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BULLETIN 



OF THE 



Brooklyn Entomological 
Society 



NEW SERIES 



Vol. XI •^ I a^ 



1916 I Y 




X EDITED (IN SUCCESSION) BY 

F. G. SCHAUPP JOHN B. SMITH GEO. H. HULST 



CHAS. LOUIS POLLARD 



R. P. DOW 



PUBLICATION COMMITTEE 

CHARLES SCHAEFFER. 



J. R. de la TORRE-BUENO, 



ROBERT P. DOW. 



Press of 

THE NEW Era Printing Company 

Lancaster, pa. 



Dec, 1916 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 



INDEX OF GENERA AND SPECIES. 



Mentioned in Volume XL New forms marked *. 



Acalypta lillianis* 39 

thomsonii, 39 
Agrotis violaris, 21 
Ailanthus, 114 
Alsophila, 69 

pometaria, 85 
Anarostoma, 15 
Anarostomoides* 15 

petersoni* 15 
Anax Junius, 18 
Anisopteryx, 69 
Anthocharis genutia, 17 
Antiblemma inexacta, 17 
Apion, 42 

Aprostocetus ulysses,* 112 
Aradus cinnamomeus, 90 

falleni, 90 

shermani, 90 

uniformis, 90 
Arctia caia, 18 

nau, 17 

virgo, 90 
Ateuchus sacer, 26 

csgyptorum, 27 
Athous scapularis, 90 
Attacus cecropia, 114 

calif ornica, 114 

Columbia, 114 

gloveri, 114 
Attalea, 41 
Aulonium parallopipedum, 17 

tuberculatum, 17 
Aulonothroscus rugosiceps,* 63 

constrictor, 63 
Autographa biloba, 21 

Banasa packardi, 91 
Bellura gortynides, 90 
Bembidium, cannula, 13 

litorale, 13 

lorquini, 13 

pugetanum,,* 13 
Betula populifolia, 18 
Bombus fiavifrons, 46 

pennsylvanicus, 46 
Bruchomorpha oculata, ly 



Cafius johnsoni,* 13 
Callirhytis cornigera, 18 
Callosamia .promethea, 17, 114 
Calocampa cineritia, 17 

curvimacula, 17 
Calosoma sycophanta, 18 
Calypterus betulce, 18 
Cantharis, 26 
Canthon, 26 

praticola, 81 
Carabus limbatus, 18 

nemoralis, 17 

vinctus, 18 
Catocala carissima, 90 

elonympha, ly 

relicta, 18 
Cebrin antennatus,* 107 

bicolor, 107 

compositus, 108 

emarginatus* 108 

estriatus, 108 

mandibularis, 108 
Cephidia textrionis, ly 
Ceratomia undulosa, 90 
Cereus giganteus, 78 
C crura multiscripta, 90 
Cetonia, 27 

Chalcholepidius viridipennis, 90 
Chlcenius pennsylvanicus, 81 
Chloridea obsoleta, 42 
Chrysomysa csnea, 42 

demandata, 40 
Cicindela consentanea, 18 

cuprascens, 81 

formosa, 81 

hirticollis, 81 

lengii, 81 

lepida, 81 

macra, 81 

modesta, 91 

patruela, 18 

ponder osa, 81 

purpurea, 18 

repanda, 81 

rugifrons, 91 

scutellaris, 81, 91 

sex-guttata, 18 



Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XI 



Cicindela striga, 92 

tranqueharica, 81 
Cingelia catenaria, 18 
Clerus ichneumoneus, 90 
Compsothrips albosignatus, 65 
Copris, 26 

Carolina, 17 
Coptodera cerata, 90 
Cossonus bohemanni, 79 

concinnus, 74, 79 

crenatus, 79 

elliptic ollis, 79 

fossicollis* 74, 78 

hubbardi, 74, 77, 79 

impressifrons, 79 

pacificus,* 74, 75 

pinephilus, yy 

platalea, 79 

quadric ollis, 79 

schwarzi,* 74, 76 

subareatus, 74, 75 

texanus, 74 
Cremastochilus nitens, 8t 
Creniphilus subcupreus, 47 
Cychrus stenostomus, 18, 90 

elevatus, 18 

shoemakeri, 18 

canadensis, 18 

pyrsolepis, 90 

stenostomus, 90 
Cymbiodyta fimbriata, 47 
Cryptothrips bicolor, 64 

dentipes, 64 

gilvipes, 64 

/oto^ 64 

Decatoma marylandica,* 112 
Dermestes pulcher, 91 
Diacrisia virginica, 21 

latipennis, 21 
Dianthus carthusianorum, 46 
Dorcus brevis, 70 

parallelus carnochani,* 70 
Drapetes ecarinatus,* 62 

geminatus, 62 

niger, 62 

nitidus, 62 

quadripustulatus, 62 

rubricollis, 62 
Dysterias abortivalia, ly 

Elachistus louisiana, 112 

niarylandica,* 112 
Elasmocerus terminatus, \y 
Endecatoma, 112 
Epinaptera americana, 17 
Erirhipis herbacea occidentalis,* 



Eucetia pudens, 17 
Eumceus atala, 91 
Euphoria areata, 91 

herbacea, 84 
Euxesta exilis,* 45 

irivittata, 40, 44 



Galeroclerus fasciata, 74 

trilobatus, 74 
Gargaphia angulata, 18 
Gaurax, 87 
Geopinus fluvialis, 81 
Geotrupes opacus, 81 
Gerris, 53 
Gteo carnosa, 21 
Gonatocerus novifasciatus, 112 
Gryno charts expansa,* 72 

oregonensis, 73 

pilosula, y3, 74 

quadrilineata, 73 

Hadena burgessi, 21 

Hepialus argenteomaculatus, 21 

auratus, 18 
Halictus floridanus ccesareus,* 11 

nymphaearum, 11 

oceanicus,* 11 
Heteromysa, 15 
Helluomorpha nigripennis, 90 
Homoglcea hircina, \y 
Homoptera cingulifera, 21 
Hydroessa, 56 
Hydrometra australis, 92 

martini, 92 
Hydrotaea acuta, 109 

arnipes, 109 

bispinosa, 109 

ciliata, 109 

cressoni, 109 

dentipes, no 

houghi,* no 

irritans, 109 

metatarsata, 109 

meteorica, no 

militaris, 109 

occulta, 109 

unispinosa, 109 

Idiocerus skurra, \y 

Jodia rufago, ly 

Laricobius erichsoni, 14 

laticoUis,* 14 
Lemna, 60 

Leptura am,ericana, 90 
Libocedrus decurrens, y2, 73 



Dec, 1916 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 



Ligyrus relictus, 81 

Liineuitis arthemis, 90 

Liodes alpha, 20 

Lucanus elaphus carlengi,* 70 

Lucilia ccesar, 33 

Lygidea mendax,, 18 

Lymexylon sericeum, 17 

Macrovelia horni, 92 
Malacosoma americana, 17 

disstria, 17 
Marumba modesta, 90 
Menecles insertus, 91 
Merinus laevis, 90 
Merragata hehroides, gf2 
Mesovelia bisignata, 92 

niulsanti, 92 
Microvelia, 53 

albonotata, 57 

americana, 57 

atrata,* 57, 63 

bore alls,* 57, 59 

capitata, 58 

fontinalis,* 57, 58 

pulchella, 59 
Micrutalis calva, 91 
Miscogaster marilandica,* 87 
M3;o^ coracinus, 90 

cyonejcenj, 18 

Nceogeus burmeisteri, 91 

pusillus, 91 
Necrobia rufipes, 33 
Nemosoma attenuatum, 72 

cylindricum, 20 

fissiceps, 72. 

punctatuTit* 71 
Neuroctenus simplex, 90 
Notogramma stigma, 40, 41 
Notoxus arisonensis,* 36 

balteatus, 35 

bifasciatus, 38 

brevicornis,* 34 

breviusculus,* 35 

calcaratus, 33, 37 

cavicornis, 36 

delicatus, 36 

interm^edius,* 38 

montaiius, 2i2i, 35, 37 

nevadensis, 35 

nuperoides* 33 

nuperus, 2Z 

pallidus* 35 

^imilis* 27 

Odontonyx trivittis, go 
Odontota hornii, go 
CEdaleothrips hookeri,* 64 



Oncocnemis riparia, 17 
Onthophagus guatemaliensis, 81 
Operophtera bruceata, 68 
Ophion, 115 

Orgyia leucostigma, iii 
Orthosteira, 39 
Orthostira, 39 
Oscinoides* arpidia^* 87 
Oxygramma rogationis, 21 

Pachnobia salicarum, 17 
Paleacrita, 69 

vernata, 8S' 
Panchrysia purpurigera, 21 
Papaipema speciossissima, 18 
Pasimachus depressus, 18, 90, 91 
Phanceus difformis, 79, 81 
Philhydrus nebulosus, 47 

ochraceus, 47 
Philonthus quadricollis, 14 

seminitens, 14 
Philosamia cynthia, 114 
Phlceosinus sp., 72 

sordidus, 14 
Phyllophaga, 68 
Piesocorynus dispar, go 
Pimelia, 2,7 
Pimpla, 1 14 _ 
Pinus sabiniana, 79 
Pirene marylandensis* 88 ' 

marylandicus , 88 
Pithanus maerkeli, 18 
Pleocoma australis, 12 ^ 

behrensi, 12 

conjungens, 12 

fimbriata, 12 
. hirticollis, 12 

hoppingi, 12 

puncticollis, 12 

rickseckeri, 12 

jto#, 12 

ulkei, 12 
Podisus fretus* 82 

maculiventris, 83 

serieventris, 83 
Populus tremuloides. 74 
Promachus fitchii, 66 

milberti, 68 

vertebratus, 66 
Protoparce Carolina, 21 

^^;rto, 21 
PsapHidia thaxterianus, 17 
Psenoceriis supernotatus, 20 
Pseudometagea hillmeadia,* 113 
Pseudovespa austriaca, 102 
Psithyrus insularis, 46 

variabilis, 47 
PterosHchus pupuratus, 90 



Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XI 



Quercus coccinea, i8 
palitstris, i8 

Renia tilo salts, 17 
Rhagovelia, 53 

ohesa, 55 

salina, 56 
Rheumat abates, 55 
Rhus copalina, 20 
bra, 20 



typhina, 103 

Saprinus sp. 81 
Scaphinotus shoemakeri, go 
ScarabcBus, 26 
Scop,elosoma sidus, 17 

tristigmata, ly 
Seioptera vibrans, 40, 46 
Selenophorus sp., 81 
Smerinthtis astarte, 90 

geminatus, 21 
Solanum, 41 
Soronia ulkei, ly 
Sphczridium scarahceoides. 81 
Sphenophorus destructor, 81 
Sphex, 32 
Sphida obliqua, 90 
Sphinx chersis, 91 
Sthenopis 4-maculatus, 21 
Strategus mormon, 79 
Strongylium terminatum, 90 

Tceniocampa alia, 17 

rubescens, 17 
Tenebrioides ' mauritanica, ly 
Tetraopes canescens, 81 
Tetrastichomyia clisiocampae, iii 

orygae* iii 

siluensis, ill 
Tettix sp., 91 
Throscus carinicollis^ 63 

chevrolati, 63 
Tortricidia testacea, 17 



Trechus borealis, 90 
Tricrania sanguinipennis, 17, 91 
Tritoxa rufipes, 40 
Trochopus marinus, 56 
Trogosita virescens, \y 
Tropisternus glaber, 47 

lateralis, 47 
Trydymus aureipes, 88 

Vanessa milberti, ly 
Velia, S3 

australis* 54 

currens, 53 

rivulorum, 53 

stagnalis, 54 
Veliomopha, 56 
Vespa, 32, loi 

americana, 103 

arborea. 103 

austriaca, 103 

^'^'^ealis, 103 

Carolina, 104 

communis, 104 

consobrina, 102 

diabolica, 104 

geramnica, 104 

intermedia, 103 

maculata, 104 

occidentalis, 104 

pennsylvanica, 104 

rM/a, 103 

sulphurea, 104 

vidua, 104 

vulgaris. 104 
Volucella obesa, 46 

Xanthoptera semiflava, 17 
Xylina antennata, vy 

bethunei, ly 

disposita,. 21 

fagina, 21 

unimoda, ly 



Vol. XI 



FEBRUARY, 1916 



No. 1 



BULLETIN 



OF THE 



Brooklyn Entomological 
Society 



NEW SERIES 




PUBLICATION COMMITTEE 

CHARLES SCHAEFFER, 
Chairman 



J. R. de la TORRE-BUENO, 
Advertising Manager 



ROBERT P. DOW, 
Editor 



Published by the Society 
Piice» 23 cents Subscription, $1.00 per year (five issues) 



CONTENTS 



LIST OF THE FAMILIES OF COLEOPTERA IN AMERICA, 

Leng I 

THE WEAVER OF THE WEB, Dow 6 

TWO NEW BEES FROM NEW JERSEY, Cockerel! ii 

THE GENUS PLEOCOMA, Davis ii 

THREE NEW COLEOPTERA FROM WASHINGTON STATE, 

Fall ., 13 

A NEW GENUS AND SPECIES OF HELOMYZIDAE, Malloch. . 14 
PROCEEDINGS OF THE BROOKLYN ENTOMOLOGICAL 

SOCIETY 17 

NOTE ON PSENOCERUS SUPERNOTATUS, Dow 20 

THE DANCE OF THE GHOST MOTH, Keith 21 



BULLETIN ^ 

OF THE 

BROOKLYN ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

Vol. XI February, 1916 No. i 

A LIST OF THE FAMILIES OF COLEOPTERA IN AMERICA, 
NORTH OF MEXICO. 

By Charles W. Leng, 33 Murray St., N. Y. City. 

The following list is based on the work of Brues and Melander 
("Key to the Families of North American Insects," 1915), with 
some corrections, the authorities for which are given in the notes. 
It is published at this time in the hope of ehciting such comment 
from the students of the Coleoptera that, in the event of a new 
Check List being published, the materials for a satisfactory ar- 
rangement of the families, after free discussion by those inter- 
ested, may be available. It may be added that the work on which 
the list is based, for which we are most grateful to the authors, 
gives the definition of the family names employed, and is stated 
to be in turn based on the works of Sharp and Ganglbaur ; and 
that it coincides, in the main, with the " Catalogus Coleopter- 
rorum" of Junk, as far as that work has been completed. The 
differences between its classification and that of Leconte and 
Horn, repeated in Henshaw's Check List, are the result of the 
studies during the last forty years of a host of Coleopterists, 
who have corrected conclusions derived by Leconte, mainly from 
consideration of the external adult characters, by studies of the 
larvae in some families and by studies of the fossil insects in 
others; as well as by studies in some groups of the internal 
anatomy. The differences are not always very great, consisting 
often in treating Leconte's subfamilies as families or vice versa, 
or in changes in the relative position of the families. Of such 
changes in position, the greatest is in according the highest rank 
to the beetles with lamellate antennae, a course which most 

1 



2 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XI 

readers are probably already prepared to adopt, except possibly 
as it affects the relative position of the Rhynchophora. 

The Rhynchophora were regarded by Leconte practically 
as a suborder, strongly differentiated by the rigid palpi, single 
gular suture, legless larvae and, usually, by the beak. A con- 
tinuance of this division would still permit of ending the Coleop- 
tera genuina with the heteromerous, phytophagous and lamelli- 
corn series in successively advanced rank, and avoid interpolat- 
ing the Rhynchophora between them. Furthermore the Rhyn- 
chophora as a suborder would be more logically connected 
through the Brenthidse with the Rhysodidse of the Adephagous 
series, and through the Anthribidse with the Bruchidas of the 
Phytophagous series, than they would be if regarded as merely 
a series of equal taxonomic value with other series. I should 
therefore personally prefer to transpose the position of families 
90 to 93 so that they would follow families 94 to 97, but separated 
as a suborder so as to leave the Scarabseidse at the end of Coleop- 
tera genuina. 

On this as well as on the minor points covered by the notes I 
shall be glad to receive the comment of the reader. No such 
changes, however based purely on personal opinion, have been 
here made ; the arrangement of the families follows that of Brues 
and Melander except as noted below where there is a conflict of 
authorities. 

Order COLEOPTERA 

Suborder ADEPHAGA 

1. Carabidse^ 5. Gyrinidse 

2. Haliplidas 6. Rhysodidae 

3. Amphizoidae 7. Cupedidae^ 



4. Dytiscidae 



Suborder POLYPHAGA 
Series Palpicornia 



8. Hydrophilidae 



Feb., 1916 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 



Series Staphyliniformia 



9. Silphidse 

10. Scydmaenidse 

11. Leptinidae 

12. Clambidae 

13. Orthoperidas^ 

14. Ptiliidse* 

15. Sphseriidse 



22. Lycidse 

23. Lampyridse 

24. Telephoridas 

25. Malachiidse 



16. Hydroscaphidae 

17. Scaphidiidse 

18. Platypsyllidse 

19. Staphylinidse 

20. Pselaphidse 

21. Histeridse 



Series Malacodermata 



26. Melyridse^ 

27. Cleridse 

28. Corynetidss 

29. Derodontidse 



Series Cucujoidea 



30. Cucujidse 



31. Trogositidse*' 

32. Nitidulidse 

33. Rhizophagidse'^ 

34. Erotylidae 

35. Mycetseidse 

36. Cryptophagidse 

37. Phalacridse 

38. Lathridiidse 



Series Clavicornia 



46. Byturidse 

47. Dermestidse 



39. Tritomidse^ 

40. Monoedidse^ 

41. Colydiidse 

42. Cioidse 

43. Sphindidse 

44. Endomychidse 

45. Coccinellidse 



Series Brachymera 

48. Nosodendridse 



49. Byrrhidse 



50. Georyssidae 

51. Heteroceridse 

52. Helodidse 



Series Macrodactylia 



53. Eucinetidse 

54. Parnidse^° 



Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XI 



55. Chelonariidse 

56. Dascillidse 



58. Cebrionidse 

59. Elateridse 



62. Buprestidse 



63. Lymexylonidse 

64. Micromalthidse 

65. Bostrichidse 



69. Oedemeridse 

70. Cephaloonidse 

71. Pythidse 

y2. Pyrochroidse 

73. Hylophilidse 

74. Pedilidse 

75. Anthicidse 

76. Melandryidse 
yy. Scraptidse 



87. Cerambycidse 

88. Chrysomelidas 



Series Serricornia 

57. Rhipiceridse 

Series Sternoxia 

60. Eucnemidse 

61. Throscidse 

Series Buprestoidea 

Series Teridilia 

66. Lyctidse 

67. Ptinidse 

68. Anobiidae 

Series Heteromera 

78. Monommidse 

79. Othniidse 

80. Aegialitidse 

81. Lagriidse 

82. Alleculid^" 

83. Tenebrionidse 

84. Meloidse 

85. Mordellidse 

86. Rhipiphoridse 

Series Phytophaga 

89. Bruchidas 



90. Brenthidse 

91. Anthribidse^^ 



94. Lucanidse 

95. Sinodendridse 



Series Rhynchophora 

92. Curculionidse 

93. Scolytidse^^ 

Series Lamellicornia 

96. Passalidae 

97. Scarabasidse^* 



Feb., 1916 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 



Order STREPSIPTERA 
98 Xenid^^^ 

1. Cicindelidse of Henshaw's Check List are included as a subfamily of 
Carabidse in accordance with Dr. Walther Horn's work in Genera In- 
sectorum. 

2. Cupedidte is the spelling used in recent works in place of Cupesidae. 

3. Orthoperidse is equivalent to Corylophidas as far as our fauna is con- 
cerned. A family called Aphenocephalidse, Pseudocorylophidse or Disco- 
lomidse by different authors is, however, separable in tropical America and 
may possibly be found in southern Florida at some future time. 

4. Ptiliidse is used in recent works instead of Trichopterygidse. 

5. Melyridse are separated as a family by Col. Thomas L. Casey (Ann. 
N. Y. Ac. Sci., VIII, 456) and the excellent reasons given appear to have 
been overlooked. 

6. The family Trogositidae has been called Temnochilidse by most recent 
authors ; also Ostomidse and Ostomatidas ; and has been by some divided 
into two families. Until the promised revision by Mr. Charles Schaeffer 
appears, it seems best to retain the name used in the Henshaw Check List. 

7. The Rhizophagidse are treated as a separate family by A. Mequignon 
in the Junk Catalogue and are omitted by A. Grouvelle in his treatment 
of the Nitidulidae. 

8. Tritomidse is used instead of Mycetophagidse following Casey (Journ. 
N. Y. Ent. Soc, VIII, 1900). 

9. Monoedidse is used instead of Adimeridse because Monoedus Horn has 
precedence over Adimerus Sharp. 

10. The name Parnidse is retained because there has been much argu- 
ment as to the validity of Dryops, the priority of which name has led 
many to call the family Dryopidse. 

11. The name Alleculidae is used by F. Borchmann in the Junk Cata- 
logus, following Seidlitz instead of Cistelidse. 

12. The name Anthribidse may have to be changed on grounds of pri- 
ority; but it seems best to await the completion of the studies of Dr. W. 
Dwight Pierce in the synonymy of the Rhynchophora. 

13. Dr. A. D. Hopkins has shown that Scolytidae (not Ipidae) is the 
proper name for this family; and that Platypodidse of many authors is 
more correctly treated as a subordinate division. 

14. The Trogidae are separated as a family by Brues and Melander; but, 
being treated as a subfamily of Scarabaeidae by Mr. Gilbert J. Arrow in 
the Junk Catalogus, the same course is here followed. 

15. The Xenidae are equivalent to Dr. Leconte's Stylopidae and are in- 
cluded for that reason though not Coleoptera. 



6 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XI 

THE WEAVER OF THE WEB. 
By R. p. Dow, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

It is hardly conceivable that there is any human art older than 
that of weaving, and for it Mistress Spider (the male spider toils 
not, neither does he spin) has stood prototypical always. A word 
to describe the process must be as old as the process itself and it 
has never changed greatly. The word web is merely the past par- 
ticiple of the verb, to weave. The spider is called in the Sanscrit 
language urnavabi, a compound, wool-weaver. It is but a step 
from vah to web. The corresponding Greek word is huphe. 
The Greeks did not retain the idea of wool in the spider's name, 
although their garments were for the most part woolen. It would 
seem that in primitive India cotton had not replaced wool. 

The Greeks called the spider arachne. This is the spelling of 
Homer. Hesiod and Pindar spelled it arachnes. In the works of 
Aeschylus it became arachnos. In all later Greek it was again 
arachne. The Latin makes a direct step to aranea. The Ger- 
manic peoples took a different root, although keeping the original 
one to indicate weaving. Spider is merely spindler. A spindle 
is the stick on which the thread is wound, becoming slendered as 
thread is drawn into warp or woof. The word thread has no 
relation to the spider. It means that which is drawn and is akin 
to the Latin traho. 

The word arachne did not originate in Greece. Nor did it at 
first refer to the spider. There is an Indo-Germanic root, ark. 
It seems to mean a completely covered receptacle to serve as a 
hiding place either for a person or thing. As arcanum it still 
retains this idea. As arcane it differs. It is the two parallel 
bars of wood to which the weavers fastened their threads. Per- 
haps it developed into a more elaborate loom, far more service- 
able than hand weaving. If this be so, it would explain the 
myth of Arachne, which, while recorded by late poets, is as old 
as Greece, if not older. 

Arachne was a maiden, the most skilful weaver (or, more 
probably embroiderer) in Greece. She dared to compete with 
the Goddess Athene herself and spread upon her web remarkable 



Feb., 1916 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 7 

tapestry effects depicting the failings of the Gods. By all ac- 
counts her work compared well with that of the Goddess, but 
who can stand against high Olympus ? A tap of Athene's wand 
and the mortal became a spider and her handiwork the radiat- 
ing web the centre of which was to be her perpetual home. 

A spider gave the central idea of the great Homeric poem, the 
Odyssey. The essential word here is penizo, which seems to 
mean weaving in some way that is easily unraveled, perhaps 
knitting. Penelope is the spider-eyed weaver, who stays at home 
constructing each day a work to be undone each night. Odysseus 
was the wanderer, the typical male of the species.- 

When Xenophon spoke of what is undoubtedly a spider he 
used the word phalanx. Aristotle recognizes two groups of 
spider, arachncB and phalangia, the latter including the harvest- 
men still known as Phalangidse, having long legs. Here, then, 
is an entirely different metaphor, accentuating the eight legs and 
two mandibles. The word phalanx (plural phalangai) has had a 
curious career. Its first significance is the ten fingers of the two 
hands. By Homer's time it was restricted to ten particular joints 
in the hands, as it is now. In the singular, phalanx, Homer uses 
the word to mean a body of men in close array for offence and 
defence, so combined to remind one of two hands with ten ex- 
tended fingers. This significance has ever since clung to the 
word. 

In the nebulous portion of Greek antiquity some huge octopus, 
perhaps not unlike those still inhabiting the northern seas but 
long extinct in the Mediterranean, came to that shore and found 
victims enough to make it long remembered. Some eye witness, 
describing the creature, used his two hands with extended fingers 
as an illustration. It was like a huge phalanx, he said. Thus it 
came to have a name — phalsena. The name became applied to 
the next sea monster. The whale, also, has been extinct in the 
Mediterranean during all historic time, but the ancestors of the 
Romans remembered the creature and adopted the Greek name as 
halcena. Of that particular balccna whose enforced guest was the 
Hebrew, Jonah no acquaintance could be more desirable. 

The original phalcena was a devastator from the sea. The 
Greeks passed the name on to a land devastator which, collec- 



8 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. Xi 

lively, destroyed whole fields of crops. Its nature would be 
unknown had not Hesychius, an Alexandrian grammarian of un- 
certain date, explained that it developed into a Psyche — a Lepi- 
dopterous insect. Surely, then, it was the larva of Noctuid or 
Geometrid, probably the cut worm spreading in as many direc- 
tions as ten fingers can point. 

The apparently ten-legged spider stands as a symbol for the 
basis of all arithmetical computation. Ten thousand years be- 
fore the Arabic numerals were invented the only . way that the 
shepherd could tell the tale of his flock was by his fingers. Large 
sums became multiples of the phalangia. The Zend people, 
6,000 years B. C, were so simple that they could only count in 
this way. To describe a rich man the Avesta spoke of him as 
owning i,ooo Bactrian camels, i,ooo horses, i,ooo cattle, and 
10,000 sheep. This last is beyond the counting power of the 
shepherd. The princely warrior could conceive only one greater 
number and he was compelled to call that " innumerable." He 
prayed to the Goddess of the Irans that he might slay of the 
Turan enemy — of those who had slain 10 he might slay 100, of 
those who had slain 100 he might slay 1,000; of the thousand 
killers that he might slay 10,000 ; and of the myriad slayers that 
he might slay innumerable. When the armies of Xerxes assailed 
Greece their numbers transcended imagination. They could only 
be computed in the next phalangic multiple, millions. In all the 
ancient battles the victors claimed the dead were in myriads or 
multiples of the phalangic unit. 

The phalangic unit describes the ant, which is the mike of the 
older Zend, the name amplified by the statement that it occurs in 
colonies too numerous to be counted. Muria plus mike became 
myrme.v. The Romans, losing sight of the root meaning of the 
word, translated it phonetically as formica. The two English 
words, which seem to be synonyms, are emmet (of which ant is 
a mere contraction) and pismire. This is a compound word. 
The last syllable was carried away in Indo-Germanic times and 
is muria, ten thousand. The first syllable is due to the habit of' 
certain species of ejecting formic acid when put on the defensive. 

Aristotle (331 B. C.) attempted a Httle personal observation 
of spiders and has this to say: "All web-spinning spiders unite 



Feb., 1916 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 9 

thus : The female draws a thread from the middle of the web 
and the male draws it back again. This they do many times until 
they meet and unite back to back, this method of copulation suit- 
ing them because of the size of their abdomens. They produce 
small maggots which metamorphose into spiders, not from a part 
but from the whole of the maggot, for they are round from the 
first. When the female has produced her ova she incubates on 
them, and in three days they acquire legs. All species produce 
their young in a web, some kinds thin and small, others compact. 
Some are entirely enclosed in a round receptacle, others only 
partially covered by web. All the young are not produced simul- 
taneously, but as soon as they are hatched each leaps out, exud- 
ing a thread of its own. If bruised their contents is found to be 
a thick white fluid like that of maggots. 

" The field spiders first of all deposit their ova in a web, one 
end attached to their body and the other free, and they incubate 
thereon, producing the young alive. The phalangia weave a 
thick basket in which they lay their eggs and over which they 
incubate. The smooth kinds produce a small number of off- 
spring, the phalangia proper many. When grown the young 
surround the parent, kill her and throw her out. They often 
seize the male in the same way, when opportunity comes while he 
is assisting the female in incubation. Sometimes there are as 
many as 300 young in a single brood. They become full grown 
in about four weeks. 

"There are many kinds of arachnia and phalangia, two of the 
latter which bite. One is called psylla and resembles those 
known as lykoi (wolves). It is small, variegated, pointed and an 
active jumper. The other is black, larger and with long fore- 
legs. It moves slowly and can scarcely walk, being neither strong 
nor able to jump. 

" There is another group of those called wolves, one species of 
which is small and makes no web. Another species is larger and 
makes a coarse web of inferior quality on the ground or in 
hedges. If on the ground it is over a chink in the soil with the 
apex of its funnel extending downward. Here the spider keeps 
guard, running out whenever something falls within reach. The 
variegated kind makes a small inferior web in trees. There is a 



10 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XI 

third species which is exceedingly skillful and graceful. This 
begins the weaving operation by extending threads in all direc- 
tions so far as the web is to cover. It then determines the cen- 
ter accurately, and from this point starts with a new thread, 
weaving, so to speak, the woof which is to connect all the threads 
of the warp. Its sleeping place and store room are put at some 
little distance. It watches for prey at the web center. An in- 
sect caught anywhere stirs the center, whereupon the spider sur- 
rounds and encloses it with web tissue until it becomes resistless. 
Then it is carried to the store room. If hungry the spider sucks 
the victim at once, for this is the way she takes her food. If 
not, she hurries back to wait for more prey, stopping only to 
mend the tears in the web. If in her absence any new victim 
has become entangled she goes first to the center of the web, 
thence as before to the attack. If her web be destroyed, she 
begins spinning another at sunset, for then prey is most abundant. 
Only the female makes webs and catches prey. The male merely 
enjoys it with her. 

" There are two species of the graceful spiders which spin 
thick webs, one large and one small. The long-legged kind 
watches from above the web so as not to alarm a creature which 
would otherwise fall in. This is because her size prevents her 
from being inconspicuous. The smaller kind hides in a little 
upper chamber. 

" Spiders have the power of ejecting web material as soon as 
they are born. The tissue does not come from within their 
bodies, as Democritus asserts, but from the surface, like the bark 
of a tree or the quills of a porcupine. 

" Spiders will attack and surround with web animals much 
larger than themselves, even small lizards. They first enweb 
the mouths of their victims, then approach and bite. The ich- 
neumons and the gecko lizards are great enemies of the spider." 

While Aristotle's observations are sometimes far from accu- 
rate, he did pretty well for a pioneer. Nicander of Cos studied 
the subject a century or so later. He catalogued thirty species 
of spiders, treating of their use in medicine. His written work 
is lost, but we have the testimony of Pliny, the Roman, on the 
subject. 



Fcb.,i9i6 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 11 

TWO NEW BEES FROM NEW JERSEY. 

By T. D. a. Cockerell, Boulder, Colo. 

Halictus floridanus caesareus subs. nov. — ?. A little smaller ; face and 
front dark blue, the clypeus shining; mesothorax blue-black, densely and 
finely punctured, dull; scutellum somewhat shining, purple-blue; area of 
metathorax blue-black; abdomen without metallic tints. As in H. flori- 
danus Rob., the head is oval, with a narrow face, and the hind spurs have 
extraordinarily long spines. 

Hob. — Ocean Grove, N. J., July 12, 1893 ; collector unknown. The name 
is derived, from the ancient name of Jersey. This looks like a distinct 
species, but it agrees in structure with a specimen of H. floridanus re- 
ceived from Robertson, though the color is very different. 

Halictus oceanicus sp. nov. — ?. Length about 6.5 mm. ; robust, rather 
dark blue-green, with dull white hair ; tegulae rufopiceous, well punctured 
on anterior half, rounded behind ; wings hyaline, conspicuously suffused 
with reddish, stigma and nervures ferrugineous ; areas of metathorax with 
very coarse rugs ; posterior truncation very sharply margined ; abdomen 
dark green, shining, polished, hind margins of segments suffusedly red- 
dish, fourth segment rather thinly covered with white hair; hind spur 
with long spines. Closely related to H. nymphcEaruni Rob., but differing 
thus : Areas of metathorax with fewer rugae, wings reddish, abdomen 
strongly metallic ; both head and thorax distinctly narrower. It is, per- 
haps, a subspecies of nymphaarum, but if so a very distinct one. 

Hab. — Ocean Grove, N. J., July 12, 1893 ; collector unknown. 



THE GENUS PLEOCOMA. 

By Alonzo Davis, Pasadena, Cal.* 

This genus, in all its members, is very rare and also very 
peculiar. Their mouth parts are quite undeveloped and they 
can take no nourishment, so consequently they live but a few 
days. After the first rain of the year that soaks down into the 
ground far enough to loosen the earth where they are, the 
beetles come to the surface. The males come out and fly but 

* This paper was submitted by the writer as a composition in the regu- 
lar course of grammar-school work. The writer is one of the phalanx 
of youths who support the three active natural history societies of the 
vicinity and gather to the aid of the entomological department of the 
Southwest Museum of Los Angeles. 



12 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XI 

the females simply open a passage to the surface, staying in the 
ground. The males come and find them. 

Little or nothing is known of the life histories of these beetles. 
They live almost wholly underground, and are always found in 
mountains. There are, as I have been able to find out, ten 
species of these beetles, all living in California or the West 
Coast. They are as follows : 

P. fimbriata Lee. Found in the middle Sierras. 

P. Behrensi Lee. In the mountains around San Francisco Bay. 

P. Rickseckeri Horn. Mountains north of San Francisco. 

P. hirticollis Schauf. Is found in the same locality. 

P. conjungens Horn. In the Santa Cruz Mountains. 

P. Ulkei Horn. Is found in Utah. 

P. staff Schauf. Is found in Oregon. 

P. australis Fall. Sierra Madre Mountains. 

P. Hoppingi Fall. In the San Joaquin Mountains. 

P. puncticollis Rivers. 

There has been a stray elytra picked up in the Santa Cruz ( ?) 
Mountains which might prove to be from a new species, but 
nobody can tell much from just one wing cover. 

I found three specimens of a Pleocoma on the Mt. Wilson trail 
on Dec. 19, 1914. They may be a new species. They are now 
in the possession of Prof. H. C. Fall, who has named two new 
species of the genus. They were all males. If I had not at 
that time been ignorant of the habits of the genus, I undoubtedly 
could have gotten some females, as their holes were fairly thick 
in the trail. 

They are apt to be found almost anywhere in the mountains, 
so it is well to be ready for them. I neglected to take my 
cyanide, as it was quite late for insects to be out, and as there 
was snow on the ground about half way up the mountain. 

When I found the beetles I put two of them in a small tin box 
and the other I tied up in the corner of my handkerchief. In- 
side the box the beetles were having strenuous times. The 
smaller one pried the head and thorax off the big one, and so 
I took them all out, and came home with the three tied up in the 
corners of my handkerchief, as the box was pretty well squashed 
from my sitting on it during a snowball fight. 



Feb., 1916 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 1 3 

THREE NEW COLEOPTERA FROM WASHINGTON STATE. 

By H, C. Fall, Pasadena, Cal. 

Bembidiurti pugetanum n. sp. Form nearly as in lorquini, or the Euro- 
pean Utorale, viridiseneous, surface alutaceous, palpi and antennae dark 
metallic, the latter with basal joint pale beneath, femora at base and tibise 
beneath pale. 

■ Mentum tooth triangular. Prothorax one half wider than long, very 
slightly wider at base than at apex, sides moderately rounded in front and 
sinuate behind, narrowly margined; hincf angles rectangular and a little 
prominent; disk evenly alutaceo-reticulate, with feeble traces of trans- 
verse wrinkles, hind angles with a short oblique carina ; submedian margi- 
nal seta present. Elytra fully one half wider than the prothorax, striae 
moderately punctate, the fourth not distinctly sinuate, intervals 2-4 with 
purpHsh black stripe, more extended on the third — on which are the 
usual two squarish impressions. Body beneath greenish black, shining. 

Length 6 mm.; width 2.45 mm. (type c?). 

Described from two examples (c? ?) taken at Seattle, Washington, by 
Prof. O. B. Johnson. 

This species, by the form of the mentum tooth, the presence of 
the median marginal seta of the prothorax, and the carinate hind 
angles of the latter, would in my table* be placed near cannula, 
which however it does not very much resemble. In cannula the 
prothorax is more strongly transverse, the surface lustre more 
or less cupreous. 

Cafius johnsoni n. sp. Black, the inflexed margins of the elytra, legs, 
and ventral segments sometimes more or less brownish. Antennae black, 
not reaching the middle of the prothorax, joints 5-10, gradually becoming 
a little wider than long. Head — exclusive of mandibles — squarish, often 
larger in the male, strongly shining, with a minute wavy strigillation which 
disappears at the middle of the disk, an externally arcuate series of three 
large punctures on each side of the disk, and two or three others at the 
hind angles. Prothorax subequal in width to the head, slightly longer 
than wide, sides parallel, surface throughout polished, each side of the 
middle a series of four punctures, the posterior one more distant, with a 
few similar coarse punctures anteriorly toward the sides. Elytra a little 
longer than the prothorax, evenly, closely, rather coarsely punctate ; pu- 
bescence thin, dusky, inclined, and with several series of widely spaced 
longer erect setae. Abdomen similarly thinly pubescent, the hairs more 
recumbent, punctuation finer than on the elytra; beneath more coarsely 

* Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, XXXVI, p. 94. 



14 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XI 

punctate than above, sixth segment of male with a moderately deep sub- 
equilateral triangular emargination. Front tarsi very slightly dilated, 
scarcely more evidently so in the male. 
Length 6.5-7.5 mm. Seattle, Washington. 

For the series in my cabinet I am indebted to Prof. O. B. 
Johnson, of the University of Washington. This is a very dis- 
tinct species, qtiite different in general appearance from any 
other in our fauna ; in fact its resemblance to certain species of 
Philonthus — such as quadricollis or sordidus — is much more 
marked. In its strongly shining head and prothorax it is only 
approached by seminitens, after which it should be placed, 
although really belonging to the group which follows, from all 
of which the highly polished prothorax will separate it. 

Laricobius laticoUis n. sp. A series of specimens from Seattle, Wash- 
ington, differ so constantly in several respects from L. erichsoni that I 
have no hesitation in pronouncing them distinct. The form is perceptibly 
stouter than in erichsoni, the color above uniformly testaceous or rufo- 
testaceous, head brownish piceous, body beneath black, the legs and pro- 
pleura rufotestaceous. The prothorax is more strongly transverse than 
in erichsoni, and the erect hairs of the upper surface are shorter. There 
is no trace in any of the fourteen examples before me of the elytral, su- 
tural and lateral blackish stripes so constant in erichsoni. 

Length 2.25-2.5 mm. In erichsoni the length is seldom as great as 
2.25 mm. 

I am indebted to Prof. O. B. Johnson, who writes that they 
were taken from Douglas fir on the campus of the University of 
Washington, February and April. He has the species also from 
Columbia Gorge. 



A NEW GENUS AND SPECIES OF HELOMYZID^ 
C> (DIPTERA). 

By J. R. Malloch, Urbana, 111. 

The genus described herewith may be recognized as a helo- 
myzid by the distinctly spined costa, the very small size of the 
calyptrse, the absence of tibial bristles except at apices, and by 
the venation. The vibrissse are not differentiated. The first 
example of the species that was taken, a female, proved a puzzle 



Feh.,i9i6 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 15 

to me, though I had no doubt as to its being a helomyzid. Being 
unable to place it in any genus known to me, I made an attempt 
to obtain the male, hoping that it would clear up certain points 
for me, and fortunately succeeded in obtaining a single specimen. 
Much as I deprecate the erection of genera for the reception of 
single species, there appears to be no way out of it in this case, 
as the combination of characters possessed by the species is not 
met with in any genus in the family, and its habitus does not 
correspond closely to that of any other except, in some respects, 
to that of Heteromysa. From Heteromysa it is readily separated 
by the very much more widely separated eyes of the male, the 
longer costal spines, and the absence of mesopleural bristles in 
both sexes. Anarostoma is the most closely related North 
American genus yet described, but its species have mesopleural 
bristles and, as is the case in all the other genera, the first vein 
ends proximad of the vertical line of the inner cross-vein or just 
in hne with the latter instead of very distinctly distad of it as is 
the case in the present genus. 

Anarostomoides, n. gen. 

Generic characters. — Male, female: eyes widely separated; 
orbits with 2 pairs of bristles ; postvertical bristles small, cruciate; 
face retreating, upper mouth-margin not sharply defined ; vibrissae 
not well differentiated, represented by 2 weak hairs ; cheeks 
almost subquadrate, nearly as high as eye ; antennae of moderate 
size, arista subpubescent. Bristles of disc of mesonotum irregu- 
lar, the dorso-centrals consisting of 7 pairs, the anterior 2 pairs 
in front of suture ;* humeral bristle present ; mesopleura without 
bristles ; sternopleura with 2 bristles on the upper posterior angle 
and numerous long hair-like bristles on the lower portion ; scutel- 
lum with 6 bristles. First vein ending distinctly beyond the 
inner cross-vein. 

Type of genus, Anarostomoides petersoni, n. sp. 

Anarostomoides petersoni n. sp. Male. — Black, opaque, the ground-color 
everywhere obscured with dense grayish pruinescence. Frons slightly 
brownish or reddish anteriorly ; face reddish testaceous ; antennae deep 

* This may be an abnormal specimen, and possibly the usual number of 
dorso-centrals is S pairs. 



16 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XI 

black ; proboscis brown ; palpi yellowish, darkened apically. Mesonotum 
with faint indications of a narrow brown vitta along the line of dorso- 
centrals. Legs not so densely pruinescent as the thorax, knees very nar- 
rowly reddish. Wings clear or slightly grayish, the veins black. Halteres 
testaceous, the knobs brownish yellow. 

Orbits not clearly differentiated, the whole frons opaque, lower orbital 
bristle slightly weaker than upper, both directed out over eye; surface of 
frons with numerous short black setulse on anterior half; third antennal 
joint rounded apically; arista barely longer than width of frons, sub- 
pubescent, swollen at base. Acrostichal bristles irregular, about 3 rows 
between the dorso-centrals ; disc of mesonotum with a few rather widely 
separated setulose hairs ; mesopleura bare ; pteropleura bare ; scutellum 
bare on disc, with 6 marginal bristles. Abdomen slender; hypopygium of 
moderate size, recurved on venter. Legs rather strong, fore femora 
much incrassated, twice as thick as mid pair, their ventral surface covered 
with short, closely placed hairs and very short bristles; basal joint of fore 
tarsus much shorter than second, armed at its apex with a claw-like spur ; 
mid and hind femora without bristles ; fore and hind tibiae each with a 
single weak preapical dorsal bristle; mid pair with about 6 apical bristles. 
Costa with numerous soft, short hairs and a series of distinct short bris- 
tles, an indistinct break in costa just proximad of the auxiliary vein, the 
latter joining costa in line with inner cross-vein; first vein joining costa 
but little proximad of a point midway between the cross veins ; anal vein 
complete; outer cross vein about half its own length from wing margin. 

Female. — Differs from the male in having the fore femora normal in 
form and with a number of long, curved, slender bristles on ventral sur- 
face; the basal joint of fore tarsus much longer than the second and 
unarmed apically; the mid femora with a number of short bristles on the 
anterior surface, and the preapical tibial bristles slightly stronger. 

Length : male, 6 mm., wing, 6 mm. ; female, 5 mm., wing, 5.5 mm. 

Type locality, Urbana, 111.; male, November 13, 1915 (J. R. 
Malloch) ; female, November 11, 191 5 (A. Peterson), — both 
specimens taken in or near the Forestry of the University of 
Illinois. No data was obtained as to the habits of the species, 
but the male which I captured was taken close to the plot devoted 
to the culture of vegetables, and may have been associated with 
the decaying vegetable matter. 

The species is dedicated to Mr. Alvah Peterson, who captured 
the first specimen. 



Feb.,i9i6 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 17 

PROCEEDINGS OF THE BROOKLYN ENTOMOLOGICAL 

SOCIETY. 

Meeting of April 15, 1915 : — Fourteen members present. Mr. Herman 
Greenwald was elected to membership. Long Island records ; Tricrania 
sanguinipennis Say, reported by Mr. Dow from Central Park; Tcenio- 
campa rubescens, T. alia, Xylina unitnoda, X. antennata, X. bethunei, 
Calocampa cineritia, C. curvimacula, Jodia rufago, Seopelosoma sidus, S. 
tristigmata, all reported from the island by Mr. Engelhardt ; Mr. McElvaire 
reported Oncognemis riparis at Northport. Mr. Olsen recorded Idiocerus 
skurra at Huntington, and also Bruchomorpha oculata. 

Scientific programme : The Medico-Entomology of Pliny, by Mr. R. P. 
Dow. Mr. E. Shoemaker showed a collection of Long Island insects, in- 
cluding new records — Renia tilosalis Smith, Antiblemma inexacta Walker, 
Auloniuni parallelopipedutn Say, A. tuberculatum Leconte, Soronia ulkei 
Leconte, Lymexyon sericeum Harris, Elasmocerus terminatus Say, from 
Rockaway and Malaga, Trogosita virescens from Rockaway Beach. 

Meeting of May 13 : — Eleven members and four visitors present. 

Long Island records : Cephidia textrionis, Wyandanch, by Mr. Engel- 
hardt; Epinaptera amcricana, by Mr. Doll; Anthocharis genutia. Forest 
Park, by Mr. Megner ; Carabus nemoraiis, the European form, was re- 
ported by Mr. Davis from Staten Island, May 10, who also stated that it 
had been reported from Newark, N. J., Bronx, N. Y., and Brooklyn ; Mr. 
F. M. Schott was reported to have taken it about White Plains, New York. 

Programme : Mr. Olsen, " The Jassids of Long Island," to be published 
later in this Bulletin. Mr. Dow concluded " The Medico-Entomology of 
Pliny." Mr. Bueno exhibited a box of Heteroptera from British India, 
and directed attention to their very marked and characteristic facies. 

Meeting of June 10: — Thirteen members and one visitor present. 

Long Island records : Mr. Olsen reported Carabus nemoraiis from Mas- 
peth ; Mr. Pasch, Copris Carolina from Brooklyn ; Mr. Doll reported a 
hermaphroditic Callosamia promethea, with upper side of right wing with 
male markings and lower side female, taken at Flushing; Vanessa mil- 
berti, from Wyandanch ; Mr. Weeks reported Arctia nais from Patchogue ; 
Mr. Doll also reported Psaphidia thaxterianus Grote, from Wyandanch ; 
Mr. Engelhardt referred to the tent caterpillars, Malacosoma americana 
and Malacosoma disstria and their exceeding destructiveness on the Island. 
On willow he had secured Homoglaea hircina and on the bloom Pachnobia 
salicarum, Eucetia pudens and Catocala elonympha were also secured on 
April at Merrick, L. I., where Tortricida testacea, Xanthoptera semiflava 
and Dysterias abortivalia were also taken. 

Mr. Bueno showed a larva of Tenebriodes mauretanica which had been 
found in a sealed package of epsom salt early in May. (N. B. — This 
lived till late July without any food.) 



18 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XI 

Programme: Mr. Dow spoke on Mr. J. Turner Brakeley and his won- 
derful place at Lahaway, N. J. 

Meeting of October 14: — Seventeen members present and one visitor, 
Mr. H. H. Knight, of Cornell, a specialist on Miridse. 

The programme was the usual informal report by members on the col- 
lecting season. Mr. Franck reported catching Hepialus auratus in Sulli- 
van County, New York ; Mr. Bueno recorded the interesting Tingid, Gar- 
gaphia angulata, from White Plains, first record for the state ; Mr. Nicolay 
reported the olive-green form of Cicindela sexguttata from Henryville 
and C. patruela abundant at Mt. Pocono ; along the Potomac he had caught 
Cychrus stenostomus, elevatus and shoemakeri; on the top of Storm King 
Mountain, New York, he had found Cicindela purpurea. 

Mr. Shoemaker reported taking ten Cychrus canadensis near Winne- 
saukee Lake, Ulster Co., N. Y. 

Mr. Schott recorded Calosoma sycophanta in Flatbush and on Fire 
Island Beach; Cicindela consentanea from Wyandanch, April, and Cin- 
gelia catenaria very abundant in Babylon on October 3. Mr. Doll re- 
ported larvae of Papaipema speciossisima on golden rod. 

Mr. Engelhardt reported swarms of Anax Junius in a clearing in a wood 
near Tangiers, L. I. ; from Yaphank, Cychrus elevatus, in an old and 
abandoned cistern, and Myas cyanescens. 

Mr. Dow reported Catocala relicta from Flatbush and Arctia caia from 
Sullivan Co. 

Mr. Olsen reported a catch of forty or fifty specimens of Pithanus 
mccrkeli from Maspeth, a Palsearctic species heretofore unknown from 
North America. Mr. Bueno reported this also for White Plains. Mr. 
Olsen also recorded the Aphid Calypterus betulce from Betula .populifolia. 

Mr. Davis showed the Mirid Lygidea niendax, from Yaphank, L. I., 
taken on July 26, 1908, first record from the island. 

November 11 meeting: — Fourteen members and one visitors present. 

Mr. Weeks exhibited a live Pdsimachus depressus from Yaphank; Mr. 
Davis showed the gall of Callirhytis cornigera, usually to be found on 
Quercus palustris, but this on Q. coccinea, from Massapequa, L. I., July 11. 

Programme : Mr. Bueno's paper on the Hemiptera Heteroptera of Yap- 
hank was read in his absence, with exhibition of the rarer species there- 
from, to be published later in the Bulletin. Mr. Dow showed a large 
number of plaster casts of insect burrows, by the late Mr. Brakeley, the 
originator of the method. 

December meeting :— Present twelve members and two visitors. Mr. 
Howard L. Clark, of Providence, and Mr. Howard Notman, of Brook- 
lyn, were elected to membership. 

Long Island records : Mr. Schott reported from Little Neck, L. I., 
Cychrus elevatus on December 11, and also Carabus vinctus and C. 
limbatus. 



Feb.,i9i6 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 19 

Programme : Mr. G. P. Engelhardt, on " The Sesidse of Long Island," 
which will be published later. Mr. Bueno presented a paper on " West- 
chester Miridse — A First Notice," which will appear later in the Bulletin. 

Report of the Secretary of the Brooklyn Entomological Society for 
1915 : In the year just past, the Brooklyn Entomological Society has pur- 
sued the even tenor of its way. No events of the first magnitude have 
disturbed its steady progress. Perhaps the most worthy of its achieve- 
ments is the continued support given to its Bulletin, which, rejuvenated 
under the guiding and fostering hand of its editor, is worthily continuing 
the tradition of its predecessors, maintaining a high standard and striving 
for an ever higher, on a practically self-supporting basis. The scientific 
papers have ranged " from China to Peru," all phases of our favorite 
science have been touched upon and hitherto unknown facts have been 
illuminatingly presented to us. The titles have ranged from " The Sacred 
Scarab Beetle," type of the self-existing Egyptian Sun-God, to "Mos- 
quito Destruction in the Suburbs of Brooklyn," five thousand years apart 
in time and 10,000 miles in space. No less than fourteen papers of quality 
were presented in eight meetings. Under Long Island records 86 species 
have been reported as occurring on the island, not heretofore noted, con- 
tributed by Messrs. Davis, Nicolay, Shoemaker, Engelhardt, Franck, Dow, 
Weeks, Olsen, Doll, Pasch and Bueno. 

Attendance at meetings ranged from 11, in May, to 17 in February and 
October, with an average of 14 plus. The most constant attendants, pres- 
ent at every meeting as beseems officers, were Messrs. Olsen, Dow, Bather. 
Twenty-six members attended one or more meetings, and there were also 
thirteen visitors. Two members resigned in the year, Messrs. Pearsall 
and Levinson ; and three were elected. 

On the whole, the Society may be said to have prospered in the year 
past. It is undiminished in numbers, and while the insect frontiers recede 
further away from the city day by day, the " Old Guard dies but never 
surrenders," and keeps its spirit young while it lives ; when it falls the 
younger generation steps in full of vim and enthusiasm to carry on the 
work one step further till they too shall merge into the cosmos, their 
material forms dissolved into the elements that compose them ; their ego 
persisting in their worthy work ; and their souls returning to the Infinite, 
whence they came to do their share in the progress of the race of man. 

The Brooklyn Entomological Society shall go on through the impulse 
of these labors, to continue by its activities that tradition handed down 
from John B. Smith and his fellow worthies, which constitutes their 
precious legacy to us. J. R. de la'Torre-Bueno, 

Secretary. 



20 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XI 
NOTE ON PSENOCERUS SUPERNOTATUS. 

By R. p. Dow, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

In January I inspected a number of twigs of sumac, two species, 
Rhus copalina and R. glabra, hoping to find evidences of Nemo- 
soma cylindricum. The live twigs contained nothing, the dead 
ones were thickly populated with very small Scolytid larvae and 
some species of Cerambycid, the almost full grown larvae boring 
the pith chamber lengthwise. 

A bundle of twigs put in a cloth covered jar yielded imagos 
in April. The longhorn proved to be Psenocerus supernotatiis. 
This seems to be a new food plant record. The New Jersey list 
gives currant, but others are known. 

The first arrivals were two males, one about twice as big as 
the other. On the first day both were observed to find an attrac- 
tion in a particular spot on one of the twigs. They met and 
fought. The smaller had his left antenna bitten off above the 
third joint. Two days later I inspected the jar at daybreak. 
The " woman in the case " had arrived, making her entrance on 
the very spot where the fight had occurred and had already gone 
to housekeeping, but with the cripple as her partner. The victor 
was not seen to come near them. It is evident that some sense 
organ revealed the female to the males not less than 36 hours 
before her emergence from the unbroken wood. 

Two weeks later a number of Liodes alpha emerged from the 
twigs. This was the species to be expected from this food plant. 



Feb., i9i6 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 21 

THE DANCE OF THE GHOST MOTH. 

Mr. E. D. Keith, of Providence, R. I., writes of his 191 5 ex- 
periences : " I see great dififerences in collecting conditions since I 
began in 1900. The past five years especially have brought many 
changes, making our collecting places few and far between. I 
have not made many rare captures this year, though some seem 
worthy of mention. Glcca carnosa came to light; Panchrysia pur- 
purigera was bred from meadow rue; Autographa hiloha, Oxy- 
gramma rogationis, Hadena burgessi, Agrotis violaris, Homoptera 
cingulifera, Xylina disposita, and X. fagina were captured. 
Many desirable species are growing scarcer from year to year. 
The only Sphingidae that can be called common are Smerinthus 
geminatus, Protoparce sexta and P. Carolina. It is the same with 
many Bombycid« and Noctuidse. My series of Sthenopis 4-macu- 
latus came from a swamp which is fast being converted into a dump 
heap, with ashes, tin cans, and other refuse of a city. This little 
swamp, at one time filled with Viburnums, Vacciniums, Clethra, 
Alders, Jack-in-the-Pulpits, and other swamp livers, is the home 
of the Ghost Moth (Hepialus argentcomaculatus) . In early June 
I start out at twilight, as the robin is singing his evening song. 
A catbird gives his scolding cry and flits into the bushes. The 
Maryland yellowthroat says " wait a bit," then becomes silent. 
Dusk is approaching. Many Geometridge fly over the shrubbery ; 
Diacrisia virginica and latipennis are common. 

" It is about quarter to eight when I select an opening among 
the bushes to watch the so-called dance of the males of the Ghost 
Moth. Each male will give quite a swing like a pendulum, often 
with an arc of four feet or so. Their flights do not last longer 
than fifteen or twenty minutes. Sometimes they go away quite a 
distance, dance, and come back to their former places. I have 
seen the females come to the males but never found them mated. 
I have read that the females fly over the herbage, scattering their 
eggs as they go, — haphazard. I have observed them more than 
once on alders, crawling with fluttering wings up the main trunks 
as if they were ovipositing, but I have never found the pova, 
which are very small. The adult life of this species seems to be 



22 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XI 

fifteen days. I only took a pair this year, though I saw quite a 
few. It is a greater pleasure to observe the habits of a species 
than to collect and I dislike to clean out a place. 

" There is never a year that the woods are not set on fire, and 
this is no exception. Collecting at willows is out of the question 
as the ' kids ' break down and destroy every pussy willow around 
here. All this is the case around Providence. A dozen miles or 
more away conditions would probably be different." 



THE BROOKLYN 
ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

Meetings are held on the second Thursday after the first 
Tuesday of each month from October to June ioclMsive, at 185 
Brooklyn Avenue. The annual dues are $2.00, 



OFFICERS, 1916 



President 
WILLIAM T. DAVIS 
Vice-President 
W. T. BATHER 
Corresponding Secretary 
R. P. DOW 
Recording Secretary 
J. R. DE LA TORRE-BUENO 
Treasurer 
C. E. OLSEN 

Librarian 
A. C. WEEKS 
Curator 
GEORGE FRANCK 

Delegate to Council of New York Academy of Sciences 
CHARLES E. SLEIGHT 



Bulletin of the 
Brooklyn Entomological Society 

Published In 
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Vol. XI 



APRIL. 1916 



No. 2 



BULLETIN 

OF THEv 



Brooklyn Entomological 
Society 



NEW SERIES 




PUBLICATION COMMITTEE 

CHARLES SCHAEFFER, 
Chairman 



J. R. de la TORRE-BUENO, 
Advertising Manager 



ROBERT P. DOW, 
Editor 



Published by the Society 
Price, 25 cents Subscription, $1.00 per year (five issues) 



CONTENTS 



TESTIMONY OF THE TOMBS, Dow 25 

NEW NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES OF NOTOXUS, Fall 34 

A NEW TINGID FROM NEW YORK STATE, Torre Bueno 39 

DISPERSAL OF SOME ORTALID^, Knab 41 

HIBERNATING HYDRO PHILID^, Wintersteiner 46 



Bulletin Brooklyn Entomological Society. Vol. XI. 




The Hand of the Princess — Dow 



BULLETIN 

OF THE 

BROOKLYN ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

Vol. XI April, 1916 No. 2 

THE TESTIMONY OF THE TOMBS. 

By R. p. Dow, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

In Egypt the surviving arts show that at the earliest known 
periods there was the greatest degree of initiative, the widest lati- 
tude of expression, the finest workmanship. Nevertheless sur- 
viving records of all Egypt do not mention the economic aspect 
of insects as extensively as the single chapter of Exodus regard- 
ing the plagues sent to rebuke a faithless Pharaoh. No chronology 
can bring nearer than, say, 6,000 B. C. the date of the first king 
of the reputed first human dynasty, Menes, a physician, learned 
in anatomy, and it is probably earlier than 9,000 B. C. That the 
land was densely populated is proven by the great numbers of men 
needed to build the great pyramids of about 4,000 B. C. The 
remains of aboriginal culture are few, since agricultural Egypt 
was always the favorite conquest of the warlike and less civilized. 
The papyri date only from about 1,500 B. C. The monuments in 
stone are the material for all that we know. From them the corps 
of savants of Napoleon drew the information that made Egypt 
known to the world. The best scholars of the time, 1797, searched 
every discoverable record. The insect data were handed to Lat- 

The frontispiece represents the hand of a princess of a dynasty living 
about 1,800-2,000 B. C. It is almost exactly life size. In 1868 a series of 
royal tombs were discovered near Memphis. The severed hand, which is 
clearly that of a young woman, was secured by Rev. Howard Crosby and 
is now owned by Nicholas E. Crosby, Ph.D., of New York. The rest of 
the mummy is in Cambridge, Mass. The texture of the cloth surrounding 
the hand is clearly to be seen. The stone of the scarab itself is pale 
green. The ring is of gold, a plain wire, wound on the upper half with 
finer wire. 

25 



26 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XI 

reille to be worked up, but they were pitiably meager. However 
Egypt gives us the first mention of a beetle, the scarab. The 
worship of this creature antedates the history of any land. 

In life the scarab is a coprophagous Scarabseid beetle, about an 
inch long, black and stout, occurring commonly all around the 
Mediterranean, extending to the Cape of Good Hope and to south 
China. Its life history is similar to that of any of our common 
Canthon or Copris. Its scientific name is Ateuchus sacer. No 
severer arraignment can be made of the vandalism injected into 
scientific nomenclature than the mutation whereby the generic 
name Ateuchus has been substituted for ScarabcEUs in violation 





Fig. I. Fig. 2. 

Fig. I is drawn from a gold inlay on a lacquered copper box. While it 
came from Assyrian remains near Ninevah and dates about 800 B. C, it is 
characteristically Egyptian and was probably imported. One wing is 
omitted for convenience. Note that the wing is feathered like a bird, not 
membranous like a beetle. This conventionality is general after, say, 
4,000 B. C. 

Fig. 2 is a conventional symbol of very common occurrence, meaning the 
flight of time or the complete cycle of the world. Egyptologists generally 
call it a bird symbol. Compare it with Fig. i, and note that, while the 
tail is of a bird, the horns are of the scarab. The wings might be either. 
The significance of the symbol is that of the scarab. 

of every phase of the rights of priority and the destruction of the 
right application of name to the oldest, grandest, best known genus 
of beetles in the world. Throughout classic times and the Middle 
Ages all beetles were known either as ScarahcBus or Cantharis. 
The type of the genus restricted by Linnaeus is, of course, the 
sacred beetle. 

The present genus Ateuchus is a fairly large one, about thirty 
species being so far described from Africa. More than one were 
included in Egyptian veneration. A notable variety, found widely 



April, 1Q16 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 27 

in Egypt and Nubia, named by Latreille Ateuchus Aigyptoruin, is 
golden green, larger than the true sacer, and Pliny says that to 
gaze upon it relieves the eyes of fatigue. Another species men- 
tioned in ancient times, but not now clearly identified is smaller 
and with small Tiorns turned backward. This creature preserved 
life if picked up by the left hand and worn as an amulet. Still 
another is called Fullo, is covered with white spots, and made a 
orecious amulet. No Ateuchus corresponds to this description 
but it has been discovered recently that beetles of other families 
were considered also as scarabs, notably those of the genus Pimelia. 
There is a species of this genus, quite as robust as an Ateuchus, 
which is thoroughly specked with white. Moreover, the beetle 
shown in figure i is undoubtedly a Pimelia, although regarded by 
the Egyptians themselves as a scarab. The three elytral marks 
are a faithful copy of a species still common in Africa. Further 
evidence is the pygidium shown in the drawing. This is a con- 
stant character in Pimelia, but never found in the coprophagous 
Scarabaeids. 

In the American Museum of Natural History there are several 
fine necklaces brought from the Congo region by the Lang and 
Chapin expedition, which clear up the matter. They are of 
Pimelia beetles which the natives strung after having embalmed 
them. The process of filling the bodies with gums and spices is 
remarkably like the ancient Egyptian embalming process, so much 
so that it is almost certain that it is a survival of the same custom 
and further proof of the kinship of the aboriginal Egyptians with 
the black races throughout the whole length of Africa. 

The beetle shown in figure 3 is obviously a true Scarabaeid, 
but figure 4, while a scarab in religious intent, reminds one 
strongly of a Cetonia. 

When the annual subsidence of the overflow of the Nile leaves 
throughout the valley its fertile coating of rich mud, the scarab is 
the first notable creature emerging. It heralds the beginning of 
spring, the return of nature's creative power. Its stay is brief. 
Writers of the last century B. C. assert that the odor of roses is 
fatal to it. In reality the scarab disappears for the season about 
the time the roses blossom. Promptly after emergence from the 
mud the scarab takes some cattle dung, shapes it into a sphere, 



28 Bulletin of the Brooklyn En,tomological Society Vol. XI 

like the world, rolls it from east to west with its hind legs, itself 
looking toward the sunrise while rolling its burden along the 
course of the sun. The dung ball (having within it an e.gg laid by 
the female) is buried in a hole dug by the fore tibiae, the fore 
tarsi being obsolete in these beetles. It remains in the hole for 
twenty-eight days — the lunar month. The creature within, then 
animated, opens the ball and on the 29th day casts it into the 
water, for on this day conjunction of sun and moon takes place, 
of which the generation of the world was the first result. The 
dentation of the fore tibiae of the scarab are 30 in number, — the 
days of the celestial month, and those on the head resemble the 





Fig. 3. Fig. 4. 

Fig. 3 is the common type of sculpture of Ka, the Father of all the 
Gods, known to the Greeks as Batrachacephalus, i. e., with the head of a 
frog. Note that the scarab is drawn naturally, not conventionalized. This, 
then, is early art. Inferentially the Father of the Gods is the one wor- 
shipped earliest. 

Fig. 4 is a much conventionalized scarab from a signet ring of some 
non-royal person. It is barely possible that the distortion of head is a 
relic of the oriental phallic worship. 

sun's rays. Hence its dedication to Amen-Ra, the Egyptian God 
of the Sun Mystery. 

The oldest extant written reference to the scarab is that of 
Horapollo, an Egyptian, who explains that the word means only 
begotten. It designates also generation or a father or the world 
or a man. The Egyptians claimed that the beetles generated 
without the meeting of the sexes, which would at first seem a re- 
markable superstition. In fact, however, the copulatory act is 
performed in great secrecy and is not easily observable. 



April, i9i6 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 29 

If the worship of the scarab began in Egypt it was by a race 
long since disappeared. Isaac Myer, whose monograph* is ad- 
mirable, believes it antedated Menes, the first king, and was preva- 
lent among the aboriginal people of the land. The Hottentots o£ 
south Africa still hold the insect in religious veneration, from 
which fact it might be argued that a black race were the Egyptian 
aborigines and when driven out or made subject by later races 
left behind religion and language. It is true that the Hottentot 
language is closely related to the ancient Egyptian. It is possibly 
a coincidence and possibly an offshoot of the same origin that the 
natives of Madagascar worship a holy cricket, especially as a 
similar word designates both creatures. 

That the scarab is not found mummified is probably due to the 
fact that it dries without mummification, retaining its form. The 






Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. 

Fig. S is from the cartouche (i. e., the signet, equivalent to our signa- 
ture) of Shufu I, the builder of the Great Pyramid, about 4,000 B. C. 
The Egyptian hieroglyphics are a series of pictures, each representing a 
phonetic sound, a letter, as well as a symbolic significance. The wasp 
signified the power of inflicting the punishment of death. Hence it is a 
royal token. 

Fig. 6 is similar and comes from the cartouche of the son or brother 
of Shufu, who succeeded him. Note the different shape of wings. The 
figure to the left is a conventionalized scorpion. 

Fig. 7 is from the cartouche of Psammetichus I, the scholar Pharaoh 
of Egypt. Note the different shape of wing, head and antenna. This is 
about 3,000 years later than the two preceding. This same letter occurs in 
the cartouches of all the members of his family. 

cat and the bull, both devoted to sun worship, required artificial 
preservation. The cat expands and contracts the pupil of its 
eyes according to the hour of the day — the position of the sun. 
Horapollo says that one kind of scarab is Hke a cat, and irradiated 
* " The Scarab," Isaac Myer, N. Y., 1894. 



30 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XI 

(whatever that may be), hence it is the Sun God's own, hence the 
statue of the God in HeHopohs, the City of the Sun, in the shape 
of a cat. Horapollo says that another kind of scarab is bull- 
formed and two horned. The apis, or sacred bull, was greatly 
revered. There was only one at a time and a wonderful under- 
ground city at Memphis is devoted to their mummies. Both bull 
and bull scarab typify the two horns of the new moon. A third 
scarab, says Horapollo, has but one horn. It suggests the sacred 
long billed ibis, equally venerated and mummified after death. 

