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BULLETIN 



OF THE 



CALIFORNIA 



ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 



VOLXJMK I I 

(Nos. 5-8.) 



BAN FEANCISCO: 

1887. 



/!/■ 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



PAGE. 

Becker, George F. The Wasboe Rocks 93 

Bryant, Walter E. Additions to the Ornithology of Guadalupe Island . 269 

Nest and Eggs of the Evening Grosbeak 449 

A New Subspecies of Petrel from Guadalupe Island 450 

Unusual Nesting Sites. 1 451 

Casey, Thomas L, Kevisiou of the California Species of Lithocharis 

and Allied Genera 1 

Descriptive Notices of North American Coleoptera. I, Plate?.. 157 
On some New North American Pselaphidae. Plate 16 455 

Comstock, George C. Provisional Value of the Latitude of the Lick 

Observatory 121 

Cooper, J. G. West Coast Pulmonata; Fossil and Living. 1 Map. . 355, 497 
Corrections to Fossil and Sub-Fossil Land Shells in Vol. 1 376 

Curran, Mary K. Priority of Dr. Kellogg's Genus Marah over Megar- 

rhiza Torr 521 

Davidson, George. Notes on Saturn. Plate 1 73 

Transits of the II and III Satellites of Jupiter 89 

The Annular Solar Eclipse of March 5, 1886 91 

Submarine Valleys on the Pacific Coast of the United States 265 

Standard Geodetic Data 319 

Early Spanish Voyages of Discovery on the Coast of California. 325 

Occultations of Stars by the Dark Limb of the Moon 448 

Emerson, W. Otto. Ornithological Observations in San Diego County 419 

Glassford, W. A. Weather Types on the Pacific Coast. Plates 2, 3, 4, 5. 77 

Greene, E. L. Studies in the Botany of California and Parts Adjacent. 
IV— 

1. On some Cichoriaceous Compositae 41 

2. Some Species of Euphorbia $ Anisophyllum 56 

3. New Polypetalai 59 

Studies in the Botany of California and Parts Adjacent. V— 

1. Some Genera Which have been Confused Under the 

Name Brodiaea 125 

2. Miscellaneous Species, New or Noteworthy. Plate 6. . . 144 
Studies in the Botany of California and Parts Adjacent. VI . . . 377 



IV TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



Harkness, H. W. Fnugi of the Pacific Coast. V 487 

Le Conte, Joseph. The Flora of the Coast Islands of California in 

Kelation to Kecent Changes of Physical Geography 515 

Parry, C. C. The Pacific Coast Alders 351 

Californian Manzanitas 483 

Richter, C. Max. Ocean Currents Contiguous to the Coast of Califor- 
nia. Plates 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15 337 

Rivers, J. J, -A. New Species of Californian Coleoptera, with four figures 61 
Contributions to the Larval History of Pacific Coast Coleoptera 64 

Smith, Rosa. On Tetraodon Setosus, a New Species Allied to Teti'aodon 

Meleagris Lacep 155 

Wolle, Francis. Desmids of the Pacific Coast 432 

Index 525 



BULLETIN 



CALIFORNIA 



ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 



Vol. 2, No. 5. 
September, 1886 



CONTEiSfTS. 

PAGE. 

Eevision of the California Species of Lithocharis ancl Allied Genera. 

Thos. L. Casey , 1 

Studies in the Botanj' of California and Parts Adjacent. IV. Edward 

Lee Greene — 

1. On Some Chicoriaceous Compositae 41 

2. Some Species of Euphorbia § Anisophyllum 56 

3. New Polypetalae 59 

A New Species of Calif ornian Coleoptera. J. J. Rivers 61 

Contributions to the Larval History of Pacific Coast Coleoptera. 

J. J. Rivers 64 

Notes on Saturn. Geo. Davidson 73 

Weather Types on the Pacific Coast.. W. A. Glassford 77 

Transits of the II and III Satellites of Jupiter, Geo. Davidson 89 

The Annular Solar Eclipse of March 5, 1836. Geo. Davidson 91 



ISSUED SEPTEMBER 3d, IBBB. 



BULLETIN. |u«B_B^^P'^ 7 



No. 5. ''•>^^^TT^^^^<^ 

California Academy of Sciences. 



Revision of the Californian Species of LITHOCHARIS 
and Allied Genera. 

BY THOS. L. CASEY. 
Read Jan. 4th, 1886. 

The species assignable to Lithocliaris and allied genera are 
extremely abundant in California and are also very numer- 
ous individually, so that a review of the forms occurring 
here, although not so desirable as a general revision of the 
North American species, is, at the same time, amply suffi- 
cient to form a systematic basis upon which to found such 
an extended work, and probably loses little of what impor- 
tance it may possess from the omission of species occurring 
east of the Kocky Mountains, as these are comparatively 
few in number and not as yet sufficiently collected. 

Belonging to the region here considered, there are de- 
scribed below twenty-five species, most of which are rather 
local in habitat, although a few have an extended range. In 
regard to their favorite haunts, little is to be said; they fre- 
quent the margins of ponds and water-courses, and are found 
amongst decaying vegetable matter, roots of grasses, etc., 
in stony localities, although more abundant in the deep ra- 
vines so characteristic of the Coast Mountains. I have 
occasionally found particular spots of very limited extent in 

1— Bull. Cal. Acad. Sci. II. 5, Printed January 27, 1886, 



^ CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

these ravines, wliere they exist in enormons profusion, not 
only individually, but in species indiscriminately mingled; 
such for instance was a small area of precipitous rocks cov- 
ered with mould, moss and thin grass, in the deep ravine at 
Gilroy Springs, Santa Clara County, where a small trickling 
stream f i-om one of the sulphurous soda-springs enters the 
creek below. Here I obtained hundreds of specimens of 
seven distinct species; associated with them were an equal 
multitude of Steni represented by several species. This 
concentration of insect life, which is one of the peculiarities 
of faunal distribution in the Pacific regions, is to be 
accounted for in a measure by the nature of the climate, 
the long hot summers drying and baking the surface of the 
ground, and driving all species, except the comparatively 
few especially constituted to withstand such conditions, to 
the moist and secluded localities above mentioned. 

The stud}^ and proper classification of these varied forms 
is a matter of considerable, although by no means of insu- 
perable difficulty, there being one important characteristic, 
which is of very great aid to the investigator; this is the 
facility with which they may be resolved into perfectly defi- 
nite, and so far as the material collected will allow of judg- 
ment — abruptly limited generic subdivisions. The principal 
difficulty, therefore, consists in the proper difierentiation of 
the species composing these groups, and which are often 
very closely allied; but even here the difficulty is partially 
superficial, as when these closely allied forms are separated 
and carefully studied, they are found to possess very little 
variability, and the individuals of the several species appear 
to be unusually uniform throughout extended series. 

The genera here considered possess certain characters 
in common, among which may be mentioned the rather slen- 
der maxillary i^alpi with the third joint very moderately 
swollen and the fourth minute, subulate and oblique, but 
distinctly visible; the antenniTe also are singularly uniform 
in structure throughout, being slender — or very slightly ro- 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 3 

bust in Metaxyoclonta — and scarcely perceptibly incrassate. 
The nftli abdominal segment is almost invariably equal in 
length to the third and fourth together. The labrum differs 
throughout, and is, in conjunction with the relative length 
of the first joint of the posterior tarsi, made the principal 
basis of generic subdivision. It is singular, however, and 
a strong proof of the validity of the genera, that these two 
fundamental characters are accompanied by other very rad- 
ical differences in many of the most important parts of the 
body, as well as in completely radical differences in the na- 
ture of the male sexual modifications; these are described in 
the table of genera given below. 

The genera Stilicus, Scopseus, Orus, etc., should pre- 
cede those here given in a systematic arrangement of the 
Psederi, and are distinguished from them by tlieii' very 
strongly dilated third maxillary palpal joint. 

San Francisco, Jan. 1st, 18S6. 



Note 1.— In estimating the order of the abdominal segments in the follow- 
ing pages, the numbers refer to visible segments only. 

Note 2. — Separate diaguoses of the various species are not given at present. 
as this paper is simply intended as the forerunner of a more general one upon 
onr Paederini. 



GENERIC DEFINITIONS. 



Head slightly narrower than the prothorax, sides parallel; eyes moderate 
in size; labrum 4-dentate, the teeth being rather prominent, acute and nearly 
equi-distant. Prothorax quadrate; sides parallel or very slightly narrowed 
from apex to base. Elytra much longer than the prothorax. First joint of 
the posterior tarsi as long as the next two together, or nearly so. Male sex- 
ual characters very simple; fifth segment not modified, sixth narrow, with a 

small simple sinuation at the apex G-enus Caloderma. 

Pronotum longitudinally rugulose Species 1 — 3. 

Pronotum finely and generally very densely punctate Species 4 — 8. 

Head rather large, slightly wider than the prothorax; eyes, very small; la- 
bmm with a very small deep median emargination, slightly wider than deep, 
immediately adjoining which there are on each side two approximate and ex- 
ceedingly minute acute teeth. Prothorax with the sides convergent pos- 



4 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

teriorly. Elytra equal in length to the pronotum. First joint of the posterior 
tarsi fully as long as the next two together, Male sexual characters very sim- 
ple; fifth segment not modified, sixth narrow with a very small triangular 

emargination at the apex (bilobed) Genus Oligopterus.. 

Species 9. 

Head large, distinctly longer and slightly wider than the prothorax, sub- 
triangular, very minutely punctate; eyes extremely small, round, on the 
sides before the middle; labrum with two short, or long and slender acute 
teeth, the edge adjoining them exteriorly being minutely and abruptly sin- 
uate, and between them narrowly and rather deeply emarginate. Prothorax 
quadrate or slightly wider than long; sides moderately convergent poster- 
iorly. Elytra as long as or very slightly longer than the pronotum. First 
joint of the ]posterior tarsi much shorter than the next two together. Male 
sexual characters rather simple; fifth segment very slightly modified, sixth 

deeply and evenly sinuate Genus Lithocharis, Group A. 

Species 10 — 13. 

Head variable, as wide as or slightly wider than the prothorax, sides par- 
allel, punctuation variable; eyes moderate in size; labrum with two small 
acute triangular teeth, the edge adjoining them exteriorly being minutely 
sinuate, and between them rather deeply emarginate. Prothorax finely and 
sparsely punctate with a rather broad median impunctate area; sides parallel 
or very feebly convergent posteriorly^. Elytra much longer than the prono- 
tum. First joint of the posterior tarsi generally but slightly longer than the 
second. Male sexual modification of the fifth segment very complex, the 
sixth being rather deeply and roundly emarginate. 

Genus Lithocharis, Group B. 
Prothorax not longer than wide. 

Posterior angles of the head moderately broadly or 
rather narrowly rounded. 

Head finely and densely punctate Species 14 

Head much more sparsely punctate. 

Sides of pronotum distinctly convergent x)Osteriorly Species 15 

Sides of pronotum parallel or extremely feebly con- 
vergent posteriorly Species 16 — 19 

Posterior angles of the head very broadly rounded Species 20 

Prothorax distinctly longer tbbn wide Species 21 — 23 

Head rather small, sub-triangular, veiy minutely alutaceous; eyes very 
large, coarsely granulate; labrum rather large, truncate at apex, rounded and 
narrowly explanate at the sides, broadly and very feebly sinuate in the mid- 
dle, and having a single short, very small, acute median tooth which is slightly 
dorsal. Prothorax scarcely as long as wide; sides nearly j)arallel. Elytra 
very slightly longer than wide, distinctly longer than the prothorax. First 
joint of the posterior tarsi, much shorter than the next two together. Male 
sexual modification of the fifth segment simple, of the sixth complex. 

Genus Metaxyodonta. 
Species 24 — 25. 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 



CALODERMA u. gen. 

The species of this genus present a singularly homoge- 
neous appearance, they being distinguished by their very 
narrow elongate form, small heads with parallel sides, quad- 
rate prothorax and long narrow parallel elytra; the abdom- 
inal sculpture is also a distinguishing feature, the transverse 
wavy lines of minute sub-asperate punctures being peculiar 
to them, although having a tendency to reappear in the 
genus Metaxyodonta. 

1 — C. rUffOSUm ^- sp. — Slender, moderately convex; sides parallel; color 
throngliout piceous; pubescence extremely sparse and scarcely noticeable 
upon the head and prothorax, very fine, extremely dense and sericeous on the 
elytra and abdomen, pale ochreous in color and very conspicuous; under 
surface and legs piceous-brown, the latter slightly paler, tarsi -pale brown; 
antennae fuscous throughout. Head short and robust, scarcely longer than 
wide; sides parallel, very feebly arcuate; base transversely truncate, basal 
angles distinctly rounded; surface feebly and evenly convex, finel}'- and ex- 
tremely densely punctate throughout, slightly more sparsely so between the 
antennae; punctures round, shallow and sub-annular; eyes at much more 
than their own length from the basal angles, moderately prominent; antennae 
slender, nearly as long as the head and prothorax together, scarcely percep- 
tibly incrassate; basal joint as long as the next two together, second very 
slightly shorter and more robust than the third, tenth slightly longer than 
wide; maxillary jDalpi piceous-black; labrum with four equal acute triangu- 
lar teeth, sides broadly and rouudlj' lobed. Prothorax about as long as and 
slightly wider than the head; sides parallel and feebly arcuate; base strongly 
arcuate; apex broadly and much less strongly so; apical angles distinctly 
rounded, basal very broadly so; apex with a very small feeble sinuation in 
the middle; disk very slightly longer than wide, transversely, moderately 
and evenlj'' convex, very minutely, rather strongly and evenly rugulose; 
rugulae sinuous and interrujpted; having a very narrow and imperfect median 
line toward base. Elytra at base very slightly wider than the pronotum; 
sides parallel and feebly arcuate posteriorly; together broadly, triangularly 
and feebly emarginate behind; disk, transversely and moderately convex, 
one-third longer than wide, one-half longer than the prothorax, feebly im- 
pressed along the suture, which is margined with a slightly elevated line, 
extremely minutely, evenly and densely punctate; punctures asperate and 
more sparse near the apices. Abdomen scarcely perceptibly paler toward tip, 
transversely strigate with fine wavy lines of extremely minute asperities. 
Legs moderate; anterior tarsi feebly dilated, first joint of the posterior as 
long as the next two together. Length 3.7-4.2 mm. 



6 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

Described from the male, in which the sixth segment is 
narrow and evenly sinuate at the ^tip, the sinns being evenly 
rounded and about four times as wide as deep. The species 
is one of the most distinct of this portion of the genus, and 
is widely extended in distribution throughout the middle 
coast region; it is distinguishable at once by its very dense 
sculpture, dark color and very dense pubescence of the pos- 
terior portions of the body. 

2— C. COntinens n. sp.— Moderately robust, rather depressed; head and 
abdomen black, the latter paler and brownish-ferruginous at apex; prothorax 
and elytra dark castaneous-brown, the latter slightly the paler; under surface 
paler, castaneous; legs brownish-flavate; antennae rufo-fuscous throughout; 
maxillary palpi piceous-black; head and pronotum almost glabrous, having a 
few erect black setse; elytra and abdomen finely and moderately densely pub- 
escent. Head moderate, slightly longer than wide; sides parallel and feebly 
arcuate; base truncate, basal angles distinctly rounded; eyes small, moder- 
ately prominent, in great part visible from above, one and one-half times 
their own length from the base; occiput moderately convex, front flat an- 
teriorly; punctures fine, round, shallow, sub-annular and extremely dense; 
antenna nearly as long as the head and prothorax together, slender, not in- 
crassate; basal joint as long as the next two together, second much shorter 
and more oval than the third, tenth longer than wide. Prothorax large, 
nearly as long as and very slightly wider than the head; sides just visibly 
convergent from apex to base and very feebly arcuate; base broadly arcuate, 
sub- truncate in the middle; apex broadly arcuate, as strongly so as the base, 
narrowly and very feebly emarginate in the middle; apical angles narrowly 
but distinctly rounded, basal more broadly so; disk transversely and moder- 
ately convex, quadrate, very finely, evenly and strongly rugulose, the very 
fine median line being entirely obsolete in the apical half. Elytra at base 
just visibly wider than the pronotum; sides parallel, very feebly arcuate pos- 
teriorly; together broadly and just visibly incurvate at the apex; disk trans- 
versely and feebly convex, very feebly impressed aloug the suture which is 
very slightly and narrowly elevated, one-fourth longer than wide, slightly less 
than one-half longer than the pronotum, very minutely densely and evenly 
punctate; punctures sub-asperate and slightly sparser near the apices. ^46- 
domen transversely stngate with very fine wavy lines of minute closely- 
placed asperities. Legs moderate; anterior tarsi very feebly swollen; first 
four joints of the posterior decreasing uniformly and very rapidly in length, 
first slightly shorter than the next two together, fourth very slightly longer 
than wide; claws very small. Length 3.4 mm. 

Contra Costa Co., 2; Napa Co., 1; San Diego, 2. 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 7 

This species, although closely allied to the preceding, is 
distinguishable from it by its smaller size, more robust 
form, larger prothorax, coloration of the body, paler abdom- 
inal apex, less conspicuous pubescence and shorter first 
joint of the posterior tarsi. It is described from the male, 
the sixth segment being sinuate at apex; the sinus is rather 
more acutely rounded than in rugosum, and is about four 
times as wide as deep. The structure of the labrum is sim- 
ilar to that of ricgosuni. 

3 — C. angulatuni i^- sp. — Form slender, moderately convex; color tlirough- 
out black, legs piceous-black, antennae and palpi same, tarsi piceo-testaceous; 
pubescence of the elytra and abdomen moderately dense, very fine, recum- 
bent, fulvous in color, sparser and coarser anteriorly except at the sides of 
the head behind the eyes. Head moderate, slightly longer than wide; sides 
parallel and feebly arcuate; base truncate, angles distinctly rounded; surface 
moderately convex, depressed anteriorly, very finely and densely punctate; 
antennae very slender, nearly as long as the head and prothorax together; basal 
joint scarcely as long as the next two combined, second and third equal in length, 
the former scarcely preceptibly more oval, tenth as wide as long. Prothorax 
quadrate; sides just perceptibly convergent posteriorly and nearly straight; 
base broadly, rather strongly and nearly evenly arcuate, much more strongly 
so than the apex, which is broadly aud rather feebly arcuate and feebly sinu- 
ate in the middle; apical angles slightly obtuse and scarcely perceptibly 
rounded, basal very broadly rounded; disk scarcely wider than the head, 
moderately convex, very finely, rather strongly and irregularly rugulose; 
median line rather obsolete. Elytra at base very slightly wider than the 
head; sides parallel and feebly arcuate; together broadly, triangularly and 
distinctly emarginate behind; disk transversely and very moderately convex, 
very feebly impressed along the suture toward b\se, not impressed toward 
the apex, scarcely one-third longer than wide, about one-third longer than 
the prothorax, extremely minutely, densely and evenly punctate; punctures 
asperate and not sparser near the apex. Abdomen having the sixth and the 
apex of the fifth segments very slightly paler, piceo-testaceous; surface 
transversely and finely strigate in wavy and very broken rows of minute 
and closely-placed asperities. Legrs moderate; first joint of the posterior tarsi 
slightly shorter than the next two together. Length 3.5 mm. 

San Mateo Co., 3 (Mr. Fuchs). 

Described from the male; the sixth segment is sinuate at 
apex, the sinus being very broadly rounded and about six 
times as wide as deep. 



8 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

This sj)ecies may be distinguislied by its black color, 
dark legs and coarse pubescence of the head, but especially 
by the shape of the prothorax, in which the anterior angles 
are not distinctly rounded. 

4— C. mobile ^- sp. — Eather slender, black tliroiigliout, apices of the elytra 
just visibly paler, fuscous; legs dark brown, castaneous, tarsi testaceous; an- 
tennas piceous, fuscous toward tip; pubescence of the elytra and abdomen 
veiy fiine, short and extremely dense, sericeous, fulvous, that of the head and 
pronotum excessively fine, rather sparse, dark piceo-cinereous and scarcely 
visible. Head moderate; sides parallel and feebly arcuate; base truncate, 
angles rather broadly rounded; surface moderately convex, rather coarsely 
and denselj^ punctate, more finely so behind, with a narrow median impunc- 
tate line; punctures round, feeble; between the antennas there are two rather 
large setigerous punctures; Inbrum with four small, robust, triangular teeth; 
autennjB distinctlj^ shorter than the head and prothorax together, very feebly 
incra-^sate, rather slender; basal joint as long as the next two together, sec- 
ond scarcely two-thirds as long as the third and equal in length to the fourth, 
tenth slightly longer than wide. Prothorax nearlj^ quadrate; sides parallel 
and distinctlj^ arcuate; base and apex evenly, rather strongly, and nearly 
equalh" arcuate, the latter with a small feeble median sinuation; apical angles 
rather broadly rounded, basal very broadly so; disk transversely and rather 
feeblj^ convex, very slightly wider than the head, evenly finely and extremely 
densely punctate; x^unctures very feebly impressed, almost contiguous; me- 
dian line almost obsolete. Elytra at base just perceptibly wider than the 
pronotum; sides very feebly divergent and feebly arcuate; together broadly, 
evenly and rather strongly sinuate at apex; disk transversely and moderately 
convex, one-fourth longer than M'ide, nearly one-half longer than the prono- 
tum, feebly impressed on either side of the slightly elevated suture, rather 
finely and very densely punctate; punctures slightly asperate and much finer 
near the apex. Abdomen nearly as wide as the elytra; sides of the fifth seg- 
ment feebl}'' convergent toward tip; surface transversely strigate in close 
wavy lines of minute asperities; each segment having one or two transverse 
rows of four to six very small setigerous punctures upon both the dorsal and 
ventral disks. Legs slender; first joint of the posterior tarsi slightly shorter 
than the next two together, as long as the last two, one-half longer than the 
second. Length 4.0 mm. 

Monterey Co.. 2. ? 

Described from the female in which the sixth segment is 
very evenly rounded behind. There are many erect bristling 
setce on the abdomen toward tip; the transverse series of dis- 
cal punctures upon the abdomen are characteristic of this 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 9 

entire genus, but are more conspicuous in those species hav- 
ing very dense sericeous abdominal pubescence. This spe- 
cies is YSYy distinct being distinguished by its size and very 
dense punctuation, also by the rather more transversely 
oval pronotum with broadl}^ rounded anterior angles. 

5— C. COntractum. n, sp.— Slender, black; elytra slightly paler, piceons, 
slightly rufous at the apices; legs pale brownish-testaceous, tarsi paler, 
brownish-flavate; antennae dark rufo-testaceous throughout; maxillary palpi 
piceous-brown; entire under surface same; pubescence of the elj^tra mode- 
rately dense, very short and fine, that of the abdomen much longer, coarser 
and denser, that of the head and pronotum excessively fine, rather sparse 
and not conspicuous. Head moderate; sides extremely feebly convergent 
X^osteriorly and very slightly arcuate; base truncate, angles narrowly rounded; 
surface slightly longer than wide, moderately convex, rather coarsely and 
somewhat sparsely punctate, with a narrow median impuuctate line; two setig- 
erous punctures at the apical margin of the epistom.a large and prominent; an- 
tennae slender, nearly as long as the head and prothorax together; basal joint 
scarcely as long as the next two together, second two-thirds as long as the 
third and slightly longer than the fourth, tenth about as long as wide, 
eleventh ovoidal, acuminate, slightly shorter than the preceding two com- 
bined. Prothorax quadrate, distinctly wider than the head; sides j)arallel 
and distinctly arcuate; base rather broadly and strongly arcuate, slightly 
more strongly so than the apex; apical angles rather narrowly rounded, basal 
very broadly so; disk transversely and moderately convex ; median line obsolete, 
or very nearly so; xerj finely, feebly and densely punctate; punctures very 
feebly impressed and separated by their own widths. Elytra at base very 
slightly wider than the in'onotum; sides nearly parallel, feebly arcuate, dis- 
tinctly more strongly so near the apices; together broadly, angularly and 
very feebly emarginate at the apex; disk convex and declivous at the sides, 
dej)ressed in the middle, feebly impressed on either side of the feebly elevated 
suture, scarcely one-fourth longer than wide, one-third longer than the pro- 
thorax, rather coarsely and densely punctate; punctures much finer and more 
asperate near the &pex. Abdomen slightlj^ narrower than the elytra; sides 
parallel; sides of the fifth segment strongly convergent posteriorly; surface 
rather convex, transversely strigate in very disconnected wavy lines of 
moderately coarse asperities. Legs slender; first joint of the posterior tarsi 
nearly as long as the next two together. Length 3.2-3.6 mm. 

Santa Clara Co., 9; Monterey Co., 4; Humboldt Co., 1. 

In the specimen from Humboldt the elytral punctuation 
is decidedly coarser and denser. The type is a male, the sixth 
segment being slender and sinuate at apex; the sinus is 
rather narrowly rounded and about four times as wide as 



10 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

deep. Tins species is easily distinguislied from mobile by 
its smaller size, sparser pubescence and much sparser punc- 
tuation. 

6— C. luculentum n. sp.— Form rather robust, depressed; color black, elytral 
ai:)ices abruptly paler, rufous; apices of the abdominal segments beneath pale; 
legs pale reddish-ochreous; antennae uniformly dark rufo-fuscous; palpi 
piceous; head and pronotum almost glabrous; x>ubescence of the elytra and 
abdomen very sparse, line, dark piceo-fulvous and not at all conspicuous; 
integuments very highly polished. Head short and robust, very slightly 
wider than long; sides parallel and very feebly arcuate; base truncate, angles 
narrowly rounded; surface moderately convex, rather coarsely and densely 
punctate at the sides and base, very sparsely so in the middle where there is a 
rather wide median impunctate art a; inteiantennal area impunctate, two 
setigerous punctures widely separated and very feeble; antennte slender^ 
nearly as long as the head and prothorax together, second joint scarcely two- 
thirds as long as the third and distinctly shorter than the fourth, tenth as 
wide as long. Prothorax quadrate, very slightly wider than the head; sides 
very feebly convergent from apex to base; the latter broadly, evenly and 
rather moderately arcuate; apex with a distinct median sinuation; apical 
angles somewhat narrowly rounded, basal broadly so; disk moderately con- 
vex, very finely, rather deeply, evenly and densely punctate; punctures sep- 
arated by their own widths. Elytra at base very slightly wider than the 
pronotum; sides just visibly divergent posteriorly and feebly arcuate, dis- 
tinctly more strongly so behind; together broadlj'- and feebly sinuate at apex; 
disk one-fourth longer than wide and one-third longer than the pronotum, 
feebly impressed along the slightly elevated suture except at the apex where 
the elevation and impressions disappear, rather coarsely, sub-asperately and 
very densely punctate. Abdomen broad, very slightly narrower than the 
elytra; border narrow; sides parallel and nearly straight; transversely stri- 
gate in wavy lines. Legs slender; first joint of the posterior tarsi as long as 
the next two together, second as long as the third and fourth, slightly shorter 
than the fifth. Length 3.7 mm. 

Lake Co., 3. (Mr. Fuchs.) 

Described from the male; the sixth segment is sinuate at 
apex, the sinus being acutely rounded and but slightly more 
than three times as wide as deep. This species, although 
somewhat resembling contractum, may be at once distin- 
guished by its broader form, much paler elytral apices, 
highly polished integuments and very sparse pubescence of 
the elytra and abdomen. The sinus of the sixth segment, 
although rather acutely rounded as in coniradum, is relatively 
distinctly deeper. 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 11 

7 — C. reductum n. sp.— Slender, black; elytra piceous, paler and distinctly 
rufous at the apices; femora rather pale castaneons-brown, tibiae and tarsi 
paler, brownish-flavate; under surface dark castaneous, tip of the abdomen 
slightly TDaler; antennae dark rufo-testaceous; pubescence of the elytra very 
short, fine and rather sparse, that of the abdomen much longer, coarser and 
twice as dense; head and prouotum almost glabrous. Head robust, scarcely 
longer than wide; sides parallel and nearly straight; base truncate, angles 
rather broadly rounded; surface rather finely and sparsely punctate, espec- 
ially toward the middle, where there is a rather broad impunctate line; an- 
tennae distinctly shorter than the head and prothorax together, somewhat 
robust; basal joint as long as the nest two together, second very slightly 
shorter than the third, joints two and four equal in length, fifth slightly 
shorter. Prothorax quadrate, just visibly wider than the head; sides feebly 
convergent toward base and very feebly arcuate; base and apex broadly, 
equally and not strongly arcuate; apical angles rather narrowly rounded, 
basal very broadly so; disk transversely and rather feebly convex, finely, 
densely and evenly punctate; punctures rounded, feebly impressed and dis- 
tant by about their own widths; median line almost entire, very narrow. 
Elytra at base very slightly wdder than the pronotum; sides nearly parallel 
and feebly arcuate, more strongly so behind; together broadly, evenly and 
very feebly sinuate at apex; disk one-fourth longer than wide and one-third 
longer than the prothorax, narrowly impressed along the feebly elevated 
suture, except toward tip, where the impression is obsolete, finely, rather 
densely and sub-asperately punctate; punctures scarcely perceptibly smaller 
toward the apex. Abdomen distinctly narrower at base than at the fourth 
segment, slightly narrower than the elytra; sides feebly arcuate; sides of the 
fifth segment distinctly convergent toward tip; surface transversely and 
finely strigate in very disconnected wavy lines. Lefjs slender; first joint of 
the posterior tarsi about as long as the next two together, second as long as 
the fifth. Length 3.0 mm. 

Monterey Co., 5. 

This species is distinguished from contradum by its 
smaller size, shorter and broader head, which is also more 
sparsely punctate, and by the form of the prothorax, in 
which the sides are feebly but distinctly convergent from 
apex to base. The type is a male, the sixth segment being 
rather broad and sinuate at apex; the sinus is broadly 
rounded and about four times as wide as deep. In co7i- 
tractum the sinus is much more acutely rounded, although 
about equally deep, the sides being more gradually recurved 
exteriorly. 



12 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

8— C. tantillum n- sp. — Very slender; head black; abdomen piceous-black; 
pronotum and elj'^tra castaueons, the latter slightly paler at tip; leg^ rather 
pale brownish, tarsi paler, brownish-flavate; antennae uniformly dark rufo- 
fuscons throughout; pubescence of elytra and abdomen very fine, moderately 
•sparse and not conspicuous. Head moderate, slightly longer than wide, sides 
parallel and almost straight; base truncate, angles narrowly rounded; surface 
moderately convex, rather coarsely and sparselj^ punctate, with a rather wide 
median impunctate area; antennse slender, short, much shorter than the 
head and prothorax together; basal joint as long as the next two together, 
second slightly shorter and more robust than the third, as long as the fourth, 
Outer joints very slightly wider, tenth as wide as long. Prothorax quadrate, 
scarcelj^ perceptibly wider than the liead; sides just visibly convergent from 
ajDex to base and nearly straight; base and apex broadly, equally and rather 
strongly arcuate; apical angles rather broadly rounded, basal very broadly so; 
disk transversely and moderately convex, very minutely, feebly, evenly and 
rather sparsely punctate, with a narrow but entire and rather well-marked 
median impunctate line; j)unctures very feebly impressed and separated by 
about three times their own widths; surface feebly alutaceous. Elytra at base 
very slightly wider than the pronotum; sides parallel and veiy feebly arcuate; 
together broadly, sub-angularly and moderately sinuate at apex; disk nearly 
one-third longer than wide, and nearly one-half longer than the pronotum, 
narrowly impressed along the slightly elevated suture, rather finely, densely 
and sub-asperately punctate; punctures smaller near the apex. Abdomen very 
slightly narrowed toward base, nearly as wide as the elytra; surface moder- 
ately convex, very minutely, sub-asperately, feebly and rather sparsely punc- 
tate. Legs slender; first joint of the posterior tarsi as long as the next two 
together, about as long as the fifth; second distinctly shorter than the third 
and fourth combined. Length 2.8 mm. 

Santa Clara, Co., 4. 

Described from the male in wliicli tlie sixth segment is 
sinuate at tip, the sinus being moderately broadly rounded 
and between three and four times as wide as deep. 

This species is at once distinguishable from all the others 
above described by the abdominal punctuation which is not 
arranged in very well-defined wavy lines, by the more 
sparse and minute pronotal punctuation, and by the rather 
strong dilatation of the joints of the anterior tarsi in the 
males. It is also the smallest species of the genus. 

OLIGOPTERUS n. gen. 

The very small species constituting the sole representa- 
tive of this genus, is very singular and totally distinct in 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. IS* 

appearance from those of the preceding group. The head, 
mstead of being small is rather large and very coarsely 
punctate, the prothorax being slightly elongate and rather 
strongly narrowed from apex to base; the elytra are equal 
in length to the pronotum in the male and slightly shorter 
in the female, with the sides strongly divergent posteriorly, 
having the surface depressed and very coarsely punctate. 

9—0. CUneicollis n.sp. — Rather slender; head aud abdomen piceous-black; 
elytra dark blackish-castaueous; pronotum dark rufo-fuscous; legs brown- 
ish-piceous, tibias slightly paler, tarsi still paler; antenn?e and under surface 
anteriorly dark rufo-fuscous, the former much paler toward the base and 
apex; abdomen black, with the extreme apices of the segments paler; head 
and pronotum nearly glabrous, elytra and abdomen finely and rather densely 
pubescent; integuments polished. Head very slightly longer than wide; 
sides parallel and slightly arcuate; base truncate, feebly sinuate in the 
middle, angles rather broadly rounded; eyes very small, at three times their 
length from the base; surface rather depressed, coarsely aud rather sparsely 
punctate, with a very narrow median impunctate line; epistoma rather 
strongly produced, sides convergent to the apex aud feebly sinuate; apex 
truncate; antennal tuberculations small and rather prominent; between 
them there are two small, oblique, impressed fove^e, each having a small 
setigerous puncture posteriorly; antennaa rather short, scarcely as long as the 
head and prothorax together; basal joint slightly longer than the next two 
together, second more robust but scarcely shorter than the third. Prothorax 
scarcely narrower than the head; sides distintly convergent from apex to 
base and slightly arcuate; base broadly and feebly arcuate; apex with the 
sides very stronglj' convergent to the neck, which is one-third as wide as 
the disk aud broadly and feebly emarginate; anterior angles obtuse and 
rather broadly rounded, basal equally so; disk transversely and rather 
strongly convex, slightly longer than wide, rather finely and moderately 
densely punctate, with a narrow, entire, impunctate median line. Eiijtra at 
base slightly narrower than the pronotum; sides rather strongly divergent 
posteriorly and feebly arcaate; together broadly and feebly sinuate at the 
apex; disk depressed, very slightly longer than wide, as long as the prono- 
tum, very coarsely, sub-asperately and rather densely punctate. Abdomen 
at base very slightly narrower than "the elytra; sides very feebly divergent 
posteriorly and distinctly arcuate; surface minutely, feebly, densely, sub- 
asperately and irregularly punc'ate. Legs very slender; first joint of the 
posterior tarsi fully as long as the next two together. Length 2.4-2.6 mm. 

San Francisco, 5. 

The elytra are, except near the apex, narrowly impressed 
along the slightly elevated suture. The type is a male, the 



14 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

sexual characters being merely a slight emargination at the 
apex of the sixth segment, slightly wider than deep and not 
at all rounded, triangular. This species cannot be con- 
founded with any other liere described; it is the smallest of 
this group of genera which has been thus far discovered. 

LITHOCHARIS Lacord. 

Group A. 

We have here another group, of four species, remarkably 
distinct from either of the preceding. The size is larger 
than in any of the other genera, and the large, sub-triangu- 
lar, very finely and densely punctate heads with their very 
minute ej^es, give them a very peculiar appearance which 
renders them immediately recognizable. The elytra are 
short, sometimes equal in length to the prothorax and never 
very much longer. The sides of the prothorax are usually 
very distinctly convergent from apex to base, and are some- 
times feebly sinuate in the middle. 

10 — L. sinuatOCOllis n. sp.— Form rather slender; elytra and abdomen dark 
fuscous, the latter paler at tip; head and pronotum slightly paler, dark rufo- 
testaceous; autenn;t) dark fuscous, paler at the apex; legs rather pale ferru- 
ginous throughout; pubescence rather sparse. Head rather large, much 
longer than wide, broadly sinuate at base, angles rather broadlj^ rounded; 
sides long, very feebly convergent anteriorly and distinctly arcuate; epistoma 
very broad, moderately produced, apex truncate; surface broadly and moder- 
ately convex, rather finelj'" and densely punctate, very feebly alutaceous; 
punctures feebly impressed, distant by neaily twice their own widths; median 
impunctate area rather narrow; eyes very small at nearly four times their 
own length from the basb; antenn?B slender, much shorter than the head and 
prothorax together; basal joint as long as the next two together, second and 
third sub-equal in length, the former slightly more robust and much more 
oval, distinctly longer than the fourth, tenth slightl}^ wider than long. Pro- 
thorax quadrate, very slightly narrower than the head; sides rather strongly 
convergent posteriori}' throughout and feebly sinuate in the middle; base 
broadl}' truncate in the middle, arcuate at the sides; apex broadly arcuate, 
feebly and roundly emarginate in the middle third; anterior angles rather 
broadly rounded, basal slightly more broadly so; disk moderately convex, 
finely, rather feebly and sparsely punctate; median line equal throughout 
the length, moderate in width. Elytra at base very slightly narrower than 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 15 

the pronotum; sides moderately strongly divergent and feebly arcuate toward 
the a-pex; together broadly and feebly sinuate behind; disk about as long as 
wide; as long as the pronotum, depressed, feeblj'^ impressed throughout near 
the suture which is feebly elevated, rather coarsely, moderately densely and 
sub-rugulosely punctate. Abdomen at base very nearly as wide as the elytra; 
sides just visibly divergent posteriorly and straight; surface very minutely, 
densely, irregularly, feebly and sub-asperately punctate. Legs long and slen- 
der; tarsi rather short, fir.^t joint of the posterior much shorter than the next 
two together, scarcely as long as the fifth, one-third longer than the second; 
first four joints uniformly decreasing in length. Length 4.6 mm. 

Humboldt Co. (Hoopa Val.), 2 ? . 

The anterior tarsi are feebly dilated toward base. This 
species may be readily recognized amongst the large species 
with short elytra, by its much paler color, slightly coarser 
and sparser cephalic punctuation, and by the distinctly sin- 
uate sides of the prothorax. 

11 — L. COnverffens n. sp. — Form moderatelj^ robust, black throughout; legs 
dark piceous-brown, tarsi i)aler, testaceous; antennae fuscous, paler toward the 
apex; pubescence very fine, rather long, very sparse anteriorly, more dense on 
the elytra, still denser and more sericeous on the abdomen, l^eac? large, broadly 
sinuate at base, angles rather broadly rounded; sides long, feebly convergent 
anteriorly, distinctly and evenly arcuate; eyes very small; epistoma very 
slightly produced, broad, squarely truncate at apex; surface finely and densely 
punctate, very feebly alutaceous; j)uuctures rather feebly impressed, distant 
by scarcely more than their own widths above; median line narrow; antennse 
one third longer than the head, rather slender, second joint distinctly shorter 
than the third, very slightly longer than the fourth, tenth slightly wider than 
long. Prothorax widest at the apex where it is slightly narrower than the 
head and distinctly wider than long; sides moderately strongly convergent 
posteriorly, very feebly end evenly arcuate; base broadly and rather feebly 
arcuate; apex rather more strongly arcuate, broadly siuiiate in the middle 
two-fifths; anterior angles rather broadly rounded, basal very broadly so; disk 
finelj'', very feebly and sparsely punctate, with an entire and rather wide me- 
dian impunctate area, and, especially toward base, a very tine and feebly im- 
pressed median stria. Elytra at base distinctly narrower than the pronotum; 
sides rather strongly divergent and nearly straight; together broadly, feebly 
and sub-angularly sinuate at the apex; disk about as wide as long, slightly 
longer than the pronotum, depressed, feebly impressed along the slightly ele- 
vated suture, except at the apex, moderately coarsely, densely and evenly 
punctate; punctures feebly sub-rugulose. Abdomen at base distinctly nar- 
rower than the elytra; sides slightly divergent posteriorly; surface verj'' finely, 
•densely, irregularly and sub-asperately punctate. Legs rather short and slea- 



l(> CAMFOlxNlV AiWPKMV OF SOlKNrKS. 



dor: tii*st four joints of t ho postoriov tai'si dooivasiug uuilonuly and itxther 
r:\v>idly ii\ longth, fourth longer than wide uud one-hrtlf as long as tho tirst, 
Lotit^th l.o mni. 

San ^Fatoo Co., 1 ^ (Mr. Fnchs). 

Tho autorior tarsi aiv vorv distiuotly dilatod toward base. 
Tills spooios oau bo at onoo rooognizod by its blaok oolor^ 
sbghtly trausvorso prothorax. and tho sidos of tho lattor, 
whii'h aro slightly arouato and not at all siuuato. 

I'J — L, lepida ^^- ^P — K;\thor ivbust, dark picivnis throughout, head and 
prvnxotuui so.uvolv jH?rvvptibly palor: abdomen vc>j y slightly j^vlerat the imme- 
diate apex: legs pale, ferruginous-yellow: anteun;e dark fus<.\nis^ pale testa- 
otvus at tip, Kasal joint daik rufous: pulvseeuiv mther long and dense ou the 
elytr:^ and abdomen, denser and more sericeous ou the latter, elsewhere very 
s]LV»rse: integuments very feebly alutaoovnis. shining. H^ad large, sub-tri- 
angular: b;ise iMvwdly and feebly sinuate, Jiugles nither broadly rounded: 
jNide* very feebly ev>nvergent anteriorly, long, distinctly arcuate: epistomal 
apexlvrv^ad. svx^iaxely truncate; antemial tubt^rculatious very small and n\ther 
feeble: surface tiuely. densely aud evenly punctate: median line Rather nar- 
rv>w: antenu;^ slender, much shorter than the head aud prothon^x together, 
second joint distinctly shorter than the tliirv\ and slightly longer than tlie 
fourth, tenth as long as wide. Prx^tMoriijr as long as wide, distinctly nar- 
iV)Wt>r thaT\ the head: sides feebly ^\>uvergent from apex to base, straight in 
the middle: Ivvse brvvidly trui\cate in the middle: basal angles broadly 
rv>undevl. apic;vl very slightly less so: sides thence very strongly convergent 
and stniight to the nuchal enuu^ination. which is more than oue-thirvl as 
vrivle Jis the disk auvl very brv.v»dly rv>undevl: disk tntusversely and very feebly 
coiw^ex aK^ve, stivmgly and r:\ther alvruptly so at the sides, tiuely and feebly 
pnnctate. s^virsely so ncivr the middle, more cojirsely and closely at the sides; 
median line rather broad. evjujU thr^^ughout: very near the K^se there is a 
very feeble median stria. Eijttm at l>ase just pereeptibly narrower than 
the prv>uotttm: sivles feebly divergent posteriorly and nearly straight: to- 
gether btvv^dly ;md extremely feebly sinuate Ivhiud: disk distinctly longer 
than wide and slightly lougt^r than the j^vrouotum, rather depressed, ntirrowly 
impresstvl along the slightly elevated suture, rather tiuely. evenly, densely 
aud sub-ruguU>sely punctate. Ab^i^mm at Ivise very slightly narrower than 
the elytra: sid^^ very l\vbly divergent iv>steriorly, nearly straight: surface 
Tery minutely and densely, fe^^bly and sul^-as^vrAtely punctate, L^ii^ mode- 
rate: tirst joint of the jx^sterior tarfd one-hsilf longer than the second, slightly 
longer than the tifth. Length o.O mm. 

Santa Clarj\ Co., 3. 

Tho description is takou from tho male, in whioh tho riftli 
sogmont is transvoi^>oly truuotivte at apox, tlie edge being 



CAMKOIJM.V A(\\I)1:MV OK S(M KNCKS. 17 

very bro.idlv' aiul foobly luidiilafcoil jiiul wiUi a tniusvoiYO 
row c)l" still' rocuinl)oiifc sotju sli«a;litly within tiio margin; 
sixth broadly and dooply sinuato, tho sinus boin;^- twico as 
wido as (loop and vory broadly ronndiul anttniorly; sovonth 
narrowly divided. Tho spocios is easily distingnishablo 
from tho proooding two by its much longer elytra in both 
tho maU* and t'cMualo. 

1'^— L. pubenila 'i- t^P- — Modonitely slouilor, yiiocons-bliick thron^Jiout, iib- 
dominal iiin^x not notiooably paler; logs dai'lc roiUlish-hrown; autonua^ fns- 
cons, apox paler; head aud pronotmu sparsely, vallu'r coarsely and somewhat 
distinctly pubescent; pubesoenec of tho elytra and abdouu'U rather long, 
coarse and sonunvhrtt dense, rather couspicnous, pale fulvous throughout; 
integuments very feebly alutacoous, shining. Head moderate; base broadly 
and very feebly sinuate, angles rather narrowly rounded; sides paral'el and 
distim^tly arcuate, slightly more strongly.so behind; epistomal apex moderate 
in width, broadly and very feebly arcuate; surface very finely, densely and 
extremely feebly punctate; median line narrow, interrupted at tho base and 
with an elongate very feebly elevated ridge anteriorly; aiitenujD very slightly 
shorter than the head and prothorax together; slender, second joint two- 
thirtls as long as the third and distinctly longer than the fourth, tenth very 
slightly Nvider than long. Prothorax quadrate, just visibly narrower than 
the head; sides feebly convergent posteriorly throughout and very feebly 
arcuate; buse broadly truncate in tho middle; apical angles rather broadly 
rounded, basal very broadly so; disk transversely and rather strongly convex 
very iinely, feebly and sparsely punctate, more densely so at tho sides; me- 
dian line broad and well marked, having a short impressed median stria near 
the base. 7i(7y<?v/ at buso sub-eipial in width to the prt)notum; sides rather 
feebly divergent posteriorly and very feebly arcuate; together broadly and 
moderately sinmite behind; disk very slightly longer than tho pronotum, 
slightly longer than wide, moderately depressed, narrowly impressed along 
the slightly elevated suture, moderately coarsely, closely andsub-granulosely 
punctate, the puucturi>s being extremely minute and at the summits of line 
elevated granules. Abdomen at base nearly us wide ns tho elytra; sides very 
feebly divergent posteriorly and nearly straight, very minutely, feebly, irreg- 
ularly and sub-asperately punctate, the bases of the basal segments being ini- 
puuotato. Legs rather robust; tirst johit of tho posterior tarsi vory slightly 
longer than the second, nearly twice as long as tho fourth; anterior ttirsi nar- 
rowly dilated. Length -l.S mm. 

Lake Co., 1 S (Mr. Fuchs). 

Sexual characters nearly as iu lepida, the sinuation of the 
sixth segment being very broadly rounded and three times 

2— Bull. Oal. Acad. Sci. 11. 5. rriiitoil Jiiuuary 27, 1880. 



^ LIB R AR Y, .^ 



18 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

as wide as deep. This species is distinguished from slmia- 
iocollis and converge us by its longer elytra and sliape of the 
pronotum, from leplda by its sexual characters, denser pub- 
escence, color, and especially by its much narrower, more 
densely punctate, and more parallel head. 

Group B. 

The species here assigned to this group of the genus are 
in general quite homogeneous in appearance, the elytra 
being always much longer than the prothorax, and the pro- 
notum always very sparsely and feebty punctate in the mid- 
dle, Avith a broad median impunctate area. They, however, 
vary in the degree of density of the cephalic punctuation, in 
the prominence of the basal angles, and slightly in the 
form of the pronotum, this generally being nearly quadrate 
with the sides parallel, but sometimes having the sides dis- 
tinctly convergent from apex to base, and being in some 
cases slightly wider than long and in others longer than 
wide, within, however, very narrow limits. The head is 
usually moderate in size, sub-quadrate, and never very much 
wider than the prothorax. 

14— L. malaca ii. sp. — Eather robust, depressed; piceons-black, abdomen 
paler at tip; pronotum slightly paler, dark rufo-fuscous; legs pale yellowish- 
testaceous throughout; antennae fuscous, pale testaceous at tip; pubescence 
sparse anteriorly, rather coarse, dense and conspicuous on the elytra and 
abdomen; integuments strongly shining, very feebly sub-alutaceous. Head 
rather large, slightly longer than wide; sides moderately long and distinctly 
arcuate; base broadly truncate, angles rather broadly rounded; eyes mod- 
erate, at twice their length from the base; epistoma moderately produced, 
very broad, sides strongly convergent to the apex, which is squarely truncate ; 
antennal tuberculations very small, rather prominent; surface very eve«, 
moderately convex, very finely, evenly and densely punctate, with a narrow, 
even, impunctate line in the middle; antennge slightly shorter than the 
head and prothorax together; basal joint nearly as long as the next three 
together, second very slightly shorter than the third and longer than the 
fourth, tenth as long as wide. Prothorax very slightly wider than long nnd 
just visibly narrower than the head; sides very feebly convergent throughout 
and very slightly arcuate; base and apex broadly, moderately and almost 
equally arcuate, the former sub-truncate in the middle; anterior angles 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 19 

rather broadly rounded, basal slightly more broadlj' so; apical emargiuation 
feeble, one-third as wide as the disk; the latter transversely and very mod- 
erately convex, very finely, feebly and sparsely punctate in the middle, more 
strongly and densely so near the sides, with a wide median impunctate area, 
having a very small feeble impression near the base. Elytra at base distinctly 
wider than the pronotum; sides parallel and ver}'' slightly arcuate; together 
broadly and rather feebly sinuate behind; disk transversely and moderately 
convex, narrowly impressed along the distinctly elevated suture, very finely, 
rather densely and sub-granulosely punctate, scarcely one-fourth longer than 
wide, two-fifths longer than the i)i'onotum. Abdomen at base very slightly 
narrower than the elytra; sides parallel and feebly arcuate: surface very mi- 
nutely, densely, irregularly and sub-asperately punctate. Legs robust; first 
joint of the posterior tar^i one-third longer than the second. Length 4.3 mm. 

Santa Clara Co., 1 5 . 

The fifth ventral segment is broadly emarginate in its 
middle, three-fonrths at apex, the emargination being 
broadly rounded and six times as wide as deep; in the mid- 
dle there is a short and very broad porrected process at the 
bottom of the notch, which is broadly and feebly sinuate at 
its apex, each side of the emagination having elsewhere a 
porrected fringe of short, robust, very closely-^Dlaced spin- 
iiles, about eleven in number; sixth segment deeply emargin- 
ate at apex, the notch being parabolic in outline and slightly 
wider than deep, exterior angles slightly rounded; seventh 
narrowly divided. 

This species is distinguished from all the others in this 
division of the genus by its rather large and very minutely 
punctate head. The anterior tarsi are rather strongly di- 
lated and clothed beneath with very short, pale, densely- 
placed. papilla3. 

15— L. latiuscula n. sp. — Eather robust and depressed; head and abdomen 
piceous-black, the latter very slightly paler at the apex; pronotum dark rufo- 
fuscous; elytra much paler, rufous throughout; labrum, palpi and legs con- 
colorous, pale reddish-flavate throughout; antennte fuscous; base dark rufous, 
apex testaceous; pubescence very sparse anteriorly, long, very fine and rather 
si>arse on the elytra and abdomen; integuments polished, very finely sub- 
alutaceous. Head moderate, slightly wider than long exclusive of the labrum 
"which is large and prominent; teeth very small, acute; base broadly truncate 
angles rather broadly rounded; sides parallel and nearly straight; surface 



20 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

rather coarsely, very feebly and rather sparsely punctate; median impunctate 
area rather broad, sub-fusiform; epistoma moderately produced, broad, fee''ly 
and abruptly arcuate in the middle at the apex; antennal tuberculations small 
and rather conspicuous; antennas nearly as long as the head and prothorax 
together; basal joint as long as the next two combined, second more than 
twice as long as wide, very slightly shorter than the third, distinctly longer 
than the fourth, tenth as long as wide. Prothorax slightly wider than long, 
very slightly narrower than the head; sides distinctly convergent posteriorly 
throughout and nearly straight; basal angles very obtuse and very shghtly 
rounded, sides of the base thence strongly convergent and broadly arcuate to 
the median portion which is almost squarely truncate; apex broadly and 
very feebly arcuate; nuchal emargiuation very feeble, nearly one-half as wide 
as the disk; ax3ical angles rather narrowly rounded; disk rather coarsely, ex- 
cessively feebly and very sparsely punctate; median impunctate area broad, 
equal throughout, surface not impressed. Elytra at base slightly wider than 
the pronotum; sides almost x)arallel and very slightly arcuate; together 
broadly, sub-angularly and very feebly sinuate behind; disk broadly and 
feebly convex, narrowly and rather strongly impressed along the slightly ele- 
vated suture, scarcely one-fourth longer than wide, one-third longer than the 
pronotum, rather finely, evenly, strongly, rather densely and sub-asperately 
punctate. Abdomen rather short and broad, slightly narrower than the 
elytra; sides parallel and slightly arcuate; surface very finely, densely and 
sub-asperately punctate. Legs rather short and robust; anterior tarsi slightly 
dilated; first joint of the posterior one-half longer than the second, nearly 
twice aa long as the fourth and slightly shorter than the fifth. Length 
4.1 mm. 

Lake Co., 1 (Mr. Fuclis); Southern Cal., 1 (Mr. G. W. 
Dunn). 

The two specimens, of which the first is the type, are both 
females, and agree tolerabl}^ well together, although the one 
from the possible neighborhood of Los Angeles, has the 
head slightly narrower and more strongly arcuate behind 
with the basal angles more broadly rounded, the prothorax 
very slightly longer, and the elytra very slightty shorter and 
more finely punctate. There is a strong probability of its 
being at least a well-marked variety, although lack of ma- 
terial prevents any judgment as to the amount of specific 
variation; in other portions of this group, however, whera 
the material is ample, the specific variation is seen to be 
very slight. 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 21 

16 — L. sublesta u. sp. — Very moderately robust; head and abdomen black, 
the latter scarcely paler at tip; prouotum very dark fuscous; elytra dark yel- 
lowish-rufous; labrum aud antennae fuscous, the latter pale testaceous toward 
tip; palpi slightly paler, brownish; legs pale brownish-flavate throughout; 
pubescence very sparse anteriorly, moderately dense and fine on the elytra, 
very dense, fine and sericeous on the abdomen; shining. Head moderate, as 
long as wide; base broadly arcuate, angles broadly rounded; sides parallel aud 
nearly straight; eyes at nearly twice their length from the base, somewhat 
prominent; epistoma moderately produced, truncate at tip; labrum moderate 
in size; occiput moderately convex, finely and somewhat densely punctate, 
more sparsely so in the middle; median impunctate area narrow; antennte 
nearly as long as the head and prothorax together, basal joint scarcely as long 
as the next two combined, second nearly as long as the third, slightly longer 
than the fourth, tenth as long as wide. Prothorax very slightly wider than 
long, equal in width to the head; sides parallel and feebly arcuate; base 
broadly, evenly and moderately arcuate throughout; apex very feebly arcuate; 
nuchal emargination excessively feeble, rather wide; apical angles rather 
broadly rounded, basal more broadly so; disk transversely, evenly and feebly 
convex, finely margined along the base, extremely feebly, finely and sparsely 
punctate above, three times as densely so near the sides; median impunctate 
area rather broad. Elytra at base distinctly'' wider than the prothorax; sides 
parallel and feebly arcuate; together broadly and very feebly sinuate behind; 
disk depressed above, strongly convex at the sides, narrowly and distinctly 
impressed along the slightly elevated suture, one-fifih longer than wide and 
nearly one-half longer than the pronotum, very minutely, rather feebly, 
densely, evenly and sub-asperately punctate. Abdomen very slightly narrow- 
er than the elytra; sides parallel and very feebly arcuate; surface minutely, 
exceedingly densely and evenly punctato-asperate. Legs rather long and 
slender; anterior tarsi rather strongly dilated, posterior long and slender, 
first joint about one-fourth longer than the second, slightly shorter than the 
fifth and as long as the third and fourth together. Length 4.2 mm. 

Napa Co., 1 5 . 

The fifth segment is broadly impressed in the middle 
throughout its length; the apex is very broadly emarginate, 
the sides of the notch being rather feebly convergent ante- 
riorly and each having a fringe of about eight robust spin- 
ules; in the middle of the eniargination there is a very short 
broad process, broadly arcuate posteriorly; sixth segment 
parabolically emarginate, notch one-half wider than deep: 
seventh narrowly divided. 

17 — L. COnsanguinea 11- sp.— Moderately robust and depressed; head, pro- 
notum and abdomen black, the latter very slightly paler at the apex; elytra dark 



22 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

pieeo-castaneoiis; femora piceo-castaneoiis, tibias and tarsi paler, brownisli- 
riifons; autenure piceous at base, becoming fuscous in the middle and pale 
testaceous at tip; palpi fuscous; integuments polished, very feebly sub- 
alutaceous; pubescence anteriorly very sparse, that of the elytra coarse, not 
very dense, that of the abdomen more than twice as dense, sericeous, fulvous 
and conspicuous. Head moderate, as long as wide; base broadly and very 
feebly arcuate, angles rather broadly rounded; sides parallel and extremely 
feebly arcuate; epistoma rather strongly produced, broad, truncate at tip; 
antennal tuberculatiotis small, rather prominent; surface rather finely and 
moderately densely punctate; median line narrow, continuous throughout; 
antennas slightly shorter than the head and prothorax together; second joint 
distiuctb^ shorter than the third, very slightly longer than the fourth. 
ProthordX large, just visibly wider than the head, slightly wider than long; 
sides parallel, extremely feebly arcuate; base broadly, evenly and rather 
strongly arcuate; apex broadly and very feebly so; nuchal emargination one- 
third as wide as the disk, very feeble; apical angles rather narrowly rounded, 
basal broadly so; disk transversely, nearly evenly and rather feebly convex, 
finely, very feebly and rather sparsely punctate in the middle, slightly more 
densel}' so at the sides; median impunctate area broad, equal, narrowly, very 
feebly and longitudinally impressed near the base. Elytra at base distinctly 
wider than the pronotum; sides very slightly divergent posteriorly and 
slightly arcuate, together broadly and rather strongly sinuate behind; disk 
feebly convex, narrowly impressed along the slightly elevated suture, more 
strongly so at one-third the length from the apex, finely, deeply, sub-aspe- 
rately, evenly and rather densely punctate; slightly longer than wdde, and 
less than one-third longer than the pronotum. Abdomen rather short and 
broad, as wide as the elytra; sides parallel and distinctly arcuate; surface 
minutely very densely and sub-asperately punctate. Legs slender; first 
joint of the posterior tarsi one-third longer than the second, nearly as long as 
the third and fourth together. Length 4.2 mm. 

San Francisco, 1 ? . 

This species may be distinguished from the preceding by 
its shorter and more coarsely and sparsely punctured elytra, 
its much longer and more evenly punctate pronotum, and 
especially by its different coloration. 

18 — L. COntigUUa ri- sp- — Form rather slender, rather strongly convex; head, 
pronotum and abdomen black, the latter very slightly paler at tip; elytra pice- 
ous-black, immediate apex slightly paler; femora castaneous, tibiae and tarsi 
fuscous; labrum, palpi and antennae piceous, the latter paler and fus- 
cous toward tip; pubescence of the anterior portions sparse, of the elytra 
moderately dense, long, rather coarse, of the abdomen dense, somewhat seri- 
ceous, fulvous; integuments polished, not at all alutaceous. Head rather 
small, distinctly longer than wide; base truncate, angles rather broadly 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 23 

roiiuded; sides parallel, nearly straight; epistoma rather strongly produced, 
broadly and very feebly arcuate at the apex; aiitennal tuberculations mimite 
and slightly promiuent; labrum rather large teeth minute, very acute; an- 
tenna slightly shorter than the head and prothorax together, second joint 
two-thirds as long as the third and scarcely longer than the fourth; occiput 
rather convex, somewhat finely, evenly and sparselj'- punctate; punctures 
round and rather deep; median impuuctate area rather broad, equal through- 
out, well-marked. Prothorax quadrate, just visibly narrower than the head; 
sides parallel and nearly straight; base broadlj^ rather strongly and evenly 
arcuate; apex broadly and very feebly so; nuchal siuuation very feeble, two- 
fifths as wide as the disk; apical and basal angles rather broadly and nearly 
equally rounded; disk transversely, evenly and rather strongly convex, finely 
margined along the base, very finely, feebly and somewhat sparsely punctate 
in the middle, twice as densely so at the sides; median impunctate area equal 
throughout, moderately wide, with a very fine feeble median stria near the 
base. Elytra at base distinctly wider than the prothorax; sides parallel and 
feebly arcuate; together broadly, sub-angularly and distinctly sinuate behind 
disk one-fourth longer than wide, nearly one-half longer than the pronotum, 
feebly impressed along the slightly elevated suture, rather finely, densely, 
strongly and rugulosely punctate, the punctures being in transverse wavy 
series near the apex. Abdomen slightly narrower than the elytra; sides par; 
allel and nearly straight; surface very miuutely, densely and sub-asperately 
punctate. Legs rather long and slenler; first joint of the posterior tarsi one- 
half longer than the second, shorter than the next two together, fully as long 
as the fifta; anterior tarsi very slightly dilated. Length 4.3 mm. 

San'Mateo Co., 1 $> (Mr. Fuchs). 

The fifth segment is very broadly eniarginate nearly 
throughout its width at apex, the sides of the notch being- 
straight, very strongly convergent, and each having a fringe 
of seven stout, equal and closely-placed spinules; median 
porrected process very short and broad, very strongly sin- 
uate at the apex; sixth segment parabolically emarginate at 
apex, notch nearly twice as wide as deep; seventh broadly 
divided, incisure in the form of a very elongate acute tri- 
angle. 

This S23ecies is remarkable for the unusually elongate 
basal joint of the posterior tarsi, which, however, comes 
well within the generic definition. It bears a considerable 

o 

resemblance to consanguinea, but differs in the narrower 
form, and especially in the form of the pronotum, which is 
as long as wide in the present species and slightly, though 



24 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

very distinctly, wider than long in the former. It is true 
that the sexes in these cases are different, but on examining 
a full series of a closely-allied species — relrusa — described 
below, it is readily seen that the sexual differences in the 
general form of the body, even of the head, are almost ab- 
solutely inappreciable; it is in fact a forcible instance of 
what Dr. LeConte (Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. YI, p. 213) calls 
the polarity and, it might be added, concentration of sexual 
characters. Here we have the sexual modifications at the 
abdominal vertex extremely well marked, elsewhere, how- 
ever, if we except a slightly longer second antennal joint in 
the males, they are not at all apparent. 

19 — L. luctUOSa 1^- sp. — Form slender; bead, pronotum and abdomen 
^broiigbout black; elytra rufo-piceons, not paler at tip; legs dark brownisb- 
flavate; antennae piceons, pale at tbe tip; pubescence almost absent anteriorly, 
moderately sparse and fine on the elytra, somewhat dense on the abdomen; 
integuments polished. Head moderate, distinctly longer than wide; base 
truncate in the middle, angles rather narrowly rounded, sides parallel and 
very feebly arcuate; vertex moderately produced, truncate at apex, feebly 
arcuate in the middle; punctures feeble, small and rather sparse; median line 
rather broad, equal throughout; antennas distinctly shorter than the head 
and prothorax together; basal joint distinctly longer than the next two com- 
bined, second slightly shorter than the third, sub-equal to the fourth. Pro- 
thorax fully as long as w^ide, equal in width to the head; sides excessively 
feeblj' convergent posteriorly throughout and very feebh" arcuate; base 
broadly sub-truncate in the middle; apex broadlj', rather feebly and equally- 
strougly arcuate; nuchal sinuation feeble, two-fifths as wide as the disk; 
anterior angles rather narrowly rounded, basal broadly so; disk transversely, 
evenly and moderat?ly convex, very feebly, finely and rather sparsely punc- 
tate in the middle, more closely so at the sides: median impunctate area 
moderate in width, even throughout, not impressed. Elytra at base slightly 
wider than the prouotum: sides parallel and feebly arcuate; together 
broadly, roundly and rather feebly sinuate behind; disk less than one-third 
longer than the pronotum, one-fourth longer than wide, feebly and narrowly 
impressed aloug the slightly elevated suture, finely, feebly, evenl}'-, sub- 
asperately and rather spars -Ij'^ punctate. Abdomen slender, scarcely nar- 
rower than the elytra; sides straight and parallel; surface minutely, very 
densely, sub-asperately and evenly punctate. Legs rather slender; first joint 
of the posterior tarsi oue-thirLl longer than the second, much shorter than 
the fifth; anterior tarsi slightly dilated. Length 4.2 mm. 

San Francisco, 1 ? . 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 25 

Tliis species, thougli closely allied to tlie preceding, dif- 
fers from it in sucli an assemblage of minor characters as to 
leave very little doubt of its distinctness; among these are 
its more slender form, still more slender prothorax, and 
more particularly the elytral punctuation which is decidedly 
more si3arse, feebler and less rugulose; the abdomen also is 
not pale at tip, and the el^'tra are paler in color in lactuosa. 

20 — L. retrusa n- sp. — Moderately robust; bead, pronotum and abdomen 
tbrongbout black; elytra dark rnfo-piceous, scarcely perceptibly and grad- 
Tially paler toward the apices; legs rather pale brownish; antennae, labrum 
and palpi piceoiis-black, the former slightly i^aler toward tip; pubescence 
sparse anteriorly, rather dense and very fine on the elytra, twice as dense, 
very short and fine on the abdomen, not very conspicuous; integuments 
polished. Head moderate; base broadly and distiuctl}^ arcuate, angles very 
broadly rounded; sides behind the eyes rather short, parallel and nearly 
straight; surface slightly longer than wide, finely, extremelj'^ feebly and 
rather densely punctate; median line rather broad; epistoma very short, 
rather narrow, truncate at apex; labrum moderate, teeth small, approximate, 
rather long and very acute; antenna nearly as long as the head and protho- 
rax together, second joint distinctly shorter than the third, slightly longer 
than the fourth. Prothorax rather large, quadrate, just visibly wider than 
the head; sides parallel and nearly straight; base broadly, very evenly and 
rather strongly arcuate throughout; apex feebly arcuate; nuchal emargina- 
tion two-fifths as wide as the disk, broadly and distinctly rounded; apical 
angles rather narrowly rounded, basal scarcel}'' more broadlj" so, very obtuse; 
disk very finely margined along the base, broadlj'^, nearly evenly and mod- 
^ratelj^ convex, very minutely, feebly and sparsely x^unctate in the middle, 
twice as densely, but still rather sparsely so at the sides; median line rather 
broad, equal throughout. Elytra at base distinctly wider than the prono- 
tum: sides nearly parallel, feebly arcuate posteriorly; together broadly, 
roundly and distinctly sinuate behind; disk one-fifth longer than wide, one- 
third longer than the pronotum, rather broadly and strongly impressed along 
the slightly elevated suture, more distinctly impressed near the scutellum, 
very finely, rather feebly and very densely punctate; punctures sub-asperate 
and distinctly finer and denser toward the apex. Abdomen very slightly 
narrower than the elytra; sides parallel and very nearly straight; surface 
very minutely, evenly, excessively densely f ebly and sub-asperately punc- 
tate. Legs rather slender; first joint of the posterior tarsi one-fourth longer 
than the second, much shorter than the fifth; anterior tarsi very slightly 
dilated; posterior tibite obliquely and feebly excavated exteriorly at the apex, 
the excavation being smooth and glabrous, and bounded internally by a dense 
row of closely-placed and very fine erect spinules. Length 4.1-4.3 mm. 

Mendocino Co. (Anderson Val.), 5. 



26 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

This very distinct species may be recognized immediately 
by its rather narrow head, broadly rounded behind, and 
having the basal angles almost obsolete. The type is a male; 
the fifth segment is broadly emarginate almost throughout 
its width at apex, the sides of the notch being very strongly 
convergent and distinctly incurvate, each bearing a por- 
rected fringe of nine robust, black, short and rather closely- 
placed spinules; the porrected process at the bottom of the 
emargination is very short and rather narrow, scarcely wider 
than the fimbriate sides; it is broadly and feebly sinuate at 
apex; sixth segment parabolically emarginate at tij), the 
notch being slightly wider than deep, exterior angles nar- 
rowly rounded; seventh narrowly and acutely incised or di- 
vided along its lower surface as in the preceding species. 

The structure of the posterior tibiae is peculiar to the genus 
as far as I have observed. 

21 — L. greg'alis u- sp. — Moderately slender, black, abdomen scarcely paler 
at tip; elytra slightly piceous; legs d irk castaueous, tibiae toward tip and tarsi 
paler; antenna piceoiis-black at base, fuscous in the middle, testaceous at 
tip; pubescence sparse anteriorly, rather long, dense and coarse on the 
elytra, \evy fine, dense and short on the abdomen, not conspicuous; integu- 
ments polished. Head rather large, as wide as long; base broadly and feebly 
arcuate, angles broadly rounded; sides parallel and distinctly arcuate; epi- 
stoma broad, moderately produced, truncate; antennal tuberculations small, 
rather prominent; labrum moderate, teeth slightly defiexed, small, equilat- 
ero-triangular, antennae distinctly shorter than the head and prothorax 
together, second joint slightly shorter and distinctly more robust than the 
third, distinctly longer than the fourth; surface rather strongly convex, 
finely, very feebly and densely imnctate; median line rather wide, Prothorax 
moderate, slightly longer than wide, very slightly narrower than the head; 
sides parallel, nearly straight in the middle; base broadly and feebly arcuate, 
broadly sub-truncate in the middle; apex strongly and evenly arcuate at the 
sides; nuchal emargination narrow, not one-third as wide as the disk, rather 
strongly incurvate; apical angles very broadly rounded, basal slightly more 
broadly so; disk transversely and moderately convex, very finely mar- 
gined along the base, rather coarsely, very sparsely and excessively' feebly 
punctate in the middle, much more finely, distinctly and densely so at 
the sides; median impunctate area rather broad. Elytra at base very slightly 
wider than the pronotum, scarcely wider than the head; sides very slightly 
divergent jDosteriorly and very feebly arcuate; together broadly, roundly 
and very feebly sinuate behind; disk one-fourth longer IJian wide, one-third 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 27 

longer than the pronotniu, very feebly convex, very broadly and feebly im- 
pressed along the very slightly elevated suture, finely, rather strongly and 
densely, snb-asperately and evenly punctate. Abdomen at base nearly as 
wide as the elytra; sides parallel and ver3'^ feebly arcuate; surface very finely, 
sub-asperately and densely punctate. Legs slender; anterior tarsi very 
slightly dilated; first joint of the posterior nearly one-half longer than the 
second, sub-equal in length to the fifth. Length 3.5 mm. 

Santa Clara Co, 11. 

The type is a male, tlie sexual characters being of the 
same general order as in the preceding group of species, 
although distinctl}^ modified; the fifth segment is broadly 
and rather feebly emarginate nearly throughout its width at 
apex, the sides of the notch being very strongly convergent 
and feebly incurvate, each having aporrected fringe of about 
thirteen robust, closely-placed spinules; the median por- 
rected process is very narrow, about one-half as wide as the 
fimbriate sides, and exceedingly short, with the sides acute 
and not broadly rounded as in the preceding species; it is 
broadly, roundly and rather strongly emarginate throughout 
its width at apex, and has its surface smooth, glabrous and 
conically impressed; sixth segment broadly and parabolic- 
ally emarginate at apex, the notch being twice as wide as 
deep, and having the edge at the bottom narrowly mem- 
branous; seventh segment broadly divided. 

22 — L. mimula u- sp. — Form rather slender, intense black throughout except 
the abdomen at tip which is slightly paler; legs rather dark brownish-flavate; 
antennre black at base, becoming dark fuscous toward tip; pubescence very 
sparse anteriorly, long, coarse and rather sparse on the elytra, very fine and 
moderately dense on the abdomen; integuments polished. Head moderate; 
base truncate, angles rather narrowly rounded; sides parallel and nearly 
straight; surface scarcely as wide as long, moderately convex, verj^ finely, 
moderately feebly and rather densely punctate; median line rather broad; 
epistoma moderate in width, slightlj^ j^^'O^^^^ced, broadly and feebly arcuate at 
the apex; antennal tuberculations small, rather prominent; labrum moderate 
in size, teeth broader than long, scarcely deflexed, distinct; antennje slightly 
shorter than the head and prothorax together, basal joint rather robust. 
Prothorax scarcely perceptibly narrower than the head, slightly longer than 
wide; sides parallel, straight or very feebly sub-sinuate in the middle; base 
broadly and feebly arcuate, broadly sub-truncate in the middle; apex strongly 



28 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

arcuate at the sides; nuchal emargination one-tbird as wide as the disk, 
strongly and evenly incurvate; anterior angles rather broadly rounded, basal 
slightly more broadly so; disk very evenly, moderatelv and transversely con- 
vex, punctured as in r/regalis. Eli/tra at base distinctly wider than the iDro- 
thorax and slightly wider than the head; sides nearly parallel, feebly arcuate; 
together broadly, roundly and moderately sinuate behind; disk scarcely per- 
ceptibly impressed along the very slightly elevated suture, one-fourth longer 
than wide, nearly one-half longer than the pronotum, finely, feebly, sub- 
asperately, evenly and not densely punctate. Abdomen rather narrow, at 
base distinctly narrower than the elytra; sides parallel and feebly arcuate; 
surface finely, feebly, sub-asperately and densely punctate. Legs slender; 
first joint of the posterior tarsi one-third longer thiin the second, distinctly 
shorter than the fifth. Length 3.3 mm. 

Santa Cruz Co., 5; Santa Clara Co., 3; San Mateo Co., 3. 

Described from the male; the fifth segment is broadly and 
feebly emarginate at apex, the sides of the emargination 
being extremely strongly convergent and feebly incurvate, 
each having a fringe of nine closely-placed spinules; the 
median process is very short, fully as wide as the fimbriate 
sides, its lateral extremities being in the form of strong 
acute porrected teeth, and having the apex broadly roundly 
and strongly emarginate throughout its width, its surface 
being scarcely perceptibly impressed; the remaining seg- 
ments modified nearly as in gregalis. The species resembles 
the preceding to such an extent that great care is requisite 
in its identification; it is, however, distinguishable by its 
narrower head with straighter sides and much more narrowly 
rounded basal angles, by its longer elytra, which are also 
decidedly more sparsely and feebly punctate, and by its 
sexual characters. The pronotum and elytra are sometimes 
paler perhaps from immaturity. 

23— L. languida n- sp.— Form rather slender, depressed; head black; ab- 
domen piceous, slightl}' paler at tip; pronotum dark rufo-fuscous; sides and 
apex of the elytra broadly pale brownish-tlavate, central and basal portions 
shaded darker, castaneous; legs pale flavate throughout; an teunre piceous-black 
at base, becoming gradually rather pale testaceous toward the apex; pubescence 
of the elytra and abdomen not very dense, fine and inconspicuous. Head 
nearly as wide as long; base truncate in the middle, angles moderately broadly 
rounded; sides parallel and nearly straight; surface moderately convex, rather 



CALIFORXIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 29 

coarsely, xevy feebly aud somewhat sparsely punctate; median line broad; 
epistoma moderately produced, In-oadly and feebly arcuate at apex; anteunal 
tuberculations feeble, not prominent; antennae nearly as long as the he.id 
and prothorax together, second joint slightly shorter than the third and much 
longer than the fourth, not very robust, third three times as long as wide. 
Prothorax just perceptibly narrower than the head, very slightly longer than 
wide; sides parallel, nearly straight in the middle; base and apex broadly, 
nearly evenly and rather strongly arcuate, the latter very slightly the more 
strongly so; nuchal emargination much more than one- third as wide as the 
disk, broadly and very feebly incurvate; anterior and posterior angles broadly 
and nearly equally rounded; disk broadlj^ and rather feebly convex, rather 
coarsely, sparsely and excessively feebly punctate in the middle, the punc- 
tures becoming tiner, more distinct and denser toward the sides; median im- 
XDunctate area rather broad. Elytra at base distinctly wider than the protho- 
rax, slightly wider than the head; sides parallel, feebly and nearly evenly- 
arcuate; together broadly, roundly and moderately sinuate behind; disk one- 
fourth longer than wide and one-third longer thstn the pronotum, rather 
coarsely, densely, evenly and sub-asperately punctate. Abdomen at base dis- 
tinctly narrower than the elytra; sides i)arallel and nearly straight; surface 
very minutely, feebly, densely aud sub-asperately punctate; border ^rather 
narrow and deep, slightly paler in color. Legs slender; first joint of the pos- 
terior tarsi one-half longer than the second, sub-equal in length to the fifth. 
Length 4.0 mm. 

Sonoma Co., 1 S . 

Eesembles the preceding two species in its elongate pro- 
thorax, but possessing a still different modification of the 
male sexual characters. The fifth segment is broadly emar- 
ginate nearly throughout its width at apex, the sides of the 
emargination being feebly convergent and nearly straight, 
each having aporrected fringe of seven rather widely-spaced 
spinules; the median process is very short and broad, being 
twice as wide as either of the fimbriate sides adjoining; it is 
broadly, feebly and evenly arcuate throughout its width at 
apex, and without any appearance of lateral teeth ; sixth seg- 
ment strongly and parabolically emarginate at apex, the 
notch being nearly one-half wider than deep. 

METAXYOLONTA n. gen. 

In this genus, represented by two closely-allied spe- 
cies, the form and general appearance again differ most 



30 CALIFOKNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

decidedly from anytliing hitherto described; the head is 
small, triangular, with very large, coarsely granulated eyes, 
robust antennae and with an entirely different structure of 
the labrum. The species are rather robust, and the integu- 
ments throughout are strongly alutaceous, this appearance 
being produced upon some portions of the body by an ex- 
cessively minute and dense punctuation, and upon others by 
a correspondingly minute and dense granulation. The head 
in both of the forms here described is blackish, the remain- 
der of the body, legs, labrum and antennae being flavate or 
clouded slightly with brownish ; they are very rare although 
the species may perhaps be relatively more numerous. 

24 — ]y[, alutacea i^- sp. — Rather robust; head fusco-castaueous or nearly 
piceous-black; pronotum aud abdomeu concoloroiis, pale castaneous; elytra 
still paler, brownish-testaceous; legs uniformly flavate; antenme uniformly 
pale reddish-flavate throughout; palpi flavate; pubescence fine, moderately 
dense, coarser aud more conspicuous on the elytra; integuments alutaceous. 
Head mode»ate, as wide as long; sides parallel, short and distinctlj^ arcuate; 
base truncate, angles broadly rounded; eje% very large, at scaicely their own 
lengths from the basal angles, not prominent, rather coarsely granulate; 
epistoma rather strongly produced, sides strongly convergent toward the 
apex, truncate anteriorly; antennal tubetculations rather strong, small; sur- 
face moderately convex, extremely minutely and densely punctate, with a 
very narrow median impuuctate line, having two widely distant, annular, 
setigerous punctures between the eyes and one behind each antenual tuber, 
culation, also several small ones near and behind the eyes; antennas rather 
robust, slightly longer than the head and prothorax together, basal joint 
about three times as long as wide, second two-thirds as long as the third, 
nearly as long as the fourth, joints four to ten decreasing in length, the latter 
scarcely as wide as long, eleventh ovoidal, obtusely acuminate, much shorter 
than the two preceding together. Prothorax very slightly wider than long, 
sub-equal in width to the head; sides very feebly convergent from apex to 
base, the latter narrowly truncate in the middle; apex broadly and rather 
feebly arcuate, narrowly and feebly sinuate in the middle; apical and basal 
angles equally and very broadly rounded; disk transversely and very feebly 
convex, extremely minutely and densely punctate; punctures slightly more 
sjjarse near the middle, where there is a very narrow and obscure median 
impunctate line. Elytra at base very slightij^ wider than the pronotum; sides 
nearly parallel, very slightly arcuate; together broadly and feebly sinuate at 
apex; outer angles rounded; disk quadrate, one-fourth longer than the prono- 
tum, feebly convex, feebly impressed on the suture toward base, the suture 
not elevated, very minutely, evenly and densely granulose; the granulations 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 31 

separated hy more than their own widths and setigerous. Abdomen rather 
robust, nearly as wide as the elytra; border moderate; surface very minutely, 
feebly, denseh' and sub-asperately punctate, the asperities being arranged in 
very close, interrupted, tran&verse wavy lines. Legs moderate; anterior tarsi 
distinctly dilated, fourth joint slightly emargiuate, first four joints of the 
posterior tarsi decreasing uniformly and very gradually in length, the first 
less than one-half longer than the second and much shorter than the fifth, 
fourth longer than wide. Length 3.8 mm. 

Santa Clara Co., 1 6 , 

The fifth ventral segment is thickened in the middle third 
at apex, the edge being obliquely beveled and having a 
dense comb -like row of very minute, parallel, longitudinal 
black ridges or strigse; sixth segment broadly and very 
strongly emarginate at apex, tlie emargination acutely 
rounded anteriorly and having at each side, slightly distant 
from the edge of the notch and at about the middle of its 
length, a small brush of very long densely-placed hairs; 
seventh segment very narrowly divided, truncate at tip, 
large and prominent. 

25 — M. quadricollis n- sp. — Form rather robust; head piceous-black;prouo- 
tum and elytra pale rufo-testaceous, the latter slightly the paler; abdomen 
pale brownish-fuscous; legs, antenna;, labrum and palpi concolorous, very 
pale flavate; pubescence sparse anteriorly, coarser, much denser and not 
very conspicuous on the elytra and abdomen, distinctly denser on the latter; 
integuments alutaceous. Head moderate, as wide as long; sides short, par- 
allel; base truncate, angles rather broadly rounded and slightlj' prominent; 
surface moderately and evenly convex, extremely minutely and densely 
punctate, with a very narrow median line which is totallj^ obliterated ante- 
riorly; antennas rather robust, as long as the head and prothorax together, 
second joint three-fourths as long as the third. Prothorax nearly quadrate; 
sides parallel and feebly arcuate; base broadly and rather feebly arcuate; 
apex broadly arcuate, very feebly and roundly emarginate in the middle 
third, with the edge at each side just without the emargination slightly sinu- 
ate; apical angles very narrowly rounded, basal broadly so; disk distinctly 
longer than the head, exclusive o^ the labrum, and very slightly wider, 
broadly and rather feebly convex, excessively minutely and densely punc- 
tate; punctures noticeably sparser toward the middle, where there is a very 
narrow imperfect impunctate line, and, near the base, a short median stria. 
Elytra very slightly wider than the pro no turn; sides parallel and slightly 
arcuate; together broadly and extremely feebly sinuate at apex; disk slightly 
longer than wide, scarcely one-fourth longer than the pronotum, very mi- 



32 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

niitely and densely granulate. Abdomen slightly narrower than the elytra; 
sides nearly parallel; surf.ice minutely, densely and sub-asperately punctate, 
without any arrangement in wavy rows. Legs moderate; anterior tarsi mod- 
erately dilated; first four joints of the posteiior decreasing uniformly and 
very gradually in length, the first one-half longer than the second and 
shorter than the fifth. Length 8.8 mm. 

Lake Co., 1 $> (Mr. Fuclis). 

This species is rather closely allied to the preceding, the 
sexual characters being almost identical, the surface of the 
fifth segment being slightly more strongl}^ swollen in the 
middle near the apex and the notch of the sixth being very 
slightly more broadly rounded in quadricoUis; in the form and 
size of the pronotum, relative length of the elytra, and in 
the punctuation of the abdomen, the two species are, how- 
ever, so distinct that it can scarcely be possible to confound 
them. 

The eastern Litlioclmris corticina Grav. is somoAvhat allied 
to this genus, but is scarcely congeneric. The labrum in 
corticina is very large, broadly explanate and rounded at the 
sides; in the middle of its apical margin it has a small 
abrupt emargination, at the bottom of which there is an 
obtuse tooth which is the prolongation of a small anterior 
dorsal carina. In the general form of the head it is strik- 
ingly different from the members of Metaxyodonta. 



L. confluens Say must form the type of a genus quite dis- 
tinct from any other here described, because of the very 
different structure of the posterior tarsi which are short and 
rather robust, and in which the basal joint is slightly shorter 
than the second and less than one-half as long as the fifth. 
For this genus I would propose the name Trachysectus. 

I am indebted to Dr. J. Hamilton of Allegheny and Mr. 
F. M. Webster of Lafayette, Indiana, for specimens of these 
species. ^.y.^^ 

luJBRARV.J 



-♦vt^ 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 



33 



APPENDIX. 



HESPEROBIUM n. gen. (Pfederini), 



It is not without great difl&clence that I here propose a new 
name for the American species which have been hitherto 
placed in Cryptobium ; especially is this the case since the 
South American and Mexican species have been passed over 
almost in silence regarding their generic distinctness by Dr. 
Sharp, and the North x4.merican forms, first by Dr. LeConte 
and afterwards, independently, by Dr. Horn. Being moved, 
however, by the conviction that scientific nomenclature has 
arrived at such a stage that to longer abstain from recogniz- 
ing and differentiating distinct generic subdivisions, can only 
be conducive to a superficial knowledge of nature and be 
detrimental to a scientific arrangement of the species as a 
whole, I have concluded to make the division and give the 
differential descriptions in the form of parallel columns, by 
which means the chief distinctive features cfan be more 
readily compared. 

In the following statement tlie type of Hesperobium is the 
Calif orniau H. tiunldiim Lee, the characters of Cryptobium 
Mann, being taken from the very thorough treatise by Mr. 
C. Eey iTpon the Piederini (Hist! Nat. Col. Fr., 1878). 



Cryptobium. 
Labrum short, sinuate and biden- 
ticulate in the middle of its anterior 
maroiu. 



3— Bull. Cal. Acap. Sct. II. 5i .• 



Hesperobium. 
Labrum very short and broad, 
feebly and triangularly emarginate 
throughout its width at apex, not 
denticulate but having in the middle, 
at the apex of the triangular notch a 
small rounded emargination; sides 
strongly convergent toward the base; 
apical angles narrowly rounded. 

Printecl January 27, 1886. 



34 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 



Third joint of the maxillary palpi 
gradually aud rather strongly dilated 
toward the apex which is truncate; 
fourth small, slender and subulate. 



Labial palpi short wdth the two ba- 
sal joints sub -cylindrical, the second 
a little longer than the first; the 
third small, slender, acuminate. 



Third joint long and slender, rather 
feebly dilated, cbconical; fourth 
short, sligh 1 1}^ oblique, conical, acute- 
ly pointed, nearly as wide at base as 
the apex of the third and received 
partly within it. 

Labial palpi slender, first joint 
longer than wide, about one-half as 
long as the second, which is slender 
and more or less dilated at the apex; 
third conical, very slender, acute, 
much narrower at base than the apex 
of the second. 
Paraglossffi acuminate. Paraglossas elliptically rounded at 

tip. 
Antennae having the second and Antennae with the second joint 

third joints sub-equal. distinctly shorter than the third. 

There are also differences in the structure of the abdomen, and in the rela- 
tive sizes of the segments. 

Except in the characters given above, the two genera are 
somewhat similar. In applying these to the entire group of 
North American species, it is easily seen that the antennal 
structure is not entirely constant, there being a few species 
in which the second and third joints are nearl}^ equal in 
length. The components of a very limited group of small 
species containing pusillum, lepidum, etc., have the fourth 
joint of the maxillary palpi small, acicular and not conicah, 
and those should x:)robably be referred to a closely-allied 
genus or to a sub-ganus; all the others have the fourth joint 
conical and pointed, although varying greatly in thickness 
at the base', all being, however, variations of one common 
type, which is the conical and acutely pointed. Dr. Sharp 

J LeConte-Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc. XVII, 1878, p. 392. 

'^ The two species, convergens and parallelum, described by me (Cont. II, 
pj). 129-131), aud very erroneously united by Dr. Horn (Ent. Amer. I, p. 109) 
under the head of an entirely distinct B\)ec\e^—jloridanum — serve as a good 
illustration of this variability of the fourth joint, this being conical and very 
narrow, small and almost acicular in convergent, and scarcely longer than 
wide, being strongly conical, flattened and almost as broad at base as the 
apex of the third in parallelum. Having here incidentally made a correction 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 35 

(Biol. Cent.-Amer., I, Ft 2, p. 506), probably because of 
this variability, considers the palpal structure as of minor 
importance when compared with others, and does not even 
employ it in subdividing the genus, although this has been 
done with more or less success by Dr. Le Conte (Proc. Am. 
Phil. Soc. XYII, 1878, p. 390), but without considering the 
structure of the maxillary palpi, we still have, I think, 
enough characters remaining to confirm the validity of Hes- 
perobium. 

Dr. Sharp, in the work above mentioned, divides the 
Central American species into groups depending upon the 
presence or absence of a lateral raised line upon the lower 
part of the flank of each elytron; when the Paederini have 
been sufficiently studied as a group, it may be found desira- 
ble to give this character a generic import, in which case 
the name Hesperobium should be retained for the species 
having this lateral line, as it is present in the type which is 
assumed above as representing the genus. It is also present 
in califormcum, and in an undescribed species, represented 
in my cabinet by a unique male, found near San Francisco; 
it is probably characteristic of the Calif ornian species as a 
group'. 

In describing several species of this genus (Cent. II, pp. 
1'27-133), attention was called to two very large and promi- 
nent annular punctures, or more properly areolae, situated 
behind the eyes. I think that these punctures are of greater 
importance from a systematic standpoint than was at first 
supposed, as they constitute one of the distinguishing fea- 
tures of Hesperobium and the ilmerican species of Lathro- 

iu Hynonjmj, I take the present opportunity to say in addition, that it is 
very difficult to reconcile Dr. Horn's assertion regarding the mutual identity 
of my H. capito and H. pallipes, Grav., with the statement made by Erichson 
in the description of the latter, viz: " Thorax latitudine sesqui fere longior." 
The prothorax in cax^ito is "scarcely one-fifth longer than wide." (Cont. II, 
p. 128.) 

3 This line is also well developed in the Californian species which have 
been referred to Lathrobium and which are probably generically distinct. 



36 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

biiim, being absent in the latter genus. In Hesperobkim 
ccdifornicnm they are very large, slightly oval, strongly an- 
nular and crater-like, occupying the entire summits of slight 
elevations, and having their planes not exactly parallel to 
the general surface but tilted very slightly forward, so that 
the slope of the elevation is more prominent behind. Be- 
tween them the surface is narrowly elevated or tumid in a 
longitudinal direction, and from the middle of each arises a 
very long erect seta from an annular median tubercle, which 
corresponds to the cone of the crater. These most singular 
structures are probably an additional distinctive feature of 
Hes23erobium. 

The genus Homseotarsus founded by Hochuth upon an 
Armenian species, does not concern us at the present time, 
as, although the maxillary palpi are apparently of like struc- 
ture, it is, in almost all other respects, entirely similar to 
Cryptobium (Lac. Gen. Col. 11, p. 90). 

II. 

In the first volume of this Bulletin, page 315, 1 stated that 
the mandibles in Or us were qiiadridentate within. This is 
true only of the riglit mandible. Since the publication of the 
paper referred to, I have examined the left mandible and 
find it tridentate, the three teeth being small, approximate 
and situated almost exactly in the middle of the inner margin; 
the two basal ones are erect, slightly longer than wide, acute 
and equal, the third being longer and more slender, acute 
and rather strongly inclined toward the apex, the latter 
being evenly and strongly arcuate, very acute and slender. 
This combination of four teeth in the right and three in the 
left mandible is of frequent occurrence in the portion of the 
Psederini near and related to Lithocharis, where the man- 
dibular characters appear to lose the importance wdiich they 
possess in some other portions of the i;roup. Tlie abnormal 
arrangement of the teeth in Orus therefore, although it cannot 
of itself be maintained as a generic character, still serves to 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 37 

show that which may easily be inferred from its general ap- 
pearance, viz: that it is much more nearly related to Litho- 
cliaris and its allies than it is to Scopf^us. It should, in 
fact, in a systematic arrangement of our Pa^derini, immedi- 
ately precede Caloderma which it resembles in its 4-dentate 
labrum, and from which it is distinguished, as before re- 
marked, by its strongly inflated third maxillary palpal joint, 
and also by its elongate prothorax and short basal joint of 

the posterior tarsi. 

III. 

A considerable number of new genera having been de- 
scribed since the publication of the Classification of the Col- 
roptera of North America by LeConte and Horn, I would 
propose the following as a substitute for the one given in 
that work, page 99, for those Psederi which have the fourth 
tarsal joint simple. 

It will be noticed that, in the following table, the genicu- 
lation of the antennae is considered of secondary import- 
ance when compared with other characters. Although this 
geniculation varies greatl}' in amount, I have yet failed to 
observe a single species of Nortii American Paederini in 
which it is not more or less manifest; the character is there- 
fore merel\- one of degree and is onlj'of importance when 
present in its extremes. There is. however, a marked diff- 
erence in the nature of the geniculation. In Hesperobium, 
and probably also Ababactus, the deep emargination at the 
apex of the scape which receives the second joint when 
flexed, is at the anterior portion of the apex, so that the 
funicle is bent to the front, while in the second section this 
emargination is at the back of the apex, so that Avheu flexed 
the funicle projects posteriorly. It is also to be noted that 
the geniculation of the antennae prevailing in the Paederini 
is not like that to be seen in some other groups of Coleop- 
tera, where the second joint is placed almost immovabl}" at 
an angle with the scape, and which could appropriately 
be termed vujidly r/euiculate. In this group the funicle is 



38 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

capable of being flexed or straightened at pleasure, and, in 
contradistinction to the former, such an antenna might be 
called flexibly geniculate. 

Basal joint of tlie aiitenuae greatly elongated, sub-equal iu leugtli to tlie next 
three or four together; antennae strongly and anteriorly geniculate. 

Neck broad Hesperobium. 

Neck narrow Ababactus. 

Basal joint of the antennae not greatly elongated; antennas posteriorly and 
more or less strongly geniculate. 
First four joints of the i)osterior tarsi sub-equal, first not longer than th8 
second. 
Neck rather broad. 

Prothorax sub-quadrate or slightly elongate; labrum bilobed 

Lathrobium. 

Prothorax narrowed from apex to base; labrum truncate, not dent- 
iculate, having along the lower edge of its anterior margin four 
widely-spaced, very short, broadly rounded callosities, and, in the 

middle a very small, rounded emargination Tr achy sect US. 

Neck very slender. 

Prothorax gradually narrowed anteriorly; labrum quadridentate. 

Scopaeus. 

Hind tarsi with the first four joints decreasing more or less gradually in 
leugth. 
Prothorax narrowed in front. 

Labrum quadridentate Echiaster. 

Labrum bidentate StilicUS. 

Prothorax sub-quadrate, anterior and posterior angles more or less nar- 
rowly rounded. 
Labrum having four rather large sub-equal teeth; elytra much longer 
than the pronotum. 
First joint of the posterior tarsi very slightly longer than the second. 

Orus. 

First joint of the posterior tarsi sub-equal in length to the next two 

together Caloderiiia. 

Labium with two pairs of minute approximate teeth; elytra no longer 

than the pronotum OllgoptcrUS. 

Labrum bidentate; elytra variable in leugth . Llthocharls. 

Labrum unidentate; elytra longer than the pronotum. Metaxyodonta. 
Labrum rounded; acutely emar-inate at tip; elytra as long as the 

pronotum Dacnochllus. 

Labrum entire; elytra shorter than the pronotum.. . Llparocephalus. 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 39 

IV. 
THYCE Lee. 

The following species was recently announced by me 
under the generic name Polyphylla (Bull. Cal. Acad. Sci., 
I, p. 285). The genus Thyce, although resembling Poly- 
phylla very greatly, differs radically in antennal structure, 
the club being trifoliate and the joints of tlie funicle of 
nearly equal length; while in Polyphylla the greatly devel- 
oped third joint is a very prominent distinctive feature, in 
addition to the more complex club. 

In T. marginata the anterior tibiae have two teeth exclu- 
sive of the exterior apical spur which is very pronounced; 
these teeth are very unequal, the one nearer the base being 
very short and obtuse. The males have a large and rather 
feeble impression in the middle of the abdomen near the 
base. I have not seen the female. 

T. marginata n. sp. — Form moderately robust; sides distinctly arcnate; 
prothorax piceous; elytra rufo-fnscous: the former having three posteriorly 
divergent lines of whitish sqnamose pubescence, the exterior ones widest and 
interrupted in the middle, the median very fine and almost obsolete toward 
base; each elytron having along the exterior edge a very wide line of plumbeo- 
cinereous and very slender squamose pubescence, not very densely placed, 
which is recurved at the apex continuing thence along the suture as a nar- 
row, whiter and much better defined line to the base; between these there is 
another very fine line terminating at one-fifth the length from the apex; pub- 
escence elsewhere fine and very sparse; legs and antennae fuscous; each ven- 
tral segment having au irregular spot of whitish squamiform pubescence at 
each side next the elytra. Head excluding the eyes slightly longer than 
wide, sub-quadrate; clypeus moderately reflexed, broadly and feeblj^ sinuate 
anteriorly; angles right and not at all rounded; pubescence long, rather 
sparse, mixed wuth squamose hairs near the base and sides; antennte well 
developed, funicle two-thirds as long as the club and nearly as long as the 
head, club viewed upon the broad side slightly' wider at apex than at base, 
three and one-half times as long as wide, Prothorax widest at the middle of 
its median length where it is four-fifths wider than long; sides thence 
strongly convergent and feebly arcuate to the apical angles, feebly convergent 
and straight to the basal angles which are obtuse and slightly rounded; base 
broadly angulate, feebly sinuate toward each basal angle; disk strongly con- 
vex, rather fiuely, moderately densely and irregularly punc'ate; punctures 
round, very shallow, variolate. Elytra at base slightly wider than the pro- 
thorax; sides parallel and feebly arcuate; together slightlj' less than one-half 



40 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

longer than wide, two and one-half times as long as the prothorax, very finely, 
sparsely, feeblj^aud irregularly punctate; punctures asperate. Pj^gidium wider 
than long, feebly convex, finely and rather sparsely punctate, moderately 
sparsely and evenly covered with short slender squamose pubescence. Poste- 
rior tar-i short, two-thirds as long as the tibias; claws moderate, having a small 
erect acute tooth interiorly near the base. Length 19 mm.; width 8.5 mm. 

California (San Diego Co.), also probably Lower Cali- 
fornia. 

Five or six sj)ecimens were taken by Mr. G. W. Dunn, 
and I have received tlie present specimen through the kind- 
ness of Mr. W. G. W. Harford. 

This species differs from sc/uamicolUs, Lee. in almost every 
character given by Dr. LeConte in the original description 
of the latter (Journ. Phil. Acad. HI, Nov. 1856, p. 225). 
It may, however, perhaps be best to call special attention 
to the more salient differences. These are the size, squami- 
collis being one-third longer, and the form and vestiture of 
the head and prothorax, the latter in marginafa, having no 
sign of a median channel, with the surface not impressed 
toward the anterior angles, and having the punctuation ex- 
tremely sparse near tlie sides of the pronotal disk. The 
scutellum in marginata has no glabrous line, and the pygi- 
dium is rather sparsely squamose. If .^qaainicollis possessed 
three prominent lines of scales upon the pronotum. with the 
surface elsewhere almost entirely free from them, or if it 
had three distinct lines of slightly denser pubescence upon 
each elytron, it is to be presumed that such striking charac- 
ters would have been mentioned by Dr. LeConte; this 
purely negatives evidence alone, therefore, is almost conclu- 
sive proof of the specific distinctness of iuarginata and of 

its validit3\ 

V. 

EERATA. 

Several errors occurring in thj paper published by me in the preceding vol- 
ume of this Bulletin require correction, as follows: 

Page 'iOD — jth line from bottom, for "Colodera" rad "Calodera." 
Page 3:1 - 1st line of descr., for '"L. longipennis" re id "V. longipennis." 
Page 327 — 10th and 15tli lines from top, for " Horniariim" rend " Honii- 
anum." 



CHICORIACEOUS COMPOSITE. 41 



STUDIES IN THE BOTANY OF CALIFORNIA AND PARTS 

ADJACENT. 

BY EDWARD LEE GREENE. 



IV. 

i. On Some Chicoriaceous Compositce. 

The type of the genus Mlcroseris, Don, is a South Ameri- 
can plant, and we have no North American species which 
agree with it in both habit and pappus. It has ten awn- 
tipped pale^e; the Oalifornian species which seem truly con- 
generic with it. have live only. These species of the northern 
hemisphere are about seven or eight in number, and agree 
in aspect perfectly with their type. The}- are acaulescent 
annuals, with rosulate-depressed leaves, slender scapes, 
which are always decumbent at base, never at all thickened 
above, supporting heads which are uniformly nodding, both 
before and after flowering, becoming for the second time 
erect at the maturity of the fruit. 

The name Calais^ DC. appears to be but in j^art s^^nony- 
mous with Mlcroseris. DeCandolle himself thought it might 
eventually be shown that he had included under Calais the 
types of two genera; and I am persuaded fully that his 
§ Calocalais is a real genus, distinct from Mlcroseris. The 
species are few. Their palese are five, but the awn rises 
from an apical notch. These plants are never really acau- 
lescent. Their leaves are ascending, or erect, on the short 
or long stems. The peduncles are stout, strictly erect, 
thicker above, and the heads are firmly erect at all stages of 
growth. Of this peculiar aspect and character there are 
about five species, four of which have already their suitable 
names under Calais. 

4— Bull. Cal. Acad. Sci. II. .5. Issued March 6, 1886, 



42 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

Scorzonella, was thirty years ago reduced by Dr. Gray 
to Calais. Bentham and Hooker, in the Genera Plantarum, 
while reducing the whole of DeCandolle's Calais to Micro- 
seris, in recognition of the priority of the latter name, nev- 
ertheless perceived the validity of Scorzonella as a genus, 
and restored it; but in the Synoptical Flora, as well as an- 
tecedently, in volume nine of the proceedings of the Ameri- 
can Academy, it reappears as a mere section of Microseris. 
Having studied these plants diligently on their native soil 
during some six or seven years, I can but agree with the 
able and experienced founder of the genus, and with the 
learned authors of the Genera Plantarum, that Scorzonella 
should stand. Here the pappus-bristles are somewhat in- 
definite in number, and are mostly real bristles with palea- 
ceous-dilated base, rather than awn-tipped pale^e. The 
plants, while caulescent like Calais, have nodding heads like 
Microseris, quite distinctive involucres, fusiform perennial 
roots, and are gestival in flowering; whereas the two kindred 
genera of annuals have but a very short and strictly vernal 
season of flowering and fruiting. April is their month, and 
it is usually in vain to look for them after the beginning of 
May. 

There are some three species of this particular alliance, 
upon which the eminent author aforenamed in the Plantae 
FendlerianaB established a genus Ptilophora, concerning 
which I judge all to have been well, save that the name was 
already in use for a genus of sea-weeds. These jDlants, 
while wholly in keeping with Scorzonella, as regards their 
general aspect, and perennial root, have a pappus of quite 
different character. The only distinction which has hitherto 
been definitely stated is that the numerous bristles are white 
and soft-plumose. This is doubtless the most obvious, in- 
deed it may be the only difference noticeable at first sight, 
in the very best of herbarium specimens, unless it be this, 
that the texture of the pappus is not only soft, but very 
fragile, which is not true of that of any Sco7'zonella. Now, 



CHICORIACEOUS COMPOSURE. 43 

the field observer, coming in sight of one of these plants in 
ripe fruit, perceives that these pappus-plumes are not 
straight and ascending as in all other genera of this group, 
but that they are regularly and gracefully recurved. This 
naturally and perfectly developed fruit, just ready to be set 
afloat in mid air on the jarring or shaking of the parent re- 
ceptacle, will never be found in herbarium specimens. The 
nearly ripe heads which partially unfold their pappus after 
drying, show every character but this important one. It 
seems to me never to have been spoken of in relation to the 
large and somewhat varied genus, Stephanomeria, where it is 
universal, and will serve to distinguish between that and its 
nearest ally, Rafinesquia, in which, if my memory serves 
faithfully, the pappus is straight. Dr. Kellogg must have 
observed this neat characteristic of the genus in tj^uestion, 
when he collected the common species in 1870; and it may 
well have been this which led him to refer to the plant, with 
a doubt, to Stephanomeria. The quick eye of our venerable 
pioneer caught at once the new fact, and he unconsciously 
recorded it in his misnomer. The last peculiar mark of the 
genus was detected by myself, lately, upon examining the 
excellent herbarium specimens with which we are now sup- 
plied. There are clear traces of a double pappus. I find 
on about one half of the akenes a solitary, firm, merely 
scabrous bristle, exterior to the plumose-awned palese, and 
of less than half their length, a kind of character which 
comes out strongly in another Chicoriaceous genus of Cali- 
fornia, namely, Malacothrix, between which and Scorzonella 
this very clear one ought to be placed. Dr. Gray, a few 
years subsequently to his founding of FtilopJiora, having 
discovered that name to be a synonym, and also having evi- 
dently lost somewhat of his faith in the validity of the 
genus, reduced it to Calais; yet with express misgiving, and 
not without bespeaking for it another generic name in case 
it should ultimately demand restoration to that rank. Under 
that very appropriate name, Ftilocalais, I propose its rein- 
statement. 



44 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

There is a perennial, acaulescent plant of northern habitat 
which, although ndmitted by Dr. Gray into his superlatively 
h^mplified Microseris, is, in my opinion, to be excluded from 
8co7^zoneUa, to which it is more related than to any other 
recognized genus. The palene of its pappus are soft and 
slender, ending in a sharp, but hardly awn-like point: its 
involucre has a peculiarity, and the heads are never nodding. 
The specific name, troximoides, was given on account of the 
close resemblance which the species bears to Troximon cus- 
pidatum. But this last-named plant appears to be entirely 
out of place in Troximon; for its pappus is composed, partly 
of capillary bristles, and partly of very narrow palese. My 
conclusion is, that these two plants will constitute the most 
perfectly natural genus in the whole group, and I so place 
them, adopting the name which Dr. Gray coined for sec- 
tional use under his Microseris. 

The form of the akenes in these genera, whether turbinate 
or cylindrical with truncate apex, or whether more or less 
attenuate upwards, would seem to be of specific but not 
generic importance. The basal callosity, although not very 
seriously taken under consideration by Dr. Gray, appears to 
have merited more deliberate attention; for, in Microseris, 
as here defined, it manifests a character which runs through 
all the species, without reappearing in any of the other gen- 
era, except that there is a mere hint of it in Calais. 

The aestivation of the pappus is of one character in all the 
genera. Whether the pale^e be five, or twice or thrice or 
four times that number, one^is always wholly exterior, and 
an opposite one interior, while all the others are regularly 
convolute. In 3Ecrosersis alone the species fall into two 
quite natural groups by a difference in the expansion of the 
individual palea?. 

MICROSERSIS, Don. 

Involucre oblong-cylindraceous to hemispherical, inner 
bracts in one or two series, equal, acuminate, tliin, with 



CHICORIACEOUS COMPOSIT.E. 45 

membranous margins; outer very short, calyculate. Re- 
ceptacle flat, slightly alveolate. Akenes terete, 8 — 10-costate, 
with a broad basal callosity, which is hollowed at the inser- 
tion and produced upward into a sharp, denticulate-scabrous, 
collar-like rim. Palese of the pappus 4-10 (usually 5), 
mostly short, tapering into a long or short scabrous awn, in 
one species nearly obsolete, the awn thicker but hardly flat- 
tened at base. Acaulescent, glabrous annuals, with entire 
or laciniately lobed on pinnatified leaves, and nodding heads 
on slender scapes, which are somewhat decumbent at base 
and not thickened above. Outer row of akenes commonly 
silky-villous; the others usually scabrous on the ribs. Palea3 
of the pappus often villous exteriorily . Genus of very limited 
range east and west; not found east of the western base of 
the Sierra Nevada, but occurring near the coast, from the 
peninsula of Lower California to Oregon. — Microsersis, Don. 
Phil. Mag. xi. 388; Benth. & Hook, ii, 506, magna pro 
parte : Microseris § § Eamicroseris (excl. M. Forsteri) & Eu- 
calaiSj Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. ix. 208; § Eucalcds, Bot. Cal. 
i. 425, and § Calais (excl. sp.), Syn. Fl. ii. 418. Calais § 
Eucalais, DC. Prod. vii. 85; Calais ^ ^ Eacalais and Apliaa- 
ocalais, Gray, Pac. B. Rep. iv. 112. 

^FaleceS, hoat-sha.jyed i. e., a, little incurved and the margins 

involute. 

M. PLATYCARPHA, Gray. — A span or more in height; head 
a half inch or less in length; main bracts of involucre about 
8, oblong; akenes turbinate, 2 lines long; palene ovate, 2 
lines long, tapering abruptly into a very short awn. Syn. 
Fl. ii, 420. 

San Diego County, and on the northern part of the pen- 
insula below. 

M. DouGLASii, Gray, 1. c. — A span to two feet high; head 
about f inch long; bracts linear-oblong; akenes oblong-tur- 
binate, contracted under the summit, 3 lines long; palese 



46 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

ovate, 2 lines long, tapering abruptly into an awn of the 
length of the akene. 

Monterey to Humboldt County. Common and extremely 
variable as to the villosity of the pale^e and outer row of 
akenes. 

M. Paeishii. — Rather smaller and more slender than the 
last; akenes slender, strictly columnar, 2 lines long or more, 
dark brown; palese lanceolate, 3 lines long, very gradually 
tapering to an awn of a line or a line and a half. 

Near San Luis Eey, April, 1881, S. B. Parish; near Tu- 
lare, 1882, Dr. C. C. Parry; also collected by the writer near 
San Diego, 1885. 

A very distinct species, evidently belonging to the south- 
ern part of the State. 

M. ATTENUATA, Greene. — A few inches to a foot and a 
half high; involucre J — f inch long; akenes 4 lines long, at- 
tenuate-fusiform, the narrowed upper half vacant; palese 
oblong-lanceolate, a line and a half long, tipped wdth an 
awn of twice that length. Bull. Torr. Club, ix, 111; Gray, 
1. c, 419. 

Near Berkeley, and eastward to the valle3'S of the Sacra- 
mento and San Joaquin. 

^"^Palece straight and flat, 5, except in the last species. 

M. ACUMINATA, Greene. — Size and aspect of the last, the 
heads an inch long; akenes slenderly fusiform-turbinate, 3 
lines long; palese 4 — 5 lines long, lanceolate, very gradually 
tapering to an awn of 2 — 3 lines. Bull. Torr. Club, x, 88; 
Gray, 1. c. 

Same range as the last species, and rather more common. 

M. BiGELOVii, Gray, 1. c. — A foot in height, more or less: 
head about a half inch: akenes oblong-turbinate, hardly 
2 lines long: pale^e oblong- to ovate-lanceolate, much smaller 



CHICORIACEOUS COMPOSITE. 47 

tlian in tlie preceding species, but variable in length : pass- 
ing into an awn twice or tliriceas long. 

Common in the middle coast section of the State: the 
awn very long in proportion to the palea. 

M. ELEGANS, Greene. — A span or more high, slender: 
head less than a half inch : akenes turbinate, little more than 
a line long : paleee ovate-deltoid, a half line long, the slender 
awn about 2 lines. — Gray, 1. c. 

From the mesas back of San Diego to the plains east of 
Mt. Diablo. Seldom collected, but perhaps not very rare. 

M. APHANTOCARPHA, Gray, 1. c. — Twelve to eighteen inches 
high, and rather stout : leaves laciniate-toothed or nearly en- 
tire, seldom deeply pinnatifid: heads a half inch high, many- 
flowered, and subglobose: akenes oblong-clavate, hardly 
2 lines long: palete minute and very broad or nearly obso- 
lete, the bristles very slender and fragile, about 3 lines 
long. 

Common in the region of San Francisco Bay, and ex- 
tremely variable as to the pappus, which consists often of 
bristles with thickened, rather than paleaceous base. It is 
possible that we have here two or three species, but more 
probably they are mere forms, passing imperce^^tibly into 
each other. The leaves are less dissected in this than in 
any of the others. 

M. PYGM.EA, Don. — About a span high: akenes 1 — 2 lines 
long, slenderly turbinate: paleee 10, lanceolate, a line or 
more long, slightly notched at the apex, and tipped with a 
somewhat barbellate awn of about 2 lines. — Phil. Mag. xi. 
388; Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. ix. 209. 

Native of Chili. The North American species which 
looks most like this type of the genus is M. Bigelovii. The 
principal difference between them is in the number of the 
paleoe and the slight notch at the apex of those of M. ijyg- 
moea, Avhich species in that respect only betrays an affinity 
with the following genus. 



48 CALIFORNIA ACADEiVIY OF SCIENCES. 

CALAIS, DC. sens, restr- 

Involucre conical, scarcely calyculate, bracts imbricate, 
the outer successively shorter, all thin and scarious-mar- 
gined. Receptacle flat, centrally more or less alveolate- 
chaffy. Akenes terete, 8 — 10 costate, the basal callosity not 
enlarged. Pale^e of the pappus 5, elongated, flat, bifid at 
apex and short-awned. — Subaculescent annuals, all West 
North American, with laciniately-lobed or pinnatifid leaves, 
and erect heads, on strict, erect peduncles which are fistu- 
lous-thickened above. Akenes all alike, glabrous, with scab- 
rous cost 83. Palese of the pappus glabrous and more or 
less denticulate. Genus of few species but of wider range 
than the last, the typical species occurring eastward to the 
borders of Colorado and Texas, and on the Pacific shores, 
from British Columbia to the island of Guadalupe . Calais 
§ Galocalais DC. Prod. vii. 85; Torr. & Gray, Fl. N. Am. ii. 
471; Gray, Pac. R. Rep. iv. 112. Species of Ificroseris, 
Gray, Proc. Am. Acad, ix, Bot. Cal. i. and Syn. Fl. ii. 

^Palce bright, ivhite, soft, deciduous from the nearly black akenes. 

C. LINEARIFOLIA, DC, Prod. 1. c.— Species of the widest 
range, and of much variability as regards the height of the 
stem and the number of flowers in each head. Sometimes 
nearly acaulescent, and with very large heads; but around 
San Diego the stem is slender and often more than a foot 
high, the heads being few-flowered; but the bright pappus, 
promptly deciduous from the mature, almost rostrate-atten- 
uate, black akenes readily distingaishes the species in all 
its forms, whether on Guadalupe or in New Mexico, Wash- 
ington Territory, or California. 

"^"^Palece brownish, of firm texture, persistent on the light 
colored akenes. 

-\-~ Awn of pappus shorter than the palea. 

0. LiNDLEYi, DC. — Glabrous, a foot or two high: akenes 
5 — 6 lines long, slightly attenuate toward the summit; palea 



CHICORIACEOUS COMPOSIT^E. 49 

linear-lanceolate, 4 lines long, the awn very little shorter. — 
Prod. 1. c. ; Microseris, Gray, 1. c. 

From San Francisco to San Diego; equally as common as 
the first species. 

0. Parryi, G-ray. Furfuraceoas-puberulent, 6 — 8 inches 
high: akenes 3 lines long, and not at all attenuate; palea 
softer than in the last, its awn less than half as long. — Pac. 
R. Rep. iv. 112; Microseris, Gray, 1. c. 

Common from the plains back of Mt. Diablo to San 
Diego: easily mistaken for small C. LincUeyi, but, on closer 
inspection, appearing clearly distinct. The fruit is here for 
the first time described. The species does not appear to 
have been collected save by Dr. Parry, in a very immature 
condition, and by the present writer; but it is no rarity in 
the field. 

H~ -5- Aiun of the pappus longer than the palea. 

0. MACROCH^rA, Gray. — Like 0. Lindleyi in size and as- 
pect, but akenes shorter and more attenuate at summit; 
palea short, only a third as long as the awn, and cleft to the 
middle.— PI. Fenld, 112; Pac. R. Rep., 1. c. 

From Oregon to San Diego, but very rarely collected. 

C. Kelloggii. — Also resembling G. Lindleyl: akenes 3 — 4 
lines long, attenuate at each end: palea a third the length 
of the awn, and with a shallow notch. 

San Bruno Mountains, near San Francisco, Dr. Kellogg. 

SCORZONELLA, Nutt. 

Involucre campanulate; bracts herbaceous, imbricated in 
in several series, the inner long-acuminate, the outer suc- 
cessively shorter and acute. Receptacle flat or convex, fov- 
eolate or alveolate. Akenes linear, or somewhat turbinate, 
8 — 10-costate or -striate, truncate at summit, the basal cal- 
losity acute and not expanded, areola lateral. Pappus of 
about 10 (in one species 5) ovate or lanceolate paleoe, tipped 



'50 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

with a generally mucli longer, straight, scabrous or barbel- 
late bristle or awn. Glabrous perennials with fusiform 
roots, stems mostly leafy at base with laciniate foliage, and 
long-pecluncled heads which are nodding in the bud. In- 
habiting wet grassy grounds, chieliy in the mountain dis- 
tricts from middle California to British Columbia, with one 
species in the high mountains of Australia and New Zealand. 
Flowering in summer. — Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. vii. 426; 
Torr. & Gray FL ii. 470; Benth. & Hook. Gen. PI. ii. 533. 
Calais g § Scorzonella & Anacalais, Gray, Pac. R. Rep. iv. 
113. Microseris § Scorzonella, Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. ix. 208 
and XX. 300, Bot. Cal. i. 424, and 8yn. Fl, ii. 417 (excl. M. 
Parryi. 

"^Caulescent. — North American species. 

S. MEGACEPHALA. — Glaucous, Robust, 2 — 3 feet high : 
leaves oblong, acuminate, entire above the middle, laciniate- 
toothed toward the clasping base, 6 — 8 inches long : pedun- 
cles stout, a foot long: heads hemispherical more than an 
inch high, 2 inches broad, 200 — 225-flowered: bracts of the 
involucre 40 or more, imbricated in 4 — 5 series, exterior 
round-ovate, innermost ovate-lanceolate, all (the outer very 
abruptly) long-acuminate: akenes 2 lines long, somewhat 
turbinate: pappus brownish and firm, of 5 ovate-lanceolate 
palese a line long, tapering to an awn of 3 — 4 lines. 

Eel River, Mendocino County, 1866, H. N. Bolander, 
being a part of his number 4737. A single specimen only, 
differing from the next species, not in habit or general ap- 
pearance, but remarkably distinct from it in the characters 
of the involucre, akene and pappus. 

S. PBOCERA. — Leaves more laciniate: not acuminate : heads 
narrower, 100 — 150-flowered: bracts of involucre 25 or 
more, in 2 — 3 series, the exterior ovate, innermost ovate- 
lanceolate, all acuminate : akenes nearly columnar, 3 lines 
long: pappus brownish, the paleae 10 (as in all the follow- 
ing) lanceolate, passing into a thrice longer, barbellate 



CHICORIACEOUS COMPOSITE. 51 

awn. — Microseris laciniata var. procera, Gray, Proc. Am. 
Acad. ix. 209 Bot. Cal. i. 424; 31icroseris jprocera, Syn. Fl. 
ii. 417. 

From Sonoma county to the borders of Oregon. 

S. PEATENSis. — Leafy at base only, the scapose peduncles 
2 feet high: leaves linear, lanceolate, long-cuminate, entire, 
a foot long: heads an inch high and nearly as broad; bracts 
16 — 20 in 3 series, ovate — to lanceolate — acuminate: akenes 
2 lines long; pappus white, 4 lines, the triangular-ovate 
palea J line. 

Sunny and rather moist meadow lands at Yreka, in the 
northern part of the State, collected by the writer June 21, 
1876, and distributed by him under number 883 as Microseris 
laciniata var. lorocera. It is readily distinguishable from 
the preceding and the following by its long, scapose pe- 
duncles, and narrow, entire, long, slender-pointed foliage. 

S. LACINIATA, Nutt. — Stem less robust and more branch- 
ing and leafy than in the last : leaves pinnately parted, the 
segments narrowly linear, an inch or more long: heads a 
half inch high; bracts 16 — 20, from round-ovate to lanceo- 
late, all abruptly acuminate: akene 2 lines long: pappus 
white, about 3 lines, the ovate-lanceolate palea less than a 
line.— Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. P vii, 426: Torr. & Gray, Fl. 
ii. 470. Microseris, Gra^^, 1. c. 

Northern borders of California to the confines of British 
Columbia. 

S. LEPT03EPALA, Nutt., 1. c. — Bracts of involucre in 2 dis- 
tinct series, the ovate outer ones 5 or 6 only, and hardly 
more than calyculate to the numerous, lanceolate inner ones, 
akenes, white jDappus, etc., in all their parts more elongated 
than in the last species; foliage less divided, often merely 
toothed. Torr. and Gray, 1. c. ; Microseris, Gray, 1. c. 

