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Full text of "Bulletin of the Garden Club of America"

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Ex LiBRIS 

The Pennsylvania 

HOBTICULTUBAL SOCIETY 




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Bulletin of 



Zhc (3ar5en Club 



of Hmerica 



January, 1918 



No. XXIII 



President 
MRS. J. WILLIS MARTIN 

Chestnut Hill, Philadelphia 
Treasurer 
MRS. H. D. AUCHINCLOSS 

33 E. 67TH Street, New York and 
Newport, R. I. 
Secretary 
MRS. BAYARD HENRY 

Germantown, Philadelphia 
Librarian 
MISS ERNESTINE A. GOODMAN 

Chesti^t Hill, Philadelphia 



Vice-Presidents 

MRS. ARCHIBALD D. RUSSELL 

34 E. 36TH Street, New York and 
Princeton, New Jersey 

MRS. WILLIAM CABELL BRUCE • 
8 Mt. Vernon Pl., Baltimore, Md. 
and Ruxton, Md. 

MRS. FRANCIS KING 

Alma, Michigan 
MRS. JOHN E. NEWELL 

West Mentor, Ohio 



Editor 
MRS. WALTER S. BREWSTER 
1220 Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, and Lake Forest, Illinois 

The objects of this association shall be: to stimulate the knowledge and love of gardening among 
amateurs; to share the advantages of association, tlirough conference and correspondence in this 
country and abroad; to aid in the protection of native plants and birds; and to encourage civic planting. 



New Year's, 1918 

We shall not see this New Year as of old 
A timid infant at the gates of Time. 
But as a figure beckoning sublime, 
Pointing us to our destiny, unrolled 
In widening fields of service manifold. 
We, the strong women of the nation, now 
Must put our willing shoulders to the plow. 
And plant the grain that brings the harvests' gold. 



h 



Forget ignoble ease, for now is hurled 

A challenge. Ours not only to keep bright 

The olden fires, to do the quiet tasks 

Of household routine. This Year coming asks 

That we shall help the warrior swords to smite, 

Shall clothe the naked, feed the hungry World, 

— Anne Higginson Spicer 



^/.i 



^^ / <\P 



\ \ ' ^^ "A Happy New Year " comes instinctively to our lips but finds no 

P^ ' o\ ^Jecho in our minds or hearts. We know this cannot be a happy year; 

* " ^^ we only pray it may be a successful one. In France gifts are exchanged 

"*> > at the New Year. This year, in America, we offer ours : to our AlHes, 

. help on the line and behind the line, sent in deepest gratitude and 

V^ recognition of all we owe. To our new Army, support and honor for 

their high-hearted courage. To our Country, loyalty and all our 
energy, time and enthusiasm. And joined to these gifts is a hope: 
We wish you a victorious New Year. 

Report of the Meeting of the Council of Presidents 
Colony Club, New York, October 26th, 1917 

Representatives of twenty-nine member Clubs were present. 

The President in opening the meeting, emphasized the fact that 
the Garden Club of America and the Women's Farm and Garden 
Association were the only national organizations of women organized 
for agricultural work. She dwelt upon the responsibility thereby 
incurred and the necessity for an immediate decision as to how this 
opportunity should be met. 

The members present agreed that some co-ordinated work should 
be done by the Member Clubs and various plans were suggested and 
discussed: training Boy and Girl Scouts for garden work, encourag- 
ing practical teaching of Horticulture and Agriculture in the schools 
and helping to replant the devastated regions of France and Belgium. 
Information in regard to the later work seemed indefinite so the 
matter was deferred for future consideration. 

The plan finally adopted, the unit plan for women workers in 
agriculture, is set forth at length hereafter. This work is to be 
organized and initiated by a War Work Council of which Miss Delia 
W. Marble, Bedford Garden Club, Bedford, New York, is Chairman. 

New Committees, one to encourage honest nurserymen and one to 
investigate what can be done to educate children in agriculture, were 
appointed with Miss Rose Standish Nichols and Miss Kingsbury of 
the Litchfield Garden Club, as their respective chairmen. The reports 
of these and other Committees follow. 

Before adjourning, Mrs. Martin urged that the gravity of National 
conditions be seriously reaUzed by every member of the Club. The 
time is one for sacrifice and the Garden Club of America must not fail 
to answer the call to service. 

Report and Plans of the War Work Council 

The Garden Club of America, through its Council of Presidents, 
has adopted as its special war work what is known as the Unit Plan 
for women workers in agriculture. 



This plan is, briefly, to employ on the land women from the pro- 
fessions and from the seasonal trades — college graduates and vmder- 
graduates, teachers, milliners, workers in artificial flowers, and so on. 
These women are to be gathered in camps of from ten to fifty or 
more, under competent leadership, and will be sent out from the 
camps singly or in squads to work on neighboring farms. 

This plan secures proper housing, supervision and pleasant social 
conditions, the lack of which in the past has been the chief obstacle to 
the employment of women on farms. 

We are all aware of the acute and urgent need for agricultural 
workers. Unless effective steps are taken to meet this need, the food 
shortage next year will be calamitous for us and for our alHes. 

In England 300,000 women are working on the land and have 
shown beyond doubt that women can substitute for men in most 
farming and gardening operations, to the benefit of their health and 
the satisfaction of their employers. Experiments in our own country 
confirm this result. 

A short trial overcomes the prejudice of farmers against women 
workers, whom they find more rehable and conscientious than the 
average day-laborer; while out-door life, and the good fellowship of a 
camp are a welcome change to the city woman. 

Each such camp is a centre of education for both employers and 
workers, and wUl be the starting point of other camps in succeeding 
seasons. 

Many of the women volunteer from patriotic motives, and all 
work with more enthusiasm through knowing that their work is needed 
jp « for the food production of the country. 

^4s 9i Every Garden Club has the opportunity of taking an active part 

- ♦ in this most necessary and patriotic work, by establishing such a farm 

*** unit in its neighborhood. 

'""'V^ It is singularly appropriate that Garden Clubs should take up this 

fcL ti task, both to increase the food crops of the country and also to bring 

to other women the joys and satisfactions which all true garden 

Jovers find in working with the earth and with growing plants. 

Benefits in health, in spirits and in outlook, well-tended fields, 

M)rchards and gardens, willing hands to plant and to harvest, all make 

_ this a work most worthy of the efforts of those who have loved their 

^ . Cown gardens and have found in them help and strength. 

■^»- America needs a Woman's Army on the land to raise food for 

-the nations. Will the Garden Clubs help? 

••i\, Suggestions to the Clubs 

The President of each Club is urged to appoint a Committee, to 

take charge of this work. The Chairman of this Committee is asked to 

"^ f^ommunicate at once with the Chairman of the War Work Council. - 



To organize Farm Units this Committee should: 

ist. Secure information concerning local conditions. This should 
include inquiry into the labor shortage on farms and gardens, the 
possible supply of workers, and the various organizations which 
might be called upon for assistance. 

2d. Raise money for initial expenses and to insure against loss 
the first year. The amount needed will vary, according to the scale 
on which the work is undertaken, from $100.00 in the case of a single 
small unit, to several thousand dollars where one or more large units 
are started and the preliminary work requires a paid secretary and 
field worker. 

3d. Canvass employers to determine how many workers may be 
needed. 

4th. Find a suitable site, secure house or tents and equipment. 

5th. Enroll workers and secure a competent head, and assistants 
if needed. 

6th. Arrange transportation, questions of wages, etc. 

The preliminary work of publicity among farmers and workers 
should be begun as soon as possible. 

Much help may be expected from Farm Bureaus and State Em- 
ployment Bureaus, State Colleges of Agriculture, Women's Colleges 
and Alumnae Associations, The Woman's National Farm and Garden 
Association, The Young Women's Christian Association, Women's 
Clubs, The National Women's Farm Laborers Association and many 
other agencies. 

Further information may be had from the War Work Council: 

Mrs. John E. Newell, 
Mrs. Robert C. Hill, 
Miss Delia W. Marble, 

Chairman, Bedford, New York. 

A Unit Plan for Agricultural Workers 

Purpose. To increase the food supply there is great need of more 
labor on farms. Women have demonstrated in Europe that they are 
able to perform efficiently almost every kind of farm work. In this 
country three types of women are available for such work. 

1. Educated women, such as college students and teachers, who 
wish to devote the long summer vacation to this form of patriotic 
service. 

2. All-round working women, strong but unskilled, who may be 
turned permanently to farm labor. 

3. Factory workers in the seasonal trades, thrown out of their 
regular employment in the summer, who would profit physically and 
socially as well as financially from a few months of farm work. 



Most farmers in this part of the country are not used to women as 
farm laborers; they must be persuaded to try them and be convinced 
of their value. One great diflEiculty in the way of introducing women 
into this work is the impossibility of housing and feeding them con- 
veniently in the farmer's household. 

The Unit. To meet this situation the Unit Plan is proposed, — 
i. e., the organization of groups of women workers, numbering from 
about six to fifty or more, who shall live and eat together in a centre, 
and go out from there singly or in squads to work by the day on farms 
or estates in the vicinity. 

Residence. The members of the Unit may live in a house, unused 
and loaned for the purpose, in a barn temporarily fitted up for camp- 
ing, or in tents. 

Food. The catering and cooking may be done by one or more 
dietitians or cooks, who may be members of the Unit or women hired 
for the purpose. 

Transportation. The workers may be carried to their work by 
motor-cars or other vehicles owned by the Unit or loaned by neighbors 
or employers. 

Wages. There are at least two practicable systems of arranging 
wages. The Unit may pay each member a regular weekly wage and 
board and receive from the employers all money earned by the 
workers; or the workers may themselves receive from their employers 
the pay per day or by piece work and share the expenses of the 
household. 

Supervision. A supervisor should be in charge of the Unit. She 
may be one of the workers, more mature than the others and fitted 
for leadership, or some volunteer experienced in managing young 
women. 

Careful bookkeeping is necessary in order that the wages and 
expense accounts may be properly managed. In small Units this may 
be done by the supervisor, or some interested volunteer from the 
neighborhood may undertake it. 

Capital. Some capital is generally necessary to start the Unit, 
though the money may afterwards be refunded from the earnings of 
the workers. 

Equipment may be purchased for a small sum, and often much of 
it, such as simple furniture, may be given or loaned from neighboring 
households. 

Physical Examinations. No woman should be enrolled in the 
Unit unless she has been carefully examined by a physician and pro- 
nounced physically fit. All women workers sent out by the Standing 
Committee on Agriculture have been certified in this way. 

Variations. There may be many variations of this typical Unit, 
according to the nature of the locahty, the kind of farm work needed, 
the women available and the resources at hand. 



For example, in a fruit country the workers may all do piece work 
on one farm, instead of scattering during the day. Under other con- 
ditions the Unit may be organized as a training camp, with an agri- 
cultural expert to teach the women various forms of agriculture. 
Occasionally it may be possible to induce the workers to go out from 
the centre to assist farmers' wives in household work. Sometimes it 
maybe convenient for a small Unit to board with some family, instead 
of doing its own catering. Many other adaptations are possible to 
meet local needs and conditions. 

[Issued by the Standing Committee on Agriculture of the Mayor's 
Committee of Women on National Defense, 6 East 39th Street, 
New York City.] 

Supplementary Suggestions 

The Camps should be open from May till October if possible. 

In the case of small Units of ten or twelve, the employer may pro- 
vide shelter, cots, stove and cooking utensils, the workers to bring 
their own bedding, table utensils, and to provide their own food. 

The employers should pay the prevailing local rate of wages as 
for men day laborers, whether by piece work or for an eight hour day. 

The cost of transportation to and from work may be paid by the 
employers according to the usage of the locality. 

The ideal large camp would probably consist of a house for kitchen, 
dining and living rooms, and tents for sleeping; a lake or stream nearby 
is a great advantage. 

A convenient imiform should be worn. In one camp this consisted 
of blue shirt and overalls, in another middy blouse, bloomers and golf 
stockings were worn. One English uniform is a belted smock or long 
coat, knickerbockers and gaiters. 

Where possible, arrangements should be made for agricultural 
instruction for the workers, by lectures or in a camp garden. 

Some Endorsements of the Work Accomplished 

November 14th, 191 7. 
Barnard College, Columbia University, New York. 
The Farm Camp at Bedford Village opened June 4th with twenty 
girls, which number rapidly grew to sixty who, together with three 
or four chauffeurs, two or three dietitians, three houseworkers, a 
bookkeeper, ah agriculturist and myself, gave us a family of over 
seventy. People varied in length of stay from a week to four months, 
about 250 individuals working at the camp in the various capacities. 
We had a small garden, for home consumption only, the main object 
being to send the girls out to work on neighboring farms. All our 
workers of whatever kind or grade, with a few exceptions, received 
$15 a month and board. The money paid by the farmers went to the 



camp, payment being at the rate of $2 a day. The girls worked eight 
hours a day on the farms, in addition to various "chores" at home, 
such as milking, caring for chickens, and doing most of their own 
washing. They were delivered to the employers in our cars, going to 
distances within a radius of fifteen miles. They wore men's blue over- 
alls. There was universal approval of their work among the employers, 
and regret when we closed, and there was universal improvement in 
health and enjoyment of the work among the girls. 

(Signed) Ida Ogilvie, 
Dean of the Camp. 

"Braewold, " Mount Kisco, New York. 

I have your request for a statement in regard to the work of the 
"Farm Girls" of the Bedford Village Colony during the past season 
and I reply with pleasure. As President of the Bedford Farmers Club, 
I was glad to give an official of the National Agriculture Department 
an opportunity to make public inquiry of the members of the 
Club, at its October meeting, as to their experience with the work of 
these girls. 

Some eight or ten who had employed them gave emphatic testi- 
mony as to the efficiency of their labor, their marked intelligence, their 
eagerness to learn the "reason why" of agricultural operations, their 
zest and steadfastness in their work and their pleasant and un- 
exceptionable demeanor. 

While they were physically too light for heavy farm work they yet 
accomplished such results that production hereabouts was consider- 
ably increased. I may add that my own experience with them was in 
accord with these statements. 

If the expected labor shortage during the coming year is realized 
there will be an increased demand for such labor. They were paid 
twenty-five cents an hour for this work. 

(Signed) James Wood. 

Women Epeicient in Agriculture 

Orchard Farm, Ghent, N. Y. 

Editor, The Garden Club of America: In reply to numerous 
inquiries in relation to the work of women in agriculture and especially 
on my own farm I am glad to give results from a practical business 
standpoint. 

For more than ten years, I have had experience in the employment 
of women on my fruit farm. This has been with college girls who have 
come from cities to learn the practical side of horticulture, in the 
propagation of plants in connection with the study of botany. A 
number of neighborhood girls and women have been employed in 
picking, assorting, and packing fruit for market. 



On account of the War, through 191 7 there has been a serious 
shortage of labor on farms and especially of harvesters to gather crops 
after they had been largely increased to meet the needs of our own and 
other coim tries. We began early to secure women to assist in the 
handling of large crops of cherries, apples, pears and plums. Instruc- 
tion was given them in the process of thinning apples on nearly 8,000 
trees, work that much improves the fruit. 

We have found from experience that women are better adapted to 
this work than men, for the reason that they follow instructions more 
closely and keep to the rule of allowing six inches of space between 
all apples on the branches, while most men, seeing the ground covered 
with apples, let up considering that the work is wasteful, when their 
work often has to be done over again. The motives of the men are 
right but their practice is not. 

In assorting and packing fruit we find women are more adept, — 
by intuition they see more small defects, and reject more specimens 
that are not strictly up to the required grade. During the past season 
a large crop of apples was successfully harvested and sent to market, 
with twenty-five per cent less men than usual. A few well trained 
women assisted in picking and others were steadily upon the work of 
assorting and packing. Careful personal instruction was given to the 
workers in the orchards and in the packing house, railroad officials 
were given timely notice of the number of cars and when needed, 
with the result that with increased efficiency of a less number of 
workers the large crop of apples was secured and marketed in fifteen 
days less than usual, while over a wide section, much injury was sus- 
tained by the freezing of apples and potatoes before they could be 
gathered. 

In meeting Farmers Clubs, the members of which in a few instances 
have employed groups of college girls the past year, much satisfaction 
has been expressed and favorable opinion given upon the efficiency 
of their work. 

The problem of labor in food production in 191 8 is far from cer- 
tainty or satisfaction in its outlook. There are many women who are 
forced to support themselves and their famihes. Through prompt 
action many of these may be utilized upon farms. They are much 
needed in farmers families, giving part time to household work and 
part time to work out in the fields in planting, cultivating, and har- 
vesting crops. 

College girls have demonstrated the past year, that in a short time 
they may be mentally and physically well prepared to render efficient 
service in farm work. From their environment and training they are 
able to quickly grasp the requirements and to adjust themselves to 
new lines of work. We know that with ten minutes instruction given 
in the use of a hoe, in the culture of corn, beans, potatoes in field or 



garden crops, that girls have very soon done more and better work 
than many farm laborers who are paid higher wages than they are 
worth. While many men will drop a tool the moment the time has 
come to quit, college girls are known to have finished ten or twenty 
or more feet of rows, before they would leave their work in an _un- 
finished condition. 

For untrained women in cities, many of whom may be helped to 
render service in farm work, it is imperative that they have some 
opportunity to receive certain instructions, without which they would 
be useless. Opportunity should be given such, to assemble in classes, 
when they may be given definite practical instruction upon such 
subjects as the soil, its tillage, seeds, planting, habits of growth and 
after cultivation. Instruction should be given on methods in garden- 
ing, fruit-culture, dairy work,, and care in feeding and rearing poultry. 

If women may obtain some instruction along these lines, they may 
go out to farms and take up certain lines of work far more intelligently 
and efl&ciently. An important problem is that of obtaining instructors 
who are competent to teach the most essential things in this prepara- 
tory work. Theoretical and technical teaching will not meet the 
needs. Those who have a good fund of knowledge from practical ex- 
perience will be found most valuable for this special work of teaching. 

Having had somewhat extended experience in the organization of 
Garden Clubs, and in defining policies to be followed in their work, I 
am convinced that from the working membership of these clubs, there 
are many women who are especially well quahfied to be the most 
successful teachers of working women and others who would be in- 
terested to go out to farms as wage earners. English and French 
women of high social standing have rendered most valuable and 
efficient service as instructors of other women upon whom have fallen 
the responsibility of becoming the food producers of the nations at 
war. 

In a meeting of the Woman's National Farm and Garden Associa- 
tion, where the speakers were selected from its membership, women 
who had done most successful work in gardening, poultry, and farm 
crops, we have never heard in any organization of men, scientific or 
other, more clean-cut, direct, and practical instruction and informa- 
tion given than by the speakers who gave their experiences, with the 
most practical and helpful suggestions for correcting some mistakes 
they had made in their work. 

Through educational work that may be done by Garden Clubs, 
through co-operation, with other organizations, many women may 
be helped to efficiently fit into places on many farms where their work 
may be highly productive and satisfactory to themselves, their em- 
ployers and to the present great needs of our nation. 

(Signed) George T. Powell. 



Eight Hours a Day on the Vassar Farm 

Eight hours a day for eight weeks of the past summer, twelve 
Vassar girls worked on the Vassar College farm. 

In the spring came a call from the Government for more farm 
produce to meet the war demand. More produce meant more farm 
labor. 

Men were enlisting and being drafted into the army. Where were 
even the regular farm hands coming from? Those twelve girls 
answered the question in part. 

Here was a college farm of 740 acres. Extra men were needed 
in the summer season. Why not try girls instead? College girls? 
Why not! 

Commissioner John H. Finley of New York State made the sug- 
gestion. It was approved by President H, N. MacCracken of Vassar 
College and authorized by the board of trustees with one provision: 

The scheme must be made a business proposition. It must show 
resiilts in dollars and cents. 

It was decided that twelve was a convenient number to handle. 
Could twelve girls willing to forego their summer vacation be found? 
Thirty-three volunteered immediately. Out of these the twelve were 
chosen largely on a basis of good health. 

Room and meals were provided in the main dormitory at a mini- 
mum cost of $5.50 a week. Their wages were i']}4 cents an hour. 

The following letter, written by Superintendent Louis P. Gillespie 
of Vassar College to Miss Alice M. Campbell, student manager of the 
Farm Unit, speaks for itself: 

Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, N. Y. 
September 22, 1917. 

My dear Miss Campbell: I want to tell you of the wonderful 
success we have had this year in the way of bumper crops in the farm 
and garden. 

Outside of those connected with the college, there are not many 
who know to what extent the operations of our farms are conducted. 
Few are aware that we have a tested herd of 180 head of thoroughbred 
and grade Holstein cattle, that supplies the college milk and cream 
each year; 350 pure bred barred and white Plymouth Rock chickens; 
130 pigs, and 17 horses. 

A greater part of the feed for all these, as well as sufi6cient white 
and yellow corn for meal, for bread, pastry, etc., has been produced 
on our farms in addition to 4,000 bushels of potatoes, 600 bushels of 
tomatoes, 4 acres of asparagus, and great quantities of sweet corn, 
celery, cauliflower, cabbage, beans, beets, carrots, turnips, parsnips, 
salsify, okra, soy beans. 



We are especially gratified at this time and it is a matter of much 
pride to know that a very great amount of the work necessary for this 
large production has been done by some of our students. 

They took great interest in the work and did the work just as well 
as the average man and made good far beyond the most sanguine 
expectations. (Signed) Louis P. Gillespie, 

General Superintendent. 

Women of the Land Army in England at Work 
Extracts from The Times, London, July 26, 1917. 

From 12 counties women came to the Women's Farm Competi- 
tions held at Mr. Gilbey's Estate, Bishop's Stortford. Eight classes of 
entries were: Milking; poultry killing and plucking; manure carting; 
ditching and hedge trimming; harnessing; harrowing; driving and hoe- 
ing. Some of the best known farmers in Hertfordshire and Essex 
acted as judges and so close was the competition that even the judges, 
who had a very fair knowledge of the good work on the land which 
was being done by women, were surprised. 

The purpose was to convince unbelieving farmers that there are 
certain farm operations which women can do as well as men. The 
competitors achieved even more; they converted many women on- 
lookers to the call of the land. Across the sun-scorched fields the land 
women, bronzed and freckled, strode with easy step, splendidly 
healthy. With bill-hook and stick they cleared out the ditches. 
Strong of arm, they piled their carts with manure. They hoed, draw- 
ing the earth well up around the plants. They harnessed horses that 
seemed to need as many odds and ends for their working toilet as a 
beauty dressing for her first ball. 

The women milked cows that they did not know — always a 
perilous thing to do — first making friends with them. But the driving 
tests were among the hardest. Two inches on either side was all the 
space that was allowed between the wheels of their milk carts and the 
white posts which lined the course and fell if they were but grazed by 
the vehicles. 

The competitors were a democratic crowd. Here was a pretty 
housemaid who had acquired a great fund of high spirits with her 
freedom from broom and backstairs, and there was a girl fresh from 
training at the old universities, whose straight harrowing was a delight 
to watch. 

In spite of many other demands for women's services, the call of 
the land still remains strong and the need urgent. It must not be 
thought that because the autumn has set in women are no longer 
wanted. Cows must be milked, stock tended, and the cleaning of the 
land carried on, and there are also the claims of forestry and forage. 



Yesterday, at the Food Production Branch of the Board of Agri- 
culture, the Hon. Mrs. Alfred Lyttelton spoke of the great success 
which had attended the work of the land women, both part-time 
workers and land army. 

"The part-time workers have greatly increased throughout the 
country," she said; "they are the mainstay of food production, and 
this year there are 200,000 of them. The mobile women's land army, 
which was started early in March, during six months' work has had 
6,000 women in its ranks, who have been so carefully chosen that the 
percentage of failures has proved negligible. Any surplus not working 
we lend to the Forestry and Forage Department of the War Office 
and the Timber Supply Department, and they enjoy the work 
greatly. Both Departments use our selection boards. When the girls 
are employed on forestry they work behind the men, and live in huts 
and tents when there are no hostels available. They measure the 
trees for sleepers, saw them, and in some cases even fell them. The 
forage-girls do hay baling in groups of four, working with two or three 
soldiers imder a leader. All the women doing this kind of work are 
educated, and many of them have thrown up good billets for work 
on the land." Delia W. Marble, Chairman. 

Committee Reports 

The Committee appointed to encourage honest nurserymen 
expects to change its name to the Committee on Trade Relations. 
Its appeal to the American Society of Landscape Architects has 
met with a hearty response. The Chairman of our Committee has 
been invited to meet with their Committee on Trade Relations and 
a similar Committee of the Nursery Growers Association in New York 
on January 3d. No doubt vigorous action will be taken to start a 
campaign for the elimination of graft, involving many attendant 
evils, especially likely to become rampant in wartime. Nurserymen, 
landscape gardeners, employers, and employees are earnestly urged to 
co-operate with us in trying to stamp out this insidious practice. 

Rose Standish Nichols, Chairman. 

Committee on Honorary Award 

In spite of a generally expressed opinion that this was not a 
favorable time to collect the sum of $1,540 necessary for the design for 
a Garden Club medal, S539 has already been collected, and additional 
sums are promised. The medal will not, however, be ordered at pres- 
ent and it has been suggested that the money now subscribed be in- 
vested in Liberty Bonds. It is possible that under these circumstances 
others may wish to send subscriptions, the money to be used later for 
the medal. Louisa Y. King, Chairman. 



Committee on the Promotion of the Study of Agriculture 
in Secondary Schools 

This committee has nothing to report as yet. Data has been col- 
lected, but the matter is still so much in embryo that it is doubtful 
whether for the time anything could be done to promote it. The 
work should embrace more than ordinary gardens, which are, after 
all, nothing more than a healthful pastime, but it is felt that the 
subject could be broadened into a practical and helpful activity. 

Alice Kingsbury, Chairman. 

Boy Garden Units 

For some reason, gardening has never been a popular profession 
in America. In every other country it is taught as an honorable, 
interesting, and remimerative trade but here it is an accident. 

Women can be used temporarily on the land but when the war is 
over they will be needed for other things. Boys properly trained would 
find a permanent occupation. 

We would not suggest training for farm work. That is being done 
in agricultural schools, but there are no schools that specialize in 
practical flower-gardening. An apprentice system is the thing really 
needed, but in its absence much could be done by organizing groups 
of boys from 14 to 17 in communities where large flower and vegetable 
gardens are frequent. 

The boys could be housed as are the women units with a respon- 
sible middle-aged woman to cook for and look after them. They 
might then be "rented" for their board and a small bonus paid direct 
to the boy, to neighboring gardeners, preferably to people who did 
much of their own garden work or at least supervised personally, on 
condition that they be given practice along various lines, not merely 
be kept weeding or hoeing or grass-cutting and that they work for 
not more than six hours a day. The remaining two or three hours 
should be given to classes and study of plant material, soil conditions, 
etc. 

In other words, the boys should be given varied and interesting 
work and while they are learning how to do each thing learn why also. 
The owner or head-gardener should undertake to work with them and 
make every effort to arouse their interest. Their class instructor must 
be a man or woman really interested in the project and able to reach 
and hold the enthusiasm of the pupils. 

The end and aim of the experiment should be not to supply casual 
labor during a time of dearth but to so interest the boys that to be good 
gardeners would seem the high ambition that it is. Results would 
depend largely on the garden owners, their superintendents or head 
gardeners. Much time, much thought, and unflagging patience would 



be needed. The director of the plan should give careful consideration 
to this side of the question. 

The boys, too, should be carefully chosen from a class who might 
be suitably thus employed and from a type who gave promise of suc- 
cess. This plan intelligently carried out, would be constructive war 
work, temporarily useful and with a promising future. K. L. B. 

The Crude Drug Situation in the United States 

With the beginning of this great war the United States was con- 
fronted with a very serious problem, namely, how to obtain certain 
crude drugs the entire supply of which came from the countries at 
war. It has now been proven that certain of the drugs can be grown 
successfully in certain parts of this country. Since the United States 
has entered the war the demand for these drugs has increased far 
beyond the ordinary requirements, and this fact necessitates im- 
mediate action. 

This work is being taken up with estate owners throughout the 
country who have a greenhouse or land that can be used and with 
their assistance it will be possible to relieve the great shortage quickly 
and with the combined efforts of their superintendents and gardeners, 
men who are the cultural experts of the country, the methods of 
growing can be so worked out that an industry can be founded which 
will make the United States independent of the imported supply. 

We have canvassed all the seed houses in this country and have 
procured a large percentage of the very limited amount of medicinal 
herb seed in the United States. 

Some of the drugs that can be grown in this country, for which 
there is an increased demand and a supply not sufficient to meet the 
ordinary demands, are Belladonna (Atropa Belladonna), Indian Hemp 
(Cannabis Indica), Henbane (Hyoscyamus Niger), Digitalis (Digitalis 
Purpurea), Valerian (Valeriana Officinalis), Poppy (Papaver Somni- 
ferum). Sage (Salvia Officinalis), and Caraway (Carum Carui), 

Belladonna is probably the most important as it has a very ex- 
tensive and varied therapeutic use. It is a perennial of the nightshade 
(Solanaceae) family and is a native of Central Europe. The seed of 
this plant is sown in greenhouses during January and is transplanted 
to the field early in the spring. The leaves are ready to be harvested 
during the last of the summer. A space of 270 sq. ft. in the greenhouse 
or 140 sq. ft. in the greenhouse and 140 sq. ft. in cold frames will pro- 
duce enough plants in 2-inch pots to plant an acre. A normal yield is 
400 lbs. of dried leaves per acre. Before the war these leaves sold for 
30c per lb. and today it is scarcely obtainable at $2.00 per lb. 

Digitalis, Valerian and Henbane require the same general cultural 
treatment. 



Indian Hemp, Poppy and Caraway are sown in the fields and are 
given cultural treatment similar to field corn. Sage seed is sown in 
seed beds in the spring, is pricked out and transplanted into the field. 

In order to superintend and instruct the superintendents and 
gardeners in this work the services of one of the few successful growers 
of drug plants has been secured. 

If you would care to devote either a part of your greenhouse or 
land or both to growing drug plants, I would be glad to supply you 
with the necessary seed and to superintend the planting, cultivation, 
and harvesting of the crops. I think it would be fair after the crop is 
raised that you own half of it and I take one-half, to defray the cost 
to me of the seed and superintendence, and the cost of drying, which, 
to ensure the highest quality, has to be done in a specially con- 
structed house, heated to a high temperature. 

Should you desire to donate one-half of your share of the crop to 
the American Red Cross, I will join you and do likewise with my 
share. 

I shall be glad to send further particulars. 

C. Clifton Lewis, 
150 Nassau Street, New York, and 
722 French Street, Wilmington, Del. 

The Short Hills Garden Club Dahlia Show 

Our Dahlia Show was a problem this year. We had established for 
it an enviable reputation, and it seemed a pity to give it up. Our 
time and our labor was needed for the National Cause, and we 
must do oux bit, come what may. So at last we called in our beloved 
Dahlia to help — and help it did. 

It was too late to buy tubers when we finally decided to have 
the show for the benefit of the Red Cross, so that only a few of our 
members could show novelties. But the old favorites were favorites 
still, and the loving care given them was rewarded by the plant's best 
efforts. Our friends came from distant cities to see the blooms, and 
were most enthusiastic over what they saw. Even hardened dahlia 
specialists of many years' professional experience, admitted that our 
Show, though smaller, of course, was better in quality than the New 
York Show. 

The walls were banked with a veritable forest of autumn leaves 
and autumn berries. The soft green burlap with which we always 
cover the tables, brought out the color of the blooms in full relief, as 
in their natural surroundings. The flower arrangements were particu- 
larly original and very lovely. 

The blooms were all sold, some individually, and some at auction, 
and enough money was realized to keep our Surgical Dressing workers 
well supplied with material. 



Thus we were able to do our part toward the National Cause, 
even when we were enjoying those happy moments in the garden 
which we all crave. 

May we beg our sister Garden Clubs to do this sort of thing next 
year? We must not set aside all things beautiful during these sorrow- 
ful days. "All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy." We need 
relaxation from the stress and strain of our work, and if our play can 
also be of service to our coimtry, by all means let us still have our 
flowers. 

Henrietta M. Stout. 
(Mrs. Charles M. Stout.) 

Committee on the Preservation of 
Wild Flowers 

" There is great uncertainty as to whether Holland bulbs — such 
as Hyacinths, Tuhps, Jonquils, Daffodils and all those spring beauties 
— can reach our shores this fall. Since February ist not a single ship- 
ment of Holland products has arrived. War or no war, we must have 
flowers in our gardens, and particularly so in the early spring, when our 
very souls yearn for the things that peep through the ground. 

"Do you know that we can make our gardens just delightful by 
using the very material that is nodding at our back door — flowers 
which grow in the fields and woods? Some of them you have always 
bought and thought you had a rarity. 

"Now, let me tell you it is not easy to collect wild flowers, for you 
can only collect them while dormant, and then you don't know how to 
find them. It is not easy, either, to dig them, and some times you 
spend a whole day and find but a handful. 

"But I have a friend who is an expert at this and he makes it a busi- 
ness, and being, therefore, at headquarters, I am able to offer them at 
remarkably low prices. 

"If you have a piece of wood land which you wish to beautify in- 
expensively here is your opportunity to do so. 

''The roots are delivered at the time they are dug up and are shipped 
direct from the collector to the consumer; but it is not always possible 
to ship several sorts at one time. 

"Owing to the low cost of these things, no order for less than 25 of a 
kind is accepted." 

The above extract appeared in Fuld's catalogue for July, 1917. 
Would it not be possible for The Garden Club of America to make 
some protest against a method of procuring wild flowers, that means 
complete devastation of one of nature's gardens, followed, probably, 
by the extinction of many of our native plants? 



Some of us have "wild gardens" that we think more lovely than 
any other t)^e of garden, but is it fair to procure this pleasure at the 
expense of what has been given to the whole world to enjoy? 

There are seedsmen* who propagate by means of cuttings or seeds, 
and who thus increase the numbers of our wild flowers. Methods such 
as those described by Mr. Fuld, in his catalogue, however, mean the 
selfish enjoyment of the few while thousands who have neither the 
money nor the time to have gardens of their own, must wander 
through woods and fields made bare by the ruthless hand of com- 
mercialism. 

(Mrs. H. W. Hack) Joanna H. Hack, 

Short Hills, N. J. Short Hills Garden Club. 

Member of Wild Flower Preservation Committee. 

♦Addresses given on application to Mrs. Hack. 

Book Reviews 

Methods or Attracting Birds. Bird Friends. Houghton, 
Mifflin & Co. 

Gilbert H. Trafton, Supervisor of Nature Study in Passaic, N. J., 
wrote a year or two ago, a book which should be very welcome to the 
householder who is anxious to make friends with the wild birds. 
"Methods of Attracting Birds" is a small volume giving information 
on bird shelters, bird food, and protection of birds. Included in the 
text is a summary of the interesting experiments of Baron von 
Bulepsch. 

Mr. Traf ton's later book, "Bird Friends," will be very interesting 
to those who want to know about birds without becoming a special 
student. He tells about their habits, their economic value, gives in- 
formation as to state and federal laws and the teaching of bird 
protection in the schools. Both volumes are well illustrated. 

The National Association of Audubon Societies approves Mr. 
Trafton's works. Margaret Day Blake. 

Around the Year in the Garden. By Frederick Frye Rockwell. 
Macmillan & Co. (Price $1.75) 

This type of book has been attempted several times before, 
more or less successfully. 

It is a lesson book for the beginner, and a book of reference for the 
more experienced. Written by one who has most thorough scientific 
knowledge, it is worded in just plain English so that anyone can 
understand. 

It is a fund of information. Nothing seems to have been over- 
looked, and I venture to say that it will be the most thumbed volume 
on every garden lover's bookshelf before the summer is out. 

Henrietta M. Stout. 



Gardens to Color and Individual Gardens. By Charlotte 
Cowdrey Brown. Knickerbocker Press. 
A charmingly arranged little book has just been issued by Mrs. 
Brown giving suggestions for every possible sort of a garden. Even in 
these war days it tempts one to try one of every kind and color. The 
book should prove unusually useful to the beginner and certainly is 
full of hints to the "old-timer." 

The Natural Style in Landscape Gardening. By Frank A. 
Waugh. Boston, Richard G. Badges. Toronto, The Copp Co, 

"Natural Style in Landscape Gardening" is written by Professor 
Frank Waugh, head of the Horticultural Department of Amherst 
College, and is more for the serious student of the science of landscape 
architecture than for the general public. Having a school of his own 
he tells of the special, and somewhat amusing, methods by which he 
arouses in his pupils imagination and memory, by Kstening to such 
music as Handel's Largo and the Sextette from Lucia, or by lying for 
hours in soUtude on some hillside or riverbank studying the sky, by 
day and night, in sunshine and rain, or even in a snowstorm. In this 
book Professor Waugh insists on his student's seeking the "motif" 
of each problem presented, and then designing from that a mountain, 
a meadow, a river, or even a group of trees. His view on "color 
schemes" in a garden is that they be subordinated to what he calls 
"texture" of plants in naturalistic groups. 

Professor Waugh explains fully "ecology" — that branch of 
botanical science which teaches what trees or plants naturally grow 
together, and gives Hsts of such grouping which could be profitably 
studied by his lay readers, as well as his students. 

Closely linked with this book is Professor Waugh's second volume 
on "Outdoor Theatres." In this he tells of the possibiUties of such 
delightful adjuncts to landscape design. Their planning, orienta- 
tion, making, size, Hghting, and use are given in detail. Then follow 
the plans, pictures, and description of some twenty out door theatres, 
large and small, elaborate, and simple. Emily Higginson. 

The recent issue of the Bulletin of the Peony Society of 
America contains much useful and interesting information of great 
value to peony enthusiasts. It may be had from the Secretary, Mr. A. 
P. Saunders, Clinton, New York. 

The Arnold Arboretum 

Garden Club members are urged to remember the fact that the 
Arboretum is now raising an endowment fund. This great national 
institution should claim our interest even in war times. 

A legacy of $25,000 was recently received from Mrs. Robert D. 
Evans of Boston. 



Fund for the Relief of French Fruit Growers 

Contributions Received Up to September 25, igiy 
From Members of the Horticultural Society of New York $2,475.00 

Garden Club of Short Hills 5 . 00 

Albemarle Garden Club 50. 00 

Bedford Garden Club 100. 00 

Garden Club of Lawrence 25 . 00 

Garden Club of Ridgefield 25 . 00 

Lenox Garden Club (erroneously credited in first statement 

to the Horticultural Society of Lenox) 200 . 00 

Nassau Horticultural Society 25 . 00 

Monmouth County Horticultural Society 10.00 

Total $2,915 . 00 

The foregoing is a statement sent by Mr. Britton for publication in 
The Bulletin. Since that date other Garden Clubs have contributed. 
In the next issue these will be reported and an account will also be 
given of the French Commission recently appointed to organize the 
work. 

Patriotism and "The Trade" 

Much space is given in this issue of The Bulletin to the war work 
of amateurs. It seems only fair to record the views of professional 
nurserymen and florists. The following statements are taken from the 
"Florists' Exchange," the first being the decision arrived at in a con- 
ference on the order of the Fuel Administration in regard to "non- 
essential industries." 

"All businesses and industries are being asked to conserve and cur- 
tail consumption of coal. Where an industry has a large quantity of 
goods produced in advance of actual need or where the demand has 
dropped off, it is expected to curtail its activities. Florists and others 
are admonished to look to their heating plants and get the maximum 
of efficiency from them; also, if it is possible to run a house this year 
at a temperature of, say, 55 degrees where last year it was 65 degrees, 
that should be done. 

There is this to be remembered : It is the life of the country first. 
Industry of a nature that can be dispensed with is merely an incident 
to commercial activity, to be maintained as nearly normal as possible, all 
other things being equal. If it is a choice between munitions and clothing 
for the Army and Navy on the one hand, and flowers and luxuries on the 
other, there will be no hesitancy as to which must give way.'^ 

The War and Women 
Four of the employees of a large floral establishment in the Middle 
West registered for the draft recently, which is just a suggestion of the 



possible call which the active prosecution of the war will make on the 
retail trade. 

The flower business is fortunate in that it is able to use women to 
such good advantage. In some lines it is difficult to replace men with 
women, though this is being done more and more, by virtue of neces- 
sity; but women fit right into the flower business, no matter in what 
department the vacancy may occur. Some of the most successful 
growers and retailers are women, and it goes without saying that they 
are able to handle subordinate positions in these departments to good 
advantage. 

It would be hard to say that woman is inferior in any branch of the 
business, and in the selling end especially women have a certain knack 
that is very valuable. The natural good taste of many women helps 
immensely in displaying the stock in the windows and elsewhere. 

Consequently, even though the war takes some of the men from 
the ranks of the salespeople in flower shops, their places should be 
filled satisfactorily by members of the other sex. And in this fact, as 
suggested above, the trade is fortunate compared with most. 

On the Saturday of the week of the Y. M. C. A. drive, Chicago 
florists generously organized and furnished flowers for a sale at the 
Art Institute. Ladies interested in the work sold the flowers and a 
very large sum was realized. The time, energy, and really beautiful 
plants and cut flowers donated by the florists gave evidence of great 
patriotic interest. 

Reports of Work Planned and Accomplished 
by Member Clubs 

Garden Club of Allegheny County 

The members responded nobly to the idea of increasing their 
vegetable gardens, some even ploughing up lawns which, while it may 
not have resulted in great harvests must have been an object lesson 
in the necessity of producing food. Members having coimtry places 
put all available space into vegetables, and some very productive 
gardens resulted. 

The feeling was strong that we should be taught how to make 
our summer gardens winter gardens as well, and that we must learn 
conservation. A coromittee was appointed to investigate the best 
means to attain this end, and Mrs. Henry Rae undertook to finance 
the endeavor. As a result, Mrs. McDermott, a graduate of Drexel 
Institute, was employed as instructor. In the Domestic Science 
rooms of the Sewickley Public School, daily and two evening classes 
were held, and thirty public demonstrations given. Two hundred and 



twenty-eight women were enrolled, and all the fruit and vegetables 
used in class work reverted to the committee. 3050 jars, and 824 
boxes of dried products have been distributed to the Sewickley 
Hospital, the Columbia Base Hospital, and a Naval Base Hospital, 
and the dried products shipped to the American Ambulance at 
Neuilly. 

In the early spring the Club collected $3890.00, which was put in 
the hands of a Committee composed of men members, who worked with 
the County Agriculturist in assisting the farmers of Allegheny County 
to increase production. Seed was sold to the farmers at cost, and time 
was given for payment. Five demonstrators, all State College gradu- 
ates, were employed to instruct farmers' wives in the cold-pack 
method, and evaporation of fruits and vegetables. This Committee 
owns sixty-five evaporators, which have been left with responsible 
people in rural districts, and which are loaned to farmers' wives for 
use at home. Five thousand women were reached, and three himdred 
boys sent to help the farmers. The funds remaining ($2500.00) have 
been invested in the Second Liberty Bond issue. 

Five hundred dollars has been sent to Miss Bagge to assist the 
French orchardists. 

Former interests have been kept alive by offering cash prizes 
to the Civic Club for vacant lot gardens. Mrs. William Maclay Hall 
was Chairman of the Woman's Committee of the War Farmers' and 
Gardeners Association, which put under cultivation several hundred 
acres of idle property in Pittsburgh. 

Mrs. Finley Hall Lloyd, President. 

Amateur Gardeners Club 

We went rather exhaustively into the question of raising medicinal 
herbs. But after gathering much information we found it quite 
difficult to get seeds and plants and so we, reluctantly, decided to 
abandon the plan that we had formed of cultivating herbs. The 
preservation of the wild flowers has entered into the discussions at our 
meetings. Not only have we been concerned in taking steps to protect 
the wild flowers but also in discouraging the use of Christmas greens 
and the cutting of Christmas trees. 

As a bit of war work our Club, in its desire to co-operate with the 
Women's section of the Maryland Council of Defense, decided to 
finance one of the community gardens started by the Food Production 
Committee of the Council. We selected a lot in one of the poorer 
districts of the city, cleaned and graded it and divided it into seven- 
teen lots which were rented at one dollar a garden. It is hard to 
estimate the value of these gardens in the community. Not only do 
they give wholesome out door employment to almost every member 



of the family, but they teach intensive gardening and demonstrate to 
the workers that the individual family can make itself independent 
of the vegetable market and, in this way, perform a patriotic ser- 
vice. We find that such interest is contagious and we hope the 
demand for gardens next year will be even greater than it has been 
this year. After a successful harvesting of their crops the garden 
workers, whom we had helped, invited the members of our Club to 
see what they had accomplished. We arranged an interesting 
meeting with patriotic speeches and a flag raising, after which 
lemonade and cake was served to us by the gardeners. We con- 
tributed $100.00 to the Food Production Committee for this work. 
We have contributed $53.25 to the Committee on Honorary Award. 
We have also subscribed $24,200 to our second Liberty Loan. 

Louise Este Bruce. 

Bedford Garden Club 

This spring saw the entrance of our country into the world war. 
Shortages of men and food began to loom up, and our Club early set 
itself to the task of meeting these new needs as they affected us locally. 
A committee on canning and preserving was formed. Usual activities 
of the Club, such as flower shows, were given up, the Committee on 
Roadside and Village Planting made the growing of vegetable gardens 
its principal concern. 

School children were encouraged to plant their own little home 
gardens, and in Mt. Kisco the school children were provided with 
small plots of land, and worked under a teacher. 

A public spirited member of the Garden Club financed a garden 
scheme for the Italians of Sutton's Row, preparing the ground and 
supplying the seed. Each family was allowed a plot 50 x 100 feet. 
Of the produce one barrel of potatoes from each garden was given as 
payment. 

Bedford village developed quite an ambitious plan to " take itself 
off the market." A community garden of several acres was started; 
the land loaned, money, and labor contributed patriotically. The 
produce, winter vegetables, and potatoes, sold locally at prices obtain- 
ing before the war. 

In the spring an extra meeting was held, to discuss plans in con- 
nection with the food crisis. The Club determined to devote its efforts 
to prevent waste in members' vegetable gardens, and to encourage the 
community to provide winter supplies at a moderate cost. The first 
step seemed to be to educate the community in the most scientific 
and up-to-date methods of canning, preserving, and dehydrating. 
Asparagus and rhubarb were already in season, so a practical demon- 
stration on the fractional method of canning was given. Later an 



instructress from Columbia College was secured, to give demonstra- 
tions in the villages of Katonah, Bedford Hills, Bedford Village, and 
Mt. Kisco. The cold-pack method, Columbia's latest word in 
canning, was shown. 

These demonstrations led to the necessity for a central canning 
kitchen which was established in a wing of the Mr. Kisco High School. 
During the season 2,824 jars and glasses of fruits, vegetables, and 
jellies were put up, of which 218 jars were donated to civilian and 
other relief. 

As a special contribution towards our soldiers abroad a jelly 
expert was put in charge of the canning kitchen during the grape, plum, 
and apple season. Seven hundred pounds of jams and marmalades 
were put up in ten-pound wooden pails, and given to Mr. William 
Sloane for shipment to the Y. M. C. A canteens in France. 

The committee on Papers and Topics has furnished a program 
supplementing our war work. Mr. Fullerton lectured to us on "Vege- 
tables and How to Grow Them," and Miss Alice Penrose, Director of 
the Y. W. C. A. of New York, gave a talk on the "Conservation 
Ration and How to Prevent Waste in Our Households." 

The Club has made a contribution for the replanting of the de- 
vasted orchards of France. 

All the work undertaken was forced on us by the needs of the 
hour, and was largely experimental. Great praise is due our President, 
and the women who worked on the committees with her, for their 
vision and quick response to the situation, and for their untiring 
efforts. 

Henrietta McC. Williams. 

Report of the Garden Club of East Hampton 
Long Island 

This summer, obeying the call of usefulness rather than pleasure, 
the Garden Club of East Hampton decided to forego its prepared 
program and to throw its energies and funds into starting children's 
gardens. The response on the part of 138 children to join the army of 
producers was enthusiastic and though a number dropped out later, 
when real work began, more than half the number faithfully cultivated 
their own little patches and in early September the produce made a 
goodly show at the Children's Garden Party; many well-deserved 
prizes were given. 

The Club held ten meetings during the Summer and on September 
nth, gave a Dahlia Show, which, from the point of beauty, was very 
successful. 

Emily Hall Wheelock, 

President. 



The Garden Club of Harford County, Maryland 

The Club this summer, had no lectures, as all the money m the 
treasury was used for war purposes. The whole trend of the meetings 
was toward food conservation, and other necessary war precautions. 
Our plans for the coming winter will be regulated entirely by the war. 
We are now attending lectures in Baltimore, on vegetable planting, 
with the view to conservation. 

Grace A. T. Allen, Secretary. 

Green Spring Valley Garden Club 

The Green Spring Valley Garden Club in the Spring helped 
about ICO of the public school children in the neighborhood to start 
vegetable gardens, supplying them with seeds and plants. Five prizes 
were awarded in the Fall to the ones achieving the best results. 

Twelve hundred glasses of Marmalade and jam put up by members 
of the Club have been sent to Camp Meade for use in the Hospital. 

Through the Summer the excess vegetables and fruits from mem- 
bers' gardens were put up by a cannery run by McDonough School 
and given to the Red Cross. 

The Club this Winter is to attend a series of ten lectures given by 
The Extension Service of the Maryland State College of Agriculture. 

Next season the Club will assist in a Community Garden, and will 
carry on its former work. 

C. B. Marshall. 

The Garden Club of Lawrence, Long Island 

The Club has taken much pleasure in sending a young woman 
through the Ambler School of Horticulture. She is now in her 
second year and is doing splendid work. 

In the Community Canning Kitchen and war activities organized 
by other societies, our members have taken a very active part. 

Harriet M. Chapman. 

The Litchfield Garden Club 

The first meeting of the Club was devoted to the Wild Flower 
Committee, whose Chairman reported good progress. To her efforts 
in great measure, is due the passing of a bill curtailing the privilege of 
cutting Laurel in the State of Connecticut, and shipping the same 
to the cities for florists' use. 

Early in the season the Club formed a Comonittee, to promote 
food conservation and preservation, which work later was taken over 
by the Farm Bureau, who employed two salaried assistants, and 
covered all the towns in the County. 



The Garden Club then took over the publicity work, contributing 
nearly a column each week to the local paper, consisting of items of 
timely interest in relation to the work, as well as receipts for various 
war food preparations. This Committee also made and distributed 
posters of meetings and lectures to be held in connection with the 
work. 

A canning kitchen did excellent service during the summer, put- 
ting up some hundreds of jars of surplus fruit and vegetables, part of 
which were sent to our men at the front, and part used for the school 
luncheons, some also being sold for the benefit of the kitchen expenses. 

The Garden Club has considerably extended its civic work during 
the year and has enrolled itself in the service of the Council of National 
Defense, has added to its Hbrary, and hopes that in this time of 
national stress and anxiety that its sphere of usefulness has extended 
and broadened. Margaret L. Gage, President. 

MiLLBROOK Garden Club 

The MiUbrook Garden Club has prepared the following question- 
naire which has been sent through the country and villages about Mill- 
brook in an effort to arouse widespread interest. Results have been 
encouraging and an enthusiastic response received. 

Have You Thought 

Have you thought that possibly this time next year you may not 
be able to buy at the grocery store all the canned vegetables and 
fruits that you may want? 

They may not be there — the Government may have requisitioned 
the stock to feed the soldiers!! 

If you want to be sure of your own supply for next winter why 
not GROW YOUR OWN VEGETABLES in youT own garden next Summer 
and let the Millbrook Garden Club Canning Department put them up 
for you? 

Have you a vegetable garden, if so, how large? 

If you have no garden would you like to have one? 

If you have no place for a garden would you Uke to have ground 
furnished you free, ground prepared to plant — if so, how large a 
plot would you Hke? 

If you could secure the services of boys or girls to weed and pick 
your garden would you consider it a help, and would you be willing 
to pay moderately for this service? 

Is there anyone in your family who for compensation could furnish 
say two hours work per day in gardens? This means, yourself , or yovu* 
husband, or your children because gardening can be done by even 
young children. 



Do you know that the Millbrook Garden Club Canning Depart- 
ment will can your vegetables free if you will help in this service on 
certain days during the Summer or it will do the work without 
your help for three cents a jar if you furnish them a good Mason 
jar. If you have no jars the Club will provide jar and ring for 
seven cents. 

Do you know that by failing to grow and conserve food stuffs 
YOU IN THE COUNTRY are failing in doing your bit and by growing and 
conserving all that you possibly can manage, you are not only assuring 
your own supply but you are doing your patriotic duty in releasing 
from the public stores provisions for our boys fighting for us at the 
front. 

Let us help feed ourselves ! 

Let us help feed our soldiers ! ! 

Let us help win the war ! ! ! 

Mary L. Miller. 

The Garden Association of Newport 

The chief activity of the Garden Association during the past 
summer was the Fruit, Flower, and Vegetable Market held once a 
week in the Trial Garden, Material to be sold in the market was con- 
tributed from private gardens, and attractively displayed for sale 
every Saturday afternoon. Prices were slightly lower than those cur- 
rent in the retail shops, and many of the poorer people of Newport 
were thus able to buy vegetables of the very best quality for a small 
outlay. The sum of $300.00 was the net result of the season's sales, 
which was equally divided between the local chapter of the American 
Red Cross and the American Fund for French Wounded. The 
$150.00 handed to the latter organization has been devoted to the 
purchase of fruit trees for the devastated regions of northern France. 

We hope next Summer to extend our market idea, and at the 
same time, if possible, to combine it with food conservation, which 
we think can be made a very practical undertaking. 

(Harper's Bazaar for November has published a very interesting 
illustrated account of the market.) 

Philadelphia Garden Club 

The Philadelphia Garden Club decided that the instruction of 
eight groups of Boy Scouts and one group of Girl Scouts in vegetable 
gardening should be one of their war works. Altogether, about six 
acres and a half were cultivated, and large crops were produced. 
Beans with large root crops, have given splendid winter foods. What 
has pleased us most is that ten or twelve from each scout troop have 
learned gardening really well, so that they can produce successfully 



another year and teach others to do so. We plan next year to have a 
number of planting plans ready, with first and second crops, so that 
late crops can be put in to follow all early vegetables. With a 
number of such practical plans ready we feel able to meet all scout 
tastes, and double or triple our success in the coming season. 

BeULA H. J. WOOLSTON. 

Report of the Garden Club or Trenton, New Jersey 

The Garden Club of Trenton has most pleasantly rounded out 
another year of its existence with the regular monthly meetings and 
five special meetings. 

It has been the policy of the Club to do no civic work as a Club, 
but one of our members has carried on the work of the Trenton 
Emergency Food Garden Commission with great success. From small 
beginnings, and, in spite of the discouragements of last year, the 
work has increased so that this year's report shows 433 lots averaging 
20 X 100 feet under cultivation, 495 families cultivating these lots; 
75 families who were aided in making home gardens; a total of 570 
families who have been benefited by the Commission. Incidentally, 
$1,300.00 worth of property has been purchased by these gardeners. 

At a recent meeting of the Club it was voted that this year, instead 
of having special meetings and lectures, we should devote the moneys 
which would have been so expended to charitable or patriotic purposes, 
and one of the Club riiembers has already given the trees and shrub- 
bery planting around the Y. W. C. A. Hostess House at Camp Dix in 
heu of an entertainment for the Club as she had previously planned. 

Mrs. Robert V. Whitehead. 

Ulster Garden Club 

The Ulster Garden Club has just completed an interesting and 
profitable year. The important work of food production and con- 
servation was greatly stimulated by a demonstration and lecture 
on canning and preserving at our May meeting. We have also 
encouraged one thousand school children to devote their energies 
to raising vegetables. The Club employed an expert, who has given 
instruction to the children, and made the inspections, the Club giving 
prizes in money for the best cared for and most productive gardens. 

Besides garden work our Club has been interested in war activities, 
making trench candles and sending between four and five hundred 
glasses of jelly to our men in Camp. 

As another war measure the Ulster Garden Club voted a member- 
ship fee to the National Association of Audubon Societies, that it 
might assist in the work of that organization in preserving the insect- 
eating birds which are being killed for food, when the increased 



acreage of land, now being put under cultivation, calls for an equally- 
increased number of birds. 

Although we have had our first regular meeting of the season, we 
are to have informal gatherings during the Winter, to carry on war 
relief work. 

Anne duBois de la Vergne. 

Washington Garden Club 

Washington is a small community in which collaboration is the 
rule, and while the Garden Club did not undertake much distinctive 
work this past summer, its members were, and have been, the leaders 
in the Surgical Dressings work. They have been active workers in the 
Red Cross Unit, in the First Aid and Home Nursing Classes, in the 
Conmiunity Canning Kitchen and Food Conservation Campaign. 
A few members supervised children's gardens, and one instructed 
children in canning the produce they raised. As a Club we con- 
tributed to the Red Cross Fund and gave many more than our quota 
of glasses of jelly and jam to the Army. 

We have endeavored to protect the ferns, laurel, and other "Christ- 
mas greens" in the neighborhood, and have sought the co-operation 
of nearby Garden Clubs in this effort. 

We have also tried to improve several unsightly and unsanitary 
places along the river-front. The Club brought Mr. W. O. Filley, the 
State Forester, to inform the community about the White Pine 
Blister. 

In our scheme of work last summer flowers were not entirely 
neglected, but cultivation and preservation of food products took first 
place. 

Ella L. Hebbard, Secretary. 

The foregoing reports are all that have been received from Member 
Clubs. It is assumed that all Clubs are occupied with patriotic work 
of some sort and all who have further suggestions to make or who 
are engaged in some activity not suggested in the printed reports 
are asked to send accounts not later than February loth for the 
March Bulletin. 



Officers of the Member Clubs of the Garden Club of America 



President 



Secretary 
Albemarle Garden Club 
Mrs. George Austin, 
Charlottesville, Va. 



Bulletin Committee Members 



Mrs. Samuel H. Marshall, 
Charlottesville, Va. 



Mrs. Samuel H. Marshall, 
Simeon P. 0., Charlottesville 
Va. 

Allegheny County, Garden Club of 
Mrs. Wm. H. Mercur, Miss Rebecca F. Chislett, Miss Rebecca F. Chislett, 

Dallas Ave. E., E. Pittsburgh, 5131 EUsworth Ave., 5131 Ellsworth Ave., 

Pa. Pittsburgh, Pa. Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Amateur Gardeners Club, Baltimore 
Mrs. Charles E. Rieman, Miss Jeannette Bathurst Dobbin, Miss Dora Murdock, 

221 W. Monument St., 1308 Bolton St., 24s W. Biddle St., 

Baltimore, Md., and Rodgers Baltimore, Md., and Elk Baltimore, Md. 

Forge, Md. Ridge, Md. 

Ann Arbor, Michigan, Garden Club of 



Dr. A. S. Warthin, 
Ferdon Road, Ann Arbor,. 
Mich. 

Miss Delia West Marble, 
Bedford Village, N. Y. 



Mrs. Samuel H. Taft, 

3329 Morrison Ave., Clifton, 
Cincinnati, Ohio 



Miss Annie Condon, 
920 University Ave., 
Ann Arbor, Michigan. 
Bedford Garden Club 
Mrs. Carl S. Petrasch, 
69 East 82nd St., 
New York City, and Mt 
Kisco, N. Y. 
Cincinnati Garden Club 
Mrs. Glendenning B. Groesbeck, Mrs. Wm. Stanhope Rowe, 
Ehnhurst Place, East Walnut 2359 Madison Road. 



Mr. Albert Lockwood, 

700 Oxford Rd., Ann Arbor, 
Mich. 

Mrs. Edwin S. Merrill, 
955 Park Ave., New York 
City, and Bedford Hills, 
N. Y. 



Hills, Cincinnati, Ohio. 



E. Walnut Hills, Cincinnati 
and Amagansett, N. Y. 



Mrs. L. Dean Holden, 

Lake Shore Blvd., Station H., 
Cleveland, Ohio. 



Cleveland, Garden Club of 

Mrs. J. Prescott Burton, 
11928 Lake Shore Blvd., 
Station H., Cleveland, O. 
East Hampton, Garden Club of 
Mrs. Samuel Seabury, Mrs. Wm. A. Lockwood, 

3 East 9th St., New York 780 Park Ave., New York 

City and East Hampton, and East Hampton, N. Y. 

N. Y. 

Green Spring Valley Garden Club 
Mrs. Janon Fisher, Mrs. William D. Poultney, Mrs. R. E. Lee Marshall, 

Eccleston, Baltimore Co., Md. 505 Park Ave., Baltimore, Walbert Apts., Charles St. 

Md., and Garrison P. O., and Lafayette Ave., 

Baltimore Co., Md. Baltimore, Md. 

Harford Coimty, Garden Club of 



Mrs. Max McMurray, 
12521 Lake Shore Blvd., 
Station H., Cleveland, Ohio 

Mrs. William S. Wheelock, 
45 W. 51st St., New York City 
and East Hampton, N. Y. 



Mrs. Bertram N. Stump, 

Emmorton P. 0., Harford Co., 
Md. 



Mrs. Frederick Greeley, 
Winnetka, 111. 



Mrs. Edward M. Allen, 
Darlington, Harford Co., 

Md. 
Illinois, Garden Club of 

Mrs. Charles W. Hubbard, 
Winnetka, 111. 



Mrs. Bertram N. Stump, 
Emmorton P. O., Harford 
Co., Md. 



Mrs. George B. Sanford, 

108 E. 82nd St., New York City 
and Lawrence, L. I. 



Mrs. Walter S. Brewster, 
1220 Lake Shore Drive, 
Chicago, 111., and Lake 
Forest, 111. 
Lawrence County, Garden Club of 



Mrs. Lawrence Elliman, 
122 East s6th St., New York 
City and Cedarhurst, L. I. 
Lenox, Garden Club of 
Mrs. Bemhard Hoffmann, Miss G. W. Sargent, 

126 E. 80th St., New York City 28 E. 35th St., New York 



and Stockbridge, Mass. 



Mrs. George B. Sanford, 
108 East 82nd St., New York 
City and Lawrence, L. I. 

Miss G. W. Sargent, 

28 E. 35th St., New York 
City and Lenox, Mass. 



City and Lenox, Mass. 
Litchfield Garden Club 
Mrs. Henry S. Munroe, 
The Marlborough, 
Washington, D. C, and 
Litchfield, Conn. 
Michigan, Garden Club of 
Miss Frances B. Cressey, 
79 Watson St., Detroit, 

Mich. 
Millbrook Garden Club 
Miss Katherine Wodell, 

103 East 75th St., New York 
City and Millbrook, N. Y. 
Montgomery and Delaware Counties, the Gardeners of 
Mrs. Isaac La Boiteaux, Mrs. Henry S. Williams, Mrs. Richard L. Barrows, 

Bryn Mawr, Pa. Rosemont, Pa. Haverford, Pa. 

Morristown, N. J., Garden Club of 
Mrs. Gustav E. Kissel, Mrs. T. Towar Bates, Not appointed. 

12 E. 5sth St., New York 213 E. 6ist St., New York 

City and Morristown, N. J. City and Convent, N. J. 



Mrs. S. Edson Gage, 
309 Sanford Ave., Flushing, 
L. I., and West Morris, 
Conn. 

Miss Jessie Hendrie, 

Grosse Pointe Farms, Mich. 



Mrs. Oakleigh Thorne, 
Millbrook, N. Y., and Santa 
Barbara, Cal. 



Mrs. S. Edson Gage, 
309 Sanford Ave., Flushing, 
L. I., and West Morris, 
Conn. 

Mrs. Frederick Towle, 
Crescent City, Fla. 



Mrs. Roswell Miller, 
969 Park Ave., New York City 
and MiUbrook, N. Y. 



President Secretary Bulletin Committee Members 

Newport, the Garden Association of 
Miss Wetmore, Mrs. Walker Smith, Mrs. Arnold Hague, 

630 Park Ave., New York City 27 East 62nd St., New York 1724 I St., Washington, D. C, 
and Bellevue Ave., City andWestholm, and Berry Hill, Newport, 

Newport, R. I. Newport, R. I. R. I. 

North County Garden Club of Long Island 
Mrs. W. Emlen Roosevelt, Mrs. Walter Jennings, Mrs. Charles W. McKelvey, 

804 Fifth Avenue, New York 11 E. 70th St., New York Oyster Bay, L. I., New York 

City and Oyster Bay, L. I., City and Cold Spring 

New York Harbor, L. I. 

North Shore Garden Club of Massachusetts 
Mrs. Francis B. Crowninshield, Mrs. Lester Leland, Mrs. Quincy A. Shaw, 

164 Marlborough St., Boston, 422 Beacon St., Boston, 11 Exeter Street. 

Mass., and Marblehead, Mass. Mass., and Manchester, Boston, Mass. 

Mass. 
Orange and Dutchess Counties, Garden Club of 
Mrs. Samuel Verplanck, Mrs. J. Noah N. Slee, Mrs. James M. Fuller, 

Princeton, N. J., and FishkiU- 470 Park Ave., New York Warwick, New York. 

on-Hudson, N. Y. City, and Beacon-on-Hud- 

son, N. Y. 
Philadelphia, Garden Club of 
Mrs. W. W. Frazer, Jr., 
2132 Spruce St., Philadelphia 
and Tockington, Jenkin- 
town. Pa. 
Philipstown, Garden Club of 
Mrs. Arthur R. Gray, 

114 East 22nd St., New York 
City and Garrison, N. Y. 
Princeton, Garden Club of 
Mis. Junius Morgan, 
Princeton, N. J. 



Mrs. Charles Biddle, 
Andalusia, Pa. 



Mrs. Samuel Sloan, 
4S East 53rd St., New York 
City and Garrison, N. Y. 



Mrs. Joseph L. Woolston, 
Chestnut Hill, Philadelphia, 
Pa. 



Mrs. Arthur R. Gray, 

114 East 22nd St., New York 
City and Garrison, N. Y. 



Mrs. Archibald Douglas Russell, 
34 East 30th St., New York 
City and Princeton, N. J. 



Mrs. George Armour, 
Allison House, Princeton, 
N.J. 



Mrs. A. Barton Hepburn, 
Ridgefield, Conn., 

and 630 Park Ave., N. Y. 

Mrs. Harden L. Crawford, 
41 West S7th St., New York 
City and Rumson, N. J. 

Mrs. Samuel Fuller, 
White Plains, N. Y. 

Mrs. John A. Stewart, 
Short Hills, N. J. 



Mrs. Wm. S. Rainsford, 

Camden, N. C, and Ridgefield, 
Conn. 

Miss Marjorie Prentiss, 
108 Pierrepont St., Brooklyn, 
, N. Y., and Elberon, N. J. 



Mrs. Harral Mulliken, 
Rye, N. Y. 

Mrs. Henry A. Prince, 
Short Hills, N. J. 



Ridgefield Garden Club 

Mrs. George H. Newton, 
27 E. 62nd St., N. Y., 

and Ridgefield, Conn. 
Rumson Garden Club 
Miss Ruth Adams, 
455 Madison Ave., New 
York City and Rumson, N. J, 
Rye Garden Club 
Mrs. Richard C. Hunt, 
Rye, N. Y. 

Short HiUs Garden Club 
Mrs. Charles H. Stout, 
20 E. 66th St., New York 
City and Short 
Hills, N. J. 
Somerset Hills, N. J., Garden Club of 
Mrs. Francis G. Lloyd, Mrs. A. S. Knight, Mrs. Schuyler S. Wheeler, 

157 E. 71st St., New York 401 West End Ave., New 755 Park Ave., New York City 

City and Bernardsville, N. J. York City and Gladstone, and Bemardsville, N. J. 

N. J. 
Southampton, Long Island Garden Club of 
Mrs. Thomas L. Barber, Miss Rosina Hoyt, Miss Rosina Hoyt, 

Southampton, L. I., New York. 934 Fifth Ave., New York 934 Fifth Ave., New York 

City and Southampton, 
L. I., N. Y. 
Trenton, Garden Club of 
Miss Frances M. Dickinson, 
479 West State St., 

Trenton, N. J. 
Twenty, Garden Club of 
Mrs. J. Sawyer Wilson, Jr., 
Stevenson, Md. 
Ulster Garden Club 
Mrs. Everett Fowler, 

1 20 Maiden Lane, Kingston 

N. Y. 
Warrenton Garden Club 
Miss K. I. Keith, 
Warrenton, Va. 
Washington Garden Club 
Mrs. Isaac Newton Hebbard, 
Washington, Conn. 



Mrs. Kari G. Roebling, 

211 West State St., 

Trenton, N. J. 

Mrs. W. Irving Keyser, 
Stevenson, Md. 

Mrs. William Lawton, 
42 Crown St., Kingston, N. Y. 



Mrs, R. R. Barrett, 
Warrenton, Virginia. 



City and Southampton, 
L. I., N. Y. 

Mrs. Robert V. Whitehead, 
20 Perdicaris Place, Trenton, 
N.J. 

Mrs. Champlin Robinson, 
Stevenson, Md. 

Mrs. Charles de la Vergne, 
Clinton Ave., Kingston, 
N. Y. 

Mrs. Julian C. Keith, 
Warrenton, Va. 



Miss Anne H. Van Ingen, 
9 East 71st St., New York 
City and Washington, Conn 



Mrs. Francis von A. Cabeen, Jr., 
Haverford, Pa. 



Weeders, the 

Mrs. E. Lewis Burnham, 
Berwyn, Pa. 



Miss Raymond, 

123 Henry St., Brooklyn, 
N. Y., and Washington, 
Conn. 
Mrs. John Lyman Cox, 
123s Spruce Street, 
Philadelphia, Pa. 



y-r-: ' ; - 




Hardy 
Perennials 



Here "At the Sign of The 
Tree," we have for your se- 
lection Hardy Perennials that 
really are hardy. 

Sturdy, full-rooted plants, every 
one of them. Absolutely true to 
name and habit. 

Particularly, let us call your 
attention to the Delphiniums 
(Larkspur). Steadily are they 
increasing in popularity. Be- 
cause of the rather Umited supply 
of them, we would counsel early 
ordering. 

Send for our catalog. It gives 
a complete alphabetical list of 
Perennials, divided into flower- 
ing months. 

Juliuy T^ekry Cor 
"j^t the Sign of The Tree" 



Box 34 



Rutherford. N. J. 



BOBBINK & ATKINS 

"WORLD'S CHOICEST NURSERIES 
and GREENHOUSE PRODUCTS" 

GROWN IN AMERICA 
VISIT NURSERIES ASK FOR CATALOG 

Nurserymen and Florists 

RUTHERFORD - - NEW JERSEY 

FOR the largest and best selection of 
DAHLIAS, ROSES. HARDY PER- 
ENNIALS; also FLOWER and VEGE- 
TABLE SEEDS, etc.. consult 

Dreer's Garden Book for 1918 

A Copy Mailed FREE to All Applicants 

HENRY A. DREER 

714-716 Chestnut Street PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



ROSEDALE SPECIALTIES 

Spring 1918 
ROSES and FRUITS, dwarf and standard, in many 

varieties of large size for immediate effect. 
EVERGREENS in 70 varieties and many sizes, up 

to 1 7 feet. 
DECIDUOUS TREES, SHRUBS and VINES in 
great variety (including XXX sizes) . 
Catalogue on Request 



BoxC. 



TARRYTOWN. N. Y. 



HARDY PLANTS of 
Unusual Character 

Antirrhinum glutinosum "Copper King" 

Antirrhinum glutinosum "Crimson King" 

Aquiiegia "Silver Queen" 

Campanula barhata 

Canterbury Bells — Meunmoth strain 

Rock Pinks — 18 varieties 

Foxglove — "Ayrshire White" 

Myosotis "Welwitchii" — New 

Polyanthus — Bunch Primrose^Finest Strain 

Verbascum — "Miss Wilmott" 

5^ew Catalog February 1st 
WOLCOTT NURSERIES. Jackson. Mich. 



OUR new rose, "Mrs. Charles 
Bell" is a shell-pink Radi- 
ance. It has a wonderful con- 
stitution. It will be a joy to 
your garden as Radiance has 
been and is — as RED RADI- 
ANCE is proving to be. 

We grow Roses for America 
and for the folks near at home; 
a nursery full of choice Ever- 
greens, Shrubs and Trees. We 
do landscape work for a few 
good people each season. Our 
catalogue is larger and better 
than ever. We want a few addi- 
tional people to study it and to 
know our stock and our methods. 
Will YOU be one? A post card 
will bring it. 

A. N. PIERSON, Inc. 

Cromwell Gardens 
CROMWELL. CONN. 



All advertisements endorsed by members of the GARDEN CLUB OF AMERICA 
In writing to j'ldvertisers kindly refer to the Bulletin 



^*4!-**^^%-**^!-4!-* 






T-IIir^OMTQ Is the beautiful new 
n^JvaWlNlO hardy yellow rose from 
China — blooms 2 weeks ahead of any other 
rose. Our beautifully illustrated catalog 
showing Hugonls and 17 other roses in 
natural colors, will be gladly sent on 
request. Send for It today. 

THE CONARD & JONES CO. 
West Grove, Pa. Robert Pyle, Pres. 



Delphinium Seed 

Those desiring to obtain good Delphinium seed 
and at the same time help the Red Cross, may 
procure same from 

Mrs. William Hoopes Grafflin 

Tudor Hall, University Parkway 

BALTIMORE, MARYLAND 

Original seed was brought from the famous 

Kelwas, England in 1913 

TEN CENTS A GENEROUS PACKET 



Hold the Home Lines 

SAVE THE BABIES 

PROTECT THE BOYS AND GIRLS 

NURSE THE SICK 

HELP THE POOR AND AGED 

"This is a time of sacrifice, but not the sacrifice of 
the helpless." — GOVERNOR LOWDEN 

Contribute to HOME WELFARE AGENCIES 

and help meet War-Time Needs 



O U L^ O O — Gladiolus, Tuberoses, Lilies, 

Flower — SEEDS — Vegetable 

New and Rare PLANTS 

Catalog "GARDENING ILLUSTRATED" 
152 pages, mailed FREE everywhere 

VAUGHAN'S SEED STORE 
CHICAGO NEW YORK 

Lilacs That Don't Run Out 

NOT GRAFTED 
We are now disseminating the famous "Veitch 
of London" collection as well as many of the 
Arnold Arboretum varieties. 

A list of these and other NEW and RARE 
PLANTS will be found in our Garden Annual. 
IVritefora copji 

R. & J. FARQUHAR & CO. 
6 South Market Street BOSTON. MASS. 



D OTH our Begonia and Lily catalogues, 
most complete, as also our Iris book- 
let, are now ready for distribution; which 
one are you interested in? 

All bulbs should be ordered very early this 
season, stock being limited. 

JOHN SCHEEPERS, Incorporated 

Flower Bulb Specialists 
2 Stone Street NEW YORK CITY 

MRS. BAYARD HENRY. 

Germantown, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Madam ; 

Would you kindly send me a list of seeds of perennial her- 
baceous plants from Miss Willmott's garden which you have 
to dispose of? 

You may be interested to know that we grained First Prize 
for twelve spikes of Delphiniums at Manchester, Massachusetts 
in a Flower Show held by the North Shore Horticultural Society. 
These spikes were cut from plants raised from seed procured 
from you early last spring. 

I am, Madam, Yours faithfully. 
A. E. T. ROGERS, 

Supt. W. H. Moore Estate. 
Sept. 27th 1917. Prides Crossing, Mass. 



The supreme test of the Nation 
has come. We must all speak, 
act, and serve together. 

WooDROW Wilson 



CHESTER JAY HUNT 

MAYFAIR LITTLE FALC5. N. J. 

Spring-flowering bulbs, including many exclu- 
sive offerings in Tulips and Daffodils. 

The Blue Book of Bulbs will be sent you on 
request. 




Builders of Greenhouses and Conservatories 



New York 
42nd St. Bldg. 

Chicago 
Continental & Com 
mercial Bank Bldg. 
Toronto 
Royal Bank Bldg 



Boston 
Tremont Bldg. 

Rochester 
Granite Bldg. 



Philadelphia 
Widener Bldg. 

Cleveland 
Swetland Bldg. 



Montreal 
Transportation Bldg, 



All advertisements endorsed by members of the GARDEN CLUB OF AMERICA 
In Joriling to yldvertiseTS kindly refer to the Bulletin 



Bulletin of 



XLhc (3art>en Club 



of amertca 



March, 1918 



No. XXIV 



President 
MRS. J. WILLIS MARTIN 

Chestnut Hill, Philadelphia 

Treasurer 

MRS. H. D. AUCHINCLOSS 

33 E. 67TH Street, New York and 
Newport, R. I. 

Secretary 
MRS. BAYARD HENRY 

Germantown, Philadelphia 

Librarian 
MISS ERNESTINE A. GOODMAN 

Chestnut Hill, Philadelphia 



Vice-Presidents 
MRS. WILLIAM CABELL BRUCE 
8 Mt. Vernon Pl., Baltimoee, Md. 

AND RUXTON, Md. 

MRS. FRANCIS KING 
Alma, Michigan 

MRS. JOHN E. NEWELL 
West Mentor, Ohio 

Editor 
MRS. WALTER S. BREWSTER 
1220 Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, 
AND Lake Forest, Illinois 



The objects of this association shall be: to stimulate the knowledge and love of gardening among 
amateurs; to share the advantages of association, through conference and correspondence in this 
country and abroad; to aid in the protection of native plants and birds; and to encourage civic planting. 



jMrs;, arctjilialb ©. 3Rus(2;eU 



THE GARDEN CLUB is sorrowful and tenderly 
mourns a kindly friend, a wise counsellor, a gentle 
enthusiast. A life is ended untimely, but a life so 
crowded with good deeds, fine thoughts and loving 
service that years could not add to its usefulness and 
beauty. The world is poorer for the noble presence 
that has passed from it, but richer for the graces of 
heart and mind whose memory will abide through all 
the years to come. 



The naked earth is warm with Spring, 
And with green grass and bursting trees 
Leans to the sun's gaze glorying, 
And quivers in the sunny breeze; 

And life is Colour and Warmth and Light, 
And a striving evermore for these; 
And he is dead who will not fight, 
And who dies fighting has increase. 

— From ''Into Battle^' by Captain the Hon. Julian H. F. Grenfell,. 
D. S. O., who died of his wounds in May, 191 5. 



These are trying days for amateur gardeners. In their hearts 
they long to plant the alluring "novelties" pictured and sung in the 
spring catalogues, but, alas, where are the gardeners to tend them, 
where find the time to enjoy them, is there enough energy, after all 
the war work is done, to give them their due measure of attention 
and care and notice? In our gardens are many costly plants that 
need care, many gay ones that grow of themselves. Perhaps we ought 
this year to give our time to the first and depend on the second for 
color and bloom. It is no more fair to let them die than to leave 
neglected newly planted things. We take it that that overworked 
and misunderstood word, conservation, means preservation of existing 
things rather more than creation of new, so while we are creating new 
vegetable gardens let us preserve old flower gardens. And if, perhaps, 
we have no moments even for dear and faithful perennials let us keep 
somewhere in the back of our minds a memory and a desire for the 
fair, frail things of other peaceful summers. If we must pass through 
ugly years may beauty be but a thing, deferred, a comfort sacrificed 
because our hope is victory and our end a glorious peace. 

Council of Presidents 

The Spring Meeting of the Executive Committee and Council of 
Presidents will be held at the residence of Mrs. H. D. Auchincloss, 
at 33 E. 67th Street, New York, on March 25. 



The following notes from the Arnold Arboretum have been 
especially prepared for The Bulletin by Professor Sargent. They 
are the beginning of a series which will appear during the coming year. 



Arboretum Notes 

Conifers 

The studies which have been carried on for the last thirty years in 
the Arnold Arboretum on conifers and their value for cultivation in 
the northern states have taught lessons to which American planters 
of these trees can wisely give attention. 

The Arboretum experiments show that for the northern United 
States the native species are more valuable than any exotic species. 
No other conifers are so valuable as the White Pine, the Red Pine 
and the Hemlock, and these trees may well be used in general planting 
in preference to any other conifers. Exception, however, must now be 
made to the White Pine since the appearance in this country of the 
White Pine blister, whose dangerous character makes it unwise to 
plant this tree. Two other northern Pines, the Banksian and the 
Virginia Pine, are hardy and fast-growing trees but have little value as 
ornaments of the garden. 

The White Spruce is a hardy and fast-growing tree of great beauty. 
The cHmate of southern New England is, however, too warm for the 
best development of this northern tree, and individuals over thirty 
years old usually become thin and unsightly. There seems to be some 
promise, however, that the form from northern Wisconsin and north- 
ern Minnesota may be better suited for cultivation southward than 
the plant from the St. Lawrence Valley. The Red Spruce is a more 
southern tree and is one of the handsomest of the Spruces. It grows 
very slowly, however, perhaps more slowly than any other conifer 
of large size. 

The Red Cedar is now largely planted in the United States, 
especially in formal gardens, but this tree suffers from fungal and 
insect enemies and the large transplanted specimens too often become 
unsightly from the loss of the lower branches. When pyramidal trees 
are needed for formal planting forms of the eastern Arbor Vitae are 
more valuable than the Red Cedar. 

Of more southern trees the CaroHna Hemlock has proved itself 
to be one of the handsomest and most valuable conifers in the 
Arboretum. This beautiful tree which grows at high altitudes 
on the Blue Ridge of North and South Carolina is smaller than 
the northern Hemlock but is more gracefuUy branched and of 
more cheerful color. Still Httle known or planted, it seems destined 
to become an important subject for the decoration of northern 
gardens. 

Going west it has been found that the mountains of Colorado have 
given us two first-class conifers in the Rocky Mountain form of the 



Douglas Spruce and in the White Fir, Abies concolor. The latter 
proves to be the handsomest and most desirable Fir tree which can be 
grown in the eastern states. From the mountains of Colorado also 
come the Engelmann Spruce and the so-called Colorado Blue Spruce 
(Picea pungens). The former is a handsome and very hardy tree of a 
narrow pyramidal habit with silvery gray fohage and red scaly bark. 
For many years this tree was the handsomest Spruce in the Arboretum 
but in late years the oldest plants, now about forty years old, have 
begun to lose their lower branches and their greatest beauty as 
specimen trees. The Blue Spruce, which has been raised in great 
number by American and European nurserymen, is handsome for a 
few years but soon loses its beauty through the death of lower branches 
and before it is fifty years old becomes in cultivation, as when growing 
naturally in Colorado, an ugly and unsightly object. Planters of this 
tree are destined to disappointment. 

Of the conifers of the Pacific coast of North America the mountain 
White Pine (Pinus monticola) and the Sugar Pine (Pinus Lambertiana) 
are hardy in the northern states. The latter grows very slpwly but 
the former has grown fast in the Arboretum and promises to become a 
large tree. As ornamental trees these two Pines, however, are not 
superior to the eastern White Pine for eastern planting. 

The Fir of the northwest coast, Abies grandis, lives in the Arbore- 
tum in sheltered positions, but it is not probable that this handsome 
tree wiU ever be of much use in eastern plantations. More valuable 
is the western Arbor Vitae (Thuya pHcata), the Red Cedar of the 
northwest. This tree ranges inward from the coast to the western 
slopes of the northern Rocky Mountains, and the plants raised from 
seed gathered forty years ago in interior regions have produced plants 
which are perfectly hardy in the Arboretum, where they have grown 
rapidly, and are among the handsomest and most interesting trees 
in the collection. Eastern planters may well pay attention to this tree. 

Still going west, it has been found that all the Japanese conifers 
succeed in the eastern states with the exception of those from the 
extreme southern part of the country, Hke Cryptomeria and the 
Japanese Douglas Fir which are not hardy in New England. The 
Japanese conifers which can be specially recommended are Abies 
homolepis and Pinus parviflora. Among the Fir trees the former is 
only second in value to the White Fir of Colorado for eastern planta- 
tions. Of the conifers of eastern continental Asia Pinus koraiensis, 
Pinus sinensis and the Lace Bark Pine (Pinus Bungeana) are valuable 
trees for the eastern states, and, although it is too soon to say much 
about the Spruces and Firs raised from seed collected by Wilson in 
western China, up to this time the young plants have supported with- 



out injury the New England climate. The Indian conifers are not 
hardy in the northern states with the exception of the Himalayan 
White Pine (Pinus excelsa) which is more successful in the middle 
states than it is in New England. It is a handsome and fast-growing 
tree well worth growing wherever it can succeed. 

The Siberian Picea obovata is a hardy and handsome tree in the 
Arboretum, and there is every reason to suppose that this tree may 
prove to be better suited to the interior parts of this country than 
any other Spruce tree. The same may be said of the Spruce of Chinese 
Turkestan (Picea Schenkiana), also well established in the Arboretum. 

Two Caucasian conifers, Picea occidentalis and Abies Nord- 
manniana, are among the handsomest of the conifers which have 
been grown for many years in the eastern states where they are not 
rare. Two conifers of the Balkan Peninsula have proved successful in 
the Arboretum, the White Pine (Pinus peuke) and a Spruce (Picea 
Omorika); the former is not superior as an ornamental tree to the 
western White Pine, but the Balkan Spruce, judging by the oldest 
plants in the Arboretum which were planted in 1881, gives promise 
of being a valuable tree in the northern states. 

Although they have been much planted in the northern states 
in the last seventy-five years, the conifers of central and western 
Europe are not satisfactory trees for eastern America, for although 
they grow rapidly when young they lose their beauty at a com- 
paratively early age and often die, and give Httle promise of becoming 
large or long-lived trees here. This is true of the Norway Spruce and 
the Scotch and Austrian pines. These three trees, although they grow 
very rapidly while young and are popular with nurserymen, have 
already shown that they are not suited to the American climate, and 
native conifers should replace them for general planting. 

Some Winter-flowering Shrubs 
Thanks to the plant-hunting which has been going on with activity 
and success in the last twenty-five years, it is now possible to cultivate 
in regions where the thermometer goes below zero every year a group 
of shrubs which flower during the winter and produce abundant 
flowers for which cold has no terrors. These shrubs are Witch Hazels 
and there are three winter-blooming species, the other species being 
the well known Witch Hazel of our eastern woods which blooms in 
October and November. 

The first of the winter-flowering species to bloom is Hamamelis 
vernaHs. This shrub is a native of southern Missouri and northern 
Arkansas where it grows along the sandy and rocky banks of small 
streams over which it spreads by underground shoots into broad 



thickets. The flowers are smaller than those of the northern Witch 
Hazel and differ from them in the red color of the inner surface of the 
calyx. This interesting plant was introduced into cultivation by the 
Arnold Arboretum where it is well estabUshed and where it flowers 
late in December or in January. 

The next of these Witch Hazels to bloom are natives of Japan, 
Hamamelis japonica and its variety arborea. They are tall shrubs 
with slender spreading branches, and the flowers are produced in the 
Arboretum in great quantities, usually opening there late in January 
and remaining in good condition for nearly two months. The flowers 
are smaller than those of our native Witch Hazel, but those of the 
variety arborea are conspicuous from the dark red color of the inner 
surface of the calyx. These plants can be occasionally found in com- 
mercial nurseries, but they are still unfortunately little known in 
American gardens. 

Even less well known is the handsomest of all the Witch Hazels. 
This is Hamamelis mollis and is a native of western China, and also 
blooms in the Arboretum in January and February. This is one of 
the handsomest shrubs of recent introduction into American gardens. 
It is a tall, broad, hardy plant of rapid growth, with large nearly 
circular leaves which are of a cheerful lively green color on the upper 
surface and on the lower surface are covered with a thick coat of pale 
hairs. Late in October they turn to a beautiful clear yellow color and 
do not in ordinary seasons entirely disappear until after the middle of 
November. The flowers are bright canary yellow and are larger and 
handsomer than those of any other Witch Hazel. This shrub has not 
yet produced seeds in the Arboretum, but it can be easily propagated 
by grafting on the native Witch Hazel, and it should not be long before 
every one who has a winter garden, or a garden which can be seen from 
the windows of a winter home, should be able to enjoy this remarkable 
shrub. C. S. Sargent. 

Intensive Gardening 

I suppose no one ever held one of these meetings without some 
sort of regret, and to-day particularly, I feel great hesitancy in letting 
you even walk into the garden and see its emptiness, for it has never 
been an autumn garden. In fact, even at its best it contains no rare 
or interesting plants, lovely vistas or surprises — though it gives us 
many happy hours. Please be lenient in judging it, for this is its 
first year in the present form, and also because except for cutting and 
edging the grass, it is entirely dependent on our two pair of hands for 
its care. 



When I knew this spring that I had this meeting to look forward to 
all summer, I wondered what on earth I could take as a subject for 
my paper, — then came the President's "call to arms," and as we 
tried to respond to his appeal, it gradually became evident that the 
garden was obviously an attempt at "Intensive Gardening." When 
the cry went forth "to make every family self -supporting," we 
wondered how we could do our bit without adding a real vegetable 
garden, and in this, circumstances were with us — for at that moment 
the architect and I were at variance about the hedge which was to 
surround the rose garden and make a background for the long borders. 
I had rejected privet with scorn and was looking with some favor on 
inkberry, when his estimate for the latter came! The size of that, 
combined with the fact that it was an experiment at best, settled the 
question; no hedge for the garden after all, or rather an entirely new 
kind of hedge — one of vegetables! 

When this fiat was issued to the architect, instead of the dismay 
and disappointment I expected to meet, he quite approved, — though 
perhaps not with genuine enthusiasm. However, the idea took root 
and grew, for within 48 hours he came back with the suggestion of a 
hedge of blueberries, — a variety with which the Government had 
been experimenting, Vaccinium corymbosum which he added would 
be in the light of "permanent preparedness." So blueberries it was, 
and all sides were satisfied. 

In planting, it was necessary to consider the lasting qualities 
and the hedge effect through the flower garden, as, of course, that 
could be seen from the house, so on the avenue side of the long border, 
we planted a row of tomato plants; and in front of, and alternated 
with them, we set cabbages and cauHflower. Did you ever appreciate 
what a lovely gray-green these two plants are? I never did. 

To balance the tomatoes were planted 25 poles of Kentucky 
Wonder beans, with cabbages between, and now we know what kind 
of a bean Jack planted for his beanstalk. All these cabbages were 
young plants, but later when our own seedlings were big enough, we 
planted more in front of the blueberries and behind them, and in 
every nook and corner, till the man of the family cried "enough!" 
lest we have to live on the despised food. Now, however, we have 
learned better, and "cabbage au gratin" meets with hearty ap- 
proval. 

Under the pear tree was a very prominent place, and being a warm 
south exposure, early peas were planted — two rows of them — and 
surely in our ignorance we chose the best place, for the pear tree was 
later than ever in blooming, so that every atom of sun reached them, 
and also it was the best drained and most protected bed of all. 



In front of the peas we put Swiss Chard, remembering the decora- 
tive value of its fresh green leaves and white stems, and its cut-and- 
come-again ability; and again on the edge, space was left for early- 
lettuce and radishes. Later these were replaced by transplanted beets, 
while a late crop of string beans and turnips followed the peas. Cre- 
tainly a new sense of color value has come to us in greens at least. 

Under the piazza window was room for a later variety of peas, now 
followed by kohlrabi; while in the furthest corner away from the house, 
New Zealand Spinach and the onion sets were planted, the latter 
being replaced by a late sowing of beets and carrots. 

In an unseen corner the former vegetable garden did its share; a 
small plot 12x40, which of late had been used as a picking garden for 
dahhas, nasturtiums, etc., and a bit of spinach. This year, however, 
every inch was used for vegetables. At the upper end, three rows of 
peas alternated with three rows of Golden Bantam corn, the peas being 
replaced by squash and cabbage. Next, 4 rows of string beans, then 
4 of Limas, and 4 more of string — a later planting — while the 
lower end was given up to 3 rows each of carrots, beets and onion 
seed. 

The beauty of the garden has been that being small we could 
give it our personal care, and see, therefore, that everything was picked 
in its prime, eaten, canned or given away. Since July 4th our veg- 
etable purchases have consisted of 2 heads of lettuce, a few green 
peppers, and one dozen corn. 

Statistics are seldom interesting, and yet I cannot resist giving 
you a few. As near as we can estimate, the vegetables occupy the 
equivalent of a garden 35x40. This has completely supphed a house- 
hold of 6 and guests, and in addition we have so far canned for winter 
use 71 quarts and 72 pints of carrots, beets, chard, spinach, peas, 
beans, tomatoes and corn. 

From this you may feel we have wholly substituted vegetables in 
a flower garden. Not so. The long borders have been surprisingly 
full of bloom all summer, and the roses have flourished and bloomed 
better than we had any right to expect the first year. The heart of 
the garden is all there just as it was planned, — terrace, roses, peren- 
nials — and its background, though perhaps unconventional, has 
certainly been luxuriant and effective. 

Mrs. Thomas Motley, Jr. 

North Shore Garden Club of Massachusetts. 



In these war days, when the arrival of bulbs from Europe is 
broplematical the following article should be most useful and timely. 



Why Bulbs Sometimes Do Not Bloom 

A bulb can only develop the flower which has been formed with- 
in it during the growth of the previous year. If that growth has been 
stunted or prevented in any way before the ripening of that bulb 
the year before, no amount of care will produce a bloom. 

Although for convenience we call them all bulbs, there is a dif- 
ference between the root stocks of the various most conmaon kinds. 
A crocus for instance, has for its root stock a corm; a daffodil, a bulb. 
The chief difference between a corm and a bulb is in the covering or 
husk and in the method of storing food for the next year's growth. 
The husk of the corm is thin, dry and scaley and covers the solid root 
stock within, but the husk of the bulb is made up of many scales or 
coverings. In both cases these coverings are composed of the bases 
of dead leaves which in a bulb after they ripen and die down, form 
thickened scales and hold the nourishment for the next year until it 
is required. In the corm, however, the nourishment is stored in the 
stem, whose thickened base forms the root stock and new growth. 

In the bulb new buds form at the axils of the leaves or scales, 
which gradually split off, and form a new generation; and in the corm 
these buds sprout from the parent bulb accomplishing the same 
end, in both cases at the expense of the parent which finally crumbles 
away. This however, takes several years to accomplish and if the 
conditions are right, there is no reason why the bloom should not be 
continuous in the meanwhile. 

But bulbs and corms will not bloom if their leaves are cut off 
before they fully ripen and die down of themselves, because these 
leaves are perfecting the new flower within for the next year's blossom- 
ing, making their bases into little reserves of food and strength. 
Therefore the f ohage^ should never be cut down and if it seems too 
unsightly, annuals may be planted to cover the yellowing leaves. 

For this reason also, the treatment of bulbs after flowering is 
such an important factor in the next season's bloom that it cannot 
be too carefully attended to. If it is impossible to leave the bulbs 
undisturbed where they have bloomed until the foHage has died down, 
they should be carefully taken up with a spade, disturbing the roots 
as little as possible and with care not to cut or crush the leaves. 
Then heel in the plants in a shallow trench in some haff shady, out 
of the way place until ripe. 

Bulbs will not bloom if they have been out of the ground too 
long and allowed to lose their vitaHty. The sooner they can be put 
in the ground when ripe, the better, for vitality once lost, they prob- 
ably will never regain it, no matter how much they are fertiUzed and 



watered and though there is a sUght chance that after two or three 
years they may regain their Hfe and strength, it would hardly pay 
most of us to give them care and garden room while waiting. 

I shall not go into the methods of proper storage for bulbs, as 
different kinds require different treatments, but the manner of 
storage would greatly affect the chances of bloom. If tender bulbs 
are kept in too low a temperature they are as surely ruined as others 
would be if kept in too hot a place. 

Bulbs will not bloom well if they have been forced in a hot house 
the year before though care and good nourishment will restore them 
after a year or two by which time the small new bulbs will be avail- 
able. The original will probably be exhausted as bulbs sold for this 
purpose have generally reached their maximum size. 

House bulbs sometimes do not produce blooms if they are brought 
too soon into a high temperature, or if they are kept in too hot a place. 

In the case of bulbs and corms which have flowered profusely 
one year and refuse to bloom the next, if the foHage has not been 
injured, the soil may have been so poor as to affect them, or, if the 
summer has been very hot and dry, and they have been exposed to a 
thorough baking from the sun, they are practically ruined. 

One of the members of our Garden Club reported a dearth of 
snow-drop blossoms this year and having cut the blossoms liberally 
last spring, thought that might have affected them. Having written 
to an authority on the subject I insert his answer: 

"Dear Miss Williams: In reply to your note let me say that if last 
year you cut the snow-drop flowers without removing the green leaves 
with them this should in no way have injured the plants but rather 
have helped them. But if in removing these you took one or more 
of the green leaves at the base this v/ould undoubtedly destroy their 
strength for another season. But I am tolerably sure that the main 
cause of their unsatisfactory flowering with you this year is due 
to our hot dry summer seasons which prove very disastrous to snow- 
drop bulbs. The same thing even is true of crocuses and the only way 
to keep either of them successfully is to put a heavy covering of leaf 
mulch over them throughout the summer, which keeps the ground 
somewhat moist and prevents drying and death of the bulbs. 
This looks by no means tidy in a garden and on this account is 
seldom resorted to. I fear therefore that you may find it necessary, 
as do most others, to renew your supply of bulbs, from time to time." 

Therefore, cutting the blooms cannot affect hardy bulbs and they 
do better and last longer if the flowers are cut, as an effort to form 



seeds weakens the bulbs. A hyacinth bulb that matures seeds is 
virtually destroyed. In the case of the snow-drops the explanation of 
their failure is strengthened by the fact that they prefer partial shade 
and are naturally found in Northern exposures and do better in 
similar garden conditions. 

Of course bulbs often disappear entirely from the border and are de- 
stroyed by various causes, — field mice, mildew, too much manure, etc. 

Daffodils will not bloom very well the year after they have been 
too thinly separated unless all the bulbs are mature, therefore for 
the sake of immediate effect it is well to transplant two or three 
together and in replanting our own bulbs we always run this risk of 
having to wait a year of two for blooms. 

To sum up the subject — 

Bulbs will not bloom if their leaves are cut off before they have 
ripened. 

They will not bloom if they have been out of the ground too long 
and allowed to dry up and lose their vitahty. 

They will not bloom if they have been forced the year before. 

They will not bloom if the season has been a dry one, and they 
have dried up where they were planted. 

They will not bloom the following year if the soil has been too 
poor to nourish them. 

They will not bloom if they are too young or have been dug up 
and transplanted before they are fully matured. 

They will not bloom if they have been injured in storage and for 
many of these reasons — they will not bloom if cheap and second rate 
bulbs are bought. The moral of which is, always go to a reliable seeds- 
man and never buy "bargain bulbs." 

Elizabeth D. Williams. 

Gardeners of Montgomery and Delaware Counties. 



Roses 

The following directions for rose culture I received from Admiral 
Ward several years ago and I have followed them during these years 
with most successful results. Mrs. William Scott Pyle, 

Garden Club of Somerset Hills. 

Make bed in Autumn for Roses. 

Plant 21 inches apart. 

Three rows — outside row 12 inches from edge. 

Plant Hybrid Perpetuals about March 25th. 

Other Roses after April 20th. 



Do not place manure in contact with roots, cover with fine mold, 
then fine manure, well rotted. 

Pruning hardy Roses, both cHmbers and others, should be finished 
March 15th. 

Tender Roses early April. 

Prune back new Roses very vigorously. 

Do not train chmbers straight up. 

After April 15th soil in cultivation, hoeing every fortnight until 
middle of July, then mulch. 

When Roses are setting buds, Uquid manure, especially after rain. 

Hybrid Perpetuals, June ist. 

Teas and Hybrid Teas, June 15th. 

yi gallon to plant middle of July, cHmbers also. 

Water, gallon to plant dry weather. 

Middle of July mulch with manure after hoeing. 

Remove surplus mulch in autumn before putting on winter 
protection. 

Spraying. Whale oil soap, i pound to 8 gallons water, 4 times sea- 
son, beginning just before leaves open and every 20 days until July ist. 

Bordeaux mixture for mildew or black spot, once a week from 
middle of July. 

For Rose bug, Paris Green, i pound to 200 gallons. 

Protection. By Nov. 15 th, all Roses — well rotted manure around 
base, forming cone 10 inches high. 

All tender shoots bent down and buried. 

Cover beds with coating of dry leaves 20 inches in thickness. 

Completed Thanksgiving. 

Remove covering not before April lit and until April 20th. What 
remains of manure may be forked in. 



Summer Work of the 
North Shore Garden Club of Massachusetts 

A special meeting of the North Shore Garden Club was called to 
consider the suggestions of the Farm and Garden Association to 
finance a unit of women workers on the land. A committee was 
appointed to investigate whether the conditions in that club war- 
ranted the effort. 

It was foimd that sufficient labor was available to produce garden 
crops for the consumption of the people of the neighborhood without 
reverting to hired women labor. The flower gardens must, of course 
take their chances in the hands of their owners. We were very anxi- 



ous to follow the suggestion of The Garden Club of America that 
each of its branches use its organization in some way for the National 
Service of food production and conservation. To do this we have 
formed a imit of young girls from sixteen years of age upwards who 
will work under a trained agriculturist to raise crops for one of the 
charitable institutions that has always given fine service to the com- 
munity for many years. These girls have leisure and a strong desire 
for patriotic service. The members of the Garden Club have given 
them for this season the use of the land. The experience of the heads 
of the local centers for canning and drying has very generously been 
offered them. 

If their experiment proves a success or if other Service Auxiliaries 
of young people are formed, not to compete with the local market by 
seUing its produce but to reheve the market of the drain of a charitable 
institution we think there will be real gain. 

Massachusetts Food Administrator, Mr. Henry B. Endicott, 
endorses this experiment as a wise one, and Mrs. Thayer, Chairman 
of The Women's Council for National Defense, thinks this plan re- 
markably well worth while. Miss Arnold, Dean of Simmons College, 
endorses it not only from the standpoint of increasing the supply of 
available foods, but she thinks that it will count even more in that 
all who are interested will become conscious supporters of the Govern- 
ment in its solution of the food problem. 

Surely, everybody is needed in this crisis, and we are very proud 
of these girls who do not ask to be excused this drudgery. 



Report of 
Lenox Garden Club ^ 

In April, 191 7, on the entry of the United States into the European 
war, the members of the Lenox Garden Club decided that the useful 
rather than the ornamental should engage the energies of the Club 
in the immediate future, and that all members must increase food 
production in their gardens and influence others to take up this pa- 
triotic duty. A contribution was made to the County Agricultural 
Bureau, also a teacher was engaged to give lectures on Food Economies 
in the nearby towns. Mr. Corbett of the Washington Department of 
Agriculture gave a lecture to the Club on the Storage of Fruits and 
Vegetables, as did Mr. D. Fairchild of the Department of Plant In- 
troduction, who spoke of the new food plants that were being ex- 
perimented with. A donation of $200 was made to the Fund for 
French Orchardists, Outside of the Club much was done in the 



neighborhood to produce and conserve vegetables and fruits, and 
during the summer much work was accomphshed by the members 
in the canning kitchens. In Stockbridge an interesting experiment 
was made through the Food Conservation Committee by forming a 
Girls' Patriotic League to work on the land, chiefly in planting, weed- 
ing, thinning and picking, at fifteen cents an hour. Forty-three girls 
were enrolled during the summer, both from the villages and from 
cities, and though for the most part new to the labor, the work done 
and the girls' health were equally good. Mrs. H. McBurney, by 
whose efforts the Guild was started, says that in the young American 
girl there is a fine patriotic enthusiasm and vigor the country would 
do well to make use of. 

The first meeting was advertised by the Food Conservation Com- 
mittee as a Girls' Patriotic Rally, and it was explained to them that a 
strip of land for a vegetable garden had been offered the Committee 
and they had been unable to accept it, as no one had been found to 
work it. The possibihty of their being able to do it was suggested 
and immediately twelve girls offered to enroll and the land was 
secured. The first meeting of the Guild was then held, at which more 
girls enrolled. Each girl was given a bronze medal to wear and the 
organization of the Guild was made as simple as possible. One officer 
was to attend to the enrollments, keep the Hst of names, and any one 
requiring the girls' services was to apply to her. Another was to look 
after the transportation arrangements for girls who were to work 
at farms beyond walking distance. These posts were at first taken 
by members of the Conservation Committee, but as soon as practic- 
able, they were given to the girls to increase their responsibility and 
pride in the work. The garden was worked by a team of four girls 
every day, each one of whom was captain by turns during the month. 
Papers recording the girls working and the work done, and also of that 
done elsewhere, were read at the weekly meeting, and careful records 
were kept of the work accomphshed by each member during the whole 
summer. In that way interest was not allowed to flag and each girl 
felt her work was noticed and appreciated. It was largely owing to 
these meetings that the spirit of enthusiasm was so weU kept up. 
One girl was selected to be superintendent of the garden, and several 
of the younger ones were delegated to sell the produce from house to 
house. Another girl undertook organizing parties to pick blackberries 
and blueberries, getting volunteers and arranging for motors, etc. 
As the Guild grew larger, an executive committee of the girls them- 
selves was formed, consisting of a chairman, treasurer and secretary. 
The work was chiefly on farms and vegetable gardens. It was difficult 
at first to get city girls to take it up, but they soon grew keen about it. 



In England, where the movement has been so successful, it is well- 
to-do girls who began working on farms. A medal was given to the 
girl (aged 14) making the best record of 222 hours work and earning 
$25.00 during the summer. The expenses were all advanced by the 
Conservation Committee, but were repaid. One report from a farm 
says, "Girl first-rate worker, on the job all the while," another, 
"Superintendent wants to know if the big one can come and hoe corn 
next week — she's as good as a man, anyhow." During the winter 
lectures are planned and it is expected the girls will write essays. 

If Agricultural Bureaus throughout the country would take up 
the training of girls for garden work the problem of sufficient labor 
for the necessary increase of vegetable gardening would be immensely 
lessened, and an outlet would be provided for the patriotic aspira- 
tions of those girls who cannot take up nursing or Red Cross work. 

Georgiana W. Sargent, Secretary. 



Feed the Birds and 
They Will Help to Feed Us 

Editor of The Garden Club of America: 

I should like to call the attention of the members of The Garden 
Club of America to the need for saving the insect-feeding birds. 
The continuous cold weather and snow have resulted in the death of 
many of these little protectors of the farmers' crops. If there ever 
was a time in the history of America when we needed to preserve our 
insect-eating birds it is now! 

Careful researches of the Department of Agriculture have demon- 
strated that one-tenth of the agricultural products in the United 
States are destroyed annually by insects. With the ravages which the 
snow and cold are making in the ranks of the insect-eating birds and 
the increased acreage that is being put in crops this percentage is 
bound to increase. The game birds are among our most voracious 
insect-eaters. They, as well as the song birds, therefore, ought to 
be given the fullest protection. There is a Federal Law which 
provides for the protection of the song birds, but in Maryland and 
many of the other states, it is not being enforced. The high cost of 
meats has caused many ignorant people, chiefly Italians, to kill them 
for food. 

The Federal Law and the State- wide Game Law are War Measures. 
There is a State-wide Game Law in 44 out of the 48 States. Two years 
ago the Maryland Legislature failed by five votes to pass the State- 
wide Game Law. It has been introduced again this year, and should 



be passed promptly and without a dissenting voice. Without food 
we cannot win the war, and without the help of the birds we shall 
have dif&culty in saving the crops. Mrs. Edward H. Bouton, 

President, Roland Park Bird Club. 
Amateur Gardeners Clubs. 

Deliver Us from Our Friends 

The suggestion is made that two spring days be given to school 
children to visit the woods and fields and see spring flowers grow. 

Here is another suggestion. — 

That the children be taught to respect what they see. It is a 
prevaiHng notion that the way to demonstrate an interest in the out- 
doors is to destroy its beauties. If people were indifferent to wild 
flowers the flowers would not be at the very edge of extinction. 

About great cities where people go in the greatest numbers the 
wild flowers are dying out because of the interest taken in them. They 
are dragged up by the roots. They are prevented from seeding. They 
disappear from places which they decorated to the pleasure of the very 
folk who destroyed them. 

The arbutus, that very breath of spring, has gone from suburban 
woods. People who loved it would not let it live. The lady slippers 
once colored the later days of spring. They are gone. The trillium is 
going. Even the hardy phlox and the delicate wild geranium, even 
violets, are disappearing in the hands of their deadly friends who will 
not be content with seeing them where they belong but must tear 
them out to carry a basketful of sad, wilted flowers home to be hope- 
less and faded aliens in surroundings where they can be only forlorn. 

It is not sentimentalism to lament the brutality which destroys 
the wild flowers. If they were not worth while in the lives of human 
beings they would be safe. No one would molest them. The fact that 
they are destroyed proves that they ought to be protected. 

If wild flowers can be protected from people who think they are 
worth while they will be safe. 

Adapted from The Chicago Tribune. 

Lowthorpe School of Landscape Architecture, 
Groton, Massachusetts 

Looking through the sale hst of alpines, other rock plants and 
perennials for sale by the Nursery Department at Lowthorpe, I ex- 
claimed to Miss Louise Hetzer, Instructor in Horticulture, — but who 
calls herself Superintending Gardener — "Why don't you advertise 



this department in the Bulletin?" Quick as a flash she twinkled up 
at me and answered " Good! and why don't you write an article about 
us whilst you are here?" "Let's do both," I replied and herewith ful- 
fill my part of the agreement. 

You have seen, I am sure, a good many articles in various maga- 
zines about this School of Landscape Architecture for Women, so I 
am glad there is a new department for me to tell of and although it is a 
department that can be of especial interest to us, — old gardeners with 
ever-new gardens, — still I must leave room to tell you of some other 
details of the School and its curriculum. 

I want to propose, here and now, that The Garden Club of 
America "lend a hand" in the maintenance of this lovely and in- 
teresting organization and that we place our orders for alpines and 
perennials here at Lowthorpe. "The girls" in the school tell me that 
there never were such plants as Miss Hetzer ships. "You should 
see how they are packed" said one. "We do it ourselves, — it is a 
part of our course," I think we might be very proud indeed to be 
continuously Patronesses of a Woman's School of Horticulture. 

Over in the corner of the drafting room is a group of post-graduates 
who at this minute are working out the solution of a problem which 
troubled some home maker to such an extent that she appealed to 
one of our well known magazines whose Reader's Service Department 
offers to help any one in their garden plans and it occurs to me to 
ask why should not Garden Club members make known their wants 
of this kind directly to the Drafting Department of Lowthorpe, — 
again being real Patronesses. 

It has been exceedingly interesting these days to watch the never 
ending procession of special teachers who come down from Boston, — 
some one for some department every day of the week, — yesterday 
Mr. Kellogg, to criticise problems in architectural design, today 
Miss Dawson from Radcliffe — almost born and brought up in the 
Arboretum, — who teaches identification of trees and shrubs, and a 
man from Harvard for surveying. Tomorrow will come Professor 
Pray of Harvard for landscape design and Professor Sholtes for 
drawing and water color. 

Nor are these from the big outside more interesting than Miss 
Cogswell with her lectures and wonderful photographs on the History 
of Gardens, or Mrs. Strang with her exquisite detail of plans, or 
Miss Hetzer, who this smiling, sunny March day took us over to 
prune the grape vines and pear trees hanging over a neighboring pig 
sty. 

Did you ever see any pictures of the interior of Lowthorpe? 
But why ask? — it is so easy to see places and things and forget them. 



This is a ravishingly beautiful old Colonial home. The detail of 
interior finish is exquisite. As I write my left hand is picking out 
and following the lovely Unes and curves of a beautiful mantle and 
my eye follows with joy the fine lines of carving under the windows 
opposite. Truly there are pleasures in inanimate things here not 
mentioned in the prospectus, from which, as I go to spend a while in 
the greenhouses, I have asked one of the girls to copy the paragraph 
below. 

"Lowthorpe has an up-to-date greenhouse of four temperatures 
and this is supplemented by two separate smaller houses, a cold house 
for grapes, and a conservatory for hard wooded plants, besides hot- 
beds and cold frames. When competent to do so, individual students 
are placed in charge of one or another of these houses, thus getting 
valuable experience in ventilation, watering and the general care 
of a greenhouse." 

But ere I go, let me again repeat my suggestions made above to 
seize this excellent opportunity for buying good plants, well packed, 
and incidentally to "lend a hand" in support of this very worthwhile 
institution. Eleanor Squire. 

Garden Club of Cleveland. 

War Courses 

lieutenants' courses 

Vegetable Gardening 12 weeks 

Mondays 10-12:30 April 8 to June 24 

Mondays 2— 4:30 April 8 to June 24 

The morning course deals with Principles and Practices of Vege- 
table Gardening such as sowing, planting, cultivating the crop, plan- 
ning and preparing the ground, the use of tools, etc. 

The afternoon course deals with Culture of Specific Crops — Pota- 
toes, Onions, Root crops, and all principal vegetables. 

Fruit Growing 12 weeks 

Fridays 10-12:30 April 12 to June 28 

The aim of this course is to prepare heutenants to insure the pro- 
duction of our staple fruit supply. This course deals with the planting, 
pruning and training, spra)dng, harvesting and routine culture of 
fruit. 

Canning and Preserving 12 weeks 

Fridays 2—4 April 12 to June 28 

Latest up-to-date methods in conserving Vegetables and Fruits 
by Drying, Canning and Preserving. 



Poultry 12 weeks 

Fridays 2—4 April 12 to June 28 

General Course in Poultry rearing with special attention to War 

rations for fowls. 

captains' course 
Mondays to Fridays inclusive 12 weeks April 8 to June 28 
This course includes the War Courses in Vegetable Gardening, 

Fruit Growing, Canning and Preserving and Poultry; also lectures 

and practical work in Floriculture and a Practical Business Course, 

most essential in the management of a unit. 



BOOK REVIEWS 

Food Will Win the War 

Grow It 

Books to Help You 

Experience is, of course, the most thorough teacher. But experience 
takes time, and we must hurry and do to win the war with our gardens. 

Most of us planted vegetables last year, and canned them, too. 
It- was a wonderful growing season nearly everyw^here, and fortune 
stood with us. But when some of us counted our pennies at the end 
of the season, we found that what we grew cost more than if we had 
bought it. 

That was disheartening, of course, but it need not happen again. 
One reason was lack of knowledge. Those who had acreage left the 
management to a gardener or superintendent. They accepted all 
he said as gospel truth, not taking into account that older methods 
do not fit modern conditions of labor and material. The uninitiated 
home gardener may have planted a pint of peas and a pint of squash, 
and then vowed never to look a squash in the face again. What a 
little study might have spared her! 

If we have not had experience, we at least have good books. 
Read them now while the soil is still asleep under its white blanket. 
Read them over again when the sun feels warm, and again and 
again while the seeds are jumping into life and when the weeds and 
the bugs and all the other dreadful things are trying to rob us of our 
harvest. 

There are books for all kinds of gardens. Some of the older ones 
have never been outdone by the new. On the nearest comer of my 
shelf stands a shabby little volume by L. H. Bailey called "Garden 
Making" (Macmillan and Co.), and on the fly-leaf is the date 1903. 
It has been in constant use for fifteen years. It is a book w^hich fits 



gardens both large and smajl, and all the newer books give much the 
same advice. 

There are three new books, however, which seem to be well adapted 
to the present state of affairs. "Garden Farming," by Lee Cleve- 
land Corbett, (Ginn and Co.), and "Vegetable Gardening" by Ralph 
L. Watts (Orange Judd Co.), give expert advice for large farms and 
estates, but the latter may well be read by the beginner who intends to 
hoe her own patch. It is thorough and sound and tells the reason why. 

A valuable book for the beginner with a little land and much 
enthusiasm is "The Home Vegetable Garden," by Adolph Kruhm 
(Orange Judd Co.), written during the first year of the war, and which 
has guided many stumbling feet. There is a great deal of information 
in it, boiled down to the smallest possible reading matter. Mr. 
Kruhm has contributed much to the Garden Magazine, and knows 
well the needs of his readers. 

Another book by Mr. Kruhm, "Home Vegetable Gardening from 
A to Z." (Doubleday,Page&Co., price $1.25) has just been published. 
This bids fair to be even more helpful than the one just mentioned. 

Read these books — read them all if you have time — and grow 
ammunition for the war with more intelUgence and less expense. 

Henrietta M. Stout. 
Shore Hills Garden Club. 

"An Introduction to the Study of Landscape Design," — by Henry 
Vincent Hubbard and Theodora Kimball. The Macmillan Company. 
Price, $6.00. 

One might almost add "A Preparation for the Enjoyment of 
Life" — so definite and so illuminating are the appreciations of color 
and form and scale, and so delightful is the authors' enjoyment of 
what they call, "the waywardness of charm." Excellent technical 
drawings illustrate the clearly given information that fills the hundreds 
of pages of this book, which the charm of personality and of literary 
style makes doubly enjoyable. It is an education in itself, and a most 
impressive example of its authors' wide knowledge, and their ability 
to convey that knowledge with clarity and precision, and to arouse 
in at least one reader an enthusiasm that makes her want to shout its 
excellencies from the house-tops in spite of the dull first chapter. 

The illustrations are unworthy of so good a book. However, 
attractive they may have been in the artists' notebooks, they are 
indefinite and monotonous when we find them in such a choice com- 
pany of words, and the reader turns with rehef to the beautiful 
photograph that is the frontispeice. Louise S. Hubbard. 

Garden Club of Illinois. 



War Time Receipts 

(Collected by Miss Harriet Richards, Chairman of the Home 
Economics Committee.) 

Keeping Apples and Sweet Potatoes in Oats. 

I was told by a very successful house- wife that she had, for years, 
kept sweet potatoes and apples through the winter, by packing them 
in oats, a layer of oats then one of sweet potatoes then more oats, 
covering very thoroughly. Apples may be kept in the same way al- 
most until apples come again. This may seem an expensive medium 
but is not really so because the oats may be fed to fowl and horses 
after having served their purpose as a preservative. 

(From Miss N. I. Keith, Warrenton Garden Club.) 

Bran Biscuits 
I pint of bran. 
yi pint of flour. 
Yi pint of milk. 
6 tablespoonsful of molasses. 
I even teaspoonful of baking soda. 
Mix the bran, flour and soda together. Mix the molasses and milk, 
and add the flour mixture. Bake in gem pans. (Very good.) 

Japanese Sugared Beans 
Soak beans over night and boil until tender but not until the skins 
are broken. Drain and boil in sugar syrup until transparent. Roll in 
sugar. 

Oatmeal Bread 
I cup rolled oats. ^ cup molasses. 

I cup boihng water. Small half yeast cake. 

I tablespoonful lard. Enough flour to make stiff, 

pinch of salt. 
Pour boiling water on oats and let cool. Add lard, molasses and 
other ingredients. This receipt will make two loaves. 

(Mrs. Wolfe.) 
Very Good Nut Bread 

1 cup white flour. 

2 cups graham flour. 
I cup molasses. 

Enough sour milk to make a soft dough. 
I cup chopped walnuts mixed with a teaspoonful of salt. 
I teaspoonful of soda dissolved in a little hot water. 
Bake in a moderate oven about thirty minutes. 
(From Mrs. Daniel Chester French, Garden Club of Lenox.) 



A Successful Combination 

Buddleia variabilis, Caryopteris mastacanthus and Anemone 
Japonica make a lovely color combination in lavendar, pale blue and 
white during August and September when color in the shrubbery 
border is scarce. They need a thick, deep background of the green 
of privet or spring-blooming shrubs. 

Mrs, F. von A. Cabeen. 
{The Weeders) 

\ 

Labor Saving Devices 

The Florists' Exchange asks all its readers to send for publication 
suggestions for labor-saving devices. It says: 

Many of our brethren of the craft — florists, seedsmen, nurserymen, 
market gardeners, greenhouse builders, fertilizer and pot manufac- 
turers and the alhed industries — are already in the trenches, or on 
their way. To those of us who stay behind there is left the clear and 
imperative duty to conserve Time, Energy and Material, so that 
the most effective results possible may come from our resources. 

To accompHsh this end. The Exchange asks every reader to 
look around in his establishment, or stir up his memory to see if he 
cannot describe some labor-saving device (either his own or one which 
he has observed) that would prove helpful to some other member of 
the craft. 

As amateur gardeners we must know many small tricks that will 
save time and trouble. Out of our experience must have come a 
practical mechanical detail or two that by saving work will give us a 
little more time for enjoyment. Send them to the Editor for publica- 
tion in the May Bulletin which goes to press April 12th. 

Back Numbers of THE BULLETIN 

Many requests reach the Editor for old copies of The Bulletin 
and for extra copies of the current issue. All back numbers can be 
suppUed except Nos. 10 and 14. All other issues are available for 
ten cents ($0.10) each. 

A few copies of the January issue giving a fuU account of the Unit 
Plan for Women Agricultural Workers are still available at twenty- 
five cents ($0.25) each. For convenience, payment may be made in 
stamps. 



We Have the Historical Old Rose 

YORK and LANCASTER 

and feel sure it would add interest to 

your rose garden. You will find other 

unusual kinds in our list of over 

300 varieties 

Send for OUT Catalog lo-das 

THE CONARD & JONES CO., West Grove. Pa. 

Robert Pyle. Pres. 

FOR the benefit of our blinded soldiers 
I will send a generous packet of Hardy 
Larkspur Seed for ten cents, three cents 
postage additional. Original seed from 
Kelway, England. 

Mrs. William Hooper Grafflin 

Filston Manor 
Glencoe, Baltimore County Maryland 

Plants and Bulbs 

FOR SPRING PLANTING 

Lists now ready. General Catalogue of the cream of 
Dutch Bulbs and Choicest Perennials for Autumn to follow 
ater. May we send them? 

FRANKEN BROTHERS 

Box 513 Deerfield, Illinois 



MAMMOTH NON-LATERAL 
BRANCHING 



NEW 

A STP R ^^'^ '^ without a doubt the finest 
■^*-'-' ■'• ■L-'i^ Aster we have ever offered. 
Two feet high; low, branching, bushy habit. 
Flowers often 4 inches across. 

In Blue or White. Pkt. 15c; 2 for 25c 

Catalog "GARDENING ILLUSTRATED" 
152 pages, mailed FREE everywhere 

Chicago Vaughan's Seed Store New York 



PHILADELPHUS 

NEW AND RARE VARIETIES 

Fully described in our 

GARDEN ANNUAL. 1918. 

Copy mailed on request. 

R. & J. FARQUHAR & CO. 

BOSTON, MASS. 



BOTH our Begonia and Lily catalogues, most 
complete, as also our Iris booklet, are now ready 
for distribution; which one are you interested in? 

All bulbs should be ordered very early this 
season, stock being limited. 

Come to the International Flower Show March 1 4. 
Will be better than ever. "Meet us at theWind- 
mill." 

JOHN SCHEEPERS, Incorporated 

Flower Bulb Specialisli 
2 Stone Street NEW YORK CITY 



SMALL FARM FOR RENT, in north- 
ern Rhode Island, tw^o miles from electric 
cars. Old-fashioned farm house, furnished, 
fireplaces, barn, poultry house, duck-pond. 
Pasture for horse and cow. Fruit. Garden 
already ploughed. Suitable for a garden club, or a 
party of ladies. Rent $150 the season. 

Address, Miss Henrietta R. Palmer, 
153 Power Street Providence, R. I. 



The supreme test of the Nation 
has come. We must all speak, 
act, and serve together. 

WooDROw Wilson 



CHESTER JAY HUNT 

MAYFAIR LITTLE FALLS. N. J. 

Spring-flowering bulbs, including many exclu- 
sive offerings in Tulips and Daffodils. 

The Blue Book of Bulbs will be sent you on 
request. 




Builders of Greenhouses and Conservatories 



New York 
42nd St. BIdg. 

Chicago 
Continental & Com' 
mercial Bank Bldg. 
Toronto 
Royal Bank Bldg. 



Boston 
Tremont Bldg. 

Rochester 
Granite Bldg. 



Philadelphia 
Widener Bldg. 

Clevelemd 
Swetland Bldg. 



Montreal 
Transportation Bldg. 



All advertisements endorsed by members of the GARDEN CLUB OF AMERICA 
In Writing to Jldoertisers kindly refer to the Bulletin 



Nrr? 




Hardy 
Perennials 



Here "At the Sign of The 
Tree," we have for your se- 
lection Hardy Perennials that 
really are hardy. 

Sturdy, full-rooted plants, every 
one of them. Absolutely true to 
name and habit. 

Particularly, let us call your 
attention to the Delphiniums 
(Larkspur). Steadily are they 
increasing in p)opularity. Be- 
cause of the rather limited supply 
of them, we would counsel early 
ordering. 

Send for our catalog. It gives 
a complete alphabetical list of 
Perennials, divided into flower- 
ing months. 

Tutiuy "RgrehrS" Cor 

»^ "yli the Sign of The Tree" 
Box 34 Rutherford. N. J. 



SWAIN NELSON & SONS CO. 

TREES, EVERGREENS. SHRUBS 
AND HARDY FLOWERS 

Estimates Furnished for Planting Grounds 

940 Marquette Building, Chicago 



PHONE CENTRAL 2770 



Founded 1856 



FOR the largest and best selection of 
DAHLIAS, ROSES. HARDY PER- 
ENNIALS; also FLOWER and VEGE- 
TABLE SEEDS, etc., consult 

Dreer's Garden Book for 1918 

A Copy Mailed FREE to All Applicants 

HENRY A. DREER 

714-716 Chestnut Street PHILADELPHIA. PA. 



ROSEDALE SPECIALTIES 

Spririg 1918 
ROSES and FRUITS, dwarf and standard, in many 

varieties of large size for immediate effect. 
EVERGREENS in 70 varieties and many sizes, up 

to 17 feet. 
DECIDUOUS TREES SHRUBS and VINES in 
great variety (including XXX sizes) . 
Catalogue on Requett 



fJoHjJiab NurB^ma 



BoxC. 



TARRYTOWN. N. Y. 



ROCK GARDENS 

Rockeries are one of the most beautiful features 
of gardening. In them can be grown the exquisite 
alpine plants which are too dainty for the ordinary 
border. 

We specialize in the choicest of these, plants, as 
well as various other novelties. 

Send for Catalog 

WOLCOTT NURSERIES, Jackson, Michigan 

Choice and Rare Hardy Plants 



OUR new rose, "Mrs. Charles 
Bell" is a shell-pink Radi- 
ance. It has a wonderful con- 
stitution. It will be a joy to 
your garden as Radiance has 
been and is — as RED RADI- 
ANCE is proving to be. 

We grow Roses for America 
and for the folks near at home; 
a nursery full of choice Ever- 
greens, Shrubs and Trees. We 
do landscape work for a few 
good people each season. Our 
catalogue is larger and better 
than ever. We want a few addi- 
tional people to study it and to 
know our stock and our methods. 
Will YOU be one? A post card 
will bring it. 

A. N. PIERSON. Inc. 

Cromwell Gardens 
CROMWELL, CONN. 



All advertisements endorsed by members of the GARDEN CLUB OF AMERICA 
In TDTiting to Advertisers kindly refer to the Bulletin 



Bulletin of 



Zhc (3arben Club 



of amertca 



May, 191S 



No. XXV 



President 
MRS. J. WILLIS MARTIN 

Chestnut Hill, Philadelphu 

Treasurer 
MRS. H. D. AUCHINCLOSS 

33 E. 67TH Steieet, New York and 
Newport, R. I. 

Secretary 
MRS. BAYARD HENRY 

Germantown, Philadelphia 

Librarian 
MISS ERNESTINE A. GOODMAN 

Chestnut Hill, Philadelphia 



Vice-Presidents 
MRS. WILLIAM CABELL BRUCE 
8 Mt. Vernon Pl., Baltiuore,;Md. 
and Ruxton, Md. 

MRS. FRANCIS KING 
Alma, Michigan 

MRS. JOHN E. NEWELL 
West Mentor, Ohio 

Editor 
MRS. WALTER S. BREWSTER 
1220 Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, 
AND Lake Forest, Illinois 



The objects of this association shall be: to stimulate the knowledge and love of gardening among 
amateurs; to share the advantages of association, through conference and correspondence in this 
country and abroad; to aid in the protection of native plants and birds; and to encourage civic planting. 



Annual Meeting 

At the meeting of the Council of Presidents held in New York 
on March the 15th, the question of holding an Annual Meeting of 
The Garden Club of America for the year 1918 was, on motion, 
referred to the Executive Committee for final decision. The Executive 
Committee have considered this matter most carefully and have very 
reluctantly decided that the pleasant but unessential complications 
involved in such a meeting are better deferred to less troublous times. 

The disappointment is doubly keen this year since the meeting 
would have been held in Boston with the Arnold Arboretum as the 
main objective. 

The Executive Committee feels that its decision is consistent with 
the spirit of the times and hopes that it will meet with the unqualified 
approval of the members. 



Walls of Doubt 

Once my garden was barren and drear, 

Few blossoms would ever blow; 
And least of all would the damask rose 
Its delicate splendor show. 

And I cried: "My garden is barren, 

No rose ever grows for me, 
While beyond my wall in gardens round 

They blossom on every tree^ 

So I watered my arid garden 

And nursed every rose-tree rare, 
And raised still higher the guarding walls 

To shield them with jealous care. 

Yet the roses in my garden-close 

Would never, never tip-grow, 
And least of all would the damask rose 

Its delicate splendor show. 

In gardens without and all around , 

Warmly the sun shone there; 
But no rays coidd fall within my wall 

For it guarded the rose-trees rare! 

So I razed the jealous walls to earth 

And allowed the sun to shine; 
When, sudden, the roses budded and bloomed, 

And a red, red rose was mine! 

Lee Nichols. 

Also by permission of the composer of the music, E. E. Freer 

Fighters' Gardens 

In England gardening is one of our national habits. 

The poor do their gardening in window boxes; the nearly poor 
use their backyards; the merely successful turn their "five acres" 
into fragrant retreats; and the afSuent spend freely to beautify lawns, 
gardens and parks. 

Although war has played havoc with our set English habits and 
customs for three and a half years, the gardening habit persists. 
Of course, many estates, many fine gardens have suffered, but hardly 
at all have the moderate sized suburban and country gardens. 



Well that this habit has persisted, for, with endless thousands 
of wounded to be cared for, our hospitals would be sad places indeed 
without the floral gifts of the home people. 

When in hospital after being wounded, my ward much resembled 
a conservatory, so generous were our friends with gifts of flowers. 
Yet not once do I remember any arriving boxed Hke laundry or fancy 
merchandise with the florists name garishly displayed on the outside. 
It was not necessary. They were gifts of the heart and not of the 
purse. Florists do not flourish quite so well in England as they do 
here. Even our poor can always afford to buy flowers. 

There never was such need of flowers as now in our war-stricken 
land. Second only to the yearning to smoke is the Britishers' hunger 
for the sight and fragrance of the yieldings of our gardens. Relatives 
must be poor indeed who bring no offering of humble Hlac, sweet peas 
or roses, to refresh and brighten the suffering soldier. The flower 
girls sell them for so little in our streets. 

I never knew gifts more welcome than spring blossoms freshly cut 
and brought by friends to help me in my first month's fevered fight 
for life. Soon, unhappily, we may expect to see your broken defenders 
of liberty over here to continue their struggle for health. They will 
be those out of immediate danger but with much pain before them, 
and many long months within hospital walls between them and 
the glories of the "great outside." Since they will be denied so 
much, let Nature's blossomings be brought to them. Let the gardens 
be rich with blooms, and let the gatherings be dedicated to these 
willing sufferers, then truly wiU they be Fighters' Gardens. 

Sunday in England is the great gardening day, but early morning 
and late evening find thousands of women who give their days to 
war work digging and turning with spade or trowel, finding in flori- 
culture and its labors a soothing peacefulness that tranquihzes minds 
racked with anxiety for loved ones overseas or unnerved by the harsh- 
ness of war. Lee Nichols. 
Late of the Honorable Artillery Company. 



The Council of Presidents' Meeting 

A meeting of the Council of Presidents of the Garden Club of 
America was held Friday afternoon, March 15, 1918, at the residence 
of Mrs. Auchincloss, New York. The President, Mrs. Martin, called 
the meeting to order. 

Mrs. Martin spoke of the deep sorrow that has come to us since 
our last meeting, Mrs. Archibald D. Russell, First Vice-President 



and one of the founders of the Club, has gone from us into the Un- 
known Country. 

To those of the Executive Committee who had the privilege of 
working closely with Mrs. Russell, it seems impossible to reahze we 
can no longer turn to her for help and advice. It was her wise judg- 
ment and sympathy that guided us over many rough paths. When 
the United States entered the war, it was her words, "Such a body 
of women as compose the Garden Club of America must be kept 
together to work as a Unit to help the Government," that decided 
your Executive Committee to urge that the Club work as a whole 
for whatever patriotic need presented itself. 

You will learn later from the reports of our Member Clubs and 
from Miss Marble how fortunate it was that we followed her 
advice. 

From the foundation of the Club, Mrs. Russell never missed a 
meeting, and her most gracious hospitality gave to our many meetings 
with her, both in Princeton and in New York, a charm and inspiration 
which meant much to us all. 

Though we stand here today stunned and weakened by the blow 
that has fallen upon us, may we not believe that her faith in us will 
strengthen and give greater value to all that we offer in our Country's 
service? 

At the request of the President the Secretary read the Minute in 
Memory of Mrs. Russell. 

Memorial Minute 

"In the death of Mrs. Archibald Douglas Russell, one of the Vice- 
Presidents of the Garden Club of America we not only have lost one 
of our founders, but a most dearly loved, active and honoured associate 
and friend. Mrs. Russell's strong good sense, winning friendliness and 
all the charms of a rich, deep and affectionate nature, with the crown- 
ing loveliness of high nobility, make her loss irreparable. All the 
poorer for this loss, we are nevertheless richer for the unfading 
memory of her goodness." 

The Business Meeting was opened by the Secretary reading the 
Minutes of the last Meeting. 

The Treasurer reported a balance on hand of $289.49. 

Twenty-eight Member Clubs responded to the Roll Call and two 
Consultants, making in all about seventy-five Members present. 

In the absence of the Editor of the Bulletin, the Secretary read a 
letter from Mrs. Brewster and asked the opinion of the Members 



present as to the advisability of continuing the Bulletin during 
the war. The Members were unanimous in their opinion that the 
Bulletin should be continued as they felt it was helpful in holding 
together the varied interests of the Member Clubs during war time. 
Whether it should continue in its present form was left to the Editor 
for final decision. If in the days to come, its continuance, owing to 
war conditions is found to be impractical, the Editor is at Uberty to 
discontinue the publication. 

On recommendation from the Executive Committee, it was moved, 
seconded and carried, that the Garden Club of Santa Barbara, 
California, and the Fauquier and Loudoun Garden Club, Virginia, 
be elected Members of the Garden Club of America — thus con- 
tinuing the poHcy of the Garden Club of America, to develop on 
geographical Unes. 

A letter from the Woman's Committee of the Council of National 
Defense was read asking for Reports of the War Work planned for 
the summer of 19 18. Mrs. Martin called for reports from Member 
Clubs concerning work planned for this year. These were read and 
ordered filed for reference and the Secretary was instructed to send 
copies to Washington and to ask all absent Member Clubs to send 
reports to complete the records for the Women's Committee of the 
Council of National Defense. 

The President introduced Miss Anne Morgan who told of the 
Agricultural situation in Northern France. 

Mrs. Farrand spoke of the need in France of expert opinion regard- 
ing the condition of the soil in the war area. She hoped the Garden 
Club would take some interest in this survey. Mrs. Farrand was 
requested to write to Professor Charles S. Sargent and ask his advice 
in this matter. 

It was reported that the English Horticulturists have started no 
permanent work and the French have done only a little. Mrs. Farrand 
gave the following inventory of loss of French fruit trees to the 
present time: 

10 per cent of the orchards totally destroyed. 

40 per cent of little use. 

50 per cent affected for one or two years. 

No Man's Land can be used in the future only for re-foresting. 

Miss Geer one of the Farmerettes of the Bedford Unit last summer 
spoke of the Farm Unit Plan of Work from the standpoint of a worker 
and was very enthusiastic. The girls were on active service 8 hours 
a day, wore overalls, a flannel blouse and a very high crowned hat. 
They did not mind the sun, and the farmers who employed them 
said that they were very satisfactory because the day laborers they 



had been used to hiring had given as little work as possible for their pay, 
while the Farmerettes tried to do all they could. 

An invitation from Professor Sargent was read inviting the Garden 
Club to visit the Arboretum in May. A motion was made to hold 
the Annual Meeting of the Garden Club of America in Boston this 
year and accept the invitation of Professor Sargent, provided, on 
further consideration of the Executive Committee, the meeting was 
deemed practical. As the ayes and nays were indistinguishable, the 
Chair called for a rising vote which resulted in the ayes carrying it, 
so the final decision rests with the Executive. 

Miss Nichols, Chairman of Committee on Trade Relations 
spoke of graft among seedmen and said that it could very easily be 
stopped if the Members of the Garden Club of America would help 
boycott the tradesmen who did this sort of thing, since the honest 
seedsmen were anxious to have this practice discontinued. 

In closing this large, interested and enthusiastic meeting, the 
President urged all the Member Clubs to help in every possible way 
the Patriotic Agricultural Work planned for the Summer of 1918. 

Mrs. Bayard Henry, Secretary. 



Report of the Committee on Trade Relations 

May I report the results of the work so far accomplished by 
the Committee appointed by the Garden Club of America to en- 
courage honest nurserymen? In the first place, Mrs. Hill and I 
have ventured to change its name to the Committee on Trade 
Relations, as the original name gave offense to certain nursery- 
men. 

The Joint Committees on Relations with Trades of the American 
Society of Landscape Architects, the Ornamental Growers' Associa- 
tion, and the American Nurserymen's Association invited me to be 
present at their meeting on January 3, and passed the following 
resolution: 

"That we heartily endorse the proposed action of the Garden 
Club of America and their efforts to hunt out and. abolish the insidious 
practice of horticultural trades giving commissions, gratuities, or 
other things of value to gardeners or their employees to influence 
their patronage." 

It was also decided that as soon as Mr. Kelsey had obtained the 
compendium of existing state laws in regard to gratuities, the joint 
committee would forward it to Miss Nichols for the use of the Garden 
Club of America, Miss Nichols stating that she would urge this 



organization to use their influence to obtain that those states which 
have not yet a stringent law on the subject be persuaded to enact 
one. 

On January 4th the Ornamental Growers' Association passed the 
following resolution: 

"Be It Resolved by the members of the Ornamental Growers' 
Association that the practice which it is alleged exists in some in- 
stances of nurserymen paying to gardeners, superintendents, or other 
representatives of the purchaser, commissions or other gratuities to 
secure such orders is condemned by this Association. 

" Further Be It Resolved That if at any time any one has 
definite information of this practice being resorted to by any member 
of this Association, such evidence may be placed before the Executive 
Committee and if, in the opinion of that Committee, the member 
complained of is found to be guilty of this deplorable practice, his 
membership in this Association shall thereupon be forfeited." 

The American Society of Landscape Architects has also passed 
resolutions condemning all such forms of bribery and corruption. 

Now that our Committee has secured the co-operation of the 
various associations best fitted to help us to bring about a reform, 
the question is how we can do our part to the best advantage. We 
would suggest that the following steps be taken — 

1. The Garden Club of America as a whole should endorse the 
action of the American Society of Landscape Architects, of the 
Ornamental Growers' Association, and of the Joint Committee 
representing these Societies and the American Nurserymen's Asso- 
ciation and should bring pressure to bear upon individual clubs to 
take vigorous action in the same direction. 

2. In states where no existing law covers the ground, the garden 
clubs in those states should endeavor to have a law similar to the one 
in Massachusetts passed and vigorously enforced. 

3. Each member of the associated club might promise to have no 
deaUngs with nurserymen, seedsmen, or florists giving gratuities 
and to forbid her own gardener to accept them, beside urging other 
employers of gardeners to do hkewise. 

4. The foUowing questionnaire which has been approved by the 
Joint Committee previously mentioned should be sent to all the 
leading nurserymen and seedsmen not members of the Ornamental 
Growers' Association. 

"The Garden Club of America has appointed a Committee on 
Trade Relations to promote a better understanding between nursery- 
men, landscape architects, florists, seedsmen, and their customers. 
We hope that you will be willing to co-operate with this Committee 



by answering the following questions at your earliest convenience 
and by making any suggestions which would help us to formulate a 
few simple rules governing our business dealings. These rules will be 
submitted for adoption to the Executive Board and to the members 
of all the Garden Clubs in this Association. 

"i. What method of ordering do you prefer? 

"2. Do you differentiate between home-grown and imported 
stock? 

"3. What percentage in addition to the original price should be 
added for guaranteeing stock? 

"4. Do you make a reduction in price to landscape architects 
and dealers? 

"5. Do you give commissions, gratuities, or presents at 
Christmas or other times to professional gardeners? and if so, how 
much?" 

Will you authorize us to go to the expense of sending out this 
questionnaire to perhaps twenty-five or thirty firms as a beginning? 

Mrs. Hill and I would be grateful for any suggestions. We feel 
that this is the psychological moment to follow up what has been 
already done to corner the evil and stamp it out. Any unnecessary 
delay may nullify previous action. 

The gist of the Massachusetts law referred to above is that the 
offense of giving an agent, employee, or servant a discount, com- 
mission, or bonus shall be punishable by a fine of not less than $25.00 
nor more than $500.00 or by imprisonment in the state's prison for 
not more than three years. 

Rose Standish Nichols, Chairman. 



Proposed Summer War 
Activities of Member Clubs 

The Garden Club of Allegheny County will associate itself 
as closely as possible with the already existing Allegheny County 
Farm Bureau. The President of the Club has asked for $10,000 to 
cover the expenses for 1918, the fund to be used for the following 
purposes: 

1. To furnish good seed to the farmers. 

2. To assist the farmers' wives with canning and evaporating 
vegetables and fruit. 

3. To convey county agents and demonstrators about the 
County. 

4. To establish a unit of women workers for farm labor. 



The Bedford Garden Club has assumed responsibility for the 
Community Canning Kitchen at Mt. Kisco, and for the Agricultural 
Camp for Women Farm Workers at Bedford, New York. 

This Camp, which is known as the Mt. Kisco Unit, last year 
employed 150 women who worked by the day on neighboring farms 
and served 100 employers. 

This season it is planned to have 4 small Camp Units besides the 
Main Camp. 



The Garden Club of Easth-amtton, Long Island, is organizing 
a "Women's Farm Unit" in the neighboring town of Bridgehampton 
and hopes by the early summer to house twenty to thirty farmerettes 
according to the demand for their labor. 

The Garden Club is continuing its work begun last year with the 
Children's Home and Community Gardens, the produce this season 
to be confined entirely to vegetables. 

Mrs. Robert Hill, the Vice-president of the Garden Club is very 
actively engaged in the Women's Land Army Movement and has 
given the first floor of her house for the ofl&ce work connected with 
the enterprise. 



Green Spring Valley Garden Club is hoping, with the other 
Garden Clubs in Maryland, to have camps for the Women's Land 
Army of America, but as yet no finished plans are ready. 

One of our members is in France as a Red Cross nurse, and nearly 
all are working on surgical dressings. 



The Garden Club of Illinois has pledged its greatest effort, 
so far, to the City Garden's Association. As individuals, we are very 
busy. Two are members of the State Food Production Board, of 
which one of our members is Vice-Chairman. Five of our members are 
Directors of the Land Army of America, for Illinois, one being Chair- 
man, one Treasurer, and one Chairman of Part Time Committee. 
We are represented on many of the war emergency boards of our 
State. 



The G.\rden Club of Lawrence has decided to give up its 
usual meetings this summer, all of its members being occupied with 
war work. We have a Community Canning Kitchen, a Com- 



munity Garden and a very active Red Cross Chapter in our neigh- 
borhood. 

We expect to give two money prizes to the village people; one 
for the best vegetable garden to the person who has never had a 
vegetable garden before, and one to the person who grows the best 
vegetables. 

We will finish this year the education of a young woman at the 
Ambler School of Horticulture, and hope that by means of that 
education she may help with agricultural work. 

We expect to have a large Flower and Vegetable Show in the fall, 
as we did last year, by which a goodly sum of money was raised for a 
local charity. 

The Litchtield Club has had no meeting since September, 191 7. 
The members of the Litchfield Club are scattered rather widely 
during the winter and only tentative plans are possible until their 
spring meeting. 

Plans are on foot for supplying "farmerettes" to those who ask 
for them, though a whole unit cannot be supported. 

It is also hoped to continue last summer's work in conservation 
and garden encouragement. 

The interest of the Club in helping during the present crisis is 
very keen and sincere. Every effort will be made to do some helpful 
work. 

The Millbrook Garden Club. The canning plant which was 
established last summer will be continued this season, but on a larger 
scale. We also hope to be able to add a de-hydrating outfit. 

If there is a sufficient shortage of labor we shall establish a Women's 
Land Army Unit, for the housing of which one of the members of 
the Club has offered a farm house. 

We are distributing vegetable seeds among the school children 
who are to have their own gardens. 

We have also offered the free use of land to anyone wishing to 
grow vegetables. 

The MoRRiSTOWN Garden Club decided after the Annual 
Meeting to await Mrs. Kissel's return this spring before deciding our 
future policy. 

Last summer quite a group of members opened a Canning Kitchen, 
and ran it successfully through the fall season. Another group was 
deeply interested in a Planting Bureau and Farm Service League. 



The Morristo-ttTL Garden Club is so large, it is difficult to interest all 
in any one project, so we feel that perhaps we gain more by dividing 
our interests. Mrs. Kissel is expected home in April, and her report of 
England's work will re\ive and freshen our efforts. 

Out secretary is the Secretary of the New Jersey Di\i5ion of 
Women's Land Army, so we hope to join in that movement. 



The G.\rdexers of Montgomery .\nd Delaw.\re Couxties 
are co-operating vdih the Weeders in the management of a Farm 
Unit near Berw}-n. There are a good many workers already enrolled, 
and the plan is to have fifteen to fifty there at a time, and more, if 
justified by the demand for labor. 

Miss May K. Gibson is Chairman of the Woman's Land Army for 
the State of Pennsylvania and also Chairman of Food Production 
for Lower Merion Township. 

Mrs. Edward Y. Hartshorne is Chairman of Food Conservation 
for Montgomery County and of the \'acant Lots Garden Committee 
for the Main Line Citizens' Association. 

Last summer 'Mis. Henry S. Jeanes planted a formal garden for 
annuals, the design for which had taken a prize in one of our Club 
competitions, with tomatoes and onions, edging each bed with a row 
of carrots. A weekly supply of vegetables was sent from this garden 
to the Hope Day Nurser}*, and it is planned to repeat it this year. 
The garden was very pretty, and might sen.-e as a model for others 
who -^-ish to replace flowers with vegetables. 



The North Country G.^rden Club of Long Isl.\xd has no 
very startling new war interests to report but every member has 
done something to help food production and conservation. 

None of the members is keeping up her garden in the same state 
of perfection as formerly, as all available labor is used for vege- 
table growing. Last summer all the members of the Club sent all 
vegetables not actually needed for daily use, to the nearest canning 
kitchen, and the result has been that this winter the poor people 
in the \'icinity have had excellent carmed vegetables at verv' low 
prices. 

Owing to the pubUc-spirited effort and generosity of some of the 
members, Glen Cove is to have a dehydrating plant this year, and 
others are contemplated in neighboring places. 

Some members of the Club are plarming to use women in the 
cultivation of farms and gardens. WTiether the Land Army \\ill 



agree to supply help or not, seems to be a moot question at present. 
It seems to be the generally accepted idea that lawns shall not be 
cut, except possibly for three or four feet bordering the edges of an 
important drive. 



Garden Association in Newport. The war activities of the 
Garden Association in Newport last summer were as follows : 

First: Starting community gardens which proved so successful 
that a Mayor's Committee was formed for the same object, whereupon 
the Garden Association having shown the way, a member of it was 
appointed on the Mayor's Committee and their work ceased. 

Second: A market once a week on the grounds of the Garden 
Association, the vegetables, flowers and fruit coming from the surplus 
of gardens belonging to members of the Association. The produce 
was sold at less than the current price to people of small means. 
The sum of money made went half to the American Red Cross and 
half to the fund for devastated orchards in France. 

This year the Garden Association has formed a sub-committee 
which will take up community gardens. Part of the produce will be 
given to the market and the rest to canning centers established by 
the Chairman of the Newport Food Conservation Committee who is 
also the President of the Garden Association. 

A unit of Women Workers is also being started on a small scale 
with the possibility of enlargement should the demand for such farm 
laborers increase. 



The Garden Club of Orange and Dutchess Counties held a 
special meeting on the fourth of March, at which was discussed the 
feasibility of establishing units of the Women's Land Army in our 
two counties. 

The President, Mrs. Samuel Verplanck, reported that several 
people in her vicinity were not unfavorable to the idea of women on 
the farms. She appointed a committee for further investigation in 
Dutchess County and several committees for various localities in 
Orange to discover the feeling of the farmers there, and it was decided 
that the Club would establish at least two or three units in the parts 
of the two counties covered by our membership if the committees 
reported favorably. All of the reports are not yet in but those received 
are promising, and our club is looking forward to a summer of united 
patriotic work, something difiicult for us to accomplish hitherto on 
account of our widely separated homes. 



The Garden Club of Philadelphia has organized a Unit of 
Twenty-two women for The Women's Land Army, which will be 
housed at Newton Square, Pa., and operate chiefly on farms where 
the owners would be unable to plant the usual crops without the 
help of our normally priced labor. 

The Unit will begin work on April 3rd, and there are possibilities 
of its doubling in size before the fall. 

A group of members Hving at Chestnut Hill are giving their time 
to another large Unit, which is financed by The National League for 
Women's Ser\'ice. 

Still other members, at Jenkintown, will help to organize and run 
a canning kitchen. 

One member is working at reconstruction in France under Miss 
Anne Morgan, and the Club sent her $100, for seeds and garden tools. 



The Philipstown Garden Club, is planning to work a garden 
of winter vegetables for use of the U. S. Army Hospital No. i at 
Williamsbridge. The land for this garden has been loaned by a mem- 
ber. Also, we are planning to send one or more large hampers of 
fresh vegetables once a week to this hospital. Our school gardens 
will continue, and in greater numbers. 

Although not directly war work, the Club has the honor of plant- 
ing and keeping in order for the Martlaers Rock Association, the 
garden on Constitution Island, opposite West Point, which is Govern- 
ment property. This is enjoyed by the cadets and friends of the 
Mihtary Academy and members of the Martlaers Rock Association. 



The Garden Club of Princeton is contributing toward the 
salary of Miss Washburn, who is directing and teaching the school 
children war gardening. 

Three members of the Club are representing the Club in the 
state and coimty work of the New Jersey Branch of the Women's 
Land Army of America. We are calling a special meeting of the 
Club in the near future to consider whether the Club as a whole will 
be able to assist in financing a Unit in Mercer County of the Women's 
Land Army of New Jersey, for which the use of a house near Princeton 
has been offered. 



The Ridgefield Garden Club will undertake four kinds of 
work the coming summer. 



1. The School Gardens which were most successful last year will 
be continued with an effort to encourage home gardens. 

2. The work of the Village Improvement Society has been taken 
over by the Garden Club. Prizes have been offered to those who 
make the greatest improvement in their gardens and yards during 
the present season. 

3. An Exhibition will be held in September to give the children 
of the School Gardens and the Potato Clubs of the Farm Bureau as 
well as the children who have home gardens an opportunity to exhibit 
their products. It will essentially be an exhibition of vegetables 
although some flowers will be shown. 

4. A Unit of the Women's Land Army will be estabhshed for 
twenty or more farmerettes. 

The Club is unanimous in its interest in this new project. The 
Committee is rapidly developing plans to suit the demands of our 
region. The finances are assured. There will be an Advisory Board 
of the members of the Farm Bureau, Grangers, etc., to give us a con- 
necting link with the farmers. The hope is that the farmer will have 
confidence in the work of the women and increase rather than diminish 
his crops. 



RuMSON Garden Club, New Jersey. Most of our time and 
money is pledged to the promotion of school children's gardening, 
both in the form of community and home gardens. We hope to have 
several hundred school children busy with war gardens this summer. 

We feel that this work among the children is most important. 
If we can teach them a love of thrift, and work, for the good of the 
community; a love of country and home and nature, we think our 
summer's work will not have been a failure. 

The Rumson Garden Club is also assisting in financing and 
managing a large unit of Women Farm Workers, which will be 
situated at Spring Lake, New Jersey. A very large house and farm 
has been donated, a home mother and farm demonstrator engaged, 
and we hope to house and find work for at least forty women. Every- 
thing is in order to begin work the middle of April, and we are working 
hard to secure the co-operation of the farmers in employing women. 



Rye Garden Club. After the meeting of the Council of Presidents 
on October 26th, a special meeting was called. A Committee was 
appointed to investigate the need of a Land Unit. 

At the March meeting, the Committee reported that though 



there was great interest shown, it was doubtful if Rye could support 
a Unit. 

The Garden Club has been given land to parcel out free in small 
gardens, and we are trying to stimulate this enterprise by having 
public lectures and holding in the fall a vegetable show with money 
prizes — open to all. We are backing a canning kitchen co-operating 
with Greenwich in using a dehydrator. 



Short Hills Garden Club, i. Support has been given through 
the Club's members as individuals to a War Garden of 25 acres, 
started last year, but to be run much more intensively this season and 
planted to such crops as the Government suggests in the present crisis. 

2. In co-operation with other clubs in the township, the Club is 
carrying on a campaign to arouse the interest of the entire community 
to the necessity of canning all surplus crops. 

3. The Club is in close touch with the work of the Women's 
Land Army of America. The president is Vice-Chairman for the 
New Jersey Division and one of the members has accepted the chair- 
manship of Essex County. It is expected that a unit of the Land 
Army will be installed in our immediate vicinity. Members are doing 
personal work in spreading information to all farmers within a radius 
of ten miles and already have the pledged support of many. 

4. Members are planting field corn on new tracts near their 
regular gardens, which may, without use of railroad transportation 
in either direction, be ground at a local mill and returned to the 
consumer to be used as a wheat substitute in the coming year. 

5. The proceeds from the Club's Annual Dahlia Show will be 
devoted to objects connected with war necessities. 



Under the auspices of the Garden Club of Washington, Con- 
necticut, a farm unit of women workers wiU be established this 
summer. There will be fourteen workers at the start and the number 
will be increased if there is a demand for more. 

There will be a number of children's gardens under the supervision 
of members of the Garden Club. 

The members of the Club also assist regularly in the Community 
Canning Kitchen. 



The Warrentown Garden Club has carefully considered the 
Unit Plan and has decided it is impractical for this community. 



Our plans for the summer are : — 

1. To help our County Agricultural Agent in interesting young 
country women in field and garden work. 

2. We hope to organize Community Agricultural Service Clubs, 
Junior and Senior, with the object of making bigger and better 
gardens, and canning and preserving the maximum amount. 

We shall endeavor to stimulate in every possible way the interest 
of every one, but particularly women and children, in the production 
of food. 



The Weeders' Garden Club last summer actively supported 
four Community Canning Centers, the School Gardens Association 
and Vacant Lots Association. 

Separate members of the Club will continue all these branches of 
work during the coming summer; while the Club as a whole has 
joined with the Gardeners' Club in the formation and maintenance 
of a Farm Camp for women field laborers, following the plan of the 
Land Army Units. 

We have been given a large house with farm, garage, garden and 
fertihzers; and we have been loaned or given cows, pigs, chickens, and 
a horse and automobile. 

We have ten work-women already registered for the whole summer, 
who are at present working in preparing the garden, and we have 
several volunteer chauffeuresses. 

Later we hope to have from fifty to sixty girls to send in squads 
to various farmers and gardeners in the neighborhood. 

Officers of the Weeders are working in the Units and Recruiting 
Committees of the Land Army, in the Council of National Defense, 
handling the requests for new units, and offers of farmers and service 
that come daily to the Council. There is every reason to believe 
that with the help in preliminary financing, which the Finance 
Committee thinks possible, new units will be formed to meet the 
demand in the neighborhood of Philadelphia. 



In the death of Mrs. Frank N. Doubleday, the North Country 
Garden Club of Long Island has met with a great and irreparable 
loss. A Charter member and Vice-President from the first organiza- 
tion of the Club in 1913, she was its President from January, 191 5, 
to October, 1916. She did much to encourage the giving of prizes to 
school children for work in their gardens, and instituted the giving of 
plants and shrubs to public schools by owners of neighboring estates. 



Her spirit was broad and altruistic, and she saw the garden, not as 
a mere personal possession, shut in with narrow enclosing walls, but as 
a source of mutual interest in a community, an opportunity to de- 
velop in her neighbors of every degree the true neighborhood feeling 
of sharing together in one common happiness. 

Under the name of Neltje Blanchan, Mrs. Double day wrote 
numerous books on Botany and Horticulture, as well as Ornithology 
and Nature Study. She also inspired many of the articles on practical 
gardening in Country Life in America, of which the firm founded by 
Mr. Doubleday is the publisher. 

She will, perhaps, be best remembered by her "Nature's Garden" 
and her "Bird Neighbors," books that have given to many their first 
impulse to study our native wild flowers and our native birds. 

Since the beginning of the war Mrs. Doubleday has been actively 
engaged in reHef work, and at the time of her death she was traveling 
with her husband in the interests of the Red Cross. 

A. D. Weekes. 
North Country Garden Club of Long Island. 



The Little Gardener's Alphabet 
of Proverbs 

Autumn-sown annuals flower soonest and strongest. 

What you sow in the spring, sow often and thin. 
Bulbs bought early are best chosen. 

If you wish your tulips to wake up gay, 

They must all be in bed by Lord Mayor's Day. 
"Cut my leaves this year, and you won't cut my flowers next year," 

said the Daffodil to Tabitha Tidy. 
Cut a rose for your neighbor, and it will tell two buds to blossom for you. 
Don't let me forget to pray for travelers when I thank Heaven I'm 

content to stay in my own garden. It is furnished from the ends of 

the earth. 
Enough comes out of anybody's old garden in autumn, to stock a 

new one for somebody else. But you want sympathy on one side 

and sense on the other, and they are rarer than most perennials. 
Flowers are like gentlemen — "Best everywhere." 
Give Mother Earth plenty of food, and she'll give you plenty of 

flowers. 
He who can keep what he gets and multiply what he has got, should 

always buy the best kinds; and he who can do neither should buy 

none. 



If nothing else accounts for it, ten to one there's a worm in the pot. 
Jobbing gardeners are sometimes neat, and if they leave their rubbish 

behind them, the hepaticas may turn up again. 
Known sorts before new sorts, if your list has Hmits. 
Leave a bit behind you — for conscience's sake — if it's only Poly- 
podium Vulgaris. 
Mischief shows in the leaves, but lies at the root. 
North borders are warmest in winter. 
Old women's window-plants have guardian angels. 
Pussy cats have nine lives and some pot-plants have more; but both 

do die of neglect. 
Quaint, gay, sweet, and good for nosegays, is good enough for my 

garden. 
Rubbish is rubbish when it lies about — compost when it's all of a 

heap — and food for flowers when it's dug in. 
Sow thick, and you'll have thin; but sow peas as thick as you please. 
Tree-leaves in the garden, and tea leaves in the parlor, are good for 

mulching. 
"Useful if ugly," as the toad said to the lily when he ate the grubs. 
Very little will keep Jack Frost out — before he gets in. 
Water your rose with a slop-pail when it's in bud, and you'll be asked 

the name of it when it's in flower. 
Xeranthemum, Rhodanthe, Helichrysum, white, yellow, purple and red. 

Grow us, cut us, tie us, and hang us with drooping head. 

Good Christians all, find a nook for us, for we bloom for the Church 
and the Dead. 
You may find more heart's-ease in your garden than grows in the 

pansy-bed. 
Zinnia elegans flore-pleno is a showy annual, and there's a colored 

picture in the catalogue; but — like many other portraits — it's a 

favorable Hkeness. 

— From "Mary^s Meadow," by Mrs. Ewing. 



Illinois Training Farm 

of the 

Women's Land Army of America 

Aim 
To ofer to the women of America an opportunity for patriotic service 

which is both timely and useful. 
To ofer to America the strength and courage of her women for the 

fight behind the lines. 



The problem of using women on the land is a serious one in Illinois, 
since Illinois farms cover thousands of acres and are almost entirely- 
machine-made. Untrained women would be more harmful than 
helpful. 

It was therefore decided early in the Land Army movement that 
there was little that we in the West could do. Later, however, a plan 
developed to train the women this year for useful work in the year to 
come. 

In England, in the early stages of the war, it was realized that 
women would be needed in large numbers to replace the men on 
the farms, and these women were given systematic training before 
being sent out. This we are now attempting to do in Ilhnois, feeling 
that, even should the war end before another summer, there will 
be a labor shortage and trained women will be needed to meet 
successfully the demand for experienced farm laborers and superin- 
tendents. 

Mr. W. V. B. Ames, who owns a large farm near Liberty ville, 
Illinois, has offered the practically unrestricted use of 200 acres of 
land, agreeing to furnish, rent free, for two years, the land, some 
buildings, 200 or more chickens and 18 cows. This splendid offer 
has made it possible for Illinois to undertake an experiment which 
may mean much, not only in actual accomplishment, but in point- 
ing the way to other western states. 

Many women are willing to enroll, but a careful choice will be 
made from the many applicants. No one will be accepted who is not 
willing to sign for a period of six months. The work is a patriotic one, 
but women must enroll with a thorough understanding that it is not 
merely temporary, and that it is a conscientious effort to meet, 
practically, an immediate demand for increased labor, a demand 
which will undoubtedly continue for some years to come. 

Training will be given in dairy farming, poultry raising, animal 
husbandry, soil conditions, general crops and vegetable gardening. 
A large garden will materially decrease operating expenses, and the 
dairy department will make butter and cottage cheese, a route for 
the sale of which will be established. 

The farm will be in charge of a superintendent and assistant in the 
dairy. Itinerant instructors from the Department of Agriculture, 
Extension Department of the International Harvester Company, 
and other agencies, will co-operate to give short courses in special 
subjects. 

A bookkeeper will keep the household accounts, the charts of crops 
and books of the various departments. An accurate card index of the 
records of students will also be kept, since it is only through a careful 



consideration of work and accomplishment that the farm may prove its 
full value. The house will be run by the women as a self-supporting unit. 

Another activity which the Illinois Committee will attempt is an 
arrangement for part time work for women. Available land will be 
cultivated as community gardens, the women to enlist on the same 
basis upon which they have worked for the Red Cross, pledging so 
many hours a week. Suitable instruction will be given and adequate 
supervision. A special effort will be made to train women to act as 
captains next year, and to superintend children's gardens, which are 
suffering now for a lack of competent supervision. Every com- 
munity will be urged to use its resources to the utmost, and although 
little may be accomplished this year, achievement next year will 
prove the value of thorough preparation. 

We who Uve in the western country, where farms are huge and 
labor frequently scarce, realize that these trained women will mean 
much patriotically and practically to the country's future work. These 
women, who this year give their time and energy that they may help in 
years to come, will learn a trade which will be one of increasing useful- 
ness. Whether they marry or not, they will have at their command a 
practical, remunerative, interesting career. Theirs will be a new and 
honorable profession, and to America, their country, they will offer the 
nucleus of a women's army to carry on the fight for increased food 
production. 

Horticultural and Arboricultural 
Reconstruction Work in France 

Dear Mrs. Martin: I am sending you a copy of the letter writ- 
ten, at your request, to Professor Charles S. Sargent of the Arnold 
Arboretum, and his reply. 

The German advance of the last few days would seem to show 
that, admirable as the local and temporary agricultural relief measures 
have been, they can only be considered as such, and that any per- 
manent reconstruction work must await more stable conditions. 

Yours sincerely, 

Beatrix Farrand. 

March i8, 1918. 
Professor Charles S. Sargent, 
Arnold Arboretum, Jamaica Plain, Mass. 
Dear Mr. Sargent: Mrs. Martin, President of the Garden Club of 
America, has asked me to write you on behalf of the Club for your 
advice with regard to what is in your opinion most needed in the way 



of reKef or reconstruction work in France in horticulture, forestry and 
agriculture. 

The members have heard that the Royal Horticultural Society of 
London has as yet no very clearly formulated plan, and that the 
Societe Nationale d'Horticultiu-e does not seem to be doing any re- 
construction work. The garden clubs know, of course, of the excellent 
local relief work being done by the American Fund for French Wound- 
ed and various other associations, the EngUsh Friends among others, 
who are working in various communes. 

The Club would venture to ask your advice as to what you con- 
sider the most useful work they could do, and whether you would 
direct them to proceed along one special line, such as horticulture, or 
whether you think forestry and agriculture should also be included in 
their scheme. The members of the Garden Club hesitate to trouble you 
in this way, as they realize that it means taking a good deal of your 
time and thought, but they also know there is no one who has closer 
connections with horticulture and its allies here and in Europe, and 
therefore you are the one person to whom they turn. 

Yours sincerely, 

(Signed) Beatrix Fakrand. 



Arnold Arboretum, 
Jamaica Plain, Mass., March 20, 1918. 
Mrs. Farrand, 

21 East Eleventh St., New York. 

Dear Mrs. Farrand: I have your letter of the i8th inst. in which 
you ask my opinion of what is most needed in the way of relief or 
reconstruction work in France in horticulture, forestry and agri- 
culture. 

As President of the Massachusetts Society for Promoting Agri- 
culture, I have given attention to this subject, and the Trustees of the 
Society have already sent to the Royal Horticultural Society $1000.00 
to be used in France and Belgium at the end of the war, or as soon as 
it is practicable, in re-estabhshing Belgian and French gardeners. I 
beheve that America can best help Belgian and French horticulture 
through the Royal Horticultural Society, which is a rich and power- 
ful organization, interested in this work and desirous of doing 
everything which may seem practical and possible. Money is 
needed, and I believe the Garden Clubs can accompHsh more for 
this cause by sending money to the Royal Horticultural Society 
than by any independent movement looking to the sending of 
Americans to Europe. 



I would suggest that you write to Mr. W. Wilkes, Secretary of the 
Royal Horticultural Society, and find out what the Society is doing 
or proposing to do, and get from him an opinion of the Council on 
the best method of accomplishing your purpose. 

Faithfully yours, 

(Signed) C. S. Sargent. 



Common Barberry 

vs. 

Wheat Rust 

This year the farmers of northern Illinois are planting a consider- 
able amount of spring wheat in response to the call of our government 
for increased wheat production in this state. To insure a successful 
crop it is vitally necessary that the black stem rust of wheat be com- 
batted in every possible way. It so happens that the Common or 
Tall Barberry (Berberis vulgaris) and its varieties, including the 
Purple-leaved Barberry, harbors the spring stage of this fungus, which 
produces millions of tiny spores which are carried great distances by 
the wind to the growing wheat, upon which they produce the de- 
structive black stem rust. 

This rust caused $205,000,000 damage to the wheat crop in the 
United States in 1916. If conditions are favorable this year it may do 
more — perhaps less. Against this enormous sum the value of all the 
Common Barberry in the country is insignificant. Dig it up and 
burn it if you have any on your premises! 

The Common Barberry has been outlawed in Denmark for years. 
North Dakota ordered it to be removed throughout the state by 
July I, 1917. The Minnesota State Council of Public Safety has 
ordered it out of Minnesota. Wisconsin has sent out a powerful appeal 
to the people of the state to destroy all Common Barberry. 

The relation between Common Barberry and wheat rust has been 
known for over 50 years. We have simply ignored it. Before the 
present great war wheat was sufficiently plentiful in America and the 
world to cause an attitude of indifference to the common enemies of 
growing wheat. But this is changed. We must now strive to produce 
every bushel of wheat that we can. 

The Common Barberry in the city must be removed just as 
drastically as in the country. In Minneapolis bushes of this shrub 
planted along the boulevards of the city were found to be heavily 
infested with the spring stage of the rust. There is no definite limit to 
the distance the spores may be carried. 



The U. S. Department of Agriculture and the State co-operate in 
an appeal to all patriotic citizens to destroy the Common Barberry 
at once. 

N. B. — The Japanese Barberry {Berheris Thunbergii) is immime. 

N. P. HOLLISTER. 



Book Review 

Women and War Work. By Helen Fraser. Published by G. Arnold 
Shaw, New York City. Price, $1.50. 

Miss Helen Eraser's book brings to its American readers an 
inspiring example of enduring courage, strength and selfless service as 
shown by the women of England. The clear and concise account of 
the organization of w^omen in the different branches of the war service, 
such as the Waacs, the V. A. D.'s, etc., and the record of their fine 
achievements, is of the utmost value to American women today. 
But to the members of the Farm and Garden Association it is the 
chapter on the Women's Land Army which is sure to make the strong- 
est appeal. This Land Army now numbers over 258,000, and without 
them, as the President of the Board of Agriculture says, agriculture 
would be at an absolute standstill on many farms in England and 
Wales today. Now that the burden of food production is beginning 
to fall heavily on America, we are fortunate in having their example 
as a guide and an inspiration, and it should be a cause for congratula- 
tion to our members that the Woman's Land Army of America was 
launched at a conference called by the Farm and Garden Association, 
and addressed by Miss Fraser. 

Reprinted from the April issue of the Bulletin of the Woman's 
National Farm and Garden Association. 



Cottage Cheese 
Has Splendid Food Value 

As a part of the campaign to stop waste and conserve food Simon 
Hagedorn, an expert on the manufacture of cottage cheese, has been 
detailed to Indiana by the United States Department of Agriculture 
to encourage a larger manufacture and more extensive use of this 
valuable food product. 

During these times when meats and other protein foods are 
scarce and high in price the housewife will find it economical to use 
cottage cheese as a substitute. Nutrition experts tell us that one 



pound of cottage cheese has a protein value equal to that of various 
kinds of meats as follows: 

1.27 pounds of sirloin steak. 

1 . 46 pounds of fresh ham. 

1.58 pounds of loin pork chop. 

1.52 pounds of fowl. 

1 .31 pounds of hind leg of calf. 

Large quantities of skim milk that might be made into cottage 
cheese are now being wasted or fed to hogs and other live stock. Many 
difficult problems in the manufacture and marketing of the cheese 
have in the past kept it from being more generally used. But now that 
it is so important to save meats and the housewife can make such a 
saving by using cheese as a meat substitute, it is important that it be 
placed on the market in larger quantities. 

Mr. Hagedorn will visit the different creameries and dairies of the 
State to help them with their manufacturing problems and to give 
advice regarding the better methods of marketing the product. The 
work is being conducted by Purdue University in co-operation with 
the United States Department of Agriculture. The campaign is in 
charge of C. R. George, of Purdue, and is a part of the dairy campaign 
waged by the State Food Committee. 

— From the Bulletin of the Indiana State Council of Defense. 



Embargo on Lily Bulbs 

The United States has declared an absolute embargo on all bulbs 
from Bermuda, the Azore Islands, Japan and China, which means 
that no Lily bulbs from these places will be available for the duration 
of the War; it is therefore advisable to order early cold storage Lilies, 
of which there is a limited quantity of good quality, carloads of these 
Lilies having arrived in frozen and worthless condition last winter. 

John Scheepers. 



Preserving Our 
Perishable Food Supplies 

In a recent issue of the Times Dr. S. A. Kapadia deals with the 
method of preserving perishable foodstuffs. The method adopted is 
to treat the food with a gas consisting of nitrogen, carbondioxide, and 
a trace of oxygen. Australian Apples which had been kept five weeks 
in an atmosphere of this gas were found to have been as good as at the 



first. Raspberries — a fruit very difficult to preserve fresh — after 
fourteen days of the treatment were as fresh as when the experiment 
was started, and, moreover, they retained this freshness for four days 
after removal from the preserving chamber, thus allowing time for the 
marketing of the fruit. — Reprinted from The Garden. 

At the meeting of the Council of Presidents held in New York on 
March 15, 1918, the following clubs were elected to membership in 
The Garden Club of America: 

Name — The Garden Club of Santa Barbara, California. 

President — Mrs. James Mauran Rhodes. 

Address — Santa Barbara, California. 

Secretary — Mrs. J. Hobart Moore. 

Address — Santa Barbara, California. 

Name — The Fauquier and Loudoun Garden Club. 
President — Mrs. Fairfax Harrison. 
Address — Belvoir House, Belvoir, Virginia. 
Secretary — Mrs. D. C. Sands, Jr. 
Address — "Benton," Middleburg, Virginia. 



Extracts from a Letter 
from Mrs. Ballington Booth 

Reprinted from the Florists^ Exchange. 

In Favor of Flower Gardening 
"I am indeed glad that you have written to me. We certainly 
must be kindred spirits. My flower garden is my greatest rest when 
I have gone through deep sorrow. Both my husband and I in the 
summer-time spend every spare hour working in our garden. 

I need hardly tell you that the hours are not many. A day or 
two days a week and then sometimes not as much as that, but they 
are wonderful in the real, healthful enjoyment they bring. 

I think that it is foolish in the extreme to talk of the raising of 
flowers as an unpatriotic pursuit. I wish you could have seen how my 
daughter, the president of the Girls' National Honor Guard, went 
through my garden this summer and fall, stripping it of Roses, Dahlias 
and everything else she could gather for the sick boys in our Naval 
Hospital, and how gallantly it responded to this war need and bloomed 
again each day. Right up to frost we were cutting baskets of flowers 
for these boys. 



Perhaps people may think that men don't care for flowers, but 
if you could see their eyes brighten or hear some sick soldier say, 
" Give me the pink Rose, it is like the one that grows in my mother's 
garden," you would know that even for their sake every woman who 
could afford to do so should grow her flowers through war times. 

So far as I am concerned, I am going to do with my garden more 
this year than I have ever done before, because of the comfort it 
brings to others as well as the real help it is to myself. 

No, a garden is not a selfish place." 

From the Women of France 

"We women of France, mothers, wives, sisters of brave soldiers, 
profoundly indignant at the treason whose horror has penetrated to 
the heart of our country, raise our voices as one to cry vengeance 
against the traitors who have struck down treacherously our dear 
defenders while they were so valiantly offering their blood for our 
beloved land. We rally to our flag, emblem of energy, we demand the 
punishment of the guilty, the unflinching march to complete victory, 
ransom for the blood that has been shed and for our sacrifices. To 
the end we shall know immolation to avenge our dead, to do the 
work we have to do ; that France may be greater, more prosperous and 
yet more glorious, and that our dear children may be spared the 
horrors we have borne. To our standard we pledge our faith. We 
follow and trust in it." 

From the Women of America 

"On the anniversary of America's entrance in the great war I 
affirm my undivided loyalty to the cause for which we fight, the 
cause of justice and human liberty. I gladly lay upon the altar of the 
nation's need my material possessions, my bodily strength, and my 
mental powers. To serve and to save America and those ideals for 
which it stands and to keep the Stars and Stripes floating with honor 
I pledge my hand, my heart, and my life." 



"^hardV- Climbing Roses 

AND GET BUSHELS OF LOVELY BLOOMS 
WE OFFER NEARLY 50 KINDS 
Hardy Climbing Roses are easy to grow — they 
can be used for shade, for windbreaks, hedges, 
arches, arbors and pergolas. Also for growing 
on tree stumps and retaining and beautifying 
embankments. Send for out catalog to-day. 
THE CONARD & JONES CO., West Grove, Pa. 

Robert Pyle, Prej. 

FOR the benefit of our blinded soldiers 
I will send a generous packet of Hardy 
Larkspur Seed for ten cents, three cents 
postage additional. Original seed from 
Kelway, England. 

Mrs. William Hooper Grafflin 

Filston Manor 
Glencoe, Baltimore County Maryland 



Plants and Bulbs 

FOR SPRING PLANTING 

Lists now ready. General Catalogue of the cream of 
Dutch Bulbs and Choicest Perennials for Autumo to follow 
later. May we send them ? 

FRANKEN BROTHERS 

Box 513 Deerfield, Illinois 



BARBERRY IS A HUN — 
KILL IT 

The tall barberry is ein enemy of the United 
States because it is an enemy of wheat. Wheat 
rust is spread with the pollen from the barberry 
flower. Dig out the barberry by the roots before 
it has time to bloom. 

This is one way to fight the Hun. 

( IVisconsin State Council Bulletin) 

Euonymus Radicans Acutus 

TVeD) Hardy Evergreen Vine 

Splendid ground cover. Dark, glossy green 

leaves. Price, $7.50 per dozen. 
List of other New and Rare Plants will be found 
in our Garden Annual. Copy mailed on request 

R. & J. FARQUHAR & CO. 

6 South Market Street BOSTON, MASS. 



The famous collection of Paeonies, owned by 
T. A. Havemeyer, Esq., of Brookville, L. 1., will 
be catalogued by us this season; those interested 
in receiving illustrated booklet giving prices and 
descriptions of the World's finest Paeonies will 
kindly address 

JOHN SCHEEPERS. Incorporated 

Flower Bulb Speclaliah 
2 Stone Street NEW YORK CITY 



SMALL FARM FOR RENT, in north- 
ern Rhode Island, two miles from electric 
cars. Old-fashioned farm house, furnished, 
fireplaces, barn, poultry house, duck-jxind. 
Pasture for horse and cov^. Fruit. Garden 
already ploughed. Suitable for a garden club, or a 
party of ladies. Rent $150 the season. 

Address, Miss Henrietta R. Palmer, 

153 Power Street Providence, R. L 

The Fatherless Children of France 

Nco York Headquarters, 665 Fifth Ave. 

$36.50 a year, added to the small allowance 
of the French Government, will give an efficient- 
ly trained child to the new France. 
.10 a day 
3.00 a month 
36.50 a year; payable monthly, quarterly or yearly 

WILL YOU HELP? 

CHESTER JAY HUNT 

MAYFAIR LITTLE FALLS. N. J. 

Spring-flowering bulbs, including many exclu- 
sive offerings in Tulips and Daffodils. 

The Blue Book of Bulbs will be sent you on 

request. 





o. 



Builders of Greenhouse! and Conservatories 



New York Boston 

42nd St. Bldg. Tremont Bldg. 

Chicago Rochester 

Continental & Com- Granite Bldg. 
mercial Bank Bldg. 
Toronto 



Philadelphia 
Widener Bldz. 

Cleveland 
Swetland Bldg. 

Montreal 



Royal Bank Bldg. Transportation Bldg. 



All advertisements endorsed by members of the GARDEN CLUB OF AMEFUCA 
In writing to jldvertisers l^indly refer to the Bulletin 




Hardy 
Perennials 



Here "At the Sign of The 
Tree," we have for your se- 
lection Hardy Perennials that 
really otc hardy. 
Sturdy, full-rooted plants, every 
one of them. Absolutely true to 
name and habit. 

Particularly, let us call your 
attention to the Delphiniums 
(Larkspur). Steadily are they 
increasing in popularity. Be- 
cause of the rather limited supply 
of them, we would counsel early 
ordering. 

Send for our catalog. It gives 
a complete alphabetical list of 
Perennials, divided into flower- 
ing months. 

Tuliuy "%eKry Cor 

*^ "Jit the Sign of The Tree" 



Bos 34 



Rutherford, N. J. 



BACK NUMBERS OF THE 
BULLETIN 

Back issues of the Bulletin and extra copies of 
the current number may be had from the Editor 
for ten cents each, payable in stamps. Nos. 10 
and 1 4 are out of print. A few copies of No. 23, 
containing a full account of the Unit Plan for 
Women Agricultural Workers' may be had for 
twenty-five cents each. 

FOR the largest and best selection of 
DAHLIAS, ROSES, HARDY PER- 
ENNIALS; also FLOWER and VEGE- 
TABLE SEEDS, etc., consult 

Dreer's Garden Book for 1918 

A Copy Mailed FREE to All Applicants 

HENRY A. DREER 

714-716 Chestnut Street PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



ROSEDALE SPECIALTIES 

Spring 1918 
ROSES and FRUITS, dwarf and standard, in many 

varieties of large size for immediate effect. 
EVERGREENS in 70 varieties and many sizea, up 

to 1 7 feet. 
DECIDUOUS TREES. SHRUBS and VINES in 
great variety (including XXX sizes) . 
Catalogue on Request 

|j00f half ^uvmxxeB 

Box C. TARRYTOWN, N. Y. 



ROCK GARDENS 

Rockeries are one of the most beautiful features 
of gardening. In them can be grown the exquisite 
alpine plants which are too dainty for the ordinary 
border. 

We specialize in the choicest of these plants, as 
well as veirious other novelties. 

Send for Catalog 

WOLCOTT NURSERIES. Jackson, Michigan 

Choice and Rare Hard)) Plants 



OUR new rose, ' 'Mrs. Charles 
Bell," is a shell-pink Radi- 
ance. It has a wonderful con- 
stitution. It will be a joy to 
your garden as Radiance has 
been and is — as RED RADI- 
ANCE is proving to be. 

We grow Roses for America 
and for the folks near at home; 
a nursery full of choice Ever- 
greens, Shrubs and Trees. We 
do landscape work for a few 
good people each season. Our 
catalogue is larger and better 
than ever. We want a few addi- 
tional people to study it and to 
know our stock and our methods. 
Will YOU be one? A post card 
will bring it. 

A. N. PIERSON. Inc. 

Cromwell Gardens 
CROMWELL. CONN. 



Ail advertisements endorsed by members of the GARDEN CLUB OF AMERICA 
In writing to Jidvertisers kindly refer to the Bulletin 



bulletin of 



Zhc (5ar6en Club 



of Hmerica 



August, 1918 



No. XXVI 



President 
MRS. J. WILLIS MARTIN 

Chestntjt Hill, Philadelphia 

Treasurer 
MRS. H. D. AUCHINCLOSS 

33 E. 67TH Street, New York and 
Newport, R. I. 

Secretary 
MRS. BAYARD HENRY 

Germantown, Philadelphia 

Librarian 
MISS ERNESTINE A. GOODMAN 

Chestnut Hill, Philadelphia 



Vice-Presidents 
MRS. WILLIAM CABELL BRUCE 
8 Mt. Vernon Pl., Baltimore, Md. 
AND Ruxton, Md. 

MRS. FRANCIS KING 
Aliia, Michigan 

MRS. JOHN E. NEWELL 
West Mentor, Ohio 

Editor 
MRS. WALTER S. BREWSTER 
1220 Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, 
AND Lake Forest, Illinois 



The objects of this association shall be: To stimulate the knowledge and love of gardening among 
amateurs; to share the advantages of association, through conference and correspondence in this 
country and abroad; to aid in the protection of native plants and birds; and to encourage civic planting. 



Meanwhile the mind from pleasure less 

Withdraws into its happiness; 

The mind, that ocean where each kind 

Does straight its own resemblance find; 

Yet it creates, transcending these, 

Far other worlds, and other seas; 

Annihilating all thafs made 

To a green thought in a green shade. 

From Andrew Marvel's 
Thoughts in a Garden. 



The great news of these summer days gives promise of a happier 
summer next year, perhaps not a peaceful summer but one which may 
be a season of preparation for peace. So remember that your garden 
cannot be resurrected all in a minute and furbish it up a httle in the 
autumn that is near in hopeful anticipation of happiness, beauty and 
rest in a time that up to now has seemed very remote. 

Most of us have had Httle time for garden work or enjoyment this 
year and little courage to plan for next. Labor shortage, foot shortage, 
time shortage have loomed ominously. We knew that our gardens 
and our lives would bloom again with victory but we could not be too 
confident when that victory would come. We must not be over- 
confident now but surely next summer must be the last when beauty 
is entirely subordinated to usefulness , and that means just one more year 
to guard the flowers that we have, just one more year of giving them 
as little care as possible, just one more year of planning what best 
can be abandoned. And to-day we can begin to think, "I am glad I 
did not let the weeds overgrow that border." "No matter how Httle 
labor we have I shall replant and tend that garden next year that it 
may be very proud and gay in 1920." 

But though our time of blind effort is over and we may begin to 
struggle toward a triumphant end there is still more work for any one 
of us to do than we have ever done before. Last March at the Council 
of Presidents the continuance of the Bulletin during war times was 
discussed. It was decided that as a means of holding the Club together 
it was useful and of some practical value. 

Perhaps it is, but the editor needs reassurance. In the first place 
practicaUy no contributions are forthcoming. Neither are comments 
on the few contributions received and printed. This would seem to 
prove a lack of interest which gives faint hope that our smaU pubHca- 
tion is widely read. In the second place the member clubs are aU 
doing much and good work but after thirty-six commimity war 
gardens have been described semi-annuaUy for two years and canning 
kitchens have been richly commented upon with equal regularity, 
those who delve in the gardens and can in the kitchens become dis- 
interested in any but their own. Farm imits are stiU a stirring subject, 
but has any club written to tell us how prospers their unit? No, not 
one. Not even our own home club that boasts of a part in the only 
American Training Farm for Women. 

So this is the conclusion we have reached and at the risk of seeming 
personal we state it. You want the Bulletin, but you don't want to 
be bothered with it. Again at the risk of seeming personal, we would 
say that the editor is one whose war-work, home charities, com- 
paratively gardenerless gardens and family (this last accounted for 



only by the fact that it ante-dates the war) consume from sixteen to 
eighteen hours a day. The week that the Bulletin is being prepared 
for press means nightly typewriting until midnight. The Bulletin 
when it finally emerges is twenty-four small pages read by perhaps 
one-fifth of our two thousand members. A very smaU task, you would 
say, and one about which no self-respecting editor should complain. 
But to compile these pages the French and English garden magazines 
are read, American trade journals skimmed through, advertisements 
soHcited, arranged, and collected for, reports rewritten (because they 
are always longer than are requested), long-hand manuscripts copied 
(because being non-commercial we are expected to accept them that 
way). The editor is the employer of three and a half secretaries and 
stenographers who work from nine to five. Then they go home. So 
does the editor; but because they have had no time during their 
day to write Bulletin letters, make up Bulletin accovmts, copy 
Bulletin manuscripts, the editor's faithful non-union Corona works 
overtime assisted not too ably by the editor. 

So now we ask again. Is the Bulletin worth while? If you really 
want it, if you reaUy read it, it is. If it is stimulating, interesting, 
patriotic, encouraging, it is. But do you wonder that, as we sit copying 
manuscripts and arranging clippings and sending night letters for 
belated reports at ii 130 p.m. with no one to help us or encourage us or 
advise us, adding one more unread pamphlet to the tidal wave of 
printed utterances of war seems a non-essential industry? 



Growing Vegetable Seed 

As the production of food is one of the most important problems 
this coimtry has to deal with at present, and, as seeds for this purpose 
are scarce and growing scarcer, it behooves us all this year, to look 
intelKgently into the matter of growing our own vegetable seeds, in so 
far as is possible. As a matter of fact, the very best vegetable seed 
obtainable for many crops is that which is home grown. 

We will take up, first, the general methods for the home produc- 
tion of vegetable seeds, and, after that, the vegetables with which we 
are most famihar will be treated individually. 

In choosing seeds for propagation, select those from the best 
plants. They should not be harvested until they are fully ripe. It is 
important to gather them promptly, when they are mature, or the 
seeds will begin to get moldy or to sprout or discolor. Seeds are gen- 
erally ripe when the pods turn yellow or when the fruits, as tomatoes 
and melons, lose their firmness. In the case of the fruit crops, such as 



tomatoes, melons, eggplants, cucumbers, squash and pumpkins, those 
plants which produce a heavy, early, and desirable crop are better 
for seed production than those plants which produce only a very few 
early fruit. The earlier in the season the fruits are allowed to develop 
for seed, the better the resulting seed will germinate. 

In securing clean seeds, vegetables such as tomatoes and melons, 
must stand for some time in their juices to remove the mucilaginous 
covering; usually, the cut-up pieces are put into a wooden tub or 
barrel and are stirred every day until fermentation has loosened the 
covering around the seeds. To prevent discoloration, stop the fer- 
menting process just as soon as the seeds are ready; then, remove the 
pulp and skin by washing the seeds three or four times. The pulp, 
skin, and bad seeds come to the surface of the water and are 
poured off. 

In the case of the root crops, such as turnips, radishes, beets, 
carrots, etc., side roots, roughness or lopsidedness are to- be avoided. 
Select the most desirable roots when harvesting the crops, because 
then the foliage will assist in estabUshing a uniform strain. 

A bright day should be chosen for harvesting the crops and the 
plants should be thoroughly dried. When drying seed, spread it so 
that it win dry as soon as possible. Frequent stirring hastens drying 
and prevents the seed from sticking together when dry. Never spread 
the seed on tin, or on glass. Spread it on paper, cloth, boards or sieves. 
When wet seeds are first spread on newspapers, for instance, the paper 
will quickly absorb much of the moisture from the seed. If after a 
few minutes, the seeds are placed on fresh papers, the drying process 
will be further hastened. 

Never let partly dried seeds be exposed to freezing. Place the 
dried seeds in cloth bags and never store them in air-tight tins. To 
do so may cause them to become musty or to heat up, thereby ruining 
their germination. Label the bag on the outside according to the 
variety and date of saving the seed. Since many kinds of vegetable 
seed will germinate well for several years, it will be more convenient 
to grow enough seed at one time to last as long as the seed germinates 
well. However, when growing such seed as beets, celery, lettuce, 
spinach, etc., in large enough quantities to last more than one year, 
it will be more convenient not to clean out the final httle pieces of 
foreign matter until these seeds are to be sown. This saves con- 
siderable work, and incidentally the seed will keep better. When 
storing seed for the winter, it should be properly labeled, stating the 
kind and variety, and also the year in which saved. 

Those vegetables which are biennial are: 



Cabbage Parsley 

Brussells Sprouts Swiss Chard 

Kale Leeks 

Globe Artichoke Onions 

Jerusalem Artichoke and 

Kohl-rabi all the root crops 

Celery 

Production of Beet Seed 

Those roots which were selected according to the ideas expressed 
in the general methods of procedure are harvested in the fall with the 
main crop. After the roots are pulled, the tops may either be twisted 
or cut off, care being taken not to injure the central bud, which if 
hurt or destroyed may not produce seed as well as it otherwise would. 
The roots are then stored by burying them in the ground out of the 
reach of frost. 

In April, the roots are taken out of storage and transplanted into 
a rich soil, placing them in rows about three feet apart with the roots 
two feet apart in the row, and deep enough to entirely cover the root. 
When setting out, do not break off the tender sprouts. Cultivate and 
keep free from weeds, finally ridging up to the rows to help support 
the seed stalks, unless each plant is to be staked for support. 

The seeds are produced on the numerous branches from the main 
stalk, and are firmly attached. The large seed is produced near the 
base of the branches, and the seed gradually becomes smaller near the 
tips. Hereafter, by pinching off the tips of these shoots, when the seed 
is forming, it has a tendency to increase the size of all the seed pro- 
duced. 

When about two-thirds of the seed has become brown and par- 
tially dry, on any of the seed stalks, such stalks are cut and placed 
under shelter. After the seed is separated, it is spread out thinly to 
dry for about two weeks, when it is cleaned and stored. 

Beet seed will retain its vitality for seven years. 

Production of Cabbage Seed 

Cabbage seed is very easy to grow and save. The usual method is 
to select the most desirable plants from the late crop, and store these 
over winter in a trench with the roots attached. Those plants which 
are immature in the fall will keep better than the hard heads; however, 
it frequently happens that the large, hard heads are the most desirable 
for seed purposes. If these are stored over winter, it will probably be 
necessary to cut crosswise in the surface of the head, the following 



spring, so that the seed stalk will not be prevented from normal 
development. 

Early in the spring, these cabbage plants are set quite deeply in 
rows three feet apart and two feet apart in the row. Clean cultiva- 
tion is given and along in early summer, when the pods turn yellow, 
but before they are dry, the seed stalks are cut off, and are removed 
to cover, where they must dry quickly. The seed is easily separated 
from the chaff. 

The seed will retain its vitahty five years. 

Production of Carrot Seed 

The best method is to make the selection in the fall from a late 
sown piece of carrots so that yoimg, healthy roots will be obtained. 
Uniformity of shape and color are very desirable features. Break off 
the tops so as not to injure the crown, and store in the ground out of 
reach of freezing, until the next April. Then set the carrots out in 
rows three feet apart and eighteen inches apart in the row, having the 
crown of the root level with the surface of the ground. Cultivate 
frequently to keep down weeds. The seeds are produced in flat clusters 
at the extremities of the branches and ripen unevenly. When each 
cluster of seed changes to a brown color, and the branches commence 
to dry, the heads must be cut off with a pair of shears, spread out in a 
place to thoroughly dry, after which the seed may be rubbed off of the 
clusters by hand. Rub the seed through a small sieve to remove the 
coarse material and tiny sticks from it. 

Carrot seed retains its vitahty two years. 

Production of Celery Seed 

The selection of celery plants for seed production is made later in 
the fall, at the time of trenching. The plants selected must be vigor- 
ous growers and entirely free from disease; they should have aU of the 
fine quahties desired, such as large, well colored foUage, short, stocky, 
and sohd stems, with a well filled heart. 

The selected plants, when taken from the trench in February or 
March, are trimmed by breaking off all of the outside suckers and 
cutting away about two-fifths (2/5) of the tops and roots. They are 
then transplanted into the cold frames and allowed to grow slowly; 
the frames being ventilated as weather permits. In very cold weather, 
one or two layers of mats may be necessary to keep out the frost. 

As the weather becomes warmer in the spring, the mats and glass 
are gradually removed as weather permits, until the sashes are left 
off entirely, when the plants will send up their seed branches. The seed 



is borne in flat topped clusters and does not ripen all at one time. 
When the majority of the larger seed clusters are ripe, or when the 
seed begins to turn yellow, the stalks are cut off and tied in bimdles of 
six or eight stalks, and are hung up over a tight floor or over canvas in 
a dry, well ventilated shed or attic. When thoroughly dry, the 
bundles are taken down and the seed clusters are either broken off or 
rubbed off of the stalks. Clean the seed through fine sieves the same 
as carrot seed. 

Celery seed retains its vitaHty five years. 

Production of Cantaloupe, Cucumber, Pumpkin and 
Squash Seed 

The most desirable cucumbers are long, slender, straight and 
dark green. Those showing excessive whiteness and especially yellow 
streaks before they are fully ripe should be avoided. A heavier crop 
of seed cucumbers will be produced if the first few fruits are cut off 
the veins. 

The most desirable cantaloupes for seed are from those vines 
which set several fruits of uniform size near the hill. Good netting is a 
desirable feature of the appearance and denotes quahty. 

Squash and pumpkins for seed purposes should be well colored and 
should be heavy for their size. When different varieties are planted 
near one another, they will cross-pollinate, making the fruits worthless 
for seed purposes. 

The selected specimens are cut in half and the seed scraped out. 
The wooden containers should not be filled more than half fuU, 
because when the seed begins to ferment the volume increases. 
They should be allowed to ferment a day or two, imtil the mucilagin- 
ous material has separated from the seed; then the mass is vigorously 
stirred with a stick and more water is added. This is stirred again, 
and as soon as the good seed has settled to the bottom, the solution 
containing the pulp and light seeds is gently poured off. Fresh water 
is added and poured off until nothing but the good seeds remain. Dry 
and store. 

The seed retains its vitaHty six years. 

Production of Tomato Seed 

The tomatoes are allowed to become thoroughly ripe on the plant 
before picking. After they are gathered, they may be cut in half 
crossT;v'ise and the seeds squeezed out. By this method, the fresh may 
be saved for caiming, and those tomatoes which have too many seed 
cavities, or an objectionable core may be eliminated. Otherwise, the 



whole tomatoes may be thrown into tubs, or tight barrels, and be 
crushed to a fine pulp. Proceed to separate the seed in the same 
manner as for cantaloupes, cucumbers, etc. Dry and store. 
The seed will retain its vitahty six years. 

Production of Lettuce Seed 

Lettuce seed is produced to best advantage from the early spring 
crop. When the seed stalks of a few especially fine plants have 
developed, they should be tied loosely to a stake to prevent them from 
falling to the ground. As lettuce seed ripens very unevenly, and as 
the first and best seeds are apt to be lost, the stalks should be cut when 
about sixty per cent (60%) of the first seeds are fully developed, even 
if the stalks contain some blossoms. When the white beard on the 
first blossoms turns brown, the stalks should be gathered. The sap in 
the stems will complete the development of the seed. Some stalks will 
be ready to cut a week or two before the others are ready. These seed 
stalks are tied in bundles and hung up under shelter, so that they will 
quickly dry out. Seed may be separated from the seed clusters by 
rubbing them out by hand. A good way of cleaning the seed is to put 
it into a bucket of water, the good seeds will settle to the bottom, and 
the worthless seed and straw will float and can be poured off. The 
heavy seeds should be thoroughly dried at once before germination 
starts. 

The seed will retain its vitality three years. 

Production of Spinach Seed 

Spinach seed produced from wintered over plants is to be pre- 
ferred; however, a fairly good yield of good seeds may be obtained 
from plants started early in the spring. 

Plants grown for seed purposes are thinned to stand about four or 
five inches apart in the row. Late in the spring, they send up their 
seed stem. As there are male and female plants, the seeds will be 
produced only on the female plants; the male plants producing pollen 
to fertiUze the blossoms on the female plants. Both sorts of plants 
grown near each other are essential for the production of seed. 

When the majority of seed is properly developed, or when it begins 
to change from a green to a brown and the leaves are dying, the stalks 
are either cut or pulled, and laid in windows for a day or two to dry. 
Treat the seed the same as the other fine seeds; that is, by rubbing 
through a sieve. 

The seed will retain its vitality for three years. 



Production of Onion Seed 

The onions selected for seed purposes are stored in crates, or trays, 
and are placed under cover to thoroughly dry before freezing weather 
sets in. They are then stored for winter where both ventilation and 
temperature (33° to 36°) can be controlled. The selected bulbs 
should be of medium size, shape, and good color. 

In the spring, the seed bed is prepared as soon as possible. The 
bulbs are set out in rows two and one-half to three and one-half feet 
apart, six to eight inches apart in the row, and about four inches deep, 
so as to entirely cover the bulb. As growth proceeds, the soil is gradu- 
ally drawn around the stem to help support the seed stalk when the 
seed ball forms. When the inside of the seed grain has reached a 
dough stage or just before the first formed seeds begin to shatter in 
handling, the heads are cut off, leaving from two to six inches of the 
stem attached. They are then spread out on a tight floor to dry. The 
seed shatters easily and must be prevented from being lost. An excel- 
lent method for drying the seed balls is to place them in a clean bag of 
any kind. Tie this bag with a string around the top so that the mate- 
rial in the bag may be spread out thinly. Hang out in the sun so that 
the seed heads will dry quickly but the seed cannot be lost. 

The seed is good for one year. Seed two years old germinates 
poorly. 

Production of Sweet Corn Seed 

In growing sweet corn it must be remembered that each plant 
produces pollen in its tassels. This powdery material floats through 
the air and falls upon the corn silk making it possible for the kernels to 
develop on the cob. When these kernels are used as seed, the product 
will bear resemblance to the plant on which the ear is produced and to 
the plant from which the pollen came. Since this pollen will float 
through the air for nearly a thousand feet, it is necessary to have just 
one variety pollinating at one time, within a thousand feet of the 
stalks which carry the seed ears. 

The earlier in the season the seed is produced, the longer time it 
will have to thoroughly ripen in the stalks. As the corn approaches the 
eating stage, the most desirable ears, which are carried on medium 
sized stalks for the variety, are marked for seed purposes. 

When the seed stalks have nearly dried up, the corn will have 
become pretty well hardened. The corn may be husked standing and 
the ears spread out singly to thoroughly dry in a warm, dry place. 
Frequently, the ears are picked and the husks are peeled back. These 
husks are tied in bunches of a dozen ears, and these are hung in the 



air over a horizontal wire. If the seed is thoroughly dried before frost, 
freezing will not hurt it. However, during the winter, it is desirable to 
get it shelled ready for spring planting. 

When sheUing discard all undesirable tip and butt end seeds. 
Place the best ears in one lot and the poor ones in another. Shell them 
off and use the desirable seed for your regular plantings and save the 
second-grade seed for chicken feed. 

Home grown sweet corn seed will come up well even under adverse 
conditions. 

It retains its vitality two or possibly three years. 

Mrs. N. C. McPherson. 

Short Hills Garden Club. 



Carpe Diem 

If this were my last day I'm almost sure 

I'd spend it working in my garden. I 

Would dig around my Kttle plants and try 

To make them happy, so they would endure 

Long after me. Then I would hide secure 

Where my green arbor shades me from the sky, 

And watch how bird and bee and butterfly 

Came hovering to every flowery lure. 

Then, as I rested, 'haps a friend or two, 

Lovers of flowers, would come, and we would walk 

About my little garden-paths, and talk 

Of peaceful times, when all the world seemed true. 

This may be my last day, for all I know: 

What a temptation just to spend it so! 

Anchusa. 
Reprinted from The Chicago Tribune. 



Flowers and the War 

Since America's entry into the war, much has been written about 
the state of mind in which our men will find themselves wheUi.they 
return in peace, the excitement, the danger, the hardships over. 

Some think they will with difl&culty return to a normal and gen- 
erally uneventful Hfe. One writer has it that we can so little imagine 
their experiences and they can so little describe them that we shall 
henceforth walk together as strangers; live with ghosts, the outward 
semblance only left of the men who marched away. 



But it seems saner and more reasonable to expect, the need for 
superhuman effort and heroic strain being over, that the normal life 
will assert its supremacy. The strength of association and the power 
of habit will pull the human being back to everyday life with but a 
short period of restlessness and readjustment. Small daily needs of 
home or neighborhood will call, with insistent voice, the man who has 
been deafened by shells; peace and monotony in the daily round will 
be immense relief from battle, murder, and sudden death; and the 
fight to preserve Ufe wiU be waged with fresh zeal by the thousands 
who have stood ready to offer the supreme sacrifice of Hfe, Hberty, 
and the piursuit of happiness. 

Between this desirable future and the difficult present hes, for 
many of our soldiers and sailors, a sad but inevitable stage. We shall 
have among us in ever increasing numbers men who have become as 
httle children, helpless and unable to plan the next step. They have 
given enthusiasm and energy, their careers perhaps, and their futures 
to a great cause; but for the time being they are not heroes nor are 
they in the familiar surrounding whence they came. They are suffer- 
ing, lonely, apprehensive, discouraged, wounded, possibly maimed. 

What shaU we give them? The most skillful medical and surgical 
treatment in the world? That at least. The care of tender and 
devoted women? Only too gladly. Safe and soothing bandages, clean 
clothing, soft pillows? Many thousands of deft fingers answer that 
question every hour of every day across this wide land. 

What more then can we offer these men as a reminder of the every- 
day life of home, a diversion from present pain, an assurance that there 
will be beauty in the work-a-day Hfe of times of peace? 

There is a simple panacea that holds inexpHcable relief and power 
to sooth that can lift thoughts back to hours of pleasure and arouse 
poignant memories. Not a man living but has been transported to 
fields and gardens of childhood by the sight and scent of a flower, and 
resting there has felt again the blessed safety of the surrounding walls 
of home. 

"A boy who ran, a boy who dreamed, 
In April sun and rain ; 
Who knew all good was happiness 
And only evil pain." 

A secretary of the Red Cross, asked recently whether he considered 
flowers helpful to the recovery of a sick soldier, answered briefly, 
"To every man a flower is always home." 

Doctors in charge of these woimded boys say, " Flowers are more 
valuable than tonic, especially when homesickness is added to all the 



other troubles. The men crave them and are more appreciative of 
them than of cigarettes and deHcacies." These statements remove the 
appeal we make to a higher plane than that of mere emotion and render 
a new form of service not only desirable but advisable. 

Not long since, the Society of American Florists offered to collect 
daily and give their surplus flowers in New York, if arrangements could 
be made to distribute them, to the war hospitals. The National League 
for Women's Service undertook the work of distribution and plan to 
extend this service through the United States for the duration of the 
war. An appeal has been sent to florists in seven hundred cities and 
towns where the National League has branches. 

At the present time this work is being carried on principally in 
New York where the majority of the newly arrived woimded are 
being cared for. There are many parts of the country that the National 
League does not reach and many where additional contributions will 
be needed. Certainly it is fitting that the work should be taken up by 
The Garden Club of America, and this appeal to non-professional 
gardeners is made to forestall the closing of private greenhouses and 
the abandonment of flower-cultivation during the winter. 

At the beginning of the war, the hasty cry arose among Garden 
Club members, "Let us abandon flower gardens and greenhouses. 
War is stern and deals not with such beautiful trifles. War is costly 
and we need guns and food." Many a patriotic flower-lover has with 
natural regret admitted that this was true. 

But it is not all the truth. Of late saner thought and wider knowl- 
edge are leading us to a different conclusion and we are now authorized 
as flower lovers and producers to substitute practical service for unne- 
cessary sacrifice. Our maturer decision should be, "Here I have an 
asset, a possession of definite use to my coimtry. Because war is 
• stern, I will find a way to mitigate even in slight measure its evil 
effects. Because war is costly I will aid in bringing health and hope to 
at least one of those whom war has wasted and thrown aside." 

The United States Fuel Administration wiU allow small green- 
houses using less than forty tons of coal to run at full capacity, and 
larger houses may use fifty per cent of the amount consumed last 
year. So plans may be safely made for intensive growing of hardy 
flowers for cutting, and costly plants may be saved. 

Every community, club, and individual to which this patriotic 
service is possible must work out a practical plan to satisfy the in- 
creasing demand. For as the months pass and hospitals multiply, the 
tragic misery that follows in the wake of war is coming nearer home. 

And when the gray winter shuts down on those who have returned 
and will return from that grim battle front, shall not some of us be 



ready with the flowers that " stand for home," that speak of hope and 
give assurance of the common hfe of peace to which in God's good 
time we and they shall day by day awake? 

Mildred C. Prince. 
Short Hills Garden Club. 



All, All Are Gone 

I had Spiraea, rows and rows of TuHp, 
Hyacinthus, Currant, Deutzia, and Snowball; 
All, all are gone, the old famihar faces. 

I had been planting, I had been transplanting, 
Digging late, watering late. Lilac and Viburnum; 
All, all are gone, the old familiar faces. 
I loved a Quince (Cydonia Japonica) ; 
She and Narcissus were the first to go; 
All, all are gone, the old famiUar faces. 

GhostUke, I pace round the haunts of my garden; 
Earth seems a desert I am bound to traverse, 
Seeking to find the old famihar faces. 

LiHes of the Valley, lovely Forsythia, 
Merry MagnoHa, dear Doronicum — 
All, all are gone, the whole blooming catalogue. 



The Summer's Work 

on the Illinois Training Farm 

for Women 

The Ilhnois Training Farm of the Woman's Land Army is no 
longer a dream in the minds of a few women, nor is it a mere plan 
on paper. At the present moment there are forty- two active, en- 
thusiastic young women who are doing actual man's work in a man's 
way on the land, and plans for next year are spoken of as a matter 
of course. The Illinois Branch of the Council of National Defense 
has undertaken to back the Liberty Farms, and the scope of the 
work is spreading and increasing daily. 

It is difl&cult to choose which of the various farm activities to 
dwell upon at length. To see the young women mowing the hay, 



pitching it onto the wagon and driving it up to the barn where it is 
hoisted into the loft in workmanhke manner is perhaps to see the 
most spectacular and picturesque work that is being done at present, 
but it is by no means the hardest. The lessons in actual farm- 
drainage under Mr, Wm. Hibbard, entail hardest sort of manual 
labor, digging out in the hot sun in heavy muckish soil, but our 
girls do not flinch at it. 

They bring pluck and enthusiasm to bear upon the hoeing in the 
truck gardens, and gather and bring in the vegetables for home 
consumption, and have already begun canning the surplus product 
imder the able supervision of Mrs. Morse, the Housemother, who 
gives simple talks on domestic science, explaining the theory of the 
work while putting it in practical application. 

The dairy girls attend to milking the cows, weighing the milk, 
keeping records of each cow's milk output, and shipping the milk, 
except what is used on the farm. The poultry girls are showing 
good results in the care of the chickens, and it is planned to extend 
and amphfy the dairy, poultry, and truck-raising activities, as our 
experience seems to indicate that women are pecuHarly fitted for 
these special hnes. 

Nevertheless the farm superintendent, Miss Blanche Corwin, is 
giving the girls instruction and practice in the larger farm activities. 
They are learning to handle farm machinery of all sorts as fast as 
the committee is able to procure such machinery. We had a tractor 
lent to us at the opening of the season, and eight girls learned to 
handle it efficiently, and we are planning soon to buy a tractor of our 
own, as here in the mid-west our farm problem is one of large 
acreage. The students are taught to handle the hoe, rake, wheel- 
cultivator, and all the regulation smaller agricultural implements, 
but to be of service on the farms of the middle-west they must be 
able to use the tractor, and to manage farm horses, and large imple- 
ments. They have had experience in ploughing, discing, raking, 
dragging, etc. with horse power, and show reasonable aptitude, 
quite as much aptitude as boys of similar inexperience would show. 

We have been fortunate in securing an assistant. Miss Ahem, 
who is an enthusiast in truck gardening, and at present the engaging 
of a special teacher in dairying and animal husbandry is contem- 
plated. Incidentally the girls are learning simple carpentry, such as 
is constantly necessary on any farm, and they are learning daily to 
meet the emergencies that farm-life brings. For this reason every- 
thing is being done simply, and no luxurious ideas are being indulged. 
The girls sleep on simple army cots, some in tents, some in the barn, 
where the horse stalls have been turned into comfortable httle cells, 



and some in the farm house. All arrangements are planned as nearly 
as possible to reproduce the conditions, not of some magnificent 
farm de luxe where unlimited time and money have been spent on 
the equipment, but of the average farm with fairly primitive arrange- 
ments, for it seems to be generally conceded that the modern farmer 
spends money on his barn, machinery and "critters" first, but on 
plumbing, Hghting, and things which ease the domestic machinery 
only when the account sheet shows a comfortable balance on the 
credit side. It is because of this that the domestic science teacher 
and the girls who take, each of them, a fortnight's turn at the kitchen 
and housework, are taught to use coal, kerosene and wood stoves, the 
care of lamps, and even learn how to make cistern water safe and 
usable if there is a temporary breakdown in the pump. 

The farm is fortunate in having an artesian well on the premises, 
and several of the girls are competent to manage the Httle engine which 
fills the tank on the roof. The comfort of the shower baths in the 
basement is so greatly appreciated by the workers that the filling of 
the tank is usually one of the jobs of which the girls need no reminder. 

After the midday meal (which is dinner, in true farm fashion) the 
girls have time for rest and recreation, and often at this hour they 
have lectures by speciahsts in various agricultural and gardening 
topics. The girls are encouraged to take copious notes, and will 
receive credits on this work as well as on the practical outdoor em- 
ployments. One of the scholarships, recently started by the Woman's 
Farm and Garden Association, at a conference of some of the Land 
Army members at Mrs. Francis King's, in Alma, Michigan, is to be 
offered as a prize. These scholarships are for short agricultural courses 
at some reliable college, to supplement during the winter months 
what the student has learned at the farm. 

It must be borne in mind that the aim of the Training Farm is 
not merely to train farmerettes, but to prepare leaders, young officers 
who will be ready to manage units of less skilled workers in the 
summer of 1919. To get the girls used to working in group squads, 
they are allowed to work, from time to time on nearby farms and 
estates, haying, weeding, berry-picking, etc. In this way they also 
learn adaptabihty to other conditions besides those under which 
they are trained. 

This report may soimd rather formidable, as though all work 
and no play might make Jill a very dull girl indeed, but the visitor 
to the farm will hear plenty of laughter, and fun, and an occasional 
outburst of some popular song to which local words and allusions 
have been added by some of the students. She will hear the same 
sort of good-natured raiUery and chaff that goes on in a camp of 



young men, modified by feminine humor, and feminine terminology! 

So far no standard uniform has been adopted. Most of the girls 
wear the simple blue jean overalls of their farmer brothers, and it is 
more becoming and more modest than most of the rather amorphous- 
looking uniforms that the market offers. Nor is there any silly self- 
consciousness shown in the change of apparel. A man's job, vvith 
machinery, mud, manure, and all sorts of minor splashings of oil, 
chemicals, etc. necessitates a cheap and simple mode of dressing. 
If a uniform could be devised which would be all these things and 
natty and becoming as well, it would be greeted with enthusiasm. 
Girls aren't going to lose their natural desire to look attractive, nor 
should they be criticised for this desire. (Who of us has not rejoiced 
in the naive pleasure our young soldiers and sailors take in their 
imiforms?) 

For the benefit of those readers of the Bulletin who may not 
have read the first article on the farm, a word as to its location. 
It is about thirty-eight miles from Chicago, three and a half miles 
from Libertyville, IlHnois, in a typical farming district. It is well 
situated, on high ground, has high and low land, and varying soil 
conditions, thus offering varied experience in crop raising. It consists 
of 147 acres, and has been loaned to us for three years by Dr. Ames, 
who also loans the 17 cows, and buU, and 200 chickens, and has 
been more then generous in other gifts. 

We are making history so fast that the farm actually changes from 
week to week, and the usefulness of the students seems to grow almost 
hour by hour. It is hoped soon to have regular hours for visitors, but 
just now rather stringent rules govern this, as the work would suffer 
constant interruption, but before long the committee in charge hopes 
to be able to say, hospitably, to those interested, "Come, and see 
for yourself." 

Anne Higginson Spicer. 
Corresponding Secretary of the Training Farm. 

Garden Club of Illinois 

Report of the 

Committee on Trade Relations 

The Committee on Trade Relations is glad to be able to report 
that many nurserymen have cordially responded to our questionaire 
and are eager for further co-operation in eliminating graft, bribes and 
commissions. As one of them writes me, "Very many simply call it 
'commissions' to ease their consciences." 

Will not each individual Club in our association take action in 



the matter and report to me to what extent they find this evil still 
exists and what means they have taken to down it? We should hke 
to add to our lists the names of more firms who are opposed to graft 
and of those who continue in this evil practice. 

In answer to the question: "Do you give commissions, gratuities 
or presents at Christmas or other times to professional gardeners?" 
I received thirty-six answers. 

Twenty-three firms — F. J. Rice, Glen Bros., F. H. Horsford, 
W. W. Hunt Co., Peter Henderson, The Conard& Jones Co., Hoopes 
Bros. & Thomas, Hobbs & Son, Chase Bros., Julius Roehrs Co., 
Joseph Breck Corporation, I. E. Ilgenfritz Sons Co., Storrs & Harrison 
Co., The Chase Nursery Co., The W. H. Moon Co., B. H. Tracy, 
Wyomissing Nurseries, W. Atlee Burpee, Leesly Bros., Childs Bros., 
Fraser Nursery Co., W. & T. Smith Co., American Forestry Co. — 
rephed briefly in the negative. 

Three firms gave less positive answers as follows: 
C. W. Stewart, Newark. 

"Why do the employers of professional gardeners employ the 
caHber of men that frequently expect commissions, gratuities or 
presents?" 
The Elm City Nursery Co., New Haven. 

" We do not encourage sales by commissions, gratuities or presents 
to professional gardeners, though there have been some exceptions 
to this rule. This is a 'hard nut to crack' for the merchant." 
The Bay State Nurseries, North Abington. 

"We give no commissions, gratuities or Christmas presents in 
order to secure orders. Our business is conducted on straight fines 
as far as we know how to do it." 

Replies from ten other nurserymen who have gone into the 
question more in detail and heartily condemn the practice of paying 
commissions are given in full. They show that this form of corrup- 
tion injures the dealer, the employer and the employees, and that 
where it has become prevalent both in this country and in England 
it has been forbidden by law. 
H. P. Kelsey, Salem, Mass. 

"I have never yet given a commission, gratuity or other con- 
sideration whatever to any gardener, superintendent or other 
employee but have been working for many years to have concerted 
action among all the trade to eliminate this pernicious practice. A 
great difficulty comes in the winking at this process by the customer. 
The nurseryman who does not give commissions is at best under 
great disadvantage, for most gardeners who accept commissions 
sooner or later will neglect stock purchased from such nurserymen 



and on the other hand will take good care of stock from nurserymen 

who give such gratuities or graft," 

New England Nurseries Co., Bedford, Mass. 

" We positively do not and would refuse to do business rather than 
stoop to this practice. Gardeners open to this form of bribery are 
undesirable as customers as well as employees." 
Cherry Hill Nurseries, West Newbury, Mass. 

"We have never nor do we ever expect to give any commission, 
gratuity or present to gardeners as we believe it is a pernicious 
practice both from a moral and business point of view. Merely from 
the business point of view the gardener is shopping arouftd to find 
where he can get the biggest discoimt, and it is only a question of 
time until he finds some dealer who will make a larger discount 
than the one which he has previously been getting. This must finally 
come from the owner of the estate who pays the bills and he either 
pays more for his stock or gets a poorer grade. 
A. N. Pier son, Cromwell, Connecticut. 

"We do not give commissions or gratuities to anyone. We have 
never done so, although we realize that we have lost a great deal of 
business by not allowing the customary lo per cent graft to profes- 
sional gardeners. We have never transgressed in this. We do not 
beHeve in it and prefer to lose business rather than to get it in what 
we consider a dishonest manner. The giving of gratuities by any 
concern is against the laws of the United States. The Federal Board 
of Trade at Washington has recently prosecuted practically the entire 
paint industry on the grounds of unfair competition and unfair 
business methods. We have no desire to lay ourselves Uable to such 
prosecution." 
Princeton Nurseries, Princeton, New Jersey. 

"No; in the first place because we do no business with gardeners 
or their employers. We sell to nurserymen only. I have been in the 
wholesale business for fifteen years, and in all my time I never gave 
or heard of any other seller giving any commission or present of 
any sort to any buyer for a nursery firm. As far as business within 
the trade is concerned, such a thing as graft is unknown, — ^it is only 
very recently that I heard of its being practiced in the retail business. 
And frankly I can see no difference between the man who takes 
graft and the man who gives it. For several states, I beHeve, there 
are already laws covering dishonest practices of this sort. Such a 
law was recently passed by the legislature of New Jersey, but under 
a misapprehension, I am sure, was vetoed by Governor Edge as class 
legislation. You are aware, doubtless, that in England there are 
severe penalties for the giving or the accepting by gardeners or other 



buyers of the simplest sort of presents at Christmas or other times. 
We should have the same severe penalties here." 
Glen Brothers, Inc., Rochester, N. Y. 

"We should like to emphasize our answer to question No. 5: 
That under no circumstance will we permit any commission or 
gratuity of any character to professional gardeners, etc. We are 
aware that we lose business on account of this." 
Harrison's Nurseries, Berlin, Maryland. 

"We do not give commissions, gratuities or presents at Christmas 
or any other time. This is a bad practice and should be discontinued 
as early as possible." 
H. A. Dreer, Inc., Philadelphia. 

"We give no commissions, gratuities or presents at any time to 
professional gardeners. We are not prepared to buy trade or do 
business in that way." 
The Rhode Island Nurseries, Newport, R. I. 

"I do not give any commissions, gratuities or presents to gar- 
deners. I do not think it right to give something to them because 
it will not give us any profit at all; or again, a much larger price 
must be charged to the cHent to cover the cost. This would not be 
fair treatment to the cHent and not right on the part of the dealer." 

Mr. William Warner Harper, Andorra Nurseries, Philadelphia, 
is emphatically opposed to the giving of commissions and calls 
attention to the report of the Federal Commission lurging the passage 
of a law to prevent briberies in trade. 

Federal Commission is Urging Legislation to Prevent 
Bribery in Trade, Stating that Commissions are Some- 
times 20 PER CENT OF VaLUE OF THE GoODS SOLD. 

Washington, May 16 — Enactment of "a sufficient law striking 
at the unjustifiable and vicious practises of commercial bribery" was 
urged on Congress today by the Federal Trade Commission. 

Every person participating in any such transaction should be 
reached by a criminal statute, in the opinion of the conunission, 
which recounted that investigation has revealed commercial bribery 
to be general throughout many industries. Scores of complaints 
have been issued against firms guilty of the practice, but the com- 
mission, having no criminal jurisdiction, has been unable to punish 
individuals, and has had to deal with commercial bribery only as 
an unfair method of competition. 

"It should be noted" says the commission, "that the practice 
appears to have been most general on the part of concerns in intro- 
ducing the goods and wares to German firms." 



Added Cost to Consumers 

The Commission's recommendations said in part: — 

"These bribes take the form of commissions for alleged services, of 
money and gratuities and entertainments of various sorts, and of 
loans — all intended to influence such employes in the choice of mate- 
rials. It is evident that this inexcusable added cost is finally passed 
on to the consumers. 

"The practice is one which has been condemned alike by business 
men, legislatures and courts, including among the business men 
those who having finally resorted to it in self-defense in competing 
with less scrupulous rivals or in selling to concerns whose employers 
have extorted commissions under threats to destroy or disapprove 
goods submitted to them for test. 

"Corrupt employees having the power to spoil and dis-approve 
materials, have been able to bid one salesman against another until 
in many cases they have extorted secret commissions, so called, as 
large as 20 per cent of the value of the goods sold. 

"Fourteen States have statutes striking at the practice and 
yet it tends to grow. When competition crosses State Unes, State 
statutes with respect to trade practices are not actively enforced." 

Gifts to Members of Families 

"The commission feels that the stamping out of bribery is one 
necessary step to the preservation of free, open, and fair competition, 
and to that end respectfully urges that such legislation should prohibit 
not only the giving and offering, but the acceptance and solicitation 
of any gift or other consideration by an employe as an inducement 
or reward for doing any act in relation to his employer's affairs or 
business, or for showing or forbearing to show favor or disfavor to 
any person in relation to his principal's or employer's affairs or 
business. 

" In order to prevent a resort to a common method of corruption, 
it is recommended that the law should also prohibit the giving of any 
such gifts or other consideration to members of the agent's or 
employe's family, or to any other person for his use or benefit, direct 
or indirect." 

Rose Standish Nichols, 
Chairman of Committee on Trade Relations. 
July 26, 1918. 



A Lesson 
to the Florists at Home 

With the German guns roaring less than forty miles away and the 
tide of battle sm-ging backward and forward, with millions of men en- 
gaged in deadly combat, yet with every confidence in ultimate \dctory, 
35,000 French Rose lovers witnessed the judging at the annual Rose 
competition last Sunday, as usual at this time in each year, in the 
City of Paris Rose Gardens at Bagatelle, on the grounds of a httle 
chateau situated in the Bois de Boulogne, which formerly belonged to 
Sir Richard Wallace, by whom it was bequeathed to the city he loved 
so well. 

The fact that the Grand Prix was awarded to Fred Howard's 
distinctively American-raised Rose must be taken as a harbinger of the 
final victory which the American troops are destined to so thoroughly 
assist in winning for the AUies. 

But it is in view of the fact of the great calm and the wonderful 
equipoise of the people that a Rose Show and Rose Judging should be 
carried on in spite of all the en\dronments, to which add the Gotha 
raids, the bombardment by the long-range guns, and the undoubted 
presence of thousands of wounded soldiers among them, all testifying 
to the great war now at the height of its intensity, that we find our en- 
couragement. No fitter reply could be given to the bombastic state- 
ments of German papers which assert that Paris has been deserted 
by its inhabitants in panic-stricken flight. 

From The American Florist. 

Book Reviews 

Home Vegetable Gardening from A to Z, by Adolph Kruhm. 
(Doubleday Page & Co.) 

With this httle book in one hand, and the trusty hoe in the other, 
no War Gardener should speU "failure" on his records. 

Each chapter treats separately of a vegetable, from the planting 
of the seeds to the gathering of the crop. The choice of varieties is 
discussed, and methods of cultivation appropriate to different ch- 
mates and soils are described. 

It is profusely illustrated and weU edited, so that a subject may be 
looked up quickly. Indeed it is the Handy Book of the hour. 

(This book was briefly noticed in an earher issue, but has proved 
so useful that the repetition is valuable.) 

How to Grow 100 Bushels of Corn per Acre on Worn Soil, 

by William C. Smith. (Stewart Kidd Co., Cinciimati.) 



This book is not a new one, having first been pubKshed in 1910, 
and is now in its second edition; but it reads as if it had been written for 
the emergency of 19 18. 

Of course it was primarily intended for the great Central Corn 
Beh farmers, who had deserted their exhausted soil for the more 
alluring city — thus menacing the productiveness of our country. 
But farmers North, East, South, and West should read and digest the 
great lesson taught of re-vitahzing the soil to the highest fertihty. 
Even the smallest War Gardeners will better understand what is 
going on luider ground when the seeds are sprouting, if they would but 
take the time to read this most valuable httle book — especially the 
chapter of Don't Forgets. 

Bulletin of the Pennsylvania Dept. of Agri., Harrisburg, Pa., 
Vol. I, No. 3, May, 1918, entitled " A Handbook of Common Garden 
Pests" is a useful pamphlet, intended for the amateur. It is con- 
venient in size and the language is concise and clear. Descriptions are 
given, with illustrations, and methods of control of the principal insect 
pests and plant diseases that attack vegetables. 

Warrenton Garden Club War Receipts. A booklet of 40 tried war receipts; 
sent for 25 cents, 2 cents additional postage. All proceeds to go to the Red 
Cross. Address Mrs. Barrett, Warrenton, Virginia. 

Notes 

Occasionally and at the last moment advertising copy fails to 
reach the Bulletin and an advertising space is left free. These might 
very well be used to advertise the war activities of our members, and 
if copy not to exceed fifty words is sent now to the Editor it wiU be 
used as soon as possible. 

The Chicago War Gardens Committee is justly proud of the fol- 
lowing report. The figures are approximate but not overestimated. 

No. of Value of 

Acres Gardeners Crop 

Home Yard Gardens 3,850 140,000 $2,800,000 

Vacant Lot Community Gardens 774 8,422 673,760 

Children's Gardens 206 90,000 55,620 

Approximate Grand Totals 4,830 238,422 $3,529,380 

Coming Exhibitions 

Buffalo, N. Y. — American Gladiolus Society; annual show and 
convention, probably Aug. 14 to 17. Madison Cooper, Calcium, N. Y., 
Secretary. 

New York City. — American Institute and Amer. DahUa Soc, 
exhibition of Dahhas, Sept. 24 to 26; Amer. Inst, and Amer. Chrysan- 
themum Soc, 'Mums, Nov. 6 to 8. W. A. Eagleson, Secretary, 324 
W. 23d St. 



^JP TTT T/-^pkKTTC Is the beautiful new "^ 

. liVjVjWlNlO hardy yellow rose from , 

■MjL China — blooms 2 weeks ahead ol any other isL 

»|K rose. Ovir beautifully illustrated catalog »*• 

^ii showing Hugonis and 17 other roses in vli 

•J» natural colors, will be gladly sent on ■^^ 

v^ request. Send for it today. . 

•^ THE CONARD & JONES CO. ^ 

W, West Grove, Pa. Robert Pyle, Prea. ^ 

READ IN 

7"Ae New France 

What France Can Do 

for You 

AND 

What You Can Do for Her 

$3 a Year 

Holland Bulbs and 
Hardy Perennials 

of HIGH QUALITY and choicest varieties for 
Fall Planting. 

Let Us Send a Catalogue 

FRANKEN BROTHERS 

Box 520 Deerfield, lUinoii 

D LJLiDiD — American and Imported 
Flower— SEEDS— Vegetable 

New and Rare PLANTS 
VAUGHAN'S SEED STORE 

CHICAGO (Catalog Free) NEW YORK 

Lilium myriophyllum 
'^Ae Regal Lily 

$12.00 per dozen; $90.00 per 100 
Fully described in our JJutumn Catalogue 

R. & J. FARQUHAR & CO. 

BOSTON, MASS. 



ORDERS for the WORLD FAMOUS 
Peonies from the CELEBRATED 
Havemeyer Collection, grown under his 
personal supervision, should now be 
placed to insure delivery for planting 
next September. They will be the Pride 
of your Garden for a Lifetime. 
Collection of 100 finest varieties, 
one extra strong clump of each, 

for total of $500.00 

Collection of 50 finest varieties, 
one extra strong clump of each, 

for total of 250.00 

Collection of 23 fine varieties, 
one extra strong clump of each, 

for total of 130.00 

Collection of 12 fine varieties, 
one extra strong clump of each, 
for total of 70.00 

JOHN SCHEEPERS, Inc. 

Flowerbulb Specialists 2 Stone Street, New York 

Maplewilde Peony Gardens 

We offer a choice selection of 400 varieties of 
PEONIES. We specialize in the introductions 
of Lemoine and Dessert of France and Kelway 
of England and in the choicer new American 
varieties. We furnish strong, robust specimens 
and the varieties are guaranteed true to name. 

LYMAN H. HOYSRADT 

PINE PLAINS NEW YORK 

CHESTER JAY HUNT 

MAYFAIR LITTLE FALLS. N. J. 

Spring-flowering bulbs, including many exclu- 
sive offerings in Tulips and Daffodils. 

The Blue Book of Bulbs will be sent you on 
request. 



aa^Bnrahame 



Builders of Greenhouses and Conservatories 

New York Chicago 

42nd St. Bldg. Continental & Commercial Bk. Bldg. 

Rochester Cleveland 

29 Avondale Park 1 36 Ramona Ave. 

Toronto 

Royal Bank Bldg. 

Factories : Irvington, N._ Y., Des Plaines, 111., 

St. Catherine's, Canada 



All advertisements endorsed by members of the GARDEN CLUB OF AMERICA 
In -writing to yldvertisers kindly refer to the Bulletin 




BeY 



our 



Needs 



What They May 

In the way of Plants. 
Whether Evergreens, 
Shade Trees, Shrubs or 
Hardy Flowers for your 
grounds; or Ferns, Palms 
or Orchids for your green- 
house — we can fill your 
orders with the kind of 
healthy, well - developed 
stock that will be in keeping 
with its new environment. 

Our complete catalog you are 
heartily welcome to. 

yjutiuy "Rgrete^ Cor 

^ "At the Sign of The Tree" 



Box 34 



Rutherford. N. J. 



BACK NUMBERS OF THE 
BULLETIN 

Back issues of the Bulletin and extra copies of 
the current number may be had from the Editor 
for ten cents each, payable in stamps. Nos. 10 
and 1 4 are out of print. A few copies of No. 23, 
containing a full account of the Unit Plan for 
Women Agricultural Workers, may be had for 
twenty-five cents each. 

DREER'S 
MIDSUMMER CATALOG 

Offers Vegetable and Flower Seeds for Summer 
planting; also Celery and Cabbage Plants, Potted 
Plants of Roses, Hardy Perennials, Shrubbery, 
Decorative Plants, etc., and Potted Strawberry 
Plants which will give a full crop next year. 

A Copu Mailed FREE to All Applicants 

HENRY A. DREER 

714-716 Chestnut Street PHILADELPHIA. PA. 



OUR NEW BOOKLET 

PRIZE WINNING PEONIES and OTHER 
PERENNIALS, fully illustrated, from our own 
fields, will help you SOLVE YOUR HORTICUL- 
TURAL PROBLEMS in the flower garden. We 
shall also be pleased to send with it our GENEIRAL 
CATALOGUE of Roses. Shrubs and bearingc- 
sized Fruits. 

S. G. HARRIS 

Box C. TARRYTOWN. N. Y. 



ROCK GARDENS 

Rockeries are one of the most beautiful features 
of gardening. In them can be grown the exquisite 
alpine plants which are too dainty for the ordinary 
border. 

We specieJize in the choicest of these plants, as 
well as various other novelties. 

Send for Catalog 

WOLCOTT NURSERIES, Jackson, Michigan 

Choice and Rare Hard's Plants 



OUR new rose. ' 'Mrs. Charles 
Bell," is a shell-pink Radi- 
ance. It has a wonderful con- 
stitution. It will be a joy to 
your garden as Radiance has 
been and is — as RED RADI- 
ANCE is proving to be. 

We grow Roses for America 
and for the folks near at home; 
a nursery full of choice Ever- 
greens, Shrubs and Trees. We 
do landscape work for a few 
good people each season. Our 
catalogue is larger and better 
than ever. We want a few addi- 
tional people to study it and to 
know our stock and our methods. 
Will YOU be one? A post card 
will bring it. 

A. N. PIERSON, Inc. 

Cromwell Gardens 
CROMWELL. CONN, 



All advertisements endorsed by members of the GARDEN CLUB OF AMERICA 
In writing to Jldoertisers kindly refer to the Bulletin 



Bulletin ot 



^be (Barren Club 



of Hmerica 



November, 1919 



No. I. (New Series) 



President 
MRS. J. WILLIS MARTIN 

Chestnut Hill, Phtladelphla, Pa. 

Treasurer 
MRS. H. D. AUCHINCLOSS, 

33 E. 67TH Street, New York and 
Newport, R. I. 

Secretary 
MRS. HAROLD I. PRATT, 

820 Fifth Ave., New York and 
Glen Cove, L. I. 

Librarian 
MRS. FREDERICK L. RHODES 
Short Hills, N. J. 



Vice-Presidents 
MRS. FRANCIS KING 
Alma, Michigan 



MRS. J0S:N E. NEWELL 
West Mentor, Ohio 



MRS. OAKLEIGH THORNE 

MiLLBROOK, N. Y. AND 

Santa Barbara, Cal. 



MRS. SAMUEL SLOAN 

45 East 530 Street, New York and 
Garrison, N. Y. 



Editor 

MRS. WALTER S. BREWSTER 

1220 Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, and Lake Forest, Illinois 



The objects of this association shall be: to stimulate the knowledge and love of gardening among 
amateurs; to share the advantages of association, through conference and correspondence in this 
country and abroad; to aid in the protection of native plants and birds; and to encourage civic planting . 



A little sun, a little rain, 

A soft wind blowing from the west — 

And woods and fields are sweet again, 

And warmth within the mountain breast. 

So simple is the earth we tread, 

So quick with love and life her frame. 

Ten thousand years are dawned and fled 

And still her magic is the same. 

— Spofford A. Brooke. 



For more th an a year there has been no Bulletin. Through the 
early months of the war it struggled on, trying to be interesting, hop- 
ing to justify itself, but always growing feebler, less self-confident, 
until in sheer mortification, it crouched in the corner of a book shelf 
and hid itself until gardening days should come again. Around it 
ebbed and flowed a mass of war-garden pamphlets, war-time canning 
recipes, conservation literature; with all these harrowing subjects it 
had inadequately dealt. Finally it dug itself in, canned itself, con- 
e rved paper, time, energy, by ceasing to be. 

With the end of the war it stirred, ready when invited, to appear 
again. It has been invited, tentatively, perhaps, so for the next year 
it will make a special effort to prove whether its war-time inadequacy 
was constitutional or merely shock. If it is assertive, set it down to 
bravado; if dull, to caution; if confused, to a desire to please garden- 
ers who know, ignoramuses who garden; optimists who revel in the 
failures of others, pessimists who question their successes; sentimen- 
talists who want undiluted facts, and common-sense diggers who enjoy 
flights of fancy couched in flowery terms. 

On August 2 1 St was mailed to all Garden Club members a Bul- 
letin plan and questionnaire. Some of these were long in reaching 
their destination, but before today, October 15th, about 200 individ- 
ual members have replied and nine clubs have answered as a whole. 
This, we are told, is an unusually large percentage so we dare to hope 
that the Club is really interested in a revival of its organ. 

These answers are illuminating and sometimes disconcerting. 
Perhaps 25 people reply that they read the Bulletin but do not find 
it interesting, or only occasionally so, but what is one to say when a 
lady states that she does not read the Bulletin, that she does not 
find it interesting, that she doubts its being worth the cost, and that 
busy people must have a magazine on a large scale because they haven't 
time to read a small one and that as it has been issued it is distinctly 
not worth while? Perhaps it isn't, but how is one who does not read 
it to know? Another doesn't read it very often or find it very inter- 
esting and is sure that a magazine which is not worth twenty-five 
cents to individual members can hardly be worth $.^,000 to the Club, 
at a time when paper and labor are both too precious to waste. 

We concede that these criticisms are just, but on the other hand 
150 or more members have replied that they always read the Bulle- 
tin and find it very interesting, many even going so far as to say that 
it is essential to the life of the Club and that it is too good a magazine 
to be distributed free. Three faithful souls urge that no change what- 
soever be made, since our little magazine is perfect. This we grate- 
fully deny, but, making due allowance for the magnanimity of our 




Haven Wood 

Estate of Mr. and Mrs. Edward L. Ryerson at Lake Forest, Illinois 

*~r*HE composition of statues and pool has a background of three rows of native red 
-*■ cedars, which were especially selected for perpendicular and formal effect and have 
been graded up in sizes of fifteen, twentj^-five and thirty-five feet high. The entire 
garden is framed with the same dense planting, arranged to give strength and strong 
shadows; the special groups, axes points, and skyline strongly accented by the tallest 
trees. 

The varied effect of color in the forest trees of oak, beech, maples, etc., changing 
with the different seasons, outlines the special character and color of the cedar frame. 

One quarter of the area of the garden is shown in the photograph. The four late 
Seventeenth Century marble statues came from a garden in Verona, and are mounted 
on their own bases and worked in with a stone rail of modern construction. 

(The garden at Haven Wood was enthusiastically admired by all GARDEN CLUB 
members who attended the Annual Meeting. Our illustration gives an excellent idea 
of its setting and plan, but no photograph can give an adequate idea of the color and 
effect of the charming planting.) 



membership, we think the germ of success must be there or so many- 
would not send kindly replies. 

From these replies it is evident that there are many points which 
are not fully understood and questions that require fuller answers. 
The matter of accepting paid advertising is one of these. One mem- 
ber says: "I would be very glad to have the advertisements continued 
in the Bulletin. I do not see why we need be hampered by them as 
ours is not a commercial paper." And then, in suggesting new de- 
partments she adds, "Where to obtain good, reliable seed, stock, etc. 
Suggestions from members." This exactly brings out the situation. 
When we accept advertising and accept money for it we become, in a 
technical sense, a commercial publication and we must follow the 
ethics of business. We can lay down rules that we will not sell space 
to notoriously unreliable seedsmen, that only a certain amount of 
space will be sold to one firm, but having once accepted payment from 
certain firms we cannot mention the names of other firms and their 
wares in the body of our magazine. Did we do so our advertisers 
could justly accuse us of breaking faith with them and withdraw their 
advertisements. In our opinion we should give lists of reliable firms 
and definitely state the best place to obtain certain new, unusually 
and especially good things, but are we to claim a non-commercial 
spirit and then, because we are amateurs, break the rules? If we 
would do so we could not, since our advertising pages would be an. 
empty waste. We must choose between a frank statement of rival 
claims and the $i,ooo annually more or less, that paid advertising 
would brin^ us. Which is more valuable to our membership, the 
money or the unbiased information that we can give them if we ac- 
cept no money? To answer other questions in this connection, we 
add that advertisements have been accepted only from firms recom- 
mended by member clubs or individual members whose opinion is 
backed by experience, but that even though great care has been ex- 
ercised names have crept in that could not be inscribed upon the 
"Honor List" of reliable, interested dealers suggested by another 
member. 

We must meet many varying tastes. One Club asks for a Poetry 
Department; one member says sternly, "Less poetry." And yet in 
the eighteen Bulletins issued under the present editorship, twenty 
very short poems have been printed, all but a few classic quotations. 

Another Club feels no interest in articles by Miss Jekyll since 
Miss Jekyll's books are available and universally read, but many mem- 
bers feel that the revival of the Bulletin is justified by her promised 
contributions. One member does not find it worth while because it 
does not help California gardeners and a Southern member wants re- 

3 



minders of work to be done at certain periods, not realizing, perhaps, 
that the range of the Bulletin is from Massachusetts to Virginia, 
from New York to Southern California. We do not know, we who, 
because we garden, must stay at home, what is seasonable, what ap- 
propriate in all our changing climates, unless these same interested 
members will send us or suggest some one else to send us the infor- 
mation. 

There are members who clamor for a Garden Pest and Remedy 
Department and members who say that we waste space on such in- 
formation which can be easily obtained from public sources. There 
are members who want reports from member Clubs and those who 
grudge paper to such details; those who want papers from members, 
those who wish more professional articles ; those who think we should 
cease to subscribe to all other garden magazines and depend upon the 
Bulletin, those who think we should abandon the Bulletin and 
content ourselves with a page or two in some established magazine. 
It is bewildering but interesting and how, oh, how, are we going to 
please them all during this trial year? 

One member wishes an Annual which will give all reports and any 
other interesting material; another a bi-annual; but as the real reason 
for the publication of a Bulletin seems to be the frequent inter- 
change of information and the formation of a bond between our scat- 
tered Member Clubs, neither of these plans would seem to meet the 
requirements. The more enthusiastic wish a Bulletin every month 
or even every week! 

There is a very general demand for a Question and Answer De- 
partment and the following plan has been devised. Mrs. Charles M. 
Hubbard of the Plant Material Department will answer all questions 
dealing with how, where and when to plant, grow and care for growing 
things of all sorts. Mrs. Benjamin S. Warren, in her department on 
Garden Pests and Remedies, will answer questions on diseases, para- 
sites and treatment of plants. Mrs. Robert C. Hill, will tell you where 
to go and at what season to see plants at their best and will answer 
many general inquiries. Mrs. William K. Wallbridge of the Literary 
Committee will reply to questions about garden books and periodi- 
cals, their usefulness, prices and where to get them. Since there is sure 
to be a certain confusion and overlapping all questions may be sent 
to the editor who will distribute them. Experts will be consulted and 
every efifort made to give simple, practical and comprehensive replies. 

A Plant, Bulb, Cuttings and Rare Seed Exchange is another fre- 
quent suggestion. We will gladly set aside space for this if members 
will make known their offerings and their needs: "50 Scarlet Sage 
for I Daffodil bulb, or what have you?" 

4 



As the financial question has been settled by the decision to raise 
the dues immediately there need be no discussion of the replies to 
that question. Some have suggested that we accept outside subscrip- 
tions or place the Bulletin on sale in book-shops, or allow unaffil- 
iated Garden Clubs to subscribe. It is for the Club to decide this 
question, but, from a business point of view, we could not afford to 
place the Bulletin on sale. The very small return would be eaten up 
by the expense. 

The following are some of the subjects that members have asked' 
to have considered: 

Soils. 

Herbs and Herb Gardens. 

Bees. (Thefirstof a series of articles by Miss Wright appears in this 
issue. Those following will give simple, technical and practical details.) 

Two articles yearly on Birds. 

Material for Formal Planting. 

Articles on Village Improvement. 

A campaign against sign-boards. 

Articles descriptive of small gardens and suggestions for their 
making. 

Pruning. 

Canning. 

An Experience Column to which members will be urged to con- 
tribute, giving more space to their failures than to their successes. 

That articles be about equally divided between amateur and pro- 
fessional writers. 

Color combinations. 

Articles on famous foreign gardens. 

More articles by members. 

Continued or serial articles. 

More excerpts from periodicals. 

More practical instruction. 

More active representation from Member Clubs, i. e., programs, 
interesting meetings, special activities. 

A suggestion that Clubs specialize in certain plants and make reg- 
ular reports of the results. 

There are many who wish much space given to the preservation of 
native plants, the publication of lists of new papers and of good lec- 
turers and a Correspondence Column to be filled with more personal 
news from the Member Clubs. The preservation of native plants 
should certainly be one of our first considerations and lists of papers, 
lecturers, etc., are now being revised. The success and length of the 
Correspondence Column depends entirely upon our members. 

5 



To these suggestions is added an excerpt from the original min- 
utes of the Annual Meeting: "Mrs. Francis King spoke enthusiasti- 
cally of the Bulletin, but thought it might be made the means of 
better communication between Clubs. She suggested that each Club 
send in each month a typewritten report of its monthly activities — 
speakers at meetings — subjects of meetings — garden pilgrimages; a 
personal interchange should be the important thing. Miss Ernestine 
Goodman emphasized the importance of news. Mrs. Francis Crown- 
inshield thought one article from a celebrity would be acceptable. 
Mrs. Arnold Hague emphasized the importance of literary standards. 
Mrs. Mercer suggested a combination of news and literary articles. 
Mrs. Robert C. Hill recommended a comic section, and Mrs. John 
Newell, a column for Diseases and Remedies of plants, Mrs. Fred- 
erick Greeley wanted the Bulletin to be used as a medium to hear 
from the President. The Chair asked the Editor to appoint persons 
to take charge of the vaiious departments of the enlarged Bulletin 
to relieve her of some of the responsibilities and work." 

If you are interested in any of these things, won't you say so, or 
write an article upon one of them, or offer to conduct a department? 
Tell us what doesn't interest you, too, but remember that we have 
2500 members with apparently 2500 different tastes. Perhaps we 
can't quite please them all, all of the time, but we ought to be able 
to please some of them some of the time and possibly a few of the 
less critical will be pleased all of the time. 

One request is for an annual index, so this issue of the Bulletin 
is numbered, as you see, and its pages begin with one. With the Sep- 
tember issue of next year our first index will be printed. 

Three comments sum up what the Bulletin is and what it hopes 
to be. One member says: "The Bulletin is an amateur magazine, 
written by amateurs, read by amateurs and valuable to amateurs. 
Why attempt to compete with a professional magazine?" Why in- 
deed? For "Mark you," as Mrs. Ewing says in Letters from a 
Little Garden, "Amateur gardener, being interpreted, means gardener 
for love"; and if we are that we should be able to make for ourselves 
a magazine quite different from others, quite outside competition, 
quite necessary to our existence as a club. 

Another says, "Make the Bulletin a necessary adjunct to the 
garden library." Shall we try? 

And last, one says, " It might be a question as to which part of the 
name should be most emphasized in the Bulletin. It sometimes 
seems as if Club outranked Garden." Does it and should it? 

Gardening is a lonesome sport, not like golf or bridge. Its triumphs 
are small and personal, the one that exalts the most the least easy to 

6 



share. Before Garden Clubs were invented, we looked in vain for 
sympathetic souls (or fellow-cranks). But in association we have 
found them, not many but a few, and Garden should mean more 
to us, not less, while Club should mean a fellowship of amateurs, 
gardeners for love, who through the Bulletin emerge from solitude 
and become articulate. 



Some Aims in Gardening 

By Gertrude Jekyll 

The acceptance of the pleasant task of writing some articles on 
horticultural subjects for my fellow garden lovers across the wide 
Atlantic sets me thinking about a few of the main things I have learnt 
during a lifetime of devotion to the beauty of plants and to the efifort 
towards finding ways of employing them worthily. 

Gardening is unlike any other form of decorative art in that its 
material is always growing and changing, and it is in watching these 
developments, and ministering to general wants and individual de- 
mands, that good culture consists. There must needs be some first 
intention or plan, if the garden is to be other than quite commonplace, 
but whatever this may be, the good gardener must be ever on the 
watch and ready to do any service that may be required. It is just 
this conviction of the need of constant watchfulness, the feeling that 
the flowers are dependent for their happiness and well being on our 
ceaseless care, that makes gardening so humanly interesting — the 
consciousness that, under the greater controlling Power, we are al- 
lowed to create and maintain all that beautiful life that seems so will- 
ingly and gladly to reward the application of knowledge slowly and 
laboriously gained. 

However small and humble, a garden may be a work of fine art, 
and it is perhaps the little gardens that give their owners the great- 
est happiness. For here nothing comes between the man or woman 
and the growing things, and here that quality of restraint, which in 
all pleasure grounds must prevail if anything good is to be achieved, 
becomes a necessity. As in all good art the aim must be founded first 
on common sense and fitness, and then built up with a humble and 
adoring worship of beauty. With the gradual knowledge gained by 
experience the ways and wants and best uses of the various plants will 
be recognized, until the time comes when the wisdom acquired can be 
employed with some degree of confidence. 

One safe rule is not to attempt too much at a time. Where a beau- 
tiful plant or shrub can be almost isolated it is all the better enjoyed. 

7 



In large gardens that have architectural features I sometimes end an 
important flower border with a rectangular bed raised by two feet of 
walling, the same width as the border, and plant it wholly with Yuc- 
cas. The plants themselves have a certain monumental effect that 
fits them for such treatment, and the quiet dignity of the group of 
one fine thing is a distinct refreshment to the mind after the more per- 
plexing and constantly varying interest of the flower border. This in 
itself is difficult to keep quiet enough and it can only be satisfactorily 
done by a proper proportion and sequence in the grouping and colour- 
ing. On this there is so much to be said that I shall hope to make it 
the subject of a later article. But whenever it can be practiced, the 
rule of restraint, of doing one thing at a time and doing it well, is a 
good one to have in mind. I may illustrate it by a short description 
of the planting of the edges of a moat that I have lately planned. The 
moat surrounds the garden of a fine house built in the days of Queen 
Elizabeth; it encloses a square of some acres, so that its whole length 
is not much under half a mile. Here is an opportunity of doing some 
planting so that anyone going leisurely along the path within a few 
feet of the water on the outer side should meet with a succession of 
pleasant plant pictures — never of many kinds at a time, but so 
arranged that each group, growing apparently naturally and accom- 
panied by the wild flags and grasses of the place, should lead pleas- 
antly to the next, giving time for deliberate enjoyment of each suc- 
cessive flower picture. Where the carriage road enters by a bridge on 
the north western side, a high garden wall rises straight out of the 
moat and the outer side has also a low wall. Here are some groups of 
water-lilies, white and rose, and the only other planting is of some near 
groups of Water Elder (Viburnum Opulus), the beautiful berrying 
bush whose round, white, ball-flowered garden variety is the familiar 
Guelder-rose. The walls cease at the angle and there the moat-edge 
planting begins. First, next the quiet corner, are long drifts of cool, 
green ferns; the graceful Lady Fern (Athyrium Filix-fosmina), and 
on the opposite bank Struthiopteris, the handsome Fern of shuttle- 
cock shape. Each of these groups occupies a span of from thirty to 
forty feet. After the Struthiopteris comes a long drift of the hand- 
some purple Cranesbill (Geranium grandiflorum) thickly planted at 
the water's edge and streaming away from it out into the grass, to 
right and left. Then the yellow Mimulus, which delights in stream 
edges, and the double form of the wild Meadowsweet (Spiraea Ul- 
maria), followed, after an interval of unplanted bank, by a bold mass 
of Spircea Aruncus throwing up its great white plumes to a height 
of seven or eight feet. It is the plant that is so beautiful by Alpine 
torrents. In the case of the moat planting it is placed where it is seen 



not only as a waterside plant, but where it also shows as a fine object 
from a wide grass path, which comes down to the water's edge in the 
inner garden. Then along the moat comes more yellow Mimulus 
grouped with the yellow Flag {Iris Pseudacorus) ; the yellow colouring 
repeated above and below; this is followed by a low, quiet planting of 
the lovely Water Forget-me-not (Myosotis palustris) ; then again some 
of the water-loving Ferns. Now the colour changes to the pale pink 
of Spiraa venusta and the noble foliage of Saxafraga peltata. Looking 
beyond these there is something of a brighter red, the Bee Balm 
(Monarda) , a North American plant that has long been a favorite in 
English gardens; then again the pink of Spiraa venusta. 

These few kinds of plants with the accompanying ferns and wild 
growths are all that is seen in a space of something like three hundred 
yards, and the same kind of rule is observed throughout the whole 
length of the moat, sometimes with different plants, and, after a good 
interval, with some of the same repeated. Halfway along on the south- 
eastern side, the garden wall again comes to the moat, rising straight 
out of it. In the middle space it swings back in a half circle with a 
corresponding form in the opposite bank, so forming a large, round 
pool, where again there will be water-lilies. As there is a raised ter- 
race above the wall, flanked by garden houses with bridges and the 
moat to right and left, the planting on the outer side of the moat is 
kept bold in character. Here again is the giant Spiraa Aruncus, and 
the great yellow composite Senecio CHvorum,la,Tge and stately both in 
leaf and bloom. Round the third angle the path no longer passes 
close to the moat but is forty feet away and the ground between is 
cool and moist. Here is a chance for the use of the giant Cow-parsnip 
that towers up twelve to fifteen feet and bears immense heads of 
bloom no less than five feet across. It is the newer kind, Heracleum 
Mantegazzianum, a finer thing in all ways than the older Heracleum 
giganteum. This is backed by groups of Water Elder, whose masses of 
berries are a wonderful sight in September and October; here also the 
groups of yellow Iris and Ferns are even bolder than before. This is 
aU best seen from the inner grounds. 

Whatever may be the size or calibre of the garden, it is the influence 
of the master mind that directs it, that gives it character and interest, 
and not character and interest only, but also life and charm. For a 
garden may have had great wealth expended on it and yet be without 
these essential qualities. Such examples exist, though happily they 
are rare; for where the driving power of strong will and riches are ex- 
pended on horticulture, there is generally the love of beautiful garden 
design and of the flowers themselves that tells throughout the work. 
Some of the greater gardens in the States testify to the admiration of 



their owners for the noble examples of the Italian Renaissance seen 
in Italy, and though climatic conditions militate against complete 
success in reproducing such gardens in the northern states, those that 
lie in the south give admirable facilities for making gardens of Italian 
character. I am of the opinion that the best type of garden and style 
of house for the north is what is known as the Colonial; I think I may 
claim that this is not from any national partiality, but because, when 
the existing Colonial houses were built, the English taste in matters 
of building and decoration was singularly pure. Think how good a 
time it was in silversmith's work, in joinery, in glass, pottery and por- 
celain, and in all the trades connected with building, and the simple 
charm of the portraiture; a charm now entirely lost. The houses of 
this type, which in England we commonly call Georgian, and the 
gardens that accompany them, have that quiet, restful quality which 
is the most precious attribute of a human dwelling and that must 
surely be the greatest solace and refreshment to those whose best 
years and longest hours are spent in the strain and hurry of modern 
business, or even social life. May I commend this thought to archi- 
tects and garden designers, and may I take this opportunity of offer- 
ing to the readers of the Bulletin and all who are stiiving to make 
their home grounds beautiful, the expression of an old gardener's 
sincerest sympathy and good will? 



Making New Roses for America 
By J. Horace McFarland, Editor American Rose Annual 

Hearing as I do from all parts of America where roses are grown, 
I have constant evidence not only of the bigness and breadth of our 
great land, but of the improper condition which makes our main de- 
pendence for roses rest upon exotic varieties. 

For example, a letter just received from Little Rock, Arkansas, 
tells of the total failure of roses in a city which heretofore has had no- 
table prosperity with the queen of flowers. My friendly correspondent, 
a noted architect who has learned wisely to substitute work in his rose- 
garden for the golf which previously engrossed him, gives a detailed 
account of the weather which is clearly to blame for the failure of his 
roses. He pathetically adds: "I must plant a new rose-garden this 
fall." 

Now the varieties of roses which he had to depend upon were over- 
whelmingly of French, English and German origin, and were hybrids 
of the roses which in those countries find a continuously congenial 
home. Even where American varieties exist — that is, varieties actu- 

lO 



ally produced in America — they are at best but one short remove 
from the old Rosa indica blood, and practically none of the everbloom- 
ing roses of the day have had bred into them any purely American 
native species. 

Those who have had their eyes fixed on the native flora of America 
have long ago come to realize that here, as in other lands, the things 
persist and become established that inure themselves to our particu- 
lar climatic conditions. Practically all of our great trees, our notable 
plants, our valuable shrubs, are survivals of this process of adaptabil- 
ity. When exotics are brought from a land of less arduous climatic 
range, their endurance is always problematic, at least until they have 
had opportunity to run the gauntlet of enemies as to weather, dis- 
ease and insect life. 

A painfully familiar example is the much-planted Norway spruce, 
which may be found in mournful decrepitude in thousands of American 
parks and home-grounds which it ought to be adorning in full vigor. 
In its youth this spruce is of pleasing habit and rapid growth, but as 
it reaches age and size after a generation on the land, and its feeding 
power is diminished by competition or approaching maturity, it dis- 
closes its total inadaptability to the American climate. The reason 
has been determined for us by those who find that it came from middle 
Europe, where there is a climatic temperature range not much exceed- 
ing ICO degrees from the coldest winter to the warmest summer, while 
here we hardy Americans, who have not only survived but have flour- 
ished, must be as ready for 20 degrees below zero as we are for 120 de- 
grees above it, in the various seasons! The native pines and hem- 
locks, our own magnificent spruces and firs, have in the course of ages 
worked out their own climatic endurance, and there is therefore no 
necessity for planting and no wisdom in continuing to plant this exotic 
spruce, which becomes disheveled just when it should be dignified. 

Many other instances could be cited, but one is sufl&cient to point 
the importance of American plants for American conditions. Notably 
is this so in roses, for the rose is, after all, a world plant, and the 
Creator has endowed every arable area of this beautiful world with 
roses indigenous to that particular condition and therefore suggesting 
a basis for the evolution which has given us all our modern horticul- 
tural advantages. 

I have asked the editor of the Bulletin of the Garden Club of 
America for permission to present this situation to the women who 
have gardens and love roses. I have the hope that there will arise 
among these women those interested in rose hybridization who will 
take it up as a fascinating and fruitful pursuit, the result of which, 
should success come, could only be great good to mankind. 

II 



I have a friend who is a producer of cannas. For many years he 
has lovingly bred toward certain ideals, and he has utterly and alto- 
gether changed the place and quality of the canna in its garden rela- 
tions. He does this with facility and with speed, because he can man- 
age two generations in one year. No such speed is possible in rose 
hybridization. It is a slow, painstaking, sometimes disappointing, 
and therefore thoroughly "sporty" pursuit. Dr. Van Fleet, the able 
hybridizer who works for the Department of Agriculture, told me not 
many weeks ago that it was not certain that all possible seeds had ger- 
minated in the seed pans which had received his precious crosses for 
three years in some cases. Yet in the course of a half of a lifetime de- 
Voted to rose-growing, this one man has added varieties of vast value 
to the American list, and has bred intelligently and definitely for har- 
diness, vigor and the power to withstand our climatic conditions. 
Those who enjoy Silver Moon, American Pillar, Dr. Van Fleet, Mary 
Lovett, and similar modern climbers, will pay tribute to the genius 
of this patient, painstaking man. 

Any garden woman who really loves roses and is willing to fuss 
"with seedhngs, to observe differences, to hybridize with care, to wait 
with patience, can undertake this work. Details concerning it are 
found in some of the publications of the American Rose Society, and 
it is not improbable that in the forthcoming months interesting prizes 
will be offered by that Society, open to all growers in the land, for new 
and meritorious American-bred roses suited to American conditions. 

This whole situation is made more acute by the exclusion of all 
rose plants, save those required for propagating purposes, since June 
I, 1 9 19, at which time the Federal Horticultural Board applied a 
plant quarantine to that effect, in order to protect the land against 
injurious insects and diseases. Not only do we need, therefore, new 
varieties of roses, but more places and more methods for the increase 
of good varieties of roses. I estimate that in 1920 there will be a rose 
shortage of not less than three million plants which would otherwise 
be sold to the advantage of everyone in the land. 

If the Editor of the Bulletin desires, it may be that later certain 
suggestions as to parentage and the like can be presented. Mean- 
while those who have in mind to be interested in new roses and to 
start to create the basis of a lottery in which it is impossible to draw 
all blanks, can properly and profitably acquaint themselves with rose 
varieties which do best in their own particular climatic regions, so as 
to work from a standpoint of knowledge personally and definitely 
obtained. 

If a score of American women should begin to grow roses with the 
love and devotion which have made every effort to do anything by 

12 



women count most magnificently, I should look for a condition which 
would soon utterly change the rather disgraceful relationship of a few 
years ago, when out of some 588 varieties listed in the catalogue of the 
National Rose Society of England — the standard catalogue of the 
world at that time — but 26 were of American origin! 



Mushroom Culture 

By Dorothy Abbot, Garden Club of Washington, Connecticut 

While there are at least 150 known varieties of the edible Fungi iii 
the United States, the Agaricus Campestris or Field Mushroom is 
the only kind that " will accommodate itself easily to an artificial imi- 
tation of its native surroundings, " to quote from Mr. William Hamer- 
ton Gibson's well-put sentence. This variety is too well known to need 
any description, and I'm sure that most of us feel so well acquainted 
that we dare cook and eat them when we gather them from the fields. 
They are delicate pink and white when fresh, and tan and brown when 
slightly passe. 

The Agaricus Campestris has been cultivated in precisely the same 
manner from the middle of the Eighteenth Century (and probably 
before), with the exception of spawn, which we can procure in 
simple brick form, but which the people in old times had to get 
from its natural surroundings. Almost the clearest exposition of 
mushroom culture I found was in a book written about 1779 rejoic- 
ing in the title: "The Garden Mushroom. Its Nature and Cultiva-, 
tion ; a Treatise exhibiting Full and Plain Directions for Producing 
This Desirable Plant in Perfection and Plenty" ! 

All authorities, old and new, however, agree in certain essentials, 
and I shall try to give the main points of: 

1. Where to grow them. 

2. How to grow them. 

3. General requisites and conditions. 

I. Where to grow them. — Dreer claims there is no reason why we 
can't have lawns just sprouting with mushrooms, but I have tried it, 
and I regret to say with no success. I was pleased to learn from other 
authorities that it is almost impossible to grow them successfully out 
of doors, even though they may grow in abundance in a field one side 
of you and on a neighbor's lawn on the other. So, if out-door culture is 
tried, it is as well to keep on friendly terms with the neighbor who is 
lucky enough to have God-given ones, in case your own crop fails. 

It is better to try them under truly artificial conditions, such as in 
sheds, cellars, greenhouses, barns, old stalls, or if possible a little: 

13 



house especially built in the side hill, in the way an ice house is built, 
with a "double roof; and it may be built in such a way as to make arti- 
ficial heat unnecessary. For those of us who live in city apartments, 
and to whom all conditions seem equally impossible, I will tell you of 
one writer who said his first trial was in a soap box kept under a bed, 
and he adds laconically: "The mushroom crop was successful!" 
This, however, is not a suggestion! I like better the story of a Belgian 
cook who grew beautiful mushrooms in a pair of wooden shoes. 

Of all these places, a shed, for fall cultivation, or a barn, or some 
where in a garage is best, for I have been told by people who grew them 
in cellars that the odor of the manure in which they are planted has a 
way of coming up through the furnace pipes and permeating every 
room in the house. It has often been thought that darkness is essen- 
tial, but this is not so. Frequently little skylights are built in mushroom 
houses, and sheds open on one side to the light have sheltered many 
fine mushrooms. Last winter I saw some growing in a greenhouse on 
Long Island, not in trays below the benches, carefully protected from 
"drip" in the usual way, but coming up between rows of carnations 
which had the full strength of the sun on them. 

Now as to how to grow them. There are three general requisites: 
First. — Decaying vegetable matter. Second. — A uniform and 
rather low temperature. Third. — Uniform supply of moisture in the 
mixture with dry air in the place chosen for the growing. 

The decaying matter is provided by horse manure which should 
be collected and kept in a shed where rain can not touch it. "The 
manure should be turned over each morning for a few days, and be- 
fore the heat of the manure has subsided sufiiciently to permit the 
bed being made, mix one-third as much loam as there is manure 
into the whole." 

The rank heat thus escapes, and it can be made at once into a bed 
of from 9 to 12 inches deep. 

The loam must be of good earth shaken from tufts of sod, or from a 
rose garden. The early EngUsh writer I referred to called it "strong 
earth. " That is the first method given in the Cyclopedia of American 
Horticulture, and is the most thorough and difficult, for the collect- 
ing, turning, cooling process lasts from September to November, when 
the bed is fully prepared. All authorities say autumn is the best time 
to prepare the beds. 

The second method saves a little time, but not much labor. This 
method, I believe, was from a Government pamphlet. — Collect a 
pile of fresh horse manure in a shed until it is 3 or 4 feet high; pack 
down firmly. This prevents hasty heating. Leave until fermentation 
has started, which may be in only 2 or 3 days. Then turn, so that part 

14 



of what was inside will be outside, and vice versa. If too dry, water the 
dry parts and pack down again. Compacting also reduces the number 
of turnings, and tends to keep ammonia intact, which is important. 
To be sure all possibility of burning is out, this should be done about 
3 weeks, and then if it isn't dry enough add loam. It is then ready for 
making the bed. 

The third method, which seems very simple, but which is recom- 
mended because it does away with the too great dryness and has a 
tendency to hold moisture longer, is: For every load of fresh horse 
manure add a load of thoroughly rotted manure. Mix well and make 
the bed the followng day. 

The method of making the bed is simple, and beds may be made in 
boxes or trays 9 to 15 inches deep, and as long as desired, on floors of 
sheds or barns, or on shelves of sheds or barns. Layers of the mixture 
are placed in boxes and pounded absolutely firm until the 9-15 inches 
has been reached. Equal placing of material and proper pressing 
down has much to do with the success. 

The temperature of the beds should be then taken, and I beHeve 
a thermometer on a stick comes for this purpose. The first temper- 
ature should be no degrees to 120, but do not spavin until the tem- 
perature has subsided to 90 or 95. When it has gone down to that, 
is the time to insert the spawn. 

Spawn may be bought from almost any seedman. Dreer, I know, 
has it, and Burpee. It comes in bricks and there are two varieties — 
French, which comes in thin, loosely-put-together, matlike bricks, 
and English, a hard firm brick of hard manure with spawn. Mill- 
track English Spawn is especially recommended. Spawn must be 
kept very dry till the beds are ready. 

The English brick is broken into small pieces about the size of a 
walnut and inserted 2 or 3 inches in depth, and 5 to 9 inches apart, 
pressing the soil very firmly after each insertion. 

Some advise examining the beds after 10 days or 2 weeks, to see 
if the spawn is taking, and if little white thread-like cords are 
spreading, then cover the boxes with 2 or 3 inches of good loam, and 
press down hard or pound. The temperature of the place should be 
about 50 or 60 degrees, and if there is danger of the place getting 
cooler, put straw or hay over the beds. 

French Spawn, which is thin and loosely constructed, like Tris- 
cuit, may be inserted sideways so that the spawn is at different levels 
in the box, but is otherwise treated in the same way. 

Watering the beds is hardly ever necessary if the mixture is right, 
and if even temperature of the room is maintained. If however the 
beds should dry out, water with luke warm water, and water evenly. 

IS 



Having fulfilled all these conditions, I should be able to tell you 
that you will surely meet with marvellous success, but alas! the first 
and most necessary requisite, we are told, is a calm and even temper- 
ament, for while the mushrooms are due to appear in six weeks, it 
may be 8 or even i6 before we are rewarded. Also, one bedful may 
flourish and another, next to it, show not a sign of life. However, I 
imagine any good results would quite atone for a failure or two. 

A second requisite is the dry atmosphere of the room, and an even 
temperature. 

Of course someone is wondering — "Are they free from pests?" 
Alas! No! Wood-lice may attack them, but they usually make their 
home on edges of the box or on a near-by wall by the box, where they 
can make nightly sallies and chew off heads of mushrooms as they rise. 
To get rid of them, pour boiling water on the edges of the box, being 
careful not to boil the mushroom spores at the same time ; or -mix one- 
half ounce of sugar of lead and a handful of oatmeal, which can ba 
kept near by. 

If the temperature is too high, the small white mites may appear, 
but will not if the temperature is kept below 60. Having done all 
these things, what will the result be? Mushrooms from 2 to 5 months, 
and with careful watering of the beds with warm water and nitrate of 
soda, a second crop may be induced. 

We in America are far behind the rest of the world in growing 
mushrooms and in appreciating their food value. France grows tons 
annually, and in most European countries mushroom culture is under 
Government inspection. In certain parts of Italy, and Australia, 
mushrooms form the staple among the more primitive people, and 
some man has remarked that he could maintain an army five months 
on them. The Chinese are devoted to mushrooms, and import many 
from Japan, Tahiti, and New Zealand, and know of their nutritious 
value. 

Personally, I think they are infinitely more desirable as a meat sub- 
stitute than the peanut loaf, "mock sausage," etc. that we are urged 
to eat, and we definitely know they are rich in nitrogenous matter 
and in protein, and are so meaty in substance that Mr. Gibson tells 
us he fooled a hawk into thinking it was eating something as dainty as 
a baby chick. He threw the mushroom into the air — the hawk 
swooped down and caught it in its claws, shaking it as if to kill it, 
and gobbled it down. It did this five times, and acted as if it were 
being treated to a great delicacy. 

All books on mushrooms that I have read ended with such deli- 
cious recipes for cooking them, that I longed to start right in and raise 
them, so that /or once I could have all I wished. 

16 



Pollenization 

Like Spanish galleons in from the seas 

With onyx and gold from rich Peru, 

Heavy with treasure, and singing, my bees 

Float in from the blue. 

Powdery plunder of green and gold, 

Gay little gems of purple and red — 

The bees have not begged them nor bought them nor sold — 

They steal them instead! 

Laden with deUcate dust from a flower 

To the heart of another a pillager slips — 

And a wonder is done in the plundering hour 

Of these my ships! 

Grace Allen. 



Bees and Flowers 

By Letitia Wright, Jr. 

The art of bee-keeping has come down to us from great antiquity, 
and curious customs legends, and myths are connected with its his- 
tory. From the Bible, from mythology, and the hieroglyphs of Egypt, 
we know that bees were kept and that honey was eaten to a greater 
extent than is the case now. This may be due to the fact that cane 
sugar did not appear in Europe until the seventeenth century. As 
we all know, sweets are necessary; honey therefore was more needed 
then than it has been since. 

Aside from the value of honey, the bees themselves are of the great- 
est benefit, in fact they are a necessity to the fruit growers, as they 
poUenize the blossoms and set the fruit. The berry growers, too, need 
the honey bee; even blue berries and cranberries are larger and bear 
more heavily when bees are kept near at hand, than when left to the 
care of wild bees, or those belonging to distant neighbors. Bee-keeping 
and fruit-growing are so closely related, and the one depends so largely 
upon the other, that it seems curious that bee-keepers and fruit-grow- 
ers have had so many differences. These are growing less and less as 
the fruit-grower learns the nature and habits of bees. One of these 
differences occurs when the fruit-grower who has not been able to 
spray bis fruit trees before the blossoms open, feels it is better late 
than never, and sprays the open flowers. This causes great mortality 
among the bees and a consequent loss to their owner not only in bees 
but also in the amount of honey gathered. Later in the season, long 

17 



after the bloom is past, he may spray a third time when, if he happens 
to have a cover crop of clover in bloom, the bees suffer again. On the 
other hand the fruit grower finds the honey bee sucking the juice from 
his peaches and grapes and is very angry. The honey bee is innocent 
in this case as she does not bite nor pierce fruit; but when this has 
been done by some other insect or bird, or the fruit has rotted so that 
the juice is exposed, then the honey bee sucks the fruit and, with her 
usual ardor and thoroughness, works away until all the juice is taken; 
she is however working on fruit which would not stand transportation 
to market. 

The growing of cucumbers for pickles is quite an industry, thou- 
sands of acres are planted each year for the pickle factories alone. To 
obtain a crop from these acres hundreds of colonies of bees must be 
at hand, for the stamens and pistils are in different flowers on the 
plant. When cucumbers are grown under glass, hives of bees are 
taken into the green houses. The squash, melon, pumpkin and water- 
melon belong to the same family (the gourd family) as the cucumber 
does and for the same reason need bees. 

The seed producers, who grow white clover, alsike clover, sweet 
clover or alfalfa for seed, must keep bees or grow their crops in the 
neighborhood of some apiary in order to obtain the best results per 
acre. This connection of the honey bee with the production of more 
and better fruit and seed, was not realized by the ancient bee-keeper, 
who thought that bees were created for man alone, to gather the nec- 
tar from the flowers and to make honey for him. "A land flowing with 
milk and honey" the promised land of the Israelites shows this con- 
nection, for where there is honey there will be fruit and vegetables 
and grazing fields, a bountiful land for man and beast. 

Another most wonderful phase of bees in their relation to flowers 
which may be called "bees as builders of flowers" is of interest to 
every gardener. The beautiful flowers that grow in our gardens, which 
are garbed in brilliant hues, are thus adorned to attract insects or 
birds, who will fertilize them. Those flowers which are insignificant 
in color or size, attract by secreting nectar. Some small flowers have 
grown in clusters so that they appear as one large flower, and thus 
show from a greater distance. The color and shape of each flower 
and the position of its nectary is adapted to the special insect which 
can fertihze it, and to aid and hasten this work, the flower has guides 
and signs, which only add to its beauty, and certainly add to our inter- 
est when we understand them. Thus in the violet the veins on the 
lower petal serve as nectar guides, in the foxglove, the corolla is spotted 
on the lower inner side. The flowers of the white clover, after they 
have been visited by a bee and pollenized, bend downward and turn 



reddish or brown, leaving the flowers containing nectar erect and 
fresh. This shows the bees just where the nectar has aheady been 
gathered, and prevents unnecessary work. The clovers are a nectar 
secreting flower, and when this is ready to gather they send out a deli- 
cious perfume. 

The basswood or linden tree has small flowers, from which the 
honey bee gathers quantities of nectar. Buckwheat, thyme, sage, 
dandelion, goldenrod, wild aster and many other wayside flowers and 
weeds jdeld nectar to the honey bee. 

In the flower garden the honey bee is very fond of the Caryopteris 
or blue spirea, Scabiosa, and the Clethra or sweet pepper bush, this 
latter also attracts many other insects. The hollyhocks give only 
pollen, as do so many of the garden flowers, but they are very popular 
with the honey bees. 

Of the five thousand species of the pea family, most of them are 
sought after by the bee; the bean, clover, locust, the vetch and a host 
of others are among them. In this family it is interesting to study the 
many different ways in which the flower applies the pollen to the bee's 
body. Sometimes it is pumped out or brushed out, while some flowers 
use an explosive mechanism. A flower whose clever little device may 
easily be seen is the sheep-laurel, in whose blossom " the stamens are 
elastic and when touched by the legs of a bee, the anthers which are 
held in little pockets in the corolla, are released, and flying upward 
throw the pollen over the bee." Bees in collecting pollen or nectar, 
are faithful to one species of flower, so that the pollen is never wasted, 
but is always carried where it can fertihze. 

There are flowers which aie pollenized by bumble bees. Among 
these are the Aquiligia, or columbine, the Delphinium or larkspur, 
and the Aconites or monkshood. This last family is so dependent on 
bumblebees that it cannot be grown in countries where there are none 
such as Australia, Arabia, South Africa and New Zealand. Red clover, 
a bumble bee flower, was taken to New Zealand and planted. It grew 
well and was filled with bloom, but of course produced no seed much 
to the disappointment of the farmers who were experimenting with 
it. When they learned the cause of its sterility they imported several 
species of bumble bees from England, which have multiplied rapidly, 
and the clover seed industry in New Zealand is now a success. There 
is a pretty little legend about the red clover and why it does not yield 
nectar to the honey bee. In the Middle Ages the monks kept bees, 
whom they expected to observe their religious rules. One Sabbath 
morning a field of red clover opened, and the bees, regardless of the 
holy day, worked all day long. Ever since, for punishment, the 
red clover has been denied them. Sometimes after seasons of drought 

19 



the red clover blossom is so dwarfed that the honey bee can reach its 
nectar. 

Who has not loved the Buddleia, the butterfly bush or summer lilac 
just because it attracts those lovely insects, the butterflies? The social 
flowers of the type composite are very attractive to the butterflies. 
Sweet William, several species of Lychnis that have bright red flowers, 
the carmine flowers of the stemless catchfly, the orange red lily, and 
some of the orchids are among the flowers pollenated by the butter- 
flies. The butterfly flowers are nearly all red flowers but these in- 
sects visit many, which they cannot pollenate, and as they do not 
gather pollen, but live on nectar alone, they are far less important 
than bees, and much less constant in their visits. As a general rule 
the red and yellow flowers are more attractive to the birds and butter- 
flies, while the bees prefer the white and blue flowers. 

The quaint, picturesque straw skep or hive is always desired when 
bees are to be placed in a garden. It is, however, a miserable, out-of- 
date makeshift for the bees. The only way to really get a picturesque 
effect and keep the bees properly is, to use the modern up-to-date 
hives and equipment, and place a straw thatched roof on the top of 
each hive. This gives a quaint and attractive appearance to the square 
white houses, which otherwise present somewhat the effect of a grave 
yard. In placing the hives in your garden do not make the mistake of 
placing them too near where you must work. Bees take a straight 
course, or bee line for home when laden with nectar or pollen, and if 
y6u are walking back and forth in front of their hives, you will be 
struck by their heavily laden bodies, too heavy and coming too fast 
to turn aside. This is a great annoyance to gardener and bees alike, 
which the latter resent by stinging the former. Though small in size, 
the honey bee certainly makes herself felt; but as she yields her life 
when she stings, she forfeits all to protect her home. This instinct of 
protection and loyalty to the hive is only one sign of the government 
or community to which the bee belongs. 

"For where's the state beneath the firmament 
That doth excel the bees for government." Du Bartas. 
High Priced Tulips 

Speculation in Tulips has again started in Holland. One bushel of 
the marvelous Tulip Afterglow was sold on the Haarlem Exchange for 
about $1500 per bushel; the very beautiful Tulip Cherbourg was sold 
for $200 per row of eight bulbs. Darwin TuUp Afterglow is a sport of 
Darwin and Baronne de la Tonnaye. The color is soft apricot orange, 
tinged pink, with a Ught orange edge. It is a really unique color in 
Darwin Tulips. The price paid shows the confidence of Holland 
growers in good TuHps. — The Garden. 

20 




6S 



Plan of a Small Flower Garden 

By Rose Standish Nichols 

The shaded portions represent the paths, the blank portions are 
beds. 

The outside dimensions are 65 feet by 36 feet. 

The Problem is to plant this garden with 10 Perennials, 5 Armuals 
and 2 Biennials so as to get a succession of bloom from the middle of 
May to the middle of September. For more northerly gardens this 
date may be one week later. 

Hedge Plants or a wall may be used, stating variety or type. If 
a waU, or any garden ornaments are added, expense should be taken 
into consideration. 

Planting plaris should be sent to Miss Nichols, 55 Mt. Vernon St., 
Boston, not later than December 5th. The award and winning plan 
will be published in the January Bulletin. 



The Garden Miscellany 

"But where can we get it?" was the constant question during Pro- 
fessor's Wilson's talk on Choice Shrubs before the Easthampton Gar- 
den Club this summer; a talk illustrated by fifty branches of new or 
rare ornamental shrubs from the Arnold Arboretum. The answer was: 
"Since the Plant Exclusion Act you will have to hunt diligently for 
it among our nurseries; maybe Hicks or Andorra or Gillette or Far- 
quhar have it. If not you must get the seed from Europe and be pa- 
tient for years till it matures!" 

21 



This cue led us to the need and aim of this department. If we can 
save you some steps and correspondence by telling you where some 
particular plant can be found, we shall not have lived in vain ! 

We hope also to notify you in these columns just when to visit 
certain Amateur and Commercial Collections. 

Why not make pilgrimages to Riverton, Rutherford, Wyomissing 
at Iris and Paeony time or to Rochester for the Lilacs, as the Japanese 
do to the Cherry Gardens, Wistaria Arbors or Iris Fields? A visit to 
Westbury, L. I., at shrub blooming time and a walk through the nur- 
series with Mr. Hicks; or a talk with Mr. Earle in the perennial de- 
partment at Bobbink & Atkins will not only make a red-letter day 
for you but be a tremendous help to your garden. 

To know a good nursery thoroughly, know it month by month, 
is the supreme help for an Amateur. It is like having your palette 
well set up with paints. Mark the actual plants that you need with a 
baggage tag taken for that purpose (name and address written in in- 
delible pencil) and keep your own note of it too, for you may forget 
that it is to be sent to you at the proper time. 

Indeed, if the distance is not great from nursery to garden, any 
time is the proper time, for with careful shading and watering for the 
first week you can transplant your Iris, Phlox, Delphinium or almost 
any perennial in full bloom, remembering to cut off the bloom 
promptly after it is over. Thus you have got just the right 
shade of color or plant mass in just the right place and have 
saved six months. 

This year we were able to get the following varieties satis- 
factorily at the following places, and though we have no doubt 
that they are obtainable elsewhere these notes may save you a 
weary search. 

Seed 

Named Delphinium seed. (Most of our Nursery men list these as 
"Kelway's Hybrids" or "Gold Medal Hybrids.") 

Queen Wilhelmina, pale blue and mauve, 7 feet. King of Delphin- 
iums. JuUus Roehrs, Rutherford, N. J. 

Monarch of All; Dusky Monarch; Langport Glory. Kelway & 
Sons, Langport, Somerset, England. 

Didiscus Coerulus; Salvia Hormium. Max Schling, 24 West 59, 
N. Y. 

Pale Primrose Annual Chrysanthemum. (C. Coronarium 60390); 
Matricaria FL. PL.; Examina; Ellen Wilmott Pink Verbena. Thor- 
bum & Co., 53 Barclay St., N. Y. 

22 



Plants 

Viola Cornuti Mauve Queen, Farquhar, Boston. 

Purple Petunia, Herman Heubler, Groton, Mass. 

Father Hugh's Rose (Rosa Hugosis) . Conard & Jones, West Grove, 
Pa. Also Farquhar, Boston. 

Clematis Elinor Mosher (Large White Climber). Bobbink & 
Atkins, Rutherford, N. J. 

Rare late Lilac (Syringa Villosa). Hicks & Sons, Westbury, L. I. 

Delphinium Moerhemi (which will not seed but should be used 
more in our gardens as in Mrs. Pirie's exquisite border at Lake Forest). 
Bobbink & Atkins. 

Hanny Pfeiderer Phlox (Cream White); Caran d'Ache Phlox. 
Elm Leigh Nurseries, Putney, Vermont. 

Saturea Montana. Henry Dreer, Philadelphia. 

Pot Grown rare Wall Garden plants from Enghsh seed. Palisade 
Nurseries, SparkUl, N. Y. 
Mrs. Robert C. Hill Anna Gilman Hill. 

960 Park Avenue 
New York 



The Rose in the Balkans 

One of the major commodities aiding in the return of at least one 
belligerent nation to a peace time basis is the Rose. Bulgaria is 
negotiating now for an exchange of Rose oil for Wheat to relieve the 
food situation in that country. The Bulgarian Government controls 
the export stocks and has fixed a price of $17.50 an ounce for this com- 
modity. 

The great bulk of the Bulgarian Rose oil is distilled in small quan- 
tities by individual peasants. The crop season is short and a tremen- 
dous quantity of Roses must be handled to produce even a small 
amount of the oil. There are, of course, large companies doing this 
work on a much larger scale, but even these are glad to purchase the 
product of the peasants. The normal crop is from 35,000 to 40,000 
kilos. The wear has played havoc with the industry, however, and the 
probabilities are that the oil now available will be about one-half 
that amount. 

The importance of this industry is further manifested by the 
organization of the Bank of Roses in Sofia. This is to be a banking and 
trading institution with a capital of 4,000,000 francs. 

— Exchange. 

23 



Department of Plant Material 

The department of plant material makes no promises beyond the 
one of doing its very best. Its editors will try to give accurate in- 
formation about plants, and definite directions for their culture. 
Success sometimes depends on such seemingly unimportant things, — 
for instance, the shy blooming of old peonies may be caused by the 
slow accretion of soil over the crowns. You planted your peonies at 
the proper depth, or rather lack of depth, but year after year fer- 
tilizer and leaf mold have gathered over them, and suddenly they stop 
blooming. Remove an inch or two of soil, and they will again be one 
of the glories of June. The lovely Rose Acacia has strangely brittle 
twigs, — they crack even when they do not break off in the strong winds. 
A split twig is too busy mending itself to bloom. Stake the plant 
properly, and it will reward you with exquisite flowers. 

Such are the things this department will try to tell, as well as 
the names and descriptions of new plants. When we do not know, 
and cannot find it in the printed word, we will ask, and where pos- 
sible, we will give our authority. The department will expect the 
co-operation of each Member Club when information pertaining to 
their locality is needed. 

We hope to be asked many questions that will try our mettle, and 
we look forward to plenty of healthy, though heated, disagreements. 

Being an ardent admirer of Harrison's Yellow rose, the new and 
much vaunted Rosa Hugonis will have to earn its spurs in my garden. 
Harrison's Yellow is perfectly hardy in and around Chicago, where 
Dorothy Perkins requires winter protection; it is free from every 
pest, grows vigorously and blooms lavishly if given ordinary care, 
and will not only live but will bloom under conditions of neglect that 
would kill any other cultivated rose. It has an interesting history 
in that it is one of the early American roses, and a hybrid of Rosa 
spinosissima and Rosa foetida, the lovely but evil-smelling Persian 
rose. It has inherited the freedom from insect pests from its spiney 
parent, and the sunny butter-colored blossoms from the Persian, but, 
praises to the Goddess Flora! it has not inherited the odour that so 
well earns the name for the species. 

I have heard an amusing story of the Harrison Yellow rose; how 
true, I cannot say. It seems that Queen Victoria was extremely fond 
of the Persian rose, but the odour made her ill. Someone took the 
new American hybrid to England, planted and tended it, and in due 
time, presented the young queen with a huge bouquet of the lovely 
sprays of bloom. Tradition says that an international incident was 
made of the charming gift, and that the never-faUing good-will of 

24 



England's Queen toward the United States dates from that happy 
moment. 

The Rosa Hugonis is as lovely, I will concede. The long 
sprays of single yellow flowers, the color of primroses, are 
quite as beautiful as the same long sprays of the semi-double 
Harrison rose. The two are charming together, and I would 
have them both. 

I recently met one of our great rose growers and his enthusiasm 
for the Rosa Hugonis made me champion the Harrison rose with per- 
haps too great emphasis. At last he silenced me with this withering 
remark "The Rosa Hugonis is a perfect ancestor 1" (See Mr. ^Mc- 
Farland's article.) 

Gladiolus Primulinus 

It may be desirable to place on record, before they are forgotten, 
the facts connected with the above group of flowering plants, as 
these constitute some of the most beautiful and decorative flowers at 
present grown. During the construction of the important railway 
bridge across the gorge of the Zambesi in Rhodesia — of which Sir 
Charles Metcalfe, Bart., and Sir Douglas Fox and Partners were the 
engineers — the resident engineer, Mr. S. F. Townsend, found certain 
flowers which were growing under the spray of the Victoria Falls, and 
which seemed to thrive notv^dthstanding the deluge of water, which 
ver}^ soon soaked the discoverer to the skin in obtaining them. He, 
being a gardener, kindly sent in 1902 four bulbs or corms by post to 
Wimbledon; but, not knowing what they were, was unable to give 
any clue as to the treatment they required. As, however, they came 
from Central Africa, and were therefore accustomed to heat and to 
almost continual rain from the Falls, my head-gardener, Mr. John 
Richards, and I decided that we would give them both a high tem- 
perature and wet treatment. 

On December i, 1903, we were rewarded by the appearance of 
three or four spikes of bloom of a deHcate and beautiful growth, viith 
leaves xery similar to those of Montbretia, the plants standing about 
2 feet in height. The flower was of a rich butter yellow, self-coloured, 
the centre petal of which was bent down or depressed, forming a hood 
over the pistil and stamens, thus protecting the pollen from falling 
rain. It was e\idently due to this pecuharity and provision of such a 
remarkable character that the plant thrived and increased under 
apparently most unpromising conditions. 

One of the spikes was immediately sent by messenger to the then 
Director of the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew, Sir William Thiselton- 

25 



Dyer, K.C.M.G., F.R.S., and a letter was brought back from that 
gentleman, of which the following is an extract: 

"December i, 1903. — Your beautiful specimen arrived in perfect 
condition and gave us all much pleasure. It is a Gladiolus of a type 
which is rather widely spread in Tropical Africa, and comes apparently 
very close to one named G. primuUnus, but from a horticultural point 
of view it seems to us quite unique and a brilliant discovery. I hope 
if you are disposed to part with any of them you will give Kew 
the first chance. It ought to be the starting point of a new 
race of garden Gladioli. I must congratulate you on the brilliant 
success of your cultural treatment, which could not have been 
surpassed here." 

Some of the corms were then sent, not only to Kew, but to the 
Physic Garden at Chelsea, to the Botanic Gardens at Cambridge and 
Edinburgh, to growers of Gladioli, such as Messrs. Kelway, Wallace, 
Groff of Simcoe, Canada; also to Holland, Belgium and the United 
States, as we felt that it would be in the interests of horticultvure and 
of all flower-loving people that the widest pubHcity should be ac- 
corded. It was illustrated in the Gardeners^ Magazine, September 3, 
1904, under the name of Maid of the Mist, and in the Botanical 
Magazine, June, 1906. 

We at once made attempts to hybridise the plant, crossing it with 
Gladiolus gandavensis and others, and in about three years we suc- 
ceeded in producing some of the most lovely results, the flowers 
ranging from pure white to butter yellow, rich carmine, reds, browns, 
cream tints, others with petals of yellow streaked with red. The 
vigour and physique of the Ghent parent were imparted to the fol- 
lowing generations, with the result that a height of 8 feet has been 
reached. The interesting fact that the hooded petal is retained and 
that the lovely yellow of the African plant is the predominant colour 
adds greatly to the beauty of the flowers. 

For decorative purposes we know of nothing to surpass this new 
addition to our flower garden. A few of these flowers in a suitable 
vase placed in the centre of a table with electric light faUing on it 
is an exquisite picture, and fully corroborates Sir William's prediction 
that G. primulinus would prove the commencement of an entirely new 
race of Gladioh. From the foregoing it will be seen that a period of 
seventeen years has elapsed from the date of its discovery to the time 
of these beautiful results. 

Sir Francis Fox, M. Inst. C. E. Reprint from The Garden of Sep- 
tember 20, igiQ. 
Mrs. Charles M. Hubbard, Louise S. Hubbard. 

Winnetka, 111. 

26 



BOOK REVIEWS 

The Literary Committee submits the following outline of its 
program in accordance with the Plan for the Enlargement and Im- 
provement of the Bulletin of the Garden Club of America. 

1. Reviews of the best recently pubHshed books on gardening. 

2. Retrospective reviews of older books especially suitable for 
the nucleus of a Garden Library, the Ust to be selected with 
the aid of the best advice procurable. All books marked (*), 
whether new or old, are among those considered suitable for this 
permanent library. 

3. Comments on articles of special interest appearing in the 
leading garden magazines published in this country and abroad. 

*A Trilogy op the Garden 

"My Garden Series" by E. A. Bowles, M. A. Dodge Publishing 
Company. ($2.50 per volume.) 

" My Garden in Spring," "My Garden in Summer," "My Garden 
in Autumn and Winter." 

If you have never been fortunate enough to walk through Mr. 
Bowles' Garden in the "really- truly," then do it in the "make- 
believe." Pull up your favorite chair to the fireside some frosty 
evening, and begin first on "My Garden in Spring." 

Mr. Bowles will lead you down to the river bank and along half 
hidden paths where snowdrops and primroses, early iris, crocus, and 
dafifodils smUe up at you, and later the stately tulips survey you with 
their quiet dignity. He \\dll talk to you intimately of the plants, and 
tell you how he succeeded in making each rare variety, brought from 
some distant land, feel content and happy in its new surroundings. 
His children of the garden are tended with love and care for their 
comfort, and they repay him for fold ynih their mass of bloom and 
healthy foliage. 

Then, when you wonder if this ground becomes bare and brown 
after "daffy" has gone, take "My Garden in Summer," and Mr. 
Bowles will lead you down the same walks, now a riot of bearded 
flags, June Hhes, flowering shrubs and pretty creeping things. And 
he win explain the magic of his touch and straight away you will 
want to get up and go out with a lantern to dig up your own garden, 
even if it be near midnight and snowing hard. 

Then read "My Garden in Autumn and Winter" and learn how to 
carry on the mass of colour until winter finally puts it all to sleep 
tucked imder its thick white blanket. 

27 



Mr. Bowles is a scientist, and one sometimes wishes that he 
would call his children more often by their Christian names; thought 
perhaps it is just as well, for his collection contains the rarest varieties 
of every species, and we may not recognize them any other way. 

We must always bear in mind, however, that his garden is in 
England, and not here, where the winter temperatures try to run the 
mercury out of the bulb, and the heat of our summers tries the 
strength of all but the hardiest. 

We cannot in our climate grow "hardy" palms, nor have Iris 
Unguicularis blooming from November to March. Nor do we need 
to plant our campanulas on gravel soil, and wall in the rose garden to 
keep it warm. 

Nevertheless every page contains valuable information as well as 
inspiration. To quote Mr. Reginald Farrer in his preface, " Come into 
Mr. Bowles' garden and learn what true gardening is ... . There 
are nowadays so many gardeners that gardens are growing every 
year more rare." (Signed) Henrietta M. Stout. 

* "What England can teach us about Gardening" — by Wilhelm 
Miller, Ph. D. ($5.00) 

Mr. Miller gives as the purpose of his books the desire to inspire 
Americans to make more and better gardens and after a careful 
reading no one could fail to feel that inspiration. There are one hun- 
dred and twenty beautiful illustrations, eight of them in color. The 
pictures are all of English gardens, but the particular merit of the 
book is that it tells us how to get the exquisite English effects with the 
material at our command, and at this time when the quarantine 
against foreign grown nursery stock narrows our choice, the more we 
can learn about our native plant material the better. 

The book is divided into chapters dealing with gardening in its 
different forms, making it possible to find readily the subject in which 
one is interested, and foot notes give references for an infinite amount 
of further reading. 

The chapter on Conifers is especially helpful. Many evergreens 
which thrive in England or on the Pacific Coast languish on the 
Atlantic Seaboard, and we are given their equivalent for purposes of 
effect in material, which, whether native or an introduction from China 
or Japan, is adapted to our conditions and will prove long lived. 

We all so ardently wish to make our country more beautiful, to 
achieve the look of finish and luxuriance of growth which makes all of 
England seem Hke a garden; and in every page we are shown how to 
accomplish this without loss of time and the making of costly mistakes. 

28 



The manner of the book is as delightful as the matter is noteworthy; 
there is not a dry or technical paragraph, yet the information 
is the fruit of real knowledge and rare insight. It is a book 
for beginners in the sense that it is not technical or difficult to 
understand but in no sense is it for beginners only. It is a book 
to own and refer to. 

In the American Florist, dsLte of September 13, igiQjis the report of 
a meeting held at Detroit on August 21st by the Society of American 
Florists at which Dr. C. L. Marlatt, Chairman of the Federal Horti- 
cultural Board, made an address on the subject of Plant Quarantine 
Ruling No. 37 — Dr. Marlatt gives as the intention of the Quarantine 
Act, the prevention of the introduction of new plant enemies into the 
United States. The application of Quarantine RuUng No. 37 which 
has to do with the exclusion of nursery stock, orchids and certain bulbs 
and roots has resulted in great hardship to the importers and nursery 
men, and will mean for the amateur gardener the loss of much of the 
material which has made our gardens beautiful. 

Congressman M. L. Davey, speaking before the National Associa- 
tion of Gardeners at Cleveland outHned a practical way to secure a 
modification of the plant exclusion ruHng. His suggestion may be read 
in full in Horticulture, date of September 20th. It is briefly, that 
Horticulturists attempt to secure a full hearing before the Agricul- 
tural Committee of the House and that each one write to his Congress- 
man insisting upon a hearing and asking him to use his influence to 
that end, — the point being that any recommendation which the 
Agricultural Committee might see fit to make would undoubtedly 
be carried out by the Federal Horticultural Board. 

The French Point oe View 

The Horticultiirists, notably those of France and England, are pro- 
foundly disturbed to learn that after June i, 1919, the United States 
intends for sanitary reasons to forbid the importation of all vegetable 
products. Such a step, if it is taken, will be infinitely prejudicial to 
legitimate interests, will set at naught long and patient effort and 
will entail disorganization and enforced idleness. 

It cannot be otherwise between nations allied and friendly, or 
truly the League of Nations would be an empty word. It is necessary 
that friendly relations be established in relatively unimportant ques- 
tions as well as in matters of the first importance. Also, there is room 
to hope that the "Conference agricole interaUiee" which meets 
periodically at Paris, under the excellent initiative of M. V. Boret will 
discuss this interesting subject. 

29 



It can easily be imagined that the sanitary services of the in- 
terested countries might be adjusted to conform with the specifica- 
tions and formaUties demanded for importations. This done, the 
technical service of each country would issue, on its responsibihty, to 
exporters who conformed to the rules, a permit which would remove 
all obstacles. It is, at all events, inadmissible that any industry should 
suddenly be so deeply disturbed by a measure applicable in so short 
a time, when that measure concerns itself with countries hitherto 
united by so many bonds. 

The application of this decision of the American government has 
upset the French horticultural world. American horticulturists 
and rose growers are equally disturbed and have asked their 
government if it is not possible to import recent varieties of roses 
and the novelties. 

Translated from Le Jardin, August 20, 1919. 



, Botanical Dictionary to be Republished 

The Bureau of Plant Industry of the United States Department 
of Agriculture is to undertake the revising of the unique 
dictionary pubHshed by Pritzel in the middle of the last century 
and long since out of print. It will have the co-operation of 
British botanists and horticulturists since the book is to be 
reissued and brought up to date under the auspices of the Royal 
Horticultural Society. The dictionary originally embraced every 
important picture or illustration of every known plant, giving 
references to the books in which they might be found. The 
entries number about 100,000 and run down to 1866. It is 
estimated that at least 125,000 additional entries will be incor- 
porated in the new edition. 

Mrs. William K. Wallbridge, Gertrude S. Wallbridge. 
Short Hills, N. J. 



Department of Insect Pests and Remedies 

At the beginning this department offers you a variety of 
cures. It is intensely practical and gives prices. If certain insects 
marred your summer write now and tell us. We will try to give 
you means of preventing the same catastrophe next year. Or, if 
you found a way to get rid of them send it that others may profit by 
your experience. 

30 



Sprays and Spraying 

Formulas for Chewing Insects 

1. Arsenate of Lead: If bought in the form of a paste instead of a 
powder, it mixes more readily with water. 

For spraying shade trees, the usual mixture is 3 pounds of Arsenate 
to 50 gallon barrel of water. This is the best poison in general use 
today and is employed successfully in combating the Tent Cater- 
pillar, the Elm Tree Beetle, the Tussock and Coddhng Moth and all 
leaf eating insects. The addition of soap to an arsenate mixture in- 
creases its adhesiveness. Price, }4 pound, 40 cents; 5 pounds, $2,75, 

2. Paris Green: Settles rapidly in water and is easily washed off 
by rain. When mixing, stir up the poison to form a thick even paste, 
then add water. Use 3 to 5 ounces to 50 gallon barrel of water, or i 
teaspoonf ul to 1 2 quarts of water. 

Used chiefly for cabbage worms (only if the leaves are attacked 
before the head is formed ; if after, use hellebore or salt or strong alum 
water), potato bugs and other chewing insects. Price, 2 ounces, 15 
cents; i pound, 65 cents. 

3. White Hellebore: May be sifted dry on plants of which the 
fruit is soon to be eaten. 

It should be mixed with flour or lime in proportion of i to 5 and 
scattered thickly on the plant or used as a spray, taking 4 ounces of 
hellebore to 2 gallons of water. Price, l4 pound, 40 cents; i pound, 65 
cents. 

Formulas for non-chewing insects 

I. Kerosene Emulsion: Should be prepared as follows: ^ pound 
soap — laundry, or whale oil; i gallon water; 2 gallons kerosene; or for 
limited use, 2 ounces soap; i quart water; 2 quarts kerosene. 

Dissolve soap in soft water. Remove from the fire and add oil 
while soap solution is warm. It is very important to mix this thor- 
oughly and it can be done by churning with a bicycle pump or small 
sprayer, until it turns to a creamy emulsion. This is a stock solution 
and should be diluted before being applied. 

For scale insects in the winter time, use i part in 4 or 5 parts of 
water. In summer time to control plant lice and for use against scale 
insects, use i part to 10 parts of water. 

In damp rainy weather, the emulsion should never be applied 
at the strength used on a bright day. The kerosene, owing to its 
slower evaporation, has an injurious effect on the foliage on wet days. 

Sucking insects must be reached by a contact insecticide in order 
to kill them. Great care must therefore be taken in the selection and 
application of sprays. 

31 



2. Lime and Sulphur: For destroying scale and fungus growths, 
as a dormant spray, use: i gallon of the wash to 8}i gallons of water 
for summer work, i gallon of wash to 42 gallons of water. 

Always apply at dormant strength late in winter before the tree 
resumes its activity. 

It is seldom advisable to spray lime-sulphur on shade trees after 
the foliage is out, as it discolors the leaves and ruins the appearance 
of the tree. It should be applied on a quiet day so that the spray will 
not be blown on dwellings nor on evergreens. The surface of tree to 
be sprayed should be dry, so do not apply after a heavy frost. 

The odor is always disagreeable. 

1. San Jose Scale. 

2. Oyster-shell Scale. 

3. Leaf -curl on peaches (use i part wash to 15 parts water). 

4. Blister Mite (use 10^ parts of water to i of wash). 

For these pests spray in winter with lime-sulphur. Take care 
not to get it on the hands as it burns badly. Price, i quart, 30 cents, 
I gallon, 75 cents, 5 gallons, $2.75. 

3. Whale Oil Soap: For scale insects, this may be applied in 
winter at the rate of i^ to 2 pounds to i gallon of water. 

In summer use i pound to 4 gallons of water. 
This answers the same purpose as kerosene emulsion. 
Price, I pound, 25 cents. 

4. Tobacco: The best extract is called "Black Leaf 40." 

For plant hce use i part to 1000 parts of water or ^ pint to 100 
gallons water plus 3 to 5 pounds of soap or for Hmited use i ounce 
to 7 or 8 gallons of water plus 5 ounces soap, or still smaller, i tea- 
spoonful to I gallon of water. 

This is excellent in combating Woolly Aphids, Rose Scale, 
Green Aphis, Thrips, Leaf-curl on fruit trees and rose bushes. Price, 
^2 pound, $1.00. 

These formulas have been taken from the compilations of the 
National Plant, Flower and Fruit Guild Magazine, Vol. 6, No. 3, and 
Bulletin of the New York State College of Forestry, Vol. XVI, No. 26; 
both most interesting and valuable collections of well known formulas. 

Feeding Plants in Pots 

Judicious feeding with liquid manures and chemical fertilizers is 
of the highest importance during the whole of the growing period 
with all plants in pots. But it must be done in an intelligent way or 
considerably more harm than good will result. Never feed a newly- 
potted plant, or those that have not filled with roots and, again, take 

32 



care never to exceed the strength advised by the makers of artificial 
fertihzers; weak and often should be the rule. 

Avoid using liquid manure when the soil is dry; water with plain 
water first until the whole of the soil is damp through, then give a 
little of the liquid manure. To use it for watering in the ordinary 
way is both injurious and wastefuls — injurious because it burn 
the roots, and wasteful because so much runs away through the 
drainage holes. 

Variation of food is most beneficial, and as wide a change as 
possible should be afforded, say, soot water, liquid natural manure, 
then some good artificial, with, of course, plain water between each. 
It is a mistake to suppose that all classes of plants absorb nutriment 
equally readily. A few are better without it altogether, cacti and 
cyclamens being notable examples in this respect. Begonias, on the 
other hand, are gross feeders and will take a large amount. 

With more delicate rooted subjects and annuals like schinzanthus, 
a weaker application should be employed, as the roots easily burn, 
particularly with chemicals. As to how often liquid manures should 
be applied, we must be guided by the plant's capacity for absorbing; 
it is useless to overdo it, as it merely remains in the soil and causes it to 
become sticky and sour, the plants speedily lose foliage and fade. 

Those subjects which flower all at once, so to speak, must not be 
fed after the color shows, but those which continue to throw up blooms 
in succession must be kept going. Ferns and most foliage plants are 
best confined to soot water and nitrate of soda, quarter of an ounce 
to a gallon of water, but care must be taken not to use this oftener 
than once a week, and that none is spilled over the leaves. 

— Canadian Florist. 

Questions and Answers 

Our Santa Barbara member asks how to get rid of snails and ants. 

There seems to be no remedy for the former. Ashes and 
soot placed about the roots of plants that especially attract 
them will keep the snails away. Salt and lime are also said to 
be distasteful to them. 

As for ants — there is on the market at present, an effective "Ant 
Destroyer" for sale at $i.oo per pound, also an insecticide called 
"Vermine" costing 65 cents per pint, and used i part to 400 parts of 
water, which is successful in destroying ants and all insects that work 
under the soil. This will not injure plant life. 

Ants' nests may be destroyed by making a hole in the center of 
the nest and pouring in 2 or 3 teaspoonfuls of carbon bisulphide, then 

33 



closing up the hole tightly with earth. These fumes are poisonous to 
animal Ufe. 

Mrs. Benjamin S. Warren, Romayne Latta Warren. 

Grosse Pointe Shores, Mich. 

Special Plant Societies 

American Carnation Society 
A. F. J. Bauer, Sec'y., Indianapolis, Ind. 

American Dahlia Society 
/. H. Pepper, Sec'y., 903 Johnston Bldg. B'way 6* 28th St., N. Y. 

National Dahlia Society 
R. W. Gill, Sec'y., Portland, Oregon 

American Gladiolus Society 
A. C. Seals, Sec'y., Ithaca, N. Y. 

American Peony Society 
A. B. Saunders, Sec'y., Clinton, N. Y. 

American Rose Society 
Prof. E. A. White, Sec'y., Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. 

American Sweet Pea Society 
William Gray, Sec'y., Bellevue Rd., Newport, R. I. 

Chrysanthemum Society of America 
C. W. Johnson, Sec'y., 2242 W. logth St., Chicago, III. 

California Dahlia Society 
N. F. Vanderbilt, Sec'y., 725 Fifth St., San Rafael, Cal. 

Southern Dahlia Society 
W. E. Claflin, Sec'y., College Park, Md. 

The American Rose Society 

The American Rose Society was organized in 1899. Its purposes 
are as follows: 

1. To increase the general interest in the cultivation, and to im- 
prove the standard of excellence of the rose. 

2. To foster, stimulate, and increase the production in every 
possible way of improved varieties of roses suitable to our American 
climate and requirements. 

34 



3. To organize exhibitions of roses at such times and places 
and under such conditions as to rules, regulations, prizes, medals, 
certificates, etc., as may seem best adapted from time to time to 
stimulate interest in and the increased cultivation of roses, in 
gardens, parks and green houses. 

4. To promote the organization and affiliation of local rose so- 
cieties in the United States and Canada. 

5. To establish fraternal relations for mutual benefit with national 
rose societies in all parts of the world. 

6. To foster the establishment and maintenance of rose test- 
gardens and of municipal rose-gardens in America, for the purpose of 
acquainting the people of the land with the best varieties of roses and 
their various uses. 

7. To issue such publications as will serve to best promote the 
growth and improvement of the rose. 

8. To stimulate and conduct rose hybridization and other re- 
search work upon rose improvement, and in regard to insects and 
other diseases inimical to the rose. 

Members and Dues 

There are three classes of members, known as Life, Honorary and 
Annual members. The payment of $50 entitles one to Life member- 
ship, and the payment of $2 entitles one to Annual membership with 
all privileges of the Society, including all publications and free ad- 
mission to all exhibitions. Any person whom the Society shall deem 
worthy of the honor may at any annual meeting be elected an Hon- 
orary member. 

Rose Test-Gardens 

A number of important rose test-gardens have been established 
in different parts of the United States, and the work of these gardens 
is being supervised and fostered by the American Rose Society. Gar- 
dens have already been established at Washington, D. C. ; Hartford, 
Conn.; Minneapolis, Minn.; Ithaca, N. Y.; Portland, Oregon; and at 
College Station, Texas. In the test-gardens various species and 
varieties are grown, and careful records are taken to determine the 
adaptation to soil and climate, the hardiness and vigor, and the pro- 
lificacy of blooms in various sections of the United States. Members 
of the Society and all rose-lovers have free access to these gardens 
and may there enjoy the wonderful display of blooms and learn much 
regarding the adaptation of species and varieties for their peculiar 
conditions. 

35 



The American Rose Annual 

In 19 16 the Society first published the American Rose Annual, 
which has proved to be a most valuable work. This book is edited 
and published by J. Horace McFarland, of Harrisburg, Pa., and 
each year it contains material of immense value to all rosarians, be 
they amateur or professional. It contains many timely topics dis- 
cussed by the most noted authorities on rose culture, and also much 
historical information regarding varieties of roses and their origin, as 
well as a record of the work of breeders of present-day varieties. It 
is confidently asserted that not only as a year-book of rose progress, 
but as a presentation of the best spirit and practice of outdoor and 
indoor rose-growing, the American Rose Annual is unique. Its dis- 
cussion of cultural methods, insects, diseases, and many other topics 
makes this publication alone well worth the cost of membership in 
the American Rose Society. 

The 1916 edition is nearly exhausted, but a few more copies are 
available at $2 each. Copies of the 1917, I9i8,and 1919 editions may 
be obtained by members of the Society^from the Secretary's office at 
$1 each. 

Every member of the Garden Club of America should be a mem- 
ber of the American Rose Society. The love of roses is universal, and 
the Society fosters everything progressive along rose-growing lines. 
The Society is thoroughly alive and it should receive the same support 
from American rosarians as that given the National Rose Society by 
the English garden lovers. E. A. White, Secretary. 



The American Gladiolus Society 

No garden flower has a more wonderful range of color than the 
gladiolus, and when one studies them the more he is impressed with 
the fact that only the orchid family can equal them in charming pat- 
terns of color combination with exquisite variations of form. All 
lovers of this flower should enlist under the banner of the American 
Gladiolus Society which is active in fostering the culture of gladioli 
throughout the country. 

In order to encourage amateurs to join the society, the former 
initiation fee has been eliminated, and it is hoped that every lover of 
this beautiful flower will come into this rapidly-growing society. Wc 
ought to have at least one thousand members, all of them enthusiastic 
growers who are wilUng to tell their friends of the splendid results ob- 
tained in growing this flower. The society wishes to aid local societies* 

36 



by offering its medals and prizes, and welcomes affiliations with 
local societies to this end. Heretofore its work along this line has 
been handicapped for lack of members, but we are now strong enough 
to co-operate more fully. It hopes to assist in making "The Flower 
Grower," its medium of communication with the members, the best 
journal for amateur flower growers that there is in the world. This 
publication is sent to all the members, and all who know it are agreed 
that no amateur can afford to do without it. The better it is sup- 
ported, the better it can be made, and the greater its influence. 

The society has maintained trial grounds for gladioli at Cornell 
University, and buUetins have been issued of the results of these 
trials. Although these trials were suspended during the war, there is 
now good prospect that this work will be resumed next year. These 
publications are invaluable, and so great has been the demand for 
them that the edition is rapidly becoming exhausted. Those who send 
in their membership dues promptly will be able to secure them while 
the supply lasts. 

Therefore if you really love this flower you will wish to spread 
the good news of the wonderful effects it has produced in your garden, 
and you will send two dollars to the Secretary, A. C. Beals, 212 Kelvin 
Place, Ithaca, N. Y., and enroll as a member of the organization, 
having the comprehensive program of stimulating interest in and 
promoting the culture and development of the gladiolus; to establish 
a standard nomenclature; to test out new varieties; and to give them 
such recognition as they deserve; to study the enemies of the gladiolus 
and find remedies for the same; to disseminate information relating 
to this flower; and to secure uniformity by awarding prizes at flower 
shows, and to hold an annual meeting and exhibition each year. 

A. C. Beals. 
Mrs. John A. -Stewart, Jr., Secretary. 

Short Hills, N. J. Anne T. Stewart. 

Chairman. 



37 



Joint Committee on Trade Relations 

At the last meeting of the joint Committee on Trade Relations on 
the American Society of Landscape Architects, the Ornamental 
Growers Association, the American Association of Nurserymen and the 
Garden Club of America the foUomng resolution was outlined. 

Will not the Presidents of the Member Clubs bring it up for dis- 
cussion and report to me any suggestion for amendment? 

Rose Standish Nichols. 
Chairman Trade Relations Committee. 

Obligations which Are Normally Implied by the Placing 
AND Acceptance of an Order for Nursery Stock, in 
the Absence of Specific Stipulations to Some Other 
Effect 

A. On the part of the nurseryman. 

1. That the stock shipped shall be true to name. 

(The standard names are those of the American Joint Com- 
mittee on Horticultural Nomenclature. The plants correspond- 
ing to these names are those described in Bailey's Cyclopedia, 
as per references in the check Hst of the American Joint Com- 
mittee on Horticultural Nomenclature.) 

2. That the stock shipped shall be of the size and quality repre- 
sented by the nurseryman. 

(An attempt to standardize and define terms descriptive of 
size and quahty is being made by the nurserymen.) 

3. That all reasonable care and skill shall be exercised in digging, 
handling, and packing the stock; having due regard to the 
species, size, and character of the plants, to the climatic con- 
ditions at the time and place of digging, of -transit and of 
delivery, and to the normal time consumed in transit and 
method of handling in transit by the transportation agencies 
selected, and that all precautions which are customary in good 
trade practice shall be taken to ensure that the plants will 
arrive in good condition for successful growth unless culpably 
delayed or mishandled while in charge of the transportation 
agencies. 

4. That notice of shipment is to be sent in due season to the 
person placing order and to consignee, stating time and method 
of shipment, number and kind of containers (boxes, bundles, 
carloads, etc.), name of transportation agency, name and 
address of consignee, and whether transportation charges are 
prepaid or collect. 

38 



B. Upon the part of the person placing the order, or of others acting 
under his instructions. 

1. That arrangements shall be made for the prompt receipt of 
the consignment upon notice from the transportation agency 
that it is ready for delivery at point of destination. 

2. That if at the time of delivery there is evidence of damage 
during transit, or if there has been serious delay in deHvery, 
the way-bills shall be signed "under protest." 

3. That a notice of the receipt of stock shall be sent to the ship- 
per within two days of their receipt from the transportation 
agency, stating whether waybill was signed "under protest" 
and whether goods have been unpacked and inspected; and 
that failure to send such notice within two days of the receipt 
of the stock shall be prima facie evidence of its acceptance. 

4. That all reasonable care, skill, and despatch shall be used in 
the unpacking and inspection of the stock. 

5. That if the stock shall appear, at the time of inspection on 
delivery, to be defective from any cause other than the fault 
of the transportation agency, a complaint to that effect shall 
be sent to the shipper, either with the notice of receipt of goods 
specified under No. 3 above, or within one week thereafter. 
Said complaint should specify exphcitly the nature of the 
defect or defects. 

6. That in case a complaint of defective stock is thus made to 
the nurseryman, the stock in question shall be heeled in or 
otherwise properly protected from deterioration, and shall not 
be destroyed or otherwise disposed of until the nurseryman 
shall have had reasonable time to state whether he wishes to 
have the stock jointly inspected or what action he proposes to 
take concerning the complaint. 

7. That if the stock shall appear at the time of inspection upon 
deUvery to be defective, partly or wholly because of delay 
or mishandling while in transit, the consignee or the person 
placing the order shall be responsible for making the proper 
claim upon the transportation agency, the shipper being 
under obligation to assist by furnishing any information 
needful in establishing the claim against the transportation 
agency. 

C. Payments: In the absence of special agreements to some other 
effect payments for nursery stock are expected to be made within 
30 days after delivery both of consignment and bill for same. 



39 



Bulletin Advertising from Another Standpoint 

October lo, 1919. 
My Dear Mrs. Brewster: 

I am glad to give you in brief my reasons why I heartily approve 
of the proposal to eliminate advertisements of the seed and nursery 
trade from the Bulletin. 

I am inclined to beheve that in large measure the members of the 
various clubs are not greatly influenced by these advertisements. I 
find, as a rule, that Garden Club members are so well informed as to 
sources of supply, that they know everything about the firms who 
rank high enough to be admitted to the pages of the Bulletin. 
From all my own advertising in the Bulletin I can trace but one 
inquiry. This does not mean that I regard the Bulletin as anything 
but a splendid advertising medium, but it benefits only the kind of 
advertising that your members do not want to know about. Several 
times I have been asked to introduce to your advertising- manager a 
firm I did not wish to introduce. 

It does not seem to me the proper poKcy to commerciaHze such a 
splendid publication as the Bulletin is. When advertising copy has 
been accepted, it is, of course, the duty of the publication in which the 
advertisement appears, to use every legitimate means to the end that 
the advertiser shall profit by his expenditure. I beheve that the 
Bulletin should be in a position where it can not be expected to do 
this. 

I beheve that the Garden Clubs should not be exploited 
by the trade, as, in any case, I fear the approval of the 
Bulletin is unwisely used. It would be so natural a thing, 
for instance, to show to customers, not members of a garden 
club, the advertisement of my bulbs, with the idea of professing 
a standard which in this case I am compelled to five up to only 
by my own business conscience. 

A printed fist of reputable firms, with their specialties described 
in detail, the hst to be distributed to the members, seems preferable 
to me as a means of disseminating information about rehable sources 
of supply. Such a hst should be revised at frequent intervals, and 
always kept up to date. 

You are at hberty to edit this as you please. If I thought it wise 
to mention particular instances I could make you appreciate my ob- 
jections to better advantage, but you will understand that in a letter 
to be pubhshed I can not do so. 

Very truly yours, 

Chester Jay Hunt. 
40 



The Planting of Trees as War Memorials 

At the annual meeting of the Managers of the New York Botanical 
Garden on January 13,1919, the following suggestions by Mr. Edward 
D. Adams were approved and ordered printed: 

At this time, when permanent memorials to the defenders of our 
flag by land and sea are being considered throughout our land, and 
projects for community monuments of various designs are planned, 
we venture the suggestion that individual, as well as associated, 
action can effectively and economically be taken in honor of all who 
have served or of those who have made the supreme sacrifice, by 
planting memorial trees. 

Such trees may properly be planted in the front yard, on the 
street, at the home entrance, in a park, as the decoration of an avenue, 
in single specimens or in groups of different species for artistic effects 
of form and color. 

As representing sentiments to be long cherished, such memorials 
would be tenderly cultivated and protected. 

Their shade and fruit would yield comfort and satisfaction. Their 
growth would add value to the home and become an asset that suc- 
ceeding generations would inherit. 

Naturally, only those trees should be selected for memorials to 
family, school, church, and municipal honor, that will grow best in 
each locahty and of those species that will be appreciated for their 
beauty, grandeur, long Hfe, and utihty. 

The number of kinds of trees suitable for memorial planting is 
large. The widely different cHmates of different parts of the United 
States require the selection of such kinds as will grow vigorously, and 
the character of the soil should also be taken into consideration; such 
information to those not versed in tree planting can usually be had 
from the nearest nurser3Tnan or from officials of the Agricultural 
Experiment Station. 

Those who live in homes without available grounds for planting, 
might contribute to the cost of a tree for its planting as part of a 
memorial grove in a park or garden. 

The selection of the tree, the preparation of the location, and 
the design of the label or honor roU, may be considered and carried 
out in family conferences and with the participation of each member. 

These preparations should be made as our men return, so 
that the signing of the treaty of peace may be celebrated over 
the nation wide by the simultaneous planting of the honor tree 
of each family and community that has cherished a service flag 
in the period of our war. 

41 



At the New York Botanical Garden, a war memorial plantation of 
Douglas Spruce, a characteristic American evergreen tree, will be 
established this spring; about one hundred t'rees five feet high having 
been secured for this purpose. For those who do not have land avail- 
able and who would like to have a memorial tree planted, the offer 
is made to designate one of these spruces as desired on receipt of ten 
dollars, which will cover cost of tree, of planting, and of its care, 
which will be the same as that of other trees in the Garden. 

Reprinted at the request of Mr. H. L. Britton. 



Garden Club News 

Mrs. William Cabell Bruce has resigned from the vice-presidency 
of the Club. Her resignation has been accepted with much regret. 
Mrs. Samuel Sloan, Phillipstown Garden Club, has been elected 
to fill the vacancy. 

At a recent meeting of the Executive Committee it was decided 
to continue the following standing committees: 

Committee on Color Chart. 

Committee on Historical Gardens. 

Committee on Honorary Award. (Medal.) 

Committee on Photography. (Combine with proposed Slides 
Committee.) 

Committee on Preservation of Native Wild Flowers. 

Committee on Trade Relations. 

Committee on Garden Literature. (Subsidiary to the Bulletin.) 

Committee on Experimenting with Remedies for Insects and Pests. 
(Subsidiary to the Bulletin). 

Committee on Special American Plant Societies. (Subsidiary to 
the Bulletin.) 

Since the Annual Meeting at Lake Forest, the Presidents have, 
in answer to Mrs. Martin's letter, agreed with the plan there made, 
to raise the dues to $2.00 per member. This change will go into effect 
immediately. 

A meeting of the Executive Committee was held in New York on 
October 23, 19 19. Many plans for the future were discussed and some 
definite decisions reached. 

Arrangements are now being made for issuing Garden Visiting 
Cards which may be had on application by all Garden Club mem- 
bers. The method of application and all details will be published in 
the next issue of the Bulletin which should appear on January 15, 
1920. 

42 



Another important addition to Club activities will be a collection 
of lantern slides, grouped as to subject and especially designed to 
meet the requirements of club programs. This will also be fully- 
described in the next issue. 

These are only two of the many practical and pleasant develop- 
ments already launched. Useful lists, program suggestions, general 
garden information, will be compiled and placed at the disposal of 
members within a very short time. 

Most important of all, it is definitely settled that the 1920 Annual 
Meeting will be held in Boston, with the North Shore Garden Club, 
on Jime 28th, 29th and 30th. In November, June seems a long way 
off, but it isn't too soon to make your plans to be there. 

A winter meeting of the Executive Committee, Council of Presi- 
dents and a general meeting of members will be held in New York 
about December ist. 

News and Views 

This department is dedicated to the Member Clubs and to our 
individual members. It is designed to hold short accounts of unusual 
meetings, stirring events, interesting anecdotes, successful shows and 
pleasant garden experiences. Contributions should be signed and 
the. name of the Club from which they come should also be given. 
Personal news is welcome and if we might have an occasional con- 
troversy, so much the better. The name of the Column Conductor 
will be announced in the next issue of the Bulletin. 

A bill is just now before the legislature which should be supported 
by every Member Club. Its subject is the prevention of bribe-giving 
by tradesmen and its passage should go far to bring about the re- 
sults which are the aim of our Committee on Trade Relations, 
by making both the offering and acceptance of a bribe a criminal 
offense. 

Miss Nichols, the chairman of our committee has just 
received the following letter from Mr. John J. Esch, chairman 
of the House of Representatives Committee on Interstate and 
Foreign Commerce : 

"My dear Madam: — Your letter of October 8th urging support of 
H. R. 263 to further protect interstate and foreign commerce against 
bribery and other corrupt trade practices, on behalf of the Garden 
Club of America, just received. 

In reply I wish to state that the above bill has been referred to our 
Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce which is now en- 
gaged in the consideration of railroad legislation and will be so engaged 

43 



for weeks and possibly months to come. It will be impossible to give 
consideration to other matters until this very important legislation is 
out of the way. 

I may introduce or have some member of the Committee introduce 
a bill having the purpose of the above. 

With kindest regards and thanking you for the expression of views, 
I remain, 

Yours very truly 

John J. Esch, Chairman. 

This bill has the backing of the Nurserymen's Association and 
should have ours. 

Will each Member Club write to Mr. Esch, House of Representa- 
tives, Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce, Washington, 
and ask him to hasten action on bill H. R. 263? Urge that he in- 
troduce it himself. If each Club will write immediately, the receipt 
of forty letters, representing the views of 2500 individuals may make 
prompter action seem desirable. 

Presidents are urged to present this matter at the next meeting 
of their Club and to comply with this suggestion as promptly as 
possible. 

The Editor has a number of copies of a condensed summary of 
facts and opinions regarding Quarantine 37 and its effects upon 
American horticulture, which she will gladly forward to any Club or 
member who will send a stamped and addressed envelope. 

The following letter has been sent to the United States Senators 
by a well-known nurseryman. It is given as a suggestion and example 
of the general form that such a letter should take. If each member 
club would write such a letter to the Senator from its state and urge 
all other Garden Clubs in the state to do likewise it might have an 
appreciable effect. 

"As dealers in bulbs and nursery stock for a number of years, we 
earnestly protest, in common with other seed-houses and nursery 
dealers, against the recent ruling of the Federal Horticultural Board, 
which prohibits the importation of all bulbs from abroad with the 
exception of a very few varieties. This will occasion a great loss in 
business to aU seed-houses and as all bulbs which have been imported 
in the past are as free from root growth as hyacinths, tulips, and 
narcissus which it is permissable to import, we do not think that any 
risk would be incurred if other bulbs which were free from roots were 
allowed to come in. 

"We trust you will do what you can to have this ruling at least 

44 



modified ; at the same time, we believe we are as anxious as anyone to 
prevent the entry into this country of foreign diseases. Your assistance 
in this matter will be greatly appreciated." 

Obviously, this letter would require many modifications, but the 
argument it presents is good and is as strong with respect to amateurs 
as professionals. 

Dahlia Show of the Short Hills Garden Club 

The increasing interest in the Dahlia show of the Short Hills 
Garden Club was evidenced at the Annual Exhibition this year 
held on September 26 and 27, by the attendance of visitors from such 
far states as IlHnois, Michigan, Pennsylvania, Connecticut and 
Northern New York. There were also representatives from many 
Garden Clubs within a radius of one hundred miles and several 
professionals. 

The idea of a formal garden was carried out with great skill and 
art in the centre of the hall. OutHning the crosswalks around the 
charming sun-dial were pots of bright flowers, quaintly arranged by 
Kttle children of the community, in competition for a prize, a new 
feature introduced this year. Against the wall as a back-ground and 
foil for the brilliant heavy-headed flowers were ranged in Italian jars 
stately, sombre cedars and young, dull green oak trees. Among and 
between these were bits of classic and modem sculpture. The entire 
decorative scheme was the work of the artist and architect, Mr. W. W. 
Renwick, an associate member of the Club. 

There were 67 exhibits divided among 24 classes, also some pro- 
fessional exhibits, these not in competition for awards. 

Among the specialties shown by this Club are always magnificent 
seedlings. In this class the medal of the American DahHa Society 
was awarded to Mrs. C. H. Stout, as Secretary of the Club, and pro- 
ducer of the well known "Sunshine" dahha. 

The memory of the greatly beloved first President of the Club is 
being kept fresh by a dahlia produced last year by Mrs. Stout, and 
named the "Emily Renwick." This is a variety of the Decorative 
type and wiU shortly be put on the market. The tubers have been 
bought by a dealer, and the proceeds will be returned to the Club and 
used in some way as a permanent memorial to Mrs. Renwick. 

This dahlia has not only proved its worth by the exquisite beauty 
of its frilled petals — rose and transparent yellow — but by its enduring 
quahties, for a bloom exhibited by a dealer in a New York window, 
remained fresh for one week. Another feature of interest is always the 
competition for Artistic Decoration divided into two classes, those 

45 



with dahlias only and any foliage and those with any flowers and any 
foliage. 

Perhaps the most descriptive comment on the Show was given by a 
professional who made the rounds with critical eye, and on reaching 
his starting point waved his hands comprehensively exclaiming: 
"What is there in the soil of Short Hills for dahlias? We can't touch 
this!" Mildred C. Prince. 

Of the many bouquets bestowed on Queen Elizabeth of the Belgians 
during her day in Cincinnati, none was lovelier than a great cluster 
from the remarkable dahlia field that forms an important part of the 
flower garden of Mrs. Samuel H. Taft, president of the Cincinnati 
Garden Club. These flowers, bearing the card of the president of the 
Garden Club, will be given the queen after her inspection of Mrs. and 
Mrs. Charles Phelps Taft's pictures. Incidentally Mrs. Charles 
Phelps Taft is using a number of the very unusual dahlia blossoms from 
Mrs. Samuel H. Taft's garden throughout the rooms of her home on 
Wednesday, that gardener sending blossoms from her prize-winning 
dahlia plants only. 

A certain number of copies of the book of garden plans distributed 
by the Garden Club of Illinois at the Annual Meeting, are stiU 
available. These books give plans of all Lake Forest and Winnetka 
gardens visited during the meeting and proved of great interest to the 
ofiicers and delegates. The Treasurer of the Garden Club of Illinois, 
Mrs. George A. Seavems, Lake Forest, Illinois, will be glad to give 
particulars as to price, etc. 

Corrections to the Report of the Annual Meeting 

In transcribing the minutes of the Annual Meeting, some in- 
accuracies slipped in. Corrections as follow should be made in the 
mimeographed copy of the report sent to all Member Clubs. 

On the title page, Winnetka, Illinois, should appear jointly with 
Lake Forest. The members of the Garden Club of Illinois are 
almost equally divided between the two places and shared quite 
equally their duties as member of the hostess Club. 

On page 8 of the mimeograph'-d copy, it appears that Mrs. Harold 
I. Pratt moved that "the old policy be continued as the policy of the 
Garden Club of America; Mrs. Greeley seconded the motion, which 
was carried." This should read, "Mrs. Blake was asked to reread the 
proposed policy of the Garden Club of Illinois and in so doing made it 
a motion, seconded by Mrs. Greeley. Mrs. Isaac Le Boiteaux offered 
an amendment, 'that this policy be adopted with modifications.* 

46 



Mrs. Blake declined to accept the amendment. After general dis- 
cussion Mrs. Blake withdrew her motion and in its place moved that 
the old policy be continued as the poUcy of the Garden Club of 
America. This was seconded by Mrs. Greeley." 

On page 13, immediately preceding the motion made by Mrs. 
Bouton, the following should be inserted: "It was moved by Miss 
Pendleton and seconded by Mrs. Oakleigh Thorne that a request be 
sent through the central office to Member Clubs asking them to open 
their gardens to visiting Garden Club of America members." 

The Report of the Committee on Honorary Award should be 
completed as follows: ''The Medal is to be awarded annually to the 
person doing the most for horticulture and Mrs. King announced 
that the first medal should and would be presented to Professor 
Charles Sprague Sargent of Boston, Mass." 

Flowers and Herbs for the Lord Mayor 

An Old City Custom . • 

On Thursday, the loth inst., in conformity with ancient usage, the 
Master (Major Samuel Weil), the Wardens (Mr. Francis Agar and Mr. 
D. C. Haldeman), and the Clerk (Mr. E. A. Ebblewhite) of the Gar- 
deners' Company, which dates from 1605, waited upon the Lord Mayor 
at the Mansion House and presented him with specimens of flowers, 
vegetables and herbs in remembrance of the long association of the 
guild with the City. The guild are especially proud of the fact that 
in 1632 they were granted by the Recorder a warrant for the arrest of 
persons using the trade of gardening in contempt of the company's 
charters. To the Lady Mayoress the guild presented a bouquet of 
Orchids. 

— The Garden. 



47 



Board of Editors 

(Incomplete) 

Chairman: Mrs. Walter S. Brewster, Lake Forest, 111., and 1220 
Lake Shore Drive, Chicago. 

Ex-qfficio: Mrs. Harold I. Pratt, Secretary, Glen Cove, L. I., and 
820 Fifth Ave., New York. 

The Gardener^s Miscellany: Mrs. Robert C. Hill, Easthampton, 
L. I., and 960 Park Ave., New York. 

Plant Material Department: Mrs. Charles M. Hubbard, Winnetka, 111. 

Garden Literature: Mrs. William K. Wallbridge, Short Hills, N. J. 

Garden Pests and Remedies: Mrs. Benjamin S. Warren, Grosse 
Pointe Shores, Mich. 

Special Plant Societies: Mrs. John A. Stewart, Jr. , Short Hills, N. J. 

Garden Club members are besought to send articles, suggestions, 
questions and complaints to any and all departments, or, if they 
prefer they may address the chairman on any subject and their com- 
munication jsvill be forwarded to the department best fitted to deal 
with it. 

Do not hesitate to criticise, and if, perhaps, we sometimes please 
you, tell us so. The Editorial Board. 

(A number of Departments outhned and correspondents suggested 
are omitted in this issue of the Bulletin. In January, it is hoped 
to print a complete issue with letters from abroad, Botanical Garden 
calendars, etc. A dormant periodical revives slowly.) 

(The editor regrets that strike conditions have much delayed this 
issue of the Bulletin.) 



48 



Bulletin of 

^be (3ar6en Club 

of Hmerica 

January, 1920 No. 1 1 (New Series) 



President Vice-President 

MRS. J. WILLIS MARTIN MRS. FRANCIS KING 

Ckestnux Hill, Phil.4delphl\, Pa. Alma, Michigan 
Treasurer 

MRS. H. D. AUCHINCLOSS MRS. JOHN E. NEWELL 

25 E. 67TH Street, New York and West Mentor, Ohio 

Newport, R. I. 

Secietary ilRS. OAKLEIGH THORNE 

MRS. HAROLD I. PRATT Millbeook, N. Y. anb 

820 FiFiH Ave., New York .a.xd Santa Barbara, Cal. 

Glen Cove, L. I. 

Librarian MRS. SAMUEL SLOAN 

MRS. FREDERICK L. RHODES 45 East ssd Street, New York and 

Short Hills, N. J. Garrison, N. Y. 
Editor 

MRS. WALTER S. BREWSTER 
. 1220 Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, and Lake Forest, Illinois 

The objects of this association shall be: to stimulate the knowledge and love of gardening among 
amateurs; to share the advantages of association, through conference and correspondence in this 
country and abroad; to aid in the protection of native plants and birds; and to encourage civic planting . 



January Dusk 

A ustere and clad in sombre robes of gray, 

With hands upfolded and with silent wings, 
In unimpassioned mystery the day 
"' Tasses; a lonely thrush its requiem sings. 

The dust of night is tangled in the boughs 

Of leafless lime and lilac, and the pine 
Grows blacker, and the star upon the brows 

Of sleep is set in heaven for a sign. 

Earth's little weary peoples fall on peace 

And dream of breaking buds and blossoming, 

Of primrose airs, of days of large increase. 
And all the colored retinue of Spring. 

— John Drinkwater. 



This year we may confidently and unreservedly dedicate to beauty 
in our gardens. It is a long time since we have been able to give 
ourselves over to leisurely enjoyment of flowers and ornaments of 
green, but now that their day has come, I venture to think that 
enjoyment will be more careless and serene than in pre-war days. 
The discontent that caused resentment if flowers came wrong, or if 
weeds came at all, or if edges were crooked, or if visitors always came 
this week instead of last week or next, wiU be overborne by gratitude 
that we can have all the flowers we want and that, if we feel like it we 
can take time to pull up the weeds. We may not have gardeners to 
straighten the edges, but we hope for visitors, like ourselves grown less 
critical, and not in the least bothered as to what they might have 
seen last week or could see next but thrilled over what is there and 
spending all their extra moments telling you what they have blooming 
at home at that minute and in what perfection! 

How much time we have wasted in dissatisfied tours of our gardens, 
always hunting for imperfections and overlooking the very things we 
should be enjoying. I do not advocate smug contentment, but I do 
claim that each plant in its season deserves its due praise, that the 
whole is more important than the details that go to make it, that the 
too meticulous gardener may be just as tiresome as the too good 
housekeeper, and that if you will give a visitor one beautiful thing 
to look at and remember, that visitor will go away convinced that 
your garden is a dream of lovehness, whose charms she would re- 
produce in her own. 

We can have such fun this summer, if we wiU, just watching and 
working with the more frivolous growing things we have had tQ^ 
neglect so long. We can have even more fun if we can find others to 
watch with us. They will comfort us in our down-hearted moments 
when the color combination planned in the spring of 1914 comes out 
wrong, or when the Near-Eastern gardener's assistant spends $9.00 
worth of time chpping the wrong hedge. Unless we guilelessly pro- 
claim our misfortunes, they are very likely to admire our color scheme 
and commend the precision of the hedge-clipping. 

In other words, don't be too critical at home and don't expect 
others to be critical abroad. If your garden is pretty and sweet and 
gay, small blemishes should be attended to in business hours. (Do 
you keep business hours in your garden? You should.) And be sure 
that those who come to see are not there to hunt out the blemishes but 
to enjoy the prettiness and sweetness and gayety. Weeds will grow, 
high-priced labor is generally incompetent, rain beats down, drought 
dries up, and countless other calamities menace your plot of ground. 
But neighboring plots must face the same conditions, and only the 



true gardener knows that the perfect garden is a momentary thing 
that your eyes must be ready to see and your heart to understand. 
Not flowers, nor care, nor setting, nor sunshine, nor shadow will 
make this moment of perfection. It just happens, and if you are 
troubled by small imperfections you will miss it altogether. 

Make a New Year's resolve and renew it with the first green blade 
of Spring; to miss no beauty that your garden has to show, and to 
share that beauty with all who care to see. 

K. L. B. 

A Garden of Spring Flowers 

Gertrude Jekyll — V. M. E. 

If a garden for the flowers of the earher months is to be given all 
that it deserves it should be in a place of its own, apart from the 
spaces devoted to the flowers of summer and the later year. It can- 
not everywhere be so arranged, for often the only chance for the 
spring flowers is to have them in beds or borders that will be filled 
later with summer blooming plants. Where this is so it is inevitable 
that the planting, however well arranged, will have the temporary 
"bedding" appearance that is out of harmony with those sentiments 
of repose and continuity that are such valuable qualities in all good 
gardening; also the scope in the choice of plants will be necessarily 
restricted. But in the spring garden, that need not be disturbed, 
there is not only a much wider range of material to choose from, but 
there may be bold groups of some of those permanent plants of large 
and handsome form that have a conspicuous air of importance and 
distinction. These are the more to be valued because the large-leaved 
garden plants of springtime are none too many. 

As it has been one of my pleasant tasks of late years to puzzle out 
ways of using spring flowers it may be of use to say something of my 
own garden, especially as it showed itself in those happier years before 
the war; and to note certain conclusions I have come to since; for 
though for three years it has been almost neglected, yet one never 
ceases to think out ways and means, in the hope that some day it may 
again be given the attention it deserves. 

The spring garden lies a little way apart and yet is easily accessible. 
There is a long, high wall that was built for the protection of the main 
summer flower border from the northwest wind. The spring garden 
lies at the back of this at one end and on its northern side, where the 
line of the wall is prolonged by a Yew hedge which has now grown to 
equal the ten-foot height of the wall itself. The hedge returns at the 



farther end and hides some outbuildings. The other sides of the garden 
have a double dry wall planted at the top; this has now grown into a 
thick mass of Rosa lucida, and the remaining short side has another 
Avail, barely five feet high but with shrubs outside, so that it also 
forms a sheltering boundary. Near the middle is a grassy space a 
few yards wide and roughly circular. Three oaks and two Hollies 
nearly surround the little grass plot, but the ring of shade is com- 
pleted by some nut trees, Filberts and Cobs, now grown to a good 
height. There are two wooden seats, one of them in an arched recess 
notching into the largest Holly. 

The main border is against the wall and the Yew hedge that forms 
its continuation. It is twelve feet wide, with a space of two feet next 
to the wall for access to the back plants, and sixty-five feet long. 
Near the back and partly coming forward towards the middle of the 
border, are in two places, groups of * Veratrum nigrum, that fine middle 
European plant of noble foliage; the deeply plaited leaves are over a 
foot long and about seven inches wide. The flower does not concern 
the spring garden; it does not come till June, and though the tall 
spike of blackish purple is then a handsome object, yet the chief 
beauty of the plant is in the foliage which is in perfection in April. 
This fine plant alone will give the border a certain impression of 
solidity and importance, but we have also early growth into large 
leafage in*Myirhis odorata, the old English Sweet Cicely, a handsome 
plant with wide-spread, fern-like foliage, crowned with broad cream- 
white bloom, which is not only good in itself but shows out well among 
the other spring flowers as the only representative of its large botanical 
familv^ There is also *Solomon's Seal {Polygonatum multiflorum) in 
good sized patches of its fine arching sprays; it is the large Irish kind, 
nearly four feet high. 

Before coming to the actual flower masses, I should like to empha- 
size something I have learned of late years and that I now practise 
with ever increasing confidence. This is the great value of what, for 
want of a better name, I know as the "between plants." Any mass 
of bloom may be a pleasant sight, but if the flowers have a proper 
setting their value is very greatly enhanced. Years ago I used to 
notice, in friends' conservatories, places where many tender plants 
grown under glass were brought together when in bloom for show, 
how poor the effect often was— just a quantity of flowering plants 
put together without any definite arrangement except that the taller 
ones were put at the back and the shorter in front. I shall hope, 
later, to have something to say about such places, but what I learned 
was equally applicable to outdoor gardening, and it set me making 
search for good "between plants" for use with the spring flowers. 



Two were found whose value can hardly be over-estimated. One is a 
variety of the common Sage with purple-tinged leaves; the other is 
"^'Heuchera Richardsoni, the Satin Leaf, so called because the young 
foliage, suffused with reddish-brown, and just in young perfection in 
April, has a satin-like lustre. These two plants are rather freely used, 
for the most part in diagonal drifts, but also singly, out-lying, as the 
planting may require. *The Purple Sage is a charming accompaniment 
to anything of pink or purple coloring, and the Heuchera has proved 
an admirable setting for the further plants where the coloring is of 
scarlet, orange and wall flower brown. 

To give a general survey of the arrangement, it begins with the 
double white Arabis in front, followed by Aubrietia of pale and deep 
purple; they are not at the front edge only, but also swing back a 
little way into the depth of the border. I have found, in all border 
arrangement, that, as a general rule, it is better to plant in what it is 
convenient to call "drifts," running more or less diagonally with the 
line of the path, rather than in patches of more solid shape. For one 
thing the whole drift is better displayed as one passes along, and then 
by having them in this form, when the bloom of one kind is over, it is 
more easily concealed by the flowers of its neighbors on either side. 
My drifts are anything from five to ten feet long and a little thicker 
in the middle. The diagram shows their general form and disposition. 

To return to the flowers, at the near end there are Daffodils and 
White TuUps, inter-planted and sometimes carpeted, with Forget- 
me-not and white and yellow bunch Primroses, and early Irises, both 
purple and cream white, in a framing of the Purple Sage, with purple 
Wallflower and a fine form of dark purple Honesty (Lunaria biennis) 
at the back. The Wallflower is repeated after a big drift of the Prim- 
roses, and now comes one of the groups of the Veratrum, Quite at the 
back there are some patches of the stately Crown Imperial *{FritiUaria 
imperialis), the sulphur colored one. The diagram shows how the 
Purple Sage is used with the Tulips, the early pink Rosamundi, 
followed by the taller Clara Butt, a flower whose quiet pink coloring 
accords most charmingly with that of the Sage. Here there is a front 
edging of the purple-leaved form of the native *Ajuga reptans, broken 
by a few plants of Aubrietia which make a pleasant repetition of the 
color of the earlier, larger group. The color now changes to the richer 
yellow of Doronicum plantaginium, with yellow Tulips and still some 
purple Iris in the middle, and Viola gracilis in the front. Now the 
main "between plant" is the Heuchera as the yellow flowers deepen 
to orange, with orange Crown Imperials at the back and Tulips such 
as Thomas Moore, followed by La Merveille, all with a liberal inter- 
planting of brown Wallflower. This leads to the strong reds of the 

6 



splendid tall Tulip Gesneriana Major, with shorter earlier kinds, such 
as the bright little Artus. As all these have a good setting of the dark 
Satin Leaf the eye is pleased by having a break of green leafage of the 
second group of Veratrum, with the graceful Myrrhis and Solomon's 
Seal and more of the tall blooming Doronicum. 

Now there comes a cross path and beyond it the border widens as 
the main walk swings to the left near the Hollies and passes out beyond 
by an arch in the Yew hedge. This wider part is all rich yellow and 
orange, with Kerria, Berheris Darwinii, red and orange Tulips and the 
dark Heuchera, and, at the back, the rich red coloring of some bushes 
of red-leaved maples with an underplanting of the dark purple Honesty, 

Every year, as the arrangement becomes a little better, one sees 
how it may be further improved; there is no finality in gardening. 

* Veratrum nigrum, Black Hellibore, is seldom used in this country, but 
is hardy and easily raised from seed. It prefers shade as do most of the 
plants used in this border. 

Polygonatum muUiflorum is the European variety and that sold by 
our nurseries. It is much used in England in borders and for growing in 
pots. It is much larger than our native type. 

Myrrhis odorata is seldom seen in America but may be obtained from 
the Wolcott Nurseries, Jackson, Michigan. The northern situation of 
this nursery would indicate that it is hardy. 

Heuchera Richardsoni is a hybrid form that is not listed in American 
catalogues. Its seed might be imported and plants raised without much 
difficulty. 

Purple Sage we think is Salvia Sdat'ea, a plant little used in America 
but very handsome and very easily raised from seed. In Illinois it blooms 
aoout the last of June, but it sends up its woolly foliage early in the spring. 
Tht' editor has a small quantity of seed which she will gladly send upon 
request. It should be treated here as a biennial. 

Friiillaria Imperialis is unfortunately one pf the bulbs excluded by 
Quarantine 37. Breeder Tulips in browns and yellows might be used in 
its place. 

Ajuga 'reptans, Creeping Bugle, is distinctly a shade plant. 

Wall Flowers, unfortunately, can be used only as an autumn flower 
in America and then are successful only when the first frost comes late in 
the season. Can any of our members suggest a plant of similar form and 
color that might be used in their place? 

Seed for all of the plants mentioned in Miss JekyU's article may be 
had from John Forbes, Hawick, Scotland, or from Henri Correvon, 
Floraire, near Geneva, Switzerland. Since we must depend upon raising 
our own unusual varieties hereafter, why not send for these and other 
foreign catalogues and experiment? 

Remember that none of the plants mentioned will have the height 
indicated in the article. K. L. B. 



How Are New Roses Made ? 

J. Horace McFajrland, Editor American Rose Annual 

The energetic and persistent editor of the Bulletin of the Garden 
Club OF America insists that I must make good on the implied promise 
involved in a recent article on *' Making New Roses for America," in 
the direction of suggesting how they may be made. 

The breeding of new roses is a very technical matter if it is pur- 
sued with sufficient dignity, sobriety and concern. It is, however, 
very much in such work as it is in making butter. One time the 
great dairyman at Cornell, Professor Wing, said to me, "We have 
here completely worked out scientific rules for producing the best 
possible butter; yet every now and then I find some old woman in 
the country who never heard of science and never saw a rule, who is 
producing better butter than we know about!" 

It is this fine possibility that makes it worth while to commend the 
consideration of rose production to the women of the Garden Club, 
who would hardly have time to become absorbed in rose hybridiza- 
tion as a pursuit. 

In the 1916 American Rose Annual, on page 24, Prof. E. A. 
White, who is now the secretary of the American Rose Society, pre- 
sented a very clear statement as to the basis of rose-breeding. Any 
interested women are referred to this to get a start. 

It is not, I take it, in point here to tell exactly the motions 
for pollination, because the practice itself can easily be learned 
by any who are interested enough to buy, or read in a library, "Th^ 
Practical Book of Outdoor Rose-Growing," by Captain George 
C. Thomas, Jr. That is, detailed figures and suggestions are thus 
available. 

The point I would hke to bring out is that the woman who is 
interested and who provides herself with the simple outfit requisite, 
then needs ideals. What are the ideals she should hold? 

She must determine what she is working toward. To merely mix 
up a lot of rose pollen on a lot of receptive anthers and hope that 
something may happen, is interesting but not very important. To 
take a favorite rose, which is favored either because it has the color 
one likes, or the perfume one likes, or the form of bloom one hkes, 
or the ever-blooming habit one likes, or because it is a good climbing 
rose, or a particularly pleasing bush rose, and to use this rose as 
either male or female parent in order to combine into it some other 
qualities desired, is the worth-while work I should like to have 
undertaken. 

8 



It will soon be discovered that qualities are transmitted with 
reasonable certainty; that fragrance can be added or subtracted; 
even that thorns can be removed by breeding to that end. 

How does the cunning worker who has made our vegetable gardens 
productive go. about producing a new bean? He selects out of a field 
of beans the plant nearest to his ideal and isolates it. From its seeds 
he selects again, after having pollinated the bean flowers from varieties 
which have any of the qualities he is in love with. Then he keeps on 
pollinating and planting and working, and he is always approximating 
toward his result. 

In the 1920 American Rose Annual, Captain Thomas will tell how 
he has produced the most encouraging results yet attained toward the 
hardy everblooming climber we all hope for. He did it by starting 
with an ideal, and using all means toward that ideal, discarding those 
that failed and retaining those that succeeded. 

If I knew anything about the science of genetics I might put in 
here some very long words. Fortunately I am free from that knowl- 
edge, and therefore free from the disposition! I can properly say to 
the rose-loving women of the Gasden Club that any one of them who 
is willing to give some thoughtful time in previous study and prepara- 
tion and some more very delightful time in the necessary breeding 
when roses bloom, is likely to have an experience she will never forget 
— that of seeing come into bloom a new creation in a rose for the 
qualities of which she is individually responsible. A woman can best 
understand this joy, I tliink, and I should believe that she would go 
about the breeding of roses as reverently and joyously as modern 
\merican women approach the function of motherhood. 



The Dahlia 

Various Experiences and Suggestions 

During the long period when no Bulletin was issued a number 
of articles on the Dahlia accumulated. Since these come from various 
parts of the country and differ in many points it would seem interest- 
ing and useful to print them all. This it is impossible to do in their 
entirety, so each has been cut somewhat in its less practical details or 
where all three repeat details. Nothing of importance has been left 
out entirely, but in some cases one article has been allowed to speak 
for all. The editor begs the forgiveness of the various writers and 
hopes that the arrangement made will meet with their understanding 
and approval. 



The Dahlia 

W. C. