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Full text of "Bulletin of the Department of Agriculture, Jamaica"

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BULLETIN 



OF THE 



DEPARTMENT OF AGKICULTURE. 



EDITED BY 



WILLIAM B'AWCETT, B.Sc, F.L.S. 



Director of Public Oar dens and Plantations. 



VjOTANlCAL. 



> ♦ < 



Vol. I. 



•►>-•-♦--•<- 



HOPE GARDENS, JAMAICA 
1903. 



Vol. I. JANUARY, 1903. Part 1. 



BULLETIN 



OF THE 



DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



X » < 



EDITED BY 



WILLIAM EAWCETT. B.Sc, E.L.S. 

Director of Puhlic Gardens and Plantations, 



CONTENTS: 






Page. 


Banana Soils : II. 


1 


Kola 


17 


Elementary Notes on Jamaica Plants VI. 


18 


Board of Agriculture 


20 


Panama Hats 


21 



P R I E-Threepence. 



A Copy will be supplied free to any Resident in Jamaica, who will send Name and 
Address to the Director of Public Gardens and Plantations, Kingston P.O . 



KINGSTON, JAMAICA 
HoFB Gakdeks. 

1903. 



/ ■ V 






JAMAICA . 
BXILT^ETIlSr 

OF THE 

DEPARTMENT OF AGRIOdLTDRE. 



Vol. I. JANUARY, 1903. Part 1. 



THE BANANA SOILS OF JAMAICA.— II.* 

By H. H. Cousins, M. A., F CS., Government Analytical and Agri- 
cultural Chemist. 

The first report on the results obtained at the Government Labora- 
tory on the banana soils of Jamaica appeared in the Bulletin for October 
1901. Since that time, a good many representative banana soils have 
been analyzed and in 6 cases manurial experiments have been carried 
out, from which the first season's results have now been obtained. 
During the present season, nine series of manurial experiments on 
bananas have been started, the results of which should serve as a valu- 
able commentary on the deductions bdsed on the soil-analyses. 

Following the plan adopted in the previous paper of considering the 
soils according to the parishes, the results of analysis are here given 
in this form. 

I. ST. MAKY. 

This, the chief banana parish of ihe Island, shall head the list. 

Manurial experiments have been carried out on three distinct types 
of soil in this parish, and arrangements are now complete for 6 dis- 
tinct series of these experiments on the crop of 1903. 

A. — Quebec Park —Hon. R P. Simmonds. A piece of level land ap- 
parently rather below par, judging from the grade of fruit produced 
— 7 and 8 hands — was selected 

The piece known as Duthie's Level is almost surrounded with water- 
courses and is liable on occasion to be flooded. 

The analysis is as follows : — 

SOIL A\ALYSIS. 

Reference Number -55. Source Details — Experimental Plots. — 

Duthie's Level, QiebecPark Depth of Sample — 9 inches. 





Physical Analysis 




Stones 






• ■• 




Gravel 






• • • 




Sand 






• •• 




Fine Sand 






«•• 




Silt 






• . 


Agricultural 


f Fine Silt 
Iciay 






• •• 


Clay 






• •• 




Combined water. 




: 






Orj/anic matter. 




»•• 






Total 






Retentive Power for water 






• •• 



6.09 



Per Cent. 


Nin 




0.88 




1.18 




23.33 




61.11 
6.09 


, Fine 
'Earth. 


Traces 




7 41 




100.00 




Per Cent. 


60.0 





* Continued from Bnlletin of the Botanical Department, Jamaica, Oct., 1901, 
VoL viii., page 146. 



Chemicai. Analysis. 

Soil passed through 3 m.m. Sieve dried at 100" C.) 

Insoluble Matter 

Soluble in Hydrochloric Acid 
fPotnsh 
I Lime 

■^ Phosphoric Acid 
I Carbonic Acid as ) 
(^Tarrionate of Lime J 

Combined Water and organic matter 

Humus (soluble in Ammonia) 

Nitrogen 

Hygroscopic Moisture 

Fertility Analysis. 



66.51 
33.49 
0.957 
1 360 

0.080 

1.155 

9.630 

2.019 

0.204 

8.00 



Per Cent. 

0.017 

0.022 



Available Potash 

Available Phosphoric Acid... 

Observations. 

This soil consists almost entirely of fine sand and silt. It drains 
readily and yet has a high absorptive power for water. The humus, 
nitrogen and potash are hU above tlie normal. There is no lack of. 
carbonate of lime The reserve of phosphoric acid is not very high 
On the other hand, the available potash and phosphoric acid are so 
high that I do not anticipate that commercial fertilizers will prove re- 
munerative on this soil. In my opinion the grade of fruit obtainable 
from this laud is limited by the seasons and the cultural management. 
The maintenance of the humus is, of course, an important matter for 
the future; otherwise commercial fertilisers should not be necessary 
for a long time to come. 

Manurial Experiments. 
JSiue plots of variable size, distance of plants 10 x 10 feet. 





Treatment. 


No. of 
Plants. 


Cwts. per Acre. 


JPlot. 


Mixed 
Phos- 
phate.* 


Sulphate 

of 
Ammonia. 


Sulph. 

of 
Potash. 


1 

2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 


No Manure 
Complete Manure 
No Nitrogen 
Double Nitrogen 
No Phosphate 
Double Phosphate 
Treble Phusphate 
No Potash 
No Manure 


35 

58 

77 

93 

117 

152 

109 

105 

113 


• • • 

5 
5 
5 

• •• 

10 

15 

5 

• •• 


• • • 

• • • 

3 

^ 

• •• 


• •• 

i 
i 
i 

h 
h 
i 

• •• 

• •• 



Superphosphate 3 parts, Steamed Bone Flour 2 parts. 

Applied August 1901, Treatment repeated Autumn of 1902. 
" The manured plots of bananas have grown well, but show very 
little difEeience in the plants, except slightly better in the "treble 



phosphate" plot. The fruit already produced is the same as the piece 
usually grows, viz. : large 7 and 8 hands." 

Report from Hon. R. P. Simmonds. 

The manurial results, so far, correspond with the deductions from 
the analysis, viz. : that nitrogen, phosphate and potash are already pre- 
sent in adequate amount in this soil. A second year's trial is now ou 
hand, and if no appreciable results are then obtained, I propose to 
try experiments on different modes of cultivation. 

B. — Llanrumney.- Messrs. Kerr & Co. per Mr. L. B. Melville. 
A level piece ef land closely similar to the Quebec land in character 
was selected for the experiments. The bananas were established some- 
what irregularly, and some were lifted and the plantation straightened 
up, previous to the application of the manures. 

Manurial Experiments. 
6 plots of \ acre = 100 plants each. 





Description 


Cwts. per Acre. 


No. 


Mixed 
Phosphate. 


S. of 
Ammonia. 


S. of 
Potash. 


1 
2 
3 
4 
6 
6 


No Manure 
Complete Manure 
No Nitrogen 
Double Nitrogen 
No Phosphate 
Double Manure 


5 
5 
5 

• •• 

6 


... 

• • • 

3 
3 


• •• 



Manures applied Sept., 1901. repeated for 1902-3. 

RESULTS. 
May to August, 1902. 





BtTNCHES. 




1st. 


f 


i 


\ 


Total 1st 
Bunches 
per acre. 


Plot 1. No Manure 
Plot 2, Complete Manure 
Plot 2- No Nstrogen 
Plot 4. Double Nitrogen 
Plot 6. No Phosphate 
Plot 6. Double Manure 


3 
S 
3 
6 
1 
3 


6 
5 
7 
3 
2 
2 


4 
6 
2 
6 
2 
4 










38 
39 
37 
43 
14 
26 



These results are negative, 
and records made of the results. 



The experiment is being repeated 
The analysis is as follows : — 



4 

SOIL ANALYSIS. 

Reference Number— 63. 

Source Details — Experimental Plots, Llanrumney. 

Depth of Sample — 9 inches. 

Physical Analysis. 



Stones 




Gravel 




Sand 




Fine Sand 




Silt 




Agricultural Fine Silt 
Clay t Clay 

Combined water | 
Organic matter J 






Total 




Ketentive Power for water 


•■• 



{.53| 



Per Cent. 

Nil 

0.31^ 

0.89 I 

22.74 I 

67.39 I Fine 

2.53 
Traces 



6.14 



Earth. 



100.00 
Per Cent. 
68.0 



Chemical Analysis. 

(Soil pass through 3 m.m. Sieve dried at lOOS C.) 

Insoluble Matter ... 43.141 

Soluble in Hydrochloric Acid 56.869 

rPotash ... 0.607 

Lime ... 18.402 

-I Phosphoric Acid 0.120 

I Carbonic Acid as ) „- onn 

(^Carbonate of Lime J 

Combined Water and organic matter 17 .650 

Humus (soluble in Ammonia) 2.369 

Nitrogen ... 0.198 

Hygroscopic Moisture 6.539 

Fertility Analysis. 

Per Cent. 
Available Potash ... 0.0060* 

Available Phosphoric Acid ... 0.0238* 

* Provisional number. 

Observations. 

This soil is closely similar to the Quebec soil in mechanical struc- 
ture. It differ in possessing a large proportion of carbonate of lime. 
All the factors determined are normal for a soil of good fertility. The 
* available' potash is being re-determined. The available phosphoric 
acid is equal to that of the Quebec soil and indicates a sufficiency of 
this ingredient for all practical needs. 

Clearly a soil in need of good management on general agricultural 
lines rather than starving from lack of plant-food. Fertilisers are not 
expected to prove remunerative under present conditions. 

C. Koningsberg. Hon. Dr. Pringle, C.M.G. 

To test the value of analysis as a guide to manuring, it was decided 
to carry out an experiment on a soil which was analysed for Dr. 
Pringle in 1901. The figures and an extract from the report are given. 



The soil having been found deficient in phosphoric acid and carbonate of 
dime basic slag was diagnosed as the best phosphate for a clay soil of 
this nature. Drainage by contour trenches has been found to work 
wonders on this land, and the proprietor has achieved gratifying results 
iby an extension of this system on these impervious upland fields. 



Fine 
Earth. 



SOIL ANALYSIS. 

Beference Number — 5. 

Source Details — Banana land of poor quality from a part of Konings- 

berg. Hon. Dr. Pringle. 
Depth of Sample — 9 inches. 

Physical Analysis. 

Per cent. 

Stones ... 

Gravel ... 0.26 

Sand ... 0.94 

Fine Sand ... 22.07 

Silt ... 22 87 

Agricultural J Fine Silt ... ., ^cf 24.11 

Clay. tciay ... "-^^{17.45 

Combined water, \ io qa 

Organic matter. ) " ^^ ^^ 

Total 100.00 

Per Cent. 

Retentive Power for water ... 63.00 

Chemical Analysis. 

.(Soil passed through 3 m.m. Sieve dried at 100*^ C.) 

Insoluble Matter ... 54.22 

Soluble in Hydrochloric Acid 45.88 

f Potash 0.291 

I Lime 0.244 

•{ Phosphoric Acid 0.025 

i Carbonate Abid as "j 1 2ft 

[ Carbonate of Lime J ' 

Combined Water and organic matter 12.300 

Humus (soluble in Ammonia) 3.150 

Nitrogen 0.211 

Hygroscopie Moisture 9.660 

Fertility Analysis. 

Per Cent. 
Available Potash .. 0.033 

Available Phosphoric Acid ... 0.015 

Observations. 

The carbonate of lime is low, the total phosphoric acid is very low 
although an extraordinary proportion is in an available state. The 
reserve of phosphoric acid is so low that I consider this soil should 
receive regular applications of 5 to 7 cwt. per acre of basic slag. 

This soil is naturally inferior to the soils from Quebec Park and 
.Burlington where bananas are doing well. 



Manurial Experiments. 
8 Plots, each J acre. 





Description. 


Cwt. per Acre. 


Plot. 












Basic 


[Nitrate of 


Muriate of 






Slag. 


Soda. 


Potash. 


1 


No Manure 




„ 


_ 


2 


Complete Manure 


6 


1 




3 


No Nitrogen 


6 


— 




4 


Double Nitrogen 


6 


2 




5 


No Phosphate 


— 


1 




6 


Double Phosphate 


12 


1 




7 


No Potash 


6 


1 




8 


Mixed Phosphate* 


5 


1 


1 



*3 parts superphosphate. 2 parts steamed Bone flour.;;j|^ 

The only nine hand bunches were on plot 4 " double nitrogen." The 
majority of plots gave 7 hands. The neighbouring lands only 5 hands. 
The absence of potash, and substitution of mixed phosphate for slag 
on plots 7 and 8 reduced the grade 25 per cent. 
It is deduced from this experiment that 
6 cwt. slag 

2 cwt. Nitrate of Soda (in two doses) 
1 cwt. Potash per acre 
should prove a remunerative dressing on this land. 

D. Buck Piece, Orange Hill 

E. Lambie Piece, Orange Hill. 

F. Newrey 

are three soils recently analysed for Dr. Pringle and the manurial ex- 
periments suggested have been started. It is hoped that these experi- 
ments will lead to a definite conclusion as to the possibility or other- 
wise of using chemical manures to a profit on the St. Mary lands 
which have been so long in cultivation as to show signs of exhaustion, 

SOIL ANALYSIS. 

Reference Number — 50. 

Source Details — Buck Piece, Orange Hill. Hon. Dr. Pringle. 

Depth of Sample — 9 inches. 

J HYsicAii Analysis. 

Stones ... 

Gravel 

Sand 

Fine Sand 

SUt 
Agricultural f Fine Silt 
Clay t ^^lay 

Combined •vrater, \ 

Organic matter. J 



. Per Cent. 
Nil 

Nin 
0.28 
30.22 
59.21 I Fine 

1 43/ ^■'^^ '^Eartb 
\ Traces 

8.86 



Total 



Betentive Power for water 



100.00 
Per Cent. 
56.0 



Chrmical Analysis, 



(Soil passed through 3 m.m. Seive dried at lOO^C.) 
Insoluble Matter 
Soluble in Hydrochloric Acid 
^Potash 
I Lime 

■{ Phosphoric Acid 
( Carbouic ,^cid as 1 

I^Carbonate^.of Liine J 

Combined Water and organic matter 

Humns (soluble in Ammonia) 

Nitrogen 

Hygroscopic Moisture 



60.077 

39.923 

0.686 

4.332 

0.053 

10.681 

26.148 
1.48(i 
0.103 
9.730 



Fertility Analysis. 
Available Potash 
Available Phosphoric Acid 



0.003 
0.007 



Observations. 

The mechanical composition shows the close similarity between this 
soil and the other two of the series, and the same relationship to til- 
lage and drainage will be apparent The proportion of carbonate of 
lime is quite marked in this case. This soil shows signs of exhaus- 
tion. Both the total and available potash and phosphoric acid are below 
par. The humus and nitrogen are also low for a banana s )il. Every 
effort should be made to increase the humus by such methods as are 
possible in the routine of cultivation I anticipate that the following 
manure would improve the grade of fruit : — 

4 cwt. Superphosphate "| 

1^ cwt. Sulphate of Potosh Vper acre. 

1^ cwt. Sulphate of Ammonia J 



SOIL ANALYSIS. 

Reference Number — 49 

Source Details — Lambie Piece, Orange Hill, St Mary. Banana Land. 

Hon. Dr. Priugle, M.G. 
Depth of Sample — 9 inches. 



Physical Analysis. 



Stones 


»•• 


<' ravel 


• •ft 


Sani 


• •• 


Fine Sand 


• •• 


Silt 


... 


Agricultural f Fine Silt 

Clay 1 ^^lay 

Moisture 


• •• 

• •• 
. • . 



Retentive Power for water 



1.57 



{ 



Per Cent. 
Nil 
Nil^ 
0.12 I 
16.59 I 
68.42 J^Fine 

1.57 I Earth. 
Traces | 



Total 



100.00 
Per Cent. 
58.00 



8 



Chemical Analysis. 

(Soil pabsed through 3 m. m. Sieve dried tc 100° C.) 
Insoluble Matter 
Solube in Hydrochloric Acid 
f Potash 

I Lime ... 

-{ Phosphoric Acid 
I Carbonic Acid as | 
(^Carbonate of Lime J 
Humus (Soluble in Ammonia) 
Nitrogen 
Hygroscopic Moisture 

Fertility Analysis. 

Available Potash ... 

Available Phosphoric Acid 



63 250 

36.750 
830 
3.748 
0.168 

5.846 

2.283 

0.138 

16.680 



Per Cent. 

9.0058 

0.0046 



Observations. 

This soil is closely similar to ' Newrey' and ' Buck Piece,' 0. Hill, in 
meclianical composition and the same remarks apply in each case as to 
cultivation and drainage. The total potash and phosphoric acid are 
normal, the available supply, however, being decidedly below par. 
Some degree of exhaustion is clearly indicated. The humus and 
nitrogen are markedly higher than in the other two cases and are nor- 
mal for a banana soil. I regard the maintenance and increase of the 
standard of these constituents as vital to the banana producing value 
of these lands. This soil contains a marked proportion of carbonate 
of lime. I recommend a trial of 

5 cwt. Superphosphate ■) 

1 cwt. Sulphate of Ammonia > per acre. 

1 cwt. Sulphate of Potash ) 

as likely to give an increase in the grade of bunch. 



SOIL ANALYSIS. 

Reference Number — 48. 

Source Details — Newrey Piece, Newrey. Hon. Dr. Pringle. 

Dejjth of Sample — 9 inches. 

Physical Anai^ysis. 



Agricultural 
Clay 



Stones 
Gravel 
Sand 

Fine Sand 
Silt 
Fine Siit 



/Fin 



y 

Moisture 



).48| 



Total 



Betentive power for water 



Per Cent. 
Kil 
0.22^ 
1 38 I 
23 83 I Fine 
63.79 )► Earth 

0.48 

Traces 

10.33 



100.00 
Per Cent. 
61.0 



9 

Chemical Analysis. 

((Soil passed through 3 m. m. Sieve dried at 100« C.) 

Insoluble matter ... 64.050 

Soluble in Hydrochloric Acid ... 26.970 

f Potash .,. 0.960 

I Lime ... 1.191 

^ Phosphoric Acid ... 0.085 

I Carbonic Acid as \ n oic 

l^ Carbonate of Lime j "-^^^ 

Combined Water and organic matter 10.193 

Humus (soluble in Ammonia) 1.146 

Nitrogen 0.089 

Hygroscopic Moisture ... 11.510 

Fertility Analysis. 

Per Cent. 
Available Potash ... 0.004 

Available Phosphoric Acid ... 0.013 

Observations. 

This soil is composed almost entirely of particles of medium fineness, 
gravel and clay being practically absent, Its mechanical composition 
is highly favoursble for cultivation and provides admirable conditions 
for the root development of the banana. While retentive of moisture 
the soil drains easily and would re-act readily to a sy stem of drainage 
trenches. The total potash is normal, but the 'available' decidedly 
below par and indicates the desirability of the use of potash manure. 
The phosphoric acid reserve is low for a banana soil, but the available 
supply is normal. The humus and nitrogen are both decidedly low and 
every effort should be made to increase these. I conclude that Pen 
manure and green dressings would be of decided benefit. I think 
it likely that the Banana Trash ashes from the Railway Depot, con- 
taining 6 . 86 per cent, of Potash, would be beneficial on this soil. I 
would suggest as a general fertilizer— 

3 cwt. Superphosphate "i 

2 cwt. Sulphate of Ammonia Vper acre. 

1 cwt. Sulpbate of Potash J 



II. ST. CATHERINE. 

Experiments on banana soils in the irrigation area of St. Catherine 
have i dicated that these soils are possessed of very high natural fer- 
tility and that the use of fertilisers is quite uncalled for. 

A. — Rod ens. Mr. R. Hay. 

A piece of land was selected on this property which appeared to be 
■balow par and likely to respond to thn application of fertilisers. 
The analysis of the soil gave the following results : — 



10 

SOIL ANALYSIS. 
Reference Number — 5L 
Source Details — E-odens Pen, St. Catherine. 
Depth of Sample — 9 inches. 



Physical Analysis. 



Stones 
Gravel 
Sand 

Fine Sand 
Silt 
Agricnltural f Fine Silt 
Clay tClay 

Combined water 



Orgniic matter 



'"} 



.8l| 



Total 



Retentive power for water 



Per Cent, 

Nil 

1.66^ 

8.67 I 
40 44 I 
43.77 I Fine 

1.19 }► Earth' 

0.62 I 



3.66 



J 



100 00 
Per Cent. 
50.0 



Chemical Analysis 



(Soil passed through 3 m.m. Sieve dried at 100° C.) 




Insolable Matter 


71.059 


Soluble in Hydrochloric Acid 


28.941 


fPotash 


0.445 


Lime 


1.573 


- Phosphoric Acid ... 


0.194 


Carbonic Acid as } 
[^Carbonate of Lime j 


0.438 


Combined Water and organic matter 


7.090 


Humus (soluble in Ammonia) 


1.604 


Nitrogen 


0.152 


Hygroscopic Moisture 


3.800 



Fertility Analysis. 

Available Potash 
Available Phosphoric Acid 

Observations. 



Per Cent. 
O.Oll 
0.072 



This soil consists principally of fine, sandy particles, and has excel- 
lent properties for the cultivation of bananas, being free-draining and 
yet retaining a considerable amount of moisture. The humus is the 
only factor that might be consideied at all low. All the other consti- 
tuents determined indicate a state of present and reserve fertility of a 
very high standard. The maintenance of the humus and skilled 
management of water and cultural operations should suffice to produce 
bananas from this soil for a series of years without recourse to chemi- 
cal fertilisers. The available and total phosphoric acid are noteworthy^ 
There is an adequate proportion of carbonate of lime. 



11 



Plot. 



1 

2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 



Manurial Experiments. 
8 plots, each J acre. 



Description. 



No Manure 

Complete Manure 

No Nitrogen 

Double Nitrogen 

No Phosphate 

Double Phosphate 

No Potash 

Double Complete Manure 



••• 
••I 



Cwt. per Acre. 



Superphos- 


Sulphate of 


phate. 


Ammonia. 


5 


2 


5 





5 


4 


— 


2 


JO 


2 


5 


2 


10 


4 



Sulphate of 
Potash. 



1 
1 
1 
1 

1 



Manures applied end of August, 1901. 



At first, marked effects were observable on the young plants, but as 
tbe season progressed tbey all fruited alike and Mr. Hay reports that 
it was quite impossible to find any effects whatsoever upon the fruit 
from any of the manures, all the plots being alike. The experiment 
is being repe ited on the ratoons for the present season. These results, 
so far, are in complete agreement with the deductions from the analyti- 
cal data. 

£.— Laurence field — Hon. J. AUwood, per Mr. Arnold Clodd. 

A piece of banana land was selected on this property for a manurial 
experiment and analysis. The analysis revealed a very high standard 
of fertility and it was not surprising that the fertilisers failed to pro- 
duce results. 

Eight plots of I acre each were treated as at Ro-iens, except that 
mixed phosphate, consisting of 3 parts of superphosphate incorporated 
with 2 parts of steamed Bone Flour, was employed as a source of 
phosphoric acid. 

A second series of experiments on a piece of land in an apparently 
poorer state is being carried out on the present seasons crop. 
Appended is the analysis of the soil. 



Eeference Number- 



SOIL ANALYSIS. 

-54. Source Details— Laurencefield, St. Catherine. 
Depth of Sample — 9 inches. 



12 

Physical Analysis. 

Per Cent. 

Stones ... Nil 

Gravel ... 2.75 

Sand ... 11.27 

Fine Sand ... 40.79 

Silt ... 39.34 .Fine 

Agricultural f Fine SUt ... 3 55/3.06 [Earth. 

Clay \ Clay ... * ( 0.49 

Combined water } ... 2 30 

Organic matter / ... * J 

Total 100.00 

Per Cent. 

'Betentive Pow.er for vwater ... 46.0 



(vHEMiCAL Analysis. 

.(Soil passed through 3 ra.ra. Sieve dried at lOOi* C.) 

Insoluble Matter ... 78.540 

Soluble in Hydrochloric Acid 21 .460 

fPotasti ... 0.392 

j Lime .. 1.022 

■{ Phosphoric Acid 0.218 

Carbonic Acid as > q jj^ 

(^Carbonate of Lime J 

Combined Water aud organic matter 5.520 

Humus (^soluble in Ammonia) 3.610 

Nitrogen ... 0.162 

Hygroscopic Moisture 2.350 



Fertility Analysis. 

Per Cent. 
Available Potash .. 0.053 

Available Phosphoric Acid 0.064 



Observations. 

This soil corresponds closely to the soil from Rodens in mechanical 
.composition. The fertility is beyond question. The available potash 
and phosphoric acid are 6 times tlie normal. It is hardly like y that 
even extravagant dressings of chemical fertilisers should produce any 
marked results on this soil. The carbonate of lime might be higher. 
A dressing of marl will probably be desirable in a year or two. The 
.humus is high enough for present purposes. 



III.— ST. ANN. 

Euntly, Brown's Town. Mr. E. Q. Levy. 

A well managed piece of newly planted banana plantation was here 
used for manurial experiments. — 7 Plots of \ acre each weretrea'ed a» 
follows : — 



1^ 





Description. 


Cwt3. per Acre. 


Piot. 


Misled 
Phosphate. 


Sulph. 
Ammonia. 


Stilph. 
Potash. 


1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 


No Manure 
Complete Manure 
No Nitrogen 
Double Nitrogen 
No Phosphate 
Double Phosphate 
Double Complete 
No Potash 


• •• 

5 
5 
5 

10 

10 

5 


i'i 

3 

n 

3 


I 
i 

1 

• •• 



The results were uniformly bad. No marketable crops were obtained 
during the year, The bananas, apparently, failed completely. Mr. 
Levy being of opinion that a heavier dressing was required, the ex- 
periment has been repeated this season, using 6 cwt. of phosphates. 
3 cwt. of S. of ammonia and 2 cwt. S. of potash per acre as the nor- 
mal manure for plot 2. 

My own opinion is that the maaures were not concerned in the re- 
sults obtained, but that the failure to grow bananas is due to other 
causes than a deficiency of plant food 

The coming season's results should serve to decide whether fertili- 
zers alone can mend matters. 

The analysis is as follows : — 



Reference Number — 59. 



Stones 
Gravel 
Sand 

Fihe Sand 
Silt 
Agricultural f Fine Silt 
Clay t Clay 

Moisture 



KetentiTe Power for water 



SOIL ANALYSIS. 

Source Details — Huntly. Depth of Sam- 
ple — 9 inches. 

Physical Analysis^ 

Per Cent. 

Nil 

2.74^ 

4.05 I 

30.62 I „. 
_» -n I ^ ine 

f0.81 ^J^«'l»- 

jo. 



1.64 



.83 
.36 



Total 



100.00 
Per Cent. 
56.0 



14 

Chemical Analysis. 

(Soil pasasd through 3 m.m. Sieve dried at 100° C.) 

lusoluble Matter ... 18.170 

Soluble in Hydr.. chloric Acid 81.830 

f Potash .. 172 

I Lime ... 0.254 

^ Phos horic Acid 0.393 

I Car onic Acid as ) . ^ .p.. 

(^Carbonate of Lime J 

Combined Wa tr and organic matt r 25.340 

Humus ( oluble in Ammonia) 3 . 625 

Nitrogen ... 0.130 

Hygrosco ic Moisture 5.660 

Fertlity Analysis. 

Per Cent. 

Available Potash •>. . Oil 

Available Phosphoric Acid u.007 



Observations. 

This is a specimen of the red soils derived from the limestone found 
in this district and bears oat the fact that such soils are singularly- 
destitute of carbonate of lime. In this case the amount is probably 
adequate for cultural needs. 

The total phosphoric acid is high, the available being below par. 
The potash is not high. The humus and nitrogen appear to be nor- 
mal for a good soil. It would seem that this soil should respond to a 
phosphatic manure, either Basic Slag or preferably a mixture of super- 
phosphate and steamed bone flour. The soil is light and free- drain- 
ing. It is possible that the large amount of ferric iron in the soil may 
affect not only the nutrition of plants but also the results of the 
manures applied. 



IV. ST. THOMAS-IN-THE-EAST. 

The following analyses of soils from St. Thomas upon which bananas 
are grown are here presented. As will be seen, these soils are light 
medium loams of hi»h fertility. The potash appears deficient in 
one case otherwise each of these soils is beyond reproach in all the ele- 
ments of fertility. With a liberal rainfall no irrigation is necessary. 
Hurricanes, which are peculiarly destructive in this part of the island, 
have played sad havoc in past seasons, but during the past year the 
.banana growers of St. Thomas have obtained splendid results. 



15 





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16 

V. VERE. 

"When the irrigation canal system is establishpd in Vera, it may 
prove desirable for some of the estates to grow bananas as well as cane. 
The analysis of the soil from Hillside estate, here given, is indicative 
of the type of soil in this district which is s litable for the purpose, 
provided the irrigation is well managed All grades of soil from tiis 
light, fine silt to stiff clay are foun I in Vere and the lighter soils will 
undoubtedly be f'und the best, adopted for bunana cultivation with ir- 
rigation. The soils hitherto analysed from this district (14 samples of 
soils and 12 subsoils) indicate a remarkably high standard of fertility. 
We do not expect to j:et marked results from fertilisers on these soils; 

SOIL ANALYSIS. 
Beference Number— 62 
Source Details — Hillside Estate, Vere. 
Depth of Sample — 9 inches. 

Physical Analysis. 

Per Cent. 

Stones • ••• Nil 

Gravel ... 1121 

Sand ... 0.60 I 

Fine Sand ... 32.32 | xp' 

Silt ... 54.72 Yl'^^^^ 

Agrciultural f Fine Silt ... BOsI*"^'^ 

Clay \ Clay ... • \ 1.41 

Moisture ... 5.36_ 



Total 10 J. (10 

Per Cent. 
Retentive Power for water ... 54.0 

Chemical Analysis. 

(Soil passed through 3 m. m. Si ve dried at 100*^ C.) 

Insoluble Matter ... 68.931 

Soluble in Hydrochloric Acid 31 . 069 

fPotash ... 0.573 

I Liiue ... 0.951 

-{ Phosphoric Acid 0.168 

I Carbonic Acid as \ q oqa 

[^Carbonate of Lime J 

Combined Water and organic matter 9 . 950 

Hamus (suluble in Ammonia) 2.810 

Nitrogen ... 0.165 

Hygroscopic Moisture 5.66 

Fertility Analysis. 

Per Cent. 

Available Potash ... 0.021 

Available Phosphoric Acid 0.044 

Observations. 

This is a light soil consisting chiefly of fine sand and silt. Itsjfer- 
tility is unimpeachable. This is a soil of 'very high quality. Irriga- 
tion, well managed, should enable this soil to produce very laige crops- 
for a series of years without manure. The carbonate of lime is low 
and as a good grade of marl is obtainable in the locality, it would be 
desirable to spread some from time to time, otherwise this soil is above 
reproach. 



17 

Conolmion. 

From the analysis of over 30 banana soils representing tlie chief 
banana lands of the island, it has been ascertained that Jamaica pos- 
sesses "very large areas of land of such exceptional fertility and adapta- 
bility that this cultivation is assured for many years to come, without 
any need for discounting profits by importing fertilisers from abroad. 

The manurial experiments have, so far, borne out the analytical 
data, and the conclusions drawn therefrom in a striking manner. Apart 
from the professional interest that attaches to the successful use of 
manures in experiments, it is certainly most gratifying to have de- 
monstrated the fact that, for the most part, the banana industry of the 
Island is still far from depending on imported aids to fertility. 

In so far as soil conditions alone, apart from climate, water supply 
and cultural management, are concerned, these results fortify the con- 
clusion that by analysis it is now possible to give a practical opinion 
upon a soil for banana cultivation. I desire to record my indebted- 
ness to Messrs. H. S. Hammond and E. J. Wortley of the Govern- 
ment Laboratory for their assistance in carrying out the laborious 
operations involved in obtaining these results. 



KOLA NUTS. 

In answer to enquiries on the subject of Kola Nuts, and the pros- 
pects for this product, the following letters have been received : — 

Messrs. Gillespie Bros. & Co., London, to the Director Public Gardens and 

Plantations, Jamaica. 

With reference to the low range of prices now current for this 
article, we have made enquiries from what we believe to be well in- 
formed sources, and we understand that the chief cause of the decline 
is the fact that France (formerly a large buyer here) now imports di- 
rect from Africa in big parcels. In the second place many of the ad- 
vertising manufacturers (cocoa, drinks, &c) both here and in the U.S.A. 
are not pushing the article as they were a few years ago : and it does 
not seom that Kola has 'caught on' in either countr}' to the same ex- 
tent as in France. Our Brokers think there will always be a mode- 
rate demand at about 2d to 3d., but former prices are a thing of the 
past. 

Messrs. Gillesjne Bros. & Co., Neio Torh, to Director, Public Gardens. 

There is a regular demand for the dried in small quantities at from 4 
cents to 6 cents per lb. The green should not be shipped, and the dried 
not in lots of more than from 1 to 2 tons ; because for some years Africa 
and the other West Indies have been sending all that was required in 
this market. As a matter of fact the knowledge that unlimited sup- 
plies are procurable has had the effect lo cheapen the article, and 
there is no likelihood of a return to the profitable rates of four or five 
years ago. There is no duty on the article in the United States. 



Messrs. E. A. DePass & Co., London, to Director, Public Gardens. 

The demand for Kola Nuts in London is a fair one, and the present 
value is about 3^d to 4d. per lb. for good sound nuts, but the great 
majority of those received from Jamaica are mouldy and in that con- 
dition are almost valueless. It is true that some years ago, Kola 



18 

fetched a considerably higher price, but since then the supplies have 
materially increased. The principal points however to impress upon 
shippers from Jamaica is that nuts should be prepared in such a way 
that they may arrive here absolutely sound. 

Mr. J. R. Jackson reports as follows in a late number of the " Agri- 
cultural News" : — 

Of Kola Nuts at the iirst sale six barrels fresh Grenada sold at l^d. 
per lb ,' fair, washed' West Indian realizing 3|d., and at the second 
Bale 21 barrels of West Indian were disposed of at 3^d. to 3Jd. for 
good quality, and l|d. for ' wormy' 

ELEMENTARY NOTES ON JAMAICA PLANTS, VI. 

8— Grasses. 

By the Editor. 

Guinea Grass. 

Cut across a stem of Guinea Grass. Note where it is cut that tho 
outline is rounded. The stems of all grasses, when cut through, have 

19 

a more or less rounded outline, whereas many sedges, — grass-like 
plants growing on swampy sour soil, have a triangular section. 

The leaf is composed of two parts, the lower part forming a sheath 
round the stem or culm ; the upper part the blade, is very long and 
narrow, with veins running parallel to one another. The margins of 
the leaf-blade have a saw-like edge with minute sharp teeth pointing 
upwards ; the surfaces also are rough with points all going in the 
some direction. Between the blade and the sheath, on the in>ide, is a 
projecting rim which exists more or less in all grasses ; it is called 
the ligule, and its probable use is to assist the sheath in protecting the 
tender stem. When the ligule is hairy, as it is here, it more easily 
prevents rain from soaking down between the sheath and the culm. 
The sheath is hairy, and it is split, one edge overlapping the other. 

Cut across where the young leaves are wrapped round and it will 
be seen that one hilf the blade is rolled round the culm, and that the 
other half encircles it again. This method of folding of the young 
leaf is spoken of as convolute. 

Pull off the leaves with their sheaths, and notice that at intervals 
along the culm there are thicker portions, — the nodes (which are 
hairy), dividing the culm into joints or internodes. 

Notice how this grass grows in tufts. Dig up a tuft, wash away the 
soil, and see how the buds sprout from below the base and then grow 
upwards. This shows how the tufts are formed, and how it is possi- 
ble for it to spring up amongst bush. 

The roots are thin, fibrous, and branching, spreading in every di- 
rection all round. 

Cut off the flowering part, any loose branching inflorescence of this 
kind is called a panicle. The panicle in Guinea Grass is large, with 
the lower branches whorled. 

Break off a spikelet, one of the seed-like bodies, like fig. C. 1. in 
Plate 8, and dissect it under a lens with needles. Note the stalk of 



19 

tiie spikelet, that it is rounded and has no angles — " filiform" At the 
base cut off the short chaffy husk a, and then cut off b (See figs, in C), 
these are technically called glumes. Then come two flowers, cut off 
the lower one, and open it : the large husk is the third glume, and the 
smaller which fits tightly like a lid, over the flower in the glume is 
called a palea. There are three stamens only, sometimes none. The 
flower at the top of the spikelet has also a glume and palea, both with 
fine lines marked across them ; this flower has both stamens and pistil 
and is called the fertile flower, as it yields the seed. Note that it is 
rounded on one side, flat on the oiher, and that the styles are distinct 
with plumose stigmas. 

At the base of the ovary are two small bodies called " lodicules". 
When the flower ia ready to open, these lodicules swell ap and force 
open the glume and palea (C. 9, 10). Then the stalks or " filaments' 
of the stamens grow very rapidly, carrying the anthers out beyond 
the glumes into the air. While the anthers were still concealed with- 
in the glumes, no pollen was discharged, but as soon as they are placed 
outside the glumes by the growth of the filaments, each lobe of the 
anther begins to split along a line running down it, and discharge 
the pollen. The anther is balanced at one point at the end of the fila- 
ment {versatile), so that it turns easily at every breath of wind which 
carries off the pollen, and scatters it on the stigmas of other flowers 
on the panicle. 

Guinea Grass is one of our very tall grasses, often reaching from 6' 
to 10 feet high. 

Its botanical name is Panicum maximum. 

Bahama Grass. 

The stem of Bahama Grass is prostrate, creeping, with upright, 
leafy flowering branches, 4 to 8 or 10 inches high. The roots spring 
from the nodes of the creeping stem. 

The blade of the leaf is short, flat, narrow, rough on both surfaces, 
and the margin. In the young leaf it may be noticed that the two 
halves of the blade are folded flat against one another (conduplicate). 
The ligule is very short, but has long bristly hairs. The sheath is 
split. 

The spikelets (fig. B. 1) have no stalks as they have in Guinea Grass, 
but are arranged in two rows along one side of a common flower-stalk. 
There are generally four of these stalks radiating from the top of an 
upright stem. 

When the two lower empty glumes are removed from the base, a 
small bristle will be observed, which looks like the stalk for another 
flower which has not developed. The third glume and its palea en- 
close a fertile flower with three stamens, and an ovary with two dis- 
tinct styles and plumose stigmas. The figure B. 9 shows the two lo- 
dicules opposite to the palea. In figure B. 4 the flower is older than the 
rest, and the stalks or filaments of the stamens have lengthened so that 
the anthers are now hanging quite outside the flower, and the pollen 
will be dusted by the wind over the stigmas of other flowers near by. 

Sugar Cane. 

The spikelet of the Sugar Cane (fig. A.) appears at first sight to be 
composed of one empty glume (A. 4), then a flowering glume (A. 5) 



20 

and a palea (A. 6) enclosing a perfect flower (A. 7) with three lodicules 
(A. 9). But botanists who have paid special attention to the immense 
family of Grasses, and have compared the spikelet with those of nearly- 
allied species, consider that there are 3 glumes, and that what looks 
like a third lodicule is really a very small palea. 

A number of bristles spring from below the base of the spikelet. 

The spikelets are arranged, two together, alternately on opposite 
sides of the flower stalk (rachis), one of them with a stalk, the other 

sessile. 

The inflorescence is a large spreading panicle with the branches 
more or less whorled. 

The culm is erect, but sometimes falls over, and then roots at every 
node There is one bud at every node, and the roots spring out all 
round it. This is one method of propagation under natural conditions. 

The sheaths of the leaves are often covered in the young state with 
stinging hairs. The ligules are very short, edged with very short; 
hairs. The blades are narrowed at the base, pointed at the ape x 
rough. 

Explanation of Plate. 

A. Flowers of Sugar Cane. 
Fig. 1. Spikelet. 

Fig. 2. Do. with glumes partly spread. 

Fig. 3. Do. do. widely spread. 

Fig. 4. First glume. 

Fig. 5. Second glume. 

Fig. 6, Third glume. 

Fig. 7. Pistil and stamens. 

Fie. 8. Do. with one stamen removed, showing lodicules. 

Fig. 9. Lodicules and palea. 

B. Flowers of Bahama Grass. 
Fig. 1. Spikelet. 

Fig. 2. Glumes partly spread, showing rachilla a. 

Fig. 3. Third glume and palea spread, showing anthers. 

Fig. 4. Spikelet with pollen discharged from the anthers. 

Fig. 5. Spikelet opened. 

Fig. 6. Pistil and stamens. 

Figs. 7, 8. Pistil with lodicules. 

Fig, 9. Position of lodicules with reference to palea. 

C. Flowers of Guinea Grass. 
Fig. 1. Spikelet. 

Figs. 2, 3, 4. Do. opened; a. first glume, b. second glume, c. third glume and 
d. palea of staminate flower, e. glume and /. palea of terminal perfect 
flower. 

Fig. 5. First glume. 

Fig. 6. Second do. 

Fig. 7. Terminal flower. 

Fig. 8. Staminate flower. 

Fig. 9. Pistil, lodicules and palea. 

Fig. 10. Lodicules. 

DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

Report of Meeting of Board, held on 16th December. 

Board of Agriculture. 
The usual monthly meeting of the Board of Agriculture was held 
at Head Quarter House on Tuesday, 16th December, when there were 
present : The Hon. the Colonial Secretary (Chairman), the Hon. the 



Jam. Ic , 8. 




Photo Process, Govt. Printg. Office. 



Grassks. 



21 

Director of Public Gardens, the Government Chemist, His Grace the 
Archbishop and the Hon, H. Cork. 

The minutes of the last meeting were read and confirmed, 

Mr. Fawcett mentioned that he had received a supply of cotton seed 
from the U. States Department of Agriculture which had been for- 
warded to Mr, Palache to be planted at the PrisonFarm, and also that 
the expert of the Montpelier Cigar Factory had inspected the tobacco 
grown and cured at Hope, and had expressed the opinion that the 
quality could not be better. 

Letters were read and discussed on the subject ef growing cotton 
and the Board concluded that it would be advisable to arrange for an 
experiment in planting on a moderate scale, before planters were ad- 
vised to go into the cultivation. 

A report was read from Mr. Cradwick on the disease among coco- 
nuts in which he suggested that arrangements should be made for him 
to devote a month to studying the disease in all parts of the Island. 
The Board was however, of opinion that it was not desirable to detach 
Mr, Cradwick in any way from his present work, and considered that 
the object might be met by Mr. Cradwick arranging to carry on ex- 
periments at Bowden and other selected spots. It was also decided to 
publish an account of the disease, proposed method of treatment, &c., 
with a view to obtaining further information from planters. 

A recommendation was made to the Board that efforts should be 
made to stop the damage done to cocoa pods by Woodpeckers, by with- 
drawing protection from these birds. The members decided against 
interfering in this matter. It was agreed to make arrangements to 
admit of Mr. T. J. Harris travelling in the country parts with a view 
to acquainting himself with the methods of planters and settlers. 

A letter was read from Mr. Fursdon apologisina: for his absence and 
also requesting the Board to consider . dangi of the importation 
of Foot and Mouth disease. The Board a^ d to recommend the Go- 
vernment to impose an absolute quarant.. e on all cattle from the 
United States. 

Mr, Fawcett stated that the issue of the Bulletin of the Botanical 
Department would cease with the present number, and a Bulletin of 
the Department of Agriculture would be commenced in January. It 
was agreed to increase its size to 24 pages, 

PANAMA HATS. 

In the Bulletin for October, 1902,* an account was given of the 
native industry that has lately become of importance, namely, making 
" Ippi-appa" hats from the native plant. 

As there was some doubt whether the process used here for curing 
the straw was identical with that in Ecuador and Colombia, informa- 
tion was sought from H. B. M. Representatives in Bogota and Guayaquil. 

Our thanks are due to them and also to those at Panama and Colon 
for the courteous and ready manner in which they have afforded most 
valuable information and assistance. 

It will be noticed that lemon juice is used in the manufacture, and 
probably this helps to make the straw whiter. 

* Bulletin of the Botanical Department, Jamaica, Vol. IX., page 145, 



22 

H. B. M. A?nbassador at Bogota, to Director Public Gardens and 

Plantations, Jar.iaica. 

British Legation, 
Bogota, October 30, 1902. 

Sir, . ^ 

In answer to your enquiries regarding the hat industry, I must re- 
fer you to His Majesty's Representative in Peru whose jurisdiction 
extends to Ecuador, for information regarding the manufacture of 
" Panama hats" in the latter Republic. 

These hats are also made in Colombia, and I enclose a memorandum 
with some details which may serve your purpose, but I regret I am 
unable, owing to the unsettled state of the country, to procure the 
samples of straw you want. Not that I think they would help you as 
from the process mentioned in the memorandum of its preparation the 
straw would deteriorate on the way to Kingston. 

I would suggest, if this hat industry is to be introduced into Ja- 
maica, the best plan would be to import an expert " boiler" and " hat- 
ters" to properly teach the ar^. 

I am. 

Sir, 
Your obedient Servant, 

0. Mallett. 



Information relating to the " Panama hat" industry in Colombia. 

Panama hats are made in Colombia in the departments of Santan- 
der (near Bucuramanga) Antioquia (near Aguadas, Southern Cauca 
and Southern Tolima (Suaza district). 

A traveller will take from ten days to three weeks to get from Bo- 
gota to any of these places : it all depends on the state of the roads 
and the time of the year. During the rainy season, some of the roads 
become almost intransitable. 

To day, an average Suaza hat cost there about $120. A fine one 
poo to $400— a very fine one $600 to $800. Prices change weekly 
according to the demand there may be. During the last eighteen 
months steady weekly rise has taken place. 

The Suaza hat is considered here very superior to the Ecuador hats. 

The common fan-shaped palm, called by the natives "palmiche" is 
the one used in the manufacture of these hats. 

Young shoots, very uniform as to size are cut from the plant and 
boiled to a certain stage. Thus they become a uniform light yellow 
colour. When the proper boiling point has been reached they are 
hung up to dry and all leaves quickly separated. This is done in- 
side the house, where there is a draught but no sunlight. When the 
leaves are nearly dry, they are split with a little Y shaped wooden 
tool so that every good leaf is exactly the same size as another. Left 
alone then to dry, as above, the leaves curl in at the edges and then 
are ready for manufacture. The " straw" is carefully wrapped in clean 
clothes, as the light and the dry atmosphere spoils them. 

In the Suaza district hats are made on solid wooden blocks, two to 
four persons (usually women) sitting opposite each other steadily at 
work. An average hat is thus made between four women in a week's 
time. A fine hat will take from three to six weeks' time. When 



23 

finished, the straw is carefully pared with a penknife, then with a 
small hand-mise battered all over. Aft^r this, it must be well washed 
with common yellow soap and lime juice, and left to dry out of the 
sunlight 

The climate influences greatly the manufacture of these hats. A 
good hatter cannot make a good hat during the dry summer weather 
or during the rainy season. Probably for this reason hats in certain 
villages of the Suaza district are very superior to those made only a 
few miles away. 

To become a good hatter requires a very long training ; for this rea- 
son the female children are set to work at very early age — usually 
about ten years old —and require constant practice. Hatters work 
every day steadily through all day taking hurried meals and often 
continue work by candle light so as to have the hat ready by market 
day. An hour, or two, wasted means to them the loss of the 
market day and consequently the loss of ready money for their house- 
hold purposes. They are thus obliged to work without losing, or 
wasting any time. While at work, the women sing, or chat freely 
with any visitor, but continue their work without interruption. 

The process of boiling the culls appears to be an art in itself as only 
few people are able to turn out good straw The boilers of straw sell 
it at so much the pound according to the quality of the straw and the 
ruling price of hats. 

The paper dollar is svorth about one-half-penny. 



H. B M. Consul, Guayaquil to Director Public Gardens and Planta- 
tions, Jamaica. 

British Consulate, Gruayaquil, 

November 18th, 1902. 
Dear Sir, 
I have your letter of 15th ult. but have been delayed in answer- 
ing it before, by domestic affliction. 

Having now learned the Ecuadorian plan of preparing the toquilla 
hat straw, I beg to describe it as follows : — 

The young leaves are cut off, about two or three inches of stem be- 
low the bottom of the leaf, whilst the green leaf is still folded up in 
pleats, though almost or just ready to open. 

Then three or more of the outer pleats of which the leaf is composed 
afe torn off from the outer sides, (both sides) as these are at once too 
tough to form proper stra v, and too green to whiten. In the same 
manner, two or three of the pleats in the centre are taken away, as 
are too fragile or tender to form good straw. 

Then the two edges of the remaining pleats are removed six or 
eight at a time, by slitting them with a needle, or better 
still a bradawl, on either side irom about 6 or 8 inches from 
the top, upwards : — the centre part of the pleat is then caught 
hold of, and torn downwards to the stem, but never separating 
it from such stem. When this has been done with all the 
pleats. The outside edges or fringes so separated, are cut off 
and the remaining pleats, with the stem, are wound up as in a ring, so 
as to fit into a pot of boiling water. Thay are plunged into this, — and 



24 

as they are cold the temperature of the water is at once reduced. They 
can be left in the wafer (but must be entirely covered by it) until this 
again boils, — or even a little longer, — They are then taken out, well 
shaken to get all water possible out of them, and hung up on a string 
to dry. This must be done in the open air, and in the shade, —never 
in the sun. After drying thus for say one day, they can be put in the 
S'-.n to bleach more To get them still whiter, the juice of several 
lemons may be mixed with the water in which they are boiled. In 
the course of the drying of the straw, it curls up naturally, so that a 
flat straw of ^ inch wide, becomes rounded and less than 1/16 inch. 
I am sending to you to-day by bearer — 

1. One leaf, just in state for gathering. 

2. One leaf, (which had been rather over-ripe for gathering) with 
the exterior pleats and the centre ones removed. 

3. One leaf, as per No. 2, but with the edges or fringes of the 
pleats separated, but hanging down, tied up, so as to show you what 
has to be separated in this manner. 

4. Oue ''Ocho de paja" prepared as above described in my presence, 
dried &c It is not so white as it should be, because the leaf experi- 
mented upon was rather over-ripe, and no lemon juice was used, I 
also send you a few more plants which I hope may grow with you. 

I may further mention that for using the straw, the two fringes or 
outside edges of each straw, are again torn off. About three inches 
from top, and two inches from bottom of straw are cut ufE, and the re- 
mainder is the part used for making the hats. 

I trust the above explanation may be found sufficiently clear, and 
extensive for your requirements There are no expenses. 

I have not yet obtained the sample of hats, in course of preparation. 

Plants and samples go through the British Consul, Panama. Would 
you like seeds of the C. palmata ? 

Faithfully yours, 

Alfred Cartwright. 



H.B.M. Consul, Ouatjaquil, to Director, Public Gardens and Plantations, 

Jamaica. 

Guayaquil, Deer. 3rd, 1902. 
Dear Sir, 
I have lately received some seed cones of Carludovica palmata for 
Bermudas, and thought you also might like some, so I send you a part 
of them. 

I am also forwarding a \ ackage of the young leaves just in the 
proper state for preparing the straw, and which should arrive in good 
state for you to practise the lesson I recently sent as to the modus 
operandi in the preparation of it. I have not yet received the hat in 
course of manufacture. 

Faithfully yours, 

Alfred Cartwright. 
[Issued Jan. 22nd, 1903.] 
Printed at the Govt. Printing Office, Kingston, Jam. 



Vol. I. FEBRUARY, 1903. Part 2. 



BULLETIN 



OF THB 



DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



> » < 



EDITED BY 



WILLIAM PAWOETT, B.Sc, F.L.S. 

Director of Public Gardens and Plantations. 



CONTENTS: 

Page. 

Health and Disease in Plants .25 

Report on a Trip to Jamaica . 29 

Cassava from Colombia . 35 

A new method of treating Cereal Grains and Starchy Products 38 

A cheap Dissecting Microscope . 40 

(Soil Problems in Jamaica , 40 

Board of Agriculture . 41 

Ferns : Synoptical List— LYIII . 42 

Additions and Contributious to the Department . 44 



PRIG E -Threepence. 



A Copy will be supplied free to any Resident in Jamaica, who will send I^ame and 
Address to the Director of Public Gardens and Plantations, Kingston P.O. 



KINGSTON, JAMAICA : 
BopjB Gabdenb. 

1903. 



J A >l AICA 



BULTjETIN 

OF THK 

DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



Vol. I. FEBRUARY, 1903. Part X, 



HEALTH AND DISEASE IN PLANTS.* 

By Prof. F. S. Earle. 

A plant is in health when all its organs or parts are doing their pro- 
per work, and the processes of growth and reproduction are going forward 
in the natural and regular manner A diseased condition results when for 
any reason an organ fails to thus perform its usual normal function. The 
causes that induce disease are very numerous and are often obscure. For 
convenience diseases may be grouped under three headings: (1) environ- 
mental, (2) functional and (3^ parasitic. 

Under environmental diseases are classed those disturbances of normal 
growth caused by uncongenial surroundings, such as unfavourable soil con- 
ditions, too much or too little water, the absence or over-abundance of 
some of the food elements, or unsuitable soil t"mperatures ; unfavourable 
atmospheric conditions caused by the pollution of the air with smoke or 
gases ; or unfavourable position as to sunlight. Such unfavourable sur- 
roundings often cause a slow and feeble, though perfectly normal, grcwth 
that should not be confused with disease. It is starvation or semi-starva- 
tion and not sickness. The so-called " scalding" of plants after unusually 
heavy and protracted rains, the " tip burn" of lettuce and potatoes due to 
exposure to bright sunshine and dry winds after periods of wet cloudy 
weather, and the chlorosis or yellowing of the foliage of fruit trees on 
alkali soils in the West may be mentioned as examples of this class of 
diseases. 

Functional diseases are due to abnormal activities within the plant 
itself. These may be the excessive or insufficient formation of enzymes or 
acids or other secretions, or the disturbance of nutritive or other chemical 
processes. The dreaded peach yellows and the now destructive disease 
known as " little peach " probably both belong here, though their true 
nature is not yet fully understood. The " mosaic disease" of tobacco, and 
the " yellow disease" of the china aster are examples of the abnormal pro- 
duction of an enzyme or ferment. Diseases of this class are usually very 
obscure, and few of them are as yet fully understood. Tn the case of the 
" yellow disease" of the aster the trouble is caused by the failure 
of the leaf to secrete sufficient diastase, the enzyme or ferment that 
converts starch into soluble sugars. Starch is being constantly termed in 
green leaves when they are exposed to sunlight, but it is onl)' after being 

* Lecture given in the Autumn Course at the Museum, New York Botanical 
Garden, ;;ept. 11, 1902. From Journal of The Neto Ycyrk Botanical Garden, Not. 
1902, 



26 

acted on by diastase, and thus rendered soluble, that it can be taken up by 
■the sap and used as food in the building up of new tissues. The failure to 
secrete sufficient diastase thus causes a condition quite comparable to that 
of severe indigestion in man or the higher animals. 

By far the greater number of plant diseases are caused by the action of 
parasites. The number of kinds of parasites that infest plants is very 
great. Probably no plant of economic importance is free from thera, and 
the more widely cultivated crops have to contend with a formidable num- 
ber of parasitic foes. These may be either animal or vegetable, and they 
belong to widely difiering groups. In the vegetable kingdom plant para- 
sites are found among the slime moulds, the bacteria, the green algae, the 
fungi, and a few even among the flowering plants. In the animal kingdom 
they are less widely scattered, being found only among the nematode worms 
the mites and the insects. It is in the great group of chlorophylless plants 
called fungi that we find by far the greatest number of plant parasites. 
The diseases known as smuts, rusts, mildews, leaf-spots and moulds are all 
caused by fungus parasites, while many of the blights, rots, and wilts are 
also due to them. 

All parts of the plant are liable to be invaded bv parasites. Roots, 
stems, leaves, flowers and fruits each have their special enemies. The sur- 
face only may be the point ofattftck, or the parasite may burrow deeply 
in the tissues. The nature of the injury caused will depend on the habit, 
and structure of the host plant, on the point of attack, and on the character 
of the parasite. In some cases it may be little more than the loss of a cer- 
tain amount of food material,, the host and the parasite bting so adjusted 
to each other that the latter liv^es with a minimum of inconvenience to the 
former. Plants of wheat or oats infested by smut show very little incon- 
venience from the presence of the mycelium of the former in their tissues. 
It is only at maturity when, instead of ripened grain, we find the black 
powdered masses of fungus spores that the extent of the injury is sus- 
pected. Such cases, however, are rare. There are usually secondary com- 
plications that do for more harm than the mere loss of food. Thus the coat- 
ing of the surface of leaves by external growths of mildews and sooty moulds 
shuts ofi the light from the chlorophyl bodies, partially preventing pho- 
tosynthesis, the process of starch formation. The presence of internal 
parasites often excites a morbid growth of the plant tissues causing galls, 
knots or other deformities, or they may cause an excessive formation of 
gums or resins. In other cases the parasites may multiply so greatly in 
the tissues as to plug the ducts in the vascular bundles, shutting off the 
ascending sap and thus causing the sudden wilting and death of the entire 
top. The rotting of the roots may cause a similar wilting. A bacterial 
parasite causes the fermenting of the sap in the soft cambium layer of pear 
and apjjle trees causing the sudden death of considerable branches. 

Different fungi have acquired the power of parasitism in different de- 
grees. The true parasites like the rusts and smuts have the power of tak- 
ing their nourishment directly from the living protoplasm of their hosts. 
In most cases they do not kill the tissues in which they are embedded 
though they may interfere seriously with their normal functions. Other 
fungi that normally live on decaying vegetable matter have developed the 
power under certain conditions of penetrating tissues that are still living. 
These are called facultative parasites. They are not able as a rule to take 
nourishment directly from the living protoplasm as do the true parasites, 
but they push their hyphae into or between the living cells of the host, 
And by the secretion of poisonous acids and enzymes kill them and render 



27 

their contents soluble, thus causing the actual destruction of the liviao- 
tissue. Many of the species of fuagi that are normally strictly sapro* 
phytic at times develop this power of killing and disintegrating livino" 
tissues. Most of the timber rots so destructive to forest trees and to struc° 
tural timbers, belong among these facultative parasites. 

It is only after the cause of a disease is thoroughly understood that w e 
can begin iatelligeatly to seek a remedy. The anaaal losses from plant 
diseases are so great as to be beyond computation, but it is safe to say that 
■they reach many millions of dollars for the State of New York alone. 
Unfortunately, too, all of these losses come from what should be the 
farmer's profits, for it costs the same to prepare the land, plant and harvest 
the grain crop when the yield is half smut as it does when it is all clean 
sound grain. The question of the prevention of plant diseases is thus one 
of very great practical importaace. Vegetable pathology is one of tha 
newest of the biological scienc .s. What we know of it has practically all 
been learned during the past thirty years. I remember that when in 
College during the seventies the only known remedies for plant diseases 
were that sulphur sprinkled on rose bushes and grape vines would 
to some extent, prevent mildew, and that soaking seed oats in a weak solu- 
tion of copper sulphate would prevent smut in the following crop. At 
least there was a popular impression that these were facts, but°no conolu- 
sive experiments in regard to them had been recorded. Now the list of 
preventable or partially preventable diseases is a very long one. The 
number of remedial measures used is also considerable. 

With the environmental diseases the obvious remedy is to correct the 
unfavourable conditions. If the ground is too wet, drairi it. If too dry, 
irrigate it, or cultivate so as to conserve moisture. If poor in plant f >od' 
fertilize it. Or if a certain crop is not suited to the prevailing conditions 
grow some other crop that will find them congenial. These I say are ob- 
vious methods for preventing troubles of this kind and yet the problem is 
by no means a simple one. In only too many cases we are unable to pre- 
diet without actual trial whether or not a given crop will thrive under new 
and untried surroundings. 

Our knowledge of the functional diseases is not yet sufficient to permit 
the suggestion of renedies. They must still, for the mjst part, be classed 
as incurable. We may know, as in the case of the aster "yellow disease," 
that an insufficient s-^cretion of diastase prevents the assimilation of the 
f.tarch grains but what cause prevents this normal secretion is as yet ua- 
guessed and consequently is unpreventable. No group of diseases is more 
urgently in need of further investigation than these. 

It is in the controlling and preventing of parasitic diseases that modern 
progress has been most marked. Remedial measures that may be em- 
ployed against them can best be considered under the headings, hygiene, 
topical applications, and heredity. 

Under hygiene are included cultural methods that aid the plant in re- 
sisting disease; the establishment of crop rotations so that plants 
liable to the same diseases shall not follow each otner in the same field ; 
the prevention of contagion by the destruction of diseased plants or parts 
of plants, and methods of pruning and training whether for removing 
diseased portions, as is often practised with pear blight and plum black ' 
knot, or for regulating exposure to sun and rain as in some methods of 
training grape vines. A good example ot the effect of cultural methods 
in controlling a disejse is furnished by the so-called "black rust" of 
,cotton, which often causes serioiis losses on light sandy lands. Espari- 



28 

ments have conclusively shown that this disease can be prevented by- 
incorporating vegetable matter in the soil and applying potash fertili- 
zers. This so increases the vigour of the plant that the facultative para- 
sites causing the disease are unable to gain a foothold. On the other 
band, the injury to pear trees from blight can be much lessened by pre- 
venting a too vigorous growth and securing the early ripening of the wood. 
This can best be secured by witholding cultivation and nitrogenous 
manures. In this case the disease germs only flourish in the soft rapidly 
growing cambium and the hardening of the wood stops the spread of the 
disease. 

Topical applications may be made to the seed before planting, to the 
growing plant in the form of fungicidal sprays, or in some cases to the 
soil. Treatment of the seed is useful only in those cases where the source 
of contagion is from spores that adhere to the seeds and are planted with 
them. Thus in harvesting and threshing oats the spores from smutted 
heads become dusted over the sound grains. It is almost or quite impossi- 
ble to find seed for planting that is not more or less infested in this manner. 
If such seed is soaked in hot water of the rigbt temperature or in certain 
fungicidal solutions, as formalin or copper sulphate, the smut spoies will 
be killed without injuring the vitality of the grain; and the crop from this 
treated seed will be practically free from smut. Potato scab is a disease that 
is usually disseminated by the planting of diseased tubers for seed. Where 
once introduced in the soil it lives from year to year, so that seed treat- 
ment is not always effective; but, if planted on clean land, even badly 
scabbed seed potatoes will yield a clean crop if soaked in a weak solution 
of corrosive sublimate. 

The discovery that certain diseases can be prevented by sprinkling 
plants with a solution of copper sulphate mixed with milk of lime marked 
an important epoch in the treatment of plant diseases. This mixture, 
known as Bordeaux mixture from the town in France uear which its use 
was accidentally discovered, is now the standard remedy for a large class 
of diseases. In the case of many orchard and garden crops, spraying with 
Bordeaux mixture is as much a recognized part of proper culture as is the 
tilling of the soil. As first used the mixture was simply spattered over 
tbe leaves by means of a whisk broom. This method was unsatisfactory, 
as it was slow and did not secure a sufficiently even distiibution of the 
liquid. Thanks to American ingenuity and particularly to the efforts of 
the late (J. V. Kiley, then chief entomologist, and of B. F. Galloway, now 
chief of the Bureau of Plant Industry of the United States Department of 
Agriculture, suitable pumps and spraying nozzles were devised, by means of 
which plants can be quickly and evenly covered with this or other liquids 
in the form of a fine mist-like spray. Other compounds of copper have 
also been found to have strong fungicidal properties, but none are so gener- 
ally useful as the Bordeaux mixture. When properly made and applied, it 
does not injure the foliage except of a few particularly delicate plants 
and as it is not easily washed off by rains its effects are more lasting than 
•with other fungicides. It is now the standard remedy for potato blij;ht 
grape rot and mildew, apple scab, peach leaf curl, and a long list of simi- 
lar diseases. It should always be remembered however that, except in the 
case of a few external parasites, spraying is a preventive measure and not 
a cure. Sprays cannot reach internal parasites when once established, but 
by coating the surface they prevent the germination of spoies that find a 
lodgement there and thus prevent infection. The importance of early 
fiprayitig before a disease makes its appearance, and of thorough work in 
jeacbing all exposed parts of the plant will be apparent from these facts. 



29 

The beneficial results from spraying have, in many cases, becD so great 
-that, for a time, pathologists were inclined to think it a cure for all kinds 
of diseases. It is now clearly realized that, notwithstanding its great use- 
fulness, it has its limitations, that there are many diseases it cannot reach 
and many others where it should not be relied on alone, but should be 
used in connection with other remedial measures. 

Soil treatment can be employed in comparatively few cases. Injections 
of carbon disulphide are sometimes used for certain animal root parasites. 
Spraying the ground along the row is recommended for the salerotiuia 
wilt, a disease attacking garden vegetables in the Southern States. Sterili- 
zing the soil in green-houses, by heating it with live steana from perfor- 
ated pipes, is now practiced with great success in preventing injury from 
nematodes and from various soil-inhabitinor fuas:i. 

The great importance of heredity as a factor in controlling plant diseases 
is only now beginning to be fully recognised. Individual plants, like in- 
dividual men, vary in their ability to resist disease. Even in plants of the 
same cultural variety, this difference in resisting power is often qaiie 
marked. It has long been observed that some varieties are more resistant 
than others. It is uow found that, like other qualities, this power of re- 
sistance is inheritable, and that by carefully breeding from the most re- 
sistant individuals, it is often possible to establish resistant strains or va- 
rieties. This point was clearly brought out at the i-ecent Plant Breeders 
Oonfereace ia this city. The case of resistant strains of cotton, described 
by Mr, Orton, of the Department of Agriculture, was particularly interest- 
ing. In a very few years he has been able to select strains of cotton, 
practically immune to the wilt, a disease that has devastated large areas 
in the Southern States. Spraying to prevent disease is at best an expen- 
sive and exacting operation, aud cultivators will welcome the day, if it 
shall ever come, when the breeding and selection of resistant varieties 
.shall make it no longer necessary. 



REPORT ON A TRIP TO JAMAICA.* 

BY 

Pkof. F. S. Earle. 

Dr. N. L. Britton, Dii-ector-in-Chief, New Fork Botanical Garden : 

Sir, 

In accordance with your directions I sailed for Jamaica on October I6th 
reaching there on October 20th, and remaining until November 2Gth, 
The trip was uudertaken on the invitation of the Hon. Wm. Fawcett, 
Director of the Jamaica Public Gardens, for the purpose of investigating 
certain diseases of logwood, cocoanuts and other economic plants. My 
instructions were also to secure living specimens of tree ferns for the Con- 
servatories, and to collect fungi and other cryptogams for the herbarium. 
Thanks to the hearty co-operation of the Jamaica Government and of the 
United Fruit Co , and to the invaluable aid given by Mr, Fawcett and his 
associates, Mr. Wm. Harris and Mr, Wm, Cradwick the objects of the ex- 
pedition were succpssfully accomplished. Forty-live specimens of tree 
ferns representing fourteen or fifteen species were secured and forwarded 

* By permission from the " Journal of the New York Botanical Garden," 
Jan. 1903. 



30 

to the Garden. Six hundred and thirty herbarium specimens v/ere taten 
of which nearly five hundred are fungi, the remainder being lichens and 
mosses with a few fresh water aJgae. These will be studied and lists pre- 
pared as soon as other duties will permit. The following plant diseases 
were observed. In a number of cases cultures were secured of the organisms 
found in the diseased tissues and a more extended account will be prepared 
when laboratory studies and inoculation experiments with these organisms 
have been completed. 

Logwood Boot Bot ; Cn some estates, especially toward the western end 
of the island, logwood trees are dying in considerable numbers. 

The diseased trees usually occur in groups, the infection spreading 
slowly but in constantly widening circle. An examination of dying trees 
shows the roots to be badly rotted. 'Jheir surface tissues are invaded by 
a white fungus mycelium that is usually more abundantly developed in the 
region between the bark and the wood. The disease seems to first attack 
the small rootlets gradually spreading to the laiger roots and the crown 
when the tree dies. In many cases seeming healthy trees near the border 
of infested areas were found to have the roots on the side next the dying 
trees badly diseased, while on the other side they were still perfectly 
healthy. The fungus seems to be the mycelium of some of the Hymen- 
omycetes. Numerous species of Polyporaceae and Thelephoraceae were 
taken on logwood stumps and logs, but in no case could their connection 
•with this root rot be satisfactorily proven. "Whatever the nature of the 
fungus, leaving sfumps of trees that have died from this disease in the 
Dcighbourhood of living trees is clearly dangerous. Dying trees should be 
dug and the roots burned as soon as the disease can be detected. Where 
it is confined to certain shall definite areas as is often the case, it would 
be advisable to dig a trench three feet deep just outside of the diseased 
area in order to prevent its spread underground to the roots of healthy 
trees. On a few of the estates examined the disease was so widely 
scattered that this method of treat > eut would not be practicable. Here 
it would seem best to clear the infested tract entirely of logwood, market- 
ing such as was sufficiently mature, and allowing the land to grow up in 
pimento and limes, or reserving it for pasturage or cultivation. It should 
be mentitned in this connection that pimento trees are said to die from a 
similar root rot in some parts of the island. If this should prove to be 
identical with the logwood root rot, pimento would not be available as an- 
alternative crop. 

This root rot seems to spread slowly. One old logwood chipper assured 
me that trees had been dying for thirty five years on a spot that he pointed 
out. This area does not now include over three or four acres. This would 
indicate that by vigorous measures it could be controlled. The disease 
was found on various kinds of soils and under moisture conditions varying 
from dry rocky hill sides to the margin of swamps. In some cases the 
diseased areas were on spots where the soil was rich and deep and the 
moisture and drainage condition porfect. It was not observed on the 
heavy clay lands toward the eastern end of the island but whether this 
was due to the absence of infection or to the character of the soil could 
not be determined. 

" Bastard" Logwood : The logwood dye of commerce is extracted from 
the heart wood of mature trees of Eaematoxylon Campechianum. In Jamaica 
occasional trees are found in which little or no haematcxylin is found. 
In its place is a fubstance yielding a dull yellowish green dye. Such 
sticks are rejected by logwood buyers for they not only yield none of the 
desired colouring material, but if mixed with the normal wood in any 
quantity, do harm by spoiling the tint of the extract. Complaints have- 



31 

been reaching the Botanical Department of Jamaica, from certain quarters 
for some time, that the amount of this so called bastard wood was increas- 
ing. The cause of this lack of haematoxylin in certain trees was one of 
the problems T was requested to investigate and consitlerable time was 
given to it. The facts ascertained are as follows : * 1st, logwood is a varia- 
ble plant showing marked differences in form, colour, and texture of leaf, time 
of blooming, form and extent of the ribs on the trunk, colour of bark and 
of especially in the colour and dye-producing quality of the heart wood. 
Four well marked varieties are said to be recognized in Honduras aud three 
are usually recognized in Jamaica, but there are many other intermediate 
forms. 2nd. Bastard wood is not the result of disease or of any lack of 
vigour. The trees producing it are perfectly healthy and normal. 3rd. It 
is not the result of soil or climatic conditions since bastard anl normal 
trees are found growing side by side under absolutely identical conditions. 
4:th. It is not the result of immaturity. Aged trees may produce bastard 
wood while in normal trees the heart wood as soon as formed contains a 
good percentage of haematoxylin. These facts seems to point to heredity 
as the probable cause of the trouble. That is that certain trees produce 
only bastard wood because they grew from the seed of a bastard tree ; or 
in other words that bastard logwood represents a variety of Haematoxylon 
campechianum that normally produces little or no haematoxylin, just as 
one Honduras variety has smaller, shorter, thinner and lighter coloured 
leaves. Experiments now in progress at Hope Gardens, Jamaica, and at 
the New York Botanical Garden with seedlings from the seed of bastard 
and of normal trees should in time settle this question conclusively. In 
any event it seems a matter of minor practical importance since apparently 
not over one or two trees in a thousand are of the bastard variety. No 
data was obtained to show whether or not the trouble was increasing as 
claimed by some An inrirease could be readily accounted for by the fact 
that on many estates a tree that is chipped iuio and found to be bastard 
has been allowed to stand and produce continued crops of seed while the nor- 
mal trees have been cut down on reaching maturity. A wise policy would 
insure the prompt destruction of such trees whenever detected as they have 
no value except for firewood, and should not be allowed tu produce seed. 
It is unfortunate that there seems to be no constant difference in leaf or 
trunk by which these bastard trees can be distinguished, that would allow 
of their still earlier destruction. 

Coco-nut Bud Disease : — Outbreaks of a serious disease of coco-nut trees 
have occurred in Jamaica at various times. Some years ago the groves in 
the neighborhood of Moutego Bayf were badly injured by it and the in- 
dustry was completely destroyed on the Grand Caymau| Island, probably 
by the same trouble. At present it is attracting but little attention al- 
though numerous cases of it exist widely scattered over the western end 
of the Island, a few being observed as far to the eastward as Port Antonio. 
It was not observed to the east of a line between Port Antonio and King- 
ston. One of the first symptoms of the disease is the dropping of the im- 
mature nuts. In some cases the lower clusters hang on and reach matu- 
rity but usually all fall off. The leaves droop a little, and become some- 
what yellow. Often those that are just unfolding are seen to be dis- 
torted and blackened on the e<lges. The young flower buds still envel- 
oped in the spathe, rot, and finally the central leaf-bud rots and the entire 

* I am under obligation to Dr. Emil Bucher, Superintendent of the West India 
Chemical Works for much information in regard to Logwood. 

t iSee Bulktm of the Botanical Departmenc, Jamaica, Sept., 181)1. p. 2 
X See Bulletin of the Botanical Department, Jamaica, Feb., Ia89, p. 3. 



32 

top falls awav. Sucb trees are often pointed out by the planters as hav- 
ing been struck by lightning. Others attribute the death of the tree to a 
large borer said to work from the trunk up into the bud. In the numer- 
ous cases examined death was not due to either of these causes. The head 
of the tree was in all cases invaded by what seems to be a bacterial rot. 
The organism developes in the sweet slimy coating found on all the young 
protected origans. It eats into the sheathing bases of the petioles and at- 
tacks the flowering sheaths. As the spathe grows, the surface becomes 
cracked and the disease reaches the soft flower buds through these cracks. 
Finally it reaches the " cabbage" or central growing point which it soon 
reduces to a stinking rotten mass. The top now falls away sometimes 
leaving a circle of the lower leaves that had matured before the tree was 
attacked. These persist for a time but of course finally die also as the 
tree has no power of branching or of producing a new growing point. The 
means by which the contagion is conveyed from tree to tree oould not be 
determined nor could any estimate be formed of the time elapsing between 
infection and the death of the tree. Numerous cultures were secured and 
the study of the disease will be continued. 

At Port Antonio the petioles and midribs of the leaves of gome of the 
diseased trees were found to he invaded by a parasite that caused the 
browning and death of the tissues. This petioln disease was found on some 
trees that did not as yet show signs of the bud trouble, Whether or not 
the two troubles are caused by the same organism can only be determined 
hy the further study of the cultures that were secured. 

From our present imperfect knowledge of this disease it is impossible to 
suggest a remedy. Remedial measures or rather successful preventive 
measures would probably depend on the method by which the disease is 
conveyed from tree to tree. This can only be determined by careful and 
prolonged field htudy. The importance of the industry involved would 
fullv justify the expenditure antl effort necessary to obtain a complete 
understanding of this disease. The necessity for the destruction of the 
contagion by the prompt cutting and burning of all infected trees is shown 
by the marked tendency of the disease to spread from each centre of in- 
fection. 

It is claimed by some planters that a ce'-tain green skinned variety of 
cocoanut is less liable to this disease than the reddish and yellowish kinds. 
The facts observed seemed to support tliis view. If it is confirmed by 
further obesrvations it will be a factor of the greatest importauco as it 
would make possible the selecting of a resistant race of cocoanuts, 

Coco-nut Wasting Disease : — In the Eastern part of the Islanl between 
Morant Bay and Manchioneal, a disease occurs that can best be described 
by the above name. The nuts slowly fall. The lower leaves droop and 
fall prematurely, while the new leaves that are produced become success- 
ively smaller and less vigorous. In the final stage the leaves are re- 
duced to less than half the normal size and the few that remain stand 
erect as a thin wisp at the apex of the bare stem which is seen to be ab- 
ruptly tapered almost to a point. At length the tree dies, but the course 
of the disease is always slow, and afi"ected trees may live for months or 
perhaps years. In the trees examined a white scale insect was always 
found at the base of the petioles and on the fruiting peduncles. The slow 
loss of /^itality shown by these trees is a result that could be expected from 
the presence of this class of insects in sufficient quantity but they did not 
*:eem numerous enough to fully account for the serious effect on the tree. 
In all the cases examined there was also a slow rotting of the sheathing 
bases of the petioles and of the fruiting sheaths. The scale insects were 



33 

also observeii on some trees that did not as yet show recognizable symp- 
toms of the disease Whether such symptoms would ultimately develop 
can only be determined by observations continued through a considerable 
period. Mr, Wm. Cradwick of the Jamaica Agricultural Department has 
undertaken to make farther field studies and as specimens of the scale and 
cultures from the diseased tissues have been secured it is hoped we may 
ultimately gain a better understanding of this interesting but obscure 
trouble. 

If, as it seems probable, the scale is the first inciting cause of the disease 
it should be possible to devise some remedial treatment. Owing to the 
height of the trees and the method of growth, the scales being largely 
sheltered by the fibrous sheathing bases of the leaves, the successfal ap. 
plication of insecticides would be difficult but not necessarily impossible. 
Mr. Cradwick will undertake some experiments on this line. 

An interesting experiment has been tried on one of the plantations of 
the United Fruit Co., in firing the dead leaves and fibres hanging on the 
diseased trees. The flame kills all the fruits and open flowers and most 
of the expanded leaves but the apical bud is not injured and new leaves 
and flowers are soon developed. This seems like heroic treatment, but two 
trees were pointed out that had been fired six months ago when they were 
in advanced stages of the disease ; now they seem entirely recovered and 
are putting on a new crop of fruit This firing of the trees has also been 
suggested as a remedy for the bud disease. The chances for success 
would seem to be much less in that case for the disease so soon becomes 
deeply seated. 

Coco-nut Trunk Borer : A few trees were observed where areas on the 
trunk two or three feet or more in extent had been bored full of small 
holes no larger than a knitting needle. Minute white larva were found 
at the bottom of some of these burrows but noue were taken in onditioa 
for identification. A rotting of the trunk soon follows these borings and 
if the insect was abundant it would c luse considerable loss. It was only 
observed in the grove and there only in a few trees. 

Coco-nutTrunk Rot : Afew cases were observed when some slight injury 
allowed the entrance of a rot that destroyed the entire centre of the trunk. 
In one case an outer rind of less than half an inch of healtl\y wood re- 
mained, a rotten liquid running out when this was cut through. Strange- 
ly enough the top of this tree still seemed healthy and vigorous, but the 
rot in the centre of the trunk had reached to within a few inches of the 
base of the bud. Such cases seem to be very rare but they shew the im- 
portance of avoiding unnecessary wounds of the trunk. 

Banana Leaf Blight : On one locality at Stony Hill, north of Kingston 
a serious banana disease was observed. It causes the browning of the vas- 
. cular bundles in the veins and midrib ot the leaves. This is soon fol- 
lowed by the blackening of the entire leaf blade and eventually by the 
rotting of the leaf and petiole. It does not seem able to extend from the 
petiole into the tissue of the stem. The terminal bud is not attacked 
but continues t) push out fresh leaves. These soon become infected in 
turn so that usually not more than three or four of the younger leaves 
. are free from the disease. Infected plants are much stunted in growth 
and do not bear fruit. In the small field where it was first observed fully 
three-fourths of the plants were infected. The cent igion was in this case 
probably introduced with the suckers that were used for planting as these 
were said to have been taken trom some neglected patches in the 
.neighbourhood, and a visit to these showed that they were also infected. 



84 

The disease evidently spreads slowly as it had not crossed a wid« hedge- 
row separating this "infested field from one adjoining. It may never prove 
troublesome, but the advisability of immediataly destroying all diseased 
plants was strongly urged. If so destructive a disease should by any 
chance become widely scattered the result would be truly disastrous. 

Apparently it is due to abacterial parasite. Cultures were obtained and 
it is hoped to study the disease further. No evidence was secured as to 
the means by which it is conveyed to the fresh leaves or from plant to 
plant. So far as ktown it is confined to this one locality which is at an 
elevation of seme 1,200 feet and on red land. Such locations are not con- 
sidered to be adapted to bananas, yet all uninfested plants were growing, 
and fiuiting satisfactorily. 

Orange Boot Grub: Orange growers, especially in the neighbourhood of 
of Bog Walk, are much troubled by a grub that gnaws the bark of the 
roots. Often the injury is sufficient to cause the death of the trees. 
"Where the trees do not die, tlie growth ceases, the leaves turn yellow and 
the crop fails. The grub is a footless larva probably that of Praepodes 
vittata, one of the Curculionidae. (See Journal of Jamaica Agricultural 
Society, January 18&8, p. 11.) From what 1 am told of the habits of this 
insect it can best be destroyed when in the adult stage. The beetles are 
said to gather in great numbers on the orange trees eating the foliage, if 
such is the case, they could be destroyed by arseniacal sprays. They are 
said to be clumsy flyeis, and to have the habit common to many of the 
Curculionidae of falling to the ground when jarred or disturbed. This 
should make it possible to catch them by jarring on to sheets as is done 
with the peach curculio. The larvae could doubtless be killed in the 
ground by injections of carbon di-sulphide, but whether this could be done 
without injury to the tree and at an expense that would make it practi- 
cable, can only be detei mined by carefully conducted experiments in the 
field. Whether tobacco or other substances worked into the soil about the 
tree would prevent the depositing of eggs, is [ erhaps worth trying. The 
insect is thought to be a general feeder, and is not confined to the orange, 
though it seems to be particularly partial to all citrus fruits. Some grow- 
ers claim that they have suffered more when practising clean cultivation 
than when weeds and bush are allowed to grow for part of the year the 
roots of which may serve to divide the attention of the grub. 

In this connection it may be noted that orange scale insects are not like- 
ly to prove seriously troublesome for in the moisture regions at least they 
are quickly destroyed by fungus parasites. 

The orange rust mite occurs on the Island but it only seems troublesome 
on certain wet heavy soils. 

Cocoa Stem Conker : This trouble was only observed in the neighbour"" 
hood of Port Maria, but it probably occurs in other parts of the Island- 
Slightly swollen areas occur on the trunk or larger branches. 'I he tissues 
in the central part of the swellings soon die and the yellow perithecia of 
some Nectiinaceous fun<;us develop on the baik. The swelling continues 
to grow at ihe margin lill finally it often girdles and kills the tree. Keep- 
ing the trunks and larger branches painted or sprayed with Bcirdeaux mix- 
ture should be a complete protection from this disease. It would alsc des- 
troy moss and lichens and keep the trunks in a clean, healthy condition. 
Promptly cutting out ef the diseased areas and painting the cut surfaces 
with sulphate of copper or sulphate of iron solution and then coating with- 
tar or paint would piobnbly in most cases save trees that are already at- 
tacked. 



35 

Cocoa Pod Bot : Examples of rotting cocoa pods were seen at various 
places. Apparently more than one species of fungus is concerned in this 
rotting. This point will be reported on later. This rotting is not attract- 
ing much attention, but with the Criollo variety at low altitudes, it is 
certainly very serious and under certain conditions it is liable to prove 
destructive to other kinds. Whether or not the blasting of tlie young poda 
is due to the growth of a fungus could not be certainly determined. 
This blasting occasions a very considerable loss especially to the fall crop. 

Cocoa Root Disease : There is trouble from the dying of cocoa trees on 
certain areas. The roots examined all showed signs of having been gnawed 
much as in the orange trouble, but in addition the injured were attacked 
"by some fungus mycelium, Vv ant of time prevented a thorough investiga- 
tion of this trouble. 

Cassava Boot Bot : It was stated by some labourers that cassava roots 
rotted if planted on land where logwood trees had died. A Cassava patch 
was examined that had been planted on such lands. A number of unthrifty 
plants were noted, and on digging them up the roots were found to be en- 
veloped in a white mycelium and to be rapidly rotting. Dead logwood 
stumps were near these diseased plants. This was on a rather light, up- 
land, red soil that was well adapted to the growth of cassava. The con- 
nection between the cassava rut and the logwood root rot could only be in- 
ferred. 

In conclusion I would say that this somewhat hasty reconnaissance dem- 
strates the presence in Jamaica of a number of diseases of economic plants, 
some at least of which are liable to prove destructive. The short time at my 
disposal was not sufficient for a thorough study of any of these and the few 
remedial and preventive measures suggested above are tentative only, and 
are intended simply as the bases for field experiments. I would respect- 
fully suggest to the Jamaica Government that the Agriciltural Department 
can do no more useful or practical work than to provide for a furtherstudy 
of these diseases. 

"While thus emphasizing the great importance of requiring a full know- 
ledge of such diseases as do occur, I feel like congratulating the planters 
of Jamaica on the fact that these serious diseases seem to be so few. Most 
countries with equally diversified crops have to contend with a much greater 
number. 



CASSAVA FROM COLOMBIA. 

Analyses of [Seventeen Varieties introduced from Colombia and grown by 
Mr. Kobert Thomson, at Half Way Tree, Jamaica. 

By H. H. Cousins, M.A. (Oxon) F.C.S.Government and Agricultural 

Chemist 

Mr. Robert Thomson, formerly Superintendent of Publio Gardens in 
Jamaica, has taken a leading part in urging the claims of Cassava as a food 
product for and districts in the tropics as also a profitable source of starcli 
and glucose for commercial purposes. At the instance of the Hon, Sydney 
Olivier the Chairman of the Board of Agriculture, I was instructed to ar- 
range with Mr. Thomson for the analysis of a unique collection of varie- 
ties of Cassava brought by him from Colombia as a guide to tueir economic 
value. 

This has been done, and as the results show these Colombian varieties are 
marked by a very high Starch content and are practically free from prus- 
sio aciA. These varieties were grown at Half Way Tree on the Liguanea 



36 

|)lain, and it is possible that some varieties, as Mr. Thomson suggests 
would succeed better in the hill?. It is hoped, so soon as stock of these 
■varieties has been established, to conduct careful experiments as to the Ag- 
ricultural yield and the content of Starch. It will also be of interest ta 
note whether acclimatisation will cause an increase in the amount of prua- 
fiic acid obtainable from the tubers. 

A comparative test of these cassavas against our Creole stook of bitter 
and sweet varieties is eminently desirable. Should these Colombian varie- 
ties maintain their promising character, their introduction from the inte- 
rior of Colombia by Mr. Thomson to the West Indies and the Indian Em- 
pire must be regarded as a signal service. 

The seventeen varieties were delivered on the afternoon of November 
28th, in a perfectly fresh state, and were immediately prepared and 
sampled for analysis. Determinations of moisture, total solids, starch and 
hydrocyanic acid were made. The latter was determined by Carmody's ♦ 
method of soaking slices in water. The hydrocyanic acid was estimated 
after 24 hours soaking and again after 48 hours in a fresh quantity of 
water. The amounts so obtained were remarkably low, far below Car- 
mody's minimum for sweet cassava grown in Trinadad. I anticipate as 
possible that these Colombian varieties may develop a higher prussic 
acid content when acclimatised to Jamaica. In their present state these 
cassavas are practically non-poisonous, and the analytical data fully sup- 
port the reputation for harmlessness which Mr. Thomson ascribes to 
them as grown in Colombia. 

Carmody's average for bitter cassava grown in Trinadad is 0.022 per 
cent, and for sweet cassava 0-010 per cent, and of the latter, peeled for use 
as a food product, 0-007 per cent, uf hydrocyanic acid. The average of these 
seventeen Colombian varieties is only 0-001 7 or only ^of that in Trinadad 
sweet cassava. Further experiments are in hand to test the distribution of the 
poisonous hydrocyanic acid as between the inner and the outer portions of 
the tubers. Carmody (loc. cit.) states that his experiments indicate that an 
analytical difference can be drawn between "sweet" and "bitter" cassava by 
the factthat in the former most of the hydrocyanic acid is derived from the 
external portion, while in the latter the poison is uniformly distributed. 
— As regards starch yield the variety Governor Hemming leads with 36.5 
per cent., a very hi^h content closely followed by Cabesa Dura, Negrita, 
Eelada andPaloma. 

The three Pacho Varieties (2, 3 & 4) are the lowest in starch content with 
'22.3 to 19.3 per cent, Mr. Thomson states that these varieties should do 
well at a high elevation There is thus a variation of 90 per cent, iu the 
starch content of these seventeen varieties. Given a high percentage of 
starch and large agricultural productivity, the yield of starch in Jamaica 
should be considerable. 

The variation of moisture from 54 to 72 per cent, is also worthy of note, 
as also the variation of 3.5 to 19 per cent, in solids other than starch. 

It is hoped on a future occasion to supply data in which the composition 
of the tubers shall be returnable as an agricultural yield per acre of food 
or of commercial starch and glucose. 

Appended are the analyses in which I was assisted by Messrs. Hammond 
and Wortley. 

An interesting Memorandum from Mr. Thomson follows : 

In view of the importance of cassava both as a food product and a source 
,of starch, arrangements have been made for a systematic trial of various 

* Auaual Report Government Analyst Triaidid, 1931. 



37 



native varieties of cassava which are held in repute. Analysis and field 
results will be published in this Bulletin when they are ready. 

RESULTS OF ANALYSIS. 
(in ordeu of Staroh-Content,) 



No. 


Name. 


Ref, 

No. 

2! 
16 


Moisture 

57.17 

54 69 


Starch. 


Solids : 

not 
Starch. 

6 33 
9.99 


Hydro cy. 
aiiic Acid. 


1 

2 


Governor Hemming (Noto- 

seves) 
Cabesa Dura 


36.50 
35.40 


0.0018 
0010 


3 


Ne<;rita 


1.5 


55 10 


34 80 


10.10 


0.0019 


4 


Helada 


5 


55.41 


34.30 


10.29 


0007 


5 


Paloma 


10 


57.78 


34 20 


7.92 


0.0017 


6 


Blancita 


18 


54.22 


33.80 


11.98 


0.0009 


7 


Pacho 


1 


59.61 


33.33 


7.06 


0.0029 


8 


Cajon Amarilla 


— 


56.11 


33 30 


10.59 


0.0030 


9 


Negrita 


12 


59.31 


31.10 


9.59 


0.0010 


10 


Helada 


6 


56.93 


29.90 


13.17 


0.0019 


11 


Negrita 


11 


61.43 


27.70 


10.87 


0020 


12 


Cenaguera 


23 


67.21 


25.00 


7.79 


0.0014 


13 


Montera 


2,=! 


71.42 


-5 00 


3.58 


0.0(109 


14 


Negrita 


17 


60.57 


23.90 


15 53 


0.0035 


15 


Pacho 


3 


58.57 


22.30 


19.13 


0.0022 


16 


Pacho 


•2 


72.28 


22.10 


5.62 


0.00 10 


17 


Pacho . 


4 


64.19 
60 12 


19.30 
29.53 


16. £0 
13.6 


0.0010 




Average 


0.0010 



Memorandum. 

By RoBKRT Thomson. 
The varieties analysed were collected in various provinces of the Repub- 
lic of Colombia last year by my son, under my instructions. These are 
new to the West Indies. I resided many years in that Republic, and the 
importance of this culture attracted my attention, consequent on the enor- 
mous consumption of cassava as an article of human food — cooked in the 
same way as Irish potatoes. Indeed some ot the varieties of Cassava, I 
concluded, were equal in point ol flavour to that tuber. 1 was also struck 
with the capacity of the plant to resist droughts. Poisonous varieties are 
unknown to the people in the interior of Colombia, so that the people 
there entertain no shadow of suspicion in this respect. 



38 

Only a f iw cuttings of each variety were introduced, and these were 
planted only about a foot apart in nursery beds, with a view to subse- 
quent propagation on a large scale. I now have cuttings enough to plant 
about two acres. I regret I have been unable to establish experimental 
plots of each variety with a view to test their respective productive capa- 
city on the hot plains. Some of the varieties succeed best on the hills. 

The result of the analyses of the 17 varieties is important. The leading 
variety contains the extraordinary percentage of 36-50 of starch. Other 
varieties closely approximate to this. 

From plants systematically cultivated in the field here and planted con- 
temporaneously with the Colombian varieties the return which I have ob- 
tained is only 17 per cent. Doubtless by chemical analysis the yield would 
be somewhat higher. 

