Vol. Ixvii. 

superciliary darker, black rather than grey ; and the white colouring in the 
three outer pairs of rectrices more extensive. 

The grey- backed bird must therefore be known as Erythropygia barbata, 
and the olive-backed bird as E. quadrivirgata quadrivirgata (Reichenow), 
of which E. q. erlangeri Reichenow, E. q. greenwayi Moreau, and E.g. 
wilsoni (Roberts) are races. From the extensive series in the British 
Museum it is clear that E. q. rovumse must be regarded as a synonym of 
E. q. quadrivirgata. No specimens are available of E. q. erlangeri or 
E.q. wilsoni. 

I believe that further investigation will definitely show that the voices 
of E. barbata and E.q. quadrivirgata in Nyasaland are not identical. E.q. 
quadrivirgata has a particularly fine song, which seems to surpass that of 
E. barbata in beauty and variety. Whereas E. q. quadrivirgata is in my 
experience strictly confined to dense thickets, E. barbata is by no means 
restricted to such an environment, and is in fact often found in open 
Brachystegia woodland, and at Kota-kota was nesting therein. There is 
no evidence of any seasonal movement in either species. 

It is worth recording that E. q. quadrivirgata was not found at Kota-kota, 
although there is no lack of thickets suited to it. Although we are dealing 
with what are best regarded as two distinct species, yet it seems that they 
are sufficiently closely related for their occurrence on the same ground to be 
incompatible. As already explained, although there is an ecological 
difference, there is not complete segregation. 

Captain C. H. B. Grant and Mr. C. W. Mackworth-Praed are in agree- 
ment with the decision to regard^, quadrivirgata as a species, and also as 
to the synonymy ofE.q. rovumse. 

On a Change of Coloration in Lybius zombas (Shelley). 

Mr. C. W. Benson sent the following note : — 

Vincent, Bull. B. O. C. liii, 1933, pp. 149-151, finds that a change in the 
colouring of the feathers of the forehead, sides of head, chin and throat in 
Lybius zombse had taken place in the previous thirty or forty years. 
Vincent's findings have been commented on by various authors, see 
Huxley, ' Evolution. The Modern Synthesis.', 1942, pp. 195, 551, and 
Mayr, ' Systematics and the Origin of Species ', 1942, p. 77. 

Grant & Mackworth-Praed, Bull. B. O. C. lviii. 1938, p. 105, place 
L. zombse as a race of L. torquatus (Dumont), and I am in agreement with 
this arrangement. 

I have examined all the specimens in the British Museum which were 
available to Vincent, and after carefully plotting the localities where they 

Vol. lxvii.] 34 [1946-47 

were collected, have come to the conclusion that the colour- variation can 
be explained on a geographical basis, and that there is no need to resort to 
an explanation such as that put forward by Vincent. 

For purposes of convenience the specimens may be divided into (a) those 
with reel colouring, thus near to L. t. torquatus, (b) those with pink colouring, 
intermediate between L. t. torquatus and L. t. zombse, and (c) those with 
white colouring. But it must be understood that there is intergradation 
between these three categories. Most of the localities mentioned hereafter 
will be found on the map facing p. 652, Ibis, 1933, and others will be ex- 
plained by reference to that map. 

The specimens of L. t. zombse, collected by Vincent, see Ibis, 1935, p. 5, 
during 1931-2, are all from eastern localities, from Sombani, which is 
between Mlanje Mountain (see brown area on map) and Lake Chilwa, 
north-eastwards towards Lurio and south-eastwards towards Mocuba. 
None of them show any red or even pink colouring. 

The specimens collected by Whyte and Sharpe, in the 'nineties of the 
last century, in southern Nyasaland, are all from more western localities 
(except one from Fort Lister, about 10 miles east of Sombani, which is 
white), and are as follows : — 

(1) Two from Chiradzulu, 20 miles west of Sombani, or 10 miles 
north-east of Blantyre. One is very like Vincent's Sombani speci- 
mens, though slightly pink. The other is definitely pink. 

(2) One young bird, labelled Mlanje, is pink. Mlanje is an admini- 
strative headquarters in Nyasaland, at the south end of Mlanje 
Mountain, and is not to be confused with the place spelt Mlange on the 
map, which is further south-west, in Portuguese territory. 

(3) One from Ntondwe, 10 miles south of Zomba, is pink. 

(4) A series of nine from Zomba, the type-locality of L. t. zombse, 
show all stages from pink to white. 

(5) One from Mpimbi, on the River Shire, 10 miles north-west of 
Zomba, is pink. 

(6) Two from South Angoniland, an area in which Dedza lies, are 

(7) One from Chiromo, 80 miles south of Zomba, on the River Shire, 
is red. 

The following other specimens must also be considered : — 

(1) Three collected by Kirk about 1860. One of these is labelled 
Shupanga, which is on the south bank of the River Zambesi, nearly 

1946-47] 35 [Vol. lxvii. 

opposite its confluence with the River Shire. This specimen is red. 
The other two are labelled Zambesi. It is known that Kirk did not 
travel further up the Zambesi than its confluence with the Shire. 
One is pink, the other nearly white, and probably they were collected 
further east than Shupanga, nearer the mouth of the Zambesi. 

(2) One collected by Wood, in 1917, at Ruo, which is near Chiromo, 
is red. 

(3) Two collected recently by myself ,at Chikwawa, 20 miles south- 
west of Blantyre, and Nankumba, 50 miles east of Dedza, respectively, 
are both red. 

If the foregoing specimens are examined, taking their localities into 
strict consideration, the colour-differences can be interpreted on a geo- 
graphical basis. They illustrate a cline towards L. t. torquatus. It is 
unfortunate that the type-locality of L. t. zombse is not further east, as 
some of the specimens from Zomba, being pink, show a tendency towards 
L. t. torquatus. A more fortunate choice would have been Songea, in 
south-eastern Tanganyika Territory. This is the type-locality of L. t. 
albigularis Neumann, which Grant & Mackworth-Praed, op. cit., place as a 
synonym of L. t. zombse. 

Captain C. H. B. Grant has been kind enough to examine the specimens 
with me, and is in agreement with the conclusions reached. 

Some apparently new Records for Uganda. 

Dr. V. G. L. van Someren sent the following note : — 
As a result of a further brief visit to the Bwamba district of western 
Uganda, we have to record the following birds as having been obtained and 
which are not included in the work by Sir F. Jackson, ' Birds of Kenya 
Colony and the Uganda Protectorate ', nor does their distribution 
include Uganda as listed by Sclater in ' Systema Avium Aethiopicarum '. 
Accipiter erythropus zenkeri Reichenow. 
Vinago calva uellensis Reichenow. 
Agapornis swinderiana zenkeri Reichenow. Was found to be 

Melittophagus gularis australis Reichenow. 
Argalocichla xavieri xavieri Oustalet. 

Charitillas gracilis gracilis Cabanis. Distinct from C. g. ugandse 
van Someren, which is the mid-eastern race ; and C. g. 
kavirondensis is the extreme eastern form : North Kavirondo — 

Vol. lxvii.] 36 [1946-47 

Nicatir vireo Cabanis. 

Cinnyris minullus marginatus O. -Grant. 

These species and races were known to occur further to the west in 
the Belgian Congo, and, as there is no physical or ecological barrier, 
their extension east of the Semliki was not unexpected. 

Notes on Nyasaland Birds. 

Mr. C. W. Benson sent the following two notes : — 

(1) On the Occurrence ofTurdus stormsi Hartlaub in southern Nyasaland. 

Among the specimens of Turdus stormsi in the British Museum is one 
labelled Mbara (Brit. Mus. Reg. No. 1900.11.12.116), and recorded by 
Shelley, Ibis, 1901, p. 166. The label shows it to have been collected for 
Sharpe, and P. L. Sclater, in his introduction to the paper, states that the 
collections in which it was included were transmitted by Sharpe and 
Manning. On pp. 162-163 of this same paper is a list of localities, supplied 
by McClounie, who gives Mambwe and Mbara as between Zomba and 
Mlanje, and local inquiries which I have made confirm the correctness of 
this. On the basis of this specimen, T. stormsi has been recorded from 
southern Nyasaland by Benson, Ibis, 1942, p. 310, and Grant & Mackworth- 
Praed, Bull.' B. O. C. lxvi. p. 78 1946. 

But I have been collecting and observing throughout Nyasaland since 
1932, and have not found this Thrush anywhere. Recently I have been 
working in the very area in the south where it is supposed to occur, and 
have searched especially for it. Moreover, Shelley records Crateropus 
tanganjicse (=Turdoides jardinei tanganjicse (Reichenow)) from Mambwe. 
This specimen (Biit. Mus. Reg. No. 1900.11.12.134) has the black top and 
sides of head characteristic of that race, which does not occur any nearer 
Southern Nyasaland than the north-east of Northern Rhodesia. Shelley 
also records Psalidoprocne albiceps P. L. Sclater from Mambwe, which I 
have not seen south of Mzimba, in northern Nyasaland. It is clear from 
McClounie 's notes that certain localities — Mweru, Kikomba, Ikawa and 
Karungwisi — are definitely in the north-east of Northern Rhodesia, while 
the British Museum Register (ref. 1900.11.12) shows that specimens from 
these localities, and from Mambwe and Mbara, were presented at the same 

Shelley, Ibis, 1899, pp. 364-380, gives an earlier account of specimens 
collected for Manning, by the 1898 Anglo-German Boundary Commission 
working on the Nyasa-Tanganyika Plateau. A reference is given to 
general accounts of the travels of this Commission, vol. xiii, ' Geographical 

1946-47] 37 [Vol. lxvii. 

Journal ', 1899. On p. 581 " Mbala (or, as it is now called, Abercorn) " is 
mentioned. In Bantu pronunciation there is no difference between 
Mbala and Mbara. Facing p. 692 is a map, based on the surveys of the 
Commission. Mambwe is shown as some 45 miles south-east of Abercorn, 
and Mweru, Kikomba, Ikawa and Karungwisi are also shown. 

It is clear that this specimen ofTurdus stormsi was collected at Abercorn, 
and the occurrence of this species in southern Nyasaland cannot be accep- 
ted. Captain C. H. B. Grant, who has kindly read through the MS. of this 
note, is in agreement with me. 

(2) On the Occurrence of three other Birds in Nyasaland. 

This map, see nots (1) above, also enables one to arrive at a decision in 
regard to the following (all specimens referred to are in the British 
Museum) : — 

Turdoides leucopygia hartlaubi (Bocage). 

Two specimens collected for Sharpe, at Karungwisi and Kikomba, see 
Shelley, Ibis, 1901, p. 166, and Belcher, ' The Birds of Nyasaland ', 1930, 
p. 184. Karungwisi is a small river running into the east side of Lake 
Mweru, and Kikomba (Ikomba) on Stevenson's Road, between Fife and 
Abercorn, lat. 9° 09' S., long. 32° 15' E. Thus both these localities are 
outside Nyasaland, and there are no other records from within. 

Atamistillas flavicollis pallidigula (Sharpe). 

One specimen collected for Manning at Luchinde, see Shelley, Ibis, 1899, 
p. 371, and Belcher, p. 186. Luchinde is a small river with source near 
Ikomba, flowing south to join the Karungu at 9° 42' S., 32° 15' E. Thus 
no part of the Luchinde is in Nyasaland, and there is no record from 

Estrilda perreini perreini (Vieillot). 

One specimen collected for Sharpe at Karungwisi, for which see above. 
Another, bearing Manning's printed label and McClounie's name-stamp, 
from Mambwe. This latter is referred to by Shelley, Ibis, 1899, p. 368, 
and Mambwe is stated to be between Lakes Tanganyika and Nyasa. This 
must be the specimen to which Belcher refers, p. 334. That Shelley did 
not confuse this northern Mambwe with that in southern Nyasaland, see 
under Turdus stormsi above, seems very improbable, for the specimen is 
clearly of the race E, p. perreini. Specimens from Chiromo, southern 
Nyasaland, are equally clearly E. p. incana Sundevall, and there are no 
records of E. p. perreini from nearer Chiromo than the north-east of 
Northern Rhodesia. The map shows Mambwe at 9° 05' S., 32°02'E., 

Vol. lxvii.] 38 [1946-47 

outside Nyasaland. Benson, Ibis, 1944, p. 478, records a specimen of 
E. p. perreini from Nyasaland, from Katumbi's, on the River Hewe. Nor 
can this record be accepted. The Rev. W. P. Young, the collector, 
informs me that actually it was obtained at Muyombe, a village 20 miles 
further north, well inside Northern Rhodesia. The River Hewe is the 
boundary between the two territories. 

Notes on Eastern African Birds. 

Captain C. H. B. Grant and Mr. C. W. Macworth-Praed sent the 
following six notes : — 

(1) On the status of Cossypha polioptera kungwensis Moreau, Bull. B. O. C. 
lxi. 1941, p. 60. 

In ' The Ibis,' 1943, p. 392, Moreau has placed this bird as a species. 
The British Museum series of this genus having now returned to London we 
append herewith a list of comparative measurements of Cossypha kung- 
wensis, Cossypha polioptera Reichenow, and Cossypha bocagei Finsch & 



C. polioptera. 
Male. Female. 

C. bocagei. 
Male. Female. 







Wing . . 







Tail .... 







Tarsus . 







Nine specimens 

Eight specimens 

Eleven specimens 

These measurements show that the wings and tarsus agree, but that 
C. kungwensis has a shorter tail. It also has darker central tail feathers. 

We are of opinion that Moreau is correct in treating Cossypha kung- 
wensis as a species. 

(2) On the Status of Cisticola natalensis matengorum Meise, O. M., 1934, 
p. 117 : Nambunchu, Songea district, south-western Tanganyika 

Meise states that this race is larger, wing 70-78 mm., and that in non- 
breeding diess the upper parts are more olive coloured, less red brown, and 
that the male in non -breeding dress taken at Mitimone in February is also 
this ra:e. In the British Museum collection is an adult male in non- 
breeding dress from Mitimone, Rovuma river, southern Tanganyika 
Territory, about 90 miles south of the type-locality, and this specimen in 

1946-47] 39 [Vol. lxvii. 

no way differs from specimens in similar dress of Cisticola natalensis 
natalensis (Smith) from further south. As regards size, the wing of the 
southern race is, in males 70-78, and females 60-64 mm., and therefore 
Cisticola natalensis matengorum Meise is not larger and we place it as a 
synonym of Cisticola natalensis natalensis (Smith). 

(3) On the Distribution of Hirundo senegalensis saturatior Bannerman. 

In the Bull. B. O. C. lxii. 1942, p. 49, we gave the distribution of this 
race as southern and eastern Sudan, Abyssinia, Uganda and Kenya Colony. 
We have re-examined the British Museum series with Mr. J. D. Macdonald 
and we are satisfied that this race is confined to the Gold Coast at the area 
around Accra. Therefore, Hirundo senegalensis senegalensis Linnaeus, is 
the race found throughout the Sudan, Abyssinia, Uganda and Kenys' C\ 
Colony except the southern areas. 

(4) On the Shrikes recorded in Ibis, 1928, p. 87, under Laniarius funebris 


In this paper Friedmann listed seven specimens from the Uluguru 
Mountains, under the above name. Mr. Moreau stated in letters to us 
that he doubted the identification of these specimens. Through the 
kindness of Dr. Peters, of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, we have 
had the loan of one of these specimens, and Dr. Peters writes under date 
28 February, 1946, that the six specimens are all exactly alike, the seventh 
being at the Carnegie Museum. 

The specimen loaned to us is unquestionably Laniarius fulleborni 
(Reichenow), and so all seven specimens without doubt belong to this 
! species and not Laniarius funebris. 

We publish this note and correction with permission of Dr. Friedmann, 
who desired us to do so in a letter dated 27 March, 1946. 

(5) On the Status of Chlorophoneus an&aryse Jackson, Bull. B. O. C. xxix. 
1919, p. 94 : Kisubi, near Entebbe, Uganda. 

We have examined the type and carefully compared it with the Shrikes 
that occur in Uganda, and we are satisfied that it is a colour phase, in 
immature dress, of Chlorophoneus sulfureopectus similis (Smith). 

The size, general structural characters including wing formula, whole 
head, mantle, wings and tall except central tail feathers, agree with 
C. s. similis from which it differs in having the grey of the head and mantle 
extending over the rump, central tail feathers and lesser and secondary 
wing- coverts ; there is also some grey in the other tail feathers ; below 


Vol. lxvii.] 40 [1946-47 

white ; chest creamy buff with a suffusion of this colour on the upper 
belly and flanks ; under wing- coverts yellow and white ; axillaries white. 
Wing 81 mm. 

We therefore place Chlorophoneus andaryse Jackson as a synonym of 
Chlorophoneus sulfur eopectus similis (Smith). 

(6) On the Status of Symjilectes eremobius Hartlaub. 

In the Bull. B. 0. C. lxiv. 1944, p. 67, we placed S. eremobius as a 
synonym of Othyphantes emini (Hartlaub). The Sudan Government 
Museum, Khartoum, has sent to the British Museum for naming an adult 
male specimen of Ploceus baglafeckt. This has a wing of 75 mm. and has 
the lower breast to under tail- coverts white, and two other male specimens 
in the British Museum agree with this specimen and have wings of 74 and 
77 mm. 

The description of S. eremobius agrees with these specimans and we are 
satisfied that our 1944 decision was incorrect and that Symplectes eremobius 
Hartlaub, is a recognizable race of Ploceus baglafecht Vieillot, and was 
rightly so placed by Sclater in Syst. iEthiop. ii. p. 733, 1930. 


The next Meeting will be held at the Rembrandt Hotel, South 
Kensington, following dinner at 6.30 p.m., on Wednesday, December 18, 






The four-hundred-and-sixty-third Meeting of the Club was held at the 
Rembrandt Hotel, Thurloe Place, S.W. 7, on Wednesday, December 18, 
1946, following a dinner at 6.30 p.m. 

Chairman : Dr. J. M. Harrison. 

Members present : — Miss P. Barclay- Smith ; F. J. F. Barrington ; 
C. W. Benson ; Capt. C. H. B. Grant ; B. G. Harrison ( V ice-Chairman) ; 
R. C. Homes ; Miss E. P. Leach (Hon. Treasurer) ; C. W. Mackworth- 
Praed ; G. M. Mathews ; Col. R. Meinhertzhagen ; E. M. Nicholson ; 
R. H. W. Pakenham ; C. W. G. Paulson ; Lt.-Col. W. A. Payn ; Miss G. M. 
Rhodes ; C. P. Staples ; B. W. Tucker ; Mrs. H. W. Boyd-Watt ; C. db 

Quests : — Mrs. Benson ; A. G. B. Russell. 

Members, 20 ; Guests, 2 ; Total, 22. 

Redpolls from Norway. 

Col. Payn exhibited two skins of Redpolls from Norway, and made 
the following remarks : — 

I am exhibiting two skins of Redpolls, which I got from the N.W. 
coast of Norway within the Arctic Circle during a luxury trip to the 
North Cape in 1925. Besides them I am showing for comparison two 
skins of Coues' Redpoll, Carduelis hornemanni exilipes (Coues), which 
I have borrowed from the British Museum. 

It will be noted that the main differences between these birds and 
Coues' Redpoll are : — 

Male. — Slightly smaller and not such a pure white rump. 

Female. — More grey on the back and less brown on the rump. 

I first took these birds to Br. Hartert, and he declared that they looked 
like Coues' Redpoll, but they couldn't be that, as they came from the 

[January 24, 1947] VOL, Lxvn. 

Vol. lxvii.] 42 [1946-47 

wrong side of the mountains. Then I sent them to Dr. C. B. Ticehurst 
and Mr. Witherby : they both thought they must be a hybrid between 
Coues' and Mealy Redpoll. Dr. Ticehurst added that he believed that 
Coues' Redpoll was not to be found in Europe. 

Then I took them to the British Museum. Mr. Kinnear kindly went 
through with me all the boxes of Coues' and Mealy Redpolls. In them 
we found three specimens of males, which exactly corresponded with 
my bird. On looking at the locality from whence they came, we found 
that they were all from Lyngen and Tromso, the localities from w r hich 
I got my two birds. 

Soon after that I met Dr. Salomonsen, and asked him for his opinion. 
He at once said that they were Acanthis linaria pallescens (Homey er), 
and referred me to The Auk, 1884, pp. 147 and 153. From that I found 
the description of a Redpoll found by an American expedition to the 
N.W. coast of Norway, to which they had given the name Acanthis 
linaria pallescens (Homeyer) ; the differences from Coues' Redpoll being 
as I have already described. 

When the Handbook was coming out, I put all the above facts before 
Mr. Witherby, and asked him to include this bird as one of the allied forms 
of Carduelis flammea or hornemanni, but he refused. 

From what I have said it would appear that there are several specimens 
in existence of this bird available for examination, including any specimens 
collected by the American expedition, all showing the same peculiarities. 
If these birds are all hybrids, does this mean that all intermediate races 
should be called hybrids rather than geographical races ? 

As regards the name, I should suggest that, if recognized, the bird should 
bear the name of Carduelis hornemanni pallescens (Homeyer), to conform 
with the more modern designations of genera and species of the 

New Races of a Paradise Flycatcher, Apalis and 
Eremomela from Eastern Africa. 

Capt. C. H. B. Grant and Mr. C. W. Mackworth-Praed exhibited 
and described the following : — 

Tchitrea perspicillata ungujaensis, new race. 

Description. — Differs from Tchitrea perspicillata perspicillata (Swainson) 
in having the head and neck all round glossy violet-blue instead of glossy 
blue-black, and from Tchitrea perspicillata ruwenzoriss Grant & Praed in 

1946-47] 43 [Vol. lxvii. 

having the chin and throat glossy violet blue- black instead of grey with 
a slight gloss. 

Distribution. — Eastern Tanganyika Territor}' from southern Mt. 
Kilimanjaro and the Usambara Mts. to Kilosa, Dar-es-Salaam, Kisiji 
40 miles south of Dar-es-Salaam, Iringa and Njombe, also Zanzibar 

Type. — In the British Museum. Adult male, Zanzibar Island, September 
1877, collected by J. M. Hildebrandt, Brit. Mus. Reg. no. 1895.5.1.257. 

