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BULLETIN 



OF THE 



BRITISH 
ORNITHOLOGISTS' CLUB 



i 



EDITED BY 

Captain C. H. B. Grant 



Volume 69 
Session 1948-1949 



LONDON 

H. F. & G. WITHERBY 5 WARWICK COURT, W.C.2 



1949 

Published Price 2/6 



[. F. & G. Witherby Ltd. 

Warwick Court, 
High Holborn, London. 



PREFACE 



Twelve Meetings were held during the Session 1948-49. The extra 
three Meetings were necessitated by the Session being changed from 
October-June to January-December. 

The Annual General Meeting took place on Wednesday, 20th 
October, 1948, at the Eembrandt Hotel, South Kensington, and was 
attended by 21 Members. 

The number of attendances for the Session was as follows : — 
Members of the Club 311, Guests of the Club 5, Other Guests 67, 
a total of 388. 

The Guests of the Club were Mr. C. A. Fleming, Mr, E. H. Gillham, 
Mr. & Mrs. Haglund and Dr. T. H. Work. 

C. H. B. GEANT. 

London, December, 1949. 



COMMITTEE, 1948-49. 

Dr. J. M. Harrison, Chairman (elected 1946). 

Colonel R. Meinertzhagen, Vice -Chairman (elected 1948). 

Major A. G. L. Sladen, Vice Chairman (elected 1948). 

Captain C. H. B. Grant, Editor (elected 1947). 

Mr. W. E. Glegg, Hon. Secretary (elected 1947). 

Miss E. P. Leach, Hon. Treasurer (elected 1942). 

Mr. J. D. Macdonald (elected 1946). 

Mr. P. A. D. Hollom (elected 1947). 

Mr. C. T. Dalgety (elected 1948). 

Lieut-Commdr. C. P. Staples (elected 1948). 



OFFICERS OF THE BRITISH ORNITHOLOGISTS' CLUB, 
PAST AND PRESENT. 



Chairmen. 

P. L. Sclater, F.E.S. 1892-1913. 

Lord Eothschild, F.E.S. 1913-1918. 

W. L. Sclater. 1918-1924. 

II. F. Witherby. 1924-1927. 

Dr. P. E. Lowe. 1927-1930. 

Major S. S. Flower. 1930-1932. 

D. A. Bannerman. 1932-1935. 

G. M. Mathews. 1935-1938. 
Dr. A. Landsborough 

Thomson. 1938-1943. 

D. Seth-Smith. 1943-1946. 
Dr. J. M. Harrison. ' 1946- 



Vice-Chairmen. 

Lord Eothschild, F.E.S. 1930-1931. 

W. L. Sclater. 1931-1932. 

H. F. Witherby. 1932-1933. 

G. M. Mathews. 1933-1934. 

N. B. Kinnear. 1934-1935. 

H. Whistler. 1935-1936. 

D. Seth-Smith. 1936-1937. 

Col. E. Sparrow. 1937-1938. 

Dr. G. Carmichael Low. 1938-1939. 

Hon. Guy Charteris. 1938-1939. 

W. L. Sclater. 1939-1940. 

Dr. D. A. Bannerman. 1939-1940. 

Captain C. H. B. Grant. 1940-1943. 

B. W. Tucker. 1940-1943. 
F. J. F. Barrington. 1943-1945. 
Dr. E. Hopkinson. 1943-1945. 

C. W. Mackworth-Praed. 1945-1946. 
Dr. J. M. Harrison. 1945-1946. 
Lt.-Col. W. P. C. Tenison. 1947-1948. 
Sir Philip Manson-Bahr. 1946-1947. 
B. G. Harrison. 1946-1947. 
Miss E. M. Godman. 1947-1948. 
Col. E. Meinertzhagen 1948- 
Major A. G. L. Sladen 1948- 



VI 



Editors. 

E. Bowdler Sharpe. 1892-1904. 

W. K. Ogilvie-Grant. 1904-1914. 

D. A. Bannermax. 1914-1915. 

D. Seth-Smith. 1915-1920. 

Dr. P. E. Lowe. 1920-1925. 

N. B. Kinnear. 1925-1930. 

Dr. G. Carmichael Low. 1930-1935. 

Captain C. H. B. Grant. 1935-1940. 

Dr. G. Carmichael Low. 1940-1945. 

Lt.-Col. W. P. C. Tenison. 1945-1947. 

Captain C. H. B. Grant. 1947- 



Honorary Secretaries and Treasurers. 

Howard Saunders. 1892-1899. 

W. E. de Winton. 1899-1904. 

H. F. Witherby. 1904-1914. 

Dr. P. E. Lowe. 1914-1915. 

C. G. Talbot-Ponsonby. 1915-1918. 

D. A. Bannerman. 1918-1919. 
Dr. Philip Gosse. 1919-1920. 
J. L. Bonhote. 1920-1922. 
C. W. Mackworth-Praed. 1922-1923. 
Dr. G. Carmichel Low. 1923-1929. 
C. W. Mackworth-Praed. 1929-1935. 



Honorary Secretaries. 

Dr. A. Landsborough 

Thomson. 1935-1938. 

C. E. Stonor. 1938-1940. 

N. B. Kinnear. 1940-1943. 

Dr. G. Carmichael Low. 1943-1945. 

Lt.-Col. W. P. C. Tenison. 1945-1947. 

Captain C. H. B. Grant. 1947. 

W. E. Glegg. 1947- 



Honorary Treasurers. 

C. W. Mackworth-Praed. 1935-1936. 

Major A. G. L. Sladen. 1936-1942. 

Miss E. P. Leach. 1942- 



VII 



LIST OF MEMBE K S 
DECEMBER, 1949. 



]930. Acland, Miss C. M.; Grassholm, 2 Orchard Close, Banstead, 

Surrey. 
1912. Alexander, H. G.; 144 Oak Tree Lane, Selly Oak, Birmingham. 
1949. Allison, S.; 58 Alfreton Eoad, Nottingham. 
1949. Bak, F. A.; 46 Holmfield Eoad, Leicester. 

1948. Band, E. M.; 516 North Drive, Cleveleys, near Blackpool, 
Lancashire. 

1910. Bannerman, David A., M.B.E., M.A., ScD., F.E.S.E. 
H.F.A.O.U. {Editor, 1914-1915; Hon. Secretary, 1918-1919 
Hon. Treasurer, 191&-1919; Committee, 1922-1925 
Chairman, 1932-1935 ; Vice -Chairman, 1939-1940) 
British Museum (Natural History), Cromwell Eoad, 
London, S.W.7. 

1933. Barclay-Smith, Miss Phyllis (Committee, 1941-1944); 51 
Warwick Avenue, London, W.9. 

1935. Barnes, Mrs. E.; Hungerdown, Seagrv, Chippenham, 
Wiltshire. 

1925. Barrington, Frederick J. F., M.S., F.E.C.S. (Committee, 
1929-1932; Vice-Chairman, 1943-1945); 52 Harley 
Street, London, W.l. 

1947. Beal, Major N. A. G. H.; 38 Kensington Park Eoad, 

London, W.ll. 

1948. Belcher, Sir Charles F., K.B.E.,; Kinangop, Kenya Colony. 
1939. Benson, C. W.; c/o Secretariat, Zomba, Nyasaland. 

1947. Benson, J. P.; Dept. of Agriculture, Meru, Kenya Colony and 

Dellrield, Felden, Hemel Hempstead, Herts. 

1939. Benson, C. W. ; c/o Secretariat, Zomba, Nyasaland. 

1922. Best, Miss M. G. S.; White Cottage, The Drive, Bosham, 
Sussex. 

1949. Beven, Dr. G.; Cromer Hyde, Central Eoad, Mordeu, Surrey. 

1948. Blair, H. M. S., M.B., B.Sc; Thorney House, Laygate, South 

Shields, Durham. 

1906. Boorman, S.; Heath Farm, Send, Woking, Surrey. 

1920. Boyd, A. W., M.C.; Frandley House, near Northwich, Cheshire. 

1924. Brown, George; Combe Manor, Hungerford, Berkshire. 

1948. Bryson, A. G. S.; 20 Inverleith Place, Edinburgh, 4, Scotland. 



Vlll 

1948. Bushell, Douglas; Willow Cottage, Frimley Eoad, Camberley, 

Surrey. 

1949. Button, E. L.; Boma, Lundazi, Northern Khodesia. 

1911. Buxton, Major Anthony, D.S.O., D.L.; Horsey Hall, near 
Great Yarmouth, Norfolk. 

1948. Campbell, Bruce; Hordley, Woodstock, Oxford. 

1936. Campbell, Dr. James W.; Ardrennich, Strathtay, Perthshire. 

1949. Carr, Leonard; 275 Einginglow Eoad, Sheffield, 11. 

1949. Carter, Mrs. Florence E.; Allerton, Kings Hill, Bude, 
Cornwall. 

1987. Cave, Colonel F. 0.; Stoner Hill, Petersfield, Hampshire. 

1947. Chadwyck-Healey, Mrs. G. M.; New Place, Porlock, Minehead, 

Somerset. 

1937. Chapin, Dr. James P.; American Museum of Natural History, 

Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, N.Y., U.S.A. 

1923. Charteris, Hon. G. L.; Old House, Didbrook, nr. Cheltenham, 
Gloucestershire, 

1940. Chislett, Ealph; Brookside, Masham, near Eipon, Yorkshire. 

1939. Clancey, P. A.; 9 Craig Eoad, Cathcart, Glasgow, S.4, 
Scotland. 

1916. Clarke, John P. Stephenson; Broadhurst Manor, Horsted 
Keynes, Sussex. 

1946. Cohen, E.; Hazelhurst, Sway, Hampshire. 

1948. Collins, S. J. K.; P.O., Box 570, Nairobi, Kenya Colony. 

1949. Coombes, E. A. H. ; Sea Bank, Bolton-le-Sands, Carnforth, 

Lancashire. 

1933. Conover, H. B.; 6 Scott Street, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.A. 

1927. Cunningham, Captain Josias; 3 Donegall Square East, Belfast, 
Ireland. 

1946. Dalgety, C. T.; Lockerley Hall, Eomsey, Hampshire. 

1948. de Hamel, F. A.; Holly Cottage, The Warren, Cranleigh, 
Surrey. 

1920. Delacour, Jean; The American Museum of Natural History, 
Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, N.Y., U.S.A. 

1922. Dewhurst, Colonel F. W.; Delamore, Cornwood, IVybridge, 
Devonshire. 

1946. Donaldson, E. Preston; c/o Eoyal Society for Protection 
of Birds, 82 Victoria Street, London, S.W.I. 

1943. Duffin, Charles J.; The Cottage, Lyncroft Gardens, Ewell, 
Surrey. 



IX 

1928. Duncan, Arthur Bryce; Lannhall, Tynron, Dumfriesshire. 
1917. Ezra, A., O.B.E. (Committee, 1933-1936); Foxwarren Park, 

Cobham, Surrey. 
1949. Ferguson-Lees, J.; 5 Nymaus Cottages, Staplefield Boad, 
Handcross, Sussex. 

1927. Ferrier, Miss J. M.; Blakeney Downs, Blakeney, Norfolk. 

1937. Fisher, James (Committee, 1942-1946); The Old Bectory, 
Ashton, Northamptonshire. 

1944. Fitter, B. S. B., B.Sc., F.Z.S.; Greyhounds, Burford, 
Oxfordshire. 

1929. Foulkes-Boberts, Captain P. B., M.C.; Lamb Hill, Bride, 

near Bamsey, Isle of Man. 

1934. Gilbert, Captain H. A.; Bishopstone, near Hereford, 
Herefordshire. 

1928. Glegg, W. E. (Committee, 1947-1948; Hon. Secretary , 1947- ); 

c/o Zoological Museum, Tring, Hertfordshire. 

1930. Glenister, A. G.; The Barn House, East Blachington, Seaforcl, 

Sussex. 

1946. Godman, Miss C. E.; South Lodge, Horsham, Sussex. 

1933. Godman, Miss Eva M. (Vice -Chair man, 1947-1948); South 
Lodge, Horsham, Sussex. 

1912. Grant, Captain C. H. B. (Committee, 1944-1947; Editor, 
1935-1940 and 1947- ; Vice -Chairman, 1940-1943; 
Acting Hon. Secretary, 1947); 8 Cornwall Gardens Court, 
50 Cornwall Gardens, London, S.W.7. 

1947. Gudmundsson, Dr. F.; Museum of Natural History, Beykjavik, 

Iceland. 

1949. Hall, Mrs. B. P.; 10 Downside, Epsom, Surrey. 

1928. Harrison, Bernard Guy (Committee, 1940-1944, V ice- 
Chairman, 1946-1947); 45 St. Martin's Lane, London, 
W.C.2. 

1922. Harrison, James M., D.S.C., M.B.C.S., L.B.C.P. (Committee, 
1933-1936; Vice -Chairman, 1945-1946; Chairman, 
1946- ); Bowerwood House, St. Botolph's Boad, 
Sevenoaks, Kent. 

1944. Harrison, Dr. Jeffery G.; Bowerwood House, St. Botolph's 
Boad, Sevenoaks, Kent. 

1947. Hartley, P. H. T.; Wray Castle Cottage, Ambleside, 
Westmorland. 

Haverschmidt, F.; 14 Waterkant, Paramaribo, Dutch Guiana. 
Heath, B. E.; 2 Pembroke Court, Edwardes Square, London, 
W.8. 



1934. Hollom, P. A. D. (Committee, 1938-1940 and 1947- ); 
Manor Cottage, Park Eoad, Woking, Surrey. 

1946. Homes, R. C; 62d Albemarle Road, Beckenham, Kent. 

1925. Hopkinson, Emilius, C.M.G., D.S.O., M.B. (Vice-Chairman, 

1943-1945); Wynstay, Balcombe, Sussex. 

1947. Hunt, G. H. ; White Chimneys, Cheveney Road, Quorn 

Loughborough, Leicestershire. 

1928. Hutson, Major-General H. P. W., C.B., M.C., Forestry 
Commission, 25 Saville Row, London, W.l. 

1921. Inglis, C. McFarlane; Kenilworth, Coonoor P.O., Nilgiris, 
India. 

1902. Ingram, Captain Colling wood; The Grange, Benenden, 
Cranbrook, Kent. 

1949. Irwin, R.; 13, Furzefield Crescent, Reigate, Surrey. 

1949. Jack, T. A. M.; 20, Newton Court, Church Street, Kensington, 
London, W.8. 

1940. James, Miss Celia K. ; Blake's Wood, Barnt Green, Birmingham 

1930. Jordan, H. E. Karl, Ph.D., F.R.S., F.R.E.S., F.Z.S.; 

Zoological Museum, Tring, Hertfordshire. 

1948. Justice, J. R.; The Fulling Mill, Whitchurch, Hampshire. 

1949. Keywood, K. P.; 85, Hare Lane, Claygate, Surrey. 

1904. Kinnear, Norman B., C.B. (Editor, 1925-1930; Vice -Chairman 
1934-1935; Hon Secretary, 1940-1943); British Museum 
(Natural History), Cromwell Road, London, S.W.7. 

1943. Lack, David; Edward Grey Institute of Field Ornithology, 
91 Banbury Road, Oxford. 

1931. Leach, Miss E. P. (Committee, 1937-1942; Hon. Treasurer, 

1942- ); 94 Kensington Court, London, W.8. 

1926. Lewis, John Spedan; Leckford Abbas, Stockbridge, Hampshire. 

1936. Longfield, Miss Cynthia; 11 Iverna Gardens, London, W.8. 

1921. Low, George Carmichael, M.A., M.D., CM., F.R.C.P., F.Z.S. 
(Hon. Secretary, 1923-1929, 1943-1945; Hon. Treasurer, 
1923-1929; Editor, 1930-1935 and 1940-1945; Vice- 
Chairm,an, 1938-1939); 7 Kent House, Kensington Court, 
Kensington, London, W.8. 

1949. Lowe, Mrs. P. R.; 2, Hugo House, 179 Sloane Street, London, 
S.W.I. 

1945. McCulloch, Captain G. ; 65 Chester Road, Northwood, 
Middlesex. 



1936. Macdonald, J. D., B.So. (For.), B.Sc. (Committee, 1946- ); 

British Museum (Natural History), Cromwell Eoad, 
London, S.W.7. 

1921. Mackenzie, John M. D., B.A., C.M.Z.S.; Sidlaw Fur Farm, 
Tullach Ard, Balbeggie, Perthshire, Scotland. 

1931. McKiTTRiCK, T. H.; The Chase National Bank of the City 
of New York, Pine Street Corner of Nassau, New York, 
U.S.A. 

1917. Mackworth-Praed, C. W. (Hon. Secretary, 1922-1923 and 
1929-1935; Hon. Treasurer, 1922-1923 and 1929-1936; 
Committee, 1936-1937; V ice-Chairman, 1945-1946) ; 
Castletop, Burley, near Eingwood, Hampshire. 

1924. McNeile, J. H. (Committee, 1935-1938); Nonsuch, Bromham, 
Chippenham, Wiltshire. 

1935. Macpherson, D. W. K.; P.O., Lilongwe, Nyasaland. 

1948. Macphie, David; c/o Lloyds Bank, Fakenham, Norfolk and 

Hazel Cottage, Petersham, Surrey. 

1935. Mansfield, The Eight Hon. the Earl of; Scone Palace, Perth, 
Scotland. 

1907. Manson-Bahr, Sir Philip, C.M.G., D.S.O., M.D., F.E.C.P. 
(Committee, 1930-1933; Vice-Chairman, 1946-1947); 149 
Harley Street, London, W.l. 

1933. Mavrogordato, J. G.; c/o Legal Dept., Sudan Govt., 

Khartoum, Sudan. 

1929. Mayaud, Noel; 36 rue Hoche, Saumur, Maine-et-Loire, France. 
1939. Meiklejohn, Lieut. -Colonel E. F. ; Arcady, Cley, Holt, Norfolk, 

1901. Meinertzhagen, Colonel E., D.S.O., F.Z.S., H.F.A.O.U.; 

17 Kensington Park Gardens, London, W.ll. 

1947. Monk, Dr. J. F.,; 344b Woodstock Eoad, Oxford. 

1949. Moore, Commdr. H. W. E., D.S.C., E.N.; National Service 

Club, Pall Mall, London, S.W.I. 

1947. Morrison, A. F. ; P.O. Box 473, Dar-es-Salaam, Tanganyika 
Territory. 

1931. Murton, Mrs. C. D.; Cranbrook Lodge, Cranbrook, Kent. 

1928. Naumburg, Mrs. W. W.; 121 East 64th Street, New York, 
N.Y., U.S.A. 

1934. Nicholson, E. M.; 13 Upper Cheyne Eow, London, S.W.3. 

1937. North, M. E. W.; c/o Secretariat, Nairobi, Kenya Colony and 

Summerdale, Holme, Carnforth, Lancashire. 

1935. Pakenham, E. H. W.; Kingsley, Hurtis Hill, Crowborough, 

Sussex; and c/o Secretariat, Zanzibar, Eastern Africa. 



XI 1 

1945. Parrinder, E. E.; 7 Gwalior House, Chase Eoad, London, 

N.14. 

1932. Paulson, C. W. G. (Committee, 1944-1947); c/o Monotype 
Corporation Ltd., Salfords, Eedhill, Surrey. 

1946. Payn, Lt.-Col. W. A.; The Gables, Osborne Eoad, Andover, 

Hampshire. 

1932. Peall, Mrs. 0.; Hatfield Farm, Oare, Marlborough, Wiltshire. 

1933. Pease, H. J. E. (Committee, 1939-1942); The Savile Club, 

69 Brook Street, London, W.l. 

1938. Phillips, A. S.; Frewin's Close, South Stoke, Eeading, 
Berkshire. 

1949. Phipps, Mrs.; Munster Lovell, Oxfordshire. 

1949. Pickford, Kenneth D.; Eathlyn, 43, Barwood Eoad, Gloucester. 

1948. Piercy, K.; Clifton Cottage, Clifton, Bedfordshire. 

1919. Pitman, Captain C. E. S., D.S.O., M.C.,; c/o Grindlay & Co., 
54 Parliament Street, London, S.W.I. 

1948. Plowden-Wardlaw, W. J . ; Dalchosnie House, Kinloch 

Eannoch, by Pitlochry, Perthshire, Scotland. 

1945. Prestwich, A. A.; Chelmsford Eoad, Southgate, London, 

N.14. 

1937. Priestley, Mrs. J. B., O.B.E.; B.3, Albany, Piccadilly, 
London, W.l. 

1926. Pye-Smith, Major G. H. E.; Langham Lodge, Cold Ash, 
Newbury, Buckinghamshire. 

1947. Eeynolds, Lieut. E. A. W.; Fernham, Torquay Eoad, Paignton, 

Devonshire. 

1948. Ehead, A. J.,; P.O. Magadi, Kenya Colony. 

1933. Ehodes, Miss G. M. (Committee, 1945-1948); Hildersham Hall, 
Cambridge, Cambridgeshire. 

1949. Eichards, Dr. H. A.; Greenoge, 40, Swakeleys Eoad, 

Ickenham, Uxbridge, Middlesex. 

1903. Eiviere, B. B., F.E.C.S.; The Old Hall, Woodbastwick, 
Norfolk. 

1946. Eoberts, B. B.; 9 Pelham Court, 145 Fulham Eoad, London, 

S.W.3. 

1949. Eobertson, Commdr. A. N. P., E.N.; Deynes, Debden, Saffron 

Walden, Essex. 

1948. Eussell, Lord Hugh; Crowholt, Woburn, Bletchiey, Buck- 

inghamshire. 

1949. Eydzewski, W.; 277, Holmsdale Eoad, London, S.E.25. 



Xlll 

1933. Sandeman, E. G. C. C; Dan-y-parc, Crickhowell, Brecon, 
Wales. 

Schauensee, E. M. de ; Devon, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. 

Schouteden, Dr. H. ; Musee du Congo Beige, Tervueren, 
Belgium. 

Scott, Peter, D.S.C.; New Grounds, Slimbridge, Gloucester- 
shire . 

Serle, Dr. W.; 64 Strathearn Eoad, Edinburgh, Scotland. 

Seth-Smith, David (Committee, 1905-1912; Editor, 1915-1920; 
V ice-Chairman, 1936-1937; Chairman, 1943-1946); 

Brabourne, Poyle Eoad, Guildford, Surrey. 

Sherriff, Albert; 8 Banulf Eoad, Hampstead, London, N.W.2. 

Simonds, Major Maurice H.; Fines Baylewick, Binfield, 
Berkshire. 

Sladen, Major A. G. Lambart, M.C. (Committee, 1921-1924; 
Hon. Treasurer, 1936-1942); Crab tree Furlong, Hadden- 
ham, Aylesbury, Buckinghamshire; and 39 St. James's 
Street, London, S.W.I. 

Smithers, E. H. N. ; The National Museum of Southern 
Ehodesia, P.O. Box, 240, Bulawayo, Southern Ehodesia. 

Southern, H. N.; University Museum, Oxford. 

Sparrow, Colonel E., C.M.G., D.S.O., (Vice -Chairman, 1937- 
1938); The Lodge, Colne Engaine, Earls Come, Essex. 

Staples, Lt.-Commdr. (S.) C. P., Eoyal Navy; Hedgerows, 

Ickenham, Middlesex. 
Stevens, Herbert; Clovelly, Beaconsfield Eoad, Tring, 

Hertfordshire. 

Stevens, Noel; Walcot Hall, Lydbury, North Salop. 

Stonor, Lieut. C. E. (Hon. Secretary, 1938-1940); Parkgates, 
near Southampton, Hampshire. 

Swynnerton, G. H. ; Game Preservation Department, 
Lyamungil, P.O. Moshi, Tanganyika Territory. 

Tenison, Lt.-Col. W. P. C, D.S.O., F.L.S., F.Z.S. (Editor 
1945-1947; Hon. Secretary, 1945-1947; Vice- Chairman, 
1947-1948); 2 Wool Eoad, Wimbledon Common, London, 
S.W.20. 

Thomson, A. Landsborough, C.B., O.B.E., D.Sc, F.E.S.E. 
(Committee, 1930-1933; Hon. Secretary, 1935-1938; 
Chairman, 1938-1943); 16 Tregunter Eoad, London, 
S.W.1.0. 

Ticehurst, N. F., O.B.E., M.B., F.E.C.S. (Committee, 1912- 
1914); 24 Pevensey Eoad, St. Leonards-on-Sea, Sussex. 



1948. Trott, A. C; Avonmore, Portmore Park Eoad, Weybridge, 

Surrey. 

1924. Tucker, B. W., M.A. (Committee, 1928-1931; Vice -Chairman, 

1940-1943); 9 Marston Ferry Koad, Oxford. 

1925. Turtle, Lancelot J.; 17-21 Castle Place, Belfast, Ireland. 

1949. Upton, Mrs. P. V. ; Park Lodge, Margarettrey, Essex. 

1930. Urquhart, Captain A., D.S.O.; Latimer Cottage, Latimer, 
Chesham, Buckinghamshire. 

1946. van Someren, G. E. C; P.O. Box 651, Nairobi, Kenya Colony. 

1920. van Someren, Dr. V. G. L.; P.O. Box 1682, Nairobi, Kenya 
Colony. 

1934. Vincent, Jack, M.B.E.; Firle, Mooi River, Natal, South Africa. 

1934. Wade, Colonel G. A., M.O.; St. Quintin, Sandy Lane, 
Newcastle-under-Lyme, Staffordshire. 

1949. Wadley, N. J.; 14, Elm Place, London, S.W.7. 

1949. Wagstaffe, R.; The Yorkshire Museum, York, Yorkshire. 

1947. Walter, C. N.; 32 Stanley Avenue, Beckenham, Kent. 

1934. Watt, Mrs. H. Winifred Boyd, F.Z.S. (Committee, 1942-1945); 
39, Christchurch Boad, Bournemouth, Hampshire. 

1948. Westall, Surgeon-Captain P. R.; 51, St. Mary's Mansions, 

London, W.2, and Lloyds Bank, West Smithneld, London, 
E.C.I. 

1936. White, Charles M. N.; 8 Ansdell Road South, Ansdell, 
Lytham St. Annes, Lancashire. 

1949. Whybrow, C; Education Department, Mwanza, Tanganyika 

Territory. 

1947. Williams, A.; Flat 22, 17, Stratton Street, London, W.l. 

1903. Workman, William Hughes; Lismore, Windsor Avenue, 
Belfast, Ireland. 

1924. Worms, Charles de; 26, Common Close, Horsell, Surrey. 

1947. Wynne, Colonel 0. E.; Court Wood, Sandleheath, Fordinbridge, 
Hampshire. 

Total number of Members ... 172. 



NOTICE. 

[Members are specially requested to keep the Hon. Secretary 
informed of any changes in their addresses, and those residing 
abroad should give early notification of coming home on leave.] 



XV 



LIST OF AUTHORS. 

AND OTHEE PEKSONS REFERRED TO. 



Page 

Accounts, Financial Statement of 3 

Announcement 15 

Annual General Meeting 1 

Benson, C. W. 

A new race of Sunbird Ginnyris afcr whytei from Nyasaland ... ... 19-20 

Some new records from Nyasaland ... ... ... ... ... ... 58 

Notes from the Lundazi district, Northern Rhodesia 58-60 

The locality Katunga, recorded in Proc. Zool. Soc. 1900, pp. 1-3 in error 

for Kasungu 85-86 

On the occurrence of certain species in Nyasaland : — 

1. Anas capensis Ill 

2. Galachrysia nuchalis Ill 

3. Eremialector gutturalis ' 111 

4. Apus apus toulsoni Ill 

5. Cossypha bocagei 111-112 

6. Euplectes afra 112 

Cave, Colonel F. 0. 

Some notes on the Banded Francolin (Francolinus schlegelii) 103-104 

On Eremopterix leucopareia cavei ... ... ... ... ... ... 108 

Bird Calls 113 

A Correction 123 

Chairman (Announcement) 15 

Chapin, Dr. J. P. 

A new race Phyllastrephus xavieri serlei from the British Cameroons ... 70-71 

A new race of the Collared Sunbird (Anthreptes collaris somereni) from 

Lower Guinea 83-84 

Bird Calls 113 

Clancey, P. A. 

A new race of Stonechat Saxicola torquata archimedes from Sicily ... 84-85 

Committee 1948-49 2 

Correction 123 

Corrigenda 135 

Dinners and Meetings for 1950 134 



XVI 

Page 
Financial Statement 3 

Fitter, E. S. E. 

Fair Isle and the Pyrenees ... ... ... ... 81 

Fleming, C. A. 

Expedition to the Snares Islands, New Zealand ... ... ... ... 5-6 

G-legg, W. E. 

Eggs of the Syrian Ostrich (Struthio camelus syriacus) 6-8 

First occurrence of the Eed-nanked Bluetail (Tarsiger cyanurus cyanurus) 
in Britain ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 46 

The History of a Great Auk's Egg presented to the British Museum by 
Lord Lilford, of three Great Auk's Eggs bequeathed to the Nation, and 
of the remains of a recently discovered egg ... ... ... ... ... 77-80 

A mounted specimen of the Great Auk presented to the British Museum 
by Lord Lilford 82 

Great Auks reported from Lofoten Islands 120-121 

An early New Zealand Ornithologist: Thomas Henry Potts, 1824-1888 ... 131-133 

Grant, Captain C. H. B. 

Ploceus spckeoides ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 20 

A semi-albino specimen of Bradypterus mariae usambarae ... ... 57 

Grant, Captain C. H. B., and Mackworth-Praed, C. W. 
Notes on Eastern and Southern African Birds: — 

1. On the status of Falco peregrinus brookei 30 

2. On Mirafra passerina : 30-31 

3. On Cuculus murinus and Cuculus sulphur atus 31-32 

Notes on East African Birds: — 

On a new race of Apalis 46 

Notes on Eastern African Birds : — 

1. On the name of the Northern Indian Sparrow and its occurrence in 

Eastern Africa 122-123 

2. On the status of Ploceus jacksoni jacundus ... ... ... ... 123 

3. On the status of Symplectes eremobius 123 

A new species Budytes perconfusus from the Sudan, and a new race of 
Yellow Wagtail Budytes thunbergi alakulensis from Turkestan 130-131 

Notes on Eastern African Birds : — 

1. On the name of the Northern Indian Sparrow and its occurrence in 

Eastern Africa 133 

2. On the status of Colius striatus chyulu 133 

3. On the status of Viridibucco leucomystax chyulu 133-134 

4. On the status of Dendropicus fuscescens chyulu ... ... ... 134 

Hall, Mrs. B. P. 

A new race of Bush Warbler (Eremomela badiceps latukae) from the 
Sudan 76-78 

Harrison, D. L. 

The cranial vault in Chiroptera 67-70 



XVII 



Page 

Harrison, Dr. J. G. 

Some developmental peculiarities in the skulls of Birds and Bats ... 61-67 
Eastern Greylag Goose in Germany ... ... ... ... ... ... 125-126 

Overland Migration of Wading Birds and Terns across Schleswig- 
Holstein, Germany 126-130 

Harrison, Dr. J. G. See under Staples, Lieut. -Commander C. P. 

Harrison, Dr. J. M. 

Eeversionary Trends in Birds ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 37-44 

Exhibition of a variety of the Kook 117-118 

Macdonald, J. D. 

Eibbon-Tail Bird of Paradise 15-16 

A new race of Orange Thrush Geokichla piaggae williamsi from Uganda 16 

Breeding of the Olivaceous Warbler in the Sudan 17 

Mackworth-Praed, C. W. See under Grant, Captain C. H. B. 

Mathews, G. M. 

Eemarks on Petrels 23-30 

Meeting, Annual General 1 

Meeting, Special General 86 

Meetings and Dinners for 1950 134 

Meinertzhagen, Colonel E. 

On Garrulax lanceolatus waddelli and Garrulax lanceolatus lumsdeni ... 4-5 

On the Otas scops group, and allied groups, with special reference to 
Otus brucei ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 8-11 

A new race Melierax gabar defensorum from Aden Protectorate ... 82-83 

New races of a Courser {Cursorius cursor theresce); a Woodpecker 
(Geocolaptes olivaceus theresce) from Little Namaqualand; a Swift (Apus 
affinis theresce) from Cape Province; a Lark (Calandrella sclateri theresce) 
from Pofadder; a Wheatear (CEnanthe lugens vauriei) from British 
Somaliland; and a Serin (Serinus albogularis theresce) from Little 
Namaqualand 104-108 

On the Liittle Grebe (Podiceps ruficollis) from the Thames Valley ... 108-109 

On the status of Parisoma leucomelcena ... ... ... ... ... 109-110 

On the genera Erythropygia and Agrobates ; and the status of 
Erythropygia hamertoni ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 110 

Notices 13,21,113,123 

Payn, W. H. 

A hybrid Teal and Shoveler ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 49-50 

Philips, W. W. A. 

A new race of the Common Hawk Cuckoo (Hierocouyce varius cicelice) 
from Ceylon 56-57 

Publication of the Bulletin 21,114,123,134 

Eipley, S. Dillon. 

A new race of Shrike (Lanius validirostris hachisuka) from the 
Philippines 121-122 



Pa ge 

Serle, Dr. VV. 

A new genus and species of Babbler Kwpeornis gilberti, and new races 
of a Wood-Hoopoe Phceniculus bollei okuensis ; a Swift Apus cequatorialis 
bamendce; a Barbet Buccanodon duchaillui bannermani; a Robin-Chat 
Cossypha insulana granli, two Scrub-Warblers Bradypterus marice youngi 
and Braypterus marice manengube, and Apalis jacksoni bambuluensis, all 
from British Carneroons ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 50-56 

New races of a Warbler Poliolais lopezi manengubce, a Flycatcher 
Dyaphorophyia ansorgei kumbcensis and an Owl Tyto capensis 
cameroonensis, all from British Carneroons ... ... ... ... ... 74-76 

Staples, Lieut.-Commander C. P., and Harrison, Dr. T. G. 

Further as to colour change without a moult with particular reference 
to the Snow-Bunting (Plectrophenax nivalis nivalis) ... ... ... ... 33-37 

Further as to colour change without a moult — subtractive change — its 
incidence and implication 89-103 

Thomson, Dr. Landsborough. 

Bicentenery of Edward Jenner 73-74 

Van Marle, J. G. 

A new race of Chaffinch (Fringilla coelebs hibernica) from south-west 
Ireland 118-119 

Vincent, Jack. 

A new race of Richard's Pipit Anthus richardi transkeiensis from South 
Africa 17-18 

A new race of Barratt's Scrub Warbler Bradypterus barratti cathkinensis 

from Natal 18-19 

Wagstaffe, B. 

First occurrence of Bonnelli's Warbler (Phylloscopus bonelli) in Britain 46 

White, C. M. N. 

Size as a Racial Character ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 11-13 

A new race of Lemon Dove Aplopelia simplex samaliyce from Northern 
Rhodesia 20-21 

A new race of Thrush Turdus olivaceus williami from Northern Rhodesia 57-58 
Systematic notes on African Birds : — 

1. On Nycticorax leuconotus natahnsis ; 

2. On Mgypius monachus chincou ; 

3. On Melierax poliopterus coombsi; 

4. On Gircoitus gallicus heptneri ... ... ... ... ... mmt 112-113 

Work, Dr. T. H. 

Bits of land along the coast ... ... ... ... ... ... 45 

Wynne, Colonel 0. E. 

Number of Genera, Species and Races of Birds 119-120 



PEC3AL NOTICE . 

The pagination of Bulletin No.l.Vol.69, should 
3ad 1-14. Will Members and others kindly correct their 
spies accordingly and insert this slip in their copy. 



BULLETIN 

OF THE 

IITISH ORNITHOLOGISTS 5 CLUB. 

■# 



ptfj No. I. 



ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING. 

Chairman : Dr. J. M. Harbison. 

This was held at the Rembrandt Hotel, Thurloe Place, S.W.7, on 
Wednesday, October 20, 1948, at 5.45 p.m. ; 21 members were present. 

Mr. W. E. Glegg, Honorary Secretary read his report for the session 
1947-48. 

The full complement of meetings, namely nine, was successfully held 
during the session. The attendances continue to improve, the average 
for the session being 38 against 33 for the session of 1946-47. The 
membership has progressed similarly and stands at 156 against 149 in 
the previous session. We are still, however, considerably behind pre-war 
figures. The average of ten sessions from 1938-39 backwards was 174, 
the highest figure during this period being 180 in 1932-33. Efforts must- 
be made to restore this figure. Greatest success can be achieved for the 
Club by a low subscription and high membership. During the session 
16 members have joined and of the names on the 1946-47 list, five have 
been removed under Rule IV, two have disappeared by resignation and 
two by death. 

In addition it is with great regret that we record the death of Dr. P. R. 
Lowe, who joined the Club in 1907 and served it as Honorary Secretary, 
Honorary Treasurer, Editor and Chairman. His great services to orni- 
thology will be dealt with suitably elsewhere. The Club records a tribute 
to his work and memory. 

Considerable progress has been made with the sale of the Bulletin and 
as a result the funds have been assisted. 

The importance of the cards for the dinners does not seem to be fully 
understood. On one occasion 25% more than had sent in cards attended 
and on another 25% fewer and at most of the dinners there are either 
absentees or unannounced diners. To enable the Secretary to complete 
the organization of the dinners the cards must be used. 

Published November, 1948. Price 2/6. 



Vol. 69 lfifr$- 1948-49 

Mr. W. E. Clegg was appointed Honorary Secretary at the meeting 
of the Committee, held on 17 December, 1947. This accounts for the 
necessity to elect two members to the Committee instead of one as usual. 
The thanks of the Club are given to Captain C. H. B. Grant for his services 
as Acting Honorary Secretary. 

Miss E. P. Leach, the Honorary Treasurer, reported that the finances 
of the Club were in a satisfactory condition, the balance at the Bank 
standing at £110. Although this was not so substantial a sum as was 
generally carried forward, she pointed out that the cost of producing the 
Bulletin had greatly increased and that during the past session, many 
photographs and drawings had been published in its pages, and repro- 
ductions were today very costly. 

The decision to sell off back numbers of the Bulletin had already been 
justified and in the coming year proceeds from this source were expected 
to bring in more. 

Captain C. H. B. Grant, Editor, reported that Messrs. H. F. & G. 
Witherby have taken over both the printing and publishing of the 
Bulletin, and that Mr. Anthony Witherby was very kindly taking a 
personal interest in this matter. The Editor pointed out that an 
endeavour was being made to have the Bulletin, together with the Hon. 
Secretary's Meeting Card, in the hands of members one week before the 
next Meeting and to carry this out members must hand their MS. to the 
Editor at the Meeting, who will also check the proofs. 



Election of Officers. 

On the recommendation of the Committee the following officers were 
duly elected : — 

Colonel R. Meinertzhagen and Major A. G. L. Sladen to be 
Vice-Chairmen for the coming session ; Mr. C. T. Dalgety and 
Lieut-Commander C. P. Staples to serve on the Committee vice 
Miss G. M. Rhodes who retires by seniority and Mr. W. E. Glegg 
appointed Hon. Secretary. 



Committee, 1948-49. 

Dr. J. M. Harrison, Chairman (elected 1946). 

Colonel R. Meinertzhagen, V ice-Chairman (elected 1948). 

Major A. G. L. Sladen, V ice-Chairman (elected 1948). 

Captain C. H. B. Grant, Editor (elected 1947). 

Mr. W. E. Glegg, Honorary Secretary (elected 1947). 

Mr. J. D. Macdonald (elected 1946). 

Mr. P. A. D. Hollom (elected 1947). 

Mr. C. T. Dalgety (elected 1948). 

Lieut-Commdr. C. P. Staples (elected 1948). 



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Vol.69 158 1948-49 

ORDINARY MEETING. 

The four-hundred-and-seventy-ninth Meeting of the Club was held at 
the Rembrandt Hotel, Thurloe Place, S.W.7, on Wednesday, 20 October, 
1948, following a dinner at 6.30 p.m. 

Chairman : Dr. J. M. Harrison. 

Members present : — Miss P. Barclay-Smith ; F. J. F. Barrington ; 
Dr. G. Beven ; R. A. H. Coombes ; Miss J. M. Ferrier ; J. Fisher ; 
W. E. Glegg (Hon. Secretary) ; Miss C. E. Godman ; Miss E. M. Godman 
(V ice-Chairman) ; Capt. C. H. B. Grant (Editor) ; Mrs. B. P. Hall ; J. R. 
Justice ; N. B. Kinnear ; Miss E. P. Leach (Hon. Treasurer) ; Miss C. 
Longfield ; Dr. G. Carmichael Low ; J. D. Macdonald ; C. W. 
Mackworth-Praed ; G. M. Mathews ; Sir Philip Manson-Bahr ; Col. 
R. Meinertzhagen ; B. B. Roberts ; Miss G. M. Rhodes ; D. Seth- 
Smith ; Major M. H. Simonds ; Lt.-Comdr. C. P. Staples ; Dr. A. 
Landsborough-Thomson ; B. W. Tucker ; N. J. Wadley ; C. N. 
Walter ; A. Williams ; C. de Worms ; Col. 0. E. Wynne. 

Quests of the Club : — C. A. Fleming, E. H. Gillham. 

Guests : — Miss T. Clay, Miss S. J. Kinnear. 

Members, 34 ; Guests of the Club, 2 ; Guests, 2 ; Total, 38. 



On Garrulax lanceolatus waddelli (Dresser) and 
Garrulax lanceolatus lumsdeni (Kinnear). 
Colonel R. Meinertzhagen made the following remarks : — 

In April 1946, Dr. Stresemann gave me two specimens of Garrulax 
lanceolatus waddelli (Dresser) from Chusul, collected in February and 
March, 1939 by Schaeffer. Chusul is but four or five miles from Chaksam 
and about 30 miles south-west of Lhasa and is also the type locality of 
G. waddelli. Walton was the first man to obtain this bird at Chaksam 
(long. 90.40E. by 29.40 lat. N.) on the Tsang-po. Waddell saw Walton's 
specimens, realised the bird was new and at once sent a man back to 
collect others. These were also obtained at Chaksam. Walton's 
specimens went to the British Museum, Waddell's went to Dresser who 
at once described Babax waddelli. 

In 1938, Kinnear described Babax lanceolatus lumsdeni from Le La in 
S.E. Tibet (long. 92.55E, Lat. 28.27N.) and about 250 miles south-east 
of Lhasa. 

I have now examined the type of Babax lumsdeni in the British Museum, 
the type of Babax waddelli in the Manchester Museum together with ten 
specimens of reputed Babax waddelli from Gyangtse and eight Babax 
waddelli from Lhasa, Loti, Chusul and Chaksam. 

In describing Babax lumsdeni, Kinnear compared it with Gyangste 
birds which are not identical with B. waddelli but differ in being slightly 
larger, generally paler and greyer on the upper side, shaft streaks of the 
under-parts being generally redder and with buff margins to the feathers. 



1948-49 159 Vol. 69 

In fact Kinnear redescribed B. waddelli for there is no difference at all 
between Chaksam birds and the type of B. lumsdeni. Kinnear states 
that his B. lumsdeni has a smaller bill than B. waddelli, but this is not the 
case for the type of B. waddelli has a culmen of 33 mm. and the type of 
B. lumsdeni has a culmen measuring 35 mm. The culmens of the two 
males from Gyangtse measure 37 and 38 mm. and of six females 36 to 
38.5 mm. The culmens of four males B. waddelli measure 33 to 36 mm. 
(once 39.5 mm.) and of three females 33 to 36 mm. 

I am not describing the Gyantse bird as the series in Berlin does not 
entirely bear out these differences. 

The country in which true B. waddelli (syn : B. lumsdeni) lives is at 
3,000 feet lower elevation and damper than the upland arid region round 
Gyangtse. The country of B. waddelli is also mainly pine -clad. The 
country of the Gyangste bird is upland desert, very dry, the main vegeta- 
tion being Hippophce, Rosa and Salix. It is not surprising that such 
country should produce a paler and larger bird. 

The type of B. waddelli is a September male in very fresh plumage 
and with uncompleted moult ; wing 133 mm. The type of B. Inmsdeni 
is a May male in worn plumage which makes it appear darker : wing 138 
mm. 

Expedition to the Snares Islands, New Zealand. 

Mr. C. A. Fleming (New Zealand) presented a short account (with 
slides) of an expedition to the Snares, a small group of sub -antarctic 
Islands 62 miles south of Stewart Island, an expedition arranged by 
Dr. R. A. Falla, Director, Dominion Museum, Wellington in November 
1947 and including in its members Dr. R. C. Murphy (American Museum 
of Natural History). This was the first resident scientific expedition to 
the Snares, to study an avifauna which was known, from the short visits of 
ornithologists at intervals during the past 70 years. The most con- 
spicuous bird species is the Snares Penguin (Eudyptes pachyrhynchus afratus 
Hutton) a " strong "sub-species of the south New Zealand nominate form, 
differing in size, plumage, detail and behaviour, nesting in large colonies, 
in which the young formed creches under the care of a few parents, in 
contrast with the less gregarious nominate sub-species. The colonial 
Snares Penguin is notably tamer than its geographic representative to the 
north. Other sea-birds at the Snares are the Antarctic Tern (Sterna 
vittata) ; the Silver Gull (L. novcehollandice) ; Southern Skua (Catharacta 
skua blonbergi ; Bullen's Mollymauk (Diomedea bulleri salvini) and five 
species of petrel of the genera Pachyptila, Puffinus, Pterodroma and 
Pelecanoides. The Western Reef, a chain of exposed rocks 4 miles S.W. 
of the main Snares Island, had been reported by sealers of last century as 
a breeding place of the Cape Pigeon (Daption capense L.). Dr. R. A. 
Falla was able to land and confirm this anomalous breeding occurrence 
of an Antarctic bird in high latitude sub-antarctic waters . The indigenous 
land bird Fauna is small but has been increased by the unassisted colonisa- 
tion by several introduced European passeres across the 62 miles of sea 



Vol. 69 1%^ 1948-49 

that separate the Snares from Stewart Island. Endemic forms are three in 
number ; the Snares Sernbird (Bowdleria punctata caudata Bullen) ; the 
Snares Snipe (Coenocorypha aucklandica huegeli Tristram) ; and the 
Black Tomtit (Petroica macrocephala dannefcerdi Rothschild). The first 
is a strong sub-species of a New Zealand bird which seems to occupy a 
wider range of ecological niches at the Snares (where passerine species are 
so few) than in New Zealand. The Snipe is one of five races found on 
outlying islands of New Zealand; their flight is weak and they spend most 
of their time on the ground. Their derivation is obscure and their 
absence from the mainland of New Zealand suggests survival on the 
outliers of a genus which had a wider distribution in the past. 

The Black Tomtit was long classified as a close relative of the Black 
Robin of the Chatham Islands (Miro traversi Buller) but field observations' 
and study of skins has shown that whereas the Chatham Island bird has 
the long tarsus, short rounded wing and long first primary of Miro the 
Snare's Tomtit is a melanstic race of the New Zealand so-called Tomtits 
(Petroica macrophala subspce.). Miro represented the result of an early 
invasion of New Zealand by Petroica-like stock from Australia which had 
lost strong sexual dimorphism and adopting habitual forest-floor feeding, 
in the predator-free New Zealand forests, had acquired a Robin-like 
long tarsus and a degenerate rounded wing. The later invasion 
of Petroica had tended to show the same tendencies — rounded wing, 
long tarsus and first primary — but had not progressed so far from 
the inferred ancestral type represented by continental Australian 
Petroica. Some of the Pacific Island races of Petroica multicolor Swains 
had diverged from the continental, more generalised, forms, in just the 
same directions as had the successive invasions of New Zealand b} r the 
same stock, in losing their sexual plumage dimorphism, in acquiring 
more rounded wing with long first primary and a long tarsus. Some oi 
these changes in inland birds occupying relatively predator-free environ- 
ment might be related to increasingly sedatory, forest-floor feeding habits 
and loss of the typical flycatcher behaviour. 



Eggs of the Syrian Ostrich, Struthio camelus syriacus 

Rothschild. 

Mr. W. E. Glbgg made the following remarks : — 

The egg of this small form of the Ostrich, which is exhibited, bears the 
following inscription : — " This egg was taken by Charles Doughty from 
nest at Bizeita, within ten miles of Lat. 30N. and Long. 38 E, about 1880 
Given by Doughty to Colonel Lawrence who gave it to me in 1922 
R. Meinertzhagen." Colonel Meinertzhagen presented this egg to Lore 
Rothschild and with the vast collection of eggs of Tring it has come to the 
nation. The egg is not only of historical interest but also has scientific 
value as such specimens are not plentiful. It is decidedly smaller anc 
darker in colour than two other eggs of this race taken in Syria in 191: 
by Aharoni and also forming part of the Rothschild egg- collection. 



1948-49 ]M Vol. 69 

Description of Eggs. 

Measurements Colour. 

