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Full text of "Bulletin of the Department of Agriculture, Jamaica"



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BULLETIN 



OF THE 



DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 



EDITED BY 



WILLIAM FAWCETT, B.Sc, F.L.S. 



Director of Public Gardens and Plantations. 



LIBRARY 
NEW YORK 
BOTANICAL 

QARDSN 



VoL III. 



HOPE GARDENS, JAMAICA 
1905 



I1VJ3EX:. 



Fage 



Agricultural Banks 94, 101, 170 

« Conference at 

Trinidad . 22, 47, 

52, 89, 185, 233 
« Education Confer- 

ence at Gloucester 10 
" Imperial grants 160 

<' Instructors 24 

« Scholarships 111, 159, 206 

254 
« Science, Recent de- 

velopments in 243 
« «' for Secondary 

School Teaching 111,158, 

159, 205 

Analysis of Bamboo . 212 

" Breadiiut . 212 

" Corn . 214 

" Guinea Grass . 210, 211 

" Hay Grass . 209 

" Jamaican Fodders 209 

'< of Soils at Denbigh, Vera 1 37 

Ant, weevil- eating, on Cotton 34 

Apprentices . . 207, 231 

Armenians . . 87 



Bacteria, Nitrogen-fixing 



243 

Bamboo, Analysis of . 212 

" J. Barclay on, as fodder 212 
Bambusa vulgaris, Analysis of 212 

Bananas in Hanover and West- 
moreland . . 159 
Banana Suckers . . 152 
Barbados, Sugar Canes in . 89 
Barclay, J., on bamboo fodder 212 
" on Rotation of Crops for 
Cotton . . 1<8 
Blood as Manure 71, 87, 111 , 270 
Board of Agriculture 20, 46,70,86,110, 
135, 158, 183, 204, 231, 253, 277 
Board of Trade and Tobacco 131, 184 
boll-weevil on Cotton . 34 
Bordeaux Mixture . 51 
Bourne, H. C. on Hotation of 

Crops for Cotton . 104, 158 

Bovell, J. R. on Rotation of 

Crops for Cotton . 107 

Brandford, L. Z., appointed Master 

of Hope Industrial School 279 

Breadnut, Analysis of . 211 

B. Guiana, .>ugar Cane in 52 

Brosimum Alicastrum, Analysis of 211 
Bud Rot of Coco-nut palm 128 



Canker or Coral-spot disease of 

Cocoa 
Carmody, Prof. P. on Cocoa 



09* 
197 



44 
44 
45 



Page 

Cassava, cost of cultivation 220 

" Trials, by Ur. H. H. 

Cousins . . 152,218 

CastilloaRubber Tree 13, 43, 67, 84, 

133, 156, 181, 229,233 

Culture . 13 

Shade for Castilloa 13, 234, 

238, 240 
Effect of shade on form 

of tree . 17,234 

Shade and Rubber pro- 
duction . 18 
Distance between trees 19, 
234, 235, 237 
Clearing ground . 43 
Clean culture with forest 

protection 
Handling seeds . 
Seed beds and nurseries 
As a Shade-tree 67, 237, 242, 

266, 267 
Size of trees . 234 

Tapping 84, 85, 2M, 235, 239 
Age at which tapped 133 

Direction and shape of 

incisions • 156 

Tapping instruments 157, 240 
Multiple tapping 157 

Coagulation of latex 181, 229 

230, 237 
Yield of cultivated trees 230, 

234, 237 

Elevation for Cawtilloa 234, 

238, 267, 269 

266 

233 

242 

233 

22,47 

22 

72,* 269 



and coffee 
in Tobago 
in Venezuela 
in W. Indies 
Cattle Disease 

" Importation of 
Ceara or Mani9oba Rubber 

coagulation and preparation 75 
elevation • 269 

extraction of latex . 74 

seeds and germination 73 

soil . . 73, 269 

yield . . 75,269 

Central American Rubber Tree, see 

Castilloa Rnbber 
Chalmers, F. V., on Tobacco 111, 161 
Citronella Grass in Ceylon 49 

Citrus Trees, Diseases of . 25 

Cocoa and green dressing . 198 

" Artificial Drying . 199 

" at Trinidad Agricultural Con- 
ference . • 18o 
" Cultivation of . 41, 222 
« Disease ot • 69,* 186, 

223, 226, 27U 



* Unfortunately a mistake was made in numbering a few pages, and this 
number refers to the second page so numbered. 



II. 



Page 



Cocoa in Venezuela . 242 

«' Manures and Mulching 185, 193, 

221, ?70 
« Drainage . 187,221,225,226 
« in St. Mary 86, 184, 220 

Manurial Experiments 187 

reported, dying out . 86 

sample plots of . 186 

Shade for 194, 196, 198, 225, 237, 

240, 242 






221 

196 
51,87 

128 
39 
40 

215 
25 

166 



10 



« shelter belts for 
« Yield 
Coco-nut palm. Disease of 
«' bud rot of 
« " caltivatioii of 

Cofiee, Cultivation of 

" Market . 
CoUetotrichum on Citrus . 
Colonial Exhibition, Exhibits for 
Conference, Agricultural Educa 
tion at Gloucester 
« Agricultural at Trini- 

dad,22, 47, 52,89, 185,233 
« Cotton in Jamaica 1, 22 

Contagious Diseases Animals Bill 

111, 159 

Cook, 0. F., on Castilloa ]3, 43, 67,84, 

133,156,181,229 
" on Evolution of Weevil- 
Resistance in Cotton 
Co-operative Savings and Credit 
Societies in Canada 
" in Germany . 

Coral Spot Disease 
Corn (Maize and Guinea), Analysis 
of . . 213, 

Cotton : Baling 

«« Baling Machine 112, 232, 254 
Boll- weevil . 34 

Conference in Jamaica 1, 22 
Diseases (Insect Pests and 
Fungi) 103, 200, 201, 203, 
208, 254, 255 
Egyptian . 3 



34 

170 
101 
69* 

214 
4,5 






t( 
(( 
(I 
(I 



(( 
it 



Expenditure and 

per acre 
Experiments 
Ginning 
Gins 
Picking 
Ratoon 



eceipts 
24. 



Cousins, 
Trials 



203 

48 

5 

231, 234, 254 

3,5 

3, 4, 5, 48 

Rotation for 3, 104, 135, 136, 

158, 164 
Sale of, grown at Hope 112 
Selected Seed 101, 

Time of Planting 
Weevil- resistance in 
H. H., on Cassava 
152, 



159 

201 

34 

218 



Page 

Cousins, H. H.,on Cocoa dying 227 
a «« on Jamaican Fodders 209 
ii " on Milk in Jamaica 118 
« « on Paris Green 203 

« " on Rotation of Crops 

for Cotton 110, 164 
« " on STigar Cane Soils 137 
Cows' Milk, Observations, by 

H. H. Cousins 118 
« " Report on by H. S. 

Hammond 122 

Cradwick, W., acting as Secretary 

of Shows . 205 

" " on Banana Suckers 152 

a " on Cocoa in bt. Mary 220 

Credit Associations . 101, 170 

Culture of Ornamental Plants 65 

Cunningham, W. M., on Cultiva- 
tion of Coco- 
nut, Sugar- Cane, 
Coffee and Cocoa 39 
" " on Tobacco 146 

D'Albuquerque, Prof. J. P., on 

Sugar < ane . • 89 

D'Costa, A., on Stack Ensilage 132 
I'e Freitas, E. M., on Cocoa 195, 196 
De Cannes, J. G., on Cocoa 185, 196, 

197 
Denbigh Estate, Analysis of Soils 

of . . .137 

Desjardins, A., on Co-operative 

Banks . • 170 

Diploma of Agriculture, Jamaica 113 

Diseases : Citrus Trees and Fruits 25 

" Cocoa . . 69 

« Coco-nuts . 51, 87 

" Tomatoes . 76 

Dominica, Manuring Cocoa in 271 

Drainage for Cocoa 225, 226 

Dunstau, Prof. W. R., on Tobacco 130, 

132,275 
Duties, Import, on Fruit . 254 

Education, Agricultural . 10 

Ensilage, Stack, by A. D'Costa 132 

Fawcett, W., on Castilloa , 240 

" on Cocoa . 193 

« on Fiddler . 228 

'< on Paris Green 203 

Fermentation of flay . 12 

Fern Culture . ■ 71 * 

Fiddler beetle . 223, 227, 228 

Fodders of Jamaica, II . 209 

Forests, Relation of, to "^tream flow 56 

Fornaris, M., on tobacco . 162, 163 

Fruit Experts . . 231 



* V nf ortunately a mistake was made in numbering a few pages, and this 
number refers to the second page so numbered. 



III. 



Page 

Oamble, R. S., on Coffee Market 215 
Gillespie Bros. & Co. on Coffee 

Market . • 215 

Grape Fruit, Diseases of 30 

Grape Vine Culture, by W. J. 

Thompson . . 6 

Green Dressing for Cocoa . 198 

Guango, jSfotes on, by R. H. B. 

Hotchkin . - 169 

Guinea Grass, Analysis of 210 

Hall, AD., on Recent develop- 
ments in agricultural science 243 
Hall, van, Dr on Cocoa 197 

Halfway Tree . . 50 

Hammond, H. S., Analyses of 

Jamaican Fodders 213 
« " on Milk in Jamaica 122 

Harrison, Prof., on Sugar Cane 

in B. Guiana . . 52 

Harris, W., on Opium Poppy 78 

Hart, J. H.,on Cocoa 185, 196, 238-240 
Hay Grass, Analysis ot . 209 

" Heating or Fermentation of 12 
Heating or Fermentation of Hay 
Hill, Richard, on Halfway Tree 
Hoadley's Cocoa Drier 



Hoffman, K., on Rubber 
Hope Gardens, Plan of 
Hotchkin, R. H. B., on Guango 
Hudson, G. S., on Cocoa . 
Hurricane Loans Law 



12 
50 
200 
257 
206 
169 
190 
94 



Imperial grants in aid of agricul- 
ture . . 160 

Jackson, J. R., on Vanilla . 70* 

Jekyll, W., on Roses . 65* 

Laboratory, New Building at 71 

Leeward Islands, Sugar Cane in 92 
Lemon, Diseases of . 28 

Lime, Diseases of . 27 

" essential for nitrogen-fixing 
bacteria . . 247 

Locked Still Experiment 21,48,71, 112 

160 
" " Minute by S. Olivier 277 

Manifoba or Ceara Rubber 72,* 269 
Milk in Jamaica, Observations by 

H. H. Cousins 118 
" " Report on by 

H. S.Hammond 122 
" Legal Standard for . 72 

Morris, Sir D., on Cocoa 126, 195, 196 
" on Rotation of Crops for 

Cotton . 105, 109 



Page 

Morris, Sir D., on Rubber 233, 241 
" visit of, to Jamaica 159, 204 
Morton, Rev. Dr. on Cocoa 193 

Mulching, value of . 221, 270 

Murray, P. W., Appointment as 
Superintendent of Manurial Ex- 
periments . . 20 



Nectria on Cocca 
NichoUs, Dr. H. A. 



Nitrogen fixing bacteria 
" in Agriculture 



69* 
A., on Cocoa 191, 
194, 196 
243 
7 
231 



Nolan, J., and Jamaica Rum 



Oliver, E. L., on Cottoa 

Olivier, S., Minute on Locked Still 



Experiment 
Opium Poppy 
Orange, Diseases of 


278 
7& 
30 


Palm oil 


252 


Panicum maximum. Analysis 


of 210 


Para Rubber, exports and 


con- 




sumption 


258 


i( 


" biscuit 


258 


a 


" soil 


259, 267 


a 


" collection of 


260 


« 


" over-planting 
" supply 
" elevation 


260 

261 

263, 267 


« 


" rainfall 


263, 267 


<( 


" yield 


263, 264 


« 


" holing for 


266 


(( 


" mixed planting 


265 


(( 


" and Cocoa . 


262, 265 


a 


" and Tea 


265. 267 


ii 


« a.:d Coffee . 


266, 267 


« 


" and Coco-nuts 


265 


Raiffei 


sen Agricultural Banks 


94 


Ramie 


, , 


71 


Rolfs, 


P. H., on Diseases of Citrus 25 


Roses, 
Rubbe 


by W. Jekyll . 65* 
r at riuidad Conference 233 


li 


Ceara or Manicoba 


72^269 


if 


Castilloa or C. American 




13,43,67, 84, 133, 156, 


181,229 


a 


Para 


258, 268 


(( 


in Jamaica 


240, 257 


a 


in Ceylon 


257, 265 


11 


in S. India 


265 


it 


in Para 


258 


If, 


in W. Indies 


233 


(C 


Distribution of 


241 


Rudolf, N. A., appointed Assistant 
Superintendent . 231 



* Unfortunately a mistake was made in numbering a few pages, and this 
number refers to the second page so numbered. 



IV. 



Page 
Rum, High Ether, at Hampden 277 

Saffron . . 66 

Scholarship, Jamaica, for Agricul- 
tural Students . 159, 206 
School Gardens, Pamphlet on 205, 207 
Schulze's Credit Associations 101 
Secondary Schools and Agricultu- 
ral Lectures . . 158 
Shade for Cocoa 194, 198, 225, 237, 242 
Sharp, T. H. on Cotton . 200 
Shea butter . . 253 
Sheriff, J. W., on Palm oil and 

Shea butter . . 252 

Short, Capt. M., on Castilloa 233 

Smith, Dr. Erwin, on Bud rot of 

Coco-nut . . 128 

Soils, Sugar Cane, of Jamaica III 137 
Soil surveys . . 248 

Somerville, Dr. on Nitrogen in 

Agriculture . . 7 

Sporobolus indicus. Analysis of 209 
Stack Ensilage, by A. D'Costa 132 

Sterilizing Fruits . 47 

Strieker, S. on Cotton . 201 

Sugar Cane at Trinidad Agricultu- 
ral Conftrence 52, 89 
" Artificial Cross Fertiliza- 
tion . 90 
« « Chemical Selection 90 
" « Cultivation of 40 
" " Experiments on Tillage 92 
" « in Barbados . 89 
« " in B. Guiana 52 
" ^' in Leward Islands 92 
" •' Manurial Experiments 54 

91, 92 
Soils of Jamaica, III l!i7 
Yield of Varieties 52, 89 

93 
Sugar Experiment Committee 135, 206, 

231 
Sugar Industry Fund 20, 22, 23, 46,70, 

71, 232, 254, 256 
Sumatra seed tobacco 146, 161 






Page 

Teachers' Course . 24 

Thomas, Dalby,ou Cocoa in Jamaica 227 
Thompson, W. J., on Culture of 

Ornamental Plants 65 
" *' on Grape Vine 

Culture . 6 

" " on Watering Plan's 41 

Tobacco . 130, 146, 161, 275 

" Price . . Ill 

" Samplt^s for Imperial 

Institute . 163,184 

" Shade-grown from Su- 
matra seed 146, 151 ,205, 

206 
Tomatoes, Disease of . 76 

roumey, J. W., on Forests and 

Stream flow . . 56 

Trade Marks . , 47, 70 

Tropical Agriculturist . 257 



Van Hall, Dr., on Cocoa . 197 

Vanilla Industry . 70* 

Variety, Importance of . 250 

Vere, Analysis of Soils at Denbigh 137 

Water Buffaloes . . 23, 71 

Watering Plants in Gardens 41 
Watts, Hoi}. Dr. F., on green 

dressing for Cocoa 1.98 
" on manuring Cocoa 271 
" Rotation of Crops for Cot- 
ton . 109 
" on Sugar Cane . 92 
Weevil. Cotton Boll . 34 
Willis, J. C, on Citronella 49 
Wither-tip . . 25 
Wortley, E. .J., Analysis of Corns, 

by . 213 
" " Appointment as 

Assistant Chemist . 255 

Wright, H., on Rubber . 265 



Zea Mays, Analysis of 



213, 214 



* Unfortunately a mistake was made in numbering a few pages, and this 
number refers to the second page so numbered. 



f 



BULLETIN 



OF THB 



DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



Vol III JANUARY, 1905. Part 1. 



KDITKD BT 



WILLIAM PAWCETT, B.Sc, F.L.S., 

Director of Pvhlic Gardens and Flaiitations. 



CONTENTS 



Page. 

Cotton Conference in Jamaica ... I 

Notes on Grape Vine Culture ... 6 

Nitrogen in Agriculture ... 7 

Agricultural Education Conference at Gloucester lO 

Heating or Fermentation of Hay 12 

Culture of the Central American Rubber Tree, VI. 1 3 

Board of Agriculture ... 20 



P R I C E— Threepence. 



A Copy will be supplied free to any Resident in Jamaica, who will send name and 
address to the Director of Public Gardens and Plantations, Kingston P.O. 



KINGSTON, JAMAICA 
Hope Gardens. 

1906. 



JAMMCA. 



BOTANiCAL 
OK THE GARDEN 



BXJLT.ElTlNr 



DEPARTMEJ^T OF AGRICULTURE. 



Vol. III. JANUARY. 1905. Part 1, 



COTTON CONFERENCE IN JAMAICA. 

The Conference arranged by the Board of Agriculture to meet 
Messrs. E. L. Oliver and R. Stancliffe, the deputation from the 
British Cotton Growing Association, took place at the Institute of 
Jamaica on 29th November, 1904. 

Among those present were His Excellency Sir J. Alexander 
Swettenham, the Hon. H. C. Bourne, His Grace the Archbishop, 
Hon. Lieut.-Col. Pinnock, Mr. H. H. Cousins, Hon. Dr. J. Pringle, 
C.M.G., Hon. W. Fawcett, Hon. T. H. Sharp, Mr. James Allwood, 
C.M.G., Mr. L. F. McKinnon, Mr. Upton, Mr. C. A. T. Fursdon, Mr. 
Warmington, Hon. H. Cork, Captain Egerton Eves, Hon. H. 
T. Ronaldson, Mr. A. W. Farquharson, Mr. R. A. Walcott, Mr. 
Broderick, Mr. J. Barclay, Mr. W, H. Johnson, and several other 
gentlemen interested in the cotton industry. 

The Hon. H. Clarence Bourne, Chairman of the Board of Agri- 
culture, occupied the chair. 

Mr. Oliver said that was the first meeting which he had had in 
the West Indies without the presence of Sir Daniel Morris. He 
wished to convey to them Sir Daniel Morris' regret that owing to 
his long stay in England, his work in the West Indies had fallen 
into such arrears that it was impossible for him to accompany the 
members of the deputation to Jamaica. 

The cotton industry of the West Indies had passed the experi- 
mental stage. It was undoubtedly a commercial success ; more so, 
perhaps, in the other West Indian Islands than in Jamaica, where 
it was, comparatively speaking, in its infancy. Perhaps they in 
Jamaica could scarcely be said to be out of the experimental stage, 
but the progress which had been made in the other islands was 
simply phenomenal, and very great credit was due to Sir Daniel 
Morris and his staff on the one hand, and to Mr. Charles 
Wolstenholme, of the British Cotton Growing Association, on the 
other hand. The people of Jamaica had made more progress in this 
industry in two years than they might naturally have been expected 
to do in a life time. They had had the benefit of very sound advice 
and every word of that advice had been founded on the best pos- 
sible experience of the United States. 



Cotton was no stranger to these parts of the world, although it 
was a stranger perhaps to the present generation. During the 
American war there was a movement started here to resuscitate 
cotton growing, but it was given up. He did not think that that 
movement was so well organised as the present movement, and 
the circumstances were entirely different. At that time they had 
to deal with a state of affairs which was unusual and temporary. 
The present time was altogether different in this respect that the 
demand had been gradually overtaking the supply for some time 
and, therefore, there was much more hope of the present movement 
not proving merely a temporary one as the movement of 1862 
1863, and 1864. 

He believed that the firm which he represented in England was 
the first firm to use Sea Island cotton grown in the West Indies — 
at any rate during the present movement. That cotton possessed 
very good qualities and very bad ones, and he intended to be per- 
fectly frank with them and to tell them how they found it from 
the consumer's point of view. Sir Daniel Morris met him in Man- 
chester on the 4th of July and he and Sir Gerald Strickland asked 
him (Mr. Oliver) to come out to the West Indies and speak to the 
planters, telling them how the English people found their cotton, 
and what they wanted and what they did not want. After a great 
deal of consideration he consented to come to the West Indies, 
and he was exceedingly glad that he had come. If he was only 
able to teach as much as he had learnt, then he thought he would 
have done a little good by coming out. 

The chief difficulty they had with the West Indian cotton was 
its mixed character — long and short, coarse and fine, strong and 
weak cotton, all in the same bag and, if it had not been for the 
interest taken in the West Indian cotton by Mr. Charles Wolsten- 
holme in assorting them, it was doubtful whether they would have 
been used at all. Mixed cotton was very unpopular, and if it had 
not been that the last year was a time of phenomenal scarcity of 
cotton it was probable that this kind of cotton would not have 
been tried — at any rate by the general market. 

He had been greatly interested in cotton experiments, and he 
had used Sea Island cotton grown in Fiji, Tahiti, Solomon Islands 
and other places, and he had also used Sea Island cotton, grown 
in Egypt ; and he and others had found that there was a consider- 
ably larger amount of waste in the West Indian cotton than in 
cotton grown in the American Sea Islands and the other places 
mentioned. The percentage of waste in the West Indian cotton 
was II per cent, greater in some instances. Instead of getting 60 
lbs. of cotton yarn out of 1 00 lbs, of cotton they got less than 50 
per cent. This was caused almost entirely by the presence of 
unripe fibre, and they should be careful not to pick the cotton until 
it was properly ripe. 

In Barbados, St. Vincent, St. Kitts, and Nevis, they had been 
examining cotton which had been ratooned and they had come to 



the definite conclusion that if they wanted to make a success of 
cotton growing they must not allow it to ratoon. They must not 
attempt to grow together two crops from the same seed. They 
must plant fresh seeds every year. 

Another point he wanted to call to their attention was that in 
other islands they would not grow cotton in the same ground two 
crops in succession. They grew cotton on certain lands in one 
year and something else in the next year. He thought that was a 
wise decision. 

He had been asked whether Egyptian cotton was the best to 
grow here. For Egyptian cotton there was an absolutely unlimited 
demand but whether it would pay them to grow it he did not know. 
What they would receive for Egyptian cotton would not be more 
than one half, if as much, as what they would receive for good 
cotton grown from such seeds as the Imperial Department of 
Agriculture secured from Mr. E. L. River's estate of last year. He 
should be sorry to discourage experiments made with Egyptian 
cotton. They were discouraging them in the smaller islands 
because of the risk of mixing the seed, but Jamaica was big enough 
to try the experiments with regard to Egyptian cotton. An 
important point which he desired to bring home to them was that 
if they were growing Egyptian cotton then it should be confined 
to a certain area. 

They must most carefully avoid mixing the seed of long staple 
and short staple cotton, and if through any cause whatever after 
selecting the cotton seed, that grown on one patch should be in- 
ferior to that grown on another patch, then keep them separate; for, 
if you mix them you will only obtain a price equal to the worst 
cotton in each bag ; and even then you will find it difficult to find 
a market for it, as a spinner will avoid buying mixed cotton if 
there is a plentiful supply on the market. Just as the strength of 
a chain is its weakest link, so is cotton only worth the value of 
the poorest cotton in the bag. If necessary the crops should be 
divided into three grades, and if that is done full market prices 
will be realized for each grade. 

He had been asked to say if it was necessary to obtain fresh 
seed for the next season. Sir Daniel Morris and the Department 
were now engaged in making experiments to find out if it was 
necessary to import seed every year from the States. Personally, 
he did not think so. They, however, would have to await the 
result of the experiments. 

He had also been asked whether it was not wiser to cross the 
native with the Sea Island variety to avoid insects and other pests. 
All he would tell them was if they gave up the idea of ratooning 
then they need fear no ravages from pests. 

It was very essential to pick the cotton as clean as could possibly 
be done, and only to pick when the cotton was ripe. Pickers who 
picked clean ought to receive a higher scale of pay than those 
who brought in the cotton with chips and scale. The result of the 



chips and scale being left in was to spoil the cotton when it went 
into the gin. 

With regard to baling it would be well if the cotton was baled 
so that it would arrive in the best possible condition. Some of 
the cotton from the West Indies was sent out in bales bound round 
with iron bands like Florida and Georgia Sea Island cotton, but 
he understood in some cases presses had been obtained for making 
up the cotton in bags without bands which will give the bales the 
same appearance as the cotton from Edisto and James Island. He 
did not think that a single planter in Edisto or James Island puts 
bands round his cotton, and to see bales with iron bands round 
them might lead some spinners to be suspicious lest they were 
buying Florida and Georgia Sea Island and not real Sea Island 
grown upon the islands. 

Mr. Oliver then passed round samples of waste as it came 
from the cotton spinning factory in England, taken from Barbados, 
also samples of ladies gloves manufactured from cotton that con- 
tained cotton grown in the West Indies. 

SOME QUESTIONS. 

The Chairman said that if any one desired to ask any questions 
Mr. Oliver would be pleased to answer them. 

Mr. Ronaldson said he would like to understand whether ratoon 
cotton was of no use and whether they were not to grow ratoons ? 

Mr. Oliver replied that his advice was not to have anything to 
do with ratoons. The cotton yielded from them was weak and 
poor and would not find a market. As soon as the first crop was 
reaped the trees should be destroyed and fresh seed planted. 

Mr. Ronaldson said if that was the case he did not see how it could 
pay. He had recently put in 25 acres and it had cost £4 lOs. an acre. 
He did not think it could pay if they were not to use the ratoons. 

Mr. Walcott said he would like to know if Mr. Ronaldson had 
taken into consideration the yield from the seed and other bye- 
products. 

Mr. Oliver said that he knew two men in Barbados who made 
£10 an acre from their yield. He, however, repeated his advice 
against ratoons and pointed out that to establish a reputation, a 
regular standard quality will have to be maintained which can not 
be got from the cotton produced from ratoons. 

Mr. Sharp said that with regard to the matter of ratooning he 
would like to say what was called a ratoon here was really not a 
ratoon. He knew of cases where two crops were grown in ten 
months. Except they were able to ratoon it would be a serious 
matter as far as Jamaica is concerned. Here the soil was different 
to most other places, as Mr. Cousins could tell them. He knew 
that as soon as the crop was ready all that was necessary was to 
gather the fruit and cut off the branches that had borne and get 
the next crop. He would like to know whether the tree was to be 
treated as an annual or whether the tree was to be destroyed after 
the first crop. 



5 

Mr. Oliver said of course the ratoon cotton could be grown and 
shipped but it would fetch a very much lower price, and in some 
cases remain unsold. 

Mr. Oliver was asked what was the cost of picking, ginning and 
baling .^ 

Picking, he said, was done in Barbados at | cent per lb., and 
ginning and baling, three half-pence a lb. 

Mr. Oliver was also asked whether it was better to have a big 
ginning district or that each man should have a gin of his own ? 

A large place, he replied, was worked more economically than 
a small one. He did not think it would pay a man to have a gin 
of his own unless he had 5 00 acres under cultivation. In his 
opinion a Central Factory would pay best such as at Barbados. 

The Chairman said he thought they had all the information they 
wanted from Mr. Oliver and there was nothing left but to thank 
him for his advice. He also thought they ought to place on record 
a vote of thanks to the British Cotton Growing Association for 
taking the interest they did in this matter. He desired in thank- 
ing Mr. Oliver to thank Mr. Stancliffe too. He took it that the 
Meeting agreed to pass both votes of thanks. 

This was unanimously agreed to. 

Mr. Stancliffe, in reply, said he was very pleased to be there that 
morning, and he desired to thank them all for the kindness shown 
to both Mr. Oliver and himself. Everywhere they had been to, 
they had received proverbial West Indian hospitality for which he 
desired to return his sincere thanks. He wished them all pros- 
perity in cotton growing and assured them that if they treated it 
with the same kindness that they had treated them then it must be 
a success. He hoped their visit would result in a new era for cotton 
growing in the West Indies. 

COTTON FROM RATOON PLANTS. 

Mr. Oliver, the cotton expert, stated that cotton from ratoon 
plants grown in various places all over the world, showed great 
deterioration, the plants very soon reverting to the condition of 
wild cotton. 

After seeing the plants growing in Jamaica, he allowed that 
what was called here first ratoons did not correspond exactly to 
proper ratoons, but appeared to be rather a continuation of the 
original growth. 

In Barbados he stated the planters went on picking their crop 
during 3 months, but here the crop matured on the first branches 
at much the same time, and then a second series of branches grow 
from below the original set : these second branches were known 
here as first ratoons. 

Judging from the small sample that he had seen, he was inclined 
to think that there was no deterioration in the lint for the so-called 
first ratoons, but this was a ciuestion which could not be decisively 
answered until he had seen a much larger quantity. 



NOTES ON GRAPE VINE CULTURE. 

By W. J. Thompson, F.R.H.S. Travelling Instructor and Superin- 
tendent Parade Garden. 

On account of the unusual rains grape vines have made more 
growth than is good for them. To counteract the late excessive 
growth, people who possess only one vine, and wish it to give a good 
crop of fruit this year, should see that it is kept as dry as possible 
till about the middle of January, and also that it gets as much 
sunlight and air as can be given it. The reason for this is, that 
the past season's main growth of the vine may become quite ripe ; 
for it is the good ripe wood of the grape vine that determines the 
amount of fruit, and not the pruning. If the wood is thick, enough 
and ripe, fruit will come in the spring, even if the pruning is not 
of the best description. 

The above applies to vines that were not pruned late last year. 
Vines that have been ill-used by being pruned twice in the year 
should not be pruned again till late in the spring. 

Grape vines should only get one general pruning each year, 
more than this is injurious to them. 

People who have several vines with quite ripe wood, should have 
begun to prune in December and should prune one or two vines 
every fortnight so as to get a succession of fruit. With enough 
vines and proper treatment, grapes can be had most of the year 
through. 

From the time water is withheld from the vines, so as to ripen 
the wood, it should not be again given to the roots until about a 
week after the plants have been pruned, then the vines should be 
given an abundant supply of water so as to start them into growth. 
When the young growths are a few inches long, the vines should 
receive a supply of water at the roots like the other plants in the 
garden. It must be distinctly understood that while old vines will 
stand any amount of water at their roots, great care has to be 
taken in watering newly planted young vines, as they will die from 
being over-watered. When the fruit is beginning to ripen, water 
should be withheld from the roots. After the fruit is gathered, 
and if a second small crop should be coming on the 
lateral growths, the usual supply of water can be given. But care 
must be taken to see that the vines are not kept growing and fruit- 
ing for too many months in the year. 

If a vine is restricted so as to have only one crop of fruit each 
year, it would be better for it and better for the owner. 

When the vine has been pruned and started into growth care 
should be taken to see that as soon as the young growths are 
about four to six inches long that too many are not allowed 
to remain on the vine. This can be remedied by rubbing off 
the smallest growths with the thumb and fingers, and only allow- 
ing one good growth to grow from one section of the vine instead 
of three or four weak ones. 



In pruning care should be taken that too many main growths 
are not left, so as not to get the vine overcrowded ; and when 
the cut is made, see that it is close to one of the main stems. 

I find that in some gardens when the plants have had plenty of 
soil and manure about the roots, that the vines have begun to fruit 
on the lateral branches. In such cases, it will be the wisest plan 
to dry the vines off for about a month by exposing the base of the 
plants and withholding water, then they should be pruned. If 
this fruit is allowed to remain on and ripen the vines will not be 
able to form good new wood for another year. 



NITROGEN IN AGRICULTURE. 

Extract from an Address by DR. SOMERVILLE, at the British 

Association. 

The Chemical Fixation of Atmospheric Nitrogen. 

It has for long been the dream of chemists to discover, or wel- 
come the discovery of, a chemical process, capable of industrial 
application, by which the nitrogen of the air could be made avail- 
able to replace or to supplement our rather limited supplies of ni- 
trogenous manures. In his Presidental Address, Sir William 
Crookes had something to say on this fascinating subject, and 
looked hopefully to electricity to solve the problem. He pointed 
out that with current costing one-third of a penny per Board of 
Trade unit a ton of nitrate of soda could be produced for £26 ; 
while at a cost of one-seventeenth of a penny per unit, a rate pos- 
sible when large natural sources of power, like Niagara, are avail- 
able, the cost of such artificial nitrate of soda need not be more 
than £5 per ton.* 

Dr. von Lepel, in giving an account of recent work on this 
subject to the winter meeting of the German Agricultural Society 
in February of this year,t puts the cost of electric nitrate, as 
compared with Chili nitrate, in the proportion of 24 to 39, which 
is in close agreement with Sir William Crookes's estimate. Lepel 
points out that the material obtained, neutralised by some alkali, 
consists of a mixture of nitrate and nitrite. When used in pot- 
culture experiments it has given results closely agreeing with those 
furnished by Chili nitrate. 

Good progress would also appear to have been made in another 
direction in the commercial fixation of atmospheric nitrogen, and 
a short account of the results was communicated by Prof. Gerlach, 
of Posen, to the meeting of the German Agricultural Society 
already referred to, and is published in the same issue of the Mit- 
theihingoi. 

When air which has been freed of ox^'^gen is conducted through 
finely disintegrated calcium carbide at a high temperature, one 

♦ Crookes, "The VVhe-.t I'rohleni." p. 47, 

t Dr. von Lepel, Neuere Vcrsuche zur Nutzharmachuiif,' des (itniosphiiriKchen Stick, 
stoffs durch Elektrische Flammenbogen," Mitteil de Deut. Land. Gesell., 1904, Stuck 8 



8 

atom of carbon is displaced by two atoms of nitrogen, and calcium 
cyanamide (CaCN.2) is formed. This substance is also produced 
when a mixture of lime or chalk and charcoal is heated to a 
temperature of 2,000° C. in a current of air.* When pure, this 
substance holds 35 per cent, of nitrogen, but in its crude com- 
mercial form it contains only about 20 per cent. Treated with 
acids, calcium cyanamide is changed into dicyandiamide, a sub- 
stance holding nearly 67 percent, of nitrogen, but directly poison- 
ous to plants. Or, if heated in superheated steam, calcium 
cyanamide parts with all its nitrogen as ammonia, which, of course, 
is easily brought into a portable form. 

But experiments conducted at Posen and Darmstadt during the 
past three years, both in pots and in the open field, have shown 
that calcium cyanamide itself is a useful nitrogenous manure, field 
experiments giving results about 20 percent, below those obtained 
by the use of an equal amount of nitrogen in the form of sulphate 
of ammonia. In prepared soil in pots the results fully surpassed 
those obtained both with nitrate of soda and sulphate of ammonia, 
the less satisfactory yields obtained in the field being perhaps due 
to the organic acids inducing the formation of a certain amount 
of the poisonous dicyandiamide. 

So far as one may judge from the information available, it would 
appear that agriculture will not have long to wait until it is placed 
in the possession of new supplies of that most powerful agent of 
production, nitrogen, and Sir William Crookes will see the fulfil- 
ment of his prediction that " the future can take care of itself." 

Nitragiti. 

A few years ago much interest was excited in this and other 
countries by the announcement that the scientific discoveries of 
Hellriegel and Wilfarth had received commercial application, and 
that the organisms of the nodules of the roots of Leguminosae 
could be purchased in a form convenient for artificial inoculation. 
The specific cultures placed upon the market were largely tested 
practically and experimentally, but the results were such as to 
convince even the patentees, Nobbe and Hiltner, that the problem 
which promised so much for agriculture had not been satisfactorily 
solved. Since that time however, investigators have not been idle, 
and the present position of the subject is to be found in a recent 
report by Hiltner and Stormer.f 

It was early recognised that the organisms (bacteria) which in- 
habited the root-nodules of the various species of Leguminosae 
were not all alike, and that, in fact, they showed marked physio- 
logical if not morphological distinctions. Any particular species 
of leguminous plant is found to resist more or less successfully the 
attempt of these various organisms to effect an entrance into its 

* Bull. Imp. Inst. June 30th, ]90i. 

t" Bericht iiber oeue Untersucliungen iibei- die WurzelknoHchen derLeguniiuosen and 
deren Errege'," Arheiten aits der Biol. Ahteil. Jiir Land-imd Forstwirtschaft am K- 
Gesundyieitsamte, Band iii. Heft 3. 



root-hairs, and according to the power of the organism to gain 
access, and to establish colonies, so is the particular plant bene- 
fitted and the stock of fixed nitrogen increased. This power of 
the adaptability of the organism is designated its " virulence," a 
term, however, which is perhaps hardly suited to our English mode 
of expression, though it may for the present be retained. It has been 
found that organisms of what is called "high-virulence" are capable 
of entering with ease the root-hairs of vigorous plants at an early 
stage of their growth, and of inducing the formation of nodules 
that are large, numerous and placed high up on the roots. Or- 
ganisms of low virulence, on the other hand, can only enter plants 
of feebler growth, or plants that have passed the most vigorous 
stage of youth, so that the nodules, in this case, are small and 
scarce, and distributed, for the most part, near the ends of the 
roots. The practical object, therefore, would appear to be the 
breeding of strains or varieties of organisms of high virulence, 
adapted to the symbiotic requirements of the various important 
species of farm and garden leguminous crops. 

The nitragin put on the market a few years ago was used in 
two ways, being either applied directly to the fields, or mixed 
with water and brought into contact with the seed before sowing. 
Under the former method of procedure an increase of crop was 
obtained only when the nitrogin was used on land containing much 
humus. The explanation given for failure under other conditions 
was that the bacteria artificially introduced perished for want of 
food before the leguminous seed germinated and produced plants. 

Failure of the nitrogin to effect an improvement in the crop 
when it was sprinkled on the seed is now believed to be due to 
the action of secretions produced by the seed in the early stages 
of germination. These secretions are found to be rich in salts of 
potash, and when brought into contact with the bacteria in ques- 
tion they induce changes allied to plasmolysis, and these changes 
are subsequently followed by death. This difficulty was found to 
be got over by moistening the seed and allowing it to sprout before 
the nitrogin was applied ; but manifestly such a procedure would 
always be difficult, and often impossible, to carry out in practice. 
The object, however, would appear to have been gained in another 
way, namely, by cultivating the bacteria in a medium that imparts 
to them the necessary power of resistance. Such nourishment 
may take various forms, but that which gave the best results con- 
sisted of a mixture of skim milk, grape sugar and pepton, and it 
is in this medium that the organisms of the nitrogen now dis- 
tributed are cultivated. 

Early in the present year the new nitragin was being offered 
free of cost to all members of the German Agricultural Society on 
the condition that it was used in accordance with the directions 
that accompany it. In conse(|uence of the large demand the free 
offer was in April withdrawn, but the substance may be purchased 
from Prof. Hiltner, of Munich, in quantities sufficient to treat the 



10 

seed of a half to one acre at the price of one shilling. The United 
States Department of Agriculture are so convinced of the practical 
utility of the improved nitragin that they are distributing large 
quantities to American farmers. In this way the material will be 
thoroughly tried in two hemispheres under practical conditions, 
and abundant evidence should soon be forthcoming as regards its 
effects. It is to be hoped that British investigators will not be 
deterred by past disappointments from putting the new form of 
nitragin to the test. 



THE AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION CON- 
FERENCE AT GLOUCESTER.* 

Under the auspices of the Gloucestershire County Council, a 
conference on agricultural education was held at the Shire Hall, 
Gloucester, on October 15. There was a large attendance not only 
of those locally interested in either education or agriculture, but 
also of delegates from many of the other counties. After a few 
preliminary remarks from the Chairman, Sir John Dorrington, Lord 
Onslow opened the proceedings, and explained the work his 
department was charged with in regard to education. He justified 
the retention of that work by the Board of Agriculture ihstead of 
allowing it to be merged in the general educational system ad- 
ministered by the Board of Education, on the plea that agriculture 
in England was so far from being the leading industry that the 
specialised education it required would get scant attention were 
there not his own department peculiarly interested in fostering it. 
He claimed that the constant and sympathetic communication be- 
tween the two departments secured more favourable results than 
could be acquired under the Board of Education exclusively. The 
work of the Board of Agriculture was confined to assisting the 
collegiate centres under which the greater part of the country was 
now grouped ; there was, however, a large blank on the educa- 
tional map, for the whole of the west country, including Glou- 
cestershire itself, had no centre of university rank from which 
agricultural instruction emanated. He trusted that the present 
conference would pave the way towards remedying the need he 
had indicated. 

Sir William Hart-Dyke, to whom the first paper, on higher agri- 
cultural education, had been entrusted, was unable to be present ; 
his paper, of which an abstract was read, warned the meeting of 
the difficulty that now confronted all countries in the matter of 
higher education because of the great draft on their funds for the 
future training of elementary schoolmasters. 

A paper by Prof. Middleton, of Cambridge University, next dealt 
with the proper function of experimental plots in local agricultural 
education ; Prof. Percival, of Reading, who followed, dealt with 
the ideal course of instruction in an agricultural college. The 

*From "Nature," October SO, 1904. 



II 

current courses, he maintained, were far too scientific ; chemistry, 
botany and kindred sciences should be reduced to a minimum in 
favour of work on the farm, a thoroughly popular programme 
which appealed to the " practical men" in the room. 

Lord Monteagle then opened the second part of the proceedings, 
on the education of the small farmer, with an account of the way 
the Irish Board of Agriculture had gone to work. 

In Ireland the central authority administered the larger part of 
the fund, contributing five-ninths of the cost of any work, and se- 
curing four ninths from the local authority ; thus the organisation 
proceeded more evenly over the whole country than in England, 
where the initiative rests with the local authority. Next, they had 
proceeded in Ireland on the principle of establishing no institution 
until they had created a demand for it by means of pioneer lec- 
turing and demonstrations. Lastly, in Ireland they believed that 
the industrial organisation of the farmers must go hand in hand 
with their education. 

Prof. Wallace, of Edinburgh, who followed dwelt on the neces- 
sity of beginning an agricultural training at an early age, so far 
as practical work on the farm went, leaving the true technical in- 
struction to come when the lad had matured. Mr. Frederick 
Verney also dwelt on the harm that was being done to country 
children by keeping them at unsuitable school subjects until they 
had lost all taste for farming pursuits ; the present system of ele- 
mentary education contributed both to the depopulation of the 
country and the overcrowding of the towns. 

Mr. H. Hobhouse, M.P., spoke on the value of attaching agri- 
cultural sides to the ordinary country grammar schools the training 
would not be technical, but scientific with an agricutural bias. 

After lunch Mr. Morant expressed his pleasure at the opportu- 
nity the conference afforded him of learning the feelings of the 
great agricultural community towards the educational system of 
the country. He assured the meeting that the Board of Education 
was wholly anxious to assist, provided the men who represented 
agriculture on such occasions would make their views precise, and, 
instead of grumbling at large, would indicate exactly what worked 
harshly or harmfully in the present arrangements controlled by 
the Board of Education. 

A paper by Sir C. Dyke Acland was then read in his absence ; 
it dealt with the education of the labourer, and was, like so many 
that followed, a plea for more intelligent teaching in our elemen- 
tary schools, and for a more flexible system which would partially 
liberate boys at an earlier age for light work on the farm. Mr. 
G. Lambert, M.P., and Mr. Martin F. Sutton emphasized this point 
of view, and, like Mr. Acland, they agreed that in the main rural 
labour difficulties had been caused by keeping the rate of wages 
too low, with consequent loss of efficiency. 

The last section of the conference, on the education of the 
teacher and expert, was opened by Mr. A D Hall, who pleidid 



12 

for a more rigorous training which should include some experience 
in farming for the teacher of agriculture, and some work at re- 
search for the man who dealt with agricultural science. Canon 
Steward, principal of the Salisbury Training College, discussed 
more generally the education of the elementary schoolmaster and 
mistress in country districts, and finally Mr. R. P. Ward gave an 
account of the way the teachers were being trained in Cheshire. 

In the discussion which followed most of the speakers urged the 
substitution of winter schools or of evening continuation schools 
for the compulsory attendance of country boys at school up to the 
age of fourteen ; for farm purposes a boy ought to begin 
light work on the farm at the age of twelve at latest, though his 
education should go on much later than it does now. 

The conferer.ce was noteworthy not only for the quality of the 
papers read, but for the advance they showed in the direction of 
organisation on those submitted to previous conferences. It was 
made clear that there are several different classes to be provided 
for ; the large farmer's son or future land agent wants a different 
equipment from that of the small holder ; the farmer himself must 
be reached by an entirely different method ; the labourer, again, 
has to be treated separately. At Gloucester the various speakers 
defined clearly their aim and their method ; in former gatherings 
of the same nature the speakers seemed to consider there was only 
one kind of worker engaged in agriculture. 



THE HEATING OR FERMENTATION OF HAY.* 

It is well known that when hay which is not quite dry is placed 
in a shed or stack, spontaneous generation of heat takes place. 
It has generally been held that this action is entirely due to the 
work and activity of bacteria, but recent investigations by Boek- 
hout and Vries at the Agricultural Experiment Station of Hoorn, 
in Holland, appear to prove that the fermentation of hay is a 
purely chemical process, and is quite independent of the work of 
living organisms. They ascertained the temperature of haystacks 
in which heating was manifestly taking place, and found that it 
might considerably exceed 200 degrees F. As compared with 
ordinary hay which had not undergone much fermentafion, heated 
hay was found to contain a larger percentage of albumenoids, 
woody fibre, and fat, but a smaller quantity of sugar and starch. 
Furthermore, the heated hay was markedly sour, owing to the pre- 
sence of considerable quantities of formic acid. 

The investigators then proceeded to construct an apparatus 
which enabled them, through the agency of steam and air, to re- 
produce very closely in the laboratory the changes that take place 
in the haystack. The hay was kept under treatment for twenty 
days, at the end of which time the material smelt exactly like hay 

*From Centralhlatt fur BaUeriologie, Parasite nkuivie u. Infehtiotishranklieiten. Sep- 
tember, 1904. Journal of Board of Agriculture, London. 



13 

that had fermented in a stack, and when subjected to chemical 
analysis it showed precisely the same changes as were found to 
have taken place in hay which had heated naturally. The tem- 
perature of the receptacle in which the artificially heated hay was 
kept was never less than 203 degrees F., so that the conditions 
were such as to preclude the activity of living organisms. In 
order, however, to verify the result, hay was sterilised at a tem- 
perature of 248 degrees F., and this material also, when put 
through laboratory treatment, attained the same condition and 
composition as heated hay from a stack. 

The investigators are therefore perfectly confident that they 
have proved satisfactorily that the fermentation of a hay stack is 
in no way associated with the activity of living organisms, though 
they do not yet feel justified in attempting to offer an explanation 
of the causes that induce the high temperatures which are met 
with in the interior of a mass of fermenting hay. As they con- 
sider that they have shown that this form of so-called fermentation 
is purely chemical, they are disposed to cast doubts on the neces- 
sity of any bacterial action in the case of many other similar 
processes, as, for example, in the maturing or fermentation of 
tobacco.* 

THE CULTURE OF THE CENTRAL AMERICAN 

RUBBER TREE, Vl.f 

{Continued from Bulletin for December, 1904-) 

By O. F. Cook, Botanist in charge of Investigations in Tropical 
Agriculture, U. S. Department of Agriculture. 

THE CULTURE OF CASTILLOA. 
In attempting to plan a rational culture for Castilloa it will be 
worse than useless to insist upon all or any of the cultural 
measures which have been found desirable with coffee, cacao, or 
other tropical crops. Castilloa is not cultivated for the leaves like 
coca, for the flowers like cloves, for the fruits like oranges, nor 
for the seeds like coffee. The increase of the size of the trunk and 
of the amount of milk contained in its inner bark are objects of 
cultural solicitude. 

SHADE IN THE CULTURE OF CASTILLOA. 

SHADE NOT A NECESSITY. 

Much of the preceding discussions of the habits of Castilloa 
and of the climatic conditions suitable to its culture may also serve 
as preliminary to the consideration of the question whether planta- 

* Dr. Loew, under the direction of Piof. H- T.Galloway, chief of the Division of Vege- 
table I'hysioiogy & Patholo-y, U. States DepHrtraeut of AKricultur^ has investigated 
the curing and fermentation of cigar leaf tobacco. The result of his work is to show 
that the princijial changes that take place are due to the action of soluble f.rraents or 
enzymes, not bacteria; and that the development of colour and aroma isdue principally 
to the action of oxidizing enzymes. (J/wc. Publications, No- 52, 1899.) [Editor.] 

t Extract from U.S. Uepartmeat of .\griculture. Bull. No. 49, Bureau of Plant 
Industry. 



14 

tations of Castilloa require the shade of larger trees or may be 
exposed to full sunlight. The argument that Castilloa always 
grows in shady locations in nature is by no means conclusive, 
since it is well known that many forest trees thrive better when 
they have the opportunity of standing alone and are free from the 
close competition for food and sunlight implied by forest condi- 
tions. It is also certain that Castilloa is not only able to obtain 
an existence in the open, but that it makes much more rapid growth 
quite without shade than it does in the forest. If the problem 
were merely to secure the quick growth of Castilloa there would 
be no hesitation between these two methods of planting ; but there 
are many stages between dense forest and clean culture, and the 
question may well be raised whether the conditions most favourable 
for rubber production are not to be found in some of these. Ad- 
vocates of both extremes and all intermediate conditions are not 
lacking, so that the question of shade with Castilloa bids fair to 
become as complicated and as extensively debated as with coffee 
and cacao. Moreover, as with those crops, it may be found to 
have no general solution, but to depend upon local conditions of 
soil and climate. 

That rubber can be grown under forest conditions there can be 
no doubt, since all the natural supplies are to be credited to this 
method of production, but the desirability of forest planting does 
not necessarily follow, since it is equally certain that under 
the deep shade the trees grow with an extreme slowness, 
which would exhaust the patience of any investor. Moreover, as 
previously shown, it may well be doubted whether a plantation of 
Castilloa would ever grow to normal maturity in the undisturbed 
forest ; the indications are that only those trees survive which are 
able to profit by accidents to their larger neighbours and thus 
receive more sunlight than usually reaches the undergrowth of a 
dense tropical forest. In other words, regular forest planting does 
not mean the placing of Castilloa under conditions most favorable 
to its growth in nature ; these are more nearly attained when the 
forest is thinned out or partly cut away. 

Koschny, who distinguishes four kinds of Castilloa in Costa 
Rica, says that the " hule bianco," or white Castilloa, is the only 
one adapted for cultivation, and that this is never found in the deep 
forest, but in more open places, where the foliage has access to 
the sunlight. 

Experiments with forest planting were studied in eastern Guate- 
mala and in Southern Mexico, and in both instances the young 
trees were at an obvious disadvantage in comparison with others 
planted at the same time in more open situations. Many indi- 
viduals had hardly grown at all in six months and many had died. 
On the other hand, it should be explained that the trees, while they 
had no shade overhead were not exposed to the extent which 
might be implied by the term "open culture," since they stood in 
a clearing only a few acres in extent. The neighbouring forest 



15 

gave shade in the morning and afternoon, and the atmosphere was 
undoubtedly kept far more humid throughout the day than would 
be the case in a large tract of unshaded land baked by the tropical 
sun. They were also undoubtedly assisted by a mulch of dead 
leaves and brush. Trees 12 feet high were said to be only I 
year old. 

It would seem, then, that one of the extreme suggestions — the 
planting of rubber in the undisturbed forest — is clearly inadvisable 
and may be dismissed from further consideration. The other 
extreme — clean culture — is not so readily condemned as impracti- 
cable, since observations in southern Mexico establish the fact that 
even single trees, standing in the open sun and with little other 
vegetation near them, are not only able to survive six months 
of dry weather, but actually remain more leafy at the end of the 
dry season and thus appear to suffer less from drought than those 
on land covered with weeds and bushes. The reason for this 
apparent anomaly may not be difficult to conjecture, since it is 
plain that a tree standing in cleared ground has a monopoly of all 
the moisture which rises in the soil, and may thus have a distinct 
advantage over one obliged to share a similar supply of water 
with a tangled mass of other plants which expose to the atmosphere 
a total leaf surface many times that of the young rubber tree. 
Moreover, it is also clear that the water required to supply the 
needs of this large amount of vegetation would greatly exceed 
that which escaped from the exposed surface of the soil. It is 
even doubtful whether a covering of low vegetation greatly checks 
the evaporation from the soil ; it may be as great or greater 
than where the surface of exposed soil is loosened by stirring and 
thus fornjs a layer which hinders the access of dry air and is a 
nonconductor of heat. In previous discussions of shade in the 
culture of Castilloa this distinction between open culture and clean 
culture seems to have been overlooked, and the question of shade 
has continued to be confused with that of water supply. The 
statements of various writers that the leaves are unable to withstand 
exposure to the full sun because of their delicate texture are quite 
erroneous. The tree needs sunlight, and it is benefited by it as 
long as the water supply is sufficient, but when this becomes de- 
ficient the leaves shrivel. The light is no brighter and the tem- 
perature no higher in the dry season, which in Mexico occurs in 
the winter months ; but the dry atmosphere demands more water, 
while the soil supplies less. 

The rapidity with which dry atmosphere takes water from a 
plant may be judged by the promptness with which the leaves of a 
broken branch will and shrivel, and this happens very promptly with 
Castilloa. Many plants have developed no expedients for resist- 
ing evaporation and are accordingly confined to continuously 
humid regions, but Castilloa, as has already been seen, is adapted 
in several ways for resisting drought. The leaves themselves are, 
it is true, of rather loose texture and have only the slight assistance 



i6 

of the hairs of the lower surface as a protection against excessive 
transpiration. The leaves suffer when they are obliged to part 
with more water than they can obtain, and their falling off is then 
an advantage because it decreases the demand for water. Thus, 
although Castilloa is not a desert plant, the falling of its leaves 
in the dry season is the same physiological phenomenon which 
appears so conspicuously in deserts, viz., the loss of the leaves as 
a protection against drought. Many desert plants such as 
Parkinsonia, Fouquieria, Peireskia, and species of Euphorbia put 
out leaves for the wet season only, while most of the Cactace^ 
and many Euphorbias have discarded leaves entirely and expose 
as little surface as possible to the air. 

This digression may help to make it apparent that the planter 
who desires to give intelligent consideration to the agricultural 
question of shade should dismiss the notion that the rubber tree 
derives a direct advantage from standing in the shadow of another 
tree , on the contrary, it is probable that interference with the 
sunlight is always a direct disadvantage. Shade, if used at all, is to 
be applied and justified on the ground that it will preserve the 
moisture of the soil or of the atmosphere or serve some other cul- 
tural purpose. By conserving the soil moisture, clean culture may 
produce some of the desirable effects commonly ascribed to shade. 
Open culture may be, and probably is, less advisable than either 
clean culture or a moderate shade culture. 

Open culture with relatively little cleaning at first would be 
more practicable if the weeds and undergrowth cut down in the 
dry season could be left spread over the ground. This would do 
more to conserve the moisture of the soil than the same vegetation 
alive, but the danger of fire will in moist localities forbid the use 
of this method of culture. 

If the present question could be settled by deciding whether or 
not Castilloa needs to be protected from the sun, it would be easy 
to establish the negative view ; but with shade recognized as a 
means of influencing natural conditions of soil or climate it be- 
comes evident that each planterwill need to use his best judgment in 
determining what local conditions require. In Costa Rica, Koschny 
advises the thinning of the forest by the removal of two or three 
trees out of every five. At La Zacualpa more are cut out. 
Some of the planters on the Isthmus of Tehuantepec practice clean 
culture. No general principles will determine which is best, 
because no one method is applicable everywhere. 

RELATIVE COST OF SHADE CULTURE. 

It must be remembered, in addition, that the planter finds him- 
self compelled to decide not what will be the best for the rubber 
trees, but what is the best he can afford to do for them. Is it, for 
example, good policy to use labour and capital in keeping a tract 
of planted land clean, or will more be gained ultimately if one 
contents himself with somewhat slower growth and improves 
the opportunity of planting additional tracts with trees that can 



17 

also be growing ? Careful comparative experiments might be 
necessary for an answer, and this might differ for different 
localities. 

EFFECT OF SHADE ON FORM OF TREE 

There are great and persistent differences of shape or " habit" 
among trees. The Lombardy poplar and the weeping willow are 
not distant relatives. It is a general fact, however, that forest trees 
are taller and more slender than those of the same species grown 
in the open. The low spreading habit, which is desired and 
encouraged among fruit trees, is not desirable in rubber-producing 
species, where a large expanse of trunk is needed to supply the 
milk and to give opportunity for tapping without the necessity of 
wounding the same place too often. Castilloa trees growing alone 
in the open often send out permanent branches 8 or 10 feet from 
the ground, while those in the forest may have from 20 to 40 feet 
of smooth trunk before the permanent branches are reached. Open- 
grown trees may have large spreading branches, while in the 
forest or under close planting the main axis of the tree continues 
to grow upward and the lateral branches are relatively small. 

The problems of rubber culture may prove in this respect to be 
directly opposite to those of coffee, where the formation of much 
wood in proportion to leafage is a sign of unfavourable conditions 
or of bad plantation management. It does not follow, however, as 
some have seemed to suppose, that forest shade is necessary to 
grow long-trunked trees. In coffee culture it is plain that the most 
wood is formed not by shade culture, but by planting close in the 
open, and the older-planted trees of Castilloa at La Zacualpa, if 
not as slender and as smooth-trunked as those of the forest, are 
certainly tall and slender enough to furnish ample evidence that 
open culture does not cause a low, spreading growth, if the trees 
stand close enough together. The Zacualpa experiment is of 
further significance in this connection, because it shows that a 
harmful degree of crowding was by no means reached. In 
numerous instances where from three to five trees grew in a cluster 
their trunks were each equal in size to those of many of their 
neighbours which stood alone. '' 

Coffee trees which stand too close together lose the use of their 
lower branches, which become interlaced and shade one another, 
and ultimately only the top of each tree continues to grow and 
produce fruit. The planter must choose a middle course between 
the injury of his bearing trees by crowding and the waste of 
capital and labour in keeping clean unused land between trees 
planted too far apart. With the rubber tree the seed is a con- 
sideration entirely secondary to the growth of the trunk. In 
comparison with coffee it may be said that the crowding of rubber 
trees is desirable, and that it finds its limit, not in the discourage- 

* Planting in clusteis might lie a<lvisal>Ie on sorae accounts, since the trees would 
better shade their trunks and tlie ground under them, hut the difficulty of properly 
tapping such trees would seem to exclude this method of culture. 



i8 

ment of lateral branches, nor even in the lessening of the size of 
the individual trees, but in the decrease in the amount of rubber 
which can be produced on a given area of land, 

SHADE AND RUBBER PRODI'CTION. 

The general question of shade can not, however, be treated as 
closed until its influence on the yield of rubber has been tested by 
careful experiment. From the facts given on previous pages it 
appears very improbable that less rubber will be formed in the 
open than under shade ; the difficulty, if any, is likely to arise in 
connection with the extraction of the rubber. The desirability of 
tall trunks to afford a large tapping surface has been noted al- 
ready, but there may be other disturbing factors. The pressure of 
the liquids inside a tall columnar trunk ma}'" be greater than if it 
were thicker and shorter, so that more milk would be forced out 
on tapping. The bark of trees more exposed to wind and sun- 
light becomes thicker and there may be differences in texture 
which would affect the flow of milk. The air is much dryer out- 
side than inside the forest, and this might soon impede the flow 
of milk, though this suggestion seems to be negatived by the fact 
that milk flows more freely from wild Castilloa on the dry 
Pacific slope of Mexico and Central America than in the more hu- 
mid districts of the Atlantic side. 

A recent writer on the shade question claims to have discovered 
that, while planting under partial shade hinders the growth of the 
trees, it greatly increases the yield of rubber. The managing di- 
rector of a rubber plantation operating in Mexico writes as fol- 
lows to the India Rubber World : 

We are plaiitin;^ in the partial shade ; a great many planters are planting in 
open sunlight. My honest opinion is that every one who has planted in open 
sunlight will get a tree 50 per cent larger in five or six years than we in the partial 
shade. On the other hand, we will get fr< m 60 to 75 per cent, more rubber from 
a small tree than they do from a large one. About three months' careful study 
was made of this proposition ; the trees were tapped both in the -hade, partial 
shade, and open sunlight, and the results carefully tabulated by a committee of 
which I was not a member. 

It is easy, however, to understand how such an opinion could be 
formed if the experiments in tapping were made at a time when 
the trees planted in the open were drier than those in the shade, 
and such a difference would be especially pronounced in young 
trees. This observer did not find that the milk was richer in 
rubber in the shade, but merely that at a certain time more milk 
flowed from the shaded tree than from the unshaded tree. This 
would not, however, be an argument for shade planting unless it 
were shown that the unshaded trees would not at any other time 
yield more milk. It is quite probable that shaded and unshaded 
trees might need to be tapped at different times to secure a 
maximum flow, or it might be found that unshaded trees could be 
tapped with impunity more frequently than the others, and thus 
afford a larger annual yield. The flow of milk does not depend 
so much upon the amount in the tree as upon the pressure existing 



19 

at the time the tree is tapped. The indications are that pressure 
attains its greatest intensity in trees which are exposed for a part 
of the time to a relatively dry atmosphere and which are accustom- 
ed, as it were, to pump water rapidly to supply the leaves. Such 
trees may, on the contrary, yield no milk at all when the water 
supply is deficient. It may be expected, therefore that open culture 
will require much more careful attention to the time of tapping. 
This may prove a disadvantage if it requires all the trees of a 
large plantation to be tapped on the same day or in the same 
week, but this is not likely. On the other hand, tapping at the 
right time would mean the drawing of a larger amount of milk from 
a smaller cut, a saving of labour, and a lessening of injury to the 
trees. 

The above considerations make it easy to understand also that 
writers acquainted with humid districts commonly refer to the 
rubber harvest as occurring in the dry season, while in the drier 
regions, as in Soconusco, the beginning of the rainy season is the 
recognized time, when the tree's demand for water is largest and 
the internal pressure highest. 

I.EGUMINOrs SHADE I'UEES lO HE I'REFEHKEl). 

Where the policy of thinning out the forest is followed the 
question arises as to which trees are to be left and which cut down. 
A study of coffee and cacao culture has revealed the probability 
that much of the benefit ascribed to shade is due in reality to the 
nitrogen furnished by the bacteria of the root tubercles of the 
leguminous trees which are preferred in all countries where the 
shade culture of coffee has become popular. If shade trees are to 
be planted with rubber, they must be different from the species of 
Inga which are preferred for coffee shade in Mexico and Central 
America, for the reason that Castilloa grows faster than Inga. 
Some leguminous trees, however, grow with great rapidity and may 
be able to outstrip the rubber. No comparative experiments seem 
to have been made. If, as suggested above, shade trees are more 
useful as windbreaks than for the shadow they cast on the rubber, 
the planting of fruit trees like the mango or other useful species 
in rows or hedges would be preferable to scattering them amongst 
the rubber. . 

DISTANCE BETWEEN TREES. 

As yet there have been no experiments yielding any definite in- 
formation on the above point, but the recent trend of opinion 
among planters seems to be distinctly in the direction of closer 
planting. There has been a gradual decline from 20 feet and up- 
ward between trees to 12 feet and under. 

The questions of shade and of distance between trees are closely 
related and need to be considered together because several of the 
arguments for shade can be met, wholly or partially, by close plant- 
ing. The first of these is that of the greater expense incidental to 
open culture. The frequency with which the land rcciuires to be 
cleaned and the period of years during which it would be necessary 



20 

to continue such cleaning depends largely upon the amount of over- 
head shade present to discourage the undergrowth. Some planters 
on the Isthmus of Tehuantepec are evidently taking advantage of 
this fact and are setting close, with the intention of removing 
alternate trees before they are large enough to injure their 
neighbours by crowding ; and it is expected that if they are "tapped 
to death" they can be made to yield enough rubber to more than 
cover the expense of planting. At least there seems to be no 
reason why, if the land is to be cleared, it should not be made to 
produce as much rubber as possible instead of being planted with 
useless trees for a purpose which can be attained quite as fully by 
setting the rubber trees closer together. 

There is danger, however, that any suggestion which promises 
earlier returns from rubber culture will be overdone. The rubber 
of very young trees is of low grade and expensive to collect; also 
it would be very poor policy to risk permanent injury from weak 
spindling growth, which overcrowding would undoubtedly cause. 
More is likely to be lost than gained by trees standing at less than 
8 feet for even a few years. Better than uniform close planting 
would be to set the north and south rows farther apart than the 
trees in the rows. With a given number of trees this would se- 
cure the maximum of shade on the ground, because the morning 
and afternoon sun would not shine down the rows. The cleaning 
of the land or the cultivation of a catch crop or a shade crop be- 
tween the rows would also be facilitated. The distances would 
depend on the size which the Castilloa trees were expected to at- 
tain in any given locality, the rows from 1 2 to 20 feet apart, the 
trees from 8 to I2 feet in the rows being fair average estimates. 

{To be continued.) 

BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

A Special Meeting called to consider the matter of the Locked 
Still at Denbigh Estate was held on 1st November, 1904. Present : 
the Hon. Colonial Secretary, Chairman ; the Director Public Gar- 
dens, the Chemist, His Grace the Archbishop, the Hons. T. Capper, 
J. V. Calder and H. Cork, and the Secretary, John Barclay. 

Resignation of Mr. Sharp. — Mr. Cousins asked if he might put for- 
ward a special matter, as it was urgent. This was the resignation 
of Mr. T. H. Sharp, jr., Superintendent of Manurial Experiments, 
who asked permission to leave on November 15th. To fill the 
vacancy, the name was suggested of Mr. P. W. Murray, son of 
Dr. Clark Murray of Brown's Town, who had been through a five 
years' course at an Agricultural Institute in Virginia. The Chemist 
was directed to bring the name of Mr. Murray before the Govern- 
ment with a view to asking him to act temporarily as Superin- 
tendent of Manurial Experiments at a salary of £l00 a year. 

Sugar Grant. — The Chairman said that he had satisfied himself 
that the disposal of the sugar grant was in the hands of the Board 
and that he ruled that the mere fact of the Board sanctioning the 



21 

expenditure of £l,000 for new machinery was not sufficient to 
take out of their hands the power of allocating the details of the 
expenditure. It was in the power of the Board to determine that 
the money charged to the Sugar Grant for the Locked Still matter, 
on the responsibility of the former Chairman of the Board, should 
not be met from the Grant. In that case the Government could 
only ask the Legislative Council for a special vote for the purpose, 
and if the Council refused then Mr. Olivier would be personally 
responsible for the payment of the amount. 

Locked Still. — The Secretary read a letter from Mr. Shore stating 
that he did not think the Meeting was in order in being called 
specially to consider a motion that would have come on the Agenda 
of the next Meeting, and that he was authorised by the planters 
of St. James and Trelawny to protest against the expenditure for 
the proposed Locked Still at Denbigh being paid from the funds 
of the Sugar Grant. 

Mr. Cousins then gave full particulars as to the proposed Locked 
Still and submitted detailed plans and specifications, also esti- 
mates. 

Mr. Calder protested against the manner in which the whole 
thing had been carried through and held that the experiment would 
be of no use whatever in checking the stealing of rum and he 
moved : 

"That the Board acting under the powers conferred on it by 
Law 45, 1903 section 2, refuse to sanction any expenditure (for the 
purpose of erecting a Locked Still at Denbigh) of the funds placed 
under its disposal, until the plans and specifications have been 
submitted and approved by the Board." 

And he further moved the addition— "That the Board do not 
approve of the plans and specifications now submitted." 

Mr. Cork seconded. 

The Archbishop said that there might be a way out of the dif- 
ficuhy if the expenditure could be shared equally between the 
Estate, General Revenue and the Sugar Grant. 

The Chairman said that he could not agree to any charge on 
General Revenue. 

The Chemist moved the following amendment : — 

"That while this Board regrets that the full details of the instal- 
lation of the Locked Still at Denbigh were not placed before them 
before the matter was put in hand, it is desirable, considering the 
expendtture already incurred, to proceed with the Locked Still at 
Denbigh and that the expenditure of £300 be authorised upon the 
estimates of the Sugar Fund for appliances and new apparatus for 
estates." 

On being put to the vote the Chairman, the Director of Public 
Gardens, the Chemist, and the Superintending Inspector of Schools 
voted for the amendment, and Hons. J. V. Calder and H. Cork for 
the motion. The Archbishop abstained from voting. The amend- 
ment was therefore carried, by four votes against two. 



22 

The Chemist asked for authority for the expenditure of £i20 from 
the Sugar Industry Fund, for the Sugar Laboratory Buildings ; 
£66 8s. for apparatus and gas box and for the experimental distil- 
lery ; £104 2s. for a Chattanooga Cane Mill, a pair of Cuban steers, 
36 puncheons, 36 Racking Cocks, Barrel on wheels and Hose ; 
also £120 for alterations and new plant for Estate Distilleries 
in connection with the Locked Still at Denbigh. This was 
granted. 

The usual Monthly Meeting of the Board of Agriculture was 
held on 15th November, 1904, Present: the Hon the Colonial 
Secretary, Chairman, the Director of Public Gardens, the Island 
Chemist, His Grace the Archbishop, the Hons. T. Capper, and 
H. Cork, Mr. C. A. T. Fursdon, and the Secretary, John Barclay. 

Cattle Disease — -The Secretary read a letter from the Colonial 
Secretary that His Excellency was considering the question of le- 
gislating with a view to the prevention of the spread of epidemic 
diseases amongst cattle in Jamaica. 

Importation of Cattle — A letter from Mr. Fursdon was submitted 
with regard to the prohibition of the importation of cattle from 
South America. It was stated that there is a law providing for 
regulating importation and that a proclamation prohibiting the 
importation of cattle from Central and South America is in force, 
dated 5th August, 1896. 

Cotton Conference — A letter was read from the Colonial Secretary 
enclosing copy of a letter from Sir D. Morris announcing a visit to 
Jamaica of Messrs. E. L. Oliver and R. Stancliffe, a deputation 
from the British Cotton Growing Association, and asking that any 
facts and figures available in reference to the Cotton Industry 
together with samples of cotton should be collected to be put before 
them. 

It was resolved to hold a Cotton Conference at the Institute of 
Jamaica on 29th November, and the Secretary was asked to issue 
circulars to all who were interested in cotton, to notify the Agri- 
cultural Society and local Agricultural Societies, and to get notices 
inserted in the newspapers calling attention to this Conference. 
He was also asked to endeavour to get the particulars and sam- 
ples desired. 

Agricultural Conference at Trinidad — The Secretary read a letter 
from the Colonial Secretary enclosing copy of a letter from Sir D. 
Morris, asking the Government to send representatives to Trinadad 
to take part in the Agricultural Conference in January. 

The Colonial Secretary stated that His Excellency proposed to 
send Mr. H. H. Cousins, and the Board was asked to nominate a 
practical agriculturist on behalf of the Board of Agriculture. 

Mr. Cousins asked if he could be excused because his work in 
connection with the Sugar Experiment Station would be most 
important in January. The Chairman said he would refer the 
matter to the Governor. 

The Secretary was instructed to ask Mr. Shore first if he would 



23 

act as the representative of the Board, and failing himMr. Calder, Dr. 
Pringle or Mr. Cork. Mr. Cork promised to act if none of the three 
gentlemen named did so. 

Tobacco — The Secretary submitted a report from the tobacco 
expert, Mr. F. V. Chalmers. 

Water Buffalos — The Secreta^-y read replies to his enquiries 
regarding the Water Buffalos — I from the Department of Agri- 
culture, U.S.A., with the information that the Water Buffalos were 
not in use in the United States, but were being used in the 
Hawaiian Islands on account of their value for work in wet and 
mud, in the cultivation of the rice fields ; 2. from Mr. Meaden, 
Manager of the Government Stock Farm, Trinidad, giving 
particulars as to their use there and their cost, and giving reference 
to Mr. S. Henderson, Chaciuanas, Trinidad, and Mr. B. de Lemarre, 
Orange Grove, Trinidad, who had herds of Buffalos. The Secretary 
was instructed to write these gentlemen for full information as to 
these animals and as to whether they could be procured in 
Trinidad and their cost. 

Tourist Advertising Service — The Secretary submitted a letter 
from the Superintendent D. W. I. Cable Company, asking for a sub- 
scription to the Tourist Advertising Service. He was instructed to 
reply that the Board had no funds available for the purpose. 

Chemist's Estimates — The Chemist submitted revised estimates 
of expenditure from the Sugar Industry Fund during the current 
financial year as follows : — 

Authorised estimate 1904-5 •... £1,400 

Revised estimate for 1904-5 ... 1,055 16 8 



Saving estimated ... £344 3 4 

He also submitted a Statement showing that the Public Works 
having executed the Laboratory and Distillery buildings as one 
operation, it was notpossible for the Treasury to keep the account,as 
originally authorised under two separate heads. He therefore asked 
for authority for a re-casting of the original items to meet this 
difficulty without affecting the total sum involved. The Arch- 
bishop proposed and it was agreed, Mr. Cork alone objecting, that 
the proposal be adopted. The estimate of capital expenditure 
under the Sugar Industry Fund now read 

1. Buildings — Sugar Laboratory, Fermentation Laboratory 
and Experimental Distillery £l,000. 

2. Fittings and appliances — Sugar Laboratory, Fermentation 
Laboratorv and Experimental Distillery £i,000. 

Of these sums the Director of Public Works was authorised to 
expend a sum not exceeding £l,000 on the construction account, 
while the £l,000 for fittings and appliances is authorised subject 
to the authority of the Chairman. 

The Chemist also submitted the Estimates of expenditure for 



24 

1905-1906 showing a total of £1,400 as authorised in the Scheme 
approved by the Governor in Privy Council. 

The Estimates of the Director of Public Gardens and of the 
Government Laboratory were submitted. 

Reports from Mr. W. J. Thompson and Mr. E. Arnett with re- 
ference to School Gardens were sul^mitted. 

Cotton. — The Secretary read a report on the Cotton Experi- 
ments and asked that the balance of eight out of ten grants be au- 
thorised to be paid. This was approved of. 

Agricultural Instructor — A minute from Mr. Cradwick was sub- 
mitted asking if he would be allowed to accompany the Cotton 
Experts if they visited St. Elizabeth where he could show them the 
various cotton cultivations. This was approved. 

A letter from the Sav.-la-Mar Agricultural Society was submitted 
asking that Mr. Cradwick be permitted to act as Secretary of their 
Show under the special circumstances that no other experienced 
person was available this year. A minute was also submitted from 
Mr. Cradwick with reference to his acting as Secretary of a new 
Show to be held at Montpelier. It was agreed that Mr. Cradwick 
might act for this year, but that in future he is to consult the 
Board before undertaking such duties. 

A letter from Mr. Cradwick was also submitted asking that he 
be allowed to change his residence from Ramble to Southfield so 
that he may give more attention to the cotton industry. It was 
pointed out that Southfield would be a most inconvenient centre 
for other parts of his district, and that it was 26 miles from the 
Railway. The proposed change was not therefore allowed. 

Agricultural Education in Secondary Schools — The Archbishop re- 
ported that the Standing Committee on Agricultural Education in 
Secondary Schools had met and that he would submit a report later. 

Teachers' Course — As regards the Teachers' Course at Hope Gar- 
dens and Mico College which was to commence on the 2nd Janu- 
ary and last for four weeks, the Archbishop suggested that Mr. 
Fawcett form a Committee with Mr. McFarlane and Mr. Capper 
for carrying through the arrangements in connection with the 
Course. He asked that Mr. Fawcett would report at next Meeting. 
This was approved. 

The following reports from the Chemist were submitted and 
directed to be circulated. 

1. Progress Report — Field Experiments, 

2. Arrangements with Estates for Sugar Laboratory. 

The following reports from the Director of Public Gardens were 
submitted and directed to be circulated. 

1. Mr. Cradwick's itinerary to the 23rd December and his 

visits for the month of October. 

2. Hope Experiment Station. 

[Issued 12th January, 1905] 
Printed at the Govt. Printing Office, Kingston, Jam. 



BULLETIN 



OF THE 



DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



Vol. III. FEBRUARY, 1905. Part 2. 



EUITKD BY 



WILLIAM FAWCETT, B.Sc, F.L.S. 

Director of Public Gardens and Flantations. 



CONTENTS: 



Page. 
Wither-tip and other diseases of Citrus Trees 

and Fruits ... ... 25 

Evolution of Weevil-resistance in Cotton 34 

Notes on the Cultivation of Coco-nut, Sugar Cane, 

Coffee and Cocoa ... 39 

Notes on Watering Plants in Gardens 41 

The Culture of the Central American Rubber Tree. VII 43 
Board of Agriculture ... 46 



P R I C E—Threepence. 



A Copy will be supplied free to any IleBideut in Jamaica, who wUl send name and 
address to the Director of Public Gardens and Plantations, Kingston P.O. 



KINGSTON, JAMAICA 
HoFB Gardens. 

1906. 



.r AM ATC A . 



BXJLTjETlISr ,,„, 

OK THK Nfivv \orii^ 

DEPARTMEXT OF AaRIClJLTURE;^^'^OHN ' 



Vol. III. FEBRUARY. 1905. Part 2. 



WITHER-TIP AND OTHER DISEASES OF CITRUS 
TREES AND FRUITS CAUSED BY COLLETO- 
TRICHUM GLCEOSPORIOIDES.* 

By P. H. Rolfs, Pathologist in charge of Sub-tropical Laboratory. 

INTRODUCTION. 
The group of diseases discussed in this bulletin was unknown 
in Florida until a comparatively recent time. " * At first recorded 
as of merely passing interest, the attacks of the fungus Colletotrichum 
glooosporioides have since increased in severity until they are now 
assuming serious proportions in various citrus crops. The amount 
of damage done by lemon-spot is often sufficient to eliminate the 
profits of the shipments in which the disease occurs. As wither- 
tip it repeatedly kills back the new growth of young trees until 
their vitality is exhausted. On large trees the small twigs are 
cut off, thus preventing the tree from producing the bloom neces- 
sary to set a heavy crop. As anthracnose and canker of lime it 
has caused an almost total destruction of the crop where the 
disease has gained a foothold. 

The fact that the attack of this fungus manifests itself in vari- 
ous diseases has greatly complicated the work and added im- 
mensely to the labour of demonstrating its identity. The results 
of the microscopic work indicated that these various diseases — 
wither-tip, leaf-spot, lemon-spot, canker, and anthracnose — were 
produced by one species of fungus. It remained for cross inocu- 
lation with pure cultures to confirm this supposition. In most 
cases these cross inoculations took readily, while in others it was 
difficult to induce the fungus to make an attack. This was 
especially the case in attempting to produce lemon-spot. Infection 
at the stigma of lime blossoms is one of the inoculations most 
easily accomplished. 

Leaf-spot is easily produced artificially on foliage infested with 
purple mites. To produce such an infection a leaf must be washed 
carefully to free it from danger of natural infection, and then 

* Bn. r,2, B. of PI. Ind. U. S. Dept. of Agri. 

** I have lately lonnd this disease in Jamaica on limes. Editor, BuVyetin of the 
Department of Agriculture. 



26 

spores from a pure culture should be applied to the epidermis, 
after which a moist atmosphere is necessary. 

DISTRIBUTION OF THE DISEASES. 
The diseases known as wither-tip, anthracnose, leaf-spot, and 
canker extend through a large portion of Florida, the West Indies, 
South America, Australia, and Malta, and it seems probable that 
they bccur in all parts of the world where the orange is cultivated, 
especially in the more humid regions. The drier regions are more 
exempt from leaf and branch inhabiting fungi. 

GENERAL METHOD OF ATTACK. 
The initial lesion is usually at the tip or an edge of a leaf. 
More rarely is a leaf attacked at the midrib or some other interior 
portion. The part attacked becomes light green, then turns brown. 
Then the acervuli form ; at first light brown, then dark brown or 
nearly black. They may develop on either surface and in various 
arrangements. 

EXTENT OF INJURY. 

All sizes of trees, from those located in the nursery (even seed- 
lings in the seedling beds) to the oldest trees in a grove, are 
subject to attack. Budded trees less than a year old are rarely 
attacked except in the leaves. Where such infections are allowed 
to remain on the trees the diseased area extends into the growing 
twigs and causes the typical " wither-tip." In such cases the 
tip dies back for a distance, or the disease may go as far as the 
trunk and then stop. A bud below the diseased portion then 
pushes forward, but unless preventive measures are used the 
second sprout withers back like the first. In this way the disease 
may prevent the tree from making any growth, and even kill it in 
four or five years. 

The initial attack in older trees is the same as in trees in the 
nursery rows. The fungus gains entrance to the tissues of the 
leaf and from this grows down into the fruiting twigs. This cuts 
off much of the younger growth in severe cases and thus prevents 
blooming to a large extent. Such cases are frequently mistaken 
for blight, but a more common error is to attribute the injury to 
die-back. It may be readily distinguished from blight by the fact 
that only small twigs die off, and these do so without any wilting 
of leaves. Even the leaves that are so badly diseased that they 
fall do not wilt, while in the case of blight the leaves wilt with no 
visible sign of injury. It may be distinguished from die-back by 
the absence of multiple buds, of gum pockets, or of dark excres- 
cences. One or more of these characters always accompany die- 
back. Die-back twigs may be attacked by this fungus, but in such 
cases wither-tip must be regarded as the secondary disease. 

This disease may be also present in a blighted tree. Any 
agency that lowers the vitality of a tree, whether fertilizer, weather, 
or condition of soil, predisposes it to an attack of wither-tip, but 
trees that are in the most healthy condition possible are also at- 
tacked when exposed to infection. The damage caused by this 



27 

disease is very largely overlooked from the fact that it occurs 
upon the smaller twigs and is often attributed to other diseases, as 
previously stated. Wherever pruning is practised the infected 
branches are usually cut off before the nature of the disease be- 
comes fully apparent. 

VARIETIES ATTACKED. 
All varieties and species of citrus trees and fruits cultivated in 
Florida are more or less subject to attack. Since the parts attacked 
and the parts most greatly damaged differ considerably, the 
measures adopted for relief must be varied according to the dif- 
ferent diseased conditions. 

LIME. 

ANTHRACNOSE. 

The lime is the most severely attacked of the citrus species. It 
sustains its greatest loss during the time of most rapid growth, 
which is usually during the spring and early summer. The effect 
of the fungus in the young growing shoots is somewhat peculiar, 
as it resembles the result of an attack from biting insects, and by 
many persons it is attributed to this cause. 

The infection usually takes place at the axil of a leaf or some 
other place where the spores may find lodgment, and the fungus 
then cuts off the stem, causing the upper part to fall over and hang 
lifeless beside the other portion, or it may fall away ; in this man- 
ner simulating the effects of insect depredations. In such cases 
gum quickly forms at the wound and prevents the fungus from 
forcing its way down the twig. 

Besides the young growing twigs and leaves, the blossoms, the 
unopened buds, and the young fruit are attacked. When the fun- 
gus attacks an unopened bud the latter fails to develop and the 
entire outer portion becomes covered with spores. In the opened 
blossom the common point of attack is the stigmatic surface of the 
pistil. The fungus grows in the stigma and finally destroys the 
entire fruit ; this, however, usually falls off before the fungus has 
time to penetrate below the calyx. By attacking the blossoms the 
fungus may render the whole tree entirely fruitless, the calyxes 
remaining until the normal time of ripening, giving the branch a 
very peculiar appearance. 

In addition to attacking the open bud, the spores frequently find 
a place for infection in the nectaries. The development of the 
fungus here causes the fruit to fall, and the resulting appearance 
is much the same as when the infection took place in the stigma. 

WITHER-TIP. 

When the fungus gains entrance from the terminal bud or from 
leaf infection the formation of the gum previously mentioned does 
not take place, and the disease may extend down the twig, result- 
ing in a case of wither-tip similar to that encountered in other 
species of citrus. 

FRUIT CANKER. 

If the bloom escapes, the young fruit may be attacked at al- 



28 

most any subsequent period. The attack on the young fruit fre- 
quently causes a portion to be taken out as though bitten by a 
grasshopper or some other gnawing insect. This causes a large 
percentage of the young fruit to fall. Fruits after they are about 
half developed are not usually attacked. When the fruit has 
reached considerable size before it has been attacked, corky tissues 
form and a development takes place resembling scab or verrucosis. 

LEMON. 

LEAF-SPOT AND WITHER-TIP. 

Lemon leaves are attacked in the typical way, causing leaf- 
spot, and from these the disease extends into the twigs, causing 
the wither-tip. For a discription of the characteristics of this at- 
tack see page 26. 

LEMON-SPOT. 

The disease causes the most serious damage to the mature fruit. 
The fungus finds entrance through some slight bruise or abrasion 
of the skin, or it may be that infection takes place through the 
uninjured skin under conditions not known at present. Attempts 
at artificial inoculation through the uninjured skin of the lemon 
failed uniformly. Even so slight an abrasion as rubbing the fruit 
together in a packing crate or handling it roughly gives sufficient 
opening for the fungus to enter. The results of applying spores 
from pure cultures to the epidermis confirmed this conclusion. 
When the fungus has once found its way into the epidermis a 
dark spot is produced. This continues to enlarge until a definite 
brown spot is made. The development then continues until the 
entire rind of the lemon is browned. Ordinarily the diseased skin 
hardens, so that the actual usefulness of the lemon has not been 
materially impaired by the attack, but since it is not saleable its 
value has been destroyed. 

The injury from this disease is the greater because of the fact 
that infection to a large extent occurs during the handling of the 
fruit, especially during the colouring period, so that the fruit is sent 
off to market before the disease is visible. The diseased spots 
continue to enlarge. This of course makes the fruit unsaleable, 
and it becomes necessary for the merchant to repack, discarding 
all fruit that shows infection. Spores are rarely produced on such 
lemons except when the fruit is kept in a moist place, in which 
case they are produced in great profusion. 

The peculiar way in which lemons have to be handled for market 
makes them especially liable to attack, The fruit is picked from 
the tree when still green. The growers allow the lemons to mature 
sufficiently to develop in them a certain amount of citric acid. 
When they have attained the proper size (and this must be learned 
by experience) so that they will shrink in the course of curing 
to the size demanded by the market, they are picked and placed 
in a colouring house, or they may be placed in a large heap, which 
is then covered with hay or similar material to keep out the light 
and to keep them at a uniform temperature. It therefore happens 



29 

that the lemon groves must be picked over several times during 
the ripening season, the largest and most fully developed speci- 
mens being taken off usually in August or September, according 
as experience dictates. In handling these it is almost impossible 
to keep them from being bruised or slightly scratched or even 
pricked by thorns. Such abrasions in the epidermis, however 
slight, are sufficient to permit the entrance of the fungus. 

THE COLOURTNG HOUSE. 

The colouring houses for the lemons are small structures, usually 
about 12 feet wide by 14 feet long and 10 or 12 feet high. They 
are double walled and built with a steel roof. The sun shining 
on this roof causes the temperature of the building to rise. By 
means of ventilation at the bottom and top the cool air is allowed 
to enter at the floor and the hot air to pass out at the ridge of the 
roof. By means of these ventilators the temperature is kept from 
reaching too high a degree. At night the openings which permit 
ths cold air to enter are closed, and if the outdoor temperature 
happens to be quite cool the ventilators in the roof are also closed. 
In this way the temperature of the colouring house causes a very 
rapid ripening of the lemons, the fruit turning yellow in a few 
days. The evaporation from the lemons causes the air to become 
humid, creating a most admirable condition for germinating any 
Colletotrichitm spores that may be adhering to the fruit. Spores 
that happen to be near an abrased place in the epidermis of the 
lemon will find an entrance and produce the disease in the fruit. 
The drying of the fruit which occurs at the latter end of the colour- 
ing period causes the affected portions to become depressed brown 
areas when the disease has progressed sufficiently. 

When the lemons have been permitted to mature rather fully 
the process in the drying house is of short duration. No matter 
how short it is, however, it is always sufficiently long to permit 
fungus infection. When the period between infection and removal 
of the fruit from the colouring house is of short duration, the spots 
have not had time to collapse and become brown, making it im- 
possible to detect the disease when the fruit is being graded and 
put into crates ; consequently a considerable percentage of lemons 
infected with Colletotrichmn is packed and shipped to the markets 
and the diseased spots develop in transit. 