From the point of view of human and animal food the analysis is also 
extremely important. As is stated by Mr. Cousins the poisonous bitter 
cassava o-rown in Trinidad contains 0.022 per cent of hydrocyanic acid, 
and the sweet 0.010 per cent. Thus the sweet actually contains nearly 
half of the hydrocyanic acid of the bitter. The contrast in this respect 
with the Colombian varieties is remarkable. Mr. Cousins says : — " The 
averao-e obtained for these Colombian varieties is only 0.0017 or only |- 
the amount contained in Trinidad Sweet Cassava." 

The general result is that the Colombian varieties are par excellence 
the varieties to be cultivated for animal food, as well as for starch 
production. 

A New Method of Treating Cereal Grains and 

Starchy Products. 

By Dr. A. P. Anderson. 

The cereal graius including wheat, rice, barley, oats maize, and rye form 
a most important part of the food of the human race. The chief value of 
the cereal lies in the starch which they contain, which may amount to as 
much as 5'-' to bO per cent of the weight of the dried kernels. 

Starch occurs in plants in the form of globose, ovoid and oblong 
bodies of rounded outlines, the exact shape assumed in any plant being, 
more or less characteristic of the species. Almost any growing green 
plant will be found to contain starch grains in all stages of formation 
from the most minute to the maximum size. Those of the potato often 
attain a diameter of a hundredth of an inch being visible to the naked 
eve An examination of the granules with a maguification of a few 
hundred diameters shows that they are constructed of concentric layers 
or coats of alternating denser and watery layers, the centrum around which 
the layers are arranged being of the latter character. The granule con- 
tains from 15 to 22 per cent, of water when in an air-dry condition. In- 
vestigation of these interesting bodies with reference to their formation 
shows that they are really bailt up like crystals,, being in fact sphaero- 
crystals. 

Starch granules when intact are acted upon but slowly by chemicals 
especially the digestive enzymes. Consequently starchy substances are 
made more suitable for food by cooking or some method of treatment 
by which the granules are broken up. When starch granules are warmed 
in water they begin to swell at a temperature of 55° to Q>*)° C, and burst at 
75° to 80° C, being converted into a uniformly translucent mass known 
as starch paste in which the minute particles are suspended in the water, 
,but are not dissolved. 



39 

It is well known that starch grains do not swell or break up to any great 
extent when heated in an air-dry condition at a temperature employed in 
breadmaking by ordinary methods. Although bread is one of the oldest 
and most widely used food preparations yet it is by no means to be consid- 
ered ae an economical use of starch since the granules in the centre of a 
loaf are practically unchanged and therefore digestible only with great 
diflSculty. The desired changes do ensue to some extent in the crust, but 
in prevailing methods of preparation, the proportion of the whole amount 
of starch present made available for rapid digestion, is very small. 

As a result ot almost continuous work during the past year I have been 
so fortunate as to develop a method by which, with the application of 
heat to starch grains and to air-dry starch in many forms, the granules or 
particles are expanded to many times their original dimensions, being 
fractured into innumerable fragments during the process. As a result of 
this treatment a grain of rice is expanded to eight or more times its ori- 
ginal volume, while still retaining its original form. Other cereals ex- 
hibit similar behaviour. The process is applicable to nearly all starchy 
seeds and starcy substances, greatly increasing their nutritive availabilit7. 
The products obtained are pleasant to the taste, and the process may be 
varied to produce a great variety of flavours with any given cereal. 
Furthermore, the material prepared in this manner is absolutely sterilized 
and may be preserved or stored for long periods. I am led to hope from 
the approval the products have met from food and chemical experts that 
the process may prove of great economic and commercial value. 

The experiments by which this method was developed were begun at 
Clemson College, South Carolina, in the spring of 1901, but no results of 
any direct bearing upon the process mentioned were obtained at that time. 
Upon my removal to Columbia University in August, 190 i, time was af- 
forded me to resume the investigations, and in the Laboratories of the 
New York Botanical Grarden every facility was given me for the prosecu- 
tion of the work. I am indebted to the latter institution for the use of a 
chemical laboratory which was placed at my disposal and for a plentiful 
supply of material of all kinds as well as for encouragement and helpful 
suggestions from the members of the staff. Journal of the New York Bota- 
nical Garden, May, 1902. 

Dr. Alex. P. Anderson has resigned his position of curator of the herbari- 
um of Columbia Univei-sity, and has taken up his duties as expert to the 
syndicate now engaged in developing the new method of treating starchy 
grains, etc , recently discovered by Dr. Anderson in the laboratories of the 
Garden. Dr. Anderson is fitting up a special laboratory for the continu- 
ance of his work at Minneapolis. {Journal, September, 1902). 

'I he U. S. Patent Office has granted Dr. A. P. Anderson letters patent 
No. 707892, dated August 26, li)02, upon the "Art of treating Starch 
Material." The product resulting from the application of this methods to 
seeds and other starch materials are highly porous bodies which though 
greatly enlarged preserve the shape and appearance of the original, and 
being readily acted upon by the digested juices form valuable and econo- 
mic foods. The products are also readily emulsified by water and other 
liquids and lend themselves to use in the arts for sizing, pasting, etc. 
The method in question is essentially distinguished from other pro- 
cesses by being based upon the explosive action of the liquid contained 
in air dry starch, and the principal features of the invention are set forth 
in the twelve claims of the inventor as allowed in the grant. Dr Ander- 
son's invention is based upon studies made in the laboratories in the Garden 



40 

and he is now engaged in the perfection of machinery and apparatus by 
■which the proilucts in question may be made in commercial quantities. — 
Journal, November 1902. 

A CHEAP DISSECTING MICROSCOPE. 

The following description and drawing ot a cheap dissecting raicro- 
scope is taken from Prof. J. B. Farmer's Introduction to Botany. 

A hand-lens, with triplet combination, (costing about 3s. 6d.), can 
easily be converted into a very usefnl dissecting microscope by raount- 
ino- it in the way shown in the annexed fiuure. The bottle (B.) con- 
tains shot in order to render it stable ; through the cork ptisses a stout 
wire or knitting pin, W. On this a cork (C) slides stiffly. Through the 
latter a second wire (W i) is passed, also sliding stiffly. The end is 
turned up at right angles, and passes through the holes made in the 
holder of the lens. In this holder is another cork (C i ) through which 
the wire passes, and which serves to fix the lens firmly on the wire. 




Thus you have a lens, mounted on a firm support, capable of being 
turned in any direction and nearly as serviceable as elaborate dissect- 
ing microscopes. 

SOIL PROBLEMS IN JAMAICA. 

By H. H. Cousins, M.A., F.U.S. 

Government Analytical and Agricultural Chemist. 

The Director of Public Gardens and Plantations in his report to the Go- 
vernment on a recent visit to the United States, published in the {Supple- 
ment to Jamaica Gazette, *' made a suggestion as to the adoption of one or 
more of the methods of the Soil Survey as carried out by the Division 
of Soils under Professor Milton Whitney in place of those at present being 
employed by the Chemical Department in Jamaica. 

I offer the lolbwing observations indicating that the problems awaiting 
immediate solution in Jamaica are local and detailed rather than classifica- 
tory and general, and that it is desirable for the present to pursue the 
■work onSoils in Jamaica in a manner to meet these conditions. 

* 15th January, 1903. 



41 

The United States Division of Soils sends us their publications, and 
I have closely followed the work of Professor "Whitney and his staff. 
Their last report and soil maps have just been received. The objects aimed 
at in the American Soil Survey are quite different from those forced upon 
us here by the special conditions of the Agriculture of the Island. The 
American survey aims at a broad, general survey and classification of 
soils on the lines of a practical land valuer, based primarily on local ex- 
perience and records and other geological and mechanical data rather than 
on crop returns and chemical analyses. It is instructive to note that the 
area surveyed in 190ij was equal to that of Jamaica at an average cost of 
8/ per square mile. This work i^ of necessity superficial and general, and 
would have little critical bearing on the more pressing problems of culti- 
vation in Jamaica, 

I have acted on the conviction that the first object to aim at in a study of 
Jamaica soils is that of arriving at the physical and chemical properties 
affecting fertility and by the use of manurial experiments on the growing 
crops to arrive at a basis for the practical interpretation of the results of 
analysis. The report on the "Bauana Soils" which appeared in the first 
number of this Bulletin represents the first fruits of this work. It has been 
demonstrated that the chief Banana Soils in Jamaica are not in present 
need of fertilisers and that the immediate problems of the industry are 
those of general cultivation and not of manuring. T fail to see how 
the American system of soil survey could have established this economic 
fact. 

The methods of analysis employed at the Government Laboratory are, 
as regards conventions of sampling and solution, those of the Association 
of British Agricultural Chemists. The methods of analysis are those of 
the American Association, primarily based on the methods of Professor E. 
W. Hilgard. 

Over ninety analyses of Jamaica Soils have been completed during the 
past year and a half, of which 30 are related to manurial experiments. 

When the fundamental facts underlying the fertility of our chief agri- 
cultural areas have been established and the planters placed in possession 
of this information, it would undoubtedly be most advantageous to have 
a soil survey for the preparation of such soil maps as are being prepared in 
the United States by the Division of Soils. 

I think it could be carried out at a cost of about £5,000 and would oc- 
cupy 3 years. 



BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

Report op Mketing. 

The usual monthly meeting of the Board was held at Heid Quarter 
House on Tuesday, loth January, at 9 o'clock . 

Present : — The Hon. the Colonial Secretary, Chairman, the Hon. the 
Director of Public Gardens and Plantations, the Government Chemist, His 
Grace the Archbishop, the Hon. Henry Cork and Mr. C. A. Fursdon. 

The Secretary read the Minutes of the last meeting which were con- 
firmed. 

The Chairman read minutes by Mr. Shore and Mr. Cousins on the repn-t 
upon coco-nut disease, and also ,i circular which was t) be sent t) plan- 
ters. After some discussion it was a;^reed to enlarge the circul ir up >u the 
lines suggested by Mr. Cousins. The Director of Public Gardens was re- 



42 

quested to place before the Chairman a plan for putting several spots under 
control and observation,, and to proceed with the same as soon as possible. 

The Chairman read a letter from the Director of Public Gardens 
making various suggestions with regard to the working of the In- 
dustrial School. Mr. Fawcett was of opinion that better work might be 
done if the boys cultivated garden plots around the School instead of going 
into the Gardens for instruction. This suggestion however did not meet 
with the approval ot the Board and the Chairman was asked to look thor- 
oughly into the matter. 

A report on the sample of Teak sent to the Eailway was read, indicating 
that the sample sent was not of much value for Railway purposes. It 
was agreed that another sample should be sent. 

Mr. Cradwick wrote suggesting the growing of the Tokay variety of 
grape. It was decided to adopt this suggestion. 

In the matter of the carriage of plants from Hope to Kingston, it was 
reported that Mr. Clark's contract had been cancelled and a new one en- 
tered into with Mr. Bolton. 

Mr. Cradwick reported upon work in Hanover and suggested the ap- 
pointment of a local Instructor tor the parish. The whole subject of In- 
structors was then considered and it was thought that with a view to pre- 
venting over-lapping, Mr. Cradwick should be located in the west end of 
the Island, leaving Mr. Young to attend to St. Ann, and Mr.Palache to Man- 
chester. It was moved by Mr. Cork, seconded by Mr. Fursdon, and carried 
that Mr. Fawcett be asked to look out for a suitable man to look after Upper 
Clarendon and St, Catherine as well as Upper Trelawny and the Olster 
Spring district and to report to the next meeting, 

A letter was read from Prof, Milton Whitney recording- the failure of 
an experiment to grow Sumatra tobacco in Bermuda. 

Mr. Cousins submitted a report on the first term's work at the Agricul- 
tural College, and also a list of applications for admittance. It was agreed 
to approve the applications of Messrs. Hewitt and Nethersole and to admit 
Messrs. Sharp and Lindo provisionally. Fees to be paid. 

It was agreed to make known the fact that scholars from secondary 
schools could attend the chemical demonstrations under Mr, Roberts on 
payment of a charge for gas of 2|d. an hour per pupil. The Secretary 
was instructed to inform the Chairman of the Schools' Commission of 
this. 

His Grace the Archbishop stated that he wished to bring the wh ole ag- 
ricultural work under review to see what farther could be done in the way 
of co-ordinating the work of the various agencies. The Board approved 
of a further effort being made. 



FERNS: SYNOPTICAL LIST,— LVIII. 

Additions to Synoptical List, loith descrij^tions, of the Ferns and Fern-Allies of 
Jamaica. By the late O. S. Jenmo.n, Supevintendent Botanical Gardens, 
Demerara. 

ASPLENIUM HaRRISI. 

This very fragile, delicately thin little species belongs to the A. viride 
group, from all which, however, it is characterised by several distin- 
guishing features, but chiefly by its attenuation upwards into the naked 
thread-like tail, proliferous at the end, a feature which not only marks it 
from its Jamaican allies of the A. Trichomanes gioup, but also from tlie 
nearer Andean allies. The buds at the end of the tail form new plants, 



43 

the tip of the fronds of which are again rhizophorous, and so go on making 
new plants and forming more or less matted patches, as in A. rhizophorum. 

Asplenium Harrisi (EuaspleniumJ, Jenm., n. sp. — Rootstcck little larger 
ihan a piu's head, densely clothed with minute dark scales ; stipites tufted, thread- 
ike, dark glossy brown, 1 to IJ inch long, often fiexuose, channelled ; frondu pin- 
nate, semi-erect or prostate, 3 to 5 inches long, J to § inch wide ; rachis very 
slender glossy, brown, channelled, sliglitly margined in the upper part, and extend- 
ing its thread-like, naked tail 1 to 1| inch, gemmiferous, and rooting at the end, 
pinnae bright, glossy, translucent, mpmbranous, naked, apart, spreading, both the 
upper and lower gradually reduced, 2 to 3 lines long, rounded and crenate in the 
upper and outer part, the base truncate, dimidiate frcm the infniior side being cut 
away, the minute upper ones cuneate : veins fine, forke 1, flabellate, open, no mid- 
veins, terminating within the margin : EOri medial oblique, ^ to 1 line in length, 
occupying both the superior and infeiior veinlets ; involucres silverj, flat, eventu- 
ally raised. Jamaica, Blue Mountain Peak, over 7,000 feet elevation, ccllected 
and communicated by Mr. Wm. Harris, November, 1894. 

Gardeners^ Chronicle, Janum-y 19th, 1895. 



Asplenium Fawcetti. 

This very interesting species, and beautiful addition to the Trichomanes 
group of the genus in Jamaica, was gathered last November by Mr. Wm. 
Harris, Superintendent of the Hill Gardens, and at bis request, is named 
after his chief, the Director of Public Gardens and Plantations. Its dis- 
tinguishing features are the numerous pincse (three doz. to five doz. on a 
side), their dwindling to nearly, but not quite nothing at the apex of the 
frond, the very fragile rachis and the markedly conspicuous, silver coloured 
involucres. The rachis which is occasionally wavy, sometimes bears a bud 
in the axis of a leaflet an inch or so short of the apex. The plant is widely 
distinct from A. monanthemum, L., as well as the other species of the 
group. 

*Asj)lenium Fawcetti, Jenm., n. sp.— Root stocks clustered, very small, fibrous 
the centre densely clothed with fine, attenuated castaneous scales, stipites in tufts, 
semi-erect, slender, wiry but fragile, margined, castaneous or darker, ^ — 2 inches 
long, fronds spreading, linear, and much narrowed to the apex, but without a 
naked tail, a span to 1 foot long, six to eight lines wide, narrowed at the base, 
thin, dark green, naked, rachis very slender, fragile, dark, glossy, channelled with 
scarious margins , pinnse very numerous, sessile dwindling mostly to mere pin-dots 
in the outer part of the fronds, and reduced to auricles at the base, rhomboidal and 
subdimidiate, the superior base wide, but hardly auricled, the inferior base absent 
4 to 5 lines long, 2 lines wide, spreading, contiguous, but not touching, broadly 
rounded, and conspicuously bluntly toothed along th^ upper and round the outer 
and inferior margins to where the base is cut away ; veins pinnate at an acute angle, 
falling short in the teeth, three to a side, all simple, but the inferior one on the 
superior base, which is once forked from below the middle , sori on both sides of 
the mid-vein, two or three to a side, lateral on the veins, about one line long dis- 
tant from the margin, and usually short of the base, involucres conspicuous, 
bright, silvery. 

Blue Mountain Peak, 7,300 ft alt., Jamaica. 
— Gardeners' Chronicle, August 12th, 1899. 



POLYPODIUM HaRRISII. 

This highly interesting species comes in between Polypodium trifurcatum 
and Enterosora Campbelli, all three havinu; a very close resemblance and 
evident connection. In all, the sori are move or less sank, but extrude 
when mature. In this and P. trifurcatum, they are in oval or round pits, 



44 

while in Enterosora they are immersed in slit-like linear aperatures and 
are mucli longer, but extrude eventually. In both this and Enterosora the 
venation is connected, forming a series of two or three meshes on each 
side of the midrib, while in P. trifurcatum the branches are uniformly en- 
tirely free. The venation quite conforms to some of tbe states of 
Phymatodes, the costal series being narrow and unoccupied by either free 
branches or sori. Mr. Wm. Harris, F.L.S.. the Superintendent of the Hill 
Gardens, the discoverer of it, whose name it bears, writes me that : " It 
is almost as rare as Enterosora, and like that plant, it grows on the high 
limbs of large forest trees, so that it is a difficult matter to detect it from 
the ground, and when detected, it is an exceedingly difficult matter to get 
within reach of it." Possibly this exalted elevation on large trees, almost 
beyond reach of sight, may be the reason, more than their rareness, of the 
late discovery of Enterosora in Jamaica. 

Polypodium Harrisii, Jenm, n. sp.-Roo+stock repent, fleshy, | to 1^ inch 
long, ery densely clothed with pale fulvous, acuminate, linear-lanceolate, reticu- 
lated, wavy scales: sfipites mostly clustered, wiry, freely clothed with rusty, 
spreading, fine hairs, 2 to 4 inches long : fronds ligulate, 5 to 10 inches long, \ to 
I inch wide, merely sinuate or uniformly shallowly lobate, the lobes broadly rounded 
base and apex plain and tapering, the latter usually blunt ; margins fensely hairy 
other parts glabrous an glossy; substance coriaceous and brittle: midrib and 
veins on both sides covered in the parenchyma : surface wrinkled and striated 
more especially the upper ; veins in groups, the lateral branches connected form- 
ing two to thiee series of meshes of varying shape and form, th outer short vein- 
lets sometimes free ISori oval or round, copious, in two series mostly, sometimes 
in part three, on each side, one to each mesh, on a shorter nr longer spur arising 
from the niddle of the ;irch, generally medial but occasionally terminal : sunk in 
pits which are not raised on the upper side of the fronds. Near Mabess River, 
Jamaica, 3,000 feet altitude. 

Gardeners^ Chronicle, April 21st, 1900. 



ADDITIONS AND CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE 

DEPARTMENT. 

Library (Serials). 

Europe. 

British Isles. 

Annals of Botany, Vol. XVI. No LXIV, Dec. 1902. [Purchased.] 

Botanical Magazine, Dec. [Purcha.'-ed.] 

Bulletin Kew Gardens, App. 1. 1903. [Director.] 

Chemist and Druggist, Nov. 15, 22, 29. Dec. 6, J 3, 20. [Editor.] 

Colonial and Diplomatic and Consular Reports, Sept., Oct., Nov. [Col. Sec] 

Garden, Nov. 15, 22, 29. Dec. 6, 13, 20. [Purchased.] 

Gardeners' Chronicle, Nov. 15, 22, 29, Dec 6, 13, 20. [Purchased,] 

Journal of Botany, Dec. [Purchased,] 

Nature, Nov. 13, 20, 27- Dec. 4, 11 18. [Purchased.] 

Pharmaceutical Journal, Nov. 15, 22, 29. Dec. 6, 13, 20. 

R. Colonial Institute, Journal, Dec. 

France. 

Journal d' Agriculture Tropicale, No. 17. [Publishers.] 

Sucrerie indigene et coloniale, Nov. 18, 25. Dec. 9, 16. [Editor.] 

Belgium. 

Suci^te d'Etudes Coloniales, No. 11, Nov. No. 12, Dec. [Editor. 



45 

Germany — 

Beihefte zum Tropenpflanzer, Dec. [Editor.] 

Botanische Staatsinstitute zu Hamburgh. Jahresherichfce 1901. [Director.] 

Tropenpflanzer, Dec. [Editor.] 

Switzerland — 

Bulletin de I'Herbier Boissier, No. 12. [Oonservateur.] 

Asia. 

India. 

Planting Opinion, Oct. 25. Nov. 1, 8, 15, 22, 29. [Editor.] 

Straits and Federated Malay States. 

Agricultural Bulletin, Vol. I., Nos. 12, 13. [Editor.] 

Ceylon 

Times of Ceylon. Oct. 29. Nov. 6, 12, 20, 27. Dec. 4 .[Editor,] 

Java. 

Proef station West Java No, 58. [Director ] 

Japan. 

Bulletin, Coll. of Agriculture, Vol. V. No. I. [Director.] 

Australia 

N. S. Wales. 

Agri. Gazette, Oct., Nov. [Dept. of Agri.j 

The following by J. H. Maiden : — 

Useful Australiau Plants, No. 78, A White Gum (Eucalyptus h^mastoma, 

Sm.) Reprint from Agri. Gaz. of N. S. Wales June 1902. 
No. 79, A Grey Gum (E. punctata, D.C.) Reprint from Agri. Gaz. of N. S. 
Wales, July 1902, 

4. On Eucalyptus Baueriana, Schauer. 

5. On E. calycogona, Turcz. Reprint from Procof Linn. Soc, of N. S. Wales 
1902, Ft. 2, June 25. 

On E. tereticornis, Sm. and E, rostrata, Schlect. Extract from Bull. Herb. 

Boissier No. 7, 30 JunQ 1902. [Author.] 
Report on Botanic Gardens and Domains for 1901. [Director,] 

Queensland. 

Queensland Agricultural Journal, Nov. [Sec. of, Agri.] 
Queensland Sugar Journal, Oct., Nov. [Editor.] 

Western Australia. 

Journal of the Dept. of Agri., Oct. [Dept. of Agri.] 

Africa. 

Cape of Good Hope. 

Agri. Journal, Nov. [Dept. of Agri.] 

Natal. 

Agri. .lournal and Mining Record, Oct, Nov. [Dept. of Agri,] 
Central Africa. 

C, African Times, Sept, 27, Oct. 4, 11, 18, 25. [Editor.] 

West Indies. 
Barbados. 

Agri. Gazette, Dec. [Editor.] 

Agricultural News, Dec. 6, 20. Jan. 3. "] rcommr. Imp. 

Report of the Agricultural work for the Season between | ^ T)ent of Atjri 
1900-1902 carried on under the direction of the Impe- S- „„f) a" „* p„, ' 
rial Dept. of Agri, for the W. Indies. By J. P. d'Al- | '^"a.] 
buciuerque and J. R. Bovell. J ^ '■' 



46 

Jamaica. 

Cornwall Herald. [Editor.] 

Journal Jamaica Agri. Soc, Dec. [^ec] 

The Presbyterian, Jan. [Editor.] 

Trinidad — 

Proc. of Agri. Society, 11 Nov. 1902. [Sec] 

British North America. 

Ontario — 

Crop Bulletin 81, November Crop Report. 

Montreal — 

Pharmaceutical Journal, Nov. [Editor.] 

Nova Scotia — 

Provincial Govt. Crop Report, Nov. 1902. [Sec. of Agri.] 

United States of America. 

Publications of the U. S. Dept. of Agri. \I)irectors.~\ 
Scientific Bureaus 8^ Divisions 

Bureau of Forestry : Bull. No, 37 The hardy Catalpa. 
No. 36, The Woodsman's Handbook, Part I. By Henry Solon Graves. 
Bull. No. 35, Eucalyptus cultivated in the United States. By Alfrd James 
McClatchie. 

Bureau of Plant Industry : Bull. o. 26 Spanish Almonds. 

Division of Agrostology : Bull. No. 14 (Revised) Economic Grasses. By F. 
Lauison-Scribner, No. 25 Field Work of the Division, of Agrostology . A 
Review and Summary of the work done since the organization of the Divi- 
sion, July 1, 1895. By Cornelius L. Shear. Prepared under the direc- 
tion of F. Lamson-Scribner, Agrostologist. 

List of Publications of the Office of Grass and Foliage Plant Investigations 
and the Division of Agrostology. By W. J. Spillman, Agrostologist. 

Experiment Station Record, Vol, XIV, No. 2 «fc 3. 

Experiment Stations. 

Arizona. 45 (Hints for Farmers). 

Illinois. 73 (Comparison of Silage and Shock Corn for Calves.) 74 (Standard 
Milk and Cream.) 75 (Standardization of Milk and Cream.) 76 (Alfalfa <iu 
Illinois SoU.) 78 [Market Classes and grades of Cattle with suggestions 
for interpreting market quotations.) 79 (The Corn Bill-bugs in Illinois.) 
80 Field insecticide work against the San Jose Scale. 1899-1902.) 81 
Forcing Tomatoes.) 

Kansas, Fifteenth Annual Report, 1901 '02. 

Louisiana. 65 (Analyses of Commercial Fertilizers and Paris Green.) 
66 (Sugar Cane. Experiments in Cultivation.) 67 Broom Corn " How 
to grow aud Cure it." 68 (Home-grown vs. Purchased seed.) 69 (Pecans.) 
70 (Cane Borer (Diatraea Saccbaralis.) 71 (Report for 1901, by D. N. 
Barrow, Asst. Dir.) 

Maryland. 80 (Influence of Preservatives upon the Food Value ot Milk.) 

New Hampshire. 4 (Effect of Acetylene Gas-light on Plant Growth). 
(Cold Storage of Apples). 

New York. 216 (Report of Analyses of Commercial Fertilizers for the 
Spring and Fall of 1902.) 

Virginia. 8 (On the production of Vinegar in Cellars). 9 (Orchard Studies. 
— I. The fruit plantation. Pome Fruits.) 

Wiscon&in. 97 (Licensed Commercial Feeding Stuffs, 1902.) 
American Druggist and Pharmaceutical Record, Nov. 24, Dec. 8, 22. 
American Journal of Pharmacy, Dec. [Editor,] 
Botanical Gazette, Chicago, Nov. [Editor.] 



47 

Contr. from the Botanical Laboratory, Univ. Pensylvania, Vol. I, No. 1, 1893. 
Oontr. from the Zoological Laboratory, Vol. II, Nos. 1 & 2. 
Contr. from the Zoological Laboratory for the year 1900. Ditto for 1901. 
Syllabus of Lectures on the Vertebrata. By Edward D. Cope [University 
o*' Pensylvania.] 
fCornell Nature- Study Bulletin, Nos. 1-9. 

J Junior Naturalist Monthly, Vol. IV., 1901, Nos. 1, 2, 3 , Vol. IV., 1902, 
] Nos. 4-1 ] ; Vol. V , 1902, Nos. 1, 2. 

[^Teachers' Leaflets, Nos. 1-13. [J. Craig, Cornell University.] 
Cotton & Farm Journal Dec. [Publishers.] 

Forestry and Irrigation, Dec. Vol. VIII. No. 12. [Publishers.] 
The Louisiana Planter and Sugar Manufacturer, Nov 29. Dec. 6, 13, 20, 27. 

[Editor.] 
The Philadelphia Commercial Museum what it is, and what it does. [Director ] 
Thb Plant World, Oct. [Publishers.] 
Torrey Club Bulletin, Nov., Dec. [Editor.] 
Torrey Club Bulletin, Mar. 1888, Dec. 1889, July 1891, Mar. 1900, May 1902. 

[Library, New York Bot. Card.] 
On the Gametophyte of Selagiiella. By D. H. Campbell. From Anals of Bo- 
tany, Vol. XVI, No. LXIII, Sept. 1902. [Author.] 
Recent Investigations upon the embryo sac of Angiosperms. By D. H. Camp- 
bell. Reprint from The American Naturalist, Vol. XXXVI, No. 4^0, Oct. 
1902. [Author.] 

Central America. 
Boletin del Instituto Fisico-Geografico de Costa Rica, No. 21. [Director.] 

Polynesia. 
Hawaiian Planters' Monthly, Nov., Dec. [Editor.] 

Seeds. 

From Lady Blake, Hong Kong — 

Passiflora sp. (Australia) Rhododendron indicum. 

From Mr. V. E. Silvera, Oracabessa. 
Thrinax argentea (Silver Thatch) 

From Mr. J. C. Harvey. La Junta, Vera Cruz, Mexico. 
Stemadenia bella. 

From Herr Fed or Deininger, San Salvador, C, America. 
Inga vera. 

From Acting Curator Botanic Gardens, Aburi, Gold Coast. 
Borassus aethiopicum. 

From Mr. Alfred Gartwright British Consul, Ecuador. 
Carludovica palmata. 

From Supt. Botanic Gardens, Trinidad. 
Theobroma bicolor. 

From Mr. W. Cradwick. 
Yampie. 

Plants. 

From Mr. Alfred Cartwright, British Consul, Ecuadar. 

Carludovica palmata. 
From Messrs. James Backhouse ^ Son, Ltd., The Nurseries, York. 

Abutilon Schwartzii ; Acalypha Hamiltoni ; Anthurium, J- B. & Son's 
strain ; Azalea rosseflora ; Bamboos in variety ; Calamus ciliaris ; Dracaena 
rubra; Euonymus elegantissimus ; Ficus barbata ; F. falcata ; Gymuosta- 



48 

chyum, red ; Hibiscus Cooperi ; Vlicania pulverulenta ; Nepeta glee, va- 
riegata ; Phyllanthus roseo-pictus ; Saiutpaulia ionantha ; Schisostylis 
coccineus ; Sibthorpia europea aurea ; and the following varieties of 
roses : Anna Marie de Montravel ; Baroness Kothschild ; Captain Christy ; 
Captain Hayward ; Countess of Oxford; Crown Prince ; Ducher ; Duk& 
of Edinburgh ; Duke of Teck ; Georges Fernet ; Hippolyte Jamain ; Jean 
Liabaud ; La France ; Madame Eugene Resal ; Madatre Isaac Pierre ; 
Magna Charta ; Merveille de Lyon ; Paul Neyron ; Pierre Notting ; Reine 
du Midi ; Sanglant ; Senateur Vaisse ; Ulrich Brunner Fils ; White Pet. 

From Director Royal Gardens, Kew — 
Bulbils of Lilium sulphureum. 

Irom Imperial Commissioner from Botanic Station, Antigua — 
Black Antigua Pines. 

Herbarium. 
tVom Mr. Alfred Cartwright, British Consul, Ecuador. 

Samples of "Straw" prepared from leaves of Carludovica palmata. 

From Son. Geo. McGrath, Charlemont, Ewatton. 
Specimen of Coco Plum. 

From Prof. Dr. Urban, Berlin. 
A Collection of 63 specimens. 

Library (Books.) 

Phycotheca Boreali — Americana. Fascicles XIX & XX and Fascicle C. 
[Purchased.] 



[Issued 14th February, 1903. j 



Printed at the Govt. Printing O^c, Kingston, Jam. 



Vol. I. MARCH, 1903. Part 3. 



BULLETIN 



OF IHB 



DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



> » < 



EDITED BY 



WILLIAM EAWCETT. B.Sc, F.L.S, 

Director of Public Gardens and Plantations. 



CONTENTS: 

Page. 

Economic uses of Coco-nut , 49 

Cane Experiments in British Guiana . 50 

Tables of Sugar Production . 51 

Grass Oils . 53 

International Conference on Plant Breeding and Hybridization 56 

Board of Agriculture 68 

Additions and Contributions . 69 



PRIG E -Threepence. 



A Copy will be supplied free to any Resident in Jamaica, who will send Name and 
Address to the Director of Public Gardens and Plantations, Kingston P.O. 



KINGSTON, JAMAICA 
Hops Gabdbns. 

1903. 



JAMAICA, 



BXJLIjETIN 



i>F THE 



DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



Vol. I. MARCH, 1903. Part 3. 



ON THE NUTRITIVE VALUE AND SOME OF THE 
ECONOMIC USES OF THE COCO-NUT. 

By William J. Gies. 

Few if any vegetable products furnish so many useful articles as the 
coco-nut. It forms the chief food of the inhabitants of most tropical 
coasts and islands, where the kernel is not only eaten in the ripe and un- 
ripe conditions, but is also prepared and served in various ways, ft forms 
an accessory part of the diet, and is found in many of the confections of 
civilized man all over the globe. The milk is considered an agreeable 
cooling beverage in the tropics, although it is diuretic in its effect, and 
causes irritation of the mucous membrane of the bladder and urethra 
when taken too freely. Immoderate use of the fruit is said to cause rheu- 
matic and other diseases. 

Experiments recently published in the Bulletin of the Torrey 
Botanical Club by Professor Kirk wood and the writer, conducted 
in part in this garden and with the co-operation of Dr. MacDouo-al 
indicate that the nutritive value of the endosperm of the coco-nut 
resides mainly in its high content of oil and moderate amount of 
carbohydrate. Of the former the fresh endosperm contains 35-40 per cent. ; 
of the latter, approximately 10 per cent. The amount of protsid is very 
Blight, being little more than 3 per cent. The quantity of inorganic matter 
is 1 per cent. The water amounts to nearly 50 per cent. The chief con- 
stituent of the milk, aside from water (95 per cent.), is sugar, nearly all 
of the solids being thus composed, as the very sweet taste amply testifies. 
Various alcoholic beverages have been made from fermented coco-nut milk. 

The endosperm is very agreeable to the taste, and with the exception of 
the cellulose (3 per cent.), is readily digestible. Domestic animals eat it 
eagerly, and the coco-nut-crab feeds on it almost exclusively. The resi- 
due left over after the fat has been expressed from the " copra" is widely 
used in Europe as food for cattle, also as fertilizer. 

The use of coco-fat as a substitute for butter among the poorer classes 
has been increasing, and it is frequently employed as a butter adulterant. 
The tendency of coco-fat to rancidity is not as great as that of animal 
fats, and for this reason " butters" made from it keep well, and hvae beea 



50 

recommended especially for military and naval ut-es. Eecent researches 
show that " coco butter" is quite as agreeable to the taste, and as easily and 
completely digested, as ordinary butter. Its heat of combustion is 9.066 
small calories per gram. 

" Coco-nut cream," a dietary product much used in the tropics, is made 
by grating the endosperm and squeezing the fluid from the finely divided 
material through cloth. In a warm climate the resultant mixture con- 
tains much oil and is a very delicious accessory food. Besides the oil, the 
"cream" contains chiefly carbohydrate and proteid. 

Soaps made from coco-oil combine with, or hold an unusual amount of 
water, while retaining special hardness, and are characterized by great 
solubility in salt solution. The so-called " marine" or " salt-water soap" 
has the property of dissolving as well in salt water as in fresh water. 
The harder fats of the oil make excellent candles. Coco-nut oil and resin 
melted together yield a mixture capable of being used with success in fill- 
ing up the seams of boats and ships, and in tropical countries for covering 
the corks of bottles as a protection against the depredations of the white ant. 

The fibrous husk (coirj is widely used for the construction of ropes 
brushes, bags, matting, etc. The hard shell is easily polished, and lends 
itself to the formation of various utensils and ornaments. It also has a 
high fuel value. The powdered shell and husk are occasionally used as 
adulterants of ground spices. 

The milk of the nut, as has already been pointed out, is strongly diu- 
retic. The endosperm shares with milk the property of a taenicide, and 
has been used as a vermifuge in India for many years, where it is regarded 
as an excellent means of expelling the flat worm. The harder fats of 
the oil are used as constituents for suppositories and related therapeutic 
products. Medicinally the oil is employed repeatedly as a substitute 
for lard, olive oil and cod-liver oil. It is also made the chief substance 
by bulk in various salves and cold cream, pomade and similar cosmetic 
preparations. In ointments and cerates it is especially valuable because 
of its ready absorption when rubbed on the surface of the body, and on 
account of its ability to hold an unusual amount of water or saline fluid. 
It shows little tendency to produce chemical changes in substances with 
which it may be associated. (Journal of the New Yorh Botanical Garden.) 



SUGAR CANE EXPERIMENTS IN BRITISH 

GUIANA. 

We have received the Eeport of the Board of Agriculture of British 
Guiana in which Professor J, B. Harrison, C M.G., gives the results of the 
Co-operative Sugar Cane Experiments carried out during the crop year 
1901-2. 

"We quote from the Eeport :- - 

" The Committee being impressed with the danger which underlies 
" hasty deductions from agricultural experiments conducted over the crops 
" of only one year, even when carried out on the relatively large scale these 
" have been, refrain from making any observations on the results, and from 
" drawing any deductions therefrom. The data are placed on record for 
" comparison with those which may be obtained in later series of Experi- 
" mente. The values of the data vary greatly. In the cases of D. 625 and 
" the Sealy variety the areas were small and the number of Experiments 
" reported were few. 



51 



Tte mean yields in tons of Commercial Sugar 'per acre reported, are as 
follows : — 



Order. 


Variety. 


Tons Sugar 
per acre. 


No. of 
Experiments. 


Acres. 


1 


D. 625 


2.95 


4 


11 


2 


Sealy 


2.49 


4 


9 


3. 


D. 95 


2.24 


12 


80 


4 


Bourbon 


2.18 


11 


1,104 


5 


D. 145 


2.17 


8 


44 


6 


White Transparent 


2.03 


13 


380 


7 


D. 74 


2.03 


9 


49 


8 


B. 147 


1.99 


13 


283 


9 


D. 109 


1.91 


12 


225 


10 


D. 78 


1.39 


7 


93 



These results should certainly encourage the Jamaica Board of Agri* 
.cultui-e in the prosecution of their plans for a systematic trial of cane 
varieties on all the chief sugar producing areas of the Island. 

TABLES OF SUGAR PRODUCTION. 

By the Hon .Francis Watts, Antigua. 

These tables were prepared for the Imperial Department of Agriculture 
by Mr. Watts and should be of value to Sugar Planters in Jamaica. 

Table showing the Number of Tons of Cane and Gallons of Juice re- 
quired TO Produce One Ton of Sugar under varying Conditions of 
Manufacture and op Saccharine Richness of Juice. 



Juices. 
.Pounds of Cane Sugar per 
Imperial Gallon of Juice 
Total Solids 
Purity 
Specific Gravity 30—16.6 



Case I. 

Crushing by Mill per cent 
Extraction per cent 
Gallons juice per ton sugar 
Tons cane per ton sugar 



2.00 


■J. 80 


1.60 


1.40 


2.272 


2.045 


1.818 


1.592 


880/0 


880 '0 


880/0 


880/0 


1.0834 


1.0748 


1.0660 


1.0574 


75 


75 


75 


75 


88 


88 


88 


88 


1273 


1414 


1591 


1818 


8.21 


9.05 


10.10 


11.44 



52 



Case I . 

Crushing by Mill per cent 
Extraction per cent 
Gallons juice per ton sugar 
Tons cane per ton sugar 

Case III. 

Crushing by MiU per cent 
Extraction per cent 
Gallons juice per ton sugar 
Tons cane per ton sugar 



70 
88 
1273 
8.80 



70 

88 
1414 

9.69 



70 
88 
1591 
10.82 



70 

88 

1818 

12.26 



60 
83 

1350 
10.78 



60 

83 

1499 

11.99 



60 

83 

1687 

13.38 



60 
83 
1927 
15.16 



CAhE IV. 

Crushing by Mill per cent 
Extraction per cent 
Gallons juice per ton sugar 
Tons cane per ton sugar 



55 
S-6 
1350 
11.87 



55 
83 
1499 
13.08 



55 

83 

1687 

14.60 



66 

i'3 

1927 

16.64 



Case V. 

Crushing by Miil per cent 
Extraction per cent 
Gallons juice per ton sugar 
Tons cane per ton sugar 

Case VI. 

Crushing by Mill per cent 
Extraction per cent 
Gallons juice per ton sugar 
Tons cane per ton sugar 



60 
78 
1430 
11.57 



60 
78 
1595 
12.75 



60 

78 

1795 

14.24 



60 

78 

2061 

16.14 



55 
78 
1436 
12.63 



65 

78 

1595 

13.91 



66 

78 

1795 

15.53 



66 

78 

2051 

17.60 



Case VII. 

Crushing by Miil per cent 
Extraction per cent 
Gallons juice per ton sugar 
Tons cane per ton sugar 



56 
74 
1514 
13.31 



65 

74 

1682 

14.66 



55 
74 
1892 
16.86 



66 

74 

2162 

18.56 



Case VIII. 

Crushiag by Mill per cent 50 

Extraction per cent 74 

Gallons juice per ton sugar 1514 

Tons cane per ton sugar 14.61 



50 

74 

1682 

16.10 



50 

74 

1892 

17.97 



50 

74 

2162 

20.36 



Definitions. 

Total Solids. The quantity of substance in solution in cane juice 
including sugar and impurities. 

Purity oe Co-efficient of Purity. The proportion of Cane sugar to 
100 of Total Solids. Calculated by tlividing the Total Solids into the cane 
sugar and multiplying by 100. 

It has been assumed at 88 for the purposes of these calculations. 

Crushing. The weight of juice expressed by the mill from 100 parts 
by weight of canes. 

Extraction. The amount of marketable sugar obtained from every 100 
parte by weight of cane sugar in the juice. 

Francis Watts. 



US 



Gallons of Juice per Ton of Cans for different Percentages of Crushing. 

Sp. Gravity 1.0750. 






Gallons of 




Gallons of 






Crushing 
per cent. 


juice perton 
of cane. 


Crushing 
per cent. 


juice per ton 
of cane. 




, : 


48 


100.0 


65 


135.4 






49 


102.1 


66 


137.5 






50 


104.2 


67 


139.6 






51 


106.3 


68 


141.7 






52 


108.4 


69 


143. « 






53 


110.4 


70 


145.9 






54 


112.5 


71 


147.9 






55 


114.6 


72 


15) 




\ 


56 


116.7 


73 


152.1 






57 


118.8 


74 


164.2 






58 


120.9 


75 


156.3 






59 


122.9 


76 


158.4 






60 


125 


77 


160.4 






61 


127.1 


78 


162.5 






62 


129.2 


79 


164.6 






63 


131.3 


80 


166.7 




J—-- 


64 


133.4 


... 


• •• 





GRASS OILS. 

By H. H. Cousins. 
In view of the recent observations on the growth of the Andropogon 
grasses at the Hope Experiment Station and of the yield of oiL obtainable, 
it appears desirable to compare these results with those recorded of the 
same products prepared in Trinidad by the Superintendent of ttie Bstanio 
Gardens and subsequently investigated by the Hon. F. Watts in the 
Government Laboratory, Antigua. 

TKINIDAD OILS. 

LEMONGSASS OILS. 

The prices of this oil fluctuated during the last few months between 
4|d. and 5|d. equal to 14:-50 to 17 marks per kilo purchase price, but the 
article appears to be scarce in India, as large parcels were rarely offered. 
We hear from Cochin that the yield of the harvest has been very 
rsmall, and that in consequence the merchants are holding the goods back 
,in order to obtain higher prices. 



54: 

The decline of the sugar industry in the West Indian islands appears 
■io lead to this, that the lands and the labour set free by the reduced culti- 
vation of sugar-cane are employed for other purposes ; and from a report 
•which has reached us from a friendly quarter it would seem that it is in- 
tended to take up there the cultivation of the Andropogon grasses. That 
attempts to cultivate these grasses have already been made in Ihose islands- 
is proved by the fact, that the Superintendent of the Botanical Gardens at 
Trinidad, at a meeting in Barbados, produced among other essential oils, 
also the oils of Andropogon Nardus var., and Andropogon ScJioenanthus, 
which were subsequcLtly examined more in detail at the Government La- 
boratory in Antigua. 

The following results were obtained there : — 

for the first oil : 
a ||:|«' = 0-9084, aD = + o°l' ; aldehyde-content 15-5 per ceat. ; 
saponification number 23, saponification number after acetylation 168*5, 
corresponding to a total alcohol-content of about 53 per cent.; 

for the other oil : 
d 44:f° = 0-9315, aD = -f b°; aldebyde-content 48-2 per cent. ; 
saponification number 31-1 ; saponification number after acetylation 69-6, 
corresponding to 20-2 per cent. Cj o Hj g 0. 

"Whereas the first of the two oils, apart from the low dextrogyration,- 
approximately agrees wiih Ceylon citrocella oil (it does not dissolve in 
10 volumes of 70 per cent, alcohol, but readily in the same volume of 80 
per cent, alcohol), the other oil diffeis in its properties in a very marked 
degree from palmarosa oil, with which, according to the mother plant, it 
ehould be identical. But the oil cannot be considered as lemon. grass oil 
because (even assuming that the aldehyde it contains is actually citral), 
the aldehyde-content is too low ; it shows a certain amount of similarity 
with a lemongrass oil from the same district (compare Eeport April 1902, 
page 48), inat^niuch as it dissolves with great difficulty, and only makes 
clear solutions with 94 per cent, alcohol. — From Schimmels Semi-annual 
Keport as given in Agricultural News p. 20. 

JAMAICA OILS. 

Andropogon ScJioenanthus. 

This the ordinary " fever grass" of Jamaica, grew strongly and furnished 
an abundance of grass for cutting. Ihe results of distillation were, how- 
ever, so disappointing that it was concluded that the cost of production 
-per lb. of oil was far too high to enable this grass to compete with the 
Andropogon Nardus of Ceylon as a source of Lemon-grass oil, quite apart 
from the intrinsic value of the two products. 

—Experiments were made to decide the best treatment of the grass before 
being placed in the Still. Uncut grass gave a lower yield of oil and took 
longer to distill than cut grass. It was found, however, that fine sub- 
division in a closely set Chaff Cutter was, if anything, detrimental to the 
yield of oil. The practical conclusion arrived at was that the grass should 
be cut freeh as wanted and cut up into lengths of about 6 inches for dis- 
tillation. The Laboratory Still took 36B)s of grass at each charge. The 
yield of oil varied but little andiimounted to 1 cubic centimetre per fl> 
of green grass. This equals a yield of 4ozs. per cwt. 

The oil was of a bright golden yellow colour and gave the following 
results : — 

Specific Gravity fj-" 0-8897 

Optical Activity — 1-0*V in 20 cm. tube 

T = 29.5. C. 



55 



On distillation the following fractions were obtained : — 





Temperature. 


Per Cent. 


Optical A.C- 






C. 


1 


tivity 






215-225 


22 


— i-o»v 






225-230 


34: 


08°V 






230-240 


20 


1-0°V 






Above 240 


24 







Comparing these results with those recorded for the Trinidad oil of 
A. SchoenantJius, the following digerences are to be noted. — The specific 
gravity of the Jamaica oil is markedly lower. Whereas the Trinidad 
oil is dextro-rotatory, the Jamaica product is laevo-rotatory. The 
Chemistry of this oil requires investigation and it is hoped that some 
research Chemist may come forward to elucidate its composition. 

Andropogon Nardus, 

This grass is the one grown in Ceylon. It appeared lass vigorous 
and hardy at Hope Gardens than the Creole grass. The results of dis- 
tillation were nearly three times as great as with A. SchoenantJius. A 
yield of 2-9 cubic centimetres oil per ft) of fresh grass was consistently 
maintained. This equals 11-6 ozs. per cwt. of grass as against 4ozs. 
from A. ScJioenanthus. 

The following results were obtained : — 

Specific Gravity 60<* F 0'893o 



Optical Activity 



60 °F 
+ 17-0°V T=:29-5°C. 



on distillation the following fractions were obtained : — 



Temperature. 
C. 



195-217 

217-225 

225-235 

Above 235 



Per Cent. 



6 
40 
50 
24 



56 

As compared with the Trinidad oil the lower specific gravity and mark- 
edly higher dextro-rotation are notable. The Boiling Point of Citronellol 
is given in Watts' Dictionary as 210°— 220". 

These oils have been sent to Messrs. Schimmel for their report, and it will 
then be possible to form an opinion as to the commercial production of 
Lemon grass oil in Jamaica. To the student of organic Chemistry these 
oils present an attractive subject for investigation. The Island Chemiet 
will be pleased to supply to any Chemist who would undertake the inves- 
tigation, a reasonable quantity of oil for that purpose. So pressing are the 
needs of our strictly technical work at the Government Laboratory, that it 
is quite impossible for the Chemist and his Staff to undertake this inves- 
tigation under present conditions. 

INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON PLANT 
BREEDING AND HYBRIDIZATION. 



Editorial From Expeimental Station Record.* 



The second International Conference on Plant Breeding and Hybridiza- 
tion, which was recently held in New York City, exceeded in attendance 
and interest the previous meeting, held in London in 1899, and served to 
show the large interest in the subject in tbis country. An extensive pro- 
gramme of papers was presented, but only a portion of them were read. 
These discussed the principles of plant breeding and their application, as 
well as giving the results of years of work and observation in the produc- 
tion and pre pagation of improved varieties of plants. 

In the theoretical discussion of tbe papers there was an almost universal 
acceptance of Mendel's law regarding the appearance of dominant and re- 
cessive characters in the later generation of hybiids. This law, although 
announced in 1865, has only recently been given wide publicity through 
its publication in various journals (E. S. R., 13, p. 744). It was the con- 
sensus of opinion that it is the best available working hypothesis for the 
plant and animal breeder, and that it seems to stand the test of experience 
to a remarkable degree. The methods of Mendel were commented upon, 
and in a number of papers his conclusions were reaffirmed relative to the 
necessity of large numbers of individuals in breeding experiments and the 
continuation of the investigations through many generations, in order that 
the results may be of permanent value. The futility of indiscriminate 
crossings and the necessity of working with pure strains or races was 
shown by abundant examples. A hybrid produced from a mixed ancestry 
is very liable to be inferior to either or both of its parents, unless by a 
long system of cultivation the characteristics of the parents have become 
definitely fixed. 

In all kinds of breeding experiments it is necessary to adopt an ideal 
and adhere closely to it, rejecting for the time all secondary variations 
that may appear. If these seem veiy promising, they can be cultivated 
independently of the m^in investigation, but nothing should divert the 
breeder from continuing to follow to its conclusion the line of experimen- 
tation, which should be well formulated at the start. Once a hybrid is 
established, then selection and cultivation enter into the problem of fixing 
it. The selection requires keen discriminating powers, and is in many 
ways more important than the act which produced the hybrid. 

Another thought brought out quite prominently was the necessity for 

* Vol. xiv, November, 1902. 



57 

'breeding to meet definite requirements. Changed seasonal, soil, and cli- 
matic conditions will often render worthless what are otherwise promising 
■varieties. It is believed to be impossible to originate a variety of plant 
that is of universal value, and the transfer of valuable sorts to regions of 
markedly different character was said to be usually followed by disap- 
pointing results. 

A high compliment was paid to the plant-breeding work that has been 
(iarried on in this country. One of the foreign guests declared that greater 
advance is being made along this line in the United States than in any 
other country, the great range ot soil, climate, and necessities making such 
work possible. 

The value of such a meeting in arousing an interest in the subject of 
plant breeding can hardly be estimated. The description of methods, 
criticism of results, and the application of principles were given and taken 
in a spirit of scientific earnestness, und the enthusiasm aroused will be 
continued and exhibited in the wide extension of the work. 

The systematic work which is being done in plant breeding, including the 
study of principles governing it, is worthy of imitation in animal breeding* 
The field is quite as attractive, as far as possibilities of useful results are 
concerned. The breeding or selection of plants resistant to disease sug- 
gests that something might be done with animals in producing strains 
more vig 'reus or resistant to some of our troublesome diseases. In this 
connection some recent experiments reported from Algeria in attempts to 
combat Texas fever are interesting. In the search for some animal of the 
bovine kind which was immune to Texas fever, it was found that both the 
buffalo and zebu were naturally resistant to this disease. The buffalo 
could not be crossed with the domestic cattle, and appeared to be for other 
reasons less desirable than the zebu as a substitute for cattle. It was 
found that the zebu crossed readily with different races of cattle, and that 
all hybrids thus -obtained were perfectly immune to Texas fever. The 
female hybrids bfttween the zebu and d anestic cattle were found to be 
very fertile, while the males were well adapted to the production of beef 
or to performing work of various kinds. The hybrids attained a weight 
of about 360 kg. (792 lbs.) at an age of li years and the dressed weight 
averaged about 62 per cent of the live weight. The large hump composed 
of muscle and fat tissue and situated over the shoulders of the zebu largely 
disappears in the hybrid. The bones are unusually small and of a delicate 
nature. The meat is said to be of good quality. The milk of the zebu or 
of the hybrid is claimed to be richer than that of the ordinary Arabian 
cow. The zebu gives from 6 to 8 quarts per day, while hybrids yield 
from 15 to 16 quarts. Three different races of z^^bushave been introduced 
into Algeria, one from Madagascar, one from Cochin-China and a third 
from India- The third, or Brahmin race, is the only one which proved 
to be of economic importance and is the one from which the present zebus 
and hybrids of Algeria have descendf^d. 

Review of Papers 

By Walter H. Evans, Ph. D. 
Of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. 

An international conference on plant breeding and hybridization was 
Ixeld in New York City, September 30 to October 2, 19 2, under the 
auspices of the Horticultural Society of New York, with James Wood as 
president and Leonard Barron, secretary. About SO delegates were 
prsent, representing difiereut parts of the United States, Canada, England 



58 

West Indies, etc. A programme of more than 50 papers was presented, 
a number being sent from Germany, Austria, France, Holland, and 
England, All of the papers are to be published in full in the proceedings 
of the New York Horticultural Society, which it is hoped will appear 
early in the coming year. A brief account is here given of a number of 
papers which were presented at the Conference. 

Prof. W. Bateson, of Cambridge University, England, considered the 
Practical Aspects of the New Discoveries in Hei-edity. He briefly re- 
viewed Mendel's law of heredity, and pointed out some of the great 
advances which have been made since the enunciation of that law. Tn 
general it was stated that while great differences may exist in plants and 
animals, hybrids in their first generation represent the characters of one 
parent and not of both. The author believed that the time would soon 
come when the fundamental principles of plant and animal breeding 
•would be known, so that the breeder would be able to control his work 
instead of depending upon chance results. For the practical man it is 
impossible to always determine the characters which exist in the parent 
plants. As an example, it is cited that green peas may be due to the 
union of 2 green varieties, of yellow and green varieties, or of 2 yellows 
all of which tends to complicate the special hereditary characteristics. 
The frequent occurrence of bearded wheats in plats of beardless varieties 
was mentioned, and their presence was attributed to the probable fact 
that the beardless variety had been developed from a bearded form, 
the plants still containing some of the germ cells of the bearded 
ancestors. The predominance of the recessive germs resulted in the 
appearance of bearded forms, and the presence and influence of recessive 
germs can be eliminated only gradually. Species, according to the 
author, are not to be considered necessarily fixed or of loug duration. 
Crosses or, as the author called them, heterozygote forms do not usually 
reproduce their kinds, but often result in reversion to ancestral types. 
A number of examples were cited of reversions which have taken place 
in the sweet pea, giant lavender, primulas, Andalusian fowls, etc., which 
show that in a number of instances the forms are not readily fixed, 
being the result of complex crosses that are for the rpost part infertile, 

A paper by C. C. Hurst, entitled Notes on Mendel'.s Methods of Plant 
Breeding, was read by the secretary. Mendel was apparently the first 
to recognize the necessity of considering each single character on its 
own merits. In selecting constant characters, he avoided confusion by 
crossing only constant and fixed races of plants, each of which had been 
the product of repeated self-fertilization. If plants are chosen for 
crossing, the ancestry of which is unknown, the resulting offspring will 
either be incomparable or incomprehensible. The writer cited his 
experiments with orchids in which by choosing constant characters he 
had almost entirely succeeded in eliminating the possibility of reversion. 
It is stated tiiat some of the apparent exceptions to Mendel's results 
are probably to be attributed to the crosbing of species which were 
not constant in character. The consideration of differential characters 
was briefly discussed, and it was stated that Mendel in his experiments 
always chose his characters in pairs, so that they would be distinctly 
differential and capable o± definite recognition in the offspring. The 
more clearly defined the differences between the parental characters, 
the more marked will be the single characters in the resulting offspring. 
The fourth point in Mendel's method is said to be distinctly new, and 
that is the crossing together only of dominant and rece>sive characters. 
If one of the characters of the diff"erential pair is always distinctly 
dominant over the other, the latter is known as the reces-sive character. 



59 

Knowledge of this fact serves to give uniformity to the first generation 
and avoids the difficulty of continuing through subf-equent generations 
breeding in which the results secured will not be uniform. The 
necessity cf using large numbers of individuals was pointed out. In this 
there w;.s great advance over Mendel's predecei^sors. After having 
secured hybrids they should be carried through many generations. 
Mendel in all cases carried his experimets to the third aud fourth 
and in some cases to the fifth and sixth generations. Summing up 
the methods of Mendel, the author states that hybridists who desire 
to follow the footsteps of Mendel and help elucidate the problems of 
inheritance will find it essential in their work to select parents pnssess- 
ing characters which are at once single and constant differential and 
dominant, and they must also take care to raise large numbers of 
individuals through many generations. , 

A paper by Hugo de Viies, director ot the Botanical Gajdens Amster- 
dam, Holland, discussed Artificial Atavism. Atavism was defined as 
the occasional restoration of an old type in a compound cross. Crossing 
is said to not only combine characters, but to separate them. Among 
flowers as ordinarily listed in catalogues, there is usually the ordinary 
wild color as well as a white term, with various intermediates. If a 
cross be made between the white form and some of the intermediates, 
the resultant hybrids will fall into types, some of which return to the 
original color. The color variations and reversions produced by various 
crossings were shown by illustrations of well-known varietie^^. It is 
said to be possible to split up and produce new colors by crossing the 
original or wild color with any of the white forms. The results obtained 
usually follow the principles laid down in Mendel's law. A number of 
instances were cited in which it is shown possible to produce atavism 
artificially. 

In commenting upon this paper, Professor Bateson stated that he 
believed synthesis in plant breeding, although sometimes apparent is not 
truly possible. A compound character consisting of 3 or more compo- 
nents, he believes, can not be recomposed from its original forms. 

Some suggestions for Plant Breeding were made in a paper by Max 
Leichtlin, of Baden-Baden, Austria, which was read. In crossing plants 
the author states that the selection of a suitable time for crossing is of first 
importance. A warm, cloudy day offers the best conditions for about 60 
per cent, of plants. For some a dry atmosphere is best as it more nearly 
represents the conditions of their original habitat. Fertilization should 
not be attempted before the stigmas are in proper condition. This can be 
easily recognized after some practice. The pollen should be neither too 
fresh nor over-ripe. After applying the pollen to the stigma in many 
cases it will be found advantageous to cover the flower with a hand- 
glass or some similar means for a day or two to give a higher temperature 
than that of the surrounding air. The pollen of many plants, if in good 
condition, can be kept in small glass vessels, well corked, for several days 
without loosing its fecundating i ower. Whether fertilization is possible 
or not can be easily ascertained by a microscopical examination of the 
forms of pollen grains. If their forms are fairly constant the pollen will 
do for fertilization, but if markedly different its use for this purpose is 
impossible, The prepotency of sex was shown by the statement that iu 
8 cases out of 10 the female parent has the greatest influence on the 
progeny. The staminate parent usually controls the color of the 
offspring, and in most cases the hybrid plants have larger flowers than 
those possessed by either parent. 



eo 

In the discussion following this paper a number of interesting facts 
were brought out relative to the vitality of pollen. The president of the 
society stated that the pollen of tomatoes would retain its vitality for 
fully 6 months, as shown by the common practice of gathering pollen 
during the late summer and fall months from plants grown out of doors, 
for use in fertilizing tomatoes grown under glass during the winter. 
According to another statement, grape pollen retains its vitality for fully 
2 months, and the date palm for a year or more. Carnation pollen may 
fhe kept in closely stoppered vials for several weeks, and may be shipped 
from one part of the country to another. In preparing pollen for keeping 
it should be thoroughly dried and placed in closely stoppered bottles. 
For plants grown in moist climates the drying should be done in the 
shade ; for those growing in arid regions, it may be more quickly dried in 
the sun. It was stated that pollen of certain plants is commonly dis- 
tributed through the West Indies on dry blotting paper inclosed in paste- 
board boxes. In this way its vitality is retained for more than 3 weeks. 

A paper giving some suggestions for the classification of Hybrids pre- 
pared by E. I. Lynch, curator of the Botanic Garden, Cambridge, England 
showed the desirability of the classification of all results, so that reference 
can be had to previous work. A plan previously published by the author 
in tho Journal of the Royal Horticultural Society of London, vol. 25, was 
briefly outlined. Investigators often want to know what plants have been 
found to respond in a certain way, or they may desire to reobserve from a 
new point of view, or carry further results in which they may be interested. 
This was cited to show the imjDortance of classifying all experimental re- 
sults, and action of the conference along this line was recommended. The 
writer requested that he be furnished with accounts of hybrids which at 
first were nearly barren and afterwarfis became fertile ; also of hybrids 
which are less fertile than either of their parents. He also asked that 
suggestions be sent him regarding different systems of classification. In 
general, he proposes the classification of hybrids based upon their beha- 
viour, rather than upon the classification of natural orders, genera, or species. 

The Principles of Plant Breeding were difecussed in a paper by Luther 
Burbank, of Santa Kosa, California, The two influences or forces which 
control plant and animal breeding are heredity and environment To 
guide the interaction of these two forces is the sole object of the breeder, 
whether of plants or of animals. A general knowledge of the relations 
and affinities of plants is not sufficient for the successful plant breeder, 
He must be a skillful biologist, and, having a definite plan, must be able 
to correctly estimate the action of the inherent and external forces which 
he would control. A plant breeder before attempting to make new 
combinations should select with great care the individual plants which 
seem best adapted to his purpose. This requii'es an exceedingly keen 
perception of minute differences, great patience, and extreme care in 
treating the organisms operated upon. This applies more particularly to 
annuals or those plants generally produced by seed. In breeding perennials 
the first deviations from the original form are often of an almost unap- 
preciable degree. By careful and intelligent breeding, any peculiarity 
may be made permanent, and there appears to be no limit to the improv- 
ment of plants. Cultivation and care may help plants temporarily, but by 
breeding, plants may be produced which will do better work in all places 
and for all times. 

W. A. Orton, of this Department, read a paper on the Breeding of 

Disease-Resistant Varieties, in which a resume was given of work being 

.carried on by the Bureau of Plant Industry. The wilt disease of 



cotton, cowpeas, and watermelon was described and photographs and' 
material shown. As a result of continued selection of resistant varieties,. 
it was stated, Sea Island cotton is now grown in regions which had been 
practically abandoned on account of the destruction caused by the wilt. 
No varieties are wholly resistant, but a number of strains have been found 
which are to a great degree able to resist the fungus. In general, upland 
cotton seems less resistant to wilt than Sea Island, and Egyptian varie- 
ties are more resistant than any of the others. The work so far has been 
one of selection, since hybridization is not practicable, as it tends to 
destroy the merchantable character of the fiber. Similar results in the 
selection of cowpeas and watermelons were cited, and the author believes 
that many other varieties of plants may yet be found that are resistant 
to disease. 

W. M. Hays, of the Minnesota Station, presented a paper on Breeding 
for Intrinsic Qualities. He believed the value of plants and animals 
annually produced in this country could be readily increased 10 per cent, 
at an expense of less than 1 per cent. The greatest financial gains would 
probably be secured by the improvement of a score of plants and about 4 
species of animals. By carefully growing and testing many thousands of 
individuals there will frequently be found some one individual of such 
superior merit as to repay all expense. In any hybridization work a 
good foundation stock must first be produced upon which to base the new 
varieties. The importance of working with large numbers of individuals 
and the value of correlated qualities were pointed out. Durino- the 
progress of the work various side lines may enter, but these must be 
held subordinate to the main idea which controls' the experiment. In 
choosing varieties, often very perplexing problems arise. As a rule 
crosses should be made between individuals which closely approximate the 
ideal, and not between those which are too dissimilar. An illustration of 
the value of using large numbers was given in the experiments in breed- 
ing wheats. To begin with, 500 plants were examined for loundation 
stock and tested from 3 to 5 years to see that they came to true seed. After 
continuing the work this length of time, all were rejected but about 50, 
which were given a fiel i trial. This work has been continued, large 
numbers of individuals being constantly grown, and as a result 2 or 3 
varieties have been found which are intrinsically of great value. In 
wheat breeding the author thinks that an increased yield, irrespective of 
distinguishing marks, should be the ideal sought, 

A paper on the Correlation between Different Parts of the Plant in 
Form, Color, and Other Characteristics was read l)y S. A, Beach, of the 
New York State Station. By means of a number of specimens he showed 
the correlation which exists between difi"erent parts of plants. By the 
proper study of the correlation of form, color, vigor, etc, undesirable ma- 
terial may be eliminated to a great degree while the seedlings are still 
young. In this way much valuable time and space may be saved. Nu- 
merous examples were cited in which this early elimination is possible. 
Small foliage is said to be usually correlated with small fruit. The text- 
ure of the leaf and of the fruit are believed to be correlated to some de- 
gree. JJwarfed seedlings produce poor plants even when given good culti- 
vation. Attention was called to the importance of considering groups of 
characteristics. In the case of the peach there seems to be a direct re- 
lation between the size of the foliage and the size of the fruit, and suffi- 
cient evidence is believed to be at hand to show that size and color of fo- 
liage and flowers may be depended upon in predicting the character of 
fruit. Pale or light colored blossoms are usually associated with small 
fruit in apples, while deep color is correlated with larger fruit. Pale 



62 

foliage in the raspberry is correlated with yellow or lighe colored fruit, 
and dark fruit is obtained from plants having dark foliage and canes. 
Eoses, caonas, and asters generally follow the same lines — pale colored 
foliage indicating light colored flowers In comparing these factors, fully 
matured leaves should always be examined and even then exceptions will 
be noted. A correlation is said to exist between the color of the flowers 
and the seeds of beans, between the color of the roots and stems and the 
flowers of carnations, between the color of the seed coats and character of 
plants of peas, etc. There is apparently some correlation between the 
size of the different organs of plants and possibly between their size and 
color, but as yet the evidence is not sufficient to formulate definitely. 

0. F. Cook, of this Department, discussed Evolution under Domestica- 
tion, claiuoing that it is not rational to attribute to environment all of the 
changes found in plants and animals. 

The Varying Tendency and Individual Prepotency in Garden Vege- 
tables was tne subject of a paper by W. W. Tracy, of Detroit, Michigan. 
The author's long experience has enabled him to examine an immense 
number of specimens of different vegetables and note some of their peculi- 
arities. These variations will frequently be apparent only from a careful 
study of a great number of plants. It is stated that different plants of the 
same natural order tend to vary ab'Ug parallel lines, and variations that 
are frequently attributed to hybridization are due to ordinary variation. 
Different natural orders of plants are differently affected by soil, climate, 
etc. In some cases plants grown from seed from widely different regions 
did not show any appreciable difference; in others, marked differences 
may be noted in comparatively slight changes. An example was cited in 
which a variety of watermelon was grown in Michigan aud in a Gulf 
State, the seed being from the same source, and the progeny was so simi- 
lar as to defy any detectable differences. The effect of cultural and cli- 
matic influences is cumulative. This was illustrated by the simultaneous 
occurrence in widely separated regions of bush forms of Lima beans, 
sweet peas, etc. These plants ordinarily grow in climbing forms, but 
bush forms suddenly appeared in different parts of the United States, 
seeming to indicate that the influences had been simultaneously working 
in different regions. Stock produced by an individual grower will vary 
widely during different seasons. Seed from the same stock, equally well 
grown under precisely the same conditions, show marked differences in 
the tendency to adher-e to type in different seasons. Seeds from indi- 
vidual pedigreed stock plants vary widely in their progeny, and the only 
way to secure uniformity is to define an ideal, select carefully, and propa- 
gate carefully, so as to secure a lineal descent of a single typical plant. 

Dr. D. Morris, Imperial Commissioner of Agriculture for the West Indies, 
read a paper on the Cross Fertilization of the Sugar Cane, in which he 
described the experiments in the West Indies in the improvement of sugar 
cane. The subjects for consideration are a greater tonnage of cane, a 
greater yield of juice, a higher sugar content, and a cane immune to diseases. 
More than 60 varieties of canes have been imported from all parts 
erf the world and tested at the various West Indian stations Special at- 
tention has been paid to bud variation, and a few examples have been 
found, which were briefly described. Some of these are quite promising 
as improvements over the older varieties, and so far they tend to come 
true to color. Nearly all of the bud variations or sports which have been 
under investigation originated from the ribbon or striped cane. Planting 
from different parts of cane has not given results of any great value or im- 
provement, and selection by analysis of the cane juice does not appear to 
off'er, promise of definite results, nor has selection proved of value when 



63 

the richest canes have been taken indi/idually. Where the richest clump 
in a field was tested there was some indication of value, and this is believed 
to warrant further investigation. A description was given of attempts to 
produce new varieties from seed. The fact that the sugar cane sometimes 
produced fertile seed was established about 1887. At that time fungus 
diseases had almost entirely destroyed many of the best varieties in Java 
and in the "West Indies. A careful examination of the flowers, which ar© 
very small and very numerous, showed that occasionally a few seed in a 
panicle were produced, frequently only 2 or 3 being found in a panicle 
containing many thousand flowers. In the author's experiments the 
whole panicle was sown in boxes in the hope of the presence of some 
fertile seed. On account of the minuteness of the flowers and the rarity 
of the production of tertile seed, the ordinary method of cross fertilization 
could not be adopted. Staminate plants were planted to the windward of 
the pistillate ones, or in alternate rows. In another series the panicles 
were covered with bags and later dusted with pollen-bearing plants of 
known value. It was found that frequently the pollen was infertile, while 
the pistillate flowers were fertile. The most valuable varieties so far ob- 
tained through seed canes have followed the principal characteristics of 
the staminate parent. 

So far as the writer's observation has gone, the seed canes tiller more 
extensively than the plants from the cane top. The Eibbon and White 
Transparent varieties have proved the best for mother plants, the mother 
plants governing the size, color, and to a considerable extent the sugar con- 
tent of the cane. Purity of the juice has not been definitely determined 
as due to either parent. As to the yield of sugar, the average for the island 
of Barbados is said to be 1.7 tons per ao.re, while one variety shown by the 
writer, designated as INo. 208, yields 3 tons of sugar per acre at Barbados, 
and its value has been further attested on the islands of Trinidad, St. 
Kitts, etc. 

A paper on the Cytological Aspects of Hybrids, by W. A. Cannon, of 
Columbia University, New York, showed that the relation between the 
cytological and experimental studies could not be defiintely stated in the 
present state of our knowledge on the subjects. A review was given of 
Mendel's laws in the light of modern cytological studies. So far these 
studies have been made on first-generation hybrids. It is said that the 
normal division of sex nuclei leads to fertility in hybrids, but obnormal 
division to sterility. Cytological studies on cotton and other hybrids, it is 
claimed, show (1) a possible cause of sterility, (2) that variation in the 
hybrid may or may not be associated with variation in spermatogenesis, 
and (3) that chromosomes tend to retain their respective individualities^ 
as shown in many hybrids examined. 

Improvement of Koses by Bud Selection was the subject of a paper by 
L, C. Corbett, of this iJepartment, in which experiments were reported 
which were undertaken to determine the relative value of blind and flower- 
ing wood in rose production. It was shown that individual characteristics 
of a branch were perpetuated from generation to generation in plants 
asexually propagated, aud also that cumulative results are not to be ex- 
pected by the selection of parts showing like tendencies through successive 
generations. The flowering habit of plants produced from flowering wood 
through five generations was in no way increased, nor was it diminished 
when blind wood was employed in a like manner. From the commercial 
side this has an important bearing, us it is more economical for the florist 
to produce hie roses each season from blind wood. 

Under the title of Improvement of Oats by Breeding, J. B. Norton, of 
this Department, gave a description of the work recently undertaken in 



64 

the plant-breediug laboratory. This has included the selection and hybri- 
dization of oats to secure rust resistance, hardiness, increased yield, to 
prevent lodging, etc. As yet the results can not be definitely determined. 

In experiments to increase the yield and hardiness of winter oats by se- 
lection, sowings were made at different dates late into the autumn, and the 
hardiness of the plants was tested by freezing out during the winter. It 
was found that the farther south seed oats are produced, the earlier tbe 
crop when sown at Washington; and there are apparently no varieties of 
oats which come absolutely true to type description. In experiments in 
crossing, only 5 to 10 per cent, of successful fertilizations were ordinarily 
secured. If cool, moist days were chosen for pollination, better results 
would be obtained, in some casei almost 100 per cent, of the pollinations 
resulting in the production of fertile seed. The presence of natural crosses 
was briefly commented upon, and it was stated that Rimpau in his work, 
covering many years, observed only 4 or 5 cases. This seems to indicate 
that oats are nearly always self -fertilized. 

In commenting upon this paper, Director Saunders, of the Canada Ex- 
perimental Farms, called attention to the Canadian work along the line of 
oats breeding, which has been carried on for about 10 or 12 years, and 
D. Gr. Fairchild referred to the work being conducted at the experiment 
station at Svalof, Sweden, along similar lines. 

The subject of breeding Florists' Flowers was treated in papers by E. 
G. Hill, of Richmond, Indiana, C. W. Ward, of Queens, Long Island, and 
A. Wintzer, of West Grove, Pennsylvania. In Mr. Hill's paper notes 
were given on breeding experiments with roses, carnations, and geraniums. 
Of many thousand hybrids produced, but few of desirable quality were 
obtained. Not one in a thousand was said to in any way approximate to 
the value of the ideal which was sought. When the great number of hy- 
bridizers who are experimenting with roses is considered, the number of 
valuable new sorts is very meager compared to the amount of labor ex- 
pended. While rose fertilization is said to be very easy, the most im- 
portant part of the work is in properly maturing the seed and propa- 
gating it. A number of successtul hybrid roses were cited as being re- 
cently introduced into the market. Somewhat similar results were report- 
ed with carnations, in which out of thousands of seedlings grown every 
year by hundieds of growers, only a few improved forms are annually ob- 
tained. In experiments with chrysanthemums the best results have been 
obtained, it was said, when only double forms were used for parent stocks. 
The hybridizing of begonias was also commented upon, and the origin of a 
number of the finest new varieties was indicated. Attention was called to 
the fact that La France, claimed to be the parent of many new varieties, is 
absolutely sterile in some countries. 

The result of experiments in crossing pumpkins were described by L. 
H. Bailey, of Cornell University, in a paper entitled A Medley of Pumpkins. 
The author began a series of experiments in 1887, which was continued for 
10 years, to determine the immediate effect of pollen on fruit. After a 
number of years' investigation, no immediate effect of pollen could be re- 
cognized on cucurbit fruits. The experiments were continued, however, 
to see what would be the result of crossing 2 varieties of squash. These 
Tarieties were hand pollinated, the seed saved, and in the third generation 
the plants occupied between 8 and 10 acres. Of the product examined, 
fully 1,500 forms were noted which did not resemble either parent in form 
or shape. The plants seemed to be almost wholly self-sterile to their own 
pollen. Ihe seed of one form, designated as Alpha, when planted, gave 
110 distinct kinds of fruits and inumerable intermediates. The parent 
stock of this experiment was pedigreed and usually came true to type, but 



65 

the progeny resulting from crossing was so variable as to give nearly as 
many types as there were individuals. New characters continually appeared 
in the second and third generations, and the confusion became so great 
that the experi . ent was abandoned. Another experiment was described, 
in which one of the small ornamental pear gourds was crossed with pollen 
from the typical Connecticut pumpkin. From the seed secured, 39 plants 
resulted and no two fruits were identical Nineteen forms were found that 
were fairly well marked, and these were described as types. In all the 
experiments seedlessness seemed to be a common trait of crossed cucurbits, 
or if seed were produced they were ordinarily sterile. An attempt was 
made to reciprocally cross Cucurhita pepo, C. maxima, and C. moschata. 
Only 3 fruits were obtained, and thoso, species hybrids, were between C. 
pepo and moschata. The progeny grown from these seed were more uni- 
form in character than those obtained by crosses in the varieties of C. pepo. 
Continuing this work through a number of generations, the moschata type 
entirely disappeared and the plants were to all appearances G. pepo 

Eesults of Hybridization and Plant Breeding in Cana<la was the title of 
a paper presented by William Saunders, director of the Canada Experi- 
mental Farms. He gave a brief resume of 40 years' work in Canada along 
the line of production of new varieties of fruits, cereals, etc. His work 
with wheat, oats, barley, and various fruits was described, the methods of 
manipulation being given in considerable detail. Specimens wei-e exhi- 
bited which showed the results of a number of the crosses. Among them 
were crosses of Pyrus baccata with several varieties of Eussian apples, 
of different species of barberry, of gooseberry and black currant, of 
Pyvus mauUi and P. japonica, and of various cereals. 

During an evening session a number of papers were presented which 
were illustrated by specially preparcl lantern slides. The first of these 
was by VV. B. Allwood, of Virginia Station, in which an account was given 
of investigations in wine fermentation. The selection, propagation, and 
uses of pure cultures of yeasts in wine and cider making, and in brewing 
and distillins:, were considered and the different methods of elimination 
and of cultivation described. Graphics were shown of the action of various 
wine ferments upon grape must. 

The second illustrated paper was by VV. Van Fleet, of Little Silver, 
New Jersey, on Hybridizing Gladiolus Species. In growing Gladioli, only 
summer-blooming varieties with good winter-keeping corms are desired in 
this country. Hybrids of large flowered species seldom prove valuble in 
the first generation but seem to improve in subsequent ones. Many species 
hybrids have been produced but few have proved of intrinsic value. As a 
rule, Gladioli do not grow well in clay. Sandy soil with an underlying of 
peat, if kept well wet, is the best soil for their growth. A number of hy- 
brids were exhibited, one of which (Princeps) was said to have a flower- 
ing period of nearly 5 weeks, 4 or o of the huge flowers succeeding each 
other until the entire spike has blossomel. This same phenomenon occurs 
when flower stalks are cut and placed in water, if the water is frequently 
changed. During 16 years of active hybridizing, in which a number of 
species were used for breeding purposes andmoro than 150,000 seedlings 
produced, many new commercial varieties would have been expected, and 
although there were many promising novelties only 2, Princeps and Lord 
Fairfax have been thought worthy of naming and commercial introduction. 

The paper of C. W. Ward, of Queens, Long Island, on breeding Florists' 
Flowers was also illustrated by lantern slides. He gave the results of 12 
years' work in the hybridizing of carnations. His work has been confined 
to 8 types of stock which were based on color differences. These have been 



66 

subjected to various crossings, and it was said that the staminate parent 
showed its effect in the color of the progeny. If crossed upon another flower 
of the same color the resultant plant would show reversion to prominent an- 
cestral types. The writer claiii.s that when the commercial habit of the 
carnation has been established any desired color can be bred into it. In 
breeding carnations, if it is desired to heighten the color in no case should 
purple or similar colors be used, as those colors tend to dull the color of 
the progeny. The most difficult colors to fix in hybrid carnations are the 
yellows and blues, and the variegated forms are almost impossible to fix. 
Of 60,U00 seedlings grown to flowering, 36 have been considered of suffi- 
cient merit to continue propagation, and of this number 16 have been in- 
troduced to commerce. In the lantern slides accompanying this paper 
were shown the parentage and progeny of many of the hybrids produced 
by the writer. 

N. E. Hansen, of the South Dakota Station, read a paper on the Breeding 
of Native Northwestern Fruits. The praiiie regions of the Northwest re- 
quire the breeding of new varieties of fruits, since all the Eastern varieties 
so far tested have j -roved too tender. The writer has been extensively 
engaged in originating new varieties and more than 100,000 seedlings have 
been under investigation. To induce variation he preceded on Darwin's 
theory that excess of food induces variation, and the writer believes that 
selection and cultivation are the chief factors to be considered in his 
reo-ion. His work with the sand cherry (Prunus hesseyi) was described at 
considerable length. Of this promising fruit between 4,000 and 5.000 
seedlings of the third generation are under investigation. The quality of 
the wild fruit is known to be very variable, and this has been taken ad- 
vantage of in his propagation work. He has at present 75 varieties bud- 
ded upon plum stock. The results obtained so far have yielded a larger 
and better flavored fruit. The sand cherry is said to cross readily with 
many species of Prunus, and valuable hybrids may possibly be secured. 
Experiments with raspberries, strawberries, currants, gooseberries, and 
huckleberries were briefly reported, and promising crosses have been 
obtained of all of them. 

T. V. Munson, Denison, Texas, gave the results of his investigations and 
observations on the selection and hybridizing of grapes in a paper entitled 
Advantages of Conjoint Selection and Hybridization and Limits of Use- 
fulness in Hybridization among Grapes. The author claims that the 
quality of grapes may be readily improved by increasing the vigor of the 
vine. To secure better varieties of fruit recourse should be had to selection 
and hybridization. Selection alone is considered too slow, and new flavors 
and characteristics can be obtained only in a limited degree through bud 
variation. On the other hand, indiscriminate crossing without selection 
may prove injurious, and it is only when crossing is followed by careful 
and continued selection that valuable results are obtained. The methods 
of securing crosses were described and the statement made that any method 
of crossing which is adapted to a genus of plants having many species will 
be found adapted to other genera possessing numerous species. Among 
the limits of crossing the author considered the possibility of double fe- 
cundation, stating that were it possible it would aid very materially in hy- 
bridizing so that in a single generation forms possessing several desirable 
attributes could be obtained. In grape hybridizing, as well as with other 
plants, so far as possible pure races alone should be used. Seasonal changes, 
soils, and climates iofluence the character of hybrids. A hybrid adapted 
to a given region in which it has exceedingly valuable characteristics may 
utterly fail in other regions with different conditions. Special sorts of 



67 

grapes and other plants should be produced for special conditions, and no 
attempt should be made to develop a variety that would be expected to 
contain all the desirable qualities and adapted to all regions and climates. 
A number of examples were cited of desirable parentage for new sorts for 
special qualities, conditions, and regions. The parentage of a large number 
of well-known varieties of cultivated grapes was traced at considerable 
length. 

C. E Saunders, of Ottawa, Canada, read a paper on the Variations in the 
Second Generation of Berberis Hybrids. In this paper the results of ex- 
periments in crossing Berberis thunbergi as a pistillate and B. vulgaris pur- 
purea as a staminate parent, in which a large number of hybrids was 
obtained, are described. Some of the hybrids were intermediate in the 
size of the plant, and size shape, and color of the leaves, while in others 
the different characters were widely divergent. As a result of his observa- 
tions it was found that these hybrids tended to uniformity in the first ge- 
neration and wide variation in the second and subsequent generations, 
as shown by more than a thousand seedlings. In the first generation little 
or no purple color was observed, but the color of the foliage came out 
well in many specimens of the second generation. The leaves, thorns 
habit of plant, &g,, varied widely in the later generations. 

Bud Variation in the Strawberry Plant was the subject of a paper by 
R. M. Kellogg, of Three Rivers Michigan. This is said to be very common 
in the Strawberry Plant, and an account was given of 19 years' effort on 
the part of the writer to produce more vigorous types of strawberry plants 
by forcing grovi'th through the use of the fertilizers, by tillage and con- 
tinued selection. The effect of the different kinds of fertilizers in culture 
was shown, and an excess of nitrogen was used to stimulate vegetative 
growth and thus induce variation. The individual peculiarities of plants 
must be considered in producing new forms, and where valuable indivi- 
dual characteristics appear, as shown by bud variations these should be 
eagerly sought and propagated. 

G. T. Powell, director of the Briarcliff School, New l^ork, gave the 
results of 10 years' experiments in propagating bud variations of the Sutton 
Beauty and Tompkins County King apple, his remarks being illustrated by 
specimens of fruits. 

H. C. Price, of the Iowa Station, read a paper on Hand Pollination 
of Orchid Fruits. This is not diffcult, but ordinarily the results 
obtained are very slow in development. The plan of cooperation 
maintained by the Iowa Experiment Station with orchardists throughout 
the State, in which pollen of known varieties is distributed, was described 
The seedlings resulting from the hand pollination of fruits are grown and 
carefully examined. In the cooperation it is, so far as possible, desired 
that the orchardist should produce his own seedlings rather than send 
them to the station, The effect of different kinds of emasculation of the 
flowers was described. Low emasculation, in which all the flower but the 
style was cut away, did not give as favourable results as high emasculation 
in which only the corolla and anthers were removed. Studies on the time 
for operation showed that the immediate transfer of pollen after the emas- 
culation of flowers gave the best results. Pollen applied to the stigmas by 
a camel's-hair brush gave slightly better results than where transferred by 
the fingers. Pollen taken from the anthers just before the opening of the 
flowers seems to be the most potent and gave the best results. 

H. F. Roberts, of the Kansas Station, read a paper on Cereal Breeding 
in Kansas, in which he briefly reviewed some of the efl'orts that have been 
in corn and wheat breeding. In breeding wheat for growth in Kansas, 
hardiness in winter, drought resistance, and inoreasod production are th« 



68 

points sought. In a variety of wheat seeming to possess extreme hardiness 
a number of spikes appeared which showed a tendency toward the club- 
wheat form. These heads, to the number of 61, were collected and are to 
be studied during the coming season. Eleven of the heads were appa- 
rently of exceedingly great productivity. The grain will be planted and 
the results announced in due time. It is desired to secure a variety in 
which the spikelets and heads are more completely filled. Experiments 
in breeding macaroni wheats to secure greater drought resistance are also 
under way, and a number of other experiments were briefly mentioned. 

William Fawcett, director of Public Grardens, Jamaica, gave a brief 
account of the plant-breeding work that is being conducted in Jamaica. 
Naturally the investigations have been conducted on tropical plants. The 
differences in the chara-ter of the different flower clusters of banana were 
pointed out. The lower or earlier ones are usually all female, and the ovary 
is twice the length of the rest of the style. Thos6 next are both male and 
female, and the last ones to appear are all staminate. If the male flowers 
be cut from a bunch it results in early ripening and in uniformity of fruit. 
A number of attempts were made to artificially pollenize the banana, and 
some seeds were set but they failed to germinate. Experiments were 
reported in which the Smooth Cayenne and Ripley pineapples were crossed 
The flowers of the pineapples are said to be almost wholly self-sterile. 
Many seedlings have been obtained, most of which were intermediate be- 
tween the parents, but as yet they have not developed valuable characteis. 
Experiments with mangoes have not yet proved successful. The investi- 
gations have shown that the Avocada, or alligator pear, may be budded 
with success. 

The remaining papers of the programme, read by title were as follows : 
Notes on New Hybi'ids, J. H. Wilson ; Selection v. Hybridism, F. W. Bur- 
bidge . Some Laws of Plant Breeding, H. J. Webber ; On Variation in 
Plants, J. B. Norton ; Some Possibilities, C L. Allen ; Fertile Hybrids of 
Teosinte and Maize, J. W. Harshberger; A Study of Grape Pollen and 
What the Eesults Indicate, N. 0. Booth ; The Improvement of Corn by 
Breeding, C. P. Hartley ; Improvement of Crops for Arid Regions and 
Alkali Soils, T. H. Kearney ; Improvements of Cotton by Breeding. H. J. 
Webber ; Practical Points from the Breeding of Strawberries and bush 
Fruits, F. W. Card ; Crossing Species of Salix, S, W. Fletcher ; Notes on 
Breeding Hardy Apples, J. Craig ; The Ever-bearing Strawberry, P. de 
Yilmorin ; The Musk-melon, F. W. Rane ; Results in the Breeding of 
Species of Ricinus, E. M. Wilcox ; On Orchid Hybrids, 0. Ames ; Hybrid 
Beans, R. A. Emerson ; Hybrid Plums, F. A. Waugh ; Cross Breeding of 
Cinchonas, H. H. Rusby ; Notes on Plant Breeding in California, E. J. 
Wickson ; Plant Breeding in New Jersey, B. D. Halsted ; The Wild Hy- 
brids of the North American Flora, D. George ; Plant Breeding Work in 
Germany, J. C. Whitten; and Hybrids and Diseases, L. H. Pammel. 

The afternoon session of October 2 was held at the New York Botanic 
Garden, Bronx Park, where the delegates to the conference were enter- 
tained as guests of the directors of the garden. On Friday an excursion 
was given the delegates up the Hudson to Poughkeepsie, in the vicinity 
of which a number of private estates were visited. 



BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

The usual monthly meeting of the Board was held at Head Quarter 
House on Tuesday 10th February, 1903 : Present, The Hon. the Colonial 
Secretary (Chairman), the Hon. the Director of Public Gardens, and His 
Grace the Archbishop. 



e9 

The minutes of the last meeting were read and confirmed. 

The iioard then proceeded to consider one or two points in connection 
with the estimates that required alteration. 

An application for admission into the Agricultural College from Mr. 
B. Chase was considered. The Board desired that some evidence or edu- 
cational qualifications should be ascertained by examination. 

The admission of Mr. Carpenter was approved by the Board. 

A letter was read from the Secretary of the Bath Agricultuial Society 
requesting the services of Mr. Cradwickin connection with the Bath Show. 
The Secretary was directed to write Mr. Parnther that the Board regretted 
that as arrangements had been made for Mr. Cradwick's work in the west- 
ern parishes, it was unable to send him, but would arrange for Mr. Thomp- 
son, who had been assigned as Instructor in that Parish, to attend and 
render what assistance he could. 

The Chairman stated that it had been represented to him that there had 
been an adulteration of bees'-wax, and that the matter had, athis suggestion 
been taken up by the Beekeepers Association. The Archbishop also men- 
tioned that he uuderstood gua-va jelly was also being adulterated and hoped 
some enquiry would be made. 

In regard to the proposed experiment in cotton growing, the chairman 
expressed the opinion that it would be better to try an experiment at the 
Prison Farm, and to set up there a gin. The Archbishop was anxious that 
inducements should be offered to outsiders in the disirict to grow cotton 
and bring in their crop for preparation at the Farm. 

Mr. Fiiwcett handed in a memi.randum on an insect which had been sent 
to him as causing injury to cocoa. Dr. Howard of Washington, to whom 
specimens had been forwarded, had, however stated that it was a burrow- 
ing wasp, probably living on the larvae of the " Fiddler Bug." It was 
decided to publish this together with a careful description of the wasp. 

A. letter was read from the Secretary of the Schools Commission stating 
that steps had been taken to make known to the Schools that the arrange- 
ments with regard to the teaching of Chemistry at the Laboratory. 

A report by Mr. Cradwick on the Kendal Show together with observa- 
tions by Messrs. Shore & Calder was considered. 

The meeting then terminated. 



ADDITIONS AND CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE 

DEPARTMENT. 

Library (Serials). 

Europe. 

British Isles. 

Botanical Magazine, Jan. [Purchased,] 

Chemist and Druggist.Dec. 27, Jan, 3, 10, 17. [Editor.] 

Garden, Dec.27, Jan.3, 10, 17. [Purchased.] 

Gardeners' Chronicle, Dec. 27, Jan. 3, I'J, 17. [Purchased,] 

International Sugar Journal, Dec, Jan. [Editor.] 

Journal, Board of Agriculture, England, Dec. [Sej. Board of Agriculture.] 

Journal of Botany, Jan. [Purchased,] 

Journal of the Society of Arts, Dec. 0, 1901. [Purchased.] 

Journal, R- Colonial Institute, Jan. 

Nature, Jan- 1, 8. [Purchased.] 

Pharmaceutical Journal, Dec. 27, Jan. 3, 10, 17. 

London Report, Jan. 10, 17, 

Scottish Geographical Magazine, Mar. 1902. [Purchased.] 



70 

France. 

Journal d' Agriculture Tropicale, No. 18. [Publishers.] 
Sucrerie indigene etcoloniale,Dec. 25, Jan. 6, 13. [Editor.] 

Germany. 

Symbolae Antillanae seu Fuiidamenta Florae Indiae Occidentalis. II, 3. 

[Purchased.] 
Tropenpflanzer, Jan. (with Index for 1902.) [Editor.] 

Belgium. 

Bulletin du Jardin Botanique de I'Etat a Bruxelles, I., 1, 2 & 3. 
Bulletin, Soci^t^ d'Etudes Coloniales, Jan. [Editor.] 

Asia. 

India. 

Annual Report, Gardens of Udaip r, 1901-02. [Supt,] 

Planting Opinion. Dec. 6, 13, 20. [Editor.] 

Proc. Agri. & Hort. Soc. India, July— Sept. [Secretary.] 

Ceylon. 

Times of Ceylon, Dec. 10, 18, 24, 31. [Editor.] 

Java. 

Proefstation East Java. 43. [Director.] 
„ West Java. 59. [Director.] 

Australia. 

N. S. Wales. 

Agri. Gazette, Dec. [Dept. of Agri.] 
Queensland. 

Agri. Journal, Dec. [Sec. of Agri.] 