Measurements of Type. — Wing 80 ; culmen from base 19 ; tail, longest 
central feathers, 240 ; tarsus 16 mm. 

Remarks.— In Bull. B. 0. C. lx. 1940, pp. 102-103, we discussed the 
races of the species Tchitrea perspicillata Swainson, and placed the birds 
from the distribution given above, under Tchitrea perspicillata suahelica 
(Reichenow). Through the kindness of Dr. Stresemann of the Berlin 
Museum, we have had on loan the type of that race, which Reichenow 
placed under and compared to Tchitrea perspicillata. The description 
is not too good, but in no way disagrees with the type, which we find is 
a specimen of Tchitrea viridis ferreti Guerin, and under which we now place 
Tchitrea perspicillata suahelica Reichenow, as a synonym. This leaves 
the birds from Zanzibar Island and the other localities enumerated above 
without a name. 

Apalis melanocephala muhuluensis, new race. 

Description. — Adult male, above and sides of face, wings and central 
tail-feathers deep black, not the black with a slight brownish tone of 
Apalis melanocephala tenebricosa Vincent, and broader white ends to 

Distribution. — Mahenge, southern Tanganyika Territory. 

Type. — In the British Museum. Adult male, in breeding condition, 
Muhulu Forest, Mahenge District, southern Tanganyika Territory, 
January 30, 1946, collected by R. E. Moreau. Collector's no. 7105. 
Brit. Mus. Reg. no. 1946.14.1. 

Measurements of Type.— -Wing 55 ; culmen from base 15 ; tail 71 ; 
tarsus 19 mm. 

Remarks. — Another male in non-breeding condition, collected at the 
same place on February 18, 1946, is above sooty -black ; lower rump, 
upper tail-coverts and lower flanks washed with yellow. Wing 52 mm. 
It is apparently an immature, and although it agrees closely with the 
adult male of A. m. tenebricosa it has > broader white ends to the tail- 

Vol. lxvii.] 44 [1946-47 

Eremomela griseoflava belli, new race. 

Description. — Differs from Eremomela griseoflava polioxantha Sharpe, 
which occurs in south- central and south-western Tanganyika Territory, 
in having the chin and throat white, not greyish white, and the yellow 
extending in a wash over the lower neck in front. It is also larger. From 
Eremomela griseoflava griseoflava Heuglin, which has a white or buffy- 
white chin to throat, it diflers in having the yellow below much more 
extensive, and not confined to lower belly. 

Distribution. — Liwale area, south-eastern Tanganyika Territory. 

Type. — In the British Museum. Adult male. Liwale, southern 
Province, Tanganyika Territory, May 1, 1940, collected by R. M. Bell. 
Brit. Mus. Reg. no. 1945.47.19. 

Measurements of Type. — Wing 68 ; culmen from base 13 ; tail 28 ; 
tarsus 17 mm. 

Remarks. — Named in honour of Mr. R. M. Bell. A single specimen 
only was obtained, but as it is different from any described race we are 
compelled to give it a name. 

A New Race of Double-banded Sand-Grouse from 
Portuguese East Africa. 

Mr. C. W. Benson exhibited and described : — 

Eremialector bicinctus usheri, subsp. nov. 

Description. — Like Eremialector bicinctus multicolor (Hartert) in colour, 
but differs in its smaller size. Male, wing 161-171, compared to 168- 
188 mm. in E. b. multicolor. Female, wing 157-168, compared to 167- 
185 mm. in E. b. multicolor. 

Distribution. — The lower Zambesi Valley, at Tambara * and Tete, 
and the boundary of Nyasaland and Portuguese East Africa, west of 
Chiromo, north to the Loangwa Valley , Northern Rhodesia. 

Type. — In the British Museum. Adult male. Tambara, Portuguese 
East Africa, at 200 ft., November 23, 1945. Collected by Jali Makawa 
for C. W. Benson. Brit. Mus. Reg. no. 1946.5.12. Collector's no. N3930. 

Measurements of Type : — Wing 165 ; culmen from base 18 ; tail 73 ; 
tarsus 27 mm. 

Remarks. — The following are more detailed wing -measurements 
(in mm.) : — 

E. b. usheri (all specimens in the British Museum). 

* Lat. 16° 42' S., long. 34° 10' E. Not to be confused with C. H. B. Grant's 
collecting locality, Tambarara, see Ibis, 1911, pp. 211, 123. 

1946-47] 46 [Vol. Ixvii. 

Thirteen males, 161, 162, 162, 163, 164, 164, 165, 166, 166, 166, 167, 
168, 171 ; ten females, 157, 158, 159, 160, 161, 161, 162, 16?, 165, 168. 

E. b. multicolor. 

Matabeleland, Southern Rhodesia. Two males, 174, 178 ; one female, 

Transvaal. Sixteen males, 169, 173, 174, 175, 176, 176, 178, 178, 
179, 181, 181, 182, 182, 182, 183, 188 ; seventeen females, 169, 169, 170, 
170, 170, 170, 171, 173, 175, 175, 176, 177, 180, 180, 180, 183, 185. 


Gaberones. Three females, 167, 172, 172. 

Mokka (Maggalakim). One female, 172. 

Kuruman. One male, 168 ; one female, 172. 

Mahalapye. One male, 174 ; one female, 170. 

I am indebted to Dr. James P. Chap in for measurements of five males 
and six females in the American Museum of Natural History, and to 
Dr. Austin Roberts, for measurements of twelve and fourteen females in 
the Transvaal Museum, all of E. b. multicolor. The other specimens 
measured of this race are in the British Museum. 

Roberts, Ann, Trans. Mus. xvi. part 1, p. 81, gives measurements 
of E. b. chobiensis (Roberts) as follows : Eleven males, 171-188 ; eleven 
females, 169-183 mm. 

E. b. usheri frequents hot, low-lying country, mostly at only 100-200 ft. 
above sea-level. On the other hand, E. b. multicolor occurs in a more 
southern, temperate climate, and, moreover, very frequently at altitudes 
of 3000-4000 ft. E. b. usheri is common on the barren, stony, low hills 
in the south-west of the Chikwawa district, Nyasaland, on the boundary 
with Portuguese territory. 

Mr. D. W. K. Macpherson, when hunting up the Muira River, west of 
Tambara, found eggs in August. Boyd Alexander, Ibis, 1900, p. 450, 
collected a female with " ovaries full developed " near Tete in August. 

This new race is named in honour of Mr. H. B. Usher, of the staff of the 
Bird Room, the British Museum. Captain C. H. B. Grant has kindly 
read my description in MS., and agrees with my decision to recognize 
this new race. 

Damage by Military Operations. 

Mr. E. M. Nicholson drew attention to the current threats to a number 
of areas of ornithological importance, arising out of claims for continued 
use by the Army, Navy, R.A.F., and Combined Operations. He explained 
that the Wild Life Special Committee, under the Ministry of Town and 

Vol. kvii.] 46 [1946-47 

Country Planning, was doing its best to represent the scientific objections 
to military activities on certain of these sites where rare species were 
liable to be affected, but there were so many sites in question that it was 
proving difficult to arrange for all the ornithological aspects to be properly 
considered. If members could assist in any way in drawing attention to 
threats to bird-life in particular areas, or in providing evidence of any 
kind, they would be rendering a valuable service. 

Notes on East African Birds. 

Captain C. H. B. Grant and Mr. C. W. Mackworth-Praed sent the 
following notes : — 

(1) On the Status of Coturnix cotumix erlangeri Zedlitz, J. f. O. 1912, 

p. 344 : Cunni, near Harar, eastern Abyssinia. 

In the Bull. B. 0. C. lxiv. 1943, p. 7, we placed this as a synonym of 
Coturnix coturnix coturnix (Linnaeus). We have now seen two males and 
a female taken on the Fiche Road, 15 miles north of Adis Abeba by 
Dr. H. M. Woodman on September 5, 1942, which are as dark above as 
Coturnix coturnix africana Temminck & Schlegel, one male having the 
sides of face and whole throat dark chestnut, and the other having these 
parts black. They agree perfectly with South African specimens, and 
are undoubtedly birds of this race on migration to Abyssinia in the non- 
breeding season. We are now of the opinion that Erlanger's specimens 
taken in May are also the South African race on migration to Abyssinia 
in the non-breeding season, and so place C. c. erlangeri Zedlitz as a synonym 
of C. c. africana Temminck & Schlegel, and not of C. c. coturnix (Linnaeus). 

(2) On Charitillas minor Van Someren, Nov. Zool. xxix. 1922, p. 188 : 

Toro, western Uganda. 

Van Someren gives grey on underside limited to throat, small bill and 
wing, 62-64 mm. He has kindly loaned to us a female specimen from 
Namware Forest, Kyetume, southern Uganda, named Andropadus gracilis 
minor, which has wing of 72 mm., bill from base 14 mm., and in these 
measurements and in colour does not differ from specimens in the British 
Museum of Andropadus gracilis gracilis Cabanis. In a letter September 2, 
1946, Dr. Van Someren kindly advises us that the above specimen was 
incorrectly named, and that the specimens he had from Toro are not now 
in his collection, and that as the name Charitillas minor was left in the MS. 
and printed in the Nov. Zool. by mistake, no type was designated. 

In view of the above, we place Charitillas minor Van Someren as a 
synonym of Andropadus gracilis gracilis Cabanis. 

1946-47] 47 [Vol. lxvii. 

(3) On the Status of (Enanthe deserti atrogularis (Blyth), J As Soc. Bengal, 

xvi. 1847, p. 131 : Upper Provinces, Sind, India. 

This race is said to be darker and larger, and Meinhertzhagen, Nicoll's 
Bds. Egypt, i. 1930, pp. 265 and 266, gives the wing of this race as 
92-99 mm., and (Enanthe deserti Temminck as 85-94 mm. 

We have compared the long series in the British Museum collection, 
and are unable to see any constant character by which birds from India 
can be distinguished from birds from Egypt and north-eastern Africa. 
Twenty-two birds from Sind have the wings 89-98 mm., and twenty - 
seven from Egypt and north-eastern Africa have wings 84-95 mm. We 
are of opinion that (E. d. atrogularis Blyth should be placed as a synonym 
of (E. d. deserti Temminck. 

(4) On the Status of Spreo hildebrandti kelloggorum Neumann, Auk, 

1944, p. 288 : Benagi Hills, Zerengeti, Mwanza district, northern 
Tanganyika Territory. 

Neumann gives as main characters, breast far lighter, almost white, 
strongly suffused with ochraceous yellow. We have not seen specimens 
from the type-locality, which is about 20 miles south-east of Ikoma, 
but there is one from Amala River, to which locality Neumann takes the 
distribution of his new race. This specimen has some of the young dress, 
but has a considerable amount of adult plumage, which in no way differs 
in colour from other specimens further east. We also find some individual 
variation in the colour of the breast. We cannot therefore agree that 
birds from the Amala River belong to this new race, the validity of which 
we are inclined to doubt. 

(5) On the Migratory Stonechats in Eastern Africa. 

In the Bull. B. O. C. lxi. 1941, pp. 36-38, we discussed the races occurring 
in eastern Africa in the non-breeding season, in continuation of our notes 
in the Bull. B. O. C. lxi. 1940, p. 9, and 1941, p. 29, and those by Ticehurst 
in Ibis, 1938, p. 338, and 1941, p. 182. Unfortunately, both Tice- 
hurst and ourselves appear to have overlooked Stegmann's paper in 
Comp. Rend. Acad. Sci. U.R.S.S. 1935, p. 45, where he discusses the 
races of Saxicola torquata (Linnaeus) in Europe and Asia, and describes 
8. t. armenica. Stegmann gives good characters for the races he recog- 
nizes, and wing-measurements of good series, as follows : — 8. t. variegata 
Gmelin, males 66-72 mm., sixty specimens ; S. t. maura, males 64-70 mm. ; 
five hundred and fifty -one specimens ; 8, t, armenica Stegmann, males 
70-75*(j> mm. ; nineteen specimens, 

Vol bcvii.] 48 [1946-47 

S. t. variegata is easily recognizable by the amount of white in the tail, 
and the wing-measurements of the series in the British Museum collection 
agree with Stegmann's wing-measurements. The British Museum has 
a long series of S. t. armenica with wings as given by Stegmann, and five 
specimens of 8. t. maura, the wings of which agree with those given b}' 
Stegmann. Unfortunately Stegmann gives no synonyms, and, therefore, 
does not discuss Saxicola Hemprichii Ehrenberg, Symb. Phys. fol. aa (8), 
1832 : Egypt, nor Saxicola assimilis Brehm, Naumannia, i. pt. 2, p. 28, 
1850 : Nubia. The British Museum specimens of S. t. maura are from 
Iran, the Persian Gulf, and Arabia, and there is still no evidence that it 
occurs in Africa in the non-breeding season. This being so, neither of the 
above names can be placed in the synonymy of this race, and they must 
be either 8. t. variegata or S. t. armenica. 

Ehrenberg gives as characters, " base of tail white, rump varied white 
and rufous," and Brehm gives " smaller than S. rubicola, upper tail 
coverts white." Brehm's description could apply to either S. t. variegatus 
or 8. t. armenica, but Ehrenberg distinctly states base of tail white, and 
this can apply only to 8. t. armenica, which has the white in the tail more 
confined to the base. It would therefore appear that 8. t. hemprichii 
is 8. t. armenica in the non-breeding season, and of which 8. t. armenica 
must be placed as a synonym. 

It is not so easy to place S. t. assimilis, but we feel that as Brehm makes 
no mention of the white in the tail, his type-specimen did not have so 
much white as is found in 8. t. variegata, and we feel that it is better 
placed as a synonym of 8. t. hemprichii. Ehrenberg gives 8. Rubicola 
Nubise Licht. Catal. But we cannot find this name in Lichtenstein's 
Catalogue, Rer. Nat. Rar. 1793. 

The two migratory races which occur in eastern Africa are, therefore : 
Saxicola torquata variegata (Gmelin) and Saxicola, torguata hemprichii 


The next Meeting will be held at the Rembrandt Hotel, S.W.7, follow- 
ing dinner at 6.30 p.m., on Wednesday, February 19, 1947. 





Owing to the restrictions on printing caused by the fuel crisis two 
Meetings of the Club are reported in this Bulletin. Both were held at the 
Rembrandt Hotel, Thurloe Place, S.W. 7, following dinner at 6.30 p.m. 

At the four-hundred-and-sixty-fourfch Meeting on Wednesday, January 
15, 1947, there were present : — 

Chairman : Dr. J. M. Harrison. 

Members : — Miss C. M. Acland ; Miss P. Barclay-Smith ; F. J. F. 
Barrington ; N. A. Beal ; Mrs. G. Chadwyck-Hbaley ; E. Cohen ; 
Miss J. M. Ferrier ; B. G. Harrison (V ice-Chairman) ; R. E. Heath ; 
P. A. D. Hollom ; Maj.-Gen. H. P. W. Hutson ; Miss E. P. Leach ; 
P. R. Lowe ; J. D. Macdonald ; C. W. Mackworth-Praed ; G. M. 
Mathews ; R. H. W. Pakenham ; Mrs. 0. Peall ; Miss G. M. Rhodes ; 
B. B. Roberts ; Maj. M. H. Simonds ; H. N. Southern ; C. P. Staples ; 
Lt.-Col. W. P. C. Tenison ; Dr. A. Landsborotjgh Thomson ; B. W. 
Tucker ; Mrs. H. W. Boyd Watt ; C. de Worms. 

Guests : — Mrs. R. Barker ; R. S. Jenyns ; Mrs. Lowe ; W. A. 
Richards ; S. P. H. Simonds ; Mrs. Watts. 

Guests of the Club : — J. N. O. Chear ; R. A. Falla. 

Members, 29 ; Guests, 8 ; Total 37. 

Mr. John Chear exhibited his coloured film " Birds and Man " which 
was much appreciated by the members. 

Mr. R. H. Falla of the Canterbury Museum, Christchurch, New 
Zealand, spoke on the present-day position of birds in his country. 

Mrs. H. W. Boyd Watt exhibited a specimen of White's Thrush, 
T urdus dauma aureus, which is the first British record, having been shot 
by Lord Malmesbury near Christchurch, Hampshire, on January 24, 1828. 

[April, 1947] vol. lxvii. 

Vol. lxvii] 50 [1946-47 

At the four-hundred-and-sixty-fifth Meeting on Wednesday, February 
19, 1947, these were present : — 

Chairman : Dr. J. M. Harrison. 

Members : — Miss C. M. Acland ; Miss P. Barclay-Smith ; F. J. F. 
Barrington ; Mrs. N. Beal ; Mrs. G. Chadwyck-Hbaley ; E. Cohen ; 
C. T. Dalgety ; Capt. C. H. B. Grant ; R. E. Heath ; P. A. D. Hollom ; 
R. C. Homes; Maj.-Gen. H. P. W. Hutson ; D. Lack; Miss E. P. 
Leach ; Miss C. Lingfield ; C. W. Mack worth- Praed ; J. H. McNeile ; 
Sir P. Manson-Bahr ; E. M. Nicholson ; E. R. Parrinder ; Lt.-Col. 
W. A. Payn ; Miss G. M. Rhodes ; B. B. Roberts ; C. P. Staples ; 
Lt.-Col. W. P. C. Tenison ; C. de Worms ; Col. O. O. Wynne. 

Quests : — E. St. John Blunt ; Miss Grant ; G. Stottghton Harris ; 
Miss Hutson. 

Members, 26 ; Guests, 4 ; Total, 32. 

Mr. David Lack gave the members an interesting account of his 
recent visit to the United States of America and introduced a discussion 
on English vernacular names of birds, with the object of, if possible, 
obtaining uniformity with reference to species found on both sides of 
the North Atlantic Ocean. 

Exhibition of Kentish Plovers. 

Col. Payn exhibited two skins of Kentish Plover, Leucopolius a. 
alexandrinus (Linnaeus) from Tangier, and made the following remarks : — 

These two birds from Tangier appear to be in somewhat abnormal 
plumage. According to the Handbook, the collar round the neck should 
not meet in front in any state of plumage, whether of sex, age, or time 
of year. But the collar in these two birds is distinctly complete below, 
more so, perhaps, in one bird than in the other. The French recognize 
this point in the name by which they call this bird in their language. 
Pluvier a collier interrompu. 

I have examined all the skins of Leucopolius alexandrinus from different 
parts of the world in the British Museum, about 100 in number, and in I 
only three cases did the collar tend to meet in front. In every case, 
as in the two birds I am now exhibiting, they were of the female sex. 

I should be obliged if anyone would give their opinion as to what this 
variation in plumage is due. 

1946-47] 51 [Vol. lxvii 

A Further Note on the Taxonomy of the Robin, 
Erithacus rubecula (Linnaeus). 

Mr. David Lack read the following paper : — 

I was recently able to examine the large series of Robins, Erithacus 
rubecula (Linnaeus), in the American Museum of Natural History, New 
York, most of which at one time formed part of the Rothschild collection. 
These enable me to fill some gaps in my earlier commentary on this species 
(Lack, 1946). It will be recalled that most of Europe and the Atlantic 
islands are occupied by comparatively grey-backed and paie-oreasted 
populations. There is a westward cline towards the British Isles, first 
of increasing olive on the back and later of deepening orange on the 
breast, and another cline, southward through Spain and then eastward 
through North Africa, first of deepening orange on the breast and later 
of increasing olive on the back, culminating in Tunis. Some gaps in 
the previous paper may now be filled in. 

1. Breeding Populations. 

Western Morocco. — Specimens in the American Museum show that 
the breeding population of western Morocco is inseparable by plumage 
from E. r. rubecula, i. e. it does not form part of the cline from southern 
Spain to Tunis. Instead, it is linked with the populations of the Azores, 
Madeira and the western Canary Islands, which are similar in colour. 
Actually, four specimens collected by H. Lynes in the Yebala region, 
N.W. Morocco, and named by him E. r. atlas, appear slightly greyer 
on the back than specimens of E. r. rubecula from the Azores, but are 
otherwise similar. It was remarked in the previous paper that specimens 
in the British Museum from the western end of the High Atlas were 
greyer than typical E. r. rubecula, and also rather paler on the breast. 

Corsica and Sardinia. — Specimens of the breeding population from 
both islands, formerly named E. r. sardus Kleinschmidt, are inter- 
mediate in the colour of both back and breast between typical E. r. 
rubecula from the continent of Europe to the north and E.r. witherbyi 
Hartert from Tunis to the south. Hence a cline must also be drawn 
through these islands to Tunis. However, this transitional population 
differs from that in southern Spain and eastern Algeria in that the 
back has begun to be more olive, whereas the S. Spain- W. Algerian 
birds still have comparatively grey backs. 

Italy. — Two specimens from Rome, three from Florence and one from 
Gabiano, N. Italy, obtained between September and March, are perhaps 
of the resident breeding population, as they are readily separable from 


Vol. lxvii.] 52 [1946-47 

typical E. r. rubecula, which winters in Italy. They are more olive 
on the back and a deeper orange on the breast than the breeding form 
of Corsica and Sardinia ; indeed, they closely approach in colour typical 
E. r. witherbyi from Tunis, or E. r. melophilus Hartert from Britain, 
though not quite so extreme. It was from two specimens of this type that 
the British bird was formerly recorded as wintering in Italy (Picchi, 1912). 
Breeding specimens from Italy should be collected to check whether, in 
fact, it is the breeding race that is here described. Six specimens from 
North Italy (Turin and Verona), collected in November and December, 
and in the British Museum, are typical of E. r. rubecula, and are not in 
any way like E. r. melophilus. Further collecting is clearly needed, 
especially of breeding birds. 

Western Russia. — Four specimens from near Pskov are the same colour 
on the breast but slightly more olive on the back than typical specimens 
from Sweden. Unfortunately, I have not yet seen any specimens from 
farther east in northern Russia, including the grey-backed, pale-breasted 
birds (E. r. tartaricus Grote) from the Urals. 