Manetho, an Egyptian historian and philosopher wrote much 
about the scarabs and their significance, but his works are lost, 
except the liberal extracts made by Pliny, the Roman naturalist. 

Representations of the scarab were made in all possible ways. 
It was customary to carve the back like the creature itself but to 
omit the legs, leaving the undersurface flat so that it might be en- 
graved with signature, motto or religious text. Many were drilled 
from end to end and strung as beads. They were set as brooches 
or rings. Others were mounted as signets. People of wealth 
had them carved from stone, and no stone was of too great value 
for this use. The common people used them of baked and vitri- 
fied clay. Much can be told of the age of a genuine scarab from 
its constituent material. Unfortunately few of them now sold to 
tourists are genuine. The natives have become adept in their 
manufacture and plant them in convenient places, waiting for the 
gullible tourist to come along and make what seems to him a 
precious find. And yet millions and millions of them were buried 
with the dead for thousands of years. They are of all sizes. 
One is five feet long, carved from fine stone. Most of them are 
rather smaller than the real insect. The earliest positively known 
belonged to Nebka, a king of the third dynasty, somewhere be- 
tween 3,900 and 7,000 B. C. 

The worship of the scarab never got foothold in Greece. The 
two religions differed too widely, one being entirely personal in 
conception of the Deities, the other based on unequalled knowl- 
edge of astronomical mysteries. It is alluded to ironically by 
Aristophanes, the word for its description being always Helio- 
cantharis — the sun beetle. It was never connected with karabos 
the Greek word for the horned beetles. The root of this word is 



April, igi6 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 31 

old. Its Sanscrit form is carabha, and was applied to a locust, 
also to the spiny lobster. The Greek karabos is also supplied to 
the spiny lobster. It is curious that the Latin word locusta 
means not only grasshopper or locust but means spiny lobster, 
as well. The word Carabus, as we use it, was taken directly from 
the Greek. One well-known Greek manuscript spells the word 
skarabos, but this is probably the error of a copyist. The word 
scarabceus is Latin, taken direct from Egypt as closely as the 
sound could be imitated. 

One might suppose that the scarab worship would be carried 
to Rome during the period of widest religious latitude following 






Fig. 8. Fig. g. Fig. io. 

Fig. 8 is drawn from the cartouche of Rameses III. It is the same as 
that of Rameses II, always remembered as the oppressor of the IsraeHtes. 
Note the different shape of wing and the general aspect, hardly at all like 
a wasp. Yet the symbol is undoubtedly the same. Rameses II was a 
great king and great general. Other history does not give him the bad 
character which Exodus does. 

Fig. 9 is from a rock carving of Menephtah. It is in even relief, hence 
the outlines. Note the squared front to the abdomen. 

Fig. 10 is probably the earliest picture in the world of a butterfly. It is 
part of an elaborate carving on a rock tomb near Thebes. For whole 
picture compare the text. 

the reign of the Emperor Heliogabalus, himself an Asiatic priest 
of the Sun God, but there is no evidence to support this view. 
The world-wide distribution of the scarab was carried on by the 
Phoenicians, that astute people who migrated overland from the 
Red Sea coast to the coast of Palestine and founded the rich cities 
of Tyre and Sidon long before the Trojan war, before i,ioo B. 
C. This people monopolized the world's commerce as traders 
and slave dealers. Egypt was both largest customer and source 
of supplies. The Phoenicians learned to manufacture scarab 
signets in wholesale fashion and market them all over the world. 



32 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XI 

Only the scarabs now dug up tell the world of Phoenicia, of whose 
cities, like Carthage, its colony, not one reminiscent stone remains 
on another. Possibly the Phoenicians reached the Hottentots. 
They certainly introduced the scarab to the Etruscans, who were 
the most powerful people of Italy before the rise of the Romans. 
Scarab effigies are still numerous in Etruria. They ceased to be 
made when Etruscan industry was carried to Rome. They came 
afresh from Egypt three centuries after the Christian Era and 
became adopted as a Christian symbol. St. Ambrose, the famous 
Archbishop of Milan, the converter of St. Augustine, wrote of 
" Jesus, the good Scarabseus, who rolled up before him the hitherto 
unshapen mud of our bodies." The symbol survives. The 
scarab is carved now on many an ItaHan tomb. 

From the rock tombs come the best pictures of all Egypt. Only 
one other beetle is drawn, a cetonian eating a leaf. There are 





Fig. II. 
Fig. II shows two of the three butterflies from a wonderful drawing on 
a rock tomb at Benihassan. The whole picture is of a papyrus thicket. 
In the water is a sturgeon-like fish and a sea cow. In the grass are five 
bird's nests, with eggs and young. An ichneumon is shown hunting for 
eggs. Above are seven species of birds, alight, on the nest or in flight. 
While the butterflies are of the same species, they differ in body marking 
and shape of wing. Note especially that the artist was not an entomolo- 
gist. His butterflies have caudal appendages. 

a number of the honey bee, which was plentifully kept in the Nile 
valley. There is one graphic picture of a Sphex preying on a 
spider. Wasps of the Vespa group, as well as Sphex, are very 
common, but they are conventionalized. Four of them are shown 
here, explained in the footnotes. In the paper, " The Earhest 
Insects in the World," there is an explanation of the origin of the 
wasps, and their power of inflicting death. There is a close re- 
lationship between Persia and Egypt, dating prior to 6,000 B. C. 



April, i9i6 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 33 

From the tombs of Egypt the housefly is pictured, not un- 
plentifully. A gadfly is drawn chasing a cow. Grasshoppers 
are often drawn, but in no instance as well as some from Chaldsea. 
Of the butterflies, the two best are given in our cuts. The ear- 
liest in the world is shown in Fig. lo. It dates from about 1,700 
B. C. The whole picture is on a tomb near Thebes. It is a fine 
relief carving. A nobleman is seated in a wicker chair, fishing in 
the Nile. Above his head is flying a butterfly. The artist was 
not familiar with the four-wingedness of his model. 

From the unwrapping of human mummies many insects have 
come to light, some probably accidental introductions, a few 
separately and carefully wrapped. Necrobia rufipes might have 
been an accident. So probably was a specimen of Lucilia ccesar, 
a cosmopolitan flesh fly. A Buprestid and a Cantharid beetle 
were clearly intentionally preserved. 

The mosquito is neither pictured nor alluded to. It was left to 
Herodotus to mention that creature in his Egyptian narrative, 
although it is not differentiated from pestiferous biting insects 
generally. He relates that they were so numerous near the 
mouth of the Nile that the fisherman used nets to fish by day and 
escape the mosquitos by night. 



NEW NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES OF NOTOXUS. 

By H. C. Fall, Pasadena, Cal. 

A recent survey of the material in my cabinet in this genus re- 
vealed the presence of a number of new species, which are here- 
with described. It is a notable fact that in two of the new forms 
and also in montanus Csy. — which was described from a unique 
female — the anterior tibiae are found to be toothed in the male, a 
character hitherto known only in calcaratus. 

NoToxus Geoff. 

Notoxus nuperoides n. sp. Form and size of nuperus, with which also 
it agrees precisely in elytral markings. Head and thorax rufotestaceous, 
the latter broadly suffused with blackish on the disk, except for a narrow 
median line ; elytra rufotestaceous, with the sides, apex and a post-median 



34 Btilletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XI 

fascia which extends forward along the suture becoming broader at base, 
black ; or the elytra may be defined as black, each with a somewhat oblique 
gradually widening stripe extending from the humerus to the middle, and 
a subapical lunate spot, rufotestaceous. Recumbent pubescence rather 
dense, and bristling throughout— more especially on the elytra — with 
numerous long semi-erect hairs ; punctuation fine, somewhat closer and 
more distinct on the elytra than elsewhere. Head and antennae nearly 
as in nuperus, the tempora, however, a little less strongly oblique than in 
the latter. Pronotal horn two fifths as wide as the prothorax, distinctly 
margined, the margin dentellate at sides posteriorly; crest with feebly 
reflexed non-dentellate margin. Sutural angles of the elytra (c^) sepa- 
rately rounded and just perceptibly produced, with a feeble external sinua- 
tion. Body beneath darker rufous, the abdomen piceous, the last segment 
somewhat paler. 

Length 4 mm.; width 1.2 mm. 

The unique type is a male, having the last ventral segment 
squarely truncate at apex and broadly transversely impressed 
throughout its width; it was taken at Silver City, New Mexico, 
by Mr. J. B. Wallis, from whom I received it. 

As already observed, this species is nearly identical with 
nuperus in elytral markings and by Casey's table would be asso- 
ciated with it. The latter species however entirely lacks the erect 
hairs of the upper surface, and the form of the elytral apices, and 
the impression of the last ventral in the male are different. 

Notoxus brevicornis n. sp. Rufous, head, prothorax above (except the 
horn) and abdomen more or less suffused with piceous ; elytra black with 
two paler fasciae, one before the middle, narrowest at suture, gradually 
widened, and produced anteriorly at sides so as to include the humeri ; 
the other behind the middle, narrower, biarcuate. Pubescence moderately 
dense, intermixed on the elytra with short semi-erect hairs which are not 
very conspicuous except in profile; punctuation moderate, integuments 
somewhat shining. Antennae about as long as the head and prothorax, 
very feebly incrassate apically, the tenth joint scarcely longer than wide. 
Eyes rather small but evidently longer than the tempora. Prothorax about 
as long as wide; horn rather stout, not constricted at base, fully one half 
longer than wide, more than one third the width of the prothorax, margin 
not dentellate, crest well developed, with nondentellate margin. Elytra 
four fifths longer than wide, obviously widened postmedially, apex obtusely 
rounded, the sutural notch very narrow, the angles only slightly rounded. 
Body beneath and legs as usual, the last ventral ($) with the tip rounded. 

Length 3 mm. ; width i mm. 

Santa Rita Mts., Arizona. A single specimen submitted by 
the late Prof. Snow. 



April, 1916 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 35 

By Casey's table this species would be associated with mon- 
tanus and balteatus. From the latter it may at once be distin- 
guished by the presence of the intermixed erect hairs of the 
elytra, and from the former by the unmodified elytral apices in 
the female. 

Notoxus breviusculus n. sp. Size small, form rather stout, especially in 
the female; dusky testaceous, elytra with a more or less bilunate black 
fascia at, or a little behind, the apical third, each with a scutellar spot and 
an antemedian lateral spot, both rather small, and in the darker specimens 
rather indistinctly outlined or even diffusely connected. Surface dis- 
tinctly shining; vestiture rather fine; abundantly intermixed with moder- 
ately long suberect hairs. Antennae scarcely longer than the head and 
prothorax, distinctly though not strongly incrassate apically, the tenth 
joint not, or but slightly, longer than wide. Head and prothorax sparsely 
very finely punctate ; eyes rather small, subequal in length to the tempora. 
Horn narrow, feebly constricted basally, at its widest part scarcely one 
fourth the width of the prothorax, its margin moderately refiexed, even; 
crest well defined, nondentellate. Prothorax transversely globose. Elytra 
three* fourths longer than wide, becoming gradually widest behind the 
middle, more noticeably so in the female ; apices in the male separately 
obliquely truncate, the external angle subdentiform ; in the female broadly 
conjointly subtruncate, the sutural angles nearly rectangular. Body be- 
neath varying in color from testaceous to piceous, finely punctate and 
pubescent as usual. Last ventral of the male narrowly truncate at tip, 
and with a rounded or subtransverse impression before the apex; in the 
female with the tip subangulate and not impressed. 

Length 2.3-2.8 mm. ; width .85-1 mm. 

California, Plumas Co. and Eldorado Co. (Nunenmacher) ; Tallac 
(Fenyes). The type is a male from Plumas Co. 

This species may be placed near nevadensis m Casey's table, 
some examples of which it closely agrees with in its elytral mark- 
ings. It is a smaller species than nevadensis, with relatively 
shorter elytra, and with much narrower non-dentellate pronotal 
horn. 

Notoxus pallidus n. sp. Elongate, testaceous, elytra each with a small 
suboval discal fuscous spot at about the apical two fifths. Pubescence 
abundantly intermixed with long erect hairs ; integuments finely evenly 
not densely punctate, moderately shining. Antennae about half as long as 
the body, feebly incrassate, the tenth joint nearly one half longer than 
wide. Eyes rather large, distinctly longer than the tempora. Prothorax 
subglobular, the horn (c?) less than one third the thoracic width, about 
twice as long as wide, not constricted at base, narrowed from apical third, 



36 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XI 

the apex narrowly rounded, margin with one or two denticles posteriorly; 
crest well developed, margin not dentellate. Elytra elongate, parallel, 
slightly more than twice as long as wide, apices (c?) not prolonged or 
truncate, sutural angles rounded. Body beneath as usual; last ventral 
segment (c?) broadly transversely impressed toward the apex, the margin 
feebly truncate. , 

Length 3.7-3.9 mm.; width 1.2-1.25 mm. 

Described from two male specimens taken at Yuma, Arizona, by Dr. 
Fenyes. 

This species by the above characters is separable easily from 
all previously described forms. It would by Casey's table fall 
near cavicornis. Its true relationship may be more definitely de- 
termined when the female becomes known. 

Notoxus arizonensis n. sp. Form rather slender, rufotestaceous, feebly 
shining, elytra with rather narrow more or less bilunate subapical and 
median transverse blackish or dusky fasciae, and with a subsutural dusky 
spot at base, all subject to some variation in development, the basal spot 
becoming subobsolete in the less distinctly marked specimens. Vestiture 
cinereous, short, fine, moderately close, recumbent, intermixed on the 
elytra with sparse short semierect hairs, which are quite inconspicuous. 
Antennae longer than the head and prothorax, scarcely thickened apically, 
the tenth joint one third longer than wide. Prothorax slightly wider than 
the head, finely punctate with a tendency toward strigosity at sides ante- 
riorly; horn well developed, one third to two fifths as wide as the protho- 
rax in the male, obviously wider on the female, margins moderately re- 
flexed, especially at apex, but not dentellate ; crest feebly margined, not 
dentellate. Elytra about two thirds wider than the prothorax, twice as 
long as wide or slightly more, slightly or scarcely inflated posteriorly, 
punctuation fine but moderately close, apices rather broadly conjointly 
rounded as viewed from above, with a minute sutural notch, similar in the 
sexes. Body beneath finely punctate and pubescent. In the male the last 
ventral segment is scarcely longer than the preceding, the apex distinctly 
truncate, the truncation just perceptibly anteriorly arcuate, with its limits 
broadly subangulate. In the female the last ventral is as a rule nearly 
twice as long as the preceding, the apex rounded. 

Length 3.3-4 mm.; width 1.1-1.25 mm. Southern Arizona. 

The type is a male from the Chiricahua Mts., taken by Mr. V. 
L. Clemence, July 9. Other examples are from the Huachuca 
Mts., July (Clemence), and from Nogales, August (Nunen- 
macher). The species in its elytral markings is almost an exact 
reproduction of delicatus Csy., in the latter however the erect 
hairs of the upper surface are more marked, the thoracic horn 
distinctly dentellate, the crest obsolete, and the sexual characters 



April, i9i6 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 37 

at the ventral apex different. Arisonensis should follow delicatus 
in the table given by Casey. 

Notoxus montanus Csy. This species, which was described from a 
unique female specimen from Colorado, is rather widely distributed in 
the southern Rocky Mountain region. Specimens are known to me from 
Colorado — Florissant, Aug. 6 (Rohwer) ; New Mexico — Santa Fe, July 
(Fenyes) ; Pecos — June (Cockerell) ; Arizona — Chiricahua and Huachuca 
Mountains (Clemence) ; Flagstaff (Fenyes) ; and Williams (collected by 
the writer). 

In the male the front tibiae are toothed internally as in calcaratus, the 
last ventral segment is truncate, the truncation feebly arcuate-emarginate ; 
sutural angles of elytra rounded in some examples, seemingly very faintly 
produced in others. 

The identity of this species has been established by Col. Casey, 
who has kindly compared Chiricahua examples with his type. 

Notoxus similis n. sp. Moderately elongate, shining, recumbent pubes- 
cence intermixed with numerous semierect setse of moderate length. Head 
and prothorax rufous to rufopiceous, the horn paler ; elytra rufotestaceous, 
with a basal spot each side of the suture narrowly connected with a smaller 
lateral spot (sometimes absent), a more or less biarcuate median fascia, 
and the apex black; the tips becoming indefinitely paler, chiefly from 
transmitted light. Antennae, legs and body beneath rufotestaceous, the 
abdomen piceous. Antennae nearly half as long as the body, very feebly 
incrassate apically, the tenth joint about one half longer than wide. Head 
smaller than the prothorax, distinctly, not very sparsely punctate, tempora 
oblique, broadly arcuate, nearly as long as the eyes. Prothorax as long as 
wide, moderately closely punctate; horn (J') rather stout, crest well devel- 
oped, reflexed margins not dentellate; in the ? distinctly broader and a 
little constricted basally. Elytra varying from slightly less to slightly 
more than twice as long as wide, feebly inflated at middle, subbasal trans- 
verse impression distinct, apices slightly prominent, the sutural angles 
feebly sinuately produced in both sexes. Body beneath finely punctate and 
pubescent as usual. Last ventral of male distinctly arcuately emarginate 
at apex, front tibiae toothed at the middle of the inner side. 

Length 3.3-3.6 mm. ; width 1.1-1.35 mm. 

The type is a male from Glenwood Springs, Colorado. Other examples 
are from Antonito, Colorado, and Santa Fe, New Mexico — all collected 
by Dr. Fenyes. 

This species is in all essentials very similar to montanus Csy., 
and females of the two cannot always be determined with cer- 
tainty. The dark markings are as a rule less developed at the 
"elytral base in similis, and the punctuation of the head and 
thorax is typically stronger and closer, but these characters are 
bath variable. The prothoracic horn is notably stouter in the 



38 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XI 

male of similis than in the same sex of montanus, being scarcely 
more than one half longer than wide and more obviously wider 
than crest. In montanus the sexual disparity in the size of the 
horn is very great. The truncature of the last ventral segment 
((^) is distinctly more strongly emarginate in similis than in mon- 
tanus. 

Although agreeing in the dentate male front tibiae with cal- 
caratus, both montanus and similis differ considerably from the 
latter in general habitus, and resemble rather bifasciatus, which 
of course is very distinct by its interrupted pale elytral fasciae 
and the simple fore tibiae in the male. 

Notoxus intermedius n. sp. Moderately stout, testaceous ; elytral mark- 
ings, consisting of a small basal subsutural spot on each, a median trans- 
verse fascia and a small subapical one, black. Both the basal and sub- 
apical marks are, however, either entirely wanting or but faintly indicated 
in more than half the specimens seen. Decumbent pubescence not dense, 
intermixed with semierect hairs of moderate length; integuments shining, 
moderately closely finely punctate. Antennae scarcely or feebly incrassate 
apically, the tenth joint scarcely one half longer than wide. Eyes a little 
longer than the tempora. Prothoracic horn (c?) moderately stout, fully 
one half longer than wide, not constricted at base, margin not dentellate 
except basally, broadly evenly rounded apically; crest well developed, mar- 
gin not dentellate. In the female the horn is wider and constricted basally. 
Elytra twice as long as wide or very nearly so, feebly inflated post- 
medially, sutural angles rounded, not distinctly produced in the male, a 
little produced and with a slight external sinuation in the female. Be- 
neath finely punctate and pubescent; legs moderate, the anterior tibiae 
toothed at the middle of the inner margin in the male; last ventral not 
impressed, the apex distinctly emarginato-truncate in the male, subacute 
and narrowly rounded at apex in the female. 

Length 3.2-4 mm.; width 1.1-1.35 mm. 

Described from a series of thirteen specimens taken by Dr. 
Fenyes at Bishop and Olancha, Inyo, Co., California. The type 
is a male from Bishop. 

This species, in its fully marked form, is closely similar to cal- 
caratus, which differs in its much longer and more numerous 
elytral setae, stouter prothoracic horn with distinctly dentellate 
side margins, sutural angles not produced in the female, and with 
the last ventral in the male impressed and feebly truncate, but 
not emarginate at apex. The sexual characters are nearly as in 
montanus and similis, especially the later, but the size and gen- 
eral appearance are nearly as in calcaratus. 



April, jgi6 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 39 

A NEW TINGID FROM NEW YORK STATE. 

By J. R. DE LA Torre Bueno, White Plains, N. Y. 

Genus Acalypta Westwood 1840. 

Orthosteira Fieber 1844. Orihostira Fieber 1861. 

1. Pronotal keels subparallel or very slightly diverging posteriorly; costal 

area uniseriate in greater part; third joint of antennae long, more than 
three times the fourth Acalypta lillianis, n. sp. 

2. Pronotal keels diverging posteriorly; costal area biseriate in greater 

part; third joint of antennae short, not quite twice as long as the 
fourth A. thomsonii Stal. 

Acalypta lillianis n. sp. Black, posterior part of pronotum and hemely- 
tra dark gray; third joint of antennae of equal thickness throughout, four 
times as long as the fourth, longest, second joint shortest, first stoutest 
and shorter than fourth, v^^hich is not quite so stout as second ; pronotum 
tricarinate, keels nearly parallel, or at most slightly diverging posteriorly, 
the middle keel highest; hood small, not projecting over head, slightly 
angulated in front, somewhat higher than the median keel ; sides f olia- 
ceous, more or less biseriately reticulate, anteriorly rounded ; costal' mem- 
brane uniseriate in greater part. Abdominal segments broadly banded 
with rufous. 

The macropterous form has the membrane complete, reticulately veined ; 
in the brachypterous, it is much reduced and is biseriately reticulate. The 
pronotum in the former is quite high, but in the latter much reduced in 
area and nearly flat. The hemelytra are one third longer than the body 
in the macropterous form, and in the brachypterous exceeds it but very 
little. The brachypterous form is nearly oval, while the macropterous is 
elongate. 

Macropterous, long 3 mm.; wide 1.6 mm. (type). 

Brachypterous, long 2.3 mm.; wide 1.2 mm. (type). 

Described from eight macropterous and nine brachypterous 
specimens. Type, macropterous, female, White Plains, N. Y., 
May 25, 191 1. Type, brachypterous, male. White Plains, May 
28, 1909. Paratypes, macropterous, all females. White Plains, N. 
Y., May 21, 29 and 30. The Forks, Me., June 16, 1900, O. O. 
Stover, collector; Scarsdale, N. Y., May 25, 1909; Marquette, 
Mich., July 14, John D. Sherman, Jr., collector. Paratypes, 
brachypterous, all males. White Plains, N. Y., May 18, 21, 23 
and 28. 

Types in my collection; paratypes in collection U. S. National 
Museum, H. M. Parshley and Otto Heidemann. 



40 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XI 

Of eleven other specimens from White Plains on various dates 
in May and one in June, all the macropterous are females and the 
brachypterous males. 

This species was taken on a damp and marshy meadow, by 
sweeping close to the ground, in places where the tall tree-like 
moss grows in clumps. The European species of Acalypta are 
generally found in moss. It is not very common, and is taken in 
twos and threes, principally in May. I have taken nearly full- 
grown nymphs under stones March 5 and 19, April 2, November 
25 and December 5, which would indicate that the species over- 
winters as nymph. 



DISPERSAL OF SOME ORTALIDJE. 

By Frederick Knab, Bureau of Entomology, U. S. Department 

of Agriculture. 

The Ortalidse have recently received comprehensive treatment 
by Hendel, four numbers of Wytsman's " Genera Insectorum " 
deahng with as many of the seven subfamilies. From this work 
it is apparent that a large proportion of the genera are peculiar 
to one or the other hemisphere, or to still more circumscribed 
faunal regions ; indeed, one entire subfamily, the Richardiinae, is 
confined to the New World. Species occurring in both hemis- 
spheres are very few and every case of such wide distribution is 
undoubtedly due to dispersal through the agency of man. 

Three species are recorded in the Aldrich catalog as common to 
Europe and North America. Of these Tritoxa rufipes Meigen 
appears to be a doubtful case that needs further evidence. The 
other two are Chrysomyza demandata Fab. and Seioptera vihrans 
Linne. Two American ortalids, Euxesta quadrivittata Macq. 
and Noto gramma stigma Fab., have been reported from the 
Hawaiian Islands and are undoubtedly established there. I am 
now able to report further the establishment of one Oriental 
ortalid in America, and that of two American species (one of 
them the Notogramma stigma just mentioned) in the Philippine 
Islands. Omitting the doubtful Tritoxa rufipes, it is interesting 
to note that the species that have obtained a footing beyond their 



April, 1916 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 41 

natural habitats are all scavengers for whom the activities of 
man produce especially favorable conditions. It seems best to 
discuss the species separately. 

Notogramma stigma Fabr. — This striking fly is widely distrib- 
uted through the warmer parts of America, it having been re- 
ported from the West Indies (Fabricius), South America (Wiede- 
mann) and Cuba (Loew). The species occurs in the southern 
United States. There are specimens in the national collection 
from Dallas, Beeville and Brownsville, Texas. Recently the 
species has been reported from Hawaii by Severin and Hartung 
(Journ. Econ. Ent., Vol. 5, 1912, p. 448) and it appears to have 
been established there at least as far back as 1907; a specimen 
form Mr. O. H. Swezey bears the label, " Honolulu, March 2, 
1907." The species has now become established in the Philip- 
pines as well. PhiHppine specimens, presumably from the island 
of Luzon, have recently been received from Mr. D. B. Mackie, 
of the Philippine Bureau of Agriculture. 

But little information on the breeding habits of this fly is 
available. The specimen from Brownsville, Texas, according to 
the label, was reared by Mr. D. K. McMillan from Solanum, pre- 
sumably the fruit. A series of specimens from the Panama 
Canal Zone was reared by Mr. A. Busck from the fruits of a 
species of palm, Attalea. Severin and Hartung in Hawaii (1. c.) 
have found the larvae infesting green Chinese bananas that showed 
decay about the flower-scar. 

Chrysomyza demandata Fabr. — This common European species 
was first reported for North America by C. W. Johnson in 1900, 
he having found specimens in Philadelphia as early as 1897 (Ent. 
News, Vol. II, p. 609). The species is now distributed over 
practically the whole United States. Specimens are before me 
from the following localities: Philadelphia, Pa. (C. W. Johnson) 
Washington, D. C. (R. C. Shannon) ; Columbia, S. C. (F. Knab) 
Tallulah, La.; Brewster County, Tex. (Mitchell and Cushman) 
Mineralwells, Tex. (C. R. Jones) ; Dallas, Tex. (F. C. Bishopp) 
Yuma, Ariz. (H. Brown) ; Lehi, Utah (W. A. Hooker) ; Lind- 
say and Visalia, Cal. ; Cheney, Wash. (N. D. Showalter). 

In the Old World, according to Hendel, the species occurs 



42 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XI 

throughout Europe, in northern and east Africa, Cape Colony, 
Canary Islands, Seychelle Islands and in Hindostan. 

The species is a scavenger and apparently by preference a 
manure breeder. A number of European observers have re- 
ported the larvae as occurring in large numbers in horse-manure. 
Rondani states that they occur gregariously in the dejecta of 
cattle. Specimens recently received by the writer were taken, 
along with the following species, under conditions which indicate 
manure-breeding. Josef Mik reports the occurrence of the larvae 
of this species in large numbers in fermenting clover, which had 
been subjected to a rude process of ensilage to destroy the weevils 
(Apion) infesting it (Wien. Ent. Zeit., Vol. 15, 1896, p. 245). 
C. N. Ainslie found the larvae in decaying suckers of corn (maize) 
on the Pima Indian reservation in Arizona. The corn suckers 
had been previously infested by the caterpillars of Chloridea ob- 
soleta and the galleries filled with excrement produced by these 
provided an excellent pabulum for the Chrysomyza larvae (Proc. 
Ent. Soc. Wash., Vol. 13, 191 1, pp. 118-119). In 1913, A. Weiss 
reported that in North Africa the larvae of this species are de- 
structive to the date palm, where the trees had been wounded to 
extract "palm wine." 

" The process of collecting palm wine in North Africa is well 
known, but it was not known that Chrysomyza demandata lays its 
eggs in gashes made in this palm. The larvae which hatch from 
these eggs hollow out the interior of the trunk, feed upon the 
pith and finally cause the death of the palm. We have seen a 
number of date palms in a dying condition from this cause." 
Mr. Weiss found the larvae present in the palm trunks in thou- 
sands, the wet condition of the pith suiting them very well (Bull. 
Soc. Hist. nat. Afrique du Nord, Vol. 4, pp. 68-69). From the 
various observations just cited, it is apparent that the larvae can 
thrive in a variety of decaying and fermenting substances. 

Chrysomyza aenea Fabr. — This species has made its appearance 
in the United States. It is a native of the Oriental region, where 
it is very widely distributed. It occurs also in eastern Africa and 
neighboring islands, and in Austraha. Detailed records give 
Hindostan (Fabricius, Walker), Formosa, Java, Borneo, Malay 
Peninsula, Mauritius (Hendel), the Philippines (Bezzi), and 



April, 1916 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entom ological Society 43 

Hawaii (Grimshaw). The following Old World localities are 
represented by specimens in the U. S. National Museum : Hono- 
lulu, Hawaiian Islands, March 2, 1907 (O. H. Swezey) ; Island of 
Guam (D. T. Fullaway) ; Manila, Philippine Islands (Brunetti) ; 
Telec-Ayer, West Borneo (Brunetti) ; Lourengo Marquez, East 
Africa (C. W. Howard) ; Brisbane, Queensland (Dept. of Mines 
and Agriculture) ; Croydon, New South Wales. 

As already stated, this species has now become established in 
at least one locahty in the United States. Specimens were first 
submitted by Dr. B. H. Ransom, of the Department of Agricul- 
ture, on August 28, 1 91 5, he having reared them from pupse ob- 
tained from manure at Tallulah, Louisiana. Since then the 
Bureau of Entomology has caused a series of captures of flies to 
be made in the vicinity of Tallulah. Most of these catches were 
taken from mule barns, and nearly every such lot examined con- 
tained specimens of this species. Therefore there can be no 
doubt that the species is well estabhshed in this country. Chryso- 





1 

Chrysomysa cenea Fab. Chrysomysa demandata Fab. 

myza demandata occurred in the same captures, but in smaller 
numbers. The two species evidently have very similar habits. 
Mr. O. H. Swezey, in Hawaii, has reared Chrysomysa cenea from 
maggots that were very abundant in a manure pile (Proc. Haw. 
Ent. Soc, Vol. 3, 1914, p. 12). 

While the introduction of this species into the United States 
evidently is very recent, it appears from other material that it has 
been estabhshed for some time in tropical America. The Na- 
tional Museum possesses a series from Ceara, Brazil, sent by F. 
D. da Rocha in July, 1904. The species was therefore without 
much doubt estabhshed on the northeast coast of Brazil at that 
time. It seems altogether probable that the species is widely dis- 
tributed in the American tropics, having, most hkely, found its 



44 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XI 

way to Brazil by way of Panama and the West Indies. Occur- 
ring, as it does, only under special conditions, it would not be 
likely to fall into the hands of collectors. 

Chrysqmysa csnea much resembles in general appearance and 
coloration the more familiar demandata. It may be readily rec- 
ognized by the peculiar venation, the first posterior cell being 
closed some distance before the margin ; in demandata the same 
cell is narrowly open in the wing-margin. (See Figs, i and 2.) 

Euxesta quadrivittata Macq. 

Urophora quadrivittata Macquart, 1835, Hist. Nat. Dipt., Vol. 2, p. 456. 
Euxesta annonce Loew (not Fabricius), 1872, Monogr. No. Amer. Dipt, 

Vol. 3, 162, pi. 9, fig. 13. 
Euxesta annonce Grimshaw (not Fabricius), 1901, Fauna Hawaiiensis, Vol. 

3, p. 44- 
Euxesta annonce Hendel (not Fabricius), 1909, Ann. Mus. Nat. Hung., 

Vol. 7, p. 155. . 
Euxesta annonce Severin and Hartung (not Fabricius), 1912, Journ. Econ. 

Ent., Vol. 5, p. 448. 

The species reported by Grimshaw and others from the 
Hawaiian Islands under the specific name annonce is not the 
species originally characterized under that name by Fabricius. 
This will be very obvious from a comparison of such specimens 
with Wiedemann's excellent description of the Fabrician type 
(Aussereurop. zweifl. Ins., Vol. 2, 1830, p. 463). Apparently 
Loew is responsible for the transfer of the name annonce to the 
species under present consideration, and it is only natural that 
subsequent workers have relied upon his comprehensive and de- 
tailed treatment of the genus. Hawaiian specimens before me 
agree excellently with American specimens from Cuba (type 
locality), Jamaica and Florida. 

The species is a scavenger, so that its wide dissemination is to 
be expected. Severin and Hartung have reared the flies of this 
species and of Notogramma stigma from larvae infesting decay- 
ing green Chinese bananas in the Hawaiian Islands. 

The following species was received from the PhiHppine Islands, 
but its original habitat is undoubtedly somewhere on the west 
coast of tropical America. 




April, iQid Bulletin of flic Brooklyn Entomological Society 45 

Euxesta exilis, new species. 

Wings with four transverse fasciae, the third and fourth connected along 
both costa and posterior margin. Abdomen blue-black throughout; legs 
dark. 

Female. Frons narrower than one eye, fer- 
ruginous red, the parafrontals dusted with 
white ; ocellar triangle and vertical plates 
steel-blue ; two or three pairs of cruciate 
bristles. Face and clypeus ferruginous and 3 

with pale opalescent blue bloom, the orbits Euxesta exilis Knab. 

dusted with white. Antennse bright fer- 
ruginous, the third joint ovate, distally very slightly produced above but 
not forming a distinct angle ; arista long, black. Palpi bright ferrugi- 
nous. Thorax light metallic greenish blue, with a distinct bloom showing 
yellowish reflections in some lights. Scutellum shining black, smooth, 
without trace of pruinosity. Abdomen shining blue-black throughout. 
Front coxse ferruginous, the others dark. Femora black, broadly ferrugi- 
nous at apices ; tibiae dull ferruginous, tinged with black, particularly the 
posterior pair; tarsi dull ferruginous tinged with black, especially distally. 
Wings (Fig. 3) milky white, with four transverse black fasciae extending 
to posterior margin, the first and second separated, the third and fourth 
connected narrowly along both costa and posterior margin ; extreme base 
of wing whitish tinged with ferruginous ; second fascia broad and much 
widened posteriorly, at costa occupying subcostal cell and tip of costal, its 
outer margin touching anterior crossvein ; third fascia broadened poste- 
riorly and inclosing posterior crossvein ; last white interspace narrower 
than apical fascia; anterior crossvein about at middle of discal cell, which 
latter is slightly longer than last section of fourth vein ; last section of the 
fourth vein distinctly bent upward in its outer half, the third vein in its 
opposite portion more gently bent downward, the submarginal cell thereb}' 
becoming broader in the margin, the first posterior much narrowed. 
Calypteres and halteres white. 

Length : Body about 4 mm., wing 4 mm. 

Philippine Islands, probably Manila, five specimens (Ace. no. 1779, Bu- 
reau of Agriculture, Philippine Islands). 

Type: Cat. No. 201 16, U. S. Nat. Mus. 

The genus Euxesta has heretofore been considered peculiar to 
the Western Hemisphere, where it is represented by a large num- 
ber of species. Hendel, in his Ulidiinse (Genera Insectorum, 106 
Fasc, 1910), lists no less than 54 species and many others are 
still undescribed. It is therefore safe to assume that the present 
species is of American origin. Quite likely it was introduced 
from Mexico in the early days when the Spaniards maintained 
regular communication between Acapulco and Manila. Botan- 



46 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XI 

ists have found that on the island of Luzon a large percentage of 
the introduced plants is from the Acapulco region ; it is there- 
fore not surprising that insects whose larvse thrive in decaying 
fruit and the like, such as Volucella ohesa, Notogramma stigma 
and this Euxesta, also have been introduced. 

In all the specimens before me the wings show, within the 
transverse dark fasciae, black blotches upon a pale gray ground, 
as shown in the figure. Finally, it may be added that in the na- 
tional collection there is a series of a closely related but distinct 
species, still undescribed, from Aguascalientes, Mexico. 

Seioptera vibrans Linne. — This species is generally distributed 
through Europe and in North America occurs over the northern 
part of the continent, ranging at least as far south as Washing- 
ton, D. C. This fly occurs abundantly in certain localities ; it has 
a characteristic habit of resting on the under surface of the 
leaves of trees and vibrating its wings. In spite of its wide dis- 
tribution and frequent local abundance there are few observations 
on the hfe-history. Scholtz reared the flies in large numbers 
from a mixture of horse-manure and earth (Zeitschr. Ent., Bres- 
lau, 1849 and 1855). Sintenis, nearly forty years later, reported 
it as occurring regularly under the windows of manure-beds or 
cold-frames, thus confirming the record of Scholtz (quoted by 
Mik, Wien. Ent. Zeit., Vol. 6, 1887, p. 216). Karsch, upon in- 
formation from a correspondent, reports the larvae in destructive 
numbers burrowing in the stems of Dianthus carthusianorum 
(Berlin, Ent. Zeitschr., 1887, Sitzgsber., p. xxviii). No doubt 
this last record has its origin in a faulty observation ; most prob- 
ably the puparium sent to Karsch came from the manured earth 
and the damage to the plants was due to some other cause. 



NOTE ON THE HABITS OF PSITHYRUS VARIABILIS CRESS. 

By Theodore H. Frison, Champaign, 111. 

In the Canadian Entomologist for March, 191 5, Mr. F. W. L. 
Sladen records finding Psithyrus insularis Sm. in the nest of 
Bombus flavifrons Cress, opened July 7, 1914, at Agassiz, British 



April, 1916 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 47 

Columbia. Mr. Sladen points out that this is the first reported 
occurrence of a Psithyrus inhabiting a nest of a Bombits in the 
New World. 

In addition it might be well to record the finding, by myself, 
of both sexes of the Psithyrus variabilis Cress., inhabiting the 
nest of Bombus pennsylvanicus De Geer at Champaign, Illinois. 
During September, 1910, I had occasion to open several surface 
nests of Bombus pennsylvanicus. Of a total of seven nests, four 
contained Psithyrus variabilis. Again, on September 14, 191 5, 
one female of Psithyrus variabilis was found in a surface nest of 
Bombus pennsylvanicus. In one of the nests examined Septem- 
ber, 1910, were found thirty males and twelve females of Psith- 
yrus variabilis, along with fifty-one Bombus. In the other three 
nests the number of inquilines varied from one to five. In the same 
nest containing the Psithyrus females, were to be found the living 
Bombus queens. Apparently, as in the case of the Psithyrus 
insularis, the female of Psithyrus variabilis does not kill the queen 
Bombus. 



Hibernating Hydrophilidse. — Mr. Fred Wintersteiner, who is 
studying the habits of this family, reports the capture near Rich- 
mond, Va., during the last week of January of adults of Phil- 
hydrus nebulosus, P. ochraceus, Tropisternus glaber, T. lateralis, 
Creniphilus subcupreus, and Cymbiodyta fimbriata. 

WANTED. — All kinds of material for Life Histories. Lepidoptera, 
Coleoptera, Hyneoptera, Diptera, etc., etc. Herman H. Brehme, 74 13th 
Avenue, Newark, N. J. 

WANTED. — Transactions American Entomological Society, Vol. IV ; 
Proc. U. S. Natl. Museum, Vol. X, pp. 335-337 ; Vol. XI, pp. 481-525 ; 
Vol. XII, pp. 455-496. Howard L. Clark, Box 1142. Providence, R. I. 

FOR SALE.— Entomological News, Vols. XV to^ XX, inclusive, un- 
bound, at subscription price, six vols., $6. Geo. P. Engelhardt, Museum, 
Brooklyn, N. Y. 



r\R. STAUDINQER & A. BANG-HAAS, Dresden-Blasewitz, 

*-^ in their new Price List No. LVII. for 1914 (116 pag.), offer 
more than 20,000 Species of well named Lepidoptera, set or in 
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Vol. XI 



JUNE. 1916 



No. 3 



BULLETIN 



JUN18 1916 * 



OF THE 



BROOKLYN Entomological 
Society 



NEW SERIES 




PUBUCATION COMMITTEE 

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CONTENTS 



ENTOMOLOGY AND LITERATURE, Slosson 49 

VELIINAE OF ATLANTIC STATES, Torre Bueno 52 

OSBORN, AGRICULTURAL ENTOMOLOGY 61 

NEW SPECIES OF THROSCIDAE, Schaeffer 62 

CEDALEOTHRIPS HOOKERI, N. SP., N. GEN,, Hood 64 

COMPARISON OF PUP^ OF PROMACHUS VERTEBRATUS 

AND FITCHII, Malloch 66 

OPEROPHTERA BRUCEATA, Pearsall 68 

TWO NEW LUCANIDS, Angell 70 



^\\^^f^i^lnsi,t^^ 



^UN 18 1916 ' 

BULLETIN ^ ^^ M"^^^^ 

OF THE 

BROOKLYN ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

Vol. XI June, 1916 No. 3 



ENTOMOLOGY AND LITERATURE 

By Annie Trumbull Slosson, N. Y. City. 

I am not going to write of entomological literature; we know 
all about that — sometimes more than we wish perhaps. But I 
want to speak of these two subjects as quite separate things, the 
study of insects and belles lettres. I am led to do this by certain 
happenings, some of them seeming to show how far apart these 
two are, some proving that they are closely akin. In the first 
place I, myself, have been surprised again and again by coming 
across the name as author, on title page of book, or at head of 
magazine essay, of someone I had known previously only as an 
entomologist. In the boulders of the far west dwells a man who 
knows more about hymenoptera than do the bees and wasps them- 
selves. Beside his entomological papers, he has written charming 
literary essays with not a sting or waspish allusion therein, but a 
store of honey will reward the reader. I read, some years ago, a 
clever detective novel, full of crime and mystery. Not till I had 
finished the volume, solved the problem, and found out who " did 
it," had I turned to the title page for the name of the author. 
Fancy my amaze when I saw that our authority on the Plusia 
group had deserted for the nonce his silver-lined, gold-touched 
favorites and, as a little Vermont boy I once met used to say, 
"done a book." He wrote others too, books with not, if I re- 
member rightly, a lepidopterous allusion, a noctuidic touch, a 
hint of moth from Panchrysia to Syngrapha. 

And we have another insect student, an expert and authority in 
Coleoptera who turns out books with not a beetle in them. They 
do not treat of elytra, gauzy wings, femora and tarsi as means 

49 



50 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XI 

of locomotion but tell of wheels, tires and treadles, about which 
he " knows it all." Yet, at heart I really believe that — to parody 
rather irreverently lines of a great poet — he would say from his 
heart 

Better beetles far of Europe 

Than a cycle of Cathay. 

I have a delightful little book called " Days Afield." It deals 
with nature, but not entomological nature only, tells of the woods 
and streams and fields of that island of which the author is the 
Gilbert White of Selborne memory. He could not, being what 
he is, leave out all hint of butterfly, beetle, bug, — but there is 
more of bird and blossom than of insects. The book was written 
several years ago ; perhaps its author would not, could not now, 
be so conservative ; could not banish to silence from his pages the 
shrilling of the cicada, the jarring of the "jar-fly." 

Several English entomologists have written books on subjects 
quite apart from the branch of natural history to which their 
authors were devoted, indeed apart from natural history itself. 
One, at least, wrote poetry, odes, sonnets, even hymns, in which 
not a cricket chirped, bee hummed, fly buzzed, or beetle stridu- 
lated. Few who knew and sympathized with him as an en- 
tomologist dreamed of his being a poet, and those who read and 
loved his verse had little knowledge of his taste for "bee and 
moth and flying thing." Grote, so well known as a student of 
lepidoptera, was also a poet, writing pleasing and rhythmical 
verse. Many years ago, in the very earliest days of the New 
York Entomological Society, I took with me to one of its meet- 
ings, a guest staying at my home. It was Charles Dudley Warner, 
just then at the height of his fame as a delightful writer of essays, 
a charming teller of stories. I introduced my distinguished 
friend to one or two of the members before the meeting opened 
and presently one of them drew me aside and asked the visitors's 
name as he had not caught it. When I repeated it with pardon- 
able pride the eager entomologist said, " Yes, of course I've heard 
his name but forget his line. Is it coleoptera ? " Poor Mr. 
Warner ! It was a lesson to him — for you may be sure I made 
the most of it after the meeting — and I can hear him now say, as 
he said then with his whimsical smile, " There's a man who would 



June, 1916 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 51 

despise me if he knew I have not an idea what coleoptera is. I 
only write things." Many hobby-riders who also " write things " 
have had similar experiences. 

Entomology and literature work well together in harness, each 

being a good " running mate " for the other. Some authors are 

troubled to find names for their stories, titles for their books. 

An entomologist need never be at a loss in the matter. Let him 

take a volume at random from the shelf which holds his bound 

magazines. He will find it bristling with suggestions, scintillating 

with bright hints. Ah, the stories I have wanted to write as I 

looked over the index of some one of our journals. What an 

epic I might write on " The Song of Thyreonotus " from an old 

magazine; it is a whole Greek tragedy in itself. I wrote — 

mentally and with not a pen in sight — a weird tale with the title 

stolen from the Canadian Entomologist, "Aberrations of 

Vanessa." She had many idiosyncrasies, this Vanessa, heroine 

of my psychological story, still unwritten. " The Coulee Cricket " 

suggested an irrepressible cowboy bearing that nickname because 

of his nimble escapes from dangers such as prisons, police and 

such. " The Capture of Monodontomerus " is a taking title for 

an Indian romance. " Cannibalistic Tendencies of Certain 

Females" suggests a tale of lady vampires or ghouls, and "A 

Flight of Water Boatmen " is not a bad name for a sea story. 

These things show, I think, how entomology may help the literary 

man. As to the reverse, how^ a literary touch adds to the charm 

of entomological writings, need I try to prove it? Several of the 

writers for this and for our other journals make of their papers 

concerning dry, technical subjects, delightful essays, real idyls. 

Some of our fellow naturalists in Canada write such papers, 

published in the annual report of their society, and I read them 

with great pleasure enjoying them as I do the essays of Thoreau, 

Burroughs, Muir and Bradford Torrey. A certain orthopterist 

in a New England town often gives a delightful literary touch to 

his scientific descriptions, making the reader see sporting elves, 

fairies or brownies, in green or wood color, instead of leaping 

insects with their polysyllabic titles. 

In an article published in Psyche more than twenty years ago 
on the orthoptera of certain islands off the Massachusetts coast 



52 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XI 

this specialist spoke of the cruelty shown the sea birds there by 
summer visitors. These mutilated the young terns, severing their 
wing-tips to carry home as mementoes and leaving the crippled 
victims suffering and helpless. And he wrote: "The shadow of 
a tern's wing is but slight and its hue is that of the surf along the 
shore, yet it might well forever cloud the memory and darken the 
record of the heartless wretches who practised such devilish 
cruelty upon the helpless innocents of Penikese." 

In your own Bulletin a writer who has delved into the past 
has brought out wonderful treasures from Egypt, from Greece, 
from sages and poets of olden days, even quoting Sanscrit freely 
in his writings as if it were his native patois. 

It has been a sort of fashion these last years, the introduction 
of entomology into fiction. I have come across several novels 
lately in which the hero or some subordinate character is a col- 
lector of insects. One such book is " Mr. Hobby," published a 
year or two ago. And Joseph Conrad, in his " Lord Jim," intro- 
duces such a character, a merchant named Stein. The author 
describes the hero's room with its "dark boxes of uniform shape 
and color on narrow shelves," and speaks of his " Buprestidse and 
Longicorns, horrible miniature monsters, looking malevolent even 
in death." What do Messrs. Schaeffer, Leng, et al. think of that 
description of their beautiful favorites? Just fancy calling our 
brilliant Buprestis rufipes or fasciata or any species of our grace- 
ful Strangalia or Bellamira, horrible and malevolent ! 

But I must stop here. This is a wandering, erratic sort of 
essay, and, as I look back over it I see that its title it most mislead- 
ing. For surely it is not entomology and just as surely no one 
could call it literature. 



THE VELIINAE OF THE ATLANTIC STATES 

By J. R. DE LA Torre Bueno, White Plains, N. Y. 

In a previous paper* the larger forms of the Gerridse, the sub- 
family Gerrinas, were considered ; here we deal with those minute 
species so seldom seen at large and still more infrequently in col- 

*i9ii, "The Gerrids of the Atlantic States (Subfamily Gerrinse)," Tr. 
Am. Ent Soc, XXXVII, No. 3, pp. 243-252. 



June, 1916 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 53 

lections. They dwell, as do their larger cousins, wherever there 
is water to bear them on its elastic surface, except that, being far 
smaller, they do not require such wide reaches for a contented 
existence. Some may be found in the narrow confines of springs 
and water-holes ; others in swift streams where the ripples braid 
the waters; or again, in. salt coast estuaries; and finally, certain 
ones seek the shelter of vegetation growing in slow-moving 
streams, or on the edges of ponds. None, however,' counts among 
its members such daring navigators as there are among the larger 
Gerrinse. In the eastern United States, these small forms are ap- 
parently as numerous in species as the larger; it is even possible 
that there are more of the former, since the much more noticeable 
Gerrids are far likelier to be collected than the inconspicuous 
atoms here dealt with. The subfamily is divided into three gen- 
era, which may be separated by the following key : 

1. Anterior tarsi 2-joInted; last antennal joint \ongtst. .Microvelia Westw. 

2. Anterior tarsi i- or 3-jointed; first antennal joint lorigest. 

3. Anterior tarsi i-jointed; intermediate tarsi longer than last, 3d- joint 

• split and with feathery hairs set in split. Rhagovelia Mayr 

4. Anterior tarsi 3-jointed; intermediate tarsi longer than last, but not 

split and. without feathery hairs Velia Latr. 

Velia Latreille, 1804, Gen. Crust. Ins., Ill: 133. — This genus 
is represented in the Atlantic States by only two species, neither 
of which is known as yet north of the vicinity of Washington, 
D. C. Little seems to be known in regard to them. Miall limits 
his remarks on the European V. currens to stating that it swims 
under water more readily than Gerris and walks back-downward 
on the surface film. The genus is dimorphic as to wings, which, 
of course, makes certain structural changes in the thorax. Like 
all their congeners, the species of the genus are predaceous. So 
far as known, they are stream forms, as denoted by the names 
of the two Europeans, currens and rivulorum. These congregate 
in small schools, though our own have been taken only by ones 
and twos. The European species overwinter as adults in moss 
on stones. The eggs are deposited in spring on the vegetation 
coming to the surface.* 

* C. Wesenberg-Lund, " Fortpflanzungsverhaltnisse : Paarung und Eia- 
blage der Susswasserinsekten," Forts. Nat. Forsch., Halle, VII : 196. 



54 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XI 

The species thus far recognized from the eastern United States 
may be separated by the following key : 

1 (2). Intermediate tarsi subequal to or but little longer than posterior, 

joints 2 and 3 subequal; second joint of hind tarsi longer than 
third V. stagnalis Burm., Heid., Bueno 

2 (i). Intermediate tarsi much longer than posterior, joint 2 much 

longer than 3; joint 2 of hind tarsi shorter than 3; (first joint 
of antennae nearly one and a half times as long as second). 

V. australis n. sp. 

Velia stagnalis Burmeister, 1835, Handbuch, II : 212. — So far, this spe- 
cies has been taken only in the apterous form. Before me are two speci- 
mens, one from Washington, D. C. (Heidemann), and the other from 
Raleigh, N. C. (C. S. Brimley). Burmeister records two specimens from 
near Philadelphia, and it is also stated to be found in Cuba. I know of 
na life history notes or details of habitat. 

Velia australis n. sp. — Head triangularly obtusely produced with a me- 
dian impressed line; eyes globose, a Httle less in diameter than the distance 
between them. Antennae slender, first joint stoutest, longest, curved; 
second joint thinner than first, but stouter than third and fourth, shortest; 
third and fourth joints slender, of nearly equal thickness throughout, sub- 
equal in length; all pilose and setigerous. 

Thorax faintly carinate, roundedly produced posteriorly, deeply punc- 
tured ; two transverse impressions before the middle, the posterior with 
four deep f oveate punctures ; lateral angles prominent. 

Hemelytra (or tegmina). narrower and slightly shorter than abdomen, 
with sHght distinction of texture between corium and membrane. 

Femora stout, anterior shortest, intermediate longest; all the tibiae are 
longer than the corresponding femora ; intermediate tarsi longest, anterior 
shortest, first joint in all minute, second joint longest in second and third 
pair of tarsi, third joint in first pair. 

In the middle section of the metapleur^ is an obscure and scarcely dis- 
tinguishable opening, protected by three long black upwardly curving 
spines, which can be seen from above. This is a distinguishing character 
of this species, as it is apparently not found in other American forms 
described and in the four or five known to me in nature. 

Color brown ; silvery pilose : posterior connexival edges from third to 
sixth segment (only fourth to sixth visible in winged), an interrupted 
streak on the connexival suture beneath ; luteous : antennas, coxae, tro- 
chanters, base of rostrum and bands on legs and bases of all femora, 
remainder of legs infuscated. Hemelytra fuliginous with sparse golden 
pubescence on corium ; corium with a narrow apical white streak ; mem- 
brane smoky with three white spots at apex, the central one cordate and 
deeply emarginate, the two lateral ones irregularly rounded and nearer the 
apex of the membrane. Veins concolorous. 



June, 1916 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 55 

Apterous form : Pronotum stout, transversely impressed about one 
fourth its length from the anterior margin, two longitudinal impressions 
from the anterior margin at the eyes meet it, producing deep f oveae at 
the points of juncture; rounded truncate posteriorly with a somewhat 
broad explanate margin. Six abdominal segments and two genital visible 
dorsally, six ventrally (as in the winged), segments except the first of 
nearly equal length, abdomen widest at fifth and sixth segments, with two 
deep longitudinal lateral grooves. Connexival edges blunt, rounded ; gen- 
ital segment quadrilateral, twice as broad as long, truncated, with the 
second genital segment projecting beyond like a small blunt knob. Other 
structural characters as in the winged, except two small, triangular wing- 
pads. * 

Color brown as in the winged, except that the specimen in hand is some- 
what darker in shade. Silvery pilose, two small anter-lateral patches on 
pronotum, posterior connexival edges from second to sixth segment, pos- 
terior middle of third dorsal segment, broadening in fourth and broadly 
lateral in fifth and sixth, fifth segment with a small posterior median 
patch. Milk white, vestigial wing pads projecting beyond posterior edge 
of pronotum. Winged, long., 5.3 mm. ; lat, 2 mm. at humeri. Apterous, 
long., 5 mm.; lat, 1.7 mm. 

Described irom one winged male, " Fla., Wagner — E. I. ", with 
last two joints of antennae missing; and one apterous male, with 
two joints of right antennae missing, from Spring Creek, Decatur 
Co., Georgia, June 7-23, 1912. J. C. Bradley. 

Type, winged male in my collection. 

Paratype (and morphotype), apterous male in collection J. C. 
Bradley. 

Rhagovelia Mayr. 1865, Verh. zool. hot. Ges. Wien, XV: 445. 

Biucula Stal, 1865, Hem. Afr., Ill: 167. Neovelia F. B. 
White, 1879, Journ. Linn. Soc. Lond., Zool., XIV: 487. 
Trochopus Carpenter, 1898, Ent. Mo. Mag., XXXIV: 78. 

Rhagovelia, next to Rheumatobates, is perhaps the most in- 
teresting genus of the waterstriders in regard to special adapta- 
tion to a peculiar habitat, to be found only in running streams. 
The species are dimorphic, but in our latitude the fully winged 
are rarely seen. Little is known as to their breeding habits or 
other phases of life. The Atlantic States forms are easily sep- 
arated, aside from the difference of habitat, by the following key : 

I. Intermediate and hind tarsi third joint longest; hind femora incrassate 
and spinose in both sexes ; very dark in color and with a more or 
less seneous luster R, obesa Uhler 



56 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XI 

2. Intermediate and hind tarsi second joint longest; hind femora scarcely 
incrassate in both sexes, not spinose; lead gray in color (subgenus 
Trochopns Carpenter) R. plumbea Uhler 

Rhagovelia obesa Uhler, 1871, Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist,, 
XIV: 107. This species is found in the rapid parts of streams 
throughout the Atlantic States. In such places, they congregate 
in schools, swimming powerfully in zig-zags against the current, 
or at times sheltered behind some out jutting rock, placidly 
paddling in the eddies that swirl about it. The peculiar tarsal 
plume in this species and its striking function are descrif)ed in 
detail in the Canadian Entomologist.* This is a difficult form to 
confine in an aquarium, as it immediately takes to diving and 
finally perishes. Rhagovelia obesa is sometimes found winged 
about New York, but so rarely that my fifteen years of collecting 
have yielded only seven. It is perhaps the most widespread 
species of the genus and it has been suspected that some of 
Champion's Central American species may be but unrecognized 
variants of it. Central America seems to be the metropolis of 
the genus, as most of the known species are thence. It has been 
recorded from all the Atlantic States except Florida and is known 
from Canada. 

Rhagovelia (Trochopus) plumbea Uhler, 1894, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., p. 217 = Trochopus marinus Carpenter, 1889, Ent. 
Mo. Mag., XXXIV: 78, pi. 3. This species is a denizen of 
estuaries, bays and other brackish or salt waters on our southern 
coasts and about the Antilles. There is only one other with a 
like habitat, Rh. salina Champ., which is found on the Central 
American coast cays. Nothing further seems to be known of its 
habits. Its leaden hue alone is enough to distinguish it from its 
near relatives, 

Microvelia Westwood, 1834, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr., Ill : 647. 
Hydroessa Burmeister, 1835, Handbuch, II: 213. Veliomorpha 
Carlini, 1895, Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen., XXXV: 120. ' This genus 
contains not only the smallest of the waterstriders, but also of all 
the water-dwellers among the Hemiptera. It is very likely the 
most abundant as to numbers and species, and the most widely 

* 1907, on Rhagovelia obesa Uhler, Vol. XXXIX : 61-64. 



June, igi6 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 57 

distributed, since it is known from all the continents and nearly 
all the islands in every zoological region. Be it pond, lake or 
stream, it is always possible to secure them hiding among the 
grasses or walking about the banks or stalking their game on the 
green fields of duck-weed floating on some placid pool. This 
genus also is dimorphic, the winged and wingless so notably dif- 
ferent that they have frequently been taken for distinct species. 
However, in the antennge we have such excellent characters that it 
is always possible to bring together both forms of any one species 
and to differentiate them from others, though closely related. 
This character is largely employed in this key to the species of 
Microvelia : ^~^ 

1 (2). Antennae comparatively short and stout, not exceeding length of 

head and thorax taken together; legs short and stout. 

M. atrata n. sp. 

2 (i). Antennse slender, of varying lengths. 

3 (4). Posterior tibise curved in male, straight in female; antennse short, 

not as long as head and thorax taken together ; apterous male, 
long, slender, fusiform, female, short, broad, nearly orbiculate. 

M. h ore alls n. sp. 

4 (3). Posterior tibise straight in both sexes. 

5 (8). Posterior tarsi 3-jointed. 

6 (7). Antennal joint 3 longer than I, 4 subequal to 2 and 3 taken together ; 

joints 3 and 4 slender, equally stout and of the same diameter 
throughout, 4 tapering at the end, antennse very long ; hemelytra 
much marked with white M. alhonotata Champ. 

7 (6). Antennal joint 3 subequal to i, 4 shorter than 2 and 3 taken 

together, stouter than 3, fusiform; apterous form with dorsal 
patches of blue-gray pile M. fontinalis n. sp. 

8 (5). Posterior tarsi 2-jointed; antennal joints i and 3 subequal, 4 much 

shorter than 2 and 3 taken together; apterous form with dorsal 
patches of silvery white pile; winged form with unicolorous 
hemelytra M. americana Uhler 

Microvelia americana Uhler, 1883, Stand. Nat. Hist., H : 274. 
This species may be further separated from its relatives by the 
fourth antennal joint longer than 3d, and i than 2, 2 being the 
shortest ; 3 is the thinnest, the others of nearly equal diameter and 
I sHghtly curved. The hind femora extend slightly beyond the 
apex of the abdomen; the hind tibise are straight in both sexes, 
and the hind tarsi two-jointed. Its life-history and habits have 
been detailed before.* 

* 1910, Canadian Entomologist, XLII : 176-186. 



58 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XI 

The species ranges over all the Eastern States south to Florida 
and west to the Mississippi. It has been found in Colorado and 
is said to occur in Texas. The southwestern records, however, 
should be confirmed by careful study. 

Microvelia. fontinalis n. sp. — Apterous form : Head nearly as broad as 
long; white pile next to eyes. Eyes round, small, prominent, black; ocelli 
close to eyes. 

Antennae nearly half as long as the entire insect; joints i and 2 sub- 
equal, I shortest, 3 longer than 2, 4 longest; joint i stoutest, 2 following, 
3 slender and 4 stouter than 3, fusiform; all joints more or less pilose, 
especially 4. 

Thorax longer than first three dorsal abdominal segments. Femora in 
all three pairs of legs stouter than tibiae, hairy, all tibiae straight. Femora 
flavous toward base, tibiae entirely fuscous. 

Six abdominal dorsal segments visible, first and second dorsally with 
lateral patches of fine blue-gray pile ; five and six with a median large 
patch, nearly covering the entire segment; all segments margined with 
black ; first four segments brown above ; all segments a lighter brown on 
the underside, covered with a sericeous pile. Connexivum strongly re- 
fiexed in both sexes, more so in the female ; spiracles visible at connexi- 
vum ; male genital segment not very prominent. General color fuscous, 
strongly pilose. 

Type, female taken at White Plains, Westchester Co., N. Y., June 30, 
igi2; paratypes, four specimens same place, same date, two Westfield, 
N. J., September 3, 1904. 

Long., 2.3 mm. ; lat., i.i mm. at widest part. 

Only the wingless form is known. It was taken in numbers in 
a spring in a marshy woodland, where it clings to the long mosses 
growing into the water or walks about leisurely a short distance 
from the rocky sides of the basin. The blue-gray patches' of 
pubescence on the dorsum are distinguishing characteristics. The 
characters given distinguish it from M. americana, for small 
specimens of which it might be mistaken. In antennal structure 
it is near M. albonotata. 

Microvelia albonotata Champion, 1898, Biologia Centrali Amer- 
icana, Heteroptera, II, pp. 127, 129, pi. VIII, f. 7, winged form. 
= M. capitata Bueno, Heidemann in Insects of N. J., nee Guerin, 
for the apterous form. 

Apterous form : Connexivum strongly refiexed, with brown patch on 
each segment; dorsum black, except three last abdominal segments, which 
are broadly greenish, the last entirely so. Genital segment large, promi- 



June, 1916 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 59 

nent. Thorax tumid, mesothorax rounded behind; metathorax straight, 
form narrow, abdomen subparallel. Male, Morphotype, male, Fort Lee 
district, N. J., Oct. 10, 1903. 

Apterous female : Differs from the male in having the abdomen poste- 
riorly roundedly truncate; form obovate. The specimen in question has 
the dorsum nearly entirely a deep velvety black; another specimen shows 
but little black. Morphoparatypes, 2 females, Fort Lee District, N. J., 
Oct. 10, 1903 ; Fly Creek, N. Y., August 29, 1906. 

This species was described from a single winged male from 
Guatemala. Subsequently recorded from Riverton, N. J., by Van 
Duzee, the writer later secured it at Westfield, N. J. The speci- 
mens from the United States agree with a Mexican in collection 
Kirkaldy. 

In this species, as in the other, the most obvious character is 
in the long thin antennas. It cannot be mistaken for any other 
species, being the largest of our eastern forms, except americana, 
from which its slim body, long thin antennae and white-spangled 
hemelytra at once distinguish it. The apterous are more glabrous 
and much less velvety in appearance than the winged. It is also 
known from Georgia, taken by Dr. J. C. Bradley. 

Microveiia borealis n. sp. = M. pulchella Bueno et auctt. Am., nee West- 
wood. 

Head with an impressed line down the middle; antennae slender; not 
quite as long as head and thorax taken together; joint i stoutest, 3 slen- 
derest, 2 and 4 nearly equal in thickness, the last fusiform; joint 2 shorter 
than I, which is subequal to 3 and shorter than 4, the longest; a white 
line next the eyes. Pronotum as long as broad, with a distinct collum, 
rounded behind, humeral angles prominent, tumid. Both head and thorax 
velvety black, except for the silvery stripe next the eyes in the former. 
Eyes round, diameter half the distance between them. Hemelytra as wide 
as abdomen, entirely membranous ; nervures prominent, black, cells gray 
except apical which is white. Femora slightly stouter than the tibiae, legs 
pilose, posterior tibiae curved, bases of femora lighter in color. Genital 
segment prominent. Fusiform in shape. 

Long., 1.6 ipm. ; lat., .7 mm. at humeri. 

Type, winged male, taken at Cranford, N. J., on the Rahway River, 
August 8, 1904. 

Winged female: Differs from the male principally in the broader form, 
sides of abdomen subparallel and more or less curving; hemelytra do not 
quite cover connexivum ; posterior tibiae straight. 

Long., 2 mm. ; lat, .8 mm. 

Allotype, winged female, Staten Island, N. Y., August 19, 1905. 



60 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XI 

Apterous male : Fusiform, pronotum tumid, divided by distinct sutures 
into three segments ; mesonotum with a deep suture behind middle, di- 
rected anteriorly at each end ; genital segment prominent ; abdominal seg- 
ments subequal. Velvety gray black in color. 

Long., 1.9 mm. ; lat., .7 mm. 

Morphotype : Apterous male, from Staten Island, same date. 

Apterous female: Orbiculate, genital segment truncate; gray and black 
coloring, much more marked and definite than in male. 

Long., 1.6 mm. ; lat, i.i mm. at widest part. 

Morphoparatype : Apterous female, Staten Island, N. Y., June 3, 1905. 
Nine other paratypes of both sexes and forms from Westfield, N. J., Yap- 
hank, L. I., and Staten Island. 

In all the underside of the head, pro- and mesosternum are yellowish, 
as well as the coxje, trochanters and greater part of femora. 

This species has appeared in the writer's papers as pulchella 
Westwood, from which it may be separated, aside from being 
smaller by having joint i of antennje longer than 2. The former, 
so far as is known, is only Antillean in distribution. 

It is perhaps the most abundant of our native Microvelias, and 
it may always be found in large colonies on the matted Lemna 
on still ponds. It is just as predaceous as its larger congeners 
and is most frequently found in the wingless form, although the 
fully winged is not rare. It begins to breed on emergence from 
its winter quarters, and lays its eggs end-to on the underside of 
the duckweed leaves with the head toward the edge, in the usual 
gelatine. The nymphs emerge in 8 to 13 days, and after four 
molts reach the adult in about 16 days minimum, or 24 days from 
the &gg to the adult, which would allow for eight generations in a 
summer. One female may lay several batches of eggs ; her 
progeny may be found in various instars at the same time. 

Attention is directed to the unusual number of molts, as the 
general rule in Heteroptera is five. 

Microvelia strata n. sp. — Head comparatively short and broad ; eyes 
round, rather prominent; antennae short, rather stout, not much longer 
than head and thorax taken together, joint i stoutest, 3 thinnest, 2 shortest, 
4 longest, fusiform, 3 shorter than 4 and subequal to i, which is longer 
than 2. Pronotum not much produced, rounded behind; humeri promi- 
nent. CoUum yellowish with narrow black median line ; suture before 
middle of thorax grayish pilose. Hemelytra not so wide as abdomen, 
corium and clavus milk-white at base, a white patch in the middle cell. 
Legs comparatively short and stout, tibiae straight in both sexes. Sub- 
parallel in shape. 



June, 1916 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 61 

General color, sooty black; pronotum narrowly flavous toward apex; 
connexivum flavous edged with black above and below; grayish black 
pilose beneath ; femora light yellow basally. 

Long., 2 mm. ; lat, .9 mm. at humeri. 

Type, female, Billy's Island, Okefenokee Swamp, Georgia, June, 1912, 
collected by J. C. Bradley. 

Allotype, male, differs from female in having the genital segment 
rounded and slightly prominent. Same locality and date. 

Long., 1.7 mm.; lat, .8 mm. at humeri. 

Apterous male, subparallel in form ; genital segment visible from above, 
small, not very prominent; a glabrous indentation in the last abdominal 
segment; connexivum not much reflexed; prothorax short with two more 
or less obscure transverse sutures. Vestigial wings visible at posterior 
edge of thorax as two minute milk-white pads. Entire insect brown pilose. 

Long., 1.6 mm. ; lat, .8 mm. at widest part. 

Morphoparatype, apterous male from same locality, same date. 

Apterous female, differs from male in form, which is obovate, and in the 
shape of the genital segment, which is visible from above. 

Long., 1.8 mm.; lat, .9 mm., at widest part of abdomen. 

Paratype, same locality and date as type. 

Additional paratypes, four specimens of the forms. 

This velvety black species was secured in numbers by J. 
Chester Bradley and so far is known only thence. 

In conclusion, it should be noted that not much stress is laid 
on color characters, except those of the hemelytra, which are a 
fairly reliable guide in ordinary specimens, but as dark ones 
are frequently found, this character should not be considered 
final. The two apparently stable characters are the size and the 
antennae. Even here, care should be taken, since the compara- 
tive length and thickness of the antennal joints one to the other 
may frequently vary. For this reason they are not expressed 
herein in definite lengths, but the proportion between the joints 
of the same antenna remains. 



Prof. Herbert Osborn, of the Ohio State University, and Managing Editor 
of the Annals of the Entomological Society of America, has issued his 
new book. Agricultural Entomology, published by Lea & Febiger, Phila- 
delphia and New York, price $2 net. 

While designed for students, farmers, fruit growers and gardeners, the 
book can well be added to the working library of any entomologist or col- 
lector in any order. The illustrations, 253 in number, are especially 
notable. — Ed. 



62 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XI 

NEW SPECIES OF THROSCID^ (COL.). 

By Charles Schaeffer, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Four species of Drapetes are credited to our list to which two 
more have to be added. A new species from Lower California, 
which differs from the Mexican and Central American species 
having no carina at the hind angles of prothorax by the position 
of the red spots and by this and the non-carinate hind angles of 
prothorax from the North American species. Of the Mexican 
D. niger I have taken a few specimens at Brownsville, Texas. 

Two new species belonging to other genera are also added. 
One of them, a fairly common species of Throscus in the east, 
was labeled " n. sp." by the late Frederic Blanchard. 

Table of the Species of Drapetes Redt. 

1. Carina of hind angles of prothorax long, extending to about two thirds 

to apex 4 

Carina of hind angles short or absent 2 

2. Hind angles of prothorax without carina; color black, humeri with a 

small, red spot ecarinatus n. sp. 

Hind angles of prothorax carinate, carina not extending to the middle.. 3 

3. Prothorax red, elytra black without spots rubricollis Lee. 

Prothorax black ; elytra black, with two large sub-basal and two smaller 

subapical red spots quadripustulatus Bonv. 

4. Elytra with two large, oblique, red sub-basal spots, which often unite 

at suture geminatus Say 

Elytra without red spots 5 

5. Elytra without fascia of white hairs below middle nitidus Melsh. 

Elytra with fascia of fine white hairs below middle. niger Bonv. 

Drapetes ecarinatus new species : Black, elytral humeri with a red spot. 
Head sparsely punctate. Prothorax at base slightly wider than long; 
sides feebly arcuately narrowing to apex ; hind angles without carina ; sur- 
face moderately coarsely and densely punctate ; punctures finer towards 
apex ; below coarsely and rather densely punctate at sides. Elytra grad- 
ually narrowed from base to apex; disk irregularly punctate, punctures 
finer than those on prothorax. Metasternum sparsely punctate, punctua- 
tion a little denser and coarser at sides. Abdomen rather sparsely punc- 
tate and pubescent. Length 4.6 mm. 

El Taste, Lower California (G. Beyer). 

Drapetes niger Bonv. : This Mexican species, which occurs at Browns- 
ville, Texas, is a little narrower than our eastern species, the color is black. 



June, igi6 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 63 

with the first joint of antennae pale. Prothorax rather coarsely punctate 
and the elytra with a fascia of white hairs below middle. Length 3.5 mm. 

Aulonothroscus rugosiceps new species : Piceous, moderately shining, sur- 
face moderately densely pubescent. Head coarsely and densely punctate, 
more or less distinctly carinate laterally near each eye and also with a 
short, irregular carina at middle; eyes entire. Prothorax about twice as 
wide as long; sides arcuately narrowing from base to apex; hind angles 
with a 'relatively long carina ; surface moderately coarsely but not densely 
punctate, intervals between the punctures minutely punctulate. Elytra 
slightly narrowing posteriorly; striae very feebly impressed, almost oblit- 
erated on the disk; intervals irregularly punctate with very minute punc- 
tures intermixed. Prosternum very sparsely punctate; lateral striae deep, 
parallel and entire. Metasternum and abdomen rather coarsely punctate. 
Length 4 mm. 

Brownsville, Texas (O. Dietz). 

The entire eyes and the long, entire prosternal striae relate this 
species to A. constrictor, from which it differs in the distinctly 
carinate hind angles of prothorax, the carinate head and the 
absence of the basal impression, which is very pronounced in A. 
constrictor. 

The head is unusually coarsely punctate with the punctures' 
here and there confluent. 

Throscus carinicollis new species : Brown, feebly shining, surface densely 
but not coarsely pubescent. Head sparsely punctate in front with a rather 
distinct carina near each eye; eyes nearly divided. Prothorax wider than 
long, sides feebly arcuate and rather strongly narrowing from the basal 
to the anterior angles ; basal angles rather strongly carinate ; disk moder- 
ately coarsely punctate, on each side of middle near base a more or less 
distinct impression. Elytra scarcely narrower than the thorax, slightly 
narrower posteriorly; surface punctate striate; intervals biseriately punc- 
tate with larger punctures, intermixed with very minute punctures. Pro- 
sternum sparsely punctate near apex, punctures absent or obliterated in 
about basal half ; striae deep, entire and nearly parallel. Metasternum and 
abdomen moderately coarsely punctate. Length 3 mm. 

Elk Co., Pennsylvania. 

This species is very close to chevrolati from which it differs in 
having a very distinct carina at the hind angles of prothorax, less 
coarse pubescence and punctuation and a more distinct ante- 
scutellar impression at base of prothorax. 

I have also specimens from New Jersey. 



64 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XI 

(EDALEOTHRIPS HOOKERI, A NEW GENUS AND SPECIES 
OF THYSANOPTERA. 

By J. Douglas Hood, U. S. Biological Survey. 

(Edaleothrips gen. nov. 
(oi8d\4os, turgid; 0p^i^, a wood worm). 

Head about one and one half times as long as wide, much narrowed at 
base and broadest across eyes, about twice as long as pronotum and about 
equal in width to pterothorax ; vertex rugose ; postocular bristles short, 
sublateral, equal in length to a forwardly-directed pair near base of an- 
tennse. Anteftnse eight-segmented, segments 4-6, with ventral prolonga- 
tions at apex; segment 3 longest. Eyes rather small, flattened, protrud- 
ing, produced posteriorly on ventral surface of head, widely separated. 
Mouth cone short, semicircularly rounded at apex, about attaining middle 
of prosternum. Prothorax unusually narrow and about two thirds as 
long as wide; usual bristles all present but reduced in size. Pterothorax 
greatly reduced, about as long as broad and about equal in width to head. 
Fore tarsi armed with a short, stout tooth. Wings wanting in the geno- 
type. Abdomen broad and heavy, with dorsal white blotches ; tube about 
half as long as head. 

Genotype : (Edaleothrips hookeri sp. nov. 

Closely related to Cryptothrips Uzel (type C. lata Uzel, by 
present designation), and no doubt derived from that section of 
the genus which includes dentipes Reuter, bicolor Heeger, and 
gih'ipes Hood. . The swollen head (which has suggested the 
generic name), the reduced pterothorax, and the enlarged abdo- 
men give the insect a truly ant-like appearance, and serve to dis- 
tinguish it readily from described forms. 

(Edaleothrips hookeri sp. nov. (PI. 2, Figs. 1-3.) Female (apterous). 
— Length about 2.6 mm. Head and thorax dark blackish brown ; abdomen 
coal black, with first segment pale yellow and tube lemon yellow, tipped 
with black, dorsum with three pairs of chalky-white dorso-lateral blotches, 
on segments 2, 5, and 6, respectively, the blotches on i linear, the others 
rounded, the pair on 5 largest; antennal segments i and 2 pale yellowish, 
3 orange-brown in basal half, becoming blackish brown at apex, remainder 
of antenna black. 

Head about 1.5 times as long as wide, elevated and swollen behind eyes, 
narrowed posteriorly, and at base with neck-like constriction ; dorsal sur- 
face rugose in the vertical region, reticulate posteriorly; vertex nearly 
flat; postocular bristles small, almost lateral, capitate, similar to a for- 
wardly-directed pair near base of antennae. Eyes flattened, protruding, 



Bulletin Brooklyn Entomological Society. Vol. XI. 





A New Thysanoptera — Hood 



June, 1916 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 65 

produced posteriorly on ventral surface of head, widely separated, about 
half as wide as their dorsal interval. Ocelli wanting. Antennae about 1.4 
times as long as head, formed almost exactly as in Cryptothrips gilvipes 
Hood ;* sense cones short. 

Prothorax about half as long as head and (inclusive of coxse) about 
1.6 times as wide as long, declivous posteriorly; usual bristles all present, 
similar to postoculars. Pterothorax greatly reduced, about as long as 
broad and about equal in width to head ; mesonotum nearly smooth, meta- 
notum with heavy concentric anastomozing striae. Legs about concolorous 
with head and thorax. Fore tarsus with a short, stout, triangular tooth. 

Abdomen stout, heavy, about twice as wide as pterothorax ; tube yellow, 
less than half as long as head, distinctly constricted at apex, which is 
black ; all abdominal bristles colorless, mostly knobbed. 

Measurements of holotype (approximate only) : Length 2.58 mm. ; head, 
length 0.49 mm., width 0.32 mm.; prothorax, length 0.25 mm., width (in- 
clusive of coxae) 0.43 mm. ; pterothorax, width 0.30 mm. ; abdomen, width 
0.56 mm. ; tube, length 0.22 mm., width at base 0.093 mm., at apex 0.052 mm. 

Antennal segments i 2 

Length (/^) 75 81 

Width (^) 54 39 

Total length of antenna, 0.71 mm. 

Described from.one female taken on Bermuda grass at Dallas, 
Texas, July 21, 1908, by Dr. W. A. Hooker. The species is 
named in his honor in recognition of his interest and economic 
work in this order of insects. 

This is one of the most aberrant American thrips, possessing 
unique characters of structure and coloration. In some ways it 
suggests Compsothrips albosignatus Renter, which occurs in the 
Mediterranean, province of the Palearctic region. 

Explanation of Plate 8. 

Fig. I. CEdaleothrips hookeri gen. et sp. nov., right fore tarsus, lower 
surface. 

Fig. 2. CEdaleothrips hookeri, tube, dorsal surface. 

Fig. 3. OBdaleothrips hookeri, right antenna, inner dorso-lateral surface. 

* Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., Vol. XXVII, 1914, PI. V, Fig. 4. 



3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


150 


108 


96 


87 


63 


51 


43 


44 


42 


40 


30 


18 



66 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XI 

A COMPARISON OF THE PUPAE OF PROMACHUS 
VERTEBRATUS AND P. FITCHII (DIPTERA). 

By J. R. Malloch, Urbana, 111. 

In a recently published paper I presented, along with descrip- 
tions of a number of pupse of Asilidse, a synoptic key that I 
thought might prove useful to other students in separating cer- 
tain pupse of this family. As it was based upon a very small 
number of species I considered it highly probable that species 
belonging to genera unrepresented in my material would run out 
of the key either because of their lack of characters found in 
species in the caption to which they seemed to run or because of 
their disagreement with the descriptions of the species in the 
text to which they seemed to be allocated by the use of the key. 
It is therefore highly gratifying to discover that in cases where 
I have been able to obtain species belonging to the genera dealt 
with in my previous paper* they invariably are readily assigned 
to their proper genera by the test of the characters used in 
the key. 

I used as the character for the separation of Promachus from 
other genera the structure of the thoracic spiracles, which in this 
genus are mere rugose callosities or slight irregular elevations, 
whereas in the other genera known to me there are invariably 
distinct, reniform, elevated areas such as are present on the 
spiracles of the abdomen. I had a large series of specimens of 
vertebratus and considered the structure of the thoracic spiracles 
constant. I have now obtained from Dr. E. P. Felt examples 
of pupae of fitchii which agree with those of vertehratus in having 
no reniform elevation. I present herewith a summary of the 
characters that distinguish the pupse of the two species before me. 

It is necessary to indicate that there is a difference in the 
pupse of the sexes in both species as to the form of the apical 
abdominal segments, which fact is not mentioned in my previous 
paper. The eighth ventral segment in the female is unarmed 
in both species, as will be seen by referring to Fig. 2, Plate 
LXXXII, of my paper, while in the male of both it is armed with 
spines. The apical segment in the female is noticeably shorter 

* Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist., Vol. XI, Art. 4, 1915. 



June, igi6 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 67 

than in the male, especially in fitckii, which species has a very 
large hypopygium, the males have also 2 small, round, raised 
areas transversely situated near the middle of last segment. 

In both species of Promachus I find, in addition to the spiracles, 
2 very distictly elevated rugose areas on the anterior margin of 
the mesothorax, one on each side of the dorso-median line. In 
other AsiHdse which I have examined the corresponding areas are 
not appreciably distinguished either by elevation or. rugosity. 

The following diagnosis will serve to separate fitchii and verte- 
bratus, and should be used at caption 9 in my key to the species . 
in the paper already mentioned. 

Lateral cephalic process consisting of 3 simple thorns, the upper one 
strongest; the last 5-8 thorns on lateral extremities of transverse 
armature of abdominal segments 2-7 stout, flattened, and rather 
wedge-shaped, their bases fused so that the whole appears as a flap- 
like process with a deeply serrate posterior margin ; eighth ventral 
abdominal segment of male with 2 thorns ; average length 25 mm. 

vertebratus. 

Lateral cephalic process consisting of 3 thorns, the upper one bifid or 
sometimes duplicated, so that the process appears quadrispinose, the 
middle thorn generally strongest; the last 5-6 thorns on lateral ex- 
tremities of transverse armature of abdominal segments 2-7 very 
slender, their bases distinctly swollen but not fused ; eighth ventral 
abdominal segment of male with 4 thorns; average length 21 mm. 

fitchii. 

In addition to the above, fitchii differs from vertebratus as 
follows : the upper cephalic thorns are shorter and stouter and 
the distance between them is greater, at apices exceeding the 
length of a thorn, whereas in vertebratus it is distinctly less than 
the same ; the wart-Hke protuberance on wing in longitudinal line 
with the abdominal spiracles is small, rugose, and without an 
outstanding sharp ridge, while in vertebratus it is rather large 
and has a sharp ridge which is directed slightly upward ; the 
abdominal armature is weaker, especially on lateral areas, where 
it is not, as in vertebratus, noticeably stronger than the armature 
of the post-spiracular area ; the transverse armature of the 
seventh dorsal segment consists of long thorns only, the small 
ones that occur between these in vertebratus being absent ; the 
apical armature consists of an upwardly directed thorn, much 
shorter and broader than that in vertebratus, and a very small 
one at its base. 



68 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XI 

In other respects the species agree closely. The male of fitchii 
which is before me differs from that of vertebratus, and also 
from the female of fitchii, in that the wings fall slightly short of 
the apices of the fore tarsi instead of extending a little beyond 
them ; this may be a variable character and I do not make use of 
it owing to lack of material for comparison. 

I have seen the pupa of another species of Promachus, to 
which I have been unable to assign a species name. It agrees 
with vertehratus in the structure of the lateral cephalic process in 
having the upper thorn simple, but the upper cephalic thorns are 
similar to those of fitchii, and the lateral process has the thorns 
shorter than in vertehratus. As in the other two species there 
are only 3 postspiracular thorns on the first abdominal segment; 
the transverse dorsal armature is very similar to that of fitchii in 
as far as the lateral areas are concerned, but there are no short 
thorns between the long ones on the seventh dorsal segment, and 
the apical segment has the upper pair of thorns much swollen at 
base and ending in rather long sharp points, while the 2 small 
thorns are stronger and the ventral posterior margin has also 2 
small thorns. The length of this species is 14 mm. 

Vertehratus and fitchii are predaceous on white-grubs, Phyl- 
lophaga {=Lachno sterna) spp., the larval habits of the uni- 
dentified species are unknown to me. 

I take this opportunity of intimating that the pupa which I 
described under the name Promachus milherti in the paper previ- 
ously referred to, is correctly identified. I had some doubt about 
the identity when I wrote the paper as the exuvia were not con- 
nected with reared imagines ; but since the paper appeared I 
have had the opportunity of examining a reared specimen which 
confirms my tentative identification. 



OPEROPHTERA (RACHELA) BRUCEATA HULST. 

By Richard F. Pearsall, Allaben, N. Y. 

In Entomologica Americana, Vol. VI, pp. 123-24, Dr. Geo. 
D. Hulst describes this species. He says : " The female of this 
species (I have several before me) is almost entirely wingless. 



June, ipi6 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 69 

It has just the merest rudiments of wings — and from its color and 
size, I have no doubt it has, if taken, been looked upon as the 
5 of one of the species of Anisopteryx {=Paleacrita, Alsophila). 
It is of a grayish black color. Antennae and legs annulated with 
white. Thorax and abdomen marked above more or less with 
blackish." 

This description is at variance with two specimens which I 
secured in the Catskill Mts. in early winter, November 26 and 
27, 191 5. There had been a fall of snow eighteen inches deep 
some days before, but it had melted rapidly and these examples 
were taken walking up the trunks of maples, one in the early 
morning, the other at dusk. The males had been rather plentiful 
some ten days previous. 

Dr. Hulst was prone to mix his species, and his description 
above quoted applies apparently to an example of the so-called 
Anisopteryx among the several before him, and for this reason I 
append the following: 

5. Length 23-25 mm. Form slender. Palpi slender, porrect. 
Tongue rudimentary. Antennae long and fine. Frons broad, 
slightly bulging. Eyes large. Legs rather long. Hind femora 
a little heavier and twisted, with all spurs. Vestiture smooth. 
Color a faded seal brown inclining to yellowish, with a sprinkling 
of ashen white scales. Antennae brown above, white beneath. 
Front and thorax above brown ; beneath more heavily ashen. 
Tip of abdomen white. Abdomen above with ashen scales, 
mixed rather freely with brown, leaving a dorsal patch of clear 
brown on the first segment of the abdomen, with decreasingly 
smaller ones on the next three or four segments following. Legs 
and tarsi brown, with their inner surfaces ashen. Wing pads 
very small, brown tipped with ashen. 

It will be observed that the legs and antennae are not annulate 
with white and the colors differ from the original description. 

The specimens above described are in the collection of the 
American Museum of Natural History in New York. If my 
notes are correct, the original type specimens are not in existence. 



'jQjune, 1916 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 
TWO NEW LUCANIDS FROM NORTH AMERICA. 

By John.W. Angell, N. Y. City. 

Lucanus elaphus var. nov. carlengi: Similar in color and sur- 
face texture to typical form but differs in the following char- 
acters : Head flatter and narrower, width between the eyes about 
equal to thorax, frontal ridge straight or very slightly arcuate, 
occipital crest much less developed, mandibles less arcuate and 
but slightly bent downward, terminal teeth very unequal, the 
inner being reduced to a small spine, middle tooth much less 
developed, length 38-43 mm. Louisville, Ky., and northern 
Illinois. Described from two males received from Mr. Chas. 
Schaeffer. This interesting variety, which I have named in 
honor of my friend, Charles W, Leng, can be distinguished at 
once by its flattened form when viewed from the side, the 
mandibles, body, thorax and elytra forming practically one plane. 

Dorcus parallelus var. nov. carnochani: Differs from the typ- 
ical form in the following characters : Elytra much smoother, 
showing only faint strise 5 body much flatter and broader ; width 
of head (also thorax) much greater than width of elytra; eyes 
less prominent ; anterior tarsi more slender ; mandibles much 
more arcuate and blunter, the two teeth being almost equal. 

This variety, which I have named in honor of my friend, Mr. 
F. G. Carnochan, is readily distinguishable by its broader body 
and smoother sculpture and would appear to be related to the 
form known as D. hrevis Say. 

Described from two males and one female, taken at New City, 
N. Y., by F. G. Carnochan and in my collection. Length (c^J*) 
22-21 mm. ; ^ 20 mm. 



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CONTENTS. 

NOTES AND DESCRIPTIONS OF OSTOMIDJE, CLERID^E 

AND COSSONUS, Van Dyke 71 

NOTES ON STRATEGUS MORMON, Knaus 79 

NEW PENTATOMID, Olsen 82 

KANSAS VARIETY OF EUPHORBIA, Knaus 84 

TRANSLATIONS FROM THE PERSIAN, R. P. D 84 

PRESENT STATUS OF CANKERWORM IN BROOKLYN, 

Engelhardt ., 85 

NEW GENUS AND SPECIES OF CHLOROPID^E, Malloch 86 

NEW MICOGASTERID FLY, Girault 87 

PIRENE MARYLANDENSIS, N. SP., Girault 88 

CHECKLIST OF HEMIPTERA, Van Duzee 89 

RHYNCHOPHORA OF EASTERN NORTH AMERICA 89 

PROCEEDINGS OF THE BROOKLYN ENTOMOLOGICAL SO- 
CIETY 96 



V OCT 2 81916 "^1 



BULLETIN 

OF THE 

BROOKLYN ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

Vol. XI October, 1916 No. 4 

SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES AND DESCRIPTIONS OF NORTH 

AMERICAN OSTOMID^, CLERID^, AND 

COSSONUS (COL.). 

By Edwin C. Van Dyke, Berkeley, Cal. 

The following notes and descriptions are in the nature of an 
appendix to two previous articles, one on certain Ostomidas* and 
the other on the genus Cossonus.'f They are the result of addi- 
tional material and data combined with a renewed study of cer- 
tain of the forms. The chief source from which I received this 
material was the U. S. National Museum, through the kindness 
of Dr. E. A. Schwarz and Mr. H. S. Barber. Dr. Schwarz 
also furnished me certain notes upon some of the early descrip- 
tions which I was not able to see, as well as some notes based 
upon his own studies. 

Nemosoma punctatum n. sp. Form narrow, elongated, cylindrical, mod- 
erately shining, black with basal one third of elytra and antennae rufous, 
the basal spot not extending quite to elytral margins. Antennae extending 
backwards to thorax, first joint moderate in size, joints 2-8 small and 
short, gradually increasing in size outwardly and together subequal in 
length to club; club robust and over twice as wide as eighth joint. Head 
elongate, about one and a half times as long as wide, with sides posterior 
to eyes parallel or just perceptibly arcuate, head broadest across eyes 
where of about equal width to elytra; eyes moderate in size and promi- 
nence and placed about at middle of head ; epistoma deeply triangularly 

* " Some New Beetles in the Families Ostomidae (Trogositidae) and 
Cleridae from California," by Edwin C. Van Dyke, Bull. Brooklyn Ent. 
Soc, Vol. X, No. 2, pp. 25-33. 

t " The Species of Cossonus Clairv. (Coleoptera) of America North of 
Mexico," by Edwin C. Van Dyke, Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soc, Vol. X, No. 
I, pp. 1-23. 

71 



72 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XI 

emarginate and impressed, front with a longitudinal impressed line; sur- 
face rather coarsely and regularly punctured, the punctures at least their 
own width apart. Prothorax subequal in length to head, narrower poste- 
riorly than elytra, gradually divergent forwards two thirds of way to 
head, thence parallel, at apex as broad as base of head and but slightly 
less than width of elytra, disc evenly convex, punctured similarly to head, 
side margin fine. Elytra about two and a half times as long as wide and 
somewhat longer than head and thorax together, punctured similarly to 
head and thorax, without tendency to serial arrangement, disc without 
trace of striae, a short rather deep linear impression without suture on 
apical depression. Head and prothorax beneath coarsely and sparsely 
punctured, gula transversely wrinkled, metasternum and abdomen sparsely 
and finely punctured. 

Length 4.5 mm., breadth i mm. 

Type: A female in my own collection. 

The description is based upon a single specimen collected at 
Ashland, Oregon, May 5, 1915, by Mr. G. H. Champion and 
kindly presented by him. One other specimen which is undoubt- 
edly the same species has been seen and compared. This latter 
was collected on cedar, Libocedrus decurrens Torr., in the bur- 
rows of a species of Phlceosinus, on the Klamath river near 
Hamburg, Siskiyou County, California, March 15, 1916, by Mr. 
Ralph Hopping. It is of the same size, shape and color as the 
type, but differs in a few minor ways, such as having the two 
projecting portions of the epistoma more prolonged and slightly 
everted at the apex and in having the punctuation of the thorax 
somewhat finer and that of the elytra much finer, especially 
toward the apex. The epistomal character is no doubt sexual, 
this specimen being a male. 

This species in size and general shape simulates N. fissiceps 
Fall, but it differs from that not only in having a black prothorax 
but in being definitely and generally punctured. It simulates 
N. attenuatum Van Dyke in regard to color, but differs in being 
much more robust and in being decidedly punctured. It should 
appear in my table between fissiceps Fall and attenuatum Van 
Dyke. 

Grynocharis expansa n. sp. Form elliptical, depressed, moderately shin- 
ing, rufous, with sparse clothing of short, depressed, yellow hair. An- 
tennae reaching backwards about to middle of thorax, first joint moderate 
in size, bulbous, and with outer anterior part angular, second smaller and 



Oct., igi6 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 73 

almost globular, third still smaller, but longer than broad, the fourth as 
broad as long, the remainder broader than long, joints three to eight grad- 
ually increasing in breadth, the ninth, tenth and eleventh suddenly en- 
larged and forming a loosely jointed club. Head broader than long, one 
half breadth of thorax, coarsely variolately punctured, front flattened, 
eyes moderate in size but distinctly smaller than in G. pilosula Cr. Thorax 
twice as wide as long, disc moderately convex and finely sparsely punc- 
tured, sides depressed, widely explanate, the expanded portions together 
over one third the breadth of thorax and with punctuation coarse and 
closer than on disc, basal margin with median half slightly lobed, the outer 
parts just perceptibly rounded, hind angles well rounded, side margin 
evenly and gradually arcuate, finely serrulate, and somewhat convergent 
to anterior angles which are well rounded, anterior margin deeply and 
semicircularly emarginate. Elytra with breadth two thirds of length, 
about three times as long as thorax, breadth at base the same as breadth 
of thorax, thence gradually increasing to posterior two thirds, disc quite 
flat, sides suddenly depressed below disc and explanate, the expanded 
margin almost as wide as in the thorax, surface moderately coarsely and 
sparsely punctured, each puncture with a short, yellow procumbent hair 
arising from it, side margins very finely serrulate, apical angles shghtly 
and individually rounded. Beneath very finely and sparsely punctured 
and finely and sparsely pubescent. 

Length 5 mm., breadth 2.25 mm. 

Type: A unique in my own collection. 

My specimen I owe to the kindness of Mr. J. C. Bridwell, who 
collected it on Mt. San Jacinto in Southern California, in July, 
1 91 2. Two other specimens have been seen, a male and female, 
a pair in the collection of Mr. Ralph Hopping. They were collected 
from beneath the bark of cedar, Libocedrus decurrens Torr. at 
Cascada, Sierra National Forest, Fresno County, California, 
June I, 191 5. Both have the head and abdomen somewhat 
piceous, darker than in type, and the female has the punctuation 
of elytra somewhat coarser than in the male and than in my 
specimen, which is also a male, otherwise they are the same. 
The male is 5 mm. in length and the female 6 mm. It is inter- 
esting to note that this pair were taken from beneath dead bark 
where both G. quadrilineata Melsh, and G. oregonensis Cr. are 
to be found, while G. pilosula Cr., though very common, has 
always been taken in flowers, chiefly those of Ceanothus, the so- 
called wild lilac. 

This species in size and general appearance is like G. pilosula 



74 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XI 

Cr. and might at first be taken for a badly rubbed specimen of 
the same. It, however, differs markedly as regards a number 
of features, such as in its greater flatness, having only one half 
the dorso-ventral diameter of the other; its much more greatly 
developed thoracic and elytral margins, the elytral margin in this 
species being wide as in the thorax, while in the common species, 
it is quite narrow ; in having the anterior margin of the thorax 
rather deeply emarginate in contrast to the straight margin of 
the other; in being much less densely and coarsely punctured, 
especially as regards the elytra, the punctuation in G. pilosula 
Cr. being very coarse and dense ; in having a very fine, sparse, 
and hardly perceptible pubescence as against a rather dense and 
conspicuous one; and in having differences in antennal structure 
such as broader and shorter intermediate joints in contrast to 
the narrower and more elongate ones in the other species. 

Galeruclerus trilobatus Van Dyke. Certain intermediate phases of the 
above, which have recently been seen, have convinced me that this is no 
more than a variety of G. fasciata Lee, so it must accordingly be reduced 
to its proper status. 

The new species of Cossonus described in the following pages 
will make necessary certain changes in my table for the separa- 
tion of the species. These will be as follows : Just in front of 
subareatus Boh. and including it, change the table to read : 

Basal portion of rostrum longer than dilated portion. 

Neck of rostrum decidedly longer than apex, dilated portion as long 

as broad subareatus Boh. 

Neck of rostrum barely longer than apex, dilated portion transverse. 

pacificus n. sp. 
After texanus n. sp. add 
Head with prominent eyes, projecting beyond border, rostrum convex and 
depressed apically, a fovea on both vertex and vostrnva. .schwarzi n. sp. 

and after concinnus Boh. add the following sentences, the first of 
which should be of equal standing with that following concinnus: 

Rostrum with apical portion just perceptibly wider than basal. Thorax 
narrower than elytra. 

Rostrum elongate, thorax and elytra very coarsely and densely cri- 
brately punctate hubbardi Schwarz. 

Rostrum short, thorax with deep triangular depression in median por- 
tion, the discal boundaries almost smooth fossicollis n. sp. 



Oct.,i9i6 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 75 

Cossonus pacificus n. sp. Black, shining. Head quite smooth except for 
a few fine and sparsely placed punctures, rostrum moderately coarsely and 
closely punctured at sides and rather finely and sparsely above. Eyes 
moderate and but very slightly protruding beyond sides of head, diameter 
of head across eyes slightly greater than dilated portion of rostrum. 
Sides of head gradually convergent forwards, slightly constricted in front 
of eyes to rostrum, a small fovea at middle of vertex. Rostrum as long 
as one half of the thorax and but slightly arcuate, basal portion barely 
longer than apical, narrowest a short distance in front of eyes, then grad- 
ually increasing in width to apical portion which is one third broader than 
narrowest portion, quadrangularly dilated and slightly broader than long. 
Joints of funicle of antennae very slightly increasing in width outwards, 
the outermost joint about one half the width of the club. 

Prothorax slightly longer than broad, base bisinuate, sides from slightly 
constricted base, gradually arcuate to anterior third, then more suddenly 
rounded to slightly constricted apex, surface flattened, unequally punc- 
tured, the punctures along sides of median smooth line, coarse and sparsely 
placed, very fine and sparse on outer part of disc and moderately coarse 
and more closely placed at sides. At the base the longitudinal line be- 
comes somewhat cristate. 

Elytra distinctly wider than thorax, with disc somewhat flattened, 
striate, strise rather coarsely, evenly, and serrately punctured, intervals 
convex, particularly posteriorly, very minutely uniseriately punctured. 

Body beneath moderately coarsely and closely punctured anteriorly and 
more finely and sparsely punctured posteriorly. 

Length 7 mm., width 1.75 mm. 

Type: In my own collection; paratypes in U. S. Nat. Mus. and Cal. 
Acad, of Sciences, all from Tallac, Lake Tahoe, Cal., June, 1899, and 
taken by myself from beneath bark of dead aspen, Populus tremuloides 
Michx. 

This species is the one which I considered, in my previous 
paper, as the western phase of C. suhareatus Boh. and which I 
now, after a more thorough and renewed examination, feel must 
be considered as distinct. All my previous notes referring to 
western localities for C. suhareatus Boh. must therefore be con- 
sidered as appHcable to this species. A giant form from Field- 
brook, California, collected by H. S. Barber, and now in the 
Nat. Mus. Coll., I must at present consider as nothing but a very 
large female of this species. This species differs from the true 
C. suhareatus Boh. in being generally broader and flatter, the 
other being quite cylindrical; in having the elytra much more 
coarsely punctured and with more convex intervals ; the under- 



76 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XI 

surface also more coarsely punctured; and in having the basal 
portion of the rostrum barely longer than the apical and less 
parallel and with the apical dilatation somewhat transverse, 
whereas the basal portion in the other is decidedly longer than 
the apical, almost parallel near the eyes, and the apical portiorj 
not broader than long. 

C. schwarzi n. sp. Black, shining. Head finely and sparsely punctured 
posteriorly, rather coarsely and closely between eyes and on rostrum. 
Sides of head posterior to eyes slightly arcuate, eyes prominent and pro- 
jecting convexly well beyond sides of head, causing head to become sud- 
denly constricted to base of rostrum. Vertex with a moderately deep and 
elongate puncture, diameter of head across eyes slightly less than greatest 
breadth of rostrum. Rostrum about half the length of the thorax, rather 
suddenly depressed at apex, basal portion about equal in length to apical, 
about as broad as long and with straight and parallel sides, apical portion 
abruptly and quadrilaterally dilated, broader than long and at least one 
third broader than basal portion, a small elongate puncture at middle of 
dorsal surface and in line with the deeper one of the vertex. Joints of 
funicle of antennae gradually increasing in width outwards, the outermost 
joint about a third wider than first and one half the width of club. 

Prothorax slightly longer than broad, base bisinuate, sides from slightly 
constricted base, gradually arcuate and convergent until near apex where 
slightly constricted. Surface somewhat flattened above, with moderately 
coarse and well separated punctures, coarser and closer at sides, a median 
smooth line outlined by a margin of coarser punctures than usual, par- 
ticularly at base. 

Elytra distinctly wider than thorax, slightly convex but with disc slightly 
flattened, deeply striate, coarsely punctured, punctures somewhat deeper 
and coarser at base, intervals slightly convex, very minutely uniseriately 
punctured. 

Body beneath, sparsely and finely punctured in sternal area of thorax, 
coarsely at sides, especially of prothorax, rather moderately and more 
evenly punctured over abdomen. 

Length 5 mm., breadth 1.3 mm. 

Type and two paratypes in U. S. Nat. Mus., paratype in my own collec- 
tion, all from^ Williams, Arizona, and from the Saltau collection of the 
U. S. Nat. Mus. 

This species, which I take great pleasure in naming after my 
good friend. Dr. E. A. Schwarz, would come in my table, closest 
to texanns. It differs from that chiefly in having the eyes more 
prominent, the rostrum convex on top and with a median punc- 
ture which is in line with a similar one on the vertex, and in 



Oct., 1916 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 77 

having the apical part of the rostrum more depressed. Super- 
ficially it suggests a small piniphilus but it lacks the cuneiform 
thorax and besides has a different type of head and rostrum. 
The presence of fovea on both vertex and rostrum and the 
apically depressed rostrum should prevent this species from being 
confused with any other in our fauna. 

C. hubbardi Schwarz. Psyche, Supplement to, I, May, 1899. Black, but 
slightly shining. Head smooth back of eyes, coarsely punctured from 
hind margin of eyes forward to middle of basal portion of rostrum, thence 
smooth and sparsely finely punctured. Front with a deep oblong* fovea 
extending to the anterior part of the vertex. Eyes moderate in size and 
barely protruding beyond the straight and oblique sides of head, diameter 
of head across e}^es about one third greater than dilated portion of ros- 
trum. Rostrum slightly longer than one half of thorax, arcuate, basal 
portion just perceptibly shorter than apical portion, cylindrical and with 
sides just divergent anteriorly, apical portion feebly dilated and quadri- 
lateral. Antennae inserted at outer fifth of beak, scape extending slightly 
beyond the hind margins of the eyes, first funicular joint about twice as 
long as wide; second point slightly longer than wide, obconical, joints 3-7 
transverse, gradually but not strongly increasing in width, club large, over 
twice as broad as outermost joint of funicle, oblong-oval, opaque, pubes- 
cent, basal portion very little smoother than the apical portion. 

Prothorax very little longer than broad, with sides straight and slightly 
diverging from base to three fourths of length, then evenly rounded to 
near apex where but slightly constricted, base bisinuate. Surface some- 
what flattened, extremely coarsely, densely cribrato-punctate, the inter- 
stices broader and more shining on the disc than on the sides, a distinct 
depression anterior to the scutellum where a shining cribriform elevation 
may be seen, and on front of this a large equally shining rudiment of a 
smooth median line. 

Elytra at base considerably wider than thorax, striate, the striae ex- 
tremely coarsely punctate, intervals narrow, subcostiform, sutural inter- 
stices with row of fine punctures and depressed behind the scutellum. 

Body beneath very coarsely and densely punctate, the mesosternum and 
abdomen less densely than the prosternum. Front tibia not sinuate at 
inner edge. 

Length 3.7-4.8 mm., breadth 1.5 mm. 

This very distinct species which is related to none of our other 
species, was unfortunately overlooked when I reviewed the genus. 
I have therefore introduced it here in order to have all of our 
species listed together. The description given is based upon the 



78 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XI 

original but modified to conform with my others. A specimen 
very kindly loaned by Dr. Schwarz has enabled me to study it 
in detail. 

As stated in the original account, this species was collected 
by the late H. G. Hubbard, at Tucson, Arizona, and taken from 
the dead tissues of a wounded giant cactus, Cereus giganteus. 
A specimen from Lower California, in the collection of Mr. H. C. 
Fall, has been referred by him to this species. ' - 

Cossonus fossicollis n. sp. Black, shining. Head practically impunctate 
posteriorly, very finely and sparsely punctate on dorsal surface of rostrum, 
more coarsely and closely, at sides. Head, including eyes, cuneiform, and 
gradually convergent to rostrum, the eyes rather flat and just projecting 
beyond sides of head, an elliptical shaped fovea on vertex between eyes, 
the diameter of head across eyes a little less than one third greater than 
dilated portion of rostrum. Rostrum distinctly less than one half length 
of thorax, arcuate, basal portion about equal to apical, moderately broad 
and with parallel sides, apical portion just perceptibly wider than basal 
portion. Joints of funicle of antennae transverse and but very gradually 
increasing in width outwards, the outermost joint distinctly less than one 
half width of club. 

Prothorax distinctly longer than wide, base bisinuate, sides at middle 
two thirds almost parallel, gradually obliquely convergent posteriorly, 
gradually rounded anteriorly to constricted anterior portion, surface flat- 
tened above, with deep longitudinal triangular depression extending from 
its apex near the anterior margin to the base where it occupies over one 
third of total breadth ; through the middle of this depression there runs 
a linear slightly elevated line that is bounded anteriorly by a single row 
of deep punctures and posteriorly by a confused series of similar punc- 
tures, the disc outside of the depression but very minutely and sparsely 
punctured and quite shining, the sides of thorax moderately coarsely and 
closely punctured. 

Elytra distinctly wider than thorax, slightly convex above, deeply striate, 
coarsely punctured but with punctures well separated even anteriorly, 
where they are coarser and deeper, intervals slightly convex and with 
punctures practically imperceptible. 

Body beneath coarsely and closely punctured on prothorax and sides of 
mesothorax and anterior segments of abdomen, and rather finely and 
sparsely on mesosternum and median and posterior part of abdomen. 

Length 3.5 mm., breadth i mm. 

Type: A unique from the Santa Rita Mountains of Arizona, collected 
May 25, from the Hubbard and Schwarz collection, and now in the U. S. 
Nat. Mus. by whom it was submitted for study and description. 



Oct.,i9i6 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 79 

This very distinct species, because of the pecuHarities of its 
thorax, should be confused with no other species in our fauna. 
In my table, it should follow C. hubbardi Schwarz, the two in 
their turn to follow C. concinnus Boh. It is, however, not closely 
related to either. 

C. bohemanni Horn. This should be placed as a synonym of C. platalea 
Say. As stated by Dr. E. A. Schwarz, Bohemann used the term " pone " 
for " near " and not " behind " as interpreted by Dr. Horn. 

C. quadricollis Van Dyke. Two specimens from the Nat. Mus., col- 
lected at Republic, Oregon, by Mr. A. W. Barber, have been seen. This 
shows the northward distribution of the species, as was to be expected. 

C. ellipticollis Van Dyke. Six specimens from Arizona, mostly Winslow, 
belonging to the Nat. Mus., have been seen. 

C. concinnus Boh. This should be reduced to a variety of C. impressi- 
frons Boh. A review of the literature has convinced me that there is no 
valid reason for retaining it apart. 

C. crenatus Horn. Specimens of this species have been taken in abund- 
ance in various parts of California, from the so-called digger pine, Pinus 
sabiniana Dougl. 

NOTES ON STRATEGUS MORMON. 

By Warren Knaus, McPherson, Kan. 

The writer first took this rare Scarabseid June, 1913, on ground 
he had collected over at least once a season for almost a quarter 
of a century. The two specimens were male and female from bur- 
rows under horse droppings. The burrows are easily distin- 
guishable, being about i }i inches in diameter, larger by a fourth 
than the similar holes of Phanmis difformis in the same situa- 
tion. Usually a pile of freshly turned sand at horse droppings in- 
dicates a burrow, the larger Strategus mormon, the smaller the 
Phanceus; but occasionally there is no sand heap or covering 
around the larger. The hole either goes straight down or inclines 
not over fifteen degrees and varies from four to twelve inches in 
depth. My first two Strategus was taken on a perfectly bare 
sand dune, probably fifty yards apart. 

In 191 5 I secured eight specimens on the dunes under horse 
droppings a mile away from the locality of my first specimens. 
They were five males and three females, coming from late in 



80 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XI 

May to early July. At one pile of droppings the fresh sand had 
been thrown up and a lateral burrow extended west from the 
pile for about fifteen inches. By running my finger under the 
ridge I encountered a male, which apparently had come upward 
from association with the female and, reaching the horse droppings, 
was tunneling out. The female was in the burrow about ten 
inches below the surface. About ten feet away another male was 
taken from his burrow. Still another was found about two 
hundred yards away from the first, at the bottom of an eight 
inch hole, the entrance of which was at least six inches away from 
the droppings. 

June i6, 1916, a visit to the same locality (near Medora, Kan- 
sas) resulted in the capture of another pair on ^he same dune 
where I took my first specimens. One was located under horse 
droppings evidently three or four weeks old, almost covered by 
drifting sand. This was a male. Between four and six inches 
under the surface there was a mass of dung ij4 to ij^ inches in 
diameter and several inches long. In it were found seven eggs, 
two to three mm. in diameter, almost pearly white. Twenty 
feet away another pile, partly sand covered, revealed another 
burrow. In this at the bottom, about ten inches down, was a 
female. Six inches under the surface there was a similar mass 
of dung. It is evident that the species prefers droppings from 
one to three weeks old, while fresher ones are chosen by Phancsus 
difformis. Thus the masses for egg deposit are much drier and 
less compact for the former than the latter. Phancsiis will also 
use cow droppings, under which I have never found Strategus. 
All the specimens I have taken were alive and perfect. 

By the fortunate finding of two additional specimens of Strate- 
gus mormon in the sand hill region near Medora, Kansas, July 2, 
the total catch of this insect for 1916 was increased to four speci- 
mens — two pairs. 

The first specimen was found about three miles east of the lo- 
cality where the other specimens of this species have been col- 
lected. The specimen was a female, and was found dead under 
cattle chips. The insect had only recently died, as it was relaxed 
and in good condition. Under the droppings was the mass of 
faeces in which the female deposits her eggs. The fragments of 



Oct.,i9i6 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 81 

another Strategus was also found a half mile west. The other 
specimen taken was found in the locality where all the speci- 
mens heretofore have been taken. It was a male and was dead 
under a pile of horse droppings. It too had only recently died, 
as it was relaxed and in fine condition. 

The findings of these two specimens dead indicated that the 
season was over and this was further shown by the fact that no 
other specimen was found nor any of their characteristic holes in 
the sand observed. 

It is interesting to note the sequence of insect life as repre- 
sented by the Coleoptera in this sand hill region. I collected on 
four dates of the ordinary spring collecting season, the result 
showing partially as follows: May 7, 19 Cicindela scutellaris, 15 
C formosa, 9 C. tranquebarica, 12 C. repanda, i C. hirticollis, i 
Geopinus fluvialis, Casey, i Chlaenius pennsylvanicus, 1 Seleno- 
phorus sp., 5 Sphaeridium scaraheoides, i Saprinus sp., i Canthon 
praticola, 1 Phaneus difformis, 3 Onthophagus guatemaliensis, 3 
Geotnipes opaciis, 8 Ligyrus relictus, i Cremastochilus nitens. 

On June 16 these were taken : 25 C. formosa, 6 C. scutellaris, 1 
C. lengii, 3 C. repanda, 11 Phaeneus difformis, 3 Tetraopes 
canescens, i Sphenophorus destructor. 

On June 25 these Cicindelidse were taken : 6 C. formosa, i C. 
tranquebarica, 6 C. cuprascens, 4 macra, 31 C hirticollis, includ- 
ing several of the variety ponderosa, and 73 C. lepida. Of the 73 
C. lepida, 3 had green thorax and head. All the rest were 
bronzed. 

On July 2 the following were taken : 28 Cicindela lepida, in- 
cluding one with a green head and thorax ; 1 1 Phaneus difformis 
of which most of the males had fully developed horns. This was 
also characteristic of the males of this species taken June 16. 

Cicindela lepida occurred on perfectly bare white sand, back a 
considerable distance from the pools of water. Cicindela hirti- 
collis, cuprascens and macra occurred along the water's edge and 
back fifteen or twenty feet. The lepida were good runners, but 
were not strong fliers and a collector could stand at one place and 
take a half dozen or more by successive sweeps of the net. They 
preferred the sheltered sides of sand dunes and appeared usually 
about nine o'clock in the morning, becoming more active as the 
sand became heated. 



82 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XI 

A NEW PENTATOMID. 

By Chris. E. Olsen, Maspeth, L. I., N. Y. 

Podisus fretus n. sp. 

Large and broad, ranging from 12.5 mm. to 14.1 mm. in length, 6.75 
mm. to 7 mm. in width (across humeri) ; profusely marked with red and 
reddish-brown spots and blotches (with a variable amount of purplish 
tinge in them), especially on venter and hemelytra; humerus rounded and 
without spine ; median ventral spine long. 

Head : lateral margins of cheeks nearly parallel, slightly widening before 
the eyes and rounding apically; apical margin rarely convex; cheeks as 
long as tylus, sometimes a trifle longer; widest part of head (not including 
eyes) 1.65 mm.; width across the eyes 2.8 mm.; lateral anterior margins 
dark, at times becoming quite black. Antennaj — color general dark red- 
dish-brown throughout, covered with pale hairs, on first joint hairs are 
shorter and more scattered than on the following joints. Rostrum fer- 
ruginous except apical joint, which is very dark red-brown. Pronotum, 
anterior-lateral margin forming a straight line from behind the eyes to 
the humeral angles, but for a slight bend two fifths of the way from the 
humerals ; a slight indication of a pale anterior-lateral margin, but here 
and there the dark color will touch the edge ; dentations large, coarse and 
irregular; humeral angles obtusely rounded and without spine. Scutellum 
brown, punctures dark brown, mingled with dark red, diminishing in 
size towards apex; in some specimens the punctures are very sparse 
apically, giving the appearance of a pale apex, in other specimens the apex 
is well covered with punctures ; hemelytra red-brown, punctures dark 
brown, the embolium and posterior section of corium well marked with 
red blotches in most of the specimens. Membrane yellowish brown, trans- 
lucent, with a smoky elongate spot in the apical angle. Venter yellowish 
brown, with numerous dark brown and dark red irregular spots and 
blotches ; on the sternum there is a tendency to form some sharp lines 
along the larger blotches, especially along the anterior-lateral edge; here 
this edge is pale almost to the humeral angles ; ventral row of median 
spots are large, dull and dark red-brown, the edge of which is not sharply 
defined, but rather fading out; two similar rows of spots occur on the 
venter, one on either side about midway between median one and con- 
nexivum at upper abdominal segments and gradually diminishing and 
drawing closer to the median row ; the spot in the median row on segment 
just before genitalia is obviously larger than preceding spots; there is 
still another row of dark brown blotches along the spiracular line; these 
are quite different from the former rows and consist for the most part 
in dark-colored punctures grouped in irregular blotches ; venter well 
marked with dark brown dots ; in some specimens they are quite red ; 



Oct., 1Q16 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 83 

median ventral spine long and pale; connexivum with large black macula- 
tions at joints; femora unicolorous yellow-brown to dark brown in some, 
with punctures red-brown to nearly black; tibiae unicolorous, reddish 
brown; tarsi reddish, mostly lighter than tibiae and more reddish, but in 
some cases darker. 

Described from ten specimens collected as follows: Type (male). Rock- 
away Beach, IV 17, 1912, by Alan S. Nicolay (Olsen Coll.) ; allotype (fe- 
male), Rockaway Beach, V 17, 1910, by C. E. Olsen (Olsen Coll).; para- 
types (males), Amherst, Mass., V 16, 1910, and Amagansett, L. I., by G. 
P. Engelhardt (Bueno Coll.) ; Wyandanch, L. I., VIII 30, 1914, by F. M. 
Schott (Olsen Coll.) ; paratypes (females). Promised Land, L. I., IX 24, 
1910, and Wilmington, N. C, IV 16, 1916, by W. T. Davis (Barber, Coll.) ; 
Yaphank, L. I., IX 25, 191,1, by J. R. de la Torre-Bueno (Bueno Coll.) ; 
Wyandanch, L. I., VIII 30, 1914, by F. M. Schott (Schott Coll.); New 
Brunswick, N. J., V 18 (Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. Coll.). Mr. Bueno's speci- 
mens from Amherst, Mass., and Yaphank, L. I., were both beaten from 
pine, whereas Mr. Schott's specimens were taken beating oak ; the writer 
has taken two specimens in washup on Rockaway Beach, one of which is 
in Mr. H. G. Barber's collection (not mentioned as type). 

This species is readily distinguished from P. maculiventris by 
the broader and proportionally shorter anterior part of head 
(from in front of eyes) ; by its straighter anterior-lateral margins 
of pronotum on which the pale band along edge is not so decided, 
in some specimens almost obsolete ; by the rounded humeri and 
lack of humeral spine; by median ventral spots being large, dull 
red-brown and not sharply defined when present, but never shin- 
ing black ; by the venter being profusely marked with red and red- 
brown spots and blotches ; by the larger size, more robust appear- 
ance and general color being darker and more reddish dorsally 
and much darker and redder ventrally. From P. serieventris it 
is distinguished by its much larger size, long median ventral spine, 
absence of darker subapical annulus on the femora, more reddish 
color especially ventrally, by the median row of ventral spots be- 
ing large dull red-brown and not sharply defined. 

The author wishes to acknowledge with thanks the valuable as- 
sistance rendered by Messrs. H. G. Barber, J. R. de la Torre 
Bueno and other collectors in turning over their material for 
study. 



84 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XI 

A KANSAS VARIETY OF EUPHORIA HERBACEA. 

By Warren Knaus, McPherson, Kan. 

Through the courtesy of Prof. S. J. Hunter, entomologist of 
the State University, Lawrence, Kan., I have examined a male 
and female Euphoria (Erirhipis) taken for the first time in this 
State. The female is labeled " Crawford Co." and the male 
" Cherokee Co." Both were taken by the summer collecting 
party sent out by the University July and August, 191 5. 

A comparison of the pair with eastern specimens of E. her- 
bacea Oliv. from Maryland, Virginia, Pennsylvania, and Staten 
Island, N. Y., shows the Kansas specimens much larger, more 
robust, less marked on elytra with tomentose spots, and elytral 
costae much less prominent. The Crawford Co. female meas- 
ures : long. 16 mm., lat. 10; the male 15 by 9. The color of each 
is dark olive, with a reddish cast on elytra. 

If these specimens are worthy of a varietal name, I suggest 
Erirhipis (Euphoria) herbacea var. occidentalis var. nov. The 
pair are in the State University collection at Lawrence, Kan. 



THE MOTH AND THE FLAME. 

From the Persian of Azz' Eddin Emocalessi, about iioo A.D. 

Each tortured moth that flutters 'round the candle flame 
Is constant, tho' with singed wings and bitter pain. 
" Love cannot die," it whispers, " can I love thee less, 
Tho' loving thee brings naught to me than certain death ? " 

R. P. D. 



THE BEE AND THE BLOSSOM. 

From the Persian of Azz' Eddin Emocalessi, about iioo A.D. 

The honey dew from every flower 
To Mistress Bee is marriage dower ; 
But, unlike woman, her sweet kiss 
Ne'er injures him who gives her bliss. 

R. P. D. 



Oct., igi6 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 85 

THE PRESENT STATUS OF THE CANKER WORMS 
ALSOPHILA POMETARIA AND PALEACRITA 
VERNATA IN BROOKLYN. 

By Geo. P. Engelhardt, Brooklyn, N, Y. 

Brooklynites with recollection reaching back to the sixties may 
recall the annual defoliation of their shade trees together with the 
annoyance to pedestrians in brushing against innumerable small 
"worms" suspended by delicate silken threads from branches 
and twigs. This injury and annoyance were caused by the 
so-called "canker worms." Readers of the Bulletin, Vol. 
IX, No. 3, June, 1914, on the "Early History of Brooklyn 
Entomology," by E. L. Graef, will recall especially the meas- 
ures taken against these pests, including the introduction into 
this country of the Enghsh sparrow. Since then so much has 
been charged against this hyphenated alien that to his credit 
it should be said that, in the performance of his allotted task at 
least, he has done nobly. In Brooklyn today it is not a problem 
how to combat the canker worm, but rather how shall the collector 
find specimens sufficient for his cabinet. This at least has been 
my own experience for ten years or more. I have yet to see a 
really good series of these moths in any of the local collections. 

The males of Alsophila pometaria the so-called " Fall Canker- 
Worm " can usually be readily distinguished by wing maculation 
alone, but a better character (especially for the apterous females) 
is the rows of strong spines on the abdominal segments of P. 
vernata, while the body of A. pometaria is densely covered with 
shingle like scales. 

A. ^pometaria, known as the fall canker worm, as implied, 
should occur in the fall ; yet in my own collection 2 males and 10 
females all represent spring captures (with few exceptions from 
Prospect Park). My representation of the Spring canker worm, 
P. vernata, on the other hand, shows a preponderance of males, 
about 20 against 3 females, all from Prospect Park. The males 
of this species are by far the commonest of the early spring moths 
of the region, but until this year I failed to secure any females. 



86 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XI 

• ' 

The finding in the spring of 191 5 of a male P. vernata in cop. 
with a female A. pometaria proved puzzling at the time, sug- 
gesting the possibility of a third species. Eggs deposited about a 
week later were of the flower-pot shape typical of A. pometaria 
and experiments were not carried further. 

While the paucity of the males of A. pometaria remains to be 
accounted for, the apparent scarcity of females of P. vernata 
can be explained by their habit of remaining at the base of trees, 
concealed by grass or fallen leaves until heavy rains or (as 
happened April 9, 1916) a heavy snowfall forces them to climb to 
greater heights. On that day 2 female vernata and 3 pometaria 
were collected in a short time. 

That the Fall canker worm still appears in destructive numbers 
on Long Island, though at a considerable distance from the city, 
has been reported, especially as defoliating deciduous trees at 
Wading River. (Cf. Bulletin papers by W. T. Davis, Vol. IX, 
p. 23, and Vol. X, p. 82.) Evidently our native insectivorous 
birds cannot be relied upon to check the insect pest. Therefore, 
let us give the devil (English sparrow) his due. 



A NEW GENUS AND SPECIES OF NORTH AMERICAN 
CHLOROPID^ (DIPTERA). 

By J. R. Malloch, Urbana, 111. 

I obtained the species described herewith while collecting ma- 
terial for a paper on the immature stages of Diptera, now nearly 
ready for the press, and because it has no direct bearing upon 
that study, and in order to keep my other paper within reasonable 
compass, I have decided to publish the present description. While 
the manuscript containing this description was still awaiting dis- 
posal, Professor J. M. Aldrich brought to me for examination an 
example of the species, which has been recorded by me as a para- 
type in this paper. The type specimen is in the collection of the 
Illinois State Laboratory of Natural History. 

Oscinoides gen. nov. 

Generic Characters. — Wings elongate, costa to apex of fourth vein; 



Oct.,i9i6 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 87 

third and fourth veins ending at equal distances before and behind apex 
respectively; arista with short dense hairs; proboscis fleshy; scutellum not 
longer than its basal breadth, not flattened. 

Type of genus, Oscinoides arpidia n. sp. 

Oscinoides arpidia n. sp. Female.- — Black and yellow, distinctly shining. 
Head yellow, blackened on upper portion of frons and almost the entire 
occiput; antennse yellow, third joint slightly brownish; arista brown; pro- 
boscis and palpi yellow. Mesonotum yellow, with three black stripes which 
are fused anteriorly and cover the entire disc except on the margins and 
a central portion posteriorly, the latter having the appearance of an ante- 
riorly bidentate spot ; a black spot above wing-base ; humeri and anterior 
portion of pleurae yellow ; scutellum yellow ; postnotum black. Base and 
venter of abdomen yellow, the remainder black. Legs yellow; apical joint 
of midtarsi, entire hind tibice, and apical three joints of hind tarsi except 
base of third black. Halteres yellow, knobs white. Wings hyaline, veins 
brown. 

Frons broad, flat, triangle occupying nearly its whole area, the surface 
with short hairs ; vertex with the bristles strong ; orbital hairs weak ; an- 
tennae rather large, third joint rounded apically; arista about as long as 
anterior width of frons, distinctly hairy; height of cheeks less than width 
of frons, distinctly hairy; height of cheeks less than width of third an- 
tennal joint. Thorax with moderately dense short hairs, one pair of pre- 
scutellar bristles on disc, and the same laterals as in Gaurax. Abdomen 
tapering at apex. Legs stout, the hind tibise more so than in species of 
Gaurax, the sensory area distinct. Wings long and narrow; second costal 
division (from end of first vein to end of second) nearly three times as 
long as third; last section of fifth vein sHghtly longer than penultimate 
section of fourth. 

Length, 3 mm. 

Type locality. Urbana, III, June i, 1916. One specimen taken by the 
writer among low vegetation in the Forestry of the University of Illinois. 
Paratype, Aberdeen, S. Dak., July 12 (coll. J. M. Aldrich). 

The species is dedicated to Mr. R. P. Dow in recognition of his 
services to entomology in connection with the Bulletin of the 
Brooklyn Entomological Society. 



A NEW MISCOGASTERID CHALCID FLY FROM MARYLAND. 

By a. a. Girault, Glenndale, Md. 
From the woods, June 4, 1916. 

Miscogaster marilandica n. sp. Female. — Length 1.50 mm. 

iEneous black, the wings hyaline, the legs and antenna white, also the 



88 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XI 

venation. Head and thorax finely, densely punctate, the thorax with 
sparse, small setigerous punctures ; cross-suture of scutellum convexed a 
little at meson, the convexity distad. Propodeum with the spiracle small, 
round, central, the median carina paired, delicate; short striae from the 
cephalic margin of the propodeum, the latter scaly, plane otherwise. 
Abdomen from above globular, depressed, much keeled beneath, its second 
segment occupying over a third of the surface, slightly incised at meson 
of caudal margin, the petiole distinct, wider than long. Postmarginal vein 
much longer than the stigmal, the knob of the latter moderate in size. 
Clypeus concave, its lateral end notched. Cheeks very short, not half the 
length of the eyes by far, the 13-jointed antennae inserted distinctly below 
the middle of the face but above the ventral ends of the eyes ; funicle i 
shorter than the pedicel, a little longer than wide, 6 wider than long; 
two ring-joints. Mandibles 4-dentate. Club, without a terminal nipple. 

Resembles Trydymus aureipes but is much less brassy, has a short 
petiole, the propodeum is plane, its spiracle round and central and the 
abdomen is shorter, not wholly depressed and so on. 

From one female, Glenndale, Prince George Co., Md. 

Type: Catalogue No. 20,312, U. S. N. M., the female on a tag, the head 
and caudal legs on a slide. 

There are five females in the U. S. National Museum from 
Jacksonville, Fla. 



PIRENE MARYLANDENSIS N. SP. (Chalcidoid Hymenoptera). 

By a. a. Girault, Glenndale, Md. 

From the woods, June 12, 1916. 

Female. — The same as marylandicus Girault but the extruded part of 
the ovipositor is somewhat shorter and the antennae, are entirely different 
both in color and shape, besides bearing two very short, thin ring-joints : 
The scape is all black ; f unicles 1-2 are suffused with yellowish ; the funicle 
joints are all subquadrate, 5 largest, twice the size of i.; the club lacks the 
small terminal nipple; and the tips of the tibiae are but obscurely pale. 
Otherwise the same. Types compared. Clypeus as in Trydymus. 

From one female, Glenndale, Prince George Co., Md. 

Type: Catalogue No. 20,316, U. S. N. M., the female on a tag, the head 
on a slide. 

The species marylandicus bears one very thin ring- joint. The 
scutellum in both bears a pitted but delicate cross-suture near 
apex. 



Oct., 1916 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 89 

A CHECKLIST OF THE HEMIPTERA. 

The long expected Check-list of the Hemiptera, upon which E. P. Van 
Duzee has been working for many years, was published during the past 
summer by the New York Entomological Society. It covers 2,971 re- 
corded species, but omits the Aphidse, Aleurodidse, and Coccidse, and it 
replaces two existing checklists. While pretending only to be a checklist, 
it gives a fairly complete synonymy, full localities of species, and is ar- 
ranged in proper order of species as they should be placed. 

It is not the province of this Bulletin to print an extended review of 
this work (such has appeared already in many entomological periodicals). 
It is a necessity to all those interested in the Hemiptera, and in the in- 
terest of advancement of science the editor of the Bulletin will forward 
it to all wishing it, at the published price, $1.50, postpaid. 



THE RHYNCHOPHORA OF EASTERN NORTH AMERICA. 

It is remarkable that, considering the great output of books on Ento- 
mology during the last forty years and that a pluraHty of our Entomolo- 
gists favor the beetles as objects of study, no good 'general or at all 
comprehensive work on the subject has ever been issued in this country. 
Even a check-list has been out of print for years. The best is the Beetles 
of Indiana by W. S. Blatchley, formerly Indiana State Entomologist, 
an excellent work which covers the state well and is fairly workable for 
the country north of Florida and east of the Rockies. This book is 
still in print, costing $6 plus postage. It omits the weevils. 

In 1910 Mr. Blatchley began work on a new volume to cover Rhyn- 
cophora. A little later Mr. Chas. W. Leng, then President of the New 
York Entomological Society, began work on the American Museum col- 
lection, with a bi-weekly class of enthusiasts, with the idea of an eventual 
Monograph on the local Rhyncophora. The two authors combined their 
efforts, the result being the Rhyncophora of North Eastern America, pp. 
682, published last month by the Nature Publishing Co., 1558 Park Ave., 
Indianapolis, Ind. It includes 1,084 species, of which 83 are new. The 
illustrations are 155, which is many more than have been previously 
gathered together. There is a key to every genus for identification of the 
species. Price $4 plus postage. 

There is little doubt that the book will remain the authority on the 
subject for many years. It is a necessity to the Entomologist. Ed. 



90 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XI 

PROCEEDINGS OF THE BROOKLYN ENTOMOLOGICAL 

SOCIETY. 

Meeting of February ii, 1916. — Fifteen members and three visitors 
present. The resignation of Mr. G. Beyer was accepted with the sincere 
regrets of the Society; Mr. Frank E. Watson also resigned. Long Island 
records : Bellura gortynides, three specimens from Long Island, ex Joutel 
collection, were shown by Mr. G. P. Engelhardt. This species is said to 
breed in cat tails; he had not been able to find it there, but he did find 
Sphida ohliqua, which breed in pond-lily root-stocks, the former breeding 
in pickerel weed. It had not been found in Long Island because not 
sought for in the proper places. In the Middle States and Ohio the 
larvae are reported to be used for fish bait. The presence of the insect in 
the root-stocks can be detected by the oozy matter from the burrows. 
It is rare around New York. Mr. Funaro reported Trechus borealis 
from North Beach. 

Scientific Programme : Mr. Davis showed specimens of Long Island In- 
sects from his last summer's captures, his remarks being reported else- 
where in the Bulletin. Mr. R. P. Dow, for Mr. Alonzo Davis, of Pasa- 
dena, California, read a paper on the Genus Pleocoma, which was pub- 
lished in the Bulletin. Mr. Olsen showed a collection of Miridae and 
made remarks on occurrence, to be published later. 

Meeting of March 16: Present thirteen members and four visitors. Mr. 
B. Preston Clark was elected to membership. 

Scientific Programme: Mr. Ernest Shoemaker, under the head of Insects 
Collected Last Summer, showed the more interesting of his captures in 
Washington, D. C, and in the Catskill Mountains, N. Y. The Coleoptera 
included such interesting species as Scaphinotus shoemakeri, Cychrus 
■stenostomus, Pasimachus depressus, Myas coracinus, Helluomorpha nigri- 
pennis, Pterostichus purpuratus, Coptodera aerata, Chalcolepidius viridi- 
pennis, Clerus ichneumoneus, Leptura americana, probably the first taken 
in Washington; Odontota hornii, Odontonyx trivittis, Piesocorynus dispar, 
Merinus laevis, Strongylium terminatum, Cychrus pyrsolepis, a very rare 
form, determined by Mr. C. Schaeffer; and Athous scapularis; in Lepi- 
doptera Catocala carissima was taken September 24, and Arctia virgo and 
Cerura multiscripta. These were all taken in Washington. The principal 
Catskill species were Smerinthus astarte, Cerafomia undulosa, Marumba 
modesta and Limenitis arthemis. 

Mr. Bueno, speaking on The Flat Bugs (Aradidae) of Long Island, 
showed ^4 out of the 30 species that should be found, but only 5 were 
actual captures in the district, the rare Aradus shermani, the common and 
widespread pine species we call A. cinnamomeus of Panzer, the uncommon 
A. uniformis, picked up on the tide line in the wash-up on Fire Island 
Beach; A. falleni and Neuroctenus simplex, very common under the bark 
of dead oak saplings. 



Oct., igi6 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 91 

Mr. A. C. Weeks spoke on " Limitations of Mosquito and Fly Examina- 
tion," and reviewed the work since its inception and the pubHcation of the 
Lamhorn Essays with copious citations from current accounts. 

Meeting of April 13 : Present thirteen members and two visitors. 

Scientific Programme: Mr. Engelhardt read a paper on The Spring and 
Fall Canker Worms, published in this volume of the Bulletin. Mr. F. 
Conrad Pasch exhibited a collection of local and Arizona beetles, among 
the 200 species being many by no means common forms. Mr. Dow, under 
the title Bits of Entomological History, spoke of the simplicity and con- 
venience of our scientific names, so often a stumbling block to the be- 
ginner. He maintained that they were more easy to understand than any 
English equivalent might be and cited examples to demonstrate this. 

Meeting of May 11: Present fourteen members. 

The death of Mrs. Geo. Franck was announced and on motion the 
Corresponding Secretary was instructed to express to our old friend Mr. 
Franck the sincere sympathy of the Society on the loss he had sustained 
and its appreciation of his many kindnesses to its members. 

Long Island records : Mr. Engelhardt reported the capture on April 21st, 
of Cicindela scutellaris, modesta and rugifrons, at Cold Spring Harbor. 
On May 9, Menedes insertus was taken on the trunk of a maple. Mr. 
Olsen remarked that the previous records of this insect were from speci- 
mens found in the tide-line wash-up. Mr. Dow reported Euphoria areata 
from Lahaway, N. J., and stated that Mr. Joutel had reported it from 
Aqueduct, Long Island ; he also found Tricrania sanguinipennis at Laha- 
way in company with Tettix. Mr. Schaefifer reported a capture by Mr. 
F. M. Schott, of Derinestes pulcher at South Amboy, N. J. 

Scientific Programme: Mr. W. T. Davis and Mr. W. T. Bather spoke 
on Collecting in the Sunny South, where Mr. Davis found Banasa packardi 
on cedars. Mr. Bather related various experiences and reported Ettmaeus 
atala abundant on Spanish bayonet. Messrs Englehardt, Schott and Davis 
dismiss the general subject of collecting in the South. 

Meeting of June 15 : Present eighteen members and one visitor. Mr. 
Dow, reporting on a trip to Lahaway, referred to the frost belt 15 miles 
long and 4 miles wide, which makes the locality unique and gives it a 
peculiar fauna and flora. 

Long Island records : Mr. Wasmuth reported Sphinx chersis at East 
New York in August, 1915, a species not previously taken on the Island. 
Mr. Weeks reported the capture of Pasimachus depressus a week before. 

Scientific Programme: Mr. C. E. Olsen, under the title Membracid 
Notes, showed a collection of the family and made remarks on their 
occurrence in New York. Micrutalis xalva, an uncommon species, was 
among this material, from Flushing, L. I. 

Mr. Bueno spoke on The Non-Gerrine Water Striders of New York 
and showed the five species of these found about New York, which are 
Naeogeus hurmeisteri, heretofore known as pusillus, which is a European 



92 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XI 

form not known here; a new species of the same genus from Yaphank, 
L. I.; Merragata hehroides; Mesovelia bisignata of Uhler, or, mulsanti, 
B. White is another common species, like Hydrometra martini. Macro- 
velia horni from California was shown, and Hydrometra australis, from 
Georgia. The only thing that binds this heterogenous assemblage together 
is the fact that they live on or near water, in damp places. Otherwise, 
they differ greatly in form and other characters. 

Mr. Franck reported Cicindela strigosa from St. Petersburg, Fla. 

J. R. DE LA ToRRE-BuENo, Recording Secretary. 



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Vol. XI 



DECEMBER, 1916 



No. 5 



BULLETIN 

OF THE 

Brooklyn Entomological 
Society 



NEW SERIES 



^^mi^Q 



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PUBLICATION COMMITTEE 

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Published by the Society 
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CONTENTS. 

PRONUNCIATION OF INSECT NAMES, Melander 93 

VESPA AUSTRIACA IN NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES, 

Bequaert loi 

TWO NEW SPECIES OF CEBRIO, Schaeffer 107 

KEY TO MALES OF HYDROTAEA, Malloch 108 

NEW SPECIES OF PARASITIC HYMENOPTERA, Girault .... in 

NOTICE: SARCOPHAGA, Aldrich 113 

LIVING PUP^ FOR SALE 114 



BULLETIN 

OF THE 

BROOKLYN ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

Vol. XI December, 1916 No. 5 

THE PRONUNCIATION OF INSECT NAMES.* 

By a. L. Melander, Pullman, Washington 

In any assemblage of biologists one can hear a given species 
called by a range of names, all spelled alike, that is eclipsed only 
by the changes in the names themselves necessitated by adherence 
to the law of priority. The tiger beetle, for example, is spoken 
of as Cuindela,'\ Cigindela, Cicindela or Cicindela, according as 
one is trained in Germany, France, America, or is untrained. 
There is a right and a wrong way of doing things, as applicable 
to the pronunciation of scientific names as elsewhere. European 
trained entomologists are more consistent in their pronunciations 
than the average American, undoubtedly due to the greater em- 
phasis placed on orthography during their school career than is 
encountered here. However, the pronunciation of foreigners, 
though correct from their viewpoint, is not the standard in Amer- 
ica, and this article is written to call attention to some of the 
simpler rules governing the proper articulation of the names of 
insects. 

According to the universally accepted rules of nomenclature the 
names of insects are Latin in construction. Custom has decreed 
that generic names be formed from Greek roots changed into 

* Contribution from the Zoological Laboratory of the State College of 
Washington. Read at the summer session of the Entomological Society 
of America at Berkeley, California, August 4, 1915. 

t In this discussion the accented syllable is marked with a grave accent 
(') for a long vowel and with an acute accent (') for a short vowel. 
Unaccented short vowels are indicated by a breve (") and unaccented 
long vowels by a macron (") ; 3 indicates the sound of k and g the sound 
of s ; a as in father. 

93 



94 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XI 

Latin form and used as nouns to be modified by the species names 
used as Latin adjectives. Not infrequently, however, species 
names are derived directly from the Greek, as micro ptera, short- 
winged, instead of parvipennis, erythrurus, red-tailed, in place of 
rufocaudatus, xanthopoda, yellow-legged, in place of flavipes, etc., 
and sometimes, now not considered in good form, the names of 
species are merely euphonious combinations of letters. The Eng- 
lish entomologist, Francis Walker, was especially prone to use 
words of no meaning but of pleasing sound, both for his genera 
and species, such as Syndyas, Andxo, Edeta, Amytis, Daria. 
Such species terms are generally construed as neo-Latm proper 
nouns in apposition with the substantive generic name, by which 
construction they are ascribed an adjectival function. Ordinal 
and family names are in form Greek plurals. Thus we mention 
one Orthopteron, two Orthoptera; one Muscid fly but several 
Muscidse. However, as cited in binomial nomenclature, all insect 
names, irrespective of origin, are considered as Latin and are gov- 
erned by the rules of Latin pronunciation, which are fewer, 
simpler and more definite than the rules for English pronunciation. 
There are three methods in vogue for the pronunciation of 
Latin, the Roman, the English and the Continental methods. The 
first of these is at least an approximation to the ancient pronun- 
ciation of the language and although taught in many if not most 
of our schools is almost never used in biological pronunciation. 
By this method, with its broad vowels and hard consonants, we 
would say Cieindela, €ieindelidce, Chcetdpsis, Geotrupes, CE can- 
thus* The Continental method retains the Roman pronunciation 
of the vowels and diphthongs but gives the consonants as they are 
used in English, thus : (^igindela, Cigindelidce, ChcBtopsis, Geo- 
triipes, CEcdnthus. This method likewise is not in vogue in this 
country for biological pronunciation. As scientific names in the 
dififerent countries usually follow the pronounciation of the lan- 
guage of the region, in America the English method of speaking 
Latin has naturally been applied. Accordingly the genera pre- 
viously cited sound more familiar when called Cieindela, Chcetop- 
sis, Geotrupes and CEcdnthus. 

* Pronounced as if spelled with the English letters Ke-kin-da-ld, 
Ke-kln-da-le-di, Ki-top-ces, Gd-o-tru-pas, Oi-cdn-thoos. 



Dec.,i9i6 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 95 

It is immaterial which system of pronunciation be adopted by 
the American entomologist and the following illustrations may be 
sounded to suit his pleasure. The careful student, however, will 
endeavor to place the accent on the proper syllable and to assign 
to the vowels their proper quantity. The following remarks are 
directed mainly toward the accentuation of generic names. Spe- 
cific names are mostly pure Latin and can be found. in any Latin 
dictionary, but the names of genera, being compounded usually 
from several roots, are less familiarly available. 

Syllabication. As many syllables are required as there are 
vowels and diphthongs, the consonants being distributed as far 
as possible so that each syllable ends in a vowel. Should this 
result in unpronounceable combinations or interfere with the 
proper sounding of the vowels the consonents may require shift- 
ing. Ci-cin-de-la, ChcB-top-sis, Ge-o-tru-pes, Po-da-hrus, SphcE- 
roph-thdl-ma; but Ol-i-hrus, not 0-li-hrus. 

The Roman and Continental methods divide compounded words 
into their constituent parts when the first part ends in a consonant, 
but this is not followed in English pronunciation. Chcet-opsis, 
Sphcer-ophthalma, Pod-urus, Sphec-odes. 

The family termination -i-dse is treated as an independent suf- 
fix even though such isolation sometimes modifies the sound of 
the preceding vowel. Psy-che, Psych-idse; Pi-e-ris, Pi-er-idse ; 
Chry-so-me-la, Chry-so-mel-idse ; A-pis, Ap-idae. However, there 
is abundant, though not consistent, sanction for such pronuncia- 
tions as Psy-chidse, Pie-ridse, Chrysome-lidse, A-pidse. 

Accent. . Polysyllabic names are accented on the penult if that 
syllable is long in quantity, otherwise on the antepenult. Dissyl- 
labic names are always accented on the first syllable. Ar-gyn-nis, 
Ba-si-ldr-chi-a, Mor-pho. 

Quantity. The quantity of a syllable, and of a vowel also, 
measures the time occupied in pronunciation. A syllable, irre- 
spective of its vowel, is long in quantity if its vowel is followed 
by two consonants, excepting a mute (b, c, d, g, k, p, q, t) plus a 
liquid (1, r) or by the double consonants x or z. In this case the 
syllable is long by position, but its vowel is properly pronounced 
short. Coccinella, CyUster, Brydxis, Platypeza. A syllable is 



96 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XI 

long by nature if it contains a long vowel or a diphthong. Anatis, 
Formica, Hyloccetus, Panag^us. 

A syllable is short in quantity if its vowel, not naturally long, 
is followed by another vowel. Alaus, Ddnaus, Ldsius, Leria. 

A syllable is common, i. e., it may be considered either long or 
short, if its vowel, originally short, is followed by a mute and a 
liquid. Such syllables by preference should be shortened, but in 
Latin composition especially in poetry they show a tendency 
toward lengthening. Though comparatively few in number, it 
is this class of words that gives most perplexity to the entomolo- 
gist, for until the original quantity of the vowel is known the pro- 
nunciation is doubtful. Phdlacrus, Olibrus, Connophron, Rd- 
natra, Omophron, Ephydra, Hydrometra, Anahrus, Atropos, Hdli- 
plus, Geometra, Nicocles, Triprocris, Cuterehra, all have a short 
vowel in the penult and the accent is thrown forward. Cehrio, 
Crdhro, Epdchra, Gymnetron and Tenebrio are given a long 
vowel before the mute and liquid, while Arthromacra may 
lengthen the penult for easier pronunciation. 

Vowels. In most cases vowels are given their customary long 
or short English sounds without regard to the niceties of intona- 
tion required in spoken English. However certain letters and 
certain positions exercise a modifying effect, as for instance the 
influence of the letter r on the preceding vowel in Arthrdpeas, 
Elater, Platygdster, Morpho, Phdra. 

Vowels, irrespective of the length of the syllable, usually have 
their long English sounds before another vowel or diphthong. 
Empodsca, Edis, Epeolus, Herlades, Heplalus. When occurring 
in an unaccented or short syllable i and y are given the short 
sound even when preceding another vowel. Bihio, Bembidmm, 
Chdlia, Drasterius, Meldndrya. Final a and usually unaccented 
a are broadened to sound like the final a in Africa. Nomadd, 
Aedes. 

Diphthongs in quantity are always long, thus when occurring 
in the penult carry the accent. Passalcecus, Cori'mel&na, Zar^a. 
In quality, se and oe are pronounced like e. ^geria, Mschna, 
CEcdnthus, CEdicnema, Polystdechotes. 

Vowels usually have their short English sounds before two con- 
sonants, excepting sometimes a mute and a liquid, and in ac- 



Dec.,i9i6 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 97 

cented antepenultimate syllables before one or more consonants. 
Geocoris, Gomphus, Macrobasis. 

The first factor determining the length of the vowel is its quan- 
tity in the original derivation. In the case of e and o of Greek 
roots this is readily accomplished for the long and short sounds 
in Greek are indicated by distinct letters, eta and epsilon, and 
omega and omicron. If the Greek root contains eta or omega 
the vowel in Latin form must be long. Thus meros with long e 
means the femur and meros with short e means a part. The 
genera derived from the former must be accented on the long 
penult. Calyptomerus, Diapheromera, CEdomera, Monodonto- 
merus, Rhopalomera, Acanthomera. The divisions of beetles, 
Heteromera, Pentdmera, Trimera, founded on tarsal not femoral 
characters, and the genus Olig6m,erus, with few antennal joints, 
accent the antepenult, while Ephemera, lasting but a day, is an un- 
related word with short e in the penult. 

Soma, meaning body, has a long omega in the original ; stoma, 
meaning mouth, is spelled with the short omicron. Thus Brachy- 
sdma, Calosdma, Scaphisdma, but BrachyMoma, Belostoma, Platy- 
stowxi. 

The Greek word keras, for antenna, is spelled with the short e. 
Thus, in A croc era, B cede era, Criocerus, Heterocerus, Tetanocera, 
the accent is thrown to the antepenult. But the wasp Cerceris, 
appropriating the old Latin name of a bird, takes the accent on 
the long e of the penult. 

It is the quantity of the vowel of the penult that gives most 
concern because the position of the accent is determined by its 
length. 

Apantesis, Calephelis, Caloptenus, Cyllene, Periplaneta, Lepto- 
trachelus, Euthera, Philerem^us, Phylloxera, Odynerus, Meta- 
chela, and Zeusera are derived from the long Greek eta in the 
penult, while Boreus, Cartodere and Diaperis descend from the 
diphthong ei. Hence all of these have similar accent. 

Emesa, Thereva, Eiimenes, Nemotelus, Ormenis, Oxyhelus, 
Pdderus, Polymedon, Phryganea, Platy dema, Hypostena and 
Sepedon, to mention only a few commonly mispronounced names, 
have the short epsilon in this position and hence throw the accent 
forward to the antepenult. 



98 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XI 

Properly^ words ending in -peza are pronounced with a short e. 
Micropsia, Plaiypesa, Tanypeza, Leptopesa. Since in EngHsh 
pronunciation z is no longer the double consonant dz, these words 
are commonly though improperly given as Micropeza, Platypeza, 
Tanypeza. In the same group comes Trioza, but usage has made 
the vowel as well as the syllable long in Chyliza, Pipiza, Myzus 
and its series of related -myza genera, hke Agromyza, Antho- 
myza, Helomyza, Phytomyza, and Sciomyza. 

Narnes ending in -opus give some confusion until the deriva- 
tion is known, ops means face, but pous, with root pod, means 
foot. CEddpa Psildpa, Systrdpus, Cixldpa, Chrysdpa, Desmome- 
topa come from the former root, while CEdopus, P silo pus, DoU- 
chopus, Bythoscopus, Platypus, Polycentropus and Gyropus are 
names referring to leg structures. 

The following generic names are formed with the long Greek 
omega in the accented syllable. Diabrotica, Diplosis, Melanotus, 
Haplda, Prionus, Sitdnes, Cyrtopdgon. Names ending in -odes 
have an accented penult. Aleyrddes, Eleodes, Oncodes, Or- 
neddes, Melissddes, Phengodes. 

The short omicron occurs in the penult of : Agrotis, Chirono- 
mus, Dendroctonus, Omophron, Pericoma, Pleocoma, Pyrochroa, 
Stenolophus, Synchroa, Merodon, Toxotus, Neocota, Xyleborus, 
Xylocopa. Similarly coris (bug) and toma (temno, cut) throw 
the accent forward : Geocoris, Leptdcoris, Thyreocoris; Hylo- 
toma, Neurotoma, Pentdtoma, Tritoma. 

The diphthong oi is not found in classic Latin although it is 
good Greek, Hence when it is brought into Latin form in proper 
names derived from the Greek the o and i should be separately 
pronounced. Hence Culicoides, Sanninoidea, Blattoidea and 
Coleopteroidea are preferable to pronouncing the oi as in coin. 

A class of genera, the pronunciation of which is disputed, in- 
cludes those founded on personal proper names. Should the 
pronunciation of the genus name follow Latin rules, thereby often 
distorting the proper name so as to bear little resemblance to its 
original form, or should the original pronunciation, even of 
foreign names, be retained? In as much as such genera are 
founded as a mark of honor the latter course seems preferable. 
Some examples follow to show the difficulties experienced with 



Dec, 1916 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 99 

these names: Bruesia, Candesea, Dejeania, Guerinia, Latreillia, 
Macquartia, Meigenia, Rondania, Schineria, Schonherria, Scud- 
deria, Stalia. 

As we have seen the quantity of the radical syllables can often 
not be determined by rule and must be ascertained by the labori- 
ous process of searching Greek and Latin dictionaries. Certain 
terminations, however, have a common pronunciation, and when 
used as derivative endings, not as part of the root, give a clew as 
to accent. 

Thus the long penult occurs in : 

-etes, -etus, -etis. 

CoUetes, Corynetes, Colymbetes, Nomaretus, Trypeta, 
Eutreta, Syneta, Lithe colletis. (But Drdpetis.) 
-ites, -ita, -itis. 

JEgialites, Myodltes, Rhodltes, Rhinchltes, SphcErltes, Ne- 
hritus, Coptodita, Galenta, Omoslta, Trogoslta, Dorltis, 
Limenltis, Pyrltis. 
-odes, -oda. 

Aleyrodes, Oncodes, Orneddes, Pissodes, Psychoda, Lyroda. 
-otus, -otes, -ota, -otis. 

Chrysotus, Odontota, Pyrgota, Xylota, Chyphotes, Luciddta, 
■ Plusidtis. 
-anus. 

Lucanus, Silvanus, Tabanus. (These are of Latin origin. 
The Greek Stephanus, Drepana, Idana, have a short penult. 
Chrysophanus has a long penult from the Greek phaino.) 
The short penult occurs in : 
-ulus, -ula. 

Pipunculus, Plenoculus, Forficula, Libellula, Nitidula, Tipula. 
-olus, -ola. 

Epeolus, Mayetlola, Reduvlolus, Tineola. (Minedla is ap- 
parently an Indian name.) 
-alus, -ela. 

Anowiala, Hdrpalus, Lidncalus, TAhalus Cistela Riitela 
(Latin, rutilis) . Hepialus is in Greek Hepiolos and belongs 
in the preceding section. In Pteromalus and Catocala the 
long a belongs to the stem. 



100 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XI 

-ales, -alis, -eles. 

Anopheles, Cefopales, Corydalis, Eristalis, Eupsalis, Pyralis, 
Ortalis, Slalis. But -alis used in species names accents the 
penult : farinalis, discalis, purpuralis. Nocheles, Apdn- 
teles, Lophoteles, Conotelus have a short e of the root in 
the penultimate syllable. 
-ides, -iades. 

Herlades, Dalcerides, Mystdcides, Nisomades. But Iphi- 
clldes, from the Greek Iphikleides, according to a special 
rule affecting patronymics ending in -es (Iphiklees). 
-ion. 

Agrion, Apion, Chldrion, Elaphidion, Ophion, Zodion. But 
Diprion (prion, saw). When such words come directly 
into English from the Greek the penult is pronounced long, 
e. g. Orion. 
-arus, -aris. 

Afnara, Hilara, Sciara, Chdlarus, Cdntharis, Hemaris. In^ 
Trichobaris the long a belongs to the stem. 
-eva. 

Thereva, Choleva, Lest eva, Atteva. 
-ica. 

Hdltica, Serica, Podagrica, Tomicus. 

Names ending in -inus, -ina are perplexing. Among the most 
familiar the following have a long penult : Balaninus, Blapstlnus, 
Brachlnus, Carposina, Clivina, Gyrlnus, Hcematopinus, Harrislna, 
Lycoperdlna, MeUlnus, Peleclnus, Saprinus, Staphyllnus. The 
Latin name Licmus and the Greek forms Cerdtina, Scenopinus, 
Thinopinus, Xantholinus, Tdchina and Tdchinus have the penult 
short. Subfamily and tribal names ending in -inse, -ini, have a 
long penult ; thus, Carabinge, Harpalini. 

The following list includes a miscellaneous set of names often 
mispronounced: Ancylis, Anthicus, Antisplla, Brachystegus, 
Callgo, Callidryas, Calligrapha, Ceropales, Cucujus, Chauliogna- 
thus, Cheldnus, Chermes, Schizoneura (Greek ch is always like 
k), Coecinella, Dlplax, Emesa, Endomychus, Erdtylus, Eudamus, 
Eurema, Eikrymus, Feniseca, Graptolitha, Hippodamia, Hypatus, 
Icerya, Lagda, Lepidosaphes, Lophyrus, Lymexylon, Macrdphya, 



Dec, 1916 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 101 

Megaspilus, Megathymus, Mycetochares, Myrmlca, Nemdtus^ 
Nemognatha, Nomada, O post eg a, Oxyptilus, Pachybrachys, 
Paledcrita, Pemphigus, Pleris, Ponera, Sitotrdga, Stenoma, Sys- 
tena, Tachyporus, Tetracha, Trypoxylon, Typhldcyha, Ypsolophus. 

The family termination -idse, meaning like, is added to the root 
of the typical genus. The i is short, so the accent precedes this 
suffix: Carabidse, Cdrabus-like; Dytiscidas, Dytiscus-like. When 
the root differs from the nominative the family name may become 
lengthened : Lepismatidas, based on the genus Lepisma; Belosto- 
matidse, based on Belostom^a; Calamocerotidse, based on Calamo- 
cerus. But Apioceridae, Leptoceridse, Tetanoceridas have had' 
such long usage that to use Apioceratidse, etc., would appear 
pedantic. Genera like Acridium, Anthomyia, Cecidomyia and 
Stratiomyia form the family names Acridiidse, Anthomyiidse,, 
Cecidomyiidse and Stratiomyiidse. To unite the ii would produce 
a long vowel, resulting in such words as Acrididae, Anthomyidse,. 
Cecidomyidse, more awkward than the cumbersome longer form. 

Finally, in determining the pronunciation, the most useful 
single rule, especially for those familiar with spoken Spanish,, 
is to regard the accent as recessive, considering the penultimate 
vowel as short unless there is good reason for believing it long. 



ON THE OCCURRENCE OF VESPA AUSTRIACA PANZER 
IN THE NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES. 

By J. Bequaert, American Museum of Natural History, N. Y.. 

There are many facts in the taxonomy and still more in the Hfe- 
histories of the common American wasps (Vespa) which need a 
thorough revision. The following small contribution is made- 
with the hope of interesting other entomologists in the subject. 
During the last summer, the writer made a point of capturing all 
the specimens of wasps he met with on his collecting trips, but 
the result as a whole was very poor, 1916 apparently not being a 
wasp-year. However, amongst the catch were found two females 
which he was unable to refer to any of the species previously^ 



102 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XT 

known from North America and it was found that they belonged 
to what is called in Europe Vespa austriaca Panzer. 

The following description of the species is made on these two 
American specimens: 

Vespa austriaca Panzer, Fauna Ins. German. LXIII, 1799, p. 2, Tab. 

Synonyms : Vespa horealis Smith, The Zoologist, I, 1843, p. 170 $ (nee 
Kirby, 1873; nee Lewis, 1897). 
i Vespa arhorea Smith, The Zoologist, VII, 1849, Appendix, p. LX. 

Pseudovespa austriaca O. Schmiedeknecht, Entom. Nachr. VII, 1881^ 
pp. 317 and 318. 

'?. Head slightly broader than high. Clypeus comparatively high, 
scarcely one third broader than high, its anterior margin much projecting, 
distinctly emarginate, the lateral angles of the emargination strongly pro- 
duced, almost dentate and slightly directed outwardly. Oculo-malar space 
very short, the eyes practically reaching the base of the mandibles. 
Mandibles relatively slender, when compared with other species. Tarsi 
distinctly heavily built, the joint's are as broad as in other species but 
much shorter. Horizontal face of first abdominal tergite comparatively 
long and narrow, about half as long as the second tergite. — Punctura- 
iion remote and fine on head and thorax; especially on the clypeus there 
is, in this respect, a marked difference between this and related species. 
Oh the mandibles also the sculpture is very obsolete. — The whole body is 
■covered with erected black hairs, which are very noticeable on the abdo- 
men. Upper side of all the tibia clothed with very long erect hairs, more 
abundantly so on the hind legs. 

Coloration. — Black with many pale lemon-yeilow markings : a broad loz- 
enge on the front between the ant'ennse, the under half of the sinus of 
the eyes, a large spot in the upper half and a much smaller one near the 
under end of the temples (behind the eyes), nearly the whole of the 
mandibles, the clypeus except for its margins and 3 small black spots 
placed in a triangle on the center. In one specimen, the underside of the 
antennal scape bears a short and narrow yellow stripe; in the other, the 
scape is entirely black. — On the thorax, the lateral hind-margins of the 
pronotum are broadly yellow, as are also two widely separated spots on 
the scutellum and a smaller one on the upper half of the mesopleurae 
beneath the insertion of the wings. Tegulse, yellow and brownish. — On 
the legs, the apices of the femora, the tibiae, with exception of a black 
stripe on the under side, and the tarsi are yellow, this color, however, 
turning in certain parts brownish. — First abdominal tergite with a broad 
apical yellow margin, in front of which are situated, on the transition 
between the horizontal and vertical portion, two transverse, entirely free, 
yellow spots. The remaining segments are, for the largest part, yellow; 
there is a basal black band which is angularly produced in the center, and 
on each side of this angle a transverse black spot; on the second tergite 



Dec.,i9i6 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 103 

the basal black band is much broader and its angular projection extends 
backwards as to be connected with the lateral spots. Sixth tergite yellow 
with a broad brown apex and a median longitudinal black band. Sternites 
two arid three with a terminal black fascia which is much broadened on 
the sides and encloses there a transverse black spot; the fourth and 
fifth tergites show also an indication of a similar pattern. The colora- 
tion of the abdomen is not mixed with brownish, except on the ventral 
face, where there is a slight brownish tinge on the boundaries between the 
black and yellow markings. 

Length : total, i6 mm. ; from front of head to posterior margin of second 
segment', 12 mm. 

2 $ from Fort Lee, N. J., July 16, 1916. — Professor J. S. Hine has 
shown me a third $ specimen which was caught by him the same day on 
Staten Island, N. Y., on flowers of sumach (Rhus typhina L.) 

Except for the difference in the color of the antennal scape 
noted above, these three specimens agree in every respect. I was 
also able to compare them with a Vespa austriaca 5 from Switzer- 
land, for which I am indebted to the generosity of the well-known 
French hymenopterologist, Mr. J. de Gaulle. In sculpture, struc- 
ture and pubescence I can discover no difference between the 
European and the American specimens. The coloration also is 
very similar in the European 5^ the black spots on the clypeus 
are very small, the underside of the antennal scape has a broader 
yellow stripe, the postscutellum bears two minute lateral yellow 
spots and the ventral face of the abdomen is richer yellow. How- 
ever, coloration is a very secondary matter in the wasps, and it is 
well known that English specimens of F. austriaca are paler in 
color than those of Continental Europe. 

Vespa austriaca Panzer is not closely related to any other 
American species, its nearest relative being the European Vespa 
rufa L. Of the latter species I have never seen a North Amer- 
ican specimen in any of the collections I was able to look over. 
R. du Buysson (1905), however, describes of this species a var. 
intermedia from Hudson Bay, and a var. americana from Quebec, 
I am inclined to believe that these American specimens belong to 
Vespa consobrina Sauss., which, although very different in col- 
oration, is very probably the American race or subspecies of 
Vespa rufa L. 

Vespa austriaca comes in the group of species with short oculo- 



104 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XI 

malar spaces, where the eyes reach very nearly to the base of the 
mandibles. This group includes, in North America: V. Caro- 
lina L., V. sulphurea L., V. vidua Sauss., V. consobrina Sauss., V. 
occidentalis Cress., V. pennsylvanica Sauss.* and also the common 
yellow- jacket, Vespa communis Sauss.f All these, however, dif- 
fer from V. austriaca inter alia by the absence of long hairs on 
the upper side of the tibisej and very often also by the shape 
of the clypeus, which in most of the species has broadly rounded 
lateral angles. 

V. austriaca Pz, is a very scarce wasp in Europe. It was re- 
corded from Switzerland, the Vosges, Southern Germany, West- 
ern Austria, near St. Petersburg, Southern Sweden, the Pyrenees, 
Upper Italy, and the British Islands, and shows a marked pref- 
erence for mountainous regions where it goes as high as i,8oo 
meters. J. Perez records a J* from Shang Hai. 

The life-history and even the identity of this wasp was long a 
puzzle; early writers thought it to be only a color-variation of 
Vespa rufa L, Giraud (1862) was the first to point out the struc- 
tural differences between the two forms, and since that time V. 
austriaca has generally been accepted as distinct. Curiously 
enough, R. du Buysson, in his recent Monograph of the genus 
Vespa (1905), returns to the older opinion and gives austriaca 
merely as a variety of rufa, although he indicates the character- 
istics of both forms. 

Owing to some very remarkable biological facts, the question 
of the relationship of F. austriaca to V. rufa (or to other species 
of wasps) goes far beyond the usual interest of discussions as to 
species and varieties. Though both J* and $ of F. austriaca are 

* I came recently to the conclusion that Vespa occidentalis Cresson and 
V. pennsylvanica Sauss. are two very distinct species. R. du Buysson 
(1905) brings them together as synonyms. 

t This species is commonly identified as V. vulgaris L. or V. germanica 
F. in American collections. I have seen no American specimens which 
correspond exactly to these European species. Moreover, V. communis 
Sauss. is apparently the American race or sub-species of V. vulgaris L. 
In a similar manner, V. pennsylvanica Sauss. (but not V. occidentalis 
Cresson) may be a subspecies of V. germanica F. 

X These long hairs on the tibiae exist in all the American species with 
long oculo-malar spaces, such as V. maculata L., V. diabolica Sauss., etc. 



Dec.,i9i6 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 105 

well known to European entomologists, workers referable to it 
with certainty have never been found. So the suspicion arose 
that this species has no workers, but breeds as an inquiline in the 
nest of some other species. This suggestion, first made by Mora- 
witz (1864), was strongly supported by Schmiedeknecht (1881) 
and Holmgren (1883). But it was not until 1898 that direct ob- 
servations, made by Robson, supported the belief of inquiline rela- 
tionship between V. austriaca and V. rufa. However, by far the 
most important paper on the subject was published in 1903 by G. 
H. Carpenter and D. R. Pack-Beresford. These authors not only 
made a complete comparative study of the two forms, but they 
attempted also to become more closely acquainted with the exact 
nature of the relations existing between them. 

In resume, three different opinions may be held as regards the 
relation existing between V. austriaca and V. rufa. 

1. The older opinion, recently renewed by R. du Buysson, sees 
in V. austriaca merely a color- variation of F. rufa. The 5 and 
(^ austriaca have then in the economy of the nest the same stand- 
ing as the ordinary rufa $ and ^. This can hardly be accepted 
any longer, as there are many structural characters separating 
both forms and, furthermore, this does not explain why no 
workers presenting the structural peculiarities of austriaca are 
found. 

2. The inquiline theory as presented by Schmiedeknecht, Rob- 
son and J. Perez (1910) : according to this, V. austriaca is a dis- 
tinct species, whose $ and -^ play in the V. rufa nest the same 
role as the Psithyrus $ and J^ in the Bombus nests. The 5 of 
austriaca invades the nest of a V. rufa, lays its eggs in the cells 
and the hatching larvae are fed by the rufa workers. 

3. The opinion of G. H. Carpenter and D. R. Pack-Beresford 
is in some respects intermediate between the two preceding theo- 
ries. They believe that V. austriaca and V. rufa must have di- 
verged from a common stock in comparatively recent times. They 
add further : " The observations that we have been able to make 
on the nest containing both forms strongly incline us to the view 
that, although their differences are apparently ' specific,' there is a 
direct genetic relationship between them and that they may be re- 
garded as races of one and the same species. . . . We conclude, 



106 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XI 

therefore, that the old austriaca queen was the foundress of the 
nest, and that both the rufa and austriaca form are her offspring. 
... As regards the precise relationship between V. austriaca and 
V. rufa we believe that the former represents the ancestral stock 
of the latter, because V. rufa shows distinctly more tendency to 
vary, while the rarity and discontinuous distribution of V. aus- 
triaca suggest that it is the older form. . . . Moreover, as all the 
workers of these wasps are clearly referable to V. rufa, it seems 
that V. austriaca points us back to a time in the history of the 
race before the worker had become differentiated from the queen." 
The authors believe that, if their view be estabhshed, the develop- 
ment of rufa offspring from austriaca parents would be a very 
striking instance of "discontinuous variation," as the structural 
differences between the two wasps are quite sufficient to warrant 
" specific " distinction in the ordinary sense of the term. 

Unfortunately the facts on which Carpenter and Pack-Beres- 
ford base their theory are very feeble, and they can just as well 
be explained by the ordinary inquiline theory. 

I have given at length the opinions held by different writers, 
because I believe that the discovery of V. austriaca in North 
America may, perhaps, furnish some evidence to support one or 
another of the preceding theories. In fact the sudden appear- 
ance of this species in the New World is in itself well worthy of 
study. It is not likely that this wasp has been overlooked so 
many years in this country, for several of the larger collections 
which I have examined do not contain a single specimen of it. It 
is therefore most probably a recent immigrant from Europe. 
However, the capture of 3 5$, in very fresh condition, in two 
different localities, makes it improbable that these specimens were 
imported as adult insects or even in the pupal stage. I am rather 
inchned to believe that the species is already in some way con- 
nected with one of the American wasps. No supposition as to 
the nature of these relations can be made at present. As seen 
above, direct observation showed in Europe that V. austriaca is 
associated with V. rufa, but the latter insect has never been found 
in the Eastern United States. 



Dec, 1916 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society J 07 

Bibliography. 

R. du Buysson. Monographic des Guepes ou Vespa. Ann. Soc. entom. 

France, LXXII, 1903, pp. 260-288. — Ibid., LXXIII, (1904), 1905, 

pp. 485-556 and 565-634. 
G. H. Carpenter and D. R. Pack-Beresford. The relationship of Vespa 

austriaca to Vespa rufa. Entom. Mo. Magas. (2), XIV, 1903, pp. 

230-242, PI. IV. 
J. Giraud. Hymenopteres recueilHs aux environs de Suse, • en Piemont, 

etc. Verh. k. k. sool. bot. Ges. Wien, XIII, 1863, pp. 11-46. 

E. Holmgren. Entomol, Tidskr. II, 1883, pp. 60 and 115. 

F. Morawitz. Ueber Vespa austriaca Panz. und drei neue Bienen. Bull. 

Soc. Imper. Nat. Moscou, XXXVII, 1864, pp. 439-449. 
J. Perez. Notes sur les Vespides. Actes Soc. Linn. Bordeaux, LXIV, 

1910, pp. 1-20. 
J. E. Robson. Vespa austriaca, a Cuckoo-Wasp. Science Gossip (N. S.), 

V, 1898, pp. 69-73. 
E. Saunders. On the relationship of aculeate inquilines and their hosts. 

Entom. Mo. Magas. (2), XIV, 1903, pp. 272-274, 
O. Schmiedeknecht. Ueber einige deutsche Vespa-Arten. Entom. Nach- 

richt., VII, 1881, pp. 313-318. 
D. Sharp. Vespa rufa -f- austriaca. Entom. Mo. Magas. (2), XIV, 1903, 

pp. 297-299. 



TWO NEW SPECIES OF CEBRIO (COL.). 

By Charles Schaeffer, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Cebrio antennatus new species. — Castaneous, head black or piceous, an- 
tennae, legs and underside paler. Head moderately densely punctate; 
labrum emarginate; mandibles as in hicolor; last two joints of maxillary 
palpi nearly equal in length ; antennae rather strongly serrate, reaching 
to about basal fourth of elytra, third joint about half as long as fourth, 
last joint elongate and feebly constricted. Prothorax transverse, sides 
almost straight, rather feebly converging towards apex, hind angles feebly 
divergent, surface moderately coarsely, not densely punctate. Elytra! 
striae rather feebly impressed; intervals nearly flat and moderately densely 
punctate. Prosternal process hearly as wide between the coxas as in 
bicolor. Abdomen finely, not closely punctate; last ventral more densely 
punctate than the other segments, apex entire and broadly rounded. 
Length 17 mm. 

Arkansas (coll. Dietz). 

This species is closely allied to C. bicolor from which it differs 
in having longer antennae, entire last ventral segment, which is 



108 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XI 

feebly emarginate in hicolor, almost flat intervals and rather 
feebly impressed striae of elytra. 

Cebrio emarginatus new species. — Dark testaceous, head piceous, pro- 
thorax dark brown, abdomen, legs and antennae paler. Head moderately 
densely punctate; labrum deeply triangularly emarginate; mandibles 
rather short and stout; last joint of maxillary palpi shorter than the 
preceding; antennae feebly serrate; joints elongate, third joint about twice 
as long as the second and more than half as long as the fourth. Pro- 
thorax transverse, hind angles not divergent, sides nearly straight,. narrow- 
ing to apex; surface somewhat sparsely punctate, punctures moderate. 
Elytral striae shallow, punctures almost obliterated in about basal half, 
towards apex more distinct; intervals moderately convex, finely and 
moderately closely punctulate. Prosternal process between the coxae rela- 
tively broad and rather suddenly convex. Abdomen finely and sparsely 
punctate; fifth ventral segment rather deeply emarginate. Length 15.5 
mm. 

New Mexico (coll. Dietz). 

The prosternal process in this species is rather wider than in 
hicolor Fab., from which it otherwise differs in having shorter 
mandibles and a much longer third antennal joint; from mandi- 
hularis, estriatus and compositus it differs in having a much 
wider prosternal process. 



A KEY TO THE MALES OF THE ANTHOMYID GENUS 

HYDROT^A RECORDED FROM NORTH AMERICA 

(DIPTERA). 

By J. R. Malloch^ Urbana, 111. 

There js a pronounced dearth of literature in English, upon the 
North American Anthomyiidse, and remarkably few keys to the 
species of the various genera in either English or German. The 
key presented herewith will prove useful to students who either 
can not obtain access to papers dealing with the species included 
or may not have time to analyze descriptions in order to discover 
the distinguishing characters of the species. 

The males of this genus may be readily separated from those 
of other anthomyid genera by the following combination of char- 
acters : eyes contiguous or subcontiguous, proboscis fleshy; palpi 



Dec.,i9i6 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 109 

normal ; thorax with 4 pairs of post-sutural dorso-central bristles ; 
squamae unequal in size ; sternopleura with 2 bristles (1:1) ; sixth 
vein of wing incomplete ; fore femora with i or 2 stout f orwardly 
directed thorns near apices on ventral surface. 

Key to Imagines, Males. 

1. Hind femora with either a single stout downwardly directed spine or 

a closely approximated pair of such spines on ventral surface 2 

Hind femora without such spine or spines 6 

2. Hind femoral spine near base 3 

Hind femoral spine or spines near middle. 4 

3. Hind tibia with a conspicuous tuft of long hairs about one third from 

apex on ventral surface occulta Meigen. 

Hind tibia without such tuft of hairs ; mid metatarsus with about 4 
long hairs on each side acuta Stein. 

4. Eyes bare ; fore femora with a few long bristles on basal half, the 

apices of which are slightly knobbed; hind femora with i spine. 

armipes Fallen. 
Eyes distinctly pubescent; fore femora with the bristles acute apically. .5 

5. Mid femora with a number of long curled apical bristles; hind femora 

with I ventral spine ciliata Fabricius. 

Mid femora without long curled apical bristles ; hind femora with a 
closely approximated pair of ventral spines cressoni Malloch. 

6. Wing with a conspicuous patch of upright microscopic hairs at apex 

of discal cell militaris Meigen. 

Wing without such patch of hairs 7 

7. Mid metatarsus with abnormal armature, either furnished on the entire 

ventral surface with stiff spinules that are at right angles to the 

surface of the joint, or with a number of long hairs 8 

Mid metatarsus with the normal armature, consisting of more or less 
closely placed regular spinules which are directed slightly toward the 
apex of the joint 9 

8. Mid metatarsus armed on its entire ventral surface with short stiff 

spinules which give it the appearance of being slightly thickened. 

irritans Fallen. 

Mid metatarsus with a slight depression near apex on ventral surface 

the posterior margin of which is fringed with a comb of from 4 to 6 

short, stiff, downwardly directed bristles metatarsata Stein. 

9. Hind tibia about one third from apex on the inner surface armed with 

a stout downwardly and apically directed spine which ends in 3 hairs. 

unispinosa Stein. 

Hind tibia without such spines 10 

.10. Mid tibia with 1-2 bristles on anterior surface. . . .bispinosa Zetterstedt. 
Mid tibia without bristles on anterior surface 11 



110 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XI 

11. Hind tibia slightly prolonged into a blunt apical process on ventral 

surface; mid femora without long bristles on basal half of ventral 

surface; hind tibia with 2-3 ventral bristles dentipes Fabricius, 

Hind tibia normal at apex ; mid femora with 6-7 long bristles on basal 
half of postero-ventral surface ; hind tibia with i ventral bristle or 
with only ventral setulse 12 

12. Mid tibia with a continuous series of very short upright hairs from 

base to apex on anterior surface; mesonotum distinctly shining and 

vittate houghi n. sp. 

Mid tibia without short upright hairs; mesonotum dull velvety black, 
not vittate meteorica Linne. 

Hydrotsa houghi, n. sp.— Male.— Black, distinctly shining, slightly bluish 
on dorsum of thorax and abdomen. Head black ; ocellar triangle shining ; 
interfrontalia opaque; orbits, face, and cheeks with silvery pile. Thorax 
vittate, the vittas consisting of whitish pruinose stripes covering the regions 
occupied iby the acrostichal and dorso-central bristles, the intervening 
spaces showing as narrow black lines. Abdomen with whitish pruinescence, 
which gives the surface a slightly tessellate appearance; dorso-central 
stripe slender, most distinct at base. Legs black. Wings clear or slightly 
grayish. Squamae whitish. Halteres brown, knobs black. 

Eyes narrowly separated, almost entirely bare; arista tapering, pubes- 
cent. Thorax with 3 pairs of strong presutural acrostichals. Thorns on 
fore femora of unequal strength, the posterior one much more acute than 
the anterior; 4 long blunt bristles on basal half of postero-ventral surface, 
a series of short stout bristles on basal half of ventral surface, and 4 or 5 
similar bristles on same surface just basad of the thorns distinguish the 
femora. Mid femora with a series of very long curled bristles on basal 
half of anterior surface and another one of straighter bristles on same 
portion of postero-ventral surface. Mid tibiae with their anterior sur- 
faces covered with tiny upright hairs; posterior surfaces with 2 bristles, 
one above and the other below middle. Hind femora with a series of 
stout bristles on the apical half of their antero-ventral surfaces and 2 
complete series of long fine hairs on their ventral. Hind tibiae with short 
hairs, distinct from which are 3-4 antero-ventral setulae, one weak antero- 
dorsal bristle, a very strong dorsal bristle, and the usual preapical bristle. 
Third ■ and fourth wing-veins convergent apically. 

Female. — Agrees in color with the male except for the more distinct 
pruinescence of the dorsum. 

The eyes are separated by one third the head-width. The fore femora 
have no characters that distinguish the species from dentipes. The mid 
tibiae have one bristle one third from apex on anterior surface in addition 
to the 2 on the posterior surface. The antero-ventral setulse on hind 
tibiae are stronger than in the male. In other respects except as to the 
femoral bristles the female is similar to the male. 

Length, 7-8.5 mm. 



Dec.,i9i6 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 111 

Type locality, Homer, 111., April 24, 1909 — a large series, mostly females. 
Parafypes, Urbana, 111., April and June; Algonquin, 111., April and June; 
Claremont, N. H., October 16, 1915 (R. P. Dow) ; Tifton, Ga., October 16, 
1896; Opelousas, La., March; London, Ont. (ex. coll. Hough). 

The Hough specimens are labeled dentipes, as is also one of 
the Algonquin specimens from Dr. Nason. It is highly probable 
that this species is the one that has been recorded as dentipes from 
North America. 



NEW SPECIES OF PARASITIC HYMENOPTERA. 

By a. a. Girault, Glenndale, Md, 

Two New TetrastichomyisB. The species of this genus, all of North 
America, may. be known by the following synopsis : 
Club white. Pedicel subequal to funicle i. 

Scape, pedicel and ring-joints white; entire thorax (except tegula) 
and abdomen reddish yellow except the base and lateral margins of 
the abdomen (the latter to about the middle) and a large median, 
rounded spot distad at apex of abdomen. Coxae silvery. 

silvensis n. sp. 
Club black. Pedicel somewhat longer than funicle i. 

Scape, pedicel and ring-joints white; head, thorax and abdomen black 
except at least the venter and pleurum of thorax, the proximal part 
of the scutellum, the mesal part of the axillse which are reddish 
yellow and the propodeum and postscutellum which are yellowish 

silvery clisiocanipcB Ashmead. 

The same but the distal third of the pedicel black (except at apex), the 
body entirely black except the propodeum and, less distinctly, the 
proscutellum, which are pale yellow orgyice n. sp. 

The median carina of propodeum is distinct, no lateral carinse; man- 
dibles more or less 3-dentate ; club with a distinct terminal nipple. Legs 
yellow, the coxse whitish ; body reticulated, impunctate. Propodeal spiracle 
round, central. Pedicel elongate. Wings lightly infuscated except at 
base; postmarginal vein absent (a mere bud). The species do not differ 
except in coloration. Caudal tibial spurs single. Types of clisiocampcs 
Ash. examined. 

1. Tetrastichomyia silvensis Girault. One female, woods, Glenndale, 
Md., July 16, 1915. Type: Catalogue no. 20398, U. S. N. M., the female 
on a tag, the head, a forewing, and a hind leg on a slide. 

2. Tetrastichomyia orgyice Girault. One female reared from Orgyia 
leucostigma, Washington, D. C, Nov. 1915 (R. M. Fouts). Type: Cata- 



112 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XI 

logue no. 20399, U. S. N. M., the specimen on a tag and a slide with same 
appendages as in silvensis. 

Decatoma marylandica n. sp. (Chalcid Hymenoptera) . From the 
woods, June 26, 1916. Female : Length 2 mm. Entirely black, the wings 
without a substigmal blotch (Endecatoma). The following parts golden 
yellow: Propleurum except quadrately caudo-ventrad ; legs except prox- 
imal half of caudal coxa; middle of caudal femora and tibiae; and the 
middle tibiae more or less ; and the pedicel except at apex. Shallowly 
umbilicately punctate, the propodeum ruguloso-punctate, with a narrow, 
foveate median channel, through a peltate basin, the petiole a half longer 
than wide, scaly; segments 2-4 of abdomen subequal, glabrous. Pedicel 
a little longer than funicle l, funicle 2 quadrate. Stigmal vein distinct, 
small. The yellow on the propleurum is visible above. 

An ordinary species. Glenndale, Md., one female. Type: Catalogue 
no. 20364, U. S. N. M., the above female on a tag. One female in the 
U. S. N. M. from Oak, D. C. 

Two New Chalcid Flies from Maryland. Elachistus marylandkus n. sp. 
Female : The same as louisiana Girault but the lateral margin of the 
abdomen is dusky only for two thirds its length from base (or to a third 
cross-stripe) and there are three narrow cross-stripes at about the middle 
and two more slightly indicated between these and base from each side. 
Club solid, pointed at apex, the mandibles edentate, obtuse at apex. 

Two females, open woods, Aug. 12, 1916. Glenndale, Md. Types : 
Catalogue no. 20442, U. S. N. M., the females on a card point or tag, hind 
tibiae and a head on a slide. A third female same place a week later. 

Aprostocetus ulysses n. sp. Female : Length 0.80 mm. Dark metallic 
purple, the wings hyaline, the antennae (except base of pedicel above and 
club 3 which are purplish) and the legs except base of front coxae, yel- 
lowish white, the abdomen pale golden except the margins all around 
(except at base, more broadly at the middle at the cross-stripes), the 
apex rather broadly and three cross-stripes (the second at middle, the 
three in succession, the first often broadly interrupted at the middle, the 
third often represented by a spot at meson). With the usual sculpture, 
the line of punctures along lateral scutum minute, obscure, the propodeum 
short at the meson, then with a weak median carina; no lateral carinas, 
the spiracle minute, round, central. Thorax rounded, the abdomen nar- 
rower, conic-ovate. Pedicel slightly longer than funicle i ; funicle 2 
longest, somewhat over twice longer than wide, 3 a little shorter, sub- 
equal to club 2; funicle i nearly twice longer than wide, longer than club 
3 which bears a distinct terminal nipple. Mandibles bident'ate. 

Two females. Meadows by sweeping, Aug., 1916. Glenndale, Md. 
Types : Catalogue no. 20445, U. S. N. M., the two specimens on a tag, two 
heads on a slide. 

Gonatocerus novifasciatus Girault. Common in Maryland woods. The 
distal half of the forewing is somewhat infuscated. The propodeum bears 



Dec.,igi6 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 113 

a pair of median carinse which are not very close together. Scut'ellum 
without sulci. 

A new Eucharid Chalcid-Fly from Maryland. From the woods, June 
12, 1916. Pseudometagea hillmeadia n. sp. Female : A little larger than 
the genotype from which it differs as follows : The general color is lus- 
trous black not dark brown ; the head and thorax bear more numerous pin 
punctures (in both the vertex bears a bifoveate median sulcus and is 
rugulose on each side of this) ; the scape (excluding the bulla) is about 
twice longer than wide, in the other only slightly longer than wide ; the 
broad, rugulose cephalo-mesal part of the scutum is longer, reaching 
nearly to the middle; the parapsidal furrows, punctate, are complete and 
distinct, absent in the other (in the type female; present in the other 
specimens placed with the type) : the femora are broadly blackish at 
base, concolorous in the others. Otherwise the same. Types compared. 
Scutellum with a cross-row of fovese at base, a few longitudinal striae 
laterad and a median channel Propodeum honeycombed Petiole nodular, 
a little larger than the coxse. Abdomen a little ascending, elliptical ovate, 
the second segment occupying most of the surface. Marginal vein long, 
the stigmal quadrate to oval. AntenncE 8-jointed, without a ring-joint, the 
club solid; funicle i elongate but not as long as the club, the pedicel 
longer than the body of -the scape (genotype) or smaller {hillmeadia). 
Substigmal spot distinct. 

From one female, Glenndale, Md. Type : Catalogue no. 20319, U. S. 
N. M., the female on a tag, the antennae on a slide. Differs from the 
genotype mainly in the general coloration. Two more specimens, the 
same place, two weeks later. 



SARCOPHAGA AND ALLIES IN NORTH AMERICA. 

At an early date there is to appear from the Thomas Say 
Foundation its first volume, Sarcophaga and Allies in North 
America, by Dr. J. M. Aldrich. It is octavo 325 pp., with 170 
figures. Of 175 forms, about 100 are now newly described. 
Genitalia are figured for 138 species. It deals with a neglected 
group of common flies, some of which are important parasites, 
especially of grasshoppers, while others are scavengers or excre- 
ment feeders ; one species has been-' definitely connected with 
human intestinal myasis. 

Subscription to the permanent Thomas Say Foundation costs 
$10. The price of the forthcoming volume is $3. The Treas- 
urer is Morgan Hebard, Chestnut Hill, Philadelphia, Pa. 



114 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XI 

LIVING PUPAE FOR SALE. 

For many years it has been the custom of a few of us to dis- 
tribute among schools, etc., a large number of cocoons of Satur- 
niids for study purposes. Now, for the benefit of our publica- 
tion fund and in the interest of science we offer : 

Sound cecropia cocoons $i.oo per loo 

Parasitized or dead cocoons 25 

Best cynthia cocoons i.oo 

Dead ones, generally bacterial 25 

Our best selection of promethea i.oo 

On all orders from 50 cents upward postage will be prepaid. 
On lesser orders kindly add fair postage. We shall give our time 
in safe packing, etc. 

When the late John B. Smith worked upon the parasites and 
diseases of cecropia, we collected for him about 19,000 cocoons. 
In this species we can detect living or dead. The latter may be 
of interest either for silk or diseases. The parasites are gen- 
erally a Pimpla or a large Ophion. Cecropia can be bred on 
almost any deciduous tree in any climate. It is to be hoped that 
much more will be done in efforts at hybridization. 

From the cynthia cocoons come the pongee silk of commerce. 
This insect was first introduced from China to Brooklyn about 
1867. It feeds normally upon the Ailanthus tree. It has been 
bred ex ovo on species of oak. If bred on wild cherry the 
imagines are distinctly dwarfed. Sassafras has been success- 
fully used. Other trees should be tried. The silk value of this 
species is great. Hybridization has been carried on extensively. 
Recorded successes are with promethea (both sexes), cecropia, 
Columbia, gloveri, calif ornica. Its parasites are not numerous. 
We believe there is a good field so that biologists should experi- 
ment on not fewer than 50,000 cocoons this coming season. 

Cocoons of promethea are getting scarce around New York. 
Where we used to find hundreds on wild cherry, almost any tree 
in a grove, we now find dozens on trees widely scattered. The 
parasites are several and interesting. They respond readily to 
attempts at hybridization. Food trees are many in any climate. 
The silk is tough and of excellent quality. 



Dec.,i9i6 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 115 

•We cannot guarantee delivery of io, tuna, or polyphemus, 
valued at 5, 15 and 4 cents respectively. Unless pupated in cap- 
tivity they are hard to find. Luna is specially prone to epidemic 
disease. No more interesting work is possible than efforts in 
hybridizing these species. 

Address all correspondence or orders to / 

R. P. Dow, Editor, 15 Broad St., N. Y. City. 



WISH TO EXCHANGE Lepidoptera of southern California for Lepi- 
doptera from any part of the world. Fred King, 1588 Crites St., Los 
Angeles, Cal. 



OFFERTA ET DESIDERATA 

FLORIDA Insects of all orders, also Fish, Batrachians, Reptiles, Shells, 
and Marine Invertebrates sold by A. G. Reynolds, Gulfport, Fla. 

WANTED. — No. Am. Cerambycidse and Buprestidse, especially Agrilus; 
will collect insects of any order in this locality for exchanges in above 
families. C. A. Frost, 26 Pond St., Framingham, Mass. 

THE UNDERSIGNED will greatly appreciate receiving records of 
New Jersey species not listed in Smith's Insects of New Jersey. — Harry 
B. Weiss, 242 Raritan Ave., New Brunswick, N. J. 

FINE SPECIMENS of the large Mantis, Paratenodera sinensis, col- 
lected at Mt. Airy, Philadelphia, Pa., offered in exchange for North 
American Lepidoptera. — Philip Laurent, 31 East Mt. Airy Ave., Philadel- 
phia, Pa. 

I COLLECT for cash local Insects in all Orders. Printed price list of 
nearly 1,000 species Coleoptera in Henshaw Nos. A. H. Manee, Southern 
Pines, N. C. 

WANTED. — North American Orthoptera from localities which are little 
known or in which but little collecting has been done. Material from the 
mountainous regions of the West particularly desired. M. Hebard, Acad- 
emy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, Pa. 

WANTED. — Sphingidas from any part of the world. Will purchase or 
exchange. B. Preston Clark, 55 Kilby St., Room 35, Boston, Mass. 

WANTED for cash or exchange. — Silphidse and Lucanidse from all 
locaHties in North America. J. W. Angell, 532 Wales Ave., New York 
City. 

FOR SALE at low prices. — A large number of species of Colombian 
Lepidoptera, perfect and seconds. Also Canadian species. H. S. Parish, 
81 Robert St., Toronto, Can. 

WANTED for cash.— Ova of Catocalae with or without parent moth. 
Address George J. Keller, 191 Avon Ave., Newark, N. J. 

FOR SALE, or EXCHANGE for perfect copies of scarce postage 
stamps, a collection of Palsearctic Geometridse in finest condition, properly 
labelled and correctly named. About seven hundred specimens. William 
Reiff, 366 Arborway, Jamaica Plain, Mass. 

WANTED.— Imagos of Saperda Candida, Pholus pandorus, all stages 
of Macrodactylus subspinosus except imagos, and other material of eco- 
nomic importance. Ward's Natural Science EstabHshement, 84 College 
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WANTED.— All kinds of material for Life Histories. Lepidoptera, 
Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, Diptera, etc., etc. Herman H. Brehme, 74 13th 
Avenue, Newark, N. J. 

WANTED. — Transactions American Entomological Society, Vol. IV; 
Proc. U. S. Natl. Museum, Vol. X, pp. 335-337; Vol. XI, pp. 481-525; 
Vol. XII, pp. 455-496. Howard L. Clark, Box 1142, Providence, R. I. 

FOR SALE.— Entomological News, Vols. XV to XX, inclusive, un- 
bound, at subscription price, six vols., $6. Geo. P. Engelhardt, Museum, 
Brooklyn, N. Y. 



T\R. STAUDINQER & A. BANG-HAAS, Dresden=BIasewitz, 

^ in their new Price List No. LVII. for 1914 (116 pag.), offer 
more than 20,000 Species of well named Lepidoptera, set or in 
papers, from all parts of the world, in finest condition ; 1,600 
kinds of prepared larvae, etc. Separate price lists for Coleoptera 
{30,000 species, 208 pag.), for Hymenoptera (3,600 species), Dip- 
tera (2,900), Hemiptera (2,500), Orthoptera (1,200), Neuroptera 
(630) , Biological Objects (300) . Discount for cash orders. Prices 
low. We sell no more living pupse. Extraordinarily cheap cen- 
turies and lots (List gratis). Fine species at very low prices. 
Lots sent for selection. 



PUBLICATIONS OF THE BROOKLYN ENTOMOLOGICAL 

SOCIETY. 

Sent postpaid on receipt of price by A. C. Weeks, Librarian, 222 Park 
Place, Brooklyn. European Agent, W. Junk, Sachsischerstr. 68, Berlin, 
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THE GLOSSARY, Explanation of all technical terms used in Entomol- 
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PAPILIO, edited by Harry Edwards, Vol. i and 4, each 2.00 

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OFFERTA ET DESIDERATA 

All kinds of Chrysalids, Cocoons, and Pupae wanted in exchange for 
North American lepidoptera. Address : Herman H. Brehme, 74 Thirteenth 
Ave., Newark, N. J. 

Florida Insects of all orders, also Fish, Batrachians, Reptiles, Shells, 
and Marine Invertebrates sold by A. G. Reynolds, Gulfport, Fla. 

WANTED. — No. Am. Cerambycidse and Buprestidse, especially Agrilus; 
will collect insects of any order in this locality for exchanges in above 
families. C. A. Frost, 26 Pond St., Framingham, Mass. 

The undersigned will greatly appreciate receiving records of New Jersey 
species not listed in Smith's Insects of New Jersey. — Harry B. Weiss, 242 
Raritan Ave., New Brunswick, N. J. 

WANTED. — Transactions American Entomological Society, vol. IV.; 
Entomological News, vol. II., nos. 6 and 10, or the whole volume. — Howard 
L. Clark, Box 1142, Providence, R. I. 

Fine specimens of the large Mantis, Paratenodera sinensis, collected 
at Mt. Airy, Philadelphia, Pa., coffered in exchange for North Ameri- 
can Lepidoptera — Philip Laurent, 31 East Mt. Airy Ave., Philadelphia, Pa. 

I collect for cash local Insects in all Orders. Printed price list of 
nearly 1,000 species Coleoptera in Henshaw Nos. A. H. Manee, Southern 
Pines, N. C. 

WANTED. — North American Orthoptera from localities which are little 
known or in which but httle collecting has been done. Material from the 
mountainous regions of the West particularly desired. M. Hebard, Acad- 
emy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, Pa. 

WANTED. — Sphingidse from any part of the world. Will purchase or 
exchange. B. Preston Clark, 55 Kilby St., Room 35, Boston, Mass. 

WANTED for cash or exchange. — Silphidse and Lucanidse from all 
localities in North America. J. W. Angell, 532 Wales Ave., New York 
City. 

FOR SALE at low prices. — A large number of species of Colombian 
Lepidoptera, perfect and seconds. Also Canadian species. H. S. Parish, 
81 Robert St., Toronto, Can. 

WANTED for cash. — Ova of Catocalse with or without parent moth. 
Address George J. Keller, 191 Avon Ave., Newark, N. J. 

WILL pay cash for Necrophorus sayi, hecate, melsheimeri, vespilloides, 
and for specimens of any species with unusual markings or deformities. 
R. M. Moore, M.D., 74 South Fitzhugh St., Rochester, N. Y. 

FOR SALE, or EXCHANGE for perfect copies of scarce postage 
stamps, a collection of Palserctic Geometridse in finest condition, properly 
labelled and correctly named. About seven hundred specimens. William 
Reiff, 366 Arborway, Jamaica Plain, Mass. 

WANTED. — Imagos of Saperda Candida, Pholus pandorus, all stages 
of Macrodactylus Siibspinosus except imagos, any other material of eco- 
nomic importance. Ward's Natural Science Establishment, 84 College 
Ave., Rochester, N. Y. 



OFFERTA ET DESIDERATA 

Florida Insects of all orders, also Fish, Batrachians, Reptiles, Shells, 
and Marine Invertebrates sold by A. G. Reynolds, Gulfport, Fla. 

WANTED. — No. Am. Cerambycidae and Buprestidae, especially Agrilus; 
will collect insects of any order in this locality for exchanges in above 
families. C. A. Frost, 26 Pond St., Framingham, Mass. 

The undersigned will greatly appreciate receiving records of New Jersey 
species not listed in Smith's Insects of New Jersey. — Harry B. Weiss, 242 
Raritan Ave., New Brunswick, N. J. 

Fine specimens of the large Mantis, Paratenodera sinensis, collected 
at Mt. Airy, Philadelphia, Pa., offered in exchange for North Ameri- 
can Lepidoptera — Philip Laurent, 31 East Mt. Airy Ave., Philadelphia, Pa. 

I collect for cash local Insects in all Orders. Printed price hst of 
nearly 1,000 species Coleoptera in Henshaw Nos. A. H. Manee, Southern 
Pines, N. C. 

WANTED. — North American Orthoptera from localities which are little 
known or in which but little collecting has been done. Material from the 
mountainous regions of the West particularly desired. M. Hebard, Acad- 
emy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, Pa. 

WANTED. — Sphingidae from any part of the world. Will purchase or 
exchange. B. Preston Clark, 55 Kilby St., Room 35, Boston, Mass. 

WANTED for cash or exchange.- — Silphidae and Lucanidas from all 
localities in North America. J. W. Angell, 532 Wales Ave., New York 
City. 

FOR SALE at low prices. — A large number of species of Colombian 
Lepidoptera, perfect and seconds. Also Canadian species. H. S. Parish, 
81 Robert St., Toronto, Can. 

WANTED for cash. — Ova of Catocalas with or without parent moth. 
Address George J. Keller, 191 Avon Ave., Newark, N. J. 

WILL pay cash for Necrophorus sayi, hecate, melsheimeri, vespilloides, 
and for specimens of any species with vmusual markings or deformities. 
R. M. Moore, M.D., 74 South Fitzhugh St., Rochester, N. Y. 

FOR SALE, or EXCHANGE for perfect copies of scarce postage 
stamps, a collection of Palserctic Geometridse in finest condition, properly 
labelled and correctly named. About seven hundred specimens. William 
Reiff, 366 Arborway, Jamaica Plain, Mass. 

WANTED. — Imagos of Saperda Candida, Pholus pandoriis, all stages 
of Macrodactylus Subspinosus except imagos, any other material of eco- 
nomic importance. Ward's Natural Science Establishment, 84 College 
Ave., Rochester, N. Y. 



THE BROOKLYN 
ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 



Meetings are held on the second Thursday after the first 
Tuesday of each month from October to June inclusive, at 185 
Brooklyn Avenue. The annual dues are $2.00. 



OFFICERS, 1916 



President 
WILLIAM T. DAVIS 

Vice-President 
W. T. BATHER 

Corresponding Secretary 
R. P. DOW 
Recording Secretary 
J. R. DE LA TORRE-BUENO 
Treasurer 
C. E. OLSEN 

Librarian 
A. C. WEEKS 

Curator 
GEORGE FRANCK 

Delegate to Council of New York Academy of Sciences 
CHARLES E. SLEIGHT 



Bulletin of the 
Brooklyn Entomological Society 

Published in 
October, December, February, April and June of each year 



Subscription price, domestic, $1.00 per year; foreign $1.05, 
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mologists are solicited. Authors will receive 25 reprints free if 
ordered in advance of publication, additional at cost. Address 
subscriptions and all communications to 

R. P. DOW, Editor, 

15 Broad Street, New York City. 



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Our supply catalogue No. 30 will be sent free on application. 
Entomological Specimens of all orders from every part of the 
world. 




Life Histories of Insects of Economic Importance and others; 
Type or systematic collections of Insects from Boreal America; 
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illustrating Mimicry and Protective Coloration, and Dimorphism. 

If interested write for the following circulars: 

1 1 6 Biological Material for Dissection, 

125 Life Histories of Economic Insects, 

1 28 List of Living Pupae, 

129 Exotic Lepidoptera, 

130 North American Lepidoptera, 

131 Exotic Coleoptera, 

132 North American Coleoptera, 

143 Type Collections, also Collections illustrating 
beneficial and injurious Insects, different pests. Mimicry 
and Protective coloration, and Dimorphism. 

Our complete Insect catalogue and list of publications will 
be sent on receipt of 25 cents. 



BULLETIN 



OF THE 



Brooklyn Entomological 
Society 



NEW SERIES 



Vol. XII 



1917 




EDITED (IN SUCCESSION) BY 

F. G. SCHAUPP JOHN B. SMITH GEO. H. HULST 



CHAS. LOUIS POLLARD 



R. P. DOW 



PUBLICATION COMMITTEE 

CHARLES SCHAEFFER, 



J. R. de la TORRE-BUENO. 



ROBERT P. DOW 



Press of 

The new Era printing Company 

Lancaster. Pa. 



Dec, 1917 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 



INDEX OF GENERA AND SPECIES. 



Mentioned in Vol. XII. New forms marked *. 