Experiments with infected lemons show that the fungus continues 
to develop, even if they are placed in the dry atmosphere of a 
living room, and that a spot is produced. These spots when ex- 
amined under a microscope showed no fungus spores, and only a 
few mycelia were found in the tissues of the lemon rind adjoining 
the blackened area. On lemons under normal conditions, such as 
those in a crate on the way to market or in a storeroom, these spots 
develop very rapidly. Freight cars or the holds of vessels usually 
superheated, bringing the temperature up to that needed for the 
most rapid development of the fungus. Crates of lemons that 
were started out from the packing house during August, 1 902, 



30 

without the slightest visible speck, were found to have from 5 to 
25 per cent, of specked fruit when they arrived in the Boston mar- 
ket. Specimens taken to the laboratory and kept under conditions 
similar to those of lemons packed in a crate developed spots vary- 
ing in size up to three-fourths of an inch in diameter. Every 
lemon thus spotted is rendered worthless for commercial purposes, 
nor is the entire loss represented by the percentage of specked 
lemons, since aerate of lemons containing even a small percentage 
of specked fruit can not be sold except at a liberal discount or after 
the additional expense of repacking. 

When specked lemons are placed in a moist chamber the fungus 
develops very rapidly and produces a great quantity of sporesj 
The lemons under these conditions give out a peculiar mouldy citric 
odour. It not infrequently happens that sufficient moisture is pro- 
duced in transit to market to permit a very full development of 
spores. In storage especially this is true. 

► THE COLOLRIXG BED. 

The very considerable loss sustained as the result of curing 
lemons in a house caused it to be suspected that the curing house 
was at fault in this matter. Curing beds were therefore prepared. 
These are made by selecting a position that is high and dry, 
clearing off the land, and smoothing its surface. This is then 
covered with hay or some other soft material. The picked lemons 
are placed upon this bed to a depth of a foot or more, and are 
covered with hay or similar material to a sufficient depth to keep 
out the light, In this bed the lemons go through a curing process 
very similar to that of the curing house. The temperature being 
much lower and the possibility of regulating it being removed, the 
process is much less certain and less satisfactory than in the curing 
house, the lemons not curing uniformly. In these curing beds the 
spotting of the lemons goes on in very much the same way as in 
the curing house. The time elapsing between placing the lemons 
in the curing bed and removing them from it is considerably longer 
than in the curing house ; consequently a greater percentage of 
the lemons infected with Colletotrichum show spots, and the fungus 
has time to develop larger spots, which makes it less difficult to 
detect the diseased lemons. As a consequence fewer lemons in- 
fected with the fungus pass the graders and packers, and a smaller 
percentage is lost after being shipped. 

ORANGE AND GRAPE FRUIT. 

LEAF-SPOT. 

The first point of attack is in the leaf. The development of 
the fungus takes various peculiar forms. At times the acervuli 
are distributed in a more or less regular way from a centre resem- 
bling " fairy rings." At other times the infection takes place in 
the tip of the leaf, which gradually withers back to the stem. 
Small trees may be defoliated and the fungus continue to develop 
in the twigs. 



31 

withp:r-tip. 
The smaller twigs of the sweet orange and grape fruit are very 
frequently and severely attacked. In a great many cases the death 
of twigs from an attack of wither-tip is supposed to be the result 
of die-back. This may, however, be easily distinguished from 
die-back, as indicated on page 26. It not infrequently happens 
that die-back and wither-tip occur on the same twig. Any ma- 
terial weakening of the health of the tree is very likely to induce 
an infection ; this, however, is not a necessary antecedent to in- 
fection. The fruits of these two varieties appear to be exempt 
from attack. 

PREVENTIVE AND REMEDIAL MEASURES. 

TRKATME>.'T TO PREVENT LEMON-SPOT. 

The loss from spotting of lemons may be greatly reduced, if not 
entirely prevented, by spraying with fungicides, such as potassium 
sulphid, ammoniacal solution of copper carbonate, and Bordeaux 
mixture. 

The particular fungicide to be used will depend on the specific 
form in which the disease manifests itself. For lemon-spot 
sulphur spray* may be used after the lemons have been picked. 

The spraying may be done by first placing a layer of lemons 
one or two deep on the curing bed, then spray this thoroughly, 
place upon these another layer of lemons one or two deep and 
again spray, continuing the placing of lemons and spraying until 
the amount of fruit needed to fill the bed has been supplied. After 
this the lemons should be allowed to dry thoroughly before the 
cover is placed upon the bed. It is quite probable that the sulphur 
spray or the potassium sulphidf will also be helpful in the progress 
ofcolouringthelemons. Sulphur spray and potassium sulphid being 
mild fungicides, there is no danger of producing lot by their use. 

Ammoniacal solution of copper carbonate^ may also be used to 

* Preparation of sulphur sriray. — Place 30 pounds of flowers of sulphur in a 
wooden tub large enough to hold 25 gallons. Wet the sulphur with 3 gallons of 
water ; stir it to form a paste. Then add 20 pounds of 98 per cent, caustic soda 
(28 pounds should be used if the caustic soda is 70 per cent.) and mix it with the 
sulphur paste. In a few minutes it becomes very hot, turns brown, and becomes 
a liquid. Stir thoroughly and add enough water to make 20 gallons. Pour off 
from the .'^ediraent and keep the liquid as ;i stock sohitioii in a tighn barrel or keg. 
Of this solution use 4 quarts to 50 gallons of water. 

t Use 1 ounce of potassium sulphid to 2 gallons of water. 

X To prepare ammoniacal solution oj copper carbonate. — Put 3 gallons of water in 
a wooden or an earthen vessel, pour 3 pints of ammofia (2G° B.) ii this, and stir 
it to mix the two evenly. Take 8 ounces of copper carbonate and shake it into the 
ammonia water, stirring the liquid for a while. If a considerable part of the 
copper carbonate remains undissolved, the liquid may be left to settle ; if, how- 
ever, all or nearly all of the copper carbonate is dissolved, more of it should be 
added in the manner previously described until a considerable amount remains 
undissolved ; then it is set aside as stated before. After th'e prcctpinate has settled, 
use the clear blue liquid. The undissolved copper carbonate may then be treated 
with more ammonia and water, fresh copper carbonate being added whenever the 
residue becomes less than an ouncH. The solution should not be kept for more 
than a day or two, and when used 1 gallon should be diluted with 16 or 20 gallons 
of water. 



32 

prevent spotting, but the solution should be applied to the fruit a 
week or ten days before picking. The spraying should be done 
thoroughly and care should be exercised to get the mixture on the 
fruit. The amount, if at all apparent, will be so small that it will 
not interfere with its selling quality. Bordeaux mixture can not 
be used to good advantage on lemons, because it adheres very 
tenaciously to the fruit, and so reduces its selling value. 

TREATMENT OF LIME TREES. 

During the past year experiments performed by Mr. M. S. Bur- 
bank, of Cocoanut Grove, Fla., at the Red Mill fruit farm, with a 
view to protecting lime trees from the attacks of this fungus, 
brought out some interesting results. One tree under observation 
had been producing limes for a number of years in a most prolific 
manner, but during the three years preceding 1 902 the crop had 
been a total failure, owing to the attacks of CoUetotrichiun gloeospo- 
rioides. Spraying with Bordeaux mixture* was begun in Septem- 
ber, 1902, and was continued at intervals as thought advisable, 
and in less than a year the disease had been almost entirely 
subdued and the tree bore a heavy crop of fruit. Other trees were 
also treated, as well as trees in other groves, with good results. 

THE EFFECT OF PRUNING. 

In a small orchard, or in the case of an isolated tree, especially 
in a young orchard, much good can be done by cutting out 
diseased twigs and picking off the diseased leaves. Where this 
is practiced with thoroughness the disease can be reduced to a 
point where it does only a small amount of damage, or it may be 
eradicated ; but pruning and picking must be done at frequent 
intervals and very thoroughly. This would probably be an 
effective method of keeping the fungus under control in the case 
of small orange and pomelo orchards. 

Where pruning is practised the weak limbs are taken out. The 
spurs that have dropped their leaves are also cut out, and in this 
way much of the hold-over wither-tip is removed. All wood that 
has withered is also taken away. This pruning reduces in a large 
measure the number of spores left in the grove and hence greatly 
diminishes the extent of the infection. 

CULTIVATION AND FERTILIZATION. 

Thorough cultivation and fertilization are among the effective 
ways of keeping the fungus from becoming established in an or- 
chard. A properly cultivated and well-fertilized tree will produce 

* Bordeaux mixture may be prepared by dissolving 6 pounds of copper sulphate 
(blue stone) in 25 gallons of water. If the powdered copper sulphate be used, it 
may be dissolved in an hour or so by suspending it in a feed sack just under the 
surface of the water. In another vessel, siake 4 or 5 pounds of lime in a small 
quantity of water. When slaked, dilute to 25 gallons. Strain through coarse 
sacking into a 50-gallon barrel, to lemove all the matter that might clog 
the nozzle of the spraying mach)iie. Pour the copper-sulphate solution into the 
lime solution, stirring the mixture vigorously during the process and for two or 
three minutes afterward. Durii g the stirring the paddle should be made to go 
back and forth. Use the mixture at uuce. 



33 

new growth so rapidly and in such quantity that the amount of 
wood that is killed by the fungus and the number of leaves des- 
troyed will form only a small percentage of the total number of 
leaves and twigs present. The same number of leaves and the 
same quantity of twigs destroyed on a tree of only indifferent 
growth would form a much larger percentage and, consequently, 
weaken the constitution of the tree to such an extent that it would 
actually die before the atmospheric conditions would become ad- 
verse to the disease. Seedlings and nursery trees not carefully at- 
tended are frequently killed in this manner. It is thus possible for 
a tree that has been properly fertilized and cultivated to with- 
stand an attack that would prove fatal to one not in the best 
physical condition. While it does not seem possible to reader a 
tree proof against attack excepting by the use of fungicides, the 
probability of infection and the damage to the tree can be greatly 
reduced by putting it in the most healthy condition possible. 

FERTILIZERS. 

In choosing fertilizers to aid in warding off these diseases a large 
percentage of potash should be used in the compound. The source 
oj potash does not seem to be important, but sulphate of potash 
has proved a general favourite among growers of citrus fruits. 

Sulphate of ammonia is somewhat slower in acting than nitrate 
of soda, but gives a firmer leaf. Nitrate of soda will produce a very 
quick growth and a large leaf, but it is especially subject to attack 
from the fungus unless well balanced by a generous supply of po- 
tash. Organic ammonia in the form of dried blood, cotton-seed 
meal, and bone meal should not be used in combating this trouble, 
as it is very likely to produce die-back in addition to the softening 
of the wood, and so lay the tree doubly open to attack. 

SUMMARY. 

(1) Wither-tip was not known to exist in Florida until 1 886. In 
1891 it was recorded as only of passing interest but it is now 
present in every citrus-growing region of the State, as well as in 
many citrus-growing countries. Such is the severity of the disease 
that many requests for advice as to remedies have come to the 
Department of Agriculture from extensive growers. 

(2) The diseases caused by the fungus Colletotrichum glocospori- 
oides Penz. manifest themselves as wither-tip on orange, pomelo, 
and lemon twigs ; as leaf-spot on leaves of various citrus species ; 
as anthracnose on lime-blossoms, recently-set limes, lime twigs, 
and lemon twigs ; as lemon-spot on ripe lemons, and as canker of 
limes. 

(3) On the orange and pomelo the fungus causes the most severe 
damage by defoliating young twigs and causing these to die, thus 
reducing the amount of wood that may produce bloom in the bear- 
ing trees and cutting back seriously the growth of young trees. In 
lemon groves the most severe damage is done to matured fruit, 
while in lime groves the greatest loss occurs during the blooming 
season, the disease often causing all the bloom to fall. Trees less 



34 

severely attacked often have over 80 per cent, of the fruit can- 
kered, and consequently its market value is much reduced. 

(4) Remedial measures are effective, but these must be varied to 
suit particular manifestations of the fungus. Wither-tip and leaf- 
spot are best controlled by pruning out diseased twigs and then by 
spraying with Bordeaux mixture. The spotting of lemon may be 
controlled by spraying the fruit before picking with ammoniacal 
solution of copper carbonate and with sulphur spray while in the 
colouring bed or colouring house. Canker of limes may be prevented 
by cutting out wither-tip before the blooming period and then by 
spraying with Bordeaux mixture. 

EVOLUTION OF WEEVIL-RESISTANCE IN 

COTTON.* 

By O. F. Cook, Botanist in charge of Investigations in Tropical 
Agriculture, U.S. Department of Agriculture. 

The complexity of biological problems finds another excellent 
illustration in the evolutionary history of the relations between the 
cotton plant and the so-called Mexican boll-weevil. The present 
indications are that both the cotton and the weevil originated in 
Central America. The parasitism of the beetle is certainly very 
ancient, if, as seems to be the case, it has no other breeding-place 
than the young buds and fruits of the cotton plant. Of the 
severity of the parasitism there is ample evidence in Texas, the 
weevils being able to totally destroy the crop when the climatic 
conditions admit of their normal increase. 

It was to have been expected, therefore, that in humid tropical 
localities where all seasons of the year are alike favourable, the 
cotton would have been exterminated long since, or at least that 
its cultivation as a field crop would be utterly impracticable unless 
there were means of protection against the ravages of the insect. 
A definite intimation of the existence of protective adaptations 
was incidentally gained in eastern Guatemala in 1902 when no 
weevils were found in a field of the dwarf cotton cultivated by the 
Indians, although they were extremely abundant on a perennial 
' tree' cotton a short distance away. The opportunity of making 
a detailed study of the subject during the second quarter of the 
present year has revealed an interesting series of protective 
adaptations resuUing from the long evolutionary struggle for 
existence between the cotton and the weevil. 

Reference has been made in another placet to the extensive 
system of extra-floral nectaries by which the cotton of eastern 
Guatemala has secured the active cooperation of the kelep or 
weevil-eating ant, but the Central American cottons and the 
Indians who have been cultivating them for thousands of years 
have developed many other expedients of structure, habits and 

* From Science N.?., Vol. XX. No. .516. PageR 660-670. November 18th, 1904. 
t Eetort No. 78 U. S Dept. Agri,. p. 4, ,Jt04 ; reprinted in Bulletin of 1 epartment of 
Agriculture, Jamaica, II, 7, July, 1904. 



35 

culture which are of more or less assistance in resisting or avoid- 
ing the weevil. 

The large leafy involucre of the cotton may have been at first a 
protective adaptation, though the weevils later learned to enter it 
easily. In some of the Guatemalan sorts the bracts are grown 
together at the base as though the evolution of a closed involucre 
had begun. The hairy stems assist the ants in climbing, but 
impede the weevils, and thus increase the chances of capture. 
Prompt flowering and determinate growth enable an annual 
variety to ripen more seed. A perennial kidney cotton also 
escapes extinction by producing nearly all its blossoms at one 
season. In the central plateau region of Salama and Rabinal 
another perennial variety is cut back annually to the ground. New 
shoots spring up and the new crop is set within a short time, while 
the plants are still small enough to be cared for by the chickens 
and turkeys. 

Another of these protective adaptations proves to be of such 
potential significance as to call for announcement in advance of 
a detailed report. The issue is nothing less than that the cotton 
plant, in some of its varieties, has finally developed a practical 
means of resisting and destroying the weevil larvae. The process 
is in the nature of a varietal characteristic subject to increase by 
selection. The efficiency of the adaptation is such that a variety 
in which it appeared uniformly would afford no opportunity for 
the weevil to breed, and would thus be a means of exterminating 
it. 

The facts are simple and have been thoroughly established 
during the department's entomological studies of the weevil for the 
past decade, but they have not been interpreted as a protective 
adaptation, nor as a character subject to further selective develop- 
ment. Messrs. Hunter and Hinds have reported* that in some 
instances as high as 41 per cent, of the boll-weevil larv^ fail to 
develop, as a result of what they have termed a ' gelatinization' 
of the tissues of the young bud or 'square.' 

In the later stages the injured buds often appear as though filled 
with a structureless exudation, and it was not unnaturally supposed 
that the abnormality was the result of some disturbance of nutri- 
tion, or of bacterial infection. The material failed, however, to 
yield cultures of bacteria or to respond to experiments with 
fertilizers. The opportunity of examining the earlier stages of the 
phenomenon show that the conditions are far less abnormal than 
have been supposed, and that the * gelatinization' is simply the 
result of very active growth or proliferation of the loose tissue of 
the tube or column, which in the flowers of the mallow family 
surrounds the style and bears the stamens. 

The usual programme would be for the young squares to fall to the 
ground when the larva has hatched and begun to eat out the pollen 
of the young bud. Proliferation involves the opposite procedure. 

* Bull. 45, Bureau of Entomolojjy, U, S. Dept. Agriculture p. 96, 1904. 



36 

Instead of ceasing to develop, the soft tissues of the staminal tube 
are stimulated in a manner analogous to that by which galls and 
other vegetable excrescences are formed. The cavity eaten out by 
the larva is filled and the little miscreant is either smothered in 
paste or, more likely, starved by the watery tissue which is 
certainly no equivalent for the highly organized protoplasm of the 
pollen, the normal infant-food of the young larva. But whatever 
may be the actual cause of death the practical fact is that the 
larva is killed, and apparently in every instance in which prolifera- 
tion occurs,* A very little of the new tissue may be effective. 
When the cavity eaten out by the larva is small it is often neatly 
plugged by the new growth, and the flower may develop with no 
very great distortion, though the corolla generally shrivels up 
before reaching more than half the normal length. The young 
boll is not always blasted, though it is often small and irregular 
in shape, perhaps as a result of deficient pollination. The stigma 
sometimes projects from the injured flower and might be fertilized 
normally, but in other instances the withered staminal tube and 
corolla remain closely wrapped about it, so that pollen could 
scarcely have entered. It would not be surprising if the more 
rapid and persistent growth which favours the new protective tissue 
were also accompanied by a tendency toward parthenogenesis. 
Or it may be that the irritation resulting from the presence of the 
larva stimulates the ovary as well. Moreover, proliferation is not 
confined to the bud ; the same or a closely similar formation of 
tissue sometimes appears in the bolls, when these have been at- 
tacked by the weevils. 

It is thus not merely a coincidence that the proliferation is most 
frequent in the quick-growing early varieties of cotton which are 
now prized in Texas as the best means of securing a crop. The 
weevil has conducted, as it were, a selection for rapidity of growth 
and early fruiting, and a further accentuation of vegetative energy 
has introduced the new protective habit. The destructive insect 
has, in effect, over-reached itself, and induced a condition which 
with man's assistance may accomplish its own destruction. 

It is not easy to conjecture any means by which the weevil could 
survive the general planting of a variety of cotton having prolifer- 
ation as a constant character. If only the squares would ' ge- 
latinize' the weevil might develop an instinct of postponing the egg- 
laying period until the young bolls could develop. The advantage 
might be partly temporary, though it would take many years for 
the weevil to meet the new demand, and it could never reach its 
present destructiveness because the delay of the breeding season 
even for a week or two would be an effective handicap, particular- 
ly if the weevils should continue to waste most of their ammunition 
on the squares, as they probably would. 

• In a few oases livinj? weevil larvae were found in squares which gave evidence of 
gelatinization, but there was always a secopd puncture from the outside, indicating 
that another egg had been deposited. 



37 

How loiig it will take to secure a completely resistant cotton by 
selection can only be conjectured, since it is not known as yet how 
constant a character proliferation is in the plants which possess it. 
To lose no unnecessary time is, of course, of the greatest practical 
importance, not only for the industry at large but especially for the 
sake of the growers of the long staple cotton in South Carolina and 
Georgia. The longer season required by the Sea Island cotton will 
render entirely ineffective the cultural expedients by which a part 
of the crop of the upland varieties can be saved from the weevil ; 
if the insect be permitted to reach the Atlantic coast Sea Island 
cotton will soon become an agricultural tradition. 

This change of view regarding the nature of ' gelatinization 
greatly alters the prospect of finding in tropical America a variety 
of cotton resistant to the weevil, a hope which seemed to be lessen- 
ed by the discovery of the kelep or Guatemalan cotton-protecting 
ant. It is by no means impossible that varieties already exist in 
which proliferation has become a fixed character, and if not it will 
still be highly desirable to secure those in which the tendency is 
most strongly pronounced. In the ant-protected variety of eastern 
Guatemala, proliferation takes place very frequently, at least in the 
bolls, and the plant has other desirable features of quick, deter- 
minate growth and early bearing which may make it of value in 
Texas. It has the good qualities of King and other related varie- 
ties in accentuated form, though with a longer staple. 

The dwarf Guatemalan cotton represents, as it were, the highest 
known development of the upland type. Even the annual charac- 
ter which has been looked upon as a result of cultivation in tem- 
perate climates is a further instance of protective adaptation long 
ago secured in the tropics by the unconscious selection of the In- 
dians. It was from the Central American region, evidently, that 
the other upland types came, but they represent an earlier stage of 
development, or have deteriorated because selection for resistant 
qualities has been relaxed in regions where the weevil was absent, 
as in our southern states. Other things being equal, the Indians 
would undoubtedly prefer the perennial * tree' cottons, which con- 
tinue to be cultivated in Mexico and Peru in localities so arid as to 
exclude the weevils, though it is not certain that they exist in Peru. 
Possibly there has never been a connected series of agricultural 
communities along which the weevil could follow into South 
America ; the pest might never have reached the United States if 
cotton culture had not been extended into southern Texas. 

But even if the varieties already known in Texas were to be util- 
ized as the basis of selection, it is by no means beyond the limits 
of probability that a resistant, regularly proliferating variety could 
be secured within a decade, or even within five years, since cotton 
has been found to respond rather promptly to selective influence. 
The urgency of the matter would certainly justify an extensive 
campaign of selection, the problem being to find among the mil- 
lions of pUnts which will be grown next season, some which po§- 



38 

sess in the highest degree the tendency to proliferation, and to se- 
cure seeds from them. The task, however, is peculiar, and more 
difficult than such experiments usually are, because there is little or 
nothing in the way of an external clue to the desired character. 
It may be necessary to cut open each infested square in succession 
to make sure that the plant is allowing no weevil larvae to develop. 
And after the most promising plants have been located, it may be 
possible to obtain seed from them only by artificially protecting 
them from the weevils. Otherwise the best stock might be lost if 
the weevils were very abundant. Indeed, this suggests a reason 
why ' gelatinization' has not become a fixed character already. 
Selection thus far has only been in the direction of proliferation in 
the bolls, since the proliferation of tissue in the buds would give a 
particular plant no advantage over its neighbours in the matter of 
seed production. It would enjoy no immunity from subsequent at- 
tack because it had not allowed any weevils to reach maturity. 
Weevils from other plants would continue to come to it, and the 
chances of ripening seeds would not be increased. There has been, 
in other words, no selective inducement for * gelatinized' buds to be- 
come a uniform character except as they might be correlated with 
'gelatinized' bolls, in spite of the fact that for killing the weevil 
proliferation in the buds is more important than that in the bolls. 

These considerations reveal still another episode of evolutionary 
history, and may explain why it is that the variety protected by 
the ants, and the other ' upland' types which have originated in 
the same region, have the additional protective adaptations. It 
was only where the ants protected the cotton and thus perpetuated 
it as a field crop that these other considerations could have a 
cumulative effect. The other adaptations by which the tree cottons 
have maintained a desultory existence are of suggestive interest, 
but of apparently little practical importance, since no field culture 
of a perennial cotton seems to be maintained in any weevil-infested 
district. 

In eastern Guatemala the cultivation of cotton as a field crop is 
strictly limited to localities suited to the ants, where they exist in 
such numbers as to give practical protection. In Texas, however, 
cotton is grown under a great variety of conditions. The climatic 
vicissitudes of heat and cold, drought and flood are many times as 
great as in Guatemala, so that notwithstanding the unexpectedly 
great adaptability of the kelep, it can not be expected to thrive 
equally well in all parts of the state, any more than does the 
weevil. Even if it be found that the ants can thrive, breed and 
establish new colonies in Texas, they will probably require many 
years to take full and effective possession even of the more 
favourable localities of this vast agricultural empire. Such a 
mitigation of the weevil's injuries would be, of course, of great 
practical value, and the work of the ants in destroying the larvae 
of boll worms and leaf-worms might be only slightly less im- 
portant in some districts. If, however, the hope of exterminating 



30 

the weevil is to be cherished, or that of staying its ravages before it 
has laid the entire cotton industry of the South under tribute, there 
would seem at present to be no other alternative than to secure by 
discovery or development, within the next few years, a variety of 
cotton in which the larvse of the boll weevil can not mature. 

The present brief outline of the results of our study of cotton in 
Guatemala may be summarized by saying that the tendency to 
rapid growth and early fruiting, the large extrafloral nectaries 
which attract the ants, and the proliferation of the tissues of the 
young buds and bolls which kills the weevil larv^, are protective 
adaptations, developed as a result of long contact between the 
cotton plant and the boll-weevil. The proliferation is not a mere 
pathological abnormality, but represents a definite evolutionary 
tendency, capable of further increase by selection. If this in- 
terpretation of the facts be correct it affords an intimation of a 
successful solution of the weevil problem by means of a resistant 
variety of cotton. 



NOTES ON THE CULTIVATION OF COCONUT, 
SUGAR CANE, COFFEE AND COCOA. 

By W. M. Cunningham, Asst. Superintendent and Agricultural 
Instructor at Hope Gardens. 

The following notes were prepared for a small cultivator who 
wrote asking for information, and as they may be useful to others 
they are now published : — 

Coco-Nut Palm — This tree requires a loose soil, its slender 
horizontal roots often extend to the distance of forty feet ; they 
are formed of a ligneous body, surmounted by a spongy tissue 
and covered with a reddish epidermis. 

Soils. — There are two kinds of soils on which coco-nuts refuse 
to grow to any profitable purpose, namely, thin washed gravels 
overlying rocky foundations, and stiff clays, or compact clayey 
soil, which retains water ; not only are the roots prevented from 
spreading, but they rot. The richer the soil, the quicker they will 
grow and bear the earlier ; the best soils for coco-nuts are deep 
alluvial loams on the banks of rivers, subject to floods that over- 
flow on the neighbouring lands ; all level lands exposed to the sea- 
breeze where the soil is good, as the valleys between hills, which 
have been filled up. In such situations the crops are enormous ; 
the next quality of soil is brown loam, but it is only found in 
certain districts, and seldom extends into the higher uplands. A 
loamy sand is a good coco-nut soil, and, with careful cultivation, 
is only slightly inferior to the alluvial and brown loams. 

Holes. — Coco-nut holes cannot be made too large, say three feet 
deep by three feet wide, and they should be filled in for half their 
depth with soil from the surrounding surface. It is important to 
give the plant the means of a fair start, and eighteen inches of 
loose rich soil, below and all around it, is the best available 



40 

means to that end, indeed a plant so treated, will gain several 
years on one placed in a one-foot hole. 

Sugar Cane — The sugar cane has no main root, but like all 
grasses possess a great number of fine rootlets, these spread to a 
great distance, and to a considerable depth in suitable soil. The 
results would be of considerable interest and value if planters 
would make a series of observations on the range of the roots of 
the sugar cane. In good soil the majority of the rootlets reach 
a depth of about 2 feet ; a smaller number extending even to 4 or 
5 feet ; in moderately well tilled soil the roots grow downwards 
until they reach the layer of soil but little disturbed by cultivation, 
and then spread laterally, so that the depth to which the roots 
descend in stiff soil depends on the depth of the tillage. 

Soil. — The question of the suitability or unsuitability of a soil 
for producing a certain crop resolves itself into two distinct heads, 
one being the physical character of the soil, the other its chemical 
composition. It is not too much to say that the first essential in a 
fertile soil is the capacity for absorbing an abundance of air ; at 
the same time, the friability or porosity of the soil must not be 
so excessive that no moisture is retained. The sugar cane will 
grow upon almost any soil ; clays, loams, marls, and calcareous 
soils, as well as vegetable ones, are suitable, more or less, to cane 
cultivation. Indeed, considering that canes are grown in all the 
principal West Indian Islands, with their wide diversity of soils, one 
might feel inclined to come to the conclusion that the nature of 
the soil was of no account in the cultivation. Rich, porous clays, 
and alluvial soils on low lands, are the most favourable for cane 
cultivation, with the exception, perhaps, of loams formed by the 
decomposition of volcanic rocks, these being well fertilized by a 
proportion of decayed vegetable matter. Deep black moulds are 
less suitable for cane culture, tending to produce exuberant growths, 
rather than a rich and plentiful juice ; some of the very best sugar 
is produced on lime-stone soils, though they do not promise great 
fertility. 

Coffee — Coffee trees delight in the cool climate of the moun- 
tains, up to 4,500 feet, where the rain is abundant all the year 
round, alternating with bright sunshine ; on the lower mountains, 
especially where they are subject to dry sea breezes, the berries will 
often be empty, mildewed, or scorched, and the trees short-lived. 

Soil. — The best soil is a free, open virgin soil, 3 or 4 feet deep ; 
on steep slopes the soil should be firm, but not clayey, mixed with 
a proportion of sand, gravel, or small stones through which water 
may easily pass. Even on white limestone, if the climate is rainy, 
coffee will flourish where the rocks are mixed with deep soil. 

To obtain large returns from each tree, the following should be 
carefully attended to : 

(a) Choose a good and fertile soil, containing a tolerable 
quantity of decayed vegetable matter, and having 
a generous subsoil, which is naturally well drained. 



41 

(b) Pick out strong and vigorous young plants, and take them 

up, if possible, without breaking their roots, and with the 
earth around them. 

(c) Let the ground be in a tolerably moist condition. 

(d) Prepare holes (varying from l8 to 24 inches in diameter) 

with well rotted vegetable manure, and finely pulverized 

soil, into which place the young plants, and fill up the 

holes, so as to leave no hollows wherein water may 

lodge. 

Cocoa — The cocoa tree frequently requires the protective 

shade of another tree to thrive, and the younger it is the more 

it requires shade, hence the banana suffices at first, but the 

Immortel tree {Erythriiia) protects its after-life. This shade tree is 

planted either as young plants or seeds, in the interval between 

every third cocoa, or about 36 to 42 feet apart. A warm, moist 

climate is necessary for the cultivation of cocoa, if large crops are 

expected ; but when the soil is suitable, the trees will grow and 

give fair returns in a moderately dry place. 

Soil. — On account of its long tap root, which attains 7 feet or 
more, it only thrives advantageously in rich and deep loamy soils, 
and especially if these are formed by the decomposition of 
volcanic rocks. The best soil is that covered with a vegetable 
deposit which has accumulated from the falling leaves and 
branches of the original forest. If land can be found on the banks 
of a river where there is a considerable depth of alluvial deposit, 
such a position, if well drained, is an ideal spot. The tap root of 
the cocoa tree, being the continuation of its stem, penetrates the 
soil directly downwards, so that in flat lands, to insure its proper 
development, the soil must be comparatively deeper than that of 
both undulating and hilly lands. In flat lands, therefore, both the 
soil and subsoil must be porous and friable. If the sub-soil is over 
clayey, stiff or retentive, the growth, after a few years, either de- 
teriorates or becomes stunted, and the tree perishes, while during 
the rainy season, the water instead of draining off, becomes stag- 
nant, thus gradually rotting the roots. As a rule, a fertile cocoa 
soil must be rich in nitrogen, with a high percentage of potash, 
and a fair proportion of lime, and phosphoric acid. 

Hard dry, rocky soils, stiff clays, a shallow soil resting on rock, 
mountain sides, where great detrition frequently takes place, shal- 
low lands, and boggy land should be avoided. 

NOTES ON WATERING PLANTS IN GARDENS. 

By W. J. Thompson, F.R.H.S., 

Travelling Instructor & Superintendent of Parade Gardetis. 

In travelling about the Island one not only sees time being 
wasted in unnecessary watering of plants in gardens, but the 
plants themselves are actually injured by too liberal supplies of 
water, and I know of cases where the owners give themselves a 



42 

great deal of trouble in seeing that the gardens get their watering 
twice each day of the week, Sundays included. 

I am often asked the question, how often should the plants in a 
garden be watered ? It is impossible to give an answer to this 
question that will suit all cases. The owners of gardens should 
know when their plants need watering, and when water is needed 
they should see that sufficient is given. 

More than one-half the water that is given to gardens is wasted, 
either because the plants do not need it, or the ground is not in a 
fit condition to receive it ; it is just of as great importance that the 
ground is in a fit condition to receive the water if the plants are to 
be kept in a healthy, growing condition, as that the water should 
be applied. 

All owners of gardens who wish to see their plants looking 
healthy, and to get satisfactory returns for the money they spend on 
them, should see that the soil between the plants is dug about three 
times a year to a depth of from twelve to fifteen inches. When 
digging is being done, leave the surface of the soil rather rough, 
that is, do not have the surface raked smooth as is done in most 
gardens. My reason for recommending this is that when the 
surface is in a broken condition, water and air can enter the ground 
more freely, and half the water that is usually given will be suffi- 
cient to keep the plants in a growing condition. 

The plants in any well managed garden should not need 
watering more than three times a week. I am speaking now of 
the gardens about Kingston and suburbs. If a copious watering 
every other day does not keep the plants in good condition, then 
the soil is either too hard or too full of roots. If the former, it 
should either be forked or dug to a depth of about 15 inches ; and 
if the latter, judicious root pruning should be carried out when the 
ground is being forked or dug. 

In the case of pot plants, for every one that dies through want 
of water, probably two die through being over-watered. No plant 
should need watering more than once a day, or three waterings 
a week should be sufficient for most plants, unless the pots are 
filled with roots, or the soil is too sandy. If the plants have filled 
the pots or tubs with roots, they should be moved into larger pots 
or tubs, at the same time cutting off a few of the outside roots. 

Care should be taken when potting plants to see that the pots 
or tubs are quite clean, that the soil is neither too wet nor too dry, 
that enough space is left between the top of the soil and the rim 
of the pot or tub to allow the plant to be given enough water. 

It ought to be remembered that plants should not be made to 
grow too fast, but they should have just sufficient water given to 
them to keep them in a healthy condition ; also that by keeping 
the soil about them frequently hoed or forked, not only maintains 
them in good condition, but reduces the watering by one half, and 
so reduces the cost of upkeep of the garden. 



43 

THE CULTURE OF THE CENTRAL AMERICAN 

RUBBER TREE, Vll.f 

( Contimied from Bulletin for fanuary. ) 

By O. F. Cook, Botanist in charge of Investigations in Tropical 
Agriculture, U. S. Department of Agriculture. 

METHOD OF CLEARING LAND FOR RUBBER PLANTING. 

The question of shade is also involved with that of the method 
of clearing the land. It is an almost universal custom in tropical 
countries to clear land by burning the dried forest growth which 
has been cut down. In fact, the primitive agriculture of the 
natives of tropical regions could scarcely be conducted on any 
other basis. There is much loss of fertility by the destruction of 
vegetable matter and humus, but the amount of labour required to 
thoroughly clear a piece of forest land in the tropics is prohibi- 
tively great. The fire not only removes the tangled mass of brush, 
but it performs an even more useful service in killing the stumps 
and roots which would otherwise reoccupy the land with new 
growth in a few weeks, and would remain indefinitely to dispute 
possession with anything which might be planted. To grow a 
herbaceous crop on unburned land under such conditions would be 
extremely difficult, but a tree culture is much more feasible, though 
whether the method of partial clearing is to be generally advised 
is not so certain. The gain, if any, is more likely to be found in 
the sustained fertility of the soil than in any saving of labour in 
clearing and cleaning the land ; for although there may be a saving 
at first which will permit an enterprise to reach a paying basis 
sooner, yet there is in prospect a long and expensive struggle with 
the persistent natural vegetation rooted in the soil. Moreover, it 
should be recognized that the conditions under which a plantation 
is set out in a partially cleared forest are of necessity only 
temporary. Many of the forest trees will not long survive the 
unwonted exposure to greater dryness and heat and to the attacks 
of parasites. The thinning of the forest greatly increases the force 
of the wind against the remaining tall trees, and in falling these 
will injure the rubber trees and will often require to be cut away not 
merely at one point, but at several points. Whatever the merits 
of the case from the standpoint of the stockholder, the plantation 
manager of the future is very likely to wish that his predecessors 
had adopted clean culture. The overhead shade which discourages 
the undergrowth will also discourage the rubber, and the decrease 
of such shade will increase the competition of the undergrowth 
with the rubber. The ideal of rubber culture does not require a 
roof of shade over the rubber trees nor a dense growth of bushes and 
vines under them. The roof should be of Castilloa foliage, and 
the ground should be covered by a mulch of dead leaves and 

t Extrac*^ from the U. S. Depaitraent of Agriculture. Bull. No. 49, Bureau of 
Plant Industry. 



44 

branches, which enrich the soil and assist in the retention of 
moisture. 

CLEAN CULTURE WITH FOREST PROTECTION. 

If, then, the requirements met by close planting be eliminated 
from the shade question there remains little beyond the fact that 
in districts in which the dry season is unduly long it may be 
unwise to shorten the period of growth by cultural methods which 
increase the daily exposure to too dry an atmosphere, as there can 
be no doubt that the clearing of large tracts of land will mean 
warmer and relatively drier air, and that the dryness of the air 
near the ground will be further increased by the wind, against which 
the forest will no longer afford protection. It might accordingly 
be good policy on large estates not to clear continuous tracts for 
planting, but to leave belts of forest to break the wind and keep 
the atmosphere moist. This method would be particularly con- 
venient where the land is to be cleared by burning, since in a 
tropical forest the trees often grow with their branches interlaced 
or are bound together by large climbing vines or lianas, so that it 
is often much easier to clear an entire strip of forest than to leave 
individual trees standing at anything like regular intervals. 
METHODS OF HANDLING CASTILLOA SEEDS. 

The thin-skinned seeds of Castilloa, like those of so many other 
tropical plants, are adapted only for germinating on the most soil 
of the forest. Instead of having a hardened shell for protection, 
there has developed only a fleshy pulp, which in nature helps them 
to remain moist until the rain begins. They are able to resist 
exposure to even a moderately dry atmosphere for only two or 
three weeks, and if packed together in any quantity they spoil 
even more promptly. The perishability of the seeds has been a 
considerable obstacle in the planting of Castilloa, and especially 
in its introduction into foreign countries. The first shipment of 
7,000 seeds secured by the government of British India from 
Panama in 1875 was a total loss, and the introduction was made 
by means of a few cuttings, carried around by way of England. 
Later theKew Botanical Gardens sent rooted cuttings also to Liberia 
and to the Kamerun River settlements in West Africa, to Zanzibar, 
Mauritius, Java, and Singapore, as well as to Jamaica and Grenada 
in the West Indies.* In 1880 the largest of the Ceylon trees was 
17 inches in circumference a yard from the ground, and in 1 88 1 
they flowered for the first time. The first flowers were all staminate, 
but a few seeds were produced in 1882, and these and their 
successors have furnished the basis of the experiments with 
Castilloa in the East Indies. The relatively unfavourable results 
may be due, at least in part, to the fact that the Panama tree is 
different from that of Mexico and Guatemala, which was sent 
to the East Indies only in recent years, after better methods of 
packing the seeds had been learned. 

The preservation of the seeds depends upon their being kept 

* W. Thistleton-Dyei-, Trans. Linnaan Soc, London, 2d ser., 2 : 214, 1885. 



45 

moist enough to remain alive and at the same time dry enough to 
discourage germination. Some advise washing the seeds ; others 
leave the pulp adhering, but the latter course has the disadvantage 
of encouraging the growth of moulds and bacteria, which readily 
penetrate the thin outer membranes and attack the embryo it- 
self. Several packing materials, such as leaf mould, sand, and 
sawdust have been suggested, but the best is probably powdered 
charcoal, which does not decompose nor harbour organisms. 

The following statements from some who have experimented 
with shipment of Castilloa seeds may be of suggestive interest : 

In Trinidad they are gathered when they fully mature, washed, and slightly 
dried in the shade. They are then shipped in a sort of humus composed of fibres 
of rotten c^coanut husks and a little earth. This mixture must be somewhat 
moist. The seeds soon germinate in it and so remain for several weeks. Sowing 
must be done with great care on account of the long sprouts. 

I also collected the mature seeds and washed them thoroughly, so that no trace 
of the fleshy red pulp rem;iined on them. Then they were dried in the shade from 
twenty-four to forty-eight hours, and then mixed with sawdust and packed in small 
tin boxes 10 centimeters (4 inches) square and 3 centimeters (1-2 inches; deep. 
I dropped a few dr )ps of water on the .-awdust before closing the box. With this 
packing the seeds were sent to Berlin, and from there forwarded to Kamerun and 
East Africa, and 50 per cent, of ihem were on arrival still good and in condition 
to germinate* 

A shipmentof 2,000 Castilloa seeds sent from Paris to Peradeniya, 

Ceylon, packed in leaf mould in four tin boxes, was opened in six 

weeks, to find 37 per cent, still alive arid the remainder destroyed 

by moulds and bacteria. This made it evident that leaf mould was 

not a desirable medium and sterilized sand was suggested instead.f 

The seeds were carefully cleaned of all pulp, and then dried slightly in the shade 
and packed in shallow tins with powdered charcoal slightly damp. By this method 
they commence to germinate in the tins. Care must be taken that the seeds do 
not touch each other, for if too many are packed together it will cause heating and 
the loss of the whole. J 

SEED BEDS AND NURSERIES. 

Whether it is better to plant the seeds where the trees are to 
stand or to sow them in nurseries from which the seedlings are to 
be subsequently transplanted, is one of the many questions on 
which opinions differ, though the latter method commands a large 
majority of preferences. Of 26 plantations from which reports 
have recently been published by the India Rubber World, only 3 
plant " at the stake" exclusively. 

At La Zacualpa Mr. Harrison has tried planting in the permanent 
location, but finds that the very young seedlings are liable to be 
destroyed by insects and that they do not grow as well in partial 
shade as in the full sun. But instead of leaving the plants in the 
nursery for a year, transplanting begins when they are six weeks 
old, or when the plants are from 10 to 12 inches high, and con- 
tinues to near the end of the rain, no nurseries being carried over 
the dry season. These are considerable deviations from the 

* Ur. Paul Pi-euss, E.xpedition niicli rentral-inul >Su(l-Amerika, lilOl, ]k ?)83. 
t Agri. Bui., Straits Settlements, 1 : r>S\l Dec, 11)02. 

X Letter from Jlr. W- S. Todd, Anihersf, Lower Burma, to Mr. Edgar Brown, in cliar>;e 
of Sei d Investigation, U. S. Department of Agricult tire- 



46 

methods which have been described in previous publications on 
rubber culture, most of which advocate the shading of the 
nurseries and the postponement of transplanting till the seedlings 
are a year old. It is claimed at La Zacualpa that the small trees 
suffer less from transplanting and that they are larger at the end 
of two years than if they had remained in the nursery for a year. 

The seed beds at La Zacualpa are made each year in a new 
place convenient of access to the tracts which are to be planted. 
While the nurseries are not shaded overhead, they are generally 
located in clearings in the forest, where they have considerable 
protection against dry wind. The drying out of the soil would 
doubtless be fatal to young seedlings, but if the soil and air are 
sufficiently moist, the sun does not harm them. 

The land used for nurseries is cleaned by burning, though this is 
not the case at La Zacualpa with the plantation proper. When 
older seedlings are transplanted it is customary, as with coffee, to 
cut the tap root down to 5 or 6 inches, rather than to plant it bruised 
or bent. If the soil is loose and fertile the seedlings are set in 
holes made with a pointed stake ; elsewhere it is better to dig holes 
as with coffee. Castilloa is not a delicate plant, and will endure 
any reasonable treatment. The worst danger seems to be that with 
long-continued rain and deficient drainage the young plants will rot 
off, or they may be killed by drought if planted too near the end of 
the rainy season. For those which have not become sufficiently 
established before the coming of dry weather artificial shade may 
be provided. At La Zacualpa one of the tracts, which represented 
an experiment in open planting, had each young seedling covered 
with a hood made of leaves of the manaca palm (Attalea). 

( To be continued. ) 



BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

The Monthly Meeting of the Board of Agriculture was held at 
Headquarter House on Tuesday 13th December, 1904, at 1 1. 1 5 a.m. 
Present : the Hon. H. Clarence Bourne, Chairman ; the Director of 
Public Gardens, His Grace the Archbishop, Hon. T. Capper, 
Messrs. C. A. T. Fursdon, J. W. Middleton and the Secretary, J. 
Barclay. 

Minutes — The Minutes of the previous meeting were read and 
■confirmed. 

A letter of apology was read from the Island Chemist who was 
indisposed. 

Sugar Laboratory — The Chairman submitted a letter from the 
Chemist asking for approval of various items of expenditure for 
fittings and equipment of the Sugar Laboratory, Fermentation 
Laboratory and Distillery, from the allocation of £l,000. The 
items submitted were sanctioned except the amount for the pur- 
chase of a typewriter which was deferred. 

It was resolved that more detailed estimates of the expenditure 
of the Sugar Laboratory Fund should be submitted with sub-heads 



47 

sufficiently defined to enable the Board to allow charges against 
them to be sanctioned by the Chairman. 

Secondary Schools — The Archbishop reported that the Standing 
Committee on Scientific Education in Secondary Schools was at 
work and would soon be able to report. 

Agricultural Conference, Trinidad — The Chairman submitted a 
letter from Mr. H. Cork intimating that it was impossible for him 
to attend the Agricultural Conference at Trinidad owing to busi- 
ness matters requiring his attention here. 

The Secretary reported that the Hon. T. H. Sharp had informed 
him that he would be going on a visit to St. Vincent, Barbados 
and other places to study the Cotton Industry, and if the Board did 
not secure a representative to attend the Conference at Trinidad 
he would be prepared to leave earlier than he had otherwise in- 
tended, and would go to Trinidad and represent them if he was 
duly accredited, and at least a portion of his expenses were paid. 
He was not sure whether the movements of steamers and his 
own business matters would enable him to attend during all the 
time of the Conference. 

The Board decided to inform Mr. Sharp that if he could leave 
for Trinidad on the 26th December and attend at least a part of 
the Conference he would be duly accredited as the representative 
of the Board ; but only, if he could attend all the time of the Con- 
ference, would the usual expenses for such a representative be 
allowed. 

Sterilizing Fruits — The Director of Public Gardens said that 
sometime ago the Archbishop had asked whether it would not be 
possible for us to do more in the way of preserving fruits for 
shipment abroad ; and he now submitted 8 jars of fruits preserved 
by a simple process of sterilizing, by heating to 150.° The fruit 
had been put up for 3 to 4 months and consisted of mangoes, 
pine-apples, bananas and akees ; and on a jar of mangoes being 
tested the fruit was found to be in perfect condition. 

On the suggestion of Mr. Fursdon it was resolved to send the 
jars of fruit to the Agricultural Society's rooms to be exhibited 
there, and the Secretary was instructed to make this fact known 
and to explain the process to all interested. 

Estimates — The Estimates of the Director of Public Gardens, and 
the Chemist were submitted, and after some discussion, were ap- 
proved. 

Steers at Hope— The Director of Public Gardens submitted an 
offer of £18 from Alonzo Rowe for the two old plough steers at 
Hope Experiment Station, and on the motion of Mr. Fursdon it 
was resolved to accept the offer, if a better could not be obtained. 

The Secretary submitted a letter from the Board of Agriculture, 
London, enclosing Handbook on the Disease of Animals Acts re- 
ferring to Great Britain. The Secretary was instructed to keep 
this at hand for reference when necessary. 

Trade Marks — The Secretary submitted a letter from the Colonial 



48 

Secretary's Office asking the consideration of the Board on the 
question of amending Section 25 of Law 31 of 1903 so as not to 
permit the issuing of more than one Trade Mark to the same per- 
son for the same article of agricultural produce exported. 

After discussion the Secretary was instructed to write the 
members of the Committee which had before considered the 
necessity for an Inspection of Fruit Law, and get their views. 

Cotton — Mr. Fursdon's report on the work done by the Cotton 
Gin and the report of the Secretary on the Cotton Industry to- 
gether with the opinions of the Cotton Expert on samples, were 
submitted and directed to be circulated. 

Mr. Fursdon asked whether the opinion of the experts, after 
visiting the cotton cultivations here, had not in any way changed, 
with regard to the quality of first "ratoon" cotton. 

Mr. Fawcett stated that they had considerably modified their 
views since they had visited places where cotton was being grown, 
but that they did not think the question could be definitely 
settled until they had tested samples of so-called first ratoon 
cotton. 

Mr. Fawcett was asked to state in writing the precise purport 
of Mr. Oliver's later statement to him on the subject of so-called 
ratoon cotton, with a view to its publication. 

A letter from Colonial Secretary's Office with report of the In- 
ternational Congress of Cotton Spinners at Zurich was submitted 
and directed to be circulated. 

Locked Still — A report from the Chemist re installation of the 
Locked Still at Denbigh Estate was submitted and directed to be 
held over until next meeting. 

Reports, Director Public Gardens :— 

The following reports of the Director Public Gardens were sub- 
mitted and directed to be circulated : — 

1. Letter re resignation of Mr. R. L. Young, Local Instructor. 

2. Mr. Cradwick re Shows and work done. 

3. Experiment Station. 

4. Mr. W. J. Thompson re work done. 

5. Letter from Experiment Station, Porto Rico re Pine-apples 

and Cassava. 



[Issued 11th February, 1905.] 
Printed at the Govt. Printing Office, Kingston, Jam. 



BULLETIN 



OF THE 



DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



Vol. III. MARCH, 1905. Part 3. 



EDITED BY 



WILLIAM EAWCETT, B.Sc, E.L.S., 

i.IBf^ARY 

Director of Public Gardens and FlantatioTis. WEW YORK 

BOTANTCAi 
QARDBN 



CONTENTS 



PAGE. 
Citronella Grass in Ceylon ... 49 

Halfway-Tree, Jamaica ... 50 

Diseases of Coconuts ... 51 

Experiments with Sugar Cane ... 52 

Relation of Forests to Stream Flow ... SC 

Culture of Ornamental and Flowering Shrubs 

and Climbers ... 65 

Saffron ... ... 6b 

TheCultureoftheCentralAmerican Rubber Tree. VIII 67 
Board of Agriculture ... 70 



P R I C E— Threepence. 



A Copy will be supplied free to any Resident in .laraaica, who will send name and 
address to the Director of Public Gardens and Plantations, Kingston P.O. 



KINGSTON, JAMAICA 
HopR Gardens. 

1906. 



JAMAICA. 



BULLETIN 



OF THK 



DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



Vol. III. MARCH. 1905. Part 3. 



CITRONELLA GRASS IN CEYLON. 

Director, R. Botanic Gardens, Ceylon, to Director, Public Gardens and 

Plantations, Jamaica. 

Peradeniya, /th Dec. 1904. 
Dear Sir, 
I see in your October Bulletin a reprint of Mr. Sawer on 
Lemon and Citronella grasses from the Chemist and Druggist. 
Let me call your attention also to my reply in the same paper of 
1 0th September. He is wrong about the Ceylon grasses, and it is 
difficult to hunt down an error that gets a start in a home paper, 
when one cannot reply in the next issue. 

Yours faithfully, 

JOHN C. Willis. 



Director, R. Botanic Gardens, Ceylon, to Editor, Chemist and Druggist. 

Peradeniya, 15th Aug., 1 904. 

Sir, 

With reference to the interesting article by Mr. C. J. Sawer, 
appearing, on page 179 of your issue of July 30, 1904, permit me 
to make a few observations. 

In the first place, Mr. Sawer quotes the account of this grass in 
Trimen's " Handbook of the Flora of Ceylon," Vol. V., evidently 
under the impression that Dr. Trimen was the author of that vol- 
ume. This is not the case ; the late Dr. Trimen left no notes 
on grasses, and only a very poor collection in the herbarium at 
Peradeniya. Sir Joseph Hooker wrote the last two volumes of the 
" Flora" (see his remarks in the Preface to part IV), and is re- 
sponsible for the statements there made : his account of the grasses 
is very incomplete in detail for the reason above explained. On 
page 180 Dr. Trimen is again used as an authority to dispute the 



50 

statement, which is perfectly correct, that there are two forms culti- 
vated in Ceylon, This authority is, as shown, valueless ; it rests 
only on the fact that our herbarium as sent to Sir J. D. Hooker 
contained only one specimen of citronella grass. I have devoted 
a good deal of attention to the citronella-oil question in recent 
years, and large plots of these grasses are now in cultivation 
on the Peradeniya Experiment Station. Full reports will be 
issued by this Department at a later date. In the mean time, let 
me assure you that there are two cultivated forms in Ceylon, called 
Lena Batii and Maha Pangiri respectively. A good account of 
them is given in Messrs. Schimmel & Co.'s "Semi-Annual Report" 
for October. 1898. Lena Batii is the form cultivated by the native 
growers, and furnishes practically all the exported oil. Maha 
Pangiri is the form cultivated by Messrs, Winter & Son at Bad- 
degama, and gives a much finer oil, but needs more trouble in 
cultivation, having to be frequently replanted. The native prefers 
the Lena Batn because he does not need to replant it. He fre- 
quently abandons the cultivation when the grass is ten years old 
or more. The wild Andropogon Nardus, one of our most common 
grasses, is known to the Sinhalese as Mana, and is distinct from 
the cultivated forms ; it yields a good oil, but the quantity is 
smaller. Lemon grass is also cultivated in Ceylon, and we have 
a considerable quantity Of it upon the Experiment Station at 
Peradeniya. 

I am. Sir, 

Yours faithfully, 

John C. Willis. 



THE HALFWAY-TREE JAMAICA. 

By the late RICHARD HiLL. 

I visited Halfway Tree on Sunday the 25th November, 1866. 
When I first saw the cotton tree at the junction of the four roads 
through the plain of Liguanea from which Halfway Tree receives 
its name, it had nearly lived out its time. It was of that lofty 
straight stemmed variety of Eriodendron which originally growing 
among some clustering trees had overtopped them and had spread 
its horizontal arms out above them at about some fifty or sixty 
feet in elevation from the root. Four or five of these arms yet 
remained with a few scattery stems on which a few straggling 
leaves vegetated, An age of surface rains rushing to the sea 
three miles away, had removed all the soluble earth from the plat- 
form roots, so that they made arched resting places, where the 
marketers coming from the mountains would rest themselves in 
groups for they had reached the ' Halfway Tree'. The straight 
stemmed Eriodendron does not give one an idea of centuries of 
growth as the short wide-buttressed species, — if it be a species, — 
does, with its close-leaved hemispherical top, and a thousand feet 



51 

of circumferent shadow. The imposing majesty in the appearance 
of this tree, the ordinary silk-cotton tree of the open savannahs had 
led Indians and Africans to designate it the God-tree, — an epithet 
they do not use to the unbranched Eriodendron, though it may 
stand in solitary grandeur a hundred and twenty feet high. At 
the time of the conquest of the island two hundred years ago, the 
Halfway Tree was one of these tall solitary cotton trees of the 
Liguanea plain. Two hundred years more remote, the country was 
the home and inheritance of the Indians and the vertical moon 
saw these groups gathered beneath it at their midnight dances. 
The Halfway Tree ceased its associations with past and present 
history thirty years ago. {Victoria Quarterly, Oct., 1890.) 



DISEASES OF COCONUTS. 

The Director has examined from time to time all over the island 
reported cases of diseases of coconuts. In many instances the un- 
healthiness or death of trees was due simply to the unsuitable nature 
of the soil or climate. If the soil is a thick clay, or rocky, or very poor 
in plant food, or very dry, or liable to be saturated with standing 
water, the trees are never healthy, and when the conditions are 
more than usually unfavourable, they may succumb altogether. 
While in this unhealthy condition they are much more liable to 
the attacks of insect and fungous pests, and the immediate cause 
of death may be due to attacks which reach such vital parts 
as the terminal bud or the feeding roots. 

But besides unhealthiness and death due to unfavourable con- 
ditions, there is a disease which attacks the flower parts and young 
nuts, sometimes spreading along the softer tissue, and at length 
reaching the terminal bud, causing the death of the tree. 

Mr. Cradwick has been engaged at intervals during the last two 
years in applying various remedies suggested by me. These ex- 
periments are still in progress, but I may say that I find the 
most effectual remedy is to spray with Bordeaux Mixture at in- 
tervals of 6 to 9 months until there is no trace of disease. A 
spray pump is necessary, and even high trees can be sprayed by 
attaching a long hose to the pump, and sending a boy up with 
the nozzle, or even by tying it to the end of a long bamboo. 

In Grand Cayman and in parts of Jamaica planters have not 
been successful in growing coconuts because the young plants die 
off just at the time of the first flowering. It is now hoped that 
with the use of Bordeaux Mixture, they will be able to grow them. 

BORDEAUX MIXTURE. 
Bordeaux Mixture is best made according to the following for- 
mula : — - 

Copper Sulphate ... 6 lbs. 

Unslacked lime ... 4 lbs. 

Water ... 50 gallons. 

It requires careful mixing, or the ingredients will not combine 
properly. Put 25 gallons of water into a barrel, tie up 6 lbs. of 



52 

copper sulphate in a piece of coarse sacking, and hang this by a 
stick laid across the top of the barrel so as to be just beneath the 
surface of the water until it has slowly dissolved. 

In another barrel slack 4 lbs. of lime very slowly and carefully, 
at first only adding about a quart of water at a time, until a per- 
fectly smooth paste free from grit is obtained, add water to make 
the whole 25 gallons and wait until cool. Now pour both together 
into a cask holding 50 gallons. The milk of lime should be 
thoroughly stirred before pouring, and finally the mixture should 
be well stirred for 4 or 5 minutes with a wooden paddle. If not 
perfect, the mixture is liable to injure the foliage and in order to 
test this, put the blade of a penknife into the mixture and leave it 
for I or 2 minutes. If there is any deposit of copper on the blade 
showing a brownish colour, it is not safe to use it, and more lime 
must be added until the knife is not discoloured. 



EXPERIMENTS WITH SUGAR CANE IN BRITISH 

GUIANA. 

Notes of a paper by Prof. Harrison, read at the Agricultural Conference 
in Trinidad, January, 1 90S, on " Recent progress of agricultural ex- 
periments in British Guiana. 

(a) Older varieties of sugar cane. — The results of 1 5 years experi- 
ments show that taking the yield of Bourbon as lOO, the values of 
the better kinds were : — 

White Transparent ... 100 

Mani ... ... 100 

Po-a-ole ... ... 98.5 

Red Ribbon ... 94.4 

&c. &c. 

None of these varieties on the large scale equal in productive- 
ness the Bourbon, besides they have defects either from the cul- 
tural or the manufacturing point of view or from both. 

Few of these varieties are now to be found in the colony. 
Against 65, 608 acres or Bourbon in 1903-4 there were only 2,8/6 
of White Transparent, and experiments with these varieties have 
now been discontinued. 

(b) Neiver varieties raised from seed. — In British Guiana we have 
raised about \ million of canes, and have selected some 26,000 for 
field experiments. Out of these we have selected a few hundreds 
for continued experiments, and from them the planters have se- 
lected a very few, say 50 varieties, as being possibly of value. 
Out of that 50, about one dozen show promise of being of actual 
value. 

On an area of 35 acres preliminary small scale experiments are 
carried on, selecting the parent varieties first ; then the vigorous 
seedlings ; third culturally ; fourth, analytically ; fifth, repeating 
third and fourth methods with second and third ratoons ; sixth, 
growing on plots of l-20th acre under identical conditions, and 
then selecting about one-fourth of third or fourth ratoons ; seven- 



53 



thly, several varieties of fifth and sixth selections will have been 
selected by planters by large-scale cultivation, and are now 
examined by manurial experiments. 

The following shows the relative values up to third ratoons of 
the best of the varieties submitted to the sixth selection : — 

1900-1904. 
Indicated yields com- 
Saccharose in expressed pare with Bourbon as 

No of variety. juice per acre of canes. lOO. 



147 B. 


5- 


20 tons 


175-7 


145 


5- 


II " 


172 


625 


4 


99 " 


168.2 


115 


4- 


74 " 


160.5 


1,087 


4 


70 " 


157-4 


109 


4- 


66 " 


157-3 


74 


4- 


63 " 


154 


2,468 


4 


II " 


137 


2,190 


4 


10 " 


136.7 


1,640 


4 


05 " 


135-9 


3,157 


4 


05 " 


135-9 


132 


4 


03 " 


134-4 


2,028 


3 


98 " 


133-9 


1,896 


3 


97 " 


132.9 


1,880 


3 


96 " 


131.3 


116 


3 


78 " 


127-5 


130 


3 


72 ■" 


126.8 


135 


3 


72 " 


125.2 


754 


3 


60 " 


123.8 


102 


3 


37 " 


123.2 


117 


3 


19 " 


113- 


White Transparent 


3 


.15 " 


107.3 


1,483 


3 


.06 " 


105.6 


1,905 


3 


.01 " 


104.6 


Bourbon 


3 


.01 " 


100. 


The relative values of those of seventh selection-are : 




D. 625 


248.8 




D. 116 


219. 1 




D. 145 


2154 




D 130 


202. 




D. 109 


195 -I 




D. 115 


189.8 


• 


D. 78 


189 




D. 95 


188.2 




D. 74 


184.5 




D. 3,957 


182.5 




White Transparent 


142.2 




147 B. 


124.4 




Bourbon 


100 




D. 2,190 


I 


00 





54 

Experiments on Sugar Estates. — Small scale experiments on es- 
tates are not considered of any value, but experiments have been 
established under which only results obtained on not less than 
areas of one acre and repeated on not less than 6 estates are re- 
quired. 

Some results of these field trials showing yield and proportions 
of yields compared with those of Bourbon and of white Transpa- 
rent taken as lOO : — 





Tons 


commercial 




W. Transparent^ 


No of variety. 


sugar per acre. 


Bourbon=100. 


100. 


D. 625 




2.58 


137.2 


150. 


D. 95 




2.06 


III. 2 


121 .5 


Sealy 




2.06 


109.6 


120 


D. 145 




1.99 


105.8 


115. 7 


D. 109 




1.98 


105.3 


115. I 


B. 147 




1-93 


102.6 


112. 2 


Bourbon 




1.88 


100 


109.4 


D. 94 




1.75 


93-1 


lOI .7 


W. Transparent 


1.72 


91.5 


100 



Out of a total area of 78,468 acres under cane in 1903-1904, 
about 12,000 acres are under new seedling varieties. Of these the 
favourites are D. 1 09, B. 147, D. 145, D. 625, and B. 208. 

In the selection of seedling varieties, more attention should be 
given to the size of the cane, number of shoots to the stool, and 
its ratooning power, rather than to its higher saccharine content. 

The advantage of the seedlings most appreciated is that several 
yield remunerative crops where Bourbon will not now thrive. 

Manurial Experiments. — Lime, 5 tons to acre, increases fertility 
of heavy clay-land in British Guiana. The excess yield upon 
limed plots in 9 crops amounted to 33 tons of canes on un-manured 
plots, and 35 tons on manured land. 

Phosphates have as a rule exerted some effect when applied to 
plant canes, applying slag-phosphate at the rate of 900lb. per 
acre. Potash is not required. 

Nitrogen — Results obtained over ten crops in 13 years indicate 
that every 10 lbs. of nitrogen in the form of sulphate of ammonia 
when added in proportions up to 300 lbs. per acre, give approxi- 
mately 1 . 3 tons of canes, or say 2\ cwts. of commercial (96 ^) 
sugar. It is an easy matter to estimate knowing the prices of 
sulphate of ammonia and of sugar respectively, if manurings on 
land in good heart with sulphate of ammonia are likely or not to 
prove profitable. Similarly with nitrate of soda up to 250 lbs. 
each 10 lbs. of nitrogen gives 1.4 tons of canes, or 2\ cwts. of 
sugar. 

Experiments prove that all new varieties require manuring with 
nitrogen to give satisfactory results. 

The nitrogen which accumulates in the upper layers of the soil 



55 

during long periods of forest growth or of fallowing, while the 
land is covered by dense growth of sedges, grasses and leguminous 
plants, suffers great and rapid losses when the soil is put under 
intensive sugar cane cultivation, and it is to the loss of the accu- 
milated stores of readily available nitrogen that the marked falling 
off in the yield of canes per acre which is almost invariably 
noticed when successive crops are taken off from either new or 
from long rested soils is due. This loss is greatly diminished 
where very heavy dressings of farm-yard or pen manure are re- 
gularly used and upon very heavy clay soils the loss may be re- 
duced to a minimum and an actual gain ensue. The loss is greater 
on soils manured with nitrate of soda, than when sulphate of am- 
monia is used ; and is greater on limed, than on not-limed soils. 

Whilst there was a loss of phosphoric acid, it appeared that 
cultural operations have made probably available more potash, 
and more lime, each year than is required for the growth of the 
sugar cane. 

The following are the general deductions arrived at during 
these experiments : — 

(1) Nitrogen in the form of sulphate of ammonia, of nitrate of 
soda, or raw guano, and of dried blood exerted a favourable 
influence upon the yield of the sugar-cane, and is themanurial con- 
stituent which mainly governs the yield of the plant. 

(2) Dressings of from 2 to 3 cwt. of sulphate of ammonia per 
acre appear to be the most certainly profitable applications of 
nitrogen. 

(3) The application of superphosphate of lime to plant-canes 
may give increased yields when added to manurings of nitrogen 
and potash, but ratoons should be manured with nitrogen only. 

(4) Slag phosphate is preferable to superphosphate of lime, but 
the use of basic superphosphate is promising. 

(5) The effect of lime, chiefly mechanical, in improving the 
texture of the soil, may be obtained perhaps at a lower cost by 
using light ploughs or other cultivators. 

(6) The addition of phosphoric acid, of potash, or of lime, does 
not affect the sugar contents of the juice of canes. The effects of 
nitrogen retards ripening, and thus the juice is not so rich in sac- 
charose as is that of canes grown without manure. But this is 
more than offset by the larger yield of produce. 

(7) Mineral phosphates to give increased yields must be applied 
to the soil in such heavy dressings as to render their use un- 
profitable. 

(8) The addition of potash exerts little or no effect. 

The normal weathering of the constituents of the soil while 
under good tillage sets free for each crop potash in excess of the 
quantity necessary for the requirements for the plants. This 
holds good under the conditions existent in British Guiana where 



56 

the greater proportion of the potash taken up by the plants is 
directly returned to the soil, but where practically the whole of 
the produce is removed from the land it is probable that partial 
potash-exhaustion may take place in the course of a succession 
of crops of sugar cane. 

Several of the new varieties appear to be able to utilise the 
nitrogen in the deeper layers of the soil to better advantage than 
the Bourbon cane does, and this is a matter of great importance 
with regard to the economical production of sugar from the sugar 
cane. 



THE RELATION OF FORESTS TO STREAM 

FLOW. 

By James W. Toumey.* 

Collaborator, Bureau of Forestry, U.S.A. 

Introduction. 
For the purpose of the present discussion " forest" must be un- 
derstood to mean a growth of trees sufficiently dense to form a 
fairly unbroken canopy of tops, not a scattered growth of low, 
round-headed trees with bushes and herbage constituting the domi- 
nant types of vegetation. 

Forests of this kind do not occur in the United States where the 
mean annual precipitation falls below i8 to 20 inches, except on 
restricted areas where unusual conditions prevail. The line of 
separation between the great eastern forest area and the plains 
approximately coincides with a north and south line marking a 
mean annual rainfall of 20 inches. The streams which rise in the 
Rocky Mountains and flow eastward are bordered by forests for 
long distances into the plains, where the annual rainfall is much 
less than 20 inches. These forests, however, are not so much a 
result of the rainfall in the regions where they occur as of surface 
and seepage flow from adjacent regions. The mesquito forests of 
the desert regions of southern Arizona, where the mean annual 
rainfall is but 8 to 12 inches, are made possibly by the seepage 
and surface waters from the adjacent mountains. 

The question of the exact relation which exists between forests 
and stream flow has long been under discussion. The broad fact 
that a relation exists is indeed indisputable. Forest destruction 
always produces a change in the character of the run-off. But the 
scientific determination of all the causes which produce this effect, 
and of their relative importance is a difficult and complicated 
matter. In spite of the fact that for many years European forest 
experiment stations have been carrying on observations, mea- 

* From " Yearbook of the U. States Department of Agriculture, 1903." 



57 

surements, and experiments designed to clear up this subject, final 
conclusions covering the whole field have not yet been established. 
In this country almost nothing has ever been done to secure ac- 
curate data for the investigation of this problem as a whole. 
Some light, however, has been thrown on the subject by means of 
a series of observations which have been going on for several 
years in the San Bernardino mountains in southern California. It is 
the purpose of the present article to make clear what are the vari- 
ous factors entering into the problem, and to state some of the 
more important facts that these observations in southern California 
reveal. 

In the San Bernardino mountains records of precipitation for 
several years, at a large number of stations, show that differences 
in forest cover are closely correlated with differences in rainfall. 
This correlation is so close that it is possible to judge the mean 
annual precipitation with a fair degree of accuracy from the 
appearance of the forest alone. In these mountains forests cover 
the slopes wherever the mean annual rainfall exceeds 20 to 24 
inches ; however, on southern and western slopes forests of equal 
density represent a larger rainfall than on nothern and eastern 
slopes. 

Other things being equal, regions having the greatest rainfall 
bear forests of the greatest density and luxuriancy of growth ; but 
where the mean annual rainfall falls below 18 to 20 inches, types 
of vegetation in which trees predominate are replaced by those 
in which shrubs and herbage predominate. 

WHAT CAUSES RAINFALL. 

Because rainfall is most abundant where forests grow, many 
believe that forests exert an important influence on the amount of 
precipitation. A more reasonable inference, however, is that 
rainfall is the great factor in controlling the distribution and density of 
forests. 

Precipitation occurs whenever the air is suddenly cooled below 
the dew-point. The most effective cause of this is the expansion 
of air in ascending. This upward movement is caused very largely 
by cyclonic storms. 

Whether forests have any appreciable effect in cooling the air 
to below the dew-point is uncertain. From the known effect of 
forests on the temperature and relative humidity of the air, it is 
reasonable to infer that they may have some such effect, at least 
to a small degree, and consequently that they have some influence 
in increasing precipitation. The present evidence, however, 
derived from many series of observations conducted in Europe 
and elsewhere, is so conflicting that a definite answer to this 
question, having the stamp of scientific accuracy, is not possible. 

WHAT BECOMES OF THE RAINFALL. 
That the excessive destruction of forests is followed by the 



58 

drying up of streams and springs and by a diminution in the mi- 
nimum flow of rivers is a well established fact. The forest is the 
most effective agent known in regulating the disposition of the 
precipitation after it reaches the ground. 

Rainfall escapes from the ground upon which it falls in five 
ways — through evaporation, transpiration, surface run-ofl", seepage 
run-off and deep seepage. By evaporation is meant the moisture 
which passes into the atmosphere in the form of vapour from 
water and soil surfaces and from objects resting upon such sur- 
faces, including vegetation. Transpiration is that portion of the 
rainfall which sinks into the soil, and which is later taken up by 
the vegetation through the roots and given off to the atmosphere 
through the stems and foliage. To this latter should be added, 
although not actually a part of it, the comparatively small amount 
of moisture taken up by the vegetation, but which through chemi- 
cal change becomes a part of the organic vegetable structure. By 
surface or superficial run-off is meant that portion of the precipi- 
tation which, from the time of falling until its exit from the drain- 
age basin, passes over the surface without gaining access to the 
soil. On the other hand, by seepage run-off is meant that portion 
of the rainfall which sinks into the earth, but which later reappears 
on the surface at lower elevations, and with the surface run-off 
escapes from the drainage basin in the streams. By deep see- 
page is meant that portion of the precipitation which sinks into 
the soil, but to such depths that it does not reappear later on the 
surface of the drainage basin. 

Evaporation and transpiration are frequently classed together 
as evaporation. In the irrigated parts of the West they are to- 
gether known as " fly-off ". So, also, the rainfall which does not 
escape through evaporation and transpiration or through deep 
seepage is often classed as run-off or stream flow. 

DO FORESTS INFLUENCE EVAPORATION ? 

In order that the moisture which falls to the earth in the form 
of rain and snow should be most efficient in sustaining vegetation 
and in feeding streams, as little as possible should escape in the 
form of evaporation. Under the best of conditions a very large 
part of the annual rainfall is returned to the atmosphere through 
evaporation. For humid regions, bearing the same types of vege- 
tation, the amount does not vary much from year to year, no 
matter what the fluctuations in rainfall are — a fact first made 
known by Messrs. Lawes, Gilbert and Barrington in the classical 
Rothamsted investigations. These gentlemen explain this per- 
sistency in the rate of evaporation by the fact that heat and 
abundant rain seldom occur at the same time. Consequently, in 
a wet season, the lower temperature and more or less saturated 
atmosphere prevent excessive exaporation ; while in a dry season, 
although the temperature is higher and the air drier, there is less 
water to evaporate, and the two extreme conditions balance each 



59 

other so far as the amount of evaporation is considered. This is 
not true, however, in arid and sub-arid regions, because during 
years of minimum rainfall the upper layers of the soil are often 
so dry for months at a time that there is very little moisture to 
evaporate, while on the other hand during years of maximum 
precipitation the atmosphere is not sufficiently saturated to check 
rapid evaporation. 

There is little or no difference between evaporation from a 
water surface and from any other surface that is thoroughly wet, 
when both are exposed to the same atmospheric conditions. The 
evaporation from a water surface is, however, always the same 
under the same conditions, but it is not the same from other sur- 
faces, because they vary from completely wet to completely dry. 

In the forest the crowns of the trees remain wet but a short time 
after precipitation. During this period, however, the evaporation 
is undoubtedly very rapid, on account of the large surface and 
from the fact that the crowns are exposed to the wind and sun. 
But in a long series of investigations made at the Forest Experi- 
ment Station at Nancy, France, and recently published, it was 
found that a deciduous forest near that station held back from 
the ground less than 8 per cent, of the total precipitation. Al- 
though this is almost immediately returned to the atmosphere in 
the form of evaporation, it is a comparatively small amount of 
the annual rainfall. On the other hand, evaporation from the soil 
in the open and in the forest continues often for long periods 
after the precipitation ceases. After the crowns become dry, 
evaporation is much retarded in the forest, because the forest floor 
is protected from the wind and sun. To such an extent is this 
true that the loss of moisture through evaporation is much less 
than that lost from an equally saturated soil or from a water sur- 
face in the open. Repeated European observations, extending 
over long periods of time and shorter observations made in this 
country, conclusively show that evaporation from water or other 
wet surfaces on the floor of the forest is but one-third or one- 
fourth that from similar surfaces in the open. From the inves- 
tigations of the moisture content of isoils in the San Bernardino 
Mountains, the results of which are as yet unpublished, it appears 
that the first foot in depth of the mineral soil in the forest may 
contain two or three times as much moisture as soil of the same 
general character from similar situations in the open. 

During the summer it is impossible to determine by actual mea- 
surement the loss of water from the soil either in the forest or in 
the open, because conditions as to the moisture content constantly 
vary. During the winter, however, the evaporation from a snow 
surface can be measured with a fair degree of accuracy. Measure- 
ments made in the San Bernardino Mountains show that evapora- 
tion from snow surfaces may be four or five times as great as 
from water surfaces under similar exposure, and also that the rate 



60 

of snow evaporation is profoundly influenced by the wind. In our 
western mountains, where the snows are exposed to dry winds, the 
loss through evaporation is a large percentage of the total snowfall. 
In the San Bernardino Mountains, snowfalls a foot in depth are 
sometimes evaporated in two or three days without even moisten- 
ing the soil. In so far as forests check the winter winds and pro- 
vide shade, they lessen winter evaporation. This lessening of the 
evaporation from snow surfaces, through the action of forests, is 
seen in the fact that snows linger much later in spring in well- 
wooded regions than in open areas. 

It appears, then, that forests materially retard evaporation, both 
of soil moisture and of snow fall. 

DO FORESTS INFLUENCE TRANSPIRATION 1 

When land is covered with vegetation a certain amount of 
the rainfall is taken up by the growing plants. A small part, 
through chemical change, becomes incorporated into the plant, 
but the larger part is returned to the atmosphere through transpi- 
ration. Although those who have investigated this subject are by 
no means in accord, there is reason to believe that considerable 
difference exists in the amount of water taken up by the different 
types of vegetation in the process of growth. On the whole, the 
forest probably takes up less water from the soil than the average 
agricultural crop. Risler, from a lengthy series of investigations, 
reached the conclusion that forests actually take up less than one- 
half as much water from the soil as the average agricultural crop. 

The above would lead one to infer that where the soil, if not 
covered with forest growth, is clothed with grass or some other 
low form of vegetation, the return of moisture to the atmosphere, 
through evaporation and transpiration, or, in other words, the " fly- 
ofl"," is less from the forest than from the open. But in regions 
having a short wet season followed by a long dry one the return 
of moisture to the atmosphere is probably greater from a forested 
area, because in the open for a large part of the year there is very 
little to evaporate, and the scanty .growth of grass and other low 
forms of vegetation gives little opportunity for loss through trans- 
piration. 

THE INFLUENCE OF FORESTS IN REGULATING THE RUN-OFF. 

Stream flow consists of both surface run-off and seepage run- 
off". Although these two cannot be separately determined, total 
run-off admits of accurate measurement. Surface run off may be 
considered as flood water, while seepage run-off is that portion of 
the drainage which gives the streams a sustained flow. It is evi- 
dent that any factor which decreases the surface or superficial run- 
off and increases the seepage run-off is of the utmost importance 
in regulating the flow of streams. 



6l 

The proportion of flood water to seepage is influenced by the 
rapidity of the rainfall. It is well known from direct observation 
that a slowly falling, prolonged rain, even on the naked soil of 
steep slopes, is all taken up by the soil. On the other hand, a 
heavy shower of short duration, falling on the same slope, may 
largely escape as run-off. In the first instance each drop has 
time to be absorbed by the soil, while in the latter the accumu- 
lation of drops is more rapid than the absorption, and the excess 
moves over the surface to lower elevations. The forest canopy 
very perceptibly extends the period of time during which the rain 
reaches the soil, and in this way lessens surface run-off. 

Again, forests, by checking the velocity of wind and covering 
the mineral soil with a thick layer of dead leaves and other forest 
litter, effectively prevent soil transportation by both wind and 
water. On high elevations, where streams generally have their 
birth, the influence of the forest in this respect is of the utmost 
importance. So great is this influence that it exerts a marked ef- 
fect upon topography. In mountainous regions particularly, the 
repeated destruction of forests permits the soil formed by the de- 
composition of the rocks at the sources of streams to be trans- 
ported to lower elevations, with a consequent slow change in 
the details of the landscape. Such regions, if unforested, are apt 
to have precipitous slopes and scanty soil on the higher elevations. 
In that case there is no adequate medium to absorb the rain, and 
it flows over the surface. On the Qther hand, if such regions are 
well wooded, the slopes are less precipitous, and a considerable 
depth of soil usually covers the broad summits. As a result, the 
rain water is absorbed and the surface flow is reduced to a mini- 
mum. 

Not only is it essential to have an adequate medium present to 
absorb the rain, but it must be of such a character as to absorb 
quickly. The rapidity with which rain is absorbed is very largely 
governed by the physical properties of the soil, the organic litter 
upon it, and the vegetation. Decayed organic matter, by itself 
or in combination with mineral soil, absorbs moisture much more 
rapidly than soil containing little or no organic matter ; hence, 
the greater the amount of leaf mould and other litter, the more ra- 
pidly will the rain be absorbed. Rapidity of absorption is also in- 
fluenced by the degree of looseness of the mineral soil. In the 
forest the mulch of leaves and litter keeps the mineral soil loose 
and in the best condition for rapid absorption. 

Not all the rain that is not absorbed by the soil where it falls 
reaches the streams by flowing over the surface. Much of it is 
taken up in passing from the place of falling to the stream. 
The amount taken up depends upon the obstructions in its path- 
way. Where there are no obstacles, as on barren ground, the 
moving water, by eroding channels, forms small rivulets, and 
these larger and larger ones, which flow with constantly increasing 



62 

velocity. As a result, the water passes rapidly over the surface, 
and but little gets into the soil. When the soil is covered with 
obstructions, such as are offered by a forest with its accumulation 
of litter and vegetable growth, the rain which is not immediately 
absorbed is checked in its flow over the surface. The water, 
being held back, is finally taken up by the soil and thus prevented 
from forming small rivulets through erosive action. 

The forest, in extending the time during which the rain 
reaches the soil, in its effect upon local topography, and in sup- 
plying a larger and better absorbing medium, must necessarily 
have a profound influence in increasing the seepage run-off, and 
in proportionately decreasing the surface flow. 

COMPARISON OF RUN-OFF FROM FORESTED AND NONFORESTED 

AREAS. 

There are so many complex conditions influencing the flow of 
streams that it is extremely diflicult to determine the efl"ect of 
forests on run-ofl" by the comparison of the discharge of streams 
on forested and nonforested catchment areas. It is believed by 
many that stream flow is so largely influenced by the amount 
intensity, and character of the precipitation, the configuration and 
area of the catchment basin, the character of the absorbing medi- 
um and the underlying rocks, and the general climate, as well as 
the forest itself, that we shall probably never be able to measure 
quantitatively the influence of forests on the flow of streams by 
the comparison of forested and nonforested regions. Catchment 
areas differ so greatly in the features mentioned above that 
our most conservative and able investigators have been forced 
to the conclusion that " in respect to run-off, each stream is a law 
unto itself." Although the above is probably in the main true, 
yet, by the careful selection of small catchment basins for compari- 
son, it appears that the influence of the forest in diminishing the 
surface run-off can be determined with a fair degree of accuracy. 
When the catchment areas compared are in the same region, are 
influenced by the same or nearly the same climate and precipita- 
tion and by the same storms, have approximately the same con- 
figuration and area, and have a similar mineral soil and under- 
lying rocks, the effect of these various factors on the run-off can 
be ignored, and the differences in the behaviour of the stream flow 
on the forested and nonforested areas can be assigned to the in- 
fluence of the forest. 

In a careful study of the behaviour of the stream flow on several 
small catchment areas in the San Bernardino Mountains, it has 
been found that the effect of the forest in decreasing surface flow 
on small catchment basins is enormous, as shown in the following 
tables, where three well-timbered areas are compared with a non- 
timbered one : 



63 



Ptecipitation and run-off during 


December, i8gg 


Area of catch- 
ment basin. 


Condition as to 
cover. 


Precipita- 
tion. 


Run-oflF 

per square 

miles. 


Run-oflfin percen- 
tage of precipi- 
tation. 


Sq. miles. 

70 

1.05 

1.47 

.53 


Forested 

do, 

do. 
Nonforested 


Inches. 
19+ 
19+ 
19+ 
13 


Acre- feet. 

36- 

73+ 

70- 

312+ 


Percent. 

3 

6 

6 

40 



At the beginning of the rainy season, in early December, the 
soil on all four of these basins was very dry as a result of the long 
dry season. The accumulation of litter, duff, humus, and soil on 
the forest-covered catchment areas absorbed 95 per cent, of the un- 
usually large precipitation. On the nonforested area only 60 per 
cent, of the precipitation was absorbed, although the rainfall was 
much less. 

Rainfall a7id run-off during January, February, and March, 1900. 



Area of catch- 
ment basin. 


Condition as to 
cover. 


Precipita- 
tion. 


Run-oflf 
per square 
mile. 


Run-off in p ere en 
tage of precipi- 
tation. 


Sq. miles. 

0.70 

1.05 

1.47 

.53 


Forested 

do. 

do. 
Nonforested 


Inches. 
24 
24 
24 
16 


Acre-feet. 
452 

428 
557 
828 


Percent. 
35 
33 
4:1 
95 



The most striking feature of this table as compared with the 
previous one is the uniformly large run-off as compared with the 
rainfall. This clearly shows the enormous amount of water taken 
up by a dry soil, either forested or nonforested, as compared with 
one already nearly filled to saturation. During the three months 
here noted, on the forested basins about three-eights of the rain- 
fall appeared in the run off, while on the nonforested area nine- 
teen-twentieths appeared in the run off. 

Rapidity of decrease in run-off after the close of the rainy season. 



Area of 

catchment 

basin. 



Sq. miles, 

0.70 

1 05 

1.47 

..53 



Condition as 
to cover. 



Forested 

do. 

d... 
Nonforested 



Precipiia- 

tioii. 



April 
run -off per 
&q. mile. 



Inches. 
1.6 
1.6 
1.6 
1 



Aci e — feet. 
153- 
146- 
166 
56 



Mny 

run-off per 

sq. mile. 



Acre — feet. 
66- 
70 

74 
2- 



June 

run-off 

.=q. mile. 



Acre — feet, 
25- 
30- 
30 




64 

The above table clearly shows the importance of forests in sus- 
taining the flow of mountain streams. The three forested catch- 
ment areas, which, during December, experienced a run-off of but 
5 per cent, of the heavy precipitation for that month, and which 
during January, February, and March of the following year had a 
run-off of approximately 37 per cent, of the total precipitation, 
experienced a well sustained stream flow three months after the 
close of the rainy season. The nonforested catchment area, 
which during December, experienced a run-off of 40 per cent, of 
the rainfall, and which during the three following months had a 
run-off of 95 per cent, of the precipitation, experienced a run-off 
in April (per square mile) of less than one-third of that from the 
forested catchment areas, and in June the flow from the nonfor- 
ested area had ceased altogether. 



DO FORESTS INCREASE THE RUN-OFF } 

Owing to the very complex nature of the investigation involved 
in determining the effect of forests on the amount of run-off, the 
available evidence does not admit a definite answer that will be 
of general application. It is reasonably certain from present evi- 
dence that in some regions the effect of the forest is materially 
to increase the run-off. It appears equally certain, however, that 
in other regions, and on certain classes of catchment areas, the 
effect of the forest is to materially decrease the stream flow 

Mr. Rafter, in his recent publication, " Relation of rainfall to 
run-off," makes this statement: "With similar rainfalls, two 
streams, one in a region having dense primeval forests, the other 
in a region wholly or partially deforested, will show different 
run-off. The one with the dense forest will show a larger run-off 
than the stream in the deforested area." This author concludes, 
from the careful study of a large number of catchment areas in 
the State of New York, that the effect of the forest on at least a 
portion of the area studied is to increase the run-off to an amount 
equal to from 5 to 6 inches in depth over the entire catchment 
area. 

In humid regions, where the precipitation is fairly evenly dis- 
tributed over the year, and where the catchment area is suffi- 
ciently large to permit the greater part of the seepage to enter 
the stream above the point where it is guaged, the evidence accu- 
mulated to date indicates that stream flow is materially increased 
by the presence of forests. 

In regions characterized by a short wet season and a long dry 
one, as in southern California and many other portions of the 
West, present evidence indicates, at least on small mountainous 
catchment areas, that the forest very materially decreases the 
total amount of run-off. 



65 

Annual rainfall and nin-oi on forested and nonforested catclunent areas 
in the San Bernardino Mountains, California. 



Area of 

catchment 

Basin. 


ConiHtion as to covv-r. 


Precipita- 
tion. 


Run -off per 
sq. mile. 


Run-off in per- 
centage of pre- 
cipitation. 


Sq. miles. 

0.70 

1.05 

1.47 

..53 


Forested 

do. 

do. 
Nonforested 


Inches. 
46 
46 
46 
33 


Acre — feet. 

731 

7.J6 

•.)04 

1,19.' 


T'er cent. 
28 
30 
36 
69 



On small nonforested catchment areas in the West, and possi- 
bly on large ones as well, a very large part of the heavy precipi- 
tation of the rainy season flows over the surface, quickly reaches 
the stream, and is discharged from the catchment area as flood 
water, much as water escapes from the roof of a building. On 
such areas the actual loss through evaporation during the dry 
season is probably far less than from a well-wooded area, because 
the surface soil and streams are dry, and there is very little mois- 
ture left to evaporate. On such denuded areas it appears that the 
run-off for the few months that the streams flow is considerably 
larger than that for the entire year from similar forested areas. 
Although a nonforested area may, in certain instances, produce a 
larger run-off than a forested one, this probably never occurs ex- 
cept when the run-off from the nqnforested area is largely flood 
water, and of destructive rather than constructive significance. 