Jugo Slavia. — Seven specimens (five from the Bregava valley, one 
from Sarajevo, one from Karo Otok) are the same colour on the breast 
but rather greyer on the back than typical Swedish E. r. rubecula. The 
tendency to increased greyness on the back, also associated with a very 
pale breast, is carried further in Dr. J. M. Harrison's good series of speci- 
mens from Bulgaria. This grey-backed, pale breasted Balkan population 
is evidently isolated from the one of similar colour in the Urals, while, 
as mentioned already, there is a third such population in N. W. Morocco. 

Caucasus. — Eleven specimens from Wladikawkas. N. Caucasus, three 
from Talysch, and one other from S. Caucasus, confirm that these popula- 
tions, formerly named E. r. ciscaucasicus Buturlin and E. r. caucasicus 
respectively, are intermediate between typical E. r. rubecula and E. r. 
hyrcanus Blandford of Persia. They differ from typical E.r. rubecula in 
that all show rufous on the upper tail- coverts, but they are distinguishable 
from E.r. hyrcanus in that the latter have a darker orange breast and 
a longer beak. As mentioned in the earlier paper, specimens taken in 
winter quarters show that typical E. r, hyrcanus and typical E. r. caucasicus 

2. Some Migrant Individuals. 

Great Britain. — The Rothschild collection includes four specimens from 
Britain labelled E.r. rubecula. One from Fair Isle, and almost certainb 
one from South Uist, are correctly identified, but a third specimen, 
from Sussex, seems likely to be a faded example of E. r. melophilus. Th( 
fourth specimen, from near Tring, is in my view a usual specimen ol 
E. r. melophilus, bearing in mind that in eastern England, from whi( 



[Vol. lxvii. 

the type of this race comes, there is some intergradation in colour with 
typical continental individuals. This shows the difficulty in separating 
these two races. 

Portugal. — As mentioned in the earlier paper, breeding specimens 
from Portugal appear to have darker breasts than typical E. r. rubecula 
but are separable from E. r. melophilus by their greyer backs. Three 


Subspecific Variation in Erithacus rubecula. 

Range of 

1. Typical form (E.r. rubecula). 

2. Olive-backed, dark-breasted forms (E. r. melo- 

philus, E. r. witherbyi). 

3. Transitional forms between 1 and 2. 

4. Very grey, pale-breasted forms (E. r. tartaricus 

and unnamed forms). 

5. E. r. superbus. 

6. E. r. hyrcanus. 

7. Forms transitional with 6. 

Shown by 
Vertical lines.* 
Horizontal lines. 

Vertical and horizontal lines. 
Diagonal lines. 

Dotted arrow. 

specimens in the American Museum, from Portugal, collected in January, 
are indistinguishable from typical E. r. melophilus from Britain, and 
presumably this is what they are. However, judgment should probably 
be reserved until ringing recoveries have demonstrated such a migration. 
Morocco. — Three specimens collected in late September and early 
October from Mazagan on the west coast of Morocco are almost, though 

Vol. lxvii.] 54 [1946-47 

not quite, as olive on the back and as dark on the breast as E. r. melophilu-s . 
They are thus at once separable from the grey-backed, pale-breasted 
breeding population of the Atlas. Presumably they are winter visitors, 
perhaps from one of the transitional E. r. rubecula—E. r. melophilus popula- 
tions bordering the North Sea or English Channel. 


The racial variations found in Erithacus rubecula are summarized on 
the map, kindly drawn by Miss K. Price. 

1. The races E. r. superbus and E. r. hyrcanus are clear, the latter with 
a zone of intergradation in the Caucasus. 

2. Most of the rest of the range is occupied by populations similar 
in colour to typical E. r. rubecula from Sweden. However, in the British 
Isles (E. r. melophilus), in Tunis (E. r. witherbyi), and perhaps also in 
Italy, there are more olive-backed, darker-breasted populations, which 
are isolated from each other. These darker forms are linked with 
populations of E. r. rubecula by forms of intermediate type along the 
North Sea and English Channel, in S. Spain and W. Algeria and in 
Corsica and Sardinia. Likewise, there are three isolated populations 
with greyer backs and paler breasts than typical E.r. rubecula, namely, 
in the Urals (E. r. tartaricus), in the Balkans and in western Morocco. 
It seems doubtful whether these forms can profitably be designated 
by separate racial names. 


Lack, D. 1946. The Taxonomy of the Robin, Erithacus rubecula (Linnaeus). Bull. 

B. O. C, 66, pp. 55-65. 
Picchi, C. 1912. British redbreast in Italy. British Birds, 6, p. 121. 

Phalaropes and Gannets off the West Coast of Africa. 

Monsieur Noel Mayaud sent the following communication : — 

I would like to add some data on the presence of Phalaropes off the 
west coast of Africa with the observations of Abbe Parquin, when he was 
on a French ship of- war during January, 1940. The birds he saw were 
most probably Grey Phalaropes, of which P. F. Holmes gave oceanic 
records off the same coast (Ibis, 1939, p. 331-334). 

Abbe Parquin noted several flocks of these birds (20 to 50 per flock) 
on January 10 and 11, 1940, some 50-60 miles off the African coast 
between Cap Blanc and Cap Bogador (Rio-de-Oro). Evolutions of birds 
of each group were simultaneous, exactly as in the other Limicolae. 
On January 18, 60 miles south, off the Canaries, he noted twelve Phalaropes 

1946-47] 55 [Vol. bcvii. 

swimming about on the sea, picking up their food from the scum on the 
waves. These records are just in about the same region where Hewitt 
recorded four Phalaropes on January 1 (Ostrich, 8, 1937, p. 3). 

About Gannets, Parquin's ship came across during twelve hours on 
January 16, 1940, a huge concentration of flocks of Gannets, whose 
number he estimated at more than 100,000 individuals. It was about 
20-50 miles off the coast of Morocco from Casablanca to Mogador. His 
record confirms the observations of Bannerman of a huge gathering 
10 miles off the same coast in February. 

A New Race of Warbler from Northern Rhodesia. 

Mr. C. M. N. White sent the following description : — 

Calamonastes faseiolatus button!, subsp. nov. 

Description. — Like C. f. stierlingi Reichenow but with the upper side 
much duller and colder, a dark greyish brown without any reddish tinge ; 
the underside more closely barred than C. f. stierlingi, so that it appears 

Distribution. — So far only known from the Ndola district of Northern 

Type. — In collection of E. L. Button. Male adult, collected at Ndola 
on September 23, 1944, by E. L. Button. 

Measurements. — Three males have wings 60-64 mm. 

Remarks. — Some time ago, when I first examined these birds, I was 
surprised to find that a form allied to C. faseiolatus (Smith) occurred at 
Ndola, for I should have expected G. simplex katangse Neave, which 
is found in the Mwinilunga district of Northern Rhodesia, in the Katanga, 
north of Solwezi, and has been obtained on the Chambeshi river in the 
Northern Province of Northern Rhodesia. Now Button has collected 
a good series of Calamonastes faseiolatus stierlingi in the Eastern Province 
at Fort Jameson and Lundazi, it is quite clear that his Ndola birds 
represent a new race. 

Notes on Eastern African Birds. 

Captain C. H.B. Grant and Mr. C. W. Mackworth-Praed sent the 
following ten notes : — 

(1) On the specific name of the South African Crowned Hornbill. 

In the Bull. B. O. C, 67, 1946, p. 11, we criticized Peters's acceptance 
of Robert " s name . Mr . Peters has kindly written us under date December 1 7 , 
1946, pointing out that as the measurements given by Lichtenstein for 

Vol. trvii.] 56 [1946-47 

Buceros melanoleucus do not fit the South African Crowned Hornbill 
and that the rest of the description is not too satisfactory, the name 
Buceros melanoleucus is practically unidentifiable. Furthermore, there 
is no type and Lichenstein's measurements fit very well Anthra- 
coceros melabaricus (Gmelin). Lichenstein's B. melanoleucus is not 

A. melabaricus, nor can it be Bycanistes bucinator as suggested by Roberts. 
After further consideration we agree with Peters that Buceros melanoleucus 
is better considered as indeterminate, and we therefore accept Tockus 
suahelicus Neumann, as the species name. 

(2) On the conspecific status of Lybius quifsobalito Hermann and Lybius 

rubrifacies (Reichenow). 

In the Auk, 1946, p. 452, Mr. S. Dillon Ripley considers these two 
to be geographical races of each other. We have re-examined the series 
in the British Museum collection and note that the former has white 
in the wing- coverts and the chin to breast red, characters that are lacking 
in the latter. 

Colour pattern, as distinct from colour density, is surely a specific 
character and we do not see how these two quite distinct species can 
be placed as geographical races of each other. To do so is merely forcing 
them together on a general similarity and ignoring characters that cannot 
be other than specific and not geographical. When the skins are laid 
out, showing the underside, there is no real similarity and most certainly 
not a similar colour pattern. Furthermore, there are no intermediates. 

(3) On the status of Cercomela scotocerca enigma Neumann & Zedlitz, 

J. f. 0. 1913, p. 368 : Dire Dawa, eastern Abyssinia. 

Through the kindness of Dr. Stresemann of the Berlin Museum, we have 
had the loan of the type of the above, and on comparing it with the type 
and one other specimen of Cercomela dubia (Blundell & Lovat), Bull. 

B. 0. C. 10, 1899, p. 22 : Fontaly, central Abyssinia, we find that it is 
the same bird and that therefore C. s. enigma becomes a synonym of 

C. dubia. On the back of the label of the Berlin type is written in pencil 
" =C. dubia " which agrees with our decision. 

(4) On the status of Opifex altus Friedmann, Proc. N. Engl. Zool. CI. 10, 

1927, p. 4 : Nyingwa, Uluguru Mts., eastern Tanganyika Territory. 

We have examined twenty specimens of Artisornis metopias (Reichenow) 
from the Usambara Mts., Nguru Hills, Uluguru Mts., Kitessi Forest 
Songea district, and Unangu in northern Portuguese East Africa. We 

194&-47] 57 [Vol. lxvif. 

find that there is individual variation and that the characters given by 
Friedmann do not 'hold geographically. We therefore place Artisornis 
metopias altus (Friedmann) as a synonym of Artisornis metopias 

(5) On the status of Parus albiventris curtus Friedmann, Occ. Papers 

Boston Soc. N.H. 5, 1926, p. 217 : Taveta, Kenya Colony. 

Friedmann gives the characters of this race as smaller with shorter 
wings, i. e. 75 to 77 as against 80 to 86 mm. in up country birds. 

The British Museum series shows that " up country " birds have 
wings from 78 to 87 mm., and that the characters given by Friedmann 
do not hold good. We therefore place Parus albiventris curtus Friedmann, 
as a synonym of Parus albiventris Shelley. 

(6) On the races of Passer griseus (Vieillot) and on the status of Passer 

swainsonii (Riippell). 

In the Bull. B. 0. C. 64, 1944, p. 36, we showed that Passer suahelicus 
Reichenow, has to be treated as a species. We have now been able 
to examine the whole of the British Museum series and have arrived 
at the following conclusions on the races of Passer griseus and the status 
of Passer swainsonii. 

In eastern Africa we are able to recognize three races of Passer griseus 
on somewhat general, but nevertheless, recognizable characters, but 
there is an appreciable individual variation. 

They are : — 

Passer griseus griseus (Vieillot). 

Fringilla grisea Vieillot, N. Diet. d'Hist. Nat. 12, 1817, p. 198 : Senegal, 
of which Passer nikersoni Madarasz, Ann. Mus. Nat. Budapest, 9, 1911, 
p. 341 : between Dinder and Blue Nile, eastern Sudan, is a synonym. 

A rather pale race, head and mantle pale ; below pale with belly white. 
Wing 79 to 93 mm. Ninety-six measured. 

Distribution. — Senegal to northern Nigeria, western and central Sudan 
from Darfur to the Blue Nile and Sennar. 

Passer griseus ugandae Reichenow. 

Passer diffusus ugandae Reichenow, Vog. Afr. 3, 1904, p. 231 : Uganda, 
of which Passer albiventris Madarasz, Ann. Mus. Nat. Budapest, 9, 1911, 
p. 341 : Sudan, and Passer griseus mosambicus Van Someren, Bull. 
B.O.C. 40, 1921, p. 114: Lumbo, Mozambique, northern Portuguese 
East Africa, are synonyms. 

Vol. lxvii.] 58 [1946-47 

Above darker, below more dusky on chest and flanks. Wing 73 to 
91 mm. One hundred and forty measured. 

Distribution. — Gold Coast, Angola, southern Sudan, central and 
southern Abyssinia, British Somaliland, Belgian Congo, Uganda, Kenya 
Colony and Tanganyika Territory to Northern Rhodesia, Nyasaland and 
northern Portuguese East Africa. 

Passer griseus neumanni Zedlitz. 

Passer griseus neumanni Zedlitz, CM., 1908, p. 180 : Salamona, on 
Massaua-Ghinda railway, about 16 miles west of Massaua, eastern 
Eritrea, of which Passer griseus eritrese Zedlitz, J. f. O., 1911, p. 33: 
Scetel, near Keren, Eritrea, is a synonym. 

Above darker, head darker grey. Wing 85 mm. Two specimens 

Distribution. — Eritrea, northern Abyssinia and eastern Sudan at 

Passer swainsonii Ruppell. 

Passer swainsonii Ruppell, N. Wirbelt. Vog. 1840, p. 94, pi. 33 : 
northern Abyssinia. 

Is a very dark bird compared to Passer griseus, especially below, and 
has very little or no white on the throat. Its distribution is such that 
it occurs within the distribution of Passer griseus, both being found in 
northern Abyssinia and at Sheikh, British Somaliland. Wing 83 to 
90 mm. Twenty-one specimens measured. 

Distribution. — Port Sudan, eastern Sudan to Abyssinia and British 

We therefore now place Passer griseus, Passer swainsonii and Passer 
suahelicus as three separate species which are all distinct from Passer 
gongonensis (Oustalet), which has a large strong bill and has a distribution 
from central Abyssinia to Kenya Colony and southern Italian Somaliland. 

(7) On the status of Euodice cantans inornata (Mearns), and Euodice 
cantans meridionalis (Mearns), Smiths. Misc. Coll. 61, no. 14, pp. 3 
and 4, 1913 : Eddueim, White Nile, southern Sudan, and Indunumara 
Mts., northern Kenya Colony. 

The long series of Euodice cantans in the British Museum collection 
shows that only two races can be recognized and that the above-mentioned 
races must be placed in the synonymy, as birds from the White Nile 
area agree with E. c. cantans (Gmelin) and the birds from Uganda, Kenya 
Colony and Abyssinia agree with E. c. orientalis (Lorenz & Hellmayr). 

1946-47] 59 [Vol. lxvii. 

The two races we are able to recognize have the following distribution : — 

Euodice cantans cantans (Gmelin). 

Loxia cantans Gmelin, Syst. Nat. 1, pt. 2, 1789, p. 859 : Senegal, of which 
Euodice cantans inornata (Mearns) is a synonym. 

Above ashy brown and upper parts less distinctly barred. 
Distribution. — Senegal to the Sudan. 

Euodice cantans orientalis (Lorenz & Hellmayr). 

Aidemosyne orientalis Lorenz & Hellmayr, O. M. 9, 1901, p. 39: 
Yeshbun, south-western Arabia, of which Euodice cantans meridionalis 
(Mearns) is a synonym. 

Above browner and upper parts more distinctly barred. 

Distribution. — Red Sea Province Sudan, Eritrea, Abyssinia and 
British Somaliland to Uganda, Kenya Colony, Tanganyika Territory 
and Arabia. 

(8) On the status of Erythropygia brunneiceps Reichenow, J. f. O., 1891, 
p. 63 : Nguruman, north end Lake Natron, Kenya Colony, and 
Erythropygia leucoptera sclateri Grote, Bateleur, 2, 1930, p. 14 : 
Iringa, south- central Tanganyika Territory. 
Sclater, Syst. Av. iEthop. 2, 1930, p. 483, places the former as a race 
of Erythropygia leucoptera (Ruppell), andLynes, J. f. O., Sond. 1934, p. 83, 
also places the latter as a race of that species, and we in Bull. B. O. C. 
61, 1940, p. 18, placed E. zambesiana Sharpe as a race of E. leucophrys 
and placed all the other names in the synonymy. Through the kindness 
of Dr. Stresemann we have had the loan of the type of E. I. sclateri. 
Both E. brunneiceps and E. I. sclateri have the black streaks on the 
chest and distinct moustachial stripe of E. zambesiana and not the grey 
more indistinct chest streaks and moustachial stripe of E. leucoptera. 
Our examination of the long series in the British Museum collection shows 
the white edging on the inner secondaries is also to be found in birds 
as far south as Southern Rhodesia though much less broad, and that this 
character and the character of the brown edges to the inner secondaries 
of E. zambesiana is found in specimens as far north as Tanganyika Territory. 
This fact, with the other characters given above, causes us to consider 
E. brunneiceps and E. sclateri to be races of E. zambesiana and not of 
E. leucoptera. 

The distribution of the three races is as follows : — 

Erythropygia zambesiana zambesiana Sharpe. 

Erythropygia zambesiana Sharpe, P. Z. S. 1882, p. 589, pi. 45, fig. 2 : 
Tete, Rivi River, Shire, southern Nyasaland, of which E. ruficauda Sharpe, 

Vol. lxvii.] 60 [1946-47 

P. Z. S. 1882, p. 589, pi. 45, fig. 1 : Malimbe, Portuguese Congo ; E. leuco- 
phrys vansomereni W. L. Sclater, Bull. B. 0. C. 49, 1929, p. 62 : Mokai, 
Ruwenzori Mts., Uganda ; E. brunneiceps soror Reichenow, Vog. Afr. 3, 
1905, p. 774 : Klein Arusha, north-eastern Tanganyika Territory, and the 
races given in the footnotes 3 and 4, p. 482, and 1, p. 483, Syst. Av. 
iEthiop. 1930. 

Distribution. — Portuguese Congo to south-western Sudan at Kajo Kaji, 
Uganda, western Kenya Colony as far east as the Amala River and 
Mt. Leganisho, western Tanganyika Territory at the Ufipa Plateau, 
eastern Tanganyika Territory as far west as Amani and Arusha, Belgian 
Congo, Northern Rhodesia, Portuguese East Africa and eastern Southern 

Erythropygia zambesiana brunneiceps Reichenow. 

Erythropygia brunneiceps Reichenow, J. f. O. 1891, p. 63 : Nguruman, 
north end of Lake Natron, southern Kenya Colony. 

Distribution. — South-western Kenya Colony as far west as Mt. Suswa 
and Lake Natron to north eastern Tanganyika Territory west of Mt. Kili- 
manjaro to Loliondo. 

Erythropygia zambesiana sclateri Grote. 

Erythropygia leucoptera sclateri Grote, Bateleur, 2, 1930, p. 14 : Iringa, 
south -central Tanganyika Territory. 

Distribution. — Tanganyika Territory from Shinyanga to Mbulu, Kilosa 
and Iringa. 

The range of Erythropygia leucoptera (Ruppell) is central Abyssinia 
and British and Italian Somaliland to south-eastern Sudan, south-eastern 
Kenya Colony and north-eastern Tanganyika Territory. 

(9) On the species and races of the genus Prionops occurring in Eastern 
Africa : — 

Sclater, Syst. Av. vEthiop. 2, 1930, pp. 597-598, recognizes six species. 
Since 1930, Schouteden in 1933 has described Prionops alberti, and Grote 
in 1939 a new race of Prionops poliocephala from northern Angola. 
Van Someren, Nov. Zool. 29, 1922, p. 108, points out that Prionops 
poliocephala and Prionops vinaceigularis occur together at Ukambani 
and Loita, and in Nov. Zool. 1932, p. 302, considers that P. poliocephala, 
P. melanoptera and P. vinaceigularis are conspecific. 

We have examined the series in the British Museum collection and find 
the amount of white along the edges of the secondaries is not altogether 
a constant character, but that the curlv and non-curlv character of the 

1946-47] 61 [Vol. lxvii. 

crest is reliable, and it is more on this last character that we base the 
following arrangement of species : — 

A. Crest curly ; eye wattled. 

(1) Prionops cristatus cristatus Riippell. 

Prionops (Lanius) cristatus Riippell, N. Wirb. Vog. 1836, p. 30, pi. 12, 
fig. 2 : Massaua, Eritrea, of which P. cristata omoensis Neumann, J. f. 0. 
1905, p. 216 : Omo River, south-Western Abyssinia, is a synonym. 

Distribution. — Eritrea, Abyssinia and south-eastern Sudan. 

(2) Prionops cristatus concinnatus Sundevall. 

Prionops concinnatus Sundevall, CEfv. K. Sv. Vet-Akad. Forh. 7, 
1850, p. 130 : Roseires, eastern Sudan, of which Prionops martensi 
Reichenow, Arch. Nat. 67, Beitr. 1901, p. 330: Eastern Cameroon, 
and Prionops poliocephalus adamause Reichenow, O. M. 1910, p. 95 : Faro, 
Adamawa, western Cameroon, are synonyms. 

Distribution. — Eastern Nigeria and Cameroons to central and south- 
western Sudan and northern half of Uganda. 

B. Crest curly ; no eye wattle. 

(1) Prionops poliolophus Fischer & Reichenow. 

Prionops poliolophus Fischer & Reichenow, J. f. O. 1884, p. 180 : 
Naivasha, Kenya Colony. 

Distribution. — Central and south-western Kenya Colony to the Tabora 
district, Tanganyika Territory. 

C. Crest not curly ; eye wattled. 

(1) Prionops plumata plumata (Shaw). 

Lanius plumata Shaw, Gen. Zool. 7, 1809, p. 292 : Senegal, of which 
Prionops plumatus haussarum Hartert, Nov. Zool. 27, 1921, p. 126 ; 
Farniso, near Kano, northern Nigeria, is a synonym. 

Distribution. — Senegal and Gambia to Nigeria. 

(2) Prionops plumatus poliocephalus (Stanley). 

Lanius poliocephalus Stanley, in Salt's Trav. Abyss. 1814, p. 50, App. : 
Mozambique. Portuguese East Africa, of which Prionops poliocephala 
angolica Grote, O. M. 1939, p. 182 : North Angola, is a synonym. 

Distribution. — Uganda and Kenya Colonj^ to Angola, Damaraland 
and Zululand. 