Sugar Journal, Dec. [Editor.] 

Victoria. 

Journ. Dept. Agriculture, I, 1, 2 & 3. [Public Library of Victoria.] 

Western Australia. 

Journ. Dept. Agriculture, Nov. [Dept. of Agri.] 

Africa. 

Central Africa. 

C. African Times, Nov. 1, 8, 15, 22, 29. [Editor.] 

Natal. 

Agri. Journal & Mining Record, Dec. , 19. [Dept. of Agri.] 
Bulletin 2, Manures in the Natal Market, Season 1902, 

West Indies. 

Barbados. 

Agri. Grzette, Jan. [Editor,] 

Agricultural News, Jan. 17, 31. [Commr. Imp. Dept. of Agri.] 
Jamaica. 

Cornwall Herald. [Editor.] 

Journal Jamaica Agri. Soc, Jan. [Sec] 

Trinidad — 

Bulletin, Botanical Dept., Jan. [Supt.] 
Proc. of Agri Society, Dec. 9. [Sec ] 

British North America. 
Ontario — 

Ann. Report, Ontario Pairs and Exhibitions for 1902. 

Report Farmers' Institutes, J 901, ^Part II. Women's Dept. of Agri. In- 
stitutes 
BuUetin 125, Roup. 



71 

Ottawa. 

Bulletin 41, Results obtained in 1902 from Trial Plots of Grain, Fodder 
Corn, Field Roots and Potatoes [Dept. of Agri.] 

Toronto. 

University of Toronto Studies; No. 2, Anatomy of Osmundaceae. No. 3 
Observations on Blood Pressure. [Librarian.] 

United States of America. 

Publications of the U. S. Dept. of Agri. [Directors.~\ 
Scientific Bureaus ^ Divisions 

Field Operations of Division of Soils, 1900, (Second Report) with Maps. 
Experiment Station Record, Vol. XIII., 10, 11. Vol. XIV., 4. 
Geological Survey of Louisiana, Report of 1902. 
Yearbook of the U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1901. 

fjxperiment Stations. 

Alabama. 121. (Dairy Herd Record and Creamery Notes.) 

California. 131. (Phylloxera of the Vine.) 132. (Feeding of Farm ani- 
mals.) 133. (Tolerance of Alkali by various Cultures ) 134. (Report 
on Vineyards in portions of Santa Clara Valley.) 135. (Potato-worm in 
California.) 136. (Erinose tf the Vine.) 137. (Pickling ripe and green 
Olives.) 

Illinois. 79. (The Corn Bill-bugs in Illinois.) 80. (Methods and results 
of field insecticide work against the San Jose Scale..) 81. (Forcing 
Tomatoes.) 

New York. 217. (Inspection of Feeding Stuffs.) 218. (Variety Test of 
Strawberries.) 219. S me of the Compounds present in American Ched- 
dar Cheese.) 

Rhode Isl nd. 85. (Analyses of Commercial Fertilizers) 86 (Goose septi- 
caemia) 87 (Fowl Typhoid) 88 (The Forests of Rhode Island) 89 (Com- 
mercial Fertilizers). 

Virginia. 8 (Observations on production of Vinegar in Cellars) 9 (Orchard 
Studies. I. The Fruit Plantation. Pome Fruits.) 

Nev Jersey. Additional Observai ions on Strand Flora. ByJ.^ 
W. Harshberger. Reprint. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sciences, Phila- \ 
delphia, Oct. 1902. }■ [Author.] ' 

Santo Domingo. The Queen of the Antilles. By J. W. ( 
Harshberger. J 

American Druggist and Pharmaceutical Record, Jan. [Editor.] 

American Journal of Pharmacy, Jan. [Editor.] 

Chicago. Report of Director to Trustees 1900-1901. Field. Columbian 
Museum. 

Asters. Study of variation in the bracts, etc. By G. Shall. Reprint. American 
Naturalist, XXXVI 422. [Author ] 

Botanical Gazette, Chicago, Dec, Jan. [Editor.] 

Iowa. Bulletin from Laboratories of Nat. Hist., State University. V 3. 

Lloyd Library. Bulletin No. 4 References to Capillarity. Bulls. 3 it 5. 
Mycoh gical Series, No. 1, The Genera of Gastromycetes. No. 2, The 
Geastrae. Myoological Notes, Nos. 5 — 9. [Lloyd Library, Cin., Ohio.] 

Coffee. Extensive information and statistics. [Gillespie Bros.. N.Y.] 

Cotton and Farm Journal, Jan. [Publishers.] 

Forestry and Irrigation, Jan. [Editor] 

Cincinnati Soc. of Nat. Hist., Journ. XX, 1 & 2. 

Missouii Botanical Garden. Thirteenth Re ort, 1902. [Director.] 

Piperaceae, on the Development of. By Duncan S. Johnson. [Author.] 

Louisiana Planter, Jan. 3, 10, 17, 24. 

Plant World, Nov., Dec, Jan. [Publishers,] 

St. Louis, Trans, of the Academy, X, 9-11, XL, 1-11, XII, 1-8. [Acad, of 
Sci.] 



72 

Polynesia. 
Hawaii. A.gri. Exp. Station Bull. No. 2. The Root Rot of Taro. 



Library. (Books.) 

Bailey (L.H.) Lessons with Plants. Suggestions for seeing and interpreting 

some of the common forms of vegetation. Third edition. New York. 1902. 

8vo. [Purchased.] 
Bailey (L. H ) An Elementary Text Book for Schools. Fourth edition. New 

York. 1901. 8vo. [Purchased.] 
Bateson (W.) Mendel's Principles of Heredity. A Defence by W. Bateson. 

With a Translation of Mendel's Original Papers on Hybridisation. Cambridge 

1902. 8vo. [Purchased.] 
Bower ^,F.O.) I'ractical Botany for Beginners. London. New York. 1895. 

Svo. [Purchasec3.] 
Leavitt (Robert Gieenleaf) Outlines of Botany for the High School, Labora- 
tory, and Class-rooms (based on Gray's Le.ssons in Botany.) 
Gray (Asa) Field, Forest and Garden Botany. A Simple Introduction to the 

common plants of the U. S. east of the 100th meridian, both- wild and cultivated. 

By A. Gray, revised and extended by L. H. Bailey, New York. 1895. 8 vo. 

B.iuud with the pr ceding. [Purchased.] 
Potter (M. C.) An Eleiuentary Text- Book of Agricultural Botany. Revised 

and enlarged edition. Ijondon. 1902. Svo. [Purchased.] 
Preuss (Dr. Paul) Le Cacao, sa culture, & sa preparation. Extract from 

Bulletiu d' Etudes Coloiiiales, Belgium. Brussels. Paris. 1902. Svo. [Put- 

ch sed.] 
Underwood (Lucien Marcus) Moulds, Mildews, and Mushrooms. A guide tu 
the systematic study of the Fungi and Mycetozoa and their literature. New 
York, 1899. Svo. [Purchased.] 

Seeds. 

From Mr. T. W. Anderson. 
Caeabanana (Louisiana) 

trom Supt. Botanic Station, Belize 
Mahogany. 

Fiom Curator Botanic Gardens, Entehe, Uganda Protectorate, 
Spathodea uilotica. 

From Royal Gardens, Kew. 

Ilex paragueusis, var. geuuina. 

Fi om Senor Curios Dauphin, Seville, Spain. 
Quercus Suber (Cork Oak) 

Plants. 
From Hon. J. W. Mitch-ll, Clarendon. 

Eucalyptus rostrata. 
From Mr W. J. Thompson, Supt, Parade Garden. 

A Collection of Grape Vine cu'tings : — Gros Maroc : Bowood Muscat : Fos- 
ter's Seedlings : Muscat Hamburg : Gros Oulma'i : Canon Hall Muscat : 
Mrs Pince : Muscat of Alexandria: Black Hamburgh: Trebbiano : 
Madiesfield Court : Black Alicante : Golden Hamburgh : Mrs. Pearson : 
Black Alonukka : San Antonio : Gros Guillaume : Syrian: Alnwick Seed- 
ling : Appley Towers. 

[Issued 9th March, 1903.] 
frinted at the Govt, rrinting Office, Kingston, Jam. 



Vol. I. APRIL, 1903. Part 4. 



BULLETIN 



OV THB 



DEPARTMENT OF AGRIOULl'UfiE. 



EDITED BT 



WILLIAM PAWCETT, B.Sc, F.L.S, 

Director of Public Gardens and Plantations. 



» > »♦ • ■ 



CONTENTS: 

Page. 
Cocoa in Trinidad and Granada . 73 

The Sugar-Cane Soils of Jamaica , 76 

Additions and Contributions , 93 



PRIG E— Threepence. 



A Copy will be supplied free to any Resident in Jamaica, who will send Name and 
Address to the Director of Public Gardens and Plantations, Kingston P.O. 



KINGSTON, JAMAICA : 
Hobs Gaboskb. 

1903. 



JAMAICA. 
BXJLLETIlSr 

OF THE 

DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



Vol. I. APRIL, 1903. Part 4. 



COCOA IN TRINIDAD AND GRENADA. 

Notes from Dr. Paul Preuss. 

In 1884 Kamerun became a German Colony. For nine or ten years 
Cocoa was planted only in a small way, but in 1896, a commencement 
was made of Cocoa plantations on a large scale. The soil and climate 
was all that could be wished, and the trees grew in a satisfactory manner, 
but the cured Cocoa did not get as high a price as was hoped. Re- 
searches were carried out, but with no satisfactory results. The surest 
and the quickest way to arrive at a solution of the question was to go 
and examine on the spot the methods of culture and preparation in 
the West Indies and Central and South America, where it has been 
longest cultivated and with the best results, to study there dif- 
ferent species of Cocoa and their conditions of development, and to 
import into the German Colonies those species which are the most pro- 
fitable and the most suitable. With this aim Dr. Preuss was commis- 
sioned to travel in Surinam, Trinidad, Grenada, Venezuela, Ecuador, 
Nicaragua, Salvador, Guatemala and Mexico. 

The account of his travels and the results of his mission are presented 
in his Report entitled, " Expedition nach Central and Siid-Amerika," 
published in Berlin by the Kolonial Wirtschaftliches Komitee : the 
second part of which has been translated into French, and published 
by the Societe d' etudes coloniales de Belgique under the title " Le Cacao, 
sa culture & sa preparation " 

Notes from this valuable treatise will appear from time to time in 
this Bulletin, 

Shade. — The distance of the plants is generally 14 feet for the cocoa 
trees and 28 feet for the shade trees. In many plantations the dis- 
tances are 10 to 12 feet, but these are gradually being given up, and 
planters are adopting 14 by 16, or 16 by 16 feet. The distance of 
the shade trees from one another varies with that of the cocoa trees, 
being in the proportion of one shade tree to two cocoa trees. Dr. 
Preuss had long discussions with the Trinidad planters on the subject 
of the shade being too dense, but they maintained that it was neces- 
sary. As proof, they told him that cocoa trees ceased to yield when- 
ever their shade trees were blown down. Moreover, they informed 
him that tormerly when less shade trees were planted, the cocoa trees 
dried up by the hundred in years of great drought. Dr, Preuss, in 
his journey through the best cocoa districts of Trinidad, saw evidence 
that the trees had suffered much from drought, and that a great nurn- 
ber had died in spite of the thickness of the shade. What was said 
then about the ruin by drought of entire cocoa plantations thatj,were 



H 

insufficiently shaded, appeared to be quite credible, and tbe distance 
of 28 feet between the shade trees did not seem too small. The ex- 
planation seems to lie in the amount of the rainiall, the average at 
the Botanic Garden for 13 years being 68.19 inches. In other parts 
of Trinidad, for instance at the plantation " La Eeunion," the ramfall 
wasfor 1896, 107 inches, for 1897, 101 inches, and for 1898, 93.5 inches. 
The absence of shade trees in Grenada astonishes anyone who has 
seen the cocoa plantations in Trinidad so carefully shaded, and he asks 
with surprise how it is possible in the same latitude ? The reason for 
this difference does not, however, lie in the fact that Grenada is ex- 
tremely mountainous, and that it has deep depressions, so that the 
plantations are only exposed to the sun during a few hours in the day. 
This cannot be the cause, for in the first place the most extensive and 
the best plantations are not situated between steep hills, but on the 
contrary in the most level part of the island, where they are fully ex- 
posed to the sun. Besides, the morning and evening sun is not of 
much importance, and there is no mountain in Grenada sufficiently 
lofty to be able to protect cocoa plantations against the sun after 9 
o'clock in the morning. 

The principal reason is rather in the very large rainfall, in the sky 
being much more overcast, and in the very great humidity of ihe air. 
The resistance of the variety which is planted there, also counts for 
something. A rainfall of less than 100 inches is a rarity in Grenada, 
while it is the rule in Trinidad. In Grenada the annual rainfall is 
about 120 inches. Thanks to this circumstance, the chief cause dis- 
appears which leads the planters ot Trinidad to shade their plantations, 
namely, the fear of seeing them perish through drought. 

The absence of shade which the Grenada planters partially supply 
by planting the trees very near one another, results in a different 
method of working the estates. 

The cocoa trees yield a crop much sooner without shade, if the hu- 
midity is sufficient, than with shade. In Grenada a very fair crop is 
obtained in the fourth year from planting, and a full crop in the fifth 
year ; while in Trinidad the trees only commence to yield a full crop 
after the tenth year. 

It must be noted that trees not shaded become exhausted much 
more rapidly than the oihers, above all when they are planted close; 
a distance of 9 by 9 feet is not rare in Grenada. If it is desired to 
preserve as long as possible the fertility of the trees, it is necessary to 
manure and cultivate the soil, and this is done to the greatest extent 
in Grenada, where manuring and tillage play a very important part. 
This fact constitutes a great difference between the methods of culture 
of Trinidad and Grenada. 

The tilling is done by means of a four-pronged fork. No particular 
care is taken to avoid destroying sometimes a root that comes to the 
surface, but when this happens great trouble is taken to cut off the 
torn ends clean in order to prevent decay. The results obtained are con- 
siderable and far surpass those of the Trinidad plantations. In Gre- 
nada they cultivate very intensively, and the soil is completely ex- 
hausted at the end of a short time. The methods of culture in Trinidad 
is on the contrary more extensive, and they do not manure much. If 
manuring was given up in Grenada, the plantations would certainly 



75 

liave attained tlie maxinmm of their production at the end of 10 to 12 
years, after which they would go down very rapidly. In Trinidad, on 
the contrary, the trees only attain at the end of 10 years that degree 
of development whqjj. full production commences, and they remain 
then for a great number of years at this maximum without manuring. 
Yield. — The following figures are quoted as a maximum crop in 
Orenada. The Rev. Mr. Branch, of Good Hope, obtains in his planta- 
tion of 16 acres, the soil of which is of medium fertility, and the situa- 
"tion is in a hilly district, 4 to 5 lbs of cocoa a tree per annum. The 
distance of the trees is 9 to 12 feet and less, the manuring is constant, 
pruning is not practised except to lop off the suckers. The manure 
consists of dung, leaves, and all sorts of vegetable matter, and care i« 
taken to bury the manure. Mr. St. Q-eorge of the Boulogne estate 
obtains on the best part of it, a valley of more than 10 acres, 27 cwt. 
per acre or more than 6 lbs of cocoa a tree. He prunes the trees with 
much care and intelligence. The distance of the trees is greater than 
at Good Hope. 

The following information relates to one of the best plantations in 
Trinidad, namely, " La Tortuga" : — 

4,019 trees, 20 years of ao:e, planted 12 by 12 feet yielded 
10,300 lbs of cocoa = 2.5 lbs a tree. 

1,250 trees, 17 years of age, planted 12 by 12 feet, yielded 

4,450 lbs of cocoa = 3.5 lbs a tree. 

2,382 trees, 10 years of age, planted 10 by 10 feet, yielded 

5,400 lbs of cocoa = 2,3 lbs a tree. 

1,080 trees, 25 years of age, planted 12 by 12 feet, yielded 

3,600 lbs of cocoa = 3.3 lbs a tree. 
918 trees, 10 to 12 years of age, planted 12 by 12 feet, yielded 

3,150 lbs of cocoa = 3.4 lbs a tree. 

2,770 trees 20 years of age, planted 12 by 12 feet, yielded 

7,100 lbs of cocoa = 2.5 lbs a tree. 

4,416 trees, 6 years of age, planted 12 by 14 feet, yielded 

3,425 lbs of cocoa = 0.77 lbs a tree. 

The average yield of a cocoa tree in Trinidad, is estimated in good 

■plantations at 1 . 5 or 1 6 lb ; it is a little higher in Grenada. The price 

of cocoa from Trinidad is, on the contrary, a little higher than that of 

.cocoa from Grenada. The explanatioain Dr. t^reuss's opinion is to be 

found in the variety cultivated. In Grenada the variety " Amelonado" 

is principally planted, whilst in Trinidad "Forastero" is more grown. 

Pruning. Great care is taken both in Trinidad and Grenada to 

give the trees a good shape. An essential principle for this effect is 

to cultivate them to maintain a low trunk, and the head in the form 

of a crown, but so that one can always pass under the trees without 

difficulty and without being obliged to bend too much, and so that all 

the labour of cropping and cultivating can be easily carried, on. 

All lengthing of the trunk is prevented, as well as every attempt to 

iorm a second tier of branches. 

In Trinidad the young cocoa-trees are allowed to grow until they 
fork naturally. This happens when the trunk has attained a height 
of .2^ to 5 feet. The number of branches in the whorl is 4 or 5. These 
are reduced to 3 or 4, and only rarely are 5 allowed to grow. In the 
varieties which have'much wood developed and a thick mantle of leaves 



76 

it is well to leave 4 or 5 branches for if only 3 are left, the weight of 
each branch becomes too great, and the trunk is liable, during heavy 
winds to divide into 3 parts from above downwards. In varieties with 
feeble growth, only 3 branches are left in order to favour the develop- 
ment of solid branches. The priming of trees takes places oftenest a 
little after the crop in June or in January. Dr. Preuss does not like 
the very heavy pruning practised in Trinidad. The ground is covered, 
after the pruning, with a thick layer of branches and leaves. Such 
treatment cannot be good for the trees. It results not in an increase, 
but in a diminution of the yield, for the trees have to devote a great 
part of their sap to form leaves again which are indispensable to them 
to nourish them properly. The planters say that the cutting off of a 
large number of leaves is of no importance since the trees re-cover 
themselves very quickly with new leaves, but this fact shows the evils 
of an exaggerated lopping since it has very little effect and the 
force and energy which the tree employs to cover itself again with 
leaves are lost to it, and the production of fruit is by so much lessened 

It cannot be overlooked that the leaves have the same claim as the 
roots to be considered organs of nutrition. The workpeople use a knife 
to prune the trees, and when they cannot reach high enough, they 
climb on the branches. They very rarely use a knife at the end of a 
pole. Cutting branches an inch thick, a constant practice in Trinidad, 
should be absolutely forbidden. Pruning should commence as soon as the 
tree forks, and should be continued as often as possible, but always to a 
slight extent only. The shoots ought naturally to be always cut off. In 
large plantations it is difficult to spare a man to prune regularly and 
frequently. Pruning is therefore only done once every 2 or 4 years, or 
at the very outside once a year, and then heavily. Whilst a reasonable 
pruning favours fruit bearing, it is nevertheless a question whether, 
in place of pruning too severely it would not be preferable not to 
prune at all, and be content with takmg away the dead wood. One 
of the two planters in Grenada who obtain the largest crops, prunes 
his trees very well, the other does not prune at all. 

The trees attain sometimes, in Trinidad, considerable dimensions. 
In the plantation " La Vega," Dr. Preuss states that he saw a tree 
which had, at 6 inches from the ground, a circumference of 59 inches ; 
and at a height of 40 inches a circumference of 45 inches; it was 
25 years of age. Very old trees which no longer bear fruit, and 
those which have been blown over, are renewed by allowing one of 
the shoots which arise near the ground to develop and become a trunk, 
while the old trunk is finally removed. 

THE SUGAR-CANE SOILS OF JAMAICA. 

By H. H. Cousins, M.A., (Oxon.) F.C.S., Government Analytical and 

Agricultural Chemist. 

PART I. E and S-CENTRAL. ^i ' 
At tlie present time there are some 200,000 acres of land in Jamaica 
representing the areas of sugar estates still in operation. Out of the 
large number of estates that formerly girdled the sea-board almost con- 
tinuously and even flourished in the most inland districts, some 120 
only, representing about 22,000 acres of effective cane-cultivation, now 



77 

remain. The northern estates have found a welcome salvation in the 
banana industry, and sugar production in Jamaica is now localised in 
certain special areas, chiefly in the western and south-central districts 
of the Island. To have survived the fierce competition of bounties 
and cartels, of modern sugar manufacture and skilled technical manage- 
ment with the imperfect methods available in Jamaica, speaks volumes 
for the intrinsic sugar-producing power of the soils ia these districts. 

Some 31 soils and 23 subsoils specially selected as representative of 
Jamaican sugar soils have been analysed in the Q-overnment Laboratory 
during the past twelve months, and the results are here recorded with 
certain observations thereon. In eleven cases manurial experiments 
have been carried out on the present crop, and the results of three 
series have been already obtained and are here recorded. Unfortunately 
in four cases the serious drought has resulted in a loss of results on 
this year's crop, and the experiments will have to be started again 
with a hope of more favourable results in the future. 

Taking the districts in approximately geographical sequence from 
east to west, we must begin with the parish of 

ST. THOMAS. 
Plantain Garden River District. 

The results of analysis of eight surface soils and a sequence of two 
sub-soils to a depth of four feet as made in this Laboratory, were pub- 
lished in "West Indian Bulletin, Vol. 3, pp. 64 and 65, and are here re- 
produced for comparison with those from other districts of Jamaica. 

Although not at present in sugar cultivation, these soils were for- 
merly of high repute for the cultivation of sugar cane and it is proposed 
to establish a central factory in this district. It will be noticed that the 
soils consist of fine sand and silt with a lesser proportion of coarser 
_and finer grades. The clay is moderate in amount. 

These soils are of admirable texture for purposes of cultivation 
and the efficient depth of soil is alone limited by the level of drainage 
which it is found practicable to maintain. Banana cultivation on these 
lands, apart from loss by hurricanes, has been a decided success and has 
taught the value of deep drainage. The banana, owing to its marked 
objection to stagnation of soil, has taught the agriculturists of Jamaica 
to appreciate the great need for drainage in the management of 
the majority of the most productive soils in the Island. In the event 
of sugar cultivation recommencing in this fertile area, a due regard 
for drainage should serve greatly to increase the output of these landsi 
The Phosphoric Acid is unusually high, suggesting that the use of 
Phosphatic manures would be quite uncalled for. Considering the 
liberal and well distributed rainfall, it is more than doubtful whether 
any treatment beyond good drainage and thorough tillage are required 
to produce abundant crops. Indications of a low margin of available 
potash are given in two cases (3 and 7). It is probable that the Seedling 
Cane D. 95 would grow well and give a good yield on this land. Con- 
sidering the frequency of * blows' in the district and the high losses 
of bananas that seem to be inevitable over a period of years, it is to be 
hoped that a well-considered project for a Central Sugar Factory may 
shortly be realised to reap an assured success under the new auspices 
(of a fair competition upon the abolition of the bounties. 



•78 



I. — Analyses of Soils from Plantain Oarden River, St. Thomas, 













Chemical Analy 


ses. 




















a 


f^ 


Solable In Hydrochloric 
Acid. 


Available 




i 

•rH 

CS 

< 


a H 
o ® 

o 


o 

S.2 

Ih O 

W 


c 

a> 

be 

2 


(O 

is 

w 


O 

1— ( 








No. 


i 
1 


« 

S 

•i-H 


_2 

o 

(X, 


o 


4 

-2 

o 


Cl, 


1 


150 


10.28 


6.90 


0.172 


1.81 


62.44 


0.853 


2.56 


0.246 


1.56 


0.0128 


0.0436 


2 


60 


9.38 


7.85 


0.143 


2.02 


62.31 


0.362 


3.96 


0.168 


2.91 


0.0099 


0.024T 


8 


250 


9.49 


9.58 


0.172 


1.75 


60.45 


0.395 


2.63 


0.199 


2.47 


0.0047 


0.0252 


4 


150 


9.52 


8.04 


0.196 


1.67 


61.50 


0.783 


2.80 


0.201 


0.29 


0.0117 


0.0228 


5 


125 


9.85 


6.63 


0.186 


1.67 


63.17 


0.359 


3.64 


0.158 


4.17 


0.0081 


0.0296 


6 


125 


9.22 


8.00 


0.170 


1.86 


61.50 


0.468 


2.95 


0.204 


1.83 


0.0088 


0.0287 


7 


125 


8.87 


6.96 


0.168 


1.75 


52.09 


0.507 


10.67 


0.244 


14.15 


0.0042 


0.0138 


8 


125 


7.89 


6.55 


0.152 


1.36 


63.72 


0.240 


2.67 


0.139 


1.99 


0.0106 


0.0148 



Mechanical Analyses, 



!No, 



1 

2 
8 
i 

•6 

7 



o 



ft 



Surface 



Subsoil 



Surfacf 
Subsoil 



i* 



a 
1—1 

rd 
P. 

Q 



1-9 

1-9 

1-9 

1-9 

1-9 

1-9 

1-9 

9-24 

24-36 

36-48 

1-9 

9-24 

24-36 

36-48 



a 
o 

cc 



Nil 






1.39 

2.92 

0.69 

1.16 

0.94 

0.17 

3.40 

0.40 

0.62 

0.20 

0.67 

0.41 

0.32 

0.15 



02 



4.74 
7.94 
3.81 
8.22 
16,45 
1.99 
5.52 
9.06 
4.73 
2.49 
13.31 
1.50 
2.12 
1.75 



a 

as 

re 

c 



26.91 
29,16 
29.33 
26.83 
30.30 
39.67 
30.68 
30.41 
34.71 
41.11 
25.. S8 
32.26 
36.43 
31.03 



^^ 

51.46 
45.00 
45.83 
48.36 
38.74 
46.38 
47.35 
42.57 
46.63 
44.71 
45.44 
49.92 
48.74 
54.42 



<D 

a 



7.24 
6.15 
10.29 
6.73 
7.16 
6.02 
5.13 
9.75 
7.12 
ft.23 
7.35 
7..i6 
6.19 
5,f9 



83 

5 



1.81 
1.55 
1.30 
1.26 
1.19 
traces 
0.51 
2.86 
2.64 
0.92 
1.37 
2.52 
1.86 
1.'78 









6.45 
7.28 
8.75 
7.44 
6.22 
6.15 
7.41 
4.96 
4.55 
4.34 
6.48 
5.83 
5.34 
5.38 



o 



100.00 
100.00 
100.00 
100.00 
100,00 
100.00 
100.00 
100.00 
100.00 
100.00 
100.00 
100.00 
100.00 
100.00 



<Dt-l 



aj 5 * 

Pi 



54.5 
52.0 
53.0 
52.0 
56.0 
51.0- 
65.0' 



79 

Albion Estate. 
By utilising the waters of the Yallahs river for irrigation, this estate 
is enabled to grow excellent crops of cane on land that would otherwise 
be almost valueless for any agricultural purpose. The owner, J. 
Grinan, Esqr., has found that the use of fertilisers is profitable and he 
recently demonstrated the possibilities of D. 95 on this soil by obtaining 
32 tons of first sugar from 8 acres of thi^i seedling variety. 

The analysis of the soil from the field selected for manurial 
experiments gave the following results : — 

SOIL ANALYSIS, 
Reference Number — 81. Source Details — Surface Soil. Experi- 
mental Plots. Albion Estate, St. Thomas. 
Depth of Sample — 9 inches. 
Retentive Power for water — 47.0 per cent. 

Chemical Analysis. 
(Soil passing through '6 m.m. Si ve dried at 100® C.) 

Insolable Matter ... 71.120 

Soluble in Hydrochloric Acid 28.880 

r Potash ... 0.339 

I Lime ... 0.567 

-{ Phosphoric Acid 0.387 

arbonic Acid as 1 Trace 

Carbonate of Lime j 

Combined Water and organic matter 6 . 750 

Humus (soluble in Ammonia) 1 . 430 

Nitrogen ... 0.148 

Hygroscopic Moisture 2.849 

Fertility Analysis. 
Available Potash ... .0013 

Available Phosphoric Acid .043'J 

This soil is of a very light nature and has little drougbt-resisting 
power. On the other hand it is admirably fitted for irrigation. 

The carbonate of lime is so small in amount as to be incapable of 
exact estimation. This must undoubtedly affect the fertility of the 
soil and limit the rate of nitrification that obtains. 

The available potash is very low, while an appreciable reserve of this 
material exists in the soil. The analysis indicates that phosphates — 
qua phosphates — are superfluous additions ; that owing to the absence 
of carbonate of lime the soil lacks available nitrogen and that nitro- 
genous manures should therefore be operative ; further, that potash is 
needed. 

The results of the manurial experiments will be obtained shortly 
and will be of interest as bearing on the interpretation of the analysis. 
It is very likely that the addition of lime to this soil will yield marked 
benefits by its indirect effect on the availability of nitrogen and potash, 
and, as has often been proved in similar instances, that a dressing of 
lime may prove the most profitable addition it is possible to provide. 
Mr. Grinan reports remarkable effects from the manures and has de- 
cided to model the treatment of the fields of the estate upon the results 
of the experiments. 

The details of the experiments are as follows : — 

Canes- " Albion" St. Thomas--J. Orinan, Esq. 
Applied to (1) D 96 Canes. 

(2) Mont Blanc Canes. 
Plots Tb of an acre. 



80 



Mixed Phos- 


Sulphate of 


Sulphate of 


phate. 


Ammonia. 


Potash. 


per Acre. 


per Acre. 


per Acre. 


3cwt. 


1 cwt. 


J cwt. 


3 " 


— 


i " 


3 « 


2cwt. 


i " 


_^ 


1 " 


h " 


6cwt. 


1 " 


h " 


6 « 


1 " 


h " 


6 " super. 


1 " 


i " 


3 " slag 


1 " 


— 


3 " 


1 " 


1 cwt. 


6 « 


2 " 


1 " 



Plot 1 No Manure 
" 2 Compl te Manure 
<' 3 No Nitrogen 
«' 4 Double Nitrogen, 
" 5 No Phosphate 
« 6 Double Phosphate 
" 7 Double Superphosphate 
" 8 Double Slag 
«' 9 No Potash 
•' 10 Double Potash 
'« 11 Duuble Complete 
It is proposed next year to add special plots for testing the efficiency 
of lime as deduced from the analytical data. 

VERE. 
A localisation of the sugar industry is the chief interest of the plains 
of Vere, and this has been maintained, despite grave climatic disadvan- 
tages and recurring periods of drought, by virtue of the very high quali- 
ties which the soils of this sultry plain possess for the growth of the sugar 
cane. When the newly executed irrigation works have been brought 
into working contact with the land of the estates, security of crop 
and a large increase of the average annual returns are self-evident. 
Great variations in the structure of the soils of the Vere plain are 
apparent. There is, on the whole, a tendency for the soils to become 
heavier in texture the nearer the sea. But the gradations are by no 
means uniform and great variations are found on the same estate and 
even in the same field. 

Appended are the results of a series of seven soils and their subsoils 
representative of the heavier type of land in this District. 



Chemical Analvses of Soils from Vere. Surface Soils depth 9 inches. 





p 

=3 . 
S3 03 

a a 
O 


3 

CO 

'o 

g 

'a 
o 
« 

aj 

O 

5b 
W 


s 


a 
3 . 

S c3 

■©"a 

«! o 


03 

a 

3 

3 
a 

h-l 


Soluble in Hydrochloric Acid. 


Available. 


o 


.a 

CO 

-♦^ 

O 
0^ 


6 

a 


o 
o 

^< 


IS 
o 


O 


.g 

s 


1 

2 
3 
4 
6 
6 
7 


9.72 

14.32 
10.10 
10.55 
10.12 
11.73 
11.29 


4.37 
6.60 
6.57 
7.25 
7.37 
8.78 
7.80 


0.146 
0.172 
0.123 
0.162 
0.147 
0.196 
0.178 


1.14 
2.20 
1.29 
1.47 
1.44 
2.44 
2.50 


65.34 
65.33 
65.04 
65.43 
64.32 
62.20 
62.94 


0.247 
0.078 
0.042 
0.044 
0.048 
0.062 
0.067 


4.300 
1.870 
1.170 
1.470 
1.230 
1.130 
1.170 


0.257 
0.277 
0.134 
0.150 
0.158 
0.135 
0.081 


7.320 
0.750 
0.270 
0.480 
0.200 
0.200 
0.280 


0.016 
0.023 
0.007 
0.011 
0.004 
0.006 
0.009 


0.122 
0.126 
0.019 
0.017 
0.021 
0.026 
0.016 



81 











Mechanical 


Analyses. 












i 

o 

CD 


m 

Q 


to 
O 


> 


PI 


• 

% 

xn 

<o 

CI 

fa 


m 



35.73 


Agricultural 
Clay. 


3 
to 
O 


o 


o 

4-1 

s 


d 


• 

m 

fa 




P3 


^•i- 


Surface 


1-9 


Nil 


4.51 


13.62 


23.85 


14.94 


2.98 


4.37 


100.00 


54.0 




Subsoil 


9-36 


K 


2.78 


5.23 


24.58 


38.93 


17.47 


6.23 


4.78 


100.00 




2 


Surface 


1-9 


l( 


0.35 


1.69 


15.81 


38.85 


24.16 


12.54 


2.60 


100.00 


59.0 




Subsoil 


9-36 


(1 


0.75 


1.59 


15.18 


45.03 


19.12 


11.45 


6.88 


100.00 




3 


Surface 


1-9 


t< 


0.13 


1.27 


18.14 


41,98 


24.83 


7.08 


6.57 


100.00 


66.0 




Subsoil 


9-36 


i( 


0.39 


0.86 


9.06 


50.39 


18.52 


14.77 


6.01 


100.00 




4 


Surface 


1-9 


l( 


0.38 


0.57 


19.81 


39.31 


21.72 


10.96 


7.25 


100.00 


66.5 




Subsoil 


9-36 


l< 


0.78 


0.35 


6.14 


32.56 


27.43 


25.18 


7.56 


100.00 




,5 


Surface 


1-9 


(t 


0.17 


0.47 


11 44 


50.48 


12.55 


17.52 


7.37 


100.00 


66.0 




Subsoil 


9-36 


(( 


0.17 


0.48 


12.83 


48.00 


18.38 


11.15 


8.99 


100.00 




6 


Surface 


1-9 


t( 


3.98 


6.97 


11.04 


43.78 


16.17 


9.28 


8.78 


100.00 


70.0 




Subsoil 


36 


(• 


0.78 


1.06 


10.96 


39.93 


19.89 


18.19 


9.23 


100.00 




7 


Surface 


1-9 


(t 


0.43 


0.55 


10.60 


42.12 


16.92 


21.58 


7.80 


100. 00 


69.0 




Subsoil 


36 


« 


0.43 


0.54 


10.21 


42.82 


13.37 


23.65 


8.98 


100.00 





The agricultural clay varies from 18 to 36 per cent, in the surface 
soils while in the subsoils it may rise to over 50 per cent. It need 
hardly be stated that such soils would require great skill and care if 
subjected to irrigation and are better calculated to fight the drought 
on their merits with the assistance of deep drains and thorough culti- 
vation. The natural retentive power of these soils is very great. The 
Nitrogen is above the normal in every case, the Phosphoric Acid is 
also so high that the need of Phosphatic manures is not indicated. In 
two cases there seems a low amount of available Potash while the re- 
serve supply is undoubtedly low. A trial of Potash on these soils 
should be made. The proportion of Carbonate of Lime is adequate, 
although Lime should produce benefits as regards the tilth obtainable. 

Hillside Estate. 
This represents the lighter type of soil to be met with on the upper 
portions of the Yere Sugar area. Analysis of the surface soil and of 
the subsoil to a depth of 3 feet are here given : — 

SOIL ANALYSIS. 
Eeference Number — 66. 
Source Details — Soil from Hillside, Yere. 
Depth of Sample — 9 inches. 



82 



Physical Analysis. 



Agricultural 
Clay. 



Stones 

Gravel 

Sand 

Fine Sand 

Silt 

I Fine Silt 
tClay 

Moisture 



Per cent. 

Nil 

0.68" 

2.02 
32.66 
53.89 ^ Fine 

3.71 ~ " 

0.47 

6.57 



Earth* 



Total 



Retentive Power for water 

Chemical Analysis. 
(Soil passing through 3 m.m. sieve dried at lOO** C.) 
Insoluble Matter 
Soluble in Hydrochloric Acid ... 
rPotash 
j Lime 
■I Phosphoric Acid 

Carbonic Acid as 1 
(^Carbonate of Lime J 
Combined Water and organic matter 
Humns (soluble in Ammonia) 
Nitrogen 

Hygroscopic Moisture ... 
Fertility Analysis. 
Available Potash 
Available Phosphoric Acid 



100.00 
54.0 Percent. 



70.727 

29,273 

0.251 

0.607 

0.058 

0.149 

8 149 
2.001 
0.173 
7.032 

Per Cent. 
0.0125 
0.0210 



SOIL ANALYSIS 
Reference Number— 67. 
Source Details — Soil from Hillsid 
Depth of Sample — 9-24 inches. 

Physical Analysis. 
Stones 
Gravel 
Sand 

Fine Sand 
Silt 
f Fine Silt 
\ Clay 
Moisture 

Total ... 



Vere. Subsoil A of 66. 



Agricultural 
Clay. 



Per Cent 
Nil 
1.01^ 
1.00 
45.84 
44.69 
1.76 
trace 
5 70 



Fine 
Earth; 



100.00 



SOIL ANALYSIS. 
Reference Number — 68. 

Source Details — Subsoil from Hillside, Vere. Subsoil B, of 66. 
Depth of Sample — 24-36 inches. 

Physical Analysis. Per Cent 

Stones ... Nil 

Gravel ... 0.56 

Saud ... 2.72 

Fine Sand ... 51.69 

Silt .. 39.86 

/Fine Silt ... 0.88 

\ Clay ... trace 

Moisture ... 4.43 



Agricultural 
Clay 



Fine 
Eartb^ 



Total 



100.00 



83 

These soils consist almost entirely of fine sand and silt. They are- 
possessed of low drought resisting powers and without irrigation are 
Bubject to almost entire loss of crop when the Vere district is visited 
by a prolonged drought. 

On the other hand, it is probable that these lands will respond splen- 
didly to irrigation and the problems attending successful management 
prove of a simple nature. The reserve of Phosphoric Acid is not high. 
Otaerwise this soil represents normal factors for a light soil of excel- 
lent fertility and high crop-producing power. 

Manurial Experiments have been started on this estate, but owing 
to the exceptional drought the results have proved abortive. The ar- 
rangements were as follows : — 

Canes — " Hillside,' Vere. — Fred. M. Ellis, Esq. 



10 Plots each 
■jV Acre. 


Basic Slag. 


Nitrate of 
Soda. 


Muriate of 
Potash. 


ot 1 No Manure 


_ 


^ 


_^ 


,, 2 Complete Manure 


3 cwt. 


\\ cwt. 


^cwt. 


„ 3 No Nitrogen 


3 „ 


- 


2 " 


„ 4 Double Nitrogen 


3 „ 


H cwt. 


2 " 


„ 5 No PhoEphate 


- 


^ „ 


i» 


„ 6 Double Phosphate 


6 cwt. 


H M 


t - 


,, 7 No Potash 


3 „ 


H " 


— 


„ 8 Double Potash 


3 „ 


H » 


1 „ 


„ 9 „ Complete 


6 „ 


3 „ 


1 „ 


„ 10 Lime, 10 cwt. 


- 


- 


— 



The soil of the experimental plots gave the following results on 
analysis. I am forced to the conclusion that commercial fertilisers are 
not likely to be profitable on this soil, and that large crops of cane 
will be obtainable with irrigation without the use of manures. 



SOIL ANALYSIS. 

Reference Number — 62. 

Source Details — Experimental Plots Hillside Estate, Vere. 

Depth of Sample — 9 inches. 



Agricultural 
Clay. 



Stones 

Gravel 

Sand 

Fine Sand 

Silt 
( Fine Silt 
I Clay 

Moisture 



Retentive Power for water 



Physical Analysis. 



Per Cent. 

NU 

1.12 

0.50 

32.32 

54.72 )■ 

5.36 



Fine 

Earth. 



Total 



100.00 
Per Cent. 
54.0 



84 

Chemical Analysis. 
(Soil passing through 3 m.m sieve dried at 100* C.) 

Insoluble Matter ... 68.931 

Soluble in Hydrochloric Acid ... 31.069 

rPotash ... 0.573 

I Lime ,„ 0.951 

-{ Phosphoric Acid ... 0.168 

I Carbonic Acid as 1 ^ „_. 

(^Carbonate of Lime J — ^"^^^ 

Combined Water and organic matter 9.950 

Humus (soluble in Ammonia) 2.810 

Nitrogen ... 0.155< 

Hygroscopic Moisture ... 5.66 

Fertility Analysis. 

Per Cent . 

Available Potash ... 0.021 

Avail ible Phosphoric Acid ... 044 



Amity Hall Estate. 

Manurial Experiments have been conducted on this property, and 
the results have just been recorded. 
The Soil Analysis is as follows : — 

SOIL ANALYSIS. 

Reference Number — 60. 

Source Details — Experimental Plots. * Middle Hutchings/ Amity Hall 

Estate, Vere. 
Depth of Sample — 9 inches. 

Physical Analysis. 

Per Cent. 

Stones ... Nil 

Gravel ... 0.17"! 

Sand ... 0.45 1 

Fine Sand ... 22.23 ! Fine 

Silt ... 65.32 r Earth. 

Agricultural^ f Fine Silt ^ nn ( 4.57 

Clay. jClay '" j 1.40 

Moisture ... 5.86^ 



Total ... 100.00 

Per Cent. 

Retentive Power for water ... 57.0 

Chemical Analysis. 

{Soil passing through 3 m.m. sieve dried at 100® 0.) 

Insoluble Matter ... 61.930 

Soluble in Hydrochloric Acid ... 38.070 

f Potash ... 0.573 

I Lime ... 1.575 

-^ Phosphoric Acid ... 0,139 

Carbonic Acid as ) , o^-. 

(^Carbonate of Lime J "• ' 

Combined Water and organic matter 11.176 

Humus (soluble in Ammonia) 1.222 

Nitrogen ... 0.163 

Hygroscopic Moisture ... . 6.225 



85 

Fertility Analysis. 

Per Cent. 
Available Potash ... 0.0268 

Available Phosphoric Acid ... 0.0579 

The close similarity in the mechanical composition of this soil with 
those from Hillside is at once apparent. 

The chemical analysis indicates a fertility beyond reproach and no 
results from commercial fertilisers should be obtainable under present 
conditions of crop- production. 

It may be possible that the greatly increased returns under irriga- 
tion may make possible the profitable use of manures, but in my 
opinion their application would not be justified for a long time to come. 
The agricultural management of Amity Hall is excellent : deep and 
thorough tillage have enabled the production of 33 tons of cane per 
acre on this land in a year in which the rainfall was only 33 inches 
with 18 inches of it in the month of June. 

The results of the manurial experiments have now been obtained and 
they bear out the deductions drawn from the analysis. I stated in a 
note published in the Bulletin of the Botanical Department, April, 
1902, p. 57, with reference to an estimate as to the cost of cane 
cultivation in Vere, as follows : — 

"The item of £500 for manuring canes (300 acres), is not in my 
opinion justified. That it is not a prevalent agricultural practice is 
proved by the fact that it represents ^ of the total value of fertilisers 
at present being imported into Jamaica. That it is unnecessary, is 
brought home to my conviction by recent analyses of Vere soils show- 
ing an extraordinary standard of fertility. At present crops are 
limited solely by the water supply. If fertilisers were used, the yield 
per acre should be increased to such an extent as still further to re- 
duce the cost of cane per acre. Ehminating this factor (fertilisers) the 
cost of canes comes out at 5/2 per ton instead of 6/8, a figure in accord 
with other data from this district which have have been submitted to 



me. 



The plan of the experiments is as follows: — 

Canes — " Amity Rail Estate," Vere — E. W. Muirhead, Esqr. 

10 Plots each ^ . g. Nitrate of Muriate of 

iV Acre. . ^^'^ ^' Soda. Potash. 



1 



Plot 1 No Manure - - 

„ 2 Complete Manure 3 cwt. 1| cwt. \ cwt. 

„ 3 No Nitrogen 3 „ - | „ 

,, 4 Double Nitrogen 3 „ 3 cwt. | „ 

„ 5 No Phosphate - ^\ „ I ,, 

„ 6 Double Phosphate 6 cwt. 1^ „ | „ 

„ 7 No Potash 3 „ 11 „ 

„ 8 Double Potash 3 „ l| „ 1 cwt. 

,, 9 ., Complete 6 „ 3 „ 1 „ 

,, 10 Lime, 10 cwt. - - - 
The Rainfall during the growth of the experimental crop of plant 
cs"ipe8 was as follows : — 



8$. 



1901. 



Rainfall. Amity Mall. 



October 

November 

December 



1902. 



January 

February 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 



4.75 


1902. 




1.20 
3.17 


August 

September 

October 


2.88 
1.20 
3.34 


0.73 


NoTember 


1.74 


0.78 


December 


1.04 


0.71 


1903. 




1.41 

1.60 

17.70 

0.12 


January 
February 


Na 

1.00 


Total Rainfall 


43.37 




during growth of 
crop, 17 months. 









The plots were weighed on February 17 and 18 by Mr. W. J, Thomp- 
son of the Department of Agriculture, and we quote as follows from his 
report to the Director of Public Gardens : — 

"The canes were planted out in the Autumn of 1901. There was 
only 33 inches of rain in 1902, and of this nearly 18 inches fell in the 
month of June There has only been one inch of rain this year up to 
the present. The weight of the cane tops is less than it should be on 
account of the drought in this district. The variety of cane grown 
on these plots was the ' White Transparent,' the variety which has been 
grown on this Estate for the last 100 years. Seedlings D. 95 and D. 102 
are making good growth on this estate, and Mr Muirhead will send 
samples to the Laboratory to be tested." 

"The megass from two tons of canes weighed 11 cwt. 100 lbs. (re- 
presenting a crushing 70.27 o/o.) Better results are obtained in Es- 
tate practice." 

The Amity Hall Mill is a very creditable specimen of a single 
crushing mill. It is a 3 roller mill 3' 6" x 3' and requires a heavy 
feed to obtain the best result. The thanks of the Board of Agricul- 
ture are due to the owners of the estate and to E. W. Muirhead, Esq. 
and his assistants for all the pains they have taken in carrying out the 
experiments and the efficient manner in which they enabled the crop 
.returns to be estimated. 

The results recorded were as follows; — 













Difference by 


Plot. 


Descripton. 


Tons per Acre. 


Manuring. 










Tons, Canes 






Canes, 


Tops. 


Produce. 
36.88 


per acre. 


1 


No Manure 


33.75 


3 13 





2 


Complete Manure 


34 87 


3.0U 


37.87 


+ 1.12 


3 


No Nitrogen 


40.25 


3.25 


43.50 


+ 6.50 


4 


Double Nitrogen 


32.37 


2.67 


35.04 


— 1.38 


5 


No Phosphate ... 


31.00 


2.75 


33.75 


— 2.75 


6 


Double Phosphate 


31.50 


3.25 


34.75 


— 2.25 


7 


No Potash 


33.50 


2.67 


36.17 


— 0.25 


8 


Double Potash 


37.00 


2.75 


39.76 


+ 3.26 


9 


Double Complete 


25.00 


2.37 


27.37 


— 8.75 


10 


Lime 


32 72 


2.75 


35.47 


— 1.03 


Aver- 


••♦ 


33.20 


2.85 


36.05 


— 0.55 


age 













87 

The'^ sample of juice from the mixed canes of the 10 plots as ex- 
pressed by the estate mill gave the following results — 

Analysis of Juice. 

Juice by Mill ... 70 . 27 per cent. 

Brix ... 20.30 
Specific gravity 30-17.5 C .. 1 . 0807 

Sucrose lbs. per gallon ... 1.8963 

Glucose " ... 0.0825 

Non-Sugars " ... 0.2142 

Purity ... 86,47 

Glucose Ratio ... 4.35 

It will be noticed that the average returns from the 9 manured plots 
are practically identical with that from the unmanured plots. The 
small difference of half a ton per acre in favour of the unmanured plot 
is less than the inevitable error involved in an agricultural experiment 
of this sort. These results indicate that manures are not profitable 
on this soil under the conditions obtaining during the crop season of 
1902. 

The ratoon results are to be recorded, and the Hon. J. W. Mitchell 
has approved of a proposal for a manurial experiment on this estate 
on a poorer soil under irrigation conditions so soon as the service of 
water has been established. 

MoNEYMusK Estate. 

Experimental plots have been established at Carlisle, one of the four 
estates grouped together under the proprietorship of the Hon. Col C. 
J. Ward, C M G., and worked on central factory lines at Money Musk. 
Unfortunately Carlisle lands suffered severely from the prevalent 
drought and it was not considered practicable to weigh the returns. 
A repetition of the experiment under more favourable conditions is 
to be carried out 

The plots were arranged as follows : — 

Canes — " Monei/musk Ustaie," Vere — Isaac Fox, Esq. 

10 Plots each tj • oi Nitrate of Muriate of 

^VAcre. Basic Slag. g^^^ p^^^^j^^ 



Plot 1 No Manure - - - ' 

' 2 Complete Manure 3 cwt. \\ cwt. \ cwt. 

' 3 No Nitrogen 3 " - | " 

< 4 Double Nitrogen 3 " 3 cwt. | " 

• 5 No Phosphate - 1^ " | " 

' 6 Double Phosphate 6 " 1\ " | " 

« 7 No Potash 3 " l| " | " 

' 8 Double Potash 3 " l| " 

' 9 " Complete 6 " 3 " 1 " 

' 10 Lime, 10 cwt. - _ 

Samples of soil and subsoil were taken with the soil-auger from two sec- 
tions of the field known as " Little Leicester" upon which the experiments 
were to be carried out, and gave the following results on analysis. 



88 



SOIL ANALYSIS. 

Eeference Number — 44 & 45. 

Source Details -Surface Soils A & B from Experimental Plots, Car- 
lisle Estate (Money Musk) Vere. 

Depth of Sample — 9 inches. 

Physical Analysis. 



Stones 
Gravel 
Sand 

Fine Sand 
Silt 
Agricultural f Fine Silt 
Clay. t Clay 

Moisture 



A. 

Per Cent. 

Nil 

3.34 

3.21 

18.76 

62.14 

6.21 

0.90 

5-44 



B. 

Per Cent. 

Nil 

2.42 

4.39 

24.89 

51.81 

10.13 

0.44 

5,92 



Average. 

Per Cent. 

Nil 

2.89 

3.80 

21.82 



Fine 



56.97 [Earth. 
8.17 I 
0.67 I 

5. 68 J 



Totalj 



100.00 



100.00 



A. B. 

Per Cent. Per Cent. 

Retentive Power for water 58.0 56.0 

Chemical Analysis. 
(SoU passing through 3 m.m. Sieve dried at 100« C.)^ 



63.590 

36.410 

0.134 

1.760 

0.133 



insoluble Matter 64.860 

Soluble in Hydrochloric Acid 35.140 

r Potash 0.236 

Lime 1.600 

■\ Phosphoric Acid 0.213 

Carbonic Acid as \ q ^qq 

Carbonate of Lime J 

Combined Water and organic matter 9. 100 

Humus (soluble in Ammonia) 1.920 

Nitrogen 136 

Hygroscopic Moisture |5.440 

Fertility Analysis. 
AvaUable Potash 0.003 0.008 

Available Phosphoric Acid . 077 . 064 

Subsoils. — Physical Analysis. 



0.330 

10.150 
1.960 
0.141 

5.920 



100.00 

Average. 

Per Cent. 

57.0 



64.23 

35.77 
0.185 
1.680 
0.173 

0.365 

9.625 
1.940 
0.138 
5.680 

0.0055 
0.0705 





A. 


B. 


Average. 


Depth-inches. 


9-36 inches. 


9-39 inches. 


9-36 inches. 


travel ... 

Sand 

Fine Sand 

Silt 

A griculturai f Fine Silt 

Clay t Clay 
Moisture ••• 


per cent. 
0.77 
1.70 
11.07 
72.76 
6.90 
trace 
6.80 


per cent. 
1.52 
0.50 
12.82 
72.72 
6.24 
trace 
6.29 


per cent. 
1.15 
1.10 
11.44 
72.74 
6.57 
trace 
6.54 




100.00 


100.00 


100.00 



89 

The surface soil consists of about 75 per cent, of fine sand and silt 
with 8 to 10 per cent of agricultural clay. On the whole a more re- 
tentive soil than those just described from the two neighbouring es ates. 
The chemical analysis indicates a high standard of total and available 
Phosphoric Acid, with a moderate reserve of Potash and a Heci^iedly 
low present supply in an available form. The Carbonate of Lime is 
ample. The Humus also is up to a good standari. 

An obvious deduction is that Potash salts should be of value while 
Phospliates are quite superfluous. The addition of Nitrogen might be 
profitable under irrigation, otherwise a limited rainfall wuuld probably 
render them non-productive. As regards irrigation it is satisfactory 
to note the fact that the subsoil is lighter and more permeable ihan 
the surface soil. Stagnation of this land should never occur provided 
due attention to the use of water and a thorough system of drainage 
trenches be maintained. 

ST. CATHERINE. 

Large areas of land are available for cane cultivation in this district 
but at present the banana dominates the irrigable areas of cultivation. 
Specimens of these soils have been reported on by Mr. Francis Watts 
in the Journal of the Agricultural Society for 1899, and by the writer 
in a recent report on " Banana Soils." The lighter soils of St. Cathe- 
rine possess an exceedingly high standard of available fertility, ren- 
dering the use of fertilisers absolutely inoperative Two sugar estates 
of importance are still active in this Parish and there have been schemes 
mooted recently for the establishment of a central factory at Spanish 
Town to be fed by the two lines of railway from the surrounding 
areas. Agriculturally the project is above reproach. The soil is there, 
the water is there, capital, organisation and business acumen are alone 
needed to establish the enterprise. 

Experiments on fertilisers are being conducted in this district on 
Caymanas Estate and will be reported on in due course. It has been 
shown that the returns from this estate bear comparison with those 
from any other in the island. A high class grocery sugar is produced 
here on Demerara lines. The scheme of the experiments is as follows : 

Canes — " Caymanas," St. Catherine -J Cameron, Etq. 

Mixed Phos- Sulphate of Sulphate of 
phate, per Ammonia Potash 
Acre. per Acre. per Acre. 

11 Plots each I Acre. 

Plot 1 No Manure — — — 

" 2 Complete Manure 3 cwt. 1 cwt. ^ '• 

" 3 No Nitrogen 3 •' — | " 

'• 4 Double Nitrogen 3 " 2 cwt. ^ " 

*« 5 No Phosphate — 1 •' ^ " 

" 6 Double Phosphate 6 " 1 " | " 

" 7 Double Superphosphate 6 " super. 1 " | " 

" 8 Double Slag 6 " slag 1 " | •' 

" 9 No Potash 3 " 1 " — 

" 10 Double Potash 3 " 1 " 1 cwt, 

" 11 Double Complete 6 " 2 .' 1 " 
Analyses of soils from Worthy Park Estate, the Hon. J. Y. Calder, 

are in prospect but are not yet complete. A magnificent stretch of 



90 

level land here bursts upoa the eye on emerging from the moun- 
tains and the possibilities of this estate with sugar in a healthy state 
of normal prices should be most gratifying to the owner. 

ST. ELIZABETH. 
Experiments and analyses of soil have been made at Holland Estate 
in this Parish, representing a large area of level alluvial deposit on the 
banks of the Black Eiver. Formerly the property of the Gladstone 
family, Holland is now in the hands of an enterprising jJroprietor ever 
ready to experiment and to learn. "We predict considerable develop- 
ments for this estate in the near future. 

The soil consists chiefly of silt with about equal quantities of fine 
sand and agricultural clay and is somewhat heavy and retentive, becom- 
ing close and sticky in wet weather. Owing to the small fall of level, 
drainage requires the careful use of deep trenches and accurate grading 
to make the best use of the fall available. It is noticeable that the 
clay diminishes with the depth of the subsoil, and that the natural 
drainage improves therewith. The chemical analysis indicates a good 
standard of fertility. Given good aeration and suitable cultural con- 
ditions the soil should be capable of giving very large returns without 
assistance. 

SOIL ANALYSIS. 
Reference Number — 58. 

Source Details — Experimental Plots. Holland Estate, St. Elizabeth. 
Depth of Sample — 9 inches. 

Physical Analysis. 

Soil. Subsoil. Subsoil. 

A. B. 

9 inches 9-24 in. 24-36 in. 



Per Cent. 


Per Cent. 


Per Cent 


Stones Nil 


Nil 


Nil 


Gravel 1.05 


2.47 


1.89 


Sand 0.84 


0.43 


2.32 


Fine Sand 12.92 


23.34 


14.01 


Silt 66.75 


63.76 


71.79 


Agricultural f Fine Silt , , a^. f 2 . 14 
Clay. I Clay "'"^ 19.71 


-Hlf. 


3 62{»-j0 


Moisture 6.59 


5.16 


6.37 


Total 100.00 


100.00 


100.00 






Per Cent. 


Retentive power for water 


••• 


60.0 


Chemical Analysis. 




(Soil passing through 3 m.m. Sieve dried at 100' 


'C.) 




Insoluble Matter 




49.690 


Soluble in Hydrochloric Acid 




50.310 


f Potash ... 




0.481 


j Lime 
■{ Phosphoric Acid ... 




O.506 




0.151 


Carbonic Acid as \ 
(^Carbonate of Lime J 




0.288 




Combined Water and organic matter 


16.680 


Humus (soluble in Ammon: 


ia) 


3.779 


Nitrogen 


• •• 


0.165 


Hygroscopic Moisture 


«•» 


7.056 



91 

Fertility Analysis. 
Available Potash ... ... 0.0182 

Available Phosphoric Acid ... 0.0091 

The results obtained in tlie experiments indicate that a complete 
manure was productive of a profit of £10 per acre— the value of 20 
tons of cane. This is quite eclipsed, however, by the still greater re- 
sults of deep drainage and special tillage operations. 

The gross yields of cane per acre from this estate are remarkable 
and are here recorded to show that Jamaica soils can produce crops of 
cane that challenge comparison with any other soils of the West Indies. 

The arrangement of the manurial plots was as follows : — 

Canes — '' Holland Estate" St. Elizabeth — M. E. M. Farquharson, Esq' 
12 Plots each -d • ai Nitrate of Muriate of 

VVAcre. Basic Slag. g^^^ p^^^l^^ 



Plot 1 No Manure _ _ 

„ 2 Complete Manure 3 cwt. 1| cwt | owt. 

„ 3 No Nitrogen 3 „ - ^ „ 

„ 4 Double Nitrogen 3 „ 3 cwt. | „ 

„ 5 No Phosphate - 1^ „ I » 

,, 6 Double Phosphate 6 cwt. l| ,, ^ „ 

„ 7 No Potash 3 „ 1^ „ 

„ 8 Double Potash 3 „ 1^ „ 1 cwt. 

„ 9 No Manure - - - 

„ 10 Cowpeas - - - 

„ 11 Lime, 10 cwt. - - - 

„ 12 Pen Manure. - - - 

The canes were planted on Oct. 29, 1901, and were reaped on 
February 17, 1903 — 16 months old. The rainfall during the growth of 
the crop was 86.45 inches The drainage trenches were from 14" — 27" 
in depth, while the main drainage gut is 26 to 35 inches deep. 

Mr. Cradwick of the Agricultural Department supervised the weigh- 
ing of the experiments and reported the weights of cane and tops as 
also the crushing with the estate mills An average sample of the 
juice from the experimental canes was reserved for analysis. 



92 






s 

■» 






70l=89UB0 UO'J X 


• 

'^ O O O O O C' o o o - 
:+i lO 00 ■* ^ _- jq C5 ^5 00 r-i 


c 

Id 


S ^ "^ CO Tt< COr-T 1-1 i-TcO C^'icTcq' 
02 —1 


Cane». 

Tons 

per 

Acre. 


b»go'nt^eqaot-t>.rtio 

: : :'-(05os©iNoo-*Tt<oo 

■* t^ c-] »o «o cc r^ b, 00 oi 

■-I r-l tH <M r-l 


Produce, 

Tons per 

Acre. 


: : : r-j CO 00 o ^ CO 00 »o -* -* 

' O (M CO t^ 00 F-J OS oi — ' CO 
^ <M rH ,-( :r^ N T-, 


•90Tnj» ni 9J0B 

J9d "eq^ 'eeojong 


lO^Tjt iS^-r lOriCSC^COi— lOCOeO 

oTbT oo" n" co" (n oT o" o" lo" cT CO th" 

I— i-^iH T-Hr-ii— (r-(r- Ir— 


Juice, 
gallons 
per acre 
86° F. 


oooooosi-ioot^eoooiot--* 

CO (T^t- O lO^OO^lO t>;^00 -"^^OS '-^vCO 


u 

9. 

31 


CQ 

s 


most^ot^b-QOO-^-^cq— 'lo 

tJ< --0 o ><i* 00 CO m o t^ ■* 00 c:" o 
coiMcOTftTtf'-feocoeOincO'"*-* 


o 


(Mr^-^lMiaOrH-^OOCOO^lMOC 

rH — rHTiHOCO'*T)<CCOO'<i*lOM 


8 


t,oi?^ — os'^TfioOrHt^eoooo 

t>.OOr-l(Mt-OCOCOl^-<*COCO 


moOiH05iococ5— '-*nc<itj*co 

TjtCOTjiO<»lOT(<iOK5t>.iatOiiO 


Cost 
per acre. 


o 

COi-(Tj(C^-*C^:Oi-li-iC<» 


• 

O 
GD 

P 


No Manure 
No Manure 
No Manure 
Complete 
No Nitrogen 
Double Nitrogen . 
No Phosphate 
Double I'hosphate 
No Pottsh 
Double Potash 
Cowpeas 
Lime ^ ton 
I'en Manure 




• 

c 


be 

eS 
<1 



r 



t-l 

c3 



,0 

c3 ■ 

O 



00 



cd 
o 
u 
cu 

o 

e8 

« a, 

o A ^ 

O O T* 
tiCCOPH II 
<A ^ CO 

o3 ,^ 



m 



O ?1 



00 "v-i 






eS 



s 
1=1 



o 
»— I 

a 

o 
O 



L CO iH F^ CO 
O e8 

CO g -w 

& « fe 
^CO r- ■ -*» 



98 

A neighbouring plot of the estates canes planted a fortnight before 
those on the experimental plots, and in receipt of 95.65 inches of rain 
during the growth of the crop, was reaped at the same time and gave 
a yield of 87 9 tons cane and 110.01 tons of * produce/ i.e, canes and 
tops per acre. Double crushing with a water and steam mill working 
tandem gave an expression of 74.85 o/o of juice of the following com- 
position. 

Juice Analysis. 



Brix (corrected) 




18.9 


S G. f§c. 




1 0746 


Total solids lbs, per gallon 




2.030 


Sucrose " " 




1.7817 


Glucose " " 




0.0847 


Non Sugar " " 




0.1636 


Quotient of Purity 




87.77 


Glucose Ratio 




4.75 



In so far as it is possible to draw deductions from a single year's 
results it would appear that Lime and Potash are capable of marked 
results on this soil, while nitrogen fails to produce the effect naturally 
to be expected of it. It is noteworthy, and I believe almost a record 
in W. Indian Sugar experiments, that every manured plot in this series 
shows an increase by manuring. 

These experiments are to be repeated with additional trials of Lime 
in various combinations. The proprietor will give the plots the same 
system of cultivation and the same grade of drainage as that on the 
other portion of the land cultivated on the estates lines. The thanks 
of the Board are due to Mr Farquharson for the great care and trouble 
he has taken in carrying out these experiments. 



ADDITIONS AND CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE 

DEPARTMENT. 

Library (Serials). 

Europe. 

British Isles. 

Annals of Botany, Vol. XVII, No. LXV. (Purchased.! 

Board of Agri. Leaflets, Nos. 61, 74, 76, 76, 77, 78. [Secretary.] 

Botauical Magazine, Feb. [Purchased.] 

Chemist and Druggist, Jan. 24, 31, Feb, 7, 14. [Editor.] 

Colonial and Diplomatic & Consular Reports, Nov., Dec, Jan. [Col. Sec] 

Statistical Abstract, 1887 to 1901. 

Garden, Jan. 24, 31, Feb. 7, 3 4. [Purchased.] 

Gardeners' Chronicle, Jan. 24, 31, Feb. 7, 14. [Purchased,] 

International Sugar Journal, Feb. [Editor.] 

London Report, Jan. 24. 31. 

Nature, Jan- 22, 29, Feb. 5, 12. [Purchased.] 

Our Western Empire, Feb. 16. [Publishers.] 

Pharmaceutical Journal, Jan. 24, 31. Feb, 7. 14. 

R. Colonial Institute Journal, Fob. 

France. 

Journal d' Agriculture Tropicale, No. 19. [Publishers.] 
Sucrerie indigene et coloniale, Jan. 20, 27, Feb. 3, 10. [Editor.] 



94 

Italy. 

Intomo ad un nuovo tipo di Licheni a tallo oonidifero chevivono Bulla vite 
finora ritenuti per Funghi. Ricerche di G. Briosi e R. Fameti. Extract. 
Atti del B. Instituto Botanico delV Universitk di Pavia. 
Sopra una grave malattia che Deturpa I frutti del Limone in Sicilia. Nota 
preliminare di G. Briosi e R. Farnetti, Extract. Atti dol B. Insiituto 
Botanico dell'Universitd di Pavia, (Director.) 

Germany. 

Tropenpflanzer, Feb. [Editor.] 

Verhandlunjen des Kolonial-Wirtschaftlichen Komitees, Berlin, Jan. 22. 
No. 1. [Committee.] 

Asia. 

India. 

Planting Opinion. Jan. 3, 10, 17. 24. [Editor.] 

Report on operations of the Dept. of Land Records and Agriculture, Madras 
Presidency, 1901-1902. [Govt. Botanist.] 

Straits and Federated Malay States. 

Agricultural Bulletin, Vol. I, No. 14. [Editor.] 

Ceylon. 

Timesof Ceylon, Jan. 7, 15, 21, 29. [Editor.] 
Tropical Agriculturist, Jan. 

Java. 

Proefstation East Java. 44. [Director.] 
„ West Java. 60. [Director.] 

Australia. 

N. S. Wales. 

Agri. Gazette, Jan. [Dept. of Agri.] 

Queensland. 

Agri. Journal, Jan. [Sec. of Agri.] 
Sugar Journal, Jan. [Editor.] 

Western Australia. 

Journ. Dept. Agriculture, Dec. [Dept. of Agri.] 

Africa. 

Cape of Good Hope. 

Agri. Journal, Nov. [Dept. of Agri.] 

Natal. 

Agri. Journar«fe Mining Record, Jan. 9, 23. [Dept. of Agri.] 

Central Africa. 

C. African Times, Dec. 13, 20, 27. [Editor.] 

West Indies. 

Barbados. 

Agri. News. Feb. 14, 28. 

Pamphlet Series No 21 . — Cottnn & Onion Industries in the W. I, 
Dominica, Report on the Phys^sal and Chemical Analysis of the Soils. 
Montserrat, Report on Experiment Stations, 1901-02. [Commr. Imp. Dept 
of Agri.] 

Jamaica — 

Church Notes, Feb. 27. [Editor.] 

Cornwall Herald. [Editor.] 

Journal Jamaica Agri. Soc, Vol. VI, 1902, Feb. 1903. [Sec] 

Trinidad— 

Proc, Agri. Society, Jan. 13. [Sec] 



8t. Lucia — 

Report on the Botanic Station, Agri. School & Exp. Station, and Cocoa and 
other Experiment Plots. 19U1-2. [Curator.] 

British North America. 

Ottawa — 

BuU. No. 41, Central Exp. Farm. [Dept. of Agri.] 

Montreal — 

Pharmaceutical Journal, Jan. [Editor.] 

United States of America. 

Publications of the U. S. Dept. of Agri. \_Directors.~\ 

Scientific Bureaus 8f Divisions. 

Maine Agri. Exp. Station, Seventeenth Report, 1901. 

Experiment Stations. 

Illinois. 82. (Methods of Corn Breeding.) 

Kansas. 115. (The exact calculation of Balanced Rations.) 

Michigan. 203. (Analysis of some of the Commercial Feeding Stuffs of 

Michigan.) 
New Hampshire. 94 (Remedies for Fleas). 95 (How to grow a Forest from 

Seed.) 
New York. 220. (Two unusual troubles of Apple foliage.) 221 (Potato 
spraying Experiments in 1902). 222 (Report of Analyses of Paris Green 
and other iusecticidea in 1902.) 223 & 224 (Investigations concerning the 
Self- fertility of the Grape, 1900-1902.) 226 (Control of Rusty Spot in 
Cheese Factories.) 
Oklahoma. 56 (Bermuda Grass.) 56 (Garden Vegetables.) 

American Botanist, Jan. 

American Druggist and Pharmaceutical Record, Feb. [Editor.] 

American Journal of Pharmacy, Feb. [Editor.] 

Botanical Garden, New York, Feb. [Director.] 

Botanical Gazette, Chicago, Feb. [Editor.] 

Cincinnati Soc. of Nat. Hist., Journ. XX, 3. 

Contr. from the Dept. of Botany, Columbia University, Nos. 176-200. [Di- 
rector.] 

Cultures of Uredineae in 1900 & 1901. By J. C. Arthur. Re-"^ 
print. Journ. of Mycology, Vol. S, June 1902. 

Culture of Uredineae in 1902. By J. C, Arthur. Reprint. 
Botanical Gazette, Vol. XXXV, Jan. 1903. 

New Species of Uredineae — II. By J, C. Arthur. Reprint. )■ [Author.] 
Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, 34 April, 1902. 

The ^cidium as a device to restore vigour to the Fungus. By 
J. C. Arthur. Extract. Proc. Soc. for Promotion of Agri. 
Science. Distributed Feb. 1903. 

Florida Agriculturist, Feb . 4, 

Forestry «&; Irrigation, Feb. [Editor.] 

Louisiana Planter, Jan. 31, Feb. 4, 7, 14, 21, 28. 

Mendel's Law of Heredity. By W. E. Castle. Reprint. Proc.'Amer. Acad, 
of AHs & Scis. XXXVIIL, 18. [Author.] 

Notes on Negro Albinism. By W. E. Castle. Reprint. Sciencey N.S. XVII. 
419 pp. 75-76, Jan. 9, 1903. [Author.] 

The Heredity of Sex. By W. E. Castle. Reprint, Bnll. Museum of Com- 
parative Zoology of Harvard Coll. XL. 4- [Author.] 
Stassfurt Industry. [German Kali Works.] 

Torrey Club Bulletin, Jan. [Editor.] 

Mass, Horti. Society : Trans. 1897, Pt. III. Being the List of Accessiona 
to the Library during the year ; 1902, Pt. I. ; Schedule of Prizes for the 
year 1903. 



96 

Central A.mertca. 
Boletin del Institute Fisico-Geographico de Costa Rica, No. 22. [Director.] 

South America. 

Boletim da Agricultura, Sao Paulo, Brazil, Nos. 9, 10 & 11. [Sec. of Agri.] 

Polynesia. 

Hawaiian Planters' Monthly, Jan. [Editor.] 

Library. (Boolis.) 

<^off (E. S.) Principles of Plant Culture. An Elementary Treatise for Begin- 
ners in Agriculture and Horticulture. Second Edition, Revised. Madison, 
Wis. 1899. 8 vo. [Purchased] 

MacDougal (Dr. D. T.) Elementary Plant Physiology. London, New York, Bom- 
bay, 1902. 8 vo. [Purchased.] 

Seeds. 

From Imp. Dept. af Agriculture, Barbados. 
Hybrid Statice (from Teneriffe.) 

IVom Technological Museum, Sydney, N. S. Wales. 
Ster.ulia diversifolia (Kurrajong) : Syncarpia laurifolia. 

From Curator, Botanic Gardens, Lagos. 
Coreopsis guineensis. 

From Botanical Dept. Trinidad. 
Large Guava. 

From Mr. C. J. Brown, Lemon City Florida. 
Carissa arduina. 

Plants. 

From U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, Wushington, D. G. 

Sweet Potatoes, the following varieties :-- Belmont Yam : Southern Queen 
Nancy Hall : jYellow Jersey : Yellow Spanish . Pierson : Van Nest Red : 
Red Spanish : Red Jersey : Red Bermuda. 

From Messrs. Beasoner Bros. Oneco, Florida 
Psidium lucidum. 

From Mr. W. J. Thompson, Supt., Parade Garden. 
Begonia Gloire de Lorraine. 

Herbarium. 

From Mons. Eugene Autran, Rerbier Boissier, Switzerland. 
A Collection of 41 specimens. 

[Issued 3rd April, 1903.] 

Frinied at the Govt. Printing Office, Kingston, Jam. 



Vol. I. MAY, 1903. Part 5- 



BULLETIN 



OF THB 



DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTUEE. 



> » < 



EDITED BY 



WILLIAM FAWCETT. B.Sc, F.L.S. 

Director of Public Gardens and Plantations. 



CONTENTS: 






Page. 


The Sugar Cane Soils of Jamaica — II. 


97 


Board of Agriculture 


109 


Directions for planting Cotton 


110 


Bird Seed 


111 


Dead wood in Forest Trees 


lib 


Coco-Nut Butter 


114 


Varieties of Grape Vines for trial in Jamaica 


115 


Ferns : Synoptical List— LIX. 


lib 


Additions and Contributions 


117 



PRIG E-Threepence. 



A Copy will be supplied free to any Resident in Jamaica, who will send Name and 
Address to the Director of Public Gardens and Plantations, Kingston P.O. 



KINGSTON, JAMAICA 

HOPB 6ABDBN8. 

1903. 



JAMAICA. 
BULTjBTIISr 

OF THE 

DEPARTMENT OF AGRIOULTDRE. 



Vol. I. MAY, 1903. Part 5. 



THE SUGAR-CANE SOILS OF JAMAICA.— II. 

By H. H. Cousins, M.A., (Oxon.) F.C.S., Government Analytical and 

Agricultural Chemist. 

PART II. WEST and N— WESTERN. 



WESTMORELAND. 

Three soils from the Westmoreland sugar district are here presented. 
In one case, manurial experiments have been carried out, and the re- 
sults will shortly be available. 

The two soils A and B are samples of sugar lands that have been 
long in cultivation, and are locally considered to be somewhat ex- 
hausted. 

SOIL ANALYSIS. 
Reference Number— 83. 

Source Details — Surface Soil Westmoreland A. 
Depth of Sample — 9 inches. 

Chemical Analysis. 



(Soil passed through 3 m.m. sieve dried at 100" O.) 
Insoluble Matter 
Soluble in Hydrochloric Acid 
f Potash 
I Lime 

-( Phosphoric Acid 
I Carbonic Acid as \ 



Per Cent. 

61.506 

38.494 

0.288 

1.157 

.318 

1.958 



(^Carbonate of Lime 

Combined Water and organic matter 11.390 

Humus (soluble in Ammonia) 3.021 

Nitrogen ... 0.236 

Hygroscopic Moisture ... 5.263 

Fertility Analysis. 

Available Potash ... 0.0034 

Available Phosphoric Aciil ... 0317 

Retentive power for water ... 60.0 



SOIL ANALYSIS. 

Re erence Number — 82. 

Source Details — Surface Soil, Westraorelund B. 

Depth of Sample — 9 inches, 



98 

Chemical Analysis, Per Cent. 
(Soil passed through 3 m.m. sieve dried at 100*^ C.) 

Insoluble Matter ... 61.093 

Soluble in Hydrochloric Acid ... 38,907 

f Potash ..." 0.073 

j Lime ... 1.188 

■^ Phosphoric Acid ... 0.323 

Carbonic Acid as 1 , gy,^ 

Carbonate of Lime J '" 

Combined Water and organic matter 1 1 . 590 

Humus (soluble in A.mmonia) 3.415 

Nitrogen ... 0.234 

Hygroscopic .Moisture ... 6.044 

Fertility Analysis. 
A vail able Potash ... . 0054 

Available Phosphoric Acid ... 0.0150 

Retentive Power for water ... 56.0 

These two soils are botli above reproach as regards all the factors 
here recorded with the exception of the available Potash which is de- 
cidedly below par in each case. I have advised the Attorney to try 
the effect of Potash on this cultivation. As regards the main ele- 
ments of fertility it must be regarded as a soil of high quality. The 
local difficulties of management arise chiefly from drainage. Some of 
the Westmoreland planters have succeeded in growing canes in low- 
lying lands subject to prolonged flooding with great success by a heroic 
system of trenches. 

Mount- Eagle Estate. 
The owner of this estate is the pioneer in this parish in the growth 
and trial of seedling canes. Some varieties tesied here have given 
most promising indications of improvement over the old varieties. 
Mtmurial experiments have been c irried out during the pust season. 
The results are not yet ready but it would appear that Nitrogen exerts 
an appreciable effect on this soil The analysis is here set forth. 



SOIL ANALYSIS. 

Reference Number— 70. 

Source Details — Soil from Cane Experimental Plots. Mount Eagle, 

Westmoreland. E. R. Burgess, Esq. 
Depth of Sample — 9 inches. 

Physical Analysis. 

Per Cent. 
Stones ... .Nil 

Gravel ... 4 65") 

Sand ... 1.74 I 

Fine Sand ... 24.70 | Fine 

Silt ... 55.29 )> Earth. 

Agricultural f Fine Silt ... 4.76 

Clay. \ Clay ... trace 

Combined water ) 
Organic matter | 



8.86 



'a" 



Total ... 100.00 

Per Cent. 
Retentive Power for water ... 54.0 



99 

Chemical Analysis. 

(Soil passed through 3 m.m. sieve dried at 100® 0.) 

Insoluble Matter ... 54.465 

Soluble in Hydrochloric Acid ... 45.535 

f Potash ... 0.373 

I Lime ... 1.091 

■^ Phosphoric Acid ... 0,244 

Carbonic Acid as I . 

[^Carbonate of Lime J "* ^"^^^ 

Combined Water and organic matter 14.736 

Humus (soluble in Ammonia) 3.698 

Nitrogen . 0.253 

Hygroscopic Moisture ... 9.721 

Fertility Analysis. 
Available Potash ... 0.0090 

Available Phosphoric Acid ... 0.0156 

This soil is composed principally of silt and fine sand, and is simi- 
lar, as regards grades, to the lighter soils of the Vere plain. 

All the factors determined in the chemical analysis are normal and 
some of them decidedly above the normal for a soil of high fertility. 
The nitrogen and phosphoric acid are particularly high, while the hu- 
mus, for a tropical soil, must be regarded as rich. 

The available potash is normal, while the phosphoric acid more than 
satisfies the standard we have laid down. 

This would be a splendid soil for bananas, should it ever be desira- 
ble to grow them here. 

ST. JAMES. 

Analyses of four soils with their subsoils were submitted by Joseph 
Shore, Esq., of Cinnamon Hill Estate, where manurial experiments 
have been carried out during the past year. 

The season has been disastrous for these calcareous soils owing to 
the prolonged drought. Mr. Shore was not surprised to find that the 
manures had in all cases depressed the yield, since this has been the 
past experience on these estates during a period of drought. The de- 
tails of analysis of the four soils are as follows : — 

SOIL ANALYSIS. 

Reference Number — 73. 

Source Details — Surface Soil A. Cinnamon Hill. St. James, Lono-- 

breath Piece let Ratoons — {3anes healthy. Experi- 
mental Plots. 

Depth of Sample — 9 inches. 

Physical Analysis. Per Cent. 

Stones ... Nil 

Gravel ... 4.44 

Sand ... 3.32 

Fine Sand ... 23.25 

Silt ... 59.17 y Fine 

Agricultural J Fine Silt ... „ oof 1-15 ~ 

Clay. tciay ... ^-^^j 2 13 

Moisture ... 6,54 



Earth. 



Total 100.00 

Per Cent. 
Retentive Power for water .*• 65 



100 



Chemical Analysis. 

(Soil passed through 3 m.m. Sieve dried at 100« C.) 
Insoluble Matter ^ ... 

Soluble in Hydrochloric Acid... 
rPotash 
I Lime 

^ Phosphoric Acid 
I Carbonic Acid as \ 
I Carbonate of Lime J 
Combined Water and organic matter 
Humus (soluble in Ammonia) 
Nitrogen 

Hygroscopic Moisture ... 
Fertility Analysis * 
Available Potash 
Available Phosphoric Acid 



Per Cent. 

33.100 
66.900 

0.182 
27.560 

0.751 

46.960 

18.498 
2.825 
0.146 
6.998 

0212 
0.0485 



SOIL ANALYSIS. 

Reference Number — 77. 

Source Details — Subsoil A., Cinnamon Hill, St. James. 

Depth of Sample — 36 inches 



Physical Analysis. 



Stones 
Gravel 
Sand 

Fine Sand 
Silt 
Agricultural f Fine Silt 
Clay. t Clay 

Moisture 



4.66 



Per Cent. 
Nil 
14.72- 
3.47 
20.33 
64.15 )► Fine 
f 1.60 I Earth. 
1 3.06 
2.67 






Total 



100.00 



SOIL ANALYSIS. 

Reference Number — 74. 

Source Details — Surface Soil B. Cinnamon Hill, St. James, Long- 
breath piece. Places where canes turn white and 
die out. 

Depth of Sample — 9 inches. 

Physical Analysis. 



Stones 
Gravel) 
Sand 

Fine Sand 
Silt 
Agricultural f Fine Silt 
Clay. I Clay 

Moisture 



Per Cent. 

Nil 

24.16 

18.37 

29.34 

24.69 

1.22 

0.33 

1.89 



Fine 
Earth. 



Total 

Retentive power for water .„ 

Chemical Analysis. 
(Soil passed through 3 m.m. Sieve dried at 100** C) 
Insoluble Matter 



100.00 
Per Cent. 
66.0 



5.535 



'Solubility in 1 percent, Citric Acid after neutralization of carbonates with Citric Acid. 



101 



Soluble in Hydrochloric Acid 

rPotash ... ... 


94.465 
0.111 


Lime 


49 910 


-i( Phosphoric Acid ... 


0.571 


Carbonic Acid as 1 
(^Carbonate of Lime J 
Combined Water and organic matter 


85.290 
2.274 


Humus (soluble in Amuioiiia) 

Nitrogen 

Hygroscopic Moisture 

Fertility Analysis.* 


1.306 

0.093 
1.926 


Available Potash 


0.0116 


Available Phosphoric Acid 


0.0225 


SOIL ANALYSIS 




Reference Number — 78. 




Source Details — Subsoil B. Cinnamon Hill, St. James. 


Physical Analysis. 


Per Cent. 


Stones 


Nil 


Gravel ..• 


15.891 


Saud ... 


3.82 


Fine Sand 


18 96 


Silt 


56.93 ' 


Agricultural / Fine Silt 

Clay t ^-lay 

Moisture ... 


0.8|?-»^ 
( trace 

4.60 



Fine 
Earth. 



Total 



100.00 



SOIL ANALYSIS. 
Reference Number — 75. 
Source Details —Surface Soil Cinnamon Hill, St. James. Double 

Piece — old canes — steep Hillside typical of C. Hill 

lands. 
Depth of Sample — 9 inches. 

Physical Analysis. 









Per Cent. 


Stones 


• • • 


NiP 




Gravel 


• •• 


39.07 




Sand 


... 


9.03 




Fine Sand 


••• 


16.15 


Fine 


Silt 


• • • 


25.46 f Earth 


Asfricultural f Fine Silt 
Clay. t Clay 


>■•• 


1.83 


■ * • 


2.16 


Moisture 


• •• 


6. 30 J 


Total 




100.00 
Per Cent. 


Retentive Power for water 


• • • 


60.0 


Chemical Analysis. 




(Soil passed through 2 m.m. Sieve dried at 100® C.) 




Insoluble Matter 


• •• 


24.290 


Soluble in Hydrochloric Acid 


• •• 


75.710 




'►otash 


• • • 


0.126 




Lime 


« «• 


29.787 


-^ Phosphoric Acid 


• •• 


0.743 




Carbonic Acid as 
^Carbonate of Lime 


• •• 


49.338 





* Solubility in 1 per cent. Citric Acid after neutralization of carbonates with Citric Acid, 



102 



Combined Water and organic matter 
Humus (soluble in Ammonia) 
Nitrogen 
Hygroscopic Moisture 

Fertility Analysis* 
Available Potash 
Available Phosphoric Acid 



11.576 
2.859 
0.209 
6.724 

.0340 
.0215 



SOIL ANALYSIS. 

Reference Number — 79. 

Source Details— Subsoil C. Cinnamon Hill, St. James. 

Depth of Sample — 36 inches. 

Physical Analysis. 



Agricultural 
Clay. 



Stones 

Gravel 

Sand 

Fine Sand 

Silt 
f Fine Silt 
iClay 

Moisture 



Per Cent. 

Nil 
11.38"! 

4.81 I 
30.73 I Fine 
43.75 l-Earth. 

2.73 

0.28 

6. 32 J 



Total 



100.00 



SOIL ANALYSIS. 
Reference Number — 76. 

Source Details — Surface Soil D., Cinnamon Hill, St. James. 'Belly- 
full.' Plants. Near landslip. 
Depth of Sample — 9 incht s. 

Physical Analysis. 



, Stones 

Gravel 
Sand 

Fine Sand 
Silt 

Agricultural ( Fine Silt 
Clay. t Clay 

Moisture 



Per Cent 

Nil 
34.03^ 

4.43 
22.15 
26 

2 

2.98 

7.89 



42 i.^^"® 
*Q /^ Earth. 



Total 



100.00 
Per Cent. 
65.0 



Retentive Power for water ... 

Chemical Analysis. 
Soil passed through 3 m.m. Seive dried at IOC* C. 
Insoluble Matter 
Soluble in Hydrochloric Acid 
(^Potash 
I Lime 
Phosphoric Acid 
Carbonic Acid as ) 
Carbonate of Lime J 
Combined Water and organic matter 
Humus (soluble in Ammonia) 
Nitrogen ... 

Hygroscopic Moisture 

Fertility Analysis,* 

Available Potash 
Available Phosphoric Acid 

* Solubility in 1 per cent. Citric Acid after neutralifiation of carbonates with Citric Acid. 



33.493 

66.507 
0.285 

22.582 
0.723 

35.610 



8.148 
0.315 
8.566 

0.0106 
0.0370 



103 

SOIL ANALYSIS. 

Reference Number — 80. 

Source Details —Subsoil D. Cinnamon Hill, St. James. 



Physical Analysis. 



Stones 
Gravel 
Sand 

Fine Sand 
Silt 
Agricultural f Pine Silt 
Clay. t Clay 

Moisture 



Per Cent. 


Nil^ 




7.22 




3.83 




25.31 


Fine 


56 81 


'Earth. 


1.36 




0.46 




5.01 





Total 100.00 



Generalisations on the agricultural features of Jamaica, summing 
up conditions all over the island under one broad estimate are absurdly 
impossible. Agriculturally this island represents about six different 
countries, and what is true of one may be entirely wrong in another. 
These soils from St. James and the outcome of recent experiments on 
cane varieties and on manuring serve to emphasize this point. 

Consisting of about 50 per cent of carbonate of lime, the Cinnamon 
Hill >oils present a condition of moderate granulation and are light, 
free draining, and yet fairly retentive. Tcie proportion of pliosiihoric 
acid is extraordinary, some eight times the normal content of a fertile 
soil. The potash is about normal. In the good soils the nitrogen and 
humus are high. It is not surprising that in a seasonable year such 
soils should give good yields of cane of excellent sugar-producing 
quality. Owing to the small rainfall in this district, crops are fre- 
quently discounted, and only a part of the natural productivity of the 
soil is realized. Irrigation on these lands should have marked success, 
and it is to be hoped that the water at present solely employed for 
power in grinding the canes may under a central factory scheme be 
utilized for irrigating the lands. Some such combination is necessary 
if these estates are to produce regular returns of remunerative crops. 

Soil A. 

This is the land upon which manurial experiments have been car- 
ried out. Mr. Shore's report shows that the manures depressed the 
yield and resulted in loss owing to the drought. He states that this 
has been the experience on these estates in the past. The available 
potash and phosphoric acid are not strictly comparable with those in 
the other analyses in this series The neutralization of the large pro- 
portion of carbonates in these soils as a preliminary to the action of 
the usual 1 per cent, citric acid solvent has given us figures that are 
approximately comparative on this particular series, but are in all pro- 
bability too high in comparison with normal soils on account of the 
solvent action of the neutral citrate of Lime. An investigation on this 
matter is in progress. 

On the analyses here presented, it is not reasonable to expect that 
fertilizers could be profitably used. Even more markedly than in the 
case of the Vere soils previously reported on, " the water supply do- 
minates the crop" and not the limit of plant food in the soil. 



104 



REPORT ON MANURE EXPERIMENT AT CINNAMON HILL. 

The canes experimented on were old ratoons cut in January 1902. 
The land was well forked in June and the manures applied early in 
July, 1902. The canes were again cut in February, 1903, with the 
following results. Each plot was one-tenth of an acre in area. 





Cwts. per acre. 




53 i 


Lbs. per plot. 










<0 






Plot. 






• 




. 






Superphos- 


Sulph. 


-a-a 




OQ 


Bad 

Canes 


, 




phate. 


Ammonia. 


s o 


^ 5 


O 


a, 
o 

Eh 


1. No Manure 


_ 


No Manure 





25.29 


3,370 


1,236 


1,060 


2. Complete 


3 


1 


1/2 


24.06 


3,000 


1,330 


1,060 


3. No Nitrogen 


3 





1/2 


16.46 


2,430 


633 


615 


4. Double Nitro- 


3 


2 


1/2 


11.22 


1,475 


380 


660 


gen 
















5. No Phosphate 





1 


1/2 


11.83 


1,595 


340 


720 


6. Double Phos- 
phate 

7. Mixed Phos- 


6 


1 


1/2 


9.09 


1,325 


349 


360 


6 mixed 


1 


1/2 


15.93 


2,265 


685 


620 


phate 
















8. Slag 


6 slag 


1 


1/2 


17.00 


2,500 


805 


500 


9. No Potash 


6 super. 


I 





21.36 


2,835 


1,186 


765 


10. Double Potash 


3 


1 


1 


23.04 


3,432 


1,000 


730 


11. Double Com- 


6 


2 


1 


22.12 


3,370 


980 


625 


plete 
















12. No Manure 




No manure 
Totals 





26.22 


3,800 


990 


1,085 




« • • 


• • • 


31,397 


9,915 


8,810 



It will be thus seen that the two plots not manured turned out the 
best, which was the experience on these estates in dry years. 

The juice of the non-manured canes stood 8° Baum^, and of the 
manured 7°, by the estates' test. This low test is due to a fall of 14 
inches of rain in the last week of 1902 after a long period of drought 
but it is noticeable that the manured canes shew worse than the 
others in density of juice also. There were many suckers among the 
canes (weighed along with the bad canes) and the proportion was much 
greater than usual owing to the conditions mentioned before. The 
rainfall was : — 



February 
March 


1902 


2.05 
1 07 


April 

May 

June 


It 


3.25 
0.20 
2.70 


July 

August 

September 

October 


t( 


0.50 
0.60 
1.05 
4.62 


November 


(( 


3.35 


December 


(( 


14.31 


January 1903 


0.65 



(all in the last week) 



34.35 for the twelve months. 



105 

The long drought, scorched the tops of the most forward canes and 
thus helped to increase the weight of bad canes which are used for 
rum making. 

I propose to continue the experiment for another year, just loosen- 
ing the soil and cleaning, so as to shew what effect the manures may- 
have on ratoons the second year. The experience so far has been that 
the manure shews better the year after the drought. 

The gallons juice obtained were 1737 from 14 tons canes, which 
gives a mill extraction of 58 o/o, the average extraction so far for the 
crop being 55 o/o, the usual extraction from same mill in ordinary 

years being 60 o/o. 

Joseph Shore. 
20th Feby., 1903. 



Analysis 


of Juice. 






Manured. 