1880. 135 mm. x 110 mm. cream colour. 

1912, No. 1 144 mm. X 112 mm. marguerite yellow 

1912, No. 2 143 mm. x 112 mm. a shade lighter than No. 1 

The eggs are very highly glossed and devoid of pitting. 

Colours : Ridgway's Color Standards and Color Nomenclature, 1912. 

Although we can learn something of this Ostrich from the very earliest 
writers, for example Xenophon in his Anabasis, written 379-371 B.C., 
states that the Ostrich was frequently seen in the desert of Arabia, yet 
specimens of and information about the bird are not too plentiful. Lord 
Rothschild's discovery that the Syrian or Arabian Ostrich is a distinct 
bird stimulated interest and several valuable contributions were published. 
It is not often that eggs are responsible for the description of a new race. 
Lord Rothschild received eggs, which had been taken by J. Aharoni in 
the Syrian desert. Lord Rothschild found that these eggs resembled 
those of the North African Ostrich in so far as they were smooth and not 
pitted but otherwise they are different as they are much smaller and more 
highly polished. These differences led Lord Rothschild to procure 
specimens of the bird and thus the new race S. c. syriacus was discovered. 
Lord Rothschild writes that two eggs measure 144 x 112 mm. and 143 X 
112 mm., but does not mention further data. These eggs are identical 
in size with those I have already mentioned and it may be accepted that 
they are the same eggs. I might add that I had not seen Lord Roths- 
child's article before taking my measurements. Hartert gives as the 
average of six eggs 145 mmx 116 mm. Two eggs taken in the Central 
Arabian desert on 31 January 1922, were received at the London Zoo. 
Mr. D. Seth- Smith states than an egg of the typical Struthio camelus 
from the Northern Provinces, Gold Coast, weighed when fresh 31b. 15-oz. 
while one of the Syrian eggs, the larger of the two received, weighed 
2-lb. 11-oz. The Syrian eggs were put in an incubator but failed to hatch 
so were presented to the British Museum ; they measure 148 mm x 117 mm 
and 141 mm. x 116 mm. In 1923 a young male and female were sent 
from .the same district. The male reached the Zoo and thrived but the 
female died on the journey and the skeleton was presented to the British 
Museum. 

The Syrian or Arabian Ostrich is said to breed in the middle of winter 
and to lay from twelve to twenty -one eggs and the nest is generally made 
at the foot of some isolated hill. The eggs are placed together in a circle 
half-buried in sand to protect them from rain, and a narrow trench is 
drawn round, so that the water runs off. At ten or twelve feet from this 
circle the female places two or three other eggs, which she does not hatch 
but leaves for the young to feed upon. 

The Syrian Ostrich is a much decreased bird and its range has shrunk. 
All records of its occurrence are notable. It was recorded in August, 
1922 that Emir Zeid, brother of Emir Feizal, owned one at Damascus. 
It used to run about the garden of Hadad Pasha, the Minister of Public 



Vol. 69 162 1948-49 

Security. It was three-quarters grown and beginning to get savage. 
The recorder understood that it had been caught in the desert east of and 
fairly close to Damascus. Mr. D. Carruthers, whose contributions are of 
much interest, stated that this bird had not been seen in the true Syrian 
desert for over a century and that it had become purely Arabian. Capt. 
R. E. Cheeseman, who has also supplied valuable information, however, 
points out that the two eggs sent to the Zoo were taken in the Wadi 
Abiadh, which is well within the Syrian desert as denned by Mr. Carruthers. 
Mr. G. L. Bates in his unpublished "Birds of Arabia" gives a list of the 
localities in which the Ostrich had been seen in recent years. The latest 
of these are single birds seen in 1931 and 1938 ; localities Jabal Tubaik 
and Wadi Hadrij. 

WORKS QUOTED. 

1942. Bates, G.L. Birds of Arabia, p. 406. A copy of this unpublished work is 

in the Bird Room, British Museum (Natural History). 
1922. " R.B." The Syrian Ostrich, The Field, vol. 140, p. 251. 

1922. Carruthers, D. The Arabian Ostrich, The Field, vol. 139, p. 779 and The 
Ibis, pp. 471-4. 

1923. Cheeseman, Capt. R. E. Recent Notes on the Arabian Ostrich, The Ibiv, 
pp. 208-11, 359, PL 15. 

1921. Hartert, Dr. E. Die Vogel der palaarktischen Fauna, p. 2,010 : 1923, Naeh- 
trag I, p. 92 ; 1938, Erganzungsband, p. 544. 

1921. Prater, S. H. The Arabian Ostrich, Journal of the Bombay Natural History 
Society, vol. 27, pp. 602-5. 

1919. Rothschild, Lord. Description of a new sub-species of Ostrich from Syria, 
Struthio camelus syriacus, Bull. B.O.C., vol. 39, pp. 81-3. 

1922. Seth-Smith, D. Ostrich Eggs from Baghdad, The Field, vol. 139, p. 546 ; 
An Arabian Ostrich, The Field, vol. 142, p. 28. 

On the Otus scops (Linnaeus) group, and allied groups, with 

special reference to Otus brucei (Hume). 

Colonel R. Meinertzhagen sent the following : — 

Two Scops Owls recently obtained in Arabia caused doubt in my mind 
as to the validity of Otus brucei, for they did not appear to be typical of 
either Otus scops nor Otus brucei. 

This led to an examination of the whole Otus scops group, together with 
the O. senegalensis and O. sunia groups. This I have done in conjunction 
with relevant literature, especially with Stresemann (Mitt. Zool. Mus. 
Berlin, 12 pp. 191-195, 1925) ; Chapin (Am. Mus. Novit. p. 412, 1930) ; 
Friedmann and Deignan (Journ. Wash. Acad. Sci. 29, pp. 287-291, 1939) : 
and Delacour (Zoologica, 26, pp. 133-141, 1941). Peters, Hartert, 
Ticehurst and others have all tackled this question ; and the most remark- 
able feature of the extensive literature on the Scops Owls is the different 
interpretations given to specific and racial characters and the very big 
differences of opinion on almost every form. 

I have a considerable series of Scops Owls in my own collection and 
have examined those in the British Museum, in the Tring collection in 
New York and in the Museums of Paris, Berlin, Leyden, Stockholm and 
Leningrad. I have also examined the type of Otus scops distans Fried- 
mann and Deignan, in the U-S. National Museum. Two facts stand out. 



9 
1948-49 W Vol. 69 

1. Most Scops Owls are dimorphic, some always, some sometimes and 
others never, island forms tending to be more uniform than con- 
tinental races which sometimes attain trimorphism. 

2. I am convinced that the wing formula, so relied on by systematists 
who have grappled with this group, does not count for much except 
as a general guide and is certainly not a specific character. It is 
too unstable, even in an individual bird, the right wing sometimes 
disagreeing with the left wing. 

The forms 0. brucei, 0. pamelce and 0. distans appear to give the clues 
to the problem of conspecifity. 

I shall deal with O. brucei first. The usual conception of Otus brucei is 
that the first primary is between the sixth and the seventh and that the 
bird lacks any red on the upper-parts, a feature which is usual in Otus s. 
scops. In fact Otus brucei is but a desert edition of O. s. scops and not a 
very constant one. Hartert relies on wing formula and grey colour, 
lacking any rufous tinge. Dementiev is much more precise. In Syst. 
Av. Ross, p. 505, 1933, he states that Otus s. scops can be distinguished 
from Otus brucei at all ages by the ochraceous-red on the scapulars and 
lesser wing coverts, the shorter tail which is usually less than 75 mm., 
shorter tarsus which is less than 29 mm., and by the feathers on the legs 
not reaching the base of the toes. In Otus brucei the tail is over 75 mm., 
the tarsus is over 29 mm., and the feathers on the legs reach the base of 
the toes. 

I have been unable to follow or confirm these differences as constant 
characters of Otus brucei unless nearly all the 0. brucei I have examined 
are in reality Otus scops scops. And I have examined over fifty reputed 
Otus brucei, including the type which is in the British Museum. It is a 
male from Ahmednaggar (Bombay) shot on 26 January, 1870, by the 
Rev. H. J. Bruce. It is a particularly grey bird with ochraceous but no 
ochraceous-red on the scapulars. The tail is 74 mm. long, the third 
primary is longest ; in the right wing the first primary is between the 
sixth and seventh and in the left wing it equals the sixth. 

I have in my collection eleven specimens which on colour I attribute 
to Otus brucei. On locality also they should be this form. Of these : — 

Six from Arabia, Iraq and Syria have the first primary between sixth 
and seventh. 

Two from Iraq and Sind have the first primary between the fifth and 
sixth. 

One from Syria has the first primary equal to the sixth. 

Two from Iraq and Arabia have the first primary between the fifth and 
sixth in one wing, and between the sixth and seventh in the other 
wing. 

Moreover four of the above birds were obtained in the same tree on the 
same day in the garden of Government House, Baghdad, in November, 
1922. Of these, which are without doubt 0. brucei, one has the first 



Vol. 69 



164 



1948-49 



primary between the fifth and sixth, two have the first primary between 
the sixth and the seventh, and in one the right wing has the first primary 
between the sixth and seventh, and the left wing has the first primary 
between the fifth and the sixth. 

I have also examined a large series of Otus s. scops from the Mediter- 
ranean east to Persia and find that in both colour and wing formula they 
are only constant in about 80% of cases. I therefore regard Otus brucei 
as rather a poor race of Otus scops and in such countries as Palestine, 
Syria, Persia, etc., where they meet, individuals occur which might be 
ascribed to either race. This accounts for the belief that Otus scops and 
Otus brucei breed in the same area and therefore cannot be conspecific. 

Dementiev (Alauda 6, pp. 308-313, 1934) points out that very pale 
examples occur in Turkestan and that if such a pale race is valid, and I do 
not think it is, it must bear the name Scops obsoleta Cabanis, the type of 
which I have examined in the Berlin Museum. It agrees perfectly with 
the type of Otus brucei. 

It has been stated on more than one occasion that Otus brucei has a 
different note to Otus scops. The clearness and limpidity of the little 
hoot -like call of Scops varies a great deal individually. In Crete I had 
over a dozen birds in one bush all calling at the same time and in Iraq I 
have heard Otus brucei calling all night. Individual variation of tone and 
modulation was considerable. 



The following table 
Otus scops : — 



gives the wing formula of the various groups of 







Longest primary. 


First primary. 


0. 


scops 


3rd 


^=5th, or between 5th and 6th 


0. 


cyprius 


2nd, 3rd or 4th. 


between 5th and 6th. 


0. 


brucei 


3rd or 4th. 


between 5th and 7th. 


0. 


sunia 


4th. 


between 7th and 8th, rarelv 
= 6th. 


0. 


japonicus 


3rd and 4th 


between 7th and 8th. 


0. 


pamelcB (type) 


4th 


about == 7 th. 


0. 


distans. 


4th 


^=8th or anywhere between 
7th and 10th. 


0. 


capensis 


4th 


usually between 7th and 8th, 
rarely between 6th and 7th. 


0. 


flammeolus. 


4th or shares longest —-8th or between 6th and 






with 3rd. 


and 8th. 



An examination of the 0. senegalensis- group in the British Museum 
discloses great variation but no constancy in any one region. Maybe 
with additional material and an enormous series some slight constant 
difference might come to light, but such a character could never be used 
for determination of individuals. I therefore prefer to fuse all the 
0. senegalensis group except P. pamelm, 0. fece and 0. socotrana. 

I can see no reason for excluding the O. sunia-grouip and agree to 
Delacour's treatment. 



.1948-49 L65' Vol. 69 

I am not sufficiently acquainted with the American 0. flammeolus 
group to express an opinion. I have seen and shot them in Arizona and 
their inclusion in Otus scops seems to me to be reasonable. 

I cannot agree that Otus scops distans is more closely related to the 
0. senegalensis group than to the sunia group because of its wing formula; 
but it does demonstrate the fickle nature of wing formulas in Otus scops 
and to my mind brings the 0. sunia and 0. senegalensis groups into close 
relationship not only with each other but with Otus scops and its 
palsearctic forms. 

My diagnosis of this problem comes near to that of Delacour though I 
place 0. stictonotus as a race of 0. japonicus ; I place all African races as 
synonyms of 0. senegalensis and I admit 0. brucei into the fold. 

It works out as follows :— 

Otus scops cyprius (Maderasz) 1901. Cyprus. 

Otus scops cycladum (Tschusi) 1904. Cyclad Islands and Crete. 

Otus scops scops (Linna3us) 1758. Italy. 

Otus scops pulchdlus (Pallas) 1808. Siberia. 

Otus scops turanicus (Loudon) 1905. Karakorum. Transcaspia. 

Otus scops brucei (Hume) 1873. Ahmednaggar, Bombay. 

Otus scops japonicus Temm. and Schleg. 1850 Japan. . 

Ranging from Eastern Siberia and Japan to 

eastern and central China and in winter south to 

Tonkin and Siam. 
Otus scops interpositus Kuroda, 1923. S. Borodino I. 
Otus scops botelensis Kuroda, 1928. Botel Tobago Island. 
Otus scops elegans. (Cassin) 1852. Off coast of Japan. Only known from. 

the Riu Kiu Islands. 
Otus scops modestus (Walden) 1874. Andaman Islands. 
Otus scops distans Friedmann and Deignan. 1939 N. Siam. 
Otus scops sunia (Hodgson) 1836. Nepal. 
Otus scops rufipennis Sharpe, 1875. Eastern Ghats. 
Otus scops leggei Ticehurst, 1923. Ceylon. 
Otus scops senegalensis (Swainson) 1837. Gambia (not 1937 Senegal vide 

Delacour, op. cit. p. 140). 
Otus scops socotranus (Ogilvie- Grant and Forbes) 1899. Socotra. 
Otus scops pamelce Bates, 1937. S.W. Arabia. 
Otus scops fece (Salvadori) 1903. Island of Anobon. 
Otus scops flammeolus (Kaup) 1852. Mexico. 
Otus scops rarus Griscom. 1937. Guatemala. 

Size as a Racial Character. 
Mr. C. M. N. White sent the following : — 

My recent studies of African birds have made it clear that quite a 
number of species exhibit size cline which have often been split into 
races on account of size ; I have also been convinced that where no colour 
differences exist to enhance the difference in size it is seldom desirable 



Vol. 69 y^ 1948-49 

to separate such populations racially unless there is a clear cut break in 
the size cline. If extremes are named one is usually left with populations 
intermediate in size which cannot be assigned to either extreme and which 
occupy a larger geographical area than either extreme. This induced me 
to re-examine a number of New Guinea birds which I studied some years 
ago and which exhibit the same phenomenon. 

1. Aviceda subcristata stenozona (Gray). 

The smaller race inhabiting the Aru Island, Misol, Salwatti and West 
New Guinea from the Vogelkop to Fly river has wing in males 278-309, 
in females 284-314 mm. A. s. megala (Stresemann) described from the 
D'Entrecasteaux Islands has wing in that locality 301-316 in males, 
305-334 in females. If birds from South East New Guinea are included, 
it is male 298-316, in female 298-334 mm. There is thus a size cline from 
West to East and it would appear inexpedient to separate two races. 

2. Hemiprocne mystacea (Lesson). 

11. m. confirmata Stresemann from the Mollucas and Aru Islands has 
wing 201-231 mm. and is supposed to be smaller than the nominate New 
Guinea race which measures, Waigeu. Jobi and Vogelkop 216-229, south 
west and south New Guinea 222-236, south east New Guinea 229-238, 
north l^ew Guinea from Idenburg river to Sattelberg 228-248 mm. 
There is no colour difference but a gradual size cline. I would not under 
such circumstances separate two races by name. 

3. Tanysiptera galatea (Gray.) 

This kingfisher has been separated into a number of races on inconstant 
differences in size and colour. The nominate race is often restricted to 
Waigeu, Salwatti and Western New Guinea. T. p. minor Salvadori and 
D'Albertis, of south east New Guinea is supposed to have a smaller bill on 
an average, but many specimens cannot be separated and I cannot see 
that this is more than a trend rather than a clear cut character. T. g. 
meyeri of north New Guinea is sometimes separated on its having more 
white at the base of the centre tail feathers but this is a very variable 
character and similar birds occur as far west as Waigeu. The difference 
is in my view too inconstant to warrant its use in separating a race. T. g. 
vulvcani Rothschild and Hartert, of Vulcan Island is said to be larger than 
the last with wing 109- 118 mm . In T. galatea from New Guinea and Waigeu 
the wing runs from 98-113 mm. The largest birds seem to occur in the 
west of its range and evidently they average still larger on Vulcan island 
but still with a substantial overlap which I consider too large to make 
separation worth while. 

4. Edolisoma montanum (Meyer). 

The nominate race of the Vogelkop has wing 135-145 in males, 128-135 
in females. E. m. minus Rothschild and Hartert, of south east New 
Guinea measures male 126-135, female 120-127 mm. The extremes are 
thus separable. Over the much larger area of the rest of New Guinea the 
differences are bridged viz. Weyland and Snow Mountains male 129-140, 
female 130-135 mm.; Idenburg river and Cyclops mountains male 134-144, 



1948-49 167 Vol. 69 

female 127-139 mm. Birds from the Sepik area and north east New 
Guinea fall within the range of the nominate race. It would appear that 
with so much variation, the intermediates occupy a larger area than the 
extremes and that it would be more in keeping with present da}^ tenden- 
cies not to recognise two races. 

The facts set out are not new but it has not hitherto been the practice 
to consider them from the point of view of size clines. In the writer's 
view, especially after his experience of many similar cases among African 
birds, it is preferable for such data to be treated statistically to demon- 
strate the significance of size trends without giving racial designations. 

Notices. 

STOCK OF THE BULLETIN. 

It is proposed to reduce the stock of the Bulletin, but before this is 
done members are given an opportunity to acquire parts at 2/6 each. 
Applications should be made to the Honorary Secretary. No reply 
will be sent if parts are not available. The following are out of print : — 
Volumes 1, 2, 3, 4 (except 1 copy each Pref. and part 28), 17, 18, 20, 22, 
24, 26, 28, 30, 32 and 34. Part 113 and Pref. vol. 64. 

NEXT MEETING. 

The. next Meeting of the Club will take place on Wednesday, 17 
November, 1948, at the Rembrandt Hotel, Thurloe Place, S.W. 7. 
Dinner at 6.30 p.m. 



BULLETIN 

OF THE 

BRITISH ORNITHOLOGISTS' CLUB. 



Volume 69. 
V No. 2. 



rt? 






• The four hundred -and -eightieth Meeting of the Club was held at 
the Rembrandt Hotel, Thurloe Place, S.W.7, on Wednesday, 17th 
November, 1948, following a dinner at 6.30 p.m. 

Chairman : Dr. J. M. Harrison. 

Members present : — Miss C. M. Acland ; F. J. F. Barringtqn ; Dr. 
G. Beven ; Miss S. V. Benson ; Mrs. G. M. Chadwyck-Healey ; C. T. 
Dalgety ; J. Fisher ; W. E. Glegg (Hon. Secretary) ; Miss C. E. 
Godman ; Miss E. M. Godman ; Capt. C. H. B. Grant (Editor) ; Mrs. 
B. P. Hall ; R. E. Heath ; Dr. J. G. Harrison ; Miss E. P. Leach (Hon. 
Treasurer) ; Miss C. Longfield ; J. D. Macdonald ; C.W. Mackworth- 
Praed ; G. M. Mathews ; Lt.-Col. W. A. Payn ; Miss G. M. Rhodes ; 
Lt.-Commdr. C. P. Staples ; B. W. Tucker ; N. J. Wadley ; R. 
Wagstaffe ; C. N. Walter ; C. de Worms ; Col. O. E. Wynne. 

Guests : — Dr. J. H. Fidler ; A. B. Russell. 

Members, 29 ; Guests, 2 ; Total, 31. 

Announcement. 

The Chairman made the following announcement : — 

It has been decided, at to-day's (17th November, 1948) B.O.C. Com- 
mittee Meeting, that in future descriptions of new forms, intended for 
publication in the Bulletin, will be primarily submitted to a Publications 
Sub-Committee, consisting of the Editor and two other Members of the 
B.O.C. Committee. 

Ribbon-Tail Bird of Paradise. 

Mr. J. D. Macdonald exhibited this specimen and made the following 
remarks : — 

A fine male specimen of the Ribbon-tail Bird of Paradise, Astrapia 
mayeri Stonor, was recently added to the national collection. 

Published December 8th, 1948. Price 2/6. 



Vol. 69 16 1948-49 

This species was first described by Stonor at a meeting of the Club in 
January 1939. The only material available at that time was the two 
long central tail feathers, which now form the type, but there was in 
addition some descriptive information in literature. Later in the same 
year Kinghorn described the bird independently in Australia and placed 
in it a new genus, Tceniaparadisea. Examination of this new specimen 
seems to confirm Stonor's diagnosis that the bird belongs to the Astrapia 
group. 



A New Race of Orange Thrush from Uganda. 

Mr. J. D. Macdonald described the following and exhibited the type: — 

Geokichla piaggi^; williamsi new race. 

Description. — This race belongs to the russet-headed group of orange 
thrushes, distinguished as such by Praed and Grant, Ibis, 1937, p. 874. 
Variation in this species is mainly evident in the relative amounts of 
russet and olive on the upperparts. In G.p. oberlanderi Sassi, from the 
north-east Belgian Congo, the upperparts are mainly russet with a tinge 
of olive. In typical G. p. piaggice, found in high altitude localities from 
Abyssinia to west of Lake Tanganyika, the upperparts are mainly olive 
with a light russet wash, although the russet is clearly evident in the 
head region and predominates on the forehead. This new form is inter- 
mediate, having upper head regions predominately dark russet, a less 
intense shade of the same colour on rump and upper tail coverts, and the 
areas in between mainly olive lightly washed with russet. The under- 
pays are paler russet than face and head and paler than the colour of the 
underparts of G. p. piaggice. The white eye-ring is very distinct, being 
about 2 mm. wide, unlike G.p. oberlanderi in which it is almost non- 
existent : in fact is it not shown in the coloured figure of the type, and I 
understand from Sassi that it has to be searched for in the specimen. 

Distribution. — Only known from the type locality. Presumed to be 
confined to forests at high altitudes as in other races of this species. 

Type. — In the British Museum. Adult female (ovaries slightly 
enlarged), collected by J. G. Williams on Mt. Muhavura, S.W. Kigezi, 
Uganda, at 9,500 ft. on September 24, 1946. Collector's number 10107. 
Brit. Mus. Reg. No. 1948.1.6. 

Measurements of Type. — Wing 104, culmen from base 22, tail 77, 
tarsus 34 mm. 

Remarks. — This specimen was presented by the Trustees of the Corydon 
Museum, Nairobi, and is named after Mr. J. G. Williams, who collected 
it. I am indebted to Miss B. Skramovsky who carried the specimen to 
Vienna to be compared with the type, and to Dr. Sassi for making the 
comparison. 



1948-49 17 Vol. 69 

Breeding of Olivaceous Warbler in the Sudan. 

Mr. J. D. Macdonald exhibited a specimen, an egg, and a nest, and 
made the following remarks : — 

In May, 1947, Mr. J. G. Mavrogordato found the Olivaceous Warbler, 
Hippolais pallida (Hemprich and Ehrenberg), nesting in gardens in 
Khartoum. A specimen, with nest and a, single egg, was collected and 
sent to the Natural History Museum. The appearance of nest and egg 
fits Meinertzhagen's description, who gives the southern breeding limit 
in Egypt as Beni Suef. This seems to be the first record of this bird 
breeding in the Sudan. Lynes, however, remarks that he found it in 
Darfur as late as June 5th "singing lustily" and as if "intending to remain 
and breed, but none did so." 

The racial identity of Mavdogordato's specimen presented some 
difficulty. The nearest breeding race is H. p. pallida, which is found in 
Egypt, but the bird shows closest affinity with H. p. elceica (Lindermeyer), 
which breeds in Palestine and further north. Messrs. Grant and Praed 
are in agreement with this identification. Both races winter in the 
Sudan. 

The implication of this peculiar affinity is not readily understood. It 
is possible that our identification, may be contradicted if a short series of 
breeding birds could be obtained, for racial differences are very slight. 
It is to be hoped that Mr. Mavrogordato will be able to obtain additional 
material next year. 



A New Race of Richard's Pipit from South Africa. 

Mr. Jack Vincent sent the following and the type for exhibition : — 

Anthus richardi transkeiensis, new race. 

Description. — Differs from A. richardi lichenya Vincent and A. richardi 
katangce Chapin, in being much paler both above and below. 

Distribution. — South Africa from the Cape Province, north to Southern 
Rhodesia, including Natal, Orange Free State, Transvaal and Bechuana- 
land. 

Type. — In the British Museum. Adult Male. Qumbu, Transkeian 
Territories, Eastern Cape Province, at 3,400 feet. 18 February, 1947. 
Collected by Jack Vincent. Collector's No. 2436. Brit. Mus. Reg. 
No. 1948.44.1. 

Measurements of Type. — Wing 92, exposed part of culmen 14, culmen 
from base 17.5, tail 63, tarsus 27, hind claw 12, total length in flesh 174 
mm. 

Remarks. — The type was in full breeding condition, and was carrying 
out prolonged song flights. Its plumage shows signs of wear, and 
although nesting was general in the area at the time the season was a 



Vol. 69 18 1948-49 

delayed one, due apparently to drought conditions. A series of twelve 
breeding birds of the race was obtained, all of which are being presented 
to the British Museum. 

In Ostrich vii (2) 1936, p. Ill, Dr. Roberts submitted A. r. rufuloides 
as a new name for A. raaltenii Layard. The latter name, however, is 
not preoccupied, so that A.r. rufuloides is not a new name but a substitute 
one for A. r. raaltenii of which it must become a synonym. The type of 
A. r. rufuloides furthermore has no standing, neither does the inferred 
type-locality of Grahamstown. It seems that Layard's type specimen 
cannot now be traced, but his original description of A. raaltenii from 
Swellendam, with its wing of 66 mm., is clearly not referable to a South 
African A. richardi. Investigations have failed to reveal any small pipit 
from the Swellendam area comparable with Layard's bird, and it appears 
that the name A. raaltenii will have to be considered as indeterminate, as 
will also Roberts's A. r. rufuloides. 

A New Race of Barratt's Scrub Warbler from Natal, 
South Africa. 

Mr. Jack Vincent sent the following and the type for exhibition : — 
Bradypterus barratti cathkinensis, new race. 

Description. — Similar in size to B. b. barratti Sharpe and B. b. wilsoni 
(Roberts), but darker above, less rufescent, and with chest and flanks 
olivaceous grey, not olivaceous brown ; from B. b. major (Roberts) it also 
differs in the colour as given above and in being smaller. 

Distribution. — Western Natal, South Africa. 

Type. — In the British Museum. Male adult. Near Cathkin Peak and 
the Mahlabachaneng Pass, Giant's Castle Game Reserve, Natal ; at 7,000 
ft. on the lower slopes of the Quathlamba-Drakensberg escarpment. 
18 October, 1947. Collected bv Jack Vincent. Collector's No. 2458. 
Brit. Mus. Reg. No. 1948.39.8. 

Measurements of Type. — Wing 66, culmen from base 16, tail 73, tarsus 
12 mm. 

Remarks. — A female paired to the male of this new race has a wing of 
64 mm., and a young male with yellow below agrees with it in the colour 
of the upper side. This latter was taken at Brayhill bush, near Mooi 
River, Natal, and has a wing of 63 mm. When denning the range of 
B. b. wilsoni the late Dr. Roberts gave it as the "foothills of the Drakens- 
berg." This is perhaps an unfortunate way of describing the Kloof - 
Pinestown area of Natal, which is some 100 miles from the actual Drakens- 
berg range, is coastal country, and has an altitude of approximately 
1,000 ft. only. The term is possibly more applicable to the much higher 
country of the Natal uplands wherein B. b. cathkinensis occurs. 
But the Drakensberg range is shown on maps as extending from the Cape 
Province through to the Northern Transvaal, and to refer to it in faunal 
distribution without more precise definition is to use a very loose term. 
The 10,000-11,000 ft. mass of the Quathlamba-Drakensberg overlooking 
Natal has little resemblance or connection with the much lower and more 
isolated mountains in the north-eastern Transvaal, although the latter 
are still mapped as part of the Drakensberg. 



1948-49 19 Vol. 69 

I am very much indebted to Captain Grant and Mr. C. W. Mackworth- 
Praed for having drawn my attention to this new race, and for having 
made the necessary comparisons. 

Note by Grant and Praed. — The series in the British Museum of three 
specimens from the type locality of B. b. barratti and seven from Kloof, 
Pinetown, and Durban are similar in colour and size and therefore 
B. b. wilsoni Roberts is a synonym. Wing measurements of above ; 
B. b. barratti 61-64 mm., B. b. wilsoni 61-65 mm. The one specimen of 
B. b. major from Wakkerstroom, has a wing of 70 mm. 

It seems evident that the nominate race will be found in all those 
forest patches immediately adjacent to the coastal belt, since the known 
localities — Woodbush, Macmac, Ingwavuma, and Pinetown — all over- 
look the true low country. The two races B. b. cathkinensis and B. b. 
major, however, are strictly montane forest birds ; the former in the 
extensive forest patches of the western Natal highlands, the latter in 
the smaller and more isolated mountain forests of south-eastern Transvaal. 

The British Museum has no material to determine the validity of 
B. b. godfreyi (Roberts), which is also a bird of lower altitudes, found in 
country similar to that of the nominate race but farther to the south- 
eastward. 



A New Race of Sun bird from Nyasaland. 

Mr. C. W. Benson sent the following description and the type for 
exhibition : — 

Cinnyris afer whytei, new race. 

Description. — Male : Similar in size to C. a. graueri Neumann, and 
C. a. ludovicensis Bo cage, but differs from the former in having the 
mantle more golden green and the narrow band above the red band on 
chest more deep blue than violet. From the latter it differs in having 
the red band across the chest more scarlet, less yellowish-red and narrower; 
belly slightly more olivaceous, less dusky. Female : not yet known. 

Distribution. — Nyika Plateau, northern Nyasaland. 

Type. — In the British Museum. Adult male. Nyika Plateau, 10 
miles south-west of Livingstonia, northern Nyasaland, 6,000 feet, 
26 December, 1937. Collected by C. W. Benson. Collector's No. 1011. 
Brit. Mus. Reg. No. 1939.2.25.48. 

Measurement of Type : Wing 63, culmen from base 21, tail 51, tarsus 
19 mm. 

Remarks. — Through the kindness of Dr. J. P. Chapin of the American 
Museum of Natural History, New York, I have had the loan of five adult 
males and one adult female of C. a. ludovicensis from Angola. The 
Angola males have a red chest band 20-23 mm. in width, as against 
15-16 mm. in the seven male specimens of this new race, and wings 



Vol. 69 20 1948-49 

64-67 mm. as against 61-66 mm. I have named this new race in honour 
of the late Mr. A. Whyte, who collected the first two adult males in 1896. 
I am indebted to Mr. J. D. Macdonald, and to Mr. C. W. Mackworth- 
Praed and Capt. C. H. B. Grant for making the comparisons described 
above. 

In Ibis, 1941, p. 29, C. chalybeus manoensis Reichenow is recorded as 
occurring on the Nyika Plateau, in bushes in short open grassland at over 
6,000 ft. It is however, C. afer whytei which occupies this ecological 
niche. C. afer is known from no other area in Nyasaland. G. chalybeus 
on the other hand, occurs through Nyasaland at 3,000-6,000 ft., 
typically in Brachystegia woodland, and is absent from short-grassed 
mountain-plateaux. See also Bull. B.O.C., 64, p. 10. Captain Grant, 
in litt., informs me that C. manoensis is a synonym of C. chalybeus inter- 
medins (Bocage). 



Ploceus spekeoides. Grant and Praed. 

Captain C. H. B. Grant exhibited a series of six males and four females 
and remarked : — 

In the Bull. B.O.C., 69, p. 7, 1947, Mr. Mackworth-Praed and myself 
described this new Weaver from Uganda. Captain C. R. S. Pitman took 
a great interest in this discovery and at the first opportunity obtained 
this fine series, which he has presented to the National Collection. These 
ten specimens agree perfectly with the original male and female which 
were presented to the British Museum (Natural History) by the late 
Colonel Stephenson Clarke twenty-five years ago. Colonel Pitman 
hopes to obtain a series in the non-breeding season and we shall then 
know whether this species has a non-breeding dress. 



A New Race of Lemon Dove from Northern Rhodesia. 
Mr. C. M. N. White sent the following : — 

For the last ten years I have known of a large evergreen forest patch 
on the Kansoku stream in the south of Mwinilunga, but only now has an 
opportunity to study it been afforded, for its isolated position in unin- 
habited country has prevented my doing so earlier and has also been a 
deterrent to my collector. Of the birds now obtained there, a dove is a 
species new to Northern Rhodesia and a thrush surprisingly different 
from its nearest neighbour. 

Aplopelia simplex samaliy^:, new race. 

Description — Male : nearest to A. s. jacksoni (Sharpe) of Ruwenzori 
but forehead pure white not grey ; back and wings blacker, less brown ; 
grey of breast more purplish with a strong green gloss ; under tail coverts 
pale whitish grey. Female : differs from that of A. s. jacksoni in being 
much blacker above, the upper mantle heavily glossed with green chang- 
ing to amethyst on the hind neck and to purple and green on the hind 



1948-49 21 Vol. 69 

crown ; forehead pure white ; breast amethyst purple with a green gloss, 
more purple than A. s. jacksoni, rest of belly and under tail coverts 
rich vinous. 

Distribution. — Kansoku and Luakela forest patches, Mwinilunga, 
north-western Northern Rhodesia. 

Type. — In my collection : Male adult. Collected at Kansoku, 
Mwinilunga district, Northern Rhodesia on 2 August 1948, by Nelson 
Makina. 

Remarks. — I have known of these doves in the Luakela forests but 
with only females had confused them with A. larvata (Temminck) of 
South and East Africa. Now that a male is available it is clear that they 
represent a race of the West African A . simplex group and are a notable 
addition to the fauna of Northern Rhodesia. The wing measures 160- 
166 in three examples. 



Notices. 

STOCK OF THE BULLETIN. 

It is proposed to reduce the stock of the ' Bulletin ', but before this is 
done members are given an opportunity to acquire parts at 2/6 each. 
Applications should be made to the Honorary Secretary. No reply 
will be sent if parts are not available. The following are out of print : — 
Volumes 1, 2, 3, 4 (except 1 copy each Pref. and part 28), 17, 18, 20, 22, 
24, 26, 28, 30, 32 and 34. Part 113 and Pref. vol. 64. 



Publication of the Bulletin. 

As announced at the Annual General Meeting, the Editor is endeavour- 
ing, with the aid of the printers and publishers, Messrs. H. F. & G. 
Witherby, Ltd., to have the Bulletin, with the Meeting Card, in the hands 
of the Members one week before the next Meeting, as was the custom 
before the late war. 

The only way in which this can be done is for Members who make a 
contribution at a Meeting to hand the MS. to the Editor at that Meeting. 
As the proofs will be corrected by the Editor it is essential that the MS. 
should be correct and either typed or written very clearly with scientific 
and place names in block letters. The first mention of a scientific 
name should be spelt out in full, i.e., genus, specific name, racial name 
(if any) and author. Any further mention of the same name need only 
have the initial letter of the genus and no further mention of the author. 

If no MS. is handed to the Editor at the Meeting, a note will be inserted 
mentioning the contribution. * 



m 



Vol. 69 22 1948-49 

Committee, 1948-49. 

Dr. J. M. Harrison, Chairman (elected 1946). 

Colonel R. Meinertzhagen, V T ice-Chairman (elected 1948). 

Major A. G. L. Sladen, Vice-Chairman (elected 1948). 

Captain C. H. B; Grant, Editor (elected 1947). 

Mr. W. E. Glegg, Honorary Secretary (elected 1947). 

Miss E. P. Leach (elected 1942). 

Mr. J. D. Macdonald (elected 1946). 

Mr. P. A. D. Hollom (elected 1947). 

Mr. C. T. Dalgety (elected 1948). 

Lieut- Commdr. C. P. Staples (elected 1948). 



NEXT MEETING. 



The next Meeting of the Club will take place on Wednesday, 15 
December, 1948, at the Rembrandt Hotel, Thurloe Place, S".W.7. 
Dinner at 6.30 p.m. 



BULLETIN 

OF THE 

BRITISH ORNITHOLOGISTS' CLUB. 



Volume 69. 
POBOtt*> No. 3. 



The four hundred-and-eighty-first Meeting of the Club was held at 
the Rembrandt Hotel, Thurloe Place, S.W.7, on Wednesday, 15th 
December, 1948, following a dinner at 6.30 p.m. 

Chairman : Dr. J. M. Harrison. 

Members present : — Miss C. M. Acland ; Miss P. Barclay-Smith ; 

F. J. F. Barrington ; Dr. G. Beven ; Mrs. G. M. Chadwyck-Healey ; 
R. P. Donaldson ; W. E. Glegg (Hon. Secretary) ; Miss C. E v Godman ; 
Miss E. M. Godman ; Capt. C. H. B. Grant (Editor) ; Mrs. B. P. Hall ; 
Miss E. P. Leach (Hon. Treasurer) ; Mrs. P. R. Lowe ; C. W. 
Mackworth-Praed ; G. M. Mathews ; Lt.-Col. W. A. Payn ; Miss G. M. 
Rhodes ; Major A. G. L. Sladen (V ice-Chairman) ; Lt.-Commdr. C. P. 
Staples ; Dr. A. Landsborough Thomson ; N. J. Wadley ; 
R. Wagstaffe ; C. N. Walter ; Mrs. H. W. Boyd Watt ; A. Williams ; 
C. de Worms ; Col. O. E. Wynne. 

Guests : — R. F. Bretherton ; Miss M. Kirke ; O. Miller ; Miss 

G. Watt. 

Members, 28 ; Guests, 4 ; Total, 32. 

Remarks on Petrels. 

Mr. G. M. Mathews, C.B.E., read the following :— 

While working out the different forms in the genus Pachyptila the 
question arises " has the admission of races outgrown its usefulness 
and become burdensome? " 

Would it be possible in the genus. Pachyptila to have only two species, 
P. vittata Foster and P. turtur (Kuhl)?. Of the former species we only 
admit as races P. salvini Mathews, P. desolata (Gmelin) and^. belcheri 
Mathews, no others. 

Breeding. — Islands in the Chatham Group and in the Foveaux Strait. 
Auckland and Macquarie Islands : St. Pauls, Kerguelen, Heard, Crozets, 
Marion, Tristan, Bouvet, South Georgia, South Orkney to Cape Denison. 

Published January 12th, 1949. ' PjftcE 2/6. 1 



Vol. 69 24 1949 

With a long series of birds it is possible to connect the width of the 
bill of the narrowest P. belcheri to the widest P. vittata. 

Next we have P. turtur and its race P. crassirostris Mathews, no 
others. 

Breeding. — Islands in the Bass and Foveaux Straits and up the east 
coast of New Zealand to the North to about Lat. 35°S. Mangare Island 
in the Chathams, in the south of which Group on "The Pyramid", P. 
crassirostris breeds and also in the Bounty and Antipodes Islands and on 
Kerguelen. 

In P. vittata the bills of over fifty adults vary from 31.5 to 36.75 in 
length ; and 19.5 to 24.25 in width, average 34.45 by 21.94mm. In over 
fifty fledglings 31.25 to 36.5 by 19 to 21.5, average 33.96 by 20mm. Less 
than half 0.5mm. in length and 2mm. in width. 

In other species in the Procellariiformes the bill is not used as of 
generic value. The width of the bill of P. salvini does not overlap that 
of P. vittata, nor does P. belcheri that of P. desolata ; there is a slight 
overlap of P. desolata with P. salvini. P. belcheri width 9-12 ; P. desolata 
13.6-15.4 ; P. salvini 15-17 ; P. vittata 18-24mm. If this is admitted 
it may be possible to do away with many genera and merge the forms 
now admitted as species into older-named units. As we protect a species 
from having too many races, so we must protect a genus from too 
many species, otherwise each becomes unwieldy and therefore tiresome 
to the worker. We cannot do away with monotypic genera but we can 
reduce the number by judicious lumping. If we decide to put the Black 
Swan of Australia (Chenopis atrata Latham) into the genus Cygnus, it 
should be quite easy to lump other genera into older-named ones. All 
Cormorants are now considered by some workers to be in the same 
genus. We do not accept the shape of the tail or the number of tail 
feathers as of generic value, nor do we accept the shape or size of the leg 
and foot. 

In the Emu 1944, p. 213, Richdale published the measurements of the 
bills of fully-fledged chicks of P. vittata as from 19 to 21.5mm. wide ; and 
the difference between the measurements of over fifty for the last four 
weeks before the young left the nest as 18.25 to 20.02mm. 

The difference between the bill of the " just flying " young and the 
fully adult in length is very little and in the width only about 3mm. ; 
89 adults and 58 chicks measured. We then have from the same locality 
a long series of measured birds. 

From Victoria is a bird P. gouldi Mathews, with a bill only 17mm. 
wide and P. missus Mathews, from Western Australia with a bill 
16mm. wide, these have been placed under P. vittata, and considered to 
be immature. P. v. macgillivrayi , Gray, an admitted fully adult, has the 
width of the bill 18 mm. That is immature birds from the same breeding 
locality vary 18 to 21 and from quite another localhVy 16 to 17. 



1949 25 Vol. 69 

Is the Australian bird P. gouldi a race or do we admit a variation of 
from 16 to 21.5 in immature and 18 to 24 in adults ? 

The question is where do we divide the species and on what grounds ? 
Can we say that the feathers on the ramus encroach much further along 
the mandible in P. vittata and P. salvini, than in the rest of the named 
forms ? Is the narrow- billed P. belcheri to be included ? 

The adults in P. vittata, P. macgillivrayi and P. balcena Mathews, 
are easily picked out, and it appears that there is a form between this and 
P. salvini. 

As those workers found, who have a series of a couple of hundred or 
more, it is quite as easy to pick out P. gouldi or P. maui, as it is to pick 
P. vittata, P. salvini or P. desolata. 

P. gouldi cannot be matched amongst the breeding birds on Whero 
Island, where then does it breed ? and where does P. maui Mathews, 
breed ? Have we any data on the shrinkage, if any, of the width of the 
bill of so called immature ? 

If we can place all the Prions in one genus, that is the species with the 
width of the bill as little as 9 mm., with those with a width of bill as 
much as 24mm., on what grounds, other than colour, do we separate 
Daption Stephens 1826 from Fulmarus of the same author ? 

The bill of Daption resembles that of Pachyptila vittata (Forster 1777) 
and I consider that Fulmarus antarcticus Stephens, 1826 resembles 
Fulmarus. 

In the genus Pachyptila colour is the predominant character, while 
Daption differs in this respect from Fulmarus and Priocella H. and J., 
1844 (of which Stephen's bird is the genotype) which last two resemble 
each other in general colour- scheme. 

Could we therefore use Fulmarus and put as synonyms Daption and 
Priocella, leaving Macronectes Richmond 1905 and Thalassoica Reich, 
1863 as monotypic genera ? The genus Thalassoica was placed with the 
Fulmars by Coues 1866, and Gray 1871, Forbes in 1882 and this was 
followed by Ridgway, Pycroft 1910, (Godman), myself 1912 onwards, 
Bianchi 1913, Loomis 1918, Falla 1937. 

Many workers, since the Catalogue of Birds, 1896 onwards, have 
placed Priocella and Thalassoica near each other. Salvin placing these 
two genera in the Puffininm, and not in the Fulmarince. If Priocella 
is a synonym of Fulmarus, the question arises " what is ThelassoicaV 
perhaps also a synonym of Fulmarus. 

As pointed out in the "Catalogue of Birds" Vol. 25, 1896, p. 401, the 
bird there called P. aterrima Bonaparte (correctly P. brevirostris Lesson 
1831) is only slightly different from P. macroptera (Smith) described 
on p. 400. If these two birds are only representatives of each other, the 
: oldest name is Poterodroma brevirostris with P. macroptera as a race of it. 



Vol. 69 26 1949 

If so we then have : — P. b. brevirostris and P. b. macroptera (with two 
races). In "Nov. Zool." Vol. 39, p. 163, 1934, these birds are treated 
as races. 

If, in the Skuas, the very different shape of the tail in the three species 
is not of generic value, how can we use this character to differentiate the 
Sooty from the Wandering Albatross ? Each has the central tail- 
feathers longer than the outer, both tails are "wedge-shaped" as are the 
tails of so many of the Petrels, with the exception of the Fork-tailed 
(Double-wedged) Storm -Petrels. This last mentioned character was 
used as of generic value and the genus Oceanodroma Reichenbach 1853 
introduced for those with fork-tails ! ! ! Is not colour of more generic 
value than any other character ? This seems to be the case after examina- 
tion of the ornithological works of the last hundred years. It is claimed 
that as the Grey and Golden -Plover resemble each other in general, the 
absence of a toe is of no generic value. That the different number of tail- 
feathers is not of generic value is shown in Eudyptes ; Oxyura ; Phaeton ; 
Capella ; Phalacrocorax etc. And the shape of tail in Puffinus ; Stercorarius ; 
Calidris ; Pozphila ; Erythura ; Aplornis ; Menura, etc. ; of the bill in 
Pachyptila ; Diomedea ; Puffinus ; Calyptorhynchus ; Larus, etc. The 
colour of chicks in Sterna and some waders ; Wattles in Anthochcera and 
Gliciphila. Crests or "ears" in Ninox ; Ptiloris ; Platalea ; Chlamydera ; 
Egretta, etc. 

As Hydrobates melania (Bonaparte) amongst the "short-legged" 
Storm-Petrels has an average tarsus measurement (29-34) of 31-32mm. 
And Oceanites gracilis (Elliot) amongst the "long-legged" ones has an 
average of 30 or a little more and 0. nereis (Gould 1841) also a "long leg" 
has an average (30-34.5) of 31.9mm., it is obvious that "long" and 
"short -legged" cannot divide these birds. 

Fregetta included those species that "looked like" F. tropica (Gould) 
irrespective of "structural characters," as example Procellaria albigularis 
Finsch 1878 (now P. amphitrite Jardin 1859) which resembles Thalassi- 
droma hornbyi Gray, in general appearances ; and Fregetta moestissima 
Salvin, which resembles Procellaria melania Bonaparte 1854. 
Thalassidroma tethys Bonaparte 1852 was put with H. pelagica (Linnaeus) 
because it " looked like it " and Thalassidroma macgillivrayi Gray 1860 
was put into Bulweria because of its colour. 

The most flagrant case of a colour genus is Bulweria Bp. 1852 where we 
have the species Thalassidroma {Bulweria) macgillivrayi put with 
Bulweria bulwerii Jardin and Selby 1828, purely because of its colour and 
for no other apparent reason. All workers since Coues 1866 (who correctly 
plaqed it in Pterodroma) have put it in Bulweria. Those who came to the 
British Museum on purpose to study the Petrels accepted its generic 
location, tiU 1936 (Ibis, p. 309, pi. 2 April). 

In Nov. Zool. 18, p. 201 January, 1912 and in the "Birds of Australia," 
Vol. 2, p. 106, May 30, 1912, the genus Adamastor Bp. 1856, was placed 
as a synonym of Procellaria Linne 1758, because colour was not considered 
as of generic value. This was contrary to the general usage of the 



1949 



27 



Vol. 69 



previous fifty years, 
admits this genus), 
structure. 



(In his Check-list, Vol. 1, 1931, October 6, Peters 
Again colour has been given precedence over 



In the all-dark Sooty-Albatross we find the wedge-shaped tail more 
pronounced than the wedge-shaped tail of Diomedea epomophora Lesson 
1825, (practically a white bird) and because of its colour a monotypic 
genus Phazbetria is allowed by some workers ; however when we come to 
the pronounced wedge-shaped tail of the all-dark Procellaria pacifica 
Gmelin, which is more pronounced than is the wedge-shaped tail in the 
bi- coloured Puffinus reinholdi Mathews 1912, in spite of its colour we do 
not admit the monotypic genus Thyellodroina Stejneger 1888. We do 
admit purely colour genera in Pachyptila and Pelecanoides in which the 
bill formation differs greatly. The formation of the legs and feet in the 
Storm Petrels also differ greatly, and so do the tails. 

When the genus Fregetta was introduced by Bonaparte in 1855, he 
thought that the bird later named P. albigularis was the T. tropica (cf. 
C.R. 41-1113 Dec. 31). This was the bird from "des lies Marquises" 
collected by Edelston Jardin. This misled Coues, "Proc. Acad. N.S. 
Philad." 1864, p. 85 who said that Fregetta may be restricted to this 
species alone and the others, formerly included, removed to a different 
genus. As P. grallaria (Vieillot) is the genotype of Fregetta (equals 
Cymodroma) a new genus was introduced in 1912 for P. albigularis on 
account of its unique legs and feet, a character not now admitted. 

As it is important to have designated the breeding-locality of every 
name, including synonyms, I put forward the following. Where no 
type -locality was given I designate one. Names taken from Nov. Zool. 
39 pp. 153/198, 1934 and Bull. B.O.C. 68, Aug. 1948. Localities in 
brackets are not proven. 



Species. 



Diomedea 
Diomedea 
Diomedea 
Diomedea 
Diomedea 
Diomedea 
Diomedea 
Diomedea 



westralis 

Mathews. 
rohui 

Mathews. 
rothschildi 

Lesson. 
epomophora 

Lesson. 
sanfordi 

Murphy. 
longirostris 

Mathews. 
melanophris 

Temminick. 
gilliana 

Coues. 



Designated Type 
Locality. 

Albany, Australia. 

Sydney. 

Australian Seas. 

Designated. 

Chile.' 

South Atlantic. 

The Cape. 

No locality. 



Designated Breeding 
Locality. 

St. Paul's. 

Adam's Island. 

Antipodes Island. 

Campbell Island. 

Forty -fours. 

(Tierra del Fuego?). 

Falklands. 

Falkland s. 



Vol. 69 



28 



1949 



Species. 


Designated Type 


Designated Breeding 




Locality. 


Locality. 


Diomedea richmondi 


South America. 


Ildefonso. 


Mathews. 






Diomedea impavida 


Tasmania. 


Auckland Group. 


Mathews, 






Diomedea bulleri 


New Zealand. 


Snares. 


Rothschild. 






Diomedea chrysostoma 


Staten Island. 


South Georgia. 


Forster. 






Diomedea alexanderi 


West Australia. 


Kerguelen. 


Mathews. 






Diomedea culminata 


Southern Indian and 


Restricted to the 


Gould. 


Pacific Oceans. 


Crozets. 


Diomedea chlororhynchus 


Cape Seas. 


Tristan da Cunha 


Gmelin. 




(Gough Island). 


Diomedea carteri 


West Australia. 


St. Pauls. 


Rothschild. 






Diomedea cauta 


Bass Strait. 


Albatross Island and 


Gould. 




Mewstone. 


Diomedea salvini 


New Zealand. 


Bounty Island. 


Rothschild. 






Diomedea atlantica 


Off Buenos Aires 


(Tierra del Fuego?). 


Mathews. 






Diomedea palpebrata 


Prince Edward and 


The Crozets. 


Forster. 


Marion Island. 




Diomedea huttoni 


New Zealand. 


Macquarie. 


Mathews. 






Diomedea auduboni 


Oregon in error ; 


Restricted to 


Nichols and Murphy. 




Macquarie Island. 


Diomedea fusca 


Mozambique 


Tristan da Cunha. 


Hilsenberg. 




(Gough). 


Diomedea campbelli 


Australian Seas. 


(St. Pauls). 


Mathews. 






Macronectes alba 


Foveaux Strait. 


Antipodes. 


Potts. 






Macronectes dovei 


Sydney. 


Macquarie Island. 


Mathews. 






Daption capensis 


The Cape 


Kerguelen. 


(Linnaeus). 






Daption australis 


New Zealand*. 


Snares. « 


Mathews. 






Fulmarus (glacialoides) 


Cape Seas "} 




Smith. 


1824 I 


Queen Mary Land. 


(antarcticus) 


Cape Seas J 




Smith. 






Fulmarus antarcticus 


1789 Antarctic Circle 


Queen Mary Land. 


Stephens. 







1949 



29 



Vol. 69 



Species. 



Pagodroma nivea 

Forster. 
Bulweria brevirostris 

(Lesson). 
Bulweria macroptera 

(Smith). 
Bulweria gouldi 

Hutton. 
Bulweria lessoni 

Garnot. 
Buliveria australis 

Mathews. 
Bulweria hasitata 

Kuhl. 
Bulweria incerta 

Schlegel. 
Bulweria rostrata 

Peale. 
Bulweria alba 

Gmelin. 
Bulweria magentae 

Giglioli and Salvadori. 
Bulweria inexpectata 

Forster. 
Bulweria melanopus 

Gmelin. 
Bulweria lugens 

Kuhl. 
Bulweria mollis 

(Gould). 
Bulweria deceptomis 

Mathews. 
Bulweria brevipes 

Peale. 
Bulweria ccerulea 

(Gmelin). 
Pachyptila belcheri 

Mathews. 
Procellaria aiquinoctialis 
Linnaeus. 
Procellaria conspicillata 

Gould. 
Procellaria cinera 

Gmelin. 
Procellaria gravis 

(O'Reilly). 



Designated Type 
Locality. 

52°S. by 20°E. 

Designated Bourbon 

Island. 
Cape Seas. 

New Zealand. 

52°S. by 85°W. 

Sydney. 

Designated 

Guadeloupe. 
The Cape. 

Society Islands. 

Christmas Island. 

39°S. by 125°W. 

South Seas 

Designated Norfolk 

Island. 
The Cape. 

South Atlantic. 

Indian Ocean. 

Designated New 

Hebrides. 
Southern Ocean. 

Victoria. 

The Cape. 

Atlantic Ocean. 

Antarctica. 

off Newfoundland. 



Designated Breeding 
Locality. 

Queen Mary Land. 

Where it breeds. 

Tristan da Cunha 

Mokohinau (and Island 

near by). 
Falklands. 

Antipodes. 

Dominica. 

Tristan da Cunha. 

Tahiti. 

Where it breeds. 

(Dulcie Island?). 

Preservation Island, 

New Zealand. 
Now breeding Lord 

Howe. 
Kerguelen Island. 

Tristan da Cunha. 

St. Pauls and 
Amsterdam. 
Where it breeds. 

Kuerguelen. 

Falklands. 

Falklands. 

Tristan da Cunha. 

Tristan da Cunha 

(Gough). 
Tristan da Cunha. 



Vol. 69 



30 



1949 



Species. 



Procellaria diomedea 

Scopoli. 
Procellaria borealis 

Cory. 
Procellaria disputans 

Mathews. 
Procellaria creatopus 

Coues. 
Procellaria leucomelas 

Temminick. 
Procellaria elegans 

Giglioli and Salvadori. 
Procellaria reinholdi 

Mathews. 
Procellaria byroni 

Mathews. 
Hydrobates hornbyi 

Gray. 
Hydrobates owstoni. 

(Mathews & Iredale). 
Cymodroma grallaria 

(Vieillot). 



Designated Type 
Locality. 

Designated Tremiti 

Island. 
United States. 

Kerguelen 

California. 

Japan. 

South Atlantic. 

Cook Strait. 

Byron Bay. 

South America 

Japan. 

Designated Juan 
Fernandez Group. 



Designated Breed i / 1 g 
Locality. 

Cyclades (Islands in 
Mediterranean) 

Azores (Madeira, Sal- 
vages and Canaries). 

(Kerguelen ? ). 

Juan Fernandez. 

Oshima (Off Hokkaido 

Island). 
Tristan da Cunha. 

(Gough). 
Stephen Island. 

Off Wollongong. 

Taltal in Chile. 

Torishima (S. of 

Tokio). 
Where it breeds. 



Notes on Eastern and Southern African Birds. 

Captain C. H. B. Grant and Mr. C. W. Mackworth-Praed sent the 
following three notes : — 

(1) On the Status of Falco peregrinus brookei Sharpe, Ann. Mag, Nat. 
Hist. 4, 11, p. 21, 1873 : Sardinia. 

The main characters given are the smaller size and black sides of face. 
We have examined the type, an adult female, and other specimens. Size 
is certainly not a good character and we find that the amount of black 
and white on the sides of the face is most variable and is not constant 
geographically. 

As so often happens in a race founded on inconstant characters the 
distribution gets wider and wider on individual specimens and a false 
picture is presented as to the breeding area and migrational movements. 
We consider that this race should not be recognised, but be placed as a 
synonym of Falco peregrinus peregrinus Tunstall. 

(2) On Mirafra passerina Gyldenstolpe : — 

In Ark. fur Zool. 19, 1, p. 24, 1926, Gyldenstolpe has given a nom. 
nov. for Mirafra fringillaris auct., not Alauda fringillaris Sundevall, 
(Efv. k. Sv. Vet. Akad, Forh, 7, 4, p. 99, 1850 : North of Drakensberg, 



1949 31 Vol. 09 

Transvaal, finding that Mirafra fringillaris auct. is Botha fringillaris 
(Sundevall). 

This is a new specific name and not a nom. no v. The author has based 
it on Sharpe's description in P.Z.S. p. 649, 1874, PL 75, fig. I, and in so 
doing has automatically adopted the figure and the description and the 
specimens as given by Sharpe. Sharpe apparently had before him five 
specimens, four collected \>y Andersson in Damaraland, and one collected 
by Buckley in the Transvaal. Two of the Andersson birds were acquired 
by Tristram and are now in the Liverpool Museum, the other three are in 
the British Museum. There is also in the British Museum another' 
Andersson specimen from the Shelley collection which apparently he 
did not have before him. One of the five birds Sharpe had before him 
must be the type and therefore Gyldenstolpe's type and type locality 
can have no standing. 

We have carefully measured the five specimens and compared these 
with the measurements given by Sharpe in the original description and 
find that the nearest is a specimen from Damaraland collected by Anders- 
son, Brit. Mus. Reg. No. 1876, 5.23.704, which has a length of 5.8, culmen 
from base 0.5, wing 3.2, tail from root, not from base of feathers 2.5, 
tarsus 0.9mm. We therefore select this specimen as the type of Mirafra 
passerina Gyldentolpe, and the type locality as Damaraland. 

The reason for Sharpe quoting the colour of the bill, legs and eye from 
Buckley's specimen is because no other specimen had these recorded on 
the labels. 

(3) On. No. 152 ! Cuculus murinus and No. 163 ? Cuculus sulphuratus 
Lichtenstein Cat. Rer. Nat. Rar, 1793, pp. 13 and 15, of the Willughby 
Society's Reprint, 1882. 

Roberts used both the above names in Ann. Trans. Mus. 8, 4, p. 225, 
1922 ; 10, 3, p. 162, 1924 and Bds. S. Afr. 1940, pp. 211-212, and the latter 
name in Ann. Trans. Mus. 16, I, p. 150, 1935. 

This author use 3 the former in place of Coracina ccesia (Lichtenstein) 
and the latter in place of Cdmpephaga flava (Vieillot). We have very 
carefully read the descriptions and agree that : — 

Campeghaga sulphurata (Lichtenstein) Cat. Rer. Nat. Rar, p. 15, 1793 : 
south-eastern Cape Province, has priority over Campephaga flava (Vieillot) 
N. Diet. d'Hist. Nat. 10, p. 49, 1817 : South Africa, as the description 
agrees well with the female of this species. Lichtenstein only doubtfully 
places it in the genus Cuculus and considered it "more rightly to be a 
young Shrike" (Wurger). 

The Cuculus murinus is a somewhat different question, as there is no 
indication of locality and Lichtenstein 's Catalogue includes birds from 
many parts of the world. Here again the author is not sure that the 
genus Cuculus is the right place for it. 



Vol. 69 32 1949 

We have spent some time in trying to fix the description on to one 
species, but have failed to see that it agrees only with Coracina ccesia. 

We have placed the question before Dr. James L. Peters, who replies in 
a letter dated 17 November 1948, agreeing that Cuculus sulphuratus Licht. 
is a valid name and antedates Campephaga flava Vieillot, but that 
Cuculus murinus Licht. should be considered indeterminate as the 
description agrees equally well with Coracina striata (Boddaert). 
We therefore support Roberts in using * Campephaga sulphurata 
( Licht enstein) and agree with Peters that Cuculus murinus Lichtenstein, 
as indeterminate. 



Notices. 
STOCK OF THE BULLETIN. 

It is proposed to reduce the stock of the ' Bulletin ', but before this is 
done, members are given an opportunity to acquire parts at 2/6 each. 
Applications should be made to the Honorary Secretary. No reply 
will be sent if parts are not available. The following are out of print : — 
Volumes 1, 2, 3, 4 (except 1 copy each Pref. and part 28), 17, 18, 20, 22, 
24, 26, 28, 30, 32 and 34. Part 113 and Pref. vol. 64. 



Publication of the Bulletin. 

As announced at the Annual General Meeting, the Editor is endeavour- 
ing, with the aid of the printers and publishers, Messrs. H. F. & G. 
Wither by, Ltd., to have the Bulletin, with the Meeting Card, in the hands 
of the Members one week before the next Meeting, as was the custom 
before the late war. 

The only way in which this can be done is for Members who make a 
contribution at a Meeting to hand the MS. to the Editor at that Meeting. 
As the proofs will be corrected by the Editor it is essential that the MS. 
should be correct and either typed or written very clearly with scientific 
and place names in block letters. The first mention of a scientific 
name should be spelt out in full, i.e., genus, specific name, racial name 
(if any) and author. Any further mention of the same name need only 
have the initial letter of the genus and no further mention of the author. 

If no MS. is handed to the Editor at the Meeting, a note will be inserted 
mentioning the contribution. 



NEXT MEETING. 

The next Meeting of the Club will take place on Wednesday, 19 
January, 1949, at the Rembrandt Hotel, Thurloe Place, S.W.7. 
Dinner at 6.30 p.m. 



BULLETIN 

OF THE 

BRITISH ORNITHOLOGISTS' CLUB. 

V 



,-^JjJfi^ Volume 69. 
fV*** No. 4. 



The four-hundred-and-eighty-second Meeting of the Club was held at 
the Rembrandt Hotel, Thurloe Place, S.W.7, on Wednesday, 19th 
January, 1949, following a dinner at 6.30 p.m. 

Chairman : Dr. J. M. Harrison. 

Members present : — Miss C. M. Acland ; Miss P. Barclay-Smith ; 
Mrs. E. Barnes ; Dr. G. Beven ; Mrs. G. M. Chadwyck-Healey ; 
R. P. Donaldson ; W. E. Glegg {Hon. Secretary) ; Miss C. E. Godman ; 
Miss E. M. Godman ; Capt. C. H. B. Grant {Editor) ; Dr. J. G. Harrison : 
P. A. D. Hollom ; T. A. M. Jack ; Miss E. P. Leach {Hon. Treasurer) ; 
Miss C. Longfield ; J. D. Macdonald ; C. W. Mackworth-Praed : 
Sir Philip Manson-Bahr ; G. M. Mathews ; E. R. Parrinder ; Lt.-Col. 
W. A. Payn ; Miss G. M. Rhodes; Major A. G. L. Sladen {Vice- 
Chairman) ; Col. R. Sparrow ; Lt.-Commdr. C. P. Staples ; B. W. 
Tucker ; N. J. Wadley ; C. N. Walter ; A. Williams ; C. de Worms : 
Col. O. E. Wynne. 

Guests of the Club : — B. Haglund ; Mrs. E. Haglund. 

Guests : — Duke of Bedford ; R. Craske ; Dr. 0. Richards ; Mrs. 
D. B. Sparrow ; Mrs. L. L. Staples ; Dr. T. H. Work. 

Members, 32 ; Guests of the Club, 2 ; Guests, 6 ; Total, 40. 



Further as to Colour Change without a Moult with particular 
reference to the Snow-Bunting. (Plectrophenax nivalis nivalis 

(Linnaeus) ). 

Lieut. -Commander C. P. Staples and Dr. J. G. Harrison made the 
following remarks and showed slides and photographs : — 

In continuing our investigations into colour change without a moult, 
we (J.G.H. and C.P.S.) have been studying the plumage changes in the 
cock Snow-Bunting {Plectrophenax nivalis nivalis). The Snow-Bunting 
is always cited as an exceptional example of colour change brought about 
by abrasive moult only. 

Published February 9th, 1949. Price 2/6. 



Vol. 69 34 1949 

As one of us (C.P.S.) stated in January last (Bulletin B.O.C., 68, 
No. 4, at page 86), Howard Saunders says in his "Manual of British 

Birds" " in autumn the bird has the feathers of the 

upper-parts broadly edged with dull chestnut. In winter the chestnut 
margins gradually become white " 

The "Handbook of British Birds" dismisses this complication by 
referring to the two types of feather edges as variants. The material 
parts of the description in the "Handbook" read as follows : — 

"In winter plumage the mantle scapulars and back, black, almost 

concealed by long fringes varying from tawny -buff to whitish-huff 

Tail feathers, two central pairs black fringed white or buff next pair, 
black and white. Primaries black narrowly edged and tipped white or 

buffish-white In summer plumage abrasion of tips and 

fringes of feathers gradually causes remarkable change in colouration 
of upper-parts, whole crown and back of neck becoming pure white, 
mantle black, scapulars and inner secondaries black, tail and wing 
feathers, black and white." 

There is thus no dispute that the bird when in summer plumage is 
black and white — just, black and white, but there is definite ambiguity 
as to its colouring at other times. 

We arranged a representative collection of skins in monthly order — 
this series is here tonight for the inspection of members. We tried to 
show two specimens for each month other than August, but could only 
find one specimen for each of the months of September and July. The 
first illustration shows this series. 

The first point we wish to make is that there is an obvious deepening 
in the shade of dark colouring in the tail feathers from September to 
April. It passes from brownish-black in autumn and winter to pure 
black in summer. This deepening is consistently progressive throughout 
the series. 

The second point lies in the margins of the tail feathers. A few 
specimens have pure white margins before January, but the majority 
taken up to January have the margins broken with brown next the basic 
brownish-black of the main feather. There is no intervening strip of 
white to substantiate the claim that abrasion of the feather edges alone 
accounts for the white in the summer bird. April and May birds dis- 
close that there is no brown in the margins of the tail — the margins 
then and subsequently are pure white. 

The four specimens illustrated show what, we submit, is a clear example 
of colour change. The specimen on the extreme left (an October bird) 
has brown between the brownish-black and the white edge of the tail 
feathers, while the third specimen (a November bird) has brownish edges 
only. Both the March birds have pure white edges. 

A third feature is the appearance in January to April birds of a strip 
of white on the secondaries between the brown fringes and the basic black 
of the main feather. While this is not a universal feature it never 
appears to be present in earlier birds. The coloured slide shows this well 
and also the colouring of the tail feather edges alluded to above. 



1949 35 Vol. 69 

The usual rebuttal that such features can be attributed to individual 
variations and that we are examining a skin at one stage of the year only, 
does not avail here, for the very important reason that the male Snow- 
Bunting invariably becomes black and white and nothing else in summer. 
This holds good for mature birds and birds in their first summer as well. 
Thus the question is, where did the white come from, or conversely, where 
did the brown and buff go to ? 

Reverting to the first slide and examining the backs and mantles of 
the skins depicted, we find extensive colour change in the tips and fringes 
of the feathers, which amply corroborates the statement made by Howard 
Saunders. 

From January onwards, white begins to replace chestnut on the tips 
and fringes of the mantle feathers and this white becomes more and more 
prominent through February, March and April when they become pure 
white. No September, October, November or December birds exhibit 
white in the mantle feathers. The next slide shows this well and is of 
skins in the Royal Scottish Museum. In November the fringes are dull 
chestnut or brownish -buff, in February they are whitish, some specimens 
whiter than others which retain ochreous tints in the barbs. By April 
the tips and fringes have become pure white. The following two colour 
slides show the changes of colour better than the black and white picture . 
It can be seen that there is a complete progressive change from chestnut 
to white and we have found this change to be consistent throughout all the 
specimens we have examined. The right hand (April) skin shows the 
triangle of black which is all that will remain when the tips have been 
cast. No specimen before January shows white and no specimens after 
January retains pure chestnut in the tips and fringes of the mantle 
feathers. This appears completely to rebut the "Handbook" description 
and we can only conclude that the birds were not arranged in chronolo- 
gical order when that description was prepared. 

The Keeper of Natural History at the Royal Scottish Museum kindly 
loaned us his series which are depicted in colour in the next two slides. 
It is not such a representative series as those in the British Museum and 
contains several birds in dark first winter plumage but it is sufficiently 
representative to confirm the darkening of the basal colour of the tail, the 
clearing of the white edges to the tail feathers, the appearance of white 
on the secondaries of some January to April birds, and, in particular, the 
colour change in the tips and fringes of the mantle feathers. The second 
slide shows the birds against an orange background to accentuate the 
colours. 

A study of these mantle feather tips discloses another interesting 
feature. The wear from September until April is comparatively slight 
and the filamentous barbs are substantially the same length in April as 
they were in September. September to April inclusive is eight months. 
Yet in the two months — May and June — the tips and fringes are com- 
pletely lost, due, it is claimed to abrasion. Can this claim be accepted 1 
Does mere abrasion through the wearing away factors of the bird's 
habitat account for this ? If this were so, why is not the shortening of 
the tips an equally progressive one over the whole ten months or more 



Vol. 69 36 1949 

accurately would not the wear in such circumstances be a progressively 
diminishing one ? Quite frankly, we doubt this claim and can only 
reconcile the change in colour of the tips and their rapid deterioration 
and final loss with some physiological factor rather than the result of 
external agencies. The change in colour suggests that the tips have 
become deprived of some nutriment from January onwards. They 
become dry and appear to be lacking in natural oil which is assisted by 
their open structure and the absence of adhering barbules. Thus they 
would tend to bleach and reversion of pigment would be inclined to occur 
and they would finally dry out, become friable, and drop off. This is 
what one of us (C.P.S.) previously described as a desquamation process 
(antea page 85) and would appear to be the only logical conclusion, 
Whatever the root cause, there is a definite colour change in these tips 
and fringes. 

This conception of abrasive moult, namely a subtractive moult caused 
by a break or inhibition in the flow of natural oil to the tips raises some 
very important questions which we are following up by the examination 
of other species. We are particularly interested in those where this form 
of rapid abrasive moult is the means of disclosing secondary sexual 
characteristics at the breeding season and appear to occur with the same 
comparative suddenness as is the case with the cock Snow -Bunting. We 
find, for instance, that the cock Brambling confirms our suggestion. 

We make no apology for thus returning to our claim that it is the oil 
in a feather that is the deciding factor in any colour change. It has been 
frequently stated that a definitive feather is very resistant to chemical 
action and that its pigments are effectively isolated in the hard, more or 
less solid, cornified structure of the cortex. Such being the case one 
naturally assumes that the commercial dyeing and bleaching of feathers 
must be a complicated process. Actually it is not. The removal of the 
feather's natural oil is the secret of success. Once the oil is removed the 
feather is no longer resistant to quite ordinary dyes and bleaches. 

The commercial dyer merely washes the feathers in soap and water to 
rid them of grease and oil and then employs cheap aniline dyes obtainable 
from Woolworths or the local chemist. He also bleaches oil-free feathers 
with the usual mixture of hydrogen peroxide and ammonia. If you like to 
experiment by cleaning feathers in acetone — which dissolves fats and 
oils — you can then dye them quite readily in cold Drummer, Tintex or 
Dolly dyes. Similarly you can bleach them in hydrogen peroxide 
(20 vols.) and ammonia. 

In the course of bleaching, a brown feather will first "fox" to a reddish- 
brown before becoming lighter just in the same manner as the skins of 
some Robins and Song Thrushes "fox." It seems to us that this may 
provide a clue to the problem of "foxing" and we would suggest that those 
skins which exhibit post-mortem colour changes are those, which, for some 
reason or other, have been deprived of their natural oils. This may have 
come about through the cleaning of the feathers during the preparation of 
the skin or the bird might actually have been in poor condition at the time 
of its death. The effect of the various "anti-moth" substances which 



1949 37 Vol. 69 

are used in the cabinets must also be considered in case they have any 
effect on the feather oil. So far as we are aware, "foxing" does not occur 
in those birds whose plumage is rich in natural oils, such as the Ducks. 

We claim therefore that the cock Snow-Bunting exhibits colour change 
without a moult particularly in the case of the tips and fringes to its back 
and mantle feathers ; that the so-called abrasion of these feathers is not 
solely the result of environmental wear ; and that this form of abrasive 
moult in other birds must be reconsidered in the light of modern know- 
ledge of the limitations in feather resistance to change and the effect on a 
bird by hormonic secretions. We also venture to suggest that the des- 
cription of the Snow-Bunting in the "Handbook" calls for revision. 

We would like to tender our thanks to the authorities of the British and 
Royal Scottish Museums for kindly making skins available for study and 
photography. 

Enlarged photographs and the series of skins from the British Museum 
depicted therein are available here for the inspection of members and 
Dr. Jeffery Harrison will be pleased to point out the various features we 
have alluded to in this joint paper. 

Mr. J. D. Macdonald, Mr. B. W. Tucker and the Duke of Bedford 
entered into the discussion which followed. 

Reversionary Trends in Birds. 

Dr. J. M. Harrison made the following remarks and showed slides :— 

At the last Annual General Meeting of the Club, a wish was expressed 
for a talk on some subject which would stimulate discussion. I am 
therefore addressing }^ou tonight on a topic which is at once both 
speculative and controversial. 

If I am about to be accused of flogging an old horse, at least I may claim 
to be flogging it with some new lashes. 

Reversion to ancestral type, or atavism, a term which has gone into 
disrepute, is no new idea, and I hope I am about to show you some highly 
suggestive specimens and slides of avian material in support of this 
theory. 

Before considering this material, we may well ask if there are any 
instances of this phenomenon outside ornithology. The answer 
is — yes, such are known to occur even in the human subject. I will 
briefly mention one or two conditions which may be regarded as of this 
nature. 

Firstly, the occasional presence of supernumerary nipples. Again the 
branchial clefts of early foetal existence are to be regarded in the same 
light, while the entepicondylar process of the humerus, a structure referred 
to by Darwin (Descent of Man, p. 17 et seq.) is particularly significant. 
This structure occurs as a normal one in many of the reptiles, in the 
monotremata, and in the rodents and insectivores. By some authorities, 
congenitally defective hearts are similarly regarded. 

The branchial clefts already referred to represent a developmental 
phase of a reversionary order, transient and evanescent ; the entepicondy- 
lar process, however, represents a structure reproduced and retained, 



Vol. 69 38 1949 

since it has developed in bone, indicating a stage in man's evolution of 
great antiquity and significance. 

W. E. Le Gros Clark (Early Forerunners of Man, 1934, p. 13) refers to 
the appearance as occasional "atavisms" in man of functional muscles, 
found normally in the lower mammalia, and usually, if present at all in 
the human, then only as mere vestiges. 

Reversion has been defined as a return in greater or lesser degree to an 
ancestral type. 

How can this come about ? 

Huxley (Evolution, 1942, p. 21) states that "reversions," "atavisms" 
and "sports" result from the recombination of old genes. This view was 
also held by the late Dr. P. R. Lowe (Ibis : Colouration as a Factor in 
Family and General Differentiation, 1915, pp. 320-346), when he says 
that colour pattern is not a superficial effect, but that it depends upon 
the genes — it is heritable, and that it is a deep -tying phenomenon, constant 
and fundamental ; in other words, that colour pattern is an ancestral 
character. 

The same author also stressed the very important fact that it was in 
the juveniles and females that phylogenetic trends could best be studied. 

Again, Hingston (The Meaning of Animal Colour and Adornment, 
1933, p. 392), in referring to reversion, states that a potent cause is the 
crossing of different races. Needless to say, this brings about the recom- 
bination of old genes as indicated by Huxley (loc. cit.). 

How are these opinions reconcilable with the so-called Dollo's Law, 
i.e., with the concept of irreversibility of evolution ? This law postulates 
that if an organ has once been lost in evolution, it cannot be redeveloped ; 
or, if its function has been lost, it cannot be regained (Mayr, Systematics 
and the Origin of Species, 1942, p. 295). 

As Mayr (loc. cit.) points out, Dollo never made such an exaggerated 
claim, and that the law must only be taken as a broad generalisation. 

I would stress that the reversionary trends in birds, which I am showing 
you tonight, are transient, and occur in the juvenile and subadult 
individuals. This is certainly so in such specimens as I myself have 
prepared. 

As we have seen, the branchial clefts of the early human embryo may 
be regarded as evidence of an evolutionary stage in man's development, 
which disappear during foetal life. When persisting into childhood, 
these give rise to the so-called branchial cysts and fistula?. 

Similarly, reversionary trends in birds, as evidenced by pattern, 
disappear in the adult stage. 

I would postulate, therefore, that any racial character which is found 
as a constant in a geographical race of a species, when appearing in other 
geographical races, or in a distinct species, to which such character is 
foreign is to be regarded as an atavistic, or reversionar3 T expression. 



194$ 39 Vol. 69 

I will now show you some slides of aberrations of pattern in birds, 
which appear to me highly suggestive. 

Some of these specimens have already been exhibited at previous 
meetings of the Club, but I have thought that you would perhaps like 
to see them again, so they are here for your inspection tonight. 

You will see in the first slide two Robins (Erithacus rubecula (Linnaeus)) 
on the left with a very strikingly abnormal pattern of breast. This type 
of variety has been found in Kent, Lancashire and Yorkshire (Bull. 
B.O.C., 1946, p. 46, p. 69 ; Brit. Bds., 39, p. 281, 40, p. 179). In the 
centre is a normal Robin for comparison, and on the right is a pair of 
the Asiatic species, Luscinia akahige (Temminck). You will note 
how very similar is the abnormal breast pattern of the aberrant birds 
with the Asiatic species. 

These birds show a high degree of suggestive similarity — parallelism 
in evolution. 

My second slide shows four Teal (Anas crecca crecca (Linnaeus) ) with three 
varieties (Bull. B.O.C., 1946, p. 24, p. 32). 

The two centrally placed birds show the most usual type of aberration , 
in which a white patch occurs in that region of the neck where, in the 
Mallard (A nas platyrhynchos (Linnaeus)), a white collar develops. It is 
to be noted that this feature is also sometimes found in the Gadwall 
(Anas strepera (Linnaeus) ) ; all these three species of duck show a marked 
degree of similarity structurally. 

On the left is a juvenile of strikingly unusual type ; it will be noticed 
that practically the whole of the under surface is heavily spotted, instead 
of just being spotted in the pectoral region. It is shown to indicate a 
tendency to revert to the primitive type of plumage generally, which was 
believed to be largely spotted or streaked in most species of birds. 

The bird on the extreme left is an altogether unusual variety ; you will 
see that it has a very curious facial pattern, which, again, superficially 
resembles that of the Baikal Teal (Anas formosa (Georgi)). 

The rough sketch of the heads of the two species shown in the third 
slide demonstrates this more clearly. 

I will now show you a fourth slide of two British killed Mallard (Anas 
platyrhynchos). They are both young drakes. The bird on the left, you 
will observe, shows on its breast shield the dark blue -black spots, which 
are so characteristic of the Greenland race (Anas p. conboschas (Brehm) ). 
It is not, of course, an example of that form, but a reversion to it. 

I believe that my next and fifth slide, that of two Jays (Garrulus 
glandarius glandarius (Linnaeus)) will interest you greatly. On the right 
is a normal bird of the nominate race, while on the left is a specimen from 
Durrenroth, in Switzerland (Bull, B.O.C., 1923, 44, p. 98), which presents 
the following striking peculiarities : — 

(1) It is a so-called "hairy" albescent, i.e., the contour feathers 
lack the interlocking hooklets on the barbules. Its plumage is con- 
sequently loose and soft. The feathers of the Asiatic form (Garrulus 
g. brandti (Eversmann) ) is somewhat of this texture. 



Vol. 69 40 1949 

This type of aberration is also known in the Water-hen {Gallinula 
chloropus (Linnseus)), and it is possible that the condition represents 
a very primitive type of feathering. 

(2) You will also notice the peculiar sickle-shaped primaries, and 
remark how different they are from those of the normal bird. 

Can we read any meaning into all this, or shall we rest content that it 
is just fortuitous, without any biological significance ? 

You need search no further than the genus Pica for a similar sickle- 
shaped first primary. It seems almost as though this feather in the 
Magpie had undergone an evolutionary halt. You will notice that in 
the aberrant Jay, several primaries are thus attenuated. 

This state of affairs strongly suggests that this specimen shows us a 
condition, both of its contour feathers and of its primaries, of reversion 
to a primitive state, in w T hich the feathers were almost certainly less 
complex structurally, as one would indeed expect. 

That this looseness of feather structure has been found in another 
species, viz.: — the Waterhen, is further evidence of the probability that 
this character is of very great age. 

In order to show you the very close structural similarity in the primaries 
of this Jay, and the first primary in the Magpie, I have prepared a sketch, 
which I will. now show you. 

It seems nighty probable from this that Pica antedates Garrulus in 
phylogenetic age. 

I would like you now to note another pattern character, which I have 
recently discovered in Garrulus, and to which I would attach phylogenetic 
importance. 

In slide seven you will see three Jays. 

On the right is an example of one of the black- capped group G. g. 
cervicalis Bonaparte ; on the left, a first-winter Garrulus g. rufitergum 
(Hartert) : and in the centre a full juvenile of that form obtained in Kent 
last summer. 

The point I wish to bring to your notice in the centre bird is one which 
I have recently found in a definite percentage of young Jays obtained 
in this country. 

You will see that this specimen shows in outline a dark cap, a feature 
which, to my mind, suggests a reversion towards the G. atricapillus- 
G. cervicalis association. 

This feature is not found in adult Jays of the nominate and closely 
allied races, and I think we may assume a reversion towards the North 
African and Asia Minor Birds. 

I have left until last the case of the Great Spotted Woodpecker, the 
Dendrocopos major group association, for in them we find some very 
striking evidence in support of this hypothesis. 

Slide eight depicts on the right two specimens of the Tunisian form, 
D. m. numidus (Malherbe), and on the left an example of D. m. pinetorum 



1949 41 Vol. 69 

(Brehm) from Central Europe, showing what is certainly the commonest 
reversionary trend in this group, viz.: — a red crop band. 

This character will be found to occur in every described race of the 
species throughout its range . It occurs in the j uveniles and subadult birds . 

Now, in what race do we find this character, both in the juveniles and 
in the adults ? In D. m. numidus. 

In which races do we find this character as of frequent occurrence ? 
It is most frequent in the races inhabiting the southern shores of the 
Mediterranean basin, i.e., in the west in the Iberian peninsula in D. m. 
hispanus (Schluter), then eastwards on the African littoral in D. m. 
mauritanus (Brehm), in D. m. numidus, and in the east in Asia Minor in 
D. syriacus syriacus (Hemprich and Ehrenberg), and in the extreme 
south-east of Europe in D. g. balcanicus (Gengler and Stresemann). So 
we have a group of races geographically closely related, showing this as a 
frequent character, with one race (or species) which posseses it as a constant 
in all stages of plumage. 

I will now show you another example of a reversionary trend in the 
genus Dendrocopos : 

In the ninth slide you will see two juveniles of the British race D. m. 
anglicus (Hartert), and two examples of D. m. leucopterus (Salvadori) an 
Asiatic form. 

This latter bird is characterised by a great reduction of the phaeomelamine 
in its primaries, which consequently show sinuous white outer vanes, 
instead of the black and white spots ; this pattern is characteristic at 
all ages. 

You will see that in the two juveniles of the British form this feature 
is reproduced. Both these specimens also show a very pale pink colour 
in the crop region, thus exhibiting two reversionary trends. 

I have made a rough sketch of these wings to show you more clearly 
this aberration. 

The conclusion that the wing pattern is a reversion is inescapable. 

Slide eleven is equally interesting. It shows three Great Spotted 
Woodpeckers ; on the left, you will see an example of the Syrian Great 
Spotted Woodpecker, D. syriacus balcanicus, a female obtained in 
Bulgaria ; next to this are two juveniles of the British race. 

I would invite your close attention to these two birds ; they are both 
from the same brood, and were obtained in Kent. 

You will note that in one there is the normal pattern of the white of 
the ear coverts and the neck, sharply divided by a vertical black post- 
auricular stripe, the characteristic pattern of D. m. major and all its 
races, whereas in the other the white of the ear coverts and the neck is 
continuous, the pattern diagnostic of D. s. syriacus and its forms. 

This you can see is exactly the character of the Syrian Spotted Wood- 
pecker in all stages of plumage. 

Now I would like to give you the views of previous authorities, who 
have gone into the phylogenetic affinities of this group. 



Vol. 69 42 1949 

Professor Stresemann (Avifauna Macedonica, 1920, j)p. 206, 207) 
writes : — "As primitive characters of the group association — Dendrocopos 
major, may be considered the broad streaking of the flanks and the 
transverse barring of the tibial feathers, a character which, in D. s. 
syriacus, is found in the juvenile and adult birds, but in the D. m. major 
group only in the juvenile dress. The ancestral type of the major group 
showed accordingly a red band in the crop region, barred tibial feathering, 
striped flanks, possibly black and white banded tail as in D. m. major. 
Probably the group also possessed a red, instead of a black, crown of 
head, the only possible explanation of the scarlet crown found in the 
juveniles." This is a very lucid statement. 

Voous, in his masterly monograph on the group (On the History of the 
Distribution of the Genus Dendrocopos, 1947, pp. 34, 35) writes : — 
"Relicts of numidus character which may be called 'atavisms' are found 
throughout the whole European range ; red tip to a greater or smaller 
amount of breast feathers occur more frequently than is usually thought." 

Hachisuka (Variations amongst Birds, 1928, pp. 43-47) devotes a 
chapter to this subject, unblushingly headed Atavism. He refers par- 
ticularly to the aberrations of the Capercaille, which Professor Eina 
Lonnberg described and named Tetraourogallus lugens in the Ibis (Ibis, 
1906, pp. 317-326). These small, dark birds Lonnberg referred to as 
"sports" or "mutations" of an atavistic nature. 

The excessively inter- crossed races of the Pheasant, Phasianus colchicns 
(Linnaeus), provide us with further examples, e.g., individuals indistin- 
guishable from P. c. satscheuensis Pleske, while the close similarity of the 
Japanese P. versicolor (Vieillot),and the melanistic mutant P. c. tenebrosus 
Hachisuka, provides another suggestive instance. 

How has all this come about ? 

The map shown is one of the accepted representations of Europe in 
the third glaciation period, the so-called Riss Period, when the ice was 
at its maximum. One can visualise the condensation of bird-life at this 
epoch ; how northern and eastern species were crowded together into the 
Mediterranean basin and into an area already supporting its own popu- 
lations as a result of the ice-fields covering so much of their territorj. 

It may well be assumed that the area available to support life was of 
even less extent than the map would lead one to suppose. 

That these circumstances favoured a considerable promiscuity may 
also be assumed. This, of course, resulting in an exchange of genes, to 
be later redistributed by their possessors over the whole range of the 
species, when, with the retreat of the ice, repopulation of the areas for- 
merly vacated became possible once again. 

Characters thus acquired would become recessive, and tend to reappear 
in individuals here and there throughout the range of the species, with a 
resulting reversion towards any one of the ancestral types from characters 
inherited during the period of segregation and an interchange of genes. 

Only on some such hypothesis is it possible to explain the incidence of 
an individual showing, for instance, a character constant in a race 



J 949 43 Vol. 69 

inhabiting Asia Minor, or elsewhere, in the form found in the British 
Isles, some 3,000 miles away ! 

Modern writers are very naive about the word atavism, which is 
invariably put into inverted commas ; they are, however, less shy of the 
term reversion, which seems to me the splitting of a very fine hair. 

In this same slide, you will see in the Table, which is from Voous's 
Monograph (loc. cit.), that D. medius (Linnaeus) is accorded a greater 
antiquity than the D. major group. In this I fully agree, for, as you all 
know, the red crown is a character of the adult of D. medius. One may 
from this infer that the D. major group are a later evolutionary divergence 
from that ancestral stock. 

There can be no doubt that the D.m. numidus-D. s. syriacus association 
are next in age, and the oldest of the D. major group. By some authori- 
ties these two are considered to have reached specific status. 

Voous (loc. cit.) emphasises a close analogy between the group-associa- 
tion of D. major in the south with that of the Jays of North Africa and 
Asia Minor, as both belonging to the third glacial period, and we have, 
indeed, tonight seen the highly suggestive variety of the Jay, which pre- 
sented a pattern of head peculiar to the North African and Asia Minor 
birds. 

If you now look at the slide which shows what the geologists believed 
Europe to be like in early post-glacial times when the British Isles formed 
part of the continental mainland, we are forced to conclude that the 
state of affairs at that remote time further favoured an interchange of 
genes. Upon this map, I have drawn arrows showing the probable lines 
of dispersal of the forms of the Great Spotted Woodpecker. 

This shows a northward infiltration of southern forms, and a westerly 
movement of eastern birds. These are the movements which Voous 
believes to have taken place. 

Upon these fundamental geological phenomena, then, depends, in my 
opinion, the interesting reversionary expressions I have shown you 
tonight. 

Upon these same influences one can explain the very close similarity 
of many of our British forms to those of the adjacent continent, and also 
the undoubted intermediacy, which can be recognised in a number of 
the common species in both areas. 

In conclusion, I want to lay great stress on the fact that these rever- 
sionary trends occur in juveniles and subadults in birds — they are not 
characters regained, but merely evanescent characters, reflecting in a 
transient manner the evolution of the group repeating itself in a stage of 
the development of an individual here and there, just as the branchial 
clefts, referred to at the commencement of my address, reflect an evolu- 
tionary stage in the development of man. 

The individual must perish, for flesh is mortal, and it is only the germ- 
cells, with their chromosomes and the genes which bear the hereditary 
characters, that are immortal, perpetuating life's inheritance down 
through the ages from generation to generation, to provide us with an 



1949 44 Vol. 6^ 

occasional faint clue, in an individual here and there, of the paths they 
have traversed in acquiring the characters as known to us in our present 
times. 



Notices 

STOCK OF THE -BULLETIN." 

It is proposed to reduce the stock of the ' ' Bulletin ' ' but before this is 
done members are given an opportunity to acquire parts at 2/6 each. 
Applications should be made to the Honorary Secretary. No reply 
will be sent if parts are not available. The following are out of print :— 
Volumes 1, 2, 3, 4 (except 1 copy each Pref. and part 28), 17, 18, 20, 22, 
24, 26, 28, 30, 32 and 34. Part 113 and Pref. Vol. 64. 

Please note the Hon. Secretary's address : 

W. E. Glegg, Esq., Zoological Museum, Tring, Herts. 

Publication of the "Bulletin." 

As announced at the Annual General Meeting, the Editor is endeavour- 
ing, with the aid of the printers and publishers, Messrs. H. F. & G. 
Witherby , Ltd. , to have the " Bulletin," with the Meeting Card, in the hands 
of the Members one week before the next Meeting, as was the custom 
before the late war. 

The only way in which this can be done is for Members who make a 
contribution at a Meeting to hand the MS. to the Editor at that Meeting. 
As the proofs will be corrected by the Editor it is essential that the MS . 
should be correct and either typed or written very clearly with scientific 
and place names in block letters. The first mention of a scientific 
name should be spelt out in full, i.e., genus, specific name, racial name 
(if any) and author. Any further mention of the same name need only 
have the initial letter of the genus and no further mention of the author. 

If no MS. is handed to the Editor at the Meeting, a note will be inserted 
mentioning the contribution. 

NEXT MEETING. 

The next Meeting of the Club will take place on Wednesday, 16th 
February, 1949, at the Rembrandt Hotel, Thurloe Place, S.W.7. 
Dinner at 6.30 p.m. 



BULLETIN 

OF THE 

BRITISH ORNITHOLOGISTS' CLUB. 



Volume 69. 






§.\}No. 5. 



The four-hundred-and-eighty-third Meeting of the Club was held at 
the Rembrandt Hotel, Thurloe Place, S.W.7, on Wednesday, 16th 
February, 1949, following a dinner at 6.30 p.m. 

Chairman : Dr. J. M. Harrison. 

Members present : — Miss C. M. Acland ; Miss P. Barclay-Smith ; 
Mrs. E. Barnes ; F. J. F. Barrington ; Miss S. V. Benson ; Mrs. G. M. 
Chadwyck-Healey ; W. E. Glegg (Hon. Secretary) ; Capt. C. H. B. 
Grant (Editor) ; R. E. Heath ; Miss E. P. Leach (Hon. Treasurer) ; Miss 
C. Longfield ; C. W. Mackworth-Praed ; Sir Philip Manson-Bahr ; 
E. M. Nicholson ; E. R. Parrinder ; Lt.-Col. W. A. Payn ; Dr. W. A. 
Richards ; Dr. W. Serle ; D. Seth-Smith ; Lt.-Commdr. C. P. Staples; 
Dr. A. Landsborough Thomson ; R. Wagstaffe ; C. N. Walter ; 
Surgeon-Captain P. R. Westall ; A. Williams ; C. de Worms ; CoL 
O. E. Wynne. 

Guest of the Club .—Dr. T. H. Work. 

Guests : — Major H. A. Birkbeck ; H. H. Buisman ; Miss S. A. Cist ; 
G. S. Harris ; Mrs. W. A. Richards ; Mrs. D. Seth-Smith ; Mrs. A. L. 
Thomson ; A. Tynan ; Mrs. A. Williams ; C. G. Young. 

Members, 28 ; Guest of the Club, 1 ; Guests, 10 ; Total, 39. 

Bits of Land along the Coast. 

Dr. T. H. Work, representing the National Audubon Society and a 
member of the American Ornithologist's Union and Cooper Ornithological 
Club, showed a coloured motion picture of the coast and islands of 
California and their bird-life. This was a very excellent film and Dr. 
Work's running commentary greatly added to the interest of his 
beautiful pictures. 

Published March 9th, 1949. Price 2/6. 



Vol. 69 46 1949 

First occurrence of the Red-flanked Bluetail (Tarsiger cyanurus 

cyanurus (Pallas) ) In Britain. 

Mr. W. E. Glegg exhibited this spacimen and remarked : — 

I exhibit on behalf of Mr. S. Bruce of Lerwick, the first British specimen 
of the Red-flanked Bluetail. The specimen was obtained by Mr. Bruce 
on Whalsay, Shetland on 7th October, 1947. The sex has not been 
determined. The habitat of the species is not too well known but it 
ranges from East Europe through Asia. This occurrence adds a new 
genus to the British List. As the record has been fully dealt with in 
"The Scottish Naturalist," vol. 60, p. 6, 1948, accompanied by an excellent 
coloured illustration, there is no need to add more. There is an interesting 
sequel to this, for it is reported in "The Field," vol. 191, p. 609, 1948, that 
two of this species were observed at Skaill, Orkney, on 2nd May, 1948. 
The identification appears to be satisfactory. 

First occurrence of Bonelii's Warbler (Phylloscopus bonelli 
(Vieillot) ) in Britain. 

Mr. R. Wagstaffe exhibited the specimen obtained on Skokhom 
Island by Mr. Peter Condor. 

Notes on East African Birds. 

Captain C. H. B. Grant and Mr. C. W. Mack worth- Praed sent the 
following note : — 

On a new race of Apalis : — 

In the "Bull. B.O.C." 68, p. 8, 1947, we described Apalis melanocephala 
songeaensis. On further examination, we have come to the conclusion 
that this should be placed as a synonym of Apalis melanocephalus muhu- 
luensis Grant and Praed, "Bull. B.O.C." 67, p. 43, 1946, the range of 
which is now from the Songea district, to the Mahenge district, southern 
Tanganyika Territory. 

Notices 

STOCK OF THE "BULLETIN." 

It is proposed to reduce the stock of the " Bulletin " but before this is 
done members are given an opportunity to acquire parts at 2/6 each. 
Applications should be made to the Honorary Secretary. No reply 
will be sent if parts are not available. The following are out of print : — 
Volumes 1, 2, 3, 4 (except 1 copy each Pref. and part 28), 17, 18, 20, 22, 
24, 26, 28, 30, 32 and 34. Part 113 and Pref. Vol. 64. 

Please note the Hon. Secretary's address : 

W. E. Glegg, Esq., Zoological Museum, Tring, Herts. 



1949 47 Vol. 69 

Publication of the "Bulletin." 

As announced at the Annual General Meeting, the Editor is endeavour- 
ing, with the aid of the printers and publishers, Messrs. H. F. & G. 
Witherby, Ltd., to have the " Bulletin," with the Meeting Card, in the 
hands of the Members one week before the next Meeting, as was the 
custom before the late war. 

The only way in which this can be done is for Members who make a 
contribution at a Meeting to hand the MS. to the Editor at that Meeting. 
As the proofs will be corrected by the Editor it is essential that the MS. 
should be correct and either typed or written very clearly with scientific 
and place names in block letters. The first mention of a scientific 
name should be spelt out in full, i.e., genus, specific name, racial name 
(if any) and author. Any further mention of the same name need only 
have the initial letter of the genus and no further mention of the author. 

If no MS. is handed to the Editor at the Meeting, a note will be inserted 
mentioning the contribution. 

NEXT MEETING. 

The next Meeting of the Club will take place on Wednesday, 16th 
March, 1949, at the Rembrandt Hotel, Thurloe Place, S.W.7. 
Dinner at 6.30 p.m. 



BULLETIN 

OP THE 

BRITISH ORNITHOLOGISTS' CLUB. 