CONCLUSION. 

In conclusion, it may be said that although the forest may have, 
on the whole, but little appreciable effect in increasing the rain- 
fall and the annual run-off, its economic importance in regulating 
the flow of streams is beyond computation. The great indirect 
value of the forest is the effect which it has in preventing wind 
and water erosion, thus allowing the soil on hills and mountains 
to remain where it is formed, and in other ways providing an ade- 
quate absorbing medium at the sources of the water courses of the 
country. It is the amount of water that passes into the soil, not 
the amount of rainfall, that makes a region garden or desert. 



CULTURE OF ORNAMENTAL AND FLOWERING 

SHRUBS AND CLIMBERS. 

By William J. Thompson, F.R.H.S. Travelling Instructor, and 
Superintendent, Kingston Public Garden. 

It should be remembered that when plants of this class are put 
out, it is usually intended that they are to remain in the same posi- 



66 

tion for a long time. This being so, care should be taken to see 
that the land they are to be planted in is deeply cultivated — that 
is to say, holes should be dug to a depth of about two feet, and 
from three to four feet across : the same soil should be put back 
in each hole with a half barrel of rotten manure, or succulent weeds 
may be mixed with the soil, and in planting, the base of the plant 
should be placed so that when the soil has settled down, it will be 
at least three inches below the surface of the surrounding ground. 
By paying attention to this simple rule, the shrubs or climbers 
planted will not need half the water and attention if the base of 
the plant is placed on a level with the surrounding ground, or a 
little above it. 

The shrubs or climbers having been planted, it is of great im- 
portance that each plant is given about four gallons of water, to 
settle the soil about their roots and to start them growing. This 
copious watering at the time of planting is of the greatest im- 
portance. 

Beyond watering and keeping clean, the plants will not need 
any special attention until they are beginning to outgrow the space 
allotted to them. 

When it becomes necessary to prune the plants, it should be done 
just as they have finished flowering and before they begin to start 
into growth again. 

If the plants are attacked by scale insects it will be an indica- 
tion that they are getting in poor condition, and the most efl"ec- 
tive and least expensive way of improving their condition will be 
to prune them back to within about eighteen inches of the ground, 
and have the soil about the roots cultivated to about fifteen inches 
deep, and from a foot to three feet wide. In doing this be care- 
ful not to disturb the soil within a radius of twelve inches of the 
stem of each plant. All roots met with in carrying out this cul- 
tivation may be cut away without any harm being done to the 
plants. When the cultivation has been carried out, that is the 
same soil and a little manure put back into the trench, a few gal- 
lons of water should be given each plant. 

To some people the above may seem an expensive way of cul- 
tivating ; but I can assure them, that it gives the best results in the 
long run. 



SAFFRON. 

Crocus sativus is a light-purple autumnal-flowering species. It 
yields the saffron of the shops, which consists of the deep, orange- 
coloured stigmas of the flowers gathered with part of the style 
and carefully dried. A grain of good commercial saffron is said 
to contain the stigmas and styles of nine flowers, and consequently 
4,320 flowers are required to yield one ounce of saffron. 



67 

The flowers appear in the late autumn. Though termed peren- 
nial, it must be remembered that each corm, which may be re- 
garded as a joint of a short vertical rhizome, has but a duration 
of two years. 

The mode of collection and preparation of saffron *varies some- 
what in different countries, although in all it consists essentially 
in removing the stigmas with the upper part of the style from the 
other parts of the flower, and afterwards drying the parts thus de- 
tached. In France, the flowers are gathered at the end of Septem- 
ber or the beginning of October, after which the stigmas with the 
end of the style, are quickly removed ; and these parts are then 
immediately dried on sieves over a gentle fire, the drying process 
only taking half an hour. In the Abruzzi, the gathering takes place 
in the early morning, at the latter part of October and during the 
whole of November. The CDllectors are chiefly women, who are 
furnished for the purpose with wicker baskets, which they place 
on their arms, and as they pass along the furrows left as pathways 
between the ridges of saffron plants, they pluck the whole flowers 
and place them in their baskets, in which they carry them home : 
the stigmas being removed afterwards at leisure, and then dried. 

Saffron was formerly in great repute as a stimulant, antispasmo- 
dic, and emmenagogue ; but at present it is scarcely ever employed 
for such purposes. Its chief use in medicine is as a colouring 
and flavouring agent. As a condiment it is, however, still much in 
use in various parts of the Continent, as in Austria, Germany, 
and Switzerland ; and to some extent even in parts of Great 
Britain. In India saffron is extensively employed by the natives 
in their religious ceremonies, as also in medicine, and as a condi- 
mentary substance. Saffron is also used by bird fanciers, as 
h2y b3lia/3 it assists the moulting of birds. 



THE CULTURE OF THE CENTRAL AMERICAN 

RUBBER TREE, Vlll.f 

{Continued from Bulletin for February.) 

By O. F. Cook, Botanist in charge of Investigations in Tropical 

Agriculture, U. S. Department of Agriculture. 

CASTILLO A AS A SHADE TREE. 

The substitution of Castilloa or other rubber-producing species 
for the unproductive shade trees commonly grown with coffee, 
cacao, and other tropical crops has been persistently advocated 
ever since the subject of rubber culture began to receive popular 
attention. The advantage of such a plan appears so obvious and 

*See Bentley and Trinien's Medicinal Plants. 

t Extract from the U. S. Department of Agricu Iture. Bull. No. 49, Bureau of 
Plaat Industry. 



68 

certain that many experienced tropical agriculturists have been 
betrayed into direct and even emphatic statements for which the 
facts have unfortunately failed to provide a warrant. Indeed, it 
might be said that this phase of rubber culture affords the best il- 
lustration of the lack of definite knowledge which hinders practi- 
cal progress. 

In the first place, the shading of coffee and cacao is a subject 
upon which there is much popular misconception and difference 
of opinion, the planters of some regions shading heavily and those 
of others not at all, and explaining their methods by the most 
contradictory reasons.* It seems, hovvever, that there is not the 
slightest reason to believe that either coffee or cacao is injured 
by standing in the sunlight, or is in any way advantaged by 
having its leaves shaded, though in countries subject to a long dry 
season the shading of the ground and the retention of atmospheric 
humidity may be beneficial cultural measures. That Castilloa is in 
no way adapted for serving these purposes is apparent as soon as 
it is known that wherever there is a distinct dry season the leaves 
fall off at exactly the time when they are most needed. It is true 
that they would still be of some service in covering the earth, but 
on the other hand, the loss of the accustomed shade renders the 
atmosphere much drier and may be a distinct injury to the coffee. 

Not only does Castilloa thus lack the first qualification of a 
shade tree, but its cultural requirements and those of coffee are 
entirely at variance. Castilloa seems likely to produce rubber in 
paying quantities only at low elevations, while the profitable cul- 
tivation of coffee is seldom considered possible at an altitude of 
less than 1,000 feet. In elevated continuously humid coffee dis- 
tricts the rubber trees will hold their leaves but will produce little 
or no rubber,, while to choose an intermediate situation would be 
more likely to insure two failures than to double the chances of 
success. 

The suggestion of Castilloa for cacao shade is somewhat more 
rational, since both trees are natives of the same regions of low 
elevation. As noted elsewhere, rubber was first planted at Tapa- 
chula as shade for cacao, but the experiment did not appear pro- 
mising from the standpoint of the cacao, and was abandoned. 
Some of the cacao trees still remain, but they have never been 
vigorous and produce very little. Other causes of failure may, of 
course, exist, but it seems certain that the close planting which is 
now favoured would make a rubber plantation a very poor place 
for cacao, and there is every reason to believe that, while cacao 
may not be benefited by shade, it may be seriously injured by 
sudden exposure to the sun, as happens when the leaves of Cas- 
tilloa fall in the dry season. 

A further difficulty in the use of Castilloa as shade is that in 

* These have been discussed iu some lefeail in Bulletin No. 25, Division of 
Botany, U. S. Department of Agriculture, entitled " Shade in Coifee Culture." 
Also see Bulletin of the Department of Agriculture, Jamaica, June and July, 1903. 



69 

order to permit anything to grow under it, wide planting is neces- 
sary, and this usually means a spreading low growth for the rubber 
trees, generally considered undesirable, because it iiakes the ex- 
traction of rubber difficult if it does not actually decrease the 

yield. 

Vanilla culture under Castilloa has also been suggested, and may 
be worthy of consideration, since it is held that a period of dry- 
ness and exposure to the sun is necessary for the proper ripening of 
the pods. To successfully combine two or three cultures is, however, 
a difficult matter, even when all are well known, but the supposed 
practicability of such combinations has rested on ignorance of 
important details. 

Several years ago the culture of Castilloa received a considera- 
ble impetus from the recommendation of Dr. Daniel Morris, now 
Imperial Commissioner of Agriculture for the British West Indies, 
that Castilloa be used as shade for coffee and cacao in British 
Honduras, and an estimated return was made of $5 per tree in 
eight or ten years, or $125 per acre, to be repeated at intervals of 

five years. 

According to Dr. Carl Sapper, a German scientist very familiar 
with Central America, this advice has been followed with disas- 
trous results. He says : 

In fact, the developments thus far in the field of Castilloa culture show on the 
average very little in the way of favourable results. Particularly does it seem to 
have failed completely when it has been combined with other tree cultures in or- 
der to lessen the exponses of opening rubber ptantatious. Thus, on the advice of 
the well-known Eni^lish botanist, D. Morrris (then in Jamaica), rubber trees 
were planted for shade in the coflfee plantation San Felipe, near El Cayo, in Bri- 
tish Honduras, and the result was that these sh ide trees ruined the coffee, but did 
not on the other hand themselves develop normally, because they were planted too 
close. In other places, as in Tabasco, in the De;jartment of Pichucaleo, in Chia- 
pas, and in Uhama (Department of Alta Verapaz, Guatemala) rubber trees were used 
for shade on cacao plantations, but the cacao planters tell me that ule trees im- 
pair the growth of the cacao an.l do further damage through the falling of the 
leaves, so that they would much prefer to be rid of these shade trees if that were 
practicible. In other instances, where the ule wai planted by itself, too close an 
arrangement was chosen, so that the trees were impeded in development, and are 
still after 12 years of existence mere tall, slender, unproductive poles, as at Los 
Amates, Department Izabal, Guatemala, with only four yards of space." * 

It seems, however that Dr. Morris has a favourable report regard- 
ing Castilloa as a shade tree for cacao, both in British Honduras 
and in the West Indies, and his former advice was repeated before 
the Agricultural Conference of the West Indies in 1901. He said : 

In 1883 I published an account of the Castilloa rubber tree of British Honduras 
and the manner of extracting and curin- the rubber. At that time I recommended 
that the e trees might be used as shade trees for cac u-. A trial was made sixteen 
years ago on a cacao plantation on the Settee River, and I learn from a letter from 
the Superintendent of the botanic garden at Helize, dated November 8 last, that 
the rubber trees have answered admirably for this purpose. He writes: "At 
Kendal on the Settee River the cac 10 plantations are thriving well. * * * Caa- 



* Der Tropenpflanzer. 



70 

tilloa was plan ted for shade ; these are also in good condition; * * * * there 
is not a better tree for that purpose." I am glad to find that similar results are 
reported irom Trinidad and Tobago.* 

The report from Tobago, to which Dr. Morris refers, is particu- 
larly enthusiastic, and seems to indicate that under the conditions 
existing on that island the planting of Castilloa with cacao may 
not be inadvisable : 

I find that cacao bears very well under the shade of Castilloa. Nine years ago 
I planted an acre of rubber and cacao together — the rubbers at 24 feet apart and 
the cacao 12 feet — and so far as I have noticed there is very little, if any difference, 
in the bearing of these cacao trees and those under the shade of the Bois immor- 
tel. On finding this, I planted last year 15 acres in the same manner, and there 
is every reason to expect that in another eight or nine years they will give a gross 
return of about 50 pounds per acre. Coffee also bears well under Castilloa.j^ 

The difference between Castilloa and leguminous shade trees 
may become apparent in later years as the nitrogenous consti- 
tuents of the soil become exhausted. As explained elsewhere, the 
question is not whether Castilloa can be used as a shade tree, but 
whether it will be productive where it is of use in this capacity. 



BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

The usual monthly meeting of the Board of Agriculture was 
held at Headquarter House on Tuesday, lOth January, 1 905. 
Present : the Hon. the Colonial Secretary, presiding, Mr. Wm. 
Harris, Acting Director of Public Gardens ; the Island Chemist ; 
His Grace the Archbishop, the Hon. T. Capper, Messrs. C. A. 
T. Fursdon, C. E. deMercado and the Secretary, John Barclay. 

Trade Marks — With regard to the Colonial Secretary's letter re 
the amendment of the section 25 of Law 3 1 of 1903, concerning 
Trade Marks, after discussion it was resolved to reply to the Co- 
lonial Secretary that the Board feared that the proposed amend- 
ment would serve little useful purpose, because it could be so 
easily evaded, as trade marks could be taken out in other names, 
and used by an exporter. 

The Secretary was also instructed to say that the members of a 
former committee, which had considered the whole matter of the 
orange industry had been asked for their opinions, and six were 
in favour of the proposed amendment and four against it. 

Sugar Industry Fund— The Secretary submitted a letter from the 
Acting Treasurer, showing statement of the Board's account with 
the Treasury in the matter of the Sugar Industry Fund up to 30th 
September, 1904, and showing as receipt in addition to the 
£1,000 Imperial Grant interest on loans to sugar planters amount- 
ing to £400 13s., making a total of £10,400 13., and payments 

* West Indian Bulletin, 2 : 113, 1901. 
t West Indian Bulletin, 2 : HI, 1901. 



71 

amounting to £830 5s. 6d., leaving a balance of £9,570 /s- 6d. 
A receipt was asked for from the Board as a final discharge to 
the amount shown as payment, and the Chairman was asked to 
give the necessary receipt, after the statement had been checked 
by the Chemist. 

S/ioivs — A letter from Mr. Cradwick to the Director of Public 
Gardens was submitted, stating that as the Montpelier Show had 
been put forward to the 23rd March, instead of the 24th May, he 
asked to be allowed to postpone his visit to Portland until April, 
instead of March, so that he might act as secretary to the Show. 

This was agreed to. 

Water Buffalo — The Secretary submitted a letter from Mr. S. 
Henderson, Woodford Lodge, Trinidad, giving the details asked 
for regarding water buffalo cattle, saying that he would have 
much pleasure in taking the representatives from Jamaica at the 
Agricultural Conference in Trinidad to see his cattle. 

The Secretary was instructed to publish the information con- 
tained in this letter and what might be received from Mr. Fawcett 
and Mr. Williams. 

Ramie — A letter was submitted from the Hon. H. Cork, addres- 
sed to the chairman, stating that he was informed that there was 
now a market for ramie fibre in Holland, which merely required 
that the material be sent in a dried state, and asking that infor- 
mation be obtained on the subject. 

Blood from Slaughter House — The letter also asked that the mat- 
ter of utilizing the blood at the Slaughter House and the city 
refuse as manure be considered. 

The Chemist stated that the city refuse was only worth 12/6 per 
ton as a manure. 

Chemist's Reports — The Chemist submitted his reports as follows : 

1. Sugar Industry Funds — Financial details of the locked still 
experiment, showing an increase on the £300 estimated of £49 
l6s. lid., and asking that the Board pass revised estimates of 
£355 to allow of a margin for contingencies. 

This was agreed to, Mr. deMercado dissenting asking that 
his protest against the whole scheme be again noted, seeing that 
the Board had not authorized the scheme before it was com- 
menced, and that it was subsequently approved only by a majority 
consisting of official members. 

2. Financial details of new building at Laboratory, showing 
that the Public Works Department had expended £959 13s, a 
saving of £40 upon the £l,000 authorized. Statement of account 
with reference to the fittings and equipment of the Laboratory, 
showing an estimated liability of £808 I2s. lOd. on the authorised 
expenditure of £l,000 leaving an estimated balance of £191 7s. 2d., 
and asking for authority to spend £154 as per further details sub- 
mitted, which would leave a balance of £37. The Board agreed to 



72 

the expenditure, with the express understanding that these esti- 
mates should not be exceeded. 

3. Standardization of Jamaica Rum ^This was directed to be 
circulated. 

4. Proposed legal standard for milk — giving details of the 
analyses of the milk of 92 Jamaica cows, and suggesting the adop- 
tion of the following standard for Jamaica: total solids, 12 per 
cent. ; solids, not fat, 8| percent. ; fat, 3^ per cent. This was di- 
rected to be circulated for the remarks of the Board. 

5. Application for admission as agricultural students by H. L. 
Forbes, Kingston, S. M. Daley, Stony Hill, L. A. Cooke, Kingston, 
and P. L. Irving, Deeside. It was agreed to admit the first three, 
and admission of the fourth (Irving) was left to the Chairman, 
when the Chemist submitted satisfactory particulars as to his 
means. 

6. Progress Report, Sugar Department — This was directed to 
be circulated. 

7. Details Diploma Examination — These were directed to be 
circulated. 

The Acting Director of Public Gardens submitted reports as 
follows : — 

1. Mr. Palache on School Gardens in Manchester. 

2. Re cocoa trees dying in St. Mary — The Secretary was in- 
structed to write cocoa planters in Highgate and Troja and get all 
the details he could, and ask Mr. Cradwick to make enquiry into 
the matter when he went to St. Mary in February. 

3. Work of Hope Experiment Station^These three reports 
were directed to be circulated. 

4. Letter from the Board of Trade, Commercial Department, 
London, with reference to the report by Mr. F. V. Chalmers, and 
asking for samples of tobacco to be sent them. 

The Acting Director of Public Gardens was instructed to send 
the samples asked for. 

The Acting Director of Public Gardens reported that he had 
now two crops of tobacco in store, amounting to over a ton, and 
asked for instructions as to what price he should accept for it. 
On the motion of the Archbishop, the Department was authorized 
to dispose of the tobacco as best they could. 



[Issued 18th March, 1905.] 
Printed at the Govt. Printing Office, Kingston, Jam. 



BULLETIN 



OF THR 



DEPARTMENT OF AGKIGULTUIIE. 



Vol. III. 



APRIL, 1905. 



Part 4 



EDITED BY NEW > 

eOTAN 
WILLIAM FAWCETT, B.Sc, E.L.S., ^"^^^ 

Director of Pithlic Gardens and Plantations. 



CONTENTS: 



Roses 

Canker of Cocoa 
Vanilla Industry 
Notes on Fern Culture 
Manitoba Rubber Forests 
Diseases of Tomatoes 

Opium Poppy 

The Culture of the Central American Rubber Tree. IX 84 

Board of Agriculture ... •■ 86 



PRIG E— Threepence. 



Page. 

65 
69 
70 

71 
72 

76 

78 



A Copy will be supplied free to any Resident in Jamaica, who will send name and 
addr6s.s to the Director of Public Gardens and Plantations, Kingston P.O. 



KINGSTON, JAMAICA 
HoPK Qardbnb. 

1905. 



jammga. 



BULTjBTIN 



OF THK 



DEPARTMENT OF AliRICULTURE. 



Vol. III. APRIL, 1905. Part 4. 



ROSES. 

By Walter Jekyll. 

We live in a favoured land. Take up any English or American 
book on practical gardening, and it will be found that a great 
part of it is devoted to precautions against frost. Here we are 
spared both the thing and the precautions. Except for special 
purposes, such as showing, it may be said that no cultural direc- 
tions for growing roses are necessary. Possibly, however, a few 
hints and reflections, together with a judicious modicum of warn- 
ing may be found useful. 

Let us suppose, then, that we have a few rose-plants, whether 
from our own cuttings or the gift of kind friends, or a consign- 
ment from a nurseryman. We will assume that sufficiently large 
holes have been dug at adequate distances — above all, not too 
close, which is the usual mistake — and that these have been filled 
again with soil (probably the same soil), and that this soil is suffi- 
ciently free, i.e. not sticky, so that it will clog the tender rootlets 
and prevent their growth. If it is so, there is no particular need 
to add any enrichment ; indeed, an artificially-enriched soil will 
be a hindrance at first, and fresh manure positively injurious and 
probably fatal. Handle your young plant tenderly, as you would 
any baby thing, and if you have no experience, call in a coffee or 
orange planter to show how the rootlets should be gently spread 
out and the covering earth laid lightly over them. Do not press 
the soil down at all ; a good watering will settle it sufficiently. 
Then shade with any handy small stuff, taking care that the plant 
is left airy. If it is winter, put the shading on the east, south and 
west sides, leaving the north side open ; if spring, be extra care- 
ful about the head shading, if summer, the south side will be left 



66 

open. How much shade is necessary will depend upon locality ; 
in hot places it must be thicker, in cool places less thick. The 
point is to keep your plant cool and comfortable. The shade had 
better be left on for some weeks, and finally lightened by degrees, 
instead of throwing it all off on one day. Pieces of palm-leaves 
make excellent shade, and few things are better than Umbrella 
Grass (Cyperus). 

If the weather is dry, water must be given every day or two. 
On no account allow the young plants to flower. This requires a 
little self-denial. We are so anxious for quick results, and if the 
rose is one that we do not know, we want to see what it is like. 
Resist temptation and ruthlessly nip off all buds, or you will have 
poor, weak plants. 

If the soil is naturally rich, the plants will go on well for some 
time, but if they look poor, manure may be given, and if large 
flowers are wanted, the roses must have liberal treatment. Indeed, 
when they are established bushes, they may get as much manure 
as can be spared. A mulch, spread thick, is always a benefit 
when they have emerged from babyhood and come to years of 

discretion. 

To those who are choosing roses from catalogues the followmg 
hints may be useful. Never attempt to grow any of the Hybrid 
Perpetuals ; they do not like Jamaica. People often make the 
mistake of wanting to grow what others have not got. They see 
Tea Roses everywhere, and long perhaps for the sight and scent 
of old favourites of their youth at home. But let them put away 
this vain longing. The result of indulging it will be a forest of 
sticks, no leaves, very rarely a flower, and a bush that looks ut- 
terly miserable. 

Of Hybrid Teas some do well, but most require a good deal of 
attention and care. In a country where we cannot have the old 
cabbage rose we are unwilling to be without the next best smell, 
and so we grow La France. It gives good enough flowers, but 
the bush never looks quite healthy. Captain Christy does better, 
and is decidedly worth growing. The much-vaunted and much- 
advertised Griiss an Teplitz does fairly well, but those who have 
a keen sense of colour will much prefer the glorious old Chinas, 
Cramoisi Superieur, and its smaller, even more beautiful and 
sweeter, relation, Gloire des Rosomanes. These are both very 
common in Jamaica and are easily propagated, cuttings seldom 
missing. Madame Alfred Carriere does remarkably well and is 
one of the loveliest of roses in the eyes of those who care more 
for pure beauty than show, and the scent is delicious. Madame 
Ravary is so beautiful that it should be tried at high elevations ; it 
seems to be impatient of heat. Papa Gontier is very fine and strong, 
and the buds are perfect ; but no one with an eye for colour can 
admit it into any part of his garden. It was with great regret 
that I did away with a rose that has such remarkable strength and 
vio-our and healthiness of leaf, but the colour of the fully-expanded 



67 

blossoms is impossible. Of Viscountess Folkestone, so splended 
at home, I have no experience, but I cannot pass over its name 
without mention, and most people know and are fond of Kaiserin 
Augusta Victoria. 

We now come to the Tea and Noisette section. These are the 
roses for Jamaica, and there are only a few that do not thrive. 
The third name in the alphabetical list in the catalogue under my 
eye happens to be one of the failures. This is Aimee Vibert, and 
I much regret it, for it is wonderfully beautiful. Alister Stella 
Gray, on the other hand, is admirable. Not only does it supply 
the place of the Yellow Banksia, which does not thrive, but it has 
the additional merit of being always in flower. Others to be 
greatly recommended are Anna Olivier, Beaute Inconstante, Cathe- 
rine Mermet, Cloth of Gold, Gilbert Nabonnand — one of the very 
best with its loose, shell-like petals, — Hon. Edith Gifford, which 
is perhaps the most flowery of all, Madame Chedane Guinoisseau, 
Madame Falcot, Madame Hoste, Marie Van Houtte (the strongest 
bush-rose in the whole garden), Reve d'Or = America (the strongest 
of the climbers). Sunset, The Bride, White Maman Cochet, and 
William Allen Richardson. 

Billiard-and-Barre is an exquisite rose in this class, but the 
leaves are poor, and the same may be said of the, otherwise fine. 
Climbing Perle des Jardins. Celine Forestier is a very ugly rose 
here as far as its growth is concerned, but it is worth growing in 
out-of-the-way places for the sake, of the beautiful form of the 
flower when three-quarters expanded. Comtesse de Nadaillac, 
much prized in England, is a comparative failure ; the flowers 
burn in the sun, as do those of Souvenir d'un Ami and Etoile de 
Lyon. No rose that is subject to sunburn is worth keeping. De- 
voniensis, always lovely in bud, has an awkward straggly growth. 
I leave the one old plant, but make no new ones. L'Ideal is not 
the success that I hoped, and sometimes the colour is suspect. 
Ma Capucine, in spite of its pretty coppery buds, is hardly worth 
growing : it bleaches too much, and Sunset, which is something 
in the same style, is an improvement upon it. Madame Carnot is 
a thoroughly bad rose here, ill-formed and poor in every way, 
Madame Lambard had, most unexpectedly, to be condemned for 
its bad colour ; occasionally it is beautiful — as beautiful as Cathe- 
rine Mermet, — but nine out ot ten of its flowers have that blue 
tinge which is so disagreeable. Marechal Niel is a complete dis- 
appointment and is done away with. The flowers burn or damp 
off, and it is not worth keeping for the sake of an occasional good 
flower, although all must be sensible of its beauty and enamoured 
of its delicious tea scent. 

Souvenir de J. B. Guillot was an experiment that failed. The 
catalogue describe it as "coppery orange red, base of petals 
metallic yellow.'' As a rule I avoid all reds unless certified good 
by an expert in colour, but here I thought I was safe. Alas for 
fond hopes ! In bud it was all that the catalogue promised, but, 



68 

fully open, it was nearly — not quite, for that is impossible — as 
bad as Papa Gontier. It went on the rubbish-heap. Souvenir 
d'Elise, described as "very large, full, and most perfect globular 
form" is, to my mind, very ugly in form and far too tight. Sun- 
rise, one of the best and most faithful — for it does not bleach — of 
the coppers has a poor constitution and wants nursing, but it is 
worth it. 

Three of the roses in the above list are very much alike, viz. : 
Marie Van Houtte, White Maman Cochet and The Bride. They 
are all splendid, but personally I prefer the last. Marie turns a 
full and rather uninteresting pink at certain times of year, and 
Maman has a sprawly growth, whereas The Bride is sturdy and 
upright. For those who esteem size, Maman is the best. 

It must be understood that I am speaking throughout only of 
what I know. No doubt there are many other roses in this class 
as good as my best, and here it may be well to add that my own 
experience is confined to a locality which has an elevation of 
2,000 feet. 

Among the Bourbons the old Malmaison is always admirable ; 
strong, free and healthy. 

The Dwarf Polyanthas seem to do well. Perle d'Or is most 
beautiful, and Leonie Lamesch, which I have not tried, is said 
(from a safe source) to be a lovely colour. White Pet has a bad 
manner of growth, and, though it flowers profusely, does not seem 
quite healthy. 

In ordering roses from England it is, perhaps, as well to note 
that dwarfs must be asked for in all classes. Of 36 in one con- 
signment, only one died and owing to the weather, they were the 
rather unusual time of three weeks on the journey. I see no dif- 
ference in the health of these English plants, budded on briars, 
and that of my own cuttings on their own roots, and I find the 
English names correct, whereas the American names are not 
always to be depended upon. 

Let no one attempt Briars or Moss roses or Wichurianas ; they 
will be failures. Also avoid Gloire de Dijon and all its deriva- 
tives ; they do not like heat, or perhaps it would be more correct 
to say that they want a winter. Felicite Perpetue is also to be 
avoided : it will not flower. 

Two of the best roses for Jamaica have dropped out of cata- 
logues. They are Henry Bennett, a constant bloomer, and its 
near relation Madame Joseph Schwartz. These are admirable 
roses in a mixed garden. So are Cramoisi and Gloire des Ro- 
somanes, Perle d'Or and W. A. Richardson. Other kinds are, for 
various reasons best by themselves in a garden of their own. If 
the mixed garden is on a slope, Reve d'Or and Cloth of Gold are 
useful as heavy screens from sun where shady places are desired, 
but in a flat garden it is waste to have roses overhead which only 
the birds see. 

The exquisitely-beautiful Cherokee rose (R. l^vigata) must not 



69 

be forgotten. Nothing is lovelier in the hills : nothing more deli- 
ciously sweet. 

No rule as to distance in planting can be given. Captain 
Christys may be put in 3 feet apart ; Marie Van Houttes must 
have 10 or more. All depends upon the manner of growth of 
«ach rose. 

Nothing has been said about pruning, because this is a subject 
which hardly admits of successful treatment in writing. It is so 
entirely a matter of practice and general horticultural intelligence. 
Dead wood should, of course, be cut out, and branches that inter- 
fere with each other. Where roses are much cut for the house, 
this is probably in itself a sufficient pruning, and everybody 
knows that the old flowers should be taken off. 



CANKER OF COCOA. 

The Canker or Coral Spot Disease of Cocoa stems is due to a 
species of Nectria, as explained in the Bulletin of the Botanical De- 
partment, Jamaica, Aug. 1901, pages 121, 122. The following 
notes are taken from a leaflet published by the Board of Agricul- 
ture and Fisheries, London, on a Coral Spot Disease which attacks 
trees in the British Isles. Attention is directed to the ' Preventive 
Measures,' which are applicable also in Jamaica. 

Coral-Spot Disease. 

One of the most common and most generally distributed of 
British fungi is that to which the name of Coral-Spot Disease has 
been given. {Nectria cinnabarina). The first stage of the disease 
takes the form of bright coral-red warts, which are about the size 
of millet seed, and are thickly scattered over the surface of dead 
or dying branches of the tree attacked. These red warts are 
very conspicuous, and at one time this condition of the fungus 
was considered to be an independent plant, and called Tubercu- 
laria vulgaris. At this stage numerous and exceedingly minute 
spores are produced, and readily scattered by the wind or by in- 
sects. 

At a later stage the coral-red changes to a rusty-brown colour. 
The surface becomes rough with projecting points, and a second 
form of fruit is produced. In many instances the fungus passes 
through all its stages on dead branches, and in such a case no 
direct injury will be done, but rather a certain amount of good 
consequent upon the hastened decay of the wood on which the 
fungus is growing. The indirect danger arising from its presence 
on dead wood is the possibility of infection of living plants by 
the spores produced. The earliest indication of disease caused 
by Nectria cinnabarina is the drooping and yellowing of the leaves, 
which soon die and fall to the ground. In a few weeks the bark 
becomes slightly shrivelled, and the characteristic coral-red warts 



70 

appear on the surface. Death of the leaves, and finally of the 
branch, is due to the choking of the wood vessels by the mycelium, 
which cuts off the supply of water and food. 

The fungus is remarkable for the great number of species of 
woody plants upon which it can grow and produce perfect fruit, 
being met with on all fruit and forest trees, excepting conifers, 
and also on various shrubs. Amongst plants specially susceptible 
to the attacks of Nectria may be mentioned sycamore, elm. hazel, 
apple, pear, and red and black currants. 

Preventive Measures. 

1. Whenever diseased branches are observed they should be 
removed and burned without delay, as after infection recovery is 
impossible, and any delay in removal permits the formation of 
spores and probable infection of neighbouring plants. 

2. Fallen branches, stored pea-rods, poles, &c., are often literally 
covered with the bright coral-pink warts of the Nectria, and should 
then at once be destroyed. 

3. When pruning, it is a wise precaution to protect every cut or 
damaged surface with a coat of gas-tar, and also to remove and 
trim the ends of branches broken by the wind or by other agency. 



VANILLA INDUSTRY. 

By J. R. Jackson, A.L.S. 

Some curious facts have recently come to hand regarding the 
vanilla cultivation in Tahiti and Mauritius. The exports from 
Tahiti to the United States have been declining, apparently from 
the inferiority of the product. The small trade that now exists 
seems to be generally in the hands of Chinamen, who encourage 
trade with the natives by accepting options on the vanilla output, 
and ultimately receive the beans in the crudest form and proceed 
to cure them. The name Tahiti, as applied to vanilla, is said to 
be sufficient to condemn the exports from the colony, and the 
American Consul has endeavoured to enlist the interest of the 
officials in a plan for compulsory inspection and grading under 
the control of the Government. The matter, however, has not 
been looked upon favourably by the officials, though it has by 
many planters and merchants. The Consul therefore warns im- 
porters of vanilla from Tahiti carefully to examine any beans that 
they have reason to suspect of being cured by Chinese, as these 
traders are accustomed to pick up beans that have been rejected 
by others as totally unfit for market, soak them in salt water or 
let them remain for a time in coconut oil, and then pack them in 
the bottoms of tins containing better grades. Chinamen will buy 
even mouldy vanilla pods and mix them with sound ones. It is 
stated, however, that there are a few companies of native planters 
who are trying to put a high-grade vanilla on the market. 



71 

With regard to Mauritius, a better tone accompanies the infor- 
mation on the cultivation of the plant in that island, where it is 
stated, a Committee was recently appointed to make recommenda- 
tions for amending the laws relating to vanilla. The following 
notes are gathered from the report of this Committee : That vanilla 
grows luxuriantly in Mauritius and constitutes an important source 
of revenue. There is practically no disease on fully-grown plants, 
and the failures in certain plantations are mostly due to bad cul- 
tivation. There are some 3,000 vanilla planters in the island, but 
the majority of these are small proprietors who have a few plants 
in their gardens or orchards. The exports of prepared vanilla in 
1902 amounted to 7,712 ft., and the cultivation is capable of con- 
siderable extension. In spite of care taken to save the pods, they 
are subject to the depredations of thieves, whom, owing to the 
nature of the product, it is very difficult to detect. With the view, 
therefore, of protecting the planters, it is recommended that strin- 
gent regulations be made for the licensing of all sellers and pur- 
chasers of vanilla, the fixing of a special mark by growers on 
their green pods, and the giving of notice to the authorities before 
vanilla is gathered. It was also recommended that a special in- 
spector be appointed for the purpose of reporting on all vanilla 
plantations, preparing houses, etc. 

In the Seychelles, the vanilla cukivation has for some time been 
very successful, and large quantities have been offered for sale in 
the London market, mostly realizing good prices. At the first 
auction of the year, on January 13, the quantity of vanilla offered 
was so large that the sale was not completed till late on the fol- 
lowing day (the 14th). As many as 2,86o tins were put up for 
sale, the total weight of which was about I5f tons, and constituted 
a record bulk, the chief portion being from the Seychelles. Nearly 
the whole of this quantity was sold during the two days at fairly 
good prices, fine quality realizing from I2s. to 15s. 6d. per ft. 

It is worthy of note, in connection with the foregoing remarks, 
that the fear expressed some years back that the synthetic pro- 
duction of vanillin would ruin the vanilla culture, has not yet been 
fulfilled. The numerous and increasing uses of vanilla for flavour- 
ing purposes in chocolates and other kinds of confectionery are 
accountable to a large extent for the present very large consump- 
tion of vsLmW^L.— Gardener's Chrofticle of December 24, 1904. 



NOTES ON FERN CULTURE. 

Nearly all ferns require a quantity of water and should never 
be dry at the roots at any season, consequently a very impor- 
tant matter is that of efficient drainage. 

Anything like a sour or water-logged soil is detrimental even 
to those ferns which are not easily injured in other respects. 

Success in the cultivation of established plants depends more 



72 

on this, with careful watering, atmospheric moisture and shade, 
than on any soil in which they may be grown. 

The majority of our native ferns will succeed well in a mixture 
of peat and loam which should contain a fair amount of old brick 
and lime rubble broken up to about the size of beans, to ensure 
porosity. Charcoal may also be used for the same purpose. 



DISCOVERY OF MANICOBA RUBBER FORESTS.* 

During the past few months discovery has been made that there 
are in the interior of this state vast forests of trees from which 
can be produced a high grade of rubber known to the trade as 
" manigoba," or " Ceara."t The area is said to be very large, but 
cannot be defined, as the region has not been fully explored. The 
attention called to the first discovery, has led to further explora- 
tion, with the result that from time to time comes notice of other 
sections where like trees occur in profusion. 

The output of manigoba rubber has rapidly increased during the 
last few years and bids fair to be so large an item in the exports 
of this district as to warrant specific report. 

The tree which furnishes the product from which manigoba 
rubber is made is known, in most sections, as " mandioca brava," 
which means "wild mandioc." It is so named because of the 
marked resemblance of the young trees to the mandioc,;J: which 
forms the most common crop of all sections. It in reality belongs 
to the same family, but unlike the other, produces latex and seed. 
During prolonged droughts the people have dug up its roots and 
ground and prepared them as in mandioc, though with greater 
labour and less benefit, because of the smaller amount of nourish- 
ment contained in the finished product, and the work necessary 
to wash out the greater amount of poison. 

It is native to many parts of Brazil, and when planted will grow 
on the interior plains and highlands as well as close to the sea. 
It has been observed to grow from near the equator to the south- 
ern limits of Brazil, except in those sections which, because of 
their altitude, have frosts or rapid and marked changes in tempe- 
rature. It is very susceptible to frost, being either killed or in- 
jured thereby when bananas and other tropical plants would be 
unhurt. In its wild state it has been known for some time in 
Ceara and Piauhy, and from those states has come the greater 
part of the maniyoba rubber of commerce, but it is now believed to 
exist in even greater abundance in Bahia. It is also cultivated in 
many sections, large plantations having been set out during the 
last few years in Sergipe, Bahia, and other states. 

* Report by United States Consul Furniss, Bahia, Brazil, 
t Manihot Glaziovii. X *•«•> Cassava. 



n 

The tree grows rapidly from either seeds or cuttings. In four 
or five years it will reach a height of from 20 to 50 feet, and a 
circumference of from 12 to 50 inches, depending upon the soil 
and climatic conditions. It grows erect and branches some dis- 
tance above the ground. 

I have never seen the tree in flower, but am told that after it is 
4 or 5 years old it produces numerous flowers, which are followed 
by nut-like fruits about the size of a large plum, each one con- 
taining four seeds. When the seeds have reached maturity the 
shells suddenly and forcibly break open, hurling the seeds to 
some distance. The seeds resemble weather-beaten cherry seeds 
in shape and colour, though much larger, thicker and harder. On 
account of their hardness they are not readily attacked by insects, 
resist water, and do not easily germinate. The seeds will average 
about 900 to the kilogram (2.2 pounds). They can be bought 
here for about $l a kilogram, and for much less if taken in quan- 
tities. 

As has been stated, the tree is reproduced either by seeds or by 
cuttings taken from old trees. When the seeds are used it is con- 
sidered best to plant them in beds, 2 or 3 inches apart. The 
proper time to plant is just before the rainy season. On account 
of the slowness with which the seeds germinate, many file two 
edges of the shells carefully until they are just cut through, thus 
permitting rapid entrance of moisture. The seeds are planted 
about an inch below the surface in a place exposed to the sun and 
are watered from time to time if necessary. They come up in 
from three to six weeks. Others soak seeds in water about a 
week and then plant them as described above, when they will 
come up in from two to four months. Year-old seeds are said to 
germinate best, and good seeds can be told by the rapidity with 
which they sink in water. When planted in the ground in the 
ordinary way they sometimes do not come up until the following 
year. 

As soon as the plants are a few inches high, and whil'e the 
rains are yet on, they should be transplanted about lO feet apart. 
•-When reproduction by cuttings is desired, branches are taken 
from old trees and stuck in the ground to the depth of 2 or 3 feet 
during the rainy season, when they soon take root. 

Seedlings are said to be preferable, as they resist drought better. 
They produce latex later than cuttings, yet they are said to 
give more when the proper time comes and do not so readily die 
as a result of the extraction. 

The best soil in which to plant is a question not yet settled. In 
the wild state the tree seems to flourish best on sandy soil mixed 
with clay, the clay aiding in retaining moisture. It also occurs in 
quantities on hard clay soils and on sandy soils which seem unfit 
for any other form of vegetation. I have seen in this State planted 
trees growing luxuriantly in the very sandy soil within sound of 
the sea. In some places in the State of Sergipe the tree grows 



74 

well on the heavy black soils thought to be so essential to sugar 
cane culture. In Ceara, in a region which has periodic droughts 
of great duration, it is said to grow wild forming forests on the 
sides of hills the soil of which is clay containing reddish pebbles 
called 'iron stones.' From what I have seen I am inclined to be- 
lieve that it will prosper, under proper climatic conditions, in any 
soil which will retain moisture, though doubtless the better the 
soil the stronger the trees. 

The plants once up do not seem to demand much attention ; at 
any rate they seldom get it. Some argue, particularly in Ceara, 
that underbrush is beneficial, retaining the moisture and protect- 
ing the trees, while others claim that the soil should be cultivated 
to produce the best results. It is my opinion that cultivation is 
desirable. The best trees I have seen have been in the open and 
had been cultivated. 

Trees will produce milk after the first year or two, but it is 
thought best not to commence extraction before they are 4 or 5 
years old ; otherwise they are less capable of resisting drought 
and perish more easily. The latex seems to flow more freely 
during and immediately after the rainy season, but produces then 
a smaller percentage of rubber and coagulates less rapidly, re- 
quiring from four to six hours, which, because of the future treat- 
ment, is frequently a help rather than a detriment. During the 
dry season the flow of the latex is less. It then comes out drop 
by drop, contains a larger percentage of rubber, and frequently 
coagulates so rapidly as soon to close the orifice from which it is 
flowing. The temperature, likewise, seems to modify the flow, it 
being interrupted during the cold weather and augmented during 
the hot weather. In places constantly hot and humid there seems 
to be no interruption in the production of milk. 

The manner of extracting, collecting, and preparing the latex 
varies in different sectionss. In some places serpentine incisions 
are made around the trunk of the tree, in other places a large 
horizontal chip is taken from the bark and wood, and in still 
other places either a slightly oblique or a V-shaped incision is 
made. The first method enables a larger and quicker collection 
of the milk, but tends to kill the tree. The second method ex- 
poses the tree to the destructive action of ants. The other two 
methods are the best, with a preference for the V-shaped incision 
as therewith a greater number of lactiferous ducts are cut with 
the least injury to the tree. 

If either the V-shaped or the oblique incision is made, it is cus- 
tomary to commence at the height a man can reach and make 
them from 2 to 3 inches in length. Care should be taken not to 
cut through the bark to the wood. Two or three of these inci- 
sions, the number varying with the circumstance of the tree, may 
be made at intervals on a line with each other. On the following 
days like incisions may be made a few inches below the others 
until the tree has been tapped to within a foot or two of the 



75 

ground. The tree should then rest for a couple of months, when 
the operation may be recommenced, new incisions being made 
parallel to the old ones. 

The amount of rubber which may be extracted from each tree 
has been variously stated ; but, depending as it does upon the age 
of the tree and the different conditions which affect its nourish- 
ment, it cannot help varying greatly. It was estimated that under 
good conditions, with the tapping done carefully at the best time, 
the average yield of a wild tree would be somewhat over 3 Troy 
ounces, while experiments made in Sergipe show that planted trees, 
partially cared for, and properly tapped, will yield a considerably 
greater quantity. 

When it is remembered that about 676 trees can be planted to 
an acre, the product per acre, taking the average given, would be 
676 kilos (1,490 pounds), which, at the present price of the best 
quality, (and if proper care is used there should be no other), would 
be worth $1,352. The value of the yield of plantations nearer the 
market, or with better transportation facilities, would be ev en 
greater. If the trees are planted on good ground other light crops 
can be grown between them, increasing the revenue. 

The roots give the greatest quantity of milk, but it is not 
thought desirable to extract it there because the position is not so 
well adapted to its proper collection, the ascent and descent of the 
sap is interfered with more markedly, and the roots being exposed 
to the sun the closing of the cut ends of the lactiferous ducts by 
coagulation is more rapid. 

The best rubber which has come to this market has been pre- 
pared by an American, who has acquired considerable property in 
the heart of the newly discovered region. His rubber has been 
prepared by keeping the milk liquid until he was able to fill up 
pans, then letting it coagulate, immediately thereafter submitting 
it to pressure between boards and subsequently washing and dry- 
ing it on several days in succession. As a result he produces 
slabs one-fourth by 10 by 20 inches, of a beautiful amber colour, 
with agreeable odour and wonderful elasticity. His rubber has 
brought the best price offered in the market, and has been classed 
in New York and Liverpool as equal to first-quality Para rubber. 
He informs me that he is making active preparation to go into 
the business on a more extensive scale by cleaning up the lands 
where the Manitoba trees occur wild and planting in places where 
it does not now exist. 

From my investigation I am convinced that the culture of 
Manitoba could be most advantgeously introduced into the South 
of the United States, and particularly into Porto Rico and the 
Phillipines. 

Besides the large areas in which Manitoba trees occur wild in the 
State of Bahia, there are vast areas suited to their culture. The 
larger portion of the wild trees are on State lands, which can be 
acquired either outright by purchase or by lease granting privilege 



76 

of rubber extraction, requiring a certain number of new trees to be 
planted each year and making provision for official inspection, &c. 
Recently about all of the productive State lands so far dis- 
covered, have been leased, but this does not prevent some one 
other than the lessee from purchasing the land at any time, thus 
summarily terminating the lease. For this reason I would advise 
only purchase of land outright, especially since the land can be 
bought at a very reasonable figure. 



DISEASES OF TOMATOES. 

Bacterial Disease. 

The following is the report of the Mycologist of the Imperial 
Department of Agriculture for the West Indies on a bacterial dis- 
ease of tomatoes, published in the Agricultural News : — 

Microscopic examination of the diseased tissues points to the 
disease being of bacterial origin. Such a disease, caused by Ba- 
cillus solanacearum, has been reported from several localities in the 
United States. 

The first prominent indication of the disease is the sudden wilt- 
ing of the foliage, which may occur first on a single shoot, but 
finally affects the whole plant. 

.^^Subsequently, if the plant is young and not very woody, the 
stem shrivels, changing to a yellowish green and finally to brown 
or black. The vascular bundles become brown before the shrivel- 
ling takes place. The organism attacks the parenchyma of the 
pith and bark, converting nearly the whole interior of soft stems 
into a mass of broken-down cells mixed with bacteria. The host 
plants are tomato, potato, and egg-plant, possibly also other sola- 
naceous plants. Insects are largely responsible for the spread of 
the disease. 

As preventive measures, the destruction of all leaf-eating and 
leaf-puncturing insects is the first thing to be considered. Early 
and complete removal of diseased plants, rotation of crops and 
selection of seed from plants grown where the disease is not pre- 
valent are other suggestions of possible value in preventing the 
spread of the disease. 

Sleepy Disease. 

A leaflet of the Board of Agriculture and Fisheries, London, on 
the " Sleepy Disease" of tomatoes, {Fusarium lycopersici) is re- 
printed below : — 

Description and appearance of Plants attacked. 

The plant may be diseased inside when quite young, but the 
outward manifestations do not necessarily appear at once. 
The first indication that the tomato is affected is shown in the 
drooping of the leaves and their bad colour. If the root is split 



the woody portion is seen to be of a dingy yellowish brown co- 
lour, which becomes more marked if left open for half a day. 
When the plant has been attacked about three weeks the lower 
portion of the stem is usually covered with a delicate white bloom 
of mildew. Eventually the stem is covered with patches of a dull 
orange colour, and becomes very much decayed. The disease can 
always be identified by a brownish ring just within the bark at 
the base of the stem or thicker branches of the root. 

The disease is due to a fungus which flourishes in the soil and 
enters the plant by the root. During its development it passes 
through three stages, the first of which usually lasts about a week, 
the stem at the end of that time being much decayed and covered 
with a gelatinous mass. During the last stage the spores are 
resting and preparing to attack the young plants another year, or 
whenever a suitable opportunity presents itself. The plant can 
only be attacked by the fungus in the last stage of its existence. 

1. It must be remembered in the first place that diseased plants 
never recover, and therefore no attempt to save the plant is suc- 
cessful. 

2. As the disease grows inside the plant, it is useless to spray 
with a fungicide. 

3. As the resting spores of the fungus live and thrive in the 
earth and attack the plant through the root the disease must be 
attacked in that quarter. 

It is therefore recommended that : — 

Treatment. 

1. All diseased plants should be uprooted immediately the dis- 
ease is noticed, and should be burned. 

2. The soil in which the plants grew should be removed and 
sterilised by heat, or mixed with a liberal allowance of quicklime^ 

3. If it is not practicable to remove the soil, it should receive a 
liberal dressing of gas-lime. This should be allowed to lie on the 
surface for ten days, and should afterwards be thoroughly incor- 
porated with the soil. After this the soil should remain for at 
least ten weeks before anything is planted in it. It should be 
soaked with water once a week. 

4. As much lime as the plants will allow should be mixed with 
the soil in which tomatoes are grown, more especially if they are 
grown in the same beds during successive seasons. 

5. The infected soil from a bed should not be thrown out at 
random, but should be sterilised by admixture of quicklime, and 
care should be taken not to bring it in contact with tomato beds. 

6. Only short-jointed sturdy plants should be used, and those 
should be fairly hard and the foliage of a dark bronze appearance. 
All spindly or drawn plants should be rejected. 

7. The plants should be allowed plenty of air, light, and room 
for growth. 



78 

THE OPIUM POPPY. 

By William Harris, F.L.S., Superintendent of Hope Gardens, 

The opium-poppy (Papaver somniferuni) is an erect annual plant, 
slightly branched, 2 or 3 feet high with the stem and leaves of a 
glaucous green colour. The leaves are oblong in outline, pinna- 
sect, and irregularly sinuous at the margin. The flowers are few, 
3 to 7 inches across, composed of 2 sepals of the same colour as 
the leaves, 4 petals which are variable in colour, sometimes pure 
white with a greenish base, or pale violet with a dark purple or 
nearly black spot at the base, and numerous stamens. The fruit 
is a capsule, usually more or less globular, l^ to 3 inches in dia- 
meter, containing numerous, very small reniform seeds which are 
white, grey, violet or black. 

As in the case of most cultivated plants there are many varieties 
and forms. 

The original home of the opium-poppy is probably south-eastern 
Europe and Asia, though at present it is met with throughout 
Europe and Asia, north-western Africa and North America. 

The cultivation of the poppy for opium dates from antiquity 
and was carried on in Asia Minor, Italy and Greece in classical 
times. The spread of its culture through the nations of Asia ap- 
pears to have been primarily due to the Arabs. It may be grown 
for this purpose in any warm country in suitable soil, but the yield 
of opium in temperate regions, though of equal quality, is small ; 
at present the great opium-producing countries are India, China, 
Asia Minor, and Persia, and to a small extent in Egypt : it has 
also been grown in the south of Europe, in France, England, 
Germany, in California, Louisiana, and Virginia, and in Victoria 
and Queensland. The plant is also grown in many parts of Europe 
for the capsules and seeds — " Poppy-heads" and " Maw-seed." 

Soil. — A sandy loam is considered the best for opium, the pro- 
duce having a dark-brown colour. Alluvial land is good, but the 
opium is rather darker, more liquid and less granular. 

Poppies may be grown year after year in the same land if it is 
manured, the dung of goats and sheep being considered the best 
manure for this purpose. Ashes are peculiarly valuable as a 
poppy-land manure, provided the potash has not been allowed to 
be washed out of them through carelessness. Nitrate of potash is 
said to be one of the best mineral manures for poppy and may 
either be applied as a top-dressing at different stages of the crop 
or scattered over the field after sowing the seed ; — green manuring 
is also recommended. 

Sowing the seed. — The land having been ploughed and harrowed 
the seed is sown in India about the middle of November and must 
be concluded in December. The seed is moistened the night be- 
fore sowing, mixed with fine earth, and scattered broadcast at the 
rate of about 9 lbs, of seed per acre, and seed, according to variety, 
costs in France from 5d. to 8d. per lb. 



79 

When the plants are two inches high the land is weeded and 
the seedlings are thinned, the retained plants being about three 
or four inches apart. A fortnight later the field is again weeded 
and the weakest plants are removed, those that are allowed to re- 
main being seven or eight inches from each other. 

In dry districts the plants must be irrigated about once a fort- 
night. 

Flowering, collecting the petals. — The plants take from 75 to 80 
days from germination to reach the flowering stage. The petals 
are gently removed when fully matured, which is on the third day 
after expansion. These petals constitute the " flower leaves" of 
the manufacturers and are employed in the outer casing of the 
opium balls or cakes. 

Collecting the juice. — The following is the Indian method. In the 
course of eight or ten days after gathering the petals, the capsules 
are sufficiently advanced for the extraction of the juice. Super- 
ficial, horizontal or diagonal incisions are made into the capsules 
as they successively advance to maturity, each capsule receiving 
from four to six incisions according to its size, a special in- 
strument called a " nushtar" in India, being used for this purpose. 
This operation is best performed in the afternoons or evenings. 
The milky opium sap thus directed outwards is scraped off next 
morning into a shallow cup and allowed to dry in a place av/ay 
from sunlight. When fresh the juice is pinkish, but below it there 
is a dark fluid like coffee, called " pussewah" in India. The vessel 
in which the collected juice is placed is slightly tilted to allow the 
pussewah to drain off into a covered jar. 

The opium is turned every few days for three weeks or a month 
to ensure a uniform dryness. The drug, as prepared by the Indian 
Government, is tested by subjecting a small weighed quantity to a 
temperature of 200° F., when after everything volatile has been 
driven off, if it leaves a residue of 70 per cent, it is known as 
standard opium. 

The opium is now put in wooden boxes, each holding ten cwts. 
and occasionally stirred up until it reaches the proper consistence. 

It here becomes covered with a thin blackish crust, which 
deepens by the exposure to the air and light. If it is of a low 
consistence it is placed in shallow drawers and constantly turned 
till it reaches the quality of standard opium. The opium is then 
cut into pieces of twenty pounds in weight, thrown into shallow 
wooden drawers and thoroughly kneaded. It is then put in large 
cisterns and receives a further kneading by men who wade through 
it knee-deep. 

Packing. — The petals which were gathered from the expanded 
flowers are damped overnight to make them pliant. Some of 
these " flower leaves" are placed in a brass cup and glued together 
with a mixture called " lewah," composed of inferior opium, 
" pussdwah," and the washings of pots which have contained 



80 

opium. Leaf after leaf is added till the shell is half an inch 
thick ; the opium is then put into it, and the leaves which were 
allowed to hang over the edge of the cup are glued with " lewah" 
over the upper surface until the whole is encased with leaves and 
" lewah." The ball of opium now resembles a 24 pound shot, 
It is then rolled in the dried and powdered leaves and stems of 
the poppy plants, and exposed to the sun for three days. Should 
it become distended it is opened to allow the gas to escape and 
again closed. The balls of opium are then placed on open battens 
where they are exposed to a free current of air, and in two months' 
time they are ready for shipping. 

From 40 to /olbs. of the Smyrna variety of opium may be got 
from an acre, and this was worth 7/3 to 8/2 per lb. in England in 
December, 1 904. At the same time Persian opium was sold at 13/ 
per lb. 

Poppy Heads and Seeds — The poppy heads or capsules from 
which the juice was collef^ted, are cut from the stems when ripe, 
stored, and the seeds are shaken out when dry. The seeds are 
pressed for the oil they contain, and yield from 40 to 50 per cent. 
of a bland pale golden-coloured oil, which may be bleached by 
exposure to the sun. The cold-drawn oil is fit for food, and is 
used to adulterate olive-oil. It is used for mixing paints ; and as 
it saponifies readily, the inferior oil is used for making hard soap, 
and also for burning in lamps. 

The dry cake, after the oil has been expressed, is capital food 
for cattle, and in India a coarse unleavened bread is made from it. 

The opium obtained in Asia Minor, which is the most impor- 
tant variety known in Europe and the United States, is collected 
and prepared as follows : — 

About the end of May, or sometimes even as late as July, ac- 
cording to the elevation of the land where the Papaver somniferiim 
is cultivated, the plants, which are the variety glahrum of Boissier, 
arrive at maturity and the flowers expand. A few days after the 
petals have fallen, and when the capsule is of a light green hue, 
it is ready for incision, which is performed in the afternoon, and 
in the following manner : — A transverse incision is made with a 
knife about the middle of the capsule, the incision being carried 
round until it arrives nearly at the part where it commenced ; or, 
sometimes, it is continued spirally to half-way beyond its starting- 
point ; and in rare cases it is also incised vertically as well. The 
greatest precision is necessary in making the incision, for sho d 
it be too deep, and the interior coating of the capsule be also cut, 
the exuding juice would then flow into the inside and be lost ; and 
if the incision be not deep enough, all the juice would not ooze 
out. It is also stated that in the former case the seeds will not 
ripen, and no oil can then be obtained from them. The following 
morning those engaged in collecting the opium lay a large poppy 
leaf on the palm of the left hand, and having a suitable knife in 



8l 

th^ir right hand, they scrape the opium which has exuded from 
the incision in each capsule during the night, and then transfer it 
from the knife to the leaf. At every alternate scraping the knife 
is wetted with saliva by drawing it through the mouth to prevent 
the half-dried juice adhering to it. Each poppy capsule is, as a 
rule, only cut once, but as each plant produces several capsules 
which do not arrive at maturity at the same time, it is usual to 
pass over the field a second or even a third time, in order to incise 
such capsules as were not ready at the first cutting ; and then the 
opportunity is also taken of recutting such capsules as exceed the 
usual size. As soon as a sufficient quantity of the half-dried 
juice has been collected to form a cake or lump, it is wrapped in 
poppy leaves, and put for a short time to dry in the shade. There 
is no given size for cakes of opium, and they vary very much, 
being from a few ounces to two or more pounds. 

The cuhivators, who are small land proprietors, then sell the 
opium to the merchants in the interior, and by these the opium is 
at once packed in bags together with the chaffy fruits of a species 
of Rumex to prevent the lumps from sticking together, after which 
the bags are sealed and placed in wicker baskets of an oblong 
shape and forwarded chiefly to Smyrna, although some of a supe- 
rior quality is sent direct to Constantinople. But in some cases it 
would appear that the drug, which is purchased in a soft state, is 
incorporated into larger masses by means of a wooden pestle, then 
enveloped simply in poppy leaves, and afterwards packed in bags, 
sealed as before, and forwarded to Smyrna. The opium after 
being sold at Smyrna is transported to the buyer's warehouse, 
when the seals of the bags are broken in the presence of the buyer, 
seller and a public examiner, the latter of whom inspects the drug 
carefully and rejects any of suspicious quality. The examination 
of opium is not carried on after any scientific method, but its qua- 
lity is judged of by its colour, odour, appearance and weight ; 
nevertheless, the estimate is generally correct. 

The seeds have no narcotic properties ; the dark coloured kinds 
are called mawseeds and are used as medicine for birds, and are 
largely eaten by them. The whole seed is prepared as a comfit 
like caraway, and is said to have an agreeable flavour. 

The capsules contain a small quantity of the more important 
principles found in opium. The preparations of poppy capsules 
are similar in their effects to, but are much weaker, and less to be 
depended upon than those of opium. 

Opium is one of the most valuable medicines known. For other 
medicines there are one or more substitutes, but for opium none — 
at least in the large majority of cases in which its peculiar and 
benficial effects are required. To this must be added, however, 
that while its proper use is of such inestimable value, its enormous 
consumption by the habitual opium eater, and in other ways, pro- 
bably causes more misery to the human race than any other drug. 



82 

By far the most important constituent of opium is morphia, and 
hence the quality of opium is judged by the yield per cent, of this 
alkaloid ; it is combined with a peculiar acid called meconic acid. 
Besides these constituents, opium contains a number of other prin- 
ciples, some of which have basic, and others neutral properties. 
In many cases, however, the principles extracted from opium are 
secondary or derivative constituents which are produced in the 
processes employed by the chemist for the separation of its pri- 
mary or natural constituents. 

Opium is largely used in addition to its narcotic properties, 
as an alleviative, soporific, and antispasmodic. It is generally used 
either in a solid form or in tincture under the name of laudanum. 

Varieties of Opium.— The varieties of opium which have been 
distinguished by pharmacologists are Smyrna, Constantinople, 
Egyptian, Persian, European, East Indian, and Chinese. Of these 
varieties, only the first four are ordinarily found in European and 
American commerce ; and of these, again, Maltass has shown that 
there is no real difference between the Smyrna and Constantino- 
ple varieties, both being the produce of the same districts, from 
which they are forwarded to Smyrna or Constantinople for sale, 
and are thence exported, but more particularly from Smyrna, to 
other parts of the world. These two latter varieties, which are 
the produce of Asia Minor, are those alone which are official in the 
British Pharmacopoeia. 

Asia Mifior Opitun. — Under this head are included all opiums 
which are known as Smyrna, Constantinople, Turkey, or Levant. It is 
the produce of Papaver sonmiferum, var. glabrum, the purple variety. 
It occurs in irregularly rounded or flattened masses, which vary 
commonly in size from about eight ounces to two pounds, but 
smaller and larger lumps may be also found. Externally the 
lumps are usually covered with portions of poppy leaves scattered 
over with the reddish-brown chaffy fruits of a species of Rumex. 
In some masses, in consequence of their having been much handled, 
the pericarps are more or less separated from the fruits ; so that 
the seeds are alone found upon the surface ; and in the kind of 
opium formerly distinguished as Constantinople, the Rumex fruits 
are generally entirely absent, the surface being covered with poppy 
leaves only. When first imported, the interior is moist and coarsely 
granular in appearance, and small shreds of the epicarp of the 
poppy capsule are commonly to be observed in its substance ; the 
colour is reddish or chesnut-brown. By keeping, the masses be- 
come harder and blackish-brown, or even quite black if kept for 
many years. The odour is strong, peculiar, narcotic, and unplea- 
sant to most persons, although to others it is by no means disa- 
greeable ; the taste is nauseously bitter. This is, as a rule, the 
best kind of opium, yielding on an average a larger proportion of 
morphia than any of the other kinds ; according to the British 
Pharmacopoeia it should yield from six to eight per cent, at least. 



83 

Opium much richer in morphia may, however, be met with. The 
above proportions are those found in the drug as imported in its 
fresh and soft state. When dried, in which condition it should be 
alone used for pharmaceutical preparations, the authors of Phar- 
macographia say, that "good Smyrna opium ought to afford 12 to 
15 per cent, of morphine, and that if the percentage is less than 
10, adulteration may be suspected." In the Pharmacopoeia of the 
United States it is also stated that opium, when dried at 212° 
until it ceases to lose weight, should yield at least 10 per cent, of 
morphia by the official process. 

Adulterations. — Smyrna opium is frequently adulterated, and 
with various substances, such as sand, pounded poppy capsules, 
gum tragacanth, pulp of figs or apricots, gum arable, molasses, 
starch, sugar, &c. It is also by no means rare to find bits of clay, 
stones, bullets, and other foreign matter in the masses ; and, in 
some instances, opium is found in commerce from which the mor- 
phia has been extracted. The only reliable test of the purity and 
quality of opium is the proportion of morphia it yields. 

Egyptian Opium, — This kind is obtained from the same variety 
of Papaver somniferum as that from which Asia Minor Opium is 
procured , but comparatively little, much less than formerly, is 
now met with in Europe and the United States. As usually seen 
it is in flatfish or plano-convex cakes from 3 to 4 inches in diame- 
ter, and covered externally with portions of poppy leaves ; but no 
Rumex fruits are found. Formerly, the cakes of Egyptian opium 
were always covered with the remains of a leaf with radiate ven- 
ation, which was ascertained to be that of the Oriental Plane 
{Platamis oricntalis). It is usually very hard and dry, although 
sometimes soft and plastic. It is distinguished from Asia Minor 
Opium by its dark liver colour, and by not blackening by keep- 
ing. Its odour is also less strong, and somewhat musty. It is 
frequently adulterated, and, as a rule, very inferior to Smyrna 
opium ; but its quality varies much, for while ordinarily, as im- 
ported, it only yields 3 or 4 per cent, of morphia, in other cases as 
much as 8 per cent, has been found. Some chemists have also 
extracted much narcotine from this variety of opium. 

Persian Opium. This is the Trebizond opium of Pereira. It is 
derived from Papaver somniferum var. album, the white flowered va- 
riety. It is found in various forms, thus, in somewhat flattened 
cylindrical sticks, in short, rounded cones, in flat, circular cakes, 
and in roundish, irregular lumps. The sticks, which are of very 
inferior quality, are about six inches in length, and about half an 
inch in diameter. Each one is enveloped in a smooth, shiny 
paper and tied with cotton. The other forms of Persian opium are 
either covered with broken stalks and leaves, or wrapped in paper. 
Fine Persian opium has a firm consistence, a good opium smell 
and taste, and a light brown, somewhat reddish colour. Some 
Persian opium has a greasy exterior, and when cut globules of oil 



84 

may be seen in its interior. This oily character is caused by its 
being collected with a flat scraper or knife moistened, as well as 
the fingers of the gatherer, with linseed oil. 

East Indian. — In India the cultivation of the opium-poppy is 
mainly co.nfined to three centres which afford " Patna Opium" in 
Behar, "Benares Opium" in the North-West Provinces, and 
" Malwa Opium" in Central India. 

The white variety of Poppy is the kind usually cultivated ex- 
cept in Central India, the " Malwa Opium" being largely the pro- 
duce of the purple variety of Poppy. 

The total area under Poppy cultivation in India is probably over 
1,000,000 acres, and the Government derives a revenue of about 
£8,000,000 from exported opium. 

For much of the information contained in these notes, which 
have been prepared at the request of a correspondent, I am in- 
debted to the " Dictionary of the Economic Products of India" by 
Sir George Watt; "Subtropical Cultivations and Climates" by R. 
C. Haldane, and "Medicinal Plants" by Bentley & Trimen. 



THE CULTURE OF THE CENTRAL AMERICAN 

RUBBER TREE, IX.* 

{Continued from Bulletin for March.) 

By O. F. Cook, Botanist in charge of Investigations in Tropical 
Agriculture, U. S. Department of Agriculture. 

EXTRACTION OF THE LATEX OF CASTILLOA. 

Scarcely second in practical importance to a solution of cultural 
problems is the attainment of satisfactory methods of tapping. 
The object is not merely to avoid the destruction of the trees, but 
to learn how the maximum quantity of rubber may be secured 
with the least injury to future productiveness. The planter needs 
to know how soon young rubber tress should be tapped, how the 
incisions should be made, how close together, how large, and in 
what direction, how often tapping may be repeated, at what sea- 
sons, and much more. 

The first notion of the visitor from the United States is that it 
will be a very simple matter to improve on the rude gashes made 
by the machete of the rubber gatherer, but this has not proved to 
be easy. The rubber milk is not the sap of the tree and cannot 
be drawn out by boring holes in the trunk, as is done with the 
sugar maple. The milk does not pervade the tissues of the tree 
but is contained in delicate tubes running lengthwise in the inner 
layers of the bark, and to secure milk in any quantity it is neces- 

* Extnict from the U, S. Department of Agriculture, Bull. No. 49. Bure«u of 

Plaut IndiiBtry. 



85 

sary to open many of these tubes by wounding the bark. The 
rubber is formed in floating globules inside the tubes and can not 
pass through their walls, so that even a suction apparatus would 
not bring it out unless the tubes were cut. 

Primitive methods of tapping. 

The method by which the natives of Soconusco have been 
accustomed to extract the milk is as follows : — The ulero makes 
with his machete diagonal lines of gashes that open chan- 
nels along which the milk can flow until it is all brought to one 
side of the tree, whence it is led down to a cavity hollowed in the 
ground and lined with the tough leaves of Calathsea. These are 
dexterously lifted up, and the milk is poured out into a calabash 
or other vessel and carried away to be coagulated. The diagonal 
channels are from 2 to 3 feet apart, and those of each successive 
tapping are inserted between the older scars. The diagonal lines 
are carried well around the tree ; to tap it on the other side requires 
much deeper cuts in order to pass the milk across the older 
grooves, down which it would otherwise run and be lost. That 
the trees at La Zacualpa had been able to survive so much of this 
barbarous treatment and were still vigorous and heavily laden 
with fruit seems to indicate great tenacity of life. And yet even 
this rough handling represents an improvement upon the former 
custom of cutting the trees down entirely or hewing steps in them 
for the ulero to climb up. Instead of the forked stick used as a 
ladder at La Zacualpa the large forest trees were ascended for 30 
feet or more by means of ropes, vines, climbing irons, and steps 
cut in the trunk. The following is a description of a method of 
tapping the trees in the forest of Nicaragua : 

When the collectors find au untapped tree in the forest they first make a ladder 
out of the lianas or " vejucos" that hang from every tree. This they do by 
tying short pieces of wood across them with smill lianas, many of which areas 
tough as cord Tht-y then proceed to score the bark with cuts which extend 
nearly around the tree, like the letter V, the point bemy downwa-d. A cut like 
this is made about every 3 feet all the way up the trunk. The milk will all run 
out of the tree in about an hour after it is cit, and it is coll ccel into a large tin 
bottle made flat on one side and furni>hed with straps to fasten onto ;i man's 
back. A decoction is made from a liana (Calonyction speeiosum), and tins, on 
being added to the milk in the proportion of 1 pint to the gallon, coagulates it to 
rubber, which is made into round, flat cakes. A large tree, 5 feet in diameter, 
will yield, when first cut, about 20 gallons of milk, each gallon of which makes 2^ 
pounds of rubber. I was told that the tree recovers from the wounds and may 
be cut again after the laose of a few m >nths ; but several I saw were killed 
through the largf> harlequin beetle (Acrocinus longimaims) lajnng its eggs in the 
cuts, and the grubs that are hatch <1 boring great holes all through the trunk. 
When these grubs are at work you can hear their rasping by standing at the bot- 
tom of the tree, and the wood dust thrown out of their burrow.-* accumulates in 
heaps on the ground below, (a) 

{To be continued.) 



(ri) The Naturalist in Nicaragua, Thomas Bt 11. F.G.S., pp. H8-H4. The liana called hy 
Belt Cilomjcf.ioii s^'^-cioiuin. is generally culled Ipuinoru //diui-ikix. 



86 

BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

The usual monthly meeting of the Board of Agriculture was 
held at Head Quarter House on Tuesday i6th February, 1905, at 
1 1. 1 5 a.m. Present: The Director of Public Gardens, the Island 
Chemist, His Grace the Archbishop, Messrs. C. A. T. Fursdon, J. 
W. Middleton and John Barclay, the Secretary. The Chairman, 
the Hon. Colonial Secretary, wrote that as he had to attend a 
meeting of the Privy Council at the same hour, he could not at- 
tend, and His Grace the Archbishop was voted to the Chair. 

The Archbishop asked leave to present a report of the Commit- 
tee on the Teaching of Agricultural Science in Secondary Schools. 
The report was read and adopted. It was agreed that the Secre- 
tary should send a copy of the report to the Schools Commission, 
with the request that they would consider it. 

Mr. Middleton remarked that there was no provision made to 
ensure the return of these trained men to the Island. It was 
agreed to ask the Schools Commission to consider this point ; and 
the Committee was asked to continue its work. 

The resignations of Hons. J. V. Calder and H. Cork and Mr. 
Joseph Shore as members of the Board were presented. The Se- 
cretary was directed to express the Board's regret, and to write the 
Agricultural Society asking if they would nominate a representa- 
tive in the place of Mr. Cork. 

The Secretary was instructed to suggest to the Governor the 
name of Mr. G. D. Murray to fill Mr. Calder's place as being ac- 
cessible to Kingston and one who would represent the Sugar In- 
dustry. 

The Chemist's reports on Sugar Experiments, and the Analyses 
of Milk, which had been circulated were submitted with the mem- 
bers' criticisms. The Chemist replied to the criticisms, protesting 
against the destruction of the experimental work at Worthy Park 
by Mr. Calder. The Chemist presented a report on the Banana 
Experiments at various centres, during 1904, in which he pointed 
out the difficulties of this work and the failure of planters to record 
the output of bunches from the manurial plots. These matters 
were left in the hands of the Chairman. 

The Secretary submitted a copy of the Fruit Marks Act of Ca- 
nada, together with a letter of explanation from the chief of the 
Fruit Division of the Department of Agriculture there. He was 
instructed to circulate these among the members of the Board for 
their opinions and to publish them, if possible, in the newspapers 
and the Agricultural Journal. 

The Secretary stated that with reference to the reported dying out 
of cocoa trees in St. Mary, he had written cocoa planters in that 
parish, chiefly around Troja and Highgate districts, asking for re- 
ports on their cocoa trees and he had received replies from Messrs. 
John Lockett, Troja ; F. N. Prendergast, Highgate ; H. T. Graham, 



87 

Highgate ; W. Westmoreland, Highgate ; E. Hope Dyer, High- 
gate ; T. M. Gray, Clonmel. With the exception of Mr. Dyer, who 
was the correspondent of the " Daily Telegraph" who had raised 
the scare, and Mr. Lockett who was losing young cocoa trees, the 
general opinion was that some cocoa trees were dying through the 
after effects of the hurricane when the cocoa trees had not got 
proper attention in pruning back, relieving them of their pods and 
in moulding up the roots, but there was no general dying out of trees. 
He had sent copies of the letters to Mr. Cradwick who was en- 
gaged making enquiries in St. Mary and would soon make a re- 
port to the Director of Public Gardens. 

A letter from the Managing Commissioner of Kingston General 
Commissioners with regard to the utilization of blood at the 
Slaughter House was submitted. It was thought that the cost of 
fitting up an apparatus to deal with the blood would cost more than 
the resulting fertiliser would warrant, and the whole matter was 
referred to the Chemist for a report to be made. 

A letter from the Colonial Secretary was submitted notifying 
that the Inspector of Police for Hanover in reporting on that pa- 
rish for the quarter ending 31st December, 1904, had called atten- 
tion to a disease among coco-nut trees there which had destroyed 
a number of them. 

The Secretary reported that Mr. Cradwick and Professor Earle 
had already made an investigation on the coco-nut trees in Hano- 
ver and reports had been made to the Board. A memorandum 
from the Director of Public Gardens on the subject was submitted 
and the Secretary was directed to send this to the Colonial Secre- 
tary, and to ask Mr. Fawcett to direct Mr. Cradwick's attention to 
the particular coco-nut trees referred to. 

A letter was read from the Colonial Secretary with copy of 
letter from the Secretary of State for the Colonies saying that Ar- 
menians in Russian Caucasus, agriculturists and chiefly growers 
of tobacco, were being expelled and asking if any of these would 
be useful as immigrants in Jamaica. The Secretary was instructed 
to reply that more information appeared to be necessary, (i) As 
to whether these Armenians would be of a class that would devote 
themselves to general agricultural labour. (2) Whether they would 
be likely to continue long working on estates, or would desire to 
settle on their own land. (3) If the Government satisfied them- 
selves on these and other points, a small number might be invited 
here to see how they would adapt themselves to our conditions. 
(4) If the Government decided to invite them to come, it should 
be prepared to allot crown lands. 

A letter from the Colonial Secretary with enclosed letter from 
Sir Daniel Morris was submitted, saying that a suggestion had 
been made to hold the next Agricultural Conference in Jamaica 
and the Board was asked for its views. It was resolved to recom- 
mend to the Government that the Agricultural Conference should 
be held here in 1906. 



88 

The Reports of the Chemist were submitted as follows : — 

(a) Report Agricultural Education for Christmas term 1 904. 

(b) Result Agricultural Scholarships Examination. 

(c) Report Sugar Cane Experiment. 

(d) Report Banana Experiments 1904. 

(e) Completion of new Buildings of Laboratory. 

(f) Arrangements of planters for Chemical control of Sugar 

and Rum. 

(g) Letter re Cassava Factory. 

The Secretary was instructed to circulate these reports with the 
exception of (b) which he was directed to send to the Schools 
Commission and to ask their consideration of the points raised. 

Reports from the Director of Public Gardens were submitted as 
follows : — 

1. Mr. Cradwick re Cane Tops sent out. 

2. Tobacco — Correspondence with Mr. Chalmers and Board 

of Trade. 

3. Sale of Tobacco Crop. 

4. Experiment Station. 

5. Travelling Instructors. 

These were directed to be circulated. 



[Issued 8th April, 1905.] 
Printed at the Govt Printing Office, Kingston, Jam. 



BULLETIN 



OF THE 



>iiW YORK 
HOTaNICAL 

(jAKf>F.N. 



DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



Vol. III. 



MAY, 1906. 



Part 5. 



EDITED BY 



WILLIAM PAWCET1\ B.Sc, E.L.S., 

Director of Public Gardens and Plantations. 



r 




CONTENTS: 


Page. 




Notes on Sugar Cane : Agricultural Conference 


89 


Raiffeisen Agricultural Banks 


94 


1 Cotton : Selected Seed 


lOI 


1 Cotton: Diseases 


103 


Cotton: Rotation of Crops 


104 


Board of Agriculture 


no 



PRIG E -Threepence. 



A Copy will be supplied free to any Resident in .Jamaica, who will send name and 
address to the Director of Public Gardens and Plantations, Kingston P.O. 



KINGSTON, JAMAICA : 
HoF£ Gakdbns. 



1906. 



JAMAICA. 



BXJLIjBTIISr 

OF THE 

DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 



Vol. III. 



MAY, 1905. 



Part 5. 



NOTES ON SUGAR CANE FROM THE AGRICUL- 
TURAL CONFERENCE, TRINIDAD.* 

I.— By Prof. J. P. d'Albuquerque. 

The following table gives the average results during 1900-4 of 
some of the best of the earlier varieties cultivated as selected seed- 
lings on small estate plots : — 

1900-1904. 





Yield of Saccharose in 






pounds per acre. 




Variety. 








Purity of 










Juice. 




Plants. 


Ratoons. 


Average. 




Black Soils : 


• 








B. 208 


6,989 


3,626 


5,307 


high 


B. 147 


6,941 


3,500 


5,220 


fair 


White Transparent ... 


6,675 


3,040 


4,857 


high 


Sealy Seedling 


6,447 


. . . 




low 


B. 376 


6,353 






high 


B. 645 


5,767 






fair 


D. 95 


5,157 


4,114 


4,635 


high 


B. 379 


... 


2,067 


... 


high 


Red Soils : ^ 










B. 208 


7,071 


4,762 


5,916 


very high 


B. 376 


6,386 


. . . 


. . . 


fair 


Sealy Seedling 


6,349 


. . . 




low 


D. 95 


5,693 


5,611 


5,652 


high 


White Transparent ... 


5,373 


4,386 


4,879 


high 


B. 147 


5,090 


2,870 


3,980 


fair 


B. 379 


... 


5,557 




very high 



to 
o 

I 

•-0 



*For the complete papers, Bee W. Indian Bulletin, V. 4, 1905. 



90 

In black soils at Barbados for the most part plant canes are 
alone cultivated. The following, therefore, are the relative results, 
during these four years, of some of the best selected seedlings 
grown as plant canes in black soils, taking the White Transparent 
variety at lOO as the standard : — 

White Transparent ... lOO 

B. 147 ... ... 104 

B. 208 ... ... 105 

In red soils the following were the corresponding average 
results for plants and ratoons : — 

White Transparent ... 100 

D. 95 ... ... 116 

B. 208 ... ... 121 

The average results of B. 147 in red soils place that variety 
below the White Transparent. 

It should be pointed out, that the best variety judged by the 
average of all localities is not necessarily the variety that will give 
the best results on a particular estate. The planter should ascertain 
the reports of the varieties that give the best results in his loca- 
lity, and in the first place give them a trial. In this way he will 
adapt the results to the circumstance of his own cultivation. This 
conclusion is well pointed by the results obtained with B. 147, 
which are much better in one or two parishes of Barbados than else- 
where in that island. In these parishes the increased yield is far 
beyond the average quoted above, and has been such as to justify 
one large proprietor in planting it on a large scale on several 
estates. 

ARTIFICIAL CROSS FERTILIZATION. 

This experiment has been successfully carried out last Novem- 
ber by Mr. Lewton-Brain, Mycologist on the staff of the Imperial 
Department of Agriculture, who worked with some of the most 
promising varieties of Barbados seedlings. A very small propor- 
tion of the seed germinated, but sufficient to justify a continuation 
of the experiment n^xt season on a much larger scale. 

ATTEMPTS TO IMPROVE EXISTING VARIETIES BY CHEMICAL 
SELECTION OF THE ' SEED-CANE.' 

During the period 1900-4 a continuous series of experiments has 
been carried on with the object of ascertaining whether it is pos- 
sible, by repeatedly selecting plants from the richest plants of a 
given variety, gradually to increase the average richness of the 
variety. 

It appears that, with a given variety, the richness or poorness of 
the seed-cane does not affect the quality of the juice of the result- 
ing crop. If these results are confirmed by subsequent experi- 
ments, one of two conclusions seems inevitable. Either it is im- 
possible, on account of disturbing influences, to ascertain the 
relative potential richness of individual canes of the same variety, 
or the average richness of a given variety is a constant property of 



91 

the variety, and not capable, under ordinary conditions, of being 
influenced by making use of the ordinary variations, such as are 
found in seed-cane. The latter seems to us the more probable 
conclusion, a conclusion which is in harmony with the results in 
British Guiana of Professor Harrison, who concludes that the 
relative richness of seedlings is qualitatively, if not quantitatively, 
constant. 

MANURIAL EXPERIMENTS. 

The results may be stated in the following general terms : — 

(1) Land that received no farmyard manure showed substantial 
increase in yield as the result of the application of artificial 
manures, containing nitrogen, phosphoric acid, and potash. 

(2) In the case of land that had received large applications of 
farmyard manure, nitrogen as a rule, was the most important in- 
gredient of artificial manures applied either to plant canes or 
ratoons. 

(3) The application of phosphoric acid in the form of super- 
phosphate or of basic slag in a few instances was followed by 
moderate or large increase of the returns, but in the majority of 
cases, it had either a very small effect or no effect. 

(4) Potash in the form of sulphate of potash produced in many 
cases increased returns. 

(5) Sulphate of ammonia appears in many cases to be slightly 
superior to nitrate of soda. 

(6) At Dodds, the early application of dried blood has, in some 
seasons, given better results than other forms of nitrogen„ 

(7) The application of nitrogen, phosphoric acid, or potash ap- 
pears to have no direct effect upon the composition of the cane 
juice. The beneficial effect of such applications apparently de- 
pends upon increase of cane growth. If, however, the nitrogen is 
applied too late, it retards or prevents the ripening of the cane, 
and so may lead to comparatively poor and impure juice. 

(8) The application of slaked lime to the extent of half a ton 
per acre was followed, even in land that was rich in carbonate of 
lime, by substantial increase in the crop : a result apparently due 
to an improvement in the physical condition of heavy clay soils. 

(9) The monetary result of the application of one or other con- 
stituent of artifictal manures is so greatly dependent upon the 
market price of sugar, that it is difficult to make a simple state- 
ment of general utility for Barbados. The profit on manuring is 
the value of the increase of canes less the cost of the manure, and 
less the cost of manufacture. A manuring which, in one year at 
one market price, gives a profit, may in other years, result in loss. 

The following recommendations appear to be those most 
generally applicable : — 

(l) Where early cane manure is to be applied, the farmyard 
manure should be applied to the land at an interval of two or 
three months before the early cane manure. 



92 

(2) In the case of land that has been well manured with farm 
yard manure, apply soon after planting the canes I cwt. of sul- 
phate of potash per acre. 

(3) To the land that has received insufficient farmyard manure, 
or that is known to be deficient in available phosphoric acid, 
apply soon after planting the canes, l| cwt. superphosphate, (con- 
taining 40 per cent, available phosphate) or 2h cwt. of good basic 
slag. 

(4) In June, that is, at the beginning of the period of most active 
growth, apply 2 cwt. of sulphate of ammonia. In July or August, 
if, after heavy rains, the canes turn pale in colour, apply a further 

1 cwt. of sulphate of ammonia. 

(5) To ratoons, soon after the stumps begin to spring, apply I 
cwt. of nitrate of soda, I cwt. of sulphate of potash with or with- 
out ih cwt. of superphosphate according to the land. In June, apply 

2 cwt. of sulphate of ammonia. A further application not later 
than August of I cwt. of sulphate of ammonia should only be 
made, if, after having heavy rains, the pale colour of the canes 
renders it likely that more nitrogen would be beneficial. 

EXPERIMENTS ON TILLAGE. 

A series of duplicate experiments was carried out during the 
season 1901-3 at Hampton plantation with a view of comparing 
the results of ordinary hand tillage, such as is practised in Bar- 
bados, with those of tillage with ordinary ploughs, subsoilers, 
American disc ploughs and cultivators. The results were in 
favour of hand tillage to the extent of about 500 lbs. sugar per 
acre, an amount that, in Barbados, would more than cover the 
extra cost of hand labour. 

II.— By Hon. Dr. F. Watts. 

These experiments may be classed in two periods. In 1891 ex- 
periments were instituted in Antigua to ascertain the manurial re- 
quirements of the sugar-cane and also to discover suitable canes for 
cultivation in that presidency. These were carried on until 1898. 

This period covered the anxious time when cane diseases were 
rampant, and it seemed quite possible that the sugar industry 
would be seriously crippled or ruined. 

It was difficult to draw reliable conclusions from the results of 
the manurial experiments of that period, for the canes on the 
various plots were so badly attacked by disease, principally 'rind 
fungus' {TricJiosphoeria), as to make the results uncertain or con- 
tradictory, still by careful scrutiny we were able to arrive at some 
general conclusions. 

These experiments, however, had a distinct value and served to 
settle some points in the public mind. It was seen that there was 
no relationship between the manures used and the occurrence of 
the cane disease, that manure neither caused it, nor could cure it. 
The canes of the plot being under close observation afforded use- 
ful information concerning the disease in a general way. 



93 

Under these circumstances, the experiments with varieties of 
sugar-cane at once assumed considerable importance, for on our 
experiment plots planters could see for themselves that certain 
varieties of canes were highly resistant, if not quite immune. I 
well remember an excellent demonstration where a plot of Bour- 
bon canes grew side by side with a plot of White Transparent, so 
that the canes on the boundary interlaced : on the Bourbon side 
it was difficult to find a sound cane, while among the White 
Transparent it was equally difficult to find a diseased one. This 
was convincing and the lesson was speedily applied in practice. 

Upon the formation of the Imperial Department of Agriculture 
for the West Indies the experiments were placed upon a broader 
kasis and extended to the neighbouring presidency of St. Kitt's. 

EXPERIMENTS WITH VARIETIES OF SUGAR CANE. 

As the result of our experiments, we recommend for cautious 
introduction into Antigua : B. 208, B. 156, Sealy Seedling B. 306, 
B. 109, and D. 95. 

In St. Kitt's, the following canes appear to be worthy of con- 
sideration : B. 393. B. 208, D. 74, White Transparent, B. 109, and 
B. 306. To these we must add B. 147 which has given excellent 
results over large areas, though it occupies a somewhat low place 
in 'our experiments. Of these D. 74, White Transparent, Mount 
Blanc, and B 306 appear to be fairly resistant to drought, while B. 
268 appears to require a greater rainfall. 

MANURIAL EXPERIMENTS. 

We can only claim that our results are applicable to the condi- 
tions of the Leeward Islands. The peculiar features of other 
countries may tender these conclusions inapplicable. 

The first point of considerable interest which we think is 
demonstrated is that, if the soil is properly prepared and in its 
preparation an adequate quantity of good pen manure, or its equi- 
valent, is used (about 20 tons of pen manure per acre), then arti- 
ficial manures are neither necessary nor remunerative. This is a 
generalization of great importance to planters, particularly as it 
appears reasonable to urge that the use of pen manure, or its equi- 
valent, is necessary in the Leeward Islands in order to maintain 
in the soil a sufficient supply of humus. 

With ratoon cultivation the conditions are very different. 
There we find nitrogenous manures of great importance and 
necessary in order to obtain remunerative results. 

Our experiments over the three seasons 1900-3 afforded data 
whereby we could ascertain whether the nitrogen, phosphate, and 
potash exercised any marked influence upon the saccharine rich- 
ness of the sugar-cane. As the result of the study of the data 
thus furnished, we arrived at the conclusion that the saccharine 
richness of the cane is not affected in any marked degree by the 
manures used, and that when any form of manure, in quantities 



94 

likel y to be used in actual practice, increases the weight of cane 
per acre, it increases, in the same proportion, the weight of suc- 
rose. This leads to the conclusion, important to the planter and 
sugarmaker, that while it is useless to look for increased saccha- 
rine richness as the result of any form of manuring, it is, on the 
other hand, unnecessary to fear injury or falling off in quality 
from the use of such quantities of manures as can be profitably 
employed. 

This study of our figures led to another important conclusion, 
namely, that we should have arrived at the same conclusions 
for the information of planters concerning the effects of artificial 
manures, had we used as our basis of comparison the weight of 
canes instead of the weight of cane sugar in the juice expressed. 
From this it follows that in future we can greatly simplify our 
work by putting aside as unnecessary the laborious analysis of 
hundreds of samples of cane juice and using the weight of cane 
produced as the basis of comparison between our various plots. 

RAIFFEISEN AGRICULTURAL BANKS.* 

By the EDITOR. 

Agricultural Loan Banks on a popular basis are much wanted 
in Jamaica, and probably, also in the rest of the West Indies. 

I propose to lay before you a statement of the principles that, 
I think, should guide us in the formation of such banks. 

At no time was the necessity for people's banks in Jamaica so 
manifest as after the hurricane of August, 1903. The peasant 
proprietors of devastated fields were inclined to be apatheac, 
fatalistic. Owners, generally, large and small, were in want of 
cash to put their properties in order, and ensure crops for the 
following year. The Government came promptly to the rescue, 
sending out agents to rouse and instruct, and distributing broad- 
cast leaflets of agricultural advice. For those who wanted money, 
a system of temporary government loans was organised. This 
step strengthened credit ; large estate owners obtained relief from 
banks in. the ordinary way ; while to those who preferred it, 
government loans were granted. 

I will give some details of this system of government loans, as 
it may be taken as a suggestive example in case government 
banks are ever instituted. 

A lawf was passed, September, 18, 1903, of which the preamble 
ran thus : — * Whereas in view of the damage done by the hur- 
ricane of the nth day of August, 1903, it is desirable to empower 
the Government of Jamaica to make temporary loans to those 
who have sustained damages by the hurricane, and to provide 
simple and efficacious means of making and securing the repay- 
ment of such loans.' 

* Read at the West Indian Agricultural Conference, held at Trinidad, January, 
1905. 
f Jamaica Law No. 47 of 1903, The Hurricane Loans Law, 1903. 



95 

The rights conferred on the Government in respect of these 
loans were : a preferential charge upon the crops, a charge upon 
the land, and a power to sell the borrower's interest in the land 
on default of repayment according to the specified time and 
manner. 

The borrower was to covenant : to use the loan on the cultivation 
of the land ; to repay the loan with 6 per cent, interest and all 
expenses incurred ; to produce, if required, at stated intervals, and 
vouch for its accuracy, an account of expenditure ; to allow in- 
spection of the land by government agents ; to uphold cultivation 
so that the security is not deteriorated ; and if required, to inform 
the agent of sales and contracts for sale of produce, and give an 
order on the purchaser for purchase money to be applied to re- 
payment. 

The Colonial Secretary was appointed Chief Loan Officer ; the 
Auditor General and a clerk in the Colonial Secretary's Office 
were also Loan Officers. 

The conditions under which loans were granted were : — ■ 

(1) That no loans were to be granted where the area in cul- 
tivation was less than 5 acres, unless the applicant was unable to 
work on his own land and had to obtain assistance. 

(2) No more than £3 an acre was to be lent. 

(3) The loans to be advanced in seven monthly instalments. 

(4) The rate of interest, 6 per cent, per annum, calculated 
monthly. 

(5) Loan to be repaid, one-half on May 15, 1905, one-fourth 
on June 15, 1905, and one-fourth on July 15, 1905. 

(6) In case of default, the Loan Officers had the power to 
assign the produce of the borrower's land to nominated buyers. 

The afflicted parishes were divided up into small districts, and 
local committees appointed in each district to advise the Loan 
Officers confidentially of the trustworthiness and ability to repay 
of each applicant for a loan. Help was given by some of the 
Instructors, and Revenue Officers, and a Travelling Agent was 
appointed. No salary was granted to any officer in respect of his 
services, except to the Travelling Agent. The expenses have 
thus been kept low, and it is anticipated that the 6 per cent, 
interest charged will not only repay Government 3 per cent, on 
the money advanced which would have been earned on deposit, 
but also all the incidental expenses. 

There were 2,983 applicants for loans, and after inquiry loans 
were granted to 1,477 persons, amounting altogether to £36,704. 
. The full amount of £3 per acre was not in all cases granted or 
claimed. If a rough calculation be, however, made, and the 
£36,704 be divided by 3, we get 12,235 acres, chiefly bananas, 
amongst 1,477 borrowers — an average of 8J acres per borrower. 

As the time for repayment has not arrived it is impossible to 
to say yet whether all the loans will be repaid without default, 
but the Government does not anticipate any loss. 



96 

The presumed success of the government loans has greatly 
encouraged those who have for long been desirous of attempting 
the establishment of people's banks on the model of that mar- 
vellous and admirable system invented by the genius of Raiffeisen 
in Germany more than fifty years ago. 

In the first place it was most encouraging to find so many 
persons of high standing in the community ready to serve on the 
local committees for the benefit of their neighbours. Our expe- 
rience in the branches of the Agricultural Society had already 
shown this spirit of devotion on the part of some of the landed 
proprietors, ministers of religion, and others, but here, where the 
need was evident and pressing, there was a universal exhibition 
of willingness to co-operate in assisting the Government freely 
and without recompense. By so doing they naturally increased 
the security of the loan, and helped to keep the rate of interest 
low. 

Again, it was noticed with satisfaction that it was considered 
feasible to grant loans to the owners of only 5 acres of land if it 
was all under cultivation. 

I would call attention to special points in the precautions taken 
by the Government : — (l) Loans were only granted to those who 
were recommended by the local committee, who from personal 
knowledge believed that repayment in full could, and would be 
made. (2) The loan was granted for a specific purpose. (3) The 
local committee, or the government agent, by personal supervision, 
took care that the loan was properly applied. (4) Repayments of 
loan were not asked for until such time had elapsed as wa* 
necessary to allow the loan to become productive. (5) The power 
of at once calling in the loan, if repayments were not punctual. 

These precautions are similar to some of the rules laid down 
by Raiffeisen, but they do not go so far — they cannot reach the 
very poor man, nor do they make the repayment so secure as in 
his banks. 

I do not intend to enter into the question of Planters' Banks, 
my subject is People's Banks. For them I do not advocate the 
formation of government loan banks. I think the system of 
Raiffeisen in every way, both from an economic and an educa- 
tional point of view, more suited to our needs. I will therefore 
now indicate the main and essential features of that system as 
portrayed in the writings of Henry W. Wolff,* and, as far as 
possible in his own words. 

* (1) People's Banks : A Becord of Social and Economic S^iccess, 2nd Edition. 
London, P. S. King & Son, 7s. 6d. 

(2) Agricultur.il Banks: Their Object and Their Work. Agricultural Banks 
Association. London. Is. 

(3) Village Banks, or Agricultural Credit Societies for Small Occupiers, Village 
Tradesmen, etc. How to start them — How to work them — What the rich may 
do to help them. With Model Rules and Model Account Sheets added. Londom, 
P. S. King & Son. 6d. 

(4) A People's Bank Man%Ml. P. S. King & Son 6d. 



97 

The foundation of the system is the unlimited'" liability of each 
and all the members of the bank. 

In the Scotch Credit System, which did such wonders for Scot- 
land in the early part of last century, there is the principle in 
germ, but in germ only. The Lords and Commons Committee of 
1826, in reporting on it says : — 

'Any person who applies to the bank for a cash credit is 
called upon to produce two or more competent securities, who are 
jointly bound, and after a full inquiry into the character of the 
applicant, the nature of his business, and the sufficiency of his 
securities, he is allowed to open a credit .... This system 
has a great effect upon the moral habits of the people, because 
those who are securities feel an interest in watching over their 
conduct ; and if they find that they are misconducting themselves, 
they become apprehensive of being brought into risk and loss 
from having become their securities ; and if they find they are so 
misconducting themselves, they withdraw their security,' 

Here are the two main pillars of co-operative credit recognised — 
joint liability and individual checking. The sureties become an 
intermediate body between capital and want, helping the latter 
but also effectually safeguarding the former. 

But this is co-operative banking applied to people who possess 
property and also some commercial education. Raiffeisen's 
object was to dive deeper and so he proceeded upon broader and 
more popular lines. He multiplied the sureties, and quickened 
the vigilance and control by responsibility carried still further. 

The fundamental idea of co-operative credit banking is, that a 
number of persons, all quite poor, or poor and rich combined, join 
together to pledge their credit in common, in order thereby to 
obtain the temporary command of money, which, individually, 
they cannot secure, with a view to disposing of that money among 
themselves, for temporary employment and for profitable pur- 
poses. 

If we can ensure repayment from members and thereby secure — 
absolutely secure — those who virtually pledged all that they possess 
we create a good foundation for credit, and make the scheme 
practicable. This is done by selecting the members, by watching 
the borrower, by watching the loan and reserving power for 
calling it in, and by subordinating everything that is done to the 
one consideration of safety. 

The unlimited liability of all the members of the bank directly 
serves to supply all this. 

Without unlimited liability, you can never make sure that your 
bank will be sufficiently careful in the selection of its members. 
Such selection, limiting the membership to persons absolutely 
trustworthy, is the first condition of success. With only his 5s. 
or £1 share at stake, no person would care to say 'No' to the 



9B 

application for admission of any but an openly disreputable 
neighbour. But make people understand that, in electing the new 
member, they practically make themselves liable for any default 
which he may make, and all considerations of etiquette and mere 
neighbourly courtesy are sure to vanish. This strictness in 
election is one of the causes which makes these banks such won- 
derful moral reformers. When a man knows that before he can 
be admitted to share in the advantages of a cheap lending insti- 
tution, his character will be submitted to the searchlight of his 
neighbours' knowledge, the idle will become industrious, and the 
reckless careful. 

Next, unlimited liability secures good administration. It en- 
sures that the most competent men shall be elected as officers, and 
the unlimited liability which the officers share with the other 
members leads them to be extremely critical in their disposal of 
bank moneys, and very strict in their demand of prompt repay- 
ment, which is one of the essential conditions of success, economic 
and educational. 

Without unlimited liability, furthermore, there could not pos- 
sibly be all that watchfulness and control which keeps everything 
safe. The borrowers must remain honest, thrifty, careful and 
deserving of credit, The employment of the loan is watched and 
its application to its proper purpose — failing which it is called in 
unmercifully — otherwise there can be no success. Prompt pay- 
ments are insisted upon. The whole fabric is built up upon a sys- 
tem of mutual checking, the borrowers being checked by the com- 
mittee, the committee by the council, the council by the mass of 
members — all without offensiveness, all in the interest and for the 
protection of the very people checked. All that zealous, lively, 
warm, and loving interest in their local association, which is such 
a feature among members of Raiffeisen banks, is plainly trace- 
able to the principle of unlimited liability, which makes everyone 
feel that he and his fellows have become ' members one of 
another.' Under this system an association becomes what every 
genuine co-operative association should be- — an honest and indus- 
trious family, with a community of aims, of interests, and of 
sympathies. 

Another very important element of success is the smallness of 
the district assigned to every bank. In any but a small district 
there cannot possibly be that knowledge and vigilance and 
checking of one another which constitutes a sine qua nojt of success. 

The organization of the association is entirely on democratic 
lines. No diiference of any sort is recognised between poor and 
rich, except that the rich, bearing the brunt of the liability, are 
by accepted understanding allowed also to take the leading part 
in the administration. The Committee consists of five, and is 
charged with all the executive work. The Council of Supervision 
consists, according to the size of the district, of from six to nine 



99 

members, and is entrusted with checking and supervising the 

Committee, overhauling all that it has done at least once a month. 
And on both Committee and Council it is understood that the 
richer members should be in a majority. 

Neither members of the Committee nor members of the Council 
of Supervision are allowed to draw a farthing of remuneration, be 
it in the shape of salary or of commission. Every chink and 
crevice is deliberately closed against the intrusion of a spirit of 
cupidity or greed, so as to make caution and security the 
sole guiding principles of action. A salaried officer may not 
feel so free to refuse an application for a loan, and may not be 
able so easily to consider business purely on its merits. One 
man only is paid — the cashier ; and he has no say whatever in 
the employment and distribution of money, being merely an 
executive agent. 

The simplicity of business ensures safety. The rules of Raiff- 
eisen banks forbid most positively * banking' in the ordinary 
sense of the term, or risk, or speculation of any kind. Their 
business is simply to lend and to borrow. If a loan should go 
wrong, under such circumstances, you know exactly what you can, 
at the worst, be made liable for. That £l or £io absolutely limits 
your loss. And joined to this simplicity of business is the sim- 
plicity of business arrangements, bookkeeping, organization, and 
so on. Everything is simple, everything is intelligible. 

As the rules were originally framed, no member was asked to 
pay down anything on joining, either for shares or in entrance 
fees. The German Government overruled this regulation and in- 
sisted that there must be shares. The Raiffeisen association met 
this dictation by making their shares as small as possible, gene- 
rally lOs. or I2s., payable by instalments. 

No dividends or distribution of profits is allowed under any 
circumstances. One of the essential features of the organization 
is that individuals are to derive no benefit except the privilege of 
borrowing, and every farthing which is left over out of transac- 
tions is rigorously claimed for the reserve fund, which is an 
entirely peculiar feature. It belongs wholly to the bank, and 
must not be shared out on any pretence. It is really the backbone 
of the whole system. Very small at first it grows very slowly, 
only increasing little by little, but in the course of time it becomes 
'an impregnable rock of financial solvency.' The first object is 
to meet deficiencies or losses for which only with hardship indi- 
vidual members could be made responsible. Its next is to supply 
the place of borrowed capital, and so make borrowing cheaper to 
members. Lastly should it outgrow the measure of such employ- 
ment, it may, at the discretion of the society, be applied to some 
public work of common utility benefiting the district. The rules 
of the bank should clearly state, that, even if the association 



100 

should be broken up, the reserve fund should remain intact in the 
hands of trustees until another association is formed, failing which 
in reasonable time, it should go to some public object for the bene- 
fit of the district. Thus no temptation can arise to break up the 
association for the sake of dividing the reserve fund. The exis- 
tence of such a fund binds members together, for all are naturally- 
anxious to retain their interest in it ; they strive to continue wor- 
thy of membership, and others are attracted and incited to make 
themselves morally eligible. 

The practice of lending is on the same lines of caution and 
stability. Although the association exists for the very purpose of 
lending, it deliberately makes borrowing not easy, but difficult. 
Every borrower must prove not only that he is trustworthy but 
that his enterprise is economically justified. Moreover, he must 
bring the signatures of two members, as sureties on his applica- 
tion form, who promise to be jointly liable with him. He may be 
so sanguine as to be sure in his own mind of success, but the ob- 
ject must be scrutinized and accepted first by his sureties and next 
by the Committee. Once the money is granted, it must be applied 
strictly in that particular way for which it was asked. 

Once every month the Council of Supervision meets for the spe- 
cial object of reviewing the position of debtors and their sureties, 
and considering the employment given to the loan money. Should 
a surety be found to have seriously deteriorated in solvency or in 
trustworthiness, a better surety is at once called for. If he is not 
forthcoming, or it the debtor is found to be misapplying the money, 
the loan is at once called in at four weeks' notice. 

Another safeguard is to insist that interest and principal must 
be paid to the very day. The principal, for loans running any 
length of time, is made repayable by equal instalments, and prompt 
and punctual repayment not only facilitates the carrying on of the 
business, but is far more valuable still as training the borrowers 
to habits of punctuality. 

The method adopted in lending is made as simple and as in- 
telligible as possible. All that, as a rule is asked for is a note of 
hand, unbacked, or else backed by one surety, or more generally 
by two, according to circumstances. That precludes all raising of 
money by passing on acceptances. Every farthing that is wanted, 
as far as it is not supplied by the savings or other deposits paid 
into the bank, has to be raised by borrowing. At the outset this 
may appear rather a cumbrous proceeding. But what with a 
high reputation secured by exemplary business habits, and the 
substantial guarantee of unlimited liability of all members, the 
banks have long since gained for themselves a position command- 
ing such very easy credit, that they have no difficulty whatever in 
borrowing all that they want either from public banks, or from 
private individuals, at the cheapest market rates. Confidence in 



lOI 

this security is so well established that in Germany Law Courts 
actually allow trust moneys to be paid in to them on deposit.* 

The Raiffeisen system of agricultural loan banks has worked 
wonders in Germany and in other European countries. It remains 
to be seen whether it can be successfully adopted in the West 
Indies. But our Agricultural Societies in Jamaica have shown 
such good examples of co-operative effort in many ways, that we 
are somewhat sanguine. 

We have lately been directing the attention of our people to the 
system, and I believe that no less than three banks will be started 
during the present month. It is a hopeful sign, full of promise 
for the New Year.f 



COTTON : SELECTED SEED FOR 1905.+ 

As announced in the Agricultural News (Vol. IV. p. 72), it will 
not be possible to obtain reliable cotton seed from the United 
States this year, as the planters in the Sea Islands have resolved 
not to sell their seed ' to communities outside of South Carolina.' 

This means that in order to carry on the cotton industry in the 
West Indies the planters will have to depend on seed to be obtained 
locally. 

Although the situation, at first sight, might be regarded as dis- 
couraging, there are good grounds for believing that the promising 
cotton industry started in these colonies will not materially suffer 
from the action taken by the planters in the Sea Islands. Thanks 
to the efforts made last year by the Imperial Department of Agri- 
culture, there is already existing in the West Indies a supply of 
Sea Island cotton seed as good as, if not better than, the crop lots 
produced in the United States. All that is necessary is to make 
a rigorous selection of the best seed and, after having it carefully 

* There is another form of Loan Bank which has also done good work in Europe, that 
is the 'Credit Associations' of Schulze. Schulze requi ed unlimited liability, selection 
of trustworthy officers, and sounl rule-; hut the keystone of hi- system was the com- 
pulsion to save, regularly and steadily. Every member is expected to take one share 
and one share only, lie is nof allowed to take more, in order to prevent t le association 
from being captured by capitalists. The value of the shares was fixed very high, at 
first about £50, paid up by instalments vhich may be very small. With the help of the 
capital in course of formation, of savings deposited, and of the credit which the small 
capiial iind unlimited liability of a larg • number of members, the associations are in a 
position to raise all the money required. The interest was at first high. These bank^ 
are not particular about t le object of the loan, nr the person of the b' rrower, but they 
demand security in the form of mortgages, pledges, sureties, bills. The loans may be 
large or i-mall, according to the security offered, but must be for short terms— for three 
mouths, with renewal for another three mouths occasionally permitted. Business is 
carried on by a Committee of three who are elected and paid a salary, with a commissi n 
ad ed. To check the Committee ad to audit these accounts a Council of Control of 
nine members is also annually elected. It is considered well to have as large and as 
mixed a constituency as possible, consisting of members of all callings, whose blending 
will equalize supply and demand of money, security and risk. The Credit Associations 
aim at high dividends by the largest possible extension of their bus ness. This leads to 
speculation for the sake of gain and very often ends in disaster. 

t [These banks started in the parish of Manchester are not RaifEeisen, but rather on 
the lines of Schulze's Credit Associations, except that the liability is limited to the 
aiDO'.nt of one share J 

X Reprinted from the Afjricultvral Netvs, Vol. IV, p. 97. 



102 

disinfected, to place it within reach of the planters in such quan- 
tity and at such a price that in no instance will it be necessary to 
plant inferior or doubtful seed. 

Last year the Imperial Department of Agriculture imported and 
supplied to planters 35,700ft). of Rivers' selected Sea Island cotton 
seed and the results from this seed, in good soils and with suitable 
cultivation, have been uniformly satisfactory. In some instances 
Mr. Oliver reports that the cotton produced this year from Rivers' 
seed in the West Indies ' is better than Rivers' own cotton ;' so 
that, so far from having deteriorated, it would appear that the soil 
and climate, in some localities at all events, in the West Indies 
are capable of producing a higher quality of cotton than the Sea 
Islands themselves. This is confirmed by the fact that the ship- 
ments of 62 bales from Messrs. Simmons & Hazell of St. Vincent 
' are quite the best cotton grown under the auspices of the British 
Cotton-growing Association and have been sold at an all-round 
price of I/d. per ft).' If this cotton had been ' in the market in Oc- 
tober and November last,' it is stated, ' it might easily have been 
sold for 2 Id. per ft).' Again we are informed : ' West Indian cotton 
is to-day fetching 2d. to 3d. per lb. over similar qualities of Ame- 
rican cotton.' 

It is reasonable to suppose that if the seed from the high-priced 
cotton, above referred to, were carefully selected and grown under 
suitable conditions, the crop to be reaped next year should be as 
good as, if not better than, this year's crop. 

The advantage is all in favour of the West Indies, for this is 
the original home of Sea Island cotton, and the conditions, on that 
account, should be more congenial to it here than in South Caro- 
lina. 

Coming now to practical measures, it is proposed, in order to 
safeguard the prospects of the cotton industry, that the Imperial 
Department of Agriculture should undertake to acquire all that 
can be spared of the best seed and have it carefully handpicked 
and disinfected and supplied to the planters at cost price. 

The Department will purchase the seed in the condition in 
which it leaves the gins, mixed with bits of lint, immature seeds, 
trash, etc. It will have this carefully picked over by hand so as 
to retain only about one-half to consist of the largest and finest seed 
for planting purposes. The residue will be returned to the grower 
to be crushed for feeding purposes. The selected seed will then 
be disinfected in order to protect it from fungoid and insect pests 
and it will be offered to planters for sowing purposes at the rate 
of 5c. (2id.) per lb. This is at a lower rate than is charged for 
long-staple cotton seed either in the Sea Islands or in Egypt. 

It is strongly urged that no cotton seed be planted this year 
unless it has been disinfected beforehand. Otherwise in the case 
of seed shipped from one island to another, there would be the 
probability of introducing either the cotton worm, the leaf-blister 
mite, the cotton stainer, black boll, anthracnose or other diseases 



103 

into localities where, hitherto, they have been unknown. For 
instance, the cotton worm is not prevalent in St. Vincent, the 
leaf-blister mite and the cotton stainer are not present at Barbados, 
and few, if any, of the diseases familiar in the lesser Antilles are 
to be found in Jamaica. 

A general and indiscriminate interchange of untreated cotton 
seed between the several islands would result in such a wide- 
spread distribution of cotton diseases as would probably kill the 
industry. 

It is desirable, therefore, under the special circumstances now 
existing, that the distribution of seed for planting purposes should 
be placed in the hands of a central authority, having no pecuniary 
interest in the matter, possessing the confidence of the community 
and provided with the necessary staff and appliances for carrying 
on the work solely in the interest of those concerned. 

Cotton growers who desire a supply of the " selected and disin- 
fected cotton seed" offered by the Imperial Department of Agri- 
culture for planting during the coming season are advised to com- 
municate, without delay, with the officers of the Department in the 
Colonies in which they reside. A remittance for the full amount 
must accompany the order, or it cannot be entertained. Orders will 
be received, for the Leeward Islands, by Dr. Francis Watts, Anti- 
gua ; for Barbados by Mr. John R. Bovell ; for St. Vincent, by Mr. 
W. N. Sands. Applications from Jamaica, British Guiana, Trinidad, 
and other colonies, not mentioned above, may be forwarded direct 
to the Imperial Commissioner of Agricuhure, Head Office, Barba- 
dos. Applications will be dealt with in the order in which they 
are received. 

[Six hundred pounds of seed have already been received by the Director of 
^'ublic Gardens and Plantations from the Imperial Commiasioner, Barbados, 
the lint of which obtained this year Kl^d. per lb. This is 2d. higher than the 
price obtained for lint fiom the Sea Islands them-elves. Six hundred pounds 
have also been received from the Agricultural Superintendent, St. Vincent, the 
linl from which realized 17d. per lb. Some seed from both Islands is still on 
hand, and will be charged for at rate of 2id. per lb. Application to be made to 
Director, Public Gardens and Plantations, Kingston P.O.] 



COTTON : DISEASES. 

Commissioner of the Imperial Department of Agriculture for the West 
Indies to the Director of Public Gardens and Plantations, Jamaica. 

Barbados, 

April, 6, 1905. 
Sir, 
I desire to obtain information in regard to the pests and diseases 
of Cotton in Jamaica, and would be glad of any specimens of the 
same and observations as to the seriousness of attack of any par- 
ticular fungoid disease or insect or other pest that may be met with 
affecting cotton plants. 



104 

2. I understand that the cotton worm occurs in Jamaica, but am 
not informed as to the seriouness of its attack, nor as to its distri- 
bution in different parts of the island. Also the Cotton Stainer, 
Dysdercus andreae, is reported to occur in Jamaica, but very little 
information seems to have reached this Department as to its pre- 
valence. 

3. It would be interesting to learn whether the Leaf-blister mite 
is known in Jamaica ; if not, great efforts should be made to keep 
this out of the island. 

4. With regard to fungoid diseases, the only one recorded here 
from Jamaica is the leaf-spot caused by Cercospora gossypina. I 
should be glad to learn if any of the following diseases occur in 
Jamaica : — leaf mildew, leaf rust {Uredo gossypii), anthracnose 
{Colletotrichiwt gossypii), or black boll (a bacterial disease). These 
are some of the diseases known to occur in other West Indian 
Islands. 

5. I should also be glad to know if you have any cotton diseases 
which so far have not been recorded from the other islands. These 
are described in the •' West Indian Bulletin," the " Agricultural 
News," and the " A. B. C. of Cotton Planting," issued by this De- 
partment. 

6. I would add that it would be useful if members of your So- 
ciety or Board could supply specimens of these diseases and pests 
for study and information regarding them for the use of Cotton 
growers generally in these Colonies.* 

I have the honour to be, 
Sir, 
Your most obedient servant, 

D. MORRIS, 
Commissioner of Agriculture for 
the West Indies. 



COTTON: ROTATION OF CROPS. 

The following correspondence is published for the purpose of 
directing attention to an important subject, with the hope that ex- 
periments may be started and definite information eventually ob- 
tained as to the best rotations for the several districts where cot- 
ton is cultivated. 

The Honhle. the Colonial Secretary to the Director of Public Gardens and 

Plantations. 

Colonial Secretary's Office, 

1 6th December, 1904. 
Sir, 
Referring to the debate at the meeting attended by Messrs. Oli- 
ver and Stancliffe on the subject of cotton growing, I am directed 
to invite you to devise and publish (after consultation with the 

* Notes on the occiirreuce of disease, with specimens, will be taken charge of 
by the Director of Public Gardens and forwarded to the Commissioner. 



105 

Imperial Commissioner) a proper rotation of crops, embracing 
cotton, suitable for the "West Indies, so that the cotton grower 
need not think himself dependent upon cotton ratooning, and 
I am to offer the following suggestions (subject to your better 
knowledge) on the matter. 

2. Taking cotton as the crop to be cultivated during the first 
year, the land, after being thoroughly cleaned and all weeds and 
vegetation thereon burned or buried, should be ploughed with a 
deep soil plough to a depth of some five to eight inches. Where 
the locality is a dry one, the furrows should be run across the 
natural fall of the land. 

3. After ploughing and cleaning the land it should be laid out 
in ridges and furrows, the tops of the ridges being about six 
inches higher than the bottom of the furrows. The cotton should 
be sown in the bottom of the furrows, and as it grows up the 
earth of the ridges should from time to time be removed to its 
stem by a hoe, so that when the cotton matures it will appear to 
be growing out of the top of a ridge. 

4. Second year. When the cotton has all been cleared away, 
a comparatively shallow ploughing will suffice to prepare the soil 
for the second year's crop, which should be some cereal, — maize 
for choice. 

5. The usual objection to maize is that it is easily destroyed by- 
weevils after harvest ; this evil may be avoided either by selling 
early or by kiln-drying the corn. Several large cotton growers 
might combine for the purchase of a kiln. 

6. Third year. After a light ploughing the land might be 
sown with some leguminous plant, such as beans, peas, clover, al- 
falfa, lucerne, lupines, rabi, vetches, rovithi or eleusine Levakana. 
The last grows well in tropical climates and affords seed useful 
for food, but rabi supplies a valuable food for cattle, requires very 
little care or cultivation, and is to be preferred on that account. 

7. Fourth year. Unless you have something valuable to sug- 
gest in the fourth year, the land might be allowed to lie fallow, 
to be followed by cotton again in the fifth year. 

I have, etc., 
H. Clarence Bourne, Colonial Secretary. 



The Commissioner of the Imperial Department of Agriculture to the Di- 
rector of Public Gardens and Plantations, Jamaica. 

Copy. 

Barbados, February 13, 1905. 

Sir, 
With reference to the letter from the Colonial Secretary of Ja- 
maica, No. 11783/12679, dated December i6th last, communicated 
to me at the recent Conference at Trinidad, I would mention that 
the rotation of crops for cotton adopted in the Sea Islands is 
described in the "West Indian Bulletin" Vol. IV. pp, 294-295. 
This rotation has apparently not been taken into consideration in 



io6 

the letter from the Colonial Secretary. An extract from the con- 
cluding portion of the chapter is enclosed. 

2. It is probable that no system of rotation will be adopted 
either in Jamaica or elsewhere unless it is in full harmony with 
local conditions and provided its ultimate effects will be to pro- 
duce the maximum amount of fine cotton at the lowest possible 
cost. 

3. It will be necessary to work out a rotation not only for Ja- 
maica as a whole but for each district of the island with due 
regard to the character of the soil, amount of rainfall and the 
requirements in regard to other industries. 

4. The only effective way of arriving at a satisfactory rotation 
will be to carry on experiments in association with one or two 
leading planters in each district. The Board of Agriculture might 
be able to arrange this and tabulate the results. As you are 
aware, theoretical recommendations in a matter of this kind have 
no appreciable effect on the practice of cultivators in the West 
Indies. 

5. As a contribution to a study of the subject, I enclose a copy 
of a letter from Mr. J. R. Bovell in which he offers recommenda- 
tions likely to be of value. 

6. Later, when the officers of the department in the several 
Colonies have had time to look thoroughly into the subject, have 
carried out experiments and obtained the views of the leading 
planters, it is probable that I may be in a position to advise fur- 
ther in the matter. 

I have, etc., 

D. Morris. 



Extract from West Indian Bulletin, Vol. IV., pp. 294-295, on the rota- 
tion of crops in the Sea Island districts. 

It seemed, however, to be the general experience, that the 
growth of a leguminous crop every second year did not conduce 
to a successful cotton crop, and that once in four years was as 
often as it could be grown with advantage, — that is to say, the 
rotation would be : first year, cotton ; second year, fallow ; 3rd 
year, cotton ; 4th year, leguminous crop. When the leguminous 
crop was grown it was sown between the rows of the old cotton 
crop after a picking was finished. The crop grown is cow peas or 
even garden peas for the market, which grow up and twine around 
the old cotton stalks. It is then grazed by cattle and trampled 
down, and the new cotton ridges are formed over the old hollows 
where the leguminous crop had grown. The idea regarding the fre- 
quent growth of a leguminous forage crop is certainly interesting. 

It is maintained that the quality of the fine Sea Island cotton 
suffers, and that ripening is delayed and the yield diminished. 
The interesting point to notice, however, is that although such is 
maintained to be the case, yet nitrogenous manures, such as cotton 
seed meal, &c., are employed for cotton. 



107 

Mr. J. R. Bovell to the Imperial Commissioner of Agriculture. 

Barbados, llth February, 1905. 
Sir, 

I have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your letter No. 
B, 392, dated January 30, enclosing a copy of a letter handed you 
by Mr. Fawcett in reference to the rotation of crops in connection 
with cotton cultivation in Jamaica, and asking me for my views 
on the subject. 

As has been pertinently pointed out by various agricultural au- 
thorities, it is impossible to recommend a rotation that will apply 
to all districts even in a single country, and therefore it is hardly 
possible to suggest a rotation that will be equally applicable to 
all parts of Jamaica. 

On the whole, the suggestions made by Mr. Bourne are, I think, 
reasonable. If the rotation is a fourth year one, the land the 
fourth year might be planted in sweet potatoes or yams. 

In Georgia the Director of the Experiment Station recommends 
where cotton is the principal crop that this should follow corn and 
peas. The corn is planted, and when it is about half grown, cow 
peas are then sown between the rows. The corn is reaped and 
the cow peas are allowed to mature and fed to the animals. The 
resulting manure is then broadcasted on the land and turned in 
along with the cow pea stubble. The following year cotton is 
grown. For the next crop in rotation he recommends oats, and 
then the rotation commences again. In each case the crop is care- 
fully fertilized. 

With regard to Jamaica, personally I should be inclined to 
recommend cotton for the first year's crop, yams or sweet potatoes 
for the second, and Indian corn and cow peas for the third, each 
crop to be suitably manured. 

For instance, a yield of say 1,000 lb. of seed cotton per acre, 
i.e. 300lb. of lint and 700lb. of seed, would remove from the 
land per acre 25lb. of nitrogen I2lb. of phosphoric anhy- 
dride and 131b. of potash A crop of six tons of sweet 
potatoes would remove about 30lb. of nitrogen, 13 to I4lb. of 
phosphoric anhydride and about 651b. of potash per acre. A 
crop of Indian corn yielding about 29 bushels of corn per acre of 
70lb. per bushel, would remove in round numbers 24lb. of nitro- 
gen, 8Mb. of phosphoric anhydride and 3llb. of potash. A crop 
of black eye cow peas, weighing say 2 tons per acre, would sup- 
ply about 361b. of nitrogen, 22lb. of phosphoric anhydride and 
50lb. of potash. In this case the nitrogen would be obtained 
principally from the atmosphere, the phosphoric anhydride and 
potash principally from the sub-soil. As the black eye peas 
would fix a great deal of nitrogen from the atmosphere, which 
would be valuable, I should apply a small quantity of farmyard 
manure to the cotton, supplementing it with phosphoric anhydride 
■and potash, and to the sweet potato and yam crops I should apply 
farmyard manure, supplemented by potash. A ton of good farm- 



io8 

yard manure contains about I2lb. of nitrogen, 5lb. of phosphates 
and 1 1 lb. of potash. 

Trusting that the informotion supplied is what you require. 

I have, &c., 

JOHN R. BOVELL. 



From Director of Public Gardens to Hon. Colonial Secretary. 

28th March, 1905. 
Sir, 
I have the honour to forward a letter received from Sir D. Morris 
with reference to rotation of crops in cotton cultivation. 

2. I referred the letter to Mr. Barclay, the Secretary of the Agri- 
cultural Society, and enclose his memorandum. 

3. As has been pointed out, nothing very definite can be sug- 
gested, first, from want of experience of cotton-growing in the 
West Indies, and secondly, because each district in the Island may 
require a different treatment. 

The following rotations might be tried : — 

(1) Cotton — March to September. 

Cassava — October to February, twelve months. 
Corn — March to August (manured). 

Leguminous plants (peas, &c.,) September to December. 
Cotton — March, &c. 

(2) Cotton— September to March. 
Cassava — April to July of following year. 
Corn — August to February (manured). 
Leguminous plants (peas &c.) March to June. 
Cotton — September &c. 

(3) Cotton— September to March, 
Cassava" — April to July of following year. 
Cow Peas — August to October. 
Tobacco — November to February. 

Corn — March to August (manured). 
Cotton — September, &c. 

(4) Cotton — March to September. 
Tobacco — November to February. 
Corn — March to August (manured). 
Leguminous plants (peas) October to January. 
Cotton — March, &c. 

I have, &c., 

W. Fawcett, Director. 



The Secretary of the famaica Agricultural Society to the Director */ 

Public Gardens and Plantations. 
The districts in Jamaica where cotton will likely be grown to 
any extent are such as are too deficient in rainfall to grow our 
usual economic crops— except sugar. These are lower St. 
Catherine, Vere, the plains of St. Elizabeth, the coast lands of St. 
James, Trelawny and the lowlands of St. Andrew and St. Thomas. 



109 

In all these districts cattle are generally kept, and in St. Eliza- 
beth horse-stock also. In the sugar cane districts it is not likely 
planters will grow cotton on the best sugar cane lands, nor even 
when about to fallow the land from cane put it under cotton for a 
season. They will require to find out by experience whether cane, 
cotton, then cattle to feed down the old cotton stalks, then cane 
again will work well in the results from the first crop of cane 
after cotton. 

If cassava was a commercial product for starch-making on a 
commercial scale, as it may be, cassava, cotton, guinea grass and 
live stock would form a likely rotation. As it is, in stock-rearing 
parts, such as the savannahs of St. Elizabeth, I can only suggest 
small fields of cotton grown for a year, corn and peas (when sea- 
sons allow, and which favour the spring of grass) six months, gui- 
nea grass and stock for two years. It is no use suggesting guinea 
corn grown on a large scale — it seldom pays, though small plots 
are useful. Cotton might form a useful catch crop planted through 
bananas, coconuts or orange trees to fill up in most districts, 
whether under irrigation or not. It is being tried. 

John Barclay. 



The Commissioner of the Imperial Department of Agriculture to the 
Director of Public Gardens and Plantations. 

Barbados, April 6, 1905. 

Sir, 
In continuation of my letter J. 589 of February 13, last, I have 
the honour to forward, herewith, a copy of a letter received from 
Dr. Francis Watts, in which he reviews the proposals put forward 
by Mr. J. R. Bovell in regard to the rotation of crops for cotton, 
and adds some suggestions of his own based on experience in the 
Leeward Islands. 

2. It is proposed later on to prepare an article on the subject 
for publication in the " West Indian Bulletin," and I would be 
glad to receive any additional information that you could furnish 
with special reference to the circumstances of Jamaica. 

I have, &c., 

(Sgd.) D. MORRIS. 



The Honourable Francis Watts to the Imperial Commissioner of Agri- 
culture for the West Indies. 

Antigua, March 27th, 1905. 

Dear Sir Daniel, 

In reply to your request for a brief memo, on the letter addressed 
by the Colonial Secretary of Jamaica to the Director of the Public 
Gardens and Plantations on the cultivation of cotton and the ques- 
tion of rotation of crops which accompanied your letter. No. A. 391 
of January 30th 1905. 

2. In paragraph 2, of the letter referred to, it says, Where the 



no 

locality is a dry one the furrows should be run across the natural 
fall of the land." This should be the direction in any case, for, 
if the locality is a wet one, they will tend to prevent the washing 
away of soil during heavy rains. With this comment paragraphs 
2. and 3, may stand. 

3. For the second year I would suggest, such crops as Guinea 
Corn, Cassava or Sweet Potato, 

4. For the third year a leguminous crop. The crops proposed 
in the letter under comment are not all leguminous, nor do they 
all appear suitable for the conditions in question. I would suggest 
a selection from the following : — 

Pigeon Pea or Gungo Pea, (Cajanus indicus) Woolly Pyrol, 
(Phaseolus Mungo) Velvet Bean, Red Bean of Jamaica, Bonavist of 
Barbados, Ground Nut or Pindar or some form of Cow Pea if a 
suitable one is found. 

5. For the fourth year. Yams, if the time and season serve, or 
Corn (Maize) if a short period crop is necessary. For this year's 
crop the land should be well manured either with the green dres- 
sing of the previous year and, if necessary and possible, with farm- 
yard manure. We then come to the first year's crop. Cotton. 

6. The question of manures for Sea Island cotton has not been 
yet worked out for the West Indies. It will probably be well to 
plough in crushed cotton seed at the rate of 3 to 6 cwt per acre 
or an equivalent amount of farm-yard manure according to the 
condition of the soil and the manuring which it received in the 
previous year. 

7. The objection to Maize, in paragraph 5 of the letter under 
consideration, may be met by thoroughly sun-drying the cobs and 
storing them in bins into which a little bisulphide of carbon is 
put to destroy weevils. These bins may be of iron, concrete or 
wood : the former two are preferable, perhaps, as being rat proof. 

Yours sincerely, 

Francis Watts. 

Note by Dr. Cousins on foregoing papers : 

All the four rotations suggested are impractical iu so far as they ignore the second 
crop of cotton which may often exceed the first in value under the conditions obtaining 
in Vere and St. Catherine. Most of the lands now iu cotton would grow it without 
rotaii' n for at least 10 years in my opinion. 

Cassava is the ideal alternating crop for cotton. Cassava bitty and cotton seed would 
make a splendid food for stock. The cassava couM be interplanted between the cotton 
to save time. Our cotton lands in Jamaica are p;reatly superior to Sea Island soils m 
fertility. To fertilisR these Sdils would be absurd. As we have no alternating hus- 
bandry in Jamaica, it is not a practical question to discuss theoretical rotations of 
imaginary crops. H. H. COUSINS. 

25. 4, Co. 



BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

The usual monthly meeting of the Board of Agriculture was 
held on Tuesday 14th March. Present: The Hon. the Colonial 
Secretary in the chair, the Director of Public Gardens and Plan- 
tations, the Island Chemist, His Grace the Archbishop, Messrs. 
C. A. T. Fursdon, C. E. deMercado, and Secretary John Barclay. 



Ill 

New Members — The Secretary read a letter from the Colonial 
Secretary intimating that His Excellency the Governor on the no- 
mination of the Board had appointed Mr. Geo. D. Murray to be a 
member of the Board in the room of the Hon. J. V. Calder, who has 
resigned. The Secretary also read letters from Mr. M. H. M. Farqu- 
harson, declining nomination as a successor to Mr. Shore and from 
the Secretary of Westmoreland Sugar Planters Association, declin- 
ing to nominate anybody in their interests. The Secretary stated 
that he had not heard from the Northside Sugar Planters Associa- 
tion on the matter. It was decided that the Secretary should ask 
the Hon. C. B. Vickers, Bluefields, if he would allow his name to 
be nominated as a member of the Board, and, failing him, Mr. P. 
H. Greg, Mesopotamia. 

Agricultural Science Teaching — 'The Secretary read a letter from 
the Secretary of the Schools Commission in reply to his letter 
transmitting a report of the Committee of the Board on agricultu- 
ral science teaching in Secondary Schools and a report by the 
Island Chemist having reference to the results of an examination 
of students for Agricultural Scholarships, the letter was directed to 
be circulated. The Secretary was instructed to call the attention 
of the Colonial Secretary to paragraph (2) dealing with the £60 
scholarship and the three £10 scholarships, recommending them 
to be combined and made available for aiding scientific agricul- 
tural education, and stating that the proposal had been approved 
by the Superintending Inspector of Schools and the Island Che- 
mist. 

Blood at Slaughter House — -The Secretary submitted a statement 
by the Island Chemist on Mr. Cork's proposals to utilise the blood 
at the Slaughter House as a fertiliser, showing a probable margin 
of £11 per annum : also correspondence from Mr. Cork on the sub- 
ject. The Chemist stated that dried blood as a source of nitrogen 
was not so good value as sulphate of ammonia ; and it was ac- 
cordingly resolved to let the matter drop. 

Cocoa Trees in St. Mary — A Report to the Director of Public 
Gardens by Mr. Cradwick on the Cocoa Trees in St. Mary was sub- 
mitted and directed to be circulated. 

Tobacco — A letter from the Colonial Secretary's office was sub- 
mitted transmitting a letter from Mr. F. V. Chalmers reporting 
that he was unable to purchase 300 lbs. of unmanufactured leaf 
tobacco here at anything like /d. per lb. and suggesting that this 
high price restricted production and should receive immediate at- 
tention. The chairman stated that Mr. Chalmers told him that he 
would be prepared to spend a very large sum next year in buy- 
ing tobacco at /d. per lb. if it could be got, but that people had 
told him that it did not pay to sell it at that price. 

Co7itagious Diseases Animals Act. — The Secretary submitted a letter 
from the Colonial Secretary's Office enclosing copy of a Bill en- 
titled A Law for the Prevention of Contagious Diseases among 
Animals, which was directed to be circulated. 



112 

Cotton. — An application for the loan of a Cotton Baling Ma- 
chine by Hon. Dr. Pringle was submitted. It was resolved to loan 
the machine if Dr. Pringle would pay for its removal and return. 
A letter from Mr. Fursdon was submitted saying that as there was 
no prospect of any more cotton being sent, he would be glad if 
the Board would arrange to take charge of the Gin. 

A report from the Director of Public Gardens was submitted 
showing a sale of cotton from a quarter acre grown at Hope 
amounting to I /libs, of seed cotton at 3d. amounting to £2 2s. 9d. 
stating that he had purchased lint to send to the Exhibition and 
lOOlbs. of the seed, making a reduction of 17, 8d. and leaving a net 
credit of £l 5s. id. 

A letter was submitted from Colonial Secretary's Office, trans- 
mitting letter from Sir Daniel Morris, and extract of letter from 
Mr. E. Lomas Oliver, asking all growers to ship cotton to the 
British Cotton Growing Association in order that the price may be 
kept up to a minimum of is. per lb. 

Orange Trade. — The Secretary submitted a letter forwarded by 
the Governor from Mr. Joseph Darling re Orange Trade. This 
was directed to be circulated. 

Leave of Absence. — The Secretary submitted a letter to the Chair- 
man asking for leave of absence from the 3rd April to about the 
middle of July to allow him to act as one of the representatives of 
Jamaica at the Crystal Palace Exhibition. The Archbishop moved, 
seconded by Mr. deMercado, that His Excellency the Governor be 
recommended to grant the leave of absence desired. 

Reporls — Reports by the Director of Public Gardens were sub- 
mitted as follows : — 

(a) Report Experiment Station. 

(b) Report from Travelling Instructors. 

The following reports from the Chemist were submitted : — 

(a) Result of Diploma Examination. 

(b) Residential Qualifications for Diploma. 

(c) Labour at Experiment Station. 

(d) Cost of Distribution of Canes. 

(e) Locked Still at Denbigh. 

The additional sum asked for in (e) was allowed, amounting to 
£20 to make some additions to the installation of the locked still 
at Denbigh, which would, in the opinion of the Chemist, make 
the check so thorough as to satisfy all the requirements both of 
the estate and of the revenue in the production of rum. 

[Issued 1 9th May, 1905.] 
Printed at the Govt. Printing Office, Kingston, Jam. 



BULLETIN 



OF THE 



DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



Vol. III. 



JUNE, 1905. 



Part 6. 



EDITED BY 



LIBRARY 

NEW YORK 

BOTANICAL 

WILLIAM PAWCETT, B.Sc, F.L.S., garden. 



Director of Public Gardens and Plantations. 



CONTENTS: 


Page. 


• 


Report on Diploma Examination 


113 


Observations on Milk 


118 


Bud Rot of the Coco-nut Palm 


128 


Tobacco of Jamaica. II 


130 


Stack Ensilage 


132 


The Culture of the Central American Rubber 




Tree. X 


133 


Board of Agriculture ... 


135 



P R I C E-Threepence. 



A Copy will be supplied free to any Re.sident in .Jamaica, who will send name and 
address to the Director of Public Gardens and Plantations, Kingston P.O. 



KINGSTON, JAMAICA 
Hope Gardens. 

1905. 



JAMAICA. 



BULIjETINT 

OF THE 

DEPARTMENT OF AttRIOULTURE. 



Vol. III. JUNE, 1905. Part 6. 

REPORT ON THE DIPLOMA EXAMINATION 
HELD AT THE GOVERNMENT LABORATORY 

DECEMBER, 1904. 

General Report from Professor J. P. de Albuquerque, M.A., F.I.C., F.C.S. 

Government Laboratory, Barbados, West Indies, 

February 13, 1905, 
Sir, 

I have the honour to forward the results of the examination of 
December last for the Diploma of Agriculture at Jamaica. 

Six candidates presented themselves for examination, the sub- 
jects being Agriculture, Chemistry of Agriculture, Botany, Ele- 
mentary Physics and Entomology. 

A syllabus of each of these subjects was forwarded to me, to- 
gether with one giving the details of the practical work, the labo- 
ratory records of which have been marked by the teachers and 
form part of the examination for the diploma. This is evidently 
a course to be commended, as the teachers are in the best position 
to judge in such practical subjects the work and capabilities of 
their pupils. 

The syllabus is, in my opinion, admirably adapted for the pur- 
poses of a secondary school of agriculture, and on the whole, com- 
bines a sound grounding in purely scientific subjects, together 
with a well chosen selection of the most important and typical of 
the West Indian crops, whereby to point the purely scientific 
teaching and connect it with the practical agriculture of the West 
Indies. 

The answers of the candidates throughout bear evidence of 
sound and careful teaching. The reports of the examiners give 
detailed criticism of the individual papers ; from them it will be 
seen that the results in Chemistry of Agriculture, Botany, Elemen- 
tary Physics and Entomology were very satisfactory. In Agri- 
culture the percentage of marks was lower, but, in my experience, 
this subject which is the connecting link between the purely theo- 
retical and the purely practical, is much more difficult to teach 
young pupils ; and here also, I regard the results of the examina- 
tion, while indicating directions for improvement, as distinctly 



114 

satisfactory, and affording testimony to the successful effort of 

the teachers. 

All the candidates passed, but there was considerable difference 
in their attainment and merit. The performances of G. D. Goode, 
S. Sharp, and A. B. Lindo were, on the whole, very creditable, 
and I reccommend that these candidates be awarded a diploma in 
the first class. To H. L. Nethersole, R. S. Martinez, and W. A. 
Hewitt, I recommend the award of a diploma in the second class. 

All the examiners concur in this general report. 

I have the honour to be. 

Sir, 
Your most obedient servant, 

J. P. DEALBUQUERQUE, M.A, F.I.C, F.CS. 
Island Professor of Chemistry and Agricultural Science. 



MARKS. 







Agri- 




QJ 


o 




A. Agricultur 


B. Chemistry 
culture. 


Total 


200 


200 


1st Class — 






Goode, G. D. 


100 


176 


Sharp, S. 


134 


142 


Lindo, A. B. 


124 


158 


2nd Class — 






Nethersole, H. L.... 


112 


104 


Martinez, R. S. ... 


100 


106 


Hewitt, W. A. ... 


86 


98 



-t— < 
O 

(J 



o 

(A 

>, 

Pi 

>> 
u 

C 



CD 



bfi 

S 
o 



Q 



O 



o 



"Qfi 



U 

Oh 



100 


50 


50 


600 


81 


47 


31 


435 


70 


44 


39 


429 


76 


32 


38 


428 


72 


36 


40 


364 


68 


36 


40 


350 


58 


34 


30 


306 



72.5 

71-5 
71-3 

60.7 

58.3 
51.0 



J. P. DEALBUQUERQUE. 
13 Feb., 1905, 



115 

Report of Examiners on Agriculture. 

The second question was in no case well answered. 

The questions in Section B were fairly well answered. The know- 
ledge shown was, however, rather general ; for example, candidates 
had but a very hazy idea of the quantities of manures to be applied. 

Candidates failed to show a very intimate acquaintance with 
the structure of the common plough. Still less was known of the 
^ disc' plough, most candidates avoiding that part of the question. 

The two candidates who took the question on cotton in Section 
D, gave good answers. The operations in connection with cane 
planting were not well explained. 

In Section E, all candidates took question 10 in relation to to- 
bacco. In two cases, a fairly accurate knowledge of the require- 
ments was shown. The remaining candidates avoided details. 

The papers of Sharp and Lindo were, on the whole, good, and 
these two candidates exhibited a good all-round knowledge of the 
subject. Nethersole's paper is fairly good. Martinez, Goode and 
Hewitt are weaker. 

J. P. DEALBUQUERQUE, M.A., F.I.C., F.C.S. 
Island Professor of Chemistry and Agricultural Science. 

W. R. BUTTENSHAW, M.A., B.Sc, 
Technical Assistant, Imperial Department of Agriculture. 
13th Feb., 1905. 



Report of Examiners on Chemistry of Agriculture. 

The answers in Section A — Theoretical Chemistry — were gen- 
erally very good indeed, and all the questions were attempted by 
one or other of the candidates. 

In Section B — Elementary Organic Chemistry — the answers of 
Goode were especially satisfactary ; those of the other candidates 
were good to fair. No candidate knew the answer to the last part 
of Question 5. One candidate attempted question 6, but failed to 
give an accurate account either of the properties or formula of 
acetic aldehyde. 

In Section C — ^Agricultural Chemistry — each of the questions 
was well done by one or other of the candidates. The answers to 
question 10 were generally the least complete, and with the ex- 
ception of two candidates, the statements of the composition of 
farmyard manure were wide of the mark. 

On the whole, a generally high standard of answers was main- 
tained in this paper. Goode was throughout very satisfactory; 
his answers were brief, accurate and to the point : Lindo and 
Sharp were also good ; the answers of the other three candidates 
were, on the whole, fair. 

J. P. DEALBUQUERQUE, M.A., F.I.C., F.C.S., 
Island Professor of Chemistry and Agricultural Science. 

W. R. BUTTENSHAW, M.A., B.SC, 
Technical Assistant, Imperial Department of Agriculture. 
13th Feb., 1905. 



ii6 

Report of Examiner on Botany and Eletnentary Physics. 
In each subject, six papers were sent in. Thhe candidates were 
the same in each subject. 

All the Botany papers were well done. The highest marks 
were 8 1 per cent., obtained by George D. Goode, while the lowest 
marks obtained were 58 per cent. Question 4, which was to be 
answered by all candidates, was, on the whole, well done, though 
none could think of an experiment to prove satisfactorily that the 
root-hairs are the plant organs which absorb water from the soil. 
The candidates who answered question I failed to grasp the fact 
that the cotyledons of the bean seed are a part oj the embryo ; all 
stated that they enclosed the embryo. 

The paper in Elementary Physics was also well done by all the 
candidates. The highest marks, 93 per cent., were again obtained 
by George D. Goode. The lowest marks obtained were 64 per 
«ent. 

I have the honour to be, 
Sir, 
Your obedient servant, 

LONGFIELD SMITH, B.Sc. (Edin.) Ph.D., (Leipzig.) 
Lecturer in Agricultural Science, 
13th Feb., 1905. 



Report of Exatniner on Entomology. 
The knowledge of general entomology seems to be good, every 
boy having a good idea of the characteristics of insects and of 
metamorphosis. 

In answer to question 3, however, only 7 orders of insects are 
mentioned, and the order Neuroptera is given as having incom- 
plete metamorphosis and as including the Dragon flies. This is 
not correct, but may have been adopted by the teacher for the 
sake of simplifying the course. I would suggest the use of 9 
orders, as follows : — 

I Thysanoptera Thrips 
with incomplete II Odonata Dragon flies 

metamorphosis III Orthoptera 

IV Hemiptera 

V Neuroptera Lace wings Chrysopa, &c. 
VI Coleoptera 
with complete VII Lepidoptera 

metamorphosis VIII Diptera 

IX Hymenoptera 
This makes it possible to treat the Neuroptera and Odonata 
(Pseudo-neuroptera) separately as they should be treated, and 
makes a place in which to discuss Thrips, a group of insects 
likely to need attention in many branches of tropical agriculture, 
without making too many orders for even an elementary course 
of study. 



117 

It will be noted that the answers to question 4 are the least sat- 
isfactory. This is to be regretted, as it is the one including field 
practice more than any other. No. 2, which is more a class-room 
question, stands highest in the averages. 

H. A. Ballou, B.Sc. 
Entomologist to the Imperial Dept. of Agriculture. 
January 26, 1905. 



Report on Veterinary Science. 
The candidates were examined by Dr. Gibb in Veterinary 
Science, and all obtained a high percentage of marks. 

Goode 98/^ Nethersole 80^ 

Sharp 92" Martinez 96" 

Lindo 98" Hewitt 80" 

Report on Practical Work. 
The practical work of the students was not tested by examina- 
tion but by a definite scheme of practical work that had to be 
efficiently carried out by each student. A schedule of the work 
is given below : — 

Practical Work for Diploma. 

Chemistry. 
A Notebook showing results of deteterminations of : — 

1. Lime in soils. 

2. Purity and glucose ratio of cane juice. 

3. Polarisation of sugar. 

4. Obscuration of rum. 

5. Starch in a commercial sample of starch. 

6. Composition of Bat Guano : — 

Moisture 
Organic matter 
Phosphoric Acid , 

Agriculture. 

1. Budding 6 trees. 

2. Grafting 2 " 

3. Raising from seed I2 economic plants for planting. 

Surveying. 
Plans from actual chain survey of single inclosure. 

Botany. 
Herbarium of dried specimens of — 

W^^H^ I °^ agricultural importance. 

Microscope. 
Set of 6 micro-slides illustrative of agricultural application of 
the microscope. 

Book-keeping. 
A detailed account of the transactions on a property for one 
month, with an annual statement. 

H. H. Cousins, Island Chemist. 



ii8 

OBSERVATIONS ON THE MILK OF COWS IN 

JAMAICA. 

By H. H. Cousins, Island Chemist. 

Visitors and newcomers to this island are invariably struck 
with the comparative scarcity of fresh milk and butter, despite 
the large herds of cattle and the fine grazing lands to be seen all 
over the island. It is only natural that it should be considered a 
reflection upon our agricultural enterprise that some £6o,ooo worth 
of milk and butter should be imported annually from other coun- 
tries although this must pay a duty of £ 10,000 before it is ad- 
mitted into competition with the local article. 

If this £70,000 could be spent in the island it would obviously 
be of great benefit and the sympathies of all intelligent Jamaicans 
must be drawn to those who are seeking to develop the dairy in- 
dustry in the colony. 

It is apparent that our cattle have been bred and handled for 
generations exclusively as a beef breed. Our penkeepers can at 
any rate say that they produce better beef than any tropical 
country in the world, and at a price which makes beef cheaper in 
Jamaica even than in free trade England. Beef and milk are not 
essentially incompatible, as witness the Dairy Shorthorn, but there 
is no doubt that in a country where cattle have to exist entirely 
upon grass, and this free from leguminous constituents, the milk- 
ing of cows for dairy purposes would involve an injury to the 
calves, and thereby frustrate the quick production of saleable cattle. 

It must be recognized that the raising of cattle under the condi- 
tions obtaining upon the average pen in Jamaica is that of pro- 
ducing flesh upon a working minimum of flesh-producing mate- 
rial. In other words, the law of food supply in the tropics holds 
with fodders as with human foodstuffs, viz. : the prolific production 
of carbohydrates is associated with a deficiency of albuminoids. 

The tremendous energy of the tropical sun enables plants to 
produce big yields of sugars and starch ; but this is, as a rule, not 
associated with a corresponding development of flesh-producing 
albuminoids. 

The tropics can always outdo the temperate regions in the pro- 
duction of carbohydrates Acre for acre, the Sugar cane. Sweet 
potato and Cassava in the tropics are twice as productive of sugar 
and starch as their temperate competitors, Sugar-beet, Irish Potato 
and Maize. 

Until a perennial leguminous forage crop can be found that 
will give yields to compare with that of Lucerne in temperate and 
sub-tropical countries, Jamaica could never develop a dairy indus- 
try — upon pastoral lines — that could compete with the foreigner. 

Under present conditions, cows must be fed with imported 
meals and feeding stuff's, if any large yield of milk is to be ob- 
tained, and this greatly adds to the cost of production. I foresee 
that the development of the cotton and cassava industries will 
have a great influence upon the dairying interest, since the refuse 



119 



'bitty' of the cassava and the cotton seed would' make an ideal 
food, in combination, for dairy cows. The seed from four acres 
of cotton and the dry residue from an acre of cassava, after being 
treated in the starch factory, would yield a mixed meal weighing 
3 tons, and containing : 

r 3,000 lbs. of digestible Carbohydrates = 50^ 
] 320lbs. of Fat = 5 '3/; 

[ 440 lbs, of Albuminoids = 7' 3^ 

Such a food should prove of the greatest service in the feeding 
of dairy cows in this country, as it could be produced at a low cost. 

As no systematic analyses of the milk of Jamaica cows have 
been made up to the present, and I have been called upon to give 
evidence under the Adulteration Law as to samples of milk taken 
by the police, it seemed desirable in the public interest that such 
data should be obtained, so that a sound opinion upon the genuine- 
ness of local milk samples could be given. To this end, Mr. H. S. 
Hammond, F.C.S., of this department, personally visited all the 
chief dairies in the district and took samples of the milk of each 
cow and the mixed milk as sold to the public. Our best thanks 
are due to the proprietors of these dairies for the cordial way in 
which they assisted this investigation and for the full information 
they give as to the breeding and feeding of the cows. 

The main results of the analyses may be tabulated as follows : — 



Source. 


Total 


Fat. 


Solids 
not 


Ash. 


cific 

avity 

°F. 




Solids. 




Fat. 




<U 5^ 


I. Average milk of 92 Ja- 


1 

1 

1 










maica Cows 


13.83 1 


5-1 


8.69 


0.70 


1.028 


2. Highest record of above 












(Barbadian Cow) 


17-49 


8-7 


8.79 


0.66 


1.025 


3. Lowest record of above 












(Holstein Cow) 


10.10 


2.9 


7.20 


0.70 


1.025 


4. Average of mixed milk 












from 7 dairies as sold 












to public 


13.39 


4.7 


8-73 


0.68 


1.028 


5. Average of 200,000 












analyses by Rich- 












mond in England 


12.9 


3-9 


9.0 


0.75 




6. Legal standard of milk 












in U. K. 


• • ■ 


3-0 


8-5 






7. Legal standard of milk 


' 










inU. S. A. 


12.0 


3.25 


8.5 






8. Proposed standard for 












Milk in Jamaica 


11.75 


3-5 


8.25 







120 

These results indicate that cow's milk in Jamaica is naturally 
richer in fat than the milk of similar cows in a temperate climate. 

The average milk from the 7 Kingston dairies represents a very 
good standard and indicates over 20 per cent, more fat than that 
in average English milk. There would appear to be a lower 
standard of solids not fat, and in the case of individual cows these 
constituents are markedly low, A careful study of the records of 
the individual cows, as given in Mr. Hammond's report, will show 
the marked deterioration of the milk from cows of Holstein blood , 
in this respect. In a tropical country the value of milk as a food 
for young children resides more in the content of albuminoid* 
and mineral matter, the non-fatty solids which go to build up the 
body, than on the fat. Climatic conditions in Jamaica naturally 
favour a good proportion of fat in milk, and it is a serious mat- 
ter as regards the public welfare that the recent craze for Holstein 
blood should result in such a serious depreciation of those con- 
stituents of milk most deficient under local conditions and most 
necessary in the food of young children. The records of certain 
selected creole cows in this list are excellent (see Dairy No. 2.) 
The Indian cross has enabled the Holstein strain to maintain a 
good standard of quality in two cases (Dairy No. 4. Nos. 5 and 20.) 

Speaking generally, I am convinced that the Holstein breed is 
quite unsuited for Jamaica. I am informed that on large pens the 
calves are found delicate and the cross undesirable, while as re- 
gards the quality of milk the results are deplorable. The breeds 
producing rich milk, such as the Channel Islands breeds, are not 
of general utility for local purposes, and I see no need for pro- 
ducing milk of abnormal richness in fat in this country. 

We want here a general purpose breed that will suit the butcher 
and also give good milk in quantity when used for dairy purposes. 
We have the foundation for this by making a rigid selection of 
our local cows. I believe individual Creole cows hold the record 
for milk production in Jamaica, and if such animals were carefully 
selected for breeding, excellent results should follow. From ex- 
perience of the splendid deep-milking qualities of a herd of dairy 
Shorthorns at Wye College in England, I am inclined to believe 
that the Dairy Shorthorn Bull should be most valuable in im- 
proving our Creole dairy cows on safe and profitable lines. 

The Holstein is doing great harm, and its general use would 
seriously deteriorate the quality of milk and also the butcher's 
value of our cattle. 



121 



Milks as sold in Kingston, igoS- 



Total 
Solids. 



Fat. 



Ash. 



Solids 
not 
Fat. 



.^ > 

CU Si 

CO 



No. I* 

No. 2* 
No. 3* 
No. 4 
No. 5 
No. 6* 
No. 7 
No. 8 
No. 9* 
No. 10 
No. II 
No. 12 
No. 13 
No. 14 



II 


•44 


: 
3- 


10 


•59 


3. 


II 


• 69 


3^ 


II 


■ 97 


3^ 


15 


.24 


A- 


II 


• 34 


3. 


12 


• 35 


3^ 


12 


• 35 


3^ 


10 


.3; 


2. 


13 


02 


A- 


II 


.64 


3- 


II 


• 76 


3- 


II 


.60 


3- 


II 


.18 


3. 



45 
05 
95 
20 
90 
I 

9 

7 
6 

4 
5 
8 

3 
2 



0.63 
0.56 

0.53 
0.76 
0.68 
0.56 
0.65 
0.69 
0.62 
0.67 
0.64 
0.70 
0.70 
0.65 



7.99 

7^54 
7^74 
8.77 
10.34 
8.24 

8.45 
8.65 

8.62 
8.14 
7.96 
8.30 
7.98 



1.028 
1.025 

1.032 

i^033 
1.032 

1.030 
1. 031 
1.030 
1. 031 

1.030 
1. 031 
1. 031 



* Certified to be watered under Adulteration Act. 

The above table gives the results of 14 samples of milk recently 
taken by the police under the Adulteration Law. Six of these 
were certified to be adulterated with water. 

In one case the water used was very dirty, and evidence of B. 
sporogenes enteritidis was obtained markedly toxic to guinea-pigs. 
A comparison of these figures with those of genuine average milk 
from the 7 dairies shows that the police will act in the public in- 
terest to maintain a systematic check on the milk as sold in the 
city of Kingston. 

Condensed Milk. 

The following figures have been obtained in this Laboratory as 
to the composition of condensed milk sold in Kingston : — 



Brand. 



Total 
Solids. 



Fat. 



Ash. 



Solids 
not Fat. 



Sugars. 



Milkmaid 
Nestle's 
Cow's Head 
Do. Unsweetened 



75 


88 


74 


.68 


71 


• 91 


43 


.40 



10.00 


1.99 


8.50 


1.78 


11.25 


3.53 


9.0 


2.12 



65 


88 


66 


18 


60 


66 


34 


40 



55^85 
58.59 
37^48 
21.78 



These analyses were made on single tins only, and the results 
may not be representative of the bulk as imported into the island. 

From these data it would appear that a lib. tin of good con- 
densed milk selling at 5d. would be equal to 450Z. of Kingston 



122 



milk. To compete with tinned milk, fresh cows milk, on this 
basis, would have to be sold at 4|d. per quart. 



REPORT ON THE MILK OF JAMAICA COWS. 
By H. S. Hammond, F.C.S., Assistant Chemist. 
Dairy No. I. — These cows are stall-fed, receiving oil-cakes and 
middlings, and guinea-grass. They are milked at 4, a.m. and 12, 
noon ; these samples were taken at noon. The amount of total 
solids and of fat is high throughout ; the ash in the case of No. 7 
is low ; the non-fatty solids are very low in the case of No. 2, and 
decidedly low in No. 7. The mixed milk, i.e, as sold to the pub- 
lic, is of excellent quality. These cows are mainly Barbadians, 
which are descendants of Channel Island cattle, famous for the 
richness of their milk, imported into Barbados several generations 
ago. 



1 

a 










A nab 


^'sis of 


Milk. 




^ ^ 


Breed. 


Age. 


Days in 
Milk. 












Reference 
ber of Co 


05 

c« 




aa 


|2 




10 


Barbadian 


... 


• • - 


17.49 


8.7 


0.66 


8 79 


1 025 


11 


• • 


... 


about 170 


16.41 


6.5 


0.83 


9.91 


1.031 


4 




... 


about 180 


16.14 


6.9 


0.78 


9.24 


1.027 


3 


" 


... 


about 180 


15,95 


6.5 


0.71 


9.45 


1.028 


1 




• • 


164 


15.16 


5.6 


0.75 


9.56 


1.029 


9 


" 


... 


about 110 


15.14 


5.5 


78 


9.64 


1.031 


G 


••• 


... 


about 80 


15.09 


6.1 


0.79 


8 99 


1.028 


2 


Native f bred J ursey 


1st 
Calf 


65 


14.86 


7.6 


0.72 


7.26 


1.026 


5 


Barbadian 


... 


about 180 


14.80 


5.4 


0.72 


9.40 


1.030 


8 


u 


... 


about 1 40 


14.74 


5.8 


0.69 


8.94 


1.029 


7 


Native ^ brod Hol- 
8ie;n 
Average 

Mixed Milk 


• 


about 1411 


12.66 


4.5 


0.64 


8.16 


1.028 




... 


... 


15.31 


6.3 
6.1 


0.72 


9.03 
9.03 


1.028 




15 13 


0.69 


1.028 



Dairy No. 2. — These are all native cows running at pasture and 
receiving no artificial food. They are milked (with the calf) at 
5 a.m. and I p.m. ; these samples were taken at i p.m. They are 
ordinary Jamaica cows ; the richness of the milk is partly ac- 
counted for by the calves removing the first milk, which is the 
poorest. 



123 



The mixed milk is of very good quality and calls for no com- 
ment. 



Age. 


Days in 
Milk. 


Analysis of Milk. 








1-fatty 
lids. 


cific 
avity. 






-*^ 


-V9 


A 


^m ^ 


(» f- 








c3 
fa 


< 


^^ 





1 









^ 


fe 


<D 


O 


O 


D 


a 




£ 


o 


0) 




P3 





Breed. 



13 
14 
11 



5 

10 



12 
3 



Jamaica 



(( 



t( 



Average 
Mixed Milk 



17.25 



16.76 



16.70 



16 41 



15.33 



15.01 



14.92 



14.48 



14.11 



7.2 



7.2 



7.5 



5.4 



5 7 



6.3 



5.2 



6.2 



13.93 5 5 0.68 



0.70 


10.05 


0.75 


9.56 


0.67 


9.20 


0.66 


8.81 


0.83 


9.93 


0.69 


9 31 


0.74 


8.62 



0.76 



0.72 



13 85 



13 38 



12.82 



12 58 



14.82 



14.32 



5.4 



4.8 



4.1 



4.3 



5.8 



6 5 



0.68 



0.66 



0.69 



0.69 



71 



68 



9.28 



8.91 



8.43 



8.45 



8.68 



8.72 



8.28 



9.01 



8 82 



1 029 

I 028 

1.028 

1.025 

1.031 

1.025 

1.028 

1.030 

1 028 

1.028 

1 027 

1.028 

1.030 

1 128 
1.028 
1.028 



Dairy No. 3. — These cows are stall-fed, and receive guinea- 
grass, and a mixture of cornmeal, bean and cotton-seed meal. 
They are milked at 5 a.m. and 2 p.m. The milks call for no 
remarks. The mixed milk is of good quality. 



124 



Reference Num- 
ber c'f Cow. 








Analysis of Milk. 


Breed. 


Age. 


Days in 
Milk. 


CO 

_ "^ 

SB -^ 




an 

< 


>> 

1^ 


in 


3 


Imported ^ bred 
Jersey 




297 


16.28 


6.5 


0.72 


9.78 


1.030 


2 


Native ^ bred Hol- 
Btein 


• •• 


184 


15.06 


5.9 


0.75 


9.16 


1.028 


9 


Imported Jersey ... 


• • • 


194 


15.02 


6.1 


0.70 


8.92 


1.028 


6 


Ordinary Native 


... 


135 


14 93 


5.6 


0.66 


9.33 


1 030 


5 


Imported Jersey 


• •• 


165 


13.87 


4.6 


0.76 


9.27 


1.030 


10 


Ayrshire and Jersey, 
native 


• «« 


• * 


13.36 


4.7 


0.72 


8.66 


1.029 


8 


Native | bred Hol- 
stein 




00 


13.35 


4.4 


0.72 


8.95 


1.030 


4 


Native J bred Short- 
horn 


■ • • 


201 


12.97 


4.3 


0.73 


8 67 


1.029 


7 


Imported Guernsey 


... 


256 


12.51 


4.2 


0.76 


8.31 


1.027 


1 


Imported Ayrshire ... 


. • • 


100 


12.(3 


3.6 


0.73 


8.43 


1 U30 




Average 




••• 


13.94 


6.0 


72 


8.95 


1.029 




Mixed Milk 




• • • 


13.47 


4.4 


0.69 


9.07 


1.030 



Dairy No. 4. — These cows are all native-born ; they are stall- 
fed, receiving 3 lbs. grain per day and guinea-grass. 

They are milked at 3 a.m. and I p.m., and these samples were 
taken at I p.m. 

In several cases, Nos. 12, 16, 13, 17, and 18, the ash is low ; in 
Nos. 17, 2, 18, 15, 19, 14 the non-fatty solids are low. 

The mixed milk is of good quality. 



125 



1 

a 


Breed. 


Age. 


Days in 
Milk. 


Analysis of Milk. 


Reference 
ber of Co^ 


09 

O 02 


a, 
Em 


< 






5 


Quarter-bred Hol- 
stein 


Years 
3 


244 


16.89 


7.0 


0.80 


9.89 


1.030 


4 


Ordinary Native 


12 


261 


16 76 


7.2 


0.74 


9.56 


1 028 


20 


Half-bred Holstein ... 


10 


9 


15.64 


5.0 


0.66 


10.64 


1.029 


3 


" " 


5 


282 


14,27 


5.6 


0.69 


8.67 


1.029 


21 


« 


4 


5 


14 22 


4.7 


0.70 


9.62 


1.031 


7 


• • 


5 


217 


13.98 


4.9 


0.73 


9.08 


1 029 


12 


Ordinary Mative 


13 


150 


13.86 


4.9 


0.63 


8.96 


1.028 


1 


Half-bred Holstein ... 


7 


413 


13.82 


5.0 


0.67 


8.82 


1.028 


10 


« '« 


3 


193 


13.49 


4 6 


0.71 


8.99 


1.029 


16 


« cc 

■ • ■ 


3 


112 


13.25 


4,3 


0.64 


8.95 


1 029 


11 


" " 


4 


171 


13 Ih 


4.3 


0.6G 


8.88 


1.028 


6 


" " 


9 


221 


13 10 


4.2 


0.66 


8.90 


1-028 


13 


CI (( _ _ 


9 


138 


13.01 


4.7 


0.61 


8.31 


1.027 


9 


« " 


3 


200 


12.83 


4 2 


0.71 


8.63 


1.028 


17 


Ordinary Native 


10 


64 


12.45 


4.3 


0.60 


8.15 


1.028 


2 


Half-bred Holstein 


5 


3U6 


12 14 


4.0 


0.65 


8.14 


1.028 


18 




9 


40 


11.66 


4.0 


64 


7.66 


1.026 


15 


a (( 


10 


113 


11.63 


4.0 


0.72 


7.63 


1.0 6 


19 


" " 


9 


28 


11.39 


3.8 


0.71 


7.59 


1.026 


14 


" " 


6 


120 


10.96 


3.4 


0.73 


7.56 


1.027 




Average 
Mixed Milk 


• 


• • • 

• •• 


13.43 


4.7 
4.5 


0.69 


8.73 


1.028 




13.33 


0.70 


8.83 


1.028 



Dairy No. 5. — This herd consists mainly of imported cows ; they 
are stall-fed, receiving cornmeal, bean and cotton-seed meal, and 
guinea grass. They are milked at 4 a.m., 12, noon, 4 p.m ; these 
samples were taken at noon, Nos. 12 and 8 are low in fat; Nos. 
15, 14, 10, 9, 18, 5, 7 and 12 are low in ash : Nos. 9, 4, 2, I, 5, 19, 7, 12 



126 



and 8 are low in non-fatty solids. Nos. 12 and 8 are very poor 
milks. 

The mixed milk is fairly good, though the figure for ash is low. 



a 


Breed. 


Age. 


Days in 
Milk. 


Analysis of Milk. 


1 Reference 
ber of Co^ 


1^ 




< 






13 


Holstein, native born 




214 


34.97 


6.5 


0.67 


9 47 


1.029 


15 


Alderney, imported .. 




• •■ 


14.79 


5.7 


0.61 


9.09 


1.028 


16 


Jersey, imported 


... 


about 169 


14.76 


5.4 


0.69 


9.36 


1.028 


U 


Holstein, native born 




273 


14.70 


5 5 


0.61 


9.20 


1.029 


10 


Ordinary native 




199 


14.36 


4 7 


0.63 


9.66 


1.029 


17 


Guernsey, imported 




... 


13.45 


4.4 


0.69 


9.05 


1.030 


11 


Ordinary native 




31 


13.33 


4.3 


0.67 


9.03 


1.030 


20 


Jersey, imported 




30 


13.27 


4.6 


65 


8 67 


1.028 


9 


Native | Holstein ... 




187 


13.17 


4 8 


0.59 


8.37 


1.026 


4 


Guernsey, imported 




169 


13.08 


4.7 


0.71 


8.38 


1.028 


6 


Holstein, imported ... 




15 


12.86 


3 7 


0.71 


9.16 


1 031 


3 


Native f Holstein ... 




141 


12 73 


4.0 


0.67 


8.73 


1 029 


18 


Holstein, imported . 




... 


12.61 


4.0 


0.58 


8.61 


1.029 


2 


Ayrshire, imported ... 




82 


12.55 


4 6 


71 


7.95 


1.027 


1 


Holstein, imported ... 




50 


12.26 


4.1 


0.69 


8.16 


1.028 


5 


Alderney, imported... 




• •• 


12.02 


4 3 


0.61 


7.72 


1.026 


19 


Alderney, imported . 




• •• 


11.99 


3.9 


0.66 


8.09 


1.028 


7 


Holstein, imported ... 




• •• 


11.53 


3.7 


0,63 


i{7.83 


1.027 


12 


Holstein, native born 




88 


10.39 


3.1 


0.58 


7.29 


1.025 


8 


Holstein, imported .. 
Average 
Mixed Milk 




■ • • 


10.10 


2.9 


0.70 


7.20 
8.55 


1.025 




12 95 


4.40 
4.2 


0.65 


1.028 




12.88 


0.63 


8.68 


1.028 



Dairy No 6. — These cows are stall-fed, receiving cornmeal, bean 
and cotton-seed meal, or "Dairy Feed," (a mixture of ground bar- 
ley, oats and corn.) They are milked at 4 a.m. II a.m. and 4 p.m.; the 



127 



samples were taken at II a.m. The ash in No. 2 is low : the non- 
fatty solids in Nos. 4, I and 2, and also in the mixed milk, are low. 



5 o 

1° 



Breed. 



Age. 



Days in 

Milk. 





Analysis of Milk. 








>, 








-H> 










m 






c3 ^ 


ii ^ 






•V.-S 


c8 .5 

*-■ C 


-4.9 


,c: 


g'^ 


CO 




< 


;^'^ 



CZ2 



4 
3 
1 

2 
5 



Canadian, grade 

Hereford 
Canadian, pure 

Guernsey 
Canadian, grade 

H olstein 
Canadian, pure 

Guernsey 
Native, pure Holstein 

Average 

Mixed Milk 



180 



41 



16 



13.93 


6.4 


0.69 


7.53 


13.80 


5.5 


0.66 


8.30 


12.51 


4.5 


0.67 


8.01 


12.27 


4.5 


0.64 


7.77 


12.02 


3.7 


0.66 


8.32 


12.91 


4.9 


0.66 


7.99 


12 64 


4.5 


67 


8.14 



1.023 
1.027 
1.027 
1.026 
1.029 
1.026 
1.027 



Dairy No 7. — These cows are all imported : they are stall-fed and 
receive bean and cornmeal and guinea grass. They are milked at 
4 a.m. and 2 p.m. : these samples were taken at 2 p.m., with the ex- 
ception of the mixed milk, which is the early morning milk. In the 
case of No. 9, the fat is low ; in Nos. 4 and 6 the non-fatty solids 
are low. The mixed milk is slightly low in fat. 



o 
S o 



Breed. 



Age. 



Days in 
Milk. 





Analysis of 


Milk. 








>> 








-u 


aj 






^ «= 


-^ 


-ta 


,d 


5 


^ 




< 


^^ 






7 
3 

10 

2 

8 
1 

5 
12 
11 

4 
9 
6 



Imported Ayrshire- 
Shorthorn 

Imported Ayrshire- 
Guernsey 

Imported Holstein .. 

Imported Jer^ey- 
Hiilstein 

English Shorthorn .. 

Canaduui Jersey- 
Ayrshire 

Imported Holstein .. 

Barbadian 

Imported Holstein- 
Jersey 

Imported Holstein .. 
" Ayrshire ., 
'• Holstein .. 

Average 

Mixed Milk, taken 



8 


yrs. 


9 




9 




6 




4 




6 




10 




4 




6 




9 




6 




»■) 




at 4 a. 



247 

32 
109 

312 

180 

21 
242 

38 

58 

50 

109 

58 



m. 



15.01 


6.3 


0.75 


8.71 


14.85 


6.5 


(18 


8.35 


14.31 


5.5 


0.73 


8.81 


14.19 


5.<! 


0.77 


8.59 


13 73 


4.9 


0.74 


8.83 


13 70 


5.2 


0.60 


8 50 


l;j.59 


5.0 


0.79 


8 59 


13.58 


4 7 


0.75 


8.88 


12.72 


4.1 


75 


8.61 


12.05 


4 1 


0.69 


7.95 


•2 01 


3 2 


0.67 


8.81 


11.55 


3 7 
4.9 


0.70 
0.73 


7.85 


13.44 


8.64 


11.96 


3.4 


0.72 


8.56 



1.028 

1 027 
1.028 

1.028 
1.029 

1.028 
1.028 
1.029 

1.029 
1.028 
1.029 
1.027 

1.028 

1.030 



128 

COMPARISON OF SACCHAROMETERS. 

Jamaica Brix 

Specific gravity. Saccharometer. Saccharometer. 

62° F. lbs. per barrel. lbs. per 100 lbs. 



I 000 


00 


00 


1.003 


I.O 


0.8 


1 .006 


2.0 


1.6 


1.008 


3.0 


2.1 


I. on 


4.0 


2.8 


1. 014 


5.0 


3.6 


1. 017 


6.0 


4-3 


1. 019 


7.0 


4.8 


I .022 


8.0 


5.6 


1.025 


9.0 


6.3 


1.028 


10. 


7.1 


I. 031 


II. 


7.8 


1.033 


12.0 


8.3 


1.036 


13.0 


9.0 


1.039 


14.0 


9-7 


1.042 


15-0 


10.5 


1.044 


16.0 


10.9 


1.047 


17.0 


II. 6 


1.050 


18.0 


12.4 


1.053 


19.0 


13. 1 


1.056 


20.0 


13.7 


1.058 


21 .0 


14.3 


I. 061 


22.0 


14.9 


1.064 


23.0 


15.6 


I .067 


24.0 


16.3 


I .069 


25.0 


16.8 


1.072 


26.0 


17.4 


1.075 


27.0 


18. 1 


1.078 


28.0 


18.8 


1. 081 


29.0 


19-5 


1.083 


30.0 


20.0 

H. H. Cousins 



THE BUD ROT OF THE COCONUT PALM IN 
THE WEST INDIES. (') 

By DR. Erwin Smith, U. S. Department of Agriculture. (^) 
General attention was first called to this disease by the reports 
of army officers during the American occupation of Cuba. The 

(1) In the Bulletin of the Department of Agriculture, Jamaica, March, 1905, 
there is a Note on this soft tissue disease, and a remedy proposed which has al- 
ready arrested the disease in several cases. When it has, hmever, gone too far, 
the only plan is, as Dr. Smith suggests, to cut down the tree and burn the " cab- 
bage." Editor. 

(2) From Science. 



129 

coconut palms were said to be dying in large numbers of some 
mysterious disease which should be investigated. Mr. Busck was 
sent by the U. S. Department of Agriculture to eastern Cuba, and 
subsequently reported on the entomological aspects of the disease. 
Later Mr. F. S. Earle reported the occurrence of a bacterial bud 
rot of the coconut in Jamaica. (^) The writer has since heard of 
its occurrence on the mainland in Central America, so that it may 
be assumed to occur all round the Caribbean. It was studied by 
the writer at Baracoa, Mata and Yumuri in eastern Cuba in April, 
1904. 

The disease has made decided advances since it was studied by 
Mr. Busck in 1901, especially at Mata, and if it continues to spread 
as it has done during the past ten years it will inevitably destroy 
the coconut industry of the island, and that, too, within the next 
ten or fifteen years. Already many of the planters are discour- 
aged and not setting any more trees, since it now attacks trees of 
all ages, including quite young ones and those on the hills as 
well as those close to the sea. The disease is frequently known 
as ' the fever,' and often one sees where the bases of the trunks 
have been scorched with an idea of preventing the development 
of the disease. The disease is not lodged in the roots, however, 
nor in the stem. These in all cases appear to be sound. 
The general symptoms are the yellowing and fall of the outer 
leaves, the shedding of the nuts, and some months later the death 
of the whole crown. The cause of this decline is not apparent until 
the tree is felled and the crown of leaves removed, including the 
wrappings of the strong terminal bud. The latter is then found to 
be the seat of the disease. This bud with its wrappings of young 
and tender leaves is found to be involved in the vilest sort of a 
bacterial soft rot — not unlike that of a decaying cabbage or potato, 
but smelling much worse, the stench resembling that of a 
slaughter-house. This rot, invisible until the numerous outer leaf- 
base wrappings are removed, often involves a diameter of several 
inches of soft tissues and a length of three or four feet, including 
flower buds and the whole of some of the soft fleshy white unde- 
veloped leaves covering the bud and forming the so-called ' cab- 
bage' of the palm. The rot stops very promptly with the harder 
tissues of the palm stem immediately under the bud and does not 
attack any of the developed leaves. It is a disease of the unde- 
veloped tissues. When the tree is felled and opened up, carrion 
flies and vultures are promptly attracted by the horrible smell. 
Fly larv^ and various fungi were found in the parts most exposed 
to the air and longest diseased, but the advancing margin of the 
decay was occupied only by bacteria, of which there appeared to 
be several sorts. No yellow or green fluorescent bacteria were 
obtained from the rotting tissues. All were white organisms of 
the * soft-rot' type, mostly plump short rods with rounded ends, 

(3) See Bulletin of the Department of Jgriculture, Jamaica, Feb., 1903, page 31. 



130 

but occasionally longer rods, all apparently gas producers. One 
of the commonest sorts formed round dense creamy white opales- 
cent colonies on agar. Another formed thin gray-white iridescent 
colonies on agar. A terminal spore-bearing, tetanus-like organism 
was also often abundant in the decayed tissues, even close to the 
advancing margin of the rot, and this is probably an anaerobe as 
it was not obtained in any of the many cultures. 

The picture of one diseased tree will answer for many. No 
fungi or insect injuries were found which could in the least account 
for the death of the tree. The disease is the result of a bacterial 
rot of the terminal bud and its wrappings, including the flower 
buds. The bacteria probably find their entrance through wounds 
of some sort, and their distribution is undoubtedly favoured by 
carrion creatures. The larva found deepest down in the rotting 
tissues was that of the common scavenger fly, Hennetia illucens, L. 
Occasionally the crown of a tree was found yellow from other 
causes, but if the youngest visible leaf (projecting five or six feet) 
was observed to be lopped over and wihing or shriveled, the soft 
rot was sure to be found on cutting down the tree and removing 
the close-wrapped leaf bases. No attempt has yet been made to 
produce the disease by pure cultures. 

Diseased trees should be felled and the terminal bud burned or 
properly disinfected with sulphate of copper. Only the most 
energetic action is likely to avail. 



THE TOBACCO OF JAMAICA, II. 

The following correspondence relating to the development of 
the tobacco industry of Jamaica is published for general informa- 
tion : — 

Extract from a letter from Professor W. R. Dunstan, Director of the 
Imperial Institute, to the Ltider-Secretary of State Jor the Colonies, 
dated December, 20, 1904- 

The trade report made by Mr. Chalmers* on the tobacco of Ja- 
maica is of considerable interest. 

The fact is already appreciated in this country that Jamaica is 
able to produce cigars of excellent quality. The quality does not 
however, appear to be uniform. The subject is so important that 
no effort should be spared to take whatever steps are needed for 
the development of the industry. If the recommendations made 
by Mr. Chalmers in his report are to be followed, it would seem 
highly desirable to obtain expert advice with reference to the cul- 
tivation, picking, fermentation, and curing of tobacco suitable for 
the manufacture of cigars. This assistance could best be obtained 
from Cuba, or from Sumatra or Florida, where suitable varieties of 
tobacco are successfully produced. 

This step has been recently taken in connection with the de- 
velopment of the tobacco industry in South Africa and also in 
Ireland. 

* Bulletin for Dec, 1P04, page 265. 



131 

Extt act from a letter from the Board of Trade Commercial Department 
(Intelligence Branch) — to the Colonial Secretary, Jamaica, dated 
December 7, T904- 
In the report from the expert, referred to above, interesting in- 
formation is (as you are aware) given, embodying the results of 
his inquiries and investigations into the growing of tobacco in 
your colony, and the possibility of the establishment of a very 
lucrative industry in connexion therewith, and there is no doubt 
that the particulars contained in this report would be of consider- 
able interest to the representatives of the tobacco trade in this 
country. The value, however of the information given would be 
materially enhanced if the report itself were accompanied by 
samples of the various grades of tobacco produced, and such 
samples (if procured) could be exhibited at the Offices of this 
Branch in illustration of Mr. Chalmers' report, and could be re^ 
tained here for examination by tobacco importers in this country, 
and afterwards sent to the Imperial Institute, or otherwise disposed 
of as might be directed. 

I should be glad, therefore, if arrangements could be made for 
samples of such tobacco to be forwarded to this Branch for the 
purpose indicated. 



Extract from Minute from the Director of Public Gardens and Plan- 
tations to the Colonial Secretary, Jamaica. 

Professor Dunstan states that Jamaica Cigars are not of uniform 
quality. This fact is due to the trade being at present of only 
small dimensions, and there is no doubt that the quality will gra- 
dually become uniform as larger stocks of tobacco are used for an 
increased trade. 

Expert advice would be of great assistance, as Professor Dun- 
stan suggests, especially as to Sumatra tobacco, when it is possi- 
ble for the Government to spare the necessary money. 

The Department has, however, studied the problems of cultiva- 
tion and curing with the help of trained Cubans, and has a prac- 
tical school at Hope Gardens where any one is welcome to come 
and learn and where the apprentices are taught during their time 
of service. The attached leaflets are reprinted from the Bulletin, 
and may perhaps interest Professor Dunstan. 

I have sent samples of tobacco to Mr. Worthington (of the Intel- 
ligence Branch of the Board of Trade), but I do not think that it is 
possible to do much at present in an export trade of leaf tobacco. 
The samples should not, therefore, be put forward as soliciting 
orders, but only as indicating what Jamaica can produce. All 
that is now grown is required for the cigar business, which is 
gradually growing, but large orders might lead again to a cata- 
strophe in our trade. We should aim rather at quality than 
quantity. 



132 

Extract from a letter from Professor W. R. Dunstan, Director, Imperial 

Institute, to Director, Public Gardens and Plantations, Jamaica, dated 

30th March, 1905. 

I have received through the Colonial Office a copy of a memo- 
randum prepared by you with reference to certain suggestions 
made by me in a letter, dated the 20th December, 1904, to the 
Under Secretary of State for the Colonies, as to the steps to be 
taken to improve the quality of the tobacco produced in Jamaica. 

I also venture to suggest that it would be well if typical samples 
of the tobacco grown in Jamaica, and of products such as cigars 
or pipe tobaccos manufactured from them, could be sent here for 
exhibition in the Jamaica Court of the Imperial Institute.* 

The samples should be accompanied by statistics of production 
and export, and information as to the prices at which products of 
similar quality could be delivered in this country, so that descrip- 
tive labels for the exhibits may be prepared and that we may be 
in a position to answer any enquiries received from merchants and 
others to whose notice the exhibits will be brought. 

The Imperial Institute has paid special attention to the question 
of tobacco cultivation and examination, and would be ready to 
give any assistance in connection with this industry in Jamaica. 



STACK ENSILAGE.f 

By Alfred H. D'Costa. 

Plant three acres of guinea corn, red dhurra or native corn and 
cultivate until the grains of corn are just soft enough to be crushed 
between your fingers — The corn is then in the best stage to make 
ensilage. 

Erect eight poles ten feet high to outline your stack and wattle 
the sides to help even packing, A stack 16 feet by ten 



feet is a suitable size for three acres of corn. Leave [ 
two openings in the sides of the stack one at either side 
to be used as doors. 

Start cutting the corn early in the morning, one man 
cutting, two men and two carts carting, and one man to 
pack and you remaining in the stack to direct the pack- 
ing and give a help with the handing up of the corn. 

Spread about a foot of grass on the ground and see that it is 
quite level. 

With the first load of corn brought in by the carts start packing 
and pack as tightly and as level as you can, be sure and pack the 
sides tightly as the great object is to keep out the air and it is 
more likely to get in from the sides than anywhere else. Pa«k 
right up to the wattle and be sure that you leave no air spaces ; 

*The Director of Public Gardeng will be happy to receive saroples, and forward them 
t© the Director of the Imperial Institute. 

t An article on this subject was published in tke Bulletin of ihe Botanical 
Department, Jamaica, March, April, M»y 1900, Vol. VII page 35. 



133 

wherever you notice a small hole, cut some of the corn and push 
it in and always pack level. Continue to pack evenly until you 
have used all your corn then cover the top with one foot of grass 
spread evenly and pile on all the stones and logs you can get on 
top to weigh down the stack. 

After you have got on the weights take down the wattle and 
draw away the side poles and so leave the stack free to settle 
down. 

The stacking of the corn may take from two to three days and 
the ensilage will be ready for use in about two months time. 

THE CULTURE OF THE CENTRAL AMERICAN 

RUBBER TREE, X.* 

{Continued from Bulletin for April.) 

By O. F. Cook, Botanist in charge of Investigations in Tropical 

Agriculture, U. S. Department of Agriculture. 

AGE AT WHICH PLANTED TREES MAY BE TAPPED. 

The earliest age at which Castilloa trees may be tapped with 
safety and advantage has been stated all the way from four to 
twelve years, while from eight to ten years is the conservative 
estimate. At the same time it must be admitted that little in the 
way of positive knowledge exists on this point, and careful expe- 
riments may be necessary to determine whether, for example, the 
taking of half a pound of rubber from each treee in the sixth year 
will retard growth so as to diminish the yield of succeeding years. 
As the trees approach maturity and have occupied most of the 
available space, as much may be taken as will not weaken the 
tree and shorten its life. 

The inferior quality of the rubber obtained from young trees 
also lessens the inducement for tapping them. It has been known 
for several years that the rubber and gutta-percha obtained from 
young plants or from the leaves and twigs of the trees is different 
from that yielded by a trunk of mature age, in that a smaller or 
larger percentage of rubber is replaced by non-elastic, brittle, or 
sticky substances commonly referred to as " resins." Dr. C. O. 
Weber has recently published the following results of analyses of 
samples of rubber from trees varying in age from two to eight 
years : t 

Resins in rubber from trees — Per cent. 

2 years old '... 42. 33 

3 years old ••• 35-02 

4 years old ••• 26.47 

5 years old ... 18.18 

7 years old ... 11-59 

8 years old ... 7-21 

» Extract fnun the U. S. Department of Agriculture, Bull. No. 40. Bureau of 
Plaat Industry. 

t Tropical Agriculturist, 22 ; 444. January,. 1903. 



134 

The same writer also gives a table showing the varying amount 
of resin in samples from different parts of the same tree : 

Resin in Rubber from — Per cent. 

Trunk ... 2. 6 1 

Largest branches ... 3-77 

Medium branches ... 4.88 

Young branches ... 5.86 

Leaves ... 7-50 

If these figures represent facts at all general, they lessen very 
distinctly the prospects of any plans which contemplate the tap- 
ping of very young trees, and it will be necessary to agree with 
Dr. Weber that eight years is the minimum age at which a plan- 
tation can be expected to furnish rubber for the market. 

But as this point is one which has been brought into considera- 
ble prominence in recent years, and is being relied upon by some 
as a means by which the profits of rubber culture can be increased 
and hastened, it may be well to state that the inferiority of the rub- 
ber of young trees and growing parts has been determined by 
other competent investigators and especially by Mr. Parkin whose 
account of the matter furnishes several interesting details which 
supplement the figures furnished by Dr. Weber : 

In the case of Hevea, the rubber c >llected from the young stems and leaves, as 
well as from the unripe capsules, is somewhat adhesive, and has less elasticity and 
strength than that fr^m the trunk. In the Oastillo.i introduced into Ceylon the 
latex from the stems bearing leaves, as well as from the leaves themselves, moulds 
between the finger and thumb into a very sticky substance, wholly unlike the 
caoutchouc- containing latex of the trunk. It dries to a brittle material, which 
becomes viscous when warmed. The quality of the rubber f r )m stems of this 
Castilloa, 12.5 to 25 centimeters (5 to 10 inches) in circumference, was likewise 
tested. Ir, seemed to have properties intermediate between that of the shoots 
and the trunk, being slightly sticky and somewhat deficient in elasticity. 

The climbing rubber plants, Landolphia Kirkii and Urceola esculenta, show a 
similar difference between the latex trom the shoot and that from thick stems. 
Ficus clastica also exhibits this peculiarity.a 

Attention was called to this in Ficus as far back as 1839, by 
Weinlung. He called the substance "viscin," and considered it 
intermediate between resin and caoutchouc. 

Mr. Parkin further says : 

In many plants this sj-called viscin seems to occur throughout the laticiferous 
system, e.g., the common breadfruit (Artocarpus incisa) and jak (A. integrifolia), 
trees . f the Tropics. 

Must likely there are bodies which do not come within the categories of caout- 
choucs and guttas, and yet are hydrocarbons with the same percentage composi- 
tion. Probably some of these viscous substances are snch Also it appears pro- 
bable that all caoutchoucs are not identical, and that when prepared as pure as 
po.ssible from the latex, as by the inyenicms centrifugal method oi Biffen, it may 
be found, for example, that the caoutchouc of Hevea has slightly difi'erent proper- 
ties from that of (JastilJoa.fo 

: ' (To be continued.) 

a See Weiss, Trans. Linn. Soc. Ill, 1892, p. 243. 
* Parkin, Annals of Botany, 14 : 203-204, 1900. 



135 
BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

The usual monthly meeting of the Board of Agriculture was 
held on nth April. Present: the Hon. the Colonial Secretary, 
Chairman, the Director of Public Gardens, the Agricultural 
Chemist, His Grace the Archbishop, the Hon. Thos. Capper, 
Messrs. C. E. deMercado, C. A. T. Fursdon, J. W. Middleton, G. D. 
Murray, and W. Harris, Acting Secretary. 

Representative of the Agricultural Society — A letter was read from 
the Agricultural Society stating that Mr. Fursdon, who is already 
a Member of the Board, would also represent the Society. 

Nomination of Members to fill vacancies — Letters were read from 
the Northside Sugar Planters' Association declining to nominate 
a member, also from the Hon. C. B. Vickers and Mr. P. H. Greg 
stating that it would not be convenient for them to accept seats 
on the Board. 

Science Teaching in Secondary Schools — The correspondence on 
this subject was submitted, and was ordered to be circulated 
amongst the members. 

Manurial experiments with Bananas at Burlington — ^A letter was 
presented from the Hon. H. Cork reporting the failure of these 
experiments, and a memorandum from the Agricultural Chemist 
dealing with the matter. It was decided to write to Mr. Cork the 
substance of the Chemist's memorandum. 

Draft of Proposal re Sugar Experiment Committee — The Govern- 
ment submitted a proposal for the appointment of a Committee to 
co-operate with the Island Chemist in the management of the Sugar 
experiments. It was pointed out that the appointment of such a 
Committee was recommended by this Board in April 1904, and 
the proposal was generally approved. On the suggestion of the 
Archbishop it was recommended that the Committee should be 
styled an Advisory Committee. 

Rotation of Crops in Cotton cultivation — A letter from Sir D. 
Morris with other correspondence on this subject was submitted. 
It was decided to circulate this correspondence. 

Packing of Oranges and Grape Fruit — A letter from Mr. Joseph 
Darling addressed to H. E. the Governor was brought up for dis- 
cussion. It was decided to reply to the Government that the Board 
is well aware of the evils that exist but it is unable to suggest a 
practical remedy. 

Mr. E. f. Wortley as Assistant at the Crystal Palace Exhibition — 
Mr. Fursdon addressed a letter to the Chairman on this subject. 
It was agreed that the Government should be urged to grant the 
necessary leave which need not exceed five months. 

His Grace the Archbishop and Mr. deMercado here left the 
meeting. 

Experiment Station — Labour, and distribution of Canes — It was de- 
cided that the present area under Canes should not be reduced. 

The Hon. Colonial Secretary left at this stage, and the Director 
of Public Gardens took the Chair. 



136 

It was agreed that the number of Apprentices should be reduced 
to 10, and in future only boys who can read and write well are to 
be employed. 

(Mr. Capper here left the meeting.) 

Moved by Mr. Murray, seconded by Mr. Fursdon, supported by 
Mr. Middleton and the Agricultural Chemist, it was decided that 
£30 of the Hope Gardens Vote for Transport, &c., be allocated for 
the distribution of Cane Tops for experiments. The Director of 
Public Gardens protested. 

Reports from the Chemist — The following papers from the Chemist 
were ordered to be circulated 

1. Applications from 18 distillers for £10 — Scholarships.. 

2. Proposed arrangements as to admission of boys from Second- 
ary Schools to Laboratory Lectures. 

3. Fee to Consulting Engineer — Sugar Experiments. 

4. Progress Report. Sugar Experiments. 

Reports, &c.,from the Director of Public Gardens, to be circulated : — 

a. Hope Experiment Station. 

b. Instructors' Reports. 

c. Letters from Mr. Cradwick re School Gardens. 

d. Proposed Itinerary for Mr. Thompson to end of June. 

e. Proposed Itinerary for Mr. Cradwick. 

Mr. Cradwick' s assistance at Agricultural Show — A letter was read 
from Hon. R. P. Simmonds asking if the Board will allow Mr. 
Cradwick to assist during June in St. Mary in stirring up the 
people to take an interest in a Show to be held at Port Maria at 
the end of June, also to assist at the Show itself. It was agreed 
that Mr. Cradwick should do this in connexion with his instruc- 
tion work in St. Mary. 

Materials for spraying diseased Caco-mit trees — The Chairman 
asked for the approval of the Board for the purchase out of the 
Board's Petty Expenses of materials in order that the experiments 
in spraying diseased Coco-nut trees may be continued. This was 
agreed to. 



A CORRECTION. 

The following correction has been sent by Dr. Cousins : — 

The note hy Dr. Cousins appended to the papers on Rotation Crops for Cotton 
in the last number of this Bulletin (on p. 110) is incorrectly described as a 'note 
on foregoing pap rs.' Neither the original letter from the Colonial Secretary to 
the Director of Public Gardens nor the closing letter from the Chemist of the 
Leeward Islunds (Or. Francis Watts) had been referred to Dr. Cousins nor had 
he seen thes^ papers until th^ir publication in the Bulletin. The minute by the 
Island Chemist was not drafted for publication and was based upon the four 
rotations suggested for trial in Jamaica only. 



[Issued 3rd June, 1905.] 
Printed at the Govt. Printing Office, Kingston, Jam. 



BULLETIN 



OF THE 



DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



Vol. III. JULY, 1905. Part 7. 



BDITED BY 

LIBRARY 

WILLIAM FAWCETT, B.Sc, F.L.S,\^^^^ ^^^^ 



Director of PrMic Gardens and Plantations. 



iiOTANIGAL. 



CONTENTS: 


Page. 




The Sugar Cane Soils of Jamaica. Ill 


137 


Tobacco of Jamaica. Ill 


146 


Banana Suckers 


152 


Cassava Trials 


152 


The Culture of the Central American Rubber 




Tree. XI 


156 


Board of Agriculture 


158 



PRIG E -Threepence. 



A Copy will be supplied free to any Resident in .Jamaica, who will aend name and 
address to the Director of Public Gardens and Plantations, Kingston P.O. 



KINGSTON, JAMAICA 
Hope Gardens. 

1906. 



jamafca. 



BXJLTjETIlSr 



OF THE 



DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



Vol. III. 



JULY, 1905. 



Part 7. 



THE SUGAR CANE SOILS OF JAMAICA.-III.* 

By H. H. Cousins, Island Chemist. 

THE UPPER VERE PLAIN. 

A series of twelve samples of soil from the chief lands of Den- 
bigh Estate has been analysed and after careful comparison with the 
results from other soils and a consideration of the indications of 
manurial experiments, advice as to the practical treatment of each 
soil has been given. It will be noticed that every soil in the 
series is deficient in carbonate of lime and in some cases it was 
not possible to detect any carbonates at all. 

I have arranged with G. W. Muirhead, Esq., that an acre of land 
on each piece shall be treated as recommended, so as to test the 
practical utility of advice based upon analytical and experimental 
data. The analytical work has been performed by Mr. H. S. 
Hammond, F.C.S., and the mechanical analyses are mainly the 
work of Mr. T. H. Sharp, Jr., B.S.A. 



Reference Number — lOO. 
Source Details — Denbigh Estate 

Field. 
Depth of Sample — 9 inches. 



SOIL ANALYSIS— A. 

Wood Pasture. Old Cane 



Physical Analysis. 



Stones 
Gravel 
Sand 

Fine Sand 
Silt 
Agricultural f Fine Silt 
Clay t Clay 

Moisture 



Total 



Per Cent 
Nil 
0.69 '^ 
1.38 
21.88 



60.36 yl'''^^. 



9.16 
5.15 



100 00 
Per Cent. 
58.0 



Retentive Power for water 

*Part I. Bulletin 1903, pp. 76-93. Part II. Bulletin 1903, pp. 97-109. 



Per Cent 
67.93 

32.07 
0.333 
0.614 
0945 

Nil 

9.07 
0.875 
0.125 
5.43 



0.0048 
0.0143 



138 

Chemical Analysis. 

(Sail passed through 3 mm. sieve dried at 100'^ C.) 

insoluble Matter 
Soluble in Hydrochloric Acid 
r Potash 
i Lime 

^ Phosphoric Acid 
I Carbonic Acid as 1 
(^Carbonate of Lime j 
Combined Water and organic matter 
Humus (soluble in Ammonia) 
Nitrogen 
Hygroscopic Moisture 

Fertility Analysis. 

Available Potash 
Available Phosphoric Acid 

Observations. 

This soil is very similar in mechanical composition to some of 
th€ heavier soils in the lower area of the Vere Plain. It is a stiff, 
alluvial soil, well suited for cane cultivation. Although fairly po- 
rous, this soil should benefit from drainage. 

Chemically, the following points call for notice : — 

(1) The entire absence of carbonate of lime ; 

(2) The rather low standard of humus and of nitrogen. 
Recommendations — 

(1) Apply I ton of lime per acre, or 4 tons of marl. 

(2) Encourage all the humus-producing agencies of the estate, 

grow cow-peas and apply as much farmyard manure and 
vegetable refuse as possible. 

(3) Apply a manure of 2 cwt. sulphate of ammonia and I cwt. 

sulphate of potash per acre, preceded by 5 cwt. of basic 
slag and lime or marl as already recommended. 



SOIL ANALYSIS— B. 

Reference Number — lOl. 

Source Details — Denbigh Estate. Big Lime Savannah. Old 

Cane Land. 
Depth of Sample — 9 inches. 

Physical Analysis. 



stones 
Gravel 
Sand 

Fine Sand 
Silt 
Agricultural f Fine Silt 
; Clay. 1 Clay 

Moistare 



Retentive power for water 



Total 



Per Cent. 

Nil 

1.71 

3.17 

4.41 

66.59 

14.92 

3.07 

6.13^ 

100.00 
Per Cent. 
60 



.Fine 
<' Earth. 



139 



(Soil passed 





Chemical Analysis. 




through 3 m.m. sieve dried at 100° C.) 




Insoluble Matter 


69.01 


Soluble in Hydrochloric Acid ... 


30.99 


fPotash 


0.194 


1 Lime 


0.816 


-I Phosphoric Acid 


0.049 




Carbonic Acid as 
Carbonate of Lime J 


m 




Trace 


Combined Water and organic matter 


8.69 


Humus (soluble in ammonia) 


2.05 


Nitrogen 


0.123 


Hygroscopic Moisture ... 


6.53 


Fertility Analysis. 




Available Potash 


0.0637 


Avails 


ible Phosphoric Acid 


0.0142 



Observations. 

This is an even heavier soil than the preceding and draining is 
important. It is deficient in carbonate of lime, but is in better 
heart than the previous sample. The standard of humus and ni- 
trogen is good, and the potash and phosphoric acid satisfactory. 
I should not expect ordinary fertilisers to pay on this soil unless 
in a very good growing season or with irrigation. I advise ap- 
plying lime or marl and the growing of cow-peas as the best prac- 
tical treatment. This is good cane land, and should respond to 
deep tillage. 



SOIL ANALYSIS— C. 
Reference Number — -102, 

Source Details — Denbigh Estate. Murphy John. 
Depth of Sample — 9 inches. 

Physical Analysis. 



Old Cane Land. 





Per Cent. 


Stones 


Nil 


Ciravel 


2.32^ 




Sand 


2.94 




Fine Sand 


19.74 




sut 

Agricultural f Fine Silt 
Clay. t Clay 


64.75 
2.67 


Fine 
'Earth 


1.48 




Moisture 


6. 10 J 




Total 


100.00 




Per Cent. 


Retentive Power for water 


52 


Chemical Analysis. 




(Soil passed through 3 m.m. sieve dried at 100° C.) 




Insoluble matter 


73.31 


Soluble ia Hydrochloric Acid ... 


26.69 


f Potash 


0.147 


1 Lime 


0.531 


-{ Phosphoric Acid 


0.0736 


1 Carbonic Acid as \ 
(^Carbonate of Lime J 




Trace 


Combined Water and organic matter 


6.26 


Humus (soluble in Ammonia) 


1.16 


Nitrogen 


0.086 


Hygroscopic Moisture 


6.50 





140 

Fertility Analysis. 

Available Potash ... 0.0076 

Available Phosphoric Acid ... 0.0165 

Observations. 

This is a lighter soil than the two previous samples and natu- 
rally more free draining. It is in fair heart, but is low in humus 
for first class cane land and is almost deficient of carbonate jof 
lime. 

This soil should receive lime and be helped with green dres- 
sings, pen manure and any compost or trash available. 

I do not consider that fertilisers would offer any security for 
a profitable return under present conditions. 



SOIL ANALYSIS— D. 
Reference Number — 103. 
Source Details — Denbigh Estate. Big Shaddock. Old Cane 

Field. 
Depth of Sample — 9 inches. 

Physical Analysis. 

Per Cent, 

Stones ... Nil 

Gravel ... 2.22^ 

Sand ... 0.91 

Fine Sand ... 32.26 

Silt ... 59.88 }■ 

Agricultural f Fine Silt ... 0.53 

Clay. t Clay . ... 0.02 

Moisture ... 4.18 



Fine ^ 
Earth, 



Total ... 100.00 

Per Cent. 
Retentive power for water ... 52 

Chemical Analysis. 

(Soil passed through 3 m.m. sieve dried at 100° 0.) 

Insoluble matter ... 71.24 

Soluble in Hydrochloric Acid ... 28.76 
f Potash ... 0.231 

I Lime ... 1.53 

Phosphoric Acid ... 0.1175 

Carbonic Acid as \ jx-. 

Carbonate of Liine J 
Combined Water and organic matter 5.191 

Humus (soluble in Ammonia) 0.877 

Nitrogen ... 0.058 

Hygroscopic Moisture ... 4.36 

Fertility Analysis. 

Available Potash ... 0.0116 

Available Phosphoric Acid ... 0.0194 

Observations. 

This soil consists almost entirely Of fine sand and silt and is 
naturally porous and free draining. It lacks humus and carbonate 
of lime. The phosphoric acid and potash are quite satisfactory. 

Lime and vegetable refuse are needed to bring this soil up to a 
high standard of fertility. I do not recommend commercial fer- 
tilisers, except I cwt. per acre of sulphate of ammonia to the ra- 
toons. 



141 



SOIL ANALYSIS— E. 
Reference Number — 1 04. 

Source Details — Denbigh Estate. Congo Town. 
Depth of Sample — 9 inches. 

Physical Analysis. 

Stones ••• 

Gravel 
Sand 

Fine Sand 
Silt 
Agricultural J Fine Silt 
Clay. t Clajr 

Moisture 

Total 
Jletentive power for water 

Chemical Analysis. 

(Soil passed through 3 m.m. sieve dried at 100° C.) 
Insoluble matter 
Soluble in Hydrochloric Acid ... 
f Potash 
I Lime 

-{ Phosphoric Acid 
I Carbonic Acid as 1 
(^Carbonate of Lime J 
Combined Water and organic matter 
Humus (soluble in Ammonia) 
Nitrogen ... 

Hygroscopic Moisture ... 

Fertility Analysis. 

Available Potash 
Available Phosphoric Acid 



Old Cane Field. 



Per Cent. 
Nil 
0.26 
0.22 
1.70 
82.42 y 
4.05 
4.17 
7.18 



Fine 
Earth. 



100.00 
Per Cent. 

57 



62.90 

86.10 
0.265 
1.119 
0.1186 

Trace 

9.201 

1.76 

0.0943 

7.74 

0.0088 
0.0223 



Observations. 

This soil consists of very fine particles and is on the heavy- 
side. It presents all the factors for good cane land in very sound 
heart. 

I am of opinion that a dressing of lime or marl on this soil 
would do wonders. 



SOIL ANALYSIS— F. 
Reference Number — 105. 

Source Details — Denbigh Estate. Hospital Piece. 
Depth of Sample — 9 inches. 

Physical Analysis. 

Stones 
Gravel 
Sand 

Fine Sand 
Silt 
Agricultural ( Fine Silt 
Clay t Clay 

Moisture 



Old Cane Field. 



Per Cent 
Nil 
0.111 
0.11 
0.60 
60.73 y 
22.68 
6.95 
9.82 



Fine 
Earth. 



Total 



Retentive power for water 



100.00 
Per Cent. 

77 



142 



Chemical Analysis. 

(Soil passed through 3 m.m. sieve dried at 100° C.) 

Insoluble matter .. 61.61 

Soluble in Hydrochloric Acid ... 39.39 

rPotash ... 0.577 

I Lime ... O./'GO 

^ Phosphoric Acid ... 094 

I Carbonic Acid as | ^^_ Trace 
(^Carbonate of Lime J 

Combined Water and organic matter 10.10 

Humus (soluble iu Ammonia) 2.096 

Nitrogen ... 0.140 

Hygroscopic Moisture ... 10.89 

Fertility Analysis. 

Available Potash ... 0.0079 

Available Phosphoric Acid ... 0.0251 

Observations. 
This is rather a heavy piece of land, but of good quality. 
Drainage should be studied. Humus and nitrogen very good. 
Potash and phosphoric acid satisfactory. In great need of lime. 



SOIL ANALYSIS— G. 
Reference Number — io6. 

Source Details — Denbigh Estate. Dudley Content. 
Depth of Sample — 9 inches. 



Physical Analysis. 



Agricultural 
Clay 



Stones 

Gravel 

Sand 

Fine Sand 

Silt 
/ Fine Silt 
jClay 

Moisture 



New land. 



Per Cent. 

Nil 

l.ll 

1.43 

13.80 

66 



,o I Fine 
2.65 '^Earth. 

7.88 
7.00 



Total 



100.00 
Per Cent. 
62.0 



I 

\ 



Retentive power for water 

Chemical Analysis. 

(Soil paased through 3 m.m. sieve dried at 300° C.) 
Insoluble matter 
Soluble in Hydrochloric Acid ... 
f Potash 
Lime 

Phosphoric Acid 
Carbimic Acid as \ 
[^Carbonate of Lime J 
Combined Water and organic matter 
Humus (soluble in Ammonia) 
Nitrogen 
Hygroscopic Moisture 

Fertility Analysis. 

Available Potash 
Available Phosphoric Acid 

Observations. 
Average cane land, rather below par in available fertility. I 
recommend (l) liming ; (2) for plant canes 4 or 5 cwt. basic slag 



70.01 
29.99 
0.229 
614 
413 

Trace 

7.04 
1.46 
0.072 
7.53 

0.0082 
0.0088 



143 



followed by 2 cwt. sulphate of ammonia, I cwt. sulphate of potash ; 
(3) to the ratoons | ton lime before first cultivation and a top- 
dressing of 2 cwt. sulphate of ammonia later. 

SOIL ANALYSIS— H. 
Reference Number — 107. 

Source Details— Denbigh Estate. Dike Piece. Old Cane Field. 
Depth of Sample — 9 inches. 

PHYSICAL ANALYSIS. 



Agricultural 
Clay 



Stones 

Gravel 

Sand 

Fine Sand 

Silt 
f Fine Silt 
\Clay 

Moisture 



Total 



Per Cent 

Nil 
0.36 
3.48 
4.f.5 

83.44 
1.92 

Trace 
7.47J 

100.00 
Per Cent. 
55.0 



.Fine 
''Earth. 



Retentive power for water 

Chemical Analysis. 

(Soil passed through 3 m.m. sieve dried at 100° C.) 
Insoluble M itter 
Soluble in Hydrochloiic Acid ... 
(^Potash 
I Lime 

-{ Phosphoric Acid 
I Carbonic Acid as "| , 
(^Carbonate of Lime J 
Combined water and organic matter 
Humus (soluble in Ammonia) 
Nitrogen 
Hygroscopic Moisture 

Fertility Analysis. 

Available Potash 
Available Phosphoric Acid 

Observations. 

Good cane land of medium texture. I recommend (a)!Jliming; 
(b) for ratoons, 2 cwt. sulphate of ammonia per acre. 



61.95 

38.05 
0.431 
0.857 
0.0995 

Trace 

9.48 

1.589 
0.117 

8.07 

0.0102 
0.0178 



SOIL ANALYSIS— I. 
Reference Number— 1 08. 

Source Details — Denbigh Estate. Coates Piece. 
Depth of Sample — 9 inches. 

Physical Analysis. 

stones 
Gravel 
Sand 

Fine Sand 
Silt 
Agricultural f Fine Silt 
Clay 1 Clay 

Moisture 



Old Cane Field 



Per Cent. 

Nil 

0.15 

0.41 

1.90 n- 

89.0.5 yI'"'^,, 
^ ^ -^Barth. 

Trace | 
7. 02 J 



Total 



Retentive power for water 



3 00. no 
54.0 



144 



Chemical Analysis. 

(Soil passed through 3 m.m. sieve dried at 100° C.) 

Insoluble Matter ... 64.05 

Soluble in Hydrochloric Acid ... 35.95 

f Potash ... 0.4556 

Lime ... . 0.959 

^ Phosphoric Acid ... 0.1128 

I Carbonic Acid as 1 m 
I^Carhonate of Lime j 

Combined water and organic matter 8.739 

Humus (soluble in Ammonia) 1.656 

Nitrogen ... 0.1317 

Hygroscopic Moisture ... 7.545 

Fertility Analysis. 

Available Potash ... 0.0129 

Available Phosphoric Acid ... 0.0231 

Observations. 

Good cane land. Almost pure silt. In good heart, but lacks 
lime. Probably this is all that is needed to grow a full crop for 
the season's possibilities. 



SOIL ANALYSIS— J. 
Reference Number — 109. 

Source Details — Denbigh Estate. Fattening Pasture. 
Depth of Sample — 9 inches. 



Physical Analysis. 



Agricultural 
Clay 



Stones 
■ravel 
Sand 

Fine Sand 
Silt 

Fine Silt 
Clay 
.Moisture 



Per Cent. 

Nil 



1.17 

2.49 

13.41 



Total 



76 
1.04 
0.98 
4.52, 

100.00 
Per Cent. 
53.0 



oQ .Fine 
"^"^ ^ Earth. 



69 67 

30.33 
0.2814 
1 184 
0.1205 

Trace 



Retentive power for water 

Chemical Analysis. 

(Soil passed through 3 m.m. sieve aried at 100° C.) 
Insoluble matter 
Soluble in Hydrochloric Acid ... 
f Potash 
I Lime 

•{ Phosphoric Acid 
I Carbonic Acid as ) 
(^Carbonate of Lime J 
Combined water and organic matter 
Humus (soluble in Ammonia) 
Nitrogen 
Hygroscopic moisture 

Fertility Analysis. 

Availabie Potosh 
Available Phosphoric Acid 

Observations. 
This soil, described as Fattening Pasture, is the finest of 
series and indicates a high standard of fertility. Retentive, 



267 
042 
1356 
73 



0.009iJ 
0.0453 



the 
and 



145 

yet containing little clay, it presents a high standard of all the 
elements of fertility, with the single exception of carbonate of 
lime. This is not entirely deficient, as in some of the other soils 
of this series, but is so small in amount that a dressing of lime or 
marl should be of decided benefit. 



SOIL ANALYSIS— K. 

Reference Number — 1 10. 

Source Details— Denbigh Estate. Dick Piece. Old Cane Field. 

Depth of Sample — 9 inches. 

Physical Analysis. 

Per Cent. 

Stones ... Nil 

Gravel ... 0.28' 

Sand ... 0.87 

Fine Sand ... 2.32 

Silt ... 86.42 y^-^ 

Agricultural / Fine Silt ... 2.25 

Clay 1 Clay ... 2.31 

Moisture ... 5.55_ 



Fine 



Total ... inO 00 

Per Cent. 
Retentive power for water ... 54.0 

Chemical Analysis. 

(Soil passed through 3 m.m. sieve dried at 100° C.) 

Insoluble matter ... 66.67 

Soluble in Hydrochloric Acid ... 33-33 

f Potash ... 379 

I Lime ... 1.180 

^ Phosphoric Acid ... 0.122 

Carbonic Acid as "I t,.>«^ 
(^Carbonatu of Lime J 

Combined water and organic matter 7.77 
Humus (soluble in Ammonia) 1 .525 

Nitrogen ... 0.089 

Hygroscopic Moisture ... 5.872 

Fertility Analysis. 

Available Potash ... 0.0134 

Available Phosphoric Acid ... 0.0500 

Observations. 

This represents good cane land of medium stiffness. Very rich 
in available phosphoric acid and potash, but somewhat low in 
humus and nitrogen and deficient in carbonate of lime. 

I recommend liming or marling. Increase humus by cow-peas 
or pen manure. Apply 2 cwt. per acre of sulphate of ammonia to 
the ratoons. Neither phosphates nor potash are required. 



SOIL ANALYSIS— L. 

Reference Number — 99. 

Source Details — DenlDigh Estate. Williams Piece. New land. 

Depth of Sample — 9 inches. 



146 
Physical Analysis. 

Per Cent. 

Stones ... Nil 

Gravel ... 0.29^ 

Sand ... 0.69 

Fine Sand ... 11.33 

Silt .. 28 30 

Agricultural f Fine Silt ... 49.36 

Clay t Clny ... 1.67 

Moisture ... 8.36 



Fine 

Earth. 



Total ... 100.00 

Per Cent. 
Retentive power for water ... 6.5.6 

Chemical Analysis. 

(Soil passed through 3 m.m. sieve dried at 100° C.) 

Insoluble matter ... 64.36 

Soluble in Hydrochloric Acid ... 35.04 

f Potash ... 0.261 

I Lime ... 0.504 

-{ Phosphoric Acid ... 0.145 

I (Jarboiiic Acid as l „ „^„ 
l^Caibwnate of Lime J 

Combined water and organic matter 9.94 

Humus (soluble in Ammonia) 1.1><9 

Nitrogen ... 0.111 

Hygroscopic Moisture ... 1>.12 

Fertility Analysis. 

Availal^le Potash ... 0.0058 

Available Phosphoric Acid ... 0.0239 

Observations. 

This soil will become lighterwithcultivation. The high amount of 
fine silt is remarkable, making this soil a heavy one as first turned 
up. The constants of fertility are normal. The humus is not very 
high and might be increased to advantage. Lime is also needed ; 
otherwise this soil presents all the factors for excellent cane land. 
I recommend a ton of lime per acre and systematic use of green 
dressings. I do not advise chemical manures for this soil. 



TOBACCO OF JAMAICA, III.* 

JAMAICA SHADE-GROWN TOBACCO FROM SUMATRA SEED. 

By WM. M. Cunningham, Assistant Superintendent and Agri- 
cultural Instructor, Hope Experiment Station. 

The experiment in the growing and curing of wrapper tobacco 
from Sumatra seed under shade cloth at the Hope Experiment 
Station, has been successfully carried out. The texture and the 
elasticity of the leaf are all that can be desired, while the colour 
is perfect. 

The cigar manufacturers who have examined the leaf pronounce 
it of a high quality, and the colour equal to that imported from 

* For previous papers on tobacco, see Bulletin for September & December, 19(ji, Sc 
June, 19l'5. 



147 

Sumatra. The local value of the product after being classed in 
the proper sizes and colours, pressed and baled, is from 4/ to 6/ 

per lb. 

A very lucrative industry is thus open for Jamaica even although 

the initial cost is high. 

Notes on the experiment in growing and curing Sumatra wrapper 

tobacco under shade cloth. 

A quarter of an acre was laid out on a site previously occupied 
by Havana tobacco the tent being erected over two distinct kinds 
of soil ; one a heavy black loam, and the other a sandy or gritty 
loam. The plants grew equally well upon both soils, reaching a 
height of 9 feet in 58 days ; the leaf from the sandy loam is of a 
thinner and of a finer texture than that from the black loam, from 
latter the leaf is heavier, and cured with a gummy substance on 
the surface. 

In the progress of the experiment many methods were tried, and 
much experience has been gained, and it is not supposed that 
improvements cannot be made in the future. There will naturally 
be many ideas developed as to improvements that can be made, 
e.g., that the plants should have been topped, the picking should 
have been done a little earlier, or a little later to get the best 
results. 

It is well known by all tobacco growers that different soils and 
different districts require different treatment. The production of 
the leaf, and the relation of the different soils to the character of 
the leaf, and the necessities of cuhivation must be further studied, 
and will unquestionably be beneficial. 

Preparation of the seed beds. 

No special plan was adopted in the preparation of the seed 
beds, the methods in common use being adopted. It is very im- 
portant that in the preparation of the seed beds an ample supply 
of seed should be sown, and provision being made by successive 
sowings every 7 or 10 days, so that when the planting season comes 
round the supply of plants suitable for transplanting will be ample 
for the purpose, and the supply should be maintained through- 
out the period in which the planting is to be done. After the 
seeds are sown, the beds should be watered, and kept continuously 
moist, but not too wet, until the seedlings are planted out. 

On a commercial scale an ounce of seed is used for an acre of 
land, this insures an abundance of plants, and in favourable 
seasons there will be more than enough, but it is poor economy 
to have scant seed beds and to wait for plants. 

Land best adapted for wrapper leaf. 

There is no longer any question but that a sandy loam is the 
best, the subsoil, either clay or sand, the latter being preferable 
for growing leaf of the finest texture, also the climate must be 
warm and humid, for wrapper leaf requires a humid atmosphere 
from the seed to the cigar, and the reverse is deleterious. Without 
a proper soil, suitable climatic conditions and environments, the 



14^ 

best results need not be expected ; fine thin wrapper leaf only is 
desirable, climate is essential to the growing of wrapper leaf, and 
as this cannot be modified by artificial means, we must seek a 
district where the temperature and moisture are similar to that of 
Sumatra— warm and humid. We have such districts in Jamaica 
in Temple Hall and Upper Clarendon, where it is safe to advocate 
the cultivation of this valuable crop. 

Time for Planting. 

Sumatra wrapper tobacco should be grown in the ordinary to- 
bacco season, November and December to March and April. At 
Hope the seeds were sown on the 2nd September, 1904, under 
cloth, the seedlings planted out under the tent from the 1st Novem- 
ber, were moulded from the 1 8th November, and reached a height 
of 9 feet in 58 days. The first ripe leaves were picked on the ilth 
January, 1 905, 131 days from date of sowing, the average maxi- 
mum temperature in the tent during the growth of the plants was 
90° taken daily at 3 p.m., the minimum temperature taken at 7 a.m. 
daily was 66°. Planting should commence not earlier than 3 
o'clock in the afternoon on sunny days, but on a cloudy, light 
showery day, planting should be carried on during the whole day. 
If there is no rain when planting begins, sufficient water must be 
poured into each hole, and the newly planted seedlings should be 
watered every day after sunset. The plants are set out at a dis- 
tance of 15 inches apart, in rows 3 feet apart, running from north 
to south. At distances of 3 feet by 15 inches, an acre should con- 
tain 11,600 plants. 

Cultivation. 

Plants require 5 or 6 days to take root, after which cultivation 
should be begun and continued frequently until the plants get so 
large that further cultivation is liable to damage the leaves. In 
order to insure rapid growth the ground should be constantly 
stirred, cultivation will stop about the time the plants begin to 
button, at this stage the soil is so shaded that it will not become 
baked hindering the feeding of the surface roots. 

Harvesting. 
When the plants are not topped they grow to the height of the 
tent, and the blossoms often push up the shade cloth at a height of 
9 feet from the ground ; suckers should be removed, so as 
to throw the strength into the main plant. Wrapper leaf tobacco 
should be primed, i.e. the leaves gathered as they ripen ; this 
needs considerable judgment and practice on the part of the grower; 
the leaves ought to be pulled when slight indications of a brownish 
colour appear round the edges of the leaf, and on the tip, occa- 
sional spots will appear at other places on the surface. The ordi- 
nary indications of ripeness which governs tobacco grown in the 
open fields, — such as yellow blotches, curling of the leaf, and the 
snapping of the midrib when bent, will not apply to shade grown 
tobacco. By experiment at Hope it is advised to harvest the leaf 
at an early stage of ripeness. By going over the field in this way 
and picking the leaves as they ripen, the leaves are of a uniform 



149 

degree of ripeness, and this is a very desirable object. At the same 
time there is danger in harvesting too green, as in such cases the 
leaf has an uneven colour when cured. If allowed to ripen fully, 
its texture and toughness, and its delicate pea-green hue will be 
spoiled. 

Three or four leaves are generally taken off in the first priming, 
then an interval of several days will elapse before another priming 
can be made. It is usual to make 5 or 6 primings of a crop, which 
occupies a period of from four to six weeks. As the leaves are 
picked off the stalk they should be kept straight, placing them back 
to face, and laying them in baskets 36 inches by 18 inches and 12 
inches deep, lined with shade-cloth with the butts to the ends of 
the basket, and the tips to the centre ; they are carried in these 
baskets to the curing house. Never pick the leaves while the dew 
or rain-drops remain on them as spots will result. It is preferable 
to cut in the afternoon as the sun is getting weaker ; in the fore- 
noon, unless cloudy, there is a danger of sunburn. 

Curing, 

When the leaves are taken to the curing house 30 or 40 are 
threaded on a string, each end of which is fastened to a lath 4 
feet 3 inches long by | inch thick. The leaves are placed on the 
string face to face and back to back to prevent curling ; the laths 
are put closely in the bottom barraderas where they may remain 
from 48 to 72 hours according to the, moisture in the house, then 
carried up and adjusted on the upper barraderas, the laths put 
about 6 inches apart. The drying of the leaf in the curing house 
is entirely governed by the conditions of the weather, however, in 
a general way if the house be filled with green tobacco, and the 
weather is hot and dry, the house should be tightly closed for 
about 3 days, by which time the tobacco will turn yellow ; the 
house should then be opened at night, and kept closed during the 
day ; this is done to prevent rapid curing which gives a green and 
uneven colour. To obtain the best results the tobacco should be- 
come fairly moist and fairly dried out once in every twenty-four 
hours. The opening and closing of the house requires to be done 
with judgment because it is by the process of allowing the tobacco to 
becomealternately soft and dry that the leaf is properly cured. If the 
season during which the tobacco is being cured is excessively hot 
and dry, as was the case in curing this crop, means must be found 
to keep the house moist. In this case it was found necessary to 
hang cloth round the inside of the house to retain moisture, also 
instead of threading the leaves on string and fastening to the laths 
immediately on being brought into the house, the leaves were 
partly sweated on the floor of the curing house, spread in lots of 
12 leaves one above the other, back to back, and face to face, 
covered with green banana leaves. If the floor of the house is made 
of earth it is necessary to spread old shade cloth or bags beneath 
the leaves to keep them off the damp floor, otherwise the bottom 
leaves will get black and discoloured ; particular care must be 
taken not to sweat the leaves when damp with wet or moisture. 



150 

Allow them to remain in this position for 48 hours, or until the 
edges of the leaves turn a yellow colour, the remainder of the leaf 
will also be of a slightly yellow shade ; when this colour is attained, 
thread as previously described, put the laths on the bottom bar- 
raderas for 24 hours, allowing the leaves on each lath to touch one 
another, shut the house during the day, and open at night. 

Great care must be taken to prevent excessive moisture, as pole 
sweat, mould, and other damage to the leaf arises in that case, 
which must be prevented. The curing of the tobacco is completed 
when the mid-ribs of the leaves are brown and soft. The time for 
curing the tobacco that has been primed is from twenty to twenty- 
two days, at which time it is ready to be fermented, or 
the laths may be adjusted on the top barraderas of the house, and 
there remain until such time as sufficient dry tobacco is ready for 
fermenting. To get the tobacco in condition to handle, all the 
doors and ventilators must be kept open during the night previous 
to putting into the press. The next morning the tobacco will be 
in what is called " good case," that is it should have taken up suffi- 
cient moisture to have become soft and pliable. The tobacco 
should contain at least 25 per cent, of moisture before being put 
in the bulk (press) then the process of fermentation gives the leaf 
a light brown colour. If the tobacco contained 25 per cent, of 
moisture when bulked, and the curing house be kept at a tempera- 
ture at from 75° to 85° F. the tobacco will generate sufficient heat to 
cause a daily rise in temperature of from 8° to 10° F. For deter- 
mining the temperature of the bulk of tobacco, during the process of 
fermentation, a thermometer was placed in the centre of the bulk ; 
the following record of temperature (in degrees Fahrenheit) during 
the first fermentation process is given as follows : — April 1 2th to- 
bacco put in bulk (press), 13th at 7 a.m. 80°, at 3 p.m. 89°, 14th at 
7 a.m. 96°, at 3 p.m. 102°, 15th at 7 a.m. 1 10°, at 3 p.m. 114°, 1 6th 
at 7 a.m. 119°, at 3 p.m. 122°, 17th at 7 a.m. 125°, tobacco taken 
out of bulk and put in a second bulk (press). The second bulk 
should be allowed to remain 15 to 20 days by which time the to- 
bacco will have warmed up considerably, though it will not reach 
as high a temperature as in the first bulk. If the tobacco did not 
contain an overabundance of moisture when first bulked, it will be 
dried off by this time and the temperature will fall to about 96° or 
100° F. The tobacco will now be thoroughly cured and ready for 
assorting and baling. 

Sizing and Assorting. 

When the tobacco has been thoroughly cured it is ready to size, 
assort, and to be baled or boxed. The sizing is the first work, the 
various lengths of the tobacco represent its various characteristics 
and types of the leaf, making 5 lengths from 10 to 12 inches, 12 to 
14 inches, 14 to 16 inches, 16 to 18 inches, and over 18 inches. 
After this work is completed the assorting or shading is completed, 
making claro or very light brown, Colorado claro, light brown 
Colorado maduro, brown, and dark brown, and light and dark 
broken leaves, with the last named all leaves of uneven colour or 



151 

those which are in any way imperfect are inckided. The tobacco 
is tied in " hands" fan shaped of from 30 to 40 leaves each, these 
are tied with fibre, and the tobacco is ready to be baled. 
Cost of Tobacco grown under Shade. 
Estimates of the cost were published in the Bulletin for last De- 
cember, to which the reader is referred. Calculating on the wood- 
work lasting for 5 years, putting on new cloth each year, and in- 
cluding cultivation and curing, the cost of the tobacco to the grower 
varies from 2s. to 2s. 2|d. per lb. 

SUN GROWN TOBACCO FROM SUMATRA SEED. 

A small experiment plot was planted in the open field, to test 
the quality of cigar wrapper leaf from out-door cultivation. 

A local cigar expert who examined the cured crop thinks very 
highly of it, and was so favourably impressed by the quality, that 
he intends growing it on a large scale. He valued the best grade 
leaf at from 5/ per ft>., about ten per cent, could safely be relied on 
as being of first grade leaf. 

The plot was planted on the 1 6th November, 1 904, the first ripe 
leaves were picked on the 7th February, 1905, 159 days from date 
of sowing ; the average maximum temperature in the shade during 
the growth of the plants was 86" F. taken daily at 3 p.m., the 
minimum average temperature taken at 7 a.m., was 67° F. 

The crop was cultivated, harvested, and cured in the same 
manner as that grown under shade. 

Effect of priming sun grown wrapper leaf. 

It was noticed in connection with this experiment that 
priming had a marked effect on the growth of the upper leaves, 
removal of the lower leaves causing an increased growth and 
thickness in the upper leaves, and with it an increased percentage 
of nicotine. The quality of the product is thus somewhat lowered, 
hence the small percentage of first grade wrapper leaf. 

The priming of tobacco is more expensive than cutting the stalks 
as more labour is required, but the improvement in quality and 
the percentage of high grade wrapper leaf fully warrants this 
additional cost. It has this advantage that the leaves are uni- 
formly matured when they are hung in the curing house, and the 
finished crop is therefore of a more uniform character. 

Influence of distance in planting on the yield and thickness of the leaf. 

A small experiment plot to study the relation of distance in 
planting to yield and thickness of the leaf was planted on the l6th 
November, 1904, harvested and cured in the same manner as the 
previous experiment. 

Close planting increases the yield per acre, and plants nearest 
together in the row produced a thinner leaf than the plants set 
farther apart, the size of the leaf, thickness, elasticity, and size of 
the veins may all be more or less modified by close planting. 

On heavy soils, efforts should be directed to the production of 
a highly flavoured leaf. These are qualities which can be sensibly 
afl"ected by the distance of planting, and the time and manner of 
growing. 



152 

BANANA SUCKERS. 
By W. CradwiCK, Travelling Instructor. 

It is of the greatest importance that banana growers should 
know how long a banana sucker takes to shoot. I find that the 
small settler in the western end of the island is totally ignorant 
of the time required by a ratoon sucker and not by any means 
certain of the time taken by plant suckers, I have been careful 
to explain that cultivation, natural adaptability of the soil to 
banana growing, as well as the distances of planting are all im- 
portant factors in the time which a plant or ratoon sucker will 
take to bring fruit to the state when it can be cut. I have strongly 
advised all the planters both large and small with whom I have 
come in contact to carefully note when a piece is planted and 
when the fruit is fit to cut, and base the time of planting the next 
year's crop on the results of these observations. 

With regard to ratoon suckers, I am now advising planters to 
take 12 to 24 good hard wood pegs and drive them in beside an 
equal number of ratoon suckers of heights ranging from 6 inches 
to 2 feet, making the peg the same height in every case as the 
sucker, record the date of putting in the pegs, and then in 1 906 
they will be able to see the proper time for leaving suckers for 
the spring crops. 

People in the west all complain of the poor price paid in the 
autumn for fruit, and yet have done practically nothing to try to 
get a larger quantity in during the months when prices always 
rule high. As far as my observations go, a ratoon sucker under 
fairly favourable conditions takes about 17 months to mature 
fruit, but on account of the unsettled weather of the past year, my 
observations are hardly reliable. 



CASSAVA TRIALS IN 1905. 

By H. H. Cousins, Island Chemist. 

To test the agricultural yield of the various Cassavas now in 
cultivation in Jamaica, a series of tV acre plots of some 23 native 
varieties were planted at the Hope Experiment Station in April 
1904. After 12 months' growth, a portion of each plot was reaped 
and the tubers sampled for analysis. A second reaping at 15 
months,' and a third at 1 8 months' growth will be made. As the 
public were anxious to obtain early information as to the yield of 
tubers and of starch per acre, it is considered desir:;ble to publish 
the first results based upon 12 months' growth without waiting for 
the completion of the trials. The yield per acre is much lower 
than it should have been owing to a severe attack of red-spider 
last August which denuded the plants of all foliage so that no 
growth was made until after the October rains when fresh foliage 
was developed. These plants really represent 9 months' actual 
growth, if allowance for the red-spider attack be made, Expe- 



153 

rience shows that Cassava is very subject to this pest in the 
Liguanea plain ; I have not observed it in other parts of the island. 

Experiments in spraying with paraffin-naphthalene emulsion 
and liver of sulphur are to be tried at Hope, but it would appear 
that the plant ultimately recovers from the attack of this pest and 
the net result is only a prolongation of the period required for 
full development of tubers. The starch content of the tubers was 
quite satisfactory and most varieties were in a fit state for the use 
of the starch manufacturer at the end of the first 12 months. 

The leading variety of the series is " White Top " with IO5 tons 
tubers per acre containing 33 6^ of starch equal to 7,902 lbs. 
starch per acre. This is a bitter variety yielding rough-coated 
tubers of a dark colour and was obtained from the peasants of 
St. Elizabeth by Mr. W. Cradwick. 

The variety that comes next is one called " Long Leaf, Blue 
Bud " yielding 6,552 lbs. of starch per acre. This is a variety 
with light brown tubers and white flesh which we obtained from 
the Hon. T. H. Sharp and is largely grown by the peasantry in 
the Inverness district of Clarendon. The highest percentage of 
starch was found in " Silver Stick " also obtained through Mr. 
Sharp from the same district; this contained 35 percent of starch. 

The variety " Brown Stick" which is well thought of in many 
districts gave a poor yield at Hope, although the starch-content 
was good. 

We have established the fact that the specific gravity of a Cas- 
sava tuber bears a fairly close relation to the starch-content of the 
tubers. With the Sweet Potato we found little variation in gravity 
and many varieties containing a good deal of starch were of prac- 
tically the same density as water. With the Cassava it is quite 
different and we are preparing data from which it is hoped that a 
factory will be able to estimate the starch-content of cassava 
tubers by means of a Cassava Balance. 

By weighing 50 lbs. of tubers in air and again in water the loss 
of weight represents the weight of a volume of water equal to that 
of the tubers. The specific gravity of the tubers — at the tempera- 
ture of observation — will then be the ratio of 50 lbs. to the loss in 
weight recorded. 

A table is being constructed in which if 50 lbs. cassava tubers 
are taken, the weight when immersed in water will be referred to 
an approximate percentage of starch in the tubers. 

It is obvious that this factor would only be an approximate 
guide to the starch-content, but its use should enable a factory to 
pay for tubers a price based upon a presumptive content of starch. 

The tables set forth the appearance and habit of each variety 
as determined by Mr. W. M. Cunningham of the Experiment 
Station which may enable planters to identify local varieties 
grown under a different name with those appearing in our list. 
A description of the tubers and finally a table giving the yield of 
tubers per acre, their composition and the total indicated starch 
per acre from the 23 varieties are also appended. 



154 



Trial of Cassava Varieties. Hope Experiment Station. 
{Period of growth = 12 Months.) 



o 

12; 



1 

2 

3 

4 
5 



Variety. 



Tubers 



7 
8 
9 

10 
11 
12 

13 
14 

15 

16 
17 
18 
19 
20 

21 

22 
23 



White Top 

Long Leaf Blue 
Bud 

Blue Top 

Smalling 

Rodney 



6 Luaiia, Sweet 



Tons 

per 

Acre. 



10-5 
9 

8-25 

7-5 

7"5 

6 75 

6-5 

6-25 

6-(iu 



I " = 



9 

"o 



Black Stick 

Bobby Hanson 

Black, Long Ltaf 
Blue Bud j 

Mullings ,.. 5-75 

Duff' House ...: 5 5 

White Bunch of 5-25 
Keys. , 

Fu.«tic, Sweet 5 00 

New Green ... 5-25 

Mass .lack ... 4.25 

Luaiia, Bitter ...'' 4-25 

Silver Stick ... 3-5 

Prize or Silver Stick 3*5 

White SticK ... 3-25 

White Smooth Bit- 3-25 
ter 

Black Bunch .f 3-25 

Ke\s. 

] 

Brown :?tick .. ! 3-25 
Yellow Belly ... 3-5 



57-9 
54-9 

590 

58 2 
59-3 
5(1 <> 
54 6 
59- 1 
55-2 

CO 1 
59-1 

^7-4 

61-4 
68 7 
62.0 
r)6-l 
57 "4 
56-4 
54 3 
50-2 

59 8 

58-3 
61-4 



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45 1 

41-0 
41-8 
40-7 



45 4 
4U-9 
44-8 

39 9 

40 9 
42-6 

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38-0 
43-9 
42-6 
43-6 
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87 32 53 1-176 16,552 

1 

i 
0-C3 ! 30-50 1-129 ! 5,<^36 



0-67 ! 32 71 1 1-125 



5,494 



69 i bl-77 { 1-131 15,337 



44 I 80 35 20 1 180 ; 5,322 



91 3:v49 1 



0-80 3412 1 



0-67 



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152 '4,777 



171 

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153 
161 



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4,16a 
4,107 
4,069 



102 I 3,226 
139 3,192 



133 



3,091 



169 13.075 

167 2,744 

! 

163 1 2,634 

147 2,522 
159 2,460 



135 

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147 



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2,384 
2,321 



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156 

THE CULTURE OF THE CENTRAL AMERICAN 

RUBBER TREE, XL* 

{Continued from Bulletin for fune.) 

By O. F. Cook, Botanist in charge of Investigations in Tropical 

Agriculture, U. S. Department of Agriculture. 

DIRECTION AND SHAPE OF INCISIONS. 

The tubes which produce the milk of Castilloa and other rubber 
trees are so slender and thread-like that the creamy liquid would 
not flow from their cut ends if it were not forced out by pressure. 
Some writers seem to have assumed that the liquid is actually com- 
pressed inside the tubes, or that the walls of the tubes are stretched 
by the liquid they take up. A more probable view is that recently 
advocated by M. Lecomte, t that the pressure is due to the tension 
of the bark, and that it is mostly exerted in a transverse direction. 
If we add to this the fact that nearly all the tubes extend length- 
wise, a transverse cut would reach the maximum number of these 
and would thus for two important reasons secure more milk than 
one of the same length in any other direction. A cut along the 
trunk would be the worst, since it would reach the fewest tubes 
and relieve the tension of the bark most. Oblique cuts are inter- 
mediate, the more horizontal the better. M. Lecomte hesitates to 
recommend transverse cuts lest they may prove injurious to the 
tree ; but if a short transverse cut will bring as much milk as a 
longer oblique gash there seems to be no real reason why it should 
be more harmful, providing, of course, the tree be not girdled, or 
too much bark be not cut away at one level. The practical diffi- 
culty with transverse cuts lies in the fact that it would be much 
more difficult to collect the milk, some of which will stay in the 
cuts, while the surplus will run down the trunk of the tree in many 
driblets instead of being brought together at the point of the V- 
shaped incisions generally used. The desirability of making the 
cuts as nearly transverse as possible should, however, be con- 
sidered, and in districts where, as in eastern Guatemala, depen- 
dence is placed entirely on the " scrap" rubber, most of which 
coagulates in the cuts or on the surface of the trunk of the tree, it 
may be feasible to make the cuts nearly or quite transverse. Indeed, 
this is what Dr. Preuss describes as customary on the El Baul plan- 
tation in Guatemala. 

For tapping they use an instrument made out of a bush knife (machete). The end 
of the blade is for this purpose bent back until a groove is f^jrmed about broad 
enough to lay a finger in. The cutting edge of this groove is well sharpened. 
With this instrument the workmen tear horizontal gashes in the bark of the trees, 
and indeed over a half or three-quarters of the circumference of the trunk. The 
grooves are cut at distances of 1^ feet, one above another, up to the principal 
branches. The milk at first flows out in drops, which fall to the ground. They 
let these go to waste because the quantity is only small and this milk is very 
watery. But in a minute or two the dropping ceases and the milk which then 
oozes out is pulpy and remains in the turrows, where it hardens into strips 
of rubber. In two days these strips are pulled out, washed, and dried in the shade, 

* Extract from thf U. S. Dept, of Agriculture, Bui. No. 49. Bureau of Plant Industry. 
tJourn. d'Agri. Tropicale 10: 100. Translated in Agriculture Bui. Straits and 
Federated Malay States, 1: 382. 



157 

and are then ready for market. Drying in the sun causes the rubber to become 
sticky and should be strictly avoided. The trees are tapped four times a year ; 
each time another side of the trunk is operated on. The yield each time is half a 
pound of rubber, or one kilogram (2.2 pounds) in a year. I was informed that the 
horizontal grooves male with the instrument described require only a quarter as 
much time to fill up as the broad diagonal wounds made with the machete. The 
former are completely closed in three months' time, and the tree recovers very 
rapidly. 

Parkin's experiments in tapping Hevea in Ceylon gave results 
much in favour of oblique incisions over either horizontal or ver- 
tical. He says : 

In both cases the oblique incision yields about double that of the other. There 
seems little difference between the amount collectible from a vertical and a hori- 
zontal incision. Although there is a greater output of latex from the horizontal 
cut, yet much more dries on the wound than in the case of the vertical, conse- 
quently the amount which drops into the receiver comes to about the same in the 
two cases.* 

With Hevea it was found that two oblique incisions joined be- 
low to make a letter V gave nearly twice as much latex as one 
alone. In case of Castilloa, however, where the milk flows so 
much more freely, it was concluded that the most milk could be 
secured with the least injury to the tree by means of separate 
oblique incisions. Such cuts would certainly heal more readily 
than V-shaped wounds, since the bark frequently receives its 
worst injuries at the junction of the two incisions. 

TAPPING INSTRUMENTS. 
That improved methods and tools are to be used for cultivated 
trees is one of the points on which all the rubber planters agree, 
but as yet none of the many improvements suggested has attained 
any popularity, and it is at least doubtful whether any of the de- 
vices brought forward at this time is to be looked upon as a prac- 
tical solution of the problem. Some inventors have worked on 
the erroneous idea that the rubber comes from the sap, like sugar 
from the maple, and have thus completely wasted their time. 

An enumeration of some of the features essential for a good 
tapping instrument may save further labour on wrong lines. 

The cutting edge must be keen, and must therefore be easy to 
sharpen. A thick or blunt edge bruises the wood and milk tubes, 
and this interferes with the flow of milk. 

There should be a means by which the depth of the cut can be 
regulated, since it is important to cut deep enough to reach the 
milk and yet not so deep as to reach into the wood, but axes and 
chisels with shoulders to prevent too deep penetration are not 
promising because the thickness of the outer bark is variable. 
The shoulders also bruise the bark if the cutting is by blows. In 
British India it is thought that the best instrument for tapping the 
Para rubber trees is an ordinary carpenter's gouge. 

MULTIPLE TAPPING. 

By far the most important recent discovery in connection with 

the culture of Para rubber in the East Indies is what may be called 

multiple tapping, or the repeated cutting of the edges of the wound 

to induce a renewed flow of milk. This is, it is true, by no means 

♦Circular Royal Botanic Gardens, Ceylon, June, 1899, p. 121. 



158 

a new idea, since it seems to have been the regular practice of the 
rubber gatherers of Brazil ; but their idea that the tree gave more 
milk after it had become accustomed to the operation seemed so 
childishly fanciful to Europeans that it has only recently been put 
to a practical test, and now there is much surprise to find that it 
is very decidedly correct. Perhaps the most striking instance is 
that described very recently from Selangor, where a single Para 
rubber tree, 25 years old, yielded 18 pounds of rubber in a period 
of two months.* A single ounce was obtained the first day, and 
l^ pounds in the next five days. For 10 days the daily average 
was more than half a pound, and on the twelfth day a maximum 
of 12 ounces was obtained. A second tree yielded a total of 12 
pounds 10 ounces of rubber. It was estimated that about seventy 
hours of labour was required to collect about 30 pounds of rubber 
from the two trees, orover two hours for each pound of rubber, which 
may be noted as an indication that the collection of rubber by 
this method will be expensive in proportion as it is carefully done, 
since it will require intelligent and somewhat skilful cutting to 
avoid too serious injury to the trees. 

BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

Extracts from Minutes. 

The usual monthly meeting of the Board of Agriculture was held 
at Headquarter House on 1 6th May 1 905, the following members 
being present : the Hon. the Colonial Secretary, Chairman, the 
Director of Public Gardens and Plantations, the Agricultural Che- 
mist, the Hon. Thos. Capper, Hon. Thos. H. Sharp, Mr. C. A. T. 
Fursdon, and Mr. W. Harris, Acting Secretary. Mr. Geo. D. Murray 
telegraphed that owing to heavy rains he was unable to attend. 

Appointment of Member— A letter from the Colonial Secretary was 
read intimating that the Governor had appointed Mr. Thos. H. Sharp 
to act as a member of the Board during leave of absence granted 
from the 1st May to His Grace the Archbishop of the West Indies. 

Crops for rotation with Cotton — The Chairman mentioned that as 
this subject was of considerable importance, and in order to 
save time he had decided to publish the correspondence in the 
Bulletin and he now asked for the concurrence of the Board. 
This was approved. 

Applications to attend Distillers' Course at the Laboratory— Twenty 
applications were received and considered, and ten were selected. 

Arrangements as to admission of boys from Secondary Schools to 
Agricultural Lectures at the Laboratory — The Board decided that 
boys from Secondary Schools who may be selected to attend the 
lectures in Agricultural Science at the Laboratory, such lectures 
to occupy twelve hours per week, should pay a fee of 30/ per term. 

School Gardens— The Director of Public Gardens submitted two 
reports by Mr. Cradwick on School Gardens, (a) at Titchfield, and 
(b) on School Gardens generally and points to be observed by 
Teachers. 

*A<^ricultural Bulletin of the Straits and Federated Malay States, I., 556, November, 1902. 



159 

The Agricultural Chemist suggested that a pamphlet on ' Hints 
on School Gardens ' should be prepared. 

Law for the prevention and spread of contagious diseases among 
animals — The Colonial Secretary in a letter dated 9th March, 1905, 
forwarded a copy of this Bill for the consideration of the Board. 
It was decided that as at present advised the Board is of opinion 
that the matter should remain in abeyance until such time as the 
finances of the island are in a position to strengthen the law by 
the appointment of an Inspector and to provide funds for com- 
pensation to owners of animals destroyed under the law. 

Jamaica Scholarship for Agricultural Students — The correspondence 
on the subject of making the Jamaica Scholarship and the £60 
Scholarship available to Agricultural Students was brought up for 
consideration. The Agricultural Chemist proposed, seconded by 
Mr. Sharp and carried by a majority : — 

"That this Board desires to direct the attention of the Govern- 
ment to the Scholarships available to boys on leaving the Second- 
ary Schools of Jamaica, including the Rhodes Scholarship, and 
suggests that the possibility of making the Jamaica Scholarship 
of direct benefit in encouraging Agricultural Education in Jamaica 
should be considered by the Government." 

Visit of Sir Daniel Morris — -A letter from the Colonial Secretary, 
with a copy or a letter from Sir D. Morris stating that the Imperial 
Commissioner of Agriculture desires to pay an official visit to the 
colony in June, July or August next when he would discuss mat- 
ters of agricultural interest and make preliminary arrangements 
in connection with the Agricultural Conference to be held here in 
January next came up for consideration. The Board was of 
opinion that on general grounds, and particularly in the interests 
of the Cotton Industry, the month of June would on the whole be 
the best time for the visit. 

Selected Cotton Seed for 1905 — The Colonial Secretary wrote 
inviting the attention of the Board to the publication in the 
Gazette of an extract from the "Agricultural News" of the Im- 
perial Department of Agriculture for the West Indies headed 
" Selected Cotton Seed for 1905 ", and stating that directions for 
the publication of the notice to the end of May. The Director of 
Public Gardens and Plantations stated that this is also being 
published in the Bulletin. 

Cultivation of bananas in Hanover and Westmoreland — The Colonial 
Secretary wrote informing the Board that the Inspector of Police for 
Hanover in reporting on that parish for the past quarter called at- 
tention to the suitability of the soil in the country extending from 
Green Island in Hanover to Grange Hill in Westmoreland for the 
cultivation of bananas, but pointing out that the small settlers there 
are ignorant of the proper methods of planting and culture of this 
crop, and suggesting the desirability of one of the Agricultural In- 
structors visiting the district for the purpose of giving the necessary 
instructions to the people. The Director of Public Gardens and 
Plantations stated that Mr. Cradwick is now in that neighbourhood 
and he will be asked to give his attention to this matter. 



i6o 

Withdrawal of Imperial Grants in aid of Agriculture in the II' est 
Indies — The Colonial Secretary wrote informing the Board that 
the Governor has received a despatch from the Secretary of State 
intimating that the Imperial Grants in aid of Agriculture in the 
West Indies will be gradually withdrawn, and that the sum of 
£250 allowed for the salary of the lecturer in Agricultural Science 
at Jamaica vrill be discontinued after the 31st March, 1906. It 
was decided to postpone discussion of this matter until Sir 
Daniel Morris visits the island. 

Letter re Ramie Fibre — A letter from Dr. Greshoff on this subject 
was laid on the table. The Secretary reported that the circular 
issued by the " Ramie Union " referred to by Dr. Greshoff had 
not been received and another copy has been asked for. 

Locked Still at Denbigh — The Chemist read an extract from a 
letter from Mr. G. W. Muirhead of Denbigh reporting that the 
locked still was now working under lock and that the additional 
butt for low wines had been completed. The waste or ' deleterious 
matter, ' as it had been called, was now being returned to the still 
as had always been the practice. When the fittings being made 
at the railway works were attached and the retort cocks connected 
by a pipe with the dunder drain as planned, Mr. Muirhead con- 
sidered that the system would be perfect. In his opinion a great 
check had been effected on rum stealing. 

Application for Mr. Cradwick's services — An application from the 
Secretary of the Port Royal Mountain Agricultural Society for 
Mr. Cradwick's services at the Show to be held in July was con- 
sidered ; as well as a suggestion from the Director of Public 
Gardens and Plantations that he should be instructed to travel in 
Clarendon in connection with the Prize Holdings Scheme during 
July, and for longer if it was found necessary. It was decided 
that Mr. Cradwick may assist at the Port Royal Mountain Show 
on the day before and during the day of the Show, and that he 
should travel in Clarendon as suggested by the Director of Public 
Gardens. 

The following papers were presented and it was decided that 
they should be circulated — 

From the Chemist — 

1. Manurial experiments on cotton at Inverness. 

2. Report of work done for Easter Term 1 905. 

3. Report on visit to Trelawny by the Fermentation Chemist. 
From the Director of Public Gardens and Plantations — 

1. Report on Experiment Station at Hope. 

2. Suggested arrangements for Mr. Cradwick's work to the 
9th June. 

3. Reports from Travelling Instructors. 

4. Letter from Rev. J. Duff re Mr. Cradwick's services at the 
Montpelier Agricultural Show. 

Cattle Tick Pest — The Secretary was instructed to forward the 
correspondence on this subject to the Agricultural Society. 

[Issued 7th July, 1905.] 



# 



%. 



BULLETIN 



OF THE 



DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTTmE. 



Vol. III. AUGUST, 1905. Part 8. 



EDITED BY 



WILLIAM PAWCETT, B.Sc, E.L.S., »-ibi^arn 

NEW YORK 

Director of Pvhlic Gardens and Plantations. BOTANIC A I.. 

GAKDEN. 



CONTENTS 



Page. 

Tobacco of Jamaica, IV ... ••• l^l 

Cotton : Rotation of Crops, II ••• 164 

Exhibits for Colonial Exhibition ... 166 

Note on the Quango ... ••• 1^9 

Agricultural Banks in Canada ... I/O 

The Culture of the Central American Rubber 

Tree, XII ... ... i8l 

Board of Agriculture ... ... 183 



PRIG E— Threepence. 



A Copy will be supplied free to any Resident in .Jamaica, who will send name and 
address to the Director of Public Gardens and Plantations, Kingston P.O. 



KINGSTON, JAMAICA : 
Hope Gardens. 

1906. 



•JAMMCA.. 



BXJLIjETIN 



OF THE 



DEPARTMENT OF A(iRIOFLTURE. 



Vol. III. AUGUST, 1905. Part 8. 

THE TOBACCO OF JAMAICA, IV.* 

The following reports from experts on tobacco grown at Hope 
Gardens will interest those who are thinking of taking up the 
cultivation of tobacco from Sumatra seed. 

The result of the small experiment with sun-grown tobacco from 
Sumatra seed is especially important as indicating that it is 
possible to produce good wrapper equal to Sumatra without the 
aid of shade-cloth. 

From Mr. F. V. Chalmers, London, to Director of Public Gardens 

and Plantations. 

13 Devonshire Square, 

Bishopsgate Street, London, E.G., 

8th June, 1905. 
Dear Sir, 

I have your favour of the 23rd of May, also the type samples of 
tobacco, and as requested, I give you a prompt opinion upon them. 

Sample No. I — Sumatra wrapper tobacco, shade-grown, is a 
beautiful tobacco, both in flavour and texture, but inclined to be 
veiny, and from some ill defined cause, in every leaf, the mid-rib 
and veins are zig-zag and irregular. Apart from this, a few spots, 
and a little dullness of colour, I consider that tobacco perfect. 

Sample No. 2 — Sumatra wrapper tobacco sun-grown and primed 
is equal to No. I and the same remarks apply, except that I like 
the complexion of this tobacco better, one red leaf excepted, and 
unless the difference of cost and production is very small, I see no 
reason to go on with the shade. 

Sample No. 3 — Sumatra wrapper tobacco sun-grown topped 
and cut on the stalk, is equal to the two previous, except that the 

*For previous papers on tobacco iee Bulletin for September and December, 1904^ 
and June and July, 11)05. 



I62 

growth is stunted, and the flavour a little stronger, and the leaf is 
not in such good proportion as to stalk as the two previous, so I 
do not consider that so desirable, which, of course, only applies 
where duty is paid, although it must always be remembered, in 
cutting wrappers for a cigar, it is desirable that each side of the 
leaf shall cut into so many wrappers, without leaving a remnant, 
which has to be used as a filler. 

Sample No. 4 — Havana tobacco shade-grown, is a useful tobacco 
but has the same objection as to veins, stalk and spots. It is the 
best production, of the three Havanas, but lacks good complexion. 

Sample No. 5- — ^Havana tobacco sun-grown and primed, should 
make a useful tobacco for bunch or filler, but being strong it 
would have to be used with considerable caution. 

Sample No. 6 — Havana tobacco sun-grown topped and cut on 
the stalk, the same remarks apply to this. 

Looking at the types generally, I think very highly of them and 
I hope that someone will be induced to go in largely for pro- 
duction on these lines, but the two I pin my faith to most, are the 
outside grown Sumatra, and the shade-grown Havana, that is to 
say, for the purposes of wrapper. 

The outside Havana is a very desirable growth for filler. 

The tobacco at the present time is not fully fermented, and will 
undoubtedly improve, but there ought not to be any difficulty now 
in Jamaica grown tobacco, on these lines, competing with Sumatra, 
Borneo, and Havana. 

The flavour of all the tobaccos is unsurpassable, when fully 
fermented. 

I am perfectly confident, in my own mind, there is a large for- 
tune waiting for somebody, if they will only produce this tobacco, 
as herein indicated. 

I shall be very pleased to hear that someone is taking the 
matter in hand at once, and going to ship some thousands of bales 
to England. 

Yours trul}^ 

F. V. Chalmers. 



Mr. M. Fornaris, Montpelier Cigar Factory, to Director of Public 

Gardens and Plantations. 

Kingston, June 8th, 1905. 
Dear Sir, 
In reply to your letter of the 31st ult., I beg to say that I have 
tested the samples of Sumatra Tobacco grown at Hope, which you 
submitted to me. I find that they are of good and even colour 
and that they burn well with good flavour. I consider them to be 
much superior to the samples submitted to me last year. Of 
course it is impossible for me to express an opinion on your 
whole crop from the few samples I have had the pleasure of testing. 

Yours faithfully, 

M. Fornaris, 



163 

From Mr. M. Fornaris, Montpelier Cigar Factory, Kingston, to 

Director of Public Gardens. 

Kingston, 7th June, 1905. 
Dear Sir, 

Your valued favour of the 6th inst., is duly received. The 
value of the tobacco is approximately 6/ per lb., provided that all 
of it is of the same quality as that which I pointed out to you 
from among the sample leaves submitted. 

If, on the other hand, the quality is not the same throughout, the 
value would not be more than 4/ per lb. It must be carefully 
remembered that the tobacco will only be worth 6/ per lb. if the 
leaf keeps its colour after due attention to curing and so forth. 

I should be glad to get from you as many seeds of this 
Sumatra Tobacco as can be spared in order that the experiment 
can be tried on a larger scale than you have yet been able to 
direct. 

With my regards, 

I remain, 

Yours faithfully, 

M. Fornaris. 



Mr. R. W. Bradley, Montpelier Cigar Factory, to Director of Public 

Gardens and Plantations. 

Kingston, 5th June, 1905. 
Dear Sir, 

Mr. Milholland has handed to us your valued favour of the 3rd 
inst., with reference to cigars to be sent to the Imperial Institute. 
We need hardly say that your suggestions shall have our best 
attention and we take this opportunity of thanking you for the 
interest which you have shown in the matter. 

You will be glad to learn that owing to your efforts in the 
growth of Sumatra, the signer has been able to induce a gentle- 
man to enter, in co-operation with a Cuban of experience, upon 
the cultivation of this leaf upon' a somewhat larger scale than has 
been hitherto attempted. 

With the assurance of our regards, 

We are, 

Yours faithfully, 

R. W. Bradley, 
ppr. Montpelier Cigar Factory. 



1 64 

COTTON : ROTATION OF CROPS, II. 

The following observations were made by the Island Chemist 
after considering the whole correspondence published in this 
Bulletin, May, pp. 104-I10. 



The Island and Agricultural Chemist to the Honhle. the Colonial 

Secretary. 
The Hon. The Colonial Secretary, 

With reference to Ratooning Cotton in Jamaica I have been in 
correspondence with Sir D. Morris on the subject and have 
finally arrived at an understanding with him as to what is meant 
by ' Ratoon Cotton.' 

At the conference meeting, a report of which you have 
referred to me, Messrs. Ronaldson and Sharp both upheld that it 
would be a mistake to limit the cotton crop in Jamaica to one 
picking only. They understood Mr. Oliver's warning to imply 
that the second flush of cotton obtainable in Jamaica within a 
year, owing to the recurrent periods of rain and drought twice 
yearly, was held to be an inferior product and its marketing in 
England detrimental to West Indian Cotton. 

Mr. Oliver obviously had no agricultural experience of Jamaica 
and it was hardly fair to ask him to pronounce upon a matter that 
was really beyond his knowledge.* To test the point as to the 
quality of their so-called ratoon cotton Messrs. Ronaldson and 
Sharp, I am told, submitted to Mr. Oliver samples of first and 
' ratoon' pickings from the same plants with the result that Mr. 
Oliver found the samples from the ratoons to be better than from 
the plants. 

I now understand from Sir D. Morris that he does not consider 
a second crop grown within a year to be a ratoon and that the 
cotton hitherto called ratoon cotton in Jamaica does not come 
under the catogory of 'ratoon' as understood in the other West 
Indian Islands. 

Owing to the peculiarity of our climate which is accentuated in 
the natural cotton-growing districts, it is apparent that cotton 
must be sown so as to catch the rains and establish itself in full 
growth before the dry period in which the fruiting and harvest 
takes place. 

After the first crop the old plant pushes forth fresh shoots on the 
advent of the next growing season and if pruned back will give a 
fresh growth from which a second crop of cotton will be obtain- 
able within, say, II months of sowing the seed. 

I think experience has fortified the position originally adopted 
by the planters here and that it is now established that two crops 
of cotton are to be expected here each year. Under certain con- 
ditions the second crop may exceed the first in both yield and value. 

As to quality — I am told that the second crop is of longer staple 
than the first but that the proportion of seed to lint is greater. 

* For Mr. Oliver's amended opinion see BuUetm, January, 1905, page 5, " Cotton 
from Katoon Plants," Editor. 



165 

I fully agree with the recommendation not to ratoon cotton over 
the first year, having observed serious ravages on young cotton 
from caterpillars derived from old plants that should have been 
destroyed at the end of the year. 

The gist of the matter to my mind is as follows : — 

(1) Plant the cotton at the natural season, so that rains may 

keep it growing until it has attained size and then dry 
weather will follow for the crop. Cotton planted late is 
stunted and unhealthy. It is very subject to fungoid 
disease and is severely attacked by caterpillars. It is 
very apt to ripen seed prematurely so that when the rains 
come the seeds germinate in the green pods and the 
whole contents turn black. I am speaking from per- 
sonal observation here of a large area planted late with 
the above result. 

(2) Cotton planted at the right time will ripen in about 5 

months and if the old plants be trimmed back, a second 
flush will follow and a picking of second crop cotton be 
obtained so that the whole can be cleared off the ground 
in II months. I consider that it is very desirable to 
uproot the old plants and having gathered them into 
heaps to burn them, so as to destroy the eggs, cater- 
pillars and cocoons of the cotton worm. The land can 
then be prepared for the next planting. 

Local experience as to corn planting seems to be a safe 
guide as to the correct time to plant cotton. This 
permits of a narrow margin and must be strictly complied 
with if failure is to be avoided. 

(3) Under these conditions, I think the lands in Vere and St. 

Catherine where cotton has grown well this year would 
grow it in continuous annual crops for a long period of 
years without rotation of crop. 

(4) With reference to rotation crops for cotton it must be re- 

cognized that corn (maize) does not pay to grow in the 
plains. Leguminous crops can only be grown as snatch 
crops. Tobacco can only be grown on a limited area 
owing to the great demand for labour — Further, tobacco 
barely pays expenses in Jamaica. 

Cassava would do admirably, but here again there 
must be a factory on hand to deal with it. I have been 
trying to establish data as to the cassava industry and 
there is no doubt it would pay even better than cotton. 

Under present conditions, I think cow-peas might be 
planted between the rows of cotton after the first crop 
and be ploughed in when preparing for the new planting. 
It should be remembered that our cotton land N.W. of the 
irrigation area in St. Catherine and the light lands in 
Vere are practically virgin soil and very rich in fertility. 
Ten crops should not exhaust these lands. 



I66 

(5) I am trying manures on the cotton at Inverness on 8 acres. 
This is the poorest soil at present in cotton, I believe, 
but I quite expect to find that fertilisers produce no result 
whatever. The rainfall dominates the crops on these 
soils as a rule. 

29.5/05. H. H. Cousins. 



EXHIBITS FOR THE COLONIAL EXHIBITION 
AT THE CRYSTAL PALACE, LONDON. 

Exhibits of living economic plants in tubs, and of fruits with 
leaves, and flowers where possible, either in formalin solution or 
in alcohol and naphthalin, were sent from the Public Gardens, 
Jamaica, at the instance of the local Exhibition Committee. 

It may be useful to give a list of these with a note of their 
condition on arrival at the Crystal Palace. 

Some of the plants went by the Royal Mail Steamer " Orinoco," 
and some by the Direct Line Steamer " Bornu," and cordial thanks 
are due to the respective Companies, their Captains, Chief Officers, 
and others concerned, for the great care and attention bestowed on 
the plants during transit and in loading and unloading. 

The plants that went by the " Orinoco" were reported by the 
Secretary, Mr. J. Barclay, to have arrived at Southampton in excel- 
lent condition, but the weather happened to be frosty on the night 
after arrival and ten of the plants were killed. 

The " Bornu" went later, and fortunately escaped frost. Some 
of these plants are reported by Mr. Barclay to have arrived in very 
good order, and the coffee trees in splendid condition. 

The following is a list of the living plants that were sent : — 

LIVING PLANTS. 



Name of Plant. 


Heiglit of plant Condition on arrivj 
with tub. at Crystal Palace. 




Ft. 


In. 




Mango 
Liberian Coffee 


8 
II 


10 

3 


Very good 
Withered but alive 


Avocado Pear 


12 


I 


(< << << 


Pimento 

Lace Bark Tree 


15 

5 


4 


Withered but alive, 
no use for show 


Nutmeg 
Ippa-appa 


8 
8 


4 

5 


Withered but used 


Kola Nut 
Arabian Coffee 
Citrus 


5 
6 

9 


II 
10 


Splendid condition 
Leafless but will 
sprout again 


Cinnamon 
Guava 


9 
6 


5 
II 


Of little use 
Poor 



of 



soon 



i67 



Name of Plant. 



Height of plant 
with Tub. 



Condition on arrival 
at Crystal Palace. 



Ft. In. 



Lemon or Fever Grass 


4 


8 


Good 




Pomegranate 


5 


I 


Dead 
spri: 


at top but may 
ng 


Red Banana 


8 




Only stem left 


Red Banana 


13 


6 


<< 


<< << 


Jamaica or Martinique 


9 


4 


<< 


<< <( 


Banana 










Jamaica or Martinique 


7 


2 


« 


(( « 


Banana 










Chinese Banana 


8 


10 


(( 


<( tt 


Chinese Banana 


4 


II 


« 


ft (t 


Breadfruit 


5 


2 


Dead 




Sugar Cane " Jamaica 


II 


4 


Fair 




Seedling" 12 months 










old 










Sugar Cane " Jamaica 


II 


4 


« 




Seedling" I2 months 










old 










Camphor 


7 


3 


(( 




Cocoe, Common Black 


3 


3 • 


« 




Cocoe, Common White 


5 


7 


(< 




Cocoa 


5 


2 


Dead 




Sour Sop 


4 


4 


<< 




Vanilla 


6 


II 


Very j 


good 


Cananga 


5 


7 


Withered but alive 


Citronella Grass 


4 


2 


Good 




Khus Khus Grass 


6 


5 


(< 




Cassava 


5 


5 


Fair 




Pine-apple Green Ripley 


4 


8 


(( 




" Cayenne 


4 


7 


Good 




Sugar Cane B. 208 


8 




(( 




D. 95 


8 


2 


<< 




Coco-nut 


6 


3 


Fair 




Pine-apple Red Ripley 


4 


II 


Dead- 


—heart rotted out 


" Cayenne 


4 


10 


Dead- 


—heart rotted out 
due to chill 


Sweet Potato Muffard 


2 


8 


Dead 




" white Gilkes 


2 


8 


(( 




Tobacco Havana 


3 


8 


(( 




" Sumatra 


3 


2 


« 




Cotton, Sea Island 


2 


8 


(( 




Yam 


3 


8 


Fair 




Cassava 


3 


4 


(< 




Papaw 


7 




Dead 




Tamarind 


5 


8 


No good 



i68 

The following is a list of the fruits with leaves and flowers 
where possible : — 



FRUITS IN NAPHTHALIN AND SPIRIT. 



Name of plant. 



Condition when Condition on arrival, 
put in "tin." 



Achras Sapota 
(Naseberry) 


Green 


I lot stained with juice 
I lot very good 


Blighia sapida (Akee) 


Green & ripe 


Good but lost colour 


Tamarindus indica 
(Tamarind)- 


Green 


Very good 


Passiflora ligularis 
(Sweet Cup) 


Green 


Good 


Anona reticulata 
(Custard Apple) 


Green 


Very good 


Theobroma Cacao 
(Cocoa) 


Green & ripe 


First rate 


Anona muricata 
(Sour Sop) 


Green 


Good 


Coffea arabica 
(Arabian Coffee) 


Ripe 


Rather poor but lost 
colour 


Elaeis guineensis 
(African Oil Palm) 


Green 


Fair 


Mangifera indica 
(Mango) 


Green & ripe 


Very good 


Myristica fragrans 
(Nutmeg) 


i( tt 


Very good 


Phyllanthus distichus 
(Jimbling, Otaheite 
Gooseberry) 


Green 


Good 


Carica Papaya (Papaw) 


Green 


Magnificent appearance 


Coffea liberica 
(Liberian Coffee) 


Ripe 


Good 


Plantain 


Ripe 


Perfect — just as appear 
in market 


Star Apple 


Ripe 


Half true— half lost 
colour 


Breadfruit 


Green 


• Splendid — perfectly 
natural 



Arrowroot 



Perfect in root, — leaves 
olive coloured 





169 








FRUITS IN FORMALIN. 