(3) Prionops plumata vinaceigularis Richmond. 

Prionops vinaceigularis Richmond, Auk, 14, 1897, p. 162 : Plains 
.east of Mt. Kilimanjaro, south-eastern Kenya Colony, of which Prionops 

Vol. lxvii.] 02 [1946-47 

melanoptera Sharpe, Bull. B. O. C. 11, 1901, p. 46 : Fer Libah, Ogaden, 
eastern Abyssinia and Prionops intermedins Sharpe, Bull. B. O. C. 11, 
1901, p. 47 : Taita, Kenya Colony, are synonyms. 

Distribution. — British Somaliland to southern Kenya Colony. 

Note. — In view of Dr. Jan Someren's remarks on p. 302, Nov. Zool. 
1932, it would appear that P. poliocephala is only a migrant to Kenya 
Colony and there appears to be no breeding records for either Kenya 
Colony or Uganda. 

(10) On the races of Corvinella corvina corvina (Shaw), Gen. Zool. 7, 
1809, p. 337 : Senegal, occurring in Eastern Africa. 

Sclater, Syst. Av. ^Ethiop. 2, 1930, p. 615, recognizes only one race 
as C. c. affinis Hartlaub, and in Jackson's Bds. K. C. & Uganda, 1938, 
also recognizes one race as C. c. chapini Friedmann & Bowen. 

Friedmann & Bowen, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 46, 1933, p. 121, 
describe two new races and give the range of C. c. affinis as the Upper 
Nile district through northern Bahr-el-Ghazal to central Kordofan and 

Bannermann, Bds. Trop. W. Afr. 5, 1939, p. 378, places C. c. togoensis 
Neumann, as a synonym of C. c. affinis, which he takes as far west as 
Portuguese Guinea. 

As we have shown in the Bull. B. O. C. 63, 1942, p. 22, the type-locality 
of Corvinalle corvina affinis is the White Nile south of lat. 70 N. We are 
quite unable to see any characters by which birds from the Southern 
Sudan, north-eastern Belgian Congo, Uganda and western Kenya Colony 
can be separated, but specimens from Darfur to Kordofan can be 
separated as defined below. We are only able to recognize two races 
in Eastern Africa as follows : — 

Corvinella corvina affinis Hartlaub. 

Corvinella affinis Hartlaub, Syst. Orn. Westafr. 1857, p. 104 : White 
Nile, south of lat. 7° N. southern Sudan, of which Corvinella corvina 
chapini Friedmann & Bowen, P. B. Soc. Wash. 46, 1933, p. 121 : Kibigori, 
Kavirondo, western Kenya Colony, and Corvinella corvina caliginosa 
Friedmann & Bowen, P. B. Soc. Wash. 46, 1933, p. 122 : Rangu, southern 
Bahr-el-Ghazal, Sudan, are synonyms. 

Above greyer. Wing 118 to 130 mm. Twenty-three specimens 

Distribution. — Southern Sudan and north-eastern Belgian Congo to 
Uganda and western Kenya Colony. 

1946-47] 63 [Vol. lxvii. 

Corvinella corvina togoensis Neumann. 

Corvinella corvina togoensis Neumann, J. f. O. 1900, p. 263 : Kete 
Krachi, Togoland. 

Above more rufescent. Wing 116 to 130 mm. Thirty specimens 

Distribution. — Sierra Leone to Nigeria, Cameroons and central Sudan 
from Darfur to Kordofan. 

Note. — With reference to Corvinella corvina nubiae mentioned by 
Friedmann & Bowen, p. 121 ; Gadow, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus. 8, 1883, 
p. 231, gives this name and quotes Hartlaub, Orn. W. Afr. 1857, note 
p. 104 ; and Filippi, Rev. Mag. Zool. 1863, p. 290. 

This name is not given in the works cited and p. 290 of the Rev. Mag. 
Zool. 1863, is part of an article on Mollusca by H. Aucapitaine, and a 
de Philippi on p. 272 has a description of a new fish. The only reference 
we can find to de Filippi in the Rev. Mag. Zool. is on pp. 289-295, 1853, 
but this name does not occur. It would therefore appear that Gadow 
first introduced this name into nomenclature in 1883 as a nomen nudum 
and placed it as a synonym of Corvinella corvinus corvinus (Shaw). 


The next meeting of the Club will be held at the Rembrandt Hotel, 
South Kensington, on Wednesday, March 26, 1947 and the subsequent 
one on Wednesday, April 16, 1947. 





The four-hundred-and-sixty-seventh Meeting of the Club was held at 
the Rembrandt Hotel, Thurloe Place, S.W. 7, on Wednesday, 16 April, 
1947, following a dinner at 6.30 p.m. 

Chairman : Dr. J. M. Harbison. 

Members present : — Miss C. M. Acland ; Miss P. Barclay-Smith ; 
R. G. Barnes ; F. J. F. Barrington ;'. Major M. G. H. Beal ; C. Graham 
Brown ; James Fisher ; Dr. J. S. Harrison ; R. E. Heath ; D. Lack ; 
Miss E. P. Leach ; G. M. Mathews ; Miss C. Lingfield ; H. Peale ; 
C. W. Mackworth-Praed ; Miss G. M. Rhodes ; C. P. Staples ; 
C. de Worms ; 0. Wynn. 

Guests : — P. F. Bretherton ; Mrs, J. G. Graham-Brown ; R. G. H. 
Coombes; Dr. G. H. Emerson ; A. B. L. Peake. 

Members, 20 ; Guests, 5 ; Total 25. 

Exhibition of a Northern Tree-Creeper from 

Dr. J. M. Harrison showed a Northern Tree-Creeper, Certhia familiaris 
familiaris Linnaeus, which was obtained on March 13 of this year at 
Northcotes, Lincolnshire. I believe it is the second English and sixth 
British example. The bird was compared with, and matches Swedish 
topotypes (Meinertzhagen Collection), and with examples of Certhia /: 
macrodactyla from France and Switzerland. The specimen is a male 
and has the following measurements : — wing 64, bill 20, tarsus 16, tail 
53 mm. 

[May, 1947] a vol. tjlvu. 

Vol. lxvii] 66 [1946-47 

A New Race of Sylvia melanocephala Gmelin from 
the Heathlands of South-Eastern Italy. 

Mr. P. A. Clancey sent the following note with specimens for 
exhibition : — 

A careful examination of material of Sylvia melanocephala (Gmelin) 
from its entire range has shown that there are further races, unnamed but 
worthy of recognition, in the Western Palaearctic Region. Series in 
unworn dress are insufficient to permit of ready fixation of reliable racial 
characters in most cases, but a very large series from the heathlands of 
Apulia, S.E. Italy, shows clearly that the birds from this region are new 
to science, and for the new race I propose the name : — 

Sylvia melanocephala carmichael-lowi, subsp. nov. 

Description. — Male, adult. Separable from its closest affinity, 
Sylvia melanocephala melanocephala Gmelin, ' Systema Naturae,' 1, 2, 
p. 970, 1789, Sardinia, on account of the decidedly duller, less glossy 
ivory black crown ; duller grey of upper parts, not so tinged with blue ; 
less conspicuous brown fringes to the mantle feathers. Female, adult. 
Markedly different from the nominate race, having the mantle darker 
and colder in tone, not strongly tinged rufous. Juvenile : colder in 
tone above than the juvenile of the nominate race. 

Distribution. — Confined to the scrub covered heaths of the lowland 
regions of Apulia and south-eastern parts of Basilicata, south-eastern 
Italy, where it is an abundant resident. 

Type. — Male, adult. In my collection. Obtained near Taranto, 
Apulia, south-eastern Italy, on November 18, 1943. 

Measurements of Type. — Wing 57-5, culmen from base 13-5, tarsus 
20-5, tail 57-5 mm. 

Material examined. — S. m. carmichael-lowi, males 29, females 6, juvs. 10 ; 
S. m. melanocephala, series from Sardinia, Sicily, Corsica, Malta, Italy 
(Rome), Greece, South France, Spain, Portugal, Balearic Islands, North 
Africa (Tunisia), etc. ; S. m. pasiphae Stresemann and Schiebel from 
Crete, small series; S. m. momus (Hemprich and Ehrenberg), series 
from Egypt ; S. m. norrusae Nicoll, series ; S. m. mystacea Menetries, 
long series ; S. m. leucogastra (Ledru), series. 

Remarks. — Named in honour of Dr. G. Carmichael-Low. An examina- 
tion of specimens from other parts of Italy, particularly the Rome 
area, shows that the new race is confined to the scrub covered heathlands 
of Apulia and eastern Basilicata and that S. m. melanocephala is a widely 
distributed resident race in regions of the Italian peninsula not occupied 

1946-47] 67 [Vol. lxvii. 

by S. m. carmichael-lowi. The heathlands which form the terra typica 
of the new race — generally given on Italian maps as Le Murge — are areas 
of small ornithological interest, being largely destitute of bird-life during 
the late spring and summer months. This dearth of birds is attributable 
to the shallowness of the very red topsoil and the extremely arid nature 
of the entire region during the summer heat. 

Specimens collected in the neighbourhood of Siracusa and Augusta 
in Sicily during the autumn of 1943 tend to support to a minor degree 
an insular race confined to the island. The name Sylvia Capinera 
Rafinesque, Caraterri nuovi gen. e specie Sicilia, 1810, is available for the 
Sicilian bird if, on the production of additional material, a race can in 
fact be differentiated. 

Twenty four specimens of S. m. carmichael-lowi give the following 
wing measurements : — Males, 57-5-61 (59-2) ; females, 57-59 (58-3) mm. 

On the Races of Parus palustris Linnaeus 
Indigenous to England and Wales. 

Mr. P. A. Clancey sent the following note : — 

In the Bull. B. 0. C. 1946, 66, p. 86, I drew attention to the fact that 
there are two resident races of Parus palustris Linnaeus in England and 
Wales, and intimated that a note on the subject was in course of pre- 

Stejneger, in 1886, described the British race as Parus palustris dresseri, 
and designated a specimen from Kent as the type. This race, the darkest 
of a series of closely allied and contiguous races in the western Palaearctic 
Region, has generally been listed as from all England, Wales, and extreme 
south eastern Scotland until quite recently, when it was shown that 
the species in these islands is divisible into two distinct forms, the new 
race being confined to the north (loc. cit.). 

I have recently examined in the collections of the British Museum 
(Nat. Hist.), National Museum of Wales, Col. R. Meinertzhagen, 
Lieut.-Col. W. A. Payn, P. A. Clancey, etc., extensive material from all 
parts of the species' range in Britain, as well as series of the following 
Continental races, viz., P. p. longirostris Kleinschmidt, P. p. darti Jouard, 
P. p. italicus Tschusi and Hellmayr, P. p. communis Baldenstein, P. p. 
stagnatilis Brehm, P.p. palustris Linnaeus, and can now state that the 
provisional listing of the north of England race as either P.p. longirostris 
of P. p. stagnatilis is untenable in the light of recently acquired data. 

It has now been firmly established that the north of England race is 
nearest the Northen one, P.p. palustris Linnaeus, from which it differs 

Vol. lxvii.] 68 [1946-47 

to no appreciable extent, and I now propose to define the two indigenous 
British races of Parus palustris on the evidence at my disposal as 
follows : — 

Parus palustris dresseri Stejneger. 

Parus palustris dresseri Stejneger, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 1886, 9, p. 200, 
Kent, England. 

Mantle and rump reddish brown ; flanks warm buff ; wings and tail 

Distribution. — England generally south of Yorkshire and Lancashire 
in which counties intermediate examples are to be found ; Wales. 

Remarks.— In ' British Birds ', 27, p. 24, Lieut.-Col. W. A. Payn 
records examples taken at an elevation of 800-1000 feet on the borders 
of Berkshire and Hampshire as having greyish rather than rusty coloured 
backs. I have examined Lieut.-Col. Payn's birds and can confirm his 
findings. These specimens appear to represent a minor divergent 
tendency from the accepted form, but the precise cause is obscure. It is 
not considered that this is attributable to altitude, as it appears to be 
essentially local in character and birds from high areas of Wales examined 
differ in no way from Kentish topotypes of P.p. dresseri. The interesting 
problem presented by the Berkshire and Hampshire birds in Lieut.-Col. 
Payn's collection is apparently not associated with the finding of P. p. 
P. p. palustris in northern England. The following measurements have 
been taken from a representative series of sixteen P. p. dresseri : — Wing, 
males 60-67, females 59-65; bill from skull, males 10-11-5, females 
9-5-11 ; bill height at nostrils, males 3-5-4-5, females 3-5-4-0 mm. 

Parus palustris palustris Linnaeus. 

Parus palustris Linnaeus, ' Systema Naturae ', 10th ed., 1758, p. 190 : 

Mantle and rump pale greyish brown ; underparts almost white with 
flanks very pale buff ; wings and tail greyish brown. 

Distribution in British Isles. — At present only known from Northumber- 
land, Cumberland" and extreme south eastern Scotland (Berwickshire). 
The precise limit of range in this race has not been verified, but available 
examples from Yorkshire and Lancashire are apparently representative 
of an intermediate population. 

Remarks. — This race has not hitherto been identified in these islands, 
even as a migrant, and its discovery as an indigenous form is of salient 
importance, showing in a most graphic manner the type of racial problem 
presented by not a few British resident species. 

1946-47] 69 [Vol. lxvii. 

In comparing my north of England material with P. p. palustris Linnaeus 
I have used exact topotypical examples of this race, as well as specimens 
from Esthonia and Latvia, and it is evident that they exhibit a closer 
affinity to this race than any other. It must, however, be conceded 
that the north of England bird can be differentiated from the nomeno- 
typical one, but the criteria are insignificant, and it would be of small 
advantage to introduce a new name. It may be logically reasoned that, 
as practically all P. palustris races are based on minutiae of plumage 
coloration, there can be no justification for an exception being made of 
the north of England race. Such an argument is doubtless valid, but 
available material is insufficient to permit of ready separation at the 
present time and until it is augmented the only course open to us is the 
one adopted in this survey. 

The following measurements have been taken from a series of twelve 
specimens from the Coquet Valley, Northumberland : — Wing, males 
63-65-5, females 61-63 ; bill from skull, males 10-11, females 9-5-10-5 ; 
bill height at nostrils, males 3-5-4-5, females 4-0-4-5 mm. N.B. — Several 
specimens of this series have decidedly more arched culmens than is 
usual in any known race, but others do not differ. 

On the Validity of Troglodytes troglodytes 
indigenus Clancey, from South-western Scotland. 

Mr. P. A. Hens sent the following note : — 

P. A. Clancey in Bull. B. 0. C. 1937, 57, pp. 142-143, has described 
the Wren from south-western Scotland as a different race, which can be 
distinguished from the typical form by its much darker and richer brown 
upper parts, especially on the crown and nape, but by having its under- 
pays like the latter. In The Ibis, 1938, p. 753 ; 1940, p. 96 ; 1943, p. 91, 
and pp. 96-97 he has given further information about the distribution 
and characters of this race and the intergradation which exists between 
this one and other Wrens from the British Isles. 

After this race was rejected by the B. 0. U. List-Committee (Ibis, 
1938, p. 332), Witherby (footnote to p. 216, ' Handbook of British 
Birds ', 1938, 2) pointed out that Wrens from the west of Scotland, 
Troglodytes troglodytes indigenus, are inclined to be more uniformly dark 
on upper parts, but many individuals from other parts of Scotland and 
England are like them, whereupon Clancey (loc. cit.) has drawn attention 
to the fact that English birds are quite useless for comparative purposes 
because in England one finds a most promiscuous population ranging 

Vol. lxvii.] 70 [1946-47 

from the dark Troglodytes t. indigenus to the much paler and more russet 
Troglodytes t. troglodytes (Linnaeus). To get a clear opinion on the validity 
of this new race it should be compared with the nominate form from 
Sweden and other parts of the Continent, where the latter is considered 
to be distributed. 

Mr. Clancey has been so kind as to present me with a series of six 
T. t. indigenus from north-western England (Lancashire) and south- 
western Scotland (Lanarkshire) and has informed me that this series 
represents the fairly homogeneous T. t. indigenus sufficiently so that it 
can be used as comparative material. 

I have not been able to procure topotypical material from Sweden, 
but, on the other hand, I have compared this series of T. t. indigenus 
with fairly large material from the Continent, viz., Netherlands 40 
(breeding birds and birds in fresh plumage), Westphalia (Germany) 3, 
Augsburg (Germany) 1, Rumania 6, Italy 4, Sicily 1, Corsica 1, Sardinia 
(T. t. koenigi Schiebel) 16, Portugal 1, Iceland (T. t. islandicus Hartert) 1, 
and from England 7, as well as 2 migrants from Scotland. Dutch breeding 
birds are all, in spite of their mostly more or less worn plumage, dis- 
tinctly tinged rufous and absolutely different from T.t. indigenus. 

During winter there occur in the Netherlands, in addition to the native 
birds, migrants from elsewhere, as migratory movements have been 
observed on the islands and at the lighthouses. When comparing birds 
taken outside the breeding season one has to keep this fact in mind. 

I have found that the large majority of these Dutch birds are bright 
rufous on the upper parts. Some are darker though always more or less 
rufous, and they can all be differentiated from the dark, dull brown 
T. t. indigenus. Only two specimens are dark on the upper parts : 
not sexed 30 December, 1943, Aerdenhout, province, north Holland 
(near the coast of the North Sea), in collection of J. G. van Marie (wing 
50 mm.) ; and male 27 February, 1944, Warmond, province north Holland 
(near the coast of the North Sea), in collection of State Museum of Natural 
History at Leiden (wing 50 mm.). The first has a dark brown head, 
nape and mantle and dark rufous brown back. Compared with my 
series of T. t. indigenus this bird is still more reddish brown and more 
glossy than the dull, dark brown T.t. indigenus and when put in the 
series of this race it can readily be picked out. The other bird (from 
Warmond) is more difficult to deal with as it resembles some of the less 
dull coloured specimens of T. t. indigenus very closely and put in the 
series of this race it is very difficult to pick it out. It should perhaps 
be considered as a migrant example from the British Isles and the same 
may be said about the bird from Aerdenhout, 

1946-47] 71 [Vol. lxvii. 

Wing measurements of 33 males from the Netherlands are as follows : 
46-5, 48, 48, 48-5, 49, 49, 49, 49, 49, 49-5, 49-5, 49-5, 49-5, 50, 50, 50, 50, 
50, 50, 50, 50, 50, 50, 50-5, 50-5, 50-5, 50-5, 51, 51, 51, 51, 51, 51 mm. ; 
4 females 45, 45-5, 46, 47 mm. 

After having carefully examined this material, I am satisfied that 
Troglodytes troglodytes indigenus is distinctly different from the Wrens 
from the Netherlands (breeding birds, as well as practically all the birds 
collected outside the breeding season). 

Furthermore, Dr. G. C. A. Junge, of the State Museum of Natural 
History at Leiden, who has compared my series of T. t. indigenus with 
the Dutch Wrens in the museum, fully agrees with me in this matter. 

The four birds from Germany are also more rufous and brighter coloured 
on the upper parts than T. t. indigenus. The Wrens I have seen from 
Rumania and Italy are brighter rufous, even somewhat yellowish rufous. 
The specimen from Sicily closely resembles a bird from Florence. Italy. 
A specimen from Coimbra, Portugal, 30 April, 1938, in collection of 
J. G. van Marie, is rufous on the upper parts too, but is in not such a 
good condition as to be very useful for comparison. The birds from 
Sardinia, T. t. koenigi Schiebel, are darker on the upper parts and not 
so dull greyish brown on the head. They are conspicuously darker 
brownish buff on the underparts and mostly more heavily barred than 
T. t. indigenus. 

The seven specimens from England are really a mixed lot. The under- 
parts of two birds from Barnes, Surrey, are rufous, as are also one from 
Lincolnshire and one from Romney Marsh, Keut, but one from Yarm 
on Tees, Yorks, and two from Sevenoaks, Kent, are darker brown. One of 
the latter, male, 18 April, 1936, in collection of J. G. van Marie, No. 5431 , 
cannot be distinguished from T. t. indigenus. The two birds from 
Scotland, male, 3 November, 1904 (wing 49 mm.) ; afemale, 16 October, 1909 
(wing 45 mm.), Woodhead, Fyvie, Aberdeenshire, in collection of J. G. van 
Marie, are certainly not T. t. indigenus, but autumn migrants from 
elsewhere. They are bright yellowish rufous on the upper parts and 
resemble closely a female, 24 October, 1920, Barnes, Surrey in collection 
of P. A. Hens. 

I must express my sincere thanks to Mr. P. A. Clancey for the nice 
series of T. t. indigenus which he has so kindly presented to me ; to 
Prof. Dr. H. Boschma and Dr. G. C. A. Junge of the Leiden Museum, and 
Mr. J. G. van Marie, Bussum, as well as Prof. L. F. de Beaufort and 
Mr. K. H. Voous, jnr., of the Zoological Museum at Amsterdam for the 
kind loan of material and my special gratitude to Dr. Junge for his 

Vol. lxvii.] 72 [1946-47 

Two New Races of Francolins from Northern Rhodesia 
and some Records from Lundazi. 

Mr. C. M. N. White sent the following descriptions and records : — 
Pternistis afer aylwinae, subsp. no v. 

Description. — Similar to Pternistis afer humbolti (Peters) and P. a. 
loangwsz Grant and Praed, but differing in the underside, which lacks 
any pronounced black belly patch, and is white with the feathers bordered 
with black much as P. a. inter cedens Reichenow has them bordered with 
rufous ; differs from P. a. tornowi Meise in lacking any rufous on the 
underside. Upperside darker than the amber brown ascribed to 
P. a. loangwse. 

Distribution. — The Lundazi District of Northern Rhodesia where 
known from Lundazi River, Lunemfwa, Lumezi mission, Lumimba 
River, Lupamadzi River. 

Type. — In collection of E. L. Button. Adult male collected at Mwase 
Lundazi. Lundazi River, Northern Rhodesia, on 30 January, 1947, by 
E. L. Button. 