*U 



Volume 69. 
No. 6. 



- i ' 



The four-hundred-and-eighty-fourth Meeting of the Club was held at 
the Rembrandt Hotel, Thurloe Place, S.W.7, on Wednesday, 16th 
March, 1949, following a dinner at 6.30 p.m. 

Chairman : Dr. J. M. Harrison. 

Members present : — Miss C. M. Acland ; Miss P. Barclay- Smith ; 
E. J. F. Barrington ; Mrs. G. M. Chad wyck-He ale y ; W. E. Glegg 
{Hon. Secretary) ; Capt. C. H. B. Grant {Editor); Mrs. B. P. Hall ; Dr. 
J. G. Harrison ; Miss E. P. Leach {Hon. Treasurer) ; J. D. Macdonald ; 
C. W. Mackworth-Praed ; Lt.-Col. W. A. Payn ; Miss G. M. Rhodes ; 
Dr. W. Serle ; Major A. G. L. Sladen {Vice-Chairman) ; Lt.-Commdr. 
C. P. Staples ; Dr. A. Landsborough Thomson ; B. W. Tucker ; 
N. J. Wadley ; C. N. Walter ; C. de Worms ; Col. 0. E. Wynne. 

Guests : — Professor S. Horstadius ; W. H. Payn ; Mrs. B. W. Tucker. 

Members, 23 ; Guests, 3 ; Total, 26. 

A hybrid Teal and Shoveler. 

Mr. W. H. Payn exhibited the specimen and made the following 
remarks : — 

I am exhibiting what I believe to be a unique bird — a hybrid Common 
Teal Anas crecca (Linnaeus) Shoveler Spatula clypeata (Linnaeus). 
The existence of this bird is one of the accidents of war. On the outbreak 
of the late war I had at my home in Suffolk a number of waterfowl. These 
were gradually reduced by casualties until only a drake teal and a 
shoveler duck were left, and they of course became inseparable. In 1941 
they were thought to have nested though no eggs were found. In 1942 
the duck laid two eggs. These were picked up and put under a Bantam 
and, much to everyone's surprise, proved to be fertile. The two ducklings 
hatched safely and were reared to maturity. The credit for this achieve- 
ment must go entirely to my Mother who looked after them. Both 
birds assumed drakes plumage ; one being unfortunately killed and eaten 
by a dog. The other bird lived until 1945 when it died and was preserved. 
I have said that I think this bird is unique. Mr. Hopkinson who has kept 
records of hybrid duck for many years has never heard of another, nor has 

Published April 11th, 1949. Price 2/6. 



Vol. 69 50 1949 

the Hon. Secretary of the Avicultural Society, although the latter has 
kindly drawn my attention to a record by Leverkiihn on the authority of 
Macpherson in the J.f.O. , 1890. This bird apparently was wild. I can find 
no American records of a similar hybrid. Before I pass round the specimen, 
along with Common Teal and Shoveler ducks for comparison, I should 
like to draw your attention to the remarkable mixture of the colouring 
of both parents which my specimen displays. The bill is longer and more 
spatulate than that of the Teal — less so than the Shoveler. The head 
exhibits much of the green of the Shoveler with the brown poll of the Teal, 
while the Teal's 'bridle' has become distorted to appear on the hybrid's 
cheeks as two irregular white 'windows' framed in black. The chest 
displays the maroon belly- colour of the Shoveler, with the Teal's black 
spots superimposed. The underparts and flanks are pure Teal. On the 
back the hybrid is more Teal than Shoveler, being ashy-grey with black 
pencilling. The scapulars resemble the Shoveler's but lack the blue and 
white. The wing combines the characteristics of both parents, the slate 
blue of the Shoveler's shoulders and the bright green and black of the 
Teal's. 

In conclusion I should like to remark that a reproduction in 'Nichol's 
Birds of Egypt' of a supposedly wild hybrid between a Teal and a Pintail 
displays a very similar pair of 'windows' on the cheeks, to those shown 
by my specimen. This point calls for further study. Do hybrid duck, 
in which one parent is a Teal, always display these 'windows.' 

Dr. J. M. Harrison and Major A. G. L. Sladen made remarks on this 
specimen and other hybrid ducks. 

A new Genus and Species of Babbler and New Races of a 

Wood-Hoopoe, Swift, Barbet, Robin-Chat, Scrub-Warblers 

and Apalis from West Africa. 

Dr. W. Serle exhibited and described the following : — 

Kupeornis, new genus. 

Description. — Similar to Phyllanihus Lesson, but bill smaller, weaker, 
relatively broader at the base and less . compressed laterally. Nostrils 
more slit-like (as in Turdoides Cretzschmar) ; feet more slender ; otherwise 
in general shape and proportions about the same. 

Frequents the high trees and occasionally the undershrubs of the 
primary forest, associating with others of its kind in small vocal parties. 

Genotype. — Kupeornis gilberti, new species. 

Description. — Forehead and crown dark chestnut, becoming paler on 
the nape. Lores, cheeks, ear coverts, and a narrow supercilium white, 
lightly washed with rust. Mantle, back and scapulars olive -brown 
washed with fulvous, becoming rusty- brown on the rump and upper tail 
coverts. Wings and tail blackish-brown, the secondaries and inner 
primaries washed on the outer web with fulvous and the rectrices fringed 
on the outer web with rusty-brown. Chin and throat pure white sharply 
demarcated from the breast which with the under wing coverts, belly, 
flanks, and thighs is rufous-brown. Under tail coverts rusty-brown. 



1949 51 Vol. 69 

Distribution. — Only known from the primary forests of Kupe Mountain, 
British Cameroons at an altitude of 5,000 to 6,000 feet. 

Type. — In the British Museum. Adult male. Kupe Mountain 
4° 50'N, 9° 40'E, at altitude of 5,000 feet, Kumba Division, British Cam- 
eroons. 10 April, 1948. Collected by Dr. William Serle. Collector's 
No. C.1905. Brit. Mus. Beg. No. 1949, 14, 1. 

Measurements of type. — Wing 111, culmen from base of feathers 18, 
tail 70, tarsus 32mm. 

Soft parts. — Iris greyish- white ; feet greenish-grey ; bill brownish above, 
dirty white below. 

Remarks. — The new form was compared with the British Museum 
material by myself and with the American Natural History Museum 
material by M. Jean Delacour to whom I am greatly indebted. The latter 
points out its relationship in colour pattern and structure to Lioptilornis 
rufocinctus (Rothschild), a species not represented in the British Museum. 
Kupeornis gilberti is certainly not closely related to Lioptilornis nigri- 
capillus (Vieillot) the genotype of Lioptilornis, and Lioptilornis rufo- 
cinctus should perhaps be transferred from Lioptilornis to Kupeornis. 

An immature male in the series has the white throat and ear coverts 
sparsely spotted with brown, the underparts more rufous than in the 
adult, and the outer web of the secondaries and the inner primaries and 
the wing coverts washed with rufous. 

Measurements of one other male and four females from the type 
locality.— M ale.— Wing 106, tail 76, tarsus 32, bill 17. Females. — 
Wings 111, 115, 117, 117 ; tails 74, 77, 79, 76 ; tarsi 31, 34, 33, 33 ; bills 
16, 17, 17, 17mm. 

In the field the new form recalls in its actions, loud calls and close 
gregariousness Phyllanthus atripennis atripennis (Swainson) and certain 
Turdoides species. It is mainly arboreal moving actively about the 
branches with long hops and occasional short flights. 

Named after my indispensable African skinner Gilbert Nkwocha. 

Phceniculus bollei okuensis, new race. 

Description. — Distinguished from Phceniculus bollei bollei (Hartlaub) 
and Phceniculus bollei jacksoni (Sharpe) by the greatly reduced amount of 
white on the head, the white area being restricted above to the forehead 
and forepart of the crown and below to the chin and forepart of the throat. 
The ear coverts, sides of the face and a narrow supercilium are dark 
metallic green. Further distinguished from P. b. bollei by the bluish 
purple rather than coppery lesser wing coverts and the absence of purplish 
gloss on the inner secondaries. 

Distribution. — Only known from the montane forest of Lake Oku, 
altitude 7,000 feet, in the Bamenda Division of British Cameroons. 

Type.— In the British Museum. Adult male, Lake Oku, 6° 10'N, 

10° 25'E, Bamenda Division, British Cameroons. 15 October, 1948. 

Collected by Dr. William Serle. CoUector's No. C.2779. Brit. Mus. 
Reg. No. 1949, 14, 2. 



Vol. 69 52 1949 

Measurements of type. — Wing 134, culmen 49, tail 177, tarsus 19mm. 

Soft parts. — Iris brown, eyelids pink, bill and feet red. 

Remarks. — One of a noisy party in the tree tops in the primary forest 
bordering the crater lake at Oku. 

The measurements in mms. of two other males and two females of this 
new form all obtained at Oku are : — 

Males. Females. 

Wing ... 131, 128 118, 122 

Culmen ... 46, 47 40, 35 

Tail ... 166, 178 171, 182 

Tarsus ... 20, 20 21, 19 

Apus cequatorialis bamenda, new race. 

Description. — Similar to Apus cequatorialis cequatorialis (Muller) 
but general colour of the upper and underparts blackish-brown, several 
shades darker than A. a. cequatorialis and similar in shade to Apus 
mquatorialis lowei Bannerman. From A. a. lowei and Apus cequator- 
ialis furensis Lynes it is distinguished by the absence of white on the 
lower breast and belly. 

Distribution. — Bamenda, British Cameroons. 

Type. — In the British Museum. Adult female, Bamenda, 5° 55'N, 
10° 10' E, altitude 5,000 feet, British Cameroons, 8 July, 1948. Collected 
by Dr. William Serle. Collector's number C.2395. Brit. Mus. Reg. 
No. 1949. 14. 3. 

Measurements of type. — Wing 201, culmen 10, tail 92, tarsus 15mm. 

Soft parts. — Iris dark brown, bill black, feet blackish. 

Remarks. — These Swifts frequented the escarpment at Bamenda and 
the cliffs in the neighbouring hills within a radius of twenty miles. The 
sexes are similar. Measurements of three other adult birds obtained at 
the type locality: — 

Male. Females. 

Wing ... 201 203, 197 

Culmen ... 10 10, 10 

Tail ... 90 90, 85 

Tarsus ... 14 16, 13 

BUCCANODON DTJCHAILLTJI BANNERMANI, new race. 

Description. — Similar to Buccanodon duchaillui duchaillui (Cassin) but 
differs in its larger size. 

Distribution. — The Highlands of the Bamenda Division, British 
Cameroons. 

Type. — In the British Museum. Adult Male, Bamenda 5° 55'N, 
10° 10'E., altitude 4,500 feet, British Cameroons. 7 July, 1948. Collected 
by Dr. William Serle. Collector's No. C.2371. Brit. Mus. Reg. No. 
1949. 14. 4. 

Measurements of type. — Wing 87, culmen 15, tail 50, tarsus 21mm. 



1949 53 Vol. 69 

Remarks. — Measurements of the eight other birds, all adults, of this 
form collected in the highlands of the Bamenda Division between 4,000 
and 6,000 feet. (Sexes about the same): — 

Wing ... 80, 83, 84, 84, 85, 85, 86, 86 mm. 

Culmen 17, 13, 16, 16, 17, 15, 16, 15 „ 

Tail ... 45,47,45,48,45,48,47,48 „ 

Tarsus 21, 20, 23, 22, 21, 21, 21, 22 „ 

Measurements of the eight adult birds of this form collected in the low- 
lying southern part of British Cameroons in the Kumba Division between 
500 and 1,500 feet:— 

Wing ... 71, 72, 73, 76, 76, 77, 78, 78 mm. 

Culmen 14, 15, 12, 14, 15, 14, 13, 15 „ 

Tail ... 37, 38, 39, 39, 38, 42, 41, 43 „ 

Tarsus 18, 19, 19, 18, 19, 19, 18, 19 „ 

Averages. — 

Bamenda Kumba 

Wing ... 84 75 mm. 

Culmen ... 16 14 „ 

Tail 47 40 „ 

Tarsus ... 21 19 „ 

Additional wing measurements of adult Buccanodon d. duchaillui in 
the British Museum series: — 



Gold Coast 
Southern Cameroon 
Uganda 



75, 76, 77, 77, 78 mm. 

74, 74, 77, 77, 78, 78 mm. 

75, 75, 76, 78, 78, 79, 80 mm. 

This new race is named after Dr. David Bannerman whose work has 
done so much to encourage field ornithologists in West Africa. 



Cossypha insulana granti, new race. 

Description. — Similar to Cossypha insulana Grote, but the forehead, 
crown and nape are concolorous with the mantle and back, being olive- 
brown instead of blackish. 

Distribution. — The forests of Kupe Mountain and the adjacent uplands, 
at an altitude of 3,000 to 5,500 feet, British Cameroons. 

Type. — In the British Museum. Adult male, Kupe Mountain 4° 50'N, 
9° 40'E, at altitude of 4,500 feet, British Cameroons. 18 November, 1947. 
Collected by Dr. William Serle. Collector's No. C.1123. Brit. Mus. 
Reg. No. 1949. 14. 5. 

Measurements of type. — Wing 73 ; tail 52 ; bill 12 ; tarsus 27mm. 

Soft parts. — Iris brown ; bill black, feet grey. 

Remarks. — The nominate race is described from the forests of Fernando 
Po. The species has not previously been recorded from the mainland 
of Africa. 

Its distribution as related to Cossypha isabellai Gray is interesting. 
From the forests of the Bamenda highlands, Manenguba Mountain (only 
15 miles north of Kupe), and Cameroon Mountain, C. isabellce only has 



Vol. 69 54 1949 

been recorded. From the forests of Kupe Mountain and Fernando Po 
(which geographically are separated by the Cameroon Mountain) Cossypha 
insulana only has been recorded. 

Measurements. — One other adult male has wing 70 ; bill 13 ; tail and 
tarsus damaged. One immature male has wing 70 ; tail 50 ; bill 12 ; 
tarsus 26. Three adult females have wings 71, 68, 66 ; tails 52, 46, 44 ; 
bills 11, 12, 13 ; tarsi 26, 25, 25. 

Immature plumage. — An immature male has the upper parts blackish » 
thickly spotted with orange, the spots smaller and more profuse on the 
head, larger and fewer on the back and mantle. Underparts mottled 
pale orange and blackish shading into greyish-white in the middle of the 
belly. Wings and tail as in adult. Soft parts. — Iris grey-brown ; feet 
olive-grey ; bill dark brown above, yellow below. 

Habits. — An unobtrusive, solitary, silent species seen on or near the 
ground in the primary or mature secondary forest. 

Named after Capt. C. H. B. Grant who gave me much helpful advice 
when I was working out my Cameroon collection. 

. Bradypterus marine yotjngi, new race. 

Description. — Upperparts similar to but slightly darker in shade than 
Bradypterus marice marice Madarasq, Bradypterus marice usambarce 
Reichenow, and Bradypterus marice granti Benson. Below it differs from 
all three, but is nearest to B. m. usambarce but darker than that form ; 
the breast is buffish-brown and the flanks and thighs dark olive-brown. 
It differs from the description of Bradypterus marice boultoni Chapin by 
its darker colouration. Its habitat is the montane forest undergrowth, 
near the forest edge, and in the old tangled second-growth. Not found 
in the grassland. 

Distribution. — The forested slopes of the Cameroon Mountain between 
4,500 and 6,000 feet, British Cameroons. 

Type. — In the British Museum. Adult male, Cameroon Mountain, 
altitude 4,500 feet, British Cameroons. 1 January, 1949. Collected by 
Mr. Charles G. Young. CoUector's No. C.2878. Brit. Mus. Reg. No. 
1949. 14. 7. 

Measurements of type. — Wing 60 ; culmen 11 ; tail 54 ; tarsus 24mm. 

Remarks. — Two other adults, a male and female, were collected by 
Mr. Young on 19 December 1948 at 6,000 feet and an immature male and 
female by myself on 30 June, 1947 and 12 April, 1948 respectively. 

Measurements. — Wing Culmen. Tail. Tarsus. 



Adult male 
Adult female . . . 
Immature male 
Immature female 

Immature plumage 



57 12 56 23 mm. 

58 12 56 23 „ 

57 10 41 22 „ 

54 10 52 22 „ 

-Above, as adult, below, dull yellow chin, throat 
and belly ; dark olive breast, and olive -brown flanks, thighs, and under tail 
coverts. Soft parts. — Iris and feet grey-brown ; bill blackish above and 
yellowish below, tipped dusky. 



1949 55 Vol. 69 

With its comparatively short, narrow- webbed tail, its general coloura- 
tion, and its forest habitat, this new form appears to be the Cameroon 
Mountain representative of Bradypterus marice. 

Bradypterus camerunensis Alexander, a much paler bird, also short- 
tailed and narrow-webbed, is likewise known only from the Cameroon 
Mountain. Its habitat is imperfectly known. Boyd Alexander (Ibis 
1915, p. 501) found it in the "thick growth," but he does not say whether 
in the grass or in the forest ; and the identity of the grass inhabiting 
Bradypterus heard on the Mountain by Bates (Handbook, p. 355) is ^ 
uncertain. For the present it is best regarded as a species. Capt. 
C. H. B. Grant ^agrees with this conclusion. 

This new race is named after my friend Mr. Charles G. Young who 
collected the type. 

v Bradypterus mari^ manengubje, new race. 

Description. — Above, similar to Bradypterus marice youngi Serle. 
Below, quite different from Bradypterus marice marice Madarasq, Bradyp- 
terus marice usambarce Reichw., Bradypterus marice granti Benson, 
B. m. youngi, and the description of Bradypterus marice boultoni Chapin, 
being pale brown on the chin shading into fulvous-brown on the throat, 
breast, belly, flanks and under tail coverts, darkest in shade on the flanks 
and palest on the centre of the belly. Its habitat is the mountain forest, 
in the undershrubs and in the dense shrubery of old clearings. 

Distribution. — The Manenguba Mountain forest between 6,000 and 
6,500 feet, British Cameroons. 

Type. — In the British Museum. Adult female, Manenguba Mountain, 
5° 5'N, 9° 50'E., altitude 6,500 feet, British Cameroons. 19 March, 1948. 
CoUected by Dr. William Serle. Collector's No. C.1635. Brit. Mus. 
Reg. No. 1949. 14. 8. 

Measurements of type. — Wing 59 ; culmen 12 ; tail 54 ; tarsus 23mm. 

Soft parts. — Iris brown ; bill blackish-brown ; feet light brown. 

Remarks. — An adult male, with small gonads but apparently adult, 
collected at the same locality on 24 March differs from the female only in 
having the chin and upper throat paler. It measures : Wing 61 ; culmen 
12 ; tail (moulting) 35 ; tarsus 23mm. 

Field habits. — Both these birds were solitary, and difficult to observe 
as they threaded their way with brisk movements through the dim forest 
undergrowth, keeping close to the ground. The female uttered at times a 
loudish ""chip, chip, chip ..." note. 

Its short tail, general colouration, call, and forest habitat indicate its 
relationship to the Bradypterus marice group. (See Grant and Mackworth- 
Praed in Ibis, 1941, pp. 441-455). 

Apalis jacksoni bambtjluensis, new race. 

Description. — Differs from Apalis jacksoni jacksoni Sharpe and Apalis 
jacksoni minor Ogilvie-Grant as follows : — Male, the forehead, crown and 
nape are jet-black, instead of grey, and the olive-green back, mantle and 



Vol. 69 56 1949 

rump are several shades darker. Female, the upper parts from the fore- 
head to the rump are slightly darker in shade, the lores and ear coverts 
are blackish instead of dark grey, and the grey chin and throat patch is a 
shade darker. In size the new race is very slightly larger than A. j. 
jachsoni and considerably larger than A. j. minor. 

Distribution. — Only known from the montane forest near Lake 
Bambulue, altitude 6,000 feet, in the Bamenda Division of British 
Cameroons. 

Type. — In the British Museum. Adult male, near Bambulue Lake, 
5° 50'N, 10° 10'E., altitude 6,000 feet, 10 miles south of Bamenda, British 
Cameroons. 14 September, 1948. Collected by Dr. William Serle. 
Collector's No. C.2670. Brit. Mus. Beg. No. 1949. 14. 6. 

Measurements of type. — Wing 54 ; culmen 9 ; tail 64 ; tarsus 18 mm. 

Soft parts. — Iris brown ; feet fleshy-brown ; bill black. 

Remarks. — Measurements. — One other adult male has wing 55 ; tail 
64 ; culmen 9 ; tarsus 18. An adult female has wing 53 ; tail 54 ; culmen 
10 ; tarsus 18mm. 

The only other specimen of this race is a female collected by Bates near 
the type locality. Bannerman in recording this specimen under A. j. 
minor (Bds. of West Africa, Vol. 5, p. 96) comments on its large size. 
Its measurements are: — wing 52 ; tail 54 ; culmen 10 ; tarsus 18mm. 

Habitat. — Primary montane forest 



A new Race of the Common Hawk Cuckoo from Ceylon. 

Mr. W. W. A. Phillips sent the following description and the type 
for exhibition : — 

Hierococcyx varitjs cicell3E, new race. 

Description. — Differs from Hierococcyx varius varius Vahl, of India in 
being distinctly darker in all plumages. There is no appreciable difference 
in size. In the adult plumage the ash-grey of H. v. varius is replaced 
throughout with a deeper slate-grey and the light rufous by deep rufous. 
The effect ventrally is to give the abdomen a more distinctly striped 
effect. Similarly in the young bird the grey brown and rufous of the 
upperparts are deeper in colour and ventrally the streaks are bolder. 

Distribution. — Apparently confined, as a breeding resident, to the 
wet -zone hill regions of the Central Province of Ceylon, but occurs also 
in the hills of the Uva Province and the Low-country wet-zone. Specimens 
examined from Agrapatana and Lindula (Dimbula District) and Kandy. 

Type. — In the British Museum. Adult male (testes not enlarged). 
Collected by Mrs. Cicely Lushington on the Caledonia Estate, Lindula, 
Dimbula District, Central Province, at 4,400 ft., on 21 January, 1948. 
Brit. Mus. Reg. No. 1948. 57. 40. 

Measurements of type. — Wing 195 ; culmen from base 27 ; tail 161 ; 
tarsus 22mm. 



1949 57 Vol. 69 

Remarks. — It is generally believed that this species occurs in Ceylon 
solely as a winter visitor from the mainland, arriving early in November 
and remaining in the hill regions until the following April. This belief 
appears to be based on a statement by Layard, quoted in Legge's "Birds 
of Ceylon," to the effect that he secured three specimens in the old 
Botanical Gardens at Kew, Colombo, that were believed to be "new 
arrivals" from India. But as early as 1925 Mr. W. E. Wait suspected the 
presence of resident birds and now conclusive evidence has been obtained 
by Mrs. Cecily Lushington (after whom the new form is named). Mrs. 
Lushington saw a pair of mating birds in January, 1946. A series of five 
specimens were collected and forwarded by me to the British Museum 
for comparison with the nominate race. I am interested to hear that the 
only two specimens from Ceylon in the British Museum have the charact- 
eristics of this new form. In addition to the evidence of collected speci- 
mens, young birds have been observed being fed by their foster parents. 
There is therefore no available evidence to support the belief that the 
nominate form visits Ceylon during the winter period. 

This species is fully discussed by me in my paper "Cuckoo Problem 
in Ceylon" now in process of publication, and in Mrs. Lushington's 
"Changes in habits of the Ceylon Hawk Cuckoo" which is being prepared 
for publication. 

I am indebted to Mr. N. B. Kinnear and Mr. J. D. Macdonald for 
examining the specimens, the latter gentleman for exhibiting the type on 
my behalf. 

A Semi-Albino specimen of Bradypterus mariae usambarae 

Reichenow. 

Captain C. H. B. Grant exhibited the specimen and remarked: — 

This specimen was collected by Mr. J. G. Williams on the Uluguru 
Mountains, Tanganyika Territory on 4 November, 1948 and has been 
presented to the National Collection, Brit. Mus. Reg. No. 1949. 3. 1. 

It may be described as pale grey and is very different from the usual 
colour of this species as shown by the other specimen exhibited. That it 
is a semi-albino is shown by the white alulae, the white speck at the tip of 
one of the inner secondaries and the white claws. 

A New Race of Thrush from Northern Rhodesia. 

Mr. C. M. N. White sent the following : — 

Ttjrdus olivaceus williami, new race. 

Description. — Nearest to Turdus olivaceus stormsi Hartlaub, but dis 
tinctly darker and more greyish olive above, especially on the crown and 
without any brownish tinge ; flanks and under wing coverts strikingly 
darker orange rufous ; size larger. 

Distribution. — Only known from the type locality. 

Type. — In my collection. Male adult, collected on 31 July, 1948, 
at Kansoku forest, Mwinilunga, Northern Rhodesia, by Sakayombo. 



Vol. 69 58 1949 

Measurements. — Wing 135-136 against 120-129mm., in T. o. stormsi ; 
tail 103-105 against 89-100 ; tarsus 35 against 31-33mm. 

Remarks. — The birds to the north of Mwinilunga which seem to be close 
to T. o. stormsi are well known to me, and it was most surprising to find 
that two examples collected at Kansoku about one hundred miles to the 
south, in this isolated forest patch, are so remarkably different from the 
northern birds. Named after an African, William Washa Chikundulo 
who helped me to collect there. 

Some New Records from Nyasaland. 

Mr. C. W. Benson sent the following : — 

Specimens as below, not previously recorded from Nyasaland, have 
been presented to the British Museum : — 

Spatula clypeata (Linnseus). Head, wing and tail of a female shot at 
Karonga by Dr. D. P. Turner, 27th November, 1948. It was with ten 
Garganey, Anas querquedula Linnseus, one of which was also obtained. 
While the Garganey occurs regularly as far south as Nyasaland, albeit in 
small numbers, see "Ibis", 1940, p. 283, 1942, p. 202, 1944, p. 488, 1947, 
p. 557. and seven seen at Lake Kasuni, 5 December, 1948, the European 
Shoveler is merely a straggler. There is no other Nyasaland record, 
except that in December, 1932 I saw a Shoveler at Fort Johnston, 
probably this species. 

Capella gallinago gallinago (Linnaeus). A female shot by Mr. W. H. J. 
Rangeley at Mzimba, 9 December, 1948. Nearly forty specimens of the 
genus have been collected in Nyasaland between October and March, 
and critically examined, but this is the only one of this species. 

Neocichla gutturalis angusta Friedmann. A male obtained 16 August, 
1948, in the Mzimba District at 3,000 feet. 11° 00'S., 33° 30'E. Six 
specimens also obtained in the Lundazi District, eastern Northern 
Rhodesia, at 11° 45'S, 32° 55'E., and 11° 21'S, 32° 31'E. I have examined 
two other specimens of this species in the British Museum, another from 
eastern Northern Rhodesia and one from Tanganyika Territory. The 
white tips of the outermost rectrices in these nine specimens, measured 
along the shaft, are 2-6mm. wide, average 3mm. See also Chapin, 
"Auk," 1948, p. 291. 

I have examined in Mr. A. Loveridge's recent collections for the 
Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard, a male of Onychognathus 
tenuirostris raymondi Meinertzhagen (for use of this name see Grant and 
Mackworth-Praed, Bull. B.O.C., 67, p. 82), obtained by my collector 
Jali Makawa, who was loaned to Mr. Loveridge, on the Nyika Plateau 
at 7,000 feet, 1 November, 1948, testes "moderately large." 

Notes from the Lundazi District, Northern Rhodesia. 

Mr. C. W. Benson also sent the following : — 

Thanks to Mr. E. L. Button, District Commissioner of the Lundazi 
District, Northern Rhodesia, I was able to send my collector on two visits 
to the district during 1948. Lists of the specimens collected were sent 



1949 59 Vol. 69 

to Mr. C. M. N. White, and those worthy of record, as showing an extension 
of known range, or previously unrecorded from Northern Rhodesia, or 
but rarely so, are listed hereafter. All such have been presented to the 
British Museum. A few collected by Button, in his private collection, 
are also mentioned. Thanks to careful checking, especially with Button, 
I am satisfied that all localities, altitudes and dates are correct. 

The first visit was in April and May. Collecting localities mentioned 
were :— by Lumwambwa river at 3,000 feet, 10° 42'S, 32° 40'E ; Tembwe, 
1,800 feet, 11° 21'S, 32° 55'E ; Muzyatama, Kolala and Katambara, all 
at 4,800 feet, positions 11° 01'S, 32° 27'E ; 11° 04'S, 32° 22'E ; and 11° 
00'S, 32° 24'E respectively. The following are worthy of record : — 

Francolinus hildebrandti hildebrandti Cabanis. Male, 17 May, female, 
19 May, Lumwambwa. 

Eremialector bicinctus usher i Benson. Female, 20 April, Tembwe. 
This, and four males in Button's collection from near the Lupamazi 
river, at 11° 30'S, 32° 52'E, 2,000 feet, 12-14 June, compared with a long 
series of E. b. usher i in the British Museum. Wings of males 162, 163, 
163, 165, female 161mm. 

Prodotiscus regulus regulus Sundevall. Female, 20 April, Tembwe. 
Wing 77.5mm. 

Trochocercus albonotatus albonotatus Sharpe. Sex ?, 11 May, Muzya- 
tama. In Button's collection. Compared with a long series of this race 
in the British Museum. 

Apalis alticola brunneiceps (Reichenow). Two, male and female,. 
9 May, Kolala. 

Cyanomitra verticalis viridisplendens (Reichenow). Female (culmen 
from base of skull 26mm.), imm. male, 7 May, Katambara. The latter 
differs from adult males in breeding plumage in having the forehead, 
crown, chin and throat black, rest of underside olivaceous, with some 
feathers on breast yellower. 

Symplectes bicolor amaurocephalus (Cabanis). Male, 11 May, 
Muzyatama. 

The last four mentioned species were collected in riparian evergreen 
forest in the Muchinga mountains. The principal object of the visit was 
to investigate such forest in that area, but it was reported as strictly 
riparian, therefore comparatively unextensive, which probably explains 
why no other species of interest were found. A species of Pirenestes 
was reported as seen on the edge of forest, but was not obtained. 

In August the Mukutu mountains, an isolated range rising to over 
6,000 feet, were visited. My collector found that here also evergreen 
forest was only riparian, mostly on the southern and eastern slopes. 
While camped at Jombo, 10° 27'S, 33° 17'E„ at the southern extremity, 
he obtained the following between 5,000 and 6,000 feet, 6-9 August : — 

Heterotrogon vittatum vittatum (Shelley). Male. 

Mesopicos griseocephalus ruwenzori Sharpe. Male. 

Phyllastrephus alfredi (Shelley). Two males, three females. 



Vol. 69 60 1949 

Arizelocichla nigriceps fusciceps (Shelley) Two females. 

Batis capensis dimorpha (Shelley). Male, female. 

Pogonocichla stellata orientalis (Fischer and Reichenow). Two females. 

Apalis alticola brunneiceps (Reichenow). Two females. 

Nectar inia kilimensis arturi P. L. Sclater. Male, edge of forest. 

Coccopygia melanotis kilimensis Sharpe. Sex ? edge of forest. 

Mandingoa nitidula nitidula (Hartlaub). Imm. male. 

The only other forest species reported, but unobtained, was Apalis 
bamendce Bannerman. Somewhat lower, at about 4,500 feet, a male of 
Buccanodon whytii sowerbyi (Sharpe) was obtained, 9 August, but a 
female obtained 27 March at Tunduma, 9° 18' S, 32° 38'E. is B. w. 
stresemanni Grote. 

I am indebted to Captain C. H. B. Grant for advice on several points 
in the identification of the above recorded specimens. 

Notices. 

STOCK OF THE "BULLETIN." 

It is proposed to reduce the stock of the " Bulletin ", but before this is 
done members are given an opportunity to acquire parts at 2/6 each. 
Applications should be made to the Honorary Secretary. No reply will 
be sent if parts are not available. The following are out of print : — 
Volumes 1, 2, 3, 4 (except 1 copy each Pref. and part 28), 17, 18, 20, 22, 
24, 26, 28, 30, 32 and 34. Part 113 and Pref. Vol. 64. 

Please note the Hon. Secretary's address : 

W. E. Glegg, Esq., Zoological Museum, Tring, Herts. 

Publication of the "Bulletin." 

As announced at the Annual General Meeting, the Editor is endeavour- 
ing, with the aid of the printers and publishers, Messrs. H. F. & G. 
Witherby, Ltd., to have the " Bulletin " with the Meeting Card, in the 
hands of the Members one week before the next Meeting, as was the 
custom before the late war. 

The only way in which this can be done is for Members who make a 
contribution at a Meeting to hand the MS. to the Editor at that Meeting. 
As the proofs will be corrected by the Editor, it is essential that the MS. 
should be correct and either typed or written very clearly with scientific 
and place names in block letters. The first mention of a scientific 
name should be spelt out in full, i.e., genus, specific name, racial name 
(if any) and author. Any further mention of the same name need only 
have the initial letter of the genus and no further mention of the author. 

If no MS. is handed to the Editor at the Meeting, a note will be inserted 
mentioning the contribution. 

NEXT MEETING. 

The next Meeting of the Club will take place on Wednesday, 20th 
April, 1949, at the Rembrandt Hotel, Thurloe Place, S.W.7. 
Dinner at 6.30 p.m. 



BULLETIN 

OF THE 

BRITISH ORNITHOLOGISTS' CLUB 




Volume 69. 
No. 7. 



The four-hundred-and-eighty-fifth Meeting of the Club was held at 
the Rembrandt Hotel, Thurloe Place, S.W.7, on Wednesday, 20th 
April, 1949, following a dinner at 6.30 p.m. 

Chairman : Dr. J. M. Harrison. 

Members present : — Miss C. M. Acland ; Major N. A. G. H. Beal ; Dr 
G. Beven ; W. E. Glegg (Hon. Secretary) ; Capt. C. H. B. Grant (Editor) 
Dr. J. G. Harrison ; Miss E. P. Leach (Hon. Treasurer) ; C. W. Mack 
worth-Praed ; Sir Philip Manson-Bahr ; Miss G. M. Rhodes; Dr 
W. A. Richards ; Lt.-Commdr. C. P. Staples ; C. N. Walter ; Col. O. E 
Wynne. 

Guests :--Mrs. N. Beal ; Miss L. P. Grant ; D. L. Harrison ; Miss A. 
Richards ; Mrs. L. L. Staples ; J. A. Tatham. 

Members, 15 ; Guests, 6 ; Total, 21. 

Some Developmental Peculiarities in the Skulls of Birds 

and Bats. 

Dr. J. G. Harrison made the following remarks and showed slides : — 

Part I. — Our subject tonight is a rather unusual one and one that has 
never received proper attention from ornithologists or from zoologists. 
This is not really surprising because the zoologist when he studies these 
things has tended to confine himself to one particular example from a 
group, and then to pass on to another. In birds, for instance, the 
development of the skull of the Pigeon has been well studied, but no one 
has undertaken a wide comparative survey of the development of birds' 
skulls. Obviously, the person to do this must be primarily an ornitholo- 
gist, but he must also have some knowledge of anatomy and physiology. 
We do not claim to be experts in these subjects, and consequently there 
is much more work to be done, but we have been able to study a number 
of skulls covering many species of birds and bats, and as this has revealed 
some interesting facts, we thought it would be worthy of a talk, possibly 

Published May 11th, 1949. Price 2/6. 



Vol. 69 62 1949 

in the hope that some of those with expert knowledge may feel inclined 
to interest themselves in the subject. Therefore we are going to summarise 
our findings as they are at present. 

The work is by no means complete. Much remains to be done, 
especially with the histology of the skull, which is a very complicated 
matter. Also, we have not been able to study the larger groups, such as 
the Geese and bigger Gulls, because to do this properly, an X-ray examina- 
tion is necessary, and even in these days of a State Medical Service, this 
is not possible ! 

The development that we are concerned with tonight is the pneumatisa- 
tion of the skull. When fully mature, birds' skulls and almost all their 
other bones contain air within their substance. This results in a bird 
being much lighter relative to the size of its body. In the skull, this is 
easily distinguished, because the pneumatised bone is opaque and appears 
covered with little white dots, which are the trabecule joining the inner 
and outer tables, between which the air is situated. Bone that is not 
pneumatised and fully developed, is single layered and translucent. 

Ornithologists often note down the amount of pneumatisation, and 
have used this as a rough indication of the age of the bird. For instance, 
if the whole skull is opaque and covered with dots, then the bird is adult, 
but if there are translucent windows in the skull, then the bird is not fully 
adult. As we shall show, there is a great deal of variation in the time 
taken for different species to reach this criterion of maturity, and some 

never do reach it. 

• 
We need not consider tonight a detailed description of the skull. The 
important bones are the nasals, frcntals and parietals, which together 
form the vault of the skull. These are all membrane bones, which is to 
say that they are all preformed in ordinary connective tissue and are not 
formed from cartilage. All these bones fuse together early in life and 
their sutures become obliterated. Fully developed membrane bone 
consists of two layers, an inner and an outer layer separated by an inter- 
vening spongy substance, which is called the diploe. This is the state of 
affairs in our own skulls. In birds, large parts of the spongy portion 
becomes reabsorbed, by special cells which are circulating in the blood, 
and the spaces so formed become filled with air. 

The air arrives by ingrowths from the nasal cavity and from the two 
auditory capsules. This is seen in figure 3 on the slide. The condition 
of this skull is very similar to man, in which the frontal sinuses and the 
mastoid air cells represent a similar process. 

The remainder of the figures on the slide show how the process spreads 
until the whole of the skull has become pneumatic. It should be men- 
tioned that a stage of vascularisation has to precede the formation of the 
air spaces, in order that the diploe may be absorbed. In the opaque 
developing skull it is easy to see these blood vessels, and consequently one 
can be certain if the process is taking place or has finished, depending on 
the presence or absence of blood vessels. 



1949 63 Vol. 69 

With regard to the microscopical study of the skull, we are not prepared 
at present to give a final opinion, but the pneumatic areas appear to 
consist of the normal ossified bone. The transparent windows which are 
left in certain species are a very different matter, and do not appear to 
conform to any known developing bone, and where they join with the 
developed bone, there occurs a thin zone of rounded cartilaginous-like 
cells. All this is receiving further attention. 

Our observations show that it takes from six to eight months for a skull 
to become completely pneumatic. There are however a small number 
of interesting exceptions to this rule, which must be considered next. 

(1) The Swift, Apus apus apus (Linnaeus). 

The immature Swift quickly reaches the stage of pneumatisation shown 
on the slide. The nasal bones are pneumatic and air spaces have grown 
out from each auditory capsule, spread medially towards the midline, 
fused and continued along the line of the obliterated sagital suture to join 
the nasal area. Up to this point, the fact that the process was actively 
occurring was proved by the presence of blood vessels, and immature 
Swifts seen by us between August 30th and October 7th have all been in 
this state. 

Swifts now leave the British Isles, but when they return in the spring 
the skull condition is exactly the same, and the fact that no further pneumatisa- 
tion is occurring is proved by the total absence of blood vessels. Adults 
examined through the summer and autumn have confirmed this without 
exception, and out of twenty-five examined, some must be more than one 
year old. 

Here then, is a very strange state of affairs, in which the Swift appears 
to differ from almost all other birds. It was this species that started the 
whole enquiry, and the following other exceptions have since been 
discovered — 

(2) The Kingfisher, Alcedo atthis ispida (Linnaeus). 

The diagram shows the skull of an autumn adult, obviously as a 
minimum, rather over a year old, and it will be seen that it bears a 
striking resemblance to that of the Swift. The only difference is that the 
whole of the parietal bones are fully developed. No blood vessels were 
present in this skull. Two other examples have been examined, December 
and January birds ; these were not so far developed, and blood vessels were 
still present as would be expected. 

(3) The Little Tern, Sterna albifrons albifrons Pallas. 

(4) The Arctic Tern, Sterna macrura Naumann. 

An autumn adult of each of these species has been examined, and in 
both of these, the process was incomplete but finished. A single autumn 
adult Black Tern, Chlidonias niger niger (Linnaeus) was however 
completely pneumatic. 

(5) The Sparrow Hawk, Accipiter nisus nisus (Linnaeus). 

(6) The Merlin, Falco columbarius aesalon Tunstall. 



Vol. 69 64 1949 

Several examples of Sparrow Hawks and one Merlin all a year or more 
old, have skulls that are not completely developed. Usually there are 
one or two small windows in each parietal bone. 

(7) Wading birds of various species. 

The last exception includes the whole group of wading birds, although 
the findings are not so constant in these birds. The slide shows various 
examples, which quite obviously must be considered as exceptions, but 
we have examined certain adult Curlews, Oyster catchers and a Jack 
Snipe which have had fully pneumatised skulls, although most of these 
have had the remains of the vascular engorgement still present, showing 
that the process cannot have long finished. 

That is our list of exceptions. For those who may think of investigating 
the subject, we should also mention that the whole process is considerably 
slowed down and even stopped by any serious disease that the particular 
bird may be suffering from. This is not unexpected, for a similar state of 
affairs occurs in humans, and the so-called Harris' lines, which appear on 
X-ray, in long bones, are thought to be due to arrested development 
during some serious illness. 

Discussion. — We have so far given the main facts of the subject, and it 
remains for us to leave the realms of fact for those of speculation. We 
can only tell you how we think the facts may one day be accounted for, 
but it is by no means impossible that some totally different explanation 
may arise and be proved correct. Firstly, from our brief survey, it must 
be apparent that the degree of pneumatisation cannot be accepted as a 
reliable guide to the age of a bird, at any rate, not until all the differences 
are understood. 

Birds' bones are peculiar in that they contain a great deal of air. This 
undoubtedly serves to make them fighter, and probably the air- sacs serve 
a similar purpose. The facts about the skull variations cannot be 
accounted for in this way, i.e., that the air contained within the skull 
merely serves to make the skull fighter. If this was so, then, one would 
expect all skulls to be in the same state and fully pneumatic. But this is 
not so. Neither is it correct to assume that the results are haphazard and 
due to variation within the individual species. There is no variation 
whatever in all the Swifts examined, and each skull conforms exactly to a 
special pattern of development. 

To attempt to arrive at any possible answer to the problem, some factor 
must be looked for that could concern all the species quoted as exceptions. 
Can there be anything common to a Swift, Kingfisher, Arctic Tern, Little 
Tern, a small hawk and a wading bird ? Or is it after all, purely fortuitous 
that they should have the same developmental peculiarities in their 
skulls ? 

We think that we may have found an answer to this, but before going 
further, some elementary aeronautics must be considered. In these days, 
aviational medicine is an important subject and has been the subject of 
considerable research. A bird, the most perfect flying machine, has not 



1949 65 Vol. 69 

received the same attention, but some remarkable adaptations for flight 
have been demonstrated in Bats, as you will shortly hear. It may well be 
that the differences in skull development will prove to be another. 

Speed or Velocity may be defined as the state of progressing, and as such 
with no variations or alterations in direction, it has no effect on the body. 

Acceleration is the rate at which the velocity of the body alters per unit 
of time. An increase is referred to as positive acceleration or +G, and a 
decrease as negative acceleration or — G. In a bird travelling in a straight 
direction, the effects are gained parallel to the long axis of the body. 
When it turns it will feel the effects of transverse G, but we need not 
consider this in detail tonight. 

In positive acceleration, the speed increases rapidly. Now, blood is a 
fluid medium, and hydrostatic forces act upon it, so that it tends to get 
left behind, and it may even flow in the opposite direction to the normal 
flow of blood in the carotid arteries, which supply the brain. Blood flows 
from the head-end of the body towards the tail-end, and pools in the big 
veins in the abdomen and legs. This is what occurs in man, and at 
+5G the body is beyond the control of the muscles and there may be 
complete loss of vision, commonly known as " blacking-out." Man 
suffers no ill effects from this. Although it is difficult to judge speed and 
acceleration in birds, we do not wish to suggest that birds are capable 
of accelerating at speeds sufficient to black-out. Nevertheless, it should 
be remembered that any very small effects might lead to sufficient inco- 
ordination which might be disastrous to a bird that has to catch flies 
for a living ! 

The effects of negative acceleration are however much more serious. 
To illustrate this, in man — 

+2G causes a fall in blood pressure of 20mm.Hg. 

— 2G causes a rise in blood pressure of 65mm. Hg. 

As an example, a bird illustrated in the slide, dives rapidly from A to B 
and then starts to climb to a point C, slowing all the time. The fluid 
blood tends to continue on at the same speed as the bird was travelling at 
when it reached the point B. The blood tries to overtake the body and 
flows to its head, where it causes a raised inter cranial pressure. This is 
brought about by the hydrostatic forces acting in the same direction as 
the flow in the carotid artery, so that both forces combine. In addition, 
hydrostatic back pressure tends to prevent the blood returning from the 
head, and at the same time, there is an increased venous return from the 
lower part of the body to the heart, which reflexly causes an increased 
cardiac output (Starling's Law of the Heart) and so still more blood is 
sent to the head. 

In man, with an inexpansible skull, the pressure in the blood vessels 
rapidly rises, causing marked distress. They easily burst, leading to 
permanent damage or death from inter cranial haemorrhage. While it is 
improbable that positive acceleration can ever affect a bird, it is much more 



Vol. 69 66 1949 

likely that it could suffer from the effects of negative acceleration and 
increased intercranial pressure. This is the factor that we think may be 
the one that links all our quoted exceptions. 

These birds fit into two groups, those that may be classed as fast flying 
and those that dive. The Swift is undoubtedly one of the fastest of 
British Birds ; Col. Meinertzhagen has estimated that it travels in excess 
of 100 m.p.h. at times, and it has been timed at well over 68 m.p.h. on 
an airspeed indicator. Some of the wading birds similarly are very 
fast, the Golden Plover having been timed on an air-speed indicator as 
travelling at 60 m.p.h. We do not know of any recorded speeds for the 
Sparrow Hawk or Merlin, but they are fast birds. All these examples 
are birds that are likely to experience considerable deceleration at 
times. Col. Meinertzhagen has estimated a small passerine's speed at 
20-37 m.p.h. 

The sudden effect of decelerating also occurs with birds that dive 
head first into water, the change occurring at the moment of meeting the 
water. This brings in the Kingfisher. The terns are of interest in this 
connection. Both the Arctic and Little Tern fit into this group, although 
we admit that two skulls are nothing to argue upon. The Black Tern 
collects its food by hawking over the surface of the water, and it is perhaps 
suggestive that the only skull examined was fully pneumatic. 

The Gannet must be mentioned here. This species dives into the sea 
from a great height and being so large a bird it has a specially reinforced 
skull. It does not appear to correspond in any way to the smaller diving 
birds, but further investigation is wanted here. 

The theory that we would like to advance is that in those birds which 
for various reasons are likely to suffer from the effects of increased inter- 
cranial pressure, there occurs an area in the skull, which is capable of 
movement or even expansion, which will allow for these changes to occur, 
without damage to the normal function of the brain. In fact, the bird 
will not "red- out." Our reasons for thinking this, is that the skull 
contains these single layered "windows," which do not consist of bone, 
and which may prove to be capable of expansion, while at the edge of this 
substance there are a layer of cells with a cartilaginous-like appearance. 
Cartilage is capable of movement, and these cells may provide for the 
movement of the windows which they surround. We may be proved to 
be quite wrong in our ideas, and then the findings will have to be accounted 
for in some other way. Much will depend or our microscopical findings. 
This must be followed by experiments with pressure chambers. 

Another interesting observation that we would like to make concerns 
air- sacs, which are found in birds. At present very little is known for 
certain about their function, but we do know that as a result, aeration of 
the lungs is complete, as the only air flowing through the lungs is tidal air, 
going to the air-sacs. There is, therefore, no stagnation of air in the lungs, 
such as occurs in man, and the maximum absorption of oxygen can occur, 
They also serve to make the bird lighter, and are in communication with 
the air spaces in the bones. 



1949 67 Vol. 69 

In order to prevent pooling of blood in various parts of the body, such 
as occurs in "blacking-out," man wears an inflatable air-suit, by means 
of which pressure can be applied to the abdomen and the legs, and so 
prevent the pooling. If it were to be found that a bird could control the 
amount of air in its air-sacs, which are distributed in the abdomen, thorax 
and neck, then it would be able to prevent itself from "blacking-out" or 
"redding-out." The situation would be exactly similar to man, except 
that the bird would be wearing its air-suit internally ! This is the theory 
put forward by my father, Dr. J. M. Harrison. 

This has described some of our findings, which we have ventured with 
some trepidation to discuss. It occurred to us that it would be very 
interesting to know what type of skull occurred in bats, as these mammals 
must surely experience many of the same effects as birds. Accordingly, 
the branch of the family dealing in mammals was called into consultation, 
and for the next few minutes members of the British Ornithologists' Club 
will have to hear something about bats ! 

The Cranial Vault in Chiroptera. 

