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25 7/ 

B U L L K T L N 





Captain C. H. B. GRANT. 


SESSION 1947-1948. 

LOND C) N : 


Published 23 September, 1948. Price 2/6. 





Nine Meetings and dinners were held during the Session 1947-48. 

The Annual General Meeting took place on Wednesday, 15 October 
1947, at the Rembrandt Hotel, South Kensington; and was attended 
by 25 Members. 

The number of attendances for the Session was as follows : — Members 
of the Club 267, Guests of the Club 2, Other Guests 73, a total of 342. 
The Guests of the Club were Lieut. W Rydzewski and Mr. B. J. Marples. 

Many interesting exhibits and talks were given during the Session, 
including descriptions of one new genus, two new species, twenty new 
races and one new name. 

C. H. B. GRANT. 

London, July 1948. 



(Founded October 5, 1892.) 


The objects of the Club, which shall be called the 
lC British Ornithologists' Club", are the promotion of social 
intercourse between Members of the British Ornithologists' 
Union and to facilitate the publication of scientific infor 
oiation connected with ornithology. 


(As amended, October 12, 1938.) 


1. The affairs of the Club shall be managed by a Committee, 
to consist of a Chairman, who shall be elected for three years, 
at the end of which period he shall not be eligible for re-electiou 
for the next term ; two Vice-Chairmen, who shall serve for one 
year, and who shall not be eligible for the next year ; an Editor 
of the ' Bulletin ', who shall be elected for five years, at the end 
of which period he shall not be eligible for re-election for 
the next term ; a Secretary and a Treasurer, who shall each 
be elected for a term of one } T ear, but who shall be eligible 
for re-election. There shall be in addition four other Members, 
the senior of whom shall retire each year, and another Member 
be elected in his place ; every third year the two senior 
Members shall retire and two other Members be elected in 
their place. Officers and Members of the Committee shall 
be elected by the Members of the Club at a General Meeting, 
and the names of such Officers and Members of Committee 
nominated by the Committee for the ensuing } r ear shall be 
circulated with the notice convening the General Meeting 
at least two weeks before the Meeting. Should any member 
wish to propose another candidate, the nomination of such, 
signed by at least two Members, must reach the Secretari- 
at least one clear week before the Annual General Meeting. 

2. Any Member desiring to make a complaint of the 
manner in which the affairs of the Club are conducted 
must communicate in writing with the Chairman, who will, 
if he deem fit, call a Committee Meeting to deal with the 

3. If the conduct of any Member shall be deemed by 
the Committee to be prejudicial to the interest of the Club, 
he may be requested by the Committee to withdraw from 
the Club. In the case of refusal, his name may be removed 
from the list of Members at a General Meeting, provided 
that, in the notice calling the Meeting, intimation of the 
proposed resolution to remove his name shall have been 
given, and that a majority of the Members voting at such 
Meeting record their votes for his removal. 


4. Any Member of the British Ornithologists' Union 
may become a Member of the Club on payment to the 
Treasurer of an entrance-fee of one pound and a subscription 
of bne guinea for the current Session. On Membership 
of the Union ceasing, Membership of the Club also ceases. 

Any Member who has not paid his subscription before 
the last Meeting of the Session shall cease, ipso facto, to be 
a Member of the Club, but may be reinstated on payment 
of arrears. 

Any Member who has resigned less than five years ago 
may be reinstated without payment of another Entrance Fee. 

Any Member who resigns his Membership on going abroad 
may be readmitted without payment of a* further Entrance 
Fee at the Committee's discretion. 

Temporary Associates. 

5. Members of the British Ornithologists' Union who are 
ordinarily resident outside the British Isles, and ornithologists 
from the British Empire overseas or from foreign countries, 
may be admitted at the discretion of the Committee as Tem- 
porary Associates of the Club for the duration of any visit to the 
British Isles not exceeding one Session. An entrance fee of 
five shillings shall be payable in respect of every such admission 


if the period exceeds three months. The privileges of 
Temporary Associates shall be limited to attendance at the 
ordinary meetings of the Club and the introduction of guests. 


6. The Club will meet, as a rule, on the second Wednesday 
in every month, from October to June inclusive, at such 
hour and place as may be arranged by the Committee, but 
should such Wednesday happen to be Ash Wednesday, the 
Meeting will take place on the Wednesday following. At 
these Meetings papers upon ornithological subjects will 
be read, specimens exhibited and described, and discussion 

7. A General Meeting of the Club shall be held on the 
day of the October Meeting of each Session, and the 
Treasurer shall present thereat the Balance-Sheet and Report ; 
and the election of Officers and Committee, in so far as their 
election is required, shall be held at such Meeting. 

8. A Special General Meeting may be called at the 
instance of the Committee for any purpose which they 
deem to be of sufficient importance, or at the instance of 
not fewer than fifteen Members. Notice of not less than 
two weeks shall be given of every General and Special General 

Introduction of Visitors. 

9. Members may introduce visitors at any ordinary 
Meeting of the Club, but the same guest shall not be eligible 
to attend on more than three occasions during the Session. 
No former Member who has been removed for non-payment- 
of subscription, or for any other cause, shall be allowed to 
attend as a guest. 

' Bulletin ' of the Club. 

10. An Abstract of the Proceedings of the Club shall be 
printed as soon as possible after each Meeting, under the 
title of the 'Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club', 
and shall be distributed gratis to every Member who has 
paid hii subscription. 


Contributors are entitled to six free copies of the ' Bulletin ' , 
but if they desire to exercise this privilege they must give 
notice to the Editor when their manuscript is handed in. 
Members purchasing extra copies of the ' Bulletin ' are 
entitled to a rebate of 25 per cent, on the published price, 
but not more than two copies can be sold to any Member 
unless ordered before printing. 

Descriptions of new species may be published in the 
'Bulletin', although such were not communicated at the 
Meeting of the Club. This shall be done at the discretion 
of the Editor and so long as the publication of the ' Bulletin ' , 
is not unduly delayed thereby. 

Any person speaking at a Meeting of the Club shall be 
allowed subsequently — subject to the discretion of the Editor — 
to amplify his remarks in the ' Bulletin', but no fresh matter 
shall be incorporated with such remarks. 

11. No communication, the whole or any important part 
of which has already been published elsewhere, shall be 
eligible for publication in the ' Bulletin ', except at the discretion 
of the Editor ; and no communication made to the Club 
may be subsequently published elsewhere without the written 
sanction of the Editor. 

Alteration and Repeal of Rules. 

12. Any suggested alteration or repeal of a standing rule 
shall be submitted to Members to be voted upon at a General 
Meeting convened for that purpose. 

COMMITTEE, 1947-1948. 

Dr. J. M. Harrison, Chairman (elected 1946). 
Lt.-Col. W. P. C. Tenison, V ice-Chairman (elected 1947). 
Miss Eva M. Godman, Vice-Chairman (elected 1947). 
Captain C. H. B. Grant, Editor (elected 1947). 
Mr. W. E. Glegg, Hon. Secretary (elected 1947). 
Miss E. P. Leach, Hon. Treasurer (elected 1942). 
Miss G. M. Rhodes (elected 1945). 
Mr. J. D. Macdonald (elected 1946). 
Mr. P. A, D. Hollom (elected 1947). 

Officers of the British Ornithologists' Club, 
Past and Present. 




Lord Rothschild, F.R.S. 


W. L. Sclater. 




Dr. P. R. Lowe. 


Major S. S. Flower. 


D. A. Bannerman. 


G. M. Mathews. 


Dr. A. Landsborough 



D. Seth-Smith. 


Dr. J. M. Harrison. 



Lord Rothschild, F.R.S. 


W. L. Sclater. 




G. M. Mathews. 




H. Whistler. 


D. Seth-Smith. 


Col. R. Sparrow. 


Dr. G. Carmichael Low. 


Hon. Guy Charteris. 


W. L. Sclater. 


Dr. D. A. Bannerman. 


Captain C. H B. Grant. 


B. W. Tucker. 


F. J. F. Barrington. 


Dr. E. Hopkinson. 


C. W. Mackworth-Praed 


Dr. J. M. Harrison. 


Sir Philip Manson-Bahr. 


B. G. Harrison. 


Lt.-Col. W. P. C. Tenison. 


Miss E. M. Godman. 





W. R. Ogilvie- Grant. 


D. A, Bannerman. 


D, Seth-Smith, 



Editors (cont.). 

Dr. P. R. Lowe. 1920-1925. 

N. B. Kinnear. 1925-1930. 

Dr. G. Carmichael Low. 1930-1935. 

Captain C. H. B. Grant. 1935-1940. 

Dr. G. Carmichael Low. 1940-1945. 

Lt.-Col. W. P. C. Tenison. 1945-1947. 

Captain C. H. B. Grant. 1947- 

Honorary Secretaries and Treasurers. 

Howard Saunders. 1892-1899. 

W. E. de Winton. 1899-1904. 

H. F. Witherby. 1904-J914. 

Dr. P. R. Lowe. 1914-1915. 

C. G. Talbot-Ponsonby. 1915-1918. 

D. A. Bannerman. 1918-1919 
Dr. Philip Gosse. 1919-1 920. 
J. L. Bonhote. 1920-1922. 
C. W. Mackworth-Praed. 1922-1923. 
Dr. G. Carmichael Low. . 1923-1929. 
C. W. Mackworth-Praed. 1929-1935. 

Honorary Secretaries. 
Dr. A. Landsborotjgh 

Thomson. 1935-1938. 

C. R. Stonor. 1938-1940. 

N. B. Kinnear. 1940-1943. 

Dr. G. Carmichael Low. 1943-1945. 

Lt.-Col. W. P. C. Tenison. 1945-1947. 

Captain C. H. B. Grant. 1947. 

W. E. Glegg. 1947- 

Honorary Treasurers. 

C. W. Mackworth-Praed. 1935-1936. 

Major A. G. L. Sladen. 1936-1942. 

MissE. P. Leach. 1942- 

JUNE 1948. 

1930. Acland, Miss C. M. ; Grassholm, 2 Orchard Close, Banstead, 

1912. Alexander, H. G. , 144 Oak Tree Lane, Selly Oak, Birmingham. 

1946. Allen, R. C. R. ; Gorstage House, Weaverham, Cheshire. 

1947. Band, R. M. ; 516 North Drive, Cleveleys, near Blackpool, 

1910. Bannerman, David A., M.B.E., M.A., Sc.D., F.R.S.E., 

H.F.A.O.U. {Editor, 1914-1915 ; Hon. Secretary, 1918-1919 ; 

Hon. Treasurer, 1918-1919 ; Committee, 1922-1925 ; 

Chairman, 1932-1935 ; V ice-Chairman, 1939-1940) ; 

British Museum (Natural History), Cromwell Road, 

London, S.W.7. 
1933. Barclay-Smith, Miss Phyllis {Committee, 1941-1944) ; 51 

Warwick Avenue, London, W.9. 
1935. Barnes, Mrs. E. ; Hungerdown, Seagry, Chippenham, Wiltshire. 
1925. Barrington, Frederick J. F., M.S., F.R.C.S. {Committee, 

1929-1932 ; V ice-Chairman, 1943-1945) ; 52 Harley 

Street, London, W.l 

1946. Beal, Major N. A. G. H. ; Holnicote, Tanners Hill, Hythe, 


1947. Belcher, Sir Charles F., K.B.E. ; Kinangop, Kenya Colony. 
1937. Benson, C. W. ; c/o Secretariat, Zomba, Nyasaland. 

1946. Benson, J. P. ; Dept. of Agriculture, Meru, Kenya Colony and 

Dellfield, Felden, Hemel Hempstead, Herts. 
1922. Best, Miss M. G. S. ; 10a Cresswell Place, London, S.W.10. 

1947. Blair, H. M. S., M:B., B.Sc. ; Thorney House, Laygate, South 

Shields, Durham. 
1906. Boorman, S. ; Heath Farm, Send, Woking, Surrey. 
1920. Boyd, A. W., M.C. ; Frandley House, near Northwich, Cheshire. 
1924. Brown, George ; Combe Manor, Hungerforcl, Berkshire. 
1947. Bryson, A. G. S. ; 20 Inverleith Place, Edinburgh, 4, Scotland. 
1947. Bushell, Douglas ; Willow Cottage, Frimley Road, Camberley, 

1911. Buxton, Major Anthony, D.S.O., D.L. ; Horsey Hall, near 

Great Yarmouth. Norfolk. 


1947. Campbell, Bruce ; 2 Derwen Road, Cyncoed, Cardiff, Wales 
1933. Campbell, Dr. James W. ; Ardrennich, Strathtay, Perthshire. 
1936. Cave, Colonel F. O. ; Stoner Hill, Petersfield, Hampshire. 
1946. Chadwyck-Healey, Mrs. G. M. ; 15 Cadogan Court, Draycott 
Avenue, London, S.W.3. 

1936. Chapin, Dr. James P. ; American Museum of Natural History, 

Central Park, New York City, U.S.A. 
1923. Charteris, Hon. G. L. ; Old House, Didbrook, nr. Cheltenham, 

1937. Chislett, Ralph ; Brookside, Masham, near Ripon, Yorkshire. 

1938. Clancey, P. A. ; 9 Craig Road, Cathcart, Glasgow, S.4, 


1916. Clarke, John P. Stephenson ; Broadhurst Manor, Horsted 

Keynes, Sussex. 
1892. Clarke, Colonel Stephenson Robert, C.B. ; Borde Hill, 

Cuckfield, Sussex. 
1946. Cohen, E. ; Hazelhurst, Sway, Hampshire. 

1946. Collins, S. J. K. ; P.O., Box 570, Nairobi, Kenya Colony. 
1942. Coltart, Captain N. B. ; Lenworth, West Street, Haslemere, 

1933. Conover, H. B. ; 6 Scott Street, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.A. 

1927. Cunningham, Captain Josias ; 3 Donegall Square East, Belfast, 


1945. Dalgety, C. T. ; Lockerley Hall, Romsey, Hampshire. 

1947. de Hamel, F. A. ; Holly Cottage, The Warren, Cranleigh, 

1920. Delacour, Jean ; Stanhope Hotel, Fifth Avenue, and 81st 

Street, New York, N.Y., U.S.A. 
1922. Dewhurst, Colonel F. W. ; Delamore, Cornwood, Ivybridge, 

1945. Donaldson, R. Preston ; c/o Royal Society for Protection 

of Birds, 82 Victoria Street, London, S.W.I. 
1942. Duffin, Charles J. ; The Cottage, Lyncroft Gardens, Ewell, 


1928. Duncan, Arthur Bryce ; Lannhall, Tynron, Dumfriesshire. 

1917. Ezra, A., O.B.E. (Committee, 1933-1936) ; Foxwarren Park, 

Cobham, Surrey. 

1927. Ferrier, Miss J. M. ; Blakeney Downs, Blakeney, Norfolk. 
1936. Fisher, James (Committee, 1942-1946) ; The Old Rectory, 
Ashton, Northamptonshire, 


1943. Fitter, R. S. R., B.Sc, F.Z.S. ; Greyhounds, Burford, Oxford- 

1929. Foulkes-Roberts, Captain P. R., M.C. ; Lamb Hill, Bride, 

near Ramsey, I. of M. 

1933. Gilbert, Captain H. A. ; Bishopstone, near Hereford, Here- 

1927. Glegg, W. E. (Committee, 1947-1948 ; Hon. Secretary, 1947- ) ; 

c/o Zoological Museum, Tring, Hertfordshire. 

1930. Glenister, A. G. ; The Barn House, East Blachington, Seaford, 


1945. Godman, Miss C. E. ; South Lodge, Horsham, Sussex. 

1933. Godman, Miss Eva M. {Vice-Chair man, 1947-1948); South 

Lodge, Horsham, Sussex. 
1911. Grant, Captain C. H. B. (Committee, 1944-1947; Editor, 

1935-1940 and 1947- ; V ice-Chairman, 1940-1943; 

Acting Hon. Secretary, 1947) ; 8 Cornwall Gardens Court, 

50 Cornwall Gardens, London, S.W.7. 

1946. Gudmundsson, Dr. F. ; Museum of Natural History, Reykjavik, 


1928. Harrison, Bernard Guy (Committee, 1940-1944 ; Vice- 

Chairman, 1946-1947); 45 St. Martin's Lane, London, 

1922. Harrison, James M., D.S.C., M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P. (Committee, 
1933-1936 ; Vice-Chairman, 1945-1946 ; Chairman, 
1946- ) ; Bowerwood House, St. Botolph's Road, 

Sevenoaks, Kent. 

1943. Harrison, Dr. Jeffery G. ; Bowerwood House, St. Botolph's 
Road, Sevenoaks, Kent. 

1946. Hartley, P. H. T. ; Wray Castle Cottage, Ambleside, West- 

1946. Haverschmidt, F. ; 14 Waterkant, Paramaribo, Dutch Guiana. 

1927. Heath, R. E. ; 2 Pembroke Court, Edwardes Square, London, 

1933. Hollom, P. A. D. (Committee, 1938-1940 and 1947- ) ; 
Manor Cottage, Park Road, Woking, Surrey. 

1945. Homes, R. C. ; 62 d Albemarle Road, Beckenham, Kent 
1925. Hopkinson, Emilius, C.M.G., D.S.O., M.B. (V ice-Chairman, 

1943-1945) ; Wynstay, Balcombe, Sussex. 

1946. Hunt, G. H. ; White Chimneys, Cheveney Road, Quorn 

Loughborough, Leicestershire. 


1928. Hutson, Major-General H. P. W., C.B., M.C. ; Forestry Com- 
mission, 25 Savile Row, London, W.l. 

1921. Inglis, C. McFarlane ; Kenilworth, Coonoor P.O., Nilgiris, 

1902. Ingram, Captain Collingwood ; The Grange, Benenden, 
Cranbrook, Kent. 

1939. James, Miss Celia K. ; Blake's Wood, Barnt Green, Birm- 

1931. Jordan, H. E. Karl, Ph.D., F.R.S., F.R.E.S., F.Z.S. ; Zoo- 
logical Museum, Tring, Hertfordshire. 

1947. Justice, J. R. ; Orchardton, Wigtown, Wigtownshire, Scotland. 

1904. Kinnear, Norman B., C.B. {Editor, 1925-1930; V ice-Chairman 
1934-1935 ; Hon. Secretary, 1940-1943) ; British Museum 
(Natural History), Cromwell Road, London, S.W.7. 

1942. Lack, David ; Edward Grey Institute of Field Ornithology, 
91 Banbury Road, Oxford. 

1946. Laurie, M. V. ; c/o Mrs. Powell, Curtis Farm, Headley, Bordon, 

1931. Leach, Miss E. P. {Committee, 1937-1942 ; Hon. Treasurer, 
1942- ) ; 94 Kensington Court, London, W.8. 

1926. Lewis, John Spedan ; Leckford Abbas, Stockbridge, Hampshire. 

1935. Longfield, Miss Cynthia ; 11 Iverna Gardens, London, W.8. 

1921. Low, George Carmichael, M.A., M.D., CM., F.R.C.P., F.Z.S. 
{Hon. Secretary, 1923-1929, 1943-1945; Hon. Treasurer, 
1923-1929; Editor, 1930-1935 and 1940-1945; Vice- 
Chairman, 1938-1939) ; 7 Kent House, Kensington Court, 
Kensington, London, W.8. 

1907. Lowe, P. R., O.B.E., M.B., B.C. {Hon. Secretary, 1914-1915 ; 
Hon. Treasurer, 1914-1915 ; Editor, 1920-1925 ; Chairman, 
1927-1930) ; 2 Hugo House, 179 Sloane Street, London, 
S.W.I ; and Parkland, Burley, Ringwood, Hampshire. 

1944. McCulloch, Captain G. ; 65 Chester Road, Northwood, 

1935. Macdonald, J. D., B.Sc. (For.), B.Sc. {Committee, 1946- ) ; 
British Museum (Natural History), Cromwell Road, 
London, S.W.7. 

1921. Mackenzie, John M. D., B.A., C.M.Z.S. ; Sidlaw Fur Farm, 
Tullach Ard, Balbeggie, Perthshire, Scotland. 

1931. McKittrick, T. H. ; The Chase National Bank of the City 
of New York, Pine Street Corner of Nassau, New York, 


1917. Mackworth-Praed, C. W. {Hon. Secretary, 1922-1923 and 

1929-1935 ; Hon. Treasurer, 1922-1923 and 1929-1936 ; 

Committee, 1936-1937 ; V ice-Chairman, 1945-1946) ; 

Cast let op, Burley, near Ring wood, Hampshire. 
1908. Macmillan, Captain W. E. F. ; 42 Onslow Square, London, 

1924. McNeile, J. H. {Committee, 1935-1938) ; Nonsuch, Bromhani; 

Chippenham, Wiltshire. 
1933. Macpherson, D. W. K. ; P.O., Lilongwe, Nyasaland. 
1947. Macphie, David ; 14 Trowloch Avenue, Teddington, Middlesex. 

1935. Mansfield, The Right Hon. the Earl of; Scone Palace, Perth, 

1919. Manson-Bahr, Sir Philip, C.M.G., D.SlO., M.D., F.R.C.P. 

{Committee, 1930-1933 ; Vice-Chairman, 1946-1947) ; 149 

Harley Street, London, W.l. 
1908. Mathews, G. M., C.B.E., F.R.S.E., H.F.A.O.U. {Committee, 

1925-1928 ; Vice -Chairman, 1933-1934 ; Chairman, 

1935-1938) ; Mead way, St. Cross, Winchester, Hants. 

1933. Mavrogordato, J. G. ; c/o Legal Dept., Sudan Govt., Khar- 

toum, Sudan. 

1945. May, E. S. ; 19 Berceau Walk, Watford, Hertfordshire. 

1929. Mayaud, Noel ; 36 rue Hoche, Saumur, Maine-et-Loire, France. 
1938. Meiklejohn, Lieut. -Colonel R. F. ; Arcady, Cley, Holt, Norfolk. 

1918. Meinertzhagen, Colonel R., D.S.O., F.Z.S., H.F.A.O.U. ; 

17 Kensington Park Gardens, London, W.ll. 

1946. Monk, Dr. J. F. ; 344 b Woodstock Road, Oxford. 

1946. Morrison, A. F. ; P.O. Box 473, Dar-es-Salaam, Tanganyika 

1903. Munn, Captain P. W., F.Z.S. ; Hotel Mar y Sol, Puerto Alcudia, 

Majorca, Balearic Isles, Spain. 
1931. Murton, Mrs. C. D. ; Cranbrook Lodge, Cranbrook, Kent. 

1927. Naumburg, Mrs. W. W. ; 121 East 64th Street, New York 
City, N.Y., U.S.A. 

1934. Nicholson, E. M. ; 13 Upper Cheyne Row, London, S.W.3. 

1936. North, M. E. W. ; c/o Secretariat, Nairobi, Kenya Colony 

and Summerdale, Holme, Carnforth, Lancashire. 

1935. Pakenham, R. H. W. ; Kingsley, Hurtis Hill, Crowborough, 

Sussex ; and c/o Secretariat, Zanzibar, Eastern Africa. 
1945. Parrinder, E. R. ; 7 Gwalior House, Chase Road, London, 


1932. Paulson, C. W. G. {Committee, 1944-1947) ; Wyresdale House, 

Pendleton Road, Redhill, Surrey. 

1945. Payn, Lt.-Col. W. A. ; The Gables, Osborne Road, Andover, 


1931. Peall, Mrs. O. ; Hatfield Farm, Oare, Marlborough, Wiltshire. 

1933. Pease, H. J. R. (Committee, 1939-1942) ; The Savile Club, 

69 Brook Street, London, W.l. 

1938. Phillips, A. S. ; Frewin's Close, South Stoke, Reading, Berk- 

1947. Piercy, K. ; Clifton Cottage, Chiton, Bedfordshire. 

1919* Pitman, Captain C. R. S., D.S.O., M.C. ; c/o Grindlay & Co., 
54 Parliament Street, London, S.W.I. 

1947. Plowden-Wardlaw, W. J. ; Dalchosnie House, Kinloch 
Rannoch, by Pitlochry, Perthshire, Scotland. 

1944. Prestwich, A. A. ; Chelmsford Road, Southgate, London, 

1936. Priestley, Mrs. J. B., O.B.E. ; B. 3, Albany, Piccadilly, London, 

1926. Pye-Smith, Major G. H. R. ; New House, Langham, Colchester, 


1946. Reynolds, Lieut. R. A. W. ; 150 Junction Road, Tufnell Park, 

London, N. 19. 

1947. Rheaij, A. J. ; P.O. Magadi, Kenya Colony. 

1933. Rhodes, Miss G. M. (Committee, 1945- ) ; Hildersham HalJ, 

1909. Riviere, B. B., F.R.C.S. ; The Old Hall, Woodbastwick, 


1945. Roberts, B. B. ; 9 Pelham Court, 145 Fulham Road, London, 


1947. Russell, Lord Hugh ; Crowholt, Woburn, Bletchley, Buck- 

1933. Sandeman, R. G. C. C. ; Dan-y-parc, Crickhowell, Brecon, 

1932. Schauensee, R. M. de ; Devon, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. 

1936. Schouteden, Dr. H. ; Musee du Congo Beige, Tervueren, 

1946. Scott, Peter, D.S.C. ; 8 Edwardes Square, London, W.8. 
1945. Serle, Dr. W. ; 64 Strathearn Road, Edinburgh, Scotland. 
1902. Seth-Smith, David (Committee, 1905-1912 ; Editor, 1915-1920 ; 

Vice-Chairman, 1936-1937 ; Chairman, 1943-1946) ; 
Brabourne, Poyle Road, Guildford, Surrey. 


1936. Sherriff, Albert ; 8 Ranulf Road, Hampstead, London, N. W.2. 
1930. Simonds, Major Maurice H. ; Fines Baylewick, Binfield, 

1919. Sladen, Major A. G. Lambart, M.C. (Committee, 1921-1924 ; 

Hon. Treasurer, 1936-1942) ; Crabtree Furlong, Hadden- 
ham, Aylesbury, Buckinghamshire ; and 39 St. James's 
Street, London, S.W.I. 

1945. Southern, H. N. ; University Museum, Oxford. 

1906. Sparrow, Colonel R., C.M.G., D.S.O. [V ice-Chairman, 1937- 
1938) ; The Lodge, Colne Engaine, Earls Colne, Essex. 

1946. Staples, Lt.-Commdr. (S.) C. P., Royal Navy ; Hedgerows, 

Ickenham, Middlesex. 
1925. Stevens, Herbert ; Clovelly, Beaconsfield Road, Tring, 

1936. Stevens, Noel ; Walcot Hall, Lydbury, North Salop. 
1936. Stonor, Lieut. C. R. (Hon. Secretary, 1938-1940) ; Parkgates, 

near Southampton, Hampshire. 

1945. Tenison, Lt.-Col. W. P. C, D.S.O., F.L.S., F.Z.S. (Editor, 

1945-1947 ; Hon. Secretary, 1945-1947 ; V ice-Chairman, 

1947-1948) ; 2 Wool Road, Wimbledon Common, London, 

1927. Thomson, A. Landsborough, C.B., O.BE, D.Sc, F.R.S.E. 

(Committee, 1930-1933 ; Hon. Secretary, 1935-1938 ; 

Chairman, 1938-1943) ; 16 Tregunter Road, London, 

1927. Ticehurst, N. F., O.B.E., M.B., F.R.C.S. (Committee, 1912- 

1914) ; 24 Pevensey Road, St. Leonards-on-Sea, Sussex. 
1948. Trott, A. C. ; British Embassy, Jedda, Saudi Arabia, eo 

Foreign Office, Whitehall, London, S.W.I. 

1924. Tucker, B. W., M.A. (Committee, 1928-1931 ; V ice-Chairman, 

1940-1943) ; 9 Marston Ferry Road, Oxford. 

1925. Turtle, Lancelot J. ; 17-21 Castle Place, Belfast, Ireland. 
1930. Urquhart, Captain A., D.S.O. ; Latimer Cottage, Latimer, 

Chesham, Buckinghamshire. 

1946. van Someren, G. R. C. ; P.O. Box 651, Nairobi, Kenya Colony. 

1920. van Someren, Dr. V. G. L. ; P.O. Box 1682, Nairobi, Kenya 

1933. Vincent, Jack, M.B.E. ; Firle, Mooi River, Natal, South 


1934. Wade, Colonel G. A., M.C. ; St. Quintin, Sandy Lane, New- 

castle-under-Lyme, Staffordshire. 
1924. Waite,H.W.,C.LE. ; c/o Grindlay's Bank, Ltd., 54 Parliament 

Street, London, S.W.I. 

1946. Walter, C. N. ; 32 Stanley Avenue, Beckenham, Kent. 

1934. Watt, Mrs. H. Winifred Boyd, F.Z.S. {Committee, 1942-1945) ; 

Basing Lodge, 9 St. Swithuns Road, Bournemouth, 

1947. Westall, Surgeon-Captain P. R., Royal Horse Guards, 

B. A.O.R. , and Lloyds Bank, West Smithfield, London, E.C.I. 

1935. White, Charles M. N. ; 8 Ansdell Road South, Ansdell, 

Lytham St. Annes, Lancashire. 
1946. Williams, A. ; 80 Troy Court, Kensington High Street, 

London, W.8. 
1903. Workman, William Hughes ; Lismore, Windsor Avenue, 

Belfast, Ireland. 
L924. Worms, Charles de ; Milton Park, Egham, Surrey. 
1946. Wynne, Colonel 0. E. ; Court Wood, Sandleheath, Fordingbridge, 


Total number of Members. ... 158 


[Members are specially requested to keep the Hon. Secretary 
informed of any changes in their addresses, and those 
residing abroad should give early notification of coming home 
on leave.] 

yoL. 68, 



Accounts, Statement of 63 

Annual, General Meeting 1 

Benson, C. W. 

Two new races of Larks {JEihocorys personata yavelloensis from 
Abyssinia, and Galerida theklse huriensis from Kenya Colony) and a new 
race of Scaly Chatterer (Argya aylmeri boranensis from Southern 
Abyssinia) 9-10 

Some breeding data from Nyasaland : — 

1. Ciconia nigra 33-34 

2. Dendrocygna viduata 34 

3. Circaetus cinerascens 34 I 

The correct affinities of Cisticola aberrans njombe, and Cisticola lais 
marise, nom. nov. for C. I. nyikse 122-123 

A new race of Coucal (Centropus monachus songweensis) from Nyasaland 127-128 

A new race of Barbet (Buccanodon olivaceum rungweensis) from S.W. 
Tanganyika Territory and Northern Nyasaland 144-145 i 

The Long-legged Buzzard in Northern Rhodesia 147 

Cave, Col. F. O. 

Note on Heuglin's Banded Francolin 3-7 

Clancey, PA. 

A new race of Skylark (Alauda arvensis divergens) from the Outer 

Hebrides 11-12 

On the validity and range of the race Anthus pratensis whistleri 54-561 

On the available names for the French race of Rock -Pipit 73 

A new race of the Woodchat- Shrike (Lanius senator hensii) from 
Sicily 90-921 

On the validity of Pyrrhula pyrrhula wardlawi 92-941 

On the British races of Mgithalos caudatus ■ 94-961 

On the British race of Emberiza citrinella 105-107I 

The type -localities of three British races of Paridse described by 

Praz&k . ....•: • • • • • • , 107-J08I 


IClancey, P. A. (cont.). 

On the racial status of migrant Emberiza citrinella from Asia 123-124 

On the racial status of migrant Turdus viscivorus from Scottish 
islands 124-125 

Remarks on Passer montanus in the Western Palsearctic Region, 
with special reference to Passer catellatus 132-137 

Ghloris chloris in the British Isles 137-141 

Notes on Western Palsearctic birds : — 

1. Some remarks on British Phylloscopus sibilatrix 147-148 

2. On some Redshanks ascribable to the race Tringa totanus robusta 
obtained in Lancashire 148-149 

Clancey, P. A., see under Meinertzhacen, Col. R. 

Committee, 1947-1948 2 

Correction : By the Editor 99 


A specimen of an apparently hybrid Goose 128 

Dalgety, C. T., and P. Scott. 

A new race of the White-fronted Goose (Anser albifrons flavirostris) 
from Eire. (Plates 3 & 4.) 109-121 


New races of the Barn Owl (Strix aluco volhynlai) from Poland and a 
Hedge-Sparrow (Prunella modularis enigmatica) from Russia, also a 
new genus and species (Akletos peruvianus) from Peru 130-132 

Editor : A correction 99 

Elliott, H. I. F. 

A new race of Gisticola hunter i hypernephela from Tanganyika Terri- 
tory 10-11 

Etchecopar, R. D. 

Remarks on Gannet colonies 71 

Fisher, James. 

Made remarks and exhibited slides on St. Kilda, 1947. (Plates 3 & 4.) 66-71 

Heligoland before and after the War 143 

Glegg, W. E. 

An early Oologist : John Drew Salmon, 1802-1859 56-58 

Erythristic eggs of Iceland Gull (Larus glaucoides) and Herring-Gull 
(Larus argentatus) 170 

Grant, Captain C. H. B., and Mackworth-Praed, C.W. 

A new species of Weaver (Ploceus spekeoides) from Uganda . 7-8 

Grant, Captain C. H. B., and Mackwoeth-Praed, C. W. (cont.). 

A new race (Apalis melanocephala songeaensis) from Tanganyika 

Territory 8-9 

Notes on Eastern African Birds : — 

1. On Pycnonotus annectans 36 

2. On the type-locality of Laniarius ferrugineus sublacteus 36 

3. On Coliuspasser macrocercus soror 37 

4. On the type-locality of Poliospiza burtoni tanganyicge 37 

5. On the status of Serinus flavivertex elgonensis 37 

Notes on Eastern African Birds : — 

1. On the status of Centropus grillii, now Centropus toulou grillii, and 

Centropus superciliosus loandse 58 

2. On the status of the so-called type of Andropadus oleanginus .... 59 

3. On the status of Bradypterus salvadorii 59-60 

4. On. the status of Passer griseus turkanse and Passer g. tertale 60 

5. On the status of Euplectes zavattorii 60 

6. On the type-locality of Hyphantornis castaneigula 60 

7. On the status of Fringilla tobaca 60-61 

8. On the type-locality of Estrilda ochrogaster 61 

9. On the plumages of the male of Spinus citrinelloides 61-62 

10. On the status of Serinus sulphuratus shelleyi 62 

Notes on Eastern African Birds : — 

1. On the status of Pycnonotus tricolor vaughan-jonesi 74 

2. On Anthoscopus caroli and A. roccatii 74-76 

3. On the status of Fringillaria striolata jebelmarrse and F. s. dankali . 77 

Notes on Eastern African Birds : — 

1. On the status of Apaloderma narina littoralis . . . 96-97 

2. On the status of Myioceyx ruficeps ugandse 97 

3. On the status of Smithornis capensis suahelicus, S. c. shiniba and 

S. c. chyulu 97-88 

4. On the status of Phyllastrephus debilis shimbanus 98 

5. On the status of Budytes superciliaris 98 

6. The distribution of Bradornis pallidus subalaris 99 

Notes on Eastern African Birds : — 

1. On the status of Cinnyris superbus buvuma 108 

2. On the status of Poliospiza striolata ugandse 108 


Grant, Captain C. H. B., and Mackworth-Praed, C. W. (cont.). 

Notes on Eastern African Birds : — 

1. On the conspecific status of Treron australis and Treron wakefieldii 149-151 

2. On the races of Chalcomitra senegalensis 151-153 

Notes on Eastern African Birds : — 

1. On the movements in the non-breeding season of Clamator 
jacobinus serratus 171-172 

2. On Muscipeta perspicillata 172-173 


Notes on Sarothrura ayresi and three birds new to Abyssinia 102-104 

Harrison, Dr. J. G. 

Colour change without moult as seen in the spring plumage of certain 
Wading birds 40-52 

Harrison, Dr. J. M. 

Exhibition of Chaffinches, including an example of Fringilla coelebs 

hortensis, from Kent 89 

Pathological conditions in birds 104-105 

Exhibition of varieties of the Red-legged Partridge and Woodcock . . 143-144 

Exhibition of an unpigmented egg of the Black-headed Gull 171 

Keve, Andrew. 

A new race of Rock-Sparrow (Petronia petronia harmsi) from Hungary. 130 

Mackworth-Praed, C. W. See under Grant, Captain C. H. B. 

Mathews, G. M. 

Systematic notes on Petrels. (Plates 5 & 6.) 155 

Meeting, Annual General 1 

Meinertzhagen, Colonel R. % 

The effect of diet on plumage pigmentation 13-18 

Some notes and comments on sixteen British species . 18-33 

On the forms of Garrulus glandarius from Western Europe 18-19 

On the Starling (British race), Sturnus vulgaris britannicus 19-21 

On the western European forms of Clitoris chloris 21-22 

On the western European forms of Carduelis cannabina 22-23 

On the validity of Pyrrhula pyrrhula wardlawi 23-24 

On the western forms of Passer domesticus 24 

On the western European forms of Sitta europsea 24-26 

On the British forms of C erihia familiaris 26 


Meinebtzhagen , II . (cont,). 

On the western European races of JEgithalos caudatus 26-28 

On the validity of Regulus regulus anglorum 28 

On the geographical races of Turdus philornelos 28-30 

On the forms of Prunella ^nodularis from western Europe .- 30-31 

On the status of Picus viridis pluvius 32 

On the type-locality of Pyrrhula pyrrhula nesa 32-33 

On the type-locality of Lagopus mutus millaisi 33 

On the type-locality of Tringa totanus britannicus 33 

Records of bird songs and calls 33 

A new race of Stone Curlew (Burhinus cedicnemus theresae) from 

Morocco 52 

Meinebtzhagen, Colonel R., and Clancey, P. A. 

The western European races of Acanthis flavirostris 53-54 

MUNN, P. W. 

White-spotted Bluethroat in the Balearic Isles 146-147 

Notices. New Ordnance Maps 153 

Payn, Colonel W. A. 

White -spotted Bluethroats from Tangier 71-73 

A specimen of the Little Owl from Tangier, Morocco 128-129 

Ripley, S. Dillon. 

A new race of the Black-throated Babbler (Stachyris nigriceps 
spadix) from Assam 89-90 

Roberts, Dr. Austin. 

New name for the Cape Paradise Flycatcher, Tchitrea granti 129 

Scott, P., see under Dalgety, C. T. 

Staples, Lieut. -Commander. 

Further as to colour change without a moult 80-88 

Tuckeb, B. W. 

Remarks on Dr. J. G. Harrison's observations " On colour change 
without moult as seen in the spring plumage of certain wading birds ". 48-51 

The Bird-ringing Station on Oeland 128 

Vincent. Jack. 

New races of a Tit -Babbler (Parisoma layardi barnesi) and a Lark 
(Calendula magnirostris montivaga) from Basutoland 145-146 


White, C. M. N. 

A new race (Serinus mozambicus samaliyse) from the Belgian Congo . . 11 

Notes on Central African Birds : — 

1. Calamoecetor leptorhyncha winterbottomi, new race 34-35 

2. The distribution of Bradypterus babsecala msiri . , 35 

3. The distribution of Apalis pearsoni 35 

4. On the status of Eremomela griseoflava lundse 35 

5. Colius striatus lungse, new race 36 

A new Canary (Serinus atrogidaris kasaicus) from the Belgian Congo . 129-130 

Williams, J. G. 

A new race of White -eye (Zosterops pallida kulalensis) from Kenya 
Colony 101-102 





^i Volume 68. 
No. 1. 


Chairman : Dr. J. M. Harrison. 

This was held at the Rembrandt Hotel, Thurloe Place, S.W. 7, on 
Wednesday, October 15, 1947, at 5.45 p.m..; 25 members were present. 

Lt.-Col. W. P. C. Tenison, the Honorary Secretary, read his report 

for the Session 1945-^6. He said that in spite of the fuel crisis and the 

exceptionally cold winter the Club held its meetings regularly on the 

third Wednesdays of the months October to June. There was an 

average attendance of 30 members at each meeting, which might have 

i been greater but for the restrictions imposed by catering difficulties. 

j The attempt made last session to provide lectures of a more or less 

i popular nature was discontinued in deference to the wishes of some 

members. Cine-films were, however, shown at two meetings. 

The membership of the Club had increased substantially, new members 
being :— R. C. R. Allen, Mrs. E. Barnes, Major N. A. G. H. Beal, 
J. P. Benson, Mrs. Chadwyck-Healey, Dr. Finnur Gudmundsson, P. H. T. 
Hartley, F. Haverschmidt, G. H. Hunt, M. V. Laurie, Dr. J. F. Monk, 
A. F. Morrison, Major G. H. R. Pye-Smith, R. A. W. Reynolds, Peter 
Scott, C. P. Staples, G. R. C. van Someren, C. N. Walter, A. Williams 
and Col. 0. Wynne. Miss Ferrier and Mrs. 0. Peall had resumed their 
membership. The following have resigned, namely : Comdr. E. A. 
Aylmer, D. A. T. Morgan and R. Ware. The deaths of Mrs. T. E. Hodgkin 
and Dr. A. McMillan have regretfully to be reported. The Club member- 
ship now stood at 148. He wished to acknowledge the assistance he 
had received from Miss E. P. Leach and Miss P. Barclay-Smith during 
the time he was incapacitated by illness last winter. 

Published Dec. 24, 1947, . » Price 2/6. 

Vol. 68 2 1947-48 

Miss E. P. Leach, the Honorary Treasurer, reported that she had 
been unable to get in the bills for printing and distribution of the ' Bulletin' 
up to the present and so could not present an audited account, but it 
would be printed and circulated in due course. 

The printing of the General Index for the ten years 1931-1942 was 
considered. Mr. Usher had been paid £50 for preparing the slips, but 
the estimates for the printing and binding were so high that it was 
decided not to proceed with the publication, the demand not being 
considered very great. 

The question of back numbers in the hands of Messrs. H. F. & G. 
Witherby was raised. Mr. C. P. Staples kindly offered to look into the 
legal position as regarding the ownership of the stock in hand. On the 
proposition of Mr. Macdonald, seconded by Captain Grant, it was agreed 
that Mr. Staples be co-opted on the Committee for this purpose. 

On the recommendation of the Committee and proposed by Mr. James 
Fisher, seconded by Dr. Jeffery Harrison, it was agreed that the Editor 
should have a standing invitation to dine at each meeting at the expense 
of the Club. 

Election of Officers. 

On the recommendation of the Committee the following officers were 
duly elected :— Lt.-Col. W. P. C. Tenison and Miss Eva M. Godman to 
be Vice-Chairmen for the coming session ; Mr. W. E. Glegg and Mr. P. A. D. 
Hollom to serve on the Committee vice Mr. C. W. G. Paulson and 
Captain C. H. B. Grant who retire by seniority. Miss E. P. Leach was 
re-elected Honorary Treasurer and Captain C. H. B. Grant was elected 
Editor and Acting Honorary Secretary. 

Vote of Thanks. 

It was moved by Dr. Jeffery Harrison and carried with acclamation 
that Lt.-Col. Tenison be thanked for his services to the Club during the 
past two sessions. 

Committee, 1947-48. 

Dr. J. M. Harrison, Chairman (elected 1946). 

Lt.-Col. W. P. C. Tenison, Vice-Chairman (elected 1947). 

Miss Eva M. Godman, Vice-Chairman (elected 1947). 

Captain C. H. B. Grant, Editor (elected 1947) ; Acting Honorary 

Secretary (elected 1947). 
Miss G. M. Rhodes (elected 1945). 
Mr. J. D. Macdonald (elected 1946). 
Mr. W. E. Glegg (elected 1947). 
Mr, P, A, D. Hollom (elected 1947). 

1947-48 3 Vol. 68 


The four-hundred-and-seventieth Meeting of the Club was held at 
the Rembrandt Hotel, Thurloe Place, S.W. 7, on Wednesday, 15 October, 
1947, following a dinner at 6.30 p.m. 

Chairman : Dr. J. M. Harrison. 

Members present : — Miss C. M. Acland ; Miss P. Barclay-Smith ; 

F. J. F. Barrington ; Dr. James W. Campbell ; Col. F. 0. Cave ; 
C. T. Dalgety ; Miss J. M. Ferries ; J. Fisher ; R. S. R. Fitter ; 
Capt. H. A. Gilbert ; Miss C. E. Godman ; Miss E. M. Godman (Vice- 
Chairman) ; Capt. C. H. B. Grant (Editor and Acting Hon. Secretary) ; 
Dr. J. G. Harrison ; R. E. Heath ; N. B. Kinnear ; Miss E. P. Leach 
(Hon. Treasurer) ; Dr. P. R. Lowe ; J. D. Macdonald ; G. M. Mathews ; 
E. S. May ; Col. R. Meinertzhagen ; E. R. Parrinder ; Lt.-Col. W. A. 
Payn ; C. W. Mackworth-Praed ; Maj. G. H. R. Pye-Smith ; 
Miss G. M. Rhodes ; P. Scott ; Lieut. -Commander C. P. Staples ; Lt.-Col. 
W. P. C. Tenison (Vice-Chairman) ; Dr. A. Landsborough-Thomson ; 
B. W. Tucker ; C. N. Walter ; Mr. H. W. Boyd Watt ; C. M. N. 
White ; A. Williams ; C. de Worms ; Col. O. E. Wynne. 

Guests : — Col. F. M. Bailey ; Duke of Bedford ; Dr. J. Berry 

G. A. Best ; C. J. P. Cave ; Miss T. Clay ; R. A. H. Coombes 
Mrs. Gilbert ; Miss Gilbert ; Sir Hugh Gladstone ; J. R. Goddard 
M. Kirke ; Mrs. P. R. Lowe ; R. E. Moreau ; A. G. B. Russell 
Mrs. C. P. Staples ; Mrs. A. Landsborough-Thomson ; and one other. 

Members, 39 ; Guests, 18 ; Total, 57. 

Note on Heuglin's Banded Francolin. 

Col. F. 0. Cave made the following remarks and exhibited specimens 
and slides : — 


In the J. f. 0. of 1863, p^75, von Heuglin described a new species 
of Francolin, Francolinus schlegelii, from the Bahr-el-Ghazal area of 
the Sudan. Since that date the bird has been something of a mystery 
as, until recently, it has been found on only two other occasions, by 
Tessmann in 1914 and by Blancou in 1934, both at Bozum about 800 miles 
to the west in French Equatorial Africa. The reason for the mystery 
can be attributed to two things ; namely, the fact that Francolins can be 
very local in their distribution, and that there has been some doubt as 
to the precise locality in which it was found by von Heuglin. 

Vol. 68 4 1947^8 

When I first started collecting in the Sudan about 13 years ago 
Mr. Kinnear said to me " I wish you could get us a specimen of Schlegel's 
Francolin ". I have only just succeeded. Repeated enquiries and 
searches in the Bahr-el-Ghazal brought no light on the problem, nor was 
I able to identify the type-locality. With the end of the war I started 
my search once again, and when I came home on leave in 1946 I studied 
the literature both in the Bird Room and at the Royal Geographical 
Society. The Sudan Survey Department in Khartoum also contributed 
to the final success by consulting old maps in their possession. 

Type Locality. 

Von Heuglin gave as the type locality : Bongo River, Bahr-el-Ghazal, 
and he dated his paper for the J. f. 0. " April 1863 ". In a second paper 
published in the J. f. 0. for 1864, he remarked on p. 274 in connection with 
this Francolin " found only in the steppe county between the Djur and 
Kosanga Rivers ". All that seemed necessary therefore was to identify 
these three rivers. 

The Bongo might be the River Pongo, some 50 miles west of Wau, 
or it might be the river which flowed through the country of the Bongo 
tribe ; the latter seemed to be more likely, but it was not too easy to 
fix the exact location of the Bongo tribe in 1863. 

The Djur River was easily identified as the present day River Jur 
on which is situated the small town of Wau. 

The identification of the Kosanga River was more difficult. At length, 
however, I found an article in the 1941 issue of Sudan Notes and Records 
entitled " Travels in the Sudan in the Sixties ", being translations from 
Dr. Petermann's Mittheilungen ; and the parts which concern us are 
letters from von Heuglin to Petermann dated between July 1862 and 
January 1863, and in one of these he mentioned the travels of Johann 
Kleincznick. Very briefly Kleincznick landed at Meshra-er-Req in 
November 1861, and in January 1862 set off in a south-westerly direction, 
and after marching for seven days for about six hours a day he reached 
the River Djur, which at that point received a tributary from the west, 
the " Bahr Bongo ", and two days later after having crossed the Djur 
he came to another tributary the " Kosanga ". Now, the paper in which 
von Heuglin described Francolinus schlegelii was dated April. 1863 ; 
and it is an important and significant fact that according to the map in 
Petermann's Mittheilungen, Dr. Steudner, a member of von Heuglin 's 
party, died at Wau on April 10. It seems clear, therefore, that the party 
was delayed at Wau due to Dr. Steudner's illness, that von Heuglin 
probably wandered about collecting within a day or two's journey of 

1947-48 5 Vol. 68 

the place, that he wrote up his notes on the birds obtained to date, and 
that they were sent back with the notification of Steudner's demise. 
The Wau of those days was a little south and west of the present day 
Wau. It is clear, therefore, that the Bongo River must be reasonably 
close to Wau. 

At the Royal Geographical Society there is an old map on which 
Kleincznick's route is clearly shown, but on trying to fix his positions 
to a modern map they come out west of the River Pongo, which however 
is 50 miles from the Jur ; but Kleincznick had only marched two days 
from the Djur before reaching the Kosanga, so that I came to the 
conclusion that the Kosanga could not be further west than the Pongo. 

The Survey Department in Khartoum also worked out that Kleinczmck's 
journey from Meshra would have brought him to the River Djur very 
close to the point where the modern Bussere River joins it. They also 
found on an old War Office map of 1883 a hill named Kosanga which 
they placed on a modern map as just west of the Pongo River on the road 
from Wau to Raga. 

From all this I came to the conclusion that the Bongo River is 
identical with the modern Bussere River, and the Kosanga River is 
identical with the modern Pongo River. Therefore the type locality of 
F. schlegelii must be the Bussere River, probably about one day's march, 
say 15-20 miles, upstream from its junction with the Jur River. 

The Search. 

Before returning to the Sudan in November 1946 I suggested to 
Mr. J. D. Macdonald that if I could hand out photographs of the bird 
to natives of the Bahr-el-Ghazal I thought there would be a good chance 
of success. Mr. Macdonald went further and very kindly arranged to 
have the picture in the Bird Room photographed, , and enlarged up to 
life size. This is the picture which appears in Volume 1 of Dr. D. A. 
Bannerman's ' Birds of Tropical West Africa.' I took a number of these 
photographs back with me and gave them, for distribution, to Mr. T. R. H. 
Owen, the Deputy Governor at Wau, who has taken the greatest interest 
in the problem and has given me every help in my search. Amongst 
others I suggested that he should send copies to the Mission at Bussere, 
about 15 miles south of Wau, and to the Mission at Mboro, about 25 miles 
south-west of Wau. Within a month the first specimen, a male, had been 
obtained about 10 miles south-west of Mboro, and I had the satisfaction 
of sending it off by air to the Bird Room on Christmas Day. Since then 
eight more specimens have been obtained from the same locality, making 
a total in all of six males and three females. 

Vol. 68 6 1947-48 

I am indebted to Fr. Toniolo of Mboro Mission for his energy in 
stimulating the interest of the natives of this area to find the bird. 
I am also indebted to him for the following information which he has 
obtained from them. The name for the Francolin in Ndogo is " Mbakjzta " 
and it is to be found in the wooded ironstone country about 10-15 miles 
south-west of Mboro, and in association with the tree, known in Ndogo 
as " Ka " (Isoberlinia doka). They go about in pairs, and often mix 
with other francolins (? F. icterorhynchus) . The call is said to be " Korrr- 
korrr-korrr " which they utter at dusk, and their food is from the grain 
crops " durra " and " telebun ". They are said to lay ten or more eggs 
in a hollow in the ground, and they often cover them with leaves, and the 
eggs are said to be hatched about October. My own enquiries very much 
bear out the above, but my informants state that only two or three eggs 
are laid and that the breeding season is about April or May. I also 
ascertained that their food is supposed to consist of grass seeds, gravel, 
and caterpillars found on the leaves of the " Ka " tree. It is evidently 
a shy bird which lives well away from human habitations, and it is not 
often seen by day. The Banded Francolin is sometimes known as 
Di-ka, meaning the Francolin of the " Ka " tree. 

Method of Capture. 

The method of catching the Banded Francolin is of considerable 
interest. Apparently they are so difficult to come by during the day 
that they are hunted and caught at night. During the daytime the 
hunter will have found the places where they scratch about and bath 
themselves in the dust ; then at about sunset he places himself nearby 
and listens for the soft call of " Korrr-korrr-korrr " ; very gently he 
approaches and waits until it is nearly dark when they begin to make 
a contented sort of " sii-sii-sii " as they settle down for the night close up 
against a " Ka " tree. The hunter notes the particular trees under 
which they are sleeping and then withdraws. Later in the night he sets 
forth again with a flaming torch of grass, and, holding this on high, 
he stalks very slowly up to where they are lying, and with his other hand 
very slowly lowers a basket, about a foot across, which he puts down on 
top of them. My skinner took part in some of these stalks and states 
that the hunter is successful in about 50 per cent, of his attempts. He 
stated that he saw many of these francolins by night, but never by day ; 
whilst sleeping there would sometimes be two huddled together, and others 
a little further apart, but always in close proximity to the " Ka " tree. 
The Ndogo natives catch the birds to eat them, and my skinner ascer- 
tained from them that the method of capture has been handed down for 

1947-48 7 Vol. 68 

several generations. According to my skinner, he marched for two 
hours south-west from Mboro until he came to a khor named Magilla, 
which is one of the headwaters of the river Getti. The haunts of the 
Banded Francolin are another two hours beyond this Khor Magilla. 

Systematic Position. 

I am indebted to Mr. J. D. Macdonald for examining specimens and 
for giving me the following notes. 

Lack of sufficient material has hindered the satisfactory determination 
of the relationships of the Banded Francolin. Authorities have been 
divided as to whether it should be regarded as a distinct species or as a 
race of Francolinus coqui (Smith). They are somewhat similar in colour 
pattern, though F. coqui is distinctly larger. But the most striking 
difference is in the extent of sexual dimorphism. F. coqui is distinguished 
among francolins by the rather unusual degree to which the female differs 
from the male. In the Banded Francolin the difference is very slight, and 
is most noticeable, apart from the presence or absence of spurs, in the 
markings of the feathers of the breast ; in the male narrow black bars 
lie transversely across the feathers giving a general appearance of alternate 
black and buffish-grey concentric rings ; in the female the outer black 
line follows the periphery of each feather, especially in those close to 
the neck, so that in the general appearance the lines are broken up and 
present a much less regular pattern. 

It was a matter of some interest to compare topotypical birds with 
those from Bozum, which lies about 800 miles due west. This has been 
made possible through the courtesy of M. Berlioz, who kindly sent on 
loan to the British Museum one of the males in the Paris museum. 
Within the limits of what could be regarded as individual variation the 
males are identical. 

The Banded Francolin can therefore be regarded as a distinct species, 
Francolinus schlegelii, with distribution in the vicinity of Mboro, south- 
west of Wau, Bahr-el-Ghazel, and the vicinity of Bozum, F.E.A. 
Whether or not it exists in between these localities is a matter still to be 

A new Species of Weaver from Uganda. 

Capt. C. H. B. Grant and Mr. C. W. Mackworth-Praed exhibited 
and described the following : — 

Plocetts spekeoides, new species. 
Description. — The adult male is similar to Ploceus spekei (Heuglin) 
but has a shorter wing and shorter tail. The adult female differs from 

Vol. 68 % 1947-48 

the female of P. spekei in being below wholly yellow, lower rump and 
upper tail-coverts yellow ; malar stripe blackish, bill black. 

Distribution. — Only known from Teso, central Uganda. 

Type. — In the British Museum. Adult male. Ngariam, Teso, central 
Uganda, July 30, 1913. Collected by T. V. Fox, for Col. S. R. Clarke. 
Brit. Mus. Reg. no. 1923.8.7.2128. 

Measurements of type. — Wing 76, culmen from base 21, tail 39, 
tarsus 22 mm. 

Remarks. — Only two specimens known and are in worn dress, but have 
not yet started to moult. The male has a bill equal in size to that of 
P. spekei. The female is quite distinct from that of P. spekei and is 
without doubt in breeding dress and would appear to show that it would 
have a different dress in the non-breeding season. If so the male also 
would be expected to have a non-breeding dress. P. spekei has no non- 
breeding dress in either sex. The female measures, wing 71 ; culmen 
from base 21 ; tail 37 ; tarsus 21 mm., and was taken at Usuku, Teso, 
on August 14, 1913, by the same collector. Wings of males of P. spekei 
measure 81-89, and females 76-85 mm. ; tails : males 44-52, females 
41-48 mm. Although P. spekei is not known to occur in Uganda, the 
distinctions above indicated are too great to admit of this bird being 
a race of it, and indicate at least specific rank. Owing ,however, to its 
very great resemblance to that species we have thought it best to call 
it by the above name. 

A new Race of Apalis from Tanganyika Territory. 

Capt. C. H. B. Grant and Mr. C. W. Mackworth-Praed exhibited 
and described the following : — 

Apalis melanocephala songeaensis, new race. 

Description. — Above similar to Apalis melanocephala tenebricosa 
Vincent, but below lighter without the dusky wash on the flanks and lower 
belly ; tail as in Apalis melanocephala muhuluensis Grant & Praed, 
but white ends broader. 

Distribution. — Only known from the type locality. 

Type. — In the British Museum. Adult male. Sexual organs rather, 
enlarged, Luwiri-Kitessa Forest, Songea district, southern Tanganyika 
Territory. August 17, 1946. Collected for R. E. Moreau, by Charles 
Abdallah. Brit. Mus. Reg. no. 1947.10.1. 

Measurements of type. — Wing 52, culmen from base 15, tail 76, 
tarsus 18 mm. 

1947-48 9 Vol. 68 

Remarks. — Another male, given as in full breeding condition has the 
mantle and rump washed with olivaceous, but otherwise agrees with the 
type. Wing 52 mm. 