Same range as S. laciniata, from wdiich it differs very ob- 
viouslv in the character of the involucre. 



52 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

S. BoLANDEKi. — A foot or more high; leaves linear-lanceo- 
late, entire or with a few linear lobes; bracts of involucre 
regularly imbricated in two or three series, all gradually at- 
tenuate from a broad base; pappus brownish, 5 lines long, 
the ovate palea not more than a half line. Microseris, Gray, 
Syn. Fl. ii. 418. 

Mendocino and Humboldt counties, and northward. 

S. HowELLii. — Size of the last; leaves with refracted 
lobes or teeth; heads narrower. 15-20-flowered; akene 3 
lines long; pappus white, a half inch, the palea lanceolate 
and nearly as long as the awn. Microseris, Gray, Proc. Am. 
Acad., XX, 300; Syn. Fl. Sup pi., 454. 

Southern Oregon, collected only by Mr. Howell. 

S. PALUDOSA. — Stems numerous, slender, 2 — 3 feet high; 
leaves a foot long and from subentire to laciniate-parted, 
the segments long and narrow; head an inch high, 50 — 75- 
flowered; bracts 20 — 25, all tapering from a lanceolate base 
into a long and slender acumination, the outer successively 
shorter; akene 2 lines long; pappus brownish, the firm lan- 
ceolate palea of a line or more passing gradually into a bar- 
bellate awn of 4 or 5 lines. llicroseris sylvatica, var. Still- 
mani, Gray, Bot. Cal., I.e. and Syn. Fl. 1. c. 

Marshy grounds in the vicinity of Mt. Tamalpais, and in 
other localities not far from San Francisco Bay. Here de- 
scribed from excellent specimens obtained by Mrs. Curran 
at Corde Madera, Marin Co. Most distinct from the fol- 
lowing. 

S. SYLVATICA, Benth. — A foot or two high, mostly simple 
and monocephalous : head an inch high, 30 — 40-flowered: 
bracts broader than in the preceding and more abruptly 
acuminate: akene 3.^ lines long, columnar, the base a little 
attenuate: pappus sordid, the lanceolate paleae 5 lines, 
tapering to a subplumose awn of 3 lines or less. — PI. Hartw. 
320. Calais, Gray, Pac. B. Eejj. iv. 112. Microseris, Gray, 
1. c. excl. var. Stillmani. 



CHICORIACEOUS COMPOSITE. 53 

From Contra Costa to Colusa Counties, on wooded hills. 
Leaves commonly laciniate-pinnatifid as in most species. 

S. MONTANA. — Kesembling the preceding, but stouter, the 
foliage less deeply laciniate: akene linear-columnar, not nar- 
rowed below, 5 lines long: pappus light brown: paleae linear- 
lanceolate, truncate or slightly notchod at the apex, only 3 
lines long, its short-plumose awn a little longer. 

Mountains of Kern County above Tehachaj)i Pass, June, 
1884, Mrs. Curran. 

A coarser plant than S. sylvatica, with very different fruit. 
The awn though really plumose, does not bring this species 
into troublesome proximity to Ptilocalais, for it is short, 
straight, and of firm texture. 

^^Acaulescent. — South Pacific species. 

B. SCAPIGERA. — Scorzonera scapigera, Forst. Prod. 91; 
Scorzonera Lcaorencii, Hook. f. Lond. Journ. vi. 124; Phyl- 
lopappus lanceolatus, Walp. in Linntea, xiv. 507; Microseris 
Fosteri, Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. and Fl. Tastn. i. 226; 
Benth. Fl. Aust. iii. 676; Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. ix. 209. 

High mountains of Australia and New Zealand. Outer 
bracts of involucre somewhat calyculate, as in our S. leptose- 
pala. More strictly scapose than any of our species, and a 
smaller plant; commonly less than a foot high. 

PTILOCALAIS, (Gray, Pac. E. Kep. iv. 113). 

Perennial root, foliage, involucre, receptacle, etc., as in 
Scorzonella. Pappus bright white, soft and fragile, double, 
namely, of a single short, external bristle, and 15 — 20 short, 
truncate or emarginate paleas, terminating in a long, grace- 
fully recurving, soft-plumose capillary bristle or awn. — Ftilo- 
phora, Gray, PL Fendl. 112. Calais § Ptilophora, Gray, Pac. 
R. Rep.l. c; Microseris § Ptilophora, Gray, Proc. Am. Acad, 
ix. 208, Bot. Cal. ii. 423, Syn. Fl. ii. 416.— Genus with the 
habit of Scorzonella, but pappus resembling that of Stephano- 



54 CALIFOENIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

meria, supplemented by the single exterior bristle of Mala- 
cothrix. Geographical range somewhat limited north and 
south, but extending from central California to Utah. 

P. NUTANS. — ScorzoiieUa, Geyer in Hook. Lond. Journ. vi. 
523; Ptilophora, Gray, PI. Fendl. 112; Calak, Gray, Pac. R. 
Kep. iv. 112; Stephanomeria intermedia, Kellogg, Proc. Cal. 
Acad. V. 39; Microseris nutans, Gray, 1. c. excl. var. major, 

British Columbia and Montana to the high Sierras of 
northern and middle California. 

P. MAJOR. — Ptilophora, Gray, PL Fendl. 1. c; Calais^ 
Gray, Pac. E. Rep. 1. c; Microseris major. Gray, 1. c. excl. 
var. laciniata. Utah and Idaho. 

P. GRACILILOBA. — Calais graciloha, Kellogg, Proc. Cal. 
Acad. 1. c; Microseris major, var. laciniata. Gray, l..c. 

Still known only from Mendocino County, California; the 
specimens too young, yet by their pubescence and other 
characteristics, clearly enough representing a distinct spe- 
cies. 

NOTHOCALAIS. 

Involucre oblong-campanulate; bracts in two series, nar- 
rowly lanceolate, membranaceous, with thinner, somewhat 
hyaline margins, nearly equal, none calyculate. Recepta- 
cle fiat, alveolate. Akenes fusiform, contracted or rostrate- 
attenuate at summit, 10-striate-ribbed. Pappus very white and 
soft, of 10 — 30, scabrous-margined, narrow, unequal palese, 
with or without some capillary bristles. — Microseris § Notho- 
Calais, Gray, S\ n. PL ii. 420, with Troximon cuspidatum, 
Pursh, added. Perennials with linear-attenuate, undulate 
or crisped radical leaves marked by white-tomentulose mar- 
gins, and monocephalous, scapose peduncles. Habitat from 
Northern California to British Columbia and eastward to the 
Great Lakes, on dry, open rocky places. 

N. SuKSDORFii. — Akene slender, 5 lines long, rostrate-at- 



CHICORIACEOUS COMPOSITE. 55' 

tenuate, only half occupied by the seed : palete 10 — 12, very 
narrow and nearly equal, strictly linear-attenuate, a half 
inch long : involucre villous-tomentose or glabrate : scapose 
peduncles exceeding the radical leaves. 

Western part of Klickitat County, Washington Territory, 
April and May, 1882, W. N. Suksdorf. 

N. TROXIMOIDES. — Akene fusiform, scarcely 4 lines long, 
merely contracted summit, nearly filled by the seed: paleae 
20 — 25, lanceolate below, very unequal, a half inch long: 
involucre and peduncles as in the last. — Microseris troxhuoides, 
Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. ix. 211; Bot. Gal. 1. c: Syn.Fl. 1. c. 

Northern California to Oregon and Idaho. 

N. CUSPID ATA. — Akene little contracted, 3 lines long, 
filled by the seed : pappus of 40 — 50 unequal, very narrow, 
setose paleae and scabrous bristles: leaves all radical, longer 
than the flowering scapes: involucre glabrous. — Troximon 
Pursh, Fl. ii. 742; Torr. k Gray, Fl. ii. 489; Gray, Syn. Fl. 
ii. 437: T. marginatum, Nutt. Gen. ii. 127. 

On bleak, stony hills and fertile prairies, from Dakota 
and Colorado to Wisconsin and Illinois. Scarcely distin- 
guishable from its far Western congeners except by the 
pappus. The undulate-crisped, white-hairy margins of the 
grassy leaves of this giving it an aspect so strikingly unlike 
the general appearance of the other species of his genus 
Troximon, were points not overlooked by that well traveled 
and most keenly observant botanist, Mr. Nuttall. That he 
noticed the peculiarity and was impressed by it is evinced 
by his effort to invest the species with a new specific name, 
marginatum, more appropriate than Pursh' s cuspidatmn, 
which was given to it in reference to the acuminate rather 
than cuspidate bracts, and has, therefore, no fitness, but 
which must needs be retained in deference to its priority. 
The name marginatum would, indeed, be equally and in the 
same way, applicable to each of the three known species of 
Nothocalais, 



56 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

2. Some, species 0/ Euphorbia, g Anisophyllum. 

E. Parishii. — Suffrntescent, prostrate, glabrous and 
glaucescent: leaves thick, round-ovate, entire, veinless, 1 — 2 
lines long: stipules setaceous, entire or cleft, obscurely 
barbellate above: glands minute, sliort-stipitate, cupulate, 
marginless, dark red: seed linear-oblong, | line long, quad- 
rangular, faintly rugose. 

Warm Springs on the Mohave Desert, May, 1882, S. B. 
Parish, No. 1384. 

This plant wears the aspect of E. polycarpa, but has the 
peculiar flowers of that very dissimilar species, E. ocellata, 
which is annual, with much larger, veiny leaves, and round- 
oval seeds. 

E. Neo-Mexicana. — Glabrous, light green or glaucescent; 
a span high, erect-spreading, the few ascending branches 
acutely angled: leaves linear-oblong, veinless, with a few 
serrate teeth toward the truncate or retuse apex, the sides 
entire and revolute: stipules setaceous, mostly bifid, ascend- 
ing or erect: glands minute, green, with a narrow, white or 
greenish appendage: seed light gray, indistinctly rugose, 
acutely 4-angled, thrice as long as broad, the upper half 
gradually tapering. — E. huBqailatera, Eagelm. Mex. Bound, 
as to the plant of New Mexico. E. serpijlU folia, var. consan- 
giiiuea, Boiss. DO. Prod, xv" 43, with the same limitation. 

The above character is drawn from specimens of my own 
collecting, on the plains of the upper Gila in western New 
Mexico. The sub-erect habit, somewhat wing-angled stem 
and tew branches, must separate this New Mexican plant 
from the wholly prostrate, terete-stemmed E. serpyllifolia. 
The specimens from California, wliicJi the authors referred 
to have classed with this, must belong to the following. 
Nothing like E. Neo-Mexicana has appeared from any local- 
ity west of the Gila Plains. 

E. SANGUINEA, Hochst. & Steud. — Glabrous, deep green, 



EUPHORBIA § ANISOPHYLLUM. 57 

becoming red with age, not glaucescent : a span to a foot 
high; erect and simple base of stem an inch or two high, 
parting abruptly into numerous almost horizontally spread- 
branches: leaves obovate- to spatulate-oblong, with 3 — 4 
pairs of pinnate veins, the margin serrulate above the mid- 
dle: stipules setaceous, entire or somewhat lacerate, spread- 
ing or deflexed : glands minute, dark red with narrow rose- 
colored appendages: seed dark gray, faintly rugose-pitted, 
scarcely twice as long as broad. — Boiss. 1. c. 35: E. serpylli- 
folia in part, of Watson, Bot. Cal. ii. 74: E. inoequilatera, 
Engelm. Mex. Bound. 1. c. as to the Calif ornian plant, 
doubtless. 

Described here from specimens collected by the writer, in 
Napa county, Cal., October, 1882. E. serpyUifolia, besides 
being wholly prostrate has veinless leaves, and is very brittle, 
by the absence of fibrous tissue; but the stem and branches 
of this plant are almost as tough as those of flax. It has 
the erect-spreading habit, but not the foliage nor the sharply 
angular branches of E. Neo-Mexicana, which latter is also 
brittle like E. serpyllifolia. Our Calif ornian plant matches 
well African specimens of E. sangii'mea. 

E. RUSBYi. — Annual, pubescent, a span to a foot high, 
branches ascending: leaves oval, nearly sessile, very ob- 
lique, the major side cordate, serrate, and with a single 
veinlet su^Dplementary to the mid -vein : stipules parted to the 
very base into a pair of slender, erect, ciliate sette: glands 
small, orbicular, cup-shaped, with a reniform, entire, rose 
colored appendage: seed quadrangular, rugose-pitted, red- 
dish. 

Northern part of Arizona, 1883, Dr. H. H. Kusby. 

E. VELUTIXA. — Velvety canescent: branches and branch- 
lets numerous, prostrate, forming a close mat: leaves 
crowded and almost sessile, veinless, the lower orbicular and 
coarsely toothed, the floral obovate-oblong and mostly en- 

5— Bull. Cal. Acad. Sci. II. 5. Issued March 6. 1886 



58 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

tire: stipules short, setaceous, entire, deciduous: glands 
transversely oblong, dark red-purple, with a deep, flabelli- 
form, crenate, white or pinkish appendage : seed light gray, 
rather sharply angled and faintly rugose. 

Probably Lower California, but the specimen has no 
ticket. 

3. New Polypetake. 

Ranunculus Bolanderi. — Stem stout, erect, U — 3 feet 
high, from a flesh} -fibrous, perennial root: glabrous below, 
the peduncles and calyx pubescent: leaves lanceolate, the 
radical on very long petioles, the cauline sheathing, margin 
obscurely repand-denticulate : petals bright yellow, broadly 
obovate, thrice the length of the sepals; akenes numerous, 
in a globose head; beak slender, acute, somewhat incurved. 

Long Yalley, Mendocino County, May, 1886, H. N. Bo- 
lander, No. 4730. 

This large and showy species has the general appearance 
of R. Lingua of Northern Europe; but that has its akene 
tipped by a stout, blunt style. The transversely elongated, 
inflexed callosities which are distributed along the margin 
of the leaf, together with the great size of the plant, dis- 
tinguish this Coast Eange species from its allies of the Sierra 
Nevada, B. Lemmoni and B. alismcefolius. 

Ranunculus Ludovicianus. — Pilose-pubescent, a foot or 
two high : branches ascending or depressed, stout and fistular : 
leaves ternately parted, the segments broad and with some 
conspicuously callous-pointed lobes or teeth: calj^x reflexed, 
petals 10 — 15, a half inch long: akenes in a globose head, 
cuneate-obovate, a line and a half long, thickened upwards, 
marginless, tijDped with a short, slender, recurved style. 

High valleys among the mountains of San Luis Obispo 
County, California, and eastward to Tehachapi Pass. Col- 
lected by Mrs. Curran, in 1884. A large-flowered showy 
species, covering the ground in many places with its de- 
pressed flowering stems and branches. 



NEW POLYPETAL^. 59 

Meconella denticulata. — Three to ten inches high: radi- 
cal leaves entire, the laminal portion rhombic-ovate, acutish : 
cauline spatulate to linear, obtuse, sharply denticulate: 
petals narrowly oblong, 2 lines long: stamens 6 — 9. 

Temecula Canon, north of San Luis Rey, in San Diego 
County, Cal., March 27, 1885, by the writer. 

The genus Meconella, with its few stamens, filiform fila- 
ments, narrow stigmas and slender, spirally-twisted capsules, 
together with its peculiar habit, seems more unlike Platy- 
stigma a good deal than that genus is unlike Platystemon. 
Hence the action of Messrs. Bentham and Hooker in reduc- 
ing it to Platy stigma, appears to have been rather arbitrary. 
This new species has the small flowers of the original 31. 
Oregana, Nutt., but the leaves of the stem are denticulate. 

Aegemone cokymbosa. — Annual or biennial, a foot or two 
high, robust, simple below^ corymbosely branched above, 
armed throughout with rigid, straight, spreading spines: 
leaves rather crowded, 1 — 3 inches long, oval, entire or with 
shallow, rounded lobes, closely sessile by a broad, some- 
what clasping base: flowers white, small, numerous, in an 
ample corymbose, terminal cyme: capsule oblong-ovate, 
acuminate, barely an inch long, spinose, 4-valved. 

Mohave Desert, June, 1884, Mrs. Curran. 

A peculiar species, very leafy, none of the leaves pinnat- 
ifid, the uppermost quite entire. The many, small, corym- 
bose flowers mark it at sight as a very distinct, not to speak 
of the uniformly quadrivalvular, taper-pointed capsules. 

Dkaba Sonoe^. — Annual, leafy at ba?e, sparingly pubes- 
cent with branching hairs : flowering branches sleoder, race- 
mose from the base: leaves spatulate-oblong, or obovate 
with cuneate base, coarsely few-toothed: pods oblong-lan- 
ceolate, 2 — 3 lines long, on ascending pedicels of about a 
line: petals white, minute, little exceeding the sepals, rather 
deeply emarginate. 



60 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

Northwestern Sonora, March, 1884, collected by Mr. 
Pringle, and distributed nnder the name D. cimeifolia, var. 
hrevijjes, Watson; but the minute, emarginate petals, branches 
racemose throughout their whole length, and pods on not 
only shorter but ascending or sub-erect pedicels, mark it as 
distinct from D. cimeifolia. 






4H'^if^^^ 



^ - .^.. ^..j v^J 






CALIFORNIAN COLEOPTERA. 61 

A NEW SPECIES OF CAnFORNIAN COLEOPTERA. 

By J. J. Rivers, University of California. 





BRADYCINETUS. Horn. 

Bradycinetus Hornii n. sp. 

Male: Form robust, elliptical. Color ferruginous 
brown, shining; bead, tips of armature, margins of 
protborax and a spot near tbe outer margin of pro- 
tborax eitber dusky or black. Head: Clypeus trans- 
verse and feebly angnlate at tbe sides, tbe front edge 
rising increasingly backward, until just 
before reacbing tbe clypeal suture it 
ends in a well formed tubercle on eitber 
MALE. side; bebind tbe sutural line on tbe ver- head. 

tex is a very prominent, stout, conical born in front of tbe base of wh'cb the 
surface of tbe bead is slightly coucave; three-fourths of tbe lower jDortion of 
the horn and tbe whole of tbe frontal area finely rugose. Antennae: funicle 
shining, chestnut; club paler, not shining. Thorax: subtriaugalar, deepest 
longitudinally through the center; noticeably wider than tbe elytra at tbt-ir 
juncture, and rather wider th m their greatest breadth; seen from above the 
front margin appears truncate in the middle, then trends obliquel}' forward 
to the angles which are prominent; sides straight for a short distance, pos- 
terior angles strongly rounded; posterior margin much extended in the mid- 
dle with distinct sinaations toward tbe angles. The front area deeply con- 
cave, surmounted by four well formed tubercles; two occapjang the center, 
bold and projecting over tbe concavity, two others, one on either side of tbe 
central two, situated near the anterior margin of tbe thorax at its exterior 
angles. The arja around tbe two anterior tubsrcles very ragosely punctate; 
and transversely across the disc are large distinct punctures nowhere ex- 
tending to the posterior margin. A well defined margin, refiexed at the 
sides, surrounds the whole. Elytra: very convex, obtusely rounded bebind, 
having fourteen well defined and regularly punctured striae, the interstices 
of which are fl;\tten3d and indistinctly wrinkled. The under side paler than 
the upper; dense fringes of Hght chestnut hair line the reflexed portion of 
tbe thorax and elytra, while the femora, tibia and tarsal joints, as well as the 
lower side generally, are well supplied with rather long chestnut hair. 
Length, .48 — .52 inch. 

6— Bull. Cal. Acad. Sci. II. 5. Issued April 23, 1886. 




62 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

Female: Form and color as in male. Labrnm project- 
ing, rugose, covering the mandibles. Head; clypeal mar- 
gin raised; a feeble tubercle just in front of the clypeal 
suture, immediately behind which is a central trans- 
verse ridge, undivided, slightly higher in the middle and 
slightly apiculate at either end. Antenna9 less robust 
than in the male. Thorax: very convex, shining; out- 
line obtusely triangular; anterior margin seen from 
FEMALE. above, truncate in the centre; angles j^roduced; sides 

rounded; posterior margin much produced to meet the scutellum, sinuate 
toward the angles which are rounded; the front discal area characterized by 
a bi-lobed transverse riised line at either enl of which, outward and for- 
ward, is a well formed but depressed tubercle; behind which line the disc is 
dense with coarse corrugated punctures, which become scattered and plain, 
nowhere reaching the posterior margin, but taking a transverse course, 
barely reach the side margins, where they become less distinct. Elytra: 
much the same as in the male, but the interstices of the fourteen punctate 
striae a tdfle more wrinkled and much more convex. Length, smaller than 
the male. 

Habitat: burrowing in the ground near the city of Sonora, Tuolumne Co., 
Cal.; found also in Sacramento Co. 

The name selected for this species is intended to be a slight tribute of hon" 
or to Dr. Geo. H. Horn, the emiaent Coleopterist, as a slight return for 
many favors. 

STRIDULATINa ORGANS. 

Chas. Fiichs, Esq., having obtained living specimens of 
the above new species of Bradjcinetas discovered thit it pos- 
sessed the power of stridulating. His researches through 
coleopterological literature disclose nothing relative to the 
stridulating faculty in this genus. The latest work on class- 
ification, that of L3 Conte and Horn, makes no mention of 
it, and as these able authors always notice such biologic 
characters when aware of them, it is safe to affirm that the 
observations of Mr. Fuchs are new, and that to him belongs 
the credit of the discovery of these particulars. 

The anatomical investigation by Mr. Fuchs of 
this beetle discloses the stridulating apparatus to 
be well developed, and to consist of three trans- 
verse bands situated respectively upon the fourth, fifth and 




CALIFORNIAN COLEOPTERA. 63 

sixth dorsal segments, that on the fourth segment showing 
boldest. Each of these bands is seen with a high power to 
consist of cernuous bristles set in oblique rows, alternating 
and interlacing Avith one another; the point of each bristle 
is bent downward, forming a bow, and the band, as a whole, 
gains elasticity by the pressure of each bristle thus bowed 
against the next in the series. The rubbing of these three 
bands against the edges of the elytra produces the stridula- 
tion. The examination of species of the allied genus 
Bolbocerus shows the same stridulating power, but the 
outline of the bands in each case so differs as to show spe- 
cific characters. 



64 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 



CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE LARVAL HISTORY OF PACIFIC COAST 
COLEOPTERA. 

By J. J. EiVERS, University of California. 

The study of systematic entomology affords the student 
but a dim idea of what insects are noxious and what are in- 
noxious. The distinctive characters upon which the sys- 
tematic entomologist builds classification need not be and 
generally are not the characters of prime importance to the 
economic entomologist. The names of many of the groups 
of Coleoptera afford a slight generalized description which 
is often misleading. In the present state of entomologic 
science, where systematic is given precedence over biology, 
it is dangerous to attempt to make a general statement of 
the habits of a single genus and impossible to generalize 
the habits of a group or family. 

The most valuable contribution to the life history of 
American insects which is generally accessible is Dr. Pack- 
ard's " Insects Injurious to Forest and Shade Trees."* In 
his introduction the author states that this work is purely 
tentative and designed to elicit the results of the observa- 
tions of students of economic entomology. It is 'on that ac- 
count that I feel at liberty to comment upon or question 
certain of Dr. Packard's statements. 

On page 118, op. cit: Prionus laticollis, Drury, is noted 
as injurious to the poplar. If Prionus destroys living trees 
in other parts of America it has no such destructive habit 
in California; in fact the charge against borers that they 
destroy trees is a very old one, but by no means substanti- 
ated by my own observations. P. Californicus goes through 
its transformations in the roots of oaks, but these roots were 
dead in every case observed by me and usually belonged to 

*U. S. Entomological Commission, Bulletin 7, Washington, 1881. 

6— Bull. Cal. Acad. Sci. II. 5. Issued April 23, 1886. 



PACIFIC COAST COLEOPTERA. 65 

stumps whose trunks had been felled years before. Last 
year I bred several from the decayed part of an old oaken 
chopping block. In fact Dr. Packard himself throws some 
doubt upon the destructive habit of P. laticollis, for in his 
note he quotes the report for 1872 of Prof. S. J. Smith, En- 
tomologist to the Connecticut Board of Agriculture, as fol- 
lows: " I have noticed it in logs of poplar, bass-wood and 
oak, and in the trunks of old, decaying apple tree.-;." 

On page 137 op. c'lt. is the following: "We have found 
Buprestid and Longicorn borers in a dead sweet gum tree." 
The caption at the head of the page, *' Insects Injurious to 
the Sweet Gum," seems designed to lead to the inference 
that these borers killed the tree. But my observation is 
that the larv?e of insects of the two families noted feed only 
on dead wood. 

Again, on the same page, Ptilinus basalis and Micracis 
hirtella are listed as injurious to the California Bay. These 
species are both found in Berkeley, and I have observed 
their habits for the last seven years, and as a result of such 
observation I am in a position to assert that they bore into 
the twigs of the tree mentioned only when dead, dried and 
decaying. 

On page 71, op. cU., we find a figure of Oncideres cingu- 
latus in the act of girdling a hickory twig. In connection 
with this insect we meet with one of the most interesting 
and remarkable points in the whole range of insect biology. 
For, knowing that its larva will have to feed upon dead and 
sapless wood, this. beetle, at tho time of depositing its egg 
in the livinsj and easil}- penetrated green wood, has instinct 
or forethought to girdle the twig, and thus assure the future 
larva the conditions necessarj' for its metamorphosis. 

The question, "Are Curculio larva lignivorous ?" has 
been partially discussed in Bulletin of the Brooklyn Ento- 
mological Society, vol. vii, page 150, by Warren Knaus, 
and in Entomologica Americana, vol. i, page 18, by W. H. 
Hai'rington. The question was brought up by the finding of 



66 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

Wollastonia quercicola in cottonwood logs in an advanced 
stage of decay. The Curculios are a group of insects in 
systematic value the equivalent to a sub- order, and known as 
the Ehynchophora (Latreille), which bear certain intimate 
resemblances to one another in the perfect and final forms, 
while in their larval stage they may and certainly do differ 
in many particulars of habit. W. quercicola belongs to the 
Calandridse, a family abounding in species whose habit in 
the larval stage is preeminently to feed on dry food. The 
metamorphoses of the Ehynchophora (Latr.) are not at all 
well known, but I have bred the following, belonging to this 
sub-order, and have found them to be lignivorous in the 
larval stage : 

PLA.TYRHINUS LA.TIROSTRIS Fabr. — Decaying oak stumps 
highly charged with mycelia of a fungus. 

ScoLYTtJS DESTRUCTOR Oliv. — Dead sapwood of elm. 

Mesitis Tardii Woll. — Decaying beech. 

MoNARTHRUM HuTTONi Woll. — Yarious hard woods. 

Hylesinus crenatus Fabr. — Dying ash. 

Anthribus albinus Lin. — Old wood. 

Brachytarsus scabrosus Fabr. — Elm bark. 

Kyncolus — several species. — Bark of trees. 

The foregoing are old world species of Curculios that do 
not affect a herbaceous diet; and the three following species 
are of similar habits. 

SCOLYTID^. 

MoNARTHRUM SCUTELLARE Lec. — Bark of dead Quercus 
agrifolia. 

MoNARTHRUM DENTIGE RUM Lec. — Bark of dead Quercus 
agrifolia. 



PACIFIC COAST COLEOPTERA. 67 

MrcRACis HiRTELLi Lac— Dead branches of California 
laurel, Umbellularia Californica. 

The Brenthidae are well known to have the general habit 
of perforating trees and of depositing a single egg in each 
hole thus made, by this means providing that the larva shall 
have a full supply of the wood upon which it feeds. 

The question, then, should not be: are Curculio larvae 
lignivorous? but rather, how many have thab habit? In a 
great group like this of Curculios, comprising many forms 
varying greatly from one another, one can easily appreciate 
the fact that we meet with many different tastes and habits. 
Some are known to feed upon all kinds of grain in store; 
one finds its food in rice, another in barley, and others in 
maize. Many species of Balanius undergo their changes 
in nuts, the larva feeding upon the kernels; another group 
is to be found in Cynips galls; and one species, geographi- 
cally distributed from San Diego to Alaska, is to be found 
beneath seaweed upon the shores. Enough has been in- 
stanced to show clearly that we can draw no inference from 
the fact that two insects are found in the same natural 
group, that for that reason their habits are similar; and it 
is evident that a classification by habits would be of little 
aid to the systematic entomologist. 

CHRYSOMELID^. 

DiABROTiCA 12-punctata Oliv. — This is a most destruc- 
tive insect to our peach orchards, and is not as yet sufii- 
ciently studied. If it resembles in habit the eastern species 
of the genus, and feeds in the larva stage upon the roots of 
cereals, it may be possible torrid ourselves in some degree 
of this pest by some rotation of crops. In the meanwhile 
sprays and washes are beyond a doubt not only useless, but 
in most cases a positive injury. We shall have to study 
further before speaking positively of the larval history of 
this insect pest. 



^8 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

The Ptinidse is a family of limited extent, whose habits 
seem to be very similar wherever members of it are found. 
In California I have observed the following : 

MELANDRYID^. 

DiRCiEA RiVERSii Lec. — Larva feeds in decaying trees of 
Madrona, Arbutus Menziesii. In trees in position the insect 
is found in the primary forks of the roots, and in prostrate 
logs among the more seasoned fibers of the wood. 

PTINID^. 

Ptinus interruptus Lec. — Black fungus of the laurel, 
Umbellularia Californica. 

Ptinus quadrimaculatus Melsh. — Decayed Ceanothus 
thyrsiflorus. 

Hedobia granosa Lec. — Dead branches of Umbellularia 
Californica. 

Hadobregmus gibbicollis Lec. — Decaying wood of Myrica 
Californica and dead willow. 

Vrilletta convexa. Lec. — Dead Quercus agrifolia. 

Ptilinus basalis Lec. — Dead twigs of Umbellularia Cali- 
fornica. 

SiNOXYLON DECEIVE Lec. — Any dead tree or unpainted 
wood, very partial to wine casks and oak barrels. Tlie dep- 
redations are done by the beetle while boring for a suitable 
place to deposit its eggs. Its burrow is straight across the 
grain of the wood, reaching the interior of the cask, causing 
waste and deterioration of the contents. Hot solution of 
alum applied to the outside of the casks will prevent bor- 
ing. 

PoLYCAON Stoutii Lec.— Dead and dried willow. 



PACIFIC COAST COLEOPTERA. 69 

PoLYCAON CONFERTUS Lec. — Found boring into a slab of 
chestnut oak that had been deposited for years in the mu- 
seum of the University of California; also bred from the 
stem of dead apricot trees that had been grafted on a peach 
root. 

There appears strong evidence that these trees were not 
destroyed by the borer, but through the influence of the 
'* black knot" on the roots, they being diseased with knobs 
as large as a man's fist on every root; while all the trees 
killed had the root diseased, only a portion was infested 
with the larva of this beetle. 

Many similar observations made by myself and others go 
to show that in the larval stage this beetle is xylophagous. 
On the other hand, there is indisputable proof that this 
larva infests living trees by entering the twigs at the axils of 
the leaves. 

Lyctus striatus Melsh. — Devastates furniture made of 
California laurel, Umbellularia Calif ornica. Dr. Packard, 
op. cif. p. 75, quotes Dr. LeConte as saying that it affects 
the trunks and branches of Carya tomentosa. This is not 
borne out by my observations, as I am well satisfied that 
the larva lives in dead and dry wood. 

SCARAB^ID^. 

PoLYPHYLLA DECEMLINEATUS, Say. Larva that produced 
this species was found in the earth from one to two feet 
from the surface, among root fibres of a coarse grass and 
roots of a Californian Laurel, Umbellularia Californica. 
The earth was sandy loam situated upon the banks of a 
river, and which is overflowed during the rainy season of 
the year. 

Odontaeus obesus, Lec. This has a light chestnut larva 
with tufts of bristles surrounding each spiracle. Mandib- 
ular and clypeal portions well developed, redder in color and 



70 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

thicker in texture than any other part. The legs are prom- 
inent. Feed upon rootlets of Umbellularia Californica. It 
is much infested with a small, pale-colored mite which is 
evidently parasitic on the species. 

LUCANID^. 

Platycerus Oregonensis (Westwood) — Dead trees of 
Photinia arbutifolia, Umbellularia Californica, Quercus ag- 
rifolia and Eucalyptus. 

Platycerus Agassii Lee. — Decayed trees of Arbutus 
Menziesii; also in wood too much decayed to be identified. 

Sinodendron rugosum Mann. — Decayed oak, Quercus ag- 
rifolia. 

The 522 North American species of Cerambycidse are all 
borers; the insect deposits its egg in a hole perforated in 
the wood, and the larva penetrates further and further ac- 
cording to a rhythmic order peculiar to the species until its 
metamorphoses are completed. The following is a list of 
the Calif ornian species whose habits I have observed: 

CERAMBYCID^. 

Ergates spiculatus Lee. — Eotting coniferous trees. Bred 
from Sequoia sempervirens, Pinus insignis, Abies Doug- 
lasii, etc. 

Prionus Califorjticus Mots. — Bred from rotten damp 
roots of Quercus agrifolia. 

AsEMUM NITIDUM Lec. — Decayed Pinus insignis. 

Hylotrupes ligneus Fab. — Dead trees of Libocedras 
decurrens. 

Elaphidion imbelle Lec. — Bred from decayed oak near 
San Diego, Cal., by F. E. Blaisdell. 



PACIFIC COAST COLEOPTERA. 71 

HoLOPLEURA Helena Lee. — Dead twigs of Umbellularia 
Californica. 

Rosalia funebris Mots. — Decaying Umbellularia Cali- 
fornica among the mycelia of some fungus. 

Xylotrichus nauticus Mann. — Dead sapwood of the oak, 
Quercus agrifolia. 

Xylotrichus planifrons Lee. — Dead branches of willow. 

Necydalis l^vicollis Lee. — Decayed oak, Quercus agri- 
folia, and in dead Eucalyptus globulus. 

Leptura l^ta Lee. — Dead Quercus agrifolia and Quer- 
cus sp. 

Leptura crassipes Lee. — Decayed wood of Umbellularia 
Californica. 

Synaphoeta Guexi Lee. — Dead limbs of California buck- 
eye, iEsculus Californica. 

PoGONOCHERUS CRINITUS Lec. — Dead branches of Quercus 
agrifolia. 

TROGOSITID^. 

Trogosita yirescens Fab. — Dead Libocedrus and several 
kinds of oak. 

CLERID^. 

Thanasimus eximius Mann. — Dead twigs of Umbellularia 
Californica. 

Among many entomological enigmas of long standing is 
one that is about being solved. From time to time in many 
parts of the United States, large luminous larvae of some 
Coleopteron have been found, and it has been conjectured 
that these larvae belong to some of the Elateridae, the gen- 
eral supposition being that they were larvae of the genus 
Melanactes. Every attempt at breeding them resulted in 



72 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

failure because their natural food was unknown. I have 
recently found what their food consists of. Before making 
this discovery I had arrived, from a careful study of the 
anatomy of the mouth parts of these larvae, at the conclu- 
sion now confirmed that they are carnivorous in habit. 

Their food consists of the vegetable feeding Myriapoda, 
particularly of Julus and Polydesmus with a preference for 
Julus, because the large area of the rings of this genus af- 
fords space for the larva to penetrate the interior of the 
Myriapod. Its manner of feeding is to seize the hinder 
part of the Julus, and perforate a segment, reaching the 
soft inner parts, which it devours at leisure, creeping 
through many segments without disjointing them, and re- 
maining inside these rings for days at a time, till one can 
see little else but the slowly wriggling form of the dying 
Julus. 

I have a full fed larva, which I hope will go through its 
metamorphosis, and solve the problem. And now its mode 
of life is made known, other persons who are equally anx- 
ious with myself that nature shall yield this long kept 
secret, can apply themselves with renewed energy to the 
task of discovering the identity of the perfect insect. 



NOTES ON SATURN. • 73 

NOTES ON SATURN. 

By Prof. George Davidson, A. M., Ph. D. 

After midnight of Friday, tbe 13tli November, 1885, the 
atmosphere was unusually steady; sky clear; no wind; at- 
mosphere saturated with aqueous vapor; heavy dew falling. 
The satellites of Saturn were plainly visible with a moder- 
ate power to the equatorial of 6.4 inches objective. The 
planet was examined for nearly two hours with different 
powers, the best effects being obtained with powers of 300 
to 350 diameters; and the summary of the matters of inter- 
est is as follows : 

The Encke division was traced for 120° about each end 
of the major axis, leaving only 120° not seen. The division 
was faint but it was there, a little outside the middle of the 
ring A. 

In the ring B the inner part presented such an appear- 
ance in its delicate shading as would arise from a rapid hor- 
izontal rotary motion being given to a disc of irregularly 
distributed and yielding matter. I could detect no atmos- 
pheric unsteadiness that would give rise to this phenomenon. 

The dusky ring presented equally distinct ans}>3; on for- 
mer occasions I had been satisfied that they were sometimes 
of different brightness, and had endeavored to find some 
law for this variation. The dusky ring was well defined at 
the ansEe and across the body of the planet, but I was con- 
vinced that the limb of the planet was visible through the 
dusky ring, very nearly, if not quite up to the inner edge of 
ring B. 

The shadow of the j)lanet was cast upon the preceding 
side, and where it reached the outer edge of the ring B^ it 
was recurved farther from the planet as if the outer edge of 
B had a round moulding above the general level of the 
plane. 

6— Bull. Cal. Acad. Sci. H. 5. Issued April 23, 1886. 



74 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

The markings of the phinet were quite distinct. The 
darker color of the pole was gradually toned down until it 
met the second moderately faint belt south of the equator. 
The second belt was quite dark but appeared to have a more 
marked darkness on the following side of the central line, 
where it should have been brighter on account of the sun- 
light. Then came the bright equatorial belt without mark- 
ings and north of it a narrow dark band about half as broad 
as the trace of the dusky ring across the planet, with a nar- 
row dark band about half as broad as the trace of the dusky 
ring across the planet, with a narrow lighter space between 
it and the edge of the dusky ring. 

January 8, 1886. The atmosphere was unsteady, but at 
quiet moments I saw the Encke division by using a power 
of 250 diameters. Observations made with the Clark Equa- 
torial of 6.4 inches. 

January 25, 1886. The atmosphere was wonderfully 
steady. I saw the dusky ring of Saturn with powers as low 
as 150 diameters, and the equatorial beltings were beauti- 
fully sharp. The shape of the shadow on the outer part of 
the B ring was apparently not so recurved as heretofore. I 
saw the limbs of the planet through the dusky ring to the 
inner edge of ring B. I was able to follow the grayish in- 
ner edge of the B ring across the body of the planet and in 
contrast with the dusky ring below it. The Encke division 
at the preceding part of the ellipse was clearly outside the 
middle of A; at the following part it was barely outside the 
middle of A; no difference of breadth of the Cassini divis- 
ion could be distinguislied at either extreme. 

February 14, 1886. Atmosphere steady. Carried powers 
to 450 diameters. The Encke division clearly exhibited; 
on the preceding side it is outside the middle oi A, on the 
following side it is barely inside the middle of ^ ; I carry 
it well down to the narrow part of the ellipse. The dusky 
ring is well seen and it seems that the inner edge extends 
more than half way from B to the planet. The limbs of the 



NOTES ON SATURN. 75 

planet are seen tliroiigh the dusky ring and the inner edge 
of B. I cannot determine any difference of brightness be- 
tween the preceding and following parts of the dusky ring. 

I have watched carefully and repeatedly a minute — ex- 
cessively minute — and wdiite protuberance on each side of 
the planet apparently off the broad bright equatorial belt, 
but really at the points where the faintly dark belt nearest 
the dusky ring disappears at either limb. This would seem 
to indicate that this faint dark belt is raised above the gen- 
eral surface of the splieroid. 

March 31. 1886. To this date I have not been able, on 
account of atmospheric conditions, to test the last observa- 
tions of Februarv 14. 



LIBRARY, 



WEATHER TYPES ON THE PACIFIC COAST. 77 



WEATHER TYPES ON THE PACIFIC COAST. 

By W, A. Glassford, 2d Lient. Signal Corps, U. S. A. Assistant. 
(With Four Plates.) 

A short study of the charted weather reports of the Pa- 
cific Coast, reveals certain types lasting for a considerable 
period which admit of classification. East of the Rocky 
Mountains, however, no such characteristics are present; 
the storms or cyclonic areas, as well as the anti-cyclonic or 
areas of high pressure generally originate in the Gulf of 
Mexico, the Eocky Mountain slopes, or in British America, 
and move in succession over a curved path almost invariably 
to the eastward at a uniform rate, and with uniform charac- 
teristics. They disappear as regularly near Nova Scotia. 
It is very seldom, if ever, that perfect paths of low pressure 
areas are traced from the Pacific Coast across the mountain 
plateaus and ranges, although some few cases have been 
charted on the storm track maps; but even these are not so 
uniform as in the East, for they frequently tarry for quite 
a period, clinging to some valley or plateau. On this coast 
a noticeable feature is the difference in the storm frequency 
between the northern and southern boundary lines of the 
United States. Areas of low pressure of any intensity are 
of infrequent occurrence in southern California, but going 
north become more frequent as Vancouver Island is ap- 
proached. From a search of the Weather Eeviews for three 
years, it is found that areas of low pressure entering the 
Pacific Coast states from the ocean during that period num- 
ber 90; those north of the 45th parallel are 54; between 45^^ 
and 40°, 25; between 40° and 35°, 10; below the 35th par- 
allel, 1. Another peculiarity of the areas of high and low 
pressure here is their arrangement in recurring and symmet- 
rical types; recurring, because there is a tendency to assume 
the same barometric condition on successive days; symmet- 

7— Bull. Cal. Acad. Sci. H. 5. Issued Aug. 31, 1886. 



78 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

rical, because the recurrence as denoted by the barometer 
takes about the same area, shape and intensity. 

Except the November, and the greater storm of January 
last, and in fact the centers of these were the whole time 
at sea, there has been no distinct cyclonic area, such as ap- 
pear in the Eastern States, central over California during 
the past season. Those who examine the Signal Service 
synoptic charts with its reports may have observed " High" 
and *' Low" designated, but these are often such only by con- 
trast; the areas where the group of barometric readings, re- 
duced to sea level, are the greatest or the least that appear 
on the map, being so named. 

Another observation may be noted. When severe and 
stormy weather prevails on this Coast, and especially in 
California, almost invariably the press dispatches announce 
from the East the prevalence of cold waves, snow blockades, 
tornadoes, etc. If complaint be made at any time that the 
climate of the Pacific Coast is in no way superior to the or- 
dinary Eastern weather, attention may be drawn to the fact 
that at that time cold waves, snows, etc., prevail over the 
East; if here the winds are high they are balanced by tor- 
nadoes or hurricanes there; if washouts delay travel on this 
slope, floods in the streams of the great Eastern valleys and 
seaboard do vastly more damage; if frosts nip the buds in 
our California citrus belt, in Florida oranges are frozen. 
Such is the action of storms on this Coast relative to 
the maigin of the great Arctic high pressure ridges which 
surge down from British Columbia. These coincidences 
show a common sensitiveness to distant weather conditions. 
Contrary to the usual rule in the states east of the Rocky 
Mountains, we have observed here a recurrence and per- 
sistence of fine clear weather, or of rainy days for quite a 
period. The interruptions are slight, of short duration, 
and the prevalent types are unmistakable. The synoptic 
charts during these periods show a general resemblance. 
For instance, during February last scarcely any rain fell. 



WEATHER TYPES ON THE PACIFIC COAST. 79 

In April we had almost constant rain from the 1st to the 
17th, then followed suddenly clear weather to the month's 
end and after. The fact that the change from one type to 
another is so very sudden is what causes the difficulty on 
this coast in forecasting the weather. These phenomena, 
as aids to forecasting, I call weather types. 

This study is only possible by reference to the reports of 
the observations taken three times a day simultaneously at 
4 a. m., noon and 7 p. m., Pacific time, telegraphed to San 
Francisco and charted by entry on outline maps. Isobars 
and isotherms are drawn showing the belts or areas of like 
pressure and temperature, and symbols are added marking 
stations where rain has fallen or cloudiness exists. It is 
seen that map after map, day after day is almost identical. 
A persistence of some one barometric characteristic covers 
the same region. Applying the principle of composite pho- 
tography, taking a transparent outline map of the same 
scale as the weather map and drawing lines enclosing like 
areas, and continuing this process on the same transparent 
map, we have represented a great number of like areas su- 
perimposed upon each other. 

We thus find the high or low barometer regions to cor- 
respond with certain characteristic conditions of cloudiness 
and rain, which remain stationary and hover over the same 
locality during the continuance of the high or low. For 
instance, grouping all the charts that have high pressure 
over Oregon, and the low over southeastern California, it is 
noticed that remarkably fine warm weather with northwest- 
erly winds continues for a succession of days, while this con- 
dition lasts. When the barometer changes, it does so sud- 
denly, and the weather changes with equal rapidity. The 
greater the number of these like features of barometer and 
weather found, the greater, of course, is the frequency of 
the type. Illustrating in the case of February last, it is 
found that a persistent high overlay the district embracing 
Oregon with parts of Nevada and Idaho. Plate II illus- 



80 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

trates the superimposing of a series of daily charts showing 
this feature. 

Indeed, if only the observations of a single station are 
studied, taking a specific instance of the recurrence of a 
persistent weather type, the list of days in which rain of 
any consequence fell on successive days in San Francisco 
during the last rainy season, shows six such periods lasting 
from six to fifteen days each. These periods of the rainy 
season, and the contrasting conditions of rain absence inter- 
vening, are the special object of this inquiry. 

I now come to determining and naming these w^eather 
types, commencing with the rainy season of 1885-6. On 
November 1st, the first interruption of the dry season of 
1885, disregarding some slight rains occurring prior to this 
date, began at the time when the high, which had moved 
inward from the coast with the advance of the season and 
finally hung stationary over the eastern slope of the Cascade 
Range, moved further eastward before the low area advanc- 
ing on the Washington Territory coast from sea. This 
low area spread south and brought the rainy season for San 
Francisco and this portion of the State. This type I call 
the 

NORTH PACIFIC CYCLONIC. 

It prevailed from November 1st to 10th, and from Janu- 
ary 11th to 14th, and is distinguished by a low barometer 
area of considerable depth over and to the westward of Or- 
egon and Washington Territory, which, striking the mount- 
ain range and high pressure to the eastward, cannot break 
over the barrier, and is held there with fluctuating depth 
for some time. 

The high, which always exists somewhere in the margin 
of the low, continues central in the district north of Salt 
Lake. During the prevalence of this type, southerly gales 
occur from Cape Mendocino to Vancouver Island. Rain 
prevails and frequently becomes heavy over Oregon, Wash- 
ington Territory, in California south to San Luis Obispo 



WEATHER TYPES ON THE PACIFIC COAST. 81 

and in the San Joaquin Valley. The temperature through- 
out the coast is about normal. It is only when a subsidiary 
low is developed in southeastern California, locally called a 
*' Sonora Storm," that rain spreads over the southern part 
of the State, being generally of short duration. See Plate 
III as an example of the conditions existing during this type. 

INTERIOR ANTI-CYCLONIC. 

This second type closely resembles the preceding in 
that the interior high is well marked, but differs in that 
the low upon the coast is less in depth. This type pre- 
vailed from November 11th to 15th; November 25th to 
December 6th; December 14tli to 26th; January 27th to 
February 12th. It is characterized by a high barometer 
(about 30.30 inches) over Utah, Nevada and Southern 
Idaho. The accompanying low barometer on the north- 
ern coast drops down frequently to 29.70, and is cen- 
tral west of Washington Territory. These lows appear to 
beat against the high, the low area often dropping down for 
a short time nearly to Cape Mendocino. At other times 
they push the high southerly over Arizona and pass east- 
ward beyond our boundary. Again when the surge of high 
pressure is very great over Idaho, a low often pushes upon 
it from the southwest coast of California, at which time rain 
may occur in light showers on the southern coast. The 
rainfall, except as just mentioned, never passes south of 
San Francisco, and is generally limited to light showers in 
Oregon and Washington Territory. Gales are very strong 
from the southeasterly at Cape Mendocino and at the mouth 
of the Columbia River, north x)f which they come more from 
the south. The temperature is usually high, and at times, 
of steep gradients, from Nevada southward; near Los An- 
geles, the warm " Santa Anna" winds may occur. Plate III 
serves to illustrate this type if the pressure over Idaho and 
Nevada is considered about 30.30, and the low on the North 
Pacific Coast about 29.80 inches. 



82 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

NORTH PACIFIC ANTI-CYOLONIC TYPE. 

This type is very frequent, but sometimes of short dura- 
tion. It prevailed from November lOtb to 15th; December 
7th to 13th; December 31st to January 10th; February 
12th to 21st; February 23d to 25th; March 10th to 12th; 
March 23d to 28th; April 2d to 5th, and April 17th to 29th. 
AYhile this type is prevalent the high, as is implied by its 
name, rests over Oregon and Washington Territory, with a 
permanent low over southern California. It is attended 
with clear weather, only interrupted by an occasional 
shower near Vancouver Island. During its prevalence in 
its perfection and greatest intensity, and while the isobars 
are perpendicular to the coast line, is the time when the 
dreaded dessicating *' north wind" prevails in the Sacra- 
mento and San Joaquin valleys. The temperature is high 
during the day, especially after several days' continuance 
of the type, while at night frosts often occur. The winds 
are usually light and variable on the coast of Washington 
Territory and Oregon, but on the coast of California high 
with southerly gales. If in the spring during the preva- 
lence of this type high winds and sandstorms occur in 
southern California, they are almost sure to be followed by 
rain. The proverb that a succession of frosts is liable to 
be followed by rainy weather, obtains warrant from the fact 
that the breaking up of this type is usually foretold by 
frosts and most certainly followed by rain. The occurrence 
of this type on the first ten days of January, 1886, appears to 
bear a certain relation to the great surges of high pressure 
from the Arctic regions moving well westward over British 
Columbia. The isobar of 30.3 to 30.5 inches enclosed the 
area. The weather on the coast was unusually cool and 
clear; frosts extended into southern California. During 
this period remarkably cold weather was prevailing in 
the Eastern States. These surges of high pressure in their 
movement covering almost the width of the continent dur- 
ing the first ten days of January, caused the development 



WEATHER TYPES ON THE PACIFIC COAST. 83 

of intense cyclonic areas originating in the Gulf of Mexico 
or Texas and moving northeastward along the Atlantic 
coast, accompanied by the most severe cold Avave of the 
year east of the Eocky Mountains. Plate II illustrates this 
type. 

THE GENERAL CYCLONIC TYPE. 

This type is characterized by the most severe storms that 
occur on this coast. The rain area overspreads all sections, 
falling in torrents, and gales of the greatest violence with 
frequent thunderstorms occur, rivers overflow, and wash- 
outs impede travel. The barometer drops very low and 
suffers rapid fluctuations, and remarkable gradients occur 
between the coast and interior. Simultaneous with this type 
is a series of exceedingly high pressure waves over the Eocky 
Mountain plateau and states to the eastward, accompanied 
by severe storms and intense cold. During the last sea- 
son there were only two occurrences of this type, viz., from 
November 15th to 25th, and January 15th to 26th. The 
general feature is a cyclonic disturbance on the Pacific 
coast line, which, apparently unable to cross over the Sierra 
Nevada, seems to spread out over the entire length of our 
region, until it gradually wastes away or finds escape be- 
yond the limits of our field of observation. The occurrence 
of this type in January last is especially worthy of careful 
review. On the 15th another surge of high pressure fol- 
lowed the north Pacific anti-cyclonic of the first ten 
days of January, extending from British xlmerica over the 
Kocky Mountain region. On this coast was developed a 
series of storms among the severest in the history of the 
country. The temperature ^as very low in Montana, and 
spread its influence over portions of this coast, causing 
frost, snow, ice and unusual cold in portions of the Pa- 
cific States. Eains were heavy and almost continuous, 
gales frequent and severe, needing no description to those 
who were here at the time. The storm, as represented by 



84 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

the barometer, was a series of most extraordinary fluctua- 
tious; tlie disturbance would suddenly appear at any given 
station, and after a few hours be scarcely perceptible, only 
again to appear at this or some other station. A diagram 
showing these fluctuations is interesting. The center ap- 
peared for a time to be over the interior valleys of Califor- 
nia, and not great in depth, and it was only upon consulting 
ship reports that it was found that the eye of the storm was 
far to the westward. This center appeared first upon the 
coast about 3 a. m., January 20th, off Point Conception, 
where the roughest weather was experienced. A few hours 
later it was reported off the mouth of the Columbia Kiver. 
From 5 to 8 A. M., about 175 miles southwest of San Fran- 
cisco, the Zealandia was in a southeast and southwest hurri- 
cane, with the glass at 29.23. The barometer, about the 
same time at San Francisco, was 29.31 inches; at 8 a. m., at 
Cape Mendocino, the barometer fell to 29.15, with the wind 
a hundred miles per hour from the S.E.; at noon it was 
29.06, with the wind from the southeast and blowing with hur- 
ricane violence, carrying away the anemometer, after which 
accurate observations were interrupted for a few hours. 
At the same time the wind was southwesterly at San Fran- 
cisco, blowing 42 miles, but at Point Lobos, the south head 
of Golden Gate, six miles away, it was 96 miles an hour. 
The cyclone was off the coast of Oregon at 7 A. M., as shown 
by a pressure of 29.17; but by the following morning, the 
21st, at 4 A. M., the pressure had risen, and the cyclone had 
completely vanished from the charts, and by 12 M. the 
isobar of 30.20 passed from Washington Territory through 
Oregon down to the center of California and out near San 
Luis Obispo. But one other isobar (30.10), drawing isobars 
for every tenth of an inch, appeared on the chart, and this 
enclosed northwest Washington Territory. The next morn- 
ing (22d) the cyclone reappeared at the mouth of the Co- 
lumbia River, here also carrying away the anemometer. It 
again subsided, and burst in once more the same day at the 



WEATHER TYPES ON THE PACIFIC COAST. 85 

Straits of Juan de Fuca, the glass going down to 29.00. 
Again almost disappearing, it came in upon the AVashing- 
ton Territory coast the 26th, the barometer falling this time 
to 29.15. On the 27th it was not to be seen, and if it passed 
eastward it did so far bej'^ond the northern boundary. 

During this time severe washouts occurred in Southern 
California, and the telegraph lines were everywhere pros- 
trated. 1 find this type is not a frequent one, and comes 
only in such intensity as described at long intervals. The 
great storms of 1875 and 1879 are tlie only ones that can be 
ranked with this one. See Plate lY. 

The next distinct type is the 

SOUTH PACIFIC ANTI-CYCLONIC, 

which appears as a moderate high along the southwestern 
California coast. It is peculiar on account of the rains 
which accompany it, being one of those types, which bring 
out many inquiries from those having and observing barom- 
eters, asking the question, how it is that we have rain 
with so high a barometer. It creates isobars somewhat 
perpendicular to the coast, bringing in the rain-bearing, 
southerly winds at San Francisco. It is noteworthy that 
any type exhibiting isobars perpendicular to the coast line 
is almost sure to bring rain, while if the isobars are parallel 
to the coast, fair weather follows. This type was in exis- 
tence from March 31st to April 2d, and from April 7th to 
17tli. During its prevalence a faint low may exist in the 
north Pacific. Rain occurs in the interior California valleys 
and northward, also in the vicinity of Los Angeles. Should 
the general pressure fall considerably below the normal, 
but with the relatively high barometer continuing in the 
same region, gales with thunder and hail storms are fre- 
quent in southern California. TJie winds are not strong 
north of San Francisco, except when the barometer becomes 
very low, and such cases are few. This type disappears by 
the movement of the high along the coast into Oregon, and 



86 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

ceases very suddenly. The temperature is unusually low» 
See Plate V. 

SUB-NOEMAL TYPE. 

This type is marked by a succession of days when the 
pressure is moderately low, and below the normal over a 
large area. The isobars are broken up, are wavy or enclose 
several subsidiary low areas, with an absence of any de- 
cided gradients. This type prevailed from February 26th 
to March 4th, and from April 5th to 7th. Kain at intervals 
occurs, frequent local storms, and thunder storms are re- 
ported. Occasionally a gale, but local in character, does 
coQsiderable damage. The winds are variable, and the 
weather cool and cloudy. 

It might be well to add that the changes occurring in the 
cyclonic types follow a general principle that a disturbed 
equipoise recovers itself in proportion to the intensity and 
rate which the disturbance has originally developed. The 
greater the high, the greater the depth of the low which 
follows, and if the change is sudden, the appearance of the 
opposite condition is sudden. In meteorology, as in me- 
chanics, these vibrations of the disturbed equipoise are lia- 
ble to continue for some time in waves of gradually decreas- 
ing length before coming to rest; and the observance of this 
principle enables us to say that a disturbance is not defi- 
nitely passed although the synoptic charts give but little in- 
dication of its recurrence. 

The dry season demands only the briefest consideration,, 
having but one general characteristic — high pressure over 
the sea and low over the land. The tjqoe of the dry season 
has about the sameness of the weather which accompanies 
it. The high is greatest and most persistent over the ocean 
and north Pacific coast, and lowest from Arizona to Nevada 
including eastern California. Almost the only peculiar fea- 
ture of the type is the occasional low over the central val- 
leys of California. 



WEATHER TYPES ON THE PACIFIC COAST. 87 

Bain is almost entirely absent when this type becomes 
perfectly established, and only occurs in light showers in 
Oregon and Washington Territory, when the high happens 
to drop down well on the California coast, creating a condi- 
tion similar to that of the " South Pacific Anti-Cyclonic 
Type," already described. Another feature of the dry sea- 
son is the development of considerable intensity of the high 
in Oregon, the pressure being at the same time very low in 
southern California, creating the northerly winds in the 
Sacramento and San Joaquin valleys. 

The boundary between the wet and dry season would, I 
believe, be as definite as the sun's march north or south if 
not for these disturbing weather types, which bring into 
effect conditions overriding the gradual change of tempera- 
ture. It is well established that the temperature of the Pa- 
cific Ocean differs very little anywhere on the coast, and the 
monthly variation is so slight that it may be disregarded. 
We can in a general discussion say that the temperature of 
the ocean washing our shores is about constant. It is 
wholly different over the land, and the difference increases 
in proportion to the distance from the sea. In the winter, 
the prevalent type is such as to drive the ocean winds over 
a country where the temperature is cooler than themselves^ 
and where the condensing conditions are strong enough to 
well deplete them of moisture; hence rain results upon the 
western slopes and little remains for the Rocky Mountain 
country. During the summer, on the contrary, the winds 
from the Pacific Ocean passing at once over the drying 
country, do not precipitate their moisture at all till the 
Rocky Mountain summits condense them. Thus the rainy 
season is transferred from this coast to these higher regions. 
The change of one season to another is best illustrated by 
projecting the curve of surface temperature of the Pacific 
Ocean, with the mean daily temperature of a place in prox- 
imity to it, for instance, San Francisco. As soon as the air 
temperature curve permanently crosses the former, the 



00 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

change of season takes place. A. specific case of this 
principle is discussed and well illustrated in the last Bul- 
letin of this Academy, by Prof. Davidson, in his paper on 
the air and water temperature at the Golden Gate. 

Note — The plates show in figures for each station: 1st, temperature; 2cl, 
barometer; 3d, wind velocity and, when reported, the minimum velocity 
since the last report, in brackets; 4th, the amount of rainfall. The wind 
direction is shown by an arrow flying with the wind. The state of the 
weather at the time of the report is shown thus: cloudy or fine day, circles 
fully or one-half shaded; rain by L. K. or H. R., as it is heavy or light; S 
for snow. 



TRANSITS OF THE II AND III SATELLITES OF JUPITER. 89 



TRANSITS OF THE n AND IH SATELLITES OF JUPITER. 

By George Davidson, U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey. 
[Davidson Observatory, March 20th, 1886.] 

About three o'clock in the morning of Sunday the 21st, I 
watched the transits of the II and III Satellites of Jupiter 
and their shadows. The shadow of the II Satellite was on 
the northern edge of the northern dark belt, but it was in- 
tensely black; the image of the satellite was probably a 
diameter from the shadow but was in the edge of the white 
part of the planet. This image was more than white; it was 
a hrilliant ivliite. The image of the III Satellite was yet three 
or four diameters outside the planet's limb; a few minutes 
before its first contact therewith the black image of the shadow 
of II was not so conspicuous as it had been, for I picked out 
the bright image of the satellite before seeing the dark 
shadow. I was using a power of 150 diameters. 

About the time of the first contact of III, the sky became 
slightly hazy and I did not get the time of the contacts of 
the shadow with the planet's limb. After the shadow of 
the III Satellite was on the disc of the planet, and just after 
the first contact of III as a white image, the image of II 
became too faint to be certain of my seeing it. 

The haziness or light fog increased, and the planet was in- 
visible to the naked eye, but occasional thin openings through 
the mist enabled me to see III and its shadow after both were 
certainly on the disc of the planet. For seven minutes after, 
the white' image was brighter than the body of the planet; both 
the shadow and image were transiting the disc where it was 
moderately clear of dark lines; ^^et the shadow was travers- 
ing the northern edge of a faint one. In fifteen minutes 
after the second contact, I noted the shadow of III, but 
could not see the image of the satellite. At twenty-three 

7— Bull. Cal. Acad. Sci. II. 5. Issued Aug. 31, 1886. 



90 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

minutes after second contact, the shadow was clear and 
black, but I could make out no image of the satellite. 

When the II shadow was half way across the planet, I 
could not see the image of II at the clearest intervals. 

At fortj-three minutes after the second contact of III, 
the shadow looked elongated; a minute later, I saw a small 
darkish speck where the image of III should be, and the 
shadow of this speck immediately suggested a balloon and 
its car. In place of the white image of the satellite, there 
was a small darkish speck, and as the seeing was difficult, I 
could not detect any definite form to it. This appearance 
continued until the satellite was nearly half way across the 
planet's disc. The planet was getting low down, day had 
broken, and the haze was increasing, so further observa- 
tions were discontinued. 

Several sketches were made of the planet during the 
transits. 



THE ANNULAR SOLAR ECLIPSE OF MARCH 5, 1886. 91 



THE ANNULAR SOLAR ECUPSE OF MARCH 5, 1886. 

By George Davidson, U. S. Coast aud Geodetic Survey. 
[Davidson Observatory.] 

This eclipse was only partial at San Francisco, where 
four digits of the sun's diameter were obscured on the south- 
east border. 

At San Francisco the clouds broke away about an hour 
before the time of first contact, and the atmosphere became 
moderately steady at that epoch. The sun's disc was 
marked by three large groups of spots north of the equator, 
and the details of these sj)ots became very sharply defined. 
The bright facuhe about the western group were plainly 
traced, and the rice-grain structure of the whole surface 
was easily made out. 

The observations were made with the full aperture of the 
Clark Equatorial of 6.4 inches diameter, using a Herschel 
solar prism, and a power of about 170 diameters. 

The first contact took place at Ih. 16m. 58.5s. local sider- 
ial time, and the second contact at 3h. 30m. 21.0s. The 
second contact is a good observation, because it is easy to 
watch the narrowing, dark segment of the moon, and also 
because the observer can almost proportion the rate of the 
rapid shortening of the two cusps. This observation is with- 
in a fraction of a second. The observation of the first con- 
tact is always more or less in doubt, because the dark limb 
of the moon must have made its impression upon the limb 
of the sun before the eye defects its approach; and this dark 
segment is relatively long and narrow. When the border 
of the sun is unsteady from the disturbance in the atmos- 
phere, the difficulty is still further enhanced. Neverthe- 
less, I consider the observation within a second or two. 

During the progress of the eclipse the images of the sun 

7— Bull, Cal. Acad. Sci. n, 5. Issued Aug. 31, 1886. 



92 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

and moon were projected upon a white background, and 
exhibited as in a camera obscura. 

The geographical position of tlie Davidson Observatory 
is latitude, 37° AT 24.75'' north; longitude, 122° 25' 40.54", 
or 8h. 09m. 42,70s. west of Greenwich. 

The phenomenon was also observed with three-inch and 
smaller telescopes, by Messrs. Lawson, Morse, Welker and 
Hill, of the Coast and Geodetic Survey. 









OFFICERS OF THE ACADEMY. 



1886. 



President, 

GEORGE DAVIDSON. 

ist Vice-President, 

JUSTIN P. MOORE. 

2d Vice-President, 

JOHN T. EVANS. 

Corresponding Secretary, 

SAMUEL B. CHRISTY. 

Recording Secretary, 

CHARLES G. YALE. 

Treasurer, 

ELISHA BROOKS. 

Librarian, 

CARLOS TROYER. 

Director of the Museum, 

WILLIAM G. W. HARFORD. 

Trustees, 

GEORGE E. GRAY, THOMAS P. MADDEN, 

CHARLES F. CROCKER, RALPH C. HARRISON, 

LEWIS GERSTLE, JAMES M. McDONALD, 

ROBERT W. SIMPSON. 



Publication Coinviittce. 

GEORGE DAVIDSON, 
JUSTIN P. MOORE, CHARLES G. YALE, 

JOHN T. EVANS, EDWARD LEE GREENE. 

W. Churchill, Editor. 



BULLETIN fe'. 



CALIFORNIA 



'KS 



ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 



Vol. 2, No. 6. 



JANUARY, 1887 



CONTENTS. 

PAGE. 

The Washoe Roclis. Geo. F. Becker 93 

Provisional Value of the Latitude of the Lick Observatory. Geo. C. 

Comstock 12 1 

Studies in the Botany of California and Pnrts Adjacent. V. Edward 

Lee Greene — 

1. Some Genera Which Have Been Confused Under the Name 

Brodisea 125 

2. Miscellaneous Species, New or Noteworthy 144 

On Tetraodon Setosus, a New Species Alliei to Tetraodou Meleagris 

Lacep 155 

Descriptive Notices of North American Coleoptera. I. Thos. L, Casey. 157 
Submarine Valleys on the Pacitic Coast of the United States. Geo. 

Davidson, A. M. Ph. D ^ 265 

Additions to the Ornithology of Guadalupe Island. Walter E. Bryant.. 269 

Standard Geodetic Data. Geo. Davidson, A. M. Ph. D 319 

Early Spanish Voyages of Discovery on the Coast of California. Geo. 

Davidson, A. M. Ph. D 325 



ISSUED JHNUARY 12, 1BB7, 




BULLETIN. 

]Nlo. G. 

(California Academy of Sciences. 



THE WASHOE ROCKS. 

BY GEO. F. BECKER. 
INTRODUCTORY. 

It is well known to all who are interested in lithological 
geology that Messrs. Hague and Iddings^ have denied the 
validity of many of the results wdiich I reached concerning 
the rocks of the Washoe district." These geologists frankly 
confess that they commenced the study of the Washoe rocks 
with a preconceived theory which the\' desired to prove, 
and that they found my collections convenient for this pur- 
pose.^ To prove their hypothesis, however, it was essential 
to ignore or disprove a large part of m^^ conclusions as to 
the structure of the district; for though my results were not 
inconsistent with their main thesis, the region could not be 

Note i.— Bull. U. S. Geol. Survey. No. 17. 

Note '^. — Monograph III, U. S. Geol. Survey. 

Note ^ — They say, page 10: "In studying the collections of lavas from the 
Pacific Coast volcanoes we were forcibly impressed with the insensible gra- 
dations in the micro-structure in the groundmass of rocks of the same min- 
eral composition from a purely glassy form to one wholly crystalline, and cor- 
responding exactly in structure to a fine-grained granite-porphyry. * * - 
In seeking a locality in the Great Basin which could afford the necessary 
conditions for carrying out such an investigation as we desired to make, 
showing the actual transition from the glassy to the granitic structure, it 
was readily seen that the Washoe district was the only place offering suffi- 
cient material for the work." 
8— Bull. Gal. Acad. Sci. II. 6 Issued November 6, 1886 



94 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

said to afford conclusive proof of it unless my conclusions 
as to structure and succession were lirst overtliro\yn. 
This demolition they have somewhat ruthlessly attempted. 
During the past season I have re-examined the Washoe 
district with their paper in hand, but without being able to 
detect any substantial error in my former results. I also 
gathered many new facts concerning the relations of the 
rocks and, much as I regret being drawn into a controversy, 
it seems needful to call attention to these as well as to 
arguments not presented, or imperfectly presented in my 
former report. I shall be as brief as possible and deal only 
with the, more essential points, being unwilling to con- 
tribute an unnecessary word to controversial literature. 

SOME GENERAL PRINCIPLES. 

IBefore proceeding to points which are in dispute, I desire 
to state certain principles concerning which, so far as I 
know, Messrs. Hague and Iddings would wholly agree 
with me. Given the chemical composition of an eruptive 
magma; the mineralogical results are dependent solely on 
the physical conditions to which it is subjected. It is not 
a question therefore, whether if similar magmas are sub- 
jected at different times to similar temperatures and press- 
ures similar mineralogical and lithological results will 
ensue, but whether at different geological eras the physical 
conditions attending the cooling of eruptive masses have 
been substantially identical. That this has sometimes been 
the case will scarcely be denied. The problem with which 
geologists have to deal, however, is not precisely that just 
stated, for, since the earlier formations have been deeply 
eroded while the degradation of comparatively recent rocks 
is as a rule correspondingly small, upper portions of more 
recent eruptions have to be compared with lower portions 
of more ancient eruptions. The lithological problem is 
thereby greatly complicated. 

The main purpose of lithology, to my thinking, is to trace 



THE WASHOE ROCKS. 95 

the physical conditions through which a mass of readily 
ascertainable chemical composition has passed. Hence, in 
the present state of ignorance concerning the effects of high 
temperatures and pressures, the most rational method is to 
study and record every peculiarity of every occurrence and 
every perceptible difference between rocks. When at some 
future time the causes of the observed effects are well 
known, it will be easy to ignore distinctions which are in- 
significant. If all traceable distinctions are not now pre- 
served, however, it will then be necessary to trace them out 
lest significant differences should be neglected. It has never 
appeared to me, for example, that a distinction between 
pre-Tertiary and Tertiary eruptions was a natural one, but I 
regard it as an artificial substitute which it would be unwise 
to abandon, at least until some available natural principle 
distinguishing little eroded from deeply eroded rocks is 
discovered and thoroughly established. 

Eocks can, of course, never be classified with the sharp- 
ness of minerals. Kocks are essentially mixtures and 
therefore pass over into one another insensibly. The won- 
der is, that rocks not only conform in some degree to a 
system, but that certain lithological types exhibit such an 
extraordinary persistence, being met with at the most re- 
mote quarters in typical development. While the very 
nature of the case thus excludes a rigid classification of 
rocks, observation clearly indicates the possibility of reduc- 
ing them to a natural system. 

THE PORPHYRITIC PYROXENE EOCKS. 

The Issue. — Those who are familiar with the points at 
issue between Messrs. Hague and Iddings and myself, will 
readily see that the main subject of controversy is the pyrox- 
enic rocks. ^ In my memoir on the Comstock, I claimed 

Note '. — Mr. VV. Cross' paper on hypersthene andesites was published after 
my lithological discussions of the Washoe rocks was ready for the press, and 
too late for a revision. The Washoe pyroxenic rocks contain much hyper- 
sthene, although the quantity of augite usually exceeds that of hypersthene. 



96 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

that there were two separate eruptions of porphyritic, 
pyroxenic, plagioclase rocks, closely allied, indeed, but 
presenting peculiarities in structure and occurrence which 
made it necessary, according to the accepted criteria of the 
time, to separate them into diabase and andesite.^ Messrs. 
Hague and Iddings consider both of these masses literally 
or substantially as a single Tertiary eruption. 

During the past season I have found additional reasons 
for maintaining the existence of diabase, and also for divid- 
ing the pyroxene andesite into two distinct outflows separa- 
ted by a long interval of time. 

Diabase at Steamboat. — At Steamboat Springs, at the west- 
ern foot of the Virginia range, and about six miles from 
Virginia City, occurs an extensive series of sedimentary 
beds. They are for the most part in a condition of great 
alteration, much plicated, on the average nearly vertical, 
the strike following the general direction of the Sierra. 
Andesites and basalts have broken through them and over- 
lie them. No trace of a fossil could be detected in these 
rocks. They are certainly pre-Tertiary, however, for the 
Miocene to the north and the Pliocene to the south (at Car- 
son) are very differently characterized. This series appears 
to be at least as old as the beds determined as Jura-Trias 
by the geologists of the 40th parallel. These beds contain 
pebbles of the exact physical and mineralogical character of 
the most typical portion of the east wall of the Comstock 
lode, which I determined as porphyritic diabase.*^ It is 

Note '". — In my memoir on the Comstock lode, it is maintained that the 
rocks of the district, in the order of their succession, are as follows: Granite, 
metamorphics, granular diorites, porphyritic diorites, quartz-porphyry, j)or- 
phyritic diabase, later diabase (black dike), earlier hornblende andesite, 
augite andesite, later hornblende andesite, basalt. It will be shown in this 
paper that the augite andesite would be more properly entitled xDyroxene 
andesite, and that it is divisible into two eruptions, bt^tween which, how- 
ever, no other lava is known to have been ejected. 

Note ^. — As is almost invariably the case at Virginia, the pyroxenes are 
represented only by pseudomorphs, but these are unmistakable. 



THE WASHOE ROCKS. 97 

thus absolutely certain that there is somewhere in the neigh- 
borhood of Mount Davidson real pre-Tortiary diabase, not 
distinguishable either by definable characteristics or by 
those more subtle properties known as habitus from Com- 
stock diabase. The locality in Avhich these pebbles occur 
now receives the drainage from Mt. Davidson. According 
to my investigation of the faulting action on the Comstock, 
this locality formerly received the drainage from the diabase 
area at Virginia. Be this mentioned, however, only as 
evidence that the two localities are substantially in the same 
district. It would be impossible and is unnecessary to show 
that these pebbles are from the particular mass which forms 
the east wall of the lode. This occurrence throws the bur- 
den of iDroof on to anyone who chooses to deny the pre- 
Tertiary age of a rock which, in its characteristic exposures, 
has a distinctly different character from representative augite 
andesites. 

The lithological distinctions between the porphyritic dia- 
base, and the augite andesite of Washoe are somewhat re- 
fined, and in many cases it may be impossible from the 
mere study of specimens to discriminate them. 

This could hardly be otherwise, for it is difficult to con- 
ceive that a porphyritic diabase could, so differ from a por- 
phyritic pyroxene andesite, that every hand specimen, or 
every slide could be unhesitatingly referred to its proper 
category. In their typical developments, however, they are 
distinguishable without difficulty. It may be that this is 
only because in the course of geological periods the older 
rock has been eroded to a depth at which the glassy magma 
had a better opportunity to crystallize and at which fluid 
inclusions were more readily formed, while the infiltration 
of waters for ages has produced, even in the freshest spec- 
imens, effects familiar to the observers of the older rocks; 
or the distinctions between the older and younger rock may 
be due to some other cause not yet elucidated. However 
this may be, the east wall of the Comstock, at the higher 



98 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

levels, and particularly on the 500-foot level, is entirely 
similar to diabases of well ascertained age, while the 
augite andesite found over a thousand feet lower is equally 
typical augite andesite. Of these two types, one answers 
perfectly to the pebbles in the pre-Tertiary rocks at Steam- 
boat, while the other does not. There are thus good litho- 
logical arguments, as such arguments go, for the assertion 
that the east wall of the Comstock is diabase, though these 
do not by any means complete the chain of evidence ad- 
ducible. 

Pyroxene Andesite at Steamhoat. — There are at. Steamboat 
Springs extensive masses of pyroxene andesite, indistin- 
guishable from a portion of the indubitable Washoe ande- 
sites. This rock also cuts ordinary hornblende andesite 
in dikes at the springs, and furthermore, passes by insen- 
sible gradations and in good exposures into an extremely 
micaceous "trachytic" andesite in all respects similar 
to the later hornblende andesite of the Comstock region. 
The hypersthene seems to be gradually suppressed and 
replaced by mica, the augite at the same time yield- 
ing to hornblende. So gradual is the transition, that 
in some croppings of the intermediate rocks one may 
search for half an hour before detecting a flake of mica, 
and from this rock with a vanishing trace of mica to one 
which looks as if it contained 30 or 40 per cent, of biotite, 
every degree of admixture can be found. In large adjoin- 
ing areas on the other hand the pyroxene andesite appears 
to be entirely free from mica. The exposures are so good 
and so extensive that there can be no mistake about these 
facts. At Steamboat Springs then, only six miles from the 
Comstock and on the same mountain range, there is cer- 
tainly a pre-Tertiary porphyritic pyroxene rock in pebbles 
and a very recent porphyritic pyroxene lava in large masses. 
The latter is certainly more recent than the ordinary dense 
hornblende andesite. 

Micaceous Pyroxene Andesites at JVasJwe. — Having studied 



THE WASHOE ROCKS. 99 

these relations at the Springs I made an examination at 
AYashoe for purposes of comparison. On Mt. Kate, and 
the range of hills to the southeast of it, I detected the 
same transition rocks, in small quantities but distinctly 
developed. This range is mostly composed of a very 
coarse pyroxene andesite. Its structural relations had 
always puzzled me, for while the rock of which it is com- 
posed presents, as a whole, apparently insignificant litho- 
logical differences from the ordinary pyroxene andesite of 
the Comstock area, there seemed plain evidence that the 
main mass had been much eroded, while this range seemed 
to have suffered but little. It now appears to be the first 
portion of the series of eruptions of w^hich the later horn- 
blende andesite was the last, and I believe it to have been 
much later than the main, comparatively level pyroxene 
andesite area, though no eruptive rock, intermediate in age^ 
has been detected. I may also mention that I have traced 
the same passage from pyroxenic to micaceous andesite at 
Mt. Shasta and at Clear Lake. 

Messrs. Hague and Iddings recognize that my diabase 
preceded the older hornblende andesite. Tbey also recog- 
nize that the later hornblende andesite was ejected long^ 
after the earlier hornblende andesite. The pyroxene ande- 
site of the Mount Kate range, which is connected with the 
later hornblende andesite by transitions, must, therefore,, 
to accord with their admissions, be younger than the rock 
w^hich I called diabase. The discovery of these transitions, 
thus leads inevitably to the conclusion that the pyroxenic 
porphyries of Washoe are not substantially one eruption. 

Earlier Hornblende Andesite. — The relative age of the 
older hornblende ^ andesite ^of AVashoe seems to me very 
clear. It overlies both the diabase and the diorite in thin 
sheets, and Messrs. Hague and Iddings admit that it is 
younger than these rocks. They assert, however, that it 
is also younger than the mass of rock laid down on my maps 
as augite andesite. They are consequently compelled to 



100 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

argue that in the region penetrated by the Forman shaft, 
a thickness of over 1,300 feet of hornblende andesite has 
been injected beneath an earlier mass of pyroxene andesite. 
This I regard as a mechanical impossibility. 

Granting, for the sake of argument, the soundness of the 
theory of laccolitic eruptions, these can occur only where 
the overlying rock is coherent and tough. If a sheet of wet 
paper is laid on a slab of glass or marble, it is not difficult 
to inject beneath it a mass of water, which will simulate 
a laccolite. But a single pin-prick in the dome allows 
the water to escape and the paper to flatten. Eruptive 
rocks after cooling are always cracked, and they are also 
brittle. Laccolites cannot therefore be formed in eruptive 
rocks. The only remaining supposition is, that the pyrox- 
ene andesite floated upon the hornblende andesite. If solid 
pyroxene andesite will float upon melted hornblende ande- 
site at all, which seems improbable, the pyroxene andesite 
would certainly not float high out of the melted mass, but 
would be almost submerged. The hyjDothesis of flotation, 
therefore, implies that the whole region was flooded with 
hornblende andesite to the level of the top of Mount Kate, 
a supposition which is entirely at variance with all appear- 
ances. I believe also that a careful inspection of the prom- 
ontory of augite andesite, in which the Forman shaft is sit- 
uated, on my map, including an examination of the topog- 
raphy, or a very hasty glance at the model prepared from 
the map, will lead most geologists to regard the supposition 
that the hornblende andesite has been injected beneath the 
pyroxene andesite, as highly improbable. 

Conclusions as to Pyroxenic Rocks. — I re-assert, there- 
fore, that there was an eruption of porphyritic pyroxene 
rock (diabase) prior to the hornblende andesite erup- 
tion, and that pyroxene andesites also followed the horn- 
blende andesite. These pyroxene andesites appear divisi- 
ble into two outflows, one of which certainly immedi- 
ately preceded the later hornblende andesite, while there 



THE WASHOE ROCKS. 101 

seems sufficient evidence that the other eruption of pyrox- 
ene andesite was far earlier and comparatively near to the 
date of the hornblende andesite. It is worth noting that 
most of the glassy pyroxene andesite, and perhaps all of it, 
belongs to the eruption immediately preceding the later 
hornblende andesite. 

DIORITE. 

Not characteristically pyroxenic. — Messrs. Hague and 
Iddings maintain that the two walls of the Comstock 
are the same rock and both originally in the main py- 
roxenic. That in some cases the granular diorite of my 
report contains fresh brown hornblende, far exceeding the 
accompanying augite in quantity, they do not deny, but 
they assert their belief that in the main mass of the granular 
rock, containing green fibrous hornblende in irregular 
patches, this mineral is uralitic. This is a case in which 
full direct evidence is scarcely available, there being com- 
monly no means of deciding whether the bisilicate in a 
particular slide is a product of the degeneration of pyroxene 
or of hornblende. During my last visit I collected a series 
of specimens with a view to testing this question on the fine 
exposures of the face of Mount Davidson. 

In a great portion of this rock the grains are somewhat 
indistinct from an admixture of the minerals. In other 
portions equally granular, the grains are sharp and appar- 
ently free of impurities. Specimens of the latter class 
were selected and slides from them show that they contain 
unquestionable crystals of hornblende with characteristic 
outlines. 

Porphyritic cliorife. — Benewed observations were also made 
on the porphyritic patches of the mass. On the bare faulted 
surfaces of the diorite of Mount Davidson, though consider- 
ably more than 90 per cent, of the rock is granitoid in struc- 
ture, there are patches of porphyritic rock surrounded by 
granular material, and patches of granular matter sur- 



102 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

rounded by porjjhyritic rock. Neither one nor the other 
form inchisions. They resemble the dark spots so constantly 
found in granite and show in innumerable instances, a tran- 
sition from one structure to the other. In some cases this 
transition is rapid though unmistakable, in others it is 
very gradual, so that it would be impossible to say within 
some inches where the mass should be called granular, and 
where porphyritic. In a great proportion of cases, the por- 
phyritic portions contain hornblende recognizable with the 
naked eye. Under the microscope, hornblende is seen to be 
abundant, and augite almost entirely wanting. Now, I know 
of no reason to suppose that the change from a porphyry 
Avith a granular ground mass to a thoroughly granular struc- 
ture is regularly accompanied by a change of the bisilicate 
from hornblende to augite; indeed, there is ample direct 
evidence that this is not necessarily the case. The infer- 
ence then is strong that where these patches occur, and I 
know of no part of the mountain which is free from them, 
the mass is essentiall}^ and originally hornblendic. 

Crystallization of diorite does not vary loitli depth. — But even 
if it could be shown that the granular west wall of the Com- 
stock were of the same mineralogical composition as the 
east wall, as I believe impossible, it would be a necessary 
inference from the whole nature of the occurrence that the 
two rocks Avhich I call granular diorite and porphyritic dia- 
base are diiFerent eruptions which have cooled under wholly 
different conditions. The diorite is now exposed on the 
3,000 foot level of the Chollar mine. It is at this point ab- 
solutely identical in mineralogical and physical character 
with the rock on the surface. This statement is not founded 
on general impressions. I gathered every variety of the 
diorite which was to be found on the 3,000 level, and 
took the specimens with me to the flume above the crop- 
pings. I found no difficalty in matching each of them per- 
fectly as to structure and coarseness. The only trace of 
difference was in the color, which was of course a bluish 



THE WASHOE ROCKS. 103 

gray in the specimens from the mine and a yellowish tint 
where the rock was exposed to the air. It is manifest and 
indisputable that the west wall of the 3,000 foot level cooled 
under a pressure greater than the rock of the west wall of the 
croppings, tlie difference amounting to that of a vertical 
column of 3,000 feet of west country rock. The specific 
gravity of this rock is about 2.80. It is consequently certain 
that a pressure of above 3,600 pounds per square inch, or 
about 256 kilos per square cm. has produced no perceptible 
difference in the mineralogical or physical character of 
the west country rock. 

Nor that of diabase. — The diabase of the 3,000-foot level 
is porphyritic and rather finer grained than it usually is on 
theSutro Tunnel or any higher level. An additional pres- 
sure, nearly as great as in the case of the diorite, has equally 
failed to produce a coarser or less porphyritic character in 
the diabase, or, in short, to induce any approximation be- 
tween the r^cks. These rocks are so distinct at the 3,000- 
foot level that no common miner fails to see the difference 
between them, or to recognize the character of each and the 
distinction between them as the same which prevailed at 
higher levels. In short, there is at the lode a very sharp 
break in the general character of the rock. 

In the effort not to burden my memoir wdth wearisome 
details, I there perhaps insufiiciently described the distri- 
bution of the granitoid diabases, though I distinctly as- 
serted that the commonest variety of the east country diabase 
is a fine-grained blackish-green rock. The granitoid variety 
is, in fact, decidedly rare, though circumstances led me to 
pay particular attention to its occurrences. The granitoid 
form is not only most likely to be confounded macroscop- 
ically w4th diorite, but is also least subject to decomposi- 
tion and best fitted for microscopic study. It forms a very 
small portion of the mass. 

The two rocks cannot he one eruption. — According to my 



104 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

calculations, the faulting on the Comstock amounts, at this 
locality, to about two thousand feet vertical dislocation. If 
this is correct, and if the two walls are portions of the same 
eruption, the fine-grained diabase of the 3,000-foot level 
cooled under a pressure of at least one thousand feet greater 
than the coarse granitoid rock which forms the west wall at 
the croppings. It is also to be observed, that since these 
rocks are separated only by the width of the fissure, and 
must have been in contact before the fissure formed, it is 
impossible to suppose those portions of the rocks which 
were originally on one level subject to different physical 
conditions in cooling, if they originally formed parts of one 
eruption. It is of course open to all to doubt the correct- 
ness of my theory of the faulting on the Comstock. If I 
am wrong, the fault may have been greater, but I think 
few geologists who have studied the district would be 
willing to admit a fault of above three thousand feet. If the 
vertical displacement is supposed three thousand feet, the 
fine-grained diabase of the 3,000-foot level must have cooled 
under a pressure not less than that of the granitoid diorite 
west of the croppings, if the two ro*cks formed portions of 
the same eruption. On the other hand, this would involve 
as a consequence the assumption of an immense erosion 
since the fault took place, an hypothesis at variance with 
many observed relations. One of these is on Messrs. 
Hague and Iddings' hypothesis, the survival of glassy 
portions of the great eruption of porphyritic pyroxene 
rock. There being no limit to suppositions, however, any 
amount of faulting may be supposed. It then appears 
that if the texture of these rocks is a function of the 
depths at which they cooled, the coarseness and granula- 
tion increasing with the depth, though slowly, the amount 
of faulting which will account for the character actually 
observed must exceed six thousand feet by a distance 
which is indefinite but certainly enormous. This no one 
will maintain for a moment. 



THE WASHOE ROCKS. 105 

PEOGRESSIVE CRYSTALLIZATION. 

Ohservafioiis on the surface. — Messrs. Hague and Iddings, 
however, claim to observe in my slides a progressive in- 
crease in the coarseness of the grain of the rocks from the 
contact between the later hornblende andesite with the 
augite andesite to the lode itself. This is a distance of about 
ten thousand feet. They appear to me to have been misled, 
and for this opinion there are various grounds. Messrs. 
Hague and Iddings admit that the later hornblende ande- 
site is much later than the pyroxene andesite. The latter 
has, consequently, been subject to very considerable ero- 
sion. If, therefore, there is a progressive tendency in the 
physical character of this rock on the Sutro Tunnel level, 
such a tendency should also be sensible on the present sur- 
face of this rock, lying as it must considerably below the 
original surface, Indeed, as I shall presently show, it 
should afford a better opportunity for establishing their 
theory. I have gone over the entire surface area east of the 
lode, with a view to the examination of this point. I found 
that while the pyroxene andesite is as a whole pretty uni- 
form, quite as much so as similar rocks usually are, it was 
possible in any area of a few yards square to find very con- 
siderable differences in the grain of the rock. Carrying- 
quantities of chips about with me for comparison, I found it 
impossible to establish anything like a tendency in the 
crystallization. I examined with particular care a belt 
about 7,500 feet long lying directly above the Sutro Tunnel, 
and could detect no tendency to coarser or more uniform 
grain at the western edge of the pyroxene andesite area 
above the tunnel than near Shaft No. II, nor could I detect 
anything of the kind at any intermediate point. 

Secondary Minerals in the Tunnel RocJiS. — I have also re- 
examined the Sutro Tunnel which is no longer a satisfac- 
tory field for observation, being now almost everywhere 
timbered. I have carefully reviewed my own slides from 



106 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

the adit as well as the new ones prepared for Messrs. 
Hague and Iddings. In the greater part of these, 
the gronndmass, as well as the porphyritic crystals, are 
highly modified, and a very large proportion of the grains 
so carefully measured by Mr. Iddings are neither more nor 
less than secondary quartz. In my opinion, if his micro- 
scopic analysis of the gronndmass of these rocks proves any- 
thing, it is simply that solfataric action increased in inten- 
sity as the distance from the lode decreased, an interesting 
result but not a new one. 

Physical Conditions. — If the diabase and augite andesite 
formed a single eruption, the original surface may have been 
level. If so, there could have been no difference in pres- 
sure or rate of cooling on any horizontal line. Those who 
do not accept my theory of faulting on the Comstock will 
probably regard the east country as a single continuous 
mass. In that case, it is hard to see how there can have 
been any notable increase of pressure or retardation of 
cooling along the Sutro Tunnel. If the truth of my theory^ 
of the faulting is granted, the tunnel strikes the east wall of 
the Comstock at a point which was originally about 1000 
feet lower than the eastern edge of the augite andesite. 
But I have already shown that an increase of depth of 3000 
feet makes no perceptible difference in the character of the 
rock. The influence of a single thousand feet cannot pos- 
sibly be traceable therefore. 

The supposed eruption may also have formed a volcanic 
cone above the Comstock instead of a level surface. In 
this case, too, horizontal planes would be level or equipo- 
tential surfaces, or planes of equal pressure," and there 
could be no tendency induced by pressure to more thorough 
cry^stallization on horizontal lines, even if it were supposed 

Note ^ — This can readily be seen by considering extreme cases. Suppose 
a hollow cone tilled with fluid. Then of course horizontal surfaces are sur- 
faces of equal pressure. Suppose a perfectly rigid cone; the same result fol- 
lows. From these extremes any intermediate case of a viscous cone follows. 



THE WASHOE ROCKS. 107 

that crystallization could progress after the cones were 
complete though still hot. It is difficult to imagine any 
influence other than pressure tending to modify the char- 
acter of the rock in a horizontal direction excepting the 
rate of cooling, which would depend upon the distance 
from the nearest surface. The dip of the lode is 45^, an 
angle greater than that of any volcanic cone/ hence the 
rock at the lode on the 3000 foot level must have been 
further from the surface of the supposed cone than that at 
the croppings, besides being under enormously greater pres- 
sure. Since no difference tending to confirm the views of 
Messrs. Hague and Iddings is perceptible on the dip of the 
lode, it seems improbable that any could be detected along 
a horizontal line equally far removed from the surface. 

Bait of variation of crystallization. — It is very evident 
from Messrs. Hague and Iddings' paper, that the rate of in- 
crease of crystallization is more rapid near the inner end of 
the tunnel than near the outer end. The difference in this 
respect between the ordinary fine-grained diabases and the 
diorites, supposed by them to be the same rock, is very 
great; while they do not claim to have found anything like 
so great a difference between dift'erent portions of those 
tunnel rocks which I regard as pyroxene andesites. Now, 
one cannot consider the laws of cooling and the curves and 
functions representing them for a moment without perceiving, 
that the difference of rate of cooling decreases very rapidly 
near the surface of a cooling body, and almost disappears at 
considerable distances from the radiating surface. Hence, it 
would seem that if the difference in crystallization is de- 
pendent on the rate of cooling, and if Messrs. Hague and 
Iddings have correctly interpi'eted the structure of the dis- 
trict, the rate of increase in the Sutro Tunnel should have 
been greatest at the eastern edge of the pyroxene andesite 
and nearly or quite imperceptible near the lode.'' 

Note ^. — American Journal of Science, 1885, vol. 30, p. 283. 

Note ^. — It is well known that iron-blast furnace slags, which are glassy if 



108 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

The present surface of the pyroxene andesite lies some 
1,200 or 1,500 feet nearer the original surface than the sec- 
tion of it made by the Sutro Tunnel. If a cone of the rock 
originally existed here, it follows from the above that the 
surface should afford a sensibly better opportunity than the 
Tunnel for tracing the increase of crystallization. It offers 
the farther advantages of more extensive exposures and far 
greater freedom from decomposition. As already pointed 
out, however, it yields no arg anient in favor of the theory 
propounded by Messrs. Hagae and Iddings. 

The intensity of solfataric action must approximately 
follow the logarithmic conduction curve which, as I show- 
ed, represents the distribution in the east country of heat 
emanating from the lode. So far as the observation of 
Messrs. Hague and Iddings on the ground mass of the rocks 
refers to secondary products, it thus appears in entire con- 
sonance with my investigations. 

Progressive crystallization not prove I at Washoe. — The case 
with reference to progressive increase of crystallization 
then stands as follows : On the line of the Sutro Tunnel 
the augite andesite at the surface above the tunnel has been 
examined for over 7,000 feet, and no tendency could be de- 
tected to any progressive change in the rock. It is difficult 
to imagine any conditions under which such progressive 
tendency (if it ever existed) would not be more marked at 
the present surface than in the Sutro Tunnel; or in other 
words, the change between the extreme ends of the line ex- 
amined on the surface would be expected to correspond to 
the change on a longer line in the tunnel. Other portions of 
the augite andesite area were examined with a similar result. 
There is no sensible difference between the diorite at the crop- 

allowed to cool in the air, are " basaltified" or converted into a tongh, lithoid 
mass if they are run into pits and covered with a few feet of non-condnctiug 
material. Laboratory experiments, of course, prove much the same thing. 
In these cases the relation of the change to the distance from the surface is 
just what would be expected if the granulation is a simple inverse function 
of the rate of cooling. 



THE WASHOE ROCKS. 109 

pings and that at the 3,000 foot level. The distance between 
these exposures is about 4,200 feet. Since the pressure must 
have differed more for these two points than for points 
equally removed on a horizontal line at the inner end of the 
tunnel, and since the difference of distance from the original 
surface of these points on the dip Ccin hardly have been less 
than that for corresponding points on the tunnel, a much 
greater difference in degree of crystallization would be ex- 
pected on the dip of the lode than in an equal distance on 
the tunnel. Similar remarks apply to the diabase. The 
variation of the rate of increase of crystallization indicated 
by Messrs. Hague and Iddings is the reverse of that of the 
rate of cooling, while theory and experiment seem to indi- 
cate that these two quantities sliould vary in the same 
sense. The grains which Mr. Iddings measured are largely 
those of secondary quartz and perhaps other secondary min- 
erals. These secondary crystals appear actually to increase 
as the lode is approached, as would be expected. The Su- 
tro Tunnel and, so far as is known, the Washoe district af- 
ford no valid proof of progressive increase of crystallization 
in holocrystalline rocks. 

OTHER DISPUTED POINTS. 

JJiorites. — xllthough the main issues have now been 
treated, it appears unavoidable to make some remarks as to 
other points upon which Messrs. Hague and Iddings dis- 
agree with me. I have already mentioned in this paper the 
relations between the porphyritic diorites and the granular 
forms of the same rock which make it impossible to sepa- 
rate them. I also enlarged upon the same relation in my 
memoir on the Comstock. The area I have laid down as 
diorite is, I repeat, after re-examination, substantially one 
rock. If (as my opponents claim) the porphyritic diorite is 
hornblende andesite, then the whole mass of Mount David- 
son is hornblende andesite and neither augite andesite, as 
they assert, nor diorite as I believe. I am not so rash as to 

9— Bull. Cal. Acad. Sci. II. 6. Issued November 6, 1886. 



110 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

assert that my lines of demarcation are faultless. I can 
only say that they were laid down with the most scrupulous 
<;are and as the result of arduous labor, and that I know of 
no errors. If, however, it may hereafter prove that I have 
erroneously determined some slide, specimen or cropping, 
here or elsewhere in the district, this will not invalidate the 
general truth of my conclusions. 

The case of the micaceous diorite is precisely analagous 
to that of the porphyritic hornblende diorite. Mica occurs 
in patches on the bare rock surfaces of Mount Davidson — 
here a flake or two, there a group fading out into rock in 
which there is no mica discoverable. These occurrences 
are less striking than those of porphyj^itic diorite in the 
region immediately above the central group of mines, be- 
cause the presence of mica at this point is unattended by 
any physical or structural modification of the granitoid 
mass. To the north of Spanish Eavine there is an increase 
in porphyritic forms, both micaceous and hornblendic, but 
the change is very gradual, and as typical granitoid diorite 
occurs here as on Mount Davidson. If the micaceous rock 
is all later hornblende andesite, as Messrs. Hague and 
Iddings pronounce it, then Mount Davidson is later horn- 
blende andesite. 

^^ White 7vck/' — Messrs. Hague and Iddings assert that 
some white rocks found in the tunnel are identical with the 
rock called, in my report, felsitic quartz porphyry. The 
white rock contains no original quartz, but abundant sec- 
ondary grains. It is connected macroscopically and micro- 
scopically by transition with less altered andesites. This 
can be shown from some of the slides referred to by Messrs. 
Hague and Iddings as the white rock, when compared with 
others which they recognize as andesites. An exactly simi- 
lar case is exposed on a very large scale by the cuttings 
made in the hillside to gain space for the Combination 
Hoisting Works. Heie typical hornblende andesite is in- 
tersected by a belt of solfataric action; and every imagin- 



THE WASHOE ROCKS. Ill 

able intermediate stage, from a mass like hard, white chalk 
to a fresh andesite, is plainly visible on an unbroken expo- 
sure. There are other exposures in abundance on the sur- 
face. The analogy between this white rock and the felsitic 
quartz porphyry depends on a single specimen of the former, 
which shows a banded structure something like that of rhyo- 
lite, a feature which is also of common occurrence in the 
felsitic rock. Now, I have called attention to this struct- 
ure of the east country rock in the following terms i^*^ 

*' In several of the rocks a stratified or laminated structure 
is visible; but in the half-dozen such cases known to me, 
the phenomenon extends for very short distances, often only 
a few feet, and appears to be the result of some local varia- 
tion in the composition of the rock; for not only can I 
perceive no general uniformity in the direction of the layers 
in these difi'erent spots, but I have a single hand specimen 
which shows two sets of them at an angle of nearly 90^ to 
one another." 

"There are limited occurrences of excessively fine-grained, 
closely laminated diabase, resembling slate. The diorites 
and both the andesites show the same phenomenon." 

The specimen of white rock supposed to be so significant 
came from one of these spots, which occur not only in it but 
in other rocks as well. The lamination, however, is not 
characteristic but extremely exceptional in the white rock. 
The specimen is not representative, but was carefully pre- 
served as an exception, and the peculiarity which it presents 
has no taxonomic value. 

Quartz porpJiynj. — Messrs. Hague and Iddings employ this 
as it appears to me, wholly baseless identification, to argue 
that the white rock containing no quartz excepting as a re- 
sult of decomposition, is a dike of rliyolite, and proves that 
my identification of tlie only quartzose rock in the district as 
pre-Tertiary quartz porphyry is erroneous, as well as my in- 
terpretation of its structural relations. A very large body 

Note '^. — Geology of the Comstock Lode, pages 51 and 182. 



112 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

of quartz-porpliyry is met with in the mines, and is inter- 
sected by the Baltimore, Caledonia and Knickerbocker 
shafts. ^^ The bottom of the Forman shaft is also in this 
rock. The last occurrence is referred to by Messrs. Hague 
and Iddings as '*a small body," though of its size no one 
can possibly know anything. They explain these occur- 
rences on the same intrusive theory adopted to account for 
the hornblende andesite in the Forman shaft. The same 
objections stated above, in regard to the applicability of this 
theory to the hornblende andesite, apply also to this case, 
but with still greater force; for it seems certain that ande- 
sites could not float in melted quartz porphyry. The 
quartzose rock, it is true, must be viscous when melted and 
might therefore carry up small fragments of andesite or even 
heavier substances, but that it could lift and support a mass 
of rock specifically heavier than itself and over 2000 feet in 
thickness I believe quite impossible. 

Eock inclusions in quartz loorphyry — In the hope of obtain- 
ing evidence as to the succession of the quartzose rock and 
the andesites which should appear to every one unequivocal, 
an earnest search was made last summer for included frag- 
ments, near Basalt Hill. In the augite andesite nothing 
could be found. This is perhaps not strange since this 
rock, particularly in this neighborhood, was evidently of very 
great fluidity. Lighter rocks would have floated upon it and 
would have been the first portions of the mass to be re- 
moved by erosion. Heavier rocks would have sunk to the 
bottom. In the quartz porphyry, inclusions of metamorphic 
rocks and of granite (entirely similar to that of the adjoining 
area, to that of Steamboat Sprin'gs and of the Sierra Nevada), 
were in some localities tolerably abundant. There was 
nothing like andesite to be found, which seems strange, if 
the quartz porphyry broke through the andesite carrying 
with it fragments of the other rocks through which it burst. 
This evidence, however, is only negative. 



Note ^^— See Atlas, sheet VI. 



THE AVASHOE ROCKS. 113 

The porphyry an orthoclase rock. — Messrs. Hague and Id- 
clings assert that there are plagioclastic as well as orthoclas- 
tic rocks among the specimens brought in by my party as 
quartz-porphyry. For the purpose of testing the character of 
the rock; large specimens were gathered at five localities in 
the district last summer, and separated by the Thoulet method. 
The localities were chosen at points as far removed from one 
another as possible, in order that the entire area might be 
represented as well as practicable by so small a number of 
specimens.^' The localities are as follows: Dump of the 
Forman shaft; quarry near toll-gate on American Flat road; 
1,500 feet south of the Amazon mine; 1,200 feet W.S.W. of 
Excelsior mill; 1,200 feet N.E. of Eoux' ranch. These 
rocks are not well fitted for complete separation by the 
Thoulet solution, the quartz, orthoclase and groundmass 
coming down together in an almost continuous stream be- 
tween specific gravities from 2.63 to 2.58. The material of 
a specific gravity exceeding 2.64 consists almost exclusively 
of ferro-magnesian silicates, iron ores and plagioclase, 
Making allowance for mixtures, it appears from the experi- 
ments that the specimens in the order named contain ap- 
proximately the following percentages of plagioclase: 8, 8, 
8, 1.5, 4.5. Although the orthoclase could not be separated, 
it is evident that the rock contains above 25 per cent, of 
feldspar, ^^ and that all of these specimens are to be regarded 
as orthoclase rocks. 

That at some point or points in the district some small 
portion of the rock may contain an excess of plagioclase, in 
the nature of a local segregation, I cannot deny. The rock 

Note ^-. — In order that no uncouscions bias might affect the selection, I 
chose these localities on the map without visiting them, and requested mj' 
assistant. Mr. Lindgren, to proceed to the points chosen and take the speci- 
mens. He collected the freshest rock he ooiild find at each spot, irrespective 
of the frequency of quartz grains. Mr Lindgren also made the separations. 

Note i^. — On the quantitative composition of quartz porphyry, see Eoth 
Allg. Geol. Vol. 2, p. 108. 



114 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

as a whole, however, is much tlie most uniform in the dis- 
trict, and no such local exception to the representative min- 
eral composition can properly affect its classification. 

Fluid inclusions in quartz porphyry. — According to Messrs. 
Hague and Iddings, the microscopic characteristics of most 
of this rock are exactly the same as those of rhyolites from 
the Great Basin. They will not, however, deny that they 
are also exactly similar to those of well known pre-Tertiary 
rocks. These geologists seem to attach little importance to 
fluid inclusions, ^^ though I should have thought that on 
their own hypothesis such inclusions would be valuable as 
an indication of the amount of the erosion. They grant, 
however, that this rock contains more fluid inclusions than 
are usual in the later quartzose volcanics of the Great Basin. 
Every single slide of the quartz porphyry which I have seen 
contains fluid inclusions. In many cases they are extremely 
abundant. I have made no extensive special studies of 
rhyolites, and cannot therefore state how frequent such oc- 
currences are. I note, however, that Prof essor Zirkel says^* 
of a rhyolite f rom the Washoe Mountains: "A remarkable 
phenomenon, discovered in this genuine rhyolitic rock, was 
a quartz which contained the most characteristic fluid inclu- 
sions." If one supposes that fluid inclusions in the quartzes 
of rhyolites as now exposed are so rare as they appear to be 
only because the deeper portions of the eruptions are not yet 
laid bare, then the quartzose rock of Washoe, if it is a rhyo- 
lite, is a very deeply eroded one. If it is indeed younger 
than the glassy augite andesites, as Messrs. Ha^iie and 
Iddings maintain, and as if, as I believe with them, rocks 
with a glassy groundmass are found only near original sur- 
faces, it is strange that these andesites have not been eroded 
as well as the rhyolite. 

Note ^+. — That I regarded the evidence of fluid inclusions as one to be ap- 
pealed to with caution, may be seen from my memoir, page 50, foot-note. 
Note i^. — Exploration of the 40th Parallel, Vol. 6, page 197. 



THE AVASHOE ROCKS. 115 

They do not indeed state that fluid inclusions are confined 
to, or specially characteristic of the lower portions of rhyo- 
lite eruptions, but they do make an equivalent statement 
regarding the andesites, and their description of the pass- 
age from a glassy to a highly crystalline mass is couched in 
such general terms that I cannot doubt their holding sim- 
ilar views with reference to rhyolite. Of course a similar 
train of reasoning makes it apparently inexplicable that the 
surface exposures of Mount Davidson should show fluid in- 
clusions, Avhile glassy rocks still remain on the Mount Kate 
range, if the augite andesite and the diorite form substan- 
tially one eruption. There is no reason why the Davidson 
range should have been deeply eroded while the Kats range 
escaped degradation. A range may escape erosion while the 
valley at its base is deeply excavated, but that of two paral- 
lel ranges, distant a couple of miles, one should be deeply 
eroded wdiile the other escapes almost entirely, is conceiva- 
ble only under most extraordinary meteorological con- 
ditions, if at all. There are no such remarkable conditions, 
at Washoe. 

Hornhlende andesite intlie tunnel. — The rock laid down as 
hornblende andesite on my section of the Sutro Tunnel is 
comparatively fresh at the eastern edge. The remainder of 
the occurrence in the tunnel is far too thoroughly decom- 
posed for direct determination either macroscopically or 
microscopically. Messrs. Hague and Iddings, however, 
assume that only a narrow dike of this rock is intersected 
bv the adit, and conclude that the earlier hornblende ande- 
site of my report is younger than any of the pyroxenic 
rocks. My determination of the width of this mass was not 
founded exclusively upon the exposure in the tunnel. The 
combination shaft is only 400 feet distant from the tunnel 
section. The top of this shaft is in the typical hornblende 
andesite figured in my report on plate V. Some of the 
stations of the shaft were accessible, and I also had access 
to a private collection of rocks from the shaft which w^ere 



116 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

gathered during the sinking of the shaft. By repeated 
study of these specimens, and by comparisons between 
them and decomposed portions of the hornblende andesite, 
near the top of the shaft on the one hand, and with dia- 
bases of the Sutro Tunnel level on the other hand, I 
came to the conclusion that the hornblende andesite of the 
surface was continuous from the top of the shaft to a point 
about 250 feet above the tunnel level. At this point there 
was a change in the character of the rock which corre- 
sponded to a similar change in the tunnel about 100 feet fur- 
ther east than the shaft. Through these points I drew the 
contact after taking all available facts into consideration. 
My determination of the width of the hornblende andesite 
in the tunnel was neither a guess nor was it founded on any 
theory, but was legitimately based upon the best observa- 
tions which the nature of the case permitted. It is in entire 
accord with the results of my more recent studies at Steam- 
boat Springs, where as has been pointed out, the earlier 
hornblende andesite is younger than one portion of the 
pyroxene rocks and older than another portion. 

Dikes. — Messrs. Hague and Iddings claim that there is a 
dike of later hornblende andesite in the pyroxene andesite 
of the Sutro Tunnel. That for some distance the rock here 
carries some mica is unquestionable. When I first detected 
the presence of this mica, I believed that the later horn- 
blende andesite was the last andesitic eruption, but the evi- 
dence on this point gathered up to that time was not so 
good as I desired. I should consequently have been glad 
to consider this a dike, and during some sixty visits to the 
tunnel, I examined this occurrence many times, but without 
being able to make up my mind that there was sufficient ev- 
idence to warrant the assertion of its intrusive character. 
It is true that I did not regard mica as necessarily an unfail- 
ing indication of one and only one rock, nor do I now. It 
may be that this really is a dike. If so, it is a very obscure 
case. They also maintain that dikes are very numerous 



THE WASHOE ROCKS. llT 

throughout the region. This I deny. It is a region where 
dikes should be expected, and to this fact I was full}' alive. 
Mr. King, in his hypothetical section of the country, showed 
several; and Mr. Church asserted that there were at least 
twenty-five or fifty north and south dikes. Messrs. Stretch, 
Eeade and I were constantly on the lookout for these im- 
portant aids to geological interpretation and their almost 
entire absence was repeatedly a matter of surprised com- 
ment in my party. Except under unusual conditions, a dike 
is recognizable with the utmost ease, and very few cases 
could escape reasonably careful scrutiny. It is, of course, 
possible to interpret variations in the state of decomposi- 
tion and similar phenomena as dikes on superficial examin- 
ation. This has often been done at Washoe, but these cases 
do not stand the tests of careful study. At Steamboat, 
among the same rocks, real dikes are not infrequent, and 
the indications of their character are clear. 

Lithologiccd criteria. — I cannot but believe that Messrs. 
Hague and Iddings, led away by the fascination of their 
hypothesis, have unconsciously made a somewhat arbitrary 
use of lithological criteria. Because the pyroxene andesite 
strongly resembles the porphyritic diabase, they insist the 
two rocks must be substantially of the same age, notwith- 
standing the structural evidence to the contrary. Yet they 
believe that pre-Tertiary eruptions are not, as such, distin- 
guishable from later volcanic rocks. On general principles, 
therefore, they would be satisfied with a moderate amount 
of evidence of the diversity in the age of rocks which were 
lithologically similar. In this particular case, however, 
such proof would diminish the strength of their argument 
for a relation between granulation and distance from a fixed 
point. But lithological dissimilarity does not^stand in the 
way of tlieir identifying rocks; for though only an infinites- 
simal portion of the highly decomposed andesite of the Su- 
tro Tunnel, possesses a banded structure, and though this 
structure, common to various rocks, is the only point of 



118 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

similarity Avliicli appears to exist between this material and 
a quartzose felsitic mass distant over two miles, they do not 
hesitate to identify the two, structural evidence again to the 
contrary notwithstanding. While a large part of the granular 
diorite is, beyond question, hornblendic, and a still greater 
portion is of such a character that it is now impossible to say 
with certainty whether the green amphibole is original, 
uralitic, or results from an alteration of brown hornblende, 
they regard the whole mass as altered pyroxene rock. Yet 
when any specimen of this rock is found to contain mica, 
they pronounce it later hornblende andesite, no matter how 
it may be involved in the mass of their supposed pyroxene 
andesite. But mica is not a more significant mineral than 
hornblende or augite, as I feel confident from many observ- 
ations. It would seem to me as reasonable to call the later 
hornblende andesite, diabase, because it contains some 
augite as to call the micaceous spots in the granular mass 
of Mount Davidson later hornblende andesite because they 
carry mica. Black dike again they identify with the very 
dissimilar basalt of the district. The structure and physical 
character of this rock are exactly similar to the commonest 
variety of diabase elsewhere. They state, indeed, that they 
have seen basalts of the same structure, but these are cer- 
tainly rare, for though I have had occasion to make micro- 
scopic examinations of many basalts, I have never seen one 
which at all resembled black dike. The excellent represent- 
ation of this rock in my memoir will enable lithologists to 
judge for themselves on this point. Its bearing on Messrs. 
Hague and Iddings' theory is manifest, for, if it is a diabase, 
the surrounding masses must bo pre-Tertiary; but if it is 
basalt, it is in so far possible that the enclosing rocks may 
be Tertiary or later. 

It is surely unnecessary to go into further detail on the 
subject of the Washoe rocks. I find that several of them 
at least, extend into the area of the Gold belt of California, 



THE WASHOE ROCKS. 119 

on which work by my parties has already begun, and to 
which my whole attention will be given for many years to 
come. It is not unreasonable to expect, that in the exten- 
sive area which will there be examined, some 12,000 square 
miles, the questions raised at Washoe will be presented, in 
a sulficient varietv of forms, to ensure correct solutions. 

Condusiom. — While I do not deny that the granular and 
granitoid rocks are simply those which have cooled at great 
depths and under great pressure, I can see no evidence at 
Washoe to prove it. Pressure and depth, not improbably, 
tend to produce the effects which Messrs. Hague and 
Iddings ascribe to them, but I am certain that in many 
cases, minute differences of chemical composition produce 
effects greater than differences of depth of, say, from one or 
two thousand feet. ^*^ 

The only important changes which I feel called upon to 
make in the results of my former investigation of the Com- 
stock lode are that hypersthene is present in the pyroxenic 
rocks, and that the area of these rocks laid down on my 

Note i^. — An eruptive magma is probably never fluid enough to become thor- 
oughly homogeneous, and where the products of the chemical reactions are 
multifarious, it is to be expected a priori that minute differences in composi-' 
tion should estciblish strong tendencies which may manifest themselves either 
in the mineralogical or the structural results. Observation also shows that 
cases are very frequent in which adjoining rock masses so related that 
they cannot have been subjected to different physical conditions, exhibit dif- 
ferences not otherwise to be accounted for. Easy as it is to ascertain the 
ultimate composition of rocks, every one recognizes that we know too little 
as yet of the intricacies of mineral chemistry to be able to establish a 
thorough correlation between the composition and the lithological results. 
One road to a more satisfactory knowledge of this subject appears to be pre- 
sented by the principles of thermo-chemistry. I have attempted a slight 
theoretical advance in this direction in an article which will soon be printed. 
[American Journal of Science, vol. .31, 18S6, p. 120]. Meantime, although it 
as yet impossible usefully to employ quantitative determinations so accurate 
as those which chemists are in the habit of making, it is most desirable that 
these records should be correctly kept. I pointed out in my memoir on the 
Comstock, that two analyses, originally published in the reports of the Ex- 
ploration of the 40th Parallel, contained inconsistent data. These analyses 
are numbered V, and VII, by Messrs. Hague and Iddings (page 33), who 



120 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

maps as angite anclesite is divisible into two separate erup- 
tions of different dates. 

I affirm that the structural relations and the succession of 
rocks as set forth in my memoir, is substantially correct. 
In particular, the pyroxene andesite, diabase and diorite 
exposed in the Sutro Tunnel, do not form one continuous or 
contemporaneous rock mass, as would be necessary if this 
exposure were to lend any support to the hypothesis of pro- 
gressive increase of crystallization. On the contrary, these 
rocks constitute at least three distinct eruptions, separated 
by long time-intervals. 

I consider it possible that the quartz porphyry, although 
of greater age than the andesites, may have been erupted in 
early Tertiary times, but this I think unlikely. 

Though there may be local segregations of plagioclase 
in the quartz-porphyry, five new separations by the Thoulet 
method show that it is substantially an orthoclase rock. 

I think it possible, but improbable, that the black dike is 
basalt. In the present state of science, an absolute decis- 
ion on this point is impossible. 

The remainder of the conclusions stated at the close of 
Messrs. Hague and Iddings paper, I deny. 

I conclude also that valuable as is the study of collections, 
inferences from them may easily be pushed too far; and 
that it is impracticable to elucidate the structure of a com- 
plex region from collections, however extensive. 

Office of the U. S. Geological Survey, ) 
San Fkancisco, December, 1885. j 

state that they have revised them by comparison with the original records 
so far as possible. This was evidently by no means superfluous. They 
have made four changes in V, which seems a large number of misprints in a 
single analysis. In VII, they have made only one correction; but the orig- 
inal record of this analysis must be faulty, since the sum of the items, as 
they give them, still fails to tally with the total. While the effect of minute 
variations of composition seems beyond question well marked, it is not en- 
tirely clear what effects should by expected from high 'pressures, the consid- 
eration of which, at once brings up the perplexing question of the relative 
dynamical influence of absolute stress and stress-difference. 



LATITUDE OF THE LICK OBSERVATORY. 121 



PROVISIONAL VALUE OF THE LATITUDE OF THE LICK 
OBSERVATORY. 



By Professor George C Comstock. 
Communicatsd by Captain K. S. Floyd, President of the Lick Trustees. 

The following provisional value of the latitude of the Lick 
Observatory depends upon observations made upon four 
nights in August, 1886, with the Repsold meridian circle by 
Professor Geo. C Comstock, assisted by President E. S. 
Holden, who kindly read the microscopes. All of the stars 
observed were selected from the star list of the Berliner 
Astronomisches JaJirhuch, and the latitude depends upon the 
apparent declinations of the stars as given in that ephe- 
meris. Both the fixed and the movable circle of the instru- 
ment were read for each star, and were .separately reduced. 
The discordances found between the results from the two 
circles are not greater than may fairly be attributed to 
division errors; the results from the fixed circle are, how- 
ever, rather more accordant with each other than are those 
from the movable circle, indicating either inferior gradua- 
tion or unstable clamping of the latter. 

Each observed star furnishes a value of the reading of the 
circles when the telescope is pointed to the celestial equa- 
tor (technically called an equator point), aiid the mean of 
all the equator points obtained during a night is taken as 
the equator point for that night. The circle reading cor- 
responding to the nadir was obtained at the beginning and 
end of each night's observations, and the mean of these 
nadir points is assumed as the nadir point for the night. 
The agreement of the individual nadir points is fairly satis- 
factory, the difference between separate determinations 
upon the same night in no case amounting to as much as 



122 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 



V\ The difference between the mean equator point and 
the mean nadir point is the supplement of the latitude. 

The following table furnishes a brief summary of the 
results derived from the observations of each night: 



Date. 


Position of 
Instrument. 


No. of 
Stars. 


Latitude from 
lixed Circle. 


Latitude from 
Movable Circle. 


1886— August 5 

August 8. . 

August 13 

August 14. ... 


Clamp W. 

" W. 

" E. 

E. 


7 
12 

8 
11 


37° 20' 24". 7 
24.2 
25.3 
25.3 


37° 20' 24". 5 
25.1 
24.8 
25.4 



The mean of the results Clamp W. is 37° 20' 24''. 6; the 
mean for Clamp E. is 37'° 20 25". 2, showing a slight dis- 
-cordance between the results derived from different posi- 
tions of the instrument. Such a discordance wsls a 2^rio7i 
probable, having been found in the case of other meridian 
circles. 

The most probable value of the latitude that can be de- 
rived from these observations, is the mean of the results 
Clamp W. and Clamp E. : 

37° 20' 24".9, 

which may be adopted as a provisional value for the latitude 
of the center of the mercury basin of the meridian circle. 
The probable accidental error of this result, estimated from 
the discordances of the individual results, is not far from 
dz 0."10, but the above value of the latitude provisionally 
assumed, may be affected by systematic errors arising from 
defective graduation of the circles, flexure, irregular refrac- 
tion, etc., amounting in the aggregate to a considerably 
greater quantity. 

The north dome of the Lick Observatory is twenty-seven 
feet north of the meridian circle, whence its latitude results 
from these determinations, 37° 20' 25". 2. 

Mr. C. A. Schott, Chief of the Computing Division of the 
U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, has kindly communicated 
results for the position of this station, Avhich have been 



LATITUDE OF THE LICK OBSERVATORY. 123 

derived from the triangulation measures of Professor Da- 
vidson. 

These are (for the dome of the 12-inch equatorial) : 

Latitude = -f 37^ 20' 24''.752. 
Longitude = + 121° 38' 35''. 284 (Greenwich). 
Longitude = 8 h. 6m. 34.352 (Greenwich). 
Longitude = 2 h. 58 m. 22.26 (Washington). 

It will be observed that our determination of the latitude 
gives a result, 0".4 greater than that of the U. S. Coast Sur- 
vey. This corresponds to about forty feet, six inches. The 
agreement between the two results is perfectly satisfactory, 
when we consider the small number of stars observed by us, 
and also that the position derived by the U. S. Coast and 
Geodetic Survey is not strictlj^ definitive, as two stations 
(viz., Macho and Sta. Ana) require to be occupied to com- 
plete the primary triangulation in this vicinity. 



GENERA CONFUSED UNDER BRODI.EA. 125 

STUDIES IN THE BOTANY OF CALIFORNIA AND PARTS 
ADJACENT, 

BY EDWARD LEE GREENE. 

V. 

(With Plate VI.) 

1. Some Genera ivJiicJi have been Confused under the Name 
Broclicea. 

Of the species herein to be discussed, only five or six are 
presumed to be new. Many of them have long been known, 
and most of them have been collectively elaborated by at 
least two eminent botanists within a few years. There has 
been the widest diversity of opinion among authors regard- 
ing the limits of the genera, and the entire group is confes- 
sedly a perplexing one. Before so many as twenty species 
had become known, no less than thirteen genera had been 
either established for, or more or less replenished with 
them; but in the most recent pronouncement/ the bulk of 
the species, embracing at least three very good genera, as 
we understand them , are all disposed under Brodicea. From , 
the earliest days of my residence on this coast, where these 
plants are indigenous, I have regarded the arrangement 
placed before students and amateurs in the Botany of Cali- 
fornia, as most unnatural; and having now given five succes- 
sive seasons to the study of the commonest species under 
circumstances peculiarly favorable to the forming of a sound 
and rational judgment upon them, I am now ready to offer 
the result of my investigations. 

The Liliaccce as an order are poor subjects for herbarium 
study. The fabric of their flowers is delicate, being made 
up of a maximum of water and a minimum of permanent 

Note ^ — Botauy of California, Vol. ii, by Sereno Watson, pp. 152-157. 
10— Bull. Cal. Acad. Sci. II. 6. Issued November 13, 1886. 



126 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

tissue, and the characteristics of the filaments and their ap- 
pendages, matters of acknowledged importance to the sys- 
tematist, are sure to suffer obscuration, if not entire obliter- 
ation, in the process of drying under pressure. Neverthe- 
less, almost all which has been written hitherto upon Bro- 
dkea and its allies has been written from the herbarium, and 
all our authorities upon the group are foreign authorities. 
No exception is to be made of botanical scholars belonging 
to the Atlantic side of our own continent; for they are three 
thousand miles distant from the habitat of these plants, and 
as regards facilities for acquiring familiar and thorough 
knowledge of tlie genera and species, possess little if any 
advantage over authorities residing at London or St. Peters- 
burg, Paris or Berlin. 

In the field there stand forth a few broad hints of generic 
limitation which must, I think, impress every observer. We 
have, for example, a group of perhaps a half dozen species 
whose scapes are tall and weak and either actually twining 
or else, by a marked tortuosity, expressing a demand for 
extraneous support. And there is another group, more 
numerous in species, whose scapes are short and rigidly 
erect. But the external dissimilarity does not end here. 
The voluble or tortuous kinds bear compact umbels of small 
flowers; the stiff-stalked species have loose umbels of large 
flowers; and, moreover, the two groups, as we for the pres- 
ent call them, have each its own pattern of a perianth; some- 
thing in the outline of that organ which, though nearly im- 
possible to define in Avords, is recognized at a glance by the 
botanist's eye, if he have the fresh flower before him. Now 
if the individual perianths of the two kinds be carefully ex- 
amined, other differences easily definable reveal themselves. 
The weak-stalked, small-flowered assemblage of species 
have uniformly a thin, somewhat inflated perianth-tube with 
the body of which the filaments are so perfectly coalescent 
as to disappear from the wall of the tube altogether. In the 
stifl-stalked, loose-umbeled group the perianth-tube is of 



GENERA CONFUSED UNDER BRODLEA. 127 

firm texture and not inflated, and the filaments, stout and 
angular, are prominent upon the wall of the tube, down ta 
its very base, being attached only by one of the sides or 
angles. This last named character I discovered in the field,, 
but am able henceforth to trace it even in the dried speci- 
mens. In the first named group the volubility of the scapes 
is the most striking outward mark of a genus; but it is 
very apt to disappear before the specimens are ready for the 
herbarium; and the one unlucky species whose stalk does- 
not altogether untwist itself in drying has, by closet bot- 
anists, been forced away from its less strongly twining rela- 
tives, and must henceforth labor bibliographically under 
the weight of at least four generic synonyms, of which 
Macroscapa is barbarous, Rupalleya and Dichelostemma in 
good form, Siropholirlon admirably chosen, but all equally 
uncalled for. 

The confusion of the two genera whose respective 
limits I have thus briefly and informally indicated, was 
begun bv tlie very first author, Salisbury, to whom any of 
the species were known; and it was continued by his con- 
temporary Smith. The renowned author of the Enumeratio 
Plantarum was first to recognize in the species of Smith's 
Brodkea two distinct generic types. I was long under the 
impression that Kunth's name, Dichelostemma, would have 
to be continued for one of these two genera- Of the priority 
of Salisbury's Hookera over Brodlcea I was not aware until 
that fact was so clearly brought out, less than a year ago, 
by Mr. Britten, editor of the London Journal of Botany, 
and this important circumstance being recognized, it does 
not appear necessary to take up the name Dichelostemma; 
for, the plant which Salisbury brought forward as the type 
of Hookera, namely H. coromtvia, being of one genus and 
tliat which Smith figured as the type of Brodkea, that is, 
B. congesta, representing the other, I see no reason why 
both these generic names ought not to be continued in use. 

But, Brodkea and Hookera, as thus outlined, will include 



128 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

rsomewhat less than one half of the species under considera- 
tion. The others have in no instance the perianth-pattern 
of either of those genera; are never, like them, merely tri- 
androus; and their anthers are in no instance adnate. Along 
with considerable variability in the shape of the perianth, 
they display always six perfect stamens with versatile an- 
thers. There is, moreover, a striking peculiarity in the way 
in which the filaments are joined to the tube of the peri- 
anth, and. that is of the following description : the filament 
is slender and the upper part free, more or less; the adnate 
portion inconspicuous down the upper part of the tube, 
reappearing toward the base in the form of a thin but prom- 
inent crest. The species, however closely agreeing in 
habit and in the points of floral structure thus indicated, 
are diverse to a troublesome degree in the relative propor- 
tions of the tube and limb of the perianth, and more espec- 
ially in the structure and attachment of the androecium. 
The three or four species representing the very extremes of 
this diversity were, singularly, those which fell first into the 
hands of botanists, and each of these was very naturally 
and, under the circumstances, quite logically taken to be 
the type of a genus; and so there was Triteleia, seeming to 
approach Brodiwa by its broadly tubular perianth: Seuher- 
tia, in which the tube is attenuate below and the internal 
crests very strongly brought out; Calliprova, in which the 
cristiform reappearing of the filament quite fails, but is com- 
pensated for by an alar dilation of the upper free part of that 
organ; Hesperoscordum, in which the whole perianth is open 
campanulate, and the filaments dilated and monad elphous 
below. This last has, in my opinion, better claims than any 
of the others to separate generic rank. A year ago I should 
probably have insisted on its restoration. But the past 
season's collecting has yielded us a second species whose 
filaments are not at all dilated, but simply and singly adnate 
to the perianth for one half their length. Morphologically 
there is nothing in these two plants to keep them out of 



GENERA CONFUSED UNDER BRODLEA. 129 

Allium. The old species was actually referred to that 
genus by -two celebrated botanists of Europe, each acting 
independently of the other. Its showy umbels very closely 
resemble those of the beautiful Allium tmifolium of nearly 
the same habit; but Hesperoscovdum is wholly wanting in 
alliaceous properties. With this group, therefore, collect- 
ively distinct as it is from both Hoohera and Brodkea, I see 
nothing to be done but to join the whole in one under the 
oldest name, Triteleia. Against Mr. Baker's view that they 
are susceptible of admission to the South American genus 
J/i/Za there appear to me some quite insuperable objections. 
All the South American species which he has so referred 
have inarticulate pedicels, different subterranean parts, and 
some of them at least are strongly alliaceous. We have 
some North American plants which seem to be exactly in> 
termediate in character between Brodicea and Mllla, namely, 
the two species of AndrostepJiium, forming a genus whose 
validity has not, I believe, been called in question. It ex- 
hibits the coronated perianth of Brodicea, but has alliaceous 
qualities. Our California plant, which now goes happily, 
in my estimation, under Mr. Watson's name, 3Iailla, is also 
a connecting link between —or rather, an argument for the 
distinctness of — the North and South American genera. 
This is excluded from Allium only by its wanting the well- 
known properties of that genus, wdiile, on the other hand, 
it is inadmissible to Triteleia by reason of its jointless 
pedicels. 

Two other of our California genera of this alliance need, 
to be here spoken of: Bloomeria, which, although it now 
rejoices in three well-marked species, is, I apprehend, in 
danger of falling into Triteleia through the Calliprora group; 
and Brevoortia, which has an inflated perianth to bring it 
close to Brodicea, and a development of the filaments at the 
base of the tube suggestive of Triteleia, but which is best 

Note -. — Allium lacteum, Beuth. PI. Hartw. 339; and Allium Tilingi, Regel^ 
All. Monogr. 124. 



130 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

retained in generic rank, especially since a new plant from 
Lower California with a somewhat similarly inflated and as 
brilliantly scarlet colored perianth, must also be accorded 
a like grade, on account of the very distinctive character of 
its androecium. 

SKODI^A, Smith in part. 

Tube of the perianth thin and subtranslucent, campanulate 
or somewhat urceolate, more or less inflated and angular or 
saccate; segments about equaling the tube, campanulate- 
or rotate-spreading and often somewhat recurved. Fila- 
ments 6, inserted on the throat of the perianth, coalescent with 
the tube below and disappearing from its surface, developed 
above the insertion into petaloid appendages, those opposite 
the outer segments sterile, or with a half-sized anther, the 
other three always fertile. Anthers basifixed. Ovary sessile, 
or nearly so. Style stout. Stigma 3-lobed. Leaves 2, 
■deep green, very fleshy. Scape tall, weak and tortuous, or, 
in several species occasionally twining under the many- 
flowered, compact umbel. — Smith, Linn. Trans, x. 3. excl. 
B. grandiflova ; Baker, Journ. Linn. Soc. xi, 375, in part; 
S. Watson, Proc. Am. Acad. xiv. 236, and Bot. Calif, ii. 
152, in part. Dichelostemma, Kunth. Enum. iv. 269; Wood, 
Proc. Phil. Acad. 1868, 173. 31acroscapa, Kell., Pacific, 
1854. StropJioUrion, Torrey, Pac. E. Rep. iv. 149. t. 
23. Rupalleya, Moriere, Bull. Linn. Soc. Norm. 1863. 
Mookera, in part, of Salisb. Parad. Lond., and of Britten, 
Journ. Bot. xxiv. 51. 

* Fertile stayneiis 3; periajiih-tuhe much constricted under the 
segments. 

B. VOLUBILIS, Baker, 1. c. 377. Scape 4 — 10 feet high, in 
smaller plants tortuous only, in larger ones firmly twin- 
ing towards the summit; perianth rose-purple, 6 — 8 lines 
long; tube 3 — 4 lines in diameter, hardly as long, hexagonal, 
the angles somewhat saccately enlarged about midway; 



GENERA CONFUSED UNDER BRODI.EA. 131 

segments rotate-spreading, with recurved tips; fertile fila- 
ments produced behind the anthers into a pair of ligulate, 
emarginate appendages nearly equaling the linear-sagittate 
anthers, and, like the very similar staminodia, ciliolate- 
scabrous. — Macroscapa, Kell. 1. c. : Rupallei/a, Moriere, 1. c: 
jSfropholirion Calif ornicum, Torr. 1. c. and Watson, 1. c. : 
Dlchelosiemma Calif ormcura, Wood, 1. c. 

Of rather extended yet well defined habitat, being found 
exclusively among the foothills on either side of the Sacra- 
mento valley, but not crossing either divide of mountains; 
thus ranging northward and southward for a hundred miles. 
The figure in the Pacific Eailroad Keport is not very accur- 
ate, for the angularity of the tube of the perianth is not at 
all brought out; but this may be owing to the fact of the 
artists having only dried specimens to work from; and in 
such this character is not apparent. The scape is also 
wrongly represented, twining as it were evenly and regu- 
larly, like that of a Convolvulus, for almost its whole length, 
a condition not likely to be found in reality. The plant in- 
habits the outer borders of thickets and also the open 
grounds adjacent to bushes. The scapes commonly grow 
erect and independent of foreign support, and remain so 
until toward the time of flowering; then a short coil of a few 
very abrupt turns is made just below the umbel around 
some more or less horizontally projecting branch or twig. 
This is the condition of tall and luxuriant specimens grow- 
ing near small trees and shrubs. Those farther off from 
such extraneous supports twine in like fashion about each 
other, or if entirely isolated, do not twine at all. All the 
other species, except B, congesta, which has its own peculiar 
mode of taking hold of bushes, are occasionally twining; 
this one almost universally so. There is therefore no dif- 
ference in habit between this and the other species, and Mr. 
Baker's transference of it to this genus is one of the good 
points which in his elaborate monograph, he has made with 



132 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

respect to our Californian species. I may add, that in re- 
spect to color, B, volubilis is commonly rose or nearly white, 
but not rarely exhibits the violet shade which predominates 
in the genus. Its flowering season is from early in May to 
the middle of June. 

B. MULTIFLORA, Bentli. Scape 2 — 4 feet high, scabrous, 
under the umbel, tortuous or occasionally twining as in the 
last: perianth deep violet-purple, 8 — 10 lines; tube narrowly 
constricted above, twice as long as broad, shorter than the 
spreading segments: staminodia obtuse, entire, little ex" 
ceeding the oblong, deeply bifid anthers. — PI. Hartw. 339; 
Baker, 1. c. 154; B. parviflora, Torr. & Gray, Pac. K. Kep. ii. 
125; Wood, 1. c. : Hookera multiflora, Britten, 1. c. 

From central California to Oregon, in the mountains onlyr 
at least in California. Mr. Watson's remark in the second 
volume of the Botany of California, that the present species 
flowers a month or two earlier than B. congesta, evinces en- 
tire lack of knowledge on the part of his informants. B. 
multifiora is the latest of all species, being found in good 
condition of flower as. late as July. It is considerably later 
than B. congesta, which is next to it in tardiness. 

B. CONGESTA, Smith. Scape 3 — 5 feet high, flexuous, but 
apparently never twining: flowers blue-purple, in a dense 
capitate raceme: perianth as in the last species: staminodia 
bifid, spreading with the limb of the perianth, and purple, 
as in no other species. Trans. Linn. Soc. x. 3. t. 1; Baker, 
1. c; Watson, 1. c. : Dichelostemma, Kunth. Enum. iv. 470; 
Wood, 1. c. 173: Hookera pidchella, Britten, 1. c. in part, not 
of Salisb. 

Central California to the borders of British Columbia, in 
open or wooded places among the foothills, flowering in May 
and June. The figure in the Transactions of the Linnean 
Society was apparently taken from a specimen not well de- 
veloped, and does not indicate that distinctly racemose char- 
acter of the inflorescence which Mr. Watson supposes to be 



GENERA CONFUSED UNDER BRODI.EA. 133 

exceptional, but which we who see every year hundreds of 
luxuriant specimens know to be universal. This, like B. volu- 
bills, attains its best development when growing in the edges 
of thickets where its tall scapes obtain their needed support 
by taking a zigzag course up among the branches of the 
buslies. It is a peculiar species in this respect, and more 
peculiar still in the racemose inflorescence. 

^^ Fertile stamens 6. 
-\— Perianth-tiibe constricted above. 

B. PULCHELLA. Scape 2 — 4 feet high: flowers umbellate: 
perianth as in B. coiigesta: appendages of filaments erect 
or somewhat convergent over the anthers. Hookera piilcJiella^ 
Salisb. Parad. ii. t. 117;Britten, 1. c. excl. syn. : B. congesta; 
B. capitata in part of several authors (?). 

The plant which I here quite confidently take for the real 
Hookera pulchella, has not been long known to me; but I 
had named and diagnosed it as a new species before having 
seen the figure in the Paradisus. It is distinguishable from 
B. congesta, wdth which it grows, by its umbellate inflores- 
cence and hexandrous flowers, and from B. capitata by its 
differently shaped perianth and ^Bstival flowering season, 
that species being early vernal. Its existence, as a species, 
is certified to me, first, by my own field observations and 
comparisons, made at Berkeley, where it grows and flowers 
with B. congesta, or even a little later than that, and fully 
six weeks after B. capitata has passed out of the field. I 
have also a single specimen from the Yosemite Valley, ob- 
tained late in June, 1886, by Miss Brunton. The hexan- 
drous character of Salisbury's plant has been a stumbling- 
block in the path of all authors from his own time down to 
the present; for every one has inferred from the close, in- 
deed quite perfect, similarity of the perianth, that this and 
Sir J. E. Smith's B. congesta were identical; but that is 
plainly triandrous. Salisbury himself, believing them to be 
the same, was able to reconcile in his own mind the dis- 



134 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

crepancy by a supposition that three of the anthers were 
deciduous. He says he has observed that to be the case. 
Our field studies reveal no tendency even, to anything of 
that kind. Kunth, in the Enuraeratio, supposes the hexan- 
drous representation in the Paradisus to be an error of the 
artist. Perhaps this learned author did not read English, 
and so, failed to be instructed by Salisbury's verbal testi- 
mony to the faithfulness of the figure in this respect. It is 
a very interesting piece of infoimation, that which Mr. 
Britten has given us in a foot-note appended to his valua- 
ble article that, among the original specimens of B, co)tgesia 
collected by Menzies, he finds one whose difi'erence from all 
the others had not escaped the keen perception of Robert 
Brown, who marked it "Distinct and hexandrous." This 
specimen will most likely prove to be of the present species; 
for, as I have already said, this grows with B. congesta and 
flowers at the same time. A collector would naturally ob- 
tain the two at once, and at a season of the year when the 
other common and Avell known hexandrous species would be 
long out of flower. The plant which Professor Wood saw 
at Yreka, in the northern part of the State, " Growing with 
the other \^B. congestct], readily distinguished at sight," 
must have been this and not B. ccqntcUa, which , apart from 
its far earlier flowering, does not grow so far to the north- 
ward, to my knowledge. 

-t--^ Perianth-tiLhe funnel form, iwt at all constricted ahove. 

B. iNSULAKis. Scape 3 — 5 feet high : leaves often a yard 
long and an inch broad : bracts elliptic-lanceolate, acumin- 
ate, scarious, tinged with purple and, marked by dark veins; 
umbel elongated: perianth light purple, ten lines long; 
tube about 4 lines; segments ovate-oblong, obtuse, campan- 
ulate, not recurved: appendages of filaments erect, not con- 
vergent. — B. capitata, Greene, Bull. Cal. Acad. i. 227, not 
of Bentham. 

Islands off the Californian coast, from San Miguel to Gua- 



GENERA CONFUSED UNDER BRODI^A. 135 

dalupe. Closely related to the next but many times larger; 
best distinguished by the elongated umbel, of which the 
central pedicels are longest and the outer gradually shorter, 
giving the cluster the peculiar configuration of the raceme of 
B.congesta; indeed, the pedicels need only to be united, and 
then we should liave a repetition of the inflorescence of that 
species. The corms are the largest in the genus, often two 
inches in diameter; and those brought from Guadalupe and 
grown at Berkeley flower simultaneously with B. congesta, 
many weeks later than the species to which, morpliologi- 
cally, it is nearly related, namely — 

B. CAPITATA, Benth. Scape 6 — 18 inches high; leaves 
nearly as long, 3 — 6 lines wide : bracts elliptic-oblong, ob- 
tuse or acute, herbaceous and, in California, of a rich dark 
violet-purple: pedicels unequal but the outer elongated, not 
the inner, forming a loose, broad umbel: perianth as in the 
preceding, but smaller: corona connivent over the anthers. 
—PL Hartw. 339; Watson 1. c: 3Ella, Baker. 1. c. 381: 
Dichelostemina capitatum, Wood. 1. c. in part, doubtless. 

Central California to Utah and New Mexico and southward 
to the northern districts of Mexico, flowering from January 
to April. In the vicinity of San Francisco, hillsides may be 
found empurpled with it in early March. It commonly 
grows in masses, on very open stony ground, the weak 
scapes often twining about one another for mutual support- 
In this species alone are the umbels occasionally compound, 
the elongated outer pedicels becoming true peduncles, each 
bearing its bracted umbel within the common spathe. The 
figure in the Botanical Magazine, t. 5912, does not fail to 
illustrate the dark, almost metallic beauty of the bracts 
which is a fine peculiarity of this species, at least in Cali- 
fornia; but the stamens are wrongly represented as exposed 
by an open corona, whereas in nature the parts of it are 
sufficiently convergent to hide them. 



136 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

HOOKERA, Salisbuky In j^art. 

Tube of perianth firm and opaque, turbinate or somewhat 
urceolate, but never at all inflated or saccate: segments 
equaling the tube, campanulate- or rotate-spreading, the 
tips often recurved. Filaments 6, stout and 3 — 4-angular, 
not coalescent with the perianth-tube, but coherent with it 
by one side or angle and remaining prominent down to its 
base, 3 antheriferous and the alternate 3 bearing white, pet- 
aloid lamelloe. Anthers basifixed. Pistil as in the preced- 
ing genus. Scapes shorter, more rigid, never twining or 
tortuous. Umbels loose and mostly few-flowered, the pedi- 
cels elongated and firm. — Parad. Lond. ii. t. 98; Britten, 
Journ. Bot. xxiv in part. Broduea, in part, of Smith, Baker, 
Watson and others. 

H. Califoenica. Scape 2 feet high, stout and somewhat 
scabrous: leaves a foot or two long, a fourth of an inch 
broad, flattened: pedicels 10 — 25, 2 — 3 inches long: peri- 
anth 1 J — 2 inches, rose-color to deep purple : anthers J inch 
long, slightly shorter than the lio*ulate, retuse staminodia. — 
Broduea Californica, Lindl. Trans. Hort. Soc. iv. 84; BrodicBa 
grandiflora, var. elatior, Benth. PI. Hartw. 339; B. grandi- 
flora, var. (?) major, Watson, Bot. Cal. ii. 153. 

Upper part of the Sacramento Valley. 

H. coRONAiiiA, Salisb. 1. c. Scape stout, about a foot 
high: leaves a line wide, somewhat terete: pedicels 3 — 10, 
1 — 4 inches long: perianth an inch or more long, purple: 
anthers 4 — 5 lines long, exceeding the oblong-lanceolate, 
mostly acute staminodia. — Broduea grandiflora, Smith, 
Trans. Linn. Soc. x. 2; Hook. Bot. Mag. t. 2877; Baker, 
1. c. in part: Watson, 1. c. excl. var. 

The commonest species, occurring nearly throughout Cal- 
ifornia, Oregon and Washington Territory. 

H. MINOR, Britten, 1. c. Scape very slender, 3 — 6 inches 
high: pedicels 2 — 6, 1 — 3 inches long: perianth an inch or 



GENERA CONFUSED UNDER BRODLEA. 137 

somewhat less, the limb rotate-spreading : anthers 2' lines 
long, shorter than tiie retuse or emarginate staminodia. — 
Brodkea grandiflora, var. minor, Uenth. PI. Hartw. 340; B. 
minor, Watson, 1. c. 

Common from the Sacramento Yalley to the southern ex- 
tremity of the State. Keadily distinguished from the pre- 
ceding, when seen in the field, by its rotate perianth-seg- 
ments. 

H. TEREESTRis, Britten, 1. c. Scape commonly altogether 
subterranean, the umbel only above ground: leaves subter- 
ete : pedicels 2 — 10, slender, 3 — 4 inches long : perianth less 
than an inch, the limb rotate : anthers Ih lines long, shorter 
than the yellowish emarginate staminodia, the margins of 
which are involute. — Brodkea, Kellogg, Proc. Cal. Acad. ii. 
6; Watson, 1. c. 

From near San Francisco northward to the borders of 
Oregon, toward the coast. Its yellowish staminodia, with 
their margins rolled in. resemble true anthers but are 
wholly sterile. 

H. STELLARis. Scapc 2 — 6 inches high : leaves nearly ter- 
ete: pedicels 3 — 6, an inch or more long: perianth 10 lines 
long, red-purple: fertile filaments wing-appendaged behind 
the anther, the appendages broadly oblong, half the length 
of the anther : staminodia longer than the stamens, white, 
emarginate, their margins slightly involute. — Brodicea, Wat- 
son, Proc. Am. Acad, xvii, 381. 

Near Ukiah, Mendocino County, discovered in 1881, by 
Mr. Carl Purdy, and not yet found elsewhere. 

H. ROSEA. Scape slender, 3 — 6 inches high: leaves sub- 
terete: pedicels 5 — 8, an inch long: perianth 10 lines long, 
rose-red, the segments narrow and apparently campanulate- 
spreading: free portion of fertile filaments deltoid-dilated; 
anthers not quite equaling the white, obtuse, slightly invo- 
lute staminodia: capsule short-stipitate, the cells 5 — 8 
ovuled. 



138 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

Collected at Hough's Springs, Lake County, May, 1884, 
by Mrs. M. K. Curran. Distinguished from H. stellar is by 
the narrower segments of the perianth, and by the deltoid 
filaments and the absence of appendages behind the anthers. 

H. FiLiroLiA. Scape slender, 6 — 12 inches high; leaves 
linear-filiform; pedicels 3 — 6, 1 — 2 inches long; perianth dark 
blue, 6 — 9 lines long: segments rotate, broadly oblong; 
anthers sessile, 2 lines long, nearly twice the length of the 
triangular staminodia. — Brodicea, Watson, 1. c. 

Neighborhood of San Bernardino; collected by the Parish 
Brothers and by G. E. Vasey. 

H. Orcuttii. Scape stout, a foot or more high; leaves 
linear, flat or conduplicate, not terete; pedicels 5 — 15, an 
inch or two long; perianth-segments oblong-lanceolate, twice 
the length of the short tube; free portion of the filaments 
about two lines long, the linear anthers nearly as long; 
staminodia wanting (?). 

San Diego county, near the city of that name, and also 
thirty miles to the northward. — C. R. Orcutt, 1884. 

The comparatively short tube of the perianth and the 
elongation of the filaments are peculiarities of this species 
quite as remarkable as the absence of staminodia; although 
I do not speak positively on the last named point. I have 
seen only dried specimens, and shall not be surprised if an 
examination of the living flower brings to light some trace, 
at least, of staminodia. 

TRITELEIA, Dougl. Hook. Lindl. 

Tube of the perianth from narrowly turbinate to open 
campanulate, not inflated, angular, or saccate, longer or 
shorter than the segments. Stamens 6, usually in two rows; 
filaments slender, from almost whoOy adnate, to nearly free, 
the free portion mostly without wing-like appendages, 
coalescent with the upper part of the perianth-tube, but 
usually reappearing strongly at base of the same, in the form 



GENERA CONFUSED UNDER BRODUEA. 139 

of thin but prominent crests. Anthers smaller than in 
Hookera and versatile. Ovary on a long slender stipe, or 
rarely almost sessile. Scapes tall and slender, but firm, 
not tortuous. Umbels loose, many-tlowered. — Lindl. Bot. 
Keg. t. 1-293 and t. 1685; Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. ii. 186, t. 198, 
B.; Kunth. Enum. iv. 465, as to the N. Am. species only; 
Wood. Proc. Phil. Acad. 1868, 171. He^peroscordam, Lindl. 
1. c. ; Hook. 1. c; Hook. & Arn. Bot. Beech. 400; Kunth, 1. c. 
464; Wood, 1. c. Calliprora, Lindl. Bot. Reg. t. 1590; Hook. 
& Arn. i. c; Kunth, 1. c. 476; Wood, 1. c. 172. Seuhertia, 
Kunth, 1. c. 475; Wood, 1. c. 171. Part of 31111a, Baker, and 
of BrocUcea, Watson. 

"^Perianth broadly tubular. — Triteleia proper. 

T. GRANDIFLORA, Lindl. 1. c. Scape a foot or two high; 
pedicels numerous, an inch long; perianth light blue, an 
inch long; anthers oblong, a line long, the lower sessile in 
the throat opposite the outer segments, the upper on the 
inner segments on a short, free filament which is winged 
below. — Milla, Baker 1. c. 380; Brodkm, Torr. Stansb. Rep. 
397; Brodiaxt Douglasii, Wats. 1. c. 

From Oregon and Washington Territory eastward to 
northern Utah and western Wyoming. . 

T. HowELLii. Scape 2 feet high, or more; umbel and 
perianth as in the first species, filaments of the lower stamens 
very short and deltoid, those of the upper a line and a half 
long, and winged broadly, the wing truncate or retuse, or 
nearly rounded above. — Brodkca, Watson, Proc. Am. Acad. 
xiv. 301. 

First collected in Oregon, by Mr. Eddy, 1871; more recent 
specimens are those from Washington Territory, collected 
by Mr. Howell; and from these Mr. Watson defined the 
sj)ecies. 

• "^"^ Periardh turbinate, attenuate at base. — Seubertia. 

T. CANDIDA. Scape 2 — 4 feet high; umbel 6 — 10-flowered; 
perianth an inch and a half long, shining white with 6 green 



140 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

veins on the outside, segments equaling the tube; filaments 
with a slender free part which is 2^ lines long and coiled 
almost or quite into a ring; anthers oblong, a line in length, 
obtuse at each end, fixed exactly in the middle; ovary half 
exserted from the throat of the perianth, on a slender stipe 
8 lines long; style slender, 2 lines long, somewhat incurved; 
cells of capsule about 6-seeded. 

Foot-hills of the Sierra Nevada back of Fresno, June, 
1886. Mr. J. E. Scupham. A beautiful species, related to 
the next, but very distinct, with its snow-white, green- veined 
perianth and coiled filaments. 

T. LAXA, Benth. Scape about two feet high, rigid and 
stoutish: umbel 10 — 30-flowered: perianth an inch and a 
half long, from light to dark violet, cleft to the middle: fila- 
ments free for a line's length ; anthers OA^ate-lanceolate Avith 
a 2-lobed base, fixed below the middle and borne erect: 
ovary on a slender stipe a half-inch long. — Hort. Trans, n. 
s. i. 413, 1. 15; Lindl. Bot. Keg. t. 1685; Hook. & Arn. Bot. 
Beech. 401: Seubertia, Kunth. 1. c. ; Wood, 1. c. : Milla, Baker, 
1. c: Brodicea, Watson, 1. c. 

Very common in the central parts of California, flowering 
in May and June, the most showy aud beautiful species of 
the whole alliance. 

T. PEDUNCULARis, Lindl. Scape 1 — 3 feet high: umbel 
15 — 35-flowered, the pedicels greatly elongated, often 6 — 10 
inches long: perianth pale rose-purj)le or nearly white, 
about an inch long, cleft below the middle, the segments 
wide-spread : stamens and pistil nearly" as in the last species, 
but the anthers nearly linear, with retuse apex. — Bot. Beg. 
t. 1685; Hook. & Arn. 1. c. 401; Kunth. 1. c. 469: Blillo, 
Baker, 1. c. : Broduea, Watson, I.e. 

From Point Tiburon, near San Francisco, northward to 
Lake and Mendocino Counties, also in the Sacramento 
Yalley, growing in moist springy places, and later in its 
flowering than the other species. 



GENERA CONFUSED UNDER BRODUEA. 141 

T. Bridgesii. Scape rather slender, a foot or more in 
height: umbel few-flowered: perianth as in T. Icixa, but 
with a more slender tube, stamens in one row, the free por- 
tions of the filaments dilated downwards. — Brodicea, Wat- 
son, L c. 

A well-marked species, of somewhat limited range, a23pa- 
rentlj. We have it only from near Chico (Mrs. Bidweli), 
and from near the coast in Humboldt County (Mr. C. C. 
Marshall). 

T. Lemmon^. Scape a foot high: pedicels an inch long: 
perianth deep orange, 4 — 5 lines long, segments twice the 
length of the tube: filaments stout, terete, nearly equal, in- 
serted at the mouth of the tube; anthers 1 — IJ lines long: 
ovary short-stipitate. — Brodicea^ Watson, Proc. Am. Acad. 
XX. 376. 

Mountains of the northern part of Arizona. 

T. CROCEA. Scape a foot or more in height: pedicels 
6 — 15, slender, an inch or two long: perianth yellow, 7 — 9 
lines long, cleft, below the middle: anthers oblong, less 
than a line long, obtuse at each end, the lower nearly sessile 
on the tube, the upper borne on a free filament reaching 
the middle of the segment : ovary on a slender stipe 2 lines 
long.—Suhertia, Wood. 1. c. 172: Milla, Baker, L c. 384: 
Brodicea, Watson, 1. c. 

Known only from the extreme northern part of California. 

T. GRACILIS. Half as large as the last species, the leaf 
usually solitary, pedicels more numerous: perianth yellow, 
cleft below the middle: filaments subequal, the free part 
much elongated, carrying the sagittate acute anthers above 
midway of the segments: ovary as in the preceding. — Bro- 
dicea, Watson, 1. c. 

Common in pine woods of the Sierra Nevada, from Plu- 
mas to Merced Counties. Collected by Mrs. Austin, Mrs. 
Curran, Dr. Kellogg, Mr. Sonne, and others. 

11.— Bull. Cal. Acad. Sci. II. 6. Issued November 13, 1886, 



142 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

^^'* Perianth tube short, the segments rotate -spreading, 
filaments hdoiv coalescent luith the short perianth-tuhe, free and 
broadly appendaged above it. — Calliprora. 

T. ixioiDES. Scape i — 2 feet high: leaves 1 or 2: fiUi- 
ments of two lengths but all bifurcate at apex, the oblong 
anther inserted on a central cusp: color light yellow, or the 
anther only sometimes bluish. — Ornithogalum, Ait. f. Hort. 
Kew ii. 257: Milla, Baker, 1. c. 383: Brod'mn, AVatson, 1. c. : 
Calliprora lutea, Lindl. Bot. Reg. t. 1590; Hook. Bot. Mag. 
t. 3588; Kunth, 1. c. 476; Hook & Arn. 1. c. 400. 

Common from the southern portions of the State to Or- 
egon. 

T. LUGENS. Like the preceding in size and habit; append- 
ages of the filaments rounded, not bifurcate, at apex : peri- 
anth deep saffron color within, exteriorly the entire tube 
and the broad midvein of the segments brownish black. 

Collected only by the writer, on mountain summits back 
of Vacaville, May 4, 1886. 

■^«-5(-K- Perianth open-campanidate, cleft below the middle, seg- 
ments not rotate-spreading. — Hesperoscordum. 

T. HYACiNTHiNA. Scape a foot or two high : pedicels 5—20, 
slender: perianth 5 — 8 lines long, white with green veins, 
or sometimes tinged with purple: stamens in one row; fila- 
ments deltoid-dilated and monadelphous below, attenuate 
above and tipped with a small ovate-oblong anther : capsule 
short-stipitate. — Hesperoscordum hyacinthiniim, Lindl. Bot. 
Reg. t. 1293; H. lacteum, Lindl. 1. c. t. 1639; Wood, 1. c; 
H. Leivisii, Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. ii. 185, t. 198; H. hyacinth- 
inum and H. lacteum, Kunth. 1. c. 464: 31illa hyacinthina, 
Baker, 1. c. 385: Brodicea lactea, Watson, 1. c. : Allium lac- 
teum, Benth. PI. Hartw. 339; A. Tilingi, Regel. All. Mon. 
124. 

From middle California to British Columbia; affecting 
moist grounds, flowering in May and June. The var. lila- 



GENERA CONFUSED TNDER BRODI.EA. 143 

cina, Watson, said to inhabit MeDdocino and Humboldt 
counties in this State, is not known to me nnless it be the 
following very distinct species. 

T. LILACINA. Scape less than a foot high: pedicels 10—15: 
perianth a half inch long, lilac-purple: stamens in one row; 
filaments not deltoid-dilated or in any degree monadelphous, 
coalescent with the tuba throughout, free above it, and 
bearing the linear-oblong anthers more than half way up the 
segments. 

Amador Couuty, May 25, 1836, Mrs. M. K. Curran. 

BEHRIA Nov. Gen 

Perianth tubular, persistent, abruptly subglobose-inflated 
and 6-saccate above the attenuate ba^e, thence more grad- 
ually contracted into the long, narrow, 6-toothed tube. 
Stamens 6 : filaments filiform, free down to the base of the 
sac of the perianth, there abruptly dilated and united into 
a short crown: anthers versatile, exserted from the perianth. 
Ovary stipitate, 3-celled, many-ovuled: style filiform, long- 
exserted: stigma small, 3-lobed. Plant with the scarious- 
bracted umbel and slender, jointed pedicels of Triteleia; 
scape apparently tortuous or twining as in Brodicea: leaves 
and corm (?) unknown. The genus is dedicated to our ex- 
cellent friend, H. Herman Behr, M. D., Professor of Bot- 
any in the College of Pharmacy of the University of Cali- 
fornia. 

B. TENUIFLORA. Pedicels 8 — 15, very slender, an inch or 
two long : perianth 10 lines long, the supra-basal sac 3 lines 
broad, tubular portion hardly rnore than a line in diameter, 
the ovate-oblong teeth about a line long, erect or slightly 
spreading, brownish, apparently; whole body of the per- 
ianth bright scarlet: anthers linear-oblong, a line long, ob- 
tuse at each end, fixed by the middle, yellow : capsule ovate ^ 
a half inch long. 



144 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

The umbels are all we possess of this very beautiful and 
interesting new ally of Brodicm. They are ticketed ' ' San 
Jose del Cabo," which means that they are from Cape St. 
Lucas, or thereabouts, but the name of the collector is un- 
known. The fragments have been lying in the herbarium 
of the Academy for many years, and I had supposed, before 
opening a perianth that the plant would be a second species 
^f Brevoortia. 

2. Miscellaneous Species, New or Noteworthy 

Helianthemum occidentale, Suffrutescent, a foot or 
more high, stout and much branched; stellate-hirsute 
throughout except the corymbose inflorescence, which is 
more densely hirsute, with simple, glandular- viscid hairs: 
leaves linear-lanceolate, an inch long, their margin more or 
less revolute: inner sepals 4 lines long, ovate, acuminate, 
outer linear one-half as long: petals 5 lines long: stamens 
about 20: capsule equaling the calyx. 

On a dry summit in the central part of the Island of Santa 
Cruz, growing there along with H. scoparmm, which is com- 
mon all over the island. 

Ceanothus arboreus. a small tree 15 — 25 feet high, 
trunk 6 — 10 inches in diameter, smooth, with a light-gray 
bark; branches soft-pubescent: leaves ovate, acute, serrate, 
or often rather crenate, 2 — 4 inches long, green and puberu- 
lent above, whitish and soft-tomentose beneath: flowers 
pale blue in a compound raceme: fruit not crested. 

Island of Santa Cruz; common on northward slopes in the 
more elevated regions. The largest known species, with 
more ample foliage than is found in any other; always tree- 
like in shape, with clean trunk and open but round head, 
like a well-kept orchard tree; in this particular most unlike 
any other Ceanothus. 

LuPixus CARNOSULUS. Annual, not slender, 1 — 2 feet 
high, somewhat succulent, finely pubescent, with appressed 



MISCELLANEOUS NEW SPECIES. 145 

hairs: leaflets oblanceolate, an inch long, obtuse, but with 
a small, recurved cusp: racemes loose: bracts equalling the 
calyx, the upper lip of which is deeply cleft: corolla 5 lines 
long, deep blue throughout, keel naked: pods when young 
strongly villous-hirsute. 

Near the village of Olema, Marin County, April, 1886. 

Plant with the habit of large states of L. nanus, but very 
distinct, wanting the variegated or changeable petals and 
villous-edged keel of that species; the herbage fleshy as in 
L. affinis. 

LuPixus UMBELLATUS. Auiiual, slender and much branch- 
ed, a foot or more high, canescent with a soft, villous pu- 
bescence: leaflets 7 — 11, only a half-inch long: peduncles 
slender; pedicels elongated, bearing the few small flowers 
in an umbellate cluster: calyx-lips narrow, the upper deeply 
cleft: corolla 2 — 3 lines long, light blue: pods 5 — 7-seeded. 

Island of Santa Cruz, 1886. 

Near L. mlcranthiis, but distinguished therefrom by its 
dense white pubescence, small, crowded leaflets and almost 
umbellate inflorescence. 

SYRMATIUM, Vogel. 

Calyx campanulate-tubular, almost equally 5-toothed or 
-cleft, persistent. Petals subequal, free from the stamens: 
claw of the vexillum remote from the others; wings spread- 
ing; keel broad above and usually obtuse or retuse. Stamens 
10, diadelphous; anthers uniform. Style incurved. Pod 
linear, compressed, rostrate-attenuate, falcate-incurved, 
1 — 3-seeded, indehiscent, deciduous by an articulation of 
the pedicel. — Herbs or shrubs with 3 — 7-foliolate leaves and 
gland-like stipules. Flowers small, in few-flowered, bracted 
or naked umbels, yellow changing to red. — Linna^a, x. 591 
(1836): Drepanolobiis, Nutt. MS. cited in Torr. k Gray, 
PL N. Am. i. 324 (1838): part of HosacJda, Bentham, Torrey, 
Gray, and all recent authors. 

In restoring this long neglected genus, I am not obliged 



146 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

to rest it upon those characters alone, sufficient although 
they would seem to be, which were indicated both bj Vogel 
and by Nuttall a half century ago. The indehisc mt pods, 
promptly deciduous at maturity, are so utterly and widely 
unlike those of any Hosackia that I suppose, the character 
being here pointed out, there will henceforth remain less 
excuse than formerly for confounding the genera. It is so 
manifest a character to any one examining the plants in the 
field at the maturing of the fruit, that I wonder Nuttall, in 
his field-researches, did not notice it. The generic name 
proposed by him is more pleasing than that of Vogel, but it 
came into publicity after Si/rnicitittin. It is therefore now 
of little importance that the authors of the Flora of North 
America, in the place referred to, did not make unmodified 
use of Nuttall's manuscript of Drepaaolohu^, but only em- 
ployed his names and descriptions, referring the species 
generically to Hosackia.. The goodly number which have 
been newly discovered in later years have all come out 
under that name, excepting the three herein first described. 
Full descriptions of all the rest are to be found in either 
the Botany of California or the Bulletins of the California 
Academy, that of each under the specific name here adopted. 

S. DENDROID EUM. Shrubby, erect, 4—7 feet high, with 
roughish brown stem an inch or two in thickness, and many 
short ascending branches: branchlets angular, their growing- 
parts more or less minutely appressed-silky, the plant other- 
wise filabrous: leaflets three, narrowly oblong, obtuse: um- 
bels numerous, on short peduncles, not bracted: calyx 3 — 4 
lines long, the triangular-subulate teeth a fourth as long as 
the nearly cylindrical tube: corolla 4 — 6 lines long: pod 
J-inch long, slightly curved, 3-seeded: seeds terete and 
straight. 

Hill tops, among other bushes, on the higher parts of 
Santa Cruz Island. Near S. glabram, but of entirely differ- 
ent habit, with much larger flowers and fruit, on short, 
rigid, crowded branchlets. 



MISCELLANEOUS NEW SPECIES. 147 

' S. PxiTENS. Shrubby, like tlie preceding, but the stem 
low, and branches spreading horizontally; silvery-canescent 
throughout: leaflets 4 — 5, obovate-oblong. rather acute: 
umbels numerous, sessile, bractless: corolla as in the last 
species; calyx with very short teeth: pod 6 — S lines long, 
the short 1 — 2-seeded body nearly equalled by the slender, 
nearly straight beak. 

Island of San Miguel, in the Canon del Mar, but more 
abundant on the summit of the islet known as Gull Island, 
a mile or more off the shore. Of very different aspect as 
compared with its kindred species of Santa Cruz; and there 
is a difference of another kind quite as striking as any men- 
tioned in the specific character. The Santa Cruz species 
was in full fruit at the begining of July. That of San 
Miguel was just well in flower two and a half months later: 
and the two islands are not more than forty miles apart. 

S. GLABRUM, Vogel, Linufea, x. 591. — Hjsackia, Torr. Bot. 
Wilkes Exp. 274; Watson, Bot. Cal. i. 137: Drepanolohus 
scoparius and D. crass i/olius, Nutt. in Torr. & Gray, Fl. N. 
Am. i. 325. 

S. CYTisoiDES. — HosACKiA, Benth. Trans. Linn. Soc. xvii. 
366; Torr. & Gray, 1. c. 324; Watson, 1. c. 133: Drepano- 
lohus, Nutt, 1. c. 

S. JUNCEUM. — Hosackia, Benth. 1. c. ; Torr. & Gray, 1, c. 
325; W^atson, 1. c. : Drepanolohus, Nutt. 1. c. 

S. PROSTPtATUM. — Drepanolohus, Nutt. 1. c: Hosackia decum- 
hens, var. glahriuscula. Hook. & Arn. Bot. Beech. 137; H. 
IDTOstrata, Watson, 1. c. 

S. MiCRANTHUM. — Drepanolol)us, Nutt. 1. c. : Hosackia, Wat- 
son, 1. c. 

S. SERICEUM. — Hosackia, Benth. 1. c; Torr. <fe Gray, 1. c; 
W atson, 1. c. 

S. ARGOPHYLLUM. — Hosttckia, Gray, PI. Thurb. 316; Wat. 



148 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

son, 1. c. ; H. argentea, Kellogg, Proc. Cal. Acad. iii. 38, 
fig. 8. 

S. PROCUMBENS. — HoscLcMa, Greene, Bull. Cal. Acad. i. 82. 

S. Yeatchii. — Hosaclda, Greene, 1. c. 83. 

S. Ornithopus. — Hosackia, Greene, 1. c. 185. 

S. DISTICHUM. — Hosackia, Greene, 1. c. 186. 

S. DECUMBENs. — HosacJda, Benth, 1. c; Hook. Fl. Bor- 
Am. i. 34; Torr. <fe Gray, 1. c. 324; Watson, 1. c. 138, excl. 
var. (?) Nevadensis: Drepanolobus, Nutt. 1. c. 

S. Nevadense. Annual, diffusely procumbent, tlie slender 
branches 1 — 3 feet long: sparingly villous or somewhat 
tomentose: leaflets 3 — 5, small, cuneate-obovate: umbel on 
a short peduncle and with a unif oliolate nearly sessile bract : 
calj^x a line long, the slender teeth a half -line : pod 2| lines, 
strongly incurved, yielding a single curved seed. — Hosackia 
decumhens, var. (?) Nevadensis, Watson, 1. c. 

Common from Donner Lake and Yosemite to the eastern 
borders of Nevada. 

S. TOMENTOSUM, Yogel, 1. c. — Hosackia, Hook. & Arn. 1. c. 
137; Torr. & Gray, 1. c; Watson, 1. c. 139: BrejMnolobas 
lanatus, Nutt. 1. c. 

S. Heermanni. — Hosackia, Dur. & Hilg. Pac. E. Kep. v. 
6. t. 4; Watson, 1. c. 

S. NIVEUM. Suffrutescent, a foot high, white, with a villous- 
tomentose pubescence: leaflets 5, obovate or oval, acute: 
flowers capitate, the head nearly sessile, bractless; corolla 
4 lines long, little exceeding the calyx of which the equal, 
filiform teeth are as long as the turbinate tube : pod 1-seeded, 
very short, wholly included in the calyx. 

Island of Santa Cruz on exposed rocky slopes, but nearly 
extinct. The few specimens collected do not at all indicate 
the shrubby character of the species; for they are young 
seedling plants of perhaps the second year, just beginning 



MISCELLANEOUS NEW SPECIES. 149 

to show their first flowers, and were found in the sandy 
moist bed of a deep ravine, out of reaoh of the sheep. The 
remnants of a few of the parent shrubby plants were after- 
wards discovered on the rocky summit above. 

Heuchera maxima. Caulescent, the stout, fleshy decum- 
bent branches 1 — 2 feet long and nearly an inch thick, leafy 
throughout: leaves round-cordate, 3 — 6 inches in diameter, 
with 5 shallow lobes and large rounded, but abruptly slen- 
der-pointed teeth: petioles and leafy peduncles stout, of 
about equal length, hirsute : thyrsus narrow, 8 — '12 inches 
long : calyx white, 3 lines long, acute at base : petals minute, 
white. 

Rocky steeps near the sea, on the northward slope of 
Santa Cruz Island. An enormous species of Heuchera, the 
stout caudex-like stems more or less reclining, often fully 
two feet long, and many of them from the same root; simple 
or with suberect branches, all having numerous axillary, 
leafy peduncles which are rather short, the thyrsus alone 
rising higher than the leaves. 

Lyoxothamxus ASPLENiFOLius, Greene, Bull. Cal. xlcad. i. 
187. 

Having been favored with an opportimity of visiting the 
island where this interesting tree is endemic, I wish to add 
here a few remarks concerning it. The fruit, which in the 
latter part of July was found nearly mature, is assuredly 
that of a Saxifragaceous rather than a Rosaceous plant, con- 
sisting as it does of a pair of follicles rather than a two- 
celled capsule : and so the opinion of Professor Gray as to 
the ordinal place for the genus is well confirmed. But the 
flowers are altogether indistinguishable from those of the 
Rosaceous genera Vauquelinia and Heteromeles. The tree 
is no rarity on its native shore. There are a hundred 
fine groves of it distributed up and down the thirty miles of 
the island's northward slope, individual specimens often as 
high as thirty-five and forty feet. The wood, close-grained 



150 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

and hard, is called ''iron wood" by the men on the island. 
No other small tree of our coast equals this in grace of form 
and beauty of foliage. The flowers, too, are quite sliowy in 
their season, the larger corymbs often measuring a foot in 
diameter. Plate YI is from a pen-tracing of a branchlet 
and fruit-cluster made by Dr. Kellogg. 

Galium buxifolium. Shrubby, two feet high, erect and 
compactly branching: branches sharply quadrangular, the 
uppermost subdivided into innumerable, short, slender, 
ver}^ leafy branchlets: leaves coriaceous, evergreen, the 
lowest in fours, those of the branchlets in pairs, all obovate- 
oblong, acutish, tapering to a short petiole, 4 — 8 lines long, 
sparsely scabrous on the margin and along the midvein 
beneath: flowers unknown: fruit dry, minutely hispid, 
short-pedicelled, solitary, terminal and axillary. 

On rocky shelves in a deep ravine near the sea, Island of 
Santa Cruz; also a single plant in a similar locality on San 
Miguel. A beautiful species and a rare one. 

Matricaria occidentalis. Annual, glabrous, scentless, 
robust, 1^ — 2| feet high, corymbose-paniculate above: leaves 
2— ;3-pinnately dissected into linear segments: heads discoid, 
6 — 8 lines high, bracts of the involucre oblong, a line and 
a half long, scarious-tipped : corolla 4-toothed : akenes sharp- 
ly angled, and with abroad coroniform margin a little below 
the summit: receptacle somewhat fusiform. 

In grain fields of the lower Sail Joaquin and Sacramento 
region, collected by the writer in May, 1886, near Byron 
and at Elmira and Vacaville. I have seen this plant in 
earlier years, but was wont to pass it by unexamined, sup- 
posing it to be some species introduced from the old world, 
its restriction to cultivated fields of wheat and barley sug- 
gesting the idea. But on inspection I find it a very near 
relative of our American M. discoidea, distinguishable from 
it, indeed, more by its different habit and size, lack of fra- 
grance, and its late flowering than b}' any striking cliarac- 



MISCELLANEOUS NEW SPECIES. 151 

ters of flower or fruit. The better known species, common 
in all parts of the country, and although a low and homely 
weed, always pleasing wdth its delightful fragrance, is quite 
past its season and nearly dead when the larger is beginning 
to develop its large heads. It is, moreover, a puny dwarf 
compared with the new plant. 

B.ERIA (DiCH.ETA) BuRKEi. Erect, slender, freely branch- 
ing, 1 — 2 feet high, slightly hirsute-pubescent: leaves pin- 
nately parted into long, linear lobes: bracts of the involu- 
cre 10 — 12; rays as many and conspicuous: pappus of 8— 10 
minute, entire, acute pale^e and a single slender awn which 
is nearly twice as long as the akene. 

Near Ukiah, Mendocino County, common in moist fields, 
flowering in June. Collected by Mr. J. H. Burke. 

Species well marked by its large size, and peculiar pap- 
pus, although closely allied to B. Fremontl of the valley of 
the Sacramento. 

Cnicus fontinalis. Two feet high, robust, Avith widely 
spreading branches ending in middle-sized, nodding heads : 
stem and upper surface of the broad, pinnately-parted 
leaves glandular-pubescent: bracts of the involucre imbri- 
cated in many series, herbaceous, broad, squarrose-spread- 
ing or reflexed, abruptly acute, wdth a short spinose tip and 
no viscid or glandular spot : flowers dull white : anther-tips 
triangular, acute. 

At Crystal Springs, San Mateo County, growing among 
the various springs and streamlets at the north side of the 
reservoir from which San Francisco is supplied with water. 
K rather surprising spot in which to find, at this late day, 
so large and conspicuous a plant unknown to botanists. The 
entire physiognomy of the plant, so to speak, is peculiar; 
but its low stature and stout branches recall the common 
C. quercetorum, which, by the way, is abundant on grassy, 
stonj' knolls just above the springs. The ample recurved 
bmcts are the most sino-ular characteristic of this excellent. 



152 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

perhaps quite local, new thistle. The root is, as in all our 
native species, biennial. 

Stephanomeria tomentosa. Annual, stout, 3 — 5 feet higli, 
paniculate above the middle, white-tomentose throughout 
when young, the inflorescence glabrate : lower leaves spatu- 
late in outline, runcinate-pinnatifid. upper lanceolate, nearly 
or quite entire : heads 3 — 4 lines high, closely ranged along 
the upper half of the virg ite branches, 5 — 8 flowered; lig- 
ules pale pink: akenes ragose-tuberculate between the five 
angles: pappus white, of about twenty distinct, fragile 
bristles, which are plumose to the base and deciduous. 

Central parts of the Ishind of Santa Cruz, but not common. 

Malacothrix indecoba. Annual, diffuse, forming a mat 
2 — 5 inches deep and twice as broad: leaves very thick and 
succulent, oblong-lanceolate, pinnately lobed, the lobes ob- 
tuse : involucre 3 lines high, inner series of scales linear- 
lanceolate, herbaceous and green, the outer successively 
shorter and purple: ligules short, greenish yellow: akenes a 
half line long, 5-angled and 2— 3-striate between the angles: 
pappus with no exterior bristle, wholly deciduous in a ring, 
the bristles barbellate above, ciliolate below the middle: 
receptacle naked. 

Malacothrix squalida. Annual, 8 — 12 inches high, with 
stout branches from near the base: leaves not succulent, 
lanceolate, laciniate-pinnatifid, the segments and their teeth 
acute: involucre a half inch high, its imbricated scales pale 
green with dark midveins and tips : akene less than a line 
long, angled and striate as in the preceding: pappus wholly 
deciduous in a ring, the bristles retrorsely ciliolate at base, 
barbellate-scabrous above: receptacle with minute paleae. 

The two plants above described inhabit together two or 
three execrable islets, nesting places of innumerable cormor- 
ants and gulls, close by the northern shore of Santa Cruz Is- 
land. Similar as to the technicalities of akene and pappus, 



MISCELLANEOUS NEW SPECIES. 153 

they are very distinct species, and, in appearance, not much 
like their nearest relatives, 31./oliom and 31. insidaris of other 
islands lying to the southward. They have not comeliness 
or even cleanliness to recommend them, yet make a valua- 
ble accession to an interesting genus; but the following- 
may perhaps be reckoned a still more welcome discovery, 
or rather, rediscovery. 

Malacothrix inx'ana, Torr. & Gray, Fl. N. Am. ii. 486; 
Gray. Bot. Cal. i. 434; Syn. Fl. 423. Scanty specimens 
were obtained by Nuttall, just fift}^ years ago, on an "Island 
in the Bay of San Diego," and no more has been seen or 
heard of the species until this year. A Malacothrix answer- 
ing perfectly to the description published is abundant on 
San Miguel, the smallest and remotest of the Santa Barbara 
group of islands. But I met with it first on the western ex- 
tremity of Santa Cruz, where it w^as growing in small quan- 
tity, on a shaded sandstone terrace a little above the beach. 

Calais Clevelandi. — Calais Farriji, Greene, page 49 of 
this volume, not of Gray. 

Dr. Parry has shown me that my plant described in the 
last number of the Bulletin cannot be the species so named 
by Gray. I had entirely overlooked the statement of that 
author, that, in C. Parryi, the awns are twice or thrice 
longer than the palese; and I here dedicate what now ap- 
pears plainly a new species, to my esteemed friend, Mr. 
Cleveland of San Diego, who was I think the first collector 
of it. 

DowNiNGiA CONCOLOR. Slender, diftlisely branching, 4 — 6 
inches high, minutely puberulent under a lens : tube of the 
corolla turbinate, nearly as long as the limb, cleft from the 
base of the upper lip one third of the way down; lobes of 
the upper lip lanceolate, deflexed and appressed to the 
sides of the tube: flower blue throughout, the central part 
of the lower lip dark, surrounded by a narrow border 
which is paler than the deep sky-blue of all the other parts. 



154 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

In a wheat field near the village of Suisun, May 2, 1886, 
growing with the common species, each plant forming a 
compact, well rounded mass altogether intensely blue with 
an extraordinary profusion of flowers. Tiie other three 
species already recognized are almost impossible to dis- 
tinguish, in herbarium specimens, but this, even when 
dried, looks very different from those. Its cleft corolla- 
tube is a new and unwelcome character, too much like 
Lobelia. 



TETEAODON SETOSUS. 155 



ON TETRAODON SETOSUS, A NEW SPECIES ALLIED TO 
TETRAOLON MELEAGRIS LACEP. 

BY ROSA SMITH. 

Length 12 inches (14 inches to margin of caudal fin); 
depth, inflated, 6 inches. Head 4 (1|); orbit 4 in head. 
Snout about 3 in head (measuring to front of orbital bone),. 
the upper profile abruptly concave behind lip. Interorbital 
space moderate, one and a-half times diameter of orbital 
bone. The eye itself seems to be drawn backward from its 
proper place in the orbit and has been stretched out of 
shape in drying. Orbital ridges not greatly elevated, the 
interorbitalregion nearly flat. 

Body everywhere thickly beset with short, slender, stiff 
spines, except around mouth, at bases of fins and around 
vent; these spines or bristles averaging one-eighth of an 
inch in height, their insertion in the skin not quite so far 
apart as their height. The spines are nearly uniform every- 
where. Some of them show no lateral roots, while many 
are from two- to five-rooted, giving the skin a stellate ap- 
pearance. iVbout seventy spines from eye to dorsal fin, but 
the spines are thickly scattered without being in regular 
rows. The smooth area about the mouth is two-thirds 
diameter of orbit. The dorsal and anal peduncles are 
wholly smooth and the caudal peduncle has spines only at 
its base, which are recumbent and mostly imbedded in the 
skin. 

Caudal fin subtruncate, one-half longer than caudal pe- 
duncle, the base of the fin entering twice in its height. 
Base of dorsal fin two and a half times in its height; mar- 
gin unevenly rounded. Base of anal one and three-fourths 
in height, the fin rounded posteriorly. Pectorals truncate, 
one-fourth higher than broad. 



156 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

Color dark brown, everywhere with roundish white spots, 
most of them one-eighth of an incii in diameter, equal to or 
exceeding the pupil; these spots coalesce on the ventral 
surface, forming vermicular markings, which usually are 
wider than the brown interspaces; the dorsal dots are nar- 
rower than the brown ground between. All the fins simi- 
larly spotted, though the spots are smaller than on the body. 
No streaks nor black marks anywhere. Pectoral and dorsal 
fins with a white edge as wide as the dorsal spots. Anal fin 
very narrowly margined with white. 

This description is made from a dried skin in fine condi- 
tion which came from Mexico. The specimen is now in the 
collection of the California Academy of Sciences, and bears 
the registered number 2,996. 

October 30, 1886. 



NORTH AMERICAN COL COPTER A. 157 



DESCRIPTIVE NOTICES 



NORTH AMERICAN COLEOPTERA. 



I. 

(With Plite VII.) 
BY THOS. L. CISEY. 



Eeacl Oct. 18th, 1883. 



Uiidei' the above title it is intended to publish short studies, 
either of species or small groups of genera, which may from 
time to time be investigated in a detached and desultory 
manner. Care will be taken, however, to indicate the rela- 
tionships wherever possible and whenever these are at all 
obscure, so that it is hoj)ed no confusion will be introduced 
into our already overburdened nomenclature. Large and 
complicated genera, or those in which the species are very 
closely allied and difficult of recognition, will not be touched 
upon except under very peculiar conditions, as these should 
form the subject-matter of separate essays. 

In this connection it may be stated that it is my intention 
to include, if possible, witliin the faunal region considered, 
the entire North American continent terminating on the 
south in the isthmus of Panama and including the islands 
of the West Indian archipelago, as this appears to consti- 
tute a more natural region than that which is limited on the 
south by the Mexican boundary of the United States. 



The present paper contains descriptions of new genera and 
species, mostly from the Pacific Coast, but with a few from 

12— Bull. Cal. Acad. Sci. IE. 6. Issued November 27, 1886. 



158 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

otlier portions of the continent; they are, in addition, prin- 
cipally members of the clavicorn families Pselaphidae and 
Staphylinidse. 

In the latter family there seems to be considerable con- 
fusion in regard to the estimation of the number of abdom- 
inal segments, and having recently seen some remarks by 
M. H. Jekel (Col. Jk. Eleuth. Bibl., p. 22-23}, which set 
forth the subject very clearly and fully, I take pleasure in 
transcribing them as follows : — 

"Une autre cause d'embarras ties serieux pour las etndiants est I'insta- 
bilite — ou plutot la non-concordance des auteurs dans reaumeration des seg- 
ments abdomiuaux. Erichson avail parfaitement reconnu I'existence des deux 
pieces du dos sitnees entre le metanotum et les segments normaux de I'abdomen 
— visibles et decou verts seulement chez un petit nombre de groupes oil les 
elytres n'atteignent pas rextremit(^ des epimeres metatboraciques — et il 
avait prevenu ses lecteurs que, pour eviter des erreurs, il ne compterait les 
segments du dos qu'a partirde — et avec — celui qui se presente comme premier 
en dessous, et dont la contexture est semblable en dessus comme en dessous 
aux suivants et fait corps avec eux, et offrant la meme consistance. En cela 
il fut suivi— comme il avait e;e precede — par un grand nombre d'auteurs 
recommandables. Plus tard les uns n'ont voulu compter qu'une seule de ces 
deux pieces dorsales ' inter thoracico-ahdominales/ regardant I'une d'elles 
comme un faux-segment a cause de son etroitesse et de sa consistance mem- 
braneuse; d'autres lacomptent aussi, de borte que nous sommes en presence 
de troissystemes, desorte que le segment anal est pour les uns le 6^ (la plupart 
des auteurs jusques et y compris Erichson, Fairmaire etc), pour d'autres le 
.7e (Kratz, G. Thomson etc), pour d'autres enfin le 8^ (Pandelle etc). 

" Tout en constatant I'existence des deux pieces dorsales en question, — 
dont la consistance est si differente de celle des autres segments, et qui ne se 
detacheut pas du thorax lors de la rupture de I'abdomen — elles ne devraieut 
pas etre comptees comme abdominales dans les travaux descriptifs des e?peces, 
d'autant plus que les auteui-s qui les comptent n'en parlent jamais dans leurs 
descriptions — et pour cause — ces minces filets semicoriaces, semimembrau- 
«ux n'offrant aucune modification de forme ou de sculpture appreciables, 
lorsque, par exception, ils sont decouverts par la brievete des elytres. Enfin, 
meme dans ce cas, leurs analogues ne se presentent pas en dessous caches 
qu'ils sont par les epimeres, le metasternum etc. Dans cette illogique situa 
tion on se trouve avoir un ou deux segments de plus — selon la fantaisie des 
auteurs — en dessus qu'en dessous de I'abdomen, 6 ventraux et 7 ou 8 dorsaux 
ad libitum. 

"N'eut-il pas ete preferable, pour la comprehension de tons, de s'en tenir 
au sageconseil et a I'exemple d'Erichson, dont la jiidicieuse logique n'ame 
nait aucune perturbation dans les erremenls anterieurs, bases Bur la parite 



NORTH AMERICAN COLEOPTERA. 159 

-des segments exterieurement appreciables et conformes en dessus comme en 
dessous2 Que Ton nous prouve, comme qnestiou d'anatomie geuerale et 
transcendante et technique des Staphylinides, qu'il y a 8 pieces, 10 meme 
(Pand. Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1869, 265) en d?ssus de Tabdomen, cela est fort 
bien, mais ceci une fois etabli n'enumerons pas dans des descriptions qui 
doivent etre claires et compr^hensibles pour tou^, et n'assimilons pas aux 
veritables segments abdominaux ces annexes metathoraciques qui s'arrHent 
ail niveau des epimeres da metasternum, et qui font corps avec lui 

" Je previens done que j 'en reviens a I'ancienne methode, et que, quelque soit 
I'allongement on la brievetede I'elytre, le compte des segments abdominaux 
se fera dans mes descriptions, a partir du premier ventral et de son corres- 
pondant dorsal, ce qui est la logique et la precision, que Ton ait affaire a un 
Aleocharien ou a un Omalien." 

These remarks fitly convey my own views and are similar, 
in substance, to what I should have stated as a result of 
study and observation. In all my future writings the ven- 
tral segments will be counted from, and including the first 
as seen from below, which is the real first segment of the 
abdomen. 

For an illustration of this structure the reader is referred 
to the plate at the end of the present paper, Avhere the basal 
portion of the abdomen of Hesperobium is figured in 
detail. It is there seen that the first segment has at the 
base a raised flat margin, rapidly diminishing in length to 
the median carina, where it almost disappears. It is possi- 
bly this raised margin Avhicli has been mistaken by several 
authors for a small basal segment, partially hidden by the 
posterior margin of the metasternum and the coxa3. 

The true significance of the basal elevation is not appar- 
ent, unless, perhaps, that it serves to form a closer joint 
when the abdomen is drawn up, and still allow of a certain 
amount of flexibility. That it is not the ventral portion of 
the small membranous or coriaceous posterior segments 
of the metanotum is abundantly proven by the fact, as 
shown above by M. Jekel, that these coriaceous parts do 
not project beyond the metasternum and do not in reality 
form part of the abdomen; also because the other segments 
are also provided with an entirely analogous raised basal 



160 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

margin, and finally very" conclusively by the fact that these 
margins also exist on the dorsal surface of the segments, 
being practically continuous from the ventral to the dorsal 
plate. The coriaceous segments mereh^ serve to connect 
the abdomen proper to the metanotum, and apparently do 
not even extend through to the under surface of the meta- 
sternum, or at least one specimen — from which the drawing 
is taken — has the first ventral so far exserted from the 
posterior margin of the metasternum as to leave a very large 
extent of membrane exposed to view, and no signs what- 
ever of a segmental division are visible. 

Another inaccuracy mentioned by M. Jekel, is in regard 
to the measurement of length in the Staphylinidse, where 
the abdomen is often extended, This is not, however, of so 
great importance, as it is much easier to state, if the speci- 
men be unique, whether or not the abdomen is extended, 
than to make minute measurements of other portions of the 
body. If the specimens be numerous, the lengths of ex- 
treme examples should be quite sufficient for all practical 
purposes. 

As a source of ambiguity often observable in the Avritings 
of coleopterists, may be mentioned the variety of ideas at- 
tached to the word epipleuyxe^ in describing the elytra. 
Pascoe has alluded to this subject (Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 
Jan. 1869, p. 2), and suggested a definite meaning for the 
word; the notation here proposed is similar to that of Mr. 
Pascoe, with a single exception. 

The inflexed sides of the elytra — for which I would pro- 
pose the word hypomeva — are generally composed of two 
parts, the first bemg a more or less elevated lower margin 
of greater or less width, and the second the remainder of 
the inflexed side, usually limited above by a more or less, 
distinctly defined edge, generally reflexed. Above this the 
disk of the elytra is declivous, the declivity merging grad- 
ually into the dorsal and central portions of the disk, which 
are nearly always less convex. When the sloping sides of 



NORTH AMERICAN COLEOPTERA. 161 

the disk are very abrupt and more or less distinctly limited 
by a line, as in many species of Laemopliloeus, they are des- 
ignated as the plenrce, the word epipleurce being applied to 
the second portion of the inflexed sides above mentioned, 
and the word h-ypopleurce to the first, or raised lower margin. 
This last has been called the epi pleural fold by Pascoe; but 
in addition to the undesirability of two words to express 
our meaning where one can just as well be employed, we 
must consider the fact, admitted by the distinguished au- 
thor quoted, that the hypopleur^ are not in reality folds at 
all. In a few of my previous descriptions I have used the 
word liypopleurtB to designate the entire inflexed sides or 
hypomera, but In future the names here given will be ad- 
hered to. 

While dealing with kindred topics, it seems desirable to 
indicate the perversity of the brain in interpreting the ima- 
ges formed upon the retina of the eye in delineating and de- 
scribing form. A good way to illustrate this is to observe 
the letter S in print, where the two salient curves in the or- 
dinary position of the letter appear to be of nearly equal 
size; if now the letter be inverted, it will be seen at a glance 
that the lower portion in its former position is much the 
larger. In a similar way vertical lines appear relatively 
longer than transverse lines, and this has led to many errors 
in describing the shape of the prothorax; when the width 
and length of the latter are equal, it invariably appears at 
the first glance to be longer than wide, and is generally so 
described, thus introducing an element of confusion and 
doubt for those attempting to identify species from descrip- 
tions. This defect can be gradually overcome in various 
ways, but perhaps best by trying to delineate the form of 
the insect; for those who have never attempted it, this will 
generally be found a very difficult feat, and one requiring 
several attempts before a satisfactory outline can be pro- 
duced. 

The short diagnoses usually given are purposely omitted , 



162 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

their place being sufficiently supplied by the first few lines 
of the descriptions, which deal with the general form, color 
and other similar characters, in conjunction with the gen- 
eral remarks usually appended in large type. In general 
monographic memoirs they are quite unnecessary, and 
merely consume space which might better be occupied by 
descriptive matter, because in such monographs or revis- 
ions, the key-tables, which should always be given, amply 
serve the purpose for which the diagnoses are intended. 

It will be observed that the descriptions refer in all cases 
to the single specimen assumed as the type. The diversity 
of opinion as to the proper definition of a genus or tlie 
structural difi'erences warranting the generic isolation of 
special groups, holds with almost equal force in regard to 
the ideas attached to the species which compose them. 
Forms which some coleopterists would regard as specific, 
are held by others to be simply racial, and by others again 
as merely accidental variations not even worthy of a name. 
This divergence of opinion must necessarily exist until our 
knowledge becomes more extensive, and until an approxi- 
mately complete series of specimens of all species can be 
obtained from every region of the globe. I have preferred, 
therefore, in the existing state of knowledge, to describe 
one definite type and give such general remarks as may in- 
dicate the variation exhibited by the material at hand; addi- 
tional series may alter our conception of the species to a 
considerable degree, but having a single typical description, 
we possess something tangible upon which to base the sub- 
divisions into races or definite varieties, as may be deter- 
mined by such representatives. In other words, it would 
produce more confusion than benefit to attempt to give a 
general description based upon material which must inevi- 
tably be incomplete. 

It will also be noticed that the English language is alone 
employed in descriptions and diagnostic tables. My rea- 
sons for this course are, first, because I believe that the 



NORTH AMERICAN COLEOPTERA. 163 

time necessarily employed in learning to write the Latin lan- 
guage with fluency, in such manner as to be entirely certain 
that our ideas are being properly expressed — and it is use- 
less to attempt it without such knowledge — might be better 
occupied in a study of the technicalities of the science, es- 
pecially in view of the fact that there is probably no man of 
even moderate education possessing a good knowledge of 
Latin, who cannot at least understand descriptions drawn 
up in the three languages — French, German or English. 
Again, supposing a student to be ignorant of the indispensa^ 
ble triad of modern languages, it is easily seen that thfr 
amount of information concerning a species which he can 
obtain from the short three or four lines written in Latin 
and forming the diagnosis, is simply tantalizing. Either the 
entire description with all appended remarks should be 
written in Latin, as in the Staphylinidse of Erichson or the 
Tomicini of Eichhoff, or else the student must perforce have 
a knowledge of these languages in order to read the descrip- 
tion of the species, otherwise the most important part, as 
far as identification is concerned, or that relating to the de- 
tails, is entirely lost to him. Without wishing to be consid- 
ered unduly iconoclastic, it must be candidly confessed that 
the necessity for the latinization of the few lines usually be- 
ginning a description is not readily appreciable. 

When used with a moderate amount of care, the French 
and English languages are very perspicuous and enJnently 
adapted to concise scientific expression. The spirit of these 
languages demands simplicity and conciseness, and they are, 
in addition, peculiarly fitted for technical descriptions be- 
cause of their power of absorbing words derived directly 
from the Latin and Greek. In regard to ambiguity, there 
are few who can maintain that they possess this undesirable 
quality to a greater degree than the Latin, and we may go 
so far as to say that tliey are far less ambiguous than a large 
proportion of the ordinary entomological Latin of the present 
day. The majority of our working coleopterists are com- 



164 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

pelled to engage in active pursuits, either professional or 
commercial, which demand a knowledge of the three lan- 
guages mentioned, and, if after acquiring them, these can 
also serve them in the scientific recreations of their leisure 
moments, thus rendering unnecessary the acquisition of a 
special language for such jDurposes, it appears to the writer 
that we have gained one very important point, since just so 
much time and labor may be saved for useful scientific work. 
Physicists, mathematicians, astronomers, and zoologists in 
fields other than entomological, have long since abandoned 
the Latin as a medium of publication. The leading mathe- 
matical and astronomical journals employ the modern lan- 
guages exclusively, and, although they appeal to a much 
more extensive class of readers than do the entomological 
journals, it has not been found that anytliing has been lost 
by the change, but on the contrary, as they at present reach 
a larger number of readers, such a course has tended to 
more widely diffuse scientific knowledge, and to create a 
more universal desire for its advancement. 

This subject is, however, a somewhat delicate one, and 
merits further consideration and argument. 

The binocular microscope, with objectives of from two- 
thirds to two inches focal length, is inevitably destined to 
supplant the hand-lens in the future study of entomology, 
its advantages being perfect steadiness of the object, suffi- 
cient magnifying power to bring all the organs prominently 
into view, and the healthful and unconstrained use of both 
eyes, giving a stereoscopic effect; at the same time both 
hands remain free for writing or drawing. To one accus- 
tomed to this mode of studying insects under ten mm. in 
length, an adherence to the usual method of research by 
means of the hand-lens, where the eye is unnaturally 
strained, and the images consequently apt to be distorted 
and to convey a wrong impression, seems entirely unac- 
countable. A long list of errors in describing sculpture 
and formation of various parts of the body, owing to insuf- 



NORTH AMERICAN COLEOPTERA. 165 

ficient magnifying power and other unsatisfactory conditions, 
could easily be given, and in this connection it must be borne 
in mind that it requires much more amplification and acute- 
ness of sight and perception to discover a character or the 
structural nature of an object than it does to see the same 
after it has once been described. I allude to the use of the 
microscope rather for original research than for cursory 
observation and comparison, as these objects can be much 
more conveniently attained with a good hand-lens. 

As greater attention is being given to exactness and per- 
spicuity in describing the characteristics of species, a 
general catalogue of terms to be employed for the almost 
infinite variety of sculpture, punctuation, lustre, pubes- 
cence, form and color, should be compiled, each modifica- 
tion being illustrated by reference to a particular species 
wherein it is preeminent; the colors should be indicated on 
a lithographic plate. Such a catalogue as this w^ould con- 
duce greatly to uniformity in description, and therefore to 
ease of identification of species; it should be undertaken by 
a special congress of entomologists, or by some one of the 
large European societies, and would be of great value in 
systematizing the science. 

In conclusion, the author begs the indulgence of coleop- 
terists for errors, past, present and future. Having en- 
tered upon the detailed study of our smaller Coleoptera, he 
finds himself forced to rely in great measure upon the libra- 
ry, wdiich, although undoubtedly a most trustworthy and 
unbiased guide, is still more or less unsatisfactory because 
of the insufficient and often erroneous descriptions of our 
earlier authors. Under such circumstances errors are un- 
avoidable, and he trusts they may be overlooked to some 
extent, upon the assurance that his utmost endeavors have 
and will be employed in seeking the truth regardless of all 
other considerations. 
San Francisco, October 11, 1886. 



166 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 



The following is a list of the genera and species here 
described or brought to notice :— 



Hydrophiltd-e. 
Limnocharis picea Horn. 

polita. 

angustula. 

alutacea. 

congener. 

coniciventris. 

S1LPHID.1:. 
Silpba aeuescens. 

PSELAPHIDiE. 

Batrisus mendocino. 
zepliyrinns. 
speculum, 
mouticola. 
occiduus. 
Bryaxis texana. 
infinita. 
Nisa n. gen. 
Reicheubachia tumorosa. 

tumidicornis 
iuformis. 
gracilicornis. 
uevadensis. 
fuudata. 
Irauciscana. 
Nisaxis n. gen. 
Sonoma n. gen. 
Oropus striatus Lee. n. gen. 
convexus. 
interruptus. 
abbteviatus. 
Actium n. gen. 

Staphylinid.e. 
Lomecbusa montaua. 
Tacbyusa crebrepunctata. 
AutaHa elegans. 
Eumitocerus tarsalis n. gen. 
Heterotbops exilis. 



Ababactus pallidiceps. 
Lena testacea n. gen. 
Ramona capituhim n. gen. 
Leptogenius brevicornis u gen. 
Scopaeus rotundiceps. 
truncdticeps. 
Scopteodera nitida Lee. n. gen. 
Leptorus texauus n. gen. 
bicolor. 
versicolor, 
longiceps. 
Orus parallelus. 
Apocellus niger. 
Pbla;opterus filicornis. 
Ampbicbroum flavicorne. 
alutaceum. 
pilosellum. 
veterator. 
crassicorne. 
Pelecomalium binotatum n. gen. 

modestum. 
Latbrimnsum bumerale. 
Orobanus rufipes. 
deusus. 

TRICHOPTERYGIDiE. 

Actidium rotundicolle. 
Ptilium sulcatum. 
Smicrus americanus. 

Byrrhidje. 

Ditapbrus scymnoides n. gen. 

TENEBRIONIDiE. 

Eleates occidentalis n. gea. 

CURCULIONID^. 

Barinus squamolineatus n. gen. 

SCOLYTID^. 

Renocis beterodoxus n. gen. 



NORTH AMERICAN COLEOPTERA. 167 

LIMNOCHARIS Horn. 

The species of this genus are probably numerous in North 
America, although but two have been described; I now add 
several other peculiar forms. The genus is apparently valid, 
since in all the numerous specimens which I have examined, 
there are clearly eight ventral segments, the eighth being 
small and more or less retractile, so that, while in the type 
of angiistiila it is nearly as long as the seventh and very con- 
spicuous, it may sometimes be almost entirely withdrawn; 
it is never entirely invisible, however. The labrum also 
differs greatly from that of Limnebius as described by La- 
cordaire, for in Limnocharis it is not broadly rounded, but 
is deeply sinuate in the middle. The antennae have, as 
stated of Limnebius by Du Yal, nine joints, the first two 
subanchylosed so as to form a long slender scape. 

The mentum instead of being strongly rounded, approaches 
in Limnocharis more nearly the trapezoidal form, and in 
the very singular L. co niciventris descvihed below, it is almost 
perfectly trapezoidal, being transversely truncate at apex. 

The eighth segment: of the abdomen does not bear a tuft 
of hair, but has one or two terminal sette, perhaps according 
to the sex. 

The species of the genus at present known from the United 
States are as follows: — 

Sides of the elytra distinctly arcuate. 
Surface more or less polished. 

Prothorax very strongly transverse, at apex nearly twice as wide as 

long picea. 

Prothorax less strongly transverse, at apex less than one-half wider than 
long. 

Apical angles of elytra narrowly biit distinctly rounded polita. 

Apical angles not rounded angUStula. 

Entire surface more or less alutaceous. 

Elytra at base slightly narrower than the prothorax; surface strongly 

alutaceous alutacea. 

Elytra at base equal in width to the prothorax; surface feebly aluta- 
ceous; scutellum larger COngfener.. 

Sides of elytra strongly convergent, almost perfectly straight., conlciventrls.. 



ibO CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

L. picea Horn. — Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, 1872, p. 144— A specimen before 
me from Gilroy, Santa Clara Co., appears to satisfy the description given by 
Dr. Horn for this species; it is, however, rather smaller and the prothorax 
appears to be slightly less strongly transverse than shown in the figure and 
described in the text; it is two-thirds wider thin long at apex and nearly 
two and one-half times as wide as long at base. 

L. polita n. sp. — Narrowly oval, strongly convex; black; legs and palpi 
dark piceo-testaceous; upper surface polished, with rather long, recumbent, 
very fine and sparse pub-'.jcence; under surface black, rather densely pubes- 
cent. Head one-half wider than long, feebly convex, very feebly reticulate, 
excessively minutely and rather sparsely punctate; epistomal suture trans- 
verse, w^e 1 marked; last joint of maxillary palpi darker in color. Prothorax 
at apex just visibly wider than the head, at apex broadly and very feebly 
emarginate, two-fifths wider than long; base two and one-third times wider 
than the median length, transversely truncate, broadly and very feebly sin- 
uate on each side of the scutellum, and very feebly and anteriorly oblique at 
the sides; sides feebly and evenly arcuate; disk evenly convex, very feebly 
reticulate, very minutely, sparsely punctate, with a transverse row of dense 
punctuation at the apex on each side. Scutellum distinctly wider than long, 
sidts feebly arcuate. J5'/2/<r<x at base eqnal in width to the prothorax; sidts 
strongly convergent and rather strongly and evenly arcuate to the apex, 
•which conjointly is not truncate, but rather acutely rounded; each elytron at 
apex rather acute and very distinctly rounded; disk strongly convex, scarcely 
two and one-half times as long as the prothorax, finely and very distinctly 
reticulate, more finely and densely so than the pronotum, not visibly punc- 
tate. Legs rather slender. Eighth segment with two apical setae. Length 
1.4 mm. 

California; (San Francisco). Several specimens. 
May be distinguished by its blackness, polished integu- 
ments and elytral structure. 

L. angustula n. sp. — Narrowly oval, strongly convex, piceous-bl ick; legs 
and palpi dark piceous-brown; pubescence very fine, not dense; integuments 
shining. Head one-half wider than long, feebly convex, not visibly reticu- 
late, very minutely and sparsely punctate; epistomal suture very feebly ar- 
cuate toward the eyes; last joint of maxillary palpi scare ly at all darker in 
color. Prothorax at apex not wider than the head, broadly, very feebly sin- 
uate, two-fifths wider than long; base transversely truncate, almost perfectly 
straight, two and one-fourth times as wide as the median length; sides feebly 
and evenly arcuate; disk not visibly reticulate, excessively minute ly, sparsely 
punctate, with a feeble row of larger and denser punctiform subasperate ero- 
sions on each side behind the apical margin, and, near the basal margin, two 
small impressed punctures distant by slightly more than the width of the 



NORTH AMERICAN COLEOPTERA. 169 

sciitelliim. Scutellnm very slightly wider than loug Elytra at base as wide 
as the prothorax; sides strongly convergent to the apex, evenly and rather 
feebly arcuate; apex feebly subtruncate, together rounded, each angle neaily 
right and scarcely at all rounded; disk slightly less than one-half longer than 
wide, two and one- third times as long as the prothorax, strongly convex, 
finely, feebly reticulate, not visibly punctate. Eighth ventral segment large, 
haviug two a^^ical setae; sixth broad y emargiuate. Length 1.3 mm. 

Texas; (Austin 1). 

This species, as may be inferred from the description, is 
very closely allied to polita, but is well distinguished by the 
form of the elytral apices; in addition the reticulations of 
the elytra are finer and stronger in polita, and the punc- 
tuation of the pronotum is less evident in angvstida. It may 
be considered unwarrantable to trust to the conformation of 
the elytral apices for specific characters in the Hydrophili- 
dae, but in the present instance there is much more proba- 
bility of both the typical representations being of tlie same 
sex, than that they are not, for the eighth segment in each 
is large and very distinct and is provided in each with two 
equal apical set8e. Angustula is a narroAver and slightly 
more convex species than polita, and has the prothorax 
slightly less strongly transverse. 

All the species of the present genus have the two basal 
punctures and the two apical rows of asperities; the prono- 
tum is, in addition, always very finely margined along the 
apex and sides, but not along the base, the latter being ab- 
ruptly convex and narrowly declivous to the j)laiie of the 
elytra. 

L. alutacea n- sp.— Suboblong, moderately robust, not strongly convex, 
bla.;k, piceous by diaphaneity; legs dark piceo-testaceous; palpi and antennae 
slightly paler; pubescence extremely fine, recumbent, not dense above; in- 
teguments alutaceous, elytra scarcely more strongly so than the pronotum. 
//eac? scarcely one-half wider than long, feebly convex, finely reticulate, very 
minutely, sparsely punctate; epistomal suture transverse and very feeb'e in 
the middle, oblique and almost completely obliterated at the sides; epistoma 
with a small discal puncture near each apical angle. Prothorax at apex 
slightly wider than the head, broadly, moderately and trapezoidally emargi- 
nate, two-fifths wider than long; at base transversely truncate, broadly and 



170 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

very feebly sinuate at each side, two and one-third times as wide as long; 
sides evenly and feebly arcuate; basal angles from above narrowly rounded; 
disk very broadly convex, finely reticulate and subgranulose; punctures ex- 
cessively minute, rather sparse and scarcely visible. Scutellum very small, 
twice as wide as long, parabolically rounded behind throughout. Elytra at 
base slightly, but distinctly narrower than the prothorax; sides not strongly 
convergent, evenly and moderately arcuate to the apex, which, conjointly is 
obtusely and evenly rounded, not at all truncate; inner angles narrowly but 
distinctly rounded; disk two-fifths longer than wide, two and one-half times 
as long as the pronotum, moderately convex, reticulate and subgranulose 
like the pronotum, excessively minutely and scarcely visibly punctate. 
Eighth segment having a long, robust apical style, with one or two short ro- 
bust spinules on either side. Length 1.6 mm. 

California; (Mendocino Go. 1). 

Easily distinguished by its wider protliorax and distinctly 
alutaceous surface sculpture. The maxillary palpi are dis- 
tinctly more slender than in the following species: 

L. congener ii- sp.— Narrowly oval, rather convex, black; legs piceous; 
13ubescence fine, sparse; integuments shining, very feebly subalutaceous. 
i/ea(Z feebly convex, finely, evenly and distinctly punctate; epistomal suture 
transverse, distinct, slightly arcuate and very fine near the eyes. Prothorax 
at apex just visibly wider than the head; proportions nearly as in alatacea; 
sides evenly and more feebly arcuate; apex more feebly and arcuately emar- 
ginate; dis^k broadly convex, finely, densely reticulate; finely, evenly and 
distinctly punctate. Scutellum triangular, apex not rounded, three-fourths 
wider than long. Elytra Sit hixse fully as wide as the prothorax; sides con- 
vergent, evenly and not strongly arcuate to the apex, which, conjointly is 
obtusely and evenly rounded, not at all truncate; inner angles very narrowly 
rounded; disk nearly two and one-half times as long as the prothorax, mod- 
erately convex, more finely and densely reticulate than the pronotum, not 
perceptibly punctate. Eighth segment with a long anal style and two short 
spinules on each side. Length 1.6 mm. 

California; (Mendocino and Humboldt Cos.). Several 
specimens. 

This species is closely allied to alutacea, but differs in its 
more evenly oval and narrower form, its relatively narrower 
prothorax, much more shining surface, stronger and more 
evident pronotal punctuation, shorter, more robust maxillary 
palpi, and particularly in the form of the scutellum. The 
two discal punctures of the epistoma are slightly stronger, 



NORTH AMERICAN COLEOPTERA. I7l 

and the transverse epistomal suture is less obsolete than in 
alatacea. The sides of the prothorax are very distinctly less 
strongly arcuate in congener. 

L. COniciventris o. sp. — Oval, atteunated behind, piceo-testaceous, 
paler beneath; leg« pale brownish-flavate; pubescence extremely fine and 
sparse; integuments polished. Head not one-half wider than long, feebly- 
convex, scarcely perceptibly reticulate, excessively minut'ely, feebly and 
not distinctly punctate; epistomal suture almost completely obsolete. Pro- 
thorax at apex about equal in width to the head, broadly, feebly, arcuately 
sinuate, fully one-half wider than long; at base broadly truncate, very 
feebly sinuate on each side of the scutellum, nearly two and one-half times 
as wide as long; sides evenly and distinctly arcuate; disk broadly convex, 
polished, scarcely perceptibly reticulate, excessively minutely, feebly punc- 
tate; punctures somewhat irregularly disposed, very sparse. Scutellum 
very small, more than twice as wide as long, triangular. Elytra at base 
scarcely as wide as the prothorax; sides strongly convergent, nearly straight 
to the apex, which conjointly is abruptly and transversely truncate, one-half 
as wide as the elytral base; outer angles rounded, inner very narrowly so; 
disk rather strongly, conically convex, smooth; coarsely, very finely retic- 
ulate, not perceptibly punctate; one-third longer than wide, two and one- 
half times as long as the prothorax^ Seventh segment broad, broadly 
rounded behind; eighth having two equal apical seta. Posterior femora 
very strongly compressed. Length 1.0 mm. 

Texas; (Austin 1). 

The labrum is more continuous in curvature with the 
epistoma, and is consequently more prominent from above 
than in the other species; it appears from above to be 
transversely subtruncate or very broadly rounded, but when 
viewed in prolongation of the axis of the insect it is seen to 
have the lower edge rather abruptly deflexed, and broadl}', 
rather feebly sinuate. 

The general outline of this species is very different from 
that prevailing in the genus, but it appears to possess all 
the generic characters of Limnox^haris. It is decidedly the 
smallest species described. 

SILPHA Linn. 

S. aenescens ^- sp.— Form rather depressed, elongate, oval, black; upper 
surface with a bright aeneous lustre; legs and antennae black throughout; 
shining; pubescence in the form of an excessively minute and almost invis- 



172 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

ible short set i from each puncture. Head rather small, constricted behind 
the eyes; front feebly cunvex, finely and rather densely panctate, ii.ore 
closely so near the eyes, and 'nuch more sparsely and finely so near the 
apex and on the labrum; the latter very deeply and rather narrowly sinuate 
at apex; eyes moderate, slightly prominent, much shorter than wide, verti- 
cally oval; antennae slender, as long as the pronotam, first joint as long as 
the next two together, second much longer than the third, last four joints 
forming a rather narrow, elongate, perfoliate club, the last three joints of 
which are rendered opaque by an excessively fine and dense pubescence, 
eleventh slightly long r than wide, flattened, evenly and broadly roundel at 
tip. Prothorax widest at the base, where it is generally slightly more than 
one-half wider than long; sides strongly convergent thence to the apex, 
broadly, evenly and distinctly arcua'e; apex broadly and feebly incurvate, 
one-half as wide as the base; the latter broadly truncate in the middle and 
thence slightly oblique and very feebly sinuate to the basal angles; the 
latter slightly obtuse, narrowly rounded; disk broadly and rather feebly 
convex, more strongly so in the middle anteriorly, narrowly and obso- 
letely impressed along the middle, and more broadly and obliquely near 
eaah basal angle; sides narrowly and gradually subexplanate, narrowly 
mirgined with an elevated b3rder; surface finely and very densely punc- 
tate; punctures round, deep, sometimes with a few smaller ones intermin- 
gled. Scutellum very densely punctite; pubescence longer and more 
dense. Elytra at base about as wide as the prothorax; sides parallel and 
nearly straight, rather abruptly and broadly rounded behind, slightly trun- 
cate in the males; disk one-third longer than wide, more than twice as long 
as the prothorax, transversely and moderately convex, narrowly and ab- 
ruptly reflexed at the side^; each with three lougitadiual, feebly-elevated 
costae, with numerous intermediate and subtransverse elevations; depressed 
areas rather coarsely and liot very densely punctate, interspaces finely and 
strongly granulose. Legs moderate in length, slender; first joint of the pos- 
terior tarsi fully as long as the fifth, and as long as the next three together. 
Length 11.0-13.0 mm. 

California; (San Francisco). 

The sexual characters are as follows: — 

Male — Last ventral segment transversely truncate at apex, 
edge almost perfectly straight; anterior tarsi very feebly 
dilated, middle not at all dilated, very slender. 

Female — Last ventral segment narrowly and strongly 
rounded behind, immediate apex narrowly truncate or sub- 
sinuate; tarsi all narrow and slender. 

This species resembles raniosa Say, but differs in its 



NORTH AMERICAN COLEOPTERA. 173 

aeneous lustre, much coarser elytral sculpture, and in tlie 
sexual characters; both the anterior and middle tarsi of the 
male in ramosa are strongly dilated. All the many speci- 
mens which I have seen are aeneous above, and this appears 
to be a very persistent character. The form is mentioned 
by Mannerheim (Bull. Mosc. 1843, No. 2, p. 252) as Sil2^ha 
cervaria, Var. b. It is also mentioned by Dr. Horn (Tr. 
Am. Ent. Soc. YIII, p. 241) as one of the variations of S. 
ramosa Say. 

S. cervaria Mann. — This is apparently a valid species, 
being represented in my cabinet by two specimens of un- 
mistakably more broadly oval outline than ramosa; the 
dorsal surface also exhibits very decided differences in 
sculpture. 

BATRISUS Aube. 

Although this large and important genus is in a state of 
comparative confusion, it is believed that the description 
of the following forms is warrantable, since no species have 
yet been described from California, and the possibility of 
increasing our synonymy is, therefore, very slight. It is 
true that B. alhion{cusA\ihe h.?i& been ascribed to California, 
but as the locality is not mentioned by Aube in either of his 
descriptions, this would appear to be more or less doubtful; 
at any rate it is easily distinguishable from any of the spe- 
cies here described. 

The following species all belong to the group having tri- 
sulcate and bituberculate pronotum, although in one or two 
forms the median channel becomes almost or quite obsolete; 
they also agree throughout in haviug a terminal process at 
the apex of the posterior tibiae, and in the similarit}^ of the 
sexual characters. The latter are well marked, and are as 
follows: — 

Male. — Abdomen more or less deeply impressed near the apex; terminal 
process of posterior tibise short and nearly straight; intermediate trochanters 
13— Bull. Cal. Acad. Sci. II. 6. Issued November 27, 1886. 



174 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

dentate or prominent externally at apex; tenth autennal joint finely tnber- 
culate, eleventh with a short, erect arcuate process at base, both projectiug 
internally. 

Female. — Abdomen, trochanters and antennas normal; terminal process of 
posterior tibiae long, slender and contorted. Body smaller, more slender. 

The funicle of the aiitenna3 is remarkably constant in 
structure throughout the series, but the last four joints differ 
in shape and relative size. 

In this group the head is not materially modified in the 
male, so that it differs greatly from a large and important 
group of eastern species. From a direct comparison with 
B. fovmicarius Aube, the type of Batrisus, it is probable that 
these species should be separated as a subgenus; this has 
apparently been already done by Eeitter under the name 
Batrisodes. 

The type of tlie European Batrisus is found, as its name 
implies, with ants; the Calif ornian species are never found 
in such localities, but are to be met with only in wet moss 
or under stones near water-courses; although widely diffused, 
they are scarely ever abundant, and are generally extremely 
rare. 

B. mendocino n, sp, — Moderately robust, convex, dark brownish-rufous; 
legs same; abdomen and antennae darker, castaneous, the latter pale toward 
apex; integuments polished; pubescence coarse, rather long, suberect, rather 
sparse. Head moderate, scarcely as wide as long; eyes rather small, very 
convex, prominent, at more than their own length from the base; sides behind 
them strongly convergent and arcuate to the neck, which is slightly less than 
one-half as wide as the width at the eyes, very feebly sinuate; surface impunc- 
tate, slightly convex; on a line through the posterior limits of the eyes there 
are two distinct, deeply impressed fove», apparently nude, connected by a 
deeply impressed, strongly and evenly arcuate channel; antennal tubercula- 
tions broad and prominent; antennae rather slender, distinctly lonr^er than 
the head and prothorax together, club slender; basal joint rather robust, 
scarcely longer than wide, apex deeply notched posteriorly for the reception 
of the second joint when flexed; joints two to five equal, slightly longer than 
wide, sixth and seventh equal, slightly smaller, longer than wide, eighth as 
wide as the seventh, rounded, as wide as long, eighth to eleventh gradually 
wider, ninth and tenth equal in length, the latter much more strongly trans- 
verse, eleventh elongate, conoidal, pointed, Prothorax widest at two-fifths 
the length from the apex, where it is as wide as the head, slightly wider than 



NORTH AMERICAN COLEOPTERA. 175 

long; sides strongly rounded, thence convergent and deeply sinuate to the 
base which is broadly arcuate, nearly three-fourths as wide as the disk and 
one-third wider than the apex; the latter transversely truncate; basal angles 
slightly obtuse, not rounded; disk very feebly and sparsely punct;ite, broadly, 
strongly convex, having in the middle near the base a very deep, nude fovea, 
continued anteriorly to within two-fifths the length of the apex by a narrow, 
not deeply impressed channel; on each side and slightly in advance of the 
fovea, a rather large, obtusely pointed tubercle; al?o near each basal angle a 
large, deej), irregular, nude fove,), continued anteriorly by a very broadly 
and feebly impressed arcuate channel, and connected with th^ median fovea 
by a narrow, extremely feeble, transverse line. Elytra at base equal in width 
to the base of the pronotum, at apex two and one-third times as wide, sides 
evenly, rather strongly arcuate; together transversely truncate behind, nearly 
as long as wide; disk evenly, moderately convex, very minutely, sparsely, 
feebly punctate; sutural striffi approximate, distinct; discal very broadly 
impressed, becoming extinct at one-third the length from the base. Abdomen 
as wide as and slightly longer than the elytra, convex, very minutely, sparsely 
punctate. Legs long, slender; femora rather abruptly swollen before the tip. 
Length 2.1 mm. 

Calif oruia; (Anderson Val., Mendocino Co. 1.) 
The male, has near the apex of the abdomen beneath, a 
large, very deeply-impressed, fovea, wider than long, with 
the anterior edge broadly and roundly sinuate in the middle. 
There are two small, deeply-impressed foveae near the basal 
margin of the pronotum on each side, the outer being at the 
basal angles as seen from above. 

B. zephyrinus u. sp. — Moderately robust, very convex, rufous; elytra 
brighter; abdomen slightly darker; legs and antennne darker, rufous; the lat- 
ter pale at apex; integuments highly polished; pubescence coarse, sparse. 
i/eatZ about as wide as long; eyes rather small, promiuent; sides behind them 
strongly convergent and very feebly arcuate to the neck; the latter broadly 
sinuate, much less than one-half as wide as the width at the eyes; on a line 
through the middle of the eyes two small, nude, very deeply, longitudinally 
impressed foveae, connected by a strongly arcuate groove, the sides of which 
are parallel in the basal half of its leng^ih; antennal tuberculations prom- 
inent, coarsely punctate; antennae long, slender, much louger than the head 
and prothorax together; basal joint moderately robust, subcylindrical, longer 
than wide, eleventh joint robust, couoidal, very obliquely pointed. Pro- 
thorax widest at two-fifths the length from the apex where it is fully as long 
as wide, as wide as the head; sides strongly arcuate, thence convergent and 
distinctly sinuate to the base; the latter broadly arcuate, three-fourths as 
wide as the disk, one-fourth wider than the apex; the latter transversely 
truncate; disk strongly convex, finely, sparsely, feebly puuctnte; near the 



176 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

base a very deep, rounded, nnde median fovea, continued anteriorly by a 
narrow, feebly impressed groove to within one-third the length of the apexj 
slightly in advance of the fovea, nearly midway between it and each side, a 
rather acute tubercle; between the latter and the edge a moderate, irregular, 
deeply impressed fovea, connected with the median by a feebly impressed^ 
anteriorly arcuate line, and each continued anteriorly by an outwardly ar- 
cuat:-, distinct, impressed channel; also at the bass near each basal angle, 
two small, deeply impressed fovese. Elytra very minutely, sparsely punctate, 
convex; discal stria in the form of a broad impression, becoming extinct at 
one-third the length from the base; humeri longitudinally slightly prominent; 
each elytron with three fovea at base. Abdomen very finely, sparsely punc- 
tate; basal segment with two short, approximate, parallel carinse at base. 
Legs long, slender. Length 2.2 mm. 

Nevada; (Reno, Washoe Co., 1). 

This species is closely allied to mendoclno\w(\. agrees with 
it in the form of the elytra, abdomen and legs, and nearly 
so in the antennas; it, however, differs in the form of the 
head and prothorax, the lateral channels of the latter being 
more broadly arcuate in the present species. The basal 
segment of the abdomen in mendocbio has two very short 
rudimentary carinee not one-half as long as in zephyrinus, 
and the sexual characters differ; in the present species the 
abdomen has on the under surface, near the apex, a large 
deeply impressed fovea, as wide as long, which is emargi- 
nate anteriorly, the notch being in the form of a very broad 
cusp. 

B. speculum n- sp. — Eather slender, convex, very dark' rufo-piceous; 
legs and antennae paler, dark rufous, the latter paler at apex; abdomen pi- 
ceous-black; integuments highly polished; pubescence rather coarse, sub- 
erect, sparse. Head slightly longer than wide; eyes small; sides strongly 
convergent, distinctly arcuate to the neck; the latter much less than one- 
half as wide as the width at the eyes; surface feebly convex, impunctate; 
autennal tuberculations not punctate; antennae long, slender, longer than 
the head and prothorax together; eighth joint slightly longer than wide, 
ninth and tenth equal in length, rounded, the former nearly as long as 
wide, the latter very slightly wider than long, eleventh wider than the tenth, 
no: as long as the three preceding together, conoidal at base, very obliquely 
pointed. Prothorax widest at slightly more than one-third the length from 
th^ apex, where it is as wide as the head, very slightly longer than wide; 
sides feebly sinuate posteriorly to the base, which is three-fourths as wide 



NORTH AMERICAN COLEOPTERA. 177 

as the disk and one-fourth wider than the apex; disk strongly convex, 
scarcely punctate; basal fovea large, dee^Dly impressed, rounded; median 
channel very feeble, evanescent near the fovea, extendiog scarcely beyond 
the middle of the disk; lateral foveas moderate in size, not very deeply im- 
pressed, extended aateriorly in the usual arcuate groove, and connected with 
the median by a tine line: immediately behind the middle of the latter, 
acutely, feebly elevated or subtuberculate; between the median fovea and 
base a fine elevated carina; on each side, at the base, two small, deeply im- 
pressed foveae. Elytra and abdomen nearly as in the preceding species; the 
former finely and sparsely punctate, the first visible dorsal segment of the 
latter with two small, short basal carina. Legs slender. Length 1.9 mm. 

California; (Alameda Co. 1). 

This species agrees in general structure of the head and 
prothorax with the preceding species, but may be distin- 
guished from both by its much darker color and structure 
of the antennal club; from mendociuo it differs in its much 
more elongate prothorax and longer basal carinae of the 
first abdominal segment; from zephyriniis in its shorter 
basal abdominal carin^:e and smaller size, and from both in 
the much more feeble median channel of the pronotum. 
The basal carina of the pronotum is common to all these 
species. 

The above description is taken, unfortunately, from the 
female, but the species is so distinct that there can be very 
little doubt of its future identification, its small size, slen- 
der form, dark color, narrow ninth and tenth antennal joints 
and especially the very feeble median channel being its 
distinctive characters. 

B. monticola ii- sp, — Rather robust, convex, intense black throughout; 
legs very dark rufo-piceous; antennae fuscous, very slightly paler, rufous at 
apex; integuments polished; pubescence coarse, pale, suberect, not very 
dense. Head moderate, scarcely as widaas long; eyes moderate in size, very 
convex, rather finely granulate, just behind the middle; sides behind them 
very strongly convergent and feebly arcuate to the neck; surface feebly con- 
vex, impunctate; occipital foveas longitudinally elongate, deeply impressed, 
on a line through the posterior portion of the eyes, connected by a very 
strongly arcuate impressed groove; antennal tuberculations large, very 
coarsely and feebly punctate; antennae robust, scarcely longer than the head 
and prothorax together, club rather robust; ninth joint slightly wider than 



178 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

long, tenth scarcely as long as the ninth, strongly transverse, obliquely trun- 
cate throughout its width at apex, eleventh as long as the three preceding 
together, very slightly wider than the tenth, ovoidal at base, much more con- 
vex exteriorly than within, obliquely attenuate and obtusely pointed. Pro- 
thorax widest at two -fifths its length from the aj)ex, where it is fully as long 
as wide, as wide as the head; sides very strongly rounded, thence convergent 
and rather strongly incurvate to the base which is transversely, very feebly 
arcuate, but slightly more than two-thirds as wide as the disk, one-third 
wider than the apex; disk strongly convex, very fiaely, feebly and sparsely 
punctate; median fovea rather large, rounded, very deep; lateral smaller, 
continued anteriorly by parallel, arcuate, broadly impressed grooves, con- 
nected with the median by anteriorly arcuate and scarcely visible grooves 
just before the basal tuberculations, which are but slightly elevated, more 
abrupt anteriorly than posteriorly; lateral basal foveae rather distant from the 
basal margin; median carina strong. Elytra at base very slightly wider than 
the base of the pronotum, nearly as long as wide, strongly, evenlj^ convexj 
very minutely, feebly and sparsely punctate; sutural striae fioe, deeply im- 
pressed; discal broadly impressed, short, feeble. Abdomen shorter and very 
slightly narrower than the elytra, convex, extremely minutely, sparsely 
j)unctate; first segment with two short, approximate, parallel carinae at base. 
Legs long, somewhat robust; posterior tibise distinctly bent; tarsi much 
paler in color. Length 2.2 mm. 

California; (El Dorado Co., !)■ 

The male has at the apex of the venter, a large, very ab- 
rubt, deeply impressed fovea, slightly wider than deep, the 
anterior edge of which is almost entire and transversely 
truncate. 

This species can easily be distinguished from any other 
here noted by its intense blackness, shorter antennae, ab- 
sence of median pronotal groove, and form of the sexual 
fovea. 

The species thus far described have two basal carinas on 
the first visible dorsal segment of the abdomen; the follow- 
ing has no basal carinse, and the elytra are much shorter. 

B. OCCiduus n. sp. —Rather slender, strongly convex; body very uniform 
in color throughout, dark brownish-rufous; legs slightly paler, rufous; an- 
tennae fuscous, very slightly paler at tip; integuments very highly polished; 
pubescence coarse, pale, very sparse. Head moderate, as wide as long; eyes 
small, prominent; sides behind them very strongly convergent, strongly 
arcuate to the neck, which is transversely truncate, two-fifths as wide as the 



NORTH AMERICAN COLEOPTERA. 179 

■width at the eyes; surface broadly couvex, impunctate; occii)ital foveas 
rather large, verj^ deep, but slightly elongate, joined by the usual strongly 
arcuate, impressed groove; anteuual tuberculations rather prominent, with a 
few sinall, widely scattered punctures; antennae slender, slightly longer than 
the head and piothorax together, club rather strong, rapidly increasing in 
width from the ninth joint which is slightly wider than long, tenth strongly 
transverse, much wider than the ninth, slightly obliquely truncate at the 
apex, eleventh twice as wide as the ninth, truncate at base, ovoidal, ob- 
liquely acuminate, rather acutely pointed, as long as the three preceding 
together. Prothorax nearly as in monticola; sides less acutely rounded 
before the middle, slightly less strongly narrowed toward base; apex slightly 
broader; basal tubercles more symmetrically pointed and more prominent; 
median groove narrow, rather deeply impressed, continuing from the basal 
fovea nearly to the apic il margin. Elytra at base as wide as the base of the 
prouotum, at apex more than twice as wide; sides evenly, very strongly 
arcuate; disk strongly convex, distinctly wider than long, rather coarsely, 
very sparsely and feebly punctate; sutural striae deeply impressed, nearly 
straight; discal very short, very b.'oadly and roundly impressed, gradually 
evanescent at a little more than one-third the length from the base. Abdo- 
men as wide as and much longer than the elytra, convex; first visible seg- 
ment with three large equidistant, densely-pubescent foveas along the basal 
margin; carina completely obsolete. Legs rather long, very slender; fem- 
ora rather abruptly, strongly swollen beyond the middle; i30sterior tibiae 
scarcely perceptibly bent Length 1.9-2.1 mm. 

California; (Humboldt Co. 4). 

Described from the male, in which the apical fovea is 
large, slightly wider than long and rather feebly impressed; 
the anterior edge is truncate and very broadly, feebly sinu- 
ate toward the middle. In the female the elytra are slightly 
shorter. 

Easily recognizable by the very long, well marked, me- 
dian pronotal sulcation, hv the short elytra, and absence of 
basal carin?e. 

Bryaxis. 

This genus, in the broad sense indicated by LeConte, 
(Tr. Am. Ent. Soc. YIII. p. 181), contains a rather hetero- 
geneous assemblage of species, although the various groups 
are clearly indicated. It will be noticed that there are two 
classes of fovece upon which the subdivisions are based — 



180 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

those of the head and pronotum respectively, the former being 
made to serve in subdividing the genus Keichenbachia. It 
will be well to consider these sets of fovese in order. , 

During a recent collecting tour in Texas, I secured a large 
series of a uniformly flavo-ferruginous species of Keich- 
enbachia, belonging to the group in vvhich the male and 
female antennas are difierent in structure. These specimens 
were all taken in a very limited area, and are without the 
least doubt of a single species. The males have the fifth 
and sixth joints of the antennae elongate and swollen; upon 
the occipital portion of the head there are two small, widely 
distant, spongiose fove?e, but the apical fovea is completely 
wanting. The females also have the same joints of the 
antennae elongate and slightly dilated; the head has the 
occipital foveas exactly similar in size and position to those 
of the male, and in addition a third apical fovea, similar to 
the others and equally pronounced. The male above noted 
was described by Dr. LeConte as tumida; whether the 
female has been described as a trifoveate species is a ques- 
tion requiring further investigation. 

It is seen, therefore, that the presence or absence of the 
apical fovea may sometimes be a sexual character, at least 
in a certain class of species of which one is R. tumida, and 
it is consequently of very little moment in a generic class- 
ification, although the occipital fovete appear to hold a 
very different position, and are evidently of more distinct 
value. 

The pronotal foveas are very important from a generic 
point of view, since they indicate great and radical differ- 
ences, which extend throughout the body, and are evinced 
by peculiar manifestations of sexual identity. For in- 
stance, restricting ourselves for the present simply to the 
American fauna, — those species having three small, equal, 
punctiform fovei^, are the only ones which are subject to a 
very decided sexual modification of the antennal club. 
Those having three large, subequal, spongiose fove^e are, 



NORTH AMERICAN COLEOPTERA. 181 

amongst those having occipital fovea?, the only ones exhib- 
iting sexual modification of the dorsal surface of the abdo- 
men; while those which have two large spongiose lateral 
fovete and a minute nude median puncture are the only 
ones which possess a sexual modification of the middle 
joints of the antenna, although there are many species which 
have the antennae similar, as there are several in the pre- 
ceding section which have the abdomen similar, in the two 
sexes. 

Again, those having three nude pronotal fovete which are 
unequal, are distinguished by a complete absence of occip- 
ital foveae, and, considering the sexual modifications appar- 
ent in other portions of the group accompanying such 
decided dift'erences in the fovese, Ave might be led to expect 
a peculiarity here also. 

From Galveston, Texas, I have before me two species of 
this section. One of these is represented by seven males 
and three females, the other by three males only, the latter 
having an almost impunctate head and longer elytral striae; 
these have the first segment elongate, and the middle por- 
tion of the dorsal surface behind its apex exhibits sexual 
modifications consisting of excavations and minute tubercu-' 
lations of the greatest complexity. The males of the first 
species have shorter elytral stria?, a more punctate head, 
and also exhibit sexual characteristics afi'ecting the dorsal 
surface of the abdomen, although of an entirely different 
kind. The first two segments are perfectly normal, the first 
slightly elongate, but the third is very broadly and feebly 
impressed, the impression having in the middle a tuft of 
long erect sparsely -placed setae. The sexual characters, 
therefore, affect the same part oi* the body as in Bryaxis, but 
instead of being limited mainly to the first segment, it is 
the portion posterior to this which is princijDally modified. 
These species are, however, well distinguished from Bryaxis 
by the presence of lateral carin^e on the lower surface of 
the head. 



182 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

In at least certain groups of Coleoptera. sexual characters 
should be considered generic when they are evinced by 
such radically different modifications, for these imply 
decided differences in the methods of exercising the func- 
tions pertaining to reproduction, the most important act in 
the lives of these organisms, and are the outward signs of 
innate differences much greater than those made apparent 
by mere external form. From a biological standpoint they 
are the most important characters which can be assumed, 
and in the present instance have an unquestionable value. 

1 have, therefore, drawn up the following scheme of 
genera, the differences being indicated by characters which 
are non-sexual, and which readily serve for identification 
irrespective of the more important differences which have 
been indicated above. 

Head having two occipital fovere, not cariuate 1 iterally beneath. 

Prouotal foveas joined by an impressed line Rybaxis. 

Pronotal fovese three in number, generally not connected. 

Fove^e subequal, large, all spongiose Bryaxis. 

Fovese equal, s jcaller, punctiform Nlsa. 

Foveae unequal and dissimilar. 

Lateral large, spongiose; median small, nude. . . Reichenbachla. 
Head having no occipital foveae, finely and strongly carinate beneath later- 
ally. 
Pronotum having small, feebly-impressed, lateral fovtae and a very 

minute, more abrupt median puncture, all nude. Nisaxis» 

Pronotum devoid of foveae; elytral striae obsolete^ ' 

Eybaxis Saulcy. — In our fauna this genus contains the 
three species sanguinea Leach, conjuncta Lee. and Brend- 
elii Horn. 

NiSA n. gen. — There being no specimen of this genus be- 
fore me at the present time, I cannot state positively 
whether the head is laterally carinate or not, it is, how- 

iLeConte— Tr. Am. Ent. Soc. VIII, p. 183. 

2 The characters given for inornata Brend. indicate a very peculiar species 
which warrants closer study than has yet been given it. As the occipital 
fove» are wanting, it may be attached for the pres-nt to Nisaxis, but it prob- 
ably possesses differential characters of generic value. 



NORTH AMERICAN COLEOPTERA. 183 

ever, attached to that group to which it is probably most 
closely allied. Msa includes but two species, luniger Lee. 
and cavicorms Brend. 

Reich ENBACHIA Leach. — By direct comparison with Euro- 
pean representatives there is no a23i3arent difference in the 
American forms. 

NiSAXis n. gen. — Here the species are decidedly more mi- 
nute than in any of the other genera of this group, and are 
probably more abundant than hitherto supposed. It is 
very distinct in its cephalic characters, as well as those of 
the pronotum and sexual modifications. The discal stride of 
the elytra are usually shorter than in the other genera, and 
the basal carinse of the first dorsal segment short and widely 
distant. At present it can include only tomentosa Aube.^ 

BRYAXIS Leacli. 

The more salient characters separating Bryaxis from the 
other genera here noted, besides the sexual modifications 
already mentioned, are the comparatively large size, more 
distinct abdominal border, the pronotal fovese and the very 
large eyes situated almost at the extreme base of the head. 

B. texana ^- sp. — Form rather slender, pale rufo-testaceous througlioiit; 
legs concolorous; autennte aud abdomen very slightly darker; integiiments 
polished; pubescence very short, suberect, not dense. Head rather small; 
eyes very large, prominent, situated very close to the basal angles, more con- 
vex posteriorly; base broadly triincate; surfac- feebly convex, impunctate, 
occipital foveas situated on a line through the anterior portion of the eyes, 
moderate, rather deeply impressed, mutually more than three times as dis- 
tant as either from the eye; apical fovea very slightly smaller, more broadly 
impressed at the sides; apical angles verj'- slightly rounded; antennae rather 
slender, distinctly longer than the head and prothorax together, club rather 

^The species described by me (Cont. I, p. 33) as inopia, has been considered 
a synonym of this species in the recently published Check List of North 
American Coleoptera. As inopia has two well-developed occipital foveae, it 
cannot be placed in the neighborhood of tomentosa. If the compilers of the 
catalogue are determined to regard it as a synonyn:, some more appropriate 
species should be selected with which to combine it; it belongs near rubi- 
cunda, although somewhat resembling tomentosa. 



184 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

prominent; joints three to eight equal in width, nine to eleven increasing 
uniformly and rather rapidly in width. Prothorax widest in the middle, 
where it is scarcely wider than the head, distinctly wider than long; sides 
very narrowly rounded, convergent and more broadly rounded anteriorly, 
moderately convergent and rather deeply sinuate toward base; the latter 
broadly, feebly arcuate, five -sixths as wide as the disk, one-half wider than 
the apex; the latter transversely truncate; disk strongly convex, not percej)- 
tibly punctate, broadly impressed before the base toward the sides, trans- 
versely subgranulose along the base; lateral foveie rather large, deeply im- 
pressed, at one-third the length from the base; median about equal in size, 
less deeply impressed. Elytra at base distinctly wider than the prothorax, at 
apex twice as wide as the latter; sides evenly and moderately arcuate; disk 
distinctly wider than long, broadly and not strongly convex, more abruptly 
declivous along the sides; humeri rather prominent; surface excessively 
feebly and obsoletely punctate; sutural striae fine, deeply impressed, nearly 
parallel; discal very fine and feeble, slightly arcuate, gradually evanescent at 
slightly less than one-third the length from the apex. Abdomen polished, 
impunctate; border strong; carinae of first segment very short, divergent, 
distant by fully two-fifths the total width. Legs rather long and slender; 
posterior tibiae feebly clavate, very slightly bent, veiy feebly and obsoletely 
grooved exteriorly at apex. Length 1.3 mm. 

Texas; (El Paso 1). 

The sole representative is a male, exhibiting the usual 
very marked abdominal characters. The first segment is 
very long-, four-fifths as long as the elytra, and is almost the 
only portion of the abdomen seen when viewed vertically; 
its apex is rather abruptly deflexed, transversely impressed 
in the middle; the edge with a small, rounded, very distinct, 
median sinuation; remaining segments almost vertical, very 
short, almost equal; second broadly and extremely feebly 
sinuate in the middle ; surface anteriorly with a transversely 
arcuate, impressed channel which is partially hidden under 
the first segment, and which corresponds in outline with the 
sinuation of the first; remaining segments not sensibly mod- 
ified. The apical margins of the first and second segments 
are abruptly thinner. 

This species probably belongs to the Belfragei type, but 
the description of that species will not apply to this. 

B. infinita n. sp. — Form slightly robust. dark rufo-castaneous; head black- 
ish; elytra rufous, darker at base and apex; antennae and legs coucolorous, 



NORTH AMERICAN COLEOPTERA. 185 

dark fuscous; integuments polished; pubescence rather coarse, very short 
and rather dense. Head moderate, much wider than long; eyes very large, 
prominent; base broadly truncate; surface feebly convex, scarcely percej)ti- 
bly punctate; occipital foveas rather large, feebly impressed, on a line 
through the anterior margins of the eyes, mutually two and one-half times as 
distant as either from the eye; apical equal in size, feebly impressed; sur- 
face between the antenufc gradually declivous: antennte somewhat robust, 
distinctly longer than the head and prothorax together, club rather promi- 
nent; basal joint feebly dilated, slightly longer than wide, second slightly 
smaller, louger than wide, subcylindrical, third slightly shorter, slightly 
obconical, distinctly longer than wide, tenth as long as wide, much wider 
than the ninth, eleventh distinctly wider than the tenth, slightly elongate, 
obliquely acuminate. Prothorax widest at two-tifths the length from the 
apex, where it is scarcely wider than the head, nearly one-third wider than 
long; sides rather strongly rounded, rather strongly convergent and feebly 
sinuate to the base; the latter broadly, feebly arcuate, three-fourths as wide 
as the disk, one-half wider than the apex; the latter transversely truncate; 
disk strongly convex, scarcely punctate; lateral and medial foveae equal, 
moclerate, the former more broadly impressed. Elytra at base distinctly 
wider than the prothorax, at apex slightly less than twice as wide as the lat- 
ter; sides evenly, not very strongly arcuate; disk slightly wider than long, 
evenly, rather feebly convex, extremely minutely i3unctate;sutural striae very 
distinct and deeply impressed, rather approximate, nearly parallel; discal 
deeply impressed and distinct, becoming slightly recurved posteriorly, and 
terminating abruptly at one-fifth the length from the apex. Abdomen fully 
as wide as the elytra; border wide and prominent; surface scarcely punctate, 
moderately convex; basal carinas distant by slightly more than one-third the 
total width, distinct, less than one-third as long as the segment, almost par- 
allel. Legs rather long and slender. Length 1.5 mm. 

Texas; (Austin 14). 

This species is remarkable amongst the American repre- 
sentatives of the genus, in the complete absence of male 
sexual modifications of the dorsal segments of the abdomen. 
The male described above is very slightly more robust than 
the female, and has the antennae slightly longer and with a 
more prominent club, the tenth joint esj)ecially being 
shorter and more transverse in the female. The type speci- 
men has the oedeagus protruded. The lateral members are 
seen to be two thin, elongate laminse, obliquely acuminate 
at apex and having at the middle of the external edge a 
small tuft of dilated membranous hair. 



186 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

REICHENBACHIA Leach. 

The species are numerous, as a rule smaller than in the 
preceding genus, and especially distinguished by the rather 
finer abdominal border and the dorsal surface similar in 
both sexes. The species here described may be assigned 
as follows:— 

Head (^- and 9 with three fovese. 

Anteuuse dissimilar iu the two sexes. 

iumorosa, (umidicornis and informis. 

Antennse similar in the st-xes gracilicornis and nevadensis. 

Head J^ and 9 bifoveate. 

Antennse dissimilar in the sexes fundata und frcmcisc ana. 

The special relationships will be indicated under each 
description.^ 

R. tumorosa n- sp.— Rather robust; color rather dark rufo-castaneous; 
antennae coucolorous in the middle, paler at base and toward the apex; elytra 
and legs paler, much more tlava^e, the former not darker at apex; pubescence 
fine, short, not at all dense. Head rather small; eyes moderate, prominent, 
very coarsely granulate, at nearly their own length from the base; front trans- 
versely and rather strongly convex, almost completely'' impunctate, highly 
polished, having on a line through the middle of the eyes, two small, deeply 
impressed foveae, mutually three and one-half times as distant as either from 
the eye; with a large, deep impression between the antennae at the bottom 
of which there is a very minute, spongy-pubescent fovea; aj^ex strongly 
declivous, angularly and slightly produced in the middle; antennae rather 
short, robust, as long as the head and prothorax together; first joint mod- 
erate, second smaller, subglobular, third wider, short, strongly transverse, 
triangular, closely adjacent to the fourth, which is very large, stronglj' 
transverse; joints five to eight, transverse, very rapidly and uniformly di- 
minishing in width, sixth shorter than the seventh, eighth normal, eight to 
eleven evenly, very gradually increasing in width. Prothorax moderate in 

*The long, erect, stout sette, growing upon the lower surface of the head 
are sometimes uulbous at the extremity, the enlargement being apparently 
formed of a viscid substance which may perhaps be a secretion. If, how- 
ever, this is the case, the setae are in all probability hollow tubes. It may 
be this secretive matter which is so pleasing to ants, with which so many 
species of Pselaphidae are associated. The same appearance of the setce has 
been before referred to in a short paper on our Euplectini (Cont. II, p. 94), 
although at that time I had not remarked the viscid nature of the material 
forming the enlargement. 



NORTH AMERICAN COLEOPTERA. 187 

size, widest at two-fifths its leugti\ from the apex, where it is slightly wider 
than the head and distinctly wider than long; sides strongly, evenly rounded, 
moderately convergent and feebly sinuate toward base; the latter broadly, 
very feebly arcuate, one-half wider than the apex, which is transversely 
truncate, and four-fifths as wide as the pronotal disk; basal angles obtuse 
and very slightly prominent, not at all rounded; disk strongly, evenly con- 
vex, polished, almost impunctate, lateral foveee rather small, not very 
deeply impressed; median puncture very small; base finely margined, sur- 
face immediately before it feebly impressed, the impression obsolete in the 
middle. Elytra at base distinctly wider than the prothorax, at apes fully 
twice as wide as the latter; sides eveuly, rather strongly arcuate; together 
broadly truncate behind; disk evenly, rather strongly convex, much wider 
than long, two-thirds longer th m the pronotum, finely, very feebly and 
obsoletely, evenly and rather sparsely punctate; sutural striae strong; discal 
strong, feebly arcuate, abruptly terminating at one-fifth the length from the 
apex. Ahdomen impunctate, highly polished, rather convex; first segment 
longer than the next two together, with two fine, very distinct carinae, which 
are distant by two-fifths the entire width, nearly one-half as long as the 
segment, and nearly parallel; at each side, near the border, and partially 
under the elytra, there is a large spongiose fovea; between this and the 
border a fine attenuated carina, two-thirds as long as the segment. Legs 
long and slender. Length 1.4 mm. 

California; (Sonoma Co. 4). 

The description is taken from tlie male; tlie female anten- 
na3 are normal, robust and scarcely as long as those of the 
male. In the latter the terminal segment of the dorsal sur- 
face is ver^^ broadly emarginate at apex, the emargination 
being evenly rounded and nearly ten times as wide as deep; 
the ventral segments are not at all impressed. 

This species belongs near sagax Lee, but differs greatly 
in the structure of the male antennae as recorded in the 
original description of that species. 

R. tumidicornis u. sp. — Form rather slender, piceous; antennas slightly 
paler at apex; elytra bright rufous, base and apex clouded with a darker tint, 
legs dark rufous; pubescence rather coarse, very short, not dense; integuments 
polished. Head moderate in size; eyes rather small, very convex, coarsely 
granulated and prominent, at fully their own length from the base; sides be- 
hind them feebly convergent, distinctly arcuate; base broadly truncate; angles 
narrowly rounded, not prominent; surface broadly, feebly convex, excessively 
minutely, sparsely punctate; on a line through the middle of the eyes there 
are two large, deeply impressed foveas, mutually three times as distant as 
either from the eye; also near the apex a slightly smaller fovea, with the 



188 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

sides more broadly impressed; apex broadly angulate; antennae as long as 
the head and prothorax together; basal joint rather small, longer than wide; 
second slightly smaller, cylindrical, slightly longer than wide; third small, 
scarcely as long as wide, obconical; fourth as wide as the second, very 
strongly transverse; fifth strongly inflated, transversely ov^l, more than twice 
as wide as long; sixth slightly more strongly dilated; longer, transversely 
ovoidal, slightly more acute inwardly; seventh widest, shorter than the pre- 
ceding, apex truncate, very strongly transverse, more acute inwardly, more 
than three times as wide as long; eighth slightly longer than the seventh, 
one-half wider than long, obliquely truncate inwardly; ninth very small, 
slightly wider than long; tenth slightly wider than long, distinctly wider 
than the ninth; eleventh rather slender, pointed, as long as the three preced- 
ing together, distinctly wider than the tenth. Prothorax widest very slightly 
in advance of the middle, where it is slightly wider than long, very slightly 
wider than the head; sides strongly arcuate, feebly sinuate before the basal 
angles; disk strongly convex, very minutely punctate; lateral fovese very 
large, rather deep; surface near the base slightly impressed and coarsely 
punctate toward the sides; median puncture elongated longitudinally. Elytra 
at base much wider than the prothorax, at apex more than twice as wide as 
the [latter; sides strongly and evenly arcuate; truncate behind; disk rather 
strongly and evenly convex, excessively minutely, rather sparsely punctate, 
one-fourth wider thaii long, two-thirds longer than the prothorax; sutural 
stride strong, nearly straight; discal very fine, rather feeble, terminating at 
one-fifth the length from the apex. First ventral segment much shorter than 
the next two together; carinae very fine, two-fifths as long as the segment, 
distinctly divergent, distant by one-third the total width; carina near the 
lateral border nearly as long as the entire segment; lateral basal foveas dis- 
tinct. Legs rather long, very slender; posterior tibiae very slender, distinctly 
arcuate and clavate, scarcely at all flattened. Length 1.2 mm. 

California; (Santa Cruz and Santa Clara Cos.) 
Described from the male in which the terminal dorsal 
segment is narrowly and very feebly emarginate at apex, 
the emargination much narrower than in himorosa, evenly 
rounded, about eight times as wide as deep; ventral seg- 
ments not impressed. In the female the antennae are 
slightly shorter than in the male, normal, club robust. 

Very abundant throughout the region indicated. It be- 
longs near alhionica (Mots.), but differs according to the 
description given by Dr. LeConte in the structure of the 
male antennae, and more especially in that of the posterior 
tibiae which are not perceptibly flattened. The antenna 



NORTH AMERICAN COLEOPTERA. 189 

oialhlonica are described as liaving the '^ fifth joint dilated, 
sixth larger than the following, rounded, 7 — 9, large, trans- 
verse." This description evidently cannot be applied to 
tamidicornis. One of the localities given by the above- 
mentioned authority is Colorado; this is probably a mis- 
print for California, as there is very little likelihood of 
albionica occurring east of the Sierra Nevada Mts. 

In the description of albionica given by Mannerheim (Bull. 
Mosc. 1852, p. 371), the only joints which are described as 
dilated are the fifth and sixth. In the present species the 
seventh is distinctly the widest. The posterior tibia3 are 
not described by Mannerheim as being flattened, but simply 
dilated, which is more nearly the case in tiimidicornis. 
There have probably been several species confounded by 
the various authors, as these species do not appear to have 
a very wide distribution, but are more or less local. 

Although so abundant about Santa Cruz, I have not yet 
found this species to the north of San Francisco, although 
I have collected over very extensive regions, giving special 
a,ttention to the Staphylinidae and Pselaphidce. Its gait 
is rather more rapid than is usual in this genus. 

R. informis n- sp. — Either slender, dark rufo-aastaneous; elytra bright 
rufous, slightly darker near the apex; aatenuae and legs pale rufo-testaceous; 
integuments polished; pubescence very fine, short aad sparse. Head mod- 
erate; eyes very convex, at scarcely their own length from the base; 
sides behind them feebly convergent and arouate; base broadly truncate; 
angles distinctly rounded; surface feebly, evenly convex, excessively minutely, 
sparsely punctate; punctures slightly larger and closer toward the sides; hav- 
ing, on a line through the middle of the eyes, two moderate, not very deeply 
impressed fovtse, mutually three times as distant as either from the eye; 
near the apex a more broadly impressed fovea, with the pubescent portion 
equal to that of the occipital foveas; apex declivous, broadly angulate; an- 
tennae as long as the head and prothorax together, club robust; basal joints 
moderate, second slightly the smaller; third slender, much longer than wide; 
fourth small, slightly transverse; fifth slightly dilated, a little longer than 
wide; sixth as long as wide, as wide as the fifth, obliquely truncate at apex, 
joints seven to nine, very slightly wider than long, equal in width to the fifth; 
the eighth slightly smaller; nine to eleven very rapidly increasing in width. 
Prothorax widest very blightly before the middle, where it is very slightly 

N\— Bull. Gal. Acad. Sci. II. C. Issued November 27, 1886. 



190 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

wider than the head and slightly wider than long; sides rather strongly, 
evenly rounded, moderately convergent to the base, very feebly sinuate near 
the basal angles, which are obtuse, not rounded; base broadly, foebly, but 
distinctly arcuate, one-half wider than the apex; the latter transversely trun- 
cate; disk strongly convex, excessively, minutely, sparsely punctate, coarsely 
so along the basal margin; lateral fovete rather small, not very deeply im- 
pressed, at less than one-third the length from the base; median very small, 
longitudinally, slightly elongate. Elytra at base distinctly wider than the 
jDrothorax, at apex more than twice as wide as the latter; sides evenly, not 
very strongly aicuate; apex trancite, feebly sinuate laterally; disk very 
sUghtly wider than long, nearly three-fourths longer than the prothorax, 
evenly, moderately convex, excessively minutely, obsoletely and sparsely 
punctate; satnral stride deeply impressed, nearly straight; discal fine, dis- 
tinct, slightly arcuate, teraiinating at one-tenth the length from the apex. 
Abdomen rather elongate, convex; first segment not as long as the next two 
together; b isal carinae distinctly divergent, separated by distinctly less than 
one-third the total width, one-half as long as the segment. Legs rather long 
and slender; hind tibiae not strongly clavate. Length 1.4 mm. 

California; (Mendocino Co., 2). 

Described from the male; the terminal dorsal segment is 
more than four times as wide as long, very broadly, feebly 
emarginate at apex. 

This species belongs JiQdiT propinqua Lee, but is not very 
closely related to any other described species. 

R. gracilicornis ii- sp. — Kather robust, dark rufo-castaneous; elytra 
dark, obscure rufous; antennae and legs paler, dark rufo-testaceous; integu- 
ments rather dull, head and elytra more polished; pubescence coarse, rather 
long, molerately dense, suberect, rather conspicuous. Head moderate or 
rather small, much longer than wide; eyes rather large, very convex, at 
much less than their own length from the base; sides behind them strongly 
coarctate to the base which is broadly subsinuate; surface feebly, evenly con- 
vex, not perceptibly iDunctate; having on a line through the middle of the 
eyes two rather large and feebly impressed foveae, mutually more than three 
times as distant as as either from the eye; apical fovea slightly smaller 
but more widely and deeply impressed; antennal emarginations rather ap- 
proximate, angular; apex slightly produced, narrow, declivous, with the sides 
nearly straight and feebly divergent anteriorly; antennae very slender, slight- 
ly longer than the head and prouotum together; first and second joints longer 
than wide, cylindrical, the second slightly smaller, three to six each cylindri- 
cal, slender, more than twice as long as wide, sixth slightly smaller, seven 
and eight scarcely more robust, the former twice as long as wide, the latter 
quadrate, ninth slightly more robust, a little longer than wide, tenth slightly 
wider than long, two-thirds wider than the ninth, slightly trapezoidal, elev- 



NORTH AMERICAN COLEOPTERA. 191 

enth one-half wider than the tenth, obliquely ovoidal, pointed. Proihorax 
widest at two-fifths the length from the apex, where it is much wider than 
the head and one-third wider than long; sides acutely rounded, slightly con" 
vergent and feebly arcuate to the base, before which they are nearly straight; 
base broadly, feebly arcuate, one-half wider than the apex and three-fourths 
as wide as the disk; apex broadly, very feebly emarginate; disk strongly con- 
vex, very minutel}^ punctate; lateral fovere large, feebly impressed, at two- 
fifths the length from the base; median small, well before the base. Elytra 
at base just visibly wider than the prothorax, at apex slightly less than twice 
as wide as the latter, broadly truncate, feebly trisiuuite; sides evenly, not 
strongly arcuate; disk broadly convex, finely, not densely, very feebly punc- 
tate; sutural striae deep, feebly arcuate; discal fine, distinct, not deeply im- 
pressed, terminating at one-tenth the length from the apex. Abdomen 
rather short, moderately convex; first segment distinctly longer than the next 
two together; carinae fine, distinct, nearly one-half as long as the segment, 
feebly divergent, feebly directed outward at apex, distant by less than one- 
fourth the total width; carinas adjoining the margins extremely fine, almost 
obsolete.- Legs long and slender; posterior tibias feebly clavate, slightly bent 
inward toward the apex, where there is externally a short groove for the re- 
ception of the tarsi when reflexed. Length 1.3 mm. 

Texas; (Austin 1). 

Described from the male; the terminal dorsal segment 
has at the apex a small semicircularly rounded emargina- 
tion, nearly twice as wide as deep, the angles being acute 
and slightly produced; last ventral segment very feebly im- 
pressed in the middle. 

This species belongs to the rahlciinda type of the genus 
and should be placed near that species, from which it differs 
in the smaller and deeper apical emargination of the male. 

The external groove at the apex of the posterior tibiae ap- 
pears to be a generic character. 

K. nevadensis u. sp, — Moderately slender, piceous; elytra rufous, slightly 
darker at apex; legs dark, browaish-piceous; aatenn^ slightly paler, rufo- 
fuscous; integuments polished; pubescence short, coarse, evenly but not 
densely placed. Head moderate; eyes rather large, prominent, at scarcely 
more than one-half their own length from the base; sides behind them 
rather strongly convergent and strongly arcuate to the base, which is very 
broadly truncate; surface rather strongly convex, not perceptibly punctate 
behind; having on a line just in advance of the middle of the eyes two large, 
deeply impressed foveae, which are mutually two and one-half times as dis- 
tant as either from the eye; between the antennae transversely impressed. 



192 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

impression finely punctate, having at the bottom a smaller circular fovea; 
antennae short and robust, not as long as the head and prothorax together, 
club robust, second joint subcylindrical, longer than wide, slightly narrower 
than the first, three to eight narrower, subequal in width, third, fifth and 
sixth slightly longer than wide, fourth and seventh subquadrate, eighth 
smallest, wider than long, eight to eleven increasing evenly and very rapidly 
in width, ninth and tenth strongly transverse, eleventh slightly longer than 
wide, obtusely and obliquely acuminate. Prothorax widest at one-third the 
length from the apex, where it is very slightly wider than the head and one- 
fifth wider than long; sides rather strongly, narrowly rounded, moderately 
convergent and nearly straight toward base, just before which they are very 
feebly sinuate; base three-fourths as wide as the disk, one-third wider than 
the apex; the latter transversely truncate; disk strongly convex, scarcely 
perceptibly, sparsely punctate; lateral foveae moderate, at two-fifths the 
length from the base; median small, distinct, not at all elongate. Elytra at 
base distinctly wider than the prothorax, at apex distinctly more than twice 
as wide as the latter; sides evenly, rather strongly arcuate; disk moderately 
convex, scarcely perceptibly punctate; sutural striae deeply impressed, nearly 
parallel; discal rather strongly arcuate and deeply impressed, terminating at 
one-fifth the length from the apex; together distinctly wider than long, two- 
thirds longer than the prothorax. Abdomen moderately convex; basal seg- 
ment as long as the next two together; carinas distant by two-fifths the entire 
width, very short, distinctly less than one-third as long as the segment, dis- 
tinctly divergent, nearly straight. Legs slender, j)osterior tibiae feebly 
clavate, strongly arcuate. Length 1..3 mm, 

Nevada; (Eeno, Washoe Co. 3). 

The sexual characters appear to be very slight, but there 
is apparently very little doubt that it belongs in the rubi- 
cunda group of species. It may be readily distinguished 
by the transverse impression between the antennae and the 
ver}^ short basal carina of the first dorsal segment; in the 
type these are scarcely more than one-sixth or one-eighth 
-as long as the segment, but in another specimen which has 
shorter antennae, and therefore probably the female, they 
are more than one -fourth as long as the segment. The pos- 
terior tibiiTB are unusually strongly arcuate. 

R. fandata u- sp.— Moderately robust, piceous-black; elytra rufous, 
clouded slightly darker at apex and base; antennce dark brownish-piceous; 
legs dark brownish-piceous, femora more rufous; integuments polished; pu- 
bescence fine, very short, somewhat dense on the abdomen. Head moderate, 
wider than long; eyes moderate, at less than their own length from the base; 



NORTH AMERICAN COLEOPTERA. 193 

sides strongly rounded to the base, which is transversely truncate; surface 
broadly, feebly convex, scarcely perceptibly, sparsely and very obsoletely 
punctate; occipital fovere on a line through the anterior portions of the eyes, 
moderate in size, not very deeply impressed, mutually three times as distant 
as either from the eye; apical fovea entirely wanting; apex abruptly and very 
stronglj^ declivous, having two small approximate ciliate tubercles; antennae 
long and slender, one-half as long as the body, club slender; basal joint large, 
irregular, second much smaller, slightly more robust than the third, the lat- 
ter distinctly longer than wide, fourth smaller, subquadrate, fifth to seventh 
slightly dilated, the sixth slightly the shortest, as wide as loug, eighth nar- 
row, joints eight to eleven very gradually, evenly increasing in width, all 
longer than wide. Prothorax widest at two-fifths the length from the apex, 
where it is as wide as the head, distinctly wider than long; sides evenly, 
stronglj'' arcaate, moderately convergent and feebly sinuate to the base; the 
latter broadly, feeblj' arcuate, four-fifths as wide as the disk, nearly one-half 
wider than the apex; the latter transversely truncate; disk strongly convex, 
not visibly punctate except along the base; lateral fovete rather small, not 
very deeply impressed, at one-third the length from the base; median rather 
large, somewhat longitudinally elongated. Elytra at base slightly wider than 
the prothorax, at apex twice as wide as the latter; sides evenly and rather 
strongly arcuate; disk evenly, rather strongly convex, sparsely and very ob- 
soletely punctate; sutural striae deep, nearly parallel; discal distinct, arcuate 
terminating at one-fifth the length from the apex. Abdomen moderately con- 
vex; first segment scarcely as long as the next two together; basal carinas 
fine, slightly divergent, distant by slightly more than one-third the total 
width, very short, about one-fourth as long as the segment. Legs slender; 
posterior tibiae very feebly clavate, slightly beut; tarsi rather long. Length 
1.2 mm. 

California; (Sonoma Co. 3). 

Described from the male, the terminal dorsal segment 
being rather broadly emarginate, the emargination evenly 
rounded and feeble, about eight or nine times as wide as 
deep. The female is quite similar to the male, but has the 
antenucTe normal in structure and slightly shorter; the vertex 
also lacks the two ciliate tubercles, and the median punc- 
ture of the pronotum appears to be less elongate. 

Belongs near compar Lee, but is abundantly distinguished 
from that species by the structure of the antennae and the 
darker colors. 

R. franciscana n. sp. — Form rather slender, black; antennae browuish- 
piceous; e ytra dark rufous; legs dark piceous-brown; under surface black; 



194 CALIFORNIA ACADExMY OF SCIENCES. 

integuments polislied; pubescence fine, short, subrecumbent, rather dense. 
Head moderate, slightly wider than long; eyes moderate, at less than their 
own length from the base; sides strongly rounded to the base, which is very 
broadly truncate or just visibly sinuate; surface feebly convex, finely, evenly 
and distinctly punctate; occipital fovese rather small, feebly impressed, on a 
line through the middle of the eyes, mutually slightly more than twice as 
distant as either from the eye; apical fovea wanting; vertex broadly, feebly 
sinuate above, abruptly and very strongly declivous, the face of the decliv- 
ity bearing a transversely oval sensitive area of very dense, erect, short 
setae; antennas rather short and robust, about as long as the head and pro- 
thorax together, club somewhat robust; two basal joints, rather small, the 
second slightly the smaller, third narrower, slightly longer than wide, per- 
ceptibly obconical, fourth very slightly wider, a little transverse, fifth 
slightly dilated, a little longer than wide, seventh and eighth equal, a little 
narrower, very slightly narrower than long; joints eight to eleven uniformly, 
rather rapidly increasing in width, eighth as wide as the seventh, eight to 
ten wider than long. Prothorax widest at two-fifths its length from the 
apex, where it is scarcely perceptibly wider than the head and distinctly 
wider than long; sides strongly, evenly rounded, moderately convergent 
and nearly straight toward base; the latter broadly, feebly arcuate, four- 
fifths as wide as the disk, one-half wider than the apex; the latter trans- 
versely truncate; disk strongly convex, finely, rather densely and evenly 
punctate, lateral fovea? rather large, moderately impressed, at slightly 
more than one-third the length from the base; median very small, near the 
base. Eli/tra at base slightly wider than the prothorax, at ajDex scarcely 
twice as wide as the latter; sides evenly and rather strongly arcuate; disk 
very slightly wider than long, moderately and evenly convex, very minutely, 
not densely punctate; sutural striae deep, nearly parallel; discal distinct, 
arcuate, terminating at slightly less than one-fifth the length from the apex. 
Abdomen moderately convex; basal segment nearly as long as the next two 
together; bisid carinoe very fine, very distinctly divergent, distant by about 
■one-fourth the total width, slightly less than one-third as long as the seg- 
ment. Legs short and robust; intermediate tibiae short, robust, not at all 
"Clavate, slightly thicker in the middle, having a large, robust terminal spur; 
posterior tibiae longer, more slender, slightly clavate. Length 1.3 mm. 

California; (San Mateo Co. 1). 

The description is taken from the male. The terminal 
segment is rather broadly and extremely feebly emarginate 
at apex. 

This species belongs near the last, but may easily be dis- 
tinguished from any hitherto described by its colors, punc- 
tuation and male sexual characters. The female probably 



NORTH AMERICAN COLEOPTERA. 195 

lias simple antennas and lacks the sensitive oval patch on 
the declivity of the vertex. 

R. dcformata Lee. — Three specimens of this species were 
taken at Paraiso Springs, Monterey Co. The antenna is 
figured on the plate; the abnormally large second joint is 
excavated and coarsely punctured beneath. 

SONOMA n. geu. (Euplectini.) 

The following genus belongs near Faronus and Sagola, 
with apparently much greater resemblance to the latter. 
The species thus far described belong to the Pacific Coast 
fauna, and were placed by Dr. LeConte in Faronus. The 
diagnosis may be given as follows, the general characters 
being those of the Euplectini. 

Posterior coxse contiguous; tarsi with two equal claws. Autennfe rather 
distant at base, feebly but distinctly clavate; first joint much longer than the 
second. H-^ad slightly smiller than the prothorax, with three nude fovefe 
not connected, the two posterior small, the apical large and very deep; geans 
not at all prominent, rounded. Prothorax with two small discal fovere before 
the middle, a very large, deep, widely dilated basal fovea, and one at eacli 
side not connected. Elytra with sutural striae; discal deep and broad, short, 
basal. First segment of the abdomen very short, shorter than the second or 
third, coriaceous above, corneous beneath, without basal carina?; second seg- 
ment having an apical transverse line of finely spongiose sensitive surface 
which is interrupted in the middle. Tarsi rather short. Eyes well developed. 
Body very depressed, linear. 

The head is not carinate beneath, but has a deep trans- 
verse groove just behind the mentum and maxillae. The 
elytra are much longer than the prothorax, depressed. The 
flanks of the elytra are norm d. The middle coxae are sub- 
contiguous, separated by a very narrow carina. 

The genus Sonoma is distinguished from Faronus by the 
form of the geniB and the short basal segment of the abdo- 
men; from Sagola Sharp it differs in its less approximate and 
less prominent frontal tuberculations, and especially in the 
structure of the antenn^Te, which are in Sagola not at all clav- 



196 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

ate; the three outer joints in Sonoma are distinctly enlarged^ 
forming a loose club. 

The transverse areas of sensitive surface near the apex 
of the second dorsal segment are analogous to similar 
transversely oval patches previously noticed by me a& 
being very common in the Homalini of the Staphylinidae , 
and they probably serve the same purpose in each group. 
They have been noticed by Dr. Sharp in Sagola. Although 
both the species of Sonoma before me have these sensi- 
tive patches, I am not certain that their presence is con- 
stant throughout the genus. 

OROPUS n. gen. (Euplectini.) 

Tarsi with two unequal claws, posterior coxse very closely approximate. 
Maxillary palpi moderate in length, fourth joint rather elongate and spindle- 
form, widest near the middle, bristling with minute seta at apex. Head 
with two small occipital fovese, which are spongiose and connected by an 
arcuate, impressed groove; antennae similar in the sexes; eyes well developed. 
Prothorax with two lateral spongiose foveoe at base, connected by a deeply 
impressed line, also with an impressed median canaliculation ; sides near the 
base with a small, acute, reflexed tooth. Elytra with acute lateral margin; 
each having four deep punctures at base, prolonged posteriorly as fine dis- 
tinct strife. Abdomen with a short basal segment, hidden by the elytra 
above, visible beneath, not extending beyond the coxae; second segment long, 
more than twice as long as the third. Tarsi three-jointed; basal joint very 
small, second very long. Abdomen strongly margined above. Body rather 
robust and convex. 

This genus belongs to the Trichonyx group of the Eu- 
plectini, but differs greatly from that genus in the position 
of the posterior coxse, which are here very narrowly sepa- 
rated, almost contiguous at base. In Trichonyx they are 
quite distant, more than three times as distant as in the 
present genus. Oropus belongs near Trogaster Sharp, and 
differs from it in the form and position of the pronotal teeth. 
In addition, the following characters distinctive of Trogas- 
ter are not found in Oropus: — Antenu?e dissimilar in the 
sexes; fourth joint of maxillary palpi rather short, widest 
near the base; head with two small occipital foveae, which 



NORTH AMERICAN COLEOPTERA. 197 

are not spongiose, and not connected by the anterior arcu- 
ate groove, the latter terminating posteriorly in two very 
deep fovei^ just in advance of the occipital pair. Elytra 
each with with three fove^ at base, the lateral prolonged 
posteriorly in two divergent stride. 

The structure of the abdomen differs decidedly in the two 
genera, although Trogaster has the short basal segment, the 
second ventral is but very little longer than the third. In 
Trogaster the first three visible dorsal segments are nearly 
equal; in Oropus these decrease uniformly and rapidly in 
length. Amauronyx agrees well with the present genus in 
abdominal structure, but has the posterior coxae separated 
as in Trichonyx, the elytra with but two basal foveye, and 
the pronotum without lateral teeth. 

I have drawn my comparisons from specimens of Amau- 
ronyx Maerkeli Aub.; Trichonyx sidcicollis Reichb., and Tro- 
gaster aherrans Sharp, very kindly given me, together with 
many other Pselaphides and Scydmsenides, by Capt. Ch. 
Kerremans of the Belgian army. 

Oropus has thus far occurred only on the Pacific Coast; 
one species has already been described by Dr. Le Conte 
under the name of Trichonyx striatus; I now add three others 
from more southern latitudes, of which convexus is assumed 
to be the type of the genus. 

In the following descriptions the elytral striae are desig- 
nated by the numbers one to four, in order from the suture 
outward. 

The four species may be distinguished as follows : — 

Elytral striae two and three subequal, extending distinctly behind the 
middle. 
Pronotal canaliculation not intermpted before the transverse basal 
groove, 

Canalicnlalion dilated anteriorly StrlatUS. 

Canaliculation not dilated anteriorly, coarse, dilated in the middle, 

convexus. 

Canaliculation completely interrupted behind the middle. . interruptUS. 
Elytral strife two and three unequal, shorter abbreviatUS. 



198 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

These species, with exception of the first, which was 
described by Dr. Le Conte from Vancouver Island, were all 
taken in wet moss at the bottom of ravines near the sea- 
coast, and within a very limited area. I have met with 
them in no other locality. 

0. COnvexuS n. sp.— Form rather robusf, convex, dark rufo-castaneous; 
elytra scarcely perceptibly paler, dark rufous; legs and antennae slightly paler, 
rufoup; pubescence coarse, rather long, not rery dense; integuments polished. 
Head roi ust, much wider than long; eyes moderate, prominent, at their own 
length from the base; sides behind them strongly convergent and arcuate to 
the base, which is about one-half as wide as the width at the eyes; impressed 
groove strongly arcuate; occiput with a narrow canaliculation in the mid- 
tile at base; autennse robust, short, as long as the head and prothorax to- 
gether; basal joint robust, longer than wide, distinctly narrowed toward base, 
«tcond slightly narrower, cylindrical, as long as wide, three to eight slightly 
narrower than the second, gradually slightly shorter, third slightly wider 
than long, ninth and tenth abruptly much wider, short, transverse, the tenth 
slightly the larger, eleventh distinctly wider than the tenth, conoidal, acutely 
pointed, as long as the four preceding joints together. Prothorax widest 
tiliohtly before the middle, where it is scarcely visibly wider than the head 
and nearly as wide as long; sides here very strongly rounded, thence rather 
strongly convergent and distinctly sinuate to the base; the latter broadly 
arcuate, two-thirds as wide as the disk, one-third wider thnu the apex; the 
latter feebly arcuate; sides toward the apex slightly sinuate, basal angles 
prominent, slightly obtuse, not at all rounded; disk broadly convex; canalicu- 
lation terminating at one-sixth the length from the apex, slightly dilated in 
the middle in the form of a small puncture, continued toward base beyond 
the transverse groove nearly one-half the distance between the latter and the 
base; transverse groove deeply impressed, very feebly posteriorly arcuate, at 
one-third the length from the base; lateral fovejB deeply impressed, spougiose; 
disk between transverse groove and base strongly convex; surface finely, 
sparsely punctate. Elytra at base slightly narrower than the prothorax, at 
apex one-half wider than the latter; sides rather strongly and nearly evenly- 
arcuate; disk broadly and rather strongly convex, as long as wide; humeri long- 
itudinally prominent but not carinate; sutural striae very deeply impressed, 
entire, slightly arcuate, two and three equal, fine, strongly impressed, two- 
thirds as long as the disk, four short, arcuate, terminating slightly before the 
middle, fine, strongly impressed; surface rather finely, feebly and sparsely 
punctate. Abdomen slightly shorter and narrower than the elytra; border 
inclined, strong and conspicuous; surface broadly convex, very minutely, 
sjmrsely punctate. Legs moderate in length, slender; femora slender, very 
slightly clavate; posterior tibiae nearly twice as long as the tarsi, very feebly 
dilated toward tip. Length 1 9-2.0 mm. 



NORTH AMERICAN COLEOPTERA. 199 

California; (Sonoma Co. 2). 

The type is a male; the abdominal sexual characters are 
not very well marked and consist of a very small transverse 
impression beneath, near the apex. The under surface of the 
head is moderately convex, with a fine but distinct median 
carina; it is coarsely, rather deeply and not densely 
punctate. 

The female which I have associated with this male is very 
slightly more depressed and very slightly more robust; the 
antennee are shorter and more robust; the under surface of 
the head is more finely and feebly punctate; the median 
pronotal channel is finer and not so distinctly dilated in the 
middle; the elytral striae are more feebly impressed; the 
pubescence of the body is slightly denser and the color is 
paler, especially that of the elytra, w^hich is rather bright 
rufous. If the specimen were not a female I should not 
hesitate to describe it as distinct, but as the sexual char- 
acters in this genus are not known the above difi'erences 
may be due simply to the usual sexual modification. The 
material before me is so limited that very little can be learned 
of specific variability, but in tabulating the species above 
I have made use only of those characters w^hicli are regarded 
as of great importance in other portions of the Pselaphid?e. 

0. interruptus n. sp. — Moderately robust, convex, uniformly dark rufous; 
legs and antennte very slightly paler; pubescence rather coarse, not long, 
moderately dense; integuments shining, pronotum slightly duller. Head 
much wider than long; eyes moderate, convex, at their own length from the 
base; sides behind them strongly convergent and arcuate to the neck, which 
is deeply impressed, broadly sinuate; occipital foveas on a line through the 
anterior limits of the eyes; occiput with a narrow median canaliculation; 
antennae rather robust, as long as the head and prothorax together; basal 
joint slightly robust, a little longer than wide, second very slightly narrower, 
cylindrical, scarcely as wide as long, three to eight very slightly narrower, 
decreasing in length, third distinctly wider than long, nine and ten rather 
abruptly longer and much wider, transverse, tenth distinctly longer and 
slightly wider than the ninth, eleventh more robust than the tenth, elon- 
gate, conoidal, slightly obliquely pointed, scarcely as long as the four 
preceding together. Prothorax widest at a little more than one-third its 



200 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

length from the apex, where it is distinctly wider than long, very slightly 
wider than the head; sides strongly rounded, thence convergent to the 
basal angles, bisected by the lateral teeth, verj' feebly sinuate between the 
teeth and the basal angles; base broadly arcuate, two-thirds as wide as the 
disk, one-third wider than the apex; disk broadly convex; canaliculation 
abrupt, rather narrow and deep, beginning slightly behind the apex, 
abruptly terminating at the middle; transverse groove deeply impressed, 
broadly, feebly arcuate, at distinctly less than one-third the length from the 
base, prolonged posteriorly in the middle in a deep broad channel nearly 
half way to the base. Elytra at base nearly equal in width to the prouotum, 
at apex nearly one-halt wider than the latter; sides evenly and strongly arcu- 
ate; humeral prominences convex, strong, elongate; disk slightly wider than 
long, rather strongly convex, broadly impressed along the suture; strite one 
strongly impressed, fine, two and three approximate, equal, fine, distinct, two- 
thirds as long as the disk, four fine, deeply impressed, one-third as long as 
the disk; surface rather coarsely, feebly and sparsely punctate, Abdomen 
broadly convex, impunctate; border strong, rather strongly inclined. Legs 
moderate in length. Length 1.9 mm. 

California; (Sonoma Co. 1). 

The type is a male. The species is easily distinguished 
from convexus by the shorter and less robust basal joint of 
the antennae, more broadly and evenly arcuate impressed 
frontal groove, short pronotal canaliculation, broader median 
posterior continuation of the transverse groove, and by the 
color, which is more uniform and paler rufous. 

0. abbreviatUS n. sp. — Rather robust, moderately depressed, very dark 
rulo-testaceous; an enute and legs concolorous; elytra scarcely perceptibly 
paler; integuments polished; pubescence coarse, rather long and somewhat 
dense. Head much wider than long, neck one-half as wide as the width at 
the eyes; surface almost impunctate; frontal impressed channel very strongly 
arcuate; antennae as long as the head and prothorax together, moderately 
robust; basal jjint robust, longer than wide, second slightly narrower, a 
little longer than wide, third very slightly wider than long, ninth and tenth 
abruptly wider, subequal in length, the latter very slightly the wider, elev- 
enth slightly wider than the tenth, ovoidal, symmetrically pointed, scarcely 
as long as the preceding four together. Prothorax widest very slightly before 
the middle, where it is as wide as long; sides very strongly arcuate, couverg- 
ett and very feebly arcuate to the apex, sinuate near the latter, less strongly 
convergent toward the base, strongly sinuate just before the latter; base 
broadly arcuate, threc-fourths as wide as the disk, oue-half wider than the 
apex; disk broadly convex; median canaliculation rather fine but deeply im- 
pressed, beginning near the apex, continuous in width and depth across the 



NORTH AMERICAN COLEOPTERA. 201 

transverse groove nearly one-half the distance between the latter and the 
base; transverse groove deeply impressed, at slightly more than one-fourth 
the length from the base, feebly, posteriorly arcuate; lateral foveae rather large, 
moderately impressed. Elytra at base slightly narrower than the pronotum, 
at apex one-half wider than the latter; sides evenly and rather strongly arcu- 
ate; humeral prominence convex, elongate; disk very finely, sparsely punc- 
tate, nearly as long as wide, moderately and nearly evenly convex; stria one 
deeply impressed, entire, two and three very closely approximate, finely im- 
pressed, distinct, the former three-sevenths, the latter four-sevenths as long as 
the elytra, four fine, deeply impressed, more divergent, one-third as long as 
the disk. Abdomen slightly narrower and much shorter than the elytra; 
border strong. Le^rs slender. Length 1.8 mm. 

California; (Sonoma Co. 1), 

This species, which is represented bj the male, is easily 
distinguished from the others by the brevity of the second 
and third elytral striae. It is further distinguished by the 
shape of the pronotum and by the form of the frontal im- 
pressed groove, which is here very strongly arcuate, more 
so than in convexus. 

The antennae are very similar in structure throughout, 
but present slight differences mainly affecting the lirst, 
ninth, tenth and eleventh joints. 

ACTIUM n. gen. (Euplectini.) 

The Californian species hitherto placed in Trimium in re- 
ality form a very distinctly characterized genus. In the fol- 
lowing comparative statement, I have had before me a male 
and female of the European Trimium hrevicorne Reichb. 
which was taken by Aube as the generic type. In Trimium 
as thus represented, the eyes are very unequal in the sexes, 
in the males being moderate in size, in the females much 
smaller. The pronotum is crt>ssed by a very fine, feebly 
impressed, basal groove. The flanks of the elytra are per- 
fectly devoid of humeral fovea3. The first visible dorsal 
segment is elongate, equal in length to the next two together. 

The generic character of Actium may therefore be briefly 
given as follows: — 



202 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

Maxillary palpi rather small, secoucl joint very stronoly clavate, third nn- 
uute, subglobulrir, fourth eloaj^ate, oval, moderately robust, longer than the 
remainder taken together. Basal groove of proootum very stroug and deeply 
impressed. Eyes rather large, convex and promiueut in both sexes. Elytra 
having on the flanks, just behind each humeral prominence, a large spong- 
iose fovea, which is continued to the elytral apex by a broadly and deeply 
impressed groove, limited interiorly by a fine acute ridge. First three visible 
dorsal segments of the abdomen subequal, first plightly the longer. 

Actium dift'ers from Euplecfcus in its more abrupt terminal 
joints of the antennae, in tlie presence of spongiose fove^ on 
tlie head, in the very much more robust and convex form of 
body, and in the structure of the abdomen. In Euplectus, 
as represented by Bonvouloiri Reit. and signatus Keichb. 
the first three visible dorsal segments are equal, the fourth 
very much longer; the second and third ventral segments 
are equal in length. In Actium the fourth visible dorsal is 
but very slightly longer than the third, and the second ven- 
tral is distinctly longer than the third. It will be seen 
therefore that the genus Actium properly occupies a posi- 
tion intermediate between Trimium and Euplectus. 

The sexual characters at the apex of the venter are usually 
quite complex. 

It is highly probable that our eastern representatives of 
Trimium will also necessitate the founding of a separate 
genus, although this cannot be definitely stated at present. 

LOMECHUSA Grav. 

L. montana u. sp. — Kobust, rather depressed; sides jarallel; pale rufo- 
testaceous throughout; antennte and legs concolorous; pubescence very fii e, 
sparse, abdomen polished, almost glabrous; anterior portions finely aluta- 
ceous, elytra moie shining than the pronotum; under surface polished. Head 
small, much wider than long; eyes rather large and prominent, at nearly their 
own length from the base; sides behind them nearly parallel; very feebly ar- 
cuate; front with a large deep impression; entire surface very minutely 
granulose and excessively minutely, not densely punctate; antennae very slen- 
der, not incrassate, two-thirds as long as the body; basal joint very large^ 
twice as long as wide, rather abruptly narrowed at the base, not as long as 
the next three together; second slightly longer than wide, not one-half as wide 
as the first, scarcely two-thirds as long as the third; joints three to seven 



NORTH AMERICAN COLEOPTERA. 203 

equal, seven to ten very slightly decreasing in length, eleventh long and slen- 
der, attenuate; apices of joints three to ten obliquely truncate. Prothorax 
twice as wide as the head; apex throughout the breadth of the latter broadly, 
roundly emargiuate; apical angles thence very broadly rounded, coarctate with 
the sides which become nearly straight and shghtly divergent to within a 
short distance of the base, where they become abruptly slightly convergent 
and nearly straight to the basal angles; the latter obtuse and scarcely round- 
ed; base broadly and stiongly arcuate in the middle, sinuate laterally; disk 
twice as wide as long, depressed in the middle, very broadly and strongly re- 
flexed at the sides, extremely feebly reliexed anterior!}', more strongly and 
broadly so along the arcuate portion of the base, also more strongly im- 
pressed at the sides and toward the apical angles, very minutely subgranulose 
with evenly distributed, not dense, fine, grauulose or strongly asperate punc- 
tures. Elytra as wide as the prothorax; sides nearly parallel, feebly arcuate; 
apex broadly truncate, feebly sinuate laterally; inner angles distinctly round- 
ed; humeri rather broadly rounded; disk nearly two-thirds wider than long, 
one-third longer than the pronotum, feebly convex, more strongly so toward 
the humeri; base feebly declivous, finely, feebly subgranulose, finely, rather 
sparsely granulosely punctate; punctures more distinct than those of the 
pronotum; suture margined with a fine, polished but not distinctly elevated 
line which extends along the scutellum and base. Ahdomeii as wide as the 
elytra; sides nearly straight and j^arallel; broadly, obtusely rounded behind; 
surface strongly impressed in the basal half, broadlj', feebly convex behind; 
lateral tufts of hair bright fulvous; under surface strongly convex, having very 
sparsely placed, erect selas. Legs long and slender; tarsi_ cylindrical; first 
joint of the posterior longer than the next two together, one-third longer than 
the fifth. Length 4.3 mm. 

California; (Truckee, Nevada Co. 1). Elevation 6,000 
feet. 

A very interesting addition to the fauna of California; 
the typical representative was found under a stone deeply 
imbedded in soft soil near the margin of a small stream; no 
ants of any description could be seen, and in fact myrmeco- 
philous Coleoptera of all kinds appear to be extremely rare on 
the Pacific Coast. 

TACHYUSA Erichs. 

T. crebrepunctata ^- sp. — Kather slender, moderately convex, black 
throughout; antennae and legs same; tarsi and palpi paler, piceo-testaceous; 
pubescence short, fine, dense and recumbent, coarser, longer and more 
sparse on the abdomen; integuments shining, finely, deeply', evenly and 
very densely punctate, head and abdomen slightly more coarsely and sparsely 



204 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

so. Head and labrum together slightly longer than wide; front and occiput 
strongly convex and declivous at the sides, flat above; eyes large, at scarcely 
their own length from the base; sides behind them slightly convergent, 
strongly arcuate; base broad, truncate; antennas slender, very feebly incras- 
sate, scarcely as long as the head and prothorax together; second joint slen- 
der, elongate, much longer than the third; joints three to ten decreasing in 
length, the former more than twice as long as wide, the latter very slightly 
wider than long. Prothorax slightly wider than long, widest at one-third its 
length from the apex, where the sides are rather broadly arcuate, thence 
rather strongly convergent and nearly coarctately rounded to the apex, and 
slightly less strongly convergent and feebly sinuate to the base; the latter 
broadly and strongly arcuate throughout, four-fifths as wide as the disk and 
slightly wider than the apex; the latter broadly and feebly arcuate throughout; 
basal angles very obtuse and distinctly rounded ; disk broadly and rather strong- 
ly convex, depressed in the middle toward base, and immediately before the 
basal margin transversely and feebly impressed. Elytra at base one-fourth 
wider than the pronotum; sides nearly parallel, feebly arcuate near the base, 
strongly so near the apex; apical angles acute and slightly produced; together 
subtruucate behind, feebly emarginate at the suture; disk nearly quadrate, 
two-fifths longer than the pronotum, feebly and nearly evenly convex; su- 
ture very finely margined. Abdomen distinctly narrower than the elytra; 
sides parallel and nearly straight; border wide and prominent; surface feebly 
convex; three basal segments rather deeply impressed at base but not more 
densely or coarsely punctate, not carinate in the middle. Legs moderate in 
length, very slender; tibiae densely herissate with coarse, semi-erect setae; 
joints of the posterior tarsi decreasing rather rapidly in length, first nearly 
oue-half longer than the second. Length 2.5 mm. 

California; (Monterey Co. 1). 

This species is rather closely allied to T. Harfordi, but 
differs in its smaller size, shorter, smaller and more trans- 
verse prothorax, and denser and stronger punctuation. 

The middle coxae are distinctly although not widely sepa- 
rated; the mesosternal process is rather short, broadly an- 
gulate, the apex of the angle being broadly rounded; the 
connecting surface is deeply impressed 

AUTALIA Leach. 

A. elegans "• sp. — Rather slender and depressei; head and abdomen 
toward tip piceous-black, remainder dark piceo-castaneous; antennae dark 
fuscous throughout; legs rather pale brownish-flavate; pubescence fine, sparse, 
long and distinct; integuments polished. Head slightly longer than wide; 
semicirculcirly rounded behind from eye to eye; surface strongly and evenly 



NORTH AMERICAN COLEOPTERA. 205 

convex, impuuctate; antennae distinctly longer than the head and prothorax 
together, distinctly incrassate toward the apex; three basal joints elongate, 
second very slightly shorter than the first or third, four to ten gradually 
shorter and wider, the former distinctly longer than wide, the latter slighrly 
wider than long. Prolhorax very slightly longer than wide; sides in the ante- 
rior third strongly convergent and nearly straight to the nuchal emarginatiou 
which is broadly and feebly incurvate and one-third as wide as the disk; in 
the posterior two-thirds the side's are parallel, broadly and feebly incurvate at 
the posterior third, at the anterior third strongly rounded; disk'transversely 
and rather strongly convex at the sides, feebly so in the middle, where there 
is a narrow, rather feeble canaliculalion extending from near the apex to 
slightly behind the middle; also at the base four foveas, the inner pair 
continued anteriorly and slightly obliquely nearly to the middle by narrow, 
deeply impressed canaliculations; the outer pair dilated laterally, and ante- 
riorly, obliquely and briefly prolonged at their iuner extremities; surface 
highly polished, finely and sparsely granulose in the middle toward base; 
basal margin broadly and feebly arcuate; angles right and very narrowly 
rounded. Elyira at base nearly one-half wider than the pronotum; sides 
nearly parallel, strongly arcuate toward apex; together subtruncate behind; 
disk feebly convex, abruptly and strongly so at the sides, impunctate; suturaJ 
striae fine and distinct; each elytron strongly bifoveate at the base. Abdomen 
at base three-fourths as wide as the elytra; sides parallel and feebly arcuate; 
border narrow, deep and strongly inclined; surface feebly convex; first three 
segments transversely and very strongly impressed at base; impressed areas 
coarsely, strongly and densely granulose, traversed longitudinally by five 
carinae, remainder of the surface scarcely punctate on the basal segments, 
finely, asperately and very sparsely so on the apical. Legs slender; first four 
joints of the posterior tarsi slightly elongate, nearly equal. Length 2.0 mm. 

California; (Lake Co. 1). Mr. Fuchs. 

The prosternum is well developed in front of the coxae, 
slightly swollen, connected Avith the supracoxal surface by 
an even convexity without trace of raised line; between the 
coxas it is produced back as an acute angle, strongly car- 
inate in the middle and projecting under the apex of the 
mesosternum, the posterior edges of the supracoxal surface 
being narrowly and strongly reflexed; the portion behind 
the coxc\3 is membranous. 

The mesosternum is ample, broadly arcuate and very nar- 
rowly reflexed anteriorly, finely carinate throughout along 
the middle, the surface on either side of the middle being 
broadly impressed for the reception of the anterior coxae in 

15— EuLL. Cal. Acad. Sci. II. 6. Issued November 27, 1886 



206 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

repose; posteriorly, between the widely separated middle 
coxiM, it is scarcely at all produced, but is very broadly 
arcuate, reflexed and far above and free from the long 
truncate metasternal process; the entire mesosternum is 
coarsely, stron^iy and densely granulose, forming a striking 
contrast to the highly polished pro- and metasterna. 

The anterior and middle tarsi have each four distinct 
joints, but the long, very slender fourth joints are provided 
at base with a very small and ill-defined segment, which 
renders the accurate determination of the structure a mat- 
ter of great difficulty ^ 

EUMITOCERUS u. gen. (Tachyporini.) 

Head moderately deflexed; eyes adjacent to the prothorax; antennae long, 
very slender, capillary, verticillate; two basal joints much more robust, first 
slightly less than twice as long as the second; labrum very small, much wider 
than long, arcuate anteriorly, strongly inflexed and hidden under the project- 
ing clypeus; maxillary palpi long, filiform and slender; second joint long and 
very slender, third obconical, scarcely more than two-thirds as long as the sec- 
ond, fourth slender, finely acuminate, slightly swollen toward base, longer 
than the third, much more finely and densely pubescent. Pronotal hypomera 
extremely strongly inflexed, almost parallel with the dorsal surface; wide be- 
hind, very narrow anteriorly. Elytra passing a little beyond the metaster- 
num. Anterior coxae narrow, conical, convex anteriorly; posterior moderately 
prominent, conical posteriorly, eraarginate externally; posterior femora and 
trochanters attached at the apices, their point of insertion not at all concealed. 
Ventral segments margined; sixth exposed dorsally. Tarsi five-jointed. In- 
teguments asperate. 

It can be readily seen that Eumitocerus bears a great re- 
semblance to Habrocerus, but differs from that genus in the 

^. — I cannot but agree with Wollaston in his statement (Cat. Can. 
Col., p. 535, foot-note), concerning the difficulties of the tarsal system as 
applied to the Aleocharini. In many of the minute species it is impossible 
to determine the number of tarsal joints in such manner as to leave no doubt 
in the mind of the investigator, because of the hairy vestiture and the ap- 
parent division of the terminal joint in many cases, which, as I have before 
remarked, may be indicative of a real division at an early period in the his- 
tory of the species. The more the subject is investigated, the more apparent 
is it that the division of the Aleocharini in accordance with the number of 
tarsal joints, is neither scientific in indicating true affinities, nor practical in 
its application. 



NORTH AMERICAN COLEOPTERA. 207 

relatively miicli shorter third joint of the maxillary palpi, 
and more especially in the structure of the posterior coxjb. 
In appearance it differs considerably, by reason of its aspe- 
rate sculpture, in this respect being apparently related to 
Tricoj)hya. In the latter genus the elytra do not extend 
beyond the metasternum, and the third and fourth joints of 
the maxillary palpi are subequal in length. 

There is at my disposal, unfortunately, but one specimen. 
I cannot therefore give a representation of the maxilla; the 
labial palpi appear to be very minute and are not distinctly 
visible in the type. From the cursory glance which I ob- 
tained before the antennae were broken, I am confident that 
these are filiform and verticillate throughout. 

E. tarsalis n. sp.— Form rather slender, dark castaneous; abdomen black, 
paler at the apex; legs pale piceo-testaceous; antennae flavate, basal 
joints piceo-testaceous; pubescence fine, denser on the elytra, recum- 
bent, brownish, not conspicuous; integuments very feebly alutaceous, 
shining. Head moderate, slightly wider than long, feebly and evenly 
convex; eyes small, convex, finely granulate, rather prominent; front feebly, 
densely and subasperately punctate; palpi testaceous; infraorbital ridge not 
visible. Prothorax widest at two-thirds its length from the apex, where the 
sides are obtusely subangulate and where it is nearly one-half wider than 
long; sides thence moderately convergent aud feebly arcuate to the apex, 
slightly less strongly convergent and nearly straight to the base; the latter 
squarely truncate; basal angles obtuse and very slightly rounded; apex broadly 
and feebly emarginate, distinctly narrower than the base; disk evenly aud 
moderately convex, obliquely and feebly iropressed near each basal angle, very 
finely, rather densely and evenly punctate; punctures strongly asperate. 
Scutellum rather large, as wide as long, asperate. Elytra at base as wide as 
the base of the pronotum; sides feebly divergent, nearly straight toward the 
base, feebly arcuate posteriorly; together as long as wide, broadly sinuate at 
apex, nearly one-half longer than the pronotum; disk feebly, transversely 
convex, finely, rather densely and evenly punctato-asperate; punctures slightly 
coarser than those of the pronotum. Abdomen at base very slightly narrower 
than the elytra; sides rather strongly convergent toward apex and nearly 
straight; border moderate, feeble on the fifth segment; surface transversely 
and moderately convex, even, minutely, very feebly and rather densely punc- 
tato-asperate at base, the punctures becoming more minute and sparse toward 
the vertex; under surface more coarsely and strongly punctato-asperate to- 
ward the base, sculpture subimbricate. Legs moderate, anterior short, rather 
lobust, remainder slender; posterior tarsi long, much shorter than the tibiae, 



208 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

very slender, first joint longer than the next three together, as long as the last 
three. Length 1.8 mm. 

California; (San Mateo 1). Mr. C. Fuclis. 

The type of this interesting species is probably a male. 
The tarsi are very remarkable; the anterior are irregular, 
attached obliquely to the tibiae, and have the basal joint 
large, broadly dilated and slightly darker in color; the next 
three joints are very small, emarginate at tip, pale flavo- 
testaceous in color, and moderately dilated, successively 
less strongly so; the fifth slender. The intermediate tarsi 
are irregular and are very distinctly dilated toward base; 
both the anterior and middle tarsi are densely clothed be- 
neath with very slender papillae, and are verticillate at the 
sides; the papillae beneath are sometimes terminated by 
very minute enlargements which are apparently composed 
of a viscid substance, and analogous to the erect setae ob- 
served upon the under surface of the head in the Euplectini 
of the Pselaphidce. The claws are very small. There 
are no sexual characters of importance observable at the 
abdominal vertex. 

HETEROTHOPS Steph. 

H. exilis ^- sp. — Form very slender, rather convex; pale reddish-testa- 
ceous throughout; head slightly darker, more castaneous; antennae and legs 
slightly paler, pale flavate ; integuments polished ; head and pronotum glabrous ; 
elytra and abdomen finely and rather densely pubescent, the elytra the more 
sparsely so. Head rather strongly deflexed, oblong, abruptly and feebly con- 
stricted at the neck; sides thence to the eyes feebly convergent, feebly arcu- 
ate, twice as long as the eyes which are small, not at all prominent and almost 
at the apical angles; surface transversely and rather strongly convex, impunc- 
tate, finely and excessively feebly strigose; antennas inserted at a very short 
distance from the eyes, shorter than the head and prothorax together; feebly 
incrassate; first joint as long as the next two together, third small, much 
shorter than the second, slightly longer than wide, tenth distinctly wider than 
long, eleventh slightly louger than the two preceding together. Prothorax 
scarcely longer, and, at the apex very slightly wider than the head, widest at 
the base where it is but very slightly wider than long; sides convergent from 
base to apex, broadly, evenly and distinctly arcuate; apex broadly and very 
feebly arciiaie, three-fourths as wide as the base; the latter evenly and very 



NORTH AMERICAN COLEOPTERA. 209 

-distinctly arcuate throughoat; angles broadly rounded; disk transversely and 
rather strongly convex, impunctate, excessively minutely and obsoletely stri- 
gose vfith a few setigerous punctures along the sides and base and four discal 
punctures, one near each apical angle, and another just before and on either 
side of the centre of the disk. Elytra at base very slightly narrower than the 
prothorax; sides very feebly divergent, very feebly arcuate; together broadly 
and distinctly sinuate behind; disk very feebly convex, slightly wider than 
long, very slightly shorter than the pronotum, evenly, not very coarsely, 
deeply, moderately densely and asperately punctate; intervals extremely feebly 
reticulate. Scutellum rather large, triangular, asperate. Abdomen long, 
slender, at base nearly as wide as the elytra; apparently not capable of much 
contraction; sides gradually convergent and nearly straight to the apex; bor- 
der rather wide, deep, nearly vertical; surface rather convex, finely and 
very densely punctate. Legs rather short and slender; first four joints of the 
posterior tarsi decreasing rapidly in length, first subequal to the fifth. 
Length 2.4 mm. 

California; (Monterey Co. 1). 

The single representative is probably a female; the an- 
terior tarsi are slightly dilated; the seventh segment has 
four long, setigerous, anal styles, but both the dorsal and 
ventral plates of the sixth segment are broadly and evenly 
arcuate at apex. 

It is related to pusio Lee, but differs in the arrangement 
and number of the occipital punctures; these are one at the 
middle of the upper margin of the eye and one below the 
posterior margin of the eye between the latter and the in- 
fraocular ridge; at the base on the sides there are a few very 
minute punctures, and a transverse row of large setigerous 
punctures immediatelj' before the nuchal constriction ex- 
tending across the head. 

The type specimen was found under pine bark early in 
February near the town of Monterey. 

ABABACTUS Sharp. 

A. pallidiceps n. sp. — Slender, rather depressed, piceous; head rufo- 
testaceous; legs pale flavate; antennae opaque, pale flavo-testaceous; head 
sometimes clouded in the middle of the disk; pubescence sparse throughout, 
fine; integuments polished. Head distinctly longer than wide; post-ocular 
portion slightly less than twice as wide as long, semicircularly rounded be- 



210 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

hind; eyes large, at twice their length from the base, finely granulate; sur- 
face moderately convex, rather sparsely, unevenly and not deeply punctate; 
punctures varying in size; antennal tuberculatious abrupt, small and strong, 
with the anterior edges acute and prominent; surface between them grad- 
ually and anteriorly declivous, transversely truncate at apex; labrum short 
and broad, acutely incised in the middle, finely, acutely and prominently 
bideuticulate, edge just without each tooth finely sinuate; fourth joint of the 
maxillary palpi small, much narrower than the apex of the third, conical, 
acute; antennae long and slender, as long as the head and prothorax together, 
not iucrassate; second joint distinctly shorter than the third, all the joints 
longer than wide. Prothorax nearly three-fourths as wide as the head; sides 
parallel, distinctly and almost evenly arcuate; base and apex almost equal in 
width, truncate; basal and apical angles equally and rather broadly rounded; 
disk cylindrically convex, one-half longer than wide, coarsely, feebly and 
irregularly punctate; punctures sparse near the sides, more dense in an 
irregular line borderiug the median impunctate area, which is very slightly 
more strongly convex throughout its length. Elylra at base one-third wider 
than the prothorax, slightly wider than the head; sides nearly parallel, 
extremely feebly arcuate; together broadly and very feebly emarginate 
behind; humeri very narrowly rounded; disk two-fifths longer than wide, 
nearly one-third longer than the jjrothorax, depressed, very feebly impressed 
toward base along the narrowly elevated suture, rather coarsely, feebly and 
evenly punctate; punctures impressed, distant by more than their own 
diameters, not appreciably more feeble toward apex. Abdomen slightly 
narrower than the elytra; sides parallel and straight; surface finely, more 
deeply, evenly and not densely punctate. Length 4.8-5.2 mm. 

California; (Santa Rosa, Sonoma Co. 2; Anderson Yal. , 
Mendocino Co. 1) 

In the male the second ventral segment has in the centre 
of its disk a small deep fovea bearing a small brush of erect 
hairs, the third segment having two similar foveas, rather 
approximate, arranged transversely, distinctly before the 
middle, each bearing one or two erect robust setae; sixth 
segment with a very narrow deep incisure, with the sides 
nearly parallel, very acutely rounded at apex and ^nq times 
as deep as its mid-width, bordered throughout its length 
with a narrow, deeply concave gutter which is prolonged 
anteriorly, continuing thence as a single groove to the base 
of the segment, becoming gradually attenuated. 

The prothorax is very slightly narrowed toward apex, the 
basal angles thus being more prominent than the apical. 



NORTH AMERICAN COLEOPTERA. 211 

The color may vary somewhat from immaturity, both the 
head and prothorax being sometimes paler. The single 
specimen upon which this statement is based differs, hoAv- 
ever, in its slightly denser elytral punctuation; it is prob- 
ably a female, the sixth segment being entire, narrowly 
rounded at apex; the second segment is entire, but the 
third has the two foveae as described in the male. 

The present species belongs near A. politus Sharp, which 
it resembles greatly in sexual characters; from nactiis Horn, 
it differs in color and in its much more elongate prothorax 
and elytra. 

The genus Ababactus difi'ers from Hesperobium not only 
in the structure of the labrum, — which allies it more closely 
with Cryptobium, — and tarsi, as remarked by Dr. Sharp, 
but also in the complete absence of the large basal carina 
of the first ventral segment, which is such a prominent 
feature of Hesperobium. The two post-ocular annular 
punctures are well developed in Ababactus, and are com- 
pletely absent in Cryptobium fradicorne Paj^k. 

LENA 11. gen. (Paedeiici.) 

Body robust, depressed; head rather large; antennae short and robust; 
labrum rather short, broadly rounded, with a simple median sinnation about 
twice as wide as deep with no trace of denticulation or carina; third joint of 
labial palpi very minute and slender; third joint of maxillary palpi much 
longer than the second, slender, fusiform, obtusely pointed at tip; fourth 
excessively minute, slender, subulate; eyes moderate, coarsely granulate. 
Prothorax subquadrate, narrowed toward base, shorter than the elytra. In- 
termediate and posterior tarsi rather slender, cylindrical; first joint of the 
latter as long as the next two together, distinctly longer than the fifth; fourth 
short, very slightly dilated, obhque at apex; anterior tarsi robust and spon- 
gy-pubescent beneath, very feebly dilated. Integuments rugulose, coarsely 
punctate, shining. Neck rather slender; gular sutures well separated. 

This genus belongs near Medon, but is easily distin- 
guished from it by a peculiar and complicated modification 
of the pronotal hypomera, the surface being deeply grooved 
opposite the base of the coxa3 and the acute dividing line 



212 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

being bisinuate anteriorly. It does not appear to be very 
closely allied to any of the Central American genera, and 
may be easily recognized by its short robust form, rather 
large truncate head, simple sinuate labrum, slender fusi- 
form third maxillary palpal joint, short antennc\3 and non- 
carinate prosternum. I have compared it directly with 
31edon hrimneus Erichs. 
We have but one species. 

L. testacea n. sp.— Robust; sides parallel; pale rufo-testaceous, elytra, 
legs, palpi and aatennre toward apex slightly paler aud more flavate; pubes- 
cence of elytra and abdomen fine, rather long, not dense. Head about as 
long as wide; sides parallel, almost straight; base transversely truncate, 
feebly sinuate in the middle third; angles right, very narrowly rounded; eyes 
at twice their length from the base, slightly prominent; front finely subgranu- 
lose, coarsely, very feebly and not densely punctate, with a rather broad 
median impunctate line; antennte equal in length to the head, distinctly in- 
crassate toward tip; basal joint distinctly longer than the next two together, 
second distinctly longer and more rob ist than the third, the latter slightly 
longer than wide, joints four to ten subequal in length, increasing distinctly 
in width, the former as long as wide, the latter much wider than long. Pro- 
thorax widest at the anterior angles, slightly s'lorter and narrower than the 
head, very slightly wider than long; sides rather feebly convergent from apex 
to base, very feebly arcuate; base broadly subtruncate; angles rather broadly 
rounded; anterior angles rather more narrowly rounded; sides of apex very 
strongly convergent to the neck, nearly straight; nuchal truncation rather 
feebly sinuate, two-fifths as wide as the disk; the latter feebly and 
evenly convex, finely subgranulose, rather coarsely, evenly and feebly punc- 
tate; punctures denser aud finer than those of the head, with scarcely a trace 
of a median impunctate line. Elytra at base very slightly wider than the 
prothorax, as wide as the head; sides very feebly divergent, nearly ^straight; 
together broadly and extremely feebly emarginate behind; disk as long as 
wide, one-third longer than the prothorax, very feebly convex, scarcely im- 
pressed along the suture, which is bordered with a thickened but scarcely 
elevated margin; surface not granulose, polished, rather finely, evenly and 
not densely punctate, punctures impressed, deeper but not as large as those 
of the pronotum. Abdomen very slightly narrower than the elytra; sides 
parallel and distinctly arcuate; border rather narrow, deep and strongly in- 
clined; surface broadly convex, very finely and feebly reticulate, polished, 
excessively minutely aud rather sparsely punctate, each puncture being en- 
tirely fiUeJ by a hair. Le/js rather short and very slender. L3ngth 2.2 mm. 

Texas; (Austin 2). 



NORTH AMERICAN COLEOPTERA. 213 

There is unfortunately no male of this genus yet discov- 
ered; the sixth segment of the female is short and broad, 
very broadly and feebly rounded nearly throughout its width 
at apex, subtruncate. The species may perhaps prove to 
be apterous. 

RAMONA n. Reu. (Pa3derini.) 

This genus belongs to the Lithocharis and Medon divis- 
ion of the Piederini, and is allied somewhat to Caloderma 
and to several genera recently described from Central 
America. It may be distinguished by the following char- 
acters : — 

Head smaller than the prothorax; the latter quadrate, shorter than the 
elytra.- Labrum entire, short, broadlj^ rounded throughout, without inequal- 
ity except some very minute and feeble undulations, three or four in number 
near the middle, having dorsally a small median carina; neck rather slender, 
one-third as wide as the prothorax. Anterior tarsi broadly dilated; posterior 
sL nder, cylindrical, first four joints decreasing very rapidly in length, first 
nearly as loug as the next two together, fourth cylindrical, very slightly 
longer than wide. Head and pronotum without trace of median impunctate 
line, stria or elevation; integuments extremely finelj^ and densely punctate, 
alutaceous. Eyes moderate in size, coarsely granulated. 

The third joint of the maxillary palpi is rather more 
strongly dilated than is usual in this group, the fourth 
being normal. The elytra differ from those of many allied 
genera in having no sign whatever of the usual narrow ele- 
vated margin adjoining the suture. The genus is distin- 
guished from Medon and Caloderma by many characters, 
the most important of which is the strong dilatation of the 
anterior tarsi. 

The sexual modification of the male is very slight, con- 
sisting of a simple broad sinuation at the apex of the sixth 
segment, the fifth being entire. 

But one species is known at present. 

E,. Capitulum ^- sp. — Rather slender and depressed, Llack throughout, 
apical edges of the ventral segments paler; intermediate and posterior legs 



214 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

piceous, anterior legs and tarsi throughout paler, piceous-brown; palpi pi- 
ceous; antennas piceous, paler toward tip; pubescence extremely short, fine 
and excessively dense on the elytra and abdomen, much less dense anteriorly. 
Head small, as wide as long; sides behind the eyes very slightly divergent 
posteriorly, feebly arcuate; base truncate; angles not prominent, rather 
broadly rounded; front evenlj' and feebly convex, excessively minutely and 
densely punctate; antennas rather long, slender, as long as the head and pro- 
thorax together, not incrassate; basal joint scarcely as long as the next two 
together, second three-fourths as long as the third, scarcely as long as, but 
slightly more robust than the fourth, joints four to six equal, twice as long 
as wide, six to ten decreasing in length, the latter scarcely as wide as long. 
Frothorax widest in the middle, where it is distinctly wider than the head; 
sides parallel, feebly arcuate; base and apex broadly arcuate, the latter very 
feebly so; basal angles broadly rounded; apical more narrowly so; disk as 
wide as long, feebly and evenly convex, excessively minutely, evenly and 
densely punctato-granulose. Elytra at base just visibly wider than the prc- 
thorax; sides nearly parallel, feebly arcuate: together brcadly and very feebly 
emarginate behind; disk slightly longer than wide, nearly one-fourth longer 
than the prothorax, feebly convex, not appreciably impressed along the 
suture, excessively densely and very finely granulose, each granule bearing a 
minute hair. ^6cZomen not narrowed toward base; sides parallel and straight 
border narrow, erect; surface feebly, cylindrically convex, excessively mi- 
nutely, feebly and densely punctate; punctures slightly asperate and not 
arranged in any order. Le^/s rather short and robust; first joint of the pos- 
terior tarsi fully as long as the fifth. Length 3.7 mm. 

Nevada; (Reno 1). 

The unique specimen is a male, the sin uation of the sixth 
segment being about four times as wide as deep and acutely 
rounded. 

The pronotum has besides the regular system of excess- 
ively minute granulate punctures, a widely and irregularly 
scattered system of larger, though still very small, rounded, 
shallow punctures, each of which bears a small, erect seta. 
The elytra are opaque, the head and prothorax somewhat 
shining. 

LEPTOGENIUS n. gen. (Pffiderini.) 

Body slender, roughly sculptured. Head large, borne on a nairow neck. 
Prothorax small. Elytra longer and wider than the pronotum. Abdomen as 
wide as the elytra, gradually decreasing in width toward apex; four basal 
segments equal in length; fifth nearly one-half longer than the fourth; sixth 



NORTH AMERICAN COLEOPTERA. 215 

very short. Antennae short; basal joint very robust. Maxillary palpi large; 
basal joint small, slender, second longer, robust, sublunate, third very large, 
flattened, subsecuriform, much longer than the first two together, fourth very 
minute, in the form of a very short robust spine, erect, protruding from the 
apex of the third. Labial palpi extremely small, slender; third joint appar- 
ently long and slender, second scarcely shorter and distinctly more robust, 
basal joint not visible. Mandibles Jong and slender. Gular sutures contigu- 
ous throughout. Labrum short, very broad, strongly arcuate, with a minute 
median emargination slightly wider than deep, on each side of which there 
are two exceedingly minute, approximate and robust teeth, upper surface hav- 
ing a fine median, longitudinal carina. Legs slender; anterior tarsi not at 
all dilated; first four joints of the posterior decreasing uniformly and rapidly; 
in length, first slightly longer than the fifth. Prosternum having a fine, 
strongly elevated, median carina, slightly less elevated at the anterior margin; 
under surface of the neck carinate. 

The exact relationship of this genus is not apparent; it 
is different in appearance from any of the other Psecler- 
oicl genera with which I am familiar, and in fact appears 
to be a transitional form having uncertain affinities. The 
labial palpi are very minute and in their position in the two 
representatives before me are so deeply placed that it is im- 
possible to give their exact structure. 

The principal points of departure from the normal P^deri 
are in the peculiar short antennte and spiniform — not subu- 
late, oblique and retractile — terminal joint of the maxillary 
palpi, also in the large third and small robust second joint 
of that organ. The coxEe are normally Psederoid. 

L. brevicornisn. sp, — Slender, pale ochreous-testaceous throughout; elytra 
slightly darker, castaneous except near the base; pubescence extremely short, 
sparse, very evenly distributed throughout; integuments thick, opaque, very 
coarsely scabrous, not at all shining. Re'td slightly longer than wide; sides 
parallel, nearly straight; base truncate, narrowly and distinctly sinuate in 
the. middle; angles moderately broadly -founded; surface transversely and 
moderately convex, coarsely and very densely granulose; eyes moderate, 
slightly convex, on the sides at a little less than twice their length from the 
base, very coarsely granulate; antennae a little shorter than the head, dis- 
tinctly clavate, funicle slender at base, posteriorly and strongly geniculate; 
basal joint robust, one-half longer than wide, second slightly less robust, 
subglobular, three to six very small, very slightly wider than long, equal, 
scarcely more than one-half as wide as the second, seventh slightly wider, 



216 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

seven to nine increasing rather rapidly in width, ninth and tenth strongly' 
transverse, equal, a little longer than the third, together scarcely as long as the 
eloventli, which is ovoidal and pointed. Frothorax widest at one-third its 
length from the apex, where it is very slightly narrower than loug; sides 
thence vmy strongly convergent and broadly sinuate to the apex which is 
slightly produced, truncate at tip and less than one-third as wide as the disk; 
sides in the posterior two-thirds rather rapidly convergent to the base and 
very feebly arcuate; apical angles obtuse, rather narrowly rounded and 
somewhat prominent; b.isil rather broadly rounded; disk feebly convex, 
feebly and broadly ridged along the middle especially in the basal half 
where it is broadlj' and feebly biimpressed. Elytra at base distinctly wider 
than the prouotuui; sides very feebly divergent, feebly arcuate; together 
broadly, angularly and feebly emargiuate behind; disk quadrate, subde- 
pressed, very slightly longer than the pronotum, coarsely and very closely 
granulate; on each elytron (here is a very feeble impression extending from 
the scutellum slightly obliquely and near the suture nearly to the apex. 
Scutellum very indistinct, small, roundeil. Abdomeii at base as wide as the 
elytra, and, at the apex of the lirst segment, slightly wider; sides gradually 
convergent and slightly arcuate to the apex; border strongly inclined and 
very distinct; surface moderately convex, coarsely and densely ruguloso- 
granulate. Under surface of the head coarsely and closely punctate; 
punctures round, variolate and almost in contact; under surface of the 
abilomen shining, rather finely punctate; punctures asperate and arranged 
in wavy, interrupted, transverse rows. Length 1.7-2,0 mm. 

Texas; (Galveston t2). 

Tlio scul]ituro of tlu^ pvoiiotum consists of a very minute 
reticulation of coarse strongly elevated lines. 

The sexual cliaracters are very feeble; the type is a male 
and lias tlie aj^ex of the sixth segment broadly truncate or 
excessively feebly sinuate throughout; in the female the 
sixth segment is longer and extremely feebly angulate 
throughout its width at a])ex. The male is much smaller 
than tlie female. 

The two representatives of this very interesting species 
were found in detritus and rubbish on tlie inner side of the 
sand dunes lining the ocean beach. It is the smallest 
Pa3deride described from the United States. 

ScOPiEUS. 

The genus Scopjeus of Erichson Avas distinguished from 
tlie other Pjiederoid genera by a remarkable character relat- 



NORTH AMERICAN COLEOrTERA. 217 

ing to the ligula, which organ is here, in opposition to the 
general rnle, tricuspid at the a])ex. Many representatives 
having the tricuspid liguhi are found in America, and as 
they are all small and generally possess some of the char- 
acteristics of Bcopicus, such as the narrow neck, they have 
been assigned to that genus without due consideration. 
Upon examination these various forms are found to differ 
consideral)ly in structure, so much so in fact that the desir- 
ability and propriety of generically separating them can 
no longer be doubted; several of the more markedly distinct 
groups have already been noticed. Diagnoses of the genera 
which inhabit the United States, may be stated as follows: — 

Posterior angle of prosternum promiueut, the lower edge of the intercoxal 
lamina being reentrant or inwardly arcuate at and near its vertex and not 
longitudinally continuous in curvature with the prosternum. Anterior 
angles of prothorax very broadly rounded or obsolete. 

Posterior under side-pieces of pronotum well developed. Surface punctate 
or alutaceous ScopseUS. 

Posterior under side-pieces rudimentary. Surface polished and nearly im- 

punctiite throughout Scopaeodera. 

Posterior angle of prosternum not prominent, the lower edge of the inter- 
coxal lamina being outwardly arcuate at and near the angle and longitu- 
dinally continuous in curvature with the prosternum. Anterior angles 
of the prothorax more or less prominent. Posterior under side-pieces 
of the pronotum rather well developed. 

Neck very slender; integuments excessively minutely punctate, aluta- 
ceous Leptorus. 

Neck broader; integuments coarsely punctate, pohshed Orus- 

The generic characters of Scopjcus have been taken from 
a typical representative of S. luiv'ujatus Gyll., for which I 
am indebted to M. A. Sall^. 

SCOP^US ErichH. 

Several American species are assignable to this genus, 
among others opacus Lee. The following species of the 
Pacific Coast may also be placed here at present. 

S. rotundiceps n- sp. — Rather slender, black; legs castaneous, paler toward 
tip; antennfo and palpi rufu-fuscous, the former paler and flavate at the apex; 
pubescence fine, short, very dense, more sparse on the pronotum, most conspic- 



218 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

nous on the head; iuteguments shiniug. Head distinctly longer than wide, 
semicircularly rounded behind from points slightly behind the eyes; sides par- 
allel and nearly straight; surface rather strongly convex, very minutely and 
densely punctate; punctures much feebler and sparser along the middle; an- 
tennae slightly shorter than the head and prothorax together; first joint but 
very slightly longer than the second and third together, the latter subequal in 
length, the second joint somewhat more robust, joints three to ten decreasing 
rather rapidly in length, the former distinctly longer than wide, the latter 
slightly wider than long. ProtJiorax distinctly narrower than the head, two- 
fifths longer than wide, widest in the middle; sides in the anterior third rather 
strongly convergent and very feebly sinuate to the nuchal emargination which 
is narrow and deeply sinuate; sides in the posterior two-thirds rather feebly 
convergent and broadly arcuate throughout; anterior angles extremely obtuse 
and broadly rounded, almost obsolete; posterior broadly rounded; base ex- 
tremely feebly arcuate; disk transversely and moderately convex, very mi- 
nutely and not very densely punctate; punctures subassperate, evenly distrib- 
uted; a narrow line along the middle impunctate; at the base there is a very 
tine median carina. Elytra at base nearly one-third wider than the prothorax; 
sides nearly parallel, feebly arcuate posteriorly; together broadly, angularly 
and extremely feebly emarginate behind; disk feebly convex, slightly longer 
than wide, distinctly longer than the pronotum, feebly impressed on the suture 
toward base, rather coarsely and densely punctate toward the suture and 
base, excessively minutely and slighth'^ more sparsely so exteriorly and api- 
cally; suture finely margined with a narrow elevated border which is depress- 
ed and much narrower at the scutellum. Abdomen at base slightly narrower 
than the elytra; sides very feebly divergent and nearly straight to the apex of 
the fourth segment; fifth as long as the two preceding together; surface 
broadly and feebly convex, extremely minutely and densely punctate. Legs 
finely punctate, rather short and robust; first joint of the posterior tarsi one- 
third longer than the second, slightly shorter than the fifth. Length 3.3 mm. 

California; (Mt. Diablo, Contra Costa Co. 2). 

The specimens are both females;^ the sixth segment is 
broadly angulate behind, the apex scarcely at all rounded, 
the sides of the angle being broadly and very feebly arcuate. 
The species is easily distinguished by its narrow head 
semicircularly roanded behind. 

6. — In a male since obtained at Keno, Nevada, the fifth segment is 
deeply and roundly emarginate at apex, the lateral angles being slightly pro- 
duced; the surface has a deep oval impression, becoming extinct near the 
base; the sixth segment is deeply sinuate at apex, the sinus fully twice as 
wide as deep, with the edges slightly reflexed; the surface impressed. 



NORTH AMERICAN COLEOPTERA. 219 

S. truncaticeps u. sp. — Slender; sides nearly parallel; black, posterior 
margins of the four basal abdominal segments paler; legs castaneous, paler 
toward tip; palpi and antennge reddish-brown throughout; pubescence very 
fine, short, rather dense, pale fulvous in color, more conspicuous on the pro- 
notum toward the apex; integuments shining. Head robust, rather depressed, 
very slightly longer than wide; sides parallel, feebly arcuate behind the eyes; 
base truncate and very feebly arcuate; angles rather broadly rounded; surface 
rather feebly convex, broadly impressed between the antenna, very finely aud 
densely punctate, the punctures deep and much sparser in the middle anter- 
iorly, slightly sparser posteriorly; antennae slightly shorter than the head and 
prothorax together; basal joint distinctly longer than the next two combined, 
second slightly more robust and a little shorter than the third, the latter much 
longer than the fourth, joints four to ten decreasing gradually in length, the 
latter slightly longer than wide. Prothorax distinctly narrower than the 
head, widest slightly in advance of the middle, but slightly more than one- 
third longer than wide; sides in the anterior third strongly convergent and 
distinctly sinuate to the nuchal emargination which is broadly and feebly sin- 
uate, in the posterior two-thirds moderately convergent and distinctly arcuate 
to the base which is narrowly truncate in the middle; angles rather broadly 
rounded; apical angles very obtuse and very broadly rounded; disk very 
broadly and feebly convex, minutely and not very densely punctate, with a 
narrow impunctate median line, having also a very short median basal carina 
extending thence as a very fine, nearly obsolete stria nearly to the middle. 
JS'/^/^ra at base one-fifth wider than the prothorax; sides nearly parallel and 
straight; together almost transversely truncate behind; disk rather feebly 
convex, impressed on the suture toward the scutellum, finely, evenly and not 
very densely punctate; punctures slightly finer exteriorly and apically; suture 
finely margined, margin very gradually finer toward base. Abdomen at base 
slightly narrower than the elytra; sides very feebly divergent and nearly 
straight; surface rather feebly convex, very minutely and densely punctate ; 
basal segments transversely impressed at base, with the impressed areas much 
more coarsely and densely punctate; fifth segment much shorter than the two 
preceding together. Legs rather short and slender; first joint of the posterior 
tarsi scarcely one-fourth longer than the second, much shorter than the fifth. 
Length 4.0 mm. 

California; (Anderson Val., Mendocino Co. 1). 

Described from the female in which the sixth segment is 
broadly angulate, with the apex of the angulation scarcely 
at all rounded; sides forming the angle broadly and feebly 
incurvate. 

This line species is readily distinguished from the pre- 
ceding by its form, size and sexual characters. 



220 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

All the species of this genus which I have examined have 
the bases of the first three or four dorsal segments of the 
abdomen transversely impressed and densely and coarsely 
punctate. In the Orus group the impressions are simply 
finely reticulated or alutaceous and are entirely devoid of 
punctures. 

S. hrimnipes Lee— (Tr. Am. Ent. Soc. VIII, p. 179). — 
This form is described as having ''pale brown legs." I have 
thus far seen no such species in California, the legs of all 
the Californian species here described being very dark. 

SCOPJEODERA u g3D. 

The species composing this genus have a distinctly Stili- 
cioid outline and do not resemble Scojdbbus in outward form. 
In addition to the characters given before, we may mention 
the much longer legs and longer and more slender tarsi. 
Besides nitidus Lee. this genus will perhaps comprise several 
allied species described from South America by "Dr. Sharp, 
and also those Central American species placed by this au- 
thor in Scopaeus under group 4, together with the Colom- 
bian S. pulchellus Erichs. 

LEPTORUS B. gen. 

The species assignable to this genus have a peculiar ap- 
pearance and differ considerably from Scopa3us. They are 
elongate, very slender, parallel, witli oblong prothorax hav- 
ing the anterior angles more or less prominent, and the 
sides parallel or slightly convergent behind and nearly 
straight. 

The genus is widely extended in its distribution through- 
out the eastern portion of the United States, extending 
through Mexico to Central America where it is represented 
hjfilum, concolo?, Salvini, ohscurus, jyiceolus^hrevijjennis^ and 
umbra, recently described by Dr. Sharp in the Biologia 
Centrali-Americana. It will also include exigwus Er. and 



NORTH AMERICAN COLEOPTERA. 221 

picipes Cas. On the west coast it is replaced by Orus, hav- 
ing a much wider neck and a distinctly different system of 
punctuation ; this appears to extend down the western slope 
of the continent, also to Central America, where it is repre- 
sented by a species recently described by Dr. Sharp from 
Guatemala, 

Leptorus is probably a large genus, and the several 
forms, which are often closely allied, should be described 
with great care and constant attention to details if they 
are to be even approximately identified by future reviewers. 
■ In addition to the characters pointed out in the preced- 
ing table, it should be stated that the eyes are situated just 
before the middle, on the sides of the head; they are strong- 
ly, longitudinally oval, very coarsely granulated, and have 
on their upper edge in the middle a large, rather shallow, 
spongiose fovea bearing a single very long seta. 

In Orus the eyes are larger, less coarsely granulated, 
more broadly oval, and have near the upper border, and in 
a transverse line with the posterior margin, a small, deep, 
setigerous puncture which is entirely nude. The puncture 
in this case, though very near the eye, is entirely disengaged 
from it, while in Leptorus the fovea, which is of an entirely 
different structure, intrudes slightly upon the continuity of 
the edge. 

L. texanus n. sp. — Slender; sides parallel; moderately depressed; pale 
rufo-testaceous, elytra clouded with piceous toward base; abdomen piceous, 
very slightly paler toward tip; antenufe testaceous throughout; legs pal>^ 
flavate; pubescence excessively fine and short, dense except on the pronotuni 
where it is sparse; integuments alutaeeous, except the pronotum which is 
polished. Head slightly longer than wide; sides parallel, very feebly arcu- 
ate behind the eyes; base transversely truncate; angles narrowly rounded; 
surface transversely and rather strongly convex, excessively minutely and 
densely punctate; punctures impressed, deep, slightly sparser along the 
middle; eyes rather prominent, at twice their length from the base; antenrue 
slightly shorter than the head and prothorax together, basal joint slightly 
longer than the next two combined, second slightly longer and more robust 
than the third, joints four to ten decreasing distinctly in length, the former 

16— Bull. Cal. Acad. Sci. II. 6. Issued November 27, 1886. 



222 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

slightly longer than wide, the latter a little wider than long, Prothorax very 
slightly narrower than the head, one-third longer than wide, widest at one- 
fourth the length from the apex; sides thence extremely feebly convergent 
and nearly straight to the base, and very rapidly so and very feebly sinuate 
to the apex which is very narrow; anterior angles obtuse, slightly rounded; 
posterior rather broadly rounded; base broadly and very feebly arcuate; disk 
transversely and feebly convex, excessively minutely punctate; punctures 
about one-half as wide and more than twice as distant as those of the head, 
slightly more sparse in the middle, where there is a narrow impunctate line, 
and toward base a very fine, feeble and obsolete median stria. Elytra slightly 
wider than the prothorax; sides nearly parallel, feebly arcuate posteriorly; 
together broadly, angularly and very feebly emarginate behind; disk one- 
fourth longer than wide, slightly longer than the pronotum, very feebly im- 
pressed on the suture toward the base, extremely finely and rather feebly 
punctate; punctures evenly distributed, scarcely as sparse as those of the 
pronotum, distinctly asperate; suture finely margined with an elevated line 
which is much finer near thescutellum. Abdomen at base slightly narrower 
than the elytra and slightly narrower than at the apex of the fourth segment, 
rather strongly convex, excessively finel}^ densely and subasperately punc- 
tate; first four segments equal in length, the fifth one-half longer. Legs 
rather short and robust; joints of the posterior tarsi decreasing very grad- 
ually and uniformly in length, first slightly louger than the second and 
shorter than the fifth. Length 2.5 mm. 

Texas; (El Paso 2). 

The type is a male, the sixth ventral segment being nar- 
rowly and deeply emarginate; emargination very small, dis- 
tinctly deeper than wide, sides nearly parallel and straight, 
bottom broadly ronnded. In the female the sixth segment 
is broadly and feebly angulate, the apex being broadly 
rounded. 

L. bicolor u- sp. — Slender; sides parallel; moderately convex; pale rnfo- 
testaceous, four basal segments of abdomen piceous-black, last two slightly 
paler; elytra clouded with piceous at base near the scutellum; antenu?e 
throughout and legs pale rufo-testaceous, the latter slightly more flavate; 
pubescence extremely short and fine, rather dense on the elytra and abdo- 
men, i/earf slightly longer than wide; sides behind the eyes parallel and 
very feebly arcuate; base truncate; angles narrowly rounded; eyes moderate, 
slightly prominent, on ttie sides just before the middle; front transversely and 
evenly convex, minutely reticulate, extremely minutely and rather densely 
punctate; punctures more dense toward the eyes, less dense along the middle; 
antennas one-half longer than the head, second joint slightly longer and more 
robust than the third, joints two to five longer than wide, six to ten shorter, 



NORTH AMERICAN COLBOPTERA. 223 

equal in length, the latter slightly transverse. Prothorax widest at one- 
fourth its length from the apex, where it is scarcely as wide as the head, one- 
fourth longer than wide; anterior angles very narrowly rounded, decidedly 
prominent; sides thence strongly convergent and feebly sinuate to the neck, 
which is not excessively narrow, and distinctly convergent and very feebly 
arcuate to the base which is trausverselj' truncate in the middle, two-thirds 
as wide as the disk; angles somewhat narrowly rounded; disk transversely 
and feebly convex, very minutely reticulate or subrugulose; excessively, 
minutely punctate; punctures finer and more sparse than those of the 
head, with a very narrow indistinct median impunctate line, and, toward 
base a very feeble median carina which is finely striate along its crest. 
Elytra at base very slightly wider than the pronotum; sides nearly par- 
allel, feebly arcuate; together very feebly and broadly emarginate behind; 
disk distinctly longer than wide, one-fifth longer than the prothorax; feebly 
convex, broadly and feebly impressed along the suture, extremely minutely, 
evenly and rather densely punctate. Abdomen very slightly narrower toward 
base, feebly convex, very minutely and densely punctate. Anterior femora 
nearly twice as robust as the intermediate, abruptly and deeplj'- sinuate on 
the inner edge near the apex; tarsi very feeblj'- dilated, finelj^ and densely 
pubescent beneath. Length 2.3 mm. 

Texas; (Austin 5). , 

The anterior tibiae of the male exhibit verj striking char- 
acters; they are distinctly dilated and have along the flat- 
tened interior face six parallel, oblique rows oi short, 
inclined set^e, the rows becoming shorter toward the apex. 
The four posterior femora are distinctly compressed and 
arcuately bent. The male has the sixth segment broadly 
sinuate at apex, the sinus being four or five times as wide 
as deep and rather narrowly rounded, the sides being very 
gradually recurved; from beneath the sinuation, and appar- 
ently attached to the seventh segment, there protrudes a 
robust ligala, slightly longer than wdde, strongly convex on 
its lower face, abruptly constricted at base, squarely trunc- 
ate at apex, with the angles not- rounded; the upper face is 
broadly concave, serving as a rest and guide for the male 
generative organ; the latter in the present species is very 
complex, being cylindrical, with two unequal lateral pro- 
cesses, anoulate on the right and broadly rounded on the 
left. 



224 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

The peculiarity of the anterior tibiae is apparently gene- 
ric, or at least affects a large number of species. 

L. versicolor u. sp. — Very slender; sides parallel; colors and pubescence 
as in hicolor, except that the abdomen is dark fuscous and slightly paler at 
apex. Head rather large; distinctly longer than wide; sides behind the eyes 
feebly but distinctly divergent and feebly arcuate to the base which is broadly 
and distinctly sinuate; angles rather prominent and narrowly rounded; front 
broadly and feebly convex, not reticulate, shining, very minutely, evenly and 
rather densely punctate; punctures separated by two or three times their 
own diameter; antennae one-half longer than the head, second joint much 
longer and more robust than the third, fifth very slightly longer than wide, 
tenth very slightly wider than long. Prothorax widest at one-fourth its 
length from the apex, distinctly narrower than the head; anterior angles 
narrowly rounded, prominent; sides thence strongly convergent and distinctly 
sinuate to the neck which is very slender, and distinctly convergent and 
nearly straight to the base which is transversely truncate and three-fourths 
as wide as the disk; angles somewhat narrowly rounded; disk one-third 
longer than wide, feebly convex, very minutely, evenly punctate, scarcely 
visibly subrugulose; punctures scarcely perceptibly more sparsely distributed 
than those of the head; median stria toward base nearly obliterated. Elytra 
at base scarcely perceptibly wider than the prothorax; sides distinctly diverg- 
ent and very feebly arcuate; disk very feebly convex, very feebly impressed 
along the suture toward base, minutely and feebly subrugulose, finely, 
evenly, rather densely and subasperately punctate; slightly longer than 
wide and just visibly longer than the pronotum. Abdomen nearly as in 
hicolor, slightly more sparsely punctate. Length 2.1-2.5 mm. 

Texas; (Austin and Waco). 

The sixth segment in the male is broadly sinuate at apex, 
the sinus being slightly less than four times as wide as 
deep, rather acutely rounded; ligula long and narrow, per- 
fectly flat, gradually wider toward the apex which is broadly 
and extremely feebly sinuate, angles rounded. 

The anterior femora and tibiae are as in hicolor, but the 
former are not so robust as in that species. The form of 
the head and the sexual characters will serve to distinguish 
this species from the preceding, to which it is otherwise 
closely allied. 

L. longiceps u. sp.— Very slender, rather convex; 'sides parallel; head 
and elytra pale brownish-testaceous; prothorax paler, more flavate; abdomen 
dark fuscous, scarcely paler at apex; autennee and legs tbroughont pale rufo- 



NORTH AMERICAN COLEOPTERA. 225 

testaceous; pubescence fine and dense throughout, longer on the head, less 
conspicuous on the pronotum. Head much longer than wide; sides parallel 
and distinctly arcuate; base transversely truncate; angles not prominent 
though rather narrowly rounded; front transversely, rather strongly convex, 
extremely minutely, feebly, evenly and not densely punctate; eyes at much 
more than twice their length from the base; antennas short, scarcely longer 
than the head, rather robust, second joint very slightly longer than wide, 
slightly longer and much more robust than the third, tenth rather strongly 
transverse. Frothorax very slightly narrower than the head, widest at one- 
third its length from the apex; anterior angles very broadly rounded; sides 
almost parallel and distinctly arcuate; base transversely truncate, angles 
rather broadly rounded; disk nearly one-third longer than wide, moderately 
and evenly, cylindrically convex, very minutely, evenly and rather densely 
punctate; punctures appreciably closer than those of the head; throughout 
the basal three-fifths there is a fine, well-marked, median stria. Elytra at 
base distinctly wider than the prothorax and fully as wide as the head; sides 
parallel and very feebly arcuate; together distinctly longer than wide and just 
visibly longer than the pronotum; surface rather feebly convex, rather nar- 
rowly and feebly impressed along the suture toward base, very minutely, 
evenly and densely punctate; punctures slightly coarser and just appreciably 
more dense than those of the pronotum. Abdomen very slightly narrowed to- 
ward base, excessively minutely, feebly and rather densely punctate. Femora 
and tibicTB as in hicolor. Length 1.9 mm. 

Texas; (Austin 1). 

This species is aberrant not only in the more broadly 
rounded apical angles of the prothorax, the elongate head 
and shorter antennae, but in the smaller eyes, more com- 
pressed and truncate third maxillary palpal joint, and espe- 
cially in the position of the spongiose setigerous fovea, 
which is not at the middle of the upper margin of the eye 
as in the other species, but behind the eye one-half the 
length of the latter, and in a line with its upper margin. 
The neck also is relatively much less slender than in the 
other species. With exception of Leptogenius hrevicornis it 
is the smallest Psederide described from our territories. 
Unfortunately there is before me but a single representa- 
tive, a female, so that the sexual characters of the male can- 
not be given; the form is very distinct, however, and will 
be easily recognizable. 

The Central American species described by Dr. Sharp, 



226 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

alluded to above, are apparently all distinct from those here 
brought to notice. F'llum differs in the coloration of the 
antenn^B and in the sexual characters; concolor decidedly in 
coloration of the entire body; the (Bdeagus, however, is ap- 
parently similar to that of hicolor; Salvini appears to be 
closely allied to versicolor, but as no ligula is described in 
alluding to the male sexual characters,' and as the elytra 
appear from the figure to be longer and broader, and the 
apical angles of the prothorax much less pronounced, the 
two species are probably distinct, more especially in consid- 
eration of the very different faunal regions involved. Oh- 
scurus SiTid plceohts are very distinct in color; hrevipennis and 
umbra differ altogether in structure. Exiguus Er. differs 
radically in coloration. 

Color appears to be a very constant character, as it is 
practically the same throughout large series of several spe- 
cies which I have before me. 

ORUS Cas. 

This genus, and the closely related Leptorus, constitute a 
group differing remarkably from Scopseus and Scopseodera 
in the structure of the intercoxal portion of the prosternum. 
In Orus the posterior edge of the prosternum is more swol- 
len than in Leptorus, and the median portion is, posterior- 
ly, elevated into a longitudinal ridge which becomes the 
lower edge of the intercoxal lamina. 0. lounctatus Cas. and 
the species here described are the only known representa- 
tives of this genus in the United States.'^ 



^— The ligula is present in all the species of this genus, but, j)roba- 
bly only before copulation, is securely held within the long angular cleft of 
the seventh segment, and is only pushed down and out of the cleft, so as to 
be plainly visible, after sexual connection has occurred. 

^. — By a very regrettable error it was stated by me (Bull. Cal. Acad. 
Sci. I, p. 315) that the ligula in Orus is bicuspid. One of the very minute 
teeth was in all probability hidden under a particle of dust, as the appear- 
ance in the specimen examined was undoubtedly that of a bicuspid ligula; 



NORTH AMERICAN COLEOPTERA. 227 

0. parallelus u- sp.— Narrow, rather depressed; sides parallel; piceous- 
black throughout; legs rafo-piceous; tarsi and autennse throughout paler, 
rufo-fuscons; pubescence fine, rather sparse on the pronotum and elytra, 
denser and more conspicuous on the head and abdomen ; integuments polislied, 
head subalutaceous. Head \ery slightly longer than wide; sides distinctly 
convergent anteriorly from the base, distinctly arcuate behind the eyes; base 
broadly and extremely feebly arcuate; angles broaily rounded ; surface broadly 
and feebly convex, very feebly impressed in the middle anteriorly, very mi- 
nutely and densely punctate, also extremely finely and rather feebly subrugu- 
lose; punctures not spirser but rather coarser along the middle; antennae 
slightly shorter than the head and prothorax together; basal joint slightly 
longer than the next two together, joints two to four sabequal in length, 
slightly elongate, fifth very slightly shorter, joints five to ten decreasing rap- 
idly in length, the former distinctly longer than wide, the latter very slightly 
wider than long. Prothorax very slightly narrower than the head, oblong ; sides 
extremely feebly convergent from apex to base and nearly straight; anterior 
angles obtuse and broadly rounded; sides thence very strongly convergent to 
the nuchal emargination which is two-fifths as wide as the disk and feebly in- 
curvate; basal angles broadly rounded; disk transversely aud feebly convex, 
two-fifths longer than wide, rather finely, feebly aud densely punctate; very 
narrow median area impunctate throughout the length. Elytra at base 
slightly wider than the pronotum; sides very feebly divergent, feebly arcuate 
toward the apex; together broadly, angularly and very feebly emarginate be- 
hind; disk slightly longer than wide aud slightly longer than the pronotum, 
feebly convex, broadly and feebly impressed on the suture, more particularly 
near the base, finely, rather densely, evenly and subasperately punctate; su- 
ture finely margined with an elevated border which becomes rather abruptly 
less than one-half as wide near the scutellum, where also it is not so strongly 
elevated. Abdomen at base slightly narrower than the elytra; sides very feebly 
divergent posteriorly; surface broadly convex, extremely minutely and densely 

subsequent observation, however, of cleaner and more perfect specimens, re- 
veals the fact that the ligula is tricaspid, hence the statements made upon 
the apparent relationship of the ganus with Lithocharis (1. c. II, p. 36), 
which were based primarily upon the assumption of a bideutate ligula most 
be considered ill-founded. The wide departure of the genus from Scopgeus in 
general form, but particularly in the relatively wide neck and prosternal struc- 
ture, is very convincing proof that the time has come for a division of the 
Soopaeoid species into distinct generic groups, and also points strongly to the 
advisability of a division of Fthe Ptederini into two sections depending upon 
the formation of the ligula. 

Although Dr. Sharp has, in the Biologia Centrali-Anericana, correctly 
placed the genus near Ssopaeus since the above was originally written, I still 
deem it proper to publish the rectification in the same work in which the 
error was committed. 



228 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

punctate; fifth segment two-thirds longer than the fourth. Legs rather short; 
posterior tarsi short, first and second joints equal in length, slightly longer 
than wide, much shorter than the fifth; tibiae obliquely truncate and finely 
fimbriate at tip. Length 3,3 mm. 

California; (Napa and Sonoma Cos. 4). 

The specimens are all females, the sixth segment being 
broadly rounded behind. The present species is remarka- 
ble for its long parallel prothorax, which is scarcely at all 
produced in front of the apical angles. It may be distin- 
guished from pundatus by its slightly larger size and much 
liner and denser pronotal punctuation. 

The oblique apical truncation of the hind tibiae appears 
to characterize a large number of genera; the truncation is 
slightly excavated and bordered exteriorly by an erect line 
of long, slender, closely-placed setae. 

The tabular statement of our Pasderini given in this 
Bulletin (Vol. II., p. 38), requires modification since the 
publication of the Central American genera by Dr. Sharp 
in the Biologia Centrali-Americana, and as the assumption 
upon which the positions of one or two genera are assigned 
has been found to be erroneous, the following table is 
offered as a substitute until the entire group can be revised. 
This scheme would be much more useful if it could have 
included all the American genera, but as in the present state 
of literature there would be considerable doubt regarding 
the position of several, I have thought best to restrict it for 
the present to the genera occurring north of Mexico. 

I — Ligula not tricufipid, usually bilohed. 
Prosteruum membranous under and behind the coxte. 

P^DERI. 

A — Fourth tarsal joint normal, not bilobed. 

Antennae anteriorly geniculate, first joint greatly elongate. 

Neck broad; abdomen carinate at base Hesperoblum. 

Neck uarroM'; abdomen not carinate Ababactus. 

Antennae posteriorly geniculate, basal joint moderate in length. 

First joint of the posterior tarsi not longer than the second. 



NORTH AMERICAN COLEOPTERA. 229 



Labium bilobed Lathrobium. 

Labium transversely truncate Trachysectus. 

First joint of the posterior tarsi distinctly longer than the second. 
Neck rather wide, not less than one-third as wide as the prothorax. 
Anterior tarsi very slightly or not at all dilated. 
Labrum 4-dentate. 

Metasternum very long Caloderma. 

Metasternum very short OligOpterUS. 

Labrum bidentate Medon. 

Labrum unidentate Lithocharis- 

Labrum unarmed. 

Deeply emarginate Dacnochilus. 

Broadly and rather feebly siuuate Lena. 

Labrum entire. 

Elytra much shorter than the prothorax Liparocephalus. 

Anterior tarsi strongly dilated. 

Labrum unidentate Aderocharis. 

Labrum entire, truncate Ramona. 

Neck extremely slender; labrum bidentate Stilicus. 

B — Fourth tarsal joint bilobed. 

Labrum triangularly emarginate, unarmed PsBderus. 

Prosternum corneous uuder and behind the coxse; the side pieces of the 
pronotum connate with the intercoxal process. 

SUNII. 

Third joint of the maxillary palpi normal; fourth minute, subulate. 
Posterior tarsi with the fourth joint lobed beneath. 

Labrum bidentate Sunius. 

Labrum 'arge, rounded, ciliate; elytra shorter than the prothorax, 

Stilicopsis. 

Third joint of maxillary palpi securiform; fourth minute, not subulate, 
triangular, erect. 
Fourth joint of the posterior tarsi not lobed, normal Leptogenius. 

II — Ligula tricuspid. 

Prosterual intercoxal lamina deeply emarginate anteriorly; neck extremely 
slender. 
Inflexed posterior portion of pronotal hypomera well developed. 

Scopaeus. 

Inflexed portion rudimentary Scop3BOdera. 

Prosterual intercoxal lamina inferioiiy arcuate anteriorly. 

Neck extremely slender LeptorUS. 

Neck one-third as wide as the prothorax Orus. 



230 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

The sequence of genera in the above tabular statement is, 
it must be confessed, unnatural in approximating Stilicus 
and Piiederus, these being undoubtedly widely divergent 
forms. It merely serves to show, however, that it is im- 
possible to present in a linear arrangement, groups com- 
posed of elements which are divergent from one or more 
central types, and which can only be represented graphi- 
cally by the diagrams adopted in chemical science to exhibit 
the structure of a compound molecule, the various affinities 
being shown by connecting lines. 

If a linear arrangement be pursued, based upon the mod- 
ification of any special organ or part of the body, similar 
breaks must inevitably occur. Assuming, as above, that 
the structure of the prosternum is of more importance than 
that of the tarsi, the latter being in turn of greater moment 
than that of the labrum or mandibles, we should isolate 
Psederus as a group intermediate between the Lathrobii 
and the Sunii, and it would not be consistent to separate 
them by the the latter group, although it may include forms 
which in a radial arrangement would be brought very near 
certain types of the Lathrobii. Such for instance are 
Stilicus and Echiaster, in distinguishing between which the 
prosternal character loses some of the importance which it 
is supposed to possess, unless we regard the similarity of 
habitus as a mere coincidence. The latter I have assumed 
in the case of Stilicus and Scopasus. 

Notes. 

Ababactus Sharp. — This genus is represented in our 
fauna by A. nactiis Horn, and A. pdllidiceps Cas. 

Trachysectus Cas. — Eepresented by T. conflitens Say. 

Caloderma Cas. — Recent investigation shows this genus 
to be similar in prosternal structure to Medon, from which 
it is distinguished by several important characters. The 
labrum is short, small, conical, very feebly explanate near 



NORTH AMERICAN COLEOPTERA. 231 

the sides, triemarginaie, the notches being similar in shape, 
deep, the middle about twice as large as the lateral; later- 
ally the apex is broadly sinuate, thus giving four small, 
acute, prominent denticles. In Medon, as represented by 
M./uscahisMeinn., the labrum is much larger, nearly flat, 
broadly explanate at the sides, not at all sinuate laterally at 
the apex, so that it is at most bidentate. 

In comparing the European Medon, as for instance hrim- 
neus Er,, with many of the American genera, there is one 
feature relating to the metasternum which appears to have 
been generally overlooked, and wdiich is indicated on the 
upper surface by the length of the elytra. The metaster- 
num in the European genus is remarkably short, strongly 
convex, and much shorter than the intermediate coxae. This 
appears to be a rather important character in the present 
comparison, and distinguishes Caloderma at once, for in this 
genus the metasternum is unusually w^ell developed, and is 
more than one-half longer than the coxae, which in turn are 
relatively distinctly smaller than in Medon. 

The species having a rugulose pronotum are the most 
highly developed forms of the genus, and should be consid- 
ered typical, although much less numerous in species than 
the form with punctate pronotum. 

Oligopterus Cas. — Allied to Medon in prosternal and 
metasternal structure. It differs from Medon in the struc- 
ture of the labrum, which is here distinctly 4-dentate, and 
from the more typical forms of that genus in the very 
widely distant gular sutures, rapidly divergent toward base, 
in this resj)ect being more closely allied to Pseudomedon 
Eey. It differs from Caloderma in its very short metaster- 
num. 

Medon Steph. — This genus as represented in our fauna 
will consist for the present of the two groups of species 
previously placed by me in Lithocharis. There is another 
group of nondescript species, occurring in the Southern 



232 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

States, which may also be considered as Medon until future 
investigation can be made with more ample material. These 
three groups will then probably give rise to four allied 
genera, or perhaps more properly, subgenera. 

LiTHOCHAKis Lacord. — Represented in our fauna by och- 
racea Grav. , alutacea Cas., and giiadricolUs Csls. The last 
tw^o differ from the first in sexual characters — although they 
have the characteristic comb-like sculpture at the apex of 
the fifth segment — and in the smaller, more acute and prom- 
inent labral tooth. 

Metaxyodonta Cas.=LiTHOCHAKis Lacord. 

LiPAROCEPHALUS Mann. — No description of the anterior 
tarsi is given, and the position of the genus is assumed. 

Aderochaeis Sharp. — Represented by A. corticina Grav., 
and possibly also by iahacina Cas. 



EcHiASTER Er. — No species of this genus has yet occurred 
within the United States, and it is therefore omitted from 
the table. 

SciocHARis Arrib. — Although Dr. Sharp intimates that this 
genus may occur within our limits, I have not yet seen it. 
It may be easily recognized by the very robust first and 
second joints of the antennse. The labrum is bidentate 
and the integuments are generall}^ very finely and densely 
punctate. 

APOCELLUS Ericbs. 

A. niger n- sp. — Moderately robust, convex; upper snrfcice intense black 
throughout, except the elytral suture which is dark piceo-te.staceons; metas- 
teruum, abdomen and head beneath black; prosternum and side-pieces paler, 
piceo-testaceons; antennae same toward base, black toward tip; legs pale 
luteo-testaceous, femora shaded piceous in the outer half; pubescence ex- 
tremely sparse; integuments highly polished. Head distinctly longer than 
wide; sides behind the eyes distinctly convergent and rather strongly arcuate; 
base truncate and very feebly iucurvate in the middle; augles very broadly 
rounded, coarctate with the sides; eyes small, in the middle, rather promi- 
nent; on a transverse line slightly less than their own length behind them, 



NORTH AMERICAN COLEOPTERA. 233 

there are t-wo small, widely distant, deeply impressed occipital foveae; antenna! 
tuberculations slightly convergent posteriorly; epistoma distinct, declivous, 
wider than long, very feebly arcuate at apex; labrum short, broad, rather 
strongly and evenly emarginate throughout its width ; antennae slightly 
longer than the head and prothorax together, rather strongly incrassate; sec- 
oni joint much shorter than the third, longer than the fourth, tenth very 
slightly wider thaa long. Prothorax widest at one-third its length from the 
apex, where it is slightly wider than long and as wide as the head across the 
eyes; sides thence very strongly convergent to the apex which is squarely 
truncate and about one-half as wide as the disk, and rather feebly though dis- 
tinctly convergent, evenly and distinctly arcuate to the base; the latter 
broadly and extremely feebly arcuate, two-thirds as wide as the disk; angles 
very obtuse and rather broadly rounded; sides at the apical third rather 
broadly rounded; disk strongly convex, with a few very widely scattered se- 
tigerous punctures. Elytra at base slightly wider than the prothorax; sides 
rather strongly divergent, distinctly arcuate toward the apices; together trans- 
versely truncate behind; disk rather depressed, abruptly strongly declivous 
at the sides, slightly wider than long, nearly one-fourth longer than the pro- 
notum; suture narrowly and strongly margined with an elevated line; surface 
having a few very small, widely scattered, setigerous punctures having a ten- 
dency to lineal arrangement. Abdomen at base very slightly narrower than 
the elytra; sides parallel and nearly straight; border very thin, erect and deep, 
nearly equal on the five basal segments; surface very finely and sparsely pu- 
bescent and punctate toward the sides, almost impunctate in the middle. 
Legs moderate in length; femora robust; third joint of the posterior tarsi less 
than twice as long as the first and second together. Length 2.8-3.3 mm. 

Texas; (Galveston 5). 

The description is taken from the male, the sexual char- 
acters of which are of the usual form in this section of the 
genus; the double, posteriorly excavated emargination of 
the sixth segment is scarcely more than one-third the width 
of the segment, and the arched laminae of the seventh nearly 
meet over the broadly rounded excavation; eighth segment 
broadly impressed. It is a very distinct species and belongs 
immediately after crassicornis in the list of the genus as 
published by me (Cont. II, p. 153). The order of the species 
has been changed in the recently published check-list of 
Mr. S. Henshaw, so that the least characteristic forms of 
the genus there head the list, while the species upon which 
ErichsoQ founded the genus appear last. My only commen- 
tary is a passing allusion; I cannot refrain, however, from 



234 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

expressing the opinion that the reversal was unnecessary, 
and that the order proposed is far less scientific than that 
published in the revision above referred to. 

ApoceUus brevipennis Cas. — Five specimens of this species 
were recently taken, also at Galveston, Texas; it was orig- 
inally described from a single specimen from Louisiana. 

PHLCEOPTERUS Mots. 

P. filicornis «• sp. — Rather robust, depressed, black throughout; tro- 
chanters slightly paler, dark rufous; legs piceous-black; tibi<» much paler and 
rufous toward tip; tarsi rufous; palpi fuscous; antennte black throughout; 
pubescence rather long, very dense, subrecumbent and conspicuous, fasco- 
cinereous in color; legs densely pubescent; tibia? abruptly nearly glabrous 
in the apical fifth or sixth; tarsi glabrous, joints finely spinulose at the apices; 
shining. Head as long as wide, depressed, transversely and rather strongly 
impressed between the antennae, deeply and widely biimpressed between 
the eyes; surface finely and rather densely punctate; ocelli very minute, 
round, distant, on a line slightly in advance of the posterior margins of the 
eyes; the latter very prominent; fourth joint of the maxillary palpi slii^htly 
more than twice as long as the third, the latter not three times as long 
as wide; antennae very long, slender and filiform, not in the least iucrassate, 
two-thirds as long as the body; second joint much shorter than the third, 
joints three to ten subequal in length, much elongated, eleventh slightly 
longer, fusiform. Prothorax widest slightly before the middle; sides thence 
very feebly convergent, feebly and evenly arcuate to the obtuse and rather 
broadly rounded anterior angles and somewhat strongly convergent, rather 
strongly and evenly iucurvate throughout to the basal angles, which are 
nearly right and not at all rounded; base broadly and extremely feebly 
arcuate throughout, three-fourths as wide as the disk and distinctly narrower 
than the apex; the latter transversely truncate, feebly excurvate toward the 
apical angles; disk scarcely one-third wider than long, transversely, rather 
strongly and perfectly evenly convex; having at the middle of each side, 
a very deep punctiform impression; flanks thence to the basal angles very 
abruptly and strongly declivous; surface very finely, evenly and densely 
punctate; punctures perforate. Elytra at base slightly wider than the pro- 
notum; sides moderately divergent; humeral and apical angles very broadly 
rounded; together broadly arcuate behind with the inner angles abruptly 
and rather strongly rounded; disk nearly one-third longer than wide, slightly 
more than twice as long as the pronotum, broadly and feebly convex, rather 
coarsely, very evenly and densely punctate; punctures impressed, .'^lightly 
more distant than those of the pronotum. Abdomen very short behind the 
elytra, much wider than long, subalutaceous, very minutely, evenly and 
rather closely punctate. Legs rather slender; first joint of the posterior 



NORTH AMERICAN COLEOPTERA. 235 

tarsi slightly longer than the next two together; anterior tarsi distinctly 
dilated. Under surface of the abdomen minutely, densely and evenly 
punctate. Length 5.0 mm. 

California; (Placer Co. 1). Mr. Fuclis. 

The mesosternum is minutelv and strongly rugulose and 
a-lutaceous toward the middle, finely and imperfectly car- 
inate posteriorly, more strongly so anteriorly, terminating 
near the anterior margin in a small, abrupt, acute tubercle. 
The abrupt loss of the dense pubescence at the tips of the 
tibife is very remarkable. 

This species is rather smaller and much more densely 
punctate than longipalpus, and has a much less transverse 
prothorax. 

AMPHICHROUM Kraatz. 

A. flavicorne n. sp. — Moderately robust, depressed; pronotum and elytra 
glabrous; abdomen very sparsely pubescent laterally; male black, with the 
Literal edges of the pronotum and elytra testaceous; female having the entire 
disk of the pronotum rufo-testaceous and the elytra luteous, except the 
suture, which is piceous; antennse pale flivate throughout; legs piceo-testa- 
ceous; integuments polished. Head scarcely longer than wide, depressed, 
densely, rather coarsely and deeply punctate in the middle; having a small, 
punctiform impression at the base of each antenna; obliquely and very 
deeply bifoveolate between the eyes; antennae moderate in length, less than 
one-half as long as the body, rather slender; basal joint three-fourths as long 
as the next two together, second two-thirds as long as the third and about as 
long as the tenth, joints three to ten decreasing perceptibly in length and 
increasing in thickness. Prothorax two-thirds wider than long, widest in the 
middle; sides strongly and nearly evenly rounded, slightly more strongly 
convergent toward the apex, which is broadly aT^d very feebly emarginate 
and equal in width to the base and to the head; base truncate; apical and 
basal angles broadly rounded, the former slightly the more narrowly so; disk 
moderately and evenly convex, more strongly so at the sides, which are 
narrowly and abruptly explauate, extremely sparsely, rather finely and very 
unevenly punctate except along the sides and base, where the punctures are 
much denser. Elytra at base very slightly wider than the prothorax; sides 
very feebly divergent and nearly straight; together truncate behind; humeral 
and exterior apical angles broadly rounded ; disk as long as wide, slightly 
less than twice as long as the prothorax, depressed, more convex at the sides, 
narrowly elevated along the suture except near the base, feebl}^, rather 
sparsely and unevenly punctate. Abdomen as wide and long as the elytra; 
sides strongly arcuate ; surface shining, extremely finely and feebly punctate, 



236 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

very minutely, feebly and transversely reticulate, iegs moderate in length; 
anterior tarsi feebly dilated. Length 3.5-i.O mm. 

California; (San Francisco 2; Lake Co. 2.) Mr. Fuchs. 

The pronotum lias a very small impressed fovea in the 
middle at the base which is sometimes absent and some- 
times replaced by a larger and more irregular impression 
which, however, is not transverse as in florihundum. 

This species resembles fioribimdiim Lee. in several char- 
acters, especially in the punctate head and coloration of the 
body, but differs remarkably in the antennae, which are of a 
pale and pure flavate throughout in the former; the anten- 
nae are piceous in floribundum except the three basal joints, 
which are paler. 

In all the species of Amphichroum here described, there 
are visible on the first, or sometimes the second, exposed dor- 
sal segment of the abdomen two small, approximate patches 
of a more or less transversely oval shape, on which the pu- 
bescence is excessively short and dense and usually of a 
pale cinereous or bright fulvous color; they are also to be 
seen in a similar position, but oblique in direction, on the 
abdomen of Homalium algarum Cas. These pubescent and 
very minutely rugulose areas, which are probably sensitive, 
are not sexual, and appear to characterize a large portion of 
the Homalini. 