Name of plant. 


Condition 


when 


Condition on arrival. 




put in "1 


tin." 




Garden Egg 


Ripe 




Partly lost colour, but 
otherwise very good 


Tangierine Orange 


Ripe 




Magnificent 


Tamarind 


Green 




Perfect 


Liberian Coffee 


Ripe 




Fair 


Cocoa 


Green & 


ripe 


Fair 


Star Apple 


Ripe 




Fair but some lost 
colour 


Mango 


Green & 


ripe 


Fair 


Cho-cho 






Fruits perfect, leaves 
light olive in colour 


Custard Apple 


Green 




Very good 


Shaddock 


Ripe 




Splendid 


Arrowroot 






Good 


Breadfruit 






Perfect 


Mammee Sapota 






Fair 


Shaddock 






Perfect 


Cho-cho 






Perfect 



Mr. Barclay reports : — 

" All these have been prepared for exhibition by Dr. Burt, 
British Botanical Association, York, and put up in large and 
striking-looking jars, making a most attractive exhibit. They 
occupy the side of the office which faces the main entrance to the 
exhibition, and the fruit are on the fruit stall." 



NOTE ON THE GUANGO.* 

By R. H. B. HOTCHKIN. 

I find that for the first three years very good banana fruit may be 
grown under the Guango trees if planted wide and the trees are 
lofty. The Guango is, however, very impatient of too much water 
and so, in course of time, the branches decay and of course cause 
havoc amongst the fruit, — I shall have to do away with mine I 
grieve to say for this reason. 

As a timber it is rather like poplar in that it cannot be used 
outside unless well tarred ; — for furniture it is good and it makes 
nice flooring, but it is at present very little used, as imported 
lumber is far cheaper. For its beans it is of course invaluable and 
should I think be found very useful in cocoa growing as a shade. 
In Canada there would be an opening for importation there of the 
Guango Bean. 

* Piihecolobium Saman. 



170 

CO-OPERATIVE SAVINGS AND CREDIT 
SOCIETIES IN CANADA.* 

Co-operative savings and credit societies in Canada, owe their 
existence to the altruistic purpose and able initiative of Mr. 
Alphonse Desjardins, a resident of the city of Levis, Quebec, and 
one of the officials of the House of Commons, Ottawa. For 
over ten years Mr. Desjardins has been a careful student of co- 
operation, and has watched with interest the progress of the co- 
operative movement in England, France, Germany, Italy, Belgium, 
Austria and other countries. One form of co-operation, in 
particular, has appealed strongly to him, impressed as he has been, 
with the need of encouraging thrift amongst his fellow-townsmen 
and countrymen, and of finding for the financially feeble some 
means of effectively supplying the need of personal credit, where 
merit and circumstances alike warrant and opportunity alone is 
lacking. The form is spoken of as co-operative credit. 

This form of co-operation has found expression in the several 
countries of Europe in credit societies and people's banks, extend- 
ing to the number of several hundred and even thousands. In 
France Les Batiques Populaires and Les Caisses Rurales, as they are 
called, number over 2,000. In Germany there are 12,000 and 
more, 'co-operative credit societies and loan banks. In Italy the 
Banche Popolare {Banques Populaires), the Casse Rurale {Caisses 
Rurales) and the ' Catholic' banks, number over 2,500 ; in Belgium 
over 300 ; and in Austria nearly 5,000. In Russia the number of 
similar institutions is over 5,500. In England the people's banks 
and co-operative credit societies are also numerous and have 
been increasing yearly in number. 

All these institutions have this in common ; they aim through 
the encouragement of thrift to create a capital out of the savings 
of persons of very limited means, which capital may be profitably 
invested and opportunity thereby afforded such persons of secur- 
ing advances and loans at reasonable rates, where otherwise loans 
might be obtainable only at usurious rates, or not obtainable at all. 

Origin of the Levis Society. 

Mr. Desjardins undertook, in IQOO, to establish among the 
people of his own locality a co-operative savings and credit 
society, or people's bank. In September of that year he brought 
together at his residence a dozen of his fellow-townsmen whom he 
had interested in the project, and carefully outlined his plan. 
During the course of the following three months they drafted a 
constitution, subscribed a number of shares at $5 a share, which 
were subsequently paid in instalments, and established what they 
designated as ' La Caisse Populaire de Levis' — a co-operative 
savings and credit association, with a variable capital and limited 
liability. As members of this co-operative society they had 
henceforth the right to share in the direction of its affairs, 

♦ From the Lnbour Gazette, issued by the Department of Labour, Dominion of Ca- 
nada, March, J 905. 



171 

participate in its profits, and on complying with its requirements 
to obtain credit in limited amounts. 

On December 6, 1 900, the number of shareholders of La Caisse 
Populaire de Levis was lOO, and the number of shares subscribed, 
500. The institution grew steadily in favour and in the confidence 
of the people on whose behalf it had been established. In a year 
the nurhber of shareholders more than doubled. By December, 
1902, the number was 450. At the begmning of the present year 
(January, 1905) the list of shareholders included over 900 names, 
representing over 5>500 shares. 

OBJECTS OF THE LEVIS SOCIETY. 

The objects of the savings and credit society are more far- 
reaching and important than is suggested by the name, though its 
objects are disclosed in part therein. Broadly speaking, they may 
be said to be in their nature, moi-al, economic and educational, in 
that, supreme among its purposes, is the encouragement of thrift 
and the promotion of honesty and honour , the furtherance of self- 
reliance and economic independence ; and the fostering of an 
appreciation of business principles, and a practical knowledge of 
business relations. In a general way, the society also aims at 
serving the industrial needs of the community in which it is 
established, by providing a means to less fortunate members of 
carrying on work or enterprises which but for its assistance could 
not be undertaken. 

The several objects are set forth in detail in the constitution of 
'La Caisse Populaire de Levis.' Stating, precisely and concisely 
as they do, the objects of this particular and similar institutions, 
they may be quoted at length. 

The objects of the association are : — 

1. To protect its members against reverses of fortune, the results of enforced 
idleness, sickness and want, by teaching them the inappreciable benefits of wise 
providential measures based on mutual assistance and co-operation, and, in parti- 
cular, by instilling and developing in them the taste for and the constant and 
energetic practice of economy even on the most modest scale ; 

2. To aid them by a wise aud prudent system of credit in the shape of loans and 
advances, the proposed employment whereof must be communicated to the associ- 
ation, be approved by it, and be in accordance with the spirit in which it is 

founded; , ■ 1 >. i 1 

3. To enable persons devoid of fortune but who are industrious, honest and la- 
borious, to form part of the association by granting them facilities for paying up 
their shares in the capital stock by means of very small weekly instalments ; 

4. To secure the practice of the Christian and social virtues that mark the good 
citizen, the honest, laborious and honourable worker, by exacting above all moral 
warranties of highest order from the shareholders who borrow from the asso- 
ciation ; • 1 • 

5. To combat usury by means of co-operation and mutual assistance by provi- 
ding all who are deserving of the same, through thcr fondness for work, their skill 
and the integrity of their conduct, with the moneys they require for carrying on 
their business or occupation, aud which they cannot obiaiu from existing financial 
institutions owing to the insufficiency of the present system ; thereby making 
them independent of lenders who levy exorbitant commission or interest, or of 
those who impose too onerous conditions in connection with credit ; 

6. To foster the spirit of enterprise and promote local works, whether of an in- 
dustrial or agricultural character, by the prudent use of the savings effected within 
the district covered by the association's operations ; 



1/2 

7. To spread amongst its members a practical knowlerlge of the elementary 
principles of economic science and to teach them respect for their engagements 
established by their signatures, as also the advantages inevitably derived by those 
who faithfully fulfil the obligations they have undertaken ; 

8. To create and foster mutual confidence between shareholders by means of 
economic relations based on the security of warranties of a high character, inas- 
much as they are founded in a very gret measure, on morality, honesty, order, 
love of work and prudence ; 

9. To gradually procure them— by persevering efforts towards securing economy 
andconsequently a just measure of credit — that economic independence which in- 
spires and fosters the feelings of personal dignity and convinces one of the need 
of relying above all upon one-elf to improve one's position and raise oneself in the 
social ?cale. 

Operations of the Levis Society. 

The objects of the society are sufficient to indicate the nature 
of its primary functions. In the first place it encourages savings 
by the formation of a capital made up of shares which are small 
in amount, payable in weekly or monthly instalments, and on the 
basis of which the division of the year's profits is made. Secondly, 
it receives from its members deposits of any amount of not less 
than 5 cents, on which interest is allowed; and, thirdly, it grants 
loans, makes discounts and advances to members on their own 
signature and the personal security of other members of the society. 
The society is restricted in its operations to doing business with 
its members only, and the membership is restricted to a certain 
area. 

SHARES AND SHAREHOLDING. 

To become a shareholder and thereby a member of the society, 
persons desiring to become such must be accepted by the society 
in the first instance. Applications for allotment of stock are re- 
quired to be submitted to a council of administration appointed at 
a general meeting of members of the society, which council may 
require every application to be seconded by two shareholders. 
Every shareholder must be reputed as of good habits, sober and 
punctual in payments. Either men or women may become share- 
holders, but female shareholders are not allowed to hold office. 
Shareholders are liable for the debts of the society only to the 
amount of their shares, and each share entitles the holder to a 
proportion of the yearly profits. The shares are of the value of 
$5 each and amounts may be paid in weekly or monthly instal- 
ments, and until the full amount of the share has been paid off, the 
holder is not entitled to participate in profits. A fee of 10 cents 
is charged as an entrance tax on each share subscribed for. 

Any shareholder may cease to belong to the society and with- 
draw the instalments he has paid on the shares subscribed by him 
by giving a written notice of thirty days to the council of adminis- 
tration, and a member may be expelled if he becomes bankrupt or 
insolvent or his property is liquidated judicially because of refusal 
to pay his debts, or failure punctually to fulfil obligations he has 
undertaken towards the society, or has in other ways attempted to 
abuse the privileges of the society or deceive its officers. Instal- 
ments paid by a shareholder up to his expulsion are repaid him, 



173 

minus the interest for the current year and entrance fees. The 
quality if shareholding is forfeited by resignation, by death, ex- 
pulsion, or for any cause which would have prevented a share- 
holder's admission to the society. 

DEPOSITS. 
Savings deposits of as small an amount as 5 cents may be 
made, and may be received, repayable on demand, or after notice, 
at a specified date. Interest on savings deposits of all kind is 
fixed by the council of administration, which has authority to 
adopt special measures in connection with savings deposits and 
deposits payable at a specified date, by allowing a higher rate of 
interest on the latter, according to the length of the period at 
which they are repayable. Every shareholder making a deposit 
is given a pass-book. The rate of interest on the savings 
deposits is fixed by the board of management and is posted up in 
the office. It is paid and capitalized at the end of each year. The 
society receives deposits to afford facilities to its shareholders for 
the payment of their rent, contributions to mutual benefit societies, 
life and fire insurance premiums, &c., which deposits are repayable 
only at the date specified by the shareholder in opening his 
account. 

LOANS AND ADVANCES. 

The society may make loans or advances on simple notes or 
acknowledgments, but only such loans and advances as can 
yield a profit or a saving for the beneficiary are allowed. All 
applications for loans or advances are forwarded to the manager, 
who is obliged to submit the applications to a committee on credit 
and management, which committee decides whether the applica- 
tion is to be granted or refused, and all decisions of the com- 
mittee with regard to applications must be adopted unanimously. 
Members of this committee are not allowed to borrow from the 
society nor become security for any loan or advance. In the event 
of a refusal by the committee on credit and management to grant 
a loan or advance, the interested shareholder may appeal to the 
council of administration, who, after hearing the members of the 
committee as well as the shareholder, give their decision according 
to the majority of the votes. The council of administration 
determines the rate of commission and interest to be charged, as 
well as the duration of loans and advances. Small loans and 
advances are always to receive preference over large ones, when 
the security for repayment is equal. 

It is generally agreed that the repayment of loans and advances 
shall be by instalments which are as far as possible, of equal 
amounts and are payable weekly, fortnightly or otherwise as agreed 
upon. These instalments as paid are entered as deposits which 
bear interest at the rate provided ; or, as instalments are paid in, 
the interest charged on the loan is reduced in proportion to the 
amount of the loan paid up. For example, a man borrowing $100 
for five months, repayable in monthly instalments of $20 each, 
will receive interest on the first instalment paid in for four months, 



174 

on the second instalment for three months, &c., in each case the 
instalment paid in on account of loan being treated as if it were 
a new deposit. Or supposing the loan to have been made subject 
to the right of repayment in two instalments, at any or specified 
dates, the interest on part of the loan to the extent of the amount 
covered by the first instalment would terminate with its payment, 
and the interest of the balance with the payment of the second 

instalment. 

As a rule, the loans and advances are secured by the signature 
of two solvent sureties who must be shareholders, but in 
addition to these signatures the committee of credit and manage- 
ment is obliged to inquire carefully into the personal financial 
standing and condition of the borrower, and ascertain whether 
reasonable confidence may be placed in his promptness to repay 
the loan. Above all, they are obliged to obtain accurate informa- 
tion with regard to the honour, the spirit of order, activity, 
honesty and ability of the borrower, and the latter is always bound 
to state in his application for credit the use he intends to make of 
the moneys asked for. The society may open credits on current 
accounts, with or without security, but the amount due is not at 
any time allowed to exceed $100. 

ADMINISTRATION AND MANAGEMENT. 

The affairs and management of the society are under the 
direction of a council of administration, a committee of credit and 
management and a committee of supervision, whose powers and 
action are determined by the shareholders as a whole, in general 
meeting assembled. 

To preserve the democratic nature of the institution, and to 
further successfully its main objects, two principles have been re- 
garded throughout as fundamental. In the first place, the number 
of shares to be acquired by any one person is limited, by the 
general meeting of shareholders, and in the second place, in the 
management and direction of afi'airs, the votes have been on the 
basis *of membership rather than on the basis of the number of 
shares held — one associate, one vote. In this way the controlling 
interest of all the members has been made dominant over an other- 
wise possible cumulative interest of a few. Another fundamental 
principle is the local control, no branch system being admitted. 

THE GENERAL MEETING. 

A general meeting of shareholders is held annually, and where 
occasion demands, extraordinary general meetings may be called. 
At the general meeting the officers of the society and the members 
of the various committees are elected. No shareholder is allowed 
more than one vote, whatever may be the number of shares he 
owns, and no one can vote unless he has been a shareholder for 
at least three months, and is in good standing with the association. 
Decisions are adopted by the majority of the votes. The general 
meeting receives the reports of the council of administration and 
the committees of credit and management and the committee of 
supervision, which reports it examines, approves or rejects. It de- 



175 

termines, subject to the provisions of the bye-laws of the society, 
the dividends to be paid, and the maximum of advance to be given 
to a single shareholder. 

THE COUNCIL OF ADMINISTRATION. 

The council of administration consists of nine members chosen 
from amongst the shareholders by the general meeting. Its 
members are known as directors, and are elected for three years, 
three members retiring at the expiration of each year. 

The council thus elected chooses a president, vice-president and 
secretary, who are likewise the president, vice-president and 
secretary of the society. This council meets at least twice a 
month and as often as may be necessary in the interest of the 
society. Its powers are most extensive, including the admission 
and refusal of admission of shareholders, the expulsion of mem- 
bers, the filling of vacancies in the council and the several com- 
mittees, the appointment and removal of employees, together with 
the fixation of their duties, salaries, &c. ; the making of agreements 
and regulating of transfers and withdrawal of shares, the making 
out of balance sheets and dividends to be paid, the manner in 
which moneys, reserve, provident and other funds are to be em- 
ployed, and generally, the taking of all measures that may be 
deemed advisable in the interests of the society. They also 
appoint and remove the manager of the society and determine the 
expense of management. They may borrow money on the credit 
of the society from one or more shareholders to meet applications 
for loans and advances when the available funds are insufficient. 
To the same end they may rediscount securities on hand, though 
their power to borrow for this purpose is restricted to $300, except 
by special authorization from the general meeting of shareholders, 
and their power to rediscount, to $500, without the same authori- 
zation. They determine the rate of interest to be allowed on 
savings deposits, and the conditions connected with the calcula- 
tion and payment thereof ; also fix the rate of commission and 
interest on loans and advances, and determine the duration of the 
latter and of conditions respecting renewals. 

The members of the council of the society incur no personal or 
joint liability in connection with the operations of the society. 
They are responsible solely for the execution of their duties, 

THE MANAGER. 

The management is entrusted to a salaried official called the 
manager, who represents the society, under the immediate super- 
vision of the council of administration. He has full control over the 
staff and proposes the appointment or suspension and dismissal 
of employees to the council of administration, who decide finally. 

The manager, under the superintendence of the committee of 
credit and management draws up daily, weekly, monthly, or 
yearly, statements of the society, and submits a general report of 
its operations, the statements show the position of affairs from the 
beginning of the year to date, and are placed at the disposal of the 



176 

shareholders by being posted in the office or otherwise. The 
manager, moreover, makes an inventory at the end of each fiscal 
year, and this, with a report showing the exact position of the 
society's affairs, is communicated to the annual meeting. 

THE COMMITTEE OF CREDIT MANAGEMENT. 

The president and other shareholders chosen for the purpose at 
the general meeting, constitute a committee of credit and matiagement, 
the shareholders so appointed not being allowed to belong to the 
council of administration or to another committee. Their term of 
office is two years, one-half retiring each year. No transaction in 
connection with the loan or advances can be made by the society 
without the previous approval of the committee of credit and man- 
agement, and its decision must be unanimously adopted by the 
members present — the presence of three members, at least, being 
required to render decisions valid. They cannot borrow from the 
society. Should their decision not be unanimous in any matter, it 
is brought before the council of the society, whose decision is 
final. 

The services of the officers and various members comprising 
the council of administration, the committee of credit and manage- 
ment and the committee of supervision, who are charged with the 
administration of the operations of the society, are gratuitous. 
They are, however, entitled to travelling expenses when necessary, 
as well as expenses necessitated by the performance of special 
duties entrusted to them. 

THE COMMITTEE OF SUPERVISION. 

The general meeting selects yearly from amongst the share- 
holders, three members who, constitute a committee of supervisiofi. 
This committee watches over all the operations of the society and 
frequently checks the cash, investments and securities ; sees to the 
carrying out of the by-laws and regulations and decisions of the 
committee of credit and direction, especially as regards loans, 
renewals and advances. They must ascertain frequently and at least 
once a month, the exact value of the securities in hand, and have 
the right to examine and audit all the books of the society. Where 
urgency demands it, they have power to suspend officers and to 
call a general meeting of the shareholders. 

The members of this committee must be chosen from amongst 
the shareholders, other than those who are upon other committees, 
and are not allowed to borrow from the society. They must meet 
at least once every month and draw up a minute of their checking 
and auditing and submit a written report to every annual general 
meeting. 

FUNDS AND RESOURCES OF THE SOCIETY. 

In carrying on its business the society has, by way of funds and 
resources : (i.) the entrance fees paid by each shareholder, which 
amounts to 10 cents per share ; (2.) the capital represented by the 
shares subscribed and paid up by the shareholders (shares being 
of the value of $5 each); (3.) the reserve fund, the provident fund, 



177 

and such other funds as may be established ; (4.) instalments paid 
on shares not yet fully paid ; (5.) the moneys at any time deposited 
by shareholders, and the resources obtained by temporary loans 
or by rediscounts. 

A reserve fund is established to secure the soundness of the 
institution, and to have ample security for deposits made. This 
fund is made up from (i) the entrance fee of 10 cents on each 
share; (2.) an assessment of 25 per cent, of the net profits of the 
year until the fund amounts to at least double the maximum 
obtained by the paid up capital at any time ; (3.) the interest on 
investments effected with the resources pertaining to such fund ; 
and (4.) the amounts received from the subsequent payment of 
debts written off as loss on a previous year's account. This 
fund so established remains the exclusive property of the society, 
which is obliged by its constitution not to adopt any decision 
calculated to weaken the fund so established. The resources of 
this fund are laid out and invested at the discretion of the council 
of administration to the best advantage for the interests of the 
society. As it is established chiefly for the securing of deposits 
and for assuring a proper working of the society, it is affected only 
by extraordinary losses extending beyond other resources at the 
disposal of the society. 

A provident fund is established to cover extraordinary losses 
resulting from the operations of the society. It is constituted by 
means of an assessment of 5 per cent, on the net profits of the 
year until the fund is equal to at least one-half of the paid up 
capital. 

Speculation by the society in stocks and all hazardous opera- 
tions are formally prohibited. 

PROFITS. 

After providing for all the costs of management and for losses, 
the net yearly profits are divided as follows : — 

(I.) Twenty-five (25) per cent, to the reserve fund; (subject to 
previous provision.) 

(2.) Five (5) per cent, to the provident fund. 

(3.) Five (5) per cent, to local benevolent or charitable works. 

(4.) Four (4) per cent, in the discretion of the council of adminis- 
tration as additional remuneration to the salaried employees of 
the association as a reward for good conduct in the performance 
of their duties. 

The balance is divided amongst the shareholders in proportion 
to the period and amount of paid up shares. This amount is not 
to exceed 8 per cent, until the reserve fund reaches double the 
maximum attained by the capital at any time. 

FINANCIAL SITUATION OF LEVIS SOCIETY. 
To show the practical working and financial condition of *La 
Caisse Populaire de Levis', a statement may be given of the situation 
of this institution as it stood on February 14 of the present year. 
On that date the amount of paid up subscribed capital was 
$24,584.62 ; the amount of savings deposits, $5,529.70 ; amount 



1/8 

interest still to be paid on savings unpaid, $34.81 ; amount of 
dividends unpaid, $408.20, making in all a total of $30,557.33. The 
amount paid as entrance fees on shares subscribed from December 
I to February 1 4, 1 905, amounted to $40.90. The reserve fund 
amounted to $1,306.76, the provident fund to $130.05, these 
together with a surplus of $236.42, making a grand total in 
addition to the capital of $1,714.13 for the protection of deposits, 
&c. 

The profits from December i, 1904, to February 14, 1905, 
amounted to $296.09. The grand total of liabilities on February 
14 was, therefore, $32,567.55- 

Of the assets of the society there were loans to the amount of 
$25,631.18, general expenses $15.50, cash in hand $6,920.87, the 
whole making a grand total of $32,567.55. 

As shown in the monthly statement of the manager of the 
society these amounts appear as follows : — 

FINANCIAL STATEMENT OF THE «CAISSE POPULAIRE De LEVIS' 

ON FEBRUARY 14, 1905. 



Assets. 



Loans 

General expenses 

Cash on hand 



Liabilities. 



Paid-up capital 

Deposits 

Interest upon deposits 

Dividends (unpaid) 

Total liabilities 

Entrance fees 
Reserve fund 
Provident fund 
Surplus 

Profits 



$ 





$25,631 18 

15 50 

6,920 87 




32,567 55 




$24,584 62 

5,52» 70 

34 81 

408 20 


40 90 

1,306 76 

130 05 

236 42 


30,557 33 
1 714 13 




296 09 




32,567 56 



Certified correct, 

Levis, February, 15, 1905. 



(Sgd.) 



Alphonse Desjakdins, 

President- Manager. 



BUSINESS DONE BY LEVIS SOCIETY. 

The following figures will show the amount of business done 
by the society from the time of its establishment in December, 
1900, up to February 14, 1905. The total amount received on 
account of capital subscribed has amounted to $29,943.10. Com- 
paring this amount with the total amount of paid up capital on 



179 

hand on February 14, it would appear that since the commence- 
ment of the society, $5,358.48 has been reimbursed to shareholders 
who for different reasons desired to withdraw their shares. The 
total amount paid on account of entrance fees (being 10 cents per 
share on shares subscribed) was $693.90, which would indicate 
that in all 6,939 shares have been subscribed. The total amount 
received in profits on account of loans, &c., has been $3,326.50. 
This amount, added to the amount on account of entrance fees, 
makes a total of $4,020.40, which total has been divided as 
follows : — 

To the reserve fund ... $1,306 76 

To the provident fund ... ^^^^ ^^ 

On account of surplus ... 236 42 

As interest on deposits ... ^^^* ^1 

On dividends distributed among shareholders 1,598 (r2 

On account of general expenses ... '"• ^^ 

Amounts not as yet appropriated ... 321 49 

The total amount received on account of deposits, from the 
establishment of the society up to February 14, was $12,257.27, 
out of which the sum of $6,727.57 has been reimbursed to the de- 
positors, leaving the amount on account of deposits at the present 
time, $5,529.70. Since the inception of the society to February 
14, 1905, a total of $104,554-94 has been loaned, of which the 
borrowers have repaid $78,923.56, leaving a balance of loans out- 
standing of $25,631.18. Taking a general survey of the entire 
business of the society from its establishment it appears that the 
society has handled funds amounting in all to $125,144.33 

Set forth in statistical form, as presented in the semi-monthly 
statement of the manager of the society, these amounts appear as 
follows : — 

FINANCIAL STATEMENT OF BUSINESS OF 'LA CAISSE POPULAIRE 
De LEVIS,' FROM JANUARY 23, 1901, TO FEBRUARY 14, 1905. 

Receipts, 

Paid-up capital ... 

Entrance fees 

Profits 



These two last amounts being divided as follows : — 
Reserve fond 
Provident fund 
Surplus 

Interest on deposits .. 

Dividends •• 

General expenses 
Unappropriated amounts 



Savings deposits 
Loans repaid 



$ 693 90 
3,326 50 


$29,943 10 

4 020 40 


$1,306 76 
130 05 
236 42 
240 01 
1,598 02 
187 65 
321 49 




4,020 40 


12,257 27 
78,923 56 




125,144 33 



i8o 





Disbursements 




Withdrawals of shares 


• • • 


$ 5,358 48 


Withdrawals ou deposits 


• ■ • 


6,727 52 


Loans 


«>•• 


104,554 94 


Interest on deposits 


••• 


205 20 


Dividends 


• •« 


1,189 82 


General expenses 


• •• 


187 65 


Cash on hand 




6,920 87 
125,144 33 



Certified correct, 

L^vis, February 15, 1905. 

(Sgd.) AxPHONSB Dbsjardiks, 

President - Manager. 

BENEFITS DERIVED BY SHAREHOLDERS AND COMMUNITY. 

Mr. Desjardins, the president and manager of the society, states 
that the great majority of the shareholders of ' La Caisse Populaire 
de Levis', are workingmen, most of whom hold two or three shares 
each. Nearly 700 different loans have been made since the 
establishment of the society, to about lOO different borrowers, in 
sums varying in amounts from $l to $500, the majority averaging 
from $50 to $100. Most of the loans have been made for a period 
of four months, and have been to small traders, mechanics, farmers, 
and others, to enable them to make advantageous purchases, to tide 
over temporary difficulties and to meet pressing demands. Of all 
the loans made not a single borrower has failed to make payment 
of the amounts advanced. 

It is, so Mr. Desjardins states, the general consensus of opinion 
of the shareholders that but for the establishment of this savings 
and credit society not $2,000 out of the $32,500 which has been 
deposited in the bank in the form of shares and deposits would 
have been saved. Among the shareholders are many young men 
who are apprentices or mechanics and who commenced with 
taking only one share, and have at the present time as much as 
$200 laid aside in the form of paid-up shares or deposits. These 
amounts have been accumulated chiefly through the opportunity 
afforded of acquiring shares by the payment of small amounts in 
weekly or monthly instalments. Having commenced by making 
a weekly deposit of 10 cents, many have acquired the habit of 
depositing regularly with the bank and have shown a disposition 
to increase the amount of their deposits from month to month and 
year to year. 

Not only have the members of the society received assistance 
by way of advances and acquired habits of thrift from the practice 
of making regular deposits, but not a few have been saved from 
serious embarassment and from extortion at the hands of usurers. 

The operations of ' La Caisse Populaire de Levis' are restricted 
to the town of Levis and the parishes of St. David and St. Louis, 
the total population of the area being about 7,500. To serve the 
financial needs of this locality, there are four large banks, as well 
as the post office savings bank. 



i8l 

Up to the present time the business of ' La Caisse Populaire de 
Levis' has been conducted almost entirely by Mr. Desjardins him- 
self. He has given his services gratuitously and has had the office 
of the society in his own residence. For the convenience of the work- 
ing classes, an office has been opened on Saturday nights in a cen- 
tral part of the city, at which office, deposits are made by working 
men after the receipt by them of their weekly wages. The busi- 
ness of the society has grown so considerably and rapidly that 
the necessity of having a regular office with paid assistants is be- 
coming more and more urgent. 

OTHER CO-OPERATIVE SOCIETIES. 
After the formation of ' La Caisse Populaire de Levis', a 
similar co-operative savings and credit society was organized at 
St. Joseph de Levis, an adjoining parish. This society, which is 
in a rural parish, has been formed on identical lines with * La 
Caisse Populaire de Levis,' and has at the present time about lOO 
shareholders. In September, 1903, a third co-operative credit 
society was organised at Hull, Que., also after the model of ' La 
Caisse Populaire de Levis.' It has at the present time about 80 
shareholders. The last society to be formed was organized in 
January of the present year at St. Malo in Quebec East. Notwith- 
standing the very short time since its establishment, this society 
has already a membership of over 200. 



THE CULTURE OF THE CENTRAL AMERICAN 

RUBBER TREE, XII,* 

( Continued from Bulletin for July. ) 

By O. F. Cook, Botanist in charge of Investigations in Tropical 
Agriculture, U. S. Department of Agriculture. 

METHODS OF COAGULATING THE LATEX OF CASTILLOA. 

COAGULATION BY CREAMING. 

The separation of rubber from the latex, a process commonly 
called coagulation, is in a somewhat more advanced state of 
investigation than the subject of tapping, if, indeed, the recent 
experiments of Dr. Weber do not mean that a final and satis- 
factory conclusion has been reached. Dr. Weber finds that 
by the simple expedient of diluting the fresh latex of Castilloa 
with five times its volume of boiling water and adding 8 ounces of 
formaldehyde to each barrel of the resulting fluid, all the 
impurities to which the inferiority of Castilloa rubber are due can 
be removed, since they will remain in solution, while after twenty- 
four hours the clean rubber will be found in a "snow-white-cake" 
which can be lifted off the top. Dr. Weber contends that rubber 
prepared in this way is " absolutely free from solid impurities of 
any description. * * * either soluble or insoluble, organic 
or inorganic," and that it is equal or superior to the finest brands 

• Extract from the U. S. Department of Agriculture, Bull. No. 49. Bureau of Plant 
Industry. 



r82 

of Para rubber. The process is simple and inexpensive, and if 
the mechanical qualities of the rubber meet Dr. Weber's expecta- 
tions when the practical tests of manufacturing have been applied, 
it would seem that the essential requirements of the problem have 
been met, and in any case valuable progress has been made. It 
seems, moreover, from the investigations made by Parkin in 
Ceylon that this method is capable of still further simplification. 

When the latex of Caatilloa is mixed with water and allowed to stand, in the 
course of an hour or two the caoutchouc particles have all floated to the top in 
the form of a thick cream. The diluted latex of Hevea, on the contrary, shows no 
signs of creaming, even when submitted to a low temperature. .The difference is 
most likely due to the larger size of the caoutchouc globule in the case of Castilloa 
as compared with that of Hevea.* 

Parkin found, however, an interesting difference between the 
latex of Castilloa in Ceylon and that described from tropical 
America by Biffen, in whose results Weber may be said to 
acquiesce, since he holds that the albumens of Castilloa latex are 
readily coagulated by alkaline solutions. 

The proteid of the latex of Castilloa elastica has also been investigated to some 
extent by Biffen. He found that the latex gives an acid reaction, and that on the 
addition of a little alkali it is coagulated. This he considered to be due to the 
nature of the proteid which exists as acid albumen in the latex ; on neutralization 
it comes out of solution and gathers together th-^ caoutchouc particles into clots. 

Now the latex of the Castilloa introduced into Ceylon (0. Markhamiana) does 
not behave like this. On the very gradual addition of alkali to the latex or to 
the filtrate (the liquid part of the latex without the globules of caoutchouc) no 
coagulation or precipitation occurs. Alcohol causes a coagulation of the latex and 
a copious precipitate in the filtrate, which is quite soluble again in water. Proteid 
is present in considerable quantity, about 4 per cent, being indicated by analysis. 
Coagulation is brought about neither by acids nor by boiling. Thus it looks as if 
the proteid beloni^s to the class of albumoses. At any rate the type of Cistilloa 
introduced into Ceylon differs in this respect itrikingly from that of the true 
Castilloa elastica examined by Biffen. 

These facts are of interest, not only from their bearing upon 
coagulation and function of latex, but because they indicate the 
extent to which the latex and its constituents may vary under 
different conditions of growth. Parkin is probably in error in the 
idea that the latex with which he experimented belonged to 
Castilloa Markhamiana. The tree which was introduced by Cross 
from Panama to Ceylon is more likely to be the same as that 
with which Weber experimented in Colombia. 

DISCOLOURATION OF CASTILLoA I.ATEX. 

Incidental to his principal discovery Dr, Weber reports several 
observations of much interest, not alone in their practical signifi- 
cance, but also as illustrations of the mistakes which can be made 
in a subject so difficult of investigation as rubber. Thus it is 
found that the milk of Castilloa contains not a trace of tannic acid, 
the presence of which has often been inferred, presumably because 
ferric chlorid produces the same colour reaction with latex as with 
tannic acid, turning it dark green. This reaction Dr. Weber finds 
to be due to the presence of a glucoside, which also gives the latex 
its intensely bitter taste. The addition of tannic acid precipitates 

* Parkin, Annals of Botany, 14: 198, 1900. 



183 

the albumens of the latex, so that the presence of albumens is 
itself deemed a sufficient evidence of the absence of tannic acid 
in latex of any kind. 

The rapid colour change of the milk of Castilloa on exposure 
to the air is found to be due to an enzym or oxydizing ferment 
(oxydase) which is probably destroyed by the boiling water, as 
suggested by Parkin to whose work Dr. Weber does not refer, 
although in this part of the subject it had covered the same 
ground. 

Parkin reported as follows : 

Several latices, which are pure white when they first issue from a wound on the 
plant, rapidly darken on exposure to the air. This is due to the presence of an 
oxydizing ferment, or oxydase, which with the aid of the oxygen of the air acts on 
some constituent of the latex, changing it to a deep brown colouring matter. 

The latex of Castilloa is a good example. It rapidly darkens on exposure and 
dries to an almost black rubber. By creaming the caoutchouc particles can be 
separated fr im the dark beer-like liquid and made into a sheet of nearly colour- 
less rubber. By quickly heating the collected latex the darkening is arrested 
owing to the destruction of the enzyme. 

The latex of Hevea collected from the tre^ trunk does not darken at all on ex- 
posure to the air, and provided that moulds and putrefactive organisms are kept, 
away, rubber prepared from it remains indefinitely of a light colour. On the 
other hand, the latex from the wall of the unripe capsule (fruit) changes on ex- 
posure from milk-white to black. The darkening is wholly prevented if the latex 
is quickly subjected to heat. No doubt there is an oxydase present in the latex 
of the capsule, (a) 

The expression " coagulation of rubber" appears objectionable 
to Dr. Weber because he finds that it is the albuminous substances 
of the latex which coagulate and not the rubber itself, but this 
objection seems rather over-technical, since, even in Dr. Weber's 
method, the rubber is collected and compacted, and for this process 
a name is still required. It is the albuminous substances in- 
corporated in Castilloa rubber which continue to ferment and 
putrefy, or otherwise contribute to the deterioration of the rubber, 
both crude and manufactured. In other words, it is the albumens 
rather than the resins which determine the inferiority of rubber, 
and the amount of resin contained in the latex of adult Castilloa 
trees is held to be "entirely innocuous" and " absolutely unobjec- 
tionable." Dr. Weber continues : 

I am quite aware that now and then all sorts of sinister actions are ascribed to 
the presence of resins in India rubber, but there is not the least particle of evi- 
dence to show than they are intrinsically detrimental. As a matter of fact, in the 
manufacture of quite a number of rubber goods, resins are deliberately added to 
the mixings, (h) 



BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

Extracts from Minutes. 

The usual monthly meeting of the Board of Agriculture was 
held at Headquarter House on the 13th June. Present : — the Hon. 
the Colonial Secretary, Chairman, the Director of Public Gardens 
and Plantations, the Agricultural Chemist, Mr. C. A. T. Fursdon, 

(a) Parkin, Annals of Botany, 14; 199-200. 1900. 
(Z*) Tropical Agriculturist, 22: 444. .Innuary, IdO.S. 



i84 

and Mr. W. Harris, Acting Secretary, Mr. Geo. D. Murray 
telegraphed that owing to very heavy rains he was unable to 
attend the meeting. 

Annual Report — A draft copy of the Annual Report on the work 
of the Board was brought up for consideration. It was decided 
that the Agricultural Chemist should prepare a summary report on 
the Agricultural and Educational work of his Department for the 
past financial year to be presented at next meeting of the Board, 
at which meeting the Annual Report of the Director of Public 
Gardens and Plantations will also be presented, when all these 
reports will be considered together. 

Painphlet on School Gardens — The Director of Public Gardens 
presented a draft copy of the first part of a pamphlet on School 
Gardens which had been prepared by the Assistant Superintendent 
of Hope Gardens. 

This was ordered to be circulated. 

Letters from the Presideftt of the Sav.-la-Mar Agricultural Society re 
Mr. Cradwick's Services — The Director of Public Gardens forwarded 
letters from the President of the Sav.-la-Mar Agricultural Society 
asking that Mr. Cradwick should be allowed to act as Assistant 
Secretary of the annual show held in connection with the Society. 

The Board decided that in this, as in similar cases, Mr. Cradwick 
may assist in his capacity as Travelling Instructor in persuading 
the people in the districts in which Agricultural Shows are to be 
held to take an interest in such shows, but it objects to his 
undertaking secretarial or other duties which were not within the 
scope of his work as a Travelling Agricultural Instructor. 

Cocoa dying in St. Mary— The papers on this subject were brought 
up for final consideration, and the Director of Public Gardens was 
requested to edit them and publish in the Bulletin anything bear- 
ing on the subject which is likely to prove useful. 

Sajnples of Tobacco asked for by Board of Trade — The Colonial 
Secretary forwarded, for the information of the Board, a copy of 
a reply sent to the Board of Trade, London, stating that at present 
there is no tobacco leaf available for export and, therefore, there 
is no use in sending samples, but that samples of cigars, etc., 
would be sent to Prof. Dunstan, by the Montpelier Cigar Factory 
and Messrs. Machado Bros., for exhibition in the Imperial 
Institute, also that Mr. Haas, who made enquiries, may obtain in- 
formation on the subject at the Jamaica Court at the Crystal 
Palace Exhibition. 

The following reports were presented and ordered to be 
circulated : — 

From the Director of Public Gardens and Plantations : — 
Report on Hope Experiment Station, 
Reports from Messrs. W. Cradwick & W. J. Thompson. 
Travelling Instructors. 

[Issued 9th August, 1905.] 
Printed at the Govt. Printing Office, Kingston, Jam. 



BULLETIN 



OF THE • 



DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



Vol. III. SEPTEMBER, 1905. Part 9. 



EDITED BY iJBRA* 

WILLIAM EAWCETT, B.Sc, P.L.S., 

Director of Piihlir, Gardma and Flaiitatiotts. 



C N T E NT S: 


Page. 




Cocoa at Agricultural Conference, Trinidad, I 


185 


Cotton 


200 


Board of Agriculture 


204 



P R I C E— Threepence. 



A Copy will be aupplied free to any Resident in Jamaica, who will send name a 
adiresa to the Director of Public Gardens and Plantations, Kingston P.O 



KINGSTON, JAMAICA 
Hope Gardens. 

1905. 



aatmtma 



JAMAICA. 



BXJLT.BTIN 

OK THE 

DEPARTMENT OF AURICULTME. 

Vol. III. SEPTEMBER, 1905. Part 9. 

COCOA AT THE AGRICULTURAL CONFERENCE, 
1905, AT TRINIDAD. I.* 

EXPERIMENTS IN IMPROVING THE HEALTH AND PRODUCTIVENESS 

OF COCOA TREES. 

Mr. J. H. Hart (Trinidad) : Our experiments have only just been 
initiated and have hardly reached a stage to justify saying any- 
thing about them. One or two things have, however, been brought 
to the notice of planters, and have, I am glad to say, been taken 
advantage of with considerable success. The first is the method 
of dealing with the pod disease. The methods suggested by me 
to the Trinidad Agricultural Society, and also by the Imperial 
Department of Agriculture, which consist in the burning, burying, 
and disinfecting of diseased pods, have been especially successful 
in dealing with the disease called Phytopthora, and I was agreeably 
surprised to be told recently that, as the result of their adoption 
on one of the largest estates in the island, the proprietors expected 
to get 25 per cent, more cocoa than he otherwise would have done. 
Mr. deGannes has also adopted similar treatment with equal suc- 
cess. Another thing which we have been trying to impress upon 
small planters especially is the desirability of pruning cocoa trees 
so as not to leave wounds which cause rot of the centre of the 
stem. Again, where wounds and holes occur we strongly recom- 
mend a system of cleaning them and filling them with a mixture 
made of ordinary cement and sand. This gives the trees renewed 
vigour and prolongs their life for many years. Tar is also recom- 
mended for use in pruning and I am glad to say the practice has 
been adopted on a large number of estates. Few manurial experi- 
ments have as yet been carried out, but those recomended are being 
adopted, and I shall be able to report on them at a later period. 

Mr. J. G. DEGannes (Trinidad) : With few exceptions the cocoa 
cultivation in this Island has received, up to a year or two ago, 
little attention beyond the ordinary method of upkeep handed 
down by our forefathers, but it seems now as though the cocoa 
planters are realizing the necessity of higher cultivation. So far, 
artificial manures have not been extensively made use of, but 
where they are being tried, the results are encouraging. Basic 
slag is the manure most generally applied. Some very good re- 

* Reprinted from W. I. Bulletin, Vol. VI., No. 1, 1905, page 65. 



i86 

suits are obtained by the use of pen manure prepared with 
gypsum, and on some very old properties its use, and that of sheep 
manure forked in, have been remarkable in improving the health 
and productiveness of the cocoa trees. The island has had up to 
now, thank God, few cocoa diseases to contend with, the * Brown 
Rot' and ' Canker' being the only two. The measures successfully 
adopted to combat them, have been the treatment suggested, I 
believe, by the Imperial Department of Agriculture, and with the 
advice and assistance of Mr. Hart, the Superintendent of the Bo- 
tanic Gardens here, they are kept under control. The cocoa trees 
of the plantations situate in the valleys suffer considerably from 
' moss' on account, I presume, of the excessive moisture, and it 
would be desirable if some other and more efficacious means than 
the brush or the hand — the ' knapsack' sprayer having totally 
failed for the purpose — should be found to deal with it. There are 
several patent cocoa dryers of different patterns used for the cur- 
ing of the cocoa bean and I am informed that they give satisfac- 
tion, but personally I shall adhere to the opinion that the sun-dried 
article is preferable. With regard to green dressing I am not 
aware that it is resorted to to any great extent. I gave it a trial 
on one of my properties in October last, and so far I have not 
noticed a very marked change in the look of the trees. In conclu- 
sion, I regret that, owing to the short time since experiments have 
been started in the colony, I have no statistics to offer. 

The President : With the object of assisting the cocoa industry 
in Grenada, St. Lucia and Dominica, we undertook a series of what 
we called sample plots of cocoa ; that is to say, we took over plots 
of land, about I acre in extent, near the public road from pro- 
prietors who were willing to allow us the use of the land, and to 
assist in the cultivation. These plots were labelled ' Imperial De- 
partment Plots.' In most cases they consisted of cocoa which was 
not in good health. The Department paid the expense of cultiva- 
tion, the Agricultural Instructor visited these plots, which became 
central points for giving information to cultivators in the district. 
The planter who gave the use of the plot became the agent of the 
Department in his district, so that when the Agricultural Instructor 
visited the plot he would see the planter and discuss with him the 
best way of utilizing his time while in the district. Sometimes it 
was suggested that a meeting would be held at which the cocoa 
growers in the district should be present. After the Instructor had 
been introduced to them by a person they knew, they were ulti- 
mately willing to receive and hear the Instructor and follow his 
advise. Some people might regard the establishment of sample 
plots as giving assistance to the large proprietors by taking a 
portion of their land and cultivating it for them. However, we 
are quite satisfied with the results, as the feeling that has 
been created among small proprietors by our taking an interest in 
their cultivations has more than repaid us for the trouble and ex- 
pense which the establishments of these plots has occasioned. As 
the result of sample plots in Grenada, a paper in connection 



187 

with one of these has been circulated among members of the Con- 
ference. Peasant proprietors who had scouted the idea are now 
making drains and pruning their trees, applying manures and fully- 
carrying out the recommendations of the Department. I believe 
these sample plots have been very beneficial. We have gone 
through our first series and should now begin another. The plots 
in Dominica I hope to place under the supervision of Dr. Watts, 
so that he can make experiments with chemical manures and carry 
on the work more closely on scientific lines. Mr. Hudson has had 
charge of the plot in St. Lucia and he will be able to tell you him- 
self what is being done there. 

COCOA MANURIAL EXPERIMENTS AT GRENADA. 

The following report and table, showing the results of the 
working of the cocoa experiment plot at Nianganfoix estate, Gre- 
nada, were forwarded by the proprietor for publication (see Agri- 
cultiiral News, Vol, III, p, 347) : — 

This plot was handed over on September 30, 1903, by the 
Department of Agriculture to the proprietor who still carries on 
the experiments, in order to obtain the highest possible yield from 
an acre of land by the use of fertilizers and green soiling.* The 
plot measures I acre and was divided into four sections of \ acre 
each. 

During the period, extending over four crops from April i, 1900, 
to September, 30, 1904, two applications of manures were made, 
as shown in the table, the first during the first crop 1900-1901, 
and the second application in the spring and summer of 1902 just 
before the third crop. 

A., the pen manure section, is the wettest section of the plot 
and it will be noticed that, notwithstanding the heavy application 
of manure in May 1902, the yield fell below the two preceding 
crops, and only recovered after several rods of new drains had 
been added to those already existing — and dug diagonally across 
the slope. This illustrates the value of drains in a wet clay soil, 
without which manure is at a discount. 

The potash section D. has steadily advanced and, unlike 
sections B. and C, which unaccountably fell off by ^ to 5 bag, 
held its own during the crop 1902-3. The cost of production for 
the first two years averaged £l per bag of cocoa, and for the 
second two years 1 2s. per bag, or an all-round average of l6s. per 
bag for four years' working. 

When the results of the fifth year's working are known, the cost 
of production will be considerable reduced. 

The following figures show the gradual improvement in yield : — 
Crop 1 900- 1 = 5} bags per acre 
Crop 1901-2 = 7 " " 

Crop 1902-3 = 7 " " 

Crop 1903-4 = 8 

Full particulars are given in the following table as to the details 
of the treatment accorded to the various sections : — 

* Th(i sections havt? been bedded twice yearly. 



l88 



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(with dates). 


August 1900 — 

Basic slag, 8 cwt. per acre 
February 1 90 1 — 

Nitrate of soda, l| cwt. per acre 
May 1902 — 

Basic slag, 8 cwt. per acre 
August 1902 — 

Nitrate of soda, l| cwt. per acre 


August 1900 — 
Basic slag, 8 cwt. per acre, and 
sulphate of potash, I cwt. 
per acre, (mixed) 
May 1902 — 
ditto 


• 


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190 

Mr. J. H. Hart : We have established in Trinidad one experi- 
ment plot on the same lines as the Grenada plots. It is at Brasso 
and in charge of Mr. Carl de Verteuil. It was only started a few- 
months ago, and the results wil not be available for some time. 

Mr. G. S. Hudson : (St. Lucia) : Experiments in improving the 
health and productiveness of cocoa trees have been carried on in 
St. Lucia under the Imperial Department of Agriculture now for 
five years. Our method, as Sir Daniel Morris has said, has been 
that of taking up the most unhealthy portions of cocoa we can 
find adjoining the main-roads, so as to bring our work as much as 
possible before passers-by. The results have been exceedingly 
satisfactory. In many cases the trees had actually stopped 
bearing ; in others, the yield was only 56 lb of dry cocoa per acre 
when the plots were taken over. In three years the yield had 
been increased to 7 bags. The policy is, as soon as we attain 
that standard of improvement, to hand the plot over to the 
owner and take a new plot in the same or another district. 
In our five years' experience we find we get the best results 
from the following method : forking throughout the plantation 
in January ; then applying broadcast eight cwt. of basic slag 
between January and April ; that is followed by draining where 
necessary, and then thorough pruning. We find pruning to be of 
very great importance as it admits sunlight. After this, thorough 
cleanliness throughout the year. Three to four weedings are 
usually sufficient, but sometimes as many as six have been found 
necessary. In August or September we apply sulphate of 
ammonia to each tree. I observe from the results of the experi- 
ments in Grenada that the best results there have been obtained 
from an application of sulphate of potash. In 1902 we applied 
nothing but potash to a 6- or 7-acre plot, and the results were 
negative in every case. I may mention, however, that, in combina- 
tion with basic slag, the experiment has proved very valuable ; but 
the best results were obtained from a combination of slag and 
nitrogen. We have also tried superphosphate but have not found 
it advantageous. We have obtained good results from ground 
bone, but that is rather expensive. Pen manure is undoubtedly 
the best system of manuring, but the difficulties of transportation 
prevent its general use. Chemical manures yielded as good 
results and at less cost. The only fear in the application of 
chemical manures is that too much nitrogen may be applied to 
certain soils, but in light soils, there is nothing to fear. Many 
planters seemed to fear forking, on the ground that it injured the 
trees, but I have never seen any bad results from careful fork- 
ing. On the contrary, the results have been excellent. As the 
result of the experiment plots, planters in St. Lucia are now 
importing basic slag and sulphate of ammonia— a thing unheard 
of before — and pruning and forking have now become a recognized 
part of cocoa cultivation. As a rule, we do not find it necessary 
to use tar or cement except in cases where a fungus disease is 
affecting the trees. 



1894-5 


851,334 ft 


1895-6 


499,113 " 


1896-7 


946,393 " 


1897-8 


885,024 " 


1898-9 


1,082,851 " 



191 

Dr. H. A. A. NICHOLLS (Dominica) : Until the last quarter of 
a century the exports of cocoa from Dominica were very small, as 
it was produced only by peasant proprietors. When, how- 
ever, the crisis overtook the sugar industry, many of the sugar 
planters, feeling the effects of the hard times, planted up portions 
of their estates in cocoa and limes, and so from that time the ex- 
ports of cocoa began to increase. The Treasurer of the island has 
very kindly furnished me with certain returns which include the 
exports of cocoa for the last ten years, which are as follows : — 

EXPORTS OF COCOA FROM DOMINICA. 
Year Export Year Export 

1899-1900 968,740 ft) 
1900-1 992,586 " 

1901-2 1,052,693 " 

1902-3 1,309,577 " 

1903-4 1,285,245 "* 
From this return I observe that in 1895-6 there were half a mil- 
pounds of cocoa exported ; but when we come to 1902-3 it is found 
that the exports had increased to one and a third million pounds. 
Last year, that is, 1903-4, there was a decrease owing to the hurri- 
cane, which although not directly striking Dominica, seriously af- 
fected the crop. But notwithstanding this the exports of cocoa 
reached one and a quarter million pounds. During the last few 
years a good deal of attention has been directed to Dominica : a 
new road, opening up the rich land of the interior, has been made 
with money granted by the Imperial Parliament and it has appro- 
priately been called the Imperial Road. We have young English- 
men with moderate capital constantly coming out, and some of 
them have gone into the interior, cut down forest, and created 
estates, and in many instances they have planted cocoa. It must, 
however, be borne in mind that the increase in exports to which I 
have referred is not due to the new planters, but entirely to the 
older planters, who, seeing that sugar had failed, set their energies 
to work in another direction ; therefore, it is the industry and en- 
terprise of the older planters — the men who have borne the heat 
and burden of the hard times — that have brought about the dawn- 
ing prosperity of Dominica. When, however, the new settlers' 
estates begin to bear, then it will be found that Dominica will 
make a sudden leap forward along the path of progress. Coming 
to the cocoa tree itself, I should like to make a few observations 
in regard to the facts brought before us by former speakers. 
Taking the case of pruning, I would thoroughly commend the re- 
marks made by Mr. Hart, just as I would deprecate those made 
by Mr. Hudson. If you wish a cocoa tree to do well and to bear 
well you must perform the operation of pruning with great care. I 
think the Mycologist of the Department will tell you that if you cut 
off the branches and limbs of trees and do not tar the wound, you 
will probably get fungus diseases in the wood ; the Entomologist 

* Gale in August and par ial failure of crops. 



192 

of the Department will also tell you that there could not be a better 
site for the entry of boring beetles and such like insect pests than 
the unprotected wounds left by bad pruning. The more intelligent 
planters in Dominica use tar, and also fill up with clay any holes 
or deep depressions that may be found in the tree whereby water 
might collect or insects get shelter. As regards manure, in days 
gone by the greater part of the exports of Dominica came from the 
peasant proprietors who had not the advantage of having brought 
before them as in the case now, the scientific and technical know- 
ledge of the Imperial Department of Agriculture; they allowed 
their trees to grow as they might, and did not manure them, with 
the result that the trees have deteriorated very considerably. The 
manure that is found most useful in regard to cocoa cultivation is 
exactly the same that is found most useful in cane, and indeed in 
almost any, cultivation, that is farmyard manure. There can be 
no better manure, not only from its chemical constituents, but also 
its mechanical effects : it improves the soil whilst it provides 
food for the trees. But where you have estates far in the in- 
terior or on steep hillsides, and with a few animals, it is almost 
impossible to obtain sufficient farmyard manure, and in such in- 
stances it is necessary that artificial manure should be used. 
Hence the Dominica estates used basic slag, which contains phos- 
phate and some free lime, and nitrogenous manures in the form of 
nitrate of soda or sulphate of ammonia. But in regard to nitro- 
genous manures it must be remembered that in Dominica, St. Lucia 
and other such Islands an immense quantity can be got in the 
forest lands by using dead leaves, lopped shrubs, and grass as a 
mulch for trees, and afterwards by forking this decayed vegetation 
into the soil. There is also a loss of nitrogen attendant on the 
cultivation of land in the tropics, and it must be restored by the 
use of farmyard manure, by green dressing, or in some other way. 
Mr. Hudson recommends keeping a cocoa plantation thoroughly 
cleared of weeds. That is opening up the question brought before 
the last Conference by Dr. Watts who advised that in cocoa and 
similar cultivations the land should not be kept entirely free of 
weeds, but that the weeds should be allowed to grow for a time 
and then cut down ; so that the cultivation would practically get 
a green dressing. That is the system that has been universally 
adopted in Dominica for many years, and it would appear to me 
to be the one best suited to local conditions. There is a matter 
which I omitted to allude to and which may be regarded as one of 
the main causes of the small crops now got from peasant holdings. 
In removing the pod from a cocoa tree it is necessary that a por- 
tion of the stem attached should be left on the tree, but the igno- 
rant peasant, instead of cutting the pod, wrings it off, with the 
result that the little bud at the end of the stem which will supply 
the future pod is torn off, so that in time the bearing portions of 
the stem are materially reduced in number. This is a matter to 
which Agricultural Instructors in Dominica and other islands should 
call the attention of peasant proprietors. 



193 

The Rev. Dr. MORTON (Trinidad): I go about among many pea- 
sant proprietors in Trinidad, and I know that the teaching of the 
botanist, the chemist, and the analyst has had a great effect upon 
them in the matter of cultivating their land. One matter referred 
to by Dr. Nicholls is of great importance to them, and that is the 
application of manures. They should be urged to use the natural 
manures which they can get without laying out money. Some- 
times they have no money. The names of artificial manures are 
all new to them, but they know pen manure ; and some of them 
from Barbados know the value of it, and the distinction made be- 
tween pen manure that has been kept covered or been trampled, 
and pen manure that has been exposed to the sun or washed out 
by rain. We see in our villages to-day, as the result of cane-farm- 
ing, the peasant proprietor's cart going out every morning half- 
loaded with manure, to be returned to the soil. Not only is that 
the case with the ordinary manure made in the village, but the 
peasant proprietor has also taken to the use of liquid manure. At 
the Government Stock Farm where the stalls are concreted, the 
liquid manure which collects in little wells is daily removed by 
peasant proprietors. This practice is also carried out in St. 
Joseph and has resulted in an improved sanitary condition. 
What Dr. Nicholls has said in reference to weeds and shrubs is 
perfectly true. In some cases, such as rice cultivation, the only 
manure which goes into the soil is the grass and weeds which 
grow for six months during the dry season. The practice is also 
valuable in connexion with cocoa estates. 

The Hon. Wm. Fawcett (Jamaica) : I have listened with a great 
deal of interest to the discussion that has taken place on the culti- 
vation of cocoa. The cocoa industry in Jamaica is of considera- 
ble importance, although rather overshadowed by the banana 
industry. There we do not look upon it as you do in Trinidad 
and Grenada, as one of your great industries ; it is rather a subsi- 
diary industry in Jamaica : but I hope it will become in time one 
of our great industries. The reason why it has not advanced 
quicker is that the banana has been so very important. But now 
the planters, seeing the bad effects of hurricanes, are gradually 
beginning to plant their banana estates with cocoa, and some have 
turned their banana estates altogether into cocoa estates. So we 
wish to get hints as to the cultivation, pruning, curing and espe- 
cially shade. We owe a great deal to Mr. Hart for having written 
such an excellent handbook on cocoa ; we in Jamaica consider it 
a very practical and important book. With reference to Criollo 
cocoa and Forastero cocoa, we have been much exercised in Ja- 
maica for some time as to which is better to plant. Some planters 
do not think Criollo a robust plant, asserting that it is subject to 
disease and pests at all times. I should like to get some informa- 
tion from planters in Trinidad on that point. In Venezuela, where 
they have large estates of Criollo, some trees have died out, and 
attempts have been made to supply their places with Criollo, but 
without success, although Forastero will grow. The estates are 



194 

therefore deteriorating. I should like to know whether this has 
been found to be the case also in Trinidad. Do you find you can 
plant Criollo and keep it up, or have you gradually to revert to 
Forastero ? We have in Jamaica a considerable tract of land in 
the western part where the remains of cocoa are still found grow- 
ing, and almost without exception the variety is Criollo. Some of 
these trees are said to be 1 00 years old and yet they are bearing 
heavily and doing well. But the question is whether the seeds 
from these trees can be utilized for establishing new estates of 
pure Criollo. With reference to the question of Criollo growing 
well and being supplied where it is already established, I wonder 
whether a system of budding on strong stocks would not apply. 
For instance, on estates in Venezuela, where they found they could 
not successfully establish Criollo in vacant places and have had to 
plant Forastero instead, would it not be possible to bud on the 
Forastero from their Criollo trees ? We have been experimenting 
with budding and found we can do it with success. Again, in our 
cocoa estates we find many of the trees do not bear anything like 
as well as other trees, and we want to know whether we cannot 
improve them. Will it not be advisable to cut down those trees 
and bud on the shoot that springs up, from one of the more valua- 
ble trees on the estate ? Another matter we do not understand is 
shade. That seems to me to be a very complicated question. In 
Grenada they do not use any shade, and in Trinidad they use 
shade everywhere and find they cannot do without it. What is 
the reason ? Is the shade wanted for the trees or the soil ? If it is 
wanted for the soil, then you do not want shade trees, as the cocoa 
will provide its own shade. Is it necessary to have shade at all, 
or is it a question rather of cultivation ? Do the roots of shade 
trees keep the ground open, or might that be overcome by the use 
of cultivators ? One of our most practical agriculturists in Jamaica 
started five or six years ago a cocoa estate in the middle of the 
island, and he is convinced in his own mind that there it is neces- 
sary to have shade. But on the north side of the island it has 
been proved that shade is not required. I am inclined to think 
that shade produces moss on the trees and leads to fungus disease 
which might otherwise be avoided, and that the more sun you can 
reasonably allow to the cocoa trees, the heavier the crops will prove. 

Dr. H. A. A. NiCHOLLS : The practice in Dominica is not to use 
shade, but trees are planted, in some cases running along lines, so as 
to serve as wind-breaks. I remember that fourteen years ago when 
I made my second visit to Trinidad I was told that shade was neces- 
sary ; so I obtained seeds of Bois Immortel from a friend and planted 
them among my cocoa. I was very sorry I did so ; but the hurricane, 
which did so much damage to the cocoa estates in Dominica, did 
me some good in throwing down my Bois Immortel. The experi- 
ence of the Dominica planter is that cocoa grows better without 
shade than with it. I was exercised in mind a good deal by 
remarks made to me some years ago as to the advantages 
of a tree which is used here as shade. I was gravely tol4 



t95 

by some planters that the Bois Immortel is very beneficial, 
inasmuch as it gives out water from its roots during the dry 
season. We can well understand that such trees do good, 
but in a different way ; their roots naturally would go further 
into the subsoil than the roots of cocoa, and they draw from 
the subsoil certain constituents which will later on be shed 
upon the land in the shape of dead leaves and twigs and 
flowers, and much nitrogenous matter would be supplied to the 
land in the form of humus. But we must also remember that 
these plants belong to the order called Leguminosae, which have 
nodules on the roots, and in these nodules are micro-organ- 
isms called bacteria, which have the power of drawing the nitro- 
gen from the air and fixing it in the soil, and in that way nitrogen 
is supplied to the surrounding plants. It appears to me, there- 
fore, that the benefits of the shade trees in Trinidad are not due 
so much to the shade, but to the manure they give to the soil. 

Mr. E. M. DEFreitas (Grenada) : At one time we planted a 
great deal of shade trees in our cocoa estates in Grenada. In 
fact we adopted the Trinidad system. After a time we found 
that the trees which were not shaded gave better results. Then 
about ten years ago planters began to cut down their shade 
trees, and at the present time, with perhaps one exception, I 
do not believe there is an estate in the island on which shade 
trees are grown. I have always been puzzled to know why in 
Trinidad cocoa cannot be grown without shade. The soil here 
is somewhat different to that in Grenada ; it is a stronger soil 
and has more clay. Having regard to the value of cocoa culti- 
vation, amounting to £900,000, and in view of the great difference 
between the yield here and in Grenada where we do not use 
shade, I think it would be advisable for the Imperial Department 
of Agriculture to carry out experiments in Trinidad with the 
view of finding out whether they cannot grow cocoa here, as we 
do in Grenada, without shade. With regard to the question of 
improving the health of trees, we use sheep manure. We raise 
sheep not for mutton, but for the manure which commands a very 
high price on the local market. 

The President : There is one point of difference between 
the cocoa trees in Grenada and those in Trinidad. The trees in 
Grenada are much smaller and planted closer. The question 
is one of great importance — not for the Department — but for the 
planters of Trinidad. The Department will be happy to assist 
Trinidad in the same manner and to the same extent as the other 
islands. The wide question which Mr. Fawcett has brought up — 
whether as a general principle shade trees are necessary in cocoa 
cultivation, can only be answered by trying to find out whether in 
Jamaica they want shade trees at all, or want shelter belts. It 
would be useless to follow blindly the experience of Grenada 
and Trinidad, because the circumstances of the two places are so 
different from those of Jamaica. In Jamaica they are liable to 
hurricanes, whereas in Trinidad and Grenada they are not. I be- 



196 

lieve in Dominca and the Northern Islands they grow the Pois 
doux {Inga diilcis.) 

Dr. H. A. A. NiCHOLLS : They use it for shelter belts, not as a 
shade tree. 

The President : I should like to ask Mr. deGannes what he re- 
gards as an average yield either per tree or per thousand trees in 
Trinidad ? 

Mr. J. G. DEGanNES: Twelve bags, of I/O lb. each, to each 
thousand trees planted 12 feet apart. 

Mr. E. M. DEFreitas : The average yield in Grenada is 4 bags, 
of 1961b. each, per acre. 

The President : So far, we have had no experience as to the 
relative values of Criollo and Forastero. 

Mr. J. G. DEGannes : Criollo was put aside altogether because 
the yield was poor : it is a delicate tree for Trinidad. I under- 
stand that even in Venezuela there are certain parts of the coun- 
try where it does not thrive at all. 

The President : Would it be any advantage to graft the 
Criollo on to the Forastero stock ? 

Mr. J. G. DEGannes : It might be tested on a practical scale. 

Mr. J. H. Hart : Our experience with grafting is very small at 
present. The Forastero is the strongest-growing cocoa, but the 
Criollo produces a cocoa of the highest quality. The question of 
shade, I think, might be usefully gone into. I have discussed it 
many times and have come to the conclusion that shade is abso- 
lutely necessary for Trinidad. I am equally certain that shade is 
not necessary for Grenada. I have heard the story of a Grenada 
planter who came to Trinidad to teach the planters here how to 
grow cocoa without shade. He bought an estate and carried out 
the experiment by cutting down all the shade trees with the result 
that he had to replant them, as he found it impossible to grow 
cocoa here without shade. If ever you see a bad patch of cocoa 
here the planters' explanation is that the trees have not sufficient 
shade. 

The President : I should like to suggest for the consideration 
of the Agricultural Society whether during next year they could 
put an acre of the Criollo variety of cocoa in cultivation. The 
results might be sufficiently reliable to justify an extension of it 
later on, or to abandon it altogether. I know Mr. Hart would be 
willing to join in an experiment of that sort, and it would be use- 
ful to the colony. 

Dr. H. A. A. NiCHOLLS : Mr. Hart has declared, ex cathedra, 
that cocoa cannot be grown in Trinidad without shade trees. 
I do not think the argument used by him fully warrants that de- 
claration, because one can very well understand that cutting down 
shade trees from among cocoa trees brought up with shade, is 
very different to growing cocoa trees up to maturity and then cut- 
ting down the shade. The proper test as to whether cocoa can 
best be grown in Trinidad with or without shade, is to endeavour 



19; 

to grow cocoa with and without shade right from the seed. I do 
not think that has been done as yet in Trinidad. 

Professor P. Carmody (Trinidad) : I would like to make a few 
remarks in connexion with this subject as I have given a little 
scientific attention to the shade tree used in Trinidad. Mr. 
deGannes, who is an experienced planter and works his estate 
himself, will tell you that cocoa cannot be grown in Trinidad with- 
out shade. It is natural to assume that when cocoa trees were first 
planted here no shade was tried, but it was subsequently resorted 
to in consequence of failure. It seems to me unreasonable to 
suppose that a man would begin to plant Immortel trees before he 
knew they were required and then plant cocoa. I incline to the 
opinion of Mr. Howell Jones, that the question of shade or no 
shade depends upon local circumstances. From analyses of the 
flowers of the Immortel tree made in 1 90 1, I ascertained that some 
of them contained as much as 6 per cent, of nitrogen calculated on 
the dry flowers. This large percentage naturally attracted my 
attention and further investigation was made which led to a report 
to the Government 

Mr. J. G. DEGannes : About forty years ago a gentleman came 
here and started cocoa cultivation. His idea was that we were 
making a mistake in planting shade trees. He planted cocoa, 
raised with temporary shade, and then cut down the shade. When 
the shade was removed the cocoa trees stopped growing and he 
lost everything. 

Dr. VAN Hall (Dutch Guiana) : In the question of shade trees 
we are just in the same position as planters are here in Trinidad. 
There is a general idea that cocoa cannot be grown without shade 
in Surinam. There is only one estate where it is grown without 
shade. One thing of great importance with that estate is that it 
can be irrigated in the dry season. On other estates, where 
attempts have been made to grow cocoa without shade, the trees 
generally suffer very much when the dry season comes. In my 
opinion it is very difficult to grow cocoa without shade in Trinidad ; 
when grown without shade it must be cultivated in another way. 
First your soil must be better tilled when no shade tree is used, 
because the shade tree is an improver of the soil and when you 
lose such an improver you must do yourself what is more or less 
done by the tree. Another thing planters do not understand is 
this : the shade tree is also a windbreak, and when you remove 
the shade you must take care that your trees are in sheltered 
position. Then the question of irrigation is, in our country also, 
a matter of importance. If you do not use shade trees and do not 
till your soil better, the soil suffers from drought in the dry 
season, and irrigation will be necessary to keep your cocoa trees 
alive. It is not necessary in plantations where there are shade 
trees. These and similar matters are often overlooked by planters 
who try to grow cocoa without shade. Another thing is this. As 
in our country, where the wet season is followed by three very dry 
months, you have to remove your shade trees not at once but 



198 

gradually ; and that is perhaps one reason why the experiments 
which some planters tried were unsuccessful. My Department is 
now trying an experiment with young trees. We have removed 
the shade from a field of about 2 acres, leaving some wind-breaks, 
and the first year, at any rate, this was a success, because, con- 
trary to the expectation of many planters, when the dry season 
came, none of the trees suffered. In the second year, however, 
we had a very bad dry season and the trees suffered more or less. 
Yet planters were very astonished that they were still in good 
condition. It seems to me that once shade is properly removed, 
cocoa can be grown in Surinam without shade. 

COCOA CULTIVATION AND GREEN DRESSING. 
Dr. Francis Watts (Leeward Islands) : The question of the 
treatment of orchard soils was brought up at the previous Con- 
ference, when I put forward views urging in substitution for 
excessive tillage and keeping the land clean in orchards, the 
adoption of a system of green dressing, or the use of weeds and 
shrubs for manures. This has all along existed in Dominica. 
The weeds are allowed to grow, and at intervals these are cut 
down without materially disturbing the surface soil ; the cuttings 
are either used as a mulch, or they are treated as a green dressing 
and bedded in. The crop that has been found most useful so far 
appears to have been woolly pyrol. I have had some experiments 
made with other plants, but not to a very great extent. I have 
recently put forward some analyses which I believe will appear in 
the next issue of the West bidia Bulletin [Vol. V. pp. 287-8] show- 
ing the proportion ofmanurial constituents which may be returned 
to the soil on each cutting. This is very largely practised in 
Dominica, especially where it is shown that the amount returned is 
very considerable. I have had occasion at certain times to 
examine soils. I will take one case, namely, Frenches, where Mr. 
Scully follows this system of cultivation. Around each tree he 
keeps a space of about 10 feet perfectly free from weeds; the 
remainder of the land remains largely unfilled ; the weeds are cut 
down and either are left as a mulch to find their way into the soil, 
or are at once dug in. I think it would be wrong to allow the form- 
ation of anything approaching a permanent grass sod, and perhaps 
that is the point where I find the greatest conflict of opinion. I 
think all agree that the surface of the soil must be light, loose, 
and free — nothing like a definite grass sod. There are some 
places in Dominica where in cutting down into the soil, one finds 
the conditions of natural virgin soil : the condition of tilth is 
maintained thoroughly. The great point is draining. On that 
subject I may have more to say at a future period. In Dominica 
it is a recognised method of cultivation, a cheap one, and a very 
thorough one, and I think it would be found better in practice, and 
tend to solve some of those difficulties to which Mr. Fawcett has 
referred,* than keeping the soil absolutely clean. I have seen 

[* W. Indian Bulletin, Vol. II., 1901, page 99. Bulletin of Department of Agricul- 
ture, Jamaica, Vol I., 1903, page 126. Editor Bull. Dept. Agri., Jamaica.] 



199 

many cases where attempts have been made to keep the land per- 
fectly clean and where the highest perfection used to be the ab- 
sence of every weed ; but in most cases I think that has been found 
to be most disastrous ; the soil bakes hard and then a system of 
forking has to be resorted to. 

ARTIFICIAL DRYING OF COCOA. 

The desirability of drying cocoa by artificial heat, thereby 
rendering the planter more or less independent of atmospheric 
conditions, has long been realised in the West Indies. During 
wet seasons and in certain elevated districts of some of the cocoa- 
producing islands considerable loss is frequently occasioned by 
' mildew.' 

Mr. G. Whitfield Smith, then Travelling Superintendent of the 
Imperial Department of Agriculture, gave a brief sketch in the 
West Indian Biillitin (Vol. II, pp. 1 71-4) of the efforts that had been 
made in Grenada to dry cocoa by artificial heat, and gave, also 
a description of a cocoa drier since erected by the Department at 
the Botanic Station, Dominica. A further description of this drier 
will be found in the Agricultural News (Vol. I, p. 19) where it is 
stated : — 

'The essential feature of this drier is the arrangement by which 
the hot air, on entering the drying box, is conducted along an air- 
tight flue or channel, and is compelled to pass over and around the 
trays in succession, beginning with the lowest. In this respect it is 
a great improvement on driers of a similar pattern used in Grenada 
and elsewhere, which have no interior divisions. In such driers it 
is found that the hot air on entering the single drying chamber 
naturally rises to the top, with the result that the beans on the 
upper tray were too quickly dried, while those on the lower tiers 
were only partially dried or, in some cases, remained moist. 

'The drier above described is capable of dealing with 5 bags 
of cocoa at a time, and its original cost, including shed, stove, and 
fan, was £127. Where, however, the planter is able to utilize a 
spare building in which to place the drying box and stove, the 
cost might be reduced by about one half, 

' For the information of those desirous of erecting a similar 
drier, it may be mentioned that the fan (18 inches) with belt and 
driving wheel might be obtained from the Blackman Ventilating 
Company, Limited, Head Office, 63 Fore Street, London E.C., at a 
cost of £9 6s., and the stove (Motts' Comet No. 28) from the I. L. 
Mott Iron Works, New York and Chicago, at a cost of £lO 17s. 3d. 
The latter is surrounded by a galvanized iron jacket to confine 
the hot air and to discharge it through the cowl into the drying 
box. The fuel may be wood, coke, or coal, as found most con- 
venient,' 

Subsequent trials have shown that cocoa can be dried within 
twenty-four hours of being placed in the drier without the fan be- 
ing worked after 9 o'clock at night. The best results were obtained 
by maintaining a temperature of 110° to I20°F., with a good 
draught passing over the beans. Similar driers have been erected 



200 

on private estates and have proved thoroughly successful. As 
many as 9 bags have been cured in twenty-four hours. 

The members of the West Indian Agricultural Conference of 
1905 had an opportunity of inspecting a patent cocoa-drying ap- 
paratus erected by Mr. Hoadley at Chaguanas, Trinidad. The 
following is a description of this drier : — 

The cocoa-drying apparatus consists of an ordinary room 34 
feet square, with 25 feet perforated circular drying floor, upon 
which cocoa is placed direct from the fermenting box. In the 
centre of the drying tray is a vertical axe from which project four 
arms which are revolved once in ten minutes. To each arm are 
attached six ploughs, the operations of which are equal to the 
work of twelve coolies in keeping the cocoa in constant motion. 
Hot air is generated by exhaust steam, which is passed into 1,100 
feet of piping enclosed in a box, over which cold air is drawn by 
a powerful fan which makes from 600 to 700 revolutions per 
minute. The air in its passage becomes heated to any desired 
point up to 150° and is forced up through the drying floor. The 
machine will dry from 12 to 15 bags of cocoa in thirty to thirty- 
six hours. The cost of installing the system is said to be between 
£300 to £400. 

After drying, the cocoa is passed through a machine which 
clays and polishes, or merely polishes to suit the markets, and 
thereby saves the costly process of dancing. 

The cocoa is fermented in cylindrical drums, which are partially 
turned every night and morning for ten to eleven days. 



COTTON. 
I.* 

By HON. T. H. SHARP. 
Fungi and Insect Pests. 

The Cercospora fungus is the only one that is to be found in 
every cotton field, but it only attains serious proportions when the 
conditions are favourable, such as during droughts when the plant 
is weak or on sour spots of land. I find that by my picking off 
the leaves badly affected and burning them and applying Bor- 
deaux mixture I have been able to exterminate this disease. It 
does not attack the cotton bolls or stems as readily as the leaves 
and so when it makes its appearance on some weak spot I find 
that by cultivating and altering the favourable conditions for its 
development together with the treatment above mentioned, I am 
able to keep it in check. 

As far as insect pests are concerned, the cotton worm is cer- 
tainly very plentiful and represents about the most serious item to 
be dealt w'ith. Fortunately it may be avoided to a large extent 
by planting at the correct time. The months that the worm gives 
most trouble are March, April, May, November and December : 
the best time to plant is from the 15th March to 15th April, and 
again from 15th August to 15th September. The trees will then 

♦ These Notes (I & 11) OQ Pests are published by direction of the Board of Agriculture. 



201 

be very young and small during the worm season and so can easily 
be hand picked and poisoned with Paris Green. 

The Cotton Stainer (Dysdercus andreae) is found generally in 
all cotton fields more or less, but it does not seem to like cotton 
more than the surrounding vegetation. It is seldom that it is found 
in large quantities except in small areas. It does very little harm 
to Sea Island Cotton, whereas it seems to like the Upland Cotton 
more and stains it considerably. I have noticed this on a few 
trees which got into my Sea Island fields. 

By laying down a few half rotten boards on the ground on the 
affected spots they act as a trap : early in the morning turn them 
over and apply hot water. By holding a small pan with a little 
Jeyes' fluid in it immediately under the cotton bolls, as they first 
open, while the insects are eating the vegetable wax, and shaking 
the boll over the pan, two children in one day will clean out any 
affected spot. I attach very little importance to this pest as the 
means for destroying it are very cheap and ready at hand. 

But the cotton worm is a serious matter and information is badly 
required as to its life history and best modes of treatment at its 
different stages. 

Time of Planting 

There is such a marked difference in the quality of the Sea 
Island Cotton which is planted and reaped in the proper months, 
against that planted out of season, that is quite astonishing, and I 
think that we should do all in our power to impress this on the 
community. I planted twenty acres in December and January : it 
fruited heavily : the dry weather in February and March brought 
it to the ripe stage prematurely and the showers in April caused 
the sap to flow into the bolls. This created a tendency to germi- 
nate with the result that I had to cut down the twenty acres. 

It would seem to me that the planting of cotton should be done 
as nearly as possible at the same time that corn is best planted. 

II, 

By S. Stricker. 

I beg to report that the pests that did the most damage to the 
experimental fields of cotton grown on this estate, were the Cotton 
and Cut worms. 

Cotton Worms — I say cotton worms for there were several varie- 
ties but chiefly the usual green cotton worm, and a larger cater- 
piller covered thickly with black hairs and with a red head. I 
found the moth of the cotton worms, described in the A. B. C. of 
Cotton Planting, also a yellow moth, a pink moth with white spots, 
and a pure white moth. There were others but not as numerous 
as those mentioned. 

The field had to be carefully watched for entire invasion, after 
showers of rain, and invasion of patches of the field, after the 
plants were fully matured, too. In practice, I found that sprinkling 
with Paris Green suspended in water was ineffective, for the reason 
that the under surfaces of the leaves could not be reached by the 



202 

spray, and that plants so treated would have to be powdered dur- 
ing the same week. The Department of Agriculture may be in a 
position to suggest a way of applying a solution of Paris Green 
in an effective manner, by a suitable machine. Powdering on 
Paris Green is at best a wasteful process, as the high winds preva- 
lent on this seaboard soon blow it off the leaves. 

Cut Worms — The cut worms also did considerable damage. 
Plants t8 inches high and in flower were in many instances ringed 
below earth surface by two chocolate coloured worms, one ih ins. 
long, striped longitudinally with dark lines, and the other ringed 
laterally with rings of a lighter shade of the same colour, but of 
larger bulk of body than the other. Mr. Fawcett, Director of 
Public Gardens and Plantations, advised me to use a mixture of 
Paris Green and Cornflour* at the roots of the plants. This proved 
very effective in destroying these worms. The young plants were 
also attacked when they were about 9 inches high by a light green 
cut worm about I inch long. An application of Paris Green and 
Lime was made at the roots, which also was of use in destroying 
this pest, but the lime caked after a shower. 

It would be impossible to grow cotton on this place without the 
free use of Paris Green, yet a mile and a half nearer the sea the 
villagers have succeeded in doing so without the use of any insec- 
ticide. The moths seek the grasses and leguminous plants that 
thrive along the intervals of the property for their breeding ground. 
The village is surrounded by woods that do not provide food for 
the newly hatched caterpillars. 

Canes planted in Fall and Spring, especially the Spring, are at- 
tacked after the rains, when the leaves are tender, by these worms, 
and very often denuded of leaves. It is imperative that not the 
fields only but all the intervals must be kept free of grasses and 
plants that provide breeding places for moths and food for cater- 
pillars. 

Staifier Bugs — Leeward Islands variety with white X and black 
dots are described in the A. B. C. of Cotton Growing. These ap- 
peared in large numbers as soon as the cotton bolls were formed, 
made colonies at the roots of the plants, but did not damage the 
lint to any appreciable extent. I tried to get rid of them by put- 
ting in a gang to gather them into buckets in which kerosene oil 
was floated on water. This was of no use, the colonies being too 
strong, and the cotton having burst, the kerosene spray could not 
be used. 

Aphis — There were not many to be seen. This district is well 
provided with red lady-birds which made short work of them. 

Leaf Spot — This was observed in December on the lower leaves 
but it had to be looked for. The upper leaves, in fact the foliage 
of the field, was very luxuriant and vigorous. 

No other disease was apparent, such as are mentioned in the 
Commissioner's letter. Bolls came to maturity without being 
affected with " Rot " or " Pink spot " and burst well. 

* 1 part Paris Green to 301bs cornflour 



203 

This experimental field, of 45 acres, gave 730lbs seed cotton per 
acre, of excellent lint, and would have given a better return if the 
plants were put in less space (15 square feet) as other experiments, 
made in this parish, have proved. 

Both Seabrook's and River's varieties of Sea Island Cotton were 
planted. The Stainer Bugs frequented the Seabrook's plants 
more than they did the River's, and stained the former more than 
the latter. 

I forward you some Stainer Bugs, and will collect and accu- 
rately describe the moths and caterpillars later on in the year. 

Note by Dr. Cousins. 
I am convinced that Paris Green would be far more effective 
where it is not possible to apply it in powder owing to the breeze 
and the dry foliage of the plants preventing its adherence, if a 
proper spraying outfit were employed. I suggest a 40-gallon 
barrel machine drawn by a mule with one man to work the pump 
and two leads so that two rows could be sprayed at once. It 
might be well to plant every fourth row half as wide again as the 
rest to allow free room for the machine to go up and down in the 
intervals and permit of the underside of the foliage being thorough- 
ly sprayed with a double cyclone nozzle. 



A = Interval. 

H. H. Cousins. 
5.6.05. 

Note by Editor. 
No danger from the cotton worm is to be feared, if some one is sent through 
the fields at day dawn every second day, whose duty it is, as soon as the spots 
eaten out by the young worm are noticed, to shake a bag containing dry Paris 
Green over the plant attacked. If applied before the worm has grown longer 
than a quarter of an inch, Paris Green is quite effective, but it is wasted if ap 
plied at a later period of its growth, or on plants that are not a+ tacked. In the 
other West Indian Islands lime is mixed in the proportion of Gibs, to lib. with 
the Paris Gieen ; but the lime is not of any use except as evidence of dusting 
over the plant, and has been discontinued in the Sea Islands of S. Carolina. It 
has been suggested that a small reward might be given in addition to the ordi- 
nary paj for e:ich discovery of an attack. For method of application of Paris 
Green, see letter from the Cotton Expert, Mr. Wm. B. Seabrook, Bulletin of 
Department of Agriculture, Vol. II. July, 1904, page 169. 

III. 

EXPENDITURE AND RECEIPTS. 

The following figures of cost of cultivation and receipts per acre 
should encourage planters to try cotton wherever conditions are 
suitable. The figures are taken from actual accounts kindly 
supplied by the planter. No account is taken of value of land, 
stock, and other expenses. 



204 

Cultivation : — 





£ 


s. 


d. 


£ 


s. 


d. 


Stumping land 





2 


H 








Close and cross-ploughing ... 





9 


6f 








Breaking clods 








8 








Harrowing 








Hi 








Opening rows 





I 


5i 








Planting 





9 


6i 








Seeds* 





6 


8f 








Trenching 





4 


II 








Cleaning and cultivating with 














ploughs* 


I 


6 


5 








Irrigation 





I 


I 








Applying Paris Green 





3 


2i 








Purchase of Paris Green 





9 


6h 








" Lime 








H 


3 


17 


5^ 


Harvesting : — 










Picking, cleaning, drying and 














bagging cotton 


I 


II 


6 








Cartage 





4 


6i 








Bags and calico 





2 


3 


I 


i8 


3i 










5 


15 


8f 



Receipts : — 

By cotton, 32,500 lbs., from 45 

acres sold as seed-cotton ... 387 18 Sh 8 12 4f 



BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

EXTRACTS FROM MINUTES. 

The monthly meeting of the Board of Agriculture was held at 
Head Quarter House on the nth July at 11. 15 a.m., the following 
members being present : the Hon, the Colonial Secretary, Chair- 
man, the Director of Public Gardens and Plantations, the Agricul- 
tural Chemist, Messrs. C. A. T. Fursdon, Geo. D. Murray and W. 
Harris, acting Secretary. 

Annual Reports — The Report on the work of the Board, and the 
Report of the Director of Public Gardens and Plantations for the 
year ended 31st March, 1905 were brought up for consideration, 
and it was agreed that the portions of the Director's Report deal- 
ing with educational and experimental work should be incorpo- 
rated in the Report on the work of the Board, — taking the Direc- 
tor's Report of the Board for 1 902-03 as a model. 

Visit of Sir D. Morris— The Asst. Colonial Secretary wrote in- 
forming the Board that Sir D. Morris has intimated that it would 
be more convenient for him to arrive in Jamaica about the end of 
July, and that he hopes to spend the greater part of August in the 

♦ CoBt acknowledged by planter to be exceseive. 



205 

island and meet the members of the Board at such time as may be 
convenient after his arrival. 

Letters from Schools' Commission — The Secretary of the Schools 
Commission wrote (l) acknowledging receipt of a copy of Dr. 
Cousin's minute of the 2nd May, and asking for fuller information 
on the subject, and (2) acknowledging receipt of letter informing 
the Commission in regard to fees to be paid by boys from Secon- 
dary Schools attending lectures in Agricultural Science at the 
Government Laboratory. 

Reports on Tobacco at Hope — The Reports of Mr. Fornaris, and 
Mr. F. V. Chalmers on tobacco grown at Hope were considered. 
The Board decided to ask the Government for a further grant of 
£25 to continue the experiment under shade. 

It was also decided that the Board should render every assist- 
ance possible to any persons who intend to go in for the cultiva- 
tion of wrapper-leaf tobacco. 

Letter from Mr. Cradwick re his acting as Secretary at Shows— Mr. 
Cradwick wrote asking the Board to re-consider the question of 
his undertaking secretarial and other duties in connexion with 
local agricultural shows, and pointing out that all the help that 
can be given is needed to keep up an interest in these shows. 

The Board decided to abide by its decision already communi- 
cated to Mr. Cradwick, viz. that " he may assist in his capacity as 
Travelling Instructor in persuading the people in the districts in 
which agricultural shows are to be held to take an interest in such 
shows, but it objects to his undertaking secretarial or other duties 
which were not within the scope of his work as a Travelling 
Agricultural Instructor." 

Proposed Pamphlet on School Gat dens, and Pamphlet on School Gar- 
dens from the U. S. Department of Agriculture — The draft of a 
pamphlet on School Gardens, prepared by Mr. W. M. Cunning- 
ham, and one from the U. S. Dept. of Agriculture were brought 
up, and it was decided to refer them, with the accompanying 
minutes, to the acting Superintending Inspector of Schools for his 
opinion. 