Mr. D. L. Harrison made the following remarks and showed slides : — 

Part II. — To be speaking to this distinguished company of ornitholo- 
gists about bats seems almost to revert to the beliefs of Pliny, who said 
that the bat is the only bird which brings forth young and suckles them ! 

There are however, physiological problems common to bats and birds. 
We have examined about 130 skulls belonging to 32 species of bats and 
we have found that similar differences in the rate of development of the 
cranial vault occur as in birds. In Eptesicus capensis the South African, 
relative of our Serotine bat, we found the state of development of the 
vault to be the same in an adult female and in it's new born infant. 
This retarded development occurs in 23 out of 25 species of Microchiroptera 
examined. But in six species of Megachiroptera and in two Micro- 
chiropterine species the skull reaches a much more advanced condition, 
and apparently does so at quite an early age, judging by an example of 
Eidolon sabaeus, a Fruit bat from the Yemen, in which the permanent 
dentition is only just erupted, but the vault is fully developed. 

It is necessary to give a brief description of the state of the vault as 
found in most Microchiroptera. That of the Great Bat (Nyctalus noctula) 
can be described, as it is quite typical. 

The bones of the vault are for the most part thin and translucent, 
except for certain reddish areas, which, when viewed against a bright 
light are seen to consist of abundant ramifying blood vessels. The 
vascular pattern extends on each side along the mid-line of the vault, a 
process curving laterally on each side somev3 to 4mms. in front of the 
lambdoid crest and down to the posterior root of the zygoma, and a 
process extends back from this on each side to the lambdoid crest. In 
addition a transverse band extends laterally in the interorbital region, 
from which a process extends posteriorly on each side towards the centre 
of each half of the membranous vault, and a process extends anteriorly 
from it into the maxilla?. 



Vol. 69 68 1949 

When the skull of the Great Bat is cut across transversely to it's long 
axis, it is seen that the vascular areas consist of much thicker, more porous 
bone than the non- vascular areas, showing that diploe* formation is in 
progress. Now, while we have not yet fully examined the complex 
histological picture, we feel that the vascular areas in bats are analogous, 
if not strictly similar to the vascularisation preceding pneumatisation 
in birds. 

In bats, as in birds, the differences in development can be explained by 
differences in flight habits. The effects of — G are felt most in swiftly 
and erratically flying species, more than in slowly and ponderously flying 
ones. 

Everyone is more or less familiar with the amazingly erratic flight of our 
native bats. As examples we may mention the furious dives of the 
Noctule as it pursues some large beetle ; or the intricate twists and turns 
of the Horseshoe bats as they fly unfalteringly through the gloomy 
passages and crevices of subterranean caverns ; or perhaps most familiar of 
all is the looping and twisting of the little Pipistrelle. The effects of 
deceleration are bound to be severe in such creatures. But why is it that 
a reflex nervous arc like the cartoid sinus arc does not serve to protect 
them from these effects ? Probably because the time taken for a nervous 
reflex to alter the blood pressure through its action on the cardiovascular 
system is too slow, fast although it is, to compete with sudden changes in 
— G, and hence the need for direct compensation by expansion of the 
cranial vault when intracranial pressure is raised. 

The flight habits of the Fruit bats (Megachiroptera) are very different. 
Andersen [1] wrote that the flight of Eidolon is "owl-like and straight, with 
occasional rapid turns," and that the common Indian Flying Fox (Pteropus 
giganteus) flies with a ''measured, rowing, direct and heavy flight," while 
Allen [2] calls them "steady fliers" and refers to the measured "swish, 
swish" of their wings. We think that it is for this reason that the skulls 
of the Flying Foxes we have examined are so fully developed that no 
membranous windows remain in their vaults. This is also true of the 
Epaulette bat (Epomophorus crypturus) and the Arabian Straw-colored 
bat {Eidolon sabaeus), and the flight of both these species is probably more 
or less ponderous. A skull of the small Indian Fruit bat (Cynopterus 
sphinx) is almost fully developed, but its flight is described by Andersen [1] 
as being "light, swift and buoyant" and "dodging about amongst bushes 
and low trees." This apparent anomaly might be resolved by the study 
of more skulls of this animal, and by more detailed knowledge of its 
flight habits. 

One example of Rousettus aegyptiacus,the Egyptian Fruit Bat, has some 
well marked membranous windows in its vault, but lacking any direct 
information of its flight, the significance of this is doubtful. 

Two of the species of Microchiroptera seen have unusually developed 
vaults. Artibeus jamaicensis has the most developed vault seen amongst 
these. The vascular pattern is almost entirely obscured. It's feeding 
habits are very sedentary, so that its flight is probably slow and direct. 
A skull of the large False Vampire Bat (Phyllostomus hastatus) has a few 



1949 69 Vol. 69 

small membranous areas in the vault. This is a very omnivorous species, 
feeding on birds, mice and small bats as well as fruit and insects. Much 
of this food must be picked off foliage or off the ground and it is not known 
whether the small bats are ever chased and caught on the wing. 

Is there any other explanation to account for these differences ? It 
cannot be just the different sizes of the animals concerned because the 
small Fruit Bat (Cynopterus sphinx) has a fully developed skull, while the 
Naked Bat (Cheiromeles torquatus), with a bigger braincase, has an 
undeveloped vault. (Condylobasal lengths 29.5mms. and 29.9mms. 
respectfully). And then again, the Mouse-eared Bat (Myotis myotis) has 
an undeveloped vault, and it is only a little smaller, so far as the braincase 
is concerned (Condylobasal length 22.6mms.), also the False Vampire 
(Phyllostomus) has a much bigger vault than Cynopterus and its vault is 
less developed, (Condylobasal length 34 mms.) which is also true of 
Rousettus, (Condylobasal length 42.5mms.). 

Could not the development of the skull be influenced by diet ? It 
seems unlikely that this accounts for the differences between the species 
for some of the fruit eating Microchiroptera, like Artibeus seem to be fully 
developed, while others like Sturnira and Hemiderma are undeveloped. 
This might, however, be accounted for by differences in flight habits. 

To sum up, the bats which we have examined fall into two groups so 
far as the cranial vault is concerned, with a few species which exhibit an 
intermediate state. 

Group 1. Skulls remain undeveloped into adult life. 

Nyctalus noctula, Ny dolus leisleri, Scotophilus nigrita, Plecotus auritus, 
Pipistrellus pipistrellus, Pipistrellus nathusii, Pipistrellus kuhlii, Rhinolo- 
phus ferrum-equinum, Rhinolophus hipposideros , Rhinolophus euryale, 
Myotis daubentonii, Myotis natter eri, Myotis mystacinus, Myotis lucifugus, 
Myotis myotis, Myotis nigricans, Eptesicus serotinus, Eptesicus capensis, 
Barbastella barbastellus, Nyctinomus brasiliensis , Hemiderma brevicauda, 
Sturnira ludovicae, Desmodus rufus, Cheiromeles torquatus. 

Group 2. Skull develops fully by early adult life. 

Pteropus giganteus, Pteropus edulis, Epomophorus crypturus, Cynopterus 
sphinx, Eidolon sabaeus. 

Three species, namely Artibeus jamaicensis, Phyllostomus hastatus and 
Rousettus aegyptiacus are somewhat intermediate between the two groups, 
tending towards Group 2 in the case of the latter two species, while it is 
questionable whether the former should not even be included in it. 

It is thought that these facts can be explained by the need for an 
expansible cranial vault in swiftly and erratically flying species. 

It may be thought that the theory is somewhat fantastic, especially in 
view of the widely different origins and natures of the two groups of 
animals concerned. The amazing functional intricacies involved in 
supersonic audiolocation, which has been found to be the long disputed 
means employed by bats for their faultless flight in darkness, show that 



Vol. 69 70 1949 

evolution knows no bounds in strange adaptations to special modes of 
life. To draw an analogy from bird life ; who can say how intricate the 
functional pattern involved in migration may eventually be found to be? 

References. 

1. 19 2. Andersen, K., Cat. of Chiroptera, pps. 6. 328, 594. 

2. 1940. Allen, G. M., Bats. p. 130. 

Acknowledgements . 

Part I. — In the preparation of this paper, my father, Dr. J. M. 
Harrison has shared much of the work with me, and a large proportion of 
the skulls have been examined and worked out by him. Only the fact 
that he is the Chairman tonight has decided him not to be a part-author 
with us. — J.G.H. 

Part II. — I have much pleasure in thanking all those who have helped 
me in obtaining specimens of Bats, namely, Miss G. M. Rhodes, Professor 
D. V. Davies, the late Dr. L. Hopper, Mr. P. A. Clancey and Mr. F. R. 
Parrington of the Cambridge University Museum of Zoology. — D.L.H. 

We are also most grateful to Lieut. -Commander C. P. Staples who has 
prepared the slides for us. He did this at very short notice and after 
considerable difficulty has succeeded in making our indifferent diagrams 
quite presentable. 

Dr. J. M. Harrison, Sir Philip Manson-Bahr and Mr. C. W. Mackworth- 
Praed took part in the discussion that followed. 

A New Race of Phyllastrephus xavieri (Oustalet), from the 

British Cameroons. 

Dr. James P. Chapin sent the following : — 

Phyllastrephus xavieri serlei new race. 

Description. — Differs from Phyllastrephus xavieri xavieri (Oustalet) of 
the Upper Congo Forest by the paler yellowish color of its under-parts. 
The more whitish-yellow coloration is most noticeable on throat and fore- 
neck. The upper-parts are much alike in the two races, save that the 
upper tail-coverts of P. x. serlei are more rufous brown like the rectrices, 
less washed with green, and more clearly divided from the green of the 
rump than in nominate P. x. xavieri. There is no marked difference 
in size. 

Type. — Male adult, Kumba, British Cameroons, altitude 1,000 feet, 
4 April, 1947. Collector's No. C 37. 

Distribution. — From the lowlands about Kumba, at levels of 600 to 
1,200 feet, to Nkongsamba, 3,000 feet, on the eastern side of the Manen- 
guba Mountains. Thus P. x. serlei is really not a montane form, and has 
not been reported from Mount Cameroon or the Bamenda highlands. 

Measurement of type. — Wing 86, culmen from base 24, tarsus 21 m.m., 
tail 77. 



1949 71 Vol. 69 

Remarks. — When discussing the differences between Phyllastrephus 
xavieri and Phyllastrephus icterinus (Bonaparte) in the "Ibis," 1944, 
pp. 543-545, I stated that the larger species P. xavieri, occupied lowland 
forests in Uganda, the Congo, and the Cameroon. I did not attempt to 
divide it racially, although possibly the Uganda specimens are more 
yellowish than those of the Upper Congo. Neither did I consider P. 
xavieri to be a race of P. fischeri (Reichenow), because in Uganda and the 
eastern Congo, where P. fischeri sucosus (Reichenow) lives in mountain 
forests mostly above 5,000 feet, and P. xavieri at lower levels, there was 
no indication that they interbred. Likewise in the southern Congo and 
Angola there is no evidence that P. fischeri cabanisi (Sharpe) is conspecific 
with P. xavieri. 

The western limits of P. xavieri appeared to be in the French Cameroon 
near Efulan and Nkongsamba. A single male with wing 86mm. and tail 
76mm. long had been collected for the American Museum by R. H. 
Drinkwater near Nkongsamba in June, 1930. It seemed a little paler 
yellowish beneath than Congo specimens, but I did not consider that 
significant. 

Recently Dr. William Serle has kindly lent me a series of twelve skins 
of P. xavieri collected in the region of Kumba, British Cameroons. Most 
of them are paler beneath, especially on the throat, than Congo specimens; 
and it will be recalled that the type locality of P. xavieri is Bangui, on 
the Ubangi River. Some of the males from Kumba agree closely with 
that from Nkongsamba. Thus it appears that this bulbul is represented 
at the north-western extremity of its range by a race with paler 
under-parts. 

At Kumba, Dr. Serle collected four males and five females of this new 
race, at levels from 700 to 1,200 feet. He also obtained single males at 
Bai, 600 feet, 20 miles to the south-west, Masaka, 1,000 feet, 10 miles to 
the west, and Ndoi, 600 feet, 30 miles to the north of Kumba. 

The males have wings 84-87mm., tails 74-79mm. The females have 
wings 71-77mm., tails 61-68mm. There is some variation in the color of 
the under-parts, the male from Bai and one of the females from Kumba 
being almost as bright yellow on throat and lower breast as P. x. xavieri. 
But the browner color of the upper tail- coverts is sufficient to separate 
them from Congo specimens. 

Near the station of Kumba Dr. Serle collected also a series of fifteen 
males and two females of Phyllastrephus icterinus. All came from levels 
of 700 to 800 feet, and are very like specimens from the Cameroon, Gaboon 
and Congo. Three skins of this smaller species from Nigeria and Sierra 
Leone, also lent me by Dr. Serle, confirm the opinion I have already 
expressed as to the brigher yellow under-parts of P. icterinus in Upper 
Guinea. 



Vol. 69 72 1949 

Notices. 

STOCK OF THE "BULLETIN." 

It is proposed to reduce the stock of the " Bulletin ", but before this is 
done members are given an opportunity to acquire parts at 2/6 each. 
Applications should be made to the Honorary Secretary. No reply will 
be sent if parts are not available. The following are out of print : — 
Volumes 1, 2, 3, 4 (except 1 copy each Pref. and part 28), 17, 18, 20, 22, 
24, 26, 28, 30, 32 and 34. Part 113 and Pref. Vol. 64. 

Please note the Hon. Secretary's address : 

W. E. Glegg, Esq., Zoological Museum, Tring, Herts. 

Publication of the "Bulletin." 

As announced at the Annual General Meeting, the Editor is endeavour- 
ing, with the aid of the printers and publishers, Messrs. H. F. & G. 
Wither by, Ltd., to have the " Bulletin " with the Meeting Card, in the 
hands of the Members one week before the next Meeting, as was the 
custom before the late war. 

The only way in which this can be done is for Members who make a 
contribution at a Meeting to hand the MS. to the Editor at that Meeting. 
As the proofs will be corrected by the Editor, it is essential that the MS. 
should be correct and either typed or written very clearly with scientific 
and place names in block letters. The first mention of a scientific 
name should be spelt out in full, i.e., genus, specific name, racial name 
(if any) and author. Any further mention of the same name need only 
have the initial letter of the genus and no further mention of the author. 

If no MS. is handed to the Editor at the Meeting, a note will be inserted 
mentioning the contribution. 



NEXT MEETING. 

The next Meeting of the Club will take place on Wednesday, 18th 
May, 1949, at the Rembrandt Hotel, Thurloe Place, S.W.7. 
Dinner at 6.30 p.m. 






BULLETIN 

OF THE 

BRITISH ORNITHOLOGISTS' CLUB. 



Volume 69. 
No. 8. 



The four-hundred-and-eighty-sixth Meeting of the Club was held at 
the Rembrandt Hotel, Thurloe Place, S.W.7, on Wednesday, 18th 
May, 1949, following a dinner at 6.30 p.m. 

Chairman : Dr. J. M. Harrison. 

Members present : — Miss P. Barclay-Smith ; Mrs. R. G. Barnes ; 
C. W. Benson ; Col. F. O. Cave ; R. P. Donaldson ; W. E. Glegg {Hon. 
Secretary) ; Capt. C. H. B. Grant {Editor) ; Mrs. B. P. Hall ; N. B. 
Kinnear ; Miss E. P. Leach {Hon. Treasurer) ; Miss C. Longfield ; 
J. D. Macdonald ; C. W. Mackworth-Praed ; Sir Philip Manson- 
Bahr ; Miss G. M. Rhodes ; Lt.-Commdr. C. P. Staples ; Dr. A. Lands- 
borough Thomson ; N. J. Wadley ; C. de Worms ; Col. O. E. Wynne. 

Guests : — Mrs. C. W. Benson ; B. G. Lynn-Allen ; Commdr. H. H. R. 
Moore. 

Members, 21 ; Guests, 3 ; Total, 24. 

Bicentenary of Edward Jenner. 

Dr. A. Landsborough Thomson said : — 

Yesterday the bicentary of the birth of Edward Jenner (1749-1823) 
was celebrated in medical circles. As you know, he was the originator 
of vaccination against smallpox, and thereby the father of the science of 
immunology : he also demonstrated the pathological cause of angina 
pectoris, and was the first to infer that tuberculosis was a disease trans- 
mitted by infection. I suggest that the occasion should not pass 
unnoticed here, because in our own field Jenner was likewise a pioneer. 
He was the first to describe the eviction from the nest by the young 
cuckoo of the eggs or chicks of its foster parents. This observation, which 
was subsequently confirmed by Montagu and other ornithologists, was 
published in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society in 1788, 
and is quoted as authoritative in early works on British birds, such as 
those of Macgillivary and Yarrell. He made many other observations 
and experiments on birds, often at the instance of his friend and former 
master, John Hunter, another famous medical man interested in natural 

Published June 11th, 1949. Price 2/6. 



Vol. 69 74 1949 

history. He recorded, for instance, the order in which birds of different 
species begin to sing at daybreak. Jenner's observations on the migration 
of birds were communicated to the Royal Society a few months after his 
death in 1823. He quoted various records of his own and others showing 
that birds were in fact capable of travelling long distances, and he scouted 
the idea of hibernation which was then prevalent. He marked swifts by 
removing two claws from the foot, and by this means demonstrated that 
they returned to the same nesting place in the following year. For these 
reasons, it seems only fitting that we should tonight respectfully salute 
the memory of Edward Jenner, ornithologist. 

New Races of a Warbler, a Flycatcher, and an Owl from 

West Africa. 

Dr. W. Serle sent the following descriptions and the types for 
exhibition : — 

Poliolais lopesi manengubae, new race. 

Description. — Female. — Differs from Poliolais lopesi lopesi (Alexander) 
in that the crown is olive-brown not chestnut, and shades into pale rufous 
on the forehead, lores, area about the eye, and ear coverts. The mantle, 
back, and rump are dull olive-green not olive-brown. The underparts 
differ in that the grey ground colour is paler in shade, the breast is washed 
with rusty-olive, and the olive-brown wash on the flanks and thighs is 
paler and greener in shade. From Poliolais lopesi alexanderi Bannerman 
it differs in that the crown is olive -brown not chestnut, and the mantle, 
back, and rump are greener and less brown. Male. — Differs from P. I. 
lopesi in that the upperparts are dark grey and in fresh plumage lack the 
brownish tinge. The grey of the underparts is paler and in the centre of 
the belly shades off into greyish -white. The thighs are dark gre} 7 washed 
witli olive. From P. I. alexanderi Bannerman, it differs markedly in the 
absence of olive -green above and below. 

Distribution. — Manenguba Mountain and Kupe Mountain, British 
Cameroons, at an altitude of 5,000 to 6,500 feet. 

Type. — In the British Museum. Adult female, Manenguba Mountain, 
5°5'N, 9°50'E, at altitude of 6,000 feet, Kumba Division, British 
Cameroons, 25 March, 1948. Collected by Dr. William Serle. Collector's 
No. C.1717. Brit. Mus. Reg. No. 1949.14.11. 

Measurements of type. — Wing 51 ; culmen 11 ; tail 25 ; tarsus 22mm. 
Soft parts. — Iris orange -brown ; feet grey ; bill dark grey. 

Remarks. — Three of the eight adult males collected exhibit a faint 
olive -green wash on the mantle and back. In worn plumage the upper- 
parts of the male turn slightly brownish but are still different in tone to 
P. I. lopesi. The immature male and female differ from the adult in 
the same way as do those of P. 1. lopesi (see Bann. Bull. B.O.C. 35, 1915, 
p. 54). At a later stage the young male closely resembles in plumage the 
adult female, and a still older male is distinguished from the adult male 
only by the retention of a few reddish feathers on the crown and about 
the eye. 






1949 75 Vol. 69 

Measurements of ten males and five other females from Manenguba and 
Kupe Mountains. Adult males. — Wing 56, 56, 55, 55, 54, 54, 54, 53 ; tail. 
35, ?, 35, 33, 28, 32, 25, 28 ; culmen 13, 14, 12, 13, 13, 13, 12, 13 ; tarsus 
23, 23, 24, 24, 23, 22, 23, 23mm. Immature males.— Wing 51, 48 ; tail 
25, 24 ; culmen 12, 11 ; tarsus 25, 24mm. Adult females. — Wing 51, 49, 
49 ; tail 24, 23, ? ; culmen 11, 12, 12 ; tarsus 22, 23, 21mm. Immature 
females. — Wing 52, 50 ; tail 28, 22 ; culmen 11, 12 ; tarsus 23, 21mm. 

Habits. — Inside the mountain forests, near the ground, in the under- 
shrubs and especially in the tangled thickets which appear in places where 
a fallen tree admits the light. The call is a plaintive "peeep," very similar 
to that of Camaroptera brevicaudata (Cretzschmar) , and indeed, in life 
these two species are, apart from colouration, remarkably similar. In 
March and April small family parties were the rule. 

Dyaphorophyia ansorgei kumbaensis, new race. 
Description. — The female differs from the type (a female) of Dyaphoro- 
phyia ansorgei harterti Bates, to which it is nearest, as follows. — The 
upperparts are similar in shade but slightly greener and less grey on the 
crown, mantle and back, the chestnut of the underparts is much darker 
in shade, is restricted to the lower chin and the throat, and is sharply 
demarcated from the yellow of the breast and belly instead of merging 
gradually into it. The male resembles D. a. harterti. 

Distribution. — The forests of the Kumba Division of the British 
Cameroons between 700 and 5,000 feet. 

Type. — In the British Museum. Adult female, Kumba 4° 40 'N, 
9° 25'E, altitude 700 feet, British Cameroons. 24 November, 1947. 
Collected by Dr. William Serle. Collector's No. C.1158. Brit. Mus. 
Reg. No. 1949.14.9. 

Measurements of type. — Wing 59 ; tail 26 ; culmen 12 ; tarsus 16mm. 
Soft parts. — Iris brown ; eye wattle green ; bill black ; feet blue-grey. 

Remarks. — Four adult males from the Kumba Division have the- 
following measurements. — Wing, 58, 58, 57, 57 ; tail, 27, 23, 25, 26 ; 
culmen, 12, 11, 12, 12 ; tarsus, 15, 16, 16, 17mm. 

The shade of orange-yellow or yellow on the underparts of both male 
and female is an unreliable character as the colour fades on exposure to 
light. Thus in the series of four males, the last bird collected, which 
was not exposed, is much darker in shade than any D. a. harterti in the 
British Museum collection, whilst the other three and the female type 
are much lighter in shade than any D. a. harterti, though my recollection 
is that they were quite dark when freshly collected. 

The new form was compared at the British Museum with the following 
races. — D. a. harterti, Dyaphorophyia ansorgei graueri Hartert, Dyaphoro- 
phyia ansorgei kungwensis Moreau and Dyaphorophyia ansorgei lomaensis 
Serle. 

Habits. — D. a. kumbaensis was found only in the primary forest, usually 
in the undershrubs or the foliage of the lower branches, but occasionally 
in the tree tops. It occurred singly or in pairs, and was uncommon 
throughout its range. 



Vol. 69 76 1949 

Tyto capensis cameroonensis , new race. 

Description. — Differs from Tyto capensis capensis (A. Smith) in having 
the spots of the undersurface much smaller and sparser, notably on the 
under wing- coverts and the thighs ; and in having the lower border of the 
facial ruff pure white without dark tips. 

Distribution. — The grasslands of the Manenguba Mountain at 6,500 
feet, British Cameroons. 

Type. — In the British Museum. Adult Male, Manenguba Mountain, 
5° 5'N, 9° 50'E, 6,500 feet, British Cameroons, 22 March, 1948. Collected 
by Dr. William Serle. Collector's No. C.1652. Brit. Mus. Reg. No. 
1949.14.200. 

Measurements of type. — Wing 320 ; tail 124 ; bill 33 ; tarsus 81mm. 

Soft parts. — Iris brown ; bill dirty white ; feet grey-brown. 

Remarks. — This new race was compared with the series of twenty -two 
African Tyto capensis in the British Museum, of which sixteen are from 
South Africa and six from East Africa, the latter taken within the range of 
T. capensis libratus Peters and Liveridge, see Proc. Biol. Soc.Wash. 48, 
p. 77, 1935. 

Its upperparts are darker and its underparts a purer white than any of 
these, but the depth of shade above and below varies greatly within the 
series and it seems better to wait till more West African specimens are 
collected before including these characters in the diagnosis of the new 
race. 

Mr. Dean Amadon and Dr. J. P. Chapin compared the specimen with 
the material in the American Museum of Natural History, and they 
consider that it represents a new race. I am greatly indebted to them 
for their help. 

Field Habits. — The type was flushed from the ground on a steep hillside 
thickly covered with grass, bracken, and low creepers, and not far from 
the forest. This was a regular roosting place as shown by the platform 
of matted grass, and the numerous feathers and droppings. In the bird's 
stomach was a rat. 

A New Race of Bush Warbler from the Sudan. 

Mr$B. P. Hall described the following race and exhibited the type : — 

Eremomela badiceps latukae, new race. 

Description. — Nearest to the nominate race from Fernando Po, Camer- 
oons, Angola and Belgian Congo, but the red-brown cap is less rufous, 
less silky, and does not extend quite so far over the nape, being, on an 
average, 18mm. from front to back, against 20mm. 

Type. — In the British Museum. Adult male. — Collected near Katire, 
in the foothills of the Imatong Mts., southern Sudan, on 22 May, 1939 by 
J. D. Macdonald. Collector's No. 811. British Museum Reg. No. 
1939.10.1.88. 

Distribution. — Foothill forests of Imatong Mts., southern Sudan. 



1949 77 Vol. 69 

Measurements of Type. — Wing 57 ; culmen 12.5 ; tail 40mm. 

Soft parts of Type. — Bill black ; feet pinkish flesh : iris brown. 

Remarks. — A series of four male specimens collected in the foothills of 
the Imatong Mts., by Col. F. O. Cave and J. D. Macdonald were studied in 
1939 and the differences between them and the nominate birds were 
noted. Macdonald (Ibis 1940, p. 340) thought that they might be Ere- 
momela badiceps ituricus (Gyldenstolpe) from the Ituri forest, eastern 
Belgian Congo, and were tentatively named by him as such, as the War 
prevented any comparison with the type of E. b. ituricus. When I was 
recently incorporating these specimens in the main collection, the differ- 
ences, though slight, were sufficient to attract my attention. Two 
specimens were sent to Count Gyldenstolpe for comparison with the type 
E.b. ituricus. He was kind enough to do this and his letter makes it quite 
clear that they cannot be considered this race. He notes the same 
differences of the crown and back of the Sudan specimens in comparison 
with E. b. ituricus as had already been noted in comparison with the 
nominate race, and, in addition, a slight difference in size, and in the 
colour of the auricular region. 

Another male specimen collected from the Imatong Mts. in 1946 by, 
Capt. G. T. Weekes, shows the same characteristics as the other four 
specimens. 

The rufous cap of a specimen in the British Museum collected by Boyd 
Alexander from the Likandi river, north-east Belgian Congo, appears 
intermediate between the Sudan specimens and those from the Cameroons, 
thus suggesting that there is a gradual change in character from the 
nominate race in the Cameroons eastwards into the Sudan. 

The race has been named after the Latuka tribe in whose country the 
specimens have been found. 

I am indebted to Mr. J. D. Macdonald and Captain C. H. B. Grant for 
their help and advice and to Count Gyldenstolpe for making the com- 
parison with E.b. ituricus. 

The History of a Great Auk's Egg presented to the British 
Museum by Lord Lilford, of three Great Auk's Eggs bequeathed 
tothe nation, and of the remains of a recently discovered Egg. 

Mr. William E. Gle(|i& made the following remarks : — 

The national collections have been enriched by the recent gift of a 
Great Auk's egg from the present Lord Lilford. It is important that a 
record of the history of such eggs should be kept as they change hands. 
Lord Lilford's egg (B. M. Reg. No. 1949.7.1) bears no inscription and is 
not accompanied by information so that its history must be learned by 
process of elimination. Lord Lilford, Thomas Littleton, fourth Baron, at 
some time or other possessed five eggs of this species and he states [3] 
about 1893 that on the death of his brother-in-law, Mr. Arthur W. 
Crichton, he purchased an egg, which Mr. Crichton had bought from the 
College of Surgeons. Lord Lilford, fourth Baron, writes that four other 



Vol. 69 78 1949 

eggs, at the time of writing at Cambridge, had been owned by him, and 
he adds the amusing account that one of the many visitors to the aviaries 
at Lilford told the falconer that he had read in a newspaper that Lord 
Lilford had given a very stiff price for one of these eggs and added that 
he hoped Lord Lilford had "hatched it successfully." It would aj^pear 
that the egg, which has just been given to the British Museum is the one 
which was the property of Mr. Arthur Crichton. This is confirmed by 
Thomas Parkin [5], who, writing in 1894, states that he had been informed 
by Prof. A. Newton that of the four eggs given by Lord Lilford to the 
Cambridge University Museum, two had been purchased by Mr. Small at 
an auction in Edinburgh ; while another was that found in a farm-house 
near Blandford in Dorset ; and the last was secured through Mr. Frank 
from the Museum at Lausanne. Parkin's statement was subsequently 
supported in detail by Prof. Newton [4] in 1907, when the third part of 
the "Ootheca Wolleyana" was published. In 1861, Prof. Newton made 
what was described as the greatest discovery of Great Auks' eggs that ever 
fell to the lot of a naturalist. Here in his own account [8] as written to 
his brother on Christmas 1861. "Only fancy a discovery I made the other 
day ; it quite took away my breath. Going to the Surgeons' Hall to 
inspect Owen's dissection of a Great Bustard, I found Huxley there, who 
asked me what I wanted. He told me I should most likely find it in such 
and such a place. Ascending to the topmost gallery of the innermost 
room, a glass case with birds' eggs met my eye. After looking at one or 
two grimy Ostrich's and deformed Turkey's which might have belonged to 
John Hunter, I saw, as I thought, a nice model of a Great Auk, next to it 
was a prickly hen's, and then, on, on, on, as far as the eye could reach, 
Great Auk's. To cut it short, there were ten, nearly all in excellent 
preservation, though one or two are a little broken. Of course, I hardly 
obtained credence from my friends ; but next day I took Tristram and 
Sclater and Simpson, and we all four had the case opened and handled 
the eggs which are neatly sealing- waxed on to boards. As soon as my 
first emotions by the way were over I called out over the railing to Huxley 
and told him what I had discovered ; whereupon to the astonishment of 
some grave-looking medical students in spectacles, he answered back that 
I was like Saul who went out to seek his father's asses and found a King- 
dom ; to which I could only respond that I hoped I should, like my 
illustrious prototype, succeed in gaining possession of my discovery. 
How they came there I don't know, but expect to make out ; no doubt 
they are Iceland. I always was sure of more being in England than I 
could trace." The actual day of the discovery was 12 December, 1861 
[5a]. On 11 July, 1865, four of these ten Great Auks' eggs were sold at 
Stevens' Sale Rooms [2]. One of them, Lot 143, was bought by Mr. 
Crichton for £29. This is the story of the egg presented by Lord Lilford. 

The British Museum now possesses six eggs of the Garefowl. Two of 
these are very early accessions. They are Nos. 31 and 32 respectively in 
Symington Grieve 's list. It is presumed [2] that they were bought by 
Leach at the sale of Bullock's collection in 1819 [5a] but there is another 
theory that they originally belonged to Sir Hans Sloane, whose collections 
became part of the British Museum. 



1940 79 Vol. 69 

The fourth egg (B.M. Reg. No. 1901, 11.15.814) is a perfect specimen 
with holes at each end. It is No. 19 in Symington Grieve's list, and came 
to the nation under the Crowley Bequest. The egg was in Tristam's 
collection, which was purchased by Mr. Philip Crowley. Tristam had 
got it from the late J. de Capel Wise [2]. The label accompanying the 
egg bears the following inscription "Purch. from Williams, Oxford St. 
1853 for £35. Received by him from Copenhagen probably, and one of 
the last batch of eggs sent to Denmark from Iceland." 

The other two eggs formed part of the Rothschild bequest and apart from 
an inscription were unaccompanied by information. Fortunately I 
blundered on to a letter, written to "The Field" of 29 March, 1928 by 
Walter, Lord Rothschild. He stated [7] that he had inTring Museum two 
eggs, two birds and a complete mounted skeleton of the Great Auk. One 
egg was in Count Roedern's collection, which was bought by Lord 
Rothschild in 1889. The second egg was one of Mr. Champley's nine 
eggs and was bought by Lord Rothschild in 1907. The two birds came 
out of the Rioucourt collection. The skeleton was from Funk Island. 
Lord Rothschild added that the correct number of Great Auk's eggs was 
82 or 83. The Roedern egg (B.M. Reg. No. 1941.1.1.1) bears no 
inscription. 

It is No. 8 in Symington Grieve's list [2]. Prof. Newton [4] records that 
he saw this egg in 1861 in Leipzig when in the possession of Herr H. 
Hiihnel and that he had a model of it made, which went to Cambridge 
University. About 1870 the egg was sold to Count Roedern at Breslau. 
Hiihnel is said to have bought it from Schulz, a dealer at Leipzig, who 
received it from Hamburg. It is said to have been acquired from Herr 
J. G. W. Brandt in which case it would be of Icelandic origin. This egg 
is figured by Frohawk in Naumann's "Naturgeschichte der Vogel Mittel- 
europas," Jubilee Ed. (W. Blasius) 1, 12, Taf. 17 b, fig. I. 

The other Rothschild egg (B. M. Reg. No. 1941.1.1.2) bears the in- 
scriptions "Champley collection, bt. of Rutter, Nov. 1, 1901," "Number 
Three." It is one of the Nos. 57 to 65 inclusive in Grieve's list [2] and was 
one of the collection of nine formed by Mr. Robert Champley about 1864. 
Mr. Champley died in 1895. I understand that his collection was disposed 
of privately. 

Further discoveries may yet be made regarding Great Auks' eggs. 
J. R. T. Pollard of The University, St. Andrews, writing on 9 April, 1949, 
states [6] that he had obtained lately from a dealer some of the fragments 
of a Great Auk's egg, which according to a note in the handwriting of the 
former owner, the late Mr. Simpson, was smashed in 1857. 

The fragments were purchased by the dealer from one of Mr. Simpson's 
descendants. Nothing is known of the history of the egg. Mr. Pollard 
wants a reference to an official account of the report that a Great Auk had 
been seen off the Lofoten Islands in or about 1937. 

During the course of the ensuing discussion Mr. N. B. Kinnear stated 
that three of the eggs, which had been found by Prof. Newton and retained 
by the Royal College of Surgeons, had been recently sold to Capt. Vivian 
Hewitt, 



Vol. 69 80 1949 

REFERENCES. 

1. Allingham, E. G. (1924. "A Romance of the Rostrum," p. 159. 

2. Grieve, S. (1885). "The Great Auk or Garefowl," p. 105, appendix pp. 15, 
25, 27, 29, 33. (1897). Supplementary Note, pp. 260, 263. 

3. Lilford, Lord (1893). "Coloured Figures of the Birds of the British Islands," 
Vol. 6, p. 82. 

4. Newton, A. (1905-7). "Ootheca Wolleyana," part 3, pp. 377, 382. 

5. Parkin, T. (1894). "The Great Auk, or Garefowl," pp. 16, 22, 23. 

5a. Parkin, T. (1911). "The Great Auk. A Record of Sales of Birds and 
Eggs by Public Auction in Great Britain, 1806-1910, pp. 8, 31. 

6. Pollard, J. R. T. ( 1929). "A Great Auk's Egg." "The Field." 5, 193, p. 413. 

7. Rothschild, Walter Lord (1928). "Eggs of the Great Auk." "The Field," 
5, 151, p. 526. 

8. Wollaston, A. F. R. (1921). "Life of Alfred Newton," p. 45. 

STOCK OF THE "BULLETIN." 

It is proposed to reduce the stock of the " Bulletin ", but before this is 
done members are given an opportunity to acquire parts at 2/6 each. 
Applications should be made to the Honorary Secretary. No reply will 
be sent if parts are not available. The following are out of print : — 
Volumes 1, 2, 3, 4 (except 1 copy each Pref. and part 28), 17, 18, 20, 22, 
24, 26, 28, 30, 32 and 34. Part 113 and Pref. Vol. 64. 

Please note the Hon. Secretary's address : 

W. E. Glegg, Esq., Zoological Museum, Tring, Herts. 

Publication of the " Bulletin. " 

As announced at the Annual General Meeting, the Editor is endeavour- 
ing, with the aid of the printers and publishers, Messrs. H. F. & G. 
Witherby, Ltd., to have the " Bulletin " with the Meeting Card, in the 
hands of the Members one week before the next Meeting, as was the 
custom before the late war. 

The only way in which this can be done is for Members who make a 
contribution at a Meeting to hand the M.S. to the Editor at that Meeting. 
As the proofs will be corrected by the Editor, it is essential that the M.S. 
should be correct and either typed or written very clearly with scientific 
and place names in block letters. The first mention of a scientific 
name should be spelt out in full, i.e., genus, specific name, racial name, 
(if any) and author. Any further mention of the same name need only 
have the initial letter of the genus and no further mention of the author. 

If no M.S. is handed to the Editor at the Meeting, a note will be inserted 
mentioning the contribution. 

NEXT MEETING. 

The next Meeting of the Club will take place on Wednesday, 15th 
June, 1940, at the Rembrandt Hotel, Thurloe Place, ' S.W.7. 
Dinner at 6.30 p.m. 



jv^t? U'> 



BULLETIN 

OP THE 

BRITISH ORNITHOLOGISTS' CLUB 



& 



0' 



Volume 69. 
No. 9. 



The four-hundred-and-eighty-seventh Meeting of the Club was held at 
the Rembrandt Hotel, Thurloe Place, S.W.7, on Wednesday, 15th 
June, 1949, following a dinner at 6.30 p.m. 

Chairman : Dr. J. M. Harrison. 

Members present : — Miss C. M. Acland ; Major N. A. Beal; C. W. 
Benson; Dr. G. Beven ; Mrs. G. M. Chadwyck-Healey ; R. S. R. 
Fitter ; W. E. Glegg (Hon. Secretary) ; Capfc. C. H. B. Grant (Editor) ; 
Mrs. B. P. Hall ; Dr. J. G. Harrison ; P. A. D. Hollom ; T. A. M. Jack ; 
Miss E. P. Leach (Hon. Treasurer) ; Major G. K. McCulloch ; J. D. 
Macdonald ; Col. R. Meinertzhagen (Vice-Chairman) ; Dr. W. A. 
Richards ; Dr. A. Landsborough Thomson ; N. J. Wadley ; 
R. Wagstaffe ; C. N. Walter ; Col. O. E. Wynne. 

Guests : — Miss T. Clay ; Mrs. H. W. Clemens ; Mrs. G. K. McCulloch ; 
Mrs. W. A. Richards ; J. G. Tatham ; Mrs. A. L. Thomson ; A. Tynans. 

Members, 23 ; Guests, 7 ; Total, 30. 



Fair Isle and the Pyrenees. 

Mr. R. S. R. Fitter gave a talk on his recent visits to Fair Isle and 
the Pyrenees. 

Published July 13th, 1949. Price 2/6. 



Vol 69. 82 1949 

A Mounted Specimen of the Great Auk presented to the 
British Museum by Lord Lilford. 

Mr. W. E. Glegg read the following : — 

The full history of the fine mounted specimen of the Great Auk (Alca 
impennis Linnaeus), which has been recently presented to the British 
Museum by the present Lord Lilford, is not known. The earliest reference 
to it, which I have found, is that of Prof. A. Newton [3], who, writing in 
1870, states that he had seen the bird when it was in the possession of Mr. 
A. W. Crichton of Broadward Hall, Salop, brother-in-law of Thomas, 
fourth Baron Lilford. After the death of Mr. Crichton, Lord Lilford, 
fourth Baron, purchased the bird. This happened not later than 1893. 
This specimen is No. 44 in Symington Grieve 's [1] list. Lord Lilford, 
fourth Baron [2] writes that from the date of a ship's bill of lading, 
written in Danish and Icelandic, found inside the skin by the late H. 
Ward, of Vere St., to whom it was sent to be mounted, the bird was 
probably obtained on the coast of Iceland about 1833. 

REFERENCES. 

[1] Grieve, S. (1885). " The Great Auk, or Garefowl," p. 15. 

[2] Lilford, Lord (1893). "Coloured Figures of the Birds of the British 
Islands." vol. vi p. 82 

[3] Newton, A. (1870). "On existing Remains of the Gare-fowl (Alca impennis)" 
The Ibis, p. 258. 



A New Race of Melierax gabar (Daudin). 

Colonel Meinertzhagen exhibited and described the following : — 

Melierax gabar defensorum, new race. 

Description. — Adults from Africa have a blue-grey crown and mantle 
varying slightly in degree without reference to locality. Birds from south- 
west Arabia have a dark slate -grey crown and mantle and are more 
heavily marked below. The throat and upper breast are also a darker 
and smokier grey than in African specimens. Immature birds from 
Arabia appear to be similar to African specimens. Size as in M . g. gabar. 

Distribution. — Only known from extreme south-west Saudi Arabia, 
Yemen and the northern parts of the Aden Protectorate east to the 
western Hadramaut. 

Type. — In the Meinertzhagen collection. Adult female. Lodar, 3,100 
feet. Aden Protectorate. 13 December, 1948. 



1949 83 Vol. 69 

Soft Parts. — Iris orange-brown. Feet orange. Bill black, cere orange. 

Remarks. — In addition to the type, I obtained two immature birds and 
have examined three adults in the British Museum collected by Philby in 
Tihama on the northern frontier of Yemen. I have also examined the 
large series of M . g.,gabar from Africa in the British Museum. Named 
in honour of Sir Reginald and Lady Champion whose hospitality and 
help so largely contributed towards the success of our trip to the Aden 
Protectorate and Yemen. 



A New Race of the Collared Sunbird from Lower Guinea. 

Dr. James P. Chapin sent the following : — 

Anthreptes collar is somereni, new race. 

Description. — Colors similar to those of A. c. hypodilus (Jardine), 
but flanks washed a little more heavily with greyish olive. Size markedly 
smaller, wings of both sexes in Cameroon and Gaboon 48-52mm., culmen 
from base 15-17. 5mm. 

Distribution. — From the coast of the Cameroon and Gaboon eastward 
to the Uelle, Ituri, and Manyema districts of the Belgian Congo, south- 
ward to Canhoca and Roca Congulu in Angala, and to Tshisika in the 
southern Kasai District. 

Type. — In the American Museum of Natural History, No. 685,944. 
Adult Male. Anda, Lake Azingo, Gaboon. 20 December, 1907. 
Collected by Dr. W. J. Ansorge.. 

Measurements of Type. — Wing 50, culmen from base 17.5, tail 30, 
tarsus 15mm. 

Remarks. — For many years Anthreptes collar is hypodilus (Jardine) has 
been said to range from the Island of Fernando Po eastward across the 
Cameroon to the Upper Congo and southward to Angola. The observa- 
tion by Dr. V. G. L. van Someren (Novitates Zoologicse, vol. 29, 1922, 
p. 202) that A. c. hypodilus was a large, long-billed form, and that a 
different race occupied Angola, the Gaboon, and Cameroon, seems to 
have been disregarded. 

In 1929 Jose G. Correia collected an excellent series of A. c. hypodilus on 
Fernando Po for the American Museum of Natural History, and these 
specimens furnish striking support for Dr. van Someren's statement. 
Wings of the island birds measure 52-59mm., both sexes combined ; 
culmen from base 16.5- 19mm. The smaller mainland form, extends over 



Vol. 69 84 1949 

most of the Lower Guinea forest area. This small race of Lower Guinea 
increases slightly in size to the eastward, so that males from the forested 
Ituri District in the north-eastern Congo have wings 51 -55mm. long, and 
females 49-51mm. Specimens of both sexes from the Ituri have the 
culmen from base 15- 18mm. Like the birds of the Kasai and north- 
western Angola, they agree in color with A. c. somereni, and not with the 
race A. c. ugandce, which is distinctly brighter yellow beneath. 



A New Race of Stonechat from Sicily. 
Mr. P. A. Clancey sent the following : — 

Saxicola torquata archimedes, new race. 

Description. — From Saxicola torquata rubicola (Linnaeus), 1766 : France, 
it differs in the male and female in fresh autumn plumage having the upper- 
parts tinged reddish sandy. On the under surfaces S. t. archimedes is 
noticeably more reddish sandy, less yellowish, than S. t. rubicola. 
Adults in breeding dress and juveniles not available. 

Distribution. — Confined to the island of Sicily, where it abounds in a 
variety of habitats. 

Type. — Female, adult. Near Siracusa (Syracuse), Sicily. 16 August, 
1943. In the Clancey Collection. 

Measurements of the type. — Wing 66.5, culmen from base 15, tarsus 
21.5, tail 50mm. 

Material examined. — S. t. archimedes, nine in fresh autumn plumage 
and known to be indigenous. S. t. rubicola, France (6), Germany, Italy, 
Spain, etc., long series. Also material from Corsica (Saxicola torquata 
insularis (Parrot), 1910 : Corsica), Greece (Saxicola torquata grcecorum 
Laubmann, 1927 : Corfu) and N. Africa (Saxicola torquata desfontainesi 
Blanchet, 1925: Tunisia). Two indigenous British races also examined. 

Remarks. — Von Jordans and Steinbacher, " Senckenbergiana" 26, 
1943, p. 83, record four males taken by Schiebel in Sicily in December as 
of the race S. t. rubicola. This form undoubtedly winters in large numbers 
on the island. 

The small size character of S. t. grcecorum is not valid but the race seems 
worthy of recognition on account of the rather greyer tone of the upper- 
parts. I cannot see how S. t. insularis can be maintained on the basis of 
available autumn material from Corsica. S. t. desfontaines is almost 
certainly valid but requires further detailed study. 



1949 85 Vol. 69 

Named in honour of the defender of Syracuse. 

I acknowledge my indebtedness to Dr. J. M. Harrison, D.S.C., 
Lieut. -Col. W. A Payn and Dr. Adolph von Jordans for the loan of 
material and apposite data. 

The locality Katunga, recorded in Proc. Zool. Soc, London, 

1900, p.p. I — 3, in error for Kasungu. 

Mr. C. W. Benson sent the following : — 

P. L. Sclater, in the above reference, gives Katunga as a locality for a 
number of species collected by Sharpe during a " recent journey from 
Zomba to Fort Jameson." For the position of Katunga, at an altitude 
of about 200 feet, on the lower reaches of the River Shire, see map "Ibis," 
1894, p. 462 and also that in Belcher's "Birds of Nyasaland," (1930). 
One of the species recorded from Katunga is Smilorhis sowerbyi (Sharpe) 
(=Buccanodon whytei sowerbyi), a most surprising record, since I do not 
know of this form in Nyasaland except west of the Shire Valley and Lake 
Nyasa, at altitudes not less than 3,000 feet. It also seemed peculiar that 
Sharpe should visit Katunga on a journey from Zomba to Fort Jameson, 
since it would be well out of his line of travel, and there are points on the 
River Shire further north where he could cross without difficulty, even 
in a native dug-out canoe, and apparently did in fact cross at Liwonde, 
see below. 

The localities as well as Katunga given in Sclater's paper are Buwa, 
Kota-Kota, Liwonde, Kasungu and Mkukula. This combination of 
localities does not occur in any other papers dealing with the collections 
made by Sharpe, Manning and Whyte, in Nyasaland, all of which were 
published in the "Ibis" between 1893 and 1901 inclusive. All of them, 
and no others, are recorded in the British Museum bird register, under 
the initial number 1900.1.20 with the exception that there is no mention 
at all of Katunga. Nine of the twelve species recorded by Sclater from 
Katunga are recorded in the register from Kasungu. I have traced actual 
specimens of all twelve with this registration number. I have not found 
a single such specimen labelled Katunga, but I have traced at least one 
specimen of nine out of the twelve species, labelled Kasungu. It may also 
be noted that Katunga could easily be mis-read for Kasungu, and that 
Sclater records none of these twelve species from Kasungu as well as 
Katunga. Sclater refers to a map in Geographical Journal, 10, 1897, 
p. 236. This is of Central Nyasaland, to no further south than about 
14° 15'S. It seemed possible that there might be another place also 
named Katunga shown on this map, but such I have failed to trace it. 
Kasungu is shown. Incidentally, the little-known locality Mkukula is 
shown on this map, at 33° 56'E, 13° 45'S. 



Vol. 69 86 1949 

It follows from the above that Katunga must be regarded as an error 
for Kasungu throughout Sclater's paper. 



SPECIAL GENERAL MEETING. 

A special General Meeting of the Club was held at the Hotel Rembrandt 
at 5.30 p.m., on 18th May, 1949. Dr. J. M. Harrison was in the Chair 
and about eighteen members were present. It was decided to alter the 
Binding of the " Bulletin " so that there would be one volume for each 
calendar year, January to be the first number and December the ninth. 
The new form of binding to start in January 1950, with volume 70. 