Unmanured 


Brix (corrected) 


17.15 


17.80 


Specific Gravity y^^g 


1.0669 


1.0697 


Sucrose lbs. per gallon 


1.5003 


1.6046 


Glucose 


0.029 


0.028 


Non Sugars " 


0.2937 


0.271 


Quotient of Purity 


82.28 


84.27 


Glucose Ratio 


1.93 


1.74 



It will be seen that the analyses support Mr. Shore's statement that 
the juice of the manured canes, owing to the peculiar conditions ob- 
taining, is markedly inferior to that from the unmanured canes. 

Soil B. 
This represents certain patches of soil where the canes turn white 
and die out Analysis shows that this soil differs greatly from 
soil A. Over 9i per cent of it is soluble in acid of which the bulk 
consists of carbonate of lime The humus and nitrogen are greatly 
less, and the 'available' results less than one half those recorded for A 
This soil is unsuited for cane cultivation on account of the great ex.- 
cess of carbonate of lime, the coarse granulation and defective water- 
retaining power, the deficiency of humus and the low standard of gen- 
eral fertility. I doubt whether it would be profitable to attempt a 
forced cultivation by extravagant use of organic manures, considering 
the relative cheapness of good land in the island. Such soil under 
present conditions is most profitably left to nature. 

Soil a 

This soil selected as typical of Cinnamon Hill lands, is coarser in 
grain than A but presents very similar characteristics, and the chemi- 
cal data are in fairly close correspondence. Clearly a soil of high fer- 
tility and only requiring a water supply to produce large yields. 

Soil D. 
This soil is again very similar to the last. The available potash 
must be considered the weakest factor in the elements of ferti- 
lity here recorded. This must be accepted as a soil of high natural 
fertility, with a great reserve of plant food. 



106 

TRELAWNY. 

As representative of this important sugar parish, famous for the 
quality of its rum, arrangements have been made for experiments 
at Vale E-oyal, with the co-operation of Mr. Hoskins, attorney to the 
Hon H. Sewell. 

The soil from the experimental plots gave the following results on 
analysis : — 

SOIL ANALYSIS. 
Reference Number — 61. 

Source Details — Experimental Plots, Vale Royal Estate, Trelawny. 
Depth of Sample — 9 inches. 

PnysicAL Analysis. 

Per Cent. 
Stones ... Nil 

Gravel ... 2.15 

Sand ... 5.96 

Fine Sand ... 11.65 [ Fine 

Silt ... 66.54 r Earth. 

Agricultural f Fine Slit ... p. p-f 1.13 



6.67 



Clay. IClay ... "'"' { 5!54 

Moisture ... 7.03 



Total ... 100.00 

Per Cent. 
Retentive power for water ... 56.0 

Chemical Analysis. 
(Soil passed through 3 m.m. Sieve dried at 100^ C. 

Insoluble Matter ... 38.002 

Soluble in Hydrochloric Acid ... 61.998 

rPotash ... 0.372 

I Lime ... 2.044 

'{ Phosphoric Acid >.. 0.653 

j Carbonic Acid as ) „ f.Q„ 

t Carbonate of Lime j •" '^^"^ 

Combined Water and organic matter 21.510 

Humus (soluble in Ammonia) 4.227 

Nitrogen ... 0.248 

Hygroscopic Moisture 7.562 

Fertility Analysis. 

Per Cent. 
Available Potash „. 0.0024 

Available Phosphoric Acid ... 0.0226 

The mechanical analysis shows that the soil is fairly stiff, consist- 
ing chiefly of silt with an appreciable amount of clay. Such a soil 
would respond to deep cultivation and be benefited by efl&cient drain- 
age. All the chemical factors are satisfactory, with one exception. 
The phosphoric acid is enormous ; the nitrogen and humus unusually 
high for a tropical soil. The carbonate of lime is abundantly present. 
The available phosphoric acid indicates that manures providing this 
ingredient are not likely to be required. On the other hand the 
available potash is so low that I conclude the otherwise extraordinary 
standard of fertility presented by this soil may be limited and ren- 
dered inoperative through a lack of potash. The experiments with 
manures should throw light on this point. The following scheme has 
been carried out : - 



lot 

Canes— "Vale Royal," Trelawny — E. S. Hoskins, Esq. 



12 Plots each yW ^^re. 








» yj 


Mixed Phos- 


Sulphate of 


Sulphate of 




phate. 


Ammonia. 


Potash. 


Plot 1 No Manure 


1 





__ 


" 2 Complete Manure 


3 cwt. 


1 cwt. 


1 cwt. 


« 3 No Nitrogen 


3 " 


— 


i " 


" 4 Double Nitrogen 


3 « 


2 cwt. 


i " 


" 5 No Phosphate 


— 


1 " 


i " 


« 6 Double Phosphate 


6 " 


] " 


h " 


" 7 Double Super. 


6 " super. 


1 " 


* " 


« 8 Double Slag 


6 " slag 


1 " 


i " 


« 9 No Potash 


3 cwt. 


1 " 


— 


•' 10 Double Potash 


3 " 


1 " 


1 cwt. 


« 11 Double Complete : 


Manure 6 " 


2 " 


1 « 


« 12 No Manure 


ST. ANN'S. 







We are able to give a report on the soil from one sugar estate in 
this parish. Mr. A. J. Webb, of Llandovery,^ who is taking great in- 
terest in the experiments, reports that this soil is not considered the 
best grade on the estate. It is low-lying land, but little above sea- 
level. The soil is fairly fine in grain, but light, porous and friable. 
The chemical analysis indicates a standard above normal in all res- 
pects except that of available potash, which appears to be slightly be- 
low par. Long-continued cane cultivation may have reduced this con- 
stituent to a lower standard. The experiments should throw light on 
this matter. 

Judging from the analysis it is not to be expected that phosphates 
will prove profitable. I am doubtful whether nitrogen as sulphate of 
ammonia will have paid its cost, although it would appear probable 
that potash should alfect the yield of crop. 

The following table gives the scheme of experiments that have been 
carried out on the current crop : — 

Canes " Llandovery" St. Ann's^A. J. Webb, Esq. 



Mixed Phos- Sulphate of Sulphate of 
phate. Ammonia. Potash. 



12 Plots each yV Acre. 
Plot 1 No Mamxre 
" 2 Complete 
" 3 No Nitrogen 
*• 4 Double Nitrogen 
" 5 No Phosphate 
" 6 Double Phosphate 
" 7 Double Super. 
" 8 Double Slag 
" 9 No Potash 
" 10 Double Potash 
" 11 Double Complete 
" 12 No Manure 









3 owt. 


1 cwt. 


^ cwt. 


3 " 




1 n 


3 " 


2 cwt. 


1 " 


— 


1 " 


i" 


6 " 


1 " 


i " 


6 super. 


1 (< 


:. u 


6 slag 


1 " 




3 cwt. 


1 " 


— 


3 " 


1 " 


1 owt. 


6 " 


2 " 


1 " 



108 



SOIL ANALYSIS. 

Reference Number — 65. 

Source Details— Soil from Cane Experiment Plots, Llandovery, 

Ann. A. J. Webb, Esq. 
Depth of Sample — 9 inches. 

Physical Analysis. 



St. 



Stones 

Gravel ... 

Sand 

Fine Sand 
Silt 
Agricultural f Fine Silt 
Clay ( Clay 

Combined water, \ 
Organic matter J 

Total 

Retentive power for water 

Chemical Analysis. 
(Soil passed through 3 m.m. Sieve dried at lOOS C.) 
Insoluble Matter 
Soluble in Hydrochloric Acid 
C Potash 
I Lime 

U Phosphoric Acid 
I Carbonic Acid as 1 
(^Carbonate of Lime J 
Combined Water and organic matter 
Humu5 (soluble in Ammonia) 
Nitrogen 
Hygroscopic Moisture 

Fertility Analysis. 

Available Polash 
Available Phosphoric Acid 



Per Cent. 
Nii^ 
2.32 I 
6.91 j 
40.42 j 
40.53 ;- Fine 
2.49 Earth. 
0.61 

6.72 



100.00 
Per Cent. 
56.0 



61.686 

38.314 

0.284 

3.731 

0.154 

5.285 



11. 
3 



181 
313 



0.249 
7.204 

Per Cent. 
0.0072 
0.0356 



Conclusions. 

1. Jamaica must be divided up into districts and each considered as 
an agricultural entity on its merits. 

2. There are large areas of land in Jamaica upon which sugar cane 
can be cultivated successfully, and which are not at present in ade- 
quate cultivation. 

3. Sugar cane cultivation has survived on some 120 estates owing 
to the extraordinary fertility of the soils and the natural advantages 
of certain districts for sugar production. 

4. The sugar-cane is successfully grown in Jamaica on soils varying 
from light, gravelly sands to stiff clays ; on soils consisting of 50 per 
cent of chalk, as well as on lands in which this ingredient is almost 
absent. 

5. Irrigation and climatic conditions affect the results obtained to 
an extraordinary degree. An increase of the irrigable area under su- 
gar cane is higly desirable. 

6. All the sugar soils herein reported on, upon which the cultiva- 
tion is normally successful, present on the whole a very high 
standard of fertility. The proportion of phosphoric acid is particu- 



109 

larly high. Potash is the constituent of which there is the lowest re- 
serve and the smallest available supply. 

7. Unless crops far in excess of those at present obtained are made 
possible by irrigation and more thorousrh cultiuation, it would appear 
probable that in the majority of cases these Jamaica sugar soils would 
not repay any outlay in artificial fertilisers. In the majority of cases, 
good farming should suffice to maintain a high standard of crop re- 
turns over a period of years without any necessity for spending money 
on imported fertilisers. 

I must, in conclusion, record thanks for the valuable co-operation 
of the managers of the various estates where soil analysis has been 
checked by manurial experiments. These, repeat<^d on successive crops 
and modified as circumstances may suggest, should enable a reliable 
generalisation as to the manurial requirements of these several soils 
and districts to be made and to add greatly to the value of soil analy- 
sis as a guide to special local requirements. The chemical analyses 
were chiefly carried out by Mr. H. S, Hammond ; the physical analy- 
ses by the writer with the assistance of Mr. E. J. Wortley. 

BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

The usual monthly meeting of the Board was held at Head Quarter 
House on Tuesday, 10th March. Present — The Hon. the Colonial 
Secretary (Chairman), the Hon. the Director of Public Gardens, the 
Island Chemist, His Grace the Archbishop, and Messrs. Fursdon and 
Shore. 
The Minutes of the last Meeting were read and confirmed. 
A letter was read from the Colonial Secretary enclosing a commu- 
nication from Dr. Morris upon the subject of the representation of the 
West Indies at the Canadian Exhibition. After some discussion it 
was agreed to adopt Dr. Morris's suggestions so far as the sending of 
exhibits was concerned. It was thought that the best plan would be 
to a-k Mr. Barclay to work up the exhibits under the direction of Mr. 
Fawcett. The Board was of opinion that the products of the Colony 
should be regularly represented at the four chief Exhibitions as a 
means of stimulating trade with Canada. 

Reports were read from the Island Chemist upon : — 

(i.) the Laboratory equipment, stating that the acetylene gas 
plant was now working satisfactorily and might be considered 
a thorough success, that the work of the Laboratory was being 
kept back by the insufficient water supply ; 
(ii.) the agricultural experiments, reporting progress in the mat- 
ter of the sugar experiments; 
(iii.) the educational work, submitting a syllabus of the examina- 
tion upon which the Agricultural Scholarships are to be award- 
ed. It was agreed to forward this to the Schools Commission 
for any observations, and tc publish it upon its receiving the ap- 
proval of the Commission; 
(iv.) the Laboratory Apprentice Scheme, stating that two appli- 
cants had been chosen from a large number and recommending 
the appointment of tv o other apprentices. This was agreed to. 
Ameraorandum re the supposed attacking of orange trees by ants writ- 



no 

4 

ten by Entomologist of the Imperial Department of Agriculture, was 
read, together with observations by the Hon.T. H. Sharp. Mr. Fawcett 
was requested to write to Mr. Panton asking him to look into the 
matter. 

The Quarterly Report of Mr. Buttenshaw, the Lecturer in Agricul- 
ture, was read. 

Mr. Cradwick's itinerary was submitted and approved. 

Mr. Cradwick wrote asking to be supplied with certain tools. Mr. 
Fawcett was asked to supply, as far as possible, from the store and to 
send in an estima e for the rest. 

A report on the work of the Mico students at Hope Gardens by Mr. 
T. J. Harris was read. The Secretary was instructed to send a copy 
to the Mico Board of Directors. 

Mr. Fawcett reported that he had received from America a number 
of new varieties of sweet potatoes. 

It was also reported that the Government had made arrangements 
with Mr. "West whereby he should be allowed the free occupation of 
Superintendent's quarters at Cinchona and land for the purpose of 
making experiments in bee-keeping, especially in the way of introdu- 
cing new honey- producing flowers. Mr. West would also give in- 
struction to the Hope apprentices in bee-keeping. 

The Chairman read a letter from Mr. Capern of Bristol requesting 
the Government to grant him facilities for growing bird seed in J a- 
maica. The Board expressed its willingness to grow the seeds either 
at Hope or at the Prison Farm. 

The Report on the amalgamation of the agricultural agencies drawn 
up by the Chairman, the Archbishop, and Mr. Barclay, was read. Its 
adoption was moved by Mr. Shore, seconded by Mr. Fursdon and 
carried. 

The meeting then terminated. 



DIRECTIONS FOR PLANTING COTTON. 

By T. J. Harris, Agricultural Instructor at Hope Experiment 

Station 

No attempt should be made to cultivate cotton in districts where the 
wet and dry seasons are not well defined, as perpetually damp weather 
is apt to cause the plants to grow to an immense size and yield but 
little cotton ; and this invariably of an inferior quality. 

Almost any soil, with the exceptions of clay and sand, will do, pro- 
vided the drainage is good ; light and rather poor soil should be 
ploughed and harrowed before planting, rich soil to be left undis- 
turbed except that a fork's width is broken up on each side of the line. 

Sea-Island Cotton should be planted in rows four feet apart and one 
foot apart in the rows, every alternate plant to be cut out after the first 
crop and again after the second crop ; the third growing and ripen- 
ing at four feet apart each w ay. 

Egyptian Cotton is a larger growing plant and should be set out at 
two feet apart in lows four feet apart, cutting out every other plant 
after the first crop. 

From six to eight seeds should be sown in each hole and covered 
about an inch ; these will germinate in four to seven days, and when 



Ill 

about eight inches high the seedlings should be thinned out to the 
three strongest, and later two of these are to be removed, leaving the 
strongest one. In thinning do not pull them up but cut them off with 
a knife close to the ground ; or the roots of the remaining one may be 
disturbed. 

If, when sowing, the soil is dry it is advisable'to pour some water 
into the hole, drawing down just a little of the surrounding dry soil 
with the fingers before putting the seeds in. 

The time of sowing depends largely on the "seasons"; about a 
month or six weeks before the fall rams set in is a good time, say dur- 
ing August if the " seasons" fall in October and November ; the idea 
is to have the plants up to a fair size so that they may make the bast 
use of the rains when they come; the pods ripening in the dry weather 

that follows. 

Weeds should be kept down by constant hoeing whenever dry wea- 
ther permits of this being done, more especially during the first period 
of growth and the time of ripening; the loss of soil moisture is thus 
reduced to a minimum, it occurring only through the cotton plants ; 
and which is perhaps as important, burrs and other seeds are pre- 
vented from adhering to the lint. 

The plants during the ripening season, should be looked over every 
four or live days and all open pods relieved of their load of cotton; 
this must be carefully sunned for a day or two b fore gi ining and 
packing. 



BIRD SEED. 

Mr. Capern of Bristol has sent out birdseed of various kinds for ex- 
periment in Jamaica. Application for small quantities for trial may 
be addressed to the Director of Public Gardens and Plantations. King- 
ston P.O. The following notes will sufficiently indicate the nature of 
the plants and their requirements. 

Hemp {Cannabis saliva) is cultivated either for hemp fibre, or for 
the narcutics, bhang, ganja and cimrras ; the seed is a bye-product. 

It is cultivated for fibre in European countries, and in India only 
in the inner valleys of the Himala\a between 4,000 and 7,000 feet. 
Rich moist soil, thoroughly cultivated, is requisite for a yield of fibre. 

When the plant is to be used to produce fibre, it is grown close ; but 
if for seed only, it is recommended to dibble 2 or 3 seeds at distances 
every way of 4 or 5 feet. When the seedlings are 3 or 4 inches high 
the weakest should be pulled up, leaving only one plant. 

The male an . female flowers are produced on separate plants, and 
the fibre of the male, plant is of superior quality. About 13 weeks 
after sowing, the flowers on the male plants fade, and the leaves turn 
yellow and the stems whitish. Each of the male plants is then up- 
rooted singly and carefully so as not to injure the fibre of the stem. 
The female plants require a month longer to ripen their seed, but by 
that time tha fibre has become coarse and of little value. 

Sunflowers (Helianthus annuus) grow best in light, rich, calcareous 
soils well supplied with moisture, and without any shade from trees. 

The seeds are sown 1 inch deep in rows, 18 inches apart, and 30 
inches asunder in the rows, thus giving about 11,000 plants to the 



112 

acre. The quantity of seed required per acre is from 4 to 6 lbs. 
Weeds must be kept down, and the soil kept loose and friable for a 
depth of 3 or 4 inches. The inferior flower-heads should be removed 
leaving only 4 or 5 on the principal stem, yielding about 4,000 seeds. 
The large seeded Russian Sunflower produces only a single head, and 
is less esteemed for oil. 

When the seeds are ripe, in 4 or 5 months from time of sowing, the 
plants are taken up by the root, and allowed to dry thoroughly The 
heads are then removed, placed face downward on a floor and beaten. 
The seeds are spread out thinly to dry. Great care is taken to prevent 
fermentation either in the heads or in the pile of seeds. The average 
yield is put down at 50 bushels of seed per acre. 

Canary grass (Phalaria Canariensis) is grown for its seeds which 
form one of the best kind-^ of food for many sorts of small cage-birds. 
The soil must be friable, and fairly rich. Cultivation should be carried 
on where there is not much cover for grain-feeding birds. One-third 
bushel of seed suffices for an acre. It is recommended to dibble in 
the seed at distances of 6 inches every way. 

The following letter from Mr. F. Capern contains useful informa- 
tion. 

Mr. T. Capern to the Honourable the Colonial Secretary. 

Lewnis Head, Bristol, Feb. 26th, 1903. 

Sir — I beg to thank you for your cable of February 23rd, in which 
your Government offer to experiment on seeds for me, and for which 
please accept my very best thanks. 

I am sending out per Messrs. Elder Dempster & Co.'s s.s. Port 
Morant one sack of canary seed, one sack of grey sunflower seed, and 
one sack of hemp seed. The agents of Messrs. Elder, Dempster & Co. 
will deliver to your order. I should be glad if the following experi- 
ments could be made, but in conjunction with the experiment, the cost 
of production should be kept in detail, as of course if it cannot be pro- 
duced so cheaply in Jamaica as in Spain or Morocco, it would militate 
very much against it. I should like one acre of canary seed to be 
sown: this must be planted the same way as wheat, and also harvested 
and thrashed. If possible as dry a climate as you have here should 
be found, but I need not tell you it should be in close proximity to 
a railway is also a sine qua non. But I do not know if you have 
cheap cartage from the interior to the wharves. 

Sunflower seed — I have sent you two kinds, gray and white. This 
seed is grown in Russia and is sown like kidney beans If you have 
much wind they would have to be staked, probably you would use 
bamboo. 

Hemp seed— -Of course your Agricultural Society would know how to 
manage this. There are two products, the seed and the hemp ; I only 
want the seed. I ne d not again say that in each case the cost of pro- 
duction should be minutely kept. I intended to come out to Jamaica 
myself, but am prevented, and my son will come instead and will give 
me reports, as if I think I can grow different seeds I shall certainly 
come over and attend to things myself. A very large trade in bird 
seed is do le here. England imports 160,000 bags of Canary seed and 
a very large quantity of hemp and sunflower seeds, besides others 
which I have not mentioned. 



113 

DEAD WOOD IN FOREST TREES. 

It is frequently said that we have more insect and fungoid pests to 
contend against now than was the case a comparatively few years ago. 
How far this is correct is open to question. But, supposing it to be 
true, there is no doubt about the blame resting on our own shoulders 
In every direction, including some of the best managed estates, we see 
quantities of dfad branches and dead trees which are absolutely teeming 
with fungi, and are therefore a standmg menace to all surrounding 
trees, the fungi on them only waiting for a favourable opportunity to 
attack fresh subjects, working destruction possibly slowly, but none the 
less surely. We have pointed this danger out to more than one tree- 
lover and planter, and the answer is, almost invariably : " Oh, I think 
dead trees (or dead branches) very picturesque, and I would not have 
tbem removed and burnt on any account ; and, after all, the danger 
can only be very remote." In the case o' Oak-trees, we have heard it 
said that it is bad forestry to cut the dead limbs out of the trees. But 
why ? We should like to know the reason why Oak-trees, more than 
others, resent the dead wood being removed. 

In our opinion the cause of death or decay in so many comparatively 
young trees, is in great part due to permitting so much dead wood to 
remain. Not only is it worse than useless, for its beauty is at least 
open to doubt, whereas its danger is absolutely certain, for it swarms 
with fungi and with insect foes, which immediately enter a fresh tree 
whenever a branch is broken or a limb cut ofi. and so the enemy goes 
on working destruction without a check. Not only should dead trees 
be promptly cut down and removed to the woodyard, but also all dead 
or dying limbs, taking care, of course, to paint tne wound over at once 
with a good coat of tar, thus preventing any fungi entering. If left 
only for a day or two, the enemy has very likely entered the tree, and 
it is then little good painting the wound afterward. If tree lovers 
would remember this and act upon it, injury to our trees would be 
greatly reduced, and the beauty of the countryside improved. 

The question of how to prune forest tr^es is not so well understood 
everywhere as it ought to be. This is proved by seeing limbs sawn off 
sometimes a foot or more from the trunk or main branches. The con- 
sequence is that the portion left decays back into the tree itself, giving 
a free entry to all foes, and als j to wet, the certain parent of decay. 
On the other hand, if the branch is cut off close to the trunk, and the 
edge of the wound pared round with a sharp knife or with a chisel, and 
followed up with a coating of tar at once, the tree quickly begins to 
cover the wound with new bark, and in a few years it is quite covered 
up — that is, of course, if the tree is healthy and in vigorous growth.— 
(Journal Royal Horticultural Society, England) 



,114 

COCO-NUT BUTTER. 

By John R. Jackson. 

Amongst the many new vegetable products, good, bad and indifferent, 
that are frequently being introduced for • trading purposes, Coco-nut 
butter has recently attracted some attention. * In May last it was re- 
ferred to in the Journal of the Society of Arts as follows " The manu- 
facture of Coco-nut butter is an industry of some importance in the City 
of Mannheim. The Mannheim factory ia said to be the only one of 
any importance in Germany ; it has an output of about 10 tons of bat^^ 
ter a day. The product is sold under the name of * Palmin,' a regis- 
tered trade name, or coco-nut butter. It is manufactured from the 
kernels of Coco-nuts, and is used as a substitute for butter and lard in 
cooking. As sold it is generally white in colour, almost tasteless, melts 
at about 80 "^ Fahr., and is of the consistency of mutton or beef-tallow. 
When de&ired by retail customers who are bakers, confectioners, &c., 
the product is coloured to resemble ordinary butter. When furnished 
to dealers it is unlawful to colour it. The proprietors of the factory at 
Mannheim claim that an analysis of their product shows it to contain 
more than ninety per cent, of vegetable fat with but a slight trace of 
water ; while ordinary batter contains about 85 per cent, of fat, and 
nearly 15 per cent, of water. It is stated that the substance does not 
become rancid easily, that it will keep for three or four months in a 
cool room, and that it is much more wholesome and easily digested than 
the ordinary fats used for baking and cooking. For these reasons the 
product has met with considerable favour in German hospitals and other 
institutions, and for use in army camps. Coco-nut butter is generally 
put up in square packages, wrapped in parchment-paper, a small 
proportion being sold in tin cans, which are hermetically sealed for 
shipment in hot weather. It is sold at one price throughout Germany, 
namely, about 8d. per pound, or about half the price of ordinary butter. 
The kernel of the Coco-nut is imported in thoroughly dried strips, 
forming the Copra of commerce. It is subjected to various refining 
processes, by which all the. free acids and other substances are separated, 
leaving only the vegetable fat. In the latter stages of the manufacture 
the product resembles ordinary butter recently churned. It is placed 
in machines similar to the separators used in creameries, in which the 
water and other foreign substances are separated by centrifugal force. 
In the manufacture ot Coco-nut butter a by-product, consisting of free 
acids and other substances, is obtained, and sold to soap manufac- 
turers." 

Later on, namely, in June of the present year, the British Consul at 
Marseilles, reporting on the trade of his consular district for 19U0, says 
a new fatty substance for consumption in the United Kingdom, to take 
the place of butter, is being put on the British market. It is called 
vegetaline, and is nothing else than the oil extracted from Copra, refined, 
with all smell and taste neutralised by a patented process. It becomes 
sweet, like lard, and is intended to compete with margarine, and on the 
breakfast-table as a substitute for butter. A local factory has been at 
work for the past five years, and an effort was to be made to get hold 
of the British market through a Liverpool firm. 

* It ia made in Kingatou by Mr. F. W. Stockhauaen, 59 East Street. 



116 

A new light, however, has been put on this statement that the so- 
called Coco-nut butter is a product alone of Germany, by a letter com- 
municated to the Journal of the Society of Arts in the early part of 
August, from an English firm having their works at Silvertown, in 
which it is stated that the product was originally invented and manu- 
factured in this country, and this, indeed, at Silvertown, and so large 
has the trade now become, that a second factory by the same firm has 
been established at Liverpool. It is pointed out that in this particular 
industry our continental rivals have failed to secure the lead, and that 
the output of the two English factories is believed to be greater than 
that of all other makers put together. 

Coco-nut butter in English trade is known as " Nucoline," while 
Coco-nut suet is called " Vejsu." The first appears in store lists, and is 
quoted at a price lower than cooking butter, for which it is said to be 
preferable. It is remarkable that this product is reported to have be- 
come much in demand amongst vegetarians, Jews, Mahoramedans,who 
prefer vegetable to animal fats, either on account of their guaranteed 
purity, economy, or by reason of their religious faith. 

There is one thing certain, that if the fresh oil is always used and 
not expressed from very stale Copra, a wholesome oil is thus guaran- 
teed, and moreover, considering the enormous quantities of Coco-nuts 
that are always arriving, both for the sake of the oil as well as for the 
fibrous husk or coir, there is no fear of a failure in the supply of ma- 
terial. The Gardeners' Chronicle. 



VARIETIES OF GRAPE VINES FOR TRIAL 

IN JAMAICA. 

Mr. T. V. Munson read an interesting and useful paper on the selec- 
tion and hybridising of grapes at the International ( onference at ^ ew 
York last October (See Bulletin, March, page 66). In response to a re- 
quest from the Director, he has very kindly sent several varieties of 
Vines, see '* Additions and Contributions," page 120. In the letter be- 
low he states that the highest price given for grapes is during winter. 

From T. V. Munson ^ Sons, Denison, Texas, to Director of Public 

Gardens and Plantations. 

February 23rd, 1903. 

"W e take much pleasure in sending you by express, a collection of 
grapes we deem best for trial, in Jamaica, both European and American 
varieties, including several of our own production. 

In exchange for these, in addition to herbarium specimens sent a few 
years ago, I shall thank you heartily for two or three ounces of ripe seed 
of the Vitis carihaea, native of Jamaica, of the next fruitage that 
ripens. 

Fine grapes sell at the highest price in our large cities during winter. 
Then the Malaga grapes from Spain packed in cork-dust, are in all our 
city markets, and sell at 20 to 30 and 40 cts. a pound. The demand 
would continue up to June. 

We send rooted vines, as we have no cuttings at this season that 
would probably root well. Our vines are entirely exempt from Phyl- 
loxera, and other serious maladies. 



116 

t 

FERNS : SYNOPTICAL LIST LIX. 

Additions to Synoptical List, icith descriptions, of the Ferns and tern- 
Allies of Jamaica. By the late G- S Jenman, Superintendent, Bo- 
tanical Gardens, Demerara.* 

Trichomanes solitarum, Jenm.—Eoot stock thread-like, freely repent, 
sinuated, tomentose, and much branched ; fronds dark, dull green, 
abundant, scattered; stipites I-I2 line lono-, rusty like the rootstock ; 
blade finely striated, 3 or 4 lines long, 1-4 lines wide, the bate cuneate, 
or subcordate, barren ones lanceolate or suborbicular entire, indented 
or sometimes cleft; fertile, often bat-like, the sides spreading and in- 
cised, deeply cleft and open at the top, with 1-4 stipitate, entirely free 
sori in the cleft, sunk within or much protiuded; midrib evanescent 
above the base, veins fine, close, flabellate, forked ; involucres urn- 
shaped, with rounded club-like lips.— Grard. Chron., Nov. 17. 1894. 

Jamaica and Gienada.— The barren fronds of this might easily be 
taken f < r those of T. setiferum T. or apodum, the species being of like 
small size, but the fertile fronds of each are quite different, many in 
this resembling a pair of spreading incised wings, with the free sorus 
extended or not, neck and head — as of a water-bird when flying — in 
the deep cleft between. Occasionally a fertile frond is linear. 

Adiantvm dissimvlalnm, Jenm. — Stipites erect, f 1^ ft. 1., black, 
polished ; fronds erect, 1-1^ ft, 1., 5-10 in. w., bipinnate, firmly char- 
taceous, neked, dark green, consisting of a long central pirnate portion 
and two to three basal, much smaller, spreading, pinnate branches ; 
rachis and costae like the stipites ; leaflets apart or contiguous, sessik, 
deltoid-rhomboidal on the central branch, varying to oblong or ovate- 
oblong in the inferior ones of the lower branches, the terminal elon- 
gated ; veins free, fine, close, flabellate, repeatedly forked; margins 
dentate when barren ; sori C( ntinuous around all but the basal and in- 
terior margins. — Gard. Chron., Dec. 1st 1894. 

Jamaica, Bull Head. Clarendon, 8,000 ft. alt., collected by Mr. Hart. 
Resembling in general habit A Kendalii, but with different shaped 
pinnules, firmer texture, striated surface, and difierent arrangement of 
the sori. 

A. littorale, Jenm. n. sp. — Stripes tufted, polished, ebeneous, or dark 
chestnut, slender, 5-10 in. 1. ; fronds tripinnate, ^-1 ft. 1., nearly as w. 
papyraceous-herbaceous, clear green, naked, rachis slender, polished ; 
pinngo spreading lower largest and most compound, upper simply pin- 
nate, all parts freely petiolate ; segments deciduous \-l in. b. and d. 
varying from rhomboidal to flabellate-cuneate, the outer margin usually 
rounded and freely incised, the incisions deeper in the barren fronds, 
pedicels hairlike 1-1^ li. 1. articulated at the top; veins free, flabellate, 
fine and close, repeatedly forked ; sori oblong or subreniform, varying 
in length as the lobes of the margin vary in width. 

Jamaica.— Very abundant on the rocky cliffs of the coast, in some 
places within wash of the sea spray. The freely and deeply incised 
margins gives this s close resemblance to Capillus veneris, from which 
it is however clearly distinguished by the articulation of the segments, 
which are almost as deciduous us those of fragile. It is generally a 

* From Bulletin of Miscellaneous Iiformation, Botanical Department, Trinidad. 



Il7 

wnaller plant than tenerum, which in general habit it resembles, the 
segment larger and much more deeply cut, the incisions being from 
1-3 li. d. In my Jamaica Fern Flora, on a false identification of a spe- 
cimen received, I accepted this with great doubt as " A. emarginatum, 
Bory Wild," an Eastern species, with round even-edged leaflets, merely 
notched here and there and bearing no resemblance to the large deeply 
incised leaflets of this. — Porto Rico. 

Pteris regia, Jenm. — Stipites stout, erect, freely aculeated, 4-5 ft. 
1., brown, the base palaceous; fronds subdeltoid, tripartite, quadri-pin- 
natifid, 5-6 ft. 1. and w.. the lateral lower divisioES large.- 1 and more 
compound, chartaceous, naked, light green, the vascular parts light 
brown and glabrous, the rachis sparsely piickly at the bace ; largest 
central pinnae 1^-2^ ft, 1., 6-8 in. w., pinnules connected, with an open 
rounded sinus or entirely disconnected and contiguous or twice or thrice 
their own width apart, 3-4 in. 1. ^-1 1 in. w. terrate-acuminate, entire 
or the liirger cut in part or wholly, usually only in the centie on onem- 
both sides, into oblique acute serrate-pointed lobes 2 li. w., and ^-f in. 
1. with an acute or broadly open rounded sinus between ; veins fine 
areolae 1-2 serial with free corked or s mple exteiicr brarches, costa 
arch incomplete falling short of the outer rib ; sori continuous, or inter- 
rupted in the sinus reaching the serratures of the outer part of the seg- 
ments. — Gard. Chron. 12th Jan. 1895. 

Jamaica; 3,000-4,000 ft. alt., in woods in the Eastern paiishes 
The fronds are of a bright, light colour, resembling those of aculeata 
of which it may possibly prove to be the maximum state when fully 
known, though the material of this at present known, while suggesting 
does not confirm this conjecture. 



ADDITIONS AND CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE 

DEPARTMENT. 

Library (Serials). 

Europe. 

British Isles. 

Bee-Keeper, Feb. Mar. [Editor.] 

Board of Agri. Leaflets, Nos. 79, 80 and 81. [Secretary.] 

Botanical Magazine, Mar. [Purchased,] 

British Cotton (irowiug Association, Coirespondence, &c.No. 2. [Secretary.] 

Bulletin, Kew Gardens, App. II. [Director.] 

Chemist and Druggist, Feb, 21, 28, Mar. 7, 1^. [Editor.] 

Colonial and Diplomatic & Consular Reports, Jan, Feb, 5lar. [Cnl. Sec] 

Garden, Feb. 21, 28, Mar. 7, 14. [Purchased.] 

Gardeners' Chronicle, Feb. il 28, Mar. 7, 14. [Purchased.] 

International Sugar Journal, Mar. [Editor.] 

Journal of Botany, Mar. [Purchased.] 

Journal R. Hort. Soc, XXVII, 2 & 3. Report of the Council, 1902 ; Ar 

rangements for 1903. 
Journal, R. Colonial Institute, Pt. IV, Vol XXXIV. 
Nature, Jan. 15, Feb. 19 26, Mar. o, 12. [Purchased.] 
Pharmaceutical Journal, Feb, 21, 28, Mar. 7, 14. 

France. 

Journal d' Agriculture Tropicale, No. 18. [Publishers.] 

Revue des Cultures Colouiale.'*, No. 118. [Editor.] 

Suorerie indigene et coloniale, Feb. 17, 24, Mar. 3, 10. [Editor.] 



138 

Germany. 

Bericht xiber die Tatigkeit der K. k. landw-chemischen Versuchsstation und 
der mit ihr vereinigten K. k. landw-bakterioloyischen und Pflanzen- 
Bcbutzstation in Wien, im Jahre 1902. [Director.] 

Belgium. 

Soci^t^ d'Etudes Coloniales No. 2 Feb. [Editor.] 

Hungary. 

Les Stations Royales Hongroises Agro-Chimiques. Extrait d I'ouvrage inti- 
tule le service des Stations Agronomiques Hongroises [Director.] 

Asia, 

India. 

Planting Opinion. Jan. 31. Feb. 7, 14, 21. [Editor.] 

Proc. of United Planter's Association of Southern India, 1902. [Secy.] 

Ceylon. 

Times of Ceylon, Feb. 5, 12, 19, 26. [Editor.] 

Java. 

Proefstation West Java, No. 61 . [Director.] 

Australia. 

Queendand. 

Agri. Journal, Feb. [Sec. of Agri.] 
Sugar Journal, Feb. [Editor.] 

Western Australia. 

Journal Dept. Agriculture, Jan. [Dept. of Agri.] 

Africa. 
Cape of Good Mope. 

Agri. Journal, Feb. [Dept. of Agri.] 

Natal. 

Agri. Journal & Mining Record, Feb. 6, 20, [Dept. of Agri.] 

Central Africa. 

C. African Times, Dec. 6, Jan. 3, 10, 17, 24, 31. [Editor.] 

M auritius. 

Station Agronomique, Bull. 7 Les Borers de la Canne a Sucre. Insecticides 
et Fungicides. [Director.] 

West Indies. 
Barbados. 

Agri. News. Mar. 14, 28. 

Information relating to Cotton Cultivation in the 

West Indies. 
Leaflet Series, No. 7— Hints and Information in 

regard to Cassava Poisoning. _„ 

Sugar Cane Experiments in the Leeward Islands: — [ Uept. of Agri.] 
Report on the Experiments at Antigua and i 
.^t. Kitts, Pts. I & II. 1 

West Indian Bulletin, Vol. Ill, No. 4. J 

Jamaica — 

Cornwall Herald. [Editor.] 

Journal Jamaica Agri. Soc, Mar. [Sec] 

Montserrat. 

Report on the Expeiiment Stations, 1901-02. [Agricultural Instructor.] 



[Commr. Imp. 



119 

British North America. 

Ontario. 

Report of the Entomological Society, 1902. [Dept. of Agri.] 

Ottawa — 

Report, Botanical Club of Canada 1902-1903, and other pamphlets. TDr A 
H. MacKay.] ^ 

Toronto 

Cassava as a competitor of Maize in the production of Starch and allied pro- 
ducts. By Geo. Archbold. [Author & G. Campbell Arnott.] 

Montreal — 

Pharmaceutical Journal, Feb, [Editor.] 

United States of America. 
Publications of the U. 8. Dept. of Agri. \_Directors.'\ 

Scientific Bureaus ^ Divisions. 

Report of the Forester for 1902. By Gifford Pinchot. From AnnualBeports 
Dept. of Agri. 

Experiment Stations. 

Alabama, 122, (Grazing and Feeding Experiments with pigs.) 

Florida, 63, (Diagrams for packing Citrus Fruits.) 
64, (Texas Cattle Fever and Salt -Sick.) 

Hatch, 86, (Orchard Treatment for the San Jose Scale. One year's experi- 
ments in Massachusetts.) 

Illinois, 83, (Feeds supplementary to Corn for fattening steers.) 

84, Dairy Conditions and suggestions for their improvement.) 

Kansas, 116, (Destroying Prairie-dogs and Pocket-gophera.) 

Louisiana, 73, (Analyses of Cummercial Fertilizers and Paris Green.) 

South Dakota, 75, (Treatment of Smuts and Rusts) ; 77, (Macaroni Wheat.) 

Texas, 65, (The Tomato.) 

Virginia, 129, (Orchard Studies — II. The Fruit Plantation — Stoue Fruits.) 

130, (Orchard Studies— III. Notes on some of the more important 
varieties of Apples.) 
American Druggist and Pharmaceutical Record, Mar. [Editor.] 
American Journal of Pharmacy, Mar. [Editor.] 
Cornell University Agri. Exp, Station Bulletins, Nos. 76, 93, 119,120, 122, 124, 

120, 128, 129, 134 to 145 inclusive, 157, 160, 167, 183 to 209 inclusive. 
Foreign Commercial Guide, India, Part I., Section II. [Phila. Commereia 

Museum.] 
Forestry & Irrigation, Mar. [Editor.] 
Louisiana Planter, Feb. 28, Mar. 7, 14, 21. [Editor.] 
Mycological Notes. By C. G. Lloyd. [Author.] 
New York Botanical Garden Journal, Mar. [Director.] 
Plant World, Feb,, Mar. [Editor.] 
Report of Committee on School Gardens and Children's Herbariums of Mass. 

Horti. Soc, 1902, 
Sugar Cane Culture [German Kali Works,] 
Torrey Club Bulletin, Feb. [Editor.] 
University of Pennsylvania, Catalogue 1902-1903. The Provost's Report, 1902. 

Central America. 
La Gaceta, Diario OfiBlcial, San Jose, Mar. 8, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14. [Editor.] 

Polynesia. 
H^wiiaii Plautera' Monthly, Feb, [Bditor] 



120 

Seeds. 

From Messrs. Dammann 8^ Co., Naples. 

Acacia dealbata; Chrysanthemum coronarium lu'eum plenum. 

From Major W. Wright, Hideote, Campden, Gloe. 

Seeds trom N. Queensland ; — Sterculia quadrifolia : Bothi Bail ; Terminalia 
macro carpa ; Erythrina vespertilis : Lueuraa sericea ; Boerhaavia diffusa; 
Ebnona Wardiana. 

trom Lady Blake, Hong Kong. 
Tallow Tree - White Bauhinia., 

Plants. 

From Mr. T V. Mnnson, Denison, Texas. 

Grape Vines, the following varieties — Blondin : Brilliant Calabrian Cap- 
tain : Carman : Cloota : Faher szages ; Fern Munson : Flame Tokay : 
Herbmont : Herman Jaegar : Kiowa: Manito; Perle of Anvers : R. W. 
Munson ; Shala : Violet Chasselas : Xenta. 



[Issued 15th May, 1903.] 



,1^ 

Vol. II. 



JUNE & JULY, 1903. 



Parts 6 &:?. 



BULLETIN 



OV XHB 



DEPAETMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



> » < 



BDITBD BY 



WILLIAM PAWCETT, B.Sc, F.L.S 

Director of Public Gardens and Plantations. 



CONTENTS: 






Page. 


Cocoa — II. 


121 


Shade for Coffee and Cocoa 


124 


Notes on Phosphate Manures 


127 


Jamaica Cassava 


130 


Board of Agriculture 


134, 160 


Four recently described Ferns from Jamaica 


136 


Cuban uses of the Royal Palm 


138 


Irrigation 


140 


Local Deposits of Bat Guano 


144 


Some Local refuse Manures 


147 


Historical Notes on Economic Plants in Jamaica - 


-V. Tea. 150 


An early Jamaica Botanist 


155 


Methods of Corn Breeding 


156 


Cinchona Culture in India and Java 


159 


Citrus Fruit Culture 


161 


PRIOE-Sixpence. 





A Copy will be supplied free to any Resident in Jamaica, who will send Name and 
Addreaa to the Director of Public Gardens and Plantations, Kingston P.O. 



KINGSTON, JAMAICA : 
Hops GA^DSNg. 

1903. 



JAMAICA 



BXJLTjBTIISr 

(IF THK 

DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



Yol. I. JUNE and JULY, 1903. Parts 6 & 7. 



COCOA II.* 



Notes from ]jr Paul Preuss. 



Shade Trees. 

Tlie two trees which are employed generally in Trinidad to give 
shade are the " Anauco" {Erythrina Amasisa or E. micropteryx) 
for the hilly regions, and the "Bucare," [E glauca or E. um- 
brosa) for the low plains. The two kinds are known by the com- 
mon designation of " Immortels." Trials have also been made of 
other trees, as, for example Sand-box {Hura crepitans) and Bread-fruit 
{Artocarpus incisa) but without great success The Immortels have 
the property, injurious in shade trees, of shedding their leaves in 
periods of drought, and of remaining stripped or with only a few leaves 
during the time of the greatest heat. If, besides this, they draw much 
moisture from the soil, it is not astonishing that the cocoa trees suffer 
from drought. 

Shade trees should always be full of leaf at least in countries as dry 
as Trinidad, or the cocoa trees die immediately in consequence of too 
great heat and drought. In regions where this is not the case, as for 
example in the Cameroons where the rain is much more abundant, the 
fall of the leaves and the strongest exposure to the sun which results, 
can only act in a salutary manner, for the consequence is that a more 
abundant flowering is induced. It is the same for coffee and Viuiilla. 
Mr. Hart recommends as shade trees, the Guango [Pithecolobium 8aman) 
which ought to be planted 50 to 60 feet apart. Dr. Preuss saw it so 
employed as a shade tree in Venezuela both for coffee and cocoa ; they 
were not old, and acted very well, f r their shade is light, and the 
foliage remains throughout the year ; they grow very quickly and the 
leaves close up at night, thanks to which the formation of dew during 
the night is very active. However in a plantation of coffee where the 
trees had become too old, they visibly overpowered the coffee shrubs, 
and reduced their yield considerably. The rapid growth and the gi- 
gantic dimensions of the Guango prevents Dr. Preuss from recom- 
mending it as a shade tree for plantations. For, if they are given the 
proper distance from the first, the cocoa trees planted in the interval 
remain too long without shi^de ; and if they are planted from the com- 

*Continued from Bulletin for April, pages 73-76. 



. 122 

mencement as close as the species of Erythrina, some of them have to 
be removed later, which causes much damage to the cocoa trees. Dr. 
Preuss saw several Quangos growing in a large sugar plantation in Su- 
rinam but the Manager told him that it was solely because no shrubs 
nor bad weeds could grow under them. 

The property which many leguminosse possess, in consequence of 
their symbiosis with a fungus, of accumulating nitrogen in tubercles 
which decay at the end of the period of growth and enrich the soil 
with nitrogen, belongs probably also to thelmmortels and the Quango 
&c., although the fungus acts principally in soils pour in nitrogen, and 
such soils are not usually met with in cocoa plantations. These shade 
trees will not in every case take nitrogen from the soil, because they 
possess in a high degree the power of borrowing it from the atmosphere. 
For this reason they take very little nourishment from the cocoa trees. 
It is necessary as far as possible to choose shade trees from amongst the 
leguminosse. If this rule has been followed everywhere in the New 
World without the planters having understood the reason, it is a 
proof in favour of the truth of the theory, and of the aptitude for ob- 
servation of the planters. 

Cocoa in Venezuela. 

Cocoa is the most renowned of the products of Venezuela. It is 
known commercially as Caracas Cocoa, because Caracas was formerly 
the centre of the trade. At the present time Puerto Cabello, and es- 
pecially La Guayra have withdrawn the trade to themselves. There 
are no large plantations in the vicinity of Caracas. The finest and 
the most numerous plantations are situated near the coast in the States 
of Carabobi', Guyman Blanc and Lara. The part of the coast between 
La Guayra and Puerto Cabello is particularly famous. There are 
i5ituated the valleys of erosion of the coast Cordilleras, abundantly 
wateied, generally narrow, and separated one from another by high 
chains of mountains, and in these valleys are found the best cocoa plan- 
tations. The soil is composed principally of products of disintegration 
of micaceous schist and gneiss, mixed with an abundant quantity of 
humus carried down by w ater from the forests situated in the upper 
part of the mountains. 

The high walls of the valleys protect them against wind. The 
streams contain abundance of water during the whole year, Ihe soil 
is of extraordinary fertility; nevertheless the portions that can be culti- 
vated are lelatively su)all, — they comprise, even when the}^ attain a 
high figurt', only some hundreds of acres. Immediately beside the 
black soil of the \ alley, occupied b}' the cocoa plantations, rise the 
mountains precipitous and entirely barren, poorly furnished with 
agaves, cacti and stunted bushes, at the foot of which the cocoa planter 
finds the red earth with which he colours his cocoa. 

Here is the celebrated region of Chuao, of which the cocoa was for- 
-merly reputed the best in Venezuela, indeed even in the whole world, 
but which has had to yield the tirst place to new plantations. Another 
centre of cocoa is at San Felipe, which produces cocoa beans with very 
thin shell of excellent quality. The cocoa of the coast near E.io Chico 
is also appreciated. At the south of the lake of Valencia, the region 
of Guigue on the plateau of Valencia is j^articularly known. Ifc is 



123 

fiituated 1,480 feet above sea level, but the CrioUo cocoa nevertheless 
develops there very well. There is even a small plantatioQ at 3,280 feet 
above sea level. Cocoa is cultivated also in the valley of Tuy. and 
near Los Teques there are well developed trees at an elevation of 3,120 
feet. At these altitudes however only the most hardy species and at 
the same time the least valuable can be cultivated ; while on the coast 
ihe finest species, but the most sensitive of the Griollo furnish the cele- 
brated " cacao de la costa." 

Two varieties of cocoa are in reality distinguished : first, the CrioUo 
Cocoa, and secoDdly the Trinitario or Oarupano Cocoa. The Criollo 
represents the best, and the Carupano the least good quality. The 
differences of prices are extremely marked, — more so than between 
the different species of cocoa of every other country. In 1898, the 
prices varied, even in Venezuela, from 57 marks per 50 kilos for the 
lowest priced Carupano to 134 marks for the best Criollo ; in 1897 
the prices went from 41 to 131 marks. It is only Criollo which is per- 
fectly pure that fetches the highest price ; it loses in value as soon as 
it is mixed with Carupano. 

More precise observations are necessary in order to decide whether 
the distinction between Criollo on the one hand, and Trinitario or Caru- 
pano on the other, constitutes a simple variety, or whether they are 
distinct species. The two kinds appear in commerce mostly separated, 
iilthough Criollo is rarely pure. The word Criollo is not, to my 
knowledge, in use as a commercial designation ; it is rather the Chuao 
^f which the reputation is universal, which lends its name to the good 
Criollo. Even the plantation of Chuao produces actually only 500 
fanegas as a maximum p3r year. The Criollo, called also " Cacao 
Dulce," consists of several sub-varieties : (1) Criollo proper, of which 
the fruits are dark red-brown and the fresh beans a bright violet ; (2) 
"Criollo amarillo" of which the fruits have a yellow shell and the 
beans are white. Between these two varieties there is a third, of 
which the fruits are red or yellow, called " Criollo Mestizo," but which 
are very rare. 

The Trinitario or Carupano cocoa is divided into a series of sub- 
varieties, under names about which the planters are not unanimous. 
This is easily explained, because it is not possible to trace the precise 
limits between the different classes, and because all the varieties inter- 
-cross. The distinction, on the contrary, between the Criollo and the 
Trinitario is quite pronounced. 

In spite of numerous transitions certain types can be established in 
the Carupano or Trinitario. The following may be mentioned : (1) 
Angoleta ; {'i) Cundearaor, which is divided into Cundeamor proper, 
with red shell, and Cundeamor amarillo with yellow shell; (3) Ca- 
rupano proper and its sub-varieties, such as Carupano grande and Ca- 
rupano mestizo ; its fruit is generally red, mixed more or less with 
yellow; (4) Carupano parcho, of which the fruit is greenish yellow, 
or of parchment colour ; (5) Carupano taparito, yellow, or brown yel- 
low ; (()) Sumbito, red or yellow fruits, short, stout, and rather smooth ; 
(7) Trinitario amargo, or "Cojon deToro" [Calabacillo] fruits red or 
red-brown, quite smooth, rounded or terminating in a short point. 

From the p jint of view of quality of these different types, it is gene- 
rally admitted that the fruits long, strongly furrowed and very rough 



. 124 

as for example, these of Acgoleta and of Cundearaor furnish the best 
cocoa and that the smooth fruits of " Cojon de Toro" yield the worst. 
Every planter knows the character of the last ; nevertheless trees of 
this bad variety are found in all the plantations of Criollo. 

The Criollo tree is readily recognised by its feeble growth, its sparse- 
foliage, and its small leaves. The fruits are of medium size, somewhat 
strongly furrowed and rough, somewhat massive and very rarely sym- 
metrical. The typical fruit of Criollo has an oblique point of moderate 
length, which is always directed downwards. In general the fruits- 
have a deformed appearance. They have no constriction at the base. 
The shell is relatively thin, and of a consistence less strong than that 
of the variety Carupano. According to the tint of the fruit, they dis- 
tinguish Criollo proper with deep red shell, Criollo amarillo with 
yellow shell and Criollo mestizo with yellow and red shell. The Criollo' 
proper constitutes the Criollo jD«r excellence. It represents 99 per cent 
of the Criollo of Venezuela. The interior of the fresh bean is bright 
violet. The Criollo amarillo has beans which are quite white. In 
spite of the striking characteristic the planters do not distinguish it 
from Criollo proper ; and most of them did not even know that they 
had cocoa with white beans in their plantations. They have never 
cultivated the two varieties separately. Dr. Preuss was not able to find 
out how the cured beans of the white variety differ from those of the 
violet variety, if, indeed, there is any difference. The form of the 
beans in the fresh state was the same in the two varieties; the taste 
of the white beans appeared to be sweeter and less bitter than i hose of 
the bright violet beans. 

{To he continued.) 



THE QUESTION OF SHADE FOR COFFEE 

AND COCOA. 

Prof. 0. F. Cook, Special Agent for Tropical Agriculture in the 
United States Department of Agriculture, wrote a very interesting 
Bulletin a short time ago on " Shade in Coffee Culture."* 

The subject is discussed under the following headings: — I. The 
direct effects of shade, (a) Natural habitat of coffee, (b) Effect of shade 
on yield, (c) Effect of shade on quality. II. The indirect effects of 
shade, (a) Protection against drought, (b) Protection against erosion, 
(c) Shelter from winds, (d) Fallen leaves as fertilizer, (e) Nitrification 
through shade, (f) Shade and fungus diseases. III. The effects of un- 
wonted exposure, (a) The use of volunteer seedlings, (b) Overshadinw-, 
(c) Removal of shade, (d) Shade and the coffee leaf miner. IV. 
Methods of applying shade. V. Lit*t of coffee shade trees. 

The natural habitat of species of coffee is the somewhat open, par- 
tially weeded country which borders the many disconnected forest areas 
of Africa where partial shade is a very general natural condition of 
fiuch species. But most of the plants growing under such conditions 
are not assisted by deficiency of light, but will thrive much better and 

♦Bulletin, No. 25, Division of Botany, 1901. 



125 

iDecome more vis^orous and productive when the competition of the 
masses of other vegetation is removed. 

That sunlight is necessary for the processes of plant assimilation, 
that the sugar content of vegetable tissues depends upon access to 
H^ht, and that sugar is the material from which most of the alkaloids 
and other plant substances are elaborated, are well-known facts indi- 
cating the necessity of light for a maximum of functional activity. 
Even those who advocate the use of shade admit that the yield is dimin- 
ished, though the existence of compensating advantages is maintained. 
In Java the largest trees are described as growing without shade on 
terraced, carefully cultivated mountain sides with the slopes grassed 
over to prevent washing. The coffee is planted 25 feet apart, and 
permitted to grow to its full height — sometimes reaching 30 or 40 feet. 
These giant trees bear each a crop which, when cured, weighs 6 or 7 
pounds. 

The production without shade of the most valuable grades of coffee 
show that the claim that shade is a necessity to the production of coffee 
of good quality cannot be admitted. 

However untenable may be the position of those who argue that 
shade is directly beneficial to the coffee tree, the possibility is not ex- 
cluded that shade in coffee plantations may often be indirectly benefi- 
cial by conserving soil moisture, keeping down the growth of weeds 
and grass, preventing erosion, protecting the coffee trees from the vio- 
lence of the wind, and other ways. 

Prof. Cook's general conclusions are, that there is no basis in reason 
or in observed fact for the belief that shade is a general necessity for 
the coffee plant, even when grown at low elevations. On the contrary 
it is extremely probable that the beneficial effects resulting from 
shade are quite apart from the shadow cast upon the coffee tree. 

The beneficial effects connected with shade arise from the protec- 
tion afforded against drought, erosion and winds. The planting of 
shade trees for these purposes is accordingly determined by local con- 
ditions of climate and soil, and furnishes no reason for the general 
planting of shade trees. 

In regions not affected by injurious climatic extremes the planting 
of shade trees is justified from the cultural stamlpoint only by the 
increased fertility imparted to the soil by means of the nitrogen-fixing 
root tubercles of leguminous species. This view has not been made the 
subject of experimental demonstration, but it seems to accord with all 
the facts thus far ascertained. 

The benefits of leguminous fertilizing are quit? apart from the shad- 
ing of the coffee, and under suitable cultural conditions are also to be 
secured from shrubs and herbs belonging to the same natural family. 

The relative utility and availability of the various shade trees and 
soiling crops is a subject of vast importance in coffee culture and in 
other agricultural industries of the tropics.. 

The combinations of such cultures as coffee and cocoa with legumin- 
ous trees and plants of maximum cultural and commercial value 
afford many complex, scientific, and practical problems bearing upon 
the rise of mixed farming in the tropics and are thus worthy of seriou* 
experimental attention. 

These conclusions of Prof Cook are of the greatest interest in Ja- 



' 126 

maica, and aie deserving of the most careful consideration, not only in 
connection with the coffee and cocoa industries, but with other agri- 
cultural plants in cases where the ground is only partly covered. 

The Blue Mountain Coffee grown from about the elevation of 
2,500 ft, upwards gets the highest price in the market, and it is pro- 
duced without any shade. At about 2,600 ft. according as the ground 
•lopes to various points of the compass, and at all lower bltitudes shade 
is considered necessary. The tree that is used universally in the Blue 
Mountains is the West Indian Cedar* The principal reason given 
for using this particular species is that it dr^ps its leaves during the 
winter months when coffee requires all the sun it can get, and shade 
would be injurious. These months are just those that are the dry 
months of the year. IShade therefore is not necessary at these lower 
altitudes of the Blue Mountains for the purpose of maintaining a moist 
atmosphere or for the retention of moisture in the soil. 

Now, although the temperature in the shade is mnch less than that 
in the sun. Prof. Cook has given samples of coffee doing well in Porto 
Eico at sea level without shade. 

It appears iherefore that it is the soil that requires shading from the 
sun, and not the coffee shrub. The temperature of the ground through 
which the coffee roots penetrate varies with elevation above sea-level, 
and with amount of shade ; and when we come down from the higher 
coffee fields to an altitude of 2,500 ft. the ttmperature of the soilthere^ 
and at lower levels, is possibly greater than the roots of the coffee, or 
the microbes in the soil, can bear. 

At the Agricultural Conference in Barbados in 1901 in the discus- 
sion on Mr. Watts' paper on "The treatment of soils in 'orchard' culti- 
Tation in the tropics,"! the writer of these notes said that "the ex- 
posure of the soil to the direct rays of the sun causes great injury boih 
to the soil and the crops growing thereon," and this is the point in the 
whole subject to which attention should be directed. 

It is known that in a general sense the soil is prepared for plant use 
by the action of microbes, particularly in the upper layers of the soil. 
These microbes are enabled to carry on their important work only 
whilst certain conditions of moisture, air, and tempt rature are suitable. 
If the temperature for instance is too high, the microbes cannot act, 
the consequence being that a sufiicient quantity of material is not ab- 
sorbed by the plants, and the crops produced by the plant are small in 
quantity 

Mulching which is so beneficial in preventing escape of moisture from 
the soil, is also of the greatest benefit in shading the soil and so avow- 
ing the microbes to prepare it for the use of the plant. Mulching 
certainly does not add ritrogen to the soil as leguminous trees do, but 
neither does it rob the soil of other necessary ingredients which shade 
trees of any kind actually do. 

On large estates the difficulty of obtaining large quantities of material 
for mulching would be great, and probably the best plan to adopt Wduld 
be to grow some deep rooting leguminous herb, suoh as alfalfa, in 
spaces between the cocoa, coffee, or orange trees, and to cut it down 



*Cedrela odorata. 

t West Indian Bulletin, Vol. II, 190J, page 96. 



127 

for mulching when about to flower. In this way there would 'only 
be the preliminary expense of establishing the herbaceous perennial, 
and the small expense afterwards of cutting it down. Quantities of 
valuable food material would thus be brought up from the subsoil, and 
deposited in the mulch on the surface to decay for the benefit of the 
cocoa, coffee, or other plant. 



NOTES ON PHOSPHATE MANURES. 



BY 

H. H. Cousins. 

Apart from the material question of cost, I have always advocated 
that planters would be well-advised to avoid the complete fertiliser 
and the special manure of commerce and to purchase the special ingre- 
dients required at current market rates. ^.^^ 

Our experience in the purchase of fertilisers for the Manurial Ex- 
periments of the Board of Agriculture indicate that there is a saving 
of quite 25 o/o in cost, apart from the special advant;iges arising from 
adjusting a manurial mixture to the needs of particular soils and crops. 

My chief objection to the ordinary ' complete' manure of commerce 
lies in the fact that there are three types of phosphatic fertilisers, each 
peculiarly suited to a particular type of soil. It is quite possible to 
use each of these forms of phosphoric acid without any reasonable pro- 
bability of any benefit and a possibility of a depression in the result- 
ing crop. For example : Basic Slag is frequently absolutely inopera- 
tive on calcareous soils, while superphosphate may result in detriment 
to the crop if applied to soils deficient in Carbonate of Lime. Again 
there are some soils, representing the lighter lands of our fertile allu- 
vial tracts in Jamaica, where Basic Slag would be inoperative, super- 
phosphate injurious and an intermediate or mixed phosphate be the 
form best adopted to the nature of the soil. 

To use a " complete manure," containing in the majority of cases 
acid phosphates, indiscrimiuately on all our Jamaica soils is, to my 
mind, a chemical absurdity. 

Before purchasing manures, planters would do well to consult 
the chemist and avoid paying too high a price and the possibility of 
getting an unsuitable mixture. 

On many soils in Jamaica Phosphates are quite unnecessary. 
Analyses show that most of our good land is very rich indeed in this 
ingredient and that when exhaustion takes place in course of time, fer- 
tilisers supplying Nitrogen and Potash only should suffice to maintain 
the standard of fertility in these cases. 

Appended ai-e some data as to phosphatic fertilisers recently im- 
ported into Jamaica which may serve to guide planters as to a w ise 
selection. 



• us 

Phosphate Fertilisers, 





1 

Basic 

Slag. A. 

Per cent. 


2 

Basic 
Slag. B. 


3 

Basic Super- 
phosphate. 

Per cent. 


4 

Mixed 
Phosphate. 




Per cent. 


Per cent 


Total Phosphoric 

Acid 
Equal to Phosphate 

of Lime 


16.34 
35 67 


17.29 
37.74 


13.89 
30.32 


18.51 
40.41 


Citrate Soluble 
Phosphoric Acid 
Equal to 1 hosphate 

of Lime 
Percentage soluble . 


9 17 

20.01 
56.1 


13.52 

•29.50 
78.2 


11.9 

25.97 
85.6 


13.84 

30.22 

74.8 


Water Soluble 
Phosphoric Acid 
Equal to I'hosphate 
of Lime 


nil 
nil 


nil 
nil 

3.77 
8.24 

£3 3 


minute 

trace 

do 


3.35 
7.31 


Citrate Insoluble. 
PhosiDhoric Acid 
Equal to Phosphate 

of Lime 


7.17 
18.66 


1.99 
4.35 


4 67 
10.19 


Cost per Ton deli- 
vered in Kingston 


£3 1 


£4 


£4 



Observations. 

For cLy soils deficient in Lime and all of the strong retentive lands 
which may need Phosphates — Basic Slag— is the best form. It is ad- 
visable to ai pl}^ it alone and early It must not be mixed with 
manure containing ammonia Dose 2 to 20 cvvt. per acre according to 
the crop and the object in view. Its action sjDreads over at least two 
years. 

No. 1 is a Basic Slag purchased shrewdly as to price but really a 
dear or inferior article owing to low standard of phosphates and very 
poor Solubility (56 o/o.) This was bought by a banana planter for use 
on a stiff soil deficient in available Phosphoric Acid. For 2s. per ton 
more he might have obtained No. 2 Siag as used by the Board of 
Agriculture. 

This was Albert's Slag of high grade in fineness showing 2 per cent 
more Phosphate and a solubility ne .rly 50 per cent greater than that 
of No. 1. In buying Basic Slag a guarantee of "fineness" should be 



12i) 

obtained of at least 80 per cent. For Jamaica the highest grade is 
really the cheapest owing to the cost of freight (IBs. per ton). 

Basic Superphosphate. 

This is a patented article which has just been placed on the market- 
It is by no means a novelty and the Patent rights must be doubtful 
since we happen to know of a firm who prepared the identical article 
some years ago and give it up as unsati-^factory in practice. 

The name of the article is not in its favour since it is not 'Basic' 
and is not * Superphosphate.' It is prepared by treating Superphos- 
phate with Lime ; thereby distroying the special value of the super- 
phosphate—its solubility in water — and producing a product that we 
are convinced is of necessity more expensive than other forms of re- 
vei'ted phosphate ai d is by no means a Basic Phosphate with the special 
chemical advantages of Basic Slag. A large banana planter was in- 
duced to buy a large quantity of this article under the impression that 
it was similar to and better than Basic Slag. I estimate a loss to the 
purchaser of about £200 on this transaction and mention this case to 
convince planters that the opinion of the Chemist in such matters is 
freely available and may avoid the purchase of the wrong manure at 
the wrong price. 

Superphosphate is undoubtedly the b( st phosphate for use on medium 
to light soils containing adequate Carbonate of Lime. A contract with 
a firm in Glasgow has just been made per the Crown Agents for a 
grade of 30 per cent, soluble phosphate f.o.b. Bristol in double bags 
at £2 lOs. Od. per ton This firm's quotations were the most favour- 
able of a 1 rge number who were asked to quote prices for delivery 
in April of chemical manures for the Experiments of the Board. 

Mixed Phosphate (No. 4) is an intimate mixture of 3 parts super- 
phosphate and 2 parts steamed bone flour and is especially suitable for 
the majority of light, alivuial soils and those deficient in Carbonate 
of Lime 

Its value compared with Basic Superphosphate shows that, for the 
same price in Jamaica, we obtain \ more phosphate, ^more citrate so- 
luble phosphate and over 7o/o of water soluble phosphate in addition, 
in ' mixed phosphate' as compared with the consignment of Basic 
Superphosphate quoted. Steamed Bone Flour to contain 65o/o of 
Phosphates and 2o/o Nitrogen was purchased for the Department at 
£4 f.ob. in 1901, at £4 10s. in 1902 and at £4 14s. for the current 
month 

I recomend the use of mixed Phosphate rather than Steamed Bone 
flour alone. Banana planters should find this mixture with \ part 
Sulphate of Ammonia a useful top dressing on soils in need of manu- 
rial assistance. In some cases the Ammonia should be supplemented 
with an equal quantity ef 9oo/o Sulphate of Potash and the mixture 
applied at the rate of 4 to 8 cwt per acre. 



•130 
JAMAICA CASSAVA. 



Anahjsis of selected local varieties. 



By H. H. Cousins M. A. (Oxon), F. C. S. 
Government Analytical and Agricultural Chemist. 



In view of the interest which is now being taken in cassava as a" 
commercial source of starch and glucose, it appeared desirable to an- 
alyse some typical varieties of the cassava generally grown by the 
peasantry of the island. A collection of representative varieties was 
made by Mr, Cradwick of the Agricultural Department and planted at 
Hope in January, 1902. These represent the most valued sorts grown 
by the peasantry in the Alligator Pond district where Cassava is an 
important staple. 

After fifteen months growth, samples were sent to the Laboratory 
for analysis and are here reported on. 

The Hon. T. H. Sharp, who has taken an active part for some years 
in advancing the cassava industry, submitted a collection of seven 
varieties grown on his property ' Inverness' in the South East of 
Clarendon, and these have been analysed and the results are here re- 
corded. 

The tubers represented the entire produce of average hills and were 
truly extraordinary. The yield of cassava in this district must be 
enormous. The cost of production is also exceedingly low owing to the 
fact that the cassava has not to compete against weeds and the culti- 
vation necessary to grow the crop of the simplest and easiest character. 

Given a water supply, this district should produce cassava in enor* 
mous quantity at the lowest possible cost and the success of a starch 
factory be assured. Some of the varieties grown at Hope appear to be 
identical with the Inverness Bitter Cassava. It is to be noted that 
the ' Brown Stick' which leads in starch and sugar content in the 
Hope Series is also first in the Inverness Series, while the Clarendon 
tubers contain about 9 per cent, more starch than those grown in the 
Liguanea plain at Hope. This supports the statement of many prac- 
tical men that cassava varies a good deal in quality in Jamaica depen- 
dent upon the soil and conditions under which it is grown. 

The analyses were made on the entire tuber, unpeeled. Tbe whole 
of each sample was first pass through a slicing machine, then carefully 
sampled and a smaller portion pulped from which the sample for ana- 
lysis was prepared. In the analysis of cassava it is imperative to avoid 
keeping the tubers since decomposition rapidly sets in. It is clear 
that a cassava factory umst be in close touch with the centre of pro- 
duction and that it would not be practicable to send cassava from long: 
distances owing to this fact. 

The tables of analyses of the two Series are here set out. 



181 





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133 



To indicate the relative starch value of Creole varieties and the new 
Colombian varieties recently reported on (Bull . Vol. I p. 37) the aver- 
age of the six varieties grown at Hope is compared with that of the 
best six of the Colombian varieties. 

Grown under very similar conditions of soil and climate there is a 
decided advantage in favour of the Colombian Cassavas, both as regards 
starch, glucose and total solids. The ' Brown Stick' is practically on 
an equality with ' Governor Hemming' (the best Colombian variety) 
as regards starch but contains ten times as mucb Prussic Acid. 

We have not yet obtained data as to the agricultural yields of these 
varieties. Clearly the relative value of the sweet and the bitter as a 
source of starch lies entirely in the yield per acre and not in the in- 
trinsic superiority of the best ' bitter' over the best ' sweet' in starch 
content, 

As an article of food, of course, the Colombian non-poisonous Cas- 
sava is beyond all question of rivalry. 

Hydrocyanic Acid in Cassavas grown at Hope. 





Name. 


Cortex 
o/o 


Peeled 

Tuber 

o/o 


Hydrocyanic Acid. 


No. 


Cortex 
o/o 


Interior 

o/o 


Total 

o/o 


1 
2 
3 
4 

5 

6 


Bobby Hanson 
Brown Stick 
White Top 
Rodney 

Black Bunch of 

Keys 
Wliite Bunch of 

Keys 


19.0 
15.0 
19.1 
11.4 
13.6 
13.6 


81.0 
85.0 
80.9 
88.6 
86.4 
86.4 


0.026 
0.020 
0.' 26 
0.02ti 
0.037 
0.<30 


0.010 
0.015 
0.021 
0.017 
0.014 
0.^7 


0.014 
0.019 
0.019 
0.018 
0.719 
0.. VJ 


A 


Average 


15.3 

20.0 


84.7 


0.028 


0.016 


'■.018 


Trii 
13 


lidad Average 
Sweet Cassava 


80.0 


0.032 


0.008 


0.013 


Trir 

12 


lidad Average 
Bitter Cassava 


• •• 


... 


0.021 


0.023 


... 



All the varieties grown at Hope are Bitter, the variety " Bobby 
Hanson" having the lowest proportion of Prussic acid j*^ 

The results of the estimanon of the Frussic acid in the cortex and 
the inner portion of the tubers are given in the foregoing table. 

For seven days a nearly uniform production of Prussic acid took 
place when the sliced tubers 'were placed in water. The water was 



134 

poured off every day, the prussic acid estimated, and a fresh supply of 
water was added. Finally Hydrochloric acid was used and this eliminated 
ihe whole of the prussic acid. We have now ascertained that the total 
Prussic acid can be estimated in one operation by treating the cassava 
with Hydrochloric acid and distilling in steam. This will greatly 
facilitate the operation of determining Prussic acid. 

Our results, so far, appear to confirm Professor Carmody's statement 
that an analytical difi'erence can be drawn between sweet and bitter 
cassava based on the fact that in the bitter the poison is uniformly 
distributed in the whole tuber, while in sweet cassava most of the 
poison is contained in the peel. Further experiments are in progress 
and we have been promised the assistance of Mr. J. T, Palache in ob- 
taining further supplies of sweet cassavas for analysis and experiment. 
So far we have not examined a Jamaican sweet cassava that can be 
called * sweet' or non-poisonous to the same degree as the Colombian 
varieties. 

Hvdrocyan-c Acid from Cassavas. (Inverness.) 



No. 


Name. 


Description; 


Total Hydrocyanic Acid 
fer Cent, 


nt of To- 
irocyanic 
I Cortex. 




In 
Cortex. 

0.004 
0.004 
0.004 
0.005 
0.004 
0.008 
0.004 


In 

Interior. 

0.01:i 
0.009 
0.010 
0.021 
0.025 
0.038 
0.022 


TotaJ. 


ty w H 

S '-3 'o 


1 

2 
3 
4 
5 

6 

7 


Commander 
Cotton Tree 
Luana 

Brown Stick 
Long Leaf White 
Long Leaf Brown 
Silver Stick 


Sweet, 
Sweet 
Sweet 
Bitter 
Bitter 
Bitter 
Bitter 


0.017 
0.013 
0.014 
0.026 
0.029 
0.046 
0.026 


24 
31 
29 
19 
14 
17 
15 



This table shows that the amount of Prussic Acid in the cortex of 
both Bitter and Sweet Varieties varies but little. The Bitter Cassa- 
vas, however, contain a decidedly higher proportion of the poison in 
the inner portion. Carmody's rule would have enabled anyone to 
identify JN'os 1, 2 and 3 as Sweet Cassavas and to conclude that the 
remaining four varieties were Bitter. Some recent analyses, however, 
convince me that in Jamaica the gradation between ' sweet' and 'bitter* 
varieties is by no means marked, since varieties intermediate between 
the two types exist. 



BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

The ususal monthly meeting of the Board was held at Head Quarter 
House on Tuesday, 21st April at 9 o'clock. Present : The Hon. the 
•Colonial Secretary, (Chairman), The Hon. the Director of Public Gar- 
dens the Government Chemist, Mr. C. E. DeMercado, Mr. J. Shore 
iind Mr. C. A. Fursdon. 

The Minutes of the last meeting were read and confirmed. 

The following letters were dealt with ; — 



135 

(1.) from Dr. Morris, enclosing copies of a pamphlet on Cassava- 
poisoning ; 

(2) from the British Museum, conveying thanks for the 

Bulletin ; 

(3) from Mr. Guy S. Ewen, suggesting that drain-tiles 

should be manufactured at the Penitentiary. It was 
pointed out that experience in Jamaica and other parts ot 
the West Indies had shown that drain-tiles were unsuited 
to the climatic conditions on account of silting up in the 
heavy rains. The Secretary was instructed to reply that the 
matter would receive further consideration by the Board ; 

(4) from Mr. Johns of Mandeville School, making enquiries as 

to the A gricultural College. It was agreed to refer this 
letter to the Chemist. 

In connection with the School Grarden Scheme, it was decided to lay 
^ut such a garden at Hope and to improve on tVe plan as might be 
found necessary 

Mr. Thompson's report for the week ending 1 1th April was con- 
sidered. On the suggestion of Mr. deMercado it was agreed that the 
travelling Instructors should be directed to inquire into the matter of 
the supposed damage to cocoa by rat-bats. 

The syllabus for the examination for Scholarships at the Agricultural 
College was returned by the Schools Commission with suggestions. 
These had been considered by Mr. Cousins who thought it would be 
necessary to hold the examination this Summer in order that Students 
could be admitted in October. It was decided to make arrangements 
and advertise accordingly. 

The Secretary was directed to circulate among the members the re- 
port on the work of the College for the term. 

A report by the Chemist on the Laboratory apprentices was ap- 
proved. 

The Board approved of the publication by the Chemist of the results 
of the manurial experiments 1902-03. It was agreed that the matter 
of the crop map should be further discussed by the Chairman and 
Mr. Cousins. 

The Director of Public Gardens reported that a certain amount of 
the cotton seed presented to the Colony had been distributed but that 
u good deal still remained, vir was agreed to advertise this. 

The Board proceeded to discuss various schemes for the promotion of 
agriculture. 

The meeting then terminated. 

The usual monthly meeting of the Board was held at Head Quarter 
House on Tuesday, 12th May 1903, at 9 o'clock. Present: The Hon, the 
Colonial Secretary (Chairman), His Grace the Archbishop, the Hon. the 
Director of Pub ic Gardens, the Government Chemist, the Hon. H. 
Cork, and Messrs. C. A. T. Fursdon, C E. de Mercado, J. Shore and 
John Barclay, the Secretary. 

The Minutes of last meeting were read and confirmed. 

The Instructors' reports which had been circulated, were considered 
and approved 

A letter from His Excellency the Governor was read askino- the 



.136 

Board to make an enquiry into the state of the Horse-breeding Indus- 
try with a view to improving it. The Board was in favour of some 
action being taken, and Mr. de Mercado and Mr. Cousins were asked 
to confer together on the subject, and make a draft report to come up- 
before next meeting. 

A memorandum from the Director of Public Gardens stated in reply 
to the Chairman's enquiry that the first crop of tobacco had been sold, 
last year's was still to sell, and the present crop was still in prepara- 
tion. A tender for last year's crop was considered. 

A letter from Dr. Neish on exhaustion of banana land, was directed 
to be circulated among the Board, and come up at next meeting with 
their remarks. 

A letter from Mr. Cradwick stating that he had been asked by in- 
tending planters of banana and cocoa on a large scale in the western 
parts of the island, to visit their lands to give advice, and asking if he 
was at liberty to do so. He was authorised to do so if it did not interfere 
with his itinerary. 

Mr. Hewitt, a pupil at the Chemical Laboratory, asked the Board 
to help him to get on to a banana plantation so as to utilize his vacation 
for getting some practical experience. Mr. Cork was requested to 
give him a trial. 

Mr. Cousins said that Mr. T. H. Sharp was eager to try some ex 
periments with cassava at his property " Inverness," to discover the 
best period from planting to taking up the roots, so as to get the max- 
imum starch, and asked for a small grant of £10 to further this. It 
was decided that as tests for the same purpose were to be carried 
through at the t^rison Farm they would endeavour to co-operate with 
Mr. Sharp there, and make the necessary tests for him. 

A report on the Prison Farm from Mr. Palache showed satisfactory 
work being done, good practical results, and a profit on the working 

60 far. 

On the motion of Mr. Cork it was resolved to see if the blood at 
present wasted at the slaughter bouse could not be dried and utilized 
as a fertilizer, if the quantity was enough. 

Mr. Olivier moved that the Board express their appreciation of Mr^ 
Buttenshaw's services as Secretary for the period he had acted. Mr, 
de Mercado seconded and this was directed to be minuted. 



FOUR RECENTLY DESURIBED FERNS FROM 

JAMAICA. 

By Lucien Marci s Underwood, Ph. D. 
Professor of liotany, Columbia University, New York. 

In preparing a monograph of the ferns of all North America, we 
have had occasion to compare various Jamaican ferns with the types of 
species to which they have been referred and have found that in several 
cases they differ specifically. For example, one of the moonworts 
which is quite widely distributed in the region just above Cinchona 
was referred by Mr. Jenman to Botrychium ternattim. B. ternatum 
was described in 1784 from Japan, and is a very different plant from 
the one growing in Jamaica and from the various species from other 
countries which have been referred to it. The Jamaican plant therefore 



137 

a^equired a new name and we have called it B. Jenmani. In a similar 
way the Jamaican plant which Mr. Jenman referred to B. Virginainurrtj 
is very distinct from that species which is very common in the north- 
.ern United States and appears occasionally in the southern States as 
far as Florida. It has a very marked biological character of retaining 
its leaf of one season (and sometimes an earlier leaf also) until the 
maturity of the sporophyll of the succeeding season For this reason 
we have named it B. dichronum. Two spBcies of Dancea also require 
new names as noted in our recent revision of that genus. 

The original descriptions of these four species are quoted below : 

Botrychium Jenmani, TJnderw. Fern Bull. 8 : 59. 1900. 

Root fleshy, from a short axis I-2cm. long ; sterile lamina separa- 
"ting at a height of l-2cm. and usually at or below the surface of the 
ground ; leaf stalf 2.5-4cm. ilong, flesh coloured or pinkish ; lamina 
3-12cm. wide, 2.5-9cm. high, composed of a central bipinnatifid por- 
-tion, and two similar but smaller lateral ones which take their origin 
alternately at distances varying from 5-15mm. ; lower lateral division, 
the larger with 4-6 lateral pinnules, each composed of 3-5 oval seg- 
ments with finely crenate margins ; venation indistinct except in 
younger laminae : sporophylls 12-2 2cm. long, including the rather 
compact mostly tripinnate panicle. 

This species is comparatively common above Cinchoaa growing 
among bushes and along trails. 

Botrychium dichronum, Underw. Bull. Torrey Club, 30 : 45. 1903. 

A moderately tall plant, allied to B. Virginianum, with sessile ster- 
ile lamina and presistent leaf of the preceding year. Roots fleshy : 
stem 15-20cm. long, smooth : sterile lamina broadly triangular, 20cm. 
wide, 15cm. long, tripinnatifid with about five pairs of nearly opposite 
gradually diminishing pinnae, the lowermost with longer pinnules on the 
outer side and inclined forward at an angle ; pinnules 8-10 on each 
side of a winged rachis, alternate, cut nearly to the midrib into 6-10 
segments set at an angle of 4")° with the rachis, the lower ones slightly 
narrowed at the base, and 3-5 toothed at the apex, all gradually 
simpler towards the apex of the lamina : panicle triangular, spreading, 
3cm. or more long on a slender stalk 4cm. or more long, 2-3 pinnate. 

This plant is quite frequent in the region above Cinchona and 
Morce's Gap extending up on John Crow Peak and Blue Mountain. 

A fine series of specimens is in the Herbarium of the Department of 
Public Gardens, Jamaica. Since seeing the plant in the field we find 
it attains a larger size than the original description indicates. 

Danaea Jamaicensis, Underw. Bull. Torrey Club, 29 : 675. 1902, 

A low, coarse plant with acuminate sterile pinnae and narrow 
pointed pinnae on the sporophylls Rootstock unknown; stipes pale, 
18-24cm. long, with 2-4 nodes; sterile leaves with a terminal and 
11-12 pairs of pinnae, about 2cra. apart except the lowest pair which 
is smaller, 10-14cm. long, 1.7-1. 9cm. wide, tapering rather abruptly 
into a slender deeply serrate acuminate point; veins mostly forked, the 
intercostal spaces about 12-14 to 1 cm. (maasured above the furcations) ; 
sporophylls with about 8-12 pairs of pinnae, about 2 cm apart, short- 
stalked, 5-7cm. long, 5-7nim. wide, obtuse at base and tapering at 
.apex ; rachis somewhat alate above. 

This appears to be the species confused by Jenmxi with D. std' 



1^8 

nopht/Ua witli ■whicli it has little in common, while both the Kew spe- 
cimens enumerated above are placed under 1). Moritziana. D. Morit- 
siana is from C olumbia and has the pinnae of the sterile leaf quite 
different in shape, tapering toward the cuneate base and much more 
gradually toward the apex; intercostal spaces 16-17 to 1 cm. 

Danaea Jenmani, Underw. Bull. Torrey Club, 29 : 677. 1902. 

Rootstock (as far as known) horizontal, rather stout; stipes brown 
scurfy, those of sterile )eaf 10-11 cm, long, usually with one node; pin- 
nae 7-9 pai) s, opposite, 2-3cm. apart, obtuse at base with a short pedicel, 
4.5-6cm. long by 1.8cm. wide, abruptly short-pointed, the margin 
more or less serrulate at the apex ; rachis scurfy, more or less alate ; 
veins mostly forked, the intercostal spaces about 12 to 1 cm above the 
furcations ; basil and terminal pairs of pinnae shorter than the others; 
sporophylls with about 11 pairs of pinnae, 5-8mm. apart, 3 cm. longy 
5mm. wide, mostly blunt and short-stalked. 

This is the species called D. alata by Jenman, and although he caller 
it " frequent" in Jamaica it appears to be very rare in collections. We 
have found it to be frequent near Mabess River. 

CUBAN USES OF THE ROYAL PALM. 

By William Palmer. 

The royal palm {Oreodoxa regia) is a widely distributed tree 
throughout Cuba, and it is truly the tropical feature of the landscape. 
In the former more highly cultivated areas they largely occupy the^ 
hedgerows, thus being arranged in double rows along the roadways, 
end in single rows along the dividing lines. 1 his arrangement is 
largely accidental, cultivation compelling the absence of the young^ 
plants from the fields, and the hedgerows offering a secluded habitat until 
they are ttrong enough to need no shelter. In other places the fre- 
quent fires have destroyed the trees on the higher areas, so that one 
sees them oftenest along the banks ot the wa' ercourses. The tree is a 
noble one, tnd occurs everywhere except among the pines of the 
mountains. To the simple Cubans living remote from modern civili- 
zation, it furnishes many of his necei-sities, most of which perhaps are 
contained in tue following list. 

Posts. — Trees are felled and alb wed to lie for a considerable time 
before they are cut ixto lengths and split. 

Fences. — These are made of strips of the wood tied upright to cross- 
pieces and close together^ so that chickens cannot get through. 

Column*. — 'Ihey are used as the main supports of a house, ihe upper 
portion of the trunk being used. 

Boards. — When the interior of a felled tree is rotted, it can readily 
be split and the pieces trimmed to the required length and width, 
which is necessarily narrow. 

Coffee mortars. — Most palms are somewhat swollen at about one- 
third of their length from the ground: this is cut out for at out the 
height of a table, the wider eno is hollowed out, tnd with a pestle of 
similar or different wood, forms a mortar and pestle which is used to 
crush the roasted coffee beans. When not in use, the hollow may 
h^ Id the family supply of beans and it is always handy to support the 
iamily wash-tub a shallow broad article made often ol the same wood.- 



139 

House icalls. — The basal part of the leaf stalk is a broad long woody- 
portion which clasps the trunk for its whole length and whose lower 
end leaves a narrow horizontal scar where it was attached to the trunk. 
These fall with the leaf, and are dampened and flattened by weights. 
Bundles of these leaf bases are an article of sule in places where the 
palms are scarce, and they may be seen piled up in stores for sale. 
They are trimmed and tied to the framework of the house. They are 
placed in two rows, the side of one overlapping another and the lower 
ends of the upper row overlapping the lower row. They also serve to 
cover anything, and not unfrequently are used as tables. 

Rain, Coats. — One rainy afternoon several Cubans came to our camp 
dressed in coats made of the green (freshly fallen) stalk. A hole had 
been cut out of the centre through which the head was thrust, and the 
two halves bent so as to cover the front and back. A string torn o£E 
the edge of the same piece was used to tie it round the waist, the 
whole making a peculiar but efficient coat of mail. 

Boxes and Baskets. — With a sharp knife which all Cubans carry, a 
few minutes suffices to make one of these leaf bases into a receptacle 
capable of holding water, vegetables, or similar things. Cuban tobacco 
is always bound up and shipped from the plantation in a large bundle 
wrapped in the bases of the leaf stalks. 

Thatch. — All Cuban houses outside of the towns have their roofs 
covered thickly with thatch made from the long leaves of the palm. 
It is usually cut intj two or three parts, and tied to the pole rafters 
with palm leaf string. 

String and Rope. — Either split parts of the leaf base or the division 
of the leaf are used, either twisted or not. No nails are used in the 
construction of the houses — the poles, thatch and siding being tied on. 

Canes. — A strip of the wood worked round and polished, makes a 
presentable cane. 

Brooms. — The flower stalk and its divisions is a large affair. With 
the berries off, it is bound about its centre, and the numerous small 
twigs are ready for work. It is a common article of every Cuban 
house, and the earth, floors and surroundings are kept well swept. 

Chicken and Fig Feed. — The bunches of berries are carefully cut off 
and lowered by a palm leaf rope to the ground, and then laid across 
the chicken or pig pen to be eaten as desired. 

Paper. '-The inside layer of the base of the leaf stalk is very fine 
aod white, and is used for writing purposes, 

Jf^ine. — This is made from the berries when in a green state. A 
gun-shot fired into a bunch of fruit is sure to res i; It in a shower of 
juice. Woodpeckers are fond of this and will tap the berries or the 
base of the fresh leaf stalk and sip the juice. 

Nest of Woodpeckers.— 'The large Cuban woodpecker always excav- 
ates a large hole about two-thirds up the trunk of a live tree, and rears 
its young in the cavity. 

Jiood. — When a tree is felled, the mass of embryo leaves are cut out 
forming a lump about 18 inches long by 6-8 inches in diameter, of 
beautilul creamy whiteness. 

Without the royal palm the people of Cuba would be poor indeed. 
With the coco-nut, banana, sweet potato and palm, they are able to 
exist comfortably with a mild climate. — {Plant World.) 



140 

IRRIGATION. 

ByF.H. Newell* 

While methods of conserving and conducting water have been im- 
proved under the stimulus of modern invention, the application of 
water to the soil has been left to experience gained largely by accident 
and through failure. There is great need of long-continued systematic 
study and acquisition of knowledge concerning the actual effect which 
the water has upon the soil and upon the plants. We can see the ulti- 
mate result, but have only a vague conception of the steps by which 
this result is produced. 

Most of the farmers practising irrigation in the United States use 
quantities of water far in excess of those theoretically demanded or 
actually beneficial to the crops. This is in line with the general prodi- 
gality of pioneer life, and with the habits of shiftlessness so easily ac- 
quired where an abundant supply of water can be had. It is so much 
easier to open the ditches and let the water flow freely than it is to 
guard and guide each tiny rill, that for economy of time and labour, 
if not from actual indolence, the irrigator is apt to let the water go its 
own way. 

It is sometimes stated that irrigation is a lazy man's way of culti- 
vation. The reverse is the case wherever the best results are obtained. 
Irrigation, properly conducted, means intensive farming and applica- 
tion of water with great care, followed by thorough cultivation of the 
moistened soil. 

Different plants require different amounts of water. Some are 
satisfied with a very little. Others require a great deal, and cannot 
do without it. Still others are relatively indifferent as to whether 
much or little water is applied; they have the habit of adjusting 
themselves to circumstances. Each crop therefore has different needs, 
and the practice of irrigation must vary accordingly. 

It is not merely the character of the plant which has to be consi- 
dered, but also the quality of the soil. Certain soils receive and trans- 
mit water with great rapidity, — such, for example, as sand and gravel. 
Others, like clay, take water slowly and hold it with great tenacity. 
Thus the manner and time of irrigating certain plants will vary accord- 
ing to the ability of the soil to hold and supply water as needed. If 
the moisture escapes rapidly, as from sand, the plant after a few days 
is not able to receive enough and begins to droop. On the other hand 
if the soil is very compact and the water is held from escaping, the soil 
may become water-logged, air cannot penetrate the interstices, and the 
plant suffers from drowning. 

There is still another factor in the production of crops which must 

be considered besides sunshine, soil, and water. This is the low order 

of vegetable Kfe known as nitrifying organisms. These, in the presence 

of air and moisture, manufacture food for the plant and are its servants 

£n preparing material upon which it*'thrives. A certain amount of 



*JFrom " Irrigation in Unitei States", by F. H. N"ewell, Hydraulic Engiaear and 
Chief of the . .ision of Hydrography of the U. S. Geological Survey Depirtiueat. 



141 

water is needed for these nitrif \ ing organisms, but, on the other hand, 
too much water stagnates and destroys them. Thus it is that there is 
a very delicate adjustment to be preserved in respect to the amount of 
moisture in order to procure the best results. These conditions the 
successful irrigator learns by experiment and failure, and unconsciously 
follows certain rules which he is usually unable to put into words. 

There has been very little progress in the practice of irrigation from 
the methods of ancient times. This is due largely to the fact that the 
men who are now bringing new lands under ditch have for the most part 
received their training as farmers in humid regions, and find it difficult 
to unlearn many of the facts which they regard as fundamental, and 
to reverse the habits of half a lifetime. They hesitate to adopt the 
methods of the Indians and Mexicans, despising these as crude or 
childish. Nevertheless these primitive peoples have, through the expe- 
rience of generations, acquired certain ways which are worthy of study, 
particularly in the direction of using the smallest possible amount of 
water in oases on the desert. When they have plenty of water, the 
Mexicans use it wastef ully ; but where the amount is extremely limited, 
some of them, particularly the agricultural Indians of the South-west, 
have acquired the art of utilising every drop. Even the drippings 
from the family water jar are arranged to fall upon a growing plant, 
and the moist spots are carefully guarded for the growing of corn or 
beans. 

The amount of water required for raising crops varies according to 
soil and other conditions. The plant itself needs a certain minimum 
supply in order to receive and assimilate its food and to keep up trans- 
piration. A far larger quantity is required to saturate the surround- 
ing soil to such a degree that the vitalising processes can continue. 
The soil is constantly losing water by evaporation and by seepage, so 
that the amount which the plant takes from it is relatively smaUJ 
Nevertheless, the moisture must be maintained within narrow limits 
in order to produce the most favourable conditions of plant growth. 

Experiments have been made to determine exactly how much water is 
needed in order to keep the soil in proper condition for plants of different 
character. Among the most important investigations are those by 
Professor F. H. King, who has found by direct measurement that from 
300 to 500 pounds of water are required for each pound of dry mat- 
ter produced ; in other words, for each ton of hay raised upon an acre, 
300 to 500 tons of water must be furnished either by rainfall or by 
artificial means. 

Water covering an acre 1 inch in depth weighs about 113 tons, and 
to produce one ton of hay the depth of water required is approximately 
from 3 to 5 inches. It is necessary to furnish at least this amount, 
and sometimes several times as much, in order to produce a crop. 
The actual amount used in producing 5 tons of barley hay to the acre 
has been about 20 inches in depth. Much depends upon the permea- 
bility of the soil, and its ability to hold water. 