Remarks. — I have now examined twelve specimens from this area 
and it is evident that there is a well-marked race linking P. a. tornowi 
to P. a. loangwse and P. a. humbolti which must be recognised by name. 
To the south in the Petauke District P. a. loangwse and on the lower 
Zambesi River P. a. humbolti are characterised by having a large black 
patch in the middle of the abdomen ; to the north P. a. inter cedens 
has no abdominal patch and has the underside white with rufous margins 
to the feathers ; P. a. tornowi, which ranges from Mkiri in South 
Tanganyika to Vipya and Mzimba in North Nyasaland, has both rufous 
and black below and links the new race to P. a. intercedens. One of 
Button's birds, collected on the Lundazi River, has a trace of dark rufous 
and resembles P. a. tornowi, another from the Upper Lundaci River 
has a black belly patch as in P. a. humbolti. The remaining ten birds 
are quite constant. 

Named after Mrs. Button at Mr. Button's request. 

Pternistis swainsoni lundazi, subsp. nov. 

Description. — Similar to Pternistis swainsoni chobiensis Roberts but 
much darker and greyer both above and below, this being very marked 
on the crown, breast and sides. 

Distribution. — Known from Lupamadzi River, Lundazi District of 
Northern Rhodesia. 

1946-47] 73 [Vol. lxvii. 

Type. — In collection of E. L. Button. Male collected on Lupamadzi 
River, Lundazi District, Northern Rhodesia, on 16 December, 1946, by 
E. L. Button. 

Remarks. — Six specimens examined. I have already reviewed the 
races of Pternistis swainsoni (A. Smith) in Bull. B. 0. C. 65, p. 39, 1945, 
and it is satisfactory to be able to extend the range of the species some 
distance to the North east in a well-marked new race. 

In addition to the above Mr. Button has obtained several other records 
of interest at Lundazi. 

Merops s. superciliosus Linne, Caprimulgus e. europseus Linne (second 
record in N. Rhodesia) Neocichla gutturalis angustus Freidmann — a series, 
Muscicapa albicollis (Temminck), second record in Northern Rhodesia, 
Acrocephalus bdelicatus cinnamomeus Reichenow, Heliolais erythroptera 
rhodoptera Haagner — first record for Northern Rhodesia, and Anomalo- 
spiza imberbis Latham, the latter resembling A. i. mukandakundoj White 
described from Balovale and not at all like the description of A. i. nyasse 
Benson as one would have expected. 

B. O. U. Annual Meeting. 

The four-hundred-and-sixty sixth Meeting of the Club was held at the 
Rembrandt Hotel on Wednesday, 26 March, 1947, following B.O.U. 
Annual Meeting and dinner. Dr. J. M. Harrison was in the chair and 
there were present : — 

Members, 42 ; B. 0. U. Members, 45 ; Guests 3 ; Total 90. 

No scientific business was transacted. 

H V. 






The four-hundred-and-sixty-eighth Meeting of the Club was held at 
the Rembrandt Hotel, Thurloe Place, S.W. 7, on Wednesday, 21 May, 
1947, following a dinner at 6.30 p.m. 

Chairman : Dr. J. M. Harrison. 

Members present : — Miss P. Barclay-Smith ; F. J. F. Barrington ; 
N. A. Beal ; Dr. A. Graham Brown ; Mrs. G. Chadwyck-Healey ; 
P. A. Clancey ; J. Delacour ; A. Ezra ; Miss J. M. Ferrier ; R. S. R. 
Fitter ; Miss E. M. Godman ; Capt. C. H. B. Grant ; B. G. Harrison 
(V ice-Chairman) ; J. G. Harrison ; R. E. Heath ; Miss E. P. Leach 
(Hon. Treasurer) ; Miss C. Longfield ; J. D. Macdonald ; C. W. 
Mackworth-Praed ; G. M. Mathews ; Col. R. Meinertzhagen ; 
Lt.-Col. W. A. Payn ; Miss G. M. Rhodes ; C. P. Staples ; Lt.-Col. 
W. P. C. Tenison (Editor & Hon. Sec.) ; Dr. A. Landsborough Thomson ; 
C. N. Walter ; A. Williams ; C. de Worms ; Col. O. E. Wynne. 

Quest of the Club : — Dr. E. A. Cockayne. 

Guests : — Mrs. Graham Brown ; D. Buller ; Miss T. Clay ; 
Mrs. Fitter ; Miss Fletcher ; Miss Martin ; R. E. Moreau ; A. G. B. 
Russell ; Mrs. Tenison. 

Members, 31 ; Guests, 10 ; Total, 41. 


Parallel Variation in Shrikes and Moths. 

Dr. E. A. Cockayne gave a talk, illustrated by exhibits, showing the 
yellow and melanistic forms of certain moths which commonly have 
red coloration and suggested the possibility of certain shrikes now known 
as separate species being in fact merely colour varieties. Dr. J. M. 
Harrison, Mr. C. de Worms, Mr. R. E. Moreau and other members 
took part in an interesting discussion. 

[July, 1947] a vou lxvh. 

Vol. Ixvii.] 76 [1946^47 

Two Continental forms of Birds in Ireland 
new to the British List. 

Colonel R. Meinertzhagen read the following note : — 

When staying at Ashford Castle in Co. Mayo on 30 January this year 
I encountered an enormous flock of mixed Chaffinches and Greenfinches 
on stubble. I estimated their numbers at well over a thousand individuals. 
As I wished to determine the race to which these birds belonged I secured 
one of each with a single shot. They were fortunately both adult maks. 
The Chaffinch is a typical Fringilla coelebs solomkoi Menzb. & Sushk., 
described from the Crimea and west Caucasus in 1913, and the Greenfinch 
is Chloris (Moris turkestanicus Zarudny, described in 1907 from Turkestan. 

Strong eastern and north-eastern winds with frost and snow had per- 
sisted in west Ireland for the previous fortnight. This huge flock, like 
most distant migrants, was very wild and at my shot flew off in a con- 
centrated mass at a great height and were not again located. 

A new Race of Bullfinch from Scotland. 

Mr. P. A. Clancey sent the following note with specimens for 
exhibition : — 

A critical examination of over two hundred specimens of Pyrrhula 
pyrrhula (Linnaeus) from the western Palaearctic Region has revealed 
a distinctive Scottish race, for which I propose the name : — 

Pyrrhula pyrrhula wardlawi, subsp. n. 

Description. — Nearest P. p. nesa Mathews & Iredale from England, 
but male separable on account of darker and bluer grey mantle. Female 
paler on mantle and with prominent grey nape ; underparts paler and 
warmer brown, less purple-brown, than in P. p. nesa, but not so grey 
as in P. p. coccinea (Gmelin). Bill rather less massive than in either 
P. p. nesa or P. p. coccinea (see measurements). Juvenile duller in tone, 
less rufous, both and above below. 

P. p. wardlawi bill measurements. — Bill height at nostrils, males 
7-5-8-5 (8-1), females 7-8-5 (8-1) mm. (twenty-four measured), as against 
P. p. nesa, males 8-5-10 (9-3), females 8-5-10-5 (9-3) mm. (fifty-one 
measured), and P. p. coccinea, males 9-9-5 (9-2), females 8-5-9 (9-0) mm. 
(eleven measured). Exposed culmen, males 8-9 (8-7), females 8-9 
(8-5) mm., as against P. p. nesa, males 9-10 (9-4), females 9-10 (9-5) mm. 
and P. p. coccinea, males 9-10 (9-6), females 9-10 (9-3) mm. 

1946-47] 77 [Vol. lxvii. 

Distribution. — Confined to the mountainous regions of Scotland. 
Specimens from the following counties examined : Perthshire (11), 
Inverness- shire (5), Ross-shire (7), Sutherlandshire (3). 

Type. — In my collection. Female, breeding adult. Obtained by 
W. J. Plowden-Wardlaw at Kinloch Rannoch, Perthshire, Scotland, 
on 2 June, 1946. 

Measurements of the type. — Wing 82-5, exposed culmen 9-0, bill height 
at nostrils 8, tarsus 17-5, tail 61 mm. 

Material examined. — P. p. wardlawi, males 14, females 10, juvs. 2 ; 
P. p. nesa 150 ; P.p. coccinea 20 ; P.p. germanica 4 ; P.p. pyrrhula 7. 

Remarks. — The following additional measurements have been taken 
from the twenty-four adult examples of P. p. wardlawi : — Males, wing 
80-5-86-5 (83-5), tarsus 17-19 (17-4), tail 57-65 (60-6) mm. Females, 
wing 79-84 (81-7), tarsus 16-18 (17-2), tail 54-62 (59-9) mm. 

Named in honour of W. J. Plowden-Wardlaw of Kinloch Rannoch, 
who kindly drew my attention to the interesting characters exhibited by 
a series collected in that district of Perthshire. This series, when examined 
in conjunction with additional Scottish skins in my own collection, 
as well as from the collections of the Royal Scottish Museum, Edinburgh, 
and Col. R. Meinertzhagen, fully substantiated my original impression 
(The Ibis, 1940, p. 92) that Scottish birds were not P. p. nesa. 

Comparisons between races of this species must always be carried out 
with freshly taken series owing to the rapid fading which clearly takes 
place in museum skins. Pyrrhula pyrrhula* nesa Mathews & Iredale, 
Austral Avian Record, iii., 1917, p. 122, is a race without a definite 
type-locality fixation but, as it is clear from available evidence that for 
all practical purposes a fixation can be made on the work of Hartert 
and his associates who were among the first to recognise a distinct British 
race, we can nominate Tring, Hertfordshire, England, as the type-locality. 
The dark P. p. nesa form obtains in this locality. 

A new Race of Redstart from the British Isles. 

Mr. P. A. Clancey sent the following note : — 

Phoenicurus phoenicurus csBsitergum, subsp. n. 

Description. — Nearest Phoenicurus phoenicurus phoenicurus (Linnaeus), 
; Systema Naturae ', ed. x., 1758, p. 187 : Sweden, but male in breeding- 
dress decidedly bluer on upper-parts, less ashy grey ; forehead purer 
white ; wings and tail darker in tone. Female in breeding -dress darker 
and colder in tone on upper-parts ; bronzy suffusions on breast generally 
darker ; wings and tail darker. Juv. more yellowish below and darker 

Vol. lxvii.] 78 [1946-47 

above. A rather small race — Ph. ph. csesitergum, males, wing 74-80 
(76-9), tail 54-58 (54-8) mm. ; females, wing 74-78 (75-8), tail 54-56 
(55-1) mm. (fifteen measured) ; as against typical race, males, wing 
78-83 (80-3), tail 56-59-5 (57-2) mm. ; females, wing 78-81 (79-5), tail 
56-5-58'5 (57-3) mm. (fifteen measured). 

Distribution. — The British Isles, to which it is a summer visitant. 
Specimens of breeding birds examined from the following counties : 
Sussex (1), Kent (1), Suffolk (4), Lancashire (6), Northumberland (7). 

Type. — In my collection. Male, breeding adult. The wooded policies 
of Gawthorpe Estate, near Burnley, Lancashire, England, 3 May, 1947. 

Measurements of the type. — Wing 75-5, culmen from base 14-5, tarsus 
21-5, tail 54 mm. 

Material examined. — Ph. ph. csesitergum, males 9, females 6, juvs. 4. 
Ph. ph. phoenicurus, series from Italy, Switzerland, Austria, Germany, 
Norway, Sweden, Finland, Russia, Balkans. Ph. ph. algeriensis, series. 
Ph. ph. mesoleuca, not examined. 

Remarks. — Hartert, Vog. pal. Fauna, 1, pp. 718, 719, gives the wing 
' measurements of 69 males (30 Hartert, 39 Kleinschmidt) as 76-83, 
occasionally 84, and tail measurements 57-61 mm., but it is clear that 
these measurements are not based on geographical considerations. My 
measurements of Continental breeding birds show the typical race to 
be generally larger than the British one. There is a substantial overlap, 
and it is evident that the size criteria are in themselves not sufficient 
justification for a separation of the British race but, when considered 
in conjunction with the constant colour characters, a valid race can 
be differentiated in series. I cannot detect constant differences in 
putative British autumn birds although such specimens are usually 
rather dark, and I am of the opinion that in this dress the race is not 

Ficedularutacilla'Eyton,'iiist. Rarer Brit. B., Cat., 1836, p. 10 — Ex Ray, 
is not a name given expressly to the British breeding bird, and can be 

For assistance in many directions I am indebted to Dr. J. M. 
Harrison, D.S.C., Mr. Gregory M. Mathews, and Lt.-Col. W. A. Payn. 

On the Wrens of South-eastern England, France 

and Belgium. 

Mr. P. A. Clancey read the following note : — 

The purpose of this short communication is to draw the attention of 
systematists to the recent separation of the Belgian race of Wren as 


1945-47] 79 [Vol. lxvii. 

Troglodytes troglodytes occidentalis Verheyen, Bull. Mus. roy. d'Hist. 
nat. Belg. 17, No. 33, May 1941, pp. 26-27. Type.— Male adult, 7 July, 
1935, Tervueren, south of Brussels, Belgium. 

This race is described as being more greyish, less clear brown, than other 
European birds, and specimens from Sweden, Central Germany, Nether- 
lands, Great Britain, Orkneys, Shetlands, Faroes, Outer Hebrides, 
St. Kilda, etc., were examined by the author. . The only specimen from 
France (Pyrenees) available agreed with the Belgian series. 

Mr. K. H. Voous, Jr., of the Zoological Museum, Amsterdam, who has 
examined the fine breeding series of Belgian birds preserved in the 
Brussels Museum, confirms in litt., that birds from Belgium are indeed 
less brown on the upper-parts than Swedish and German specimens, 
but he states that all the available Belgian skins are in very worn dress. 

I have already commented on the paler and greyer coloration of the 
Wrens from East Suffolk and Essex, S.E. England {Ibis, 1943, p. 91, 
pp. 96-97), and very recently Lt.-Col. W. A. Payn (Bull. B. 0. C, 
67, pp. 22-23) exhibited and remarked on the characters of a series from 
the Blois area of France. It seems abundantly clear from available 
evidence that, on the production of adequate series of birds in unworn 
dress from S.E. England, France and Belgium, it will be found necessary 
to separate the Wrens of these regions from the Swedish Troglodytes 
troglodytes troglodytes (Linnaeus) on account of their greyer tones and that 
the name Troglodytes troglodytes occidentalis Verheyen will have to be used. 

A new Race of Double-banded Sand-Grouse 
from Angola. 

Mr. C. W. Benson sent the following description : — 

Eremialector bicinctus ansorgei, subsp. nov. 

Description. — -Like Eremialector bicinctus bicinctus (Temminck) in 
colour, but differs in its smaller size. Male, wing 157-168, compared 
to 168-184 mm. in E. b. bicinctus. Female, wing 158-165, compared to 
170-178 mm. in E. b. bicinctus. 

Distribution. — Only known from Huxe, near Benguella town, Angola. 

Type. — In the British Museum. Adult male. Huxe, Benguella, 
Angola. September 12, 1905. Collected by Dr. W. J. Ansorge. Brit. 
Mus. Reg. no. 1906 : 12 : 4 : 26. 

Measurements of type. — Wing 164, culmen from base 20, tail 77, 
tarsus 25 mm. 


Vol. lxvii.] ; 80 [1946-47 


Remarks.- — The following are more detailed wing measurements, in 
millimetres : — 

E. b. ansorgei (specimens in the British Museum) : — Thirteen males, 
157, 160, 160, 161, 161, 163, 164, 164, 165, 166, 167, 167, 168; nine 
females, 158, 158, 160, 160, 161, 161, 164, 164, 165, 

E. b. bicinctus. In British Museum (Damaraland) : — Three males, 
170, 172, 174 ; one female, 171. In Transvaal Museum (Damaraland : 
Windhoek, Ugab, Huab, Ombu, Eronga Mt., Karibib. Great Namaqua- 
land : Ariamsvlei, near Nalop) : — Eleven males, 168, 169, 169, 173, 175, 
175, 177, 179, 181, 182, 184 ; five females, 170, 175, 177, 177, 178. 
In South Africa Museum : — One male, Kunene River, 173 ; one female, 
Omaruru, Damaraland, 177. 

I thank Dr. Austin Roberts for measurements of the specimens in the 
Transvaal Museum. The others were measured by myself by permission 
of the Directors concerned. All the South West African localities are 
indicated on the General Reference Map, Vol. I of Capt. G. C. Shortridge's 
" The Mammals of South West Africa " (London : William Heinemann, 
Ltd., 1934). 

The races of Eremialector bicinctus and their distribution may be 
summarised as follows : — 

E. b. bicinctus (Temminck). Great Namaqualand north to Ovampoland. 

E. b. ansorgei Benson. Benguella, Angola. Like E. b. bicinctus 
but wing shorter. 

E. b. multicolor (Hartert). Bechuanaland, east of Kalahari Desert 
and Ngamiland ; Transvaal ; Matabeleland. Wing length as for 
E. b. bicinctus but altogether darker in colour. 

E.b. usheri Benson. Lower Zambesi Valley north to Loangwa Valley. 
Like E. b. multicolor but wing shorter, see Bull. B. 0. C, 67, p. 44, 1946. 

E. b. chobiensis (Roberts), of Ngamiland, is intermediate in colour 
between E. b. bicinctus and E. b. multicolor, and of similar wing length 
to these two races. 

I thank Mr. J. D. Macdonald, who has helped me in the completion 
of this description, which I drafted after I left England in December, 

A New Race of Spine-Tail from Peru. 

Mr. Alastaib Morrison sent the following description : — 
Asthenes d'orbignyi usheri, subsp. n. 

Description. — Nearest to A. d. huancavelicse Morrison, but differs in 
having the upper-parts generally darker ; underparts heavily tinged 
with dark grey ; rump and upper tail coverts light brown, not rufous ; 

Vol. Lxvii.] 81 [1946-47 

outer tail feathers very pale, almost whitish, brown ; bases and edges 
of secondaries rufous ; bill dark brown, pale horn at base of lower 
mandible ; feet dull blue ; iris brown. 

Distribution. — Only known from the arid subtropical and arid temperate 
zones of the Pampas River Valley, about 80 miles south-east of the town 
of Ayacucho, Peru. 

Type. — Ninabamba, Pampas River Valley, Department of Ayacucho, 
Peru ; altitude 7,000 feet ; adult male collected by A. R. G. Morrison 
on 31 August, 1939 ; collector's number 38 ; Brit. Mus. Reg. no. 1946.49.1. 

Measurements of type specimen. — Wing 65 ; bill 18-5 mm. 

Remarks. — Measurements of four other specimens are : adult male, 
wing 63, bill 18 ; immature male, wing 61, bill 19 ; two adult females, 
wings 64, 65 and bills 18-5 and 19 mm: 

The new form differs from A. d. arequipze, the only other form known 
to occur in Peru, by the much paler and more greyish coloration above ; 
greyish tinge on underparts ; absence of chestnut on rump, upper and 
under tail coverts and flanks ; possession of a rufous patch on the 

Differs from all other forms of Asthenes d'orbignyi by the absence of 
rufous coloration on the rump and upper tail coverts. I have much 
pleasure in naming this interesting new form after my friend, Mr. H. B. 
Usher of the Bird Room, British Museum (Natural History). 

Notes on Eastern African Birds. 

Captain C. H. B. Grant and Mr. C. W. Mackworth-Praed sent the 
following eight notes : — 

(1) On the status of Nilaus afer brevialatus Grote, O.M., 1938, p. 11 : 
Magogoni, Ruvu River, eastern Tanganyika Territory. 

This race is based on a wing measurement of 75 to 80 mm., and the 
author includes in its range the birds recorded by Roberts from Boror, 
northern Portuguese East Africa, in Journ. S. Afr. Orn. Un. 1, 1912, 
p. 34, who gives wing measurement of 71 to 80 mm. 

The nine specimens from northern Portuguese East Africa in the 
British Museum collection, collected by J. Vincent, have wing measure- 
ments of five males 79 to 82, and four females 81 to 83 mm. 

Nilaus nigritemporalis Reichenow, which is otherwise indistinguishable 
has a wing of 78 to 89 mm. 

We have seen three specimens including the type kindly loaned to us 
by Dr. Stresemann of the Berlin Museum. They are all females and have 
wing measurements of 78. f he type and 80 from Magogoni, Ruvu River, 

1946-47] 82 [Vol. lxvii. 

and 80 mm. from Mruha, Uluguru. They are unquestionably Nilaus 
nigritemporalis , and in view of the overlap in wing measurements we are 
of the opinion that Nilaus afer brevialatus Grote, must be placed ' as 
a synonym of Nilaus nigritemporalis Reichenow. 

(2) On the status of Laniarius funebris degener Hilgert, Nov. Zool. 18, 

1912, p. 605 : Darassum, south-eastern Abyssinia. 

This race is based on the smaller size and lighter colour, wing 80-86 as 
against 86-87 mm. in L. funebris (Hartlaub). 

We have measured the series in the British Museum collection and 
find that L. funebris from all over its distribution has a wing of 81-98 mm., 
and therefore size is not a character for distinguishing this race, nor do 
we find that the colour character holds good. We therefore consider 
that Laniarius funebris degener Hilgert must be placed as a snyonym 
of Laniarius funebris (Hartlaub). 

Van Someren in Nov. Zool. 1922, p. 117, has shown that Laniarius 
funebris rothschildi Neumann, J. f. 0., 1907, p. 595 : Sagan River, south- 
western Abyssinia, is not a recognisable race. 

(3) On the status of Onychognathus tenuirostris raymondi Meinertzhagen, 

Bull. B. O. C, 57, 1937, p. 68 : Mt. Kenya, central Kenya Colony. 

The character given is that the crown is greener, not such a purplish 
blue as in Abyssinian birds. 

All specimens of the Abyssinian O. t. tenuirostris have the head and 
sides of face green, as does a specimen from Mt. Kenya in the British 
Museum collection. The character of the colour of the head for both 
O. t. tenuirostris and 0. t. raymondi are the same in both birds, and we 
therefore place Onychognathus tenuirostris raymondi Meinertzhagen as 
a synonym of Onychognathus tenuirostris tenuirostris (Rvippell). 