A. alutaceuiU n- sp. — Form rather slender, depressed; head and abdomen 
black; pronotum, elytra, palpi and antean» toward tip rather pale castane- 
ous; basal margin and sides of the pronotam very narrowly pale flavate; 
antennae same toward base; elytral suture dark rufo-testaceous; legs dark 
brownish-testaceous; pronotum and elytra rather densely pubescent; head 
and abdomen very sparsely so; integuments shining. Head longer than 
wide; surface depressed, impunctate, coarsely granulose, shining, broadly 
and distinctly impressed between the antennae, obliquely, very finely and 
feebly bistriate between the eyes; ocelli small, approximate, distinct; 
antennae scarcely two-fifths as long as the body, slender, slightly incrassate; 
basal joint very slightly longer than the second; joints two to ten nearly eqvud 
in length, the latter one-half longer than wide, eleventh longer, obliquely 
pointed at tip, cylindrical at base. Profhorax widest in the middle, where it 
is scarcely one-fourth wider than long; sides nearly parallel, feebly arcuate 



NORTH AMERICAN COLEOPTERA. 237 

throughout; apex very slightly narrower than the base, broadly and evenly 
sinuate; angles rather narrowly rounded; base very feebly arcuate through- 
out, angles rather broadly rounded; disk broadly, very evenly and rather 
feebly convex, very narrowly and abruptly explanate at the sides anteriorly, 
slightly more broadly and less abruptly so posteriorly, extremely finely, 
evenly and rather closely punctate; punctures slightly asperate; intervals 
finely aubgrauulose, subalutaceous. Elytra at base very slightly wider than 
the pronotum; sides rather distinctly but very feebly divergent, very 
feebly arcuate; humeral angles narrowly, apical broadly, rounded; together 
truncate behind; disk depressed, broadly impressed in the middle; as long as 
wide, slightly less than one-half longer than the pronotum, rather coarsely, 
very evenly, closely and rather strongly punctate; pauctures subasperate; 
intervals polished. Abdomen at base as wide as the elytra, at the apex of the 
third segment nearly one-fourth wider; sides strongly arcuate; border rather 
broad, feebly inclined; surface depressed; three visible basal segments 
transversely impressed at base; segments two to four finely, evenly and rather 
densely punctate; segments one, five and six impunctate; second visible 
segment with two small, transverse, approximate, minutely rugulose and 
apparently pubescent patches. Legs moderate in length, slender. Under 
surface piceous-black, with exception of the pronotal and elytral hypomera, 
which are flavate. Length 3.5 mm. 

California; (Marin Co. 1). 

This species resembles veterator in the general character 
of its sculpture and pubescence, but differs greatly in 
general form, and especiall}^ in its much less transverse 
prothorax with but slightly arcuate sides. 

A. pilosellum n. sp.— Males slender; females rather robust, depressed; 
color rather pale veddish-testaceous, nearly similar in the two sexes; head 
posteriorly, prothorax anteriorly, and elytra broadly and very indefinitely 
toward the suture and apices, clouded with a slightly darker castaneous 
tint; abdomen intense black throughout; antennae fuscous toward tip, basal 
joints pale testaceous; legs rufo-piceous; pronotum and elytra finely and 
sparsely pubescent, integuments shining. Head very slightly longer than 
wide, rather depressed, glabrous, finely reticulate or subalutaceous, impunc- 
tate, broadly and rather feebly impressed between the antennae, feebly, 
finely and obliquely bistriate between the. eyes; antennae rather short, mode- 
rately incrassate, less than one-half as long as the body; basal joint but 
slightly longer than the third, second nearly as long as the first, as long as 
the fourth, and slightly longer than the tenth, joints four to eight equal in 
length, eight to ten decreasing, the latter but slightly longer than wide. 
Prothorax widest in the middle, one-half wider than long; sides strongly 
rounded in the middle, feebly convergent and nearly straight anteriorly and 

17_BxjLL. Cal. Acad. Sci. II. 6. Issued November 27, 1886. 



238 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

posteriori}'; basi) angles broadly roauded; apical more narrowly so; disk 
evenly and moder itely convex, rather broadly and gradually explanate and 
feebly reflexei at the sides, and especially near the basal angles, very obso- 
letely impressed along the middle and in front of the scutellum, finely reticn- 
late or subalntaceous, very finely, feebly and rather sparsely and evenly 
punctate. Elytra at base very slightly narrower than the prothorax; sides very 
feebly divergent, feebly arcuate; disk depressed, very slightly longer than wide, 
two-thirds longer than the pronotum, rather strongly, coarsely and sparsely 
punctate; intervals polished; punctures tending to form coarse, transverse 
rugulse. Abdomen as wide as and distinctly longer than the elytra; sides 
rather feebly convergent posteriorly, on the first four segments feebly arcu- 
ate; border depressed, scarcely at all inclined; surface polished, nearly im- 
jounctate in the middle, excessively minutely and feebly punctulate toward 
the sides. Legs slender; anterior tarsi very feebly dilated; first joint of the 
posterior as long as the next three together. Length 2.5-3.6 mm. 

California; (Lake Co. 7). Mr. Fuchs. 

Described from the male, which is more slender than the 
female. The species belongs near puberulum Fauv., but 
differs in its longer elytra and much sparser elytral punctu- 
ation. 

A, veterator Q* sp. — Moderately robust, depressed, dark piceous-brown ; 
antennae toward base, narrow side and basal margins of the pronotum, and 
under surface of the head and prothorax, pale testaceous; abdomen black 
throughout; femora piceo-testaceous; tibiae and tarsi darker, piceous; anten- 
nae iufascate toward tip; palpi fuscous; head and pronotum subalutaceous; 
pronotum and elytra finely and densely pubescent, the latter shining. Head 
rather small, scarcely as wide as long, transversely and feebly impressed be- 
tween the antennffi, very finely, feebly and obliquely bistriate between the 
eyes; surface rather coarsely and strongly reticulate or subgranulate, impunc- 
tate; ocelli very small, round and distinct; antennas about one-half as long as 
the body, moderately slender, all the joints distinctly elongate, joints four to 
ten almost equal in length, the latter nearly one-half longer than wide, second 
distinctly shorter than the third, the latter subequal in length to the first. 
Proi^orax anteriorly as wide as the head, widest in the middle; sides very 
slightly more strongly convergent anteriorly than posteriorly, evenly and 
rather feebly arcuate throughout; apex distinctly narrower than the base, 
broadly and feebly sinuate; the latter truncate in the middle, broadly arcuate 
toward the basal angles which are broadly rounded; apical broadly rounded, 
slightly less so than the basal; disk nearly one-half wider than long, evenly 
and very moderately convex, rather abruptly and very narrowly explanate at 
the sides anteriorly, broadly and very gradually explanate and feebly reflexed 
toward the basal angles, very obsoletely and vaguely impressed before the 
scutellum, finely and very feebly subgranulate, very minutely, feebly, Bubas- 



NORTH AMERICAN COLEOPTERA. 239 

perately, evenly and rather closely punctate. Elytra at base scarcely as wide 
as the pronotum; sides very feebly divergent, very feebly arcuate; outer apical 
angles rather narrowly rounded; together truncate behind; disk depressed, 
quaclrate, two-thirds longer than the pronotam, rather coarsely, very densely, 
evenly, strongly and subasperately punctate. Abdomen as wide as and slightly 
longer than the elytra; sides convergent and evenly arcaate to the apex; bo - 
der rather strong, very slightly inclined; surface polished almost impunctate 
in the middle, finely rather strongly and densely, subasperately punctate lat- 
erally. Legs rather slender. Under surface finely, evenly and sparsely pubes- 
cent; tibiae finely pubescent, sparsely and minutely spinulose. Length 3.0 
mm. 

California; (Lake Co. 2). Mr. Fuchs. 

This species also belongs near puheridum, from which it 
is easily distinguished by its much longer elytra. It bears 
a very deceptive resemblance to the following species, so 
that the identification and separation of the tw^o will require 
some care. 

A. crassicorne 'o.. sp. — Moderately robust, depressed, piceous-black; head 
dark rufous; basal third of the pronotum and the lateral and anterior mar- 
gins very narrowly pale testaceous; just behind the elytral humeri there is 
on each side a small, very indefinite paler spot; under surface of the abdomen 
and metasternum piceous-black; prosternum, head, legs throughout, palpi 
and antennae toward base, pale brownish-flavate; antenna toward tip pice- 
ous; head and pronotum subalutaeeous; elytra polished; head glabrous, 
remainder finely and moderately densely pubescent. Head rather small, 
finely reticulate and subrugulose, transversely impressed between the anten- 
nae, finely, deeply and obliquely bistriate between the eyes; ocelli large, flat, 
not distinctly limited, round; antennae rather strongly incrassate, scarcely 
one-half as long as the body; joints four to ten decreasing very slightly 
in length, the latter slightly longer than wide. Prothorax scarcely more than 
one-third wider than long; anterior angles much more narrowly rounded than 
the posterior; form and sculpture nearly as in veterator; punctures slightly 
coarser and more distinct. Elytra at base fully as wide as the pronotum; 
outer apical angles rather broadly rounded; together quadrate, two-thirds 
longer than the pronotum, nearly as in veterator, except that the punctures 
are obliterated along the apex. Abdomen in form nearly as in veterator, 
punctate throughout; punctures fine, asperate, evenly and rather closely 
placed, and more distinct toward the sides. Legs slender. Length 3.3 mm. 

California; (Siskiyou Co. 1). Mr. Behrens. 
The fourth joint of the maxillary palpi is nearly circular 
in cross-sections and convex throughout, while in all the 



240 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

other species which I have seen the fourth joint is more or 
less deeply excavate interiorly, nearly throughout its length 
and is, in addition, strongly heniin flavicorne. 

Although the present species bears a remarkably strong 
resemblance to veterator in its sculpture, it may be distin- 
guished by its sparser pubescence, slightly more elongate 
prothorax, much deeper interocular striae, but especially 
by the form of the ocelli, which in this species are fully 
twice as wide as in veterator, and more indefinite in outline; 
no dependence is placed on color as this is known to vary 
greatly; it is, however, strikingly different in the represen- 
tatives of the two species. 

A. floyibundam Lee. — One specimen which I have referred 
to this species was collected by Mr. Fuchs in Lake Co. 
The antennae are relatively longer and more filiform than in 
any here described, and are piceous except the first three 
joints and the bases of some of the succeeding ones. 

The relationship of the species here described with those 
given by Mr. Fauvel (Not. Ent. vii, p. 72), is best shown 
by the following table, which is merely a continuation of 
the one given by that author, with a few slight alterations. 

Elytra shining, wifh more or less distinct punctuation. 
Pronotum and elytra glabrous. 
Pronotum polished. 

Elytra with very sparse, nearly obsolete punctuation sparsum. 

Elytra coarsely and generally distinctly punctate. 

Head distinctly and densely punctate; elytra black or maculate with 
testaceous, with the suture blackish or brownish. 

Antennae piceous, three basal joints paler floribundlini. 

Antennae clear flavate throughout .. .flavicorne. 

Head impunctate. 
Head shining, with two oblique striae between the eyes, .scutatum. 
Head dull, granulose, strongly bifoveolate between the eyes. 

laevicolle. 

Head and pronotum alutaceous, size large testaceum. 

Pronotum and elytra visibly pubescent or pilose. 

Size large; pronotum and elylra very strongly and densely punctate, the 
former distinctly impressed along the middle maculatum. 



NORTH AMERICAN COLEOPTERA. 241 

Size rather small; prouotum very finely, elytra generally densely and 
more coarsely panctate; pronotum not distinctly impressed in the 
middle. 
Elytra less than one-half longer than the pronotum. 

Sides of the piothorax very strongly arcuate puberulum. 

Sides of the prothorax very feebly arcuate alutaceUHl. 

Elytra more than one-half longer than the pronotum. 

Elytra coarsely and not densely punctate pilosellum. 

Elytra very finely and densaly punctate. 

Interocular strias very fine; ocelli minute and distinct, -veterator. 
luterocular striae deep; ocelli large, not very well defined. 

crassicorne. 

Elytra dull, very finely and transversely rugulosa opaculum. 

The genus is probably a very extensive one in California, 
wliich region also appears to be very rich in the entire group 
Homalini. 

PELECOMALIUM n. gen. (Homalini). 

Body depressed, winged; elytra longer than the prothorax; antenna fili- 
form, very feebly incrassate, front not produced. Maxillary palpi with the first 
joint small; second elongate, slender; third and fourth flattened, the former 
slightly longer than wide, obconicai; fourth about one-half longer than the 
third, strongly securiform. Labial palpi small; first joint very small; 
second much wider and longer, slightly longer than wide, sides parallel, tip 
transversely truncate; third slender, oblique, truncate at tip, sides nearly 
parallel, much narrower and slightly longer than the second; second and 
third joints flattened. Posterior tarsi very long and slender, shorter than 
the tibia; first and second joints elongate, the former much the longer; 
fourth deeply bilobed. Posterior tibise slender, terminateil by two slender, 
unequal spurs and several small spines. Tibiae rather finely and sparsoly 
pubescent, having a very few small lateral spines. 

It will be seen from the above diagnosis that this genus 
bears a great resemblance to Amphichroum, and in fact if 
the palpi were removed, it would be almost impossible to 
distinguish P. modestum from A. veterator, so great is the 
resemblance in every feature of the body, antennae and 
legs. 

The two species described below may be recognized by 
the following characters: — 

Size large; elytra coarsely and rather sparsely punctate blnotatum . 

Size small; elytra finely and very densely punctate modestum. 



242 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

P, binotatum ^- sp. — Rather robust; body and legs throughout dark rufo- 
test::ceous; head, abdomen, and under surface except the prosternuru, black; 
elytra and hypomera rather paler and more Inteous; each elytron having a 
median apical spot of piceous-black, clearly limited and very distinct ; antennae 
piceous-black, three basal joints abruptly pale testaceous; palpi and man- 
dibles same; head and prothorax alutaceous, remainder shining; pronotum 
almost glabrous; elytra and abdomen finely and very sparsely pubescent, 
the latter toward the sides only. Head slightly louger than wide, depressed, 
neaily flat, transversely and feebly impressed between the antenme, finely, 
not deeply and obliquely bistriate between the eyes; surface finely and 
strongly granulose and subrugulose, impunctate; antennae scarcely two-fifths 
as long as the body, very slightly flattened and incrassate toward tip; joints 
one, and three to seven nearly equal in length and one-half longer than the 
second; joints seven to ten rather rapidly decreasing in length, the latter 
one-fourth longer than wide. Prothorax anteriorly as wide as the head, 
wide^t in the middle, about one-fourth wider than long; sides parallel, evenly 
and moderately arcuate throughout; apical angles rather narrowly rounded, 
basal very broadly so; apex and base equal in width, the former broadly and 
distinctly sinuate throughout, the latter very feebly and broadly sinuale 
in the middle; disk very broadly and very moderately convex, narrowly 
and obsoletely impressed along the middle, broadly and very feebly so near 
the scutellum, narrowly and abruptly explauate anteriorly at the sides, 
more broadly and gradually so thence to the base, finely and strongly retic- 
ulate, excessively minutely, sparsely and feebly punctate except near the 
sides and especially along the base, where the punctures are closer, larger 
and deeper. Elytra at base as wide as the pronotum; sides feebly though 
distinctly divergent; apical angles moderately broadly rounded; together 
transversely truncate behind; disk depressed, about as long as wide, two- 
thirds longer than the pronotum, finely margined along the suture, rather 
coarsely, strongly, evenly and rather sparsely jjunctate. Abdomen about 
as wide as, and slightly shorter than, the elytra; sides convergent and 
strongly and evenly arcuate to the vertex; border rather narrow and feebly 
inclined, finely and densely punctate; surface broadly polished and impunc- 
tate in the middle. Legs slender. Length 4.7 mm. 

California; (Marin Co. 1). Mr. Harford. 

In the type of this very interesting species the middle 
tibiae are broadly and strongly emarginate interiorly at 
one-third the length from the apex, the others being per- 
fectly entire. 

P. modestum ^' sp.— Moderately slender; head and abdomen black; pro- 
notum, except the lateral limbs, narrowly, and a short basal margin, antennae 
toward tip, and elytra, dark blackish-castaneous, the latter having on each 
side near the humeri a small, very indefinite spot of slightly paler tint; an- 



NORTH AMERICAN COLEOPTERA. 243 

tenuse toward base, palpi, pronotal and elytral hypomera and anterior legs 
pale testaceous; middle and posterior legs infuscate throughout; remainder 
of the under surface blackish; head and prouotuua very feebly alutaceous, 
remainder shining; head glabrous, pronotum and elytra finely and densely 
pubescent. Head very slightly longer than wide, broadly and feebly im- 
pressed between the antenute, finely, very feebly and obliquely bistriate 
between the eyes; surface finely and rather feebly reticulate, impunctate; 
ocelli small, round, distinct; antennae long and slender, more than one-half 
as long as the body; joints one and thieesubequal in length, distinctly longer 
than the succeeding ones; joints two and four to seven nearly equal in 
length, tenth fully one-third longer than wide, cyliudro-obconical. Prothorax 
anteriorly slightly narrower than the head, widest near the middle, where 
the sides are nearly evenly and moderitely arcuate, slightly straighter to- 
ward the apex and base and very slightly more strongly convergent in the 
former direction; apex slightly narrower than the base, broadly and very 
feebly incurvate; the latter broadly and very feebly arcuate; apical and basal 
angles moderately broadly rouuded, the former the more strongly; disk 
nearly one-half wider than long, moderately and evenly convex, not at all 
impressed, abruptly and narrowly explanate at the sides anteriorly, more 
broadly and gradually so toward the basal angles, where it is also slightly 
reflesed, extremely finely, evenly, feebly, subasperately and rather densely 
punctate, finely and distinctly reticulate. Elytra at base scarcely as wide as 
the pronotum; sides very feebly divergent and arcuate; apical angles mode- 
rately broadly rounded; disk depressed, quadrate, nearly three-fourths longer 
than the pronotum, very densely, rather finely, deeply and evenly punctate. 
Abdomen produced slightly at the apex, the last segment being rather long 
and slender; as wide at base as the elytra, polished, feebly and finely punc- 
tate near the sides, impunctate in the middle. Legs slender. Length 
2.7 mm. 

California; (Lake Co. 2). Mr. Fuchs. 

Readily distinguishable from the preceding by its much 
smaller size, more transverse prothorax, finer and much 
denser elytral punctuation and coloration. Its approxima- 
tion in appearance to Ampliichroum veterator has been before 
alluded to, and is most remarkable; it is a smaller and 
slightly more slender species than the latter, but in prono- 
tal and elytral form and punctuation it is almost precisely 
similar. 

LATHRIM^UM Erichs. 

L humerale ^' sp.— Rather robust, moderately convex; head blackish, 
epistoma dark rufous; pronotum dark rufous, obscurely piceous in the 
middle; elytra pale luteous, dark rufous at the apices, immediately before 



244 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

which there is a large rather indefinite area of dark piceous obliquely 
limited just behind the middle; on each elytron there is also, just before the 
middle, a small obscure spot of dark castaneous, not attaining the suture, 
and parallel to the oblique edge of the posterior spot; abdomen dark rufous; 
entire under surface and legs bright rufo-testaceous; antennae piceous, 
apical joint paler, first three joints very dark rufo-fuscous, nearly glabrous, 
remainder finely and densely pubescent; integuments nearly glabrous; highly 
polished. Head slightly wider than long, convex along the middle, broadly 
impressed along the sides, obliquely and very feebly bisulcate between the 
eyes, finely and not very densely punctate; sides behind the eyes short, 
rectangular, ocelli rather large, very prominent; eyes moderately prominent ; 
antennas distinctly shorter than the head and prothorax together, feebly 
incrassate; third joint slender, distinctly longer than the second or fourth; 
the latter subequal, distinctly longer than the fifth, which is nearly one-half 
longer than wide; tenth slightly wider than long. Prothorax widest slightly 
behind the middle, where it is three-fourths wider than long; sides thence 
rather strongly convergent, strongly and evenly arcuate to the very broadly 
rounded apical angles, and slightly less strongly convergent and straight to 
the basal angles, which are obtuse and not rounded; edges finely serrulate; 
base broadly and very feebly arcuate, four-fifths as wide as the disk and 
wider than the apex; the latter truncate in the middle between the broadly 
rounded and slightly advanced latertil apices; disk rather strongly convex in 
tha middle, where there is a rather deep longitudinal sulcation, limited 
laterally by two narrow well-defined ridges which terminate at one-third the 
length from the base; on each side, exterior to these, there are two rather 
strong, irregular elevations, thence to the lateral edges the surface is 
broadly explanate and feebly reflexed, broadly and very feebly impressed at 
the middle of each side; surface very coarsely, deeply and irregularly punc- 
tate; punctures sparser toward the sides. Elytra one-third wider than the 
pronotum, at base equal to it in width; sides nearly parallel and somewhat 
strongly arcuate; together broadly subtruucate behind; exterior angles 
broadly rounded; disk strongly convex, slightly less strongly declivous 
behind than on the sides, nearly one-third longer Ihan wide, two and one- 
half times as long as the pronotum, coarsely, deeply punctate; punctures 
closely placed in rather well-defined strife; inlervals rather feebly convex, the 
third and seventh more strongly so; the latter near the humeri very strongly 
so. Abdomen very short and narrow behind the elytra, having two almost 
impunctate segments exposed. Legs long and very slender; posterior tarsi 
short, first two joints slightly elongate, the first slightly the longer; fifth 
much shorter than the first four together. Length 4 3 mm. 

California; (Humboldt Co. 1). 

The under surface, except the pronotal hypomera, and 
including the elytral hypomera, is very coarsely and deeply 
punctate; the abdomen finely subalutaceous and almost 



NORTH AMERICAN COLEOPTERA. 245 

impunctate. The femora are very sparsely pubescent, the 
hairs being very short, stout and recumbent; the tibiae 
finely and densely spinulose. The mesosternum is finely 
carinate in the middle anteriorly. The maxillary palpi are 
very slender and filiform, the third joint being twice as long 
as wide, the fourth being very slender, pointed and more 
than twice as long as the third. 

This species differs from pldum Fauv. in elytral structure, 
that species having all the elytral intervals equally and very 
feebly convex, and from suhcostatum Miikl. in the shape of 
the prothorax. 

OROBANUS Lee. 

0, mfipes n- sp. — Rather slender, cuueate; black throughout except the 
eleventh joint of the antennae which is testaceous, and the legs which are 
rufous throughout; integuments shining; pubescence rather long, very tine, 
dense, recumbent, dark grayish-brown in color. Head moderate; eyes at 
nearly their own length from the base, moderately prominent, rather finely 
granulate; sides behind them feebly convergent and strongly arcuate, promi- 
nent; front feebly convex, very finely and extremely feeblj' punctate; having 
on a line slightly in advance of the middle of the eyes two deeply impressed, 
narrow, oblique and very short caualiculate punctures; ocelli minute, circu- 
lar; antennas moderate, slender, filiform, slightly less than one-half as long as 
the body; joints two to six subeqiial in length, the former slightly more robust 
and very slightly shorter; joints six to ten decreasing in length, the former 
nearly three times as long as wide, the latter distinctly thicker and three- 
fourths longer than wide, eleventh slender, shorter than the two preceding 
together, finely acuminate, compressed near the tip. Prothorax cordate, 
widest at one-third its length from the apex, where it is distinctly wider than 
the head and very slightly wider than long; sides very moderately conver- 
gent posteriorly, deeply and evenly incurvate throughout, strongly arcuate 
anteriorly; basal angles slightly obtuse, very slightly rounded; base broadly,, 
evenly and very feebly arcuate, about three-fourths as wide as the disk 
and very slightly wider than the apex; the latter broadly, evenly and just 
visibly emarginate; apical angles almost obsolete; disk strongly and nearly 
evenly convex, having near the base a transverse row of small feeble erosions, 
and at each side, just before the middle, a rather strong impression which is 
continued posteriorly, gradually becoming more feeble and disappearing 
before reaching the basal angles; very finely, feebly, evenly and somewhat 
densely punctate. Elytra at base slightly wider than the prothorax, widest 
at the apex where together they are slightly less than twice as wide as the 
prothorax; sides nearly straight; each elytron broadly rounded behind; hu- 



246 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

uieri broadly rounded; disk depressed, with a feebly impressed line on each 
]iarallel and near the suture, minutely, evenly, very feebly and not very 
densely punctate, slightly more than twice as long as the prothorax, one- 
third longer than wide. Abdomen at base slightly narrower than the elytra; 
sides convergent to the apex, strongly and evenly arcuate; extremely minutely, 
densely and aspevately punctate. Legs slender; first joiut of the posterior 
tarsi distiDctly longer than the next two together, ^much longer than the fiftb. 
Length 3.0-3.7 mm. 

California; (Hoopa Val., Humboldt Co. 7). 

The type is a male, the sixth segment being broadly and 
feebly emarginate at tip; in the female the prothorax is 
much more distinctly wider than long and less strongly 
cordate; the antennae are slightly shorter and do not attain 
the middle of the elytra; in size the female is smaller than 
the male. 

There is scarcety a trace of a median sulcation on the 
pronotum, the sides of which are more deeply sinuate to- 
ward the basal angles than in either densus or the Vancou- 
ver representative of simulator. The species is chiefly re- 
markable because of its slender form, sparse punctuation 
Mud rufous legs. It was found in wet moss in the interior 
of a flume for conveying spring-water. 

0. densus ^- sp. — Eather robust, depressed; body entirely black above and 
beneath, oral organs rufo-testaceous; 1-gs fuscous throughout; antennae en- 
tirelv piceous-black; pubescence cinereous, rather short, recumbent, extremely 
dense; inte^iuments shining. Head moderate, slightly longer than wide; 
sides behind the eyes strongly convergent to the neck and strongly arcuate; 
eyes rather prominent, large, coarsely granulated, very densely setose; front 
depressed, feebly biimpressed between the eyes, finely and densely punctate, 
more sparsely so along the middle; antennae filiform, fully one-half as long as 
the body; basal joint subcylindrical, three times as long as wide, second two- 
thirds as long as the third, the latter slightly shorter than the first, joints 
three to six equal, slender, six to ten gradually diminishing in length, the lat- 
ter more than twice as long as wide, eleventh fusiform, slightly oblique at tip, 
one-half longer than the tenth. Prothorax widest at the anterior third, where 
it is distinctly wider than long and slightly wider than the head; sides strongly 
arcuate, strongly convergent and distinctly and evenly sinuate toward the 
basy; apex transversely truncate, about equal in width to the base which is 
broadly, evenly and very feebly arcuate; basal angles slightly obtuse, very 
narrowly rounded; disk transversely, evenly and moderately convex; impress- 



NORTH AMERICAN COLEOPTERA. 247 

ed iu the middle near the lateral edges, the impression becoming extinct to- 
ward the basal angles, finely, evenly and very densely punctate. Elytra at 
base two-fifths wider than the prothorax; sides distinctly divergent, nearly 
straight, slightly obliquely truncate at apex; exterior angles broadly, inner 
more narrowly, rounded; humeri broadly rounded; disk feebly convex, broadly 
and feebly impressed on the suture towaid base, nearly one-third longer than 
wide, two and one-half times as long as the prothorax, very finely, evenly and 
extremely densely punctate. Three segments of abdomen exposed together 
wider than long» as wide as the base of the elytra; margin distinct, inclined; 
surface feebly convex, finely, very feebly and very densely punctate. Under 
surface and legs finely and dens3ly pubescent, less densely so toward the tip 
of the abdomen. Length 3.4-3.9 mm. 

California; (San Diego 3). Mr. W. G. W. Harford. 

Distinguishable immediately from the preceding by its 
more depressed and broader form, more parallel elytra, 
nearly three times as dense punctuation, darker legs, etc. 
It differs from simulator in its much denser punctuation and 
more depressed form. 

The three species may be distinguished as follows, the 
characters of simulator being taken from a specimen from 
Yancouver Island, kindly loaned me by the Museum of 
Comparative Zoology at Cambridge : — 

Legs dark fuscous. 

Surface polished; strongly convex '. simulator. 

Surface under low power dull ; very depressed densUS. 

Legs clear rufous; punctuation more sparse; form more slender rufipes. 

Since it is now known that there are several distinct spe- 
cies of this genus, the absolute identity of the Vancouver 
specimens taken by Crotch with simulator Lee, which was 
described from tlie regions east of the Rocky Mountains, 
may reasonably be questioned; a careful comparison of the 
two is therefore very desirable. By careful comparison of 
the above Vancouver type with the description given by Dr. 
Le Conte and M. Fauvel, I am inclined to believe that the 
former is a fourth species, hitherto undescribed. M. Fau- 
vel mentions the prothorax as being longer than wide; if 
this is actually the case, it is very distinct from any of the 



248 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

specimens before me, all of which have it distinctly wider 
than long. 

ACTIDIUM Matth. 

A. rotundicolle d. sp.— Rather robusi-, strongly convex, piceous-black; 
legs and palpi pale flavo- testaceous; antennre pale testaceous at base, becom- 
ing piceous-black at apex; pubescence fine, very short, not at all dense; 
integuments shining, subalutaceous. Head much wider than long, rather 
convex, very minutely and sparsely punctate; eyes moderate, rather prom- 
inent, coarsely granulate; antennae as long as the head and prothorax 
together; funicle slender; club robust; joints increasing in length and thick- 
ness. Prothorax slightly wider than the head, about equal in length, two- 
thirds wider than long; sides parallel and strongly, evenly arcuate; base 
broadly arcuate, distinctly sinuate laterally; basal angles obsolete; apex 
broadly truncate; disk broadly, evenly convex, very minutely reticulate or 
subgranulose, minutely, evenly and sparsely punctate. Scutellum small, 
equilatero-triangular, coarsely asperate. Elytra at base as wide as the pro- 
thorax; sides parallel for two- thirds the length from the base, rather strongly, 
evenly arcuate, thence feebly convergent, very feebly arcuate to the apex 
which, conjointly, is rather abruptly truncate; exterior angles broadly 
rounded, inner angles narrowly rounded; disk widest at nearly two-fifths 
its length from the base, nearly one-half longer than wide, one-half longer 
than the head and pronotum together, strongly cylindrically convex, minutely, 
densely reticulate or subgranulose, shining, very minutely, evenly, rather 
sparsely, subasperately punctate; punctures without definite arrangement. 
Legs rather long, somewhat slender; posterior tibiae very slender toward 
base; rapidly dilated, widest at the apical third, compressed; tarsi short, 
very slender. Length 0.4 mm. 

Texas; (Galveston 2). 

This species differs from those previously described from 
California in the sculpture which is much more feeble, and 
in the form of the prothorax. It is as robust as vobustuluni 
and does not appear to possess many characters in common 
with the three species described by Mr. Matthews. 

PTILIUM Erichs. 

P. sulcatum «• sp. — Rather slender and convex; sides nearly parallel; 
color pale brownish-testaceous, antennae and legs slightly paler, more flavate; 
integuments coarsely sculptured, shining; pubescence fine, subrecumbent, 
not very dense. Head moderate in size, much wider than long, triangular; 
surface moderately convex, rather coarsely, irregularly and feebly tubercu- 



NORTH AMERICAN COLEOPTERA. 249 

late; eyes small, at the base, convex, prominent, coarsely granulate; antennae 
rather long, distinctly longer than the head and prothorax together; two 
basal joints robust; funicle very slender; club strong, joints increasing in 
length and thickness. Prothorax widest at two-fifths its length from the 
apex, where it is distinctly wider than the head, one-half wider than long; 
sides strongly arcuate anteriorly, strongly convergent and very feebly sinuate 
toward base; the latter broadly, extremely feebly arcuate throughout, very 
slightly narrower than the apex, nearly three-fourths as wide as the disk; 
apex transversely truncate throughout; basal angles obtuse, scarcely percep- 
tibly rounded; disk transversely, moderately convex, densely, feebly, irregu- 
larly tuberculate or gianulose, the tubercles nearly confluent and differing 
greatly in size; in the center there is a small, strongly marked canaliculation 
two-fifths as long as the disk, and, at each basal angle, a small impressed 
puncture. Elytra at base as wide as the prothorax; sides parallel, distinctly 
and nearly evenly arcuate; together abruptly, very broadly rounded behind; 
apex broadly truncate; disk widest in the middle, where it is distinctly wider 
than the prothorax, nearly one-half longer than the head and prothorax to- 
gether, rather depressed in the middle, rather abruptly, strongly convex at the 
sides, finely, evenly, not very densely, subasperately punctate; asperities not 
definitely arranged. Scutellum moderate, asperate, triangular, slightly wider 
than long. Under surface pale brownish-testaceous, except the abdomen 
toward base, which is dark, blackish-piceous. Legs rather slender, short; 
tarsi rather short, very slender. Length 0.35 mm. 

Texas; (Austin 1). 

This sj)ecies can be readily recognized by its very minute 
size, there being but one smaller species of Coleoptera 
known; it is also distinguished by the peculiar form and 
structure of the prothorax. The metasternum appears to 
extend to the elytra at the sides. 

P. Hornianum Matth., which is of about the same size as 
the present sj)ecies, differs from it in color, shape and 
sculpture. 

SMICRUS Matth. 

S. americanus n- sp.— Rather elongate; sides parallel; body depressed, 
black; legs and antennae pale, dusky yellow; pubescence rather long, recum- 
bent, not very dense; integuments shining. Head large, triangular, slightly 
wider than long; eyes large, strongly convex, prominent, coarsely setose; 
surface feebly conavex, smooth, obsoletely and finely reticulate; labrum prom- 
inent, acutely rounded; second joint of antennae distinctly shorter than the 
first, both rather slender and elongate. Prothorax as long as the head, very 
slightly wider, three-fourths wider than long, widest in the middle; sides 



250 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

parallel, evenly and very feebly arcuate throughout, not at all constricted at 
base; apex broadly, very feebly and evenly emarginate throughout its width; 
angles slightly acute, very narrowly rounded; base transversely truncate and 
straight throughout its width; angles nearly right, not rounded; disk broadly, 
feebly convex, more strongly so near the sides, not very densely covered with 
rather fine, flat, somewhat indefinite tubercles. Scutellum large, triangular, 
feebly, rather densely asperate. Elytra equal in width to the prothorax; 
sides parallel, nearly straight, abruptly transversely truncate behind; outer 
angles narrowly rounded; disk scarcely one-fifth longer than wide, very 
slightly longer than the head and prothorax together, depressed in the mid- 
dle, rather convex at the sides, finely, feebly, not very densely asperate; 
asperities not definitelv arranged. Abdomen with four fully exposed seg- 
ments, the fifth, the basal, also being almost completely exposed; together 
as long as wide; outline parabolic; surface rather convex, rather finely, not 
densely, very feebly asperate or subgranulose, margined laterally with a flat 
border, becoming attenuated posteriorly; last segment as long as the three 
I)receding together, rounded at apex. Legs rather short and robust. Length 
0.9 mm. 

Texas; (Austin 1). 

The entire abdomen, extending under the elytra, is com- 
posed of eight segments; the under surface is polished and 
very feebly transversely asj)erate along the apex of each 
segment, and the apical two-thirds of the terminal; the 
latter at apex has a narrow, porrected, pale membranous bor- 
der. The antennae in the type are missing with exception 
of the two basal joints. 

The apex of the abdomen, more especially beneath, and 
the sides of the elytra toward the base, are slightly pale. 
The abdominal border beyond the elytra is not apprecia- 
bly elevated, and its surface is almost continuous in con- 
vexity with that of the upper surface; under the elytra and 
toward the base of the abdomen it becomes thinner, deep 
and erect. 

This species differs greatly from filicornis Fairm. in the 
structure of the pronotum, which is not at all constricted 
at base. 

DITAPHRUS n. gen. (Byrrbid^e.) 

Body oval, pubescent. Head deflexed, retractile; eyes large, rather coarsely 
granulated, nearly hidden in repose, front excavated at the sides near the 



NORTH AMERICAN COLEOPTERA. 251 

eyes for the reception of the antennae when in repose; episfcoma very small, 
deflexed, divided by a fine distinct, straight suture; labrum small, transverse, 
vertical, detached from and covered by the epistoma; antennae inserted under 
the Hides of the front, immediately before the eyes, 11-jointed, base thick, 
gradually diminishing in thickness to the sixth joint, seven to nine very small, 
tenth wider, small, transverse, eleventh widest, longer than wide, ovoidnl, 
maxillary palpi small, last joint slightly longer than wide, ovoidal, pointed, 
slightly compressed. Prosternum well developed, transversely truncate an- 
teriorly, widely separating the anterior coxae; process transversely truncate at 
apex, on the same level and in contact with the anterior edge of the mesos- 
ternum; the latter extremely short, strongly transverse, very broadly and 
feebly emarginate anteriorly; metasternum large, long; episteruum narrow, 
elongate, obliquely truncate anteriorly, widest and angulate interiorly near 
the apex; metasternum slightly excavated at the side anteriorly for the recep- 
tion of the tips of the intermediate femora, the excavation extending very 
deeply and obliquely into the base of the elytrai hypomera. Anterior coxse 
very small, transverse, attenuate laterally, open behind, widely separated; 
trochanters large; middle cox» not at all prominent, transversely oval, very 
widely separated; trochanters large; posterior coxae strongly transverse, at- 
taining the metasternal episterua, short, distinctly separated. Ventral seg- 
ments five; three basal not distinctly connate; first four uniformly and grad- 
ually decreasing in length; fifth as long as the two preceding together; first 
segment deeply and transversely excavated at base for the reception of the 
posterior femora. Prothorax short, broad; sides with an acute edge; inflexed 
sides divided from the prosternum by a very distinct suture; prosternum lat- 
erally and inflexed sides deeply and transversely excavated for reception of 
the anterior femora; pronotum excavated laterally at apex for reception of 
antennal club. Scutellum small, triangular. Elytra convex, covering the en- 
tire abdomen; hypomera distinct, extending only for two-fifths the length 
from the base, devoid of hypopleurje. Legs short, rather slender; femora not 
very robust, excavated along the lower edge for reception ofthetibite; tbe 
latter simple, rather slender, not grooved, having a line of short, very fine, 
densely placed cilia along the outer edge; tarsi free, rather short, five-jointed 
joints simple; first of the anterior as long as the next two together; two to 
four very small; fifth as long as the three preceding together; claws divergent, 
small, simple, slender. 

This genus is very remarkable in antennal structure, in 
its excavated pronotum and many other characters. The 
single representative almost exactly resembles a minute 
Scymnus in external form. 

The median portions of the three sterna form a continu- 
ous surface from the head to the posterior coxae, the meso- 



252 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

sternum being not at all depressed or impressed, and divided 
from the metasteruum bj a very feeble straight suture. 

Ditaphrus is related to Bothriophorus Muls., but is very 
distinct in antennal structure and in the form of the proster- 
num, this not being broadly emarginate at apex, nor " pos- 
terieurement retreci en point," as in the latter. From Phy- 
semus Lee. it is apparently distinguished by its antennal 
structure. 

D. SCymnoides n. sp. — Form elliptical, distinctly longer than wide, con- 
vex, black; under surface, legs and antennae fuscous; integuments alutaceous; 
pubescence fine, pale, short, subrecumbent, rather dense. Head rather 
small, wider than long; surface broadly, evenly convex, finely, deeply and 
densely punctate; punctures coalescent and scabrous at base; antennae as long 
as the width of head; occiput margined laterally along the eyes with a nar- 
row impressed channel for the reception of the antennae which joins the deep 
apical excavation of the pronotnm. Prothorax about three times as wide as 
long; sides convergent anteriorly, feebly arcuate; base broadly arcuate, ab- 
ruptly more strongly so in the middle; apex broadly emarginate; surface 
broadly convex, very minutely, deeply, evenly, not very densely punctate; 
punctures separated by three or four times their own diameter. Scutellum 
slightly longer than wide. Elytra, viewed vertically, nearly three times as 
ongas the head and prothorax together, widest at one-third the length from 
the base; sides strongly arcuate, coarctate with those of the pronotum, evenlj'' 
rounded to the apex which, conjointly, is rather narrowly rounded; surface 
strongly convex, rather finely, evenly, deeply and moderately densely punc- 
tate; punctures decidedly larger than than those of the pronotum, distant by 
two to three times their own diameters. Legs short; tarsi slightly reflexed. 
Under surface alutaceous and minutely punctate; abdomen finely, rather 
densely pubescent. Length 0.8-1.0 mm. 

Texas; (Austin 11; El Paso 1). 

Rather abundant amongst decaying vegetable matter on 
the soft mud left by the receding water of the Colorado 
Biver. The antenna is figured on the plate and is seen to 
be of very singular structure. Tiie club in Physemus, the 
only genus with which this can be confounded, is described 
as being three-jointed and almost solid. It is also highly 
probable that Physemus is distinct from Bothriophorus. 
These three genera should be separated as a group distinct 
from Limnichus. 



NORTH AMERICAN COLEOPTERA. 253 

In the Californian species of Limnichus, the prosternum is 
very long, prolonged between the coxa3, the apex of the 
process being strongly rounded and entering a deep emar- 
gination of the mesosternum ; along the middle the surface 
is deeply grooved. The first two ventral segments are sub- 
equal in length, the first three connate. The first four joints 
of the anterior tarsi are short, equal and together but slightly 
longer than the fifth. The antennae are eleven-jointed; club 
loose, three-jointed, joints gradually increasing in thickness; 
first joint, as in Ditaphrus, deeply seated in the lateral ex- 
cavation of the front. 

I have carefully verified this observation reo-arding the 
number of antennal joints in three or four species of Limni- 
chus and several specimens of Ditaphrus, and can state with 
great certainty that the antennae are not 10-jointed, as rep- 
resented (Class. Col. N. A., LeConte and Horn pp. 159, 
161). Du Yal had already corrected this error in his classic 
work on the genera of European Coleoptera (Vol. II, p. 267 
foot-note). 

ELEATES u. gen. (Teuebrionidae). 

Body oblong, strongly convex. Epistoma and sides of the front coarctate 
at apex, very broadly and evenly arcuate; front distinctly dilated before the 
ej^es; the latter small, completely divided by the lateral edges, more than 
their own length in front of the prothorax; epistoma transverse, enclosed by 
the front; suture distinct and impressed in the middle. Maxillary palpi 
scarcely at all dilated; third joint distinctly longer than wide, slightly shorter 
than the second; fourth twice as long as wide, distinctly longer than the 
second, subcylindrical, slightly bent and compressed, obliquely truncate at 
tip. Labial palpi rather small; third joint most robust, longer than the first 
two together, ovoidal, narrowly and obliquely truncate at tip. Mentum mod- 
erate, wider than long, its plane below the general surface of the head; ligula 
large, strongly and broadly bilobed; lobes almost entirely exposed. Maxilla? 
exposed at the sides. Antennse gradually and very strongly incrassate, very 
strongly compressed; second joint globular, one-half as long as the third; 
the latter longer than the succeeding joints; four to seven, densely spougiose 
at the exterior apical angles; the remainder more extensively so and at both 
apical angles; joints more strongly pointed outwardly than on the inside; 
five to ten transverse, the latter very strongly so; eleventh large, as wide as 
the tenth, as long as wide, obliquely conoidal; antennal grooves deep near 
the eyes, obliterated in the middle. Anterior cox^e transversely oval, 

18— Bull. Gal. Acad. Scr. II. 6. Issued November 27, 1886 



254 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

strougly convex, slightly separated. Middle coxae with small trochanters; 
posteiior transverse, separated by a triangular process of the first ventral 
segment. Tibiee scarcely dilated; spurs small but distinct, unequal; tarsi 
moderate, setose beneath, the posterior more densely so at base; last joint 
slightly longer than the preceding together; first four joints of the anterior 
aud middle very short equal; t^.rst of the posterior as long as the next two com- 
bined. Elytral hypomera continuous throughout the length, rather narrow, 
strongly inflexed, nearly equal in width throughout, slightly concave near 
the base, elsewhere plane. Prothorax transverse; sides of the pronotum very 
abruptly and narrowly explanate or feebly reflexed ; edges neither denticulate 
nor crenulate. Elytra finely costate; intervals punctate. 

The affinities of this genus are very readily seen to be in 
the direction of Bolitophagus and Eledona; it agrees with 
the first in the structure of the front and eyes, but differs 
in appearance, in this respect agreeing more closely with 
Eledona, from which, in turn, it differs radically in the 
structure of the eyes. In Eleates the epistoma is separated 
from the labrum by a very short, coriaceous bond, as is usual 
in this group, but the eyes are well in advance of the pro- 
thorax. It differs from both Bolitophagus and Eledona in 
the non-denticulate sides of the prothorax, a character con- 
sidered more or less important by Lacordaire and Du Val, 
who divide the European genera into groups depending 
upon the presence or absence of denticulations. 

E. OCCidentalis u. sp.— Eather robust; sides nearly straight and parallel; 
black throughout; legs, palpi and antennae dark rufo-fuscous; glabrous; in- 
teguments rather finely sculptured. Head nearly twice as wide as long; apex 
very narrowly reflexed throughout; surface near the apex and in front of the 
eyes slightly tumid; front broadly and feebly convex, extremely densely, 
rather deeply and coarsely punctate; punctures very much finer and obsolete 
on the epistoma. Prothorax widest near the base, where it is two-thirds wider 
thin the head and twice as wide as long; sides feebly convergent from base to 
apex, feebly arcuate; base broadly arcuate, more strongly so in the middle; 
angles slightly obtuse, not rounded; apex slightly narrower than the base, 
broadly aud rather strongly emarginate; angles slightly prominent, anteriorly 
narrowly rounded; disk broadly, strongly and very evenly convex, rather 
coarsely, evenly, deeply and excessively densely punctate; punctures poly- 
gonal, intervals in the form of very narrow, strongly elevated lines. Scutellum 
broader than long, rounded behind. Elytra at base slightly wider than the 
XJrothorax; sides nearly parallel and straight to within a very short distance 
of the apex, where, together, they are abruptly and very2broadly rounded •». 



NORTH AMERICAN COLEOPTERA. 255 



humeral angles distinctly rounded; sides narrowly reflexed, edges acute; 
disk broadly and very strongly convex, nearly three times as long as the 
pronotum; ridges very fine, rather feebly elevated; intervals evenly concave, 
each with a single series of round, rather deep punctures, distant by feli^htly 
more tbaa their own widths; along each side of the immediate crests of the 
costse there is a line of very small, round, closely-placed areolae; remainder 
of the surface slightly and irregularly roughened or subalutaceous, mode- 
rately shining. Legs moderate; femora compressed, excavated beneath 
through two-thirds the length for the reception of the tibiae; tibial spurs situ- 
ated at the inner apex, arranged parallel to the lower edge of the apex and 
almost in line with the point of insertion of the tarsi, claws large, simple, 
divergent. Length 4.5-5.0 mm. 

California; (Trnckee, Nevada Co. 2). Mr. Harford. 

The lateral edges of the prothorax are sometimes ex- 
tremely feebly and irregularly undulated. 

This species, the fiist of its tribe to be announced from 
the Pacific slope of the continent, lives in fungus growing 
upon fallen logs. 

BARINUS n. gen. (Curculiouidse.) 

Body rather slender and elongate, clothed with large, elongate scales, entirely 
without hairs. Beak very short, rather stout, much shorter than the pro- 
thorax, slightly flattened, rather strongly arcuate; scrobes beginning slightly 
before the middle, descending obliquely to the eyes; the latter large, vertically 
oval, not very prominent, finely granulated; interocular surface scarcely wider 
than the beak, feebly impressed. Antennae rather slender; first joint of 
funicle slightly shorter than the scape, rather strongly clavate, very slender 
toward base, nearly as long as the remainder of the funicle; second to seventh 
nearly equal, cylindrical, more slender than the apex of the first; club abrupt, 
very elongate, oval, finely pubescent, slightly longer than the preceding six 
joints of the funicle combined. Prothorax without postocular lobes. Pio- 
sternam rather long in front of the coxEe, rather narrowly and deeply sulcate 
throughout its length, moderately separating the coxae. Middle and posterior 
coxae widely separated. Metasternum longer than the first ventral segment. 
First two segments of the abdomen rather long, nearly equal in length; su- 
ture almost entirely obliterated in the middle; third and fourth segments 
short, equal, together scarcely longer than the first; fifth rounded behind, us 
long as the third and fourth together; posterior sutures strongly sinuate at 
the sides. Elytra conjointly rounded at tip, concealing the pygidium. Legs 
moderate in length, rather robust; tibiae not grooved, all mucronate at tip; 
spur of the anterior and middle pairs vertical, of the posterior oblique and 
nearer the insertion of the tarsi; all very small and robust; second and third 



256 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

joints of the tarsi broadly dilated, the latter strongly bilobed; fourth slendevj 
claws very small, narrow, connate throughout their length except at the im- 
mediate apex. 

It will be noticed that this genus corresponds quite 
closely with Zygobaris, and I have drawn up the description 
in such form that it can be readily compared with the one 
given by Dr. LeOonte for the latter (Proc. Am. Phil. 8oc. 
XV, p. 321). It differs conspicuously in its shorter beak, 
in antennal structure and in its strongly grooved proster- 
num; also in the claws, which are connate nearly through 
their length. 

B. squamolineatus n. sp. — Form very narrowly elliptical, moderately 
convex, black; legs and antennae dark fuscoas; cox^ black; integuments 
shining. Head rather small, hemispherical, subalutaceous, finely and not very 
densely punctate, with a few small robust scales along the inner margins of 
the eyes; beak scarcely twice as long as the head, slightly enlarged and flat- 
tened toward tip, finely and rather densely punctate toward the base, much 
more sparsely so near the apex. Prothorax about as long as wide, very 
feebly constricted near the apex, sides very feebly convergent from base to 
apex, abruptly and more stronglj'^ arcuate behind the constriction, base 
broadly arcuate, more strongly so in the middle; apex transversely truncate, 
three-fifths as wide as the base; disk transversely, nearly eveuly and strongly 
convex, coarsely, rather densely and evenly punctate; punctures round, 
deep, perforate, separated by about their own width, distinctly finer along 
the apex; surface abruptly and densely squamose at the sides, with a narrow, 
sparsely squamose line along the middle; elsewhere each puncture bears a 
very minute, slender scale; scales all arranged transversely. Elytra at the 
humeri slightly wider than the prothorax; sides gradually convergent, broadly 
and nearly evenly arcuate to the apex, which, conjointly, is rather narrowly 
rounded; humeri longitudinally and rather strongly swollen; disk transversely 
and rather strongly convex, fully twice as long as the pronotum, extremely 
feebly constricted at one-fifth the length from the apex, deeply and narrowly 
grooved; strife finely, deeply and rather distantly punctate; intervals finely, 
feebly and more closely punctate, alternating broader and narrower; the 
narrow intervals having a single, the broad ones two rows, of large elongate 
scales arranged longitudinally; humeral row broader; the scales along the 
suture and also those near the the sides very much smaller and narrower. 
S^utellum slightly longer than wide, oval. Legs finely and rather sparsely 
squamose; tarsi densely covered above with fine hair-like scales, densely 
spongiose beneath. Abdomen densely squamose at the sides, sparsely so in 
the middle; devoid of scales along the bases of the last three segments 
Length 3.8 mm. 



NORTH AMERICAN COLEOPTERA. 257 

Central Illinois 1; Mr. F. M. Webster. 

The scales are generally white, but are slightly; 
darker along the flanks of the elytra, where they are very 
small. The rows of scales upon the elytral intervals are 
not uniformly single or double, but in many spots become 
more crowded and irregular. 

RENOCIS n. gen. (Hylurgini). 

Body subcylindrical. Head prominent, not concealed by the prothorax, 
inserted in the prothorax nearly to the eyes; slightly deflexed, not at all 
produced, beak entirely obsolete; eyes rather finely granulated, not at all 
prominent, on the sidfs, extending slightly under the head, short, very 
strongly transverse, with a small feeble sinuation in the anterior margin; 
untennaB inserted on the sides of the head just before the eyes, short, ten- 
jointed; basal joint longer than wide, rather robust; second not one-half as 
long, subglobular; three to six very small; joints seven to ten forming a very 
abrupt, elongate, oval club, longer than the entire preceding portion, strongly 
compressed, sparsely pubescent. Mandibles prominent, short and stout, 
perfectly chisel-shaped apex transversely truncate, straight; inner face at 
apex obliquely truncate. Mentum short, transverse; maxillas, ligula and 
palpi very small, invisible under a mass of coarse hair surrounding the men- 
tnm. Labrum wanting. Anterior coxte prominent, subglobular, contiguous; 
middle coxse widely distant, small, not prominent; posterior separated, 
transverse, attenuated laterally, only attaining the metasternal episternum, 
which is long, rather wide; sides parallel; epimeron not visible. Anterior 
coxEe in contact with the head beneath; prosternum entirely obselete before 
them; femora rather robust, simple; tibiao very narrow at base, rapidly 
dilated and compressed toward apex, margined externally with a row of short, 
very robust spiuules, obliquely truncate at apex; tarsi rather short, slender, 
not at all dilated but rather compressed, five jointed; third obliquely truncate 
!iud slightly produced beneath, not bilobed; fourth very minute; fifth slender, 
linger than the preceding united. Abdominal segments five in number; first 
two subequal, each nearly as long as the third and fourth together. Elytra 
covering the entire abdomen; pygidium invisible; prothorax strongly rounded 
at the sides, transverse, convex; sides continuous in curvature from the 
dorsal surface to the anterior coxae. Integuments covered with a dense 
scabrous mass of scales; base of elytra elevated and tuberculate. Scutellum 
not distinctly visible. 

In this genus the antennal club is strongly compressed, 
elongate-oval, obtusely pointed and four-jointed, the joints 
being connate and separated by straight traris verse sutures. 
Both surfaces are glabrous, except the apices of the joints. 



258 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

which are fringed with hairs, and the terminal joint which 
is sparsely pubescent over the entire surface. The scape 
is rather short and robust, distinctly shorter than the fun- 
icle and is not received in transverse grooves in front of 
the eyes, these being almost completely obsolete. The 
genus therefore seems to form a group intermediate in 
many of its characters between the Polygraphi and the 
Hylurgi, but for the present it should be placed between 
Chgetophloeus and Carphoborus, from the latter of which 
it diifers in the structure of the elytra behind, — these being 
evenly convex with no spinulose crests, — and in the struc- 
ture of the antennal club, which is here divided by three 
sutures, and not by two, as in Carphoboras. 

R. heterodoxus »• sp. — Oblong; sides parallel; integuments black, densely 
clothed with scales mostly dark fus^cous in color, but interspersed with whit- 
ish ones especially on the flanks and toward the base of the pronotum, re- 
placed on the head by a dense growth of longer, robust, shaggy pubescence. 
Head wider than long; front impressed, coarsely and sparsely punctate, shin- 
ing; antennae dark brown. Prothorax more than twice as wide as the head; 
sides in the basal two-thirds parallel and distinctly arcuate, slightly constricted 
near the apex which is broadly arcuate and slightly sinuate in the middle, 
more than one-half as wide as the base; the latter transversely truncate; disk 
transvei'sely, strongly convex, two-thirds wider than long, very coarsely, 
rather densely punctate; scales generally recumbent toward base, erect toward 
apex; the latter fringed with a dense row of short, very robust, squnmiform 
hairs, ^/^/^ra at base as wide as the prothorax; sides parallel and nearly 
straight for two-thirds the length from the base, then gradually rounded; 
to the apex, which, conjointly, is almost semicircularly rounded; disk 
cylindiical, nearly one-half longer than wide, two and one-half times as long 
as the prothorax, elevated along the basal margin, the summit of the elevation 
being broken into small crests; surface feebly striate; striee punctate; inter- 
vals flat, coarsely, rather sparsely and unevenly punctate; smaller scalfs 
usually recumbent; along the middle of each interval there is a row of longer, 
erect, fuscous scales. Under surface scabrous, black, coarsely punctate. 
Legs piceous; tarsi paler. Length 1.7 mm. 

Nevada; (Washoe Co. 1). 

The scales of the pronotum are generally entire, but upon 
the flanks they become narrow, almost hair-like, and are bi- 
furcate from their base, becoming, anteriorly and near the 



NORTH AMERICAN COLEOPTERA. 259 

€oxge, trifurcate. The sparse vestiture of the entire under 
surface is of this same nature. 

The single representative of this interesting species was 
beaten from the low trees bordering the Truckee River, in 
early spring, at Reno, Nevada. 

Chcetophloeus liystrix Lee, found at San Diego, California, 
is another singular species and appears to resemble that 
above described in the structure of the head, but as that 
species is described as robust and oval, having the surface 
clothed with erect hair, it is abundantly distinguished from 
the present which is squamose and nearly cylindrical. 



APPENDIX. 

Notes. 



The genus Colusa is apparently regarded as identical with 
Echidnoglossa Woll. In order to determine if possible the 
truth in regard to the mutual relationship of these two gen- 
era, I have, therefore, made a short comparative study, tak- 
ing as a basis the careful description of Echidnoglossa, 
given by Wollaston (Cat. Can. Col., p. 530). As this study 
may be useful in future systematic investigations, it is given 
below: — 

In Echidnoglossa the ligula is slender, minutely bifid at 
apex; the labial palpi are distinctly 3-jointed, the joints 
subequal in length, the width decreasing. The posterior 
tarsi have the joints gradually and slightly decreasing in 
length to the fourth. 

In Colusa the ligula is elongate, very slender, slightly 
longer than the terminal joint of the labial palpi and is ap- 
parently perfectly simple at apex. The first two joints of 
the labial palpi are apparently cylindrical, rather short, 



260 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

equal in diameter and closely connate or anchylosed; in 
most cases the suture is completely obliterated so that they 
appear to form but a single joint; the last joint is very long 
and slender, affixed very obliquely and is generally slightly 
longer than the first two together. The posterior tarsi are 
of rather peculiar structure; the first joint is fully as long 
as, sometimes distinctly longer than the next two together, 
the latter being equal in length and each distinctly shorter 
than the fourth; the fifth is generally longer than the first. 

If the words ^' elytris hrevissimis'' are to be accepted in 
their ordinary meaning, the genus of the Atlantic Islands 
must be remarkably different in appearance, since the elytra 
in Colusa are unusually long, wide and well developed. In 
the description of the single species of Echidnoglossa, Wol- 
laston states that it is alutaceous, scarcely punctulate, and 
sparsely pubescent. In Colusa the integuments are not 
alutaceous but polished, rather densely pubescent and 
deeply punctate, the elytra very coarsely and conspicuously 
so. 

The two genera are, nevertheless, allied by a very striking 
character which I have repeatedly verified in Colusa — the 
pentamerous tarsi — and Colusa is evidently the American 
representative of the eastern Echidnoglossa. I believe that 
enough has been said, however, to show that they should 
not be united without a much more careful comparison than 
has yet been accorded them. 


II. 

The species described by me under the names Ilyobates 
(Bull. Cal. Acad. Sci. I, p. 307) belong in reality to Bolito- 
chara. By an unfortunate oversight the number of joints 
in the tarsi was recorded erroneously; both these genera 
possess the strongly elevated mesosternal carina. I am in- 
debted for this rectification to M. A. Fauvel. 



NORTH AMERICAN COLEOPTERA. 261 

III. 

Attention is called to a very singular sexual character in 
a Californian species of Leptacinns, a figure of which is given 
on the plate. The species may possibly be hrunnescem Lee. 
The pronotum of this specimen is not foveate at the sides, 
but another specimen of apparently the same species has a 
large deep fovea at about the middle of each side of the 
pronotum and very near the edge; the latter example has 
the sixth ventral segment simple and broadly rounded at 
the apex. 

IV. 

In the classification of the Coleoptera of North America — 
p. 97 — occurs the sentence: ^'The second ventral segment 
is marked witii two short ridges." As there is no such 
structure in our species of Stenini, the insertion of this 
phrase must be the result of an oversight. 

V. 

Although the synonymical notices recently published by 
M. Fauvel through Dr. Horn (Proc. Ent. Sec. A. N. S., 
Phil., June, 1886, p. xiii) relating to several species of 
Stenini described by me may possibly be correct, there is a 
much greater probability of error. This probability almost 
amounts to a certainty in the case of Heinistemis reconditus, 
which is not the same as tarsalis Ljungh. In order to sub- 
stantiate this statement I would refer the reader to the out- 
lines of the tarsal claws of the two species, which I have 
figured on the plate accompanying tlie Revision. 

As for the other synonyms indicated by M. Fauvel, it can 
only be said that the descriptions of the species mentioned 
which are given by Erichson and Rey do not agree very 
satisfactorily with those which I have drawn up as care- 
fully as possible in the Revision of the North American 
Stenini for the corresponding American forms. 



262 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

In a group where the species are so excessively numerous 
and closely allied as in the Stenini, great care should be 
exercised in making synonymical statements, and, it may 
be added, there are probably extremely few species com- 
mon to Europe and North America. It is even possible 
that our iamilmYJuno is not the same species as the Euro- 
pean juno, for the figure of the male sexual characters of 
this species given by Eey does not correspond, particularly 
the modification of the fifth segment, which scarcely agrees 
at all with the description Avhich I have given for the Ameri- 
can species. 

VI. 

PiNOPHiLi. — The statement made concerning this group 
(Class. Col. N. A., p. 99), viz, that the species are found 
under the bark of trees, is erroneous as far as the genus 
Pinophilus is concerned; the correct derivation of the word 
is given by Erichson (Gen. Staph., p. 670). Of the four 
species in my cabinet, the two collected by myself were 
taken in damp earth, under decomposing vegetable matter, 
and in a few instances under stones; the other two were at- 
tracted at night to the electric lights at El Paso, Texas. 

YII. 

Platystethus spiculus Er. — Specimens of this species, 
which was described by Erichson from Colombia, South 
America, were recently taken at Galveston and Austin, 
Texas. These sj)ecimens correspond with others communi- 
cated by Dr. Duges, taken at Guanajuato, Mexico, showing 
that the species is of very wide distribution. The name 
should be added to our lists. 

YIII. 

Aglenus Er. — A colony of about forty specimens of a 
species which is probably A. hnmneus Gyll., was recently 
taken by me in the environs of San Francisco. Full de- 



NORTH AMERICAN COLEOPTERA. 263 

tails concerning the locality and other circumstances have 
been sent to the Entomological Society of Washington. 

IX. 

The statement of Dr. Horn (Proc. Ent. Sec. A. N. S. 
Phil.; June, 1886, p. xiii) concerning the identity of 
Platycerus Agassii Lee. and californicus Cas. is erroneous. 
These two species are mutually more dissimilar in outline, 
punctuation and general appearance than even oregonensis 
and depressus. Before describing caU/ornicus I had access 
to a very fine series of ten specimens of Agcf^sii in the cab- 
inet of Mr. C. Fuchs, a specialist in this family, who had 
previously written a synopsis of the American species 
(Bull. Bk. Ent. Soc. Y., p. 57). The specimens of this 
series agree perfectly with Mr. Fachs' description of the 
type of Agassii, and also with the description recently given 
by Mr. F. Blanchard (Tr. Am. Ent. Soc, XII. p. 169). 

Such absolute and unqualified assertions as the one re- 
ferred to on the part of Dr. Horn, unaccompanied by any 
comparative statements and hastily made without examining 
the type or even an authentic representative of the species 
condemned, are entirely uncalled for and generally of very 
little scientific value. 

ADDENDUM. 

As the present paper was passing through the press, it was found that the 
specific name exilis had already been emploj'ed for a species of Heterothops, 
and I therefore substitute the word occldentis. 



264 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 

Fig. 1 — Beichenbachia iu7norosa Cas. — Antenna (^ 
Fig. la — B. tumidicornis Cas. — Antenna (^ 
Fig. 16 — 7?. informis Cas. — Antenna (^ 
Fig. 2 — R. deformata Lee. — Antenna (^ 
Fig. 2a— i?, fundata Cas. — Antenna (^ 
Fig. 2b— B. franciscana Cas. — Anienna (^ 
Fig. 2 — Eumitocerus tarsalis Cas. 

3a— Anterior tibia and tarsus. 
36 — Maxillary palpns. 
3c — Posterior coxa. 
Fig. ^—Leinacinus sp. incog. — Abdominal vertex showing long rigid sexiial 
spine. 

4a— Lateral view of same. 
Fig. b--Hesperohium Cas.— Base of abdomen beneath, showing structure. 
Note- This figure is referred to in the introductory notes of the present 
paper, p. 159. 
Fig. 6 — Leptogenius hrevicornls Cas. 

6a— Maxillary palpus. 
Fig 7—Scopceus kevlgcUus Gyll.— Infralateral view of prothorax showing 
form of intercoxal lamina. 
7a — Labrum. 
Fig. 8 — Scopoiodera nitkla Lee. — Same. 

8a — Labrum. 
Fig. 9 — Leptorus picipes Cas. — Same. 

9a — Labrum. 
Fig. 10 -Orus punctatus Cas. — Same. 

10a — Labrum. 
Fig. 11 — Pelecomalium hinotatum Cas. — Labrum. 
11a— Maxillary palpus. 
116— Posterior tarsus. 
lie — Labial palpus 
Fig. 12— Lathrimceu7n humerale Cas. 
Fig. 33 — Orobanus rufipes Cas. 
Fig. 14—0. dm&ua Cas. 
Fig. \o—Actiduim rotundkolle Cas. 
Fig. 16 — Ptilium sulcatum Cas. 
Fig. 17 — Smlcrus americanus Cas. 
Fig. 18 — Ditaphrus scymnokles Cas. — Antenna. 
Fig. 19 — Eleates occklentalis Cas. 
Fig. 20—Renocis heterodoxus Cas. 

20a— Slightly oblique side view o' head. 



SUBMARINE VALLEYS ON THE PACIFIC COAST. 265 



SUBMARINE VALLEYS ON THE PACIFIC COAST OF THE 
UNITED STATES. 

BY GEORGE DAYIDSON, 

Read at tbe Meeting of October 4tli, 1886. 
(This paper was illustrated with diagrams.) 

The plateau of the Pacific Ocean reaches a depth of 2,000 
to 2,400 fathoms within as little as forty or fifty miles of the 
Coast to the southward of Cape Mendocino. The descent 
to these profound depths is not uniform, however, except 
off the high range of the Santa Lucia. Generally there is a 
marginal plateau of ten miles out to the hundred fathom 
curve, and then the descent is sharp to five or six hundred 
fathoms. Off the level and shallow plateau of the Gulf of 
the Farallones, the descent is rapid within five miles of the 
South East Farallones, and reaches 2,000 fathoms in fifty 
miles. The determination of these great depths we owe to 
the deep sea soundings of Commodore Belknap, of w^hich 
a full discussion was presented by me to the Academy in 
1873-4. 

Into this marginal plateau of one hundred fathoms there 
have been developed, in the course of the operations of the 
United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, several remarka- 
ble submarine valleys. Notably that in Monterey Bay, 
heading to the low lands at the great bend of the Salinas 
River; and that off Point Hueneme at the eastern entrance to 
the Santa Barbara Channel, also heading into the low coast 
at the wide opening of the Santa Clara Valley . Then there 
are one or two near the mouth of the Laguna Mugu, two or 
three ofi' the southern point of Carmel Bay, while the deep- 
est one enters far into the Bay. These all have remarkable 
characteristics which I have heretofore brought to the no- 
tice of the Academy. 



266 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

Submarine Valley 1. The latest developments of sub- 
marine valleys are near the high, bold coast under Cape 
Mendocino. A submarine ridge runs southward from 
Point Delgada at Shelter Cove, in latitude 40° 01', for ten 
miles or more. But the depth of the marginal plateau at 
100 fathoms is about six or seven miles from the shore. 
Just north of this bank, off Shelter Cove, there has been 
developed a deep submarine valley where it breaks through 
the marginal plateau and runs sharply into the immmediate 
coast-line under the culminating point of the crest-line of 
mountains. The head of this submarine valley is 100 fath- 
oms deep at one and a quarter miles from the shore, and 
the depth of 25 fathoms almost reaches to the rocks under 
the clitfs. The mountain peak toward which it points is 
4,236 feet above the sea and only two and a half miles in- 
side the shore line. The 100 fathom line lies six miles off 
Point Delgada, but where the valley breaks through the 
marginal plateau the depth reaches 400 fathoms. The slopes 
of the sides of this valley are verv steep. 

Submarine Valley II. Hence northwestward to Point 
Gorda the 100 fathom line of soundings continues nearly 
parallel with the coast line except about midway, where a 
minor submarine valley 300 to 150 fathoms deep stretches 
sharply toward the shore, and within two and a half miles 
thereof. The head lies two and a half miles south by east 
from Spanish Flat, under the mountains. But immediately 
north of the point, there is a very deep submarine valley 
which comes in from the westsouthwest, and heads close un- 
der the shore three miles north of Point Gorda, and there- 
fore less than a mile north of the mouth of the Mattole 
Eiver. 

The head of this great submarine valley, at the 30 fathom 
line, is only one-third of a mile from the shore in latitude 
40^ 18i'. The depth of 100 fathoms in the valley is only 
one and a half miles from shore, and the sides of the valley 



SUBMARINE VALLEYS ON THE PACIFIC COAST. 267 

are remarkably steep. The 100 fathom curve of the valley 
comes close between the general 30 fathom curve on the 
north and south, where they are one-third of a mile apart. 

The opening of this valley through the edge of the 100 
fathom plateau is 520 fathoms deep, and is only six miles S. 
62^ W. from Point Gorda. The barrier of coast line at the 
head of this valley is over 2,000 feet high. 

Suhmai^ine VaUey Til. Between Point Gorda and Cape 
Mendocino there is a second submarine valley, a little 
nearer to the cape. It comes in from the westward, but 
does not indent the 20 fathom line along the shore, but the 
depth of 100 fathoms in the valley is only one-third of a 
mile outside the regular 25 fathom coast line, and lies five 
miles S. by E. from Cape Mendocino light house. 

The 450 fathom sounding in the entrance to the valley is 
only six and a half miles SW. by S. from the cape, and this 
valley is comparatively wide. Its north side is formed by a 
30 fathom submarine plateau extending ^\q miles from the 
cape. This valley heads under the great mountain mass, 
rising behind Cape Mendocino and reaching 3,400 feet ele- 
vation. 

The bottom of the valley is green mud, and yet in two 
places, at depths of 320 fathoms, broken shells were brought 
up with gravel. Both slopes of the valley are green mud 
up to about 30 or 35 fathoms, when the bottom changes to 
fine gray sand. 

Between the two submarine valleys of Point Gorda (II.) 
and Cape Mendocino (HI.)) the submarine ridge carries 50 
fathoms out for four and a quarter miles from shore; the 
bottom is green mud outside of 35 to 40 fathoms, with fine 
gray sand inside. 

Northward of the Cape Mendocino submarine valley, the 
irregular bottom off Cape Mendocino, marked by Blunt's 
reef, stretches well to the westward of the usual coast 



268 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

depths, and is thence spread out towards Humboldt Bay as 
a broad and comparatively shallow plateau. 

Two problems are at once suggested by these submarine 
valleys. One is eminently practical. Steam coasting ves- 
sels bound for Humboldt Bay, when they get as far north 
as Shelter Cove in very thick fogs, haul into the shore to 
find soundings, and then continue parallel with the shore. 
One vessel has been lost by failing to find bottom until close 
upon the rocky coast. This steamer doubtless sounded up 
the axis of the deep submarine valley ofi' King Peak, and 
could find no bottom. Had the existence of this valley 
been known, the vessel would have proceeded in a more 
guarded manner. 

The second bearing which these great submarine valleys 
have, is upon the deep sea fauna which must be brought 
close under the shores, the more especially as they bring in 
the colder waters coming down the coast outside of the in- 
fluence of the close inshore eddy current to the northward. 



ORNITHOLOGY OF GUADALUPE ISLAND. 269 

ADDITIONS TO THE ORNITHOLOGY OF GUADALUPE ISLAND 

BY ^y ALTER E. BRYANT. 



The avifauna of Guadalupe Island was entirely unknown 
to science until 1875, when Dr. Edward Palmer, in the in- 
terest of the U. S. National Museum, made a collection of 
seventy-two specimens embracing eight species of land 
birds and one water bird found dead on the island.^ The 
results of this work were published by Mr. Eobert Kidg- 
way." 

In " The Birds of Guadalupe Island," Mr. Kidgway 
remarks that " the land birds contained in the collection 
from Guadalupe embrace only eight species, so that the 
fauna of the island is by no means fully represented; indeed, 
the collector observed a humming-bird, two kinds of owls, 
and a hawk, of which no specimens were obtained. This is 
to be regretted, since most, if not all, of these would doubt- 
less have proved new. It is altogether likely, too, that 
other species escaped notice, and thus remain to be dis- 
covered; a rich field is therefore left to the future ex- 
plorer." 

I have twice visited in pursuit of ornithological studies 
this remote island, which is extremely difficult of access. In 
January, 1885, I spent a brief time on Guadalupe, sufficient 
time, indeed, to but increase my desire for further investi- 

NoTE ^ — The eight species of land birds were determined to be new to 
science. The water bird was an adult'' specimen in breeding plumage of the 
Pacific Loon (Urinator pacificus). 

Note -. — "Ornithology of Guadeloupe Island, based on notes and collect- 
ions, made by Dr. Edward Palmer." Bulletin, Hayden's Survey, 1876, No. 
2, p. 183. 

See, also, Bulletin of the Nuttall Ornithological Club, Vol. II, p. 58, July, 
1877. 

19— Bull. Cal. Acad. Sci. H. 6. Issued January 5, 1887. 



270 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

gation. Through the kindness of Mr. Luis Huller I was 
enabled at the end of the same year to make a second visit, 
landing on the island on December 16, 1885. My expecta- 
tion was to stay about six weeks, but as it eventuated, it 
was one hundred and twelve days before an opportunity 
presented itself for me to leave the island. During these 
three months and a half I had ample time to 
most thoroughly prospect the island and to make a careful 
study, not only of the birds themselves but of their habits, 
number and distribution. 

Guadalupe being almost unknown and charts quite unat- 
tainable, a few words in the way of description may serve to 
render more lucid the remarks which follow. 

Guadalupe Island is situated about two hundred and 
twenty miles to the southward and westward of San Diego, 
the northern extremity lying in about 29^ 10' N., 118^ 18' 
W. Extending about fifteen miles in length, with a max- 
imum width of five miles, it is said to reach at its highest 
point an altitude of 4,523 feet. It is of volcanic origin, as is 
is evidenced by the loose, burnt rocks, and broken lava 
which cover the entire island. Rocks varying in size from 
the smallest pebble to that of a cocoa nut are thickly strewn 
about on every hand, while in places, huge boulders and 
ledges crop out. An unbroken ridge rising to its greatest 
height in the central portion extends the entire length of the 
island from north to south, forming a " hog's back." On 
the western side of this range, the land slopes rapidly 
towards the ocean, ending in many places in high perpen- 
dicular cliffs. 

Towards the south the land is somewhat lower, sloping 
more gradually and ending less abruptly. It is noticeable 
that the southern part of the island, which is the lowest, is 
very rocky and barren, no trees growing below the central 
mesa. Whatever vegetation exists there, consists of stunted 
alfileria and scattered sagebrush. The westei'n side is 
broken by two great canons separated by a barren hill of 



I 
ORNITHOLOGY OF GUADALUPE ISLAND. 271 

reddish rock. The northern portion consists of a very sharp 
ridge nearly or quite perpendicular on the western face, 
while on the eastern slope it descends rapidly and hides its 
surface under a covering of sagebrush. 

For convenience of reference, I shall mention the wooded 
tracts under four distinct heads : — 

First — At the northern end of the island is a fast decay- 
ing forest of pines, extending within narrow limits along 
the sharp ridge and down the almost perpendicular western 
face. Among these pines are to be found a few hardy oaks 
upon whose branches grow huge acorns, said to be the 
largest in the world. A few isolated pines are found grow- 
ing along the ridge nearly to its central portion. 

Second — Far down on the northwestern slope is a large 
grove of cabbage palms. 

Third — On the highest part of the island, with the excep- 
tion of a single peak (Mt. Augusta), is situated a large grove 
of cypress trees covering an area of a mile or more on the 
western slope; the eastern side of this forest ends abruptly 
at the edge of the ridge, below which is a comparatively 
level table land. 

Fourth — On this plateau grows a small cypress grove. 
Here I had my permanent camp, within half a mile of which 
were several springs and pools of water. With the excep- 
tion of one spring here and one or two towards the north, 
all the waters were more or less strongly alkaline. When- 
ever rain collected in the rocky basin of the small arroyos, 
this water was used in preference to the alkali water of the 
springs. 

The vegetation in a w^et reason, as was the winter of 
1885-6, consisted chiefly of the common alfileria, while in 
places, especially about old goat corrals, dense growth of 
malva had sprung up. Throughout the entire length 
of the island, there grows in places a small white 
sagebrush with yellow blossoms. This sagebrush, to- 
gether with the bark of the cypress trees, serves 



272 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

in dry years as food for the goats, who numbered, I 
should judge, about two thousand. In the large cypress 
grove I saw scarcely a tree that did not bear the marks of 
their teeth. 

The climate of Guadalupe was, at that season of the year, 
quite cool, in fact the nights were so cold that ice occasion- 
ally formed, while frost was of common occurrence. To- 
wards spring the weather moderated considerably, and 
in the summer, I am told, it is very warm. During many 
days the north -westers blew keenly, rising at times almost 
to a gale. The fogs were very dense, and, driven by 
high winds, swept over the island, saturating it like rain. 
Although the. rains were at no time very heavy, the slop- 
ing and rocky formation of the land allows most of it to 
flow off, so that a few hours of rain would send small tor- 
rents rushing down the arroyos. 

The work of preparing specimens was beset with many 
difficulties. On some days the large blow-flies that swarmed 
about camp compelled me to prepare and pack in a green 
condition the specimens as soon as brought in. But more 
trouble was caused by the dense fogs that often enveloped 
the camp and so relaxed skins that wore not tightly boxed, 
as to render it necessary to reset them. The accommoda- 
tions, moreover, were not the most suitable, nor were the 
comforts of life in excess of the demand for them. As a 
result of three and a half months' sojourn on the island, 
the number of known species has been increased by twenty- 
seven, making a total of thirty-six known to the island. 

Four of the straggling species, viz.: — Mountain Bluebird, 
Varied Thrush, Townsend's Sparrow and Golden-crowned 
Sparrow, are recorded for the first time from so southern a 
latitude as Guadalupe Island, while their presence so far off 
shore, is of scarcely less interest. It is shown quite con- 
clusively that the four species (certainly three of them) that 
were noted, but not taken in 1875, are not new to science. 
The very natural supposition to the contrary held by many, 
served to attract me to the island. 



ORNITHOLOGY r'^ CADALUPE ISLAND. 273 

There yet remain ud aown the eggs of Pqoilo consobrinus, 
Tkriiothorus hrevicaadas and Poli/horus lidosus, and also the 
young phimage of Thryothorus hrevicaiidus, Colaptes rvfi- 
jnleiis and Begidns ohscurus. 

From Dr. Palmer's notes I was led to suppose that the 
breeding season on Guadalupe differed but slightly, if any, 
from that about the vicinity of San Francisco Bay. Per- 
sonal observation, however, reveals the fact that on the 
island it is several months earlier, nesting beginning with 
many of the species in the winter, as will be seen by the 
dates accompanying the notes. 

The researches made by Mr. L. Belding on the western 
coast of Lower California, disclose the fact that, as far 
south as Cerros Island (about 28 deg. north), the birds do 
not differ from those found near San Diego. 

AVith the exception of a pair of falcons [F. mexicanus?), 
which were not taken, the subjoined is a complete list of 
the birds which I found inhabiting Guadalupe Island. 
Nevertheless, there is a strong probability that others have 
and will find rest in transit, or permanently, as in the case of 
the cross-bills and nuthatches. Without going into the 
details of a strict technical treatise, I will endeavor to 
give a full account of the habits, distribution and num- 
bers of the birds from my personal observation. The 
measurements have been carefully taken and com- 
pared with specimens and published descriptions, those of 
the more common species being omitted. 

The Mexican names of many birds were not known to the 
inhabitants, and in some instances it was evident that they 
either confounded the species-or applied to a bird the name 
of some similar bird with which they were familiar. As they 
may, however, be of use to others who may visit the island, 
I append the names as they were given me : 

1. — Buteo borealis calurus. — " Aguilia," which more strictly 
means an eagle. 



274 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

2. — Tinmmculus. sparverius. — " Gavalancillo." 
3. — Polyborus lutosns. — " Queleli." 
4, — Speotyto cunicularia liypogaea. — "Lechnza." 
5. — Colaptes rufipileus. — " Carpentero.'' This name is ap- 
plied to several of the woodpeckers in California, partic- 
ularly Melanerpes formicivorus bairdi. 
6. — Micropusmelanoleucus. — " Golondrina." Also applied 

to swallows in Lower California. 
7. — Trochilus anna. — " Chuparrosa." Hummingbirds 

generally. 
8. — Carpodricus amplus. — " Gorrion." Pronounced " Bu- 
rion," as it is spelled in B. B. & R. Hist. N. Am. Birds. 
In California C frontalis rJiodocolpus is also known by 
this name. 
9. — Junco insularis. — " Gorrion azul." 
10. — Oroscoptes montanus. — " Sinsontle." 
11. — Salpinctes guadeloupensis. — " Saltapared." 
12. — Begulus obscurus. — " Canaria." 
13. — Merula migratoria propinqua. — " Silguero.'' 

To Mr. H. W. Henshaw, Mr. W. O. Emerson and the 
authorities of the U. S. National Museum, I am much in- 
debted for the use of specimens with which to compare my 
own. I also wish to express my thanks to Mr. L. Belding 
for valuable information and suggestion, and to Capt. L. W. 
Johnston for his many kind offices during the two voyages 
which I have made with him. To Mr. John Lehr, the 
island agent, my thanks are due for his valuable aid during 
my stay. 

The nomenclature and order of the A. O. U. checklist has 
been followed in the preparation of this paper. 

1, Larus occidentalis. 

Western Gull. — A few single birds were seen off shore 
alighting on rocks which at high tide were entirely covered. 
I was told that the gulls had formerly bred in considerable 
numbers at the southern end of the island, where they were 



ORNITHOLOGY OF GUADALUPE ISLAND. 275 

not SO frequently molested by the '' Quelelis." The latter, 
said my informant, had often been seen in the act of rob- 
bing the gulls of their eggs. The birds can undoubtedly 
nest at the present time on any other portion of the shore, 
especially the northern, where they would be comparatively 
free from this source of danger. Had more time been at 
disposal, a trip of a few days along shore might have re- 
sulted in the discovery of a breeding colony, although the 
month of April was rather early to look for gull's eggs. 

Specimens in both adult and immature plumage in num- 
bers were noticed about the island, but after getting well 
out to sea on the return voyage, the schooner was accompa- 
nied by a few adult birds only. On approaching the Cali- 
fornian coast, these were joined by a number of others, ac- 
companied by a few birds of immature plumage. Appar- 
ently the younger birds are not partial to long flights at sea, 
with the chances of encountering heavy weather, and there- 
fore prefer to follow the coast-line. If such be the case, 
the immature birds of Guadalupe may have been reared 
there, and were loath to put to sea in pursuit of vessels. 

2. PuiRnus gavia. 

Black-vented Shearwater. — A decayed specimen, found 
on top of the island in April, has kindly been identified 
by Dr. Cooper as this species. One stormy night in Jan- 
uary, I heard a bird, as he flew past camp, making a pecu- 
liar rasping squawk, and although I subsequently heard the 
same sound on numerous occasions, more particularly when 
encamped at a lower altitude, I was yet unable to detect the 
author of it. My Mexican companion said the bird that 
made the sound was a "Cuapo," common in Mexico; he 
also drew in explanation the outline of the bill of some ra- 
pacious bird; sach information is, of course, extremely un- 
reliable. 

Since then I have not found any one who knows of a bird 
by the name "Cuapo." I was inclined to assign the sounds 



276 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

to sea-birds, which hypothesis was strengthened by my 
hearing a far greater number of these night-fliers along the 
beach than on the top of the island, where the dead one was 
found. In the afternoon on which I left the island, large 
flocks of Shearwaters were seen a few miles from shore, all 
of which were on the wing, not much above the waves. 
Some or all may have been of this species. As the schooner 
neared Los Coronados Islands (about twenty miles south- 
west of San Diego), large flocks were seen on the water but 
rose long before the boat reached them. 

3. Oceanodroma leucorhoa. 

Leach's Peteel. — In the latter part of January, I was 
encamped for a few days upon a narrow shelf of rock below 
the top of a steep hillside, which formed a quiet lee where 
some slight protection could be had against the gale. No 
ornithological work was possible, and nothing could be 
done for the three days of the storm's continuance but to 
hug the camp fire. At midnight of the last day, my com- 
panion awakened me to announce that some *' little owls" 
were flying about. Every few minutes a bird would pass 
the small circle of light or hover for an instant in the glow 
above the fire, while from the enveloping darkness their 
calls and replies could be clearly heard. There seemed to 
be four or five close by, but so quick were they in their 
movements, with flight as erratic as that of a bat, that I 
found it impossible to shoot them. The next night, I set a 
steel trap, but the bait, consisting of a Junco, remained un- 
touched. The birds came about my camp only on the 
darkest nights or, if any were flying during moonlight, they 
were entirely silent. After the setting of the moon, how- 
ever, even though as late as four o'clock in the morning, 
they would make their appearance with their peculiar call. 
The note I find hard to describe; perhaps I may best char- 
acterize it by saying that they seemed to call hurriedly, 
*' here's-a-letter," ^^ hei^e^s-a-letter," and th^n from the dark- 



ORNITHOLOGY OF GUADALUPE ISLAND. 277 

ness came the reply from another that I supposed to be at 
rest, ^[for you," ^\for you.'' 

Toward the north I often found wings or other fragments 
of a petrel, and sometimes the entire body with the excep- 
tion of the head. Of several dozen picked up from the 
ground but one entire bird was found. Scores of these 
bodies were found, some of them partially eaten. My Mexi- 
can said that this wholesale slaughter was the work of cats, 
but only one or two of these animals were seen, while de- 
capitated petrels were lying about on all sides. 

TJiere were many small holes in the moist hillside open- 
ing under boulders and fallen branches. Digging into these 
holes for a distance of from one to three feet, my search 
was rewarded by the discovery of petrels and fresh eggs. 
During the greater part of two days I dug into about eighty 
burrows, in most of which a single bird was found. In 
some cases a single egg, never more, laid upon a few pine 
needles in an enlarged chamber at the extremity of the 
burrow was disclosed to view on removing the bird. The 
birds seemed dazed when brought to light, and walked or 
fluttered helplessly along the ground for a few feet until 
they sufficiently recovered from their fright to make use of 
their wings. When tossed into the air they descended 
lightly and made their way among the tree- trunks and wind- 
falls, dodging limbs and branches with a quick, bat-like 
motion. I do not know whether they flew out to sea or 
found concealment until nightfall, but the latter course 
seems the more probable. 

Seldom did a bird make a sound Avhen seized, but occa- 
sionally a cry like that of a bird in distress would escajDe 
them. One individual, however, while being unearthed, 
kept up the peculiar night-call which had so puzzled me 
about the camp-fire. 

Their favorite breeding-ground was on the pine ridge, 
but nests were found as far south as the small cypress grove. 
It was very difficult to secure clean specimens since, upon 



278 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 



being caught, they invariably vomited and purged a reddish, 
thin, oily fluid of an extremely strong odor. The single 
egg which they lay is held against the abdomen of the sit- 
ting bird. It is shaped much like a pigeon's egg, white in 
in color, while one end is wreathed with a fine spattering of 
minute dots of reddish brown and pale lavender. 

The average measurements of fifty eggs taken March 4th 
and 5th, is 35.7 x 27 mm. The largest eggs measure 37.5 
X 27.5; 38x27.5; 37 x 28 mm., and the smallest 31.5 x 26; 
32.5x25,5; ; 33 x 27 mm. 

DIMENSIONS OF SPECIMENS. 



Collector' 
No. 



2555 
2556 
2558 
2559 
2560 
2561 
2563 
2561 
2566 
2567 
2568 
2557 
2562 
2565 



Sex and 
age. 



ad. 
ad. 
ad. 
ad. 
ad. 
ad. 
ad. 
ad. 
ad. 
ad. 
ad. 
ad. 
ad. 
ad. 



Wing. 



mm. 
155 
162 
158 
161 
162 
160 
166 
168 
162 
i66 
160 
171 
167 
159 



Tail 


Depth of 


Exposed 


Tarsus. 


feath'rs 


fork. 


culmen. 


mm. 


mm. 


mm. 


mm. 


85 


•25 


17 


25 


92 


28 


17 


23 


87 


23 


16 


23 


90 


30 


16 


25 


93 


25 


15.5 


25 


89 


32 


17 


24 


y5 





17 


25 


94 


32 


17 


23 


92 


26 


16.5 


24 


97 


34 


17 


24 


92 





15.5 


22.5 


99 


35 


16 


24 


97 


30 


16 


22 


96 


35 


17 


26 



Middle 

toe and 

claw. 



mm. 

29 

29 

28 

28 

28 

28 

29.5 

30 

29 

30 

28 

28 

29 

30 



No. 11,164 in the collection of the Cal. Academy of Sciences, from At- 
lantic Ocean, measures— Tail, 94 mm.; depth of fork, 18 mm.; culmen, 16 
mm.; tarsus, 22.5 mm.; middle toe and claw, 24.5 mm. 

No. 11,165 in the collection of the Cal. Academy of S-iences, from At- 
lantic Ocean, measures — Tail, 92 mm.; depth of fork, 18 mm.; culmen, 16 
mm.; tarsus, 22 mm.; middle toe and claw, 25 mm. 

There is indicated in the longer tail, greater depth of fork and longer 
middle toe which is constant in the Guadalupe example, a Pacific or at least 
a Guadalupe Island form of Oceanodroma, differing mainly in these respects 
from 0. leucorhoa. Bat I have not at present sufficient material from the 
Atlantic Coast to determine this satisfactorily. 



ORNITHOLOGY OF GUADALUPE ISLAND. 279 

4. Anser albifrons gambeli. 

American White-fronted Goose. — At my first visit on 
January 14, 1885, I sliot a goose, which I have no doubt 
was of this species. The bird was a solitary individual, 
found a few hundred yards from the beach, and when shot 
fell over a cliff and was lost. Although flying well when 
flushed, it covered but a short distance before alighting . In 
the vicinity where it was flrst seen were many signs indi- 
cating that the bird had been there for some time, or that a 
flock had rested there during a migration. The young grass 
just appearing above the ground furnished sufficient food. 

5. Buteo borealis calurus. 

Western Ked-tail. — This is a resident species, and is 
probably the hawk seen by Dr. Palmer, but of which no 
specimen was obtained. They were not common, not more 
than three or four being seen during any single day, and 
probably the same birds were counted over several times in 
the course of a week. At the time of my departure I esti- 
mated their number as about equalling that of the Caracara 
eagle. They were oftener seen toward the north where the 
pines ofl'ered a high roosting-place. On pleasant days they 
extended their hunting excursions toward the south, some- 
times remaining for daj^s in the vicinity of the small cypress 
grove, but on the occasion of foggy or rainy weather they 
disappeared, seeking shelter among the pines, where, 
perched on branches close to the leeward side of the trunk, 
they waited storm-bound till hunger or fair weather called 
them away. Their extreme wariness and the nature of the 
country prevented me from securing- more than a single 
specimen. This is an adult male, which was taken on the 
edge of the small cypress grove January 5. 

No nests were seen, but I have no doubt that among the 
scattered pines these birds hatch and rear their young. 



280 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

DIMENSIONS OF SPECIMEN COLLECTED. 



Collector's No. Sex aod age 



2403 



$ ad. 



Wing. 



Tail-featbeis 



mm. 

385 



mm. 
204 



Bill from nostril 



mm. 
23 



Tarsus. 



mm. 
70 



Middle toe 



mm. 

48 



Iris, dark brown. Cere, comraissure and toes, chrome yellow. Length. 
517 mm. Extent, 1249.5 mm. 

6. Falco sparverius. 

American Sparrow-Hawk. — During the two clays spent 
on the island in January, 1885, I saw a single pair of these 
birds, but only succeeded in securing the female. My so- 
journ during the winter and spring of the following year 
showed the birds to be a resident species. It was seldom 
that one could not approach within gun shot, even in open 
ground, while the bird was sitting perched upon either a 
boulder or the dead branch of a cypress. They especially 
frequented the central and higher portions of the island. 
By the middle of February male and female were seen in 
company, one pair remaining near some isolated cypress 
tree, while another pair had evidently taken up their abode 
in a rocky cliff, the absence of suitable tree-cavities forcing 
them to adopt some convenient hole in the rocks for a nest- 
ing place. 

Their means of subsistence, during the time of my obser- 
vation, consisted of coleoptera, caterpillars and other insects, 
upon which food they became quite fat. I did not see them 
in pursuit of small birds, and believe it is not their custom 
to molest them, at least while insect food can be obtained. 

LIST OF SPECIMENS COLLECTED. 





Sex 














Collector's 


and 


Date. 


Wing. 


Tail 


Bill from 


Tarsus. 


Middle 


No. 


age. 






feathers. 


nostril. 




toe. 








mm. 


mm. 


mm. 


mm. 


mm. 


2410 


i 


January 21, 1886 


188 


124 


10 


31 


23 


2520 


S, ad 


Febrnary 15, 1886 


188 


122 


11 


34 


25 


2519 


^ad 


February 15, 1886 


195 


122 


11.5 


35 


23 


1687 


^ad 


January 15, 1885 


192 


125 


11.5 


36 


24 



ORNITHOLOGY OF GUADALUPE ISLAND. 281 

The feet, cere and ophthalmic region, yellow in all four. 
No. 2410.— Moulting. Blue of wings almost unspotted. Gizzard contained 

beetles only. 
No. 2520. — Contained insects. 
No. 2519. — Very fat. Gizzard contained caterpillars. 

7. Polyborus lutosus. 

Guadalupe Caracara. — In January, 1885, during a two 
days' excursion about the central part of the island, but 
four " Quelelis " were seen. By 1886 their number had been 
reduced by more than a score .by the island agent, who 
never missed an opportunity to kill one. Arriving on the 
island in the summer time, when, the birds came to the 
shallow pools to drink, the agent would lie in wait behind 
a boulder and pick them off with a rifle. The birds, if 
missed, heeding not the shot, or, if but slightly wounded, 
not realizing the danger, remained near, making certain the 
destruction of all that came to drink at the fatal spring. 

During my rambles I frequently came upon the weather- 
beaten carcasses of '•' Quelelis " lying where they had fallen. 
In one place, four were found lying dead together. 

In regard to their numbers and destructiveness towards 
the goats running wild there, the facts noticed by Dr. Pal- 
mer in 1875, thoroughly substantiated by information given 
me by sea-captains and seal-hunters, are not apparent at 
the present time. Dr. Palmer's assistant, Mr. Harry Stew- 
art of San Diego, writes me that he is unable to say how 
many were on the island at the time he was there, but 
that they were in great numbers. 

Their range extends over the entire island, from beach to 
summit. I believe that the killing of several goats each 
week near the central part of the island, attracted almost 
the entire number of " Quelelis " to that vicinity, 

Being of an unsuspicious character, they will allow a per- 
son to walk directly towards them until within shooting dis- 
tance, merely watching the intruder until the distance be- 
comes less than agreeable. If they happen to be upon the 



282 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

ground they beat a retreat at an awkward walk or, if neces- 
sary, a run, taking wing only as a last resort, and even then 
flying but a short distance before alighting. Their actions, 
gait and positions, while on the ground are similar to those 
of a buzzard. In flight, the light color on the primaries is 
distinctly shown. 

During several consecutive days, a "Queleli" came to my 
camp, searching for scraps of food. One day I saw him 
making ofl*, at a walk, from the cook-house, carrying with 
him a piece of bone from the leg of a goat, and upon which, 
a little raw meat still adhered. With this bone, fully nine 
inches in length, grasped firmly in his bill, he retired to 
what he considered a safe distance before commencing his 
feast. 

As far as my observations went, the birds were entirely 
silent, but tlie agent informed me th^it when perchance a 
rifle ball carried away a wing or a foot, the unfortunate bird 
would scream long and loudly. If the wounded creature 
happened to be in company with others of his kind, he 
would be immediately attacked and killed. One which was 
badly wounded attempted to escape by running, with the 
assistance of his wings. Being overtaken and brought to 
bay, instead of throwing himself on his back in an attitude 
of defence, or uttering a cry for quarter, he raised his crest 
and with an air of defiance, calmly awaited death as became 
the Eagle of Guadalupe. Weakened by the loss of blood 
which poured from a wound in his throat, he finally fell for- 
ward and died — silent and defiant to the last. 

If a goat was killed and not immediately taken to camp, 
the hunter was almost certain to find upon his return that a 
"Queleli" (rarely more than one) had taken possession of 
the carcass. 

Their food during the season of caterpillars consists 
almost entirely of these larvae, with a slight variation 
afforded by occasional beetles and crickets. Whenever op- 
portunity offers they are ready to gorge themselves upon 



ORNITHOLOGY OF GUADALUPE ISLAND. 



283 



the offal of a slain goat, retiring after the banquet to a con- 
venient tree to await the process of digestion. I have never 
known of their eating the bodies of their own species, but 
they do not object to making a meal off' the flesh of a fat 
petrel if fortune casts a dead one in their way. 

The goats, I believe, are seldom molested in a time of 
plenty by the few Eagles that remain, although during a 
scarcity of food, it is not unlikely that they would attack a 
kid or possibly even a full grown animal. By the latter 
part of April, the birds had apparently not paired, and I 
believe the eggs are not laid until the latter pait of May or 
June. 

The Mexicans said that a cliff was always chosen for a 
nesting place, thus making their nests difiicult to find and 
still more difficult of access. This being the case, I fear 
the eggs will long remain unknown. 

LIST OF SPECIMENS. 













Culmen 






Collector's No. 


Sex and age. 


Date. 


Wing. 


Tail. 


from 
cere. 


Tarsus 


Middle toe. 








mm. 


mm. 


mm, 


mm. 


mm. • 


1692 


5 ad. 


Jan. 15, 1885 


402 


260 


32 


92 


51 


2387 


$ ad. 


Ja^. 4. 1886 


390 


260 


33 


84 


53 


2577 


$ ad. 


March 16, 1886 


899 


260 


33 


88 


53 


1691 


$ ad. 


Jan. 15, 1885 


418 


276 


33 


89 


53 


1699 


$ ad. 


Jan. 15, 1885 


405 


268 


33 


89 


56 


2408 


S ad. 


Jan. 8, 1886 


412 


266 


33 


90 


50 


2504 


i ad. 


Feb. 16, 1886 


418 


285 


33 


84 


54 


2581 


S ad. 


March 22, 1886 


414 


273 


33 


90 


55 


2409 


6 im. 


Jan. 18, 1886 


405 


260 


32 


92 


54 


2576 


$ im. 


March 16, 1886 


408 


257 


32 


88 


54 



Remarks.— The adult birds have light-brown eyes. Bill, pale bluish 
white. Cere, lores, feet and legs, chrome yellow. The yellow of lores as- 
sumes a salmon color soon after death, but this disappears for a short time 
if a finger is pressed upon the spot, resuming again the salmon color as the 
•skin dries. Immature birds have dark-brown eyes. Bill, light bluish. 
Lores, not chrome yellow. Feet and legs, nearly "Naples yellow" in color. 
All of the so-called immature birds which I have seen (five in number) have 
been in worn or ragged plumage. 



284 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

No. 1692 — Length, 609 mm. One foot missing from below the kuee; an 
old wound. 

No. 2387— Length, 603 mm. Extent, 1260.5 mm. Coutained feathers and 
pieces of goat meat. 

No. 1691— Length, 631 mm. Extent, 1308 mm. 

No. 2581 — Fat. Ovaries slightly enlarged. Stomach contained a foot and 
some feathers of a petrel. 

No. 2409— Ovaries very small. 

8. Speotyto cunicularia hypogaea. 

Burrowing Owl. — This species may or may not be one of 
the two kinds of "Strigidce' mentioned in the "Ornithology 
of Guadeloupe Island," but of which no specimens have 
ever been taken. It was the only species which I met with, 
and I have no positive evidence of there being any other 
owls on the island while I was there, although whenever a 
favorable night offered itself, I seized the opportunity to 
watch for nocturnal birds. 

The Mexicaus said that there was a large Owl ("Teco- 
lote"), which they had occasionally heard hooting at night, 
but that it was very rare. 

From Dr. Palmer's assistant, I learned that one of the 
owds which was known to be on the island was a Horned 
Owl (Bubo). 

A single pair of Ground Owls were the only ones of this 
species met with. They frequented the open ground on the 
central part of the island near the alkali pools, appearing 
only after dusk. The notes made at the time will perhaps 
give the best idea of the bird's habits as far as these were 
observed. The third night on which I had watched for 
them was unusually calm and quite chilly. The lingering 
twilight rendered objects still visible through the approach- 
ing gloom. Nearing a large boulder beside which I pur- 
posed to take my stand for that evening, I suddenly started 
up one of the very birds of which I was in search. Fright- 
ened by my approach, she rose a short distance in front of 
me, and instead of alighting on a rock, as I expected, and 
thus keeping me within sight, she dropped behind it, dis- 



ORNITHOLOGY OF GUADALUPE ISLAND. 285 

appearing instantly. As I cautiously circled around the 
spot, I noticed her head peering out from one side of the 
boulder, and at once fired. After smoothing out her plum- 
age and placing her upon a rock, I stationed myself against 
the boulder and gun in hand watched for the male whose 
call I had he ird issuing from the darkness. Soon the call 
was repeated nearer than before, and the form of an owl 
rose dark above the horizon not twenty feet away. He dis- 
covered my presence just as I threw my gun into position, 
and giving a cry of alarm, swerved off. He was, however, 
too late and was soon placed upon the rock beside his male. 
They were both very fat. one was gorged with caterpillars, 
the other contained a single small beetle. 

LIST OF SPECIMENS COLLECTED. 



CoUector's number. 


Sex and age. 


Date. 


2453 
2452 


$ ad. 
? ad. 


Feb. 2, 1886. 
Feb. 2. 1886. 



Iris and feet yellow. 

9. Colaptes rufipileus- 

Guadalupe Flicker. — Comparatively speaking, this bird 
was not rare in the restricted area of the large cypress grove, 
but apart from this locality less tlian a dozen were seen. 
Three specimens were taken among some palms within a 
short distance from the beach on the eastern side of the 
island. One only was heard among the pines at the north- 
ern portion, and in the vicinity of the large palm grove on 
the northwestern slope they -were occasionally seen. 

Of all the species of this family I have ever met with, 
none have been so tame and unsuspicious or less frightened 
by the report of a guu. In January I witnessed a peculiar 
habit not before noticed, I believe, in birds of this genus. 
A pair of Flickers were perched facing each other upon a 

20— Bull. Gal. Acad. Sci. II. 6. Issued January 5, 1887 



286 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

gnarled root about three feet from the ground, their heads 
within a foot of each other. Suddenly the male, who had 
been sitting motionless before the female, began a some- 
what grotesque performance, which consisted in a rapid 
bobbing of his head. In this he was immediately followed 
by the female. This spasmodic bobbing and bowing they 
repeated alternately a few times, when both stojDped as sud- 
denly as they had commenced. After an interval of a few 
seconds the male began again and was joined by the female. 
The movement resembled more an upward jerk of the head 
than a Ijow. 

Approaching on my hands and knees to get a closer view, 
I could hear a low chuckling sound while these strange ac- 
tions were in progress. What the outcome of this love- 
making — for such I regarded it — would have been I did not 
ascertain. The fear of losing the specimens — almost the 
first I had seen — prompted me to fire. The first shot 
brought down the female. At the report away flew the 
male, followed by another male, which, unseen by me, had 
been quite near, on the ground. They returned while I was 
still holding the female, and thus gave me an opportunity 
of securing them both. Their evident lack of timidity per- 
mitted me to draw near enough to plainly distinguish the 
characteristic bright red cheek -patches. In February I 
saw a repetition of the action above noted, tJie birds being 
in a cypress tree above me. They were very tame, espe- 
cially the female, who came quite near as I lay upon the 
ground, whistling "qiiit-tu," "quit-tu," and w^atching her 
puzzled actions. In a half-dead cypress this pair had par- 
tially pecked a cavity for a nest. 

Id addition to the familiar scythe-whetting notes they 
have the peculiar "wake -up" call and its rapid prelude of 
monosyllables. By imitating this call I decoyed a distant 
female to within short range, the bird coming through the 
thickest of the cypress grove, stopping at short intervals to 
call and listen for a reply. 



ORNITHOLOGY OF GUADALUPE ISLAND. 287 

The food of this species during a portion of the year con- 
sists largely of smooth-skinned caterpillars, besides numer- 
ous beetles and ants; the latter are always obtainable and 
growing to a large size figure as an important item of their 
diet. The scarcity of decayed trees with the exception of fall- 
en ones, necessitates either work upon seasoned wood or the 
resort to dead palm stumps. The nests ivill therefore be 
found at heights varying from three to fifteen feet. 

By March 16, the birds were invariably found in pairs, 
and my wish to secure a setting of eggs before departing 
seemed in a fair way of being fulfilled. Strolling among 
the cypress on the 27th of March, I found four trees upon 
which the birds were at work or had been recently, and in 
such cases the birds themselves were always to be found in 
the immediate vicinity. Passing a half-dead tree I heard 
the sounding taps of a woodpecker at work, and as I neared 
the spot, the slight noise which I made as I carefully picked 
my way over the rock-strewn ground caused a handsome 
male bird to suddenly appear at an opening about four feet 
high. With a foot grasping either side of the entrance he 
gazed upon the intruder. Having comprehended the situa- 
tion, he flew to another tree, where he quietly awaited ni}^ 
inspection and departure. The hole was then down about 
fifteen inches. By April 7, it had reached a depth of about 
twenty inches and contained six fresh eggs, upon which the 
female was then sitting. As no description has hitherto 
appeared of the eggs of this species it may be well to pre- 
sent here the measurements of this set. (No. 803, author's 
oological collection.) They correspond exactly, both in 
color and general shape, with scores of other eggs of this 
genus, and offer the following measurements in millimeters : 
28x22; 28x22; 28x22.5; 29x22; 29.5x22; 29.5x22. 

A comparison of the measurements of the specimens 
taken on Guadalupe Island with those of the same genus 
which I have in my possession may be of interest. 

Although on the one hand the collection from the island 



288 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 



is probably the largest that has been obtained, yet on the 
other hand my series of the other form is not as full as could 
be desired, and furthermore I possess neither specimen nor 
description of the recently added variety saturatior. In the 
late revision of the nomenclature of North American birds, 
the variety hyhridus was rejected. It seemed improbable 
that the wide departures from typical examples of either 
waratiis or cafer could be attributed to hybridism. This 
fact impressed itself more and more on my mind by the 
ever - increasing occurrence of the so-called Hybrid Flicker. 
Specimens of this genus, however, are found which no 
stretch of the imagination can reconcile with any existing 
description of aaratns, cafer or rufipileus, and I have no 
doubt that similar departures may be found in specimens of 
clirysoides and saturatior. 

DIMENSIONS OF 5 ad.G. RUFIPILEUS. 



1 

Collector's No. 


Date. 1886. 


Wing. 


Tail. 


Tail-feathers 


Bill from iiostiil. 






mm. 


mm. 


mm. 


mm. 


2405 


Jau. 8. 


146 


127 


110 


34 


2406 


Jan. 8. 


149 


123 


112 


32 


2460 


Feb. 2. 


148 


120 


116 


33 


2509 


Feb. 12. 


145 


126 


116 


32 


2511 


Feb. 12. 


147 


124 


111 


34 


2514 


Feb. 12. 


150 


122 


108 


30 


2521 


Feb. 15. 


152 


129 


109 


36.5 


2522 


Feb. 15. 


145 


125 


108 


34 


2524 


Feb. 19. 


147 


123 


108 


35 


2525 


Feb. 19, 


14G 


128 


114 


36 


Average . . 


144.5 


124.7 


111.2 


33.5 



No 2406.— Length 312 mm. Extent, 499 mm. 
No. 2460. — Stomach gorged with large black ants. 



ORNITHOLOGY OF GUADALUPE ISLAND. 289 

DIMENSION OF ? ad. C. RUFIPILEUS. 



Collector's No. 


Date. 1886. 


Wing. 


Tail. 


Tail-feathers. 


Bill from nostril. 






mm. 


mm. 


mm. 


mm. 


2380 


Jan. 2. 


149 


126 


Ill 


29 


2381 


Jan. 4. 


146 


120 


108 


32.5 


2407 


Jan. 8. 


143 


119 


104 


33 


2526 


Jan. 23. 


148 


123 


108 


36 


2427 


Jan. 23. 


148 


125 


110 


31 


2512 


Feb. 12. 


154 


129 


115 


34 


2513 


Feb. 12. 


148 


124 


109 


32 


2515 


Feb. 12. 


141 


117 


104 


34 


2516 


Feb. 12. 


146 


120 


107 


33 


2527 


Feb. 19. 


143 


125 


109 


30 


Average. . . 




146.6 


122.8 


108.5 


32.4 



No. 2380.— Length 328.8 mm. Extent 487 mm. Iris dark reddish-brown. 
No. 2381.— Length 312 mm. Extent 476 mm. 
No. 2427.— Ovaries small. 

COLAPTES CAFEE ? ad. 



Collector's No. 


Collector's Name. 


Locality. 


Date. 


Bill from nostril. 


169 


W. E. Bryant. 


Berkeley, Cal. 


Jan. 22, 1881. 


mm. 
31 


564 


a it 


Oakland, Cal. 


Feb. 25, 1882. 


32 


599 


" 


Mt.Diablo,Cal. 


Apr. 1, 1882. 


32.5 


772 




Oakland, Cal. 


Feb. 22, 1883. 


30 


1065 


D. S. Bryant. 


Mt.Diablo,CaL 


May 5, 1878. 


31 


1095 


(C (t 


Oakland, Cal. 


Mar. 27, 1879. 


31 


1175 


tc a 


Lafayette, CaL 


Mar. 20, 1883. 


30 


1742 


W.E. Bryant. 


Oakland, Cal. 


Jan. 25, 1885. 


32 


1985 


it a 


" " 


Mar. 12, 1885 


31.5 


2636 


" " 


Scott , Cal. 


May 28, 1883. 


29 










31 













No. 564.— Cheek-patches indistinct. 
No. 599.— Tail pinkish; crown, light tawny-brown. 
No. 1065.— One outer tail-feather yellow. 
No 1095. — Narrow, red nuchal crescent. 
No. 1175.— Forehead brown. 
No. 1742. — Crown rufous brown. 

No. 2636.— Tail red; one outer feather yellow. Anterior portion of crown 
tawny-brown. Caught on nest containing seven eggs. 



290 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

COLAPTES CAFER $ ad. 



Collector's No. 


Collector's Name. 


Location. 


Date. 


Bill from nostril. 


980 
1006 


D. S. Bryant. 
D. S. Bryant. 


Oakland, Cal. 
Gilroy, Cal. 


Nov. 18, 1877. 
Dec. 2S, 1877. 


33 
34 



By an inspection of the preceding tables, it will be seen 
tliat the long bill is by no means a constant difference. 
While the length will average greater in rufipileus, specimens 
are found with the bill shorter than the average of cafer. 
The two examples of cafer given in comparison with rufipi- 
leus in the "Ornithology of Guadeloupe Island" were from 
Washington Territory, and under the present arrangement, 
I presume would be classed as saturatior, rather than as 
" true Mexicanus" {cafer). 

As yet I have seen no description of the male plumage of 
the Guadeloupe Flicker, but I am informed that one is soon 
to be published. 

Some of the specific characteristics which serve to distin- 
guish this insular species from the continental form, cafer, 
will be briefly noticed. 

In the majority of the specimens before me, the charac- 
teristic of the more pinkish tinge to the rump and upper 
tail coverts — especially the latter — seems to hold good. 
But in some individuals these parts are whiter than will be 
found in certain specimens of cofer. By raising the upper 
tail coverts and viewing them from the under side, the 
depth of the coloring may be best determined- This is of a 
sulphurous tinge in auratus. 

The bright tawny forehead is usually brighter in the 
males, and extends farther back on the neck. No specimens 
of cafer, which I have examined, are as richly marked as the 
most typical examples of riifipileus, but individuals of the 
latter sometimes posjsjess less of the tawny brown than ex- 
treme cases among cafer. 



ORNITHOLOGY OF GUADALUPE ISLAND. 291 

I have found but two exceptions to the extent of black on 
the ends of the retrices. One in the case of a female rujipi- 
leus, in which the black reaches only about 38 mm. from 
the ends of the feathers, and the other a female cafer (for- 
merly hyhridus) in which the black extends about 57 mm. 
In typical rufijnkus, the black covered about 63 mm. of the 
ends. This I found to be the most contrtant difference. 

The absence in every case of a definite or clearly defined 
cheek-patch in the females, and also the absence of mar- 
ginal light spots on the outer web of the exterior retrices in 
both sexes, will aid in determining this species. These 
spots, although rarely if ever wanting in typical cafer are 
seldom or never found in ritfipileus. An apparent exception 
is found in a male from Guadeloupe Island, which has a 
slight touch of light on the webs. 

10. Micropus melanoleucus. 

White-throated Swift. — On January 12, a flock of about 
fifty swifts passed near camp, moving towards the north- 
east. They flcAV in every direction, but kept well together, 
and gradually ascended to a higher altitude. I could not 
get near enough to distinguish any characteristic markings. 
They were again seen during a few hours of sunshine on the 
15th, but only at a distance. 

A storm of wind, rain and dense fog, which had lasted 
almost without interruption for twelve days, cleared away 
January 21, and with the welcome and returning sunshine 
came the swifts. They were flying lower than usual, and 
occasionally one would chatter as he swept above the tree- 
tops. The birds Avere feeding upon a species of slender 
black fly, with which the air was swarming, and although 
dispersed for a time by the report of a gun, they soon re- 
turned to their feast. As late as April, they were still on 
the island, but only a few at a time were seen, the flock hav- 
ing evidently separated, although not apparently paired off. 
One calm day, about a dozen birds were seen skimming low 
over the grass in the manner of swallows. As far as my ob- 



292 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 



servations go, this is sometliiiig unusual for this species, 
which usually desceuds towards the earth only in dull, rainy 
weather in pursuit of insects driven lower by the humid 
atmosphere. If the birds were to remain on the island dur- 
ing the summer, they could lind an abundance of suitable 
nesting places in the cliffs, either on the shore or on the 
side of the table-land where the small cypress grove stands. 

LIST OF SPECIMENS. 



Collector's number. 


Sex nud age. 


Date. 


2411 

2584 


9 ad. 
9 ad. 


Jan. 21, 1886. 
March 26, 1884. 



2584.— Ovaries, small. 



11. Trochilus anna. 

Anna's Humming-bird. — This diminutive straggler is no 
doubt tlie species seen by Dr. Palmer eleven years ago, but 
of which he did not succeed in obtaining a specimen. I 
had been in hopes of finding in this bird a new species of 
hummer. When the month of March arrived and I had not 
even caught a glimpse of the bird, although on one or two 
occasions I had heard it buzz as it went past, my hopes of 
securing this unidentified species were almost gone, and I 
fully resolved to shoot on sight the first I saw. Eeturning 
one day to my temporary camp from an excursion through 
the pine belt, both barrels of my gun loaded with round 
ball (IJ oz.), I stopped at the foot of a fallen pine, intent 
upon watching a small band of goats, when suddenly my 
Mexican companion seized my arm and whispered: ''la 
chuparrosa, senor." Following with my eyes the direction 
indicated by his outstretched hand, I saw a female hummer 
upon a dead twig among the pine branches, pluming her- 
self. The feelings I experienced some years ago in meeting a 
panther, at dusk, in a wooded canon when my gun was 



ORNITHOLOGY OF GUADALUPE ISLAND. 293 

loaded for quail, were not dissimilar to those which now 
came over me as I gazed upon the coveted hummer not fif- 
teen feet away, and realized that my gun contained ball. 

As I broke open the breech and dropped the provoking 
loads, the bird rose and hovering about for a few seconds, 
during which I reloaded and waited in a fever of suspense, 
she returned to nearly the same spot, when I fired and killed 
— only an Anna humming-bird. Later I took another fe- 
male, and afterwards a male, the two latter being found in 
the small cypress grove. The dearth of honied flowers must 
at times force them to subsist almost entirely upon insect 
food. The Mexicans told me that I would find them in 
great numbers about the palm trees on the northwestern 
slope; but an expedition to that region resulted in a total 
failure as far as the object for which it was undertaken was 
concerned, although the addition of two more straggling 
species to those already taken compensated me for the fa- 
tigue of the journey. 

LIST OF SPECIMENS COLLECTED. 



Colleclor's No. 


Sex and age. 


Date. 1886. 


2588 
2531 
2582 


$ ad. 
? ad. 
? ad. 


March 29. 
March 4. 
March 22. 



12. Stumella magna neglecta. 

Westeen Meadow lapjv.— -A single specimen was seen in 
the palm grove on the 22d day of March. Although I ap- 
proached quite near as he sat, loudl}^ singing from the top 
branch of a fallen pine, I failed to capture him. That un- 
successful shot, one of the " unaccoun tables " of a hunter- 
naturalist's experiences, seemed at the time to be one of the 
keenest disappointments of my life. 

13. Carpodacus amplus. 

Guadalupe House Finch. — When I arrived at the island 



294 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

in January, 1885, a few birds, usually in pairs, were found 
near the settlement. At the door of one of the huts, hang- 
ing in a cage, were several of this species, one of which, 
an adult male, had assumed the yellow plumage which others 
of this genus take on when confined. 

Soon after settling on the top of the island in December, 
1885, the " Gorrions " began to collect about the camp, 
making the mornings joyous with their song. 

By our refraining from discharging fire-arms in the im- 
mediate vicinity of the camp, they soon became quite tame, 
hopping about camp during the day, and roosting at night iii 
the thickest cypress, or, during a storm, under the eaves of 
the palm-thatched huts. On the 24th of January I counted 
fourteen within a stone's throw of camp, and attracted by 
the bread crumbs and other food which I threw out for 
them, their numbers daily increased until on the 1st of 
February the census of birds in camp, including both sexes, 
showed a total of twenty-two. Two weeks later they sud- 
denly departed, and were to be found only in paii-s about 
the cypress groves, save in the center of the pine belt, 
where the blossoms and seeds of the " chick-weed " some- 
times attracted a flock of half a dozen, who busied them- 
selves feasting upon this tender food. Nothing, either in 
their habits or song, differed from C. frontalis rhodocolpus. 

They are easily entrapped under a box, and it was in this 
way that the Mexican women at the settlement succeeded in 
catching, during my stay, as many as two or three dozen, 
which they ate. 

The dissection of specimens showed the food to consist 
chiefly of seeds from the cypress tree, mingled with green 
seeds of " chick-weed." Some of those taken near camp 
had their crops well filled with bits of tallow picked from 
the body of a goat which had been dressed and hung under 
a tree. 

Two nests were found in cypress trees nearly completed 
by February 22. A i:est and set of five fresh eggs (No. 792, 



ORNITHOLOGY OF GUADALUPE ISLAND. 295 

author's oblogical collection), which in consequence of a 
heavy storm had been deserted, was taken on the 1st of March. 
From this date began the nesting season of this species. 

The last nest, taken April 7th, contained five eggs, with 
small embryos in them. In nearly every instance, the birds 
selected for a nesting place the upper side of a cypress 
branch in the angle formed by its intersection with the 
trunk, thus avoiding the storm-shaken foliage. They seemed 
to show a preference for the leeward side of a tree, where 
the nest would be protected from prevailing winds. One 
prudent couple had built in a clump of mistletoe, at a height 
of twenty feet. 

Several pairs built in the tops of palms. The nests were 
ordinarily not more than ten or fifteen feet from the ground. 

The birds make but slight demonstrations while their nest 
is being removed, uttering only a few notes of protest, or 
silently witnessing a wrong hitherto unknown to them. 

The material used for the outer structure of the nests 
consisted of the dark, dead stems of weeds, only the finer 
ones being selected. One nest found in a pine tree, had 
the foundation and sides made of pine needles, with the 
invariable lining of goat's hair, black or wdiite being used 
indiscriminately. The external diameter of the nest is 
about 130 mm., with a central cavity of about 65 mm. 

The eggs, sometimes four in number, but oftener five 
during the early part of the season, are colored precisely 
like the average specimens of C. frontalis rJiodocolpus, the 
spots being either sparingly applied or entirely wanting. 
They also resemble them in general shape, but the size 
serves to distinguish them. - The five eggs of set No. 792, 
measure respectively 22x15; 22x15.5; 22.5x15.5; 23 x 
15.5; 23 X 16.5 mm. The length measurement varies from 
19.5-24 mm., and the width 15-16.5 mm. The average of 
thirty-two specimens is 21.3 x 15.5 mm. 

In the table of measurements, I have selected from a good 



296 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 



series, those which exhibit extreme size, more or less, as 
well as average specimens. 

DIMENSIONS OF SPECIMENS COLLECTED. 



Collec- 


Sex and 






Tail- 


Bill from 


Depth of 


Breadth 


Tar- 


Middle 


tor's 






Date. 