The quantity of water used in irrigation is usually stated in one of 
two ways— either (1) in terms of depth of water on the surface, or 
(2) in quantities of flowing water through the irrigating season. The 
first method is preferable, since it is susceptible of mora definite con- 
sideration, and is also more convenient for comparison with figures for 



142 

rainfall, which are given in inches of depth. In the humid regions 
rainfall is usually from 3 to 4 inches per month during the crop 
season. In the arid region, where the sunlight is more continuous and 
the evaporation greater, there should be, for the ordinary crops at least 
enough water during the growing season to cover the ground from 4 
to 6 inches in depth each month. Carefully tilled orchards have been 
maintained on far less. In Arizona, where the crop season is longest, 
being practically continuous throughout the year, twice as much water 
is needed as in Montana, where the crop season is short and the evapo- 
ration is less. 

The second method of stating the quantities necessary for irrigation 
is of convenience when considering a stream upon which there is no 
storage. It is frequently estimated that one cubic foot per second, or 
second-foot, flowing through an irrigating season of ninety days, will 
irrigate 100 acres. One second-foot will cover an acre nearly 2 feet 
deep during twenty-four hours, and in ninety days it will cover 180 acres 
1 foot in depth, or 100 acres to a depth of 1*8 foot, or 21-6 inches. This 
is equivalent to a depth of water of a little over 7 inches per month. 
In several of the States, laws or regulations have been made to the effect 
that in apportioning water not less than 66f acres shall be allowed to 
the second-foot of continuous flow. This is extremely liberal, and 
permits extravagant use of water. 

"When the ground is first irrigated, enormous quantities of water 
must sometimes be used in order to saturate the subsoil. It has fre- 
quently happened that, during the first year or two, a quantity of 
water which would cover the ground to a depth of 20 to 10 feet has been 
turned upon the surface. Frequently for several years an amount 
equal to a depth of 5 feet or more per annum is thus employed. 
Gradually, however, the dry soil is filled, and, as stated in another 
place, the water table is raised nearer the surface, less and less water 
being needed. 

The farmers, being accustomed to the use of large quantities of 
water, often find it exceedingly difficult to get along with less, and 
continue to use excessive amounts, often to their own disadvantage. 
They are actuated in part by the consideration that, having paid for 
the use of the water, they are entitled to a certain quantity, and fear 
that if they do not take all of this, their claim to it may be disputed. 
Some of them actually waste water to their own detriment from the 
mistaken belief that in so doing they are establishing a perpetual right 
to certain quantities. 

With the gradual development of the country, and the bringing of 
more and more land under ditches, the need for water increases, and 
equity demands that no irrigator shall take more than he can put to 
beneficial use. Flowing water must be considered as a common fund, 
subject to beneficial use by individuals according to orderly rules, each 
man taking only the amount he can employ to advantage. Under any 
other theory full development of arid regions is impossible. 

It is instructive in this connection to know what is the least amount 
of water which has been used with success. To learn this, it is necces- 
sary to go to south California, where the supply of water is least, 
relative to the demand made upon it, and the economy is correspond- 
ingly greatest. Successive years of deficient rainfall in California 



us 

4rom 1897 to 1900, while working mmy hardships, served to prove 
ihat with careful cultivation, crops, orchards, and vineyards could be 
maintained on a very small amount of water. In some cases an 
amount not exceeding 6 inches in depth of irrigation water was applied 
durino- the year, this being conducted directly to the plants, and the 
ground kept caref ally tilled and free from weeds. ^ 

During these times of drought some fruits, as, for example, grapes, 
apples, olives, peaches, and apricots, were riised without irrigation, 
but a most thorough cultivation was practised. Some fruitgrowers 
insist that, in the case of grapes, for example, the quality is better 
when raised without artificially applying water, although the quantity 
is less. It has been stated that in raisin-making there is less contrast 
than might be expected bet A^een the irrigated and non-irrigated vine- 
yards, for although the yield of grapes raised by wataring is far heavier 
yet after drying the difference is not so marked. Whmt and barley, 
also, according to some farmers, make a better hay when cultivated dry, 
but the weight is less Shade trees, sueh, for example, as the 
eucalyptus or Australian blue-gum, ths catalpa. mulberry, and acacia, 
grow without water artificially applied, but do no; reach the extraordi- 
nary development that they do when near irrigating ditches. It is 
almost useless to attempt to raise the citrus fruits without plenty of 
water. 

The quantity of water necessary to irrigate an acre, as estimated 
by various water companies in southern California, ranges from 1 
miner's inch to 5 acres, to 1 miner's inch to 10 acres, the miner's inch 
in this connection being defined as a quantity equalling 12,960 t^allons 
in twenty-four hours, or almost exactly 0.02 second-foot, this being the 
amount which has been delivered under a 4-inch head measured from 
the centre of the opening. Under this assumption 1 second-foot 
should irrigate from 250 to 500 acres. This is on the basis of deliver- 
ing the water in pipes or cemented channels in the immediate vicinity 
of the trees or vines to be irrigated. 

If it is assumed that 1 miner's inch is allowei for 10 acres, or 1 
second-foot for 500 acres, this quantity of water flowing from May to 
October inclusive, will cover the ground to a depth of a little over 
seven-tenths of a foot, or 8.8 inches, a quantity which, with the care 
and cultivation usually employed, has been found to be sufficient for 
some orchards. Mr. W. Irving, Chief Engineer of the Gage Canal, 
Riverside, California, states that for the year ending September 30, 
1899, water ranging in depth from 1.78 to 2.48 feet was used in addi- 
tion to tha rainfall of 47 foot. This was less than the usual quantity 
economy being enforced hj shortage of supply. 

The metiod of applying water governs to a large extent the 
amount used. In the case of lucerne, flooding is usually practised ; 
with small grains in most parts of the West the water is run in fur- 
rows ; while in the case ot orchards the water is sometimes applied 
directly to each tree. In this case a little earth basin, aboat 6 feet or 
more across and 6 inches deep, is formed around each tree and partially 
filled with water; The better way, however, is that of running water 
in furrows, four or five of these iteing ploughed between each two 
rows of trees. The water is applied very slowly, several days being 



144 

spent in watering 5 acres, and when dry the ground is thoroughly^ 
cultivated. 

The annual charges for water by the acre in southern California, 
■where this economy of water is practised, have been es low as $d, and 
from this rising to $6 or more per acre. In ihe case of the San Diego 
Flume Company, it is stated that water was sold for $600, per miner's 
inch, with an annual charge or rental of $60, 1 miner's inch being- 
considered sufficient for from 10 to 20 acres. The annual charge for 
water, taking the arid region as a whole, has averaged by States from 
60 cents to §2.00 per acre, or $1.25 (5s. 2^d.) per acre for the entire 
country. 

The conditions in southern Cttlifornia, while they may be con- 
eidered as exceptional, yet indicate the limiting or ideal conditions of 
eccnomical use of water. For good farming in other parts of the arid 
region, 12 inches of water in depth during the crop season should be 
sufficient, except in the case of lucerne and other forms of forage 
which are cut a number (f limes, when at least from 4 inches to 6- 
inches should usually be given to a cutting. As previously stated the 
character of the soil, the temperat^^re, and the wind movement intro- 
duce so many conditions that breed statements of this kind are merely 
suggestive and not to be followtd as rules. 

Irrigation is usually carried on during the daytime, and it is un^ 
usual lor water to be applied during the night, other than to arrange 
the head gttes and allow the water to flow to certain portions of the 
field. In times of Ecai city, however, when water can be had only at 
certain hours, night irrigation must be carried on, and the water care- 
fully applied, with as much skill as possible in the darkness. Night 
irrigation, although possessing disadvantages, has many advocates. 
The air being cooler, excessive evaporation is checked, there is less loss 
and consequently more economy in use and the plants are not so sud- 
denly chilled as during the heat of the day when cold water is run 
upon the fields; and the proportional amount cf water received during 
the night is often greater than during the daytime, and the charge of 
cost is correspondingly less; so that, for economy in various directions 
night irrigation is sometimes preferred. 



LOCAL DEPOSITS OF BAT GUANO. 

By H. H. Cousins, M.A., F.C.S., Government Analytical and 
i Agricultural Chemist. 

It has long been tnown that there are in Jamaica corsiderable ac- 
cumulations of Bat Guano in caves and other sheltered places where 
these animals congregate. A good deal has been used in the past 
upon various estates in the island, and recently some commercial en- 
quiry has arisen as to the possibility of an export trade in this mate- 
rial with the United States. 

Some 35 difi^erent samples of ' Cave Earth' and 'Bat Guano' have 
been analysed at various times at the Government Laboratory by* 
Messrs. Bowrey, Watts and the writer. 



145 



These results are here tabulated.to indicate the great variations that 
occur in the manurial value of Bat Guano, dependent upon the condi- 
tions under which it has been produced. 

Analyses of Jamaica Bat Guanos. 













_2 










Organic 


c" 


o 




No. 


Analyst. 


Moisture. 


Matter. 


60 
O 

S-l 

-(J 


Phosph 
Acid. 


Potash. 


1 


Bowrey 


30.9 


12.8 


2.3 


0.7 


• • • 


2 


(< 


23.0 


29.8 


3.5 


0.8 


« • o 


3 


(. 


33.6 


39.9 


5.3 


0.5 


«>■• 


4 to 8 


li 


.. 


. 


• • • 


0.9 to 7.4 


• • • 


9 


a 


17.4 


57.1 


5.5 


4.4 


• • » 


10 


(( 


42.8 


28.2 


2.1 


8.5 


1.3 


11 


(( 


19.9 


72.3 


9.3 


2.8 


1 3 


12 


a 


19.6 


57.9 


10.5 


5.7 


1.7 


13 


<( 


20.1 


43.3 


7.6 


10.1 


1.5 


14 


(( 


8.6 


38.9 


2.6 


13.8 


0.9 


15 


11 


41.0 


18.6 


2.3 


11.2 


• ■ • 


16 


(( 


45.9 


39.6 


7,6 


3.5 


• • • 


17 


(( 


37.3 


15 6 


• • • 


9.8 


• • • 


18 


(( 


48.9 


35.0 


... 


4.8 


• • • 


19 


u 


45.2 


30.2 




7.7 


• • • 


20 


(( 


45.2 


21.9 


• • • 


8.0 


•-• • 


21 


« 


33.3 


21.0 


... 


9.6 


• • • 


22 


li 


48.3 


46.6 


8.9 


2.2 


0.8 


23 


n 


35 6 


48,7 


5.2 


2.8 


1.9 


24 


i( 


26.0 


42.9 


2.6 


7.7 


1.6 


25 


tc 


61.9 


27.3 


1.4 


1.9 


0.3 


26 


Watts 


28.4 


43.9 


4.9 


5.6 


4.7 


27 


(( 


27.3 


28.7 


2.9 


4.8 


2.1 


28 


(( 


18,6 


20.6 


1.2 


7.5 


1.1 


29 


Cousins 


* • • 


• • • 


0.2 


10.2 


• • • 


30 


(( 


• • • 


. . • 


2.L 


0.9 


• • • 


31 


(( 


35.8 


47.6 


7.6 


5.1 


1.4 


32 


iC 


35.0 


53.3 


8.8 


2.2 


0.5 


33 


(C 


24.5 


39.1 


5.6 


2.3 


5 


34 


<( 


35.4 


18.0 


1.1 


2.3 


0.4 


35 


t( 


36.1 


23.3 


1.3 
4.5 


4,0 
5.3 


0.6 


Average 


• • • 


30.9 


33.4 


1.3 



Sample No. 11 represents the dried excrement of insectivorous bats 
of recent origin. This is marked by a high percentage of Nitrogen. 
Such a material should be worth about £6 per ton at current prices. 

The commercial value of this product is chiefly based upon the con- 



. 146 

-tent of nitrogen and this can bnW attain a high standard where the 
.deposit is protected from the action of rain and of excessive moisture. 
Samples below 2 ^ of Nitrogen could scarcely be handled economically 
in Jamaica for local sale. For export a minimum of at least 6 9^ of 
Nitrogen would be necessary to cover expenses and make the sales re- 
munerative to the owner of the deposit 

Sample 29 represents a deposit that has been freely washed by rain. 
It contains no more nitrogen than an average Jamaica soil, while the 
Phosphoric Acid is not sufficiently high to warrant its use as a source 
«f Phosphates. No. 31 (from St. Thomas) represents a large deposit of 
high class Bat-guano that has been found to be an excellent fertiliser 
for sugar cane. This was valued at £4 per ton to the buyer allowing 
for 25 Yo latitude. 

Samples 32-35 are the successive layers of a large cave deposit in St. 
Catherine of which No. 32 is the upper and richer layer. The amount 
of moisture in these deposits is, for export, excessive and should be re- 
duced to 10 ^ by drying the material in the sun. A saving of 25 96 
in the bulk of the material could then be effected. Owners of caves 
are warned not to base their calculations upon the analysis of the top- 
layer only, since a gradational loss in nitrogenous materials is to be 
expected as the deeper layers of the deposit are drawn upon. In the 
case mentioned above the owner decided not to ship the deposit but to 
seek a local market for it. 

Bat-Guano is, as the average figures show, a fairly well balanced 
manure. The better samples are principally nitrogenous in character. 
Considering the richness of many Jamaican soils in Phosphoric Acid, a 
good grade of Bat-Gruano should prove an excellent fertiliser for Sugar 
Cane or Bananas ; on some soils it would be well to fortify it with Potash 
salts. In valuing a Bat Guano, I would suggest 9s. for each per cent. 
.of Nitr 'gen per ton, 3s. for each per cent of Phosphoric Acid and 4s. 
for each per cent, of Potash per ton. 

Thus sample 32 would be valued as follows : 

Nitrogen 8-8 per cent at 9s. = 79s. Od 

Phosphoric Acid 2-2 per cent at 3s. = 6s. 6d. 

Potash 5 per cent at 4s. ^ 2s. 

Total 87s. 6d 



The "aveiagt" of all the samples iiives the following valuation 
Nitrogen 4*5 per cent ut Ws. = 4Us. 6d. 

Phosphoric Acid 5'3 per cent ut 3s. = 16s. 

Potash 1-3 per cent at 4s. = 5s. 

Value per Ton 61s. 6d 



This estimate is based upon the current unit values of fertilisers deli- 
vered free ai Kingston. I have deducted 25 per cent from the valua-^ 
tion of the Nitrogen to allow for 'latitude' or variability in the samples 
and for the inert properties of some of the nitrogenous constituents. 
These values represent what, in my opinion, a planter would be 
justified in paying for a Bat-Guano for use on his estate. 



147 

SOME LOCAL REFUSE MANURES. 

By H. H. Cousins, M.A„ F.C.S. 

In an agricultural community it behoves everyone to seek a useful 
application for any refuse materials capable of increasing the fertility 
of the soil. Some examples of such products that have been recently 
referred to the Government Laboratory for an opinion as to their value 
are here given : — 

(1) Pond Mud. 

This represents the mud cleared out of a pond on a sugar estate in 
Trelawny. On analysis it gave the following results : — 

Per Cent. 
Moisture ... 5.81 

Combined water and organic matter 15 . 72 

Carbonate of Lime ... 1 . 18 

Phosphoric Acid ... 1.60 

Equal to Phosphate of Lime 3 . 49 

Potash ... 0.09 

Nitrogen ... 0.30 

This mud is rich in Phosphates, deficient in Potash and fairly rich, 
in Nitrogen. It should be of benefit to the soil on the estate if spread 
and worked in. The benefits arising from its use would be due as 
much to its mechanical properties as to its chemical composition. 

(2) Banana trash ash. 

Large quantities of Banana trash are collected at certain centres on 
the Pi-ailway where Bananas are unloaded. A sample of the ashes ob- 
tained by burning the accumulated heaps of this trash gave the follow- 
ing results on analysis : — 

Per cent. 
Potash ... 6*86 

Phosphoric Acid ... 3"23 

equal to Phosphate of Lime ... 7 07 

The estimated value of this is about £2 per ton. There are some 
floils in the island markedly deficient in Potash, to which this ash 
should be of the greatest benefit. As an illustration of such a soil, an 
analysis is here given of a property in Portland where Bananas have 
failed entirely. 

The analysis indicates a soil of excellent quality in all respects ex- 
cept that of Potash which is decidely below the normal. 



Soil Analysis. 

Reference Number — 64. 

-Source Details — Surface Soil from a property in Portland where Ba- 
nanas have entirely failed. 
Depth of Sample — 9 inches. 







- 148 








PhY! 


5ICAL Analysis 












Per Cent. 


stones 








Nil 


Gravel 








2. 21-) 


Sand 








5.15 


Fine Sand 








30.54 Fine 


Silt 








51.07 ^Earth# 


Agricultural f Fine Silt 
Clay. t ^lay 








1 21/ ^-^5 








Moisture 








9.82^ 






Total 


100.00 










Per Cent. 


Retentive Power for water 


• •• 


64.0*»* 



Chemical Analysis. 

(Soil passed through 3 m.m, sieve dried at lOOo C.) 
Insoluble Matter 
Soluble in Hydrochloric Acid ... 
(^Potash 
! Lime 
Phosphoric Acid 
Carbonic Acid as ") 
j^Carbonate of Lime J 
Combined Water and organic matter 
Humus (soluble in A.mmonia) 
Nitrogen 
Hygroscopic Moisture ... 



28 470 

71 . 530*** 
0.175* 
U.782** 
1.138**** 

1.250** 

19.710*** 
5.290*** 
0.369*** 

10.670*** 



Fertility Analysis. 



Available Potash 
Available Phosphoric Acid 



Observations. 



0.006* 
0.035**** 



This soil consists almost entirely of silt and fine sand, witli just a* 
trace of clay. It is free-draining, and yet has a high absorptive power 
for water. In all these respects an excellent soil. 

The Chemical Analysis shows an enormous proportion of Phosphoric 
Acid, of which a large amount is available for present use. The Ni- 
trogen and Humus are both high, indicating a very rich condition of 
soil. The Carbonate of Lime is adequate. The Potash is rather low 
and the Available Potash so low that I conclude that this factor limits 
the productive capacity of a soil that is otherwise in a state of exceed- 
ingly high potential fertility. 

I recommend a trial of 

(1) Banana Trash Ash from Railway, 1 ton per acre. 

(2) Wood ashes, 2 tons per acre. 

(3) Sulphate of Potash, 2 cwt. per acre. 

(3) Sheep Manure. 
In England Sheep manure is rarely collected in bulk, since the sheep 
are fed at large over grass lands or folded over the roots. In the 



♦Below normal. ♦♦Normal. ♦♦♦High. ****Very high. 



149 

•tropics sheep are housed or sheltered and considerable accumulations of 
sheep manure are thus brought about. 

If carefully managed, this manure is of high fertilising quality and 
is rightly appreciated by sugar-planters for use on exhausted soils. 

An analysis of a sample from a pen in Westmoreland is given as an 
illustration of the relative value of this material. 

^Analysis and Report on a sample of Sheep Manure from Westmoreland. 
" This sample contains . — 

Moisture ... 29.86 per cent. 

Organic matter ... *56-58 " 

Sand and Clay ... 4-45 

Mineral Salts ... 9-11 

containing — 

(1) Phosphoric Acid ... 1*11 ) ., 
equal to Phosphate of Lime ... 2*41 J 

(2) Water soluble Potash ... 1-06 " 

(3) ^containing Nitrogen ... 2.71 \ << 
equal to Ammonia ... 3'29 J 

Approximate weight per Bushel 36 lbs. 
Mechanical condition— Fairly dry and friable. 
J. value it as follows : — 

Nitrogen 2-71 </o @ 12s. ... 32s. 4d. 

Phosphoric Acid (soluable) I'll ^ @ 2/9 38. Od. 

Poiash 1-06 </o Q 5s. ... 5s. 3d. 



40s. 7d. 



This manure is therefore worth 40s. 7d, per English ton or roughly 
8d. per bushel of 36 lbs. at current value for fertilizers. (1901)" 

(4) The Kingston City refme. 

A large accumulation of the miscellaneous refuse of Kingston has 
been localised through the institution of a Deposit Ground. 

An analysis was recently made at the request of His Worship the 
Mayor and a valuation at current fertiliser rates has been made. I 
estimate that it is worth about 12s. per ton f. o. r. Kingston. This 
leaves, of course, but a small margin for the cost of handling. This 
deposit could only be economically used within a limited range of 
Kingston, and would only be of commerial advantage upon an ex- 
hausted soil or a hungry soil under irrigation conditions. 

Report on Analysis of Sample City Refuse from Deposit Ground. 

The samples were taken with a soil-auger and mixed, 20 per cent, 
.consisted of coarse stones and refuse of no manurial value. The resi- 
,dual 80 per cent, gave the following results : — 

Per cent. 
Moisture ... 5.15 

Volatile and organic matter 16.10* 

Mineral matter ... 78.75** 

Total ... 110.00 



' 150 

Yalue per ioni. 

1. *Containing Nitrogen ... 0.735 "I y,g 

Equal to Ammonia 0.893 J ' 

2. **Containing Phosphoric Acid 2.447) g. 

Equal to Phosphate of Lime 5.351 J 

3. Potash ... 0.360 1/6 
Lime ... 5.643 

Total value per ton of fine portions 17/ 

Estimated value F.O.R. Kingston = 12/ per ton. 



HISTORICAL NOTES ON ECONOMIC PLANTS Ilf 

JAMAICA. 

V. Tea. 

The China Tea tree seems to have been first introduced into Jamaica 
in the year 1771 by a Mr. Baker under the name of the Bohea Tea 
Tree (Black Tea, Thea Bohea). At that time, and for long after, it 
•was erroneously supposed that Green Tea was the product of another 
species, Thea viri'iis, and a plant of this was brought to the Island by 
the first Island Botanist, Dr. Thomas Clarke in 1775, and planted in 
the first Government Botanic Garden at Enfield, near the present 
Gordon Town. From these two plants, others were propagated for Mr. 
W alien's g^den at Cold Spring, and for Mr. Hinton East's garden 
adjoining Enfield. Both plants are mentioned by Dr. Broughton in 
his "Hortus Eastensis" as growing in Mr East's Garden in 1793. 

Dr. James Macfadyen, in 1837, states in his flora of Jsimaica that — 

"The tea plant was introduced into the garden at Coldspring by the 
late M. Wallen, Esq. The house had for many years fallen into decay 
and the garden was neglected and allowed to grow up into weeds. 
Notwithstanding this, on clearing the land, for the purpose of planting 
it in coifee, about two years ago, the Tea trees were found to have 
survived, and young plants to have grown up. They are now in a 
very thriving condition, flowering and perfecting their seeds; and a 
supply of young plants may at any time be procured." 

Mr. John MacLean, the late owner of Cold Spring showed the pre- 
sent Director of Public Gardens in the year 1887 Tea trees in Wallen's 
old garden, which after Dr. Macfadyen's time had again been overgrown 
and completely covered with bush, until disinterred by Mr. MacLean. 
Their condition shuwed that at thai elevation they had come to stay, 
and were perfectly able to hold their own against, native vegetation. 

Kew Gardens, an establishment which has done so much for the 
Colonies in introducing new plants and affording scientific information 
on cultural products, sent out plants of Assam Tea as early as 1849-50 
to Mr. Nathaniel Wilson, Island Botanist, at the Bath Garden. 

Mr. Robt. Thomson in his Annual Report for 1868, says : 

" A Ward case of Assam Tea, containing upward of six hundred 
plants arrived in excellent condition from India, via the Colonial 
Office." 

Again in 1869, " Assam Tea.— Owing to the dry seasons in the 
early part of the year these plants were retained in pots, so that their 



151 

progress has been considerably delayed. Half an acre containing 
eight hundred plants, was planted out in August at a height of a little 
over four thousand feet at the Cinchona Plantation. The propagation 
of this plant from cuttings will be carried on during 1870 in order to 
increase the area cultivated to two acres." 

Further, " The eight hundred plants of tea planted out in August 
1869, at the Cinchona Plantation are in a vigorous state of health, in- 
deed they are quite equal in this respect to the finest coffee plants of 
the same age 1 have witnessed anywhere. 

*' The plants now range from three to five feet in height, have re- 
cently blossomed freely, and have a good crop of seeds set, from which 
they can be propagated to a large extent in a few months. There are 
several distinct varieties among these plants, which like the Cinchona^ 
may be turned to account by selecting and adapting them to the altered 
circumstances of climate. The necessary conditions of altitude, soil 
and continuous moisture for the successful cultivation of this great 
staple commodity, are obtainable over a vast extent of the hilly dis- 
tricts, and, considering the favourable geographical position of Ja- 
maica together with the desirability of introducing new products, I 
would submit to the favourable consideration of the Government the 
advisability of establishing an experimental plantation of ten acres." 
(Eeport, 1870-1871.) 

In 1872-73 experiments in making tea were made : 
"The eight hundred plants of this valuable variety of Tea that were 
planted at the Cinchona Plantation four years ago have grown with 
great luxuriance, and have already become naturalized, consequently 
the plant can be increased to any extent. Samples of Tea of superior 
quality have been manipulated by a Coolie who had been employed in 
the Assam Plantations." 

Again in 1878-74, we find : '" Several lbs. of the !Assam variety of 
this plant were prepared by a Coolie who had some knowledge of the 
process; these samples proved of tair quality. More skilled manipula- 
tion is, however, necessary to produce Tea of good quality. This plant 
could now be propagated to any extent, and it grows with the greatest 
luxuriance." 

In 1874-75, "Fair samples of the Assam variety of Tea have been 
manipulated. No plant in the island grows with more luxuriance and 
facility than this, and I see no reason why it could not be extensively 
grown. For example, Jamaica has maintained her position in the 
markets of the world with regard to Coffee, notwithstanding the al- 
most universal competition. Many thousands of acres of land on the 
slopes of the Blue Mountain Range are admirably adapted to this pro- 
duct, and this land is quite unsuited for Coffee culture owing to its 
being too humid. The value of the Tea exported from Calcutta to 
Europe has increased in ten years fi'om a quarter of a million to two 
millions of pounds sterling." 

In a '* Report on the Jamaica Collection of Products at the Inter- 
national Exhibition at Philadelphia, 1876", Mr. Thomson writes: — • 
"J he Judges at the Exhibition considered the Tea of good quality and 
accordingly awarded a medal for same." 

In December, 1883, Dr. Morris, at that time Director of -Public 



^152 

•Gardens and Plantations, addressed a letter on this subject to Govern- 
ment, as follows : — 

" The small plantation of Tea, established at aa elevation of 5,300 
feet near the Latimer fields of the Government Cinchona Plantations, 
is in a thriving state as regards the growth of the plants, many of 
which are from 9 feet to 12 feet high. With the exception of some 
email samples of Tea prepared for exhibition purposes — one of which 
obtained a Gold Medal at Philadelphia in 1876 — no attempt has 
hitherto been made to utilize these Tea plants. Both in the Annual 
Reports and in other publications issued by this Department attention 
has been called to the existence of this experimental Tea plantation ; 
and seed has been distributed from time to time amongst private 
planters in the hope of drawing their attention to the facilities which 
the Island offers for a Tea industry. So far, however, nothing has been 
done with Tea in Jamaica by private parties, beyond planting a few 
trees in gardens for ornanoental purposes But with the influx of 
planters from Ceylon, possessing practical acquaintance with the cul- 
tivation and curing of Tea, I am hopeful a start will soon be made to 
prepare Tea, if only, as in the early days in Ceylon, to supply local de- 
mand. 

As mentioned in my late paper, read before the Royal Colonial In- 
stitute, I estimated that with indentured coolie labour and an expe- 
rienced planter from Ceylon and India, Tea might be grown in the 
West Indies and placed in the market at a cost not exceeding 7^d or 
8d. per pound. At the present time very inferior Chinese Tea is sold 
in Jamaica at 4s. 6d. to 5s. per pound. Hence there is here a very 
good opening for a Tea industry. 

The plants at present in Jamaica were received through the Royal 
Gardens in 1868, and their existence here indicates with what foresight 
and intelligence these Gardens have contributed to the furtherance of 
colonial interests, and to laying the foundation of local industries." 

To this letter Sir Joseph Hooker, Director of Kew Gardens, replied 
through the Colonial Office as follows :— " It appears from a letter of 
Sir Joseph Rogers that in 1868 Assam Tea plants were forwarded 
from Kew to Jamaica. The variety most in favour at present in 
India is what is called the Assam hybrid, and I think that the 
introduction of this into Jamaica is probably the best step to aim at. 
Tea seed is generally regarded as difficult of transmission, inasmuch as, 
like most oily seeds, it rapidly loses its vitality. In the course of last 
year, however, the Lebong Tea Company forwarded to the Royal Gar- 
dens a box of seed in excellent order which germinated freely. 
Application has, therefore, been made to this Company for its good 
offices in meeting the request of the Jamaica Government, and I now 
transmit copies of letters received from the Secretary showing what 
has been done in the matter. From these seeds, when they arrive, as 
a matter of precaution, a supply of plants will also be raised to be for- 
warded to Jamaica as well as the remainder of the seed." 

In his Annual Report for 1883-84, Dr. Morris draws attention to 
its economic value as an industrial plant for Jamaica, and recommends 
it to the serious and thoughtful attention of planters. He continues 
.as follows : — 

" Several samples of an excellent Tea have lately been prepared at the 



153 

Government Cinchona Plantations, one of wliich was lately seat to the 
New Orleans Exhibition. The process of manufacturing Tea is cer- 
tainly one that requires care and judgment ; but men who can prepare 
and cure the celebrated Blue Mountain Coffee of Jamaica, should find 
little difficulty in learning the details of Tea curing. The a i vantages 
as regards Tea are that, no sun is absolutely required and no water. 
The Tea plant is most hardy : it will grow in tiae old soils of aban- 
doned coffee fields, as proved in Ceylon, and it will tnrive in Jamaica 
at all elevations, from about 80 feet to nearly 6,000 feet. To secure 
the best results it is advisable to plant Tea in moist, warm and some- 
what sheltered districts." 

Two consignments of Hybrid Tea seeds were received from the 
Royal Gardens, Kew, in 1885, and some 3,000 plants were raised and 
■planted out in two places. 

Samples of Tea were forwarded in 1886 to the Indian and Colonial 
Exhibition. 

From 1885 to 1888 seeds and plants were supplied from time to 
time for trial on an estate near Portland Gap ; the plants grew and 
.multiplied, but nothing was done on a commercial scale. 

In the Reports on the Colonial and Indian Exhibition in London, 
'1886, Mr. A. G, Stanton, the Tea Expert, writes at considerable 
length on the exhibits of Tea, and speaks as follows of the exhibit 
irom this island which was prepared under the direction of Mr Hart, 
now Superintendent of the Royal Botanical Gardens, Trinidad : — " The 
four samples exhibited in the Jamaica Court are from the Botanical 
'Gardens. They are delicate in flavour, and of good quality, and show 
knowledge of manufacture and careful preparation, although the co- 
lour of the dry leaf is rather too grey. Pekoe Souchong is the only 
kind represented." 

In 1887 the present Director sent samples to Kew to get the opinion 
of Tea Brokers and to test the merits of an evaporator for drying the 
Tea. The following was published in the Bulletin for March, 1888 : — 

" Tea. — The evaporator has been tried in the manufacture of Tea at 
Cinchona. Three samples were sent to Kew with the view of testing 
whether the machine dried Tea was superior to that cured on iron over 
a fire. A sample of the latter was labeled No. I, the samples of the ma- 
chine Tea were called Nos. 2 & 3. These samples were sent to Eng- 
land, unfortunately, in mustard tins, which impaired their value con- 
siderably, and this is what the Brokers refer to in their letter and 
report subjoined : — 

A. G. Stanton, Esq., t§ Royal Gardens, Kew. 

3, Rood Lane London, E.C., 21st December, 1887. 

I duly received your letter of the 29th instant, together with the 
three samples of Jamaica Tea. 

As I have i;iven in the enclosed Report a prett}'' full statement of 
the various characteristics of the samples, I will only here add that 
the liquors of all are very serviceable for the London Market ; the 
samples are all slightly impared, No. 1 baing especially so. 

I shall always be happy to report upon any samples and to do what- 



'154 

6ver I may be able in the way of assisting intending Planters witb- 
liny information or suggestions which they may require. 

Believe me, &c. 

(Signed) A. G. Stakton. 

Messrs. Wilson and Stnnion to Royal Gardens, Kew. 

13 Rood Lane, London, E C, 31st December. 1887. 
"We beg to hand you our characters and valuations of Packages o£ 
Tea per mail from Jamaica : — 
Sample. Species and Character. Yalue per lb, 

No. 1 Unassorted Tea ... ... f 1 t 

The dry leaf is well rolled but is much too grey in colour, 
and wanting in tip ; somewhat uneven and inclined to 
be dusty.' 

The liquor is fairly dark and full with some flavour. 

The infused leaf is regular and of a fairly bright colour. 

No. 2 Unassorted Tea ... ... 12 

The dry leaf is good colour but is too crinkley, and has 

not been properly rolled. 
The liquor is dark and full, and of a nice flavour. 
The infused leaf is regular and of a fairly bright colour. 

No. 3 Broken Orange Pekoe ... ... 1 S'' 

Dry leaf is good colour, and with a few tips ; but is 

rather open, ragged and too uneven. 
The liquor is dark, full, and of good flavour. 
The infused leaf is bright and regular. 

General The above Teas are chiefly valuable in the London Mar- 
ket on account of their liquors, the manipulation of 
the dry leaf being faulty. We prefer the samples 
marked JSTos. 2 and 3, the leaf being better in colour ; 
and liquors of finer quality and flavour. No. 1 is too 
soft in liquor and resembles China Tea, Nos. 2 and 3 
being more like Ceylon Tea. 
All the samples have a peculiar smell, and taste of some 
substance quite foreign to Tea ; for this defect we have 
made due allowance in our Keport. 
The leaf of No. 1 is quite liwp instead of being crisp, the 
sample has probably been damaged in transit. 

(Sgd.) Gow. Wilson and Stanton." 

A few years ago seeds and plants were supplied to the Hon. H. Cox 
who has planted out about 60 acres at Ramble, St Ann. He has also 
obtained the latest Machinery, and has turned out Tea of excellent 
quality. 

During last May, Mr. C. Royal Dawson, a well known Tea-planter 
from the Wynaad, India, visited Jamaica, and saw the Tea growing 
in St. Ann and also in the Blue Mountains. He writes to the Di- 
rector as follows; 

" I have formed a very favourable impression of my visit. The Tea 
in the Blue Mountains, in spite of abandonment and neglect, proves 
beyond a doubt that it can hold its own. Both varieties, Assam and 
China, looked most luxuriant, but the latter, notwithstanding, is not 
the right sort for producing flushes. The Assam is decidedly the best 
for the island, and on the Blue Mountains at from 3,000 to 6,000 feet 
should pay well to cultivate. All valleys in the Blue Mountain range 
ought, in my opinion, to grow as good Tea as Coffee." 



155 

AN EARLY JAMAICA BOTANIST. 

Arthur BROuaHTON — a son of the Eev. Thomas Broughton (1704- 
1774), prebendary of Salisbury and vicar of Bedminster near Bristol 
a miscellaneous writer of some merit - took the degree of doctor of 
medicine at Edinburgh in 1779. He was elected a physician to the 
Bristol Infirmary in May, 1780. He published anonymously a volume 
of brief diagnoses of British plants. In the December of 1783 he 
came to Jamaica, intending to return to Bristol, as he received formal 
leave of absence from the Infirmary. In 1786 his post was filled up, 
his successor being appointed for a year only on the understanding 
that if Broughton returned he would resume his office. He died at 
Kingston on May 29th 1796 : the Dictionary of National Biography, 
misled by some remarks uf Wiles, suggests 1803 as the year of his 
death. 

His name is preserved in the genus of orchids named Broughtonia 
by Robert Brown. 

Nothing is known of his life in Jamaica, Unfortunately there is 
not in the Library of the Institute any daily paper of the exact time 
of his death, which is, however, briefly recorded in the " Columbian 
Magazine." 

He apparently practised medicine here, and devoted his leisure to 
botany. The garden, the plants of which he catalogued, at first 
the property of Hinton East, then of the public, is still known 
as Gardens House; it is situated just above Gordon Town. Brough- 
ton's name is not recorded amongst the members of the Kino-- 
ston Medical Society, which (the Jamaica Almanac for 1795 tells 
us) was instituted on the 4th of September, 1794, by the medi- 
cal members of the Jamaica Humane Society and otuer medical 
gentlemen in Kingston in consequence of a malignant fever which 
raged in 1793 and 1794 and baffled the power of medicine for many 
months. 

The following is a list of Broughton's works : — 

1. Dissertatio medica inauguralis de vermibus intestinorura. 

Edinburgii, 1779, 8vo. 

2. Enchiridion botanicura, complectens characteres genericos et spe- 

cificos plantarum per insulas Britannicas sponte nascentium, ex 
Linna3o aliisque desumptos. Londini, 1782. 8vo. 

3. Hortus Eastensis or a catalogue of exotic plants in the garden of 

Hinton East Esq., in the mountains of Liguanea in the island 
of Jamaica. ^ , To which are added their English names, &c. 

Kingston, Jamaica, 1792, 4to. 
The same. A Catalogue of the more valuable and rare plants ia 
the Botanic Garden in the mountains of Liguanea in Jamaica, 

ist. Jago de la Vega, 1794. 4to, 
The same. New ed. [by James Wiles]. Jamaica, 1806. 4to. 
The " Hortus Eastensis" was reprinted by Bryan Edwards ii his 
** History of the AVest Indies." With the exception of this reprint, 
none of Broughton's works is in the Library of the Institute of Ja- 
maica. 

F. C. 



156 

METHODS OF CORN BREEDING. 

x\t the Association ot American Agricultural Colleges and Experi- 
ment Stations last October, Dr. Hopkins of the Illinois Experiment 
Station read a paper on this subject which was of special interest. 

Some experiments have been made in Jamaica by Mr, Palache, one 
of the Instructors of the Agricultural Society and by Mr. Barclay, 
the Secretary , in the selection for seed of the finest ears and the 
largest grains, but nothing has been done on the lines indicated by 
Dr. Hopkins, — selection by examination of the grain. 

He points out a grain of corn is not uniform all through, that there 
are three distinct parts which may be readily observed by cutting the 
grain across with a penknife, and that these parts differ in their chemi- 
cal composition and their value as food for either man or stock. 

These three parts are : 

(1) The dark coloured and rather hard and horny layer lying next 

the hull principally in the edges and towards the tip end 
of the grain. 

(2) The white starchy-looking part near the crown end of the grain. 

(3) The germ which occupies the central part of the grain toward 

the tip end. 
The illustration-* shows two grains cut across : 





I r A has more of the horny part in proportion to starch and also a 
larger germ than B. 

The horny layer which usually constitutes about 65 per cent, of the 
corn grain contains a large proportion of the total protein in the grain. 

The white, starchy part constitutes about 20 per cent, of the whole 
grain, and contains a small proportion of the total protein. The germ 
constitutes only about 10 per cent, of the corn grain ; but, while it is 
rich in protein, it also contains more than 85 per cent, of the total oil 
content of the whole grain, the remainder of the oil being distributed 
in all of the other parts. 

By keeping in mind that the horny layer is large in proportion and 
also quite rich in protein, and that the germ, although rather small 
in proportion is very rich in protein, so that these two parts contain a 
very large proportion of the total protein in the corn grain, it will be 
readily seen that by selecting ears whose grains contain more than 
the average proportion of germ and horny layer we are really select- 
ing ears which are above the average in their protein content. As a 
matter of fact, the method is even more simple than this, because the 
•white starchy part is approximately the complement of, and varies in- 
versely as, the sum of the other constituents ; and tu pick out seed 
corn of high protein content it is only necessary to select those ears 

*Clich6 lent by Dr. Morris, Commissioner __Imperial Department of Agriculture. 



157 

whose grains show a relatively small proportion of the white, starchy 
part surrounding the germ. 

All the grains of corn in any one ear are almost identical in their 
chemical composition, so that the whole ear may be judged by one grain. 

There is a wide variation in the chemical composition of different 
ears even in the same patch of corn, so that it is quite possible to alter 
the character of the crop year by year, by selecting on simple inspec- 
tion so as to increase, as may be desired, either the starch or the protein. 

For a satisfactory breerting plot, about 20 to 40 selected seed ears 
are required. If the breeder desires to make only physical improve- 
ment then he should select, say 40 of the most nearly perfect ears 
which it is possible to pick out. If it is desired to improve the com- 
position or quality of the corn as well as the physical properties, then 
at least 200 perf^ ct ears should be selected, and from these 200 ears 
the 40 ears wh^ch are most suitable as seed for the particular kind of 
corn which it is desired to breed should be selected. 

The 40 selected seed ears are planted in 40 separate parallel rows, 
one ear to a row, consequently the breeding plot should be at least 40 
corn rows wide and long enough to require about three-fourths of an 
ear to plant a row. It is well to shell the remainder of the corn from 
all of the 40 ears, mix it together, and use it to plant a border several 
rows wide entirely around the breeding plot, to protect it, especially 
from foreign pollen. 

The very best ears of seed corn are planted in the centre rows of the 
"breeding plot, the remainder of the ears being planted in approxi- 
mately uniform gradation to either side, so that the least, desirable 
ears among the 40 are planted in the outside rows ; and in the final 
selection of the best field rows from which the next year's seed ears 
are to be taken, some preference is given to the rows near the centre 
of the plot. 

Dr. Hopkins recommends that every alternate row of corn in the 
breeding plot be completely detasseled before the pollen matures and 
that all the seed corn to be taken from the plot be selected from these 
20 detasseled rows. This method absolutely prohibits self-pollination 
or close-pollination of the future seed. By self-pollination is meant 
the transfer of pollen from the male flower of a given plant to the fe- 
male flower of the same plant ; and by close pollination is meant the 
transfer of pollen from the male flower of one plant to the female 
flower of another plant in the same row, both of which grew from 
kernels from the same seed ear. 

The transfer of pollen from one plant to another plant which grew 
from kernels from a different seed ear, is termed cross pollination. 

It is also recomended that in the 20 rows of corn which are not de- 
tasseled, no plant which appear imperfect, dwarfed, immature, barren, 
or otherwise undesirable, should be allowed to mature pollen. Detas- 
seling is accomplished by going over the rows two or three times and 
carefully pulling out the tassels as they appear. 

Occasionally an entire row is detasseled because of the general in- 
leriority of the row as a whole. 

As the corn approaches maturity it is time to begin at the real be- 
ginning in the selection of seed corn; that is with the whole corn, 
crop and the whole corn plant, as it stands in the field. 



i58 

f The first selection is then made of seed corn from the field rows (eacti 
of which is the progeny of a separate single ear) on the basis of perfor- 
mance record. Each of the twenty detasseled rows is carefully exa- 
mined. Some of them are discarded for seed purposes by simple 
inspection, and with some rows this decision may be made early in the 
growing season ; because, when each fi<-ld row is planted from a sepa- 
rate individual ear, that row has an individuality which in many cases 
is very marked. It may show very imperfect germination (in the 
most careful work the germinating power of each ear is ascertained 
before planting), it may be of slow growth, produce small weak plants, 
or numerous barren stalks. The plants may be tall and slender or 
very thick and short. In one row the ears may be borne high on the 
stalks, while in the adjoining row they may average one or two feet 
nearer the ground. One row may yield more than twice as much corn, 
as an adjoining row on the same kind of soil. As a matter of fact 
when one begins to breed corn by the row system (one seed ear to each 
row), he is usually surprised to find that the plants in some rows are 
so very different from those in others. 

No seed corn is taken from a row which produces a large proportion 
of imperfect plants, barren stalks, small ear or a low yield, even though 
a few apparently good seed ears might be found in the crop which that 
row yields. 

The points to be consi<^ered in the selection of the field rows, and 
finally in the individual plants from which seed ears may be taken should 
include the per cent, of " stand" of plants, the height and physiv'^al pro- 
portions of the plant, the character and amount of foliage, the position 
of the ear on the stalk, the length and size of the ear shank, the per 
cent of ear-bearing plants, the time of maturity, the total yield of the 
row, the average weight of the ears, and the number of good seed ears 
which the row produces. 

Some of these points can be detera^ined by inspection, some require 
actual counts and measurements or weights. 

The corn from each of the detasseled rows which have not been re- 
jected by inspection is now harvested. First, all of the ears on a row 
which appear to be good ears and which are borne on ood plants in a 
good position and with good ear shanks and husks are harvested, 
placed in a bag with the number of the row, and finally weighed to- 
gether with the remainder of the crop from the sauie row. The total 
weight of ear corn which the row yields is the primary factor in de- 
terminir g the 10 best rows from which all of the 200 ears for the next 
year's selection must be taken ; and yet no corn breeder should follow 
even this rule absolutely or blindly. If it should happen that one of 
these Un best yielding rows, although slightly higher in jaeld, is 
nevertheless plainly inferior to some other row in the number of good 
ears produced, the row selection should be changed accordingly. Yield 
is of first importance, but it should not exclude all other points It 
is more practical and profitable to produce 99 pounds of good .ears than 
100 pounds of nubbins, Other things being equal, or nearly so, pre- 
ference is also given to the rows nearest the centre of the field. 

In the final selection of the 40 seed ears as many as possible of the 
ten best field rows should be represented, slight advantages in chemi- 
cal composition are frequently sacrificed fur the sake of haviug such a 



159 

large representation, because of the possible future evil effects of too 
close in-breeding. 

Each lot of 20 ears (more or less) from each of the ten best rows and 
Anally each single ear of the 40 seed ears ultimately selected is kept 
labeled, and permanent records are made of the number and the des- 
cription of the ear, the compositiou of the graia, performance record 
of the row, &c., so that as tho breeding is continued aa absolute pedi- 
gree is established, oa the female side, for every ear of corn which may 
be produced from this seed so long as the records are made aad pre- 
served. It is known also that there is good breeding oa the male side 
although the exact individual pedigrees of the males cannot be knowa 
And recorded. 



CINCHONA CULTURE IN INDIA AND JAVA. 

Professor Yerne, who was sent by the French Minister oi Instruc- 
tion to investigate the cinchona culture, mentions the following in- 
teresting facts in his report : The Indian plantations are found about 
27° north latitude, 3,600 feet high, in a territory having temperature 
ranging between 28° and 85° F. The mechanical labour is performed 
by the natives, who receive from ^I to ^1.70 per month, without food 
according to age and sex The favorite species of cinchona is the 
C. ledgeriana. The plants are raised on mossy ground, sheltered from 
the winds one side by a hill and on the other side by thickets of bam- 
boo, the young shoots being particularly susceptible to sudden changes 
^f temperature By the third year after planting, the tree is suflB.- 
ciently grown to permit the removal of bark, which grows on again 
within three years without recourse to mossing operation. The same 
■system is in vogue in Java, where, however, the variety of cinchona 
is not the English C. ledgeriana (Howard's), but the C. ledgeriana 
of Moen, the latter being found to yield 9 per cent, of quinine ; or, if 
only the trunk bark about a metre above the ground is chosen, it 
yields 14 per cent, of quinine. On the other hand, the English Cj 
ledgeriana assays on an average 4 per cent. In Java the cultivation 
of the latter variety is abdudoned ; while 0. succirubra planting ia 
diminishing. In both the English and Javanese plantation a very large 
source of profit is the manufacture of quinine on the spot from small 
and defective pieces of birk, unfit for shipment. Particularly striking 
is the method of quinine extraction as practised in Java, it simply con- 
sisting of treating the powdered bark with a 5 per cent, solution of 
caustic soda, heated to 50° C, throwing this mechanically agitated 
mass into a reservoir containing Java petroleum of specific gravity 
•999, removing the petrolic solution of alkaloids by mechanical de- 
Tices into a warm reservoir, into which is poured water acidulated 
with sulphuric acid. This watery layer is removed, evaporated and 
from the concentrated solution the quinine sulphate separates by crys- 
tallization, which it is not necessary to recrystallize, since it contains 
only one-half of 1 per cent, of cinchonine. Of such quinine 50,000 
kilogrammes are exported annuall}' to the United States. The special 
reason of the success of this quinine manufacture is due to the ex- 
ceedingly clever mechanical devices used in the extraction. — (Am. 
Journ. Fharm.) 



160 

BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

The monthly meeting of the Board of Agriculture was held at Head- 
quarter House on 16th June last at 9 o'clock. The members present 
•were Hon. W. Fawcett (Chairman), Hon. T. H. Sharp, Messrs C. A. 
T. Fursdon, H. H. Cousins, J. W. Middleton and J. Barclay (Sec- 
retary). 

The Secretary read letters from His Excellency the Govern er ap- 
pointing (1) Hon. W. Faweett to act as Chairman of the Board in the 
rocm ot the Colonial Secretary, Bon. Sydney Olivier, (2) Hon. T. H. 
Sharp to act as a member of the Board during the leave of absence 
granted to the Archbishop of the West Indies, (3) Mr. J. W. Middle- 
ton, to act as a member of the Board during the absence from the 
colony of Mr. C. E. deMercado, (4) Mr. T. L. Eoxburgh, Acting 
Colonial Secretary, to act as a member of the Board in the absence on 
leave of Hon. S. Olivier. 

A letter was read from ihe Hon. J. V. Calder, stating that he could 
not attend the meetings so <^arly as 9 a.m. 

Sorse-Breedwg. — Mr. Cousins submitted a minute with regard to 
the horse-breeding industry, in which he stated that he had sent out 
circulars to 70 gtntlemen whose opinions and views were desirable 
to obtain. Only a portion of the replies had yet been received, but 
he hoped to be able to present a report at the next meeting of the 
Board. 

Educational. — The question of a successor to Mr. Buttenshaw was 
discussed and Mr. Cousins was asked to report on the matter. 

Mr. Cousins submitted a minute relative to agriculture in the ele- 
mentary schools, asking if the Board would consider the possibility of 
improving the standard of school gardens throughout the Island. 

A Committee consisting of the Acting Chairman and Messrs. Mid- 
dleton and Cousins was appointed to consider and report. 

Eccperiment Station. — A minute from Mr. Faweett on the tobacco 
crop at Hope was submitted, giving an account of income and ex- 
penditure which was considered satisfactory. 

Travelling Instructors. — Three reports and an itinerary from Mr» 
W. J. Thompson, Travelling Instructor, were submitted. These re- 
ported meetings at Above Rocks. Mount Fletcher (Port Royal Moun- 
tains) Water Mount, Old House, and Point Hill districts in the St. 
Dorothy district of St. Catherine. Be had also visited Somerset, Ce- 
dar Yalley, Dallas Castle and Linstead, the visit to the last-named 
place being to report on orange trees in the district. 

Two reports from Mr. Cradwick were submitted giving particulars 
of the spraying of coco- nuts for disease in the Content district of Han- 
over, end of visits to Montego Bay, John's Hall, Lotten, Chatham, 
Adelphi, Western Favel, Maiden, Springfield, Ginger Hill, Miles 
Town, Balaclava, (where he started a local Agricultural Society),- 
Eopewell, Jericho, Green Island, Lances Bay, St Simons, Richmond, 
Kendal Grains, Fiamstead, Guerney Mount, Pondside, Brownsville, 
Cascade, Maryland, and Askenish. He reported favourably on dis- 
tricts of Maiden and Springfield in St. James, as containing splendid 
land for cocoa, but none was growir.g, and the large district of Ginger 



161 

Hill, in St. Elizabeth, as a splendid district for bananas and cocoa, but 
neither was grown there so far. 

Banana Lands. — A memorandum on the exhaustion of potash on 
banana lands was submitted, wiih a minute from Mr. Cousins on the 
subject, which was offered for publication in the Agricultural Society's 
Journal. 

Woodpeckers. — A letter from the Acting Colonial Secretary with 
regard to Woodpeckers was read, in which it was stated that His Ex- 
cellency the Governor in Privy Council had considered the question of 
removing these birds from the list of protected birds, and decided that 
they should not be removed. 

Prison Farm. — A letter from Mr. J. T. Palache was read asking if 
he could be permitted to take representatives of the Branch Agricul- 
tural Societies in Manchester, to see the cultivation at the Prison 
Farm, and if these could get free passes on the Railway. 

It was decided to consider the matter of offering reduced fares to 
approved parties of six members of branch societies generally for the 
purpose named. 

Bees Wax. — A minute from Mr. Cousins was read reporting that he 
had analyzed samples of bees wax taken by the Constabulary all over 
the Island, and these were all found to be genuine. 

The meeting adjourned to 14th July. 



CITRUS FRUIT CULTURE. 

By J. VV. Mills. * 
Working-over old Orchards. 

In every fruit district the introduction of inferior varieties neces- 
sarily causes much loss to growers, as it is expensive to replant or to 
work over old orchards. This is the price that horticulturists willingly 
pay for new and improved varieties. The orange-growers of southern 
California have experimented with almost every known variety, and 
have been compelled to abandon a number that once were popular. 
The heaviest loss incurred was because of the iuferior Australian Navel 
which proceeded the Washington Navel and suificiently resembles it 
in growth to have been sold in numbers of cases for that far better 
variety. In recent years many trees of Australian Navel, Mediter- 
ranean Sweet, and seedlings have been rebudded to the Washington 
Navel and its improved types. 

While it is easy to perform the operation of budding, it requires 
special knowledge and skill to get the new tree-top rightly started and 
through the first season. Even an old orange tree will take buds in 
the main branches or trunk, and will produce a luxuriant growth from 
the buds the first year, if properly managed. But if such trees lose 
their lops after the first summer's growth, they are usually worthless 
or are not profitable for years. In such cases it is better to take out 
the trees and plant young budded trees from the nursery. 

* University of California, Agricultural Experiment Station, Bulletin No. 138. 



'162 

The Method of Re-huading Trees. — Old Mediterranean Sweets are 
:among the most difficult of citrus tiees to re-bud, and very poor re- 
sults will be obtained if thev are handled by ordinary methods. Mr. 
B. L. Koethen and Mr. 0. D. Wilheit, of Riverside, have been, 
very successful in buddinj3^-over all kinds of old citrus trees, including 
Mediterranean Sweets. They trim out all branches that are not used 
to insert buds into, and then thin out the remaining branches above 
•where the buds are inserted. This is done earl}^ in the spring, and at 
the time of budding. The removal of surplus limbs directs' the entire 
flow of sap into the branches containing the buds, which results in 
their healing-over quickly and becoming well united. Up:)n the re- 
moval of the tops of the trees, the buds start at once. All saw cuts 
are covered with some material that will exclude the air, usually 
grafting wax, though Mr. Koethen has experimented with thin putty 
and finds it much cheaper, more durable, and not injurious to the tree. 
After the tops are removed, the trees should be whitewashed to prevent 
bunburn. 

Value of " Cured" Buds. — The best success comes from using " cured" 
buds these are buds that have been cut from the tree and kept in damp 
sand or moss for a few weeks before using. When treated in this way 
they become tougher, and when inserted into a tree that has freely- 
flowing sap they absorb it more readily. When buds are well cured, 
and not allowed to become either too wet or too dry, they are not easily 
injured in handling. The delicate germ is very brittle when the scion 
IS first cut from the tree, and the slightest touch will sometimes destro}' it. 

Placing the Bud. — The incision which is to receive the bud is made 
by running the knife down the side of the branch or trunk of the tree. 
The cross cut is made at the lower end of the incision instead of at 
the top, as is the usual method, and slants upward. By giving the 
knife a slight twist before removing it from the last cut, the two 
corners are turned out, which, with the upward slant, forms an open- 
ing, into which the bud slips easily. Narrow strips of waxed cloth are 
then wrapped around the limb, completely covering the inserted bud 
and the incisions. The insertion of the buds from below gives better 
protection from rain and dew. 

When to remove the Bands. — These waxed bands are allowed to re- 
main on the buds for from four to six weeks, according to the weather. 
During such a season as the spring of 1901, which was cool and damp, 
citrus trees make very little growth. Under these circumstances the 
waxed bands should remain a longer time. The bands were removed 
from the buds after four weeks (the usual period) in a number of cases 
in the Pomona Yalley in 1901, and they generally died, but in the same 
year when the bands were allowed to remain on the buds for six weeks 
the result was satisfactory. 

Removal of the Tops. — There are three usual methods of removing 
the tops after budding: (1) the removal of the entire top at the time 
of taking the bands from the buds; (2) the removal of all branches 
but one, which is left to draw sap : and (3) the girdling of the limbs 
above the buds while still retaining the entire top for one year. 

When the first method is practised and proper protection is given 
to the buds and young top during the first year, better results seem to 
be obtained than by any other way. The new top receives the entire 



tiourisliment afforded by tlie tree ; with frequent pinching-back of the 
new branches, the wood can be hardened and better matured before 
winter, and the leaves become thick and heavy, affording much frost- 
protection 

The second practice of leaving a side branch on the tree to "draw sap" 
is a safe method, and will sometimes save a tree if the buds fail to 
grow ; but when budding is skillfully done there is no need of leaving 
side branches. 

Girdling the branches above the buds after they have healed over 
and the bands have been removed, while leaving the tops on until 
after the first winter, is not practised widely, but has some ardent ad- 
Tocates. The top when thus left continues to draw enough sap to keep 
alive ,. and to ripen a crop of early and poor fruit. The removal of 
such a top after the buds have made one year's growth is sometimes 
difficult without injuring the new head The chief advantage for this 
method is that the old top forms a covering for the new head, obviat- 
ing the necessity of wrapping it for protection against frost. Trees 
handled in this way have made a better record than adjoining trees 
that had the tops cut off at the time when the bands- were removed from 
the buds and were left unprotected during the first winter. . . 

The old-time method of cutting off the entire top of a tree so as to 
bud upon sucker s is now considered a poor way, as a year of time is 
thereby lost. 

Pruning and Shaping tkees. 

The tendency of young trees of Washington Navel and some other 
■varieties to assume a drooping habit when making a vigorous growth is 
due to the fact that the soft shoots are unable to support the weight of 
the large, heavy leaves. Mr. Reed writes : "It cannot be expected 
that the soft, succulent shoots will grow upright when they are weighed 
down with the great fat leaves that vigorous young Navel trees always 
produce, but if they are pinched back they will so 'n begin to straigh- 
•ten up. If this method is followed, a Washington Navel tree can be 
made symmetrical and upright, I make it a point to visit every one of 
my young trees several times during the season and pinch back shoots." 

Even trees that have been long in bearing will be benefited by 
pinching back every branch that takes too vigorous an upward growth. 
This pinching process is especially necessary with trees from one to five 
years old. 

Pruning Bearing Trees. — The advantage of an upright tree over a 
drooping one is considerable when it becomes loaded with fruit. The 
crop is borne with less breakage of limbs, and not so much fruit is 
injured with the winds. After they are in full bearing, there seems to 
1)8 no pruning that will promote the healtta of the trees or improve the 
crop, other than cutting out limbs that project abruptly from the side, 
or those that make a sudden skyward growth, and the constant trim- 
ming out of dead or stunted wood that is found on the inside of the 
trees. 

If too close, the branches of a tree should be thinned out from the 
inside until the sunlight has had free access. This does not make any 
noticeable difference in the appearance of the tree, but makes it bear 
iruit on the inside. Such fruit is safe from sunburn and frost, and 



' 164 

packs as " fancy" grade. By eai ly atiention to pruning, the trees need 
never be allowed to grow too close in the centre. 

Renewal of Tops. — There are some groves of old orange trees that 
do not respond to the best treatment that the owners can give them. 
Under such circumsti^nces, the most effective wBy to stimulate new life 
and vigour is sometimes to remove the entire top, leaving enough of each 
of the main limbs to distribute equally the suckers that will afterward 
make the new top of the tree. If the tops are only thinned out and 
but partially cut back, there will be a proportionate amount of feeble 
growth and a corresponding lack of productiveness. An old orange tree 
will rapidly produce a new top, even when cut back to a mere stump. 
It is soon in a condition to bear again at its full capacity. When the 
roots are healthy and the soil is properly cultivated and fertilized, the 
orange tree appears able so produce several generations of tops on one 
stock. But it will generally be found that the trouble with old, non- 
productive trees lies in the root-system, or in the management of soil, 
or in both. Thorough investigation of roots and soil should be made 
before any severe cutting or pruning of the top is resorted to. 

Except as noted in preceding paragraphs, all trees should be trained 
low for protection against fro-t, heat, and wind, and to aid the gather- 
ing of fruit. Heavily-laden branches are generally propped to pre- 
vent breaking down, as the loss from dropping and splitting is so 
great that the trees cannot be safely lightened by thinning of fruit 
•when small. 

CULTIVATION AND IRRIGATION. 

During the past seven years the substation grove has been ploughed 
deeply at least twice north and south one year, and twice east and 
west the next. Every year the plough turns up masses of fibrous roots 
that grow ju*t below the reach of the cultivator teeth, in the strip of 
land between the trees in the rows running in the direction of the last 
ploughing. These roots grow from five to twelve inches below the sur- 
face during the winter and spring when the soil is kept moist by rains. 
Their presence shows the upward tendency of tiie feeding roots of 
orange trees when left to grow naturally under favourable conditions. 

The extent to which the root-systems of orange trees can be in- 
fluenced by orchard treatment seems to be very limited. 

Ihe detp-rooting tendency of the sour orange is observable in both 
light and heavy soils, while the roots of the sweet orange, and in a 
lesser degree those of the pomelo grow near the surface in all kinds of 
soil during the seasons of their most rapid growth, and the only way 
in which they can be forced toalower depth is to plough deeply and ap- 
ply irrigation water as low as practicable. As orchardists cannot with 
present facilities afford to plough deeper than ten or twelve inches, the 
fibrous roots will mostly be found just below that depth. Even after 
trees become old and well established their fibrous roots continually 
seek the surface soil, unless deep ploughing and deep irrigation are per- 
sistent ly practised. One orchard near Fomona, which has been ploughed 
deeply from the time it was planted and irrigated in deep furrows, 
bore lour and a half boxes of fruit per tree at the age of eleven years. 
An adjoining orchard that was never ploughed, but was cultivated fre- 
quently and irrigated in furrows made with a "bull-tongue" attach- 



165 

Tjnent, produced but three and a half boxes of poorer oranges at the 
same age. The former orchard is budded on sour stock, which, as 
heretofore shown, roots deeplj', and it received a liberal amount of fer- 
tilizers ; while the latter orchard is budded on the shallow-rootiug 
sweet-stock, and received but a moderate amount of fertilizers. The 
more productive of these two orchards evidently has the better root- 
system ; it has also been ploughed deeply and irrigated in deep furrows 
— therefore it never shows the need of water before the regular irri- 
gation date comes around. On the other hand, the less productive or- 
chard, which is on surface-rooting stock and has received much shal- 
lower culture and watering, shows signs of drought before each irri- 
gation date. In the case of orchards on the same stock, the value of 
deep ploughing and deep irrigation is also very marked. 

Ihe So-Called " Hardpan." — The orange tree is a native of tropical 
forests, where it obtains warm soil and abundant moisture within 
easy reach. Its successful culture in countries like California, 
which lack summer rains and moisture-laden atmosphere, is necessarily 
to some degree artificial and a notable triumph of modern horticulture. 
In order to achieve the highest results, it becomes more and more es- 
sential that the grower shall keep the soil in the most perfect condi- 
tion, shall apply all needed water and plant-food in sufficient but not 
in excessive amounts, and shall pay especial attention to keeping the 
feeding roots as low as practicable and to preventing the formation of 
what is called "hard-pan," but is only the well-known " plough -sole," 
aggravated by shallow irrigation. 

** Hardpan," some growers say, appears now where it was never be- 
fore known. The fibrous roots of orange trees run along its surface, 
and thus are subject to every vicissitude. It often happens that what 
orchardists call '' hardpan" is only the firm layer of soil caused by uni- 
form cultivation, or ploughing, wnether deep or shallow. The depth to 
which soil is stirred should vary from year to year; eight inches, 
twelve inches, ten inches, fourteen inches, and then eight inches again, 
would put an end to much of the present outcry against "hardpan." 
Cultivator teeth should also be kept sharp and should be "set down" to 
various depths so as to prevent the formation of " plough-sole" of any 
description, and to assist in breaking up that which former neglect has 
caused. 

Yery few orange groves have been planted upon true "hardpan," 
and if so planted have seldom succeeded. Only a few trees, such as 
our native oaks, are capable of thrusting roots through the iron-like 
layer of natural subsoil that is properly termed " hardpan." When 
found to exist, it should be deemed sufficient to debar citrus culture, 
unless so thin that, by boring or blasting, the root-system can be 
established in good soil below the " hardpan," or when it is so consti- 
tuted that when kept irrigated the roots will penetrate it. 

An instance of the latter occurred at Riverside, where Mr. Reed 
planted a few trees on a terrace bordering on an arroyo, and found 
what was reported as true " hardpan" near the surface. The trees re- 
ceived " an abundance of water over the whole area for a year," and it 
was then found that the roots had penetrated it to a considerable dis- 
tance. 



'166 

The term ''irrigation hardpan" is quite generally used in the 
orange-growing district to describe the condition of some small areas 
in orchards where irrigation and subsequent culture have been care- 
less, or where sufficient attention has not been paid to the difference of 
treatment required by lighter and heavier soils. 

Of course very sandy soils can be handled sooner after irrigation 
than can heavier soils and when a sandy piece of land containing 
areas of heavy soil is cultivated as soon after irrigation as the sandiest 
part will permit, trouble may be expected with the so-called " irriga- 
tion hardpan," by the puddling of the subsoil, partly directly by the 
plough, partly by the soaking in of claywater. 

Value of proper CulUvation. — It is usual for orchardists to put in a 
subsoil plough to help in breaking up the heav}' spots of what is called 
" irrigation hardpan." But this difficulty can easily be overcome 
without using a subsoil plough, as was shown by the experience of Mr. 
"W. J. C(»x, of Glendora, Los Angeles County, who found that "irri- 
gation hardpan" was forming in a part of his orange grove. He irri- 
gated a few trees that were within reach of ihe domestic water-supply 
and followed this up at the proper time with thorough cultivation. 
After each irrigation he cultivated a little deeper. As a result of 
deep irrigation and cultivation, the soil took in water as readily as 
ever and the trees regained their vigorous appearance. He simply 
used a chisel-tooth cultivator and plenty of water. 

A somewhat different, case was that of Mrs. McKenzie of Riverside, 
whose orange grove failed to be profitable, though apparently well 
irrio-ated. This orcha d had been cultivated to the same depth until 
a hard, clav "plough-sole" had been formed. The stratum of hard sub- 
soil was several inches thick and contained a number of large surface 
roots. She wrote to the Californian Experiment Station, sending 
samples of soil for examination. It was found thas the plough -sole 
prevented the irrigation water from reaching the deeper roots, and 
she was advised to plough the entire orchard, roots and all, as deep as 
the plough would go. This was done, much to the alarm of many 
growers, and great numbers of orange roots of all sizes were turned to 
the surface. Following further advice, she irrigated and cultivated 
the ground deeply, and the following season she harvested the largest 
crop ever taken from this grove. 

The Glondora grove, to which allusion has been made, had had 
deep cultivation from the beginning, and the roots were mainly below 
the so-called hardpan. The McKenzie grove had many roots in the 
hard " plough-sole" so thatthe only remedy was to destroy these useless 
roots and force the growth of new and deeper ones, at the same time 
giving the irrigation water a chance to penetrate. This rather drastic 
root-pruning was necessary, and if the (ilendora grove had been culti- 
vated to a uniform depth a few more seasons, deeper ploughing and the 
destruction of the surface roots would have become inevitable there 
also. The breaking-up of all hard layers of soil caused by improper 
cultivation or careless use of water is of the first importance to the 
health and profit of an orchard. 

Eec/iless Deep Cultivation. — After Mrs. McKenzie's experiment at 
Riverside, previously ^mentioned, subsoilers of different forms were 
used, and the idea soon became common among growers that the- 



167 

deeper a plough could be run, the better would be the results that \\ ould 
follow. The injurious results of such practice can not be estimated 
without careful study of the root-systems of orange trees on various 
stocks and soils. A number of bearing citrus groves were so much 
injured by the reckless use of s-ubsoil ploughs that the leaves of the- 
trees actually wilted down immediately after the operation. In these 
cases, the sharp-cuUing plough was run close to and on all sides o^ the 
trees. When trees over ten years of age, which have been subjected 
to uniform shallow ploughing and irrigation, are submitted to such 
treatment, they probably lose at one blow not less than seventy-five 
per cent, of their active roots. The shock is such that it would take- 
several J ears of careful treatment to restore the trees. 

Practical Notes on Deep Cultivation and Irrigation. — It is almost 
always more economical to use a sub soiler or plough where " irrigation 
hard pan" has been formed than it is to use the large amount of water 
necessary to soften it, but according to the best practice the deepening 
of cultivation should be gradual, and the implement should never run 
deeper than fifteen inches. One must rem^ mber that the re;illy serious 
loss in sudden deep cultivation comes from the destruction of thousands' 
of fibrous roots that grow from the hundreds of laterals branching' 
from the large main roots. 

If a plough is run to a depth of one foot, in three furrows, between the 
rows, and water percolates slowly for a long time through these fur- 
rows, no need can arise for a subsoiler. "Irrigation hardpan" within, 
reach of the plough simply shows, as hasbpen said, that too shallow and 
too uniform cultivation has been practiced. In that case the entire- 
surface should be thoroughly broken up, and irrigation in deep fur- 
rows after this will restore the proper conditions. 

Experience also shows that when the water is slowly run in deep- 
furrows for a long time and the greater part of the surface is kept dry 
and is deeply cultivated, better results are obtained than when the 
basin or block method, or even the shallow-furrow plan is used, even 
though they are followed by deep cultivation. When the water is ap- 
plied below the first foot of soil, and the soil above is kept compara- 
tively dry, there is nothing to attract the roots to the surface ; and when 
the water is thus applied, a team can be driven along the dry strips of 
of land between the furrows, and with a harrow or other appliance the 
dry soil can be dragged into the wet furrows, to lessen the evaporation, 
immediately after the irrigation water is turned off. By any other 
system, it is absolutely necessary to wait at least twelve hours, and 
sometimes much longer, before a team can be driven over the ground. 
Then, too, when a soil irrigated by these more wasteful methods has 
been cultivated, it is still moist near the top, and is soon filled with a 
mass of new roots so close to the surface that they must be destroyed. 

Waste from Evaporation of Water. Water applied to the soil sinks 
and spreads. Some of it is being taken up by the still dry soil under- 
neath and at the sides long after the last drop is visible. fSome of it 
too, is being drawn back to the surface, and thence evaporated into 
the warm air. Irrigation after sundown has some distinct advantages 
if the water can be handled. Sub-irrigation upon soils adapted to its 
use is the ideal system of applying water, and greatly lessens Avaste. 
Orange roots will not enter a pipe-line unless it is full of water all the 



'168 

iime. If the pipe is on a grade and open at bottom and top so that 
.air passes thi-ough it, there will never be trouble from orange roots. 
Valves, once thought necessary, are not now used. The high cost of 
the present sub-irrigation systems places them beyond the reach of 
most orange-growers. 

Spread of Water from Deep lurrows. — The diagrams show the ex- 
tent to which water from fairly deep furrows penetrates the sandy soil 
and the heavy loam of the substation. A moment's study of them 
will convince any one that the only way in which to lessen waste in 
surface irrigation is to let the water flow slowly through as deep and 
narrow furrows as practicable, thus making a larger cross-section of 
wet soil, even narrower at the surface than in the chart, and checking 
the evaporation by filling the furrow with dry earth and by cultiva- 
tion at the earliest moment. 

Examining these suggestive diagrams of soil saturation, let us first 
call attention to the three showing the spread and descent of water 
on the heavier soil. Here it has spread much more slowly and to a 
less extent than in the case of the adjacent sandy land. Even after 
two days run of water (of twelve hours each) and seventy-two hours 
turther delay, the total sectional area of saturation is hardly more 
than half as great, covering about sixteen square feet, as against about 
thirty square feet on the lighter, more porous soil. A still deeper and 
narrower water channel is highly desirable on this heavier soil. In- 
stead of eight inches, it might well be sixteen or eighteen, which 
would make the cross-section No. 3 nearly a foot deeper, and narrower 
on the surface. 

The cross-section on the sandy soil show that the eight-inch furrow 
is practically sufficient to carry the water well down into the soil. A 
deeper, narrower channel even here will result in economy in the use 
of water, a smaller flow producing as large an area of saturation with 
less surface. These two sets of illustrations of the results of irrigation 
in furrows on different soils, under conditions otherwise practically 
identical, explain and enforce the entire argument respecting deep irri- 
gation set forth in this bulletin, and long and earnestly recommended 
by Professor Hilgard. 



[Issued 1st July, 1903.] 



Vol. I. 



AUGUST, 1903. 



Part 8. 



BULLETIN 



OF THE 



DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



> ♦ < 



EDITED BY 



WILLIAM PAWCETT. B.Sc, F.L.S. 

Director of Public Gardens and Plantations. 



CONTENTS: 
Cocoa — III. 


Page. 
169 


Soil Temperature 


171 


Cane Yarieties at Cinnamon Hill 


174 


An Insect Pest of Sweet Potatoes 


175 


Cultivation of Rice in the United States 


175 


The story of the Papaw 


181 


Contagious Skin Diseases of the Horse 


189 


PRICE -Threepence. 





A Copy will be sup^^.ed free t- ai^" ^esi^ent in Jamaica, who will send Name and 
Address to the Director of i:'ij..iic Ga. aens and Plantatio js, Kingston P.O. 



KINGSTON, JAMAICA 
Hope Gardens. 

1903. 



JAMAICA. 



BULTjBTIISr 



OF THE 



DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



Vol. I. AUGUST, 1903. Part 8. 



COCOA III. 

Notes from Dr. Paul Preuss 
Cocoa in Venezuela* 



The characteristic mark of Criollo cocoa is found in tbe bean, which 
in the frf sh state looks round and swollen. The transverse section 
therefore is elliptical or nearly circular. The tint of the bean is much 
paler than in Trinitario and varies even to pure white. The taste is 
not, even in fresh grains, of a disagreable bitterness, it is still less so 
in the dry beans. 

The fermentation of the Criollo beans is accomplished in one day. 
At Guigue, the beans are allowed to ferment for two days, they are 
then exposed for some hours to the sun and finally they are submitted 
to a new fermentation lasting one day. The tint of tbe dry bean is a 
light brown. The arcma and the taste are excellent. The break is 
extremely friable. When a few dry beans are squeezed in the hand 
they give out a particular sharp rattling sound, not heard in the Tri- 
nitaro which produces rather a strong cracking sound. 

The Criollo of Venezuela preserves its characters well ; at any rate 
it is the case in the variety with red fruits. It does not show any 
tendency to deteriorate from proximity to the Trinitario. In places 
where these two varieties grow together, it is stated that the fruits of 
certain classes of Trinitario acquire a resemblance to those of the Cri- 
ollo, but the Criollo, according to Dr. P mess's observations, never ap- 
propriate the characters of the Trinitario. 

Plantations of pure Criollo cocoa are not very extensive anywhere. 
As a general rule all the varieties are planted anyhow together. 
Plantations of pure Carupano are equally rare. Well-informed 
planters have long since ascertained that the Carupano dimiuishes the 



Continued from Bulletin for June and July, page 121 — 124, 



170 

value of their plantations, and they make an effort to get rid of it, 
hut it is difficult on account of the delicacy and the feeble growth of 
the CrioUo. When, for example, a tree dies in a plantation, whether 
from old age or from some malady, it is extremely difficult, if not im- 
possible, in a plantation of pure CrioUo, and absolutely impossible in a 
plantation of pure Carupano. to raise a young tree of CrioUo in place 
of that which has perished. The young tree is stifled by the large trees 
that surround it. On the contrary, a young Carupano will develop 
well, thanks to its greater vital force. So that if planters do not 
wish to have empty spaces in their plantations, they are obliged to fiU 
them with Trinitario the value of which is less. In this way they are 
continually depreciating the old plantations (Chuao). This is the 
reason for the lowering of the quality of Caracas cocoa of which there 
is frequent complaint. 

New plantations of CrioUo call for much more careful shading, more 
thorough maintenance, and a more abundant irrigation than those of 
Trinitario. It is calculated that it takes 3 years longer to get a full 
crop of CrioUo than of Trinitario. On the other hand, the product 
obtained in the first case is much more precious, and fetches as much 
as double the price of the other, the preparation of which latter, be- 
sides, is longer and more difficult ; add to this, that the Trinitario re- 
quires more space than the feebly developed CrioUo, and therefore less 
trees are planted to the acre of Trinitario than of CrioUo. All these 
considerations ought to be weighed when enquiries are made as to 
what variety should be planted by preference. 

Trinitario or Carupano is distinguished from CrioUo by a more pro- 
nounced development, its trunk is shorter, its foliage is thicker, its 
leaves are larger and it yields more and sooner. 

A certain number of varieties are distinguished of which the names 
have been given before, according to the size, the form and the colour 
of the fruits, according to the form and taste of the beans, as well as 
according to the tint of the inside of the beans. At the head of all 
the varieties is the Angoleta, of which the fruits are regular, generally 
deeply furrowed and very rough, terminating in a somewhat long 
point. The shell of the fruit is thick. The beans are large and plump. 
This variety is considered very good. In the second place comes the 
Cundeamor, of which the fruits are red or yellow with deep and long 
furrows, very rough, terminating in a long point, often curved and 
narrowed at the base. The tint of the fresh bean is, in the two varie- 
ties, bright violet but still much darker than in CrioUo. The beans 
of the Cundeamor are as large and plump, scarcely bitter, and fermen- 
tation takes place relatively quickly. The denomination Cundeamor 
comes from the name given a wild fruit called " Cerasee" in Jamaica 
(Momordica) of which the form offers some resemblance to this variety 
of cocoa. 

Then come in order of quality the numerous varieties called simply 
" Carupano," of which some have their shells and relatively large 
grains (carupano grande mejor), and the others with thick sheU and 
flatter beans. Their form approaches rather that of an egg, but they 
have however a visible point. The colour of the bean is bright violet. 
The Sambito of which the fruits are very large, massive, rather smooth 



171 



ftnd terminated by only a short point, has only rarely large plump 
beans ; they are bitter and of a bright violet colour. The worst is a 
variety of which the fruits are deep red, bright, smooth, with thick 
shell, rounded at the two ends and massive, of which the beans are 
very flat, of a deep violet colour and very bitter. It is called " Tri- 
nitario Amergo" or " Cojon de Toro," fermentation for this variety 
ought to last 8 days, and even then its taste is still bitter and acrid. 



SOIL TEMPERATURE. 

Reference was made in last bulletin (page 126) to the temperature 
of the soil. Prof. F. H King in his " Text Book of the Physics 
of Agriculture," which everyone interested in agriculture should pos- 
sess, has a chapter on the subject, from which the following notes are 
taken. 

Importance. In temperate climates subject to frost, growth will not 
begin, with most cultivated crops, until the soil has attained a temper- 
ature of 45° to 48° F. and it does not take place most vigorously until 
after it has reached 68° to 70° F. Neither do the nitre germs begin, 
the formation of nitric acid from humus until a temperature above 
41° F. has been reached and its greatest activity is not attained until 
the soil temperature has risen to 98° F. 

Germination. The soil temperatures at which the seeds of most 
cultivated crops germinate best, lie between 70° and 100° F. with an 
average of about 85° F. The best soil temperature for germination 
of corn (maize) and squash is 93°, for melon 99 '^. The more quickly 
seeds are permitted to germinate after they are placed in the soil 
the higher will be the per cent, of seeds growing, and, as a 
rule, the more vigorous will the plants be. Indeed seeds of low 
vitality placed in too cold a soil often fail to germinate at all. It is 
found that, when corn germinates in 3 days at a temperature of 65 3° 
F,, it requires 11 days when the soil was as low as 51° F. 

Root Pressure. The power which sends the soil moisture into the 
roots of plants and up into the leaves is osmotic pressure, developed by 
the warmth of the soil, and unless the soil temperature is sufficiently 
high, plants may wilt. Pumpkin and tobacco plants wilt badly, 
even at night with an abundance of moisture, as soon as the soil tem- 
perature falls much below 55° F., the moisture not rising fast enough 
to compensate for even the slow evaporation during the night. 

Formation of Nitrates. The nitrates in the soil do not develop until 
the temperature has risen above 41° F. ; the action of the germs is ex- 
tremely feeble at 54° and they do not attain their maximum activity 
until a soil temperature of 98° has been reached ; but if the earth be- 
comes as warm as 113° F. then the action is nearly stopped, it being 
as weak as at 54°. 

Inflmnce of colour. The colour of a soil, especially when dry, so 
that the rate of evaporation from its surface is small, has a marked in- 
;fluence on the temperature, eveu at considerable depths. The darkest 



172 

soil, whether black or brown, was more than a degree warmer than the' 
light soil at four inches deep. 

Influence of Topography. The degree of inclination of the land sur- 
face and the direction of the slope, whether facing east, west, north 
or south, may exert a marked influence upon the temperature of the 
soil and particularly upon its diurnal range. The temperature of a 
stiff red clay soil, upon a level plateau, and upon a south exposure 
sloping about 18°, was found in the surface three feet to make a dif- 
ference in temperature of from a little more than 3° F., in the sur- 
face foot, to a little less in the second and third feet. 

Influence of chemical changes. When heavy dressings of farmyard 
manure are ploughed in, and when heavy crops are turned under for 
green manure, the fermentation which is set up in these materials re- 
sults in a measure of heat which warms the soil in the same way that 
a manure heap heats when fermenting. Indeed all the steps in the for- 
mation of nitrates in the soil result in the evolution of some heat. 

Influence (f rains. Heavy rains which fall upon a field and penetrate 
the soil may exert very marked effects upon its temperature on ac- 
count of the relatively high specific heat of the water as compared 
with that of the soil. 

If the atmosphere is warmer than the deeper soil, and if rains fall 
which result in heavy percolation, a large amount of heat is conveyed 
rapidly and deeply into the soil with the water and the temperature of 
the ground, two to four feet below the surface, may thus be very ma- 
terially raised. 

Influence of evaporation. There is no factor, except the direct sun- 
shine and the direct radiation of heat away from the earth into space, 
which exerts so strong an influence on the temperature of the soil as 
the evaporation of moisture from its surface ; and the chief reason why 
an undrained clay soil is colder than one well drained is the cooling 
effect associated with the larger evaporation of soil moisture. 

To evaporate a pound of water from the surface of a square foot of 
soil, by means of the heat contained in the soil, makes it imperative 
that 966.6 heat units be expended to do the work and this, if with- 
drawn from a cubit foot of saturated clay soil, would lower its tem- 
perature some 10.3° F. 

The difference in temperature shown by the wet and dry bulb ther- 
mometers measures, in one way, the cooling effect of evaporation ; the 
wet bulb often reading as much as 15 or even 20 degrees lower than 
the dry one, under otherwise identical conditions. 



173 



Table showing the influence of rapid evaporation upon the temperature 

of the soil. 



Date. 


Time. 


Condition of 
weather. 


Temp. (;f 
air. 


Te-Tip. of 

drained 

soil. 


Temp, of 

undrained 

soil. 


8 

a 

u 

Q 


April 24 1 


3.30 to 
4.p.m. 


Cloudy, with 
brisk east 
wind 


160.5° F. 


66.5° F. 

• 


54.00° F. 


12.50°F. 


April 25 1 


3. to 3.30 
p.m. 


Cloudy, with 
brisk east 
wind 


Ui.O 


70.0 


58.00 


12.00 


April 26 1 


1.30 to 
2p.m. 


Cloudy, rain 
iill the fore- 
noon 


U5.O 


50.0 


44.00 


6.00 


AprU27 \ 


1.30 to 
2p.m. 


Cloudy and 
sunshine, 
windS.W. 
brisk 


}^53.0 


55.0 


50.75 


4.25 


April 28 1 


7 to 8.30 
a.m. 


Cloudy and 
sunshine, 
wind N.W. 
brisk. 


1 

^45.0 
J 


47.0 


44.50 


2.50 



In the table above are given the observed differences in temperature 
of a well drained sandy loam and an adjacent black marsh soil, not 
well drained, the observations being taken simultaneously and the 
differences in temperature being due largly to differences in the rate 
of evaporation in the two cases. 

Influence of thorough preparation of the seed-bed. It follows from 
what has been said in previous paragraphs, that the practice of 
thoroughly preparing the seed-bed before sowing or planting must 
have the eSect of decreasing the capillary rise of cold water from be- 
low and its loss by evaporation from the soil. This then would tend 
to concentrate the sun's heat in the seed-bed itself,^ first by lessening its 
rate of conduction downward, and second by diminishing its loss, by 
lessening the evaporation. In tbe spring, then, early and thorough 
preparation of the seed-bed tends to make the seed-bed warmer : it di- 
minishes the loss of soil moisture ; it increases the formation of ni- 
trates, thus making the soil richer; it hastens and makes stronger the 
germination and it enables one or more crops of weeds to be destroyed 
before the crop is up in the way of cultivation. Hence there is much 
to gain and little to lose in the thorough preparation of the seed-bed 
before planting. 

Control by underdraining. When land naturally too wet for tillage 
early in the spring has been thoroughly underdrained, the soil is 
brought into fit condition for seeding much earlier than would be pos- 



174 

Bible without this improvement, and one of the great points gained is 
the warming of the soil to a greater depth, on account of the removal 
of the water and the lessening of the loss of heat by evaporation. 

CANE VARIETIES AT CINNAMON HILL. 

St. James. 

Mr. Shore has recorded the yields of cane from the Cane Varieties 
grown at Cinnamon Hill as ratoons, the canes were irrigated and gave 
five times the average yield of the non-irrigable lands of the estate 
which suffered severely from the unprecedented drought. D. 116, 
D. 51 and D. 102 have done well as ratoons. These experiments in- 
dicate that some of the seedlings are decidedly superior to the estate 
canes under irrigation conditions. 

It is hoped that the proposed central factory project may be carried 
through and an extension of the irrigable lands be made possible. 

H. H. Cousins. 

REPORT ON EXPERIMENT CANES AT CINNAMON HILL,- 

AS FIRST RATOONS. 



Name. 


Tons per acre 


Tons per i 




1902. 


1903. 


D. 51 


62. 


55.9 


D.116 


62. 


49. 


D.102 


42.5 


47.1 


Otaheite 


41. 


43.5 


Canaan 


70.5 


43.4 


D.275 


43.5 


43.2 


D.103 


32.3 


42. 


D.343 


49.3 


37.3 


C. Queen 


42.3 


35.8 


D.119 


52. 


34. 


D. 80 


25.8 


31. 


D. 95 


37. 


30.5 


D115 


47.2 


29.5 


D.128 


33. 


29.1 


D.117 


35.6 


28.1 


D.109 


45. 


24. 


B.147 


34. 


22.6 


Red Rosem. 


32.5 


21.7 



These canes were cut as plants on 21st August, 1902, and again as^ 
first ratoons on 15th June, 1903, only ten months old. 

This could not be helped as the estate's crop was finished and some 
alterations were to be made in the works later. 

The juice stood only 6.6 Baume average ; owing largely to a fall of 
16.25 inches of rain in May — an exceptional fall for this district. 
The rainfall for the ten months was 47.53 ins. but was unequally dis- 
tributed, the first four months of 1903 being very dry. Irrigation was 
used during that time, so that the growth was kept up. 

The extraction of juice by mill was 67o/o, against 65o/o lasti^ 



175 

year ; and the average extraction from estate's canes for the crop was 
57o/o, by the same mill. 

The return from the small area of ordinary canes that could be 
spared water was 25 tons per acre. This shows the value of irrigation 
in a dry year such as 1902-03 was, when the average return per acre 
from non-irrigated canes was 9 tons. 

D.102, 103, 80 and Otaheite have done better as First Ratoons than 
as Plants. 

Joseph Shore. 
18/6/03. 

AN INSECT PEST OF SWEET POTATOES. 

Gruh. Mr. Cradwick, Travelling Instructor, sent to the Director of 
Public Gardens for identification and remedy a sweet potato, which 
was destroyed for purposes of food by the holes made through it by a 
small maggot-like whitish grub, about a quarter of an inch long. 
The grub has no feet but is able to bore its way through the potato. 
The portions of the potato next the borings become black and dis- 
coloured, and even the untouched parts are said to be without taste 
and to be refused by pigs. 

Perfect Insect. The potato was kept for some time until the grubs 
had passed through the quiescent or pupal stage, and developed into 
the perfect insect, the sweet potato weevil. It is one of the snout-beet- 
les, about a quarter of an inch long, of a bluish-black colour, brownish 
in the middle, with long, blackish snout or beak. It is known to ento- 
mologists as Cylas formicarius. 

Remedy. As the infested potatoes are useless as food, there need be 
no hesitatation about burning tbem at once, as well as all the rubbish 
on the ground which may harbour more ( f the insects. Destruction 
by fire prevents the multiplication of the insects, and future attacks 
may be less severe. 

In order to give no opportunity for later development of these pests, 
it is well to plani the ground with some other crop, such as corn or 
cane, which are not affected by the maggot. 



CULTIVATION OF RICE IN THE UNITED 

STATES.* 

By Leslie Harrison. 
It can be stated that rice cannot be grown without irrigation, and for 
all practical purposes that statement will hold true ; for while it is 
true that " Providence" rice has been grown in the past, and is grown 
yet, it is also true that rice grown without the artificial application of 
water has comparatively small commercial value in the rice industry 
of the southern States. 

The methods of cultivation and irrigation are widely different in 
the two great rice districts of the country ; for excepting the fact that 
the resultant crop is the same, and that both are grown by means of 
irrigation, there are few points of likeness. For example, Carolina 
rice-growing is historically the oldest in the country, and its present 

* Forestry and Irrigatiou. July, 1903. 



176 

metliods show almost the same primitive conditions which have charac- 
terized rice cultivation from its first Asiatic beginnings. Louisiana 
and Texas, on the other hand, whose industry has more than taken the 
place that was once occupied by South Carolina and Georgia, make use 
of the most improved methods, with expensive modern machinery for 
harvesting and threshing, and are now engaged in irrigation works of 
great magnitude. 

E-ice growing is not by any means a new venture in this country. 
In 1694 a storm-tossed Spanish vessel put into Charleston harbor, 
where it lay for some time to undergo necessary repairs During this 
stay the captain of the vessel gave to one of the citizens of the town 
a handful of rough rice. From this one handful, through careful 
seeding and cultivation, developed the notable Carolina rice, now 
world famous. For a long time Georgia and the Carolinas furnished 
the principal part of the rice crop of the country, and for a number of 
years preceding the civil war these states produced 105,000,000 
pounds of cleaned rice annually. At the present time the annual 
yield is about 50,000,000 pounds. 

Louisiana now produces more than half of the rice raised in this 
country, the annual output amounting to some 20(>,0'i0,000 pounds. 
The history of her rice industry dates back to the exiled Acadians — 
French settlers from Nova Scotia — who in the last half of the eighteenth 
century began the raising of "Providence" rice : but providential rain 
was not to be depended on, and fat years were invariably followed by 
lean ones, so that irrigation came to be more and more desirable, until 
now the systems of Louisiana are among the most elaborate and valu- 
able in the country. 

Irrigation of Rice in the Caeolinas and Georgia. 

The rice industry of the Atlantic coast is confined to tidewater areas 
from Cape Fear to the Florida boundary of Georgia In this area 
there are about 80,000 acres on which rice might be grown, but as a 
matter of fact, only about half of this is cultivated. The water supply 
is entirely from coastal rivers, and the plantations must lie far enough 
above salt water to avoid its bad effects on the fields. This limits the 
cultivation to a strip lying not more than 30 miles fri m the coast, and 
seldom less than 15. In a few cases where the river water is brackish 
at certain seasons, storage reservoirs are provided to offset these con- 
ditions ; and where the water is always too salt or the lands are above 
tidewater, the planter must depend on water taken from inland 
streams, lakes or reservoirs. 

Almost all the irrigation in the Carolinas and Georgia is of a simple 
nature. When reservoirs are required a small stream is dammed, so 
that the w ater backs up to form a reservoir, while the land below is 
irrigated by direct flow Irom the dam through suitable ditches or 
canals. 

In the case of irrigation from ti ie water banks or levees are thrown 
up, and these are pierced by "trunks," or long boxes made of heavy 
timber and closed by a sort of gate at each end. 1 hese trunks are 
placed at hh approximately mean distance between the limits of high 
and low tides, so that the water of high tide will flow through them 
on to the fields to be flooded, or so that the flood water may be turned 



177 

off at the time of low tide. The gate at either end of the trunk is so 
arranged as to act as a valve, the pressure of the water against it serv- 
ing to keep it shut unless it is held open by a lever provided for that 
purpose and worked from the top of the retaining bank or levee. 
Water flowing in at a time of high tide can be retained on the field 
for as long a time as is desirable, for when the tide drops, the water 
inside of the levee is held by the automatic closing of the inner gate. 
In the same manner, when it is desired to drain the field, the inner 
gate is held permanently open, while the outer one closes when the 
tide is up, thus preventing any inflow. 