Acalypta grisea syn., 78 

lillianis, 78 
Acmes ops proteus, 94 
Aeolus, 41 

Adelocera pyrsolepis, 47 • ~~~- 

Agrilus acutipennis, 93 

politus, 93 

ruficollis, 93 

vittaticollis, 94 
Aids sulfuraria, 46 
Amelanchier, 78 
Ameristus fumosipennis, 88 
Andrena andrenoides, 90 

banksii,* 89 ' 

carlini, 89, 91 

cressoni, 92 

erythrogastra, 90 

flexa,* 92 

mandibularis, 90 

regularis, 89, 91 

vicina, 89 
Andropogon tectorum, 34 
Aneristus fomosipennis, 88 
Anthocoris, 14 
Anthomyia, 37 
Anthophilax alternatus, 94 

malachiticus, 93, 94 
Apantesis proxima var. autholea, 47 
ApicESchna heros, 45 
Apion, 65 

Aprostocetus canadensis, 118 
Aprostocetus diplosidis, 88 

kansasia,* 88 
Aradus acutus, 46 

duseei, 46 

uniformis, 46 
Arthromacra aenea, 17 

appalachiana,* 17, 18 



Arthromacra donacioides, 18 

glabricollis, 18 

pilosella* 17, 18 

robinsoni, 17 

rugosecollis, 18 
Asemum moestum, 94 

Balaninus baculi, 45 

nasicus, 45 

proboscideus, 45 

rectus, 45 
Baptisia tinctoria, 64 
Barnesia ritaria, 115 
Betarmon bigeminatus, 43, 

californicus* 42 

ferrugineus, 43 
Betula populifolia, 31 
Blatta aegyptiaca, 69 
Bombus, 52 

BougainvillcBa glabra, 34 
Buprestis impolita, 93 

striata, 93 

Callidium antennatum, g4- 

janthinum, 94 
Caricea, 36 
Car3;a a/6a, 31 

glabra, 31 
Catopsilia eubule, 45 
Ceanothus americana, 30, 79 
Cephalocaris, 76 
Ceresa albescens, no 

albido sparsa, in 

basalis, in 

brevicornis, in 

brevis, in 

brevitylus, ill 

borealis, ill 



Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XII 



Ceresa bubalus, iii 

constans, iii 

dicer OS, no 

femorata, no 

militaris, in 

occidentalis, in 

palmeri, in 

stimulea, ill 

taurina, in 

uniformis, in 
Coenonympha californica, 46 
Cephalanthus, 78 
Chalcophora fortis, 93 , 

lacustris, 93 

liberta, 93 

virginiensis, 93 . 
Chanithus, 70 
Chionathus virginica, 59 

Chrysanthemum leucanthe-mum, 31 
Chrysobothris dentipes, 93 

harrisii, 93 

sc atrip ennis, 93 
Cicindela arisoncs, 46 

dorsalis, 45 

lepida, 45 

marginata, 46 

s trig a, 47 

z^. inyo,* 106 

Z'. kirbyi, 106 

?;. owena* 106 

•». viridissima, 106 
'Cliioria mariana, 62 
Clytus marginicollis, 94 
Clytanthus ruricola, 94 
Coccophagus orientalis, 88 
Coenosia, 36 

Coleophora malivorella, 87 
Copidita thoracica, 30 
Corythaica bellula* 19 

monacha, 19 
Corythiicha adusta, 79 

arcuata, 78 

bulbosa, 79 

carbonata, 79 

cerasi, 79 



Corythucha cratcegi, 78 

heteromelii syn., 78 

incurvata, 78 

marmorata, 78 

pallida, 78 

pruni, 79 
Cratcegus, 78, 92 
Cregyo) vetusta, 46 
Cremastochilus canaliculatus, 31 
Crotolana retusa, 88 
Ctenucha brunnea, 47 

Dasyllis affinis, 52 

a^^wr, 5:3, 54 

californica,* 53, 54 

champlaini, 53, 54 

cinerea, 52, 54 

Colombia, 53 

divisor,* 53, 54 

fernaldi, 53 

fiavicollis, 53 

grossa, 53 

insignis* S3 

^a^a. S3, SS 

macquarti,* 52, 54 

partitor,* 53, 54 

posticatus, S3, 54 

sackeni* 53, 54 

sacrator, 52 

semitecta, 52 

thoracica, 53 

unicolor, 53 

virginica,* 53 
Daucus carota, 31 
Dermestes talpinus, 30 
Desmocerus palliatus, 94 
Desmodium lasiocarpum, 34 
Dexiopsis, 36 
Dicerca caudata, 93 

chrysea, 93 

divaricata, 93 

prolongata, 93 

punctulata, 93 

tenebrosa, 93 
Dictyophara, 69 

dio^r^jj, 70 



Dec, 1917 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 



Dictyophara fiorens, 70, 71 

lingula, 70, 71 

microrhina, 70 
Dinapate wrightii, 107 
Dolichoglossa, 37 
Drasterius amabalis, 40, 41 

circumscriptus, 42 

dorsalis, 40, 41 

elegans, 40 

livens, 41 

nigriventris,* 41 

pulchellus, 41 

subornatus, 40, 41 

scutellatus,* 41 

thoracicus,* 40 
Drosophila ampelophila, 21 

Ehrethia elliptic a, 50 
Elachistus hyphantrice, 85 

sanninnoidecE,* 85 
Elater vitiosus, 46 
Ellipotoma laticornis, 31 
Emmesomyia* apiculis* 115 

unica,* 114 
Encyclops cceruleus, 94 
Erystalis tenax, 6 
Euchrysia hyalinipennis, 14 

maculipennis, 14 

similis,* 14 
Eubarnsia,* 115 
Euderces picipes, 94 
Eupogonius tomentosus, 95 
Eupteromalus sarcophagae, 118 
Eurydinota lividicorpus,* 86 
Eurytoma pissodis,* 88 

c/^n^ 88 

Falcata comosa, 62 
Fitchia apt era, 45 
Forcipomyia, 14 
Fraxinus, 59, 80 

americana, 80 

nigra, 81 

pennsylvanica, 81 

Gargaphia, 61 



Gargaphia amorphce, 79 
Gonotocerus maga, 87 

angulata, 79 

reticulata, 61 

solani, 79 

fz7icF, 79 
Gaurotes cyanipennis, 94 
Gerris remigis, 21 

titillatus,* 87 
Glischrochilus fasciatus, 30 
Gonatocerus maga, 87 

Halisoa rufipes, 118 
Hammomyia, 37 
Hccmatopoto pluvialis, 69 
Heidemannia, 7S 
Hetcerina vulnerata, 46 
Hippobosca (Equina, 69 
Homoptera unilineata, 103 
Hoplogaster, 36 
Hydnocera humeralis, 31 

lecontei, 31 

longicollis, 31 

pallipennis, 31 

verticalis, 31 
Hylemyia, ZT, 38 
Hylephila, 37 
Hyperplatys aspersus, 95 
Hyperteles polynemce, 118 
Hypopteromalus percussor,* 118 

Jil'j, 30 

Isonietopus libertus,* 76 

pulchellus, 76, 77 

signatus, 76, 77 

unicolor, 76 
Isohydnocera, 83 

(F^rra^ 84 

albocincta, 84 

brunnea,* 84 

curtipennis, 84 

gerhardi, 84 

longicollis, 84 

ornata, 84 

pusilla, 84 

schusteri, 84 



Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XII 



Isohydnocera tabida, 84 

Juglans cinerea, 31 

Languria mosardi, 86 
Laphria, 52 
Lemidia, 85 
Lemonias virgulti, 46 
Leptostyla affinis, 64 

angustata, 64 

dilaticollis, 61 

clitorice, 60, 61 

constricta, 62 

costofasciata, 61 

^/ato^ 61 

gracilenta, 61 

heidemanni, 60, 63 

oblonga, 60, 62, 63 

similis, 64 

velifica, 61 

velifer* 60 
Leptostylus 6-guttatus, 95 
Leptoypha brevicornis, 56, 58, 59 

costata, 56, 57 

discreta, 58 

distinguenda, 57 

elliptica* 56, 57 

minor* 55, 56 

mutica, 56, 58, 59 
Leptura, 30 

aspera, 95 

cordifera, 94 

exigua, 94 

hcsmatites, 94 

mutabilis, 95 

proxima, 94 

pubera, 95 

ruficolHs, 30, 95 

sphcsrocollis, 95 
vittata, 95 
Lespedesa, 62 
Lidopus heidemanni, 74 
Lim,nospila, 2^ 
Liopus fascicularis, 29 
Lispa, 114 
Lyccena exilis, 46 



Madeterus, 13 
Mallophora analis, 55 
Meadorus lateralis, 46 
Megapenthes nigriceps, 42 
Megathymus sp., 46 
Meibomia, 62 

Melanophila fulvoguttata, 93 
Memythrus cupressi, 46 
Meroporus dubius, 118 

utibilis, 118 
Microrrhagus audax, 39 

bonvouloiri, 40 

imperfectus, 39 

oblitus, 39 

subsinuatus, 39 
Molorchus bimaculatus, 30, 94 
M onanthia c-nigrum, 49, 50 

coloradensis, 50, 51 

ehrethics,* 49, 50 

labeculata, 49, 50 

monotropida, 49, 50 
Monohammus scutellatus, 95 
Monophylla terminata, 31 

musca domestica, 68 
Mycterus scaber, 30 
Myiomma cixiiformis, 75 

media,* 75 

Necrobia violacea, 31 
Necrophorus americanus, 30 

marginatus, 30 

orbicollis, 30 

^03;/, 30 
Neoborus am^osnus, 81 

canadensis, 80 

geminus, 80 

palm,eri, 81 

pubescens,* 80, 81 

tricolor, 80 
Neochirosia, 35, 36 

setiger* 36 
Neoclytus muricatulus, 94 
Neohylemyia^ Z7 

proboscidalis,* 38 
Neomphaloides, 118 
Neomphaloidomyia* 118 



Dec, 1917 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 



Neowashingtonia filifera, 107 
Nersia curviceps, 70 

florens, 71 
Notonecta mexicana, 46 

Omosita colon, 30 
Omphalomopsis marilandia,* 88 
Ootetrastichus gibboni,* 86 

myrmaridis, 86 
Ormyrus thymus,* 87 

unfasciatipennis,* 87 

unmaculatipennis, 87 
Oxygonus montanus,* 43 

obesus, 44 

Pachyta monticola, 94 

rugripenniSj 94 
Pemphredon angularis, 99, 100 

bipartior, 102 

cockerelli, 98, 100 

concolor, 99 

confertim, 100 

errans,* 99 

foxii* loi 

giffardi, 102 

grinnelli, 102 

harbecki, 102 

inornatus, 102 

marginatus, 102 

montanus, 102 

morio syn., 102 

nearcticus, 98 

provancheri, 97 

rileyi, 100 

shawii,* 100 

tenax, 102 

tinctipennis, 97 

virginiana,* loi 
Pentacricia, 36 
Petalostemon, 63 
Phaonia, 114 
Phenolia grossa, 30 
PhyllobcEnus dislocatus, 29, 31 
Phyllogaster, 36 
Phylloscelis, 70 
Phymatodes variabilis, 94 



Pieris rapes, 46 
Pinus strobus, 29 
Pissodes strobi, 89 
Pityophthorus consimilis, 29 
Platanus occidentalis, 31 
Platycerus keeni, 22 

pedicillaris, 22 

quercus, 22 

thoracicus, 22 
Pleocoma australis, 16 

badia,* 15 

conjungens, 15 

fimbriata, 15 
Podisus fretus, 46 
Pogonocherus plenicellatus, 95 
Proboscimyia, 37 
Proboscidomyia, 37 
PrionochcEta opaca, 30 
Prunus, 92 

Psenocerus supernotatus, 29 
Pseudolucanus bicostatus,* 22 

masama, 22 
Pseudophana, 70 
P silo pa, 13 

Pycnanthemum incanum, 30, 31 
Pyrameis carya, 46 

Rhagium lineatum, 93, 94 
Rhipiphorus limbatus, 31 
i?/iwj glabra^ 29 

Salix, 90 

Sanninoidea exitiosa, 85 
Saperda vestita, 95 
Scatophaga furcata, 14 
Schoenomysa, 35 
Scolops, 70 
Scopelosomd devia, 46 
Scolopostethus affinis, 46 

atlanticus, 46 

thomsoni, 46 
Secodella viridis, 85 
Secodes multilineatus,* 85 
Sericothrips occipitalis,* 32 
sup ha americana, 30 

incequalis, 29 



Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XII 



lapponica, 30 

novehoracensis, 29 

surinamensis, 30 
Smerinthus cerisyi, 46 
Sphinx chersis, 47 

coloradus, 46 
Stachyocnemus apicalis, 45 
Staphylea trifoUa, 79 
Statira, 17 
Stictocephala, no 
Strangalia, 30 
Synchlora alhicostaria, 35 

avidaria* 34 

denticulata, 34 

liquoraria, 34 
Syneda alleni, 46 

Taraxacum officinale, 31 
Telenomus fuscicornis, 88 

monilicornis, 88 
Tetramerinx, 36 
Thaumatoneura, 44 
Thecla melinus, 46 
Thripoctenus, 88 
Tibicen auletes, 45 

jayt, 45 



Tingis amorphae, 79 
Trichodes nuttali, 31 
Trichius, 45 

Tropidosteptes cardinalis, 80 
Tamos scolopacinarius, 46 
Typocerus, 30 

Vanessa j-album, 46 
Verbascum thapsus, 31 
FiVij labrusca, 31 
Viburnum, 30 

Wolcottia, 84 
parviceps, 85 
pedalis, 85 
sobrina, 85 

Xenoborus commissuralis, 81, 82 
neglectus,* 82 
pettiti, 82 
plagifer, 81, 82 

Xylotrechus fuscus, 94 
Zopherus gracilis, 46 
Zotheca tranquilla, 118 



Vol. XII 



APRIL, 1917 



No. 1 



BULLETIN 



OF THE 



Brooklyn Entomological 
Society 



NEW SERIES 




PUBUCATION COMMITTEE 



CHARLES SCHAEFFER, 
Chairman 



J. R. de la TORRE-BUENO, 
Advertising Manager 



ROBERT P. DOW. 
Editor 



Published by the Society 
Price, 25 cents Subscription, $1.00 per year (five issuej() 



CONTENTS. 

VENGEFUL BROOD OF LILITH, Dow i 

BIBLIOGRAPHY OF LILITH, Freidus 9 

PREDACEOUS HABITS IN MADETERUS AND PSILOPA, Mal- 

loch 13 

NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES OF EUCHRYSIA, Girault 14 

THE ELEVENTH PLEOCOMA, Fall 15 

SYNOPSIS OF ARTHROMACRA, Leng 16 

NEW SPECIES OF TINGID FROM N. Y., Bueno 19 

CONCERNING GERRIS REMIGIS, Olsen 21 

NOTES ON LUCANID^, Angell 22 

LIVING PUP^ FOR SALE 22 




BULLETIN 

OF THE 

BROOKLYN ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

Vol. XII April, 1917 No. i 

STUDIES IN THE OLD TESTAMENT. 

By R. p. Dow, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

I. The Vengeful Brood of Lilith and Samael. 

There are certain discrepancies in Genesis, more apparent than 
real, which have puzzled commentators in all ages, and of which 
early explanations differ radically from present ones adopted 
since it has become generally understood that Genesis is a com- 
pilation of earlier narratives, notably the Elohistic and Jahvistic. 
Dr. Briggs, of the Union Theological Seminary, has pointed out, 
too, that the form of Genesis is wholly poetical. This leads to 
a reasonable inference that if the text be regarded as dipping 
into allegory, one may arrive much more nearly at the truth. 

A stumbling block which has puzzled almost every child at 
Sunday School, as well as adults, is that Adam, the first man, 
and Eve, the first woman, had two children grown to maturity 
and both these sons had no difficulty whatever in finding human 
wives. Whom and whence? In the efforts to explain one en- 
counters an earlier apparent discrepancy. In Genesis i it is 
stated that after the earth, sea and sky had been separated, after 
the stars were set, after grass and herbs were grown, after whales, 
fowl, cattle and creeping things, " God created man in his own 
image — male and female created he them. God said unto them, 
be fruitful and multiply."* After this a Garden of Eden was 
created. Trees grew up to fruitfulness, "pleasant to the sight 
and good for food." In ordinary nature this process would take 

* In this and all other quotations the King James version is used, unless 
otherwise stated. 



2 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XII 

some years, as a minimum. Still later (perhaps many centuries), 
Adam, described as created out of dust, " gave names to all cattle, 
fowls, beasts, but for Adam was not found an helpmeet for 
him." So God took one of his ribs, made a woman. This was 
Eve. To account for a population from which Cain and Seth 
got wives, later commentators claim that early commentators 
seized upon an Assyrian divinity and made her Adam's first wife. 
This was Lilith, who subsequently appears as mothering a brood 
of zehuh, or flies. A second brood of children attributed to her 
were SuccuhcB, or devils which normally assume the female human 
form. 

All mythology begins from a basis of fact. All myths, all 
demi-gods, all gods (except alone the Monotheos, amorphous, in- 
finite) are the imperfect recollections, distorted by ages of tradi- 
dition, of living humans. Zeus and Hera upon Olympus, Thor 
and Baldur, Beelzebub and Lilith were human as ourselves. 

Whence came Lilith is only partially recorded. There is 
authority for regarding her as blonde, or, as Dante Gabriel Ros- 
setti paraphrases, " with hair of ropes of gold." If so, she would 
be Aryan, a predecessor of races of which the best known at 
present are the blue-eyed Scandinavians. The earliest extant 
account of Lilith is that in the Apocryphal Book, the alphabet of 
Ben Sira, dating perhaps from the tenth century A. D. Of 
course, this is no criterion of antiquity. It may be observed, 
parenthetically, that there was a great cult in southern Europe in 
the seventh century of Lilith worshippers, just as demon worship 
has spasmodically broken out in almost every century in some 
quarter. It may be observed, parenthetically, too, that the oldest 
existing manuscript of the Old Testament dates from the twelfth 
century A. D., although it is known from allusions long before 
Christ. One cannot judge from manuscript the age of any of the 
great books of Hebrew literature. Ben Sira states that Lilith 
was beautiful, with wavy long black hair. At all events this 
woman was so beautiful, so towering in intellectual gifts that she 
was known everywhere around the place where Babylon later was, 
and came to be worshipped as a goddess. There is Rabbinical 
authority that Adam was as the Arab or Jewish races now are, 
brown-eyed ; and that he was created (or born) with a brown 



April, 1917 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 



beard hanging to his waist. Perhaps, after humans multiplied, as 
told in Genesis i, Adam, first man, was prototype to head a great 
race, to become the child of destiny. 

Life with Adam was not satisfactory. He claimed obedience, 
either of woman to man, or impersonally to the chosen of destiny, 
Lilith claimed equal rights, having been created out of the same 
clay, and at the same time. When she realized how hopelessly 
obstinate Adam was in his reactionary views, she reached a deci- 
sion not unlike that of the end-of-the-nineteenth century Nora in 
Ibsen's "Doll's House." She flew out of Eden and away from 
Adam, who in her stead got Eve for his second wife, taken from 
his thirteenth rib on the right side. 

Note that in all tradition Lilith is able to fly, and so was more 
easily able to bear a brood of winged children. Note, too, that 
in their endeavor to reconcile the conflicting Biblical stories, the 
ancient Oriental adepts created legendary prototypes of suffra- 
gists and " antis." Note, also, that Eve was quite the opposite in 
disposition, the type of absence of self will. She was dark, prob- 
ably Ethiopian, like the later Queen of Sheba, who, marvelously 
beautiful, was probably negro. Eve served Adam with such fidel- 
ity and submissiveness that the poet declares she was a rib of his 
own body. Imagery can go no farther than this. 

Lilith, having flown southward, met a certain Ba-alj married 
him, and settled in the valley of Jehannum. 

Naturally, then, the loyal descendants of Adam could not speak 
too illy of this woman who abandoned Adam, and apparently 
originated divorce. Even Jehannum became accursed and the 
children of Israel were warned not to intermarry with this outcast 
posterity. The place developes into an abode of darkness, and 
further until, in the attempts to localize a Hell, it becomes one of 
the planes, Gehenna differing from Tophet. Similarly tradition 
has localized heaven in planes, the " seventh heaven " remaining 
as the highest attainable bliss. In the Mohammedan conception 
of Hell, Jehannum remains particularly the abode of reputation- 
less women. Thus Lilith was consigned by tradition to consort 
only with devils. 

The Phoenician whom Lilith married, and who shares her ob- 
loquy, is still recalled by name, Samael. The term Ba-al is 



4 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XII 

Phoenician. In the time of Lihth the Phoenicians may or may 
not have completed their migration overland from the lower Red 
Sea district to the coast of Palestine. At all events they pre- 
sumably maintained trade routes by sea or caravan along the 
coast. A Ba-al is merely a leading man, a captain, governor, 
anybody above the rank and file. This particular Ba-al, Samael, 
is beyond much doubt the man who appears in the Old Testament 
as Baalzebub, and in the New Testament as Beelzebub The 
word sebul is Phoenician adopted into Hebrew. It means rad- 
ically any elevation of ground, big or small. In Phoenicia this 
man was presumably lord of a mountain. In Hebrew, where he 
was to be spoken of only with contempt, he becomes master of 
a dunghill. Commentators of all ages have not overlooked that 
a manure pile is the breeding place of flies. In the New Testa- 
ment only Beelzebul appears as a devil, not easily differentiated 
from Satan. The word zebub is also Phoenician, but it is also 
Hebrew from Exodus downward. It is most frequently trans- 
lated "flies," but quite probably includes all pestiferous insects. 
It occurs in four connections in the Old Testament, invariably 
as flies or the equivalent in other languages. There are the dead 
flies which cause the ointment to stink (Ecclesiastes) ; in Isaiah, 
"the Lord shall hiss for the fly that is in the uttermost part of 
the rivers of Egypt." For the references from Exodus one 
must await the paper on the Plague of Arob. Schindler's " Bib- 
lische Lexicon " defines zebub as winged insects including Culex, 
Vespa, CEstrum, and Crabro. Others define it more broadly to 
include terrible things such as lions, tigers and scorpions. 

The earliest Biblical allusion to Beelzebub is in 2 Kings. Here 
he is the false god of Ekron, whom children of Israel ran to in- 
voke, just as they frequently worshipped a golden calf or other 
false divinity, meriting the rebuke of the orthodox. Inasmuch 
as Beelzebub is to appear as a devil, with home in Hell, and, as 
in Greek mythology Acheron is the river flowing around the boun- 
daries of Hades, one naturally wonders whether the resemblance 
between the two words is accidental, or whether the origin of the 
myths is not similar. There is a passage in Pliny, the Roman 
bibliographer of natural history, first century A. D., mentioning 
the Cyreneans (a Greek colony on Phoenician soil) invoking the 



April, igi? Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 



god Achorem to kill the flies which were producing a pestilence. 
This certainly suggests a triple etymological connection — Ekron, 
Acheron, Achorem. For eighteen centuries, however, commen- 
tators have been in error on this passage, pointing out Zeus 
Apomuios and Hercules with similar epithet. True, one of the 
attributes of Zeus and Jupiter is as a successful driver away of 
flies. The monstrous Hercules had similar great power over in- 
sects. When he finally settled down to live in Sicily; the Cicadas 
disturbing his noon naps, he struck them all perpetually dumb for 
fifty miles around. Both gods were fly killers. Beelzebub was 
their natural father and protector. With their annoyance he hit 
back at his Hebrew detractors. 

Two or more broods of children were born to Samael and 
Lihth. Tradition makes plenty of mention of the second, the 
female devils, which made Lilith a mediaeval by-word, terror of 
women in childbirth, to be fought with amulets — an easier way 
than by righteous living. For the first brood there is more slen- 
der authority. Perhaps it was taken for granted that, as Beelze- 
bub was father of flies, his wife Lilith must have been their 
mother. Per contra, if Lilith bore this brood of flies, Samael 
must have been the father, and hence his epithet. In very early 
Sanscrit authority a day each year was set apart for a festival for 
flies. They were fed and cajoled, not for themselves, but to 
placate the evil demon who fathered their existence. Compare 
also the Avestic account. Almost from the beginning the evil 
author of a half of existence brought into the world insects 
(translated as " wasps ") " which are very death to the cattle and 
the fields." In all Egypt the wasp typified power of death over 
humanity (cf, Bull.^. April, 1916, testimony of the Tombs, p. 1 
et seq.). It may be noticed that in Hebrew literature the wasp 
is just as deadly. Its name here is tsir. In Exodus, " I will send 
hornets before thee, which will drive out the Hivite." In Deu- 
teronomy, " Moreover the Lord thy God will send the hornet 
among them, until they that are left and hide themselves from 
thee shall be destroyed." In Joshua, " And I send the hornet 
before you, which drave out from before you, even the two Kings 
of the Amorites." Even kings could not withstand the hornet of 
the Hebrews. 



6 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XII 

There should be noted, also, the similar Biblical conception of 
the bee. The word Deborah is often chosen as a Christian name 
with the idea that it typifies industry, frugality and beneficence. 
The Hebrews were well acquainted with honey, for one of the 
early promises was to lead them to " a land flowing with milk and 
honey " ; but all mentions of the bee dwell upon its stinging end. 
In Deuteronomy, " The Amorites chased you as bees do." In 
Psalm CXVIII, " They (mine enemies) compassed me like bees." 
In Isaiah, predicting disaster to Judah, " And it shall come to pass 
in that day that the Lord shall hiss for the bee that is in the land 
of Assyria [home of Lihth?]. And they shall come and shall 
rest all of them in the desolate valleys, and in the holes of the 
rocks, and upon all thorns, and in all bushes." Thus it will be 
seen that Deborah signifies a vengeful beast whose sting is de- 
struction. 

In interpretation of the deborah of the riddle of Samson about 
the bees in the carcass of the lion there is no more renowned 
paper in entomology than that of the late Baron Osten Sacken on 
the Bugonia Myth, identifying this particular deborah with count- 
less others as the once Palsearctic, now cosmopolitanly common 
Syrphid, Eristalis tenax. 

The word Lilith is next to be consulted. The root lilaiu, 
night or darkness, is not Hebrew, but is Assyrian. The Assyrian 
spelling for the woman is Lilit or Lilu. It is not necessarily a 
duplicated root, but probably is, the root being originally the 
monosyllable li. This seems to mean night, and the idea of night 
is from the darkened blueness of the sky. In Demonology Lilith 
always operates at night. Moreover throughout the East indigo 
and its dark color have etymologically gone hand in hand. Lilang 
or lilak are present Persian adjectives meaning dark blue. The 
Persian for indigo is nil, adjective nilak. The Sanscrit for dark 
blue is nila, and its noun, nili, is indigo. While there is no direct 
connection between Lilith and our familiar shrub, the lilac, no 
evidence that the flower was regarded sacred to that divinity, 
yet the root is the same. This flower is native to Assyria and 
thereabouts. In Persian it is variously called lilaj, lilang, or 
lilanj. In Ottoman Turkish it is leilag (authority W. W. Skeats), 



April, 1917 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 7 

or as spelled at present, leilaq.^ The flower was brought to 
Europe before the crusades, probably by the Venetians. In 
Spain it remains lilac or is Hispanized as lila. Skeats, Etymolog- 
ical Dictionary, gives Anglo-Saxon lilie, not the Hly, but the lilac ; 
but gives no context on which his statement is supported. An 
EngHsh book of 171 5 gives lilach. 

One would imagine the same root for the Latin lilium, orig- 
inally the night flower. Thus it dates back before ' the Greek 
XecpLov, the phonetic change from / to r being wholly in accord 
with law. 

The word lilith occurs once in the Old Testament, the famous 
passage, Isaiah 34, 14: "The wild beast of the desert shall also 
meet with the wild beasts of the island, and the satyr shall cry 
to his fellow; the screech owl (lilith) also shall rest there, and 
find for herself a place of rest." Whether or not we accept the 
translation of the King James version, the horns of a dilemma 
remain — did the woman give the name to the bird, or did the bird, 
always of ill omen, furnish the name for the despised woman? 
Apparently the former. The translation as screech owl has been 
bitterly assailed, although it has the support of the Septuagint. 
The King James translators found themselves in a quandary for 
words to account for several owls and other birds. There was 
a cos of Leviticus, for which big owl seemed a feasible rendering. 
The other owls appear, one in this very passage of Isaiah. There 
are tinshemeth and yamshuph, for one horned owl being sug- 
gested (with marginal note of swan). The names of animals in 
the whole passage must be dubious in any translation, for they 
include unicorns, bullocks, cormorants (margin — pelican), bittern, 
owls, ravens, dragons, satyrs, great owls, and vultures. St. 
Jerome, following Symmachus, departed from precedent and took 
the word lamia, a name applied to a bird only in this place. The 
familiar Latin name for owl is noctua, which Linne appropriated 
for the owl moths, insects whose luminous eyes and heavy color 
render them excellent miniatures of the bird. In Horace, Ap- 
puleius and Tertullian Lamia is a witch delighting in sucking 
children's blood, and so is not unlike the whole conception of 

* The popular Oriental names of women, Leila and Lillah, seem to have 
this root. 



8 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XII 

Lilith. In the margin of the. King James version the words 
"night monster" are suggested instead of screech owl, and this 
change was adopted in the Revised version. It was supported 
and probably originally suggested by several of the more schol- 
arly mediaeval Rabbis. This is quite in keeping with Lihth, also, 
coming from men best acquainted with the Lilith tradition and 
at a time when it held strongest sway over men's minds. 

In Mohammedan countries where story telling is highly devel- 
oped the Lilith myth has assumed many forms. Not the least 
interesting is one which Fitz Nigle quotes in the N. Y. Tribune 
as having obtained from his Egyptian guide. 

" It was said she was formed in beauty's mould with clay let 
down from heaven and to Adam joined on the side by a hgament 
like the Siamese twins, but that they quarrelled, so that the Lord 
cut them in twain with a flaming sword, and Lilith with her 
daughter, the fair Zelinda, wandered off to the land of Nod, 
where later on she became a witch-cat, while in the meantime 
Cain, as is mentioned in the Scriptures, went out into the land of 
Nod and took a wife — namely, Lilith's daughter. 

" In regard to Eve, Adam's second wife, the legend states that 
a short time thereafter a pimple grew on Adam's leg, which at- 
tained a very great size, and one day, when he scratched it, out 
popped Eve, who quickly grew to womanhood and was married to 
Adam. In the meantime the devil was watching proceedings, and 
asked Eve if she knew that Adam had had another wife, and she 
replied that she suspected that her husband had not told her about 
his past life. Then the devil asked her if she would like to get 
even with him and she replied in the affirmative. Then he told 
her to go into the garden and pick some of the grain which the 
Lord told them they should not eat and give it to Adam, which 
she did, and when they, as the Bible states, fell from their high 
estate and were banished from the garden the Lord gave Eve a 
couple of cats to comfort her in her affliction. 

" Later on it is said that these cats were the ones which Noah 
intended to take in the ark, but his wife, the unbeheving Norida, 
who hated cats, protested against it. However, he insisted, and 
as they were walking up the gangplank his wife suddenly pulled 
it in and threw them down into the water, which was boiling hot, 



April, 1917 'Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 9 

and the cats were thus destroyed. But after the ark had been at 
sea a few weeks the rats and mice began to eat the grain, and 
Noah prayed for help, when the Lord caused the Hon, which lay 
sick with a fever, to sneeze from out its nostrils a pair of cats, 
which soon destroyed the rodents, thus making them the most 
popular animals aboard the ship. 

"Furthermore, when they landed on Mount Ararat and started 
with the other animals to travel to the Plains of Shihar the cats 
were given the head of the procession, and when they arrived 
there, and the people were building the Tower of Babel and the 
Lord confused their tongues, the voice of the cat, which hereto- 
fore had been sweet and melodious, was changed into its present 
raucous caterwauling." 



A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF LILITH. 

By a. S. Freidus, New York Public Library. 

Long before Lilith entered the field of Jewish folk-lore she 
was a prominent figure in Assyro-Babylonian demonology. The 
etymology of the name given in the Encyclopaedia Britannica: 
" Hebrew, lilatu, night " should have " Assyrian " substituted for 
" Hebrew." 

In order adequately to follow Lilith's long career through the 
ages, from the dawn of religious belief to the present day, the 
following three principal lines of study suggest themselves : 

1. Lilith in Babylonia, her home-land. 

2. Lilith among the Jews. 

3. Lilith in modern literature. 

I. The Original Lilith of Babylonia. 
To acquaint oneself with the role played by Lilith in ancient 
Babylonia, one should turn to the works of Reginald Campbell 
Thompson, formerly assistant professor of Semitic lagnuages at 
the University of Chicago, now residing at Oxford, England. 
Although a comparatively young man, he is the most prominent 
writer on the demonology of the Babylonians ; he gives in his 



10 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XII 

writings due prominence to the activities of Lilith; and he does 
not neglect to give the necessary references to the literature of 
his subject. He has written: The devils and evil spirits of Baby- 
lonia, being Babylonian and Assyrian incantations, London, 1903- 
1904, 2 V. ; Semitic magic, its origin and development, London, 
1908; and the Assyro-Babylonian part of the composite article 
" Demons and spirits " in James Hastings's Encyclopaedia of Re- 
ligion and Ethics, v. 4, 1912. He is now engaged in writing a 
book on Semitic mythology, which is to form v. 5 of " The My- 
thology of all Races," now being published in Boston under the 
editorship of Louis H. Gray. 

In connection with this it may be said that the above-mentioned 
article in the Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics relating to the 
demonology of the various nations, written by several specialists, 
and comprising over seventy quarto pages, contains a mass of 
material too valuable to be overlooked by any student of the 
subject.. 

2. Lilith among the Jews. 

This includes the study of the passage in the Book of Isaiah 
XXXIV, 14, the numerous passages in the Talmud and the Mid- 
rashim, the Kabbalah, the various superstitions, and especially 
the amulets, that have survived to the present day. 

On the Jewish side the most prominent writer in this line is 
the Hungarian scholar, Ludwig Blau. He is the Rector of the 
Jewish Theological Seminary at Budapest, the president of the 
folk-lore section of the Jewish-Hungarian Literary Society, and 
the author of a German work on Jewish magic ("Das altjiidische 
Zauberwesen," Strassburg, 1898). He has written the article 
"Lilith" in the Jewish Encyclopaedia (v. 8, 1904) as well as the 
cognate articles : " Abraxas," " Amulets," " Augury," " Death, 
Angel of," "Exorcism," "Incantation," "Liver," "Magic," 
" Metatron," " Necromancy," " Samael," " Sandalfon," " Sa- 
tan," and " Shi'ur Komah." (Compare also the following ar- 
ticles, written by other writers in the same work : " Asmodeus," 
"Azazel," " Bibliomancy," "Childbirth," "Demonology," "Div- 
ination," "Folklore," "Superstition," and "Witchcraft.") Com- 
pare Joseph Jacobs's " The Jewish Encyclopedia : a guide to its 



April, I9I7 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 11 

contents, an aid to its use," New York, 1910, "Mysticism" 
(p. 72-75) . The articles " Childbirth " and " Amulets " in a way 
supplement the article " Lilith," as it is at childbirth that she dis- 
plays her most pernicious activity, and many of the amulets are 
worn as a protection against her evil machinations at all times, 
but at childbirth especially. Women in that condition are ex- 
posed to attacks from many quarters. According to the Rabbis 
of the Talmud women die in childbirth to atone for' their neglect 
of certain religious duties, the heavenly authorities taking advan- 
tage of that dangerous period and using it against the delinquents 
as a day of reckoning (Sabbath 32a). In all these articles the 
principal passages of the Talmud and the Midrashim, and some- 
times also those from the Kabbalah, relevant to the respective 
subjects, are referred to, if not cited in full; whilst the references 
appended at the end indicate the studies of modern Hebraists and 
folklorists relating to the same topics. These references may 
serve as a nucleus for the desired bibhography of the subject. 

The following few additional titles are offered as a contribu- 
tion to the same : 

Baring-Gould, Sabine. Legends of Old Testament Characters. London, 

1871, p. 20. 
Ben Jehuda, Eliezer. Millon ha-Lashon ha-Ibrit, v. 5, p. 2671-72 [proof 

sheets, 1915, in possession of the author.] 
Briick, Moses. Vom Amulette bei einer Woechnerin. (In his Rabinische 

Ceremonialgebraeuche. Breslau, 1837, p. 50-55) 
Cheyne, Thomas Kelly. The Prophecies of Isaiah. 5th ed. N. Y., 1892, 

V. I, p. 197-198. 
Conway, Moncure Daniel. Lilith. (In his Demonology and Devil-lore. 

New York, 1879, v. 2, chapter IX.) 
Ginzberg, Louis. The Legends of the Jews, v. i, p. 65-66. Philadelphia, 

1909. 
Griinbaum, Max. Gesammelte Aufsatze zur Sprach- und Sagenkunde. 

Berlin, 1901, p. 94-95. 
Hundt von Radowsky, Hartwig. Die Judenschule. London, 1823, Buch 

I, p. 121-123. 
Krauss, Samuel. Victor Hugo. (Deborah, hrsg. von G. Deutsch, v. 2, p. 

81-83. Cincinnati, 1902.) 
Levi, Israel. Lilit et Lilin. (Revue des Etudes juives, v. 6&, p. 5-21. 

Paris, 1914.) 
M'Clintock & Strong. Cyclopaedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesi- 
astical Literature, v. 9. N. Y., 1880, s. v. Screech-owl.) 



12 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XII 

Montgomery, James Allan. Aramaic Incantation Texts from Nippur. 
Phila., 1913. 

Myer, Isaac. Qabbalah. Phila., 1888. 

Natursagen. Hrsg. von Oskar Dahnhardt, Bd. i, Sagen zum Alten Testa- 
ment. Leipz., 1907. 

Notes and Queries. 6 ser., v. 8, p. 248, 296, 354; v. 9, p. 5, 177. London, 
1883^1884. 

Stejielin, John Peter. The Traditions of the Jews, v. 2. London, 1742. 

Waite, Arthur Edward. The Doctrine and Literature of the Kabbalah. 
London, 1902. 

The Secret Doctrine in Israel : a Study of the Zohar and its Connec- 
tions. London, 1913. 

Waldaur, Adolf. Lilith. (Popilar-wissenschaftHche Monatsblatter, hrsg. 
von Adolf Briill, v. 6, p. 248-250. Frankfurt a. M., r886. 

3. Lilith in Modern Literature. 

It may be interesting bibliographically to find out to what ex- 
tent this legend was known among Occidentals and how much 
use was made of it in modern literature. Such a compilation 
may be an interesting piece of work, especially since no attempt 
seems ever to have been made in this direction. 

The following are a few examples of poetic renderings of the 
legend or of casual references to it: 

Burton, Robert. Anatomy of Melancholy, 1621, first partition, section 2, 

member i, subsection 2. A digression on the nature of spirits. 
Goethe. Faust, 1808, Walpurgisnacht, at the end. Compare Bayard Tay- 
lor's translation, note 141. The passage is also found in Shelley's 

Scenes from the Faust of Goethe. 
Belloy, Marquis Auguste de. Lilith, poeme. 1885. (Not in the New 

York Public Library. There is an account of it in Larousse.) 
Longfellow. Christus : a Mystery. Part I, The Divine Tragedy. The 

second Passover. (In his Poetical Works, Riverside edition, v. 5.) 
Rossetti, Dante Gabriel. Lilith. [A sonnet, and a picture.] Compare 

Lafacadio Hearn, Appreciations of poetry. New York, 1916, p. 97-98. 

Rosetti also refers to Lilith in his poem Eden Bower. 
Browning, Robert. Adam, Lilith, and Eve. [A poem.] (In his Joco- 

seria, 1883.) Also refers to Lilith in his poem "Two camels." 
Collier, Ada Langworthy. Lilith: The Legend of the First Woman. [A 

poem.] Boston, 1885. 
Perez, Isaac Loeb. Monisch. [A ballad in Yiddish.] 1888 (in his 

Schriften). 
Jehoash. Die geganwete Callah. [A ballad in Yiddish.] (In his Ge- 

sammelte Lieder. New York, 1907, p. 80-82.) 



Aprii 1917 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 13 

Die bose Chaliastre. [A ballad in Yiddish.] 1908. (In his Neue 

Schriften, v. I, page 68-71. New York, 1910.) 

A few works of imaginative literature relating to modern life 
in which the heroine is named Lilith to indicate her partaking 
more or less of the characteristics of the original mystical per- 
sonage. 

Burr, Amelia Josephine. Lilith. [A poem.] (Scribner's Magazine, v. 
47, p. 588. New York, 1910.) 

Cahan, Jacob. Lilith. [A poem in Hebrew.] (In his Shirim. Odessa, 
1913, p. 98-99-) 

Catherwood, Mary Hartwell. Lilith. [A story. Illustrated.] (Lippin- 
cott's Magazine, v. 27. Philadelphia, 1881.) 

Clemens, S. L. (Mark Twain). Eve's Diary. Extracts from Adam's 
Diary. New York, 1914. 

Corelli, Marie. The Soul of Lilith. 3 v. London, 1892. 

France, Anatole. La fille de Lilith. [A story.] (In his Balthasar, Paris, 
1889. loth edition. Paris, 1901.) 

• The Daughter of Lilith. [A story.] (In his Balthasar. A transla- 
tion by Mrs. John Lane. London, 1909, p. 57-78.) 

German, Juliusz. Lilith. [A symbolic play in Polish, in three acts and 
in verse.] Lwow, 1905. 

Ginzburg, Pesach. Lilith. [A poem in Hebrew.] (Ha-Shiloah, v. 30, p. 
342. Odessa, 1914.) 

Keats, John. Lamia. 1819. "Lamia" is used as the equivalent of the 
Hebrew word "Lilith" (Isaiah xxxiv, 14), both by Symmachus in his 
Greek translation and by St. Jerome in his Latin translation. 

Kurz, Isolde. Die Kinder der Lilith. Ein Gedicht. Stuttgart, 1908. 

Macdonald, George. Lilith, a Romance. New York, 1895. 

Pollock, Walter Herris. Lilith. [A story.] (Temple Bar, v. 43. Lon- 
don, 1874-1875.) 

Wedde, Johannes. LiHth. Gesaenge. Hamburg, 1910. 

Wilcox, Ella Wheeler. The Birth of Jealousy. [A poem.] In her world 
voices. New York, 1916, p. no. 



PREDACEOUS HABIT IN MADETERUS AND PSILOPA 

(DIPT.). 

By J. R. Malloch, Urbana, 111. 

The larvae of Madeterus^ have long been known as predaceous 
enemies of other insect larvae, and though I have long suspected 



14 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XII 

that the imagines have also the predaceous habit I was unable 
until July of last year to verify that suspicion. I can now record 
the fact that flies of this genus feed upon small insects, having 
taken a specimen in the act of devouring a male Forcipomyia 
(Ceratopogonidas) , 

The species of P silo pa frequent foliage and are not uncommon 
upon flowers, especially milkweed, and I had not strongly sus- 
pected them of predacity. I observed this year one specimen 
suddenly attacked a small insect which it just as suddenly dropped. 
Examination proved the discarded prey to belong to the Thysan- 
optera and probably to be the common Thrips occurring on dan- 
delion. I do not know why the insect was dropped but presume 
it was distasteful to the predator. In this connection it may be 
pertinent to mention that I have seen Scatophaga furcata pounce 
on and instantly discard specimens of Anthocoris, a bug having a 
most disagreeable odor. The small Thrips above mentioned is 
able to bite persons, as I know from experience. 



THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES OF EUCHRYSIA. 
FEMALES. 

By a. a. Girault^ Glenndale, Md. 

Based on the types. 
Propodeum with a broad median area which is rugulose (distinctly 
more coarsely sO' in similis; not so in maculipennis) , terminates 
in a line of large foveae distad and which is distinctly wider than 
the scaly space between it and the lateral carina. Head and thorax 
densely, closely punctate, the abdomen finely scaly, segment 2 
glabrous. 

I. Wings hyaline or subhyaline. Postmarginal vein longer than the mar- 

ginal. 
Antennas black with funicles 2-5 reddish brown; cephalic femora 
slightly swollen. Wings hyaline. Antennae about as in similis. 

hyalinipennis Ashmead. 

II. Wings with a large, ovate fuscous blotch from the marginal vein or 

uniformly infuscated from the base of the marginal vein to the 
apex. 
Wings infuscated from the base of the marginal vein to apex. 
Postmarginal vein longer than the marginal. 



April, 1917 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 15 

Antennae all black; cephalic femora much swollen. Funicle 
joints unequal, 2 largest, twice longer than wide, the club 
apparently 4-jointed with a lateral terminal spine which is 

curved at apex and hairy similis new species. 

Wings with a large, ovate fuscous area against the marginal vein. 
Postmarginal vein distinctly shorter than the marginal. 
Funicle joints all wider than long, widening distad; club 
solid, obliquely truncate, with no terminal spine. Segment 
2 of abdomen occupying over a third of the surface. Man- 
dibles tridentate. Cephalic femora a little swollen. Pro- 
podeum tricarinate at the meson, the space occupied by the 
carinse barely wider than the space between them and the 

lateral carina (male) maciilipennis Ashmead. 

Euchrysia similis Girault. Female : — Like hyalinipennis except as de- 
scribed above. One ? in the U. S. Nat. Museum from Lawrence, Kan., 
June 18, i8g6 (Hugo Kahl). 

Type. — Catalogue No. 20,464, U. S. N. M., the specimen 
minutien-mounted, a fore and hind leg and an antenna on a slide 
with the type appendages of hyalimpennis. 



THE ELEVENTH PLEOCOMA. 

By H. C. Fall, Pasadena, Cal. 

Pleocoma badia n. sp. — Form robust, nearly as in fimbriata and conjun- 
gens; color brown both above and beneath, hairs of under surface yel- 
lowish brown. Antennae with the third joint elongate, fourth either with 
a short lamellate process or merely angulate, fifth to eleventh with long 
lamellae, that of the fifth joint distinctly shorter than those following. 
Clypeus deeply notched, vertical horn emarginate at tip. Prothorax twice 
as wide as long, form as in conjungens, antero-medial area flattened and 
medially impressed or concave, surface finely, rather sparsely punctate, the 
flattened and impressed area conspicuously more coarsely and densely so 
and with numerous long hairs anteriorly. Elytra still more finely and 
sparsely punctate than the prothorax, the geminate lines only feebly 
defined. 

Length 26-28.5 mm., width 14.5-15 mm. 

Described from three males given me by my young friend 
Alonzo Davis, of Pasadena, who took them December 19, 1914, 
at an elevation of about 3,000 feet on the Mt. Wilson trail (So. 
Cal.), and who has recently published an account of their capture 
in this Bulletin (February, 1916). 



16 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XII 

At the time of receiving the specimens, a brief reference to 
Horn's synoptic table showed clearly that the only possible previ- 
ously described species to which they could be referred was con- 
jungens Horn. A difference of some four hundred miles in habi- 
tat is practically a guarantee of specific distinctness in this genus, 
but as conjungens was not represented in my collection I thought 
best to wait until I could compare with the type of the latter be- 
fore going further. This I had the satisfaction of doing this 
past summer, and although the two forms are closely allied, I 
believe them to be quite distinct. As for the differences : First 
of all, conjungens is a black species, and badia is brown. All three 
examples of the latter are alike, and the color is in no way due 
to immaturity. Badia is sensibly larger — length 26-28.5 mm., 
conjungens 23 mm. The antennae are of the same type, but the 
lamella of the fifth joint is nearly as long as those immediately 
following in conjungens, distinctly shorter in badia. In badia the 
thorax is hairy at the middle in front, in conjugens it is entirely 
destitute of hairs. The punctures of the flattened and impressed 
antero-medial area are more conspicuously coarser than those of 
the rest of the surface in badia, and the geminate striae of the 
elytra are feebly defined ; in conjungens the geminate striae are 
quite distinct. 

It is of interest to note that the point on the Mt. Wilson trail 
where badia was found is scarcely five miles west of the little 
caiion in which P. australis was discovered a few years ago. 
These two species by their antennal differences belong to different 
sections of the genus. 



SYNOPSIS OF THE SPECIES OF ARTHROMACRA. 

By Charles W. Leng, West New Brighton, N. Y. 

In the fall of 1915, Mr. Wm. T. Davis and I spent a week in 
Washington, making daily visits to the U. S. National Museum 
and learning more from our intercourse with Mr. E. A. Schwarz 
and Mr. H. S. Barber than can readily be prepared for publica- 
tion. The following remarks will however record one of the 
subjects that was thus brought out. 



April 1917 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 17 

In consequence of the description of Arthromacra robinsoni^ 
Mr. Schwarz called my attention to certain specimens in the U. 
S. National Museum remarkable for their vestiture of long thin 
hairs, collected by the late Hugo Soltau at Nashville, Tenn., 
which evidently represent a new species. In searching for addi- 
tional material I found one more of the Nashville specimens in 
the Joutel collection, and representatives of still another new 
species in the American Museum, collected by Wm. Beutenmiiller 
in the mountains of North Carolina. The remarkable elongation 
of the last joint of the male antennae, characteristic of the 
Lagriidse, is to be seen in these new species, varying in degree 
with each as in the species of the allied genus Statira; and varia- 
tions in color, in the punctuation of the pronotum, and in the 
relative length and width accompany the more obvious characters 
first mentioned. It is interesting to note that the genus Artho- 
inacra, widely distributed and known in our northern regions by 
the species aenea should have three species and two varieties near 
its southern limit as shown by the following synopsis. 

Synopsis of the Species of Arthromacra. 

Upper surface glabrous. 

Thorax distantly punctate; color brilliant green; last joint antennae 3 

as long as six preceding joints combined; 11 mm.; Va robinsoni. 

Thorax confluently punctate; color aeneous bronzed; last joint antennae 
(S as long as three preceding joints combined; 12-14 mm.; N. E. U. S. 
and Can. aenea. 

Elytra with a few long, thin hairs. 
Thorax coarsely, confluently punctate; color bright green above, ab- 
domen bronzed, tibiae and tarsi testaceous; antennae J' unknown; lo-ii 
mm. ; Mts. of Va. and N. C. appalachiana. 

Upper surface of thorax and elytra clothed with long, thin hairs. 
Thorax coarsely punctate; color greenish or greenish coppery bronzed; 
abdomen darker, tibiae and tarsi pale; last joint antennae 3 as long as 
five preceding joints combined; 11-12 mm.; Tenn. pilosella. 

A. ROBINSONI Leng, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc, XXII, 1914, p. 285, fig. a, b. 

Since recent studies have disclosed the presence of elytral hairs 
in two species of the genus I have reexamined my series of 
robinsoni and find in some specimens a few hairs near the apex 
of the elytra, not enough to cause any confusion with appalach- 

1 Journal N. Y. Ent. Soc, XXII, 1914, p. 285. 



18 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XII 

iana. The latter moreover differs in the closer punctuation of 
the pronotum as well as in the male antennae. 

A. AENEA Say. Lang's Exped., 11, 1824, p. 287; Horn, Trans. Am. Ent. 
Soc, XV, 1888, p. 28; Blatchley, Beetles of Indiana, 1910, p. 1284. 

fdonacioides Kirby, Fauna Bor. Am., IV, 1837, p. 239. 
var. glabricollis Blatchley, 1. c, p. 1285, fig. 570. 
var. rugosecollis Leng, 1. c, p. 287. 

This species extends over Canada and our northern states 
from the Atlantic region to Minnesota and, in the mountains, it 
reaches Georgia. The thorax becomes less rugose in the variety 
glabricollis, described from Indiana, to which I refer with some 
doubt a specimen in the U. S. Nat. Mus. from Missouri, in which 
the legs are entirely red. Further collections from that region 
may show this to be representative of still another variety. In 
the variety rugosecollis, described from the mountains of Georgia, 
the greatest length, as well as the greatest development of the 
transverse rugae of the pronotum, is attained. 

A. appalachiana n. sp. 

Slender, parallel, slightly broader behind, shining green above, 
darker green beneath, abdomen bronzed, antennae, tibiae and tarsi 
testaceous. Antennae 5 with the last joint as long as the three 
preceding joints combined {(^ unknown) ; head coarsely, con- 
fluently punctate, thorax similarly punctate, both glabrous ; elytra 
also coarsely, confluently punctate and with a few long, black, 
hairs. Beneath the surface is nearly impunctate, shining, except 
the closely punctate sidepieces of mesosternum. 
•Length, 10, to 11 mm. 

Type in U. S. N. M. collection from Pennington Gap, Va., 
June 30 (Hubbard and Schwarz). Other specimens collected by 
Wm. Beutenmiiller, Graybeard Mt., N. C., June 25, and Black 
Mts., N. C., June 20, are in Am. Mus. Coll. and my own. 

A. pilosella n. sp. 

Elongate, subcylindrical, slightly broader behind, greenish or 
greenish coppery bronzed, shining, antennae, tibiae and tarsi pale 
testaceous, abdomen dark bronzed. Upper surface of thorax and 
elytra clothed with long thin, dark hairs. Head and thorax 
coarsely punctate, punctures somewhat irregular towards base of 



Ap-ril, 1917 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 19 

thorax, elytra rugosely confluently punctate, body beneath equally 
shining, coarsely punctate, except abdomen, and thorax beneath. 
Antennae J* with last joint about as long as the five preceding 
joints combined; $ with last joint about as long as the three 
preceding joints combined. 

Length, 11 to 12 mm. 

Types in U. S. N. M. collected at Nashville, Tenn., June 
20 (H. Soltau) ; other specimens from the same locality and from 
Frankfort, Ky., May 7 (H. Soltau), are in the U. S. N. M., the 
Am. Mus. N. H., and my own collection. 



A NEW SPECIES OF TINGID FROM NEW YORK. 

By J. R. DE LA Torre Bueno, White Plains, N. Y. 

Corythaica is a genus described by Stal to contain Tingis 
monacha, from Rio Janeiro, Brazil, described by him in i860. 
At present it contains several species, all from tropical or sub- 
tropical regions. Van Duzee does not record any species from 
the United States, and it is interesting to present one from as 
far North as New York. 

Corythaica bellula, n. sp. Hood curving downward over head, white 
with black keel down the middle, flanked by a single row of cells on each 
side, becoming two posteriorly; broad and rounded posteriorly; nervures 
dark (brown to black) ; keel of hood continuous with median keel of 
thorax, which is higher. Eyes globose, black. Antennas thin, not as long 
as head and prothorax together; joint 3 longest, thinnest; joint 4 next in 
length, stoutest, fusiform, thickly set with setae; joint i and 2 shortest, 
I stouter and longer than 2, nearly as stout as joint 4. Rostral groove 
closed anteriorly, walls interrupted at anterior coxae, widest at posterior. 
Rostrum reaching posterior coxse; joint I not visible, 2 longest, thin; 3 
and 4 stoutest, subequal, apparently somewhat flattened, 4 black toward tip. 

Prothorax tumid anteriorly, produced in a point posteriorly and covering 
scutellum, tricarinate, carinse nearly parallel, median slightly higher; a 
median transverse groove before the middle; deeply punctured, punctures 
merging into cells in the posterior flattened part; explanate lateral margin 
extending from the anterior two-thirds of thorax, narrow, much reflexed, 
nearly erect, with a single row of areoles, white, nervures concolorous. 
Pleurse reticulated to coxae. Legs of nearly equal length, all femora 
slightly incrassate, tibis slender, both unarmed ; coxae large, globose. 



20 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XII 

Hemelytra (in macropterous) extending much beyond abdomen, costal 
membrane narrow, single-celled, cells growing larger posteriorly and 
merging into membrane. Costal area long, narrowing posteriorly, cells 
small, growing larger posteriorly and merging into membrane, nervures 
dark; discoidal area narrow apically, rounded posteriorly and meeting 
costal in an elevated suture, two fifths as long as the costal area from the 
insertion of the wings. Membrane long, extending from anterior ex- 
tremity of wing to the apex, where it merges into the costal membrane 
and the costal area; discal cells small, marginal large, growing larger 
posteriorly; all reticulations more or less infuscate, except discal cells. A 
membrane extends downward from the hemelytra one cell deep around 
the abdomen and conforms to its outline. 

Abdomen broadest at the second and third segments, tapering to a 
rounded extremity. Male genital segment blunt, as long as the 2 preceding 
segments together and provided with stout hooks; female segment nar- 
rower and with a median keel. Long., 2.2 mm. ; lat., .9 mm. 

The brachypterous form dififers notably in size and shape, being not 
more than two thirds the length of the macropterous, the prothorax much 
reduced and flattened ; the membrane is nearly absent and narrow ; the 
general shape is oval ; the hemelytral reticulations are also much smaller. 
In other particulars it conforms to the macropterous. Long., .1.9 mm.; 
lat., .9 mm. 

While colors have been given in the body of this description it is in 
general terms; the general coloration ranges from a light grey, nearly 
white, through darker grey, and brownish to nearly black. 

Type : Macropterous female, White Plains, June 26, 1910. Morphotype : 
Brachypterous male, same locality, Sept. 25, 1909. Paratypes : Six macrop- 
terous females, same locality, four same date as type, one Sept. 25, 1909, 
one June 30, 1912. Six brachypterous females, and six males, same dates 
as above, except one, Sept. 19, 1909. 

This species has been taken in one place only, a sloping grassy 
meadow, going up from a rich marshy swale in a field, among 
fine low grasses much intermingled with moss, by sweeping close 
tQ the ground. On one occasion (June 26), some 150 were taken 
by Mr. C. E. Olsen and myself. The short and long-winged 
occur together, with the former greatly preponderating. The 
period of greatest abundance is apparently in June, but they have 
been taken in April, May, June, July, August and September. 



April, I9I7 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 21 

CONCERNING GERRIS REMIGIS SAY. 

By Chris. E. Oslen, Maspeth, L. I. 

April 4 at Alpine, N. J., I collected seven specimens of this 
species for breeding. They fed readily on spiders of the family 
Theridiidse, the only food I could get at the time. Later I tried 
a species of Drassidse, but it was too powerful. The Gerris 
abandoned the attack and allowed the prey to escape. First 
copulation was observed April ii among the four survivors, 
three having drowned.. Four had gone to the bottom of the jar 
containing them. I laid one on a blotter to be pinned. A few 
hours later I found it moving its legs feebly. When it recovered 
I put it back in the aquarium. After a square meal it seemed 
as vigorous as ever. 

Copulation was a sort of continuous process. April 19 I dis- 
covered five eggs on the side of the aquarium ; next day two 
more deposited on a straw. The eggs were placed in a separate 
vessels for observation. The first young emerged in seventeen 
days, imperfectly developed, unable to expand, and it died next 
day by drowning. The next hatched May 8, and next day had 
its first meal, a Drosophila ampelophila, of which I had bred 
numbers for feeding. It was very amusing to watch the Gerris 
attack the prey much larger than itself. It would jump around 
from side to side, apparently looking for the best place for attack. 
It finally landed quickly as eye could follow, jumped away with 
equal rapidity, repeating a number of times, inserting its beak 
each time, the fly becoming weaker and finally offering no 
resistance. 

May 15 first cast skin found floating. May 22 the second; 
and food hereafter was a small microlepidopteron. May 31 
third exuvia; June 9 fourth; June 24 fifth and a perfect imago, 
wingless of wingless parents. 



22 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XII 

NOTES ON LUCANID^. 

By John W. Angell, New York. 

Pseudolucanus mazama var. nov. bicostatus: Differs from the 
typical form of mazama by the more elongate elytra, which are 
markedly costate, the two costas being broad and rather flat. The 
narrow form of bicostatus at once distinguishes this variety from 
others which show faint indications of costse. Type one male in 
my collection given to me by Mr. R. P. Dow, from Ft. Wingate, 
N. M. (John Woodgate collector). Length 30 mm. 

Platycerus pedicillaris vs. thoracicus: In Memoirs of the Cole- 
optera, V, p. 374, Col. Thos. L. Casey says : " After carefully 
reading the description of (P.) pedicellaris Mollenkamp, de- 
scribed from California (Ent. Zeit., V, 191 1, p. 304), I am unable 
to find any notable difference between it and P. thoracicus Csy. 
It is highly probable, therefore, that it is . a synonym of that 
species." 

In this connection I should say that I have in my cabinet one 
of the original cotypes of P. pedicellaris Mollenkamp, sent to me 
by F. W. Nunenmacher, the collector, and two specimens of P. 
thoracicus, identified by Col. Casey himself, and the difference is 
very marked. Thoracicus is finely punctured, flat in body, and 
easily discernable as a member of the quercus group; while P. 
pedicellaris has elytra coarsely striate and is much stouter in 
body, resembling in general appearance P. keeni Csy. This, I 
think, indicates specific distinctness. 



LIVING PUP^ FOR SALE. 



The sale of Saturniid cocoons collected by members of the 
Brooklyn Entomological Society, proceeds to go to its publication 
fund, insures that during the coming season experiments in 
hybridism and other biological research will be greater than ever 
before. 

We can still supply cecropia and cynthia in unlimited quanti- 



April 1917 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 23 

ties at one cent each, postage to be added on small orders. As 
these species are easily controlled and have the largest imagines, 
they are particularly recommended for experiments. 

We have only a few io and polypheinus left, at 5 and 4 cents 
respectively. By keeping pupae cool, hatching can be controlled 
well into May. Address all correspondence to 

R. P. Dow, Editor, 
15 Broad St., N. Y. City. 



OFFERTA ET DESIDERATA 



FLORIDA Insects of all orders, also Fish, Batrachians, Reptiles, Shells, 
and Marine Invertebrates sold by A. G. Reynolds, Gulfport, Fla. 

WANTED. — No. Am. Cerambycidse and Buprestidse, especially Agrilus; 
will collect insects of any order in this locality for exchanges in above 
families. ,C. A. Frost, 26 Pond St., Framingham, Mass. 

THE UNDERSIGNED will greatly appreciate receiving records of 
New Jersey species not listed in Smith's Insects of New Jersey. — Harry 
B. Weiss, 242 Raritan Ave., New Brunswick, N. J. 

FINE SPECIMENS of the large Mantis, Paratenodera sinensis, col- 
lected at Mt. Airy, Philadelphia, Pa., offered in exchange for North 
American Lepidoptera. — Philip Laurent, 31 East Mt. Airy Ave., Philadel- 
phia, Pa. 

I COLLECT for cash local Insects in all Orders. Printed price list of 
nearly 1,000 species Coleoptera in Henshaw Nos. A. H. Manee, Southern 
Pines, N. C. 

WANTED. — North American Orthoptera from localities which are little 
known or in which but little collecting has been done. Material from the 
mountainous regions of the West particularly desired. M. Hebard, Acad- 
emy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, Pa. • 

WANTED. — Sphingidse from any part of the world. Will purchase or 
exchange. B. Preston Clark, 55 Kilby St., Room 35, Boston, Mass. 

WANTED for cash or exchange. — Silphidse and Lucanidae from all 
localities in North America. J. W. Angell, 532 Wales Ave., New York 
City. 

FOR SALE at low prices. — A large number of species of Colombian 
Lepidoptera, perfect and seconds. Also Canadian species. H. S. Parish, 
81 Robert St., Toronto, Can. 



24 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XII 

WANTED for cash. — Ova of Catocalae with or without parent moth. 
Address George J. Keller, 191 Avon Ave., Newark, N. J. 

FOR SALE, or EXCHANGE for perfect copies of scarce postage 
stamps, a collection of Palsearctic Geometridse in finest condition, properly 
labelled and correctly named. About seven hundred specimens. William 
Reiff, 366 Arborway, Jamaica Plain, Mass. 

WANTED. — Imagos of Saperda Candida, Pholus pandorus, all stages 
of Macrodactylus subspinosus except imagos, and other material of eco- 
nomic importance. Ward's Natural Science Establishement, 84 College 
Ave., Rochester, N. Y. 

WANTED.— All kinds of material for Life Histories. Lepidoptera, 
Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, Diptera, etc., etc. Herman H. Brehme, 74 13th 
Avenue, Newark, N. J. 

WANTED. — Transactions American Entomological Society, Vol. IV; 
Proc. U. S. Natl. Museum, Vol. X, pp. 335-337; Vol. XI, pp. 481-525, 
Vol. XII, pp. 455-496. Howard L. Clark, Box 1142, Providence, R. I. 

FOR SALE.— Entomological News, Vols. XV to XX, inclusive, un- 
bound, at subscription price, six vols., $6. Geo. P. Engelhardt, Museum, 
Brooklyn, N. Y. 

WILL EXCHANGE local butterflies for other Lepidoptera. Fred King, 
1588 Crites St., Los Angeles, Cal. 

WANTED.— Lintner's Injurious Insects, 1886 and 1887 (Rep. 3 and 4)- 
N. Y. Park Rep. 1873-1896. Jour. Appl. Microscopy, I''. Monthly Bui. 
CaHf. Com. Hort., is-io; ns-s . jys^ Send stamp for list of pubHcations 
for sale or exchange. Philip Dowell, Port Richmond, N. Y. 

BARGAIN. — Splendid collection of Lepidoptera (about 1,500 specimens), 
from all parts of the world ; mostly in Denton's patent tablets ; oak case ; 
suitable gift for school, institution or collector; $150, value $500. — Wim- 



THE BROOKLYN 
ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 



Meetings are held on the second Thursday after the first 
Tuesday of each month from October to June inclusive, at 185 
Brooklyn Avenue. The annual dues are $2.00. 



OFFICERS, 1916 



President 
W. T. BATHER 

Vice-President 
WILLIAM T. DAVIS 
Corresponding Secretary 
R. P. DOW 
Recording Secretary 
J. R. DE LA TORRE-BUENO 
Treasurer 
C. E. OLSEN 
Librarian 
ARCHIBALD C. WEEKS 
Curator 
GEORGE FRANCK 

Delegate to Council of New York Academy of Sciences 
CHARLES E. SLEIGHT 



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Vol. XII 



APRIL, 1917 



No. 2 



BULLETIN 

OF THE 



Brooklyn Entomological 
Society 



NEW SERIES '. <$■ \ 

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PUBLICATION COMMITTEE 



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ROBERT P. DOWi 
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Published by the Society 
Price, 25 cento Subscription, $1.00 pet year (five issues) 



CONTENTS. 

EXPERIENCES OF A COLLECTOR, Slosson 25 

MISCELLANEOUS NOTES ON COLEOPTERA, Chapin 29 

A NEW SERICOTHRIPS (THYSANOPTERA) FROM AFRICA, 
Hood 32 

SYNCHLORA AVIDARIA N. SP., Pearsall 34 

A KEY TO THE NORTH AMERICAN GENERA OF CCENO- 
SIINyE, Malloch 35 

^, A NEW GENUS AND SPECIES OF ANTHOMYIIDJE, Malloch 37 

NOTES ON A FEW EUCNEMID^ AND DESCRIPTIONS OF 
NEW ELATERIDiE, Schaefifer 39 

PROCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY 45 



■ V 



MAY 






BULLETIN 

OF THE 

BROOKLYN ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

Vol. XII April, 1917 No. 2 

EXPERIENCES OF A COLLECTOR. 

By Annie Trumbull Slosson. 

Some time ago I wrote, for a religious weekly, an article 
entitled Human Nature Study. In it I told of various experi- 
ences of my own in botanical and entomological collecting. I 
received many letters after its publication asking if it was truth 
or fiction and expressing surprise that any one in our enlightened 
age could show such ignorance as I spoke of encountering. But 
I am confident that the audience I address now will believe all 
that I may say on this subject. They have "been there": 

I am, as most of you know, an old woman, though still an 
enthusiastic and strenuous collector. So as I tramp over hill and 
plain in rough, appropriate costume, butterfly net in hand, poison 
bottles hanging at my leather belt, with big bag, holding knife, 
forceps and other essentials, I suppose I am an odd looking char- 
acter to the average passerby. So I make allowances and am 
rarely stirred to anger even by rude or discourteous questions or 
remarks. For many years I was more interested in botany than 
in any other branch of natural history and met with many amus- 
ing experiences in that kind of collecting. But this is not the 
place for them, and I will confine myself to the bug adventures. 

Every one of you insect collectors has been asked again and 
again as to what one might call the lucrativeness of your pursuit. 
" How much are you paid for your work ? " " What firm do you 
work for?" "What will you pay me to help-you?" These are 
questions familiar to every collector. That one can walk miles 
over rough roads, climb rugged heights, stand for hours in mud 
or water, blister one's hands stripping bark from trees or turn- 



26 BiiUetin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XII 

ing big stones and this ivithout pay, does seem hard to believe, I 
admit it. For these questioners know nothing of our real earn- 
ings, our full reward for all pains and exertions. The question 
most often asked, in one form or another, is zvhy we do these 
things. And it is so hard to explain that why in a way they can 
comprehend. Often I find, after I have made what I think is a 
plain, lucid explanation of an entomologist's aim, that I have 
utterly failed to give the listener the faintest idea of it all. 

" How many insects have you at home yourself ? " asked a 
sweet faced old lady who joined me one day on a wooded road 
in Vermont. And when I told her there were thousands in my 
collection she exclaimed — " How do you ever feed them all ? " 
And I found she thought they were all kept alive as pets or com- 
panions. Yet she herself was of more than ordinary intelligence 
and knew so many, many things I had no knowledge of. For 
she told me in what year the first missionary was sent to Africa 
and added many details as to his own and later missionaries' work 
and success. She talked of the different religious denominations 
in Vermont and had statistics concerning the comparative num- 
bers of Baptists, Methodists and Congregationalists at her 
tongue's end. And she was fully as ardent and enthusiastic in 
this field as I in my small sphere of interest. Surely, as St. Paul 
says, "There are diversities of gifts, but the same spirit." I am 
often asked, in my wanderings, if I am employed by government 
to do this thing. At a summer resort, where I have been year 
after year of late, I find it is generally thought by the waiters 
and other employes of the hotel that I am in the employ of the 
state government, with a large salary. In vain I deny this — they 
only think I am guarding a state secret. A very intelligent 
woman in the south, after watching me night after night captur- 
ing moths at the electric lights, said to me very courteously, " I 
think now I understand your purpose in this. You are trying to 
see if you can find two of these night-flyers exactly alike. It is 
like trying, as I used when a child, to match two leaves of ribbon- 
grass." I afterwards learned that the woman was a teacher. I 
hope she does not conduct a nature course. In my frequent visits 
to Mt. Washington and my long sojourns on the summit I heard 
more strange and uncomplimentary comments upon myself and 



April, 1917 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 27 

my doings than I ever heard at a lower level. You who have 
been to that delightful spot know how bleak and rugged is its 
external appearance and how little suggestion of animal life is 
there. A butterfly on that peak would seem to the casual ob- 
server or summer tourist an incongruous thing, a miracle. So 
each day when the train crept up the mountain, laden with travel- 
lers, looking, very often for the first time, upon the strange peak 
covered with pile upon pile of huge rocks I, happily and harm- 
lessly following my beloved pursuit below the platform, would 
hear such remarks as these : 

" What in the world is that old woman about ? What's she 
got in her hand ? " " Oh, it's a butterfly-net ! Did you ever? " 
" She must be crazy. Just think of a butterfly up here. Why 
do her folks let her do it ? " " Let's ask in the house about her, 
they'll know." They did know and much of our good Miss 
Clarke's valuable time was spent in satisfying the curiosity of the 
" exertionists," as we call them up there, as to the manners and 
customs of the queer character they had seen. The " man with 
the hoe " was not half as well known up there as the " woman 
with the net." I tell you I know from experience how it feels to 
be considered " a rare alpine aberration." 

" Come on, Ma," I once heard a sunburned youth say to a 
plain, homey old woman as I stood on the platform watching the 
tourists filling up the waiting train soon to start for the base. 
" Come, the cars is going d'rectly, we must get seats." 

" Le'mme alone, John. Seems's if I hadn't seen all the sights 
yet. Let's see. I've got 'em writ down here," and she read from 
a crumpled scrap of paper : " Printin' office, Lizzie Bourne's grave 
stun, the Tip-over House and — there I ain't seen the old bug 
woman ! " I did not introduce myself and nobody pointed me 
out. So the disappointed sight seer was dragged reluctantly to 
the train, her golden opportunity lost. " Excuse me, madam," 
said a tall Southerner of the Colonel Carter type, as he swung his 
hat from his head with an elaborate bow, when he met me at the 
edge of an orange grove in Florida one April day. " I venture to 
address you without an introduction as I see you are a taxi- 
dermist." Then, almost before I could recover my breath, quite 
lost from the shock of this unjust accusation, he added in a 



28 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XII 

trembling voice with a sugg-estion of nearby tears, " my mother- 
in-law was one also." Later I found that the said connection by 
marriage was a stiidier of ants and their habits. So that her 
pursuits and my own were really more alike than if she had 
followed taxidermy as her mourning son-in-law had intimated. 
The term entomologist does not seem generally understood 
throughout good collecting regions. Several times, in New 
Hampshire, when I have owned to being one I have found it 
understood to mean a member of some religious denomination. 
As one very old man in Jackson said when I owned the soft 
impeachment, " Well, I dare say, it's a good enough belief, but, as 
for me, I'm an old fashioned Hardshell Baptist like my folks 
before me and I ain't no use for your new sects." I did not 
set the old man right — what was the use ? — ^but left him standing 
in the road gazing sadly after me and doubtless wondering how 
an intelligent being could accept other creed than that of the 
Hardshell Baptists' ! I was once " held up " in a sandy Florida 
road by a solemn little girl of nine or ten, and denounced to my 
face as a " cruel, wicked woman " for putting to death harmless 
insects. I can see her now, as I look back, with her old fashioned, 
pale, pinched little face looking into mine, her thin little hand with 
uplifted finger being shaken at me, as she called down judgment 
upon my head. Did any of you ever try to defend your taking so 
many lives when talking with one who thinks it a sort of cruelty- 
to-animals pursuit ? I never tried harder than I did that day. I 
told the child how painlessly the insects died by my hand; how 
short their natural lives were at the best, and how apt they were 
to die violent deaths, from storm, attacks of birds, etc. But oh, 
the look of scorn on that small face as she listened, and when I 
paused she said calmly, " Just talk, talk ! " and I felt smaller 
than one of the flea-beetles I had just been capturing. I learned 
later that the child's mother was a vegetarian, thought it wicked 
to kill or eat any animal or wear its skin, carrying her ideas into 
everything and going to violent extremes. Small wonder that 
her child should try to do missionary work in the same field. 

But I have had many, many pleasant encounters while collect- 
ing ; acquaintances, yes, even warm friendships have been formed 
through chance meetings on the road, by strearn, or in the woods. 



April, 1917 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 29 

A courteous question as to my pursuit, an inquiry about a flower 
or tree, a sympathetic phrase about nature in one of its varied 
forms, such things as these have been the small beginnings of 
great things making life broader, happier. 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES ON COLEOPTERA. 

By Edward A. Chapin.* 

During the past year several interesting facts in regard to the 
feeding habits of various beetles were ascertained and some of 
them seem worthy of publication. All observations reported here 
were made in the vicinity of Springfield, Mass., during the spring 
and summer of 1916. 

Late in the winter, a few twigs of Rhus glabra L. were col- 
lected and placed in jars in the laboratory. As the object of the 
experiment was to obtain clerids, it could not be considered a 
great success, as only three specimens of Phyllohaenus dislocatus 
Say appeared. This species was reported by Blackman,t from 
the twigs of Pinus strohus L. However, the longicorns Liopus 
fascicularis Harr. and Psenocerus supernotatus Say were very 
plentiful. A mention of the latter species from this plant was 
made by Dow.$ The minute ipid, Pityophthorus consimilis Lee. 
was also very abundant in the wood, and it is probable that this 
species furnishes something toward the food supply of the clerid. 

Numerous trips were made to the region along the railroad 
where carrion, such as fowls, pigeons, cats, etc., are often found 
and careful inspection of the remains usually produced good 
results, especially in the families Silphidse, Staphylinidse and 
Nitidulidse. An attempt was made to tabulate the relative 
abundance of the species of the genus Silpha. For a period of 
about three weeks collections of the specimens were made over 
a restricted locality. On April 21, only the species incequalis 
Fab. and novehoracensis Forst. were to be found but these were 

* Contribution from the Entomological Laboratory of the Massachusetts 
Agricultural College, Amherst, Mass. 
fN. Y. State College of Forestry, Vol. XVI, November, 1915, p. 53. 
X Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soc, Vol. XI, p. 20. 



30 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XII 

already present in considerable numbers. At the end of the 
period the count showed the following species : vS. noveboracensis 
and incequalis is about equal numbers, roughly 1400 in all; 15 
specimens of surinamensis Fab. had been taken as well as six of 
lapponica Hbst. and about 20 americana L. The genus Necro- 
phorus was not much in evidence at any time. N. marginatus 
Fab. leads the list with 16 specimens, americanus Oliv. following 
with two and sayi Lap. and orhicollis Say with one each. 

One dermestid, D. talpinus Mann., heretofore reported only as 
far east as Indiana* was taken in quite considerable numbers. 
Apparently the stock cars serve as the means of dispersal of this 
species, as it was not taken elsewhere than along the tracks. 

The nearly cleaned skeleton of a gray squirrel, inspected on 
June 6, gave, among others, specimens of Prionochceta opaca 
Say, a silphid, and, clinging closely to the inside of the skull, was 
one specimen of Phenolia grossa Fab., one of our largest niti- 
dulids. 

Of the flowers that give the collector many forms of Coleoptera, 
those of Ceanothus americana L. seem the most prolific, and many 
species can be readily taken here although rare on the flowers of 
,any other plant. For instance, Mycterus scaber Hald. is quite 
common in this region on Ceanothus but I have yet to take it else- 
where. The longicorns of the genera Leptura, Strangalia and 
Typocerus are always abundant on pleasant days and literally 
hoards of the smaller species of Mordellidse can be swept from 
the heads of flowers. Occasionally a wanderer appears, as was 
the case on July 24, when three specimens of the southern Copi- 
dita thoracica Fab. were taken on a single plant. At the end of 
the season this proved to be an unique capture. The flowers of 
the different species of Viburnum are also good collecting places 
and among others, copulating specimens of Molorchus bimaculatus 
Say were taken on June 12. Leptura ruficollis Say is also- not 
uncommon on the flowers of this shrub. Late in the spring, when 
the flowers of the skunk cabbage are past their prime, certain 
nitidulids, such as Omosita colon L. and Glischrochilus (Ips) 
fasciatus Oliv. are quite abundant in the hoods, apparently feed- 
ing on the pollen. The large mountain mint, Pycnanthemum 

* Blatchley, Coleoptera of Indiana, 1910. 



April, 1917 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 31 

incanum (L.) Michx. proves attractive to Rhipiphorus limbatus 
Fab., as well as to certain other forms which however do not 
show special preference to the Labiatse. 

During the summer eleven species of the family Cleridse were 
taken, six species being of the genus Hydnocera Newm. With 
their food plants and dates, they are as follows : H. pallipennis 
Say (July i6-Sept. 16) on Carya glabra Spach., C. alba K. Koch., 
Juglans cinerea L. and Platanus occidentalis L. ; H. humeralis 
Say (Aug. i), H. longicollis Ziegl. (July 15-24), and H. verti- 
calis Say (July 16-17), all from Carya glabra Spach., and H. 
lecontei Wolc. (June 14-15) was found on Be'tula populifolia 
Marsh and Verbascum thapsus L., although this species probably 
came from a nearby stand of Carya glabra. Of the other genera 
collected, one specimen of Monophylla terminata Say was taken 
from Vitis labrusca L. on July 15, and, from Carya glabra, three 
specimens of Ellipotoma laticornis Say (July 16-17) and one 
specimen of Phyllobcenus dislocatus Say on July 16. Trichodes 
nutalli Kirby was found between July 30 and August 4, on the 
flowers of Taraxacum officinale Weber, Daucus carota L., Pycn- 
anthemum incanum, (L.) Michx., and Chrysanthemum, leucan- 
themum L. The remaining species, Necrobia violacea L. was 
uncommon under the almost cleared skeletons of hens. 

An interesting incident bearing on the instincts of myrmecopil- 
ous Coleoptera came under my observation one afternoon while 
returning from a collecting trip. A large brown ant (species 
unknown) was dragging an apparently dead beetle across a path. 
Stooping to pick the pair up for examination, I was much sur- 
prised to have the beetle take immediate flight from my hand. 
This flight was arrested by the net and the beetle proved to be 
the well known myrmecophile, Cremastochilus canaliculatus 
Kirby. The abduction by the ant did not disturb the beetle 
nearly as much as the outside interference. The most interesting 
part of the whole afifair is the fact that the ant was still clinging 
to the fore leg by its mandibles. I wonder if the beetle would 
have stopped as soon as possible and allowed the ant to resume 
the interrupted journey. 



32 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XII 



A NEW SERICOTHRIPS (THYSANOPTERA) FROM 
AFRICA. 

By J. Douglas Hood, U. S. Biological Survey. 

The following description of an interesting little species of 
thrips taken in Africa by Lieut. Arthur W. Jobbins-Pomeroy of 
the Nigeria Regiment has been in manuscript for nearly two years, 
and is published at this time, in advance of a more extensive paper 
on the species of the same region, for the reason that the insect 
is the first of its genus to be recorded from beyond the limits of 
the Holarctic faunal realm. 

The writer is indebted to Lt.-Col. Sir David Prain, Director of 
the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew, England, for securing the 
determination of the plants from which the types were collected. 

Sericothrips occipitalis sp. nov. Female (macropterous) . — Length about 
0.9 mm. General color pale brownish yellow, with numerous, clearly de- 
fined, brown markings. 

Head widest across eyes, about 1.8 times as wide as long; color pale 
brownish yellow, both above and below, with vertical region dark brown; 
cheeks straight, nearly parallel, about half the length of eyes ; frontal 
costa with V-shaped notch; occipital line represented only by a heavy 
brown line behind ocelli; occiput prominently reticulate with fine, dark 
lines, which are more indistinct and transverse near eyes ; ocellar area 
very finely and evenly transversely striate. Eyes prominent, protruding, 
about two thirds as long as head and nearly as wide as; their interval. 
Ocelli of posterior pair rather widely separated, pigment red. Antennae 
slender, about 3.5 times the length of head, of normal structure; segments 
I and 2 nearly colorless; 3-5 pale gray, the apex of 4 and the apical half 
of 5 slightly infuscate ; 6-8 concolorous with apex of 5 ; segment 6 with 
two long, slender, pale sense-cones, one on the inner and one on the outer 
surface, attached nearly their entire length, thus forming two longitudinal 
pale lines ; segment 5 with one oblique similar structure on inner ventral 
surface. 

Prothorax a little longer than head and about twice as wide as long, 
lateral and posterior margins rounded, anterior margin very slightly and 
roundly emarginate ; pronotum pale brownish yellow except for a large, 
sellate, brown blotch which is margined with a darker brown line and 
which occupies slightly more than the posterior half of the median ^two 
thirds, this blotch arcuately emarginate in front and with the sides par- 
allel; coxae brown, femora and tibiae yellowish, slightly infuscate laterally; 
pronotum exceedingly finely and closely and rather obscurely transversely 



April, 1917 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 33 

striate with anastomosing lines in the area of the dark blotch, the lateral 
and anterior portions prominently reticulate like the occiput ; bristles 
normal to the genus, there being one long closely appressed pair near the 
posterior angles. Pterothorax brown in general color, with a more or 
less distinct pale girdle just behind middle coxae; mesoscutum about as 
closely striate as prothoracic blotch, the lines converging (as usual) to 
three points on posterior margin; metascut'um nearly as closely longitudi- 
nally striate. Fore wings brown at extreme base, then with a narrow, 
white, transverse band, the remainder of wing brownish gray, slightly 
paler toward apex; nearly twice as wide just beyond scale as at middle, 
the greatest subbasal width (exclusive of scale) about one tenth the length 
of wing; costal margin with about 27 equidistant bristles, anterior vein 
with about 29, posterior vein (absent?) unarmed. Middle and hind legs 
pale yellow, shaded more or less distinctly with brownish around middle 
femora and tibiae, coxae brown. 

Abdomen moderately stout, about 1.6 times the width of prothorax; 
segments 1-3 and 6 pale yellowish brown, 4 and 5 yellowish white, 7-9 
dark brown, 10 yellow ; a dark line extends across base of tergites 2-7, 
that on 7 being arcuate in median third instead of strictly transverse ; 
posterior margins of segments produced at sides (and also at middle of 
apical segments) into long, slender spines; pubescence absent from most 
of median third of tergites 2-5, brown in color except on 4 and 5 ; seg- 
ment ID divided above in apical two fifths ; bristles norman to the genus. 

Measurements of paratype : Length 0.864 ^oam. ; head, length 0.084 mm., 
width 0.150 mm. ; prothorax, length 0.098 mm., width 0.200 mm. ; ptero- 
thorax, width 0.252 mm. ; fore wing, length 0.714 mm., width near base 
0.068 mm., at middle 0.035 mm. ; abdomen, width 0.328 mm. 

Antennal segments : 1234 

Length (m) 25 2>7 63 55 

Width (/x) 26 26 19 19 

Total length of antenna 0.299 mm. 

Male (macropterous). — Length about 0.8 mm. Color as in female ex- 
cept that abdominal segments 1-3 and 6-8 are dark brown and concolorous, 
4 and 5 being white and 9 and 10 brown, fading to yellowish at apex ; a 
dark, straight line extends across base of tergites 2-9; three pairs of 
minute black dots just basal to the transverse line of segments 2-8. 

Measurement of allotype: Length 0.768 mm.; head, length 0.072 mm., 
width 0.150 mm.; prothorax, length 0.092 mm., width 0.192 mm.; pfero- 
• thorax, width 0.228 mm. ; fore wing, length 0.618 mm., width near base 
0.054 mm., at middle 0.030 mm. ; abdomen, width 0.198 mm. 

Antennal segments : 1234 

Length (^) 24 36 57 51 

Width (/*) 24 24 17 17 

Total length of antenna 0.283 mm. 



5 


6 


7 


8 


44 


52 


10 


13 


16 


15 


6 


5 



5 


6 


7 


8 


42 


50 


10 


13 


14 


14 


6 


S 



34 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XII 

Described from 2 females and i male, taken by Arthur W. 
Jobbins-Pomeroy at Ibadan, southern Nigeria, January 11 and 
14, 191 5, on Desmodium lasiocarpum DC, Andropogon tectorum 
Schum. & Thonn., and BougainmllcEa glabra Choisy. 

Though taken from three species of plants, the series is thor- 
oughly homogeneous both in color and structure. The absence 
of. a true occipital line and the reticulate sculpture of the whole 
occipital area are sufficient to distinguish it from all previously 
described species. 

SYNCHLORA AVIDARIA N. SP.— (LEP., GEOMETRID^). 

By Richard F. Pears all, Allaben, N. Y. 

Size, wing shape and color very close to 5". denticulata Walk., — a clear, 
pale pea green, the costa of fore wings above and beneath is narrowly 
margined with white, sometimes tinged with rose at bases, and the den- 
ticulate, thread-like white Hnes crosssing both wings are precisely as in 
denticulata. Fringe green, whitened at outer edge ; and between veins at 
base, a single white dot forming a partial marginal row. Abdomen above 
green, marked longitudinally at centre with a white line. Pure white 
below. Antennae in c? pectinate at base, graduating to simple at apices, 
snow white above, the pectinations and beneath yellowish. On the ? sim- 
ple. A broad white band on occiput covers their bases, and there is a 
narrower one in front above labrum. Front a dull brownish red, quite 
rosy in some fresh specimens, with a narrow red line often present, divid- 
ing the white occipital patch from the green collar. Beneath, the wings 
are silvery white with a greenish cast, without markings. The body and 
legs snow white, excepting the front femora which are green. 

Type (^ from Palmerlee, Cochise Co., Arizona (June), was taken many 
years ago by the late Henry W. Marsden, and is in the collection of the 
American Museum of Natural History in New York. 

The allotype 5 from Oracle, Arizona, June 30, 1904, came to me from 
Mr. E. J. Oslar, and is in the same collection. A paratype 5 is from the 
same source, taken at Oracle on the same day. 

The Species here described I have had from Florida, Arizona 
and San Diego, Cal. It may easily be separated from denticulata, 
a southeastern species, which has the front green ; and, in its 
western habitat, from liquoraria Gu., with its red front, by wing 
texture and its clear green color, not inclined to yellowish, as in 
the latter. 



April, 1917 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 35 

Herrick-Schaeffer described under the name of albicostaria a 
species from the West Indies, which for a long while I considered 
might be the same with this, but a close study of a specimen, 
which I think should bear his name, taken by the late J. A. Gross- 
beck at Curacoa, and others from Porto Rico through the kind- 
ness of Geo. B. Engelhardt, leads me to believe them quite dis- 
tinct. Later, it may be possible to confirm this opinion by com- 
parison of genitalic mounts. 



A KEY TO THE NORTH AMERICAN GENERA OF 
CCENOSIIN^ (DIPTERA, ANTHOMYIID^). 

By J. R. Malloch, Urbana, 111. 

The members of this subfamily maybe distinguished from other 
anthomyiids by the following combination of characters : 

Under-surface of scutellum bare; sternopleural bristles 3 in 
number, arranged almost invariably in a nearly equilateral tri- 
angle, if 4 are present the additional one is ventrad of the lower 
posterior one ; hypopleura and pteropleura bare ; anterior supra- 
alar bristle absent or very minute ; eyes of both sexes separated by 
about one third the width of head ; frontal cruciate bristles ab- 
sent; sixth vein of wing usually incomplete, complete only in 
Neochirosia. 

The early stages are but poorly represented in my material — 
the only 2 species I have reared being found in the larval stage 
under bark of fallen trees and in rotten wood. 

The imagines of most, if not all, of the species are predaceous, 
feeding upon minute insects such as Chironomidae, Sciaridae, etc. 

Key to Genera. 

1. Sixth vein of wing extending to margin Neochirosia. 

— . Sixth vein of wing discontinued considerably before margin 2. 

2. Frons much broader than long, distinctly narrowed anteriorly, inner 

margin of eye concave above, the width of either eye viewed from 

above not' greater than half the width of frons . . Schoenomysa. 

— . Frons at least as long as broad, usually very much longer, width of 
eye about equal to that of frons 3- 



36 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XII 

3. Mesonotum with 4 pairs of postsutural dorso-central bristles, ■ 

Tetramerinx. 
— . Mesonotum with at most 3 pairs of postsutural dorso-central bristles 4. 

4. Arista with very long plumosity; abdomen in male with 5 dorsal seg- 

ments visible Pentacricia. 

— . Arista short-haired, pubescent, or bare ; abdomen in male with 4 dorsal 
segments visible 5- 

5. Frons much produced beyond anterior margin in eye, usually from one 

third to one half the length of eye; arista pubescent, much thickened 
on basal half; face receding towards mouth; last abdominal segment 

in female armed with chitinised hooks Phyllogaster. 

— . Frons very slightly produced beyond anterior margin of eye; arista 
slender except at extreme base ; face almost vertical in profile ; last 
abdominal segment in female not armed with chitinised hooks . . 6. 

6. Squamae small, subequal; male with large ventral subapical append- 

ages Hoplogaster. 

— . Squamae rather large, under scale much larger than upper . .Coenosia. 

I consider that the minute distinctions between Coenosia, 
Caricea, Dexiopsis and Limnospila are not sufficiently constant 
nor are they so evident that they can be depended upon as char- 
acters for the differentiation of genera. I therefore place all 
species of these so-called genera in Ca:nosia. 

Neochirosia gen. nov. — Generic characters : slender, closely resembling 
Chirosia in habitus. Eyes widely separated in both sexes, cruciate frontal 
bristles absent; orbital bristles long; antennae shorter than face, third joint 
but little longer than second, rounded apically; arista almost bare, slender, 
swollen at immediate base; cheeks rather high, bristly on lower margin; 
proboscis fleshy. Anterior supra-alar bristle distinct, almost one third as 
long as posterior one; 4 pairs of postsutural dorso-centrals present ; sterno- 
pleural bristles in an almost equilateral triangle. Abdomen slender, sub- 
cylindrical; basal segment distinct but short; hypopygium small, the ven- 
tral recurved processes chitinised, last ventral segment with a deep 
V-shaped central incision. Legs slender, strongly bristled; claws and 
pulvilli subequal in length. Sixth vein of wings complete, seventh extend- 
ing almost to margin. 

Neochirosia setiger sp. n. — Male and female : length 5 mm. ; black, cov- 
ered with slight but distinct pruinescence. Head with distinct silky yel- 
lowish white pile; palpi black; antennae black. Thorax not vittate, slightly 
shining. Abdomen colored as thorax, without distinct markings. Legs 
black, tibiae and tarsi yellowish testaceous. Squamae gray. Halteres yel- 
low. Wings slightly brownish, especially anteriorly. 

Orbits exceeding anterior margin of eye about as far as width of third 
antennal joint; cheek about half as high as eye, the latter almost exactly 
circular in outline. Acrostichals 2-rowed ; scutellum with a very long pair 



April, 1917 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 37 

of bristles situated on disc beyond middle, a smaller pair proximad ot 
these, and a very small pair at apex. Fore tibiae with 2 bristles, one on the 
posterior surface near middle and another on anterior surface nearer to 
apex ; mid tibiae with 5 bristles, 2 on anterior, 2 on posterior, and i on 
antero-ventral surface, the upper bristles weakest; hind tibiae with 6 bris- 
tles, I antero-ventral, i anterior, 2 anterb-dorsal, and 2 postero-dorsal. 
Type locality. White Heath, 111., May 28 and 30, 1916. 

I found this species rather scarce amongst undergrowth in 
a wood along the bank of the Sangamon River. 



A NEW GENUS AND SPECIES OF ANTHOMYIID.^ 
(DIPTERA). 

By J. R. Malloch, Urbana, 111. 

The genus described herewith is readily separated from any 
other in the family except Proboscimyia and Dolichoglossa by 
the remarkably slender, elongate proboscis. 

The genus Proboscimyia was described by Bigot in 1883.* In 
i885t he redescribed, or rather more fully described, the same 
genus and species, altering the generic name to Proboscidomyia, 
, the correct form, in my opinion. I retain the original form of the 
name. In neither description is there any mention made of the 
character of hairing of the arista, but as the genus is compared 
with Anthomyia we may assume that it was either short-haired 
or pubescent. 

In 1897 Stein described Dolichoglossa^ and compared it with 
Hamw^omyia and Hylephila. No mention is made of Pro- 
hoscim^yia, and judging from the descriptions of the two genera I 
consider that there is but little doubt they are synonymous. 

The present genus differs from the foregoing in having the 
arista extremely long-haired. The species differs also in having 
the legs yellow. 

Neohylemyia gen. nov. Male. — Eyes narrowly separated ; f rons slightly 
protruded anteriorly; antennae as in Hylemyia; arista globose at base, very 

* Bull. Ent Soc. France, p. xxx. 

t Ann. Ent. Soc. France, p. 266. 

t Berl. Ent. Zeitschr., Vol. 42, p. 230. 



38 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XII 

long plumed above and below; face protruded well beyond eyes, cheeks 
broad ; palpi slender, directed forward, very slender ; proboscis much 
elongated, its length equal to that of thorax. Thorax with three post- 
sutural dorso-centrals, three sternoplurals ; under surface of scutellum 
with a few weak hairs. Fourth ventral segment of abdomen cleft almost 
to base. Hind tibiae with preapical dorsal bristle. Sixth vein of wing 
complete ; third and fourth veins subparallel, the former bare at base. 
Calyptrse subequal. 

Type, Neohylemyia proboscidalis sp. n. 

Neohylemyia proboscidalis sp. n. Male. — Black, slightly shining. Head 
brown, frontal stripe opaque black-brown ; orbits deep brown ; when viewed 
from the side the orbits appear deep brown as far down as middle of third 
antennal joint, the lower portion, cheeks, and face being whitish pruinose; 
antennae black; proboscis brown; palpi, yellowish. Dorsum of thorax 
black-brown, slightly pruinose, indistinctly vittate ; lateral margins an^ 
humeri distinctly gray pruinose ; scutellum as disk of thorax. Abdomen 
dark brown, the surface with dense grayish pruinescence, and a median 
longitudinal black stripe which is rather irregular in outline. Legs yellow, 
fore femora slightly darkened above, tarsi fuscous. Wings clear, veins 
yellowish. Calyptrae whitish. Halteres yellow. 

Eyes narrowly separated, frontal stripe complete, but very narrow on 
upper half; third antennal joint over three times as long as broad; basal 
joint of arista short and stout, extreme basal portion of terminal section 
much .swollen, rays on base of arista about two thirds as long as arista ; 
cheek twice as high as width of third antennal joint and one and a half 
times as high as length of facial orbits beyond eye when seen in profile ; 
proboscis geniculated beyond insertion of palpi, entire length equal to 
that of thorax. Presutural acrostichals irregularly 2-rowed, slender and 
of moderate length. Abdomen subcylindrical ; apices of segments with 
strong bristles on dorsum. Legs slender ; fore tibiae with two or three 
bristles on posterior surface, and a series of setulse on apical third of 
antero-dorsal surface; mid femora with two or three long bristles on basal 
third of ventral surface and three or four shorter and stouter bristles on 
median third of antero-ventral surface; mid tibiae with four bristles — two 
posterior, one postero-dorsal, and one antero-dorsal; hind femora with a 
complete series of strong bristles from base to apex on antero-ventral sur- 
face; hind tibiae with six or seven bristles — two or three antero-ventral, 
two antero-dorsal, and two postero-dorsal, the first mentioned lowest in 
position, the last stronger than the others ; claws and pulvilli long. Costal 
spine short; outer cross-vein bent. 

Length 6 mm. 

Type, Quincy, 111., taken on sand-bar in Mississippi River (C. A. Hart). 

The species has much the appearance of a small Hylemyia, but 
the proboscis is very much longer and more slender than in that 
genus. 



April', 1917 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 39 

NOTES ON A FEW EUCNEMID^ AND DESCRIPTIONS OF 
NEW ELATERIDAE. 

By Chas. Schaeffer, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Family Eucnemidse, Microrrhagus oblitus Bonv. — Dr. Horn in 
his " Monograph of the species of the families Eucnemidse, etc." 
in Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, XII, p. 34, says that this species is un- 
known to him and remarks that it apparently more closely re- 
semhles subsinuatus than any other of our species. The last 
named has the pronotum without anti-scutellar carina and the 
median line impressed posteriorly while ohlita has a distinct ante- 
scutellar carina and no median impressed line. Of the former 
species I have two specimens and of the latter three specimens 
which answer the descriptions very well. Specimens collected by 
Mr. Shoemaker in Maryland and Virginia, however, show that 
these two characters are not constant. Some specimens have the 
prothorax distinctly impressed posteriorly and a distinct ante- 
scutellar carina, in others the carina is represented by a smooth, 
short line, which sometimes is slightly elevated behind ; the im- 
pressed line may be distinct, faint or absent. The two species 
otherwise agree so closely that I have scarcely a doubt that they 
are one variable species. 

Microrrhagus imperfectus Lee. — This species is said to re- 
semble subsinuatus from which it is distinguished by the form of 
the posterior supplementary and the juxta-sultural carina. A 
single specimen, which I refer somewhat doubtfully to this species, 
has the outer carina of the juxta-sutural sulcus very distinctly 
obliterated behind but the posterior supplementary carina is not 
short but extends nearly to the middle. The length of the pos- 
terior and often the anterior supplementary carina is variable as a 
moderately large series will show and if no other characters are 
present to separate imperfectus from oblitus and subsinuatus the 
two last become synonyms of imperfectus. 

The same variation in the characters mentioned above are no- 
ticed in my four specimens of audax, but this species has a dif- 
ferently formed and more coarsely punctured prothorax than the 
above named species. The variation or rather abbreviation of 



40 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XII 

the outer carina of the juxta-sutural sulcus is mentioned by Dr. 
Horn in bonvouloiri. Of this species I have two specimens which 
have this carina distinctly and somewhat suddenly obliterated be- 
hind, not differing otherwise from a specimen with entire carina. 

Family Elateridse. — Drasterius thoracicus n. sp. Moderately elongate ; 
finely pubescent ; color reddish brown, antennae and legs paler ; markings 
as in dorsalis (elegans)* and amabilis. Head black, moderately closely 
and not coarsely punctate. Antennae note quite as long as head and pro- 
thorax. Prothorax about as long as wide; sides moderately arcuate in 
front; hind angles rather long and acute, not divergent and with an acute 
carina ; surface moderately coarsely punctate, punctures well separated. 
Elytra about twice as long as prothorax ; sides narrowed in front and 
behind ; striae distinctly impressed and with moderate punctures ; intervals 
sparsely, somewhat granulately punctate. Prosternum rather sparsely punc- 
tate at middle, punctures coarser at sides and near base; side pieces more 
coarsely punctate than prosternum ; the first four ventral segments not 
densely punctate, the punctures at sides coarser than at middle; last ventral 
segment's rather densely punctate. Penultimate tarsal joint scarcely lobed 
beneath. Length 5 mm. Southern Illinois. 

One specimen of this peculiar little species in the collection of 
the late Ottomar Dietz. It is readily distinguished from any of 
our species by having the sides o'f the elytra narrowed in front 
and behind, which gives the prothorax the appearance of being 
wider than the elythra though the prothorax is not wider than the 
elytra a little above middle. 

Drasterius subornatus n. sp. Rufo-testaceous ; antennae, legs and palpi 
paler ; elytra with a rather indistinct postscutellar darker cloud and a more 
or less undulated subapical black fascia ; pronotum with a faint apical 
darker cloud, which is absent in some specimens. Pubescence grayish 
white and a Httle longer than in dorsalis. Head moderately coarsely, not 
densely punctate; antennae a little longer than the head and prothorax, 
third joint a little longer than second and both slightly longer than fourth. 
Prothorax a little longer than wide; sides feebly arcuate, almost parallel 
behind ; basal angles slightly divergent and carinate ; punctuation moder- 
ately coarse and not very close, punctures nearly equal over the entire sur- 
face. Scutellum flat. Elytra about twice as long as prothorax; sides 
feebly arcuate; apices conjointly rounded; striae at base scarcely impressed, 
punctures moderate; intervals flat and finely, sparsely punctate. Under- 
side rather coarsely punctate, the first few abdominal segments more finely 

* According to Champion, Biol. Cent. Am. Col., Vol. HI, pt. i, p. 365 
(footnote). Say's dorsalis is wrongly placed as synonym of elegans. The 
latter is West Indian and distinct from the North American species. 



April, 1917 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 41 

punctate, the punctures gradually becoming smaller 'towards apex. Fourth 
tarsal joint scarcely excavate above. Length 5.25 mm. Brownsville, Texas. 

The twenty-five specimens before me show very httle varia- 
tion, some specimens have the prothorax unicolorous, others have 
a faint, dark, apical cloud This species differs from dorsalis, 
besides the different markings, in being smaller, the punctuation 
of prothorax a little more dense and the surface more depressed ; 
the last mentioned characters separate it also from amabilis, 
which, however, has the fourth tarsal joints rather more deeply 
excavated above than subornatus and dorsalis. From livens. 
which is also more depressed than dorsalis and amabilis, it differs 
besides other characters, in having a stronger punctuation of pro- 
thorax and elytral striae. 

Drasterius (Aeolus) nigriventris n. sp. Moderately elongate, rufo-testa- 
ceous, antennae, palpi and legs paler ; underside, except at sides, head, a 
broad median Hne on prothorax and sides more or less black; scutellum 
and suture near the latter a broad, oblique blotch, starting from humeri to 
about' the second or third stria and a broad, subapical, undulated fascia, 
also black. Pubescence sparse and fine. Head rather coarsely punctate ; 
antennae nearly as long as head and prothorax, third joint a little longer 
than second, both together longer than fourth. Prothorax slightly longer 
than wide ; sides slightly arcuate and feebly narrowing towards apex, hind 
angles feebly divergent and acutely carinate, carina moderately long, occu- 
pying nearly basal third; surface coarsely and moderately closely punctate 
at sides, the punctures finer at the middle. Elytra about twice as long as 
prothorax, sides arcuat'ely narrowing from a little below middle, apex 
conjointly rounded; striae moderately impressed, punctures of the first few 
striae rather small and not closely placed, becoming larger and closer at 
sides ; intervals flat, sparsely and finely punctate. Prosternum, metaster- 
num and the first few ventral segments at sides coarsely punctate, the 
latter more finely punctate at middle. Fourth joint of tarsi slightly exca- 
vate above. Length 6 mm. Brownsville, Texas. 

This species resembles superficially amabilis but has a larger 
and anteriorly less narrowed prothorax, less divergent hind angles 
with longer carina and sides more or less piceous ; the underside, 
except at sides and apex is piceous or black. ' It seems to be allied 
to the Mexican pulchellus Caud. but that species has the carina 
of the hind angles about half of the length of the latter. 

Drasterius (Aeolus) scutellatus n. sp. Similar in color and markings to 
dorsalis Say, but of slightly narrower form. Head rather coarsely and 
moderately closely punctate; antennae about as long as head and pro- 



42 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XII 

thorax, second and third joints together longer than fourth. Prothorax 
about as long as wide; sides moderately arcuate, gradually narrowing 
towards apex, hind angles slightly divergent with a moderately long, acute 
carina; surface rather coarsely and not very closely punctate, pubescence 
rather short and sparse. Scutellum conically raised in front. Elytra 
nearly twice as long as prothorax ; sides scarcely arcuately to a little be- 
yond middle thence rather more arcuately to narrowing towards the con- 
jointly rounded apices; strise distinctly impressed and with close, moderate 
coarse punctures which are coarser towards the sides ; intervals feebly 
convex, sparsely and rather finely punctate; surface sparsely clothed with 
short, gray hairs. Prosternum rather coarsely but not densely punctate, 
the punctures finer near apex ; side pieces more densely punctate. Abdom- 
inal segment's one to four, not densely punctate, the punctures coarser at 
sides than at middle, last segment finely and densely punctate towards 
apex. Fourth tarsal joint slightly excavated above. Length 7 (type) -5.5 
mm. Brownsville, Texas. 

• This species differs from all our known N. Am. species in the 
conical raised scutellum. Small specimens resemble aniabilis in 
form more than dorsalis but, besides the different form of scutel- 
lum, haye longer carinse of the hind angles of prothorax and 
coarser elytral strise. It is evidently closely allied to the Mexican 
circumscriptus Champ, with which the description and figure 
agrees -very well, except that the interstices are said to be roughly 
punctured in that species, which are in scutellatus rather finely 
punctured. 

Megapenthes nigriceps Schaef. — In the material collected in 
Brownsville, Texas, by the late Ottomar Dietz I found a female 
of this species, which I described from a single male collected by 
myself. ^ This female has the head not piceous or black but dark 
ferruginous behind and paler in front, otherwise it does not differ 
from the male except, as usual, in stouter form, shorter anten- 
nae, etc. 

Betarmon californicus n. sp. Antennae, head, legs and underside, except 
side pieces of prosternum, base of elytra and a rather broad, but indefinite 
sutural stripe black or piceous; pronotum and side pieces of prosternum 
yellowish ferruginous and sides of elytra pale yellowish brown. Surface 
sparsely pubescent with short yellowish hairs. Head rather coarsely and 
densely punctate, front distinctly margined and arcuate. Prothorax slightly 
longer than wide ; sides gradually converging from base of hind angles to 
a little above middle, then arcuately narrowing to apex ; hind angles rather 
feebly diverging and not carinate ; surface closely punctate with moder- 
ately coarse punctures. Elytra a little more than twice as long as pro- 



April, igi7 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 43 

thorax, scarcely wider at base than prothorax a Httle above hind angles, 
gradually widening towards a little beyond middle, thence arcuately nar- 
rowing to apex, apices subtruncate ; striae scarcely impressed and with 
moderate, close, somewhat elongate punctures ; intervals rather sparsely 
punctate and more or less transversely rugose. Prosternum shining, 
coarsely and closely punctate, side pieces rather dull and more densely 
punctate, with smaller punctures than at middle. Metasternum and abdo- 
men not densely punctate with moderate punctures ; coxal plates rather 
suddenly dilated inwards with the exterior angle rounded. Tarsi simple. 
Length 7 mm. Tulare Co., CaHfornia. 

This species, a single male, was in the material received by the 
late Ottomar Dietz from the above named locality and I am under 
the impression that I have seen other specimens of this species 
showing variation in the coloration of elytra, being either entirely 
piceous or with the dark sutural stripe narrower and the sides 
paler than in the type specimen. 

B. bigeminatus Rand, our only other species differs from the 
above described species, besides coloration, in having distinctly 
and rather sharply carinated hind angles and shorter antennal 
joints. Both species, bigeminatus and calif ornicus are not typical 
BetarmrOn. The third tarsal joint in the type species of the genus, 
the European B. ferrugineus, has the fourth tarsal joint very 
small, and the third dilated and with a small lobe, while in our 
species the tarsi are simple. In Genera Insectorum, Coleoptera, 
family Elateridse. ■ Otto Schwarz failed to list our Betarmon 
bigeminatus. 

Oxygonus montanus n. sp. Form elongate, head and prothorax black, 
elytra blackish brown, first joint of antennae and legs reddish. Head mod- 
erately coarsely and not densely ptmctate. Antennae nearly as long as the 
head and prothorax, joint two shorter than third, fourth a little shorter 
than third and slightly longer than wide at apex, joints four to ten, about 
as long as wide and feebly serrate, joint eleven elongate oval and a little 
longer than the tenth. Prothorax about as long as wide, feebly narrowing 
towards apex, sides scarcely arcuate, hind angles acutely prolonged, mod- 
erately divergent and not carinate ; surface with moderate and well sepa- 
rated punctures, which are a little coarser toward apex and finer near 
base ; pubescence grayish white and longer than on elytra. Elytra as wide 
at base as the thorax ; sides feebly arcuate and nearly parallel, narrowed 
and conjointly rounded near apex; surface with moderately impressed 
and not coarsely punctured striae ; intervals rather flat and not densely but 
confusedly punctate, covered rather sparsely with short grayish white 
hairs. Metasternum and abdomen rather finely, not densely punctate and 



44 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XII 

covered with short grayish white hairs. Length 8.25 mm. Catskill Mts., 
Ulster Co., N. Y. 

I have seen two specimens of this interesting Httle species, col- 
lected by Mr. Ernest Shoemaker, one of which he allowed me to 
retain for the Museum collection. 

This species differs from obesus by its narrower and more 
elongate form, differently formed prothorax, relatively longer 
third antennal joint and lateral margin of elytra scarcely at all 
refiexed. It seems to be similar in form to the Californian ater, 
but that species is black, including legs, has the prothorax coarsely 
punctate with hind angles carinate, elytral intervals biseriately 
punctured and the body beneath deeply pianctured. 



A Year of Costa Rican Natural History. By Amelia Smith 
Calvert, Sometime Fellow in Biology, Bryn Mawr College, 
and Philip Powell Calvert, Professor of Zoology, Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania, Editor of Entomological News. With 
Maps and Illustrations. New York : The Macmillan Com- 
pany. 1917. 

The topography of this paper is all that may be desired and there are 
577 pages, 141 plates and figures and a full-page frontispiece in color, also 
a general map of the country. 

A greater interest is continually being taken in foreign countries by the 
tourist, the naturalist and the business man. Increased and more com- 
fortable facilities for travel, in addition to speed, make such countries far 
more attainable. More persons at present are taking an interest in nature 
and the ordinary work of travel frequently gives scant treatment to the 
plants, mammals, birds, reptiles and insects of the country visited. While 
the present work gives ample description of the geography, topography, 
geology and climate, the greater part of the book is devoted to the living 
forms of life. It particularly treats of the insects and plants. The dragon- 
flies, among the insects, receive the largest share of attention as one of 
the authors is an authority on these insect's and many new facts were 
obtained as to their distribution, habit's and life history. The whole work 
well repays perusal but there are some specially interesting chapters for 
the student of nature, among these being " Juan Vinas — The Waterfalls," 
in which valuable and new observations are made on the dragonfly, Thau- 
matoneura. Fascinating descriptions are given of the ascent of the vol- 
canoes Irazu and Poas. 
A thrilling chapter is entitled " Carthago Deleta Est " and must be read 



April, 1917 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 45 

to be appreciated. The authors are to be congratulated that they were able 
to return alive and write the book. There are graphic accounts of the 
towns visited and descriptions of the people, their homes, government and 
fiestas. The illustrations are excellent and are nearly all from photo- 
graphs taken by the authors. The appendices are very valuable to the stu- 
dent and show painstaking work in their compilation. They include the 
authors' itinerary, with notes on weather in places other than Cartago, 
Cartago weather records for a year, papers based in whole or in part on 
the collections made by the authors in Costa Rica, a list of selected litera- 
ture relating chiefly to the natural history of Costa Rica, exclusive of that 
cited in appendix III, systematic list of plants and animals mentioned and 
a full index. This book shows extreme care in its preparation and is 
replete with valuable information on all the lines of which it treats. It 
will take high rank among the works of a. similar character and will be 
most useful to the traveller or student of nature who visits that country 
in the future and will prove interesting reading to all those persons who 
would like to see the country but failing in that will appreciate such an 
excellent description of a large part of it. 

H. S. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE BROOKLYN ENTOMOLOGICAL 

SOCIETY 

Meeting of October 12, 1916. — Ten members and four visitors were 
present. 

Dr. Felix Metzner was elected to membership. 

The death of Mr. C. H. Roberts, a charter member of the Society and 
its Treasurer for 31 years was announced by the President, as well as that 
of Mr. L. H. Joutel, also a member for many years. 

The scientific programme was a symposium on the collecting experiences 
of the past summer. Mr. Davis exhibited Balaninus proboscidetis Fab., 
B. baculi Chitt., B. rectus Say, B. nasiciis Say, and the Cicadas Tibicen sayi, 
and Tibicen auletes Germ., all from Rockaway Beach, on September 17. 
Many dragon flies were found cast ashore, among them the powerful 
flier Apiaeschna heros Fabr., found drowned. September 21, at Long 
Beach, two Cicindela dorsalis were taken, a late date for this insect, usual 
in July. Catopsilia eubule was taken flying rapidly in an easterly direction. 

Mr. Bueno showed three specimens of Stachyocnemus apicalis taken on 
October 8 in a sand pit, and six Fitchia aptera, all wingless, found under 
a board. He had found collecting poor about White Plains in the past 
summer. Mr. Dow reported Cincindela lepida in countless numbers at 
Lahaway, N. J. Mr. Geo. Franck collected on the shores of the Gulf of 
Mexico, without result. Mr. Ballou reported a variety of Trichius re- 
ceived from Mr. Loding, from Beaufort, N. C. Mr. Engelhardt referred 
to his experiences on a trip to the Pacific Coast. 



46 Bfilletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XII 

Dr. Forbes mentioned a species of Aids (Hesperumia) sulfuraria from 
Peru, N. Y., near Plattsburg. Smerinthus cerisyi came to light and Syneda 
alleni was locally common. 

Mr. Funaro reported Cregya vetiista from Rosedale, July 30. Mr. 
Weeks reported Vanessa j-album at Yaphank. Mr. Olsen showed a col- 
lection of local species of Podisiis including types of his new species, 
Podisus fretus. 

Meeting of November 16. — Fifteen members and one visitor present. 
Long Island records — Mr. Schott reported Meadoriis lateralis from Wyan- 
danch, September 17. Mr. Davis reported Cicindela marginata from 
Orient, L. I., August 15, taken by Mr. Roy Latham, reported from two 
other localities on the north shore of the island, Northport and Wading 
River. Mr. Doll reported Scopelosoma devia common on Long Island. 
The scientific programme was Mr. G. P. Englehardt's account of his visit 
to the Grand Canyon of Arizona, between June 6 and 10. After an 
illuminating description of the natural features he noted as interesting 
captures in the canyon of Cicindela arisona, rather common along a 
small stream on the Bright Angel trail ; Zopherus gracilis, Hetcerina vul- 
nerata, abundant in Indian Garden, as well as Notonecta mexicana; 
M emythrus cupressi was found on willow, in the same place, and the 
larvae of Megatkymus sp. was found boring in agave. Sphinx coloradus 
came to light at the top of the Canyon. 

Meeting of December 14. — Twelve members and one visitor present. 
Mr. Chas. A. Ballou was elected a member. 

Long Island Records : Mr. Schott reported Tornos scolopacinarius from 
Flatbush, April 16, and Mr. Doll reported that Mr. J. C. Wright had the 
larvse from Long Island. From the same locaHty, Mr. Schott also reported 
Elater vitiosus, not heretofore reported either from Long Island or New 
Jersey. Mr. Olsen, for Mr. Shott, reported Aradus uniformis from Wad- 
ing River, May 30, 1915, and A. acutns from Wyandanch, June 16; A. 
duzeei from Nepera Park, above Yonkers, was also shown, taken May 
21, 1916. 

Under scientific programme Mr. Bueno spoke on the New York 
Scolopostethi, a Lygaeid genus, and showed the species likely to be found 
on Long Island, Scolopostethus atlanticus, S. affinis and 5". thomsoni, affinis 
being taken in large numbers at the roots of bunch grass. The members 
of this genus in general appear to be dwellers in swales or marshes, or 
near them. Mr. G. P. Engelhardt spoke on his collecting experiences 
under the head " Notes from Southern California." He told of the beauti- 
ful things of nature he had seen in his excursions in California. Only 
a few of the insects taken were shown, the others not yet being ready. 
He commented on the great abundance of some of the butterflies, i. e., 
Pyrameis carye, Lemonias virgulti, Coenonympha californica and Lycaena 
exilis. Equally abundant also were Pieris rapce and Thecla melinus, the 



April, 1917 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 47 

first finding a suitable food plant in a wild mustard that grows in dense 
thickets to a height of ten feet or more and the latter on beans so exten- 
sively cultivated in southern California. Very common among the moths 
were Apantesis proxima var. autholea and Ctenucha brunnea. Many in- 
teresting forms of Noctuidae and Geometridas were shown. 



Cychrus pyrsolepis Lee. in vol. XI, p. 90, and in Index should read 

Adelocera pyrsolepis Lee. 

Sphinx chersis in vol. XL, p. 91, read "rarely taken of Long Island." 
Cicindela strigosa, vol. XI, p. 92, and in Index : Read " Cicindela striga, 

captured by Jacob Doll, specimen now in the Brooklyn Museum." 

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48 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XII 

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Vol. XII 



JUNEJ917 



No. 3 



BULLETIN 

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CONTENTS 



NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES OF MONATHIA, Drake 49 

SYNOPSIS OF DASYLLIS, Banks 52 

NEARCTIC SPECIES OF LEPTOYPHA AND LEPTOSTYLA, 
McAtee 55 

STUDIES IN THE OLD TESTAMENT, Dow 64 

SPECIES OF DICTYOPHORA NORTH OF MEXICO, Gibson . . 69 



S>sonlanT;;> 

^ ML 21 JO- 



BULLETIN 

OF THE 

BROOKLYN ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

Vol. XII June, 1917 No. 3 

THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES OF MONANTHIA 
(TINGID^). 

By Carl J. Drake, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. 

The genus Monanthia, established by Lepelletier et Serville in 
Encyclopedie Methodique, X, p. 653, 1825, is represented in 
North America by three species. The two tropical or semi- 
tropical species, M. monotropida Stal and M. c-nigrimi Champion, 
are well characterized and illustrated by Champion in the Biologia 
Centrali-Americana (Rhynch., Vol. II, 1898) and the only Nearc- 
tic species, M. laheculata, was described by Uhler in North 
American Fauna, No. 7, 1893. Two new forms are added here- 
in, one from Texas and the other from Colorado. I am indebted 
to Mr. Edmund Gibson, National Museum, Washington, D. C, 
who has very kindly sent me the description of M. ehrethice to be 
included in this paper. 

Key to the North American Species of Monanthia. 

1. Pronotal margins very broadly expanded, contiguous with the median 

carina 2. 

Pronotal margins not so broadly expanded 4- 

2. Head armed with five long spines ; pronotum with the center of each 

lobe strongly raised, ear-shaped ; elytra with the posterior portion of 
the outer nervure closing discoidal area very strongly curved, form- 
ing a .c-shaped mark M. ehrethige Gibson, n. sp. 

Head armed with three very short spines ; pronotal lobes and the outer 
nervure closing discoidal area with no indication of the above struc- 
tures 3- 

3. Rather small insects, about 3 mm. long; costal area of the elytra uni- 

seriate, the areolae very small M. labeculata Uhler. 



50 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XII 

Larger insects, 3.5 mm. long; costal area uniseriate, but the areolae very 

much larger M. coloradensis n. sp. 

4. Lateral margins of the pronotum rather broad, occupying about two 
fifths of the entire width ; elytra with the posterior portion of the 
outer nervure closing discoidal area very strongly curved, forming a 
c-shaped mark M. c-nigrum Champion. 

Lateral margins of the pronotum very narrow, mostly uniseriate; the 
posterior portion of the outer nervure closing discoidal area not so 
strongly curved M. monotropida Stal. 

Monanthia ehrethiae Gibson, sp. nov. — General form of M. c-nigrum 
Champion, but readily distinguished from it by the much larger lobes of 
the pronotum and the irregularity of the areolae along the costal margin 
of the elytra. 

Head broad, armed with five long prominent spines, three frontal and 
two adpressed spines (the later spines arise near the base of the head and 
extend forward near the eyes). Antennas with the basal segment slightly 
longer than the second ; fourth segment swollen and as long as the first 
and second taken together. Bucculse prominent; rostrum reaching to 
middle coxae. Pronotum prominently lobate on each side, and coarsely 
reticulate in comparison to the reticulations of the corium ; the center of 
each lobe raised, ear-shaped. Median carina extending the entire length 
of pronotum, on each side of which at the base is a short carina, diverg- 
ing. Elytra very finely reticulate, with posterior portion of the prominent 
nervure closing the discoidal area forming a c-shaped mark. Reticula- 
tions towards the apex of the elytra becoming larger._ Areolae large, one 
row along costal margin of elytra but which is interrupted occasionally by 
smaller areolae bordering the costal margin. A single row of large areolae 
also bordering inner margin of membrane. Size : 2.7-3 m^n. long ; width 
of pronotum, i mm. 

Color. — Head black, with spines whitish; first two and fourth segments 
of antennas dark, the third testaceous. Rostrum testaceous, tinged with 
black at apex. Lobes of pronotum pale brown, darker on raised portions. 
Elytra ferrugineous, with the c-shaped mark and borders of areolae darker. 
Beneath piceous, rostral groove testaceous. Tibiae and apex of femora 
testaceous. 

Described from three females and three males, collected by 
Mr. H. S. Barber in southern Texas from Ehrethia elliptica D. 
C. Besides these 25 other specimens have been examined which 
were collected by Messrs. Barber, C. H. T. Townsend, and E. A. 
Schwartz, at Brownsville and Victoria, Texas. Ehrethia elliptica 
is undoubtedly the food plant of this species as Mr. Barber has 
taken eggs and nymphs 'as well as adults from it and has observed 



Juncigi? Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 51 

the injury to the leaves caused by the feeding of both nymphs 
and adults. 

Monanthia coloradensis sp. nov. (Fig. i; b). — Form and color similar to 
that of M. labeculata Uhler, but considerably larger and more robust. 
Head short, with three blunt, very short, frontal spines. Bucculse large, 
prominent, coarsely pitted, closed in front. Antennae: basal segment 
strongly swollen, slightly curved outwards; second segment less swollen, 
slightly shorter than the first; third segment slenderest, nude, three times 
the length of the fourth ; fourth segment swollen towards the apex, clothed 
with a few bristly hairs, longer than the first and second conjoined. Apex 
of rostrum concealed by the point upon which the insect is moynted. Pro- 
notum tricarinate, the median carina extending the entire length of the 
prothorax, the lateral basal carinse low, short, and diverging posteriorly; 
lateral margins broad, contiguous with the median carina. Elytra a little 
longer than the abdomen, finely reticulate ; costal area rather broad, uni- 




FiG. I. a, Monanthia labeculata Uhler; b, M. coloradensis sp. nov. 
(Photo, by author.) 



seriate, the areolae much larger than in labeculata; subcostal area finely 
reticulate, with five rows of areolae at the widest part; discoidal area ex- 
tending slightly beyond the middle of the elytra, finely reticulate, with six 
rows of areolae at the widest part, sutural area broad, the areolae a little 
larger than in the discoidal area. Wings visible. Length, 3.5 mm. ; width, 
1.54 mm. 

Color. — Pronotum and lateral margins and elytra testaceous, the nervures 
marked with brown and fuscous. Legs brown, the tips of tarsi fuscous. 
Antennae: first and second segments fuscous; third testaceous; fourth 
blackish. Head and abdomen beneath piceous. Rostral sulcus, bucculae, 
anterior margin of pronotum, and posterior margin of the pro- and meta- 
thoracic pleurae margined with dirty white. 



52 Bulletm of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XII 

Described from a female specimen, collected in Colorado. It 
can readily be separated from labeculata by its larger size and 
the much larger areolae of costal area of the elytra; the two 
species, labeculata and coloradensis, are equally enlarged in the 
photographs. 



SYNOPSIS OF THE GENUS DASYLLIS (ASILID^). 

By Nathan Banks, Museum Comp. Zoology, Cambridge, Mass. 

The species of Dasyllis are among the largest and most promi- 
nent of our Asilidse. In appearance they resemble bumble bees; 
in the north where there are red-haired species of Bombus there 
are also red-haired species of Dasyllis. Their habits and manner 
of flight are, however, very different from that of the bumble 
bees, and they cannot be considered as true mimics of Bombus, 
but rather as members of a Miillerian association. Our species 
are fairly abundant and several undescribed, although I find by 
the collection in the Museum of Comparative Zoology that Loew 
had manuscript names for most of the forms. The species are 
more numerous in the east, but there are a number in the west 
coast region, few however in the Rocky Mountain region. The 
genus is North American, a few occurring in Central America; 
it is an offshoot of the holarctic genus Laphria. 

Synopsis of Species. 

1. Mystax gray; head, thorax, tip of abdomen, and legs with gray 

hair cinerea Back. 

Mystax largely black, at least many black hairs above 2. 

Mystax largely yellow ; the black hairs, if any, mostly below 6. 

2. Thorax all black haired semitecta Coq. 

Thorax with pale hair above 3. 

3. Hair in front of the halters and the wings black 4. 

Hair in front of the halters and the wings yellow 5. 

4. Front and mid legs with yellow hair ; no yellow hair on abdomen, 

affinis Macq. 
Front legs black haired; yellow hair on abdomen macquarti n. sp. 

5. Front and mid legs with much yellow hair; yellow hair on abdomen, 

sacrator Walk. 



June, 1917 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 53 

Little if any yellow hair on legs ; frequently no yellow on abdomen, 

thoracica Fabr. 

6. Hair in front of the halters wholly black; that in front of the wings 

also black; abdomen with yellow band near tip sackeni n. sp 

Hair in front of the halters j^ellow, at least in upper part 7 

7. Hair in front of the wings yellow, or with only a few black hairs. . 8 
Hair in front of the wings largely black 12 

8. Abdomen with more or less red hair behind -.fernaldi Back, 

Abdomen without red hair 9 

9. Scutellum, as rest of body, with j^ellow hair unicolor Will 

Scutellum black haired 10 

10. All tibis and tarsi red haired above; about apical half of abdomen 

yellow partitor n. sp 

No tibiae nor tarsi red haired 11 

11. The yellow on abdomen near tip; western species . . . .calif ornica n. sp 
The yellow (if any) on abdomen mostly toward base; eastern species 

grossa Fabr 

12. Posterior part of thorax with red hair insignis n. sp 

Not red haired on thorax 13 

13. Scutellum yellow haired 14 

Scutellum black haired 15 

14. Abdomen with yellow hair near tip divisor n. sp 

Abdomen wholly black flavicollis Say 

15. Very large species ; in male front and mid legs with very long yellow 

hair, and some yellow on hind femora above; wings very dark, 

lata Macq. 
Moderate size, wings paler, in male no yellow on hind femora .... 16. 

16. Western species I7- 

Eastern species 18. 

17. Male with red hair on abdomen; female with hair in front of wings 

black astur O. S. 

Male without red on abdomen ; female with yellow hair interspersed 
with the black at base of wings Colombia Walk. 

18. No yellow hair on the abdomen virginica n. sp. 

Yellow hair on the abdomen 19. 

19. Superior male appendages deeply excavate on the outer edge ; yellow 

hair in female extends more to base of abdomen, .champ laini Walt. 
Superior male appendages but little excavate on outer edge ; in female 
yellow hair does not usually extend so far toward base, 

posticatus Say. 
Dasyllis virginica n. sp. — In general appearance similar to D. flavicollis, 
but the scutellum is without yellow hair; the basal abdominal segment is 
black haired on the sides, as are the other segments (in flavicollis there is 
some yellow hair on sides of the basal segment) ; the body of the male is 
broader than usual in flavicollis, and the superior appendages are more 
blunt pointed. Length 18 mm. ' 



54 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XI t 

From Falls Church, Glencarlyn and Chain Bridge, Va., in June. 

Dasyllis partitor n. sp. — Head mostly yellow hair; thorax with yellow 
hair, shorter and more sparse in front; the scutellum black; yellow hair 
in front of the halters and in front of the wings; the apical half of the 
abdomen yellow haired, leaving only the small apical segment black ; legs 
with some yellow or tawny hair on the basal parts, but the apex of the 
tibiae and the tarsi with red hair above. Length i8 to 20 mm. 

From Princeton, British Columbia, July (Russell). 

Dasyllis sackeni n. sp. — Black; the hair in front of the halters and in 
front of the wings is wholly black ; head yellow haired except black on 
vertex behind ; legs wholly black haired ; thorax yellow haired above, 
scutellum black haired; abdomen black, but with a band of yellow just 
before tip, leaving the apical segment black. Superior appendages slightly 
excavate behind, lower edge deeply rounded. Length 15 to 17 mm. 

From Brookdale and Walnut Creek, Calif. (Davidson) ; and San Fran- 
cisco and Contra Costa, Calif. (Edwards). 

Dasyllis divisor n. sp. — Closely resembles posticatus, but the scutellum 
is yellow haired ; the yellow on the abdomen is confined more to the tip ; 
and the abdomen is generally more slender than in posticatus. The 
same size. 

From Black Mts., Swannanoa River, N. C, May; and from Illinois and 
Pennsylvania. 

Dasyllis insignis n. sp. — Black ; clothed with black and much yellow hair, 
head with yellow hair, some black on the lower face ; thorax with yellow 
hair above, but a band of red hair on the posterior part and on the scu- 
tellum ; hair in front of halters yellow ; that in front of wing base mostly 
black; abdomen (except basal two segments) with yellow hair; legs, with 
front and mid coxae, and all of femora and tibiae bearing some yellow 
hairs, but not dense anywhere. Superior male appendages broadly rounded 
below, outer side oblique, not excavated. Length 14 mm. 

From Labrador ; the mss. name of Loew, who had given names to sev- 
eral of the species here described as new, as well as to champlaini and 
to cinerea. 

Dasyllis californica n. sp. — Black; head yellow haired, except black on 
the lower part of face and a few black bristles on the vertex ; thorax 
above yellow haired, scutellum with black hair, hair in front of halters 
and in front of wing base yellow; abdomen with two or three segments 
near the tip yellow haired ; legs with some yellow hair on coxae, femora 
and tibiae of front pair, and on the middle tibiae. In the male the abdomen 
is very slender, and the superior appendages plainly but evenly excavate 
on the outer edge. Length 18 mm. 

From Lake Tahoe, Calif. (Vachall) ; and a part of the type material of 
D. astur from Webber Lake, Yosemite, and Sierra Nevada, Calif. (H. 
Edwards). 

Dasyllis macquarti n. sp. — May be the species recorded by Macquart 



June, 1917 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 55 

as the female of Mallophora analis. I have a male which agrees with his 
description. The head is black haired ; the thorax yellow above ; hair on 
scutellum, in front of the wings and in front of the halters is black; the 
legs black haired, except' the middle tibiae are yellow haired on outer side ; 
the abdomen has four basal segments yellow, rest black. The superior male 
appendages are similar to those of D. lata but more swollen below and the 
outer side only slightly excavate. Length 17 mm. 
From Texas. 



KEY TO THE NEARCTIC SPECIES OF LEPTOYPHA AND 
LEPTOSTYLA (HETEROPTERA TINGID^). 

By W. L. McAtee. 

The genera Leptoypha and Leptostyla, both of Stal, belong to 
that section of the Tingidas in which the rostral sulcus is closed 
in front and the discoidal and costal areas of the hemelytra, are 
rarely or never, coelevated, and to the smaller subdivision in 
which the rostral sulcus is not interrupted by a ridge between 
the meso- and metasterni. Leptoypha contains species in which 
the translucent lacy type of structure so characteristic of the fam- 
ily is greatly obscured except on membrane and on costa in the 
species that have it e5cpanded; there is no pronotal hood. The 
first two joints of antenna are short and of about equal length, 
and the pronotum has a single prominent median ridge, the lat- 
eral ridges are traceable especially near apex of pronotal exten- 
sion. The species are very plainly colored, usually being light- 
brown, more or less dark mottled or pruinose, and with dark 
callosities. Leptostyla species on the other hand are distinctly 
lacy; a hood is present, the first antennal joint is three times (or 
more) as long as the second, and there are three high and thin 
pronotal carinse. Some of the species of this genus have a dis- 
tinct color pattern. 

Key to the Species of Leptoypha.* 

■ A. Costal margin explanate, reflexed, distinct for its whole length. 

B. Areoles of costal margin in a single series minor n. sp. 

* Stal, G., Enumeratio Hemipterorum, 3, 1873, p. 121. The name is fre- 
quently misspelled Leptophya. 



56 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XII 

BB. Areoles in more than one series at some part of the costal margin. 
C. Two series of areoles extending about as far as apex of pronotal 

extension costata Parshley. 

CC. Two series of areoles in all but the posterior fourth or less of 

the costal margin elliptica n. sp. 

AA. Costal margin not explanate, deflexed; subcostal area forming outer 
anterior margin of hemelytron. 
D. Length over 2}^ mm.; third joint of antenna nearly four times as 
long as basal joint, total length of antenna nearly i mm., 

mutica Say. 

DD. Length less than 2j/^ mm.; third joint of antenna distinctly less 

than four times 'as long as basal joint; total length of antenna 

.75 mm. or less brevicornis Champion. 

Leptoypha minor n. sp. — Length* (excluding antennse) 1.81-1.82 mm.; 
length of pronotum, 1.05-1.08 mm., width, .72-79 mm.; greatest width of 
elytra, .84 mm.; length of antennal joints: i, .099 mm.; 2, .13 mm.; 3, .39^ 
mm. ; 4, .23 mm. 

Form elliptical; antennse rather short and thick, upper surface coarsely 
punctured ; punctures not arranged in definite rows except on uniseriate 
costal margin. Three short blunt spines on front and two straight ones 
from back of vertex along inner eye margins close to surface of head. 
Median carina of pronotum distinct; lateral carinae obsolete. 

General color light reddish brown, more or less infuscated as follows : 
Apical joints of antennse; head black, vertex, inner orbit's, and two closely 
applied spines with short silvery hairs; region of pronotal callosities; 
faintly on disc of pronotum and an indistinct U-shaped mark (base for- 
ward) on posterior half of pronotum ; an irregular band of irrorations 
across elytra through the posterior half of discoidal areas and another 
across membrane before apex. Spines on head, edge of rostral sulcus, 
collar and membrane distinctly lighter than ground color. Ventral surface 
deeply infuscated on pleurae, mesosternum and most of venter. Legs light 
reddish brown ; tarsi dark. 

Similar, to L. costata Parshley but much smaller. These two 
species have more extensive dark markings than is usual in the 
other species here treated. 

L. minor is easily distinguished by its size, and by the posses- 
sion of distinct and reflexed though narrow costal margins, in all 
parts of which there is but a single series of areoles. 

Type. — A male from Siskiyou Co., California, collected in 

* Measurements taken with eyepiece micrometer with combination of 
eye-pieces No. i and objectives A2 in Zeiss Binocular Microscope; magni- 
fication 20. 



June,i9i7 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 57 

August ; allotype female with same data. Both in collection of 
U. S. National Museum. I am adopting Mr. Heidemann's cabi- 
net name for this species. 

Leptoypha costata Parshley. — Leptoypha costata Parshley, H. M. Psyche, 
24, No. I, February, 1917, pp. 16-17 (Marshall Hall, Md.) ; Leptoypha dis- 
tinguenda Heidemann, Otto. Proceedings of the Entomological Society 
of Washington, 18, No. 4, Dec. 1916 (June 1917), PI. 17, Fig. i, p. 218 
(Washington, D. C, Rock Creek, D. C, Marshall Hall, Md., Mf. Ver- 
non, Va.). 

Length of a well-developed male specimen (excluding antennae), 2.83 
mm.; length of pronotum, 1.38 mm.; width, 1.05 mm.; greatest width of 
elytra, 1.1 mm.; length of antennal joints: i, .13 mm.; 2, .16 mm.; 3, .57 
mm. ; 4, .22, mm. 

Form oblong elliptic, hemelytra expanded across discoidal areas and 
rather narrowed toward apex. Body surface coarsely punctured, the 
areoles not in definite rows except in costa and margin of membrane. 
Percurrent median and shorter lateral carinse on pronotum distinct. Three 
short converging tubercles on front and two rather long curved spines 
from back of vertex reaching past middle of eyes. 

General color reddish brown, eyes black, cephalic spines pale. Region of 
pronotal callosities, indistinct clouding on remainder of pronotum and 
irrorations across discoidal, and central membranal areas of the elytra 
fuscous. Lower surface darker than upper ; infuscated on pleurae, pectus, 
and sides of abdomen. In pale specimens the collar, lateral margins of 
pronotum, apex of pronotal extension, and costa are distinctly lighter than 
the ground color. 

This species has a distinct, reflexed costal margin of moderate width in 
which there are two series of areoles from humerus nearly to point where 
greatest width of elytron is attained, and a single series for the remainder 
of the length. The lateral carinse of pronotum are more conspicuous than 
usual, being readily traceable from point just back of callosities to pos- 
terior margin of pronotum. 

The only specimens thus far seen are those cited in connection 
with Mr. Heidemann's description. 

Leptoypha elliptica n. sp. — Length of an average male specimen (exclud- 
ing "antennae), 2.93 mm.; length of pronotum, 1.32 mm.; width, .92 mm.; 
greatest width of elytra, 1.22 mm.; length of antennal joints: 1, .13 mm.; 
2, .099 mm. ; 3, .89 mm. ; 4, .33 mm. . 

Form broadly elliptical ; hemelytra unusually expanded at middle, broadly 
rounded at apex. Body coarsely punctured; the areoles in regular rows 
only on costa and margin of hemelytra; median pronotal carina distinct; 
lateral ones barely traceable on pronotal extension. Three short but sharp, 
and convergent, almost fused spines on front of vertex, and two short, 



58 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. Xli 

sharp, not wholly decumbent, ones from back of vertex along inner mar- 
gins of eyes. 

General color stramineous to light reddish brown ; eyes and callosities 
black; basal and apical joints or whole antennae infuscated; veinlets across 
discoidal region of hemelytra (especially on costa) and on membrane more 
or less embrowned. Head spines, margins of rostral sulcus, and collar 
paler than ground color. Spots on pleurae below callosities and mesoster- 
num darker than remainder of lower surface. 

This, the largest of the species here considered, has a very 
wide costal area in which there are two full series of large 
areoles from humerus to or nearly to the point where elytron 
begins to curve to form the apex. 

Several specimens, labelled simply Texas, in the National col- 
lection, of which a male is selected as type. Mr. Heidemann's 
cabinet name is discreta. 

Leptoypha mutica Say. — T(iHgis) mutica Say, Thomas. Descriptions of 
new species of Heferopterous Hemiptera of North America, New Har- 
mony, Indiana, December, 1831, p. 26; The complete writings of Thomas 
Say on the entomology of North America, Vol. i, 1859, p. 349 (Indiana). 

Length of an average specimen (excluding antennse), 2.9 mm.; length 
of pronotum, 1.35 mm. ; width, .98 mm. ; greatest width of elytra, .99 mm. ; 
length of antennal joint's: i, .13 mm.; 2, .099 mm.; 3, .49 mm.; 4, .23 mm. 

Form oblong, a little constricted across bases of elytra and somewhat 
narrowed behind. Surface coarsely punctured ; areoles in subcostal area 
tending to be arranged in three series; a single series of large areoles on 
membranal margin, merging into the uniseriate costa which can be seen 
from above only to a point just short of widest part of hemelytra. Me- 
dian pronotal carina distinct, lateral ones traceable, if at all, only on pos- 
terior extension. Spines on front of vertex convergent, appearing almost 
fused, short, sometimes nearly obsolete, spines from back of vertex decum- 
bent along inner orbits, of variable length, sometimes reaching front of 
eyes. 

General color usually reddish brown, pruinose at various points, espe- 
cially on head and anterior part of thorax. Eyes dark, callosities black ; 
veinlets infuscated about discoidal areas and on membrane. Cephalic 
spines, collar and disc of membrane paler. Some specimens are very prui- 
nose, even the antennae being covered, while others become very dark, 
sometimes almost black. The areas which most persistently remain light 
are collar, apex of pronotal extension, and areas at humeral and cuneal 
portions of elytra. Lower surface usually of uniform ground color except 
for pale rim of rostral sulcus, and scattered pruinosity. 

In L. mutica and L, brevicornis the costal area, according to the point 
of view, is obsolete or defiexed anteriorly. The species are therefore more 



Jiine,i9i7 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 59 

slender and more nearly parallel-sided in appearance than others of the 
genus. Viewed from above the subcostal area forms the lateral margin 
of the hemelytra from humerus to a point just back of widest part. From 
the side or beneath, however, the deflexed costa can be seen and inspection 
of its surface reveals a uniseriate arrangement of the areoles. L. mutica 
has the third antennal joint nearly or quite four times as long as the basal 
joint. 

This species, which varies greatly in color, being sometimes 
almost entirely black is very common in the vicinity of Washing- 
ton, D. C, on fringe-tree (Chionanthus virginica L.) and on 
various species of ash {Fraxinus). It has been collected on 
the food plants from May to October, has been found hibernating 
among old leaves, and the nymphs have been seen from July to 
September. 

Other specimens seen show that the species occurs also in 
Nebraska, Wisconsin, Ohio, Ontario, New Jersey, Tennessee, 
and Texas. ' 

Leptoypha brevicornis Champion. — Leptoypha hrevicornis Champion, G. 
C. Biologia Centrali-Americana. Insecta. Rhynchota. Hemiptera-Heter- 
optera. Vol. 2, p. 32, December, 1897 (Omilteme in Guerrero, Mexico, 8,000 
feet). 

Length (excluding antenna), 2.27 mm.; length of pronotum, 1.13 mm.; 
width, .82 mm.; greatest width of elytra, .89 mm.; length of antennal 
joints: i, .099 mm.; 2, .099 mm.; 3, .36 mm.; 4, .19 mm. 

Form not so narrowly oblong as in L. mutica, the pronotum proportion- 
ally broader. Coarsely punctured, subcostal area largely triseriate; inner 
margin of membrane with a single series of large areoles which becomes 
two at apex and merges into the single series of costa which can be seen 
(from above) to a point just behind greatest elytral expansion. Cephalic 
spines as in L. mutica. 

Color stramineous to light reddish brown; eyes and callosities black; 
veinlets infuscated across discoidal areas and on membrane; pruinosity 
generally distributed. Under surface reddish brown, bucculae paler, pleural 
spots and mesosternum darker; more or less pruinose. 

L. hrevicornis is smaller than L. mutica; the antenna is shorter 
and the third joint of antenna is distinctly less than four times 
as long as the first; a proportion which it nearly or quite attains 
in L. mutica. However, the two forms are very closely related 
and it may well prove that hrevicornis is a southern and western 
subspecies of mutica. 



60 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XII 

From their perfect agreement with description and figu!-e (PI. 
2, fig. 28) of L. brevicornis, two specimens collected in the 
Argus Mountains, California, April, 1891, by Albert Koebele are 
assigned to this species. Specimens collected by Mr. C. A. Hart 
at Brownsville, Texas, December 8, 1910, and November 21, 
191 1, also are referred here. 

Key to the Species of Leptostyla.* 

A. Pronotum widest at about middle; paranota angulate velifer n. sp. 

AA. Pronotum widest behind ; paranota not angulate. 

B. Third joint of antenna shorter than pronotum; anterior third of 
costal margin with two series of about equal-sized areoles ; 

elytra widest near base clitorics Heidemann. 

BB. Third joint of antenna about as long as pronotum; anterior third 
of costal margin not with two series of equal-sized areoles ; 
elytra widest near apex. 
C. Form narrower ; elytra widest near apex ; anterior third of costal 
margin with a single series of large rectangular areoles; cos- 
tal cross-veinlets hyaline oblonga Say. 

CC. Form broader; elytra about as wide across discoidal areas as 
at apex; anterior third of costal margin with an outer series 
of large areoles and an interdigitating inner series of small 
areoles; costal cross-veinlets dark, 

heidemanni Osborn & Drake. 

Leptostyla velifer n. sp. — Length of an average specimen (excluding an- 
tennae and cephalic spines), 2.93 mm.; length of pronotum, 1.28 mm.; 
width, 1.22 mm.; greatest width of elytra, 1.32 mm.; length of antennal 
joints : i, .36 mm. ; 2, .099 mm. ; 3, 1.36 mm. ; 4, .33 mm. 

Antennse long and slender ; three long, diverging, sharp-pointed spines 
on head, underneath the median one of which are two shorter laterally 
converging spines. Paranota flaring, roundly angulate at middle, strongly 
refiexed, so that rounded posterior angle is almost vertical to surface of 
pronotum ; four rows of areoles at widest point. Hood oblong, wider and 
higher behind ; carinse thin, high and distinct, the lateral ones, uniseriate 
and simply arched, the median one with a single series of large squarish 
areoles, the upper edge, higher in front, rounded at the ends and sinuate 
in middle. Costal area with large areoles in from two to three series ; 
subcostal with the same number of series of smaller areoles ; discoidal area 
with conspicuously raised margin. 

Color stramineous; basal and terminal joints of antennse, eyes, non- 
membranous parts of thorax, spots near apices of outer margins of dis- 
coidal areas, and under surface, except edges of rostral sulcus and legs, 
fuscous to black. Legs, intermediate antennal joints, edges of carinae, etc., 
a few cross veinlets in costa and some in membrane testaceous. 

* Stal, Enum. Hemip., 3, 1873, p. 120. 



June, 1917 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 6 1 

The angulate expansions of the pronotum and the comparatively large 
size of this species give it the aspect of a Gargaphia. However, it has the 
generic characters of Leptostyla. In this genus it needs to be compared 
particularly with L. data Champion (Biol. Centr.-Amer. Heteroptera, 2, 
p. 16, 1897). It differs from that species in the greater development of 
the hood, the front declivity of which also is much steeper; in having 
3 as the maximum and 2 as the minimum number of series of areoles in 
the costal margin, instead of 4 and 3 respectively, and in having less dark 
marking. 

From L. dilaticollis Champion (pp. 18-19), to which it is not so closely 
related, it differs in having 3 long, diverging, instead of 2 short, converg- 
ing spines on vertex; in the first antennal joint being more than 2^ times 
as long as second; and in having the maximum number of series of areoles 
in the costal margin 3 instead of 4. 

First and last joints of antenna, base and spot near apex of discoidal 
area, a few veins in costal area and apical third of elytra fuscous to black ; 
membranous parts of body hyaline, most of the veins testaceous ; legs and 
intermediate antennal joints of same color. 

Numerous specimens obtained in Arizona in 1882 by H. K. 
Morrison, all in National Collection. A female type and male 
allotype have been selected. Both Uhler and Heidemann used 
the cabinet name velifica for this species. Uhler also at one time 
called it Gargaphia reticulata. 

Leptostyla clitoriae Heidemann. — Leptostyla clitoricc Heidemann, Otto. 
Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash., 13, No. 3, July-Sept, 191 1 (September 30, 1911), 
pp. 180-181, fig. 4 (Rock Creek, D. C, Washington, D. C, Plummers 
Island, Md., Columbus, Texas) ; Leptostyla costofasciata Drake, Carl J., 
Ohio Jour, of Sci., 16, No. 7, May, 1916, pp. 326-328 (Clarksville, Tenn.). 

Length of an average specimen (excluding antennae), 2.24 mm.; length 
of pronotum, .957 mm. ; width, .72 mm. ; greatest width of elytra, .957 mm. ; 
length of antennal joints : i, .099 mm. ; 2, .099 mm. ; 3, .757 mm. ; 4, .18 mm. 

Form broadly oblong, constricted at humeri and again beyond discoidal 
areas; hemelytra widening again behind. Superior median spine of head 
long, ascending, then somewhat decurved, inferior median spines shorter, 
in and up curved so that they and the superior spine to a certain extent 
converge; lateral spines short, projecting straight forward along inner 
orbits. Pronotum (disregarding posterior extension) heart-shaped, the 
apex cut off by a line farthest advanced at anterior angles and middle, 
sinuate between. Hood not conspicuous, paranota well reflexed, biseriate; 
carinte moderately high, uniseriate, the lateral ones arched, the median 
bisinuate. Costal area mostly biseriate; subcostal and discoidal areas 
mostly triseriate. 

Among the species included in the above key, L. cUtorice is easily recog- 



62 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XII 

nized by its small size, shortness of antennje, and very dark color. The 
underside of body and all median parts of upper surface, except hood, 
apex of pronotum and three large areoles in sutural area vary from fus- 
cous to black (the discs of areoles may be hyaline or w^hitish) and lateral 
extensions of this pattern are found on posterior part of pronotal margin, 
on costal area at widest part of elytra and near apex of elytra. The lateral 
margin otherwise is clear; the veinlets stramineous. The first, second, 
and fourth antennal joints vary from fuscous to black, the third joint and 
the legs from stramineous to testaceous. 

The species is abundant about Washington, D. C, and occurs 
not only upon the plant (Clitoria mariana L.) for which Mr. 
Heidemann named it, but also on various species of Lespedeza 
and Meihomia. Specimens have been collected from late June 
to September. Examples of the species from Tennessee and 
South Carolina also have been seen. Mr. Heidemann compares 
the species to L. constricta Champion, to which indeed it is very 
similar. If the respective illustrations can be trusted, however, 
the species are sufficiently distinct. The pronotum of L. con- 
stricta is longer and narrower than the same part in clitoricu and 
the hemelytra are much more constricted beyond the discoidal 
area and do not widen again as they do in the present species. 
L. constricta is recorded from the Nearctic region by Van Duzee, 
but no specimens have been seen by the writer. 

Leptostyla oblonga Say. — Tingis ohlonga Say, Thomas. Descriptions of 
new Hemipterous Insects collected in the expedition to the Rocky Moun- 
tains . . . under command of Major Long. Journal of the Academy of 
Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, Vol. 4, 1825, pp. 326-327; Compl. Writ- 
ings, Vol. 2, 1859, P- 248 (Missouri). 

Length of an average specimen (excluding antennse and spines), 2.83 
mm. ; length of pronotum, 1.08 mm. ; width, .79 mm. ; greatest width of 
elytra across discoidal areas, .92 mm. ; near apex, .99 mm. ; length of an- 
tennal joints: i, .26 mm.; 2, .08 mm.; 3, 1.32 mm.; 4, .39 mm. 

Form narrowly oblong constructed at humeri and just before tip of 
elytra. Head with three long, sharp spines from back of vertex, under 
the median one of which are two shorter laterally converging ones arising 
from front of vertex. Hood well developed, oblong, broadest and highest 
in front'. Paranota well reflexed, with a single series of large squarish 
areoles. Carinse moderately high, uniseriate ; the lateral ones viewed from 
above, a little wavy behind. Costal area with a single series of large 
squarish areoles from humeri to or near end of discoidal area, biseriate 
near constriction, then again uniseriate. 



June, 1917 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 63 

Underside of body (except edges of rostral sulcus), eyes, nonmem- 
branous parts of pronofum and spots near apices of discoidal areas black. 
Basal and apical joints of antennae fuscous to black; intermediate joints 
and legs stramineous to testaceous, tips of tarsi black ; membranous parts 
of upper surface mostly whitish hyaline; crest of hood, veins on sutural 
area, and membrane brown ; the subcostal and discoidal areas sometimes 
have a brownish ground color. 

This is the only American Leptostyla known that, has a single 
series of large, rectangular areoles in the costal area, of which 
they occupy the anterior third. This character together with the 
entirely hyaline lateral margins of the elytra, clearly distinguish 
the species. 

Specimens examined are from West Point, Nebr. ; Ames, Iowa ; 
Cahokia, 111. ; Polk County, Wis. ; Amery, Wis. ; Glen Echo, Md. ; 
and Maryland near Plummers Id. The last specimen listed was 
taken by the writer, July 26, 1914, on a thin-leaved, climbing, 
leguminous plant {Falcata comosa L.). The Ames, Iowa, speci- 
mens were collected July 9, 1894, by Dr. E. D. Ball on Petalo- 
stemon. Dr. Ball tells me that almost every plant of this genus 
found on dry gravelly knolls bears specimens of this tingid. The 
Amery, Wis., examples were found on a basswood leaf by Mr. 
D. M. De Long. 

Leptostyla heidemanni Osborn & Drake. — Leptostyla heidemanni Oshorn, 
Herbert and Drake, Carl J. The Tingitoidea of Ohio, Ohio State Uni- 
versity Bulletin 20, No. 35, June, 1916, pp. 238-239 (Arkansas, Washington, 
D. C, Newton, Mass.). 

Length of an average specimen (excluding antennse and spines), 3.1 
mm.; length of pronotum, 1.18 mm.; width, .86 mm. ; width of elytra across 
discoidal areas, 1.02 mm.; near apex, 1.05 mm.; length of antennal joints: 
I, .26 mm.; 2, .08 mm.; 3, 1.25 mm.; 4, ,36 mm. 

Very similar to L. oblonga. The hood is more rounded triangular in 
outline viewed from above, but as in oblonga is highest and widest in 
front. L. heidemanni is further distinguished structurally from oblonga 
by the elytra being practically as wide across discoidal areas as near apex ; 
and by the possession of two series of areoles in anterior part of costal 
area, of which the inner are smaller and alternated with the larger ones 
of the outer series. 

In color this species is similar to oblonga, with the chief exception that 
the cross-veinlets of the costal area are dark. A few cells at apex of 
elytra and just within the posterior convexity of the elytron also are 
infuscated. 



64 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XII 

Of the numerous species of Leptostyla mentioned in the Biologia Cen- 
t'rali-Americana, L. heidemanni need be contrasted only with gracilenta 
and angMstata. Both of these species have the subcostal area biseriate, 
while heidemanni has from three to four series of areoles in this division 
of the hemelytron ; furthermore, those species have two series of full- 
sized areoles in the costal area instead of one series of large and one of 
small cells. 

Leptostyla heidemanni is extremely common about Washing- 
ton, D. C, on its food plant Baptisia tinctoria L., which is not 
only often, but usually, severely injured by the feeding operations 
of these little Tingids. Other localities represented by the ma- 
terial examined are: Forest Hills and Springfield, Mass., New 
Jersey, and Shreveport, La. Mr. Heidemann's cabinet name for 
this species was L. affinis; I have also seen the name similis on 
some specimens. 



STUDIES IN THE OLD TESTAMENT. 

By R. p. Dow, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Before considering each insect in the order of its mention in 
the Old Testament, it might give a better understanding if the 
order of creatioh as given in Genesis is compared with the order 
assumed by modern science to be the correct one. Our evolu- 
tionary theories are less than a century old. The writers of the 
Pentateuch may have been ignorant of the nature of the world 
as a component of the universe, and may have been filled with 
the wisdom of ages since forgotten. But that does not figure in 
the Book, the allegory, and the. imagery of which is always 
graphic. The progress of creation is given day by day, the verbal 
order not agreeing with the correct sequence of time. Genesis I : 
II narrates that on the third day came grass, the herb yielding 
seed, the fruit tree reproducing itself. On a day following the 
moon and the stars were placed in the heavens. Well, what of it? 
None of the greatest philosophers of Greece or Rome had prog- 
ressed sufficiently to have an improved order in his mind. Dur- 
ing the present century the head of the great Arab University in 
Cairo was asked whether the earth revolved around the sun or 



June, 1917 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 65 

the sun around the earth.. After long reflection he replied that 
he had never given the matter any thought, for it seemed to be 
of no importance and certainly of no consequence to him. It 
was of no consequence to the writer of Genesis I, but does his 
narrative sufter? 

As a next step the waters brought forth living creatures, first 
fowls, then whales, and every living creature in the waters. 
Then followed all the creatures of the land, cattle, creeping thing, 
beast of the earth, and finally man. There is no profit in com- 
paring this sequence with present notions; merely regrettable 
that commentators of fifteen centuries have wasted efforts co 
distort facts to fit literal construction of allegory given with the 
utmost poetic license. 

Genesis II : 2 relates that Adam in a day reviewed every living 
creature in Eden and gave to each its name. Ninety years ago 
the Linnean Society of London was engaged in an effort to 
identify a few species of the genus Apion, of which Herbst's de- 
scriptions were not clear, and of which actual specimens could 
not satisfactorily be laid out so as to differentiate into species. 
Rev. William Kirby was at this time leading spirit in the Lin- 
nean Society and a vigorous polemical preacher. He argued from 
the pulpit that the circumstance proved the immensity of the fall 
of man from Eden, since Adam had mentality to name every in- 
sect in a day, while the Linneans struggled for months over a 
few beetles. The number of insect species in existence, esti- 
mated by Ray in 1698 at 20,000, was surely estimated in Kirby 's 
day as multiplied by a hundred at least. Here again the pitiful 
results of distorting fact to fit allegory. Every creature received 
a name from the first man who tried to tell another about it. 
Every minute insect must have a name if it is to be made a sub- 
ject of comment. 

Genesis VIII describes the Flood, which was certainly a vast 
one, as it is described in the literature of almost all eastern coun- 
tries. The Biblical account is very explicit indeed, how Noah, 
ninth generation from Adam, constructed an ark, saved his fam- 
ily and all kinds of living creatures, some in pairs, others in 
sevens. The waters prevailed upon the earth 150 days. The 
ark measured exactly 300 by 50 by 30 cubits. In the first place 



66 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XII 

a pair of every known animal would not fit within the space. 
Again, the insect population could not be sustained alive that 
length of time without ample supply of every food plant. More- 
over, all gill-breathing creatures could survive outside in their 
antediluvian abundance, and the conventionally fixed 5,000 years 
or less since the f^ood would not suffice to restore the balance of 
numbers between creatures with lungs and creatures with gills. 
The best that the literal interpreters can do with this passage is to 
argue that evolution has multiplied the number of species and that 
the ark did contain every species then existing. At the present 
rate of evolving new species it would take to double the number 
of animals at least a hundred times the number of years that 
have elapsed since the flood. It is merely more pity that Genesis 
should be distorted. 

In Leviticus appears a list of insects that may be eaten, the 
definition being " flying creeping thing that goeth upon all four, 
which have legs above their feet, to leap withal upon the earth." 
The inspired lawgiver of Leviticus was not an entomologist. He 
had not observed, perhaps no one had observed that an insect has 
six legs. Eveii Aristotle described the day fly as having four 
legs. How thoroughly absurd are some comments by sermon 
writers trying to twist out of their own difficulties. One clergy- 
man wrote that the locust has only four crawling legs and that 
Moses could not consider the saltatory ones as legs at all. An 
English preacher declared that the forefeet of insects are so often 
used as paws that they cannot be properly considered as feet. 

The first Old Testament mention of a creature undoubtedly an 
insect is in Exodus VII., describing one of the plagues. The 
plague of hail has often been interpreted as an insect plague, their 
being nothing about the Hebrew word to indicate that it means 
hail rather than any other damaging instrument. Evidence is too 
slight for argument, so better accept the hail. The plague to be 
examined is thus described in the King James English : " Stretch 
out thy rod, and smite the dust of the land, that it may become 
lice throughout all the land of Egypt. And they did so; for 
Aaron stretched out his hand and his rod, and smote the dust 
of the earth, and it became lice in man and in beast; all the dust 
of the land became lice throughout all the land of Egypt. And 



June,i9i7 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 67 

the magicians did so with their enchantments to bring forth lice, 
but they could not ; so there were lice upon man, and upon beast." 

The Hebrew word is kinnim (always plural), and it occurs 
again in Psalm CV as a direct paraphrase throwing no light upon 
its meaning. There have been great differences of opinion about 
its proper translation. Commentators have dug up a Hebrew 
verb root implying to be fixed or remaining fast, this to back up 
a translation as ticks with lice as a second choice, but the root 
is in doubt. In the Talmuds there appear not a few references 
to kinnah, meaning there lice without possibility of mistake. 
This was the word which caused the King James translators to 
agree upon lice. Even before the time of the Septuagint there 
had been noted a resemblance to the Greek word knips, plu. 
knipes; but to connect the two the consonant ps must be gotten 
rid of in violation of every etymological law. In the Syriac ver- 
sion the word was first spelled Ciniphes, this translator taking it 
for granted that the word was the same knipes. The Roman 
fathers based their ideas on this version. St. Augustine says: 
" Scyniphes musculce sunt hrevissimce," and Arnobius Afer, 295 
A. D., expresses the same idea. That the kinnim were flies was 
wholly a Roman interpretation. This plague was known to 
Flavins Josephus, the Roman historian, who regarded the beasts 
as lice, getting his information not from the Old Testament, which 
he never saw, but from the Chaldsean Targum, or Commentary. 
The Polyglot translators held to Josephus and used the word 
pediculi, which is both good Latin and modern scientific for the 
various species of lice. In the English Revised version there is 
a marginal note suggesting fleas or sand fleas, this idea being ac- 
cepted from the argument of an eminent Medieval Rabbi. The 
translations as ticks are for the most part quite modern. The 
scholars of Linnaeus were inclined to fix upon the Acarus san- 
guisugus, the blood-sucking mite. 

Even more than in any previous passage of the Pentateuch 
there occurs in the present instance the repetition of phrases 
which is the poetic form which is the equivalent of rhyme or 
rhythm in other languages. The writer of Exodus knew per- 
fectly well what kinnim were, for lice were a constant plague in 
Egypt, but he cared little what beast it was that figured as the 



68 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XII 

maker of the great plague. His expression is merely unliteral 
allegory of obstacles piled up to prevent the exodus of the He- 
brews, and to identify a species in connection with it is at best 
arrant nonsense. 

In the same chapter of Exodus, verses 21, 22, 24, and 29, is 
described another plague, in the King James version thus : 

" I will send swarms of flies upon thee, and upon thy servants, 
and upon thy people, and into thy houses; and the houses of the 
Egyptians shall be full of swarms of flies, and also the ground 
whereon they are. 

"And I will sever the land of Goshen, in which my people 
dwell, that no swarms of flies shall be there. 

" And there came a grievious swarm of flies into the house of 
Pharaoh and into his servants' houses, and into all the land of 
Egypt; and the land was corrupted ('destroyed,' margin) by 
reason of the swarm of flies. 

This plague was not unlike its predecessor, described in general 
terms, not giving or intending to give any clear idea of its nature. 
The word used is arob^ about the et3'mology or meaning of which 
there is no doubt. It means swarm, multitude, abundance. In 
the King James translation the word sebub is understood, making 
it mean swarm of flies. The trouble with this interpretation is 
that swarms of flies are a constant plague in Egypt, causing more 
ophthalmia than in any other land in the world. Musca domes- 
tica is more plentiful than all other insects combined. It is hard 
to imagine how in any number they could constitute a great 
plague to figure in the greatest narrative ever written. The com- 
mentators in all centuries have very generally taken some such 
view and made every effort to demonstrate that the swarm wa^* 
something much more terrible than ordinary flies. The Ro- 
man fathers generally construed it as a mixture of various 
kinds of flies. Some of the Jews before the Christian era inter- 
preted it as various animals. Flavius Josephus got his infor- 
mation about the matter from the Babylonian Targum. A seven- 
teenth century translation of Josephus renders it "a mixture of 
noisesome beasts," which phrase appears in the margin of the 
King James version. An Arabic version comes out more strongly, 
" a mixture of wild beasts, venemous insects and reptiles." An 



Jiine,igi/' Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 69 

eminent Rabbi of the A/Tiddle Ages wrote: "all kinds of venem- 
ous animals, as serpents and scorpions." Still another Rabbi 
laid stress upon the presence of winged scorpions, a peculiar ani- 
mal in some ways like the unicorn, figuring much in literature 
of all ages, but of which a specimen has never been found. Even 
Pliny speaks of the winged scorpion as absolutely deadly. Eben 
Ezra wrote : " all the wild beasts mingled in association, as lions, 
bears and leopards." A Portuguese Rabbi said : " a mixture of 
vermin." Dr. Geddes : " a swarm of beetles," but he at once 
proved his own ignorance by describing the beetle, the Blatta 
cogyptiaca, a voracious cockroach. Dr. T. M. Harris reviewed 
the situation judicially and decided that one particular species was 
meant, not a mixture of different animals. The septuagint settled 
upon the kunontuia. Michaelis insisted on Tabanus. Dr. J. D. 
Westwood, of Oxford, regarded it as Culex and argued his case. 
A Smithsonian expert has chosen Hippobosca equina, and claimed 
for the sebub of Ecclesiastes and Isaiah either Hcematopota 
pluvialis or Chrysops coccutiens. The common Arabic word for 
fly, simb, is not often quoted in evidence. Much, however, has 
been written in claim of arob of zebub as the creature implied in 
the word of an Ethiopian translation, which by the way still sur- 
vives to describe a terrible gadfly, tsaltsalya. This has been 
claimed to be the African fly alluded to in Isaiah, and has even 
been identified as the tsetze fly, its author asserting that this 
horse-killing parasite was known to the writer of Exodus. 

At all this farrago the author of Exodus might well be aston- 
ished. He was a poet, not a' natural historian, wherefore his 
allegory is all the more beautiful. 



A KEY TO THE SPECIES OF DICTYOPHARA GERM. 

By Edmund H. Gibson, U. S. Bureau of Entomology. 

The genus Dictyophara Germ, is represented in the United 
States by four species, all of which are common east of the Rocky 
Mountains and especially so in the south. However, they are 
seldom observed or captured in large numbers, and although plant 
feeders their exact economic status is not known. 



70 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XII 

Dictyophara belongs in the tribe Dictyopharini of the subfam- 
ily Dictyopharinse and may be distinguished from the only other 
two genera, Scolops Schaum. and Phylloscelis Germ, of the same 
tribe which occur north of Mexico, by its triangularly produced 
vertex. 

This paper is based upon a large series of specimens in the col- 
lection of the U. S. National Aluseum. 

Dictyophara Germ. Dictyophara Germar in Silb. Rev. Ent., 
I> P- 175) 1833 ; Pseudophana Burmeister, Handb., II, i, p. 146, 
1843; Chanithus Kolenati Mel. Ent., VII, p. 29, 1857; Nersia 
Stal, Bidr. Rio Jan. Hem., II, p. 62; 1858. 

Dictyophara may be characterized as follows : Vertex pro- 
duced triangularly with three carinje, the median one in certain 
species ending before the middle; three frontal carinse more or 
less parallel : pronotum short and emarginate on posterior border : 
forewings long, greatly exceeding the abdomen and more or less 
reticulate. Species usually bright green with but slight color 
markings or variations. The logotype of the genus is europcea 

Linn. 

Key to the Species. 

1. Transverse veinlets of the forewings forming three nearly regular 

bands dioxys Walk. 

Transverse veinlets of the forewings in no regular pattern 2. 

2. Length of vertex twice or more its basal width microrhina Walk. 

Length of vertex slightly longer than its basal width 3. 

3. Frontal carinse meeting in an obtuse angle and tinged with black. Fe- 

male plates short, extremely broad and rounding florens Stal. 

Frontal carina meeting in an acute angle and not tinged with black. 
Female plates long and narrow lingula VanD. 

Dictyophara dioxys Walk. Dictyophara dioxys Walker, List 
, of Hom., Suppl., p. 61, 1858; Nersia ciirviceps Stal, Bidr. Rio 
Jan. Hem., p. 64, 1861. 

This species may easily be separated from the other three 
species by the cross veinlets of the forewings forming three more 
or less regular bands. The vertex is hardly twice as long as wide 
and in this respect would come between microrhina and lingula. 
It is known to occur from New Jersey south and west through 
Texas. 

Dictyophara microrhina Walk. Dictyophara microrhina 
Walker, List. Hom., Vol. i, p. 315, 1851. 



June.igiy Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 71 

This is the largest of the North American species with a ver- 
tex more than twice as long as wide. The apical half of the 
forewing is very finely reticulated. The elevation of the apex of 
the vertex varies considerably within the species. This is the 
most common of our species and has a distribution from New 
York west to Kansas, south to Texas and Florida. 

Dictyophara florens Stal. Nersia florens Stal, Bidr. Rio Jan. 
Hem., II, p. 64, 1861. 

The most prominent specific characters of this species are its 
short vertex which is but little longer than its basal width, its wide 
front with carinse meeting in an obtuse angle, and the carinas 
being tinged with black just before and at their point of meeting. 
Specimens are at hand from Kansas, Texas, and Florida. 

Dictyophara lingula Van D. Dictyophara lingula VanDuzee, 
Proc. Acad. Sci. Philadelphia, Dec, 1907. 

Very similar to florens but without black markings near the 
apex of vertex or base of front. The frontal carina do not di- 
verge before meeting as much as in florens. They meet in an 
acute angle. Length of the vertex is slightly more than its basal 
width. It is known to occur from New Jersey to Florida. 



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72 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XII 

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Vol. XII 



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CONTENTS. 

FAMILY ISOMETOPID^ IN NORTH AMERICA, Gibson 73 

NOTES ON NEARCTIC TINGID^, McAtee 78 

NOTES ON MIRIDJE INHABITING ASH, Knight 80 

STUDIES IN THE HYDNOCERINI, Chapin 83 

THREE NEW CHALCID FLIES, Girault 85 

NEW CHALCID FLIES WITH NOTES, Girault 86 

THREE NEW ANDRENA FROM UNITED STATES, Malloch . . 89 

MAINE BUPRESTID^ AND CERAMBYCID^, Nicolay 92 




BULLETIN 

OF THE 

BROOKLYN ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

Vol. XII October, 1917 No. 4 

THE FAMILY ISOMETOPID^ FIEB. AS REPRESENTED 
IN NORTH AMERICA. (HETEROPTERA.) 

By Edmund H. Gibson, U. S. Bureau of Entomology, 
Washington, D. C. 

A keen interest was taken in the family Isometopidse by the 
late Mr. Otto Heidemann which resulted in a short but very 
admirable treatise which he published in 1907. Since that date 
there has been no further contribution to our knowledge of this 
little but interesting and rather unique group. 

With the addition of one new genus and three new species 
herein described the family is represented in North America by 
three genera and seven species. Members of the family are also 
known to occur in Central Europe and in the East Indies. These 
little insects are not at all common and are considered prizes to 
the collector. Their seeming rarity may be due to their minute 
size and to the habit, of at least a few species, of feeding on the 
bark of trees. 

The family was first described by Fieber in i860 and at times 
has been considered a subfamily of Miridse but to the writer and 
several others this seems unwarranted. 

The family Isometopidae may be characterized as follows : head 
short, vertical, and more or less depressed beneath resembling the 
head of a Homopteron; antennae four jointed with the second 
joint longer than the other three taken together ; rostrum four 
jointed ; eyes large ; ocelli near the base of the head and con- 
siderably raised; thorax much wider than head and prominent; 
scutellum prominent being considerably raised above the elytra; 
Membrane with two cells. 



74 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XII 

Key to the Genera. 

1. Lateral borders of pronotum wide, more or less flaring, and with 

carinae 2. 

Lateral borders of pronotum distinctly rounded, and without carinae, 

Lidopus n. g. 

2. Anterior border of pronotum much narrower than posterior; lateral 

borders if produced would meet at a point on the front of the head, 

Myiomma Put. 
Anterior border of pronotum slightly narrower than posterior; the lat- 
eral margins if produced would meet at a point considerably before 
the front of the head Isometopus Fieb. 

Genus Lidopus n. g. — Form ovate. Head very short, vertical, front de- 
pressed beneath. Base of vertex higher than anterior margin of pronotum. 
Rostrum extending to posterior coxse. Ocelli distinct but not prominent 
or raised. Eyes large, distance between them less than width of an eye. 
Antennae with second joint longest. Head fitting snug against the pro- 
notum. Pronotum narrowed anteriorly but little, if sides were produced 
they would meet at a point considerably before front of the head. Lateral 
margins of pronotum broadly rounded with but a slight trace of a carina. 
Scutellum with sides equilateral. 

Type of the genus is heidemanni n. sp. 

This genus resembles Myiomma in form and general shape 
of the head but differs from it as well as from Isometopus by 
the extremely convex pronotum with broadly rounded lateral 
margins. 

Lidopus heidemanni n. sp. — Head short, compact, vertical, and more or 
less depressed beneath. Front nearly flat. Eyes large, distance between 
them less than the width of an eye. Ocelli small but distinct. Antennae 
with the first joint the shortest and the second twice as long as the others 
taken together, fourth shorter than the third, second joint gradually swollen 
towards the apex. Rostrum reaching to the first abdominal segment. 
Pronotum strongly convex above with lateral margins broadly rounded 
and with but a slight trace of a carina, lateral margins if produced would 
meet at a point considerably before the front of the head. Pronotum and 
scutellum evenly punctate. Scutellum with sides equilateral and raised 
above the elytra. Elytra nearly flat, costal margins somewhat flaring. 
Membrane extending for nearly half of its length beyond the cuneus. 
Legs short. Posterior femora swollen. Length of female 2.3 mm. from 
front of head to apex of elytra. Male 2 mm. Width across posterior 
margin of pronotum .75 mm. 

Color. — Head, pronotum and scutellum dark reddish brown to black. 
Apex of head lighter brown. Second and fourth antennal joints dark. 



Oct.,igiy Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 75 

third yellow to cream. Pronotum and scutellum shiny; apex of scutellum 
white or cream colored. Elytra dark brown, becoming even darker at 
apex and along costal border. Two transverse white streaks at the base 
, of the cuneus. Membrane smoky. Under side dark reddish brown, legs 
dark with light bands at apex of femur and tibia. Middle and hind coxae 
white. 

Described from seven females and three males collected by 
Messers E. A. Schwarz and H. S. Barber at San Diego and 
Brownsville, Texas, and now in the collection of the U. S. 
National Museum. 

Named in honor of the memory of the late Mr. Otto 
Heidemann. 

This species can easily be recognized from all others of the 
family by its extremely convex pronotum and color pattern of 
the elytra. 

Genus Myiomma Put. — Myiomma Puton, Hemipteres, Ann. Soc. Ent. 
France, Vol. 3, ser. 5, pp. 20^21, 1873. Heidemannia Uhler, Proc. Ent. Soc. 
Washington, Vol. 2, No. i, 1891. 

Form elliptical, nearly flat above. Head small, projecting above the pro- 
notum ; eyes large ; vertex triangular ; face oblong, curving backwards be- 
neath. Antennae attached beneath inner angle of the eyes. Pronotum 
transverse, anterior border much narrower than posterior; lateral margins 
flaring. Costal margins of elytra feebly curved, broadly reflexed; mem- 
brane blunt. Legs short, anterior femor wide. Type of the genus is 
fieberi Put. 

Myiomma cixiiformis Uhl. — Heidemannia cixiiformis Uhler, Proc. Ent. 
Soc. Washington, Vol. 2, No. i, 1891. 

This species can be easily separated from all other Isometopidse by the 
extremely small head with eyes nearly meeting. Both Uhler and Heide- 
mann dwelt on the habits and description of this species in detail in their 
treatises. It is knoAvn to occur in New York, Delaware, Maryland, and 
Virginia. 

Myiomma media n. sp. — Head short, broad, vertical, with apex depressed 
as in cixiiformis Uhl. Eyes large and bulging as in Isometopus. Dis- 
tance between eyes slightly less than width of an eye. Ocelli large, promi- 
nent and considerably raised. Posterior border of head distinctly concave. 
Pronotum short and broad, much narrowed anteriorly. Lateral sides of 
pronotum if produced would meet at a point on the front of the head. 
Lateral margins flaring but not as much so as in Isometopus. Scutellum 
large, longer than the basal width. Pronotum and scutellum strongly pu- 
bescent. Elytra elongate, sides nearly straight. Length 2.5 mm. 

Color. — Head, pronotum, and scutellum dark reddish brown. Elytra 
light fuscous, blotched with darker fuscous. Reddish beneath. 



76 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XII 

Described from a single male specimen collected by Messers 
E. A, Schwarz and H. S. Barber at Williams, Ariz., and now in 
the collection of the U. S. National Museum. 

The specimen described is neither a typical Myiom-ma, Iso- 
metopus, or Lidopus, but as the form of the pronotum is nearest 
Myiomma it appears best to place it in this genus until more 
specimens are procured. 

Genus Isometopus Fieb. — Isometopus Fieber, Exegesen. Wiener Ent. 
Monatschrift, iv, pp. 258-259, i860. Cephalocoris Stein, Berl. Ent. Zeit., 
p. 79, i860. 

Somewhat broadly ovate; head broad, rounded in front. Third and 
fourth joints of antennae slender and short. Pronotum transverse, pos- 
terior border slightly wider than anterior, lateral borders if produced 
would meet at a point considerably before front of head, lateral margins 
flaring. Hemelytra convexly ampliated on each side. 

Type of the genus is intriisus H. S. 

Key to the Species. 

1. Elytra uniformly dark in color unicolor Held. 

Elytra not uniformly dark in color, with a more or less definite color 

pattern 2 

2. Posterior half of pronotum and scutellum light in color; antennae, ros- 

trum, and legs dark lihertus n. sp. 

Entire portion of pronotum and scutellum dark brown or black; an- 
tennae, rostrum, and legs light fuscous or white 3 

3. Fuscous markings at center and apex of corium signatus Heid. 

No fuscous markings at center or apex of corium. The only color 

markings are at apex of clavus and center of posterior margin of 
corium pulchellus Heid. 

Isometopus unicolor Heid. — Isometopus unicolor Heidemann, Proc. Ent. 
Soc. Washington, Vol. 9, p. 130, 1907. 

This species can readily be distinguished from all others by it's uniform 
color. No distinct color markings. It is also slightly larger than either 
signatus or pulchellus and about equal to lihertus. Its occurrence has been 
reported from Arizona. 

Isometopus libertus n. sp. — Form ovate. Head short, broad, vertical. 
Eyes large, distance between them greater than width of an eye. Ocelli 
small but distinct. Eyes protruding to the rear of the posterior line of 
the vertex. Second joint of antennae slightly swollen at apex. Basal 
width more than twice the length of pronotum. Anterior half of pro- 
notum slightly depressed but with a transverse ridge in the center, not 
running to the lateral borders. Posterior border of pronotum straight, 
lateral margins flaring and if produced would meet at a point considerably 



Oct., 1917 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 77 

before the front of the head. Scutellum large and raised above the elytra. 
Surface of the elytra convex. Pronotum, scutellum, and elytra densely 
clothed with fine hairs. Posterior femora swollen but not greatly so. 
Length of female 2.2 mm. Width at base of pronotum i mm. 

Color. — Head and anterior half of pronotum black, but with base of 
head tinged with light russet. Antennae dark brown. Posterior half of 
pronotum, scutellum, and elytra russet brown. Elytra with an irregular 
transverse darker brown band. Membrane smoky. Beneath dark brown 
to black. 

Described from a single female in the collection of the U. S. 
National Museum bearing a Schwarz and Barber collector label. 
The specimen was taken at Las Vegas H. S., New Mexico. 

Easily recognized by the light colored scutellum and the pro- 
notum being divided into two color bands or zones. 

Isometopus signatus Heid. — Isometopus signatus Heidemann, Proc. Ent. 
Soc. Washington, Vol. 9, pp. 129-130, 1907. 

This species may be differentiated from the others of the genus by the 
color pattern of the elytra which is in the form of an irregular H. Two 
large fuscous spots on the center of the corium joined at the apex of the 
clavus and fusing into the fuscous apex of the cuneus. Specimens are at 
hand from Texas. 

Isometopus pulchellus Heid. — Isometopus pulchellus Heidemann, Proc. 
Ent. Soc. Washington, Vol. 9, pp. 128-129, 1907. 

Easily recognized by its white or cream colored elytra which is in con- 
trast to the more or less shiny black pronotum and scutellum. Elytra with 
small fuscous spots at apex of clavus and near center of the posterior 
margin of the cuneus. Recorded from New York, West Virginia, and 
Virginia. 

Bibliography. 

Distant. Fauna Brit. Ind., Vol. 2, pp. 483-486, 1904. 

Fieber. Exegesen. Wiener Ent. Monatschrift, iv, pp. 258-259, i860; Europ. 

Hem. Wien, pp. 26, 237, 1861. 
Heidemann. Proc. Ent. Soc. Washington, Vol. 9, pp. 126-130, 1907. 
Herrich-Schaffer. Wanz. Ins., vi, p. 48, 1839. 
Oshanin. Verz. Palaearkt. Hem., Vol. i, p. 643, 1909. 

Puton. Hemipteres, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, Vol. 3, ser. 5, pp. 20-21, 1873. 
Reuter. Bih. Vet. Ak. Handl., 3, No. i, p. 61, 1875. 
Stein. Berl. Ent. Zeit., p. 79, i860. 

Uhler. Proc. Ent. Soc. Washington, Vol. 2, No. i, p. 119, 1891. 
Van Duzee. Check List Hem., N. Y. Ent. Soc, 1916. 



78 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XII 



A FEW NOTES CHIEFLY ON THE NAMES OF NEARCTIC 

TINGID^. 

By W. L. McAtee, Washington, D. C. 

Acalypta grisea Heidemann. Acalypta grisea Heidemann, 
Otto. Two new species of lace-bugs (Heteroptera; Tingidae). 
Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, i8, 
No. 4, December, 1916 (June 11, 1917), pp. 217-9, Pl-i?- Ac- 
cording to Mr. J. R. de la Torre Bueno, this is a synonym of his 
A. lillianis. This is a fault for which I must own responsibility. 
I prepared Mr. Heidemann's article for the press, but had never 
seen A. lillianis and its publication therefore did not register 
very deeply on my memory. 

Corythucha marmorata Uhler. The food plants of this species 
in the vicinity of Washington, D. C, are various members of the 
genus Aster. 

Corythucha crataegi Morrill. Corythuca arcuata cratcegi 
subsp. nov. Morrill, August, W. Notes on the Immature Stages 
of some Tingitids of the Genus Corythttca, Psyche 10, pp. 132- 
133, August, 1903. 

In their paper "The Tingitoidea of Ohio,"* Osborn, H. and 
Drake, Carl J., describe the adult of this form, noting that they 
find it a distinct species. They call it Corythucha cratcegi sp. 
nov., but it is clear that Morrill must be the authority for this 
name since he describes the €igg of cratcegi and calls attention to 
its distinctness from that of arcuata. Article 27b of the Inter- 
national Rules of Zoological Nomenclature asserts that the law 
of priority obtains "When any stage in the life history is named 
before the adult." 

Corythucha cratcegi has been collected in the vicinity of Wash- 
ington, D. C, upon the following plants: Cratcegus, Cephalan- 
thus, and Amelanchier. 

Corythucha incurvata Uhler. C. heteromelei Heidemann ms. 
is a synonym. 

Corythucha pallida Osborn and Drake. Corythucha pallida 
O. & D., op. cit., pp. 230-231. This species was described from 

* Ohio State Univ. Bulletin, 20, No. 35, June, 1916, pp. 229-230. 



Oct.,igj7 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 79 

5 specimens taken on linden. It is the form which has gone for 
many years under the ms. name adusta Uhler, and is abundant 
on mulberry in the region about Washington, D. C. Uhler's 
name means " scorched," almost an opposite conception to that 
implied by the name now cited. The term pallida seems inept 
for a species distinguished by the clear brownish color of all the 
thicker membranous parts. 

Corythucha pruni Osborn and Drake. Corythucha pruni O. 

6 D., op. cit., pp. 231-232. The ms. name cerasi was used for 
this form by Uhler and Heidemann. 

Corythucha bulbosa Osborn and Drake. Corythucha bulbosa 
O. & D., op cit., pp. 232-233. The food plant of this species, 
so long known under the highly appropriate ms. name carhonata 
Uhler, is Staphylea trifolia. The species is usually abundant. 

Gargaphia angulata Heidemann. The most common food 
plant of this species does not seem to have been recorded. It 
is Ceanothus americanus. 

Gargaphia amorphae Walsh. Tingis amorphcE Walsh, Benj. 
D. On Phytophagic varieties and Phytophagic species. Proc. 
Ent. Soc, Phila., 3, 1864, p. 409. 

This species is omitted from the recent Key to the Nearctic 
Species by Drake. (Drake, Carl J., Key to the Nearctic Species 
of Gargaphia with the Description of a New Species (Hem. 
Heter.). Ent. News, 28, No. 5, May, 1917, pp. 227-8.) 

It runs to the section with broad costal area having 4 or more 
rows of areolae at the widest part. In this group, G. angulata 
Heid. can be separated by absence of spines from back of vertex 
along inner orbits, and probably the genus should be primarily 
divided on this character. G. solani Heid. has the paranota wider 
and more angulate than either tiliae or amorphae, and the hood 
conspicuously higher. than median carina. G. amorphae in some 
ways is intermediate between solani and tiliae. The hood is 
higher than median carina, but not so much as in solani, and in 
agreement with that species the apical angle of the discoidal area 
is at the outer side. In tilios the hood is lower than the median 
carina and the apical angle of discoidal area is about median. 
Counting the maximum number of rows of areoles in the para- 
nanota and discoidal areas, these three species have respectively : 
tilicE, 4, 7 ; solani, 5, 5 ; and amorphce 3 and 5. 



80 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XII 



NOTES ON SPECIES OF MIRID^ INHABITING ASH 

TREES (FRAXINUS) WIT^ THE DESCRIPTION 

OF A NEW SPECIES (HEMIP.).* 

By Harry H. Knight, Ithaca, New York. 

The writer has been gathering data on the Hfe history and 
habits of Miridse during the past three seasons and finds that 
the species breeding on ash trees are of particular interest. All 
the speceis of Neohorns, Xenoborus and Tropidosteptes are con- 
fined to ash trees (Fraxinus) as far as can be determined. Data 
is here given on the occurrence of certain species in New York 
with notes on the food habits and relative abundance of the 
species. 

Tropidosteptes cardinalis Uhler. This species was found 
breeding only on the white ash (Fraxinus americana) and occur- 
ring in greatest numbers on the tender and succulent growth. 
The writer also noticed that the adults soon leave the place where 
they were reared and scatter to other more favorable growth for 
depositing eggs. 

Records: June 7 to June 16, Ithaca, N. Y. ; June 2y, Honeoye 
Falls, N. Y. ; June 12 to June 25, Batavia, N. Y. ; July 4-5, Four 
Mile, N. Y., collected by the writer. June 20, Pine Island, New 
York (Wm. T. Davis). 

Neoborus canadensis Van Duzee. This species was found on 
Fraxinus americana in company with T. cardinalis and N. tri- 
color on the Cornell Campus. The life cycle coincides very 
closely with that of T. cardinalis but is found only in favored 
spots. 

Records: May 31 to June 16, Ithaca, N. Y. ; June 20 to Aug. 
24, Batavia, N. Y. ; June 27, Portage, N. Y., collected by the 
writer. 

Neoborus geminus Say. Occurs on Fraxinus americana in 
company with amoenus but found only during June and early 
July. In the large series collected by the writer certain speci- 

* Contribution from the Department of Entomology of Cornell Uni- 
versity. 



Oct.,1917 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 81 

mens show a gradation into the dark forms of amoenus and thus 
the two may prove to be but varieties of the same species. 

Records: June 13 to June 28, Batavia, N. Y. ; July 4-5, Four 
Mile, N. Y. (H. H. Knight). 

Neoborus amoenus Renter. Most abundant on Fraxinus 
americana and F. pennsylvanica and found sparingly on F. 
nigra. The species has two broods, the first adults maturing 
about June 20 in western New York and continuing on the trees 
up till frost or the middle of September. 

Record: June 20 to Aug. 24, Batavia, N. Y. ; Sept. 14, Wyo- 
ming, N. Y. (H. H. Knight). 

Neoborus palmeri Renter. This form has been regarded as a 
variety of amoenus but it is undoubtedly a good species. The 
writer has found it only on the black ash (Fraxinus nigra) and 
apparently coming earlier than X. plagifer and X. commissuralis. 

Records: 5 5 July 30, 2 $ Aug. 6, Batavia, N. Y. (H. H. 
Knight). 

Neoborus pubescens new species. Very similar to certain dark forms of 
amanus, but distinguished from that and other species in the genus except 
tricolor by the presence of distinct pubescence. 

Length 4.5-4.8 mm. Antennae and legs pale. Head more sharply pro- 
duced and the front more vertical and flattened than in amoenus; black, 
in the female the tips of the lorae and juga, each side of the median line 
on the front, pale. Pronotum with sides distinctly carinate only on the 
apical half; black, top of the collar, rather widely on the median line of 
the disk, one and sometimes two rays behind each callus, pale yellow; 
more coarsely punctured than in amcenus. Scutellum yellow, black at the 
middle of the base and on the mesoscutum; sternum and pleura black, 
orifice pale. Hemelytra pale, inner half of the clavus, along the claval 
suture, large apical spot on the corium and slightly invading the embolium, 
black. Membrane pale, in the female dark fuscous to black within the 
cells and margining the veins; in the male dark fuscous and extending 
to include the middle of the membrane. Venter black, sometimes paler 
in the female. 

Holotype: (^ July 23, Ithaca, New York (H. H. Knight) ; 
author's collection. 

Allotpye: taken with the type. 

Paratypes: 3 $ July 23, i J* 31 $ July 26, Ithaca, N. Y. ; 2 $ 
Aug. I, Batavia, N. Y., collected by the writer. 2 J^ i 5 June 15, 
Woodworth Lake, Fulton County, N. Y. (C. P. Alexander). 5 
July 3, Hanover, New Hampshire (C. W. Johnson). 



82 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XII 

The species was found only on the very young white ash plants 
which grew in shady and damp places, the leaves of which ap- 
peared to be infested by a mite. 

Xenoborus pettiti Renter. Breeds on Fraximis americana 
and found in company with T. cardinalis and N. canadensis: 

Records: May 31 to June 16, Ithaca, N. Y. ; June 13 to June 
30, Batavia, N. Y. ; June 22, Portage, N. Y. (H. H. Knight). 

Xenoborus neglectus new species. Resembles certain pale forms of pet- 
titi; left genital clasper much longer and more spatulate toward the tip. 

S- Length 5.4 mm., width 2.1 mm. Black with pale. Antennae fuscous, 
paler on the basal half of the first segment. Head with lower half of 
the face fuscous, front pale and flecked with reddish ; carina and a small 
median dash at the middle of the vertex blackish. Pronotum ecarinate, 
punctuation and pubescence nearly as in pettiti; collar and large median 
spot or ray on the disk, white or pale yellow; pale ray from behind the 
calli extending along the margin of the disk and widening to the basal 
angles ; scutellum pale yellowish, mesoscutum blackish. Hemelytra black- 
ish, embolium, basal angle of the corium and entire cuneus, clear; mem- 
brane fuscous, in the female paler in the middle. Legs pale yellowish, the 
hind femora indistinctly marked with fuscous at the apices. 

Holotype: S, June 17-20, Mud Creek, Tompkins Co., N. Y. ; Cornell 
University Collection. 

Allotype: June 18, Batavia, N. Y. (H. H. Knight). 

The writer has found this species rather scarce though systematic col- 
lecting during June may show that it is present in greater numbers. The 
writer ventures to guess that it will be found on the black ash when that 
plant is thoroughly worked in June. 

Xenoborus plagifer Renter. The writer collected in the vicinity 
of Batavia for three seasons before taking this and the follow- 
ing species. It breeds only on the black ash (F. nigra) which 
grows in dense swampy woods. Once having found the food 
plant a large series was obtained by sweeping the host plant. 

Records: ^ July 30, 2 ^ Aug. i, 39 J*? Aug. 6, ? Aug. 9, 
5 c^? Aug. 10, 27 c^5 Aug. 12, Batavia, N. Y. (H. H. Knight). 

Xenoborus commissuralis Renter. This pretty species was 
found on Fraxinus nigra in company with plagifer and was taken 
in greater numbers. 

Records: 14 J*$ July 29, 123 c^? July 30, 40 ^^5 Aug. i, Batavia, 
N. Y. (H. H. Knight). 



Oct.,1917 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 83 



STUDIES IN THE HYDNOCERINI (COL.). THE 
HYDNOCEROID GENERA. 

By Edward A. Chapin, M.S. 

After a careful study of a large collection of the. insects here- 
tofore included under the genus Hydnocera Newman, it has 
become evident that certain of the species differ from H. palli- 
pennis Say, that species being the type of Hydnocera, to an 
extent which warrants the erection of genera to include them. 
In the characterization of the genus by Lacordaire (Gen. Col., 
IV, 471) the ungues are stated to be " appendiculate, their basal 
portion tooth-like." 

In Hydnocera pedalis Leconte and its related species, sobrina 
Fall and parviceps Schaeffer, and in the group of species allied to 
curtipennis Newman {longicollis Ziegl.), the ungues are simple, 
but slightly thickened at the base. In these groups, however, the 
structure of the antennae differs widely and considering the 
uniformity of structure as seen throughout the two large groups,, 
the pallipennis and the curtipennis groups, a second division is 
made on the antennal characters. 

The genera may be distinguished from one another by the 
following table : 

Ungues with a broad basal tooth Hydnocera Newman. 

Ungues simple, at most slightly thickened. 

Third segment of antennae about twice as long as broad, cylindrical ; 

prothorax much longer than broad Isohydnocera gen. nov. 

Third segment of antennae as broad or broader than long; trapezoidal; 
prothorax subequilateral Wolcottia gen. nov. 

Isohydnocera gen. nov. — Body very elongate ; head short, vertical ; eyes 
prominent, finely granulate, entire or minutely emarginate near antennal 
insertion ; terminal segment of maxillary palpi cylindro-conical, that of 
labial palpi large, triangular ; mandibles with a tooth near apex on the 
inside. Antennae 11 -segmented, first segment thick, moderately long and 
somewhat arcuate, second short, globose, third to ninth cylindrical, longer 
than broad, tenth very large, forming with the eleventh a compact club 
which is much thicker than the ninth segment. Prothorax distinctly 
longer than broad, nearly cylindrical, lateral dilation weak. Elytra broader 



84 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XII 

than the thorax, shorter than the abdomen, attenuate or parallel and trun- 
cate, lateral margins and usually tips strongly serrate. Legs long and 
thin, tarsi with five segments, the first covered by the second from above, 
segments two, three and four bearing lamellse beneath, ungues long and 
thin, simple. Type species : Hydnocera curtipennis Newman. 

To this genus are to be assigned the following species : /. curtipennis New- 
man (longicolUs Ziegl.) , tabida Lee, schusteri Lee, ornata Wolc, gerhardi 
Wolc, pusilla Schaeff., cegra Newm., brunnea sp. nov., and albocincta 
Horn. 

Isohydnocera brunnea sp. nov. Very elongate, form of agra Newm. 
Brown, eyes black. Head sparsely and finely punctured, the punctures on 
the vertex being connected by fine grooves, surface otherwise smooth, 
very sparsely pubescent. Thorax much longer than wide (ratio of length 
to breadth is 40-32), apical transverse impression wide and shallow, basal 
deeper, section of thorax between impressions subglobose, lateral fovese 
deep and distinct but small, surface except for a few punctures smooth, 
very slightly alutaceous toward hind angles. Scutellum brown, sparsely 
pubescent. Elytra elongate, suture nearly closed, apices very sharply trun- 
cate and tumid, lateral margins serrate, surface moderately densely and 
coarsely punctured, the punctures becoming more coarse toward apex, 
although nearly obsolete on the tumid portion of the tips. Pubescence 
sparse, erect and pale. Underparts brown, posterior halves of meso- and 
metapleurse densely pubescent with pale hairs. Legs long and slender, the 
posterior tibise somewhat arcuate, brown. Length 4.8 mm. 

Type locality : Riley Co., Kansas. Type in the collection of 
Kansas Agricultural College. This species is closely allied to 
cogra Newm. but is separated from that species by the nearly 
smooth thorax and by the different thoracic ratio. The thorax 
in cegra Newm. is finally alutaceous all over and has a ratio of 

32 = 25. 

Wolcottia gen. nov. Body elongate, slightly attenuate posteriorly. Head 
short, front flat, lateral margins slightly concave to accommodate eyes, which 
are not prominent, finely granulate and minutely emarginate as in Isohyd- 
nocera. Labrum broad, entire. Mandibles falciform, with a small inter- 
nal tooth near apex. Terminal segment of maxillary palpi conical, as 
long or slightly lotiger than the preceding, that of the labial palpi very 
large, triangular. Antennae short and stout, ii-segmented; first segment 
slightly longer than broad, second nearly spherical, third to eighth as long 
as broad, trapezoidal, becoming progressively broader, ninth broader than 
long, nearly as wide as tenth, tenth and eleventh forming an oval mass 
nearly as long as the three preceding segments. Thorax slightly broader 
than long, sides feebly dilated, slightly narrower than the head with eyes. 
Elytra at humeri broader than the head across eyes, attenuate poste- 



Oct., 1917 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 85 

riorly, tips rounded separately and with irregular margins. Legs long 
and thin, hind femora reaching beyond the tips of the elytra, tarsi of five 
segments, the first covered by the second from above, second, third and 
fourth bearing lamellae beneath. Ungues long and thin, simple or but 
slightly thickened. Type species : Hydnocera pedalis Leconte. 

The three species assigned to this genus, W. pedalis Lee, 
sobrina Fall, and parviceps Schaeffer, have antennas which seem 
to be midway between the three-segmented club type of Lemidia 
Spinola and the two-segmented club type of Hydnocera New- 
man. This genus is dedicated to Mr. Albert B. Wolcott, Chicago, 
111., the recognized authority on North American Cleridse. 1 
wish to thank Mr. Wolcott for his unbounded generosity in plac- 
ing at my disposal his entire collection of these genera, but for 
which I should have been unable to make the observations re- 
corded above. Thanks is also due Dr. J. H. Merrill, of Kansas 
Agricultural College, for the use of the Clerid material of that 
institution. 



THREE NEW CHALCID FLIES FROM NORTH AMERICA. 

By A, A. GiRAULT, Glenn Dale, Md. 

Elachistus sanninoideae new species. 

Female: In the table of species runs to hyphantrice Crawford 
but differs in that all the coxae are black, the abdomen is entirely 
black except slightly above at base and the mandibles are dentate 
(six teeth). Scape dusky at tip, the flagellum black. Club 2- 
jointed, not nippled. The male is similar but the yellow area on 
the abdomen is distinct (basal fourth except the margins) and 
the scape is concolorous and foliaceously dilated ventrad. 

One male, four females reared from the pupa of Sanninoidea 
exitiosa at Fayetteville, Arkansas, July 23 (G. Becker). 

Types: Catalogue No, Boy^S, U. S. National Museum, one 
male, four females on tags, a male and female head and female 
hind legs on a slide. 
Secodes multilineatus new species. 

Female: Similar to Secodella viridis Crawford but smaller by 
a half and the tips of the tibiae are plainly white, the knees nar- 



86 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XII 

rowly so, the scutellum is shorter, funicles 1-2 subequal, each 
only somewhat longer than wide, the mandibles tridentate. 

Two females, U. S. (3126*^^ of the Bureau of Entomology, June 
30, 1883). 

Types: Catalogue No. 20/yi, U. S. National Museum, the two 
females on tags, their heads on a slide. 

Ootetrastichus gibboni new species. 

Female: Length, 1.30 mm. Ovipositor extruded somewhat. 
Slender, the abdomen conic-ovate, longer than the thorax. 
Second ring- joint very short, the others large, subequal. Dark 
metallic green, the wings hyaline, the mouth distinctly, legs, 
tegulse, scape except immediate base and along dorsal edge, 
pedicel except above at basal two thirds, lateral margin broadly 
but obscurely of the large postscutellum and proximal third of the 
abdomen, above and below except the margins broadly above, 
dull yellow. Funicle i about five times longer than wide, longest, 

2 subequal to the elongate pedicel, over twice longer than wide, 

3 a little shorter than 2. Club usual, its terminal nipple distinct, 
short. Sculpture usual, very fine. Punctures along lateral 
margin of scutum minute ; propodeum with a median carina only, 
the caudal margin carinated. Mandibles as in mymaridis as to 
shape. 

Five females associated with Languria m,ozardi, Tempe, Ari- 
zona, Sept., 1912 (V. L. Wildermuth). 

Types: Catalogue No. 20^87, U. S. National Museum, four 
females on tags, a head and several antennae on a slide. 



NEW CHALCID FLIES, WITH NOTES. 

By a. a. Girault, Glenn Dale, Md. 

Euiydinota lividicorpus n. sp. — Female: Length 1.65 mm. Dark metallic 
blue, the wings hyaline, the base and apex of the tibise and tarsi white. 
Clypeus striate, gently concave at apex. Head and thorax punctate. Pro- 
podeum with distinct, curved lateral carina and no other, the carina form- 
ing the lateral rim of the large neck, no spiracular sulcus, the spiracle 
elliptical, cephalad. Petiole a little longer than wide. Parapsidal furrows 
half complete from cephalad. Abdomen depressed, delicately scaly distad, 



Oct.,1917 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 87 

segment 2 occupying a fourth of the surface, its caudal margin convex, 
entire. Antennse inserted somewhat above the ends of the eyes, the scape 
slender, reaching to the top of the vertex; pedicel twice longer than wide 
at apex, much longer than any funicle joint; ring-joints unequal; funicle 
I (a ring-joint?) quadrate, narrower than the following joint's; 2 and 
3 subquadrate, wider than i, 6 twice wider than long. Stigmal vein long 
and slender, slightly shorter than the marginal which is slightly shorter 
than the postmarginal. 

The male is similar but funicle i is wider than long, still more like a 
ring-joint, the pedicel shorter; also the cephalic tibiae are reddish yellow. 

From several pairs reared from Coleophora malivorella. Walnut Creek, 
Cal., June 7, 1916 (W. M. Davidson). Types: Cat. No. 20,971, U. S. Nat. 
Mus., one male, three females on tags, a female head and hind legs on a 
slide. Also at San Jose (Moulton, 1909), Los Angeles (Coqulllett), and 
Mountain View (Ehrhorn), Cal. 

Gonatocerus titillatus n. sp. — Female : Like maga Girault but the fore- 
wings are subhyaline, nearly the basal half of the abdomen is yellow 
(above this yellow with three cross stripes, the first well out from base), 
the legs are yellow except coxae and femora (the latter except at apex), 
the funicle is of uniform width, the club slender, funicle i over twice 
longer than wide, 2 and 3 subequal, longest', over thrice longer than wide, 
7 nearly as long as either, the others subequal, twice longer than wide and 
subequal to the pedicel. Longest marginal fringes of fore-wing somewhat 
less than half the width of those wings. Thorax scaly, the propodeum 
subglabrous, non-carinate. Ovipositor extruded for a sixth the length of 
the conical abdomen which is distinctly longer than the thorax. 

One female. Salt Lake, Utah, from a window (C. N. Ainslie). Type: 
Cat. No. 20,972, U. S. Nat. Mus., the female on a slide. 

Ormyrus unfasciatipennis n. sp. — Female : Length 2.70 mm. Like un- 
maculatipennis but the, fuscous area on the fore-wing is continued across 
the wing and widens caudad ; the legs are entirely metallic except the tarsi 
and the knees and tips of tibiae more or less broadly, cephalic legs washed 
with metallic only; the antennae are wholly metallic except the scape more 
or less at each end and ventrad ; and the punctures on the abdomen are in 
triple rows, the first line in each row at first incomplete. 

Described from one female in the U. S. Nat. Mus. from Los Angeles 
Co., Cal. (Coquillett). Types: Cat. No. 20,975, U. S. Nat. Mus., the above 
female minutien mounted. 

Ormyrus thymus n. sp. — Female : Similar to unmaculatipennis except 
that the antennae and legs are entirely metallic green except the reddish 
brown tarsi, the spot on the fore-wing is longer than wide, obliquely trun- 
cate distad and widens distad, extending a little beyond the middle, the 
median carina on the abdomen is obscure and the lines of punctures single 
except in places. 



88 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol.XIl 

From one female in the same collection, Mountain View, Cal. (Ehr- 
horn). Type: Cat. No. 20,976, U. S. Nat. Mus., the specimen on a tag. 

Omphalomopsis gen. n. — Female : Placed provisionally in the Tetrasti- 
chini and agrees with Ootetrastichus Perkins but the thorax has no 
grooves and the marginal fringes of the fore-wing are long. Three ring- 
joints. Propodeum with a median carina, moderately long. Flagellum 
with sparse, moderately long, pale hair. Mandibles tridentate, 3 truncate. 
Resembles Thripoctenus. Ovipositor extruded for a short distance. 

Omphalomopsis marilandia n. sp. — Female. Genotype. Length 0.90 mm. 
Dark metallic purple, the wings hyaline, the legs, antennse and proximal 
third of abdomen pale yellow. Hind coxae concolorous. Tegulse yellow- 
ish. Sculpture very fine and velvety. Funicles 1-3 subequal to each other 
and to the pedicel, over twice longer than wide, club i somewhat shorter, 
2 longest of the flagellum, nippled at apex. Marginal fringes of the fore- 
wing somewhat over a third that wing's greatest width. Abdomen spatu- 
late, a little longer than the thorax. 

.One female (Hillmead), Glenn Dale, Md., 1916, Sept. Type: Cat. No. 
20,973, U. S. Nat. Mus., the female on a tag, the head on a slide. 

Aprostocetus kansasia n. sp. — Female: Like diplosidis Crawford, but 
dark metallic, the propodeum is longer, the abdomen acuminate, funicle i 
over twice the length of the pedicel, over thrice longer than wide, 3 much 
over twice longer than wide. Types compared. 

One female, Riley Co., Kan. (J. B. Norton). Type: Cat. No. 20,977, 
U. S. Nat. Mus., the specimen on a tag, the head on a slide. 

Telenomus fuscicornis Ashmead. — Differs from female monilicornis 
Ashm. only in the flatter scutellum which is twice wider than long (not so 
in the other) and the wider post-scutellum which is flnely long-striate in 
both but in fusicornis is twice wider than long. Types compared (male 
of monilicornis with female specimen from Porto Rico and a female type 
of the other). 

In this species the mesonotum and vertex are finely scaly, the latter 
pilose, the scutellum polished. The legs may be entirely black. Segment 
2 of abdomen is somewhat longer than wide. Funicle joints 3 and 4 are 
equal, globular, and smaller than i or 2. 

Four females from eggs of a moth which feeds upon Crofolana retusa. 
St. Vincent, B. W. L (S. Cross Harland). 

Coccophagus orientalis Howard. This is an Aneristus allied very closely 
with fumosipennis Girault. Types examined. 

Eurytoma pissodis n. sp. — Female: Exactly similar to the type of cleri 
Ashm., except as follows: all the coxae are black, the hind femur is black 
(usually) laterad and along the dorsal edge at distal half, the hind tibia 
black except at each end; the tegulae are black; the abdomen is entirely 
black ; the stigmal vein is barely shorter than the postmarginal, the median 
basin of the propodeum bears fine cross-rugae which are continuous (not 



Oct., 1917 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 89 

so in the other but variable in both) ; the ventral half of the prepectus is 
not rugulose but near caudal margin has a cross-row of fovese ; the middle 
section or finely punctate portion of the mesopleurum is larger (a third 
wider), as wide as the third or caudal or the section with cross-rugae; 
the propodeum and prepectus are wholly black; and the abdomen from 
above is finely scaly after segment 2 (not until after 4 in the other). A 
variety has black spots above on the first two pairs of femora, the cephalic 
tibiae are black centrally dorsad, the middle tibiae wholly black. 

The male is similar except that the scape is black. Petiole twice longer 
than wide; funicle 5-jointed. 

From two males, seven females taken from the pupal chambers of Pis- 
sodes strobi in September, 1916, as larvae and reared several months later. 
Taylor's Falls, Minn. (S. A. Graham). Types: Cat. No. 20,969, U. S. 
Nat. Mus., one male, four females on four tags. 

In New York it appears as an adult in May. 



THREE NEW SPECIES OF THE NEW GENUS ANDRENA 

FROM THE UNITED STATES (HYMENOPTERA, 

ACULEATA). 

By J. R. Malloch, Urbana, 111. 

The three species described in the present paper are probably 
represented in other collections, and it is quite possible that 
regularis is confused with carlini or even with vicina in collec- 
tions from the eastern states. 

Andrena banksi n. sp. Male. — Black, clypeus lemon-yellow. Head shin- 
ing, glossy behind eyes and on lower part' of face; antennae subopaque. 
Thorax subopaque, slightly shining on posterior half of pleurae. Abdomen 
glossy. Surf ace hairs grayish, or those on disc of thorax slightly yellowish. 

Head distinctly broader than high ; clypeus glossy, flattened, and almost 
impunctate on center of disc, the punctures becoming more numerous and 
much closer towards each lateral angle; anterior central outline of clypeus 
broad, regularly arcuate, the length across equal to that from its outer 
angle to base of mandible; mandibles long and curved, inner tooth small, 
well removed from apex, no tooth at base on under side; cheek broader 
than eye, produced opposite middle of eye into a more or less tooth-like 
process which projects backward, but rarely reduced, appearing as an 
angular production of the posterior margin which is more or less accen- 
tuated by the presence of a slight concavity at base on its lower margin. 
Thorax throughout finely and closely shagreened, and indistinctly punctate. 
Abdomen much less closely shagreened than the thorax, the only punctures 
present being those at the bases of the rather long, sparse surface-hairs; 



90 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XII 

fasciae at apices of segments very faint, distinguishable only laterally; 
hairs on segments i and 2 very much longer than those on other segments ; 
sixth ventral segment slightly reflexed apically but without lateral angles ; 
seventh with a deep wedge-shaped notch in center of the median produced 
portion; eighth very similar to that of erythrogastra, terminating in a long, 
almost parallel-sided process, the apex of which is truncate or slightly 
rounded; hypopygium somewhat similar to that of andrenoides, differing 
in having the dorsal processes of the stipites broader, longer, and more 
nearly truncate apically, and closely contiguous almost to their apices. 

Female. — Differs from the male in having the face entirely black, the 
thoracic hairs bright fulvous, and the apices of the abdominal segments 
each with a complete band of whitish hairs. 

Fovese broad, at upper extremity covering about four fifths of space 
between eye and ocellus, pubescence tawny yellow, lower extremity of 
f ovese below lower level of antennal insertion ; clypeus shagreened and 
rather remotely and finely punctate except on lower median portion, cly- 
peal structure as in male ; mandibles shorter and stouter than in male ; 
malar space about one fifth as high as broad ; cheek broader than eye, 
tapered below and without a distinct angle; basal flagellar joint sHghtly 
shorter than 2 + 3. Thorax as in male ; metathoracic enclosure minutely 
shagreened, basally irregularly granulose. Surface hairs stout, dense, and 
upright, covered with closely appressed short branches and except under 
a high magnification appearing simple. Abdomen as in male, the punctures 
at bases of the upright hairs even less distinct, so that the surface appears 
impunctat'e ; hairs on segments i and 2 long and upright ; fascia on seg- 
ment I less distinct than on others ; pygidium truncate and slightly emar- 
ginate at apex. Mid and hind metatarsi narrower than corresponding 
tibiae; hind tibiae broad, of nearly an equal width on their apical three 
fifths, gradually narrowed to base on remainder; tarsal claws bifid, the 
inner tooth much shorter than outer. Greatest length of third submar- 
ginal cell at least twice that of second; basal nervure distinctly distad of 
transverse median. 

Length: male, 8.5-9.5 mm.; female, 11. 5-12.5 mm. 

Type locality, Fedor, Texas, March 13-24 (Birkmann). Para- 
types, Trinity, Texas, March 20, 2 males on Salix (R. A. Cush- 
man) ; Beaumont, Texas, March 18 (E. S. Tucker) ; Great Falls, 
Maryland, April 21 (N. Banks) ; Maryland, near Plummers 
Island, April 19, 21, 22, 7 males on flowers of Prunus (L. O. 
Jackson, H. L. Viereck). 

The male of this species is separable from that of any de- 
scribed species by the yellow clypeus and peculiar tooth-like pro- 
jection of the posterior margin of cheek. The female resembles 
in some respects mandihularis Robertson, but the stout, dense 



Oct.,1917 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 91 

thoracic hairs, complete abdominal fasciae, and many minor char- 
acters readily distinguished the species. 

Named in honor of Nathan Banks, who submitted the first 
examples of the species which I had seen. 

Type and allotype in collection of Illinois State Laboratory of 
Natural History ; paratypes in collections of Nathan Banks and 
U. S. Bureau of Biological Survey. 

Andrena regularis n. sp. Male. — Black, distinctly shining. A few brown- 
ish black hairs along inner margins of eyes, on vertex, and behind upper 
angle of eyes, remainder of hairs of head, those of thorax, and those of 
abdomen whitish gray. Legs black, hairs whitish except on under sur- 
faces of basal tarsal joints and inner surface of hind tibiae, where they 
are brownish. Wings slightly brownish on apices, veins yellow. 

Head about one seventh broader than high; third antennal joint one 
fourth longer than fourth and subequal to fifth ; clypeus glossy on disc, 
shagreened on margins, discal punctures of moderate size, very regularly 
distributed, no impunctate ventral line present; cheek distinctly broader 
than eye, rounded posteriorly; malar space narrow, punctate; mandibles 
long, curved, simple at base, with a weak preapical inner tooth; process 
of labrum truncate, rather broad. Thoracic hairs long and rather dense ; 
metat'horacic enclosure finely rugose. Abdomen with sparse, fine punc- 
tures and short, upright hairs ; apical ventral segment tapering on its 
apical two thirds, with a rather sharp ventral production at one third from 
apxe, and from this point caudad covered with dense hairs, apex stout, 
slightly fishtail-shaped ; hypopygium stout, dorsal processes of the stipites 
stout, contiguous nearly to their apices, then widely and suddenly diverg- 
ing, terminating in a rounded point. 

Female. — Very similar to carlini Cockerell, differing in having the cly- 
peus with small, rather widely spaced, regular punctures. 

Head with pale hairs on center of face and behind vertex, remainder 
of surface with brownish to black hairs. Dorsum of thorax and upper 
half of pleurae with long pale hairs, remainder of surface with black hairs. 
Abdomen with black hairs which are short except at apex. Hairs of legs 
black, femoral hairs sometimes pale. Wings as in male. 

Clypeus much less conspicuously punctured than in male ; f oveae broad, 
descending below lower margins of antennal sockets, narrowly separated 
from eyes. Metathoracic enclosure granulose except at base. Scopae of 
hind tibiae simple on outer side ; tarsal claws long, bifid. Otherwise as 
male. 

Length : male, 10-12 mm. ; female, 12-14 mm- 

Type locality, Ithaca, N. Y,, April 26 to June 6. A very 
large series of both sexes submitted by Dr. J. C. Bradley from 
Cornell University collection. Type and paratypes in the latter 



92 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XII 

collection; paratypes in collection of Illinois State Laboratory of 
Natural History and of U. S. Bureau of Biological Survey. 

The female of this species closely resembles that of carlini but 
is readily separated from it by the regularly punctate clypeus. 

Andrena flexa n. sp. Female. — Black, shining. Hairs on lower margin 
of clypeus brownish, remainder of hairs on head and thorax yellowish 
white, abdominal fasciae white, dense, interrupted centrally; hairs on legs 
whitish or yellowish, those on base of hind tibise, above, brownish. Legs 
brownish black. Wings slightly brownish, especially at apices ; veins 
dark brown. 

Head about one fifth broader than high ; fovese whitish, tapering to a 
point slightly below lower margin of antennal sockets and narrowly sepa- 
rated from eyes; clypeus shining, with subcontiguous, deep punctures and 
a distinctly elevated median impunctate linear space; malar space linear 
except posteriorly, impunctate; back of head about 1.5 times as broad as 
eye; labrum truncate apically, sides convergent; mandibles short and 
blunt, simple. Dorsum of thorax closely punctured ; metathoracic en- 
closure broad, granulose. Abdomen densely punctate, the punctures small 
and deep. Hind tibial scopse simple outwardly; claws bifid; hind tibiae 
with the inner spur distinctly flexed at about one third from apex. Vena- 
tion normal. 

Length, 9.5-10.5 mm. 

Type locality, Dubois, 111., May 15, 1916, and May 24, 191 7 
(C. A. Hart and J. R. Malloch). On flowers of raspberry and 
Cratosgus. 

This species bears a striking superficial resemblance to cressoni 
Robertson, but may be readily separated from it and from all 
other species known to me by the flexure of the hind tibial spur. 

The male is unknown to me. 

Type and paratypes in coll. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist., paratype 
in U. S. Bur. Biol. Surv. 



BUPRESTID^ AND CERAMBYCID^ FROM MAINE. 

By Alan Sloan Nicolay, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

From May i to the middle of July, 191 6, I was in Douglas 
Hill, Maine, able to collect from morning until night. It is in 
Cumberland County, elevation about 1,200 feet, three miles from 



Oct., 1917 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 93 

Lake Sebago and about thirty miles from Portland, hilly, but not 
mountainous, with an abundance of pine and white birch, oak 
conspicuously absent. Numerous portable saw mills, while not 
adding to the beauty of the country, were great aids to the spe- 
cialist in Buprestidse and Cerambycidae. 

With the exception of the common Rhagium lineatum, taken 
as early as May i, there were no captures in the two families 
until about May 15. Snow was still to be seen in shaded valleys. 
May 15 I took my first specimen of the rare Anthophilax mala- 
chiticus, and from then collecting was excellent, reaching its best 
during the last week in June. The list of captures : 

Chalcophora fortis Lee. July 13 a^single one flying along shore 
of Lake Sebago. 

C. virginiensis var. lacustris Lee. June 7-July 12. Not rare. 
Taken almost every favorable day on the trunk of a dead but 
still standing pine. None from prostrate logs. 

C. liberta Germ. June 28-July 13. All but one flying over 
Lake Sebago July 13, a very warm sunny day. Would light on 
bath houses and be easily picked off. 

Dicerca divaricata Say. June 22. 

D. divaricata var. caudata Lee. July 9. 

D. prolongata Lee. Two specimens June 2-26. 

D. punctulata Sch. June 26. Not common. 

D. tenebrosa var. chrysea Melsh. June 24- July 6. Half a 
dozen on dead standing tree trunks. None from fallen logs. 

Buprestis striata var. impolita Say. This is the green form, 
which is northeastern. The true striata is uniformly coppery 
brown and ranges from New York to Florida. 

Melanophila fulvoguttata Harris. June. Very abundant 

Chrysobothris dentipes Germ. June. Common on pine logs. 

C. scabripennis Lap. & Gory. June. Occurs with dentipes, 
even more abundant, but very active and hard to catch. 

C. harrisii Hentz. June 2-July 6. This beautiful species quite 
locally common, lighting on the smaller twigs of fallen pines. 
Very active, seen only on sunny days. 

Agrihis acutipennis Mann. June 28. Two specimens. 

A. ruficollis Fab. June-July. 

A. politus Say. July 11. 



94 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XII 

A. vittaticollis Rand. July 8. One beautiful specimen taken 
sweeping. 

Asemum moestum Hald. Common May-June. 

Phymatodes variabilis Fab. Common June-July. 

CaUidium antennatum Newm. May 21. One specimen. 

C. janthinum Lee. June 25-July 15. Common. 

Molorchus bimaculatus Say. May 22. 

Clytus marginicollis Lap. June 19-21. Three taken, as many 
more seen. This species was very active running in bright sun- 
light on branches of fallen pines, taking flight when approached. 

X ylotre chus fuscus Kivhy. July 11. Sparingly. 

Neoclytus muricatulus Kirby. July 6. One pair on pine. 

Clytanthus ruricola Oliv. July 11. 

Euderces picipes Fab. June i8-July 15. Common on flowers. 

Desmocerus palliatus Forst. July. Common on elder. 

Encyclops cccruleus Say. July 14. One female knocked from 
dead cedar needles. 

' Rhagium lineatum Oliv. May-June. Very common. They 
would run over pine logs and stumps in the bright sunlight, not 
unlike lizards in habit, action and appearance. 

Pachyta monticola Rand. May 21-28. Several from blossoms 
of wild cherry and by beating dead pine needles. 

P. rugipennis Newm. June 18. A single specimen of this 
rarest of rare beetles found resting on a small twig of a linden 
by the roadside. It is undoubtedly a pine feeder. It remained 
in the cyanide bottle all the afternoon, then pinned, and next 
morning it was still very much alive. 

Anthophilax malachiticus Hald. May 15-June 14. Beaten 
from half dead pine needles from tops of trees felled the previous 
winter. Eight altogether, three May 18. 

A. akernatus Hald. May 25-June 5. Mostly flying on warm 
days throng the woods ; one beaten from dead pine needles. 

Acmaeops proteus Kirby. June 14-21. Not common, beating 
dead pine needles. 

Gaurotes cyanipennis Say. June 29 on flowers. 

Leptura hcefnatites Newm. June 7. 

L. exigua Newm. June 3. 

L. cordifera Oliv. July 8-12. Common on flowers. 

L. proximo Say. July 8-13. 



Oct., 1917 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 95 

L. vittata Germ. July. 

L. pubera Say. June 19-July 9. 

L. ruficollis var. sphccricollis Say. June 29. 

L. mutabilis Newm. June S-July i. Common. 

L. cispera Lee. June 22. One specimen. 

Monohammus scutellatus Say. May 29-June 28. Very com- 
mon around fallen pine logs. 

Letpostyliis 6-guttatus Say. July 6. 

Hyperplatys aspersus Say. July 9. 

Pogonocherus plenicellatus Lee. May 29-June 29. Not rare, 
about 16 beaten from dead cedar. 

Eupogonius tomentosiis Hald. June 24. 

Saperda vestita Say. July 14. At light. 



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CONTENTS. 

NORTH AMERICAN WASPS OF SUBGENUS PEMPHREDON 

LATREILLE, Rohwer 97 

PREPARATORY STAGES OF HOMOPTERA UNILINEATA, 

Clark 103 

NEW VARIETIES OF CICINDELA TRANQUEBARICA FROM 

CALIFORNIA, Fall 106 

IN QUEST OF DINAPATE WRIGHTII, Martin 107 

KEY TO GENUS CERESA, Gibson & Wells no 

NEW GENUS OF ANTHOMYIID^, Malloch 113 

GEOMETRID GENUS BARNESIA, Cockerell 115 

PROBABLE COLOR OF ANCESTRAL WINGED INSECTS, 

Crampton 116 

HYMENOPTEREA PARASITICA, Girault 118 



BULLETIN 

OF THE 

BROOKLYN ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 



Vol. ^P^ %iL December, 1917 No. 5 

THE NORTH AMERICAN WASPS OF THE SUBGENUS 
PEMPHREDON LATREILLE. 

By S. a. Rohwer, Specialist in Forest Hymenopfera, Bureau of Ento- 
mology, U. S. Department of Agriculture. 

The North American species of Pemphredon as treated by 
Fox, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc, Vol. 19, 1892, p. 307, may be 
divided into two well-defined subgenera. The first subgenus 
has a recurrent vein in both of the cubital cells and is P^m/'/tr^c/ow 
in the strict sense. The other subgenus has both recurrent veins 
received by the first cubital cell and is Diphlehus Westwood. 
Morice and Durant contend that the name Pemphredon should 
fall as a synonym of Cemonus Jurine. According to the ruHngs 
of the International Commission of Zoological Nomenclature, 
the genus Pemphredon was founded in 1796 by Latreille and 
antedates Cemonus. 

In this synopsis only the species of the subgenus Pemphredon 
are tabulated. Pemphredon provancheri Ashmead and Pem- 
phredon tinctipennis Cameron are not included. The unsatisfac- 
tory description of provancheri makes it difificult to form a defi- 
nite idea of this species and there is nothing in the collection 
which agrees well enough to be considered as that species. Judg- 
ing from the description, Pefnphredon tinctipennis Cameron is a 
valid species and is different from any of the species in the col- 
lections available. 

The nests of the species of the genus Pemphredon are as a rule 
made either in brashy wood or in the old galleries of wood- 
boring larvae and are provisioned with paralyzed flies. 



98 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XII 

Key to the Nearctic Species. 

1. Males 2. 

Females lo. 

2. Flagellar joints four to eight produced beneath 3. 

Flagellar joints simple 6. 

3. Enclosed area of propodeum flat and uniformly longitudinally striate 4. 
Enclosed area of propodeum depressed basally, the base with longi- 
tudinal rugae, the apical part shining 5. 

4. Petiole slightly longer than the hind basitarsis ; head seen from above 

with anterior width distinctly less than twice the length, not nar- 
rowing distinctly behind the eyes rileyi Fox. 

Petiole slightly shorter than the hind basitarsis ; head seen from above 
with the anterior width nearly as great as the length, distinctly nar- 
rowing behind the eyes errans Rohwer. 

5. Distance between the eyes at the clypeus distinctly greater than the 

length of the eye; vertex with distinct although scattered punctures, 

confertim Fox. 

Distance between the eyes at the clypeus subequal with the length of 

the eye ; vertex practically impunctate cockerelli Rohwer. 

6. Propodeal enclosure longitudinally striate; anterior margin of the cly- 

peus t'ridentate nearticus Kohl. 

Propodeal enclosure rugose; anterior margin of the clypeus arcuately 
emarginate 7. 

7. Head seen from above with the cephalo-caudad length distinctly more 

than half the anterior width; petiole distinctly longer than hind 

basitarsis concolor Say (Fox) . 

Head seen from above with the cephalo-caudad length less than or 
subequal with the anterior width; petiole subequal with the hind 
basitarsis 8. 

8. Propodeum with a more or less distinct, U-shaped, finely aciculat'e ridge 

defining off the more coarsely rugose area; mesoscutum with close 
punctures anteriorly angularis Fox. 

Propodeum without a U-shaped ridge 9. 

g. Distance between the eyes at the clypeus distinctly greater than the 
length of the eye; scutum transversely striato-punctate ; ocellocular 
line nearly twice as long as the postocellar line shawii Rohwer. 

Distance between the eyes at the clypeus slightly less than the length 
of the eye; scutum shining, sparsely punctured; ocellocular line but 

little longer than the postocellar line virginiana Rohwer. 

TO. Basal dorsal area of the propodeum with distinct longitudinal carinas 11. 

Basal dorsal area of propodeum rugoso-reticulate 13. 

II. Anterior margin of the clypeus strongly biemarginate or tridentate; 
scutum shining, sparsely punctured nearcticus Kohl (Fox). 

Anterior margin of clypeus not biemarginate; scutum transversely 
rugulose ; . . . 12. 



14 



Dec, 1917 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 99 

12. Anterior margin of the clypeus deeply, arcuately emarginate; scutum 

finely rugulose and with a few scattered punctures rileyi Fox. 

Anterior margin of the clypeus subtruncate with a median tooth; 
scutum rather coarsely punctato-rugulose errans Rohwer. 

13. Anterior margin of the clypeus deeply biemarginate or tridentate ; 

scutum with distinct rather large punctures foxii Rohwer. 

Anterior margin of the clypeus truncate or somewhat produced ; scutum 
rugulose or punctato-rugulose ^4- 

Basal dorsal middle of propodeum coarsely rugo-reticulate, separated 
from the rest of the propodeum by a U-shaped area which is finely 
aciculate; anterior margin of the clypeus produced into an angle; 
scutum with fine, curved wrinkles angularis Fox. 

Propodeum without a U-shaped area; clypeus different • IS- 

15. Anterior margin of clypeus subtruncate, without a median tooth or 
lateral angles ; scutum punctato-rugulose; third antennal joint fully 
one third longer than fourth concolor Say (Fox). 

Anterior margin of clypeus truncate, with a median tooth and with 
lateral angles of truncation prominent, so there is an indication of 
being tridentats; scutum punctato-rugose. third antennal joint 
about one fourth longer than fourth virginiana Rohwer. 

Pemphredon errans new species.— Pemphredon rileyi Fox, Trans. Amer. 
Ent. Soc, Vol. 19, 1892, p. 310. Male, not female. 

The male which Fox associated with the female he described as rileyi 
is the male of one of the females which he wrongly placed under this spe- 
cies. Of the specimens originally placed under rileyi by Fox only one of 
them, the holotype female, really belongs there. The others are a new 
species and are described herewith. The description of the female given 
by Fox was, at least for the greater part, taken from the holotype. 

Female.— Length 7 mm. Clypeus flat, shining, with large, rather close 
punctures, the anterior margin subtruncate with a small median tooth and 
rather prominent lateral angles ; distance between the eyes at the clypeus 
somewhat greater than the length of the eye; front punctato-aciculate ; 
posterior orbits and vertex shining, sparsely punctured; seen from above 
the anterior width of the head is not twice as great as the cephalo-caudad 
length; head not markedly narrowing behind eyes; ocellocular line one 
half longer than the postocellar line; third antennal joint one third longer 
than the fourth; scutum with a median depression anteriorly where the 
curved striato-punctations meet; scutellum sparsely punctured; dorsal 
basal area of propodeum flat, with uniform longitudinal striae which 
become weaker posteriorly; sides and posterior face (except the median 
channel) aciculato-punctate ; petiole not strongly sulcate laterally, much 
shorter than the hind basitarsis. Black; wings hyaline, with radial area 
somewhat dusky. 
Male.— Length 7 mm. Clypeus flat, closely punctured, the anterior 



100 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XII 

margin with a median emargination ; distance between the eyes at the 
clypeus distinctly greater than the length of an eye; front closely punc- 
tured, some of the punctures confluent; posterior orbits and vertex shining 
with rather close punctures; seen from above the anterior width of the 
head is nearly twice as great as the cephalo-caudad length; head distinctly 
narrowing behind eyes; ocellocular line nearly twice as long as the post- 
ocellar line; third antennal joint distinctly longer than the fourth; anten- 
nal joints 6-9, distinctly produced beneath; scutum shining, sparsely punc- 
tured and with a few oblique wrinkles; otherwise as in female. 

Type Locality. — Monterey County, California, one female in April; allo- 
type and one paratype male from San Mateo County, California, in March ; 
paratype female Placerville, California, reared from an oak gall by F. B. 
Herbert. 

Type.— Cat. No. 21562 U. S. Nat. Mus. 

Pemphredon rileyi Fox. — Type : Cat. No. 1884 U. S. Nat. Mus. Female. 

Type Locality. — Placer County, California, September (A. Koebele). 
See remarks under errans Rohwer. 

Male. — Length 8.5 mm. Clypeus flat, with fine, close punctures, the an- 
terior margin with a median emargination; distance between the eyes at 
the clypeus distinctly greater than the length of the eye; front closely, 
sometimes confiuently punctured; posterior orbits and vertex shining with 
separate distinct punctures, seen from above the anterior margin of the 
head is not merely twice as wide as the cephalo-caudad length, scarcely 
narrowing behind the eyes ; ocellocular line about one half longer than the 
postocellar line; third antennal joint distinctly longer than the fourth; 
antennal joints 6-9 prominent beneath; scutum punctat'o-striate anteriorly, 
sparsely punctured posteriorly; scutellum striato-punctate ; propodeum 
like errans; petiole distinctly sulcate laterally, longer than the hind basi- 
tarsis. Black; wings hyaline, faintly smoky. 

Described from two males from Pyramid Ranger Station, California, 
collected on Sambucus glauca by F. B. Herbert, August 20, 1915. 

Pemphredon cockerelli Rohwer. — Pemphredon cockerelli Rohwer, Trans. 
Amer. Ent. Soc, Vol. 35, 1909, p. 103. 
This is a male and not a female, and is allied to confertim Fox. 

Pemphredon angularis Fox. — A female collected on the campus of the 
University of Colorado at Boulder by T. D. A. Cockerell. 

Pemphredon shawii new species. — Male.—Ltngih. 8 mm. Clypeus con- 
vex, subopaque, with sparse, well-defined punctures, the anterior margin 
depressed, with a deep, arcuate, median emargination ; the distance be- 
tween the eyes at the clypeus much greater than the length of the eye; 
frons opaque with close, sometimes confluent punctures; posterior orbits 
punctured similar to but more sparsely than the front; seen from above 
the head is much wider anteriorly than it's cephalo-caudad length and dis- 



Dec.,1917 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 101 

tinctly converges posteriorly; vertex shining with sparse, well-defined 
punctures ; postocellar line a little more than half as long as ocellocular 
line; the third antennal joint about one fifth longer than the fourth; meso- 
scutum subopaque, with a median depression anteriorly towards which the 
oblique striato-punctation converges ; posterior margin of the scutum 
shining; scutellum shining, punctured; dorsal aspect of the propodeum 
rugose anteriorly, rugoso-granular posteriorly, sides reticulate; petiole a 
trifle shorter than the hind basitarsis. Black, densely clothed with long 
gray hair ; wings hyaline, distinctly dusky beyond the basal vein ; venation 
pale brown, costa and stigma dark brown. 

Type Locality. — Hampton, New Hampshire. Described from one male 
collected June 28, 1905, by S. A. Shaw, for whom the species is named. 

Type— Ca.i. No. 21563, U. S. Nat. Mus. 

Pemphredon foxii new species. — This species has been confused with 
concolor by Fox, but the characters given in the above table show that it 
is easily separated from that species by the puncturation of the scutum 
and the different conformation of the anterior margin of the clypeus. 

Female. — Length 10 mm. Clypeus subconvex, polished, with widely 
separated distinct punctures, the anterior margin deeply biemarginate or 
tridentate with subequal teeth; distance between the eyes at the clypeus 
somewhat greater than the length of the eye; front shining, medianly 
sparsely punctured, laterally, the punctures become confluent so there is 
distinct tendency towards striato-punctation; posterior orbits and vertex 
polished, with small scattered punctures; seen from above the width of 
the anterior margin of the head not more than one half greater than 
the cephalo-caudad length; head not receding behind the eyes; post- 
ocellar line about one fourth shorter than the ocellocular line; third an- 
tennal joint distinctly longer than the fourth; scutum shining with large 
close punctures ; scutellum with close, sometimes confluent punctures ; 
base of the propodeum depressed, coarsely rugose, the superior posterior 
angles shining, obliquely rugulose, the sides and posterior face reticulate; 
petiole strongly sulcat'e laterally, subequal with the length of the posterior 
basitarsis. Black; head, thorax and petiole with long black hair; wings 
dusky hyaline, venation pale brown, costa and stigma dark brown. 

Type Locality. — Camden County, New Jersey. Described from one fe- 
male collected July 27, 1890. Named for W. J. Fox. 

Type.— Cat No. 21564, U. S. Nat. Mus. 

Pemphredon virginiana new species. — Female. — Length 10 mm. Clypeus 
flat, shining, sparsely punctured, the anterior margin truncate with a 
median tooth and prominent lateral angles so it appears feebly tridentate ; 
distance between the eyes at the clypeus subequal with length of an eye, 
front sparsely punctured medianly, striato-punctate laterally; posterior 
orbits and vertex shining, sparsely punctured; seen from above the ante- 
rior width of the head is not nearly twice as great as the cephalo-caudad 



102 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XII 

length ; head not narrowed behind the eyes ; postocellar line about half as 
long as the ocellocular line; third antennal joint one fourth longer than the 
fourth; scutum coarsely punctate with some of the punctures confluent; 
scutellum striato-punctate ; basal dorsal area of propodeum depressed; 
rugose, the sides and posterior face reticulate ; petiole not sulcate laterally, 
subequal in length to the hind basitarsis. Black ; wings hyaline, the radial 
area somewhat dusky. 

Male. — Length 8.5 mm. Clypeus flat, closely punctured, the anterior 
margin with a median emargination ; distance between the eyes at the 
clypeus distinctly less than the length of an eye; front and vertex sculp- 
tured like female; seen from above the anterior width of the head is twice 
as great as the cephalo-caudad length; head distinctly narrowing behind 
the eyes; flagellum simple; the third antennal joint one fourth longer than 
the fourth ; scutum shining, with large separate punctures ; scutellum and 
propodeum as in female; petiole subequal with the hind basitarsis. Color 
as in female. 

Type Locality. — Falls Church, Virginia. Described from three females 
and five males reared from a decaying tulip stump by William Middleton. 

Type. — Cat. No. 21565, U. S. Nat. Mus. 

List of the Neactic Species of Pemphredon Latreille Sensu Latore 

/ 

angularis Fox. 

bipartior Fox = Diphlebus. 

cockerelli Rohwer. 

concolor Say (Fox). 

concolor Provancher (not Say) =provancheri Ashmead. 

confertim Fox. 

errans Rohwer. 

foxii Rohwer. ' 

giffardi Rohwer = Diphlebus. 

grinnelli Rohwer = Diphlebus. 

harbecki Rohwer = Diphlebus. ' 

inornatus Say (Fox) = Diphlebus. 

marginatus Say — probably Passaloecus. 

montanus Dahlbom — a European species recorded from British Columbia 

by Kohl. 
morio Cresson = concolor Say (Fox), 
nearcticus Kohl, 
provancheri Ashmead. 
rileyi Fox. 
shawii Rohwer. 
tenax Fox = Diphlebus. 
tinctipennis Cameron, 
virginiana Rohwer. 



Dec, 1917 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 1 03 

PREPARATORY STAGES OF HOMOPTERA UNILINEATA. 

By Howard L. Clark, Bristol, R. I. 

Eggs. — Obtained from two females taken at sugar and de- 
posited May 25 to 29, 1916. Dia. i mm. ; shape blunt cone 
rounded at the apex; irregular vertical ribs as in many of the 
Catocalas ; color bright green, soon changing to dark purple. 
Some green fluid discharged with the eggs. Hatched June 4 to 
June 6, making this period nine days. 

Young larva;. — Length 6 mm. ; body very slender and thread- 
like; two anterior pairs of prolegs undeveloped; walk with a 
looping movement and with great rapidity ; very active and re- 
fractory. Head prominent, yellowish brown ; body greenish 
gray and almost transparent before the food plant was found. 
They refused wild cherry, apple, maple, oak, birch, tulip, rose, 
violet, privet, lilac, and hickory; at last they were offered ordi- 
nary locust, Robinia pseudacacia. This they seized upon eagerly 
and devoured voraciously, the green showing clearly through the 
transparent skin. 

At this period all were confined in a large battery jar with a 
cheese cloth cover. From this many would suspend themselves 
when not eating. Later about half of them were transferred to 
an ordinary breeding cage with dirt on the bottom. It became 
impossible to detect any regular succession of moults, as the 
larvse developed at very different rates and gave little evidence, 
either in their habits or exuviae, of when these changes occurred. 

June II. No moult detected yet but the larvse had increased 
a great deal in size. Length 8 mm. Body still slender and taper- 
ing, especially posteriorly, shining and transparent. Head yellow 
with groups of black spots at the sides of the jaws. Small black 
tubercles, each emitting a single black hair, scattered over the 
body. The head also bristles with black hairs. A broad creamy 
colored lateral stripe and other narrower ones indicated. 
Thoracic segments pinkish, middle of the body bright green, 
presumably the food showing through. Posterior extremity 
light, fleshy and transparent. Two anterior pairs of prolegs 



1 04 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XII 

entirely absent. Distance from the thoracic legs to the third and 
fourth pairs of prolegs long. 

June 14. Another moult must have been passed, although 
there were no head cases nor old skins to be found. Length 12 
mm. Head pinkish cream color, heavily gridironed with a net- 
work of dark brown lines. Rudiments of the two anterior pairs 
of prolegs appeared. Thoracic segments pinkish brown, rest of 
the body dull green, shading again to pinkish brown posteriorly. 
Longitudinal lines and piliferous warts about the same as before. 

June 18. No evidence of a moult except that the larvse had 
changed conspicuously in size and structure. Length 25 mm., but 
still very slender and in general appearance much like a Catocala 
larva. Two anterior pairs of prolegs about half developed; all 
four pairs light flesh color dotted with black. A distinct dorsal 
hump on the nth segment and also an enlargement on the 4th 
segment. Prevailing color dark green, skin somewhat wrinkled, 
dark olive below, longitudinal light stripes persist, purplish tinge 
anteriorly. Spiracles inconspicuous, black edged with white. 

June 20. At last a moult was distinctly in evidence with the 
larvse varying greatly in size ; largest length 35 mm. Head with 
color and pattern the same. First segment conspicuously swollen 
and globular in shape. Two anterior pairs of prolegs nearly de- 
veloped and in use when in rest, but the larvse still employ the 
looping method of locomotion. Dark wart-like excrescences on 
the 4th segment and the conical hump on the nth quite con- 
spicuous. Prevailing color purple brown washed liberally on the 
back with splashes of light straw color. Stripes persist and the 
whole body is finely mottled with white. Below greenish white 
with a dark brown spot on each segment. Base of black 
piliferous warts is white. Under a 25 mm. glass the larva with 
its wrinkled skin looks quite like a small snake. Stigmata still 
inconspicuous. 

June 25. Another moult in process, after which length 60 
mm. ; body slender and tapering toward each extremity. Great- 
est diameter 5 mm. Color and marking of the rather small head 
the same as before. Swelling of the ist segment subsided. All 
three pairs of posterior prolegs developed, the anterior pair only 
abortive. Excrescence on the 4th segment now represented by a 



Dec, 1917 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 105> 

dark patch, hump on the nth shaped hke the tooth of a saw,, 
slanting forward, almost perpendicular behind, velvet black,, 
cleft at the top. Beyond the 9th segment the body appears flat 
and pointed and the anal prolegs extend back almost horizontally 
when at rest spread like a <. To the naked eye the prevailing^ 
color, olive mottled and striped in many shades. Above the line 
of the stigmata the ornamentation is divided into seven broad 
longitudinal stripes, the stripe down the middle of the back in 
light shade, then on each side one darker, one lighter and the 
lowest almost black. Between each stripe a line light line, almost 
white in places. These markings all clearer and more pronounced 
on the thoracic segments. Color below light with a black ventral 
stripe broken into a spot on each segment. Under a 25 mm. 
glass, piliferous spots almost entirely white, still with a single 
black hair each. Stigmata dark and inconspicuous with no light 
ring. The whole body appears mottled or marbled in purplish 
brown and yellow and yellowish green, the dark longitudinal 
stripes appearing where the dark colors prevail and the light 
stripes vice versa. The skin wrinkled with a look like that of a 
snake. No further development was observed and the foregoing 
represents the mature larva. 

By July 4 all but one in the cage with the dirt had disappeared, 
while those in the battery jar were grubbing in the sand and' 
under leaves and refuse. These had shrunk to half their length.. 
In the course of a few days these larvae pupated, some in slight 
cocoons of f rass and sand and others bare upon the surface. Evi- 
dently in nature pupation takes place underground. 

Pupa. — Length 23 mm. ; diameter 7 mm. Length of thorax 
and wing cases 11 mm. Main cremaster short and thick with a 
round hook almost closed. Two or three much smaller auxiliaries- 
with ends wound up like watch springs. Color dull brown in 
some cases inclining to mahogany. Stigmata visible with a 
strong glass. On the whole the pupae looked singularly smalL 
Larval period average 30 days. 

April 26, 1 91 7. Two moths emerged, making the pupal period 
295 days, which was extended to May 14, when the last moth 
appeared. From some 50 or 60 well-grown healthy-looking 
larvae only 14 moths were obtained, 4 males and 10 females. 



106 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XII 

None of the specimens were as large as some which had been 
taken on the wing. All typically marked and colored, and very 
uniform in their appearance. 



TWO NEW VARIETIES OF CICINDELA TRANQUEBARICA 
FROM CALIFORNIA. 

By H. C. Fall, Pasadena, Cal. 

I have this season received two forms of C. tranquebarica 
from the Owens Lake region of California which cannot well be 
included under any of the numerous varietal names already pro- 
posed, and which seem quite as worthy of names as any of the 
forms at present listed. 

The giving of distinctive names to slight variations — color or 
otherwise — is a form of diversion which may be easily overdone, 
but which seems more defensible than usual in Cicindela because 
of its great popularity with collectors, who almost invariably 
segregate the readily distinguishable forms in their cabinets, for 
which purpose and for facility in exchanges the varietal names are 
.a decided convenience. 

•C. txanquebarica var. inyo n. var. — Moderately brilliant green, varying 
through duller green to deep blue (type blue green). Markings broad and 
complete, nearly as heavy as in average Kirbyi. Beneath entirely blue 
green. 

Olancha, California. April and May. Collector, G. R. Pilate. 

C. tranquebarica var. owena n. var. — Same as the preceding except in color, 
which is black, the elytra with faint deep greenish reflections at sides in 
most examples. Markings similarly heavy and complete; body beneath 
blue green as before. 

Olancha, California. Late May and June. (G. R. Pilate.) 

These two forms are evidently seasonal, at least to a certain 
extent. Mr. Pilate writes me that only green and blue examples 
were seen in the early part of the season, while by June ist 
these had entirely disappeared and the black form alone was 
present., 

Inyo is evidently closest to the form viridissima, but the latter 
is typically of a more vivid green, always with narrower mark- 
ings, the humeral lunule frequently interrupted. 



Dec, 1917 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 107 

IN QUEST OF DINAPATE WRIGHTII. 

By J. O. Martin, Pasadena, Cal. 

About a year and a half ago Mr. H. C. Fall, of Pasadena, 
first showed me the single specimen of Dinapate wrightii in his 
very complete collection of North American coleoptera. I at 
once determined to try to add this rare and unique beetle to my 
collection of California coleoptera which was then just started. 
I also hoped to make some further study of its Hfe history. 

Dinapate wrightii was first described by Dr. George H. Horn,* 
from fragmentary specimens sent him by W. G. Wright, of San 
Bernardino, who discovered the species in Palm Canyon, on the 
northwestern border of the Colorado desert. Mr. Wright gave 
the locality as Mojave desert, no doubt wishing to keep the fruits 
of his discovery for himself and for eleven years he was suc- 
cessful. Just how many specimens he secured during this period 
I have been unable to find out; but certainly not many. Eleven 
years after Horn's publication of the species came Mr. H. G. 
Hubbard's letters to E. A. Schwarzf in which he announced its 
rediscovery, giving the true locality, its food plant and many 
interesting facts concerning its life history. The food plant 
turned out to be the Washington palm {N eowashingtonia fili- 
fera), which is found, in the United States, only in the canyons 
at the head of the Coachella valley in southern California. 

April 14, 1 91 6, I packed my camping outfit in the automobile 
and set out for Palm Canyon one hundred miles east of Pasa- 
dena. The roads were in very bad shape, owing to the unusually 
heavy rains of that winter, and it took all day to make what is 
usually a five-hour trip, but night found us in camp at the mouth 
of the canyon. The next morning I began a search of the canyon, 
going as far up as the palms extended, without finding a tree 
which fulfilled the conditions described by Hubbard. He says : 
"I am sure now that they do not oviposit in bare trunks or in 
healthy trees, although it is possible that the beetles kill the tree 
in which they oviposit their eggs."t May 15, one month later, I 

* Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, Vol. XIII, p. i, January, 1886. 
t Ent. News, Vol. X, p. 83, April, 1899. 



108 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XII 

was back again, determined to search the neighboring canyons 
which contain palms. This was carried out, but in Andreas and 
Murray canyons I saw no dead palms of any description and was 
obliged to force myself through thorny brush and cactus, over 
fallen trees, just as Hubbard had done eleven years earlier. 

Finally I returned to Palm Canyon and examined all of the 
bare fallen trunks of which I had noted several in my previous 
search. It is not an easy matter to chop into one of these palm 
trunks even when they have been dead for years, but I worked 
two days at it without success and was about to despair when a 
stroke of my axe turned out a larva about three fourths of an 
inch in length which I thought might be that of Dinapate. By 
placing my ear against the log and keeping very still I could hear 
others gnawing away inside with a click like that produced by 
snapping the nails of the thumb and first finger together. How- 
ever, it was clear that if this was the larva of Dinapate it must 
grow at least a year before it would be as large as that described 
by Horn, so I decided to wait until the following spring before 
carrying out the plan which I had in mind. 

This last spring (1917), I again went to Palm Canyon, sawed 
out of the prostrate trunk four two-and-a-half-foot lengths, 
taking them where the gnawing sounded most frequent and 
packed them out to my automobile, a distance of about two miles. 
Another section of this log was later obtained by Mr. J. R. 
Campbell, of the U. S. Bureau of Entomology. A week's fur- 
ther search of the various groups of palms failed to show any 
other possible host tree. In sawing the log into transportable 
lengths the saw disclosed several larvae in the various cuts, two 
of which it bisected. The ones which were uncovered but not 
cut soon bored their way into the log and out of sight. However 
I was much surprised to find that there were evidently two 
separate broods of larvae in the log, one apparently full grown 
and ready to pupate as shown by the presence of one pupa, the 
others about three fourths of an inch long. I am convinced that 
the larvae seen last year are the ones now full grown and that 
the smaller specimens represent a brood deposited since the dis- 
covery of the log. 

This log when discovered was full of sap and showed every 



Bulletin Brooklyn Entomological Society. Vol XII. 



Plate 1 . 




Palm Canyon, Home of Dinapate Wrightii 



Dec, 1917 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 109 

evidence of having been torn up by the winter flood which this 
year was the heaviest in over forty years. There were no leaves 
attached and its size showed it to be one of the older trees, the 
leaves of which were burned off by the Indians. 

On getting my ten feet of log home I at once constructed two 
stout cages for their reception and then came a long wait. Every 
morning on arising since March when the sections of log were 
brought home, my first duty has been to inspect the cages. Not 
until August 3 was there any change and then my long watch 
was rewarded by my first sight of a living Dinapate. A fine pair, 
lady and gent, had emerged during the night and were vainly 
trying to conceal their huge bulks ostrich-wise by shoving their 
heads into any dark corner. Since then until the present date, 
September 17, thirty-one of these beetles have emerged, generally 
one at a time, but one morning there were four and several times 
two came together. At first the sexes were quite evenly repre- 
sented but during the last two weeks only females have emerged. 

All of these emergences took place after dark in the early part 
of the night not later than 9 P. M. Several times I tried to see 
the beetles come out by the aid of a lantern, but the presence of a 
light caused them to cease operations at once. One evening, 
however, I was able to watch this process by setting the lantern 
four feet away ; the light was dim but sufficient for observation 
by close attention. When first observed this beetle had cut 
through the outer surface and had made a hole about one fourth 
inch in diameter. This hole he continued to enlarge with his 
powerful mandibles turning continuously from right to left as 
he bit away at the circumference. After about half an hour of 
this circular gnawing he tried the hole, starting out venter down, 
but as he could not get his thorax through he retreated and took 
several bites, evidently with an exact knowledge of the spots that 
bound. He then tried his work and finding it to his hking backed 
in again and after a short rest turned belly up and came out 
headed up the log, which he at once ascended to the top. On 
coming out these beetles are hardened and fully colored and had 
evidently spent some time in the pupal chamber in the adult con- 
dition. They at once begin trying to fly and spend their strength 
against the wire netting of the cage, the sexes paying no attention 



110 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XII 

to each other, from which I surmise that they seek mates from 
some other brood. When dayhght comes they try to hide, put- 
ting their head into any dark corner, where they remain all day 
without motion. 

The males and females are easy to distinguish by the characters 
given in Horn's description but I note a further sexual character 
in the granulation of the elytra; in the males the lateral margin 
and the tip behind the tubercles is smooth, while in the females 
this area is distinctly granulated. Also a slight difference in the 
shape of the thorax, that of the males being broader. The males 
also have a more shining black appearance than the females. 

I have now thirty-six specimens of Dinapate wrightii, fourteen 
males and twenty-two females. I can still hear the second brood 
at work and hope to have more emerge next year. 



A KEY TO THE SPECIES OF THE GENUS CERESA A. & S. 
OCCURRING NORTH OF MEXICO AND THE DESCRIP- 
TION OF A NEW SPECIES (MEMBRACID^: 
HOMOPTERA). 

By Edmund H. Gibson and Emma Wells, U. S. Bureau of Entomology. 

To the novice the genus Ceresa represents a very puzzling 
group of insects of the family known as tree-hoppers, and even 
to the systematist it has its difficult problems. From the study 
of specimens in the U. S. National Museum and material gen- 
erously loaned by Mr. W. D. Funkhouser the authors have been 
able to establish the following key to the species. In offering it 
as a guide in the identification of species it must be stated that 
it is nearly impossible to make determinations without having at 
hand a goodly series of specimens and a collection of all the 
members of the genus, to be used for comparison. 

Ceresa was described by Amyot and Serville in 1843. The 
logotype of the genus is vitulus Fabr. Ceresa may be distin- 
guished from Stictocephala Stal, its closely allied genus in North 
America, by having the pronotum distinctly armed with supra- 
humeral horns and the metopidium acutely angled. The forma- 



Dec, 1917 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 111 

tion of the last abdominal segment of the male differs markedly 
in the two genera. 

Key to the Species of the Genus Ceresa A. and S. Occurring North 

OF Mexico. 

1. Pronotum banded 2. 

Pronotum not banded 3- 

2. Broad pale spot in middle, narrower one near apex of pronotum, 

diceros Say. 
Apex of pronotum with apical band only albescens Van D. 

3. Suprahumerals reduced to an angle 4- 

Suprahumerals produced in a horn or tubercle 5. 

4. Length of head greater than metopidium measured from line drawn 

through suprahumerals to anterior border of face, femorata Fairm. 
Length of head less than metopidium measured from line of supra- 
humerals to anterior border of face uniformis Fairm. 

5. Lobes of last ventral segment of female distinctly and evenly rounded, 

brevicornis Fh. 
Lobes of last ventral segment of female not distinctly rounded 6. 

6. Base of notch in last ventral segment of female broad 7- 

Base of notch in last ventral segment of female not broad, acute ... 8. 

7. Suprahumerals only slightly curved backward albido-sparsa Stal. 

Suprahumerals quite long, very acute, strongly curved backward and 

slightly upward constans Walk. 

8. Borders of face more or less rounded, clypeus blunt, not at all pro- 

duced, contiguous with sides of cheeks occidentalis Funkh. 

Borders of face more or less straight; clypeus acute and produced, 
only seldom contiguous with sides of cheeks 9- 

9. Inner margins of lobes of last ventral segment of female not at all 

sinuate 10. 

Inner margins of lobes of last ventral segment of female more or less 
sinuate H- 

10. Suprahumerals strongly curved backward, long. Contour of cheeks 

rounded brevitylus Van D. 

Suprahumerals short, reduced to a short tubercle brevis Walk. 

11. Venter black basalis Walk. 

Venter yellow or green or brownish 12. 

12. Clypeus prominently produced I3- 

Clypeus somewhat produced but not prominently so I5- 

13. Very narrow, long species militaris n. sp. 

Somewhat stout species I4- 

14. Inner margins of last ventral segment of female sloping. Plates of 

male long palmeri Van D. 

Inner margins of last ventral segment of female steep. Plates of male 
short and stout borealis Fairm. 



112 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XII 

15. Metopidium fiat or slightly rounded between suprahumerals when 

viewed from above bubalus Fabr. 

Metopidium feebly bisinuate when viewed from above 16. 

16. Species small, suprahumerals curving upward and backward, taurina Fh. 
Suprahumerals only slightly recurved stimulea Van D. 

The following distributional groupings and list of food plants should 
aid in the recognition of the species. 
Canada — bubahis Fabr., diceros Say, basalis Walk. 

New England States — albescens Van D., bubalus Fabr., brevitylus Van D., 
taurina Fh., constans Walk., palmeri Van D., borealis Fairm., brevis 
Walk., brevicornis Fh., basalis Walk. 
Atlantic and Gulf States — albescens Van D., bubalus Fabr., brevitylus Van 

D., taurina Fh., constans Walk., borealis Fairm., brevis Walk. 
Central States — albescens Van D., bubalus Fabr., stimulea Van D., con- 
stans Walk., militaris n. sp., palmeri Van D., borealis Fairm., brevis 
Walk., uniformis Fairm. 
North Central States — diceros Say, albescens Van D., bubalus Fabr., stim- 
ulea Van D., taurina Fh., brevitylus Van D., constans Walk., basalis 
Walk. 
Southern States — diceros Say, albescens Van D., bubalus Fabr., borealis' 

Fairm. 
Western States — bubalus Fabr., stimulea Van D., occidentalis Funkh., 

borealis Fairm., albido-sparsa Stal, basalis Walk, 
Southwestern States — diceros Say, bubalus Fabr., brevitylus Van D., 
stimulea Van D., palmeri Van D., brevis Walk., brevicornis Fh., occi- 
dentalis Funkh., basalis Walk. , 

The known food plants of the species are here listed. Many of the 
species are not restricted to a single or few food plants, in which case the 
principal ones only are given. 

Alfalfa: occidentalis Funkh., bubalus Fabr. Apple: bubalus Fabr., 
taurina Fh., borealis Fairm. Basswood : constans Walk. Cherry : bubalus 
Fabr. Cotton : borealis Fairm. Cottonwood : bubalus Fabr. Elder : bo- 
realis Fairm. Hickory: brevicornis Fh. Iris: borealis Fairm. Maple: 
bubalus Fabr. Oak : brevicornis Fh., palmeri Van D., taurina Fh., diceros 
Say. Pear : bubalus Fabr. Potato : bubalus Fabr. Quince : bubalus Fabr. 

Ceresa militaris n. sp. — Near C. palmeri Van D., but much narrower, a 
smaller species. Much longer in proportion to its width than palmeri. 
May be recognized by the long slender pronotum, narrow metopidium and 
very long sharp plates of male and female. 

Bright green with brown and black markings, face yellow. Form long 
and very slender, metopidium convex, suprahumerals long and acute, pos- 
terior process slender and decurved; clypeus acute. Punctate, but only 
slightly if at all pubescent. 

Head yellow-green, longitudinal striae on face ; clypeus triangular at 
apex, tip densely pilose with white hairs; ocelli translucent with orange 



Dec, 1917 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 113 

borders, situated slightly below a line drawn through center of eyes, some- 
what closer to each other than to eyes ; eyes brown, extending beyond sides 
of pronot'um. 

Pronotum green, densely punctate, very slightly pubescent, ascending 
nearly straight above head, convex just before suprahumerals, feebly arcu- 
ate in middle, dorsum somewhat flattened, semicircular impression very 
faint; median carina percurrent; humeral horns long and acute, with 
brown and black markings underneath, extending outward and backward; 
front' of pronotum having long, transverse smooth irregularly-shaped areas 
dorsomesad of eyes, these areas yellow and shining ; posterior process long, 
slender, sharp, much decurved, reaching to tip of abdomen in females 
and beyond in males, with brown markings. 

Wings smoky, lightly punctate at base, veins brownish. Under surface 
of body yellow; last ventral segment of female very deeply and roundly 
notched, base of notch not as broad as constans Walk. Ovipositor ex- 
tending beyond abdomen in a long narrow process. Plates of male broad 
at' base and tapering to a sharp point, very long, extending beyond pygo- 
f ers, tipped with black. Legs yellow, with white hairs ; tarsi and claws 
somewhat ferruginous. 

Described from five ferriales and six males in the collection of the senior 
author, collected by him at Charleston, Mo., June 19, 1916. Type, allotype 
and three paratypes deposited in the U. S. National Museum. 

References necessary for study in this group : 
Fairmaire — Rev. Memb., pp. 284, 289, 1846. 

Fitch — Ceresa brevicornis, 3d Rep. Ins. N. Y., pp. 177, 335, 451, 1856. 
Funkhouser — Ceresa occidentalis, Ent. News, Vol. XXVI, p. 100, 191 5. 
Marlatt — Buffalo Tree-Hopper, Bur. Ent. Cir. 23, Sd Ser., 1897. 
Say — Long's Exped. App., p. 299, 1824. 

Stal — Ceresa albido-sparsa, Eug. Resa Omk. Jord. Hem., pp. 86, 283, 1856. 

Walker — Ceresa hrevis. List of Hom. B. M., pp. 528, 563, 185 1. 

Van Duzee — List of Hem. taken by W. J. Palmer about Quinze Lake, P. 

Que. in 1907. Can. Ent, Vol. LX, p. 112, 1908. Studies in N. A. Mem. 

Buffalo Soc. Nat. Sci., 1908, Vol. IX, pp. 35, 2>^. Florida Hemiptera 

Buffalo Soc. Nat. Sci., Vol. IX, p. 205, 1909. 



A NEW GENUS OF ANTHOMYIID^ (DIPTERA). 

By J; R. Malloch, Urbana, 111. 

The genus herewith described belongs to the subfamily An- 
thomyiinee though in some respects it resembles Phaoniinse. It 
differs from all other genera of the family known to me in having 
a single long bristle near the upper margin of the pteropleura just 



^/ 



1J4 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XII 

below the base of the wing. Recent attempts at a classification 
of the order have shown a tendency towards the use of the chseto- 
taxy of the pleurae as a distinguishing character in separating 
the families Muscidse and Anthomyiidse. If the absence of 
bristles or hairs from the hypopleura and pteropleura separates 
Anthomyiidse from Muscidse, then many typical species of the 
former family will require to be placed in Muscidse. Besides the 
genus now under consideration the genus Lispa (subfamily 
Lispinae), several species in Phaonia, and at least one in Erem- 
omyia have hairs or bristles either on the hypopleura or ptero- 
pleura. The presence or absence of these hairs or bristles, while 
of considerable importance in a general way, does not invariably 
serve as a basis for the separation of the families Anthomyiidse 
and Muscidse. 

Emmesomyia gen. nov. Generic Description: Male. — Eyes very large, 
separated by a narrow stripe consisting of the orbits only on the upper 
half of its length ; ocellar bristles long, directed forward. Abdomen nar- 
row, slightly flattened ; hypopygium of moderate size, terminating in a 
recurved hook-like process ; apical ventral segment deeply excised cen- 
trally; first segment with very strong bristles on middle laterally. Legs 
and wings similar to those of female. 

Female. — Eyes separated by one third the head width ; cruciate frontal 
bristles present ; orbitals 5 in number, the median one directed forward ; 
antennae elongate, third joint much longer than second, rounded at apex; 
arista hairy; proboscis and palpi normal. Thoracic chsetotaxy similar to 
that of Hylemyia, differing only in having a strong bristle on the upper 
margin of the pteropleura. In other respects similar to Hylemyia except 
that the third vein has several setulse at base, both above and below. 

Type, Emmesomyia unica, n. sp. 

Emmesomyia unica n. sp. Female. — Black, densely covered with pale 
gray pruinescence. Frons and face with dense whitish pruinescence, that 
on orbits slightly silvery; antennae black, basal 2 joints rufous; apical por- 
tion of proboscis glossy black; palpi yellow. Mesonotum slightly yellow- 
ish behind humeri, and with 4 blackish vittae on the anterior portion of 
disc, the inner pair rather widely separated, narrower than the outer pair 
and not extending caudad of suture; center of disc with a distinct yel- 
lowish longitudinal streak, scutellum yellowish at apex. Abdomen with 
basal segment yellowish on each side of dorsum and usually some yellow 
markings on some of the other segment's. Legs reddish yellow, mid and 
hind legs with the coxae and tarsi infuscated. Wings clear. Squamae 
white. Halteres whitish yellow. 



.^ 



Dec, 1917 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 115 

Frons one third the width of head, slightly narrowed posteriorly; third 
antennal joint nearly three times as long as second, rather broad; arista 
slender, basal joint very short, hair moderately long; cheeks not as high 
as width of third antennal joint, marginal bristles sparse but very strong. 
Mesonotum with 3 postsutural dorso-centrals; 2 pairs of strong acrostichals 
proximad of suture, prealar bristle half as long as the one behind it. 
Strong bristles on abdomen confined to apices of segments. Fore tibia 
with I strong bristle on middle of posterior surface; mid tibia with 3 
bristles, 2 on postero-dorsal surface and i on posterior close to the lower 
one of the former pair; hind tibia with 2 postero-dorsal, 3 antero-dorsal, 
and 2 antero-ventral bristles. Costal spine very short; last section of 
fourth vein but little longer than preceding section. 

Length, 6.5-7 min- 

Type, Savoy, 111., May 23, 1916. Paratypes, Algonquin, 111,, 
June 12, 1897 (Nason), Homer, 111., June 17, 1917 (Malloch). 

I captured the type specimen on the trunk of an apple tree in 
an orchard at Savoy, near Urbana. Nothing is known of the 
immature stages. 

Emmesomyia apicalis n. sp. Male and Female. — Differs from the fore- 
going species in having the antennae and palpi black and the mid and hind 
femora more or less brownish at apices. 

Structure and chsetotaxy as in unica. 

Length, 4.5-6 mm. 

Type, Dubois, 111., May 23, 191 7. Paratypes, Dongola, 111.. 
May 12, 1917, Savanna, III, June 3, 1917. Allotype male, White 
Heath, 111., June 3, 1917. Taken by the writer in sweeping 
vegetation on margin of woods. 



THE GEOMETRID GENUS BARN ESI A. 

In 1 910 Mr. Grossbeck proposed the name Barnesia for a 
species from Arizona (Journal N. Y. Ent. Soc, p. 207). It now 
appears that Barnesia was used as early as 1901 (Ann. Cient. 
Paraguay) by Bertoni for a supposed new genus of Dendro- 
colaptid birds. The moth may take the name Eubarnesia nov. 
nom., type Eubarnesia ritaria Grossb. 

T. D. A. COCKERELL. 



116 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XII 



THE PROBABLE COLOR OF THE ANCESTRAL 
WINGED INSECTS.* 

By G. C. Crampton, Ph.D. 

It would appear extremely probable that many (if not most) 
of the ancestral Pterygotan insects varied from honey-yellow to 
brown in color. The reasons for so thinking are as follows: (i) 
Honey-yellow to brown is a common color among the Chilopods, 
which have departed but little from the ancestral condition of 
insects in general. (2) Honey-yellow is a common color among 
the Apterygotan insects, which have departed but little from the 
ancestral condition of the Pterygotan insects. (3) Honey-yellow 
to brown is a color frequently occurring in immature insects. 
(4) Honey-yellow to brown is a common color among the most 
primitive orders of winged insects. (5) Honey-yellow to brown 
is a common color in the most primitive representatives of almost 
all of the orders of winged insects — even of the higher orders! 

That honey-yellow to brown is a common color among 
Chilopods is at once apparent to anyone who examines a speci- 
men of Scutigera, Scolopendra, etc., or any of the common 
Chilopods found under stones or dead wood in the neighborhood. 
This is not so evident in the case of the Apterygotan insects, 
however, since so many of them are colorless, due to their habit 
of hiding in places protected from the sunlight, and their shel- 
tered habitats make it unnecessary for them to develop a harder 
protecting chitinous armor, which is always more deeply pig- 
mented than thinner chitin. Nevertheless " CoUembolan " in- 
sects, such as Smynthurus, Orchesella, Deegeria, etc., have a 
yellowish or brownish hue, and the more heavily chitinized speci- 
mens of Campodea are of a honey-yellow color. This shade 
also occurs in the more strongly chitinized terminal segments of 
Japyx, and I have seen a large Cuban Japygid which is entirely 
yellowish brown in color. The chitinous sclerites of the tropical 
Lepismids which live somewhat more "exposed" lives than our 

* Contribution from the Entomological Laboratory of the Massachusetts 
Agricultural College, Amherst, Mass. 






Dec, 1917 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 111 

Northern representatives of the group, show tinges of a honey- 
yellow color, and from the foregoing instances it is evident that 
the " honey-yellow to brown " hue is of widespread occurrence 
among those forms which have departed but little from the an- 
cestral condition of winged insects. 

Honey-yellow to brown is a color frequently found in the im- 
mature stagies of the lowest Pterygotan insects such as the 
Blattids and Plecoptera, and it is also very widespread among 
the larvae of the higher forms, such as Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, 
Siphonaptera, etc. Taken alone, this fact has no especial sig- 
nificance, but in connection with the other instances here cited, 
it lends additional weight to the view that the color in question 
is a very widespread and primitive one. 

Honey-yellow to brown is a very common color in the lowest 
representatives of the winged insects, such as the Blattids, 
Mantids, Isoptera, Plecoptera, Embiids, Dermaptera, Gr5''llo- 
blattids, Phasmids, etc., and this fact should have considerable 
weight in such a discussion. The most convincing feature, how- 
ever, is that the most primitive representatives of almost all of 
the .orders seem to be of this color. Gryllohlatta, which is one of 
the most primitive representatives of the " Orthopteroid " insects, 
is of a honey>-yellow hue, and the same is true of Ithone, the most 
primitive of the Neuroptera. The same color occurs in Merope, 
which is an exceedingly primitive Mecopteron, and the "honey- 
yellow to brown " color is very common among the Tipulids and 
other primitive representatives of the Diptera. I have been 
unable to examine the most primitive representatives of all of 
the insectan orders, but the color in question occurs in so many 
of the lowest forms which I have been able to examine, that I 
feel confident that some, at least, of the most primitive repre- 
sentatives of all of the orders will prove to be of a honey-yellow 
to brown color, if the matter is investigated with this in view. 

A " blackish " shade is also very common among certain 
primitive insects {e. g., Plecoptera, Embiids, Gryllids, Collem- 
bola, etc.), and a "grayish" tint occurs among many of the 
Apterygotan insects, being apparently a relic of their relation- 
ship to the Isopod Crustacea, but the varying shades of brown- 
ish yellow to brown are far more common among the Ptery- 



118 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XII 

gotan insects, and, from the above-cited evidence, I feel confi- 
dent that a more thorough study of the matter, based upon the 
examination of more of the primitive representatives of each 
order than are at present available for study, will merely confirm 
the contention that " honey-yellow to brown " was the prevalent 
color among the ancestral Pterygotan insects. 



NOTES ON HYMENOPTER^A PARASITICA. 

By a. a. Girault, Glenn Dale, Md. 

Hypopteromalus percussor n. sp. — Female : Like the genotype but differs 
as follows : the femora are metallic at proximal half (caudal ones nearly 
entirely metallic), the flagellum is darker. Types compared. 

From two females reared from the larvae of Zotheca tranquilla, We- 
natchee, Wash., June 22, 1916 (E. J. Newcomer). Types: Cat. No. 20,970, 
U. S. Nat. Mus., the females on tags, hind tibise and heads on a slide. 

Eupteromalus sarcophagse Gahan. — Differs from Meroporus utibilis 
Tucker in having the distinct' lateral carinse on the propodeum and the 
much longer than wide propodeal spiracle (mandibles not compared nor 
other parts) ; from Halisoa rufipes Ashm. in the cylindrical antennae, 
lesser size and perhaps otherwise; from Meraporus dubtus Ashm. not at 
all. Types compared. 

Neomphaloidomyia n. gen. Tetrastichini. — The same as Neomphaloides 
but the scutum without a median groove, the antennse with four ring- 
joints (i and 4 large, equal). Stylus of abdomen very long, nearly as 
long as the ovipositor, which is extruded for a length equal to two thirds 
of the abdomen and is no wider than the stylus (i. e., it's valves are not). 
Tooth 3 of mandible truncate. Male scape compressed, with fine, sharp 
saw-teeth along its ventral margin, 4 funicle, 3 club and ring-joints. 
Genotype : Hyperteles polynemce Ashm. 

Neomphaloidella irvingi n. sp. — Female : Similar to Aprostocetus cana- 
densis Ashm., but differing notably in that the funicle joints are twice 
longer than wide. Second two ring-joints very short. 

One female, Springer, N. M. (C. N. Ainslie). Type: Cat. No. 21,011, 
U. S. Nat. Mus., the female on a tag, the head on a slide. 



Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 119 

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120 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 

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Last winter the Society gathered and sold for the benefit of 
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This year has been a poor one for all the Saturniidae and co- 
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OFFICERS, 1916 



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