Wing. 














No. 


ag'-. 






featbers 


nostril. 


bill. 


of bill. 


sus. 


toe. 










mm 


mm 


mm. 


mm. 


mm. 


mm. 


mm. 


1682 


S 


ad. 


Jan. 15, 18H5. 


83 


65 


11 


12 


9 


19 


18 


1688 


S 


ad. 


Jan. 15, 1885. 


81 


63 


10.5 


12 


9 


20 


16 


2376 


$ 


ad. 


Jan. 2, 1886. 


82 


64 


10.5 


12 


9.5 


19.5 


16 


2377 


^ 


ad. 


Jan. 2, 1886. 


80 


63 


n 


12 


9 


19.5 


17 


2465 


6 


ad. 


Feb. 16, 1886. 


82 


62 


10.5 


11 


9 


19 


16 


2469 


S 


ad 


Feb. 16, 1886. 


83 


65 


11 


11 


8.5 


19.5 


16 


2.544 


$ 


ad. 


Mar. 4, 1886. 


84 


63 


10 


11.5 


9 


19 


15 


2545 


6 


im. 


Mar. 4, 1886. 


80 


62 


11 


11 


9 


19 


17 


2549 


s 


ad. 


Mar. 4, 1886. 


79 


61 


10 


10 


8 


18 


16 


2550 


s 

ag( 


ad. 


Mar. 4, 1886. 


81 
81.5 


63 


11 


12 


9 


19 
19.1 


16 


Aver 


63.1 


10 6 


11.4 


8.9 


16 6 











No. 2376.— Testes very smalL Length 174 mm. 
No. 2377. -Length 171 mm. Extent 263 mm. 



Extent 266 mm. 



Collect- 


Sex 






Tail 


Bill 


Depth of 


Breadth 


Tar- 


Middle 


or's 


and 


Date. 


Wing. 




from 










No. 


age. 






feathers. 


nostril. 


bill. 


of bill. 


sus. 


toe. 








mm. 


mm . 


mm. 


mm. 


mm. 


mm. 


mm. 


1681 


V ad. 


Jan. 15, 1885 


82 


62 


11 


11 


9 


20 


17 


1686 


'^ad. 


Jan. 15, 1885 


80 


62 


10 


11 


9 


19 


17 


2689 


^ad. 


Jan 15, 1885 


72 


62 


10 


11 


9 


19 


16 


2378 


Had. 


Jan. 2, 1886 


79 


60.5 


10.5 


11 


8.5 


18.5 


17 


2660 


¥ ad. 


Feb. 16, 1886 


79 


63 


10 


10 


9 


18 


16 


2420 


V ad. 


Jan. 23, 1886 


78 


57 


10 


11 


9 


18 


16 


2472 


Had 


Feb. 16, 1886 


79 


61 


10 


11 


9 


19 


17 


2551 


V ad. 


March 4, 1886 


72 


59 


10.5 


12 


8.5 


19 


17 


2552 


V ad. 


March 4, 1886 


79 


59 


11 


11 


9 


19 


17 


2553 


V ad. 


March 4, 1886 


79 


60 


11 


11 


9 


19 


16 


Average 


77.9 


60.5 


10.4 


11 


8.9 


18.8 


16.6 











No. 2378.— Ovaries very small. Length, 167.5 mm. Extent, 258 mm 



ORNITHOLOGY OF GUADALUPE ISLAND. 297 

14. Loxia curvirostra stricklandi. 

Mexican Crossbill. — This specie^ found only through 
the narrow pine belt, I estimated to number about a score. 
They remained high up in the pines, flying hurriedly among 
the tree tops, uttering what seemed to me a frightened note. 
Occasionally a pair, seldom a single bird, would be seen on 
the top of a fallen tree, but never upon the ground. The 
only food which dissection proved them to have been feed- 
ing upon, was pine seeds. No nests were found, although 
several were no doubt being built, if not already completed 
by the middle of February. A comparison of the island 
cross-bill with typical examples of minor and stricMamU, 
shows it to belong to the latter variety, although the upper 
mandible is nearlv or quite one-third thicker than the lower. 

If we assign all Eastern birds to minor and Western ones 
to strickhmdi, an exception must be made of No. 78,186, 
which in the Smithsonian Institution is labeled minora 
although it came from Santa Cruz, California. 

"The diversity in general size, size and shape of bill, and 
color which they present is enough to convince any one that 
these characters are subject to a wide range of variation and 
are not dependent, except within broad limits, on geograph- 
ical considerations. ^ ^ ^ -'^ ^ ^ J^ seems obvious 
that the variations just referred to are either purely indi- 
vidual or dependent on age."^ 

In the following tabulated measurements, the length of 
the exposed culmen is given on account of having been 
oftener measured, although it is more difficult to determine 
accurately than the distance from nostril, which is also in- 
cluded. The bill is found curving to the right as often as 
to the left. 

Note «— William Brewster in Auk. Vol. VIII. No. 2. p. 261. 



298 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

LIST OF SPECIMENS COLLECTED. 



Col- 


— 










Ex 

posed 
culmen. 


Bill from 


Depth 




Mid- 


lect'rs 
No. 


Sex and 
age. 


Date. 1886. 


Wing. 


Tail 
feathers 

ram. 


nostril. 


of bill 
at 

base. 

mm. 


Tar- 
sus. 

mm. 


dle 
toe& 
claw. 










mm. 


mm. 


mm. 


mm. 


2474 


^ 


ad 


Feb. 16. 


93 


54.5 


16 


14 


10 


16.5 


20 


2475 


^ 


ad. 


" " 


87 


51 


15 


13 


9 


14 


19 


2476 


!^ 


ad. 


(( <> 


100 


60 


18 


16 


11 


17 


20 


2480 


^' 


im. 


a a 


88.5 


53 


15 


14 


10 


14 5 


19.5 


2481 


6 


ad. 


Average. . . 


88 


52.5 


17.5 


15 
14.4 


10.5 
10.1 


16 
15.6 


19.5 




91.3 


52.2 


16.3 


19.6 


2477 


? 


ad. 


Feb. 16. 


87 


52 


15 


13.5 


9 


14 


19 


2478 


? 


ad. 


<i <t 


84 


52 


16 


14 


9 


14 


18 


2479 


? 


ad. 


«» c. 


90 


52 


16 


14.5 


10.5 


16 


22 


2551 


? 


ad. 


March 4. 


90 


52 


17 


15 


9.5 


17 


20 








Average . . . 


87.7 


52 


16 


14.2 


9.5 


15.2 


19.7 



LOXIA CURVIROSTRA STRICKLANDI. 



Col- 


Sex 










Ex- 


Bill 


Depth 




Mid- 








lec- 


and 








Tail 


posed from 


of bill 


'J-ir- 


dle 








tr's 


Collector 


Locality. 


Wing; 


feath- 


cul- 


nos- 


at 


sus. 


toe& 


Date 




No. 


age. 








mm. 


ers, 
mm. 


men 


!*'"• 


base. 




claw 











mm. 


mm. 


mm. 


mm 


mm. 




705 


cf ad 


O.E.Aiken 


WniteMts.,Ar 


100 


60 


19 


i 16.5 


11 


18 


21 


Sep. 


30, 


•76 




d im 


L.Locke. 


Olema, Cal. 


85 


51 


15 


! 13 


8 


14.5 


21 

















The first is in collection of H. W. Henshaw, the second in collection of W. 
O. Emerson. 

15. Zonotrichia coronata. 

Golden-crowned Sparrow. — Three birds of this species 
were found feeding upon "chick-weed" amongst the pines. 

LIST OF SPECIMENS COLLECTED. 



Collector's Number. 


Sex and age. 


Date, 1886. 


Remarks. 


2502 
2503 
2532 


Qim. 
$ im. 
9im. 


Feb. 16. 
Feb. 16. 
March 4. 


Moulting. 



ORNITHOLOGY OF GUADALUPE ISLAND. 



299 



16. Spizella socialis arizonae. 

Western Chipping Sparrow. — Returning to camp one 
noon, I heard the song-note of this species, and was for- 
tunate enough to secure it. No others were known to be on 
the island. 

In accordance with the division of >S'. socialis into Eastern 
and Western forms, this single specimen, taken on Guada- 
lupe Island, would have to be assigned to the variety ari- 
zo)ice, but in point of fact it will not answer to the original 
description (Coue's Key, 187^, p. 143), wherein no measure- 
ments are given. A later description, however (B. B. & R. 
Hist. N. Am. B., 1874,Yol. II, p. 11), maybe made applicable 
to the case of w^estern birds which I have seen from this 
State by omitting from the original description: "black 
frontlet lacking, and no definite ashy superciliary line, the 
sides of the crown merely lighter brown; bill brown, pale 
below." 

Excepting the bill, which is "brown, pale below," in 
this instance, the measurements fall within the limitations 
of arizonce. 

DIMENSIONS OF SPECIMENS. 



Collector's 
No. 


Sex 
and 
age 


Date. 


Wing. 


Tail. 


Tail 
feath- 
ers. 


Bill 
from 
nos- 
tril. 

mm. 

6 


Tar- 
sus. 

mm 
18 


Middle toe 
and claw. 


Length. 


Extent. 


2394. 


« 


Jan. 6, 1886. 


mm. 
72 


mm. 
61 


mm. 
60 


mm. 
15 


mm. 
147.5 


mm. 
231.5 



17. Junco hyemalis oregonus. 

Oregon Junco. — One bird, which was quite shy, was 
taken among the pines on a cold, windy day, during which 
the tops of the trees and part of the timber belt were at 
times entirely enveloped by fog. When first seen this bird 
was being viciously attacked by a resident junco {insularis). 



300 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

DIMENSIONS OF SPECIMEN. 



Collector's 
No. 


Sex and age. 


Date. 


Wing. 


Tall 
feathers. 


Bill from 
nostril . 


Tarsus. 


Middle toe. 


•2i89 


(?) $ ad. 


Feb. 16, 1886 


mm . 

71 


mm. 
32 


mm. 
7.5 


mrtL. 
20 


mm. 
16 



Kemarks — The wing and tail are both a trifle shorter than specimeus 
from Oakland (3) and Big Trees, Cal., (1), but no more than might be ex- 
pected in individual variation. 

18. Junco insularis. 

Guadalupe Junco. — In his notes, Dr. Palmer refers to 
this species as "the most abundant birds of the island," 
etc. According to my observation they rank about third in 
relative abundance, the rock-wrens and linnets taking pre- 
cedence. No juncos were found at a lower altitude than 
the palm grove, and the majority were inhabitants of the 
pines and large cypress grove. A pair \. hich was evidently 
mated was taken in the small cypress grove on the 15th of 
January, 1885. The following year not more than two ox 
three were seen in this locality. 

I did not find them noticeably tamer than the linnets, 
nor so confiding as the rock-wrens. Their food was princi- 
pally of seeds, a partiality being shown for the green seeds 
of the "wild lettuce." Their song was twice heard from 
the top of tall cypress trees. It resembles somewhat the 
trill of the chipping sparrow. They also had a sharp chip- 
ping note when alarmed. They remained mostly either 
upon the ground or low down in the branches of trees. The 
limbs of a fallen pine were a favorite resort at all times, and 
the ground underneath most used as a nesting-place. 

The Blue "Gorrions" mated early — soon after the be- 
ginning of the year — and were setting by the 26th of Jan- 
uary, regardless of the almost continuous fogs and winds. 
A nest found March 10 contained four young, hatched but a 
few days before. It was placed in a depression, flush with 



ORNITHOLOGY OF GUADALUPE ISLAND. 301 

the surface of the ground, and so carefully hidden beneath 
a covering of brush that it was found with difficulty, even 
though I was guided by hearing the young " peeping" for 
food. The parent birds, who were close by, seemed but 
little alarmed, uttering only an occasional chirp while I 
searched for their treasure. Six days later the nest was 
vacant, being probably robbed by a stray cat. 

Full fledged young were taken March 16; also a nest with 
three fresh eggs, which had been found nearly completed on 
the 10th. The position of the nest was curious and unique, 
and it was only by seeing the birds at work building that I 
succeeded in discovering it. A pine tree with a cleft 
six feet from the ground, or rather two trees with a common 
trunk, grew near to the edge of a precipice, and in this nar- 
row cleft partially filled with pme needles the juncos had 
built. By standing on a pile of rocks and branches I could 
see the eggs lying in the nest, about a foot below where the 
trees joined. A fluff of cotton pushed down on the end of a 
stick to cover the nest, protected the eggs from bits of 
bark and chips, while I enlarged the openiog to a sufficient 
size to admit my hand. While the eggs were being care- 
fully placed in a collecting box, the birds, who had remained 
interested rather than alarmed witnesses to the spoliation, 
flew to the tree, and, while the male clung to the bark at 
the entrance, the female hopped down within and began the 
removal of the debris which had fallen upon the edge of the 
nest. This was at length cleared away by repeated trips 
into the hole, each journey bringing to the opening a bit of 
wood, which was promptly dropped to the ground. The 
nest is composed of a few pieces of bark-moss, light-colored 
dry grass blades, and a tail feather of a petrel, all surround- 
ing a quantity of grass blades, lined within with goat hair. 
It measures externally about 120 mm. in diameter by 80 
mm. in height, with a receptacle 60 mm. in diameter and 
onh^ 28 mm. in depth. 

The three eggs which the nest contained (set No. 797, 

21— Bull. Cal. Acad. Sci. II. 6. Issued Jauuary 5, 18H7. 



302 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 



author's oological collection) were probably a second setting, 
the ragged appearance of the female's plumage indicating 
previous cares. In color the eggs are a pale greenish white, 
marked with fine dots of reddish brown clustered around 
the larger end. They measure 19.5x15; 20x15.5; 20x16 
millimeters. 

MEASUREMENTS OF SPECIMENS COLLECTED. 



Collector's 


Sex and 


Date. 


Wing. 


Tan 


Bin from 


Depth of 


Tarsus. 


Middle 


No. 


age. 






feathers. 


nostril. 


bill. 




toe. 








mm. 


mm. 


mm . 


mm. 


mm. 


mm. 


1683 


6 ad. 


Jau. 15, 1885. 


71 


61 


9.5 


7 


20 


L5 


2375 


$ ad. 


Jan. 2, 1886. 


70 


62.5 


9.5 


6 


20 


15 


2385 


Sad. 


Jan. 4, 1886. 


70.5 


64 


9.5 


6 5 


20 


15.5 


2418 


Sad. 


Jan. 23, 1886. 


65 


57 


9.5 


6.5 


19.5 


15.5 


2431 


Sad. 


Jan. 26, 18S6. 


7i» 


60 


9. 


7 


19.5 


16 


2434 


Sad. 


Jan. 26, 18S6. 


65 


59 


9. 


6.5 


20 


14 


2442 


Sad. 


Jan. 29, 1886. 


68 


57 


9.5 


6 5 


19.5 


15 


2458 


Sad. 


Feb. 4, 18^6. 


69.5 


60.5 


10. 


6.5 


20 


15 


2537 


Sad. 


March 4 1886. 


68 


60 


8.5 


6.5 


19 


15 


2575 


Sad. 


March 16, 1886. 


71 


62 


10. 


7 


19 


15 




2 ad. 


Average 


68.8 
65 


60.3 


9.4 


6.6 


19.6 


15.1 


1684 


Jan. 15, 1&85. 


56 


9. 


7 


20 


15 


2432 


^ad. 


Jan. 2fi, 1886. 


64 


55 


9. 


6 


20 


14.5 


2574 


^ad. 


March 16, 1886. 
Average 


02 
63.6 


54 


8.5 


6 


19 


15 




55 


8.8 


6.3 


19.6 


14 8 



No. 2375. —Testes large; length, 155 mm.; extent, 223 mm. 

No. 2385.— Length, 162 mm.; extent, 230 mm. 

No. 2431.— Testes very large; mate of No. 24.32. 

No. 2458.— Teses very large. 

No. 2432. — Setting; mate of No. 2431; parents of nest No. 797. 



19. Melospiza lincolni. 

Lincoln's Sparrow. — The small cypress grove, on the 
border of which I had my permanent camp, was my favor- 
ite ground for observation and furnished me with many 
stragglers, among which was a pair of these birds. They 
were taken on different days from among the brush inclosing 



ORNITHOLOGY OF GUADALUPE ISLAND. 



303 



an old goat corral. The slightest noise would drive them 
into the dense brush, from which they would again appear 
when all was quiet. 

LIST OF SPECIMENS COLLECTED. 



Collector's No. 


Sex and age. 


Date, 1886. 


Remarks. 


2461 
2523 


$ ad. 
? ad. 


Febriiarj' 5. 
February 19. 


Testes small. 
Ovaries small . 



20. Passerella iliaca unalaschensis. 

Townsend's Sparrow. — One bird was taken among the 
pines, but so badly cut by the shot that the sex could not 
be -determined. No others were seen. 



DATA OF SPECIMEN COLLECTED. 



Collector's Number, 


Age. 


When Collected. 


2490 


"^ad. 


Feb. 16, 1886. 



21. Pipilo consobrinus. 

Guadalupe Towhee. — The towhees were found only in 
the large cypress grove. They were easily overlooked un- 
less directly in one's path among the trees. When singing 
the bird could be readily traced and secured, but in such 
cases it was always a male. Only two females were seen, 
and I cannot believe, that their number was in any degree 
equal to that of the males, for otherwise I do not believe it 
possible that I could have so completely overlooked them, 
even though they might have been setting. I was about 
the grove at all hours of the day, camped there, and was 
astir at break of dawn, even before the male towhee had 
mounted his throne on the topmost branch of a cypress and 
had sounded his morning trill. This song closely resem- 
bles that of P. maculatus megalonyx, but has one important 



304 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

variation which was almost invariably given, and which I 
have never heard from megalonyx. This consists in a single 
quick note, somewhat like a bluebird's, given immediately 
before the trill, as though it was the click or chuck of the 
machinery that released the sound which followed. At a 
distance, when the trill could be distinctly heard, the single 
quick chuck would pass unnoticed. When I first heard this 
combination it occurred to me that a bluebird was in the 
same tree or near by, but closer observation proved the 
Towhee to be the sole author of it. 

The only food upon which they fed consisted of insects. 
A young bird in company with the adult pair was found in a 
fallen cypress top, but no eggs of this species were taken. 

Ch. — Young (first plumage). Above rusty olive brown, 
darker on sides of head. Feathers of interscapular region 
black, edged, more broadly on the outer web, with pale 
brown. Underparts j^ellowish brown, darkest on throat, 
grading into white od the abdomen and to light reddish 
brown on side; the feather streaked with black. Sides of 
chin, black, leaving a light line of about the same width 
between. White markings on wings and visible edges of 
greater wing coverts narrowly edged with rusty brown. 
Eyes muddy brown. 

(No. 2585. Author's collection, Guadalupe Island, 
March 26, 1886.) 

AVing, 80 mm; Tail feathers, 71 mm.; Bill from nostril, 
7.5 mm.; Tarsus, 23 mm.: middle toe, 20 mm.; hind claw, 
12 mm. 

It much resembles on the back the young plumage of the 
same age of P. maculatiis oregonus (No. 983. Author's collec- 
tion, Wilbur, Or., June 20, 1883), but the latter is darker 
on sides of neck, and has the feathers of sides and crissum 
rich reddish-brown. 

The underparts correspond closely to the young of P. 
macalatus megalonyx {^o, 2298, author's collection, Oakland, 
Cal., June 3, 1885), which is somewhat younger. I believe 



ORNITHOLOGY OF GUADALUPE ISLAND. 



305 



if they were of the same age it would be impossible to sej; 
arate them. 

LIST OF SPECIMENS COLLECTED. 



Collector's 


Sex and 


When 
colle-.ted, 


Wing 


Tail 


Tail 


Bill 
from 


Depth 


Breadth 


Tar- 


Mid- 
dle 


Hind 


No. 


age 


1886 


mm. 


feathers 




nos- 
tril 


of bill 
mm. 


of bill 


sus 


toe 


claw 








mm. 


mm. 


mm . 


mm. 


mm. 


mm. 


mm . 


2419 


$ad. 


Jan. 23 


80 


86 


97 


9 


9 


7 


26 


18 


13 


2450 


Sad. 


Feb. 2 


78 


81 


88 


9.5 


9 


7 


26 


18 


13 


2506 


sad. 


Feb. 12 


78 


85 


93 


9 


9 


7.5 


25 


19 


14 


2507 


Sad. 


Feb. 12 


80 


86 


94 


9.5 


9 


7 


26 


18 


12 


2508 


Sad. 


Feb. 12 


80 


88 


96 


10 


9 


7 


24 


19 


13 


25fi9 


Sad. 


Mar. 12 


79 


83 


90 


9 5 


8.5 


7 


25 


19 


13 


2570 


Sad. 


Mar. 12 


79 


86 


94 


9.5 


9 


7 


24 


19.5 


13 


2571 


Sad. 


Mar. 12 


80 


87 


94.5 


9.5 


9 


7 


24.5 


19.5 


13 


2580 


Sad. 


Mar. 22 


80 


87 


96 


10 


9 


7 


24.5 


20 


13.5 


2587 


Sad. 


Mar. 26 
Av'g... 


81.5 
79.5 


87 


95 


10 


8.5 


6.5 


24 


19 


13 




85.6 


93.7 


9.5 


8.9 


7 


24 9 


18.9 


13 


2388 
2586 


? ud. 
? ad. 


Jan. 5 
Miir. 26 

Av 2... 


74 

75.5 






9.5 
10 


9 


6 5 


24 


18 


13 


81 


90 


9 


7 


25.5 


19 


13 



































No. 2419. — Testes large. Iris orange, tinged with carmine around pupil. 
No. 2459. — Iris orange, tinced with carmine. 
No. 2507. — Iris carmine. 
No. 2569. — Iris carmine. 
No. 2388. — Iris orange. 



22 Ampelis cedrorum. 

Cedar Waxwing. — Christmas morning was the brightest 
and fairest I enjoyed during more than one hundred days 
of my sojourn on the island. Taking a stroll through the 
small cypress grove in search of birds not before met with, 
I was rewarded by seeing what I supposed to be one of this 
species, but was unable to capture it. Nothing was seen or 
heard of it again for more than a month, until one pleasant 
afternoon, as I was engaged in preparing specimens in the 
ient, I heard the notes of the Cedar Bird close by, and 



306 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

going outside, was just in time to get a flying shot at the 
retreating bird — but missed it. Those who have had a 
similar experience can imagine my feelings when that bird 
disappeared. I knew, beyond any reasonable doubt, that it 
was^. cedrorum, yet the lack of any positive evidence of 
the fact, left me brooding over my disappointment for the 
next two hours. The unexpected reappearance of the bird, 
however, quickly dispelled the gloom. This time I took all 
possible precaution, and succeeded in making this hand- 
some addition to my collection of Guadalupe stragglers. 

DATA OF SPECIMEN COLLECTED. 



Collector's Number. 


Sex and age. 


Date, 


2437 


$ im. 


Jan. 28, 1886. 



Remarks— No wax tips. 

23. Lanius ludovicianus excubitorides. 

White-rumped Shrike. — Two specimens of these butcher- 
birds were seen on the central part of the island. Both 
were heard singing in low, liquid tones, quite pleasing to the 
ear. They were very shy, although to a less degree tlian 
birds of the same species which were met with in 1885 on 
Cerros Island, Lower California. 

Considering the abundance of larvae, coleopterous insects 
and occasional grasshoppers, one would suppose that the 
*'menu" of the Shrike left nothing for her to desire, but 
on dissecting a specimen, I found amongst the caterpillars, 
which the distended gizzard contained, a tiny golden foot of 
Guadalupe's sweetest songster, the Dusky Kinglet. 

In color this bird is much lighter than the same species 
from Oakland, Cal., and more closely resembles specimens- 
from Tulare, Cal., and Tucson, A. T. 



ORNITHOLOGY OF GUADALUPE ISLAND. 307 

DATA OP SPECIMEN COLLECTED. 



Collector's Number. 


Sex and age. 


When Collected, 


2370 


? ad. 


December 29^ 1885. 



24. Dendroica auduboni. 

Audubon's Waebler. — The only ones seen, two in num- 
ber, were taken on stormy days in the small cypress grove. 

LIST OF SPECIMENS COLLECTED, 



Collector's Number. 


Sex, 


Date. 


2368 
2404 


6 


December 28. 1885. 
January 12, 1886. 



25. Anthus pensilvanicus. 

American Pipit. — On the evening of February 2, while 
going to the alkali pools to watch for owls, I heard faintly 
the note of a Titlark. The evening was very calm, the sun, 
just set, cast a beautiful afterglow about the sky; there was 
just light enough remaining to enable me to distinguish the 
birds working their way among the rocks. That I might 
make sure of at least a single specimen for identification, I 
fired at the one nearest me. The flock, about twenty-five in 
number, at once rose and circled past out of range; and I 
saw them no more. 

DATA OF SPECIMEN COLLECTED. 



Collector's No. 


Sex. 


Date. 


2451 


S (?) 


February 2, 1886. 



26. Oroscoptes montanus. 

Sage Thrasher. — In making my rounds of the small cy- 
press grove on a cold, cloudy and windy morning in Jan- 



308 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 



nary, I saw and heard fewer birds than ever before or since. 
It was seldom that I did not take or note something of in- 
terest on these short excursions, and on tiiis day I secured 
a handsome specimen of the Sage Thrasher, which was 
found among the leafless branches of a fallen tree. No song; 
nor even a single note was heard from him. 

DATA OF SPECIMEN COLLECTED. 



Collector's No. 


Sex and age. 


Date. 


2400 


S ad. 


January 7, 1886. 



Remarks — Iris yellow. Fat. Contained only caterpillars. 

27. Mimus polyglottos. 

Mocking Bird. — Two birds, apparently a mated pair, 
were seen on a fallen pine at the northern edge of the palm 
grove. First attracted to the place by the delightful song 
which floated upon the air, I saw one of the birds in the act 
of pouncing upon something in the grass, in the manner of 
a shrike. When alarmed they flew higher and higher among 
the branches of a tall pine, so that only the female was cap- 
tured. Having never before seen this bird in a wild state, 
I regretted the act which, in compliance with strict scientific 
requirements, deprived that sea bound spot of so much 
sweet music. 



SPECIMEN COLLECTED. 



Collector's No 


Sex and age. 


Date. 


2579 


? ad. 


March 16, 1886. 



Remaiks -Iris yellow. Ovaries small. 



28. Salpinctes guadeloupensis. 

Guadalupe Rock Wren. — This species, undoubtedly the 
most common of the birds on the island, was distributed 



ORNITHOLOGY OF GUADALUPE ISLAND. 309 

from the beach to the summit, but was found to be most 
numerous on the upper and central portions. They were by 
nature tamer than anv birds I ever met with. While re- 
treating, if approached, they wouki in turn draw quite near 
to a person who remained perfectly quiet. Sitting down 
one afternoon upon a log, I saw a Rock Wren come hopping 
closer and closer to where I was resting, until at length he 
perched upon my shoe. Then seeing a sandy spot just be- 
yond, he availed himself of the opportunity by taking a 
dust-bath. So close was he to me that I could have reached 
him with my foot, yet constantly in motion, searching here 
and there among the rocks for food, he seemed entirely un- 
conscious of my presence. Even when standing they are 
seldom quiet, a nervous twitch of the tail or toss of the head 
bearing witness to the incessant activity so characteristic of 
these little cieatures. 

Seldom silent, they have, in addition to their ringing call, 
ix considerable variety of song. I became accustomed to 
the variations of four or five difi'erent birds, and noticed 
that each had a song peculiar to himself but differing from 
the songs of his fellows. One little wren near camp was in 
the habit of beginning his song each morning at about half- 
past six, never varying five minutes from his self-appointed 
time. They are usually seen on the ground or upon a rock 
or stump. One remarkably foggy morning, I noticed one 
sitting on the top of a sage-bush, while on fine days, I have 
seen them mounted to the height of twenty feet on a dry 
cypress twig, singing their cheerful song. 

Their food consisted mainly of caterpillars and beetles. 
I watched one pick to pieces and devour successively three 
small Carabide beetles. 

The weather does not seem to be taken into consideration 
by any of the resident species. Tiie rock-wrens are the 
first to begin nesting, and endeavor to conduct their do- 
mestic affairs thrctugh the stormiest times, though not 
iJways with success. Many abandoned nests were found, 



310 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

some with and some without eggs, deserted, probably, on 
account of long continued wet weather. The location of 
the nest, however, plays an all-important part in the success 
or failure of the first builders. A few birds began the con- 
struction of their nests in December, and one had her work 
nearly completed on the 25th of December, 1885. Four 
fresh eggs were found in it on January 17th. The breeding 
season, strictly speaking, extends from the middle of Jan- 
uary through the month of March. 

Nests were found in cavities of immense boulders, under 
rocks, in fallen and decayed trunks of cypress trees, the 
latter location being apparently a favorite one. But wher- 
ever the nests were located the passages leading to them 
were, with one or two exceptions, paved with flat pebbles 
ranging in size from a Lima bean to a half dollar. Fully a 
quart of these pebbles were removed from the entrance to 
a nest built in a boulder at a height of four feet, where, at 
some previous time, other birds had evidently built and 
accumulated their share of the pavement. As a rule scarcely 
an ordinary handful of stones are used. The nest is built 
in close conformity to the size and shape of the cavity 
which it occupies, being usually circular and varying from 
a shallow bed of fine dry grasses to a nest of the same ma- 
terial measuring 150 mm. in diameter and 60 mm. high. 
The egg receptacle is from 55 mm. to 70 mm. in diameter, 
and not more than 30 mm. in depth. A lining of goat 
hair when obtainable is invariably used. I followed one 
bird fully an hundred yards from the spot where she had 
collected some goat hair before the nest was reached. 

The eggs are usually four, though sometimes five in 
number, and resemble both in color and shape those of 
the common rock-wren {S. ohsoletus). 

Set No. 781 (author's oological collection) measures: 
17 X 14; 17 X 14.5: 18 x 14.5; 18.5 x 14.5 mm. 

Set No. 782 (author's oological collection) offers the fol- 



ORNITHOLOGY OF GUADALUPE ISLAND. 311 

lowing measurements in millimeters: 19 x 14; 19 x 14; 
19.5 xU.5; 19.5 x 14.5; 19.5 x 15. 

The average size ascertained from a series of fifty-five 
eggs, is 19 X 14 mm. 

The two largest eggs measured 21 x 15 mm. and 20 x 16 
mm. respective!}' ; the two smallest, 17 x 14 mm. 

Two different stages of the young plumage w^ere taken, 
descriptions of which are here given : 

Ch. — Young. Above similar to adult but "niuch darker, 
especially the head and neck, Avhich lack the speckled mark- 
ings. Wings and tail as in adult but darker, the bars 
across middle tail-feathers dull black. The outer half of the 
pale cinnamon on end of tail-feather finely mottled with 
dusky. Under parts pale pinkish cinnamon; the entire 
throat obscured with a faint dusky suffusion. Crissum 
darker than abdomen and unmarked. 

Wing, 67 mm.; tail feathers, 53 mm.; bill from nostril, 12 
mm.; tarsus, 19 mm.; middle toe, 13 mm. 

(No. 2530 — Imm iture, author's collection. Guadalupe 
Island, February 19, 1886.) 

First Plumage. — Above lighter than the immature speci- 
men and grayer than the adult plumage. Below, including 
throat, pale sulphurous white, becoming pinkish on sides, 
and crissum, which is unmarked. 

Wing, 57 mm.; tail feather, 34 mm.; bill from nostril, 8.5 
mm.; tarsus, 20.5 mm.; middle toe, 14 mm. 

(No. 2125 — Nestling, author's collection. Guadalupe 
Island, January 23, 1886. ) 

By the table of measurements it will be seen that the bills 
of specimens (collected eleven years after the species was 
discovered) average about 15.5 mm.; while those taken in 
1875 I find to average fully a millimeter less. A decade 
hence it will be interesting to know whether this increasing 
development has still continued. 



312 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 
LIST OF SPECIMENS COLLECTED. 



Collector's No. 



2395 
2397 
2398 
2422 
2423 
2443 
2444 
2445 
2534 
2630 



2396 
2446 
2449 
2450 



Sex and 
age. 



Date, 1886. 



$ ad. 

S ad.' 
ad. 
ad 
ad. 
ad.\ 
ad , 
ad. 
ad,. 
ad.\ 



January 6. 
January 6. 
January 6. 
January 23 
January 23 
January 29 
January 29 
January 29 
March 4. 
Janiiary 29 



I Average.. 



9 «'^/.j January 6. 

? C((Z. January 29 

$ orZ. January 29 

? rt(Z. January 29 

Average . . 



Wing. 



mm. 
65 

66.5 

67 

69 

68 

68 

68 

66 

71.5 

68 



<i.j 



66 
64 
63 
64 



64.2 



Tail 
feathers 



Tail. 



mm. 
48 
49 
48.556 
52 



mm 

52 

54 



49 
51 
52 

48 
53 
52 



50.2 

50 
45 
46 
47 

47 



54 

57 
57 
54 

58.5 
57 



55.5 

55 
50 
54 
53.5 



53 1 



Bill from 




nostril, 
mm. 




mm. 


15 


21 


15.5 


21 


17 


21 


16 


20 


16 


22.5 


15 


22 


16 


22 


]6 


21 


17 


22 


15 


21 


15.8 


21.3 


16.5 


21 


17 


21.5 


15 


21 


14 


20 


15.6 


20.8 



Middle 
toe. 



mm. 
14 
13 
14 
13 
14 
14 
14 

14.5 
14.5 
15 

14 

14 
15 
IS 
13 

13 7 



No. 2534 — Ferruginous shade on breast and abdomen. 

No. 2396. — Feathers worn off breast from setting. Length, 152 mm.; ex- 
tent, 217 mm. 

No. 2446. — Contained four very large ova. 

29. Thryothorus brevicaudus. 

Guadalupe Wren. — This rare local species has become 
much restricted in distribution and perhaps m number since 
Dr. Palmer obtained the only two known specimens in 1875. 
I am informed that no collecting was done at that time 
among the pines on the northern portion of the island, in 
which place alone was I able to discover any trace of this 
species; and as no collecting was done by Dr. Palmer among 
the palms (an unlikely place for the birds to be found), I 
infer that the two original specimens must have been found 
toward the central portion of the island. 

The birds were timid rather than shy, being alarmed by 
tlie crushing of dry branches as I worked my way amid-t 
the dense windfalls of pines, where they were found, they 



ORNITHOLOGY OF GUADALUPE ISLAND. 



313 



fled into the thickest parts. When all was quiet they would 
Ciiutiously approach until within a few feet of me, seeming- 
ly prompted by curiosity. Fearing the complete extermi- 
nation of a species so restricted in distribution, I refrained 
from taking more specimens. All that I secured were taken 
within an area of sixty by three hundred feet, nor were any 
seen elsewhere. A frightened female uttered a few '' twit" 
" twits" of alarm, but with this exception they were utterly 
silent. 

A careful and protracted search during the greater part 
of two days, with the aid of my Mexican companion, failed 
to discover the whereabouts of a nest, the eggs of which 
remain unknown. 

LIST OF SPECIMENS COLLECTED. 



Collector's 


Sex and 


Date. 


Wing. 


Tail 


Tail. 


Exposed 


Bill from 


Tarsus. 


Middle toe. 


No. 


age. 


1886. 




feathers. 




culraen. 


nostril. 












mm. 


mm. 


mm. 


mm. 


mm. 


mm. 


mm. 


2483 


i ad. 


Feb. 16 


48 


44 


48 


37 5 


12 


17 


12 


2484 


{t)$ad 


it «j 


49 


44 


50 


17 


12 


18 


12 


2486 


iad. 


.. it 


48 


43 


47.5 


17 


12 


17 


12.5 


2487 


sad. 


" " 


48 


45 


47 


17 


12 


18 


12 






Av'g.. 


48.2 


44 


48 1 


17.1 


12 


17.5 


12.1 


2482 


9 ad. 


Feb 16. 


47 


43 


45 


16 


11 


]8 


11 


2485 


? ad. 


" 


47 


42 


47 


16 


11 


17.5 


11.5 


2488 


^ad. 


' ' " 


49 


43 


47 


17 


11.5 


17.5 


12 






Av'g.. 


47.6 


42.6 


46.3 


16.3 


11.1 


17.6 


11.5 



No. 2483. — Contained insects and two pine seeds. Length, 134mm. Extent, 
165 mm. 

No. 2484. — Sex not determined. 

No. 2482.— Ovaries large. Eyes, dark brown. Contained insects. 

No. 2485.— Ovaries small. 

No. 2488.— Ovaries large. 



30. Sitta canadensis. 

Eed-beeasted Nuthatch. — Tolerably common among the 



314 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

pine timber, and found nowhere else except in the large 
cypress grove, where two or three were heard. 

By the 10th of March several birds had begun their pre- 
parations for nesting. Selecting a dead pine stump or 
branch they worked industriously, striking little resounding 
taj)S with their bills. Two unfinished holes were found, 
one at a height of about forty feet in a slender dead pine, 
being just commenced, while the other, near the top of a pine 
stump fifteen feet high, had been cut to a depth of four or five 
inches, thus rendering necessary the removal of chips. This 
process was effected by regular stages, the bird bringing a 
mouthful of debris to the opening, where, entirely visible 
with the exception of her tail, she clung to the edge of the 
opening, head downward, until the chips were launched 
into the air. 

Specimens which were taken on January 26 and February 
16, do not vary in size from specimens of this species from 
other localities. 

31. Regulus obscurus. 

Dusky Kinglet. — Frequenting more numerously the large 
cypress grove, they are nevertheless found in the smaller 
grove, and also among the pines. In the former and latter 
places they are positively known to breed, and there is but 
little doubt that they also nest in the small grove. They 
are much tamer than others of this genus found elsewhere, 
still they do not seek a close acquaintance with a person of 
hunting proclivities. 

In December I found them in full song and as common 
as in April, although strange as it may seem, it was not un- 
til the latter month that any were noticed by Dr. Palmer. 

Their song is indescribably sweet and musical, and of 
wonderful power for so small a bird, commencing with a 
few low, quick notes, as though the singer were merely try- 
ing his voice, then bursting into a full animated warble, it 
ends in a dissyllabic measure, accented on the first syllable, 
and usually repeated from three to six times. One remark- 



ORNITHOLOGY OF GUADALUPE ISLAND. 315 

ably fine songster repeated the final dissyllable eight or ten 
times. Only once did I hear the metallic click, so common 
with the Oakland birds in winter, but even then it flowed 
immediately into song. 

As early as the middle of February nest-building was in 
order, the birds selecting the topmost foliage of a cypress, 
and sometimes the very outer extremity of a horizontal 
branch . 

As the result of many days' diligent search, three nests 
came under my observation, and these were detected only 
by watching the birds as they collected building material, 
or by tracing to its source a peculiar, low song, which the 
male sometimes sings when close to the nest. 

These nests were all found over twenty feet high, and 
only one could be seen from the ground, and that merely 
during the intervals when the wind parted the branches. 
They were placed in the midst of a thick bunch of foliage, 
and but lightly secured to the twigs. Compact, though not 
very smooth in structure, they were composed of soft 
strips of bark intermingled with feathers, bits of moss, 
fine grass and cocoons. Additional warmth is secured by 
a quantity either of goat's hair or feathers, and, lastly, a 
thin lining of goat's hair. Their external measurement is 
about 70 mm. in height by 90 mm. in diameter, while the 
internal depth is about 45 mm., and diameter from 35 mm. 
to 45 mm.. The mouth of the opening is smaller than im- 
mediately below. 

A nest containing two fresh eggs (set No. 799, author's 
oological collection) was found in the top of a slender 
cypress twenty-five feet high, March 24. It could not be 
seen from the ground, but was located by the subdued song 
of the male bird. As I ascended the tree and approached 
the nest, the female flew off and joined her mate in a neigh- 
boring tree. She made no demonstrations whatever, and 
was not again seen, while her partner, undisturbed by my 
intrusion continued to warble his richest song. 



316 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCEb. 



In color the eggs are white, with a dense wreath of pale 
yellowish -brown spots encircling the larger end. In some 
places, these spots appear to be laid over a pale lavender 
washing, and in one specimen, these fine, almost indistinct 
dots extend sparingly over the entire surface. They measure 
in millimeters 14 x 11 and 15 x 11. 

LIST OF SPECIMENS COLLECTED. 



Collect- 
or's No. 


Sex and 
age. 


Date, 

1886. 


Wing 


Tail 

feathers. 


Tail. 


Bill 

from 

nostril. 


Tarsus 


Middle 
toe. 


Length. 


Extent 


2371 
2390 


S ad. 

S ad. 
S ad. 

5 ad. 

6 ad. 
$ ad. 
$ ad. 
S ad. 

5 ad. 

6 ad. 

? ad. 
? ad. 
? ad. 


Jan. 2 
Jau. 6 
Jan. 6 
Jan. 6 
Jan. 6 
Jan. 23 
Jan. 23 
Jau. 23 
Jan. 29 
Feb. 2 

Av'g.. 

Jau. 2 
Jan. 29 
Feb. 2 

Av'g.. 


mm. 

56 

53 

53 

55 

54 5 

54.5 

55 

56.5 

56 

55 


mm. 
44 
40 
40 
43 
41.5 
43 
44 
46 


mm. 

47 
49 


mm. 
7 

6.5 
6 

6.5 
6 
6 
7 

7.5 
7.5 
6.5 


mm. 

19.5 

18 

20 

19 

20.5 

19.5 

20 

19.5 

20 

19.5 


mm. 

10.5 

10 

10 

10 

10 

10.5 

10.5 

10.5 

10 

11 

10.3 

10 
10 
10 

10 


mm. 
114 


mm. 
169 


2391 
2392 
2399 
2412 
2413 
2414 
2441 
2455 


111 


lfi4 




2373 
2439 
2456 


54.8 

51 
51 
52 

51.3 


42.8 

38.5 

40 
40.5 


42.5 

41 

44.5 


6.6 

6 

6.5 

6 

6.1 


195 

19 
19 
19 5 

19.1 






39,6 


~ 







No. 2371. 
No. 2456 



-Iris dark brown. 
-Ovaries small. 



The length of bill from nostril of the males taken by Dr. 
Palmer, all measure 6.3 mm., and the single female has the 
bill but 5.5 mm., showing a slight increase in length during 
the past decade. As this measurement can be so accurately 
taken, I believe the difference is an actual one. 

32. Turdus aonalaschkae. 

Dwarf Hermit Thrush. — The strange shyness of the 
straggling avifauna of Guadalupe Island was well exempli- 



ORNITHOLOGY OF GUADALUPE ISLAND. 



317 



fied in the first specimen of this species which I met 
with. On the 24th of December, I thought I heard the 
note of a Dwarf Thrush, a sound quite familiar to me 
during the winter season at Oakland, but could not get 
a sight at the author of it. The bird was heard for several 
consecutive mornings in the cypress grove adjoining my 
camp, but was not seen until the 2d of January. He then 
succeeded in eluding me and leading me a daily chase until 
the 7th of January, when he was accommodating enough to 
call at camp in the evening, announcing his arrival by call- 
ing out quickl}^ "chut," ''chut." As the sound apparently 
proceeded from beneath a fallen cypress I worked my way 
cautiously in that direction, keeping tree trunks between 
myself and the place. The ground being smoother than 
where I had previously found him, I was not obliged to 
look to every footstep, and finally arriving within range, I 
caught sight of him on the ground. The report of the gun 
was tremendous in the still evening air, and the result final. 
I soon had the long-sought prize in hand, beautiful, as 
freshly killed specimens of Turdi always are. Two other 
specimens were afterwards taken, one in the large palm 
grove, the other among the cypress. Neither, however, 
was so difficult to approach as the first. 

LIST OF SPECIMENS COLLECTED. 



Collector's Number. 


Sex and age. 


Date, 1886. 


Remarks. 


2401 
2436 
2583 


5 ad. 
— ad. 

S ad. 


January 7. 

January 28. 

March 26. 


Iris dark brown 



33. Merula migratoria propiniiua. 

Western Robin. — First seen in December. In January 
three birds were found and taken on the border of the small 



cypress grove. 

22— Bull. Cal. Acad. Sci. 



Issued January 5, 1887. 



318 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

LIST OF SPECIMENS. 



Collector's Number. 


Sex. 


Date, 1886. 


Remarks. 


2382 

2386 




January 4. 
January 4. 
January 8. 


Fat. 

Head only saved. 







34. Hesperocichla naevia. 

Varied Thrush. — One bird only was seen on the island 
among the pine timber. 



DATA OF SPECIMEN. 



Collector's Number. 


Sex aud age. 


Date. 


2533 


? ad. 


March 4, 1886. 



Kemarks — Gizzard contained larvae, beetles and one pine seed. 

35. Sialia arctica. 

Mountain Bluebird. — Three birds of this species were 
seen on several occasions on the edge of the small cypress 
grove; a single one being noticed for the last time on the 
15th of February. 

DATA OF SPECIMEN COLLECTED. 



Collector's Number. 


Sex and age. 


Date. 


2369 


$ ad. 


December 29, 1885. 



Remarks— Iris dark brown. Gizzard contained caterpillars and an elytron 
of a beetle. 



STANDARD GEODETIC DATA. 319 



STANDARD GEODETIC DATA. 

COMMUNICATED BY AUTHORITY OF THE SUPERINTE>JDENT OF THE UNITED STATKS 
COAST AND GEODETIC SURVEY. 

BY PROF. GEORGE DAVIDSON. 

Read October 18, 1886. 

In the development of the main triangulation of the Pa- 
cific Coast, it was early discovered that large and irregular 
deflections of the plumb-line existed at the triangulation 
stations, whether they were situated on the mountains or in 
the plains. 

When the main triangulation was undertaken it embraced 
lines of unusual length, and one part of the scheme was the 
projection of a network across the continent along the 39th 
parallel. 

In order to collect standard geodetic data for the compu- 
tation of the geographical positions on this coast. Assistant 
Davidson planned at the outset to have the latitude observ- 
ed at each triangulation point; and he also observed the az- 
imuth of some one line in the series of directions which were 
observed from the same station. 

This scheme of trianejulation commenced from an accurate- 
ly-measured base-line of nearly eleven miles in length sit- 
uate in the plains of Yolo county, California. From this 
line it was carried by quadrilaterals to the Coast Eange of 
mountains, as far west as Mount Tamalpais; and from the 
line Mount Helena — Mount Diablo it stretched across the 
great valley of California to the line Mount Lola — Round 
Top. This scheme of triangulation was named by the Su- 
perintendent of the United States Coast and Geodetic Sur- 
vey the " Davidson Quadrilaterals." The observations at 
all the stations have been shown to be remarkably satisfac- 
tory, and the discussion has been rigorously carried out in 



320 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

the computing division of the Survey, under the direction 
of Assistant Schott. From the means abeady at hand, the 
following summary of results is made known, wherein it is 
seen that the accej^ted standard station for latitude is Mount 
Helena, and the standard line for azimuth is Mount 
Helena — Mount Diablo. The tabulation exhibits the ob- 
served and computed latitudes and azimuths, the probable 
error of each determination, and the deflection of the plumb- 
line from the means. 

Including the stations Mount Lola and Kound Top, 
which are the eMsternmost points of the " Davidson Quadri- 
laterals," in the Sierra Nevada, we have nine stations, at 
each of which the latitude and azimuth were determined as- 
tronomically; and we shall take the mean results derived 
from all these observations for the formation of the stand- 
ard values cTq and «o. 

The direct results of the astronomical observations for 
latitude require two corrections: one, the reduction to the 
station point A; the other, the correction for curvature of 
the vertical or reduction to the sea level. The heights re- 
quired for the latter purpose are given in Appendix No. 10, 
Coast and Geodetic Survey Eeport for 1884, (Mount Lola 
being 2,796.4 metres, or 9,175 feet; and Bound Top 3,173.5 
metres, or 10,412 feet above the level of the sea.) 

For the expression of the curvature between the sea-lev- 
el and the altitude of the station, we have (see Clarke's 

Geodesy, pp. 101-102), d <p= !^7-, (| m—e) sin 2<p. Put- 

r sm X 

ting I m— e'=0.0052 \ and log. (r sin r0=1.490,then for A, 

the height in metres, and 'V the correction in seconds of 

arc we have for the latitude <p 

0^=— 0.000167Asin2^; or [7i6.212]A, 

for the average latitude 39°; the number within brackets 

being a logarithm. 

^ — G. Zaebariae. in his Principal Geodetic Points (German transla- 
tion by Dr. Lampe, Berlin, 1878), prefers the value 0.00513. 



STANDARD GEODETIC DATA. 321 



GEODEIIC OK STANDARD LATITUDE c OF MOUNT HELENA, 
FOR THE "DAVIDSON QUADRILATERALS." 



Astrouomical 
Station. 



Year 

of 

Obii. 



S. E. Yolo Base. 
N.W.Yolo Base. 

Monticello 

Vaea Mt 

Mt. Diablo. . . 
Mt. Tamalpais. 

Mt. Heleua 

Mt. Lola 

Round Top 



Observed 

Astrou'mic' 

Latitude. 



18^0 38 
1880 38 
1880 38 
1880 3 S 
1«76 37 
1882 37 
187638 
1879 39 
1879 38 



31 34.R2 
4 1 37.34 
Hd 46.51 
22 23.3s 
52 49.59 
55 19.04 
40 01.02 
25 57.98 
39 46 89 






to. 06 
0.07 
0.09 
00; 
0.06 
0.08 
0.06 
0.(16 
0.08 







f en hg 


Re d'n 


Re d'n 


dg* 


to 


to 


5:0 g 




Sei 




A 


Level. 




,, 


,, 


,, 


—0.45 


—0.00 


34.07 


—0.13 


—0.01 


I37.2O 


—0.31 


-0 15 


46 05 


+0 37 


—0.12 


123.63 


0.00 


-0.19 


'49.40 


—0.04 


—0.13 


18 87 


+0.47 


—0.22 


01.27 


-0 22 


-0.46 


57.30! 


+0 01 


— 52 


40.38 i 



Adopted 
Geodetic 
Latitude. 

(G). 



38 31 
:J8 40 
38 39 
38 22 
M 52 

37 55 

38 40 
:59 25 
3^ 39 



35.41 
38.03 
43.8.- 
27.02 
4S.70 
20.69 
04 26 
53 34 
43.64 



Mean . 



— 1.34 

—('.83 
+2.20 
—3.39 
+0.70 

— 1.82 
—2.99 
+3.96 
+ 2.74 

—0.09 



The .mean difference, A — G, is small, approximating 
zero, as it should be. AVe have, therefore, retained and 
adopted for the present <p^ for Mount Helena 38" 40' 04.26'', 
with a probable uncertainty of ± 0.' 59. The average local 
deflection in the meridian is about 2. "2. 

GEODETIC OR STAND AED AZIMUTH a^ OF DIRECTION MT. HELEXA 
TO MT. DIABLO, FOR THE "DAVIDSON QUADRILATEBALS." 









Observed ' . , ^ 


^ ^ 


^f« 


Adopted 


> 




Station 


To Station 


Astronom- 


'^yo 




sgl 


Geodetic 


1 


No. 


Occupied. 


Observed. 


ical 


^P. 


cs c 


S Sc'^ 


Azimuth 


Q 








Azimuth. 


a 1 


50^^. 


(G') 










: / ' ' \ ' ' 


,, 


" 1 


/ // 


" 


1 


S. E. Yolo Base. 


N. W. Yolo Base 


163 07 13.51 


4-0.18 


—0.00 


13.51 1 


163 07 15. 07 —1.56 


2 


N. W.Yolo Base. S. E. Yolo B.ise. 


a43 05^02.35 


0.16 


-0.00 


02.35 


343 05 04.0:^—1.68 


3 


-Vloiiticello 


Mt. Heleua 


91 04 2.5.16 


0.21 


-0.00 


2.5.16, 


91 C4 23 79 1.37 


4 


Vaca Mt 


S. E. Yolo Base. 


235 38 3<;.44 


0.28 


0.00 


36.44 I 


235 38.33.47! 2.97 


5 


Mt. Diablo 


Mt. Heleua 


14i 28 16 13 


0.15i 




* 1 


144 28 15.06 1.07 


6 


Mt. Tamalpais. 


Mt. Diablo 


274 15 15.39 


0.14i 


-0.01 


15.381 


274 15 iri.71 — 0.33 


7 


Mt. Heleua 


Mt. Diablo 


324 01 24.86 


0.191 






324 01 31.04 —6.18 


8 


Mt. Lola 


Mt. Helena 


67 21 62.. 57 


0.17 


-0.16 


62.41 


67 21 59. .55 2.86 


9 


Round Top 


Mt. Helena 


93 58 53.67 


0.13 


-0.16 


53.. 51 


90 58 53.01 i - 0.50 
Mean. .. — 0.11 



322 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

The mean difference is sufficiently near zero to retain 
the old value, and we adopt for the present «o Mount He- 
lena to Mount Diablo : 

324° or 31/^04 ±00/'64. 

This value will slightly change after the Mount Lola and 
Bound Top observations shall have been finally adjusted. 
The average local difference in azimuth is about 2/'l. 

At the stations Mount Diablo and Mount Helena the as- 
tronomical azimuths were referred to a mark and not to a 
triangulation point, and the same is the case at Mount Lola 
and at Kound Top. 

The references to the stations marked by an asterisk ["^j 
in the preceding table would therefore be arbitrary since 
the results must depend on the adjustment of the directions 
of the figure; but by applying a correction which is the 
mean of all the corrections to the lines at the stations, the 
reference of the astronomical meridian to the geometrical 
figure of the triangulation is effected with respect to all di- 
rections; thus for the two stations in question: 

At Mount Diablo: — 

Observed azimuth of the reference mark (Clayton) = 
9° 42' 25. ''92 West of North; hence, astronomical azimuth 

of the mark = 170° 17' 84."08 

Or when reduced to the sea level-^ 170 17 34. 07 

At Mount Diablo the mean correction to the 

six adjusted directions is + 0/'023 

(±0."11); this added to the observed 

geodetic direction of the azimuth 

(25-49'17."194) gives = 25 49 17. 217 

Hence with the corrected direction to Mount 

Helena (see below)-- 359 59 59. 273 

The angle between the mark and Mount He- 
lena, adjusted= 25 49 17. 94 
and the astronomical azimuth referred to 

Mount Helena becomes 144 28 16. 13 

as given in the preceding table. 



STANDARD GEODETIC DATA. 



323 



Siviilarhj at Mount Helena: — 

The Observed Azimuth of the reference 
mark (Woods) = 

the same reduced to the sea level 

The mean correction to four adjusted direc- 
tions at the station is — 0/'032 (ih 0/^3) . 

The angle between the mark and Mount 
Diablo adjusted= 

Whence the Astronomical Azimuth, re- 
ferred to Mount Diablo= 



189 18 IL 36 
189 18 U. 37 



225 16 49. 51 



324 01 24. 86 



We have also the following table of adjusted directions 
at these two stations: — 



At Mount Diablo. 


At Mount Helena. 


Direction to 


Result of 

Station 

Adjustment 






Direction to 


Result of 

Station 

Adjustment 


a- 




Mt. Helena 


3 / // 

359 .'9 59.918 
20 03 30.611 
20 19 59.481 
25 49 17.194 
38 39 09 129 
43 24 20.921 

310 12 09.218 

Mean = + 


-.645 
—.102 
+ .319 

+ .086 
+ .524 
—.047 

0.023 


59.273 
30.509 
59.800 

(17.217) 
09.215 
21.445 
09.171 


Mt Diablo 


359 59 .59.927 -.183 
33 43 57.138 +.303 


60.110 
57.441 
(49.618) 
16.077 
43.476 




Mt. Tamalpais 

Azim. Mark (Woods) 


Vaca Mt 


Azim. Mark (Clayton) 


306 46 16.069 
340 03 44.097 

Mean =— 


4.008 
—.621 

0.032 


North West Base 


Yaca Mt 


South East Bise 

Mt. Tamalpais 





Tables of resulting adjusted directions were prepared for 
all stations, because the respective mean corrections are to 
be applied to all other directions not yet adjusted before 
they can be submitted to the process of the next figure ad- 
justment which ordinarily is 6i a secondary character. 

For the standard Longitude of the triangulation about the 
Yolo Base Line, we have to retain at present the telegraph- 
ic longitude of San Francisco station at Washington Square, 
/=8/^ 09m 38.34 sees, (see Coast and Geodetic Survey Report 
for 1884, Appendix No. 11, p. 424) and derive from it for 



324 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

Mount Helena the value }.^=122- 38' 01/' 41. [This gives 
for the present astronomical and telegraphic longitude sta- 
tion, Lafayette Park in San Francisco, the longitude west 
of Greenwich=:8A 09m 42.72s, or 122° 25' 40." 75.] 

These standard geodetic data (p^ «o ''•o ^^'® subject to 
changes hereafter; but generally they are best retained 
and the small corrections are noted, so long as the changes 
do not exceed tlie respective probable errors of these quan- 
tities. 



EARLY CALIFORNIA LANDFALLS. 325 

EARLY SPANISH VOYAGES OF DISCOVERY ON THE COAST OF 

CALIFORNIA. 

PROF. GEORGE DAVIDSON, A. M,, PH. D. 
Read at the meeting of the Academy, Monday, October 18, 188S. 

The following tabulation exliibits in a condensed form 
tlie identitication of the "landfalls" of Cabrillo and Fer- 
relo, in their exj)lorations of the coast of California in 1542 
and 154:3, from Cape San Lucas to latitude 42° 30'. 

During my work on the Pacific Coast of the United 
States since the spring of 1850, I have been deeply inter- 
ested in the discoveries and explorations of the early Span- 
ish navigators. My special duties have made me peculiarly 
well acquainted with the coast line, and I have thought it 
mv duty to establish the identity of the landfalls, which I 
believe I have clearly done. Unfortunately, the great 
length of the paper in which I have given the details of the 
narratives of Ulloa, Cabrillo, Ferrelo, Drake and Yizcaino, 
and my explanations, together with a chart, precludes its 
publication by the Academy at this time; and it has been 
presented, in extenso, to the Superintendent of the U, S. 
Coast and Geodetic Survey for publication. 

This tabulation contains the resume of the identifica- 
tion of the sixty-eight places which Cabrillo and Ferrelo par- 
ticularly mention. In it are shown, in parallel columns, 
the names b}^ which Ulloa.. Drake and Yizcaino designated 
the same localities, together with the modern names. The 
latitudes of Cabrillo and Ferrelo were given only to a third 
of a degree, with an occasional qualification of "a little 
more," or " a little less," while the large and nearly constant 
errors indicate very defective instruments. The present 
latitudes are taken from the published charts of the United 
States Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

It should be understood that the whole of the work em- 
braced in the paper and in this condensed statement has oc- 
cupied much of my unofiicial time during the last two years. 



326 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 



THE LANDFALLS OF CABRILLO, (C), AND FERRELO, (F), WITH 

AND THE PRESENT 



No. 



Dates, 
1542,1543. 



Jim. 22, 1542 
Apr. 14, 1543 

Jun. 28, 1542 



July 2, 1542 



July 
July 



6, 1542 
8, 1542 

13, 1542 



July 19, 



25 



Name of place by Cabrlllo 
and Ferrelo, 



El Puerto deNavidad 
El Cabo de Corrientes 

La Punta de California 

El Puerto del Marques 
del Valle 

El Puerto de la Cruz. . 

El Puerto de San Lu- 
cas ... 

El Puerto de La Trin- 
idad 



La Punta de la Trini- 
dad 

Una Isla 



El Puerto de San Ped- 
ro 

La Bahia de San Mar- 
tin 

Una Gran Ensenada 



El Puerto de la Mag- 
da'ena 



La Punta de Santa 

Catalina 

El Puerto de Santiago 

Habre Ojo 



Latitude by 

Cabrillo and 

Ferrelo. 



C. F.. 

20%°, C 



24° "and 
more," C. . 



Do. 
Do. 



CF. 

25", ....F. 
25°. C. F. 



25%°, F. 

F. 

26°, F.. 



2T 



C. F. 



Punta y Puerto de 
Santa Ana 

Una Isleta obra de una 
legua de Tierra .... 



27^° 
'27^ 
28^, 
28°, 



F.. 
F.. 
F.. 
F . 



Names by Ulloa, Drake or 
Vizcaino. 



El Puerto de la Navi- 
dad. V. 

El Cabo de Corrientes. 
V. 



La Bahia de Santa 
Cruz. U. 

La Babia de San Ben- 
arbe. V. 

La Bahia de San 
Abad. U.; La Bahia 
de Santa Marina. V. 



El Puerto de la Mag- 

dalena. V. 
La Bahia de Santa 

Marta.V. 



La Bahia de las Bal- 

lenas. V 
Abreojos, V.'s chart 



La Isla de San Roque. 
U.V. 



EARLY CALIFORNIA LANDFALLS. 



327 



THEIR NAMES BY ULLOA. (U), DRIKE, (D), AND VIZCAINO, (V), 
NAMES AND LATITUDES. 



No. 


Present Name of the 
Place. 


Latitude, 

/ 


Correction to 
C, F. or D. 


Remarks. 


1 


Port Navidad 


19 
20 

23 
23 

22 

24 

24 
24 
24 
24 


13 

25 

23 
23 

52 

20 

17 
17 
32 
44 






o 


Cape Corrientes . . 




—05' (a) 

—37', 

more" 
-37', ; 

more" 


"and 

C. 

' and 

C. 


(a) It is more than prob- 
able that Cabiillo assum- 
ed the latitude as given 
by previous navigators. 






4 
5 


Anchorage under Cape 
Pulmo 

San Lucas Bay 


Cabrillo did not observe the 


6 


Santa Marina Bay 

Cape Tosco 


-40' 
-43' C. 


F.. 

F.. 


latitude. "They say it is 
in latitude 23^"F. 

The S. E. point of Santa 

Marga'ita Island. 
The island is 22 miles long. 


8 


Santa Margarita 
laud . . . 


Is- 




-58' 


F.. 




9 


Magdalena Bay. . 




10 


Santa Maria Bay.. 






11 




There is no gulf; but the 


12 


Pequena Bay 
Point 


and 


26 

26 

26 
26 

27 
27 


14 

19 
45 

46 
07 
09 


—46' C 


F.. 


lowland north of Cape 
Lazaro slightly recedes, 
and would mislead a nav- 
igator in a small vessel 
in the offing. 
Feirelo says: "It is 40 
leagues from the Bay of 
San Martin to this coast." 


1.S 


San Domingo Point 

and Anchorage 

Ballenas Bay 


14 


^-45' 
—44' 
—53' 
--51' 


F.. 
F.. 

F.. 




15 


Abreojos Rocks. . 


A dangerous reef of visible 
and sunken rocks. 


16 


Asuncion Point 
Anchorage . , . 


and 


17 


Island of San Roque . 


Ulloa saw the two islands, 
Asuncion and San 
Roque. 



328 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 



THE LA.NDFALLS OF CABRILLO, (C), AND FERRELO, (F), WITH 

A.ND THE PRESENT NAMES 



Dates, 
1542, 1543. 



July 27, 1542 

July 31, 1542 
Aug. 1 " 



Aug. 2, 15 J 2 



23 

24 
2 

26 
2 

28 •' 20 
Mar, 21, 

29 Aug. 



" 5 
Mar. 28, 



Aug 11, 
" 14, 
" 19 
" 20 



1543 

1542 
1542 



Sept. 4, 

" 8 

" 11 

" 11 
" 11 

" 17 
Mar, 18, 



1543 
1542 



1542 



Name of place by Latitude by 

I Cabrillo and 

Cabrillo and Ferrelo Ferrelo. 



El Puerto Fondo. 



[Anchorage] 

El Puerto de San Ped- 
ro Viucula 

La Isla de San Este- 
ban 



Una Ensenada Grande 



La Isla de Zedros . . . . 



El Puerto de Santa 
Clara 

La Punta del Mai Ab 
rigo 

La Isl I de San Bernar 
do 

El Cabo del Engauo.. 



.. F.. 

28i° "and 
more," F. . 
F.. 



29=, F.. 

30' "scanf'F 
30|°, F . . 



La Punta del Engauo. 

El Puerto de la Poses- 
i'ln 

La Isla de San Augus- 
tin 



31°, 
31°, 

31%°, 



1543 



[Anchorage, 7 leagues 
from Sa 1 Augustiu.] 

El Cabo de S m Mar- 
tin 

El Cabo de la Cruz — 



El C'ibo de Cruz. 
Una Isleta 



El Puerto de San Ma- 
teo 



F.. 
C. 
F.. 
F.. 
F.. 



F. 

32%°, F. 
33°, C . 

33°, F . 



Names by Ulloa, Drake 
or Vizcaino. 



El Puerto de San Bar- 

tolome.V. 
L;i Isla de Natividad 

de Nuestra Seuora. 

V. 



La Isla de los Cedros. 
U ; La Isla de Cei- 
ros. Y. 

La Bahia de San Hi- 
polito. Y 



La Isla de San Ger- 

onymo. Y . 
El Cabo del Engaiio, 
30^, U. 

Do. 

La Bahia de las Yir- 

gines. Y. 
La Isla de Cenigas. Y. 
La Isla de San Hil- 

ario. Y. 



La Eusenarla de To- 
dos Santos. Y. 



EARLY CALIFORNIA LANDFALLS. 



329 



THEIR NAMES BY ULLOA, (U), DRAKE. (D), AND VIZCAINO, (V), 
AND LlTITUDES.-CoKTixuED. 



22 



Present Name of the [Latitude, Correction to 
Place. " ' C, F. or D. 



Table-Head Cove, or 

San Pablo Bay 

Baj' of ISan Cristoval 
Port tan Bartolome.. 

Natividad Island .... 



Sebastian 
Bay . . . 



Vizcaino 



Cerros Islaud 



La Playa Maria Bay , 

Point Canoas 

Sau Gerdnimo Island 

Point Baja 

Point Baja 

Port San Quentin. . . 
San Martin Island . . 



27 11 



San Ramon Bay 

Point Santo Tomas, 
or Cape San Tomas. 

Grajero Point, or Ban- 
da Point 

Do 

The Todos Santos Is' 
lands , 

The Eusenada in To 
dos Santos Bay .... 



27 39 
27 53 



27 45 
to 

28 35 



28 02 

28 55 

29 25 
29 48 
29 56 

29 56 

30 24 
30 29 

30 49 

31 33 
31 45 

31 45 

31 48 

31 51 



5J' "and 
more" F 



58' 



F. 



-65' "scant' 

F 
■65' F 

42' F 

64' C 
-64' F 
-66' F. 



Remarks. 



The Afegua, or Bird Island 
ot Father Taraval, 1734. 

This is the Gulf of San 
Xavier, of Father Tara- 
val. It is 50 by 60 miles 
in extent. 

They anchored inider the 
south shore. This is the 
Amalgua,or Fog island of 
Father Taraval, 1734. 

They anchored here. 



-57' 
—75' 
—75' 



F.. 
C. 
F.. 



F. 



The anchorage under the 

cape 
Distance from Cape San 

Martin, 4 leagues. 



Anchorage in the north- 
east part of Todos Santos 
Bay. 



330 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 



THE LANDFALLS OF CABKILLO, (C), AND FEKKELO, (F), WITH 

AND THE PRESENT NAMES 



No. 



36 



Dates, 
1542. 1543. 



Sep. 26,27, 
1542 



Sep. 28, 1542 
Mar. 11, 1543 



Oct. 7, 1542 



Oct. 
Oct. 



Oct. 

Oct. 

Mar. 

Oct. 

Oct. 

Oct. 

Oct. 

Oct. 

Nov. 



7, 1542 

8, 1542 



9, 1542 

10, 1542 

8, 1543 

13, 1542 

14, 1542 

15, 1542 

16, 1542 

17, 1542 
2-6, " 



Name of place by Cabrillo 
and Ferrelo. 



Las Islas Desiertas. . . 



El Puerto de San Mig- 
uel 



Feb. 
1543. 



12-14, 



Nov. 



1542 



La Isla de San Salva- 
dor 

La Isla de la Vittoria.. 

La Bahia de las Fu- 
mos 

La Bahia de los Fue- 
gos 

[Anchorage] 



Latitude by 

Cabrillo and 

Ferrelo. 



34^ 



34%' 



.35°, 



Los Pueblos de Lis 
Cauoas , 

El Pueblo de las Can 
oas 

[Anchorage] 



[Anchorage] 
[Anchorage] 
[Anchorage], 
[Anchorage]. 



El Pueblo de las Sar- 
dinas 

Los Pueblos de las 
Sardinas 

El Puerto de las Sar- 
dinas 



35%", 
35%°, 



35% • 



El Puerto de Todos 
Santos 



Oct. 18, 1542 



El Pueblo de Xexo... 

El Cabo de la Galera. 
El Cabo de Galera . . , 



.F. 
F. 

F. 

F. 

C. 

F. 

F. 

F 

F. 

F. 

F. 

C. 

F 

F. 

F. 



Names by Ulloa, Drake or 
Vizcaino. 



Las Islas de los Cor- 
onados. V; Las Islas 
de San Martin, V.'s 
chart . 

El Puerto de San 
Diego v.; El Puerto 
Bueno de San Di- 
ego, V.'s chart. 

La Isla de Santa 
Cathalina. V. 



3G%°, C.. 

36^ "and 

more." F.. 



EARLY CALIFORNIA LANDFALLS. 



331 



THEIR NAMES BY ULLOA, (U), DRAKE, (D), AND VIZCAINO, (Y), 
AND LATITUDES —Continued. 



No. 



35 



36 



Present Name of the 
Place. 



Los Coronados Islands 



San Diego Bay. 



Santa Catalina Island 

San Clemente Island 
Santa Monica Bay 

Do 

The Anchorage off La 

guua Mngu 

San Buenaventura .. . . 



Do. 



the 



the 



Anchorage off 
Rincon" 

Anchorage off 
Carpinteria" 

Anchorage 4 or 5 miles 
■^est of Goleta Point 

Anchorage oft' the Can- 
ada del Refugio 

Anchorage off Gaviota 
Pass 

The Indian Villages at 

Gaviota Pass 

Do 



Anchorage off Gaviota 
Pass 



Anchorage off El Coxo 



Indian Village at El 
Coxo 

Point Concepcion, or 
Point Conception . 



Latitude, 


° 


' 


32 


25 


32 


40 


33 


27 


32 

34 


49 
00 


34 


05 


34 


17 


34 


17 


34 


22 


34 


24 


34 


25 


34 


27 


34 


27 


34 


28 


34 


27 


34 


28 


34 


29 


34 
34 


27 

27 



Correction to 
C, F. or D. 



-95' 



-100' 



60' 



-63' 
-63' 



f3' 



C. 
F. 



F .. 



-123' C... 
-93' " and 
more" F. . 



Remarks. 



He has one of the largest 
errors in the best-known 
port. 

At the great depression 
across the island. 



A few miles east of San.t? 
Barbara. 



Ferrelo says the Indian 
name was Cicacnt. 



There are two Coxo's. The 
Coxo Viejo is one mile 
east of the usual anchor- 
age El Coxo. 



La Punta de la Concepcion 
of recent Spanish naviga- 
tors. 



;32 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 



THE LANDFALLS 07 CABRILLO, (C), AND FEKRELO, (F), WITH 

AND THE PEESENT NAMES 



No 



51 



62 



Dates, 
1542, 1543. 



Oct. 14, 1542, 



18 



25 



Dec, 
Dec, 



1542 

1542 



JfiiK 3, 1513 
Mar. 5, " 

Oct. 25, 154: 



Mar. 5, 1543 

Jan. 29, 1543 

Mar. 5, 1513 

Jau. ]9, 1543 

leb. 14, '• 

Nov. 11, 1542 



Name of place by Cabrillo 
and Ferrelo. 



La Isla de Sau Lucas. 



Las Islas de Sau Lucas 



La Isla de la Posesiou 

La Isla de Posesiou. . 
Una de las Isl s de 

San Lucas .... 
La Isla de Juan Eod- 

riguez 

El Puerto de la Puses 
ion. 



[Dangers J 



La Isla de Sau Lucas. 

La Isla de San Sebas- 
tian 

La Isla de San Salva- 
dor 



LatiUide by 

Cabilllo and 

Ferrelo. 



C. F, 



C. F.. 

.. F.. 

. C. 



C.F.. 



El Eio de Nuestra 
Seiiora 



Nov. 11, 1542 Las Sierras de Sau 
Martin 



F.'s consort. 

F. 

F.'s consort 
F.. 

C. 



Names by Ulloa, Drake or 
Vizcaino. 



La Isla de Baxos. V. 



La Isla de Cleto. V. 



La Isla de San Am- 
brosio.V. 



La Sierra de Santa Lu- 
cia. V. 



EARLY CALIFORNIA LANDFALLS. 



333 



THEIE NAMES BY ULLOA, (U), DRAKE, (D), AND VIZCAINO, (Vj, 
AND LATITUDES.— Continued. 





Present Name of the 


Latitude, 


Correction to 




No. 








Pie marks. 




Place. 


o 1 


C.,F. or D. 




51 


The three Islands, 






They overlap each other, 
and were seen as one 




Santa Cniz, Santa 








Eosa and San Mig- 






great island. 




uel 








f52 


San Miguel, and then 






One large— Santa Cruz and 
Santa Rosa overlapping — 




Santa Cruz and San- 








ta Rosa as one 






and one small, which was 
San Miguel. 


53 


San Miguel Island. . . 

Do 

Do. 


;34 03 




Ferrelo says the Indian 
name was Ciquimuymu, 


54 








55 


Do. 






So named by Ferrelo to 
commemorate Cabrillo's 


















death on the Island. 


56 


Cuylers Harbor. 


34 03 




Cabrillo and Ferrelo win- 








tered here in 1542-43; it 










is on the north shore of 










San Miguel island. 


57 


Wilson Rock, &c 


34 06^ 


The rocks and reefs off the 










northwest shores of San 










Miguel island. 


58 


Santa Eosa Island . . 


33 57 




Ferrelo saj^s the Indian 
name was Nicalque. 


59 


Do 








60 


Santa Cruz Inland . . . 


34 02 




Ferrelo says the Indian 
name of the inland was 


















Liniun. 


61 


La Purisima, or Santa 


34 42 




Cabrillo and Ferrelo did 




Ynez River 






not see it. They learned 
of its existence north of 
Pt. Concepcion. from 
Indian information, when 
in the Santa Barbara 
channel. 


61 


Sierra Santa Lucia. .. . 


36 03 


—87' C. F.. 


TTiis mountain range is 50 
miles long, and overhangs 
the coast line. The cul- 
minating point is Mt. 
Snnta Lucia, 6,000 feet 
elevation and 12 miles in- 
side the shore. 



23— Bull. Cal. Acad. Sci. II. 



Issued January 11, 1887. 



334 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 



THE LANDFALLS OF CABRILLO, (C), AND FERKELO. (F), WITH 

AND THE PRESENT NAMES 



No. 

63 
64 

65 

66 



6-5 



Dates, 
1542, 15i3. 



Name of place by 
Cabrillo and Ferrelo. 



Nov. 11, 1542 El Ciibo de San Mar 

till 
Nov. 11, 18, El Cabo de San Mar 
1542 tin 



Nov. 18, 1542 



69 



Nov. 16, 1542 



Nov. 14. 154- 



Feb. 25, 1543 
Mar. 3. 1543 
Feb. 26, 1543 



El Cabo de Nieve, 



(de las Sierras Nevad- 
as ) 
La Baia de Finos 



La Bahia de los Pinos 
El Cabo de Pinos . . 

El Cabo de Pinos.... 
El Cabo de Fortunas. 



Latitude by 

Cabrillo and 

Ferrelo. 



38^ ....F. 

37%°, F .. 

28;^°, C F. 



Names by Ulloa, Drake 
or Vizcaino. 



La Punta de Pinos. 
V. 



39= 



more," F. . 

40° "and 
more." C 



C. . 'Portus Novae Albionis 
38^D. 
El Puerto de San 
Francisco. V. 



nd 



EARLY CALIFORNIA LANDFALLS. 



335 



THEIR NAMES BY ULLOA, (U), DRA.KE. (D), AND VIZCAINO, (V) 
AND LATITUDES.— Concluded. 





Present Name of the 


Latitude. 


Correction to 




No 










Remarks. 




Place. 




' 


C, F. or D. 




Cy^ 




56 
.36 


32 

03 


—88' F 

—87' F 




P>\ 


The Twin Peaks 


The height is 5,100 feet, 
and the distance 33^2 
















miles inland. 


65 


Black Mountain 


37 


09 


—91' F 


The mountain mass 13 
miles behind Point Auo 
Nuevo. 


Cfi 


The Siinta Ctuz 








Embracing Black Mount- 




mountains 








ains. 


67 


Anchorage in Drake's 


38 


00 


—00' D. . . 


The northern part of the 




Bay 


38 


00 


—60' "and 


Gulf of the Farallones. 




Drake's Bay, or the 


"A great gnlf, " Crtbrillo. 




Gulf of the Faral- 






more," F. . 


(Una Ensenada Grande.) 




lones 










68 


The Northwest Cape, 


38 


31 


—89' "and 
more" C. . . 


The mountain mass just 
east of Fort Ross anchor- 
age, and reaching 2,200 
feet elevation. 




Do. 


38 


31 


—89' F 




69 


King Peak, behind 
PuntaDelgada 


40 


00 


-60' C . 


The mountain mass north- 
ward of Shelter Cove, 
with King Peak, only 10 
miles inland and 4,235 
feet elevation, as the cul- 
minating point. 



BULLETIN 



CALIFORNIA 



ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 



Vol % 'No. 7. 

JXJNK, 1887. 




CONTENTS. 



PAGE. 

Ocean Currents Contiguous to the Coast of California. C. M. Kichter. . .337 

The Pacific Coast Alders. C. C. Parry 351 

West Coast Pulmonata; Fossil and Living. J. G. Cooper 355 

Studies in the Botany of California and Parts Adjacent. VI. Edward 

Lee Greene 377 

Ornithological Observations in San Diego County. W. Otto Emerson. . .419 

Desmids of the Pacific Coast. Francis Wolle 432 

Fungi of the Pacific Coast. V. H. W.^Harkness .437 

Occultations of Stars by the Dark Limb of the Moon. Geo. Davidson. . .448 



ISSUED JUNE IB, 1BB7, 



BULLETIN. Kiis^t^-' 






Xo. 7. 

California Academy of Sciences, 



OCEAN CURRENTS CONTIGUOUS TO THE COAST OF 
CALIFORNIA. 

BY DE. C. 31. EICHTER. 

Read February 7. 1887. 

The question, not as to the existence, but as to the character 
of the ocean currents contiguous to the coast of California, 
is still an open one. Some of the most recently published 
maps show that a cold current of great width washes our 
shores, and others again indicate that it is the deflected 
warm Japanese current which is passing; this countr}^ in its 
southward movement. A third opinion gives the surface 
waters to the Kuro Siwo, and identifies the sub-stream with 
the Polar current. 

The practical seaman is satisfied by the knowledge of the 
fact, that the direction of the waters along the coast — with 
the exception of those nearest the coast — is generally south- 
ward and northward only during the winter storms. Adja- 
cent to the coast — at a distance of from three to ten miles 
from it — an eddy current i§ observed with a northerly 
direction. 

It is obvious that it would be of great value to science 
to gain positive facts concerning these questions, and 
especially so in i^egard to the science of meteorology; for 
the peculiarity of the climate of California must be de- 

24— Bull. Cal. Acad. Sci. II. 7. Issued May 5, 1887. 



338 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

pendent to a great extent upon the influences of these ocean 
currents. 

We wish to know the width of the eddy current, the tem- 
perature of its water, its origin and extent. We wish to 
know the width of the gigantic southward movement of 
waters, its velocity and its temperature; whether there is a 
distinct cold stream and a distinct warm stream, and their 
relation to each other, etc., etc. 

To decide the direction and velocity of an ocean current, 
various instruments have been invented, and are still in use, 
which show as much ingenuity in their construction as they 
lack in positive demonstration. This disappointment is 
clearly illustrated by the findings on Maury's charts, and 
the map affixed to the ''Deep-Sea Soundings in the North 
Pacific Ocean obtained on the U. S. Steamer Tascarora, 
Commander G. E. Belknap." 

We find on Chart I"^ of this essay, that there is a general 
southerly direction of the surface currents, even next to the 
coast north of San Francisco. The under-surface currents 
show no regularity whatever in theii direction, and looking 
at this chart one is led to believe that the direction of the 
arrows is given for the purpose of proving the existence of 
a whirlpool in the ocean near the coast of California. See 
Chart I. 

Undoubtedly many records as to the direction of ocean 
currents have been made here by vessels, only to explain 
apparent errors in their nautical observations as to the 
course of the ship. 

The only fact which emanates from these observa- 
tions is, that a surface current of a southerly direction 
drives the waters down the coast, and that by strong winds 
from the south, during the winter storms, its direction may 
be temporarily reversed. 

♦Compiled from Maury's and Belknap's charts. 



OCEAN CURRENTS. 339 

The velocity of this surface current is marked variously 
as from 0.37 to 1.0 nautical miles per hour. 

It is clear that this evidence cannot give satisfaction to 
science. 

But fortunately we have an instrument from which we can 
obtain the desired information, namely, the thermometer. 
The sea thermometer is the most sensitive instrument known 
with which to prove the existence of ocean currents, as well 
as to determine their extent. 

We have historical proof of an ocean current in the 
landing of Cermenon, one of the discoverers of California, 
who was driven to her shore by the great circuit route of 
the Kuro Siwo. We have many wrecks of Japanese junks 
along the western coast of North America to bear testimo- 
ny to its existence. We have also the records given by mod- 
ern current indicators, which denote a great southerly drift, 
and still we lack the positive proof whether this current is 
of Arctic origin, or coming from the shores of Japan, until 
we have measured the temperature of its waters on the sur- 
face and in its depths. 

The great Gulf Stream, its origin, its direction, and its 
extent, has been definitely outlined by measuring the tem- 
perature of its waters. 

The questions we wish to solve in regard to the Cali- 
fornia current must necessarily be also answered by the 
record of its temperature. The material from which to 
obtain these records is still very meager. 

We find it on Belknap's Deep-Sea Soundings, on Maury's 
charts, and in the records of steamers and sailing vessels. 
Commander Belknap made a- number of trips along the 
coast of California in 1873, starting from different points, 
and following each time a line more or less perpen- 
dicular to the coast. His real object was to find a prac- 
tical route for a submarine cable between the United 
States and Japan. At the same time serial temperatures 
were obtained of the ocean water in different depths. These 



340 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

records of temperature are necessarily imperfect, but as 
they represent mostly the mean temperatures, taken from 
four to live observations on the surface, and from more than 
one in great depth, they really are entitled to great consid- 
eration, although the apparent smallness of their number 
may ]iot seem to warrant it. 

Furthermore, the temperatures registered on Maury's 
charts coincide remarkably with Belknap's figures. 

We know the law of the evenness of the ocean tempera- 
ture. In the open sea the temperature of the surface 
water shows a daily range of hardly more than one de- 
gree of Fahrenheit, and nearest the coast sometimes of two 
or three degrees. The yearly variation will amount only 
rarely to ten degrees in our latitude. The surface water at 
the Golden Gate, for instance, shows between the years of 
1874 and 1883 a lowest mean temperature of 50^.49 in Jan- 
uary, and a highest mean temperature of 59^.68 in Septem- 
ber, according to the "Coast Pilot," by Prof. G. Davidson. 

In compiling the temperatures derived from the above- 
named sources, we cannot make therefore a great deviation 
from truth. 

It is proper to mention the fact, that Belknap's tempera- 
tures have furnished the foundation for the most recent de- 
scriptions of the North Pacific ocean currents. I refer 
especially to the work on " Oceanography," by F. Attlmayr, 
published under the auspices of the Secretary of the Aus- 
trian Navy in 1883. Yet no attempt has been made to adapt 
the figures of the Tascarora to the details of the currents 
along the coast. 

. Therefore it has been my endeavor to utilize every relia- 
ble record of temperature from Belknap's Soundings, as well 
as from every other trustworthy source, and to determine b}'" 
them the facts from which I could illustrate the direction 
and the extent of the ocean currents along the coast of 
California. 

As the figures recorded by Belknap harmonized as afore- 



OCEAN CURRENTS. 341 

said wonderfully with those of other authors, the task I 
had undertaken was very gratifying as to the results. 

I must add tliat Belknap's temperatures were taken at the 
end of October and the beginning of November, between 
Trinidad Head and San Francisco, and end of December 
between San Francisco and San Diego. The correction be- 
tween the two cannot amount to more than one degree of 
Fahrenheit. 

The temperatures on all my charts represent for this rea- 
son the winter season, and to give the figures for the sum- 
mer they must be increased by from five to eight degrees. 

The results of my investigation are made clear by Profiles 
A-F and Charts II and III. They are as follows : 

(1.) The greatest difference in the temperature of the 
surface water, between San Diego and Trinidad Head, is 
noticeable nearest the shore. The following table will ex- 
plain it. See Profiles A-F. 

Trinidad Head. San Diego. Difference. 

10 miles off shore 48.5° 59.8° 11.3" 

50 " " " 50.2 54.4 4.2 

100 " " " 54.0 59.9 5.9 

220 " " " 54.8 59.6 4.8 

(2.) The temperature ind^'eases at the line of Trinidad 
Head gradually from 48.5^ 10 miles distant from shore, to 
54.8° 220 miles distant from shore, indicating a difference 
of 6.3^ between the two, while off San Diego the tempera- 
ture remains about the same. 

(3.) The ten miles off shore surface temperature of 
Trinidad Head finds its equivalent ten miles off San Diego 
at a depth of 100 fathoms. Following the comparison — 
that of 50 miles off Trinidad Head agrees with the one 200 
fathoms deep 50 miles oft' shore, and 220 miles off shore the 
Trinidad Head temperature is found 40 fathoms below the 
surface on the San Diego line, 

(4.) Ten miles off shore the ocean has an average depth 
of only one hundred fathoms, with the exception of three 
submarine valleys — one between Trinidad Head and Point 



342 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

Arena, one between Point Carmel and Point Sal, and one 
stretching from the Santa Barbara channel towards San 
Diego. The bottom of the one hundred fathom plateau 
has an average temperature of 45°. 

(5.) Fifty miles off shore the average depth of the ocean 
is 1000 fathoms. At this distance the existence of a sub- 
marine mountainous grade, which is highest in latitude of 
Point Carmel, alters the isothermal lines of the ocean. The 
same action on the temperature of the water is repeated, 
though in a less degree, by another submarine grade tend- 
ing southward towards San Diego. 

(6.) The result is, that the isothermal line of 40°, com- 
mencing at Trinidad Head at a depth of about 350 fathoms, 
and which is found to be off San Diego 500 fathoms deep, 
sinks off San Francisco to 700 fathoms depth, and. off Point 
Sur still deeper. Therefore, off San Francisco and off Point 
Sur a greater volume of warm water is found in ^)roportion 
than at any other point on the coast. 

(7.) For the same reason the isothermal lines between 
the two named points are bent upward, indicating thereby 
that the direction of the current is generally southward, and 
that the cold waters are crowded back and upwards by the 
submarine mountain. 

(8.) All the isothermal lines, 50 miles off shore, show 
generally a constant increase of temperature towards San 
Diego; still the isothermal line of 40° is only 100 fathoms 
deeper at San Diego than at Trinidad Head. 

(9.) One hundred miles off shore the same regularity is 
observed. On the line of San Francisco, however, the high 
surface temperature of 58.2° is cooled 18° inside of 300 
fathoms depth, and off'Point Carmel and Point Sal, a similar 
proportion is observed; while off San Diego a depth of 600 
fathoms is reached before the temperature is lowered to 
this extent. 

(10.) Two hundred and twenty miles distant from shore 
the evenness of the isothermal lines is remarkable, indica- 



OCEAN CURRENTS 343 

ting a slow but constant increase mainly of surface tem- 
perature towards San Diego, and in conformity with the 
general law of temperature of the ocean. 

(11.) The isothermal line of 35° is uniformly found at 
the depth of 1,000 fathoms from 50 to 220 miles off shore. 

(12.) The lowest temperature of the water, 32.9°, is 
found 220 miles off Trinidad Head at a depth of 1,800 
fathoms. At the same distance from San Diego a tempera- 
ture of 33.8° is found 2,260 fathoms deep. 

(13.) Off San Diego the temperature of the surface water 
is highest nearest the shore, while the reverse is true off 
Trinidad Head. 

(14.) The analyzation of all the surface temperatures 
proves the existence of a cold w^ater current, about 150 miles 
wide, on the northern boundary line of California, passing 
southward Nearest the coast line, which is reduced in width 
constantly Ciaring its course, until it reaches Point Concep- 
tion, where it is partly deflected to the southwest and partly 
buried by warmer surface waters. Its temperature is from 
45° to .50° in winter time nearest the coast, before Point 
Arena is reached, and from 50° to 55° further off the coast 
and until it is submerged north and northwest of the Santa 
Barbara channel. See Chart II. 

(15.) To the west and south of this cold current appears 
a great body of warmer water, having a temperature of 
from 55° to 60° in winter time. Its direction seems south- 
erly in the north of California, and is doubtful in the region 
of Southern California. 

(16.) The temperatures of the water 10 fathoms below 
the surface, generalized on Chart III, demonstrate the accu- 
racy of the foregoing conclusions. For a cold current 
which comes to an end near the southern part of California 
must necessarily lose its width by submerging, and we find 
on Chart III indeed a constant widening of this cold current, 
and may prove by it again the characterof its deflection. 
See Chart III. 



344 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

Having established the existence of these currents by 
reference to the temperature of the ocean in its different 
depths^, as found principally by Commander Belknap, the 
next question arises whether my deductions are in accord- 
:£ince with the balance of observations made by him and 
other scientists in regard to the temperature of the waters 
adjoining the California currents. 

It is an interesting fact, that midway between Ounimak 
Pass (Aleutian Group) and Cape Flattery, the temperature 
at the bottom of the sea, 2,000 fathoms deep, is 2^ higher 
than we noted it for the line of Trinidad Head. In Lat. 
54^21' N.,Long. 155"- 07' W., it was 34. P at a depth of 
2,850 fathoms, and the same at a depth of 1,500 fathoms. 

Then, again, on a line between San Diego and Honolulu, 
and especially near the latter place, the bottom temperature 
of the ocean is from 33.2" to 33.5-^ at a depth of 2,800 
fathoms and more; therefore lower than near the Behring 
Sea. To interpret this fact I quote a notice by Commander 
Belknap, accompanying his Profile C. "Between Cast A 
(towards Yokohama) and Cast B (towards Tanaga Island of 
the Aleutian Group), there appears to exist a stratum of 
cold water of about 35^ at an average depth of 34 fathoms 
below the surface, and becoming deeper as it proceeds 
westward." 

Belknap's charts show the isothermal line of 40^ between 
Yokohama and Ounimak Pass, to be nowhere below 100 
fathoms from the surface, the entire length of the Profile, 
excepting nearest Japan. This would indicate that the 
Kuro Siwo drift cannot extend to the latitude which is 
marked for it on the latest maps, the Austrian Navy map 
ncluded. 

It is apparent from Belknap's observations, that the 
northern or Arctic currents are powerful enough to alter the 
direction of the Japanese current materially. They sweep 
against the warm waters, as the Polar waters meet the Gulf 
Stream on the north of Scotland. The Arctic waters ]3re- 



OCEAN CURRENTS. 345 

dominate on tlie surface by superior force until the Kuro 
Siwo gives a stronger wall, which causes the cold current to 
pass underneath in the direction of the equator. 

One or more branches of the Arctic current perhaps 
pushes eastward towards North America, and we find one 
such branch marked on the Austrian map as passing down 
nearest the coast and disappearing at 40° Lat. Our map 
indicates that this cold current is continued to Point Con- 
ception. 

The bulk of the Kuro Siwo trends eastward, but perhaps 
nowhere washes the shores of the United States, being sep- 
arated from them by the narrow cold stream, and yet being- 
near enough to exercise a powerful influence on her climate. 
Thereby it is also explained why 200 miles from Honolulu 
the isothermal line of 40^ is at the same depth as we found 
it off Trinidad Head, and even at a greater dejDth near San 
Diego, where the warm waters are no longer affected by a 
cold current. 

Therefore, if we can establish a harmony of our conclu- 
sions with the balance of the observations in regard to the 
northern drifts, we are faced by difiiculties in attempting to 
explain the state of affairs on the line off San Diego. After 
the cold stream is submei'ged off Point Conception, we are 
confronted with a body of warm water which can hardly owe 
its temperature to the influence of the Kuro Siwo. 

How could the cold current be deflected southwestward, 
if a potent warm stream from the north were pushing 
against it? How could we account for the great j^revalence 
of seaweeds off' the shore of Southern California, if a strong- 
drift were working on these waters? 

How could tropical and subtropical fish be found on 
the adjoining- coast, if the Kuro Siwo really had superseded 
the cold current ? Is there not a warm current flowing 
northward? 

To decide this question beyond doubt we need a careful 



346 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

examination of tlie ocean temperature off the coast of Lower 
California, and regret to say that reports are wanting. 

We are not less ignorant of the ocean temperature next 
to the coast of California within the sphere of the so-called 
edd}^ current. Of course we have regular observations of 
the ocean water next to San Francisco, and perhaps to San- 
ta Cruz, Monterey., Santa Monica and San Diego. But they 
will never determine the width and the character of the eddy 
current, the existence of which and the northerly direction 
of which is vouched for by Prof. G. Davidson in his "Coast 
Pilot" (Manuscript, 4tli edition). 

Undoubtedly such a current exists, at least to some extent, 
along our coast, for our coast vessels sailing northward 
know how to profit by it in keeping close to the shore. We 
have seen the muddy water of the Sacramento river driven 
northward as a distinct stream for many miles. We have 
heard of a part of a wreck, located near the Cliff House, 
being found not many days after the accident near Eureka, 
Cal. But still we are doubtful as to its existence, as to its 
extent, and as to the persistence of its direction. 

As we are void of scientific proofs to corroborate any as- 
sertions in regard to this matter, we have to recur to theory, 
and fortunately meet with the very plausible one of K. 
Zoeppritz on ocean currents. He shows by exact physical 
analysis how superficial impulses will work on liquid masses, 
and will be extended by the friction of the strata of the 
liquid against each other downward. He elucidates by his 
researches that the motion of the principal body of a liquid 
mass, which is subject to a periodically changing surface 
power, is determined by the average velocity of the surface, 
and that the periodical changes penetrate only a thin surface 
stratum. 

Thereby the winds are reinstated as powerful motors of 
the ocean surface water. They communicate their average 
direction to the lower masses of the water as well as to the 
surface water, and Zoeppritz has calculated, for instance. 



OCEAN CURRENTS. 



l5^a 



that a body of water with a depth of 2,000 fathoms, and of 
infinite extension, would have adopted in 200,000 years the 
same motion in a horizontal direction as the surface water, 
provided that a constant motion of the surface water in this 
direction had been in force. 

Before we apply this theory to the currents, which were 
established by my conclusions, I Avish to refer to another 
essay of Zoeppritz on the configuration of the coast and the 
formation of the bottom of the ocean as factors, by which 
the direction of an ocean current is mainly influenced. 

I will try to explain his view on this subject by the fol- 
lowing diagram taken from his publication : 

If a straight coast line 
a 6 be touched by two cur- 
rents s and s\ which have 
the same velocity and the 
same width, then those 
parts of them which are 
deflected inward, will form 
a new current Gs between 
the two former ones, and 
give it the opposite direc- 
tion. 
'5 It is clear that if a cur- 
rent strikes such a coast 
line in an oblique direc- 
tion, as we find it on our 
coast according to my maps, 
a deflection of this liquid 
"* "^ mass will follow princi- 

pally in one direction, the one opposite to the original direc- 
tion of the current. 

If we admit that the general direction of the cold and the 
warm current along the coast of California is southeasterly, 
then the force and direction of this large body of water 
will cause an eddy current running northward. 



I 
I 



I 



Q5 



5 ' 



348 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 



Taking into consideration the formation of the coast, 
which, as I mentioned before, forms a plateau stretching 
out into the ocean to a distance of about ten miles from the 
coast, and thereby creates a shallow strip of water with a 
depth of about 100 fathoms, while it then glides rapidly 
into a depth of nearly 2,000 fathoms, it is apparent that 
this marginal plateau will be the scene of this eddy current. 

It now remains to prove that the average direction of the 
wind along the coast of California, as well as northwest of 
our coast, is in harmony with the direction of the currents, 
as indicated on my charts. 

H. Mohn's charts, as well as Attlmayr's, concur with 
Maury's in giving to the winds which blow over the area of 
the Kuro Siwo, an average direction corresponding to its 
course, as we adopted it. They all vary in regard to the 
direction of the wind next to the western coast of the 
United States. We have to recur therefore to the observa- 
tions made at coast stations of the Signal Service, United 
States Army. Undoubtedly we can judge from these re- 
ports with some accuracy the prevailing character of the 
wind for the 50 or 100 miles of ocean surface adjacent to the 
stations. 

The following table, derived from Appendix 51 of the An- 
nual Eeport of the Chief Signal Officer for the year 1885, 
gives the desired information. It is computed from the com- 
mencement of observations at each station to and including 
December, 1884: 



Stations. 



Tatoosh Island, Wash 

Canby, Fort Wash 

Cape Mendocino, Cal 
San Francisco, Cal.. . 

Los Angeles, Cal 

San Diego, Cal 



Jan 


Feb 


Mar 


Apr 


May 


Jun 


Jul 


Aug 


Sep 


Oct 


Nov 


E 


E 


E 


E 


SW 
W 


SW 


s w 


S W 


E 


E 


E 


E 


N 


W 


W 


W 


W 


w 


w 


s 


s 


s 


NW 


NW 


SE 


NW 


NW 


NW 


NW 


N 


N 


N 


S E 


N 


W 


W 


W 


W 


S W 


s W 


s w 


SW 


S W 


NW 


NE 


NE 


w 


W 


w 


W 


w 


w 


w 


w 


N E 


NE 


NW 


w 


W 


w 


w 


w 


w 


NW 


NW 


NW 



Dec 



E 

SE 
NW 

N 

NE 
NE 



OCEAN CURRENTS. 349 

The western coast of the United States tends northeast- 
ward from Cape Mendocino towards Tatoosli Island, and 
southeastward from Cape Mendocino towards San Diego. 
Therefore a current with a direction down the coast will 
depend on easterly winds near Tatoosh Island. These 
winds will become northwesterly only when it has reached 
Cape Mendocino, and they will become more and more 
westerly in the direction of San Diego. This is exactly 
what tlie table demonstrates. 

We may infer besides, that as the direction of the Kuro 
Siwo, and the wind above its area, is westerly between Lat. 
40^ and 50,^ its waters will have a general direction towards 
Cape Mendocino, and that the current which follows the 
easterly winds off Tatoosh Island cannot be a part of th^ 
Japanese, but of an Arctic current. This brings again 
the currents as represented on my charts in harmony witli 
the observations at the Signal Service stations, and with the 
theory of Zoeppritz. 

It is hardly necessary for me to emphasize the importance 
which my deductions; if correct, bear upon the climatology 
of our State. 

The mountain barriers of our State which shield us from 
influences by land, and the evenness of the temperature of 
the neighboring ocean, guarantee the uniformity of our 
climate. 

A glance at the accompanying charts exhibits the reason 
why the northern part of California has more fog in sum- 
mer, and probably more rain in winter; it explains the reason 
why the temperature of San Francisco cannot sink as low as 
that of Monterey; it reveals the causes of the subtropical 
climate of Southern California. 

We get from these profiles arguments for a parallelism 
between the isothermal lines, and perhaps the isobares of 
California, with the corresponding lines of the neighboring 
ocean. In short, they teach us graphically the importance 



350 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

of the ocean currents as factors in determining the climate 
of our State. 

Furthermore, they prove the advisability of our Govern- 
ment, through its branch the Signal Service, continuing 
this research. The isothermal lines of the ocean for differ- 
ent months at different distances from shore and along the 
-entirewest coast of the United States, should be established 
beyond doubt. They will form the constant factor for the 
calculations of our meteorologists. They will probably 
explain the formation of our barometric maxima and 
minima, and will enable us to make weather predictions 
with more accuracy than it is possible to do without them. 



THE PACIFIC COAST ALDERS. 351 



THE PACIFIC COAST ALDERS. 

BY C. C. PARRY. 

Read March 7, 188r. 

The alders, everywhere easily recognized as a natural 
group of shrubs or trees, usually bordering water-courses, 
present certain well-defined botanical characters comprised 
in the old established genus Alniis. 

Widely scattered over different portions of the globe, the 
species, variously estimated at fourteen or fifteen, are not 
so numerous as to present serious difficulties in systematic 
arrangement. As one would naturally expect, the species 
most remote in geographical position present the most 
marked specific differences, as is manifest in the Asiatic- 
India group, as compared with those of Europe or North 
America. At the same time, several of the high northern spe- 
cies have a wide geographical range, in some cases apparently 
encircling the globe; and one, at least, Alnus maritimay 
Nutt., falls into that singular group connecting the botany 
of Eastern North America with Japan. 

On this coast the Botany of California enumerates four 
species; one of these, confined to the higher mountain dis- 
tricts, is recognized as a variety of the common Eastern 
United States species, Alnits incaiia, var. viridtscens, Wat- 
son. 

Another well marked species, A. rubra, Bong., seems 
peculiar to the North American Pacific coast, ranging from 
Alaska to Central California, and apparently confined to 
the coast districts. Some fine specimens of this latter can 
be seen along the course of deep ravines in the vicinity of 
Berkeley. 

Of the two other recorded species to be considered, viz: 
Alnus rliomhifoUa, Nutt., and A. ohlongifolia, Torr., which, 



352 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

under favorable conditions of growth, present the largest 
trees known in this group, frequently attaining a height of 
eighty feet, with a smooth columnar trunk three feet in 
diameter at base — observations during the present season 
have brought to view such peculiar and hitherto unnoticed 
botanical characters as to justify their presentation before 
a meeting of the California A.cademy of Sciences. 

It must be premised that Nuttall's original description 
of Alnus rlioinhi'/oUa, contained in Am. Sylva., Vol. II., 
p. 49, was taken from a leaf branch without flower or 
fruit, collected by Nuttall himself in the vicinity of Monte- 
rey, probably in April, 1836. Since then the name has 
been generally, and no doubt properly, applied to the com- 
mon California alder, of the western and interior districts, 
extending from Oregon to Southern California. As such, it 
is included by Watson in Bot. Cal. II. p. 80. 

Probably about twelve or fifteen years later than Nuttall's 
description above referred to. Dr. Torrey, in the Botany of 
the Mexican Boundarj^ Survey, p. 201, described Alnus 
ohlongifolia from specimens collected by C. Wright in New 
Mexico, the specific character being mainly based on the 
foliage; subsequently Mr. Watson identifying Dr. Torrey's 
species with the Southern California Alnus, included A. 
oblo}ig{/olia,Ton\, in Bot. Cal. p. 81. In making a critical 
comparison of the description of these two species as 
given therein it is noticeable that the points of differ- 
ence are very slight, and might easily be comprised within 
the limits of ordinary variation. 

An equal difficulty has been experienced by field observ- 
ers, and from a somewhat extended observation for several 
years, I have never yet been able to draw a clear line of 
distinction between these two species as laid down in 
botanical works. Accordingly, in order to satisfy myself 
on this doubtful point, I have undertaken the present sea- 
son to make a series of observations, including the earliest 
growth and flowering, some of the results of which thus 
far reached, may be briefly noted. 



THE PACIFIC COAST ALDERS. 35 B 

First, then, in reference to the species under considera- 
tion, the most striking fact is the unusually early period of 
flowering, equally true of the most southern and northern 
plants. Thus no sooner do the leaves of the previous sea- 
son, having fulfilled their office of nourishing the forming 
buds, begin to fade and loosen their attachment — though 
often retaining their hold until early winter — than the flow- 
ering spikes both staminate and pistillate begin to swell, 
and by early January the male catkins are fully developed, 
and the stigmas protuberant. In spite of occasional sharp 
frosts the process of fertilization proceeds, and by February 
1st, at least as far north as the lower Sacramento valley, is 
mainly completed; the swollen winter streams over which 
they lean, as well as the adjoining banks, being copiously 
strewn with the effete male tassels resembling torpid cater- 
pillars. 

During all this active vital process, the leaf buds remain 
dormant, mostly retaining their deciduous scales. Thus, 
during the month of February, the trees display their smooth 
naked branches, barely relieved by the matured seed cones 
of the previous season, which, with the winter rains, relax 
their scales to discharge their wingless seeds; a remarkable 
contrast to the more exclusively coast species, A. rubra 
which at the present time, March 1st, is only just loosening 
its male catkins in connexion with the rapidly swelling leaf 
buds. 

Still farther, a close examination of the male catkins thus 
early developed, shows a floral character hitherto unnoticed, 
applying equally to the northern and southern forms, 
which will require an extension of the generic char- 
acter of Alnus as laid down in systematic botanical 
works. Thus in the latest authority, Benth. & Hook., Gen. 
PI. Ill, p. 404, the staminate flowers are described 
as with "four stamens and very short filaments.'* 
Now in the species under consideration, while in 
other respects agreeing closely with the ordinary characters 

25— Bull. Gal. Acad. Sci. II. 7. Issued ilay 5, 1887 



354 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

of the genus, the four somewhat unequal perianth seg- 
ments enclose quite constantly but a pair of opposite sta- 
mens, not infrequently increased to three in the larger 
perianths, and more rarely reduced to a single one, and in- 
stead of very short filaments, they are at maturity exsert 
beyond the perianth. 

This character is so obvious on the most casual observa- 
tion, that the only explanation of its having been heretofore 
overlooked must be the fact that in the specimens from 
^hich the descriptions were drawn, the male flowers were 
either wanting or not examined. 

As the character thus noted serves to give a unique feature 
to all the various forms of Alniis heretofore includ- 
ed under these two described species, and is eas- 
ily recognized in all the specimens accessible to 
me, including an undeveloped one in the Califor- 
nia Academy herbarium, collected by Prof. Greene 
in New Mexico, I am led to the conclusion that all these 
western forms, varying only in unimportant leaf characters, 
must be reduced to the earliest described specie?:, Alniis 
rhomhifoUa, Nutt. ; A. ohlongifolia, Torr., representing the 
jnost southern and eastern variety. 

Another fact in this connection, coming quite accidentally 
Tinder my observation — more of morphological than sys- 
tematic botanical interest — is a singular abnormal condi- 
tion in which some of the lower staminate aments show a 
transformation at the summit to regular pistillate flowers. 
While to ordinary view such a transformation of floral or- 
gans, involving absolute sterilit}^ and accomplishing no 
apparent useful purpose in the vegetable economy, may be 
poetically regarded as a " freak of nature." It is neverthe- 
less true that by just such abnormal deviations from ordi- 
nary processes, nature often gives us the clearest insight 
into her regular plan of operations, though it may need the 
genius of a Goethe to interpret their real significance. 

The whole subject suggests the value and importance of 
supplementing or correcting systematic descriptions by 
careful and intelligent field observations. 



WEST COAST PLTLMONATA. 355 

WEST COAST PULMONATA; FOSSIL AND LIVING. 

BY J. G. COOPER, M. D. 
Read March 21, 1 887. 

A. — Extinct Species. 

Since the publication of the article in Bulletin No. 4, 
p. 235, several additional facts have been made known which 
much increase our knowledge both of fossil and living 
species. 

The most ancient known fossils of non-marine mollusca 
in North xlmerica were those of the carboniferous strata of 
Nova Scotia, and were of terrestrial forms. Some late dis- 
coveries by the U. S. Geol. Survey "from the base of the 
carboniferous of Nevada," give two fresh-water species, and 
one of an amphibious or brackish-water type, allied to our 
Alexia. (See "Science," II, p. 806, 1883, and Bulletin U. S. 
Geol. Survey, No. 18, 1885.) These species show both a 
wonderful similarity to living species, and an unexpected 
variety of genera existing in what is so far the oldest land 
fauna known. 

In the last-named Bulletin, Dr. White also figures an 
extinct Unio and an extinct "Helix" (H. dalli Stearns, re- 
ferred doubtfully to Mesodon) found in the John Day lacus- 
trine basin of Oregon, together with three other species of 
land-shells, of which two are inseparable from living spe- 
cies now found only farther west, viz.: H. fidelis of Oregon, 
and Gonostoma yatesll of California. The third is doubt- 
fully referred to the eastern species Patida perspectiva. 

These are the most important evidences yet discovered of 
the westward migration of the Pacific-slope species, being 
now found only at 100 miles west and 500 miles south of 
the locality of the fossils, in regions very different in cli- 
mate, being far more moist. 



356 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

The deposit in which they were found is considered "mio- 
cene from the bones of extinct mammalia fonnd in it, and 
the land shells help to confirm this. 

The extinct Mesodon seems to be the ancestor of the spe- 
cies found in the regions north and westward, though not 
very similar to any of them, while the close resemblance of 
the other two western forms to living examples is remark- 
able, for fossils so far anterior in time. The Patula is the 
only one generically allied to the numerous forms of that 
type now existing in the " Central Province," but unlike 
them all. 

The isolated occurrence at present of the Gonostoma 
about the caves of Calaveras County gives a clue to the ex- 
planation of the similar isolation of several other west-slope 
species, such as Polygyrella in Montana, and Polygyra 
harfordiaaa in Mariposa County, Cal., which may also have 
ranged widely during the tertiary epochs. 

Other geological evidences show that since the miocene 
epoch the Cascade Eange and Sierra Nevada have been ele- 
vated much higher than before, together with the *' Central 
Proviacs" east of them, wJiile at the same time vast out- 
flows of lava devastated the latter regions. These shells tend 
to prove that at the time they lived in Central Oregon, that 
region had a much]moister and milder climate, like that now 
found west of the Cascades, and at a gradually rising eleva- 
tion on the west slope of the Sierra Nevada, as we progress 
southward. 

They also make it appear probable that any terrestrial 
fossils found west of those ranges should be considered as 
pliocene or later, although we have fresh-water bivalves in 
the lignitic beds of Mt. Diablo, and it is possible that the 
forests producing the lignite also contained eocene or older 
land shells. 

B. — GEOaRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION. 

It would be interesting to continue the subject of deriva- 
tion from fossil species down to the present time, if we had 



WEST COAST PULMONATA. 357 

■sufficient data to follow it out, but until more is learned we 
<}au only infer part of it from tlie present distribution and 
variations of the living species. 

In 1869, I published what was then known on the sub- 
ject, and again, in 1873, gave the special distribution of our 
banded species and varieties with maps, in the Proc. Cal. 
Acad., V, 121. Some additional information and cor- 
rections have since then been accumulating, especially with 
regard to the region around S m Francisco Bay, which is 
the only well- explored region of land shells on the 
west slope, and apparently the richest in variety of species, 
subspecies etc., of any north of lat. 32'^ on this side. 

1. SIERRA NEVADA. 

Ill addition to what has been stated as to the occurrence 
of the large Helicoids on the west slope of these mountains 
only below the elevation of 5,000 feet, probably on account 
of the absence of lima in a proper amount or condition 
higher up, it must be noticed that the crystalline limestone 
is not always sufficient to insure their existence even when 
climate and moisture are favorable. As will appear later, 
the lime must be a part of the soil, as the mollusca only ob- 
tain it through the vegetation growing in that soil. But 
above the limits of the large species there is found a grouj) 
of small, often minute species, rare lower down, which shows 
that sufficient lime exists in the vegetation above the lime- 
stone strata to supply the little they need; and this doubt- 
less comes from the less calcareous rocks, including the 
volcanic. 

These small species include what are conveniently grouped 
as Vitrinoid and Succinoid species, which are found 
chiefly from 5,000 to 6,000 feet altitude in the mountains 
near lat. 39'. Above that height I found no land shells; 
though the bivalve Pisidium occidentale exists in the rail- 
road pass at about 7,000 feet. From there up to 9,000 
feet, where patches of snow lie permanently on Mt. Stan- 



358 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

ford, about lat. 39° 25', although the summer mouths are 
warm aucl moist, uo traces of them were found. As the 
permanent snow is no doubt proof of a nearly constant 
night temperature of 32°. and frosts are frequent during 
summer down to 6,000 feet, we may consider these as the 
causes of the absence of any mollusca. It is evident that 
this limit must vary much in different parts of the moun- 
tains, as snow does not lie permanently below 10,000 feet 
on Mt. Shasta, lat. 4P 28', nor below 11,700 feet on the 
"High Sierra," lat. 36° 30' to 38°, according to late explora- 
tions of the U. S. Geol. Survey. 

The wide gap in the northern Sierra referred to in the 
last article (Bull. IV, p. 251), in which no land-shells were 
known to exist for 100 miles north of Yuba river, has been 
partly bridged over by the discovery of several at Quin- 
cy, Plumas County, by Mr. W. J. Raymond. At an alti- 
tude of 3,383 feet, or near it, he found (1) a Mesodon 
(Aplodon) called by Mr. Binney an aberrant form of M. ar- 
onigerus Ancey, or possibly new (no doubt the one reported 
as '' Columbianus " from Calaveras Big Trees). Also (2) 
Patala (stiiateUa?) cronkhitei Newc, (3) PiqjiUa corpulenta 
Bid., (4) Vitrlna pfelfferi Newc, (5) Succinea oregonensis 
Lsa. (6) S. naUaUianaJjQB.., (7) S . stretcliiana Bid. That ele- 
vation is therefore about the dividing line between the large 
and small groups near lat. 40'^. It is true tliat none of the 
large banded species occurred, as they do up to 5,000 feet 
toward the south, but No. 1 belongs to a medium -sized 
group more numerous toward the north, while Nos. 2, 3, 4 
and 7 are all of the subalpine group in California, and 5 and 
6 rare in the lower Sierras, though common near the coast 
up to 3,000 feet. Several of them were before known from 
the same county and southward; in fact all except Nos. 1, 5 
and 6. 

Respecting " Macrocydis ^' Vancouver ensis from the Sierras, 
mentioned on p. 247, I have seen dead shells apparently of 
that species from Calaveras County, near Cave City at 



WEST COAST PULMONATA. 359 

nearly 1,600 feet altitude, and others from Fresno County, 
and near San Diego, both being of the large Oregon form, 
unlike the small form, so-called, existing in the northern 
California coast ranges, where it is the size of M. sportella. 
Considering that the banded species of the Sierra extend 
toward San Diego along the coast, the large form seems to 
have reached there by the inland route, and not by the 
coast range of mouutains. 

It may be remarked that toward the southern end of the 
Sierras even the Yitrinoid species seem limited to a narrow 
belt at about 5', 500 feet, none being known in the High 
Sierras above there, nor on the lower slopes; while atTeha- 
chapi Pass none occurred at any elevation below 4,000 feet- 
Still there seems no reason why they should be absent 
on the higher slopes up to near the snow line, as they were 
found in the Rocky Mountains to 9,000 and 11,000 feet by 
E. Ingersoll. 

The large species of the lower elevations also seem to be- 
come scarcer on these southern parts of the range, appar- 
ently because the lower parts are too dry and the higher too- 
cold for them, but search has not been made carefully 
enough to prove this. The White River locality is the only 
one known for 150 miles, though they no doubt occur at in- 
tervals nearly all that distance. 

While a very interesting group of species was found by 
Harford and Dunn at the Mariposa Big Tree Grove near 
5,500 feet altitude, near lat. 37^ 30', none have been re- 
ported from Yosemite Yalley at 4,000 feet, and few farther 
south. As the most extensive list of the southern Sierra 
species yet known, I here publish it for the first time. 

A. Yitrinoid species: 1. Ilyalinaarhorea] 2. Conulusfid- 
viis] 3. Fatula striatella cronkJiitei. 

B. Helicoid species: 4. Helix mormonum (small) ; 5. He- 
lix traski franki (dwarfed); 6. Helix tudiculata (dwarfed); 
7. Triodojms loricata-, 8. Polygyra har/ordiana, (9 miles, 
south, in the Fresno grove. ) 



560 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

C. Pupoid species: 9. Fujnlla coiynlenta. 

D. Succinoid species: 10. Succinea strctcMana. 

The other species of the Sierras have been named in 
several previous articles, being about fifteen besides those 
here named. (See Binney's 2nd Suppl. to Terr. Mollusks.) 

Of this list Nos. 1, 2, 3, are well-known to be widely 
spread in the Northern States, No. 7 found also in the coast 
range of California, Nos. 9 and 10 only in the Sierra Ne- 
vada, and No. 8 so far only near this locality. No. 4 was 
traced south only about 50 miles by Voy, No. 6 to about 
lat. 32° 30', while No, 5, very small here at its northern 
limit, becomes "common in the foothills a mile or two 
north of Pose creek " (Gabb), as the larger variety car- 
penteriana, and continues to Guadalupe Island, Lower Cali- 
fornia. 

Thus it appears that Nos. 4 and 5 overlap in their range 
for at least 50 miles, and are found together for that 
distance unconnected by intermediate forms, though both 
'can be connected with H.fidelis by links now existing north 
^nd west. It seems to me, therefore, that No. 5 must either 
have reached this N. E. corner of its range from the 
■direction of the fossils of Eastern Oregon, by way of the 
east side of the Sierra Nevada (the connecting chain being 
now extinct there) or has come from the south and west- 
ward, thus reversing the usual course of migration. 
For it is well known that the Sierra Nevada are much older 
than the Coast Mountains, and that the latter are older to- 
ward the north than the south, thus compelling a southward 
migration among all land animals during their gradual ex- 
tension over the country. However this question may be 
looked at. No. 5 is unlike an}^ other of the Californian banded 
Helices in crossing the southern end of the valley between 
the two ranges of mountains, reappearing on the east slope of 
the Coast range 58 miles farther south, upon tertiary fossil 
limestone, at an elevation of about 4,000 feet, where no other 
species is known to occur, near the summit of the Uvas 



WEST COAST PULMONATA. 361 

Pass, now more like the form first described as H. trasJd. 
Tliis form was from Los Angeles, or the mountains near 
there, about 60 miles farther southeast, but is abundant in 
many spots along the whole coast slope in that direction, 
with much variation in size and convexity but uniform in 
color. Being often found throughout this range in com- 
pany with No. 6 (but never with connecting forms), as far 
south as San Diego, it shows that the region has been colo- 
nized from the Sierra Nevada with these animals, although 
the geological structure indicates the period of elevation to 
have been of very late tertiary or post-pliocene date near 
the coast. On Santa Rosa Island it seems to have changed 
to H. ayersiana, a rare connecting link having been found 
near Santa Barbara by Dr. Yates, but on other islands of 
the group it is represented by the nearer allied^, rufocbida, 
and may perhaps have been the original stock from which 
the very much dwarfed var. gahbi and H. facta were de- 
rived. On Coronados Island, Lower California, it is how- 
ever like var. carpeiiteri, and on Guadalupe Island Mr. 
W. E. Bryant found a form more like that of Lower Cali- 
fornia peninsula, once confounded with H. remondi. Mr. G. 
W. Dunn informs me that H. facta is also found on Guada- 
lupe Island, and the very peculiar Helicoid, Binneya noia- 
bilis, has been found there by Mr. Bryant, as well as on the 
peninsula by Mr. Orcutt. The latter also reports Pupaovata 
from near San Diego, and P. arizonensls from under Yucca 
logs on the east slope of the mountains, which are thus con- 
nected with the Arizona fauna, as I stated in the Amer. Jour. 
Conch. IV, 217, 1869, though there was some doubt then of its 
occurring in California. No other new facts on distribution 
toward the southward have come to my notice. 

2. THE COAST RANGES SOUTH OF MONTEREY. 

It is to be observed that while the Sierra Nevada are to a 
great extent cut off from the direct force of the sea breeze 
except near the middle, their higher parts are so much above 



362 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

the top of the Coast range that they receive more moisture 
in winter and are no drier in summer, but the foothills be- 
low 3,000 feet are both hotter and drier. It thus happens that 
most of the land shells are to be found from that elevation 
up to 6,000 feet, and though washed down by the streams, 
can only exist in the foothills, in places either marshy or 
springy, or sheltered by rocks, trees and caverns. 