The bird from the Aberdares, Onychognathus tenuirostris theresse 
Meinertzhagen, which has the top of the head violet, is quite a distinct 
race, and ranges from the Aberdares, Maktau, and Voi in Kenya Colony 
to southern Tanganyika Territory and the eastern Belgian Congo. 

(4) On the type of Nectarinia cupreonitens Shelley, and the Eastern 

African races of Nectarinia famosa (Linnaeus). 

Our examination of the type of Nectarinia cupreonitens shows that 
it has no original collector's label, but one in Verreaux's hand-writing 
gives Abyssinia, August 1850. The bird is not worn nor faded and 
is more green than blue, agreeing very closely in this respect with speci- 

1946-47] 83 [Vol. lxvii. 

mens from South Africa. The coppery colour is not a racial but an 
individual character, the cause of which is not known and does not occur 
in other specimens from Abyssinia. This type agrees with the original 
description and the coloured plate 6 in the Mon. Nect. p. 17, 1876. 

Despite its closer resemblance to the South African bird than to the 
Abyssinian, and the fact that the wing measurement is f 7 mm., i. e. 
rather longer than the usual Abyssinian measurement, it undoubtedly 
did come from Abyssinia, as is shown by the measurement of the exposed 
part of the culmen 28 mm., and the central tail feathers 106 mm. 

Our examination of the series in the British Museum collection shows 
that there is no character by which specimens from between Abyssinia 
and the southern Sudan to Nyasaland can be separated ; they have the 
same coloration, the same measurements of the culmen and central tail 
feathers, and overlap in wing measurements. We therefore can only 
recognise one race in Eastern Africa, as follows : — 

Nectarinia famosa cupreonitens Shelley, Mon. Nect. 1876, p. 17, pi. 6 : 
Abyssinia, of which Nectarinia subfamosa Salvadori, Ann. Mus. Genova, 
21, 1884, p. 138 : Antota, Shoa, central Abyssinia ; Nectarinia senigularis 
Sharpe,/^, 1891, p. 444 ; Sotik, south-western Kenya Colony ; Nectarinia 
famosa centralis Van Someren, Ibis, 1916, p. 446 : Lasasa, Uganda, and 
Nectarinia famosa vulcanorum Gyldenstolpe, Bull. B. O. C, 42, 1922, 
p. 38 : Mt. Sabino, Kivu district, eastern Belgian Cogno, are synonyms. 

Bill and central tail feathers shorter than in Nectarinia famosa famosa 
and belly usually bluer. Wing 63-75, exposed part of culmen 26-31, 
central tail feathers 94-120 mm. Twenty specimens measured. 

Distribution. — Eritrea, Abyssinia and southern Sudan to eastern 
Belgian Congo, Uganda, Kenya Colony, Tanganyika Territory, Northern 
Rhodesia, Nyasaland and northern Portuguese East Africa. 

Note. — In Nectarinia famosa famosa the belly is usually greener and 
the bill and central tail feathers longer, i.e. wing 72-80, exposed part of 
culmen 30-36, central tail feathers 110-151 mm. Sixty-three specimens 

In worn plumage the metallic green edging to the wing coverts, inner- 
most secondaries and central tail feathers is liable to be bluish. 

Distribution. — South Africa, south of the Zambesi River. 

(5) On the races of Cinnyris chalybeus (Linnaeus) occurring in Eastern 


Sclater, Syst. Av. iEthiop. 2, 1930, p. 694, recognises two races in 

Eastern Africa. Vincent, Bull. B. O. C, 53, 1933, p. 144, reviews this 

group and describes two races as C. c. zonarius and G. c. namwera from 

Vol. lxvii.] 84 [1946-47 

Eastern Africa. Benson, Ibis, 1937, p. 579, has'shown that C. c. namwera 
must be treated as a synonym of C. c. zonarius and we agree that this is so. 
We have compared the type and two specimens of C. c. bractiatus with 
five specimens of C. c. zonarius and find that the characters given do not 
hold good and that some individual variation in the colour of the belly 
must be allowed for. We therefore place C. c. zonarius as a synonym 
of C. c bractiatus. Lynes, J. f. O., 1934, p. 115, gives two races for 
Eastern Africa, but we have shown in Bull B. O. C, 64, 1943, p. 10, 
that C. ludovicensis (Bocage) is a race of C. afer (Linnaeus) and not of 
C. chalybeus. Lynes compared his male specimens from Dabaga, which 
is in immature dress with the type of C. manoensis Reichenow, which 
he states that it resembles except for having a darker belly. Reichenow 
compared this race to C. chalybeus (tail 40 mm.), and did not apparently 
compare it to C. intermedia (Bocage) with which it agrees and therefore 
beeomes a synonym. Meise, Mitt. Zool. Mus. Berlin, 22, i, 1937, p. 143, 
places C. manoensis as a race of C. afer, apparently overlooking the 
character of the length and shape of the tail. Priest, Bds. Southern 
Rhodesia, 4, 1936, p. 189, records C. c. subalaris Reichenow, for the whole 
of Southern Rhodesia, and on p. 192 gives also C. c. ludovicensis as 
occurring north of the Salisbury-Umtali Railway and at the Um villi 
River, but probably these specimens have been mis-identified, as the 
fig. 57 shows a short-tailed bird. 

We are unable to see that C. gertrudis Grote (tail 40 mm.) differs in 
any way from specimens from further north in Tanganyika Territory 
and Nyasaland and therefore place it as a synonym. 

We are able to recognise only two races in Eastern Africa as follows : — 

Cinnyris chalybeus intermedius (Bocage). 

Nectarinia intermedia Bocage, Journ. Lisboa, 28, p. 235, 1878 : Caconda, 
Benguella, Angola, of which Cinnyris manoensis Reichenow, O.M. 1907; 
p. 200 : Missale, Mano, Tukuyu District, south-western Tanganyika 
Territory, and Cinnyris chalybeus gertrudis Grote, O.M., 1926, p. 183 : 
Songea, south-western Tanganyika Territory, are synonyms. 

Shorter billed ; belly darker, upper tail coverts either olivaceous 
or olivaceous more or less tipped with metallic blue, copper or green. 
Wing, male 59 to 64 ; female 56 to 57 ; culmen from base, male 20 to 22 ; 
female 20 to 21 ; tail 40 to 44 mm. Twenty specimens measured. 

Distribution. — Central Tanganyika Territory and Nyasaland from 
Mzimba to Nchisi, to south-eastern Belgian Congo at Elizabethville 
and to Angola. 

Note. — We have examined Lynes' specimens and agree with him 
(p. 116) that the variation in the upper tail coverts is only individual, 

1946 47] 85 [Vol. lxvii. 

but these specimens of his are C. c. intermedia and not C. ludovicensis , 
he having compared it to two adult males in the British Museum 
collection from Angola and which have been mis-identified as C. ludo- 
vicensis though originally correctly named C. intermedia. 

Cinnyris chalybeus bractiatus Vincent, Bull. B. 0. C, 53, 1933, p. 146, 
Fort Chiquaqua, Southern Rhodesia, of which Cinnyris chalybeus zonarius 
Vincent, Bull. B. 0. C. 53, 1933, p. 145, Zobue, Portuguese East Africa- 
Nyasaland boundary, and Cinnyris chalybeus namwera Vincent, Bull. 
B. 0. C, 53, 1933, p. 146 : Mangoche Mt., southern Nyasaland, are 

Longer billed ; belly paler ; upper tail coverts always blue. Wing, 
male 59 to 65 ; female 57 to 62 mm. ; culmen from base, male 23 to 25-5 ; 
female 21 to 23 mm. ; tail 36 to 45 mm. Fifteen specimens measured. 

Distribution. — Northern Rhodesia at the Fort Jameson area to 
southern Nyasaland, the southern part of northern Portuguese East 
Africa to Southern Rhodesia. 

(6) On the status of Anthreptes collaris jubaensis Van Someren, J.E.A. & 

Ug. Nat. Hist. Soc. No. 37, 1931 : Hellesheid, Juba River, southern 

Italian Somaliland. 
The characters given for this race are much clearer yellow below 
in both sexes, only very slightest trace of olive wash on flanks in the male, 
and female below wholly canary yellow with no greyish tinge on throat. 
These characters agree with the series of Anthreptes collaris elachior 
Mearns, Smiths. Misc. Coll. 56, 14, 1910, p. 5 : Chamgamwe, near 
Mombasa, Kenya Colony, in the British Museum collection, and we 
therefore place A. c. jubaensis Van Someren, as a synonym of A. c. elachior 

(7) On the status of Ploceus pelzelni tuta Bangs & Phillips, Occ. Papers, 

Bost. Soc. N.H. 5, 1925, p. 177 : Bussissi, Mwanza district, northern 

Tanganyika Territory. 
Sclater in Jackson's Bds. Kenya Colony & Uganda, 3, 1938, p. 1423, 
casts doubt on the validity of this race. Our examination of the thirty- 
one specimens in the British Museum collection shows that males from 
Wadelai have wings 60-62, and females 58-62 mm. ; two males from the 
Lango area have wings 63—64, and two females 61 mm., and that four 
females from South Ankole, south-eastern Uganda have wings 63- 
65 mm. ; two males from the Ruwenzori Mts. are 57 and 61 mm., three 
males from Entebbe 61-65, and a female 62 mm. The authors of 
P. p. tuta give male 66 and female 63 mm. as compared to males 57-60 
and females 56-58 mm. in Icteropsis pelzelni pelzelni (Hartlaub). 

Vol. lxviij 86 [1946-47 

The series we have examined shows that the southern birds are inclined 
to be longer winged than northern birds, but as we have males from 
Entebbe with wings 61-65, and males from Wadelai 60-62 there does 
not appear to be a geographical division between them, and we therefore 
place Ploceus pelzelni tuta Bangs & Phillips, in the synonymy of Icteropsis 
pelzelni (Hartlaub ) . 

(8) On the status of Ploceus aureoflavus pallidiceps Vincent, Bull. B. O. C, 
53, p. 147, 1933 : Mocuba, Portugeuse East Africa, and Ploceus 
aureoflavus reicherti Meise, O.M., 1934, p. 16 : Mbamba Bay, south- 
western Tanganyika Territory. 

P. a. pallidiceps is differentiated by Vincent as having no saffron 
colour on the forehead and throat, and as being more greenish on the 
back, and larger. The type is in breeding -dress, as it has a black bill, 
and the two adult males from near Netia and Lurio River mouth are in 
non-breeding dress, having brown coloured bills as stated by Vincent. 
C. W. Benson has presented to the British Museum a male in breeding- 
dress having a black bill, from Kota Kota, Nyasaland, and this specimen 
has distinct but palish saffron on the sides of the face. Benson, in 
a letter to us dated 10 July, 1944, states that Austin Roberts informs 
him that males from Boror, Portuguese East Africa, Nkata Bay, Nyasa- 
land, presented by Benson to* the Pretoria Museum, lack the saffron 
colour on the forehead and throat, but that this colour is present on the 
three males from Chinteche, Nyasaland. The amount of colour on the 
forehead and throat in birds from Zanzibar Island is variable, and one 
matches very closely the type of P. a. pallidiceps. The type is not more 
greenish on the back nor is it larger than Zanzibar Island birds. Moreover 
this type has an indication of saffron on the forehead and top of head. 
On the mainland of eastern Africa in Tanganyika Territory we find 
that all specimens in breeding -dress are well coloured on the head but 
differ in no way from the birds of Zanzibar Island. The amount of 
colour on the head in breeding -dress is a variable character, and although 
maybe there is little less colour in southern birds, this is not constant, 
nor can any geographical division be made on this character. We 
therefore place Ploceus aureoflavus pallidiceps Vincent, as a synonym of 
Xanthophilus aureoflavus (Smith). 

Ploceus aureoflavus reicherti appeqrs to have no characters that can 
really differentiate it from Xanthophilus aureoflavus, and it has already 
been placed as a synonym by the author, see Sond. Mittel. Zoo. Mus. 
Berlin, 22, 1, 1939, p. 149. In 1937 we examined two males in breeding- 
dress and two young females of this Weaver from Bamba Bay, and found 
that they agreed with X. a. pallidiceps Vincent, 





The four-hundred-and-sixty-ninth Meeting of the Club was held at 
the Rembrandt Hotel, Thurloe Place, S.W. 7, on Wednesday, 18 June, 
1947, with dinner at 6.30 p.m. 

Chairman : Dr. J. M. Harbison. 

Members present: — Mrs. G. Chadwyck-Healey ; C. T. Dalgety ; 
J. Delacour ; C. J. Duffin ; J. G. Harrison ; R. E. Heath ; P. A. D. 
Hollom ; R. C. Homes ; C. W. Mackworth-Praed ; Sir P. Manson- 
Bahr (Vice-Chairman) ; G. M. Mathews ; E. S. May ; Col. R. Meinertz- 
hagen ; E. R. Parrinder ; C. W. G. Paulson ; Mrs. J. B. Priestley ; 
Miss G. M. Rhodes, D. Seth-Smith ; Col. R. Sparrow ; C. P. Staples ; 
Lt.-Col. W. P. C. Tenison (Editor & Hon. Sec.) ; Col. O. E. Wynne. 

Guests : — The Duke of Bedford ; Dr. A. Ghigi ; Mrs. E. Grant ; 
Mr. F. M. Gurteen ; Dr. W. Hellebrekers ; Dr. P. Hens ; 
Dr. C. Keve ; D. Micklewright ; N. W. Moore ; Dr. P. Palmgren ; 
Dr. M. Sassi ; Mrs. D. B. Sparrow ; Mrs. O. L. Tenison. 

Members, 23 ; Guests, 13 ; Total, 36. 

The Chairman drew attention to the presence of, and welcomed, the 
many distinguished foreign ornithologists who were dining as guests of 
various members of the Club, and announced that no scientific business 
would be conducted that evening as it was expected that all present would 
wish to attend the exhibition of Mr. Walter Higham's film of Hungarian 
bird-life to be shown at the hall of the Royal Geographical Society in 
connection with the meeting of the International Committee for Bird 

[October, 1947] a vol. lxvii. 

Vol. lxvii.] 88 [1946-47 

A new Race of Atlapetes from Peru. 

Mr. Alastair Morrison sent the following description : — 
Atlapetes rufigenis forbesi, subsp. n. 

Description. — Differs from the typical race found in northern Peru, 
A. r. rufigenis (Salvin), by its darker and greyer, less brownish coloration 
on the back ; clearer white in the centre of the breast ; purer grey on 
the sides and flanks ; greyer and less brownish on the under tail- coverts ; 
deeper rufous on the head, with the forehead anteriorly black and with 
a very well -developed black circumocular area ; mystacal stripe blacker ; 
bill and feet a little darker. 

Distribution. — Only known from the humid temperate woods at 
Pomayaco, altitude 9,100 feet, in the Pampas River Valley, Department 
of Apurimac, South Peru, about 80 miles south-east of the town of 

Type. — Adult male ; Pomayaco, Department of Apurimac, Peru ; 
altitude 9,100 feet ; collected 1. x. 39 by A. R. G. Morrison (British Museum 
Reg. No. 1946.49.2). 

Measurements of type. — Wing 81 mm. ; culmen from base 16 mm. 

Remarks. — I am much indebted to the assistance of Mr. Zimmer in 
preparing the above description. Mr. Zimmer has kindly compared 
a pair of the new form with seven specimens of A. r. rufigenis in the 
American Museum of Natural History. Only the type is available in the 
British Museum. He informs me that the variations from the average 
in his series of the typical race are in the direction of the new form. 

Measurements of additional specimens are : — Three males : wing 84, 
80, 77 ; bill 17, 16, 16 ; one female (imm.) : wing 74 ; bill damaged ; 
three unsexed : wing 71, 81, 84 ; bill 15, 16, 16 mm. 

The new form is named after Sir Court enay Forbes, formerly British 
Ambassador in Lima, as a small token of my appreciation for much help, 
encouragement and good advice during my travels in South America. 

The relationship between Phyllastrephus placidus 
grotei Rchw., P. f. fischeri Rchw. and P. p, 
miinzneri Rchw. 

Mr. R. E. Moreau sent the following note : — 

Sclater (Syst. Av. iEth.) synonymized P. grotei as well as P. sokokensis 
van Som. with P. f. fischeri, and tentatively P. miinzneri with P. f. placidus 
Shelley. Subsequently the type of P. miinzneri was borrowed from the 
Berlin Museum and examined by C. H. B. Grant. It proved to differ 
from P. f. placidus in plumage as well as size, and to agree with P. f. 

1946-47] 89 [Vol. lxvii. 

fischeri in plumage, but to be larger. It was decided to treat it as a species 
(Moreau, Bull. B. O. C, 57, p. 127). Grant and Mackworth-Praed 
(Bull. B. O. C, 60, p. 43), after studying the description of P. grotei — the 
type not being accessible — regarded it as a synonym, not of P. /. fischeri, 
but of P. /. placidus. 

I thought this latter conclusion doubtful, on ecological grounds, since 
P. grotei is known only from Mikindani, on the coast of Southern Tan- 
ganyika Territory, while P. /. placidus is everywhere a montane bird. 
I therefore applied to the Berlin Museum to know whether any further 
particulars could be provided of this group from material there. I am 
much indebted to Dr. Stresemann and Herr Grote for going into the 
matter for me. It may be added that there seems to be no claim in the 
literature that P. grotei, P. munzneri and P. fischeri differ in plumage. 

Dr. Stresemann informs me that " judging from the very poor material " 
in Berlin " both grotei and munzneri are to be considered synonyms of 
fischeri ". The four birds obtained at Mikindani, which are not sexed 
(an important point in this genus), have wings measuring 83 (type of 
P. grotei), 92, 93 and 97 mm. Presumably the type was a female. The 
type of P. munzneri (male) has wing 96 mm. 

The British Museum collection contains : — 

(1) One male with wing 95 mm., from lowland forest about five miles 
east of Amani. 

(2) Another bird from the Uluguru foothills, not available for examina- 
tion at the moment, but identified as P. munzneri, and therefore pre- 
sumably large (Ibis, 1940, p. 547). 

(3) Females from the Kenya coast having wings 75 and 79 mm., males 
78, 87, 88, 89, and a male from Korogwe, W.S.W. of Amani, only 84 mm 

(4) Three females from the Portuguese East African lowlands with 
wings 84, 84, 85, and one male (type), wing 96 mm., described by Vincent 
as P. alfredi itoculo, but already synonymized with P. munzneri (Bull. 
B. 0. C, 60, p. 52), no doubt correctly. 

Other measurements available for coastal birds, all from the northern 
end of the range of the group, in Kenya, are : — 

{a) In the Berlin Museum males 81 (type of P. fischeri), 91 ; female 
78 mm. 

(b) Males 85-92, females 75-86 mm. — derived from the series from 
which P. sokokensis was originally described (Bull. B. 0. C, 44, p. 7). 
There is universal agreement that this is a synonym of P. /. fischeri, and 

Vol. lxvii.] 90 [1946-47 

Van Someren has a series of 100 specimens from the Kenya coast (Novit. 
Zool., 37, p. 343). It will be observed that the wing measurements of the 
Portuguese East African females and of the presumed Mikindani female 
are within the (upper part of) the range of the Kenya female measure- 
ments, and that the biggest Kenya male equals the smallest (presumed) 
male from Mikindani. 

I conclude that : — 

(i.) There are not sufficient grounds for regarding P. miinzneri as 
specifically distinct from P. fischeri. We have predominantly small 
birds at the north end of the coastal zone, large further south. Both 
large and small occur in the latitude of Amani and, for all we know, 
in the almost complete absence of material from between 5° and 9° S., 
over a wide belt of country. The gradient of the cline may be deter- 
minable at some future date. Alternatively, the conclusion that the 
two forms are conspecific must be reconsidered if, when a large series 
of any one sex becomes available from a single locality, the frequency 
distribution curve of the wing-measurements shows two peaks. 

(ii.) P. grotei is a synonym of P. /. miinzneri, not of P. /. fischeri or 
P. /. placidus. 

Notes on Western Palaearctic Birds, with two 
new Races. 

Col. R. Meinertzhagen sent the following descriptions and criticisms 
on some western palaearctic birds : — 

In the following notes I do not wish to appear to be " laying down the 
law " nor to pretend that a final verdict is pronounced. I repeat, that 
genera are largely a matter of convenience, species are a matter of fact, 
and subspecies largely a matter of opinion. My own test of a valid sub- 
species is that at least 75 per cent, of specimens from a given area should 
be constant and conform to the diagnosis, and that no subspecies should 
be named on differences which are not clearly visible to persons with 
moderate ocular discrimination. In looking at a colour chart recently 
I was shocked to find, that I could not discriminate between perhaps 
eight or ten different colours ; the author must have been able to do so, 
or it would make nonsense of his book. But I claim that unless differences 
are easily seen by people like myself, then names should not be given to 
alleged subspecies. I also deplore examples of gross exaggeration which 
has crept into some recent descriptions of subspecies. Exaggeration 
detracts from confidence. To say much larger, much browner, strong 
yellow wash, when these are really very slight and often not visible at all, 
is not only misleading but shakes public confidence. 

1946-47] 91 [Vol. lxvii. 

(1) A new race of Ember iza calandra Linnaeus. 

Emberiza calandra clanceyi, subsp. n. 

Description. — More richly coloured and redder than Scandinavian 
birds, and consistently yellower below. 

Distribution. — Typical birds have only been seen from the extreme 
west of Ireland, and from west Scotland. 

Type (ad. $). — Aran Isles, Co. Galway, West Ireland, 7 February, 
1947. In Meinertzhagen collection. 

Measurements of type. — Wing 85 mm. 

Remarks. — An examination of the large series in the British, Berlin, 
Paris, Stockholm, New York and Ley den Museums, and specimens 
from the Ticehurst and Whistler collections from Britain, Albania and 
southern France, together with my own large series from the British 
Islands, Holland, Morocco and Ushant, shows that west Scottish and 
west Irish birds are consistently yellower below, and usually, not always, 
more richly coloured above in fresh plumage. 

Hartert (Vog. pal. Faun., 3, p. 166) says " British birds are almost 
always more rusty brown, the underparts in fresh plumage being yellowish. 
They are perhaps a good race, but similar birds occur on the continent. " 
It is true that occasional continental specimens approach the richer and 
yellower British form, but I have seen none of these from Scandinavia. 