It was agreed to so alter the rules that one Vice -Chairman would be 
elected for three years ; one new member would be elected to the Com- 
mittee and one retire each year ; contributors to the " Bulletin" would 
receive separates ; and the Annual General Meeting would be held in 
January. 



NOTICE TO SUBSCRIBERS. 

Volume 69 will be continued to the end of 1949 and will contain 12 
parts, December being No. 12. The preface will follow after the issue 
of the last part. 



STOCK OF THE "BULLETIN." 

It is proposed to reduce the stock of the " Bulletin ", but before this is 
done members are given an opportunity to acquire parts at 2/6 each. 
Applications should be made to the Honorary Secretary. No reply will 
be sent if parts are not available. The following are out of print : — 
Volumes 1, 2, 3, 4 (except 1 copy each Preface and part 28), 17, 18, 20, 22, 
24, 26, 28, 30, 32 and 34. Prefaces Volumes 4, 6, 7, 61 and 64. Vol. 61, 
parts 435, 436, 437 and 438, Vol. 64, part 113. 

Please note the Hon. Secretary's address : 

W. E. Glegg, Esq., Zoological Museum, Tring, Herts. 



Publication of the "Bulletin." 

As announced at the Annual General Meeting, the Editor is endeavour- 
ing, with the aid of the printers and publishers, Messrs. H. F. & G. 
Witherby, Ltd., to have the " Bulletin " with the Meeting Card, in the 
hands of the Members one week before the next Meeting, as was the 
custom before the late war. 









1949 87 Vol. 69 

The only way in which this can be done is for Members who make a 
contribution at a Meeting to hand the M.S. to the Editor at that Meeting. 
As the proofs will be corrected by the Editor, it is essential that the M.S. 
should be correct and either typed or written very clearly with scientific 
and place names in block letters. The first mention of a scientific 
name should be spelt out in full, i.e., genus, specific name racial name, 
(if any) and author. Any further mention of the same name need only 
have the initial letter of the genus and no further mention of the author. 

If no M.S. is handed to the Editor at the Meeting, a note will be inserted 
mentioning the contribution. 



NEXT MEETING. 

The next Meeting of the Club will take place on Wednesday, 19th 
October, 1949, at the Rembrandt Hotel, Thurloe Place, S.W.7. 
Dinner at 6.30 p.m. 



5 8 JUL1S49 



BULLETIN 

OF THE 

BRITISH ORNITHOLOGISTS 5 CLUB 



30 T 1948 Volume 69. 
^%JHyfcflg§ No. 10. 



The four-hundred-and-eighty-eighth Meeting of the Club was held at 
the Eembrandt Hotel, Thurloe Place, S.W.7, on Wednesday, 19th 
October, 1949, following a dinner at 6.30 p.m. 

Chairman: Dr. J. M. Harrison. 

Members present: — Miss C. M. Acland; Miss P. Barclay- Smith; 
F. J. F. Barrington; Major N. A. G. H. Beal; Miss S. V. Benson; 
Dr. H. M. S. Blair; Col. F. 0. Cave; Dr. J. P. Chapin; Miss T. Clay; 
J. Fisher; W. E. Glegg (Hon. Secretary); Capt. C. H. B. Grant 
(Editor); Mrs. B. P. Hall; R. E. Heath; Miss E. P. Leach (Hon. 
Treasurer); Miss C. Longfield; J. D. Macdonald; C. W. Mackworth- 
Praed; J. H. McNeile; Col. R. Meinertzhagen (Vice -Chairman); 
Dr. J. F. Monk; Lt.-Col. W. A. Payn; Miss G. M. Rhodes; Dr. W. 
A. Richards; D. Seth-Smith; Lt.-Commdr. C. P. Staples; Lt.-CoL 
W. P. C. Tenison; Dr. A. Landsborough Thomson; N. J. Wadley; 
A. Williams; C. de Worms; Col. 0. E. Wynne. 

Guests:— Mrs. N. Beal; Mrs. H. M. S. Blair; C. J. P. Cave; 
Mrs. J. P. Chapin; H. F. I. Elliott; Mrs. J. D. Macdonald; Mrs. C. 
W. Mackworth-Praed ; Commdr. H. H. R. Moore; R. E. Moreau; 
J. Poole; Mrs. W. A. Richards; A. G. B. Russell; Mrs. L. L. 
Staples; Dr. E. Stresemann; Mrs. E. Stresemann; Mrs. W. P. C. 
Tenison. 

Members, 33; Guests, 16; Total, 49. 






Further as to Colour Change without a Moult — 
Subtractive Change — its Incidence and Implication. 



Lieutenant-Commander C. P. Staples, R.N., and Surgeon 
Lieutenant J. G. Harrison, R.N.V.R., made the following remarks 
and showed coloured and other slides : — 

In January last in Bulletin B.O.C. Vol. 69 No. 4, we demon- 
strated that the male Snow Bunting (Plectrophenax nivalis nivalis) 
exhibits colour change without a moult and stated that we were 

Published November 11th, 1949. Price 2/6. 



Vol. 69 90 1949 

following this up with an examination of other species, particularly 
those where rapid abrasive moult discloses the secondary sexual 
characters at the breeding season. As the colour changes we had 
already discovered were closely linked with abrasive moult, it became 
necessary to study both forms of plumage change. This joint paper, 
therefore, is the result of investigations along these lines. 

Reviewing the position to date, we would remind members that 
although the claim that colour changes can occur in definitive feathers 
has been put forward by many for very many years, such changes have 
never previously been factually proved. We have already shown that 
the Snow Bunting exhibits colour changes in the tail feathers, by 
progressive darkening, and in the tips and fringes of the mantle 
feathers, by progressive fading, from after the autumnal moult until 
full nuptual plumage is acquired in April or May. Changes also occur 
in the edges of the tail and secondary wing feathers where white 
replaces brown in both instances. 

The first slide of two October and November birds and two March 
birds illustrates the extreme abrasive changes which occur on the 
heads and on the mantles between the autumn and the spring speci- 
mens. Such changes result from the wearing away of the chestnut 
tips to disclose the white bases of the head feathers and the black 
bases of the mantle feathers respectively. At the same time, the 
slide shows how the chestnut tips on the mantles have themselves 
changed to white in the March specimens. 

For the benefit of those members who may not have appreciated 
the mechanics of abrasive moult, the next slide represents in diagram- 
matic form a mantle feather of a cock Snow Bunting. At "A" the 
October feather has chestnut tips and fringes on a black base; at "B" 
the same feather in June has lost all the chestnut leaving a smaller 
triangular shaped pure black feather only. Due to the manner in 
which feathers overlap one another, it is easy to see why the October 
bird appears chestnut and the June bird all black on the mantle. 
The figure at "C" shows how, halfway through the process of abrasive 
moult, the tips and fringes then remaining have colour-changed to 
white and here again one can appreciate why the mantle will appear 
black and white on the March birds in the previous slide. The change 
from "A" to "B" is purely textual; the change at "C" is both a 
textual and a colour change. 

A closer view of five specimens in the Royal Scottish Museum in 
the next slide illustrates the changes well. At the same time the 
progressive darkening of the tail feathers is apparent, the change 
being from brownish-black in autumn to pure black in summer, while 
the brown in the edges is replaced with white. 

The next slide of a series of males shows how white begins to replace 
chestnut in these tips and fringes from January onwards and becomes 
more prominent in March and April when they are pure white, and it 
can be seen that the tonal change is progressive. 

The fifth slide shows a series of both ma 1 '- 3 nd females arranged 
under corresponding months. It will be notk n that the females do 



1949 91 Vol. 69 

not show anything approaching the remarkable abrasive changes of the 
males, nor do they exhibit colour changes in existing feathers to the 
same degree. 

These examples show that colour changes in definitive feathers do, 
in fact, occur. Are there any other species showing similar changes? 
Undoubtedly there are. Some are variable, but the tendency to show 
changes is indisputable. 

The Brambling (Fringilla montifringilla) for instance, shows a 
gradual lightening in the colour of the mantle tips and a similar 
tendency for them progressively to become white just before they are 
lost altogether, in the process of abrasive moult. 

As in the case of the Snow Bunting, no specimens have white tips 
before January, but there are many specimens with white tips in 
February, March and April. The colouring of the tail tends to deepen 
from the autumnal moult in September until March and April when 
it reaches its full intensity of black. 

It will be observed that there is no appreciable change in the case 
of the females in the lower row, either on mantles or tails, and they 
seem to remain static and the degree of abrasion is also much less 
marked. 

In the Stonechat (Saxicola torquata hibernans) the tips and fringes 
of the mantle are considerably lighter in tone in March and onwards 
compared with their shade in September and again there is also an 
appreciable increase in the depth of colouring in the tail, only apparent 
when skins are placed in chronological order. Again with the females 
the degree of abrasion is far less than that of the male. 

The Lapland Bunting (Calcarius lapponicus lapponicus) also shows 
interesting changes comparable to those of the Snow Bunting. The 
long mantle fringes that obscure the nuptual colouring are chestnut 
just after the moult but are much lighter by April — the change ranging 
from chestnut-brown to a bufnsh brown and even buff. Similarly, the 
pale tips of the feathers on the crown and base of the throat become 
lighter before being cast altogether. The changes in the colouring of 
the lores, forehead, ear coverts and chin are said to be effected by a 
partial moult — and not abrasive moult — in April. While we need not 
for the moment concern ourselves with cases of partial moults of head 
and neck parts, it is interesting to note that no similar partial moult 
is claimed in respect of the females. The slide also illustrates quite 
clearly that there is little change by way of abrasion of the feather tips 
in her case. 

The Redstart (Phoenicurus p. phcenicurus) undergoes its autumnal 
moult in late July, August or early September but there is no partial 
spring moult. Abrasion of the tips of the feathers gradually causes 
a marked changed in the appearance of the male but no marked 
change in the female. The photo shows, however, that the hen 
acquires a reddish suffusion at the moult — this is particularly notice- 
able on the underparts which we shall see later — but this suffusion 
gradually vanishes before the breeding season. Her immediate 
post-moult plumage is, therefore, brighter than her breeding dress. 



Vol. 69 92 1949 

The Eock Thrush (Monlicola saxatilis) is a species where there is 
extensive abrasive moult and where, in addition, the similarity between 
the sexes immediately after the moult is very marked. This 
similarity tends to disappear as abrasive moult takes its course. Here 
again there appears to be a fading in the shade of the light coloured 
tips of the feathers on the male and in some instances the tail 
colouring tends to become redder. 

In the Starling (Stumus vulgaris vulgaris) we have a similar con- 
vergence of plumage between the sexes — which are indistinguishable 
in the field from July until January. Even in the Starling the buffish 
tips to the head and neck become white from January onwards in the 
case of the male but not in the case of the female. This species 
is also frequently cited as one where there has been a modification of 
feather shape as between the sexes. According to the "Handbook" 
the females are like males but their body feathers are shorter and 
broader; buff and grey tips being thus larger and making females more 
spotted than adult males both in winter and in summer. The slide 
shows this, but the differences are also due to the varying amount of 
abrasion, the females being less worn than the males. If the 
"Handbook" description were strictly correct the tips of the females 
would have to be longer not shorter so that, if environmental wear 
is the only cause of tips becoming worn as is the general idea, the 
disparity between the sexes could be maintained. However, the 
Starling presents a special problem of its own in regard to the extent 
of subtractive change and pure and simple abrasion and final conclu- 
sions must be reserved. In selecting our series we have endeavoured 
to eliminate the question of a "physiological" race by choosing 
specimens with correct grading of the colour development in their 
beaks. This is important as the abrasive changes in the males 
correspond with the state of their beak colouring. 

Our last example of colour change to-night is the Black Lark 
(Melanocorypha yeltonensis). Here is a perfect example of colour 
change in the tips and fringes of the mantle comparable in all respects 
with the extensive changes displayed by the Snow Bunting. The 
tips, after the moult, are brownish-buff but they get progressively 
lighter until they become pure white just before they finally drop off. 
In the "Handbook" the change is merely dismissed by the wording 
"Abrasion of pale coloured tips gradually makes plumage almost 
entirely jet black." It is strange that the wide divergence of colouring 
in these tips has been overlooked. With the female, the abrasion of 
the pale fringes causes dark brown to show on the upper parts and 
her underparts tend to appear darker due to the black bases of the 
feathers becoming disclosed through abrasion of the whitish distal 
halves. Nevertheless, the amount of so-called wear is considerably 
less in her case and the male, by May, has entirely lost its obscuring 
tips and is, like the Snow Bunting, left with triangular shaped feathers 
of pure black as a result. 

We claim that we have shown that tonal colour changes in definitive 
feathers occur and that these changes are to be seen, inter alia, in the 
Snow Bunting, Black Lark, Brambling and Lapland Bunting and to 



1949 93 Vol. 69 

a lesser degree in the Stonechat, Redstart and Rock Thrush. There 
appears to be a constant tendency for the obscuring tips involved in 
abrasive moult to become paler and the degree of change seems to be 
more extensive in the species where melanin in its darkest form is the 
colouring matter of the area of plumage involved. This is well 
exemplified by the Black Lark and Snow Bunting. At the same time 
the colouring of tail feathers deepens so that brownish-black at the 
moult becomes dense black by the spring. There is also an overall 
improvement in the tonal quality of all body contour feathers in early 
spring and all these changes, as we have previously claimed and 
again repeat, are in our opinion due to a combination of the peculiar 
properties of melanin and the absorption by feathers attached to the 
fat parts and through their cortex of secretions from within the bird, 
such secretions being oil-borne. It is apparent that the obscuring tips 
tend to lose colour progressively and it may well be that this is 
universal among species that have them but such changes are not 
readily assessible by the human eye. That there are variations, intra 
species, is also a difficulty in assessing colour changes. 

There seems no doubt that such changes as we have shown are part 
and parcel of the process heretofore known as "abrasive moult" which 
consists in the casting of the tips and fringes of feathers whose 
presence has served to obscure the colours that grace the nuptual 
plumage. The term "abrasive moult" signifies a wearing or rubbing 
away and one frequently meets descriptions of individual species that 
imply that this "wearing away" results from the effect of agencies 
quite outside the bird's control, in other words, wearing away through 
environmental factors. Expressions such as "abrasion of the tips and 
fringes causes a remarkable change . . .", or "these tips and fringes 
wear off" are definitely misleading as they suggest a fortuitous action 
due to outside agencies and moreover, they make no distinction 
between overall wear pure and simple as the result of normal wear and 
tear of plumage and because of which birds moult annually, and this 
peculiar form of partial shedding of the feathers which occurs for a 
specific purpose in the spring and is by no means universal. For this 
reason we prefer to call "abrasive moult" by the more descriptive 
name of "sub tractive change." After all it is a moult or shedding 
of parts of feathers by subtraction and the parts involved are clearly 
distinguishable from the remainder of the feathers by differences of 
colour. This is the test that enables one to decide whether a body 
contour feather merely wears by abrasion or is changed in size and 
shape by subtractive change. Sub tractive change only occurs in body 
contour feathers. Changes in the margins of wing and tail feathers 
takes place by actual abrasion often accompanied by chemical changes 
as we have already shown. If we are right in our view that subtrac- 
tive change is something more than mere wearing away, something 
resulting from physiological factors from within the bird, then all 
descriptions which imply wearing away of tips and fringes of body 
contour feathers are confusing and even erroneous. 

The subject of so-called "abrasive moult" has not received the 
attention it deserves. There is little literature on the subject and one 



Vol. 69 94 1949 

cannot avoid the conclusion that ornithologists have evaded the subject 
for fear they stirred up problems difficult to resolve. 

Gatke, in his "Birds of Heligoland" seems to be the only person who 
has attempted to explain the process in any detail. At page 152 et seq 
he refers to the change from winter plumage to breeding dress without 
moulting as being accomplished in three different ways. The simplest 
way consists in the shedding of the edges of the feathers of the winter 
plumage which are mostly of a rusty-grey colour. He then cites the 
Chats, Shore Lark, Einches, Buntings, and some others as examples. 
Then he says "a less simple manner in which the change from winter 
plumage to breeding garb is accomplished consists, so far as I have 
been able to determine without the help of a microscope, in the 
peeling off of the separate barbs of the feathers whereby they are 
stripped of a thin inconspicuously coloured envelope so that the purer 
and finer colour previously concealed beneath the latter becomes 
exposed. . . ." He then cites the carmine of the Linnet or Mealy 
Redpoll, and the azure-blue of the Bluethroat as examples. He further 
claimed that the feathers which by the end of the winter are worn 
irregularly and blunted at the tips, after this change of colour, again 
have their margins completed and their tips beautifully and evenly 
rounded off, so that they are in all respects like new feathers. But it 
is interesting to note that he did not attempt to test his claims with 
a microscope. The third method he claims was a pure colour change 
by the change in the amount of pigment in a feather as when black or 
blackish- brown replace grey with which we have already dealt in a 
previous paper and to some extent confirmed. 

We (J. G. H. and C. P. S.) claim that sub tractive change is just as 
much a definite process as the ordinary autumnal moult that all birds 
undergo. It follows clearly defined rules and has a very special 
purpose from a biological point of view. It is thus no haphazard affair 
and is as much subject to the control of a bird's physical state as any 
other of its physiological processes. The line of demarcation between 
ordinary abrasion of feathers through wear and tear and the shedding 
of parts of feathers by subtractive change is clearly discernible. 

Skins show that there is no relationship between the degrees of wear 
as between sexes at any given period. The wear apparent in the 
female is never so extensive nor are her colour changes so great, where 
they occur at all, as compared with the male. 

When one considers the incidence of subtractive change one finds 
that it appears to be limited to species of the passerine order. One 
also finds wide divergencies and seeming inconsistencies between 
closely allied species. Nevertheless three fundamental factors are 
common to all. 

First, melanin is the only pigment present in the tips and fringes 
produced at the autumnal moult and subsequently discarded when full 
breeding dress is acquired. It does not matter whether the remainder 
of the feather is lipochrome or melanin pigmented or whether it carries 
prismatic or structural colours through surface modification — the tips 
are simple in form and without adhering barbules and are either grey, 
buff, or brown, or reddish-brown or blackish or other intermediate 
shades of melanin. 



1949 95 Vol. 69 

Secondly, there is no conformity in the rate at which the sexes 
lose these tips and fringes which both acquire at the moult. Some 
females never lose their tips entirely. This should, of itself, disprove 
any pretension that environmental wear is the primary cause of 
shedding of these appendages otherwise the sexes would respond 
equally and uniformly. 

Thirdly, the tips and fringes acquired by the male invariably repeat 
the colour tone of the female plumage. If the female is mainly brown, 
the male has brown tips and fringes; if she is mainly grey, then his 
tips and fringes are grey. This fact is most important as it affords 
a strong and useful clue to the elucidation of the underlying reason for 
sub tractive change. 

In considering the first point — the exclusive use of melanin, we know 
that melanin results from a series of chemical changes, each being a 
separate and arrestible step in the ladder of production and the series 
or steps are as reversible as they are progressive. Biochemists have 
shown that there are seven distinct stages in the production of ultimate 
black melanin each involving a definite shade of colouring except the 
sixth stage which is colourless. The fifth is reddish-brown, the sixth 
colourless and the seventh black. The red step may account for the rosy 
suffusions that appear on Waders at the breeding season. With 
respect one must hesitate to agree that a proper moult is undergone 
having regard to the physical strain involved in migrating, moulting 
while migrating and then breeding within a very short time which 
surely must occur with Waders that breed in the far north. 

Conversely, melanin also tends to reverse or ''bleach" and we have 
already shown (Ibid at page 36) that the removal of natural oil from 
a feather destroys its protection against chemical or light action and 
enables it to be readily dyed or bleached. Hence, if oil becomes 
deficient in the tips and fringes they are less resistant to chemical 
reversion or the effect of sunlight and being pigmented with melanin 
can become lighter or even bleach to white. This appearance of white 
is not that due to the absence of pigment but to the pigment in the 
feather having assumed its colourless form. One might term it latent 
pigment. Such being the case, it is possible for markings to be 
brought to visibility which were invisible before in the form of latent 
melanin. Melanin can also continue its stages under oxidation and 
thus tail feathers can darken without moulting, as occurs with Snow 
Buntings and Brambiings. Thus we can postulate that the peculiar 
properties of melanin have a very decided concern in the process of 
subtractive change. 

While on the subject of bleaching, this slide illustrates this as well 
as ordinary abrasion. The Turnstones shown are a May and an August 
bird. The latter has lost practically all the chestnut colouring from 
its back due to true abrasion and where any is left it has bleached 
considerably by comparison with the May bird. The next slide of 
Wood Sandpipers shows a remarkable example of bleaching. The 
normal specimen is a June bird from Britain and the bleached speci- 
men is a July bird from Putna in India. Possibly the effect was due 



Vol. 69 96 1949 

to sunlight bleaching and a deficiency of oil in the feathers. There 
is no question of post-mortem fading as the bird was like this when 
shot in 1938 and was also much abraded. 

In previous papers we have claimed that the tips and fringes tend 
to become dry and friable due to lack or loss of oil and have suggested 
that this may have resulted from a break in the flow of natural oil or 
secretion to these parts. We have not, however, been able to find any 
structural modification in feathers having these special tips and 
fringes which would account for this but a more powerful microscope 
might disclose such constriction at the point where the tips break 
away. Nevertheless, some photomicrographs of feathers of Snow 
Buntings and Bramblings do show some points of interest. 

The first of a feather of a May taken cock Brambling shows that 
the structure of the barbules is constant throughout but that the tips 
are worn and broken off. The next, of a feather of a cock Snow 
Bunting, shows a similar state of affairs. On comparing this feather 
with one from a female at a comparable period, the wear in her case 
is clearly not so extensive and the barbules tend to be set at a wider 
angle from the shaft than in the case of the male. Comparing feathers 
from both a cock and a hen Brambling side by side on the same photo, 
we confirm the same differentiation between the sexes. In both cases 
also the drying of the tips of the cock feathers seems to cause the 
barbules to turn inwards and lie closer to the shaft of the barb. The 
general formation of cock feathers is also shown to be thicker than the 
corresponding female feathers. There seems no doubt that there is a 
difference between the subtractive tips of the sexes in these two species 
at least. 

Photos taken by reflected light show how clear-cut is the transition 
between the pigmentation of the main feather and that of the tip. 
This slide of the feather of a cock Brambling — with yellowish-white 
tips — and one of a feather from a cock Snow Bunting — when the tips 
were pure white — show clearly that there is a clear-cut and sudden 
rather than a gradual transition from one colour to another. The 
sudden deficiency of colouring in the shaft of the barb is particularly 
noticeable. It may well be that this sudden transformation supplies 
the clue to the inhibition in the absorption of oil or oily secretion for 
such a flow can only occur through capillary action by and through 
the cortex or structural casing of the feather and must first proceed 
up the shaft. If there is a sudden change in the texture of that shaft 
by a break in the pigmentation that change in texture would probably 
break the capillary flow and thus deprive the tips of natural oil. 

So much for the pigmentation of the tips and fringes. 

In dealing with the second point — the disparity in the rate of wear 
as between the sexes — this slide shows a close-up of male and female 
feathers of Bramblings taken in December and April, the male 
feathers forming the upper line. The amount of wear is patently 
different, those of the males being considerably shortened and more 
worn by April although in December the sexes were comparable in 
the length of their tips. Environmental wear, being equal, 
obviously could not account for the distinction. 



1949 97 Vol. 69 

The third common factor is that the colour of the tips and fringes 
of the male reproduce the colour of the female plumage on the 
corresponding parts of her plumage. This will already have been 
observed in the cases of the Snow Buntings and Black Larks, the 
latter being a particularly striking case due to the contrasting colours 
of the male. 

The next slide shows two cases where male and female plumages 
are contrasting — the Virginian Cardinal or Red Bird, where the male 
is red and the female brown, and one of the American Orioles [Icterus 
bullocki) where the male is orange-yellow and black and the female a 
greenish-grey. The Red Cardinal has brown tips and the cock Oriole 
greyish tips of the same shade as the female colouring. There is 
another of these Orioles (Icterus spurius) where the male has a glossy 
blue-black back while the female is greenish-grey. Here again the 
male acquires at the moult long contrasting tips of greenish-grey. 

Among the Buntings there are many instances of this conformity 
between the sexes and wide nuptual plumage differences. This slide 
shows two examples. The Black-headed Bunting (Emberiza 
melanocephala) and the Chestnut Bunting (Emberiza rutila). Both 
males have chestnut mantles but the females are of quite different 
shades of brown. Those shades are, however, reproduced by their 
respective males in their mantle tips. 

An even more interesting development is shown in the next slides. 
The first is of the underparts of the Redstarts already shown earlier, 
and, looking at the colouring of the breasts and underparts of the 
hens in the lower row, it will be noticed that just after the moult and 
for some time thereafter they have acquired a reddish suffusion which, 
while present, tends to converge, as it were, their colouring to that of 
the males. Similarly, in the next slide of the underparts of the Rock 
Thrush, a comparable convergence is apparent and this too gradually 
disappears. The Starling is another case where there is a similarity 
between the sexes through an improvement in the female plumage. 

This tendency for the plumage colouring of the sexes to converge 
at the moult and diverge later is common but its implication has not, 
it appears, been considered previously in the light of there being a 
temporary improvement in the colouring or markings of the female. 

So much for the three constants in subtractive change, namely, 
melanin as the sole pigment involved, unequal shedding of tips and 
fringes as between the sexes, and the reproduction by the male of the 
female colouring in its tips and fringes. As to this last point it is 
noteworthy that male tips of the female colouring are, as a general 
rule, carried from and after the moult for a period upwards of four 
months, thereafter they tend to change colour, shorten, and finally 
drop off when the male attains full breeding condition. 

What of the incidence of subtractive change? 

Here one is faced with so many variations and forms, so many 
inconsistencies that the whole process seems indeterminate and 
incapable of exact analysis. Some species have tips to head and neck 
feathers only, others are only affected on the upperparts, others have 



Vol. 69 98 1949 

the underparts tipped in addition, while other species, closely 
associated with those that have tips and fringes, are themselves devoid 
of such appendages and not subject to subtractive change at all. The 
Finches are a mixture. The Linnet, Eedpolls, Twite and Siskin 
undergo subtractive change of different parts of the body, while the 
Goldfinch and Hawfinch and Bullfinch are not affected. Among our 
Warblers, the Blackcap alone acquires brownish tips at the moult. 
The Buntings vary enormously in the extent and parts of the body 
on which tips are acquired. The Wagtails, too, are variable. Each 
family and even each genus discloses wide divergencies not only in the 
incidence but also in the basic colouring of the tips and fringes — there 
seems no uniformity anywhere. 

As these additions are acquired at the autumn moult, one's first 
reaction is that they may be adopted as an insurance against winter 
cold and their loss in the warmer months is an advantage. It is true 
that some instances can be adduced where the tips are longer in 
northern than in southern species of associated types and conversely 
there are others quite the reverse. Thrushes feed in flocks in winter 
under conditions of little cover but they are less protected by the 
growth of fringes than Buntings whose habit is to resort to open 
country at all seasons. The Dartford Warbler, that winters here, has 
no better protection than the other Warblers that leave us for warmer 
climes. Why should the Blackcap acquire tips? Accordingly one 
must discard this solution. 

Then one might argue that the obscuring tips have a protective 
function. Some species, such as Lapland and Snow Buntings, would 
be very conspicuous in winter were they to retain their summer breed- 
ing dress. Yet again there are so many exceptions especially among 
birds that tend to become nomadic and therefore more conspicuous in 
winter, especially when in flocks, that one has to discard this line of 
approach also. Nevertheless the fact that the majority of subtractive 
moulters acquire obscuring tips on the upperparts is, of itself, a protec- 
tive feature when ground feeding but there is another reason to be 
adduced for this later. 

If a list of British or even all birds is consulted and those species 
that do and those that do not moult subtractively are extracted there- 
from, the result is as enlightening as the first appearance of the 
pieces of a jigsaw puzzle tipped out in a heap. There seems no main 
theme, no apparent direction, running through the process. 

And yet there is one aspect, one approach, which has the merit of 
supplying a solution to the many wide divergencies and which appears 
to fit the facts together into a logical picture. It may or may not be 
the true principle underlying subtractive change but it does have the 
advantage of coherence and is, therefore, offered for consideration at 
the risk of being accused of oversimplification. 

The puzzle can be solved by treating subtractive change purely as a 
physiological and sexual process. All the numerous variations and 
contradictions then fall into line and are explicable. 



1949 99 Vol. 69 

Within that broad basis, we find that where the sexes are outwardly 
similar there is no sub tractive change. Where they are outwardly 
dissimilar, there is sub tractive change unless the species fall within an 
exception which will emerge later. The Snow and Lapland Buntings 
have a dissimilar sexual colouring and moult subtractively; the Bull- 
finch and the Blackbird also have the sexes different in appearance 
but they do not moult subtractively. Why the distinction? It 
should be obvious that if subtractive change is purely physiological and 
sexual, that is to say, operates within the concept of sexual selection, 
it will have no value to those species that habitually pair for life, or 
immediately after the moult, or whose pairs keep together throughout 
the non-breeding season. Sexual competition in such cases is reduced 
to a minimum since it is the tendency of formed pairs to become 
non-social and sedentary rather than nomadic and thus encounter little 
sexual interference. Hence, with the Blackbird that pairs up in the 
autumn and holds a winter territory for a time, and the Bullfinch, 
whose pairs keep together throughout the winter, subtractive change is 
of no merit or advantage. 

On the other hand, where individuals of a species become nomadic, 
whether singly or in flocks, outside the breeding season, it must be a 
racial benefit for sexual characteristics to be masked during the non- 
breeding seasons. Imagine the strain on Buntings as a race were all 
the males to retain full summer plumage throughout the year. The 
very essence of the acquisition of obscuring tips and fringes and of the 
process of subtractive change is to ensure sexual indifference outside 
the breeding season and sexual attraction when that season starts. 

On these premises, we can arrive at a formula which appears to fit 
all the cases of subtractive change among passerine birds. Shortly it 
is : — 

1. Where the sexes are similar — there is no subtractive change. 

2. Where the sexes are dissimilar 
and: — 

(A) the species is sedentary or 
non-social during the winter, 

with pairs keeping together — there is no subtractive change, 
or, 

(B) the species is nomadic, either 
singly or in flocks, during the 
winter, and pairs up in the 

spring — there is subtractive change. 

Actually 2 (A) can be expressed in many ways such as including 
the words "pairs for life, or in the autumn" but the fact that the 
pairs keep together through the winter sufficiently covers these cases. 
The simple position is that species having dissimilar sexual plumage 
and who pair up annually in the spring undergo subtractive change, all 
other species do not. Admittedly the use of the words "similar" and 
"dissimilar" is a stumbling block to an exact differentiation. We 
cannot say how far, if at all, slight differences are noticed by birds and 
to arrive at our evaluation we have used an arbitrary assessment in 



Vol. 69 100 1949 

that the word "dissimilar" implies "displaying pronounced differences 
of colouration or markings as to be readily distinguished by other 
birds when feeding together." When feeding together is the operative 
provision. A more exact definition is impossible. What we have to 
deal with is the variations in head and neck markings as well as broad 
distinctions on mantle and rump. There is no doubt that head and 
neck markings are distinguished by other birds but how extensive 
they must be to ensure recognition one cannot say. 

Looking at this formula in relation to particular species it will be 
found that inconsistencies between closely allied birds fall quite 
readily into their proper groups. The Goldfinch and Hawfinch have 
no subtractive change because their sexes are similar. They are in 
Group 1. The Bullfinch having dissimilar sexes but with its pairs 
keeping together through the winter falls into Group 2(A) with no 
subtractive change but the Greenfinch which is nomadic during winter 
in flocks falls into Group 2(B) and moults substractively. The 
Stonechat and other Chats are nomadic in winter, more singly than in 
flocks, and also fall in Group 2(B). The Corn and Little Buntings 
have hardly any sexual differences and do not undergo subtractive 
change and fall into Group 1 while the Yellow, Snow and Lapland 
Buntings with dissimilar sexes and nomadic winter flocks undergo 
subtractive change and fit into Group 2(B). The Blackcap among the 
Warblers, has the exception of dissimilar sexes and produces obscuring 
tips at the moult thus falling into Group 2(B). The other Warblers 
fall into Group 1. The Chaffinch is an instance where, although the 
sexes are different, there is only a small degree of abrasive moult. 
Strangely enough this fits the rule for the reason that the sexes tend 
to segregate into separate flocks in the winter. One can of course 
also point to the difference in head colouring to place the species 
in Group 2(B) without resorting to the other habit as an exception 
that proves the rule. Then again if one compares the habits of the 
Blackbird with those of the Eing Ousel, one can see quite readily 
why the Blackbird has no substractive tips while the King Ousel has. 
And so one can go on through all the species and fitting them quite 
readily into their proper groups and conversely, having a knowledge 
of their individual habits, can forecast whether there will be tips 
and fringes after the moult or not. 

If the rules are right, then one should occasionally come across 
some instances of reversion. In this connection cock Bullfinches 
of the British race sometimes occur with brownish fringes to the 
mantle feathers — a fact which seems to suggest that this species at 
some time did undergo subtractive change and, if so, must have been 
nomadic and unpaired during the winter. 

If our conjectures are correct then, biologically, substractive change 
has a survival value of great importance. How it originated, however, 
is a matter of surmise, where your guess is as good as ours. 

For our part, we postulate that a bird's way of life is dictated by 
two instinctive urges — survival and procreation — and that everything 
else is complementary to these two. For both requirements, adequate 
food is essential. For survival, food is necessary at all times and in 



1949 101 Vol. 69 

all places : for procreation it is required at the right time and in the 
right place. So, for its own survival, a bird can afford to become 
nomadic, but for breeding, it must be sedentary. For its better 
protection while nomadic, it can also become gregarious. Gregarity is 
an advantage during seasons of little-cover and little food. Birds in 
flocks find their food collectively and are mutually protective. 

Anything that tends to detract a bird from diligently seeking food 
and protection during periods of scarcity would also tend to depreciate 
its chances of survival. Quarrels between sexes and between males; 
sexual stimulation, whether by displays, agressive or otherwise, by 
colour patterns, song, the adoption of exposed perches and even of 
territory, would all lead to a diminution in the survival rate if indulged 
in at the wrong time or the wrong season. On the other hand, any- 
thing that tends to act as a brake on unseasonal sexual and breeding 
activity, must increase the survival rate. The acquisition of obscuring 
feather tips by those species that are nomadic and unpaired during 
the non-breeding season when there is scant cover and scant food, 
would, we submit, have such an inhibiting effect and far more effici- 
ently than any other method short of the complete segregation of the 
sexes. To a lesser degree, too, these obscuring tips on the upperparts 
have the advantage of protectively disguising ground feeding flocks 
while the temporary similarity between the plumages of the sexes 
particularly in regard to the underparts already alluded to, would also 
discourage sexual precocity. A bird that joins a flock from behind 
sees only the backs of the feeding birds, once alighted among them its 
attention is now directed to the underparts and thus both features 
of similarity between the sexes act as brakes on unseasonal activity. 

There is another aspect of the mechanics of substractive change 
worth considering. One accepts the proposition that lengthening 
daylight is the trigger or lever, that sets the physiological machine in 
motion towards the ultimate goal of procreation. Food is the motive 
power. Food increases in quantity and vitamin quality as light in- 
creases. The machine, energised by adequate food, produces power 
in the form of secretions which in turn bring about sexual maturity 
of the organs. Once sexual maturity is organically attained, the 
machine does not stop automatically. It goes on producing secretions. 
In our submission, these secretions, surplus to the main function and 
subsequent to its attainment, permeate the fatty parts and through 
them the feathers attached to those parts and such secretions, being 
oil-borne, deepen colour tone by absorption, and hasten the casting 
of the drying tips just as dead skin is forced off by fresh skin. Viewed 
in this light, subtractive change is the culminating act in the 
physiological sequence which produces breeding condition. Viewed 
in any other light, subtractive change is an unrelated, indeterminate, 
process entirely at the mercy of external agencies of varying nature 
and extent and would thus have no merit at all. Nature, they say, 
never does anything in vain. 

Corroboration of this view can be found in the partial moult of head 
and neck parts in some species and the changes in soft part colourings, 
such as beaks and legs, through secretions. 



Vol. 69 102 1949 

If the shedding of tips is a simple unexhausting method of effecting 
sexual colour chang-.i, why should some species resort to the debilitat- 
ing method of actual moult of certain parts of the head and neck? 
Surely when attaining breeding condition the less weakening method 
would be adopted. That it is not applied to parts of the head and 
neck seems simply to arise from the fact that it cannot because some 
of the feathers there are not, like other body contour feathers, attached 
to fat parts and therefore cannot be dealt with by secretions, oil-borne 
and physiological in action. 

As to the other point, we referred earlier to the specimens of 
Starlings having been chosen to illustrate one physiological race by 
having the beak colours to correspond with the extent of abrasion. 
Beak colouring, is brought about by secretions, and the fact that that 
keeps step with subtractive change seems to confirm that subtractive 
change is also physiological and controlled from within and not at the 
mercy of something without the bird. 

Without wishing to be controversial, we consider that if our con- 
ceptions are correct, some aspects of territory acquisition require 
revision but we cannot deal with that aspect now. Nor can we deal 
with the question as to whether subtractive change is a primitive 
feature or of more modern development except to point to two factors — 
one, that the main pigmentation is in the centre rather than at the 
tip of the formed feather, and the male tips having female rather than 
juvenile colouring, which is the primitive type, both point to adapta- 
tion rather than a persistence of a primitive feature. We suggest 
that male sexual characteristics and the specialised use of tips are 
both adaptations. The tips themselves, being of female colouring, 
may be survivals of the time when both sexes were of similar colouring 
which would approximate to the present female colouring, but we 
cannot conceive that it is a mere accident that in those passerine birds 
having strong sexual differences and that flock or are nomadic and 
do not pair up until the spring, we should find subtractive change of 
these tips, whereas in others and in other groups of birds we find no 
such appendages. 

It is our submission that subtractive change has been evolved as 
a simple and effective means of securing in those species having pro- 
nounced plumage distinctions between the sexes and which only pair 
up in the spring that the survival rate shall not be impaired through 
precocious or unseasonal sexual activities. It is also an efficient yet 
inexhausting method of plumage change and of timing that change 
by physiological means to the physical state of the male bird thus 
ensuring that the more virile and suitable individuals shall survive 
to procreate the race at the best time and under the best conditions. 

Our thanks are due to the authorities of the British Museum 
(Natural History) and the Eoyal Scottish Museum and to Dr. J. M. 
Harrison for making skins available, and particularly for allowing one 
of us (CPS) to photograph them and exhibit the results to-night. 
Some of the specimens shown on the coloured and other slides are 
here to-night which, members may wish to inspect to check our claims. 



1949 103 Vol. 69 

Finally we feel that we have now transformed the "old wives' tale" 
of colour change without a moult from fiction into fact and that in 
this and in our previous papers have been able to deal with the twin 
subjects of colour change without a moult and subtractive change 
itself without inconsistencies or contradictions as one coherent and 
logical whole. This will, we trust, lead to a fruitful discussion and 
new approach on the subject of plumage characteristics and their 
effect. ^.pQ^^^ . 

Some Kro^eT^oTTThe^Bandeci Francolin, Francolinus schlegelii 

Heuglin. 

In "Bulletin" B.O.C. 68, p. 8, 1947, I recorded a note on Heuglin's 
Banded Francolin. Briefly. I noted that it had been first found near 
Wau, in the Bahr-el-Ghazal Province of the Sudan in 1863, and had 
also been found in 1914 and 1934 at Bozum, 800 miles to the west in 
French Equitorial Africa. I then went on to relate how I re-discovered 
it in the Sudan, near the type locality, in 1946 and 1947. 

As most of my information had been obtained at second hand, and 
as the specimens had been procured for me by others, I was determined 
to visit the area myself as soon as possible. This opportunity came 
to me last November when I was able to visit Mboro, about 25 miles 
south-west of Wau. I started walking in a south-westerly direction, 
and after forty-five minutes I was informed that I was in the Francolin 
country; after another half hour's walking they proposed that I should 
camp. I could see nothing special in the country to account for the 
species being so localied : it is thickly wooded country with a propon- 
derence of Isoberlinia doka, known to the natives as "Ka". There 
are also open stretches or glades with short grass and flat ironstone 
outcrops. The natives have a few scattered habitations, and various 
crops such as durra, simsim, and telebun. The native name for this 
Francolin is Mbakpa. 

The sub-chief who accompanied me thought that the grass was still 
too long to find the birds, but he sent men out to look for them. As 
I recorded in 1947, the method is to listen for them calling at sunset, 
and to mark down the trees under which they will spend the night. 
During the middle of the night a man goes out with a lighted faggot 
and a sort of small basket fixed to the end of a long pole. As he 
approaches the bird he hides the flaming faggot behind his body and 
only brings it forward as he is about to bring his basket down on to 
the bird. It is interesting to note that the birds usually sleep in 
pairs, each bird of a pair facing in opposite directions. 

I spent four days in the "Mbakpa" country and regret to say that 
I never saw the bird alive except when brought in to me by the 
natives. One was heard calling in the woods the first evening after 
I arrived there, and in all the natives succeeded in obtaining five 
specimens, two males and three females. 

I cross-examined the sub-chief very thoroughly in order to try and 
get as much information as possible. He insisted that they were very 
localised, though he did not know why; he based this information on 



Vol. 69 104 1949 

the fact that in 1946-47 he had had men hunting them for me far and 
wide, and that they were only found in this one small area. He said 
that the bird is closely associated with the "Ka" tree on which is 
found a certain caterpillar which appears in April; the Mbakpa is said 
to eat these caterpillars as they fall to the ground. Of other food, it 
appears to be very fond of simsim, and will be found in these crops 
when they are ripe. It possibly eats telebun, but not durra. 

I asked the sub-chief about the breeding season, and he stated 
that this is about September or October, and that only two eggs are 
laid. I told him that I had been informed that eggs were laid in 
April or May, and sometimes as many at ten. He scoffed at these 
suggestions, insisted that September — October was the correct breed- 
ing season and that never more than two eggs are laid; he would not 
even admit three eggs. 

I was lucky enough to obtain two pairs of freshly laid eggs; the 
natives who brought them to me each followed the method of burning 
the grass, watching for the Francolins to fly away, and then running 
in to collect the eggs. I am the first to admit that this is not conclu- 
sive evidence, but I have no reason to believe that they have foisted 
the eggs of some other species on to me; they played fair with the 
bird itself, and I am prepared to believe that they have played fair 
over the eggs. I must leave it to the experts to say what they think. 

Finally. I showed my specimens of this Francolin to the mission 
schoolboys at Mboro in the hopes of discovering whether it exists in 
other places, for the boys came from many localities other than 
Mboro. There was much disagreement, but as the boys were about 
to go home for their holidays, I asked them to try and find specimens 
and to send them through the Mission to the Governor of the 
Province. Just before I left the Southern Sudan in April, a specimen 
reached me in an advanced state of decomposition; I was unable to 
make anything of it as a skin, but it was undoubtedly a female Banded 
Francolin, and I have since learned that it came from Eaga which is 
nearly 200 miles west of Mboro, that is to say in the general direction 
of Bozum. 

Professor E. Stresemann mentioned that there is one of Heuglin's 
specimens, an adult-female, in the Berlin Museum. 

New Races of a Courser, Woodpecker, Swift, Lark, 
Wheatear, and Serin from Africa. 

Colonel E. Meinertzhagen described the following six new races and 
exhibited specimens : — 

Cursorius cursor theresae, new race. 

Description. — Differs from Cursorius cursor rufus Gould, in having 
the mantle, paler, less rufous and more isabelline, the blue of the 
nape usually paler and purer blue and the forehead always a paler 
chestnut. Breast a more isabelline colour and not so brown; black 
belly-band less well defined. 



1949 105 Vol. 69 

Description — So far only known from Little Namaqualand south 
of the Orange Eiver around Pof adder and Springbok. 

Type. — Adult male, near Springbok, Little Namaqualand. 7 May, (^ 
1949. In the Meinertzhagen collection. 

Measurement of the type. — Wing 138mm. 

Material examined. — A large series of Cursorius cursor rufus in the 
British Museum from the High Veldt of South Africa and four speci- 
mens of Cursorius cursor theresae recently obtained from Little 
Namaqualand. The differences ascribed to this new race are perfectly 
normal, Little Namaqualand having a sub -desert climate with a mini- 
mum rainfall. 

Geocolaptes olivaceus theres^, new race. 
Description. — Top of head dull blue-grey, not olive green as in 
Geocolaptes olivaceus (Gmelin). Mantle browner, not so yellow or 
olive. Throat whiter and not buff. Size as in G. o. olivaceus. 

Distribution. — The mountainous country around Springbok, Little 
Namaqualand, where it is not uncommon. 

\ol" Type. — Adult male. Ten miles north of Springbok, north-west Cape 
Province. 8 May, 1949. In the Meinertzhagen collection. 

Measurements of the type. — Wing 128mm. 

Material examined. — A large series of G. o. olivaceus from Cape 
Colony, Transvaal and Natal, in the British Museum and a single 
pair of G. o. theresce from the type locality. I can trace no previous 
record of this species from Little Namaqualand. The series of 
G. o. olivaceus shows that specimens from drier areas (Kalahari, etc.), 
tend to be paler than others from near Cape Town and Natal, though 
none of them approach G. o. theresce in the blue-greyness of the head. 

Apus affinis theres^, new race. 
Description. — Differs from A. a. affinis (Gray) in being a much paler 
bird in all respects and more nearly resembles^., a. galilejensis (Antinori) 
from which its differs in having the crown and forehead not a mouse- 
brown or even pale mouse-brown, but a grey-brown, almost blue-grey. 

Distribution. — Only so far known from the type locality, Brandvlei, 
north-west Cape Province, South Africa. 

Type. — Adult male, Brandvlei, Cape Province, 3 May, 1949. In 
the Meinertzhagen collection. 

Measurements of type. — Wing 127 and of co-type, a female on same 
date and at same place 136mm. 

Remarks. — I have examined the large series of A. a. affinis 
and A. a. galilejensis in the British Museum and my own extensive 
series including topotypical specimens from northern India and the 
Sea of Galilee. I consider A. a. abyssinicus Streubel, 1848; Massawah, 
Eritrea, to be indistinguishable from A. a. affinis of India, West 
African specimens being sometimes slightly darker than East African 
specimens. (See also Bannerman, Ibis 1932, p. 686; Bannerman, 
Ibis 1924, p. 224; and Grant and Praed Bull, B.O.C. 1937, p. 21). 



Vol. 69 106 1949 

The two specimens of this new race were obtained from a small 
colony of some dozen birds apparently nesting in huts; though no 
nests were seen, birds were passing in and out of eaves. 

Though Eoberts ("Birds of South Africa," p. 157) states this bird 
is a common resident species, I personally, after four years residence 
in that country have never come across it. Niethammer and Hoesch 
("Vog. Deutsch-Sud-West-Afr.," p. 204) did not obtain or observe it in 
Namaqualand though Bradfield obtained a specimen at Quickborn in 
Damaraland. 

The development of a pale race of this swift from the arid region of 
south-west Africa is not unexpected and that it should approach 
the arid-region race of the Mediterranean-Palestine- Sind area 
(A. a. galilejensis) rather than the more humid region race of the 
Indian Peninsula and tropical Africa (A. a. afjinis) is quite normal and 
further demonstrates desert influence on plumage whether the animal 
benefits or not; whatever camouflage a bird like a swift adopts, it can 
have no selection value, for movement cancels out camouflage. There 
can be no question of selection acting on variation. Some other 
agency is at work and about that we are ignorant; in any case this 
is not the place to embark on length}' discussion about a subject which 
incites curiosity and about which I have a great deal to say. 

Calandrella sclatbri theres^, new race. 

Description. — Paler and greyer above than C. s., sclateri (Shelley) 
and considerably paler below. 

Distribution. — So far only known from near Pof adder. 

Type. — Adult female. Twenty-five miles east of Pofadder, 6 May, 
1949. In the Meinertzhagen collection. 

Measurements of the type. — Wing 80, culmen from skull 13mm. 

Material examined. — Three specimens of C. s. theresce from the 
type locality and eleven specimens of C. s. sclateri from the western 
part of Cape Province and Damaraland. 

Calandrella (spizocorys) sclateri. (Shelley). 

Calandrella sclateri (Shelley), Birds Afr., 3, 136. 1902: Hountop 
or Stormtop E. Great Namaqualand. Type in British Museum; 
collected by Anderson who clearly refers to this specimen under Alauda 
conirostris (Bds. Damaraland, p. 193). Collected in June, 1862, when 
Anderson was at Objimbinque between Windhuk and Walvis Bay. 
The type is in worn plumage and very dirty. 