But we find two of them, Nos. 5 and 6, of the last list, 
becoming common down to the sea in the counties south of 
lat. 35°, the valleys there being open to the sea breeze and 
less heated or dried up in summer, although the annual rain- 
fall is much less than in the Sierras. They there attain their 
greatest perfection, and No. 5 becomes much varied, assuming 
forms on the islands, claimed to be distinct species. Fol- 
lowing No. 5 toward the northwest it changes still further, 
for near Point Conception Dr. Yates obtained a form of large 
size but with nearly the same dark color as that of H. du- 
2)etitJiouarsi combined with the sculpture of H. traski. It has, 
in fact, nearly the same size and form as the figure of the 
former copied by Binney from Deshayes, but which was de- 
scribed as colored like H, fidelis. 

Fifty miles farther north Mr. Kaymond found a form like 
No. 5 in color but with the wrinkled epidermis of the Mon- 
terey shell, and at San Simeon, 90 miles north, smaller speci- 
mens exactly like those from Monterey. So there is here a 
transition by graded varieties between the two, much as in 
the links connecting fidelis with infumata near Humboldt 
Bay. Still there is a geographical limitation of each lead- 
ing form, indicating the probability that these links may be 
hybrids, or not truly species, they being very variable, while 
the species are quite uniform over wide tracts of country. 
They are parallel cases to the numerous varieties of 
Patida s^ri^osa, which within a limited range are found in great 
numbers, so variable in size, form, color, and sculpture, 
that scarcely two are alike. 

These discoveries extend the range of H. dapetUhouarsi 



WEST COAST PULMONATA. 365 

to 135 miles south of Monterey, where only it was supposed ta 
be found. It is thus limited to the narrow strip of 
steep, rugged country, forming the west slope of the Santa. 
Lucia Mts., Avhich is a ridge about 20 miles wide 
close to the sea, and 4,000 to 6,000 feet high, receiving most 
of the moisture from the sea winds and cutting it off in great 
degree from the valleys eastward, as well as from the parallel 
and lower ranges of mountains for about 50 miles eastward, 
and from much of the highest portion of the Sierras. The 
only terrestrial Pulmonata known in these arid valleys are 
Succineas wherever marshes or springs are permanent. 

It has been long known that a variety of H, traskl was 
found near Paso Robles at the south end of the Santa Lucia 
range, 25 miles e ist of San Simeon, and several hundred 
feet high on the east slops. I included it in the description 
of H. diahloemis in 1872, though somewhat different from 
the northern type, but since then have considered them all 
as varieties of H. traskl. It is evident from the varieties 
already mentioned, that the distinctions between these and 
H. dapetithoiiarsi become more decided towards the south 
and east, or towards a drier and hotter climate. But the 
anatomy of the animals is stated by Binney to be so differ- 
ent that unless these connecting links show an intermediate 
animal there should be no confounding of the two in one 
species. The animal of var. diahloensis is described by 
Binney as very near that of trasld. It is however still un- 
settled whether the internal structure of these animals is less 
variable than the external. On account of the great aridity 
of the valleys for 216 miles N.W. of Uvas Pass, which 
the main routes of travel traverse, no species seem to have 
been found on the east slopes of the Mt. Hamilton range 
50 to 60 miles from the sea. But as No. 5 is found at the 
pass 45 miles inland, it is possible that the same, or a variety 
of it, exists above 4,000 feet even in this arid range. 
Paso Robles is 108 miles distant from Uvas Pass, 
but nearer the coast and at the head of the 



364 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

Salinas valley, which no doubt contains them through- 
out, as .Or. Yates found them living at the river 
crossing, 90 miles northward, near Monterey Bay. There is 
a gap of 70 miles from there to Cedar Mountain where the 
species has not been found, nor indeed any other more than 
25 miles east of the coast, but this must be on account of 
no search having been made thoroughly enough. It seems 
^Iso quite probable that links between H. traskl and H. mor- 
7)iomim will be found in the Sierra Nevada. 

3. THE BAY REGION, LAT. 36"^ 30' TO 38° 30'. 

I now come to the most productive region in California as 
to Land Pulmonata, about 45 out of 80 forms knoAvn in the 
State being found in it, having beeo the most thoroughly 
searched and naturally having the most suitable conditions 
for this superiority in numbers. I give a map, copied from 
the State map of Prof. Whitney's Geological Survey, with 
the exception that ths elevations are indicated by contour 
lines of 500 feet each, anil the heights of tho measured peaks 
^'iven in feet, with somj corrections furnished by Prof. Da- 
vidson of the Coast Survey. Being triangular in form and 
approximately 150 by 96 miles in extent, it comprises about 
7,200 square miles of land. Of this I have myself traversed 
-carefully more than half on foot or horseback, especially 
the mountainous parts, when wbrking out the geology of the 
■" Bay Map," which includes four-sevenths of the land here 
given. The northeast marshy and Hat corner of the region, 
about 870 square miles in extent, is not known to produce 
any but the amphibious Succineas, except a few washed 
down by mountain streams, which survive along the borders 
of the marshes for a short tima, and might increase if not 
trampled on by cattle in the dry season. 

This region lies directly west of the most elevated por- 
tion of the Sierra Nevada, which also produces the greater 
part of the Pulmonata characterizing that range, as men- 
tioned previously. The same influences affect both regions 



WEST COAST PULMONATA. 365 

to a great extent; that is, the great gap in the coast ranges 
made by the outlet of the two chief rivers of California, 
allows the sea breeze to penetrate freely to the in- 
terior, carrying moisture and coolness high up on the 
Sierra Nevada. There are other *• wind-gaps" at Monterey 
and Bodega Bays, by which the wind passes less freely 
through the Coast range. 

Previous to 1869, when I wrote the article on the distri- 
bution of our land shells for the American Journal of Con- 
ch ology, I had collected along the coast border and in the 
Santa Cruz Mts. up to about 2,800 feet altitude. As 
then stated, judging from what was known of their distribu- 
tion in the Sierra Nevada and Eocky Mts. of Montana, 
I supposed that the coast range must be well stocked up to 
the summits with these animals, as lime in fossil beds and 
plenty of moisture, with no ]3ermanent snow, were known to 
characterize them almost everywhere. But the real distri- 
bution has proved so different in t!ie bay region, that I am 
induced to describe it in detail for each county, taking them 
up as they are situated — in general — east, south, west and 
north of San Francisco Bay. The list of species here given 
is arranged to show this distribution, and to save repetition 
of names, the species are referred to by numbers. Of this 
list 15 species are nearly or quite identical with Sierra species, 
six of them indeed being of that boreal group, in great part 
circumpolar, which doubtless reached both ranges from the 
north. The largest is M. armigerits, which differs consid- 
erably in the Sierras, as far as known, but being quite small, 
gives little room for specific distinctions, as is also true 
of the remaining species, which are of the simpler, 
plainer groups. These identical species are marked ^. 
The most interesting of the species is H. cUahloan- 
sis, as the nearest approach to a proof of the deriva- 
tion of the Coast Range banded Helices from Sierra 
Nevada species north of lat. 35^. But although it 
might have been derived from shells washed down the San 



366 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

Joaquin River from near its head in lat. 37*^, that 
wonkl not have carried it north of San Francisco 
Bay, and it is known up to lat. 39^ on the east 
slope of the Coast Eange, while none like it oc- 
cur near branches of the Sacramento Eiver eastward. 
From this I argue that it has either spread from the 
Coast Range east, or that the forms of each range were de- 
rived by changes caused by climate, etc., from the Oregon 
shells of the same group.. More numerous comparisons and 
dissections of connecting links will be required to decide 
on the true limits of the species and sub-species. 

In the region between Monterey and lat. 35^ there are no 
traces of any forms connecting the only Sierra Arionta 
(tucUcidata) with those nearest allied to it, which all exist 
within the limits of the Bay region here given. The same 
objection applies to the theory of their derivation from 
shells washed down from the Sierras, as in the previous 
case, especially as they are known along the coast up 
to lat. 41° at least. (See article on the law of Variation 
in the Banded Helices, in Proc. Cal. Acad. VI, 121, 1873.) 

The names of localities given on the map are referred to 
in this article, or in former papers, and to prevent confus- 
ion names of towns are omitted, but their locations being 
marked, they can be easil}^ recognized. The essential out- 
lines are nearly correct, except the position of Mt. St. 
Helena, the summit of which is nine miles north of the 
limit of the map, and being in the volcanic region is only 
given to show the increase of elevation in the country 
toward the north, as the size of the pages would not adaiit 
of including any more of the map in tJiat direction, nor 
was it needed to illustrate the text. The heights given with 
exact number of feet are accurate; others, as 300, 2,600, 
etc., are only approximate. 



WEST COAST PULMONATA. 367 

LAND PULMONATA FOUND AROUND SAN FRANCISCO BAY. 

A. LiMACOID. 



* 1 . Limax campestris 

t 2, " agrestis 

+ 3. " (Amalia) hewstoni 

4. Ariolimax columbianus 

* 5. " californicus 

6. " niger 

7. " ( '■ ? ) liempbilli 

8. " ( " ? ) audersoni 

9. Prophysion audersoni 

10. " ( " ) hemphilli 

B. YlTRIXO 1). 

''ll. Mesomphix vaucoiivereusis 

12. " ( " ? ) sportella . ., 

13. " ( " ? ) simplicilubr^j 

14. " voyana ... 

15. " duianti caelata 

1 16. Hyalina cellaria 

*17. '• arborea (Breweri ) 

^\S. " minusciila 

"19. " milium , 

19. a '* limatula ? 

*20. Micropbysa pygmaea 

*21. " conspecta 

22. Helicodiscus liueatns ? 

23. " ? (nndescribed) 

C. Helicoid. 

*24. Triodopsis loi icata 

*2o. Mesodou ( Aplodon) armigerus 

26. Arionta arrosa . 

27. " " aib iretonim 

28. " " bolderiaua 

29. " " stiversiaua 

30. " californiensis 

31. •' '' nemorivaga 

32. " " rameutosa 

33. " " liidgesii 

34. " " vincta 

35. " '• exarata 

36. Campylffia ? (fidelis) infumata 

37. *' (traskii ?) diabloensis. . . . 

38. ' ' dupetithouarsi 

39. " ( " ) sequoicola. 

D. PUPOID. 

*40. Pnpilla rowelli 

41. " " californica 



E. SUCCINOID. 

*42. Succinea oreaoneusis 

*43. ' ' rusticana 

*44. •' sillimani 

*45. " nuttaliiana 

* Sierra Nevada, also, t Introduced. 



368 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

Contra Costa and Alameda Counties. 

These two counties form a quadrangle, including the 
whole region " East of San Francisco Bay," and are about 
40 miles square. About 270 square miles of the eastern 
portion, rising from the level marshes up to about 200 feet, 
is very arid in summer, the water-courses nearly all dry- 
ing up, and no trees growing along their banks for 10 or 15 
miles. The river shores south of the westward bend, are, 
however, lined by large trees and shrubbery, where not too 
marshy, and Avould no doubt support many species washed 
down to them, if the floods, both of summer and winter, 
did not destroy those that escape tramping cattle. 

Only two species have been found living near the marshes, 
Nos. 25 and 32, besides the four amphibious Succineas, 42, 
43, 44 and 45. 

At the foothills near Mt. Diablo, water begins to be per- 
manent in pools, and above the porous sandstones is found 
running in summer down to about 100 feet above tides, 
wherever the harder metamorphic rocks occur, while trees 
again become common along the streams, and in cool, 
springy situations live-oaks, pines and shrubbery cover parts 
of the hillsides. On the north slopes, and always near fos- 
sil if erous rocks between 100 and 1,000 feet elevation, are 
found small colonies of No. 32. From a similar locality on 
the east slope, Prof. Brewer brought the type of No. 37. 
I searched carefully on the south and west slopes, but 
could find none of any kind in the best localities, nor was 
Dr. Yates more successful in a careful examination of the 
ridge 10 or 12 miles S. E. of the peak. None were found 
above 1,000 feet for 5 miles up the north slope, where little 
lime and no fossils occur, and though these are found 
over 2,000 feet on the south side, the greater heat apparent- 
ly prevents the existence of any except Limacoid species. 

But as some of these are found active in wet places 
through the dry season, and dead shells always show the 
existence of other kinds when not active , it seems unlikely 



WEST COAST PULMONATA. 369 

that we could miss any where they occurred. Some large 
permanent springs also produced several fresh-water spe- 
cies in plenty. 

The trees on this mountain are usually too scattered to 
give much shelter, and even where most dense, no pulmo- 
nates were found, the rock being metamorphic. 

As shown on the map, there are here two spurs of the 
Mt. Diablo range, separated by Livermore Valley and Wal- 
nut Creek, but farther south they join, forming the Mt. 
Hamilton range, in which the whole country is more ele- 
vated, many peaks being higher than Mt. Diablo, and the 
lofty region near the southern boundary of Alameda County 
is over 20 miles wide, sloping northwest. 

A large extent of this table land is covered with snow for 
many weeks in winter, and large streams run from it all the 
year into Livermore Valley. The highest parts are more or 
less wooded with Cedars (Lib oce dries), Cypresses {Cupressus), 
Pines and Oaks, sometimes quite densely, but being as far 
as known metamorphic, no land mollusca have been found 
high up. The northwest summer winds seem to condense 
the fogs from the sea upon these high regions, while they 
cool the air without so much desiccation as on the lower 
ridges and valleys. But unlike the Sierra Nevada, this range 
does not seem to produce land pulmonates above 1,000 feet, 
and as on Mount Diablo they only occur near fossils. Dr. 
Yates explored much of the region, and not having been 
there myself, I quote from his letters: " I only found land 
shells where the miocene or cretaceous fossiliferous sand- 
stones cropped out, between 800 and 1,100 feet elevation, six 
miles N. W. of the summit of Cedar Mountain. These 
rocks in the deep ravines along the west side of the ridge 
near its base, contain many fossils; higher up, it is all 
metamorphic and no land shells were found." The species 
he found were 7, 15, 30, 34, 37. 

Thus the general fact is confirmed that No. 37 is one of 
the group living in or near coniferous forests where the soil 

26-BuLL. Cal. Acad. Sci. II. 7. Issued May 25, 1887. 



370 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

is calcareous. It has not been found west of this locality, 
but reappears southward at Salinas River, and there borders 
on the range of its nearest allies, Nos. 38 and 39, which, as 
before stated, may be off-shoots from it in the cool coast 
ranges. That it does not run into the Arionta group west- 
ward, is shown by the forms of that sub-genus found with 
it, being the two most unlike it known to exist. 

The most unexpected fact was finding No. 3i exactly like 
the Monterey variety, which is elsewhere known only near 
the coast, and rare. 

Livermore Yalley, which is about 80 square miles in area, 
is too dry in summer for any species to live, except in very 
rare spots along the banks of creeks where they may sur- 
vive under logs, roots or stones, but we found none except 
on the borders of a marshy lagoon, and the streams entering 
it from the north or west, near where Alameda Creek cuts 
through the western spur of the mountains. Those found 
were Nos. 1, 1, 14, 31, 32, 33, 42, 43, 45 (Nos. 14 and 31 at 
the base of the hills only). It is probable that the alkalin- 
ity of much of the water in summer prevents the existence 
of both land and fresh-water pulmonates in other parts of 
the valley. 

It is well known that while springs containing little min- 
eral matter except lime, are favorable to them, those having 
much of other salts are injurious, which explains their ab- 
sence from many regions where metamorphic or volcanic 
rocks prevail, as well as from unaltered regions where salts- 
have remained from marine deposits, or percolated through 
from other rocks. 

The northern border of Contra Costa County would ap- 
pear more favorable to tliem than we have found it to be, 
but the summer wind blows through the gap with such force 
as to desiccate the shores too much for the growth of many 
trees, and west of the river junctiou the marshes are too 
salt to suit them, so that there is very little shelter in the 
dry season. Those known from there are Nos. 5, 11, 24, 25, 



WEST COAST PULMONATA. 371 

32, 36, 42, 43, four of which were found also on the eastern 
border. 

The western slope of the mountains forming the eastern 
shore of the bay (called Contra Costa hills), is mostly of 
metamorphic rocks near its base, but partly covered with 
pliocene gravels up to 300 feet, while miocene sandstone 
with many fossils forms the summits and eastern slopes of 
tlie spur. The creeks draining it all head within this fos- 
siliferous region, and carry down lime in abundance to 
the valley soils. There are also calcareous springs deposit* 
ing tufa along the junction of the pliocene and metamorphic 
rocks in many places. It receives the full effect of the sum- 
mer fogs condensing about the summits, as well as more 
winter rain tlian eastward, while the sea breezes keep it 
cool in summer. We therefore find it the most favorable^ 
region yet mentioned for land pulmonates, which, however^ 
still seem absent everywhere above 1,000 feet elevation. 

The influence of these new conditions is seen here also 
in the commencement of a new group of botanical sj^ecies,^ 
accompanied to some extent by animals also, of species not 
known east oi- southward in the Mt. Diablo range, but char- 
acterizing the coast ranges west and north of San Francisco 
Bay. The most conspicuous example of this is the isolated 
grove on Kedwood Peak; but some of the shrubs and 
smaller plants have a wider range. 

Although Rocky Mound, five miles north, is much 
higher, its upper parts are entirely metamorphic, and thus 
unsuited for the redwood. The Peak has its eastern slope 
and summit composed of sandstone lying upon serpentine,. 
and at the junction numerous springs come out forming, 
creeks running in every direction. 

The redwood trees grew^ in 1850 pretty thickly over a sur- 
face about two miles square at the summit, mostly in clumps 
around the springs, and becoming scarcer down to about 500 
feet elevation. Though many hills in the ridge are as higk 
or higher, this was the only one so wooded, being the 



372 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

only one having the necessary conditions for their growth. 
The nearest groves of the species are 21 miles N. W. and 23 
miles S. W., across the bay, bnt some buried logs in San 
Francisco County, about 14 miles distant, show that a few 
^rew there during past centuries. A few grew along San 
Leandro creek, to a distance of six miles south, and w^ere as 
Jarge as the others. 

Several sawmills were built soon after 1849, and every 
accessible tree large enough for use was cut down. The 
roots being almost indestructible, however, have sprouted 
vigorously, sending up 10 to 20 sprouts about each stump, 
rand these now shade the ground around springs more dense- 
ly than the large ones, though probably not condensing so 
much moisture from fogs. They are now a foot thick, fifty 
feet or more high, and sometimes covered with cones, show- 
ing no tendency to die out. The stumps are mostly about 
12 feet thick, and the old trees probably averaged 200 feet 
ihigh. Unfortunately, this magnificent tree growls so much 
slower than some others that it is not a favorite, and the 
settlers grub or burn out all those on land suited for cul- 
tivation, besides destroying thousands every year for dec- 
larative uses. 

I have described this grove particularly because its moist, 
<cool locality seems exactly suited for land pulmonates, and 
yet none are found above 1,000 feet on the peak, and only 
two si^ecies there, Nos. 5 and 11, one a Limacoid, the other 
very thin-shelled, but not found in the drier regions east- 
ward. 

The reason indicated by these two species for absence of 
■others seems to be the want of lime, and to confirm this we 
find at about the lower limit of redwoods on San Leandro 
Creek, other species of the coast range, Nos. 25, 26 and 31, 
{26 very small, but typical), appearing where branches from 
the east bring down lime from the more eastern ridges. 

The sandstone of the peak is supposed to be cretaceous, 
but contains no fossils, while the miocene strata three miles 



WEST COAST PULMONATA. 37o 

eastward contain many, but are so mucli drier that land pul- 
monates are rare on tliem, and are the same species found 
Avest of Livermore Valley. 

There is a dense growth of trees on many of the north and 
east slopes of these hills, especially where springy, which 
form shelter for such animals, but only one small grove of 
pines grows two miles northeast of the peak on a very dr3r 
sandstone ridge, and can have no effect on the land shells,, 
being a species of the arid eastern slope of the range. 
Toward the northwest, however, appears another of the 
coast range species. No. 36, between 250 and 400 feet 
elevation, along the belt of calcareous tufa before men- 
tioned, wdnch runs about four miles N. W. through Pied- 
mom Yalley, and the same distance S. E. 

It is accompanied by the largest number of species found 
east of the bay. They are Nos. 1, 5, 9, 11, 12, 15, 17, 23, 
28, 31, 36, while in scattered localities lower down are 
found Nos. 6, 24, 25 42, 43, and near the bay shore Nos. 2 
and 3 (introduced), 20 and 21 in gardens, 40, and Nos. 18,, 
19 and 22 have been reported from the vicinity. Fires^ 
clearing, and cultivation of the land, have no doubt mucli- 
thinned out most of these, as few of them are found abun- 
dantly. 

As none exist on the higher and steeper parts of the hills,, 
the settlement of the lower more cultivable parts must tend 
to cause a still greater scarcity of many of them, especially 
those limited to this vicinity, Nos. 28 and 33. The tendency 
of migration is chiefly downward, shells being carried hy 
the winter freshets down the streams, but the more general 
cultivation of the level lands tends to exterminate them, 
Avith some exceptions hereafter noted. There formerly ex- 
isted large colonies of some species in willow thickets and 
meadows near the bay, but few are now found in such 
places. I was told by an old resident that he once found 
a large colony near Eedwood Peak, in a meadow near 
a mill, and as I have not found any at the sawmills. 



^74 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

Avhicli were near 1,000 feet elevation, I suppose he meant a 
flour-mill tlien standing 51 miles N. E. of the peak at about 
400 feet altitude, near the original locality of No. 33, and 
where also occur other forms of No. 30. I found a great 
colony of No. 35 near the head of the bay in 1855, and 
some were still found there by H. P. Carlton in 1870. 

I have heard from gardeners at various places around the 
bay, of great numbers being washed down in very wet win- 
ters, but they often confound the damage done by Lima- 
coids with that of the less common shelled kinds. The 
banded Helicoids, Nos. 26 to 35, seem quite able to increase 
in gardens and meadows, where they run into still more vari- 
-eties, and have probably supplied the forms figured by 
authors, which have been hard to identify. From the fre- 
quency of the Ariontas in gardens, they are beginning to be 
known near this bay as ''Garden Snails," and foreigners 
have even attempted to cultivate the larger kinds for food. 
The shell mounds left by the Indians are also favorite local- 
ities on account of the lime; but I have never found any 
buried in the mounds as proof that the Indians ate them. 

The drainage basin next south of Eedwood Peak, is 
on the branches of San Lorenzo Creek, of which the 
town of Haywards is near the centre, including about 270 
square miles, and reaching east 15 miles. It is much drier 
and warmer, so that most species become more rare, and 
Nos. 25, 26 and 28 disappear. From ten years residence, 
however, I have been able to find most of the others found 
northward, though some are exceedingly rare. No. 2 has 
not been introduced, nor Nos. 18, 19, 22, found, being rather 
doubtful as east-side species 

On the other hand we find the new forms, Nos. 7, 8 and 
13, which may all prove to be varieties of allied species 
<3aused by the increased dryness, as they are of doubtful 
occurrence elsewhere. Much less trees and shrubs grow on 
the hills, chiefly in canons and on north slopes, while fossils 
are limited to the eastern half of the hills. A few s]3ecies 



WEST COAST PULMONATA. 375 

are found up to 1,000 feet elevation rarely. No. 36 is not 
found south of Alameda Creek, and No. 32 becomes the 
prevailing form of 30, as it was in the dry region near Mt. 
Diablo. 

The species of the upper part of Alameda Creek basin 
liaving been mentioned, there only remaki about 200 square 
miles of Alameda County around Mission Peak. The only 
species known from there are Nos. 24 and 32; but close 
search will probably reveal other smaller species. There 
is, however, an evidently rapid decrease, caused chiefly by 
dryness. Dr. Yates thinks that No. 32 goes higher up 
this peak than elsewhere, fossils being also found nearly to 
its summit, where a less arid climate must prevail. 

From here southeast the Mt. Hamilton range has been 
mentioned as not known to produce any species on the 
liigher portions. But some of the lower ranges on its west 
slope are fossiliferous, and may be supposed to have some 
species, especially Nos. 5,8, 9, 14, 32, 37, the best suited for 
dry regions, and in wet places, Nos. 42 to 45. Though part 
of the same mountain range described last, it belongs to the 
next county to be mentioned. 

On the map the number 686 is the height in feet of Liver- 
more Pass (a little west of the figures), 485 is the elevation 
of the town of Livermore, 264 of Suiiol, at the head of 
Alameda canon, the lagoon referred to being a few feet 
higher and some five miles northward. The lettering often 
obscures the lines of elevation, so that they cannot always 
be counted for heights. 

The next article will describe the distribution in the re- 
maining counties, and give the geological deductions de- 
rived therefrom, showing why it differs so much from that 
of the Sierra Nevada. 



376 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

Corrections of Article " On Fossil and Sub-Fossil Land Shells in 
the United States," in Bull. 4. 

Page 236 — From the fall list of Bland's works, published 
lately by Mr. A. F. Gray, C. E. (Salem, Mass., 1884), it 
appears that most of his papers on West Indian shells, and 
those quoted in Binney's Bibliography, are dated before 
1858, but those on North American species, between 1858 
and 1883. 

Page 246 — Later information from Mr. Thomson, and 
also from Mr. Moores (p. 248), will be given hereafter under 
the head of introduced species. 

Page 247 — "3Iacrocyclis." The type of this genus being 
now known to belong to a different family, I have in the 
table, page 367 of this article, substituted Mesompliixj of 
Kafinesque, of which the type was "il/. planorhoides,'' so ad- 
mitted byFerussac and Pfeiffer in many publications. The 
fact that the species was previously named concava by Say 
does not invalidate the generic name, nor does its use as a 
sub-genus of Zonites by W. G. Binney, affect its previously 
established position. Mr. Ancey has made for the same 
genus the name Selenites, a word already used in mineralogy, 
and not at all needed here. The genus as named by Rafin- 
esque is as well established as his Mesodon, now generally 
adopted on quite as slender foundations. 

Page 252 — The lowest paragraph was accidentally mis- 
placed, as it should have preceded Liniax, etc. Very full 
information on species near lat. 49^, mostly furnished by 
Eev. G. W. Taylor, will appear later. 

Page 255 — Mr. Binney's exact words are, "It has simple 
genitalia without the accessory organs usually found in 
Arionta.'' He has, however, since described the plainer 
Eastern forms from Montana, etc., as ^'3Iesodon ijtycliopliora^ 
Avith varieties major and minor. 



Y O L ^t£ " 

?i-*-~SJ% Miry/ 




EXPLA NA TION. 

Scale, 18 miles to one inch. 
Contour lines 500 feet . 
Towns. o 

Highest Peaks. (^ 



BOTANY OF SANTA CRUZ ISLAND. 377 



STUDIES IN THE BOTANY OF CALIFORNIA AND PARTS 
ADJACENT. 

BY EDWARD LEE GREENE. 

YI. 

1. Notes on the Botany of Santa Cruz Island. 

Santa Cruz is one of the principal nnits in a succession of 
eight islands which lie along the Coast of California south 
of Point Conception. xA.ll but two or three of the smaller 
members of the group are near enough to the mainland to 
be plainly visible on a clear day; and the arrival at anyone 
of them, except the two or three most remote, is only a 
matter of an afternoon's sail from one or another of the 
mainland seaport towns of that part of the State. To peo- 
ple who know something of the special interest which at- 
taches to insular natural history in general, it may seem 
strange that, while the mainland botany of California has^ 
been, during the last thirty years, assiduously cultivated by 
many collectors, amateurs and professional botanists, these 
large islands, so near at hand, have been left until recently 
quite unexplored. Eemoved as they are to hardly more 
than a song bird's flight from the California Coast Range 
of mountains, it may have been inferred that their vegeta- 
tion would be altogether that of the mainland; and that the 
scientific exploration of no one of them would be likely to 
repay the possible discomforts of a day's sail across the 
channel and a week's encampment on ground so rugged,, 
and withal so barren looking as all these island steeps ap- 
pear when viewed from a distance of twenty or thirty miles. 

But the few fragments of positive botanical information 
which did, years ago, come in from one and another of the 
group, were sufficient to indicate the probability of many 
interesting peculiarities in their flora. Some forty-four 
years ago Mr. William Gambel of Philadelphia, an ornithol- 



378 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

ogist, visited Santa Catalina, the nearest and most readily 
accessible of these islands. This gentleman, although not 
n botanist, had the botanical good sense to prepare and take 
away a few plant specimens; and his small collection was 
found to contain not only species not known on the main- 
land, but also some new generic types. One of these, 
Crossosoma, is so peculiar as almost to represent a distinct 
natural order, and is more related to the Dllleniacece of Asia 
and Australia than to any plants of the American continent, 
•except its single congener, more recently discovered, which 
inhabits the desert region of southeastern California. 

Mr. Gambel's trip to Santa Catalina appears to have been 
the first, and for thirty years and more it remained the only 
visit which had been made to any of these islands, by any 
naturalist who had an eye to botany. But in the month of 
September, 1884, Mr. William S. Lyon of Los Angeles 
spent three days botanizing on this island, and in June and 
July of the year following continued his valuable researches 
during three weeks. Moreover, in April, 1885, he spent 
four days on San Clemente, in company with another botan- 
ist, Rev. J, C. Nevin. The highly interesting results of 
these several expeditions were published in the Botanical 
Oazette for 1886. Mr. Lyon's lists number, for Santa Cat- 
alina, one hundred and fifty-one species; for San Clemente, 
■eighty-one. Out of these about fifteen were new to science, 
and at least ten others were unknown except from other 
islands, including the distant and isolated Guadalupe, mak- 
ing, out of a total of two hundred and thirty-two species, at 
least twenty-five which are not found on the mainland. One 
of Mr. Lyon's novelties, appropriately named Lyonothammcs, 
was of a new generic type; so that the islands of this group 
could now boast of at least two peculiar genera of flowering 
plants. 

The fruits of these explorations of Santa Catalina and San 
Clemente were thus of a nature to intensify our desire of 
becoming acquainted with the vegetation of Santa Cruz, and 



BOTANY OF SANTA CRUZ ISLAND. 379 

other large islands Avhicli lie to the northward and also 
somewhat to the seaward of those above named. But in 
the meantime we had not remained in quite total ignorance 
of the botany of Santa Cruz; for in the year 1874 the late 
Dr. Albert Kellogg and Mr. W. G. W. Harford were there 
for some days, in connection with the United States Geo- 
detic Survey of the islands; but it was too late in the season 
for much botanizing. They were also on the large adjacent 
island of Santa Rosa at about the same time. I could never 
find that they brought specimens of more than six species 
of plants from the two islands; but all were new. Three 
of them, namely, Leptosyne gigantea, from Santa Cruz, 
and Bemlromecon Harfordii, and Grimlelia latlfolici, from 
Santa Eosa, were published by the late Dr. Kellogg shortly 
afterwards in the Proceedings of the California Academy. 
The other three, Saxifraga malvcefoUa, Eriogonum arhorescens 
and Hazavdia detonsa^ all from Santa Cruz, were published 
more recently by myself. In 1885 the beautiful new tree, 
Lyonothamnus asplenifolius^ a second and very striking 
species of Mr. Lyon's new genus of Santa Catalina, having 
been brought to our knowledge by Mr. Hazard of Santa 
Barbara, as one of the peculiar products of Santa Cruz, de- 
termined the present writer to pass, if possible, a part of 
his next vacation on that particular island. The list of species 
known as certainly belonging to it numbered now, indeed, 
only four\ and all four were apparently endemic; at least 
not one of them was known to occur on the mainland, or 
even upon other islands of the group. My opportunity for 
carrying into effect the purpose I had formed came in July 
of 1886; and by the kindness of Mr. Justinian Caire of San 
Francisco, who is the owner of the island, my inspiring 
task was begun under very favorable auspices, except that 
I was quite too late in the field for the best botanizing, it 
being near the middle of the dry season of the year, when 

'The haliitat of Corethrogyne (now Hazardia), ditonsa, which really 
made the fifih, was not yet known. 



380 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

but an imperfect knowledge could be gained of that abund- 
ant annual vernally maturing vegetation which, in all parts 
of California lying near the level of the sea, is the glory of 
the floral year. 

Before passing to remark upon the flora more particu- 
larly, it will not be amiss to speak briefly of the physical 
aspects of the island in general. 

As seen from the city of Santa Barbara, at a distance of 
about twenty -five miles, the island of Santa Cruz appears 
to rise, like a blue precipitous mountain range, from the 
bosom of the sea. It is about twenty-three miles long, and, 
in diflerent places, from three to seven miles broad, the 
highest peaks rising to an altitude of somewhat less than 
three thousand feet. The near approach reveals a suc- 
cession of more or less sharply outlined hills rising one 
behind another. This lengthwise range of mountains, 
wdiich forms all that is seen of the island as it is approached 
from the northern or Santa Barbara side, is intersected at 
short intervals by deep and narrow gorges which run down 
to the sea. In most of these running water of good quality 
is to be found at almost any time in the year, so that the 
northern slope may be said to be well watered; and the 
common trees of the nearest mainland mountain districts, 
such as the large-leaved maple (Acer macrophyUiim), live 
oak (Quercus agrifolia), poplar (Popidus tricJwcarpa) , willow 
(Salix Icevigata), and many more are found thriving in all 
these canons; and yet the tree which is commonest of 
all in similar situations on the mainland, the sycamore 
(PlcUanus racemosa), is entirely absent from Santa Cruz. 
The mouths of the canons afford the only landing places 
along all the coast line. The gravelly beds of the stream- 
lets which run down them, are the only parts of the 
island's surface which descend at all gradually to the ocean's 
edge. At these points, and not elsewhere, will the boatman 
or sailor find a narrow strip of beach, and that barely com- 



BOTANY OF SANTA CRUZ ISLAND. 381 

mensurate with the breadth of the gorge itself. With the 
exception of these, the whole coast of the island rises almost 
or quite perpendicularly from the water, the first terrace of 
comparatively horizontal ground setting in at the height of 
from twenty-five to five hundred feet above the tide. This 
lowest succession of slopes forms a considerable part of 
the best grazing land of Santa Cruz . It is an open, roll- 
ing district, extending back for a half mile or more, 
evely where intersected by the narrow canons mentioned, 
covered with fine grass, dotted with clumps of scrub oak 
{Qaercus dumosa), and some patches of manzanita 
(Ardostaphylos) ^ with here and there a grove of the beautiful 
fern-leaved Lyonothamnus. Back of this terrace the land 
rises more abruptly, breaking into rocky shelves and deep 
gorges, and the vegetation becomes more arboreal. Here 
are dense forests of a small pine, identical with that which is 
found on Cedros and Guadalupe, and which is not hereto- 
fore reported from other islands of the Santa Barbara group; 
clumps of a large-fruited evergreen cherry-tree allied to, but 
distinct from Prunus ilicifolla of the continental Coast 
Range; impenetrable thickets of manzanita, with here and 
there a group of oaks, Q. agrifolia and Q. cJirysolepis. 

From the summit of this northern acclivity one looks dowu, 
not, as one might expect, to the southern shore of the island, 
but into a deep and fertile valley of considerable extent. 
Up and down this stretch of valley are fields and vineyards, 
and, in the midst of all, an assemblage of cottages and 
barns, the principal one of the four or five ranches which 
have been established by the owner of the island, and are 
occupied by superintendents and laborers. This valley, 
forming, as it does, a great depression in the middle of the 
island, will, if the island be of volcanic origin, pass for the 
extinct crater which it looks as if it might be. Down the 
western half of the depression courses a stream which is 
flowing, at intervals, at least, during even the dry season of 
the year, and which finds its outlet into Prisoners' Harbor 



382 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

by a broad and beautiful can on between two and three 
miles long. Tlie valley enjoys immunity from the fogs 
which for a considerable part of the year shroud the 
seaward slopes, and has, along with its peculiar climate, a 
quite characteristic vegetation, as will be indicated in the 
catalogue of species which is to follow. 

To the number of four species which were previously 
known to inhabit Santa Cruz, my pleasant but laborious 
weeks of sojourning there have added upwards of three 
hundred. The list here given numbers, indeed, three 
hundred and twenty -one. About twenty -five of these 
are plants indigenous to the Old World, but natural- 
ized in California. Deducting these five and twenty 
plants of alien derivation, there remains a list of two 
hundred and ninety-six indigenous species. Out of this 
number the very surprisingly large proportion of forty- 
eight are unknown, except from this or other islands off 
this coast, and as many as twenty-eight of the forty-eight 
are, in so far as our present knowledge of the other islands 
goes, peculiar to Santa Cruz itself. Excluding, then, the 
four endemic species which had been discovered before my 
advent to the island, there stand forth, as the result of my 
own researches, twenty-four entirely new to science. A 
considerable proportion of these novelties have been 
described already in some earlier pages of the present 
volume of Bulletins. Some others were printed in Pittonia, 
and descriptions of the rest are to be sought in the cata- 
logue which supplements this paper. It must not be pre- 
sumed that this list is anything like a complete one. My 
explorations were limited to the western half of the island, 
and my time was quite too short for a thorough study of 
even that part of the whole ground before me. The eastern 
half remains untouched. What was done was done, as I 
have indicated, at quite too late a season of the year. 
Several of the new annuals I could not have characterized, 
as I found fchem dead and bereft of everything save their 



BOTANY OF SANTA CRUZ ISLAND. 383 

capsules, and I have diagnosed them from plants raised 
from seed which I brought home. Perhaps the list does, 
not enumerate more than two-thirds of the actual species 
which exist on Santa Cruz. But it numbers more than 
twice as many plants as have been reported from any other 
one member of the group. Peculiar circumstances of the 
distribution of the species, together with the astonishing 
number of such as are endemic, will make the list appear 
more like that of some remote and strictly oceanic island 
than of one lying close beside a great continent. I do not 
think that continental islands in other parts of the world 
offer any parallel to what Santa Cruz exhibits in this 
respect. That a small ridge of mountain rising out of the 
sea at only twenty -five miles' distance from a mainland shore 
should present forty-eight species of phanerogamic plants 
not to be found on the continent itself is, to my understand- 
ing of the case, a fact entirely unique in the annals of phyto- 
geography, and I cannot but wonder if competent geo- 
logical authority will not, after careful investigation, assure 
us that this group of islands has a very peculiar geological 
origin and history. There seem to be indications that, as 
a group, they have contributed to the. flora of the continent 
as freely as they have received contributions from it. I 
know not how else to interpret the fact that while those 
types which are peculiarly and distinctively Californian are 
strongly predominant on the islands, those which, being 
found in California, are also common to all North America 
are but very feebly represented. Delpliiniuin and Banun- 
cidus, Bihes, Buhus and Lonicera, for example, abound on 
the Pacific Coast of the continent, but are equally prevalent 
all the way across it; and the representatives of those genera, 
and others in the same category, are among the very rarest 
plants of Santa Cruz, seemiug as if their arrival there had 
been a late one — too late for them to have secured an 
ascendency. On the other hand, the distinctively Califor- 
nian genera, like Dendromecon smdEschscholtzia, Thysanocar- 



384 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

pus and ZaiiscJineria , abound in sucli numbers, both of 
species and individuals, as to force on us the strange 
question of whether it was not from these, as from seed- 
beds, that our mainland plants of the same genera were 
•derived. There is one species of Dendromecon dispersed 
widely up and down the Calif ornian mountain districts, and 
this, until lately, was supposed to be a monotypical Pacific 
North American genus. The hills of Santa Cruz are 
embellished everywhere with a second strongly marked 
species much larger than the mainland one; while Santa 
Rosa, closely adjacent, furnishes the third. It is also 
to be noted that Mr. Lyon reports the original species 
as occurring on Santa Catalina, the island nearest the 
€ontinent; so that the archipelago has all three species 
of this genus, the mainland one only. In EschscJioUzia 
closely allied to Dendromecon, we find two species, and 
these exclusively insular, on Santa Cruz. In the order 
of Crucifeixe the most characteristically Californian genus is 
Tliysonocarpus, and its nearest relative is the Asian 
lauscheria. Santa Cruz has two Thysanocarpi, both most 
distinct from all species hitherto known, having their own 
well marked habit, but, in fruit character, betraying the 
closest aifinity for their Old World ally. 

The Cistacece are prevailingly an Old World order of 
plants. There is but one representative of it on the 
western coast of the North American continent. On Santa 
Cruz this species abounds as nowhere else, and is there 
associated with a second and new member of the same 
genus, Helianthemum. 

In the vast order of the Legumhiosce, as in Bo.muicalacece, 
there is exhibited a dearth both of s])ecies and individuals 
of those genera which belong to the whole of North Amer- 
ica, and a superabundance of them in such as are distinc- 
tively Californian. One rarely meets with a Lathyriis, a 
Vicia or an Astragalus, and the few and scattered individ- 
uals in such genera occur only by the shores and in places 



BOTANY OF SANTA CRUZ ISLAND. 385 

where we know their seeds could have been driven across 
the channel daring a winter's storm. The clovers also are 
few, and there is but one peculiar species. But the whole 
island is abundantly stocked with species of Hosackia and 
Syrinaiium, which genera are exclusively West American, 
and about half the species are peculiarly insular. Passing 
to the Bosacece, we find the island totally destitute of such 
cosmopolitan genera as Spircea, Fragaria, Potentilla and 
Geum, of which there is no great dearth on the other side 
of the channel; but the Calif ornian genus Heteromeles is 
about twenty fold more abundant on this island than on any 
equal extent of mainland territory; and Adenosfoma and 
Cercocarpus, also Pacific American exclusively, are very 
plentiful. Mr. Lyon in his very valuable paper/ has spoken 
particularly of the fine wild cherry (Pranics occidentalis) of 
Santa Catalina, which he fancies may be peculiar to that 
island. It prevails quite as universally and is equally luxu- 
riant on Santa Cruz. If there exists between this and its 
depauperate congener of the Californian Coast Range, the 
relation of parent and offspring, it must be that the insular 
is the parent species. One of the principal moiphological 
differences between the two is this: the leaves of P. occiden- 
talis are ample and nearly or quite entire; those of P. ilici- 
folia are, as the name implies, coarsely spinose-toothed, and 
they are smaller. But the peculiar foliage of the reduced 
mainland species is precisely that of all j^oung seedlings of 
the insular, showing the case of the former to be one of ar- 
rested development. The smaller size and the less palata- 
ble and smaller fruit of P. ilicifoUa, are facts Avhich combine 
well with its habit of retaining the foliage of the insular 
seedling, to argue that the tree in migrating to our side of 
the channel found in our mountains a soil and climate less 
adapted to its full development. In confirmation of tliis 

1 Botanical Gazette, xi. 197. 
26— Bull. Cal. Ac^D. Sci. II. 7. Issued May 28, 1887. 



386 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

view I sliould say, that in the Cerastes section of CeanotJms 
where the prevailing species have entire leaves, and those 
less common have them spinose-toothed, young seedlings of 
the entire-leaved kinds always exhibit the spiny-toothed 
foliage which, as it would seem, has become permanent in 
the less common and more depauperate kinds. 

Before passing from the subject of the concentration of 
Californian t^^pes on Santa Cruz, I will mention one or two 
further instances of it: that of Zauschneria, the original 
species of which is found here and there along the north- 
ward slope only, while the valleys and canons of the interior 
and at the south side are, in many places, a very garden in 
the abundance of two large new ones; and lastly, Bloomeriay 
which, although frequent along our southward mainland 
districts, is far from ever growing in showy masses. It is 
common on all parts ot Santa Cruz; but on grassy knolls in 
the middle of the island it thrives in such abundance that 
the umbels touch each other over almost acres together. 

Turning now to a different phase of the subject, it is very 
evident that a goodly number of less common or even rare 
plants of our southern counties have, within a compara- 
tively recent period, been given to us from Santa Cruz it- 
self. Comarostcq^hyUs diversifolia, a rare shrub of the San 
Diego region, is now found to be one of the common small 
trees of our island. This is its native land, and the scat- 
tered and ill-grown individuals of the coast below indicate 
that out of the island's abundance some of the light woody 
nutlets drifted thither and germinated. In the spring 
of 1885, I found a small and slender but well groAvn Bceria, 
which was new to me, common along the shores of San 
Diego Bay, not described in any of our books, and which I 
had intended to publish sooner or later. It is now found to 
be precisely the peculiar Bceria which abounds on Santa 
Cruz, and which Mr. Lyon has also brought from San Clem- 
ente. Still more remarkable is the case of Malacothrix 
incana^ discovered at San Diego by Nuttall, more than fifty 



BOTANY OF SANTA CRUZ ISLAND. 387 

years ago, never since seen or heard of until the past sea- 
son, when I found it plentiful on the remote islet of San 
Miguel, and also at the western extremity of Santa Cruz. 
It is more than possible that Nuttall's scant specimens 
from San Diego were made from a single plant, and that 
perhaps th- only one which ever became exiled there. It 
would naturally be in this great family of the Composike 
whose seeds are made to travel with the winds, that we 
should expect to find plants of insular origin most frequent- 
ly establishing themselves upon the continental shores, and 
in the interior beyond the coasts; and more especially, since 
the dry season, during which the seeds of these plants are 
matured and given to the air, is the time when the trade 
winds prevail from the islands toward the continent. 

The only thistle on Santa Cruz was evidently a new spe- 
cies. Nothing like it was known to me; but not long after 
my return, Mr. Parish of San Bernardino, whose district is 
exactly to the leeward of this island, sent me this same 
thistle for a new species of his own vicinity. Still another 
somewhat rare Composita of the San Bernardino region, 
Stephanomei'la cichoriacea, a species very remarkably differ- 
entiated from its numerous congeners, is superlatively plen- 
tiful on our island, and that not on the northern slope near- 
est the mainland, but m the interior and on the southern or 
seaward slope. With its white-woolly herbage, and tall 
stems growing in prodigious clumps in every rocky place or 
hanging from the niches of the highest and most inaccessi- 
ble precipices, it is one of the striking figures in the Santa 
Cruz landscape, and doubtless the island is the birthplace 
of this species. 

Thus far our insular botany has yielded two generic types 
which have no continental species. One of these is Lyoiio- 
thamniis. This is represented by one species peculiar to 
Santa Catalina, and by a second which in so far as we know 
is endemic on Santa Cruz, where it is the most beautiful, as 
it is one of the most abundant arboreal products. The 



388 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

other genus is Hazardia — shrubs of the order of Compositse 
in some respects intermediate between the Australian 
shrubby asters and the Californian genus Corethrogyne 
Two of the species of Hazardia belong to Santa Cruz ex- 
clusively, and the third is of that remote and isolated island 
not belonging to this group, Guadalupe. 

The most interesting of all our insular plants to me are 
the Lavateras, of which I could, however, find no trace on 
Santa Cruz. But they ought to be named in this connec- 
tion, furnishing as they surely do, one of the most suggest- 
ing hints that our little archipelago may actually have been 
connected with some other continent than ours. Of Lava- 
tera there are some eighteen or twenty species in various 
parts of the Old World, and there is one in Australia. On 
our American continent we have not one ; but the little 
islands which lie off our southern coasts have already yielded 
four indigenous and quite peculiar species of this genus. 
One of these foui inhabits Guadalupe: the second, San 
Benito, a cluster of rocky islets not far off the Lower Cali- 
fornia peninsula, and nearly east of Guadalupe: the third 
is peculiar to the Coronados Islands, which lie in sight of 
San Diego: the fourth has been found on two or three 
members of the Santa Barbara archipelago. This is, I re- 
peat, the most marvelous fact which I am acquainted with in 
connection with Pacific North American botany; and it is 
one which strongly pleads for further exploration and study 
of these inviting insular fields. 

2. A Catalogue of the Floioering Plants and Ferns of the 
Island of Santa Cruz. 

1. Clematis ligusticifolia, Nutt. ; Torr. k Gray, Fl. i. 9. 
Growing luxuri mtly in canons on the south side. 

2. Ranunculus Deppei, Nutt. ; Torr. k Gray, Fl. i. 21 : B, 



BOTANY OF SANTA CRUZ ISLAND. 389 

Ccdiforn'cus, Benth/ PI. Hartw. 295; Brewer & Watson, Bot. 
Cal. i. 1; Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. xxi. 374, excl. var. latilobus. 
North side, near the sea; apparently scarce. 

3. Delphinium — ? A single plant, in fruit only, 

high up in a caiion of the north side. 

4. Platystemon Califoknicus. Benth. Trans. Hort. 
Soc. 2. i. 405. 

5. Platystigma dexticulatu:^!, Greene, Bull. Torr. Club, 
xiii. 218. 

6. Megonopsis heterophylla, Benth. 1. c. 

7. Dendromegon flexile, Greene, I. c. 216. — On bushy 
hillsides everywhere; quite plentiful on the northward slope 
at no great distance from the shore. 

8. EsCHSCHOLTZiA GLAUGA, Greene, Pittonia, i. 45. — Con- 
fined to the interior of the island, and the southward slope. 

9. EsGHSCHOLTZiA RA3I0SA, Greene, Bull. Torr. Club. xiii. 
217. — On a small rocky islet near the northern shore; a 
strictly maritime plant, growing only within reach of the 
sea spray; also found on the sea shore on Guadalupe. 

10. Card AMINE integrtfolia. '= Dentaria iate<jrifolia, Nut t. ; 
Torr. & Gray, 1. c. 88 (1838); Cardamine pcmciseda, Benth. 
PI. Hartw. (1857). — Northward slope; not common. 



1 This very cornmou fitld buttercup of Califoruia was uamecl by Nuttill. in 
honor of Ferdinand Deppe, a German botanist who had been his predecessor 
in field work on this Coast. The name, R. Deppei, was printed, aloug with 
the essential character of the species, not much less than twenty years be- 
fore the appearance of Beutham's R. Gallfonncus. 

- Mr. Nuttall was entirely correct in placing this plant under Dentaria, 
and if the genus be kept up it must remain there. But, as Bentham and 
Hooker have said, Dent'irla does not differ from Cardxmine, either in habit 
or character. 

There is another Californian species which has, until now, remained nom- 
inally under the former genus, and may be called Cardamine Nuttallii=: 
Dentaria iene'la, Pursh, Fl. ii. 439; Torr. & Gray, Fl. i. 87; Brew. & Wats. 
Bot. Cal. i. 30. The adjective specific name tenella has already been used in 
Cardamine. 



390 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

11. Arabis FiLiFOhiK^^ Cardamine filifolia, Greene, Pit- 
tonia, i. 30. — Notwithstanding its close resemblance, in 
some respects, to our common Cardamine oligosperma, this 
new insular plant must needs be an Arahis, for its siliques 
are not only not elastically dehiscent; they are very tardily 
dehiscent, and so, when ripe, plainly those of the genus to 
which the species is now referred. 

12. Thelypodium lasiophyllum, Greene, Bull. Torr. 
Club. xiii. 142. 

13. Sisymbrium vm'i^ATVM=Eri/.mmimijinnatum, Walter, 
n. Carol. 174 (1788): Sisymhrmm canescens, Nutt. Gen. ii. 
68 (1818). 

14. Sisymbrium officinale, Scop. Carn. ed. 2, n. 824. — 
In cultivated lands only. 

15. Nasturtium aquaticum, Tragus, Hist. 82 (1552); 
DodoniBus, Pempt. 581 (1583); Bauhin, Pinax. 104 (1623); 
N. officinale, E. Br. Hort, Kew. ed. 2, iv. 110 (1812).— 
Mouth of streamlet at Prisoner's Harbor. 

16. Brassica nigra, Boiss. — Not widely prevalent. 

17. Capsella divaricata, Walp. Rep. i. 175. — On a low 
promontory, near the seashore, on the north side of the 
island; probably adventive, for only one plant was seen. 

18. Capsella Bursa-pastoris, Moench, Meth. 271. 

19. Lepidium nitidum, Nutt. ; Torr. & Gray. Fl. i. 116, 

20. Lepidium Men^ziesii, DC. Syst. ii. 539. 

21. Athysanus pusillus, Greene, Bull. Cal. Acad. i. 72. — 
Common on the northward slope. 

22. Thysanocarpus gonchuliferus, Greene, Bull. Torr. 
Club, xiii. 218; Pittonia, i. 31. 

23. Thysanocarpus ramosus. Wholly glabrous and 
slightly glaucous, a foot high, the stem parted near the 



BOTANY OF SANTA CRUZ ISLAND. 391 

base into many erect, leafy and at length racemose branches; 
leaves 2 — 4 inches long, linear, those of the branches entire, 
or with a few scattered small but salient teeth, and anauric- 
ulate-clasping base, the lower and radical with 2 — 3 pairs 
of linear divaricate lobes : raceme naked, the pedicels slen- 
der and recurved : sepals minute, cymbiform, erect-spread- 
ing in flower, white, with a broad green mid-vein : petals 
twice the length of the sepals, spatulate-oblong, retuse: 
stamens 6, all of the same length, three on each side of the 
broad flat pistil: samara regularly and rather strongl}^ con- 
cavo-convex, the crenate margin with or without some ob- 
long perforations: style short, persistent. Species just in- 
termediate between its very singular island congener and 
the mainland T. crenatus; having the foliage and branching 
habit of the former, nearly. 

24. Oligomeris subulata, Boiss. fide Brew. & Wats. Bot. 
Cal. i. 53. — Common along the sea shore. 

25. Helianthemum scoparium, Nutt., Torr. & Gray, Fl. i. 
152. — Common in the interior: suffrutescent, and strongly 
so when mature; nevertheless flowering freely the first year 
from the seed, thus often appearing as if annual. 

26. Helianthemum occidentale, Greene (see page 144). 

27. Frankenia grandifolia, Cham. & Schlecht. Linnasa, 
i. 35. — Back of the beach, at the west end, abundant. 

28. SiLENE ANTIRRHINA, Linn. sp. i. 419. 

29. SiLENE Gallica, Linn. 1. c. 417. — Quite as common 
as on the mainland. 

30. &ILENE QUIXQUEVULNERA, Linn. 1. c. 416? — Smaller 
than the preceding, with a larger capsule and calyx more 
stiffly hirsute, growing with it on hillsides ever \ where in 
the interior of the island. The plant was long past flower- 
ing, and may possibly be S. nocturna; but whichever species, 
it is otherwise unknown in this part of the world, and must 



392 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

have arrived there Avith seed of grain or otlier cultivated 
phmts, from southern Europe. 

31. SiLENE LACINIATA, Cav. Ic. vi. 44?— Phiiit glabrous, 
the leaves all very narrow: stems numerous, slender, de- 
cumbent, from a thick, perpendicular fusiform root. Fre- 
quent on northward slopes. 

32. Stellaria media, Smith, Eng. Bot. t. 537. 

33. Stellari\ nitens, Nutt.; Torr. & Gray, Fj. i. 185. 

34. Sagina occidentalis, Watson, Proc. Am. Acad. x. 
345. 

35. Lepigonum maceothecum, Fisch. & Mey. Kindb. 
Monog. Lep. 16. — A very robust and viscid perennial, with 
large fleshy roots : not rare, on the north side, near the sea, 
among rocks. 

36. Pentac^na kamosissima. Hook. Bot. Misc. iii. 338. — 
Low bluffs near the sea, toward the west end. 

37. Calandrinia Menztesii, Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. i. 223. 

38. Claytonia perfoliata, Donn, Bot. Mag. t. 1336. 

39. Malva parviflora, Linn. Amoen. iii, 416. — Less 
common than on the mainland, where it is called if. horealis; 
but it is a most distinct species. 

40. Malvastrum Thurberi, Gray. var. laxiflorum, Gray. 
Proc. Am. Acad. xxii. 291. — Rare; only two bushes seen, 
and these under the protection of large opuntias; perhaps 
thus kept from the sheep. 

41. Erodium cicutarum, THer.; Ait. Hort. Kew. Ed. 1, 
ii. 414. 

42. Erodium mosohatum, Willd. Sp PL iii. 631. 

43. Rhamnus insularis, Kellogg., Proc. Cal. Acad. ii. 
37 ?— Tree often 20 feet high, the naked trunks 4 — 5 inches 



BOTANY OF SANTA CRUZ ISLAND. 393 

in diameter, clothed with a smooth light gray bark: branches 
few and open : leaves oblong-oval, commonly 3 inches long, 
including the half-inch petiole, and IJ inches broad, obtuse 
at both ends, mncronate at apex, the margin slightly but 
very regularly glandular-crenulate: color and texture of leaf 
as in R. crocea; fruit also the same except as to size, being 
much larger. 

The tree here spoken of, although receiving its best 
development on Santa Cruz, is well known in western Cali- 
fornia from Lake county southward along the Mt. Diablo 
range, and in herbarium specimens may, with some excuse 
be referred, as it long Iims been, to Nuttall's R. crocea; 
but no one in the field can confound tlie two. I saw the 
same on Cedros Island two years ago. Yet there is a little 
doubt about its being the plant described by the late Dr. 
Kellogg. But in view of their probable identity I dare not 
propose a new name for what, if it be the same, has already 
two by the same author, the otlier one being R. ilicifolia. 

44. Ceanothus crassifolius, Torr. Pac. R. Rep. iv. 75; 
Bot. Mex. Bound. 46. t. 11. — Not rare, yet nowhere forming 
thickets. 

45. Ceanothus arboreus, Greene (see page 144). 

46. Acer macrophyllum, Pursh, Fl. i. 267. — Common in 
deep canons of the north side, and very luxuriant . 

47. Rhus diversiloba, Torr. & Gray, Fl. i. 218. — North 
side, rare. 

48. Rhus integrifolia, Benth. & Hook. Gen. PI. i. 419. 
Common on the northward slope, and of shapely tree-like 
proportions, much larger than ever seen on the mainland. 

49. Rhus ovata, Watson, Proc. Am. Acad. xx. 358. — • 
Interior of the island, where it is common. 

50. LupiNus Chamissonis, Esch. Mem. Acad. Petrop. x. 
288. — Interior; also on islets near the shore; shrub of good 
size. 



394 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

51. LupiNUS AFFiNis, Agh. Syn. Lup. 20. 

52. LupiNUS NANUS, Dougl. Benth, Hort. Trans., new ser. 
i. 409. t. 14. 

53. LuPiNUS TRUNCATUS, Nutt. ; Hook. & Am. Bot. Beech. 
336. 

54. LupiNUS HiRSUTissiMUS, Benth. Hort. Trans. 1. c. 

55. LupiNUS UMBELLATUS, Greene (see page 145). 

5Q. LupiNus MiCROCARPUS, Sims. Bot. Mag. t. 2413. — All 
the above annual species appear in the interior only. Some 
of them may easily have been introduced from the mainland 
with seed of grain. 

57. Trtfolium ciliatum, Nutt. PI. Gamb. 152. 

58. Trifolium exile, Greene, Pittonia. i. 6. 

59. Trifolium tridentatum, Lindl. Bot. Keg. t. 1070. 

60. Trifolium microdon, Hook. & Arn. Bot. Beech. 330 
t. 79. 

61. Trifolium microcephalum, Pursh, Fl. ii. 478. 

62. Trifolium fucatum, Lind]. Bot. Keg. t. 1883. 

63. Trifolium amplectens, Torr. k Gray, 1. c. 319. 

64. Melilotus paryiflora, Desf. Fl. Atl. ii. 192. 

65. Medicago denticulata, Willd ; DC. Prod. ii. 176. 

66. Syrmatium dendroideum, Greene (see page 146). 

67. Syrmatium patens, Greene (see page 147). 

68. Syrmatium niveum, Greene (see page 148). 

69. HosACKiA ? OCCULTA. Growing parts of the plant vil- 
lous-canescent, the older glabrate and green: leaflets 6, one 



BOTANY OF SANTA CRUZ ISLAND. 395 

of the lateral wanting, membranaceous, cuneate-oblong, an 
inch long, the apex acute: flower and fruit unknown. 

Here and there a seedling of this obscure but unquestion- 
ably new species was found in gravelly dry beds of streams 
in several parts of the island. I judge the perfect plant to 
be a perennial or a shrub of the mountain sides or summits, 
but I could never And it. An annual would have been in 
fruit at the late summer time; but these gave no sign of 
flower, even. The habit is rather that of Syrmatium, but 
the leaves are too ample for that genus. I have named and 
thus defined what I have of this variety, both hoping that 
future search may be rewarded with perfect specimens, yet 
fearing lest it be one of the insular species now on the verge 
of extinction, like Syrmatium niveuni. 

70. HosACiaA PARYiFLORA, Benth. Bot. Eeg. t. ]257. 

71. HosACKiA STRIGOSA, Nfutt. ; Torr. & Gray. FL i. 226. 

72. HoSACKlA MARITIMA, Nutt. 1. C. 

73. HosACKiA SUBPINNATA, Toir. Sz Gray. 1. c. 

74. HosACKiA PuRSHiANA, Benth. 1. c. — Only two or three 
plants seen, and these near a Chinese fishing camp, at the 
south side; so, no doubt of recent introduction. 

75. Astragalus didymocarpus, Hook. & Arn. Bot. Beech. 
334. t. 81. 

76. Astragalus leucopsis. Torr. & Gray, Bot. Mex. 
Bound. 56. t. 16. — Southeastern shore; plentiful there, but 
not elsewhere seen. 

77. ViCLi Americana, IVCuhl.; Willd. Sp. iii. 1096. 

78. ViCLA ExiGUA, Nutt.; Torr. & Gray, i. 272. 

79. Lathyrus yestitus, Nutt. 1. c. 276. — Only one plant 
seen, and that in a canon of tlie north side. 

80. Pruxlts occidentali^, Lyon, Bot. Gaz. xi. 202 & 



396 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

333. Tree 15 — 25 feet high, with compact and well rounded 
head, the trunk with rough dark bark; evergreen; leaves 
usually ovate-acuminate, 3 — 4 inches long, 2 — 2| inches 
broad, entire or remotely denticulate, rarely lanceolate- 
acuminate, 3 inches long, and | inch broad, sometimes 
broadly ovate and abruptly acute, the margin spinose-serrate : 
inflorescence racemose : drupe orbicular, slightly compressed 
laterally, } inch in length and breadth, with a very conspic- 
uous suture on one side, dark red-purple, the thin pulp 
sweet, with also a bitter-almond flavor, but no acidity or 
astringency: putamen thin, rather firm-cartilaginous than 
ligneous. 

Yery common on all parts of the island; only occasion- 
ally exhibiting the very narrow leaves which I have de- 
scribed : the spinose-serrate foliage mo.-tly appertaining 
to young trees. 

Mr. Lyon cites no place where Nuttall published such a 
name as Prunus occidentalis, and I can find none. Moreover, 
Nuttall in common with very many able botanists, held that 
cherries and plums are of distinct genera, and this, if he 
named it even in manuscript, he must have called Cerasiis 
occiderdalis, rather than Prunus. 

81. RuBUS URSINUS, Cham, and Schlect. Linna3a. ii. 11. — 
Rare near the shore on the north side : apparently not yet 
of fruiting age. 

82. Cercocarpus betul^folius, Nutt.; Hook. Ic. t. 323. 
Trees of ten 18 — 25 feet high, with clean trunk and smooth 
light gray bark, the branches somewhat drooping, the whole 
habit very unlike that of C. parvifolius: leaves not rarely 2J 
inches long and IJ inches broad: young twigs with the odor 
and flavor of the black birch, and it was doubtless in refer- 
ence to this quality as much as to the morphology of the 
foliage that Nuttall, who knew all about the tree, named it 
(ungrammatically) C. betuloides. 



BOTANY OF SANTA CRUZ ISLAND. 397 

83. Adenostoma fasciculatum, Hook. & Arn. Bot. Beech. 
139. t. 30. — Common on hills everywhere, and much more 
luxuriant and tall than on the mainland. 

84. EosA Califoexica, Cham. & Schlect. Linna3a. ii. 35. 
Common along streams. 

85. Hetekomeles arbutifolia, Koemer, Syn. Monogr. 
iii. 105. — The most common tree on all hillsides sloping 
northward. It is never found in such abundance on the 
mainland. 

86. Lyoxothamnus asplexifolius, Greene, Bull. Cal. 
Acad. i. 187 & ii. 149. t. 6. 

87. Saxifeaga malv^folia, Greene, Bull. Torr. Club, 
ix. 121.— Still known only in the specimens of Kellogg & 
Harford. 

88. Heucheea maxima, Greene. (See page 149.) 

89. Kibes subvestitum, Hook. & Arn.?— A single bush, 
not fruiting and seemingly young, was found in a deep canon 
on the north side. 

90. TiLLj^A MixiMA, Miers. Chil. ii. 530. 

91. CoTYLEDOX LAXCEOLATA, Watson, Bot. Cal. i. 211.— 
Abundant on cliffs near the sea. 

92. Cotyledon laxa, Watson, 1. c, 212?— In canons back 
from the sea; plants too large, and too little glaucous to be 
well referable to this species. 

93. Lythrum Califoexicum, Torr. & Gray, Fl. i. 482.— 
Bare; found only in a springy place near the summit of the 
island. 

94. Zauschxeeia Califoexica, Presl. Rel. H^nk. ii. 28, t. 
52. — Low hills of the northward slope; frequent. 

95. Zauschxeeia villosa, Greene, Pittonia, i. 27.— Abun- 
dant along stream banks in the interior. 



398 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

96. Zauschneria cana, Greene, 1. c. 28. — AVith the last 
and equally plentiful. 

97. Epilobeium COLORATUM, Muhl. ; Willcl. Enum. i. 411. 
Only one or two plants seen. 

98. EuLOBUS Californicus, Nutt.; Torr. & Gray, Fl. i. 
515. — In a dry sunny canon opening to the south, or the 
north side; an enormous growth of the species, several 
plants more than six feet high. 

99. OENOTHERA HooKERi, Torr. & Gray, 1. c. 493. — Along 
streamlets in the higher parts of the island; same as the 
mainland plant commonly called a variety of (JE, biennis, 
which it can hardly be. 

100. (Enothera bistorta, Nutt. ; Torr. & Gray, 1. c. i. 

508. 

101. (Enothera cheiranthifolia, Hornem. Bot. Eeg. t. 
1040. 

102. GoDETiA PURPUREA, Watson, Bot. Gal. i 229. — Fre- 
quent in the interior valley on grassy slopes. 

103. GoDETiA epilobioides, Watson, 1. c. 231. — North 
side, in shady places; plentiful. 

104. Glarkia elegans, Dou'^d.; Bot. Reg. t. 1575. — Ap- 
parently scarce. 

105. Mentzelia micrantha, Torr. <k Gray, Fl. i. 535. — 
Frequent in sunny places in canons opening into Prisoner's 
Harbor. 

106. Echinocystis macrocarpa, Greene, Bull. Gal. Acad, 
i. 188. — Gommon. 

107. Echinocystis Guadalupensis, Gogniaux in DG. 
Mon. Phan. iii. 819. — Abundant on the north side. 

108. OpuntiaEngelmanni, Salm. var. (?) littoralip, En- 



BOTANY OF SANTA CRUZ ISLAND. 399 

gelm. Bot. Cell, i, 248. — Abundant on open hills of the lower 
parts of the island. 

109. Mesembrianthemum .^quilaterale, Haw. Misc. Nat. 
77. — In masses on high rocks overhanging the sea, on the 
north side, common. 

' 110. Mesembrianthemum crystallinum, Linn. Sp. PI. 
480. — Common at the west end, but not seen elsewhere. 

111. — Sanicula laciniata, Hook & Arn. Bot. Beech. 347. 
A single specimen a little back from the shore, on the 
north side. 

112. CoNiUM MACULATUM, Linn. Sp. PL 243. — Bank of 
stream near cultivated ground, seeming well established. 

113. FcENicuLUM OFFICINALE, All. Fl. Pedem. ii. 25. — 
Thoroughly established on hillsides near the landing of 
Prisoner's Harbor. 

114. Aplistrum ANGUSTIFOLIUM, Nutt. ; Torr. & Gray, Fl. 
i. 644. 

115. Berula angustifoll\, Koch. Deutschl. Fl. ii. 433. 
Springy places near the sea, in Laguna Canon on the south 
side. 

116. Peucedanum • ? On hillsides in the interior; 

stem and leaves dead, the species consequently undetermin- 
able. 

117. Daucus pusillus, Michx. Fl. i. 164. — Yery abun- 
dant and rank; often two feet high. 

118. Sambucus glauca, Nutt. ; Torr. & Gray, Fl. ii. 13. 
Not common. 

119. Symphoricarpus mollis, Nutt. 1. c. 4. — Like the 
last occurring only here and there in open canons toward 
the sea, on the north side. 



400 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

120. LoNiCERA HISPIDULA, Dougl. ; Torr. & Gray, 1. c. 5. 
Only one plant seen, and that with the two preceding 
species. 

121. LoNtcERA SUBSPICATA, Hook. & Am. Bot. Beech. 
349. — South side ne ir the sea; frequent. 

122. Galium aparine, Linn. Sp. PI. 157. 

123. Galium angustifolioi, Nutt. ; Torr. & Gray, I.e. 
22. — Rocky places low down on the north side; not fre- 
quent. 

124= Galium flaccidum, Greene, Pittonia, i. 34. 

125. Galium buxifolium, Greene (see page 150). — Near 
G. Catalinense, Gray, bat foliage of different texture and 
form, and the nodes of the stem lacking the " tumid ring " 
of that species. 

126. Brickellia Californica, Gray, PI. Fendl. 64. — In 
sunny open places among the canons of the north side; 
quite as shrubby as the New Mexican plant called B. 
WrigJdii, which is doubtless the same thing, specifically at 
least. 

127. Grixdelia eobusta, Nutt. Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. 
vii. 314. — Interior; not common. 

128. Aplopappus squarrosus, Hook & Arn. Bot. Beech. 
146. — Frequent southward in the interior. 

129. BiGELOViA YEXETA. Gray, Syn. Fl. i. 2, 112.— 
With the last and as frequent, but neither of them in any 
abundance as on the mainland. 

130. BiGELOYiA VEXETA, var. SEDOIDES. — Stems woody at 
base but wholly prostrate and less than a foot long: leaves 
obovate, coarsely serrate, thick and succulent: heads rather 
large, crowded in a terminal corymb. 

On the edges of low cliffs overhanging the sea, on the 
north side of the island; at a short distance would be mis- 



BOTANY OF SANTA CRUZ ISLAND. 401 

taken for a sedum; when fresh seeming like a very distinct 
species of its genns; but the dried specimens go readily for 
a form of B. veneta. 

131. Solid AGO Californica, Nutt. Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. 
vii. 327. — Rare; found in only two or three localities, on 
the north side; specimens of prodigious size, some being 
more than five feet high. 

132. COEETHROGYNE FILAGINIFOLL\, Nutt. 1. C 290. — 

Rather scarce; seen onl}^ in the interior, 

133. Hazardta detonsa, Greene, Pittonia, i. 29. 

134. Hazardia serrata, Greene, 1. c. 30. 

135. Aster radulixus. Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. viii. 388. 
Rather common in open places of the wooded northward 
side. 

136. Erigeron Canadensis, Linn. Sp. PL 863.— Only 
one plant seen, and that not yet in flower. 

137. Erigeron glaucus, Ker. Bot. Reg. t. 10. — Abun- 
dant on cliffs all along the northern shore. 

138. Erigeron stenophyllus, Nutt. PI. Gamb. 176; 
Greene, Bull. Cal. Acad. i. 88, not of Gray. — Frequent on 
the northern slope. 

139. CoNYZA CouLTERi, Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. vii. 355. 
A fair growth of this plant, not yet in flower, was found 
in a field of alfalfa, but fell by the sickle shortly after the 
time of my observing it. It may thus have failed to be- 
come established. 

140. Baccharis consan guinea, DC. Prod. v. 408. — Not at 
all common. 

141. Baccharis Plummer^, Gray. Am. Acad. xv. 48. — 
Growing luxuriantly in the caiion back of Prisoner's Harbor 
landing. 

28— Bull. Cal. Acad. Sci. II. 7. Issued May 28, 1887 



402 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

142. Baccharis Douglasii, DC. 1. c. 400. — Not com- 
mon. 

143. Baccharis viminea, DC. 1. c. — Dry beds of streams 
on the south side only, near the sea. 

144. MiCROPUS Californicus, Fisch. & May. Ind. Sem. 
Petrop. 1835, 42. 

145. FiLAGO Californica, Nutt. Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. 
vii. 405. 

146. Gnaphalium Sprengelii, Hook & Arn. Bot. Beech. 
150. 

147. Gnaphalium ramosissimum, Nutt. PI. Gamb. 172. 

148. Gnaphalium decurrens, var. Californicum, Gray, 
Bot. Cal. i. 141. 

149. Gnaphalium purpureum, Linn. Sp. PI. 854. 

150. Ambrosia psilostachya, DC. 1. c. 526. 

151. Franseria bipinnatifida, Nutt. Trans. Am. Phil. 
Soc. vii. 507. 

152. Xanthium Canadense, Mill. Diet. ed. 8. — One 
plant, fruiting at a Chinese fishing camp near the southern 
shore; at present therefore merely adventive. 

153. Helianthus annuus, Linn. Sp. PI. 904. — In a grain 
field; the native state of the plant. 

154. Encelia Californica, Nutt. 1. c. 357. — Common 
near the sea, on the south side. 

155. Leptosyne gigantea, Kellogg, Proc. Cal. Acad. iv. 
198. — Frequent on cliffs toward the sea on the north side, 
but preferring islet rocks where sea fowls nest, in which 
places it grows in greatest abundance. The plant is de- 
scribed by sailors and fishermen as making a fine show dur- 
ing its flowering season, which is said to be February and 
March. 



BOTANY OF SANTA CRUZ ISLAND. 403 

156. Madia filipes, Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. ix. 189.— 
Abundant on the north side everywhere. 

157. Hemizoxia fascioulata, Torr. & Gray, Fl. ii. 397. — 
A low, somewhat congested form, on open grassy lands 
tow^ard the sea, on the north side; abundant in its several 
localities. 

158. AcHYRACH^XA MOLLIS, Schauer. ; DC. 1. c. 292. — In 
the interior only. 

159. Layia platyglossa. Gray, PL Pendl. 103? — Not the 
variety breviseta of the nearest mainland, but the pappus of 
full length, and the awns manifestly flattened and broadest 
above the base; very likely a distinct species, but the speci- 
mens too old. 

160. Yexegasia caepesioides, do. 1. c. v. 43. — Deep 
canons on the north; frequent. 

161. Perityle Fitchii, Torr. Pac. E. Bep. iv. 100.— 
Clayey banks near the sea, on the south side: herbage resi- 
nous-viscid and strongly aromatic, thus most readily dis- 
tinguished from P. Californica, which is scentless and 
nearly or quite glabrous. 

162. B.ERIA Palmeri, var. Clementixa, Gray, Syn. Fl. 
Suppl. 452. — Common on the north side, and variable in 
size: pappus alike in ray and disk, the pale^e invariably 
four only, in both the plant of Santa Cruz and that of San 
Clemente, although this fact does not appear to have been 
observed by the author. The same plant is common near 
the shores of San Diego Bay, where I collected it in 1885; 
also from the Coronados Islands I brought specimens of 
what would appear to be the same, except that in these 
there is no pappus at all. 

163. Eriophyllum coxfertiflorum, Gray, Proc. Am. 
Acad. xix. 25. — Frequent on the north side. 



404 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

164. Ekiophyllum st^echadifolium, Lag. var. depressum, 
stems stout, a foot long or less, depressed, forming a low 
hemispherical tuft: leaves broad and with about two pairs 
of divaricate linear-oblong lobes. A plant in aspect ex- 
tremely unlike the continental type of the species; but the 
flowers and fruit present no characters. Frequent on cliffs 
near the sea, on the north side only. 

165. Amblyopappus pusillus. Hook. &_Arn. Journ. Bot. 
iii. 321. — Near the shores only. 

166. Achillea Millefolium, Linn. Sp. PI. 899. — Only 
on the north side, and rather scarce. 

167. Artemisia Californica, Less. Linn^a. vi. 523. — 
Frequent, but nowhere plentiful. 

168. Artemisia Ludoviciana, Nutt. ; Torr. & Gray, Fl. 
ii. 420. — The common Calif ornian form; but only one tuft 
of it seen on the island; that on the north side. 

169. Lepidospartum squamatum, Gray, Proc. Am. Acad, 
xix. 50. — On a sandy tract in the interior. 

170. Senecio Douglasii, DC Prod. vi. 429. — Interior; 
only two shrubs of it seen, but these large and beautiful. 

171. Cnicus LiLAOiNUS.i Near C. occidentalism but more 
slender, much less tomentose, the leaves glabrate above: 
heads smaller, the long herbaceous-acerose tips of the 
bracts strongly incurved : corollas lilac-purple, short. — In- 
terior of the island; infrequent. 

172. SiLYBUM Marianum, Gsertn. Fruct. et Sem. PI. ii. 
378. — Abundant in the sandy beds of the broader canons, 
both north and south, forming thickets impenetrable at the 
growing season of the year. 

1 Mr. Parish has sent me from San Bernardino what must be the same 
named by him as new, "(7. 7ieglectus; " but that name holds for an Old World 
species. 



BOTANY OF SANTA CRUZ ISLAND. 405 

173. Centaurea Melitensis, Linn. Sp. PI. 917. — Not at 
all prevalent as in the continental fields and waste places. 

174. Perezia microcephala, Gray, PI. Wright, i. 127. — 
Quite common at the north. 

175. Stephanomeria elata, Nntt. PI. Gamb. 173 ?.^ — 
Yery common on the north side; often six feet high. 

176. Stephanomeria yirgata, Benth. Bot. Sulph. 32 ?. 
As frequent on the south side of the island as the last is 
at the north. Of different habit from the mainland plant 
bearing this name; but akenes and pappus the same. 

177. Stephanomeria tomentosa, Greene (see page 152). 

178. Stephanomeria cichoriacea, Gray, Proc. Am. Acad» 
V. 552. — Very common, in the crevices of high precipitous 
ledges, chiefly in the interior. 

179. Rafinesquia Californica, Nutt. Trans. Am. Phil. 
Soc. vii. 429. — Yery common at the north. 

180. Hypoch^ris glabra, Linn. Mant. 2. 460. 

181. Calais linearifolia, DO. Prod. vii. 85. — Frequent, 
as on the mainland, and in the same tall state (often more 
than two feet high), which occurs about San Diego. 

182. Oalais pluriseta, Greene, Pittonia. i. 34. — Plants 
now growing from seed exhibit leaves laciniate-pinuatifid. 

183. Malacothrix tenuifolia, Torr. & Gray, Fl. ii. 487. 
Precipitous places near the sea, at the north; common. 

184. Malacothrix incana, Torr. & Gray, 1. c. 486 (see 
page 153). 

185. Malacothrix indecora, Greene (see page 152). 

•^ Precisely the same plau% whatever it be, was seen by m<^, ou my way 
home from the islands growing abundantly, ou hillsides, at Port Harford, 
in San Luis Obisj)0 county. 



406 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

186. Malacothrix squalida, Greene (see page 152). 

187. HiEKACiUM ARGUTUM, Niitt. Traiis. Am. Pliil. Soc. 
yii. 447. — Common in bushy places at the north. 

188. Troximon heterophyllum, Greene, Bull. Torr. 
Club. X. 88.— The typical form. 

189. SoNCHUS OLERACEUS, Linn. Sp. PI. 794. 

190. SoNCHUs ASPER, Fuchs. Hist. 674 (a. d. 1542). 

191. Specularia perfoljata, a. DC. Torr. Fl, N. Y. i. 
428, t. 65. 

192. Vaccinium ovatum, Pursh. Fl. i. 290. — Pine woods 
at the summit of the island, toward the west end. 

193. Arctostaphylos tomentosa, Dougl. Bot. Keg. t. 
1791. — Forming low thickets near the summit, westward. 

194. Arctostaphylos pungens, HBK. Nov. Gen. & Spec, 
iii. 278. — Abundant, but at lower altitudes than the preced- 
ing. 

195. COMAROSTAPHYLIS THYEJXSiFOLix^Arctostaj^hi/los di- 
versifoUa, Parry; Gray, Syn. Fl. Suppl. 397. — A handsome 
small tree, 12 — 20 feet high, flowering in July, having the 
external appearance, as well as the characteristic inflor- 
escence of our northwestern arbutus, with no likeness at all 
to the manzanitas; and, if fruit characters are of the value 
attributed to them in these Ericaceaj generally, Comarosta- 
phylis is a very good genus; otherwise this tree will be an 
Arbutus, not an Arctostaphylos. 

196. DoDECATHEON Jeffreyi, Moore, Fl. des Serres. xvi. 
99, t. 1662. — Hillsides of the interior; common. 

197. Samolus Valerandi, var. Americanus, Gray, Man. 
ed. 2. 274. — Wet places, in deep gorges, under dripping 
precipices, near the northern shores. 



BOTANY OF SANTA CRUZ ISLAND. 407 

198. ERyTHE,i:A Douglasii, Gray, Bot. Cal. i. 480. 

199. GiLiA ATEACTYLOiDES. Steucl. Nom. i. 683. 

200. GiLiA FiLiFOLiA, Nutt. PI. Gamb. 156. 

201. GiLIA MULTICAULIS, Beiitli. 

202. NE3I0PHILA RACEMOSA, Nutt.; Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. 
X. 315. 

203. EucPiiTTA CHEYSANTHEMiFOLiA, Greene, Bull. Cal. 
Acad. i. 200. 

204. Phacelia HI8PIDA, Gray, 2. i. 161. 

205. Phacelia suffkutescens, Parry, Proc. Daveiip. 
Acad. iv. 38. 

206. Phacelia Parryi, Torr. Bot. Mex. Bound. 144. 

207. Emmexanthe penduliflora, Benth. Trans. Linn. 
Soc. xvii. 281. 

208. Pectocarya penicillata, A. DC. Prod. x. 120. . . 

209. Krynitzkia leiocarpa, Fisch.. & Mey. Sem. Petrop. 
1835, 36. 

210. Krynitzkia 3iicromeres, Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. xx. 

274. 

211. Krynitzkia Jonesii, Gray, 1. c. 

212. Plagiobothrys Californicus =^cAi(i{oca?'?/a Cali- 
fornica, Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. xii. 164 (1877); Plagiobothrys 

Cooperi, Gray, 1. c. xx. 285 (1884). 

213. Heliotropium Curassavicum, Linn. Sp. PI. 130. 

214. Amsinckia lycopsoides, Lehm. Sem. Hamb. 1831, 7. 

215. Amsinckia intermedia, Fisch. & Mey. Sem Potrop. 
1835, 26. 



408 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

216. Convolvulus macrostegius, Greene, Bull. Cal. 
Acad. i. 208 — Abundant on the north side, suffrutescent, 
the stems scarcely twining, but trailing several yards over 
rocks and bushes. The peculiar inflorescence of this species 
attains a very remarkable development on this island. The 
flowers are arranged in a forked cyme, commonly five and 
seven, sometimes eleven in eacii cyme, every flower being 
separately large-foliaceous-bracted, a pair of somewhat 
larger bracts subtending the whole cyme. The corollas are 
developed, of course at the rate of one a day only, on each 
fork of tlie cyme. They are little larger than those of C. 
occidentalis, which is just as common at Santa Barbara on 
the opposite side of the channel, but of which no trace is 
found on the island. 

217. Convolvulus arvensis, Linn. 1. c. 153. — In a field 
near the principal settlement. Only a few plants, hence no 
doubt of recent introduction. 

218. CuscuTA subinclusa, Durand & Hilgard, Journ. 
Acad. Philad. ser. 2. iii. 42. — Not at all frequent, and rather 
depauperate. 

219. SoLANUM DouGLASii, Dunal. DC. Prod. xiii. 48. — 
Quite rare. 

220. SoLANUM Xanti, var. Wallacei, Gray, Proc. Am. 
Acad. xi. 90. — Frequent, but far less common than on 
Guadalupe. 

221. Datura meteloides,.DC. Prod. xiii. 544 — In canons 
of the northern and western parts of the island. 

222. Nicotiana Cleveland:, Gray, Syn. Fl. 242.— Like 
the typical mainland form, and not approaching N. pet- 
uiii(pJiora of Guadalupe. 

223. LiNARiA Canadensis, Dum. Cbav. Mon. 149. — 

224. Antirrhinum Nuttallianum, Bentli. DC. Prod. x. 
592. — Rocky steeps, near the sea; common and very robust. 



BOTANY OF SANTA CRUZ ISLAND. 409 

225. Antirrhinum strictum, Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. vii. 
375. 

226. Pentstemon cordifolius, Benth. DC. Prod. x. 
329. — With woody stems an inch thick, often climbing 
twenty feet among the branches of trees. 

227. DiPLACUS ARACHNOiDEUS, Greene, BulL Cal. Acad, 
i. 210. — Common in the higher parts of the island. 

228. DiPLACUS PARViFLORUS, Greene, Pittonia, i. 36. 

229. MiMULUS CARDiNALis, Dougl. Lindl. Hort. Trans, 
ii. 70. t. 3. — Common and extremely luxuriant under drip- 
ping precipices and in deep canons of the north side. 

230. MiMULUs FLORIBUNDUS, Dougl. Lindl. Bot. Keg. t. 
1125. — But one plant seen; in a streamlet well toward the 
summit. 

231. MiMULUS NASUTus, Greene, Bull. Cal. Acad. i. 112. 
Yery abundant on the north side, in shady ravines. 

232. Castilleia affinis, Hook & Arn. Bot. Beech. 154. 
Bare; near the summit. 

233. Castilleia hololeuca, Greene, W. Am. Sc. iii. 3: 
Pittonia. i. 38. — Common on hills of the interior; forming- 
no small part of the brushwood in some places. 

234. Orthocarpus densiflorus, Benth. DC. 1. c. 536. — 
Grassy slopes in open ground, on the north side. 

235. Aphyllon tuberosum, Gray, Bot. Cal. i. 585. — A 
single specimen at the west eiid. 

236. Verbena prostrata, E. Br. Hort. Kew. iv. 41. — 
Only one small specimen, near the sea shore, on the north 
side. 

237. Sphacele fragrans, Greene, Pittonia. i. 38. 

238. Salvia Columbarle, Benth. Lab. 302. 



410 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

239. AuDiBERTiA Palmeri, Gray, Bot. Cal. i. 601. — 
Widely dispersed, the bushes large and well formed, but 
seldom met with, never growing in masses. 

240. Stachys acuminata. — Stems 2 — 3 feet high, from 
rootstocks, retrorsely scabrous or hispid on the very acute 
angles: leaves ovate-acuminate, or triangular-lanceolate, 
mostly cordate, coarsely crenate, 2 — 3 inches long, on pet- 
ioles of an inch or more, deep green and glabrate above, 
velvety -canescent beneath: spike naked, a foot or two long 
in age, the 4 — 6 flowered verticils an inch apart: calyx-teeth 
triangular, spine- tipped, less than half as long as the cam- 
panulate tube: corolla light purple, more than a half inch 
long, tube well exserted; lower lip about 4 lines long. 
Among loose rocks of the northward slope: flowering in 
July. 

241. Plantago major, Camerarius, Epit. 261 (a. d. 
1586); Linn. Sp. PI. 112 (a. d. 1753).— Near Prisoner's 
Harbor Landing. 

242. Plantago patagonica, Jacq. Ic. Ear. t. 306. 

243. Eriogonum grande, Greene, Pittonia. i. 38.— All 
parts of the island. 

244. Eriogonum rubescexs, Greene, 1. c. 39. — Sandstone 
clifts, at the western end. 

245. Eriogonum arborescens, Greene, Bull. Cal. Acad, 
i. 11. — Common on hillsides of the northward slope, and in 
precipitous rocky places of all the canons; about six feet 
high when well grown, shrubby and evergreen, forming a 
rounded and compact bush. 

246. EuMEX SALiciFOLius, AVeinm. DC. Prod. xiv. 47. 

247. Kumex crispus, Linn. Sp. PI. 335. 

248. Eumex maritimus, Linn. 1. c. 

249. Eumex conglomeratus, Murr. Prod. Fl. Goett. 52. 



BOTANY OF SANTA CRUZ ISLAND. 411 

250. Polygonum aticulaee, Linn. 1. c. 362. 

251. Chorizanthe staticoides, Bentb. Linn. Trans, xvii. 
418. 

252. Pteeostegla. deymaeioides, Fiscli. & Mey. Sem. 
Petrop. ii. 23. 

253. MiEABiLis Califoknica, Gray, Bot. Mex. Bound. 173. 

254. Abeoxl^ maeitima, Nutt.; Bot. Gal. ii. 4.— Abund- 
ant on all strips of beach occurring- along the southern 
shore. 

255. Abronl\ xjmbellata, Lam. 111. i. 469. t. 105, 

256. Amaeantus albus, Linn. Sp. PI. ed. 2. 1404. 

257. Chenopodium mueale, Linn. Sp. PI 219. 

258. Chenopodium album, Linn. 1. c. 

259. Chenopodium ambrosioides, Linn. 1. c. — This and 
the three preceding weeds were seen in only a few speci- 
mens of each; none of them being thoroughly established, 

260. Chenopodium Califoenicum, Watson. Bot. Cal. 
ii. 48. 

261. Ateiplex miceocaepa, Dietr. Syn. v. 536.— Fre- 
quent on the south side near the sea. 

262. Ateiplex leucophylla, Dietr. 1. c— At the west 
end only. 

263. Ateiplex Californica, Moq. DC. Prod. xiii'. 98. 
Eocky islets off the northern^ shore; also, in a remarkably 
robust fleshy form, at the west end. 

264. Ateiplex Beeweei, Watson, Proc. Am. Acad. ix. 
119. — Southern shore. 

265.— Su^ida Toereyana, Watson, 1. c. 88.— At the west 
end, abundant. 



412 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

266. Urtica holosericea, Nutt. PL Gamb. 183. — Seen 
in but two or three localities, not far from the shore, on the 
north side. 

267. Urtica urens, Linn. Sp. PI. 984. 

268. Parietaria debilis, Forst. Prod. Fl. Austral. 73. 

269. Eremocarpus setigerus, Benth. Bot. Sulph. 53. t. 
26. — Abundant in fields; perhaps brought in with seed of 
grain. 

270. EiciNUS COMMUNIS, Linn. Sp. PI. 1007.— Growing 
spontaneously along the hills back from the landing, form- 
ing small trees. It is also thoroughly naturalized on stream 
banks in the vicinity of Santa Barbara on ihe mainland. 

271. Salix l^vigata, Bebb. Bot. Cal. ii. 83. — Fine trees 
in many of the canons at the north. 

272. Salix longifolia, Muhl. DC. Prod, xvi^ 214.— One 
bush, in flower, at the south side near the shore. 

273. Salix lasiolepis, Benth. PI. Hartw. 335.— With 
the last; a very pubescent form. 

274. PoPULUS TRiCHOCARPA, Torr. Hook. Ic. t. 878. — 
Frequent in deep canons at the north side; also more rarely 
at the south. 

275. Quercus dumosa, Nutt. Sylv. i. 7. — Very common 
at the north; the smaller specimens of the open hill country 
frequently with spikes erect, and many of the flowers per- 
fect, yielding a spike of a dozen acorns. 

276. Quercus chrysolepis, Liebm. Dansk. Yidensk. For- 
handl. 1854, 173. — At the north, near the summit; not com- 
mon. 

277. Quercus tomentella, Engelm. Trans. St. Louis, 
Acad. iii. 393 — Frequent; the trees smaller than on Guad- 
alupe. 



BOTANY OF SANTA CRUZ ISLAND. 413 

278. QuERCUS AGRIFOLIA. Liebm. 1. c. — A beautiful 
growth of this tree in every valley and broad canon: also 
on the higher northern slope, on open hill tops, a more re- 
duced and compacted form with all, or nearly all, the flow- 
ers perfect, and acorns consequently spicate. 

279. QuERCus PARTULA, Greene, Pittonia. i. 40. 

280. PiNUS iNSiGNis, Dougl. var. binata, Engelm. Bot. 
Cal. ii. 128. — Small trees, growing in a scattered way along 
the northward slope, but forming dense forests toward the 
summit and at the western end of the island. 

281. Habexaria elegans, Bolander, Cat. PI. San Fran- 
cisco, 29. — Frequent on wooded hills at the north. 

282. SiSYRiNCHiUM BELLUM, Watson, Proc. Am. Acad, 
xii. 277. — Interior only. 

283. Bloomerea aurea, Kellogg, Proc. Cal. Acad. ii. 11. 
Common on the north side, but extremely abundant in the 
interior; see page 386. 

284. Brodeea insularis, Greene (see page 134). 

285. LiLiUM HuMBOLDTii, Eoezl & Leicht. ; Duchartre, 
Obs. 105. — Very common in woods everywhere. 

286. Calochortus . A species of the Cyclo- 

hotJira section; common in woods of the north side; long 
past flowering, and not to be identified specifically. 

287. Calochortus . A species of the true Calo- 

cliortus (perhaps, indeed, several species); abundant on 
grassy slopes of the interior.^ 

288. Zygadenus Fremonti, Torr. Pac. E. Kep. vii. 20. 

289. Typha bracteata. Eather slender, 15 — 18 feet 
high, the staminate and pistillate spike each 12 — 16 inches 
long, separated by an interval of an inch or more, aggre- 
gate length of spike in the largest specimens fully 3 feet, 



414 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

tlie staminate at flowering time subtended and partly em- 
braced by a linear deciduous bract of its own length, and 
bearing 3 — 7 smaller somewhat scarious caducous ones 
above midway or near the apex: pollen simple. 

In a marshy place near the sea on the south side, above 
the mouth of Laguna Canon. A gigantic species, and one 
wdiich will doubtless be found on the mainland southward, 
whenever our collectors shall cease to pass this genus by as 
one not meriting their care or notice. These insular plants 
w^ere not out of flower at the late date of my finding them, 
namely, the 13th of August; but there was evidence that the 
mature spike would be an inch at least in thickness. 

290. ZosTERA MAEiNA, Linn. Sp. PI. 968. — Found on the 
beach at the landing. 

291. Phyllospadix Torreyi, Watson, Proc. Am. Acad, 
xiv. 303. — Abundant on rocks below tide mark along the 
northern shores. 

292. JuNCUS Balticus, Dethard, Reichenb. Ic. Fl. Ger. 
ix. t. 411. — Interior; frequent. 

293. JuNCus EFFUSUS, Linn. Sp. PL 326. — On the south 
side; rare. 

294. JuNCUs BUFONius, Linn. 1. c. 328. 

295. Carex . Dry hills among bushes, long 

past fruiting. 

296. Carex angustata, Boot. Hook. Fl. ii. 218. — Along 
streams in the northern canons. ^ 

297. Phalaris Canariensis, Linn. 1. c. 54. 

298. PoLYPOGON MoNSPELiENSis, Desf. Reichenb. 1. c. 
i. 15. t. 91. 

299. MuHLENBERGiA DEBiLis, Trin. Agrost. ii. 49. 

300. Stipa . Apparently an undescribed species, 

but specimens too old. 



BOTANY OF SANTA CRUZ ISLAND. 415 

301. AvENA FATUA, Linn. 1. c. 80. 

302. Melica imperfecta, Trin. Icon. Gram. t. 355. 

303. DiSTiCHLis SFiCA.TA=^Uniola spicata, Linn: D. mari- 
tima, Raf. Journ. Phys. Ixxxix. 104. 

304. Bromus . 



305. Elymus condensatus, Presl. Eel. Haenk. i. 265. 

306. Agropyrum repens, Beauv. Reiclienb. Ic. t. 120. 

307. HoRDEUM MURixuM, Linn. I. c. 85. 

308. Festuca Myurus, Linn. 1. c. 74. 

309. Equisetum . The specimens do not match 

any of our mainland forms, and possibly two species are 
represented. 

310. PoLYPODiuM Californicum, Kaulf. Enum. 102. 

311. Pelkea Ornithopus, Hook. Sp. Fil. ii. 143. t. 116. 

312. Pell^a andromed^efolia, Fee. Gen. Fil. 129. 

313. Cheilanthes Californica, Metten. Cheil. 44. 

314. NOTHOLxENA CANDIDA, Hook. 1. C. 116. 

315. Pteris aquilina, Linn. 1. c. 1075. 

316. Adiantum pedatum, Linn. 1. c. 1095.— A fine growth 
of this most beautiful fern (rare in California), in one of 
the principal canons of the north side. 

317. Adiantum Capillus-Yeneris, Linn. 1. c. 1096. 

318. WooDWARDiA RADiCANS, Smith. Mem. Acad. Turin 
V. 412. 

319. AspiDiUM MUNiTUM, Kaulf. Enum. 326. 

320. AspiDiUM RiGiDUM, Swartz, Syn. Fil. 53. 



416 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

321. AspiDiUM . A fern of more delicate text- 
ure than the preceding number, not well in fruit. 

3. Ihree Neio Species. 

HoRKELiA Kelloggii. Stems stout, ascending or nearly 
prostrate, a foot long or more, from a thick ligneous, very 
branching caudex : leaves of 5 — 7 pairs of obovate, coarsely 
and rather deeply toothed leaflets: calyx-tube cupuliform, a 
line deep and 2 J lines broad; segments lanceolate, about 
3 lines long, fully equalled by the oblong bracteoles : petals 
3 lines long, spatulate-oblong, clear white: the subulate 
filaments also white, the 5 opposite the petals perceptibly 
shorter than the other 5. — H. (Jalifoniica, var. sericea, Gray, 
Proc. Am. Acad. vi. 529; Bot. Cal. i. 181. 

Most distinct from H. Califormca in habit as well as in 
the color of the flowers and the very dissimilar proportions 
of tube and limb of the calyx. In that species the tube is 
not barely campanulate (much farther from cupuliform), it 
is even somewhat urceolate, and nearly equal to the limb 
itself in length. The peculiar pubescence of the present 
plant is a good character, and the only one heretofore men- 
tioned by authors. The species is apparently very local, 
being now confined, in so far as I can discover, to two or 
three town lots, which still remain unoccupied, in the west- 
ern part of Alameda, hence it is destined to an early extinc- 
tion, unless some new locality can be discovered for it. The 
lots in which it is now growing are of a sand}^ soil and form 
part of a bluff little elevated above the beach. H. Cali- 
formca is a common plant of the wooded hills on both sides 
of the Bay of San Francisco. The plant was originally dis- 
covered by the late Dr. Albert Kellogg, and may appropri- 
ately be dedicated to him who has so lately passed from 
among us. 

HoRKELiA Parryi. Caesj^itose, the slender stems 6 — 10 
inches high: herbage green, and with a sparse soft pubes- 
cence and some glands about the inflorescence: leaflets 



BOTANY OF SANTA CRUZ ISLAND. 417 

cuneate-obovate, toothed or cleft chieily at the apex: cymes 
very loose: calyx altogether rotate, with no tube; bracteoles 
narrow and only half as long as the broadly-lanceolate seg- 
ments: petals obovate-oblong, not nnguiculate, but nar- 
rower at base, 3 lines long, far surpassing the calyx, clear 
white: filaments all subulate, those opposite the petals only 
I the length of the other 5. 

lone, xlmador county: collected long ago by Mr. Harry 
Edwards, and more recently by Mrs. Curran, and by Dr. 
Parry. A very pretty species, with showy flowers, which 
are altogether those of an ordinary Potentilla, save that 
the filaments are very strongl}^ dilated; and the genus, as 
most authorities now think, is rather artificial, and should 
perhaps be suppressed, following Bentham and Hooker. 

Convolvulus Bixghami^. Perennial from creeping root- 
stocks, the stems 3 — 6 feet long, twining or trailing : leaves 
glabrous, oval or oblong, rather abruptly acute, the base 
with a pair of obtuse parallel or very little divergent has- 
tate lobes: peduncles 1-flowered: bracts oval to narrowly 
oblong, 4 lines long, flat and closely subtending and ap- 
pressed to the calyx, which they are too small to half con- 
ceal : catyx 6 — 8 lines long : corolla pure white : stamens 
rather short, the tips of the anthers attaining to the base 
only of the linear stigmas. 

In marshy places about Burton's Mound, in the city of 
Santa Barbara; collected in 1886, by Mrs. R. F. Bingham, 
and the writer. Its rhizomatous subterranean parts place 
it in close affinity with C. sepiuin, from which its peculiar 
bracts well distinguish it, and remove it far enough from 
the two suffrutescent species which are most common in the 
western parts of California, namely, G. occidentalis and C. 
luteohis. These two most distinct species have been very 
unfortunately run into one by their author, in the Synopti- 
cal Flora Supplement. Perhaps some imperfect specimens 
of the plant here defined as new may have led to this con- 
fusion; for the author speaks of some in which the bracts 

29— Bull. Cal. Acad. Sci. II. 7. Issued June 3, 1887. 



418 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

are "obloug and barely equalling" the calyx. They are 
often narrowly oblong, but they are always shorter than the 
calyx and never broad enough to come near covering it. 

This plant being removed, I may speak positively to the 
eifect that there are no transitions between C. occidentalis 
and C. luteolus. In the former the broad, carinate-con- 
duplicate leafy bracts are inserted close under the calyx, 
which they wholly conceal. In the latter the bracts are 
merety subulate small affairs, always situated at the good 
distance of a half inch or more below the calyx, their tips 
not reaching its base. The flowers of the former are one 
third larger, and their anthers equal or surpass the stigmas, 
while in C. luteolus the tips of the anthers come up only to 
the base of the stigma. The latter is a poor twiner, pre- 
ferring to spread about over the ground or low bushes; 
although in age, like a grape vine, it will spread over the 
head of a small oak and hide it with its profusion of leaves 
and flowers. G. occideu talis, although it becomes shrubby 
or woody, is from first to last a close i winer, never trailing 
about, but its stems and branches always spirally twisted 
around their support : and finally, the two have each its own 
geographical limits. C. occidentalis is wrongly credited to 
the San Francisco region. I do not know of its occurrence 
north of Monterey, nor of the existence of C. luteolus south 
of that point. The corollas of both have an uncommon 
durability among those of their kindred. Those of C. lute- 
olus I have long observed to gather up their folds loosely at 
nightfall of their first day, and unfold them again in the 
morning for the whole of the second day; and they com- 
monly acquire a deep shade of purple for this second day 
of their existence. And now that I have the two species 
growing side by side at Berkeley, I find that the southern 
species, C. occidentalis, does the same, except that the corol- 
las do not very perceptibly change their hue for the second 
day. I should perhaps say here that the corollas of the 
new C. Biiighamice, like those of their ally, 0. sepium, last 
for one day only. 



ORNITHOLOGY OF SAN DIEGO COUNTY. 419 

ORNITHOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS IN SAN DIEGO COUNTY. 

BY W. OTTO EMERSON. 

The months of January, February and March, 1884, found 
me storm-bound on the Volcano Mou7itains, about seventy- 
five miles northeast of San Diego. The intervals between 
January 15-20 and between April 6-28 were spent in Poway 
Valley, twenty-two miles north of San Diego. 

The Volcano Mountains seem to be a spur from the main 
range, rising about 5,000 feet above sea level. Eastward 
as far as the eye can see lies the so-called desert. West- 
ward among the valleys and tablelands (mesas) the country 
is sparsely settled. The western side of the range is well 
timbered with several species of oaks, while towards the 
north, dark, heavy belts of timber are seen. 

Poway Valley is surrounded by high rolling hills; these 
in many places are bare and rocky; again, covered with 
patches of cacti. Black and white sage is the principal veg- 
etation covering the sides of the many ravines. Very few 
trees of any kind are seen; these comprise oaks, elders, oc- 
casional sycamores and clumps of willows. The elders grow 
very large, the berries furnishing food for Robins, Mocking- 
birds, Bluebirds, House Finches, and others. The sycamores 
are the habitation of several species of rapacious birds. 
Numerous kinds of cacti are found, the one known as cholla 
being used by many birds to^build their nests in. 

In the present paper it is intended to show the relative 
abundance of the various species found on the Volcano 
Mountains in winter; also those of Poway Valley in winter, 
and of the latter place after the spring migrants had begun 
to arrive. The lists are somewhat incomplete, owing to my 
ill health preventing observations during the severest 
weather. The winter was an unusually severe one on the 



420 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

mountains, snow often covering tlie ground to the depth of 
two feet. Nine inches fell during one night. 

I am under obligations to Dr. J. G. Cooper and Mr. Kob- 
ert Ridgway for identifying several of the species included 
in these lists. Specimens were taken of all excepting Golden 
Eagle, Turkey Buzzard, Crow, and Sandhill Crane. 

Arriving on the mountains in January, bird life was met 
with in profusion, scattered among the trees and bushes, no 
storms having yet occurred to drive them down to the val- 
leys or confine them to sheltered flats along the creeks. 
After the first hard rain storm they commenced moving 
lower down, and the first fall of snow, towards the latter 
part of January, sent them hurrying to the warmer valleys. 

The species taken or seen on the mountains were as fol- 
lows: 

1. Grus mexicana. 

Sandhill Cbane. — A large flock was seen flying north- 
ward March 16th, and another on March 20th. 

2. Oreortyx pictus plumiferus. 

Plumed Paetridge. — A bevy of forty or more was seen in 
January. They were not as common as the Valley Par- 
tridge. 

3. Callipepla californica vallicola. 

Valley Partridge. — Abundant. This species withstands 
the cold and snow far better than its larger relative. The 
Plumed Partridge became scarce after the first heavy fall of 
snow, having gone to a lower altitude to winter. 

4. Gathartes aura. 

Turkey Vulture, — Only noticed on one occasion, when 
eight or nine were seen circling above the main ridge (Feb- 
ruary 22d). 

5. Accipiter velox. 

Sharp-shinned Hawk. — One seen February 22d. 



ORNITHOLOGY OF SAN DIEGO COUNTY. 421 

6. Accipiter cooperi. 

Cooper's Hawk. — Tolerably common. 

7. Buteo borealis calurus. 

Western Red-tail. — Common. Eggs were brought to 
me as early as February 20fcli. 

8. Archibuteo ferrugineus. 

Ferrugineus Rough-leg. — A male was shot February 
25th, at the foot of the mountains, by my friend Mr. Fred. 
Paine. 

9. Aquila chryssetus. 

Golden Eagle. — Seen flying on several occasions. No 
doubt breeds in this vicinit3\ 

10. Falco sparverius. 

American Sparrow Hawk.— One bird was seen March 1st. 

11. Bubo virginianus subarcticus. 

Western Horned Owl. — Sometimes heard calling at dusk 
from some oaks near the house. 

12. Dryobates villosus harrisii. 

Harris's Woodpecker.— One male taken. 

13. Melanerpes formicivorus bairdi. 

Californian Woodpecker. —Common. In stormy weather 
remaining concealed in the oaks, but on sunny days coming 
about, with their glad ekitp, ekup, ekup. 

14. Colaptes cafer. 

Red-shafted Flicker. — Rare on the mountains. 

15. Trochilus anna. 

Anna's Hummingbird. — A male flew past the house the 
morning of March lltli, hurrying to leave a place where 
the snow lay over everything. 

16. Otocoris alpestris rubea. 

Ruddy Horned Lark. — Common on open flats. 



422 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

17. Cyanocitta stelleri frontalis. 
Blue-fronted Jay. — Common at all times. 

18. Aphelocoma californica. 

California Jay. — Common. More social than the Blue- 
fronted Jay, coming about the corrals and sheds for scat- 
tered corn, and often going to the feed boxes to help them- 
selves. Specimens which were taken differ considerably 
from the same species found at Hay wards, Cal., being 
smaller and somewhat different in color. 

19. Corvus americanus. 

American Crow. — Two or three pairs were seen about the 
ranch during the winter. A large colon}^ had nesting sites 
in some willows at the foot of the mountain in the spring. 

20. Sturnella magna neglecta. 

AYestern Meadowlark. — Rarely seen on the mountains. 

21. Scolecophagus cyanocephalus. 

Brewer's Blackbird. — Three males came around the 
house during a snow storm on February 11th; a female was 
seen on March 20th. 

22. Carpodacus frontalis rhodocolpus. 

Crimson House Finch. — Not common. Heard one sing- 
ing on February 22d. 

23. Spinus lawrencei. 

Lawrence's Goldfinch. — A small flock was seen twice in 
January. 

24. Ammodramus sandwichensis alaudinus. 

"Western Saa^anna Sparrow. — A single specimen was 
taken March 9th. 

25. Chondestes grammacus strigatus. 

Western Lark Sparrow. — Common in flocks about open 
ground. 

26. Zonotrichia gambeli. 

Gambel's Sparrow. — Common. 



ORNITHOLOGY OF SAN DIEGO COUNTY. 423 

27. Zonotrichia coronata. 

Golden Crowned SPARpo^Y. — Tolerably common. Associ- 
ated with Gambel's Sparrow. 

28. Junco hyemalis oregonus. 
Oregon Junco. — Common. 

29. Melospiza fasciata heermanni. 
Heermann's Song Sparrow. — Eare. 

30. Melospiza lincolni. 

Lincoln's Sparrow. — The only individual seen was taken 
January 25th. 

31. Passerella iliaca unalaschoensis. 

Tow^nsend's Sparrow. — Common. A specimen which Mr. 
Eidgwaj' has identified approaches closel}' to the variety 
megarhynclui in size of bill and coloration. 

32. Pipilo maculatus megalonyx. 

Spurred Towhee. — Common. Could be heard singing 
on any clear morning from the top of low bushes. 

33. Pipilo fuscus crissalis. 

JCalifornian Towhee. — Common. 

34. Tachycineta thalassina. 

Yiolet-green Swallow, — ^First seen March 17th, early in 
the morning, but finding five inches of snow on the ground 
they circled about for three hours and then disappeared, 
returning April 1st, wdien I noticed them resting on bare 
oak twigs. 

35. Dendroica auduboni. 

Audubon's Warbler. — Was seen February 22d, towards 
the foot of the mountains. 

36. Harporhynchus redivivus. 

Californian Thrasher. — Heard singing on March 9th. 



424 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

37. Troglodytes aedon parkmanii. 

Parkman's Wren. — One specimen was taken Januai^y 24th , 
and another seen on the 28th. 

38. Sitta carolinensis aculeata. 

Slender-billed Nuthatch. — Seen and lieard singing 
every day. Appeared to be looking for nesting sites March 
1st. 

39. Parus inornatus. 

Plain Titmouse. — Common. The males were singing the 
latter part of March. 

40. Parus gambeli. 

Mountain Chickadee. — Common. Noticed them singing 
March 1st. 

41. Psaltriparus minimus californicus. 

Oalifornian Bush-Tit. — Seen February 24th, during a 
heavy snow storm, with a flock of the Mountain Chickadee. 

42. Regulus calendula. 

Ruby-crowned Kinglet. — Two birds were seen the last of 
March. 

43. Myadestes townsendii. 

Townsend's Solitaire. — Only two or three were seen. 

44. Tardus aonalaschkae. 

Dwarf Hermit Thrush. — Rare. None were seen after 
February 22d. 

45. Merula migratoria propinqua. 

Western Eobin. — Common wherever the ground was bare 
and soft. 

46. Sialia mexicana. 

Western Bluebird. — Common. Mated by March 1st. 

I left the Volcano Mountains on April 2d, and went into 
camp the same day at the foot of the mountains, on my re- 
turn to Powav Valley. About dusk two Russet-backed 



ORNITHOLOGY OF SAN DIEGO COUNTY. 425 

Thrushes were seen. Ou entering the Santa Isabel Valle}^ 
next day, the Arkansas Kingbird was found in pairs perched 
upon dry weed-stalks. Crimson House Finch, Western 
Lark Sparrow, Western Meadowlark and Brewer's Black- 
bird, were common through the green fields, while the air 
above was merry Avith the twntter of many Clitf Swallows. 
Lower in the valley the following were seen: American 
Sparrow Hawk, Western Ked-Tail, Bullock's Oriole, Purple 
Martin, Audubon's and Pileolated Warblers. On the plains 
I noticed Western Savanna Sparrow, Western Lark Sparrow, 
Crimson House Finch, Yellow-headed and Bicolored Black- 
birds, flocks of Mountain Plover and Euddj^ Horned Lark. 
A few pairs of Ash-throated Flycatchers, a species which ar- 
rives late, showed that the spring migration to San Diego 
county was far advanced. Cliff Swallows had commenced 
building under the eaves of an adobe house, and about a 
moist spot of ground several Killdeers were feeding The 
lonesome notes of the Poor-will could be heard almost con- 
tinually throughout the night. 

In the following list of the birds of Poway Valley, seen or 
taken by me in April, I have included in their order those 
noticed in January. Such \sdnter bird^ are indicated by ■^. 

1. -ffigialitis vocifera. 

KiLLDEER. — Tolerably common. Breeds. 

*2. Callipepla californica. 
California PARTRfDGE. — Yery plentiful among the cacti. 

*3. Zenaidura macroura. 

Mourning Dove. — Tolerably common. 

4. Pseudog:ryphus californianus. 

California Vulture. — I hardly expected to have the good 
fortune to see this rare bird, but one day I heard a sound, 
as of wind coming through the oaks, and saw a large shadow 
passing over the ground. Soon tliis bird of immense wings 



426 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

went sailing by towards the mountains. I had time to note 
the bare, bright colored head, outstretched from the body, 
and then he was gone. This rare species is now confined 
to the mountains back from the coast. I have been told by 
Mr. Henry Chapman (now deceased) that they were once 
common in San Joaquin and Sacramento Valleys. 

5. Accipiter velox. 

Shakp-shinned Hawk. — One specimen was taken in eTanu- 
ary. Not afterwards seen. 

*6. Buteo borealis calurus. 

Western Eed-tail. — Common in the vicinity of trees. 

7. Falco sparverius. 

Ameeican Sparrow Hawk. — Common. 

8. Strix pratincola. 

American Barn Owl. — A few seen at dusk among oaks. 

9. Bubo virginianus subarcticus. 
Western Horned Owl. — Common. 

*10. Speotyto cunicularia hypogaea. 

Burrowing Owl. — Common. Fresh eggs were taken 
April 23d. 

11. Dryobates pubescens gairdnerii. 

Gairdner's Woodpecker. — Common among oak trees. 

*12. Colaptes cafer. 
Red-shafted Flicker. — Common. 

13. Phalaenoptilus nuttalli. 
Poor-will. — Tolerably common. 

14. Chordeiles virginianus henryi. 
Western Nighthawk. — Common. 



ORNITHOLOGY OF SAN DIEGO COUNTY. 427 

15. Trochilus alexandri. 

Black-chinned Hummingbird.— Commou. More so than 
any other of this genns. Fresh eggs were taken, and half- 
fledged young found April 23d. 

16. Trochilus anna. 

Anna's Hummingbird. — Eare. One male seen. 

17. Trochilus rufus. 

KuFOUS Hummingbird. — Rare. 

18. Tyrannus verticalis. 

Arkansas Kingbird. — Common. Nests were ready to re- 
ceive eggs by the last of April. 

*19. Tyrannus vociferans. 

Cassins Kingbird. — Common. Nests about the same time 
as the Arkansas Kingbird, but the eggs are not distinguish- 
able from those of that species. 

20. Myiarchus cinerascens. 
Ash-throated Flycatcher. — One pair seen. 

*21. Sayornis nigricans. 

Black Phgebe. — Common. Eggs taken April 27th. 

22. Empidonax difficilis. 

Baird's Flycatcher. — Was noticed only once, on April 
8th. 

*23. Otocoris alpestris rubea. 

Ruddy Horned Lark. — Tolerably common. Incubated 
eggs were found April 20th. 

24. Aphelocoma californica. 
California Jay. — Commou. 



428 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

25. Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus. 

Yellow- HEADED Blackbird. — Seen in small flocks. The 
male has an odd way of throwing his head to one side when 
singing. 

26. Agelaius gubernator. 
BicoLORED Blackbird. — Common. 

27. Agelaius tricolor. 

Tricolored Blackbird. — Tolerably common. 

*28. Sturnella magna neglecta. 

Western Meadowlark. — Tolerably common. 

29. Icterus cucullatus nelsoni. 

Arizona Hooded Oriole. — Common. Nests in gum trees 
were completed by the last of April. From the appearance 
of specimens taken I should judge that it required from tAvo 
to three years for the males to attain full plumage. 

30. Icterus bullocki. 

Bullock's Oriole. — Common. Not found near the vicin- 
ity of the nesting places of the Hooded Oriole. 

31. Scolecophagus cyanocephalus. 

Brewer's Blackbird. — Very common. Nests in pepper 
trees. One nest taken April 17th contained seven eggs. 

*32. Carpodacus frontalis rhodocolpus. 

Crimson House Finch. — Nest and fresh eggs taken April 
18th. 

*33. Spinus psaltria. 

Arkansas Goldfinch. — Tolerably common. Fed on young 
oak buds. 



ORNITHOLOGY OF SAX DIEGO COUNTY. 429 

34. Spinus lawrencei. 

Lawrence's Goldfinch.— Common. Found large young 
and fresli eggs April 23d. 

'35. Poocaetes gramineus confinis. 
Western Yesper Sparrow. — Tolerably common. 

""36. Ammodramus sandwichensis alaudinus. 

Western Savanna Sparrow. — Tolerably common. 

*37- Chondestes grammacus strigatus. 

Western Lark Sparrow. — Common among clumps of 
cactus. Fresh eggs taken April 20tli. 

"^38. Zonotrichia gambeli. 
Gambel's Sparrow. — Common. 

39. Spizella socialis arizonae. 

Western Chipping Sparrow. — Heard singing. 

40. Amphispiza belli. 

Bell's Sparrow. — Tolerably common. Keeps among thick 
brush. 

*41. Pipilo fuscus crissalis. 

Californian Towhee. — Tolerably common. Was build- 
ing by the middle of April. 

42. Habia melanocephala. 

Black-headed Grosbeak. — A single male was seen. 

43. Passerina amoena. 
Lazuli Bunting. — Kare. 

44. Petrochelidon lunifrons. 
Cliff Swallow. — Common. • 



430 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

45. Tachycineta thalassina. 

YiOLET-GREEN S WALLOW. — About ten birds were seen fly- 
ing in a northerly direction April iOtli. 

*46. Lanius ludovicianus excubitorides. 
White-eumped Shrike. — Common. 

47. Vireo gilvus. 

Warbling Yireo. — Was seen singing in the oaks. 

48. Dendroica sestiva. 

Yellow Warbler. — Eare. One male seen. 

*49. Dendroica auduboni. 
Audubon's Warbler. — A few seen in April. 

50. Geothlypis trichas occidentalis. 
Western Yellow Throat. — Eare. 

*51. Mimus polyglottus. 

Mockingbird. — Could be heard singing morning and even- 
ing, and often on moonlight nights. 

52. Harporhynchus redivivus. 

Califorian Thrasher. — Quite common throughout the 
low hills. 

53. Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus. 

Cactus Wren. — Common. A nest and fresh eggs taken 
April 18th. 

54. Salpinctes obsoletus. 

EocK Wren. — Tolerably common in suitable localities. 

55. Troglodytes aedon parkmanii. 

Parkman's Wren. — Common. 



ORNITHOLOGY OF SAN DIEGO COUNTY. 431 

""56. Chamaea fasciata. 
Wren-tit. — Tolerably common. 

57. Psaltriparus minimus californicus. 

Californian Bush-Tit. — Found a nest with young, April 
23d. 

58. Hegulus calendula. 

KuBY-CROWNED KiNGLET. — A male was seen April 27tli. 

59. Polioptila caerulea. 

Blue-gray Gnatcatcher. — Rare. Two males were taken 
in January. 

60. Turdus aonalaschkae. 

Dwarf Hermit Thrush. — Tolerably common in January. 
Fed upon the berries of the pepper tree. 

*61. Merula migratoria propinqua. 

Western Eobin. — Was seen in the valley April 28th. 

62. Sialia mexicana. 

Western Bluebird. — Very common among the pepper 
trees during my visit in January. 

63. Sialia arctica. 

Mountain Bluebird. — A few seen about a plowed field in 
January. I was told that it was the first time that they had 
been seen in the valley. 



432 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

DESMIDS OF THE PACIFIC COAST. 

IDENTIFIED BY REY. FRANCIS WOLLE. 