Drainage forms an essential part of rice culture, being absolutely 
necessary at the time of harvesting. Undertiling is of advantage in 
the Atlantic coastal fields only when the water is supplied from reser- 
voirs or lakes. The rivers carry too much sediment during the freshet 
season to make a system of under-drainage successful, as the tiles 
would soon become clogged ; yet the slopes are for the most part fit 
for good drainage with but little grading. A system of low dikes and 
small ditches through the field accomplishes the desired results of 
equable application and depth of water, with rapid run-off when a 
draining of the field is desired. 

Rice is a shallow feeder. Its mass of roots spreads out just below 
the surface, and none of them strike down to any great depth. On 
this account all ploughing is shallow, generally not more than 3 or 4 
inches deep, though a greater depth might be advantageous as giving 
more p' ant food. In some places the ground is so stiff that it is 
flooded before ploughing. Afterwards it is put in condition by disc 
harrow and roller. 

On lands flooded by rivers which carry rich sediment fertility is 
easily assured, but in many instances, and particularly in the growing 
of upland rice, fertilizer is needed, and this should be of a high grade 
to give best results, as cheap fertilizer is a false economy. Naturally 
the fertilizer varies in different localities ; but cotton-seed meal, blood 
and bone, and other well known mixtures are used, most of them con- 
taining a good percentage of potash. 

In planting great care must be exercised in the selection of the 
seed rice, in order that it may be free from the voluntet-r "red" rice 
and from weed seeds. Uuiforin kernels are also desirable, as a uni- 
form crop will permit of a higher polish than kernels that vary. The 
seed is sown in March and April, and early sowing has many advan- 
tages, though some crops are put in as late as June, with varieties 
which mature quickly. The time of sowing also differs in different 
sections, and is affected by the weather and to some degree by the mi- 
grations of birds, which work havoc on the crop, either when planted 
or in the fall when the grain is in the "milk" stage. The grain is 
planted either in drills or in hoed trenches and dropped by hand. 
The drilled method insures an even stand, which is a matter of some 
importance. It may be even planted broadcast and harrowed in or it 
may be planted in hills. Some planters recommend the latter method, 
as it ensures easy cultivation and a more effective campaign against 
weeds. 

After planting, the next important step is flooding, and this is done 
soon after the seed is sown, sometimes on the same day. Seed that is 



178 

not to be covered is clayed before planting by stirring it in clayed 
water, so that the flooding will not float it. Flooding serves several 
purposes. It protects the grain from the birds and causes quick ger- 
mination. This water is left on the field several days, or until the 
seed is well sprouted. It is then drained off and no more water is ap- 
plied until the plants are well up and the fields show considerable green. 
Then a " stretch" flow is turned on tor a few more days, until the plants 
are about six inches high, affording nourishment to the rice and im- 
peding or destroying weed growths. When the plants have attained 
a sufficient growth under the stretch flow the water is gradually low- 
ered to an average depth of a few inches, and remains on the field for 
a period of from two weeks to a month, the duration depending on 
local soil conditions. Then the dry growth follows for about a month 
and a half, and during this time the crop is cultivated with horse or 
hand hoes ; weeds and volunteer rice are removed, and in some 
cases an intermediate flooding is made to protect the plants from 
grubs. When the plants begin to joint the harvest flow is turned on 
and this is kept almost touching the rice heads until their bending tells 
that the grain is ripe. The field is then drained for harvest 

The quantit)'- of water required for irrigation is not looked into, but 
it is probable that here, as in many other places, the fault of over-irri- 
gation is a common one. The supply from tidal streams is almost 
unlimited, and the whole question of water rights is never brought up 
as there are none. 

Harvesting machinery is not used, the grain being cut with hand 
hook or sickle. The beds in the field are narrow and usually small, to 
permit of complete drainage, and this would entail much breaking 
down of the grain and subsequent waste if a harvester were used. The 
grain is cut before it is dead ripe, or while the lower eighth of the head 
is still "in the milk," for if cutting is delayed until the head is quite 
ripe, there is much loss from the shelling out in handling. A high 
stubble is left, on which the grain cures for a day or two, when it ia 
placed in shocks after being put up in straw-bound sheaves. As soon 
as possible, in order to avoid loss from storms, the grain is taken to the 
threshing-houses. These are permanent structures, one on each plan- 
tation, built on the bank of a stream or tidal canal, where tugs and 
lighters can get the rice to take it to market. The milling is a com- 
plicated process for, after threshing, the rice or "paddy" still has twa 
coverings - a coarse outer husk and a thin close skin. These are taken 
off by special processes, and the different products — bran, flour, grain, 
and chaff — separated. In addition to this, the commercial article is 
always polished to give the grain the smooth, pearly appearance, which 
artificially enhances its market value, but detracts from the real food 
value. 

Irkigation of Eice in Louisiana and Texas. 

The rice of the Gulf States is now grown mainly on the uplands,- 
and does not depend on tidal irrigation. With the use of modem 
methods and machinery, tlie industry has developed into a leading one 
in these two states, while it has declined in the Carolinas and 
Greorgia. 

During the last fifty years, however, rice production in the United 



179 

States has grown but little, and only the present time sees any great 
advance in production over the crop in 1850, for the decline in the 
Atlantic States has offset the advance in the Grulf States. It is possi- 
ble that the former may adopt some of the methods of use in the latter 
and thus regain the prestige held before the civil war, but until they 
do so they cannot easily compete with improved machinery at home or 
cheap labour abroad. The production could and should be doubled, as^ 
we now produce less than half of the rice consumed in this country, 
and the use of rice as a staple article of food is constantly increasing. 

Acadian success with Providence rice, intermittent as crops were, 
showed that, with proper methods of cultivation and irrigation, 
Louisiana was particularly fitted for this crop. At first, the only at- 
tempt at irrigation was the raising of levees above the rice fields ta 
reserve some of the heavy rainfall, instead of allowing it to waste into- 
the bayous. When water was needed to flood the fields, the levees 
were cut and the water allowed to flow on the plants, but in dry 
seasons this method of irrigation was worthless, and something more 
dependable had to be devised. Later it was discovered that upland 
soil was especially suited to the growing of rice, good crops being ob- 
tained in wet seasons, and it became only a matter of getting water tO' 
them when large areas could be cultivated and the industry could fur- 
nish a profitable commercial venture, worthy of the enlistment of 
capital. 

The introduction of the steam -pump furnished the impetus which 
was needed. After some failures with pumps of wrong type or limited 
capacity, large centrifugal pumps were introduced to raise the water 
from bayous to canals From these canals the water was pumped di- 
rectly on the fields, and the problem was practically solved. 

Yet there were a number of local conditions which made irrigation 
very different from what it was elsewhere. For example, it might be 
said that the only point of similarity between the Louisiana rice canal 
and the irrigation canal of the western States is that both are filled 
with water for the purpose of irrigation. Beyond that the comparisons 
are contrasts, to use a Hibernianism. For instance, water flows in the 
western ditch and stands at a level in the rice canal ; the source of 
supply in the west is above the fields to be irrigated, and below it in 
Louisiana ; the canal of the west is dug below the surface of the land 
through which it passes, while the rice canal is built up on the surface 
of the ground, and on the highest ground to be had ; the western 
canal holds water poorly, losing much through seepage through the 
soil, and the levees of the rice canal are impervious. 

The proper construction of the§e levees, however, is of prime impor- 
tance. The surface of the ground upon which the levees are to rest 
must be absolutely clour of all vegetation, and must then be ploughed 
and pulverized, so that the earth embankment placed above will make 
a good " joint." To aid in this, deep furrows are ploughed in the 
foundation earth, and the levee banks are built up firmly and of good 
material. This has to be done to prevent devastating breaks, as some 
of the canals are so large that they appear to be rivers of no inconsid- 
erable size. Indeed, it is proposed to navigate some of them with 
lighters and barges for ihe transportation of "paddy" from the 
threshers to the mills which turn out the finished product. For 



180 

-examples of the great size of these canals, we have the Eagle Lake 
Rice Irrigation canal, 17 miles long and 200 feet wide ; The Trespa- 
lacios canal, 4| miles long and 200 feet wide, and the Treadway canal, 
25 miles long and 220 feet wide. Another canal, now under construc- 
tion, will be 56 miles long and 175 feet wide. 

Owing to the fact that these canals are practically on a level and 
have no current in many cases, they are subject to obstruction through 
the o-rowth of water weeds, and these constitute a serious menace to 
the usefulness of the smaller ditches, unless the growths are removed. 

The water in these canals all has to be pumped, and in most cases 
from bayous which are below the sea-level, on to lands which lie as 
hio-h as 70 feet above. For such a raise it is necessary in most places 
to have several lifts, the first one being from the bayou or stream, and 
the others at intermediate points along the canal. The pumps are of 
two types only, both suction pumps, however — the centrifugal and 
rotary. The former is the more popular, as it does not need direct 
connection with the propelling machinery, being run by belt or rope 
transmission. The rotary pumps, when properly established, should 
be more efficient than the centrifugal, and as they are run much mOre 
slowly, there is less wear and tear ; but the increased cost of installa- 
tion, owing to the necessity for permanent and strong foundations, 
limits their use. Boilers and engines are of varied patterns, but any 
that are good will serve the purpose. 

Fuel is of three kinds- coal, wood and oil. Of these, coal is the 
most expensive and oil the cheapest and most convenient to handle. 
Wood can be had near at hand, as most of the bayous are in heavily 
wooded districts ; but the cost of labour brings the price above that of 
fuel oil, which is delivered from the nearby Texas oil fields at a low 
rate. In Texas particularly, where much of the irrigation is from 
artesian wells, crude oil is the most important factor in the fuel and 
power question. 

From the canals the water is distributed over the fields through 
measuring flumes, and is held at different levels in the sloping field by 
means of low levees, over which the water may flow until all the levels 
are flooded. Planters are now making these levees in the fields very 
flat and with gradual slopes, so that they interfere but little with the 
cultivable surface of the ground and allow the passage of the reaper 
and binder for harvesting. Since the water rises to the tops of these 
field levees, almost an average crop of rice is raised on thera, and the 
fact that they can be cultivated and harvested makes it possible to 
keep out the weeds and red rice. 

The application of water to the crop differs in some particulars from 
irrigation on the Atlantic coast. In the first place, the Louisiana 
farmers depend on early rains to start the crop, and need no flooding 
to protect the grain from birds, since the reed-bird orbob-o-link is not 
the pest in Louisiana and Texas that it is in the Carolinas and Georgia. 
The first growth of the crop, or until the plants are from six to ten 
inches high, is made without artificial application of water, but after 
that the fields are kept flooded until within ten days of harvest time, 
when the levees are cut, and the water drains off rapidly by means of 
ditches provided for that purpose, leaving the ground dry enough to 
permit the use of the reaper and binder. As the harvesting machinery 



181 

is similar to that used elsewhere for wheat, so also is the threshing' 
outfit. Mills are large and form an industry by themselves, not being 
in any way connected with the separate plantations, as is the case in 
the Carolinas. 

Several things will have to be done before the rice industry of 
Louisiana and Texas will be placed on as good a basis as that of the 
Atlantic seaboard in the matter of water supply. At present magni- 
ficent operations are going on, and great ventures are being pushed 
forward under state and national sanction. At present in many locali- 
ties the bayou supplies are being overdrawn, that many acres have had 
to be abandoned on account of Inck of water, and in some instances 
brackish water has backed up from the sea because the bayou supplies 
have been so depleted. There seems to be no recognition of water 
rights on some of these supply streams and bayous, and as a conse- 
quence there are too many pumping plants on some, all of them being 
supplied in dry seasons. In Texas where artesian irrigation is used to 
a greater extent, the flow can be readily measured, the duty of water 
calculated, and only enough ground planted to be sufficiently irrigated ; 
but development for the present threatens to be too rapid for present 
institutions to keep pace with it, and some radical departures will have 
to be made to secure all water needed and to protect users in their 
rights to that water. 

THE STORY OF THE PAP AW. 

By F. B. Kilmer.* 

" The slim papaya ripens its yellow fruit for thee." — Bryant. 

Grant Allen tells us that no plant can be properly understood apart 
from its native place. Therefore we begin our study of the Carica 
Papaya in its tropical home. 

The Carica Papaya is accredited as indigenous in Central America. 
Observations and correspondence lead me lo conclude that it has be- 
come acclimated in the hot regions of three continents. The zone of 
most abundant growth seems to lie between the isothermal lines of 77° 
wherever soil and rainfall are favourable. It is grown by cultivation 
north and south of these lines. (The papaw is seen as far north as 
Jacksonville, Fla., and in Southern California). 

In these tropical lands, where every tree or plant has its peculiar 
legends and myths, the views of the natives upon plant life are con- 
sidered unscientific and valueless, but I have found that, when stripped 
of the terms of superstition, some of their observations, compared with 
our scientific knowledge, are not far apart. Their app;;rent veneration 
for trees and plants is based upon intimate association wherein 
they have come to a knowledge that plants eat, drink, marry, propa- 
gate, care for their offspring, and bestow blessings or curses upon all 
living things, including man. This is about all that anybody can 
know about them. 

Many trees are famous in these lands, none more so than the papaw.- 
Conflicting stories as to its powers and properties are due somewhat 



•Reprinted from the " American Journal of Pharmacy." 



182 

largely to tlie fact that different species or variations in species 
possessing varying characteristics, are found in these localities. 

Quite universal is the knowledge of the unique property that has 
given to this tree its world-wide fame, viz. : the power of its milky 
i'uice to soften and dissolve tough meat. The statement has passed 
current in our journals that the emanations from this tree will dissolve 
and digest albumin, and that it is the custom of natives to hang meat 
and chickens in the branches of a tree to render them tender and edible. 
The natives often go further than this : they state that if male animals 
browse under the papaw tree; they thereby become emasculated. If 
we compare this statement with the alleged property of the roots as a 
generative tonic, we shall have a marvellous combination of an aphro- 
disiac and an anaphrodisiac in the same plant. 

It is needless to urge that such stories are exaggerations of the 
pepsin-like properties of the fruit. 

The native uses of the papaw are numerous and varied. The bark 
is used in the manufacture of ropes ; the fruit is edible, and according 
to local conditions, may be sweet, refreshing and agreeable, or in other 
localities it is sickly, sweet «nd insipid. The fruits find a large con- 
sumption by the natives, and are considered very nutritious. 

At the corner of a sugar-cane field where the ragged canes bend 
over in a wild green, brown and yellow tangle, there will be standing 
a papaw tree, and if the time of the papaw tree has quite come, be- 
neath the tree will be assembled a halt dozen negroes. 

The ripe fruit is eaten as we eat melons. Salt enhances the flavour 
and some users add sugar. The melons must be perfectly ripe when 
eaten raw, as the green fruit contains a strongly marked acrid prin- 
ciple. The colour of the ripe fruit is more or less that of our very yel- 
low musk-melon. The sweetness of its resinous, pulpy, juice clings to 
the tongue and remains prevalent for some hours'. 

The natives enjoy the flavour, while the stranger has to acquire the 
liking. Excellent, preserves are made of the ripe fruit, which, for this 
purpose, is boiled down in sugar and candied (like citron). 

At the sugar-houses slices of the papaw are often seen seething in 
hot sj'rup. The slices of melon combined with some acid fruit is made 
into native tarts, which artieles correspond more or less to what we 
call " pies." The fruit is also stewed and served on the table. The 
green fruit is made into plain and spiced pickles, which are highly 
^fisteemed. 

The fruit, just before ripening, is peeled and sliced, macerated in 
cold water, with frequent changes of water for some hours ; the then 
macerated fruit is dropped into boiling water, boiled sharply and 
then served as a vegetable. 

In every tropical village one will find a market-place set apart 
where the native products are bought and sold, and in such a place by 
the roadside, under the shade, are the market women ; in their quaint 
baskets or bowls, the traveller finds an astonishing and puzzling va- 
riety of green and yellow coloured fruits and vegetables. The papaw 
is always there in abundance, and a most frequent cry of the sellers 
is " Aqui estan las Mameo," or " Ca qui ule papay ca qui ule" 

As an article of food one finds the papaw prepared in a score of 
ways making a variety of edible dishes, which, from the native stand- 



x83 

point, would be expressed in our language, as " wondrous and nutri- 
tious delicacies." 

A plant so universally distributed and possessed with such varied 
properties, naturally takes an important place in the native materia 
medica. In the native parlance " it makes him much well." 

The seeds are reputed as anthelmintic^ and eramenagogue, they 
are also used as a thirst quencher, form component parts of a drink 
used in fevers, as well as being used as a carminative. Syrups, wines 
and elixirs made from the ripe fruit are expectorant, sedative and 
tonic. 

A malady which the natives call the " cocoa bag," is a troublesome 
tropical disease, reputed to be hereditary and contagious ; at all events 
it seems to lurk in the blood of persons of otherwise apparently good 
health and habits. Suddenly the victim becomes a mass of offensive 
sores, debilitated, etc. The native doctors add the papaw fruit to the 
diet drinks used in this disease, and succeed in moderating its violence, 
at least. To the sores a paste made with the papaw milk as one of the 
constituents is also applied. 

The slijiht pimples accompanying the first stages of the yaws soon 
spread into ulcerous sores that cover the entire body. Here, too, the 
claim is made that a slice of the papaw rubbed over the pimples will 
abort them. It is also claimed that the ulcers may be cleaned in a 
similar fashion. 

I witnessed a most striking cleansing of a black foot in which the 
chiga had bored and laid its eggs, producing a mass of foulness be- 
yond description. Here a paste of the papaw milk was pushed into 
the seething mass and kept there for fortv-eight hours. It was then 
;flushed, curetted, and antiseptics were applied. A clean wound which 
readily healed resulted. 

The green leaves or slices of the green fruit of thepqpaw are rubbed 
over soiled and spotted clothes, and by its power of dissolving stains 
papaw has acquired the name of " melon bleach." The leaves or a 
portion of the fruit are steeped in water and the treated water is used 
in washing coloured clothing, especially black, the colors are cleaned 
up and held fast. 

The seeds are eaten as a delicacy. They have quite an agreeable 
taste, something of the order ot the water-cress and a piquancy slightly 
suggestive of the mustard family. Macerated ■ in vinegar they are 
served as a condiment.''^ 

The strange and beautiful races of the Antilles astonish the eyes of 
the traveller who sees them for the first time. It has been said that 
they have taken their black, brown and olive and yellow skin tints 
from the satiny and bright hued rinds of the fruit which surround 
them. If they are to be believed, the mystery of their clear, clean 
.complexions and exquisite pulp-like flesh arises from the use of the 
papaw fruit as a cosmetic. A slice of the ripe fruit is rubbed over the 

iThe anthelmintic properties residing in both the seed and juice have beau 
noted by various authorities. 

2The seeds are encased in a slimy coating and advantage is taken of thia by 
the younger generation, who spread them out on a board, and by this menus form 
a " slide," which corresponds with the frozen gutters so agreeable to our northern 
urchins. 



184^ 

skin and is said to dissolve spare flesh and remove every blemish. It is 
a toilet requisite in use by the young and old, producing, according ta 
the words of a French writer, " the most beautiful specimens of the 
human race " 

The papaw has been brought to America as a cure for the national 
disease, dyspepsia. In its tropical home there are no dyspeptics, but 
its use along similar lines is by no means unknown. 

The meat in these countries is tough and tasteless , beef, mutton, 
pork, or fowl have the same flavour, and are as tough as hickory 
wood ; boiling until they fall to pieces does not render them any 
more tender, they simply change from solid wood to fine tough splin- 
ters. 

One reason for this is that in this climate meat must be eaten im- 
mediately after slaughter. (It often reaches the pot in an hour after 
killing.) The papaw helps to overcome this. Rubbed over tough 
meat it will render it soft and change a piece of apparent leather to a 
tender, juicy steak. It is put into the pot with meat, enters into 
cereals, soups, stews, and other dishes, and they are made at least more 
edible and digestible. 

Most of the half-breeds of Indian extraction upon the South Ameri- 
can Continent and adjacent islands are particularly given to meat diet; 
many of them eat it raw,^ sometimes in a state of partial decay, and 
here the papaw is brought into use, being eaten with the flesh or 
rubbed over it before it is eaten. 

Some of these people are great gluttons ; they gorge themselves 
until the skin on their distended stomach is stretched to its utmost. 
It is certain that no human being could digest the kind of food and tho 
enormous amount?! they consume without the kindly aid of the papaw 
fruit to assist digestion. 

NAMES AND CHARACTERISTICS. 

The botanical characteristics of this family having been more or less 
completely described by various authors, need not here be repeated. 
Of the many species the following are edible : Carica caulifiora, C. 
pyriformis, C microcarpa, C. integrifolia, G. Papaya and C. querci- 
folia. 

The Carica digitata is credited with poisonous emanations, and its 
juice is actively poisonous, causing pustulation when applied to the 
flesh. 

The Carica Papaya is designated by different names in the various 
localities where found. For instance, in Mexico " lechoso," in Brazil 
" papai," " maneo" and " mamerio"; in Paraguay, " mamon."* 

Here, too, the term "jacarata" (chakarateca) is applied to the Carica 
Papaya, as well as to several trees of the same natural order. In Yu- 
catan the native uncultivated variety is designated as " chich put," or 
little papaya, while the cultivated is simply " put." The Spaniards 
designated the original species as " papaya los pajaros" or " bird pa- 

^In Bolivia and Paraguay it is a very common sight at the railway stations 
to see raw meat peddled out in chunks to passengers. 

4 In Brazil the uncultivated plant is designated as "mameo-femeo". the culti- 
vated form of the same as "mameo-meleo ;" the hermaphrodite plant * 'meneco- 
macho." — (Rusby.) 



185 

paya." The term "papaw," though sometimes applied to several 
species, almost universally means the Carica Papaya. 

Among the names by which botanists have designated this plant 
are the following : Papaya fructu melopeponis, Tournefort ; Papaya 
Carica, Gaertn ; P. lyatira, Tuss ; P. vulgaris, A. D. 0. ; P. Orientales 
Col. ; Carica Papaya, L. : C. Maniaya, Yell. 

The Carica Papaya may, in brief, be described as follows : 

A single, supple, slim, straight stalk, terminating in a group of 
large leaves which are arranged in the form of an umbrella, branch- 
ing only when its growth is interfered with. Cultivated plants attain 
the height of from ] to 30 feet ; wild varieties push up to 60 or even 
to 100 feet. Near the base of mature trees the diameter ranges from 6 
inches to 1 foot. In a j'oung plant the stalks consist of a cellular 
pith filled with water ; in a matured tree that portion of the trunk 
immediately under the bark is fibrous for a few inches, followed by a 
soft inner layer of an inch or more, terminating in the central portion 
which is hollow. At intervals through the hollow centre are seen 
iiicmbranous tissues dividing the cavities into sections, and in the 
rainy season, for a considerable height up the trunk, this central ca- 
vity is filled with water. The wood of the papaw is soft, white and 
spongy ; cuts easier than a potato ; is full of water, decays rapidly, 
and is not useful for any purpose. The trunk is covered with a gray 
(green at the top) smooth, tough bark laid on in folds, which at inter- 
vals form ringes. 

A large turnip-shaped tap root reaches down to seek nourishment 
and to give stability to the tree. These roots are similiar in structure 
to the trunk, except for a white bark, and possess an odour of cabbage 
and a peculiar taste suggesting radishes. The leaf stems are large 
and hollow, cylindrical toward the leaf and flattened at the point 
where they join with the stalk. The leaves are large palm-lobed, with 
somewhat deep indentations, dark green on the upper and light green 
on the under side They are short-lived and, as the tree shoots up- 
ward, they drop off, leaving scarry marks in the bark of the tree 
trunk. 

The locality where grown, as well as the effects of cultivation, 
modify the character of this plant, hence we find on record varying 
descriptions and statements. Among the notable varieties of the Ca- 
rica Papaya are the green and violet. The latter species which has 
had considerable attention paid to it, is the one most highly esteemed 
for cultivation, but does not attain great height. The stalk and limb 
portion of the leaves are violet colour. The fruit is large, often 
weighing as high as 20 pounds, and when ripe is very sweet. While 
young the trees are kept shady, and pruned to prevent their growing 
tall. To encourage fruit, portions of the flowers are picked off ; the 
smaller fruits are removed when green, so that the remainder will 
grow larger and stronger. By cultivation a dwarf variety (*'lechoso 
enana") is produced. The green Carica grows to greater height than 
the purple ; its fruits are smaller and possess a less agreeable flavour. 
The three forms of flower present in the papaw are, according to the 
native description, classified as varieties. The so-called female trees 
bear only fruiting flowers and produce the largest fruit and the 
greatest numbers. These flowers are single, with a yellow (or purple) 



n86 

corolla with five sessile petals, growing in considerable numbers at tlie 
apex of the stalk, which rapidly pushes upward and puts out new 
leaf stems. The fruit development is so rapid that buds, flowers, 
green and ripe fruit are often seen at the same time. The male 
flowers are born on hanging stems, ranging from 6 inches to 1 foot or 
more in length (hence the " hanging papaw"), and may be whits, 
bright yellow, sometimes tinged with purple, often developing con- 
siderable fragrance. The hanging stems in older trees bear fruiting 
flowers and present a somewhat curious sight. The fruit of the hang- 
ing papaw is not large, but is very sweet. The fruits vary considera- 
bly in form as well as in size. They are orange shaped, squash -like or 
quite resembling the cocoa pod ; again, they resemble musk-melons, 
and in the highly cultivated variety water melon shapes are seen. 
The fruits are green (or purplish cast) turning yellow when ripe. 

The skin of the melon is smooth and thin. Before ripening the 
greater bulk of the latex lies just under this skin. The flesh of the 
green fruit is white, tough and watery. As the fruit ripens it turns 
to a musk-melon yellow, with a thickness of about 1| inches ending 
in a central cavity which is filled with seeds attached to and held toge- 
ther with a delicate membrane, which constitutes the inner skin of the 
fruit. 

The seeds when fresh are dark brown, changing to black on drying. 
Before dessication their outer membranous coating is transparent and 
slippery ; the inner coating is hard, horny and wrinkled, and between 
these two coatings lies a mucilaginous substance containing myrosin. 
Within the inner shell lies the leaf-like cotyledons, veined at the base 
with an albuminous homotropal embryo with a roundish radicle easily 
distinguished when slightly magnified. 

The seeds when dried resemble pepper. They are aromatic, pungent 
piquant but not as sharp as mustard, their taste slightly suggesting 
water cress. 

CULTIVAVION AND GrOW^TH. 

It is quite common for numerous papaw plants to spring up from 
seeds scattered by the birds over a portion of land which, according to 
tropical custom, has been cleared by burning away the trees and under- 
growth. There are no forests of papaws because the plants need sun 
and room. They are seldom seen among dense growths. They do not 
propagate in clusters. For the most part they are the product of culti- 
vation, and near every hut are carefully guarded groups from two to 
six in number.^ 

They present a striking appearance with their straight slim, shiny 
stalk ; their bright green umbrella tops towering above a wilderness 
of flower-sprinkled verdure. Most beautiful specimens are seen in such 
a place, their base covered with a tangled undergrowth of trailing, 
climbing vines. Their roots are kept moist by fallen leaves ; and en- 
riched by nuts and fruits that fall and rot among the masses of forage 
and litter so abundant in tropical gardens. 

(5) This has particular refereuce to the habits of the Carica Papaya. Certain 
varieties such as the Carica quercifolia, V. microcarpa, etc., are sometimea found 
in the dense forests. 



187 



The only cultivation they can possibly receive must come from a 
little house waste promiscuously thrown from the hut, the browsing of 
the ever present dogs, asses and ^oats. But under these conditions 
fruiting is generally abundant. They exhibit somewhat the charac- 
teristics of the melon tribe. The young plants are exceedingly sensi- 
tive and tender; under slight adverse conditions they succumb and 
die. 6 

A place where it never rains but always pours seems best suited to 
the papaw. My records show the most thrifty trees in spots where it 
rains nearly every day in the year ; pouring, soaking rains with a 
fierce, bright sun shining all through the downpour. After the rain 
come the insects, lizards, centipedes and other creeping things that 
delve among the roots and climb up the stalk of the papaw and do the 
real cultivation The plant will not flourish in swampy nor sandy soil, 
and seems to be at its best in the rich humua of the hillside.^ 

It grows at the edge of the sea with the waves washing the roots, 
luxuriates in the high mountain plateaus in all of the windward and 
leeward islands; it flourishes but does not attain to any great height 
on the bare coral rocks of Yucatan. In parts of Peru it grows proli- 
fically without much cultivation or care and it is reported that in the 
Transandine regions it reaches a height of over one hundred feet.^ 

In some localities the plant begins to grow fruit in seven months ; 
in others eighteen to twenty months from the seed. Usually its life 
is rather short, two to three years being the maximum fruit-bearing 
period. (A rare specimen was observed which was eighteen years old, 
and was iDearing one to two fruits each year.) The fruiting of the 
papaw is abundant From two to three hundred have been gathered 
in a season from a wild tree, in size varying from an inch in diameter 

(6) Professor Rusby (" Carica Papaya," Druggists^ Bulletin) has stated that this 
tree " can be propagated and grown with great readiness; that its vitality is so 
great that it is with difficulty destroyed until its natural course has been run." 
Six years' observation has convinced me that it is exceedingly difficult of cultiva- 
tion, and that the cultivated trees are most easily destroyed by adverse conditions. 

(7) The following is an incomplete analysis of a plot in Jamaica on which were 
several fine specimens of the papaw : 

Water (in air-dry sample) , « . 

Volatile matter ., * 



6.02 
20.12 
32.72 
10.62 

1.00 
.52 



Silica 

Lime (as oxide) . 

Magnesia, (oxide) • 

Potash (oxide; 

Sodium, trace 

Magnesia, trace » 

Aluminum (and iron) , • 8.64 

Carbonates (C0)2 ., . . 5.81 

Phosphoric acid v" • . 10.20 

Sulphates, trace 

(8) In Venezuela thrifty specimens are cultivated in the sandy soil of the 
ravines. There is here, however, a rainfall averaging one metre per annum and 
the climate is veiy equable. 



188 

to that of a base-ball. The cultivated plants yield from twelve to sixty 
fruits, weighing from five to twenty pounds each.^ 

It is reported that in Brazil, in the French Colonies in Algiers, and 
in the Island of Keunion, successful and extensive cultivations have 
been carried on. In the Island of Montserrat a large acreage under 
cultivation was some three years ago, destroyed by a tornado . , . The 
wild plants do not seem to be attacked by disease except after injury, 
but the cultivated plants seem very susceptible to every sort of malady. 
Insects attack the tender leaves of the young plants, and they wither. 
Fungi and bacteria find here a suitable soil. 

After fruiting, and especially if the fruits are bled, the tree will 
take on a general debility and become the prey of every adverse cir- 
cumstance. One large field was entirely eradicated by a disease or 
diseases which the natives attributed to attacks of the " macaca 
worm/'^'^ In my opinion, the trouble arose from the inherent weak- 
ness of the cultivated plant in its alterered environment, which ren- 
dered it susceptible to attacks of beetles and insects of various kinds 

In another series of plantings conducted with still more careful pre- 
paration of the ground and selection of seeds, coupled with care for the 
young plants, there was a record of a smiill proportion of plants coming 
to maturity, and of these only a meagre part bore fruit. None of the 
plants or their fruits were as large as those of the parent stock. All 
of these efforts were accompanied by phases which were puzzling and 
embarrassing. 

The variations in plant life which one sees and hears of in these re- 
gions are somewhat interesting. It is stated that the shaddock con- 
tains thirty-two seeds, only two of which will produce shaddocks ; the 
remaining thirty will yield sweet oranges, bitter oranges, forbidden- 
fruit, good oranges and bad oranges, and until the trees are in full 
bearing no one can guess what the harvest will be. The seeds of 
the mango selected from the finest fruit and cultivated with care, will 
rarely produce anything approaching the parent stock. In fact no 
two trees of the mango seem te resemble each other. The papaw is 
likewise very prone to variation. Seeds selected wi'h extreme care 
from flourishing trees, the fruit of which would weigh fifteen pounds, 
upon being plunted would in part follow the parent stock, other por- 
tions would revert to the wild prototype and yield fruit the size of a 
hen's egg, 

gThe best method of planting papaw s is to raise the young plants in beds and 
as soon as they are three inches high transplant them into bamboo joints, in 
which they can be kept until they are 9 inches high, when they can be trans- 
planted to the open ground. In dry districts they will require abundant water- 
ing, irrigation twice or thrice a week being absoluetly necessary. In wet places 
they can be grown with little or no water. Papaws require good, rich, deep soil, 
and good cultivation, even then, many of the plants, just as they should com- 
mence to bear, suddenly fail, the plants cease to grow, the young leaves turn yel- 
low and fail off. — (Wm. Fawcett, Bulletin Botanical Department, Jamaica.) 

10 The term "macaca worm" in the tropics is applied to the larvae of various 
beetles which feed upan plants that are undergoing oecay. I supposed that 
plants already diseased were the only ones affected, and that the ravages of these 
larvse hastened decay. At the present writing these larvae are reported as doing 
great injury to the logwood trees. 



189 

Tn some of the fruits of the papaw the seeds numbe r five, in others 
prodigal nature supplies over five hundred, apparently only a few of 
these seeds are fertile. When a native desires a single tree, be buries 
two or three such fruits in the ground, and at most two or three plants 
are the result After continued experiment it was found that seeds 
taken from the central portion of the largest and finest fruits were the 
most likely to be fertile, and would give more encouraging results 
The proper adjustment of the sexes in trop'cal soil is difficult and 
exasperating. 

The papaw is much like the nutmeg in its vagaries of sex relation. 
It is grnerally agreed that for fertilization one male to ten female 
plants is the proper ratio, but until the trees arrive at the blossoming 
stage (five years in the case of the nutmeg) the male cannot be dit-tin- 
guisbed from the female. Oue can imagine the dismay of the culti- 
vator who finds at the end of all his toil and waiting that he has a 
plantation of male non-fruit-beaiing instead of the coveted female, or 
fruit-bearing plants. I have records of numerous instances where 
acres of ground were planted with thousands of papaw plants in which 
the males were in the majority of over fifteen to one. 

This constantly recurring disproportion of the sexes suggests that 
in cultivation we were so changing environment as to cause a perver- 
sion of the sexes, resulting in a race of non-fruit bearers. 

Methods of artificial fertilization and budding, such as is followed 
in the propagation of melons and oranges, are now in the experimental 
stage. 



CONTAGIOUS SKIN DISEASES OF THE HORSE.* 

By Dr. Theiler. 

Prevalence of Skin Diseases. 

One of the most striking results of the importation of a large num- 
ber of horses from foreign countries has been the appearjince of skin 
diseases, hardly ever met with in this country previous to the war. 

ISkin diseases have spread in an alarming way, and are now very 
common. They are very troublesome and sometimes hard to cure, 
and have caused the death of many valuable animals, losses which can 
only be attributed to a weakening of the system and the emaciation of 
the subjects. 

Mange. 

These diseases are commonly known by the common name of Mange ; 
they are not always the actual Mange, but at the present time it is 
certainly the most prevalent disease. 

The expression " mange" includes all skin diseases caused by a small 
parasite, belonging to the class of Arachnoidea related very closely to 
the tick family, one well known to every inhabitant of South Africa. 

* From the Transvaal Agricultural Journal, Vol. I. No. 3. April 1903. 



'190 

Parasites of Mange. 
The mange parasites belong to the genus Acarina, and are known 
to exist on the horses in three species, namely : — 

(1) Sarcoptes. 

(2) Dermatocoptes. 

(3) Dermatopbagus. 

They are very minute creatures, and can only be properly recognized 
by the microscope ; by the naked eye they are just, seen as a very 
small speck. Under the microscope the male can be distinguished 
from the female. 

In the abdomen of the latter, eggs of a relatively large size may be 
seen — a female can deposit from 15 to 25 of these. 

The hatching period lasts from three to seven days. The young 
acarinae, called larvae, then leave the egg. 

They move about on three pairs of legs ; on reaching the state of 
nymphae they have four pairs of legs ; and from that stage in a fort- 
night's time they become mature. 

Eate of Increase. 

The following calculation may show in what an alarming proportion 
the descendants of a single Sarcoptes female can increase. Let us 
suppose that one mature female produces ten young females and five 
young males, these produce a fortnight later the same number, viz., a 
{Sarcoptes grandmotber has after a lapse of 30 days fully 150 offsprings. 
These will produce after 30 days some 10,000 descendants, and in 
three months we arrive, following the same proportion, at the enor- 
mous number of over one million Acarinae. 

This may sufficiently explain how quickly the disease can spread, 
and, when neglected, how soon a number of animals can be found in a 
very short time to be affected by the disease. 

Difficult to Destroy. 

These Acarinae are very tough parasites, and not always easily 
destroyed. In moist places, amongst manure, for instance, they can 
live as long as eight weeks ; in dry surroundin2;8 from two to six 
weeks. Eggs of Acarinae in similar conditions live respectively two 
to four weeks and four to six days. 

This shows that any place occupied by a horse suffering from mange 
may remain infected for a considerable time. 

The three different species of Acarinae above mentioned do not 
exist at all in the same conditions, but their results are practically the 
same. 

According to the seat of the disease, the mange can sometimes be 
recognised without the help of the microscope. 

Sarcoptes Mange. 

The Sarcoptes dig real tunnels in the skin.andlay their eggs there ; 
these, as they develop, go on with the digging process, and in so doing 
cause a severe inflammation of the skin. 

This is especially noticeable on the head, neck, and shoulders of the 
animal, which are the first to be affected, but the disease may start on 
any part of the body. 

The first symptoms are small spots devoid of hair ; these increase 
in circumference, and very soon join each other. In these spots can 



191 

be seen small nodules or vesicles, whicli change into scab ; the skin 
then becomes thickened, wrinkled, and drawn into folds, which gives 
it the appearance of a rhinoceros hide. 

The affected parts become itchy, especially when the animal feels 
the heat and in trying to relieve this itching by rubbing or biting the 
sore parts, raw places very soon appear on the skin, and the inflamma- 
tion becomes general. At this stage mange is very easily recognised, 
but at the very start of the disease and when there are only a few 
hairless spots, it is not readily detected. 

All doubt can, however, be removed when the itching begins ; the 
Sarcoptes are then sure to be present. 

All horses suffering from mange are very fond of being scratched, 
and show their appreciation of such an act by moving their lips. 

From these notes it is evident that if neglected, mange caused by 
Sarcoptes, easily becomes an obstinate disease, since the Acarinae, be- 
ing so deep in the skin, are not always easy to reach. Thus the sooner 
treatment is started the better will be the chance of success. 

This disease may be transmitted to human beings. 

Dermatocoptes Mange. 

This parasite differs from the Sarcoptes, in that it lives on the sur- 
face of the skin, and derives its nourishment from the blood and 
lymph. 

It generally begins by attacking the base of the mane, the tail, the 
throat, or the sheath, udder, and the soft parts in the inside of the 
legs. This kind of mange does not, as a rule, spread over a large 
surface, but remains on circumscribed spots. 

The bite of the Dermatocoptes causes a local irritation, producing a 
nodule, out of which oozes a sticky liquid, which in drying forms a 
scab ; at the same time a desquamation (forming scales) of the skin 
and a falling out of the hair takes place, producing a well-defined spot 
whereby the disease can be located. 

These scales and scabs remain and stick together, forming a bark- 
like surface under which the skin is thickened, assuming the appear- 
ance of tanned leather. The irritation thus caused induces the animal 
to rub itself whenever it can, and very soon the skin becomes very 
much inflamed and breaks into sores. 

Whenever the Sarcoptes or Dermatocoptes mange spreads over the 
body, it will become very difficult to recognise the one from the other. 
It is only as long as the different forms keep to the seat of their pre- 
dilection that it is possible to diagnose whether the disease is caused 
by Sarcoptes or by Dermatocoptes. 

It is evident from the superficial seat of the Dermatocoptes that 
this parasite is much easier to destroy than the deeper seated Sar- 
coptes. 

Dermatophagus Mange. 

This parasite is mostly observed on a horse's legs usually about the 
fetlock, where the symptoms are very much the same as what has 
been described as being caused on the body by the other two Acarinae. 

This form of the mange very seldom reaches the body, and general- 
ly remains on the limbs, sometimes reaching the elbow joint on the 
forelegs or the hock on the hind legs. 



,192 

It usually takes months to develop and to be seen ; when a horse 
starts pawing the ground, kicking or biting the limbs without any 
apparent reason, then it will be well to investigate closely into the 
cause. 

Treatment. 

The object of tbe treatment is to kill the Acarinae and their eggs. 

Without Acarinae no mange is possible; for this purpose many 
remedies are used ; and cheap and effective ones are found within 
easy reach : 

Carbolic acid, creolin, lozal, benzine, paraffin, tar, tobacco, sulphur, 
soft soap, and caustic soda are all to be recommended. 

The treatment at the beginning should aim at the softening of the 
scabs with either soft soap, caustic soda, oil or fat. Soft soap can be 
simply rubbed into the skin and allowed to remain there for 24 hours. 
Caustic soda and carbonate of soda should be usei in solution in the 
proportion 1-50 to 100 water (1 part of caustic soda to 60 or 100 
parts of water.) 

The oils and fats should be well rubbed in, and a second application 
given next day if possible. It will be found advantageous to mix the 
oil with paraffin or with carbolic acid, creosote or creoline, in the pro- 
portion 1-20 to 30. 

After 24 hours the whole body should be well washed with warm 
water and soap, and the parasiticid mixture should then be well rubbed 
in, and allowed to act for at least six days ; then the process should 
be repeated. 

Parasite Destroyer. 

The parasiticid mixture consists of either paraffin and oil in the pro- 
portions as above, tar and sulphur, one part of each, mixed with soft 
soap and spirits of wine — two parts of each. The different ingredients 
to be well mixed. 

Another mixture is : Carbolic acid or creosote in oil 1-20. Also 
sulphur mixed with fat, allowing 1-5 fat. Benzine mixed with oil 
1-3. Creoline with soft soap in equal parts and dissolved in spirits of 
wine four times its weight. Tar ointment 1-10. Tobacco decoction 
not stronger than 5 per cent. 

When the disease has reached a chronic state, and is not inclined to 
yield to these treatments, then it is advisable to use different medicines 
alternatively. 

When strong solutions of the above medicines are used, it is advis- 
able not to treat the whole body at once, but to use them on certain 
parts first, and continue the treatment by degrees until the whole body 
has been submitted to it. 

It will be necessary to disinfect stalls, and all articles which have 
been in contact with a mangy horse before using them either on 
healthy horses or on the horses already cured. 

[Issued 4th August, 1903.] 
Printed at the Govt. Printing Offi^ce, Kingston, Jam. 



Vol. I. SEPT. & OCT., 1903. Parts 9 & 10. 



BULLETIN 



THE 



DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



> ♦ < 



EDITED BY 



WILLIAM FA.WBTT. B.Sc, FLS. 

Director of Public Gardens and Plantations. 



-•'<-'' 



CONTENTS: 

Page. 

The Improvement of Horse-Breeding in Jamaica 193 



PRICE-Sixpence. 



A Copy will be Bupplied free to any Resident in Jamnica, who will send Name and 
Address to the Director of Public Gardens and Plantations, Kingston P.O. 



KINGSTON, JAMAICA 
HoPi Gardens. 

1903. 



•JAMAICA 



BULTjBTIN 



OF THE 



DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



Vol. I. SEPT. & OCT., 1903. Parts 9 & 10. 



THE IMPROVEMENT OF HORSE-BREEDING IN 

JAMAICA. 



Report of the Committee of Enquiry to the Board of Agri- 
culture. 



His Excellency the Goveraor in a letter to the Board of Agriculture, 
expressed his desire that the Board should formulate practical propo- 
sals for improving the horses of the island. A committee consisting 
of Messrs. C. E. DeMercado and H. A. Cousins was appointed to en- 
quire into the matter and report to the Board. 

A circular letter was drawn up an 1 sent to all the chief breeders 
and authorities on horseflesh in the island. Thirty-five detailed re- 
plies were received. Extracts from which are given below. 

They are arranged seriatim in the order of the terms of reference 
in the circular and after each is given a summary by Mr. Cousins upon 
whom in the absence of Mr. DeMercado the duties of the Committee 
devolved. 



Circular re Encouragement of Horse-Breeding in Jamaica. 

Sir, 

In accordance with the special desire of His Excellency the Gfover- 
nor, the Board of Agriculture propos-'S to formulate practical sugges- 
tions for the improvement of Horse Breeding in Jamaica. We have 
been appointed to investigate and report thereon to the Board and have 
the honour to request your valued assistance and advice 

We submit the following points of reference for your observations. 

1. Should stallions be imported ? If so, of what type or 

types ? 

2. Is it desirable to import mares ? If so, what are your prac- 

tical recommendations ? 

3. What are your opinions as to the present standard of horse- 

flesh producible in Jamaica ? 



194 

4. In what direction is it desirable to encourage the aims of 

horse-breeders ? 

5. What conclusions can be drawn from the results of the sires 

imported by the Agricultural Society ? 

6. What practical suggestions do you offer for the considera- 

tion of the Grovernmont — 

(1) for promoting better returns from our present stock 

of horseflesh : 

(2) for infusing fresh blood by judicious importations? 

7. What prospects are there for an export trade in horseflesh — 

(1) to other We>t Indian Islands: 

(2) Polo Ponies : 

(3) Mounted li fantry Remounts. 

8. What are your views as to the secondary advantages of produc- 

ing larger stock for breeding draft mules ? 

1. Should Stallions be imported ? If so, of what type or types ? 

Hon. J. y. C ALDER : I think a stout thoroughbred stallion should 
be imported, he should be sound with plenty of bone and not less than 
16 hands high. Th<?re are so few mares in Jamaica worth looking ar, 
that I think at present only one stallion is required. Ihere are several 
horses (imported) now here but they are mostly on the small side. 
The premier Blue Rock, who has always beaten any shown againsi 
him, is now gettinp^ old. 

The stallion should serve at a nominal fee, mares of not less than 

14.2 and the preference should be given to thoroughbred mares of 15 
hands and over. 

W. Gr Clark, Esq. : Yes. 1st. ; " Cleveland Bay," an average 

15.3 or 16 — horse with plenty of everything that Jamaica horses lack 
Progeny of Cleveland Bay sires should be what we ought to build up 
our remount stock from. 

2nd. A thick thoroughbred. 

W. Cradw^ick, Esq. : Yes, most decidedly. 

Robert Craig, Esq : There is little use in importing stallions of 
any type now seeing there are so very few mares of type and sub- 
stance to put them to in the Island. Thorough breds of good bone 
and substance, (not of the racing class), short legged, from 15 to 16 
hands high, and not from fancy studs, would, in my view, give the 
best results, if suitable m^res were available. The Highland Horse — 
(North of Scotland), from 14*2 to 15 hands would, with suitable 
mates, give fine weight carrying stock for hill work and draft. 

James Daly, Esq. : Yes. Thoroughbreds 15 hands and over. 

H. Gr. T. Drew, Esq. : Yes. Thoroughbred race horse of about 
15*2 with plenty of bone, round ribbed, and standing well on his feet, 
(somewhat after the build of the " Cleveland Bay.") 

The thoroughbred (race horse) crossed with almost any stamp of 
horse, produces a useful animal. 

Dr. C. R. Edwards. : Stallions should be imported 
(a.) Thoroughbreds of the heavy hunting type, 
(b.) Cobs of the Welsh Pony type. 



195 

C. A. T. FuRSDON, Esq. : A moderate number of stallions should 
be imported, great cue being taken over their selection — they should 
be kept at a Government Stock Farm and in the season visit different 
districts where arrangements might be made for them to stand for 
service under the care of a resident in the district in some such way as 
is being done with the Welsh Pony. The fee to be reasonable but 
only mares up to a certain standard to be accapted, and premiums to 
be given for the best three colts produced at 12 months old to encour- 
age early maturity. Irish Hunter type — to give fair amount of 
quality and substance but not too heavy about 15 to 15* 1 hands and 
able to do a good hard day's work whenever called upon. 

J. M. GiBB, Esq. V.S. : Yes. Cleveland Bay and light hackney. 

B. S, Gos-SRT, Esq. : I think it is desirable that stallions should be 
imported. I consider that the best type of horse to improve our draft 
horses is the Norman Trotting breed of coach stallion 

I -am attaching a photo of one now used in England I have 
seen many of them at an international horse show in Paris and was 
much struck with them. Normandy is a noted district for breeding 
London carriage horses, they cost about £90 each at 5 years old, 
nearly all the London carriage horses are imported not bred in 
England. 

H. W. Griffith, Esq. : Yes. Most certainly. 

Of two types : Thoroughbred Stallions, for those portion of the 
breeders, and public, who still hold to Racing. 

Hackney Cob Stallions, (from 14*2 h.h. : 15 h.h.) for breeders, who 
are looking to useful, all round animals (riding and draft.) 

Colonel H. E. C. Kitchener : Yes. Stout Canadian high action 
horses. 

A. I'. LocKWooD WiNG.^TE, EsQ. : I think stallions should be im- 
ported regularly and continuously. We are toll that years ago on 
** Pepper" and " Goshen" respectively there were at one time five and 
seven imported stallions serving at the same time, and no doubt on 
many o'her Pens there were a like number which goes to prove how 
the high standard of horses in those days was reached and maintained. 

The thoroughbred, I think, is the best type to import, but of the 
thoroughbred hunter kind. Tlie sort of horse which is found in 
Ireland in the hunting fields — thoroughbred, but with plenty of bone 
and substance and up to any weight over a hard country after hounds. 

Hon. G. McGrath : I think the importation of thoroughbred stal- 
lions would be decidedly advantageous, and the only description of 
sires which would prove satisfactory in the end and conduce to the im- 
provement of horse-breeding in Jamaica The services of sires should 
be available in the different districts of the Island and thus prevent the 
necessity of sending mares to any great distance. 

A. C. L. Martin, Esq. : The type of thoroughbred stallion best 
suited to get serviceable animals in the Island and to mate with fillies 
by Sir Gerald or other mares 14 hands and 14.2 should be an animal 
15.2 with short legs, deep girth, about 6 ft. 2 in. good hind quarter 
plenty of bone below the knee, free from any disease that would be 



196 

transmitted to his offspring, From ray own experience in horse-breeding 
and basing my theory on actual experiments that I have tried, I have 
been able to produce several serviceable animals by mating 14 hands 
mares with an animal such as described above. But the sire must be 
thoroughbred as no mongrel or half-bred animal will improve the breed 
by crossing. 

E. W. MuiRHEAD, Esq. : I am rather of opinion that stallions are 
not so much needed, but a few thorougbred ones of great size and 
quality will always be of value. I rather lean to a good stylish hun- 
ter (which generally is as well bred as possible). A Hackney of the 
type of Courtier (who died early after importation) should tend to do 
good. 

J. T. Palache, Esq. : The type should be 1st thoroughbred stallions. 
These are the only ones likely to do any good. After 40 years of intimate 
connection with horse breeding, and holding in my possession the 
largest collection of records relating to the horse and horse-breeding in 
Jamaica, I unhesitatin;^ly say that any attempt to introduce any of 
the other large breeds of the Northern climes will result in utter 
failure. 

A. C. Paton, Esq. : Stallions should be imported and the type I 
consider the most advantageous to breed from is a stallion standing 
from 14*3 h. h. to 15 h. h. of the weight carrying hunter type. My 
reasons for proposing this height and type are these. The weight 
carrying hunter type would correct most of the faults which our mares 
possess such as lack of bone and general want of substance at the 
same time being a horse with say about seven eights of thorough- 
bred blood in him he would not perceptibly impair the good qualities 
which our mares possess. 

A 14*3 i). h. or 15 h. h stallion would be a very little bigger than 
the average of our native mai'es and as nature determines the size 
most suited to the locality, if we breed to about the size of horse now 
in the island we will get the size most suited to the island. Apart 
from that there is a very limited demand for big horses in the island 
and I doubt if we could even breed them good enough to export, and 
if we could the price we would get would never cover the cost of 
feeding. 

Hon. Dr. Pringle. : Yes. Pony Stallions Hackney Stallions at 
first put to our best mares to produce bone and quarter This progeny 
could be then treated with stallions that produce the hunter class and 
the racing class at home. 

A. EoxBURGH, Esq. : The importation of fresh blood at intervals is 
absolutely necessary and I am of opinion that this should be one of the 
duties of the Government. There is not, at present suflB.cient induce- 
ment to encourage private enterprise in this direction. Racing having 
come down to a very low standard. 

The thoroughbred is, without doubt, the horse for Jamaica, but it is 

difihcult to get the right stamp. Bone and substance are essential. 

The class of thoroughbreds usually imported being very fifth rate, do 

not possess these qualities. Hence the degeneration of our horse flesh 

into " weeds. 



197 

Three-quarter bred Hunter-Stallions of the short legged type would 
I think answer the purpose when put to our well bred mares. 

Hon. T. H. Sharp. : The importation of stallions from time to time 
is necessary, but should b3 left to private enterprise. 

Joseph Shore, Esq. : Certainly, but not of the English Type so 
commonly imported hitherto. The Arabian breed seems best suited 
to Jamaica (or some similar strain from a warm country.) From per- 
sonal experience, some 20 years ago horses with the Arabian strain 
were procurable from some of the north-side pens, and they did well ; 
being good journey makers and hardy, in both saddle and draught. 
This strain is now out. 

Bernard Toole, Esq. : It is highly desirable to import stallions. 
A high class hunting stallion calculated at home to produce twelve to 
thirteen stone hunters. This animal usually stands from 15 • 2 to 16 
hands, and while not at all a "heavy" horse possesses plenty of bone and 
substance, has fine actions, short legs and good body. A cross with a 
horse of this kind and our small sturdy Jamaica mares would I think 
produce a good class of ride and drive horses of a useful size. This 
cross would also have the advantage of improving size and substance 
without loss of the thoroughbred strain. 

I do not know any other type so suitable for importation as the 
above. 

United Fruit Co : We are of the opinion that if the standard of 
our working horsekind is to be improved and maintained, it will be- 
necessary not only to import stallions but to import them at regular 
intervals of from 8 to 10 years, to avoid the evils of in -breeding, etc., 
and we are of the opinion that the stallions imported should be of a 
class to produce good roadsters, saddle and draft, of the pony standard. 
The stallions, we think should be in point of size range from 15-2 
hands and upwards, and consideration should be given chiefly to bone 
and compactness. 

A. Byron Yentresse, Esq. : A few stallions might be imported 
to advantage but they should be of the Hunter class. 

Hon. C. B. Vickers : I think high bred stallions should be import- 
ed to get saddle and draft animals. Coarse bred stallions are not in my 
opinion desirable for their progeny could never compete with mules 
for heavy work in this climate. 

E, A. Walcott, Esq.: I think stallions should be imported from 
time to time. The type must depend upon the kind of horse the 
breeders desire to produce. Hitherto nearly all the importations have 
been made in the interest of racing, and the result has been to produce 
a class of horses possessing remarkable endurance, speed and soundness 
but very deficient in weight and bone for heavy draught. 

C. L. Walker, Esq. : A thoroughbred stallion about 15| to 16 
hands should be imported and if possibe to get them, with large car- 
cases, standing on short legs. 

^pN W. Watson. : Yes. As horses in Jamaica are not likely to be 
^sed for heavy draft purposes, but simply as roadsters, it is desirable 
to stick to the English thoroughbreds for this class of horse. 



198 

Bearing in mind that bone is essential and that horses deteriorate 
rapidly in the tropics, sires of 15 '2 and 16 hands with bone, should be 
resorted to, seeing that at present our mares are extremely small. The 
Welsh pony, "Sir Gerald", is in my opinion a success, and that type 
of horse is the best for the mountain districts. 

J.R.Williams, Esq.: In order to benefit the classes unable to 
import or to purchase the better bred stock, stallions should I think be 
imported. I do not think there can be any doubt about this : the 
difficulty is, rather, how are such stallions to be kept so as to render 
their services available to the largest number ? 

I think stallions of the Irish Hunter type would be not generally 
useful. 

If there is a stock farm, the importation of a thoroughbred 
occasionally, or now and then a AVelsh pony for less general require- 
ments, would be u>eful, for with the fuller equipment of a stock farm, 
all the interests of the island, and not merely, and not chiefly, the 
saaaller and less independent interests should I think receive con- 
sideration. 

K. L. Young, Esq. : Certainly stallions should be imported, but 
not the cheap, third rate, broken down class, that have been imported 
as a rule into this country, with n( thing to recommend them but an 
immense pedigree and a lot of hereditary blemishes — which have done 
very little, if anything to improv3 our present strain. 

We wanr a ccuple of new stallions ever}' alternate year, but they 
should be of the very best strains, sound in wind and limb, and above 
all something showy to catch the eye. Either thoroughbred or of the 
hunter class and not under 16 hands in height. 

Summary by H. H. ^'ousins. 

There is a strong general opinion that stallions should be imported. 
There is a great variation of opinion as to the type most desirable. 
After careful consideration of all the data available and consultation 
with breeders of long experience I recommend as follows : 

1. A stout up-standing thoroughbred of at least 16 hands of the 
" Blue Rock" type for getting draft stock, remounts and increasing the 
size of mares for mule-breeding. 

A hunter-breeding thoroughbrtd of the type of the King's Premier 
sires in England if obtainable for a sum not exceeding £200 would do 
as well. A f bred sire would not be satisfactory. I'ure blood is essen- 
tial for prepotency. 

2. To satisfy the section of the public who desire Hackney or coarser 
blood to increase bone and substance (although I do not consider it 
likely to do what is expected) we should import a Clevfland Bay, 
if obtainable for £120. These are clean-legged and the most likely 
large breed to give us size without lack of quality. The progeny 
would require feeding. 

2. Is it desit able to imj)ort 31 ares ? If so, uhat are your practical 
recommendations ? 

Hon. J. V. C ALDER : I think it would be desirable to import mares 
and I believe there would be plenty of army drafts to be got that 
would be of great benefit. At present, however, I dont think it would 



19'c) 

be wise to import any mares as their cost of keep would be heavy and 
probably beyond our means and possibly wreck any attempt to resus- 
citate breeding. We must go slowly at first. 

W. Gr. Clark, Esq. : Yes, certainly, but only if the Government 
start a stock farm and import a quantity, say at least 20 — or, the 
Agricultural Society to import a certain quantity every year selling 
them at public auction on their arrival. 

W. Cradwick, Esq.: No, the mares in the country are good enough 
being usually much better cared than the geldings. 

E,. Craig, Esq. : It is clearly most desirable to import mares — 
without good dams it is impossible to raise good quadrupeds of any kind. 
Just where these can, or can best be procured, is a difiicult question — 
price, including cost of importation, is perhaps the most important 
factor — for merely local use, and sale, a high price could not be given 
— with a subsidy, or the guarantee of a certain price at a certain age, 
for stock produced, the position would be raised. 

I am not prepared to say from what country mares could be obtained 
— possibly Canada or the United States — but I have not seen, from 
either of these countries, the type of mare I would choose. They may 
however, be obtainable. Those I have seen, are heavy footed as a rule 
in fact heavy all over, and not sufficiently compact and active. If the 
matter of importing mares was taken up by the Government, as I 
think it should be, and the type of mare most desirable decided on, it 
would be necessary, I think, to send say, two experienced persons 
abroad to ascertain where supplies could be drawn from yearly The 
mares should be half or three quarters bred by this description I 
mean what are called in England light horses, us against heavy draft. 

James Daley, Esq. : No. 

H. G. T. Drew, Esq. : Yes, in order to maintain the high standard 
of breeding recommended (the thoroughbred ) 

Import say 3 mares of same stamp as the stallion;', keep them under 
skilled supervision, for say 3 months, have them served by the stallions 
imported, then sol i at auction. Offer at your agricultural, or horse 
show, a good premium for the best colt produced from these mares. 

Dr. C. R. Edwards : It is desirable to import mares. For prefer- 
ence Flemish mares, to give us bone and quarters which our own mares 
lack. 

C. A T. FuRSDON, Esq. : Yes, in order to get early results this is 
very important, the island is exceptionally deficient in good bodied 
mares. Given a stock farm, there should be at least 20 there, and 
their progeny disjosed of at an annual sale. A premium should be 
offered for mares of a stated quality imported for breeding purposes 
and payable on birth of first coit. 

J. M. GiBB, Esq., V.S. : Yts. Mares of the Hackney stamp, about 
8 mares. Piobably these could le got from the War Department. 
Cast off mares, sound for breeding purposes. 

B. S. GossET, Esq. : I don't think imported mares are of much use 
for breeding in Jamaica. I have known a good many, most are either 
barren, miscarry their foals or do not raise them. 



200 

The change of climate seems to affect mares more than stallions. 

H. W. Griffith, Esq. : Most certainly, even more so than stallions. 
Mares of Hunter class, not necessarily thoroughbreds, but well bred 
with plenty of bone. 

Colonel A. E. C. Kitchener : No. 

A. P. LocKwooD WiNGATE, Esq. : Desirable, yes : A few, but 
hardly necessary if the importation of stallions is regular and con- 
tinuous, as we should then very soon be able to produce mares hard to 
be beaten by imported ones. 

Hon. G. McGrath : In Yorkshire good hardy stock for coaching 
and other purposes have been bred by crossing the thoroughbred sire 
with Cleveland mares and Yorkshire coaching mares. I think the 
importation of a few Cleveland mares would be desirable. The 
importation of mares would be more expensive than the importation 
of sires owing to the number of foals produced by the one as compared 
with the other. I am afraid the importation of mares must be left to 
private enterprise as affecting individual interest. 

E. "W. MuiRHEAD, Esq. : I lay more importance upon the importa- 
tion of mares than any other means of improving horse breeding and 
should suggest that mares accidentally* blemished of good strain be im- 
ported (in foal) but particular attention should be paid to shape and 
size, as also to mating. 

J. T. Palache : 1 am of opinion that it is far more desirable, or at 
any rate just as desirable, to import mares and in much larger numbers 
than stallions for reasons which I will touch on later. 

The number of really first class mares fit for breeding is very much 
diminished in Jamaica to day and requires to be replenished and 
strengthened in many directions — 

1. Type thoroughbred mares so as to be able to breed on the spot 

first class acclimatised stallions and mares for distribution 
throughout the Island at cheaper rates and at less risk than 
importing. 

2. Type thoroughbred pony mares registered in the Polo Pony 

Stud Book ior the like reasons and purpose as above. 

3. Type sound good half or three-quarter bred mares such as are 

bred in Ir land and many parts of England to cross with 

thoroughbred sires to produce Hunters and in Kentvicky and 

Oi io, for producing mules. These mares could be put to 

thoroughbred stallions here and their fillies used for breeding 

mules and thus import size and substance to our mules. 

It must be kept in view that the horse required for general utility 

in Jamaica is the light active muscular horse for our light vehicles 

and hill roads, and there is positively no work for the heavy cart horse 

of northern climes — plough and other agricultural work being per- 

iormed by mules and oxen. 

A. C. Paton, Esq. : If it is decided to increase the size of the 
1 orskind then mares will have to be imported. Our small mares even 
if "fut to" a large stallion would not necessarily give large foals, in 

* Accidentally on account of the diflFerence in price for which they maybe bought. 



201 

fact as a rule however large the stallion may be if " put to" a small 
mare, the progeny will nearly always be small as the mare has not 
sufficient room to develop a large foal. An instance of this is found 
in mule breeding. However big the stallion is if "put to" a jenny 
the progeny is generally small. I believe however, that by judiciously 
mating the mares we have got in the island with the right type of 
stallion a good class pony can be bred. 

A. Roxburgh, Esq. : I don't think so. "We have a good supply of 
mares well bred, and only requiring careful selection, to breed from. 
They may want shape and bone, but good strong sires will supply 
those qualities. The mares have theblood — which probably the import- 
ed mares would not possess. 

Messrs. T. H. Sharp & Son : It is not desirable to import mares, 
the stock should be improved by sires. 

J. Shore, Esq. : 1 think so — but this could only be done by private 
persons, not by societies — the progeny from a mare being limited. 

The mares got by English stallions now in the country could be put 
to Arabian imported stallions. 

Perhaps a few mares could be imported of the Arabian breed also, 
to start a stock from acclimatized. 

Bernard Toole, Esq. : While the results from mares brought into 
the island must be necessarily slow I am of opinion thtit the importa- 
tion of a few good ones would be advantageous. Strong well bred 
animals of fair size between fifteen and sixteen hands — and from three 
to five years old would suit. The selected male produce of these mares 
might be good enough to keep for stallions and thus render the 
importation of fresh blood (at least for some time) unnecessary. I 
take it that both mares and stallions would be kept at a suitable place 
by the Government or Agricultural Society or some such body under 
intelligent management and that their services would as far as possible 
be available to the whole island at a reasonable cost. The stallions 
should I think be distributed during the season at suitable centres and 
return to their head quarters when the season expires In no case 
should the imported mares be intrusted to private individuals. 

United Fruit Co. : The importation of mares should, we think, be 
left to private individuals who may be so minded, as it would be a more 
difficult task and i oo costly to raise our standard in that way. 

A. B. Ventresse, Esq. : If suggestion 1 is not carried out then I 
should like to see some mares imported, and they should be of the Hunter 
or Hackney class, because our standard of good serviceable stallions at 
present are much greater in proportion to the number of good mares, 
and the above named class of mares with our "wn stallions should 
produce good serviceable horses for our own uses, as well as for 
remounts, at the same time I am well aware that this would not 
produce any standard breed, but I think our object should be utility 
and nut the cultivation of special breede. 

Hon. C. B, Vickers : Mares might be imported with advantage if 
the expense be not an obstacle. 

Hon. W. Watson : No. As the question of acclimatising is one of 



,202 

oreat difficulty and risk, seeing that we must turn brood mares into 
open fields, and degeneration sets in at a rapid pace; but, if Stallions 
are imported largely, and stabled and cared, this will eventually im- 
prove the breed. 

C. L. Walker, Esq : Mares same size as the stallions and as many 
as can be purchased in England, that are injured and unfit for hunting; 
this class of mares are sold yearly in great numbers and can be pur- 
chased for about £13 to £14 per head. 

J. R. Williams, Esq. : The importation of mares at the public ex- 
pense will only be justifiable and expedient, I think, if there is a 
Stock Farm, where imported mares of the same type as may be approved 
of for imported stallious can be k-pt, to supply pure bred stock of 
such approved types for public sale and public benefit. 

R. L. Young, Esq. : I do not think it is absolutely necessary to im- 
port mares. Really good mares can be got in Jamaica if pains are 
taken to select them But the general idea is that an animal that 
is unfit for anything else must be put to breed. Hence the reason 
that the large proport on of colts bred by imported sires are failures. 

If the Government intended having a stud farm I would certainly 
suggest that they import a few well-bred and shapely mares from 
which could be bred serviceable sires from the impor ed stallions. 
In this way the influence of these imported sires would be most quick- 
ly felt throughout the islaud. 

Summary by H. H. Cousins. 

After considering the opinions given, T recommend as follows :-- 

1. "When the stock farm is established, some mares should be im- 

ported for breeding. These should be well-bred, cheap and 
of various types. 

2. Enquiry should be made as to the cost of landing (a) cast 

Army mares of light cavalry type (b) cast Hunter mares. 
If obtainable at a low price a trial importation should be 
made and the mares sold by auction. 

3. What are your optnions as to the present standards of horseflesh pro- 
ducible in Jamaica. 

S. C. Burke, Esq. : After fifteen years experience of horses in Ja- 
maica, I have no hesitution in expressing the opinion, that I have 
never seen a big horse bred in Jamaica that would be worth ^50 in 
England. We certainly have never produced a race horse in Jamaica 
which would fetch that price in Euglaud as a race horse, and I very 
much doubt if I could call to mind a dozen which would have been 
worih that price as hunters. When we do breed a fair sized horse it 
is seldom that he is up to weight. We have been trying for nearly 
two centuries, using the best blood in the English Stud Book, and we 
have not succeeded so far in producing a single race horse with any 
pieteutions to high class. This fact has been amply demonstrated 
durin.; the last ten years, by the repeated successes of horses (chiefly 
in my own stable) imported from England to race in Jamaica. 
Formerly we were contented to import horses and mares for breeding 
purposes only, bui latterly horses have been imported for racing — 



203 

chiefly animals that were too bud to keep in training in England, and 
these have proved quite good enough to " clean out" our native bred 
ones. 

But although we have been trying and have failed to breed good 
big horses, we have, on the other hand, without special effort on our 
part, succeeded in prciducing some very excellent sma^/ horses or ponies 
and these from the same stock that we have been trying to breed big 
ones from. This process the breeders of big hoi-ses call degeneration, 
but [ am inclined to regard it more us a natural evolution, and a 
** throwing back" in size to the parent stock of the thorough-bred-horse, 
the Arab. 

It must always be remembered that every horse in Jamaica, however 
mean and weedy looking he may be, is thorough-bred or very near it. 
The horse is not indigenous to 'araaica, and the first horses brought 
here were the chargers of the Spanish invaders in th^ l(5ti> century. 
These horses were probably Barbs or Andalalusians, breeds closely 
allied to the Arabs, which in their turn were the foundation stock of 
the English thorough-bred. 'I he decendants of these Spanish import- 
ations were crossed with English thorough-breds, as far back as 1760, 
and there has been a constant stream of thorough- bred blood flowing 
into the island from that time up to the present day, from which our 
present stock of horses is sprung. (It is curious that all importations 
of blood other than thorough-bred have been failures and have died 
out, a true instance of the survival of thefittes .) Thus it will be seen 
that our present Jamaica horses are very nearly thorough-bred, for, 
the present stock of our horses being the original Spaniards, which 
were themselves closely allied to the Barbs and Arabs (from which the 
English thorough-bred is descended) and these Spanish horses being in 
their turn crossed with English thorough-breds the results must be as 
near thorough-bred as possible This supplies an explanation for 
what is sometimes a very puzzling fact in Jamaica We often see an 
exceptionally smart pony produced by the union of a good thorough- 
bred horse and a common little "bush" mare, and we wonder at the 
result. But if we would only recollect that this common little mare 
is probably as well bred as the horse she was matched with, we would 
no longer be surprised. 

From the foregoing remarks it will be gathered that it is my opinion 
that although we cannot produce a good class big horse, we can and 
do produce from the stock which we now have a very high class pony. 
The excellence of the ponies which we do now produce, (which be it 
noted we are not trying to produce, but which are only the misfits of 
our efforts to breed big horses) is entirely out of proportion to the 
mediocrity of our big horses. To be logical one would imagine that 
if we breed bad or mediocre big horses, we should breed moderate 
ponies. But the very opposite of this is the fact, and I have no hesi- 
tation m asserting that our best Jamaica bred racing ponies can hold 
their own in an\ part of the world. 

The excellence of our Jamaica ponies can be best judged by their 
performances. Dewey, our champion pony, a 14.2 thorough- bre), has 
run a mile with light weights in 1.50, and 6 furlongs in 1.18, while 
with weller weights I myself have had the pleasure of riding him in 
a 6 furlong race in which he carried ISst. 41b3. and won in the fast 



-204 

time of 1.21. My own pony Dinna Forget, won many races carrying 
over 13st. and all in fast times, his best performance perhaps being 
when he carried me in two consecutive races of one mile and six fur- 
longs respectively carrying 14st Tibs, in the former and 12st' "lbs in 
the latter and won both with consummate ease, covering the mile in 
1.58 and the 6 furlongs in 1.28. Both Dewey and Dinna Forget 
compare favourably with English ponies as regards make and shape, 
being of the short legged, weight carrying type, and there is no reason 
why we should not produce more like them. 

We have bad an opportunity of comparing the "form" of our Ja- 
maica ponies with the "form" of American ponies, which are admit- 
tedly smart. The well-known winners in America Little Monarch, 
Louise and Doubtful ran in Jamaica and won races There was little 
to chose between them and Dewey and Dinna Forget. The latter 
pony and Doubtful were in my stable at the same time and there was 
nothing to choose between them. Racegoers will remember the dead 
heat between them at Cumberland pen when carrying level weights. 

From the foregoing facts I submit that it behove us in Jamaica to 
give up the attempt to breed big horses, and to turn our attention to 
the careful and systematic breeding of small thorough-breds or ponies. 
For if we can get such good ones from chance breeding, how much 
better ones will we produce when we use discrimination and selection 
in breeding. 

Hon, J. Y Calder : If there was a demand for horses at £25 or 
£30 of 15 hands and over, some would be bred, but whilst there is a 
ready sale for mules at £18 to £23, there is no demand for horses. At 
the Hope Show most of the working horses exhibited were imported. 
I think, however, if a supply of good horses were encouraged a de- 
mand would be created. The way to produce this in the first instance 
is to have some thoroughbreds produced, as I suggest, by means of 
tncouraging races. 1 am sorry to say the races held now have only 
two objects: 1st of making money for tlie owners of the stand. 
2nd To enable a few gamblers to get some money out of the French 
Pool. 

W. G. Clark, Esq. : Run too fine and small, apparently there ig 
little choice of good stallions at a reasonable figure within most 
small breeders' reach and in breeding results. 

W. Cradwick, Esq. : The horse flesh produced is nothing like so 
good as it was ten or fifteen years ago. We produce a few good little 
ones, but we ought to produce a lot, which would be very valuable. 

R. Craig, Esq. : The question is not clear. 

If it means the standard of horseflesh now being produced — my 
opinion is that it is deplorable. 

If, on the other hand, it means what standard could be produced — I 
lave no hesitation in saying that a first-class horse for saddle and 
draft, can be raised in many parts of Jamaica No attempt should, in 
my opinion, be made to breed heavy horses for agricultural work — or 
heavy draft. 

In this connection I may be perhaps permitted to say that the dete- 
rioration in the breeding of horsekind within thepast25 years has been 



205 

lamentable — it was possible even 20 years ago to purchase without dif- 
ficulty, say a handsome pair of well matched carriage horses 16 hands 
high — an excellent saddle horse or any number of well .shaped useful 
ponies up to carrying 16 stone. Today it is practically impossible. 

In October 1889 I got the Government to introduce, and the Gro- 
vernor's promise of full support to a bill dealing with entire horses — 
the object being to prevent the indiscriminate crossing of mares by 
utterly worthless " runts" or entire horses and ponies, a former Law 
on the subject having lapsed, by effluxion of time. This Bill 
however was allowed to be wrecked, and nothing has been done since to 
check the rapid degeneration of the breed. Had the Bill obuiined the 
support to which the Governor was pledged, it would have become 
Law and it is not too much to sav that to-day a much better class of 
horses would have been in existence. 

J. Daly, Esq. : Good, but could be greatly improved by new blood 
being imported and at a cost to meet the mares of small se: tiers. 
More feeding and care. 

H. G T. Drew, Esq. ; Owing to the scarcity of good young stal- 
lions and mares the standard is poor. 

The few thoroughbred stallions in the Island, with perhaps one or 
two exceptions, are old and in themselves defectively built. 

Breeding from old parents is in my humble opinion, the principal 
cause of their offspiiug being so " weedy" und deficient in bone. 

0. A. T. FuRSDON, Esq. : Very good workers but lacking generally 
in size and quality, hence only fit for local needs, if that. 

J. M. GiBB, Esq., V.S. : Horse breeding has been dying out in Ja- 
maica lor more than 12 years, there being no demand for scarcely any 
class. Within the past 3 or 4 years however there have been signs of 
a likely demand. 

The present standard of horse flesh is below the mark and that pro- 
ducible is better by judicious selection and more attention to young- 
sters. 

B. S. GossET, Esq. ; The ticks are the great drawback to raising 
horses, but where Zebu cattle are ra sed ticks are decreasing. The de- 
cline in horse racing seems to have had a bad influence on the size 
of horses, pony races are not the same thing. 

At present it does not pay to corn feed a foal unless for the turf, 

H. W. Griffith, Esq. : There are two points with regard to the 
present standard, whicb I have noticed. 

(a.) Though there are several very fine (good size) and well bred 
mares in the island, on making inquiries of their owners I 
find they do not have such good foals, as in jjast days; and 
that year by } ear their foals are smaller ; though served by 
large stallions, in some instances mares of 16 h. h producing 
animals, that grow to hardly 14 h. b. This in my opiniou 
is partly due to climatic influences, and partly to waut of 
proper feeding from time of weaning. 

(b.) Almost all the mares and some of the stallions are too fine 
bred (light) and also inbred : wanting in substance, and the 
former wanting in size — this I fancy has a great deal to do 



'206 

with the diminution in size, and quality, which is so notice- 
able throughout the island. 
N.B. Some hold that ticks are the only cause, I do not think so ; 
for if animals are properly attended to, the ticks cannot make such a 
great change — it is only when Brood Mares are allowed to run practi- 
cally wild, and neglected, that ticks do a great amount of harm. 

Colonel E. 0. Kitchenek : They are exceptionally sound. 

A. P. LocKwooD WiNGATE, EsQ. : The present standard of horse- 
flesh here, I think, is still good ; but rapidly degenerating owing to 
the falling off of importations, many breeders giving up horse-breeding 
altogether owing to the poor profit got from the business and general 
lack of interest in the industry from the same cause. 

Hon. G. McGrath: The present standard of horseflesh producible 
in Jamaica is inferior to what it was in former years owing undoubted- 
ly to the wunt of proper feeding. The guinea grass upon which the 
horses are principally fed has deteriorated considerably, f ir want of 
manuring and few persons will undertake the expense of feeding foals 
as they would soon "eat their heads off" owing to the small price now 
obtainable for good stock. The ticks also contribute their share of 
trouble in the rearing of horses. 

E. W. MuiRHEAD, KsQ. : The present standard of horseflesh is no 
doubt affected by the poor quality of the grazing in the island, caused 
by the want of seasons. Consequently they run small and can only 
be raised up by better feeding; they should then fetch better prices 
to pay. 

J. T. Palache : Deficient in numbers but excellent as a foundation 
on which to build by means of careful selection, judicious importa- 
tions of the correct type of stallions and mares for crossing. More at- 
tention to caring and feeding in the early stages of the life of the year- 
ling stock. 

A. C. Paton, Esq. : The present standard of horsekindin Jamaica is 
I think bad if compared with most other countries, although, as is 
o-enerally the case, it is admirably suited for the purposes of the coun- 
try. If, however, exportation was to be nimed at our hordes would 
have to be very much improved. 

Hon. Dr. Pringle : It lacks bone and quarter, suffering all the lime 
from want of selection, being poorly fed when young or worked too 
early. 

A. Roxburgh, Esq. : Jamaica horses as now produced are a wonder- 
fully hardy long suffering breed. The standard as far as appearance 
goes is low. This, to a great extent, is owing to poor feeding wJien 
young. Feed a foal well till he is 2 year old and you can dc what you 
like with him after that. If he drops to pieces from hard work or 
feed he can be always be recovered by improved conditions, but starve 
him when he is young and he can never be made into a good horse 
afterwards. 

So far however as blood goes we have a good foundation upon which 
to build in our mares, and judicious selection of sires will soon result 
jn a good class of working horse. 



207 

Messrs. T. H. Sharp & Son. : I consider the standard of the pre- 
sent horseflesh obtainable in Jamaica to be of a high order, it is chiefly 
descended from Arab blood, and has been kept up by the infusion of 
English thoroughbreds. With proper feeding of the foals a first class 
all round horse can be produced. 

J. Shore, Esq. : For honest up-and-down-hill work T find the best 
horses are obtainable from the settlers, chiefly from the upland districts. 

The progeny of imported animals within the first two generations 
from thoroughbred, are fine showy animals, but no use for hard collar 
or road work unless carefully watched and only a limited amount of 
work given (far less than the amount obtainable from the hardy moun- 
tain horses.) 

I h ive had considerable experience in hilly districts and have been 
very much disappointed in the want of " wind" or staying power in so 
called well bred horses of good size. The settlers' animals seem to be 
brought up on the Roman principl*^ — only the hardiest surviving — and 
they are as a rule fed on corn to a great extent from 15 months old, 
with hard, common feeding in addition. 

These horses are generally descended from good sires, but many re- 
moves back 

B. Toole, Esq. : The present standard of horseflesh producible in 
Jamaica is low, and this condition has been brought about by natural 
deterioration, in breeding, bad selection, and last but not least, by bad 
feeding, especially during the first three years. New blood, good 
selection, and a proper regard to feeding will improve present condi- 
tions. 

United Fruit Co. : We are of the opinion that much can be said 
both in favour of and against our present standard of working horses. 
.Many give satisfaction at the work they are put to do, and many prove 
miserable failures And here we think our system of rearing stock is 
largely responsible. Suflicient care is not bestowed on our colts, and 
the right sort of feeding to produce stamina, bone and muscle, is sel- 
dom or never given until the colts are actually put to do hard work, 
and the result naturally enough is, they accomplish less and break 
down earlier than they should. 

A. B. Ventresse, Et^Q : From my experience of over 13 years in 
the tropics, which includes not only Jamaica tut all the other West 
Indian Islands, and the main-land of America, there are types and 
standards in Jamaica equal to anything else anywhere for hard work and 
durability. I frequently drive my own horses over 50 miles in a day, 
and many weeks they do over 200 miles for me, but unfortunately the 
stock of this class is not large enough to draw from. 

Hon. C. B. Vickers : I think there is a deterioration in the stan- 
dard of horseflesh in Jamaica in past 20 years or so. 

C. L. Walker, Esq. : Our Jamaica horses are not to be beaten f<»r 
durability, but .xince gentlemen who used to race have given up the 
sport they have ceased to import thoroughbred stallions, our mares 
being small and being crossed with small stallions, our horses are 
rapidly degenerating to ponies. A scheme to import stock as above 



,208 

will place Jamaica among the foremost places for breeding the best 
class of stock for racing, remounts, carriage and saddle. 

Hon. W. Watson : The present animal is very durable and hardy 
but there is an entire lack of bone. 

J. R. Williams, Esq. : The system of horse breeding in Jamaica 
varies greatly in different dis ricts, and the standard of horses bred. 
Again, there is the broad difference between the horse breeding of the 
larger Fens and the horse breeling of the small settler, and while u 
good many Fens breed a few horses just to keep up the supply of 
accent mares for their mule breedi ig, and as a sort of minor industry, 
a few Fens (very few in this neighbourhood) breed horses with an eye 
mainly to the horse market. 

If we have a Stock Farm, we should consider the interests and re- 
quirements of the larger establishments. 

If we are merely to import as hitherto a few horses, and to distri- 
bute these over the Island so as to benefit chiefly the smaller men, who 
most particularly need help, the consideration is somewhat different. 
The larger establishments are, I take it, well able to judge as to what 
type of horse they can successfully produce. And at present we have 
to consider what type would suit the smaller men best. The com- 
monest deficiency iu the small settlers' stock in these parts is vo. frame ; 
they need the services of stallions calculated to get stout stock of 14 to 
Idbanus. And not only by the small settler but over the greater 
part of the island, I think the moderate sized horse is the one to be 
more suitably aimed at. It is only in exceptional situations that 
the breeding of large horses, I think, has much chance of success— and 
these require more care and feeding than the smaller a>e usually able 
or willing to afford. 

I think therefore that the horse now produced with most suc- 
cess, in the largest number of places by the largest number of people, 
is a moderate sized horse of between 14 and 15 hands— generally nearer 
14 than 15 — aid the horses of this type now produced need improve- 
ment specially in stoutness and frame. 

R L. Young, Esq : Excellent colts are now to be picked up iu Ja- 
maica, especially in the Parishes of Manchester and St. Elizabeth, and 
if they are bought young and fed up are as fine animals as can be seeii 
in any country. I attribute this to the larger proprietors in those 
Farishes being in a position to keep good stud horses. I see dealers 
passing through our way often with colts and fillies from two to three- 
year old. Most of them with a little extra care and attention would 
be really first class. 

Some few years back it was a sight to see the fine colts ridden by 
our Feasant Froprietors to market on Saturday in this parish. But 
since these depressed times they can not afford to pay the high fees, 
and the larger proprietors have given up breeding horses, and do not 
keep studs. 

Summary by H. H. Cousins. 
It has been brought out that 

(I) Horses have deterioraied gieatly during the pas: 12 years. 



209 

(2) This has been associated with a decline of racing whereby 
sires have ceased to be regularly imported. 

(3) The present horses are greatly inbred. Most of the mares are 

served by poor stallions. 

(4) Grood horses can be produced, but fresh blood and care in se- 

lection and feeding are necessary. 

(5) A demand exists for a better class of horse. 

I recommend : — 

(1) Importation of sires for general use in island. 

(2) Breeding stock for distribution at stud farm. 

(3) Distribution of 2 King's purses of £100 each from December 

1906 for 3 yr. old maiden native horses and fillies Distance 
1^ miles. Nominations as yearlings at £1 per annum. 

Ji-. In what direction is it desirable to encourage the aims of Horse 
Breeders ? 

Hon. J. Y. Calder : In considering the best means to resuscitate 
horsebreeding it might be useful to consider what has led to its decay. 
Thirty years ago horses were produced in Jamaica that would not have 
been discredited in an English show yard. Any one requiring a pair 
would apply to Messrs. Maxwell, Morgan, Sawers or Wheatle and he 
would get what he wanted. Subsequently this demand was supplied by 
itinerant dealers who offered at cheap rates young and ill-fed animals, 
but buyers were satisfied so long as the horses were cheap and en- 
deavoured to hide broken knees and sprung sinews with a display of 
gaudily plated harness. 

The market has always been limited and was destroyed by the im- 
portation of a lot of cripples, I believe, from Prince Edwards Island. 
Penkeepers bave given up horse-breeding and to-day it is almost im- 
possible to buy a pair of carriage horses. Horse-racing is considered 
by a few persons as a terrible vice that should be put down, but it has 
been the means of bringing up the horses in England to their present 
standard and is, I think, the best available means of improving the 
Jamaica horse, and will, if encouraged, place on the market yearly a 
limited number of well fed horses too slow to race. 

Unfortunatel}^ the promoters of racing in Kingston were intimately 
connected with the owners of the stand, whose only object was to 
make 6 o/o on their investment and pile up a large reserve fund, thus 
naturally udding to the value of their shares and hoodwinking the 
public by proclaiming they only got 6 o/o for their money. I won a 
£40 race some time ago of which only 4/6 was added money. Under 
such treatment horse-breeders became disgusted and racing has got to 
its present level whilst the stand owners are making frantic efforts to 
keep up their income by having pony races and may probably race 
pigs if they think they can draw a crowd and make gate-money. 
The Legislative Council has very properl}'^ withdrawn the grant of a 
Queen's Purse. In order to resuscitate breeding we must have race- 
horses, and I would recommend an annual grant of £200 for two 
purses of £ 1 00 each to be raced for on the Kingston Course for three 
year olds, one race for colts and one for fillies, \\ miles. Queen's purse 
weights to be named as yearlings with a sweep of £1 for second horse. 



^10 

6 nominations for each race. Jn this connexion I would point out that 
when Jamaica horses were at their highest standard, several Queen's 
purses were given yearly. 

W. G. Clark, Esq. : 1st I should say " Remounts," as the Govern- 
ment can and probably would guarantee to take certain quantities at a 
fair price yearly. 

This class of horses is handy for almost any toorh in the ot \ er Is- 
lands, as well as here. 

W. Cradwick, Esq. : In two directions ; the production of fine polo 
or riding ponies, and a production of a bigger and heavier mare for 
breeding bigger mules. 

R. Craig, Esq. : In my opinion horse-breeders should be encoumged- 
to raise the following classes of stock : — 

I. Good carriage horses, say up to 15| hands. 
II. Horses suitable for mounted Infantry. 

III. Strong hill ponies. 

IV. Polo ponies (good). 

Class I would be always saleable as would also classes III and IV. 

For class II. I think there should be a system of Government Re- 
gistration, and a grant (annual) for each colt or tilly likely to answer 
requirements, up to four years old. These to be purchased by the Go- 
vernment, if sound and suitable, at a fixed price for the Army. 

Cast horses in this class would come in well for travelling stock. 

J Daly, Esq. : Government should endeavour to help the small 
settlers and large proprietors in the sale of Jamaica horses to other 
sister Colonies. 

H. G. T. Drew, Esq. : Unfortunately, it is only racing that will 
induce or compel breeders, or those who buy their colts, to feed them, 
and these colts after their racing career is over generally go to the 
stud and being fed frora foals are generally successful. Offer say a 
breeders' purse to be raced for each year for say two or three years, 
and thus encourage the jjroduction of the stamp of animal that will 
improve our horses. When your horse shows are more popular and- 
better patronized by breeders, prizes can then be offered at such 
shows. 

C. A. T, FuRSDON, Esq. : To make a name for our horses and so 
command an export trade which would be sure to follow. 

As far as the small man is concerned, help him to produce a sale- 
able animal and realise that there is money in a better one than the 
runt he now gets. 

It is doubtful if we can, under local conditions, produce an army 
horse. 

J. M. GiBB, Esq., V.S. : Adopting a system of premiums to ap- 
proved stallions ; having annual horse shows in suitable localities and 
awarding cups as well as money prizes for sires with progeny — and' 
iu pressing the necessity of castrating all ungainly undersized colts 
on the owners of them. 

H. W. Griffith, Esq. : I think the Government should, if possible, 
make some arrangement to purchase (even if it is only a few at first)- 



211 

animals, which would be serviceable, either for Military or Police 
work in E- gland or thecolonie.«, from breeders. 

I think I am correct in stating the stamp of animal required by- 
Government are animals from 14-2 hh — 15-2 h.h., from 4 years old 
to 6 years old, of stout build. The Government could issue circulars 
inviting an \ one who has animals of the above description (more fully 
describe *) to send in information as to number, age, etc., of animal, or 
animals, for sale. 

An official could be sent round to the various districts examining 
the horses and taking those which are suitable, these could be either 
shipped in small numbers or collected and shipped per transports 
coming to the West Indies. 

I am certain if Government only made a move on some such basis 
breeders would see it worth while to breed. 

OoLONKL H, E. C. Kitchener: Action and bone. 

A. P. LocKWOOD WiNGATE, Esu : The one and only way to encour- 
age the aims of horse-breeders is to find a market for our four yeai- old 
horses at prices that will pay one for breeding them. In other words, 
make the business a paying one. If we could sell all our sound 4 year 
old horses at from £-i') to £40 each, most of the other difficulties would 
vanish. 

Hon. G. McGrath : The aims of horse-breeders should be encou- 
raged by the Government giving two or three substantial purses to be 
raced for by 3 year old fillies and colts, breeders would then be encou- 
raged to feed their foals, and it must be borne in mind that a good 
animal for any purpose is produced by early and systematic feedino-. 

A. C, L. Martin. Esq. : Unless a market can be foun I for the 
animals produced it is no good encouraging the production of horse 
flesh. Given a steady reliable market any class of animal required can 
be produced here. 

E. W. Muirhead, Esq. : With reference to horses my opinion is 
that there are plenty of the best bloodel stallions from Eno-land now 
in the island to need further importation, but that some large service- 
able Brood Mares, in foal to some good horses before leaving Eno-land 
would do more good 

We are fearfully short of large brood mares to-day and it is unrea- 
sonable to expect the stallions to do all the good of improving horse- 
breeding that is expected of them. With the present price for horses 
it is impossible to produce same for sale at 4 years old at a profit, and 
it is very questionable with increased importations, unless sale can be 
obtained for some elsewhere, if we will be able to dispose of them. 

J. T. Palache. Esq.: 1. Careful selection of stud animals. 

2. The cultivation of knowledge as to breeding and crossing ; care- 
ful attention to brood mares during the period of gestation and foalino- ; 
more attention to the care of foals and young stock and their feediu'>- 

3. Instruction in agriculture so that more food supplies can be 
grown and thus lessen the cost of grain feeding, as at present this de- 
pends almost entirely on imported food stuffs. Oats cannot be grown 
here, but a substitute quite equal to it for horses can be found in 



'212 

guinea corn, a species of millet whicli grows and yields enormous crops 
on our lowland lands but very little is grown. 

Innumerable other feeding stuffs can be grown, but from want of 
knowledge of the best methods of cultivation not one fiftieth part of 
the crops per acre than can be produced is actually grown. 

A. C. Paton. Esq. : The horse breeder should be encouraged to 
breed to a certain type and given an idea of the type required. 

Hon. Dk Pringle : As the quality evolved as well as the quantity 
depends on steady demand at reasonably paying prices these two 
should be estab'ished ; this might be done by the local government bav- 
in o- mainly a mounted police — a less number but mounted — and paying 
a bonus on horses of certain stimdard on which the government would 
have an option — and the same in regard to our Militia — a small num- 
ber but chiefly mounted. 