Improvement of Jamaica Rums — A confidential report on the'sub- 
ject of the improvement of Jamaica Rums, drawn up by the 
Chemist and addressed to the Government, was referred to the 
Board for its opinion and advice. After some discussion further 
consideration of the matter was deferred to next meeting. 

Reports, &c. — The following Reports, &c. were presented and 
ordered to be circulated. 

From the Director of Public Gardens and Plantations : — 

1. Mr. Cradwick's Reports (2) 

2. Mr. Cradwick's proposed Itinerary to the 14th November 

next. 

3. Mr. Thompson's Reports (4) 

4. Mr. Thompson's Itinerary for July and August. 

5. Report on Hope Experiment Station. 



206 

From the Agricultural Chemist : — 

1. Report on Sugar Canes at the Experiment Station. 

2. Report by the Supt. of Sugar Experiments. 

Plan of Experiment Station. — The Director of Public Gardens 
and Plantations presented a plan showing the position of the 
various plots at the Hope Experiment Station, and asked for 
authority to have a block prepared so that the plan may be 
printed in the Bulletin. 

This was approved, the cost of preparing the block to be 
charged against the vote for Petty Expenses of the Board. 



The usual monthly meeting of the Board of Agriculture was 
held at Headquarter House on Tuesday, 15th August, 1 905. 
Present: — Hon. H. Clarence Bourne, Colonial Secretary, Chair- 
man ; Sir Daniel Morris, Imperial Commissioner of Agriculture for 
West Indies, the Director of Public Gardens and Plantations, the 
Agricultural Chemist, Hon. T. H. Sharp, Mr. G. D. Murray, and 
the Secretary, John Barclay. 

Letters from the Colonial Secretary's Office were read as fol- 
lows : — 

{a) Shade Tobacco — Report from Mr. F. V. Chalmers on samples of 
Tobacco grown at Hope. (This Report is published in the Gazette, 
and the Bulletin.) Approving of the expenditure of £25 for pro- 
viding new shade cloth required for continuing the experiments 
of growing tobacco under shade at Hope, provided the total vote 
for the year was not thereby exceeded by more than £10. The 
Board resolved to recommend that the expenditure be paid from 
re-imbursements from sales of tobacco, and the Director of Public 
Gardens was asked to communicate direct with the Colonial Sec- 
retary. 

(&) Sugar Experiment Com?nittee~-Advis'mg that Mr. W. A. S. Vick- 
ers had been asked to represent the Westmoreland Sugar Planters 
Association on the Sugar Experiment Committee and that Mr. G. 
D. Murray, Vere, had been appointed to be a member on the Com- 
mittee. 

(c) hidustrial School — Advising that the proposal to transfer the 
inmates of Hope Industrial School to Stony Hill could not be made 
under present conditions. 

{d) Jamaica Scholarship and Agriculture — Advising that the sugges- 
tion to utilise the Jamaica Scholarship for the encouragement of 
Agriculture would be considered by the Jamaica Schools Commis- 
sion as soon as that body obtained certain details for which they 
had applied to the Board. 

Mr. Nolan and Rum — A letter from Mr. J. C. Nolan, Special Com- 
missioner re the Rum Industry in England, announcing that his 
first case was then under the consideration of the Board of Trade, 
was submitted. 

Vegetable Growing — A letter was submitted from the Hon. H. 
Cork^that instructions should be given to the Local Agricultural 



207 

Instructors to induce special efforts to be made in the neighbour- 
hood of the largest towns for the growing of vegetables. 

The matter was left to be dealt with by the Agricultural So- 
ciety, as it was understood it was to be considered by that body. 

Reports from the Director of Public Gardens — -Reports from the Di- 
rector of Public Gardens were submitted as follows : — 

a. Experiment Station. 

b. Statement of cost of Tobacco grown at Hope. 

c. Instructors' Reports.— These were directed to be circulated. 

d. Pamphlet on School Gardens with criticism by the Acting 

Inspector of Schools. 

School Gardens — It was resolved that Mr. Williams' offer to help 
in the getting up of a general outline which could then be sub- 
mitted for revision and the addition of local colour by Agricul- 
tural Experts, should be accepted. 

Reports Chemist — The following Reports from the Chemist were 
submitted : — 

a. Preliminary Report on Manurial Experiments and memo., 

asking for increase of travelling allowance for the Super- 
intendent of Sugar Experiments owing to the extension 
of his work and suggesting that the saving of £50 made 
on the salary of Mr. Murray when he was appointed be 
transferred to increase his travelling allowance. This 
was agreed to. 

b. Vacancy on Distillers' Course, asking that the vacancy 

caused by the inability of Mr. Stewart of Green Park to 
attend be given to Mr. Percy Sewell. This was agreed 
to. 

c. Application of Mr. Geo. Taylor of Long Pond to shorten 

his course so that he could leave at the end of the week 
because of pressing estate business. This was allowed. 

d. Re visit to Locked Still by Distillers, asking that the ex- 

penses of the 10 Distillers to visit the Locked Still at 
Denbigh be paid out of the travelling allowance of the 
Chemist and staff. This was approved if the vote was 
not exceeded. 

e. Application for four Laboratory apprentices payable at the 
rate of 4/ per week and quarters at Hope to be paid from 
the vote of apprentices on the Director of Public Gardens' 
estimates. 

The Board decided that this could not be sanctioned as the 
money saved from the reduction of the Hope apprentices had been 
settled by its appropriation for extra hired labour. 

The Chemist then asked if the Board would approve on general 
principles of his having four apprentices to be renewed as they 
were absorbed in his Laboratory staff and that the Government 
be asked to make a special grant for the purpose of £26. This 
was agreed to. 

f. Resignation of Assistant Chemist stating that a memo had 



208 

been submitted to the Government with suggestions for 
filling the vacancy, 
g. Stating that His Excellency had granted Mr. C. Allan, 
Fermentation Chemist, three months' leave on three-quarter 
pay from September to November inclusive. 
h. Report on the work of the Students for summer term 1 905, 
i. Progress Report Sugar Experiment Station. 

a. h. & i. were directed to be circulated. 

The following papers which had been circulated were now sub- 
mitted for final consideration : — 

Resolution re Mr. Nolan. 

Memo re analyses of samples of rum and papers re production 
of rum in the United Kingdom and the following resolution was 
proposed by Mr. Sharp seconded by Mr. Murray : " It is the 
opinion of this Board that it is undesirable that Mr. Nolan should 
continue prosecutions in the United Kingdom in the interests of 
the Rum Industry, pending further information from the investiga- 
tions being made here." 

This was agreed to. 

Report on Canes at Hope and Report of the Superintendent's 
visit to St. James and Hanover. 

Report on Riihher Trees — Mr. Sharp said that Mr. Thompson had 
also visited Rubber trees which he had grown at Angels and he 
wished to state that he would give every opportunity to the Direc- 
tor of Public Gardens and his officers to experiment with these 
trees, but he wished to be present when the visits were made. 

Asst. Superintendent at Hope— Fsipers re vacancy at Hope. 

After discussion it was resolved to recommend the appointment 
of Mr. N. A. Rudolf of Hampstead. 

Ijisect Pests on Cotton — Mr. Sharp said he desired to bring up an 
important matter and that was the employment of an entomologist 
for investigation into the matter of insect pests on Cotton and 
Cassava. 

It was resolved to form a Committee consisting of Messrs. 
Sharp, Fawcett and Cousins to investigate the matter of combat- 
ing insect pests. 

Agricultural Conference — Sir Daniel Morris said that he was ar- 
ranging to hold the Agricultural Conference of the West Indies in 
Jamaica during January of next year and he asked that two mem- 
bers of the Board be chosen as representatives on an Agricultural 
Conference Committee which would also have representatives 
from the Agricultural Society. 

It was agreed that the Chairman and Mr. Fawcett should act on 
the Committee on behalf of the Board. 



[Issued 12th September, 1905.] 
Printed at the Govt. Printing Office, Kingston, Jam. 



BULLETIN 



OF THB 



DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



Vol. III. OCTOBER, 1905. Part 10. 



Hi 
EDITED BY 



WILLIAM EAWCETT, B.Sc, E.L.S., 

Director of Pvblic Gardens and Plantations. 



CONTENTS: 



Page. 

Jamaican Fodders. H. ... ... 209 

The Coffee Market ... ... 215 

Cassava Trials in 1905. II. ... 2l8 

Report on Cocoa in St. Mary ... 220 

The Culture of the Central American Rubber 

Tree. XIII. ... ... 229 

Board of Agriculture ... ... 231 



PRIG E— Threepence. 



A Copy will be supplied free to any Resident in .Jamaica, who will send name and 
address to the Director of Public Gardens and Plantations, Kingston P.O. 



KINGSTON, JAMAICA 
HoF£ Gardens. 

1906. 



•TA^iMA^ICA. 



OF THE 

DEPARTMEXT OF AGRICULTURE, 



Vol. III. 



OCTOBER, 1905. 



Part 10. 



JAMAICAN FODDERS.— II. 

By H. H. Cousins, Island Chemist. 

In continuation of the first article On the fodders of Jamaica* a 
report is now presented of results since obtained at the Govern- 
ment Laboratory in the study of our local food products. 

HAY GRASS. {Sporohohis indiciis.) 

Samples of this grass were obtained from the Hope Experiment 
Station after 2 and 4 weeks growth respectively and the following 
analytical results obtained : — 

HAY GRASS FROM ST. ANDREW. 





Air dry. 


Dried @ I00°C. 


Constituents. 












2 weeks. 


4 weeks. 


2 weeks. 


4 weeks. 


Moisture 


29 10 


14-83 






Fat and wax 


I 10 


058 


I 55 


0-68 


Albuminoids 


719 


5 06 


1014 


5-94 


Amides 


125 


I 07 


1-76 


I 26 


Total nitrogenous substance 


8-44 


613 


II 90 


7 20 


Carbohydrates 


31-85 


4I-I5 


44*93 


48 29 


Crude Fibre 


21-62 


27-62 


30 49 


3243 


Ash 


7-89 


972 


1113 


II4I 


Potash 




. . . 


2 06 


I 02 


Lime 






083 


081 


Phosphoric acid 




... 


074 


075 



When quite young this grass presents a very favourable com- 
position, particularly as regards albuminoids. The difference 
between 10 per cent of albuminoids in the dry matter at 2 weeks 
and 6 per cent at 4 weeks is very striking. 

* Bulletin of the Department of Agriculture, Jamaica, Nov. 1903, p 241. 



210 



Experience fortifies the view that this grass when young and 
succulent is a first class fodder for all kinds of stock. 

Horses fed upon hay made from young hay grass develop the 
condition associated with the feeding of good American Timothy 
hay. As soon as the grass gets old, hard and wiry its feeding 
value is very greatly reduced. 

There are large areas of hay-grass lands which are largely 
wasted owing to the fact that the grass is only really nutritious 
when young and simple grazing is not adequate to make the best 
use of the grass. If these grass-lands were mown for hay at a 
favourable stage of growth an enormous amount of valuable fodder 
could be obtained from lands at present of very poor quality as 
regular grazing land. One of the light American horse mowers 
should save its cost very speedily upon many a dry-weather pen 
in such a district as St. Andrew if judiciously employed in the 
production of hay from young hay grass. 

Guinea Grass — {Panicum tnaximwn.) 

The following results are recorded to emphasize two important 
points connected with the agricultural value of guinea grass, viz : 
the high feeding value of the coarse guinea grass found in many 
parts of the island when cut at the right time and secondly the 
great deterioration arising from the seeding of the grass. Sam- 
ple No. I represents the wild growth of guinea grass that has 
sprung up spontaneously in the laboratory grounds as a result of 
cutting down the brushwood, this grass was cut when the flowering 
spikes were just being produced ; sample No. 2 represents guinea 
grass as fed to a dairy herd in St. Andrew when the grass was 
actually seeding : — 

GUINEA GRASS. 



1 


Air Dry. 


Dried @ I00°C. 


Constituents. 












No. I. 


No. 2. 


No. I. 


No. 2. 


Moisture 


13-87 


1 

18-26 






Fat and wax 


0-26 


0'4i 


030 


050 


Albuminoids 


5-13 


2 00 


596 


2 45 


Amides 


2-87 


28 


3-33 


34 


Total nitrogenous matter ... 


8 00 


2-28 


9-29 


2 79 


Carbohydrates 


34-21 


25 03 


3972 


30 -62 


Crude fibre 


34-11 


43 43 


39-60 


53-13 


Ash 


955 


1059 


II 09 


12 96 


Potash 




... 


3-57 


080 


Lime 


• • • 


... 


079 


079 


Phosphoric acid 


• • • 


• • • 


037 


076 



211 



It has been commonly accepted as a fact that the coarse or " St. 
Mary's" variety of Guinea grass was greatly inferior to the fine 
grass as grown in St. Ann and other stock-raising parishes. 
These figures show that if the coarse grass be harvested just be- 
fore flowering it is of very high feeding value. To illustrate this 
point a comparison of the nitrogenous constituents and fibre in 
the samples previously reported upon (loc. cit.) is here made. 









Total 




Source of Grass. 


Amides. 


Albumi- 
noids. 


Nitro- 
genous 
substance. 


Fibre. 


St. Mary 


0'6i 


3-47 


4 08 


36 -86 


St. Ann 


250 


544 


7-94 


40 28 


Hanover 


195 


493 


6-88 


39-87 


Westmoreland 


054 


5 08 


5 62 


4217 


Manchester 


I 22 


381 


503 


40-70 


Government 




^ 






Laboratory 










St. Andrew 


3-33 


5-96 


929 


39 -60 



It is indeed surprising that the coarse grass of St. Andrew as 
growing wild in the Laboratory grounds should prove itself su- 
perior on analysis to the other samples of guinea grass grown 
in the island. 

Hay made from grass of this quality compares quite favourably 
with Timothy hay and is a valuable fodder. 

If, however, the grass be not cut at the right stage but is al- 
lowed to flower and form seeds, a remarkable deterioration sets 
in and the value of the fodder is reduced to about one third. 

It is obvious that in dry districts like St. Andrew where guinea 
grass will not stand close grazing by stock that it is of the highest 
importance to make the surplus crop of guinea grass into hay be- 
fore it seeds. The writer has had most encouraging results from 
this practice and the analytical figures given above throw light 
upon the matter. 

BREADNUT FODDER {Brosimum Alicastnim.) 

An analysis of this valuable fodder from St. Ann was published 
in the previous article (loc. cit.) Mr. W. Cradwick of the Agri- 
cultural Department kindly supplied a sample from an upland pen 



212 



in Westmoreland. The composition of this sample corresponds 
fairly closely with the previous one and confirms the valuable 
character of this fodder. 

BREADNUT FODDER, Westmoreland. 



Fat and wax 




3 64 


Albuminoids 


. . . 


10 50 


Amides 


• • • 


301 


Total Nitrogenous substance 




13-51 


Carbohydrates 


... 


47-33 


Crude Fibre 




27.46 


Ash 




8 06 


Potash 


... 


3-74 


Lime 


... 


4 02 


Phosphoric Acid 




030 



BAMBOO FODDER. (Bambiisa vulgaris.) 

A sample of this fodder was sent by a planter in St. James with 
a statement that he had found it very valuable in times of 
scarcity. 

The analysis is as follows : — 

Constituents Air Dry. Dried at lOO" C. 



Moisture 




13 26 


Fat and wax 




041 


Albuminoids 




13-31 


Amides 




313 


Total Nitrogenous 
Substance 


} 


16 44 


Carbohydrates 




30-21 


Crude Fibre 




25 00 


Ash 




1468 


Potash 




— 


Lime 






Phosphoric Acid 










_ 





47 


15 


34 


3 


61 


18 


95 


34 84 


28 


•82 


16 


•92 


I 


•39 





84 





■17 



These figures indicate that Bamboo fodder is a highly nitro- 
genous material. The amount of mineral matter is rather ex- 
cessive, but in other respects the composition is that of a valuable 
fodder. 

Note by Mr. J. Barclay on bamboo fodder. 

"The leaves of bamboo are eaten with relish by horses and 
cows and they thrive well on them as a portion of their diet. 

" I have no specific experience as to the results on cows, that is 
to what extent, as compared with other fodders, bamboo leaves 
make flesh or produce milk. I only know that where through 
several months of dry weather they formed the larger part of the 



213 

food of cows, there was no apparent difference as when the 
animals had abundance of grass to feed on. Clumps of bambo© 
had been cut down and had sprung up again, providing dense 
masses of foliage for feeding stock. As regards horses, bamboo 
is spoken of locally as a 'hard' food, that is, a food that make 
horses hard, able to stand hard work better than the more 
succulent grasses. My experience would tend to confirm this. 

" Of course bamboos are generally grown along riversides or 
grown to shade ponds, and are not often found growing through 
pastures. They are, however, a good stand-by in drought when 
stock-owners are short of grass." 

These analyses are the work of Mr. H. S. Hammond, F.C.S., 
assistant Chemist, and although the study of Jamaican fodders is 
by no means complete, owing to Mr. Hammond's resignation of 
his appointment, it was considered desirable to publish the work 
so far as he had been able to carry it. We wish Mr. Hammond 
every success in his new sphere and regret that the laboratory has 
lost his valuable services. 

CORNS. 

Maize. {Zea Mays.) 

A special study of the composition of country corn as compared 
with the imported American corn has been made by Mr. E. J. 
Wortley of this department and the results of his analyses are here 
given. The outstanding features of this investigation are (l) the 
great superiority of country corn over the imported corn as a 
source of albuminoids and (2) the excessive amount of moisture in 
the country corn. Calculated on a uniform basis of 12 per cent, 
moisture, country corn shows a content of over 10 per cent, of 
albuminoids as against a little over 7 per cent, in the imported 
article. 

The prejudice against country corn among horsekeepers has 
arisen simply from the excessive moisture and the liability of such 
corn to ferment and give horses colic. If properly dried our native 
product is decidedly superior to the imported corn. To secure 
immunity from fermentation corn should be dried to a content of 
12-13 per cent, of moisture. This was attained with the corn at 
the Experiment Station at Hope by drying for 12 days. 

Guinea corn. (Sorghum vulgare.) 
The analysis of this corn shows that it contains 12 per cent, of 
albuminoids and is decidedly superior to any sample of maize in 
the list. 

In olden days guinea corn was an important staple and formed 
one of the chief foods of both man and beast in Jamaica. It is of 
interest to record so favourable a composition for a crop grown 
with such simple culture and capable of such good returns in dry 
districts. 



^ 



214 



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215 

THE COFFEE MARKET. 

The attention of coffee planters is directed to the fact that the 
rate of exchange with Brazil has gone up in 9 months from July, 
1904, to April, 1905, from I2d. to I/d per milreis. 

The result must be to increase the cost, reckoned in sterling 
money, of growing coffee in Brazil. This would naturally make 
it less easy to sell at low prices and tend to reduce production, 
which again should enhance prices of coffee the world over. 

Planters in Jamaica should therefore extend the area of coffee 
cultivation. Coffee planted now cannot come in for four or five 
years, and by that time the increased consumption which has been 
promoted by the long prevalence of low prices, added to the 
possible, if not probable, diminution of supplies from South 
America, may combine to make the crop once more a very 
profitable one. At any rate it is not likely to be under any 
greater disadvantage than at present, and it is not subject to great 
loss by hurricanes. 

The following information on the subject will be read with 
interest : — 

Mr. R. S. Gamble, to Director of Public Gardens and Plantations. 

Kingston Jamaica, nth August, 1905. 
Sir, 

Referring to our recent conversation, I have now the pleasure 
to enclose a statement prepared by Messrs. Gillespie, Bros. & Co., 
New York, showing the statistical movement of coffee during the 
last eleven years, including prices of " Rio No. 7" which is a 
representative standard, and the Brazilian exchange. 

You will particularly observe that the world's consumption has 
been steadily growing all the time, and is now 50 0/0 more than 
it was in 1894-5. 

It will also be observed that the Brazilian exchange, which went 
as low as 5-11/16 in 1898 is now somewhere about 17-3/18, and 
that a high exchange has generally involved higher prices for 
coffee, though this effect is not always immediate as it naturally 
comes about by a decreased output from Brazil, which for a time 
may depend on other considerations than mere cost of production. 
The latter, however, is bound to tell eventually, and it is only 
natural to suppose that the reduction in the Brazilian exports, which 
has been continuous since 1901-2, will be forced further by the 
advance in exchange. In 1904-5 it was about 33 per cent, less 
than in 1901-2. 

This points to a more encouraging outlook for coffee, but it 
remains to be seen if the advance will be gradual and safe or 
unnaturally forced and but short-lived. As these are the months 
when large deliveries are usual, let us hope that it may be 
moderate and so fail to stimulate excessive further planting in Brazil. 

I also submit a copy of the latest market report from my New 
York principals, which contains some interesting matter in this 
connection. I am, etc., 

R. S. Gamble. 



2I6 






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217 

The most salient point about the above statistics is, in the main, 
that a high rate of exchange has meant a high price for coffee. 
The apparent exception in 1900-I when the coffee quotations did 
not rise in proportion to the rise in exchange was due to tlie fact 
that the latter was caused by speculation, not in coffee, but in 
exchange itself. The present rise in exchange is attributed to the 
confidence inspired by the improved state of the country, and con- 
sequent investment of foreign capital. The government has also 
for the past few years been withdrawing the paper currency from 
circulation. The principal result of a high exchange is that the 
" Milreis" price received by the planters is reduced and that with 
his cost of production remaining constant, he must reduce his out- 
put of coffee. A particularly fine crop of coifee however would 
depress prices, even though the rate of exchange were on a higher 
level than at present. 

It is also noticeable, however, that while consumption has been 
satisfactorily increasing, production has been falling away from 
the high point of 1901-2, and this, quite apart from the exchange 
question, is encouraging to the producers of coffee. 

The following is from Messrs. Gillespie's fortnightly market 
report of same date : — 

Coffee. — The activity of the coffee market is still pronounced, 
though a large part of the sales reported are in reality only 
speculative transfers from, say, September options to December, 
or later. The receipts reported from the interior of Brazil are, 
however, on a smaller scale than is usual at this season of the 
year, and the " bulls" are busy with reports of a large decrease in 
the total crop. They are helped in their arguments by the present 
high rate of Brazilian exchange, which is now in the neighbour- 
hood of l/fd. This is always expected to send up the price of 
coffee, as with a high exchange the expenses of cultivation become 
heavier and the tendency is to curtail production. The quotation 
for No. 7 Rio to-day is 8|c. per lb., and the tendency is toward 
higher prices, though traders would in most cases prefer to see the 
new crop open at a lower figure. Mild coffees are firmly held, 
and a considerable business has been done lately. Good average 
Bogota has been sold at from ll|c. to Iljc. per lb., and good 
Cucutas are quoted at from 9|c. to 9|c. per lb. The supplies of 
Jamaica coffee are practically unimportant, and, in the absence of 
sales, quotations are nominal. Good ordinary Jamaica coffee is 
probably worth from 8|c. to 9c. per lb., better grades up to lie, 
per lb., according to quality. 

Our London house cables us to-day the spot quotations : For 
fair ordinary Jamaica coffee 41/ per cwt., market firm ; for good 
ordinary greenish Jamaica coffee 44/ per cwt., market firm and the 
c. i. f. Havre quotation for fair ordinary Jamaica coffee 42/ per 
cwt., market firm. 



2l8 

CASSAVA TRIALS IN 1905, II. 

By H. H. Cousins, Island Chemist. 

In continuation of the report published in this Bulletin* the 
results of the Varietal test of the 22 Cassavas at Hope after fifteen 
months' growth are now presented. Besides the tonnage of tubers 
per acre, the composition and the indicated starch per acre, a 
statement is given of the increase (or decrease) in tubers and of 
starch per acre resulting from the 3 months' growth since the first 
results were obtained. The results are very encouraging for the 
Cassava industry and indicate that the gross yield of starch per 
acre obtainable in Jamaica is far beyond the estimate previously 
accepted by the writer as a basis for considering the commercial 
possibilities of the starch industry. 

In these trials the variety that was second in the order of starch 
yield at 12 months now leads by a large margin and "Long Leaf 
Blue Bud" heads the list both in tonnage and in starch content. 
This cassava has given 15^ tons of tubers per acre containing 37^ 
per cent, of starch equal to 12,857 lbs. starch per acre (6 tons.) 
The 3 months' extra growth has enabled the plant to make nearly 
5,000 lbs. more starch per acre. On the other hand "White 
Top" the variety from St. Elizabeth that led at 12 months, 
has only added half a ton per acre and a slight loss of starch is 
indicated as a result of leaving the plant for another 3 months 
Clearly this is a variety that should be harvested at 12 months 
and will not give profitable returns for a longer season of 
growth. 

" Blue Top" has proved itself a good variety and comes second 
with an indicated starch yield of 9,733 lbs. per acre. 

The Manchester Cassavas "Mass Jack," "New Green," and 
" Yellow Belly" have proved themselves quite worthless as starch 
producers at Hope. "Brown Stick" made the greatest gain of any 
variety in the 3 months (over 8 tons per acre) and it is possible 
that in the final reaping of the plots at 18 months' growth that 
this well-known variety will hold a higher position. 

These results indicate that Cassava varieties differ very greatly 
in their productive power and period of maturation and, consider- 
ing the extreme variety of our local conditions, it is very desirable 
to carry out careful trials in all the Cassava districts. 

We can recommend " Long Leaf Blue Bud" and " Blue Top" as 
two of the most promising varieties tested at Hope. The analyses 
of these tubers were made by Mr. F. A. Thompson of the Labora- 
tory staff, while the tonnage was determined by the staff of the 
Hope Experiment Station. A third report of the results of 18 
months' growth of the 22 varieties will be presented in due 
course. 

* Bulletin of the Department of Agriculture, Vol, III,, July, 1905, pp, 152-155. 



219 



Cassava Trials II. 

(Twenty-two varieiies harvested after 15 months^ growth.) 



<A 


Variety. 


Tubers 


2 

m 


57-7 


02 


m 

la 

H 


^ 1 Sugars. 






Starch per aere, 
lbs. 


Gain per acre 

from 
12-15 months 


Order of St 

Yield. 

1 


Tons 

per 

acre. 


0!! 'O 

^ 


10 

02 


1 


Long leaf blue 
bud 


15-4 


42-3 


37-4 


12,857 


6-4 


4,965 


2 


Blue top 


14 2 


64 4 


35 6 


2-0 


30-6 


9,733 


60 


4,097 


3 


Smalling 


11-1 


600 


40-0 


10 


34-4 


8,553 


3-6 


3,059 


4 


Mullings 


111 


60 5 


39 5 


1-7 


32 9 


8,180 


5-3 


4,020 


5 


Luaiia (bitter) 


9-4 


55 8 


44-2 


1.1 


36-7 


7,686 


5-1 


4,611 


6 

7 


White top 
Duif House 


110 
10-6 


61-9 
60-9 


381 
39 1 


1-5 

2 


31-0 
32-0 


7,638 
7,598 


0-5 
51 


•264 
loss 
3,491 


8 


White smooth 
bitter 


9-4 


58-2 


41 8 


11 


35-5 


7,435 


61 


4,975 


9 


Brown stick 


11 6 


64-7 


35-3 


11 


28-5 


7,405 


8 S 


5,021 


10 


Rodney 


9 7 


63 8 


36-2 


1 1 


31-9 


6,93] 


2-2 


1,594 


11 


Luana (sweet) 


8-1 


55-3 


44-7 


1 3 


36 5 


6,540 


0-3 


1,218 


12 


Bobby Hanson ... 


8-4 


62-0 


380 


0-8 


32-6 


6,134 


21 


1,357 


13 


Black stick 


6 6 


55-0 


45-0 


1-5 


35 7 


6,197 


Nil 


319 


14 


Black bitter long 
leaf blue bud 


6-9 


68-1 


41-9 


8 


33-6 


5,193 


0-9 


731 


15 


White banch of 
keys 


6-5 


59-2 


40 8 


1-8 


33-7 


4,906 


1-2 


•837 


16 


Silver stick 


6-5 


63 8 


86 2 


1-9 


31 6 


4,600 


30 


1,856 


17 


Black bunch of 
keys 


6 5 


62-0 


38 


1-5 


31-5 


4,586 


3-2 


2,198 


18 


Prize or silver 
stick 


51 


61-6 


38-4 


1-3 


35 4 


4,044 


10 


1,410 


19 


Mass Jack 


51 


66-6 


33-5 


1-6 


28-4 


3,243 


0-8 


152 


20 


White stick 


3-9 


56 6 


43-4 


1-4 


35-8 


3,127 


0-6 


605 


21 

22 


New green 
Yellow belly 


6-5 
3-2 


64-8 
680 


35-2. 
320 


1 5 

1-8 


21-2 
26-8 


3,086 
1,921 


1-2 

03 
loss 


106 

2o«s 
•400 

loss 



220 

CASSAVA : COST OF CULTIVATION. 

The following statement of the cost per acre of cultivating and 
harvesting Cassava on old ruinate land has been sent by a culti- 
vator in the Magotty district, St. Elizabeth. 

Job l^ork. 



Cutting 

Burning and clearing up 

Digging 4,840 holes (3 feet distances) 

at 3d. per lOO 
Sticks at 3/ per cart load — 2 loads* 
Cart hire — 2 days at 5/* 
Planting suckers — 8/ 
2 weedings at 8/ 
Harvesting — 6/ 
Supervision — 10/ 



£ s. 


d 


10 





4 





12 


6 


6 





10 





8 





16 





6 






10 



£426 



Cartage, where the fields are within measurable distance of 
the mills, say ten tons to the acre, ought not to exceed 10/. 

REPORT ON COCOA IN ST. MARY. 

Mr. W. Cradwick, Travelling Instructor, to the Director of Public 

Gardens. 



Sir, 



Ramble P.O., 25th Feb., 1905. 



3 lots surface soil 



I have sent to Dr. Cousins, the Agricultural Chemist, samples of 
soils as follows : — 

E. Hope Dyer, Highgate P.O., Orange 

River property 
A. M. Edwards, Riversdale, Mission pro- 
perty, Mt. Hermon 
do do do 

Jno. Lockett, Troja P.O., Kendal 

do do do 

H. J. Rudolf, Hampstead P.O., Belle- 
ville 
do do do 

Richard Sutherland, Oracabessa, Home 
Cottage 
do do do 

Josiah Campbell 

do do do 

Isaac Milbourne, Port Maria, Preston 

do do do 



•• 4 


(( 


(( 


2 


(( 


subsoil 


•• 3 


•( 


surface soil 


•• 3 




(< 


subsoil 


.. 6 


(( 


surface soil 


•• 3 

1 A 


(( 


subsoil 


XC 

2 


(( 


surface soil 


2 


(( 


subsoil 


I 


(( 


surface soil 


I 


(( 


subsoil 


I 


<< 


surface soil 


I 


(( 


subsoil 



* Omit these items for fields once established. 



221 

Henry Livingston, Port Maria, Islington i lots surface soil 

do do do ... I " subsoil 

H. Q. Levy, Brown's Town, Sheerness ... 2 " surface soil 

W. H. W. Westmoreland, Highgate, 

Charlottenburg ... 3 " surface soil 

do do do ... 3 " subsoil 

H. J. Rudolf, Hampstead, Rio Magno 3 " surface soil 

do do do ... 3 " subsoil 

The properties Rio Magno and Mt. Hermon Mission are in St. 
Catherine. I visited in addition to these properties, Halcot Farm, 
the property of H. D. Graham ; Llanrumney, the property of Mr. 
Ernest Kerr, and many small settlers. 

I investigated complaints of cocoa trees dying from disease, 
fiddler and other bugs. I think instead of individualizing pro- 
perties it will be better to treat them generally, except as far as 
remarks are necessary for the sake of information on the soils sent 
up to be analysed. 

On Mr. X's estate the cocoa never had permanent shade, but, 
before the hurricane, was well shaded with bananas ; of course the 
hurricane destroyed the shade and exposed the trees to full sun 
and wind in a few minutes. 

I think the best course would have been to have replanted the 
whole field with bananas immediately after the storm. The 
drainage at present is by no means systematic, ahhough Mr. X 
has paid a good deal of attention to it of late years ; but the 
trenching having been done subsequent to the planting of the 
cocoa, it was not done on any definite plan. As it is well nigh, if not 
quite, impossible to drain the field systematically, without replant- 
ing the bananas, and as the bananas are obviously in want of re- 
planting, I would advise the replanting of the bananas, doing 
nothing to the cocoa except removing dead wood from the weak, 
and suckers from the strong trees. By September of this year it 
will be easy to see which of the trees will be worth saving, and 
which are not. Then the trees which still look unthrifty should 
be dug out and burnt, and young healthy plants substituted ; 
if the replanting of the bananas were done by the end of April, 
they will have grown enough to furnish shade for the young cocoa 
in September, 

I would advise the planting of permanent shelter trees on the 
ridges ; these I would recommend to be mixed fruit, timber and 
rubber trees, — breadfruit, mangoes, cedar, star apple, kola, and 
castilloa. I would advise regular contour drains of 2 feet in depth 
and 24 feet apart. In steep places these drains should have stones 
on piles driven in at intervals to retard the flow of the water and 
thus prevent wash. 

The ridges of the land require regular additions of vegetable 
matter, — banana trash, stable manure, grass and weeds are the 
easiest to procure ; the wash is very great in these parts and unless 
it is compensated for in some way, the cocoa trees will always look 
poorer there than in the bottoms, where all the humus, &c., is 



222 

washed from the ridges. I do not think permanent shade is re- 
quired as shade, but shelter from the wind is urgently required ; a 
tree also which will deposit a large quantity of leaves on the land 
would be a great help to the land. 

If an artificial manure can be applied about June which would 
help to hurry up the bananas, and the same for the cocoa on the 
poor spots about September, I think there is no question that the 
majority of the trees would soon be in good condition. Pruning 
will have to be looked after constantly — "little and often " is a 
good maxim for the pruner at all times, and especially so after such 
a calamity as these trees have passed through. Healthy trees 
which are leaning badly, or which have been damaged by wind or 
bananas, &c., falling on them, beyond the chance of their again 
being made into good shaped trees, should each be allowed to send 
up one good sucker, selecting the strongest one as near the ground 
as possible, removing all the others and preventing fresh suckers 
from growing by constant pruning. Cocoa plants which have not 
fully recovered from the effects of the hurricane should on no 
account be allowed to bear fruit ; the bearing of four or five pods 
this year on an enfeebled tree will probably mean a loss of five 
times that amount during the next two or three years. 

One or two general points which may look small, but are of vast 
importance, were noticed by me. 

When roads or drains are made, the soil is often heaped round 
the stems of the trees causing them to become soft and pappy, and 
rendering them liable to attacks by the grubs of the Fiddler and 
other bugs. In any case if soil is heaped up round the stems of 
the cocoa trees for any length of time, the bark rots and the trees 
get feeble, drop their leaves, cease to bear, and often die outright. 
Even in weeding, labourers often heap up the soil round the stems 
of the trees to their great detriment : the best plan to remedy this 
would be to select a careful old woman with a piece of stick to go 
round after weeding, and clear the stems of all the trees of soil. 
A cutlass should not be used, although if the stems are exposed 
to air and light, they soon recover from wounds inflicted by cutlass 
or hoe ; if the wounds are covered up they are great sources of 
danger, from grubs, fungoid pests, &c. 

Another point I observed was that young plants had often been 
kept too long in the bamboo joints, the roots being twisted round 
and round the bamboo joints. Plants such as these are not likely 
to thrive. Another point people are not careful with, and that is 
to see that the roots of the young plants when taken out of the 
bamboo joints are properly wet. Before removing them for plant- 
ing, the precaution should always be taken of soaking the bamboos 
with the plant in, in a bucket or pan of water, for at least half an 
hour, especially the plants procured from Hope Gardens, which 
often get very dry on the journey from the gardens to the planta- 
tions. 

With reference to the damage done by grubs at Halcot Farm, 
the trees have not been troubled underground, but the limbs of 



223 

some trees have been almost stripped of their bark, and from the 
appearance of the limbs now, it looks almost as though it were the 
work of slugs. Mr. Graham, however, is strongly of opinion that 
a caterpillar was the cause of the trouble. I recommend the trees 
being dusted with Paris Green, should the trees be again attacked. 

With regard to the harm done by Fiddler bugs, I am still some- 
what sceptical of the harm done by these to really healthy trees. 
I have not yet been able to find a tree believed to be killed by 
these ; which was free in my opinion from contributory causes. 
If Fiddler bugs can attack the roots of healthy orange and cocoa 
trees, then these industries are not worth ten minutes' purchase. 
I found trees which were in very bad health and on which the 
Fiddler grubs had been feeding ; now if these trees are examined 
casually, it is a nice easy way out of the difficulty, immediately a 
grub is discovered, or traces of its presence in the past, to lay all 
the blame on the Fiddler bug, when as a matter of fact, I found 
that in nearly every case it was almost certain that the tree had 
been suffering from two or three other causes, each sufficient to 
nearly kill the tree independent of the Fiddler bug. 

Perhaps the largest number of the Cocoa trees attacked by Fid- 
dler bugs are those growing in the upper parts of steep fields, 
where the fertile soil has been washed away to the lower parts of 
the field, the increased fertility of the lower parts of the field and 
the consequent luxuriant growth of the trees there are followed 
by the starvation of the trees on the upper parts. These trees al- 
ways had their roots " eaten by Fiddler grubs." The luxuriant 
ones never. In many places the trees were found to be buried very, 
very deep. The digging of trenches, the making of roads, are 
often responsible for the heaping up of the soil as much as 
eighteen inches round the stems, this with or without the help of 
Fiddler bugs spells only one thing, and that is death. 

Trees too are often buried too deep by labourers weeding, being 
often first chopped by the hoe and then they are covered up with 
a large quantity of soil. I think these may be safely looked upon 
as first causes, while I admit that the Fiddler bug in these cases 
certainly does help to aggravate the evil by eating off the bark of 
the unhealthy trees, but I much doubt if trees suffering from the 
causes I have mentioned, would ever be useful trees, even without 
the harm done by the Fiddler bug. 

Why I say that if the grub of Fiddler beetles attacks the roots 
of healthy trees, the cocoa industry is doomed, is that at Mr. 
Lockett's at Kendal for instance, on one small pimento tree were 
enough Fiddler beetles to furnish 6 for each cocoa tree on the 
property, and if the whole of the damage done to the dying trees 
can be attributed to the one grub usually found at its roots then a 
very small percentage of the beetles will be enough to furnish 
grubs enough to kill all the orange and cocoa trees in the island. 
I may add that Mr. H. Q. Levy, and Mr. R. L. Young have for a 
long time had the matter under careful observation for me, and 
quite agree with my view. 



224 

At the same time the mature Fiddler beetles do considerable 
harm to the foliage of the trees which they happen to infest, and 
the Paris Green remedy should always be used. 

Throughout the parish of St. Mary I saw nothing which can be 
termed a disease of cocoa trees ; those which it was stated were 
suffering from disease were growing under the same circumstances 
as those which were said to have been attacked by Fiddler beetles, 
viz., on the poorer parts of the land, ridges or places suffering from 
bad drainage ; exposure to wind on poor soil is more than cocoa 
trees can be expected to flourish under ; I saw many trees under 
such conditions, the owners of which were fearing disease in con- 
sequence of the thriftless look of the trees. 

I must say, I came away from St. Mary with a much highe^ 
opinion of cocoa as a permanent crop than I went with to that 
parish, after hearing the reports of the bad state of the trees from the 
effects of the hurricane of 1 903, diseases, &c. It is little short of 
wonderful to see the way in which some of the trees after being 
badly battered in the hurricane have recovered their former vigour 
and are bearing fine crops ; this of course has taken place only 
on good land and where attention was promptly paid to the trees 
and the land after the hurricane. 

Mr. Rudolf at Belleville and Messrs. Kerr & Co., of Llanrumney 
showed me trees which it seems hard to believe were so battered 
as recently as August, 1903 ; the only indication in some of the 
fields of anything unusual having happened, consisted of a tree 
here and there still being out of the perpendicular ; in cases where 
trees were broken badly, gormandizers have sprung up and are 
now bearing ; on the other hand I found fields which have had no 
attention, still looking very bad ; this was notably the case at a 
small settler's field at Islington (Mr. Livingston's). The drainage 
had never been particularly good, and in consequence of the heavy 
rains during the past two years it had steadily got worse ; here the 
trees have not yet attempted to recover. 

Some of the planters in St. Mary are pruning too severely, 
growing long weakly primary branches which bend down, leaving 
the centre of the tree too open, which results in the crown of the 
tree and the bark of the pruning branches getting sunburnt — I was 
careful to point out the evil effects of this. I would suggest that 
trees which are recovering slowly from the effects of the 
hurricane should be left unpruned ; with the exception of the 
removal of the gormandizers, too much repression of foliage must 
not be practised till the trees have recovered their usual vigour ; 
I would also suggest the removal of the pods if such trees attempt 
to bear. Where they have recovered, and are strong and healthy, 
they should be pruned in the usual way, and may be left to bear, 
but the production of half a dozen pods on a weakly tree will 
probably mean a loss of 1 3 months' growth and probably many 
times 6 pods next year. 



225 

Shading. 



'd' 



With regard to permanent shade, I am inclined to agree in toto 
with Mr. Lockett whose system is to pick out the richest land which 
is most protected from wind, cultivate this highly, protect it from 
wind by planting strong growing trees to windward, but practically 
plant nothing as a permanent shade ; this I believe to be sound 
cultivation, and Mr. Lockett's results demonstrate it. 

The necessity for good drainage cannot be too strongly 
impressed on the cocoa planters of St. Mary. The heavy, retentive 
nature of the soil points to this as a primary necessity of cultivation. 
Many valuable years will be saved in the life of the cocoa tree if 
this is accepted as a fact, and the drainage properly planned and 
executed before the planting of the tree instead of after as has 
been often done in many cases. 

The necessity of shading for young plants need not b^ 
emphasised, on the other hand, the evil of too much shade should 
be carefully avoided as it results in lanky feeble plants. When 
establishing young fields of cocoa, I think more use might be made 
of the ground cocoe — (Colocasia esculenta) ; this plant seems 
admirably adapted for the conservation of moisture and the 
keeping down of noxious weeds, some planters allow their 
labourers free use of the land between young bananas and cocoa 
for the purpose of planting this vegetable and judging from 
appearances it seems to do admirably what I have just claimed 
for it without in any way reducing the fertility of the soil, and the 
extra cultivation which is willingly given by the people growing 
the cocoes must be of the highest benefit to the close, heavy soils 
in St. Mary. 

I noticed that usually the varieties of cocoa with red colouring 
matter on the pods seem to have recovered their vigour more 
quickly than the yellow varieties. In many places, particularly 
with the small settlers, I noticed that the cocoa cultivation is very 
crowded with bananas and other economic plants, this may be the 
most profitable way of utilizing an acre of land, if so, there can be 
no objection to it; but it would be as well if planters and peasantry 
were to decide which kind of cultivation they think best bananas, 
chocolate, or chocolate with just as many bananas as are useful 
for shading purposes and not to try to get £20 worth of cocoa and 
£20 worth of bananas per acre per annum, and succeed in getting 
£10 worth of neither. 

In many cases good cocoa trees are prevented from bearing 
to anything like their full capacity by bananas, which are managed 
in such a way (or perhaps it would be more correct to say— not 
managed at all) as to give only such poor bananas, and so late in 
the year, that I am sure the return per acre would be better if the 
bananas were retained only just in such numbers as would be useful 
for helping to shade the thinner parts of the cocoa field. It is 
exceedingly hard to estimate the yield per acre of cocoa fields in 
Jamaica, and that yield does not compare even on the estimate 



226 

favourably with that of other colonies simply because in nearly 
every case the cocoa has to play second fiddle to the banana. 

Of course if bananas pay better than cocoa, there is nothing to 
be said against this, but planters had better make up their minds 
which does pay best in their own particular circumstances and 
develop the most profitable industry. 

With reference to what are termed "Gall Spots" on ridgy land 
which as a rule, simply means spots where the surface soil is very 
thin and the subsoil very poor, I would strongly advise the cessa- 
tion of attempts to cultivate such land in bananas or cocoa, and 
the planting of it with grass and trees, the trees would serve to 
protect the plants growing in the better parts of the land, and the 
grass might be cut to manure the same (it is appalling to stand at 
Highgate and look towards Annotto Bay, for there is absolutely 
nothing to modify wind storms between there and the open sea.) 
I may say that this method of dealing with " galls" is being carried 
out by Mr. Melville of Llanrumney. 

I forwarded some cocoa pods, which were affected with what 
appears to be a rot ; the pods presenting a nasty brown appear- 
ance ; the disease attacks pods of varying ages ; I would suggest 
spraying these trees with bordeaux mixture. 

Thrips were found in places and I would advise spraying these 
with a kerosene emulsion. I do not think they appear to be any 
worse than during the last few years. 

My attention was drawn to the spotted appearance of the bana- 
nas from parts of St. Mary. Mr. E. H. Kerr told me that he 
thought they got a much larger proportion of fruit with these spots 
on, during wet weather, but he has promised to observe more 
closely and report to the Department. Mr. Melville, the attorney 
of Llanrumney, is of opinion that the spotted fruit comes from land 
which is poor from any cause ; Mr. Rudolf is of the same opinion, 
but adds that he thinks it is worse in ratoon bananas than plants. 

A planter at Highgate, assured me that before he had drained 
a field which he showed me, that all the fruit from this was badly 
spotted, even as plants, but since draining, the spots have almost 
entirely disappeared ; there was very little spotted fruit when I 
saw the field except in some patches which appeared to be in want 
of still more drainage, and were otherwise naturally poorer. 

These spots on bananas would appear to be a fungoid pest — 
similar to that attacking the bananas at Hazelymph. 

In conclusion, I would wish to again point out the necessity for 
the care in laying out drains ; these should always be as free from 
rapid falling as possible, but where it is impossible to avoid dig- 
ging the drains straight down steep land, the drain should be either 
piled at short intervals, or large stones should be laid into them 
to prevent the rapid rush of the water. 

I have the honour to be, 
Sir, 
Your obedient Servant, 

W. Cradwick. 



227 

NOTE BY DR. COUSINS. 
Re Cocoa Trees dying. 

There is no doubt whatever that " Fiddler" larvae can and do 
attack the roots of healthy orange and cocoa trees. 

I consider that in view of the recorded fact that the original 
cocoa cultivation in Jamaica was destroyed by a similar, if not 
identical pest, mentioned by Dalby Thomas * in extract below, 
that Mr. Cradwick fails to appreciate the serious nature of this 
pest. 

The reason why trees growing on thin and denuded soil are 
specially attacked is not, as Mr. Cradwick concludes, that weak 
trees are specially liable to attack but because the roots are ac- 
cessible to the larval attack under such conditions. The wholesale 
death of budded oranges in the Manchester orchards had been at- 
tributed to defective drainage, deep planting, poverty of soil, etc., 
until I went there and had a number of trees dug up when the 
cause was found to be solely the girdling of the roots by Prepodes 
larvae. Cultivated soils encourage the attack of these pests be- 
cause of their friability. This is why wild oranges in the pastures 
in Manchester are free from damage while budded fruit, if neg- 
lected, rapidly succumb to this pest. I think it is desirable to 
warn planters of the serious possibilities of Prepodes if neglected 
and that a regular crusade of hand-picking of adults and spray- 
ing with Paris Green and treatment of infested trees with Carbon 
Bisulphide to destroy larvae in the soil are desirable. 

EXTRACT FROM "AN ACCOUNT OF THE RISE AND GROWTH OF 
THE WEST INDIA COLONIES," BY DALBY THOMAS, LONDON, 
1690. 

"Cocoa is now no longer a commodity to be regarded in our 
colonies, though at first it was the principal invitation to the peo- 
pling Jamaica ; for those walks the Spaniards left behind them 
there, when we conquered it, produced such prodigious profit, with 
little trouble that Sir Thomas Moddiford and several others set 
up their rests to grow wealthy therein, and fell to planting much 
of it, which the Spanish slaves who remained in the island always 
foretold would never t'hrive, and so it happened ; for though it 
promised fair and throve finely for five or six years, yet still at 
that age, when so long hopes and care had been wasted about it, 
withered and died away, by some unaccountable cause, though 
they impute it to a black worm or grub which they find clinging 
to its roots — the manner of planting it is in order like our cherry 
gardens, which tree, when grown up it much resembles. It de- 
lights in shade, so that by every tree they plant one of plantain, 
which produces a fruit nourishing and wholesome for the negroes. 
They by hoeing and weeding keep their cocoa walks free from 
grass continually, and it begins to bear, at three, four or five years 

* See extract, for which I am indebted to C. E. DeMercado, Esq. 



228 

old, and did it not almost constantly die before, would come to 
perfection in fifteen years' growth and last till thirty, thereby be- 
coming the most profitable tree in the world, there having been 
above £200 sterling made in one year of an acre of it. But the 
old trees planted by the Spaniards being gone by age, and few 
new thriving, as the Spanish negroes foretold, little or none now is 
produced worthy the care and pains in planting and expecting it. 
The slaves gave a superstitious reason for its not thriving, many 
religious rites being performed at its planting by the Spaniards, 
which their slaves were not permitted to see. But it is probable, 
that wary nation, as they removed the art of making cochineal and 
curing venelloes into their inland province, which were the com- 
modities of those islands in the Indians' time, and forbad the 
opening of any mines in them, for fear some maritime nation may 
thereby invited to the conquering them, so they might likewise, 
in their transplanting cocoa from the Caracas and Guatemala, 
conceal wilfully some secret in its planting from their slaves lest 
it might teach them to set up for themselves, by being able to 
produce a commodity of such excellent use for the support of 
man's life, with which alone and water some persons have been 
necessitated to live ten weeks together, without the least diminu- 
tion of either health and strength." 

NOTE BY DIRECTOR OF PUBLIC GARDENS AND PLANTATIONS. 

There is no proof that the original cocoa cultivation in Jamaica 
was destroyed by "Fiddler" larvae, in fact the destruction is at- 
tributed by the historian Long to a "blast" which probably was a 
hurricane. 

Several orange plantations in Manchester and other parishes 
have been examined by myself and others. In some cases we 
found evidences of " Fiddler," but elsewhere there was no trace 
of any injury by larvae at the roots, and the causes of ill health 
and death were want of aeration and drainage of soil, deep plant- 
ing, poverty of soil in lime or some other ingredient, shading by 
bananas or stiff clayey soil. Where there was evidence of the 
larvae at work on the roots, it could not be said that this was the 
sole cause, for one at least of what seemed to be the true causes 
of ill health, was also acting. 

Of the thousands, one might say millions, of orange seeds that 
are scattered by natural causes in pastures, a very small number 
meet with favourable conditions and are strong enough consti- 
tutionally to fight successfully against all enemies. Budded fruit 
planted alongside succumb, because they do not meet with fa- 
vourable conditions unless elementary principles of agricultural 
hygiene are attended to, and also, because possibly the stock 
plants are wanting in vigour. 

The Fiddler should of course be destroyed, but it would be a 
fatal mistake to devote sole attention to it, and leave unsolved the 
other recommendations made by Mr. Cradwick. 



229 

THE CULTURE OF THE CENTRAL AMERICAN 

RUBBER TREE, XIII.* 

{Continued from Bulletin for August.) 

By O. F. Cook, Botanist in charge of Investigations in Tropical 
Agriculture, U. S. Department of Agriculture. 
OTHER METHODS OF COAGULATION. 

The traditional method of treating Para rubber in Brazil is to 
spread it in thin layers on wooden paddles, which are held over 
burning palm nuts. The highest grades of commercial rubber 
have been produced in this way, but the process is too slow, 
laborious, and disagreable. There seems, however, to be ground 
for a suspicion that some constituent of the smoke, which is 
incorporated into the rubber, may have a beneficial effect upon 
its mechanical properties and the previously cited adverse opinion 
upon the pure but unsmoked Hevea rubber from the East Indies 
seems to give further warrant for such a notion. The experiment of 
smoking Castilloa rubber has been tried at La Zacualpa, but the 
result was a hopelessly sticky mass. The difference of behaviour 
is, however, more likely to be due to differences in the latex rather 
than to differences in the rubber itself. 

It is not to be overlooked that, while the high percentage of 

albuminous impurities in Castilloa rubber has rendered the price 

lower and the removal of them should increase the price, yet it 

will reduce the quantity of the marketable product and will thus 

not be an unmixed advantage. All the methods of coagulation 

now in use bring about the incorporation with the rubber of a large 

amount of the albuminous substances of the latex. Dr. Weber 

claims that if none of the albumens are left out they will constitute 

over 25 per cent, of the solid product and adds : 

The native rubber collectors prepare the rubber from the latex in such away that 
at least part of the aqueous vehicle of the latex is drained .away before coagulation 
takes place, and consequently we never find a Central American rubber (crude) 
which contains as much as the above-stated quantity (25 [ler cent, of albuminous 
matter), but lots containing from 9 to 13 per cent are quite common. 

The meaning of this sentence is not obvious, and it becomes still 
less so if we. read it in connection with one which follows a little 
later. 

Therefore, whenever we coagulate the rubber, we can only do so by coagulating 
it in conjunction with the albumen present, and we have at once a product possess- 
ing all the inemediable drawbacks which above we discussed at some length. 

None of the native methods of coagulation enumerated by Dr. 
Weber shows any provisionfor eliminating anypart of the albumen. 
There is certainly nothing of this kind in connection with scrap 
rubber, into which all the solid constituents of the milk are simply 
dried down and little escapes except by evaporation, and yet scrap 
rubber is commonly deemed of good quality. In coagulation by 
the acid or alkaline juices of plants or by soap, salt, or alum, or by 
the boiling of the juice, the only materials which escape are those 

* Extract from the U. S. Department of Agriculture, Bull. No. 49. Bureau of Plant 
Industry. 



230 

which do not coagulate, so that it is difficult to avoid the inference 
that the percentage of albuminous matter is not constant or that 
it has been incorrectly determined. 

At La Zacualpa was witnessed still another method of coagula- 
tion by which all the non-volatile constituents of the latex are 
retained. The latex is spread in a thin coating upon the large 
banana-like leaves of a species of Calathasa, laid out on the hot 
bare ground in the open sun. This exposure to heat, light, and 
air turns the milk dark with great rapidity, and in a few minutes 
it has become firm enough to permit a second layer to be spread 
on. Subsequently two of the leaves have .their rubber-covered 
faces pressed together by being trodden upon, and the rubber 
adheres to form a single leaf-like sheet from which the leaves 
themselves are easily stripped away. 

COAGULATION OF SCRAP RUBBER. 

Whether due to a varietal difference in the trees or to climatic 
or other differences of the external conditions, it seems to be a 
general fact that on the more continuously humid eastern slope of 
Central America the milk of Castilloa does not run from the trees 
in quantities which can be collected and treated by improved 
methods of coagulation, but hardens in the cuts made by the 
rubber gatherer, who does not carry home the milk but returns in 
a day or two to pull out the dried " scraps," as rubber obtained in 
this way is called in the trade. As both the quality and the price 
of scrap rubber are satisfactory, the chief objection to this method 
of harvesting is the greater number of cuts in the tree and the 
greater amount of labour necessary to collect it, though the latter 
objection is somewhat counterbalanced by avoiding the work of 
coagulation. The principal point is the amount obtainable, and 
this depends upon the question of climates and varieties rather 
than upon that of coagulation. According to Professor H. Pittier, 
6 pounds of scrap rubber are sometimes taken from a single wild 
tree in Costa Rica ; but while this amount is considerable it is 
much less than that claimed by Koschny for the same country. 

YIELD OF CULTIVATED TREES. 

It may be said that at the present stage of this inquiry 2 pounds 
per tree is looked upon as the reasonable maximum yield to be 
expected from adult trees of twelve years and upward, growing 
under favourable natural conditions. This is the highest estimate 
which is known to the writer as having been made by reliable 
planters of intelligence and experience ; and some such hold that 
the probabilities lie nearer to half a pound than to 2 pounds. It is 
appreciated that this estimate is much smaller than many claims 
based on wild trees and that it is much larger than the results 
reached on some of the earlier plantations would seem to promise. 
The estimate is not, however, made as an average of all published 
figures, but is reached rather by the elimination of unwarraiited 
expectations from one end of the series, and from the other of 
disappointments due to adverse local conditions. 



231 

BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

EXTRACTS FROM MINUTES. 

The usual monthly meeting of the Board of Agriculture was 
held at Headquarter House on I2th September, present : the 
Colonial Secretary, the Commissioner for the Imperial Department 
of Agriculture for the West Indies, the Director of Public Gardens, 
the Government Chemist, Hon. T. Capper, Messrs. C. A. T. Fursdon, 
C. E. deMercado. J. W. Middleton, G. D. Murray and John Barclay, 
Secretary. 

The Secretary read letters from the Colonial Secretary as 
follows : — 

a. Intimating that Mr. N. A. Rudolf had been appointed 

Assistant Superintendent of Hope Gardens and the Ex- 
periment Station, with a salary at the rate of £ioo a year 
and quarters, his duties to include, if required, the instruc- 
tion of the boys at the Industrial School. 

b. That the grant of £26 asked for by the Chemist for Go- 

vernment Laboratory apprentices could not be acceded 
to in the present financial position. The Chemist, how- 
ever, submitted a later letter to him sanctioning the 
employment of four apprentices at 4/ a week each, the 
payment being made from general savings on the 
Laboratory estimates for the current year, 

c. Transmitting copy of letter from the agent of Messrs. 

Elder, Dempster & Co. in regard to the appointment of 
fruit experts. 

After discussion, on the suggestion of Sir Daniel 
Morris, it was agreed to recommend to the Government, 
that as Mr. Robert Thomson had been put at the disposal 
of the Board, they should ask if Messrs. Elder, Dempster 
& Co. could see their way to appoint two or three In- 
structors leaving it to the Board to nominate such as were 
satisfactory to them, who could assign them to different 
districts. 

d. Intimating that the Government had appointed in addition 

to Mr. G. D. Murray, Lt. Col. C. J. Ward, C.M.G., the Hon. 
W. A. S. Vickers, and Mr. Jos. Shore, to be associated 
with the Government Chemist in the management of the 
sugar experiments. 

e. Advising that in accordance with a resolution of the Board 

Mr. Nolan had been informed that the Governor con- 
sidered it desirable that prosecutions in which the sole 
evidence that the rum sold is not Jamaica rum, is the fact 
that it does not contain a certain percentage of ethers, 
should be discontinued. 

The Secretary submitted report on the cotton gins in charge 
of the Board. He was instructed to insert a notice in the Agri- 



232 

cultural Journal asking for applications for the steam gin and 
baling press and 2 hand gins. 
Chemist's papers : — 

a. Application for a grant of £200 for experimental distillery 

installation from the estimates (alteration and new plant 
for estate distilleries) of the sugar industry fund. 

It was agreed to recommend the appropriation of £200 
for the experiment, subject to approval by the Board, 
of agreement with the estate proprietor, and plans and 
estimates to be prepared by the estate engineer, to be first 
submitted to the Board. 

b. Statement by the Chemist on the proposed enquiry into the 

insect pests attacking cotton and cassava. 

c. Report on the special course for distilleries. 

d. Report on the Locked Still installation at Denbigh estate. 

The last two reports were directed to be circulated. 
Reports by the Director of Public Gardens and Plantations. 

a. Report Mr. W. J. Thompson's work. 

b. Report Mr. Cradwick's work. 

c. Report Experiment Station. 
These were directed to be circulated. 

The Director of Public Gardens submitted a statement of the 
sale of Havana tobacco at Hope. As regards shade cloth for the 
Sumatra tobacco experiment, he was instructed to get the same 
cloth as was used two years before, from the United States. 

The Director also reported that, subject to the confirmation by 
the Board, he had arranged for an experimental acre of cocoa and 
rubber at "Shettlewood," all expenses being paid by the Hon. 
Evelyn Ellis, the cultivation to be directed by Mr. Cradwick. 

This was approved. 

A letter from Mr. W. Kirkland submitted, was directed to be 
circulated. 

Mr. Murray submitted letter from agents in England together 
with account sales for shipment of oranges made to London by 
Dr. Tillman showing very satisfactory prices and reported on as 
being the best packed oranges the agents had ever received from 
Jamaica. 



[Issued 5th October, 19')5 ] 
Printed at the Govt. Printing Office, Kingston, Jam. 



BULLETIN 



OF THE 



DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



Vol. III. NOVEMBER, 1905. Part 11. 



LIBRARY 

EDITED BY .,^^. 

NEW YORt 

BOTANIC A I 

WILLIAM EAWCETT, B.Sc, E.L.S., r-.j^oEN. 

Director of Public Gardens and Plantations. 



CONTENTS: 



Page. 

Rubber at Agricultural Conference ... 233 

Recent Developments in Agricultural Science 243 

Palm Oil and Shea-Butter ... 252 

Board of Agriculture ... ... 253 



PRIG E— Threepence. 






I A Copy will be supplied free to any Resident in Jcamaica, who will send name and 
address to the Director of Public Gardens and Plantations, Kingston P.O. 



KINGSTON, JAMAICA 
HoPB Qardbns. 

1906. 



JAMATCA. 



BULT.BTIN 

OK THK 

DEPxVRTME^T OF A(iUICULTUKE. 



Vol. III. ' NOVEMBER, 1905. Part 11. 



RUBBER AT THE AGRICULTURAL CONFERENCE 

1905, AT TRINIDAD.* 

RUBBER CULTIVATION IN THE WEST INDIES. 

The PRESIDENT, Sir D. Morris, said : The cultivation of rubber 
trees in different parts of the tropics has been taken up with great 
energy, and considerable success has been attained in Ceylon and 
the Straits Settlements especially with Para rubber. The commer- 
cial value of rubber is steadily increasing, and in view of the num- 
berless uses to which rubber is put, there is no doubt that if planta- 
tions of rubber trees could be successfully carried on, either alone 
or in connexion with other industries, they might prove profitable 
in some parts of the West Indies. In British Guiana rubber trees of 
several kinds already exist, and one would naturally suppose that 
in that colony a rubber industry might be established under more 
favourable conditions than anywhere else. The more recent idea 
is to establish regular plantations, and these, as far as I am aware, 
have only been started at Tobago and Trinidad. In the former 
island rubber plantations have been started now for over twelve 
years, and they are beginning to yield commercial rubber. I have 
asked Captain Short, of Richmond, to prepare a paper showing 
the results of rubber cultivation in Tobago. He has sent a most 
interesting paper with results compiled by himself and Mr. T. L. M. 
Orde, the manager of Louis d'Or, a plantation belonging to the 
West India Rubber Syndicate. 

CASTILLOA RUBBER IN TOBAGO. 
By Captain M. SHORT, of Richmond, Tobago. 

The Castilloa is practically the only rubber tree grown in this 
island. There are a few acres of Ceara (Mani/iot Glaziovii), and a 
small quantity of Para (Hevea brasiliensis) and African {Funtumia 
elastica), but although the growth of these two latter species seems 
fairly satisfactory, it is too early yet to judge if they will 
eventually flourish and yield well here. 

There is no doubt, however, that in the chief cacao-growing 
districts the Castilloa thrives remarkably well, and the tree appears 
to grow equally well at an elevation of 900 feet as at sea-level. 
Some few trees, up to three and four years of age, have at times 

* lleprinted from the \V Ind. Bulletin, Vol. VI., No. '2, 1905, page 139. 



234 

been attacked by blight, but in the larger number of cases where 
this has occurred, the young trees have succeeded in throwing it 
off, without spraying being resorted to, or, where the tops have 
died back, have sent out flourishing suckers. 

SHADE FOR CASTILLOA. 

In good soil and in moist situations, no shade at all is required 
for the young tree, but otherwise it does want a certain amount of 
shade for the first two or three years after planting. Too dense a 
shade, however/ is not beneficial to it, and plants set out in the 
forest make very slow progress, and develop into spindly trees. 

Where three to six-years-old trees are shaded by Bois Immortel 
or other large trees, as might be expected, they increase rapidly 
in height, but where they are planted fairly close, or where the 
stem only is shaded by bananas, etc., the tree thickens out as it 
grows. 

SIZE OF TREES 

There are about 90,000 Castilloa trees in the island. The oldest 
are those on the Richmond estate, where 1 00 to 150 were 
planted thirteen to fourteen years ago. The largest of these now 
measures 6 feet in circumference at 3 feet from the ground. Some 
measurements were taken in December, 1 898, when the trees were 
eight years old, the largest being 5 feet in girth at 3 feet from the 
ground. Others measured 3 feet 9 inches, 3 feet 5 inches, 3 feet 
I inch. 

YOUNG CASTILLOAS. 

Mr. Orde, who is managing the West India Rubber Syndicate, 
has kindly furnished the following information on young 
Castilloa : — 

The Castilloas on Louis d'Or estate are still young. Planting 
was begun in the autumn of 1898, and the oldest trees are six years 
or thereabouts. 

The larger number of the trees have been planted to stand 
finally at a distance of 1 7 feet. Some fields are planted at 8| 
feet by Sh feet, others at 8i feet by 17 feet, in the hope that a 
yield might be obtained from the cultivation while young, by 
tapping the intermediate trees before they grew large enough to 
necessitate being cut out. 

It has been found that a well-grown field, planted at 8| feet by 
8| feet, cannot stand longer than about five years without being 
thinned out, as at that age the branches begin to interfere with 
each other, and the tree tends to become thin and spindly. 

Experiments were made in tapping some of these young trees, 
averaging five to six years old, in 1904. Large numbers of them 
were tapped as severely as possible with chisel and mallet. The 
latex was in some cases taken wet and washed before coagulation, 
and in others it was allowed to dry on the tree, and picked off 
afterwards as scrap. 

The yield obtained was very small, averaging i oz. per tree, 
though individual trees gave more. In one case, 160 of the best 
grown trees were tapped, the rubber being taken wet, and the 



235 

yield from these was rather over 5 lb. of dry rubber, or an 
average of | oz. per tree. 

Small lots of this rubber have been sent to London for valuation, 
and good prices have been quoted, 2s. to 2s. 6d. being quoted 
for the scrap, and 4s. 2d. to 4s. 8d. for the washed rubber. No 
large quantity has yet been put on the market. 

It is not yet known how frequently trees of this age can be 
tapped and made to yield an amount worth the cost of collecting. 
It is possible that they might stand three tappings in the year, 
which would bring the yield up to about I oz. per tree. The cost 
of collecting the rubber as scrap is from 6d. to /d. per ft., while 
if the latex is taken wet and washed, the operation is more 
laborious and the cost per pound increases. There are some 
twenty to thirty trees on the estate, aged seven years from seed, 
and experiments have also been made on these, from which it 
appears that the yield increases fairly quickly as the tree gets 
older. 

Six of these trees were tapped, not severely, in March, 1904, 
and gave 12^ oz. dry rubber. The same trees were tapped again 
in September and gave 10 oz.. or nearly I ft>. per tree in the two 
tappings. These trees, however, were rather above the average 
in growth for their age. 

Trees planted at 8i feet by 8| feet could not be left growing to 
this size without injury to each other; and if a field is planted 
with the idea of getting rubber' from the intermediate trees, as 
soon as they get old enough to yield, and before it is necessary to 
cut them out, it would seem that 8| feet is too close a distance, and 
that 12 feet would be about the most suitable distance. 

In a field planted at 12 feet by 12 feet, and intended to stand 
permanently at 24 feet by 24 feet, the intermediate trees could 
probably be allowed to attain an age of eight or nine years before 
being cut down. In such a field there would be about 225 inter- 
mediate trees per acre on which to work. Basing a calculation on 
a yield of 4 oz. per tree in the seventh year, the yield works out at 
56 fti. of rubber, which, at 2s. 6d. per lb., and deducting 6d.. per lb. 
for the cost of collection, shows a profit of £5 1 2s. per acre. 

These tappings might be continued in the eighth and ninth 
years, with a probable increase in yield each year, at the end of 
which time the intermediate trees would be cut down, and the 
tapping of the permanent trees begun. 

DISTANCE OF PLANTING. 
The conclusion to be arrived at from these facts seems to point 
to close planting being advisable in order to ensure a compara- 
tively quicker return, but it is doubtful if it would be worth while 
to plant closer than 10 feet, and I am inclined to agree with Mr. 
Orde that 12 feet is the best distance to adopt. 

YIELD OF LATEX. 
Tapping was first started on Richmond estate in November 
1899, the trees being then about nine years old. One hundred 
and twenty-two trees were tapped, the average yield being 2 oz. 



236 



to 2j OZ. dry rubber at one tapping. One tree was tapped four 
times at a week's interval and gave in all gl oz. dry rubber :- 
No. I tapping gave 3 oz. dry rubber 



2h " 



In May 1903, thirty trees, then twelve to thirteen years old, were 
tapped every second day for twelve days. A row of cups was 
placed round each tree, commencing 6 feet up on the first day, 
and oblique cuts were made with the chisel as high as could be 
reached from the ground. At the second tapping the cups were 
placed 5 feet up and so on, a foot lower each time. The total 
amount of rubber obtained in the six tappings was 16 lb. 10 oz., 
an average of nearly 9 oz. per tree : — ■ 

No. I tapping averaged per tree 2^ oz. dry rubber 



2 . 








2 




(< ti 


3 








H 




a n 


4 








If 




a (( 


5 








li 




a << 


6 








I 




t. a 



This method of tapping has been discontinued, as it was found 
that the process of putting on the cups at various heights the same 
day was both quicker and less expensive in the end, while the 
total yield was equally good. 

These thirty trees were tapped again twice in February accord- 
ing to the latter method, the average yield being then 5 oz. making 
the total yield per tree in the eight to nine months 14 oz. 

Tapping was carried on in February 1904 with the following 
results : — 









Total yield 


Average per 












tree. 


Feb. 


4- 19 


trees gave 


..4ft). 6 oz. 


3l OZ. 


dry rubber 


March 


19, 


do " 


... 3 " 10 " 


3 " 




Feb. 


8, 16 


do " 


... 4 " I " 


4 " 




March 


15, 


do " 


... 2 " II " 


2| " 




Feb. 


17, 15 


do " 


... 5 " II " 


6f " 




April 


27, 


do " 


... 3 " " 


3 " 





These fifty trees gave an average yield of just under | lb. of dry 
rubber in the two tappings. 

The yield of latex varies greatly in trees of the same size and 
age. Two trees out of these fifty gave 7| to 8| cups of latex at 
each tapping, the one tree yielding I lb. 10 oz. of dry rubber in the 
two tappings, the other I lb. 9 oz. Other trees tapped in the 
same month gave I lb. in the two tappings and another gave | lb. 
in one tapping. Trees of the same age and size gave less than 
half these amounts. Why this should be I cannot say, and I 
believe no explanation has yet been given to account for the dif- 
ference in the yield of latex. As far as my own observation goes, 
trees in the open, or only partially shaded, appear to be better 
yielders, as a rule, than those in denser shade. 



237 

In comparing this tapping with that of 1899, it appears that, at 
nine years old, a tree on an average yields about one-half of what 
a tree thirteen to fourteen years old does. 

The results of the different tappings have led me to conclude 
that from | lb. to I ft. of rubber per annum may be safely reckoned 
on, as the average yield of a tree thirteen to fourteen years old. 

It is intended at the next tapping to use a ladder, and to tap as 
far as possible up the stem. No doubt the total yield of rubber 
would then be greater. It is also intended to tap a few trees con- 
tinuously for twelve to fourteen days, or every second day for a 
month although it is very doubtful if the yield of latex would be 
much increased by so doing, or that the extra yield so obtained 
would compensate for the greater damage to the tree. In this 
respect the Castilloa appears to differ from the Para, and the ex- 
periments to be tried in 1905 will probably do something towards 
settling the point. 

The cost of collecting was 8d. to Qd. per lb., but this cost would 
be reduced when tapping is carried on regularly and on a larger 
scale. The rubber extracted from the nine-year old trees in 1899 
to 1900 was valued at 3s. 9d. per lb., a good price at the time. 

MODE OF CLEANING. 
The rubber extracted in 1899-1900 was mixed with water and 
put through a cream separator. The result was good, clean, pale 
rubber, but the difficulty in extracting the rubber from the bowl 
rendered this process impracticable on a large scale with the 
machine in use. Later on, the latex was mixed with five times its 
volume of water, strained and skimmed after settling. This is a 
long process, as, after the first washing or two, the rubber takes 
two or three days to coagulate. The rubber, when dry, is very dark. 
The colour of the dry rubber, however, according to the most 
recent information, does not affect the price. 

CASTILLOA AS SHADE FOR CACAO. 
There is little doubt that the return per acre would be greater 
from a plantation of cacao and Castilloa than from cacao shaded 
by Bois Immortel. On Richmond estate there is an acre of cacao 
twelve and a half years old, planted at 12 feet by 12 feet, shaded 
by Castilloa and Bois Immortel. The rubbers are at 24 feet by 24 
feet. The Immortel are being gradually killed, many of them 
being already dead. The cacao crop for 1903-4 from this field was 
3 bags. This would give a return per acre of from £22 lOs. to 
£25 3s., thus : — 

3 bags cacao at £4 ... £l2 

75 rubber trees fibs, each at 3s. 6d. per lb ID 



£22 



If the average yield were lib. per tree, this would give a return 
of £25 3s. per acre. 

The return from other cacao fields of the same age, planted on 
similar soil and shaded by Bois Immortel, was from 3| to 4^ bags 



238 

per acre. Taking the average of 4 bags, this gives £l6 per acre, 
so that, deducting the cost of the rubber extraction, the return from 
the cacao and rubber would be from £4 to £6 more. 

By applying some nitrogenous manure to supply the deficiency 
in the soil arising from the absence of the Bois Immortel tree, this 
figure would doubtless be increased. It is also probable that the 
rubber could be planted closer than 24 feet. 

INFORMATION REQUIRED. 

There are several points on which rubber growers are anxious 
to obtain information, among these being : — 

1. A method of tapping the tree that would dispense with the 
claying of the cups, and also any improvement on the method of 
tapping with the chisel and mallet. 

2. The reason of the difference in yield of latex in trees of the 
same age and size. 

3. Whether the yield of latex could be increased by the applica- 
tion of manure, and if so, what particular manure. 

4. The constituents in the soil specially required by Castilloa. 

5. In making oblique cuts in the tree, it is believed that a cut 
given upwards is preferable to a downward cut. Why is this ? 

6. With Para rubber the yield increases after the first few tap- 
pings, when carried out on consecutive days, but this does not 
appear to be the case with Castilloa. It would be interesting to 
find out the reason of this. 

A cut on the Castilloa, of course, drains a greater extent of the 
tree at the first tapping, but why does the yield of the Para, which 
is small comparatively on the first days of tapping, increase ? 

It is hoped that some members attending the Conference may be 
able to give some information on 'hese points. 

The President : Mr. Hart has closely associated himself with 
the question of rubber planting in these colonies, and I would ask 
him to review Captain Short's paper adding any further informa- 
tion he may have on the subject. 

Mr. J. H. Hart (Trinidad) : Captain Short states that it appears 
that Castilloa rubber will grow well at 900 feet above sea-level. 
I think he is quite correct in that statement as I have seen Castilloa 
growing in its native country, Central America, at that elevation. 
I cannot, however, follow him in the statement made in one part 
of his paper, taking it with that made in another part in connexion 
with shade. He is of opinion that no shade is required for Cas- 
tilloa in good soil, but that it requires a certain amount of shade 
for the first two or three years. This would seem to show that 
Castilloa does require shade in some places. Experiments carried 
out in Trinidad prove most decidedly that Castilloa does require 
shade It does not grow with the same vigour when exposed to 
sun as when partially shaded. I do not mean by shade, such 
shade as is given to cacao, but a growth of trees of similar size by 
the side of Castilloa, as it would grow in its natural forest. Dr. 
Weber, in late writings in the India Rubber Journal, expresses the 
same opinion and comes to the conclusion that Castilloa requires 



239 

protection of the stem by the growth of trees around it both in the 
young and mature stage. He came to that conchision after a short 
visit to Central America. I am of opinion that trees will grow at 
50 per cent, greater rate if shaded than if not shaded, and if left 
unshaded they will die : while those planted in the wood, as I can 
show you on the lands of the Botanical Department, continue to 
grow vigorously and scatter their seeds widely around. 

The President : Would you now discuss the question whether 
Castilloa trees should be used as shade for cacao .'' 

Mr. Hart : Captain Short seems to be in favour of it, but it 
seems to me that a a tree which itself requires to be shaded with 
a tree equally its own height, would scarcely be of value as a 
shade for such a low-growing tree as cacao, found indigenous in 
Trinidad as a tree of the undergrowth of the forest. 

The President : Would not that vary with the climate as in 
the case of cacao itself ? 

Mr. Hart : Probably ; but I am speaking entirely on Trinidad 
and Central American experience. In Grenada, where shade is 
not required, it is possible that Castilloa will grow equally as well 
without shade as cacao now appears to do. 

With regard to tapping, the cultivation of rubber is yet in its 
infancy, and the methods of extracting rubber are, up to the 
present time, merely matters of experiment. We have tried ex- 
periments with tapping rubber generally, and tapping at different 
ages. These experiments have shown that the latex from young 
trees contains a very much larger amount of resin, and that the 
older the trees get, the larger the amount of rubber. In some in- 
stances the rubber flows slowly and coagulates before it can run 
down to the cup. In such cases it was probably tapped in dry 
weather. After heavy showers the latex runs more freely and 
contains much more water. I do not think that need interfere 
with the operator because it is necessary to add a certain pro- 
portion of water to the latex before you can clean it and prepare it 
for perfect coagulation. The amount of rubber contained in the 
ducts of different rubbers — Funtiimia elastica, Fiintumia africana, 
Castilloa elastica, and others — has been well worked out by the 
Chemists of the Imperial Institute, and the results are published in 
Hnllctin No. 41, of the Botanical Department of Trinidad. A re- 
cent issue of the Bulletin, for January 1905, contains a short article 
on the preparation of Castilloa rubber. It is stated by other au- 
thorities that the coagulation of rubber depends on the coagula- 
tion of the albuminoids contained in the latex. Two or three 
years ago I criticized that statement, and that criticism was adopt- 
ed by the late Dr. Weber, then scientific adviser of the India Rub- 
ber Association, and it has now been proved that we can remove 
a large amount, if not all, of the albuminoids without injury to the 
rubber. With regard to tapping, that, as I have said before, may 
be regarded as being still in an experimental stage. It is believed 
that more latex may be obtained from a horizontal than a vertical 
cut. There is also the view held by Captain Short that an oblique 



240 

cut also induces a greater flow than a vertical cut. I do not see 
how an oblique cut made upwards instead of downwards can help 
the flow of rubber ; but I have never tried it as yet, and it might 
be quite feasible. 

The President : The point with regard to that is this : you 
want to have a rough cut in order to wound the edges of the ducts. 
I have heard that with an upward cut you go against the grain 
more than with a downward cut. I do not know if that is true. 

Mr. Hart : Nor am I aware of that. I have here an instrument 
for tapping which I have had made here in Trinidad : it works 
very satisfactorily and with greater rapidity than the mallet and 
chisel. I have also here machines for cleaning and repairing the 
rubber, the working of which I shall be glad to explain to members 
of the Conference. 

With regard to manure : I believe that anything that will tend 
to improve the growth of the trees can be usefully applied. Cas- 
tilloa appears to grow almost anywhere and to thrive in different 
classes of soils. I am not prepared to state what are the constit- 
uents which suit it best, but it is found that almost any fairly good 
soil for cacao will also grow Castilloa. I am unable to give any 
reason for the increase in the flow of rubber from Hevea after 
frequent tappings, but I believe the fact to have been fairly estab- 
lished. As to the greater flow of latex from trees of the same 
size, I think that is accounted for chiefly by the position of the 
trees in the ground, and the amount of moisture in the particular 
tree. The difference, however, is in the flow of latex and not the 
yield of rubber; that is to say, there is a larger amount of water 
in the tree ; but in our case the yield of rubber is found to be the 
same. 

The Hon. Wm. FA WCETT (Jamaica) : Our experience in Jamaica 
differs from the experience in Trinidad in regard to shade. At 
Hope Gardens, which are in a dry district, and at Montego Bay, 
which is also a dry district, and in another district which has an 
average rainfall of 70 inches, we find that Castilloa does better 
without shade. Attempts have been made to grow it with shade, 
but they failed. Mr. Hart says that Castilloa will not grow in 
Trinidad without shade, but is it not strange that in Tobago, which 
is not very far from Trinidad, and where one would expect similar 
climatic conditions to prevail, there is a large number of Castilloa 
trees growing as shade for cacao and not requiring shade them- 
selves, except for a short time in the early stage of their growth ? 
Professor Cook, in a Bulletin* lately published by the Department of 
Agriculture at Washington, has given his experience in Central 
America, and it is that Castilloa grows better without shade than 
with. My experience is that after germination, Castilloa trees do 
not require any shade beyond that provided by themselves. 

The Hon. B. HoWELL JONES (British Guiana) : The experience 
in British Guiana is exactly as in Jamaica. Castilloa grows with- 
out shade. I have recently planted 200 young trees and have not 
planted any shade trees with them. 

* The Culture ( f the Central American Rubber Tree. 



241 



Dr. H. A. A. NiCHOLLS (Dominica) : With regard to one question 
brought up in the course of this discussion, I should like to sound 
a note of warning more particularly to the cacao planters of 
Trinidad. It is urged that Castilloa should be used as a shade for 
cacao. Assuming, for the sake of argument, that shade is neces- 
sary for cacao, the planters here possess in Erythrina a shade tree 
which is not cropped and which, therefore, takes nothing from 
the soil, on the contrary it improves the soil by adding nitrogenous 
matter, and so will assist the cacao trees in producing crops. If, 
on the other hand, the planters follow the advice given them 
to-day and plant Castilloa elastica amongst their cacao trees, they 
will, later on, be getting two crops from the same soil. The yield 
here of dried cacao is said to be about ih lbs. per tree; in the 
Northern Islands this would be considered a very small return. 
If rubber trees be planted amongst cacao in Trinidad it may be 
expected that the cacao return will be less, for the rubber will 
take away soil constituents of the cacao therefrom. It will be a 
case of robbing Peter to pay Paul. 

Mr. W. R. BUTTENSHAW (Scientific Assistant on the staff of the 
Imperial Department of Agriculture) : With a view to showing 
that considerable attention is being paid to the planting of rubber- 
yielding trees in the West Indies, if on a small scale, I have 
obtained from the various annual reports the following figures as 
to the distribution of rubber plants from some of the Botanic 
Stations and Botanical Gardens. I must mention that rubber trees 
have, no doubt, also been distributed from some of the other 
stations, but in those cases these trees are not specified : — 



Dominica 



St. Lucia 

Monserrat 



Tobago 
Jamaica 

British Guiana. 



The President 
Reginald Ross was 
suggested whether 



1,215 Funtumia plants, quantities 
of Funtumia seed, and 32 ft» 
of Castilloa seed. 
4,316 Funtumia plants, 2,480 Cas- 
tilloa plants, 38 it), of Cas- 
tilloa seed, and quantities 
of Funtumia seed. 

171 Castilloa plants. • 

388 Funtumia plants and 181 of 
Castilloa. 

316 Funtumia plants and II of 
Castilloa. 

644 rubber plants ( kind not 
specified). 
2,640 miscellaneous rubber plants 
were distributed from Hope 
Gardens. 
1,500 Funtumia plants, 60 Cas- 
tilloa, and a quantity of 
Castilloa seed. 

When I visited British Honduras in 1882 Mr. 
then establishing a cacao plantation, and I 
he could not try Castilloa as a shade tree. 



1902-3 



1903-4 



1902-3 
1902-3 

1903-4 
1903-4 
1903-4 



1903-4 



242 

The Castilloa is related to the bread-fruit tree, which is well known 
as a good shade tree for coffee. Mr. Ross followed my advice, 
and after a lapse of more than twenty years, Mr. Campbell, 
Superintendent of Agriculture in British Honduras, informs me 
that the cacao has done exceedingly well, and likewise the rubber 
trees. I believe that, where the soil is sufficiently rich, Castilloa 
trees might advantageously be grown among cacao trees. We 
cannot lay down any general rule with regard to this matter; we 
can only assert that in some instances Castilloa trees have been 
used as shade for cacao without any injurious results. In Trinidad 
Mr. Hart is of opinion that these trees require shade, and we have 
the theoretical opinion of Dr. Nicholls that it is undesirable to 
plant rubber trees for shade for cacao because he thinks that pos- 
sibly we may injure the cacao trees. We may leave the matter 
open for the present and continue our experiments, in the hope 
that a few years later we shall know more about it. 



APPENDIX. 

CASTILLOA AS A SHADE TREE FOR CACAO. 

In the foregoing discussion the possibility of using Castilloa 
elastica as a shade tree in cacao plantations is brought forward. 
As bearing on this phase of the subject the following extracts 
from an article by Mons. P. Cibot, reproduced in the Tropical 
Agncultiirist {February, 1905), descriptive of cacao cultivation in 
Venezuela, are likely to be of interest : — 

'I have recently had the opportunity in Venezuela of visiting 
one of the principal plantations which produce that cacao, so 
justly reputed, known as Caracas. I found opportunity there to 
study also a plantation of Castilloa elastica used as a shade tree. 

* General Fonseca, installed in the fertile valley for some twenty 
years, has gradually acquired the greater part of the plantations 
laid out in it. He owns to day thirteen plantations, producing a 
total of 480,000 ft). cacao in 1903-4. 

' Going over General Fonseca's plantations, I could not but 
admire their beautiful appearance and the care taken with the 
irrigation of the whole property ; but my attention was specially 
drawn to the plantation of Castilloa elastica mentioned above. In 
1890, when they were only beginning to think of plantations of 
rubber trees in South America, General Fonseca was among the 
first to realize the value of giving as shade to cacao, in place of the 
trees formerly used and which served no purpose beyond that of 
screens, such a tree as Castilloa, able to furnish a valuable product. 
He imported 5,000 Castilloa seeds from Costa Rica ; but these 
seeds, badly packed, lost their germinating powers, and only 
seventy seedlings could be raised. The young plants, after some 
months, were planted out in different parts of Las Monjas estate, 
amongst the cacao trees, which gave them favourable shade. 
These Castilloas developed admirably. 



243 

'In 1895 these first trees fruited ; the seeds were carefully col- 
lected and planted in nurseries, and in 1 895-6 about 8,000 plants 
were put out in places where shade was wanted for the cacao trees. 
These trees, aged eight to nine years now, are a beautiful sight ; 
they have attained a height of 36 to 45 feet, and have an average 
circumference of 33 inches. 

' At about four or five years the Castilloas easily outgrow the 
cacao trees and commence to give them a little shade. As they 
plant up Castilloas on the property, they kill out the " Bucares," 
or other shade trees, ring-barking them with the axe at about a 
yard above the ground. 

'The yield of Castilloa plantations is no longer to be doubted ; 
the result obtained at Ocumare is a new proof, but the experiment 
made by General Fonseca is specially remarkable as it shows 
that the Castilloa can be grown among cacao trees without in any 
way harming their production. Indeed, at Ocumare they have 
noticed no diminution in the number of pods carried by the trees 
shaded by Castilloa, nor any change in the quality of the bean.' 

In the same number of the Tropical Agriculturist (p. 529) the fol- 
lowing extract is published from a letter from * a well-known 
planter at Matale,' Ceylon, in which he sums up his experience in 
regard to Castilloa and cacao as follows : — 

'I have very large Castilloas growing both along roads and also 
scattered through cacao, the latter of about fourteen years' growth 
showing no evidence of prejudicial influence from the Castilloas. 
My clearing of some 30 acres of Castilloa and cacao planted to- 
gether six years ago so far supports the contention that these two 
products may be grown together.' 



RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN AGRICULTURAL 

SCIENCE 

From a Paper by MR. A. D. HALL, Director of the Rothamsted Ex- 
perimental Station {Lawes Agricultural Trust Committee). Har- 
penden, England, read at the Meeting of the British Association at 
Johannesburg, Aug. 30, 1905- 

NITROGEN FIXING BACTERIA. 
One of these. Bacterium radicicola, although widely distributed 
as it is in the soil, yet is not universally present ; heaths and peaty 
soils, for example, that have never been under cultivation frequently 
lack it entirely ; consequently, it is impossible to obtain a satis- 
factory growth of leguminous crops until this class of land has 
been inoculated with the appropriate organism. Again, although 
but one species of bacterium seems to exist, yet several investiga- 
tors have found that by its continued existence in symbiosis with 
particular host plants it has acquired a certain amount of racial 
adaptation, so that, for example, clover will flourish best and 
assimilate the most nitrogen if it be inoculated with the organism 
from a previous growth of clover, and not from a pea or a bean 



^44. 

plant. B. radicicola does not develop very freely on the ordinary 
media used for the cultivation of bacteria, nor can it be made to fix 
much free nitrogen when removed from the host plant. In particular 
it is maintained that the medium used, gelatine with an infusion of 
some leguminous plant, causes the organism to lose, to a very 
large extent, its power of fixing nitrogen, because it contains so 
much combined nitrogen. G. T. Moore, for instance, says : — 
" As a result of numerous trials, however, it has been found that 
although the bacteria increase most rapidly upon a medium rich 
in nitrogen, the resulting growth is usually of very much reduced 
virulence ; and when put into the soil these organisms have lost 
the ability to break up into the minute forms necessary to penetrate 
the root-hairs. They likewise lose the power of fixing atmospheric 
nitrogen, which is a property of the nodule-forming bacteria under 
certain conditions." Latterly the sub-cultures have been made 
on media practically free from nitrogen, on agar agar, for example 
or on purely inorganic media, supplied of course with the carbo- 
hydrate, by the combustion of which is to be derived the energy 
necessary to bring the nitrogen into combination. In example of 
the two preparations now being distributed on a commercial scale, 
the one sent out by Professor Hiltner, of the Bavarian Agricultur- 
botanische Anstalt, consists of tubes of agar which have to be 
rubbed up in a nutrient solution containing glucose, a little peptone 
and various salts, and this after growth has begun is distributed 
over the soil or the seeds just before sowing. Moore of the U.S.A. 
Department of Agriculture, dips strands of cotton wool into an 
active culture medium and then dries them. The cotton-wool for 
use is introduced into a nutritive solution which in a day or two 
is distributed over soil or seed. Of late attention has been chiefly 
directed to a conspicuous organism known as Azotohacter chroococcum 
which may be readily identified in most cultivated soils, but is not 
symbiotic in leguminous plants. The impure cultures (which may 
be quickly obtained by introducing a trace of soil into medium 
containing no nitrogen, but a little phosphate and other nutrient 
salts, together with I or 2 per cent, of mannite or other carbohy- 
drate) fix nitrogen with considerable activity ; in one case, for 
example, when working with a Rothamsted soil, as much as IQmg. 
of nitrogen were fixed for each gram of mannite employed and 
partially oxidized. But Beyerinck, the discoverer of the organism, 
now attributes the nitrogen fixation to certain other organisms 
which live practically in symbiosis with the Azotohacter, and which 
are present in the impure cultures just referred to. The exact 
source of the nitrogen fixation may be left a little doubtful ; still 
the main fact remains that from the bacteria present in many 
soils one or a group may be found capable of efl'ecting rapid and 
considerable nitrogen fixation if the necessary conditions, chiefly 
those of carbohydrate supply, are satisfied. 

ACTIVITY ON OLD AND NEW LAND. 

It is too early yet to determine what measure of success has 
been attained by inoculations with pure cultures ; but, in consider- 



245 

ing the results, a sharp distinction must be drawn between their 
use on old cultivated land, such as we are dealing with in the 
United Kingdom, and under the conditions which prevail in new 
countries where the land is often being brought under leguminous 
crop for the first time. Few of our English fields have not carried 
a long succession of crops of clover, beans, vetches, and kindred 
plants ; the Bacterium radicicola is abundant in the soil ; and, how- 
ever new the leguminous plant that is introduced, infection takes 
place unfailingly, and nodules appear. It is true that the organism 
causing nodulation may not belong to the particular racial adap- 
tation most suited to the host plant, and that, in consequence, an 
inoculation from a suitable pure culture might prove more effective. 
Again, it is possible that even a plant like clover, which would be 
infected at once through the previous growth of the crop, might 
be made a greater collector of nitrogen through the introduction 
of a race of bacteria which had acquired an increased virulence ; 
but in either of these cases the most that could be expected from 
the inoculation would be a gain of 10 per cent, or so in the crop. 
This great though limited measure of success depends upon two 
things — on obtaining races of, B. radicicola possessing greater 
virulence and greater nitrogen-fixing power than the normal race 
present in the soil, and again on the possibility of establishing 
this race upon the leguminous crop under ordinary field conditions, 
when the introduced organisms are subject to the competition both 
of kindred bacteria and of the enormous bacterial flora of any 
soil. Up to the present all evidence of greater nodule-forming 
power and increased virulence of the artificial cultures has been 
derived from experiments made under laboratory conditions with- 
out the concurrence of the mass of soil organisms. In the other 
case, however, where new land is being brought under cultivation 
and leguminous crops are being grown for the first time, there can 
be no doubt of the great value of inoculation with these pure cul- 
tures of the nitrogen-fixing organism. An example is afforded in 
Egypt, where land that is " salted," alkali or " brak" soil, is being 
reclaimed by washing out the salt ; inoculation may be necessary 
before a leguminous crop can be started on such new land, though 
in many cases the Nile water used for irrigation is quite capable 
of effecting inoculation. The body of evidence brought together 
by the United States Department of Agriculture is very convincing, 
and shows in repeated examples that the use of Moore's cultures 
has enabled farmers to obtain a growth of lucerne and kindred 
plants, which before had been impossible. In view of the eco- 
nomic importance the lucerne or alfalfa crop is assuming in all 
semi-arid climates, the financial benefit to the farming community 
is likely to be great and immediate. And since in the develop- 
ment of South African farming the lucerne crop is likely to be- 
come very prominent, both as the most trustworthy of all the fod- 
der crops and as the one which brings about the maximum enrich- 
ment of the soil by its growth, the behaviour of the lucerne plant 
as regards bacterial infection in South African soils is worthy of 
most careful investigation. It is necessary to know to what extent 



246 

nodules are formed when lucerne is planted on new soils in South 
Africa, as, for example, on freshly broken-up veld ; the con- 
dition of the organisms within the nodule should be investigated, 
so as to ascertain if improvement be possible by inoculation from 
pure cultures, either imported or prepared de novo from lucerne 
within the country. These and kindred questions connected with 
the symbiosis of the nitrogen-fixing organism and the leguminous 
plants must to a large extent be worked out afresh in each country, 
and South Africa, with its special conditions of soil and climate, 
cannot take on trust the results arrived at in Europe or America. 

SOIL ENRICHMENT BY CROP RESIDUES. 

The enrichment of the soil due to growing lucerne, caused 
by the decay of the great root residues containing nitrogen 
derived from the atmosphere, is quite independent of the amount 
of similarly combined nitrogen taken away in the successive crops 
of leafy growth. Some of the Rothamsted experiments show very 
clearly how great the gain may be. In one particular case, when 
an extra large crop of clover was grown, notwithstanding the fact 
that the clover plots yielded between three or four tons per acre of 
clover hay, yet the wheat crop which followed this growth of 
clover was 15 per cent, better than the wheat crop following the 
bare fallow. The swede turnip crop, which followed the wheat, 
although similarly and heavily manured on both plots, continued 
to be better where the clover had been grown two years previous- 
ly ; and even the barley, which came next three years after the 
clover, showed a decided superiority on the clover land. Thus a 
clover crop, itself wholly removed from the land, exercised a 
marked influence for good on at least the three succeeding crops 
grown under the ordinary conditions of farming. In fact, the crop 
residue supplies as well as nitrogen, also carbohydrates, which 
are required for the development of the bacterial energy, and 
where this supply of carbohydrates is deficient or not maintained 
on arable land falling off of the crops ensues. In the case of grass 
land the conditions are entirely difi'erent, especially when dealing 
with wild prairie or forest where the annual growth of carbo- 
hydrates falls back to the soil and is available for such organisms 
as the Azotobactcr. The fixation of nitrogen is in fact an oxidizing 
process, and hence in two experimental fields at Rothamsted it is 
observed that the one with the smaller accumulation of nitrogen 
has the larger quantity of carbohydrates in the soil and in bac- 
teriological tests shows a much greater development of Azoto- 
hacter than the soil from the other field. Henry has also shown 
that the shed leaves of many forest trees during their decay may 
bring about the fixation of nitrogen ; and this fact, which again 
depends on the oxidation of the carbohydrates of the leaf to sup- 
ply the necessary energy, has been confirmed in the Rothamsted 
laboratory, as well as the presence of Azotohactcr on the decaying 
leaf. It is obvious that one of the most interesting fields for the 
study of these organisms must lie in the virgin lands of a country 
like South Africa. We all know that virgin soil may, on the one 



247 

hand, represent land of almost perpetual fertility ; on the other, it 
may constitute wastes of any degree of sterility. 

LIME ESSENTIAL. 
It is possible also that on some of the newer lands this and 
kindred bacteria are absent because the conditions are not entirely 
suitable to their development. A. Koch has shown that the pre- 
sence of calcium carbonate is necessary to the action of Azotohacter, 
and determinations of the power of soils from the various Rotham- 
sted fields to induce fixation confirm his results, the development 
of the organism in question being feeble when the soil was de- 
rived from some of the fields that had escaped the "chalking" 
process to which the calcium carbonate of the Rothamsted soils is 
due. The value of calcium carbonate in this connexion only adds 
to the many actions which are brought about by the presence of 
lime in the soil — lime, that is, in the form of calcium carbonate, 
which will behave as a base towards the acids produced by bacte- 
rial activity. The experimental fields at Rothamsted afford a 
singular opportunity of studying the action of lime, since the soil, 
a stiff, flinty loam, almost a clay, is naturally devoid of calcium 
carbonate, though most of the cultivated fields contain now from 
2 to 5 per cent, in the surface soil, due to the repeated applications 
of chalk, which used to be so integral a part of farming practice 
up to the middle of the 19th century. Where this chalking process 
has been omitted, as is the case in one or two fields, the whole 
agricultural character of the field, is changed ; the soil works so 
heavily that it is difficult to keep the land under the plough, and 
as grass land it carries a very different and altogether inferior 
class of vegetation. On the experimental fields it has been pos- 
sible to measure the rate at which natural agencies, chiefly the 
carbonic acid and water in the soil, are removing the calcium car- 
bonate that has been introduced into the surface soil, and it is 
found to be disappearing from the unmanured plots under arable 
cultivation at an approximate rate of l,ooolbs. per acre per annum 
— a rate which is increased by the use of manures like sulphate of 
ammonia, but diminished by the use of nitrate of soda and of 
dung. Failing the renewal of the custom of chalking or liming — 
and its disuse is now very general — the continuous removal of 
calcium carbonate thus indicated must eventually result in the de- 
terioration of the land to the level of that which has never been 
chalked at all, and even a state of sterility will ensue if much use 
is made of acid artificial manures. That many soils containing 
naturally only a trace of calcium carbonate remain fairly fertile 
under ordinary farming conditions is due on the one hand to an 
action of the plant itself, which restores to the soil a large propor- 
tion of the bases of the neutral salts upon which it feeds, and 
partly to the action of certain bacteria in the soil, which ferment 
organic salts like calcium oxalate existing in plant residues down 
to the state of carbonate. Were it not for these two agencies 
restoring bases the soil must naturally lose its neutral reaction, 
since the process of nitrification is continuously withdrawing some 
base to combine with the nitric and nitrous acids it sets free. 



248 



SOIL SURVEYS. 



This varying distribution of calcium carbonate in soils suggests 

the undertaking of a systematic series of soil analyses in any 

district, with a view to making soil maps that shall be of service 

to the agriculturist. Various foreign Governments have long been 

executing such a soil survey, but in the United Kingdom the 

matter has only excited one or two local attempts. While the 

basis of such work must always be the geological survey of the 

district, a geological survey in which, however, the thin " drift" 

formations are of greater importance than the solid geology, there 

are certain other items of information required by the farmer 

which would have to be supplied by the agricultural specialist. In 

the first place, the farmer wants to be told the thickness of the 

superficial deposits; he requires frequent "ground profiles," so 

that he can construct an imaginary section through the upper 10 

feet or so of his ground. The proximity, and, if near the surface, 

the direction of flow of the ground water are also matters on which 

there could be given to the farmer information of great importance 

when questions of drainage or water supply have to be considered. 

For the examination of the soil the field surveyor will procure 

typical samples of which the texture and physical structure can 

afterwards be worked out in the laboratory. But analytical 

figures are liable to be deceptive. This is because the productivity 

of a given piece of land depends upon a large number of agencies, 

any one of which may be the limiting factor in the crop yield. 

We may enumerate, for example, temperature and water supply, 

both determined by the climate, by the natural physical structure 

of the soil, and by the modifications in its texture induced by 

cultivation ; there are further, the aeration and the actual texture 

of the soil, the initial supply of plant-food of various kinds, and, 

again, the rate at which this last itejn is rendered available to the 

plant by bacterial action or by purely physical agencies. All these 

factors interact upon one another, to all of them, and not merely 

to the nutrient constituents, does Liebig's law of the minimum 

apply ; so that any one may become the limiting factor and alone 

determine the yield. It is of no use, for example, to increase the 

phosphoric acid content of a soil, however deficient it may be, if 

the maximum crop is being grown that is consistent with the 

water supply, or if the growth of the plant is being limited by 

insufficient root range caused by bad texture and the lack of 

aeration in the soil. However much we may refine our methods 

of analysis, we may take it as certain that we shall never be able 

to deduce a priori the productivity of the soil from a consideration 

of the data supplied by the analysis. The function, then, of soil 

analysis is not to make absolute deductions from the results, but 

by a comparison of the unknown soil under examination with other 

soils already known, to interpret the divergencies and similarities 

in the light of previous experience. What, then, the soil analyst 

can do is to characterize the type, ascertain its normal structure 

and composition, and correlate its behaviour under cultivation, its 



249 

suitability for particular crops, and its response to manuring in 
various directions. Thus an unknown soil may by analysis be 
allotted to its known type, deviations from the type can be 
recognized and conclusions may be drawn as to the connexion of 
these defects. One of the services, then, which the farmers in 
every country may very properly expect from the scientific man, is 
such a survey of the principal soil types, affording the necessary 
datum lines by which the comparative richness and poverty 
of any particular soil may be gauged. In an old settled country 
like the United Kingdom such a survey would guide the farmer in 
his selection of manures ; in a new country the advantages would 
be even more apparent, as the areas appropriate to particular crops 
would be indicated, and settlers would be saved from many 
expensive attempts to introduce things for which their land was 
unsuited. It would also be possible to indicate the measures which 
should be taken to ameliorate the nature of the poorer soils. The 
main facts of the nutrition of the plant have been so long 
established that it is not always realized how much still remains 
unknown. It has become a commonplace of the text-books that 
the plant needs nitrogen, phosphoric acid, potash, often in excess 
of the quantities present in a normal soil ; so that these substances 
alone are considered of manurial value, other necessary materials 
like lime, magnesia, iron, sulphuric acid, and chlorine being 
practically never lacking under natural conditions. But the function 
of these substances in the development of particular plants, the 
manner in which the character of the crop is affected by an excess 
or a deficit, is still imperfectly apprehended. Examine the effects 
of silica, for example. A plant that is being starved of phosphoric 
acid can economize and make more use of its restricted portion if 
a quantity of soluble silica be available. There is no possibility 
of replacing phosphoric acid by silica in the general nutrition of 
the plant but the abundance of silica at the disposal of the cecals 
certainly enables them to diminish their call for phosphoric acid 
from the soil. Much in the same direction lie the researches which 
are being pursued with so much vigour by Loew and his pupils in 
Japan on the stimulus to assimilation and plant development which 
is brought about by infinitesimal traces of many metallic salts not 
usually recognized as being present in plants at all. It has been 
often recognized that substances which are toxic to the cell in 
ordinary dilutions, may, when the dilution is pushed to an extreme 
reach a point at which their action is reversed and begins to 
stimulate. Probably some of the materials used as fungicides and 
inhibitors of disease act in this fashion by strengthening the whole 
constitution of the plant rather than by directly destroying or 
checking the growth of the fungus mycelium. The subject is 
certainly one which promises to yield results of value in practice, 
and calls for more extended and exact observation. The im- 
portance of research on the particular function of the various con- 
stituents of the crop lies in the fact that it is only b)'' the possession 
of such knowledge wc may possibly influence in desired directions 
the (luality of our crops. The "strength" of wheat, however, is 



250 

more decidedly influenced by climatic conditions than manuring. 
But while the climatic factor proves to be large it is less than was 
anticipated ; an English soft wheat, for example, grown on the 
Hungarian plain for two seasons has not altered greatly in 
character nor taken on the characteristic appearances of the wheat 
of the district. A specially strong wheat from the Canadian north- 
west, after some considerable fall of strength in the first English 
crop, has fallen no further after three successive crops, and still 
retains all the characters of an exceptionally strong wheat, although 
the yield remains poor from an English standpoint. Other varieties 
have rapidly and entirely lost their strength when changed to 
English conditions from America, or Hungary, or Russia ; many, 
however, while showing the effect of climate, yet stand apart from 
the typical English wheats and show no tendency to "acclimatize" 
in the sense of acquiring the character of the local varieties. 

IMPORTANCE OF "VARIETY." 

In the whole work the thing which stands up most prominently 
is the fundamental importance of the " variety" ; each race, each 
botanical unit as it were, possesses an individuality and yields 
grain of a characteristic composition ; and though climate, soil, 
season, manuring are factors producing variation in the composition 
they are all small compared with the intrinsic nature of the variety 
itself. Similar conclusions follow from the work of Wood and his 
colleagues upon the composition of mangels, and of Collins on the 
composition of swedes. The proportion of dry matter and sugar 
in the root, while varying markedly in the individual roots, pos- 
sesses a typical value for each race ; and though season, locality, 
and to some extent manuring affect the composition, the changes 
thus induced are not great. Starting, then, from this point — that 
variety or race is the chief factor in the composition of a given 
plant, and that, once the variety is fixed, the other factors, which 
are more or less under control, such as manuring, soil and climate, 
have but minor effects upon the quality — the road to the improve- 
ment of the quality of our farm crops lies in the creation of new 
varieties by breeding. An improved variety is all clear gain to 
the farmer ; climate, season, and to a large extent soil are outside 
his control : while better manuring and cultivation, however much 
their cost may be lessened by increased skill, yet involve expen- 
diture and become unremunerative above a certain point. But an 
iniproved variety, without costing any more to grow, may increase 
the returns by 10 or 20 per cent., in some cases may nearly double 
them. As regards the value of selection. Wood shows that the 
composition of the mangel, which has been selected solely for such 
external qualities as shape and habit, has remained stationary 
during the 50 years or so for which we possess any information ; 
while between i860 and 1890 the sugar beet has had its sugar 
content raised from an average of 10.9 to 15 per cent, by the steady 
selection of seed-mothers for their richness. The prospects of 
breeding new varieties of wheat, and particularly of securing im- 
provements in such qualities as " strength," have been enormously 



251 

improved within the last year or two through the investigations 
which have followed on the rediscovery of Mendel's law of inheri- 
tance. Wheat as a normally self-fertilized plant is particularly 
suited to the investigation of Mendel's law and the work of 
Biffen shows that, with a few possible exceptions, the characters 
of the parent varieties are inherited strictly in accordance with 
the expectations derived from a consideration of that law. Ex- 
treme strength shown in any particular wheat can then be 
picked out and combined with any other essential qualities, 
such as the yield and the character of the straw, which distinguish 
our present varieties of wheat. Biffen's work among the wheat 
hybrids touches also upon another point of special importance to 
South African farming, where the incidence of "rust " forms the 
greatest obstacles to extensive and successful wheat-growing. It 
is generally recognized that relative immunity or susceptibility to 
an attack of yellow rust is characteristic of particular varieties, 
and Biffen finds that such " immunity" is a true Mendelian charac- 
ter, recessive and therefore only appearing in the second generation 
of hybrids between a rusting and a rust-proof parent. It is not 
correlated with shape or character of the leaf, but is transmitted 
from one generation to another quite independently, and can there- 
fore be picked out of a desirable parent and combined with other 
qualities of value in different parents. Here, again, we are deal- 
ing with a character that is only relative, for no wheat can be 
called either absolutely rust-proof or entirely susceptible ; the off- 
spring that have inherited immunity will still vary a trifle among 
themselves in the degree of their resistance to attack, and in this 
possibility of variation lies the chance of the plant-breeder to 
improve upon the rust-resisting powers of the varieties we now 
possess. The whole work of the plant-breeder is of singular 
importance in a country like South Africa, whose agricultural 
history is so recent. Our European crops represent the culminat- 
ing points of a tradition, and are the fruit of the observation and 
judgment of many generations of practical men working, as a rule, 
with chance material. The products are eminently suited to 
European conditions, but, as has been seen so often, they fail 
comparatively when brought into other climates and soils. It 
follows then, that, in a new country, the work of the acclimatizer 
is one of the necessary foundations for agriculture, and this 
involves a careful study of climatology, and of the influence that 
the distribution of rainfall and temperature in various parts of the 
country has on the character of the crop. Then the cross- 
breeder's work begins ; acclimatization alone is hardly likely to 
yield the ideal plant, but by it are found plants possessing the 
features, one here and one there, that are desiderated ; and starting 
with this ground material, the hybridizer can eventually turn out 
an improved plant. 



252 

PALM OIL AND SHEA-BUTTER. 

By J. W. Sherriff.* 



I. PALM OIL.t 

The following is the method of preparation of palm oil from 
the fruit : — 

Commercial palm oil manufacture : The nut bunches are cut 
down from the trees and put in a heap outside in the air, where 
they are allowed to remain for four or five days, which causes the 
joints of the nuts attaching them to the bunches to be weakened 
by the process of decomposition, and allows them to be detached 
by simply beating them against any substance; the nuts are then 
gathered up and the husks (decayed sepals) that adhere to their 
base removed, either by the hand or by rubbing them together, 
and separated by throwing them in the air and allowing a strong 
breeze to blow them away. The nuts are now put into iron or 
earthenware pots and boiled until they become a pulpy mass ; when 
this has been accomplished, the mass is allowed to cool by being 
emptied out into a canoe or hollowed-out tree trunk, which is 
always kept alongside the place of manufacture ; it is now covered 
over and allowed to remain all night thus. At daylight next 
morning women pour water into the canoe over the pulpy mass, a 
man or men get into the canoe with a stick in each hand to balance 
and steady them while they walk up and down the canoe, thus 
pounding the oil out of the pulpy mass under their feet. The oil 
rises to the surface of the water and is skimmed off by the women 
who pass it through a sieve to remove the remaining chaff into a 
pot placed on the fire and heated to boiling point, and allowed to 
continue in that state whilst the oil floats up as a bright red 
substance; the water at this stage is being continually stirred and 
the oil removed as it floats up until the whole is removed. The 
oil is now put into a pot and heated to drive out any water it may 
contain. In the Calabar district and in fact throughout the Pro- 
tectorate there are only two classes of oil manufacture i.e. the one* 
known to commerce as " hard" and the other " soft," the only dif- 
ference in the manufacture being that in the case of the " hard" 
oil the nuts are put straight away into the canoe in the first 
instance without any preliminary boiling. The difference in the 
price of the two oils is a pound sterling a ton, the " soft" oil of 
course realizing the higher price. 

The extraction of the keriiel from the nut. 

All the oil having been extracted from the fleshy and pulpy 
mass around the nut by the above process, the nuts are then laid 
out in the sun for days to dry after which they are stored away in 
heaps in the native houses for weeks, in some cases months, then 
when thoroughly dry in the rainy or off season when the manufac- 
ture of oil has ceased, native women can be seen sitting around in 
their huts cracking these nuts one by one by the use of a rough 

* Communicated by His Excellency Sir J. A. Svvettenham, K.C.M.G., Governor, &c. 
t Elseis guiueeiisis. 



253 



stone which in some cases has a small groove into which the nut 
fits, the kernel of commerce is thus obtained. 



II. SHEA BUTTER.* 



Tree reaching to a height of thirty or forty feet, with a trunk 
five to six feet in diameter. The wood is red like cedar, very hard 
and close grained. Shea butter is a solid fat obtained from the 
kernels, which are first dried in the sun, then bruised, and finally 
boiled, when the fat flows on the surface and is skimmed off for 
use : it constitutes a main article of inland commerce, and is used 
by the natives for anointing their bodies, also, after indigo has been 
mixed with it, as a pomatum for colouring grey hair, for lighting 
and for food. This fat is exported from Sierra Leone and all 
down the West Coast as far as Lagos to the extent of 700 to 
1,000 tons annually for use in the manufacture of hard soaps, 
chiefly in combination with other oils. 

A substance somewhat resembling gutta-percha to the extent of 
3-6 per cent is found in Shea Butter, and is called Gutta-Shea ; no 
application, however, has been found for it. The fleshy portion of 
the fruit is very sweet and is eaten by the natives. It is one of 
the commonest trees of the hinterland of Lagos and Northern 
Nigeria. 

Early in 1902 the Governor of Lagos submitted dried leaves and 
twigs of this tree for examination by the Scientific and Technical 
department of the Imperial Institute. 

An analysis made by Professor W. Ramsay of University Col- 
lege, London, reads : — 

"Shea-Butter (Butyrospermum Parkii) gives a yield of some 3 '6 
per cent, of extract. This also consists largely of chlorophyll — 
the green colouring matter of leaves, but it also consists mostly of 
fatty matter, apparently similar in character to Shea-butter. 

"A test for gums of the gutta kind led to negative results. I do 
not consider it is worth while to investigate this matter further. 
The small percentage of extract, even if it were worth anything, 
would preclude a profitable extraction. Indeed, I doubt if it would 
pay under 8 or 10 per cent." 



BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

EXTRACTS FROM MINUTES. 

The usual monthly meeting of the Board of Agriculture was 
held at Headquarter House on lOth October, present : the 
Colonial Secretary, Chairman, the Director of Public Gardens, the 
Island Chemist, Hon. T. H. Sharp, Messrs. C. E. deMercado, 
J. W. Middleton, and John Barclay, Secretary. 

Papers re Mr. Nolan and Jamaica rum in the United Kingdom 
were submitted and directed to be circulated. 

* Butyrospermum I'avkii. 



254 

The following letters from the Colonial Secretary's Office were 
submitted : — 

(a) Informing the Board that the Governor approved of the 

expenditure of £200 from the sugar industry fund for 
Experimental Distillery Installation, together with the 
sanction of the Privy Council for same. 

(b) That the Governor approved of the expenditure of £25 

from the vote of the Island Chemist to aid in the 
endeavour to be made to exterminate insect pests on 
cotton and cassava, on the undertanding that a similar 
sum would be saved from the travelling allowances of 
Chemist and his staff. 

(c) That the Governor was desirous of conferring the Agri- 

cultural Scholarship on the best agricultural student in 
any year in which the Rhodes Scholarship, as by the 
rules, is to be awarded to a candidate educated entirely 
in Jamaica, provided a satisfactory syllabus could be 
arranged. 

This letter was instructed to be sent to the Chemist 
for him to report on, and the Secretary was directed to 
circulate this report before the next meeting of the Board. 

(d) Enclosing copy of letters from Mexico re Virus for rats. 

On the suggestion of the Chemist, the Secretary was 
instructed to reply to the Colonial Secretary that the 
Chemist would be glad to receive a supply of the Virus 
offered. 

(e) That the Governor sanctioned the expenditure for the 

removal of the hand cotton gins being paid from the vote 
for petty expenses of the Board, provided the cost of 
removal does not exceed £4, 

The Secretary reported that the cotton gins from Dr. 
Pringle had been sent on carriage paid, but the Board 
would have to pay the carriage of the gin from Mr. Levy 
at Brown's Town, which the latter had never been able 
to use. There were no applications for the use of these 
hand gins or the steam gins so far. 

Mr. Sharp offered to take the steam gin and baling 
press to Eltham and make a thorough inspection of it, 
put it in order if possible, and if the machinery was all 
right, he would probably make an offer for it, and he 
might also find a purchaser for a hand gin. 

It was resolved to accept Mr. Sharp's offer and the 
Secretary was instructed to have the hand gins overhauled 
and put in order at the Railway Work shops. 

(f) Transmitting a copy of a statement prepared by the Board 

of Trade shewing the import duties levied on Fresh 
Tropical Fruits in Russia, Norway, Sweden, Denmark, 
Germany, Holland, Belgium and France, a list of which 
has been published in the "Gazette." 



255 

(g) Transmitting a copy of a letter from Sir Daniel Morris 
regarding arrangements he was endeavouring to make 
for the transport of the members attending the proposed 
Agricultural Conference. 

Letters from the Secretary of the Northside Sugar Planters 
Association were submitted as follows : — 

(a) Asking that deliveries of cane tops should be made on 

a large scale to one or two centres and suggesting 
Cinnamon Hill and Long Pond as two estates which 
could contract to hand over to the other estates in the 
neighbourhood, desiring of them at least as many tops as 
were received, after the canes were cut. 

(b) Asking if planters will be allowed to inspect the opera- 

tions in the distilleries on which the apparatus to be 
installed at the expense of the sugar industry fund is 
erected and if they will be allowed to witness any 
experiments conducted by the Chemist or his Assistants 
there. 

The Secretary was instructed to acknowledge these 
letters and refer them to the Chemist for his suggestions. 
The Chemist submitted the following reports :— 

(a) Notifying that the Governor had granted three months 

leave of absence to Mr. Teversham upon half pay on a 
medical certificate and the interim appointment of Mr. 
W. E. Mace to carry on his work on half pay and 
reporting that the latter was working efficiently. 

(b) Arrangements made for the study of insect pests by Mr. 

Panton, notifying that Mr. Sharp instead of a former 
arrangement, would subscribe £20 and Messrs. Farqu- 
harson & Milholland £5 so that with the £25 from the 
Laboratory vote they had £50 available to go on with 
the work. 

Mr. deMercado reported the entire loss of the cotton 
plants at Hillside left for the second crop, the trees being 
covered by aphides, but it was not certain whether these 
were the cause of the trouble. 

Mr. Middleton said he had used on his orange trees a 
concoction of bitterwood and bluestone in certain pro- 
portions and by spraying with this he kept his orange 
trees entirely clear of insect pests. 

<c) Notifying that the Governor had approved of the appoint-- 
ment of Mr. E. J. Wortley as Assistant Chemist and of 
Mr. G. D. Goode as Second Assistant, and that by the 
arrangement of the salaries there would be a saving of 
£140 and recommending that these savings should be 
made available for the training of a new officer as a 
Fermentation Chemist on half pay. 

(d) Minutes of the first meeting- of the Advisory Committee 
of the sugar experiments. 



256 

(e) Arrangements made with Hampden estate for rum 

experiment, which after discussion were approved. 

(f) Recommendation of the advisory Committee for supply of 

chemical apparatus to estates, recommending that a 
grant of £i00 be made from the estimate for " new plant 
for estates" to the Amity Hall Laboratory for apparatus 
and asking authority to spend £50 on this estimate. This 
was approved. 

(g) Appointment of four Laboratory apprentices and two 

volunteers, 
(h) Proposed Amendment Jamaica Rum Protection Law of 

1904. 
(i) Report Superintendent of field experimants. 
These papers were directed to be circulated. 
The reports of the Director of Public Gardens were submitted as 
follows : — 

(a) Experiment Station. 

(b) Instructors. 

(c) Mr. Cradwick on School Gardens. 
These were directed to be circulated. 

The meeting then adjourned until Tuesday 14th November. 



[Issiud 3id November, 1905.] 
Printed at the Govt, Printing Office, Kingston, Jam. 



BULLETIN 



OF THE 



DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



Vol. III. DECEMBER, 1905. Part 12. 



EDITED BY 



WILLIAM EAWCETT, B.Sc, E.L.S., 

Director of Public Gardena and Plantations. 



CONTENTS 



Page. 

Rubber ... ... 257 

Rubber Industry in Ceylon ... 257 

Rubber in S. India ... ... 266 

Ceara Rubber ... ... 269 

Cocoa Diseases ... ... 270 

Value of Mulching with leaves, grass, etc. 270 

Tobaccos of Jamaica, V ... 275 

Board of Agriculture ... ... 277 



P R I C E Threepence. 



A Copy will be supplied free to any Resident in .Jamaica, who will send name and 
address to the Director of Public Gardens and Plantations, Kingston P.O. 



KINGSTON, JAMAICA 
HoF£ Gabdbns. 

1906. 



JAMAICA. 



i-iBRARY 

BULIjETIlSr sg^tInicIl 

OF THE GARDEN. 

DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 

Vol. III. DECEMBER, 1905. Part 12. 



RUBBER. 

His Excellency the Governor at a meeting of the Jamaica 
Agricultural Society a short time ago, introduced the subject of 
rubber, and commended it to the attention of planters. Members 
present declared themselves willing to undertake the cultivation, 
and the Director of Public Gardens and Plantations was instructed 
to procure seed. About 6,500 Para rubber plants (out of 10,000 
seeds of Para from Singapore) and 4,500 Castilloa plants have 
now been raised. They have all been bespoken, but applications 
will be booked by the Director, and a further supply of seed, 
both of Para and Castilloa, will be obtained next year. Applica- 
tions should be sent in at once, as the demand for seed is very 
great, and soon there will be none available, even at a year's notice. 

The Tropical Agriculturist* is tiow the Magazine of the Ceylon 
Agricultural Society. It is edited by members of the staff of the 
Royal Botanic Gardens, and the first two numbers (July and 
August) contain a great deal of information about rubber, some of 
which is given below. 



THE RUBBER INDUSTRY IN CEYLON. 

By Richard HoFFMAN.t 
Since the discovery of the vulcanisation of rubber the demand 
has gone up by leaps and bounds. Before that date rubber could 
only be used for very few purposes ; in fact, only where the 
finished article was subjected to an even temperature, could rubber 
be employed, as for instance, for elastic-side boots, where the 
warmth of the foot kept the rubber in good condition. Rubber 
tyres would have been impossible without vulcanisation, as they 
would have cracked in frosty weather. Rubber hot-water bottles 
were impossible, as they would have melted. Vulcanised rubber, 
however, which is rubber chemically combined with sulphur, has 
made the article available for the thousand and one uses to which 
CO it is put to-day. 

' — ♦ The Tropical Agriculturist nnd Magnzinc of the Ceylon Agrf-ultural Society. New 
I SerieB romaiinced in .July. Published once a month. Rate of subscription, including 
postage, in advance, to nny part of the world, yearly £1, half-yearly, 12/. Apply to A. 
"^^ M. and J. Ferguson, 19 Baillie St., Colombo, Ceylon. 

^2! j- Extracts from Financial News in I^ropical Agricultvrist, July, 1905. 



258 

KINDS OF RUBBER. 

Rubber is the latex of a plant or tree. There are 40 or 50 
known varieties of rubber-giving plants ; but only five or six of 
these are exploited commercially, the chief being Hevea hrasiliensis 
(the true Para rubber tree), Castilloaelastica (the Central American, 
or Mexican tree), Ficus elastica or Rambong (an Indian tree ; this 
is the plant often grown for ornamental purposes in rooms), 
Landolphia (a vine, or creeping plant, found in tropical Africa), and 
a few others of less importance. Half the supply of the world 
comes from Brazil, and is the product of Hevea brasiliensis. It 
grows along the Amazon, and being shipped from Para, is called 
Para rubber. The rest of the world's supply is derived from 
Africa (East and West Coast), Central America, Madagascar, 
India, and the other-side South American States. The world's 
demand apparently doubles every twelve or fourteen years, and 
the export from Para, which is the chief source of supply, was 
13,000 tons in 1886, 22,000 tons in 1896, and 30,000 tons in 1904. 
At present the world's consumption is about 6o,000 tons, which, 
reckoned at 5s. a pound, is worth over £33,000,000. 

Plantation rubber has been tried for a great number of years ; 
but it is curious that the present boom in rubber-planting, which is 
just breaking out in our Eastern tropical possessions (chiefly 
Ceylon and the Malay States), should for the first time be tackling 
the true Para tree, viz., Hevea brasiliensis. This, however, is 
easily explained. The seed has only recently been obtainable in 
these countries, as it was impossible, on account of its quick 
germination, to bring it from Brazil to the East whilst steamers 
and communications were slow. The Government, however, 
managed, some years back, to get a few hundred plants to grow 
out of 70,000 seeds brought over by Mr. Wickham, and these were 
at first nursed in Kew Gardens and subsequently shipped in glass 
cases to Ceylon where there is probably the best botanical garden 
in the world. No notice was taken of these trees until quite lately, 
however, as the first experiments of trying to turn the milk into 
rubber were failures. On the Amazon this is done by dipping a 
sort of paddle into the milk, and toasting the same over a smoky 
fire in which a certain nut is burnt, which gives off an acrid 
smoke, that evaporates the moisture and sterilises and congeals 
the milk. Successive layers are thus put on, and the resultant 
ball cut off. In Ceylon they did not possess this nut, and it was 
at first thought, after every nut in the island had been tried, that 
the nut tree would also have to be imported and grown. However, 
a few years ago Mr. Parkin discovered that if the milk was put 
into a basin and a few drops of acid added, the rubber congealed, 
and to-day an article is produced, called a Ceylon biscuit, which 
is fetching 8d. or lOd. per pound more than Fine Para. Latterly, 
even the acid has been dispensed with. The higher price obtained 
is not because the rubber itself is any better. The trees being 
identical, it follows that the rubber is the same ; but the Ceylon 
article is free from moisture, and contains no particle of other 



259 

substances, such as stones, sand, dirt, twigs, &c., the milk being 
carefully filtered before coagulation, and, as the " biscuits" are 
thin and transparent, any adulterations, foreign matter or 
accidental additions are thus easily detected. By analysis, a 
Ceylon biscuit contains 95 i per cent, of pure rubber, whereas, 
Para is considered " fine" if the sample contains 75 per cent, of 
rubber. This means that the real value of Ceylon biscuit rubber 
should be at least 25 per cent, more than Fine Para, whereas it is 
only fetching about 1 5 per cent. more. This, however, is accounted 
for by the small quantity so far coming forward and the manu- 
facturers having their plant and methods installed for treating 
ordinary Para rubber. 

Planting began slowly, and there are probably not over 70,000 
trees over eight years old in Ceylon ; but from these 75,000 lb. of 
rubber were exported from Ceylon in 1904, and this quantity may 
be largely increased this year The industry was retarded for 
several years by planters trying to imitate the conditions under 
which it was thought the tree best grew on the Amazon, viz., by 
planting in swampy ground. This was occassioned by most 
travellers stating that they had seen the tree growing on the banks 
of the Amazon, which frequently overflowed. The explanation is 
evident. They did see the trees under these conditions, because 
they were travelling on the river ; but those that are thus growing 
are the result of probably tons of millions of seeds which have 
been washed down by the river from the primeval forests, and of 
these countless numbers a few seeds have managed to survive. 
These were the trees seen by travellers, as they were easily visible 
from the river. It has since been found that whereas 2 or 3 per 
cent, of seeds grow in a swamp, 98 or 99 per cent, survive and 
thrive on well-drained and good soil. This, and the discovery 
how to make the rubber out of the milk, have given an enormous 
impetus to planting ; so that during the last few years quite 
3,000,000 trees have been planted in Ceylon, and probably as 
many more in the Straits. This sounds a large number ; but as 
the yield from 6,000,000 trees is not likely to increase the world's 
output by more than about 5 per cent., when they come into bearing 
viz., in six or seven years, it will be realised that there is room for 
a great many more, if the demand, which increases year by year, 
is to be satisfied. 

Measurements of the largest rubber trees on the Amazon, con- 
sidered to be 50 or 60 years old, are 6 ft. to 7 ft. in circumference. 
In Ceylon, trees 17 years old have attained a girth of 80 in. A 
tree can be tapped when it is 2 ft. in girth 3 ft. from the ground, 
and this size is attained in Ceylon about the sixth year. Such 
trees would be passed by on the Amazon, as it would not pay 
collectors to stop for the small amount of rubber obtainable at 
each tapping from so small a tree, with probably, at most, two or 
three to the acre. This, then, is the great difference in the two 
industries — the one means collecting from large, old, giant trees 
which yield 5 lb., or even more, per tree, but which are found at 



26o 

great distances apart, and therefore involves an enormous amount 
of labour in collection, whereas on a plantation, with trees 15 ft. 
apart, the quantity from each tree is small, but a number of trees 
are tapped with a minimum of labour. 

THE COLLECTION OF RUBBER 
is mainly a question of labour. There are vast forests of untapped 
trees in the basin of the Amazon, where no human being has ever 
penetrated, and in order to exploit these distant primeval forests 
immense barren regions, mountain ranges, and passes have to be 
traversed, whereas in plantations now being opened in Ceylon and 
the Malay States, a few hours' journey along a good cart road 
brings the produce to the railway. Whenever cheap labour can be 
found, as in China, India, Japan, Ceylon, and elsewhere in the East 
where coolie labour has penetrated, the only problem for solution 
to enable European capital to find profitable employment is to hit 
on an article or occupation within the capacity of that labour. A 
coolie cannot make your clothes, your boots or your watch ; but 
he has been imported into South Africa for gold-mining purposes, 
and in his own country he can be used for plucking tea or cocoa, 
planting rice, or doing any other outside work appertaining to 
tropical agriculture. For such purposes he is employed " for all 
he is worth," and in consequence the world is supplied with 
tropical produce at a price which would be impossible if it were 
grown in countries where labour is more highly paid. If Kent or 
Surrey could grow tea, coffee, cocoa, rice, pepper, or spices, they 
would cost the consumer almost as much more as the difference in 
wage ; i.e., from eight to ten times as much. In Ceylon a coolie's 
wage is 6d. a day, out of which he feeds himself, and is happy 
and contented. It is he who has brought the price of tea from 2/6 
a pound to 7d., which is the average wholesale price for Ceylon tea. 

NO PROSPECT OF OVER-PLANTING FOR 30 YEARS. 
It is probable that rubber, which is the article under considera- 
tion, will also be brought down in price in years to come ; but as 
tea has taken twenty-five years to reach the point of over-produc- 
tion, with a three or four years' wait for the first crop, it is fair to 
assume that rubber, which is a six to seven years' wait will take 
a longer time, if ever it is over-done. Added to this, there is a 
good deal less land available for rubber planting that there was 
for tea ; and inasmuch as the cheapening of tea has led to a greater 
consumption, it is a fair supposition that any cheapening of rubber 
is likely to stimulate consumption to a much greater extent ; indeed 
it is more than probable that all the planting that can take place 
in the world during the next thirty years will barely keep pace 
with the very much increased demand. There is a great shortage 
to make up before the normal price of a year or two ago will again 
be established, and a number of industries which are now languish- 
ing will be revived when rubber is cheaper. The normal figure 
for fine Para should be about 4/3 per pound ; it is now 5/7 and 
the comparative price for Ceylon biscuit rubber should thus be 5/, 
whereas it fetched 6/7 at the last sale in Mincing lane. 



26 1 

THE LABOUR SUPPLY. 

At the price of 5/ or even at 4/, there are few industries which 
promise a more brilliant return on capital than the planting of 
Hevea brasiliensis, the Para rubber tree, in Ceylon, provided the 
soil is judiciously selected and the enterprise honestly, carefully, 
and competently managed. The question of obtaining labour is 
not a difficult one ; there is an inexhaustible supply of coolies in 
India, and the journey to Ceylon is not much more than crossing 
the English Channel. As the climate suits the coolie, there is 
every chance of labour being forthcoming when wanted, and 
wanted it will be during the next few years, and more still when 
the trees now being planted are ready for tapping. The importa- 
tion of coolie labour from India to Ceylon was 4,568 in January, 
1905, as against 1,1/5 in 1904. What a source of human energy, 
ready to work at the locally current and acceptable 6d. per day, 
for those who are willing to sit at home and do the organizing and 
financing of the industry employing them. The question whether 
the supply of wild rubber is likely to increase is not an easy one 
to answer. Those best able to judge, viz. : the editors of the 
"Indiarubber Journal," the American "Rubber World," and most 
English and continental rubber merchants, are afraid of the price 
going still higher on account of the shortness of the supply. That 
well-informed and careful journal, the American " Rubber World" 
of January I, 1905, says, in a leading article on " The Natural 
supply of Rubber" : — 

"The fact that rubber has so long been obtainable is due to the 
enormous original supply. But this supply has not been increased 
or even kept up to the original limits, by any process of nature, 
and the rubber situation to-day is comparable to a private fortune 
of fixed limits, which is diminished in proportion as its owner 
draws upon it. He may spend twice as much this year as last, 
but this does not make him twice as rich ; it only hastens the time 
when he will become bankrupt. It is quite possible that, some- 
where or other, more rubber may be produced next year than this. 
It is out of the question to say in what year the highest output of 
rubber will be reached. Possibly higher prices for rubber than 
have been known hitherto are yet to be experienced. But there is 
no room for uncertainty on two points : (l) a continued increase 
in the industrial demands for rubber; and (2) the hastening of the 
extinction of the natural supply by every addition to the yearly 
production." 

THE BAR TO EXCESSIVE PLANTING. 

How much is likely to be planted ? The great bar to excessive 
planting is the long period of waiting before the first in-gathering 
(six to seven years). Good land, also, is not plentiful. Soil must 
be very carefully selected. If not, there will be failure. There is the 
further fact that until the pioneers have made fortunes, others will 
be slow to follow (and the wiseacres' fortunes will not be made for 
quite eight or ten years from now), and, moreover, however great 
a boom in rubber planting is attacking Ceylon, planting can only 



262 

be done as seed is obtainable. For the moment the whole of the 
seed until the autumn of 1 906 is booked. Lucky are those who 
have plantations giving seed. They are, of course, careful to 
supply their own needs first. Only planters of experience can 
look at a jungle forest and decide whether the land is suitable. 
There judgment is based on the variety of trees growing, and the 
size and condition of those trees enable them to decide whether 
the soil is suitable. Tests must be made of the soil, the rainfall, 
and the wind, all which points are of importance. Most people 
would say, why select jungle ? The answer is, because in a tro- 
pical country, if no jungle is growing, you may be sure the soil is 
bad, for the birds and the wind, in the space of years, have sown 
so many seeds of all sorts that if it has not formed jungle some- 
thing must be wrong. When clearing, the large trees are felled, 
and, after being allowed to dry, the whole is burnt off, and for 
this, of course, a dry season is requisite. Rainfall should be from 
75 in. to 120 in., and as soon as rain sets in, planting starts from 
a nursery-bed, sown a few weeks or months previously. 

RUBBER AND COCOA. 

The trees are usually planted 15 ft. apart. Between the rubber 
trees are frequently planted smaller growing trees or shrubs, such 
as cocoa, tea, and coffee, and latterly even cotton has been tried. 
These are all dwarf plants, compared to the rubber trees, which 
attain a height of 60 ft. to 80 ft. Cocoa has been found to be the 
best and most profitable crop to grow under the rubber trees ; for 
the reason that the trees help each other. The cocoa has a heavy 
fall of leaf, and thus manures and benefits the rubber, and the 
rubber acts as a shade to the cocoa, which, indeed, cannot be 
successfully grown without a shade tree. Whether or not the 
rubber would eventually " snuff out" or stifle the cocoa nobody can 
say, as there are no plantations old enough for one to be able to 
judge. It looks, however, as if the cocoa would survive for about 
twenty years and as it yields crops from the fifth year (a year or so 
before the rubber is fit to tap), there is every prospect of the crop of 
both products lasting for quite fifteen years, and either the one or 
the other could be given the preference thereafter, either by cutting 
back the shade or allowing the cocoa to be stifled. 

At present it looks as if nobody would worry about the cocoa ; 
for the production of cocoa, being about I J lb. a tree (200 trees 
per acre), is worth only 6d. a pound, or, say, £7 lOs. per acre 
whereas the l| lb. of rubber obtainable from trees only eight 
years old is worth at the present moment about £lOO per acre. 
The cocoa cost 3d. per pound to pick and prepare, that is, about 50 
per cent of its value ; whereas the rubber only costs about 6d. per 
pound to collect and prepare or about 10 per cent, of its value. 

Although at the present moment the oldest estates (10 years of 
age) are giving 2 lb. of rubber per tree per annum, it is hardly fair 
to take this yield as the basis of calculation ; but even with Ceylon 
biscuit rubber at 5/ and only I lb. per tree yield, from the sixth 
or seventh year onward a profit of over £40 per acre can be made 



263 

without counting anything for the cocoa. These are not fictitious 
figures, as a considerably larger profit is being made per acre at 
the present time ; but it is only fair to reduce the estimate of both 
price and yield for future and distant calculation. However, 
although the price may go down, the yield per tree, as the trees 
grow older and larger, is certain to go up. Therefore, after 
making due allowance for every contingency that prudence can 
foresee, it would appear that the industry must be highly remune- 
rative. 

To obtain land at the right elevation, with the requisite rainfall 
and proper soil, is the first consideration in connection with the 
successful culture of the Para rubber tree, Hevea brasiliensis. The 
elevation most suitable is from sea level up to 1,200 feet or 1,300 
feet. It will grow at a higher elevation ; indeed there are reports 
of it growing at over 2,000 feet ; but it would probably take several 
years longer to come to maturity than if it were planted at a 
lower elevation. A rainfall of 80 in. to lOO in. per annum is 
usually considered more suitable than an excessive rainfall of 
150 in. to 200 in., or more as is frequently found in some districts 
of Ceylon. 

As the tree is deciduous, it periodically requires a good rest, 
and a farther objection to too heavy a rainfall is that tapping is 
rendered inconvenient and the milk rather weak during the rains; 
so that a better quality of milk and more tapping days are the 
result of rather drier conditions. Land in Ceylon is worth any- 
thing from £3 per acre upwards. Five pounds would not be too 
much to pay for well-situated, good jungle land, and even higher 
prices have been and are being paid. The cost of felling, plant- 
ing, weeding, and general upkeep for five years including 
superintendence, may be placed at from £l2 to £15 per acre ; so 
that the cost of an acre of clearing, five years old, planted with 
rubber with a catch crop of cocoa, may be taken to vary from £15 
to £30, according to the price of the land and the ability of the 
superintendent to work economically. After the fourth year, and 
during the fifth, no further expense need be looked forward to, as 
then the cocoa would start bearing and give a crop of from li to 
2 cwt., or a yield of, say, £5 per acre. The sixth year the rubber 
is fit to tap, and should yield I lb. of dry rubber per tree. This, 
with 200 trees per acre, would, with the selling price at only 5s. 
per lb. (it is now 6s. 9d.), be worth £50. The cocoa should 
subsequently give a yield of £7 lOs. per acre, viz., 3 cwt. at 50s. 
per cwt. The cost to be deducted from the £57 lOs. thus derived 
from both products is 50 per cent, for the cocoa, or £3 15s. per 
acre, and 6d. per pound for collecting and curing the rubber, say, 
£5. Shipping and selling charges, which amount to about 5 per 
cent, of the total value of the produce equals £3 per acre, or, to 
make a liberal total, £l2 los. in all, leaving a net profit the sixth 
year of £45 per acre. 

In future years the profit could be still larger, not for the cocoa, 
but the rubber trees will go on growing in size for twenty 



264 

years, yielding yearly larger and larger crops, until they have no 
more room for expansion, and they would then probably stifle the 
cocoa, or any other catch crop growing underneath. I do not 
purpose to venture upon any calculation beyond the sixth year, as 
the figures would appear too outrageously large. Those already 
given are beyond all dreams of avarice ; but they are nothing like 
as large as the profit which is actually being obtained from those 
estates (of which there are only a few) where the rubber is already 
fit to tap, Mr. Hugh Bagot, of Arapolakande, writes to the 
American Rubber World that he is getting £8o per annum per acre 
profit— a nice income of what only cost, in the most, £20 to plant 
and upkeep to the producing stage. Isolated trees have given 14 
lb. or 15 lb. of rubber per tree ; but it is not fair to assume anything 
like so large a yield on an estate with trees planted 15 ft, apart ; 
but such yields show what the tree is capable of doing in Ceylon 
when growing under such conditions as would allow it room to 
expand to the height and size reached on the Amazon. 

The greatest boon of all is the wonderful way in which the tree 
stands tapping without exhausting or imparing its productiveness. 
Mr. P. J. Burgess, the great authority on rubber-planting in the 
Malay States, who is now in the country, states that he has 
repeatedly experimented to see what a tree would stand, and that 
he has never been able to kill a tree by excessive tapping. 
Photographs are before me now of some giant trees in Brazil, 
which must have been tapped for fifty years, judging by the 
appearance of the bark, which is scarred and gnarled for 30 ft. 
upwards. We really do not yet know the quantity of rubber a tree 
will give, and what it will stand ; so our present yields are 
probably smaller than those to be obtained with mature experience. 
No rubber tree, except Hevea brasilieiisis stands this usage. It 
would appear, indeed, that it is the only rubber tree that can be 
relied on not to succumb to tapping ; and Hevea not only thrives 
in spite of tapping, but gets used to it, and it has been found that 
an eight-year-old tree that has been tapped for two or three years 
yields a great deal more rubber than a tree of similar age which 
has not previously been tapped. Hence the present adage is : 
Tap early to accustom your tree to yield its valuable milk, and it 
will respond to your demands in ever-increasing quantities. 

THE REVERSE OF THE MEDAL. 
What, then, is the reverse side of the medal, and wherein lie 
the risks ? 

These are — 

(1) Possible disease. 

(2) A possible efficient substitute for rubber. 

(3) Over production. 

The first point is always possible, but very improbable, for the 
tree, being deciduous (viz.. shedding its leaves annually), is not 
likely to contract a permanent leaf disease. Against ants and 
other boring animals and insects it has the great protection of 
exuding its sticky juice as soon as an incision is made. In its 



265 

native habitat it is a forest tree, and so is unlikely to suffer from 
close planting. Disease is no more likely than in an English 
apple-orchard. The discovery of a substitute for rubber is as 
improbable as the making of artificial diamonds, which remote 
contingency does not seem to detrimentally affect the value of the 
DeBeers Mines. The only substitutes so far discovered have added 
to the uses of rubber, by requiring a certain percentage of pure 
rubber as an indispensible ingredient. Rubber mixtures thus 
produced result in substances which can be used for certain 
purposes where no elasticity is required. Whether this will 
always be so it is impossible to say ; but it is a fair commercial 
risk to take. Overproduction is impossible for at least a genera- 
tion, as the supply is stationary and the demand for ever increasing. 
These latter questions, however, every business man is able to 
argue for himself. Opposite views may be taken ; but, for the 
moment, at any rate, few industries appear to offer greater and 
better prospects. 

MIXED PLANTING OF RUBBER. 

Mr. Herbert Wright, of the R. Botanic Gardens, Ceylon, in the 
Ceylon Observer, says : — 

" Personally I cannot say that I like rubber in any form under 
coconuts. Rubber cnnnot be grown successfully with coconuts 
except they are planted at the same time. In the case of Para and 
coconuts, both plants are superficial feeders and have very strong 
root systems, and six years after both are planted together a 
tremendous struggle will take place, and in the long run neither 
product will give satisfactory results." 

"Then what about interplanting tea with Para ?" 

" From what I've seen in the Ceylon low country I expect that on 
those tea estates where the rubber has been interplanted lO by 15 
feet, the tea will not pay for plucking in 5 to 8 years from now." 

" Have you seen any instance of this ?" 

•' Yes. I know of one place where the rubber over six years old 
is planted 10 by 10 feet through tea nearly 14 years old. The 
tea has dwindled down considerably, and the bushes which remain 
appear to be only equal to what we can get from a seedling plant 
only two or three years old. I was so misled by appearances that 
I said to the planter — ' Why, you don't mean to say you're plant- 
ing tea in this old rubber'— and the planter smiled; and then so 
did I. Tea alone of the same age as that under the rubber, exists 
alongside and is quite normal." 

" What about Para through cocoa ?" 

" I think these two products can be grown together for many 
years to come, providing diseases are properly attended to." 

" But won't it also choke out cocoa ?" 

" Not to the same degree, for the simple reason that the cocoa 
plant is one which in its native home lives under forest shade, 
and when under cultivation is only planted 10 x 15 feet, or even 
at greater distances apart. There is much more available soil 
between the roots of the cocoa plants on the average estate than 



266 

there is between the roots of the tea plant or those of the coconut 
palm ; and for the same reason castilloa and ceara could be 
interplanted with cocoa." 

THE QUESTION OF HOLING FOR RUBBER 
was another point brought up. 

" I know from experience that rubber will respond to generous 
treatment and I would recommend that holes be made as large as 
possible in area in young clearings ; they need not necessarily 
be more than two feet deep. The difference in growth of stumps 
put in holes two feet wide against those planted in ordinary 
alavanga-made tea holes is surprising ; and when rubber is planted 
in tea, I question whether it would not really pay to uproot a tea 
bush where the rubber stump is being planted. On a large area, 
that, of course, means a great deal in loss of tea plants, and it's 
really a point more for the practical planter to settle." 

RUBBER IN S. INDIA. 

The Madras Mail says, — 

To sum up the advantages which S. India has as a rubber- 
producing country, we may claim that it has an abundance of good 
suitable soil and a climate which enables rubber to grow well at 
what would elsewhere be considered extraordinary altitudes ; this 
being greatly to the advantage of the European planter in health 
and convenience. Our labour, averaging four annas (four pence) 
a day for men, defies competition, our competitors and neighbours 
who drew upon our inexhaustible supply having to pay practically 
double rates or more, taking into consideration the cost of exporta- 
tion and the extra rate of pay it is necessary to agree upon before 
the Indian labourer will leave his country. Land can be obtained 
at a moderate cost, under safe titles, and the cost of transport 
is very moderate. Then — a very important point — it seems 
probable that the coffee industry can be directly utilised in 
extending rubber cultivation, and indirectly on account of the 
comparative ease and cheapness of opening clearings from an 
existing estate. Of course, the question arises in connection with 
the planting of rubber amongst coffee — is the former a useful and 
safe shade for the latter ? 

In the case of Ceara we have generally decided in the negative, 
but with Para and Castilloa the verdict seems likely to be the 
other way. Certainly we have not a long experience to guide 
us as yet, and personally, I can only speak (as far as any real 
acreage is concerned and not judging by a tree here and there) of 
coffee under six years old rubber, and under that age the result of 
which I mentioned in my first article as being thoroughly favour- 
able to Para, and, in a slightly modified degree, to Castilloa. It 
is only fair to say, however, that Mr. Nicholson, the owner of the 
property I alluded to, considers that the Castilloa has had no bad 
effect on the coffee, and I have certainly not noticed any such 
thing elsewhere, even where both were interplanted simultaneously, 
though I have carefully looked for it. Moreover, as far as my 



26/ 

observation, in various districts extends, if coffee does well under 
young shade of any species, the older that shade becomes the 
better will the coffee look, provided, of course, the height and 
density of the former be properly regulated. It is quite true that 
the same shade does not suit all districts or even all parts of a 
district, and there are few things more remarkable in planting 
than the opposite effects produced by the same tree under different 
conditions, so that it is possible that here and there planters may 
find the one or the other of these rubbers unsuitable for shade 
purposes. I can only say, so far, that after seeing a large quantity 
of coffee interplanted with them in three different districts, I do 
not hesitate to continue doing so myself. 

A well-known Ceylon planter tells me that tea certainly will not 
grow under rubber (in Ceylon) ; but it has always seemed to me 
that any shade checks the growth of leaf either in tea or coffee, 
and, as tea is grown for its leaf production, no shade is really 
suitable to it. Nor does it seem likely that Mysore, Coorg, and 
Wynaad, where shade has to be fairly dense to keep down borer, 
could easily replace their present trees with rubber, however 
desirable this may be. The young rubbers would grow up very 
whippy under such conditions, and naturally take a long time to 
be of value, whilst the original shade would require much careful 
and constant regulation lest the coffee should suffer. Still in these 
districts, abandoned fields of coffee and new clearings could be 
planted with rubber, which would probably become the leading 
product after some years, whilst on the Nilgiris, Shevaroys, Pul- 
neys, Anamalais and Travancore hills, whole estates could be 
under rubber shade. As to whether such shade may prove injurious 
by introducing any enemies of the coffee trees so far the answer 
must be in the negative. Where rubber is planted in new clearings 
the example of some parts of Ceylon might be followed and catch- 
crops be utilised such as cotton, ground-nuts, cassava, chillies, 
lemon-grass, etc., all of which are reported to do well and keep 
down weeds. It is true that Mr. F. Lewis, Assistant Conservator 
of Forests, Ceylon, states his opinion very clearly that Ceylon soil 
cannot stand interplanting, at any rate so as to give a good yield 
from each product, and it will certainly be well to try such an ex- 
periment with great care ; but I may mention that I have seen 
coffee in Southern India interplanted with tobacco — a very ex- 
hausting crop — yet neither seemed to suffer. 

AVAILABLE RUBBER LAND. 

Having seen that growth is good, the yield promising, and that 
South India has great advantages in its rich soil, suitable climate, 
and cheap labour, we next ask what land is available. The Para 
has been proved to be a hardy plant, and the Castilloa was con- 
sidered to have a yet larger range, but there are some limitations 
which must be observed. For practical purposes it seems as if, 
for the present, we should confine ourselves to a zone between 500 
and 4,000 feet, with a rainfall averaging not under 45 inches, and 
up to possibly 150 or more. The soil should not be a stiff clay, 



268 

and must be of good depth, preferably a free loam. Situations 
exposed to a continuous strong wind should be avoided. The 
above limits would cover the great bulk of the coffee districts be- 
side much of their western slopes between 500 and, say, 2,500 feet 
the latter elevation being taken roughly as the lower limit of the 
coffee belt. The eastern slopes, at a similar height, would be 
generally too dry. Large portions of Cochin and Travancore, and 
possibly part of the eastern Ghauts would also be included, pro- 
bably not less than 300 square miles in all, say 200,000 acres. 
The total apparent area is far more than this, but it seems only 
reasonable to make large deductions, as any planter will under- 
stand, soil and exposure accounting for much. Mr. F. Lewis is 
very clear that the growth of rubber in poor land and good forest 
is enormously in favour of the latter, and presumably yield will 
follow growth. 

Cinchona, it is true, died out all over Ceylon and in certain parts 
of South India. Is there any chance of rubber doing the same ? 
We need not, I think, be alarmed at, however much we may 
sympathise over, what happens to Ceylon. Coffee had previously 
gone the same road, and it is recognised that the chief asset of a 
plant in Ceylon is the climate, whicn is but poorly backed up by 
the soil, except in some favourable instances. There is also the 
drawback, from a plant's sanitary point of view, of very large 
contiguous areas of the same cultivation, so that if disease once 
establishes itself the conditions are all in its favour. Speaking 
generally, the soil of the former coffee districts strikes one as 
lacking in depth and freedom, and this was probably the funda- 
mental reason why coffee, and after it, cinchona died out there. 

Tea is one of the hardiest plants in existence, and will, we 
trust, go on indefinitely ; but there is no doubt that rubber requires 
depth of soil if it is to be a permanent and paying staple. The 
bulk of our Indian soil, however, is competent to stand any test of 
this kind. I have seen a field in Coorg which had been under 
coffee for over 1 00 years, — not the identical trees, probably, that 
were first planted, as the ravages of borer make such a thing un- 
likely — but the land was standing its crops as well as ever ; in 
Mysore I have seen still older coffee, and on the Nilgiris there are 
flourishing fields, planted in the early forties, cropping with vigour ; 
whilst the Government Cinchona plantations, the oldest in India, 
are in splendid health. 

But a few cases are of little value, the best test is the continued 
existence of the South Indian coffee districts, except, possibly 
Ceylon's neighbour, Travancore, which has turned to tea. Cin- 
chona also grows as well as ever with us, though now that the 
market is ruled by high-class Java bark, it has ceased to pay us 
to have any but the best kind, and consequently the great bulk has 
been uprooted and harvested. There were, however, cases where 
cinchona was planted, in suitable situations and died out as the 
Ceylon plantations did, and this generally was due to hard sub- 
soil and want of depth or drainage. In such places it would, I 



269 

imagine, be unwise to plant rubber, which demands as much 
freedom as cinchona did; neither with our choice of soil is there 
any reason for doing so. 



CEARA RUBBER. 

The cultivation of Ceara or Manitoba* rubber {Manihot Glaziovii) 
was begun in Nicaragua about four years ago. The splendid con- 
dition of the plantings and the large yield and excellent quality of 
the product taken in trial tappings, give promise of the success of 
the enterprise. The Ceara rubber tree is a dry land plant, and will 
not prosper in a wet soil. It is being planted in the districts of 
La Pas and Momotombo (300 ft. above sea level), where the 
Momotombo mountain, by driving the clouds to one side, protects 
this section from the force of the tropical rains so that it is 
comparatively dry, receiving just about enough water to grow 
corn, which is abundant for Ceara rubber. The soil is sandy, with 
an admixture of a little clay, and very deep and level or slightly 
rolling. The Nicaragua Rubber Co.'s plantation is the " San 
Nicholas," on which are the oldest and largest trees in this section. 
Three-year-old trees on this plantation measures 26 in. in girth 
3 ft. above the soil, and are more than 30 ft. high. Ceara rubber 
trees yielded latex at two years of age. Twenty-one trees from 
fourteen to twenty-one months old, with an average age of fourteen 
months, were tapped, and together gave 7| lb. of dry rubber. A 
tree fifteen months old gave 3 oz; of rubber. However, it is not 
intended to tap until the trees are four years old, in order not to 
retard the best development. It is expected that four-year-old trees 
will produce I lb. of rubber each, and from that time the product 
will augment rapidly. There are now in the district outside of 
native plantings, four American plantations of Manilwt Glaziovii, 
on which are planted some 200,000 trees, while as many more 
will be planted in another year. — Work. 

Present experiments with the Para and Castilloa varieties on the 
Periyar River (elevation 2,300 ft.) in Madras Presidency tend to 
prove that the cold nights are against a rapid growth of these 
varieties, the thermometer falling to below 40 degrees at night in 
January and February, though in the day time it is as hot as in 
the plains. But for Ceara, I can say with confidence that the 
climate suits it, and there are thousands of acres of magnificient 
land only awaiting development with this species to make many 
fortunes. — Madras Mail. 

A large Ceara rubber tree is growing on abandoned coffee land 
on Franklands in the Kadugannawa district in Ceylon. The tree 
is 5 feet 9 inches in girth at the bottom and 6 feet from the ground 
it is 4 feet 6 inches. It is supposed to be about 20 years old. A 
considerable area of land at a medium elevation, which has lain 
fallow since the failure of coffee, is considered suitable for rubber 
of this variety ; and we understand many acres are being prepared 
for the purpose of planting Ceara. — Ceylon Observer. 

* [See Bulletin of the Department of Agriculture, April, 1905, page 72.] 



270 

COCOA DISEASES. 

The attention of the cocoa planters is invited locally to a disease 
of the pod which has lately been noticed. 

It may be more prevalent than planters are themselves aware 
of, and there is the certainty of its spreading unless measures are 
taken to prevent it. 

The disease is due to a fungus,* which was described and 
figured by Mr. George Massee of the Kew Herbarium in the Kew 
Bulletin,! and later in his " Text-book of Plant Diseases," from 
specimens sent from Trinidad by Mr. Hart.:J: 

The disease is recognized by a darkening of the pod which 
spreads from one end, and by a delicate white mould which 
appears on the outside. The mould produces immense numbers 
of very minute particles, lighter than dust, which are blown off by 
every breath of air and scattered on the pods all round, even at 
great distances if the wind is high. These particles infect the 
pods they fall upon ; the disease grows all through the shell, 
killing young pods, and even in almost mature pods affecting the 
cocoa beans, causing inferior grade and light weight. These 
particles falling on a dry pod will do no harm, and therefore wet 
weather, moist situations, and overhead shade encourage infection. 
The spread of the disease is due also to other particles, which lie 
dormant for some time in the substance of the shells of the pods. 
Like seeds, under favourable conditions and after a resting stage, 
when the shell decays, they germinate, producing more particles 
that are carried about by the wind. 

To prevent the spread of the disease, all diseased pods should 
be picked and either burnt, or buried so deep that they will not be 
brought to the surface again. All shells from which the beans 
have been removed should always be buried to ensure that the 
disease is not propagated by the germination on them of the wind- 
borne particles, or in them of any of the resting particles. 

If these measures are rigidly carried out, the disease will 
probably not give any trouble, but if on any estate the disease is 
found to be wide-spread, all the pods which are not picked off, 
should be sprayed with Bordeaux mixture, § and a constant watch 
kept against the breaking out of the disease. 

THE VALUE OF MULCHING WITH LEAVES 

GRASS, &c. 

It has frequently been pointed out of late years in the Bulletin,! 
and by the Agricultural Instructors that mulching the ground with 
vegetable refuse is of the greatestf lvalue to the crops grown on it. 
The practice has been carried out on coffee plantations, and also 

* Phytophora omnivora 
t Jan. & Feb. 1899. 

t See also W. Indian Bulletin, VI. 1 page 86. 

S For method of preparing Bordeaux mixture see Bulletin for last February page 3 2. 
\\ For instance, in " The question of Shade for Coffee and Cocoa," Bulletin, Vol, I, 
June & July, 1903, page 124. 



271 

on banana estates where the trash is saved for that purpose, and 
on one estate blankets are imported and used for wrapping in 
order to save the trash for mulching. The idea has also been 
drilled into the minds of small settlers, and in Manchester, for 
instance, the people cut grass and bush along the road-sides, or 
ask leave to go on a property to cut fox-tail grass. 

It is very interesting to find now that Dr. Watts has made care- 
ful experiments to test the value of a mulch of this kind as 
compared with various manures in Dominica, and the results, 
given in the Agricultural Report of that island for 1904-5, confirm 
our opinion of the value of the practice. The special part of the 
report dealing with this subject is given below : — 

CACAO MANURIAL PLOTS. 

" Dr. Watts, C.M.G., Analytical and Agricultural Chemist for 
the Leeward Islands, has summed up the results of the Cacao 
Manurial Plots at the station for the past three years as follows : 

"In 1900, a plot of cacao, about if acres in extent, was divided 
into five plots for manurial experiments as follows : — 



No. 


Letter on 

Station 

plan. 


No. of trees 
per plot. 


Manure. 


I 


C. 


34 


No manure. 


2 


A. 


37 


Basic phosphate 4 cwt. per acre. 
Sulphate of potash i^ cwt. per acre. 


3 


B. 


40 


Dried blood 4 cwt. per acre. 


4 


E. 


34 


Basic phosphate 4 cwt. per acre. 
Sulphate of potash ih cwt. per acre. 
Dried blood 4 cwt. 


5 


D. 


39 


Mulched with grass and leaves. 



" The cacao trees were about ten years old and planted about 
18 feet apart. The chemical manures were applied once in each 
year, from 1900. 

" The weight of wet cacao has been recorded for each of the 
years ending June 30, 1903, 1904, and 1905. The results are as 
follows : — 



* Reports on the Botanic Station, Agricultural School, and Experiment Plote, 
Dominica, 1901-5. Imp. Dcpt. of Agriculture for the W. Indies. 



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273 

" The results based on the yield per tree, are also given in 
diagrammatic form for convenient comparison : — 

CACAO MANURIAL EXPERIMENTS, 1903-5- 
Yield of wet cacao in pounds per tree. 



5 m. 10 115. 15 lb. 20 lb. 25 lb. 30 lb. 32.5 lb. 



1905 i 3 



^^m^^^^^^i^^^^mmmim 



" These experiments differ from those conducted with annual 
or short-period crops in that the effects are cumulative, the ex- 
periments are repeated on the same plot of ground and on the 
same individual trees year after year, and the results of several 
years have to be taken into account in estimating the effect. 

"The first point which strikes one is that all the manures used 
have proved beneficial. In the first two periods (1903 and 1904) 
while the mixture of phosphate and potash, and the dried blood 
both gave substantial increases in the crop, the combination of all 
three in 1903 only gave about the same return as dried blood alone 
while in 1 904 the return was even less where all three were given 
than where dried blood alone was used. This is anomalous and 
points to some disturbing influence. 

The position of afi'airs in the third season is interesting and 
important. Here we find the smallest yield given by the plot 
receiving no manure, namely, I9i lb. of wet cacao per tree, the 



274 

addition of phosphate and potash increased the yield to 22 lb., a 
gain of 2l ft), per tree. Dried blood gave a yield of 24^ ft. a 
gain of 4I pounds over no manure, or 2| ft), more than phosphate 
and potash. The combination of dried blood with phosphate and 
potash increased the yield to 28f fta. per tree a gain of 9 ft), per 
tree over no manure, or 6f ft), over phosphate and potash, and of 
4I ft), over dried blood. The combination of the two sets of 
manures has given greater increments than the sums of the in- 
crements from either singly, thus pointing the necessity for 
general manuring, i.e., for manure which will supply potash, phos- 
phate, and nitrogen. The changes which have taken place in the 
soil during the previous three or four years probably account for 
the relative effects of the manures in this third period. 

The plot mulched with grass and leaves, the sweepings of the 
lawns at the Botanic Station, is a very interesting one. In the 
first period this plot, though giving a greater yield than the no- 
manure plot, fell far behind the plot receiving dried blood ; in 
the second period it again exceeded the no-manure plot and its 
yield was practically equal to, or a little better than, the yield of 
the dried blood plot; while in the third period C1905) it has far 
surpassed all the other plots and has given a yield 66 per cent. 
greater than that obtained from the no-manure plot. The soil of 
this plot is in better condition than the others, the surface soil is 
moister and darker in colour, while the trees have a better surface 
root development. 

" This method of manuring by means of mulches of grass and 
bush is evidently the proper course to adopt in Dominica, where, 
owing to the large supplies of the required material which are 
available, the work of manuring can be carried out efficiently. 

" These experiments again emphasize the desirability in the 
tropics of following agricultural methods which lead to the 
conservation of humus or vegetable matter in the soil. In most 
cases, if these methods are conscientiously adopted, sufficient 
supplies of plant food will be conveyed to the soil to obviate the 
necessity of bujang artificial manures, 

" These experiments should be carried on for a number of years, 
when further interesting results may be expected. It is probable 
that the plot mulched with grass and leaves will retain its vigour 
and productiveness for a much longer period than the others. 

"As 100 ft), of wet cacao are found to yield 42 ft), of dry cacao, 
and as the trees are planted about 18 feet apart, or at the rate of 
134 trees per acre, approximate calculations may be made as 
follows* : — 

* Some vacancies occur in the plot so that the calculations have preferably been made 
on the yield per tree rather than per acre. The ca culations per acre based on these are 
necessarily only approximations, but they are made for the sake of more ready appre- 
ciation of the commercial bearing of the experiments. 



275 



YIELD PER ACRE IN 1 90 5. 







■ 


Value of increase 










Dry cacao 


Gain over 


over no manure 


Cost 


of 


Gain by 




Pounds per 


no manure 


at 6d. per ib. 


manure.* 


manur- 




acre. 


in pounds. 


of dried cacao. 






ing. 








s. d. 


s. 


d. 


s. d. 


I 


1,112 


• • 










2 


1,238 


126 


63 


45 


3 


17 9 


3 


1,365 


253 


126 6 


36 





90 6 


4 


1,620 


408 


204 


81 


3 


122 9 


5 


1,845 


733 


366 6 


60 





306 6 



" The general yield of the cacao plot in the Botanic Station has 
been very satisfactory, even on the portion receiving no manure ; 
from the work now carried on it is evident that proper care and 
manuring can be relied upon to give substantial increases in yield. 
These experiments therefore appear to possess a considerable 
amount of interest and value for Dominica cacao planters as 
indicating the lines upon which they should carry on their work 
from the earliest stages. 



THE TOBACCOS OF JAMAICA, V.f 

Report on a sample of Tobacco from Jamaica, by Professor 
Wyndham R. DUNSTAN, M.A., F.R.S., Director. 

Imperial Institute, 

South Kensington, London, S.W. 

This sample of tobacco was sent to the Imperial Institute by the 
Director of the Department of Public Gardens and Plantations of 
Jamaica and was referred to in a letter (No. 8083) dated the 9th 
June, 1905, which gave the following information regarding the 
sample. 

"I send by this mail sample of tobacco, grown under shade- 
" cloth, from Sumatra seed, during the past season. Only one 



* Taking manures at the following prices locally; basic phosphate, 5/6 per cwt. : sul- 
phate of potash, 15/6 per cwt.; and dried blood, 9/ per cwt. and assuming that so large 
a sum as £3 a year be spent on mulching, an estimate which appears very liberal, 

fFor previous papers on Tobaccos see Bulletin for April, May and October, 1902, 
September and December, 1904, and June, July and August, 1905. 



276 

"quarter of an acre was grown as an experiment and there is 
" therefore none for sale. I shall be very glad to have a report 
"on its quality and value." 

DESCRIPTION OF SAMPLE. 

The sample consisted of six leaves of the " wrapper" type o* 
cigar tobacco showing a dull, olive brown tint. The leaves were 
of fair length, uniform in colour, thin and free from 'stains' and 
'burns.' They were somewhat brittle when handled, but this was 
probably due to their having been packed between sheets of 
cardboard which had absorbed the moisture, rendering the leaves 
abnormally dry. 

When ignited the tobacco burned evenly and steadily, evolving 
a fairly fragrant aroma and leaving a greyish white ash. 

As the sample was very small it was impossible to submit it to 
chemical examination. It was therefore sent to a firm of tobacco 
experts to be tried for " wrapping" cigars and for the determina- 
tion of its commercial value. The experts' report on the tobacco 
was as follows : — 

" The tobacco is a very handsome appearance, thin in texture 
" and therefore highly productive as a ' wrapper' for tobacco, in 
" use it is somewhat ' tender' and does not appear to have quite as 
" much elasticity as Sumatra tobacco of similar texture ? (see note 
" under " Description of sample" as to probable reason of this 
" tenderness') the burning is very fair and the flavour not unsatisfac- 
" tory. Similar tobacco well put up would fetch on the English 
"market up to about 3s. per lb. for first lengths, say 2s. 3d. per lb. 
" for the second lengths and from Is. 3d. to is. 6d. per lb. for 
" the third lengths. 

" We feel sure that the soil, and climate which have produced 
" this tobacco are suitable for growing ' wrapper' tobacco equal to 
" most in the world and if labour is plentiful and cheap and the 
" area of suitable ground large enough there is a chance in time 
" of this district of Jamaica becoming a serious competitor of 
" Borneo, Sumatra and Java. 

" It will, however, be advantageous to prepare tobacco of this 
" class in a similar manner to that in which East Indian tobaccos 
" are got up for the European markets. If it were put up on the 
" market in the same form as the Mexican, Havana and other West 
" Indian tobaccos this would probably detract considerably from 
" its value." 

The experts go on to suggest that it might be worth while to 
carry out a similar cultivation experiment in Jamaica with Java 
tobacco as this would probably yield a ' wrapper' leaf, which 
would be stronger in texture and of even better flavour than the 
present sample. 

The results of the experts' trial of this tobacco show that it is of 
good quality and that if a similar quality can be placed on the 
English market in quantity it will probably realise remunerative 
prices. 



277 

If it is decided to carry out the cultivation experiment with Java 
seed as suggested in the above report the Imperial Institute will 
be glad to undertake the examination and valuation of the product. 
For this purpose a sample of about two pounds of the leaves should 
be sent so that an exhaustive investigation of the material may be 
made. In order that the differences between Java 'wrapper' 
tobacco and the Sumatra ' wrapper' tobacco, as grown in Jamaica, 
may be appreciated, two sets of samples of cigars wrapped with 
these two tobaccos are sent with this report. 

Set No. I consists of cigars wrapped with the Sumatra tobacco 
grown in Jamaica. 

Set No. 2 consists of cigars wrapped with the Java tobacco. 

It will be seen that although the Jamaican Sumatra ' wrapper' 
is thinner and yields a cigar of good general appearance the Java 
wrapper is stronger in texture and when burned produces a better 
aroma and flavour than the former. 

(Sgd.) Wyndham R. Dunstan. 

3rd October, 1905. 



BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

EXTRACTS FROM MINUTES. 

The usual monthly meeting of the Board of Agriculture was 
held at Headquarter House on Tuesday 14th November, present : 
the Hon. H. Clarence Bourne, Colonial Secretary, Chairman, the 
Director of Public Gardens, the Island Chemist, the Superintending 
Inspector of Schools, His Grace the Archbishop, Messrs. C. A. T. 
Fursdon, C. E. deMercado, J. W. Middleton, Geo. D. Murray and 
the Secretary, John Barclay. 

Mr. Murray asked, as a matter arising out of the minutes, if 
sugar planters would be permitted to see the operations in con- 
nection with the manufacture of High Ether Rum at Hampden 
Estate. 

The Chemist said no one could do so without the permission of 
the proprietor, but he had no doubt the proprietor would give this 
permission, if he were asked. 

Mr. Murray said he would like, however, to have it arranged so 
that there would be no mistake about this permission being 
granted. 

The Secretary was instructed to write Mr. D. O'Kelly Lawson 
to say that the Board assumed there would be no objections to 
any sugar planters seeing the new system at work if they came 
with a letter from the Chairman of the Board. 

The Secretary read the following letters from the Colonial 
Secretary. 

I. Enclosing copy of minute received through the Secretary 
of State for the Colonies from Mr. Sydney Olivier relative 
to the action taken by the latter with reference to the 
Locked Still Experiment. 



278 

After discussion the Board unanimously resolved "That 
the minute of Mr. Olivier be entered in full in the minutes 
and that the Board records its conviction that in the 
action which Mr. Olivier took as Chairman of this Board 
he believed that he was carrying out the wishes and in- 
tentions of the Board and that the Board is satisfied that 
there was no discourtesy in the matter on the part of Mr. 
Olivier. 
2. Resolved that a copy of Mr. Olivier's letter and of the 
minute of the Board thereon be sent to those gentlemen 
who resigned their position as members of that Board in 
consequence of the action taken by the Government in 
the Locked Still Experiment at Denbigh." 

The following is Mr. Olivier's minute referred to : — 

" I have had an opportunity of perusing some extracts from the 
minutes of the meeting of the Jamaica Board of Agriculture, held 
on the nth of October, 1904, and copies of official minutes and 
correspondence connected with the expenditure for installing a 
locked still at Denbigh. I observe that the Board have recorded 
that this matter had been dealt with by the late Acting Governor 
in the exercise of his own power and that the Board did not desire 
to carry through the matter. I have learnt that on the 1st 
November a vote for an expenditure of £250 for this purpose was 
proposed to the Board, and that, on its being carried, three members 
resigned. There has been some misunderstanding with regard to 
my action in this matter the nature of which it is not difficult to 
explain, and I am desirous that the Board should be assured that 
I had no intention of ignoring in any way their authority. 

" The expenditure which I authorised in this connection was for 
the purchase of a Spirit Safe for a locked still which was ordered 
through the Crown Agents for the Colonies by letter dated 1 8th 
August, 1904, and which cost altogether £30 15s. 4d. I regarded 
this order as being within the authority given by the Board in the 
approved vote of £1,000 for appliances on estates, &c., which I 
had always understood, and, rightly or wrongly, believed that 
the Board understood, as contemplating provision for locked-still 
experiments. 

" On the 26th August I authorised a proposal submitted by the 
Island Chemist that the Public Words Department should be re- 
quested to prepare the plans and estimates for alteration at Denbigh 
Estate for a special lock-still at a cost of £220 to £250, and di- 
rected that Mr. Cousins' minute should be circulated to the Board 
of Agriculture. I did not authorise any works, or intend to 
authorise any until the plans and estimates had been received, but 
it appears that the minutes were understood in the Colonial 
Secretary's Office as approving of the commencement of work at 
Denbigh, and that, after I left the Island, work was done under 
this presumed authority. 

" I understood from what passed at the meeting of the Board of 
the isthof September, after I had myself left the chair, that they 



279 

desired to seethe plans and estimates before anything should be 
done there, and it was my intention that this course should be fol- 
lowed. 

" On the 1 5th of September 1 left Jamaica. 

"I have recently learnt that on the 1st September an order for 
fittings for Denbigh Estate was sent to the Crown Agents. I did 
not either see or know of this order at the time ; but I have learnt 
that it was considered to be in accordance with my intentions as 
indicated by the instructions above mentioned. The cost was con- 
jecturally estimated at £l00. 

" On the 4th of October the Crown Agents informed the Colonial 
Government by telegraph that the tendered price for these fittings 
was £190, and enquired whether they should order. 

"On the nth October they were authorised by telegraph to 
accept the tender. 

"It is very uncongenial to me that it should be imputed in the 
proceedings of a Board with whom I always worked in harmony 
and good understanding, that my last act in relation to them was 
a discourteous overstepping of my authority. I feel confident 
that the Board will believe that in ordering the Spirit Safe above 
mentioned I considered that I was taking means to give effect to 
the deliberate intentions of the Board and will recognise that the 
responsibility for any further expenditure at Denbigh stands 
attributed to me, in their records, through mistake. 

" Sydney Olivier. 
I2.9.'05." 

2. Intimating the appointment of Mr. Luther Zinzendorf 

Brandford provisionally as from the 20th October to be 
master of the Hope Industrial School in succession to 
Mr. Hopwood at the salary of £70 a year with quarters, 
medical attendance, fuel and lighting. 

3. Transmitting copies of further letter from Sir Daniel Morris 

relative to his endeavours to arrange for the conveyance 
of members of the West India Agricultural Conference 
to and from Jamaica, which stated that the Royal Mail 
Co. informed him that they were unable to do anything 
to assist him in the matter and that he had heard nothing 
from Messrs. Elder, Dempster & Co. so that the outlook 
was not promising. 
The Secretary submitted communications with regard to Jamaica 
Tobacco, referred from Colonial Secretary from 

1. The Imperial Institute. 

2. Sir Daniel Morris. 

3. Mr. F. V. Chalmers. 

These were directed to be circulated. 

The Secretary submitted two letters of date 22nd September 
and 5th October respectively from Mr. Nolan to the Colonial 
Secretary as regards Jamaica Rum in the United Kingdom. 

These were directed to be circulated. 



280 

The Secretary submitted a letter from Mr. Cradwick giving 
particulars of an experiment in draining land and the cultural 
results. 

The Secretary submitted a letter from Mr. R, G. Musgrove, 
Mississippi, U.S.A., who said that he was Chairman of the group 
of Jurors who made the cotton award at the St. Louis Exhibition 
and he desired to have a sample of the Sea Island Cotton grown 
in Jamaica to report upon its merits, together with minutes from 
the Director of Public Gardens and the Chairman thereon. 

The Secretary was instructed to arrange to send samples which 
he stated could be done at a trifling expense. 

The Chemist submitted the following reports : — 

Research in Tropical Medicines by Capt. Wanhill, R.A.M.C. 
Training of Distillers at Hope. 
Distribution of cane tops. 
The last three were directed to be circulated. 
The Director of Public Gardens submitted a report on Hope 
Experiment Station which was directed to be circulated. 

The following papers which had been circulated were submitted 
for final consideration : 

1. Papers re Mr. Nolan and Jamaica Rum in the United King- 

dom. 

2. Proposed Amendment to Jamaica Rum Protection Law, 

1904. 

The Board decided to recommend that the proposed 
referendum on the subject should be taken and that Dr. 
Cousins should prepare a statement on the matter and 
the Chairman said he would draft a circular to be issued. 
The Secretary was instructed to send a copy of the minute 
on the proposed amendment to the Government and say 
that the Board recommend that it should be carried 
through, but that first the two Sugar Planters' Associations 
and other planters interested in the Rum Industry should 
be consulted on the matter. 

3. Colonial Secretary's letter re Jamaica Scholarship and 

Agriculture and Dr. Cousins' report relating to same. 

4. Draft Estimates Agricultural Services which were passed. 

5. Reports Director of Public Gardens and reports Chemist. 
The Director of Public Gardens submitted a list of persons who 

had promised to lecture at the Teachers' Course which was 
approved of. 

[Issued 9th December, 1905.] 
Printed at the Govt. Printing Office, Kingstmi, Jam. 



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