New Races of Larks from Abyssinia and Kenya Colony 
and a new Race of Scaley Chatterer from 

Mr. C. W. Benson sent the following descriptions with specimens for 
exhibition : — < 

^Ethocorys personata yavelloensis, new race. 

Description. — Differs from Mthocorys per sonata personata Sharpe, 
in being much darker above, greyer and with blacker central feather- 
markings ; below very similar to the nominate race, but chest rather 
greyer. From Mthocorys personata intensa Rothschild it differs in being 
much colder and greyer in tone. 

Distribution. — The Yavello area of southern Abyssinia. 

Type. — In the British Museum. Adult male. Ten miles west of 
Yavello, southern Abyssinia. July 23, 1941. Collected by C. W. Benson. 
Collector's no. E.482. Brit. Mus. Reg. no. 1946.5.2056. 

Measurements of type. — Wing 85, culmen from base 16, tail 50, tarsus 
19 mm. 

Remarks. — Two other adult specimens from the same locality have 
the wing in the male 85, and the female 85 mm. They were all obtained 
on open bare ground, and for further details see Ibis, 1946, p. 40. 
I thank Miss G. M. Rhodes and Messrs. Mackworth-Praed and Grant 
for comparing this new race with M. p. personata. 

Galerida theklje huriensis, new race. 

Description. — Above similar to the dark phace of Galerida theklse 
prsetermissa (Blanford), but below whiter much less buff, showing the 
spots on neck to breast sharper and clearer. 

Distribution. — The Huri Hills, northern Kenya Colony. 

Type. — In the British Museum. Adult male. Five miles south of 
the Abyssinia-Kenya Colony border, in the Huri Hills, between Mega 
and Marsabit, 3000 feet. April 1, 1942. Collected by C. W. Benson. 
Collector's no. 2437. Brit. Mus. no. 1946.5.2057. 

Measurements of type. — Wing 100, culmen from base 19, tail 60, 
tarsus 25 mm. 

Remarks. — Five other specimens of this new race are in the British 
Museum collection and agree with the type. See Ibis, 1945, p. 92, under 
Gallisda theklse ellioti ? Koroli-Marsabit birds probably also belong to this 

Vol. 68 10 1947-48 

race. I thank Miss G. M. Rhodes and Messrs. Mackworth-Praed and Grant 
for drawing my attention to this new race. 

Argya aylmeri boranensis, new race. 

Description. — Above similar to Argya aylmeri mentalis Reichenow, 
below feathers of chin and throat with blacker centres ; breast to belly 
more russet brown. It is altogether darker, less russet above than 
Argya aylmeri keniana Jackson, and darker both above and below than 
Argya aylmeri aylmeri Shelley. 

Distribution. — The Boran area of southern Abyssinia to the headwaters 
of the Webi Shebeli. 

Type. — In the British Museum. Adult male. Ten miles south of 
Yavello, southern Abyssinia. August 6, 1941. Collected by C. W. 
Benson Collector's no. E.598. Brit. Mus. Reg. no. 1946.5.2055. 

Measurements of type. — Wing 75, culmen from base 20, tail 115, tarsus 
25 mm. 

Remarks. — Five other specimens, in the British Museum, recorded 
with the type, Ibis, 1946, p. 45 as A. a. aylmeri, have wings 73 to 78mm., 
and one collected by Dr. A. Donaldson Smith at the Webi River, 
southern Abyssinia, has a wing of 72 mm. I thank Miss G. M. Rhodes 
and Messrs. Mackworth-Praed and Grant for drawing my attention to 
this new race. 

A new Race of Cisticola from Tanganyika Territory. 

Mr. H. I. F. Elliott sent the following description and specimens for 
exhibition : — 

Cisticola hunteri hypernephela, new race. 

Description. — Differs from the three races accepted by Lynes as follows : 
from C.h. hunteri Shelley of Kilimanjaro, in having the upper side rather 
more heavily mottled and the under parts much paler, never as grey as 
even the lowest level Mt. Kilimanjaro birds ; from C. h. prinioides 
Neumann of Mau, Kenya Colony Highlands, in the grey tone and heavy 
mottling of the upper side, though the under parts are very similar ; 
from C. h. masaba Lynes of Mt. Elgon, in having a mottled not plain 
upper side and paler under parts. 

Distribution. — The Crater Highlands, northern Tanganyika Territory, 
south-west of Lake Natron, from 7500 to 11,500 feet. 

Type. — In the British Museum. Adult male. Olosirwa Mt., Crater 
Highlands, 10,950 feet. January 27, 1945. Collected by H. F. I. 
Elliott. Collector's no. 667. Brit. Mus. Reg. no. 1947.71.1. 

Measurements of type. — Wing 63, culmen from base 11, tail 68, tarsus 22, 
middle toe and claw 18 mm. 

1947-48 11 Vol. 68 

Remarks. — Besides the type, the series collected includes a male with 
wing 61, a female wing 56 and a juvenile male wing 58 mm. In addition 
the British Museum has five skins referable to this new race, two males 
from the south-western lip of Ngorongoro, 7800 feet, and a male from 
the north side of Oldeani Mt., 10,000 feet, collected by R. E. Moreau, 
and a male from the southern lip of Ngorongoro, 8000 feet, and a female 
from Embagai crater, 7500 feet, collected by E. G. Rowe. These birds 
are in moult and were placed by Lynes with C. h. prinioides, though he 
remarks on the label " paler than average '\ This apparent paleness 
is due to the contrast of the feather- edges with the dark feather -centres 
and the greyer, C. h. hunteri-like, tone, and this difference from matrix 
C. h. prinioides is very marked in birds in fresh plumage. 

The name given to this race indicates that it is confined to the area 
above the persistent cloud level. C. h. prinioides occurs at much lower 
levels on neighbouring mountains, and the Mt. Kilimanjaro C. h. hunteri 
also ranges well below the cloud belt. 

A new Race of Serin from the Belgian Congo. 

Mr. C. M. N. White exhibited and described the following : — 
Serinus mozambicus samaliyje, new race. 

Differs from S. m. mozambicus (Linnaeus) and 8. m. tando Bannerman in 
being much clearer and more bright green on the upper side, especially on 
the crown, and with the dark feather- centres less pronounced. 

Distribution. — The Mwinilunga district of Northern Rhodesia and the 
southern Belgian Congo east to the Luapula River opposite Kasenga. 

Type. — In British Museum. Adult male. Pempele Pool, between 
Musonoie and Solwezi, in the southern Belgian Congo. May 2, 1939. 
Collected by C. M. N. White. Brit. Mus. Reg. no. 1947.80.33. 

Remarks. — Fourteen examples examined (twelve in my collection and 
two already in the British Museum). This new race is an unexpected 
discovery. S. m. tando appears to range from northern Angola to the 
Kasai drainage in the inner Congo basin. Capt. C. H. B. Grant has 
examined these specimens with me and agrees that they must be 
separated. They evidently represent the race of the outer Congo basin. 

A new Race of the Skylark from the Outer Hebrides. 

Mr. P. A. Clancey sent the following description with specimens for 
exhibition : — 

In Bull. B. O. C. 66, 1946, p. 90, I indicated that the Skylark of the 
Outer Hebrides would doubtless prove to be distinct, and a critical perusal 


Vol. 68 12 1947-48 

of a series collected on the island of South Uist in June, 1947, in con- 
junction with material from all parts of Britain, confirms my earlier 

Alauda arvensis divergens, new race. 

Description. — Male and female, breeding. Upper-parts without the 
warm tones of Alauda arvensis scotica Tschusi, 1903 : Kirkcudbrightshire, 
south-west Scotland, feather- centres being blacker and more fully de- 
veloped ; under-parts whiter ; breast spots and flank streaks blacker, not 
so brown. Autumn. Upper-parts colder and more earthen in tone than in 
A. a. scotica ; wings and tail darker ; under-parts rather whiter, with breast 
spots and flank streaks blacker. Juvenile. Much darker and richer in 
tone above than in A. a. scotica ; under-parts little different, but breast 
spots rather larger and flanks somewhat darker. 

Distribution. — Confined to the islands of the Outer Hebridean 

Type. — Adult male. In my collection. Breeding. Daliburgh, South 
Uist, Outer Hebrides. June 17, 1947. 

Measurements of the type. — Wing 111, culmen from base 16, tarsus 26-5, 
tail 72 mm. 

Material examined. — A. a. divergens, six males, three females, two young. 
A. a. scotica, long series from many parts of Scotland and northern 
districts of England. Alauda arvensis tertialis Clancey, 1946 : Salisbury 
Plain, England, series. Alauda arvensis theresse Meinertzhagen, 1947 : 
Co. Clare, Ireland, series. Alauda arvensis arvensis Linnaeus, 1758 : 
Sweden, series. 

Remarks. — This new race of A. arvensis in its less rufous plumage 
stands noticeably apart from its affinities, A. a. scotica, A. a. tertialis, 
A. a. theresse, which form a closely integrated association of British main 
island races. Examination of series in comparable plumages from the 
Shetland and Orkney groups is now clearly required in order to ascertain 
the status of the races inhabiting these islands. 

A single female in partial new plumage has enabled me to describe 
this dress in the face of an almost complete absence of autumn taken 
Outer Hebridean specimens. Col. R. Meinertzhagen, D.S.O., informs me 
in litt., that during the late autumn and winter months the indigenous 
Skylarks are absent from the Outer Hebrides, which presumably accounts 
for the fact that this highly distinctive form has hitherto escaped 

I am indebted to Dr. J. M. Harrison, D.S.C., for supplying details of 
South Uist Skylarks in his collection. 

1947-48 18 Vol. 68 

The Effect of Diet on Plumage Pigmentation. 

Col. R. Meinertzhagen made the following remarks : — 

Gloger's Rule that in warm or humid regions there is increased pig- 
mentation in feathers of birds and that in desert or arid regions there is 
a decrease in pigmentation, gives us the result of some process but not 
the cause. It has been generally accepted that the survival value of 
this rule is obvious. Mayr, in his exceptional work ' Systematics and 
the Origin of Species,' p. 246, remarks, " Habitat selection is unquestion- 
ably involved in the development of bird races that are adapted to specific 
soil colours." In many cases the close resemblance between the colour 
of the soil and the colour of the plumage is extremely close, especially 
among larks, and both Niethammer and I have remarked on the reluctance 
which many larks display to leave the particular soil which their plumage 
resembles in such countries so distant as Arabia and South West Africa. 
But there are objections to the survival theory. 

The western Himalayas are not so humid as the eastern Himalayas 
and yet many races are darker in the east than in the west, both living 
in forest where a very slight colour difference could not have survival 
value. Again, the Outer Hebrides and western Ireland are more humid 
than East Anglia and yet we find darker skylarks, corn buntings, rock 
pipits, thrushes and other birds in the west than in the east. The 
differences in pigmentation are very small and I cannot believe that they 
have any survival value. Moreover, continental (grey) skylarks spend 
half their lives in the British Islands where a slightly redder race resides, 
and I cannot believe that they are at a disadvantage. 

If we examine the extreme case of desert coloration, its cause is baffling. 
It cannot be that climate (phenotypical) influences pigmentation, because 
two races of Ammomanes live within a few miles of each other in identical 
climate, humidity and conditions, the one being almost black and living 
on black lava and the other being pale isabelline and living on yellow 

It has been remarked that correlation between soil and pigmentation 
is most marked among those birds which are most liable to attack by 
predatory birds. No birds could be more vulnerable to attack by pre- 
dators than those which live in deserts ; but having travelled and lived 
in the deserts of Africa and Asia for many, many months, I have never 
once seen a predatory bird hunting in pure desert which abounds with 
several species of lark, chat and warbler. One sees the larger raptores 
but they do not molest small birds. One occasionally sees falcons, but 
they only take on the wing when adaptive coloration does not function 

Vol. 68 14 1947-48 

Kestrels are rarely seen in the desert and constitute no menace to small 
birds who, knowing the kestrel's habits, have only to take wing and be 
safe. Harriers and merlin cross the desert on passage but never hunt. 
And if attack by predators is the selective cause of desert coloration, 
why is the desert eagle owl desert- coloured ? And why should Spalax, 
a small desert mammal living underground, be desert coloured ? 

It is significant that the indigenous sheep of Ushant were black, the 
indigenous cattle of Co. Kerry are black and the indigenous strain of 
Highland Cattle in the Outer Hebrides were black ; and these particular 
localities are the most humid regions of France, Ireland and Scotland 
respectively. Sabine's Snipe only occurs in the wettest parts of the 
range of the snipe (though it has once occurred in Denmark) ; the black 
leopard only occurs in the most humid parts of the leopard's habitat. 
It is remarkable that the dark mutant of the pheasant should have 
originated in the most humid area of the pheasant's distribution from 
Japan to Britain and that the Versicolor Pheasant, which closely resembles 
the British dark mutant, should have established itself in the most humid 
area of Japan. In all these cases protection from predators can play 
no part in the cause of Gloger's Rule. 

Mayr, op. cit. p. 88, comes to no definite conclusion when discussing 
desert coloration. He states " We must rather assume that the inheri- 
tance of the degree and kind of pigmentation is correlated with, some 
organ (let us say the thyroid or pituitary), the variation of which is of 
selective value " — a statement which gets us no further. 

Some years ago I was inclined to think that the percentage of ultra- 
violet rays which get through the atmosphere might influence pigmenta- 
tion. Humidity is the strongest filter for these rays and there is much 
evidence to support this view, but desert coloration is fixed, so far as 
anything in Nature is fixed, and is heritable, that is to say has a genetic 
basis, as has been proved by experiment. On the other hand, we have 
Beebe's famous experiment which under laboratory conditions produced 
increased pigmentation by subjecting birds to darkness and increased 
humidity ; but this experiment has not been confirmed. 

So the matter stands and we are still completely ignorant of the causes 
of increase and decrease in pigmentation according to Gloger's Rule. 

In any given area, food is the main factor of existence and the only 
common factor influencing all life within that area. Food, whether 
animal or vegetable, is derived from the soil. Can it be that diet causes 
specific variation among birds ? 

I am not going to touch on the chemistry of pigment ; it is a com- 
plicated subject and I am not a bio-chemist. What I am concerned with 

1947-48 15 Vol. 68 

is the relationship between pigment taken with food, and pigment come 
to rest in the feather. Once a feather is mature it is sealed off at the base 
of the calamus and isolated from the blood-stream ; but when growing 
it gains nourishment from the blood-stream and will naturally obtain 
any pigment derived from diet. It is therefore only previous to and 
during moult that pigment taken in diet could influence the pigmentation 
of the feather. It is therefore important to know a bird's diet previous 
to and during moult and this does not always tally with a bird's diet 
during the rest of the year. For instance, the bramble-finch (Fringilla 
montifringilla Linnaeus), normally a regular seed-eater, does, in the 
moulting season (September) in Swedish Lapland and probably elsewhere 
throughout its range, feed entirely on soft fruit, mostly V actinium and 
Rubus, this probably accounting for its name. This conservative diet 
during moult would account for lack of intraspecific variation throughout 
its range from Norway to Kamtskatka. But here again there is a com- 

Assuming that all domestic cattle were derived from one species and 
all domestic poultry were similarly derived, man, by artificial selection 
has been able to produce breeds which can absorb into their fat pigment 
derived from food and others which do not do so. Among cattle, breed 
exerts a stronger influence on fat-colour than any other factor. The colour 
of butter-fat is closely allied to body -fat. But the most important 
factor influencing fat-colour is diet. These facts have been abundantly 
proved for cattle and rabbits. Among poultry, similar facts have been 
proved. But in poultry, breed determines the colour of the yolk of 
the egg in addition to body-fat. In Britain we prefer hens which lay 
eggs with dark yolks, in America the pale yolk is preferred ; poultry 
breeders have therefore concentrated on those breeds which supply 
these national preferences. In poultry it has also been proved that diet 
affects the colour of the body-fat. I mention this to show that there is 
a potential within a species to utilise or reject pigment derived from diet. 

We now come to experiments on birds in captivity. Canaries fed on 
food free from carotenoids previous to and during moult, turn white. 
Others, when fed on paprika, especially if taken in a fatty or oily medium 
such as olive oil, turn orange. Bullfinches fed on hemp become much 
darker after moult, and if at the next moult their diet is free of hemp 
they become normal. I realise that these two cases involve food 
unnatural to canaries and bullfinches, but it does demonstrate the fact 
that pigment taken in diet does in fact influence pigmentation of the 
feather. Flamingoes in the Giza Zoological Gardens lost almost all 
rosy colour on a non- crustacean diet, recovering the rosy colour after 

Vol. 68 16 1947^8 

the next moult which followed a crustacean diet. In the New York 
Zoo, rosy flamingoes after successive moults became almost pure white 
until a harmless red dye was mixed with their food, when they recovered 
their normal rosy colour. Such evidence further establishes the fact that 
pigment taken in diet affects the colour pigment in the feather, but, 
unfortunately, no record has been kept of the colour of the fat among 
these captivity birds. 

I have, however, been able to establish a direct relationship between 
the colour of the fat of wild birds and the colours of the soft parts. The 
chough (Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax) with his brilliant scarlet bill and legs 
has a coral-red body-fat. The rook (Corvus frugilegus) , jackdaw (C. mone- 
dula), raven (C. corax), magpie (Pica pica) and jay (Garrulus glandarius) 
without any reds or yellows in the soft parts, have a yellowish- white fat. 
In the gulls where the insides of the mouths, the bill or legs are red or 
orange, the body-fat is orange, whereas in those gulls with pinkish or 
whitish insides of mouths and greenish or flesh-coloured legs, the body- 
fat is dirty white. In the black guillemot ( Uria grylle) with his scarlet bill, 
legs and inside of mouth, the fat is orange, in the puffin (F rater cula 
arctica) with the various reds and yellows in the bill, the body-fat is orange, 
but in the common guillemot (Uria aalge) and the razorbill (Alca torda) 
without any reds or yellows, the body- fat is whitish. The remarkable 
aspect of the black guillemot is that the adult with his red soft parts 
and orange fat had stomach contents of red crabs, the juice from which 
had stained the lining of the stomach, intestines and faeces bright orange ; 
but four immature black guillemots with black bill and uncoloured 
legs and insides to mouth, had a stomach content of small white fish 
and marine mollusca without a trace of red stain and the fat was whitish. 
The oystercatcher (Hsematopus ostralegus) with his scarlet bill in adults 
has an orange fat, but immature birds with their blackish bills have 
a much duller yellowish fat. The redshank (Tringa totanus) with his red 
legs has a deep yellow fat, but such waders as the knot (Erolia canutus) 
and dunlin (Erolia alpina) without red legs have a dull pale yellow fat. 
In view of these facts it looks as though, in the majority of cases, the 
colour of the soft parts is reflected in the body-fat. But conversely 
there are many cases where the colour of body-fat is not reflected in the soft 
parts owing to the potential to lay down the colour pigment being absent. 

It is possible that diet is responsible for the change in colour of the 
bill in spring in such birds as the black-headed gull (Larus ridibundus), 
the starling (Sturnus vulgaris) and others. 

The relationship between fat -colour and plumage is more subtle, but 
among some birds I have found that it can be established. I must stress 

1947^8 17 Vol. 68. 

the point that I am only dealing with intraspecific speciation. It would be 
clearly absurd to claim that diet could influence the differences between even 
closely related species such as the linnet (Acanthis cannabina) and the 
twite (Acanthis flavirostris) . I am only dealing with the colour differences 
within a species. The evidence I have is fragmentary but consistent. 

A very dark Hebridean thrush (Turdus philomelos hebridensis) had 
body-fat many shades darker than that of Scandinavian thrushes. West 
of Ireland meadow pipits (Anthus pratensis), if they are particularly 
dark individuals, have a much darker body-fat than paler birds. The 
Swedish snipe (Capella gallinago) is a darker bird than the Iceland snipe 
(C. g. faeroensis) and has a darker fat. The Shetland starling (Sturnus 
vulgaris zetlandicus) has a dark juvenile plumage ; other European 
starlings have a paler juvenile plumage. The former feeds almost 
entirely on food derived from sea-weed, the latter is a crop-land bird. 
The fat of the Shetland bird is slightly darker than that of Swedish 
birds. The adult could scarcely react to dark pigment being already 
black, though in most cases the white spotting in freshly-moulted adults 
of the Shetland race is more restricted than is usual in Swedish birds. 
Here again, I can see no possible advantage against predators which 
could be enjoyed by Shetland birds by virtue of dark coloration. 

In this connection, I believe it to be true that the more conservative 
a species is in its ecology and therefore in its diet, the less intraspecific 
variation is manifest ; in other words, the less variable the diet the less 
variable the plumage. One could quote many instances. The wall- 
creeper (Tichodroma muraria) with its conservative ecology and no 
variation and the tree-creeper (Certhia) with varied ecology and much 
intraspecific variation. Other cases that come to mind are the grey 
wagtail (Motacilla cinerea) and the yellow wagtails (M . flava) ; the 
Larus argentatus-L. fuscus group and the common and black-headed gulls 
(L. canus and L. ridibundus) ; the siskin (Caduelis spinus) and the goldfinch 
(Carduelis carduelis) ; the short-eared owl (Asio flammea) and the little 
owl (Athene) ; Rhamphocorys and Galerida. 

I have already remarked elsewhere that ground-feeding brids such 
as sandgrouse and larks, show greater variation within the species than 
do tree-feeding birds ; I believe the reason of this to be that ground- 
feeding birds have a greater variety of diet. I have noted this especially 
among the larks, the hedge-sparrows and robins. And to complicate 
the subject still more, I have found on several occasions that individual 
birds have individual likes and dislikes. I have come across this in the 
hedge-sparrow, where the male would never touch seeds and the female 
consumed them greedily up to one-third of the total stomach content. 


Vol. 68 18 1947-48 

I have also come across it in the skylark, where some individuals will 
eat nothing but green food and insects, whilst others will eat a large 
variety of seeds. 

I appreciate the fragmentary nature of the evidence I have collected 
and am not claiming anything extravagant ; I merely put the facts 
and my views before you, uncertain myself whether there is an element 
of truth in them or not. 

I would finally suggest that there is a food cline and therefore a pigment 
cline which is reflected in the bird's plumage. If this is so, are these 
variations due to diet valid subspecies ? Have they a genetic basis ? 
Mayr does not admit phenotypical races as valid subspecies. What of 
sitotypical races — those which typify variation due to pigment derived 
from diet ? 

This paper caused some discussion by several Members. 

Some Notes and Comments on sixteen British Species. 

Col. R. Meinertzhagen communicated the following : — 
I should like to preface these notes with the following quotation from 
Mayr, ' Systematics and the Origin of Species,' p. 16. 

*' Only such subspecies or species should be named as are really distinct 
from others. This admonition may sound superfluous, but if it were 
so we would not have so many synonyms for most of our species. . . . 
The author of a new name should always keep in mind Bather's true 
words ' A name once published is irrevocable, a permanent addition to 
the labour of future investigators. Let us beware of adding needlessly 
to the burden of posterity '. The quality of a taxonomist's work is 
measured not so much by the number of new forms which he describes 
as by the percentage of synonyms among them." 

On the forms of Garrulus glandarius Linnaeus 
from western Europe. 
The type of G. g. rufitergum Hartert is an adult male shot by the late 
Lord Rothschild on October 21, 1895. It is in the British Museum 
where I have examined it. The upper parts are pale terra- cotta without 
a trace of grey and it is unlike any British-taken specimen I have seen, 
being paler and redder and can only be matched by very few German 
birds. It must have been quite unlike the series which Hartert had 
before him in 1903 when he described it. Being an October bird we 
cannot be sure that it is a Brtish breeding bird. At the time when 
Hartert described the British Jay, the Irish Jay had not yet been 
described, . and I know that Hartert had several Irish specimens before 
him in 1903. No doubt this largely influenced the series he had before him. 

1947-48 19 Vol. 68 

I have examined eleven breeding birds in the British Museum from the 
south of England (Suffolk to Hereford), from Cornwall, Cumberland 
and south Scotland. I also have in my collection seven breeding birds 
from Tring. A few are darker than others and these few agree with 
Hartert's description of the British form, but in the main they agree 
perfectly with a large German, Swiss, north Italian, Dutch, Belgian 
and French series, some of these, especially Swiss birds, being as dark 
as the darkest British birds. I therefore unite the British Jay with the 
German Jay, the oldest name for which appears to be Glandarius 
germanicus Brehm, Handb. Naturg. Vog. Deutschl. p. 180, 1831. There 
is no doubt that Brehm had before him German breeding birds, for on the 
same page he distinguishes the Scandinavian form from the German bird. 
Koch's name Glandarius pictus (1816-Bavaria) is an older name but can 
scarcely be accepted, as he merely renamed Linnaeus 's Garrulus glandarius 
in order to avoid the ugly combination " Glandarius glandarius ". 

The Irish Jay (G. g. hibernicus Witherby & Hartert. 1911, Ireland) is a 
good race, being darker and more richly coloured above and below. Some 
west of England birds come very near it, a male from Cornwall in my 
collection exactly matching a series from Ireland. 

On the Starling (British race) Sturnus vulgaris 
britannicus Bullough. 

Description. — Like Sturnus vulgaris vulgaris Linnaeus during the 
breeding season, but otherwise with gonads not regressing so far in summer 
and starting their seasonal growth in September instead of in January. 
Because of this, the beaks of adults S. v. britannicus begin to turn yellow 
in late October and early November (the change does not begin until 
January or February in adult S. v. vulgaris) ; the birds pay repeated 
visits to their nest holes and so rub the white tips from their throat 
and neck feathers (no similar behaviour or change is seen in 8. v. vulgaris) ; 
and they are non-migratory (unlike S. v. vulgaris). 

Distribution. — Throughout the British Isles where, apart from the 
local S. v. zetlandicus, it is the only breeding race ; probably also 
throughout the western European countries where it breeds alongside 
S. v. vulgaris ; and in eastern Canada and the eastern United States 
where it also breeds alongside S. v. vulgaris. 

Type. — From North Deighton, near Wetherby, Yorkshire ; shot 
December 9, 1939 from a communal roost ; numbered 35B.m.B., and 
preserved in the museum of the Zoology Department of Leeds University. 

Remarks. — For full comparative details and figures of gonad sizes 
throughout the year, of secondary sexual characters, and of behaviour 
see W. S. Bullough (1942) in the 'Philosophical Transactions of the Royal 
Society of London ' B 231, pp. 165-246, and (1942) in the Ibis, pp. 225-239. 

Vol. 68 2D 1947^8 

Since the features by which this race has been distinguished vary 
with the seasons, an attempt has been made to find some constant 
distinguishing feature which would be useful for taxonomists. Col. R. 
Meinertzhagen suggests that the head of S. v. britannicus is less purple, 
and on the average this certainly seems to be so. There may, however, 
be individual variation from the average, and further observation appears 
to be necessary. 

On Sturnus vulgaris Linnaeus. 

Linnaeus described the Starling without any diagnosis which would 
enable the race to be determined. Hartert restricts the type locality 
to Sweden ; I further restrict it to Upsala, whence I have in my collection 
seven breeding males and seven September adults. I have also examined 
the large series of Swedish birds in the Stockholm Museum. I also have 
before me a large series of British and Irish breeding birds. 

Starlings are most difficult to determine, as different people will often 
come to different conclusions on colour with the same series and even 
the same person, as I have found myself, will see things differently from 
week to week with the same specimens. 

Upsala birds are by no means constant in the colour of the mantle, 
head and ear-coverts ; not nearly so constant as are British and Dutch 
breeding birds. These latter must bear the name Sturnus vulgaris 
britannicus Bullough on those physiological characters given by Bullough 
and also on the excellent morphological characters given by Witherby 
in the Handbook which exactly fits the British race. 

The vast majority of Upsala birds have seome degree of purple or a 
purple wash on the head, the ear- coverts though green are not pure 
green as in the British form, but oily green and rarely purplish green, 
and the mantle is often less bronze and more green than the British 
race.* It seems desirable to fix the Upsala bird. I therefore make a 
Neotype of Sturnus vulgaris, adult male, Upsala, Sweden, April 18, 1897, 
this specimen agreeing with the majority of Upsala birds examined. 

Do purple-headed birds breed in Britain ? I have one purple-headed 
bird obtained in April when all continental migrants should have left 
this country, but I have no proof that it was actually breeding. All 
known breeding birds from the British Islands which I have examined 
agree with Bullough's and Witherby's diagnoses. Purple-headed birds, 
clearly migrants from northern Europe, occur frequently in the British 
Islands in autumn, winter and early spring but I have yet to see one 
from Ireland. 

* This is at variance with Pateff (' The Ibis ', 1947, pp. 496-7), who finds Swedish 
birds have a " completely green head " and that a " purplish gloss on head " is 
" rare in Sweden ". I cannot explain this complete disagreement with the ample 
material I have had before me. 

1947-48 21 Vol. 68 

Sturnus hollandisz Brehm (1831, Holland). The type is in the Brehm 
Collection and should now be in New York. It is a May bird from 
Holland (Novit. Zool. xxv. 1918, p. 10). Dutch birds, of which I have 
several spring specimens from Rotterdam, do not differ from British 
birds on morphological characters, never having the purplish head. 

On the western European forms of Chloris Moris Linnaeus. 

I have had before me the series in the Stockholm, Helsingfors, Berlin 
and Ley den Museums and the following : — 

15 topotypical Chloris chloris harrisoni Clancey. 

14 topotypical Chloris chloris restricta Clancey. 

18 from eastern Scotland in my collection. 

12 Chloris chloris chloris L. from Upsala. My collection. 

2 Finland birds. My collection. 

2 Estonian birds. My collection. 
20 South of England from Norfolk to Cornwall. My collection. 

1 from Wales. My collection. 

5 from extreme west Ireland. My collection. 

' Individual variation is great among any greenfinches from any locality. 
It is not dimorphism as suggested by Clancey but strict individual 

C. c. harrisoni Clancey is slightly darker above than all Swedish birds 
and a few Scottish, English and Irish birds. The under parts are, however, 
much darker than in Swedish birds, most distinct in a series, and the form 
is perfectly good. 

Birds from east Scotland are C. chloris, C. c. harrisoni, a few being 
identical with either form. A single bird from Wales is identical with 
C. c. chloris above and with C. c. harrisoni below. All English birds 
examined, including the series of C. c. restricta, are nearest Swedish 
specimens, a few slightly darker above, but seldom so pale below. On the 
other hand, several English specimens cannot be separated from 
C. c. chloris. Cornish birds form a group by themselves, being very 
bright yellow below and approaching C. c. aurantiiventris (Cab.). West 
Irish birds seem to be as English birds. 

I should therefore classify western European birds as follows : — 

Chloris c. chloris. Sweden, Finland, Estonia. Winter visitor to the 
British Islands. Finnish birds are particularly pale below and with 
white lower belly. 

Chloris c. harrisoni. South-west Scotland. 

Vol. 68 22 1947-48 

Chloris c. chloris CK G. harrisoni. East Scotland, England (except 
Cornwall) and Ireland. 

Chloris c. harrisoni C. c. aurantiivetris . Cornwall. 

I doubt whether C. c. restricta Clancey should be recognized. It is 
too inconstant and a pure intermediate, but such a decision must remain 
a matter of individual opinion. If it is recognized, its distribution would 
be most difficult to define and the Cornish bird would have to bear a name. 

Two males from Rotterdam cannot be separated from English birds 
and are certainly not true C. c. chloris. The darkest bird I have seen is 
a male from Gottingen near Hanover (December 1, 1896). It is much 
darker than any specimen of C. c. harrisoni, the whole of the under parts 
being sulphur brownish green. It is not representative of German 
greenfinches which in the main resemble Swedish specimens. 

On the western European forms of Carduelis cannabina (Linnaeus.) 

I have had before me the series in the Stockholm, Berlin and Leyden 

The type and thirty specimens of Carduelis cannabina sejuncta (Clancey) 
from the Clancey collection. 

The type and two specimens of Carduelis cannabina autochtona (Clancey) 
from the Clancey collection. 

The following from my own collection : — 

4 specimens from Upsala, Sweden. 
7 specimens from West Scotland. 

1 specimen from Co. Kerry which has been compared with the 

series in the Dublin Museum. 
10 specimens from the south of England (Norfolk to Cornwall). 
13 specimens from Ushant, all breeding birds. 

2 specimens from the Pyrenees. 

All series of the Linnet which I have examined are uneven showing 
no constancy. The darkest bird is an adult male (January) from Norfolk 
and this agrees perfectly with Clancey's C. c. autochthona. The characters 
claimed for the male of C. c. sejuncta are not apparent, nine adult spring 
males of the latter form having no striae at all on the mantle. The palest 
birds of the whole series are two immature birds from Amesbury which 
agree exactly with birds in similar plumage from Upsala. And I cannot 
separate the type from Upsala females. I therefore regard C. c. sejuncta 
(Clancey) as a synonym of C. c. cannabina. 

Clancey's three specimens of C. c. autochtona are certainly darker than 
is usual in British and continental linnets, heavily streaked on the mantle, 

1947-48 23 Vol. 68 

but they can be matched by south of England specimens. Before 
accepting this form I should like to' see a series of birds in fresh plumage. 

I cannot separate either Ushant nor Pyrennaean birds from Swedish 
specimens. Irish birds are very variable, mostly on the dark side and 
matching C. c. autochthona. 

I think it would have been better to have drawn attention to a tendency 
to darkness and heavy mantle striation in some Scottish birds than to 
have given them a name, especially with such a small series, only one of 
which is in fresh plumage. Clancey infers that his C. c. autochthona 
occurs in the Orkneys. Two Orkney specimens in the British Museum 
are not linnets but twites Carduelis flavirostris (Linnseus), and have been 
content with wrong identification for nearly a century. 

On the validity of Pyrrhula pyrrhula wardlawi Clancey. 

I have examined fifteen specimens of Bullfinch from Sutherland and 
Ross-shire, together with over thirty from various parts of England 
and the series in the Berlin and Leyden Museums. 

On bill measurement P. p. wardlawi shows an average smaller size, 
but there is a large overlap and many specimens could not be determined, 
though I admit my series is not so large as that examined by Clancey. 
I regard it as one of those cases where attention might have been called 
to such a slight character without over- burdening nomenclature. The 
colour characters claimed by Clancey for P. p. wardlawi do not exist in 
the specimens I have had before me. 

Pyrrhula pyrrhula coccinea (Gmelin), scarcely differs from P. p. nesa, 
Mathews, many of the latter, especially from East Anglia and Kent, 
showing not the slightest difference. In this I agree with Clancay (Ibis, 
1946, p. 518). 

Females in all bullfinches show greater variation than the males. 
I have examined twenty-one females from Kent (mainly from the 
Harrison collection) and they constitute an excellent synthetic race, 
due almost certainly to their close proximity to London. 

Three Irish females in my collection are slightly richer and darker 
below than south of England birds, whilst one is much darker below 
and more vinous. A single Irish juvenile female is paler and yellower 
above and below than either British or Scottish juveniles of the same age. 

This grime-belt theory is not entirely satisfactory. If I apply it to 
Kent bullfinches, why do not I apply it to south-west Scottish chaffinches ? 
The bullfinches seem to be affected in Kent and not in south-west Scotland; 
the chaffinches are affected in south-west Scotland and not in Kent. 
Almost the whole of south-east England and south-west Scotland is 

Vol. 68 24 1947-48 

within an industrial area and therefore grime-suspect. Should not all 
birds from these areas be thoroughly washed before preservation and if 
so, does washing, which cannot be done without some form of chemical, 
destroy the original colour ? Over-washing might certainly entail 
over- bleaching. On the other hand, bullfinches are peculiarly susceptible 
during and preceding moult to the nature of their food which we know, 
from captive specimens, can affect the colour of the plumage. 

On the western European forms of Passer domesticus Linnaeus. 

Witherby (Practical Handbook, 1, p. 157) does not recognize Passer 
domesticus hostilis Kleinschmidt (type-locality, Tring) basing his measure- 
ments on misleading material. He measured ninety males from Britain 
and compared them with fifty " continental " males, not with Swedish 
males. In order to gauge the validity of Kleinschmidt's race I 
examined the huge series in the Stockholm Museum with the following 
results : — 

36 Swedish males have wings 77-82, once 83 mm. 
36 Swedish females have wings 74-78, once 79 mm. 
90 British males have wings 72-81 (Witherby). 
I agree with Witherby that these differences are unworthy of a name. 
Birds from Finland are even larger, wings of males ranging to 85 mm. 
The culmens are also important. 

24 Finnish males have culmens 14-15 mm. 
36 Swedish males have culmens 13-5-14-5 mm. 
40 British males have culmens 12-5-14 mm. 
8 Ushant males have culmens 12-12-5 mm. 
10 West Irish males have culmens 12-5-13-5 mm. 
Here we have a perfect size cline from Finland to the West of Ireland 
and Ushant ; there is also a slight colour cline, birds tending to become 
slightly darker and richer on the mantle in the west. 

Ushant birds might almost deserve a name, being slightly more richly 
coloured than even West Irish birds, but we have the unfortunate 
P. d. hostilis of Kleinschmidt to deal with which is not quite Swedisn 
and not quite Ushant. If only Linnaeus had lived in Finland, Hartert 
in Connemara and Breiim not at all, how easy would be the task before 

On the Western European forms of Sitta europsea Linnaeus. 
1 . Sitta europsea europ&a L. Upsala, Sweden. 
Distribution. — The whole of Scandinavia, Finland and North Russia, 

1947-48 25 Vol. 68 

Birds from Estonia to East Prussia have been named 8. e. homey eri, 
but they are true intermediates between 8. europasa and 8. cassia and 
are better expressed 8. e. europasa cassia. Birds from Pinsk and Poland 
have been named S. e. stolcmani and are again true intermediates as 
8. e. homeyeri, and should be similarly expressed. The same applies to 
8. e. reichenowi Kleinschmidt from Silesia and S. e. sordida Reichenow. 
Danish birds are occasionally pure 8. e. europasa and sometimes 8. e. cassia, 
a hybrid population. 

2. 8itta europasa cassia Wolf, 1810. Hanover. 

Sitta affinis Blyth, 1846. England 

Sitta europasa britannica Hartert, 1900. Tring, Herts. 

Sitta hassica Kleinschmidt, 1917. Darmstadt. 

Sitta Auto- Sitta hosrningi Kleinschmidt, 1928. Thuringia. 

I have examined the series in the Berlin, Ley den and Paris Museums, 
together with a large series of continental and British birds from private 
collections. 8. e. hosrningi was founded on a slightly slenderer bill but 
eight topotypical examples do not confirm this. S. e. hassica. was founded 
on a darker breast and neck. Birds from ihe Rhine Valley tend sometimes 
towards S. e. hispaniensis Witherby and are better expressed as 8. e. cassia 

S. e. hispaniensis. They are true intermediates. 

I have examined a large series of Dutch, French and British birds. 
Dutch and British birds cannot be separated on any character from 
S. e. cassia. A single male from Rotterdam in my collection is particularly 
bright below, resembling 8. e. hispaniensis, but the culmen is that of 
8. e. cassia. Two birds in my collection from Paris are similar. But on 
the whole birds from North France are typical S. e. cassia whilst others 
from central France are S. e. cassia^S. e. hispaniensis. A male in my 
collection from Cherbourg is typical S. e. cassia. 

I have tried hard to detect any difference between British and 
continental birds. I have in my col'ection specimens from Tring, 
Wales, Hampshire and Cornwall. They differ in no way from topo- 
typical S. e. cassia except one male from Hampshire which matches 
8. e. homeyeri below but is as dark as S. e. cassia above and has the bill 
of 8. e. cassia. 

I therefore refer the British Nuthatch to Sitta europasa cassia Wolf. 

3. Sitta europasa hispaniensis Witherby, 1913. Spain. 

Siitta europasa cisalpina Sachtleben, 1919. Rome. 

I can see no constant difference between Spanish, Italian, southern 
France (Pyrenees) and Austrian (Freistadt) birds. Both Spanish and 

Vol. 68 26 1947-48 

Italian birds have a shorter and slenderer bill. S. e. cisalotina is said 
to be brighter below than S. e. csesia, and S. c. hispaniensis is said to be 
paler below than S. e. csesia. From both countries some are brighter 
and some are paler below, but others exactly match topotypical S. e. cassia. 
The bill is a good character. 

4. Sitta europsea atlas Lynes, 1919. Moraccan Atlas. 

Lynes (Nov. Zool. xxxi. p. 72, 1924) thought this form was identical 
with S. e. hispaniensis. Steinbacher (Vog. Pal. F. p. 164, 1932) places 

5. e. atlas as a synonym of S. e. hispaniensis, no doubt misled by Lynes. 
But neither Lynes nor Steinbacher had seen fresh autumn birds from 
Morocco. I obtained nine topotypical autumn examples in 1939 (Ibis, 
1940, p. 200). They differ from S. e. hispaninesis in being darker below 
but are identical above. 

On the British forms of Certhia familiaris Linnaeus. 

1. Certhia familiaris britannicus Ridgway, 1882. The type is in the 
United States National Museum. It was received from the Royal 
Artillery Institute, Woolwich in 1860. The specimen is an adult male 
and bears the sole locality " England ". I restrict the type-locality to 
Mottisfont, Hampshitre. 

2. Certhia familaris meinertzhageni Clancey, 1942. Caragh Lake, 
co. Kerry, Ireland. Meinertzhagen coll. 

This race was based on two specimens but I now have fifteen, including 
the type, from extreme west Ireland. I also have in my collection nine 
specimens from Ross-shire and ten from the south of" England. 

West Irish birds appear to be a recognizable form, mainly on the 
greater extent of rusty colour on the flanks and abdomen. The upper 
parts are slightly richer and darker than English birds, but individuals 
if compared individually are sometimes indistinguishable. The culmen 
is often shorter. 

North Scottish birds tend to be slightly darker on the upper parts than 
south of England birds and sometimes slightly redder, but this extremely 
slight divergence is neither constant nor very noticeable. 

On the Western European races of Mgithalos caudatus (Linnaeus). 

Mgithalos caudatus caudatus (Linnaeus). North and East Europe, 
merging into A. c. europseus Hermann in Germany and south Poland. 
Ranges across Siberia east to Korea and probably Japan. 

1947-48 27 Vol. 68 

Mgithalos caudatus europseus (Herm.) (1804 : Basle, Switzerland) 
(syn : A. c. expugnatus Bacmeister & Kleinschmidt, 1916. North-east 

A. c. potyi Jouard. (1929 : La Charente, France). 

A pure intermediate between Scandinavian and British races. Some 
birds from France, Holland and Belgium cannot be distinguished from 
British birds. White-headed birds of this race often occur in Germany, 
Austria and western Russia but not in France, Belgium or Holland. 

Ranges from southern Russia, Balkans, North Italy, south and central 
Germany to France, Belgium, Hol 7 and and Denmark. Not southern 
Balkans where A. c. macedonicus (Dresser) (1892 : Mount Olympus) occurs. 

Mgithalos caudatus aremoricus Whistler (1929 : Britanny) (syn. : 
A. c. gallise Jouard. (1929, Haute Vienne, France). 

A very doubtful race, sometimes intermediate between A. c. europseus 
and A. c. rosaceus Mathews and sometimes tending towards A. c. taiti 
Ingram. It is one of those microraces which should never have been 
described, but once named had better be accepted. 

Mgitlialos caudatus rosaceus Mathews (1937 : Selborne, Hants). 

British Islands. Five Irish birds, all from the west coast, have a 
well-marked dark-spotted gorget, more so than is sometimes indicated 
in English specimens of A. c. rosaceus Mathews. If this is a constant 
character the Irish bird would be a valid race. 

Mgithalos caudatus chlamyrhodomelanos Clancey (1941 : Sutherland). 

Is said to differ from A. c. rosaceus in having much narrower white 
fringes to the innermost secondaries and less white on the inner greater 
coverts. Pink of flanks slightly darker. I have before me five specimens 
including the type from the Clancey collection and three other Sutherland 
birds from my own collection. I have compared these with forty south 
of England specimens and am unable to confirm any differences in the 
innermost secondaries or inner greater coverts. Some Sutherland 
specimens have slightly darker red flanks than is usual in most English 
specimens but others exactly match. I cannot accept a race based on 
inconstant and insignificant characters. Such differences should be 
noticed but not named. 

Mgithalos caudatus taiti Ingram (1913 : Portugal) (syn. : A. c. py- 
renaicus Hartert (1919: Pyrenees); A. c. bureaui Jouard. (1929: East 

A small dark race extending from the Pyrenees to North Portugal 
and extreme southern France where it merges with A. c. europseus. 

Vol. 68 28 1947-48 

Mgiihalos caudatus irbii (Sharpe & Dresser) (1871 : Gibraltar). 
A grey- backed race. Southern Spain. 

Mgiihalos caudatus tyrrhenicus Parrot (1910 : Corsica). 

A very doubtful race and almost the same as A. c. irbii. The best 
character is the brown forehead which is white in A. c. irbii. Corsica 
only, not in Sardinia. 

Mgithalos caudatus italise Jourdain (1910 : Cremona) (syn. : A c. 
romanus Stresemann (1919 : Rome). 

A grey-backed race. Southern and central Italy but not Sicily. 

Mgithalos caudatus sicula (Whitaker) (1901 : Sicily). 

A remarkable race appoaching the Caucasus bird (A. c. major (Radde)), 
the crown being washed with brown. In 1922 I had the whole of Whitaker 's 
series sent to me. They only occur in the highest parts of the centre of 
Sicily where they are by no means common. 

Note. — For full detail on hybrid populations see Stresemann, Orn. 
Ges. Bayern, 1919, pp. 3-24. 

On the validity of Regulus regulus anglorum Hartert. 

Hartert described the British Goldcrest on its alleged darker, more 
olive, upper parts, especially the forehead, neck and rump. Witherby 
(Handbook, 1, p. 316) considered the greyish tint of the hind-neck to 
be the best distinction of the continental form. 

I have had before me the type of R. r. anglorum, an adult male from 
Tring, an ill-prepared skin whose neck and under parts are slightly 
distorted. It was shot on the last day of October so there can be no 
certainty that it is a British breeding bird. I also have, from my own 
collection, five adults obtained at Upsala in fresh autumn plumage and 
a large series of British and continental birds. In a few cases British 
specimens are very slightly darker above and below, but the difference 
between British and continental birds is so slight and often utterly 
lacking, that it takes greater imagination than I possess to recognize 
a British race. I am therefore inclined to sink E. r. anglorum Hartert 
into the synonymy of R. r. regulus (Linnaeus) noting that there is a slight 
tendency to darkness sometimes in British birds. 

On the geographical races of Turdus philomelos Brehm. 

I discard Turdus ericetorum Turton as the name of the song thrush 
for reasons given elsewhere. 

I have had before me the series in the Stockholm, Berlin, Leyden, 
Paris and British Museums together with my own extensive series listed 

1947-48 29 Vol. 68 

below under each race. Throughout its range the song thrush is a bird 
of great inconstancy and instability but, on the whole its variation is 
a perfect example of colour cline from Russia to the Outer Hebrides and 
West Ireland — from greyish brown to chocolate-brown and the under 
parts, spotting- cline is equally constant from the few brownish spots in 
its eastern habitat to the dense black spotting in the extreme west. 

Turdus philomelos 'philomelos Brehm, 1831. (On migration in Central 
Germany.) The type is not in the Brehm collection. 

Turdus musicus var. planiceps H. & E. 1833 (Egypt). Type ex- 
amined in the Berlin Museum.* 

Turdus musicus brehmi Zedlitz. 1919. A true intermediate between 
T. p. philomelos and T. p. clarkei. See also Hartert, Vog. Pal. F. iii. 
p. 2157. 

Turdus philomelos distinctus Sarudny, 1918. (Gilan.) 
Turdus philomelos natalise Buturlin, 1929. (Krasnojarsk.) 
I have in my collection breeding birds from Sweden, Finland, Estonia 
and Berlin and winter birds from the Pyrenees, Morocco, Egypt, Palestine, 
Iraq and a single specimen from a Ross- shire Lighthouse. 

This is the palest race being greyish brown on the mantle, with few 
spots on the breast of a brownish, not blackish, colour and with the least 
yellow on the upper breast. Wings run large, up to 122 mm. 

The border line between this race and T. p. clarkei runs down the centre 
of Germany. Birds from Hanover are certainly T. p. clarkei (four birds 
from Gottingen in my collection agree exactly with the type of T. p. 

Distribution.^- Scandinavia (birds from Upsala are slightly darker 
than Finnish and Central German birds) east to the Urals and has bred 
on Lake Baikal. South to the Caucasus. Wintering in Persia, Iraq 
and west to Egypt and Morocco and only occasional in the British 

An exhaustive monograph on the ecology and distribution of Turdus 
philomelos (without systematics) is by Siivonen (Ann. Zool. Soc. vii. 
1939. Helsinki). 

Turdus ericetorum Turton, 1807 (Darenth, Kent). Indeterminate. 
Turdus philomelos clarkei Hartert, 1909 (Tring, Herts.). The type, 
now in the British Museum, was shot by I)r. Hartert from a window in 
the Tring Museum in May 1902. It is an adult male. 

Turdus philomelos Catherine Clancey, 1938 (Cathcart, Renfrewshire). 
Type, a January female. 

* The type is a migrant shot at Damietta without date. Berlin Mus. No. 34207. 
It is a brownish bird, but must have been greyer 120 years ago, Thrushes " fox " 

Vol. 68 30 1947-48 

I have in my collection three birds from Tring, four birds from 
Gottingen (Hanover) and a large series from all over Scotland, East 
Anglia, the South of England from Kent to Cornwall, and from the west 
coast of Ireland. They are a most inconstant lot even by locality, 
rarely approaching the grey of T. p. philomelos, but many, especially 
from west Ireland, west England and west Scotland, approaching T. p. 
hebridensis. These are best called T. p. clarkei hebridensis. 

In the main the mantle is richer, redder than in the typical form, 
spotting darker and denser and with slightly more yellow on the upper 
breast, all characters being variable in degree. Witherby thought that 
Skye specimens were T. p. hebridensis. I have seen five Skye specimens 
and regard them as T. p. clarkei in its extreme form, none being so dark 
as typical Hebridean birds. 

Distribution. — There is a large belt in west centra] Europe from between 
Berlin and Hanover, south to Bohemia and the Balkans where the 
population is T. p. philomelos^ T . p. clarkei. Dutch, Belgian and French 
birds are true T. p. clarkei in its extreme pale form. The whole of the 
British Islands except the Outer Hebrides, though a few individuals are 
typical of T. p. hebridensis. 

Turdus philomelos hebridensis Clarke, 1913. (Barra, Outer Hebrides.) 
Types, a pair of April birds. In the Royal Scottish Museum where 
I have examined them. 

I have in my collection the following which are typical of this race. 
Eleven from South Uist, two from west Scottish Lighthouses, three from 
the Aran Islands (Ireland), one from Achill Island, and two from co. Kerry. 
One from Surrey and one from Algiers. 

Almost chocolate-brown on the mantle. Breast spotting dense and 
black, and with more yellow on the upper breast. 

On the forms of Prunella modularis (Linnaeus) from western Europe. 
I have had before me the type of Prunella modularis occidentalis 
(Hartert) (1910 : Tring) and six other specimens from Tring in my own 
collection ; also eleven specimens from Norway and Sweden and seven 
from Holland, kindly lent by the Leiden Museum. I have also examined 
the series of western Eueopean birds in the British Museum. 

Prunella modularis occidentalis (Hartert). 

The British form was differentiated on being slightly darker below 
and not so bright, so reddish brown, above. The second primary is 
also shorter in proportion to the seventh. These differences are confirmed 
in the series I have had before me. The type is a worn spring bird from 
Tring, the second primary equalling the seventh, 

1947-48 '31 Vol. 68 

Prunella modularis plumbea (Pallas), 1764. Holland. 

Dutch birds are strict intermediates between P. m. modularis and 
P. m. occidentalis Hartert, and are better labelled P. m. modularis^ 
P. m. occidentalis. 

Prunella modularis interposita Clancey (1943 : Dornoch). 

These are pure intermediates between P. m. occidentalis and P. m. 
hebridium and are better labelled P. m. occidentalis > P. m. hebridium. 
Some west Scottish specimens cannot be distinguished from the Hebridean 
race, though never attaining the richness and darkness of extreme examples 
of the latter. Other mid and south Scottish specimens cannot be dis- 
tinguished from Tring birds. 

Prunella modularis hebridium Meinertzhagen (1934 : South Uist). 
This form is conspicuously darker and richer above and below than 
P. m. occidentalis. 

Prunella modularis hibernicus Meinertzhagen (1934 : Curragh). 

I now have twenty-four specimens, mainly from the west of Ireland. 
They are redder and richer on the mantle, more foxy than in P. m. 
occidentalis, and paler and never so heavily marked below as in P. m. 
hebridium. Birds from Wales and the west of England often tend 
towards the Irish race, though specimens from Cornwall and the Isles of 
Scilly exactly match Tring specimens. 

Prunella modularis lusitanica Stresemann (1928: Portugal), of which 
P. m. obscura Tratz is a synonym ; and 

Prunella modularis mabbotti Harper (1919 : Pyrenees). 

I have not been able to examine a sufficient series of these races to judge 
their validity, but those I have seen do not appear to differ in any marked 
degree from P. m. modularis. 

A small series of Italian birds are not so bright, slightly greyer, than 
Swedish specimens, but some exactly agree. 

Prunella modularis race ? 

Seven birds from Ushant in my collection and one from Paris match 
Swedish specimens above, but resemble British specimens below, and 
often show considerably more rusty colour oh the breast than ever occurs 
on British or continental specimens. They possibly deserve a name, but 
I should like to see a larger series from Ushant, the end of a dine, before 
labelling them, 

Vol. 68 32 1947-48 

On the status of Picus viridis pluvius Hartert. 

I have examined the Green Woodpeckers in the Stockholm, Berlin, 
Leyden and British Museums, together with a large series from the 
Continent and the British Islands in private collections, over 200 specimens 
in all. 

There is no colour difference between Swedish, German, Dutch and 
British specimens. But there is a constant size cline of culmen and 
wing from large in the north to small in the south and west. 

mm. mm. mm. 

Swedish birds : $$ wing 168-175, $$ 163-171 ; culmen <J$ 49-54 

North German birds : <$<$ „ 165-174, $$ 161-170 ; „ £$ 47-54 
Central German birds : <$<$ >, 157-170, ?? 156-170 ; „ £$ 46-54 
Dutch birds : <?<? „ 159-169, $$ 156-167 ; „ <J? 43-50 

British birds : <}<£ „ 157-165, $$ 158-168 ; „ <J? 42-48 

The synonymy of the British form would appear to be : — 

Gecinus virescens Brehm. 1831 : Winter visitor to Germany. No 
type exists and the name should be discarded as indeterminate. 

Gecinus pinetorum Brehm, 1831. Germany, nee Picus pinetorum, 

Picus viridis pluvius Hartert, 1911. Ninfield, Sussex. Type in the 
British Museum. 

Picus viridis minor Fuchs, 1915. Germany, nee Picus minor Linnaeus. 

Hartert's name is therefore the correct one for the population of the 
British Islands, Holland, Belgium and central and south-central Germany. 
North German birds are intermediate between Scandinavian and central 
German birds, many of them being inseparable from Swedish specimens. 

On the type-locality of Pyrrhula pyrrhula nesa Mathews & Iredale. 

Mathews and Iredale (Austr. Av. Record, iii. p. 122, 1917) after referring 
to a description quoted from the B. 0. U. List, p. 358 — " The British form 
is less clearly separable, but the female of the British form has a darker 
brown back and a darker and browner under-surface " — name the British 
Bullfinch Pyrrhula pyrrhula nesa. This name narrowly escapes sinking, 
and is only saved by reference to an inadequate description. No type 
is made and no type-locality is designated. I believe that neither Mathews 
nor Iredale had specimens before them, though Iredale at the time took 
a cursory glance at my series. 

Clancey (Bull. B. O. C. 1947, p. 76) restricts the type-locality to Tring ; 
a pity, for birds from western England and Ireland are much more 
typical, and Hartert had specimens from all these localities, 

1947-48 33 Vol. 68. 

Lectotypes. — Male and female, Tring, Hertfordshire. December 10, 
1909. In Meinertzhagen collection. 
Mr. Mathews has kindly concurred. 

On the type-locality of Lagopus mutus millaisi Hartert. 

Hartert ('British Birds ', xvii. 1923, p. 106) named the Scottish Ptarmigan 
Lagopus mutus millaisi, nom. nov. for Lagopus cinereus Macgillivray, 
which is a substitute name and refers to the description which he (Hartert) 
gave in Vog. d. Pal. Fauna, p. 1869. Though L. m. millaisi is called a 
nomen novum it should have been called subsp. nov., and accompanied 
by a designation of a type and type-locality. When Hartert was working 
on the Scottish Ptarmigan he had before him a small series in the Roths- 
child collection, a large series from John Millais's collection and a large 
series from the Meinertzhagen collection. I therefore designate for 
Lagopus mutus millaisi. 

Lectotype. — Adult male, Ben Wyvis, Ross-shire, Scotland. August 3, 
1920. In Meinertzhagen collection. 

On the type-locality of Tringa totanus britannicus Mathews. 

Clancey, 'Ibis', 1947, p. 511, restricts the type-locality of Tringa 
totanus britannica Mathews to Yarmouth. That is a pity, as some Dutch 
and East Anglian specimens approach the Scandinavian form, whereas 
south of England specimens are typical of Ticehurst's diagnosis. In 
working out the British race, Ticehurst had not only his own series, but 
also my own extensive series of south of England birds. I therefore 
designate as 

Lectotype. — Adult male, Mottisfont, Hampshire. April 12, 1929. 
In the Meinertzhagen collection. 

In this, Mr. Mathews has kindly concurred. 

Records of Bird Songs and Calls. 

Colonel R. Meinertzhagen played some Gramophone Records of 
Swedish Birds Songs and Calls, which had been lent to him by the Swedish 
Broadcasting Corporation. 

Some Breeding Data from Nyasaland. 

Mr. C. W. Benson sent the following three notes : — 
(1) Ciconia nigra (Linnaeus). 

The Rev. J. H. Rens, a most reliable observer, reports seeing a pair 
carrying sticks to an inaccessible cave on Mphunzi hill, Dedza district, 

Vol. 68 34 1947-48 

July, 1943. They were seen there continuously until October. Breeding 
in Nyasaland already strongly suspected ; Ibis, 1928, p. 706. Chipata 
and Kambironjo records also suggestive ; Ibis, 1940, p. 279 ; 1942, 
p. 201. 

(2) Dendrocygna viduata (Linnaeus). 

Female taken at nest with ten slightly incubated eggs, Karonga, 
March 5. Eggs buffy cream, smooth texture, slight gloss, average size 
48-5 x 36-2 mm. Nest on sudd, a shallow hollow of dried grass, no lining ; 
extremely well concealed by a " mat " of tangled dried grass, 1 ft. above. 
Five ducklings, less than one week old, seen Karonga March 24, were 
yellowish cream, with a broad greenish-black band on upperside, from 
bill to tail, with lateral markings of same colour. 

(3) Circsetus cinerascens Muller. 

Female (coll. no. N4052, for presentation Brit. Mus.) shot at nest with 
one egg soon to hatch, Karonga, March 15. Wing 404 mm., tail with 
two light bands, belly only obscurely barred ; thus not C. fasciolatus 
Gurney. Egg dull white, no gloss, smooth texture, irregularly smeared 
dull reddish brown on pale grey ; interior very pale green ; size 
70x54 mm. Nest of sticks, 2 ft. diam., 6 in. thick, lined with small 
leaves, near top of a 30 ft. high Acacia tree, in banana plantation on edge 
of a native village. I can find no earlier authentic breeding record. 

Notes on Central African Birds. 

Mr. C. M. N. White sent the following five notes : — 

1. Calamsecetor leptorhyncha winterbottomi, new race. 

Differs from C. I. leptorhyncha (Reichenow) in being larger, having the 
wing 67-71 mm. as against 59-68 in the nominate race, and the tail 59-66 
as against 51-60 mm. ; differs from both C. I. leptorhyncha (Reichenow) 
and from C. I. macrorhynchus (Jackson) in the colour, having the 
upperside much colder and more olive less brown, the head top dull 
olive-grey in contrast with the mantle ; underside much whiter, the 
flanks and under tail-coverts with a slight olive-greyish or olive-fawn 
wash, but without the strong russet wash of C. I. macrorhynchus. The 
immature plumage of this new race is markedly different from immatures 
of the two races cited in that it is much darker and more olive-brown, 
lacking the bright rusty shade of immatures of C. I. macrorhynchus from 
the Luapula river. 

1947-48 35 Vol. 68 

Distribution. — The Macondo district of Eastern Angola, south along 
the Manyinga and Kabompo rivers in Northern Rhodesia. 

Type. — In my collection. Male adult collected on the Manyinga river, 
Macondo district, Angola, on July 27, 1945, by K. Muzeya. 

Remarks. — This is undoubtedly one of the small forms of these Reed 
Warblers grouped under C. leptorhyncha (Reichenow). The bill in the 
series obtained is 18-20 mm. in length, i. e., not different from the typical 
race. Nine adults and two immatures of this new race examined and 
two of C. I. leptorhyncha from the Middle Zambesi river and six of C. I. 
macrorhynchus from the Luapula river. Also two of C. gracilirostris 
near to cunenensis (Hartert) from the Upper Zambesi at Balovale, Northern 
Rhodesia. Measurements for comparative purposes have been taken 
from the literature as well as from these specimens. 

2. The distribution of Bradypterus babsecala msiri Neave. 

I have recently been able to examine a series of this bird collected 
by K. Muzeya, my collector at the Kabompo pontoon and Manyinga 
river in the Balovale district of Northern Rhodesia and on the Manyinga 
river in the Macondo district of Angola. I have also examined two 
specimens collected by E. L. Button at the Itawa swamp, Ndola. All 
these birds agree well with birds from the Luapula river opposite Kasenga. 
Wing of twelve specimens 57-63 mm. 

3. The distribution of Apalis pearsoni (Neave). 

Mr. E. L. Button recently collected two specimens of this species at 
the Misengo stream in the Ndola district. This locality is a small 
tributary of the Kafue close to the Belgian Congo border at Kipushi. 
I have compared these specimens with Cisticola fulvicapilla muelleri 
Alexander, C. f. dispar Sousa, and C. angusticauda Reichenow. They are 
easily distinguished by the long black tail and the much lighter and greyer 
back, and agree well with Neave's figure in Ibis, 1910, pi. 2. They are 
the first record from Northern Rhodesia and represent an extension of 
the known range. 

4. On the status of Eremomela griseofiava lundse Grant & Praed. 

This race was described in Bull. B. O. C. lxi. 1941, p. 62, from Missao- 
de Luz, north of Villa Luz, Angola, as similar to E. g. polioxantha Sharpe,. 
but differing in having the mantle and rump olive -green. In this it 
resembles E. g. salvadorii Reichenow, described from Leopoldville, and 
lit is not clear how the latter differs from E g. lundse. I have compared 

Vol. 68 36 1947-48 

birds from Luluabourg with specimens from the Upper Zambesi at 
Balovale, and find them practically identical, the only difference being 
that the olive back is perhaps a little brighter and the abdomen slightly 
richer yellow in the birds from Luluabourg. This difference is exceedingly 
slight, and as E. g. polioxantha occurs only 80 miles away to the east 
at the Chikonkwelo stream probably no more than the effect of inter- 
gradation. I would unite E. g. lundse with E. g. salvadorii. Birds from 
Mwinilunga are better referred to E. g. polioxantha. Since then I have 
compared my series with the type of E. g. lundse, and find them identical. 
Captain C. H. B. Grant who looked at them with me concurs in this. 

5. Colius striatus lungse, new race. 

Description. — Differs from Colius striatus congicus Reichenow of the 
Inner Congo basin in having the iris with the upper half yellow and lower 
half brown, instead of a greenish iris ; underside darker, especially the 
breast and sides which have a vinous tinge ; wing longer, 95-105 mm. 
against 92-97 mm. 

Distribution. — The Mwinilunga district of Northern Rhodesia to the 

Type. — In my collection. Female adult, Mwinilunga, Northern 
Rhodesia, on May 22, 1939, by C. M. N. White. 

Notes on Eastern African Birds. 

Captain C. H. B. Grant and Mr. C. W. Mackworth-Praed sent the 
following five notes : — 

(1) On Pycnonotus annectans Roberts. 

In the Bull. B.O.C. 66, 1946, p. 46, we stated that this Bulbul had 
been taken by Winterbottom at Livingstone. We have re-examined the 
specimens and find that none of them are P. annectans, but all are 
Pycnonotus xanthopygos layardi Gurney. 

This agrees with White's distribution as given in the Ibis, 1945, 
p. 574. 

(2) On the type-locality of Laniarius ferrugineus sublacteus Cassin, 

Proc. Acad. Sci. Philad. 1851 , p. 246. 
Cassin gives only " East Africa ", and Dr. Chapin advises us in a letter, 
dated September 18, 1947, that the particulars on the label of the type 
give no indication of a more exact locality. We therefore propose to 
fix the type-locality of Laniarius ferrugineus sublacteus Cassin, as Lamu, 
eastern Kenya Colony. 

1947-48 37 Vol. 68 

(3) On the status of Coliuspasser macrocercus soror (Reichenow), J. f. O. 

1887, p. 70 : Kawanga, Kavirondo, western Kenya Colony. 

Reichenow's principal characters are smaller size, wing 80 mm., and 
light yellow wing shoulder. The British Museum series from Abyssinia 
shows a wing-measurement of males 81-95 and females 73-77 mm., the 
measurements of 81 mm. being found as far north as 40 miles south of 
Lake Tana. 

We are also unable to see that the colour of the wing shoulder holds 
good. We therefore place Coliuspasser macrocercus soror (Reichenow) 
as a synonym of Coliuspasser macrocercus Lichtenstein. 

(4) On the type-locality of Poliospiza burtoni tanganyicre (Granvik), 

J.f. O. (Sond.), p. 191, 1923:— 

The author gives only " from Tanganyika ", and in a letter dated 
Octoner 5, 1947, he states that there was no other locality on the labels 
of the six specimens he examined in the Berlin Museum. As the distri- 
bution of this race is from north-eastern Belgian Congo to western Uganda 
and the Lake Kivu area, we propose to fix the type-locality of Poliospiza 
burtoni tanganyicw (Granvik) as north end of Lake Tanganyika, eastern 
Belgian Congo. 

This race, so far as we know, is not found in either the Tanganyika 
Province of the eastern Belgian Congo nor in Tanganyika Territory. * 

(5) On the status of Serinus flavivertex elgonensis Granvik, Rev. Zool. 

Afr. et Bot. 1934, p. 182 : Mt. Elgon, Kenya Colony. 
As we find that all the characters given for this race are to be seen in 
specimens from Abyssinia to Tanganyika Territory, we place Serinus 
flavivertex elgonensis Granvik, as a synonym of Serinus flavivertex flavivertex 


The next Meeting of the Club will be held at the Rembrandt Hotel, 
South Kensington, S.W. 7, on Wednesday, November 19, 1947. Dinner 
at 6.30 p.m. 





Volume 68. 
AN) No. 2. 

The four-hundred-and-seventy-first Meeting of the Club was held at 
the Rembrandt Hotel, Thurloe Place, S.W. 7, on Wednesday, 19 November, 
1947, with dinner at 6.30 p.m. 

Chairman : Dr. J. M. Harrison. 

Members present : — Miss C. M. Acland ; F. J. F. Barrington ; 
Mrs. G. M. Chadwyck-Healey ; W. E. Glegg ; Miss C. E. Godma^n ; 
Miss E. M. Godman (Vice-Chairman) ; Capt. C. H. B. Grant (Editor 
and Acting Hon. Secretary) ; Dr. J. G. Harrison ; P. A. D. Hollom ; 
Miss E. P. Leach (Hon. Treasurer) ; Miss C. Longfield ; Dr. G. 
Carmichael Low ; Dr. P. R. Lowe ; G. M. Mathews ; E. M. Nicholson; 
E. R. Parrinder ; Lt.-Col. W. A. Payn ; C. W. Mackworth-Praed ; 
Major G. H. R. Pye-Smith ; Lieut. R. A. H. Reynolds ; Miss G. M. 
Rhodes; Lt.-Cmdr. C. P. Staples; Lt.-Col. W. P. C. Tenison (Vice- 
Chairman) ; B. W. Tucker ; C. N. Walter ; Col. O. Wynne. 

Guest of the Club : — Lieut. W. Rydicwz. 

Guests : — Count Bobinskey ; Mrs. P. R. Lowe ; Mrs. C. W. Mackworth- 
Praed ; Mr. D. C. H. M c Lean ; Miss Meade-Waldo; Dr. W. A. Richards ; 
Miss R. E. A. Shuter. 

Members, 27 ; Guests of the Club, 1 ; Guests, 7 ; Total, 35. 
Published 12 January, 1948. a Price 2/6. 

Vol. 68 40 1947^8 

Colour change without moult as seen in the spring 
plumage of certain wading birds. 

Dr. J. G. Harrison gave the following talk and showed specimens : — 


I am afraid that we are about to discuss tonight a question that has 
been much debated and argued about in the past, and one which many 
of you here tonight must have imagined was safely laid to rest many 
years ago. It is the question of colour change in feathers without moult. 
Those of you who were at the last meeting of the Club in October will 
remember that the question came up then after Col. Meinertzhagen had 
read his interesting paper. This caused me considerable surprise, as 
I had been quietly working on this problem for about a year, and had 
intended reading a paper on the subject at some future date. In the heat 
of the argument, I foolishly said that I would do it next time, and now 
thanks to my rashness, here I am. 

I have been quite convinced in my own mind that the phenomenon 
of colour change in a feather can occur without a moult, and that this 
can be seen in certain species of wading bird. I do not propose to deal 
with any other group of birds, as I have not studied them and know 
nothing about them, but workers in the past have named many different 
species in which they claim to have seen this happening. I may as well 
state now, that my findings are that certain species of wader change 
into spring plumage by a combination of change of colour in the fully 
formed and apparently " dead " feather, and by moulting. 

Firstly, I think it might interest you if I give a brief summary of the 
heated battle that raged from about 1830 until 1913, when a very firm 
stand by Mr. Witherby finally put an end to it, and it was decided that 
feathers could not change colour except by moult. 


In 1792, Captain Cartwright said this of the change of plumage in 
Ptarmigan as observed by him in Labrador — " in the fall, they get a 
large addition of white feathers, and the coloured feathers at the same 
time turn white." This was the earliest record that I can find, and it 
was not until 1833 that the next important paper appeared. This was 
an article by Hunt, who was a keeper at the London Zoo. He kept a 
daily watch on a Black-tailed Godwit and a Ruff in the aviary at the Zoo. 
In the Godwit, first signs of a change into spring plumage was noted 
as early as February 24, the change being absolutely a change of colour, 
not ^produced by moulting. With the Ruff he stated that the head and 

1947-48 41 Vol. 68 

neck acquire a new spring plumage by moulting, while the feathers of 
the body were not thrown off. These were the notes which were regarded 
by the American, Allen, in 1896 as valueless, because the birds were 
apparently not handled. He ignored the absence of any moulted feathers 
in the cage — and anyone who has kept birds will know that there is no 
doubt when a bird is in moult. 

In 1890, Gatke published his book on the birds of Heligoland, and 
a whole section of this most interesting book is devoted to our subject. 
In parts of the book we know that his enthusiasm rather carried him 
away, and I think that it is in this light that people have tended to 
consider his chapter on colour change. He states that very striking 
changes in colour occur without moult, and without such alteration 
being brought about by any changes in texture (i. e. Linnet). Gatke 
was a great collector of birds, and he makes a point of stating that he 
based his observations on fresh examples, in which by examination of 
the inner cutaneous surface, it was possible to determine whether moulting 
actually took place or not. He quotes such examples as the Gulls, 
Auks, Pied and White Wagtails, and the Wading birds. I can fully 
confirm his findings on the last group, and I would like to point out that 
he was not carried away by his theory, and he realised that some moult 
occurred as well, such as the breasts of the Dunlin, Grey and Golden Plovers. 

It was Gatke that really started the great controversy going, and in 
1896-7 three ornithologists from America, Chapman, Wilmer Stone and 
Allen went into print and denounced Gatke 's theory as being quite 
impossible. Both Chapman and Stone examined a long series of Sander- 
ling and Dunlin in the American Museum of Natural History and both 
independently found that spring plumage was acquired by a moult, 
because they found feathers in quill in many of the spring specimens. 
Mr. Allen's line of attack was the well-known one that a feather once 
completed is dead and retains no further power of transmitting colour 
through the quill from the epidermis. 

Back in England in 1896, Millais lost no time in taking up the pen in 
support of Gatke, and he wrote in ' The Ibis ' of that year — " Mr Allen 
seriously impugns the accuracy of statements made by many naturalists 
of repute. In so doing, he is rather dogmatic and brings no proof to 
back up his statement that the feather after being once complete, becomes 
exhausted and falls like a leaf from a tree. He then says that a wading 
bird assumes its summer dress by means of a recoloration of the feathers, 
in which both altered forms and colours take place. A few feathers 
are however cast on the head and neck and breast, which are replaced 
by new summer ones." 

Vol. 68 42 1947-48 

Mr. Millais goes on to give his findings on the Sanderling, and he 
published in ' The Ibis ' a coloured plate of a painting showing mantle 
feathers of this species throughout the year which appear to demonstrate 
quite plainly that the feathers change colour without moulting. It was 
a pity that he did not publish a photograph instead, as the adult " dead " 
quills would have been obvious, and so rule out any question of a moult. 

In 1910, Dr. Bahr, now Sir Philip Manson-Bahr, wrote in ' British 
Birds ' on the supposed colour change and the spring moult of the 
Black-headed Gull. He was able to prove conclusively that the Black- 
headed Gull assumes its hood by a moult ; to do this he was able to watch 
a tame one. 

The general trend of the argument was now very definitely against 
any change of colour without moult. Mr. Millais gave some further 
examples in his ' British Diving Ducks,' and this called forth a long article 
on the subject from Mr. Wither by in his review of the book in ' British 
Birds.' He summarised the work up to that time, 1913, and came to 
the conclusion that there was no change of colour except by moult. 
He did this in so firm a manner that there was very little discussion 
after this. Mr. Wither by wrote as follows : — 

" Mr. Millais, as is well known, has for some years been one of the chief 
exponents of the theory of colour change in the full-grown feather. 
That the colour of the feather can change by the loss of certain portions 
and by disintegration in the cortex everyone admits, but Mr. Millais 
argues that changes in colour occur which can only be brought about by 
actual repigmentation or rearrangement of the pigment. In this volume 
he does not bring forward many instances of this, but we notice that 
he claims a colour change in the flanks of the immature drake Scaup, 
apparently in the undertail coverts of the adult drake Tufted Duck 
and in the cheeks and lores of the adult drake Long- tailed Duck. In 
his opening chapter, however, he invites criticism on the subject and cites 
as a clear case the scapulars of the adult drake Wigeon. 

We have examined eleven specimens of adult drake Wigeon moulting 
from eclipse to winter plumage, and in these all the feathers which were 
growing or had quill sheaths attached to them were normal winter 
feathers, and we were unable to find a single new feather as described 
by Mr. Millais. In most eclipse specimens, however, some of the scapulars 
are partially barred, and these in our opinion are so when newly grown, 
and remain until shed. How does Mr. Millais prove that the feathers 
which he describes as growing in the autumn with partial eclipse colouring 
are not moulted again ? It seems to us that such feathers might occur 
in individuals in which part of the pigment developed was of the same 
nature as that producing the previous plumage. 

1947-48 43 Vol. 68 

Some years ago in an article entitled " On the change of birds to spring 
plumage without a moult " (Ibis, 1896), Mr. Millais instanced the 
Sanderling as a bird which changed "by a complete recolouration of 
the feathers in new form throughout the whole plumage, only a few 
being moulted and replaced by new summer ones." In this bird, 
Mr. Millais says there is no moult in April, May and June, and he gives 
illustrations of feathers taken from different individuals in those months 
to prove that they change colour. We happen to have examined a 
good series of spring Sanderling, and can assure Mr. Millais that he is 
entirely wrong in assuming that they have no moult ; on the contrary, 
the spring moult, for a spring moult, is a fairly complete one. In this 
case certainly, and possibly in others, Mr. Millais has misinterpreted the 
evidence and appears to have overlooked the following facts which apply 
not only to the Sanderling but to many other birds which undergo a 
spring moult : — 

1. The moult is gradual. 

2. Different individuals moult at different times. 

3. Individuals vary in the extent to which old feathers are cast and new 
ones acquired, as well as in the intensity of coloration, and markings. 

4. The feathers themselves in the same region of the body vary greatly 
and it is therefore impossible to prove colour change by comparing 
individual feathers. 

Mr. Millais states in the work under review that Mr. Py craft has 
microscopically examined feathers and is unable to find ' any chanuels 
by which colour or life can be passed up the quill and rami,' but, adds 
Mr. Millais, he has admitted that his microscope was not a very powerful 

Mr. Millais is evidently unaware of the very careful and prolonged 
investigation on ' The Development of Colour in the Definite Feather ' 
undertaken by Mr. R. M. Strong at the Museum of Comparative Zoology 
at Harvard University, U.S.A. under the direction of Professor 
E. L. Mark. 

In our judgment this investigation disposes of the possibility of 
repigmentation or redistribution of pigment in a feather. Mr. Strong's 
paper is long and highly technical, but we may with advantage quote 
the following conclusions from the section devoted to change of colour 
without moult, more especially as many ornithologists in Britain appear 
to be ignorant of Mr. Strong's investigations. 

Vol. 68 44 1947-48 

The arguments against change of colour without moult through 
repigmentation or regeneration of pigment may be summed up as follows— 

1. Most feather pigments are too resistant to chemical reagent to 
warrant belief in their solution and redistribution. 

2. Pigmentation of the feather has been observed to take place only 
in the younger stages of the feather germ. 

3. At the end of corniflcation melanin granules have a definite 
arrangement which is permanent. 

4. When corniflcation has ensued, the various elements of the feather 
are hard, more or less solid structures, and their pigment contents 
effectively isolated from one another. 

5. There is no satisfactory evidence of the occurrence of repigmentation, 
and all the histological conditions render such an event highly 

This review by Mr. Witherby brought the controversy to a close, 
except for one last upholder of the theory, Abel Chapman, who had 
something to say on the subject in his ' Borders and Beyond,' published 
in 1924. He believed that the phenomenon could be seen in various 
species of duck, and had this to say on Curlew : — 

" In April, when nuptial influences prevail, their whole plumage takes 
on a rich warm rufous cast, as it were a ' breeding dress '. The effect 
arises, however, not from a moult, but by a suffusion of warmer colour 
into the living feather — thus the brighter hues then attained go to adorn 
feathers already worn and ragged. 

" So ruddy do the adult Curlews on the coast become in May, that on 
occasion both my puntsman and myself have half mistaken them for 
red Godwits. This rufous colour, which even suffuses the tail feathers, 
is, however very evanescent, vanishing almost completely in a preserved 


That is, very briefly, the way the argument ran, but since 1924 little 
more has been heard of it. 

I first became interested in the subject about two years ago, when 
I was looking through the collection of wading birds in my father's 
collection and found there some very interesting Knots, which were 
collected in February in Lincolnshire. I have them here for you to see 
tonight. I was convinced by these specimens that colour change could 

1947-48 45 Vol. 6$ 

occur without a moult, and it was only after I had decided to go into the 
matter more carefully that I learnt what a heated controversy the 
subject had caused in the past. 

Before going any further I must state that my findings lead me to 
believe that both sides of the argument are correct and that a wader 
both moults and changes colour to assume its full breeding plumage. 
It seems to me that in the past too much work was done on specimens 
in April, May and June, when a great deal of actual moulting is taking 
place, whereas it is in January, February and March that the colour 
changes are best seen, when they are not obscured by other changes. 
Those who have argued against colour change appear to me to have 
ignored the early changes, and have examined birds in the later months 
when moult is occurring, and to have been misled by this. 

Another factor that has misled people is that the supporters of the 
theory have not attempted to produce actual feathers to prove their 
points. Millais and Chapman relied on illustrating theirs, and Gatke 
did nothing except write about them. 

It is not my aim tonight to discuss the mechanism of this colour change 
without moult, but it is to try to convince you that it does actually 
occur. I shall, however, just touch briefly on the mechanism before 
I end. 

For the demonstration tonight, I shall confine myself to three species 
of wader, the Knot, Redshank and Black-tailed Godwit. In these three 
species I have been able to find enough examples to illustrate all the 
points that I wish to show to you tonight. 

A newly moulted feather can be recognized, as doubtless you all 
know, by the fact that there is still blood in the base of the quill, which 
gives it a blue-black appearance. Pigment is carried to the newly 
growing feather by means of the blood. In the fully formed and 
apparently dead feather, there is no blood in the base of the feather 
and the quill appears empty and white or transparent. In some of the 
feathers that I have here tonight, there is a little brown staining on the 
base of the quill, but this is on the outside, and is where the feather was 
attached to the dried skin 

Another important sign of age in a feather is the presence or absence 
of wear. The more worn a feather, the older it is. 

The Knot. 

The first changes into spring occur in some examples as early as 
January. The change commences in the grey mantle feathers of the 
winter plumage. The black pigment appears first along the central 

Vol. 68 46 1947-48 

shaft, and gradually spreads out laterally to form a diamond-shaped 
area of black. Further black markings appear laterally and spread 
inwards. I have four examples of such feathers as well as some of the 
specimens from which they came, and in these feathers I would like you 
to note that they all have empty adult quill bases, i.e. they are not 
new feathers. 

Thus, about March, the Knot has feathers which have as a ground- 
colour the grey of winter, with the basic black of summer superimposed. 
Such feathers officially do not exist ! 

The next step in the Knot must be the deposition of the chesnut 
pigment, such as you see in the May examples. Unfortunately, in the 
series of Knots at Sevenoaks we have none at the right time to show 
this occurring, but reference to the Black-tailed Godwit feathers on 
demonstration will show this, and I can see no reason why the Knot 
should differ. 

In any case, supposing for the sake of argument that the grey-and-black 
mantle feathers of the March Knot were assumed by a moult. How are 
they to have their chestnut-and-black markings in a further month ? 
If they do not change colour, then they must moult, and this would 
mean that the Knot moults twice in two months, a most unlikely state 
of affairs and one which goes against the evidence of our own eyes. 

With regard to their breasts — the examples here tonight look super- 
ficially as if they are gradually becoming suffused with pink, but a careful 
examination has convinced me that this is not so, and that the breast 
looks pale in March because a few newly moulted chestnut feathers are 
tucked away among a lot of white ones. 

The Black-tailed Godwit. 

My series of feathers from this bird is better than the Knot. Change 
occurs in the same way as in the Knot, with black forming along the central 
shaft first, and spreading laterally, and then further black starts at the 
periphery and works inwards. The same is seen in the developing 
chestnut which occurs first at the periphery. These feathers all have 
empty quill bases, and in the almost complete ones look like an anaemic 
example of the proper spring feather. Some of them have worn tips 
already, which proves that they cannot be new feathers. Several of 
these feathers have winter coloured tips, where they have not changed 
colour yet. 

The Black-tailed Godwit appears to show a peculiar state of affairs, 
which I have not been able to see in other waders. There appears to 
be a relation between the amount of moult that occurs and the age of 

1947-48 47 Vol. 68 

the bird. The older the bird, the more it moults into spring plumage. 
The rather pale spring plumaged birds are the young ones, and these 
have a different type of spring plumage to the far brighter older birds 
— a fact which you will best appreciate if you look at the two examples 
I have here tonight. 

The Redshank. 

My series of Redshank feathers are pretty well complete and show 
all the stages of transition into spring plumage. This species tends 
to differ from the other two in that the pigment appears first on the 
periphery of the feather and develops inwards to form the bars. 
Some time after the dark bars have developed, light pigment then forms 
in between the dark bars. 

This is all that I wish to say about these three species tonight. I have 
not explained in detail the complete moult of any of these species. That 
is not my intention. I feel that I should make a few remarks before 
I end about the mechanism of colour change without moult. I do not 
know how it happens ; no one knows how it happens, but I hope that 
some of you at any rate think that it does happen, now that you have 
seen my exhibits. I have not stated anything new tonight, but what 
I have done is to try to bring to you the evidence, which the older ornitho- 
logists were unable or did not do. 

There is nothing unscientific in accepting the phenomenon even though 
the mechanism is unknown. No one doubted the action of penicillin, 
although it was not until a few months ago that its exact method of 
dealing with bacteria was discovered by the biochemists. 

I think that everyone will accept the fact that no pigment can get 
into the feather from the skin or blood stream once the quill base has 
dried up. Therefore this colour change must occur in the feather itself. 
This was the fact that finally brought the theory into disrepute before. 
However, I do not think that this is so impossible as some would appear 
to think it. In the last issue of ' British Birds,' November 1947, there 
is an article by the curators of the York Museum on " Cabinet Changes 
of Bird Skins " — or " foxing " as it has been called. These authors 
found that various colour changes occur in certain species of bird skin 
when they are kept in cabinets over a number of years. For instance, 
the blue-green reflections of the Hooded Crow and the Chough turn to 
purple, as does the Carrion Crow. Various other changes have been 
observed in other widely differing species. This in itself is sufficient 
evidence to refute the statement quoted by Mr. Witherby that the 
feather pigments are too resistant to chemical reagents to warrant belief 
in their solution and redistribution. Birds in cabinets cannot moult, 


Vol. 08 48 1947-48 

This tact seems to me to suggest very strongly that a feather is not 
really an inert structure, such has been previously believed, but is capable 
of undergoing various changes. What these changes are has yet to be 
discovered. I expect that they will be found to be some complicated 
biochemical change in the pigment, which alters to a different colour. 
It will be an interesting research for some keen biochemist of the future. 
For the present, however, I shall be satisfied if I can convince you that 
the change does occur. If this is so, then it means that our entire 
knowledge of moulting will have to be revised, in order to see what 
species change colour, and when. 

Mr. B. W. Tucker then spoke. The gist of his observations was as 
follows : — 

I have listened with interest to what Mr. Harrison has told us. He 
has presented his case in a most objective and judicial way, even to the 
extent of quoting verbatim one of the most cogent summaries of the 
evidence against it that has been written. Mr. Wither by 's comments 
in his review of Millais's ' Natural History of the Diving Ducks ' really 
leave remarkably little that I can add, but there are some points which 
will bear stressing. 

In the first place, as Mr. Harrison frankly admits, there is nothing 
really new in what he has told us. Some details with regard to particular 
feather types of the waders have no doubt not been recorded before, 
but the evidence is of identically the same kind as can be found put 
out at length and carefully illustrated in Millais's book on the Surface - 
feeding Ducks — evidence which has nevertheless been rejected by every 
qualified worker who has studied the plumage changes of the ducks 

Mr. Harrison has said that we should not refuse to believe in an 
occurrence because we do not understand how it is brought about. 
Obviously no scientist would dispute this, provided the evidence for the 
occurrence is good ; there are innumerable natural processes which we 
cannot, or cannot fully, explain. But when the structure and develop- 
ment of an organ or part of the body have been exhaustively elucidated 
by skilled investigators and when a change which is alleged to occur in 
it is flatly contradictory of the firmly- established results of these 
researches, then naturally the evidence in support of the alleged occurrence 
must be examined particularly critically. This is exactly the position 
here ; the mode of development of feathers is very well known, and 
although I would not be so dogmatic as to assert that a change in the 
pigmentation of the fully-formed feather is impossible, there can be no 

J 947-48 4® Vol.68 

question that is is excessively improbable ; indeed, it would not be too 
much to say that all workers who have studied the development of 
feathers are in agreement in rejecting such an idea, and that no reasonable 
suggestion as to how such changes could conceivably occur, having 
regard to the way in which a feather is formed, has ever been put forward. 

It has been repeatedly pointed out in discussions on this subject, 
and it cannot be too strongly stressed, that a feather, once formed, is 
a dead — or if you prefer it, since it is part of a living organism — a non- 
living structure, in which the originally living material has been completely 
and solidly cornified, that is converted into a horny substance. The pig- 
ment is disposited in the living cells before cornification takes place 
and becomes enclosed in the cornified substance. There is no channel 
or other means by which new pigment could get into the substance of 
the feather or what is there get out or shift its j3osition. This only leaves 
the possibility of a transformation in situ, but this would not accouut 
for the sort of changes which are supposed to take place. Mr. Harrison 
has alluded to the changes of colour which may occur in cabinet skins, 
but these are in no way comparable ; they are trifling changes of the 
nature of fading or bleaching or of some slow chemical change such as, 
perhaps, oxidation of the pigment, whereas I think it is quite safe to 
say that the kind of changes now suggested, involving the development of 
black bars and other striking transformations, could only be produced 
by an entirely new deposition of pigment. 

A further point on which some misapprehension seems to prevail 
concerns the possible bearing on the subject of discussion of the question 
whether the vascular pulp has or has not been withdrawn from the quill 
of a particular feather. In a recently formed feather, as we have been 
reminded, this vascular pulp still extends into the base of the hollow 
quill (though subsequently it shrinks back completely), and it seems 
to be suggested that so long as it peisists it would at least be easier to 
imagine a passing of new pigment into the feather than when it has 
withdrawn. But this is emphatically not so. The presence or absence 
of this vascular filling in the base of the quill is useful as indicating that 
a feather possessing it is recently formed, but except for this point it 
has absolutely no relevance in the present discussion. The structure of 
the feather before and after the withdrawal of the pulp is precisely the 
same, for the feather forms from the tip downwards and the whole of 
the vane or coloured part with its shaft or rachis (which is solid from 
the outset) are fully formed and cornified before the hollow quill appears. 

Having regard to these considerations it is certainly not unreasonable 
to ask that any ornithologists seriously advocating the resuscitation of 

Vol. 68 50 1947-48 

the theory of colour change without moult should either carefully study 
the known facts about the minute structure and development of feathers 
and show in what way the universal opinion of everyone who has studied 
these things at first hand, that such changes are precluded by the structure 
of the feather, is, or might be, at fault, or else marshal the evidence 
that they do occur (and that the appearances cannot be accounted for 
in terms of what I may call the orthodox view of plumage changes) 
in a really unequivocal manner. Certainly this has never yet been done. 
All the evidence we have seen tonight, and all the rest of the same kind 
that others have brought forward in the past, is open to the inescapable 
drawback that it consists entirely of different individual feathers from 
different individual dead birds ; there is no proof whatever — or even, 
I would say, very good prima facie evidence — that the colour or pattern 
of any given feather has ever been different from what we now see. 
Too little allowance seems to me to be made for individual variations 
and possibly for others which may depend on age, sex, physical condition 
and other factors. It is at least certain that considerable variations 
do occur in the timing of the moult, since it is possible to see waders in 
practically full summer and practically full winter plumage on the same 
day. No doubt in some individuals some feathers of the new plumage 
may begin to come in much earlier than others, and there seems no 
reason why such precociously formed feathers should not be quite 
appreciably abraded (like one we have seen tonight) before the main 
moult sets in. We are told that this would mean that feathers of the 
spring type would have to have been formed at an earlier date than in 
fact they are ever seen to be, but this is not a convincing line of argument. 
Mr. Harrison agrees that there are no precise observations to show what 
is the minimum time in which a given type of feather may reach a given 
degree of abrasion ; nor have we any detailed particulars as to the range 
of dates at which the first feathers of the spring pattern may appear, 
the proportion of individuals in which the appearances he describes 
occur, or other equally relevant points. The whole of the evidence is 
entirely circumstantial and unprecise, and it is difficult to see how evidence 
based on skins can be otherwise, except possibly after the most exhaustive 
study of a very large material. 

In fact supposing — contrary to my own conviction — that such changes 
do occur, it is clear that the only way to demonstrate them beyond any 
possible doubt is to keep birds in confinement and to provide proof 
of the transformation by regular periodical examination and photo- 
graphing of the same feathers, which have been unmistakably marked 
so that there can be no question of their individual identity. If the 

1947-48 51 Vol. 68 

universal rejection for many years past of the theory which Mr. Harrison 
wishes to revive is really unsound, then it is open to its supporters to 
settle the matter quite conclusively by direct proof in this way. 

I think Mr. Harrison has been very courageous in taking up the 
advocacy of a generally discarded theory which his own observations 
have convinced him deserves reconsideration, but it is fair to insist that 
what we have heard and seen tonight go no further towards establishing 
it than did the arguments of earlier advocates, and I am quite certain 
that the only really conclusive method of carrying the matter any further 
is the one I have just mentioned. 

In subsequent discussion Mr. Tucker pointed out that feathers showing 
the winter pattern in the terminal part and the summer one towards 
the base not only do not support the theory of colour change without 
moult, but are very well understood, changes of this kind having been 
the subject of much experimental study. The pigmentation of feathers 
is largely controlled by hormones, chemical substances secreted by the 
reproductive and other organs and circulating in the blood. The colour 
and pattern of a given feather are dependent (subject to certain qualifica- 
tions which need not be elaborated now) on the hormonic set-up at the 
time of its formation. If the hormonic content of the blood changes 
from what may be called the winter plumage condition to the summer 
plumage one while a feather is actually being formed, then, since the 
process of formation of a feather proceeds, as already noted, from tip to 
base, the terminal part of the feather will show the winter colour and 
pattern and the base the summer ones. Changes of this kind have 
been chiefly studied in relation to the sex hormones in birds in which the 
female plumage is determined by the hormone liberated by the Ovary 
or to that of the thyroid gland, which also influences pigmentation. 
In such cases a change from, for example, the male pattern in the terminal 
part to the female pattern in the basal part of a feather can be induced 
by appropriately timed artificial administration of hormone. It cannot 
be doubted that the situation is essentially similar in regard to seasonal 
plumage differences. It might be added that in all the great body of 
experimental work on the lines just mentioned in artificially manipulating 
feather colours and patterns no case has ever been found of colour or pattern 
already laid down being altered. 

Dr. J. M. Harrison made the following remarks : — 

As a small contribution to this interesting discussion I am showing 
you an example of an Icelandic Redshank, which I collected on January 22 
of this year in north Kent. As you will see, it is already assuming some 

Vol. 68 52 1947-48 

spring plumage. Knowing that the subject under discussion to night was 
occupying my son's close attention, you may well realise that I took 
particular pains to inspect the inner cutaneous surface very carefully 
when I prepared the specimen. I can assure you very positively that 
this showed absolutely no sign of any new feathers growing, that is to say 
the bird was not in moult, although as you can see from its plumage 
it is acquiring its spring dress. However, in order that you may examine 
and confirm this fact for yourselves I have opened the skin and have 
removed the filling, in order to expose the feather tracts, which you will 
see are beset with the quills of old feathers. 

From this observation it would seem impossible to avoid the conclusion 
that a feather can assume a colour change without a moult. 

Dr. G. Carmichael-Low, Mr. C. W. Mackworth-Praed, Lt.-Col. 
W. P. C. Tenison and Lt.-Cmdr. C. P. Staples also took part in the 

A new race of Stone Curlew from Morocco. 

Col. R. Meinertzhagen sent the following description : — 


Description. — Whole upper parts suffused reddish, much redder, not 
so grey as British specimens ; breast also considerably redder than any 
British specimens. 

Distribution. — So far only known from western Morocco. 

Type. — In the Meinertzhagen collection. Male adult, Tiznit, south- 
western Morocco. 6 November, 1938. 

Measurements of type. — Wing 242 ; culmen from base 40 mm. 

Remarks. — The general tendency to reddish coloration in all races 
from Morocco is reflected in the Stone Curlew. Three from a party of 
several dozen were collected and all agree with the type. I hesitated 
describing this race, thinking they might be migrants from somewhere, 
but having examined the whole series in the Berlin, Leyden and British 
Museums together with many in my own collection, I can find nothing 
approaching the red coloration. 

From B. o. saharae (Reichenow), which is a pale grey race, they are 
naturally ever so much redder. Charadrius cedicnemus was described 
by Linnaeus from England — " Habitat in Anglia." As neotype I make 
an adult female in my collection, obtained at Dunwich, Suffolk on 
29 August, 1935. 

1947-48 53 Vol J 68 

The western European races of Acanthis flavirostris 


Col. R. Meinertzhagen and Mr. P. A. Clancey sent the following 
note : — 

I have before me : 

Three from Peak District, Derbyshire. 
Sixteen from North and South Uist. 
Four from Mull, West Scotland. 
Two from Sutherlandshire. 
Two from Lancashire. 
Two from Upsala, Sweden. 
Four from Bremen. 
Four from West Ireland. 
Scandinavian and German birds are usually not so dark above as 
Scottish and North of England birds though individuals agree perfectly : 
in series the difference is noticeable at a glance. I therefore recognize 
the British Twite as Acanthis flavirostris pipilans (Latham) : Peak 
District, Derbyshire. 

Outer Hebridean birds, A. f. bensonorum Meinertzhagen, South Uist, 
do not differ from topotypical A. /. pipilans nor from Scottish mainland 
birds, though here again individuals can be picked out which exactly 
match Swedish specimens. 

The four west Ireland birds agree best with A. f. flavirostris though 
they tend to be even greyer and slightly smaller. They were obtained 
in mid- October in the extreme west of Co. Kerry and it is most unlikely 
that they are migrants from the Continent. Before deciding their 
status I should like to see a larger series. 

The draft was submitted to Mr. Clancey, who adds the following 
comment : — 

I am indebted to Col. Meinertzhagen for this opportunity to express 
my views on the two named British races of Acanthis flavirostris 

Series of fresh autumn birds collected on the Lancashire moors near 
Burnley in September 1946 and 1947, in addition to specimens from the 
Scottish mainland, have enabled me to assess the diagnostic characters 
of the race Acanthis flavirostris pipilans (Latham), 1787 : The Peak of 
Derbyshire , England . Of A canthis flavirostris bensonorum Meinertzhagen , 
1934 : South Uist, Outer Hebrides, I have examined material collected 
in South Uist (Clancey Coll.) and north Uist (ex-Meinertzhagen 

Vol. 68 54 1947-48 

I am of the opinion that the correct interpretation of the situation 
is that in A. f. pipilans and A.f. bensonorum we are dealing with two quite 
distinct forms and that Meinertzhagen was perfectly right when, in 1934, 
he separated the Outer Hebridean race. In fresh, clean plumage 
A. f. pipilans is altogether more tawny and richer than the Outer 
Hebridean race, A. f. bensonorum, which is colder in tone throughout 
and with blacker striations. These distinctions are also most convincingly 
exhibited by the juveniles of the two races. There is, as already indicated 
by Meinertzhagen (vide supra), a measure of individual variation, but 
it is insufficient to warrant the rejection of A. f. bensonorum. Some 
Outer Hebridean birds certainly come near to Acanthis flavirostris 
flavirostris (Linnaeus), 1758 : Sweden, but this similarity is apparently 
accidental, because an examination of a not inadequate series of juveniles 
reveals no such divergent trend in this important plumage. 

The Report of the B. 0. U. List Committee, ' Ibis,' 1937, p. 400, in 
which A.f. bensonorum is synonymized under A.f. pipilans, is understand- 
able in view of the fact that in the breeding season the two forms are 
hard to differentiate. 

I would define the ranges of the two Acanthis flavirostris races discussed 
above as follows : — 

Acanthis flavirostris pipilans (Latham), 1787 : The Peak of 
Derbyshire, England. 

Northern parts of England, Wales (very rare), Scottish mainland 
(see also under A. f. bensonorum). 

Acanthis flavirostris bensonorum Meinertzhagen, 1934 : South 
Uist, Outer Hebrides. 

Islands of the Outer Hebridean group. Perhaps to most Inner Hebrides 
and parts of western Scotland. 

On the validity and range of the race Anthus 
pratensis whistleri Clancey. 

Mr. P. A. Clancey sent the following note : — 

Meinertzhagen, Bull. B. O. C. 67 (1947), pp. 94-95, discussed the 
question of the validity of Anthus pratensis whistleri Clancey, 1942 : 
Dornoch, Sutherlandshire, North Scotland (vide Bull. B. 0. C. 63 (1942), 
p. 6), on material in the Meinertzhagen collection and the Royal Scottish 
Museum. The type and paratypical series (Clancey collection) were not 

A. p. whistleri was originally considered to be restricted to northern 
Scotland, but a recent examination of over one hundred specimens of 

1947-48 55 Vol. 68 

birds in breeding, fresh autumn, and juvenile plumages from many parts 
of Scotland and England, in conjunction with the paratypical series, 
now shows that the race has a wide distribution in Great Britain and that 
the characters given for A. p. whistleri are perfectly valid. The one 
striking feature of this large series is the uniformity of the racial characters 
exhibited by the various plumages when carefully arranged chrono- 
logically — in strict contrast to Meinertzhagen "s reference (loc. cit. p. 94) 
to great individual variation. It must, however, be admitted that 
specimens from north of the Grampian mountains (topotypical of A. p. 
whistleri) are slightly more tawny above and not so saturated in tone as 
those from further south, but the differences are infinitesimal, and I 
hesitate to introduce a new name for the southern birds at the present 
juncture, preferring to treat the northern Scottish examples as repre- 
sentative of a divergent population of a widely distributed race. 

When compared with topotypical material of Anthus pratensis pratensis 
(Linnaeus), 1758 : Sweden, fresh autumn specimens of A. p. whistleri 
can be separated readily by the darker and browner tone of the upper- 
parts and by the blacker centres to the mantle feathers. The wings 
and tails of A. p. whistleri are also darker. On the under -parts 
A. p. whistleri is close to A. p. pratensis, but the breast spots tend to be 
larger and blacker than in most examples of the nomeno typical form. 
These distinctions are also discernible in the breeding and juvenile 
dresses. The constancy of these criteria is high (95 per cent.), and 
in series A. p. pratensis and A. p. whistleri can be readily separated. 
I cannot, therefore, support Meinertzhagen's dismissal of A. p. whistleri, 
which I consider to be a highly stable and well-differentiated geographical 

The known range of A. p. whistleri can be defined as Scotland (main- 
land) and northern districts of England, certainly as far south as Cheshire 
and south Yorkshire. 

Additional races of A. pratensis are perhaps separable in Ireland, 
Outer Hebrides, Orkney and Shetland. South-western Irish specimens 
in the Meinertzhagen collection are very red on the upper-parts and 
distinguishable in series from both A. p. pratensis and A. p. whistleri, 
and the differences certainly seem to necessitate the introduction of a new 
name for the Irish bird. The Outer Hebridean A. pratensis is most 
confusing. Three breeding specimens taken in South Uist, Outer 
Hebrides, in June 1947, are more earthen brown above than A. p. 
whistleri and look like a new form, but two fresh autumn examples from 
North Uist taken by Meinertzhagen in October 1947, and now in my 
collection, are the same as Swedish specimens. From Orkney and 
Shetland only the most fragmentary and unreliable material is available. 

Vol. 68 56 1 947-48 

The south of England populations are also in need of critical examination 
and analysis in order to determine their relationship and status. 

An Early Oologist ; John Drew Salmon, 1802-1859. 

By William E. Glegg. 

An account of the career of this early oologist is called for as he is 
not mentioned in ' A Bibliography of British Ornithology.' He was 
one of the most prominent oologists of his time. Hewitson (2) supplies 
the earliest indication of Salmon's activities stating that during the spring 
of 1826 his correspondent, Mr. Salmon, whose collection of eggs forms 
so attractive an object in the Norwich Museum, shot a pair of Black- 
winged Stilts (Himantopw h. hiwantopus) at Stoke Ferry, Norfolk. 
Hewitson includes the name of J. D. Salmon among those who were 
specially thanked for their assistance in the preparation of Hewitson's 
well-known oological work. The writings of Alfred Newton demonstrate 
more fully the position gained by Salmon in the oological world. 
Newton (3) wrote " The advantage to Wolley of being thus brought 
into direct and friendly connexion with all the chief collectors of the time, 
Hancock, Pitman, Salmon, Sclater, Tuke and Wilmot — is not to be 
overrated." Salmon's name appears frequently in ' Ootheca Wolleyana,' 
and we notice a tribute by John Wolley under the Bustard to Salmon's 
thoroughness. Salmon contributed notes with some regularity from 
1829 to 1850, firstly in Loudon's Mag. of Nat. Hist, and later in ' The 
Zoologist ' and also in the ' Naturalist ' (N. Wood). The most notable 
among these are " Observations on the Eggs and Birds which were met 
with in a Three Weeks' Sojourn (from 30 May to 21 June, 1831) in the 
Orkney Islands," Loudon, vol. 5, pp. 415-25, and " Notice of the arrival 
of Twenty-nine Migratory Birds in the neighbourhood of Thetford, 
Norfolk, etc.", Loudon, vol. 9, pp. 520-28. He wrote for N. Wood's 
" British Song Birds " 1836. His notes were addressed from Bourne, 
Lincolnshire in 1832, Stoke Ferry and Thetford, Norfolk, from 1834 
to 1837 and Godalming, Surrey, from 1843 to 1849, and from 1853 
he lived in the Strand, London. He assisted Newman with 'The 
Zoologist 5 in its infancy. He was a strong supporter of Norwich Museum, 
of which he was an honorary member. To this museum he presented 
a collection of British Birds' eggs in February 1859, and on his decease 
his brothers gave a duplicate collection containing many rare species. 
This collection forms the nucleus of the general collection of British 
birds' eggs of Norwich Museum. He left also to this museum liis extensive 
herbarium and his ornithological and botanical diaries made between 

1947-48 57 Vol. 68 

1825 and 1837 (0) which are preserved there aud were used by T. Southwell 
for the third volume of ' The Birds of Norfolk. ' I have to thank Miss G. V. 
Barnard, curator, for the foregoing information. The following is an 
obituary from the Linnean Society (4) : — " John Drew Salmon, Esq., 
enjoyed considerable distinction as a British Botanist and Ornithologist. 
He was admitted a Fellow of the Society in the year 1852 and died on 
the 5th August, 1 859, aged 57 . " Salmon's main collection was bequeathed 
to the Linnean Society and at the time of his death contained a Great 
Auk's (Alca impennis) egg, but when the collection came to this society, 
about the end of 1861, it was found that the Great Auk's and other 
important eggs had been taken, a Swan's (Cygnus olor) egg crudely spotted 
and blotched with ink having been substituted. This strange story 
has been told in some detail by Prof. A. Newton (3). Salmon's 
' MS. Catalogue of Eggs,' now in the British Museum (Natural History), 
contains many interesting notes on his early period, although in some 
cases the eggs mentioned are no longer available. He had had at least 
ten eggs of the Kite (Milvus m. milvus) all from Lincolnshire between 
the years 1835 and 1856 and probably all from Bourne Wood in that 
county. He writes of this species as follows :-— " During my residence 
at Bourne, Lincolnshire, I was in the habit of seeing almost daily several 
pairs of this beautiful bird as they soared to a great height in the air 
and in still repeated circles displayed their peculiar and graceful flight," 
etc. He had eggs from a nest of a Raven (Corvus c. corax) from Oxboro, 
Norfolk, in 1829 ? He received eggs from Didlington Hall heronry in 
May 1829 and gives an account of a visit to this heronry on 15 June, 1830. 
This is probably the earliest reference to this heronry. 

A series of eggs from Salmon's main collection has been retained for 
the national collection and some of these are worthy of mention, 
particularly some which have not been previously recorded. Golden 
Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos), one egg, B.M. Reg. No. 1947.2.1, from Hoy, 
Orkney, July 1833. It is a matter of a hundred years since this species 
nested in Orkney. He obtained a clutch of four of the Hen Harrier 
(Circus c. cyaneus) in the High Fen, Northwold, Norfolk, in May 1830. 
One, No. 1947.16.3, of these still remains. Great Bustard (Otis t. tarda), one 
egg, No. 1947.2.3, taken at Massingham Heath, Norfolk, in May 1833 (1). 
The story of this historical egg has been told at some length by John 
Wolley (3) and it was figured in the later editions of Hewitson. One 
egg, No. 1947.16.84, of the Avocet (Recurvirostra avocetta), purchased by 
Salmon in 1834 and said to have been taken at Horsey, Norfolk, where 
it bred in considerable numbers. An egg, No. 1947.2.2, of the Black- 
tailed, Godwit (Lirrtosa I, limosa), which was taken in Norfolk and dated 

Vol. 68 58 1947-48 

June 1833. Stevenson (5) assumed that this species ceased to breed 
in Norfolk between 1829 and 1835. Salmon adds the following extract 
from a letter, dated April 16, 1833, from J. D. Hoy, from whom he received 
an egg of this species : " The black- tailed Godwit breeds in the reedy 
tracts bordering Whittlesea Mere between the village of Holme and 
Ramsey. I obtained the eggs from some marshy ground on the borders 
of the river " ' Tene ? ' abt 10 miles above Yarmouth." Salmon acquired 
the clutch of seven eggs of Baillon's Crake (Porzana pusillus intermedins) 
taken in the Isle of Ely in August 1858 and three, No. 1947.16.94, of these 
eggs are in the national collection. He visited Crowland Wash, Lincoln- 
shire in May 1832 and obtained a large series of the eggs of the Black 
Tern (Chlidonias n. niger) where, he adds, " This bird was breeding in 
abundance." Some of these eggs were figured by Hewitson and five, 
No. 1947.16.100, of them still remain. 


(1) Bidwell, E. (1885). Trans. Nor. and Norwich Nat. Soc. vol. iv, pp. 140-2. 

(2) Hewitson, W. C. (1846). ' Eggs of British Birds,' vol. i, p. xvi ; vol. 2, p. 298. 

(3) Newton, A. (1864-1907). ' Ootheca Wolleyana,' pt. 2, p. xv ; pt. 3, pp. 68, 374. 

(4) Proceedings Linnean Society of London, 1861, vol. v, p. xxix ; 1862, vol. 6, p. liv. 

(5) Stevenson, H. (1870). < The Birds of Norfolk,' vol. 2, p. 249. 

(6) Trans. Nor. and Norwich Nat. Soc, 1877, vol. ii, p. 420. 

Notes on Eastern African Birds. 

Captain C. H. B. Grant and Mr. C. W. Mac worth- Praed sent the 
following ten notes : — 

(1) On the status of Centropus grillii Hartlaub, now Centropus toulou 
grillii and Centropus superciliosus loandse C. Grant. 

Messrs. Sassi and Zimmer in Ann. Nat. Mus. Wien, 1941, p. 272, 
discuss the plumage of a female Centropus from north-eastern Tanganyika 
Territory and come to the surprising conclusion that possibly Centropus 
superciliosus and Centropus grillii are conspecific, because this specimen, 
which they believe to be C. superciliosus loandse has a few black feathers 
here and there. Apparently they are unaware that the non- breeding 
dress of C. grillii is very similar to that of C. superciliosus, and there is 
no doubt in our minds the specimen they discuss is a C. grillii. 

We would point out that C. grillii has a shorter tail and a smaller 
bill than C. superciliosus loandse, though the wing measurements are 
the same, i. e. C. s. loandse, 146-1 76 mm., and C. toulou grillii 143-175 mm f 

1947-48 59 Vol. 68 

(2) On the status of the co-called type of Andropadus oleaginus Peters, 

J. f. 0. 1868, p. 133 : Lorenco Marques, Portuguese East Africa. 

Through the kindness of Dr. Stresemann, of the Berlin Museum, 
we have had on loan this fiype specimen. It has two different identifica- 
tion labels, one, a Museum label inscribed " Andropadus insularis, Hartl. 
1862, $. Andropadus oleaginus Ptrs. 1868, Mith. No. 1, 1846 (Inhambane) 
3801, Lorenco Marques — Peters S." and the other inscribed in original 
handwriting " Krebs, No. 314, ix. L. importunus V. Atura importano 
L. Importan de Veill. probe distinguendat." The writing is bad so the 
above may not be the exact wording. 

We have carefully compared this specimen with the various species 
of Bulbuls, and find that it agrees very well with Andropadus importunus 
noomei Roberts, especially below, though above it is more olivaceous 
brown which may be due to change by exposure in a public gallery as 
a mounted specimen. If it is that race, and it appears that it is, then it 
could not have been collected by Peters, nor perhaps by Krebs, who was 
a farmer at Uitenhage outside the distribution of A. i. noomei. 

The Berlin Museum authorities have attached another label on which 
it is stated that this specimen may have been labelled as the type of 
A. oleaginus by mistake, it being possible that the label had been fixed 
on a specimen of A. importunus collected by Krebs. One thing is quite 
certain that this specimen is not the .type of A. oleaginus Peters, nor 
does it in any case agree with the description given for the underparts, 
i. e. below paler olive-green with faint bars, belly bright yellow, under 
tail- coverts bright yellow, inner webs of first and second tail feathers 
margined with yellow. This description appears to point to a young 
bird of some species of Shrike and does not agree with either the young 
or adult of any known Bulbul. Peters' type specimen appears to have been 
lost. Therefore A. oleaginus Peters must be considered as indeter- 
minate and drops out of nomenclature. 

(3) On the status of Bradypterus salvadorii Neumann, J. f. O. 1900, 

p. 304 : Gurui, Mbulu district, northern Tanganyika Territory. 

Sclater, Syst. Av. ^Ethiop. 2, 1930, p. 509, places this as a synonym 
of Bradypterus cinnamomeus (Ruppell). 

Through the kindness of Dr. Stresemann, of the Berlin Museum, we 
have had the loan of the type and find that on the upper side it agrees 
with a male in the British Museum collection from Kibosho, Mt. Kili- 
manjaro. Brit. Mus. Reg. No. 1933.3.2.62, and on the underside with 
a male from the same locality, Brit. Mus. Reg. No. 1933.3.2.61, both 

Vol. 68 60 1947-48 

of which are Sathrocercus cinnamomeus rufoflavidus Reichenow & Neumann. 
We therefore place Brady pter us salvadorii Neumann, as a synonym of 
Sathrocercus cinnamomeus rufoflavidus Reichenow & Neumann. 

(4) On the status of Passer griseus turhmae Granvik, Rev. Zool. Bot. 

Afr. 25, 1934, p. 150 : Lotonok, Turkana, north-western Kenya 

Colony, and Passer griseus tertale Benson, Bull. B. O. C. 63, 1942, 

p. 17 : Yavello, southern Abyssinia. 

The British Museum has one of Granvik's specimens and the type and 

series collected by Benson, all of which are Passer gongonensis (Oustalet) 

and not Passer griseus. 

We have compared these with the British Museum series of P. gon- 
gonensis and find that they cannot be separated from the nominate 
race. We therefore place both Passer griseus turkanai Granvik and 
Passer griseus tertale Benson as synonyms of Passer gongonensis gon- 
gonensis (Oustalet). 

(5) On the status of Euplectes zavattorii Moltoni, Real. Ace. d'ltalia, 

1943, p. 191 : Gondaraba, southern Abyssinia. 
This species is founded on a single specimen. The coloured plate of 
this bird in two positions clearly shows that it is a melanistic variety 
of Euplectes orix pusilla (Hartert). We therefore place Euplectes 
zavattarii Moltoni as a synonym of Euplectes orix pusilla (Hartert). 

(6) On the type-locality of Hyphantornis castaneigula Cabanis, J. f. O. 

1884, p. 240. 
Cabanis states that the type was obtained from Holub and came from 
the Zambezi (Diamond Fields). This appears to be a similar case to 
that discussed by us under Treron schalowi Reichenow, in Bull. B. O. C. 
57, 1937, p. 74, except that Cabanis definitely gives Zambezi. Holub 
first struck the Zambezi River at Impalera, see map in vol. 1, ' Seven 
Years in South Africa,' 1881. We therefore propose that the exact 
type-locality of Hyphantornis castaneigula Cabanis, be Impalera, north- 
eastern Bechuanaland. 

(7) On the status oi F ring ilia tobaca Vieillot, Enc. Meth. 3, 1823, p. 969 : 


Vieillot on p. 960 quotes Edwards, Ois. pi. 179. This should be 

pi. 129, where Edwards' description and plate, in his Oiseaux, 3, p. 129, 

1745, agrees with Vieillot's description. On p. 970 Vieillot also names 

.a Fringilla angolensis and quotes Edwards' plate 129. This name is 

1947-48 61 Vol. 68 

apparently given to the lower figure on plate 129, but it is pre-occupied 
by Fringilla angolensis Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. 1758, p. 805. 

In the Bull. B. O. C. 60, 1940, p. 53, and p. 90, we drew attention 
to Fringilla tobaca of Vieillot, and to the fact that Grote had already 
published this change of name in Anz. Orn. Ges. Bayern, 2, 1936, 
p. 373. Grote does not say that he has studied Edwards' plates. The 
upper figure in Edwards' plate 129 is the Negaal or Tobaque and is 
presumably life-size. Both Edwards and Vieillot state that the rump 
is brilliant yellow and the breast to under tail- coverts are plain dull 
orange colour, and the description of the head markings agrees with 
Edwards' plate. It is quite clear that the description and plate are not 
that of the Yellow-rumped Seed-eater as given by Sclater, Syst. Av. 
iEthiop. 2, 1930, p. 821, and named by him Poliospiza angolensis Gmelin. 

As the Yellow-rumped Seed-eater can neither be designated as Polio- 
spiza angolensis Gmelin nor as Poliospiza tobaca Vieillot, it must bear 
the next available name, which appears to be Linaria atrogularis Smith, 
Rep. S. Afr. Exp. 1836, p. 49 : Kurrichane, western Transvaal, as 
correctly used by Friedmann, Bull. 153, U.S. Nat. Mus. 1937, p. 469, 
and by Roberts, Bds. S. Afr. 1940, p. 366. Although the live bird which 
Edwards figured reached England through Lisbon, it would not appear 
that it came from the coast of Angola. 

(8) On the type-locality of Estrilda ochrogaster Salvadori, Boll. Mus. 

Zool. Anat. Torino, 12, No. 287, 1897. 

Salvadori gives only Abyssinia and states that the type was collected 
by Calvi. 

All the known information on Calvi is given in ' The Ibis,' 1939, p. 556, 
where also we stated that previous to 1865 explorers and missionaries 
confined their activities to Eritrea and northern Abyssinia. We therefore 
propose to fix the type-locality of Estrilda ochrogaster Salvadori as 
Northern Abyssinia. 

(9) On the plumages of the male of Spinus citrinelloides (Ruppell). 

We find in the males of this species two rather different looking dresses- 
in birds taken in the same month. Both dresses appear to be adult 
and do not appear to be seasonal. In the one there is a narrow black 
band on the forehead ; a yellow superciliary stripe ; upper parts yellow- 
green with narrow black streaks. In the other there is no black band 
on forehead ; no superciliary stripe ; upper parts darker, less yellow- 
green, with wider, more distinct black streaks. In Rev. Zool. et Bot. 
Afr. 25, 1, 1934, p. 188, Granvik records dissimilar dresses for the females. 

Vol. 68 62 1947-48 

he collected on Mt. Elgon ; but the British Museum series of females 
does not show these, as all are similar to the darker backed male dress ; 
lores to ear- coverts, chin and upper throat not black or slightly dusky 
greenish ; below distinctly striped on throat, chest and flanks. We 
merely wish to draw attention to these plumages and can offer no useful 

(10) On the status of Serinus sulphuratus shelleyi Neumann, O. M., 1903 
p. 184 : Kafuro, Karagwe, Bukoba district, north-western Tan- 
ganyika Territory. 

Neumann compares this race to both Serinus flaviventris Swainson 
and Serinus sulphuratus sharpii Neumann, but we are unable to see that 
there is any difference in colour between birds from Uganda and Kenya 
Colony to Nyasaland and Portuguese East Africa. Mr. C. W. Benson 
measured a large number and has kindly left the measurements with us. 
He especially noted the comparatively small size of Bukoba and Mwanza 
birds. We have also measured the wings of all available specimens, 
measurements are as follows : — 

Uganda males 75-79, females 71-76 ; western Kenya Colony males 
78-81, females 76-81 ; eastern Kenya Colony males 78-84, females 
79-83 ; Bukoba district, Tanganyika Territory males 74-76 ; west of 
Mt. Kilimanjaro male 84 ; south-western Tanganyika Territory males 
78-80 ; south central Tanganyika Territory males 75-80, females 77-79 ; 
south-eastern Belgian Congo males 75-77, females 73-80 ; north-eastern 
Northern Rhodesia males 77-78, females 77 ; western Nyasaland males 
73-79, females 74-80 ; southern Nyasaland males 72-76, females 70-76 ; 
Tete area, Portuguese East Africa males 75-76 ; eastern Portuguese 
East Africa north of the Zambezi River, males 71-74, females 73 , 
Southern Rhodesia males 77-81, females 74-76 ; Angola males 72-74 mm. 

Certainly the male from west of Mt. Kilimanjaro has a large whig 
of 84 and this is equalled in eastern Kenya Colony, but we find birds of 
80 and 81 mm. in western Kenya Colony, south western and south central 
Tanganyika Territory, south-eastern Belgian Congo, western Nyasaland 
and Southern Rhodesia. Comparing only birds from the Bukoba area 
and west of Mt. Kilimanjaro there does appear to be a size difference 
between the two named races, but if we take into consideration the 
measurements over the whole range we find such an overlap that racial 
distinction on size does not work out geographically and we are of opinion 
that Serinus sulphuratus shelleyi Neumann should be placed as a synonym 
of Serinus sulphuratus sharpii Neumann. 




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Vol. 68 64 1947-48 


The next Meeting of the Club will be held at the Rembrandt Hotel, 
South Kensington, S.W, 7, on Wednesday, 17 December, 1947. Dinner 
at 6.30 p.m. 




Volume 68. 
e-0 No. 3. 

The four-hundred-and-seventy-second Meeting of the Club was held at 
the Rembrandt Hotel, Thurloe Place, S.W.7, on Wednesday, 17 December, 
1947, with dinner at 6.30 p.m. 

Chairman : Dr. J. M. Harrison. 

Members present : — Miss C. M. Acland ; Miss P. Barclay Smith ; 
Mrs. R. Barnes ; F. J. F. Barrington ; A. W. Boyd ; Mrs. G. 
Chadwyck-Healey ; E. Cohen ; C. T. Dalgety ; J. Fisher ; 
W. E. Glegg (Hon. Secretary) ; Miss C. E. Godman ; Miss E. M. Godman 
(Vice-Chairman) ; Capt. C. H. B. Grant (Editor) ; Dr. J. G. Harrison ; 
R. E. Heath ; P. A. D. Hollom ; N. B. Kinnear ; D. Lack ; Miss E. P. 
Leach ; Miss C. Longfield ; Dr. G. Carmichael Low ; Dr. P. R. Lowe ; 
Sir Philip Manson-Bahr ; G. M. Mathews ; E. S. May ; E. M. 
Nicholson ; E. R. Parrinder ; Col. A. W. Payn ; Lieut. R. A. H. 
Reynolds ; Miss G. M. Rhodes ; B. B. Roberts ; Peter Scott ; 

D. Seth-Smith ; Lt.-Cmdr. C. P. Staples ; Dr. A. Landsborough 
Thomson ; C. N. Walter ; A. Williams ; C. de Worms. 

Guest of the Club : — B. J. Marples. 

Guests : — R. Atkinson ; E. St. J. Blunt ; R. A. H. Coombes ; 
R. D. Etchecopar ; Miss N. J. Grant ; G. Stoughton Harris ; 

E. Hosking ; Miss C. G. P. Johnston ; Miss E. Kinnear ; J. C. M. 
McLean ; Mrs. D. Seth Smith ; Miss R. Shuter ; Mrs. L. L. Staples ; 
G. Thomson. 

Members, 39 ; Guests of the Club, 1 ; Guests, 14 ; Total, 54. 
Published 18 February, 1948. o Price 2/6, 

Vol. 68 66 1947-48 

St. Kilda, 1947. 

Mr. James Fisher made the following remarks and exhibited slides : — 

The islands of St. Kilda, the westernmost of the Outer Hebrides, 
lie further from the mainland than any other part of Britain. They 
were permanently inhabited until 28 August 1930, since when human 
beings lived on them only in the summer months until 1 939. It is doubtful 
whether anybody has slept on the islands between October 1939 and 
June 1947. 

They constitute a remarkable natural sanctuary, and a natural 
experiment, since the fortunes of animals living entirely apart from man 
can be studied. Several of the indigenous animals (some of which are 
famous) show the effect of geographical isolation. 

In July and August 1931, T. H. Harrisson and David Lack, of the 
Oxford-Cambridge Expedition (Scot. Nat. 1934 : 59-69), with the help 
of others, made an approximate census of the breeding land-birds, and 
some of the breeding sea-birds, of the islands of the St. Kilda group. 
They were somewhat handicapped by the fact that they could not start 
work until the Universities' Long Vacation, by which time many of the 
species had almost completed their breeding- cycle. Their census, made 
less than a year after the evacuation of St. Kilda by man, established 
the situation at a time when the effect of man was still powerful. 

In May and June 1939, E. M. Nicholson and J. Fisher, with the help 
of Messrs. J. S. Huxley, C. P. Blacker and D. W. Robertson, repeated 
the census of 1931 (Brit. Birds, 34 : 29-35). 

From 10 to 13, and from 16 to 19 June 1947, J. Fisher, with the help 
of Messrs. II . Atkinson and J. Naish, repeated the census of the land- 
birds of Hirta (the main island of St. Kilda), and collected notes on 
mammals and sea-birds. St. Kilda was also visited and photographed 
by flying-boat on 30 July and on 29 September 1947. 

Results of the 1947 expedition, and a detailed comparison of the 
results of the original census and the two eighth -year repeats, will be 
published elsewhere. Meanwhile, the following is a short summary 
of the status of the resident birds and mammals. 

Some burrowing species defy census work, and have not yet been 
accurately counted, or sample-counted, on St. Kilda. We do not know 
whether any change has taken place in the numbers of the Storm-Petrel, 
Hydrobates pelagicus (Linnaeus), Leach's Petrel, Oceanodroma leucorrhoa 
(Vieillot), Manx Shearwater, Puffinus puffinus (Briinnich), or Puffin, 
Fratercula arctica (Linnaeus) . In 1 939 and 1 947 we did not, indeed, have the 
opportunity to look for the nests of the Storm-Petrel on St. Kilda. 
Leach's Petrel is known to breed on the island of Pun, where the colony 

BULL. B.O.C. 1948. 

St. Kilda : Air photographs by Eric Hosking, 30 July, 1947. 

Dun, and the Village Bay of Hirta, from S.S.E. 

Vf ;;■.■■> , 

"T: IIS; 




Conachair of Hirta, 1397 ft., from E., the Island of Soay to N.W. 

BULL. B.O.C. 1948. 
St. Kilda : Air photographs by Eric Hosking, 30 July, 1947. 

Gannets' nests on the top face of Stac Lee, from S.W 

Stac an Armin and the W. precipice of Boreray, from N.N.W. 

1947-48 67 Vol. 68 

appeared to be in its normal strength in 1947 ; but there are many parts 
of Hirta, as well as of the less well-explored islands of Soay and Boreray, 
which have not been searched yet, by anybody, for the nests of this 
rare bird : much the same applies to the Manx Shearwater, which 
has been heard, at night, in 1939 and 1947, over the village, and in 
l&tfTfvom the Cambir, the north-west promontory of Hirta, but whose 
breeding haunts on St. Kilda are practically unknown. We know that 
the numbers of the Puffin, which was once the chief source of meat 
in the diet of the old St. Kildans, are extraordinary, but we cannot tell 
whether they have changed. I judged each of the following six puffin- 
slopes of St. Kilda to contain (in 1947) more burrows than any colony 
I had seen elsewhere in Britain (even more than Garbh Eilean of the 
Shiant Isles, which we had explored in the previous week) : — the north 
face of Conachair, the highest cliff in Britain, on the north side of Hirta ; 
the island of Dun ; the Carn Mor on Hirta's south-west apsect ; the sides 
of the Cambir of Hirta ; the island of Soay ; the island of Boreray. 

There appears to have been no significant or detectable change 
between the years in the numbers of the Raven, Corvus corax Linnaeus, 
Hooded Crow, Oorvus comix Linnaeus, Twite, Carduelis flavirostris 
(Linnaeus), Meadow-Pipit, Anthus pratensis Linnaeus, Rock-Pipit, AntMis 
spinoletta (Linnaeus), Wheatear, (Enanthe cenanthe (Linnaeus), St. Kilda 
Wren, Troglodytes t. hirtensis Seebohm, Peregrine, Falco peregrinus 
Tunstall, Great Black-backed Gull, Larus marinus Linnaeus, Kittiwake, 
Rissa tridactyla (Linnaeus) or Guillemot, Uria aalge (Pontoppidan). The 
numbers of the twite on Hirta, for instance, were remarkably constant 
through the years, the species being concentrated mostly in the old 
village and round its walls and cletts * ; in 1931, 13 pairs, in 1939, 10 or 11, 
in 1947, 13 were found. The six pairs of meadow-pipits which were 
probably breeding on Hirta in 1947 were found on slopes of plain grass 
or heather ; rock-pipits were found on the cliffs, and otherwise only 
where there were broken rocks or talus, or cletts (which simulate rocks) : 
the habitat-division between these two species was clear, as it was in 
1939 ; perhaps the reported overlap in 1931 was due to the lateness of 
the season and the break-up of the breeding-territories of the two species. 
In 1939 and 1947 we found the utmost difficulty in mapping all the 
territories of the St. Kilda wrens. In spite of their penetrating song, 
which could Jbe heard above the roll of the Atlantic from cliff-bottoms 
a thousand feet below the observer, the wrens eluded us in blind corners 
and in inaccessible parts of the steep seaward slopes. In 1931 it is 
probable that by July many of the wrens had stopped steady song, 

* Stone drying-houses about 20 ft. long and about 8 ft. high, of which there are. 
; about 600 on the islands of St. Kilda. 


Vol. 68 68 1947-48 

and the expedition's estimate of the number of territories in the steeper 
peripheral parts of Hirta must have been somewhat hazardous ; certainly 
in 1939 and 1947, helped as we were by loud and consistent singers, 
we failed to make a sure survey of the wrens in these places ; and we 
do not see how anybody could make one without a long campaign of 
piton and rope climbing. However, a comparison of the figures, in tke 
different years, for the village and the more accessible parts of Hirta, 
is useful and interesting : in 1931 T. H. Harrisson and J. Buchan found 
45 pairs altogether on Hirta, of which 12 were in the village. In 1938 
Robert Atkinson, ashore on Hirta for some time in June, found 12 nests, 
with 4 more which were probably cocks, and 2 more which were probably 
of the previous season, in the village in cletts and walls. In 1939 we 
found 12 pairs in the village. In 1947 I found 10 pairs in the village. 
The numbers of the St. Kilda wren seem to be constant : the only 
important difference in 1947 was that, for the first time apparently, 
wrens were nesting up the hill behind the village, and in the Great Glen, 
an entirely separate valley occupying the western part of Hirta and 
running in the opposite direction from the broad valley-basin of the 
village and village bay. The total population of this interesting and 
famous subspecies was thought to be 68 pairs by the 1931 expedition ; 
we have found evidence from the village sample that the population 
has not changed in sixteen years ; but what it really is, is another matter. 
Certainly over a hundred, but under two hundred individual adult 
St. Kilda wrens pair up and start a breeding- cycle each year ; but the 
population cannot be placed within closer limits until the mid- cliffs 
and cliff- bottoms have been fully explored. 

Two birds have markedly increased throughout the sixteen-year 
period, the Starling, Sturnus vulgaris Linnaeus, and the Eider, Somateria 
mollissima (Linnaeus). In 1931 the expedition found 4 starling families 
in the Village Basin, none in the Great Glen, and 5 on the cliffs. In 1939 
we found 15-17 pairs in the village basin, 2 in the glen and 8 on the cliffs. 
In 1947 I found 29 pairs in the village basin, 10 in the glen, and 11 on 
the cliffs. The starlings were feeding young at the time, and I found 
eleven nests in cletts and walls and broken cliff- top rocks, in a couple of 
hours ; I was guided to them by the clamour of young. The starling 
population is concentrated near the main grazing grounds of the sheep. 
In 1939 there were about 42 starlings flying about in flocks, not attached 
to territories, and in 1947 there were 56. A large number of these were 
certainly members of the pairs whose territories we had found, and were 
seen to leave the flocks with food for their young. It seems clear that the 
starling population of Hirta may have trebled between 1931 and 1939, 
and doubled between 1939 and 1947, 

1947-48 69 Vol. 68 

Only two pairs of eiders with young were seen in Village Bay in 1931. 
By 1939 there had been a great increase, and nearly 50 birds were seen. 
In 1947 eiders were breeding up to 800 feet on the hills of Hirta, and on 
Dim Atkinson and Naish found a colony of 11 nests, some of which 
were nearly touching. There is no doubt that the increase has 
continued. When the St. Kildans were in residence they robbed eider 

The numbers of the Shag, Phalacrocorax aristotelis (Linnaeus), and the 
Razorbill, Alca torda Linnaeus, appear to have increased between 1931 
and 1939, and to have stayed constant since. It is possible that the 
1931 expedition may have overlooked some razorbills, which in many 
parts of St. Kilda nest under cover in broken rocks. Several other 
species of birds remained approximately constant in population between 
1931 and 1939, but increased between 1939 and 1947 ; the Gannet, Sula 
bassana (Linnaeus), Oystercatcher, Hsematopus ostralegus (Linnaeus), 
Herring-gull, Larus argentatus Pontoppidan, and Lesser Black-backed 
Gull, Larus fuscus Linnaeus. The population of breeding gannets may 
have been about 16,500 pairs in 1931, and was about 16,900 pairs 
in 1939. Study of aerial photographs of the gannet stacks has shown 
an increase in subsequent years. By 1947 the Gannets (which breed 
only on Boreray, Stac Lee and Stac an Armin) had spread to parts of 
Sunadal (E. Boreray) and south-west Boreray not inhabited in 1939. 
I estimated the 1947 population as at least 20,000 pairs ; the increase 
seemed general and the birds were distinctly denser on Stac an Armin, 
and north and west Boreray, than they were in 1939 ; this observation is 
borne out by a study of photographs. 

The recent increase of the lesser black- back on St. Kilda is interesting. 
It has hitherto been rare, odd scattered pairs nesting on Hirta. In 1947 
Naish found a colony of 15 pairs in the Great Glen, the first real colony 
of this species to have been observed on St. Kilda. 

The Fulmar, Fulmarus glacialis (Linnaeus), now has nearer thirty than 
twenty thousand nests on the St. Kilda Islands, judging from the results 
of sampling in 1947. In 1931 the population was estimated as 25,500 
breeding pairs, and in 1939 as 20,780 ; there is no doubt about the 
increase between 1939 and 1947. 

The Snipe, Capella gallinago (Linnaeus), on Hirta increased remarkably 
from 1931 to 1939, but regressed from 1939 to 1947. In 1931 three pairs 
bred on Hirta. In 1939 at least 30 pairs, and probably more than 30, 
did so : about 20 of these pairs were in the village, where the grass was 
then thick and long and boggy. By 1947 the Soay sheep (which increased 
from a small herd in 1931 to between 500 and 600 in 1939, and numbered 
certainly over 400 in 1947) had grazed the village grass down ; no longer 

Vol. 68 70 1947-48 

was there long grass, and there were only a few rushy patches instead 
of a wide bog. In 1947 there were eight pairs of Snipe on Hirta, of which 
only two were nesting within the village wall ; away from the village on 
Hirta the snipe population was the same as it was in 1939, not 1931. 

In 1939 the Black Guillemot, Uria grylle (Linnseus), looked as if it was 
on the way to extinction. In 1931 six pairs had been found round Hirta, 
but in 1939 only a single bird was noted, under Ruaival, the southern 
promontory of Hirta. In 1947, however, we discovered that Glen Bay 
was occupied by at least two pairs. The Rock-Dove, Columba livia Gmelin, 
on the other hand, has probably become extinct. We did not see one in 
a careful exploration of all the coasts from sea and land in 1947. In 1931 
only five were seen ; in 1939 only two. Through most of its range, this 
cliff- breeding species forages on cultivated land, and it is now more than 
seventeen years since any part of St. Kilda was cultivated. 

We did, however, find two new breeding-species. Both the Golden 
Plover, Pluvialis apricaria (Linnseus) and the Sky- Lark, Alauda arvensis 
Linnseus, have been seen about the hills of St. Kilda in the breeding- 
season. Until 1947, however, neither had been proved to breed. On 
the flat table-land of Mullach Sgar, at about 750 feet above the village, 
two pairs of golden plovers were found in possession of territories on 1 1 June. 
On 19 June, an hour before our departure, J. Naish found, after some 
searching, a week-old young one. Its parents were identified in the 
field as of the southern race, .P a. apricebria. On 16 June, on the grass 
meadow of Mullach Mor, near the 1400 feet top of Conachair, the highest 
point of St. Kilda, I heard a sky-lark singing, and flushed one off eggs. 

This concludes the catalogue of the breeding birds of St. Kilda in 1947, 
of which there were 28 species. Of non-breeding birds we saw two 
Swallows, Hirundo rustica Linnseus, one House -Martin, Delichon urbica 
(Linnseus), four Whimbrel, Numenius phaeopus (Linnaeus), five Dunlins, 
Calidris alpina (Linnseus), one Common Sandpiper, Actitis hypoleucos 
(Linnseus), and two or more Ringed Plover, Charadrius hiaticula Linnseus. 
We also heard a Corn-Crake, Crex crex Linnseus, on two days in a village 
field, and found the remains of a Lapwing, Vanellus vanellus (Linnseus). 

Notes were also made on the mammals. Soay and Hirta now have purely 
Soay sheep ; on Boreray is a herd of Blackface between 300 and 400 strong, 
which has scarcely been touched since 1930, and not at all since 1939. 
The indigenous subspecies of Field-mouse, Apodermus sylvaticus hirtensis 
Barrett Hamilton, flourishes on Dun and Hirta, and now lives in the 
deserted houses. Unfortunately for science, the indigenous House -mouse 
Mus musculus muralis Barrett -Hamilton, can now confidently be pro- 
nounced extinct ; it is probable that it became so between 1931 and 

1947-48 71 Vol. 68 

1939 — it had become confined to two houses eleven months after the 
evacuation. It was probably unable to compete with the Apodermus 
once its winter support, man, had gone. The Grey Seal, Halichoerus 
grypus (Fabricius), haunts the islands, at least through the summer, 
in some numbers ; now Hirta is deserted it could come ashore to breed 
in safety in Village Bay : it has not, however, started to do so yet, for 
on 29 September close observation from the air disclosed many swimming 
in the village bay, but none hauled out at the possible places, and no 
calves in their white coats. 

The owner of St. Kilda, the Marquis of Bute, gave us permission to 
visit the islands and investigate them, and we would particularly like 
to thank him for his kindness. Lord Bute is a keen naturalist and 
keeps St. Kilda as a complete sanctuary, on which any kind of collecting 
is forbidden. It is to be hoped that, for the sake of science as well as 
of the protection of nature, his wishes are respected and St. Kilda is 
left undisturbed, a perfect natural sanctuary, and an interesting natural 

Mr. Atkinson made some remarks on the sea voyages to St. Kilda 
in 1947, pointing out the weather was such that his boat could not be 
left unattended. 

Gannet Colonies. 

Mon. R. D. Etchecopar remarked that it has now been definitely 
established that Gannets breed on les Sept lies, Brittany, and Mr. Fisher 
remarked that they had also been found breeding in 1947 on Rundo, off 
the coast of Norway. 

White-spotted Bluethroats from Tangier. 

Col. W. A. Payn exhibited three specimens of the White -spotted 
Blue throat, Luscinia svecica cyanecula (Meisner), from Tangier, and 
made the- following remarks : — 

These three skins of the White -spotted Bluethroat were got by me at 
Tangier between 24 March and 5 April 1939. They include two adult 
males, and one that nearly corresponds to the illustration in the " Hand- 
book " of the first winter male. A typical summer adult from Nice 
is also included for comparison. 

It will be noted that the two adult males from Tangier have the throats 
quite blue, with little or no white spot visible, whereas the normal type 
from Nice has a large white spot. Only one specimen of the former 
is at present in the British Museum collection. 

Vol. 68 72 1947-48 

In an article by Mr. Wither by in ' The Ibis ' for 1928 on the birds of 
Central Spain, he notes that he found large numbers of White-spotted 
Bluethroats breeding in one locality in the Sierra de Gredos, west of 
Madrid : of these only three were seen with the large white spot, the 
others being of the type now being exhibited from Tangier. He further 
remarks that in other parts of Europe it is the reverse, viz. : those with 
the large white spot are normal, the type with little or no white spot 
being rare. 

Hence it is very probable that my Tangier birds were on their way 
to the locality mentioned by Mr. Witherby. 

Col. Meinertzhagen in his article in ' The Ibis ' for 1940, on birds of 
Morocco, notes that the White-spotted Bluethroat was quite common 
in fresh plumage, with moult complete, at the end of October in the 
Sous Valley, some 400 miles south of Tangier, and he considered that 
this was their winter resort. 

Thus we have the whole gamut of the range of birds with this type of 
plumage for the year. 

As regards the third specimen, which may be in first winter plumage, 
it seems curious that a bird should still be seen in winter plumage on 
the spring migration. Migrants are generally supposed to do their 
moult before the spring migration. 

As the result of observing the spring migration at Tangier for five 
years, and in connection with the above, I am confirmed in a theory 
I have formed, that most of the small passerine migrants passing over 
the Straits of Gibraltar do not go beyond the south or middle of Spain 
for their summer quarters. My reasons for this are based on the 
following : — 

1. Some of the small common migrants, e.g. Lesser White throat, 
Wood Warbler, and perhaps the Wryneck, which pass freely on migration 
over the east and central parts of the Mediterranean, do not migrate 
over the Straits of Gibraltar. This is from my own experience, and is 
confirmed by Mr. Witherby. 

2. Many passerine migrants, which do pass over the Straits of Gibraltar 
are local races, e.g., House Martin, Cuckoo, Swift, Ashy-headed Wagtail, 
Pied Flycatcher, Redstart, Woodchat Shrike, Common Wheatear. 

The reason of this is probably the series of mountain ranges, or sierras, 
running from east to west for it is well known that small birds on migration 
will cross broad seas, but are very loth to pass over high mountain 

1947-48 73 Vol. 68 

These remarks do not apply to the north of Spain ; for many migrants 
from North Africa probably arrive in North Spain via Algeria, Sicily, 
Sardinia, Corsica, and the Balearic Isles. 

On the available names for the French race of 


Mr. P. A. Clancey sent the following note : — 

Meinertzhagen, Bull. B. 0. C. 67 (1947), p. 96, in discussing the French 
race of Rock-Pipit uses without comment the names Anthus spinoletta 
immutabilis Degland, 1849, and Anthus spinoletta ponens Clancey, 1942. 

Degland, Ornith.* Europ. 1 (1849), p. 429, introduced Anthus immu- 
tabilis for (a) winter visitors to Dieppe and (b) the breeding birds of 
Britanny. In Bull. B. 0. C. 63 (1942), p. 41, I separated under the name 
Anthus spinoletta ponens the birds of Ushant, Finistere, from Anthus 
spinoletta petrosus (Montagu), 1798 : South Wales (cf. Meinertzhagen, 
loc. cit.) on account of the paler, less yellowish, coloration and the more 
nebulous nature of the striae. It is evident that the breeding birds of 
Ushant and Britanny are of one race and that the use of two names is 
not tenable. In order to place the issue on a more satisfactory footing 
I here restrict the type-locality of A. immutabilis on Degland's first 
reference to Dieppe and retain A. s. ponens for the breeding populations 
of the coasts of Ushant and Britanny. 

It is clear from the available data that no other course is open to us. 
Anthus spinoletta littoralis Brehm, 1831 : Danish Islands, is known to 
be of frequent occurrence in northern France and is almost certainly a 
winter visitor to the Dieppe region. Careful collecting in this same 
area would doubtless show that other races, including the indigenous 
French one, occur as winter visitors. It is obvious from Degland's 
second reference that A. immutabilis was based on specific rather than 
racial considerations, and I am of the opinion that it is racially 
indeterminate. The application of a name intended in the first place 
for winter visitors to a locality where it is not known to breed to breeding 
populations located two hundred miles or so further west, especially when 
no type-specimen is available, it not only misleading but entirely contrary 
to the accepted tenets of systematic procedure. 

A. immutabilis is placed as a synonym of A. s. petrosus (=A. s. obscura 
(Latham), 1790) by Hartert, Vog. pal. Fauna, 1 (1905), p. 283. As there 
must always be a considerable measure of doubt in connection with the 
racial status of the name perhaps it is best left in the synonymy of 
A. s. petrosus, the earliest name for the true Rock-Pipits. 

Vol. 68 74 1947-4S 

Notes on East African Birds. 

Capt. C. H. B. Grant and Mr. C. W. Mackworth-Praed sent the 
three following notes : — 

(1) On the status of Pycnonotus tricolor vaughan-jonesi White. 

In the Bull. B. O. C. 66, 1946, p. 46, we expressed the opinion that this 
race should be attached to Pycnonotus annectans Roberts. Through 
the kindness of Mr. White we have seen some of the specimens and agree 
with him that this is a race of Pycnonotus tricolor (Hartlaub) and not of 
P. annectans. 

(2) On Anthoscopus caroli (Sharpe) and Anthoscopus roccatii Salvadori. 
In the Bull. B. O. C. 63, 1942, p. 45, we discussed the birds of this 

group and divided them into two species. The British Museum (Natural 
History) has received a further series including thirteen specimens from 
Dr. Winterbottom and we have re-examined the whole question and have 
now come to the conclusion that there is only one species. The colour 
difference of the upper parts — between A . caroli and A . roccatii is largely one 
of degree and no exact demarkation can be given, as there is a distinct 
gradation from the greyish, or buffy grey, of the upper parts of A. caroli 
through olivaceous to the green of A. ansorgei Hartert, and the same is 
true of the amount of buff on the underparts. Furthermore, there appears 
to be no overlap between the races. The races we recognise are as 
follows : — 

Anthoscpous caroli caroli (Sharpe). 

Mgitlnalus caroli Sharpe, Ibis, 1871, p. 415 : Ovaguenyama, Damaraland. 

Above ashy grey very slightly washed with olivaceous, below chin to 
breast creamy white ; breast to under tail- coverts pale buff. Wing 
53 to 55 mm. Three measured. 

Distribution. — Damaraland. 

Anthoscopus caroli sylviella Reichenow. 

Anthoscopus sylviella Reichenow, O.M. 1904, p. 27 : Usafua, Rungwe 
district, south-western Tanganyika Territory. 

Above slightly darker than A. c. caroli ; velow chin to under tail- 
coverts buff. Wing 52 to 58 mm. Five measured. 

Distribution. — North-eastern Tanganyika Territory, east of Lake 
Natron through Iringa to south-western Tanganyika Territory. 

Anthoscopus caroli ansorgei Hartert. 

Anthoscopus ansorgei Hartert, Bull. B. 0. C. 15, 1905, p. 74 : Mangonga 
River, Benguella, Angola. 

1947-4$ 75 Vol. 68 

Above green, below creamy white. Wing 54. One measured. 
Distribution. — Belgian Congo at the Kasai district to Angola. 

Anthoscopus caroli sharpei Hartert. 

Anthoscopus sharpei Hartert, Bull. B. O. C. 15, 1905, p. 75 : Usambiro, 
Tabora district, central Tanganyika Territory. 

Similar to A . c. sytviella but forehead tawny not pale buff. Wing 54 mm. 
One measured. 

Distribution. — Kenya Colony from the Kikuyu area to Tanganyika 
Terrotiry west of Lake Natron and the Tabora district. 

Anthoscopus caroli roccatii Salvador!. 

Anthoscopus roccatii Salvadori, Bull. Mus. Torino, 21, No. 542, 1906, 
p. 2 : Entebbe, southern Uganda. 

Above dull olive-green ; below dull yellow ; lower belly and under 
tail-coverts slightly buffy. Wing 52 to 50 mm. Nine measured. 

Distribution. — Southern half of Uganda between Ruwenzori Mts., 
Mt. Elgon and Lake Victoria. 

Anthoscopus caroli rothschildi Neumann. 

Anthoscopus rothschildi Neumann, J. f. O. 1907, p. 597 : Simba, south- 
eastern Kenya Colony. 

No specimens seen. Description compared to A. sylvidla but given 
as paler ochre yellow below, and is therefore nearer to A. c. sylvidla 
and A. c. sharpei than A. c. taruensis. 

Distribution. — The higher country around the type locality and the 
Kitui area of Kenya Colony. 

Anthoscopus caroli robertsi Haagner. 

Anthoscopus robertsi Haagner, Ann. Trans. Mus. 1, 1909, p. 233 : Villa 
Pereira, Boror, Portuguese East Africa. 

Above similar to A. c. roccatii but slightly greyer ; below pale yellow ; 
lower belly and under tail- coverts pale buff. Wing 51 to 58 mm. Thirty 
three measured. 

Distribution. — Northern Rhodesia (except Lofu River), Nyasaland, 
southern Tanganyika Territory at Li wale, northern Portuguese East 
Africa and the Zambesi Valley. 

Anthoscopus caroli hellmayri Roberts. 

Anthoscopus caroli hellmayri Roberts, Ann. Trans. Mus. 4, 1914, p. 174: 
Mapagone, north-eastern Transvaal. 

Vol. 68 76 1947-48 

Above rather less olivaceous and slightly more ashy than A. c. robertsi. 
Wing 51 to 56 mm. Eleven measured. 

Distribution. — Eastern and southern Rhodesia to the eastern Transvaal, 
southern Portuguese East Africa, Natal and Zululand. 

Anthoscopus caroli taruensis Van Someren. 

Anthoscopus caroli taruensis Van Someren, Bull. B. O. C. 41, 1921, 
p. 112 : Samburu, south-eastern Kenya Colony. 

Above and below similar to A. c. robertsi, but smaller. Wing 49 to 
50 mm. Four measured. 

Distribution. — The lower coastal area of Kenya Colony from the Tana 
River to Samburu and Chamgamwe and north-eastern Tanganyika 
Territory at Korogwe and Ngomeni. 

Anthoscopus caroli rhodesise Sclater. 

Anthoscopus ansorgei rhodesize W. L. Sclater, Bull. B. O. C. 52, 1932, 
p. 143 : Mt. Sunzu, about 12 miles east of Abercorn, Northern Rhodesia. 

Above duller, more olivaceous green, than A. c. ansorgei ; belows imilar 
to A. c. ansorgei but lower belly and under tail-coverts faintly washed 
with buff. Wing 48 to 57 mm. Six measured. 

Distribution. — The Ufipa Plateau south-western Tanganyika Territory 
to south end of Lake Tanganyika at the Lofu River, north-eastern North- 
ern Rhodesia and 47 miles north-east of Elizabeth ville, Belgian Congo. 

The two specimens from 47 miles north-east of Elizabethville are 
above duller and very close in colour to A. c. robertsi, but below they 
agree with A. c. rhodesise. 

Anthoscopus caroli winterbottomi White. 

Anthoscopus caroli winterbottomi White, Ibis, 1946, p. 101 : Mwinmmgu, 
north-western Northern Rhodesia. 

Similar to A. c. robertsi but slightly greener above especially on head. 
Wing 54 to 57 mm. One measured. 

Distribution. — North-western Northern Rhodesia. 

Note. — A. c. rhodesise occurs at the Lofu River at the south end of Lake 
Tanganyika ; A . c. robertsi occurs 70 miles south of Fort Hill and Karonga 
at the north end of Lake Nyasa, at Li wale southern Tanganyika Territory 
about 210 miles from Iringa, and at Ndola about 130 miles from the most 
southerly known locality of A. c. rhodesize. A. c. sylviella occurs at Iringa 
about 220 miles from Fort Hill, about 210 miles from Liwale and about 
260 miles from the Ufipa Plateau. These three races do not so far have 
an overlap and being quite distinct one from the other cannot easily be 

1947-48 77 Vol. 68 

(3) On the status of Fringillaria striolata jebelmarrse Lynes, Bull. B. 0. C. 
41, 1920, p. 34 : Jebel Marra, Darfur, western Sudan, and Fringillaria 
striolata dankali Thesiger & Meynell, Bull. B. O. C. 55, 1934, p. 79 : Adau, 
Danakil, eastern Abyssinia. 

We have examined and compared both these types with the British 
Museum series and find that the characters given do not hold good 
geographically. We therefore place Fringillaria striolata jebelmarraz 
Lynes, as a synonym of Fringillaria striolata saturatior Sharpe, and 
Fringillaria striolata dankali Thesiger & Meynell as a synonym of Fringil- 
laria striolata striolata (Lichtenstein). 


The next Meeting of the Club will take place on 21 January, 1948, 
at the Rembrandt Hotel, Thurloe Place, S.W. 7. Dinner at 6.30 p.m. 




Volume 68. 


The four-hundred-and-seventy-third Meeting of the Club was held at 
the Rembrandt Hotel, Thurloe Place, S.W.7, on Wednesday, 21 January, 
1948, with dinner at 6.30 p.m. 

Chairman : Dr. J. M. Harrison. 

Members present : Miss C: M. Acland ; R. C. R. Allen ; Miss P. 
Barclay-Smith ; F. J. F. Barrington ; Mrs. G. M. Chadwyck-Healey ; 
J. Cunningham ; J. Fisher ; W. E. Glegg (Hon. Sec.) ; Miss C. E. 
Godman ; Miss E. M. Godman (Vice-Chairman) ; Capt. C. H. B. Grant 
(Editor) ; Dr. J. G. Harrison ; N. B. Kinnear ; Miss E. P. Leach (Hon. 
Treasurer) ; Dr. G. Carmichael Low ; C. W. Mackworth-Praed ; 
Sir P. Manson-Bahr ; G. M. Mathews ; E. S. May ; E. R. Parrinder ; 
Lt.-Col. W. A. Payn ; K. Piercy ; Major G. H. R, Pye-Smith ; Miss G. 
M. Rhodes ; D. Seth-Smith ; Col. R. Sparrow ; Lt.-Commdr. C. P. 
Staples ; C. N. Walter ; A. Williams ; C. de Worms ; Col. O. E. 

Guests : — Major W. M. Congreve ; R. M. Craske ; Mrs. D. 
Derscheid ; Miss L. P. Grant ; Dr. E. Hindle ; Miss E. Kinnear ; 
Mrs. E. Mackworth-Praed ; D. C. H. McLean ; Dr. W. A. Richards ; 
Mrs. D. B. Sparrow ; Mrs. L. L. Staples. 

Members, 32 ; Guests, 11 ; Total, 43. 

Published March 17, 1948. a Price 2/6. 

Vol. 68 80 1947-48 

Further as to Colour Change without a Moult. 

Lieut. -Commander C. P. Staples remarked : — 

In the discussion at the November Meeting, following Dr. Jeffrey 
Harrison's demonstration of apparent colour change in Waders' feathers 
without a moult, I referred to the colour feeding of Canaries and to the 
induced melanism in a Bullfinch consequent on a diet of hemp seed. 
I stated that Canaries are only colour fed at the moult but made no specific 
limitation in the case of the Bullfinch. With his customary acumen, 
Mr. Tucker realized the implication and suggested I should make further 
enquiries. As the question of colour change in birds has always interested 
me, and I had already certain views on the subject, I decided to investigate 
the problem further with particular reference to cage and aviary birds 
where there is no question that it is the same individual that is being 
observed at all times. 

I must express my indebtedness to Mr. Allen Silver for his assistance 
and kindness in dealing with my questions and meeting me at the recent 
National and Crystal Palace Cage Birds Shows, where he introduced me 
to other expert aviculturists. Mr. Silver is a life-long aviculturist, a 
much sought after Judge at shows, a member of the Union, and one 
whose expressions of opinion are not lightly made or unworthy of the 
most careful consideration. His statements are authoritative. Unfor- 
tunately he has had no personal experience of melanism in the Bullfinch 
to which I will refer later, but he is extremely interested in the colour 
change which occurs in the crimson of the face and throat of the Gold- 
finch, known among fanciers as " the coming-up of the blaze ". I am 
assured by Mr. Silver and others that this does not arise from partial 
moult or abrasion. No red feathers are cast between moults and there 
are no light tips to the feathers. I examined some forty specimens at 
the National Show in December, from which Mr. Silver could pick out 
those that were backward and those that were forward in colour. The 
backward individuals exhibited a peculiar " brassiness " in the red 
compared with the deeper colouring of the forward specimens. Everyone 
confirmed that this coming into colour is progressive in all individuals 
and is accepted as a matter of course. I had another look at the Gold- 
*finches at the Crystal Palace Show last week and can assure you that 
the variation between the lightest and the darkest specimens was not 
then so marked as it was at the other Show six weeks previously, in 
other words, the backward individuals were catching up on the forward ones. 

Another progressive and very noticeable change occurs in the case 
of the Yellow Bunting. The colours become richer particularly on the 

1947-48 81 Vol. 68 

rump which is much brighter at the breeding season. As this is the one 
part of the bird which is not claimed to abrade, and is the part of a bird's 
plumage least likely to bleach from the effects of sunlight, we must 
accept this as a colour change which is progressive and actual. 

These are two specific examples of the generally accepted proposition 
that all birds improve in colour and in the lustre and sheen of their 
plumage at the breeding season which is generally stated to be due to 
overall abrasion and cleaning up of the feather tips. Quite frankly 
this is discounted as the proximate cause by bird fanciers, and I certainly 
do not agree myself that it is the all embracing solution to the problem. 
Another apparent change in colour or colour tone in caged birds arises 
from a diet of privet berries and is said to be specially efficacious in the 
case of the Bullfinch. The following is a quotation from a well-known 
authority on wild foods for birds : — 

" Privet berries seem to have won their greatest fame as a food 

for the Bullfinch and it is very doubtful if there is any other colouring 

agent that works so safely and surely as these. The plumage of 

the breast develops a deeper and richer tone, and the blacks and 

greys are immensely improved in pigment and polish, particularly 

in the case of cage moulted birds ". 

He then goes on to state that privet berries also produce a marked 

improvement in Greenfinches, Chaffinches, Hawfinches, Thrushes, Robins 

and Blackcaps. 

Privet berries are not ripe and edible until October, that is to say, 
after the birds have moulted. How then can there be any change in 
colour, if, as is claimed by the no-change school, all feathers are sealed 
off and incapable of receiving anything from the body after the moult ? 
Bird fanciers do not buy privet berries from dealers for amusement. 
Actually the privet berry is rich in oil and any change in colour tone 
would arise from oil absorption and not pigmentation. The pigment 
in privet berry is one of the blue anthocyanins. This improvement 
in colour through oil in the feathers is well known. It is an old observa- 
tion that the intensity of the red colour in the Flamingo depends upon the 
amount of oil contained in the feathers. It is also claimed, in this bird, 
that the rosy colour results from a crustacean diet, which beside being 
oily would also provide red and yellow lipochrome pigments. 

One very successful exhibitor of British Birds assured me that he 
habitually colour feeds his birds with halibut liver oil, and in his opinion, 
" stop -cocking " of the bases of the feathers is incomplete where oil is 
liberally taken, and that oil absorption continues after the moult. I 
was particularly impressed by the fine colouring and sheen of a Cock 

Vol.68 • 82 1947-48 

Yellow Wagtail which he exhibited and claimed was then (6 December), 
more brightly coloured than when fresh moulted, and had progressively 
improved since being exhibited at another show in October. I saw that 
bird again last week when it was a prize winner. Examination disclosed 
that the oily lustre was confined to the body contour feathers — the wing 
and tail quills were entirely unaffected. This is an important point. 
A similar effect arises with the colour fed Canary — the body contour 
feathers become orange, while the quills remain pale yellow. Modern 
colour feeding is effected by using tasteless pepper obtained from the 
seed pods of the Red Pepper (Capsicum annuum), which contain the 
plant pigments lycopene and capsanthin, both of which are lipochromes 
or fat pigments. As such they only affect feathers attached to the 
fat parts of birds. Oil has a similar effect. 

Now we come to the induced melanism in the Bullfinch through a 
concentrated diet of hemp seed. Here again oil is the deciding factor, 
for it is only hemp seed having a high content which affects the bird. 
Home grown hemp which is deficient in oil and which is the only kind 
now available has no bad effect on plumage. The seed, which was 
previous to the War, imported from S.E. Europe, and which had a 
35 per cent, oil content, was the type which blackened the Bullfinch. 
In fact, no melanistic Bullfinches have been exhibited since just before 
the outbreak of war and some of these were said to be of the European 
race. Hence I could only obtain general hearsay evidence and could 
not establish whether the change only occurred at the moult. I have 
just heard, however, from one fancier that his bird had progressively 
darkened after the moult, and he confirms that the red of the breast 
and the grey of the mantle were both darkened. I have quite expected 
to hear that the darkening is progressive having regard to what I assume 
to be the chemical nature of the change. 

Hemp oil is greenish-yellow, and when crude, darkens slightly in the 
atmosphere due, no doubt, to melanin formation analogous to the 
darkening of a cut apple or potato. The mechanic of these changes 
provide a possible clue not only to the darkening of the Bullfinch but 
also to the deepening in melanin markings of birds at the breeding season, 
which changes are limited to the body contour feathers. 

Melanin as a pigment is claimed to arise from the blood stream and 
to be akin to the hormone adrenalin. As there is no constitutional 
weakness in a melanistic Bullfinch one must assume that inhibited 
adrenalin secretion is not the cause of its darkening on a concentrated 
diet of hemp. One must look for some common denominators that would 
,.cau§e the change, particularly as other birds, with the exception of the 

1947-48 83 Vol 68 

Red Cardinal, are unaffected in colour by hemp seed. The composition 
of hemp seed and its protein edestin seem to supply an answer in con- 
junction with the general habits of the Bullfinch. 

The animo-acid tyrosine is present in hemp seed in association with 
some other free animo-acids of close relationship. The commonest way 
in which melanin is formed is by the oxidation of tyrosine in the atmo- 
sphere through the catalyzing action of the enzyme tyrosinase. Now 
tyrosine itself is present in all epidermal structures, hence it is already 
present in the feathers of the bird, while tyrosinase is present in fat. 
Both tyrosine and tyrosinase are colourless and the latter acts as the 
oxidase of the former, and when the two are mixed together in the atmos- 
phere, the tyrosine first changes to rose or garnet-red, then reddish -brown, 
then brown, dark brown, and finally blackish brown or black, which is 
melanin in its final form. Hence we have the two essential substances 
for the formation of melanin chemically already present in the bird, 
and all we require is a state of disequilibrium to set up chemical action. 
The Bullfinch is naturally inactive and greedy in captivity, and tends 
to gross obesity on a diet of oily hemp seed, so there is an excessive 
secretion from the fatty parts which results, I suggest, in an overspill 
of the two substances which form melanin by catalysis. The Goldfinch 
and the Linnet, both avid hemp seed eaters, are not affected adversely 
because they are naturally active and never run to fat. 

As a matter of fact, hemp seed is claimed to be the finest food for the 
Goldfinch, and the best coloured specimens are almost invariably fed on 
hemp. Like the Bullfinch, the Red Cardinal in captivity is rather 
inactive and tends to get fat on hemp and has been known to darken 
in consequence. 

If I am correct in assuming that the darkening of the Bullfinch results 
from melanin created by the oxidation of tyrosine then there seems 
no reason why deposits of melanin in its intermediate colour stages in 
the feathers of other birds should not be similarly darkened by internal 
secretions from the fatty parts. Previously colourless areas where 
tyrosine is already present could also exhibit visible and progressively 
darkening markings. This would explain the coming into colour of 
the feathers shown by Dr. Jeffrey Harrison and also account for the 
deepening and clarification of the markings on the backs of Redpolls, 
Siskins, Twites and Linnets in Spring, which changes are observed in 
caged specimens and would not all appear to be due to abrasion as many 
are in the centres of the feathers. Abrasion has up to the present been 
a convenient but doubtful explanation of these changes, slight though 
they may be. 

Vol. 68 84 1947-48 

In his ' Heligoland as an Ornithological Observatory ', published in 
1895, Gatke distinguished between colour changes which are associated 
with changes in feather structure and those in which they are "not so 
associated. He cited the abrasive changes in Linnets and Redpolls 
as changes in feather structure but also claimed that the changes in the 
colour of Guillemots and Little Auks are due to an increase in the amount 
of pigment in the feather without textual change. He enumerates 
many other instances of colour change produced by an increased amount 
of pigment or by re-arrangement of pigment as when black and brownish 
black replace white or grey, or when black and white replace grey. Was 
he also referring to an increase of melanin by oxidation ? As the chemical 
natures of tyrosine, tyrosinase and other enzymes, and in fact of melanin 
itself are quite modern discoveries, I submit that the whole question 
of colour change in contour feathers should be re-opened in the light 
of modern knowledge of these substances and the great advances which 
have been made in the bio -chemistry of plants and plant pigments. 
These, after all, must affect birds since plants form the basis of all bird 

From this point I am going, as it were, to think aloud. 
I have referred to some colour changes which occur without a moult, 
I have shown that oil in food, whether natural or artificial, affects a 
birds' plumage, and I have suggested the mechanics of melanism in a 
Bullfinch. In all cases you will have noticed that no change is claimed 
in the flight or tail feathers, the only changes are in the body contour 
feathers which are claimed to be still capable of receiving secretions 
from the fat of the bird. 

It would be illogical to suggest that quill feathers are not completely 
sealed off after the moult. Their essential purpose is flight, for which 
they must remain rigid, unsoftened by body secretions of oil or fat. 
For this reason, too, lipo chrome pigments in quills are the exception 
for feathers containing lipo chrome pigments normally undergo structural 
modification in that the barbules of the apical barbs become suppressed 
and the feather tips are, in consequence, soft and do not cohere. To have 
such a modification in any part of a quill would prove disastrous from 
the point of view of flight except in those few instances, such as the tail 
of the Lavender Finch (Lagonosticta Ccerulescens) of Senegambia, where 
the whole feather appears to be lipochrome pigmented and does not become 
modified for this reason. But what of the general body contour feathers ? 
They serve a different purpose from the quills, they carry the sexual 
and bright and lipochrome colours, their general configuration and 
form is different and they are attached to fat and not to bone. Is it 

1947-48 85 Vol. 68 

necessary that they should be completely sealed off from receiving internal 
secretions ? I think not, and from the examples I have given, doubt 
that they are completely " stop-cocked ". I am apparently not alone 
in this conclusion. 

I do not suggest that any elaborate change can take place in body 
contour feathers without a moult. It would be foolish to suppose that 
a bird could heavily re -pigment its feathers at the same time as it is 
undergoing the functional changes and strains incident to the breeding 
cycle. There also appear to be solid grounds for excluding the deposition 
of pigment in a grown feather on mechanical reasons alone. Pigment 
as such does not appear to be free flowing. I do, however, suggest that 
there are good grounds for believing that deepening and enhancing of 
colours does occur and that previously blank areas can subsequently 
exhibit melanin coloration and markings and that all these slight changes 
occur through fatty secretions. They all appear to occur as the bird 
is coming into breeding condition and may well be linked with the hormonic 
secretions then occurring. Whether they can in any way be correlated 
to the changes in the colour of bills as in the cases of House Sparrows, 
Chaffinches, Hawfinches and Starlings, would be an interesting investiga- 
tion — these changes of course are due to internal secretions. 

What about abrasive moult ? I do not think I am alone in feeling 
that abrasive moult in the sense of a wearing away of the feather tips 
by outside agency is a haphazard, happy-go-lucky conception. It is 
fortuitous in action yet exact in fulfilment. No matter where a bird 
lives, whether wild or caged, no matter when it moults, late or early, 
each seems to acquire nuptial plumage by abrasion at the psychological 
moment. It seems a wasteful proposition that an otherwise vigorous 
male should depend for compatible mating on the effect that outside 
factors may have had on its plumage. 

On the other hand, I suggest that some fatty secretion permeating 
a feather would tend to accelerate the dropping off of worn and unwanted 
tips and would time their shedding to the sexual maturity of the bird (a 
sort of desquamation process). There are some aspects of sexual abrasive 
moult among cage birds that appear to support this suggestion. In 
Linnets, Redpolls and Twites, for instance, the secondary sexual char- 
acters of red flushes on breast or rump respectively, are never moulted 
out in captivity into their proper tone. They invariably remain bronze 
or old gold and substantially the same colour as that usually laid down 
in the wild bird after the autumnal moult. The coming up into colour 
under cover of the brown tips which I claim undoubtedly occurs with 
wild specimens is not repeated in captivity. Among wild Linnets, only 

Vol. 68 86 1947-48 

the finest songsters and best marked birds exhibit the bright red breast. 
The old-time bird catchers could pick out those males which would 
moult out bright red ; those that would show little red they called 
" stone -breasted " and discarded these as being useless both as songsters 
or for muling purposes. 

The difference between the abrasive moult in the wild and caged 
specimens is sometimes claimed as due to incorrect feeding, but there 
is no valid reason for this assertion. I suggest it may be due to the 
absence of promiscuous males with which, were it wild, the captive 
male would have to contend by coloration and song. The sexual 
excitement which would incite secretion or vice versa is thus inhibited 
and the secondary sexual characters become suppressed. 

In the same way captive cock Snow Buntings never attain the black 
mantle of the wild individuals. There always remain chestnut or bufnsh 
feather edges. The abrasive moult of this species is intriguing and 
descriptions of it are conflicting. In his ' Manual of British Birds ', 
Howard Saunders says, " In autumn the bird . . . has the feathers of the 
upper parts broadly edged with dull chestnut ... In winter the chestnut 
margins gradually become white ". This implies a change of colour. 
The Handbook is not so explicit. It refers to the two types as variants. 
Yet the series of skins in the British Museum definitely show that white 
edged birds are not taken before December — earlier birds have chestnut 
edges and tips to the mantle feathers. Furthermore, these white -edged 
birds have this edging noticeably narrower than the chestnut edging of 
the others.* This suggests there has been some wearing away coupled 
with a colour change. What is even more confusing is the statement 
in the Handbook that the males abrade tips and edges of the feathers, 
whereas the females abrade the tips only. This statement just does not 
make sense. It is evasive. It certainly appears that in the male the 
chestnut or white edges still remaining after partial abrasion have turned 
black. I cannot conceive of one sex abrading feathers of the same size 
and shape much more extensively than the other. I compared the area 
of black in the feathers of the series of chestnut edged birds with the 
area of black remaining after full male plumage was attained in the black 
specimens and found a noticeable enlargement. The change is so 
remarkable, particularly when comparing the two sexes, that it should 
be looked into again. 

If I am right in claiming that some internal secretion reaches the 
feathers after the moult, one would expect to find some fading or change 
in feathers of skins in course of time, and that such changes would only 
be apparent in the body contour feathers, not the quills, through drying 

1947-48 87 Vol. 68 

out. In their recent article in ' British Birds ' (November 1947), 
Messrs. Wagstaffe and Williamson of the Yorkshire Museum, set out a 
list of changes which they admit is not exhaustive, but in no instance 
do they refer specifically to any change in the quills of wings or tail. 
Changes in the body contour feathers are common. It is also interesting 
to notice that the " foxing " which occurs on the backs of Redwings, 
Robins and Song Thrushes, which is a change from olive brown to rusty 
brown, is strictly in accordance with the reverse order in which melanin 
coloration is attained when tyrosine is oxidized, that is to say, any 
fading would be from brown to reddish brown and not from one shade 
of brown to a lighter shade. 

We know that all feathers have a considerable oil content. 

Another point which may or may not be of importance is the use 
by land birds of the preen gland. Water birds having a more developed 
gland may be different. Is it not a fact that a bird normally resorts 
to this gland for dressing the quills and not the body contour feathers ? 
Is it not also a fact that the gland is absent in the case of the flightless birds ? 
Why is this so ? Does it show that the body contour feathers receive 
a quota of oil from the body, whereas the quills require external dressing ? 

Any claim that there can be a change of colour without a moult has 
always been met by the assertion that it is either an individual aberration 
resulting from an incomplete moult or cannot possibly occur anyway, 
because no one can find a channel of entry into a cornified feather. 
Surely, to say that something cannot happen because one does not know 
how it happens is manifestly absurd. In any event, no one really supposes 
that there would be a channel left open through which a feather shaft 
could be flooded by fluid to the detriment of its essential purpose that 
it should be light and rigid. We do not require a microscope to see 
parchment permeated by oil or fat. Parchment is a dermal product 
and enzymes can oxidize their substrates through the finest parchment, 
and then when only in the proportion of one part to 200,000. Cannot 
the cortex of a feather similarly be a vehicle for the permeation of an 
oily secretion. One does not expect pigments as such to pass up a feather. 
Melanin cannot, because a feather when grown is cut off from the blood 
stream for obvious reasons, and lipochromes cannot because they only 
pigment a feather through being themselves dissolved in fat as fat and 
not as a secretion from fat. But if a fatty secretion of fat were to permeate 
a feather it would automatically deepen its colours and could, according 
to its nature, chemically change colours of a deposited pigment. 

I may be looked upon as a heretic or a lunatic in claiming that you 
.can have a limited colour change in body contour feathers without a 


Vol. 68 88 1947-48 

moult as the result of a fatty secretion into the feathers. Such a secretion 
may also change the colour of visible melanin deposits or even bring into 
view potential melanin colouring through the oxidation of tyrosine. 
It would also deepen lipochrome pigmentation and effect a considerable 
improvement in the appearance of prismatic or optical colours by 
deepening the tone of the underlying base. Abrasive moult, as a means 
of bringing a bird into colour, would be hastened as and when required, 
and where abrasive moult is the means of disclosing secondary sexual 
characters the resulting colours are gradually built up under the cover 
of the feather tips by secretion. 

Obviously one cannot prove colour change save by studying individuals 
under controlled conditions and, since none of us can faithfully remember 
shades of colour, record changes by photography. I have, therefore, 
acquired aviary bred pairs of Snow Buntings, Bullfinches, Redpolls, 
Yellow Buntings and Siskins which I propose to photograph in colour 
and monochrome at regular intervals. If any member can suggest 
other birds that might assist by showing change or any other method 
of obtaining permanent records I shall be grateful. 

Whilst I appreciate that it is comparatively simple to pick out certain 
occurrences and formulate a thesis around them, and that time and 
experiments may subsequently prove my somewhat revolutionary 
proposition to be fallacious, I do feel that I have enumerated sufficient 
actual changes in birds without a moult to shake the confidence of the 
" no change " school. To have one school of thought which adopts 
an autocratic and negative attitude is neither beneficial not conducive 
to progress in any form of investigation. 

Dr. J. M. Harrison, Dr. J. G. Harrison, Mr. James Fisher and 
Sir Philip Manson-bahr took part in the discussion following this 

Lieut. -Commander Staples also referred to the different periods at which 
birds of substantially the same nature and inhabiting the same areas 
tended to acquire breeding plumage and was unable to reconcile these 
differences with abrasion solely brought about by outside influencies. 
In his experience the Great Tit was cleaned up before the Blue Tit and 
commences its spring song earlier ; the Linnet is in full plumage and song 
before the Yellow Bunting, who breeds later, and was inclined to think 
the Hawfinch was in full colour before the Bullfinch, yet each of the pair 
of birds mentioned enjoys equal opportunities of abrasion as their habitats 
are similar. In these circumstances he was of the opinion that abrasion 
was something more than a mere mechanical wearing away of feather 

1947-4$ 89 Vol. 68 

Exhibition of Chaffinches including an example of 
Fringilla coelebs hortensis Brehm from Kent. 

Dr. J. M. Harrison remarked : — 

I am exhibiting tonight six Chaffinches. The top row shows, on the 
left, a breeding Swedish topotype, F. c. ccelebs Linnseus, from Upsala, 
in the centre, a breeding English bird, F. c. gengleri Kleinschmidt, and 
on the right, an example of F. c. hortensis Brehm, obtained on 10 March 
1945, near Seal. I would like to stress that this race is a commonly 
occurring one in Kent during the winter, but more particularly during 
the early spring, in the large migratory flocks which one meets with 
during March and early April. 

It will be seen at once how very distinct these three races are, the pale 
cinnamon, almost yellow, English bird, the red-pink Swedish and the 
violaceous Central European form. 

Three of the birds shown are breeding examples of F. c. hortensis, 
German topotypes. The range of this latter race would appear to be 
Germany, France, Holland, Belgium and Switzerland, and there is, in 
my opinion, little doubt that it is this race, rather than F. c. ccelebs, which 
forms the bulk of the large migratory flocks above referred to. At the 
same time I have identified a number of examples of the latter race 
from Kent, from mixed flocks of Finches and Bramblings. 

A new Race of the Black-throated Babbler. 

Mr. S. Dillon Ripley sent the following : — 

In the course of examining a collection of birds made last winter in 
the Mishmi Hills of north-east Assam, I have had occasion to compare 
a large series of Stachyris nigriceps Blyth, from Nepal east to Burma. 
The typical race occurs from Nepal east and north of the Brahmaputra 
River to the Miri Hills. This race is characterized by having the throat 
blackish-grey, the feathers edged with white. The ear-coverts in this 
race tend to be dark, verging towards seal brown. S. n. coltarti Harington, 
(type locality, Margherita) from Margherita, the Naga Hills, north Burma 
(upper Chindwin) and south at least to Bhamo, is characterized by having 
a blackish-grey throat with little or no white edging to the feathers, 
and by having rufous -brown ear- coverts. Birds from Cachar and the 
Chin Hills (Mt. Victoria) do not fit either race and, therefore, I propose : 

Stachyris nigriceps spadix, subsp. no v. 

Description. — Differs from S. nigriceps by having a dark blackish-grey 
unstreaked throat, and by having the ear-coverts lighter in colour, brown, 

Vol. 68 90 1947^8 

approaching burnt umber. From 8. u . coltarti this race differs by having the 
ear- coverts brown rather than rufous -brown. From S.u. davisoni Sharpe, 
of east and Peninsula Burma and the northern Malay Peninsula, this 
race differs by having a somewhat darker throat and darker brown, 
not ochraceous ear-coverts. Also the upper parts are more olive brown, 
less tinged with rufous. 

Distribution. — Assam south of the Brahmaputra, excluding north 
Lakhimpur — the Naga Hills and the Chin Hills. 

Type. — Female adult in the Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., Laisung, north 
Cachar, Assam, 6 April 1895, collected by E. C. Stuart Baker, Amer. 
Mus. Nat. Hist. No. 589672. 

Remarks. — Birds from the Mishmi Hills appear intermediate in character 
between S. nigriceps and 8. spadix. These birds lack the whitish edging 
to the throat feathers of the typical race but have darker more blackish 
ear-coverts than 8. spadix. 

Ticehurst, ' Ibis ', 1939, p. 564, remarks that 8. u. davisoni differs 
from 8. nigriceps only in that the ear-coverts are ochraceous, whereas 
in the latter they are blackish. He feels that the character of having 
more rufous upper parts is only a juvenile character. However, specimens 
of 8. u. davisoni from the collections in New York and Washington 
do appear more rufous on the upper parts and I am inclined to think 
that it is not a purely juvenile character or one due to foxing. 

My thanks are due to the authorities of the American Museum of 
Natural History for allowing me to describe specimens from their 

A new Race of the Woodchat-Shrike (Lanius senator 
Linnaeus) from the Island of Sicily. 

Mr. P. A. Clancey sent the following description : — 

As the result of the investigations of the German systematist, Dr. 0. 
Kleinschmidt, the number of described races of Lanius senator Linnaeus 
was more than doubled during the period 1907-1922. Some of these 
races have been adversely criticized by Hartert, Steinbacher, Olivier, 
et al. In order to resolve matters I have recently reviewed the claims 
of the various races with all available material in this country and with 
the assistance of Dr. A. von Jordans, Museum Alexander Koenig, Bonn, 
and a revision of the Group is in course of preparation. In the meantime 
it is considered necessary to draw attention to the distinctive Sicilian 

1947-48 91 Vol. 66 

L. senator, which appears to differ substantially from other described 
races, and for it I propose the name : — 

Lanius senator hensii, new race. 

Description. — Differs in having the under-parts strongly washed with 
reddish brown as opposed to yellowish sandy in all other races. Bill 
almost as massive as in L. s. badius but less hooked. Size as in L. s. 

Distribution. — Confined as a breeding bird to the island of Sicily. 
Winter quarters in tropical Africa not known. 

Type. — In my collection. Female adult. Near Siracusa (Syracuse), 
Sicily, 1 August 1943. In moult. 

Measurements of the type. — Wing (worn) 100, culmen from base 19, 
bill depth at nostrils 7-5, bill width at nostrils 6-5, tarsus 25, tail (worn) 77, 
speculum (exposed) 11 mm. 

Remarks. — Material examined : L. s. hensii, 5. Lanius senator senator 
Linnaeus, 1758 : Rhine Provinces, 19. Lanius senator niloticus (Bona- 
parte), 1853 : White Nile, 23. Lanius senator badius Hartlaub, 1854 : 
Gold Coast, 9. Lanius senator flilckigeri Kleinschmidt, 1907 : Lambese, 
Algeria, 2. Lanius senator weigoldi Kleinschmidt, 1918 : Malaga, Spain, 
19. Lanius senator erlangeri Kleinschmidt, 1918 : Tunis, Tunisia, not 
examined — see below. Lanius senator italic Kleinschmidt, 1922 : 
Tuscany, Italy, 4. Dr. A. von Jordans has compared two adults of the 
new form with very extensive series of the above races as well as with 
the types of L. s. flilckigeri, L. s. weigoldi, L. s. erlangeri, and L. s. italite, 
all in the collection of the Museum Alexander Koenig, Bonn. 

Named in honour of our colleague, Dr. P. A. Hens, Netherlands, 
in recognition of his valuable contributions to our knowledge of western 
Palaearctic birds. 

The specimens upon which the new race is founded were collected 
on the eastern side of the island of Sicily during the military campaign 
of 1943. The very faded and worn examples taken still show the 
characteristic reddish brown suffusions to the undersides. This is unusual 
in the species because by similar date birds of other races are generally 
pure white beneath. The specimens in partial fresh dress show that the 
full autumn plumage of the new race is most distinctive. Sicily seems 
to be an island of dark bird races and several novelties are known and 
await investigation. 

Dr. A. von Jordans after comparing two specimens of L. s. hensii 
with material in the Museum Alexander Koenig, Bonn, writes (21 December 

Vol. 68 92 1947-48 

1947) : " Your two adults from Sicily are strongly coloured on the 
undersides — there are similar ones among the north African specimens 
in fresh plumage, and though your's still, wear the much faded and worn 
dress of the early part of the year, they would be ever so much more 
strongly coloured in fresh plumage. The tone is clearly quite different — 
reddish brown against the yellow- sandy colour of all others. At the 
same time of the year as these Sicilian birds, all our collected weigoldi, 
badius, etc., are almost pure white below, very few showing any 
trace of colour. The colour difference is throughout uniform and 

L. s. erlangeri, based on a single specimen from Tunis (Type, Kat. No. 
2264, in Kleinschmidt's first collection, now in Mus. A. Koenig, Bonn), 
cannot be separated from L. s. fluckigeri. L. s. weigoldi and L. s. italise, 
are both valid races. Full details of these will be given in my revision 
of the Group. 

For the loan of comparative materials and assistance I am deeply 
indebted to Dr. J. M. Harrison, Dr. A. von Jordans, Dr. O. Kleinschmidt, 
Mr. J. D. Macdonald, Col. R. Meinertzhagen and Lieut. -Col. W. A. Payn. 

On the validity of Pyrrhula pyrrhula wardlawi 


Mr. P. A. Clancey sent the following communication : — 

Pyrrhula pyrrhula wardlawi Clancey, 1947 : Kinloch Rannoch, Perth- 
shire, Scotland, was separated {vide Bull. B. O. C. 67 (1947), p. 76) 
on account of the darker and bluer mantle coloration of the male, colder 
tone of mantle and warmer, less purple-brown, under-parts of the female 
and the average smaller bill in both sexes when compared with Pyrrhula 
pyrrhula nesa Mathews and Iredale, 1917 : Tring, Hertfordshire, England, 
and Pyrrhula pyrrhula coccinea (Gmelin), 1789 : Karlsruhe, Baden, 
western Germany. Meinertzhagen, Bull. B. O. C. 68 (1947), pp. 23-24, 
has criticized the race on a smaller series than that used for the original 

In my revision of the British Pyrrhula pyrrhula (Linnaeus) races in 
1 Ibis ', 1948, pp. 132-134, I state that I had examined up to that time 
(May 1947) forty specimens. In view of Meinertzhagen 's criticisms, I have 
reviewed the race again with the paratypical series and additional topo- 
typical material collected personally in the type-locality in June 1947, 
and at my behest in the autumn of the same year. 

Compared with P. p. nesa the dark bluish grey mantle coloration 
of the males of P. p. wardlawi is most striking. On the under-parts 

1947-48 93 Vol. 68 

I can detect no subtle differences but Scottish birds are perhaps on the 
whole a rather duller shade of pink. Females of P.p. wardlawi, in addition 
to prominent grey napes, exhibit a colder grey tone to the mantles which 
is most significant when viewed in series, P. p. nesa being quite brownish 
in comparison. On the under-parts P. p. wardlawi is rather warmer 
and never seems to have the greyish suffusion which is general in about 
50 per cent of topotypical P. p. nesa. I agree with Meinertzhagen 
that there is a substantial overlap in bill measurements with the southern 
race, but the details enumerated in the original description do not belie 
the true facts of the case. I have in my collection two males from Essex 
which have bills comparable with many P. p. wardlawi. About eight 
out of the fifty P. p. wardlawi examined have bills approaching the 
majority of P. p. nesa in size and shape, but some of these have only 
" massive " bills by virtue of the fact that the upper and lower mandibles 
are out of alignment as a result of faulty preparatory technique. Cer- 
tainly the overlap in bill measurements does not violate the principles 
of the 75 per cent convention and the criterion is of sufficient constancy 
and significance to justify the recognition of the Scottish montanic 
form of P. pyrrhula as a distinctive geographical race. The colour 
characters, in some respects ancillary to the structural modification, 
are of a sufficiently salient nature as to warrant the closest scrutiny in 
any critical estimation of the validity of P. p. wardlawi. 

The Scottish specimens in the Meinertzhagen collection are faded, 
especially the males, and it was on this very material and the series in 
the Royal Scottish Museum that I based the statement " Comparison 
between races of this species must always be carried out with freshly 
taken series owing to the rapid fading which clearly takes place in museum 
skins " (Bull. B. 0. C. 67 (1947), p. 77). Attention is drawn to the 
confirmatory evidence that P. pyrrhula fades rapidly in museum collections 
which is contained in the paper by Messrs. R. Wagstaffe and K. 
Williamson, ' British Birds ' 40 (1947), pp. 322-325. Such faded material 
clearly presents a serious danger which can beguile the ablest investigators, 
and it is obvious that Meinertzhagen did not appreciate the cogency 
of my remarks when wilting his criticism. This view is further strengthened 
by his references to the skins in the Harrison collection which I have 
examined in great detail. The bulk of Dr. J. M. Harrison's series is of 
recent formation and, though it would not be correct to claim that all 
the skins are free from the effects of atmospheric pollution, the majority 
are in the main clean and agree perfectly well with new material in 
my collection from many other parts of southern and south -eastern 

Vol. 68 94 1947-48 

The types and paratypical series of races when readily available, as 
was so in the case of P. p. ivardlawi, should always be consulted in any 
revision or critical appreciation. Such procedure would undoubtedly 
save irksome and repetitive enunciation of criteria already fully dealt 
with in the original diagnoses and an untoward extension of apposite 

P. p. wardlawi inhabits a less varied biotope than the southern P. p. 
nesa, being in many respects a coniferous woodland bird. In certain 
parts of the highlands of Scotland it can truly be regarded as common. 
The Scottish race appears to be a late breeder as birds taken up to and 
including 14 June exhibited only moderate gonad activity. 

On the British races of ^Egithalos caudatus 

Mr. P. A. Clancey sent the following communication : — 
Meinertzhagen, Bull. B. 0. C. 68 (1947), p. 27, discussed the characters 
claimed for the race JEgithalos caudatus chlamyrhodomelanos Clancey, 
1941 : Evelix, near Dornoch, Sutherlandshire, N. Scotland (vide ' Ibis ', 
1.941, p. 314), separated on account of the narrower white fringes to the 
innermost secondaries and less white on the inner greater- coverts and 
the darker tone of the flanks when compared with Mgithalos caudatus 
rosaceus Mathews, 1938 : Selborne, Hampshire, England. In view 
of Meinertzhagen 's findings I have re-examined the entire question of 
the validity of M. c. chlamyrhodomelanos with large materials from all 
parts of the British Isles. 

The main characters upon which M. c. chlamyrhodomelanos was based 
are by no means constant and I must now admit error in placing too 
much reliance on the small amount of white on the secondaries and 
greater coverts in the three skins of northern Scottish birds available 
to me when I separated the race in 1941. Many birds from England 
and southern Scotland agree with the northern ones in this respect. 
The dark tone of the flanks is, however, a very different proposition, 
and in series M. c. chlamyrhodomelanos is readily separable. The flanks 
of the northern Scottish race are decidedly reddish and without the 
violaceous tinge found in the southern M. c. rosaceus. I now find that 
on the upper-parts the northern Scottish race is more intensely coloured, 
especially on the scapulars, and the black of the back is more glossy. 
In series the differences are perfectly visible — even to the uninitiated — 
and by no means so insignificant or inconstant as stated by Meinertzhagen. 

1947^8 95 Vol. 68 

The criteria just outlined are readily discernible in fresh autumn dress, 
but abrasion results in a toning down which does not permit differentiation 
between the northern and southern races on breeding birds. 

(Fraser Darling, ' Nat. Hist. Highlands and Islands ', 1 947, p. 136, 
claims to have observed white-headed birds in the north-western High- 
lands. There is no evidence whatever in existing series to justify the 
view that white-headed examples occur in the indigenous race of that 
region (M. c. chlamyrhodomelanos) , but further sample collections will 
clearly be needed before this point can be finally settled. Such observa- 
tions unless backed by specimens and evidence of breeding are virtually 
valueless, and their perpetuation in the literature as valid records should 
be rigorously opposed). 

I have yet to see a specimen from south of the Grampian mountains 
with the reddish flank coloration of M. c. chlamyrhodomelanos, which 
race inhabits a distinct geographical niche in the species, British distri- 
bution being strictly confined to the mountainous region of northern, 
western and central Scotland, as well as some Inner Hebrides. South 
of the mountains M. c. rosaceus is found. I therefore recognize M. c. 
chlamyrhodomelanos as a valid race, recognizable on account of 
the corrected characters defined above as well as on geographical 

I have already indicated in ' Ibis ', 1943, p. 90, that some birds from 
south-eastern England are inseparable from Mgithalos caudatus eurojpseus 
(Hermann), 1804 : Switzerland. This now links up well with Meinertz- 
hagen's findings loc. cit. of specimens from Holland, Belgium and France, 
which agree with M.c. rosaceus. The name Mgithalos caudatus expugnatus 
Bacmeister and Kleinschmidt, 1916 : north-eastern France, was presumably 
applied to intermediate populations of questionable stability, but I am 
unable to pass impartial comment on it at the present time. 

The indigenous M. caudatus of the Isle of Man appears to be a new race. 
Specimens preserved in the collection of the Yorkshire Museum have the 
back almost ivory-black and the scapulars more rose-coloured than is 
so in either M. c. rosaceus or M. c. chlamyrhodomelanos. The differences 
exhibited by these Manx birds certainly seem to necessitate their separa- 
tion as another race. The characters of the Irish bird have already 
been described by Meinertzhagen and it should also be separated. 

I now recognize four racial divisions of M. caudatus in the British 
Isles as follows : — 

(1) Mgithalos caudatus rosaceus Mathews, 1938 : Selborne, Hampshire, 

Vol. 68 96 1947-48 

Less richly coloured, above than M. c. chlamyrhodomelanos and 

with paler, more violaceous, pink flanks. 

Distribution. — England (N.B. Evidence of slight overlap with M. c. 

europmus in south-eastern England — the tendency is infinitesimal and 

does not warrant the separation of these populations as M. c. rosaceus < 

M. c. europzeus), Wales, southern Scotland. 

(2) Mgithalos caudatus chlamyrhodomelanos Clancey, 1941 : Evelix, 
near Dornoch, Sutherlandshire, N. Scotland. 

Strongly coloured above and with a pronounced reddish tinge 
to the flanks. 

Distribution. — The mountainous regions of northern, western and 
central Scotland. Some Inner Hebrides. 

(3) Mgithalos caudatus race ? 

Nearest M. c. rosaceus but black of back deeper and scapulars 
more rose-coloured. 
Distribution. — Isle of Man. 

(4) Mgithalos caudatus race % 

Mainly separable from M. c. rosaceus on account of the larger and 
more numerous spots on the lower- throat. 
Distribution. — Ireland, where very local. 

Notes on East African Birds. 

Captain C. H. B. Grant and Mr. C. W. Mackworth-Praed sent the 
following six notes : — 

(1) On the status of Apaloderma narina littoralis Van Someren, Bull. 
B. O. C. 51, 1931, p. 80 : Sokoke Forest, south-eastern Kenya Colony. 

Van Someren gives wings 117-125 mm. as against 128-145 mm. in 
Apaloderma narina narina (Stephens) and tails 155-160 mm. as against 
160-200 mm. in A. n. narina. 

We have measured the specimens in the British Museum collection 
and we find males from Malindi, wing 128, tail 165 ; Shimba Hills, wing 
130, tails 172 ; Dera, 40 miles up the Tana River, wings 119-127, tails 
164 ; Sigi, Usambara, wing 120, tail 155 ; Mt. Kilimanjaro, wing 128, 
tail 163 ; Mt. Meru, wings 130-132, tail 173 ; Tete, Portuguese East 
Africa, wing 131, tail 181; Transvaal, wings 129-135, tail 157-182; 
Natal and Zululand, wing 127-132, tails 160-164 ; Uganda, wings 130-134, 

1947-4$ 97 Vol. 68 

tails 186 ; Nyasaland, wing 128-138, tails 162-170 ; 60 miles south of 
Morogoro, Tanganyika Territory, wing 125, tail 160 ; Cape Province, wings 
133-136, tails 164-173 mm. These show that birds from the coastal area 
have wings up to 130 mm. and that inland ones have wings down to 
128 mm. ; *tails up to 172 mm. in the coastal area. In females we find : — 
Mt. Meru, wing 121, Southern Rhodesia, 126 mm. It would therefore 
appear that the coastal form is not very well differentiated by size. The 
characters given for the vermiculations on the wing- coverts and those given 
for the female are to be found in birds as far south as Nyasaland, and 
although Kenya Colony birds do have a rather darker background to the 
vermiculations on the wing- coverts this is to be found in birds from other 
parts of the range of A. n. narina. We are therefore of opinion that 

A. n. littoralis Van Someren is insufficiently differentiated and must 
be considered a synonym of A. n. narina Stephens. 

(2) On the status of Myioceyx ruficeps ugandm Van Someren, Bull. 

B. O. C, 41, 1921, p. 105 : Budongo, western Uganda. 

We have seen no specimens from western Uganda, but the fourteen 
specimens of Myioceyx lecontei (Cassin) from the Gold Coast to the Upper 
Congo show considerable variation in the amount of spotting on the 
top of the head. 

As the only character given for M. r. ugandse is the " more decided 
blue spots on the head " we are of opinion that this is not constant and 
place Myioceyx ruficeps ugandde Van Someren, as a synonym of Myioceyx 
lecontei (Cassin). 

(3) On the status of Smithornis capensis suahelicus Grote, O. M., 1926, 
p. 17 : Magagoni, Ruvu River, eastern Tanganyika Territory ; Smithornis 
capensis shimba Van Someren, Bull. B. O. C, 62, 1941, p. 35 : Makadara 
Forest, Shimba Hills, south-eastern Kenya Colony, and Smithornis 
capensis chyulu Van Someren, Bull. B. O. C, 62, 1941, p. 37 : Chyulu 
Range, south-eastern Kenya Colony. 

Through the kindness of Dr. Van Someren and of the Trustees of the 
Coryndon Museum, Nairobi, we have been able to examine a male and 
a female specimen of S. c. shimba and a male of S. c. chyulu. These 
specimens agree well with specimens in the British Museum collection 
from the Pugu Hills and near Dar-es-Salaam, eastern Tanganyika Terri- 
tory, which agree with the description of S. c. suahelicus. 

We further find that all these specimens agree well in size, colour and 
markings with specimens as far south as Natal, and we can see no character 
on which they can be satisfactorily divided. 

Vol. 68 m 1947-48 

We therefore place Smithornis capensis suahelicus Grote, Smithornis 
capensis shimba Van Someren, and Smithornis capensis chyulu Van 
Someren, as synonyms of Smithornis capensis capensis (Smith). 

(4) On the status of Phyllastrephus debilis shimbanus Van* Someren, 
Bull. B. O. C., 64, 1943, p. 12 : Shimba Hills, south-eastern Kenya 

We had hoped to have seen by now a specimen or so of the twelve 
obtained by Dr. Van Someren, for comparison with the British Museum 
series, but so far have been unsuccessful. This race was described from 
1100 feet and the British Museum have two specimens collected by 
Robin Kemp in the Shimba Hills at 1000 feet which in no way differ 
from specimens of Phyllastrephus debilis rabai Hartert and Van Someren. 

We consider it to be extremely doubtful that there is a different race 
only 100 feet higher up these Hills and therefore place Phyllastrephus 
debilis shimbanus Van Someren, as a synonym of Phyllastrephus debilis 
rabai Hartert and Van Someren. 

(5) On the status of Budytes superciliaris Brehm, J. f. O., 1854, p. 74 : 
Khartoum, Sudan. 

This bird and Budytes xanthophrys Sharpe, Cat. Bds. B.M. 10, 1885, 
p. 532 : Lenkoran, Azerbaijan, Iran, have been considered by authors 
as aberrations of Budytes thumbergi feldegg Machahelles. 

The Sudan Government Museum has recently sent to the British Museum 
for naming a series of various yellow Wagtails, and amongst these are 
three males, two of which have white superciliary stripes and one a 
yellow superciliary stripe. These agree perfectly with a male in the 
British Museum collection from Karakol, east of Lake Issyk-kul in 
eastern Russian Turkestan, with a white superciliary stripe, collected 
on 8 May, and a male from Lenkoran with a yellow superciliary stripe, 
collected in March. It seems to us that these five birds show such con- 
stant characters that B. superciliaris should be recognized as a race, 
especially as we have seen no intermediates between this race and B. t. 
kaleniczenkii (Kaleniczenko), and that the May bird is no doubt in its 
breeding area at Karakol, which is on the northern edge of the breeding 
area of B. t. kaleniczenkii. 

We place Budytes xanthophrys Sharpe, as a synonym of Budytes 
thumbergi superciliaris Brehm. 

1947-48 99 Vol. 68 

(6) The distribution of Bradornis pallidus subalaris Sharpe, P.Z.S., 
1873, p. 713, pi. 58, fig. 1 : Mombasa, eastern Kenya Colony. 

All authors have confined this race to the coastal areas of Kenya 
Colony to northern Portuguese East Africa, but our further examination 
shows that this race must be extended to as far west and south as the 
southern Belgian Congo, north-eastern Northern Rhodesia, Southern 
Rhodesia, Nyasaland, Portuguese East Africa, the Transvaal, Natal 
and Zululand. There is an overlap in wing measurements over these 
areas from 77 to 88 mm. for coastal specimens to 79 to 100 mm. for 
the remainder. 

This certainly gives a difference of no less than 21 mm. but we cannot 
see where a line can be drawn. Furthermore they all resemble each 
other in general colour, and all are browner, less grey, than Bradornis 
pallidus murinus Finsch and Hartlaub, from Angola and north-western 
Northern Rhodesia. See also ' Ibis ', 1940, pp. 519 and 735. 

A Correction : — 

The Editor regrets that the name of the Guest of the Club at the 
Meeting of the 19 November 1947, has been mis-spelt. 
This guest's name should read : — 

Lieutenant W. RYDZEWSKI. 


The next Meeting of the Club will be held at the Rembrandt Hotel, 
South Kensington, S.W. 7, on Wednesday, 18 February 1948. Dinner 
at 6.30 p.m. 




ttV fc\tf& Volume 68. 

No. 5. 

The four-hundred-and-seventy-fourth Meeting of the Club was held at 
the Rembrandt Hotel, Thurloe Place, S.W.7, on Wednesday, 18 February, 
1948, with dinner at 6.30 p.m. 

Chairman : Dr. J. M. Harrison. 

Members present : — Miss C. M. Acland ; Mrs. R. G. Barnes ; F. J. F. 
Barrington ; J. Fisher ; Capt. H. A. Gilbert ; W. E. Glegg (Hon. 
Secretary) ; Miss C. E. Godman ; Miss E. M. Godman (Vice-Chairman) ; 
Capt. C. H. B. Grant (Editor) ; Miss E. P. Leach (Hon. Treasurer) ; 
Miss C. Longfield ; Dr. G. Carmichael Low ; Dr. P. R. Lowe ; J. D. 
Macdonald ; C. W. Mackworth-Praed ; Sir P. Manson-Bahr ; 
G. M. Mathews ; E. M. Nicholson ; Col. W. A. Payn ; Major G. H. R. 
Pye-Smith ; Miss G. M. Rhodes ; Lt.-Cmdr. C. P. Staples ; Dr. A. 
Landsborough Thomson ; B. W. Tucker ; C. N. Walter ; Mrs. H. W. 
Boyd Watt ; A. Williams ; C de Worms. 

Guests :— Mrs. M. V. Gilbert ; R. J. B. Glanville ; Cmdr. G. W. 
Harper ; Mrs. P. R. Lowe. 

Members, 29 ; Guests, 4 ; Total, 33. 

A new Race of White-eye from Kenya Colony. 

Mr. J. G. Williams sent the following description and the type for 
exhibition : — 

Zosterops pallida kulalensis, new race. 

Description. — Similar to Zosterops pallida winifredse Sclater and Moreau, 
but larger. 

Published 25 March, 1948. Pbiok 2/6. 

Vol. 68 102 1947-48 

Wing 62-65 mm. as against 58-60 mm. in Z. p. winifredas. 

Distribution. — Mt. Kulal, northern Kenya Colony. 

Type. — In the British Museum. Adult male, collected at Mt. Kulal, 
northern Kenya Colony, on 8 October 1947, by J. G. Williams. Brit. 
Mus. Reg. No. 1948-1-3. 

Measurements of type. — Wing 64, culmen from base 15, tail 48, tarsus 
20 mm. 

Remarks. — Eight males and three females were obtained. 

This race inhabits mountain mist forest, usually in very large flocks, 
though sometimes in small parties. Call-note very like Z. virens jacksoni 
Neumann, but perhaps softer and more continuous. Stomach- contents 
were minute insects, spiders and the fruit of a species of Loranthus. 
Some males had very enlarged testes in early October and were apparently 
within a few weeks of breeding. The series of this new race were collected 
when I was attached to the Carlsberg Foundation Expedition from 

Notes on Sarothura ayresi and three birds new 
to Abyssinia. 

Mr. K. M. Guichard sent the following, with specimens for exhibition : — 

Sarothura ayresi (Gurney). Grant and Mackworth-Praed (Bull. 
B. O. C. 66, 1946, p. 37) examined an adult male bf this pigmy rail 
taken from near Addis Abeba by Patritzi and placed it in the Genus 
Sarothura. They had already suggested in Bull. B. 0. C. 62, 1941, p. 32, 
that the type of Coturnicops macmillani described by Bannerman, Bull. 
B. O. C. 29, 1911, p. 38, from a male taken in Kaflfa, south-western 
Abyssinia, was really the same as C. ayresi from South Africa described 
by Gurney in 1877, and of which only females are known from the Cape, 
Orange Free State, and the Transvaal. Three are in the British Museum. 

During the Italian occupation of Abyssinia, Patritzi is known to have 
collected at least four specimens of the White-winged Rail, including a 
female from Sululta, near Addis Abeba, but only one, the male examined 
by Grant and Mackworth-Praed, appears to have survived the Abj^ssinian 
re-occupation, and is in The Coryndon Museurn, Nairobi. 

To make absolutely certain that the Abyssinian and South African 
birds were the same it remained to discover Abyssinian females to compare 
with the South African ones. While in Abyssinia I was aware of this 
problem in 1945, but apart from Rouget's Rail I saw no rails until July 
1947, although I had been in many suitable localities, 

1947-48 103 Vol. 68 

On 11 July I visited a small marsh near Gafersa, 18 kms. west of Addis 
Abeba, c. 7500 feet, to see if the African Snipe' had arrived on the high 
plateau, and the boys disturbed a tiny rail with a conspicuous white 
wing patch. Guessing what it was I offered a reward for its capture, 
and in ten minutes it was flushed again, and after an exciting chase it 
was caught by hand and brought to me — a male of S. ayresi with, as it 
proved, greatly enlarged testes. Four evenings later I shot another 
male and the boys caught a second one near Gafersa in the same marsh. 
These birds and subsequent ones all had greatly enlarged testes. On 
17 July I shot two more males, and thought I had cleared this one acre 
marsh of the species. On the 25th I saw two more, but failed to get a 
specimen as rail hunting was becoming a national sport, and it was 
dangerous to shoot into the crowd. The climax was reached on 30 July 
when two females were obtained in absolutely fresh plumage, after which 
I found no more rails at Gafersa. 

Monsieur A. Salim of Addis Abeba very kindly secured four males on 
10 August on Sululta Plain while shooting snipe, and two of these together 
with all mine are in the British Museum Collection. 

The females from Gafersa established beyond doubt that the Abys- 
sinian and South African birds belong to the same species. 

The problem of Sarothura ayresi is interesting, and it has been suggested 
that the White -winged Rail migrates to breed in Abyssinia from South 
Africa where it has been recorded from August to November. Abyssinian 
records are from May to August, but the only May record is from Kaffa. 
It is certain that S. ayresi arrives on the high plateau near Addis Abeba 
to breed from an unknown area during July. Considering that both 
sexes were easily flushed at Gafersa I am convinced that the males arrive 
first. The one acre marsh is obviously a special habitat, where rushes 
and marsh orchids grow and the dark water is ankle deep. The marsh 
has one quaking spot amongst the decaying vegetation. Snipe come 
to it on migration, but it is nearly dry in April when livestock graze 
over it. The Sululta locality is different, consisting of close dry grass 
clumps partly submerged during the rains, but bone dry later, and three 
species of snipe are found there. 

I believe the White-winged Rail will yet be discovered in other localities 
between Abyssinia and South Africa. I prefer to think its migration 
to breed on the Abyssinian high plateau is purely a local one, and it 
probably arrives from the ornithologically little-known swamps of western 
Abyssinia, a theory supported by the Kaffa record. Even such a journey, 
bearing in mind the bird's weak flight which enables it to be caught by 

Vol.68 i04 1947-48 

hand, is sufficiently incredible without frequent halts. Perhaps the 
marsh at Gafersa may be one of the regular resting stages, and the breeding 
takes place on Sululta Plain not more than twelve miles distant. The 
environments of both localities are unique, at least within a fifty mile 
radius of Addis Abeba. 

Sarothura rufa rufa (Vieillot). On 30 July in the small marsh at 
Gafersa I shot a female Red-chested Pigmy-Rail which was flushed. The 
bird was in very fresh plumage, and its presence seems no less interesting 
than that of S. ayresi on the same day, and the remarks on the latter 
possibly apply to S. rufa also. This is a new record for Abyssinia. 

Porzana pusilla obscura Neumann. On 7 July, while returning from 
a duck shoot near Sabotha not far from Addis Abeba, my boys caught 
with their hands a female Baillon's Crake in a marsh full of rushes. This 
bird contained a perfect egg, and the record apart from being an addition 
to the Abyssinian list constitutes the furthest north breeding locality 
for the race P. p. obscura in Africa. The local people seemed to be familiar 
with the bird and wished to use it as strong medicine. 

Locustella nivea straminea Seebohm. The Grasshopper Warbler has 
not yet been recorded from Africa south of the Sahara. I shot one 
belonging to the Asiatic race on 12 February 1947, in dense grass cover 
along the River Hawash at Abroberifaghe. This place in the Danakil 
is on the threshold of Aussa, where the Hawash disappears into a series 
of lakes where dense fringing bush frequently offers a most suitable en- 
vironment for migrants. 

All the above-mentioned specimens are now in the British Museum. 

Pathological conditions in Birds. 

Dr. Jambs M. Harrison exhibited the following pathological conditions 
in birds : — 

1. Examples of fractures in birds showing that contrary to popular 
ideas, natural unaided union is only attended with satisfactory results 
when the fracture is situated in a position where displacement of fragments 
cannot readily take place, e.g., in the tarsus, where the scutellae afford 
natural splintage. This type is seen in the fracture of a Water-Hen, 
Gallinula chloropus chloropus (Linnaeus). 

In situations where unopposed and uncontrolled muscle pull occurs, 
nature's results are bad, as shown by the gross deformity and mal-union 
of the fracture of the femur of Stock-Dove, Columba cenas Linnaeus, 
and even more impossible position in which the fragments of the humerus 
of the Goosander, Mergus merganser merganser Linnaeus, have united, 

1947-48 105 Vol. 68 

resulting in a long bone assuming the shape of a Z. Despite these very 
poor orthopaedic results, function is nevertheless often surprisingly 
adequate ; mostly these fractures in birds are the result of healed gun-shot 
wounds, while occasionally the bird dies of a gas gangrene infection. 

2. The sternum of a female Peregrine Falcon, Falco peregrinus pere- 
grinus Tunstall, showing a curious and symmetrical fusiform swelling 
of the keel. This bird, for which I am indebted to Captain C. W. R. 
Knight, is a bird of the year, and died in captivity during the night of 
7-8 August 1931. It was somewhat wasted, and showed evidence of 
air-sac disease. It is thought that the swelling of the keel was due 
to a proliferative reaction, resulting from the mycotic infection entering 
the keel through the ostia on its inner surface. 

3. An adult male Greenfinch, Chloris Moris Moris (Linnseus), 21 April 
1938, Sevenoaks, Kent. This bird was seen in life to have its skull 
devoid of any covering at all. It was shot. On examination the vault 
and occipital regions show the bone exposed and highly polished, at the 
occiput proper there is a deep transverse erosion exposing the middle 
layer of the skull. The bird showed no signs of having been in captivity, 
and was in all other respects quite healthy. 

An adult female Yellow Bunting, Emberiza citrinella citrinella Linnaeus, 
13 April 1940, Romney Marsh. A wild shot bird, observed in the field 
to be " bald ". In this specimen the feathers were denuded, the skin 
was not adherent to the underlying skull, and the bird was otherwise 
quite healthy. On reflecting the skin, the vault of the skull is seen to 
be irregularly eroded, but the middle, or cancellous, layer was not exposed. 

The nature of these cases is obscure. Popularly referred to as " hen- 
pecked ", these individuals look in every other respect normal. I doubt 
the trauma (injury) theory. Originally * I had regarded such cases as 
analogous to the condition of osteogenesis imperfecta, a developmental 
defect. This view may equally well be proved incorrect. An attempt 
was made to culture a fungus from these specimens, but without success. 
Examination of quite fresh material is required before a mycotic disease 
can be definitely excluded. 

On the British race of Emberiza citrinella 

Mr. P. A. Clancey sent the following note :— 

Meinertzhagen, Bull. B. 0. C. 67, 1947, pp. 91-93, in supporting the 
separation of the British race of Emberiza citrinella Linnaeus, advocated 
* Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society, 15 Aug. 1933. 

Vol. 68 106 1947-48 

the use of the name Emberiza citrinella nebulosa Gengler, 1920, vide 
Arch. f. Naturg. 85, Abt. A. Heft 5, 1920, p. 91, described from southern 
England, Holland and northern France, in preference to Emberiza citrinella 
caliginosa Clancey, 1940, vide ' Ibis ', 1940, p. 94 : Dornoch, Sutherland- 
shire, northern Scotland. This opinion of Meinertzhagen's is not 
supported by the evidence available to me. 

The type-locality of E. c. nebulosa has been fixed by Meinertzhagen 
(loc. cit.) as Stalham, in Norfolk, from which locality he examined two 

In view of Meinertzhagen's opinion I have re-examined my large 
series of British material and find that the East Anglian breeding series 
of twenty skins is the same as those from near European countries. 
When compared with western British birds (E. c. caliginosa) they 
are seen to have much paler yellow surfaces, and the napes and 
mantles are appreciably paler and greyer. The striae of the breasts and 
flanks are less pronounced. A tendency to a deeper tone of yellow is 
perceptible in one or two males, but the majority are too pale to permit 
of union with the western populations. The general impression culled 
from an impartial evaluation of the characteristics of these East Anglian 
birds is that they are essentially intermediate in that they exhibit a 
minor approximation (c. 20 per cent.) towards western birds, E. c. cali- 
ginosa, while others cannot be separated from near European as well as 
Scandinavian specimens. Gengler {loc. cit.), in uniting the birds of 
England (Norfolk and Berkshire specimens examined), Holland and 
northern France under the one racial terminal, must have considered 
them to be reasonably homogeneous in their essential differences from 
E. c. citrinella. It is clear that he was not aware of the darker and 
more heavily striated birds of the western British populations or else 
he would not have been tempted to unite Dutch and northern French 
E. citrinella with the English bird. In other words, Gengler intended his 
name, E. c. nebulosa, for the intermediate populations. As already 
stated, only a small proportion of south-eastern English birds are near 
E. c. caliginosa, the majority being similar to the nominate race, and, 
therefore, E. c. nebulosa Gengler, 1920, can be placed in the synonymy 
of E. c. citrinella Linnaeus, 1758. 

With the data now at my disposal I would suggest the following 
classification for the indigenous E. citrinella of these islands : — 

Emberiza citrinella caliginosa Clancey, 1940 : Dornoch, Sutherlandshire, 
Northern Scotland. 

Darker and richer and more heavily striated than E. c. citrinella 

1947-48 107 Vol. 68 

Distribution. — Scotland and Isles, Ireland, Isle of Man, Wales, northern 
and western districts of England. Ranging to Ushant, Finistere, France, 
vide Clancey, ' Ibis ', 1947, p. 652. 

Emberiza citrinella citrinella>Emberiza citrinella caliginosa, =E. c. 
nebulosa Gengler, 1920. 

Intermediate populations. 

Distribution. — Most of southern and south-eastern England. Ranging 
to Holland, Belgium, France, and perhaps to western Germany. 

The type -localities of three British races of Paridae 
described by Prazak. 

Mr. P. A. Clancey sent the following note : — 

Prazak, in his descriptions of new British races of Paridae, published 
between 1894-1897, designated no types nor type-localities. Details 
of the material used by Prazak and its present whereabouts are not 
available, and it now seems desirable to designate precise type-localities. 

1. Parus major newtoni Prazak. 

In ' Ibis ', 1938, p. 748, I indicated that south-western Scottish popula- 
tions differed from English P. m. newtoni, and this matter was still further 
explored by Dr. J. G. Harrison, Bull. B. O. C. 65, 1945, pp. 26-27. 
Dr. J. M. Harrison, Ball. B. O. C. 66, 1946, pp. 24-28, referred to an 
overlap of P. m. major and P. m. newtoni in south-eastern England. 
In Bull. B. O. C. 66, 1946, p. 43, I gave further details in support of 
Dr. J. M. Harrison's contention. In Bull. B. O. C. 65, 1945, p. 44, 
I pointed out the interesting characters exhibited by two birds from 
Dornoch, Sutherlandshire, northern Scotland, and this question was 
carried further in notes by Clancey, Bull. B. 0. C. 66, 1946, pp. 86-87 ; 
1 Ibis ', 1947, p. 510. The data supplied by these notes necessitate a 
precise type-locality fixation. I propose, therefore, 

Lake District, England, 

as the type-locality of Parus major newtoni Prazak, Orn. Jahrb. 1894, 
p. 239 — " England ". The diagnostic characters of the race obtain 
in this locality which is far removed from regions of Continental racial 
int erpenetration . 

2. Parus cseruleus obscurus Prazak. 

In ' Ibis ', 1947, pp. 119-120, I supplied data on the known divergent 
trends within the race P. c. obscurus. Further study of British populations 
with a still larger material than that available to me in 1946 may result 

Vol. 68 108 1947-48 

in the separation of a Scottish montanic form. In order to facilitate 
matters I propose 

Lake District, England, 

as the type-locality of Parus cseruleus obscurus Prazak, Orn. Jahrb. 1894, 
p. 246 — " England ". Lake District birds exhibit constant racial 

3. Parus cristatus scoticus (Prazak). 

For the type-locality of his Lophophanes cristatus scotica Prazak simply 
gives " Scotland ". The race is extremely localized in Scotland, and it 
is imperative that we fix the type-locality somewhat more precisely. 
I therefore propose 

Strath Spey, Scotland, 

as the type-locality of Parus cristatus scoticus (Prazak), J. f. Orn. 1897, 
p. 347—" Scotland ". 

Notes on East African Birds. 

Captain C. H. B. Grant and Mr. C. W. Mackworth-Praed sent the 
following two notes : — 

(1) On the status of Cinnyris superbus buvuma Van Someren, Nov. 

Zool. 37, 1932, p. 352 : Buvuma Island, Lake Victoria, Uganda. 
This race was based on size of males, the wing-measurements being 
given as 83 mm. The British Museum series gives wing-measurements 
as follows : — Cameroon to Gabon, males 73-76, females 69-71 ; Angola 
males 75-77, females 71-72 ; Belgian Congo, males 77-80, females 
73-75 ; Uganda males 77-79 mm. Van Someren gives for Uganda males 
80-81, and females 73-76 mm. The above measurements show a gradual 
and continuous increase from west to east without a line of demarcation. 
It is therefore difficult to define a geographical distribution, and we prefer 
to regard Cinnyris superbus buvuma Van Someren as a synonym of 
Cinnyris s. superbus (Shaw). 

(2) On the status of Poliospiza striolata ugandas Van Someren, Bull. 

B. O. C. 41, 1921, p. 114 : Mt. Elgon. 
This race was compared to Poliospiza striolata graueri Hartert, as being 
paler on breast, and black streaks on chest narrower. These characters 
agree perfectly with Poliospiza striolata striolata (Ruppell), and of which 
we place Poliospiza s. ugandas Van Someren, as a synonym. 


The next Meeting of the Club will take place on 17 March, 1948, 
at the Rembrandt Hotel, Thurloe Place, S.W. 7. Dinner at 6.30 p.m. 






Volume 68. 
No. 6. 

The four-hundred-and-seventy-fifth Meeting of the Club was held at 
the Rembrandt Hotel, Thurloe Place, S.W.7, on Wednesday, 17 March, 
1948, with dinner at 6.30 p.m. 

Chairman : Dr. J. M. Harbison. 

Members present : F. J. F. Barrington ; Mrs. G. M. Chadwyck- 
Healey ; C. T. Dalgety ; J. Fisher ; W. E. Glegg (Hon. Secretary) ; 
Miss C. E. Godman ; Miss E. M. Godman (V ice-Chairman) \ Capt. 
C. H. B. Grant (Editor) ; Dr. J. G. Harrison ; R. E. Heath ; Miss E. P. 
Leach (Hon. Treasurer) ; C. W. Mackworth-Praed ; J. H. McNeile ; 
G. M. Mathews ; E. M. Nicholson ; Lt.-Col. W. A. Payn ; H. J. R. 
Pease ; A. A. Prestwich ; R. A. W. Reynolds ; Miss G. M. Rhodes ; 
Lord Hugh Russell ; Peter Scott ; Lt.-Commdr. C. P. Staples ; 
Dr. A. Landsborough Thomson ; C. N. Walter ; A. Williams ; 
C. de Worms. 

—Capt. R. A. Jackson ; Miss C. Johnston, D. Macphie, 
R. C. Witting. 

Members, 28 ; Guests, 4 ; Total, 32. 

Anew Race of the Whitefronted Goose. 

Mr. C. T. Dalgety and Mr. Peter Scott made the following remarks 
and exhibited the type and other specimens : — • 

Tonight we propose to show that two races of the Whitefronted Goose 
winter regularly in the British Isles, one coming from breeding grounds 
in Arctic Russia, the other from breeding grounds in North West Green- 
land ; and, surprisingly enough, these races are distinguishable not only 

Published May 1, 1948. a Price 2/6. 

Vol. 68 110 1947-48 

in the hand, but in the field. It seems remarkable that such a distinction 
in so large a bird as the Whitefronted Goose has not been recognized 
earlier, and that this new race has not already been given a name. This 
omission may be partly due to the confusion which has existed about the 
races of the Whitefronted Goose which inhabit North America. In 
order to make this clear a brief historical survey is necessary. 

The common Whitefronted Goose, Anser albifrons albifrons, was de- 
scribed by Scopoli in 1769 with a specimen taken presumably in northern 
Italy. (It was described incidentally as Branta albifrons.) In 1852 
Hartlaub described a larger race from three specimens, two taken in 
Texas and one in " the south of North America ". The Texas birds 
were immature and the third bird is said to have been " almost adult ". 
He named this race Anser albifrons gambelli after a young ornithologist, 
William Gambel (1819-1849), who was a protege of Nuttall, and was 
one of the first ornithologists to visit California. 

For many years it was assumed that all Whitefronted Geese in America 
belonged to the race A. a. gambelli. More recently, however, it was 
discovered that two races of Whitefronted Geese inhabited North 
America. The most common, with a wide distribution in the western 
half of the North American Continent, proved to be apparently in- 
distinguishable from the typical A. a. albifrons of Europe and Asia. 
A much less numerous race was recognized by the duck and goose 
hunters of California, and given the name Tule Goose (pronounced Tooly) 
from its winter habitat amongst willows and reeds, the latter being known 
locally as " tules ". This bird, which was considerably larger than the 
typical form, appeared to have a very restricted winter range confined 
to a few special marshes in the valley of the Sacramento in California. 
Its breeding range was at that time quite unknown. Swarth and Bryant 
in an admirable paper (University of California, Zoology, October 1917, 
vol. 17, no. 11, pp. 209, 222) came finally to the conclusion that the Tule 
Goose of California was synonymous with A. a. gambelli of Hartlaub. 
A detailed description of the Tule Goose will be given later, but it may 
be of interest to record that the nest of the Tule Goose is reported to have 
been found on a lake near the Perry River in the Canadian Arctic about 
half-way between Baffin Land and the McKenzie Delta on 26 July, 1941. 
Some doubt still surrounds this record. 

Kortright (1942), referring to the finder, a Hudson Bay Company's 
Post Manager named Angus Gavin, who had discovered the breeding 
grounds of the Ross's Goose for the first time, says, " Gavin estimated 
that he saw about 300 pairs of these geese (Tule Geese) in the vicinity. 
He also found a nesting colony of the smaller Whitefronted Goose about 

1947-48 111 Vol. 68 

6 miles away from the nesting Tule Geese, and states that the two varieties 
of Whitefronts kept strictly apart. A specimen of the large Tule Goose 
and the smaller Whitefronted Goose were shot. From the marked 
difference in the estimated weights of the two birds, Gavin, a most 
reliable observer, feels confident that he has probably found the nesting 
grounds of the Tule Goose ". 

This evidence of the proximity of the breeding grounds of A. a. albifrons 
and A. a. gambelli, together with the presence of both in different habitats 
in the same districts in California in winter, may well indicate that the 
latter will ultimately prove to be a different species. 

The finding of the breeding grounds of the Tule Goose in the Perry 
River district links up with the localities of two of the three supposed 
Tule Geese in the British Museum. Of these three, one comes from 
Texas, and the other two from the North-West Territories of Canada. 
Each of these arctic specimens is connected with a famous geographical 
exploration. One was collected by Dr. John Rae on his " Expedition 
to the shores of the Arctic Sea ", being killed on 1 June, 1847, at Repulse 
Bay. This expedition, which was sent by the Hudson's Bay Company, 
spent the winter of 1846-47 at Fort Hope, which is in Repulse Bay on 
the south side of the isthmus of Melville Peninsula (to the north of Hudson's 
Bay and just inside the Arctic Circle). The other was collected by 
Captain Back in 1834 on his " Northern Land Expedition ", which 
travelled the full length of the Back River, then known as the Great 
Fish River. Back left Sussex Lake, the source of the river, on 28 June, 
was on the estuary and coast from 29 July to 21 August, and returned 
to Sussex Lake on 17 September. He started from a point south-east 
of Perry River, passed to the south of it, and reached the coast midway 
between it and Repulse Bay. The exact date and locality of this specimen 
is not known. From these three specimens it would appear that the 
breeding ground of the Tule Goose is within the 500 miles of Arctic Canada 
lying between Longitudes 85° and 105°. 

In 1938 Scott visited the haunts of the Tule Goose at Butte Creek in 
Colusa County, California, but was unlucky in that he could not find 
any of the large race that day. 

In 1934 Dalgety, while on the west coast of Greenland, secured two 
specimens and one nest of the Whitefronted Goose. The significance of 
the bill colouring was not then known to him, and so he was not keeping a 
special look out for it. Unfortunately these two specimens did not show 
him the true bill colouring because one had the head almost destroyed 
by a large bore rifle bullet, while the other was not critically examined 
until some time after death, 


Vol. 68 112 1947-48 

At that time (June 1934), Dalgety was told by Governor Rosendhal at 
Godhavn, Disco, that young wild geese were sometimes brought in and 
fattened until October, when they were killed to be eaten at Christmas. 
As these geese were said to have yellow legs they were almost certainly 
Whitefronted Geese. 

Dalgety was not likely to be returning past Godhavn in the autumn, 
so communicated this information to the late David Haig Thomas, 
who was expected to pass through Godhavn in August of the same year, 
and again in the autumn of 1935 after wintering as a member of the 
Oxford University Ellesmere Land Expedition. As a result, in September 
1935, he brought back two live young Whitefronted Geese which Governor 
Rosendhal had obtained for him. 

When he first saw these birds Scott noticed that the bills were orange- 
yellow, and that the plumage was rather dark. He was at first inclined 
to dismiss these characters as possibly some individual family variation 
(since the birds were brother and sister) or possibly some nutritional 
difficiency due to the fact that they had been brought to England as 
goslings by sea, and had therefore obtained very little green food. • 

In 1937 Haig Thomas made arrangements for eight more live geese 
to be sent back from Greenland. Every bird was similar to the original 
two. Four of them were sent to Scott to join the collection at his Light- 
house on the Wash. It was not until they were seen in company with 
the other Whitefronted Geese — some twenty typical A. a. albifrons 
taken in Hungary and in Norfolk — that the full significance of the striking 
difference first impressed us. The orange-yellow bill and the dark plumage 
contrasted most noticeably with the pink bill and pale plumage of the 
typical form. 

It chanced that in the same year Scott was visiting America and was 
informed that the Whitefronted Goose is a very uncommon bird on the 
Atlantic Coast of that continent. Furthermore, it seemed that the 
V^hitefront, or Speckle-Belly as the American duck hunter calls it, of the 
middle and western States was indistinguishable from the typical form. 
Where, then, did the Greenland birds winter ? It was at this stage that 
we chanced upon a description of the Whitefronted Goose by Payne 
Gallwey in his " Letters to Young Shooters ", 1896. " The bill all one 
shade, orange yellow except the tip, which white " (italics his). We had 
always wondered about this apparent error from so careful an observer, 
but now, remembering that he had done most of his wildfowling in Ireland, 
the possibility occurred to us that this might be the winter quarters 
of the yellow-billed Greenland bird. Further research showed that Gould 
also described the bill as orange yellow when referring to a pair of geese 
sent to him by Lord Enniskillen from the county of Fermanagh. 

1947-48 113 Vol. 68 

This called for an immediate expedition to Ireland to put this theory 
to the test. Early in 1939 Scott spent a week trying to outwit a party 
of Whitefronted Geese on Lough Foyle in Northern Ireland. The light 
was very bad each day and the birds were very elusive until the last night 
of our visit, when at midnight, from our gunning punt, we were lucky 
enough to shoot three of a flock which flew over. Two of the birds were 
killed, but the third was only wing- tipped and was kept alive. By the 
light of a torch we peered excitedly at the bills and tried to determine 
whether they were pink or orange. This proved impossible, and the 
matter was not finally settled until dawn began to break. It was then 
quite evident that we had three birds of a similar race to those sent by 
Haig Thomas from Greenland. The live bird joined the collection at the 
lighthouse where, upon comparison, it was perfectly clear that it was 
the same as the four from Greenland. 

All the available evidence, therefore, pointed to the fact that a dis- 
tinguishable race of Whitefronted Goose bred on the West side of the 
Greenland Ice Cap, and wintered mainly in Ireland. (It would be mis- 
leading to speak of West Greenland in this connection, as the breeding 
area lies partly within the Governmental district of North Greenland.) 
Since that time careful study has been made of the Whitefronted Geese 
in Ireland, and in nearly all cases they have proved to belong to the 
yellow-billed race. The only exceptions were a small number recorded 
during the winter of 1946-47, when an unusually large influx of A. a. 
albifrons occurred in England, and when they were subsequently scattered 
by the severe weather. One of the birds shot near Dublin at this time 
was kept alive and is now in the Dublin Zoo. The reason for this was 
that Mr. Fred Fox, who shot it, recognized at once that this was something 
different from the usual Irish Whitefront, having paler plumage, and a 
noticeably smaller and pink bill. Conversely, in the winter of 1937, 
a Greenland Whitefront was shot in Westmorland by Mr. W. M. Brat by. 
He was conversant with the typical Whitefront and immediately recog- 
nized this as being something different. In fact he first mistook it for 
a Bean Goose, Anser arvensis Brehm, owing to its dark plumage and 
yellow bill ; being a juvenile it had a dark nail and no black on the breast. 
The yellow-billed race has been recorded from the west of Scotland, 
Westmorland, Wales and Gloucestershire ; in England, however, the 
records are of single birds or small numbers. It is also probable that those 
few Whitefronted Geese which winter on the Atlantic coast of North 
America belong to this race. 

Two minor complications, among many, should here be recorded. 
In 1902 Coburn, in ' Zoologist ', 1902, pp. 337, 351, assigned a number 
of Whitefronted Geese collected in western Ireland to A. gambelli. From 

Vol. 68 114 1947-48 

a series of Irish birds he picked a certain number which he regarded as 
the American form, whilst others were assigned to the typical form. 
It appears likely, however, that he was making his selection from a 
series of the hitherto undescribed race. He had not apparently noticed 
the difference in the colour of the soft parts, but was guided by the larger 
measurements which, as will be shown later, are sometimes a character 
of the yellow-billed form. 

The second complication was that the Greenland birds were again 
erroneously assigned to A. a. gambelli by Schioler in ' Danmarks Fugle ', 
1923. Schioler was aware of the distinction in the plumage and also 
in the measurements of the Whitefronted Goose breeding in Greenland, 
but again ascribed it to the American race. And here an interesting 
error crept in. The illustrations for this monumental Danish work were 
most exquisitely painted by Mr. T. Larsen. They were made, however, 
largely from skins, in the case of the Greenland birds, from which the 
colour of the soft parts can, of course, only be guessed. Mr. Larsen 
therefore painted the bills of the Greenland Whitefronts in the colour 
which he knew to be that of the typical Whitefronted Goose — that is to 
say, pale pink. The main point, however, is that Schioler had accepted 
a definite distinction between the Greenland breeding Whitefront and 
the typical Whitefront of Europe. He had accepted it on the basis 
of measurement and plumage colour without using, or apparently dis- 
covering, the important distinction in the colour of the bill. 

It is interesting to observe how the failure to recognize the Greenland 
race, together with the misuse of the name A. a. gambelli, has led to a 
great deal of misunderstanding and even asperity between ornithologists. 
There is scarcely a book on palaearctic ornithology which does not in 
some way allude to either white -fronted geese with yellow bills or to 
A. a. gambelli in a manner which can now be considered to be mistaken. 

The next problem was to find a suitable type-specimen for the de- 
scription of the new race. This could not be undertaken for various 
reasons until the end of the war. The significance of the bill colour 
and the rapid fading of this colour within a few minutes of death made 
the problem a very difficult one. No skins in collections or museums 
could be regarded as satisfactory for this reason. A pair of live birds 
taken in Greenland had been sent from Copenhagen to the London Zoo, 
and a second pair was sent to the collection of the Severn Wildfowl 
Trust in Gloucestershire. In both cases these birds were typical of the 
Greenland race, but it was not thought altogether satisfactory to use 
them as type -specimens in view of the difficulty of taking measurements 
from a living bird. 

1947-48 115 Vol. 68 

Meanwhile Dr. Finn Salomonsen of the Zoological Museum, Copenhagen, 
had undertaken some extensive ringing of the geese on the breeding 
grounds in Greenland, and already during the winter of 1946-47 a number 
of recoveries of these ringed birds were recorded. Nine were returned 
from Ireland, one from Wales, and one from eastern Canada. Further 
ringing was undertaken in the following year, and during the past winter 
an even larger number of recoveries has been made. Rewards were 
therefore offered for the immediate delivery of freshly killed specimens 
bearing rings. This was successful and a number of ringed birds are 
now available to science in the form of skins. Dalgety visited Ireland 
in 1947 and was fortunate enough to secure a ringed immature a few 
minutes after it had been killed. This bird has been selected, together 
with an adult shot by him at the same time, and the adult will be the 
type specimen of the new race as both specimens conform as nearly as 
possible to the requirements which we had set ourselves, — a bird whose 
skin is satisfactorily preserved, whose bill colours were recorded within 
a few minutes of death, and whose breeding ground and wintering ground 
were known and linked by the aluminium ring. 

Such is the history leading up to the final recognition of the race which 
is now for the first time, fully described and compared with allied forms. 

We propose : — 

Anser albifrons flavirostris, new race. 

The Greenland Whitefronted Goose. 

Greenland name. — Nerdlernak. 

Synonymy. — A. a. albifrons (Scopoli). Winge, Gronlands Fugle, 

1898, p. 116. 
A. a. gambelli (Hartlaub). Schioler, Danmarks Fugle, 

1923, p. 444. 

Description. — A. a. flavirostris can be distinguished from both A. a. 
(jambelli and A. a. albifrons. This Greenland race does not have the 
yellow orbital ring of A. a. gambelli, nor the heavy pink bill, nor is it so 
large. It is evidently, therefore, quite distinct from A. a. gambelli. 
In comparison with A. a. albifrons, whether from Europe, Asia or America, 
the following differences are apparent : — 

Plumage colour of A. a. flavirostris is darker ; light tips of mantle 
feathers are narrower ; white tips of tail-feathers are shorter ; bill colour 
is quite different. Even in the field, the darker plumage and yellow bill 
of the Greenland race are conspicuous features for comparison with 
the lighter plumage and pink bill of A. a. albifrons. In a good light the 
two races are unmistakable when seen in flocks, though some individual 

Vol. 68 116 1947-48 

birds can be puzzling. In the hand it is almost impossible to confuse 

The general character of the upper plumage, as a whole, of A. a. flavi- 
rostris is dark " nigger brown " with little or no " rufous " or " russet " 
pigment. That of A. a. albifrons is " ash brown " tinged with " rufous ". 
This difference is most noticeable on the hind neck and upper mantle, 
A. a. flavirostris having these parts the colour of plain chocolate, while in 
A. a. albifrons they are the colour of milk chocolate. Also the pale tips 
of the mantle feathers of A. a. albifrons give a markedly striped appearance 
which is not nearly so evident in A. a. flavirostris. 

There seems to be a tendency in A. a. flavirostris for the belly to be 
more heavily marked with black bars than in the nominate race. The 
spotted appearance of the breast and belly of some immature White - 
fronted Geese appears to be more common and more distinct in A. a. 
flavirostris than in A. a. albifrons. 

The following are the descriptions of the colours of the various parts, 
matched as nearly as possible with Ridge ways Colour Standards, 1912 : — 

A. a. flavirostris. A. a. albifrons. 

Bill of Adult. 

The pearl-pink ground colour is The whole bill is normally pearl-pink 

present, but largely concealed by the except on small area of middle of 
yellow or orange. This pink is nearest culmen and under middle half of rami 
to I La France Pink or I Shrimp pink, of lower mandible which may be a 
but is more delicate fleshy or pearly clear III Cadmium yellow to III Orange 
colour. The yellow or orange which but is usually only tinted yellow, 
varies from III Cadmium orange, Orange 
or Cadmium yellow, is present as a 
brilliant colour on middle of culmen and 
the whole length of the sides of (tomia) 
upper mandible and rami of lower man- 
dible. On forward quarter of upper 
mandible the orange -yellow shades into 
the pink. Completely surrounding 
nostrils is an area of orange yellow. 
This and the orange yellow of tomia 
shade with the pink. The soft skin 
between the rami of lower mandible is 
III Cadmium yellow. 

Bill of Juvenile. 

Entirely III Cadmium yellow to Pearl pink to dull yellowish. 


Nail of Bill. 

In both races the nail in the juvenile gosling is dark horn or black, in the adult 
white. During immaturity there is a slow transition through the varying shades 
of greyish horn from black to white. 

BULL. B.O.C. 1948. 



A. a. albifrons. 





A. a. Jlavirostris. 

PI. 4. 

BULL. B.O.C. 1948. 

1947-4S 117 Vol. 6* 

II Orange chrome to III Cadmium III Orange to III Cadmium yellow, 

orange or III Orange. 

Base of Neck. 
XLVI Fuscous Black. XV Prouts Brown, XXIX Snuff 


*, XLVI Fuscous Black tipped with XL Clove Brown tipped XV Prouts 

XV Prouts Brown to XXIX Bister. Brown or inner tip XV Mummy Brown 

to XL Clove Brown with outer tip XL 
Tilleal Buff or XLVI Light Drab or 
Drab Grey. 
Mantle feathers with pale tips of Mantle feathers with pale tips of 

2 mm. 4 mm. 

Side of Head. 
XLVI Fuscous Black. XL Wood Brown, XLVI Drab. 

LIII Blackish Slate, LI Blackish XL Clove Brown, XLVI Fuscous 

Mouse Grey. Black. 

Background shade slightly sooty. White. 

Tail. , 

Second feather from centre white tip, White tip, 13-17 mm. (exceptions 

6-9 mm. amongst juveniles). 

In size the Greenland bird perhaps averages slightly larger than the 
nominate race. Its bill is definitely longer, though measurements 
overlap, being one-tenth as long again. The length of culmen of A. a. 
flavirostris also overlaps with that of A. a. gambelli. 

The length of tarsus of both the nominate and Greenland races are 
similar and do, exceptionally, overlap with that of A. a. gambelli. In fact 
the culmen gives the only measurement of comparative value. 

Distribution. — Breeding west coast of Greenland. In winter to western 
parts of British Isles and Atlantic Coast of North America. 

Type. — In collection of C. T. Dalgety. Adult male collected at North 
Slob, Wexford, Eire, on 26 November, 1947, by C. T. Dalgety. Field 
Book No. D 17. At<rf /? 

Co-Type. — In collection of C. T. Dalgety. Juvenile male. Same place 
and date as type. Shot by Capt. A. Barclay. Field Book No. D 22. 
Bearing ring of Zoological Museum Copenhagen, No. 270810. Ringed 
Sarqaq, Jakobshavn District, Greenland (70° 6'N., 52° 8' W.) in July 

Vol. 68 



Measurements of Type (taken in the flesh). — Total length 29| ; wing- 
span 61 inches. Wing 445 ; tarsus 73 ; culmen 50 ; height of upper 
mandible 26 ; greatest length of bill 56-5 ; visible depth of lower mandible 
7 ; breadth at base of bill 25 mm. Weight 6 lb. 4 oz. (a very well- 
conditioned bird). 

Table of Measurements etc. 

Race and 

Quantity of 





(lb. oz.). 

A. a. gambelli. 

10 Swarth and 

1 ■• 


Min. 5-5 


3 B.M. 


y 53-02 


f 6-3 
<J 7-0 

I 7-8 

A. a. flavirostris. 
Greenland and 

23 C. T. D. 

1 .. 


rMax. 6-4 
\ Av. 5-7 

western British 


I Min. 4- 12 


17 B.M. 
15 Coburn 

| 45-57 


A. a. albifrons. 

20 Swarth and 

1 '• 

Max. 5-8 


8 B.M. 

y 44-52 



/ 4-0 
\ 50 

A. a. albifrons. 

Europe and Asia 
(Britain in- 

18 B.M. 

E. Asia 
8 B.M. 

E. Med. 
11 B.M. 





1 40-53 



W. Europe 

6 C. T. D. 


i .. 

1 of 77 

Max. 6-3 

W. Europe 
31 Alpheraky 

21 Popham. 

W. Europe 


j 1 of 56 


/Max. 6-8 

\Min. 40 

Av. 5-8 

Measurements of Co-type (taken in the flesh) . — Total length 28| ; 
wing-span 57 inches. Wing 395 ; culmen 53 ; tarsus 76-5 ; height of 
upper mandible 26 ; greatest length of bill 60 ; visible depth of lower 

1947-48 119 Vol. 66 

mandible 7 ; breadth at base of bill 26 mm. Weight 6 lb. (a very well- 
conditioned bird). 

Bill measurements. 
A B. — Culmen. 

C D. — Height upper mandible. 
A C. — Greatest length. 
HE. — Visible depth, lower mandible (this includes teeth of upper mandible.) 


The Tule Goose, A. a. gambelli, differs from A. a. albifrons in being : 
(1) of larger size (it is in fact as large as a Greylag). (2) Having larger 
beak, both in length and depth. (3) Having orbital ring of bright yellow 
colour (one of the diagnostic characters of the Lesser Whitefronted Goose, 
Anser erythropus). (4) Having darker and browner plumage. 

Swarth and Bryant conclude that Hartlaub's type A. a. gambelli is 
the American Tule Goose, the measurements given by Hartlaub being 
possible for the Tule Goose, but not possible for the common American 
Whitefronted Goose. They maintain that the race A. a. gambelli can be 
distinguished from A. a. albifrons even in the field by larger size, longer 
neck, and bright orange-yellow orbital ring. 

The American A. a. albifrons cannot be distinguished, so far as is known, 
from European or Asiatic A. a. albifrons, either by measurement, plumage, 
bill colour or weight. 

Comparison. — A. a. flavirostris is smaller than A. a. gambelli, and has 
the bill of different colour and form. A. a. flavirostris is distinguishable 
from A. a. albifrons by its darker plumage, bill coloured predominantly 

Vol. 6$ 



yellow, and narrower white tip to tail. Also the light edges to the mantle 
feathers are narrower, there is a general absence of rufous or russet on the 
neck and upper mantle and the bill is longer. There is a tendency 
for the black belly markings to be heavier and the ground-colour of the 
belly to be slightly more sooty. Immature A. a. flavirostris more often 
have the belly spotted with dark grey. 

Text-figure 2. 

A. a. gambelli. 

A. a. flavirostris. 

A. a. albifrons. 

A. erythropus. 

Bills are pink except shaded parts which are yellow. Nails whitish. 

Distribution. — A. a. flavirostris appears to be confined to breeding 
grounds in western Greenland, and winters in the western parts of the 
British Isles, especially Ireland and western Scotland. 

We do not know to what extent it winters on the Atlantic Coast of 
America, but, in view of the ringed specimen shot on the St. Lawrence 
River, Quebec, it is possible that such few whitefronts as winter there 
belong to this race. 



Vol. 68 

In conclusion we should like to take this opportunity of thanking all 
those who have helped us in the preparation of this paper. We would 
particularly mention Dr. Finn Salomonson of the Zoological Museum 
of Copenhagen University who has been most generous with his informa- 
tion regarding the ringed geese. We will not anticipate his publication 

Text-figure 3. 

A. a. flavirostris. 

of the details of the 1947-48 ringed birds from Greenland, which he expects 
to publish in July. 

It is especially regretted that David Haig Thomas, who played so large 
a part in the early stages of this research, and who had so great a love 
for Greenland and her natives, did not live to see its culmination. He was 
killed in Normandy on D Day, after dropping as a commando parachutist. 

Vol. 68 122 1947-48 

The correct affinities of Cisticola aberrans njombe 
Lynes, Bull. B.O.C., 53, p. 70, 1933, and of 
Cisticola lais mariae Benson, Bull. B.O.C-, 66, 
p. 16, 1945, nom. nov. for Cisticola lais nyikae 
Benson, ■ Ostrich,' August, 1941, p. 28: Nyika 
Plateau, Nyasaland. 

Mr. C. W. Benson sent the following note : — 

I have collected the following specimens, which until recently would 
all have been regarded as belonging to the species Cisticola lais (Finsch & 
Hartlaub) : — 

(a) Five males, one female, 9-11 October, 7000-7500 feet, Nyika 

Plateau, northern Nyasaland. 

(b) Two males, two females, 9 November, one male, 14 May, 6000 feet, 

Matipa, Masuku Mts., northern Nyasaland. 

(c) Two sex undetermined, 8 September, 7000 feet, Isoko, Rungwe 

district, southern Tanganyika Territory, 

Series (a) and (c) differ from series (b) in the same way as does C. I. marise 
from C: I. semifasciata, see the original description of C. I. nyikse. Thus 
(a) and (c) are C. I. marise, (b) C. I. semifasciata Reichenow. 

But the Masuku Mts. are practically due north of the Nyika Plateau, 
see * Ibis ', 1940, map facing p. 298, and about 10 miles south of Isoko, 
the exact site of which is 9° 29' S., 33° 30' E. 

Thus it is difficult to regard C. I. marise and C. I. semifasciata as belonging 
to the same species, and there is the following further supporting 
evidence : — 

(a) A male of C. I. semifasciata, collector's number N5267, which has 

also been sent to the British Museum, was collected by me on 
9 October at 7000 feet on the Nyika Plateau, less than 10 miles 
west of the series of C. marise. The intervening country — short 
grassed downlands — is precisely similar. 

(b) It was predicated by me, ' Ibis ', 1948, p. 68, that further research 

would show C. marise to be a distinct species, on account of voice- 

Through the kindness of Dr. Austin Roberts, I have had the loan 
of two of the specimens of C. marise, from the Nyika Plateau on which 
it was originally differentiated from C. I. semifasciata, and likewise 
two of this latter from the Vipya Plateau, They agree with my more 

1947-48 123 Vol. 68 

recent specimens, the two from the Nyika being C. marise, and the two 
from the Vipya C.l. semifasciata. 

Subsequently to writing the foregoing, I have forwarded all these 
specimens to the British Museum, and Mr. C. W. Mackworth-Praed and 
Captain C. H. B. Grant have very kindly examined them, together with 
other specimens previously presented. They find as folio ws : — 

C. marine only differs from C. aberrans njombe Lynes in being slightly 
darker. As the distributions of C. marise, C. aberrans and C. lais all over- 
lap one another, C. njombe cannot be a race of C. aberrans, nor can C. marise 
be a race of C. lais. Therefore C. njombe is a distinct species, and C. marise 
a race of it, thus : — 

Cisticola njombe njombe Lynes. Iringa and Njombe areas, Tanganyika 

Cisticola njombe marise Benson. Mbeya, Rungwe, Tukuyu and Isoko 
areas, Tanganyika Territory ; and Nyika Plateau, Nyasaland. 

In northern Nyasaland, C. lais semifasciata occurs on all short grassed 
downlands at 5000-7000 feet ; C. njombe marise is restricted to similar 
country not below 7000 feet, and is therefore only found on the Nyika 
Plateau ; while C. aberrans nyika Lynes is restricted to Brachystegia- 
Uapaca woodland, and it only normally occurs at 4500-6000 feet. 

On the Racial Status of Migrants Emberiza citrinella 
Linnaeus from Asia. 

Mr. P. A. Clancey sent the following note : — 

In ' Ibis ', 1940, pp. 94-95, I stated that one or two migrant Yellow 
Buntings from Fair Isle in the collection of the Royal Scottish Museum, 
Edinburgh, were to me inseparable from the race Emberiza citrinella 
erythrogenys Brehm, 1855 : near Sarepta (vide ' Vogelfang ', 1855, p. 414). 
Through the courtesy of Dr. A. C. Stephen, D.Sc, I have recently been 
able to examine more critically these Fair Isle specimens, and I have 
compared them with examples of E. c. erythrogenys from European 
Russia, Asia Minor, and Central Asia (Altai). It can now be unequivocally 
stated that no less than five Fair Isle taken migrants are of this eastern 
race of the Yellow Bunting, and represent the first recorded occurrences 
of the form in the British Isles. 

The details of the specimens are as follows :— 

Female, 22 October, 1906. Fair Isle. Royal Scottish Mus. Reg. 
No. 1906.156.27. 

Vol. 68 124 1947^8 

Female, 23 October, 1906. Fair Isle. Royal Scottish Mus. Reg. 

Male, 21 October, 1907. Fair Isle. Royal Scottish Mus. Reg. 

No. 1907.200.7. 
Female, 27 March, 1907. Fair Isle. Royal Scottish Mus. Reg. 

No. 1908.25.6. 
Male, 21 March, 1911. Fair Isle. Royal Scottish Mus. Reg. 

No. 1912.38.6. 

E. c. erythrogenys is separable from E. c. citrinella Linnaeus, 1758 : 
Sweden, on account of the greyer and paler upper-parts and the generally 
lighter and brighter coloration of the fresh autumn plumage. In the 
spring, birds still carry many of the pale edges to the feathers of the 
upper parts which enable ready determination of the race at this season. 
There is no difference in size, though Altai birds average a little larger. 

The distribution of the race is as follows : — 

Finland, Estonia ?, Latvia ?, Lithuania, East Prussia, eastern Poland, 
Rumania, Bulgaria, Thrace, European Russia from about 65° N., south 
to the Caucasus, Ural and western parts of Siberia from about 64° N. 
south to the steppes of the Governments of Tomsk and Semipalatinsk. 
Limit of range in east R. Yenisei and Altai (Hartert, 1904), " Nijnia 
Tunguzka and the high Viliui " (Dementiev, 1935). Occasionally in 
Turkestan, Persia, and Asia Minor. 

The race Emberiza citrinella somowi Awerin, 1912 : Kharkov, cannot 
be differentiated from topotypical E. c. erythrogenys, and has already 
been placed in the synonomy by Dementiev (vide Syst. Av. Rossicarum, 
1 (1935), p. 122) and recently by Meinertzhagen, Bull. B. O. C, 67 (1947), 
p. 93). Meinertzhagen, loc. cit., also considers Emberiza citrinella 
romaniensis Gengler, 1911 : Rumania, to be a synonym of E. c. erythro- 
genys, a view expressed years ago by Hartert, Vog. pal. Fauna, 3, Heft 17 
(1921), p. 2072. I have adopted this opinion in my distribution of E. c. 

On the Racial Status of Migrant Turdus viscivorus 
Linnaeus from Scottish Islands. 

Mr. P. A. Clancey sent the following note : — 

I have recently examined in the collection of the Royal Scottish Museum, 
Edinburgh, five migrant examples of Turdus viscivorus Linnaeus, from 
Scottish islands which are clearly not assignable to the nominate race 
on account of their altogether greyer upper parts and paler under surfaces. 

1947-48 125 Vol. 68 

They are, in my opinion, referable to the eastern European form, Turdus 
viscivorus jubilaeus Lucanus and Zedlitz, 1917 : Slonim (vide J. f. Orn. 
1917, p. 304). This race has not been recorded before in the British 
Isles. The data of the specimens are as follows : — 

Male, January, 1907. Skerryvore Lighthouse. Royal Scottish 

Mus. Reg. No. 1907.19. 
Male, 5 March, 1907. Fair Isle. Royal Scottish Mus. Reg. 

No. 1907.86.7. 
Female, 17 October, 1907. Fair Isle. Royal Scottish Mus. Reg. 

No. 1907.200.9. 
Male, 25 March, 1911. Fair Isle. Royal Scottish Mus. Reg. 

No. 1912.38.55. 
Female, 9 October, 1913. Colonsay. Royal Scottish Mus. Reg. 

No. 1916.2.16. 

Hartert, Vog. pal. Fauna, 3, Heft 17 (1921), p. 2157, treats T. v. jubilatus 
as a synonym of Turdus viscivorus reiseri Schiebel, 1911, a name given to 
wintering birds obtained in Corsica. Dementiev, Syst. Av. Rossicarum, 
1 (1935), p. 239, who does not recognize an eastern European race, does 
not list T. v. reiseri in the synonymy of T. v. viscivorus Linnaeus, 1758 : 
Essex, England, but only T. v. jubilseus, T. v. balticus Zarudny, 1918, 
and T. v. loudoni Zarudny, 1912 (nom. nov. for T. v. zarudnyi Loudon, 
1912). The use of the name T. v. reiseri for the paler and greyer eastern 
European populations seems open to criticism, and I prefer to use 
T. v. jubilseus Lucanus and Zedlitz for this perfectly valid race. 

Details as to the precise range of T. v. jubilseus, which are incomplete, 
are as follows : — 

Sweden ? Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, East Prussia, Poland, 
Rumania (Bessarabia), European Russia from Kola peninsula, Archangel, 
and 63° N. in Petchora, south to the Crimea and the Caucasus, Ural, 
and presumably to parts of western Siberia, but data lacking. 


The next Meeting of the Club will take place on 21 April, 1948, 
at the Rembrandt Hotel, Thurloe Place, S.W. 7. Dinner at 6.30 p.m. 




Volume 68. 

few No. 7. 

The four-hundred-and-seventy-sixth Meeting of the Club was held at 
the Rembrandt Hotel, Thurloe Place, S.W.7, on Wednesday, 21 April, 
1948, with dinner at 6.30 p.m. 

Chairman : Dr. J. M. Harrison. 

Members present : — Miss C. M. Acland ; Miss P. Barclay-Smith ; 
C. T. D algety ; W. E. Glegg {Hon. Secretary) ; Miss C. E. Godman ; 
Miss E. M. Godman (Vice-Chairman) ; Capt. C. H. B. Grant (Editor) ; 
Dr. J. G. Harrison ; Miss E. P. Leach (Hon. Treasurer) ; C. W. Mack- 
worth-Praed ; G. M. Mathews ; E. R. Parrinder ; Lt.-Col. W. A. 
Payn ; A. A. Prestwich ; Major G. H. R. Pye-Smith ; R. A. W. 
Reynolds ; Miss G. M. Rhodes ; D. Seth-Smith ; Lt.-Cmdr. C. P. 
Staples ; Dr. A. Landsborough Thomson ; B. W. Tucker ; 
A. Williams ; C. de Worms ; Col. O. E. Wynne. 

Guests :— Miss E. Bevington ; R. T. Bretherton ; Dr. E. Hindle ; 
Miss C. G. P. Johnston ; G. B. Murray ; A. B. L. Peake ; Mrs. A. L. 

Members, 25 ; Guests, 7 ; Total, 32. 

A new Race of Coucal from Nyasaland. 

Mr. C. W. Benson sent the following description and the type for 
exhibition : — 

Centropus monachus songweensis, new race. 

Description. — Similar in size to Centropus monachus cupreicaudus 
Reichenow, with the same large bill, but differs from that race in having 
the mantle and innermost secondaries usually darker, less tawny ; the 

Published 9 June, 1948. ff Price 2/6. 

Vol. 68 128 1947-^8 

upper tail- coverts with less barring and absent in some specimens ; 
tail darker inclining to a deeper greenish-copper. From Centropus 
monachus fischeri Reichenow, it differs in its appreciably larger bill and 
darker coloration of the mantle, inner secondaries and tail ; but inclines 
towards that race in the less barring on the upper tail-coverts. 

Distribution. — Lower reaches of Songwe River, Tanganyika Territory — 
Nyasaland boundary, at 1600 feet. 

Type. — In the British Museum. Male adult. Songwe River, Tan- 
ganyika Territory — Nyasaland boundary, 9 July 1947 ; collected by 
C. W. Benson. Collector's number N.5140. Brit. Mus. Reg. No. 1947.95.5. 

Measurements of type. — Wing 211 ; exposed part of culmen 38 ; tarsus 
54 mm. Tail in moult. 

Remarks. — Five males and two females were obtained, and all show 
quite well the characters given above. One male is not adult. All are 
more or Jess in moult, and were taken in July, October and November. 
The measurements of the other six specimens are : — wings, males 196, 
197, 202, 210 ; exposed \ art of culmen 33, 36, 36, 36 mm. ; wings, females 
216, 220 ; exposed part o culmen 36, 38 mm. This whole series is in the 
British Museum. Habitat dense reed-beds. I am indebted to Captain 
C. li. B. Grant and Mr. C. W. Mackworth-Praed for drawing my attention 
to this new race. 

The Bird-Ringing Station on Oeland. 

Mr. B. W. Tucker gave a very interesting talk on the new Bird 
Ringing Station on Oeland, established by the Swedish Ornithological 
Society in 1946. 

A Specimen of an apparently Hybrid Goose. 

Mr. C. T. Dalgety exhibited photographs of a goose taken in Dumfries- 
shire which appeared to be a hybrid between a Barnacle Goose, Branta 
leucopsis (Bechstein) and a Pink-footed Goose, Anser brachyrhynchus 

A specimen of the Little Owl from Tangier, Morocco. 

Col. W. A. Payn exhibited a specimen of the Little Owl, Athene noct/aa 
(Scopoli), from Tangier, and with it for comparison specimens of A . n. vidalii 
Brehm, from France, and A. n. glaux (Savigny) from Morocco. He made 
the following remarks : — 

As is generally known, all western European races of Athene noctva are 
grey ; both above and below, while the North African races, A. n. glaux 

1947-48 129 Vol. 68 

and A. n. saharee (Kleinschmidt) are of a reddish sandy colour. This 
specimen from Tangier is distinctly intermediate in colour between the 
European and North African races. Unfortunately only this one speci- 
men was obtained from Tangier, and I could not find any from this place 
in the British Museum. 

Of course it may be a solitary instance of a bird from Southern Spain 
crossing the Straits of Gibraltar, or it may be that birds from southern 
Spain are in the habit of crossing the straits, and interbreeding with the 
North African races, to such an extent as to form a local race. 

Dr. J. Harrison pointed out that, whereas the tail of the European 
bird exhibited was barred, the tails of both the North African bird and 
the bird from Tangier tended to be spotted ; therefore the Tangier bird 
may be only an unusually dark example of A. n. glaux. 

New Name for the Cape Paradise Flycatcher. 

Dr. Austin Roberts sent the following : — 

Tchitrea granti, new name 

for Tchitrea suahelica smithi Roberts, Ann. Trans. Mus. 18, p. 304, 
1936, not Tchitrea smithii (Fraser), Hartlaub, Orn. W. Afr. p. 91, no. 279, 

Note. — I am indebted to Captain C. H. B. Grant for settling the 
identity of Muscipeta perspicillata Stephens, 1826, which is earlier than 
Muscipeta perspicillata Swainson, 1837, and was based upon Le Vaillant's 
Ois. d'Afriq., pi. 152, fig. 1, of birds said to have been collected on 
Gamtoos River, South Africa. I was dubious about its standing and there- 
fore discontinued the name of Tchitrea smithi when I noticed it was pre- 
occupied, and continued to use T. perspicillata. Captain Grant informs 
me that Muscipeta perspicillata Stephens is a synonym of Rhipidura 
javanica of Sparrman, and Le Vaillant could not have collected it in South 

A new Canary from the Belgian Congo. 

Mr. C. M. N. White sent the following description : — 
Serinus atrogularis kasaicus, new race. 

Description. — Similar to S. a. Iwenarum White, but darker below ; 
belly and flanks more rufous, less whitish ; breast darker ; less black on 
throat ; white mystacal streak nearly obsolete. 

Distribution. — Kasai River drainage of the Belgian Congo. 


Vol. 68 130 1947-^8 

Type. — In my collection. Male adult collected at Luluabourg, Belgian 
Congo on 2 January 1939. 

Remarks. — Three examples compared with long series of S. a. Iwenarum 
from north-west Northern Rhodesia. 

A new Race of Rock -Sparrow. 

Mr. Andrew Keve sent the following : — 

Petronia petronia harmsi, new race. 

Description. — Differs from P. p. intermedia Hartert of Central Asia 
by the smaller measurements. The colours of the back are washed 
with tawny and has none of the blackish-brown coloration of P. p. 
intermedia. The white spots of the inner tail-feathers average larger 
and are the same as in the Tian-Shan birds. The underparts are also 
whiter ; the underside of the tail-feathers are uniformly coloured ; the 
yellow spot on the chest is small or almost absent. 

Type and cotype. — In Museo Nationali Hungarico, Budapest ; male, 
female, Tebbes, 11 April 1900, no. 2850/279 a et b ; coll. Mih. Harms. 

Measurements. — Wing : male 92, 92, 94, 98 ; female, 93, 93 mm. 

Remarks. — This new race is nearest to P. p. puteicola Festa, of Palestine, 
but it is smaller. The brown streaks on the underside are in the Persian 
birds brownish. 

The Caucasian P. p. exigua Hellmayr, is much blacker, even more so 
than the birds from Tian-Shan. 

I have named this new race after M. Harms, who collected the specimens. 

New Races of the Brown Owl, Hedge-Sparrow and 
a new Species of Attila ; also a new Genus of 

Mr. Andrzej Dunajewski sent the following : — 

Strix aluco voLHYNxaa, new race. 

Description. — In all three phases of colour, i.e. grey, rust, and rust- 
brown, much darker than the nominate race, even somewhat darker than 
the average dark specimens of the Caucasian race S. a. obscurata Stegmann. 
The difference is very striking on the upper side, on the underside only 
noticeable in certain specimens. Some few grey specimens of S. a. 
aluco Linnaeus, resemble specimens of S. a. volhynise, but are always 
somewhat lighter. Size similar to that of Strix aluco. 

Type. — In the Polish Zoological Museum. Female, from Dolsk, 
Volhynia ; 31 May 1935, grey phase. Cotype from Peturzyca, South 
Volhynia, District Sokal, 20 May 1939, reddish phase, 

1D47-48 131 Vol. 68 

Measurements.— Wings : male 277, females 279, type 286, 291, 292, 
albino 267, cotype 281 mm. 

Remarks. — Other specimens examined : two females, one unsexed, 
from West and South-Volhynia, one female from Polesia, one male from 
West Podelia. Among them a pure white albino. 

Prunella modularis enigmatica, new race. 

Description. — Upper side less brownish than in the Caucasian race 
P. m. obscura Hablizl, the crown entirely lacking in brown tones, so that 
the colour resembles that of the nominate race. Breast much lighter than 
in all other races, the white being wide-spread, the streaking of the sides 
dark and well defined. Superciliary stripe light ash-grey, and almost 
as well marked as in P. m. obscura. 

Type. — In Polish Museum of Zoology. Male, Yalta, Crimea, 20 Febru- 
ary 1899. 

Measurements of type. — Wings : males 68, 70 ; females 65, 67 mm. 

Remarks. — Also examined one male and two females from the same 
locality, shot in February, March and November, and therefore, like the 
type, not certain breeding birds. 

Akletos, new genus. 

Description. — Similar to Attila Lesson, but tarsus longer and beak 
smaller. Bristles of the gape undeveloped. Beak about as long as the 
head ; its shape is reminiscent of those of Attila and Laniocera Lesson. 

The outer toe is united to the middle one over a greater distance than 
in Attila, but not quite to the end of the second phalange. Tarsus 
pycnaspidean, longer than the culmen and the clawed middle toe, and 
longer than one-third of the wing length. Tail short and slightly rounded. 

The fifth and sixth primaries are the longest, the tenth between the 
second and third. 

Genotype : — 

Akletos peruvianas, new species. 

Description. — Head black. Feathers of throat and upper breast black, 
the latter tipped with rust-red ; the whole plumage is rust-red in- 
clining to a lighter, more yellowish rusty on the underside ; darkest on 
the wings, rump and tail-feathers ; inner webs of the primaries blackish 
bordered with rust. The colouring as a whole, with the exception of the 
head, is not unlike that of the red specimens of Attila spadicea (Gmelin), 
although darker and more reddish on the underside, tail and wings, also 
more reddish on the upper side. 

Vol. 68 132 1947-48 

Type. — In the Polish Museum of Zoology. Male, No. 1458, Cumaria 
on the Ucayali, Peru, 16 April 1934. 

Measurements of type. — Wing 35, tail 62 mm 

Remarks on Passer montanus (Linnaeus) in the Western 
Palaearctic Region with special reference to Passer 
catellatus Kleinschmidt, 1935 : England. 

Mr. P. A. Clancey sent the following communication : — 

A critical analysis of recently assembled material of western Palae- 
arctic Passer montanus (Linnaeus) has revealed distinctive populations 
in the British Isles which I now consider to warrant separation from the 
nominate race. A careful fixation by designation of neotype of the type- 
locality of P. m. montanus and the accurate delineation of the characters 
of this race are clearly necessitated by the data now available. 

The P. montanus populations of the British Isles represent the termina- 
tion of a gradual colour clinc, being generally redder and more strongly 
striated on the upper parts than those of central and south-eastern 
Continental regions, birds from Denmark, western Germany, Holland, 
Belgium, and northern France being intermediate in coloration between 
the two extremes. Running parallel to this colour cline is a noticeable 
diminution in size, the measurements given opposite showing this tendency 
to an admirable degree, but it should be recognized that Italian birds 
measured — important from the taxonomic viewpoint- — are rather apt 
to disrupt the otherwise orderly sequence of decreasing east-west 
measurements. They are in fact slightly divergent, not being typical 
of central and south-eastern Continental P. montanus which average 
larger and are brighter, less dull, in colour. The measurements of the 
series examined are given in the table on p. 133. 

Hartert, Vog. pal. Fauna, 3, Heft 17 (1921), p. 2070, gives wing 
measurements of P. m. montanus as males 66-73, females 62- 
72 mm. Tail (op. cit., 1, Heft 2 (1904), p. 160) about 55 mm. Witherby, 
' Handbook of British Birds ', 1 (1938), p. 162, gives wings of males 
65-73 mm., females as in males, tail 51-54 mm. Hartert's measurements 
and those of Witherby are typical of British P, montanus and also show on 
comparison with the size details of central and south-eastern Continental 
specimens given in the table, the diminution in size inherent in 
western European populations. Closely similar measurements to those 
supplied for British birds are given for Dutch specimens by Hens and 
van Marie, ' De Nederlandsche Vogels,' 1 (1937), p. 121, viz., 9 males 
66-75, 12 females 65-73 mm. from a series collected in all parts of the 



Vol. 68 



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Vol. 68 134 1947-48 

Netherlands. Dr. K. H. Voous, Jr., Zoologiseh Museum, Amsterdam, 
has kindly furnished details of a series from western provinces only 
(Noord Holland, Zuid Holland) as follows : — 6 males 68-71, 4 females 
68-69 mm. Dr. P. A. Hens has kindly examined the series in the Leiden 
Museum in conjunction with Dr. G. C. A. Junge and has measured the 
specimens on my behalf — 7 males 70-72, 13 females 66-72 mm. These 
two specialists confirm my opinion that Dutch birds are rather darker 
headed and more prominently striated on the mantles than Italian 
P. m. montanus. I consider them to be intermediate as already stated 

From Scandinavian countries, eastern Germany, Poland, East Prussia, 
Baltic States and the U.S.S.R. I have examined only the most fragmentary 
material, but it should here be noted that Dementiev, ' Systema Avium 
Rossicarum,' 1 (1935), pp. 119-120, considers the populations of much 
of European Russia to be referable to the nominate race. Detailed 
statistics as to colour and size trends in birds from these countries are 
urgently required. Available measurements of Passer montanus volgensis 
Ognew, 1913 : Delta of R. Volga, suggest a tendency to smallness in 
south and south-eastern Russian birds, and this view is strengthened 
by details of wing measurements of Passer montanus transcaucasicus 
Buturlin, 1906 ; Transcaucasia, given by Hartert, op.cit.,3, Heft 17 (1921), 
p. 1070, as 66-5-71 mm., apparently for both sexes. 

To summarize, British P. montanus populations are found to be the 
termini of East-West colour and diminishing-size clines, those of western 
Continental countries are ascertained as intermediate in coloration and 
size. Italian birds, topotypical of P. m. montanus, are noted as being 
slightly divergent. From northern and eastern Europe colour and size 
details are inconclusive and do not permit of a pronouncement on the 
precise racial status of the indigenous populations at the present 

Hartert 's fixation of the type-locality of P. m. montanus (op. cit., 1, 
Heft 2 (1904), p. 160) as northern Italy must stand, being based on 
Linnaeus's first reference, namely, to that of Aldrovandi. It would 
have been more advantageous could the type-locality have been fixed 
further east, in the northern Balkans. In order to resolve matters 
I now intend to redescribe the Italian bird and fix an exact type -locality. 

Passer montanus montanus (Linnaeus). 

Fringilla montana Linnaeus, ' Systema Naturae,' ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 183. 

Diagnosis based on neotype. — Upper parts. Forehead, crown and 

nape dull purple-brown ; sides of neck white ; mantle light rufous boldly 

1947-48 135 Vol. 68 

streaked blackish brown, rufous portions of feathers with greyish edges ; 
rump and upper tail-coverts pale greyish brown. Under-parts : Gular 
region, areas at base of bill, lores, and narrow stripes under eyes sooty 
black ; ear- coverts upper half white, lower half sooty black ; malar 
regions white connecting up with white sides of neck ; rest of under-parts 
dull white tinged buffy ; under tail- coverts whitish, feather centres 
pale brown ; flanks grey- brown. Wings dark brown, feathers fringed 
light reddish brown ; secondary and median coverts with white tips ; 
lesser coverts light chestnut. Tail dark greyish brown, feathers edged dull 
white. Bill blackish slate, base dull yellow. Legs and feet straw-coloured. 

Measurements. — Males: wing 70-73, culmen from base 13-14, tarsus 
17-18, tail 52-5-57 mm. Females : wing 67-73, culmen from base 
12-5-14, tarsus 17-18-5, tail 49-5-59 mm. (twenty-five measured).. 

Neotype. — Male, adult. In my collection. Bagnacavallo, Ravenna 
Province, Emilia, northern Italy. 21 February 1945. 

Measurements of the neotype. — Wing 70, culmen from base 13*5, tarsus 
17-5, tail 52-5 mm. 

The British populations, as has been shown above, are separable on 
both colour and size characters from the nominate form, and must now 
be elevated to full racial status. Kleinschmidt, ' Falco-Skizzen,' no. 2 
(1935), has introduced the name Passer catellatus for the English race, 
and this should be used in preference to Passer arbor eus Forster, Syn. Cat. 
Brit. Birds (1817), p. 52, which, though based on Bewick, Hist. Brit. 
Birds, p. 179, is clearly a substitute name for Fringilla montana Linnaeus', 
1758 : northern Italy. Other names to be considered are : — 

Loxia scandens Hermann, 1783 : France, which is available for French 
birds. The majority of French birds are close to true P. m. montanus, 
though northern populations do show a tendency towards British birds. 

Loxia hamburgia Gmelin, 1789 : Hamburg, stands for the German popula- 
tions. Western German specimens are rather darker on the upper 
parts than topotypical P. m. montanus, but they are never so rich 
as the British race and they are also less small. 

Pyrgita septentrionalis Brehm, 1831 : Denmark. The single Danish 
example examined (Sjcelland, Denmark, 10 February 1946. J. M. 
Harrison Coll.) cannot be separated from German specimens. These 
names are here placed as synonyms of P. m. montanus (Linnaeus), 
1758 : northern Italy. 

The birds of Denmark, western Germany, Holland, Belgium and 
northern France are best covered by the combination P. m. montanus^ 
P. m. catellatus. 

Vol. 68 136 1947-48 

Kleinschmidt's description in ' Falco -Skizzen,' no. 2, 1935, issued as 
a supplement to Falco, and ' Berajah,' Zoogr. Infinita, pp. 1-34, pi. 8, 
is quite inadequate. Witherby, ' Handbook of British Birds,' 5, 1941, 
p. 260, did not consider the name to be a racial one and dismissed Klein- 
schmidt's separation of the British race as " evidently abnormal varia- 
tion ", but an examination of the original description does not show such 
a view to be maintainable and, even though the introduction of P. catel- 
latus leaves much to be desired, the characters of the British race are 
nevertheless defined therein. The original description is as follows : — 

" . . . . Es war mir an zwei englischen Feldsperlingen in meiner Samm- 
lung aufgefallen, dass sie besonders dunkle Zeichnung an den Kopf. und 
Halsseiten besassen. Deshalb liess ich mir zwei weitere Stiicke von 
Rosenberg zur Nachpriifung kommen. Ich wasche Kopfe und Halse 
auf der linken Seite mit Benzin und streiche kraftig mit einem wcissen 
Tuch dariiber. Das Tuch farbt sich schwarz, aber dunkle Federspitzen 
bleiben, bei dem Mannchen kaum starker als bei normalen deutschcn 
Vogeln, bei dem Weibchen auffalliger. Ich nenne nun das dunkelste 
englische Stuck meiner Sammlung 

Passer catellatus. 

Ob diese Farbung in England so haufig ist, dass man alle englischen 
Feldsperlinge als Form catellatus bezeichncn kann, vermag ich nicht zu 
ermitteln. Gesetzt, es sei nicht der Fall, dann kann ich dunkelhalsige 
Stiicke von Mitteldeutschland und Russland ebenso wie die von England 
als aberratio catellata bezeichnen. Gesetzt, es sei der Fall, so mussen 
die kontinentalen, an catellatus anklingenden, aber etwas reiner gefarbten 
Stiicke aberratio catelloides heissen . . . . " 

The British race must, therefore, be known as 

Passer montanus catellatus Kleinschmidt. 

Passer catellatus Kleinschmidt, ' Falco -Skizzen,' no. 2 (1935). 

Adjusted diagnosis. — Separable from Passer montanus montanus 
(Linnaeus) on account of the darker and richer purple-brown of the fore- 
head, crown and nape ; mantle redder and with deeper black striae ; 
gular patch deeper black ; ventral surfaces whiter and less washed with 
buffy ; flanks darker ; wings darker and richer, especially the lesser- 
coverts (" shoulder " patch) which are darker, less light chestnut. A 
smaller race. 

Measurements. — Males : wing 67-73, culmen from base 13-14, tarsus 
16-5-18, tail 50-56 mm. Females : wing 65-70, culmen from base 
13-14, tarsus 17-18, tail 49-55-5 mm. (fifty-seven measured). 

1947^8 137 Vol. 68 

Distribution. — England and Wales ; Scotland and Isles where extremely 
local except in parts of the eastern mainland. Ireland ? Zone of 
contact with P.m. montanus in western Continental countries. 

Type-locality. — Sussex, England. Type : male, December, 1883, 
Sussex, England. In collection Mus. Alexander Koenig, Bonn. Listed 
as no. 185 in Kleinschmidt, ' Katalog meiner Ornithologischen Sammlung ', 
1943, p. 7. 

Remarks. — British birds are not strictly homogeneous, those from the 
south and south-eastern parts of England being less richly coloured 
than examples from other areas, but they are not divisible into distinct 
racial units and are here considered to be of one form. 

A female example from Cheshire taken on 2 January 1938, and now in 
the collection of the Yorkshire Museum, has the pale coloufing of the 
Italian (typical) bird on the upper parts, but has the darker wings and 
tail of P. m. catellatus. The wing (66-5 mm.) is smaller than any of the 
many topotypical P. m. montanus measured. It is clearly an aberrant 
specimen. A somewhat similar aberration is an unsexed example taken 
at Bolton Percy, Yorkshire, in March 1944, and also in the collection 
of the Yorkshire Museum. These specimens stand out from the vast 
majority of British birds from all districts and, in my opinion, in no way 
vitiate the constancy of the criteria defined above for the British race. 

One or two specimens in the Payn collection taken at Blakeney, Norfolk, 
in March 1934, are not unlike P. m. montanus and may well be of 
Continental origin. Lieut. -Col. W. A. Payn informs me that judging 
by the large numbers involved and the general behaviour of the birds 
they were clearly not native to the locality. The question of admitting 
the nominate race to the official British List requires further study, 
but this race should be expected as it has an extensive distribution in 
continental Europe, the zone of contact with P. m. catellatus being com- 
paratively narrow. 

For the loan of materials and assistance in many directions I am deeply 
indebted to the following workers : — Dr. J. M. Harrison, Dr. P. A. Hens, 
Dr. 0. Kleinschmidt, Lieut.-Col. W. A. Payn, R. Wagstaffe, Dr. K. H. 
Voous, Jr. 

Chloris chloris (Linnaeus) in the British Isles. 

Mr. P. A. Clancey sent the following communication : — 

In * Ibis ', 1940, pp. 92-93, I pointed out the characteristics of the 
northern Scottish Chloris chloris (Linnseus) and described (p. 92) the 
south-western populations of Scotland as a new race, Chloris chloris 

Vol. 6$ 138 1947-48 

harrisoni. Type : male, adult, 3 November, 1937, Thorntonliall, Lanark- 
shire, Scotland. Witherby, ' Handbook of British Birds,' 5 (1941), 
p. 257, reviewed Ch. ch. harrisoni on two males from Argyllshire in the 
Meinertzhagen collection (see note Bull. B. O. C. 63 (1943), p. 66). The 
criteria of the race were further discussed by me in ' Ibis ', 1943, pp. 87-88. 
In Bull. B. O. C. 63 (1943), pp. 65-66, 1 separated (p. 65) a further British 
race, namely, Chloris chloris restricta. Type : male, first-winter, Ames- 
bury, Wiltshire, southern England, and in Bull. B. O. C. 64 (1943), 
pp. 27-31, I attempted to summarize our knowledge of the western 
Palsearctic races. A short note in ' Ibis ', 1946, p. 519, extended the 
range of Ch. ch. harrisoni further to the east. Meinertzhagen, Bull. 
B. 0. C. 68 (1947), pp. 21-22, brought forward new information, and 
suggested a classification of western European Ch. chloris. The now 
copious literature on the subject of British races appears on careful 
perusal disjointed and inconclusive, and I have recently re-examined 
my large series of British and Continental birds and reviewed the literature 
in an endeavour to prepare a more satisfactory and final arrangement 
of the races. 

Details of the characters and ranges of Ch. ch. harrisoni and Ch. ch. 
restricta as known at that date (December 1943) were fully summarized 
in my paper in Bull. B. 0. C. 64 (1943), p. 29, and in the case of Ch. ch. 
harrisoni little further remains to be said. The range of this form has 
been slightly extended (Clancey, 1946), and its validity upheld by Meinertz- 
hagen, loc. cit. The conception of a highly localized race of Ch. chloris 
from the Salisbury Plain area of Wiltshire, named as Ch. ch. restricta, 
is quite untenable in the light of new material from other parts of England. 
Notes prepared for the guidance of the B. 0. U. List Committee early 
in 1947 (not published) showed that by that date I was dubious about 
the correctness of my earlier views on the localized nature of the distribu- 
tion of Ch. ch. restricta. This change of opinion originates from an 
examination of a small series of fresh autumn males collected in the 
Lancashire-Yorkshire border country in the autumn of 1946. These 
birds were found to agree perfectly with Ch. ch. restricta in every way, 
and since then I have examined a further and more extensive series of 
males in fresh dress collected near Burnley, Lancashire, in the autumn 
of 1947, in addition to new material from other parts of England as well 
as Ireland. Racially these were also found to correspond to the 
characters enumerated in the original diagnosis of Ch. ch. restricta, which 
should now be considered to be the " British " race of the species. 
Meinertzhagen 's remarks, loc. cit., on English and Irish birds in the main 
confirm the race, but he has suggested (p. 22) that the populations in- 

1947-48 139 Vol.68 

habiting eastern Scotland, England -(except Cornwall), and Ireland, 
be covered by the combination Ch. ch. chloris ^Ch. ch. harrisoni. Such 
an arrangement is, in my opinion, highly contentious, and offers the 
systematist not the least satisfaction in the face of the evidence before 
him. It can truly' be said to obscure the presence of the essentially 
intermediate populations of northern Scotland and south-eastern England, 
which must be given suitable expression in any racial classification of the 
species in the western parts of Europe. 

Meinertzhagen, loc. cit., expresses doubt as to the advisability of 
accepting Ch. ch. restricta on the grounds that it is too inconstant and a 
pure intermediate, as well as having a distribution difficult to define. 
In the light of what was published hitherto on the question of the 
distribution of Ch. ch. restricta, such views as are expressed by Meinertz- 
hagen are fully justified, but they can now be answered. Inconstancy — 
Ch. chloris is naturally variable, but broadly speaking, the variations are 
referable to two distinct colour phases, as already outlined in my paper 
{vide Bull. B. 0. C. 64 (1943), p. 31). Whether we attribute these variations 
to dimorphism or " strict individual variation " appears to be a matter 
of personal judgment. What is important to remember is that unless 
the comparative materials are carefully arranged only confusion can 
result. To quote my 1943 paper in support of this statement : — " When 
effecting a comparison between races of Chloris care must be taken to 
ensure that skins of one series are compared only with their chromatic 
counterparts in the other series ". In working on Ch. chloris races only 
fresh autumn specimens should be used. There is a noticeable intensi- 
fication of the colour in the spring — presumably as the result of some little 
understood chemical change in the feather pigment, and most certainly 
not due wholely to abrasion. This colour intensification obscures the 
true nature of the racial criteria. Furthermore, allowance must be made 
for the various races being found together in the same area during the 
non-breeding season. 

Working from the large materials of Ch. ch. restricta now available 
to me I should say that it is no more variable than any other race. It 
occupies the largest section of the species' British distribution (see below), 
and has a well-pronounced zone of contact (hybrid zone) with Ch. ch. 
chloris in south-eastern England and near western Continental countries, 
as well as with Ch. ch. harrisoni in the Scotland-England border counties 
and parts of south-eastern Scotland. Birds taken within the range of restricta and found to resemble Ch. ch. chloris may be either genuine 
migrants of north European origin or stragglers from the zone of contact. 
The argument as to the intermediate status of Ch. ch. restricta cannot be 

Vol. 68 140 1947-48 

maintained ; its distribution is too extensive and within the newly 
defined limits of range there are no known divergent trends, and the 
distribution of the true intermediate populations is now accurately 
known. Ch. ch. restricta should, therefore, be accepted as the " British " 
race, and the birds of south-eastern England covered by .the combination 
Ch. ch. restricta ^Ch. ch. chloris. 

Meinertzhagen's Cornish birds are of considerable significance, and the 
finding of a British population related to Ch. ch. aurantiiventris is a dis- 
covery of the greatest importance. In any future evaluation of the 
racial status of the Cornish population geographical considerations should 
be permitted to weigh heavily in favour of the introduction of a new name. 
I have not examined sufficiently closely Meinertzhagen's series of Cornish 
birds to enable me to pass a reliable opinion here as to their separability 
from topotypical Ch. ch. aurantiiventris. The northern Scottish Ch. 
chloris is also in need of further critical study. Superficially it is an 
intermediate between Ch. ch. chloris and Ch. ch. harrisoni, male in autumn 
near Ch. ch. restricta on the upper parts, but with the yellow ventral 
" patch " of Ch. ch. chloris. These differences are highly constant, and 
it should not be considered in the same sense as the essentially mixed 
populations of south-eastern England. 

1 now recognize the following divisions of British Ch. chloris (Linnaeus): — 

1. Chloris chloris restricta J Chloris chloris chloris. 

Intermediate populations. 
Distribution. — South-eastern England (Norfolk, Suffolk, Essex, etc.). 
Ranging to western Continental countries 

2 Chloris chloris restricta Clancey, 1943 : Amesbury, Wiltshire, 
southern England 

Male, autumn Nearest Ch ch. chloris, but upper parts colder, 
more earthen, in tone. Rump greener. Whole of underside greener, 
less yellow-green. Ventral surfaces seldom with much yellow. 
Female, autumn. Rather browner on upper parts than Ch. ch. 
Distribution. — England (except for Cornwall, and south-eastern and 
Border counties), Wales, Ireland. 

3. Chloris chloris harrisoni > Chloris chloris restricta. 
Intermediate populations. 

Distribution. — Border counties of Scotland and England and parts of 
south-eastern Scotland, 

1947-48 141 Vol. 68 

4. Chloris chloris harrisoni Clancey, 1940 : Thorntonhall, Lanark- 
shire, Scotland. 

Male, autumn. Upper parts much darker than in Ch. ch. restricta. 
Below closely similar, but rather darker. Female, autumn. Con- 
siderably darker above than in Ch. ch. restricta. 
Distribution. — South-western and south-central Scotland. 

5. Chloris chloris, new race ? 

A constant intermediate between Ch. ch. chloris and Ch. ch. harrisoni. 

Male, autumn. Near to Ch. ch. restricta but with well-marked 

yellow ventral " patch." 

Distribution. — Scotland north of the Grampian massif. (Note. — The 

zone of contact with Ch. ch. harrisoni is too narrow to warrant separate 


6. Chloris chloris near aurantiiventris (Cabanis), 1850 : south 

Male, autumn. Much brighter above than Ch. ch. chloris. Under- 
pays more golden, especially the ventral surfaces. Female, autumn. 
Closely similar to Ch. ch. chloris. 
Distribution. — Cornwall, England. (Note. — Location of zone of contact 
with Ch. ch. restricta not at present known.) 

7. Chloris chloris chloris (Linnaeus), 1758 : Sweden. 

Male, autumn. Upper parts brown. Rump yellow-green. Under- 
pays pale yellowish green, feathers with grey- brown tips. Yellow 
on ventral surfaces prominent and forming a distinct " patch." 
Female, autumn. Upper parts olivaceous brown, feather centres 
darker, forming nebulous strise. Under-parts suffused greenish grey, 
ventrally whiter. 
Status in the British Isles. — Winter visitor and passage migrant. 

8. Chloris chloris turkestanica Sarudny, 1907 : Turkestan. 

Male, autumn. Paler above than Ch. ch. chloris and with brighter 

yellow under-parts. Female, autumn. Paler and greyer than 

chloris. A large race. 

Status in the British Isles. — One record. Male, adult. 30 January, 

1947, Ashford Castle, Co. Mayo, Eire (vide Meinertzhagen, Bull. B. O. C. 

67, 1947, p. 76). 


The next Meeting of the Club will take place on 19 May, 1948, at the 
Rembrandt Hotel, Thurloe Place, S.W. 7. Dinner at 6.30 p.m. 




Volume 68. 


The four-hundred-and-seventy-seventh Meeting of the Club was held at 
the Rembrandt Hotel, Thurloe Place, S.W.7, on Wednesday, 19 May, 
1948, with dinner at 6.30 p.m. 

Chairman : Dr. J. M. Harrison. 

Members present : — F. J. F. Barrington ; Mrs. G. M. Chadwyck- 
Healey ; J. Fisher ; R. S. R. Fitter ; W. E. Glegg (Hon. Secretary) ; 
Capt. C. H. B. Grant (Editor) ; Dr. J. G. Harrison ; P. A. D. Hollom ; 
Capt. C. Ingram ; Miss E. P. Leach (Hon. Treasurer) ; Dr. G. Car- 
michael Low ; C. W. Mackworth-Praed ; G. M. Mathews ; Col. R. 
Meinertzhagen ; E.M.Nicholson; Miss G. M. Rhodes ; Lt -Commdr. 
C. P. Staples ; B. W. Tucker ; C. N. Walter ; A. Williams ; 
C. de Worms ; Col. O. E. Wynne. 

Guests : — Miss T.*Clay ; R. Wagstaefe. 

Members, 23 ; Guests, 2 ; Total, 25. 

Heligoland before and after the War. 

Mr. James Fisher gave a very interesting talk on a visit to Heligoland in 
May 1947, and showed slides depicting the island before and after the war. 

Exhibition of varieties of the Red-legged Partridge 
and Woodcock. 

Dr. J. M. Harrison exhibited specimens and made the following 
remarks : — 

The pale variety of the Red-legged Partridge, Alectoris rufa rufa 
(Linnaeus), exhibited was shot near Woodbridge, Suffolk, on 4 October, 

Published 28 June, 1948, a, Price 2/6, 

Vol 68 144 1947-48 

1934. The bird is a male practically through the moult. It will be seen 
that the red pigment in the feathers is lacking to a great extent, although, 
in the fresh state the bill, tarsi, feet and orbicular skin were all normally 
coloured. Ticehurst ('A History of the Birds of Suffolk,' 1932, p.480) 
mentions white, pied and a buff variety. 

This specimen was described and figured in ' The Field ' of January 
1935 by me. 

The Woodcock, Scolopax rusticola Linnseus, exhibited may best be 
described as a pale buff variety. It is a female and was shot by Mr T. C. 
Gregory, near Brabourne, in the Canterbury district, on 3 January, 
of this year. In this case it will be seen that the rust and black pigments 
are much diluted. The bird is a female. 

In showing these two specimens I would like to stress the importance 
of recording the sex of all such aberrant individuals wherever possible, 
in addition to the date and locality. It may well be that some of these 
varieties will be found to be sex-linked, and also possibly of very restricted 
distribution locally. 

A new Race of Barbet from South-western Tanganyika 
Territory and Northern Nyasaland. 

Mr. C. W. Benson sent the following description and the type for 
exhibition : — 

Buccanodon olivaceum rungweensis, new race. 

Description. — Differs from Buccanodon olivaceum olivaceum (Shelley), 
in being greyer, less olive-green from chin to chest and down centre of 
belly. From Buccanodon olivaceum belcheri Sclater, it differs mainly in 
having the top of the head duller and more brownish, and in lacking the 
black sides to the face and chin to chest. 

Distribution. — South-western Tanganyika Territory in the Rungwe 
district, to northern Nyasaland in the Masuku area, Karonga district. 

Type. — In the British Museum. Adult male, collected at Isoko, 
Rungwe district, south-western Tanganyika Territory, on 11 September, 
1947, by C. W. Benson. Collector's no. N 5186. Brit. Mus. Reg. no. 

Measurements of type. — Wing 91, culmen from base 21, tail 52, tarsus 
23 mm. 

Remarks. — Two males and two females are from Isoko, Tanganyika 
Territory, and one male and one female are from Matipa, Masuku area, 
Karonga district, northern Nyasaland. Two adult males and a young 
female from Igale, Poroto Mts., and Rungwe Mt., south-western Tan- 
ganyika Territory, collected by Loveridge, and very kindly loaned by 

1947-48 145 Vol. 68 

Mr. J. L. Peters from the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard, 
U.S.A., have also been examined, and agree perfectly with the above 
series, which is in the British Museum collection. I am indebted to 
Captain C. H. B. Grant and Mr. C. W. Mackworth-Praed for making 
comparisons. For similar reasons I also thank Mr. R. E. Moreau. 

New Races of a Tit-Babbler and a Lark from the 
Basutoland Mountains. 

Mr. Jack Vincent sent the following : — ■ 

Parisoma layardi barnesi, new race. 

Description. — Differs from Parisoma layardi Hartlaub, in being much 
darker and greyer above, and whiter below ; the entire upper side is, 
in fact, dark slate grey without the brownish tinge of the typical bird, 
this latter coloration being evident only in the juveniles of this new race. 
An even more marked difference is found in the bill, which when com- 
pared with typical P. layardi is most noticeably smaller and finer. 

Distribution — At high altitudes in the Quathlamba Drakensberg on 
the extreme eastern border of Basutoland. 

Type. — Adult male Lekhalabaletsi valley, above junction of rivers 
Lekhalabaletsi and Jareteng, Basutoland. 29° 17-2' South Lat.-29° 24' 
East Long, at 8900 feet. 7 December, 1947. Collected by Jack Vincent. 
Collector's no. 2490. 

Measurements of type — Wing 67, exposed part of culmen 10, culmen 
from base 13, tail 61, tarsus 21 mm. 

Remarks. — The type was obtained at the nest, together with the adult 
female and their single juvenile. The birds were found to be quite 
common between 8000 and 9000 feet a.s.L, and a series of eight examples 
was obtained, all are bein^ presented to the British Museum. Nests and 
eggs were collected. The species appears to have been known hitherto 
only from very different terrain at much lower altitudes in the Cape 
Province and South-West Africa. 

I thank Dr. Austin Roberts for his assistance when I examined speci- 
mens of the nominate race in the Transvaal Museum This new race is 
named in honour of Mr. Phil Barnes, recently Conservator of the Giant's 
Castle Game Reserve on the Drakensberg escarpment of Natal, for his 
kind assistance and advice in connection with my two trips into the 
Basutoland mountains. A keen ornithologist, Mr. Barnes was the first 
to discover the Siskin and the Seedeater, respectively named Spinus 
symonsi and Serinops flaviventris guillarmodi by Dr. Austin Roberts. 
It is of interest that my first meeting with this new Tit-Babbler was at 
the type-locality of those two birds. 

Vol 68 146 1947-48 

Calendula magnieostris montivaga, new race. 

Description. — Differs from Calendula magnirostris harei Roberts, in 
being darker above and below. So far as the upper side is concerned the 
dark centres to the feathers are more pronounced, giving a greater suffusion 
of sepia coloration ; whilst on the underside the breast and abdomen are 
more buff in colour with none of the yellowish tinge. As in the case 
of the Tit-Babbler just described, an even greater difference is found in 
the bill which is markedly shorter, finer, and less deep than in all birds 
from lower altitudes. With regard to this bill character it may be said 
that this new race differs from C. m. harei just as much as the latter 
differs from the very large billed C. m. magnirostris (Stephens). 

Distribution. — At high altitudes in the Quathlamba Drakensberg on 
the extreme eastern border of Basutoland. 

Type. — Adult male. Sanqubetu valley, at junction of rivers Lekhala- 
baletsi and Sanqubetu, Basutoland. 29° 16-5' South Lat.-29° 21' East 
Long, at 8000 feet. 17 October, 1946. Collected by Jack Vincent. 
Collector's no. 2407. 

Measurements of Type. — Wing 104-5, exposed part of culmen 14-5, 
culmen from base 19, tail 63, tarsus 26, hind-claw 10-5 mm. 

Remarks. — The type, a breeding bird, was obtained with its adult 
female. The birds were not uncommon, and although more general 
around the 8500 feet level they were noticed from an altitude of 9600 feet 
near the top of the range down to about 7800 feet. Six examples were 
secured, including one juvenile, all are being presented to the British 
Museum. Nests and eggs were obtained. 

The type-locality of this new lark is the identical spot where the first 
examples of the Siskin and Seedeater already mentioned were collected, 
and since the Sanqubetu valley does not appear on most maps the latitude 
and longitude here given may prove useful for future reference. 

Again I thank Dr. Austin Roberts for his assistance, when he permitted 
me to examine material of his race C. m. harei in the Transvaal Museum. 

It is hoped that further details of these birds and the area in which 
they were collected will appear later in the ' Ibis.' 

White-spotted Bluethroat in the Balearic Isles. 

Mr. Philip W. Munn sent the following : — 

With reference to Col. W. A. Payn's remarks on White-spotted Blue- 
throats from Tangier in the Butt. B. O. C. 68, 1948, p. 71, the following 
data may be of interest. 

1947-48 147 Vol. 68 

The Bluethroat occurs in small numbers in the Balearic Islands on 
migration, and records are as follows : — 

Observed by von Jordans in Majorca in March and April, 1913, 
see ' Falco,' Aug. 1914, p. 57. 

Noted by Jourdain, in Iriza, in May 1930 

Noted by Ticehurst and Whistler in Iriza in May 1930 , but recorded 
as Cyanosylvia svecica gsetkei (Kleins chmidt), see ' Ibis,' Oct. 1930, 
p. 659. 

Observed, and some specimens obtained, by myself, at Alcudia, 
Majorca in March 1927 ; October 1930 ; March 1931 ; March and 
April 1932 ; March and April 1934 ; October 1935. All with little 
or no white spot on the throat. 

The Long-legged Buzzard in Northern Rhodesia. 

Mr. C. W. Benson sent the following note : — 

Mr. E. L. Button has had in his collection a specimen supposedly of 
Buteo buteo vulpinus Gloger, a male taken by him at Kasama, Northern 
Rhodesia on 21 November, 1938. He had considerable doubts that this 
identification was correct, by reason of its unduly long wing- measurement, 
i.e. 441 mm. It is undoubtedly Buteo rufinus rufinus (Cretzschmar), 
not B. b. vulpinus. Mr Button has presented it to the British Museum, 
where the identification has been confirmed by Captain C. H. B. Grant. 
There appears to be no previous record from south of the Anglo-Egyptian 

Notes on Western Palaearctic Birds. 

Mr. P. A. Clancey sent the following two notes : — 
(1) Some remarks on British Phylloscopus sibilatrix (Bechstein) : — 

Ticehurst, ' Genus Phylloscopus,' 1938, p. 72, dismisses the claims 
of the races Phylloscopus sibilatrix erlangeri Hartert, 1909 : Oum R-Biah, 
east of Mazagan, Morocco, and Phylloscopus sibilatrix ludmilde Snigirewski, 
1931 : Miass, S. Urals, U.S.S.R., and uses a binomial for the species. 
In support of this action Ticehurst states, loc. cit., that he examined a 
very large series of Phylloscopus sibilatrix from all over its range and 
could not detect any differences which would appear to be constant 
enough to separate any race. Ticehurst does not indicate what indigenous 
British P. sibilatrix were examined in the survey of races. 

I find that on comparison with material from central and south- central 
Europe, British birds are separable in series on account of their rather duller 


Vol. 68 148 1947-48 

and greener upper parts and slightly more greenish-lemon-yellow throats. 
The differences, though apparently constant as far as my breeding material 
goes, are, perhaps, not sufficiently adequate upon which to erect a dis- 
tinguishable form. British birds have an available name in the Sylvia 
sylvicola of Montagu (vide Trans. Linn. Soc. London, 4, 1798, p. 35) : 
England, should a comparison between really comprehensive breeding 
series of British and central European (topotypical of Phylhscopus 
sibilatrix (Bechstein), 1793 : mountains of Thuringia, Germany (vide 
' Naturforscher,' 27, 1793, p. 47)) specimens warrant the recognition of 
a race. 

(2) On some Redshanks ascribable to the race Tringa totanus robusta 
(Schioler), obtained in Lancashire : — 

Schioler, Dansk. Orn. Toren. Tidskrift, 13, 1919, p. 211, described 
the Icelandic race as Totanus calidris robustus. Hartert, Vog. pal. 
Fauna, 2, Heft 7 and 8, 1921, p. 1611, gives (after Schioler) the measure- 
ments of 35 males — wings 157-171, bills 36-5-43 mm ; 15 females — wings 
158-170, bills 38-44 mm. J. M. Harrison, ' Ibis,' 1944, pp. 493-503, 
in his revision of the western Palaearctic races, has given slightly larger 
measurements for the Icelandic race than those of Schioler's quoted by 
Hartert. Harrison's measurements are : — 7 males — wings 165-172 mm., 
3 females — wings 164-167 mm. Witherby, ' Handbook of British Birds,' 
4, 1940, p. 331, gives precisely similar measurements to those supplied 
by Hartert (after Schioler), but states : — " A number of British-taken 
females had wings over 170 and up to 175." Birds collected in Lancashire 
in October and November, 1947, have wing-measurements of as much 
as 176-5 and 177 mm., and it is with these very large examples in particular 
that I intend to deal with in this short note. 

In winter dress T. t. robusta is reputed to be darker than either T. t. 
totanus or T. t. britannica, and judging by the material in my collection 
taken prior to September, 1946, this certainly seems to be generally so, 
but the issue is now complicated by the fact that the large birds recently 
taken in Lancashire are quite unlike the specimens I had ascribed earlier 
to the race T. t. robustus, being extremely pale and grey on the upper 
parts. In the main these birds are in tone not unlike the smaller T. t. 
totanus and T. t. britannica, but the substantial difference in size rules 
out any question of close racial affinity. 

As far as can be ascertained from available literature no breeding 
specimens of the Icelandic race with wings in excess of 172 mm. have ever 
been taken. Of the large material available to Schioler none exceeded 
171 mm. in wing-measurement, and of the eleven breeding T. t. robusta 

1947-48 149 Vol. 68 

used by Harrison in his revision, two males had wings of 172 mm. The 
recorded range of wing-measurements for breeding T. t. robusta is, 
therefore, males 157-172, females 158-170 mm. In support of these 
measurements it should be remarked that not one British winter-taken 
T. t. robusta with dark upper parts in my collection has a wing exceeding 
172 mm. in length. (The adult female recorded in ' British Birds,' 32, 
1939, p. 374, with a wing of 175 mm. is in error. The bird has a wing 
of 171-5 mm., and has a dark upper surface.) In the specimens from 
Lancashire both sexes show equal colour and size differences. Witherby, 
loc. cit., implies by his remarks that female examples alone reach 175 mm. 
in wing-measurements. This is not so. Two males taken on 26 October, 
1947, near Fleetwood, Lancashire, have wings measuring 176-5 and 177 mm. 
Of my series of birds from Lancashire with pale and greyish upper parts 
not one specimen has a wing of less than 169 mm., and the range of wing- 
measurements for this type is 169-177 mm. 

Further collections of northern breeding birds are obviously needed to 
ascertain whether (a) topotypical T. t. robusta does in fact have a sub- 
stantially larger range of wing-measurements than at present known, 
and has light and dark phases of winter dress, or (6) there is an as yet 
undescribed form which differs from T. t. robusta by its still larger size 
and by the paler and greyer winter dress. The British race, Tringa 
totanus britannica Mathews, 1935 : Hampshire, England, rarely 
reaches 166 mm. in wing-measurement, and the Continental form, Tringa 
totanus totanus (Linnaeus), 1758 : Sweden, seldom 158 mm. (topotypes), 
and these two races would not appear to have any bearing on the present 

The uncritical assignment of all large birds taken in Britain in the non- 
breeding season to the Icelandic race is clearly obscuring a problem which 
will require to be elucidated before a final and lasting arrangement of the 
western Palsearctic races of Tringa totanus is at all possible. 

Notes on Eastern African Birds. 

Captain C. H. B. Grant and Mr. C. W. Mackworth-Praed sent the 
following two notes : — 

(1) On the conspecific status of Treron australis (Linnaeus) and Treron 
wakefieldii Sharpe : — 

In the Bull. B. O. C. 57, p. 74, 1937, we discussed the races of Treron 
wakefieldii and treated it as a species in view of the possibility of an 
overlap in distribution between this and the African mainland races of 
T. australis. 

Vol 68 150 1947-48 

Several past, and present authors have considered these two to be races 
of each other and since 1937 the British Museum has received many 
more specimens. A re- examination of the available evidence shows that 
T. wakefieldii should be treated as a race of T. australis. 

The races we now recognize in Eastern Africa are as follows : — 

Treron australis wakefieldii Sharpe. 

Treron wakefieldii Sharpe, P. Z. S. 1874, for 1873, p. 715, pi. 58, fig. 2 : 
Mombasa, eastern Kenya Colony. 

Grey nuchal collar distinct ; upper side of tail-feathers green and yellow. 
Wing 149 to 165 mm. 

Distribution. — Eastern Kenya Colony from Lamu and the Tana River, 
to eastern Tanganyika Territory. 

Treron australis salvadorii (Dubois). 

Vinago calva salvadorii Dubois, P. Z. S. 1897, p. 784 : Western shore of 
Lake Tanganyika, Belgian Congo. 

Grey nuchal collar distinct : upper side of tail-feathers grey. Wing 
160 to 179 mm. Specimens from Kigoma district and Shinyanga, Tan- 
ganyika Territory have yellowish ends to tail-feathers. 

Distribution. — Southern Sudan at the Imatong Mts., Uganda, Kenya 
Colony west of Lake Rudolf, eastern Belgian Congo and western Tan- 
ganyika Territory as far east as Mwanza and Shinyanga. 

Treron australis uellensis (Reichw.). 

Vinago calva uellensis Reichenow, J. f. O. 1912, p. 320 : Jakoma, Uelle 
River, north-eastern Belgian Congo. 

Lacks, or almost lacks, the grey nuchal collar ; upper side of tail- 
feathers grey. Wing 157 to 171 mm. 

Distribution. — North-eastern Belgian Congo and south-eastern French 
Equatorial Africa to southern Sudan (but not the Imatong Mts ) and 
south-western Abyssinia. 

Treron australis brevicera Hart. & Goods. 

Treron calva brevicera Hartert & Goodson, Nov. Zool. 25, 1918, p 353 : 
Moshi, northern Tanganyika Territory. 

Similar to T. a. salvadorii, but forehead usually feathered ; upper 
side of tail-feathers grey with often yellowish ends. Wing 157 to 179 

Distribution — Southern Kenya Colonj^ and eastern Tanganyika 
Territory as far south as Iringa and as far west as Mbulu, but not the 
coastal areas of either Kenya Colony or Tanganyika Territory. 

1947-48 151 Vol. 68 

Treron australis clayi (White). 

Vinago australis clayi White, Bull. B. O. C. 63, p. 63, 1943 : Isoka, 
north-eastern Northern Rhodesia. 

Differs from T. a. Salvador ii in having the upper side of the tail green 
with usually a grey wash at the base. Wing 161 to 185 mm. 

Distribution. — Southern Belgian Congo, Northern Rhodesia, south- 
western Tanganyika Territory and Nyasaland to Portuguese East Africa 
as far east as Tambarara. 

Note. — Intermediates between this and the Uganda race occur in 
western Tanganyika Territory. 

(2) On the Races of Chalcomitra senegalensis (Linnseus) occurring in 
Eastern Africa : — ■ 

Sclater, Syst. Av. iEthiop. 2, 1930, p. 701, recognizes four races in 
Eastern Africa. Van Someren, Nov. Zool. 29, 1922, p. 199, recognizes 
three races including C. 8. atra Mearns, and places C. s. insestimata Hartert, 
as a race of C. gutturalis (Linn.), and in Nov. Zool. 37, 1932, p. 356, 
recognizes three races and again places C. insestimata as a race of C. gut- 
turalis. Friedmann, Bull. 153, U.S. Nat. Mus. 1937, p. 363, discusses 
the races and considers it not unlikely that C. hunteri (Shelley) and 
C. cruentata (Riippell) will eventually be placed as races of C. senegalensis. 
Vincent, Ibis, 1936, p. 69, places the northern Portuguese East African 
birds under C. s. insestimata. Meise, Mitt. Zool. Mus. Berlin, 22, 1937, 
p. 145, places his Matengo Highland birds under C. s. insestimata, and gives 
culmen in males as 23-26-5 ; females 21-23 mm. Grote, J. f. O. 1921, 
p. 410, states that both C. gutturalis and C. sequatorialis are found on 
Ukerewe Island, but in a footnote states that two specimens have metallic 
wing shoulders. 

Our examination of the series in the British Museum collection and of 
the recent literature allows us to recognize four races in Eastern Africa 
as follows : — 

A. Wing shoulder metallic : — • 

Chalcomitra senegalensis gutturalis (Linn.). 

Certhia gutteralis Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. 12th ed. i. 1766, p. 186 : South- 
eastern Cape Province, South Africa ; of which Cinnyris gutturalis 
saturatus Reichenow, J. f. O. 1891, p. 160 : Angola, Cinnyris gutturalis 
insestimata Hartert, in Ansorge's Under the Afr. Sun, app. 1899, p. 351 : 
Dar-es-Salaam, eastern Tanganyika Terirtory ; and Chalcomitra borgerto 
Reichenow & Neumann, O.M. 1905, p. 182 : Muyuzi, foot of east Usambara 
Mts., north-eastern Tanganyika Territory are synonyms. 

Vol. 68 152 1947-48 

Wing, male 67 to 80, female 62 to 73 mm. ; culmen from base, male 
25 to 32 ; female 24 to 30 mm. One hundred and seventy-eight specimens 

Distribution. — South-eastern Kenya Colony from southern Ukamba and 
Lamu to Tanganyika Territory as far west as Kigoma, Shinyanga, Mbulu, 
Esimingor and Monduli, northern Portuguese East Africa east of Tete, 
Angola, Damaraland, eastern Cape Province and Natal, also Zanzibar 

B. Wing shoulder not metallic : — 

Chalcomitra senegalensis cruentata (Riipp.). 

Nectarinia cruentata Ruppell, Syst. Uebers, 1845, p. 26, pi. 9 : Simen 
Province, northern Abyssinia. 

Chin and throat non-metallic black. Wing, male 68 to 80, female 
63 to 71 mm. Fifty -two specimens examined. 

Distribution. — The Sennar district of the eastern Sudan and Eritrea 
to central Abyssinia. 

Chalcomitra senegalensis acik (Hartm.). 

Nectarinia acik Hartmann, J. f. O. 1866, p. 205 : Djur, Bahr-el-Ghazal, 
south-western Sudan. 

Chin and throat metallic. Wing, male 65 to 71, female 60 to 63 mm. ; 
culmen from base, male 22 to 25, female 22 to 25 mm. Sixty-four 
specimens examined. 

Distribution. — Northern Cameroon to western and southern Sudan as 
far east as Torit and the Dongatona Mts., north-eastern Belgian Congo 
and northern Uganda. 

Chalcomitra senegalensis lamperti (Reichw.). 

Cinnyris senegalensis lamperti Reichenow, J. f. O. 1897, p. 196 : Moshi, 
north-eastern Tanganyika Territory, of which Cinnyris seguatorialis 
Reichenow, O.M. 1899, p. 171 : Bukoba, north-western Tanganyika 
Territory ; Chalcomitra senegalensis atra Mearns, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 
48, 1917, p. 388 : Thika River, south-central Kenya Colony and Chalco- 
mitra senegalensis erythrinse Stoneham, Bull. Stoneham Mus. 1933, no. 14 : 
East Surrey Coffee Estates, Trans-Nzoia, western Kenya Colony are 

We can see no character by which C. a. eequatorialis can be separated 
from C. s. lamperti. 

Size larger and longer billed than C. s. acik. Female not so dusky and 
less densely marked below. Wing, male 69 to 81, female 64 to 70 mm. ; 
culmen from base, male 28 to 31, female 25 to 29 mm. One hundred 
and ten specimens examined. 

1947-48 153 Vol 68 

Distribution. — Southern Sudan at Imatong Mts. and Laboni Forest, 
eastern Belgian Congo, Uganda, Kenya Colony (but not south-east of the 
Chyulu Hills) to northern Tanganyika Territory from the Bukoba District 
to Loliondo, Moshi and Mt. Kilimanjaro. 

Remarks. — The culmen measurements of C. s. gutteralis and C. s. 
insestimata show that the shorter bill character given to the latter cannot 
be upheld. Roberts, Bds. S. Afr. 1942, p. 329, states that Zambezi 
Valley birds are rather smaller, i.e. rather shorter billed as measured 
by us, but they again increase in length in Tanganyika Territory, and the 
most northern birds in this area have bills as long as South African. 

There is no doubt that Chalcomitra hunteri (Shelley) must be con- 
sidered as a species, as not only has it such characters as the narrow 
yellow subterminal bar on the neck and chest and the metallic lower 
rump, but it has an overlap in distribution with C. s. gutturalis in south- 
eastern Kenya Colony and most probably with C. s. lamperti in the 
Mt. Kilimanjaro area. 



The Director General of the Ordnance Survey has kindly informed the 
Editor that a series of new sheets of England and Wales are now available. 
These " Two and a half inch maps " have an approximate area of 40 square 
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They are obtainable from all stockists of Ordnance Survey publications at 
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The next Meeting of the Club will take place on Wednesday, 16 June, 
1948, at the Rembrandt Hotel, Thurloe Place, S.W. 7. Dinner at 6.30 p.m. 




Volume 68. 


No. 9. 

The four-hundred-and- seventy-eighth Meeting of the Club was held at 
the Rembrandt Hotel, Thurloe Place, S.W.7, on Wednesday, 16 June, 
1948, with dinner at 6.30 p.m. 

Chairman : Dr. J. M. Harrison. 

Members present : — Miss C. M. Acland ; Miss P. Barclay-Smith ; 
F. J. F. Barrington ; Miss J. M. Ferrier ; W. E. Glegg (Hon. Secretary); 
Capt. C. H. B. Grant (Editor) ; F. A. de Hamel ; B. G. Harrison ; 
J. R. Justice ; Miss C. Longfield ; Dr. G. Carmichael Low ; C. W. 
Mackworth-Praed ; Sir P. Manson-Bahr ; G. M. Mathews ; Col. R. 
Meinertzhagen ; E. R. Parrinder ; Mrs. D. Peall ; Major G. H. R. 
Pye-Smith ; P. Scott ; Lt.-Commdr. C. P. Staples ; Lt.-Col. W. P. C. 
Tenison (V ice -Chairman) ; B. W. Tucker; C. N. Walter; C. de 

Guests : — Mrs. F. M. Gairloch ; S. S. Gairloch ; Mrs. F. de Hamel ; 
Dr. L. A. van der Molen ; A. G. B. Russell ; R. Wagstaffe. 

Members, 25 ; Guests, 6 ; Total, 31. 

Systematic Notes on Petrels. 

Mr. G. M. Mathews, C.B.E., read the following, illustrated by drawings 
thrown on the screen. Compare ' Ibis,' 1934, pp. 807-816 ; 1935, pp. 577- 


There is a growing desire to place the Albatrosses and Mollymawks 
in one genus and we must be consistent. Colour has played a large part 
as a generic character. In his ' Monograph ' in 1907, Godman placed 
Procellaria albigularis Finsch, in the same genus as P. grallaria Vielliot, 

Published August 17, 1948. a Price 2/G. 

Vol.68 156 1947-48 

in spite of the former's legs and feet being so distinct from all other Petrels. 
Thalassidroma tethys Bonaparte, remained in the same genus as Hydro- 
bates pelagica Linnaeus, for the sixty years, till 1915, ' Ibis,' p. 577, when 
it was placed in the genus Oceanodroma Reichenbach, thus connecting 
these genera. 

Procellaria Linnaeus, has the tubes raised above the culmen, and so 
have Adamastor Bonaparte, Ardenna Reichenbach, Hemipvffinus Iredale, 
and Calonectris Mathews & Iredale, while in Puffinus Brisson, the tubes 
are bevelled, but connected to the above genera through Neonectris 
Mathews, and Thyellodroma Stejneger, in gradation. 

The bills of the six species of Prions vary considerably, but the birds 
show a general agreement in colour, so only one genus is necessary, and 
the same applies to the Pelecanoideidae ; apparently colour is of importance, 
as some workers admit Adamastor as distinct from Procellaria. 

We then have the following genera and species : — 

(1) Diomedea exulans Linnaeus ; D. epomophora Lesson ; D. albatrvs 
Pallas ; D. immutabilis Rothschild ; D. nigripes Audubon ; D. 
irrorala Salvin ; D. melanophris Temminck ; D. bulleri Rothschild ; 
D. chrysostoma Forster ; D. chlororhynchus Gmelin ; D. cauta Gould. 
(Phoebetria Reichenbach) palpebrata Forster (fusca) Hilsenberg. 

(2) Macronectes giganteus Gmelin. 

(3) Daption capensis Linnaeus. 

(4) Fulmarus glacialis Linnaeus. (Priocella) antarctica Stephens. 

(5) Thalassoica antarctica Gmelin. 

(6) Bulweria bulwerii Jardine ; B. brevirostris Lesson ; B. macroptera 
Smith ; B. melanopus Gmelin ; B. lugens Kuhl ; B. macgillivrayi 
Gray ; B. lessoni Garnot (B. incerta) Schlegel ; B. hasitata Kuhl (B. carib- 
b&a) Carte ; B. rostrata Peale ; B. alba Gmelin (B. magentse) Giglioli ; 
B. inexpectata Forster ; B. mollis Gould (B. deceptornis) Mathews ; 
B. neglecta Schlegel (B. heraldica Salvin and B. arminjoniana Giglioli) ; 
B. phseopygia Salvin ; B. externa Salvin (B. cervicalis Salvin) ; B. cooki 
Gray ; B. leucoptera Gould ; (Pagodroma) nivea Forster (Haloboena) 
cserulea Gmelin. 

(7) Pachyptila vittata Forster ; P. salvini Mathews ; P. desolata Gmelin ; 
P. belcheri Mathews ; P. turtur Kuhl ; P. crassirostris Mathews. 

(8) Procellaria vequinoctialis Linnaeus ; P.parkinsoniGrsiy. (Adamastor) 
cinerea Gmelin (Ardenna) gravis O'Reilly ; P. diomedea Scolopi 
P. creatopus Coues ; P. leucomelas Temminck ; P. carneipes Gould 
(Puffinus) puffinus Brunnich ; P. baroli Bonaparte ; P. Iherminieri 

PI. 5. 

BULL. B.O.C. 1948. 

i. Puffinus diomedea. 

2. „ d. disputans. 

3. „ d. borealis. 

4. „ leucomelas. 

5. Procellaria aequinoctialis 

6. Admastor cinerea. 

7. Puffinus carneipes. 

8. „ or Alphapuffinus. 

9. & 10. Pachyptila (2 species) 

Drawn by Lilian Medland and C E. Talbot Kelly 

PI. 6. 

BULL. B.O.C. 1948. 

i. & i a. Puffinus gravis. 

2. & 2a. „ creatopus 

3. Procellaria aequinoctialis. 

& 41. Puffinus reinholdi. 
Bulweria bulweri. 
Pterodroma macgillivrayi. 

Drawn by F. W. Frohawk and C. E. Talbot Kelly 

1947-48 157 Vol. 68 

Lesson ; P. reinholdi Mathews ; P. tenuirostris Temminck ; P. 
griseus Gmelin ; P. ?mtivitatis Streets ; P. pacifica Gmelin. 
(9) Hydrobates pelagica Linnaeus ; H. microsome/, Coues ; H. tethys 
Bonaparte ; H. castro Harcourt ; H. hornbyi Gray ; H. furcata 
Gmelin ; H. leucorhoa Vieillot ; H. macrodactyla Bryant ; H. homo- 
chroa Coues ; H. melania Bonaparte (H. matsudairse Kuroda) ; H. 
markhami Salvin ; // . owstoni Mathews & Iredale. 

(10) Oceanites oceanicus Kuhl ; 0. gracilis Elliot ; 0. marinus Latham ; 
0. nereis Gould. 

(11) Cymodroma amphitrite Jardin ; C. tropica Gould ; C. deceptis 
Mathews ; C. grallaria Vieillot ; C. melanoleuca Salvadori ; C. lineata 
Peale ; C. maoriana Mathews. 

(12) Pelecanoides urinatrix Gmelin ; P. garnoti Lesson ; P. magellani 
Mathews ; P. georgicus Murphy. 

Taking the Puffinidse of the ' Catalogue of Birds,' we have in the same 
genus Puffinus : — • 

Tail long, cuneate for some forms. 

Tail shorter, rounded for others. 

In the Hydrobatinse we have : — 

Tail cuneate , for one colour genus. 

Tail rounded for a single species. 

In the Diomedeidse we have : — 

Tail long, cuneate for one colour genus. 

Tail short, rounded for some forms. 

As we do not admit colour as of generic value, we must lump. In 
other words we have all Shearwaters in one genus ; all the Albatrosses 
in another genus ; one genus for all the Bulweriinse ; another for all the 
Pachytilinse ; one genus for Hydrobatinse ; two genera in the Oceanitinae, 
and one genus for the Pelecanoideidae. In the Fulmarinse, three or four 
monotypic genera if we include Thalassoica, or a dozen genera for the 
order Procellariiformes, and about seven dozen species. 

Bonaparte in C. R. 42, p. 769, April 28, 1856, placed A. carneipes Gould, 
1844, in Adamastor together with its genotype P. cinerea. Also the two 
wedge-tailed species P. pacifica and P. leucomelas in Thiellus=Thyello- 
droma Stejneger, 1888, the former a uniform all dark bird, the other 

Taking as a standard of a genus that used in the ' Catalogue of Birds,' 
Vol. 25, 1896, to Peters' ' Check-List,' 1931, and others workers to date, 


Vol. 68 158 1947-48 

that is over half a century of work, we find that Puffinus includes birds 
with long wedge-shaped tails and others with short rounded tails ; those 
uniform in colour, others bi- coloured ; those with bills with the latericorn 
expanded at the base, others with this part narrow. In the ' Ibis,' 1938, 
Mayaud points out the difference between the skeletons of P. diomedea 
(P. kuhlii) and that of P. gravis. That is to say, that we do not admit 
any of the above-mentioned characters as being of generic value. This 
being admitted by workers, we must be consistent and include Procellaria 
acquinoctialis and Adamastor cinerea. I can find no character in the bills 
that would not include these if we put Puffinus carneipes in the same genus 
as the Manx Shearwater. 

The same remarks apply to Pterodroma, which should be a synonym 
of Bulweria. In the former we have " nasal opening directed slightly 
upwards," in the latter " nasal tubes fleshy at the end openings directed 
forwards and upwards." The tails of the species in each genus are wedge- 

Again, in Hydrobates the shape of the tail should not be considered as 
of generic value, because we have rejected it in Puffinus. So we put as 
synonym of Hydrobates the two genera Oceanodroma and Halocyptena, 
as P. tethys was placed with H. pelagica for over half a century and in 
Oceanodroma for a third of a century. 

In Oceanitinse the genera Pelagodroma and Garrodia have the tarsus 
scutellated not booted as in Oceanites. And in the genus Cymodroma 
the species C. grallaria has a scutellated tarsus and C. tropica a booted 
one like C. lineata and C. melanoleuca , while the tarsus of C. maoriana 
agrees with that of C. grallaria. So we only admit the genus Oceanites 
for the first, and Cymodroma for the last mentioned. 

We do not admit as of generic value in the Oceanitinae the shape 
of the foot nor the scutellated tarsus as being different from the booted. 
We place in the same genus Pterodroma the species P. neglecta, which 
nests above ground and is of quiet disposition when handled, with those 
which burrow underground and are fierce and dangerous to handle. So 
we add " nesting habits " to those characteristics not considered as of 
generic value. 

Loomis, ' Auk,' October, 1923, gives his reasons for not admitting some 
genera ; he says, p. 601, " genera in the present system are based solely 
on external characters "...., on p. 602, " the shape of the tail is not 
given generic value in the present association." Again, " The booted 
tarsus proves to be a variable character in Oceanites . . . .", which I think 
should include Garrodia, Pelagodroma and Pealea. And again, " In the 
present instance no clearer view appears to be gained by elevating the 

1947-48 159 Vol. 68 

structural characters of species to characters of monotypic genera. ' ' Sharpe, 
in 1879, placed the Sooty Albatross in the genus Diomedea, and this is correct. 

All quotations like the above are so very well known to specialists in the 
Procellariiformes that quoting them is far from necessary, and as a new 
Check-List is being prepared other views should be given. 

Coues, in Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. 1864, p. 80, placed Thalassi- 
droma tethys in the same genus as Hydrobates pelagica ; and p. 83, he put 
T. lineata Peale in the genus Oceanites. In 1866, p. 147, he thought 
that Pterodroma incerta was the young of P. lessoni, and on p. 189 said of 
Pelecanoides that " the tarsus is excessively compressed and at the same 
time very deep antero-posteriorly." 

Pucheran, in Mag. Zool. 1850, p. 633, said that Pterodroma brevirostris 
(Lesson), 1831, later called P. aterrima, 1857, was the same as, and older 
than, P. macroptera Smith, 1840. Compare ' Ibis,' 1935, p. 885. 

In the ' Novitates Zoologicae,' 1912, pp. 199, 201-2 and 206 ; and in 
the same journal, Vol. 39, 1934, pp. 158, 169, 176, 186 and 187, other 
changes are recorded. 

In ' Ibis,' 1936, p. 309, pi. ii, the species Thalassidroma macgillivrayi 
was shown to belong to Pterodroma and not to Bulweria where it was 
placed for over seventy years, unless these genera are united, as I think 
that they should be. This case proves to me that Pterodroma is a synonym 
of Bulweria and so is Halobasna. 

In ' Emu,' 36, p. 96, 1936, Pterodroma lugens Kuhl, 1820, is shown to 
be the correct name for the bird wrongly called P. brevirostris, Kerguelan 
Petrel. In ' Ibis,' 1932, p. 524, the names P. melanopus and P. neglecta 
are discussed. Compare also ' Birds of Norfolk Island,' 1928, p. 16. 
All these and other changes are known to those workers who are interested 
enough to discuss the order in general. The casual worker on odd species 
may not care to specialize or to know his literature thoroughly, nor would 
it be necessary. The making of so many species, formerly admitted 
to be races, is explained in the above works, some workers may call them 
representative species not races, a matter of opinion not a fact. 

Fregetta versus Oceanites. 

Of Genera, Godman, ' Monograph 1910,' p. xxxvi, following Salvin 
in Cat. Bds. B.M. 25, 1896, says that the genus Garrodia differs from 
Oceanites in having the " Scutellse of the front of the tarsus distinct " 
not obsolete as in Oceanites. Is this a good reason for separation ? 

It is of interest to find Sharpe, in 1879, Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. 168, 
pp. 101-162, uses Procellaria (now Hydrobates) for Garrodia nereis ; and 
Oceanites for Fregetta tropica and O. oceanica. 

Vol. 68 160 1947-48 

In this paper Sharpe had two skins of 0. melanogastra from Kerguelen ; 
two of F. tropica from the Atlantic and four 0. leucogastra (=0. deceptis), 
one of which became the type of F. leucoihysanus in 1937. This author 
also considered that Gould's 0. leucogaster was the long- toed form, not 
the P. grallaria of Vieillot which we now know it to be. Examining these 
eight skins Sharpe says that " the differences between O. melanogastra 
and O. tropica are extremely slight, consisting in the white throat and the 
greater amount of black on the abdomen and centre of the body in the 
former bird. I believe it possible that 0. leucogastra [=0. deceptis] is also 
only a stage of plumage of the same species." 

Gould figured the bird with a booted tarsus, and so did Godman in 
his ' Monograph 1907,' pi. 18, under Cymodroma grallaria, the bird now 
called 0. deceptis. His figure shows the booted tarsus and base of toe joints 
of the long toes, the diagnostic character, while C. grallaria has the scutel- 
lated tarsus and toes and the short foot. Godman's figure also shows 
the white edges to the feathers of the back and in the letter-press says 
that " This species is very closely allied to C. melanogaster but always 
has a white belly and white margins to the feathers of the back," and on 
p. xxxvii, " Basal phalanx of the middle toe much flattened and equal 
to or longer than the remaining joints and claws." 

The confusion arose when P. grallaria typical was put in with 0. deceptis 
and those workers who examined the latter pointed out its resemblance 
to F. tropica, while those who handled S. grallaria showed how much it 
differed from E. tropica. At one time I thought 0. deceptis was a phase of 
F. tropica melanogaster, but we now have so many specimens that this 
seems impossible, although they sometimes occur together, while 0. deceptis 
has not been recorded in the south of South America. 

F. deceptis. 
In 1828 Bonaparte described a form of F. grallaria as Th. oceanica 
and commented on the shape of the toe-nails ; a bird collected by Mac- 
gillivray in 1853 and labelled in error 0. leucogaster was in fact 0. deceptis. 
In 1855 Bonaparte introduced his genus Fregetta, and he appears to have 
had 0. deceptis and C. grallaria in front of him. In one place he says 
that the type of his genus had a long tarsus, but the foot was small and 
did not reach beyond the tail ; this is C. grallaria. Lower down he says 
that Gould's 0. leucogastra differed little from F. melanogastra [both 
having long toes], but did differ from his Thalassidroma oceanica = 
C. grallaria with the grebe-like nails. In Bull. B. O. C. 57, p. 144, June 30, 
1937, these statements are explained. 



Vol. 68 


Tail slightly forked Ic. TJ^l "fa^Eted"' 1 *** t06 " J ° intS 

\C. lineata. ^ 

Tail slightly wedge-shaped C. maoriana . . Tarsus and all toe-joints 


_ .. , r „ f Tarsus and all toe -joints 

lail about even f C. nieLanoLeuca. , , , 

j J booted. 

-, c , . ,, | _ ' . | Tarsus and all toe-joints 

Toes of nearly even length \^C. grallaria. . , 

*,.,„,, -x f Tarsus and basal toe -joints 

Tail forked I _ , . . 1 , . , , . . L * 

„ >C;. amphitrite. < booted ; basal joints longer 

Foot very narrow J j „ , _ * 

J I than rest oi toe. 


CO. Oceanians. C ' . . . . , , 

rr -i v i**i c i j t n ; ^ •#• J Tarsus and basal mid toe- 

1 ail slightly forked ; webs yellow. < 0. qracihs. < . . 

fe J J 1^.1 joint booted. 

\0. mannus. I 

„ ., . , , fO. marinus. \ Tarsus and all toe-joints 

Tail about even ; webs dark < ^ . < ^ „ ■ ' 

10. nereis. \ scutellated. 

Tail rounded //. pelagica. 

„ wedge-shaped .... H. microsoma. 

,, forked H. tethys, H. castro, H. furcata, H. hornbyi, H. leucorhoa, 

H. macrodactyla, H. melania, H. matsudairse, H. mark- 

hami, H. owstoni. 

Cymodroma lineata. When I had this unique skin figured, Riley, of the 
Smithsonian Institution, Washington, supervised the drawing. The tail- 
feathers show a gradual lengthening from 73 mm. for the central pair 
to 84 mm. for the outer. This does not agree with Peale's coloured 
drawing, which shows a bird with the central pair of tail-feathers the 
longest. Godman, in his Monograph, pi. 16, figured a skin in the Paris 
Museum, which he said resembled a specimen in the Natural History 

The last -mentioned specimen is the type of C. maoriana and is figured 
in ' Novitates Zoologies,' 1933, pi. v, and Pealea lineata is figured on 
pi. vi, to show how distinct are these two forms. The wing formula is 
different and the tarsus is scutellated in C. maoriana and not in C. lineata. 
The foot of each form is also figured in pi. ix, so that comparisons can 
the better be made. In February 1948, Dr. Berlioz again examined the 
Paris Museum birds and considered the tails to be even, not slightly 
wedged as in the British Museum specimen. The tails of the two mounted 
specimens in Paris measure 73 and 75 mm ; the London bird measures, 
Central feathers 68, outer 63 mm. 

Vol. 68 162 1947-48 


C. tropica, C. deceptis, C. lineata have slightly forked tails, and the 
tarsus and basal toe- joints booted. 

C. maoriana has the tail slightly wedge-shaped, and the tarsus and all 
toe- joints scutellated. 

C. melanoleuca and C. grallaria have the tail even ; and toes nearly 
of equal length. The first mentioned has the tarsus and all the toe- joints 
booted, the other has these parts scutellated. 

C. amphitrite has a forked tail, very narrow foot, tarsus and basal toe- 
joints booted and it cannot be matched by any other bird in the formation 
of the legs and feet. 


0. oceanicus and 0. gracilis have the tail slightly forked and the tarsus 
and basal mid toe- joint booted. 

0. mminus also has the tail slightly forked, and tarsus and all toe- 
joints scutellated. 

0. nereis has the tail about even and the legs and feet scutellated as in 

0. marinus. 

I should like to add an overlooked synonym of Diomedea chlororhynchus . 
1928. Diomedea melanoptera Miranda- Rib eiro, Boletin do Museu 

Nacional, Rio de Janeiro, vol. 4, no. 4, p. 45. No type-locality, 

now designated as Tristan da Cunha. 
The generic characters given by Salvin in Cat. Birds, 25, p. 348, 1896, 
are : — 

1. Tarsus longer than mid-toe and claw ; tail not distinctly forked. . Hydrobates. 

2. Tarsus not distinctly longer than mid- toe and claw ; tail distinctly 

forked Oceanodroma. 

Then we have to date the following : — ■ 

A. Tarsus longer than mid-toe and claw. 

H. pelagica, H. tethys, H. microsoma, H. furcata, H. hornbyi, H. melania, H. mat- 
sudairas, H. castro (varies). 

B. Tarsus shorter than mid-toe and claw. 

H. leucorhoa, H. monorhis, H. homochroa, H. macrodactyla, H. markhami, 
H. owstoni, (H. castro). 

As in the Procellariidse we do not admit the shape and construction 
of the tail, bill, legs and feet to be of generic value, we must follow the 
same lines in the Hydrobatidse. 

In the genus Puffinus we use : 

1. Tail long, cuneate (for one species, P. leucomelas) . 

2. Tail shorter, rounded (for another, P. reinholdi). 

1947-48 163 Vol. 68 

So in the genus Hydrobates we use : 

1. Tail long, cuneate, for one species, H. microsoma. 

2. Tail shorter, rounded or nearly even for another, H. pelagica. 
And in Procellaria tethys we find the connecting fink between Hydrobates 
and Oceanodroma and use the prior genus for the combination. 


A 1 . Tail rounded. 

a 1 . Latericorn not decidedly widest at base ; wing more than 
three times the tail length. 
6 1 . Feathers at base of lower mandible extending beyond 
the base of nasal tubes. 
c 1 . Naricorns oval and pointed up ; back vermiculated ; 

tail dark ; eyelids coloured D. exulans. 

c 2 . Naricorns round and pointed forward ; body white, 

wings dark ; eyelids black D. epomophora. 

b 2 . Feathers at base of lower mandible not extending beyond 
the base of nasal tubes. 
c 1 . Culmen shorter than tail. 

d 1 . Body dark ; sometimes upper and under tail- 
coverts white D. nigripes. 

d 2 . Body white or mainly so. 

e 1 . Back white ; head yellowish D. albatrus. 

e 2 . Back dark ; head whitish D. immutabilis. 

c 2 . Culmen longer than tail ; body vermiculated ; head 

whitish D. irrorata. 

a 2 . Latericorn decidedly widest at base ; wing less than three 
times the tail length. 
b 1 . Culminicorn basally separated from latericorn by a thin 

c 1 . Bill uniform yellow D. melanophris. 

c 2 . Culmen and ramus yellow, the remainder dark D. bulleri. 

b 2 . Culminicorn basally separated from latericorn by a thick 

d 1 . Culmen pointed and yellow and not reaching fore- 
head ; remainder dark D. chlororhynchus . 

d 1 . Culmen not pointed. 

e 1 . Culmen reaching to forehead ; culmen and ramus 

yellow ; remainder dark D. chrysostoma. 

e l . Culmen rounded and not reaching to forehead ; 

angular fleshy band at base of ramus D. cauta. 

A 2 . Tail wedge-shaped ; colour uniform dark ; wing about twice 

the tail length ; ramicorn with longitudinal groove D. palpebrata. 


A 1 . Bill depressed ; mandibular rami arched and enclosing an 

unfeathered sac ; tail-feathers 14 Daption. 

A 2 . Bill cylindrical ; mandibular rami normal. 

a 5 

Vol. 68 164 1947-48 

6 1 . Bill longer than head ; unguis springing from nasal tubes 
with no intervening space ; nasal tubes longer than half 

the culmen ; tail-feathers 16 ; large Macronectes. 

b 2 . Bill shorter than head ; unguis divided from tubes ; tail- 
feathers 12 or 14. 
c 1 . Bill short and stout : unguis short, robust and very 

convex ; tail-feathers 14 Fulmarus. 

c 2 . Bill long and slender ; unguis longer, less stout and 

d 1 . Bill cylindrical ; tail-feathers 14 Priocella. 

d 2 . Bill compressed ; tail-feathers 12 Thalassoica. 


Gonys hooked, and longer than the nasal tubes ; nostrils separated 
by a thin septum. 

A 1 . Hind claw small ; culmen more than half as long as middle 
toe and claw. 
b x . Tail decidedly wedge-shaped. 

c 1 . Tail more than half as long as wing ; colour black .... Bulweria. 
c 2 . Tail less than half as long as wing ; colour and size very 

varied Pterodroma. 

b 2 . Tail slightly wedge-shaped and white-tipped and less than 

half as long as wing Halobsena. 

A 2 . Hind claw very large ; equal in length to the nasal tubes ; 
culmen less than half as long as middle toe and claw ; tail 
less than half as long as wing and wedge-shaped ; colour 
white Pagodroma. 

Bulweria as restricted ; Pagodroma and Halobsena are all three purely 
colour genera. 

Tail less than half as long as 
wing and wedge-shaped. 

Pagodroma. . Colour uniform white ; culmen 
less than half as long as mid- 
toe and claw ; hallux large. 

Halobsena . . . Colour grey above, white below. 

Pterodroma . Colour and size varied. 

Bulweria . . . Colour uniform dark. 

Culmen more than half as long 

as mid-toe and claw. Hallux -^ 

Tail more than half as long as 

wing and wedge-shaped. 

Genus Pterodroma. 

Of the Pterodromine Dove-Petrels we can put them into two divisions : 
those all dark and those with either all white on the under-surface or 
mainly so. 

All dark birds. 

A 1 . Bill compressed ; colour dark grey ; tarsi dark ; 

wing 245 to 265 ; middle toe and claw under 50 mm. Lugensa lugens. 
A 2 . Bill not compressed. 

1947-48 165 Vol. 68 

6 1 . Bill depth at base more than half its length ; tarsi 

yellow, wing under 260 mm Atterima brevirostris. 

b 2 . Bill depth less than half its length ; tarsi dark. 

c 1 . Wing under 210 mm Pseudobulweria macgilli- 

c 2 . Wing over 290 ; middle toe and claw over 50 mm. 
d 1 . Forehead and chin mottled ; inner webs of 
primaries more or less white ; wing 296 mm. ; 

general colour slate -grey Pterodroma melanopus. 

d 2 . Forehead and chin grey ; inner web of pri- 
maries not white ; wing 294-323 mm. ; general 
colour sooty-black P. macroptera. 

The dark bird called caribbdea has a white rump, and is said to be a 
dark form of hasitata, the only other form with a white rump. 

Dark and light birds. 

A 1 . Forehead dappled ; dark above. 

6 1 . White collar ; all white below ; mid -toe and claw 
over 50 mm. 

c 1 . Upper tail-coverts white P. hasitata (P. caribbsea). 

c 2 . Upper tail-coverts uniform with lower back. 
d 1 . Collar distinct ; first primary with little or no 

white on inner web P. externa (P. cervicalis). 

d 2 . Collar indicated ; first primary extensively 

white on inner web P. externa. 

b 2 . No white collar. 

c 1 . Under surface all white ; wing 274-323 mm P. phseopygia. 

c 2 . Under surface not all white ; mid-toe and claw 
under 50 mm. 
d 1 . Under -wing lining dark ; wing 245-280 mm. 
e 1 . Grey band on chest more or less prominent, 

remainder white P. mollis. 

e 2 . All under-surface uniform grey P. deceptomis. 

d 2 . Under-wing lining mostty white. 

e 1 . Under-surface more or less dappled or all 

/ l . Wing 244-267 mm P. inexpectata, 

/ 2 . Wing 207-226 mm P. brevipes. 

e 2 . Under-surface uniform white ; wing 200- 
250 mm. 

/ 1 . Above sooty-black P. leucoptera. 

f 2 . Above grey P. cooki. 

A 2 . Forehead not dappled ; dark above ; under-wing 
lining dark. 

6 1 . Head and all below white ; wing 304-314 mm P. lessoni. 

6 2 . Head and upper breast dark. 

c 1 . Under tail-coverts dark ; wing 313-335 mm P. lessoni (P. incerta). 

c 2 . Under tail-coverts whitish. 

Vol. 68 166 1947-4& 

d 1 . Throat not white ; wing 280-309 mm. (245 

becki) P. rostrata. 

d 2 . Throat white. 

e 1 . Larger and lighter, wing 304 mm P. magentas. 

e 2 . Smaller and darker, wing under 290 mm. . . P. alba. 
A 3 . Base of primaries extensively white ; wing 280- 

310 mm. P. neglecta (P. heraldica, 

and P. arminjoniana). 

Some consider that P. cervicalis is a race of P. externa ; P. deceptornis 
is a race of P. mollis ; P. incerta is a race of P. lessoni ; P. magentse is 
a race of P. rostrata ; P. heraldica and P. arminjoniana are races of P. 


This little group, within the genus Pterodroma, has been studied by 
several workers with different results. Fleming, 1941, ' Emu,' has 
drawings of the skulls of P. pycrofti, P. cooki and P. axillaAs which he 
called species, of the last he makes P. nigripennis a race. P. brevipes 
has often been placed as a species. Murphy admits P. cooki and P. 
leucoptera as species, the rest as races. 

Falla, 1942, ' Emu,' admits as species (1) P. longirostris Stejneger, 
1893, and puts P. masafuerze as a synonym and P. pycrofti as a race. 
(2) P. leucoptera with P. brevipes as a race. (3) P. coo&i with P. orientalis 
Murphy, 1929, a synonym, and P. defilippiana a race. (4) P. hypoleuca 
with P. axillaris and P. nigripennis as races. So out of ten admitted 
forms, seven have been called species. 

Another way, in 1934, I admitted C. leucoptera as a species, with 
C. brevipes, C. longirostris, C. hypoleuca and C. masafuerss as races. 
C. cooki as a species, with C. pycrofti, C. axillaris, C. nigripennis and 
C. defilippiana as races. 

This I think the best way of treating this group. 

A. Above grey, wing average over 230 mm. : — 

Wing 235 ; tail 90 ; bill slender . . C. cooki. 

,, 235 ; ,, 102 ; bill heavier . . C. defilippiana. 

Wing average under 230 mm. : — 

Wing 217 ; tail 91 ; axillaries black. C. axillaris. 

„ 228 ; ,, 98 ; ,, white. C. nigripennis. 

„ 215 ; „ 92 ; „ white. C. pycrofti. 

B. Above sooty-black, wing average 225 mm. or over : — 

Wing 225 ; tail 91 C. leucoptera. 

„ 228; ,,110 C. hypoleuca. 

1947-48 167 Vol. 68 

Wing average under 225 mm. : — 

Wing 218 ; tail 95 C. brevipes. 

,, 221 ; ,, 100 C. masafuerse. 

,, 210 or under ;,tail 96. . C. longirostris . 


A 1 . Culmen longer than length of the tubes. 

a 1 . Mandibular rami very arched ; feathers on ramus ex- 
tending past nasal tubes ; lamellae well developed ; bill 
6 1 . Width of upper mandible, 18 mm. or more, and much 

greater than half bill length P. vittata. 

b 2 . Width of upper mandible, 17 mm. or less, and less than 

half bill length P. salvini. 

. Mandibular rami not so arched ; feathers on ramus not 

extending past the nasal tubes ; lamellae less developed. 
6 1 . Width of upper mandible about 15 mm. and about half 

bill length P. desolata. 

b 2 . Width of upper mandible under 12 mm. ; bill compressed, 

deeper than wide P. belcheri. 

A 2 . Culmen shorter than length of the tubes ; unguis large ; 
lamellae much reduced. 
a 1 . Space between unguis and tubes P. turtur. 

a 2 . No space between unguis and tubes P. crassirostris. 


Nostrils divided by a thick septum which is more or less visible from 

A 1 . Latericorn distinctly basally expanded. 

6 1 . Nasal tubes not bevelled. 

c 1 . Colour black. Space between nasal tubes and base of 

unguis less than the length of the tubes Procellaria. 

c 2 . Colour dark above, white below. Space between nasal 

tubes and base of unguis greater than length of tubes . . Adamastor. 

6 2 . Nasal tubes more or less bevelled. 

c 1 . Tail decidedly wedge-shaped ; tarsus less than 4 mm. 

longer than culmen Calonectris. 

c 2 . Tail not decidedly wedge-shaped ; tarsus 8 to 13 mm. 

longer than culmen Ardenna. 

A 2 . Latericorn not or very little basally expanded ; nasal tubes 
more or less bevelled. 

b 1 . Tail not decidedly wedge-shaped Puffinus. 

b 2 . Tail decidedly wedge-shaped Thyellodroma. 

The above are now considered to be in one genus, Procellaria. 

Vol. 68 168 1947-48 

Birds of various sizes, bills slightly varying ; tails long or short ; 
uniform in colour or dark above and white below. 

A 1 . Latericorn basally expanded. 

b 1 . Nasal tubes not bevelled, wing over 300 mrn. (284 in 
P. edwardsi). 
c 1 . Colour black, chin white (sometimes white on head) .... P. dequinoctialis. 

Colour black, including chin P. parkinsoni. 

c 2 . Colour dark above, white below P. cinerea. 

b 2 . Nasal tubes more or less bevelled. 

c 1 . Colour uniform dark P. carneipes. 

c 2 . Colour dark above, white below. 

d 1 . Upper tail-coverts white ; cervical collar marking 

distinct dark cap P. gravis. 

d 2 . Upper tail-coverts not white. 

e 1 . Tail decidedly wedge-shaped, forehead scollaped ... P. leucomelas. 
e 2 . Tail not decidedly wedge-shaped. 

f l . Sides of body and under tail-coverts dark P. creatopas. 

f 2 . Sides of body and under tail-coverts white P. diomedea. 

A 2 . Latericorn not so basally expanded ; nasal tubes bevelled. 
b 1 . Dark above and white below. 

c 1 . Tail less than twice culmen length P. reinholdi. 

c 2 . Tail more than twice the culmen. 

d 1 . Wing 220-255 mm P. pvffinus. 

d 2 . Wing 169-220 mm. 

e 1 . Above slaty to slaty black P. baroli. 

e 2 . Above blackish brown to sooty black P. Iherminieri. 

b 2 . Dark above and below. 

c 1 . Tail wedge-shaped P. pacifica. 

c 2 . Tail not wedge-shaped. 

d 1 . Wing 240-260 mm P. nativitatis. 

d 2 . Wing 260-320 mm. 

e 1 . Wing 260-290 ; culmen under 36 (29-35) mm P. tenuirostris. 

e 2 . Wing 281-318 ; culmen over 36 (38-48) mm P. grisea. 

In the genus Procellaria we find six birds with the wing more than 
three times the length of the tail : — 

P. scquinoctialis ; P. parkinsoni ; P. pvffinus ; P. reinholdi ; P. 
tenuirostris ; P. grisea ; 

and ten with it less : — 

P. cinerea ; P. carneipes ; P. gravis; P. crcatopus ; P. leucomelas ; 
P. diomedea ; P. nativitatis ; P. baroli ; P. Iherminieri ; P. 

Only one, P. reinholdi, has the tail less than twice the length of the 

1947-48 169 Vol. 68 


Nasal opening single, septum not visible ; second primary longest ; 
sternum entire. 

A 1 . Tail less than half the length of the wing. 
b 1 . Tail not forked. 

c 1 . Tail rounded ; upper tail-coverts white Hydrobates pelagica. 

c 2 . Tail wedge-shaped ; uniform dark H. microsoma. 

b 2 . Tail forked. 

c 1 . Tail forked for less than 12 mm. ; upper tail-coverts 

d 1 . Wing under 145 mm H. tethys. 

d 2 . Wing over 145 mm H. castro. 

c 2 . Tail forked for more than 20 mm. ; uniform dark. 
d 1 . Tarsus twice culmen length and longer than mid- 
toe and claw ; feet large ; tail less than half the 

wing H. melania. 

d 2 . Tarsus less than twice culmen and equal to mid-toe 

claw ; feet small ; tail more than half the wing. . H. matsudairse. 
A. 2 . Tail more than half the wing. 
6 1 . Colour grey above. 

c 1 . Grey above and below H. furcata. 

c 2 . Grey above, white below ; breast band H. hornbyi. 

b 2 . Colour sooty above and below. 

c 1 . Upper tail-coverts white ; tail forked for more than 
12 mm. 
d 1 . White t^ail-coverts tipped black ; central coverts 

black, tipped white. Larger H. macrodactyla. 

d 2 . White tail-coverts uniform white with dusky shafts, 

central coverts ashy. Smaller H. leucorhoa. 

c 2 . Upper tail-coverts not white. 

d 1 . A pale area on under wing-coverts, wing less than 

152 mm., tarsus less than 25 H. homochroa. 

d 2 . No pale area on under wing-coverts ; wing over 
160 mm. 
e 1 . Upper tail-coverts with a drab patch : tarsus 
heavy, toes stout and long ; tarsus more than 

26 mm H. owstoni. 

e 2 . Upper tail-coverts without drab patch ; legs and 

feet small and delicate ; tarsus less than 26 mm. H. markhami. 


A 1 . Dark above, with white upper tail-coverts ; white more or 

lees below Cymodroma. 

b 1 . Throat white ; dark breast band C. amphitrite. 

b 2 . Throat dark or mainly so, chest dark. 
c 1 . Tarsus scutellated. 

d 1 . Toes short ; foot as long as wide C. grallaria. 

d 2 . Toes long ; feet longer than wide C. maoriana. 

Vol. 68 170 1947-48 


c 2 . Tarsus booted. 

d 1 . Foot as long as wide C. melanoleuca. 

d 2 . Foot longer than wide. 

e 1 . White feathers with dark shafts C. lineata. 

e 2 . White feathers without dark shafts. 
f 1 . Dark band from chest to vent more or less 

distinct C. tropica. 

f 2 . No dark band from chest to vent C. deceptis. 

A 2 . Dark or grey above, with white or light upper tail-coverts . . Oceanites. 
b 1 . Tail forked ; webs yellowish. 

c 1 . Under surface uniform dark ; tarsus booted O. oceanicus. 

c 2 . Under surface whitish. 

d 1 . Chest and forehead dark ; tarsus booted O. gracilis. 

d 2 . Under surface and forehead white ; tarsus scutellated . O. mar inns. 

b 2 . Tail even ; chest dark, rest of under-surface white O. nereis. 

Erythristic Eggs of Iceland-Gull, Larus glaucoides 
Meyer, and Herring-Gull, Larus argentatus 

Mr. W. E. Glegg exhibited the following : — 

Larus glaucoides, two erythristic eggs, taken in Labrador, circa 1860- 

Description : 

No. 1. Colour : — Alternating areas of mars brown and light ochraceous 

Measurements : — 72-5x49-7 mm. 

No. 2. Colour : — Almost monochromatic russet. 

Measurements : — 71-0x48-0 mm. 

Larus argentatus, one erythristic egg, taken at North Cape, June 1897. 

Colour : — Areas of pale pinkish buff, mikado brown and pallid neutral 
grey generally dispersed over the egg. 

Measurements : — 75-5 x 50-0 mm. 

Colours : — Ridgway's ' Colour Standards and Color Nomenclature,' 

Erythrism in gulls' eggs is referred to in literature, but specimens 
exhibiting this colour variation are rare. Dresser, in his ' Eggs of the 
Birds of Europe,' figures two very beautiful erythristic specimens of the 
eggs of the Great Black-backed Gull, Larus marinus Linnaeus (pi. 95), 
and one of the Herring-Gull, Larus argentatus (pi. 97). The three eggs 
described here are very beautiful specimens. The intensity of the 
erythrism in the eggs of the Iceland-Gull is especially striking. 

1947-48 171 Vol. 68 

Dr. J. M. Harrison also exhibited the following : — 

Captain Collingwood Ingram has sent for exhibition an unpigmented 
egg of the Black-headed Gull, Larus ridibundus Linnaeus, a variety which 
he believes to be of extreme rarity. This was purchased on 5 June this 
year from a merchant in Copenhagen who dealt in gulls' eggs for human 
consumption. Although this man had during the course of his experience 
handled countless thousands of these eggs, this was the only completely 
white one he had ever seen. 

Notes on Eastern African Birds. 

Captain C. H. B. Grant and Mr. C. W. Mackworth-Pkaed sent the 
following two notes : — 

(1) On the Movements in the Non-breeding Season of Clamator jacobinus 
serratus (Sparrman). 

In the ' Ibis,' 1937, p. 402, we stated that in view of Whistler's articles 
in Journ. Bom. Nat. Hist. Soc. 1928, p. 136, and 1934, p. 523, it should 
be accepted that the Indian breeding bird migrates to eastern Africa in 
the non-breeding season. 

This would appear to still hold good, and we therefore have the com- 
plication of indistinguishable birds breeding both in Africa and India, 
migrating in the non-breeding season from South Africa as well as from 
India to the central and northern areas of Africa. We do not, however, 
know how far north South African birds go, nor how far the Indian ones 
penetrate into Africa. 

Roberts, Bds. S. Afr. 1940, p. 141, states that this species appears in 
South Africa in October and leaves in February or March, but that all 
do not leave South Africa is shown by two, in the British Museum 
collection, in black dress from Natal in July. 

The birds are said to breed in India between April and September 
and then to disappear for the remainder of the year. This appears to 
be the fact, though there are specimens taken in India in October, 
November and January. 

As this Cuckoo is only found in Africa, Arabia and India, and the bulk of 
them do leave India between September and April, they must move west- 
ward towards or to Africa, though it has not been recorded as coming aboard 
any ship or seen at sea, but we have examined two in the British Museum 
collection from southern Arabia taken in March and May which may 
show a movement to and through that area, These March and May 

Vol. 68 172 1947-48 

birds could have been moving eastwards to their breeding-grounds in 
India, though the May bird may show that it breeds in Arabia. 

Breeding records for other parts of Africa are as follows : — French 
Sudan, August ; Abyssinia, March to June and October ; Kenya Colony, 
March to June ; Nyasaland, December to March ; Portuguese East 
Africa, November to April ; Northern Rhodesia, November to January ; 
i.e., northern areas March to October, and southern areas October to April. 

In trying to elucidate this problem of migration, we have studied all 
available material to see in which months birds are moulting, as Indian 
migrants should be moulting from September to about November, South 
African migrants from April to about June, and in other areas of Africa, 
June to about August, and so birds found in Africa moulting between 
September and November should be migrants from India. 

Unfortunately we have found very few in moult, but there is evidence 
to show that adults are found in India in moult in September and October ; 
in Portuguese East Africa, Southern Rhodesia and Natal in January and 
February ; in Nyasaland in March, April and November ; and in the 
Transvaal in November. None of the African records can be claimed 
as Indian migrants, as they are moulting at the normal season after 

Young birds moulting into adult dress are found in India in July and 
October ; British Somaliland and Kenya Colony, February ; Uganda, 
May ; Tanganyika Territory, January ; Portuguese East Africa, March ; 
and Angola, April. 

All those from Africa agree with their being African-bred birds, and 
none can be claimed as Indian migrants. 

The only evidence we still have of this species visiting Africa from 
India in the non-breeding season is the fact that it does leave India. We 
have enumerated the few known facts to invite the attention of others, 
especially those resident in India and Africa, to the movements of this 
most interesting species. 

(2) On Muscipeta perspicillata Swainson, Bds. W. Africa, 2, p. 59, 1837 : 
Duivenkoek River, Swellendam, Cape Province, South Africa. 

Mr. C. M. N. White in a letter dated 28 January, 1948, has invited 
our attention to Ann. Trans. Mus. 18, p. 304, 1936, where Roberts has 
given the new name Tchitrea suahelica smithi for Muscipeta perspicillata 
Swainson, not Muscipeta perspicillata Stephens in Shaw, Gen. Zool. 
Aves, 13, pt. 2, p. 113, 1826. Sherborn, Ind. Orn. p. 4872, 1929, gives 
Stephens as the first author of this combination, but it is not given in the 
Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus. vol. 4. 

1947-48 173 Vol. 68 

Stephens' description agrees with the fig. 1 on plate 152, in Levaillant, 
Ois. d'Afrique, 1805, but he has misquoted the plate number as 151. 
It is, however, clear that the bird he names is the Le Gobe-mouche a 
Lunettes of Levaillant. 

Latham, Gen. Hist. Bds. 6, 1823, p. 204, has copied the description etc. 
from Levaillant, and quotes the plate number correctly. 

In Bds. S. Afr. 1940, p. 288, Roberts uses TcMtrea perspicillata, but 
without an author, and in Bull. B. O. C. 68, p. 129, 1948, gives the new 
name TcMtrea granti for his Tchitrea suahelica smithi which is pre-occupied 
by Tchitrea smithi (Fraser). 

It is clear that Muscipeta perspicillata Swainson, 1837, is pre-occupied 
by Muscipeta perspicillata Stephens, 1826. 

We have studied the figures on plate 152 of Levaillant and there is 
no doubt that neither represent a known African species. 

These figures show that they belong to the Flycatcher family and 
appear to represent two different birds, but fig. 1 is the genotype of 
Stephens' name, as he only describes this figure. 

In Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus. 4, p. 332, 1879, Le Gobe-mouche a Lunettes 
has been placed as a query synonym of Rhipidura javanica Blyth, J. As. 
Soc. Bengal, 12, p. 936, 1843, as has Platyrhynchos perspicillata Vieill., 
N. Diet. d'Hist. Nat. 27, p. 14, 1818. Certainly Levaillant's fig. 1 
agrees very well with specimens of R. javanica, having brownish upper- 
parts. We invite the attention of ornithologists interested in Asiatic 
species to this figure and Vieillot's name of 1818. The races we recognize 
in Eastern Africa are now as follows : — 

Tchitrea ruwenzorive ruwenzorise Grant & Praed, 1940. 

Tchitrea ruwenzorise ungujaensis Grant & Praed, 1947. 

Tchitrea ruwenzorise granti Roberts, 1948. 



It is proposed to reduce the stock of the ' Bulletin,' but before this is 
done members are given an opportunity to acquire parts at 2/6 each. 
Applications should be made to the Honorary Secretary. No reply 
will be sent if parts are not available. The following are out of print : — 
Volumes 1, 2, 3, 4 (except 1 copy each Pref. and part 28), 17, 18, 20, 22, 
24, 26, 28, 30, 32 and 34. Part 113 and Pref. vol. 64. 


The next Meeting of the Club will take place on Wednesday, 20 October, 
1948, at the Rembrandt Hotel, Thurloe Place, S.W. 7, Dinner at 
6.30 p.m. 

Vol 68. 






Mr. W. E. Glegg will exhibit an historical egg of the Syrian Ostrich. 



ine 39, 


„ 31, 


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„ 8, 


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„ 37, 


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„ 12, 


„ 19, 


„ 7, 


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„ 13, 


„ 24, 


„ 31, 


„ 1, 


„ 37, 


„ 2, 


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„ 36, 


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Vol. 68. 
for Gallisda theklas ellioti read Golerida theklde ellioti. 
for Erolia canutus read Tringa canutus. 
for Caduelis spinus read Carduelis spinus. 
before " On the Starling (British race) Stumus vulgaris britannicus 

Bullough ", insert " Note by Dr. W. S. Bullough ". 
before " On Stumus vulgaris Linnaeus ", insert " Colonel Meinertz- 

hagen continues ". 
for Chloris c. chloris C. c. harrisoni read 



C. c. aurantiiventris. 
for S. e. stolcmani read S. e. sztolcmani. 
for Siitta europsea cisalpina read Sitta europese cisalpina. 
for S. e. cisalotina read S. e. cisalpina. 
for Moraccan read Maroccan. 
for S. e. hispaninesis read S. e. hispaniensis. 
for Hampshitre read Hampshire, 
for Turdus philomelos 'philomelos read Turdus philomelos pJiilo- 

for T. p. clarkei hebridensis read T. p. clarkei^T. p. hebridensis. 
for Circsetus cinerascens read Circaetus cinerascens. 
for Calamsecetor leptorhyncha winterbottomi read Calamcecetor 

leptorhyncha winterbottomi. 
for 1843 read 1837. 
for co-called read so-called, 
for Apodermus sylvaticus hirtensis read Apodemus sylvaticus 

for Apodermus read Apodemus. 
for S. u. coltarti read S. n. coltarti. 
16 and 20, for S. u. davisoni read S. n. davisoni. 
for Budytes thumbergi feldegg read Budytes thunbergi feldegg . 
for Budytes thumbergi superciliaris read Budytes thunbergi super- 

for Sarothura ayresi read Sarothrura ayresi. 
for Sarothura ayresi read Sarothrura ayresi. 
for Sarothura rufa rufa read Sarothrura rufa rufa. 
for Certhia gutteralis read Certhia gutturalis. 
for Chalcomitra porgerto read Chalcomitra borgerti. 





Names of new genera, species and races are indicated by clarendon type 
under the generic entry only. 

nalge, Uria, 16, 67. 
aberrans, Cisticola, 123. ♦ 
Acanthis bensonorum, 53, 54. 

cannabina, 17. 

flavirostris, 17, 53, 54. 

pipilans, 53, 54. 

acik, Chalcomitra s., 152. 

— , Nectarinia, 152. 

Actitis hypoleucos, 70. 
Adamastor, 167. 

carneipes, 157. 

cinerea, 156, PI. 5, 158. 

Mgithalos aremoricus, 27. 

caudatus, 26, 94, 95, 96. 

chlamyrhodomelanos, 27, 94, 95, 96. 

europgeus, 26, 27, 95, 96. 

expugnatus, 27, 95. 

gallias, 27. 

irbii, 28. 

— — italisz, 28. 

macedonicus, 27. 

major, 28. 

potyi, 27. 

pyrenaicus, 27. 

romanus, 28. 

rosaceus, 27, 94, 95, 96. 

sicula, 28. 

taiti, 27. 

tyrrhenicus, 28. 

Mgithalus caroli, 74. 

sequatorialis, Chalcomitra, 151, 152. 

, Cinnyris, 152. 

cequinoctialis, Procellaria, 156, Pis. 5 & 

6, 158, 168. 
JEihocorys intensa, 9. 

per sonata, 9. 

yavelloensis, 9. 

affinis, Sitta, 25. 
Akletos, 131. 

peruvianus, 131. 

Alauda arvensis, 12, 70. 

divergens, 12. 

scotica, 12. 

tertialis, 12. 

theresse, 12. 

vol. 68. 

a£6a, Bulweria, 156. 

, Pterodroma, 166. 

albatrus, Diomedea, 156, 163. 
albifrons, Anser a., 110-121. 

, Branta, 110. 

albigularis, Procellaria, 155. 
Jica impennis, 57. 

forda, 16, 69. 

Alectoris rufa, 143. 

Alphapuffmus, PI. 5. 

amphitrite, Cymodroma, 157, 161. 162, 

alpina, Calidris, 70. 

, Erolia, 16. 

aluco, Strix a., 130. 
Ammomanes, 13. 
Andropadus importunus, 59. 

insularis, 59. 

noomei, 59. 

oleaginus, 59. 

anglorum, Regulus r., 28. 
angolensis, Fringilla, 60, 61. 

, Poliospiza, 61. 

angusticauda, Cisticola, 35. 
annectans, Pycnonotus, 36, 74. 
yln.ser albifrons, 110-121. 

arvensis, 113. 

brachyrhynchus, 128. 

erythropus, 119, 120. 

flavirostris, 115-121. 

gambelli, 110-120. 

ansorgei, Anthoscopus c, 74, 76. 
antarctica, Priocella, 156. 

, Thalassoica, 156. 

Anthoscopus ansorgei, 74, 76. 

caroli, 74. 

hellmayri, 75. 

rhodesise, 76. 

robertsi, 75, 76. 

roccatii, 74, 75. 

rothschildi, 75. 

sharpei, 75. 

sylviella, 74, 75, 76. 

taruensis, 75, 76. 

■ vnnterbottomi, 76. 




Anthus immutabilis, 73. 

littoralis, 73. 

obscura, 73. 

petrosus, 73. 

ponens, 73. 

pratensis, 17, 55, 67. 

spinoletta, 67. 

whistleri, 54, 55. 

Apalis muhuluensis, 8. 

pearsoni, 35. 

songeaensis, 8. 

tenebricosa, 8. 

Apaloderma narina, 96, 97. 

littoralis, 96, 97. 

apricaria, Pluvialis, 70. 
Aquila chrysaetos, 57. 
arboreus, Passer, 135. 
arctica, Fratercula, 66. 
Ardenna, 167. 

gravis, 156. 

aremoricus, JEgithalos c, 27. 
argentatus, Larus, 17, 69, 170. 
Argya ay Inzer i, 10. 
boranensis, 10. 

— keniana, 10. 

mentalis, 10. 

aristotelis, Phalacrocorax, 69. 
•arminjoniana, Bulweria, 156. 

, Pterodroma, 166. 

arvensis, Alauda, 12, 70. 

, ^4n.ser, 113. 

Asio flammea, 17. 
aterrima, Pterodroma, 159. 
Athene, 17. 

#Zawa:, 128, 129. 

noctua, 128. 

saharse, 129. 

vidalii, 128. 

aZ/os, $t'Ma e., 26. 

a£ra, Chalcomitra s., 151, 152. 

atrogularis, Linaria, 61. 

Atterima brevirostris, 165. 

Attila spadicea, 131. 

aurantiiventris, Chloris c, 21, 22, 140, 

141, 174. 
australis, Treron, 149. 
autochtona, Carduelis c, 22, 23. 
avocetta, Recurvirostra, 57. 
axillaris, Cookilaria, 166. 

■ , Pterodroma, 166. 

aylmeri, Argya a., 10. 

ayresi, Sarothrura, 102, 103, 104, 174. 

badius, Lanius s. f 91. 
balticus, Turdus v., 125. 
barnesi, Parisoma I., 145. 
baroli, Procellaria, 156, 168, 

bassana, Sula, 69. 

belcheri, Buccanodon o., 144. 

, Pachyptila, 156, 167. 

bensonorum, Acanthis /., 53, 54, 
boranensis, Argya a., 10. 
borealis, Puffmus, PI. 5. 
borgerti, Chalcomitra, 151, 174. 
brachyrhynchus, Anser, 128. 
Bradornis murinus, 99. 

subalaris, 99. 

Bradypterus cinnamomevs, 59. 

msiri, 35. 

salvadorii, 59, 60. 

Branta albifrons, 110. 

leucopsis, 128. 

brehmi, Turdus m., 29. 
brevicera, Treron a., 150. 
brevipes, Cookilaria, 166, 167. 

, Pterodroma, 165, 166. 

brevirostris, Atterima, 165. 

, Bulweria, 156. 

, Pterodroma, 159. 

britannica, Sitta e., 25. 

, Trmgra *., 33, 148, 149. 

britannicus, Certhiaf., 26. 

, Sturnus v., 19, 20, 174. 

Buccanodon belcheri, 144. 

olivaceum, 144. 

rungweensis, 144. 

Budytes kaleniczenkii, 98. 

feldegg, 98, 174. 

superciliaris, 98, 174. 

xanthophrys, 98. 

bulleri, Diomedea, 156, 163. 
Bulweria, 158, 159, 164. 

aZ6a, 156. 

arminjoniana, 156. 

brevirostris, 156. 

bulwerii, 156, PI. 6. 

caribbsea, 156. 

cervicalis, 156. 

cooki, 156. 

deceptornis, 156. 

externa, 156. 

hasitata, 156. 

heraldica, 156. 

incerta, 156. 

inexpectata, 156. 

lessoni, 156. 

leucoptera, 156. 

lugens, 156. 

macgillivrayi, 156. 

macroptera, 156. 

magenta\ 156. 

melanopus, 156. 

mollis, 156. 

neglecta, 156. 

£>/* seopygia , 156. 



Bulweria rostrata, 156. 
bulwerii, Bulweria, 156, PL 6. 
Burhinus saharae, 52. . 

theresae, 52. ** 

Buteo rufinus, 147. 

vulpinus, 147. 

buvuma, Cinnyris s., 108. 

cserulea, Halobsena, 156. 
cscrulescens, Lagonosticta, 84. 
csesia, Sitta e., 25, 26. 
Calamozcetor cunenensis, 35. 

gracilirostris, 35. 

leptorhyncha, 34, 35. 

macrorhynchus, 34, 35. 

winterbottomi, 34, 174. 

Calendula harei, 146. 

magnirostris, 146. 

montivaga, 146. 

Calidris alpina, 70. 
caliginosa, Emberiza c, 106, 107. 
Calonectris, 156, 167. 
cannabina, Acanthis, 17. 

, Carduelis, 22. 

canus, Larus, 17. 
canutus, Erolia, 16, 174. 

-, Tringa, 174. 

C a pell a faeroensis, 1 7 . 

gallinago, 17, 69. 

capensis, Daption, 156. 

, Smithornis c, 98. 

Carduelis autochtona, 22, 23. 

cannabina, 22. 

carduelis, 17. 

flavirostris, 23, 67. 

sejuncta, 22. 

spinus, 17, 174. 

caribbsea, Bulweria, 156. 

, Pterodroma, 165. 

carneipes, Adamastor, 157. 

, Procellaria, 156, 168. 

, Puffinus, PI. 5. 

caroli, Mgithalus, 74. 

, Anthoscopus c, 74. 

castaneigida, Hyphantornis, 60, 
cos*ro, Hydrobatcs, 157, 161, 162, 169. 
catellatus, Passer in., 132, 135, 136, 

catelloides, Passer, 136. 
cather inse, Turdus p., 29. 
caudatus, JEgithalos c, 26, 94, 95, 96. 
cauta, Diomedea, 156, 163. 
Centropus cupreicaudus, 127. 

fischeri, 128. 

— grillii, 58. 
- loandse, 58, 
songweensis, 127.. *t^A^<> 

Cettlropus super cUiosus, 58. 
Certhia, 17. 

britannicus, 26. 

familiar is, 26. 

gutturalis, 151., 174. 

meinertzhageni, 26. 

cervicalis, Bulweria, 156. 

, Pterodroma, 165. 

Chalcomitra acik, 152. 

■ sequatorialis, 151, 152 

a*ra, 151, 152. 

borgerti, 151, 174. 

cruentata, 151, 152. 

erythrinse, 152. 

gutturalis, 151, 153. 

hunteri, 151, 153. 

iyxsestimata, 151, 153. 

j lamperti, 152, 153. 

senegalensis, 151. 

Charadrius hiaticida,~70. 

ozdicnemus, 52. 

chlamyrhodomelanos, AUgithalos c, 27, 

94, 95, 96. 
Chlidonias niger, 58. 
Chloris aurantiiventris, 21, 22, 140, 141, 


c/iZoWs, 21, 22, 105, 137-141, 174. 

harrisoni, 21, 22, 137-138, 139- 

141, 174. 

restricta, 21, 22, 138-141. 

turkestanica, 141. 

chloropus, Gallinula c, 104. 
chlororhynchus, Diomedea, 156, 162, 163. 
chrysaetos, Aquila, 57 . 
chrysostoma, Diomedea, 156, 163. 
chyulu, Smithornis c, 97, 98. 
Ciconia nigra, 33. 
cinerascens, Circaetus, 34, 174. 
cinerea, Adamastor, 156, PI. 5, 158. 

, Motacilla, 17. 

, Procellaria, 157, 168. 

cinereus, Lag opus, 33. 
cinnamomeus, Bradypterus, 59. 
Cinnyris eequatorialis, 152. 

buvuma, 108. 

lamperti, 152. 

superbus, 108. 

Circaetus cinerascens, 34, 174. 

fasciolatus, 34. 

Circus cyaneus, 57. 
cisalpina, Sitta e., 25, 26, 174. 
Cisticola aberrans, 123. 

angusticauda, 35. 

dispar, 35. 

hunteri, 10, 11. 

/L^ hypernephela, 10. 

/cm, 122, 123. 

wiana?, 122, 123. 


Cisticola masaba, 10. 

muelleri, 35. 

njombe, 122, 123. 

nyikse, 122, 123. 

prinioides, 10, 11. 

semifasciata, 122, 123. 

citrinella, Emberiza c, 105, 106, 107, 

123, 124. 
citrinelloides, Spinus, 61. 
Clamator serratus, 171. 
clarkei, Turdus p., 29, 30, 174. 
clayi, Treron a., 151. 

,Vinago a., 151. 

coccinea, Pyrrhula p., 23, 92. 
ccelebs, Fringilla c, 89. 
Golius congicus, 36. 

lungse, 36. 

Coliuspasser macrocercus, 37. 

soror, 37. 

coltarti, Stachyris n., 89, 90, 174. 
Columba livia, 70. 

cenas, 104. 

congicus, Golius s., 36. 
cooH, Bulweria, 156. 

■ , Cookilaria, 166. 

, Pterodroma, 165, 166. 

Cookilaria axillaris, 166. 
— — brevipes, 166, 167. 

cooki, 166. 

defilippiana, 166. 

hypoleuca, 166. 

leucoptera, 166. 

longirostris, 166, 167. 

masafuerse, 166, 167. 

nigripennis, 166. 

pycrofti, 166. 

coqui, Francolinus, 7. 
corax, Corvus c, 16, 57, 67. 
comix, Corvus, 67. 
Corvus corax, 16, 57, 67. 

comix, 67. 

frugilegus, 16. 

monedula, 16. 

Cotumicops macmillani, 102. 
crassirostris, Pachyptila, 156, 167. 
creatopus, Procellaria, 156, 168. 

, Puffinus, PI. 6. 

Oea; crea?, 70. 

cruentata, Chalcomitra s., 151, 152. 

, Nectarinia, 152. 

cunenensis, Calamozcetor, 35. 

cupreicaudus, Centropus m., 127. 

cyanecula, Luscinia s., 71. 

cyaneus, Circus c, 57. 

Cyanosylvia gsetkei, 147. 

Cygnus olor, 57. 

Cymodroma amphitrite, 157, 161, 162, 


Cymodroma deceptis, 157, 161, 162, 170. 
grallaria, 157, 158, 160, 161, 162, 


Zmeata, 157, 158, 161, 162, 170. 

maoriana, 157, 158, 161, 162, 169. 

melanog aster, 160. 

melanoleuca, 157, 158, 161, 162, 

tropica, 157, 158, 161, 162, 170. 

dankali, Fringillaria s., 77. 
Daption, 163. 

capensis, 156. 

davisoni, Stachyris n., 90, 174. 
deceptis, Cymodroma, 157, 161, 162, 170. 

, Fregetta, 160. 

, Oceanites, 160. 

deceptornis, Bulweria, 156. 

, Pterodroma, 165. 

defilippiana, Cookilaria, 166. , 

- — — , Pterodroma, 166. 

Delichon urbica, 70. 

Dendrocygna viduata, 34. 

desolata, Pachyptila, 156, 167. 

Diomedea, 159. 

— - albatrus, 156, 163. 

&M#eW, 156, 163. 

cauta, 156, 163. 

chlororhynchus, 156, 162, 163. 

chrysostoma, 156, 163. 

epomophora, 156, 163. 

exulans, 156, 163. 

fusca, 156. 

immutabilis, 156, 163. 

irrorata, 156, 163. 

melanophris, 156, 163. 

melanoptera, 162. 

nigripes, 156, 163. 

palpebrata, 156, 163. 

diomeda, Procellaria, 156, 168. 

, Puffinus, PI. 5, 158. 

dispar, Cisticola, 35. 
disputans, Puffinus, PI. 5. 
distinctus, Turdus p., 29. 
diver gens, Alauda a., 12. 
domesticus, Passer, 24. 

elgonensis, Serinus /., 37. 
ellioti, Galerida t., 9, 174. 
Emberiza caliginosa, 106, 107. 

citrinella, 105, 106, 107, 123, 124. 

erythrogenys, 123, 124. 

nebulosa, i06, 107. 

romaniensis, 124. 

somowi, 124. 

enigmatica, Prunella m., 131." 


epoviophora, Diomedea, 156, 163. 
Eremomela lundse, 35, 36. 

• polioxantha, 35, 36. 

salvadorii, 35, 36. 

cricetorum, Turdus, 28, 29 
erlangeri, Lanus s., 91, 92. 

, Phylloscopus s., 147. 

Erolia alpina, 16. 

canutus, 16, 174. 

erythrinse, Chalcomitra s., 152. 
erythrogenys, Emberiza c, 123, 124. 
erythropus, Anser, 119, 120. 
Estrilda ochrogaster, 61. 
Euplectes pusilla, 60. 

zavattorii, 60. 

europsea, Sitta e., 24, 25. 
europseus, JEgithalos c, 26, 27, 95, 

exigua, Petronia p., 130. 
expugnatus, sEgithalos c, 27, 95. 
externa, Bulweria, 156. 

, Pterodroma, 165. 

exulans, Diomedea, 156, 163. 

faeroensis, Capella, 17. 
i^aZco peregrinus, 67, 105. 
familiaris, Certhia, 26. 
fasciolatus, Circaetus, 34. 
feldegg, Budytes t., 98, 174. 
fischeri, Centropus m., 128. 
fiava, Motacilla, 17. 
flavirostris, Acanthis /., 17, 53, 54. 

, ^Lnser a., 115-121. 

, Carduelis, 23, 67. 

flaviventris, Serinus, 62. 
flavivertex, Serinus f., 37. 
fliXckigeri, Lanius s., 91, 92. 
Francolinus coqui, 7. 

icterorhynchus, 6. 

schlegelii, 3, 4, 7. 

Fratercula arctica, 16, 66. 
Fregetta deceptis, 160. 

grallaria, 160. 

leucothysanus, 160. 

melanogastra, 160. 

tropica, 159, 160. 

Fringilla angolensis, 60, 61. 
— — coslebs, 89. 

gengleri, 89. 

hortensis, 89. 

montifringilla, 15. 

fo6aca, 60, 61. 

montana, 135. 

Fringillaria dankali, 11. 

jebelmariw, 77. 

saturatior, 11. 

striolata, 11. 

frugilegus, Corvus, 16. 
Fuhnarus, 164. 

glacialis, 69, 156. 

furcata, Hydrobates, 157, 161, 162, 169. 
fusca, Diomedea, 156. 

, Phwbetria, 156. 

fuscus, Larus, 17, 69. 

gwtkei, Cyanosylvia 6-., 147. 
Galerida, 17. 

eZ&o^, 9, 174. 

— — huriensis, 9. 

przetermissa, 9. 

gullide, JEgithalos c, 27. 
gallinago, Capella, 17, 69. 
Gallinula chloropus, 104. 
gambelli, Anser a., 110-120. 
garnoti, Pelecanoides, 157. 
Garrodia, 158, 159. 

nereis, 159. 

Garrulus glandarius, 16, 18, 19. 

hibernicus, 19. 

rufitergum, 18. 

Gecimus pinetorum, 32. 

virescens, 32. 

gengleri, Fringilla c, 89. 
georgicus, Pelecanoides, 157. 
germanicus, Glandarius, 19. 
giganteus, Macronectes, 156. 
glacialis, Fulmarus, 69, 156. 
Glandarius germanicus, 19. 

glandarius, 19. 

pictus, 19. 

glandarius, Garrulus, 16, 18, 19. 

, Glandarius, 19. 

glaucoides, Larus, 170. 
grtow^, Athene, 128, 129. 
gongonensis, Passer g., 60. 
gracilirostris, Calamoecetor, 35. 
gracilis, Oceanites, 157, 161, 170. 
grallaria, Cymodroma, 157, 158, 160, 
161, 162, 169. 

■, Fregetta, 160. 

, Procellaria, 155, 160. 

granti, Tchitrea r., 129, 173. 
graueri, Poliospiza s., 108. 
gravis, Ardenna, 156. 

, Procellaria, 168. 

, Puffinus, PI. 6, 158. 

grillii, Centropus, 58. 
griseus, Passer, 60. 
'— , Procellaria, 157, 168. 
grylle, Uria, 16, 70. 
guillarmodi, Serinops /., 145. 
gutturalis, Certhia, 151, 174. 
, Chalcomitra s., 151, 153. 


Haematopus ostralegus, 16, 69. 
Halobama, 159, 164. 

cozrulea, 156. 

Halocyptena, 158. 

hamburgia, Loxia, 135. 

harei, Calendula m., 146. 

hdrmsi, Petronia, p., 130. 

harrisoni, Chloris c, 21, 22, 137-138. 

139-141, 174. 
hasitata, Bulweria, 156. 

, Pterodroma, 165. 

hassica, Sitta, 25. 

hebridensis, Turdus p., 17, 30, 174. 

hebridium, Prunella m., 31. 

hellmayri, Anthoscopus c, 75. 

Hemipujfinus, 156. 

hensii, Lanius s., 91. 

lieraldica, Bulweria, 156. 

, Pterodroma, 166. 

hiaticula, Charadrius, 70. 
hibernicus, Garrulus g., 19. 

, Prunella m., 31. 

Himantopus himantopus, 56. 

hirtensis, Troglodytes t., 67. 

Hirundo rustica, 70. 

hispaniensis, Sitta e., 25, 26, 174. 

hozrningi, Sitta, 25. 

hollandise, Sturnus, 21. 

'homey eri, Sitta e., 25. 

homochroa, Hydrobates, 157, 162, 169. 

hornbyi, Hydrobates, 157, 161. 162, 

hortensis, Fringilla c, 89. 
hostilis, Passer d., 24. 
hunteri, Chalcomitra h., 151, 153. 

■ , Cisticola h., 10. 11. 

huriensis, Galerida t., 9. 
Hydrobates, 158, 159. 

ccwrtro, 157, 161, 162, 169. 

furcata, 157, 161, 162, 169. 

homochroa, 157, 162, 169. 

hornbyi, 157, 161, 162, 169. 

leucorhoa, 157, 161, 162, 169. 

macrodactyla, 157, 161, 162, 169. 

markhami, 157, 161, 162, 169. 

matsudairse, 157, 161, 162, 169. 

melania, 157, 161, 162, 169. 

microsoma, 157, 161, 162, 163, 169. 

monorhis, 162. 

owstoni, 157, 161, 162, 169. 

pelagica, 66, 156, 157, 158, 159, 

161, 162, 163, 169. 

fctf%5, 157, 161, 162, 169. 

hypernephela , Cisticola, h., 10. 
Hyphantornis castaneigida, 60. 
hypoleuca, Cookilaria, 166. 

, Pterodroma, 166. 

hypoleucos, Actitis, 70. 

icterorhynchus, Francolinus, 6. 
immutabilis, Anthus s. t 73. 

, Diomedea, 156, 163. 

impennis, Alca, 57. 
importunus, Andropadus, 59. 
inwstimata, Chalcomitra s. t 151, 153. 
incerta, Bulweria, 156. 

, Pterodroma, 159, 165. 

inexpectata, Bulweria, 156. 
— ■ — , Pterodroma, 165. 
insularis, Andropadus, 59. 
intensa, Mthocorys p. 9. 
intermedia, Petronia p., 130. 
intermedins, Porzana p., 58. 
interposita, Prunella in., 31. 
^r&w, JEgithalos c, 28. 
irrorata, Diomedea, 156, 163. 
italiaj, JEgithalos c, 28. 
, Lanius s, 91, 92. 

jacksoni, Zosterop.s v., 102. 
javanica, Rhipidura, 129, 173. 
jebelmame, Fringillaria s., 77. 
jubihvus, Turdus v., 125. 

kaleniczenkii, Budytes t., 98. 
kasaicus, Serinus a., 129. 
keniana, Argya a., 10. 
kuhlii, Pnffmus, 158. 
kulalensis, Zoster ops p., 101. 

Lagonosticta caerulescens, 84. 
Lagopus cinereus, 33. 

millaisi, 33. 

tois, Cisticola, 122, 123. 
lamperti, Chalcomitra s., 152, 153. 

, Cinnyris s., 152. 

Laniarius sublacteus, 36. 
Laniocera, 131. 
Lanius badius, 91. 

erlangeri, 91, 92. 

fliXckigeri, 91, 92. 

hensii, 91. 

*'tofe 91, 92. 

niloticus, 91. 

senator, 90, 91. 

weigoldi, 91, 92. 

Larus argentatus, 17. 69, 170. 

canus, 17. 

fuscus, 17, 69. 

glaucoides, 170. 

marinus, 67, 170. 

ridibinidus, 16, 17, 171. 

layardi, Parisoma I., 145. 

, Pycnonotus x., 36. 

lecontei, Myioceyx, 97. 


leptorhyncha, Calamazcetor I., 34, 35. 
lessoni, Bulweria, 156. 

, Pterodroma, 151), 105. 

leucogastra, Occanites, 160. 
leucomelas, ProceUaria, 156, 157, 168. 

, Puffmus, PI. 5, 162. 

leucopsis, Branta, 128. 
leucoptera, Bulweria, 156. 

, Cookilaria, 166. 

, Pterodroma, 165, 166. 

leucorhoa, Hydrobates, 157, 161, 162, 

leucorrhoa, Oceanodroma, 66. 
leucothysanus, Fregetta, 160. 
Jherminieri, ProceUaria, 156, 16S. 
Limosa limosa, 57. 
Linaria atrogularis, 61. 
lineata, Cymodroma, 157, 158, 161, 162, 


, Pealea, 161. 

, Thalassidroma, 159. 

littoralis, Anthus s., 73. 

, Apaloderma n., 96, 97. 

Ziw'a, Columba, 70. 
loandse, Centropus s., 58. 
Locustella straminea, 104. 
Jongirostris, Cookilaria, 166, 167. 

, Pterodroma, 166. 

Lophophanes scotia, 108. 
loudoni, Turdus v., 125. 
Loxia hamburgia, 135. 

scandens, 135. 

ludmilse, Phylloscopus .§., 147. 
lugens, Bulweria, 156. 

, Lugensa, 164. 

, Pterodroma, 159. 

Lugensa lugens, 164. 
lundse, Eremomela g., 35, 36. 
lungse, Colius s., 36. 
Luscinia cyanecida, 71. 
lusitanica. Prunella m., 31. 
Iwenarmn, Serinus a., 129, 130. 

mabbotti, Prunella m., 31. 
macedonicus, JEgithalos c, 27. 
macgillivrayi, Bulweria, 156. 

, Pseudobulweria, 165. 

, Pterodroma, PI. 6. 

, Thalassidroma, 159. 

macmillani, Coturnicops, 102. 
macrocercus, Coliuspasser, 37. 
macrodactijla, Hydrobates, 157, 161. 

162, 169. 
Macronectes, 164. 

giganteus, 156. 

macroptera, Bulweria, 156. 

, Pterodroma, 159, 165. 

macrorhynchus, Calamoecetor I., 34, 35. 

magellani, Pelecanoides, 157. 
magentse, Bulweria, 156. 

, Pterodroma, 166. 

magnirostris, Calendula m., 146. 

major, Mgithalos c, 28. 

maoriana, Cymodroma, 157, 158. 161, 

162, 169.. 
marine, Cisticola I., 122, 123. 
marinus, Larus, 67, 1 70. 

•, Oceanites, 157, 161, 170. 

markhami, Hydrobates. 157, 161, 162, 

masaba, Cisticola, h., 10. 
masajuerse, Cookilaria, 166, 167. 

, Pterodroma, 166. 

matsudainv,, Hi/drobates, 157, 161, 162, 

meinertzhageni, Certhiaj., 26. 
melania, Hydrobates, 157, 161, 162, 

melanogaster , Cymodroma, 160. 
melanogastra, Fregetta, 160. 

, Oceanites, 160. 

melanoleuca, Cymodroma, 157, 158, 161. 

162, 170. 

melanophris, Diomedea, 156, 163. 
melanoptera, Diomedea, 162. 
melanopus, Bulweria, 156. 

, Pterodroma, 159, 165. 

mentalis, Argya a., 10. 

merganser, Mergus m., 104. 

Mergus merganser, 104. 

microsoma, Hydrobates, 157, 161, 162, 

163, 169. 

millaisi, Lagopus m., 33. 
Milvus milvus, 57. 
minor, Picus v., 32. 
modularis, Prunella m., 30, 31. 
mollis, Bulweria, 156. 

, Pterodroma, 165. 

mollissima, Somateria, 68. 

monedula, Corvus, 16. 

monorhis, Hydrobates, 162. 

montana, Fringilla, 1 35. 

montanus, Passer m., 132, 134, 135, 

136, 137. 
monti fringilla, Fringilla, 15. 
montivaga, Calendula m., 146. 
Motacilla cinerea, 17. 

■ /am, 17. 

mozambicus, Serinus m., 11. 
msiri, Brady pter us b., 35. 
muelleri, Cisticola /., 35. 
muhuluensis, Apalis m., 8. 
murinus, Bradornis p., 99. 
Muscipeta perspicillata, 129, 172, 173. 
musicus, Turdus, 29. 
Myioceyx lecontei, 97. 
ugandap; 97. 


narina, Apaloderma n., 96, 97. 
natalise, Turdus p., 29. 
rtativitatis, Procellaria, 157, 168. 
nebulosa, Emberiza c, 106, 107. 
Nectarinia acik, 152. 

cruentata, 152. 

neglecta, Bulweria, 156. 

, Pterodroma, 158, 159, 166. 

Neonectris, 156. 
nereis, Garrodia, 159. 

, Oceanites, 157, 161, 170. 

nesa, Pyrrhula p., 23, 32, 92, 93, 94. 
newtoni, Parus m., 107. 
niger, Chlidonias n., 58. 
nigra, Ciconia, 33. 
nigriceps, Stachyris, 89, 90. 
nigripennis, Cookilaria, 166. 

, Petrodroma, 166. 

nigripes, Diomedea, 156, 163. 
niioticus, Lanius s., 91. 
nivea, Pagodroma, 156. 
njombe, Cisticola a., 122, 123. 
noctua, Athene, 128. 
noomei, Andropadus i., 59. 
Numenius phseopus, 70. 
nyikse, Cisticola L, 122, 123. 

obscura, Anthus s., 73. 

, Porzana p., 104. 

, Prunella m., 31, 131. 

obscurata, Strix a., 130. 
obscurus, Parus c, 107, 108. 
occidentalis, Prunella m., 30, 31. 
oceanica, Thallasidroma, 160. 
oceanicus, Oceanites, 157, 159, 161, 170. 
Oceanites, 158, 159. 

deceptis, 160. 

gracilis, 157, 161, 162, 170. 

leucogaster, 160. 

leucogastra, 160. 

— — marinus, 157, 161, 162, 170. 

melanogastra, 160. 

nereis, 157, 161, 162, 170. 

oceamcws, 157, 159, 161, 162, 170. 

tropica, 160. 

Oceanodroma, 156, 158, 163. 

leucorrhoa, 66. 

ochrogaster, Estrilda, 61. 

cedicnemus, Charadrius, 52. 

(Enanthe oenanthe, 67. 

cenas, Columba, 104. 

oleaginus, Andropadus, 59. 

olivaceum, Buccanodon o., 144 

o/or, Cygnus, 57. 

orientalis, Pterodroma, 166. 

ostralegus, Heematopus, 16, 69. 

0^.9 tarda, 57. 

oivstoni, Hyd.robates, 157, 161, 162, 169, 

Pachyptila belcheri, 156, 167. 

crassirostris, 156, 167. 

desolata, 156, 167. 

salvini, 156, 167. 

«wrfo*r, 156, 167. 

w«ata, 156, 167. 

pacifica, Procellaria, 157, 168. 
Pagodroma, 164. 

nivea, 156. 

palpebrata, Diomedea, 156, 163. 

, Phosbetria, 156. 

Parisoma barnesi, 145. 

layardi, 145. 

parkinsoni, Procellaria, 156, 168. 
Parus major, 107. 

newtoni, 107. 

obscurus, 107, 108. 

scoticus, 108. 

Passer arboreus, 135. 

catellatus, 132, 135, 136, 137. 

catelloides, 136. 

domesticus, 24. 

gongonensis, 60. 

griseus, 60. 

hostilis, 24. 

montanus, 132, 134, 135, 136. 


terfaZe, 60. 

transcaucasicus, 134. 

turkanse, 60. 

volgensis, 134. 

Pealea, 158. 

lineata, 161. 

pearsoni, Apalis, 35. 

pelagica, Hydrobates, 156. 157, 158, 159, 

161, 162, 163, 169. 
pelagicus, Hydrobates, 66. 
Pelagodroma tethys, 158. 
Pelecanoides, 159. 

garnoti, 157. 

georgicus, 157. 

magellani, 157. 

urinatrix, 157. 

peregrinus, Falco p., 67, 105. 
per sonata, JEthocorys p., 9. 
perspicillata, Muscipeta, 129, 172, 


, Platyrhynchos, 173. 

, Tchitrea, 129, 173. 

peruvianas, Akletos, 131. 
Petronia exigua, 130. 

harmsi, 130. 

intermedia, 130. 

puteicola, 130. 

petrosus, Anthus s., 73. 
phseopus, Numenius, 70. 
phseopygia, Buhveria, 156. 

, Pterodroma, 165. 

Phalacrocorax aristotelis, 69, 


philomelos, Turdus p., 28, 29, 30. 
Phoebetria fusca, 156. 

palpebrata, 156. 

Phyllastrephus rabai, 98. 
— — shimbanus, 98. 
Phylloscopus erlangeri, 147. 

ludmilse, 147. 

sibilatrix, 147, 148. 

Pica pica, 16. 

pictus, Glandarius, 19. 

Picus minor, 32. 

pinetorum, 32. 

pluvius, 32. 

pinetorum, Gecinus, 32. 

, Picws, 32. 

pipilans, Acanthis /., 53, 54. 
planiceps, Turdus m., 29. 
Platyrhynchos perspicillata, 173. 
Ploceus spekei, 7, 8. 

spekeoides, 7. 

plumbea, Prunella m., 31. 
Pluvialis apricaria, 70. 
pluvius, Picus v., 32. 
Poliospiza angolensis, 61. 

graueri, 108. 

striolata, 108. 

tanganyicse, 37. 

tobaca, 61. 

ugandse, 108. 

polioxantha, Eremomela g., 35, 36. 
ponens, Anthus s., 73. 
Porzana intermedins, 58. 

■ obscura, 104. 

potyi, JEgithalos c, 27. 
prsetermissa, Galerida t., 9. 
pratensis, Anthus, 17, 55, 67. 
prinioides, Cisticola h., 10, 11. 
Priocella, 164. 

■ antarclica, 156. 

Procellaria, 156, 159, 167. 

sequinoctialis, 156, Pis. 5 & 6, 158, 


albigularis, 155. 

6aroZi 156, 168. 

carneipes, 156, 168. 

cinerea, 157, 168. 

creatopus, 156, 168. 

diomedea, 156, 168. 

— — grallaria, 155, 160. 

gravis, 168. 

griseus, 157, 168. 

leucomelas, 156, 157, 168. 

Iherminieri, 156, 168. 

nativitatis, 157, 168. 

■ — : — pacifica, 157, 168. 

parkinsoni, 156, 168, 

pufflnus, 156. 168. 

reinholdi, 157, 168. 

vol. 68. 

Procellaria tenuirostris , 157, 168. 

te%s, 168. 

Prunella enigmatica, 131. 

hebridium, 31. 

hibernicus, 31. 

interposita, 31. 

lusitanica, 31. 

mabbotti, 31. 

modularis, 30, 31. 

obscura, 31, 131. 

occidentalis, 30, 31. 

plumbea, 31. 

Pseudobulweria macgillivrayi, 165. 
Pterodroma, 158, 164. 

aZ&a, 166. 

arminjoniana, 166. 

— : aterrima, 159. 

axillaris, 160, 166. 

brevipes, 165, 166. 

brevirostris, 159. 

■ caribbsea, 165. 

cervicalis, 165, 166. 

cooH, 165, 166. 

deceptornis, 165, 166. 

defilippiana, 166. 

externa, 165, 166. 

hasitata, 165. 

heraldica, 166. 

hypoleuca, 166. 

incerta, 159, 165, 166. 

inexpectata, 165. 

lessoni, 159, 165, 166. 

leucoptera, 165, 166. 

longirostris, 166. 

lugens, 159. 

macgillivrayi, PI. 6. 

macroptera, 159, 165. 

magentas, 166. 

masafuerse, 166. 

melanopus, 159, 1.65. 

mofc, 165, 166. 

neglecta, 158, 159, 166. 

nigripennis, 166. 

orientalis, 166. 

phseopygia, 165. 

pycrofti, 166. 

rostrata, 166. 

Puffinis, 157, 167. 

borealis, PL 5. 

carneipes, PI. 5, 158. 

creatopus, PL 6. 

diomedea, PL 5, 158. 

disputans, PL 5. 

grraw's, PL 6, 158. 

kuhlii, 158. 

leucomelas, PL 5, 162. 

pyffinus, 66, 156. 

reinholdi, PL 6, 162. 


puffinis, Procellaria, 168. 
pusilla, Euplectes o., 60. * 
puteicola, Petronia p., 130. 
Pycnonotus annectans, 36, 74. 

layardi, 36. 

tricolor, 74. 

vaughan-jonesi, 14:. 

pycrofti, Cookilaria, 166. 

, Pterodroma, 166. 

pyrenaicus, ^Egithalos c, 27. 
Pyrgita septentrionalis, 135. 
Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, 16. 
Pyrrhula coccinea, 23, 92. 

nesa, 23, 32, 92, 93, 94. 

pyrrhula, 92, 93. 

wardlawi, 23, 92, 93, 94. 

pyrrhula, Pyrrhula, 92, 93. 

rabai, Phyllastrephus d., 98. 
Recurvirostra avocetta, 57. 
Regulus anglorum, 28. 

regulus, 28. 

reichenowi, Sitta e., 25. 
reinholdi, Procellaria, 157. 168. 

, Puffinus, PI. 6, 162. 

reiseri, Turdus v., 125. 
restricta, Chloris c, 21, 22, 138-141. 
Rhamphocorys, 17. 
Rhipidura javanica, 129, 173. 
rhodesise, Anthoscopus c, 176. 
ridibundus, Larus, 171. 
Rissa tridactyla, 67. 
ridibundus, Larus, 16, 17. 
robertsi, Anthoscopus c, 75, 76. 
robusta, Tringa t., 148, 149. 
robustus, Totanus c, 148. 
roccatii, Anthoscopus c, 74, 75. 
romaniensis, Emberiza, c, 124. 
romanus, JSgithalos c, 28. 
rosaceus, Mgithalos c, 27, 94, 95, 96. 
rostrata, Bulweria, 156. 

, Pterodroma, 166. 

rothschildi, Anthoscopus c, 75. 
rw/a, Alectoris r., 143. 

, Sarothrura r., 104, 174. 

rufinus, Buteo r., 147. 
rufitergum, Garrulus g., 18. 
rufoflavidus, Sathrocercus c, 60. 
rungweensis, Buccanodon o., 144. 
rustica, Hirundo, 70. 
rusticola, Scolopax, 144. 
ruwenzorise, Tchitrea, 173. 

saharse, Athene n., 129. 

, Burhinus 02., 52. 

salvadorii, Bradypterus, 59, 60. 
■ , Eremoniela g., 35, 36. 

salvadorii, Treron a., 150, 151. 

, Fmagro c, 150. 

salvini, Pachyptila, 156, 167. 
samaliyae, Serinus m., 11. 
Sarothrura ayresi, 102, 103, 104 174 

rw/a, 104, 174. 

Sathrocercus rufoflavidus, 60. 
saturatior, Fringillaria s., 77. 
scandens, Loxia, 135. 
schalowi, Treron, 60. 
schlegelii, Francolinus, 3, 4, 7. 
Scolopax rusticola, 144. 
scotica, Alauda a., 12. 
— — , Lophophanes c, 108. 
scoticus, Parus c, 108. 
sejuncta, Carduelis c, 22. 
semifasciata, Cisticola I., 122, 123. 
senator, Lanius s., 90, 91. 
senegalensis, Chalcomitra s., 151. 
septentrionalis, Pyrgita, 135. 
Serinops guillarmodi, 145. 
Serinus elgonensis, 37. 

flaviventris, 62. 

flavivertex, 37. 

— — kasaicus, 129. 

Iwenarum, 129, 130. 

mozambicus, 11. 

samaliyae, 11. 

sharpii, 62. 

shelleyi, 62. 

tando, 1 1 . 

serratus, Clamator j., 171. 
sharpei, Anthoscopus c, 75. 
sharpii, Serinus s., 62. 
shelleyi, Serinus s., 62. 
shimba, Smithornis c, 97, 98. 
shimbanus, Phyllastrephus d., 98. 
sibilatrix, Phylloscopus s., 147, 148. 
sicula, Mgithalos c, 28. 
£V'Ma affinis, 25. 

atlas, 26. 

britannica, 25. 

csesia, 25, 26. 

cisalpina, 25, 26, 174. 

europsea, 24, 25. 

hassica, 25. 

■ hispaniensis, 25, 26, 174. 

■ hozrningi, 25. 

homey eri, 25. 

— — reichenowi, 25. 

■ sztolcmani, 25, 174. 

ww'«/w', Tchitrea s., 129, 172, 173. 
Smithornis capensis, 98. 

c%wZw, 97, 98. 

■ shimba, 97, 98. 

suahelicus, 97, 98. 

Somateria mollissima, 68. 
somowi, Emberiza c, 124. 


songeaensis, Apalis m., 8. 
songweensis, Centropus.m., 127. 
soror, Coliuspasser m., 37. 
spadicea, Attila, 131. 
spadix, Stachyris n., 89, 90. 
spekei, Ploceus, 7, 8. 
spekeoides, Ploceus, 7. 
spinoletta, Anthus, 67. 
Spinas citrinelloides, 61. 

symonsi, 145. 

spi)ius, Carduelis, 17, 174. 
Stachyris coltarti, 89, 90, 174. 
— — davisoni, 90, 174. 

nigriceps, 89, 90. 

spadix, 89, 90. 

straminea, Locustella n., 104. 
striolata, Fringillaria s., 11. 

, Poliospiza s., 108. 

*Sferia; aluco, 130. 

obscurata, 130. 

Sturnus britannicus, 19, 20, 174. 

hollandife, 21. 

volhynise, 130. 

Sturnus vulgaris, 16, 19, 20, 68, 174. 

zetlandicus, 17, 19. 

suahelicus, Smithornis c, 97, 98. 
subalaris, Bradornis p., 99. 
sublacteus, Laniarius f., 36. 
$?<ia bassana, 69. 
superbus, Cinnyris s., 108. 
superciliaris, Budytes t., 98, 174. 
superciliosus, Centropus, 58. 
Sylvia sylvicola, 148. 
sylvicola, Sylvia, 148. 
sylviella, Anthoscopus c, 74, 75, 76. 
symonsi, Spinus, 145. 
sztolcmani, Sitta e., 25, 174. 

fcw^, Mgithalos c, 27. 

tando, Serinus m., 11. 

tanganyiciB, Poliospiza b., 37. 

tarda, Otis t., 57. 

taruensis, Anthoscopus c, 75, 76. 

Tchitrea granti, 129, 173. 

perspicillata, 129, 173. 

ruwenzorise, 173. 

s/imW, 129, 172, 173. 

— ungujaensis, 173. 

tenebricosa, Apalis m., 8. 

tenuirostris, Procellaria, 157, 168. 

tertale, Passer g., 60. 

tertialis, Alauda a., 12. 

fe%« t Hydrobates, 157, 161, 162, 169. 

, Pelagodroma, 158. 

, Procellaria, 163. 

, Thalassidroma, 156, 159. 

Thalassidroma lineata, 159. 


Thalassidroma' macgillivrayi, 1 59. 

oceanica, 160. 

te£%s, 156, 159. 

Thalassoica, 157, 164. 

antarctica, 156. 

theresse, Alauda a., 12. 

, Burhinus oe., 52. 

Thiellus, 157. 

Thyellodroma, 156, 157, 167. 
tobaca, Fringilla, 60, 61. 

, Poliospiza, 61. 

forda, ^.teo, 16, 69. 
Totanus robustus, 148. 
totanus, Tringa t., 16, 148, 149. 
transcaucasicus, Passer m., 134. 
Treron australis, 149. 

brevicera, 150. 

clayi, 151. 

salvadorii, 150, 151. 

schalowi, 60. 

uellensis, 150. 

wakefieldii, 149, 150. 

tricolor, Pycnonotus, 14:. 
tridactyla, Rissa, 67. 
Tringa britannica, 33, 148, 

canutus, 174. 

robusta, 148, 149. 

totanus, 16, 148, 149. 

Troglodytes hirtensis, 67. 
tropica, Cymodroma, 157, 158, 161, 162, 

, Fregetta, 159, 160. 

, Oceanites, 160. 

Turdus balticus, 125. 

brehmi, 29. 

cather inse, 29. 

cZar&e*, 29, 30, 174. 

distinctus, 29. 

ericetorum, 28, 29. 

hebridensis, 17, 30, 174. 

jubildeus, 125. 

loudoni, 125. 

musicus, 29. 

natalise, 29. 

philomelos, 28, 29, 30. 

planiceps, 29. 

reiser i, 125. 

viscivorus, 124, 125. 

zarudnyi, 125. 

turkanse, Passer g., 60. 
turkestanica, Chloris c, 141. 
turtur, Pachyptila, 156, 167. 
tyrrhenicus, Mgithalos c, 28. 

uellensis, Treron a., 150. 

,Vinago, 150. 

ugandse, Myioceyx r., 97. 



ugandse, Poliospiza s., 1*08. 
ungujaensis, Tchitrea r., 173. 
urbica, Delichon, 70. 
Uria aalge, 16, 67. 

grylle, 16, 70. 

urinatrix, Pelecanoides, 157. 

Vanellus vanellus, 70. 
vaughani-jonesi, Pycnonotus t., 74. 
vidalii, Athene n., 128. 
viduata, Dendrocygna, 34. 

Vinago clayi, 151. 

salvadorii, 150. 

uellensis, 150. 

virescens. Gecinus, 32. 

viscivorus, Turdus v., 124, 125. 

vittata, Pachyptila, 156, 167. 

volgensis, Passer m., 134. 

volhynise,, Strix a., 130. 

vulgaris, Sturnus v., 16, 19, 20, 68, 174. 

vulpinus, Bvteo b., 147. 

wakefieldii, Treron a., 149, 150. 
wardlawi, Pyrrhula p., 23, 92, 93, 94. 
weigoldi, Lanius s., 91, 92. 
whistleri, Anthus p., 54, 55. 
winifredse, Zosterops p., 101, 102. 
winterbottomi, Anthoscopus c, 76. 
, Calamcecetor I., 34, 174. 

xanthophrys, Budytes, 98. 

yavelloensis, AUthocorys p., 9. 

zarudnyi, Turdus v., 125. 
zavattorii, Enplectes, 60. 
zetandicus, Sturnus v., 17, 19. 
Zosterops jacksoni, 102. 

kulalensis, 101. 

winifredse, 101, 102. 


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