Swainson (Nat. Hist, and Classif. of Birds, 11, p. 290, 1837) gave a 
substitute name for Linnaeus 's miliaria because of the difficulty of pro- 
nouncing miliaria miliaria. He quotes Selby's plate of an English bird, 
naming it Miliaria europsea. But even if Swainson 's name be accepted, 
the richness of the colour of west Irish birds prompts me to give a name 
to the population of Common Buntings at the end of their European cline. 

Birds from Holland, France and Ushant are seldom so dark as west 
Irish birds, and only occasionally have the underparts washed with a 
distinct yellow. 

In addition, I recognize E. c. buturlini Johansen, 1907, West Siberia, 
which is generally a paler and often a larger bird. It extends south and 
west to Iraq, Syria, and Palestine. I cannot recognize either E. c. 
thanneri Tschusi, 1903, Teneriffe, nor E. c. parroti Goernitz, Falco., 37, 
p. 1, 1921, Corsica, their supposed differences being insufficiently constant. 

(2) On the British form of Emberiza citrinella Linnaeus. 

In dealing with the Yellow Hammers of Western Europe we have to 
consider the following names : — 

E. c. citrinella Linnaeus, 1758. Type -locality. Upsala. 

Vol. lxvii.] 92 [1946-47 

E. c. nebulosa Gengler, 1920. " England, Holland and North 
France." No type is mentioned. England must be taken as the 
general type-locality : he had before him specimens from Stalham 
in Norfolk and from Berkshire. I therefore cite Stalham as the 
restricted type-locality. 
E. c. caliginosa Clancey, 1940. Dornoch, Sutherland. 

I have examined the series in the Stockholm Museum and have also 
ten adults from Upsala. I also have two adults from Stalham, and have 
examined a large series from Berkshire, Hampshire and Tring (Hertford- 
shire), Devon and Cornwall. 

This British series I regard as adequate for determining the validity 
of E. c. nebulosa. In general they are darker above, showing a yellower, 
rather more sulphur, tint than occurs in Swedish birds, but some 
individuals are indistinguishable. I have two birds from Rotterdam 
which I cannot separate from Swedish specimens. I have a series of 
nine birds from Ushant which agree generally with E. c. nebulosa, though 
some are remarkably dark and nearer north Scottish and Irish birds. 

To finish with French birds : I have four adults from the Pyrenees, 
and these appear to be identical in every way with Swedish birds. 

To deal now with Irish and Scottish birds. I have before me eight 
topotypical E. c. caliginosa (Clancey coll.). I have in my collection 
seventeen from East Ross-shire, three from Dumfries- shire, six from 
Mull, Arran and Argyll, and seven from the extreme west of Ireland — 
Achill Island to Co. Kerry. Though some north Scottish birds are 
slightly darker than E. c. nebulosa from the south of England, I cannot 
regard the difference as sufficient to recognize both E. c. caliginosa and 
E. c. nebulosa. The same applies to the west Scottish and Dumfries -shire 
series. One of these names must go and I consider that E. c. caliginosa, 
unfortunately, must be adopted for the Yellow Hammer of the British 
Islands. It is a case of an intermediate form (E. c. nebulosa) invalidating 
the extreme form (E. c. caliginosa) at the end of the cline. I wish here 
to stress the importance of not describing a subspecies from the middle 
of a cline unless specimens from the end of the cline have been examined. 

We now come to the Irish birds, at the end of the cline, as much at the 
end as are the Ushant series, which they closely resemble, being generally 
slightly darker than British and Scottish specimens. One is ever so 
much darker than any (Caragh Lake, Kerry, October, 1945). West Irish 
birds are a most uneven series, some exactly matching English birds 
and others exactly matching Ushant birds. I therefore propose to leave 
it at that. 

A series of five autumn and winter birds from Estonia are slightly 
paler than Swedish birds and represent E. c. erythrogenys Brehm. I can- 

1946-47] 93 [Vol. lxvii. 

not substantiate Gengler's E. c. sylvestris from Germany, nor his E. c. 
romaniensis from Rumania. Neither can I distinguish E. c. somowi 
Awerin, 1912, from Kharkov. These two latter become synonyms of 
E. c. erythrogenys Brehm. 

(3) On the validity of Ember iza schoeniclus mackenziei Bird. 

An examination of a large series from the Outer Hebrides and Sweden 
shows no constant differences, though especially richly coloured in- 
dividuals occur not only in the Outer Hebrides but also from West Scotland 
and West Ireland. These bright individuals do not appear to occur in 
the south of England nor on the Continent, but are not frequent enough 
to justify Emberiza schoeniclus mackenziei Bird, 1936, South Uist. 

(4) A new race of Alauda arvensis Linnaeus. 

Alauda arvensis theresse, subsp. n. 

Description. — Redder above and below than either A. a. scotica Tschusi 
or A. a. tertialis Clancey, and with a more pronounced yellow wash on 
the underparts. Usually more heavily marked on the upper breast 
and generally richer in colour. 

Distribution. — Extreme west Ireland — Achill Island and Co. Clare. 

Type (ad. <$). — Corofin, Co. Clare, 6 September, 1937. In the Meinertz- 
hagen collection. 

Measurements of type. — Wing 110 mm. Culmen from base 14 mm. 

Remarks. — I have had before me the series of skylarks from the 
Leningrad, Berlin, Stockholm, Leyden and Paris Museums ; also 
five paratypes and six others of A. a. tertialis Clancey from the Clancey 
collection and seven breeding birds from Kent, Sussex, Norfolk and 
Cambridge from the Harrison collection. I have also the following 
in my own collection, all breeding birds. 
8 from Upsala, Sweden. 

4 „ 


3 „ 

North Uist. 

9 „ 


2 „ 

Test Valley, Hants. 

1 , 

Amesbury, Wilts. 

1 , 


2 , 


1 , 

Tring, Herts. 

1 , 

, Rye Harbour, Sussex. 

6 , 

Co. Clare, West Ireland. 

1 , 

, Achill Island, West Ireland. 

8 , 

, Ushant, Britanny. 

Vol. lxvii.] 94 [1946-47 

South Finland birds are paler than Upsala birds, but not so pale as 
typical A. a. intermedia Swinhoe. German, Dutch and French birds 
cannot be separated from A. a. arvensis Linnaeus. 

Renfrewshire birds, topotypical of A. a. scotica Tschusi, 1930, Kirkcud- 
brightshire, are slightly darker and redder than Swedish birds, but never 
appear to have a yellow wash on the underparts. North Uist and Suther- 
land birds agree with A. a. scotica in the main, though individuals cannot 
be separated from A. a. arvensis. 

The Test Valley and Salisbury Plain birds stand out as slightly redder 
than either Scottish or Swedish birds, and have already been named 
A. a. tertialis Clancey, 1946, Amesbury, Wilts. 

I am unable to detect the " ventral surface strongly washed yellowish,' r 
as claimed by Clancey, except in one specimen. 

Birds from south and east England cannot be separated from A. a. 

In the Skylarks it would appear that a cline runs from east to west — 
from grey to red above and white to yellow below — from northern and 
western Europe, culminating in western Ireland, the cline being steeper 
in the north than in the south. 

(5) On the validity of Anthus pratensis whistleri Clancey. 
I have in my collection the following in fresh plumage. 
4 from Upsala. 
2 „ Finland. 

East and west Sutherland. 

Orkney, Shetland and Outer Hebrides. 

Mull and Argyll. 

East Inverness-shire. 

Southern England. 

Scilly Isles. 

Extreme West Ireland. 




I have also examined the series in the Royal Scottish Museum. 
In dealing with Meadow Pipits, the richness and warm coloration of the 
upper and lower parts is lost very largely in winter, and almost entirely 
by spring. Any comparison between autumn birds from one locality 
and spring birds from another is therefore useless. 

There is great individual variation. It would be easy with small 
selected series to establish several races in the British Islands, but in 
the series I have before me, which I consider adequate, it would be 
impossible, if they were all mixed up, to pick out individuals and say with 

1946-47] 95 [Vol. lxvii. 

certainty that they came from any single locality. The only exception 
is a single, very rich, bird from West Ireland, where the majority tend to be 
more richly coloured than either Swedish or Scottish specimens. South 
of England birds are the least richly coloured. Ushant birds cannot 
be separated from Scandinavian specimens in similar plumage. 

I cannot, therefore, accept A. p. whistleri of Clancey. 

As regards an eastern form, I have birds from the Crimea, Iraq, 
Palestine and Kashmir. These are, without doubt, paler and greyer 
than Swedish birds, and should bear the name Anthus pratensis littorea 
(Gmelin), 1771, North Persia. 

(6) On the British, Swedish and French races of Anthus spinoletta 
I have examined the following : — 
The series in the Royal Scottish Museum. 
Series of A. s. littoralis Brehm, in the Stockholm Museum. 
11 specimens of A. s. kleinschmidti Hartert, including the type, 
from the Faroes. 

15 specimens of A. s. meinertzhageni Bird, including the type, from 
South Uist. 

8 specimens of A. s. hesperianus Clancey, from Arran Island, West 

10 specimens of A. s. ponens Clancey, from Ushant. 

34 specimens from the Scottish mainland, Orkney, Shetland, St. 

Kilda, Fair Isle and Isle of May. 
A small series from Yorkshire. 

9 specimens from Wales, Isles of Scilly, Dorset and the Isle of Wight. 

16 specimens from West Ireland, from Achill Island to the mouth 
of the Shannon. 

Taken together, the Rock Pipits of the area under discussion are a most 
confusing and difficult lot, owing to considerable individual variation. 

A. s. littoralis Brehm, 1831, Danish Islands. 

I can see no difference whatever between Baltic birds and the true 
A. s. petrosus Montagu, from Wales in fresh autumn plumage. In spring 
plumage Baltic birds often moult into a more or less pinkish throat and 
upper breast, but not always. This spring moult is rare in British 
specimens. I have seen signs of a pinkish throat in two Welsh birds and 
I have in my collecton a breeding pink- throated bird from Fair Isle. 
In such condition they are inseparable from As. littoralis Brehm. 

I have skinned many British Rock Pipits in March and April, and have 
not yet observed a sign of spring moult. But there is no doubt that some 

Vol. lxvii.] 96 [1946-47 

of them do so, and I regard the west of England records of A. s. littoralis 
Brehm, as examples of the British form which have assumed a nuptial 
dress. This Baltic form does, however, occur in autumn and winter 
on our east coast. 

A. s. kleinschmidti Hartert, Faroes. 

I cannot see much difference between this form and A. s. petrosus 
Montagu, except in size. In A. s. kleinschmidti Hartert, the culmen from 
base is 17-19-5 mm. and wing 92-94 mm. In A. s. petrosus (27 measured) 
the culmen from base is 13*5-16*5 mm. and wings 79-93 mm., once 94 mm. 
A. s. kleinschmidti Hartert, is slightly darker than A. s. littoralis Brehm, 
and is sometimes more heavily streaked below. 

A. s. meinertzhageni Bird, 1936, South Uist. 

A. s. hesperianus Clancey, 1942, Arran, Scotland. 

The type of A. s. meinertzhageni Bird, is not representative of the 
series on which Bird based the form. I cannot see the slightest difference 
between birds from South Uist and birds from Arran. A. s. meinertz- 
hageni Bird, are browner and darker, not so red as birds from north and 
east Scotland, Yorkshire and England, and I have not yet seen a specimen 
assuming a nuptial plumage. A. s. kleinschmidti Hartert, comes near 
them, but has a longer culmen, and is not quite so dark. 

The series from west Ireland mainly resemble this form, though some 
come dangerously near A, s. petrosus Montagu. 

I cannot separate the Ushant series (^4. s. immutabilis Degland and 
A. s. ponens Clancey) from A. s. meinertzhageni Bird, though individuals 
are sometimes not quite so dark above. 

A. s. petrosus Montagu, Wales. 

I further restrict the type-locality to South Wales. Specimens from 
Wales and the south of England, Yorkshire, Isle of May, Fair Isle, St. 
Kilda, Orkney, Shetland, and apparently some Argyll birds and others 
from the coasts of Sutherland and Caithness, must be referred to this form, 
though, I admit, some could not be picked out from a series of A. s. 
meinertzhageni Bird. They are generally paler, more rufous, not so brown, ■ 
and often less heavily streaked than either A. s. kleinschmidti Hartert 
or A. s. meinertzhageni Bird. They appear to differ from A. s. littoralis 
Brehm, only in seldom assuming a nuptial plumage, and when they do 
it is not so marked. 

Collett (1877 and 1881) thinks that A. s. petrosus breeds on the Norwegian 
coast and islands north to the Varanger Fjord. I have not seen sufficient 
Norwegian material to confirm or refute this. 

1946-47] 97 [Vol. Ixvii. 

(7) On the validity of Turdus merula ticehursti Clancey. 

I have had before me the series in the Berlin, Paris and Ley den Museums 
and several specimens from Mr. Clancey from Scotland and England, 
all breeding birds, and all females. 

I also have in my own collection, all females and breeding birds : — 
4 from Upsala, Sweden. 
4 ,, Ushant, Britanny. 
9 „ West Ireland. 

8 ,, Renfrewshire and Lanarkshire. 
2 ,, Northumberland. 

9 ,, Outer Hebrides and west Scotland, 
and a large series from Wiltshire and Suffolk. 

In Swedish birds the large majority of females have the upper breast 
rufous and the abdomen grey, but a few adults have both upper and 
lower breast rufous, exactly matching Scottish specimens. German and 
Dutch birds exactly match Swedish birds. 

Ushant birds cannot be separated from Swedish birds nor from many 
British and Scottish specimens, but they are decidedly smaller. The 
wings of three males in the flesh measure 125, 130 and 133 mm., and five 
females 119-124 mm. Five Swedish males measure 131-138, and five 
females 125-130 mm., also in the flesh. 

In 1938 Clancey described Turdus merula ticehursti from Renfrewshire, 
claiming that in Scottish birds the females are blacker and more washed 
with brown on the upper parts than Swedish birds, and darker on the 
wings, tail and abdomen. The Scottish birds, including many of 
Clancey 's, which I have examined do not agree with the above diagnosis. 
They appear to be not so black on the upper parts as Swedish birds, but 
are browner and inclined to be more reddish, and the whole of the under- 
pays, especially the lower abdomen, is certainly redder than is usual 
in Swedish birds. But they are an inconstant series. My experience 
of female blackbirds is that they show great individual variation in any 
one locality, though Clancey thinks they are not variable if separated 
into age-groups. How can adult female blackbirds be separated into 
age-groups ? 

The acceptance or not of T. m. ticehursti Clancey, must remain a matter 
of opinion. It depends on what percentage of constancy is required for 
recognition. If 75 per cent, is insisted on, then a Scottish race is possibly 
well-founded. It also depends on first-class optical discrimination. I have 
not got that ; Mr. Clancey, I admit, has. 

Vol. lxvii.] 



I can see no constant difference between west Irish birds and those 
from Scotland, though in some specimens the red of the lower abdomen 
is slightly more noticeable. A single female from Connemara is par- 
ticularly dark below, and this can be matched by another female in the 
Dublin Museum (Co. Clare, October, 1910). 


The Annual General Meeting of the Club will be held at the Rembrandt 
Hotel, South Kensington, S.W. 7, on Wednesday, October 15, 1947, at 
5.45 p.m. Dinner at 6.30 p.m., after which the Ordinary Meeting will be 

Vol. LXVII. 

Page 12, line 27, for cabinisi read cabanisi. 




34, for Argalocichla read Argaleocichla. 

1, for Nicatir read Nicator. 
21, for Atamistillas read Atimastillas. 

5, for melabaricus read malabaricus. 
10, for quifsobalito read guifsobalito. 
18, for corvinus corvinus read corvina corvina. 
14, for intermedia read intermedins. 

85, lines 1 and 4, for intermedia read intermedins. 


[Names of new species and subspecies are indicated by clarendon type 

under the generic entry only ; vernacular, or common, 

names are shown in ordinary type.] 

abingdoni, Geospiza s., 19. 
Acanthis pallescens, 42. 
Accipiter zenkeri, 35. 
Acrocephalus arundinacens, 5. 

cinnamomeus, 73. 

acutirostris, Geospiza d., 19. 
adamause, Prionops p., 61. 
senigularis, Nectarinia, 83. 
afer, Cinnyris, 84. 
affinis, Camarhynchus p., 17, 19. 

, Corvinella c, 62. 

africana, Goturnix c, 46. 

, Mirafra, 6, 7. 

Agapornis zenkeri, 35. 
Aidemosyne orientalis, 59. 
Alauda arvensis, 94. 

intermedia, 94. 

scotica, 93, 94. 

tertialis, 93, 94. 

theresae, subsp. nov., 93. 

alberti, Prionops, 60. 
albiceps, Psalidoprocne, 36. 
albicollis, Muscicapa, 73. 
albigularis, Lybius t., 35. 
albiventris, Par us, 57. 

, Passer, 57. 

alexandrinus , Leucopolius a., 50. 
algeriensis, Phoenicurus p., 78. 
altus, Artisornis m., 57. 

, Opifex, 56. 

amani, Oriolus chlorocephalus, 26, 27. 
andaryse, Chlorophoneus, 39, 40. 
Andropadus gracilus, 46. 

minor, 46. 

angolensis, Gapella n., 10. 
angolica, Prionops p., 61. 
angustus, Neocichla g., 73. 
Anomalospiza imberbis, 73. 

mukandakundse, 73. 

nyasse, 73. 

ansorgei, Eremialector b., 79, 80, 


Anthracoceros malabaricus, 56, 98. 
Anthreptes elachior, 85. 

jubaensis, 85. 

Anthus bocagei, 9, 10. 

hesperianus, 95, 96. 

hoeschi, 8. 

immutabilis, 96. 

katangse, 9, 10. 

kleinschmidti, 95, 96. 

lichenya, 9, 10. 

littoralis, 95, 96. 

littorea, 95. 

lwenarum, subsp. nov., 9, 10. 

meinertzhageni, 95, 96. 

petrosus, 96. 

ponens, 95, 96. 

richardi, 8, 9, 10. 

rufuloides, 8, 9, 10. 

spinoletta, 95. 

whistleri, 94, 95. 

Apalis muhuluensis, supsb. nov. 

tenebricosa, 43. 

arequipse, Asthenes d., 81. 
Argaleocichla xavieri, 35, 98. 
armenica, Saxicola t., 47, 48. 
Artisornis altus, 57. 

metopias, 56, 57. 

arvensis, Alauda a., 94. 
arundinaceus, Acrocephalus, 5. 
assimilis, Saxicola t., 48. 
Asthenes arequipse, 81. 

d'orbignyi, 81. 

huancavelicse, 80. 

Asthenes usheri, supsb. nov., 80. 
aterrimus, Scoptelus, 5. 
athensis, Calandrella s., 26. 
Atimastillas pallidigula, 37, 98. 
Atlapetes forbesi, subsp. nov., 88. 

rufigenis, 88. 

a^as, Erithacus r., 51. 

Vol. lxvii.] 



atrogularis, (Enanthe d., 47. 
aureoflavus, Xanthophilus, 86. 
aureus, Camarhynchus, 19. 

, Turdus d., 49. 

australis, Melittophagus, g. 35. 

, Protockus s., 12. 

aylwinae, Pternistis a., 72. 

baglafecht, Ploceus, 40. 
barbata, Erythropygia b., 32, 33. 
Batis, 29. 

belli, Eremomela g., 44. 
bensoni, Sheppardia g., 28, 30. 
bicinctus, Eremialector b., 79, 80. 
bocagei, Anthus r., 9, 10. 

, Cossypha, 38. 

bractiatus, Cinnyris c, 84, 85. 
brevialatus, Nilaus a., 81, 82. 
brunneiceps, Erythropygia z., 59, 60. 
Buceros melanoleucus, 11, 56. 
bucinator, Bycanistes, 11, 56. 
buttoni, Calamonastes /., 55. 
buturlini, Emberiza c, 91. 
Bycanistes bucinator, 11, 56. 
■ sharpii, 11. 

cabanisi, Phyllastrephus /., 12, 13, 98. 
Cactospiza, 17, 18. 

9iff or di, 19. 

— — — heliobates, 19. 

pallida, 17, 19. 

producta, 19. 

striatipecta, 19. 

csesitergum, Phcenicurus p., 11, 78. 
Calamonastes buttoni, subsp. nov., 55. 

fasciolatus, 55. 

katangse, 55. 

stierlingi, 55. 

Calandrella athensis, 26. 

megaensis, subsp. nov., 26. 

somalica, 26. 

oaliginosa, Corvinella c, 62. 

, Emberiza c, 92. 

Callene sokokensis, 29. 
Camarhynchus affinis, 17, 19. 

■ aureus, 19. 

• conjunctus, 19. 

■ crassirostris, 17, 19, 20. 

/m&eZ*, 17, 19. 

heliobates, 17, 19, 20. 

pallidus, 19, 20. 

parvulus, 17, 19, 20. 

pauper, 17, 19, 20. 

psittacula, 17, 19, 20. 

■ salvini, 19. 

* striatipectus, 19, 

cantans, Euodice c, 58, 59. 

, Loxia, 59. 

Capella angolensis, 10. 

nigripennis, 11. 

capinera, Sylvia, 67. 
Caprimulgus europseus, 73. 

inornatus, 12. 

ludovicianus, 12. 

Carduelis exilipes, 41. 

flammea, 42. 

hornemanni, 42. 

< pallescens, 42. 

carmichael-lowi, Sylvia m., 66, 67. 
caucasicus, Erithacus r., 52. 
cavei, Scoptelus, 5. 
Cercomela dubia, 56. 

enigma, 56. 

Certhia familiaris, 65. 

macrodactyla, 65. 

Certhidea, 17, 18. 

olivacea, 19, 20. 

centralis, Nectarinia, 83. 
chalybeus, Cinnyris, 83, 84. 
chapini, Corvinella c, 62. 

, Mirafra a.,1. 

Charitillas gracilis, 35. 

kavirondensis, 35. 

minor, 46. 

ugandse, 35. 