Calandrella sclateri capensis, O-Grant. 1913: Philipstown, Cape 
Province. Type in British Museum; a badly prepared specimen but in 
fresh plumage and differing in no respect from the type of 
C. sclateri. 

Seven specimens-of this small lark were collected near Prieska and 
Upington in Cape Province and near Pofadder in Little Namaqualand. 



1949 107 Vol. 69 

(Enanthe lugens vauriei, new race. 

Description. — Differs in the male from 0. I. lugentoides (Seebohm) 
in having the basal half of the outer tail feathers pale orange and not 
white and the crown slightly tinged brown, not so pure grey. Differs 
from 0. I. lugubris (Ruppell) in having basal half of tail and rump a 
paler orange and the crown whiter. The female differs from 
0. I. lugentoides in having a slight orange wash on basal half of tail 
and rump, and from 0. I. lugubris in being altogether a browner and 
paler bird. Mantle of female as in 0. I. lugentoides. 

Distribution. — Only so far known from Erigavo between 6,000 and 
7,000 feet in eastern Somaliland and the Warsangii country. 

Type. — iidult male, Erigavo, British Somaliland, 6,000 feet, 
20 January, 1949. In the Meinertzhagen collection. 

Measurements of type. ^-Wing 84, culmen from base 17mm. 

Remarks. — Inhabits the rocky ravines near Erigavo, Medishe, and 
on Daloh Mountain up to 7,000 feet. 0. I. boscaweni Bates from the 
Hadramaut has a completely white crown and is a perfectly valid race, 
blending with O. I. lugentoides in the western Hadramaut, southern 
Arabia. 

Based on three males and three females from Erigavo and a female 
in the British Museum from the "Warsangii country" obtained by 
Archer. 

This race is of great interest as it confirms the close relationship 
between the (E. lugubris and (E. picata groups. 

I am naming this race after Mr. Charles Vaurie who has recently 
reviewed the eastern races of this species, though I differ in my 
treatment in regarding (E. lugens, (E. picata and (E. lugubris as 
conspecific. 

Serinus albogularis theres^, new race. 

Description. — Differs from 8. a. albogularis (Smith), in having a 
much paler mantle, grey-brown instead of brown or sometimes reddish- 
brown and the underparts a paler tone. Differs from S. a. crocopygia 
Sharpe, in having the rump and upper tail coverts greenish-yellow 
instead of bright lemon yellow. Eyebrow apparent but not well 
marked. It is also a shade paler on the mantle than S. a. crocopygia. 

Distribution. — Only so far known from 50 miles east of Springbok 
in Little Namaqualand, Western Cape Province; and from Aus in the 
extreme south-west of South West Africa. Abundant on a rocky 
ridge east of Springbok and a few seen among rocks at Aus. 

Type. — Adult male, 50 miles east of Springbok, Little Namaqualand. 
7 May, 1949. In the Meinertzhagen collection. 

Measurements of type. — Wing in quill. Wing of cotype 80mm. 
The type is in very fresh plumage and has only just completed body 
moult. 

Remarks. — I have examined a considerable series- of 8. a. albogularis 
and 8. a. crocopygia from the Cape Province and South West Africa 



Vol. 69 108 1949 

respectively in the British Museum. Another race to be considered 
is S. a. sordahlcB Friedmann, Proc. Biol. Soc, Wash. 45, p. 65, 
1932; Brukkaros Mt., S.W. Africa, between Mariental and 
Keetmanshoop, which is said to be as dark as S. a. albogularis but 
with a longer and relatively less swollen bill, and can therefore have 
nothing to do with this new race. 

On Eremopterix leucopareia cavei Grant & Mackworth-Praed. 

Colonel F. 0. Cave sent the following: — 

In Bull, B.O.C. 61, p. 62, 1941, C. Grant and Mackworth-Praed 
described this new race on a single female specimen obtained by me 
in the south-eastern Sudan. I have now obtained four males and one 
female from the same area and find that they are referable to 
Eremopterix signata (Oustalet). The females of these two species are 
almost identical, and accurate identification can only be assured by a 
comparison of the males, which has now become possible from the 
above specimens. I have compared my female with the type of 
Eremopterix leucopareia cavei, and find they are identical; 1 have 
compared them both with the females of E. leucopareia and E. signata 
and find that the large bills belong to the latter species. Moreover, 
my female was shot in company with a male which is clearly referable 
to E. signata. 

I have also compared my four males with the series in the National 
Collection and consider that they can be separated from typical 
E. signata. Therefore Eremopterix leucopareia cavei now becomes 
Eremopterix signata cavei. 

Description of male. — Similar to E. signata signata but clear grey 
brown, not sandy brown; the white of the underparts a purer white 
with no creamy wash. 

Measurements of four males. — Wing 77-79-5, exposed part of 
culmen 9-11, depth of bill at base 7-5, tail 44-46, tarsus 17-18mm. 

Distribution. — Extreme south-eastern Sudan from Atoporopos Hills 
to Lake Eudolf. Two birds in the National Collection from Turkana 
District of Kenya agree sufficiently with this race to be included in its 
distribution. 

On the Little Grebe, Podiceps ruficollis (Pallas) from the 
Thames Valley. 

Colonel E. Meinertzhagen sent the following note: — 

Four adult breeding birds taken in April and July from the Thames 
around Pangbourne are considerably blacker above and below than 
others taken in many parts of the British Islands and more closely 
resemble specimens from Holland which are topotypical of 
P. r. rujicoliis. Breeding birds from elsewhere in the British Islands, 






1949 109 Vol. 69 

especially from Ireland are whiter below, but I hesitate to go further 
into the matter until I have seen more material in breeding dress from 
all over the British Islands. 

Previous to 1939 the Little Grebe was common near Pangbourne, 
twelve breeding pairs being counted between Goring and Beading. 
Between 1940 and 1945 not a single pair bred on that stretch of the 
river which was then being used as a practise camp for bridge building 
and light landing craft. Army launches at high speed were constantly 
on the move. The resultant wash swamped the grebes' nests and they 
left the area but the moorhen had more sense by building in the 
bushes and trees overhanging the river. In 1943 I counted eight 
moorhens' nests built well above the water line, one of which was 
four feet from the ground. But in 1945, under more peaceful condi- 
tions, the moorhen had reverted to water-level nests. 



On the status of Parisoma leucomelaena (Hemprich 
and Ehrenberg. 

Colonel K. Meinertzhagex sent the following note: — 

Gurruca leucomelcena Hemprich and Ehrenberg, was described from 
Arabia in 1833. It is a mystery how this bird has now found its way 
into the genus Parisoma Swainson, where it finds itself grouped with 
four or five other species which it resembles neither in colour pattern, 
bill, nor habit. In all these respects it agrees with and fits well into 
the genus Sylvia Scopoli. 

Sylvia blanfordi Seebohm was described from Eritrea, the correct 
reference being, Proc. Zool. Soc. p. 979, 1878, and not that given in 
Syst. Av. iEthiop., p. 404. This bird can scarcely be separated from 
Gurruca leucomelcena, being on the whole, in fresh plumage, slightly 
browner and not so grey. 

Parisoma blanfordi somaliensis Sclater and Praed 1918: Somaliland, 
differs from Gurruca leucomelcena only in having slightly more white 
in the tail, a character which is not too constant. 

I have examined a good series of these three races and know them 
well in the field. Without question they are all conspecific and should 
be placed in the genus Sylvia. The species comes very near to Sylvia 
hortensis (Gmelin) from which it cannot be distinguished in the field. 
I have had them both before me in the same bush in Arabia. In fact, 
if it were not for the longer forwardly-directed rictal bristles, I should 
treat S. leucomelcEna as a race of S. hortensis. 
( 

We therefore have; 

Sylvia I. leucomelcena. South West Arabia. Paler head and mantle. 

Tips of outer tail feathers with small white 
spot. 



Vol. 69 110 1949 

Sylvia I. blanfordi. From Port Sudan to Eritrea. Darker head 

and mantle. Tail similar. 

Sylvia I. so maliensis . British Somaliland. Head not so dark as 

S. I. blanfordi but mantle similar. Much more 
white (usually) on the two outer tail 
feathers. In all three races the crown of the 
male is darker than that of the female which 
conforms to the Sylvia-pattern. 

Note: — Sylvia norrisce Nicoll from the Fayoum is a race of Sylvia 
melanocephala (Gmelin), having nothing to do with 
S. leucomelcena. See Syst. Av. iEthiop., p. 404, footnote. 

I have examined the type and three specimens of Parisoma buryi 
Ogilvie- Grant. They should not be in Parisoma and should probably 
also be in Sylvia, though they have a shorter rounder wing than ever 
occurs in that genus. I have not seen the species in the field nor is 
there any record of their habits. But for the moment they are better 
left in Parisoma until better prepared material is available and more 
is known of their habits and juvenile plumage. 



On the genera Erythropygia A. Smith 1836, and Agrobates 
Swainson 1836 ; and the status of Erythropygia hamertoni 

Ogilvie-Grant. 

Colonel E. Meinertzhagen sent the following note: — 

I have on more than one occasion pointed' out the lack of characters 
alleged to separate Erythropygia and Agrobates but authors continue 
to keep these two genera distinct and widely separated, the former 
being placed in the Turdidce and the latter in the Sylviidce. I have 
sought in vain for generic differences and can only confirm that these 
genera should be fused, Erytliropygia having priority. 

In 1906 Ogilvie-Grant described Erythropygia hamertoni on 
specimens from the interior of Somaliland. I have examined the type 
in the British Museum. It is not in good condition and has a wing 
measurement of 72mm. In every respect it resembles Erythropygia 
galactotes minor (Cabanis) except that it is considerably smaller and 
slightly darker, browner not so red; I consider it a race of Erythropygia 
galactotes. Sclater, Syst. Av. Mth. 484, keeps it a separate species. 

On the whole Erythropygia is better placed with the Sylviidce. The 
young are unspotted. The general pattern of the tail conforms to 
that of Scotocerca and Prinia, the nest is a large untidy structure, off 
the ground, and the eggs are more heavily spotted than is usual in the 
Turdidce. The habit of raising the tail over the back is similar to that 
of Prinia and Scotocerca and the song closely resembles that of the 
garden warbler. Both Agrobates and Erythropygia have a graduated 
tail, a feature unusual in the Turdidce. 



1949 111 Vol. 69 

On the occurrence of certain species in Nyasaland. 

Mr. C. W. Benson sent the following six notes: — 

(1) Anas capensis Gmelin. (Querquedula capensis, Mbara, "Ibis," 
pp. 167, 174, 1901. See also Phillips, "Nat. Hist, of Ducks," 2 p. 268, 
1923.) Turdus storm-si Hartlaub is recorded in the same "Ibis" 
paper from Mbara, and it has been shown that in that particular 
instance, at any rate, Mbara is the same place as Abercorn, in 
Northern Ehodesia, see Bull. B.O.C., 67, p. 36, 1946. Therefore the 
occurrence of Anas capensis in Nyasaland cannot be accepted without 
further evidence, not so far forthcoming. 

(2) Galachrysia nuchalis (Gray). (Glare ola nuchalis, Lake Mweru 
and Karungwisi, "Ibis," pp. 167, 174, 1901. These localities are in 
Northern Ehodesia, see "Ibis," pp. 163, 164, 1901. There is no subse- 
quent record from Nyasaland. 

(3) Eremialector gutturalis (Smith). (Pterocles gutturalis, Chisila 
Eiver Plains, near Lake Mweru, "Ibis," p. 24, 1894. Also in 
Northern Ehodesia. There is no Lake Mweru in Nyasaland. Speci- 
mens from "N. Lake Niasa" or "N. Niasa" are also extra-limital, see 
Ann. Trans. Mus., 21, p. 157, 1949. Incorrectly recorded from 
Nyasaland by Sclater, "Syst. Av. Ethiop.", 1, p. 157, 1924. 

(4) Apus apus toulsoni (Bocage). (Cypselus toulsoni, coll. Whyte, 
Zomba, Oct., "Ibis," p. 4, 1894. See also Eeichenow, "Vog. Afr.", 
2, p. 380, 1903, and Belcher, "Birds of Nyasaland", p. 153, 1930, 
who misquotes locality as Mlosa and collector as Sharpe.) From a 
perusal of the British Museum register of specimens, and the accounts 
of Whyte's Nyasaland collections, in the "Ibis" between 1893 and 
1898, the only specimen on which this record can be based is one 
bearing Brit. Mus. Eeg. No. 93.6.1.277, collected by Whyte at 
Zomba in Oct., 1892, attributable to A. a. barbatus (Sclater), not 
A. a. toulsoni, and in fact also referred to by Belcher under A. a. apus 
(Linnaeus). 

Two further points may incidentally be mentioned : — 

(a) Belcher quotes a record of A. a. apus, obtained by Sharpe at 
Mlosa. See also "Ibis," p. 380, 1898, and Eeichenow, p. 378. This 
specimen, also in the Brit. Mus., Eeg. No. 97.11.4.14, was correctly 
identified. It was collected by Whyte, not by Sharpe. 

(b) The type of Cypselus alfredi Shelley, "Birds of Africa," 2, 
p. 345, 1900, (see also "Ibis," pp. 166, 172, 1901), which is in the 
British Museum, and must be attributed to A. cequatorialis 
cequatorialis (Miiller), is from Mbara. This locality must be regarded 
as indeterminate, as in the case of Anas capensis, see above. 

(5) Cossyplia bocagei Finsch and Hartlaub. (Cichladusa bocagei, 
"Tanganyika Plateau," nor more detailed locality, "Ibis," pp. 365, 
374, 1899). Nor is there any further information as to locality on 



Vol. 69 112 1949 

the label of the specimen, Brit. Mus. Eeg. No. 99.3.1.111, or in the 
Museum register. It may have been collected anywhere in the area 
covered by the Anglo-German Boundary Commission, see "Ibis," 
p. 365, 1899. There is no subsequent record from Nyasaland. 

(6) Euplectes afra, race E. a. taha Smith. (Pyromelana taha, 
female, Fort Lister, July, coll. Whyte, "Ibis," p. 471, 1894, and 
Palombe, coll. Sharpe, "Ibis," p. 554, 1898. See also Shelley, "Birds 
of Africa," Vol. 4, pt. 1, p. 85, 1905, and Belcher, "Birds of 
Nyasaland," p. 320, 1930). An examination of the register of speci- 
mens in the British Museum and from the references to Whyte 's and 
Sharpe's collections in "History of the Collections," 2, 1906, pp. 404, 
476, 511, has revealed only the following references to specimens of 
E. a. taha: — Brit. Mus. Eeg. No. 94.5.5.88, coll. Whyte, particulars 
as above; Brit. Mus. Reg. Nos. 98.5.1.8 and 9, coll. Sharpe, locality 
as above. These three specimens are females, or males in immature 
or non-breeding dress, of Quelea erythrops (Hartlaub), not E. a. taha, 
though originally identified on the labels as the latter, of which I 
know of no other Nyasaland record. Quelea erythrops is widely distri- 
buted, see "Ibis," p. 330, 1942; p. 475, 1944; p. 564, 1947; p. 394, 
1948; Ann. Trans. Mus., 21, p. 175, 1949. 

As regards the occurrence of E. a. taha in Portuguese East Africa, 
the female recorded "Ibis," 1911, p. 236, from Tete, in the British 
Museum, is of E. orix sundevalli Bonaparte. The only other record 
I can trace is that given "Ibis," p. 110, 1900, repeated by Shelley, 
op. cit., of two males collected by H. S. H. Cavendish, at Mapicuti, 
Cheringoma district, Mozambique, 20 Sept., in the British Museum. 
In the register there are five specimens recorded as "Pyromelana," 
Brit. Mus. Eeg. Nos. 98.11.18.43-47. Three of these I have traced, 
and are not E. a. taha. The other two, nos. 43 and 45, the only 
other possible specimens which could have been so identified, I have 
failed to trace, owing to the re-arrangement of the collections follow- 
ing the war, which is still in progress. From the dates given in 
the register, 17 and 20 Sept., they would not have been in breeding 
dress, and it is likely that they also were misidentified. 

I thank Captain C. H. B. Grant for checking the identifications of 
these specimens originally recorded as E. a. taha. 



Systematic Notes on African Birds. 

Mr. C. M. N. White sent the following four notes: — 

(1) On Nycticorax leuconotus natalensis (Eoberts). 

Eoberts, Ann. Trans. Mus. 14, p. 239, 1931, introduced this race 
wing in the type from Karkloof, Natal, measures 274mm. Six from 
the Transvaal measure 262-267mm. The type locality of the nominate 
race is Senegambia and five from West Africa have wings 248-262mm. 
One from Northern Ehodesia has a wing 273mm. From this it looks 
as if the southern birds are larger but there may well be a size cline 



1949 113 Vol. 69 

which would render it inadvisable to separate the species into races 
designated by name and the present note will perhaps induce others 
to provide further measurements from intermediate localities. 

(2) On Mgupius monachus chincou (Daudin). 

Meinertzhagen (Bull. B.O.C. 58, p. 94, 1938) showed that eastern 
examples of this vulture are larger than western ones and named them 
A. m. danieli. Hachisuka (1 c. 59, p. 16, 1938) showed that Daudin's 
Vultur chincou was an earlier name for the eastern race. The 
measurements show a complete size cline across the range from west 
to east and it is submitted that whilst there is a gradual change in 
size, it would not be desirable to use trinomials in such a case. 

(3) On Melierax poliopterus coombsi Eoberts. 

Roberts, Ann. Transl. Mus. 14, p. 239, 1931, introduced this race 
with the type from Zoutpansberg, Northern Transvaal. I have 
examined the type and believe it is merely a melanic variant of 
M. musicus (Daudin). Roberts believed that M. poliopterus Cabanis 
was specifically distinct from M. musicus whereas I regard them as 
conspecific and I cannot see that this specimen is any evidence for 
introducing M. poliopterus as a species to be added to the fauna of 
South Africa. 

(4) On Circcetus gallicus heptneri Dementiew. 

This race was described in O.M. 1932, p. 173, from Pischpek, 
Russian Turkestan as larger than western birds, and as G. gallicus 
occurs as a migrant to Africa it is necessary to consider whether or 
not trinomials must be used. However, this appears to be another 
instance of a size cline and whilst the Short-toed Eagles of Turkestan 
average larger, the measurements overlap and there seems nothing to 
be gained by bestowing trinomial designation upon the eastern birds 
for an inconstant average larger size. 

Bird Calls. 

Colonel F. 0. Cave and Dr. James P. Chapin gave excellent imita- 
tions of the calls of various birds, which was most vastly entertaining 
and much appreciated by those present. 

Notices. 

STOCK OF THE "BULLETIN." 

It is proposed to reduce the stock of the "Bulletin", but before this 
is done members are given an opportunity to acquire parts at 2/6 each. 
Applications should be made to the Honorary Secretary. No reply 
will be sent if parts are not available. 

Please note the Hon. Secretary's address: 

W. E. Glegg, Esq., Zoological Museum, Tring, Herts. 



Vol. 69 114 1949 

PUBLICATION OF THE "BULLETIN." 

Members who make a contribution at a Meeting should hand the 
M.S. to the Editor at that Meeting. As the proofs will be corrected 
by the Editor, it is essential that the M.S. should be correct and either 
typed or written very clearly with scientific and place names in block 
letters. The first mention of a scientific name should be spelt out in 
full, i.e., genus, specific name, racial name, (if any) and author. Any 
further mention of the same name need only have the initial letter of 
the genus and no further mention of the author. 

If no M.S. is handed to the Editor at the Meeting, a note will be 
inserted mentioning the contribution. 

NEXT MEETING. 

The next Meeting of the Club will take place on Wednesday, 16th 
November, 1949, at the Eembrandt Hotel, Thurloe Place, S.W.7, 
preceded by a Dinner at 6.30 p.m. 



1 ' 49 






BULLETIN 

OP THE 

BRITISH ORNITHOLOGISTS' CLUB. 



4 -• ft! 

Volume 69. 



Wfl 



No. II 



The four-hundred-ancl-eighty-ninth Meeting of the Club was held at 
the Rembrandt Hotel, Thurloe Place, S.W.7, on Wednesday, 16th 
November, 1949, following a dinner at 6.30 p.m. 

Chairman : Dr. J. M. Harrison. 

Members present : — Miss C. M. Acland ; Miss P. Barclay-Smith ; 
Mrs. R. G. Barnes ; F. J. F. Barrington ; Major N. A. G. Beal ; 
Col. F. W. Dewhurst ; W. E. Glegg {Hon. Secretary) ; Miss C. E. 
Godman ; Miss E. M. Godman ; Capt. C. H. B. Grant {Editor) ; Miss 
E. P. Leach {Hon. Treasurer) ; Miss C. Longfield ; C. W. Mackworth- 
Praed ; Sir Philip Manson-Bahr ; Lt.-Col. W. A. Payn ; Miss G. M. 
Rhodes ; Lt.-Commdr. C. P. Staples ; B. W. Tucker ; A. Williams ; 
C. de Worms ; Col. O. E. Wynne. 

Guests .—Mrs. K A. G. Beal ; G. S. Harris ; Mrs. B. W. Tucker. 

Members, 22 ; Guests, 3 ; Total, 25. 

Exhibition of a Variety of the Rook. 
Dr. J. M. Harrison remarked : — 

I am showing you tonight a variety of the Rook, Corvus frugilegus 
frugilegus Linnseus, which was sent to me by Mr. W. H. Fordham. This 
specimen was shot at Ashwell, near Baldock, Hertfordshire, on May 
7th, 1949. It is a young female. Mr. Fordham tells me that this variety 
has been known at Odsey and Ashwell for many years, and that he has 
personal knowledge of such birds for some 45 years. The peculiarity 
would seem to be confined to the immature birds, and in this respect it 
would appear to be a recessive different from some such cases, e.g. 
albinism which is frequently found in adults as well. The Odsey and 
Ashwell rookeries are each of about 350 nests, and in a four year period 
seven examples of the " mottled " mutant have been recorded, so that, 
very roughly indeed, the incidence of this aberration would seem to be 
less than J%, while it is claimed that during this period more than half 
of the young Rooks had been examined. 

In 1946 one nest had three " mottled " birds and probably no normals, 
the other four of the seven were odd birds. The incidence of the variety 
might well be higher for it has to be remembered that the birds are dras- 
tically thinned out, and that in all probability only one bird per nest 
reaches maturity. 

Published December 7th, 1919. Price 2/6. 



Vol. 69 118 1949 

The occurrences of the mutant have been as follows : — in 1946, four ; 
1947, two ; 1948, none, and in 1949 one, the specimen now exhibited. 

In 1949 Mr. Fordham tells me that from the two rookeries 500 young 
birds were examined. 

It is of interest to note that Mr. Guy Mannering has a specimen (now 
in the Maidstone Museum), which was obtained on July 14th, 1946, at 
Preston, in Kent, and he tells me that similar specimens occur at long 
intervals at Penshurst, also in Kent. 

The presence of this very distinctive variety in two different counties 
is of much interest, and one can but conclude that there must be some 
interchange of birds during the breeding season, over considerable 
distances, to account for a recessive becoming manifest in localities widely 
separated from one another. Upon this aspect of the Rook's behaviour 
there would seem to be no information, and the subject might well repay 
for study. 

This matter was the subject of a short note by Mr. W. H. Fordham, in 
Country Life, for June 21th, 1947, with a photograph of one of these 
birds. 



A New Race of Chaffinch from south-west Ireland. 
Mr. J. G. van Marle communicated the following : — 
Fringilla ccelebs hibernica, new race. 

Description. — Colour of ear coverts, cheeks, chin, throat and breast 
more warmly orange brown than F.c. gengleri Kleinschmidt, lacking the 
cinnamon red of many Scottish males ; brown on the back variable but 
tinged with orange. 

Type. — Male adult, Glengariff, south-west Ireland, 5 June, 1948. In 
collection Sillem-van Marie, No. 5622. 

Measurements of type. — Wing 85, culmen 14, tarsus 18, tail 64 mm. 

Remarks.— When on a holiday in the south-west and west of Ireland 
in 1948, I was struck by the colour of the chin, throat and breast of the 
chaffinches feeding on the lawn of the hotel where I was staying. 

This colour being more orange than that of English and Continental 
finches, gave me the idea to collect a series for comparison. I succeeded 
in getting a series of five males from Glenariff, Killarney, and Adare, west 
of Limerick. These birds are different from English, Scottish and 
Continental birds to such a degree, that, although nomenclature is 
already burdened with too many racial names for chaffinches, in this 
instance I feel that the south-western Irish bird should be described as a 
new race. 

As the British Museum nor the Dublin Museum have any breeding 
birds, the material collected could not be compared with breeding birds 
of other parts of Ireland and the limits of the distribution of this race 
could not be ascertained. 

In a series of twelve males from Ireland in the British Museum collection 
from outside the breeding season, two males from Campile, south Wexford 
13 January 1911 and Belturbet, Cavan 26 January, 1911 are of the same 
orange brown colour as the series of birds in summer plumage from south- 



1949 119 Vol. 69 

west and western Ireland. Of the remaining ten birds four are definitely 
migrants. The rest being indeterminable because of their winter plumage. 
Measurements of the series collected: wing, 82-82-85-86-87, culmen : 
13.2-14.3 ; tarsus, 18.2-19.3 ; tail, 58-59-60-64-66 mm. 

Dr. J. M. Harrison, who exhibited the series, remarked : — 
I have been able to compare Mr. van Marie's series with material in 
my collection from England and from Northern Ireland, as well as with 
birds from Scandinavia and other Continental countries, and can affirm 
that the series of Fringilla coelebs Linnaeus from south-west Ireland, which 
I have tonight exhibited on behalf of Mr. van Marie, present marked 
differences from breeding birds from England and Northern Ireland. 
From the latter region breeding males match F.C. gengleri, while the 
series on which Mr. van Marie has based his new name are clearly separ- 
able, on account of the much darker and richer orange-brown of the 
under-parts. Similarly they are also quite distinct from Scandinavian 
F. c. coelebs and the central European race F. c. hortensis Brehen. 

Number of Genera, Species and Races of Birds. 

Colonel O. E. Wynne made the following remarks : — 

I have just completed, as far as I can, a list of the Birds of the World 
to date. The resulting count may be of interest. 

The non-passerine birds are now all given in Peter's six volumes. 
The passerine Birds of the Americas, the Ethiopian and Australasian 
Regions are given in Hellmayr's Catalogue and Sclater's and Mathew's 
Systema. All these have been corrected and the necessary additions 
made. 

No similar check list exists for the complete Palseartic or Oriental 
Regions and most books and local lists are made out in the reverse order 
i.e. Corvidoe first. Also many genera overlap and so I have compiled, 
in manuscript, a complete list of Palaeartic and Oriental passerine Birds. 

To obtain the numbers I have compiled a table showing all genera in 
their systematic order. Against each genus is shown, in pencil, the num- 
ber of species and races. Totals for each family and order are abstracted. 

As regards genera, there is a general tendency to group into larger 
genera. This was done by Hartert in his Palsearctic Birds, and more 
recently, by Mayr and Delacour in their Birds of the Philippines and 
Malaysia. Vaurie, in his review of the Dicruridse 1949, reduces the 
number of genera from twelve to two. Mayr estimated the total number 
of genera as about 2,600. My present figure is about 200 less. 

As regards species, Mayr's figure in the Auk, 1946, is 8,616. This is 
based on a larger grouping than is usually used and on unpublished views. 
My figure is about 500 more. 

As regards races a considerable amount of weeding out of non-valid 
races has recently been done. Mackworth-Praed and Grant's numerous 
articles are an example. 

Fisher, in " Watching Birds 1942 " quotes a figure of 28,000 

Mayr estimates about 28,500 valid races described up to the end of 
1945, but this would not appear to be an actual count. My present 
figure is about 2,600 less than Mayr's. 



Vol. 69 120 1949 

My detailed figures for non- passerine and passerine birds are as 
follows : — 

Genera Species Races 

Non-passerine 1,065 3,702 9,779 

Passerine 1,325 5,424 16,118 



2,390 9,126 25,897 



In conclusion, I would like to pay a tribute to the many excellent 
revisions of genera and families which have appeared recently, and books 
such as Mayr's and Delacour's on the " Birds of the Philippines and 
Malaysia." 

I would also like to express my thanks to Col. Payn, who has most 
kindly presented me with the "Ibis " from 1931-1945 and to the Alexander 
Library of the Edward Grey Institute at Oxford, which has kept me 
continuously supplied with books. As a result I have been able to do 
nearly all the work at home. 

Great Auks reported from Lofoten Islands. 
Explanation : — Introduction of King Penguins. 

Mr. William E. Glegg remarked as follows : — 

During the course of my remarks on the eggs of the Great Auk, Alca 
impennis, Linnaeus, antea p. 79, I mentioned that Mr. J. R. T. Pollard 
of the University, St. Andrews was searching for a reference to an official 
account of a report that a Great Auk had been seen off the Lofoten 
Islands in or about 1937. My statement drew the attention of our 
member Dr. H. M. S. Blair, who kindly offered to make enquiries among 
his Norwegian friends in the hope that they might be able to elucidate 
the mystery. I gladly availed myself of Dr. Blair's kind offer although 
I was not very optimistic as to the result. In a letter, dated 9 August, 
1949, to me, Dr. Blair stated that he had completed his enquiries into 
the origin of the rumours that Great Auks had been seen about the 
Lofoten Islands within recent times, and that he was able to do so was 
due to the assistance he had received from Konservator Johnsen of 
Bergen Museum. That Dr. Blair's efforts should have produced a 
positive result was in itself a great surprise to me but the nature of the 
result achieved was still more startling. In August, 1936, nine King 
Penguins were set free in Northern Norway, four of them at Rist, Lofoten 
Islands and the remainder at Gjesover, Finmark. The birds scattered 
and some were killed or captured, but two at least survived until 1944. 
These reached an island called Sandholm, near Breistrand in Vesteralen 
that year. One was caught on a fine set for fish and the other disappeared 
about May, 1944. I share Dr. Blair's view that this information provides 
an explanation for the rumours which had arisen. People unaware of 
the liberation had seen the Penguins and concluded they were Great 
Auks. In 1938 a further attempt was made to introduce penguins into 
the Lofoten Islands. This time Macaroni and Jackass Penguins were 
liberated, but, like the King Penguins they scattered and nothing is 



1949 121 Vol. 69 

known of their ultimate fate. The information, which Dr. Blair has 
discovered, demonstrates that reports, which may seem to be impossible, 
should not be merely sceptically rejected. I record my indebtedness to 
Dr. Blair and Konservator Johnsen for clearing up the mystery. 

Since the above was written I have heard from Dr. Blair that Konserva- 
tor Johnsen has recently died. We express our deep regret and pay 
tribute to his memory. 

A New Race of Shrike from the Philippines. 
Mr. S. Dillon Ripley sent the following : — 

Lanius validirostris hachisijka, new race. 

Description. — From L. validirostris this race differs in the color of the 
underparts which are suffused with cinnamon -rufous from below the 
throat over the whole under surface. This color is richer and slightly 
darker than the flank color of true L. validirostris. 

Distribution. — Mindanao Island, Philippine Islands. 

Type. — Male adult. Apo Lake, Mindanao, 12 February, 1929. 
Collected by the Marquess M. Hachisuka. In collection S. Dillon Ripley, 
deposited in the Peabody Museum of Nat. History. 

Remarks. — The Marquess Masauji Hachisuka in correspondence to me 
has pointed out that two specimens of Lanius validirostris, Grant, 
collected by him on Mindanao Island constitute a new and considerable 
extension of range for that species. I have compared these birds, which 
are now housed at Yale, with examples from Luzon and Mmdoro Islands 
from which they differ strikingly. 

I am much indebted to the authorities of the American Museum of 
Natural History for permission to examine specimens of Lanius 
validirostris. 

In the two specimens of Lanius v. hachisuka the labels note that the 
testes of the male were slightly enlarged and the ovaries of the female 
granular indicating that the birds were coming into breeding condition. 
The female was collected on February 11th. 

Recently Biswas (in MSS.) has made an interesting study of Lanius 
tephronotus Vigors based on newly collected specimens from India, and com- 
ments on the position of L. validirostris suggesting that it should be 
considered a race of L. tephronotus. Certainly L. validirostris 
resembles L. tephronotus closely in coloration and proportions, but I am 
inclined to think that to merge this endemic Philippine form with a 
congener found breeding in the Himalayas would be a mistake. The 
distribution of L. validirostris, an uncommon hill forest bird of three of 
the main Philippine Islands which also happen to be three of the oldest 
islands geologically speaking and the home of the most well-marked 
endemisms, indicates that this species is a very early resident in the 
Islands. I would be inclined to consider it from the speciation point of 
view as a precourser, an early wave compared to which Lanius schach, 
Linnaeus, has been a second and later invasion. To carry the assumption 
farther I would presume that L. schach, L. tephronotus and L. validirostris 
all represent the same basic shrike stock and that on continental Asia 



Vol. 69 122 1949 

the present L. tephronotus is also an early form which for some ethological 
or other reason is prevented from hybridizing with L. schach in the zones 
in which both species occur as breeding populations. 

Specimens from Mindoro seem to approach this tint of color, and are 
more heavily washed on the flanks and vent than Luzon birds, but they 
fit in with the population of that Island. 

Measurements are as follows : — 

wing tail culmen 

m.m. 



L. v. validirostris 






Luzon (J . . 


. 87.5-90 92-95 


17-19.5 


$ •• 


87.5 85 


17.5 


Mindoro (J . . 


83 89 


17 


? •• 


81 92 


18 


L. v. hachisuka 






Mindanao $ . . 


. 87.5 (type) 94 


18 


? •• 


87.5 89 


17 



It gives me great pleasure to name this form in honour of Marquess 
Hachisuka who has been such an indefatigable student of Philippine 
birds. 



Notes on Eastern African Birds. 

Captain C. H. B. Grant and Mr. C. W. Mackworth-Praed sent the 
following three notes : — 

(1) On the name of the northern Indian Sparrow and its occurrence in 
Eastern Africa. 

There appears to be little doubt there is only one race of Passer 
domesticus Linnaeus from Iran to northern India and east to Turkestan. 
This race has been given two names : Passer domesticus bactrianus 
Zarudny and Kudaschew and Passer domesticus parkini Whistler. The 
latter was published in the Bull. B.O.C., 41, p. 13, 1920 and the type 
locality is Srinagar, Kashmir. The former is given in Nascha Ochota, 
No. 20, p. 37, 1916, and in Journ. Turk. Br. Russ. Geog. Soc, 16, p. 55, 
1923 and the type locality is Turkestan. 

The Nascha Ochota is a rare paper, and Hartert, Vog. pal. Fauna, 
Erganz, p. 80, footnote (2), 1932, states the author had no separates for 
distribution. We are unable to trace a copy of this paper in this country 
and therefore have not seen it, nor apparently was Hartert able to consult 
it. The other reference in the J.T. Br. R.G. Soc, is in a number of that 
Journal devoted to a memoriam to N. A. Zarudny and in which his papers 
are reprinted verbatim including "subsp. n." after his new names, and 
on p. 33 we find this name given in a list of Zarudny's papers under the 
year 1916. 

It would appear that we must accept that No. 20 of the Nascha Ochota 
was published and issued in 1916, but we cannot trace a reference to it 
in the Zoological Record. 

In the British Museum collection is an adult male Sparrow collected 
by Baron von Miiller at Berber, Sudan, in ] 848 : B.M. Reg. No. 1895. 9-9.256. 
Wing 82 mm., which agrees with the series of Passer domesticus bactrianus. 



1949 123 Vol. 69 

It would appear to show that this race was introduced into the Sudan 
and has apparently since died out. 

(2) On the status of Ploceus jacksoni jucundus Friedmann, Proc. Biol. 

Soc. Wash., 44, p. 117, 1931 ; Nyanza, south-western Urundi, 

Belgian Congo. 
Through the kindness of Dr. Friedmann, we have had the loan of two 
adult males of this race and compared them with the good series of Ploceus 
jacksoni Shelley, in the British Museum collection. Some Uganda 
specimens have an indication of chestnut below the black nape and we 
consider this character to be merely individual and not racial. We 
therefore place Ploceus jacksoni jucundus Friedmann, as a synonym of 
Ploceus jacksoni Shelley. 

(3) On the status of Symplectes eremobius Hartlaub. 

In Bull. B.O.C. 64, p. 67, 1944, we placed this name as a synonym of 
Othyphantes ernini (Hartlaub). We have re-examined this question and 
further specimens in the British Museum and are now satisfied that 
Hartlaub 's S. eremobius is not a synonym of 0. emini, but a valid race of 
Ploceus baglafecht (Daudin). 

A CORRECTION. 

On p. 103 of No. 10 of this Volume 69, the words " Colonel F. 0. Cave 
gave the following talk and showed slides " should be inserted after 
the heading " Some Notes on the Banded Francolin, Francolinus 
schlegelii Heuglin." 

Notices. 
STOCK OF THE "BULLETIN/' 

It is proposed to reduce the stock of the " Bulletin ", but before this 
is done members are given an opportunity to acquire parts at 2/6 each. 
Applications should be made to the Honorary Secretary. No reply 
will be sent if parts are not available. 

Please note the Hon. Secretary's address : 

W. E. Glegg, Esq., Zoological Museum, Tring, Herts. 

PUBLICATION OF THE "BULLETIN." 

Members who make a contribution at a Meeting should hand the 
M.S. to the Editor at that Meeting. As the proofs will be corrected 
by the Editor, it is essential that the M.S. should be correct and either 
typed or written very clearly with scientific and place names in block 
letters. The first mention of a scientific name should be spelt out in 
full, i.e., genus, specific name, racial name, (if any) and author. Any 
further mention of the same name need only have the initial letter of 
the genus and no further mention of the author. 

If no M.S. is handed to the Editor at the Meeting, a note will be 
inserted mentioning the contribution. 



Vol. 69 124 1949 

NEXT MEETING. 

The next Meeting of the Club will take place on Wednesday, 21st 
December, 1949, at the Rembrandt Hotel, Thurloe Place, S.W.7, 
preceded by a Dinner at 6.30 p.m. 



BULLETIN 

OF THE 

BRITISH ORNITHOLOGISTS' CLUB. 

' 

Volume 69. 
No. 12. 



The four-hundred and ninetieth Meeting of the Club was held at 
the Rembrandt Hotel, Thurloe Place, S.W.7, on Wednesday, 21st 
December, 1949, following a dinner at 6.30 p.m. 

Chairman : Dr. J. M. Harrison. 

Members present : — Miss C. M. Acland ; Miss P. Barclay- Smith ; 
F. J. F. Barrington ; Dr. G. Beven ; Miss T. Clay ; J. Fergtjson-Lees ; 
W. E. Glegg (Hon. Secretary) ; Capt. C. H. B. Grant (Editor) ; Surgeon 
Lieutenant J. G. Harrison ; Miss E. P. Leach (Hon. Treasurer) ; Miss 
C. Longfield ; J. H. McNeile ; C. W. Mackworth-Praed ; Col. K. 
Meinertzhagen (Vice-Chairman) ; Miss G. M. Rhodes ; Major A. G. L. 
Sladen ; Lt.-Commdr. C. P. Staples ; Dr. A. Landsborough Thomson ; 
C. N. Walter ; A. Williams ; C. de Worms ; Col. O. E. Wynne. 

Guests : — R. N. Craske ; Mrs. L. L. Staples ; J. G. Tatham ; Mrs. 
A. L. Thomson ; V. Walter. 

Members, 23 ; Guests, 5 ; Total, 28. 

Eastern Greylag Goose in Germany. 

Surgeon Lieutenant Jeffery Harrison made the following remarks 
and exhibited specimens : — 

On October 8th 1949 I shot what I believe to be the first definite 
example of the Eastern Greylag Goose, Anser anser rubrirostris Swinhoe, 
in Western Europe. The bird was shot at the very end of evening flight, 
from a skein of about fifteen Greylags as they were coming out to roost 
on the southern end of Pagensand Island in the Elbe Estuary, about 
twenty miles down river from Hamburg. 

At the time I noticed that it had a flesh-pink bill, exactly the same 
colour as its legs. It was preserved and sent home and my father Dr. 
J. M. Harrison and I have since been able to compare it with other 
Greylags of the typical oranged billed form. It stands out at once from 
these as being a much paler bird, and the edges of all the feathers of the 
back and flanks are broader and very much whiter. Although the colour 
of the bill has faded, it has dried a different colour from the other geese, 
and it is still easy to see that it was originally a pink billed bird. It was 
an adult female and weighed 6 lbs. 10 ozs. 

Published January 24th, 1950. Price 2/6. 



Vol. 69 126 1950 

About five or six hundred Greylags are living on the Elbe in the vicinity 
of Pagensand and Bishorst Islands this winter ; they began to arrive in 
late September, and when I shot my bird about four hundred were already 
present. I have since examined three others, all of which were the typical 
orange billed geese. 

There seems to be very little known about the distribution of the 
Eastern Greylag in winter, and this record seems to be a long way to the 
west of its normal haunts. 

I have brought the goose for your inspection tonight, together with 
another typical bird from the same place. The first has been relaxed 
and mounted by my father, the second only arrived from Germany 
yesterday and is only as roughly stuffed as the one I first sent home. 
Neither of them are finished yet, and the point in bringing them up like 
this is to demonstrate the two different colours of their bills before they 
are painted, and also the other general characters. 

Note by C. H. B. Grant. 

At the request of Surgeon Lieutenant Harrison I have examined the 
specimen of A. a. rubrirostris he exhibited and I agree that the bill 
was pink in life. 

Overland Migration of Wading Birds and Terns across 
Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. 

By Surgeon Lieutenant Jeffery Harrison, B.N.V.R. 

The problem of migration is one of the most interesting in the whole 
of ornitholog}^ and the small branch that I find particularly so is the 
subject of overland migration of wading birds. I can still remember 
vividly the first time that I heard Curlews calling out of the night as they 
migrated across Kent, and it is a sound that thrills me just as much today 
as it did that night when I was still very small. 

In May 1945 I gave a talk to the Club on " Overland Migration of 
Wading Birds in the Southern Half of England in the spring of 1944 " in 
which I compared day to day observations made at Cambridge and at 
Guildford, in which there was a remarkable similarity. As a result of 
this talk, R. A. Hinde and I tried to organise an enquiry to cover the whole 
of the British Isles, with the help of a number of observers. So many 
people were involved that I am afraid our results were not as satisfactory 
as we had hoped, but even so, they were of considerable interest and have 
recently been published in " British Birds." 

In July 1949, by a monumental piece of good fortune I was appointed 
to Royal Naval Headquarters, Germany, and found myself at Blankenese, 
a small town on the north bank of the Elbe, a few miles down river from 
Hamburg. The whole area of north-west Germany is a most interesting 
one for an ornithologist and as it lies in the path of migrants travelling 
from the Baltic countries south-westwards in autumn, I was able to make 
some interesting observations. Before I go any further I must explain 
that it was not possible for me to go out every day and so my observations 



1950 127 Vol. GO 

do not represent the whole story, but I do think that I was able to be out 
sufficiently often to get a very fair idea of the type of migration that 
occurs. Also, as I am still stationed in Germany and have every prospect 
of being there for some time to come, I have decided to say nothing about 
the many other very interesting birds that I have been able to see ; I 
would rather save it up for a much fuller talk, after I have finally left 
Germany. Tonight therefore, is going to be brief. 

I will begin by giving you a general account of the autumn migration 
as I saw it, in the correct chronological order, and when I have done that 
I will continue by discussing some of the more interesting features. I 
have prepared a large map so that I can be followed more easily, and will 
demonstrate from it as I go along. 

The first big migration I saw was between Wedel and Luhe, on July 
27th, when for several hours I watched large numbers of Black Terns 
and a few Little Terns flying steadily westwards along the course of the 
Elbe, fishing as they went. I do not know where they were coming from, 
because there was no sign of any further east in Hamburg, but it is more 
than likely that they would fly high over such a big industrial port, and 
I believe they must have been coming from eastern Germany. The wind 
on that day was north-west. 

On July 30th I went up for two days to Lake Westensee, which is some 
16 kilometres south-west from Kiel. The weather was not good at the 
time as there was a fresh south-south-west wind, much low cloud and 
frequent rain storms. I was not very hopeful at seeing much, but as we 
neared Bad Bramstedt on the journey up, I was considerably surprised 
to see a small party of Whimbrel fly over a fir plantation and swoop low 
across the road going south-west. 

The next day we had the same weather, and there was a marked 
migration passing by. They were easy to observe for they were flying 
slowly into the wind and each party behaved in exactly the same way ; 
they were flying about thirty yards high over the land until they came to 
within sight of the lake at the north-east shore. At this point they would 
drop down until they were within a few feet of the surface, where they 
would remain, making use of the uplift from the waves, until they came 
to the south shore, some two miles away, when they climbed up to their 
original height. In this way I was able to identify them and saw the 
following few species — Ruff, Dunlin, Redshank, Black Tern, Common 
Tern, Black-headed and Common Gull. The same migration was 
continuing next morning in the face of stronger wind from the same 
quarter, and continued until it was blowing a half gale by lunchtime. At 
this, all migration stopped. That morning I identified Knot, Dunlin, 
Bar-tailed Godwit, Whimbrel, while there was an almost continuous 
stream of Common Terns, among which I saw two adult Arctic Terns, 
three Little Terns and a few Common Gulls. By early afternoon the gale 
was at its worst and parties of Terns were crouching under the reeds for 
shelter, while all the waders had disappeared. 

My next few records are isolated ones. On August 3rd I noticed a 
small party of Whimbrel flying south-west over Blankenese into a fresh 



Vol. 69 128 1950 

south-west wind, and four days later there was a considerable migration 
of Green Plovers going over Pagensand Island. These were flying 
steadily south-west into the wind in parties of up to sixty birds. They 
made no alteration in course when they came to the Elbe, but continued 
straight on across the water. The next morning a party of Curlew flew 
over Blankenese in the same direction, the wind still being south-west. 

On August 17th the wind changed to a fresh northerly one and the only 
migrating wader I saw was a single Bar-tailed Godwit flying south-west, 
a few kilometres inland from the Elbe near Wedel. This was followed 
on the next day by a most interesting migration, which I watched from 
the north shore of the Elbe near Hetlingen. I only arrived at five p.m., 
so I have no idea when the flight started, but from the time of my arrival 
until darkness began to fall at about nine p.m., parties of migrants were 
passing by all the time. They were small, the biggest being about thirty 
birds, and often they were single. They were arriving overland from the 
north-east, flying about fifty yards up, helped by a fresh north-west wind 
As soon as they saw the waters of the Elbe, they dropped down low and 
turned north-west to follow it. This was the only time that I saw the 
Elbe exert any appreciable effect on migrants, in making them change 
course. Only three species of wading bird were concerned in the move- 
ment, Bar- tailed Godwit, Knot and Grey Plover. In all I saw about 
200 Godwits, 100 Grey Plover and 30 Knots. All the Godwits and Knots 
that I had good views of were young, but half the Grey Plovers were 
adults. Frequently all three were together in one flock and I saw Godwits 
accompanied by Knots and by Grey Plover, but never Grey Plover and 
Knots together. 

I only saw two other waders actually migrating — on August 22nd I 
watched a single Green Sandpiper high over Schenefeld flying south, and 
on August 27th a single Golden Plover went south-west over Pagensand. 
In the first the wind was north and in the second it was north-west. 

A second big movement of Black Terns took place on August 28th. On 
the previous day I had sailed from Hamburg to Pagensand and had seen 
only three, but on the return journey a large movement was going past, 
following the course of the river in an east to west direction, against a 
north-west wind. They were travelling in small parties of up to a dozen, 
and in all over 100 birds passed the boat on the journey home in three- 
quarters of an hour. This time only two were adults. On September 
1st, three Sandwich Terns flew down the river in the same direction. 

This account has covered the main migrations of waders and Terns 
that I actually observed taking place. This has not covered all the others 
that I saw from time to time resting and feeding along the river, which 
I shall refer to again later. Briefly, the following species were seen : — 
Black-tailed Godwit, Curlew, Wood Sandpiper, Common Sandpiper, 
Turnstone, Little Stint, Temminck's Stint, Ringed Plover, Little Ringed 
Plover, Dusky Redshank, Green shank and Avocet. 

So far I have given a general account of the autumn migration, and I 
would like to continue by bringing out some special points which strike 
me as being interesting. I do not think that very much has been written 



1950 129 Vol. 69 

about associations on migration : by association I mean which species 
travel together and which keep separate. From my observations I find 
that there are two different types of association, one actually during flight 
on migration and the other resting on the ground. The first is dependent 
on the original breeding distribution of the species involved and the second 
on the type of country in which each species likes to rest and feed. Thus 
early on in the migration southwards the number of species in a flock is 
strictly limited, but as halts occur other species may join up. 