(2) To have the Imperial authorities to pay bonus on horses and 
have options on those coming up to certain standards. 

A. RoxBUBGH, Esq. : Encourage breeders in every way you can to 
breed to a type. There is as much to be learnt in this direction by 
breeders in Jamaica as there has been found to be in the cultivation of 
the soil. 

Owners of mares in a large majority of cases fail entirely in the se- 
lection of siiitahle sires to which to put their mares. So long as they 
like the look of the horse they make use of him ; no matter how far 
removed in character he may be from the mare. The result is a non- 
descript foal. 

B. Toole, Esq. : This is a somewhat difficult question to answer, as 
so much depends on the individual efforts of the breeder himself. He 
should, however, be helped by the Government io the extent of afford- 
ing him cheap access to the services of imported stock, and it might be 
considered advisable to offer for competition piemiums for the breeding 
of horses of exceptionally fine quality. A great disability under 
which the breeders, and others having stock to dispose of, labour under 
is the absence of local markets. This could be easily and cheaply cured 
bv the establishment in convenient centres — nt-ar the Railway if possi- 
"big — of fairs, where persons requiring horses could be reasonably cer- 
tain to procure them and sellers equally certain of securing a pur- 
chaser. 

Facilities should be afforded by the Railway Department for the 
transport of animals to and from ihe fairs. The evils of hawking 
horses from place to place seeking purchasers are only too well known. 
The so-called horse markets at present in existence are mostly situated 
in backwood localities and are only resorted to for the disposal of 
worthless animals, and sometimes stolen ones. 

United Fruit Co. : We are not quite clear in our understanding 
of this question, but so far as we can reason it out, w^e should say that 
much good should result from encouraging breeders to have a definite 
standard in view and to aim at producing the salient points of that 
standard, and t > break away from the present listless method, of breed- 
ins: whatever comes most hand\. 

A. B. Ventresse, Esq. : I think we should encourage the class of 



213 

horses that would not exceed 15-2 in height. My experience is that 
large horses cannot stand our hill work, the weight is too great foi- the 
fore legs to stand the goingdown hill with the present class of drivers 
procurable, and even apart from that forni}^ own work I prefer ahorse 
not to exceed 15 hands. 

In replying to this question I have more in view the type of hor^e 
we require for our own use here, at the same time I think also for re- 
mounts they should not exceed 15*2. 

R. A. Walcott, Esq.: Encourage them to feed and take care of 
their young stock, not to work them until they are four years old; not 
to breed only from old mares that have been worked off their legs and 
are going down the hill. 

C. L. Walker, Esq. : Let the Grovernment get out stallions and 
mares under contract with a company who will land them cheap in the 
island, the animals to be engaged by breeders, before ordered. 

Hon. W. Watson : To import up-size stallions freely. 

K. L. Young, Esq. : We want to improve chiefly the size and girth 
of our present stock the great fault being their flat ribs. Hence the 
reason for selecting our sires and not taking them at random on the 
strength of their pedigrees. 

We want 16 hand studs, well ribbed up, good strong limbs, and we 
can look for like to beget like if we take ordinary precautio .s to select 
our mares. 

This class of horse is generally found amongst our first-class hunt- 
ing sires, and they would in this country produce fine serviceable stock 
ranging from 14.2 to 15.2 hands, and woull be about the class of 
animal that would be required for Army remounts. 

Summary by H. H. Cousins. 

1. Before any action can be taken by the Government we must 

ascertain from the War Office their requirements in light, 
horses for tropical and sub-tropical conditions. 

If they could offer us £20 to £30 for a 3 year old or £>^o to 
£35 for a 4 years old, it would pay brteders to ^^o in for it. 
It should be explained that our horses are highly bred, inured 
to tropical sun and capable of prolonged work ; but are nut 
large showy animals. 

The machinery for producing a regulated supply of the re- 
quired horses could then be established. 

2. Purses should be re- established for 3 year olds. 

3. Castration should be made compulsory or a heavy tax placed 

on entries not approved by a Government inspector. 

4. A Government or subsidised sire should be made available to 

the peasantry in all districts producing horses at the usual 
fee for a runted stallion (6s. for service and 43. for a foal). 

5. What conclusions can be drawn from the results of the sires im- 
ported by the Agricultural Society ? 

S. C. Burke, Esq. : The conclusions which can be drawn from the 
results of the sires imported by the Society (which results are chiefly 



214 

to be seen in a few half bred Welsh ponies of doubtful utility) is that 
the general hor^e-breeding public in Jamaica cannot be trusted to mate 
their mares sensibly or successfully, if they are left to themselves. 
They will breed from any horse that is sufficiently cracked up to them, 
consequently care should be taken only to pwt before them a type of 
Stallion which is likely to breed a useful and serviceable type of 
horse. 

Hon. J. y. Calder : The backney stallions imported by the Agri- 
cultural Society died before they did any harm, but the Welsh pony is 
in my opinion doing a great deal of harm in producing undersized horses 
M'hilst the general complaint is that our horses are running too small. 

Thret- of this horse's gets were at the Hope Show :— Geraldine, a 
very neat well fed little mare ; a jerked up pony with only 
room for a child's saddle on hia back; and a mis-shapen dwarf of 
the type that used to come from the Caymanas and sold for £3 to £4. 

W. G. Clark, Esq.: 1. I have not seen any "Hackney" results. 

2. Sir Gerald has given bone but is small. 

R. Craig, Esq. : I am not in a position to answer this question. — 
I never saw either of the Hackney Stallions imported by the Agricultti- 
ral Society nor any of their progeny so far as I am aware. 

I have seen the pony stallion "Sir Gerald" and a number of his foals. 
He is in my opinion a very fine pony and his stock are remarkably 
true but he is too small for the purpose the Agricultural Society had 
in view, which was to get stout hill ponies of 14 hands and upwards. 
Unfortunately the tendency in breeding horsekind here, seems to be to 
produce smaller animals than the parents, in many or in probably the 
majority of cases. 

J. Daly, Esq. : The sires imported by the Agricultural Society are in 
my opinion too small, as their progeny cannot meet the demand of 
heavy work. 

H. G. T. Drew : The hackney stallion crossed with the average 
Jamaica brood mare, produces a misfit ; in many cases maintaining the 
heavy head and forequarters of the hackney, while the other parts of 
the body reproduce the build of the dam which being so extremely 
opposed to the hackney the offspring is a coarse ungainly ill-propor- 
tioned animal. 

As regard the Welsh pony stallion "Sir Gerald" I have little to say 
agaiiiSt him, save that his productions lack siz»^. 

C. A. T. FuRsiiON, Esq. : Hackneys a dead failure, which, being 
an artificial breed they are bound to be. 

Welsh pony gets useful stock but deficient in size, but as he is ap- 
parently much sought after must be considered a success. 

B. S. Gi^ssET, Esq. : That Hackneys are of very little use in Ja- 
maica. 

That Welsh ponies are suitable for hacks and general purposes, but 
a size larger would be better. 

I have also tried an imported Barb Stallion and an English Hunter 
sire neither of which were very satisfactory. 

H. W. Griffith, Esq. : The Agricultural Society should do their 
best to import onl}' really good stock. 



215 

T do not consider that " Cavalier" was the sort of horse to import ; 
he was a hackney, but not a good one, and the price paid for him 
ought to have procured a first rate Hackney Stallion, bought direct 
from the breeder in England. 

I have seen a pair of this stallion's progeny at shows, etc., and can- 
not say they have been a success, and have noticed that the feeling to- 
wards Cavalier, was anything but what it ought to have been and has 
created a great dislike amongst the older Penkeepers throughout the is- 
land towards any animal of the " Hackney type," and it is for this 
reason that such a lot of discontent nearly always follows " Shows " 

" Sir Gerald" is a compact little pony stallion, but is not a Welsh 
pony stallion, I think he has done some good in getting ponies of a 
size useful to some. One thing his gets are very much like himself, 
the only fault with " Sir Gerald" is, he is too small as the tendency out 
here is for animals to become smaller. 

A. P. LocKWooD WiNGATE, EsQ. : It is difficult yet to draw any 
definite conclusions on this point as the two Hackneys died early and 
without producing many foals and we have yet to see any "Sir Geralds" 
4 or 5 years old on the road drawing their buggies over a journey of say 
"30 or 40 miles, and how they go under these circunostances. Until we 
see that it is hard to say if the " Sir Gerald" type is suitable for Ja- 
maica, and our work here, or not. 

Hon. G. McGrath : The sires imported by the Agricultural Society 
have undoubtedly produced good results, but owing to the death of the 
better of the two hackney stallions the number of foals p^'oduced has 
not been sufficient to mark this breed. The Cavalier's fillies put to 
thoroughbred stallions would undoubtedly produce excellent results 
and their foals sufficiently fed must make good substantial carriage 
torses, but no good results can be effected with this breed without 
proper feeding. Many of the mares in the Island have bad action and 
drooping quarters, both of which faults the introduction of the Hack- 
ney rectifies, while as a rule they have plenty of bone and breed big 
enough to the Hackney. 

The Welsh Pony Stallion " Sir Gerald" was imported for the express 
^purpose of producing " mountain ponies" and Sir Henry Blake when 
on leave in England was requested to procure a stallion for this par- 
ticular purpose and Sir Gerald was selected by his Excellency and my- 
self lit the Government Stud Farm at Ballybrack near Dublin and 
after much trouble, and upon the representation of Sir Henry that the 
horse was required by the Agricultural Society of Jamaica, the Board 
for the Congested Districts of Ireland met and as a particular favour 
spared the Government of Jamaica Sir Gerald for the same sum as they 
had just paid for him. He was considered in Ireland one of the best 
pony stallions ff his class and unsurpassed for the purposes required. 
I think this sire has done good service in Jamaica and given great 
satisfaction to those who own his progeny. He will leave a good im- 
pression on horse-breeding in the Island. 

E. W. MuiRHEAD, Esq. : " Sir Gerald" no doubt has been a success 
in the direction of imparting more quality into our 1-i hands- Roadsters, 
,but as this is possibly our strongest class of stock it was least needed. 
31o8t of our thoroughbred having ruu to this size. 



216 

"Courtier," the best in my opinion, did not have a show. 

" Cavalier" was an expensive luxury, the least said about him the 
better. 

A. C. L. Martin, Esq. : I have two fillies by Cavalier now two years 
old. One out of a thorougbred pony mare and the other from an or- 
dinary pony mare Both these fillies are unsuited for working pur- 
poses but will make good mule mares. 

J. T. Palache : Since Courtier II. died before he sired anything the 
results in his case are nil. 

I have only seen one foal by Cavalier, a veritable beast not worth 
sixpence. Sir Gerald is doing real good work and all of his stock that 
I have seen are all that can be desired and his fillies crossed with care- 
fully selected thoroughbreds of the type of Asteroid, Dinna Forget, 
Fitzherbert and some others I would name, will, I am certain, result in 
just the style of stock wanted for general work in Jamaica. 

H. C. Paton, Esq. : The sires imported by the Agricultural Society 
-were I think hardly a success. I don't think any one knew what type 
of horse was to be bred from them. The fillies got by Cavalier are 
eminently fitted to breed mules but for any other purpose his progeny 
would seem to me to be very little use. Sir Gerald hns bred some 
" pretty" ponies, but they again do not seem to me to be serviceable 
animals for the island, nor would they be worth exporting as that type 
has been brought to very near perfection in England. 

Hon. Dr. Pringle : I think undoubtedly they have done good and 
if they had been helped by system and art would have done more, but 
as they did not produce racing stock right off they were boycotted, 

A. Roxburgh, Esq. : That the Yorkshire Hackney was unsuitabler 
but that the " Welsh Pony" so called has done good service, and will 
I trust be freely utilized and do still more. 

The good wrought will be better appreciated — when his filly geta 
are put to selected thoroughbred stallions. 

Bernard Toole, Esq : The conclusions to be drawn from the re- 
sults of the sires imported by tTie Agricultural Society is that they 
have not fulfilled reasonable expectations, and I think the cause is not 
far to seek. 

The types in my opinion were too extreme, if 1 may express it so; 
the Hackney too bi>r and cLumsy for a hilly country like Jamaica, where 
owing to our light vehicles, very heavy draught is seldom required, and, 
moreover, a Hackney is not a horse which the ordinary Jamaica settler 
can feed. The Welsh pony on the other hand, owing to his smallness, 
does not cross well with our ordinary Jamaica mares w^hich seldom 
exceeds 14.2 in height, and although he has produced some exception- 
ally nice stock hy fir d class mares the tendency to breed tiny animals 
(too small for practical purposes,) more than turns the scales against 
him. 

United Fruit Co. : We have seen but two colts out of Sir Gerald, 
and so do not feel competent to express an opinion on this question, 
but the two colts we have seen have impressed us very favourably. 

A. B. Ventresse, Esq. : In this case we are practically limited tO' 
Sir Gerald, the other results being practically nil, and unfortunately 



217 

so many inferior mares have been put to Sir Gerald evidently witli the 
belief on the part of the owner that the sire was all that was necessary 
to produce good stock. 

The progeny of properly selected mares by Sir Gerald appear to be 
the most promising and desirable stock for our own work, and even 
the most prejudiced must admit there are to-day many fine colts and 
fillies from Sir Gerald, although I do not 'hink it was the best type of 
horse to import — as in the tropics horseflesh tends to decrease in size. 
We should certainly have had a larger pony than Sir Gerald, at the 
same time I think it must be admitted that upon the whole Sir Gerald 
has proved fairly satisfactory. 

C. L. Walker, Esq. : I condemn the importation of ponies, the 
island producing them in great numbers. The Hackney Stallions im- 
ported by the Agricultural Society were not of the stamp required in 
the island. 

Hon. W. Watson : Decided improvement, and with better care and 
more attention the benefits will be very much more marked. Those of 
Sir Gerald's colts which I have seen and known are very fine. 

J. E.. Williams, Esq. : I have only had- opportunity of seeing the 
stock got by the Welsh Pony Stallion " Sir Gerald." I have had four 
of his colts— all out of well-bred mares but not thoroughbred. All 
have been satisfactory, showing much heavier frames than the ordinary 
Creole stock, rather too heavy, and some of them inclined to be coarse 
and though purely grass-fed as colts, they are of ver}^ fair size. 

I am trying one of the fillies for mule-breeding and look forward to 
getting stout and heavy mules from her. 

My experience suggests that the ^ bred stock of this strain, the issue 
of Sir Gerald's colts, will be of a very useful t^'pe and show consider- 
able improvement on their purely Creole progenitors. 

R. L Young, Esq. : The Hackneys were too heavy a class to breed 
from in this country, the high stepping action would tend to tire 
them very soon. They are not meant for the class of work to which 
they would be put. 

On the other hand Sir Gerald would have been just the sire for 
breeding serviceable ponies, if he had one hand more to tiis stature. 
As it is, liis colts are fine hand}^ little ponies, very active in the draught 
and up to gi eat weight under the saddle. In my opinion his fillies 
crossed with thoroughbred sires are going to produce first rate polo 
ponies as weight carriers. 

Summary by H. H. Cousins. 

There is a general concensus of opinion that the Hackneys were not 
only a failure in fact but also in principle. The Hackney is a com- 
posite animal and when crossed with a pure breed is apt to throw back 
to undesirable ancestors. 

It is possible that a smaller type of Hackney (14 '3) might produce 
better results in getting actioned buggy horses for town use. 

The Welsh pony has carried many awa}' from the comeliness of his 
get, but clearly this has been ' breeding from capital' and has resulted 
in a deterioration of the size of our horses. It will be difiicult to 



'218 

recover from ' Geraldine' the size of her dam. Mr. Gosset's exhibit at 
the show illustrates the fallacy of breeding in the hills from Sir 
Grerald to get stout ' bone -substance' hill ponies. 

6. What practical suggestions do you offer for the consideration of the 
Oorernmtnt, 

{]) For promoting better returns from our present stock of horse- 
flesh ? 

(^) For infusing fresh blood by judicious importations ? 

S. C. Burke, Esq. : To carry out the idea of breeding polo ponies 
and mounted infantry remounts for export to England, 1 have 
drafted and submit the following scheme. 

1. That the Government (or a Company) establish stud farms for 
purpose of breeding ponies in St. Ann and St. Elizabeth, on which 
careful and systematic attempts should be made to breed in sufficient 
numbers, the type of horse which is represented by the highest class 

polo pony. 

2. That only animals of the type that are likely to breed high class 
polo ponies be kept on these farms, the stallions being mainly imported 
and the mares being native bred. 

3. That the Government (or Company) furnish to every penkeeper 
in the island who will undertake to keep a stud of at least 25 suitable 
mares, a stallion of the required type free of charge, and that the pen- 
keepers in return agree to give the Government (or Company) an 
option on the progeny of these mares. 

4. That owners of mares throughout the country be induced to 
register their mares in a general register or stud book to be kept by 
the Government (or Company) such stud book or register would only 
contain the names of such mares as were deemed suitable for breeding 
ponies of the type required, and such mares would have to come up to 
a certain standard of excellence. 

5. That each owner who registers a mare shall receive a bonus of 
10/ for so doing and shall have the right of sending his registered 
mare to the stallions of the Government (or Company) free of charge. 

6. That the owners of registered mares in consideration of the free 
service shall sign an agreement contracting to sell the progeny of these 
registered mares, provided they come up to a certain standard of 
excellence (which would be decided by the buyers) at a fixed price to 
the Government (or CompaD,y) either as yearlings, two year olds or 
three year olds 

7. That the prices agreed to be paid for the progeny of these registered 
mares be yearlings £7, two year olds £11 and three year olds £15. 

8. That the foals of these registered mares be inspected in the month 
of September of each year, and that all that are healthy and promis- 
ing be branded. 

9. That the owners of these branded foals may in the month of May 
in the following year call on the Government (or Company) to buy 
them as yearlings at the contract price, or may keep them on until the 
following May and sell them as two year olds, or may keep them until 
the following May and sell them as three year olds. 



219 

W. G. Clark, Esq. : 1. Cheap freight to other islands, taking every 
opportunit}' of advertising Jamaica horses in those places where 
American horses are used. 

An agent might be appointed attached to some department (say Sir. 
D. Morris's) in each island, this agent, to be in touch with the Agricul- 
tural Society here when horses are required. 

2. Import two stallions of each kind making the fee as low as possible- 
Tax heavily all entire hor*es not up to a certain standard, allow free 
freight, and duty, and subsidise every stallion imported from England. 

W. Cradwigk, Esq. : Put stallions within reach of the small settlers, 
particularly in St. Elizabeth and Southern Manchester at their own 
fees and on the terms which they are used to Then frame a law 
which would result in the castration of the three cornered, coffin head- 
ed, spider hocked, fetlock-upon-the ground, ewe necked, goose rumped 
brutes, that the majority of the small settlers now breed from. 

H. G. T. Drew, Esq. : Import two or three healthy and strongly 
built stallions (thoroughbred) : keep them under skilled supervision for 
say two months, then hire them out for a season to penkeepers who will 
give them strict attention, and have their services, and be allowed to 
serve a limited number of mares at a fee of not more than 1 guinea — 
Special care being taken to see that the stallion is properly fed. 

We do not wish any better blood than the thoroughbred ; they 
produce from the polo pony to the 16 hands carriage horse, and 
possess intelligence, spiiit and endurance, and with careful selection 
joi parents, good results will be procured. 

The idea here is that every mare will make a brood mare, which is 
a big mistake, breeding from unsuitable animals is the principal cause 
.of the poor results from this branch of pen keeping. 

Dr C. R. Edwards : The importation of fresh blood must not stop 
at two or three importations but must be carried on regularly for a 
number of years. It cannot reasonably be expected that two or three 
horses will regenerate the stock of the whole country. 

Import every year a thoroughbred Hunter and a Cob. 

C. A. T. FuRSDoN, Esq. : (1) Forbid the use of any stallions under a 
xjertain standard and give the Magistrates the power to order their 
castration whether found on the high roads or not. Improve the 
quality and better returns will follow. 

(2) Answered in Nos 1 and 2. 

J. M GiBB, Esq., V.S. : The aim was a good one. Two — Bay 
Hackney and Widsh Pony — of the three were useful for the purposes 
for which Sir H lUake imported them, namely, bone and substance 
for big and little. Unfortunately the C. Hackney stallion was not 
a profitable selection. 

B. S. GossET, Esq. : Import a Normandy (^oach horse sire for car- 
riage horses and mares for breeding mules and horses. 

Our light well bred mares should cross well with the Normandy 
horse which is a breed of long standing, not a cross bred like a hunter 
or a hackney. 

A Welsh pon}' stallion about 1-ii hands or a pony stallion of Mr. C, 



, 220 

Wilson's Rigg Maden breed in Westmoreland would be just the thing 
for saddle ponies and cobs for general use. 

H. W. GrRiFFiTH, Esq. : (L) Besides the suggestion made in 
IV. I should suggest that the Grovernment start a small " Stud F^rm" 
to be managed by an experienced person from England, (not necessarily 
an expensive man) with two classes of stallion, namely thoroughbred 
and hackney and also a few mares withplent}- of substance : these could 
either be bred from direct, or crossed one with the other, and their 
progeny sold throughout the Island. 

(2.) Also mares to be taken in for service, and stallions sent to a dis- 
trict for « nly a short period. 

In this way those who required the use of a good stallion can have 
it. 

The progeny, either Fillies or Entires, could be sold either privately 
or by auction sale, this sale to become a feature towards the close of 
each year. 

All animals used on the *' Stud Farm" for breeding purposes wus^6« 
imported, i.e., stallions and brood mares, belonging to the Stud Farm; 
not mares sent for service. 

Colonel H. E. C. Kitchener : Small bonus for imported sires pos- 
sessed bv Agricultural Societv- 

H. P. LocKWOOD WiNGATE, EsQ. : (1.) If the business can be made 
a profitable one, better returns will follow, private enterprise will do a 
lot to improve the standard of horses in every way if one could see 
that a good return would be got from any outlay expended 

(2 ) If the Government « ould give a bounty of sa}^ one-third the 
entire cost of every thoroughbred stallion imported, to the person who 
imported him, and so encourage the infusion of new blood continuously, 
I think this would encourage breeders to import more. Of course the 
stallion would have to satisfy the examiner that he would improve our 
horses here. 

Hon. G. McGrath : For promoting better returns from our present 
stock of horseflesh I would recommend : 

1. That the people be encouraged by the Government to produce 
good stock by giving them the services of good sires at a nominal fee. 

2. That Breeders be encouraged to feed their foals by the offer of 
substantial purses by the Government to be raced for and a certain 
market with reasonable prices for disposing of their stock. 

A C. L. Martin, Esq. : (1.) Premiums should be offered for animals 
of an approved type to stand for service at ii fee within the reach of 
all sections of the community, in any district that requiies a stud ani- 
mal The preraiufiis recently offered by the Agricultural Society 
have not been the success they should have been, owing to the fact 
that very often un animal was allotted to a district the services of 
which the people in the district did not require. I have known of 
more than one instance where a horse was awarded a premium to stand 
in a district, he served very few mares there, but if a donkey hud been 
sent to the district he would have hadmoie mares than he could serve. 

J. T. Palache : The establishment of a well equipped, well man- 
aged Stock Farm where the stock imported by the Government could 



221 

be kf'pt and mares received for service by the staUions and arrange- 
ments made for the letting of the stallions to persons in various parts 
of the Island on such terms as will ensure the services to mares be- 
longing 1o all sections of the community around. Breeding done by 
the Government for experiment on the most approved methods and the 
proge)iy sold ;)S stud animals to purchasers for improving their breed 
of stock. And where servants could be trained in the care, handling 
and management of stock ; one of the greatest difficulties in Jamaica 
10-day, with regard to any enterprise, especially stock rearing, is to 
get st-rvants with any degree of knowledge or skill. 

H. C. Paton, Esq : (1 ) A better return could, I believe, be obtained 
if breeders C'luld be induced to be more careful and judicious in the 
mating of their mares and learn what type of animal it is most desir- 
able to produce. It an inducement could be offered such as a guaran- 
teed purse for three year olds of the desired type, I think breeders 
would soon learn the type required. 

2. I would suggest that stallions oi' the desired type be imported 
and located in the differeut hnrse- breeding districts of the island that 
they should serve approved mares iree, and that the approval be not 
given unless the mare is really of the right stamp. 

That native stallions of the desired type be given a substantial pre- 
mium and be located in the different districts to serve approved mares 
free or for a very small fee as is done with King's premium stallions 
in England. The amount of premium would however have to be suf- 
ficient to make it worth the owner's while to take it rather than keep 
the horse at stud himself. 

I would also suggest that an annual license be put on all ungelded 
horses of 3 years old and upwards. This would prevent the serving 
ot mares by bad stallions whose fee is often as low as 8s. This class 
of stallion is much patronised by the small settlers, some of whom 
having nice mares which they put to the bad stallion, with the almost 
invariable result that bad progeny is produced. It is almost incalcu- 
lable what an amount of damage these stallions do generally, and yet 
we see Agricultural Shows held under the auspices of the a gricultural 
Society wheie a prize is given to this class of animal under the head- 
ing of settlers' stallions. 

A. RoxBXRGH, Esq. : Do something to make horse owners do away 
with worthless stallions. There are hundreds of these brutes in the 
country that annually do more damage to our horse breeding than 
any one an estimate Mares are taken to them at small fees of from 
^s.'to IGs., and ignorant and short sighted own rs of mares patronize 
theiu on thut account. All they aim at is to (/et a foal. 

Let all stallions be licensed and impose a penalty on any one keep- 
ing one that is not duly registered. 

There would be plenty of work the first year for the professional 
castrator ! 

Messks. T. H. Sharp & Son : (1) Start a Stock Farm and feed the 
foals from six months old in a proper manner so as to give them bone 
and sinew. 

(2) Encourage by premiums the importation of thoroughbred horses 
from England as sires. 



^22 

(3) Discourage the importation to Jamaica of Hackney Stock of 
any description. What we want is to produce a lot of good food such 
as cane, sweet potatoes, corn, guinea corn, maize, cassava, etc , etc , 
and to feed the j^oung animals, the stock and blood is quite good enough. 

Joseph Shore : I By having long distance competitions in riding 
and driving and awarding suitable prizes. This would cause horse 
owners to do more solid building up in better feeding, &c. 

II. By replacing the premiums formerly granted for the importation 
of stud animals (to be approved by n veterinary board) ; und by import- 
ing sires t.nd mares as in Nos. I. and 11,, on behalf of Agricultural So- 
ciety, fees to be charged sufficient for outlay. 

B.Toole, Esq.: (1) The establishment of a Grovernment Stock 
farm under competent management and breeding thereon what will be 
found by experience to be the most suitable animals and distributing 
them amongst the breeders at a reasonable cost for breeding purposes 

only. 

Enforcing a strict system in the selection of mares proposed to be 
served by imported or subsidised stallions. This has been entirely 
neglected in the past The service fee should be if possible as low as 
that charged for the worthless stallions which are doing so much harm 
at present. The service fee is a serious consideration to the majority 
of the horse-breeders in Jamaica. 

(2.) This and the former question may be answered together, as 
without importing fresh blood little improvement may be expected ; the 
importations may be gradual according to the demand which may 
arise for the imported stallions. I have intimated at Reference I what 
I consider to be the best type of animal to import. 

United Fruit Co : (1) Impress on breeders the necessity of aim- 
ing at the best results in whatever standard they adopt, and encourage 
their efforts in return by developing good markets for the disposal of 
their stock. 

(2) Import the best blood of the most desirable classes, in numbers 
sufficient to serve the various parishes, and place them judiciously sa 
that the humblest breeder may avail himself of their services at reason- 
able fees. 

A. B. Ventresse, Esq. : I can conceive but one practical method ta 
secure better returns Irom our present stock, and that is to put m tax 
of at least £2 2s. for every entire donkey, and £4 4s fur every entire 
horse I have seen the peasantry upon many occasions, as well indeed 
as other people use horses and donkeys that should never be used at all. 
I have spoken to many of them about it and I find that even with the dif- 
ference of a fee of 4/ they would breed from inferior animals, although 
they perfectly realise that breeding from the better one would not only 
give them 4/ but. £4 in advance, and I really believe that the most 
practical results would accrue to the country as a whole by the extinc- 
tion of the very inferior entires in the islaud. 

(2) This seems also somewhat indefinite as to whether you want 
ideas on the importation of stock by the Government, or the Govern- 
ment assisting th^ people By the Government assisting the people 
there is bound to be a great deal of favouritism shown which should 
not exist, but by the Government importing these, unless a large stock- 



223 

farm were established, which seems rather a tall order under the pre^ 
sent conditions of the country, it would app-ar to narrow itself down to 
the Government importing stallions to be used in a similar manner to 
what Sir Grerald has been. But like Sir Gerald it will at times no doubt 
create a bad feeling, and with some justification too on the part of the 
owners of entires in the vicinity of where these stallions are kept, but 
at the same time it seems to me the less unfair, and most workable 
scheme under the present conditions. 

Hon. W. Watson : Encourage and facilitate in every conceivable 
way the opportunities for selecting the right kind of animal in Eng- 
land and elsewhere, and the facilities for getting them here. Have 
occasional horse shows. 

More care in the selecting and attendance, and not expecting nature 
todo everjMhing; adopting more enlightened methods in selecting and 
mating the animals. 

J. R. Williams, Esq. : (a) I think a Stock Farm is very desirable 
where a supply of pure bred stock of the types approved and acclima- 
tised can be kept up The risks attending the importation of animals 
deter all but the wealthiest; and these risks and the extraordinary 
care which imported animals for a time require, are strong arguments 
in favour of the establishment of a Stock Farm if any sustained effort 
for the improvement of the stock of the island is contemplated. 

(b) Apart fi'om the question of the Stock Farm, I do not see any 
way to improve the horsekind except by such efforts as have already 
been made, with slightly altered conditions, viz. the subsidizin;^ of ap- 
proved stallions in selected districts where their services shall be avail- 
able for a very moderate fee, whatever happens to be the ordinary fee 
of the settlers' stallions in the neighbourhood. One change in the 
conditions hitherto offered would I think induce more general use of 
such services : — the subsidized stallions, like the settlers' stallions 
should be 'peripatetic', i.e. taken round to serve the mares on the 
premises of the mares' owners. And the experiment might be tried 
of charging so much per cover. I am doubtful of its success : it would 
be quite novel (in this neighbourhood at least) and the settler is con- 
servative : but it might be oifered as an alternative to a charge being 
made for service till 'stinted' (within that sea^ou) which is the ordinary 
procedure. The popularity of the common settlers' stallion is that he 
generally takes half his fee, or less, in advance, and waits till the colt 
is born for the balance There is generally some difficulty in getting 
this \ aid and where a very small fee is charged it is not worth the 
trouble of collection. I could not recommend this plan of exacting 
payment. 

The services of stallions kept by the more independent class of 
people, i e. as a rule, the better class of stallions, will never be avail- 
able while this method of payment prevails. 

(c) We have to consider that in some districts, probably in most 
parts of the island except in St. Ann, St. Elizabeth and Manchester, 
the people need to be educated as to what they should aim at and what 
is really desirable and profitable — in horsebreediug as in other matters 
agricultural. 



224 

In a o'reat many parts they are satisfied with the services of almost 
any stallion that is cheap. 

(d) Perhaps something should be done to limit the h^rm done by 
the worst of the many unsuitable stallions which ' ply for hire ' It 
mio'ht be done by a fairly substantial tax on stallions, say 30/- or by 
requiring any stallion serving for a fee to be licensed There might 
be some difficulty about the 'Licensing Body,' for it should be readily 
accessible. 

Justices of the Peace would do the work but would be objectionable 
as likely to have stallions of their own competing in the neighbourhood. 
This would put them out of the question. 

The Inspector of Police might be suggested ; but the suggestion 
does not satisfy me. However, I am convinced something should be 
done in this direction It interferes with the liberty of individuals 
and may be misrepresented as oppressive to the poor ; but if we are 
justified in spending public money for the improvement of horsekind 
in the island for the common good, I think we are justified in restrain- 
ing people from going beyond a certain limit in doing what they can 
to neutralize the effect of such expenditure. 

(e) Something might be done to facilitate the sale of horsekind In 
this neighbourhood, which is not by any means eminently favourable 
to, or celebrated for horsekind, the sale of horses is most irregular and 
the demand most uncertain. 

The uncertainty of sale is a great discouragement to the breeding 
of horses. 

From £15 to £20 is readily got for a decent mule, unbroken, and 
3 years old : a pony must be well above the average, must be about 4 
years old and broken to saddle and draft, to be worth £15. Could not 
something be done to officially recognise and regulate Horse Fairs at 
certain centres ? At Newmarket, 14 miles from here, for several years 
a kind of Horse Fair was held every Saturday. In Clarendon I am 
told there is a similar institution. I don't know if the Newmarket 
Horse Fair continues. But something of the kind, regulated by the 
Society, held once in two months or so, at suitable centres, might do a 
good deal to encourage horsebreeding by bringing buyers and settlers 
together. Sir Henry Blake was, if I remember aright, much of this 
opinion. 

(f) I may mention two experiences which illustrate my contention 
that one of the difficulties in the way of improving the breed of horses 
is the need for educating the people in many districts and raising their 
standards 

At another property seven miles from here I have kept for two years 
one of my Sir Gerald colts, a fine stout horse (as I think) and one well 
calculated to improve the bone and body of the settlers' stock. I have 
charged 12/- for his services (the ordinary fee of the local ' hamper 
horse') but required the full amount to be paid on service — promising 
to give service free if the horse is on the Penn next season and the 
mare fails to breed. I haA^e had two settlers' mares sent to him in two 
years. ! 

A friend of mine eight miles from here had a thorough -bred, the son 
of a very good imported stallion, for whose services he charged 20/. 



225 

In two years he served two mares. He then sent him into St. Ann 
and, at the same fee, the first year he was there he served thirty maresL 

R. L. Young, Esq. : To promote better returns from our present 
stock of horse flesh, give us a sure markt t and a ready sale for our 
colts and fillies. As I have shown already, we have the raw material 
to work on, but we war t some sort of assurance that we wont have the 
stock left on our hands after bringing them up to a required stand- 
ard. If I know the Government want remounts I would select a few 
and raise them to the standard required, with the certainty that they 
would be taken off my hands at a given time. The same can be done 
with Polo Ponies, but with only two or three clubs in the Island, the 
inducement is nil. 

With the importation of first class sires placing their services at & 
low rate so as to come within the reach of our peasant proprietors, and 
by keeping them moving from parish to parish — as has been done with. 
Sir Gerald — I guarantee that in the course of a few years you will see 
produced in Jamaica as fine a class of horses and ponies as can be 
shown in any part of the world. 

Summary by H. H. Cousins. 

The following practical suggestions recommended themselves to mc 

(1) Institute Stock Farm and import breeding stock. Distribute 

progeny at an annual sale Take in mares for horse breed- 
ing department to be attach d to Stock Farm Scheme. 

(2) (a) Subsidise local stallions. 

(b) Import and localise stallions — Each horse to have his 
own special attendant to travel with him. 

(3) Pass a Castration Law on lines of Mr. Craig's former Law. 

(4) Enquire and use influence with War Office for a remount 

trade. 

(5) Offer King's Purses for 3 year olds. 

(6) Enquire cost of landing mares of types suggested and 

advertise for applications from breeders. 

7. What prospects are there for an export trade in horseflesh. 

{1) to other West Indian Islands : 

C2) Po/o Ponies : 

(S) Mounted Infantry Remounts. 

S. C. Burke, Esq. : The Jamaican horse is noted in all the other 
West India Islands, and is in good demand for racing and general 
hack purposes. A fev/ years ago Jamaican race horses when running iu 
the other islands were taxed under a special scale, higher than the 
Creoles or native-bred horses. Extraordinary high prices have been 
fetched by Jamaican racers, but those da3-s are past, and we shall never 
again see a "Best and Bravest" or a "' Cliunticleer" sell for £500. The 
bubble has been pricked, and tho other West India Islands have now 
realised what we have also found out that a common English selling 
plater is good enough to take care of all the flyers we can produce. 
But although the trtde in racehorses is dead, the demand for racing 
ponies is very brisk. Our Jamaican ponies seem to be a class in front 
of anything which the other islands can produce. An instance of thi« 



226 

iTis furnished at the Barbados meeting of 1902, when every race of 
the fifteen on the programme was won by a Jamaican pony. I had the 
pleasure of shipping the « inners of seven of these races from Jamaica — 
two of them of my own breeding — and as none of them were soLi for 
les-* than £40 in Jamaica, it may be judged that breeding racing ponies 
for export is not unremunerative. I have al>o sent several horses and 
ponies for hack purposes to Barbados and other islands. Sound useful 
horses can always sell over there for£-iO. When it is remembered 
that these islands cannot produce anything like the number of horses 
which they require for their own use, and that those which t ey do 
produce are inferior to the Jamaicans, it will hi seen that Jamaica 
will always find a ready market in the West Indies. (In Barbados 
most of the larger horses are imported from Prince Edward Island and 
they take some time before they get acclimatised.) 

For Polo Ponies there is practically an unlimited demand. England 
can take all that we can produce (provided we produce them good 
enough) and so will America. Polo has become so immensely popular 
in both countries during the last ten years, that the demand for Polo 
Ponies is greatly in excess of the supply. There is hardly a country 
town in England without its polo club, and every regiment in the ser- 
vice now has its polo team. When I mention that the officers of the 
Guards stationed at Windsor between them, own upwards of 60 ponies 
it will be realised the hold that the game has taken on young Eng- 
land. Polo Ponies in England fetch all sorts of prices ranging from 
£25 for a "crock" up to £800 for a flyer. The famous pony " Sailor" 
was purchased by Mr. Brassey for £800, and prices like £250, £300 
are by no means uncommon for first .class "tournament" ponies. Ja- 
maican ponies have been sent to England and some of them have turned 
out well. Capt. (now Lt. Col.) Kavanagh of the lOth Hussars, who 
will be remembered in Jamaica as A.D.d to Sir Henry Bluke and a 
very keen polo player, look a couple of Jamaican ponies with him to 
England. These were Molly and Creole, both excellent players, up to 
weight and fast They measured about 14.2 These ponies sold for 
£250 the pair. Creole won a prize at Hurlaigham Another pair 
Pilot and Vesta were taken to Ireland by Capt. Hewicke oi the Gun- 
jiers, and these besides playing in good class polo, won races there 
The average price of a made polo pony in England (not a first class 
tournament pony) is £50, and we should have no difficulty in producing 
quantities of these in Jamaica, with the chance of getting an occ;isional 
" Sailor" to bring up the average. 

In this connection I may quote an extract from a letter which I re- 
ceived from Ciipt. 111. D Miller, author of "Modern Polo," and perhaps 
the greatest authority and finest judge living of Polo ponies. He says, 
" I never import ponies except the best trained playing ponies that 
"the country produces, and I never buy young ponies, in fact nothing 
"under 5 years old as I have no room for young ones. The standard 
" in England is so high that not one in a hundred English ponies 
"playing Polo gets into the first class, so you can see that only th« 
*• best of those you produce in Jamaica would probably be good enough 
'• for first class in England, and therefore only the best would be worth 
" importing. I can assure you that there could never be a general 



227 

"paying trade in sending home young ponies. If you could send me 
^' home one or two of the best up to 14 stone which are now playing 
" in Jamaica, not under 5 years and not over 7, I think you vvould 
" get remunerative prices for them I have imported at different 
^' times untrained ponies from India, E^ypt. North America and Ar- 
"gentine and in no instance did it pay." The^e words would give us 
a fair idea of the standard which we must set up and breed up to. 

Mounted Infantry :— The class of horse required for this purpose is 
an animal built on the lines of the weight carrying polo ponv or 
something a trifle bigger. Horses suitable for this purpose are worth 
£30 to £35 in England. "We should be able to produce any number 
of these in Jamaica and the breeding of them could be made quite a 
profitable business. Animals of this class would be easily produced at 
J620 each as four year olds or £15 each as three year olds (unbroken 
and grass fed). It would be necessary for the Government to move 
in the matter and to induce the War Office to establish a Remount 
Depot (for Mounted Infantrj'- alone) in Jamaica, and buy our horses on 
the spot. The Depot would have to take our unbrc^ke 3 year olds at 
£16. These should cost about £5 each to break and condition so as to 
be fit to ship to England the following year as 4 year olds Animals 
of the description which I advocate should be bred, and, which I 
maintain, can easily be bred in Jamaica, would thus cost the Imperial 
Government under £30 landed in Ei gland, a less price than they are 
now paying, and I venture to think that they would be getting a 
cheaper and better animal than they could get from any other part of 
the world. 

Care should be i aken only to put before them a type of stallion which 
is likely to breed a useful and serviceable type of horse. Without de- 
siring to reopen a controversy, I would say that this is the reason 
why I have always been opposed to the use of the Welsh Pony Stal- 
lion. 

Hon. J. V. Calder : 1. An attempt to establish an export trade wai 
made 25 years ago and failed. 

2. A dozen polo ponies vvould overstock the market 

3. I see no reason why a certain number of remounts should not be 
provided. 

The sire and dam should be approved by an officer. A payment 
should be made 

1. On the birth of the foal on agreeing on price. 

2. End of 1st year. 

3. 2nd year. 

4. 3rd year. 

Security should be given by the breeder for the advances and in- 
surance Colt should be delivered unbroken. If some such scheme 
were adopted a supply would grow. Some stringent safeguards could 
be provided for the care and feeding of the colt or he could be delivered 
on being weaned and kept at pasturage at some depot, costing less at 
4 years old than is now paid for remounts. 

W. G. Clark, Esq. : 1. Fwirly good, if freight can be made cheap, 
and agents are appointed to protect exports, that is for carriage horses, 
and smart ponies. 



^28 

2. The present weedy thoroughbred no doubt makes a smart handy 
and possibly good polo pony, but a thoroughly good representative, able 
to place and play a good playing pony in England, is what is absolutely 
necessary to get a price for such an animal ; a good fast pony, sound, 
and a good Polo pony is worth anything, but if not first class is not 
worth shipping 

3, Depends upon stipulation of the Government. 

Captain T. Constantine, Superintendent Royal Mail S. P. 
Co., Kingston : I am of the opinion that a substantial business could 
be worked up and I may add that my Company has been, and is always, 
desirous of fostering this traffic. However, although every facility has 
been given, up to the present only a small number has been exported. 

The same remarks apply as to the export of Polo Ponies. 

R. Craig, Esq. : There would be in my opinion excellent prospects 
of a big export trade in horses and ponies if Jamaica had these to sell. 
At present she has not. A systematic determination on the part of the 
Government to improve our horseflesh, would in my view, meet with 
a certain success. The difficulties are by no means insuperable, but 
assistance is, I think, imperative. The attempt to do something has 
been too long delayed, and in consequence, any scheme set agoing now 
will cost a great deal more than it would have done 15 years ago. 

J. Daly, Esq. : (1) Yes 

(2) Yes. 

(3) Yes. Stock can claim a far better price and these make all 
breeders interested in the best stud, 

H. G. T. Drev^, Esq. : A good horse will always sell, and lately the 
demand for racing ponies, or rather ponies (as they are used as hacks 
as well) in Barbados is on the increase, lately they have had to buy 2' 
year old unbi-oken ponies — not being able to get what they want. 

Good care should always be taken to send the right sort of animal 
ordered. Shipping one bad animal occasionally will do more harm to 
this trade than anything else. It is better to lose the sale of an animal 
than sell what is not suitable. 

Dr. C. R. Edwards : The matter of an export trade needs to be 
worked up. It cannot be done without a vast amount of care and 
trouble — but if we value the trouble to breed carriage horses of size 
and action we shall without doubt secure the trade in 

(1) Barbados, Trinidad and Demerara. 

(2) Polo Ponies. I think we can breed Polo Ponies more easily 

here than elsewhere, because thoroughbred blood is very 
generally infused in our mares. Careful selection of the 
best Polo Ponies should be made and sent to Hurliogham 
as advertisements. 

(3) Cavalry Remounts can certainly be bred here in large 

numbers. 

C. A. T. FuRSDON, Esq. : (1) Good — if we can produce what they 
require. 

(2) Limited but at good prices. 

(3) Good — if we can produce the required stamp, which is 

doubtful. 



229 

B. S. GossET, Esq. : (1) There used to be a good demand for race 
horses and good prices were paid for horses that had made their mark 
on the turf, by racing men in the other West Indies, but they seem 
now to get their race horses from America or England. 

(2) I believe Polo Ponies are not of much value in the rough, it is 
when they are trained by skilled polo players they become so valuable. 
Some have been taken to England and have realised good prices, but 
how much depended on their breeding and how much on their training 
I cannot say. 

(3) We ought to be able to produce very good hardy infantry 
remounts, but during the late war no attempt was made to buy remounts 
by the Military authorities. 1 don't suppose more than a few hundred 
horses suitable could now be got, as on pens most mares that will breed 
mules are put to the jack, and only those that will not breed mules, 
are put to the horse. There being no demand, the birth of a horse foal 
is almost looked on in the light of a misfortune. 

If it was known that colts could be sold at five years old from £20 
to £30 the supply would soon be forthcoming 

H. W. Griffith, Esq., : (I) and (2) Small trade can be done in 
" Racing Ponies" and " Polo Ponies," with the other Islands. 

(3) A great deal could be done here, if one has the chance of '• Breed- 
ing Material" which we have not at present. 

Animals of stout build, weight carriers, can be produced in Jamaica 
as well as anywhere else, if we have the mares to breed from ; at 
present the majority of the best ponies in the island standing 14*2 
h.h. are very narrow in the chest, light of bone, no width of quarters, 
and slightly ewe necked. This class of animal is useless for military 
purposes. A very swift horse is not necessary for Mounted Infantry 
use, but a strong powerful one is. 

Colonel H. E. C. Kitchener : (1) Almost nil. 

(2) Very small. 

(3) Prices too small. 

Hon. G. McGrath : I do not think there will be any appreciable 
trade in Polo Ponies — a few may be exported and a few disposed of 
here, but it would not justify any large production of Polo Ponies 
especially as they would be too small for draft purposes. We must look, 
I think, to the Mounted Infantry for our customers and the Govern- 
ment betweeu that department and Breeders by their purchasing, as 
opportunity offers all good available stock, whether as yearlings and 
two year olds and keeping them until they are of serviceable age for 
remounts so as to have available at all times a sufficient number to in- 
duce a trade with the army. Other West India Islands may be induced 
through Government agencies on both sides to take some ol' our Horses, 
but as stated above, I think we must look to the military departments 
for regular customers provided we are able to supply the description 
of horses required 

E. W, Muirhead, Esq. : 1. I see little hope of doing much busi- 
ness in this direction. The freights are much too high. I have 
had several enquirers and the parties have had to drop the matter on. 
this account. 



2^0 

2. Broken Polo Ponies in England would fetch high prices, but need 
some one with means to take them over and play them there to show 
their ability. 

3. Cannot be filled now, I fear, but might as before suggested. 

J. T. Palache, Esq.: In former years a considerable export trade 
was done with the other West Indian Islands, Mexico, Central and 
South America, and I know in my own lime of a thoroughbred stal- 
lion Legatee, by Quicksilver, out of Legacy, being exported to the 
United States. He stood in Tennessee and was very much thought 
of and many of his descendants are now registered in the American 
Stud Book. Only last week I was applied to, to supply the pedigree 
on the figure system of a mare called Buzzing Bee, said to be one of 
the best race horses in Mexico, bred from a mare I sent over called 
Beretta and got bv a horse sent over by Mr. C. L. Walker, of St. Ann, 
called Buzzard Wing. 

The trade fell off with the depression consequent on the break down 
of the Sugar Industry affecting as it did the purchasing power of other 
Islands and the monetary condition of the breeders here, but I have 
no doubt that with anything like returning prosperity this trade will 
revive to the advantage of both sides 

The advantage to importers to Ihet-e countries to get a horse already 
acclimatised and bred in the same climate cannot be over estimated 
and will give us a very considerable advantage over countries in more- 
Northern Latitudes. 

When Major, now Colonel, Blagrove was in Jamaica investigating 
the question of Cavalry remounts I had the privilege of accompanying 
him to several places in St. Elizabeth to examine and measure the 
horses and brood mares. He iniormed me that whilst he did not think 
the Jamaican horses large enough for heavy cavalry he thought they 
would be admirably suited for mounted Infantry. He also expressed 
himself exceedingly pleased at the soundness of the Jamaican horses 
and their freedom from heritable unsoundness of any sort. 

When the late Lord De Clifford was in Jamaica I had the pleasure 
of entertaining him at Montpelier. I then had three English Sires 
serving there, Sir Amyas, Black Bead and Hubert, and besides my own 
mares there were 30 or 40 mares from other pens to three horses. I 
showed Lord De Clifford about 60 mares, after carefully examining 
them, he said that in a large breeding establishment in England you 
would see larger and finer mares, with more fashion and quality — but 
you would never see such a collection of mares so sound and utterly 
free from heritable unsoundness which in England disfigures two thirds 
of the mares. I gather from this testimony and from my own 
knowledge of the subject that with care, attention and judicious feeding 
of the young stock we are capable of breeding, rearing and supplying 
the very horse for Mounted Infantry Remounts. 

A. C, Paton, Esq. : (1) The prospect of an export trade to the West 
Indies is I think a very limited one and seems to be practically only 
for racing purposes, for which the supply in Jamaica seems to be quite 
equal to the demand, the West Indies seeming to find it more advan- 
tageous to get their working stock from America. 

(2.) The exportation of Polo Ponies could, I believe, be caraied on 



231 

with good results, very few countries, if any, have such suitable mares 
to breed Polo Ponies from as Jamaica. We have got, whatc annot be 
got elsewhere, a breed of naturally small thoroughbreds. The mares 
of which, if the right type, are the ideal m .res to breed Polo Ponies. 
These mares if crosst d with a 14.8h.h.or 15h.h. weight-carrying hunter 
type of stallion would, I believe, breed us weight-carrying Polo Ponies. 
If we could export weight carrying 'unmade" Polo P. nies as 4 year 
olds in February or March before the Polo season began I believe they 
would make about £40 each. If "made" prior to being sent over it 
is hard to say what they would make. 

I consider that in breeding Polo Ponies here in Jamaica we have a 
considerable advantage to what we have in breeding any other variety 
of horse, firstly because we have the mares and general conditions most 
suited for Polo Ponies and secondly, the Polo Pony is comparatively a 
new variety of horse. To within a year or two ago a polo pony was 
only a chance bred animal. If we go in for Polo Pony breeding we 
are therefore starting at the begining whereas with hackneys, or any 
other breed we will be starting after the breed is practically perfected. 

(3.) What I have said as regard Polo Ponies applies equally to re- 
mounts as the ideal remount is, I believe, the weight carrying Polo 
Pony type. The ponies that were too big or when tried were found 
unsuitable for Polo would make excellent remounts. 

A. Roxburgh, Esq. : 1. Cannot form any idea. 

2. Polo Ponies for England must be very fast. To breed such, 
special Stallions are necessary, as the ordinary thoroughbred is too big. 
But if we had a couple of real good pure bred pony stallions, the pro- 
perty of the Government, to which nothing but carefully selected mares 
be put, we could breed a Polo Pony second to none and well worth 
the expense of feeding and shipment to England, where for good ponies 
long prices are paid in a certain market. Mou'^ted Infantry horses 
could also be raised here but breeders wont feed their young stock un- 
less a sure market is before them. 

J. Shore, Esq.: Many. 

1. Barbados gladly takes Jamaican hard built ponies. Other Islands 
likely to, also. 

2. I cannot say, but think there should be good prospects. 

3. This is the main point, I am certain that Jamaica can be made a 
great centre for Remounts. Several estates abandoning cane cultiva- 
tion in the drier districts can with profit go in for this, provided their 
is a chance of sale. 

Cuttle raising hardly pays now and will be worse when more sugar 
estates are abandoned ; so that horse breeding for remounts should 
take its place. 

B.Toole, Esq.: (1) A fair prospect (presuming we improve our 
present stock) provided the Steamship Companies reduce their present 
rates for conveyance to a moderate amount and offer better facilities 
generally for transport. 

(2.) We can breed Polo Ponies all right, but the same difficulties 
arise as at (1) 

(3.) This is somewhat different, we must raise the average height to 



232 

Bcarly fifteen hands, and the same difficulties with regard to the cost 
of conveyance will still exist. 

A. B. Ventresse, Esq. : (1.) In this direction it appears to me from 
my experience in the other Islands that trade would be a very small 
one, and the people in these Islands are more inclined to import from 
the north, than they would be from Jamaica There will always be a 
small interchange owing to facilities being better and the Jamaican 
horse is already acclimatised, but I should not think the trade would 
bs one to cater for except by the occasional breeder, who might have 
trade connections in the other Islands. 

(2.) Our horses are small enough now, and if we go into the impor- 
tation for Polo Ponies I think it will be a great mistake and again oc- 
casionally the individual breeder might do well to turn his attention 
to Polo Ponies, providing he has stock suitable therefor, but I think 
it would be a mistake for the Government to encourage anything m 
this line at the present time. 

(3.) Mounted Infantry Remounts I think should be particularly 
encouraged and it is the one hope that should be looked forward to in 
the future of horse-breeding in Jamaica, my opinion on this is sum- 
med up in a few words in answer to question 1 and 2. 

C. L. Walker, Esq. : 1 & 2. Larger animals will create a demand. 
Unforeseen, but good stock will be in demand for the other West 
Indian Islands, and for remounts, &c., &c. 

Hon. W. Watson : At present our horses are so much run down that 
a decent selection for remounts could not be had, but the country 
affords every facility for working up our liors^s into a high class set 
of remounts, for anj^ rough tropical or semi-tropical countr3\ 

Minute by H. H. Cousins. 

1. There is a demand for racers and draft stock from the other 
islands. A considerable extension of this trade can be relied upon. 

2. Polo Ponies must be left as a speculation for players who can 
make a smart Polo Pony out of a £12 animal. 

3. The light cavalry remount is the foundation upon which a revival 
of our horse-breeding industry must be based. Steps should be taken to 
impress the War Office with the special and sterling merits of the Ja- 
maican horse for tropical and sub-tropical work and to try and get terms 
that would enable breeders here to produce at a profit. 

4. Get the War Office to appoint a local officer to see yearlings and 
collect and feed on pens } earlings from peasantry. 

8. What are your views as to the secondary advantages of producing 
larger stock for breeding draft mules ? 

5. C. Burke : 'Ihe breeding of mules in Jamaica seems well able to 
take care of itself. As an industry it is in a very much more flourish- 
ing condition than horse-breeding, but as the two must go hand in hand 
it will be nee ssary when considering the h^rse question to deal with 
mules also. The demand for mules in consequence of the importance 
of the banana trade is so great and continuous that breeders have dur- 
ing the last ten years, been neglecting horses and turning their ener 



233 



gies to mule-breeding. The immediate result of this policy is that 
there are nearlj^ twice as many mules as horses being bred in the 
country, and although we have not yet begun to feel it, in a few years 
there will be a very serious scarcity of horses. When that occurs there 
will be a proportionate scarcity of mules. 

That the class of our mules can be generally improved goes without 
saying. Any mare is regarded as good enough to breed mules from. 
The class of jack from which the majority of persons breed is very bad 
and deficient in size. I believe that I have seen nearly all the donkeys 
in the large penns in the island and I am sure that there are not half a 
dozen which stand over 14 hands. I cannot help thinking, therefore, 
that more good can be done to improve the size of the mules which 
we breed by importing a larger and heavier class of jack than by try- 
ing to improve the size of our mares My experience is that the mares 
which breed the best mules are the short-legged, thick set deep bodied 
ones, — mares of the type of the weight carrying Polo Pony — and I 
believe that if all our mares were of this type we woul I get better 
mules from them when crossed with really big jacks— I mean 14*2 
to 15 hands donkeys— than the mules bred from leggy mares. Large 
mules are not a necessity in Jamaica. In fact in the hilly parts of 
the country they are a disadvantage and cannot stand the work. A 
short legged, stout-bodied 14-2 mule is what everybody wants and 
what everybody will buy and I believe that such a mule can best be 
bred from mares of the polo type when crossed with large jacks. 

Hon. J, V. Calder : The owners of the few mares who are now 
breeding mules are making a great mistake in not keeping a certain 
number to breed mule mares and thus keep up their supply and have 
for sale the colts. 

I had to buy mules at £23 a few months ago that could have been 
bought 3 years ago for £18. 

The mules bred by the peasantry are too small. 

It would be wise for the Government to subsidize a Jackass in St. 
Catherine, Manchester, St. Elizabeth, St Ann and probably Clarendon 
and place their services at the disposal of the public for a nominal fee. 
I don't know why this was discontinued' by the Agricultural Society. 
A bonus should be paid for each peasant's mare to the owner of the 
jack on evidence that the mare had produced a cub. I don't think it 
is desirable to pay a premium to the owner of the jack, as he may not 
get many mares. 

Imported mares would not do to breed mules as a rule — but they 
would in the hands of competent owners. 

W. G. Clark, Esq. : The mare progeny of the "Cleveland Bay," 
will certainly improve the size of mules in every way. 

Jack Donkey importation ahould be encouragrd in the same way as 
stallions ; numbers of jack donkeys to-day have a disease called, I under- 
stand, "l3onkey Farcy" ; they are mostly little weedy things that must 
do no end of damage among mares or jinnies not only getting weedp 
miserable mules and cubs but diseased besides. They ought to be cas- 
trated or taxed heavily. 



234 

W. Cradwick, Esq. : In the event of a serious attempt being made 
to revive the horse-breeding industry, and to produce the class of 
animals mentioned, it should be done and confined to the best horse 
raising districts, and the greatest care should be taken to see that the 
mares are properly mated. 

The mountainous parts of St. Elizabeth, near the sea, seem to be very 
favourable for the production of good small horses, the plains for bigger 
stock. The good little ones are, and always should be more plentiful 
than the good big ones, and I think success along these lines would 
be more easily obtained and be more worth obtaining than attempts to 
produce big horses except for mule breeding. This attempr, should 
however certainly be made, and I take it that the crop of gelciings 
which would inevitably be produced would furnish carriage horses, 
cavalry remounts, etc. 

J. Daly, Esq. : A first class ass, and at a much cheaper rate to meet 
the purse of the peasant proprietors — Say at a charge of 15/ each mare. 

H. G. T. Drew, Esq : Naturally the largest mares for this purpose 
are most desirable, but I think what is the principal cause of the pro- 
duction of the small weedy mules which are so plentiful, is the fact 
that old worked out raai-es, ; fter they are unfit for any work are then 
•'thrown up to breed," the result of this is that they themselves are 
run down in constitution, and are barely able to supply their cubs with 
proper nutriment With well built healthy young mares and a well 
fed donkey from say 4 to 12 years old, fairly large with plenty of bone, 
judiciously exercised, our Jamaica mules will be much improved. 

C. A. T. FuRSDON, Esq. : It is an open question if it is not ad- 
visable to leave the size of our mules alone, they are wonderful 
animals and speaking generally are well adapted for the work re- 
quired of them. The demand for mules of the American type is limited 
to the level banana land and the coast towns, but an effort might, 
with advantage be made to put bigger bodies on to the shaft mules by 
the use of better donkeys. 

For the present I would confine the effort to producing larger 
horsekind rather than mules. 

J. M. GriBB, Esq., Y.S. : 8. Selected mares bred with a 14 or 14.2 
should give us mules of 14 hands and upwards. Districts that are 
known to be successful in horse-rearing should be the ones which should 
receive the attention of the Board of Agriculture in their selections 
for locating the stallions and mares and a strict return should be kept 
of all mares served, number of times put, number proved, and foaled. 

The Board should be satisfied that the Stud Groom understands his 
duties. He should accompany the stallion at all times, so that, the 
animal whilst knowing him can be better cared and looked after. 
This groom could be employed by the Board, and subject to dismissal 
by them. Suitable quarters must at all times and places be provided 
for stallion and groom. 

A certain dietary could be provided for " in season" and '* out of 



season." 



235 

The Stud Groom must be fully cognisant of the disi ases of marea 
which would be injurious to the health of the stallions. 

B. S. GossET, Esq. : I think it most important to breed larger stock 
for breeding draft mules. There is a ready sale for large well made 
mules but they are not easy to breed. 

H W. Griffith, Esq. : Mares from 15 h.h. to 15-2 h h. are the 
most useful for breeding mules for draft purposes, above this height ia 
not necessary as a good deal depends upon the " Ass." 

Mules of from 14 '1 h.h. to 14 2 h.h. are most useful ; mules above 
this height cannot do quick, active work, such as drawing out bananas, 
and logwood, &c., out of difficult places. The larger mules are most use- 
ful for carrying dead weights on the level streets, such as town work. 

Colonel H. E. C. Kitchener : Bonus for American Jacks. 

A. P. LocKw^ooD WiNGATE, EsQ. : I think this can be safely left to 
private enterprise: we can now produce 14* I to 14*3 mules, which I 
think are quite big enough for the work here, and sell them at re- 
munerative prices, and as long as we can do that, mares big enough to 
produce these mules will be found. And if regular importations of 
stallions are kept up, the size of the mares will keep up too and not run 
small as they are doing now, aud we shall always then have mares big 
enough to produce mules of the above size. 

Hon G McGrath : While I do not appreciate a large and leggy 
mule for our description of work, I am willing to admit there are too 
many weedy and small mules being produced, this I think might be 
prevented, by the Government preventing the use of asses not up to a 
certain size and with this suggestion the mule-breeding industry may 
be left to take care of itself. 

A. C. L. Martin, Esq. : Having bred mule Royals myself I can 
make bold to say they are hardier than the mules out of mares, will 
grow to a serviceable size and more cheaply bred They should be bred 
from large Jennies covered by a 14 hand horse. It is absolutely ne- 
cessary that a few donkeys should be imported for sire purposes both to 
improve the class of jennies now existing and to produce native bred 
animals for sire purposes to produce mules from inares. It is with 
great difficulty at the present time to obtain the services of a really 
good ass to cover a jenny. The owner of the best ass I know of will 
only take jennies after the season for serving mares is over and to 
ensure success in donkey breeding the jennies should be covered 
when they are in heat otherwise the venture proves abortive. 

There are too many undersized asses and horses serving in the 
island, at fees ranging from 6/- to 12/- and owing to this the peasantry 
do not patronise animals that will improve their si ock whose service 
fee is a guinea. 

E. "W. Muirhead, Esq. : M ule Breeding is extensively taken up now, 
the increase in the fruit trade having caused a good demand in which 
there is much more money than horse breeding. If the Imperial 



236 

Government could be persuaded to undertake to buy all the horses and 
mules, of the description size and class they require, at 4 years old, say 
for £30 each, then there might be some inducement and hope of our 
doing all that Sir Alfred Jones would like to see in this direction. 

Mares for mule breeding of the type of those used for livery, buss 
and car purposes (unsuited on account of some small blemishes) would 
be very useful here, where I suppose we have some of the best proof 
asses to be found anywhere. 

Generally. It is quite possible for us to produce from our present 
stocks of mares and donkeys a mule of 14 or 15 hands at 4 years old. 
We have frequent enquiry and often effect sales at £30 each, but few 
of the breeders are in a position just now to wait till then. 

"With regard to horses they require more feeding from yearlings than 
the breeders can afford to give them with the uncertainty of a sale, but if 
a sale is guaranteed the extra expense will be incurred which is essential 
with increased importations. 

J. T. Palache, Esq. : I have already partially answered this in reply 
to Reference II. but I would add that another point of mule breeding 
is the importation of some good she asses as well as proof asses for 
breeding; an improved ass in Jamaica and the encouragement by 
premiums of pony stallions that will cover Jennies and breed Mule 
Royals. 

These Mule Royals are larger, more docile and in all respects better 
than the ordinary mule, and the saving in breeding is considerable as 
the price of one mule mare equals thai of three or four Jennies and the 
keep of a Jenny one fourth that of the mare. 

I desire to add a few suggestions not covered by the references but 
embraced in the subject generally. It is absolutely necessary to 
encourage racing so as to promote horse breeding. 

In former days racing was encouraged by the Government and horse 
breeding flourished. In the early part of the last century at Pepper and 
Goshen larger breeding establishments existed than have ever existed 
in England even at the present day. As the encouragement for racing 
was withdrawn so horse breeding fell off until to-day it is almost nil. 

It is racing and nothing else that has built up the British thorough- 
bred 10 what it is to-day, viz. : The standard from which all other parts 
of the world obtain their stud animals for improving their respective 
breeds. "What Great Britain is to the world to-day, Jamaica was at one 
time to the rest of the West Indies, Mexico, Central and South 
America ; and this position can be restored if only all those interested 
would join heart and hands for the purpose. 

For centuries racing has been supported in England by grants from 
the Hevenue for King's or Queen's plates. 

But when races by means of companies and gate-money meetings 
were instituted, that attracted all the best horses, and left the Queen's 
plate to be competed for by inferior horses. Queen's plates were 
abolished.. The money however was not withch-awn from the original 
object of encouraging horse-breeding, but was continued in premiums 



237 

for stallions examined and approved to stand in certain districts at a 
regulated fee so as to come within the means of small farmers. 

In the olden days Queen's plates were given in Jamaica and pre- 
miums for the importation of stud animals for improving the different 
breeds of domestic animals. The Law regulating this, 26 Vic. Sess. 1 
c. 3, expired in 1866 and has never been wholly re-enacted, although 
the Government has granted one Queen's purse for Kingston every 
year until five years ago when it was discontinued. The Jamaica 
Agricultural Society started for a short time to grant premiums for 
stallions to serve in districts at a reduced fee and really good work 
was done when the services of horses like Blue Rock and Blue Jacket 
were available, but this bus also been discontinued. I would therefore 
suggest the re-enactment of 26 Vic. Sess. 1, c. 3, with such modifica- 
tions and improvements as the circumstances require Establish a 
-system of premiums for stallions and proof asses to be stationed in 
various parts of the island at such fees as shall be within the means 
of all. 

Adopt the French system of examining and certifying stallions and 
proof asses and allowing only such as are certified to serve. If any 
more details as to the framing of the scheme and the Law necessary 
for carrying it out are required, I shall be glad to give any further 
information or assistance in my power. 

Hon. Dr. Pringle. : I think with the importation of good jacks, 
with our mares — especially improved as I have before suggested, we 
could produce the size mules best suited for Jamaica work and export 
too. 

A. Roxburgh, Esq. : I don't think the want is in our mares but in 
the jacks. Our mares would produce much larger mules if our jacks 
were better. 

Some of my best mules are produced from 14 hands 1 inch mares, 
of course they are roomij animals. This I consider a sine qua non in 
all breeding that is to be successful. 

The foal or calf or any thing miisthsLYe room to grow before birth. 
However with the mares on hand but with better jacks we can pro- 
duce a much better stamp of mule than we do. 

Messrs. T. H. Sharp & Son : Our mares are quite good enough, a 
large premium should be given for the importation of jack asses from 
Malta. The progeny of the Maltese ass gives a splendid all round 
mule. The Kentucky asses and mares are unsuitable to this island. 
They breed big and worthless mules. 

J. Shore, Esq. : I am of opinion that prepotency in the sire is of 
more advantage than large mares. 

Good big jacks, well built, are better than smaller ones mated with 
*•' big mares. 

I have found that the dums as a rule convey their outward charac- 
teristics (such as quick or slow draught, good or bad gait, &c.) to their 



238 

progeny ; but that stamina and toughness generally come from the sire, 
after thorough acclimatization. 

B. Toole, Esq. : The production of large stock (mares) for breeding 
mules is highly desirable. Two-thirds of the mules at present in the 
Island while tough and hardy enough, are too small and this in many 
cases entails the working of three animals where two larger ones 
would suffice 

The desired improvement cannot be attained by the breeding of large 
mares only. I think it of equal importance to have a few lurge jacks 
imported on the same lines as the stallions, or perhaps the large jacks 
at present in the Island, owned by private individuals, could be subsi- 
dised to such an extent that their service would be available for a 
moderate charge. 

I do not mean it to be understood that there are not many good 
stallions, and mares too, at present in the Island, but the difficulty is 
that their services are beyonl the reach of the ordinary settler, who in 
preference to paying what he considers a high fee and sending his mare 
a long distance, satisfies himself with the service of his neighbour's 
pony whose highest ambition is to carry his owner's breadkind to market 
in hampers, or perhaps to help to draw his John Crow mill. 

IlNiTED Fruit Co. : We think the producing of larger stock for 
breeding draft mules of primary rather than of secondary importance. 
And as we do not agree with the importation of mares, to attain this 
end, we hold, a law should be enacted to prohibit breeders and stock- 
owners in general from keeping either for breeding or other purposes, 
any stallion under the height of 14 '2 hands. This done, it would be 
practically easy to raise the standard of our mares, and with gooi im- 
ported jacks, the desired end will be accomplished in a few years. 

A. B. Yentresse, Esq. : I think my views in reply to this question 
are practically state I in answer to 6 (1). There is no doubt whatever 
that we do require larger stock for breeding draft mules, but the great 
reason at pres nt why our mules are so small is on account of the 
small donkey stallions spread all over the country ; some determined 
efforts should be made by the Governmeut to do away with these, and 
at present I do not see anything more feasible than a heavy tax for 
the keeping of entires. We must get rid of our under- sized and under- 
bred stallions and jacks, then we shall breed up to the best we have, 
and not down to our worst as at present. 

I should prefer the importation of mares if it can be encouraged on 
a large enough scale to produce the desired results. A sliding scale 
would have to be adopted to prevent monopoly and favouritism, hence 
a bounty might with advantage be paid, but the bounty should only 
be on Hunters and Hackneys; our own stallions Ciossed with these 
would produce just what is i^equired for our own use and for remounts. 

Probubl}' something like the following might be advisable, namely, 
a bounty of five guineas per head each for wone or two mares, for one 
pen or one individual Penkeeper ; four guineas for each of three; 



239 

three guineas each for four or five ; and two guineas each up to 
ten, etc. 

The breeding of Polo Ponies and all other fancy fads is not the duty 
of the Government to promote, these should always be left to work out 
their own salvation. 

E-. A. "Walcott, Esq. : It is desirable to have larger stock for 
breeding draft mules ; but if our ordinary stock were properly and 
regularly fed when young they would be large enough, and could not 
be improved upon. 

C. L. Walker Esq. : By importing large stallions and mares and 
large proof asses the natural result will be large mules. 

Hon. William Watson : If the suggestions are carried out 
of importing largely of upsize stallions, with plent}^ of bone, there 
would be a wonderful improvement in our mares, then with a number 
of imported jacks, standing 14 or 15 hands, we could get a good type 
of mule. 

It may be a little outside of this question, but it is highly desii'able 
that some means be arrived at, whereby no one be allowed to keep or 
use as astud any under-sized or runted creature. Let it be prohibitory 
to keep any horse, under 14 hands, to use him for breeding purposes. 
This will probably do more to improve the breed than anything else. 

J. R. Williams, Esq. : The breeding of mares suitable for producing 
larger and stronger mules ought not I think to be styled a 'secondary' 
advantage. Consideririg the importance of mules in our agricultural 
development, it is of primary importance, putting aside the possibility 
of an export trade in horses, more important than the breeding of 
horses. And the majority of Pens which breed a limited number of 
horsekind have chiefly in view filly colts out of which t^ey may sup- 
ply mule-mares. It is not a very good plan, for the mares put to' 
the horse are mostly those which refuse to breed readily for the ass, 
and these are likely to transmit the same disqualification to their issue 
But mule-breeding is of primar}' importHUce. 

I think we would improve the standard of mule-mares by imparting 
stallions of the typs of which I have suggested my approval, and by 
using the-e imported stallions or local stallions subsidized in the way 
I have indicated. 

But what we speciall}^ need is a better type of stud ass, attainable 
for something less, a good deal less, than from £70 to £100. And 
something might be done under Government subsidy in this direction, 
b}' importing large and good asses, half a dozen or so, t > serve jennies 
onl}' at approved centres. For the first few years 6 or 8 months at one 
centre would be sufiicient. If we have a Stock Farm then it should 
certainly be one of iis enterprises to breed and sell large thoroughbred 
asses. In consequence of the reluctance of the owners of the best siud 
asses to serve jennies — for good and sufficient reasons — and the con- 
sequent scarcity of really good Jacks, the breeding of mules in Jamaica 
seems to me to be in rather worse case than horse-breeding, and to 
claim quite as urgently as the improvement of horsekind, if not more 
urgently, the attention of the authorities. 



240 

Summary by H. H. Cousins. 

1. As regards horsekind, the mule problem will be solved by a 
general improvement in the former on lines already laid down. 

2. Premiums should be paid for approved jacks to be used by the 
peasantry at a nominal fee. 

I do not approve of compulsory castration of donkeys, since this 
would deteriorate the working powers of the beasts of burden of the 
small settlers. 

3. One or more high class jacks of the Maltese type should be im^ 
ported. Improved donkeys should be bred at the Stock Farm from 
selected Jamaican asses. 

5. The Horse Show should be encouraged. A special grant for 
horse prizes to be made at the chief Shows in the Island. 



[Issued 3rd Oct., 1903.] 



Printed at the Govt. Printing Office, Kingston, Jam. 



Vol. I. 



NOVEMBER, 1903. 



Part 11. 



BULLETIN 



OF TBB 



DEPARTMENT OF AeRICULTURE, 



> ^ < 



EDITED BY 



WILLIAM FAWOBTT, B.Sc, F.L.S. 



Director of Public Gardens and Plantations. 



■^ > • ♦ •<^*- 



CONTENTS: 



Jamaican Fodders — I. 

Orange Weevil 

Budding of Mangoes 

Budding of Cocoa 

Pines in the Azores 

Composition of Jamaican Fruits 

Advice to owners of damaged Coco-nut Trees 



Page. 

241 

249 
253 
255 

258 
258 
264 



PRICE-Threepence. 



A Copy will be supplied free to any Resident in Jamaica, who will send Name and 
Address to the Director of Public (Tardeus and PlantatioKS, Kingston P.O. 



KINGSTON, JAMAICA : 

HoPB Gakdens. 

1903. 



JAMAICA 



BULTjBTl><r 



OF THE 



DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



Vol. I. NOVEMBER, 1903. Part 11. 



JAMAICAN FODDERS.— I. 

By H. H. Cousixs, M.A. (Oxon.), F C.S. 
(Government Analytical and Agricultural Chemist.) 



Introduction. 

One of the great natural advantages of our island, and a feature which 
affords sure ground for basing an improved and progressive agriculture, 
is the facility with which luxuriant crops of grasses and fodder plants 
can be obtained over a large proportion of the country. So bountiful 
in this respect has nature been tliatthe j.rovvingof fodder crops under 
tillage is almost unknown and the mere cutting down and clearing <>f 
bush and waste lau'i is frequently sufficient to o'titain a luxuriant 
growth of guinea gras«. 

The grounds of the Government Laboratory are a striking illustra- 
tion of this fact. So luxuriant has been t^ e growth of the guinea 
grass since the hurricane that specimens measuring over 11 feet in 
height to the point at which the flowering spike emerged have been 
recorded. The most far-reaching results in the social and material 
condition of our peasantry would follow from a general recognition by 
the people of the advantages of mixed farming and the steady im- 
provement of a localised holding, as compared with the nc.madic fire- 
stick wastage which at present ranks as the agriculture of a large sec- 
tion of our small cultivators. 

The hurric me has taught us the national peril i f growing bananas 
without a complement of gioimd provisions as security against a 
'blow.' The logic of the empt}^ stom. ch will drive this home to a 
practical conviction on many a peasant holding during the coming 
months. All teachers and adviser-* of the people, the clergy, the 
magistrates and all agricultural teucliers should now use their inlluence 
to set the people to work to ensure against such a disaster in the future 



242 

by the reo;ular and systematic cultivation of home-grown food-stuffs. 
A 6-monihs' crop of peas and swet-t potatoes on a single acre will yield 
an adequate and balanced ration for five men for six months. If one 
half of each holding were reserved for the growth of fodder crops, 
and a cow or mare and a sow or two formed a portion of the live-stock 
of the establishment, the manure from the animals would give a 
security for the grnde of fruit and the yield of provisions. After ten 
years of such farming the crops would, if anything, be better than at 
first. 

The composition and feeding value of the various fodder products 
available in Jamaica and the possibility of obtaining improved varieties 
and the introduction of new fodder-plants is a mutter that the Board 
of Agriculture will of necessity find it necessaiy to investigate. 

The following results have been obtaine 1 in ihe Government Labora- 
tory and may be regarded as a preliminary survey of matter which 
Avill need special treatment and investigation on its merits later. 

The Samples. 

I have to thank the following ladies and gentlemen for their personal 
services in securing representative and carefully prepared samples of 
fodders from different parts of the island : — 

Miss Steer, Trafalgar, St. Ann ; W. Craflwick, Esq., and Mrs. 
Oradwick, Mackfield, Westmoreland ; John Edward ■^, Esq., Knockalva, 
Hanover ; The Hon. R. P. Simmonds, Quebec, St. Mary ; A. P. Lock- 
wood Wingate, Esq, Pepper, Manchester. 

The chemical analyses are all the work of Mr. H. S. Hammond of 
this Department. 

Guinea Grass. {Panicum maximum, Jacq.) 

This is without question the most valuable general-purp< se fodder 
grown in Jamaica, and like most of our products shows great variation 
according to the soil and district upon which it is grown. Samples 
f om five parishes have been analysed, of these that from St. Ann 
holds the first place, followed by that from Hanover. The Manchester 
grass shows an inferior quality, while that from St. Mary although 
cimsidered a good grass for the district and genuine guin a grass, is 
decidedly the mos^ inferior of the five. 

The grass from St. Mary is little better than, good oat-straw in 
feeding value, while such grass as that obtained from St. Ann is quite 
equal to good Timothy grass in general feeding value. 

The effect of irrigation, manures and the period of ripening have 
still to be ascertained. There is evidently a reduction in the amides 
owing to their elaboration into the more valuable albuminoids with the 
ripening of the plant, although this is probably associated with an in- 
crease in the " bone" or indigestible stem and fibre of the grass. 

Guinea grass is most susceptible to manuring, and where grass is 
valuable it should pay to treat the grass pieces liberally in this respect 
when they show signs of exhaustion. 



243 











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-244 



Para Grass Panicum muticum. 





A St 


. Ann. 


B. Hanover. 


Constituents. 












Sun Dried. 


Dry 


Suii I)ri d 


Dry. 


Moisture 


12 57 




14-91 




Fat, Wax, &c. 


0-80 


0-91 


0-44 


5i 


Albuminoids 


5-64 


6-44 


5 8-) 


6-87 


Amides 


1-57 


1-81 


5-13 


6 03 


Total Nitrogenous ") 
Matter ) 


7'2I 


8-25 


1(1-98 


12-90 


Carbohydrates 


40 66 


46 5 


33 '25 


39 08 


Fibre 


\S^-i'S 


37-8:i 


.',3 93 


3i)-87 


Ash 


5-fi8 


6-50 


6-49 


7-63 


Potash 




0-h- 




0-70 


Lime 




0-90 




0-40 


Phosphoric Acid 




()47 




u-44 



Here again we see marked variation in the composition of the same 
grass grown in two different situations and districts. Tlie Hanover 
Para grass sf ows a very high feeding quality. For growing stock 
and milk produci ion the Para grass shows a decided superiority to the 
Guinea grass grown under the same conditions. The nitrogenous 
constituents are in a most favourable proportion. This grass is un- 
doubtedly of high value in those districts to which it is well suited. 



Pimento Grass. Stenotaphrum americanum. 

Constituents. Dried at Sun Dried. G.een. 

100° (\ 



Moisture 


■ • • 




15-75 


80-78 


Fat, wax, &c. 


• * • 


1-64 


1-38 


0-32 


Albuminoids 




7-25 


6-12 


1-38 


Amides 




1-37 


1-14 


('.28 


Total Nitrogenous 


} 








Matter 


8-62 


7-26 


1 66 


Carbohydrates 




48-58 


40-93 


9-33 


Fibre 




3313 


27-91 


6-37 


Ash 




803 


6-77 


1-54 


Potash 




76 






Lime 




0-66 






Phosphoric Acid 




58 







245 

This grass came from St. Ann and does not compare with e'tlier of 
the two preceding species as a source of large crops of luxuriant growth. 
It is, however, a valuable common grass. This sample appears to be 
slightly inferior in f- eding quality to the common grass of the same 
species from Westmoreland of which Mr. Cradwick speaks so highly. 



Miscellaneous Pasture Grasses from Westmoreland. 





Common Grass. 


Common Grass. 


Corn Grass 




A. In 


flower. 


B. In flower. 


flowering. 






b 




Q 




d 


Constituents. 




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O 




o 




o 

O 




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a 




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a 






02 




X 




CO 




Moisture 


13-19 




13-03 




11 95 




Fat, Wax Ac. 


1-0- 


1-24 


0-49 


0-57 


l-.'.6 


1-55 


Albuminoids 


8-0::! 


9-24 


8-36 


9-ol 


7-77 


8-82 


Amides 


1-23 


1-42 


0-33 


0-39 


1-58 


1 -80 


Total Nitrogenous ") 
Matter J 


9-2.0 


10-66 


8-69 


10-00 


9-35 


10-62 


Carbohydrates 


42 -22 


48-64 


43-45 


49-95 


35-37 


40-17 


Fibre 


27-52 


31-70 


27 • --^4 


81 -32 


3-2-73 


37-17 


Ash 


6-74 


7-76 


7-10 


8-16 


9-24 


10-49 


r Potash. 




1-34 




1-1-2 




2-07 


-^ Lime 




0-48 




0-48 




n-76 


(^Phosphoric Acid 


• 


0-69 




0-73 




57 



With reference to the Common grass of which he sent two samples 
Mr. Cradwick writes : 

"This is the best permanent pasture probably in the world. I have 
a filly which gets five quarts of corn or oats a day, and the tenth share 
of about three acn s of this pasture and is as fat as a mole ; she works 
as a rule three or four day a week and is always in sliow condition. 
Common around Knockalva is equal to Guinea grass if kept clean, 
which very few are, I am sorry to say, always, of course, excepting 
Knockalva." 

And with reference to * Corn grass.' 

" A very fine feeding for > oung brood, and out-of- condition stock ; 
nearly as good as Spanish needle " 



246 

Spanish Needle. Westmoreland. {Bidens leucantha, Willd.) 



Constituents. 


• • • 


Dried at 
100° C. 


Sun Dried. 


Green 


Moisture 




15-83 


90-01 


Fat 


• • « 


1 54 


1-30 


0-15 


Albuminoids 


• • • 


10-91 


9-19 


1-09 


Amides 


• • • 


0-91 


0-76 


0-09 


Total Nitrogenous 


" 


11 8i 


9-95 


1-18 


Matter 








Carbohydrates 


• • * 


a3-56 


28-24 


3 36 


Fibre 


• • • 


3S.34 


32-27 


3-8 i 


Ash 


... 


14-74 


12.41 


1 47 


Potash 


• • II 


3-80 






Lime 


• • • 


1-64 


• 




Phosphoric Acid 


... 


0-54 







Mr. Cradwick who sent this sample writes : 

" I find from actual experience that Spanish Needle is splendid feed- 
ing for horses off condition, picking them up very rapidly ; it acts as 
a slight purgative and for a horse in poor condition, suffering from 
worms, etc., is a wonderful fodder. All horses eat it greedily." 

The A nalysis supports this claim. The proportion of flesh-producing 
albuminoids is high, decidedly in excess of any of the fodders previous- 
ly reported upon. This plant grows freely in many banana planta- 
tions in St. Mary and would form an admirable addition to the local 
guiijoa-grass as a food for stock. It has been found excellent as a 
green manure on banana properties. 

Bread-Nut Fodder. {Brosimum Alicastrum, Stv.) 
Constituents. Dried at 1 00° C. Sun Dried. G-reen. 



Moisture 






15-86 






61-08 


Fat, wax, &c. 




3 15 


2-62 






1-2 3 


Albuminoids 




10-69 


8 99 






4. 16 


Amides 




3-62 


3-05 






1-41 


Total Nitrogenous 
M atter 




14-31 


12-04 






5-57 


Carbohydrates 
Fibre 




49 22 
25-57 


41-45 
21-51 






19.15 
9-05 


Ash 




7-75 


6-52 






3-02 


Potash 




0-72 










Lime 




1 08 










Phosphoric Acid 




0.50 










This is a valuable 


fodder- product. It is, for a tro, 


)ica 


1 fodder, un- 


usually rich in nitro 


genous matter and 


deservedly 


holds 


a high place 


as a food for stock. 


The 


sample came 


from St. A 


nn 


where it grows 


freely. 















247 



Ramoon (Trophis 


americnn'i, 


Linn.) 






St. Ann. 


Westm 


oreland. 


Constituents. 












Sun Dried. 


Dried at 
100° C. 


Sun Dri d. 


Dried at 
100° C. 


Moisture 


14-12 


, 


11-60 




Fat, wax, &c. 


5-04 


5-87 


4-10 


4-63 


Albuminoids 


8 49 


9-89 


12-30 


I ^-91 


Amides 


1-15 


1 - <4 


2 22 


2-51 


Total Nitrogeneous 










Matter 


9-64 


11-23 


14-52 


16 42 


Carboliydrates 


41-61 


48 45 


38-96 


44-08 


Fibre 


22 74 


26-48 


19-47 


2^-03 


Asli 


6-8o 


7-i)7 


11-35 


12-84 


Potash 




0-78 




1-63 


Lime 




1-12 




2-31 


Phosphoric Acid 




0.51 




45 



Two samples of Rarnoou, representing the leaves and young twi^s of 
Trophis americana from St. Ann and W^'stmor-elatid are here compare 1. 
It is striking that the Ramoon from the latter parish is very greatly 
superior as regards nitrogenous constituents, This fodder holds pridti 
of place in this series and must be considered of high nutritive value. 

Mr. Oradwick, who sent this premier sample from Westmoreland 
writes :—" This is a fine stimulating and strengthening fod I er. A 
little Ramoon and plenty of common grass are, from my experience, 
an ideal feed for horses and mules." 

GuANGO {Pithecolohium Snman, Benth ) 





Set 


ds. 


Pods 


Contents. 












Natural 


Dried at 
100°C. 


Natuftil 


Dried at 
100° C. 


Moisture 


13-46 




20-46 




Fat, &c 


5-15 


5 95 


0-56 


0-71 


Albuminoids 


18-09 


20-90 


8-95 


11-25 


Ami^fs 


9-25 


10 69 


1-22 


1-54 


Total ISiirogenous 










Substance 


27-34 


31-59 


10-17 


12 79 


Glucose 


0-36 


0-42 


7-12 


8-95 


Total Carbohydrates 


38-20 


44-15 


55-35 


69-59 


Fibre 


12 10 


13-98 


11-55 


14-51 


'Ash 
Potash 


3-75 


4-33 


1-91 


2-40 




1-52 




1-40 


j Lime 




0-22 




0-04 


^Phosphoric .\cid . 




0-77 




0-74 



248 

An analysis of the Guungo as made by Professor J B. Harrison of 
Demerara was published in the Botanical Bulletin 1901, p. 154. This, 
as the analyst has since pointed out, ignored the fact that cattle and 
and horses only digest the pods while the seeds are excreted entire. 

In a recent report Professor Harrison has published separate an- 
alyses of the seed and the pods, and although the Demerara Quango 
varies greatly from that grown in the Liguanea plain in Jamaica, the 
main point is brought out by both analyses that the pods are greatly 
infeiior to the seeds in nitrogenous matter and that, in practice, the 
Guango is liy no means so rich a nitrogenous food as would appewr 
from the composition of the entire fruit, s eds and pod. Our samples 
averaged pods to seed as 5 to 1. 

The pods contain a good deal of glucose and a moderate proportion 
of albuminoid^ only. Could the seeds bn ground up a high-class 
cattle-feed should result. One of the difficulties is that of the sticky 
c insistency of the pulp of the pods, which would make the process of 
milling somewhat difficult. It, is probable, however, that if the pods 
were thoroughly dried before being milled that a satisfactory result 
would follow. 

Memorandum re Guvngo. {Bi/ J. Barclay.) 

Trees dr^p their leaves in January. 

Fruit ripens March to May ; drops when full ripe unless it is blown 
off by breeze. Eaten greedily by cattle and horses ; latter as with 
mangoes, reject most of the seed in chewing, but former eat all, and 
seed passes through and the droppings a month later may be seen 
covered with sprouting seedlings. This is by far the best way indeed 
to establish a nursery of young plants to secure young seedlings. 

Guango is a rich and cloying food, and when any other fodder is 
availabh* cows and horses will, as a rule, only eat a little at a time, then 
go to drink and eat something else. \Vhen plenty of water is avail- 
able at will for stock, they may live on i' almost entirely for a month 
to two months, drinking freely all the time, but if water is scarce the 
seeds may then block the stomach or intestines and cause illness ; but as 
the guango does not last in season vt ry long and ceases with the rains, 
a diet chiefly consisting of it, is not generally continued long enough to 
do harm as the ^ oung springing grass following is very laxative in 
effect. Some people (and it ought to be done to a much wider extent 
1 hat none should be wasted) gather the guango and store it, feed- 
iig it for months after it is out of se isoii. Tons of it, fiowever, are 
wasted and s ock keepeis, buying corn and oats at 5s. a bushel, crush 
the valuable pods under tneir f^et every day. There is a difficulty in 
curing it because of its saccharine con ent easily causing fermentation 
when it is siored, and it does not dry up and cure like corn, exposed to 
the sun in the pod. The reme iy I think is to crush it and dry it into 
a meal, and it needs a hot dry place to do this quickly. An artificial 
driet should work best. 



11 ICE Meal. 






Per Cenl 


Moisture 


14-11 


Fat 


0-23 


(Crude) Albuminoids* . 


6-12 


Carbohydrates 


35-04 


Fibre 


31-32 


Ash 


13- IH 


*Containg Amides 


0.43 



The above analysis is that of a sample of rice-raeal from Walter 
"Wooll'serofi, Esq., of Georges Plain, Westmoreland, who has esta*'- 
lished the rice industry on that i roperty. This product is readily 
eaten by horses and should be regarded rather as a substitute for corn 
than for oats, since it is by no means rich in Nitrogenous Constituents. 



1 



7. 



THE ORANGE WEEVIL. 

By E Stuart I'antox. 
The Orange Weevil* familiarly called " Fidler," represents a West 
Indian group of snout-beetles, said to number some 70 or 80 species, 
and is a member of an extensive family termed Ciuculiouidae, which 
contains many insects of very I rilliant colours. 

The weevil generally measures from half an inch to an inch and a 
quarter long, and constitutes a variety of local forms, most of which 
are brightly coloured, and it is likely that several, if not all, feed 
upon Citriis. 

The van', ty called rubro vittatus is probably that oftenest found cling- 
ing to Citrus trees. The male, (fig. 1 ] which is generally smaller than 

the female, (fig. 2) 
is shining black, 
with two bright red, 
longitudinal stripes 
on tlie elytra, or 
wing-cases, which 
enclose another 
similar, but white 
stripe down the mid- 
dle of the back ; 
while the female 
is generally, but 
not always, more or 
less covered with 
wliitisli scales, which 
m.ke the two red 
stripes on the elytra 
but faintly visible, 
and the white me- 
dian one, not at all. 







* Prajpodes vittatus, var. rubro viltatus. 



2^0 

In the imago or perfect state, they feed on tlie leaves of trees, while 
their grubs direct their attacks to the roots. 

It is evident that prior to the introduction of Citrus and other culti- 
vated plants into the West ladies, these insects must have lived upon 
some indigt^nous planter plants ; and in this connection it may be ob- 
served that I have seen them feeding on the leaves of the Trumpet 
tree (Cecropia peltata). 

So far as I am acquainted, the attacks of the beetles themselves on 
the leaves of Citrus are unimportant, as they only nibble the edges of 
the leaves, effecting no real injury to the foliage But the larva, which, 
when mature, measures about three-quarters of an inch in length, and 
is a soft, white, fleshy, footleas grub, with a brown head, is accused of 
doing serious damage to the roots of orange trees, where it is found to 
attack the outer tissues (fig. 3 side view of larva : fig. 4, view partly 
of underside). 

Apart from what has been stated above, nothing more is known of 
the habits and life-history of tht se insects, but it is probable that the 
females lay their eggs in the ground close to one of the roots of the 
tree and the eggs hatching, the little grubs find their way 'o the roots. 

But besides the larva of the Orange Weevil, I hav^ found the grubs 
of two species of Lamellicorn beetles feeding within the decayed roots 
of orange trees. One is a very large, whitish, fleshy grub, and is pro- 
bably that of Strategus iitanus. 