Chloris turkestanicus, 76. 
chlorocephalus, Oriolus c, 26, 27. 
Cholorophoneus andaryee, 39, 40. 

similis, 39, 40. 

chobiensis, Eremialector 6., 45. 

, Pternistis s., 72. 

cinnamomeus, Acrocephalus b. 73. 
Cinnyris afer, 84. 

bractiatus, 84, 85. 

chalybeus, 83, 84. 

gertrudis, 84. 

intermedius, 84, 85, 98. 

ludovicensis, 84, 85. 

manoensis, 84. 

marginatus, 36. 

namwera, 83, 84, 85. 

subalaris, 84. 

zonarius, 83, 84, 85. 

ciscaucasicus, Erithacus r., 52. 
Cisticola matengorum, 38, 39. 

natalensis, 39. 

citrinella, Emberiza c, 91. 
clanceyi, Emberiza c, 91. 
coccinea, Pyrrhula p., 76, 77. 
communis, Parus p., 67. 
concinnatus, Prionops c, 61. 
conirostris, Geospiza c, 19, 20, 21. 
conjunctus, Camarhynchus, 19. 
corvina, Corvinella c, 62, 63, 98, 



[VoL lxvii. 

Corvinella qffinis, 62. 

caliginosa, 62. 

chapini, 62. 

corvina, 62, 63, 98. 

nubiae, 63. 

togoensis, 62, 63. 

Cossypha bocagei, 38. 

kungwensis, 38. 

polioptera, 38. 

Cotumix africana, 46. 

cotumix, 46. 

erlangeri, 46. 

crassirostris, Camarhynchus, 17, 19, 20. 

, Platyspiza, 19. 

Crateropus tanganjicse, 36. 
cristatus, Prionops c, 61. 
cupreonitens, Nectarinia /., 82, 83. 
curtus, Parus a., 57. 

darti, Parus p., 67. 
darwini, Geospiza c, 16, 19. 
degener, Laniarius /., 82. 
delamerei, Pseudalsemon /., 25. 
deserti, (Enanthe d., 47. 
diadematum, Tricholsema d., 12. 
dibilirostris, Geospiza d., 19. 
difficilis, Geospiza d., 19, 20, 21. 
dilutior, Ldgonosticta s., 10. 
d'orbignyi, Asthenes, 81. 
dresseri, Parus p., 67, 68. 
dubia, Cercomela, 56. 

elachior, Anthreptes c, 85. 
Emberiza buturlini, 91. 

caliginosa, 92. 

citrinella, 91. 

clanceyi, subsp. nov., 91. 

erythrogenys, 92, 93. 

mackenziei, 93. 

nebulosa, 92. 

parroti, 91. 

somowi, 93. 

sylvestris, 93. 

thanneri, 91. 

emini, Othyphantes, 40. 
enigma, Cercomela s., 56. 
Eremialector ansorgei, subsp. nov., 79, 

bicinctus, 79, 80. 

chobiensis, 45, 80. 

multicolor, 44, 45, 80. 

USheri, subsp. nov., 44, 45, 80. 

eremobius, Symplectes, 4.0. 
Eremomela belli, subsp. nov., 44. 

griseoflava, 44. 

polioxantha, 4:4:. 

Erithacus atlas, 51. 

caucasicus, 52. 

ciscaucasicus, 52. 

hyrcanus, 52, 53, 54. 

melophilus, 52, 53, 54. 

rubecula, 51, 52, 53, 54, 

sardus, 51. 

superbus, 53, 54. 

tartaricus, 52, 53, 54. 

wiiherbyi, 51, 52, 54. 

eritrese, Passer g., 58. 
erlangeri, Cotumix c, 46. 

, Erythropygia q., 33. 

erythrogenys, Emberiza c, 92, 93. 
Erythropygia barbata, 32, 33. 

brunneiceps, 59, 60. 

erlangeri, 33. 

greenwayi, 33. 

quadrivirgata, 32, 33. 

rovumse, 32, 33. 

leucophrys, 59. 

leucoptera, 59, 60. 

ruficauda, 59. 

sclateri, 59, 60. 

soror, 60. 

vansomereni, 60. 

wilsoni, 33. 

zambesiana, 59. 

Estrilda incana, 37. 

perreini, 37, 38. 

Euodice cantans, 58, 59. 

inornata, 58, 59. 

meridionalis, 58, 59. 

orientalis, 58, 59. 

europsea, Miliaria, 91. 
europseus, Caprimulgus e., 73. 
exilipes, Carduelis p., 41. 

familiaris, Certhiaf., 65. 

jamosa, Nectarinia /., 82, 83. 

fasciolata, Mirafra, 6. 

fasciolatus, Calamonastes, 55. 

ferreti, Tchitrea v., 43. 

Ficedula rutacilla, 78. 

fischeri, Phyllastrephus /., 12, 88, 89, 90. 

flammea, Carduelis, 42. 

forbesi, Atlapetes r., 88. 

/orJw?, Geospiza, 19, 20, 21. 

Francolinus natalensis, 31, 32, 

neavei, 31, 32. 

fremantlii, Pseudalsemon /., 25, 26. 
Fringilla grisea, 57. 

solomkoi, 76. 

fuliginosa, Geospiza, 19, 20, 21. 
fulleborni, Laniarius, 39. 
funebris, Laniarius, 39, 82. 

Vol. lxvii.] 



Geospiza, 18. 

abingdoni, 19. 

acutirostris, 19. 

conirostris, 19, 20, 21. 

darwini, 16, 19. 

dibilirostris, 19. 

difficilis, 19, 20, 21. 

fortis, 19, 20, 21. 

fuliginosa, 19, 20, 21. 

intermedia, 19. 

magnirostris, 16, 19, 20, 21, 22. 

minor, 19. 

nigrescens, 19. 

propinqua, 1 9. 

rothschildi, 19. 

scandens, 19, 20. 

septentrionalis, 19. 

strenua, 19, 21, 22. 

germanica, Pyrrhula p., 11. 
gertrudis, Cinnyris, 84. 
giffordi, Cactospiza, 19. 
gomesi, Mirafra a., 1. 
gongonensis, Passer, 58. 
gracilis, Andropadus g., 46. 

, Charitillas g., 35. 

greenwayi, Erythropygia q., 33. 

grisea, Fringilla, 57. 

griseoflava, Eremomela g., 44. 

griseus, Passer g., 57, 58. 

grotei, Phyllastrephus p., 88, 89, 90. 

guifsobalito, Lybius, 56, 98. 

gunningi, Sheppardia g., 28, 29, 30. 

habeli, Camarhynchus p., 17, 19. 
hartlaubi, Turdoides L, 37. 
haussarum, Prionops p., 61. 
heliobates, Cactospiza, 19, 20. 

, Camarhynchus, 17, 19. 

Heliolais rhodoptera, 73. 
hemprichii, Saxicola t., 48. 
hesperianus, Anthus s., 95, 96. 
hewitti, Mirafra, 6. 
Hirundo saturatior, 39. 

senegalensis, 39. 

hoeschi, Anthus, 8. 
hornemanni, Carduelis, 42. 
huancavelicse, Asthenes d., 80. 
humbolti, Pternistis a., 72. 
hyrcanus, Erithacus r., 52, 53, 54. 

inornatus, Caprimulgus, 12. 
intercedens, Pternistis a., 72. 
intermedia, Alauda a., 94. 

, Geospiza s., 19. 

, Nectarinia, 84. 

intermedius, Cinnyris c, 84, 85, 98. 

, Prionops, 62. 

islandicus, Troglodytes t., 70. 
italicus, Parus p., 67. 
itoculo, Phyllastrephus a., 89. 

jubaensis, Anthreptes c, 85. 

katangse, Anthus r., 9, 10. 

, Calamonastes s., 55. 

kavirondensis, Charitillas g., 35. 
kelloggorum, Spreo h., 47. 
kleinschmidti, Anthus s., 95, 96. 
koenigi, Troglodytes t., 70, 71. 
kungwensis, Cossypha, 38. 

Lagonosticta dilutior, subsp. nov., 10. 

rendalli, 10. 

Laniarius degener, 82. 

fiilleborni, 39. 

funebris, 39, 82. 

rothschildi, 82. 

Lanius plumata, 61. 

poliocephalus, 61. 

leucogastra, Sylvia m., 66. 
leucophrys, Erythropygia, 59. 
Leucopolius alexandrinus, 50. 
leucoptera, Erythropygia, 59, 60. 
lichenya, Anthus r., 9, 10. 
littoralis, Anthus s., 95, 96. 
littorea, Anthus p., 95. 
loangwse, Pternistis a., 72. 
longirostris, Parus p., 67. 
Loxia cantans, 59. 
ludovicensis, Cinnyris, 84, 85. 
ludovicianus, Caprimulgus, 12. 
lundazi, Pternistis s., 72. 
Iwenarum, Anthus r., 9, 10. 
Lybius albigularis, 35. 

guifsobalito, 56, 98. 

rubrifacies, 56. 

torquatus, 33, 34, 35. 

zom&a?, 33, 34, 35. 

Icteropsis pelzelni, 85, 86. 
imberbis, Anomalospiza, 73. 
immutablis, Anthus s., 96. 
incana, Estrilda p., 37. 
indigenus, Troglodytes t., 69, 70, 71. 
inornata, Euodice c, 58, 59. 
, Pinaroloxias, 19, 20. 

mackenziei, Emberiza s., 93. 
macrodactyla, Certhiaf., 65. 
magnirostris, Geospiza m., 16, 19, 20, 2] 

malabaricus, Anthracoceros, 56, 98. 
malbranti, Mirafra, 1, 8. 



[Vol. lxvii. 

■manoensis, Cinnyris, 84. 
marginatus, Cinnyris m., 36. 
martensi, Prionops, 61. 
matengorum, Cisticola n., 38, 39. 
maura, Saxicola t., 47, 48. 
megaensis, Calandrella s., 26. . 

, Pseudalsemon /., 25. 

meinertzhageni, Anthus s., 95, 96. 
melanocephala, Sylvia, 66. 
melanoleucus, Buceros, 11, 56. 

, Tockus, 12. 

melanoptera, Prionops, 60, 61-62. 
Melittophagus australis, 35. 
melophilus, Erithacus r., 52, 53, 54. 
meridionalis, Euodice c, 58, 59. 
Merops super ciliosus, 73. 
mesoleuca, Phoenicurus p., 78. 
metopias, Artisornis, 56, 57. 
Miliaria europsea, 91. 
minor, Andropadus g., 46. 

r, Charitillas, 46. 

, Geospizaf., 19. 

Mirafra africana, 6, 7. 

chapini, 7. 

fasciolata, 6. 

*- gomesi, 7. 

hewitti, 6. 

- — malbranti, sp. nov., 7, 8. 

occidentalis, 6, 8. 

rufocinnamomea, 6. 

momus, Sylvia m., 66. 
mosambicus. Passer g., 57. 
muhuluensis, Apalis m., 43. 
mukandakundae, Anomalospiza i., 73 
multicolor, Eremialector b., 44, 45, 80. 
miinzneri, Phyllastrephus p., 88. 89. 90. 
Muscicapa albicollis, 73. 
mustum, Tricholsema d., 12. 
mystacea, Sylvia m., 66. 

namwera, Cinnyris c, 83, 84, 85. 
natalensis, Cisticola n., 39. 

, Francolinus n., 31, 32. 

neavei, Francolinus n., 31, 32. 
nebulosa, Emberiza c, 92. 
Nectarinia senigularis, 83. 

centralis, 83. 

cupreonitens, 82, 83. 

famosa, 82, 83. 

intermedia, 84. 

subfamosa, 83. 

vulcanorum, 83. 

Neocichla angustus, 73. 
nesa, Pyrrhula p., 76, 77. 
neumanni, Passer g., 58. 
Nicator vireo, 36, 98. 
nigrescens, Geospiza d., 19. 
nigripennis, Capella, 11. 
nigritemporalis, Nilaus, 81, 82. 
nikersoni, Passer, 57. 

Nilaus brevialatus, 81, 82. 

nigritemporalis, 81, 82. 

norrusae , Sylvia m., 66. 
nubiae, Corvinella c, 63. 

, Saxicola t., 48. 

nyasse, Anomalospiza i., 73. 

occidentalis, Mirafra a., 6, 8. 

-, Troglodytes t., 79. 

(Enanthe atrogularis, 47. 

deserti, 47. 

olivacea, Certhidea, 19, 20. 
omoensis, Prionops c, 61. 
Onychognathus raymondi, 82. 

tenuirostris, 82. 

theresae, 82. 

Opifex altus, 56. 
orientalis, Aidemosyne, 59. 

, Euodice c, 58, 59. 

Oriolus amani, subsp. nov., 26, 27. 

chlorocephalus, 26, 27. 

Othyphantes emini, 40. 

pallescens, Acanthis I., 42. 

, Carduelis h., 42. 

pallida, Cactospiza p., 17, 19. 
pallidiceps, Ploceus a., 86. 

, Xanthophilus a., 86. 

pallidigula, Atimastillas /., 37, 98. 
pallidus, Camarhynchus p., 19, 20. 
palustris, Parus p., 67, 68, 69. 
parroti, Emberiza c, 91. 
Parus albiventris, 57. 

communis, 67. 

curtus, 57. 

dar^, 67. 

dresseri, 67, 68. 

italicus, 67. 

longirostris, 67. 

palustris, 67, 68, 69. 

stagnatilis, 67. 

parvulus, Camarhynchus p., 17, 19, 20. 
pasiphae, Sylvia m., 66. 
Passer albiventris, 57. 

eritrese, 58. 

gongonensis, 58. 

griseus, 57, 58. 

mosambicus, 57. 

neumanni, 58. 

nikersoni, 57. 

suahelicus, 57, 58. 

swainsonii, 57, 58. 

ugandee, 57. 

pauper, Camarhynchus, 17, 19, 20. 
pelzelni, Icteropsis p., 85, 86. 
perreini, Estrilda p., 37, 38. 
perspicillata, Tchitrea p., 42, 43. 
petrosus, Anthus s., 96. 

Vol. lxvii.] 



Phcenicurus algeriensis, 78. 

eaesitergum, subsp. nov., 77, 78. 

mesoleuca, 78. 

phcenicurus, 77, 78. 

Phyllastrephus cabanisi, 12, 13, 98. 

fischeri, 12, 88, 89, 90. 

- grotei, 88, 89, 90. 

itoculo, 89. 

miinzneri, 88, 89, 90. 

placidus, 88, 89, 90. 

sokokensis, 88, 89. 

sucosus, 12, 13. 

sylvicultor, 12. 

Pinaroloxias, 18. 

inomata, 19, 20. 

placidus, Phyllastrephus /., 88, 89, 90. 
Platyspiza, 17, 18. 

crassirostris, 19. 

Ploceus baglafecht, 40. 

pallidiceps, 86. 

reicherti, 86. 

Jwta, 85, 86. 

plumata, Lanius, 61. 

, Prionops p., 61. 

poliocephala, Prionops, 60, 62. 
poliocephalus, Lanius, 61. 

, Prionops p., 61. 

poliolophus, Prionops, 61. 
polioptera, Cossypha, 38. 
polioxantha, Eremomela g., 44. 
ponens, Anthus s., 95, 96. 
Prionops adamause, 61. 

alberti, 60. 

angelica, 61. 

concinnatus, 61. 

cristatus, 61. 

haussarum, 61. 

intermedius, 62. 

martensi, 61. 

melanoptera, 60, 61-62. 

omoensis, 61. 

plumata, 61. 

poliocephalus, 60, 61, 62. 

poliolophus, 61. 

vinaceigularis, 60, 61. 

producta, Cactospiza p., 19. 
propinqua, Geospiza c, 19. 
Protockus australis, 12. 
Psalidoprocne albiceps, 36. 
Pseudalsemon delamerei, 25. 

fremantlii, 25, 26. 

megaensis, subsp. nov., 25. 

psittacula, Camarhynchus, 17, 19, 20. 
Pternistis aylwinae, subsp. nov., 72. 

chobiensis, 72. 

humbolti, 72. 

intercedens, 72. 

loangwse, 72. 

lundazi, subsp. nov., 72. 

Pternistis swainsoni, 73. 

tornowi, 72. 

Pyrrhula coccinea, 76, 77. 

germanica, 11. 

nesa, 76, 77. 

pyrrhula, 76, 77. 

wardlawi, subsp. nov., 76, 77. - 

quadricolor, Telephorus, 24. 
quadrivirgata, Erythropygia q., 32, 33. 

raymondi, Onychognathus t., 82. 
reicherti, Ploceus a., 86. 
rendalli, Lagonosticta s., 10. 
rhodoptera, Heliolais e., 73. 
richardi, Anthus, 8, 9, 10. 
rothschildi, Geospiza s., 19. 

, Laniarius /., 82. 

rovumse, Erythropygia q., 32, 33. 
rubecula, Erithacus r., 51, 52, 53, 54. 
rubicola, Saxicola, 48. 
rubrifacies, Lybius, 56. 
ruficauda, Erythropygia, 59. 
rufigenis, Atlapetes r., 88. 
rufocinnamomea, Mirafra, 6. 
rufuloides, Anthus r., 8, 9, 10. 
rutacilla, Ficedula, 78. 
ruwenzorise, Tchitrea p., 42. 

salvini, Camarhynchus p., 19. 
sardus, Erithacus r., 51. 
saturatior, Hirundo s., 39. 
Saxicola armenica, 47, 48. 

assimilis, 48. 

hemprichii, 48. 

niaura, 47, 48. 

nubise, 48. 

rubicola, 48. 

torquata, 47. 

variegata, 47, 48. 

scandens, Geospiza, 19, 20. 
sclateri, Erythropygia I., 59, 60. 
Scoptelus aterrimus, 5. 

cavei, sp. nov., 5. 

scotica, Alauda a., 93, 94. 
senegalensis, Hirundo s., 39. 
septentrionalis, Geospiza d., 19. 
sharpii, Bycanistes, 11. 
Sheppardia bensoni, 28, 30. 

gunningi, 28, 29, 30. 

sokokensis, 28, 29, 30. 

similis, Chlorophoneus s., 39, 40. 
sokokensis, Callene, 29. 

, Phyllastrephus, 88, 89. 

, Sheppardia g., 28, 29, 30. 

solomkoi, Fringilla c, 76. 
somalica, Calandrella s., 26. 



[Vol. lxvii. 

somowi, Emberiza c, 93. 
soror, Erythropygia b., 60. 
spinoletta, Anthus, 95. 
Spreo kelloggorum, 47. 
stagnatilis, Parus p., 67. 
stierlingi, Calamonastes /., 55. 
stormsi, Turdus, 36, 37. 
strenua, Qeospiza m., 19, 21, 22. 
striatipecta, Cactospiza p., 19. 
striatipectus, Camarhynchus p., 19 
suahelica, Tchitrea p., 43. 
suahelicus, Passer, 57, 58. 

, Tockus, 56. 

subalaris, Cinnyris c, 84. 
subfamosa, Nectarinia /., 83. 
sucosus, Phyllastrephus /., 12, 13. 
superbus, Erithacus r., 53, 54. 
superciliosus, Merops s., 73. 
swainsonii, Passer, 57, 58. 
swainsoni, Ptemistis, 73. 
sylvestris, Emberiza c, 93. 
Sylvia capinera, 67. 

carmichael-lowi, subsp. nov., 66, 67. 

leucogastra, 66. 

melanocephala, 66. 

momus, 66. 

mystacea, 66. 

norrusae, 66. 

pasiphae, 66. 

sylvicultor, Phyllastrephus, 12. 
Symplectes eremobius, 40. 

tanganjicse, Crateropus, 36. 

, Turdoides j., 36. 

tartaricus, Erithacus r., 52, 53, 54. 
Tchitrea ferreti, 43. 

perspicillata, 42, 43. 

ruwenzorise, 42. 

suahelica, 43. 

ungujaensis, subsp. nov., 42. 

Telephorus quadricolor, 24. 

vieirae, subsp. nov., 23. 

viridis, 23. 

tenebricosa, Apalis m., 43. 
tenuirostris, Onychognathus t., 82. 
tertialis, Alauda a., 93, 94. 
thanneri, Emberiza c, 91. 
theresse, Alauda a., 93. 

, Onychognathus t., 82. 

ticehursti, Turdus m., 97. 
Tockus melanoleucus, 12. 
suahelicus, 56. 

togoensis, Corvinella c, 62, 63. 
tornowi, Ptemistis a., 72. 
torquata, Saxicola, 47. 
torquatus, Lybius t., 33, 34, 35. 
Tricholsema diadematum, 12. 

mustum, 12. 

Troglodytes indigenus, 69, 70, 71. 

islandicus, 70. 

koenigi, 70, 71. 

occidentalis, 79. 

troglodytes, 22, 70, 79. 

Turdus ticehursti, 97. 
turkestanicus, Chloris c, 76. 
Turdoides hartlaubi, 37. 

tanganjicse, 36. 

Turdus aureus, 49. 

stormsi, 36, 37. 

£ula, Ploceus p., 85, 86. 

uellensis, Vinago c, 35. 
ugandse Charitillas g., 35. 

, Passer g., 57. 

ungujaensis, Tchitrea p., 42. 

usheri, Asthenes d., 80. 

, Eremialector b., 44, 45, 80. 

variegata, Saxicola t., 47, 48. 
vansomereni, Erythropygia L, 60. 
vieirse, Telephorus v., 23. 
vinaceigularis, Prionops p., 60, 61, 
Fmag'o uellensis, 35. 
vtVeo, Nicator, 36. 
viridis, Telephorus v., 23. 
vulcanorum, Nectarinia /., 83. 

wardlawi, Pyrrhula p., 76, 77. 
whistleri, Anthus p., 94, 95. 
witherbyi, Erithacus r., 51, 52, 54. 

Xanthophilus aureoflavus, 86. 

pallidiceps, 86. 

xavieri, Argaleocichla x., 35, 98. 

zambesiana, Erythropygia z., 59. 
zenkeri, Accipiter e., 35. 

, Agapornis s., 35. 

zombse, Lybius t., 33, 34, 35. 
zonarius, Cinnyris c, 83, 84, 85. 
Zoster ops, 15. 

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