Thus, the migration of Bar-tailed Godwits, Grey Plovers and Knots 
over Hetlingen, which I described, consisted only of three species, each of 
which nests in the furthest north among the Arctic tundra. I would say 
that these birds were making their first halt since they left the Arctic, 
because there were no species travelling with them that nest further south 
and also because they altered course when they came to the Elbe, ob- 
viously tired and in need of a suitable feeding and resting ground. 

Other mixed flocks that I have seen have all been made up of waders 
that nest further south, and in all cases their breeding ranges overlap. 
There was a flock of Ruff, Redshank and Dunlin at Westensee, one of 
Ruff and Avocet and several of Dunlin and Ringed Plover at Pagensand, 
and Greenshank and Wood Sandpiper near Wedel. Only once did I see 
a far northern species travelling with a less northerly one and this was 
at Westensee when a Bar-tailed Godwit came past with a Whimbrel. 
Presumably these met somewhere in the Baltic as there were strong 
southerly winds blowing at the time to hold them up. 

My second type of association is that formed at rest by those types of 
waders that prefer the same kind of marshland. A typical example that 
I have in mind is due to a small stagnant fresh-water marsh on Pagensand 
Island. Here the same species would form up into a flock consisting of 
Green Sandpiper, Wood Sandpiper, Greenshank, Temminck's Stint and 
Little Ringed Plover, a strange flock, dependent on the marsh for its 
origin. Little Ringed Plovers are more often associated with Common 
Sandpipers along the sandier banks and streams flowing into the Elbe. 
I would especially like to bring this association to your notice as the Little 
Ringed Plover has developed a habit of flicking its tail up and down 
exactly in the same manner as the Common Sandpiper, just after it has 
pitched. The Ringed Plover does not do it and it is a peculiar coincidence 
to say the least. As a final example of this association I will quote the 
obvious one of Green and Golden Plover, which were commonly seen 
together along the Elbe during autumn migration. 

I think that most people are agreed that the adults are the first to 
migrate southwards in autumn, these being the barren and unsuccessful 
birds. This is borne out by my observations although I missed much of 
the early part in July. At Westensee in July all the waders were adults 
still in their full summer plumage and I did not see the first youngsters 
until August 18th at Hetlingen, but even then, half the Grey Plovers 
were adults. One lone pair that came over me were quite definitely a 
male and female by their plumage and probably an actual pair travelling 



Vol. 69 130 1950 

south together. The two big movements of Black Terns were the same ; 
on July 27th all were adults, but on August 28th there were only two 
adults. 

I do not want to say much about the effects of the weather — a much 
debated subject. I did however come to the conclusion that the direction 
of the wind had very little effect on the migrants while they were travel- 
ling, unless it was gale force against them, in which case they had to stop. 
This is not to say that the wind has no effect when they originally started 
off ; that I do not know. However, one big movement was helped by a 
north wind, while a second equally large one took place into a fresh south- 
westerly wind. The height of migration was never very great and almost 
all the species were identified from the ground. Over the lake at West- 
ensee they were only a few yards up, and they continued on over the land 
at about 30 yards high, much lower than one usually associates with 
migration. 

Remembering the arguments that have raged in the past as to whether 
migration takes place on a broad front or on definite tracts depending on 
natural features, I was interested to watch the effect of so large a river 
as the Elbe, which from Hamburg flows almost at right angles to the usual 
south-west autumn migration. As I have already mentioned only one 
lot of migrants paid any attention to it at all, and hi this case they did 
completely alter course. In the case of Terns, there was no doubt that 
they did follow the river very accurately. This is necessary for a slow 
flying bird such as a Tern, because it depends on the river for food. 

This is all I have to say tonight and to sum up, I think I have shown 
that there is a very marked migration of wading birds and terns across 
Schleswig-Holstein, and that the waders travel on a broad front, whereas 
the terns are more restricted because they depend on the rivers for their 
food supply. I have also suggested that the various associations of 
migrating waders would well repay further study. I do not wish to sug- 
gest that these were the only types of migrants seen during the autumn, 
for there were many others, but these I think must be dealt with some 
other time. 

A New Species and a new Race of Yellow Wagtail from the 

Sudan and Turkestan. 

Capt. C. H. B. Grant and Mr. C. W. Mackworth-Praed exhibited 
and described the following : — • 

Budytes perconfusus, new species. 

Description.— Adult male ; forehead to forecrown grey, crown olive 
green, a clear grey collar on hind neck, a broad pale yellow streak from 
base of bill to over and behind the eye ; lores and ear-coverts darker grey 
with white flecks. Differs from Budytes flava (Linnaeus) in the yellow 
streak over the eye, and the paler grey head, and from Budytes luteus 
(Gmelin) in having the mantle rather darker and below rather paler 
yellow. 



1950 131 Vol. 69 

Distribution. — Known only from scattered specimens from Frederik- 
havn, Denmark ; Pomerania, Germany ; Wassenaar, Holland ; Abyssinia, 
the Sudan and western Arabia. Type. — In the British Museum. Adult 
Male. Khartoum, Sudan. 9th April, 1908. Collected by A. L. Butler. 
Brit. Mus. Reg. No. 1915. 12.24.1429. 

Measurements of type. — Wing 80, culmen from base of skull 16, tarsus 
23, hind claw 11, tail 70 mm. 

Remarks. — Ten specimens examined. We should not have described 
this bird as new on the yellow eyebrow alone, but its general colour is so 
distinct from all other species or races that we have felt compelled to do 
so. 

BUDYTES THUNBERGI ALAKULENSIS, new race. 

Description. — Adult male, similar to Budytes thunbergi thunbergi 
(Billberg), but head rather darker, more coal black. 

Distribution. — Lake Ala Kul, Turkestan-Mongolian border. 

Type. — In the British Museum. Adult Male. Lake Ala Kul, west of 
Dzungaria, Turkestan-Mongolian border. 9th May, 1876. Collected 
by Dr. O. Finsch. Brit. Mus. Reg. No. 1878. 12.31.43. 

Measurements of type. — Wing 80, culmen from base of skull 17, tarsus 
22, hind claw 8, tail 68 mm. 

Remarks. — Two specimens examined. 

An early New Zealand Ornithologist : Thomas Henry Potts, 

1824-1888. 

Mr. William E. Glegg read the following : — 

Thomas Henry Potts was born on 23 November 1824 and was christened 
at Brandon Church, Suffolk ; he emigrated to New Zealand in 1854. He 
was a man of considerable means and during the fifties and sixties he was 
obliged to return to England to attend to his estates, when he was made 
a Freeman of the City of London in 1862. In New Zealand he developed 
remarkable powers of observation and ability to record both in print and 
with the brush. He was often referred to as " The Gilbert White of New 
Zealand." His diary has partially survived. Potts was not a specialist 
but the items in his diary were chiefly ornithological. It would seem that 
he played a part in the introduction of birds from Britain. He records on 

10 January, 1865 " Trounce brought up a pair of blackbirds I had 
ordered from Melbourne. No cock Chaffinch was to be procured," and 

11 days later he writes " Turned out the hen chaffinch." "On 29 
January, Cock Blackbird killed by hen. Geoff found the greenfinch's nest 
with young ones." From this we may infer that some of the common 
British Birds were becoming firmly established. He was clearly deter- 
mined to persevere with the introduction of Blackbirds for under the date 
28 August, 1865, we read " Put the two Blackbirds together " and he 
" turned out the blackbirds on Monday (9 Oct.)." This species soon 
settled down for Potts chronicles that there was a " Blackbird's nest with 
four eggs in it on Sunday (29 Oct.)," and an entry in the diary on 2 Dec. 



Vol. 69 132 1950 

reveals that " T.H.P. found the hen Blackbird had made another nest 
and was again sitting on five eggs." Stocking the land with birds of the 
homeland would seem to have been an expensive hobby for the settlers 
for on Nov. 27 he " gave Trounce £5 5s. Od. to buy the cock thrush from 
that fellow Fitton and after much talk he got it." 

Potts died suddenly while shopping in Christchurch on 27 July, 1888. 
His collection of natural history specimens was of considerable extent and 
included a very fine collection of native quail, both eggs and birds being 
represented. At one time he had two eggs of the Great Auk. The history 
of one of them is recorded in the Canterbury Times of 24 April, 1912 and 
I quote it in full : "An egg of the great auk has had a curious histor}- . 
After being in the collection of the Vicomte de Barde for 30 years, in 1825 
it passed with two others of his collection to the Boulogne Museum. 
The curator exchanged them to an Englishman for an Ostrich skin. The 
new comer sold them in London to Mr. Potts, who took this particular 
one to New Zealand. Mr. Potts died there, and in 1891 the curator of the 
Christchurch Museum bought it for a friend in England. It was bought, 
with a specimen of the great auk, from Mr. Leopold Field for 600 guineas 
by Mr. Rowland Ward. Mr. Ward subsequently repurchased the egg 
from Mr. Middlebrook, and disposed of it to Colonel John E. Thayer, for 
the Thayer Museum, Lancaster, United States, where the collection 
numbers 7 — an American ' corner ' in fact." 

After Potts' death his collection was sold for £150, presumably to the 
Curator of Canterbury Museum. It is stated that it contained two Great 
Auks' eggs. There is a contradictory statement to this from a member 
of the Potts family, who declared that the eggs of the Great Auk never 
came to New Zealand and that Potts packed them most carefully and 
stored them in England or perhaps they were " lost " in transit. 

In " The Life and Times of Sir Julius von Haast " it is stated that 
Potts wrote on other subjects but chiefly about the birds of New Zealand, 
their habits, nests and eggs. A great part of his information was used 
by Sir Walter Buller in his History of the Birds of New Zealand, to a greater 
extent than was welcome to Potts, who refused to subscribe to the work. 
The family tradition is that Buller offered to present a coj)y of the book 
to each of the Potts family, which reached the figure of 13, but this must 
have been a wrench for Buller, who was close-fisted. Specialists in 
ornithology, who have closely studied Potts' observations, are in agree- 
ment that Potts was a careful observer. Tributes were paid to his work 
by Dr. W. R. B. Oliver in his Neiv Zealand Birds and by E. F. Stead in 
his Life Histories of New Zealand Birds. Potts was a fellow of the 
Linnean Society and contributed to the Journal of that Society and also 
to other periodicals. His observations on oology were published as a 
series of articles in the New Zealand Journal of Science, vol. 2, 1884-5. 
From 1855 to 1882 he kept a record of nests discovered, which is now in 
private ownership in Christchurch. He was the author of a book Out in 
the Open, published in 1882. 

This outline of his services to ornithology is based on a Memoir in 
\istory and Biography, No. 2, August 1948, pp. 160-172, which was sent 



1960 133 Vol. 69 

with an invitation from the Editor to make the story of Potts known to 
Members of the Club. 

An examination of literature without making an exhaustive search 
has brought to my notice ornithological contributions by Potts, which 
suggest that the details of the Memoir do not do full justice to Potts' 
ornithological powers and as examples of his work I mention that he 
described a new species of Rail, Rallus pictus, a new species of Gull, 
Larus bulleri, and a new species of Apteryx, Apteryx haastii (Trans, and 
Proceed, of the New Zealand Institute, vol. 4, pp. 202-5). The state- 
ments regarding the Great Auks' eggs, owned by Potts, do not appear to 
be too accurate and call for comment. Writing on 16 July, 1870, Potts 
states that for several years he had three eggs of the Great Auk, and that 
they were inspected by Dr. Meyer, the author of British Birds and their 
Eggs. When Potts parted with some of his collection in 1853, one of these 
eggs was sold by public auction for £30. He gives a description and the 
measurements of this egg (T. & P. of the N.Z. Institute, 5, 3, p. 110). 
Further light is shed on this in The Great Auk or Gar ef owl by Symington 
Grieve (1885), appendix, p. 31, where it is stated that Potts formerly 
owned three eggs, which he had bought from Mr. Gardiner, senior, and 
that in May, 1853, he sold two of them at auction to Lord Garvagh and 
took the remaining one to New Zealand. 

Notes on Eastern African Birds. 

Captain C. H. B. Grant and Mr. C. W. Mackworth-Praed sent the 
following four notes : — 

(1) On the name of the Northern Indian Sparrow and its occurrence in 
Eastern Africa. 

In Bull. B.O.G. 69, p. 122, 1949, under the above heading we mentioned 
that we had been unable to consult the Nasha Okhota. Mr. H. G. K. 
Molineux has kindly informed us in a letter dated 12th December, 1949, 
that he has copies of this Journal and can confirm that the original des- 
cription of Passer domesticus bactrianus Zarudny and Kudachev, was 
published in Nasha Okhota, 10, No. 20, p. 37, 1916, Petrograd. 

Mr. Molineux gives this reference in his Cat. Bds. p. 101, 1930-31. 

(2) On the Status of Colius strialus chyulu Van Someren, J.E.A.U. Nat. 
Hist. Soc. 14, p. 53, 1939 : Chyulu Range, south-eastern Kenya Colony. 

Through the kindness of the Trustees of the Coryndon Museum, 
Nairobi, the British Museum has received the type and two other speci- 
mens of this race. We have carefully compared these with the British 
Museum series and are quite unable to see that they differ in any way 
from Colius striatus kikuyuensis Van Someren, and of which we place 
Colius striatus chyulu as a synonym. 

(3) On the status of Viridibucco leucomystax chyidu Van Someren, J.E. 
A.U. Nat. Hist. Soc. 14, p. 43, 1939 : Chyulu Mts., south-eastern Kenya 
Colony. 



Vol. 69 134 1950 

Through the kindness of the Trustees of the Coryndon Memorial 
Museum, Nairobi, the British Museum has received the type and we have 
had the loan of a specimen of this race and have compared it with the 
series in the British Museum. We are unable to see that it differs in any 
way from Viridibucco leucomystax Sharpe, and therefore place Viridibucco 
leucomystax chyulu Van Someren as a synonym of Viridibucco leucomystax 
Sharpe. 

(4) On the status of Dendropicus fuscescens chyuluY tin Someren, J.E.A. 
& U. Nat. Hist. Soc. 14, p. 48, 1939 : Chyulu Range, south-eastern Kenya 
Colony. 

Through the kindness of the Trustees of the Coryndon Memorial 
Museum, Nairobi, the British Museum has received the type and a male 
and a female. We have compared them to the good series in the British 
Museum collection and we are quite unable to see that they differ from 
several specimens of Dendropicos fuscescens hartlaubi Malherbe, especially 
as there is considerable individual variation in this race. We therefore 
place Dendropicos fuscescens chyulu Van Someren as a synonym of Den- 
dropicos fuscescens hartlaubi Malherbe. 

Notices. 

STOCK OF THE "BULLETIN." 

It is proposed to reduce the stock of the " Bulletin ", but before this 
is done members are given an opportunity to acquire parts at 2/6 each. 
Applications should be made to the Honorar}^ Secretary. No reply 
will be sent if parts are not available. 

Please note the Hon. Secretary's address : 

W. E. Glegg, Esq., Zoological Museum, Tring, Herts. 

PUBLICATION OF THE "BULLETIN." 

Members who make a contribution at a Meeting should hand the 
M.S. to the Editor at that Meeting. As the proofs will be corrected 
by the Editor, it is essential that the M.S. should be correct and either 
typed or written very clearly with scientific and place names in block 
letters. The first mention of a scientific name should be spelt out in 
full, i.e., genus, specific name, racial name, (if any) and author. Any 
further mention of the same name need only have the initial letter of 
the genus and no further mention of the author. 

If no M.S. is handed to the Editor at the Meeting, a note will be 
inserted mentioning the contribution. 

DINNERS AND MEETINGS FOR 1950. 

18 January ; 15 February ; 22 March* ; 19 April ; 17 May ; 21 June ; 
18 October ; 15 November ; 20 December. 

* The March meeting is on the fourth Wednesday of the month, not 
the third Wednesday, and will be held at the Zoological Society of London. 
The Dinner preceding this Meeting is in conjunction with the British 
Ornithologists Union. 



1950 



135 



Vol. 69 



NEXT MEETING. 

The next Meeting of the Club will take place on Wednesday, 18th 
January, 1950, at the Rembrandt Hotel, Thurloe Place, S.W.7, preceded 
by a Dinner at 6.30 p.m. 



CORRIGENDA. 

Vol. 68. 

Page 160, line 23, for S. grallaria read P. grallaria. 
,, 160, ,, 24, for E. tropica read F. tropica. 
,, 174, ,, 6, for Tringa canutus read Calidris canutus. 



Page 5, 

„ 10, 

„ 20, 

„ 25, 

„ 28, 

,, 38, 

„ 40, 

„ 41, 

„ 41, 

„ 42, 

„ 42, 

„ 42, 

„ 49, 



65, 
66, 

74, 
76, 
92, 



103, 
120, 



Vol. 69. 

line 41, for Daption capense read Daption capensis. 
41, for P. pamelce read 0. pamelce. 
19, for Capt. Pitman read Colonel Pitman. 

for Thelassoica read Thalassoica. 
46, for (antarcticus) Smith read Fulmarus (antarcticus) 

Stephens. 
13, for General read Generic. 
40, for Birds read birds. 
13, for D. g. balcanicus read D. s. balcanicus. 

22, for phceomelamine read phceomelanine. 

19, for Eina, read Einar. 

20, for Tetraourogallus read Tetrao urogallus. 

23, for Phasianus colchicns read Phasianus colchicus. 
23, for Teal, Anas crecca Linnaeus Shoveler, Spatula 

clypeata (Linnaeus) read Teal, Anas crecca Linnseus X 

Shoveler, Spatula clypeata (Linnaeus). 
44, for intercranial read intracranial. 
2 & 27, for intercranial read intracranial. 
15-16-22 & 41, for Poliolais lopesi read Poliolais lopezi. 
34, for Mr. B. P. Hall read Mrs. B. P. Hall. 
32, for Melanocorypha yeltonensis read Melanocorypha 

yeltoniensis. 
10, under heading add, Colonel F. 0. Cave gave the 

following talk and showed slides. 
9, for " The Birds of the Philippines " by Delacour and 

Mayr read "The Birds of Malaysia" by Delacour. 



137 



INDEX 



Names of new genera, species and races are indicated by clarendon type 
under the generic entry only. 



abyssinicus, Apus a., 105. 
Accipiter nisus, 63 
Adamastor, 26 
Mgypius chincou, 113. 

danieli, 113. 

cequatorialis, Apus, ce., 52, 111. 
cequinoctialis, Procellaria, 29. 
cesalon, Falco c, 63. 

afer, Cinnyris, 20. 
affinis, Apus a., 105, 106. 
afra, Euplectes, 112. 
afratus, Eudyptcs, p., 5. 
Agrobates, 110. 
akahige, Luscinia, 39. 
alakulensis, Budytes t., 131. 
Alauda, conirostris, 106. 

fringillaris, 30. 

alba, Bulweria, 29. 

, Macronectes, 28. 

albifrons, Sterna a., 63. 
albigularis, Procellaria, 26. 
albogularis, Serinus a., 107, 108. 
albonotatus, Trochocercus a., 59. 
4Zca impennis, 82, 120. 
Alcedo ispida, 63. 
alexanderi, Diomedea, 28. 

, Poliolais l, 74, 135. 

alfredi, Cypselus, 111. 
amaurocephalus, Symplectes b., 59. 
amphitrite, Procellaria, 26. 
4nas capensis, 111. 

conboschas, 39. 

crecca, 39, 49, 135. 

formosa, 39. 

platyrhynchos, 39. 

querquedula, 58. 

strepera, 39. 

anglicus, Dendrocopos m., 41. 
angusta, Neocichla g., 58. 
Anser rubrirostris, 125. 
antarcticus, Fulmarus, 25, 28, 135. 
Anthochoera, 26. 

Anthreptes hypodilus, 26. 
somereni, 83, 84. 

ugandce, 84. 

Anthus katangce, 17. 

lichenya, 17. 

raaltenii, 18. 



Anthus rufuloides, 18. 

transkeiensis, 17 

Apalis bambuluensis, 55. 

Apalis bamendce, 60. 

brunneiceps, 59, 60. 

jacksoni, 55, 56. 

minor, 55, 56. 

muhuluensis, 46. 

mubuluensis, 46. 

songeaensis, 46. 

Aplonis, 26. 

Aplopelia jacksoni, 20, 21. 

larvata, 21. 

samalyae, 25. 

simplex, 21. 

Apteryx haastii, 133. 
/Ipws abyssinicus, 105. 

cequatorialis, 52, 111. 

affinis, 105, 106. 

aptts, 63, 111. 

bamendse, 52. 

barbatus, 111. 

furensis, 52. 

galilejensis, 105, 106. 

lowei, 52. 

theresae, 105. 

toulsoni, 111. 

archimedes, Saxicola t., 84. 
Arizelocichla fusciceps, 60. 
arturi, Nectarinia k., 60. 
Astrapia mayeri, 15. 
atlantica, Diomedea, 28. 
atrata, Chenopsis, 24. 
atricapillus, Garrulus, 40. 
atripennis, Phyllanthus, 51. 
auduboni, Diomedea, 28. 
australis, Bulweria, 29. 

, Daption, 28. 

Aviceda megala, 12. 

stenozona, 12. 



Bab ax lumsdeni, 4, 5. 

waddelli, 4, 5. 

bactrianus, Passer d., 122, 133. 
baglafecht, Ploceus, 123. 
balcena, Pachyptila, 25. 



138 



balcanicus, Dendrocopos s., 41, 135. 
bambuluensis, Apalis j., 55. 
bamendcc, Apalis, 60. 

, Apalis a., 52. 

bannermani, Buccanodon d., 52. 

barbatus, Apus, 111. 

barratti, Bradypterus b., 18, 19. 

Batis dimorpha, 60. 

belcheri, Pachyptila, 23, 21, 25, 29. 

blanfordi, Sylvia, 109, 110. 

blonbergi, Catharacta s.., 5. 

bocagei, Cichladusa, 111. 

, Cossypha, 111. 

bollei, Phceniculus b., 51. 
bonelli, Phylloscopus, 46. 
borealis, Procellaria, 30. 
boscaweni, (E'nanthe l, 107. 
botelensis, Otus s., 11. 
Botha fringillaris, 31. 
boultoni, Bradypterus m., 54, 55. 
Bowdleria caudata, 6. 
Bradypterus barratti, 18, 19. 

boultoni, 54, 55. 

camerunensis, 55. 

cathkinensis, 18, 19. 

godfreyi, 19. 

granti, 54, 55. 

major, 18, 19. 

manengubce, 55. 

marice, 54, 55. 

usambarcB, 54, 55, 57. 

wilsoni, 18, 19. 

youngi, 54, 55. 

brandti, Garrulus g., 39. 
brevicaudata, Camaroptera, 75. 
brevipes, Bulweria, 29. 
brevirostris, Bulweria, 29. 
brookei, Falco p., 30. 

brucei, Otus s., 8, 9, 10, 11. 
brunneiceps, Apalis a., 59, 60. 
Buccanodon bannermani, 52. 

duchaillui, 52, 53. 

sowcrbyi, 60, 85. 

stresemanni, 60. 

Budytes alakulensis, 131. 
■ /kva, 130. 

htteMs, 130. 

perconfusus, 130. 

thunbergi, 131. 

bulleri, Diomedea, 28. 

, Larus, 133. 

bullocki, Icterus, 97. 
Bulweria alba, 29. 

australis, 29. 

brevipes, 29. 

brevirostris, 29. 

bulwerii, 26. 

ccerulea, 29. 

deceptornis, 29. 

gouldi, 29. 



Bulweria hasitata, 29. 

incerta, 29. 

inexpectata, 29. 

lessoni, 29. 

lugens, 29. 

macroptera, 29. 

magenta, 29. 

melanopus, 29. 

mollis, 29. 

rostrata, 29. 

bulwerii, Bulweria, 26. 
oitn/i, Parisoma, 110. 
byroni, Procellaria, 30. 



cabanisi, Phyllastrephus /., 71. 
ccerulea, Bulweria, 29. 
ccesia, Coracina, 31, 32. 
Calandrella capensis, 106. 

sclateri, 106. 

theresae, 106. 

Calcarius lapponicus, 91. 
Calidris, 26. 

canutus, 135. 

Calyptorhynchus, 26. 
Camaroptera brevicaudata, 75. 
camelus, Struthio, 7. 

earner oonensis, Tyto c, 76. 
camerunensis, Bradypterus, 55. 
campbelli, Diomedea, 28. 
Campephaga flava, 31, 32. 

sulphurata, 31, 32. 

canutus, Calidris, 135. 
Capella, 26. 

gallinago, 58. 

capensis, Anas, 111. 

, Calandrella s., 106. 

, Daption, 5, 28, 135. 

, 0£m5, 10. 

, Querquedula, 111. 

, Tyo c, 76. 

earteri, Diomedea, 28. 
Catharacta blonbergi, 5. 
cathkinensis, Bradypterus b., 1 
caudata, Bowdleria p., 6. 
cauta, Diomedea, 28. 
eaoet, Eremopterix I., 108. 
cervicalis, Garrulus g., 40. 
chalybeus, Cinnyris c, 20. 
Chenopsis atrata, 24. 
chincou, ffigypius m., 113. 

, Fttttwr, 113. 

Chlidonias niger, 63. 
chloropus, Gallinula, 40. 
chlororhynchus, Diomedea, 28. 
chrysostoma, Diomedea, 28. 
chyulu, Colius s., 133. 

, Dendropicus /., 134. 

, Viridibucco l, 133, 134. 

cicelice, Hierococcyx v., 56. 



8, 19. 



139 



Cichladusa bocagei, 111. 
cinerea, Procellaria, 29. 
Cinnyris afer, 20. 

chalybeus, 20. 

graueri, 19. 

intermedins, 20. 

ludovicensis, 19. 

manoensis, 20. 

whytei, 19, 20. 

Circaetus gallicus, 113. 

heptneri, 113. 

clypeata, Spatula, 49, 58, 135. 
Coccopygia kilimensis, 60. 
ccelebs, Fringilla c, 119. 
Ccenocorypha huegeli, 6. 
colchicus, Phasianus, 42, 135. 
Colius chyulu, 133. 

kikuyuensis, 133. 

conboschas, Anas p., 39. 
confirmata, Hemiprocne in., 12. 
conirostris, Alauda, 106. 
conspicillata, Procellaria, 29. 
coombsi, Melierax p., 113. 
Coracina ccesia, 31, 32. 

striata, 32. 

Corvus frugilegus, 117. 
Cossypha bocagei, 111. 

granti, 53. 

insulana, 53, 54. 

isabellce, 53. 

crassirostris, Pachyptila, 24. 
creatopus, Procellaria, 30. 
crecca, Anas c, 39, 49, 135. 
crocopygia, Serinus a., 107. 
Cuculus murinus, 31, 32. 

sulphur atus, 31, 32. 

culminata, Diomcdea, 28. 
Cursorins rufus, 104, 105. 

theresae, 104, 105. 

Cyanomitra viridisplendens, 59. 
cyanurus, Tarsiger c, 46. 
cycladum, Otus s., 11. 
Cygnus, 24. 

Cymodroma, 27. 

grallaria, 30. 

cyprius, Otus s., 10, 11. 
Cypselus alfredi, 111. 

toulsoni, 111. 



Dendrocopos leucopterus, 41. 

major, 40, 41, 42, 43. 

mauritanus, 41. 

medius, 43. 

numidus, 40, 41, 42, 43. 

pinetorum, 40. 

syriacus, 41, 42, 43. 

chyulu, 134. 

hartlaubi, 134. 

desfontainesi, Saxicola t., 84. 
desolata, Pachyptila, 23, 24, 25. 
dimorpha, Batis c, 60. 
Diomcdea, 26. 

alexanderi, 28. 

atlantica, 28. 

auduboni, 28. 

bw^m, 28. 

campbelli, 28. 

carteri, 28. 

cauta, 28. 

chlororhynchus, 28. 

chrysostoma, 28. 

culminata, 28. 

epomophora, 27. 

/w<sca, 28. 

gilliana, 27. 

huttoni, 28. 

impavida, 28. 

longirostris, 27. 

melanophris, 27. 

palpebrata, 28. 

richmondi, 27. 

ro/im, 27. 

rothschildi, 27. 

salvini, 5, 28. 

sanfordi, 27. 

westralis, 27. 

diomedea, Procellaria, 30. 
disputans, Procellaria, 30. 
distans, Otus s., 8, 9, 10, 11. 
domesticus, Passer d., 122. 
doi;ei, Macronectes, 28. 
duchaillui, Buccanodon d., 52, 53. 
Dyaphorophyia graneri, 75. 

harterti, 75. 

kumbaensis, 75. 

kungwensis, 75. 

lomaensis, 75. 



danieli, Mgypius m., 113. 
dannefcerdi, Petrocia m., 6. 
Daption, 25. 

australis, 28. 

capensis, 5, 28, 135. 

deceptornis, Buhoeria, 29. 
defensorum, Melierax g., 82. 
Dendrocopos anglicus, 41. 

balcanicus, 41, 135. 

hispanus, 41. 



Edolisoma minus, 12. 

montanum, 12. 

Egretta, 26. 
elegans, Otus s., 11. 

, Procellaria, 30. 

Emberiza melanocephala, 97. 

rutila, 97. 

emini, Othyphantes, 123. 
epomophora, Diomedea, 27. 
Eremialector gutturalis, 111. 



140 



E remialectoT usheri, 59. 
eremobius, Symplectes, 123. 
Eremomela ituricus, 77. 

latukae, 76. 

Eremopterix cavei, 108. 

leucopareia, 108. 

signata, 108. 

Erithacus rubecula, 39. 
erythrops, Quelea, 112. 
Erythropygia galactotes, 110. 

hamertoni, 110. 

minor, 110. 

Eudyptes, 26. 

afratus, 5. 

Euplectes afra, 112. 

sundevalli, 112. 

£afta, 112. 



Falco cBsalon, 63. 

brookei, 30. 

peregrinus, 30. 

/e«, Oiu.s', s., 10, 11. 
fischeri, Phyllastrephus, 71. 
flammeolus, Otus s., 10, 11. 
/Java, Budytes, 130. 

, Campephaga, 31, 32. 

formosa, Anas, 39. 
Francolinus hildebrandti, 59. 

schlegelii, 103, 123. 

Fregetta, 27. 

moestissima, 26. 

tropica, 26, 135. 

Fringilla ccelebs, 119. 

gengleri, 118, 119. 

■ hibernica, 118. 

■ hortensis, 119. 

montif ring ilia, 91. 

fringillaris, Alauda, 30. 
, £o£fra, 31. 

, Mirafra, 30, 31. 

fmgilegus, Corvus /., 117. 
Fulmarus antarcticus, 25, 28, 133. 

glacialoides, 28. 

furensis, Apus a., 52. 
fusca, Diomedea, 28. 
fusciceps, Arizelocichla n., 60. 



gabar, Melierax g., 82, 83. 
Galachrysia nuchalis, 111. 
galactotes, Erythropygia, 110. 
galatea, Tanysiptera, 12. 
galilejensis, Apus a., 105, 106. 
gallicus, Circaetus, 113. 
gallinago, Capella g., 58. 
Gallinula chloropus, 40. 
Garrulax lumsdeni, 4. 

waddelli, 4. 

Garrulus atricapillus, 40. 

brandti, 39. 



Garrulus cervicalis, 39. 

glandarius, 39. 

rufitergum, 40. 

gengleri, Fringilla c, 118, 119. 
Geocolaptes olivaceus, 105. 

theresse, 105. 

Geokichla oberlanderi, 16. 

piaggiae, 16. 

williamsi, 16. 

gilberti, Kupeornis, 50, 51. 
gilliana, Diomedea, 27. 
glacialoides, Fulmarus, 28. 
glandarius, Garrulus g., 39. 
Glareola nuchalis, 111. 
Gliciphila, 26. 

godfreyi, Bradypterus b., 19. 
gouldi, Buhceria, 29. 

, Pachyptila, 24, 25. 

gracilis, Oceanites, 26. 
grcecorum, Saxicola t., 84. 
grallaria, Cymodroma, 30. 

, Procellaria, 135. 

granti, Bradijpterus to., 54, 55. 

, Cossypha i., 53. 

graueri, Cinnyris a., 19. 

, Dyaphorophyia a., 75. 

gravis, Procellaria, 29. 
gutturalis, Eremialector, 111. 
, Pterocles, 111. 



haastii, Apteryx, 133. 
hachisuka, Lanius v., 121, 122. 
hamertoni, Erythropygia, 110. 
harterti, Dyaphorophyia a., 75. 
hartlaubi, Dendropicus /., 134. 
hasitata, Bulweria, 29. 
Hemiprocne confirmata, 12. 

mystacca, 12. 

heptneri, Circaetus, g., 113. 
Heterotrogon vittatum, 59. 
hibernans, Saxicola t., 91. 
hibernica, Fringilla c, 118. 
Hierococcyx ciceliae, 56. 

varius, 56. 

hildebrandti, Francolinus h., 59. 
Hippolais elceica, 17. 

pallida, 17. 

hispanus, Dendrocopos m., 41. 
hornbyi, Hydrobates, 30. 

, Thalassidroma, 26. 

hortensis, Fringilla c, 119. 
huegeli, Cosnocorypha a., 6. 
huttoni, Diomedea, 28. 
Hydrobates hornbyi, 30. 

melania, 26. 

owstoni, 30. 

hypodilus, Anthreptes c, 83. 

icterinus, Phyllastrephus, 71. 
Icterus bullocki, 97. 



141 



Icterus spurius, 97. 
impavida, Diomedea, 28. 
impennis, Ale a, 82, 120. 
incerta, Bulweria, 29. 
inexpecta, Bulweria, 29. 
insulana, Cossypha L, 53, 54. 
insularis, Saxicola t., 84. 
intermedins, Cinnyris c, 20. 
intcrpositus, Otus s., 11. 
isabellae, Cossijpha, 53. 
ispida, Alcedo a., 63. 
ituricus, Eremomela b., 11. 

jacksoni, Apalis j., 55, 56. 

, Aplopelia s., 20, 21. 

, Phoeniculus b., 51. 

, Ploccus j., 123. 

jacundus, Ploceus j., 123. 
japoiiicus, Otus s., 10, 11. 

katangre, Anthus r., 17. 
kikuyuensis, Colius s., 133. 
kilimensis, Coccopygia m., 60. 
kumbcensis, Dyaphorophyia a., 75. 
kungwensis, Dyaphorophyia a., lb. 
Kupeornis, 50, 51. 

gilberti, 50. 

Lanius hachisuka, 121, 122. 

schach, 121, 122. 

tephronotus, 121, 122. 

validirostris, 121, 122. 

lapponicus, Calcarius /., 91. 
Larus bulleri, 133. 

novcehollandiae, 5. 

larvata, Aplopelia, 21. 
latukae, Eremomela b., 76. 
leggei, Otus s., 11. 
lessoni, Bulweria, 29. 
leucomelana, Curruca, 109. 

, Parisoma, 109. 

, Sylvia l, 109, 110. 

leucomelas, Procellaria, 30. 
leucomystax, Viridibucco, 134. 
leucopareia, Eremopterix, 108. 
leucopterus, Dendrocopos m., 41. 
libratus, Tyto c., 76. 
lichenya, Anthus r., 17. 
Lioptilornis nigricapillus, 51. 

rufocinctus, 51. 

lomaensis, Dyaphorophyia a., 75. 
longirostris, Diomedea, 27. 
lopezi, Poliolais I., 74, 135. 
lowei, Apus a., 52. 
ludovicensis, Cinnyris a., 19. 
lugens, Bulweria, 29. 

— , (Enanthe, 107. 

, Teimo w., 42, 135. 

lugentoides, (Enanthe I., 107. 
lugubris, (Enanthe I., 107. 
, Garrulax I., 4. 



lumsdeni, Bab ax I., 4. 

Garrulax I., 4. 

Luscinia akahige, 39. 
luteus, Budytes, 130. 



macgillivrayi, Pachyptila, 24, 25. 

, Thalassidroma, 26. 

Macronectes, 25. 

ataa, 28. 

dovei, 28. 

macrophala, Petroica, 6. 
macroptera, Bulweria, 29. 
macrura, Sterna, 63. 
magentae, Bulweria, 29. 
major, Bradypterus b., 18, 19. 

, Dendrocopos m., 40, 41, 42, 4^ 

Mandingoa nitidula, 60. 
manengubce, Bradypterus m., 55. 

, Poliolais l, 74, 135. 

manoensis, Cinnyris c., 20. 
mariae, Bradypterus m., 54, 55. 
maui, Pachyptila, 25. 
mauritanus, Dendrocopos m., 41. 
mayeri, Astrapia, 15. 

medius, Dendrocopos, 43. 
megala, Avicedea s., 12. 
melania, Hydrobates, 26. 

, Procellaria, 26. 

melanocephala, Emberiza, 97. 

, Stytota, 110. 

Melanocorypha yeltoniensis, 92, lbi 
melanophris, Diomedea, 27. 
melanopus, Bulweria, 29. 
Melierax coombsi, 113. 

defensorum, 82. 

gra&ar, 82, 83. 

musicus, 113. 

poliopterus, 113. 

Menura, 26. 

Mesopicos ruwenzori, 59. 
meyeri, Tanysiptera g., 12. 
minor,. Apalis j., 55, 56. 

, Erythropygia g., 110. 

, Tanysiptera p., 12. 

minus, Edolisoma m., 12. 
Mirafra fringillaris, 30, 31. 

passerina, 30, 31. 

Miro tr aver si, 6. 
missus, Pachyptila, 24. 
modestus, Otus s., 11. 
moestissima, Fregetta, 26. 
mollis, Bulweria, 29. 
montanum, Edolisoma, 12. 
Monticola saxatilis, 92. 
montif ring ilia, Fringilla, 91. 
muhuluensis, Apalis m., 46. 
multicolor, Petroica, 6. 
murinus, Cuculus, 31, 32. 
musicus, Melierax, 113. 
mystacea, Hemiprocne, 12. 



142 



natalensis, Nycticorax, 112. 
Nectarinia arturi, 60. 
Neocichla angusta, 58. 
nereis, Oceanites, 26. 
nigef, Chlidonias n., 63. 
nigricapillus, Lioptilornis, 51. 
Ninox, 26. 

nisus, Accipiter n., 63. 
nitidula, Mandingoa n., 60. 
nivalis, Plectrophenax n., 33, 89. 
nivea, Pagodroma, 29. 
norrisae, Sylvia, 110. 
novaehollandix, Larus, 5. 
nuchalis, Galachrysia, 111. 

, Glareola, 111. 

numidus, Dendrocopos m., 40, 41, 42, 43. 
Nyctiorax natalensis, 112. 



oberlandcri, Geokichla p., 16. 
obsoleta, Scops, 10. 
Oceanites gracilis, 26. 

, nereis, 26. 

Oceanodroma, 26. 
CEnanthe boscaiceni, 107. 

, lugens, 107. 

, lugentoides, 107. 

, lugubris, 107. 

, picata, 107. 

vauriei, 107. 

okuensis, Phceniculus b., 51. 
olivaceus, Geocolaptes, 105. 
Onychognathus raymondi, 58. 
orientalis, Pogonocichla s., 60. 
Othyphantes emini, 123. 
Oiws botelensis, 11. 

kritcet, 8, 9, 10,11. 

capensis, 10. 

cycladum, 11. 

cyprius, 10, 11. 

distans, 8, 9, 10, 11. 

elegans, 11. 

/ea?, 10, 11. 

flammeolus, 10, 11. 

interpositus, 11. 

japonicus, 10, 11. 

leggei, 11. 

modestus, 11. 

pamela, 9, 10, 11, 135. 

pulchellus, 11. 

rarus, 11. 

rufipennis, 11. 

scops, 8, 9, 10, 11. 

senegalensis, 8, 11. 

socotranus, 11. 

stictonotus, 11. 

sunia, 10, 11. 

turanicus, 11. 

owstoni, Hydrobates, 30. 
Oxyura, 26. 



Pachyptila, 5, 27. 

balana, 25. 

belcheri, 23, 24, 25, 29. 

eras sir ostris, 24. 

desolata, 23, 24, 25. 

gotJdt, 24, 25. 

macgillivrayi, 24, 25. 

maui, 25. 

missus, 24. 

safaint, 23, 24, 25. 

turtur, 23, 24. 

otttata, 23, 24, 25. 

pacifica, Procellaria, 27. 
Pagodroma nivea, 29. 
pallida, Hippolais I., 17. 
palpebrata, Diomedea, 28. 
pamelce, Otus, s., 9, 10, 11, 135. 
Parisoma buryi, 110. 

lencomelaena, 109. 

somaliensis, 109. 

parkini, Passer d., 122. 
Passer bactrianus, 122, 123. 

domesticus, 122. 

parkini, 122. 

passerina, Mirafra, 30, 31. 
Pelecanoides, 5, 27. 
perconfusus, Budytes, 130. 
peregrinus, Falco p., 30. 
Petroica dannefcerdi, 6. 

macrophala, 6. 

multicolor, 6. 

Phalacrocorax, 26. 
Phasianus colchicus, 42, 135. 
satscheuensis, 42. 

tenebrosus, 42. 

versicolor, 42. 

Phceniculus bollei, 51. 

jacksoni, 51. 

okuensis, 51, 

Phcenicurus phcenicurus, 91. 
Phyllanthus, 50. 

atripennis, 51. 

Phyllastrephus alfredi, 59. 

cabanisi, 71. 

fischeri, 71. 

icterinus, 71. 

sedei, 70. 

sucosus, 71. 

xavieri, 70, 71. 

Phcebetria, 27. 
Phylloscopus bonelli, 46. 
piaggice, Geokichla p., 16. 
Pica, 40. 

picata, Qlnanthe, 107. 
pinetorum, Dendrocopos m., 40. 
Pirenestes, 59. 
Platalea, 26. 

platyrhynchos, Anas, 39. 
Plectrophenax nivalis, 33, 89. 
Ploceus baglafecht, 123. 



143 



Ploceus jacksoni, 123. 

jacundus, 123. 

spekeoides, 20. 

Podiceps ruficollis, 108. 
Pogonocichla orient alis, 60. 
Poliolais alexanderi, 74, 135. 

lopezi, 74, 135. 

manengubae, 74, 135. 

poliopterus , Melierax, 113. 
Prinia, 110. 
Procellaria, 26. 

cequinoctialis, 29. 

albigularis, 26. 

amphitrite, 26. 

borealis, 30. 

byroni, 30. 

cinerea, 29. 

conspicillata, 29. 

creatopus, 30. 

diomedea, 30. 

disputans, 30. 

elegans, 30. 

grallaria, 135. 

■ gravis, 29. 

leucomelas, 30. 

melania, 26. 

pacifica, 27. 

reinholdi, 30. 

Prodotiscus regulus, 59. 
Pterocles gutturalis, 111. 
Pterodroma, 5. 

aterrima, 25. 

brevirostris, 25,26. 

macroptera, 25, 26. 

Puffinus, 5, 26. 

reinholdi, 27. 

pulchellus, Otus s., 11. 
Pyromelana, 112. 



Quelea erythrops, 112. 
Querquedula capensis, 111. 
querquedula, Anas, 58. 



raaltenii, Anthus r., 18. 
rarus, Ohts s., 11. 
raymondi, Onychognathus t. 
regulus, Prodotiscus r., 59. 
reinholdi, Procellaria, 30. 

, Puffinus, 27. 

richmondi, Diomedea, 27. 
rohui, Diomedea, 27. 
rostrata, Bulweria, 29. 
rothschildi, Diomedea, 27. 
rubecula, Erithacus, 39. 
rubicola, Saxicola t., 84. 
rubrirostris, Anser a., 125. 
ruficollis, Podiceps r., 108. 
rufipennis, Otus s., 11. 



58. 



rufitergum, Garrulus, 40. 
rufocinctus, Lioptilornis, 51. 
rufuloides, Anthus r., 18. 
rtt/ws, Cursorius c, 104, 105. 
rutila, Emberiza, 97. 
ruwenzori, Mesopicos g., 59. 

salvini, Diomedea b., 5, 2S. 

, Pachyptila, 23, 24, 25. 

samaliyce, Aplopelia s., 20. 
sanfordi, Diomedea, 27. 
satscheuensis, Phasianus c, 42. 
saxitalis, Monticola, 92. 
Saxicola archimedes, 84. 

desfontainesi, 84. 

grcecorum, 84. 

hibernans, 91. 

insularis, 84. 

rubicola, 84. 

schach, Lanius, 121, 122. 
schlegelii, Francolinus, 103, 123. 
sclateri, Calandrella s., 106. 
, Spizocorys, 106. 

Scops obsoleta, 10. 
scops, Oiws s., 8, 9, 10, 11. 
Scotocerca, 110. 
senegalensis, Otus s., 8, 11. 
Serinus albogularis, 107, 108. 

crocopygia, 107. 

sordahlce, 108. 

theresse, 107. 

serlei, Phyllastrephus x., 70. 
signata, Eremopterix, 108. 
simplex, Aplopelia, 21. 
smilorhis sowerbyi, 85. 
socotranus, Otus s., 11. 
somaliensis, Parisoma b., 109. 

, Sylvia, 110. 

somereni, Anthreptes c, 83, 84. 
songecensis, Apalis m., 46. 
sordahlce, Serinus a., 108. 
sowerbyi, Buccanodon w., 60, 85. 

, Smilorhis, 85. 

Spatula clypeata, 49, 58, 135. 
spekeoides, Ploceus, 20. 
Spizocorys sclateri, 106. 
spurius, Icterus, 97. 
stenozona, Aviceda s., 12. 
Sterna, 26. 

albifrons, 63. 

macrura, 63. 

vittata, 5. 

Stercorarius, 26. 

stictonotus, Otus, 11. 

stormsi, Turdus o., 57, 58, 111. 

strepera, Anas, 39. 

stresemanni, Buccanodon w., 60. 

striata, Coracina, 32. 

Struthio camelus, 7. 

syriacus, 6, 8. 



144 



Sturnus vulgaris, 92. 

sucosus, Phyllastrephus /., 71. 

sulphurata, Campephaga, 31, 32. 

sulphuratus, Cuculus, 31, 32. 

sundevalli, Euplectes o., 112. 

sunia, Otus s., 10, 11. 

Sylvia blanfordi, 109, 110. 

hortensis, 109. 

leucomelcena, 109, 110. 

mclanocephala, 110. 

norrisce, 110. 

somaliensis, 110. 

Symplect.es amaurocephalus, 59. 

eremobius, 123. 

syriacus, Dendrocopos s., 11, 42, 43. 
■ Struthio c, 6, 8. 



Tceniaparadisea, 16. 
/a/ia, Euplectes a., 112. 
Tanyiptera galatea, 12. 

meyeri, 12. 

minor, 12. 

vulcani,, 12. 

Ta-rsiger, cyanurus, 46. 
tenebrosus, Phasianus c, 42. 
tephronotus, Lanius, 121, 122. 
tethys, Thalassidroma, 26. 
Tetrao lugens, 42, 135. 
Thalissidroma hornbyi, 26. 

macgillivrayi, 26. 

tethys, 26. 

Thalassoica, 25, 135. 
theresae, Apus a., 105. 

, Calandrella s., 106. 

, Cursorius c, 104, 105. 

, Geocolaptes o., 105. 

, Serinus a., 107. 

thunbergi, Budytes t., 131. 
Thyellodroma, 27. 
toulsoni, Apus a., 111. 

, Cypselus, 111. 

transkeiensis, Anthus r., 17. 
tr aver si, Miro, 6. 



Trochocercus albonotatus, 59. 
tropica, Fregetta, 26, 135. 
turanicus, Otus s., 11. 
Turdoides, 50. 
Turdus stormsi, 57, 58, 111. 

williami, 57. 

turtur, Pachyptila, 23, 24. 
Tyto cameroonensis, 76. 
capensis, 76. 

libratus, 76. 



ugauda, Anthreptes c, 84. 

usambarce, Bradypterus m., 54, 55, 57. 

usheri, Eremialector b., 59. 



validirostris, Lanius v., 121, 122. 
varius, Hierococcyx v., 56. 
vauriei, (Enanthe, 107. 
versicolor, Phasianus, 42. 
Viridibucco chyulu, 133, 134. 

leucomystax, 134. 

viridisplendcns, Cyanomitra v., 59. 
mffaia, Pachijptila, 23, 24, 25. 

, Sterna, 5. 

vittatum, Heterotrogon v., 59. 
vulcani, Tanysiptcra g., 12. 
vulgaris, Sturnus v., 92. 
Vultur chincou, 113. 

waddelli, Babax, 4, 5. 

, Garrulax L, 4, 5. 

westralis, Diomedea, 27. 
whytei, Cinnyris a., 19, 20. 
williami, Turdus o., 57. 
williamsi, Geokichla p., 16. 
wilsoni, Bradypterus b., 18, 19. 

xavieri, Phyllastrephus x., 70, 71, 

yeltoniensis, Melanocorypha, 92, 135. 
youngi, Bradypterus m., 54, 55. 






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