From my observations, however, I am led o believe that it is only 
when Citius trees become diseased that, any of these underground 
grubs attack the roots, and then ior the purpose of feeding on the 
dead and decaying tissues only. 

There is a very prevalent and mysterious disease that affects (citrus 
trees, and which I feel certain is responsible for the injury done to 
them that is generally attributed to the attacks of the Orange Weevil. 

The first signs that an orange tree shows of being affected by this 
malady is a paleness of the foliage, which afterwards becomes yellow, 
and numerous shoots or gormandizers arise from the trunk. 

The disease strikes to the heart of the tre-", taking its rise at the end 
of the tap or main root, working its way upward through the middle 
of the trunk, and eventually in the same way spreading to the branches 
and lateral roots. 

Should ts tree in an advanced stage of the disease be dug up, it will 
generally be found that the tap root has rotted off ; and if the trunk, 
larger branches and lateral roots be split open lengthwise, the centre 
or heart-wood will be seen to be dead, and of a brown colour, and pro- 
bably the habitation of a colony of Duck Ants, which will be found 
in long narrow passages or burrows throughout the the dead portion of 
the tree 

But itappetirs that the Duck Ants do no real damage to the tree, as 
they also only follow in the wake of the disease, obtaining an entratce 
from beneath the ground up througi the decayed tap root, eating 
their way along through the dead wood only, in the centre and 
branching portions of th-- tree. 

There are instances where orange trees have been deserted by Duck 
Ants after they have eaten away all the dead wood in the centre of the 



251 

tree, and yet in this shell-like state the tree retains sufficient vitality 
to bear good crops. 

Where such instances of partial recovery occur, it is probable that 
a sufficient number of roots remained healthy to give the tree a chance 
of life. 

Although the presence of Duck Ants in trees affected by this disease 
may be unimportant, efforts should be made to prevent them gaining 
an entrance to healthy trees, which they may do through dead branches, 
or from neglected cuts made in piuning, or other causes. Care should 
therefore be taken to remove all such branches, and to apply tar to cuts 
and wounds made in pruning. It is necessaty, however, to be careful 
when applying the tar, not to let it ouch the edge of the bark round 
the wound, as it burns the sap and so retar ds the bark closing up over 
the cut 

Sometimes but one side of a tree, or one or two branches only, show 
signs of being affected by the disease. 

The same disease attacks nursery plams, and destroys the tap root, 
but if the pLints are removed before they become badly affected, and 
are put into good soil, they will send out fresh roots and develop inta 
good trees. 

The cause of this disease appears to be thelackof sufficient drainage, 
for trees th:it are grown on gravelly soil, or among rocks, and also 
those on land with a sub- stratum of marl that may have but ten or 
twelve inches of soil above, are often found to thrive better, and live 
longer than those in deep soil on level land, or in valleys where the 
natural drainage is not so good. 

In view of these conclusions, the deep trenciing of groves where 
possible, and high planting recommended for Citrus tees by the Q-o- 
vernment Agricultural Instructors, cannot but be of gre .t importance. 

But should planters still believe that the larva of the Orange Weevil 
is responsible for the damage done to the roots of Citrus trees, the 
following remedies should be found useful for keeping the insect in 
check 

Remedies. 

(1) The destruction of the beetles whenever found. When possible 
they should be picked off the trees, as they often take flight before 
reaching the ground, when shaken from the branches. 

In May, June and July, the insect appears to be most frequently 
seen in the beetle stage. 

(2) Lime Dressinq. Remove all weeds from the tree, and with a fork 
stir the soil as far as the roots extend, and give a dressing of lime. 

In connection with lime dressing it may be mentioned that a soil 
rich in lime is considered necessary for the production of superior 
fruit. The lime not only tends to bring about an early crop, but also 
aids in producing a smooth -skinned orange. 

(3) Sulphate of Potash Dressing. T.) apply the Sulphate of Potash, 
prepare the ground in the same way as for lime dressing, and sprinkle 
about two quarts on the surface around each tree. This will produce a 
caustic action, penetrating to the roots and killing all grubs, etc , even 
destroying insect eggs that may be in the ground, or in the roots of 



255 

the tree. At the same time the sulphate of potash will, of course, act 
as a valuable fertilizer. 

Before passing en to the subject of natural remedies, it may be 
observed that in FloriHa and California, and other countries where 
Citrus fruits are grown, the groves are kept very clean, and in tho- 
rough cultivation, smd and that such graves suffer comparatively little 
from the borer and root-feeding class of insect pests And in those 
countries it has been found that land that has undergone deep plough- 
ing prior to the phmting of a grove, is especially exempt from these 
pests. 

Natural Remedies. 

The Burrowing Wasp. 
£lis atrata. 

The accompanying figure of a wasp will give some idea of a little 
friend of the planter which has latelycome under the notice of the i de- 
partment of Public Gardens as feeding on the larvae of the Orange Weevil. 
Whether or not the Orange Weevil is directly injurious to Citrus 
trees, it will be well to protect this wasp, which not only preys upon 
larvEe or grubs of this beetle, but also keeps in check other beetle- 
grub-* and grasshoppers which, were they to become too numerous, 
might prove serious enemies to agriculture. 





This insect belongs to a group of solitary wasps, abundant in warm 
climates, generally forming their nests by digging holes in the ground, 
provisioning them with beetle-grubs, grasshoppers and other insects, 
which form the food of the little wasp-grub as soon as it hatches. 

There are many kinds of solitary wasps in Jamaica, and some of 
them are very brightly coloured. The species under review is 
called here by the negroes " Grave Digger" from its habit of burrow- 
ing in the ground. It is a large b ackinsecr, measuring about an inch 
and a quarter in length, with two inches and a lalf expanse of wing. 
The wings are of a bluish-black colour, iridescent with flashes of red 
and violet towards the tip.s. 

This wasp is found commonly isi the West Indies, and may often be 
seen crawling among the blossoms of trees and shrubs ; or, with a sub- 
dued droning hum, flying slowly in a zig-zag manner hither and thither 



253 

just above the surface of the ground, on which it often alights to poke 
about among the grass, or on the bare ground. 

Though possessed of a very formidable sting, the Burrowing Wasp 
never uses it except in self-defence, or to assist it in overcoming its prey 

An observer in Porto Hico gives a very amusing account of the 
habits of this insect. He states that alter digging a burrow for its 
nest, it goes in search of a grasshopper, wliich it partially disables 
with its sting, then mounting on its back, rides it up to its own grave. 
Should the hole prove too small to receive the grasshoppw. it drives it 
away, while it enlarges the hole to the required size, and then brings 
it bick to De buried. 



ON THE BUDDING OF MANGOES. 

By T. J.Harris, Agricultural Instructor at Hope Experiment Station. 

With a view to turning to profitable account the enormous amount 
of plant energy that is more or less wasted in Jamaica annually in the 
production of Mangoes of inf^^rior quality, experiments in budding 
have for some time been conducted at the Hope Experiment Station 
resulting at last in success. 

It is easy to foresee that in the near future Jamaica will be in pos- 
session of carefully arranged orchards of tlie best kinds of mango trees; 
the cultivation will cost practically nothing, and the cost of careful 
picking, packing, and shipping should not amount to very much. 

The first work to be undertaken is to bud over the large common 
mango trees that are already growing, though the laying out of 
orchards with seedling ^tocks might be started at the same time; 
these latter would take some six to eight years after budding to bear, 
whil-t the old stumps would quickly replace their tops with the wood 
from the bud and bear a fairly large crop in two or three years. 
The trees should be cut down careluUy — with a cross cut saw to pre- 
vent bruising and splitting of the stump — to within two feet of the 
ground; the cut pared smooth with a kni'e or plane, and tarred; a 
number of shoots will very quickly spring from the stiimp and these 
must be thinntd out to three for budding up -n, tking care to get 
them as near the top as possible ; as soon as they are three-quarters of 
an inch in diameter at the base, they will be ready for budding. 

The operation of budding involves the application of one or two 
principles that are not generally known, and a detailed explanation 
would, therefor^^ be of use in many instances where mere practical 
directions would fail. Most trees have what may be termed n growing 
season and a resting or dormant season. In the growing season, be- 
tween the wood and bark, the existence of the cimbium layer becomes 
apparent; this is made up of several layers of thin-walled, rapidly 
growing and dividing cells. 

On the removal of a piece of bark it will be found that a part 
of the delicate cambium has remained on the wood, and part comes 
away with the bark; and if thes* two surfaces of thin walled cells are 
exposed to dry air for a few minutes they will wither and die ; but if 
immediately replaced and firmly tied, will just as assuredly grow to- 



254 

gether again The operation of budding is merely transferring a piece 
of bark, containing a bud, from the desirable tree to a place on the 
stock from which a corresponding piece of bark has been removed, 
but to ensure success the following essentials must be observed: — 
That both the stock and the tree yielding the buds be growing 

rapidly. 

That the bud-wood be a little larger in diameter than the stock, to 
ensure the area on the under side of the actual bud being brought into 
close contact with the wood when tied in ; if the bud-wood be less in 
diameter than the stock, a hollow space will occur between these parts 
that should be closely applied ; acting with this against success is the 
thinness of the bark of the younger wood and the consequent impossi- 
bility of tying in closely. 

That the bud be tied in tightly, especially at the points just below 
and above the bud proper; but yet not tight enough to crush or bruise 

the bark. 

That the piece of bark containing the bud be removed from the 
wood without bruising, bearing in mind that bending will bruise or 
crush the cells of a plant. 

That the moisture be retained in the bud during the time required 
to join up by using tying material that will prevent evaporation, 
i.e. waxed tape. This is made by dipping | in. tape into a melted 
mixture of 1 lb bees'- wax, a piece of resin the size of a hen's egg, and 
half a wine-glass of raw linseed oil, scraping off the superfluous wax 
with a dull knife after cooling. 

The bud-wood should be near the stock to ensure no time being lost 
between the taking off of the bud and its insertion in the stock. 

Practical directions : — 

Use as bud-wood that which was the young shoot at the end of the 
branch four to six growing seasons ago; that is, four to six "joints" 
back from the last developed wood, being 1 in. to 1| in. in diameter. 
Let the piece of bark containing the bud in the cei^tre be three inches 
long and ab<ait f in, wide, and as near as possible rectangular in shape. 

With a sharp pointed knife run two parallel lines, one on each side 
of the bud, beginning at a point 1^ inches above and continuing down 
to a point 2^ inches below the bud, drawing the two lines closer to- 
gether as the knife approaches the lower point, (this allows an inch or 
so for laying hold of the bud to pull it away from the wood, and being 
bruised, this must be carefully cut away before the bud is inserted), 
taking care to cut quite through the bark into the wood ; join the two 
upper points with a short straight cut and, with the edge of the knife 
sloping upwards, join the two lines at a point about a quarter of an 
inch from the end, i.e. V^ inches below the bud ; now make a similar 
cut just below this and prize out the small piece of bark between. 
Having done this, insert the thin ivory handle of a budding knife, 
lever up the end of the piece of bark, slip the handle under and grip 
the bark between it and 'he thumb, and pull steadily in the direction 
of a angle of 45^ witl. the bud-wood until the bud comes out ; now 
cut off the bruised part that was held between the knife handle and 
the thumb and and place the bud lightly on the stock at a point w^here 
the diameter of the branch is a little less than that of the budwood ; 
run a pencil line a'ong each of the four sides of the bud, remove it 



255 

again, cut through the bark along the lines, and pick out the bark 
with the point of the knife, taking care not to injure the delicate cam- 
bium below. The piece of bark containing the bud may now be let 
into the space made for it and firmly ti d. using two pieces of tape, 
one ior the part below the actual bud (tying this first) and one for that 
above, beginnintr with the middle of the piece of tape at the bud and 
crossing it behind, finishing bottom and top. 

Care must be taken that the space mide for the reception of the bud 
be large enough to allow of the bud, when pressed in, to move slightly 
from side to side and up and down; indeed it is safest to err on the 
side of having the space too large, rememb-ring that the union takes 
place under the bud and not at the sides. 

If the " eye" of the bud is still green two weeks after budding, the 
whole of the b anch above the bud mu>t be cut off carefully; avoidino- 
bending, twisting, splitting or anything that would tend to disturb 
the bud. 

The budding tape may be removed when the bud has grown out 
.some SIX or eight inches. 



ON THE BUDDING OF COCOA. 



By T. J. Harris, Agricultural Instructor at Hope Exjjeriment 

Station. 

The Cocoa tree having had, in its native habitat, to battle with 
other shrubs or trees for the possession of the light that is so ne- 
cessary for proper nutrition, has developed ihe power of discardino- 
whorl after whoil of primary branche- by producing successive 
'gormandizers," each with its cro^n of primaries until the outer air 
IS reached, bringing about an enormous lengihening of the stem 
Under cultivation these gormandizers are not allowed to grow, the 
tree being thereby kept down to a convenient height and all its 
energies directed to the develoi'ment of the first whorl of primary 
branches Now an observant cultivator will notice that these erect 
gormandizers grow out from the main stem < nly ; though occasionallv 
they will be found oi> the underside of the primaries near to the main 
stem. In a sensft then we have two kinds of wood on a cocoa tree — 
the "horizontal" produced by the primaries and the " vertical" growth.s 
from the main stem ; the primaries produce only horizontal shoots and 
the buds on the main stem never fail to grow into vertical shoots, 
each of which latter is capable of carrying a whorl of primaries at the 
top ; in fact if a tree is badly damaged the best thing that can be done 
is to cut down the stem and confine future growth to one of these 
vertical growths or gormandizers. 

Among cocoa growers it is well known that if t^.ey were able to 
ship to the manufacturers goods of an even sample better prices ml t^ht 
be expected ; now since the operation of budding is so simple, there is 
no reason why each estate should not have all its trees of one approved 
variety. Usually on a plantation there are one or two trees known "per- 
sonally," we might say, to the overseer as being excellent croppers, bear- 
ing regularly large numbers of good sized, thin shelled pods, each con- 



256 

taining 35 to 40 large, well shaped beans of a light mauve colour in- 
side. These trees should have their pod> and primaries kept ofi and man- 
ured heavily to induce them to produce ;.s many vertical shoots or 
' gormandizers" as possible, to be used as bud- wood. The next thing 
to be done is to cut down to within a foot or so from the ground all 
undesirab'e trees that do not pay for the rent and upkeep of the land 
they occupy and there are usually many of t' ese — imd train up tw<> 
gormandizers ; one for budding upon : nd the other " to keep up the 
root" when the other is cut down after the bud has taken, and un- 
til the bud is firmly established as the stem of the new tree As al- 
ready stated the operation of budd ngis extremely simpl , and it has to 
be very clumsily done indeed for a bu I t' fail to grow It is merely 
a matter of removing a piece of bark, containing a bud, from one of the 
gormandizers of the good tree and tying it into a place on one of the 
gormandizers of the inferior tree from which a corresponding piece of 
bark has been removed. Ih^ work may be commenced when the 
stock and bud-wood are about | of an inch in diameter, though a stout 
old gormandizer an inch and a hilf in diameter yields excellent buds. 
The operation of budding involves the application of one or two prin- 
ciples thitt are not generally known, and a detailed explanation would, 
therefore, be of use in many instances where mere practical directions 
would fail. 

Most trees have what may be termed a growing season and a rest- 
ing or dormant s ason. In the growing season, between the wood and 
bark, the existence of the cambium layer becomes apparent, this is 
made up of several layers of thin- walled, rapidly growing and dividing 
cells. 

On the removal of the piece of bark it will be found that a part of the 
delicate cambium has remained on the wood und part comes away with 
the bark, and if these two surfaces of thin-walled cells are exposed to 
dry air for a few minutes they will wither and die, but if immediately 
replaced and firmly tied, will just as assuredly grow to^etiier again; 
to ensure success, however, the following esse tials must be observed : — 

That both the stock and the tree yielding the buds be growing 
rapidly. 

That the bud-wood be a little larger in diameter than the stock, to 
ensure the area on the under sirle of the actual bud being brought into 
close contact with the wood when tied in ; if the bud-wood be less in 
diameter than the stock, a hollow space will occur between these parts 
that should be closely applied ; acting with this against success is the 
thinness of the bark of the younger wood and the consequent impossi- 
bility of tying in clos ly 

That the bud be tied in tightly, especially at the points just below 
and above the bud proper, but yet not tight enough to crush or bruise 
the bark. 

That the piece of bark containing the bud be removed from the 
wood without bruising, bearing in mind ihat bending will bruise or 
crush the cells of a plant. 

That the moisture be retained in the bud during the time required 
to join up by using a tying material that will prevent evaporation; 
«■ e. waxed tape. 1 his is made by < ipping f inch tape into a melted 
mixiure of I lb bees'-wax, a piece of resin the size of a hen's egg, and 



257 

half a wine-glass of raw linseed oil, scraping off the superfluous wax 
with a dull knife after cooling. 

The bud-wood should be near the stock to ensure no time being lost 
between the taking off of the bud and its insertion in the stock. 

Practical Directions. 

Let the piece of bark containing the bui in the centre be three in- 
ches long and about f in. wide, and as near as possible, rectangular in 
shape. 

With a sharp pointed knife run two parallel lines, one on each side 
of the bu ', b ginning at a point 1^ inches above and continuing down 
to a point 2^ inches below the bud, drawing the two lines closer to- 
gether as the knife approaches the lower point, (this allows an inch or 
so for laying hold of the bud to pull it away fr.jm the wood, and being 
bruised, this must be carefully cut away bef re the bud is insert d), 
taking care to cut quite through the bark into the wood ; join the two 
upper points with a short straight cut and, with the edge of the knife 
sloping upwards join the two lines at a point about a quarter of an inch 
from the end, i.-., 2\ inches below the bud, now rauke a similar 
cut just below this and prize out the small piece of bark be- 
tween Having done this, insert the thin ivory handle of a bud- 
ding knife, lever up to the end of the piece of bark, slip the 
handle un ler and grip the bark between it and the thumb, and pull 
steadily in the direction of an angle of 45° with the bud-wood until the 
bud comes out ; now cut off the bruised part that was held between the 
knife handle and the thumb and place the end lightly on the stock at 
a point where the diameter of the branch is a litt'e less than that of 
the bud-wood, run a pencil liwe along each of the four side-* of the bud, 
remove it again, cut through the bark along the lines, and pick out the 
bark with the point of the knife, taking care not to injure the 
delicate cambium below. The piece of bark containing the bud may 
now be let into the space made for it and firmly tied, using two pieces 
of tape, one for the part below the actual bud (tying this first) and 
one for that above, beginning with the middle of the piece of tape at 
the bud and crossing it behind, finishing bottom and top. In two 
weeks the union will have been effected and in four to five weeks the 
shoot from the bud will be from six to eight inches long, and if all 
the shoots that spring from the stock be carefully kept off, the new 
plant should bear in a year. 



258 

PINES IN THE AZORES. 

By Dr. M. Grabham. 
While on a visit to St. Michael's, Azores, recently.^ I was much 
interested in the Pine-apple cultivation which i-* extensively carried on 
ill that island, and I w..s particularly struck with the method usually 
employed by the growers for hast ning tlie plants into flower. When 
the plants have reached an advanced stage of growth, and are appa- 
rently fully grown, a slow smouldering fire of damp and green leaves 
is made in the gLisshouses and kept up for about eight or ten da\s, 
n-t longer. The windows and doors are kept seo rely closed during 
this time so that the atmosphere in the houses becomes densely charged 
with smoke. It is generally believed that the smoke s imulates the 
plants to bloom, and not the heat generated by the fire which i^ said 
to be not appr. ciable. Should the plants prove stubborn, the process 
is repeated after an interval of several weeks; but one application of 
smoke is, I understand, generally sufficient. I was told that tho life 
of the p' ant was artificially shortened in this manner, from eighteen 
to eleven months. The plants are timed to attain their full growth in 
August or September, the " '^moke" is then given, and the fruit matures 
in December or January, when the best values i.re obtained The 
discovery of the smoking process, which dates back to more than a 
decade, was made quite accidentally; a planter having made a 
smouldering fire in one of his pineries for the purpose of destroying 
an iu sect pest, was surprised to observe that his plants burst in lo 
flower prematurely. — {Gardeners' Chronicle ) 



THE COMPOSITION OF JAMAICA FRUITS. 

By H. H. Cousins, M.A., F.C.S. 

I. Pine -APPLES. 

A collection of Pine-apple varieties is grown at the Hope Experiment 
Station in parallel beds on a light and porous soil The plants are set 
I'ather close and the fruit obtained last season wjs fairly representative 
of the grade of pines producible on the lighter soils of the Liguanea 
plain. 

The specimens were not selected as being especially fine, but as 

average fruits. 

The results of our analyses are as follows : — 



259 









COOCOC<)00-NOCOO) 


o: t^ 1— 1 00 






, fcH 


(?rcoooc9io — oo 


CO CO -N Oi 






^ "^ 


1 


• • • • 






^ > 


cooooriHo — a:c<j 


^^ — C^ r-l 






o id 


rH 1-H i-H rH i-^ ^^ <-^ i-H 






M 


r-i •"• 










i CCOCOC^O^GOQO-T'X 


1 

i 

X -rfi X "* 




5 


C 


1 orroccoo-rocX'c^ 


CO rr C55 C>i 




5c 


o 


• • • • ■ ■ ■ 


• > ■ • 




s 


3 


o o}>.i^i^:oi:^cD^ 


CO CO CO o 




a? 


cc 


I— 1 !— ( 






+i 


1^t:HOOOO CCiCO 


•^ a; o CO 






5 

> 

l-H 


t^ <o O »0 C". 1> X X O 


-f 00 ^ CO 




! CN-dHC^(>)0'X)C>Jrl(4l 


a 

o 

•1— 1 






Cr. QOl^iOOil-^COCOCO 


o O t^ 1^ 




"5 


O'^'COCvico'NXcoro 


-H CO Ttl Tfl 




o u-:) — . c<j 'O CO 00 X CO 


O lO l:^ Tt< 


+j 




o 


• ■ • • • • • 


• • • • 


o 




r" 


•-HO.— 1 — oooo c; 


o -^ o o 


Plh 












>^ 


r3 


CO CO 00 T^i '* :o 


1 




• rH 


■-^ 


1 a • p^ 


ill ! 


o 


'o 


o o o o o o 




o 


< 


> 


! 






13 


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261 

From the point of view of the purchaser the great advantage of the 
" Smooth Cay< nne" is clearly brought out from the table of propor- 
tioual parts. 

It will be noticed that this variety contains nearly double the pro- 
portioi! of edible fruit to that in such varieties as '' Sam CUrke" and 
" Queen." A fruit that yields 86 per tent oF edible matter is a very 
satisfactory one to the purchaser. 

The Ripleys, although unsurpased for flavour and density of juice, 
yield only 55 per cent, of edible fruit, while the " Porto Rico" is 
second to the Cayenne in this respect. 

These figures, it is submitted, put the case for the '• Smooth Ca- 
yenne" as the commercial pine in a clear light. Under equal condi- 
tions, this variety gives us fruits just double those of the Ripley in 
weight and containing 60 per cent, more substance capable of being 
eaten. 

The varieties " Sam Clarke," " Queen" and " Cheese" are obviously 
inferior for commercial purposes. 

The chemical composition of the Pine shows as much variation 
among varieties as the Sugar Cane. The results for the Red Ripley 
in this series sl.ow a higher percentage of total solids and of sugars 
than any individual case reported on by Messrs L S Munson and L. 
M. Tolman of the IT. S Department of Agriculture, who recently pub- 
lished the results of an exhaustive investigation on the composition ot 
pine-apples.* At the foot of the table some of the American results are 
given for comparison. It will be noted that the Jamaican pine-apple is 
not surpassed by any of the fruits obtainable on the American market. 

Some of our varieties such as " Sam Clarke," " Cheese" and " Cow 
Boy" are decidedly inferior and should only be grown faute de mieux^ 

The " Queen" and the " Ripleys" are the sweetest varieties ; nd are, for 
local consumption, unsurpassed. For commercial purposes, however, 
the superior eating qualities of the Ripley are more than counter- 
balanced by the greater size, finer appearance and edible economy of the 
" Smooth Cayenne." 



♦Journal Amer: Chem : Soc. XXV. 272. 



262 

II. — Mangoes. 

During the mango season the peasantry are said to live on mangoes 
and greatly to reduce the local consumption of Iread and cereal foods. 

It was therefore thought desirable to conduct some analyses to throw 
light on the chemical consumption and nutritive value of this fruit. 

Unlike the pine-apple, the mango contains no volatile acids. Its 
aroma is due to essential oils and not to fruity acids and compound 
ethers. 

The determination of edible' and *non-edible' material in the man- 
go is a matter of some difficulty. It was decided to use the natural 
discrimination of the native, and the 'stones' recorded represent the 
residue left after prolonged sucti* n by an experienced practitioner. 

The edible economy of the Bombay Mango which gave 65 per 
cent, as against 60 in ' No. XI' and 64 in the Black Mango, is here 
brought out. 

As a food the Black Mango holds the first place A content of 22 
per cent, of total solids containing 17 per cent of sugar is truly re- 
markable for a fruit of this character. 

The Bombay is superior to ' No. XI' in sugar content and this again 
to the ' Yam' Mango. 

As a source of ( arbohydrates the mango is not to be despised. 

I estimate that a consumption of 10 lbs per diem would supply 
enough energy for the producti n of a day's wo' k by a Jamaican la- 
bourer. As an addition to other foods providing adequate albuminoids 
for the needs of the body, the mango must be accepted as of value both 
from practical and chemical data. 



263 













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264 

ADVICE TO THE OWNERS OF DAMAGED 
COCO-NUT TREES. 

By W. Cradwick, Travelling Instructor 

I find on personal examination of Coco-nut trees which are appa- 
rently little injured by th« hurricane of 11th August, that many of 
them have had the young and tender leaves badly damaged, and many 
of the damaged leaves are rotting and injuring the heart leaves which 
are now trying to push their way through the battered and bruised 
young leaves All trees should have immediate and careful attention, 
all damaged parts of the young leaves should be cut away, so as to 
prevent further rotting 

I find that in many trees the young leaves are so twisted and twined 
together that it is impossible for the young heart leaves to push their 
way out of the twisted leaves, and that under these green looking 
young leaves there are often leaves rotting from being battered by the 
storm 

The twisted leaves should be opened out, the rotten rubbish rem >ved, 
all dead leaves, or dead pieces cut off, or they will rot in the heart of 
the tree and injure the young shoots of both leaves and flowers. 

Trees which have been blown down, but which are not killed, 
should be got into position as near as possible to what they were before 
the storm, but do not strain the roots in attempting this ; remember 
that tho trees have need of every good root and green leaf ju>t now 
more than ever. Do not cut off any green leaves even if they are 
broken badly. 

If part of the base is not out of the ground which was formerly 
covered with earth, re-cover it at once with good earth, and the roots 
will grow again. 



[Issued 7th Nov., 1903.] 
Printed at the Govt. Printing Office, Kingston, Jam. 



Vol. I. DECEMBER, 1903. Part 12. 



BULLETIN 



OF THE 



DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



> » < 



EDITED BY 



WILLIAM FAWCETT, B.Sc, E.L.S. 

Director of Public Gardens and Plantations. 



-•-^-^ 



CONTENTS: 

Page. 

Sugar Conference ... 265 

Grass Oils, II. „, 275 

Board of Agriculture ... 279 

Varieties of the l^anana ... 283 



P R I C E— Threepence. 



A Copy will be supplied free to any Resident in Jamaica, who will send Name and 
Address to the Director of Public Gardens and Plantations, Kingston P.O. 



KINGSTON, JAMAICA : 
HoFK Gardens. 

1903. 



JAMAICA. 



BULT^BTIN 



OF THE 



DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



Vol. I. DECEMBER, 1903. Part 12. 



SUGAR CONFERENCE. 



A Conference of sugar planters and others interested i i the iiidiistrv 
was held at the Institute of Jamaica on the llth November when Sir 
Daniel Morris spoke on the present condition of the industry in Jamaica 
consequent on the abolition of the continental bounties. 

There was a large attendance. His Excellency Sir Augustus Hem- 
ming presided over the Conference and among those pi'esent besides 
Sir Daniel Morris, were: the Hons. Sydney Olivier, C.M.Gr., W. Faw- 
cett, H. Cork, J. Allwood, C.M.G , Dr. J. Pringle, C M.Gr , James Mit- 
chell (Gustos of Clarendon), T H. Sharp, H. T. Ronaldson. L. J. Ber- 
tram, Messrs. Wl-lle■^ley Bourke, Simon Soutar, J. L. Ashenheim, 
John Barclay, H. H. ("ousins, S. J. Howe, R.. A. Walcott. R. S. Gam- 
ble, A. B, Ventresse, Charles Stockhausen, F. W. Stockhausen, C 
Arnold Malabie, James Wilson, H. McGilchrist, Alfred Pawsey, T. H. 
Sharp, jnr., F. Cundall, H. S. Hammond (Assistant Chemist), G. Allan 
(Fermentation Chemist), I J. Mordacai, Sylvester Tilley, J. G, Mes- 
sam, C. J. Georges, G. Muirhead, John Camerou, Dr. H. R. Miller and 
F. M. Ellis. 

His Excellency the Governor in opening the proceedings said, the ob- 
ject for which they were met together thai day was in the first place to 
listen to an address by Sir Daniel Morris on the present position and 
prospect of the sugar industry. This would be followed by a few re- 
marks f 1 om the Director of Public Gardens and Plantations and from Mr. 
Cousins, the. Analytical and A gricultural Chemist. After those speeches 
were concluded, he hoped they would have tlie remarks of sugar plan- 
ters and any other persons interested in tlie industry. Any questions 
arising out of the speeches could be asked, and he was sure that Sir 
Daniel Morris and others would be glad to answer them to the best ol 
tbeir ability. He regarded the question that they were about to dis- 
cuss as the most important that could possibly be brought before an}' 
meeting of this kind in Jamaica. He had never hesitated to express 
his opinion, and he still maintained it, that whatever might be the 



266 

value of other industrities, the cultivation of sugar must be the saple 
industry of this colony. Although it had in recent years fallen upon 
troublous times he still entertained great hopes that a revival of the 
industry would take place. He thought they had some reason to be- 
lieve that that would be the result of the recent legislation which had 
taken place in Great Britain — the passing of the Brussels Sugar Con- 
vention Bill— which should go far towards helping in the revival of 
the sugar industry. He trusted that that revival would soon take 
place, because as he had said before, he looked to the sugar industry as 
the principal industry of this colony. He did not think that it was 
necessary or desirable that he should make any lengthy remarks on 
the subject considering that they had a great deal to do, and that the\ 
would hear addresses from those who would be more qualified to speak 
on the subject than he was. He would therefore conclude by asking 
Sir Daniel Morris to favour them with his address. 

Sir Daniel Morris said it was only right that he should mention 
that he appeared before them that day at the invitation of the Board 
of Agriculture. "When he arrived in the colony he was approached 
with a request that he should speak on one or two subjects of imme- 
diate interest to Jamaica, and amongst the subjects suggested was that 
of the sugar industry, consequent upon the abolition of what were 
called the continental bounties. He migiit mention that since he had 
been in the West Indies in connection with his present work he had 
been closely interested, and had taken an active p irt in endeavouring to 
improve the prospects of sugar growing. His connection with the 
sugar industry while he was in Jamaica was not a very close one owing 
to the fact that the whole of his time was taken up with the conside- 
ration of other subjects, and m^t because he was wanting in sympathy 
with the sugar industry. He did not appear before them as wishiug 
to lay down a definite policy or suggest to them anything more than 
that it was desirable that they should carefully review the position of 
the sugar industry in order to find out whetht r it was possible to im- 
jjrove or extend that industr}^ in such a w^ay that it might be of bene- 
fit to the general community. With regard to the sugar industry 
in Jamaica a large mass of valuable information was collected by the 
Sugar Planters' Association and placed b fore the Royal Commissioners 
who visited the West Indies in 1897, to enquire into the sugar in- 
■ dustry Those who desired to obtain authentic information in regard 
to the industry, W' uld do well to consult those statistics or refer people 
who might wish to know something about the industry in this Island 
to them. Later on Mr. Francis Watts, who was the Government and 
Agricultural Chemist in Jamaica for a short time, wrote a valuable 
memorandum on the position of the sugar industry in Jamaica Sine • 
then he w;is glad to state that Mr. Cousins, the present Chemist, had 
taken up the subject with great energy and he had brought out seve- 
ral interesting facts which were desirable for them to place on record 
for the information of capitalists at home or the people in the Inland 
who dofird to know how an improvement in the sugar industry here 
could be attained. 

It was stated before the Hoyal Commission that the capital in- 
vested in sugar in 1S97 was something over one million sterling. 

It was also stated that the number of working estates at that time 



267 

was about 130. Possibly some of those estates had given up sugar 
cultivation and were planted in bananas. Approximately they might 
conclude that there were about 100 sugar estates in Jamaica at the 
present time. 

The Commission was informed that the yield per acre in sugar alone 
was about one ton, but for each ton of sugar there was usually ob- 
tained 100 gallons of rum. It was impossible to estimate the real 
value of the sugar industry in Jamaica, unless they took into conside- 
ration the whole of the crop — that was the sugar, rum and molasses. 
Little molasses was exported from Jamaica In other parts of the 
West Indies, as in Barbados and Antigua, molasses was nearly as 
valuable as sugar itself. 

As regards the cost of cultivation and of producing sugar per ton ia 
Jamaica they had had information other than that placed before the 
Commission Mr Farquharson had stated that the cost of producing 
sugar alone in Westmoreland was from £6 to £7 per ton. It was 
mentioned that the cost of producing a ton of sugar and 100 gallons 
of rum varied considei'ably in each district, it might be from £13 
to £15, or a little more. As regarded the value of the industry twenty 
years ago, he found that the value of the sugar and rum exported 
from Jamaica (in 1882-83) was £800,000. At that time the sugar 
and rum exported represented 50 per cent, of the total exports of the 
colony. At the present time (1902-03) the value of the exports of 
sugar and rum from Jamaica was only 15 per cent, of the total exports 
of the colony, while the exports of bananas had increased to some- 
thing like 59 per cent There was, therefore, a shrinkage in the value 
of the exports of sugar and rum from £800,000 to £324,000 —in other 
words, the value of sugar had fallen to less than one-half in 20 years 
As a result of the removal of the bounties the planters and those in- 
terested in sugar growing in Jamaica should ask themselves, what was 
the present position of the industry ? The abolition of the bounties 
was a matter that was strenuously fought for for between 30 and 40 
years. At last it had come, and become effective within the last two 
or three months. The position of sugar now was much better than it 
was before the abolition of the bounties, and in consequence it might 
be worth while to extend the industry. The position in England was 
that sugar went into a perfectly open market. Bounty-fed sugar was 
excluded, and in future it must come into the market on its own 
merits. The question was, what were the prospects of muscovado sugar 
produced in Jamaica ? They had a conservative opinion expressed 
by Mr. Czarnikow, who stated that it was not likely that the 
price of sugar in the London market would rise above the average 
price for the last 10 years. He was not in a position to state what 
the average price of Jamaican sugar for the last 10 years was, but as 
far as Barbados was concerned it was estimated according to Mr Czar- 
nikow's forecast that the price of sugar should not fall much below £9 
per Ion. 

As regards the United States, the position of Jamaican sugar was 
not 80 uood, as owin» to the abolition of the bounties it would have to 
meet the general competition of all the world's sugar. As regards 
Canada, there was a reduction of one-third of the duties in Canada in 
favour of sugar from the West Indies. In addition to the improved 



268 

prospects in England and Canada, there was another advantage likely 
to arise from the abolition of the bounties, and that was that the credit 
of the sugar industry would be improved, but to what extent he could 
not say. That was a question for commercial men to consider, but 
speaking generally they could say now that continental bounties had 
been removed the prospects of the sugar industry were better than 
during any period within the last thirty years. 

He had consulted with Messrs. Watts and Cousins on the question 
of the soil, and the opinion of these gentlemen was undoubtedly that 
the soil in Jamaica was good and would grow canes as well as, if not 
belter than,almostany other part of the West Indies. No doubt had been 
cast upon the capabilities of the soil here. A s regards moisture in most 
districts of the island the rainfall had been found to be sufficient to 
bring fairly large crops. An important matter brought before the 
Royal Commission in respect of irrigation in Vere was now being set- 
tled, and if irrigation could be successfully applied to considerable areas 
in Vere the sugar industry in that part of the island shoiiid be placed 
on a prosperous footing As to the question of labour there might be a 
great difference of opinion — the question depended upon the district in. 
the island — but speaking generally be believed that labour in the sugar 
districts in Jamaica was not very far short of what might be counted 
upon as sufficient to carry on the industry, especially if use were made 
of laboui-savingappliances and the many inventions that were now being 
put into operation in the United States, British Guiana, Trinidad and 
other parts of the tropics. They also had the possibility of coolie im- 
migrntion. It might be said that coolie immigration was expensive 
and often unsatisfactory, but still it was possible as a means of carry- 
ing on the industry, and he believed that the Grovernment would place 
no obstacle in the way of introducing more coolies if they were abso- 
lutely necessary to c irry on the industry. As regarded natural facili- 
ties and circumstances l.e thought Jamaica was extremely well placed. 
As probably the proceedings at this Conference would be reported and 
would reach capitalists in the United Kingdom, and other parts of the 
world, it was iraporiant ihatthey should endeavour to place ou record 
as many facts as they could, in order that those who were inclined to 
embark in the sugar industry might be fully informed as regards the 
capabilities and the circumstances vi this island. 

There were certain special conditions favourable to the maintenance 
of the industry in Jamaica. Outside the banana districts there were 
fairly large tracts of land still available for sugar cultivation, with good 
soil and moderate rainfall. These were not only suitable for the cul- 
tivation of sugar, but they had contiguous areas which were suitable 
for feeding stock and raising food-stuffs. In some parts of the West 
Indies these contiguous areas did not exist and thus difficu ty was ex- 
perienced in obtaining fodder and in raising food-stuff ■;. 

It might be possible to extend cane-farming in certain districts of 
Jamaica In Trinidad a large portion of the cane grown there « as 
raised by small farmers. He found that in one locality heie — in West- 
moreland, ou Cornwall Estate, — 1,5U0 tons of canes were bought from 
settlers. On Shrewsburry Estate they had also been buying canes from 
settlers. The question was in what way could cane-farming be ex- 
tended in Jamaica ? The black people were fond of growing canes. 



269 

It was most the popular cultivation in the West Indies, and if 
arrangements could be made whereby cane-farming could be 
encouraged some of the difficulties connected with labour might dis- 
appear It was much in favour of Jamaica that there was practically 
no cane disease here. As they probably knew cane disease appeared in 
Barbados and Antigua, and there was at one time great danger of the 
industries being destroyed. He had made enquiries here and those 
qualified to speak on the subject were of the opini 'U that the canes in 
Jamaica might be regarded as thoroughly healthy and free fr.jm di- 
sease. Another important point to be c >nsidered was the high quality 
of Jamaican rum as compared with rum from other parts of the world. 
That gave the Jamaican planter a position to which no other planter in 
the West Indies could attain. 

To immediately improve the sugar industry, the first thing that was 
necessary everywhere in Jamaica was a system of effective crushing 
mills He believed that on most estates the extraction was too low to 
be remunerative. He would repeat that whatever they did with their 
sugar — whether it was muscovado or any other variety — they must 
have better mills. 

Another matter was the possibility of producing a grocery sugar 
similar to the Demerara crystals ; next came the possibility of esta- 
blishing central factories. This question had already been fully dis- 
cussed here. Proposals had been put forward to start a central fac- 
tory in the Plantain Grarden River district. He thought a factory 
there might be successful if it were large enough. It might also be 
possible to start a successful factory in the neighbourhood of the clay 
soils af St Catherine that were not suitable for bananas ; and possibly 
in Vere and the sea- side estates in St. James. A central factory to be 
successful in any of the districts referred to must be on a large scale. 
The rum would not be of very good quality. This was well known; 
but the profit w.'uld be in the larger quantity of sugar produced. If 
capital were available and the sugar industry were placed on such a 
footing as to allow of the establishment of central factories, there was 
little doubt that it would be a successful undertaking. 

The last point he would bring forward was the possible improve- 
ment of the yield of the canes. Mr. Cousins was of opinion that at 
present seedling canes from Barbados and Demerara would justify a 
claim to at least 20 per cent superiority over the canes now grown in 
Jamaica. In introducing new canes and the sorts that were suited for 
each district, Mr. Cousins was of opini' n that they might obtain 20 
per cent, more sugar from the new canes than they did at present. 

With regard to Barbados, Antigua aid St Kitts the seedling canes 
that had been raised and tested ttiere certainly showed a superiority 
over the older canes. In British Guiana at the present moment 
there were 10,000 acres of land in seedling canes and in the reports 
published by Professor Harrison he gave the results of the trials of 
these canes. On one estate in Demerara — the Diamond estate 
— there were 400 acres of land cultivated with seedling cane. No. B. 208. 
The leading estates were so convinced of the value of this cane that 
they had gone in for its cultivation on a large scale. The "208" Bar^? 
bados cane at Diamond estate had yielded one-third more sugar than 



270 

the Bourbon cane. He would not, however, recommend this "208" 
cane for Jamaica until it had been thoroughly tested beforehand. 

He now came to the question of markets open to Jamaican sugars. 
He had already mentioned the English and American markets, and 
would now enter more fully into the question of the Canadian market. 
During his rtcent visit to the United States he was told by those 
interested in West Indian sugar that the preference offered by 
Canada to the West Indies was not available under all circum- 
stances. 

Quoting from a letter received on the subject by the Hon. the 
Colonial Secretary, Sir Daniel stated that previous to the abo- 
lition of European bounties, the preferential rebate offered by 
Canada to the West Indies of 33| per cent, i eduction in the duty 
was non-effective owing to the United States Government charg- 
ing a countervailing duty equal to the amount of the bounty 
paid on European beet when exported, thereby enabling the United 
States refiners to pay proportionately a greater premium for West In- 
dian and other cane sugars than the Canadian refiners could afford to 
do, as the amount of the bounty was greater than the preference in 
the Canadian tariff. Now that bounties have been abolished and all 
sugars are on an equality in the United States market, Jamaica will 
not command the premium in New York which it, along with other 
cane sugars, did while bounty-fed beet was subject to a countervailing 
duty on entering the States Therefore, it is from now on that the 
Canadian preference should show itself; and that Canadian refiners 
should be willing to pay a higher price for West Indian sugars than 
can be obtained for them in other markets. The Canadian refiners 
will, of course, continue their efforts to secure British West Indian 
grown sugars at the same price as the United States and United King- 
dom refiners will be willing to pay for them, and take the benefit to 
themselves of the preferential rebate. So it rests with the sellers in 
the West Indies to enter into an agreement between themselves where- 
by all shippers will refuse to sell to Canada unless a premium is paid 
in proof of the preference Canada offers to the West Indies and which 
it was the intention of the Dominion (iovernment should be given as 
an enhanced price to the West Indian planter for his sugar. An agree- 
ment might be arrived at that a fixed mininum premium be estab- 
lished at which sales are to be made to the Canadian refiners, either 
direct oi through selling agents, either in New York, I.ondon or Cana- 
da, and that wherever possible an extra price over this minimum pre- 
miun should be extracted from the Canadian buyer. Selling prices, 
of cour.-e, to be governed by what the Canadian refiners can buy other 
sugars at, but these buyers should at least be willing to pay half the 
amount of the preferential rebate in the Canadian tatiff. The specific 
duty on sugar entering Canada, on raw sugar for a minimum polarization 
of 75 degrees, is 40 cents per 100 lbs advancing 1^ cents per degree up to 
100 degrees jDaying 77^ cents. The duty on 89 degrees, which is the 
basis of test for sale of muscovado, is 61 cents, from which the pre- 
ference of 33|^ per cent, to British grown sugar is '20.83 cents, per 100 
lbs, and the duty on 96 deg. test, which is the basis for sale of 
centrifugal refining crystal sugar, is 71^ cents the preference on this 
rate being 23.83 cents per 100 lbs. There really is no reason why the 



271 

Canadian refiners should not pay the -whole of the prefe-ential rebate, 
as an extra return on the purchased price to the West Indiun grower. 
Otherwise the Canadian refiners will get their supplies of British West 
Indian sugar at nearly £1 per ton cheaper than anybody else, thereby 
increasing their own protection to that extent at the expense of the 
West Indies. 

Now, proceeded Sir Daniel, that the bounties had been abolished, 
and as all sugars were on an equality in the Uuited States, he brought 
the question forward because it should -be carefully considered in all 
the British West Indian Colonies. In the face of the preference 
offered by Canad i, the tendency appeared to be for refiners in Canada 
to buy their sugar in such a way as to deprive the West Indian planter 
of preference, which represented altogether about £i a ton, which went 
to them instead of the sugar planter. It might be possible to take up 
the subject and obtain the full benefit of the preference offered for 
their sugar in the Canadian market. 

He had endeavoured to givc3 a brief review of the circumstances 
connected with the sugar industry He submitted these for their con- 
sideration and hoped it might be possible for those engaged in the in- 
dustry to discuss them and thereby place the facts before tlie general 
public in order 'o see if anything could be done to improve the sugar 
industry sn Jamaica. 

Discussion. 

His Excellency said he was sure they all felt grateful to Sir Daniel 
Morris for his adiress, and would now call upon Mr. Fawcett to ad- 
dress the conference. 

Mr Fawcett said, in connection with the various methods for the 
improvement of cane mentioned by Sir D. Morris, one mode was by 
the adoption of new varieties and this they were doing. Whenever 
they heard of any new cane, they had sent for it and the result was 
that with one of these canes (D. 95) a sugar planter had lold him that 
he had made twice as much sugar in the same area as be did before. 
Part of this was due to the increase in agricultural yidd in the cane. 
That same cane had been tried in other places and was not succes<ful. 
They recognised that it was important for sugar planters to try these 
new canes in their own districts, for a cane which suited • ne district 
was not always likely to suit other districts, and it was well f r sugar 
planters to try different canes and to study the results. Tha had been 
going on for some years, and he hoped now to make it more universal. 
Under Mr. Cousins' management he ft It sure that more sugar plan- 
ters would take up the question of trying these new sugar canes. 
I'here was another point. In ordering these canes from Barbados or 
British Guiana, they had o order them about a year beforehand. 
Planters wishing any of these new canes should write to him, and let 
him know what they wanted and liow many they wanted, and he 
would undertake to get them. 

Mr Cousins said he spoke with some hesitation, because as they 
all knew he had been here for only a short time and he was only 
just begitming to study the industry. lie could not give them 
the benefit of any practical experience, but he could give them 



272 

liis views as a student and as a chemist. Whatever had hap- 
jjened in the past, the future of the industry depended on what 
Jamaica could do for it and what the people living here were 
capable of getting out of the soil. A new state of things had arisen 
in connection with the industry and it was important that they 
should try and arrive at some accurate method of showing what the 
commercial security for Jamaica was under suitable soil and other con- 
ditions. There were certain districts in the island where they could 
not grow bananas — certain districts which nature seemed to have se- 
lected for the cultivation of cane, and it was for these special districts 
that the future had a great deal in store for Jamaica. When he came 
here he was told that the Island needed an agricultural chemist to 
work up the soil, but he found that all that was needed was to 
help the soil to do its best. If they could get a reasonably se- 
cured distribution of water in the Vere Irrigation area they would have 
a magnificent stretch of land that would grow canes perhaps at a lower 
price than in any island in the West Indies. If they also got a mo- 
derate system of irrigation on a few of the estates on the northside, 
and had the machinery worked by steam, with all the latest appliances, 
they would be able to throw down the gauntlet to any grower of 
cane or beet. He believed they could produce a ton of crude sugar 
from the juice of the sugar cane at a cheaper rate than could be 
done anywhere else. There was another point, if they could only 
maintain the old prestige of Jamaican rum there was a reasonable se- 
curity for it on many estates. Through the generosity of the Govern- 
ment, even when funds were very low, they had appointed a Fermenta- 
tion Chemist to study this subject. This gen'leman (Mr Allan), had 
come out to Jamaica and was going round to the various estates. They 
wanted to find out where rum was and how it was produced, and 
in what direction they could improve the quality, and on some 
estates, the quantity as well. There should be no variations on a rea- 
sonably and accurately managed estate, and he hoped that certain estates 
might be able to produce a certain high quality of commercial rum 
with regularitj^ and security. 

Mr. Cork asked Sir Daniel Morris whether the majority of the cane 
farmers in Trinidad were time-expired coolies or whether they were 
Creoles. 

Sir D. Morris said that for the most part they were time-expired- 
coolies and they rented lands in the neighbouring districts of the 
estates. 

Mr. Sharp said that Sir Daniel Morris had stated that central facto- 
ries might be a good thing to start in certain localities, and on the 
other hand he stated that the starting of the sugar central factories 
vsould affect the value of rum. 

Sir D. Morris said he thought the question was one which Mr. 
Cousins could answer ; but the point was if they took all the sugar out 
of the molasses they would have nothing left to make rum with. 

Mr. Olivier said he would state what the Government intended to do 
with regard to the sugar industry this winter. They had been carry- 
ing out experimental cane plots on a good many estates. They had 



273 

now a grant of £10,000 for the benefit of the sugar industry. It had 
not yet been decided what would be done with the capital of the grant, 
but the accumulated interest on the money amounted to a very fair 
sum, and the Island Chemist had made proposals for utilizing that 
fund. They were anxious to get to work to do so. In the first place 
they had appointed a Fermentation Chemist who would travel 
round the island and study distillation on various estates, but they 
wanted to push forward their experimental cane cultivation where- 
ever they could find estate proprietors willing to co-operate with 
them and they would spend a little more money on that side of the 
work. They also wanted to increase the cultivation of seedling canes 
at Hope Gardens so that they might have a greater variety of canes 
under different conditions in different parts of the island. Then 
they proposed to extend the Laboratory at Hope so as to enable the 
Island Chemist and the Fermentation Chemist to deal chemically with 
samples from the estates If the planters thought there was any way 
in which the Agricultural Department could co-operate with them on 
their estates or elsewhere they should apply to the Board of Agricul- 
ture. Another important question was that of the (.'anadian prefer- 
ence. According to information given to Sir D. Morris and himself, 
the whole of that preference was going into the pockets of the Cana- 
dian sugar refiners, and although ( anada had received great credit for 
working in the interests of the Empire, the preferental arrangeiaent 
was simply being run for the benefit of a few sugar refiners in Halifax, 
Montreal and elsewhere. The planleis in Jamaica should make such 
arrangements as to secure their fair share of the preference. 

Mr, Gamble said seeing that Jamaica could produce good sugir, the 
other point to be considered was the successful marketing of the sugar. 
With regard to that Canadian preference he would just quote one in- 
stance of a shipment He shipped one half of the produce to New 
York and the other half to Halifax, and as a matter of fact the Hali- 
fax shipment realized about 15 to 20 per cent more than the shipment 
to New York, owing of course to the preference. This was a most re- 
cent example. In that particular case they did get the preference and 
as far as they could see it might be a most, difficult thing fo enforce by 
any combination the paying to the the planters of this advantage. The 
shipper had to use his knowledge as to what place was going to give 
him the best return. In the past they had had some advantage and he 
did not see why in the future they should not get it again. When 
there was no advantage in Canada, the sugars in preference went to 
New York. He should like to have heard there that day the prospects 
of beet. The question was, what price could their great competitor, 
beet sugar, be produced at to secure a profit? That was a point that re- 
mained to be seen. His opinion was that at the present time when 
they had to deal with a large proportion of beet sugar, cane sugar 
would show its superiority and beet supplies would be reduced, but as 
a matter of fact it was hard to find out what was the bottom price at 
which beet, unsupported by bounties, could be produced. Since the 
Brussels Convention they had already secured a veiy substantial ad- 
vance in the price of sugar, There had been an advance of between 
25 and JJU per cent in the value of sugar. Beet sugar was quoted as 
low as 5s. 9d., per cwt. 



274 

His Excellency said that as no other gentlemen appeared to be desi- 
rous of speaking he thought it might be taken for granted that those 
present were in accorl with the statements made by Sir Daniel Morris, 
Mr. Fawcett, and Mr. Cousins. If that was the case it seemed to him 
that there was a hopeful outlook. He thought that from what Sir 
Daniel Morris had told them there was a decided reason to think that 
they might look for improvement in the re?ults of the sale of cane 
sugar, and al<o that cane sugar could be cultivated in Jamaica with a 
great deal of advantage. That being so he could only express the 
sincere hope that there would be a great revival of sugar growing 
here, and that they might see an increase in the number of acres under 
cane cultivation. He knew that when he was in British Gaiana he 
was always told there that all the sugar planters wanted was a fair 
field an'! no favour and that if the bounties were done away with they 
felt certain that they could compete on equal terms with beet sugar 
and defeat it If those statements were correct, which he had no reason 
to doubt, it seemed to him that those connected with, the sugar in- 
dustry might well feel hopeful, and what Mr. Gramble hod told them 
of the recent rise in prices should certainly encourage the sugar plan-, 
ters here. If no one present had anything further to say they might 
consider that the meeting had come to an end, and he took it that the 
feeling of the meeting was decidedly in accord with the speeches that 
had been made. (Cheers,) 

After His Excellency had conveyed the thanks of the meeting to 
Sir Daniel for his address, Sir Daniel said he wished he had lutd time 
to have placed a fuller statement before them. Nevertheless he hoped 
that this meeting of the sugar planters of Jamaica woull lead them to 
consider whether the circumstance of sugar planting was not of so 
promising a character as would justify them making a great effort to 
improve the condiiion of the industry. He believed that the circum- 
stances were favourable and that the industry could not only be main- 
tained but could also be extended. It was an important industry from 
many standpoints. A great feature connected with it was that nearly 
all the expenses were disbursed in the form of wages to labourer.^ and 
tradesmen. It was claimed for this industry that there was no other 
that spent so large a proportion of money in labour. A prosperous 
sugar industry would also mean a prosperous pen-keeping industry. 
The sugar industry and cocoa and other industries were essential in 
order to plac'- the circumstances of the island in a stable condition so 
that if anything happened to one industry the others should be able 
to take its place It was not safe to depend alone on a flourishing 
banana industry. It was necesmry that a flourishing sugar industry 
and flourishing cocoa, coffee and other industries should also be main- 
tained in the island. 

The proceedings then ended. 



275 
GRASS OILS, II. 

An article on Grass Oils appeared in the March Bulletin, page 53 ; 
the following information is now added: — 

Mr. J. Ch. Sawer to Director Public Gardens and Plantations. 

6, Cleveland Road, Brighton, 
17th April, 1903. 
Dear Sir, 

I received to-day your favour dated 1st instant. The 2 sam- 
ples of grass oils were forwarded to the laboratory of Messrs. Schim- 
mel & Co. and will probably be noticed in their April and May 
Report. I think you will find that rfchiramel & Co. agree with me 
that Lemon grass is Andropogon citratus of DeCandoUe — which is 
certainly a different plant to A. Schoenanthus (which yields palm-rosa 
oil.) 

I took a small sample out of the bottle of lemon-grass oil and sub- 
mitted it to Messrs. Lambert and Strong of Mincing Lane— eminent 
drug-brokers. They pronounced it to be "very good" — I gave your 
name and address, and they said they would communicate with you 
direct respeciing same. The E. Indian oils are now so grossly adulte- 
rated that the market is glad to get anything from a reliable source. 
We are obliged to have analysis for oils in London now, and their 
certificates are required in Mincing Lane, — otherwise buyers would be 
afraid to bid at the drug sales or buy by private treaty. New uses 
have lately been found for letnon-grass oil, and from citronella they 
extract the citronellal for fabricating an imitation oil of rose. 

I should like one copy of the Bulletin (March) and perhaps you 
could send one to Mr. Ernest J. Parry. 

I sincerely hope your distillers will succeed in this enterprise, and I 
will at all times do my best to further it. 

Yours very truly, 

J. Ch. Sawer. 

"The May price quoted by Schimmel&Co. in the wholesale list is 8/6 per lb. for 
Lemon.grtiss, and 1/ld. per lb. for Ceylon Citrouella." J. Ch. Sawer, in letter 
dated 8th June. 



Messrs. Lambert ^ Strong to Director Public Gardens and Plantations 

Dunster House, Mincing Lane, London, E.G., 

31st March, 1903. 

Dear Sir, 

Mr. J. Ch. Sawer of Brighton has sent us a sample of lemon 
grass oil which came from you. We think this is a very good speci- 
men of the article and it ought to find a ready sale here, provided the 
citral contents are equal to the Travancore oil— this latter is selling at 
6d. per ounce, but we should expect to get more for the West Indian. 
We shall be glad to know whether you can forward any, and if so, 
what quantity annually. 

We are, Dear Sir, 

Yours faithfully, 

Lambert & Strong. 



276 

Extract from Semi-annual Report of Schimmel & Co., April- 
May, 1903. 
Citronella Oil, Ceylon. — The prices of this important article 
reached their lowest position in October last year at about ^d. per lb. 
The distillation was then completely suspended on account of continu- 
ous rainfall in the citronella districts, and this led to a rise in the 
prices up to 9f d. This last figure represents approximately the present 
market value. The quotations had to be raised proportionately. 

The exports from Oeylon huve slightly receded in 1902. They 
were : 

In 1902 ... 1,294,750 lbs 

against " 1901 ... 1,430,168 " 

" 1900 ... 1,409,050 " 

'* 1899 ... 1,478,756 " 

" 1898 ... 1,365,917 " 

" 1897 ... 1,182,867 " 

The figures for the various countries were as follows : — 

to the United Kingdom 556,096 lbs 

" America ... 538,970 " 



Germany ... 146,518 

Australia ... 26,408 

China ... 17,115 

France ... 2,376 

Singapore ... 1,867 

India ... 5,400 



K 
(( 
(( 
(( 



Total 1,294,750 

The low value of the article has lately, unfortunately, again led 
to numerous and very peculiar adulterations, such as have never been 
observed before. 

A sample of citronella oil which takes about an intermediate place 
between Ceylon and Java citronella oils, was received by us some time 
ago from the Government Laboratory in Jamaica. We found for this 
oil: d 0,8947, a 4° 16,' and n 147,098- It also showed a 

15°_ D— D20° 

low acid number, and contained 86 '4 per cent, total C H with 

10 18° 
a citronella-content of 25,43 per cent. 

In a note appearing in the " Tropenflanzer"* we find that in the 
Botanical Garden at Victoria in the Cameroons, under the name 
Andropogon citratus, a species of grass in cultivated, which, according 
to an examination by Strunk, yields an oil which is seemingly identical 



* Vol. 7 (1903), 37. 



277 

with citronella oil. Strunk distilled 10 kilos of the fresh grass with 
water, and obtained a yield of • 38 per cent oil With the primitive 
means at his disposal he was able to ascertain that this oil contains 
about 15 per cent, of an aldehyde, which appears to be identical with 
citronellal. 

According to the foregoing, the grass cultivated at Victoria, of which 
it had not hitherto been possible to determine the species as the plant 
never reached the flower stage, may possibly be identical with 
Andropogon Nardus, L., which in the East Indies is cultivated on a 
large scale for the production of citronella oil. 

It has repeatedly attracted our attent;on, that when it is a question 
of their origin, the Andropogon grasses are frequently confounded 
with each other. The thought which first occurs is, that such con- 
fusion is caused by the omission of the name of the author after the 
designation of the species. But this does not apply in every case, for 
there are some exactly-defined species indicated as the mother-plants 
of oils which, according to our information, could not possibly be pro- 
duced from them. We will give some examples of this, Tschirch, in 
his work " Indische Heil — und Nutzflanzen"* mentions on pago 124 
Andropogon Schoennnthus, L., as the mother-plant of lemon grass oil. 
The same statement is made in the chapter Oramineae edited by Hackel, 
in Engler and Prantl's " Naturlichen Pflanzenfamilien"; the oil obtained 
from it is said to be met with in commerce as " lemon oil". Sadebeck** 
also states, that Andropogon Schoenanthus, L , is cultivated in some 
parts of East Africa, and that the fragrant lemon grass oil is distilled 
from it. But at the same time he mentions also, that this oil is used 
for adulterating rose oil, and thereby (and also by referring to the 
synonymous words rusa, palmarosa, or Turkish geranium oil) he 
identifies it with palmarosa oil. Finally, the annual report of the 
Buitenzorg Botanical Gardens also mentions Andropogon Schoenathus, 
L. (sereh) as the mother-plant of lemon grass oil. 

Lemon grass Oil. The value of this article has undergone consider- 
able fluctuations. The lowest point was reached in November, at 4d. 
per oz. whilst at the present time it cannot be bought below 5|d. 

The export from Cochin amounted in 1902 to only 2,350 cases, but, 
on the other hand, fresh sources of supplies have appeared, which in 
the near future may possibly make competition to the present mono- 
poly. 

To all appearances the cultivation of Andropogon grasses in the 
West Indian Islands, to which we referred in our last October Report, 
is extending. We have lately received two further samples of Andro- 
pogon oils from the Grovernment. Liboratory in Jamaica. On one of 
these oils we have already reportei under the heading citronella oil ; 
the other one was, like the previous one from Antiguaf designattd as 
having been obtained from Andropogon Schoenathus, but it has such a 
pronounced odour of lemon grass oil, that we have no hesitation in 
calling it by that name. It compares favourably with the Antigua oil 



* Berlin 1892. R. Gaertner 

**Die Culturgewachse der deutschen Colonieu. Jena 1899, p. 247. 

t Report October, 1902, 60. 



278 

by its considerably higher aldehyde-content (83 "5 per cent., against 
48 ' 2 per cent for the other) but it shares with the latter its insolubility 
in 70 and 80 per cent, alcohol ; 90 per cent, and absolute alcohol form 
at first a clear solution, but when more is added, they cause strong 
turbidity. In its physical constants the oil does not show any specially 
great dLfferences from those observed at other times ; we found 
d 15° 0,8922, a (100 mm) o and n 20° __ 

D ~ 9' D "" 

1,48826. 

"West Indian Grass Oils. 



By Ernest J. Parry, B.Sc, F I.C. 

Extract from the Chemist and Druggist, September 19. 

In tbe March issue of the Bulletin of the Department of Agricul- 
ture for Jamaica an account of some grass oils distilled in Trinidad and 
in Jamaica was given by the Jamaica official analyst, Mr. H. H. 
Cousins. It appears that a vigorous attempt is intended to take up 
the cultivation of the Andropogon grasses, with, a view to devoloping 
the essential oil industry, on account of the reduced cultivation of the 
sugar cane. The Trinidad oils distilled experimentally were those of 
the Andropogon Nardus and A. Schoenanihus, and were found to 
possess the following characters : — 

A. Nardus. A. Schoenanihus. 



Sp.gr. at 15° ... 0-9084 0-9315 

Rotation ... +0-1° +3° 

Aldehydes ... 15*5 per cent. 48-2 per cent. 

The oil from the A. Nardus showed a total geraniol and citronellal 
value of 53 per cent,, and thus corresponds witb an ordinary Ceylon 
citronella oil, except that its content in active constituents is somewhat 
low. This however is possibly accidental, and with proper distillation a 
normal oil would no doubt result. The A. Schoenanihus oil did not 
in tbe least resemble a palmarosa oil, but much more closely resembles 
Jemon grass oil. 

I am indebted to Mr. Cousins for samples of the Jamaican oils, which 
are of very great interest. I propose to investigate them more fully, 
but in the meantime give the following details of them : — 

The oil from A, Nardus is a pale oil of exceptionally fine odour, 
and has the following characters : 

Sp, gr. at 15° ... 0-8955 



Rotation, 100 mm. 

Refractive index at 20° 

Aledhydes 

Greraniol and citronellal 



—3° 30' 
1-4712 
25 per cent. 
87 per cent. 



In general it appears to closely resemble the fine Java citronella oils, 
being of much finer odour than the normal Ceylon distillates. It is 



279 

■soluble in 1 volume of 80 per cent, alcohol, and on aMition of 10 
volumes sh i\vs only the faintest opalescence If it could be produced 
at a reasonable price in quantity, it would no doubt find great favour 
in this market. Messrs. Schiuimel & Co., have reported on what 
appears to be the same oil, and say that it takes about an intermedi- 
ate place between the Java and Ceylon oils ; but I am of opinion that 
it is more of the Java type than of the Ceylun. 

The Jamaican oil distilled from A. SchoenanthuB is not u palmarosa 
.oil, and is accurately described as a true lemon-grass oil. This raises 
the question sis to which grass is really the parent of lemon grass oil, as 
it appears out of the question that so enormous a change in the character 
of the product could take plate by the grass being cultivated in Ja- 
maica. 

This lemon-grass oil has the following characters : 

Sp. gr. at 15° ... 0-8965 

Rotation, 100 mm. ... — 0° 30' 

Aldehydes ... 83 per cent. 

Refractive index at 20° ... 1-4896 

Insoluble in 70 per cent, or 80 per cent, alcohol. 

The oil i'. a typically fine lemon grass oil, with a very high aldehyde- 
content, and differs onl}'- from normal Eastern oils in its insolubility 
in alcohol. The insoluble portion of the oil is a heavy body, sinking 
to the bottom of the alcohol, which I am now investigating. Apart 
from this insjlubility, which may not be normal, and may be found to 
disappear when the oil is distilled under normal conditions, the oil may 
be described as a fine lemon grass oil, with a very high citral value; 
and, since the value of lemon grass oil depends entirely on its citral- 
content the oil should command a ready market if produced at a 
reasonable price. 



BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

The usual monthly meeting of the Board of Agriculture was held 
on the 14th Juh^ at Headquarter House, present lion. W. Fawcett in 
the Ciiair, Hon. J. V. Calder, Messrs. H. H. Cousins, C. A. T. Fursdon, 
J. W. Middleton, T. L. Roxburgh, and John Harclay, the Secretary. 

The minutes of the previous meeting were read and approved. 

A letter from the Acting Colonial Secr-tary w;is read intimating 
that Mr. Buttenshaw had been appointed ScientiHc Assistant to the 
Imperial Commissioner of Agriculture for the West Indies. 

yv. Cousins submitted a summary of reports from some of the most 
.experienced horse breedeis and experts iu the island. 

The Acting Colonial Secretary intimated that the £10,000 grant in 
aid of the Sugar Indu^try could only be applied for the benefit of the 
.jSug .r Industry. 

It was decided to recommend to the Privy Council the purchase of a 



280 

Sugar Estate for the purpose of an Experiment Sugar Stanon, for test 
ing and investigating on an extensive scale ; 

1. New varieties of cane 

2. Methods of cultivation. 

3. Economical methods of sugar production under local con 

ditions. 

4. Fermentation of rum. 

An agreement between the Director of Public Gardens and Mr. H 
Bolton at Gordon Town, as to lease of land at Hope was re id, and with 
the suggestion from Mr. Oiilder lo insert a clause reserving the right 
of planting out trees, was approved. 

A special meeting of the Board of Agriculture was held at Head- 
quarter House on Tuesday, ^2nd July tit 12 o'clock, present Hon. W, 
Fawcett, Acting Chairman, Hons. J. V. Calder, and T. H. Sharp, 
Messrs. H. H. Cousins, C. A. T. Fursdon, J. W. Middleton, T. L 
Roxburgh, J. Shore and John l>arclay, the Secretary. 

The meeting considered the scheme of Mr. Cousins for the establish- 
ment of a Sugar Experiment Station, and the matter was referred to 
a Ccmmittee consisting of Messrs Calder, Middleton, and Cousins, who 
were to make a confidential enquiry and report. 

A special meeting of the Board of Agriculture was held at Head- 
quarter House on Tuesday, 28th July, at 12 o'clock, present Hon. W. 
Fawcett, Acting Chairman, presiding, Messrs. H, H. Cousins, C. A. T. 
Fursdon, J. W. Middleton, T. L. Roxburgh, and John Barclay, the 
Secretary 

The Committee appointed at the last special meeting submitted 
their Report, which was directed to be sent to the Acting Colonial Se 
cretary to be submitted to the Privy Council. 

The usual monthly meeting of the Board of Agriculture was held at 
Headquarter House on Tuesday the 18th August, at 9 o'clock a.m., 
present, Hon. W. Fawcett, presiding, Hon. T. H. Sharp, Messrs. H. 
H. Cousins, J. W. Middleton, T. L. Roxbourgh, and Jo':>n Barclay, the 
Secretary. 

The Secretary read the minutes of the last monthly n;eeting and 
the two special meetings, which were confirmed. 

Mr. Cousins submitted the result of his enquiries regarding a suc- 
cessor to Mr. Buttenshaw, and it was decided to recommend to the 
Government the engagement of Mr. T. F. Teversham, England, at a 
salary of £250 a year, for three years, passage to be paid. 

It was decided to print the Report re Horse Breeding in a double 
ii umber of the Bulletin. 

It was decided to do nothing further in the matter of the Sugar Ex- 
periment Station until it was known what the effects of the hurricane 
were. 

The Acting Coloniul Secretary said the £10,000 did not affect our 
local finances at all. It was a grant from the Imperial Government to 
the Sugar Industry only and as the amount would bear interest at 3 ^ 



281 

there would be no loss financially in delay, while the interest would go 
towards the salary of t'le Fermentation Chemist. 

It was intimated that Sir D Morris might visit the Island, and the 
Board decided to extend a most cordial invitation to him 

It was decided to send the following Resolution to the Groverment. 
"The Board desires to bring to the notice of the Governmant the great 
straits in which all classes of cultivators throughout the island are 
placed through the hurricane. Very many planters have no money to 
continue their cultivations and remscitate the plants injured. The 
Board therefore recommends that assistance b^ given to the larger 
planters by advances to them, as this is the only means of safely reach- 
ing the working classes. It also suggests assisting the small settlers 
by helping to rebuild their homes and providing them with seeds free 
at once." 

The Acting Chairman reported that a Cotton Gin had been sent out 
and that arrangements were being made to establish it at Spanish Town. 

Mr. Sharp moved that a grant be made for investigating theCissava 
Industry. Mr Cousins said he would first like to satisfy his mini on 
the whole subject from experiments made in the Laboratory. This 
was agreed to. 

The usual monthly meeting of the Board of Agriculture was held at 
Headquarter House on Tuesday, 15th September at 11.30 o'clock, pre- 
sent, Hon. Sydney Olivier, presiding, Hons. VV. Fawcett and T. H. 
Sharp, Messrs H. H. Cousins, C. A. T. Fursdon, C. E. deMercado, and 
John Barclay, the Secretary. 

The minutes of the previous meeting were read and approved. 

The Caairman said that the occurrence of the hurricine should not 
be allowed to interfere with the establishment of the proposed Sugar 
Experiment Station. They had a good nest egg to begin with in the 
£10,000 Imperial Grrant, and they could issue debentures for any ad- 
ditional amount they might require. 

It was intimated that Mr. T. F. Teversham who had been appointed 
Science Lecturer had left. England on the- 12th inst., to take up his 
duties. It was decided that Mr. Teversham be placed at first under the 
control of Mr. Cousins. 

The Chemist submitted an interim report on his exueriment with 
Cassava, and it was resolved to send a sufficient quantityof the dried 
pulp to England to be tested as a source of glucose, and valued. 

A resolution from the Hurricane Relief Committee was submitted 
asking that the various Agricultural Instructors be utilized asm ich as 
possible in the districts which liad suffered most from the hurricane. 

It was decided that Mr. Cradwick be transferred from the western 
parishes to Portland for six or eight weeks and that the Agricultural 
Society be asked if they would aj^ree to trail sfer Mr. Palache for the 
same period from Manchester to St. Mary. 

A memorandum from Mr, Robert Johnstone was submitted, point- 
ing out that in the Port Royal Mountains district the China or Dwarf 
banana had not suffered from the hurricane at :ill, while all the 
Jamaican bananas had been blown down. The Secretary was asked to 
have attention called to the matter in the Agricultural Journal. 

Mr. Fawcett submitted list of danages done by the storm to the 



282 

Gardens at Hope, Castleton and Cincliona, and a further limited grant 
was recommended to be made to make goo 1 the damages as these gar- 
dens were great sources of attraction to tourists. 

Mr Fawcett submitted a memorandum showing that from the cot- 
t -n grown at Hope they had already a sufficient quantity to start gin- 
ning. 

On Mr. Cousins' application it was decided that two more apprentices 
were to be admitted to the Laboratory and that students should receive 
free third class passes to enable them to visit estates. 

The usual monthly mee'ing of the Board of Agriculture was held at 
Headquarter House on Tuesday, I'Hh October, at 9 o'clock, present, 
Hon. 8. Olivier in the Chair, the Director of Public Grardens and Plan- 
tations, the Q-overnment Chemist, and Messrs. C. E. deMercado, and 
C. A. T. Fursdon 

The minutes of the previous meeiing were read and confirmed 

The Estimates for Agricultural Services for 1901-05, were dis- 
cussed and paesed. 

It was agreed to ask the Government to communicate with the steam- 
ship companies on the subject of having plants from Hops Gardens 
taken round the island free of freight and of wharfage. 

Correspondence was submitted by the Colonial Secretary in regard 
to two bull calves, presented by His Majesty the King to the island 
It was resolved to refer the matter to the Agricultural Society. 

The usual monthly meeting of the Board of Agriculture was held at 
Headquarter House on 10th November, at which the following mem- 
bers were present : — Honourable Colonial Secretary (in the chair), the 
Director ot Public Gardens, Hon. T. H. Sharp, Hon. H. Cork, and 
Messrs. C. E. deMercado, and C. A. T. Fursdon. 

Sir Daniel Morris spoke on the subject of teaching elementary science 
and agriculture in elementary schools, and suggested that greater im- 
portance should be given to these subjects in the Code by allotting to 
them the same number of marks on inspection as are given for the pri- 
mary subjects. He stated that in Trinidad there were already 200 
school gardens established and that probably the reason for the small 
number in Jamaica was that the regulations were too severe, i.e., that 
the ground must be half of an acre, and must be fenced. He also sug- 
gesetd that at all Agricultural Shows there should be a special section 
for school children, where they might exhibit plants grown by them- 
selves in pots. The question of inspection was discussed, and it ap- 
peared to the Board that if the agricultural instructors were increased 
say by four, the Education Department might invite ticir assistance to 
supervise and assist the working of school gardens and to inspect them 
for the Department. 

The Board after discussion of Sir Daniel Morris's criticism, recorded 
its opinion that the progress made in the development of agricultural 
elementary education during the five years to which attention has been 
directed to it it, was not so satisfactory as could be desired. 

It was resolved to recommend to the Governor that the Superintend- 
ing Inspector of Schools should be placed ou the Board of Agriculture 



283 

ill order to afford him an opportunity of keeping in closer touch with 
agricultural development in the colony. 

The question of bidding for the purchase of Bushy Park at the 
forthcoming advertised sale was discussed. It was decided not to re- 
commend the Government to bid for the property. 

It was reported that Mr. C. Allan, B.Sc , the Fermentation Chemist, 
had arrived and was to commence work at once at the Laboratory, and 
afterwards pr(!cee 1 to work on sugar estates. 

It was agreed to make arrangements to send Mr. T. J. Harris to take 
accurate weights. &c., of cassava at Longville, the Estate of Mr. J. W. 
Middleton, so as to ascertain the probable results to be expected from 
cultivation on a large scale 

It was agreed to provide additional clerical assistance for Mr. Bar- 
clay in his secretarial duties, and an allotment of 10s. a week was ap- 
proved for this purpose. 

A .scheme submitted by the Island Chemist for utilising the Im- 
perial Grant of £i 0,000 for the benefit of the sugar industry was con- 
sidere i It was decided that no portion of the capital of the grant 
should at present be trenched on, but that the arrangements propostd 
sh.ould be proceeded with so far as the amount at credit of tl;e fund 
for accrued interest would permit. 



VARIETIES OF THE BANANA. 

By Walter Jekyll. 

The frequent suggestions in the press, tl^at other bananas than the 
established Martinique variety should be grown in Jamaica, lead me 
to request the insertion in your Bulletin of the following reflections : 

First and principally, is it wise to make any change where the in- 
dustry is so thriving? i'hat there are bananas superior to the Mar- 
tinique in flcivour is an undoubted fact. There are however several 
points to be considered before coming to the conclusion that it is de- 
sirable to substitute any one of these for the kind now grown. .Market 
requirements are peculiar, and it does not f ( How as a matter of course 
that tlie best fruit gels a readier sale than the good The public is 
conservutive ; nd likes what it knows. Its eye is caught by appear- 
ances and it wants sometning handsome. i his is well exemplilied in 
the apple trade. Probably the most popular apple in En>i^land is 
Blenheim Orange, and yet to connoisseurs it is not particularly good. 
In any market may be found lowi r-priced apples of far better quality, 
which are neglected either because they are unknown or because they 
are less attactive in appearance. 

Now no banana is handsomer than the Martinique Especially 
beautiful in the light-yellow satin jacket > f its perfection, it is also 
good to look at both before that stage and after it. Only «h -n brown 
stains bej^in to disfigure the skin, whose hue has gradually deepened 
from light yellow to dark yellow, does it proclaim tnat it is no longer 
fit to eat raw. Even then it is excellent when cooked. 

The Martinique keeps well, especially in cool climates, and a point 
in its favour is that it may be eaten in several stages of maturity. 



284 

Some people like it best when it has a slight tartness suggesting apple, 
which is before the finger has become quite yellow. In this stage the 
skin screams if torn off rather quickly, and the flesh is fine and hard. 
Others prefer it when quite coloured, of an even light yellow all over. 
Others again like it in the more mellow state, when it has begun to 
taste like a sleepy pear and its jacket has turned to a deep yellow. 
Not a few still enjoy it in the further stage when more blotches begin 
to invade the skin For my own part that is a sign that it should 
no longer be eaten raw, and that it is in the best condition for the oven. 

1 he original banana of commerce in England is the China banana. 
This as grown in the Canaries has a better flavour than the Jamaica- 
grown China. I do not thick that even an undiscerning public would 
accept the Jamaican — China banana. This is too coarse a fruit, and it 
would be a most dangerous experiment to attempt to substitute it 
for the Martinique. 

On the other hand, some of the fine Indian kinds might be tried. 
They lie of the highest excellence, decidedly superior to Martinique, 
though as ^e have seen in the case of upples, that is not necessarily a 
recommendation to the public. None that I have seen are as hand- 
some in appearance. In any case, experiments of this kind should be 
left to the discretion of growers. Those who advocate new cultivations 
incur a grave responsibility. The great maxim of political econ( my, 
that prrgress is due to the pursuit of wealth by the individual, should 
never be lost sight of. The growing of a new fruit should be under- 
taken only because tl e grower is persuaded that he willl make money 
by it. And the condition that he will succeed should come from him- 
self and not be forced upon him from outside. 

Leaving market requirements, those who wish to have the best ba- 
nanas for their own eating should grow them upon the poorest soil. 
The small fingers of Martinique have a far higher flavour than the 
larger ones grown on good land. 



IIVI3EX, 



IC 









76 
1,U7 

246 
245 
245 

'^47 

213 

lb7 

244 

244 

247 
247 



246 



Fagk. 
Acarina . 190 

Adiautum dissimulatum . 116 

A. littorale . 116 

Analjsts, Cassava, Colombian va- 
rieties . 35-37 
*' " Jamaican va- 
rieties . 130-134 
Jamaican Fodders 213-249 
Sugar Cane Soils of 
Jamaica 
Analysis, Banana Soils 

" Bread-Nut (Brosimum 

Alicastrum) 
" Common Grass . 
Corn Crass 
Guango (Pithecolobium 

Sau:an 
Guinea Grass (Pauicum 
maximum 
Papaw 

Para Grass (Panicum 
molle) 
" Pimento Grass (Stenota- 

phrum americanum 
" Ramoou (Trophis anieri- 

can;i) 

" Rice Meal 

" Spanish Needle (Bidens 

leucantha) 

Anderson, Dr. A. P., on a new 

method of treating Cenal Grains 

and Starchy Procucts . 38 

Andropogan Grass Oils . 55 

Aspletiium Fawcettti , 43 

A. Harrisii . 42 



Bahama Giass, botanical note 19 

Banana leaf blight . 33 
Banana Soils of Jamaica — 

Portland— No. 64 . 147 
St. Ann— Huntly . 1 3 
St. Catherine — Laurencefield 11 
" Rodens Pen 10 
St. Miiry, — Koniiigsberg 5 
Llanrumiiey 4 
Newi-ey . 8 
Orange Hill 6, 7 
Quebec Park 1 
St. Thomas-in-the-East 16 
Vere,— Hillside . 16 
Banana trash ash . 147 
Parclay, J., on Guango as fodder 248 
iWistarcl Logwood . 30 
Bat Guiino, locul deposits of, ana- 
lyzed . 1 45 
Bidens kucantha, analysis of 246 
Bird Seeds . . HI 



u 
« 



Page. 
Board of Agriculture, Mietings 

of 20,41, (;8, 109, 134, 160 

Botanist, .Jamaican, An early 155 

Botrychiuni (iichronum . 127 

B. Jenmani . 137 

Bread-Nut, analysis of . 246 

Brosimum Alicastrum, analysis of 246 
Broughton, Arthur, M.P. . 155 

Buirowing Wasp . 252 



Canary Seed . . 112 

Cane variet es, yield of, at Cinna- 
mon Hill, St. James . 174 
Caiica spp. 184, 185 
Caitwright,Alfred,onPaiiamaHat3 2:5 
Cassava root rot . . 35 
L assava varieties, Colombism, ana- 
lysis of 37 
'• " Jamaican 130-134 
Cereal Grains ;indStarchy Products, 

A new method of treating 38 

Cinchona culture in India and Java 159 
Cinnamon Hill, St. James, yield of 

cane varieties at, . 174 

Citru.- Fruit Culture . 161 

budding . IGl, 162 

cultivation and irrigation 164 

girdling the branches 163 

pruning and s-haping trees 163 

pruning bearing trees . 163 

re-budding . 162 

tops, removal of . 162 

tops, renewal of . 164 

waxed bands, when to rfmove 162 

Cocoa, budding of . 255 

in Trinidad and Grenada 73 

in Venezuela 122, 169 

pod rot . 35 

" pruning . 75 

" root disease . 35 

" shade, and shade 

trees 73,121,124 

" yield . 75 

Coco-nut, advice to owners of da- 
maged trees . 264 
buttir . 114 
economic uses of 49 
trunk borer , 33 
trunk I ot . 33 
wasting disease . 32 
CoH'ee a.id Cocoa, shade for 124 
Colombian f^ assava v.iritties 35 
Common Gi'ass, analysis of 245 
Conference. International, on 
Plant-breeding and Hybridis^a- 
tion . 57 









.1 



n. 



Page. 
Cook, Prof.|0. F.. on shade for 

Co£fee and Cocoa . 124 

Corn Breeding, methods of 156 

Com Grass, analysis of . 2l5 

Cotton, directions for planting llO 

Cousins, H. H., Analyses of Bat 

Guano 144 

« " Analyses of Colom- 

bian Cassavas 35 

" •' Analyses of Jam^ii- 

can • assavas 130 

« " Analyses of Sugar 

Cano Soils 76 

« " Banana Soils of Ja- 

maica . 1 

« « Grass Oils . 53 

« " Jamaican Fodders 241 

« " Phosphate Manures 127 

" " Pine-apples and 

Mau.oes 258-263 

« < Refuse Manures 147 

« » Soil Problems in 

Jam^iica 40 

Cradwick, W., Jamaican 

Fodders 245, 246, 247 
« " Restoring damaged 

Coco nut trees 264 
Cylas formicarius . 175 

Cynodon Dactylon, botanical note 19 

Danaea Jamaicensis . 137 

D. Jenmani . 138 

Dead Wood in Forest trees 113 
DePass & Co., E. A., on market 

valae of Kola Nuts . 17 

Dermatoc ptes Mange . 19l 

Dermatophagus Mango . 191 

Diseases, Contagious skiu, of Horses 189 

Diseases of plants . 25,29 

Banana leaf blight . 33 

Bastard Logwood . 30 

Cassava root rot . 35 

Cocoa pod rot . 35 

" root disease . 35 

Coco-nut bud disease . 31 

" trunk borer . 33 

" rot . 33 

" wasting disease 32 

Logwood root rot . 30 

» >range-root grub . 34 

Drainage and temj^erature of soil 17o 



Earle, Prof. F. S., on Diseases of 

Logwood, &c. 29 

Earle, Prof. F. S., on Health and 

Disease in Plants , 25 

Llementary Notes on Jamaican 

I'lants, VI. . 18 

Bahama Grass (Cynodon Dac- 
tylon) . 19 



Page. 
Guinea Grass (Pauicum maxi 

mum) . 18 

Sugar Cane (Saccharum offici- 
narum) . 19 

Elis atrata . 252 

Evans, Dr. Walter H., Review of 
Papers on Plant Breeding and 
Hybridization . 57 



Farmer, Prof. J. B.,on a cheap 

dissecting microscope . 40 

Ferns of Jamaica — 

Botrychium diohronum 137 

B. Jenmani . 137 

Danaea Jamaiocnsis . 137 

D. Jenmani . 138 

Ferns : Synoptical Lists LYIIl & 

LIX . 42, 116 

Adiantum dissimulatum 116 

A. littorale . 116 

Asplenium Fawcetti 43 

A. Harrisi . 42 

Polypodiuni Harrisii . 43 

Fteris regia . 117 

Trichomanes solitarum . 116 

Fodders, Jamaican, Analyses of, 243-249 

Biead-Nut (Brosimum Alici- 

struiii) 2*6 

Common Grass 245 

Cora Grass 245 

Guango (Pithecolobium Samaii) 247 
Guinea Grass (Pauicum maximum)243 
Para Grass (Panicum molle) 244 

Pimento Grass (Stenotaphrum 

airericuia) 244 

Rami on (Trophis americana) 247 

Rice Meal 2+7 

Spanish Needle (Bidensleucantha) 246 

Forest Trees, Dead wood in 113 



Germination aud soil temperature 171 
Gies, William J., on economic uses 

of the Coco-nut 49 
Gillespie Bros. & Co. on market 

value of Kola Nuts 17 
Grabham, Dr. M., on i ine-apple^ 

in the Azores 258 
Grape Vines, varieties fur trial in 

Jamaica 115 

Grass Oils 53 

Guang(j, analysis of, 247 
Guano, Bat, local deposits of 

anal\ zed '45 

Guinea Grass, analysis of, 243 

" " botanical note 18 



Harris, T, J., on budding of Cocoa 255 
" " on budding of Mangoes 253 
" *' on planting Cotton 110 



III. 



Page. 
Harrison, Leslie, on cultivation of 

Rice in United States 175 

" Prof. J. B.jOnSugarOane 
experiments in British 
fJuiana 50 

Health and Disease in Plants 25 

Hemp 111 

Historical Notes on Economic Plants, 

v.— Tea 151 

Hopkins, Dr., on methods of Corn 

breeding 156 

Hoise-BreeJing in Jamaica, Report 

on 193-240 

H-rses, Contagious skin diseases of , \S9 
Hybridization, Conference on, and 
Plant Breedi:)g 57 



Insect pests in Sweet Potatoes 175 

Irrigation 140 



Jackson, John R., on Coco-nut 
Butter . 114 

Jackson, John R , on market value 
of Kola Nuts . 18 



Kilmer, F. B., on the Papaw 181 
King, Prof. F. H., on soil tempera- 
ture . 171 
Kingston City Refuse . 149 



Kola Nuts 



Lemon-grass oil 
Logwood root rot 



17 



53,54 
30 



Mallet C, on Panama Hats 22 
Mange in horses . 189 
Mangoes, budding of . 253 
" chemical composition of 263 
" table showing propor- 
tional parts of fruits 263 
Manures, some local refuse. 
Analyses of — 

banana trash ash . 147 

Kingston City refuse 149 

pond mud . 147 

sheep manure . 148 
Manurial Experiments on Banana 
Soils. 

Portland —No. 64 , 147 
St. Ann — Huntly, Brown's 

Town . 13 

St. Catherine — Rodens Pen 11 

St. Mary — Koningsberg 6 

" — Llanrumney 3 

" —Quebec Park 2 

Manurial Ex['erinionts on Sugar 

Cana Soils — 

St. Ana — Llandovery . 107 



Pagb. 

St. Catherine — Caymanas Es- 
tate . 89 
St. Elizabeth — Hollanl Es- 
tate . 9 1 , 92 
St. lames —Ginnamo'i Hill 104- 
St. Thomas —Albion Estate 79 
Trelawny — Valo Royal Eatate 107 
V. re— Amity Hall Estate 85, 86 
'< Carlisle Estate (Money - 

musk) . 87 

•' Hillside Estate 83 

Microscope, A cheap dissecting 40 

Wills, J. W. on citrus fruit cul- 
ture . IGI 
Jewell, F. H., on Irrigation 140 
Nitrification, si il temperature 171 



Orange root rub . 34 

" Weevil, remedies for, 251 

Oreodoxa regia, Uses of, in Cuba 138 



Palmer, Willia n, on uses of the 

Royal Palm in Cuba . 138 

Panama Hats . . 21 

Panicum maximum, analysis of 243 
" " botanical note 18 

P. molle, analysis of . 244 

i^anton, E. Stuart, on the Orange 

Weevil . . 249 

Papaw : . 181 

analysis of . . 187 

Carica spp. . . 184, 185 

cultivation and growth 186 

history and uses 181, 184 

names and chatacte istics 184 

planting . . 188 

suitable localities for 187 

t'ara Grass, analysis of . 244 

Parasite destroyer . 192 

Parasites of Mange . 190 

Phosphate manur. s, notes on 127 

Pimento Gras«, analysis of, 244 

Pine- apples, chemical composition 

of . . 259 

" " in the Azores 258 

" " table showing pro- 
portional parts of fruits 260 
Pithecolobium Saman, analysis of 247 
Plant, Breeding and Hybridization, 

International Conference on 56 

Polypodium Harrisii 43 

Pond mud . . ] 47 

Praepodes vi tatus, var. rubrj-vit- 

tatus . . 249 

Preuss, Dr. Paul, on Cocoa in Tri- 
nidad, Grenada, and Vene- 
zuela 73, 121, 169 
Pteris regia . . II7 



IV. 



Page. 
Ramoon, analysis of 247 

Rice, cultivation of, in United 

States 175 

" irrigation of, in Louisiana 
and Texas 178 

" irrigation of in the Carolinas 
and Georgia 176 

" meal, analysis of 247 

Royal Palm, Uses of in ' uba 138 



Saccharum officinarum, botanical 

note 
Shade for Coffee and Cocoa 
Sarcoptes Mange 
Sheep manure 
Shore, Joseph, on yield of Cane 

varieties at Cinnamon Hill 
Soil problems in Jamaica 
Soil temperature 

control by under-draining 
formation of nitrates . 
germination 

influence of chemicil changes 
influence of colour 
infl ence of evapora^on 
influence of rains 
influence of thorough prepara- 
tion of seed-bed 
influence of topography 
root pressure 
table showing influence of 
rapid evaporation 
.:>pauish Needle (Bidens leucantha), 
analysis of. 



19 

124 
190 

148 

174 
40 
171 
173 
171 
171 
172 
171 
172 
172 

173 
172 
171 

173 

246 



Starchy Products and Cereal Grains, 
A new method of treating, 38 

Stenotaphrum americauum, analy- 
sis of, . 244 

Sugar Cane, botanical note 19 

" " experiments in British 

Guiana . 50 

Sugar Cane Soils of Jamaica, 

Analyses of . 78 



Page. 
St. Ann — Llandovery 108 

St. Catherine — Caymanas 

Estate . 8^^ 

St. Elizabeth— Holland Estate 90 
St. Jnmes — Cinnamon Hill 99-103 
St. Thomis -Albion Estate 79 

" Plantain Garden 

Hiver District . 77 

Trelawuy— Vale Royal Estate 106 
Vere . 80 

" Amity Hall Estate 8t 

" Carlisle Estate (Money- 
musk) . 88 
Westmoreland — A. . 97 
Westmoreland — B. . 97 
" M©unt Regale 98 
Sugar production, tables of 51 
Sunflower . Ill 
Sweet Potatoes, insect pest of 175 



Tables of sugar production , 5 1 

Tea — History of in Jamaica. 151 
Theiler, Dr., on contagious skin 

diseases of the horse . 189 
Thomson, Robsrt, on Cassava from 

Colombia . 37 

Trichomanes solitarum . 116 

Trophis americana, analysis of 247 



Underwood, Dr. L. M., on new spe- 
cies of Jamaican Ferns . 136 



Verne, Prof., on Cinchona culture 
in India and Java . 1 59 



Wasp, Burrowing . 2.52 
Watts, Hon. Francis — tables of 

sugar production . 51 

Weevil, Orange . 34,251 



[Issued 21st Dec, 1903.] 
Printed at the Oovt. Printing Office, Kingston, Jain. 



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