List of Desmids, etc., collected by Mrs. Hansen and Miss 
Haggin near Lake Talioe, Aug., 1886: 

1. Hyalotheoa mucosa (Mert.), Ralfs. 

2. Bambusina Brebissonii, Kg. 

3. Desmidium Baileyi, Ralfs. 

4. Sph^rozosma excayatum, Ralfs. 

5. SPHiEROZOSMA SERRATUM, Bailey. 

6. Penium digitus (Elirb.), Breb. 

7. Penium minutum, Cleve. 

8. Penium curtus, Kirch. 

9. Closterium acerosum (Sclirank.), Ehrb. 

10. Closterium Dian^, Ehrb. 

11. Closterium paryulum, Naeg. 

12. Closterium pronum, Delp. 

13. Closterium rostratum, Ehrb. 

14. Closterium setaceum, Ehrb. 

15. DociDiUM Baculum, D. By. 

16. DociDiUM minutum, Ralfs. 

17. COSMARIUM ACULEATUM, Wolle. 

18. CosMARiUM AMCENUM, Breb. 

19. CosMARiuM BiocuLATUM, Breb. 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 433 

20. CosMARiuM Brbbissonii, Menegh. 

21. COSMARIUM CONTRA CTUM, Kircll. 

22. COSMARIUM CRENATUM, Ralfs. 

23. COSMARIUM cucuMis, Corcla. 

24. COSMARIUM EXIGUUM, Arcli. 

25. COSMARIUM MARGARITIFERUM, Meiiegll. 

26. CosMARiuM MENEGHiNii, Breb. 

27. COSMARIUM MONILIFORME, Ralfs. 

28. CosMARiUM NiTiDULUM, DeNot. 

29. COSMARIUM ORNATUM, Ealfs. 

30. COSMARIUM ORTHOSTICUM, Limd. 

31. COSMARIUM PACHYDERMUM, Luild. 

32. CosMARiUM PSEUDOTAXICHONDRUM, Nord. — a forin. 

33. COSMARIUM PYRAMiDATUM, Breb. 

34. COSMARIUM QUADRATUM, Ralfs. 

35. COSMARIUM Ealesii, Breb. 

36. CosMARiuM RHOMBUSOiDES, Wolle, n. sp. 

37. COSMARIUM SUBLOBATUM, Arch. 

38. COSMARIUM TETRAOPHTHALMUM (Kg.), Breb. 

39. COSMARIUM TRiPLiCATUM, Wolle — a form. 

40. CosMARiUM TUMiDUM, Lund. 

41. Xanthidium ANTiLOPiEUM (Breb.), Kg. 

80— Bull. Cal. Acad. Sci. II. 7. Issued June 16, 1887. 



434 DESMIDS OF THE PACIFIC COAST. 

42. Xanthidium ckistatum (Breb.), Ralfs. 

43. Xanthidium fasciculatum (Elirb.), Ralfs. 

44. Aethrodesmus conyergens (Ehrb.), Ralfs. 

45. Arthrodesmus ovalis, Wolle. 

46. Arthrodesmus subulatus, Kg. 

47. EUASTRUM BINALE (Turpiii), Ralfs. 

48. EuASTRUM ELEGANS, Kg. 

49. EUASTRUM INERME, Luild. 

50. EuASTRUM SIMPLEX, Wolle. 

51. EuASTRUM SPINOSUM, Ralfs. 

52. MiCRASTERIAS FURCATA (Kg.), Ralfs. 

53. MiCRASTERIAS PINNATIFIDA (Kg.), Ralfs. 

54. MiCRASTERIAS RADIOSA (Ag.), Ralfs. 

55. Staurastrum alternans, Breb. 

56. Staurastrum arctiscon, Ehrb. 

57. Staurastrum aristiferum, Ralfs. 

58. Staurastrum Avicula, Breb. 

59. Staurastrum Brasiliense, Nord. Var. triquetrum. 

Wolle, n. var. 

60. Staurastrum brevispina, Breb. 

61. Staurastrum crenatum, Bailey. 

62. Staurastrum cuspidatum, Breb. 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 435 

63. Staurastrum cyrtocerum, Breb. 

64. Staurastrum dejectum, Breb. 
6d. Staurastrum Dickiei, Kalfs. 
Q6. Staurastrum echinatum, Breb. 

67. Staurastrum eustephanum, Ralfs. 

68. Staurastrum furcigerum, Breb. 

69. Stuarastrum fusiforme, Wolle. 

70. Staurastrum g-racile, Kalfs. 

71. Staurastrum hirsutum (Elirb.), Breb. 

72. Staurastrum inconspicuum, Nord. 

73. Staurastrum leptocladum, Nord. 

74. Staurastrum margaritaceum, Ehrb. 

75. Staurastrum muticum, Breb. 

76. Staurastrum paradoxum, Mejen. 

77. Staurastrum scabrum, Breb. 

78. Staurastrum Sebaldi, Reinscli. 

79. Staurastrum subteliferum. 

80. Staurastrum tricorne, Breb. 

81. Staurastrum trifidum, Nord. 

82. Staurastrum xiphidiophorum, Wolle. 

Most of these are more or less familiar forms, but Cos- 



436 DESMIDS OF THE PACIFIC COAST. 

mavium rJiombusoides I consider a new species. The semi- 
cells are in the form of a rhombus — four-sided — unlike sex- 
angulare, which has six sides, as its name implies. It is 
besides a larger plant than the latter. 

I was glad to see Staurastrum xiphidiophorum, described 
by me in Bull. Torr. Glub, occurring frequently in the vial. 
It has been hitherto found only in Minnesota, and differs 
somewhat from the type in not having quite so many spines 
(daggers) . 

Staurastrum Brasiliense, Nord. var. triquetrum. — This 
(the typical plant) was originally found in Brazil, and was 
described as usually four -sided, sometimes five -sided. 
Your form, although only three-sided, is so like it that I 
propose to call it var. triquetrum. 

The ladies to whom we are indebted for these specimens 
are to be heartily congratulated upon the success of their 
researches. Never did I see a richer collection of Desmids, 
and it afforded me much gratification. I have been trying 
the past ten years to get fresh-water alg?e from your State, 
but always failing, I began to think that California had 
none, however rich the marine forms might be. 

I might have supposed that the forms of Desmids, etc., 
found on your coast would differ from ours much more than 
they do, but I was surprised a few days since to observe 
by a list published in England how like our own those of 
Japan are. 

The following fresh -water algae, not belonging to the 
Desmidiacece, were also found in the vial: 

Pediastkum Boryanum, Turp. 
Pediastrum forcipatum, a. Br. 
Pediastrum Ehrenbergii, a. Br. 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 437 

Ehaphidium polymoephum, Rabh. 
Merismopedia glauca, Nag. 
Ophiocytium cuspidatum, Bailey. 
Ophiocytium cochleare, a. Br. 
Ophiocytium majus, Nag. 
(Edogonium undulatum, a. Br. 
GEdogonium cryptoporum, Wittr. 
NosTOC — a small form. 
Conferva. ? 

Diatoms — several species. 
Lyngbya. ? 



438 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

FUNGI OF THE PACIFIC COAST. 
Y. 

BY H. W. HARKNESS. 

Eamularia Evonymi, E. & K. — On living leaves oi Euony- 
mus occidentalis, Santa Cruz, July, 1884. 3721 

Eamularia Heraclei (Oud.), Sacc. — On living leaves of 
Heradeum Icniatum, Oakland, September, 1887. 2802 

Eamularia menthicola, Sacc. — On living leaves oi3Ientha 
Canadensis, Folsom, May, 1882. ^ 3210 

Eamularia mimuli, E. & K. — On living leaves of 31vm- 
idus lideus, Eolsom, May, 1882. 3215 

Phyllosticta Angelic^e, Sacc. — On living leaves of An- 
gelica Breiveri, Donner, September, 1884. 3394 

Phyllosticta cruenta, Fr. — On living leaves of Smilacina 
a'lnplexicaulis, Tamalpais, April, 1882. 3178 

Septoria Epilobii, West. — On living leaves of Epilobium 
coloratum, Folsom, May, 1882. 3218 

Septoria destruens, Desm. — On living leaves of Sidalcea 
malvcejiora, Tamalpais, April, 1882. 3176 

Septoria (Enother^, B. & C. — On living leaves of (Eno- 
thera ovata, Piedmont, March, 1882. 3077 

Septoria Pentstemonis, E. & E. — On living leaves of 
Pentstemon centrantJdfolius and P. corijmhosus, Central Cali- 
fornia, May— August. 3112, 4151 

Septoria Eubi, West.— On living leaves of Ruhus Nut- 
Jcanits, Piedmont, June, 1882. 3261 



FUNGI OF THE PACIFIC COAST. 439 

Septoria Scutellaria, Tlilim. — On living leaves of Scic- 
iellaria tuherosa, Antioch, April, 1882, 3109 

Septorla Stachydis, Eob. & Desm. — On living leaves of 
Stachys hullata, San Francisco, February, 1882. 3020 

Septoria Symphoricarpi, E. & E. — On living leaves of 
Symphoricarpus racemosiis, Niles, May, 1882 3248 

Kellermannia TucCtEGEna, E. & E. Jour. Myc. i. 154. — 
On dead leaves of Yucca hrevifolia, Mohave Desert, March, 
1878. ' 698 

Kellermannia Polygoni, E. & K., Jour. Myc, ii. 111. — 
On dead stems of Polygonum polymorplmm, Blue Canon, 
April, 1882. ' 3277 

Kellermannia Sisyrinchii, E. & E., Jour. Myc. ii. 111. — 
On dead stems of Sisyrinchmni helium, Berkeley, February, 
1882. 3017 

AscocHYTA Fremontia. — Hypopliyllous, scattered, minute: 
spores pale - brown, nearly cylindrical, slightly atten- 
uated at the ends, flexuous, 1-septate, but often appear- 
ing 3-septate by division of the endochrome, very unequal 
in size, jx 6—12 X 30—40. 

Covering the lower surface of living leaves of Fremontia 
Califovnica, Tehachapi, June, 1884. 3719 

DiPLODiA Frangul.e, Fckl. — On stems of Rhamnus Cali- 
fornica. San Francisco, June, 1881. 2618 

DiPLODiA PROFUSA. — On twigs of Robinia pseudacacia, Oak- 
land, December, 1882, 2990 

DiPLODiA Nerii, Speg. — On dead stems of Nerium Olean- 
der, Oakland. February, 1884. 3634 

Pestalozzia gibbosa. — Epiphyllous ; acervuli black, 
erumpent: basidia linear, hyaline, shorter than the spore: 



440 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

spores elliptic, curved, 4-septate; two lower cells pale 
brown, the two above- them so black that the septum can 
be seen with difficulty; the apical cell hyaline and crowned 
by three setse, with capitate extremities. 

Spore /i 8 X 24; setae, 40. 

On partly dead leaves of GauUheria Shallon, frequently 
covering nearly the entire leaf, which is blackened by the 
spores. Point Eeyes, June, 1886. 4130 

Synchitrium myosotidis, Klihn. — On Eritrichium, San 
Diego, May, 1884. 3598 

iEciDiUM ABUNDANS, Pk. — On living leaves of Symphori- 
carpus racemosus, and succeeded by Puccinia Symphoricarpiy 
Hk. May, 1884. 3174 

iEciDiUM Phaceli^, Pk. — On living leaves of Phacelia 
eircinata, Yo Semite, June, 1883. 3530 

^CIDIUM RCESTELioiDES, E. & E. — On living leaves and 
stems of Sidalcea malvcBfiora, Olema, June, 1886. 4123 

RcESTELiA LACERATA, Fr. — On fruit of AmelancJiier alnifo- 
lia. Sierra Nevada, May, 1886. 2723 

Uredo Iridis, Schw. — On living leaves of Lis longipetala 
and /. Douglasii, San Francisco and Sausalito, June, 1886. 

4061, 4095 

Uredo ? — On living leaves of Accena pinnatijida. 

This, which is the Uredo form of some Phragmidium, is 
very abundant throughout the summer, but although fre- 
quently sought for, teleutospores have not yet been seen. 

2648, 2523 

Trichobasis Helianthell^, Pk. — On living leaves of He- 
lianthella Cali/ornica, Donner, September, 1882. 3405 

Uromyces Euphorbia, C. & P., with ^cidium Euphorbia; 
Gmel. — On living leaves of Euphorbia serpyllifolia, Central 
California. 3208, 3491, 4126 



FUNGI OF THE PACIFIC COAST. 441 

Ueomyces Psoralen, Pk. — On living leaves of Psoralea 
phijsodes, Mt. St. Helena, May, 1884. 3482, 3687 

Uromyces Zygadeni, Pk. — On Zygadenus Fremonti, Tam- 
alpais, July, 1886. 4139 

PucciNiA Pimpinell^, Strauss, with ^cidium. — On living 
leaves of Osmorrhiza nuda, Sausalito, August, 1881. 2750 

PucciNiA Artemisiarum, Duby. — On Artemisia Calif ornica 
and A. pycnocepliala, San Francisco, June, 1884. 

3463, 2812 

PucciNiA Balsamorrhiz^, Pk. — On living leaves of BaU 
samorrhiza deltoidea, Verdi, August, 1884. 3745 

PucoiNiA Clarkle, Pk. — On living leaves of Clayhia rJiom- 
hoidea, Yo Semite, July, 1883. 3592 

PucciNiA PLUMBARiA, Pk., with ^EciDiUM. — On leaves of 
Gilia linearis, Eeno, Nevada, May, 1884. 3348, 3506. 

PucciNiA CoNvoLvuLi, Cast., with ^cidium Calystegi.e, 
Desm. — On living leaves of Convolvulus luteolus and C. vil- 
losus, San Luis Obispo, July, 1885. 4003,4028 

PucciNiA Grindelle, Pk., with ^cidium. — On living leaves 
of Grindelia squarrosa, Williams, Colusa County, May, 1884. 

3513 

PucciNiA NiGRESCENS, Pk.,^ with tEcidium. — On living 
leaves of Audibertia incana and A. stachyoides. Eeno, Neva- 
da, August, 1882, and Tres Pinos, California, July, 1885. 

3365, 4022 

PucciNiA Troximontis, Pk. — On living leaves of Troxi- 
mon heterophyllum, San Francisco, May, 1883. 3136 



442 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

PucciNiA SUBCIRCINATA, E. & E., witli ^ciDiUM. — On liv- 
ing leaves of Senecio triangularis, Donner, August^ 1883. 

3572 

PucciNiA YiOL^, DC., with ^cidium. — On living leaves of 
Viola canina, Cisco, July — August, 1883. 3486, 3544 

PucciNiA Wyethije, Pk. — On living leaves of Wyethia mol- 
lis, Donner, Sierra Nevada, September, 1882. 3406 

Peronospora viticola, B. & C. — On living leaves of Viti^ 
Calif ornica, near Bartlett Springs, Lake County, June, 1884, 
and Eussian Eiver, June, 1886. "^ 3706, 4128 

Tliis fungus, forming large white patches, is confined to 
the lower surface of the leaf, where only the stomata from 
which it emerges is found. The corresponding part of the 
upper surface is much paler than the healthy portion of the 
leaf, on which account it is noticeable to a considerable dis- 
tance. In both the cases noted above it was very abundant, 
and is a menace to our vineyards not to be lightly re- 
garded. 

It was first observed in 1872, in a vineyard near Sacra- 
mento, which has since, the vines having been uprooted, 
been devoted to other uses. The vineyard was near the 
levee and in close proximity to wild grapevines, from which 
the fungus was undoubtedly derived. 

Dr. Farlow, in Bull. Bussey Inst. i. 422, March, 1876, 
speaking of this disease of the vine, says: 

" One would naturally suppose that a fungus so common 
as Peronospora viticola, which often is found on every leaf 
of a vine, would have an injurious effect upon the grape 
crop. Such, however, is not the case. The fungus does 
not attack the grapes themselves; nor does it, at least in 
New England, appear until about the first of August; and 
its withering effect upon the leaves is not very evident be- 
fore September. As far as out-of-door grape culture in the 
Northern States is concerned, we are inclined to believe. 



FUNGI OF THE PACIFIC COAST. 443 

that, practically no harm is done by Feronospora viticola, 
but that, on the contrary, the fugus is really beneficial. 
Our native vines have a luxuriant growth of leaves; and the 
danger is that, in our short summers, the grapes will not 
be sufficiently exposed to the sun to ripen. But the Peron- 
ospora arrives, with us, at a period when the vine has at- 
tained its growth for the season; the important point being- 
then to ripen up the grapes which are concealed by the foli- 
age. By shrivelling up tlie leaves, the Peronospora enables 
the sun to reach tlie grapes without loss to the vines, as is 
shown by the fact that the vines continue to live on, year 
after year, without apparent injury. Should the fungus be 
introduced into Central Europe, the case might be different. 
The foliage oi Vitis vinifera is by no means as luxuriant as 
that of our own vines; the winters are warmer, the springs 
earlier, and the summers much moister than here; and it is 
quite possible that the advent of the Peronospora, by reason 
of the greater warmth and moisture, would be some weeks 
earlier than here, before the vine had attained its growth, 
and at a time when the leaves are needed for the work of 
absorption and assimilation. It might be that the intro- 
duction of Peronospora viticola into Europe would prove a 
repetition, on a small scale, of what has, unfortunately, 
already happened in the case of Phylloxera." 

It will be seen that Dr. Farlow thinks that Peronospora 
viticola is not likely to prove inj\irious in the Northern 
States, but in California the climate and conditions are 
similar to those of France and Italy, where he justly feared 
its introduction. It appears with us on the wild vine at 
the time of flowering and robs it of the leaves necessary 
to shield the growing grapes from the scorching rays 
of the sun. 

Sulphuring, washes, and all such remedies, used with 
more or less success in various fungoid diseases of the vine, 
are necessarily useless in this; for the resting spore, by 



444 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

which it propagates iu the succeeding year, is formed deep 
in the substance of the leaf, and only becomes free by its 
decay. 

Yineyards in the vicinity of infested wild vines will sooner 
or later acquire it from them ; and the experience of the 
coffee plantations of Ceylon will be repeated. These be- 
came infected by a fungus, probably infrequent on the 
original host, which propagated itself to such an extent on 
the more fertile one as almost to ruin the planters. 

The only effectual remedy which can be suggested is to 
destroy by fire the infected vines — taking especial care that no 
leaves escape; and where a vineyard is to be planted in the 
vicinity of wild vines, it would be well to destroy the lat- 
ter as a measure of precaution. 

Peronospoka Oxybaphi, E. & K. — On living leaves of 
Abronia Crax-Malke, Reno, Nevada, August, and A. luiibel- 
lata, San Francisco, November, 1882. 3368, 3436 

Yalsa impulsa, C. & P. — On Pyrus samhucifolia, Donner, 
August, 1883. 3551 

Yalsa femoralis, Pk. — On dead twigs of Alnus rubra, 
Sunol, December, 1881. 2961 

Yalsa exigua. Nits. — On dead twigs of Acer macrophyl- 
lum, Sunol, September, 1882. 3385 

DiATRYPELLA Frostii, (Pk.) — On dead branches oi Acer 
macrophyllum, Tamalpais, February, 1885. 3907 

DiATRYPELLA PROMINENS, Howe. — On dead branches of 
Platanus racemosa, Sunol, January, 1885. 4007 

DiATRYPE Rhois (Schw.) — On dead branches of Elms di- 
versiloba, San Francisco, September, 1885. 4074 



FUNGI OF THE PACIFIC COAST. 445 

DiAPORTHE (Tetrastaga) rostellata, (Fr.) — On dead 
stems of Ruhiis Nutkanus, Cisco, August, 1884. 3782 

DiAPORTHE (Chorostate) TESSERA, (Fr.) — Oil dead twigs 
of Corylus rostrata, San Rafael, March, 1882. 3066 

Stigmatea Geraxii, Fr.— On living leaves of Geranmm 
Carolinianiun, Alameda, AjDril, 1882. 3196 

Gnomonia setacea, (Pers.) — On dead leaves of Corylus 
rostrata, Sausalito, January, 1883= 3477 

Sph^rella MOLLERIAXA, Tlilim. — On living leaves of Euca- 
lyptus globulus, San Francisco, December, 1881. 2880 

Sph^rella Gaultheri-E, C. & P. — On living leaves of 
GauUheria Shallon, Lagunitas, November, 1882. 3431 

Anthostomella perfidiosa (De Not.) — On dead stems of 
Symphoricarjms racemosus, Sausalito, August, 1881. 2745 

SoRDARiA LANUGINOSA, Sacc. — On dead branches of Lupi- 
nus arbor euSi San Francisco, June, 1886. 4137 

LEPTOSPH.ERIA ARVENSis, Sp. — On Equisetum arvense, Lake 
Tahoe, September, 1884. 3766 

LoPHiosTOMA ACERVATUM, Karst. — On dead twigs of Pru- 
niis demissa, August, 1883. 3555 

Pleospora Salsol.e, FckL— On dead stems of Salicornia 
herbacea, Tamalpais, February, 1885. 3913 

Pleospora leguminum, (Wallr.) — On dead stems of Ho- 
sackia Furshiania, Mt. Diablo, August, 1884. 3798 

Pleospora Frangul^, Fckl.— On twigs of Rhamnus Cali- 
fornica, Blue Canon, June, 1882. 3301 



446 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

Pleospora oligomera, Sacc. & Speg. — On dead stems of 
Silene GaUica, San Francisco, 1885. 4089 

Pleospora Typh^, Pass. — On dead leaves of Tupha lati- 
folia, San Francisco, June, 1882. 2986 

Cucurbitaria Eibis, Niessl. — On dead leaves of Ribes san- 
gidneum, Blue Canon, June, 1882. 3297 

Thyridium cingulatum, (Mont.) — On dead branches of 
S ymphoricarpus racemosus, Alta, August, 1884. 3827 

]V[azzantia Galii, (Fr.) — On Galium aparine, Sausalito, 
August, 1881. 2772 

Phyllachora effusa, Scliw. — On Heliantlius gracilentus, 
San Vicente, July, 1885. 4065 

Phyllachora Pteridis, (Keb.) — On living leaves of Pteris 
aquilina, Blue Canon, Sierra Nevada, September, 1882. 

3398 

Phyllachora? Polemonii. — Amphigenous; spots black, 
roundish, 1-3 lines broad, papillate and shining. 

Growing on both surfaces of living leaves of Polemoniura 
huinile, Donner. Sierra Nevada, September, 1882. 3397 

This fungus, which is very abundant and showy, has not 
yet been found mature. A section shows the densely ag- 
gregated perithecia involved in the stroma, but no trace of 
asci. 

The high altitude at which it grows (over 7,000 feet) ac- 
counts for this fact, as it is covered b}^ the heavy snows of 
winter before the formation of asci, and the texture of the 
leaves on which it is found is so thin and fragile that no 
trace of them can be found the succeeding year. 



FUNGI OF THE PACIFIC COAST. 447 

MoNTAGNELLA TUMEFACIENS, Ell. ct Hk. Jour. Myc. ii. 41. 
Forming gouty swellings which bear considerable resem- 
blance to the "Black Knot," Dothidea morbosa, on twigs 
of Artemisia Californica, Mt. Diablo, April, 1882. 3101 

Tympanis Frangul^, Fr. — On dead stems of Bhamnus 
Californica, Sausalito, February, 1881. 2534 



448 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 



OCCULTATIONS OF STARS BY THE DARK LIMB OF THE MOON 

At the Davidcou Observatory, San Francisco, Cal. 

COMMUNICATED TO THE CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, MARCH Ist, 1887, 

BY Prof. GEOHGE DAVIDSON, A. M., D. Pb. 



CLARK EQUATORIAL, 6.4 INCHES. 



Date. 
1887, 


0) 

>■ 
u 

O 


(5 


star. 


a 
1 


Local 
Sidereal 
Times. 


■ 
Remarks. 


Jan. 28.. 


G. F. D. 


90 


(? Stone 139). 


7 


H. M. s. 

5 46 41.6 


Obsn. good (a) 


Feb. 2.. 
" 2.. 


G.D.... 
G.D.... 


90 
90 


TOTauri 

Arg. 15: 630.. 


6 

8.7 


5 49 21.5 
7 50 23.5 


" but * ft. ob- 
jective partly covered. 
Disapp'nce sharp and sudden 


" 2.. 


G. D.... 


90 


d' Tauri 


4 


7 50 45.5 


" 


" 2.. 


G. D... 


90 


75THuri 


6 


7 51 23.4 


<( a (< 


" 2.. 


G. D.... 


90 


Arg. 15: 633.. 


6.5 


7 54 30.2 


.< 


•♦ 2.. 


G. D.... 


90 


Arg. 15: 635.. 


8.5 


8 31 21.7 


(( (( (( 


- 2.. 


G. D.... 


90 


B. A. C. 1391. 


5 


8 46 09.6 


" 


" 2.. 


G. D.. . . 


90 


B. A. C. 1394. 


7 


8 53 38.3 


" " 



(a) The identity of this star somewhat doubtful. Transit Observations for 
tiiue for this, and the observations of February 2d, by G. D. 

Observers: — G. F. D.:^G. Fauntleroy Davidson. 
G. D.=George Davidson. 

Geographical Position of Observatory : 

Latitude=37° 47' 24.''75 N. 
Longitude=122° 25' 40/'54 W. 



ERRATA. 



ADDITIONS TO THE ORNITHOLOGY OF GUADALUPE ISLAND. 



Page 280, in table. For "385 mm." read "384 mm." 
283, '• " 1691 <5 read 1691? . 
1699 5 " 1699$. 

2408 c? " 2408$. 
2504 5 " 2504$. 
25815 " 2581$. 

2409 5 " 2409$. 

288, second line. For "form" read "forms." 

289, second table. For "Scott" read "Scott Mt." 
" "Mar. 20, 1883," read "Mar. 20, 1880." 

290, elevc-nth line. For "Guadeloupe" read "Guadalupe." 

291, fourteenth lin«e. For "Guadaloupe ' read "Guadalupe." 
299, thirteebth line. For "by omitting," substitute "it having 

omitted." 

299, eighth line. For "Cone's" read "Coues'." 
303, second table. For "$ad.'' read "ad." 



BULLETIN 



CALIFORNIA 



ACADEMY 



p 



K^ 1. 



Ji 



ENCES, 



Vol. 2, No. 8. 



NOVEMBER, 1887. 



CONTENTS. 

PAGE. 

Discover}^ of tbe Nest and Eggs of the Evening Grosbeak. Wrtlter E. 

Ih-yaut 449 

A New Subspecies of Petrel from Guadalupe IsLand. Walter E. Bryant. J50 

Unusual Nesting Sites. Walter E Bryant 451 

Some New Nortb American Pselapbidae. Thos L. Casey 455 

Californian Manzanitas. C C, Parry 483 

West Coast Pulmonata — Fossil and Living. J. G. Cooper 497 

The Flora of the Coast Islands of California, in Relation to Kecent Changes 

in Physical Geography. Joseph Le Coule 515 

Priority of Dr. Kellogg's Genus Marah over Megarrhiza Torr. ]Mary K. 

Curran 521 



ISSUED NOUEMBER 2, 1BB7. 



BULLETIN. 

'No. 8. 

California Academy of Sciences, 



DISCOVERY OF THE 
NEST AND EGGS OF THE EVENING GROSBEAK 

(Coccothraustes vespertina.) 

BY WALTER E. BRYANT. 

Read June 20, 1887. 

Although this species was first described in 1825, I be- 
lieve that no description of its nest and eggs has previously 
appeared. Accordingly I take pleasure in announcing the 
discovery of the first nest and eggs, by Mr. E. H. Fiske, in 
Yolo County, California. Eegarding this interesting find- 
ng, Mr. Fiske has written me the following particulars 
from his field notes. 

The nest, containing four eggs, was taken May 10th, 1886, 
but incubation was so far advanced that he was unable to 
preserve them. In general shape, color and marking, they 
were similar to eggs of the Black-headed Grosbeak, but in 
size he thinks they were somewhat larger. 

The nest was built in a small live oak, at a height of ten 
feet, and was a more pretentious 'structure than is usually 
built by the Black-headed Grosbeak, being composed of 
small twigs supporting a thin layer of fibrous bark, and a 
lining of horse hair. 

It is to be hoped that Mr. Fiske will be successful in find- 
ing additional specimens from which measurements may b© 
determined. 

32— Bull. Cal. Acad. Sci. n, 8. Issued July 23, 1887, 



450 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 



DESCRIPTION OF A NEW SUBSPECIES OF PETREL FROM 
GUADALUPE ISLAND. 

BY WALTER E. RRYANT. 
Read July 18, 1887. 

A series of fourteen specimens of Oceanodroma, collected 
by myself on Guadalupe Island off Lower California in 
March, 1886, were assigned to the species leucorhoa (Leach's 
Petrel), in my paper on the ornithology of that island/ 

In a foot note, reference was made to the considerable 
excess in size of the Guadalupe Island specimens over 
Leach's Petrel of the Atlantic Coast, but from lack of 
sufficient material for comparison I was unable to satisfac- 
torily determine their differences, although strongly inclined 
to consider it a distinct race. My supposition has since 
been confirmed by several prominent ornithologists, and by 
comparison with typical specimens of Leach's Petrel from 
Alaska and coast of Massachusetts, which were kindly loaned 
from the Smitiisonian Institution. 

The Alaskan birds seem to be the same size as those from 
the Atlantic Coast, and of about the same color. A single 
female from Alaska (No. 102,281 Smithsonian Coll.), is 
nearly as dark as the Guadalupe birds, but the upper tail 
coverts are much whiter and the measuremeuts less. 

For this well marked local variety, I propose the name 

Oceanodroma leucorhoa macrodactyla, subsp. nov. 

GUADALUPE PETREL. 

Subsp. Char. — Similar to 0. leucorJioa, but larger and dark- 
er. 

^ Additions to the Ornithology of Guadalupe Island. Bulletin California 
Academy of Sciences, No. 6, pp. 269—318. 



DESCRIPTION OF A NEW SUBSPECIES OF PETREL. 451 

White of upper tail coverts more restricted, and the ends 
of coverts broadly tipped with black. Pileum darker than 
back, lighter anteriorly. Bill broader and deeper at base 
than that of leucorlioa. 

Wing, 155 — 171 mm.; tail feathers, 85 — 99mm.; depth 
of fork, 23 — 35 mm. ; exposed culmen, 15.5 — 17 mm. ; tarsus, 
22 — 26 mm.; middle toe and claw, 28 — 30 mm. 

Habitat. — Guadalupe Island, Lower California. 

Types.— Nos. 2567, 5 ad.; 2565, ? ad. Both in collec- 
tion of Walter E. Bryant. 



UNUSUAL NESTING SITES. I. 

BY WALTER E. BRYANT. 

Kead August 1. 1887. 



One of the interesting features of the study of oology is 
the selection of strange nesting sites made by many birds 
when the circumstances of their environment compel a de- 
parture from their customary habits. This is especially no- 
ticeable in certain tree-building species, which avail them- 
selves of low bushes and sometimes even the ground in the 
absence of trees. 

During a recent trip to Carson, Nev. , and vicinity, I was 
particularly impressed by the unusual and novel situation 
which had been chosen by birds whose nesting habits were 
well known. These had adapted themselves to various sit- 
uations, the mention of which, together with instances 
noted from other localities where choice rather than circum- 
stances seemingly prompted the departures, may be inter- 
esting. 



452 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

Callipepla californica. 

California Partridge. — Essentially a ground building 
species, but several cases have come to my notice of its 
nesting in trees upon the upright end of a broken or decayed 
limb or at the intersection of two large branches. A few 
years ago a brood was hatched and safely conducted away 
from a vine-covered trellis at the front door of a popular 
seminary. How the parent birds managed to get the tender 
young down to the ground is not known. 

Colaptes cafer. 

Red-shafted Flicker. — Three instances are recalled when 
this species nested in unusual places. One of these was in 
a bridge bulkhead a few feet above the Carson River. The 
interior of the structure was filled with gravel and large 
stones, amongst which the eggs were deposited. Another 
pair used a target butt at a much frequented range as a sub- 
stitute for a stump. A tiiird nest was in a sand-bank three 
feet from the top and ten from the creek. This hole was- 
apparently specially prepared, and not one made by a 
ground squirrel, such holes being sometimes used by these 
birds. 

Trochilus calliope. 

Calliope Hummingbird. — A nest was found built upon a 
projecting splinter of a wood pile at a height of five feet. 
Another was secured to a rope within an outbuilding. 

Tyr annus verticalis. 

Arkansas Kingbird. — An old and much flattened nest of 
Bullock's Oriole was found relined and containing four 
Kingbird's eggs. One of the most remarkable instances of 
persistency in nest building was naet with in the case of a 
pair of Kingbirds which had attempted to construct a nest 
upon the outer end of a windmill fan. A horizontal blade 
had probably been first selected, but an occasional breath 
of air had slightly turned the mill, bringing into place an« 



UNUSUAL NESTING SITES. I. 453 

other and another, upon each of which had been deposited 
the first material for a nest until several nests were in differ- 
ent stages of construction, varying with the time that the 
windmill had remained quiet, while upon the roof below 
was strewn a quantity of debris that had fallen as the wheel 
revolved. Of course nothing but failure could be expected 
from their repeated attempts. 

Sayornis saya. 

Say' s Phcebe. — A nest which could be conveniently reached 
by a person on horseback was found by Mr. Walter Bliss at 
Carson, placed within and close to the entrance of a desert- 
ed Bank Swallow's burrow. 

Scolecophagus cyanocephalus. 

Brewer's Blackbird. — All the nests found at Carson were 
upon the ground, usually on the edge of a bank formed by 
an irrigating ditch, with the exception of one which was 
built two feet from the ground upon dry tule and well hid- 
den by the growing stems. 

Carpodacus frontalis rhodocolpus. 

Crimson House Finch. — Besides the" odd situations which 
they select about houses, they avail themselves of the last 
year's nests of Bullock's Oriole. 

Troglodytes aedon parkmanii. 

Parkman's Wren. — The species has been known to build 
in the skull of a horse, which had been placed in a fruit 
tree ; in the nests of Cliff Swallows, and within an old shoe 
lodged in a tree. 

Merula migratoria propinqua. 

AYestern Robin. — a pair of Robins built and reared a 
brood in a hanging basket suspended from the edge of the 
veranda at the residence of Mr. H. G. Parker at Carson, 

Nev. 



454 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

Sialia mexicana. 

Western Bluebird. — Dr. Cooper informs me that he has 
known a Bluebird to build in a Cliff Swallow's nest. 

Sialia arctica. 

Mountain Bluebird. — Three incubated eggs of this spe- 
cies were taken from the nest of a Barn Swallow at Lake 
Tahoe, Cal., by Mr. "Walter Bliss. 

Passer domesticus. 

European Sparrow. — Since the introduction of this pest 
into our cities, many birds, hitherto common, have left for 
the suburbs, notably the Cliff Swallows, whose nests were 
appropriated by the Sparrows. In these cases the limited 
space compelled the latter to dispense with the usual amount 
of rubbish, and carry in only a lining of feathers. 



NEW NORTH AMERICAN PSELAPHID^. 455 

ON SOME NEW NORTH AMERICAN PSELAPHIDiE. 



(With Plate XVI.) 

BY THOS. L. CASEY. 

Read July 18th, 1887. 

The Pselapliide fauna of the Pacific coast is by no means 
so insignificant as it has hitherto been considered, and as 
the search for these singular and fascinating forms becomes 
more specialized, and their habits and localities better 
known, new species are discovered in abundance. 

For those w^ho would prosecute a more extended collec- 
tion of these insects, it may be stated that the Californian 
Pselaphidae are very seldom found with ants, although a few 
myrmecophilous species are known, but generally in fun- 
gous earth, about the roots of trees, under bark, or in the 
long wet moss covering the rocks in the secluded ravines of 
mountainous regions. The genus Oropus, and several spe- 
cies of Eeichenbachia and Batrisus are peculiar to the last- 
named localities, while Euplectus and. Pytna are always 
found under bark. Sonoma and Actium are sometimes 
found under bark, but often also in fungous earth. Batri- 
sus zephyrinus, on the other hand, I found in abundance at 
Lake Tahoe, living in the most indiscriminate localities — 
under bark, under chips buried in grassy turf, and in 
fungous earth. 

The following forms, most of which were collected by 
myself, and which have been- accumulating in my cabinet 
during the past two years, are here described as new, al- 
though it is possible that Actium californicum Lee, may be 
redescribed under that genus. This can only be the case, 
however, under the supposition that the description given 
by LeConte for that, species is erroneous in regard to the 

32— Bull. Cal. Acad. Sci. II. 8. Issued August 2, 1887. 



456 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

length of the elytral strias, and as the species of this genus 
are numerous and rather local, the probabilities are de- 
cidedly against the formation of a synonym. 

Biotus formicarius u. gen. Tyohus bipuncticeps. 

Pytna corticiua n. geix Actium pallidum. 
Batrisus cephalotes. politum. 

luculentus. robiistulum. 

foveicornis. testaceum. 

punctifrons. Euplectus californicus. 

Decarthron Brendeli. Khexidius granulosus n. gen. 

Bryaxis arizonas. Oropus moutanus. 

Nisaxis cincinnata. Sonoma corticina. 
maritima. cavifrons 

Tychus sonomse 



BIOTUS n. gen. (Ctenistides.) 

Clypeus simple. Body covered densely with very minute, recumbent 
setfe. Antennae elongate, cylindrical, outer joints not enlarged, second 
joint smallest. Head with two spongiose fovefe; frontal tubercle divided, 
the canaliculation extending slightly along the front. Prothorax transverse, 
with longer, more erect and denser pubescence, trifoveate at base, the foveas 
large, spongiose, not connected. Elytra with deeply impressed sutural and 
one long discal stria. Abdomen without ridges; second visible dorsal longer 
than the first. Posterior coxas separated. Trochanters normal. 

The maxillary palpi are very short, robust and compact; 
the second joint is somewhat slender, but short; the last 
two are transverse, anchylosed, forming a circular club 
which is affixed obliquely to the second joint. No basal 
joint is visible, and the palpi may possibly be three-jointed. 
The genus should be placed near Ceophyllus Lee. from 
which it differs in the remarkably minute and singular palpi. 
It may be easily identified by its non-clavate antennae with 
the"second joint small. 

B. formicarius n. sp, — Rather robust, pale testaceo-ferruginous through- 
out; integuments shining; pubesceuce dense, rather long and erect on the 
head and prothorax, very short and recumbent on the elytra and abdomen; 
not perceptibly punctate. Head not much depressed, slightly longer than 
wide; clypeus rounded, conical; labrum very short, strongly transverse; 



NEW NORTH AMERICAN PSELAPHIDJE. 457 

eyes large, coarsely granulate, convex, prominent, at less than their own 
length from the base; the latter broadly arcuate; occiput having, on a line 
through the middle of the eyes, two large, feebly impressed, spongiose foveae, 
mutually scarcely more distant than either from the eye; antennae nearly 
one-half as long as the body, joints two to ten transverse, cylindrical, first 
joint flattened, about as long as wide, second small, eleventh slightly longer 
than the two preceding together. Prothorax distinctly wider than the head, 
widest in the middle; sides rather broadly rounded, almost straight near the 
apex and base; the latter transverse, abruptly arcuate in the middle third, 
one-third wider than the apex and but slightly narrower than the disk; apex 
broadly, very feebly emargiuate; posterior angles slightly rounded; disk one- 
half wider than long, moderately convex, feebly tuberculate in the middle 
anteriorly; median fovea feebly impressed, elongate, elliptical, beginning at 
the middle and continuing nearly to the basal margin; lateral foveas smaller, 
circular, deeply impressed, at one-third the length from the base. Elytra 
at base as wide as the base of the prothorax, at apex three-fourths wider; 
humeri but slightly prominent; sides evenly arcuate; together very slightly 
wider than long, each with two large basal foveae; sutural stria coarse, deep, 
nearly straight, approaching the suture toward apex; discal coarse, deep, 
slightly arcuate, continuing for about three-fourths the length. Abdomen 
slightly narrower than the elytra, about equal io length to the latter; sides 
nearly parallel, feebly arcuate; border strong, diminishing in width; surface 
broadly convex. Legs rather long and slender, alutaceous, very densely 
clothed with minute recumbent setae; middle trochanters very slender; tarsi 
rather short; claws small, equal. Metasternum impressed in the middle, 
more strongly so posteriorly. Length 2.8 mm. 

Calif ornia (Los Angeles 2.) 

The four outer joints of the antenna are more finely and 
densely pubescent and slightly paler in color, the eighth 
joint two-thirds wider than long, much shorter than the 
ninth or^tenth, the latter nearly equal. 

This interesting species lives in the nests of a small pale 
brown ant. 

PYTNA n. gen. (Tyrides.) 

The present genus has the pubescence fine and subre- 
cumbent and not short, robust and recumbent as in the 
Ctenistides; following the classification suggested by Reit- 
ter, it should therefore be placed iu the group indicated. 

Antennas approximate; club gradual, three-jointed. Maxillary palpi four- 
jointed; basal joint minute; second long, clavate, bent; third shorter, ob- 



458 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

couoidal, as robust as the second; third one-half long-^r than the second, 
fusiform, equal in thickness to the second, acuminate at apex, having a 
slender terminal process. Head with three small spongiose foveas at the 
apices of an equilateral triangle; eyes large, convex, rather coarsely granu • 
late; clypeus angulate at the sides, Pronotum with three small basal foveas 
connected by a fine impressed line. Elytra each with one sutural and one 
discal stria. Abdominal border wide, nearly flat; first visible segment with a 
median basal carina; first two segments equal in length. Prosternum exca- 
vated in front of the coxae; legs rather long; femora slightly robust, the 
anterior with a short longitudinal carina beneath and near the base; middle 
tibiae strongly arcuate; tarsi long and slender, three- jointed; basal joint very 
small; second and third elongate, the latter the longer; claws simple, mode- 
rate in length, equal, slender; anterior trochanters with a small posterior 
tuberculate tooth; intermediate with a long corneous process, projecting 
posteriorly from the apex obliquely outward; middle coxae narrowly, poste- 
rior rather widely separated. 

The modifications of the trochanters and the inferior ca- 
rina of the anterior femora are not sexual characters, but 
are nearly as well developed in the female as in the male. 
Pytna appears to belong in the neighborhood of Tyrus, but 
differs in the structure of the palpi. 

P. COrticina, n. sp.— Bright rufous, abdomen piceous; integuments pol- 
ished; pubescence fine, rather short, moderately dense. Head very slightly 
longer than wide, nearly flat above; eyes large, at more than their own 
length from the base; genae convergent, feebly arcuate to the neck, clothed 
with longer, more conspicuous pubescence; fovese small, the two posterior 
slightly behind the middle; antennal tubercle slightly transverse, feebly 
canaliculate in the middle; antennse long and slender, distinctly more than 
one-half as long as the body, basal joint subcyliadrical, much longer than 
wide, second slightly narrower, as long as wide, very feebly obconical, three 
to six subequal, very slightly shorter and narrower than the second, nearly 
as long as wide, seventh and eighth very slightly smaller, equal, ninth as 
long as the two preceding together, feebly obconical, one-half longer than 
wide, tenth as long as the ninth, slightly thicker, feebly obconical, eleventh 
ovoidal, acuminate, one-half wider than and nearly twice as long as the tenth. 
Prothorax widest at one-third the length from the apex; sides distinctly 
convergent and nearly straight to the apex; very feebly convergent and just 
visibly sinuate to the base; the latter broadly and rather strongly arcuate, 
scarcely perceptibly narrower than the disk, one-half wider than the apex; the 
latter transversely truncate; surface convex, impunctate, except near the 
base; transverse line fine, parallel to the basal margin and distant from it by 
one-fifth the length; foveas very small; disk slightly longer than wide, very 



NEW NORTH AMERICAN PSELAPHID^. 459 

slightly wider than the head. Elytra oue-third longer than the prothorax, 
at apex more than twice as wide as the latter; sides strongly divergent, 
strongly arcuate; humeri rounded, slightly tumid; disk much wider than 
long, feebly convex, coarsely but not very densely punctate, truncate be- 
hind, the edge densely fimbriate; sutural strire deep, straight, beginning 
distinctly before the b.isal margin; discal arcuate, fine, terminating at nearly 
one-third the length from the apex. br.)adly dilated and deeply impressed 
toward base. Abdomen fully as wide but scarcely as long as the elytra; 
sides parallel, strongly arcuate; bordt-r wide; surface impunctate, strongly 
convex; basal carina strong. Length 2.0-2.2 mm. 

California (Lake Tahoe 11). 

Tlie description is drawn from the male, the sexual modi- 
fication consisting of a very feeble impression in the middle 
of the abdomen near the base, and a small deep emargina- 
tion at the apex of the terminal segment. The female dilBfers 
but slightly, the terminal segment of the abdomen being 
broadly angnlate at apex. 

This species was taken rather abundantly under the bark 
of various fallen conifers. 

BATRISUS Aub^. 

B. cephalotes n- sp- — Somewhat robust, very convex, piceous; legs and 
antennae pale rufo-ferruginous throughout; pubescence long, coarse, erect, 
sparse, much denser on the head behind and beneath the eyes, short on the 
vertex; integuments polished. 

Male— Head very large, distinctly wider than long and wider than the 
prothorax; surface feebly convex; apex veiy broadly and evenly arcuate 
throughout the width between the very widely distant antennre; sides par- 
allel; eyes very small, on the sides just behind the middle, convex, promi- 
nent; foveae round, moderate in size, spongiose, at one-third the length from 
the base, mutually twice as distant as either from the eye; connecting chan- 
nel feebly impressed, becoming obsolete anteriorly near the edge of the 
frontal declivity; vertex abruptly declivous between the antennae, having in 
the middle of the lower edge two very approximate teeth, each of which has 
a deep setigerous puncture on the upper surface near the outer edge; later- 
ally the lower edge is setigerous; vertex beneath the dentiferous edge very 
deeply excavated throughout the width between the bases of the antennae; 
clypeus angnlate at the sides, with the edges reflexed, more strongly so at 
apex which is transversely sinuate; portion before the reflexed apex in the 
form of a large setigerous tubercle which is further advanced than the two 
teeth of the iipper surface; labrum broadly sinuate, anterior angles promi- 



460 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

nent; antennae robust, as long as the head and prothorax together, club very 
large, basal joint large, one-half longer than wide, as long as the next two 
together, lower surface simple but more strongly convex than the upper, 
second slightly longer and more robust than the third, joints three to eight 
equal in width, ninth wider, transverse, tenth much wider than the ninth, 
very slightly wider than long, subglobular, eleventh wider than the tenth, 
conoidal, apices of joints six to nine slightly oblique; upper surface very 
coarsely, feebly and sparsely punctate at the sides near the antennae, else- 
where impunctate, not carinate. Prothorax as long as wide, widest just be- 
fore the middle, where the sides are strongly rounded and rather prominent, 
being abruptly and strongly sinuate and rather strongly convergent to the 
base, broadly rounded to the apex; base scarcely one-fifth wider than the 
apex, three-fourths as wide as the disk; the latter trisulcate; middle sulcus 
narrow, deep, obsolete at one-fifth the length from the apex; having near 
the base a very deep, round, nude median fovea, and two large, spongiose, 
lateral foveae, between them bispinose with a longitudinal ridge proceeding 
anteriorly from each spine, also tuberculate on each lateral edge near the 
base; surface near the basal margin bifoveate laterally, ob^oletely and very 
finely carinate in the middle. Elytra very sparsely, rather coarsely and 
feebly punctate, each trifoveate at base; discal striae short, broadly, feebly 
impressed; humeri minutely and distinctly spinose. Abdomen with two 
short cusps at base. Legs rather long; femora robust; posterior tibiae with 
terminal process. Length 2.0 mm. 

New York 1 (Mr. Henry Ulke.) 

Belongs near denticollis, from which it is easily distin- 
guished by the form of the bidentate vertex, this being 
declivous, with the teeth upon the lower edge in the present 
species, and broadly emarginate, with the teeth porrected 
and but very little below the level of the front in denticoUis.^ 

B. lucnlentUS n. sp.— Rather slender, polished, piceous; elytra slightly 
paler and more rufous; legs pale; anteunje dark rufous, club paler; pubes- 
cence rather sparse. 

Male — Head rather large, wider than long, wider than the prothorax, very 
feebly convex, coarsely, sparsely and feebly punctate anteriorly, impunctate 
posteriorly; eyes moderate, convex, prominent, near the base; foveae deep, 
round, nude, at two-fifths the length from the base, mutually distinctly 
more than twice as distant as either from the eye; arcuate groove fine, deeply 

* Note — From material recently sent me for identification by Dr. Emil 
Brendel, I find that this species is widely diffused throiigh the North At- 
lantic districts, there being specimens in the series indicated from New York 
and Illinois. 



NEW NORTH AMERICAN PSELAPHID^. 461 

impressed near the fovew, becoming completely obsolete anteriorly; vertex 
gradually declivous between the antennae the declivity broadly biimpressed, 
the impressions setigerous; lower edge bidentate in the middle, the teeth 
slightly reflexed and with many err^ct setaa on the lower surface, deeply ex^ 
cavated beneath between the antenna; clypeus broadlj' arcuate anteriorly, 
sides feebly divergent posteriorly and nearly straight, angles slightly rounded* 
not prominent, surface conical, edge not at all reflexed, having in the middle 
an abrupt, small, strongly elevated tubercle at a considerable distauce from 
the anterior margin and rising just before the two superior teeth, exceedingly 
minutely and sparsely setose; labrum broadly emarginate, angles prominent; 
antenna slightly longer than the head and prothovax together, moderately 
robust, very strongly clavate, basal joint more convex beneath, not otherwise 
modified, as long as the next two together, second longer and more robust 
th m the third, eighth shortest, strongly transverse, ninth slis^htly longer 
and nearly one-half wider than the eighth, transverse, tenth large, nearly 
twice as wide as the ninth and very nearly as long as wide, sides parallel, 
arcuate; eleventh distinctly narrower than the tenth, acuminate. Prothorax 
slightly longer than wide; dorsal ridges and median sulcus almost completely 
obsolete; median basal puncture small, round, nude, impressed; lateral 
slightly larger, spongiose; lateral sulcations broadly impressed, feeble; lateral 
basal tubercles minute; surface near the basal margin bifoveate at the sides, 
not at all carinate in the middle; disk convex, widest before the middle; 
sides rather broadly rounded, feebly sinuate toward base and apex; base 
slightly more than three-fourths as wide as the disk, one-fourth wider than 
the apex. Elytra fully as long as wide, convex; humeri slightly prominent 
but not at all spinose. Abdomen with two long, parallel, prominent cusps at 
base, distant by one-fifth the abdominal width. Legs rather long; femora 
moderately robust; middle tibiae with an internal apical spur; posterior 
feebly arcuate, with a terminal process. Length 1.7 mm. 

District of Columbia 2 (Mr. Henry Ulke). 

The female has the vertex strongly declivous, and theno© 
less strongly and continuously so over the surface of the clyp- 
eus, which is finely, strongly and densely granulose; the 
vertex is not excavated between the bases of the antennae, 
each of which is inserted in a large lateral excavation. Th© 
antennae are more slender, with the outer joints gradually 
wider, the tenth transverse and but slightly larger than the 
ninth. 

This species should also be placed near denticollis; these 
three species belong to the nigricans group; the latter is, 
however, distinguished by the unusual structure of the 



462 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

antennae, the third joint of which is, according to the de- 
scription of Dr. Le Conte, presumably more robust than 
the second. 

B. foveicornis n. sp. — Rather slender, convex, rufous throughout; integ- 
uments polished, impunctate; pubescence rather long, coarse and sparse. 

Male— Head moderate, slightly longer than wide, very slightly wider than 
the prothorax; vertex between the antennae coarsely, feebly and not densely 
punctate, punctures asperate, elsewhere impunctate; eyes small, very con- 
vex, prominent, rather finely granulate; base behind them broadly arcuate; 
surface very feebly convex, very feebly and finely carinate in the middle 
near the base, finely and distinctly carinate at each side above the eyes; 
arcuate groove broadly impressed, extending from the base at the sides to 
the vertex, where it becomes very feeble; foveae small, nude, very deep, 
perforate, situated at less than one-third the length of the superior portions 
from the base, and on the inner margin of the arcuate impression; vertex 
declivous and slightly produced in the middle, being separated from the 
clypeus by a narrow, feebly impressed transverse groove; clypeus large, 
prominent, conical, strongly rounded anteriorly, very obtusely angulated at 
the sides, edges not at all reflexed; antennse rather slender, as long as the 
head and prothorax together, basal joint subcylindrical, not modified, nearly 
as long as the next two together, two to seven subeqnal, distinctly longer 
than wide, the second slightly more robust and the sixth a very little shorter, 
eighth equal in width, distinctly wider than long, ninth equal in length to 
the eighth, one-third wider, inner side much more strongly convergent 
toward apex, tenth abruptly very large, nearly twice as wide as the ninth, 
fully as loDg as wide, flattened, sides parallel, almost straight, eleventh as 
wide as the tenth, as long as the three preceding together, ob'iquely acumi- 
nate, very slightly flatteued on the lower side. Prothorax widest slightly 
before the middle; sides strongly rounded, convergent and feebly sinuate 
toward base and apex; median and lateral foveas almost equal, deep, at 
nearly equal distances from the base, the median nude; median groove short, 
feebly impressed, lateral more distinct; basal spines small; ridges distinct, 
becoming obsolete before the middle, separated behind from the spines by 
transversely arcuate impressions; base bifoveate at each side; disk strongly 
convex, very slightly longer than wide, base much wider than the apex. 
Elytra fully as long as wide, nearly twice as wide as the prothorax, very 
convex; humeri prominent, not spiuose. Abdomen nearly as wide and as 
long as the elytra; basal cusps rather long, strong, separated by scarcely 
one-sixth the abdominal width. Legs long, slender; anterior trochanters 
minutely toothed posteriorly; posterior tibiae with an apical process; tarsi 
very long and slender, the po.sterior one-half as long as the tibiae. Length 
1.9 mm. 

Tennessee 2 (Mr. Henry Ulke). 



NEW NORTH AMERICAN PSELAPHIDiE. 463 

The large flattened tenth antennal joint has, on the lower 
surface and near the base, a very lar^e deep circular perfo- 
rate fovea. Of the species in which the tenth antennal 
joint is enlarged in the males, there are some — for example 
cephalotes — in which this joint, although unusually large 
and prominent, is almost completely unmodified upon the 
lower surface, others — virginice, denticollis, etc. — which 
have the lower surface slightly flattened and with a small, 
deep fovea near the base; but in no case which has come 
under my observation is this fovea one-half so large, or the 
joint itself so strongly flattened as in the present species. 

The two specimens indicated are males. The species 
probably belongs near spretus Lee, which is described as 
black. 

B. punctifrons n sp.— Moderately robust, convex, piceous-black; elytra 
very slightly paler, rufo-piceous; legs and autennae pale rufo-ferruginous, 
the latter slightly darker toward base; integuments polished, impunctate; 
pubescence rather long, sparse, flavate. 

Male — Head moderate, slightly longer than -wide, just visibly wider than 
the prothorax; eyes moderate, convex, at their own length from the base; 
genae strongly convergent, feebly arcuate; base broadly sinuate; surface 
feebly convex, very finely, feebly, arcuately carinate above the eyes; im- 
pressed groove continuous from the base at the sides to the vertex, at which 
point it is but slightly more feeble; foveae deep, nude, in the middle of the 
groove; vertex coarsely, sparsely and feebly punctate on the antennal tuber- 
culations, which are large and fiat, declivous anteriorly, the declivity moder- 
ate, beginning along a straight line between the antennas;^ apex strongly 
rounded; declivous surface very strongly, finely and densely punctate, each 
puncture bearing a very minute, coarse, flavate seta; apex divided from the 
clypeus by a fine, transverse, strongly arcuate, deeply impressed groove; 
clypeus short, broadly subangulate, obtusely angulate at the sides; surface 
finely scabrous, conical; edges not at all reflexed; having in the middle a 
small, f-eble tubercle which bears a tuft of rather long, erect, flavate sets; 
antennae rather long, slender, one-fourth longer than the head and protho- 
rax together, club strong, basal joint not modified, cylindrical, shorter thnn 
the next two together, second much longer and distinctly more robust than 
the third, joints two to seven longer than wide, eighth equal in width, nearly 
as long as wide, ninth wider and longer, tenth similar to the ninth, dis- 
tinctly wider and longer, slightly wider than long, inner side much shorter 
than the outer, eleventh large, twice as wide as the tenth, ovoidal. acumi- 
nate, nearly as long as the four preceding toge'her. Prothorax slightly longer 



464 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

than wide, widest slightly before the middle; base two-thirds as wide as the 
disk, one-fourth wider than the apex; median sulcation feebly impressed, 
becoming obsolete at one-third the length from the apex; spines moderate; 
ridges almost obsolete; lateral grooves broadly, feebly impressed; foveas 
large and deep. Elytra fully as long as wide; humeri prominent, not 
spinose. Abdomen nearly as wide as, but much shorter than the elytra; 
basal cusps fine, strong, rather long, parallel, separated by one-fifth the ab- 
dominal width. Legs long, slender; posterior tibiBB with apical process. 
Length 1.8 mm. 

Pennsylvania 1 (Mr. Henry Ulke.) 

This species is very distinct in the characters of the vertex 
and antennae; the eleventh joint is here more than usually 
developed, while the tenth is but slightly larger than the 
ninth and of nearly the same form. 

DECARTHRON Brend. 

D. Brendeli ii- sp. — Form somewhat robust, convex, piceo-castaueous 
throughout; legs and antennae paler, rufous; pubescence rather long and 
sparse, more dense on the abdomen and at the sides of the prothorax and 
head; integuments polished. Head moderate, as wide as long, very feebly 
convex, almost impunctate; eyes large, coarsely granulated, convex and 
prominent; gen^e extremely short behind tbem; base wide, transversely 
truncate; on a line through the anterior portions of the eyes there are 
two widely distant nude foveas; anteunal tuberculations large, distinctly 
elevated; antennae as long as the head and prothonx together, rather slen- 
der, club rather large, basal joint cylindrical, slightly longer than wide, 
second slightly shorter and narrower, third feebly obcouical, as long as and 
much narrower than the second, four to six subequal, very slightly longer 
than wide, and just visibly wider than the third, seven larger, scarcely as 
long as wide, eight very short, transverse, narrower than the seventh, ninth 
much wider than the seventh, very feebly trapezoidal, nearly twice as wide 
as long, tenth very slightly wider than the ninth, ovoidal, pointed, nearly as 
long as the three preceding together, Prothorax scarcely as wide as the 
head, very slightly wider than long; sides broadly rounded, convergent 
and feehly sinuate toward base; the latter broadlj'- arcuate, four-fifths as 
wide as the disk, one-half wider than the apex; disk strongly, evenly con- 
vex, not impressed at the sides, having a deep nude fovea in the middle near 
the base. Elytra near the apex fully twice as wide as the prothorax; sides 
strongly divergent, arcuate; disk wider than long, two-thirds longer than the 
prothorax, convex, coarsely and extremely feebly punctate; sutural striae 
deep, feebly avcute; disc il deeply impressed, feebly arcuate, parallel to the 
suture, terminating at nearly two-fifths the length from the apex. Abdomen 



NEW NORTH AMERICAN PSELAPHID^. 465 

two-thirds as long as the elytra, nearly as wide as the latter; first segment, 
when viewed vertically, occupying three-fourths of the entire length, feebly 
convex; border narrow, flat; basal carinas strong, very feebly divergent, 
slightly more than one-half as long as the segment, separated by one-half 
the entire width. Legs rather long and slender. Length 1.3-1.5 mm. 

Texas (Galveston 8). 

The above described type is a male. In this sex the 
middle femora are very singularly modified, being very 
strongly swollen, abruptly constricted near the apex, im- 
pressed anteriorly, with an anterior tooth near the apex 
and just before the deep apical constriction. In the female 
the femora are all simple and rather slender, and the seventh 
antennal joint is smaller than the eighth. The female is, 
in addition, smaller than the male, and has the dorsal 
carinfe of the abdomen distinctly shorter. 

I have dedicated this very distinct species to a friend, 
the author of the genus, and one to whom our systematic 
knowledge of the American representatives of the family is 
greatly indebted. 

BRYAXIS Leach. 

B. arizonse n- sp. — Form rather slender, pale testaceous throughout; 
shining, not distinctly punctate; pubescence very fine, short and rather 
sparse. Head moderate, triangular; eyes large, prominent; occipital foveas 
on a line just before the middle of the eyes, mutually more than twice as 
distant as either from the eye; apical fovea equal to the occipital, slightly 
less distant from either of the others than the mutual distance of the latter; 
connecting channel almost obsolete; antennas slender, slightly longer than 
the head and prothorax together, joints three and five each nearly twice as 
long as wide, distinctly longer than the fourth and equal in length to the 
second, the latter more robust, seventh distinctly shorter' than the sixth, 
slightly longer than wide, eighth, ninth and tenth distinctly wider than long, 
increasing uniformly and very rapidlyau size, eleventh wider than the tenth, 
much longer than wide, obliquely acuminate. Prothorax widest at the mid- 
dle; sides rounded anteriorly, rather deeply sinuate posteriorly; base broadly, 
very feebly arcuate, five-sixths as wide as the disk, nearly one-half wider 
than the apex; the latter very feebly arcuate; disk distinctly wider than long, 
equal in width to the head, convex; middle fovea slightly smaller than the 
lateral, the former at one-fifth, the latter at nearly one-third the length from 
the base. Elytra at the humeri very slightly wider than the prothorax, at 

33— Bull. Cal. Acad. Sci. H. 8. Issued August 2, 1887. 



466 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

the apex sliglitly less than twice as wide as the latter; disk distinctly wider 
than long, moderately convex; sutural stvise strong, nearly straight, conver- 
gent and arcuate near the apex; discal fine, feebly impressed feebly sigmoid, 
becoming obsolete at one-fifth the length from the apex. Abdomen slightly 
shorter and very little narrower than the elytra; sides nearly straight and 
parallel; border moderate in width; surface broadly and feebly convex; first 
segment, the only one seen when viewed vertically, nearly five-sixths as long 
as the elytra. Legs slender. Length 1.2 mm. 

Arizona (Tucson 1). 

Described from the male, the sexual characters being simi- 
lar in form to those of texana, but having the median tuber- 
cle of the second segment smaller, less transverse and much 
more prominent. 

This species belongs to the texana group of the genus, 
which is distinguished by the great development of the first 
ventral segment in the male, this being the only part of the 
abdomen seen when viewed vertically. It differs from texana 
in its smaller size, slightly more robust form, much shorter 
elytra, narrower abdominal border, in the size and position 
of the pronotal foveae, and in its shorter antennae with less 
prominent club; the eighth, ninth and tenth joints in texana 
are much less transverse. In texana the median fovea of 
the pronotum is larger, and at about one-fourth the length 
from the base, the three foveas being more nearly on a trans- 
verse line than in arizonm. 

NISAXIS Casey. 

N. cincinnata u- sp- — Slightly robust, clear testaceous throughout; legs 
and antennae slightly paler; pubescence moderately dense, rather long. Head 
very slightly narrower than the prothorax, as long as wide; eyes rather large, 
prominent, at two-thirds their own length from the base; genee very feebly 
convergent toward base, feebly arcuate, not at all prominent; base trans- 
versely truncate; front large, quadrate, fet-bly convex, coarsely, deeply, not 
densely punctate, impunctate in the middle, feebly biimpressed near the 
vertex; antennae about as long as the head and prothorax together, first two 
joints nearly equal, slightly more robust, one-half longer than wide, nearly 
cylindrical, third obconical, longer than wide, much shorter than the second, 
as long as the fifth, longer than the fourth, sixth aud seventh slightly shorter, 
very little longer than wide, eighth very slightl}^ wider, a little wider than 



NEW NORTH AMERICAN PSELAPHID^. 467 

long, shorter thau the seventh, ninth two-thirds wider than the eighth, ob- 
trapezoidal, outer side more oblique, tenth one-half longer and wider than 
the ninth, one-half wider than long, eleventh distinctly wider than the tenth, 
as long as the three preceding together, longer than wido, obliquely acumi- 
miuate. Prothorax widest at two- fifths the length from the apex; sides 
strouglj' rounded, feebly inciirvate toward base; the latter broadly, evenly 
arcuate, three fourths as wide as the disk, nearly two-thirds wider than the 
apex; disk one-third wider than long, evenly convex, rather coarsely, ex- 
tremely feebly aud not densely punctate; having in the middle, at one-fifth 
the length from the base, a small nude punctiform fovea, and, at each side, 
a larger feebly impressed nude fovea at one-third the length from the base. 
Elytra at the humeri distinctly wider than the piothorax, together distinctly 
wider than long, one-half longer than the pronotum, and, at apex four-fifths 
wider than the latter; disk moderately convex, sutural stria deeply impress- 
ed, evenly, feebly arcuate; discal tine, distinct, extending very slightly be- 
yond the middle; sutural foveae very small and at the extreme basal margin; 
lateral larger and further from the base; base otherwise devoid of foveas; 
surf ice very minutely, feebly and sparsely punctate. Abdomen two-thirds 
as long as the elytra, nearly equal in width, occupied for six-sevenths the 
entire length when viewed vertically by the basal segment; border rather 
narrow, flat; siarface moderately convex, finely, feebly aud sparsely punctate; 
basal carinae divergent, straight, strong, nearly one-half as long as the seg- 
ment, separated by one-half the abdominal width. Legs rather long and 
slender; posterior tibiae abruptly bent near the apex, middle coxfe large, 
globose, not prominent, distinctly but narrowly separated by the sternal 
processes which are truncate and not carinate; posterior small, widely sepa- 
rated. Length 1.1 mm. 

Texas (Galveston 10). 

Described from the male in wliicli the first two dorsals 
are simple, the third transversely and feebly impressed, the 
impression large and anteriorly lunate, the inclosed apical 
elevation being feebly convex and bearing a loose tuft of 
long erect set^e ; fourth and fifth normal, broadly arcuate 
at apex, the latter short and with the posterior margin very 
feebly jDroduced in the middle. Viewed from beneath the 
abdomen consists of three visible segments, although there 
is probably a fourth which is completely hidden under the 
third; the basal segment is very long, and, in the middle, 
occupies the entire extent, except a very small apical por- 
tion where the two short posterior segments become very 
short, the third being at this point deflexed and channeled 



468 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

externally. Besides the tuft of long setae from the median 
elevation of the third segment, there are many long con- 
spicuous setae on the second, and at the sides and base of 
the third. 

N. maritima n- sp. — Form somewhat slender, dark rufous throughout;; 
elytral apices slightly darker; legs and antennae very slightly paler; pubes- 
cence long, rather coarse, not dense. Head slightly narrower than the 
prothorax, nearly as wide as long; eyes moderate, at nearly their own length 
from the base; gense feebly arcuate, not at all prominent, as long as the eye; 
front feebly convex, feebly, finely and sparsely punctate toward the eyes, 
impunctate in the middle; antennae slender, about as long as the head and 
prothorax together, nearly as in cincinnata, ninth joint symmetrical, but 
slightly wider than long, tenth strongly transverse, truncate at base and 
apex, nearly cylindrical, eleventh elongate, but slightly wider than the tenth. 
Prothorax one-fourth wider than long, widest before the middle ; sides 
strongly rounded, strongly sinuate near the basal angles; base broadly arcu- 
ate, nearly four-fifths as wide as the disk, one-half wider than the apex; sur- 
face very minutely, feebly and sparsely punctate; basal fovea very small, at 
one-fifth the length from the base; lateral moderately deep, larger, at one- 
fourth the length from the base. Elytra slightly wider than long, at apex 
four-fifths wider than the prothorax; sides feebly divergent; disk rather 
strongly convex; sutural striae strong, feebly arcuate; discal fine, distinct, 
extending from near the base for two-thirds the length. Abdomen but slight- 
ly more than one-half as long as the elytra; border rather narrow; basal 
carinae short; one-fifth as long as the basal segment, divergent, feeble, sepa- 
rated by slightly more than one-half the abdominal width. Le^s long and 
slender; posterior tibiae bent near the apex. Length 1.0 mm. 

Texas (Galveston 3.) 

The description is taken from the male, the sexual char- 
acters being very remarkable. The first dorsal segment oc- 
cupies nearly the entire extent of the abdomen when viewed 
vertically, and has the apex abruptly deflexed in the middle, 
the deflexed portion being transversely impressed or exca- 
vated; its lower margin is reflexed and broken into two 
lateral crests and a small median and strongly elevated 
tubercle; the edge of the segment immediately above the de- 
flexed excavated portion is more densely setose and bears 
two feeble tubercles. The second segment is short, trans- 
versely and very deeply excavated in the middle third, the 



NEW NORTH AMERICAN PSELAPHID^. 469 

excavation being anteriorly arcuate and extending under the 
apical process of the first; at the apex there is in the mid- 
dle a strongly elevated carinate tubercle which is slightly 
transverse, with the apex directed anteriorly for a slight 
distance over the excavation, and bearing two fine setiform 
appendages; its posterior surface is feebly and minutely 
tuberculate; the surface of the segment has, at each side 
of the central excavation, a transverse arcuate canalicula- 
tion which is disconnected. The third segment has, just 
before the middle, two small tubercles distant by nearly 
one-half the width, the remainder of the surface being un- 
modified. Fourth segment unmodified. Fifth shorter, 
feebly produced in the middle. 

The under surface, as in cinclnncda, consists of but three 
visible segments, the first being very long, the third ab- 
ruptly and narrowly deflexed in the middle, the deflexed 
portion being channeled externally. There is, however, a 
fourth segment to be seen by looking longitudinally under 
the third, by which it is entirely covered. The surface of 
this fourth segment is abruptly arched at each side between 
the middle and the lateral edges, the arching being visible 
as a semicircular emargination of the edge when viewed 
longitudinally, and there is on the edge in the middle a 
strong vertical spine which appears to fit into the 
channel in the deflexed apex of the third segment. 

These species belong near tomentosa Aube, but appear to 
be smaller and more sparsely pubescent. The genus is al- 
most exclusively confined to the sea-beaches of the Atlantic 
coast. 

TYCHUS Leach. 

T. SOnomae n- sp. — Sleuder, convex, piceous; elytra, legs and antennae 
testaceDUs; pubescence fine, moderate in length, sparse; integuments pol- 
ished, impunctate. Head much narrower than the prothorax, distinctly 
longer than wide, broadly rounded behind the eyes; the latter rather large, 
prominent, coarsely granulate, at nearly their own length from the base: 
surface transversely convex, transversely impressed behind the frontal 



470 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

tubercle, which is transverse, convex and impressed along the middle; on a 
transverse Hue passing throngh the anterior portion of the eyes there are two 
minute, widely distant, punctiform foveae; antenn;re slightly longer than the 
head and prothorax together, robust, strongly clavate, basal joint much 
longer than wide, arcuate, second slightly narrower, quadrate, third nar- 
rower, obconical, longer than wide, joints three to seven subequal, eighth 
very slightly wider than long, ninth abruptly much wi ier, tenth still wider, 
equal in length, ninth and tenth distinctly wider than long, eleventh wider 
than the tenth, as long as the three preceding together, acuminate. Pro- 
thorax widest slightly before the middle, as wide as long, strongly convex; 
sides rather strongly rounded, feebly sinuate near the apex, more strongly 
80 near the base; the latter br jadly arcuate, four-tifths as wide as the disk, 
one-third wider than the apex; basal fovea minute, very near the margin; 
lateral impressions feeble; along the basal margin between the median fovea 
and the basal angles there are, on each side, two small punctiform fove», 
nearly as large as the msdian. Elytra at the humeri scarcely perceptibly 
wider than the prothorax, at the apex nearly twice as wide as the latter; 
sides evenly arcuate, together transversely truncate behind, convex, as long 
as wide, two-thirds longer than the prothorax; each bifoveate at base; su- 
tural stria deeply impressed; discal distinct, broadly impressed, terminating 
slightly before the middle. Abdomen two-thirds as long as the elytra, much 
narrower than the latter, parabolic in form; basal segment much longer than 
the second; lateral border narrow, flat, rapidly attenuate from base to apex. 
Legs rather long and blender; posterior tibite arcuate toward apex. Length 
1.25 mm. 

California (Mendocino Co., 1.) 

The specimen described is probably a male; the sexual 
characters are very feeble, the fifth segment being longer, 
feebly flattened, and broadly bilobed at apex. The species 
is much smaller than either of the two previously described 
from these regions, and the fonrth joint of the maxillary 
palpi has a long and distinct terminal process. The third 
joint of that organ is elongate and clavate, the fourth more 
strongly arcuate within, subsecuriform, elongate and strongly 
compressed. 

T. bipuacticeps ^' sp.— Rathsr slender, convex, polished, impunctate, 
piceous; elytra, legs and antennae pale rufous. Head moderate, slightly 
longer than wide, convex; eyes large, convex, prominent, just behind the 
middle; genae convergent, feebly arcuate, clothed with longer, dense pubes- 
cence; base broadly arcuate; antennal tubercle much wider than long, 
large, divided by a feeble canaliculation; antennce as long as the head and 



NEW NORTH AMERICAN PSELAPHID.E. 471 

prothorax together, rather slenler, basal joint as long as the next two to- 
gether, subcylindrical, second narrower, second and third slightly longer 
than wide, the latter slightly shorter and narrower, four to eight equal in 
width, slightly shorter but scare :'l3' narrower than the third, ninth wide'-, 
nearly as long as wide, tenth wider than the ninth, wider than long, eleventh 
distinctly wider than the tenth, ovoid il, acuminate, as long as the three 
prece ling together; on a line through the anterior portions of the eyes there 
are two small, very widely distant nude punctures; fourth joint of maxillary 
palpi dilated internally, truncate at apex, having a slender terminal process. 
Prothorax distinctly wider than the head, one-fifth wider than long; sides 
strongly rounded just before the middle, convergent and very feebly sinuate 
toward base; the latter evenl}', feebly arcuate, four-fifths as wide as the disk, 
one-third wiiler than the apex; the latter truncate; disk strongly convex, 
with a row of small punctures along the basal margin, very feebly impressed 
at each side near the base, with a small, deeply impressed, nude fovea in the 
middle and very near the basal margin. Elytra near the apex nearly twice 
as wide as the prothorax; sides moderately divergent from base to apex, 
arcuate; disk fully as long as wide, convex; sutural stride distinct, strongly 
arcuate; discal fine, distiuct, terminating at the middle; humeri rather 
strongly tumid. Abdomen much shorter than the elytra, pai'abolically 
rounded throughout; border narrow, rapidly becoming extinct; surface con- 
vex and declivous posteriorly from the apex of the first visible segment; the 
latter as long as the next two together, transversely very feebly convex. 
Legslong, slender, simple; tarsi slender Metasternum broadly and strongly 
impressed along the middle; posterior coxae rather widel}'' separated. Length 
1.4 mm. 

California (Lake Tahoe 2). 

The type specimen is a male, the under surface of the 
abdomen near the apex being broadly and feebly impressed. 
With this specimen 1 have associated a female, which dif- 
fers considerably in the much shorter elytra, with more 
strongly divergent sides; but the material is insufficient to 
permit definite conclusions regarding its identity. 

The individual facets or granules upon the surface of the 
compound eyes are circular and very widely separated. 

This species is very nearly related to sonomce, but differs 
in its slightly more robust form and slightly more trans- 
verse prothorax, with more angulate sides. It occurs under 
chips and bark slightly buried in grassy turf. 



472 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

ACTIUM Casey. 

Through the kindness of Herr Reitter, of Modiing, Aus- 
tria, who has sent me several representatives of Trimiopsis, 
I am enabled to give the following statement, showing the 
relationship of the latter with Actium, Trimiopsis being 
represented Dj 1. Ejgersi. 

The maxillary palpi of Trimiopsis are long, the fourth 
joint being more strongly dilated internally near the base, 
and therefore distinctly securiform ; while in Actium, as rep- 
resented by pallidum, the palpi are shorter, more robust, and 
with the outer joint ovoidal and acuminate. In T. specu- 
laris, however, the palpi are more robust and do not differ 
so greatly from the form existing in Actium. 

One of the most conclusive differences, however, is the 
presence of a distinct discal stria, extending for one-half to 
two-thirds the elytral length in Actium, and the complete 
absence of this stria in Trimiopsis. 

In Trimiopsis the isolated fovea at the base of each ely- 
tra, between the discal and sutural striae, which is a con- 
stant character of Actium, is completely wanting. 

Several species of Trimiopsis have two basal abdominal 
carinse, these being very widely distant in T. specularls; 
others, however, — eg. Eggersi — are entirely devoid of the 
basal carinse. In Actium the basal carina3 are distinct and 
rather approximate. 

The species of Trimiopsis are much smaller than those of 
Actium, and have the head relatively much larger. 

Actium also appears to resemble, to some extent, the 
much more minute African species, recently described 
under the name Periplectus by Raffray, 

It is probable that the species described from the east- 
ern parts of the United States under the name Trimium 
might more appropriately be referred to Trimiopsis, as the 
European genus Trimium has not yet been discovered with- 
in our territories. 



NEW NORTH AMERICAN PSELAPHID^E. 473 

A. pallidum n- sp. — Form rather slender, convex; pale flavo-testaceous 
throughout, antennae and legs slightly paler and less rufous; integuments 
polished, impunctate; pubescence fine, short, subrecumbent, rather sparse. 
Head smaXl, very much narrower than the prothorax; as long as wide; eyes 
rather large and prominent, somewhat finely granulated, at the middle of the 
sides; gense distinctly shorter than the eyes, evenly rounded to the neck, not at 
all prominent; base very feebly sinuate; occiput longitudinally impressed in 
the middle; front having two round, impressed, spongiose fovere on a line 
through the middle of the eyes, mutually twice as distant as either from the eye, 
connected by a subangulate channel which is rather strongly impressed and 
much wider than long; antennas short, one-half longer than the head, club 
very robust, two basal joints subequal, slightly longer than wide, more ro- 
bust than the f anicle, joints three to seven moniliform, subequal, the former 
slightly longer than wide, the latter slightly transverse, joints eight to ten 
very short and strongly transverse, equal in length, acutely rounded at the 
sides, the former twice, the latter more than three times as wide as long, 
eleventh much wider, ovoidal, gradually acuminate, as long as the five pre- 
ceding together. Protkorix widest at one-third the length from the apex, 
where it is scarcely as wide as long; sides rather broadly rounded, feebly 
convergent and nearly straight toward base; the latter evenly and rather 
strongly arcuate throughout, fally four-fifths as wide as the disk, one-half 
wider than the apex; disk convex, having at one-fourth the length from the 
bas3 a transverse, narrow, deeply impressed, posteriorly arcuate channel, 
connecting the rather large, deeply impressed, spongiose lateral foveas and 
continued posteriorly more than one-half the distance to the basal margin 
by a canaliculate impression; along the basal margin, very near the edge, 
there is a narrow deeply-impressed line. Elytra at the humeri much wider 
than the prothorax; sides feebly divergent, arcuate; humeri rather promi- 
nent; together fully as long as wide; disk feebly convex, each trifoveate at 
base; sutural stria fine, deep, nearly straight; discal proceeding from the 
third fovea, fine, nearly straight, parallel to the satural, slightly double at 
base, vanishing at a slight distance before the middle; second fovea without 
trace of stria. Abdomen distinctly shorter, but very slightly narrower than 
the elytra, rapidly declivous behind, parabolically rounded through its apical 
half when viewed ve.-tically; border narrow, slightly inclined; first segment 
slightly longer than the second, having at base two fine, slightly divergent 
carinas which are very short and distant by les5 than one-fifth the abdomi- 
nal width.. Legs slender. Length 1.^ mm. 

California (Monterey Co.) 

This species is abundant under decomposing vegetation, 
near the margins of small streams. 

A. polituoi u sp. — Form slender, convex; bright testaceous, legs and 
antennae slightly paler, more flavate, abdomjn d irker, castaneous; integu- 



474 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

mants polishecl, impunctate; pub33G?u?e fi:ie, sliort, sparse. Heal smal', 
as loag as wide, distinctly nirro.ver thaa the prothorax; eyis rather siuall, 
at the middle of the sides, convex; genee distinctly longer than the eyes, 
arcuate, not prominent; occiput feeb'y impressed in the middle; front hav- 
ing two large spoagiose foveae on a line thro igh the posterior portions of the 
eyes and mutually twice as dstant as either from the eye, connected by a 
subangulate impress 3d groove; antennae short, slender, scarcely one-half 
longer thail the head, club 1 irge, elongate, two basal joints more robust, sub- 
equal, slightly longer than w de, joiuts three to sevej moniliform, the latter 
globular, eighth very slightly wider, a little wider than long, eig'it to ten 
very gradually wider and more transver-^e, equal in length, the latter oval 
and scarcely twice as wide as long, eleventh nearly twice as wide as the 
tenth, cylindro-conoidal, acuminate, truncate at base, elongate, nearlj'- as 
long as the five preceding together. Prothorax, widest at two-fifths the 
length from the apex; sides rather strongly rounded, distinctly convergent 
and feebly sinuate to the basal angles; base feebly arcuate, scarcely more 
than two-thirds as wide as the disk, one-third wider than the apex; disk 
convex, about as wide as long, crossed at one-third the length from the base 
by a narrow impressed groove which is nearly straight; lateral foveae large, 
spongiose, deeply impressed; median posterior prolongation rather broadly 
impressed; basal margin feebly impressed. Elytr.d width at the humeri, 
which are distinctly prominent, much greater than that of the prothorax; 
sides very feebly divergent, evenly and strongly arcuate; together as long 
as wide, transversely truncate at apex; disk feebly convex, each trifoveate at 
base; sutural striae deep, feebly and evenly arcuate, rather distant from the 
suture; disoal feebly arcuate, parallel, vanishing very slightly behind the 
middle, distinctly double at base. Abdomen distinctly shorter an I narrower 
than the elytra; sides parallel and straight at base, rounded behind; border 
rather narrow; first visible dorsal with two fine subparallel basal caiinae 
which are nearly one-third as long as the segment and separated by nearly 
one-fourth the abdominal width. Legs slender. Length 1.3 mm. 

California (Mendocino Co. 1). 

Easily known by its dark abdomen, slender antennae and 
smaller eyes. 

A. robustulum ^- sp.— Kather robust, convex, pale testaceous through- 
out; integuments polished, impunctate; pubescence fine, short, subrecum- 
bent, not dense. Head very small, nearly as wide as long, much narrower 
than the prothorax ; eyes moderate, convex, prominent; geuae distinctly 
longer than the eye, not prominent, rounded; occipital fovete large, on a 
line through the posterior portions of the eyes, mutually twice as distant as 
either from the eye, connec.ed by an impressed angulate groove; antennae 
short and slender, scarcely one-half longer than the head, club gradual, 
elongate, two basal joints subequal, slightly more robust, longer than wide, 



NEW NORTH AMERICAN PSELAPHID^. 475 

three to seven nearly equal in width, the former nnich longer than wide, the 
latter distiuctly wider than long, ninth to eleventh uniformly and rather 
rapidly increasing in width, the ninth one-half wider than long, slightly 
shorter than the tenth, the latter fully twice as wide as long, eleventh elon- 
gate, accummate, a-t long as the four preceding together. Proihorax widest 
before the middle; sides rounded, convergent and feebly sinuate toward 
base; the latter evenly and distinctly arcuate, four-fifths as wide as the disk 
and one-half wider than IheaiDex; disk convex, very slightly wider than long; 
basal groove at nearly one-third the length from the margin, feebly, posteri- 
orly arcuate, very deeply impressed; lateral fovete large, deeply impressed, 
median posterior cusp shaped prolongation large and long; surface broadly 
and very feebly impressed anteriorly from the lateral fovere, and with traces 
of a narrow median canaliculation near the center of the disk. Elytra at the 
somewhat prominent humeri distinctly wider than the prothorax; sides very 
feebly divergent, strongly and evenly arcuate; dsk about as long as wide, 
convex; sutural strife deep, arcuate; discal fine, distinct, nearly parallel, ex- 
tending to or very slightly beyond the middle; intermediate basal fovea sim- 
ple. Abdomen viewed vertically short and broad, three-fourths as long as 
the elytra, distinctly narrower; sides straight, parallel, broadly rounded be- 
hind; border rather narrow, inclined; first visible segment very shghtly 
longer than the second; basal carinse rather robust and flat, very feebly di- 
vergent, less than one-third as long as the segment, distant by one-fourth 
the abdominal width. Legs moderate in length; femora robust, much more 
arcuate externally and toward apex, posterior more slender. Length 1.4 
mm. 

California (Anderson Yal., Mendocino Co. 1). 

The type is apparently a male, the penultimate segment 
being transversely and narrowly impressed; the terminal 
segment is flat, in appearance like a horizontal pygidium; 
it is slightly longer than wide, oval, slightly more attenuate 
behind, and entirely surrounded by the other segments. 
The species is much more robust than the others here de- 
scribed. 

A. testaceum n« sp. — Form slender, convex; pale testaceous throughout; 
integuments polished, almost impiinctate; pubescence very fine, short, 
sparse. Head moderate, distinctly narrower than the prothorax; eyes 
small, convex, prominent; genge not at all prominent, much longer than the 
eye, rounded; occiput narrowly and deeply impressed in the middle; foveee 
on a line through the posterior portions of the eyes, round, spongiose, 
scarcely twice as distant as either from the eye, connected by an impressed 
channel, which is more broadly arcuate than usual; antennae scarcely one- 
half longer than the head, slender, nearly as in rohustulum. Prothorax 



476 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

very slightly wider than long, almost exactly similar to that of robustulum, 
except that the transverse basal groove is at scarcely more than one-fourth 
the length from the base. Elytra at the prominent humeri distinctly wider 
than the prothorax; sides feebly divergent, strongly arcuate; disk convex, 
about as long as wide; sutural striae strong, arcuate; discal fine, distinct, 
terminating at the middle of the disk. Abdomen very slightly shorter and 
much narrower than the elj'^tra, longer than wide; sides nearly parallel, 
straight, except in the apical fourth, which is parabolically rounded; basal 
carinee less than one-third as long as the segment, fine, exactly parallel and 
straight, separated by slightly less than one-third the abdominal width. 
Legs rather short and slender. Length 1.2 mm. 

California (Anderson Yal., Mendocino Co. 1). 

This species is very closely allied to the preceding, the 
type specimen, which is apparently a female, is smaller, 
much narrower, with a narrower, much more elongate abdo- 
men and larger head. The form and position of the basal 
carinse differ in the two species, being distinctly stronger 
and divergent in rohustalum, and finer and perfectly parallel 
m testaceum. Were it not for this character and the proba- 
bility — because of the sexual characters — of the masculinity 
of the small-headed type of rohustidum, I should be per- 
suaded to unite the two as very extreme specimens of a 
single species, but at present this does not appear to be ad- 
missible. Although both are from the same region, the 
localities in which they were taken were widely different. 

The four species thus far described differ from caUforni- 
citm, as described by LeOonte, in the extent of the discal 
strise, these being two-tliirds as long as the elytra in the 
latter. The number of species is probably considerable, as 
scarcely any organized attempt has been made to collect 
them. 

EUPLECTUS Leach. 

E. californicUS ^- sp. — Form slender, paiallel, depressed; dark testa- 
ceous throughout, polished; pubescence fine, rather short, somewhat dense. 
Head rather large, slightly wider than long; eyes small, convex, rather 
prominent, at more than their own length from the base; geu£e rounded, 
convergent, not prominent; base broadly sinuate; surface depressed, 
coarsely, deeply and rather densely punctate; having on a line through the 



NEW NORTH AMERICAN PSELAPHID.E. 477 

middle of the eyes, two small rrnde fovea9, mutually scarcely as distant as 
either from the eye, connected by a feebly impressed anterior groove; an- 
tennal tuberculations small, ratber prominent; antenna? three -fourths as 
long as the head and prothorax together, moderately robust, club moderate, 
the joints nine to eleven gradually and uniformly wider, the latter oval, as 
long as the three preceding together; under surface deeply and densely 
punctate, with an impressed fovea in the middle at the base, without long 
erect setae. Prothorax slightly shorter and narrower than the head, widest 
at one-third the length from the apex, very slightly wider than long; sides 
strongly rounded anteriorly, rather strongly convergent and nearly straight 
to the base; the latter broadly arcuate, two-thirds as wide as the disk, very 
slightly wider than the apex; the latter transversely truncate; dislc feebly 
convex, with a slightly elongate foveas near the center, a broad impression at 
one-fourth the length from the base, and, on each side, a large rounded 
deeply-impressed foveae, at two-fifths the length from the base, not connected 
with the median impression; surface very feebly and not densely punctate. 
Elytra at the humeri slightly wider than the prothorax; sides nearly parallel, 
distinctly arcuate; together very feebly sinuate at apex; disk depressed, as 
long as wide, nearly one-half longer than the prothorax; sutural stria deep, 
very feebly arcuate; discal fine, distinct, slightly arcuate, vanishing slightly 
before the middle; each elytron with an isolated basal fovea near the sutu- 
ral; surface very feebly, sparsely punctate. Abdomen as long as the elytra 
and distinctly narrower; sides straight and parallel; border narrow; surface 
feebly convex, finely, feebly and not densely punctate; first three visible 
dorsals equal in length; first two each impressed in the middle of the base; 
carinfe very short and nearly obsolete. Legs short; femora not robust; tarsi 
short and robust. Metasternum long, impressed along the middle. Length 
1.3 mm. 

California (Lake Tahoe 3). 

The tarsal claw has a very minute hair-like appendage 
internally near the base, giving the appearance of a rudi- 
mentary second claw, but as all the characters are precisely 
similar to the European genus Euplectus, as seen in san- 
guineus, signatus, Bonvoidoiri, etc., much more similar, in 
fact, than most of our Eastern Euplecti, it is impossible to 
believe that it belongs to a different group. I would pre- 
fer rather to consider this a tendency to revert to the nor- 
mal condition of Coleoptera, and to hold that similar ap- 
pearances may occasionally be exhibited in the European 
genus. 

The type is a male, the sixth segment being deeply im- 



478 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

pressed in the middle. The female does not differ appre- 
ciably in form. 

The occurrence of a genuine Euplectus near the Pacific 
coast is a very interesting fact, as heretofore the genus has 
not been discovered west of the Rocky Mountains. The 
three specimens indicated were found under the bark of 
fallen trees, and the species appears to be very rare. It 
should be placed after conjiuens in our lists. 

RHEXIDIUS n. gen. (Euplectini ) 

Tarsi with two unequal claws; antennae straight, basal joint not conspic- 
uously elongate, widely separated at base. Posterior coxse coutiguous. 
Prothorax without lateral teeth, having a median canaliculation, and two 
large lateral foveas near the base counected by a fine transverse line. An- 
tennae eleven-jointed, short; club long and slender, three-jointed. Maxil- 
lary^ palpi small, slender; third joint oval, slightly longer tbau wide; fourth 
much longer than the three basal combined, slender, fusiform. First vis- 
ible dorsal segment slightl}"^ longer than the second; second veutral in the 
middle as long as the next three together; posterior margins of the posterior 
segments strongly emargiuate. Elytra with lateral subhumeral fovea and fine 
carina. 

This genus is founded upon a small Californian species, 
bearing a great resemblance in many of its characters to 
Oropus, but differing in the structure of the antennse and in 
the complete absence of lateral prothoracic teeth. It be- 
longs in some of its characters near the African genus Raf- 
frayia, Reitter, but differs greatly in the pronotal sculpture 
and elytral structure. 

R. granulosus ^- sp. — Rather slender and depressed, pale ochreous-tes- 
taceous throughout, slightly '•hining; pubescence rather coarse, moderate in 
length, not very dense. Head much wider than long; eyes far down on the 
sides, rather small, feebly convex, at about their own length from the base, 
coarsely granulated ; base broadly sinuate; occiput feebl^Mui pressed in the 
middle at base, having dorsally ou a line through the middle of the ej'^es two 
small, very widely distant, nude foveas, also near the apex a transversely 
and feebly arcuate groove, terminating in minute foveae which are connect- 
ed with the occipital foveae by a finer groove; surface impunctate, rather 
densely covered with small, round, strongly elevated tubercles; antennae 
distinctly shorter than the head and prothorax together, basal joint but very 



NEW NORTH AMERICAN PSELAPHID^. 479 

slie;btly longer than wide, cylindrical, second shorter, slightly narrower, 
nearly globular, three to eight narrower, transverse, the latter twice as wide 
as long, ninth and tenth slightly more than twice as long, much longer than 
the eighth, nearly rectangular, the tenth very slightly the wider and longer, 
eleventh scarcely visibly wider than the tenth, very elongate and slender, 
gradually acuminate and as long as the five preceding joints combined. 
Prothorax but very slightly wider than the head, widest in the middle; 
sides near the basal angles just visibly sinuate, in the middle strongly 
rounded, near the apex very feebly sinuate; base broadly arcuate, two-thirds 
as wide as the disk, one-half wider than the apex; disk as wide as long, 
moderately convex, covered not very densely with small tubercles; median 
caualiculation rather fine, equal, terminating near the base and axDex: lateral 
fovete smrtll, deeply impressed, spougiose, at a little more than one-fourth 
the length from the base, connecting groove transverse, straight, very fine. 
ii7«/^ra slightly longer than the prothorax, at apex one-half wider than the 
latter, distinctly wider than long; humeri not at all prominent; together 
transversely truncate behind; disk feebly convex, rather sparsely and more 
coarsely tuberculate, each with three basal fovese and four stria3, one evenly 
and feebly arcuate, two and three feeble, nearly equal, one half as long as 
the elytra, four stronger, one-third as long as the elytra. Abdomen very 
slightly wider and longer than the elytra; sides arcuate; border rather strong, 
inclined; surface rather strongly convex, scarcely visibly tuberculate. Legs 
rather slender. Length 1.0 mm. 

California (illamecla 4). 

The sexual differences are apparently very feeble, tlie 
terminal segment in the male being feebly impressed. The 
mesosternum is bicarinate. 

OROPUS Casey. 

0. montanus n. sp. — Form slender, rather depressed, uniform dark 
rufo-testaceous throughout; integuments polished, not percej)tibly punctate; 
pubescence fine, rather long, not dense. Head triangular, shorter and nar- 
rower than the prothorax; eyes rather small, not very prominent, at slightly 
more than their own length from the base; genae strongly convergent, feebly 
arcuate; base broadly sinuate; base .of occiput longitudinally impressed in 
the middle; occipital fovese deep, distant, on a line through the posterior 
limits of the eyes, connected by a narrow, deeply impressed, arcuate groove, 
much shorter than wide; antennae short, robust, distinctly shorter tban the 
head and prothorax together, club elongate, rather feeble, joints three to 
eight transverse, the former slightly wider than long, the latter more than 
twice as wide as long, ninth and tenth joints twice as wide as long, nearly 
rectangular, tenth just visibly wider and longer thau the ninth, eleventh 



480 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

distinctly wider than the tenth, nearly three-fourths longer than wide, 
conoidal, acuminate. Prothorax widest in the middle, where the sides are 
strongly rounded, thence strongly convergent toward base and apex, rery 
feebly sinuate near each limit; base broadly arcuate, scarcely two-thirds as 
wide as the disk, one-half wider than the apex; the latter feebly arcuate and 
less than one-half as wide as the disk; lateral teeth minute, in a transverse 
line with the lateral foveee; the latter deep, at slightly less than one-third 
the length from the base, connected by a fine, posteriorly arcuate groove; 
median canaliculation fine, crossing the transverse groove; obsolete near the 
base and apex, not at all dilated except near its basal limit; disk about as 
long as wide. Elytra scarcely one-fifth longer than the prothorax, at apex 
nearly one-half wider than the latter; disk distinctly wider than long, feebly 
convex; stria one nearly straight, two slightly arcuate, united with one at 
one-third the length from the apex, three two-thirds and four one-half as 
long as the elytra respectively, all deeply impressed. Abdomen nearly as 
wide as and distinctly longer than the elytra. Legs rather short and robust. 
Length 1.8 mm. 

California (Placer Co. 1). 

Described from the female. It can very readily be dis- 
tinguislied from all the species previously known by its 
slender form, short elytra and peculiar disposition of the 
elytral strige. 

SONOMA Casey. 

S. COrticina n. sp. — Linear, depressed, pale testaceous throughout; 
pubescence fine, rather short, not dense. Head slightly wider than long, a 
little shorter and narrower than the prothorax; eyes small, at the middle of 
the sides; genae long, rounded, longer than the eyes and nearly as promi- 
nent; front feebly convex, impunctate, having, at nearly one-third the length 
from the base, two small nude punctiform fovere, mutually slightly less dis- 
tant than either from the eye, and, at the vertex, behind the line of the an- 
tennae, a large, deep circular fovea which is completely nude; antennae one- 
third longer than the head and prothorax together, slender, feebly clubbed, 
first joint much longer and slightly more robust than the second, the latter 
nearly one-half longer than wide, oval, joints three to eight moniliform, 
gradually shorter, the latter slightly wider than long, joints eight to ten 
similar in form, gradually slightly larger, eleventh slightly wider than the 
tenth, a little longer than wide, obtusely acuminate, not as long as the two 
preceding together; under surface transversely and feebly impressed just 
behind the mentum, and more deeply so along the bisal margin; fourth 
joint of the maxillary palpi longer than wide, compressed, oval, having a dis- 
tinct terminal process. Prothorax widest in the middle; sides broadly 
rounded to the neck, convergent and distinctly sinuate near the base; disk 



NEW NORTH AMERICAN PSELAPHID.E. 481 

slightly wider than long, feebly convex, having a transverse anteriorly arcu- 
ate impression near the base which terminates laterally in two small puncti- 
form fovete and which is more deeply impres-ed in the middle, also just be- 
fore the middle two minute punc;iform fovea, separated by one-fifth the en- 
tire width, and at each edge at one-fourth the length from the base, a large 
disconnected deeply impressed fovea, the impression being continued more 
feebly to the basal angles. Elytra depressed, at the humeri slightly wider 
than the pronotum; sides nearly parallel, more strongly arcuate behind; to- 
gether truncate at apex, nearly as long as the heai and prothorax together; 
sutural stride deeply impressed, beginning at a slight distance from the base; 
discal broadly impressed, vanishing near the middle, coarsely foveo-punc- 
tate; between this and the sutural a few foveate imnctures near the base ar- 
ranged longitudinally. Abdomen slightly longer and wider than the elytra; 
border wide, slightly inclined; first visible dorsal much shorter than the sec- 
ond, having near the apex a transverse interrupted spongiose line. Legs 
rather short and robust. Length 1.4-1.6 mm. 

California (Mendocino Co. 8). 

This species was found rather abundantly under the bark 
of fallen trees in the Anderson Valley; it differs from par- 
viceps in its larger head, and from isaheUce in color and in 
its less robust form. 

S. Cavifrons n- sp. -Slender, depressed, pale testaceous throughout; pu- 
bescence fine, short, suberect, not d^-nse; integuments polished. i/eacZ small, 
much smaller and narrower ihan the prothorax, as long as wide, eyes moder- 
ate in size, prominent, finely granulate; gense convergent, rounded, not at 
all prominent, as long as the eyes; base feeblj'- sinuate; surface impunctate, 
having posteriorly two small round feebly impressed foveae, mutuall}^ slightly 
less distant than either from the eye, and, just behind the strongly elevated 
transverse frontal ridge, a longitudinally elongated, very deeply excavated 
fovea which is slightly spongiose and more attenuated posteriorly; antenuce 
slender, slightly longer than the head and prothorax together; first joint 
longer than wide, robust, oval, second shorter, less robust, oval, one-half 
longer than wid^, third small, narrowest, four to seven subequal, much 
larger than the third, joints three to seven slightly longer than wide, eight 
as wide as long, nine and ten slightly larger, very little wider than long, 
eleventh slightly wider than the teath, longer than wide, acuminate, shorter 
than the two preceding together. Prothorax widest at one-third the length 
from the apex, where it is distinctly wider than long; sides strongly rounded, 
convergent and sinuate toward base; the latter bioadly arcuate, three-;ourths 
as wide as the disk, more than one-third wider than the apex. Elytra at the 
humeri distinctly wider than the prothorix; sides feebly divergent, more 
strongly arcuate behind; together slightly longer than wide, as long as the 

34— Bull. Cal. Acad. Sci. II. 8. Issued August 19, 1887. 



482 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

head and prothorax together, depressed; sutural series of four impressed 
fove?e at the base; the sutural stria deeply impressed and continuous only 
from the fourth fovea; discal impression coarsely foveate, terminating before 
the middle; between them a basal series of two or three foveas. Abdomen 
as wide as and slightly longer than the elytra; border wide. Legs short 
and rather slender. Length 1.9 mm. 

California (Mendocino Co. 1). 

The pronotal fovese and spongiose band of the abdomen 
are nearly as in corticina. This species is abundantly dis- 
tinguished from the preceding and from isahellce, Lee. b}^ its 
smaller head and pale color respectively, and from parviceps 
Makl, which it must more nearly resemble, in its smaller 
size. The present species was found with the preceding 
under bark, and, as the Alaskan form inhabits grassy places, 
the two are probably distinct. 

S. isabellce Lee. — Two specimens of this species, collected by Mr. C. Fuchs, 
at Alameda, differ greatly from those here described in the shorter, more ro- 
bust antennffi, with more transverse joints, in the intense black color with 
testaceous elytra, and in the complete absence of the two discal punctures 
of the pronotum. They were found in decomposing vegetable mould. 

EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 

The accompanying plate is somewhat experimental, the figures being re- 
productions by means of photography and gelatine printing, of shaded lead- 
pencil drawings. Should this attempt be deemed successful, the process 
must assuredly become popular among entomologists, as it is far easier and 
less trying to the eyesight to make satisfactory drawings in soft pencil than 
in ink stipple. 

Fig. 1—Nisaxis cincinnata Cas. Fig. 6 — Tychus sonomce Cas. 

Fig. 2 — Biotiis formicarius Cas. Fig. 7 — A ctiiim pallidum Cas. 

Fig. 3—EutrichUes(Zim7nermanni?)'Lec. Fig. 8 — Bhexidius granulosus Gslb. 

Fig. 4:—Oropus interruptus Cas. Fig. 9 — Thesium laticoUeCaB. 

Fig. 5 — B ry axis texana Gas. Fig.lO-— Sonoma corticina Giis. 

Note.— The drawings are taken from typical representatives in aU cases except Eu- 
tricfiites Lee. and Thesium laticolle Cas., which I have identified from the original descrip- 
tions. "With reference to the former, it may be stated that the specimen figured agrees 
very well generically, but not so well specifically, with the description of LeConte. 
For example, the apical fovea of the front is stated to be smaller than the occipital in 
Zimmermanni, whereas in the representative figured it is in the form of a broad, indefi- 
nite impression without trace of fovea. The specimens here figured were found at 
Austin, Texas. 



CALIFORNIAN MANZ ANITAS. 483 



CALIFORNIAN MANZANITAS. 



A Partial Revisiou of the Uva-iirsi Section of the genus Arctostaphylos, 
Adans., as Represented on the North American Pacific Coast. 



BY C. C. PARRY. 



Read June 20th, 1887. 



California is the native liome of the " 3Ianzan{tas ,' ' con- 
fining the application of this well known common name to 
the Uva-ursi Section of the botanical genus Arctostaphy- 
los, Adans. r 

Though the typical species on which the genus was 
founded {A. Uva-ursi), is barely found within its northern 
limits, the more conspicuous forms, including not less than 
twelve species, constitute a marked feature of Californian 
scenery, and are everywhere recognized as among its most 
attractive floral displays. 

Having several years ago undertaken a partial revision of 
the genus Arctostaphylos in Proceed. Dav. Acad. Science, 
Yol. IV, 31-37, the writer was naturally interested in con- 
tinuing those observations, and being materially aided by 
free access to the valuable collections and library of the 
California Academy of Science, it seenas eminently proper 
to present the results to the scientific public through the 
medium of the California Academy Bulletin. 

At the time of the publication above referred to, I very 
naturally inferred that the commonly received species, as 
described in current systematic botanical works, were clearly 
defined, and referred to properly authenticated names. It 
was therefore a matter of no little surprise to find as the 
result of careful field observations, that though as growing 
plants distinct species could be readily recognized, the 
published descriptions, on account of imperfect material, 



484 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

or in some instances erroneous mixing of specimens in dif- 
ferent stages of growth, could not be made to agree with 
actual living species. In endeavoring to rectify these una- 
voidable errors, no doubt largely due to a too exclusive 
reliance on dried specimens for systematic definition, I was 
obliged in the first instance to take into consideration that 
widely applied name of ArctostapJiylos pungens, HBK, 
which has heretofore absorbed most of the poorly defined 
forms brought back in collections, not alone from its orig- 
inal location on the table-lands of tropical Mexico, but 
extending northward along the Sierra-Madre, and appear- 
ing again in unusual rich development on the North Pacific 
-coast, and the Calif ornian Sierra Nevada. Aside from tlie 
extreme improbability that a shrub of such peculiar charac- 
ter, not easily adapting itself to changed conditions, 
either in nature or cultivation, should exhibit such a wide 
geographical distribution — neither the published figures of 
the true Mexican plant, nor the original description could, 
except by a forced construction, apply to our well known 
Californian Manzanita, as seen in the lower foot-hills or the 
high Sierras. I have therefore undertaken to give a com- 
plete and detailed description of this species, combining 
the common with the botanical name, viz. : 
ArctostapJiylos Manmniia. 

Another species, presenting very constant and distinct 
characters, such as no one in the field would fail to recog- 
nize, in its dense gregarious habit and singular glaucous 
foliage, has been strangely confounded with the widely dis- 
tinct A. glauca, Lindl., with which it agrees only in leaf 
characters. As this common foot-hill Manzanita, ranging 
from Southern Oregon to Central California, and possibly 
beyond, has never yet been clearly defined, I have herewith 
named, from a very marked character of the inflorescence, 
Ardosiaphylos viscida . 

Besides the above, my attention has also been called to 
another undescribed species of remarkable delicacy and 



CALIFORNIAN MANZANITAS. 485 

beauty, first collected in fraiting specimens by Mrs. M. K. 
Curran in Lake County, in 1886, and during the present 
season abundantly gathered in all stages of growth by the 
writer, in the vicinity of Calistoga. Desirous of recogniz- 
ing in some suitable wa}^ the facilities for botanical explora- 
tion extended to myself and others in California by 
Hon. Leland Stanford, I have, with his permission, dedi- 
cated this interesting species, which I hope to be able to 
introduce into cultivation, viz. : Ardostaphylos Stanfordiana, 
to the memory of his son, Leland Stanford, Jr., whose name 
is to be associated with a richly endowed institution for the 
advancement of human knowledge. 

While postponing for the present the consideration'and 
possible settlement of the vexed question of determining 
just how far the aggregation of constant characters as the 
result of enlarged exploration, may justify the raising of 
sub-genera or sections to full generic rank — which is espe- 
cially urgent in view of the polymorphous character which 
is now assumed by the genus Ardostaplujlos in more recent 
botanical works — I must content myself with a synoptical 
arrangement of all the known species, heretofore included 
in Section Uva-ursi, giving detailed descriptions of such 
only as are new, or corrected notes of such as are imper 
fectly known or wrongly defined. 

Preliminary to this, some general observations on the 
ordinary botanical features, that may aid in discriminating 
species as observed in the field, is herewith submitted. 

GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. 

Notwithstanding considerable diversity in habit and 
growth, varying from low procumbent to almost arbores- 
cent forms, this Uva-ursi group presents certain uniform 
features, probably justifying its retention as a distinct 
genus, under the earliest applied name, ArctostaphyloSy 
Adans., separated generically from the other allied groups 



486 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

witli which it has been combined in later systematic works. 
Thus viewed in all forms, they are densely branched, 
shrubby plants, with smooth reddish bark, renewed annually 
by an exfoliation of that of the previous season, which, by 
the swelling of the branches at the time of growth in May 
or June, detaches the old in loose flakes, showing beneath, 
the light greenish new bark becoming tawny-red on expos- 
ure, to go through the same process of decortication the next 
season. In the sub-arborescent forms the branches thickly 
set on the base of the irregular trunk, project their rigid 
and crooked limbs in every direction, forming dense, almost 
impenetrable thickets. 

The evergreen foliage, varying in tint from bright vivid 
to dull green, or glaucous, is smooth, or roughly pubescent, 
rarely tomentose, and usually entire, the different species 
generally presenting well marked specific distinctions in 
shape and texture. Of these, A. Andersoni, Gray, is excep- 
tional in its frequent sharply serrate leaves, though in all 
seedling plants observed, the earliest growth succeeding 
the cotyledons is invariably serrate, in this respect cor- 
responding to the interesting observations of Prof. Greene 
in regard to the early growth of Priinus occidentalis on Sta. 
Cruz Island. The usual vertical twist to the petioles, giving 
the leaves a perpendicular direction, is one of the features 
common to many shrubs in arid districts, with the obvious 
result of checking evaporation by less direct exposure to 
the vivid rays of the summer sun. 

The inflorescence always terminal on the growing shoots, 
is provided for by fully formed buds of the previous season 
protected by their characteristic bracts, thus prepared to 
develop their delicate urceolate corollas as early as the sea- 
son of growth will allow, in favorable seasons attaining a 
full development by January or February. 

The usual form of inflorescence is a panicle, with more 
or less extended or divaricate lateral and terminal racemes. 
The subtending bracts are usually quite characteristic in the 



CALIFORNIAN MANZANITAS. 487 

different species, usually somewhat rigid and persistent, 
more rarely thin hyaline and deciduous, the pair of bracteoles 
at the base of each pedicel, inconspicuous and evanescent. 
The pedicels, usually exceeding the bracts, are slender or 
thickened upwards, smooth or pubescent, in some instances 
viscid-glandular. The corollas are very uniform in charac- 
ter and offer scaicely any features of specific value, being 
urceolate in shape, white or delicately ruse-tinted, deciduous 
and enclosing a whorl of ten stamens, with appendaged an- 
thers, and filaments dilated and hairy at base. The single 
style with its short lobed stigmas, exceeds the ovary, and is 
more or less persistent on the forming fruit. The fruit, 
technically termed a nicculanium, varies in size from one- 
fourth to one-half inch in diameter, is usually orbicu- 
lar in shape, occasionally flattened horizontally, and deep- 
ly umbilicate, more rarely oblong and acuminate; it is 
composed of a thin outer pericarp, smooth or pubescent, 
occasionally glandular-viscid, the color at maturity is a dull 
white, sometimes with a reddish tint, whicli soon changes 
to a dull brownish yellow, and later to a deep mahogany; 
this encloses within a more or less copious granular sub-acid 
pulp, a radiating series of osseous nutlets (Pyrence), varying 
from five (the normal number) to seven or eight; these are 
either loosely united at the ventral edge and easily separable 
into one-celled divisions, or the separate cells are irregularly 
coalescent presenting an unevenly lobed nutlet, or more rarely 
-consolidated into a regular solid stone; when separable, 
each developed nutlet contains a single pendulous seed, 
composed of a slender erect radicle, and small cotyledons, 
enclosed in fieshy albumen. When the nutlets are irregu- 
larly coalescent the larger divisions include several distinct 
and fertile cells, and in case of the complete consolidation, 
the cross-section shows the open cells with inclosed embryo 
imbedded in the dense woody tissue, only the larger cells 
being fertile. That this variable character is not as at one 
time supposed of generic value, is evident in the fact that a 



488 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

continuous series can be traced from the distinctly separated 
nutlets through the partially to the completely consolidated 
drupe. It has seemed important to dwell on these details 
of botanical characters, as it is only by a combined view of 
all, that species as they exist in nature, can be properly dis- 
tinguished. 

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION. 

Not until such time as the species are correctly determined, 
can any satisfactory views be taken of geographical distri- 
bution. Judging, however, from such as are well known, 
the range of species is quite strictly limited by the peculiari- 
ties of soil, climate, and exposure, to which they are adapted. 
This is no less true of the world-wide species A. Uva-ursi, 
which in encircling the globe does not extend beyond that 
degree of north latitude, or elevated exposure, which is 
suited to its boreal habit, than of the analogous A. pu- 
mila, Nutt., confined as far as is known to the sandy wastes 
of Monterey, or the vicinity of San Francisco. Equally 
may it be inferred that the peculiar Californian species will 
not be found outside of the peculiar climatic conditions to 
which they are adapted, the more so as their structure and 
limited reproductive characters are not adapted to cosmo- 
politan habits. It is therefore reasonable to conclude that 
several of the more southern forms, heretofore referred to 
known species, will on careful examination be found distinct, 
and thus justify the opening paragraph, that California is, 
par excellence, the home of the Mamanitas. Hoping at some 
future time to verify or disprove these suggestions, I will 
now simply indicate such species as may at present be ac- 
cepted, in a preliminary synoptical arrangement, viz. : 

ARCTOSTAPHYLOS, Adans. 

§ UvA Ursi. Gray, Synop. Fl. II, Part I, 27; Parry Proc. 
Dav. Acad. Science, Vol. lY, 31-37. 



CALIFORNIAN MANZANITAS. 489 

1. Fruit with Pyrence distinct, or more or less coalescent. 
"Low prostrate shrubs. 

1. A. Uva-Ursi Spreng. 

The typical species on which Adanson established the 
genus as distinct from Arbutus. This author did not how- 
ever include the species afterwards united as A. alpina, 
Spreng., which, on account of its very distinct characters, is 
better referred back to an older genus Mairania, Neck. viz. : 
31. alpina Desv. 

2. A. pumila Nutt ; Gray, 1. c. 

This species, first collected by Nuttall in 1836, and de- 
scribed only from leaf specimens, has been long regarded 
as a doubtful species, and is still imperfectly known. During 
the present season (1887) the original locality was visited by 
the writer, on sandy wastes bordering the eastern shore of 
Monterey Bay. It here forms densely spreading mats, 
several yards in extent, with assurgent branches, thickly 
covered with small ovate or spatulate leaves, of a dull green 
color, lighter beneath, pubescent when young, entire, and 
short-petiolate; these conceal from view the small clusters 
of fruit mature in July. The inflorescence is a contracted 
raceme, with rather conspicuous veiny bracts, shorter than 
the smooth pedicels, flowers small pinkish-white; the fruit 
is orbicular, yellowish-brown at maturity, the separable nut- 
lets closely adjoining, broadly carinate, and smooth on the 
external face, occasionally partly coalescing into irregular, 
two-celled stones. In the above characters it is clearly 
marked as a distinct species, of very limited range, and has 
been known for several years, from an isolated locality at 
Lone Mountain Cemetery, San Francisco, where it was first 
detected by the late Dr. Kellogg, and by him properly re- 
ferred to the Nuttallian species. 



490 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

3. A. Nevadensis Gray l. c. 

Confined to tlie alpine districts of the Sierra Nevada, and 
clearly distinguished in its peculiar habit, from the mount- 
ain form of A. Manzanita, with which it is occasionally asso- 
ciated. 

* ^ Erect shrubs, approacJiing arborescent. 

A. Hookeri Don, Gard. Diet. Ill, 836. Gray 1. c. 

Arbutus ? pungens Hook. & Arn. Bot. Beech. 144. 
Xerobotrys, venulosa Nutt. Benth. PL Hartw. 321. 

Short depressed stems, with erect branches, forming loose 
clumps 1 — 3 feet in height; young branches and petioles 
closely pubescent; leaves smooth, bright green on both 
sides, distinctly veined, ovate, and gradually tapering at 
base to a slender twisted petiole, cartilaginous-mucronate, 
and on vigorous shoots ocasionally irregularly mucronate- 
serrate; inflorescence short-racemose, bracts membranous, 
attenuate, longer than the smooth pedicels, deciduous in 
fruit, calyx with thin ciliate margins, corolla small, narrowly 
urceolate; fruit smooth, yellowish-brown at maturity (July), 
orbicular, flattened horizontally, deeply umbilicate at base, 
3 lines broad, 2 lines high, granular pulp rather copious, 
nutlets separable, rough carinate on the back, and acute at 
the ventral edge at the base, when less tiian five, one or 
more coalescing to form a 2 — 3 celled stone. 

Long known from all the early collectors in the vicinity 
of Monterey, but poorly defined from imperfect fragmentary 
material. A recent opportunity for field examination affords 
the means for completing the description. 

5. A. Anderson! Gray L c. 

Apparently limited in range to the Santa Cruz Mountains. 

6. A. tomentosa DongL Graj' L c. excl Southern and Mexican forms. 

This is one of the oldest and best known species, having 
been fairly well figured, and occasionally seen in cultiva- 



CALIFORNIAN MANZANITAS. 491 

tion. Notwithstanding variation in habit, and degree of 
pubescence, shape of leaves, etc., it is readily distinguished 
in the field, forming usually a low spreading bush, with dull 
green foliage, hispidly ciliate young branches, and very con- 
spicuous floral bracts, occasionally becoming foliaceous, and 
generally exceeding the hairy pubescent pedicels, both the 
ovar}^ and forming fruit are more or less hairy pubescent, 
but not glandular. It is usually later in flower than other 
species with which it is frequently associated, thus obviating 
a confusion that is likely to arise from hybridization. The 
fruit maturing in August shows the usual character of nut- 
lets, more or less separable or coalescent. Specimens from 
Southern California and Arizona, extending into Mexico 
(one of which is characterized below as A. Pringlei), here- 
tofore referred to this species, are clearly distinct. 

7. A. Manzanita. A. ^:>2/n^ews of various authors, not HBK. 

Shrubby to sub-arborescent, 5 — 25 feet in height, bark 
smooth, dark reddish brown, renewed annually, younger 
branches more or less closely pubescent; leaves petiolate, 
about one-third the length of the blade; smooth, dull green 
on both sides, entire, varying in shape from narrowly to 
broadly ovate, usually obtuse at the apex, and abruptly 
short mucronate, rounded or tapering at the base; inflores- 
cence paniculate, the divisions more or less prolonged, 
rachis hoary -pubescent, and thickening upwards, bracts 
broad, acuminate, rigid and persistent, externally pubes- 
cent; pedicels smooth, exceeding the bracts, calyx with 
broad orbicular segments, corolla broadly urceolate, sta- 
mens with slightly bearded filaments, style included; fruit 
smooth, irregularly orbicular, 4 — 6 lines broad, 3 lines high, 
dull white at early maturity, becoming reddish-brown with 
age, nutlets irregularly coalescent, usually one or more 
broader, with 3 fertile cells, with intermediate 1-celled nut- 
lets, more sharply carinate, the whole including 5 — 7 fertile 
cells. 



492 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

Varying greatly in size from a low bush in the higher 
mountain districts, to a small tree, with low branching 
trunk, often over a foot in diameter. It differs from the 
Mexican A. pungens, HBK, to which it is has been usually 
referred, in its more robust habit, its broadly obtuse foliage, 
its prolonged inflorescence, size of fruit, period of flower- 
ing, etc. 

It is one of the earliest flowering species, often in full 
bloom for Christmas decorations; in the higher mountains 
the flowering period is delayed till May; fruit matures in 
July and August. As a cultivated shrub it is rather shy, 
but succeeds tolerably well in natural parks, where it is 
least disturbed by the processes of cultivation. The leaves 
of young seedlings are always sharply serrate. 

The geographical range of this species, as above defined, 
cannot at present be satisfactorily determined, though its 
fullest development is in the lower foot-hills of the coast 
range north of San Francisco, and on each side of the Sac- 
ramento Yalley, thence extending in reduced forms to the 
high Sierras north and south, probably crossing the range 
into Nevada. 

8. A. viscida. ^- gluuca in part, of various authors, notLindl. 

Branching from the base 5 — 15 feet high; branches 
smooth, reddish, leaves smooth glaucous, finely net-veined, 
petiolate, varying from broad ovate to sub-cordate or del- 
toid, entire, abruptly short -mucronate; inflorescence pro- 
longed in a slender spreading panicle, rachis slender, 
smooth, bracts small, oval, acuminate, pedicels densely 
glandnlar-viscid, four to five times exceeding the inconspic- 
uous bracts, which become coated with the copious adhe- 
sive viscidity; flowers light pink, calyx with thin margins, 
corolla short - urceolate, style slender, ovary smooth; fruit 
orbicular, horizontally flattened, and umbilicate at the base 
and summit, 3 lines broad, 2 lines high, light yellow to dull 
brown at maturity; pericarp smooth, copious white granular 



CALIFORNIAN MANZ ANITAS. 493 

pulp enclosing 4 — 5 rliomboidal nutlets, rouglily carinate on 
the back, one or more broader containing 2 — 3 fertile cells. 
Forming dense thickets on the middle foot-hills of the 
Sierra Nevada, from the Oregon line to Central California; 
flowering in March, fruit in July, clearly distinguished by 
the above characters from A. glauca, Lindl., with which it 
has been confounded. The remarkable viscidity of the 
pedicels, which draws out into long threads on handling, 
also serves as a trap to insects, perhaps thereby serving 
some use in the vegetable economy. At the time of flower- 
ing it is one of the prettiest species, in the neat contrast of 
flower and foliage, being also attractive to swarms of buz- 
zing insects attracted by the copious stores of honey. Though 
possibly shy of cultivation, its gregarious habit suggests 
adaptation to park ornamentation, if grown in clumps, as in 
its natural location. 

9. A. Stanfordiana. 

Low branching, 3 — 5 feet high, with slender dark-reddish 
stems smooth throughout; leaves bright green on both 
sides, narrowly ovate to oblanceolate, tapering below to a 
short narrowly- winged petiole, entire and mostly mucro- 
nate; inflorescence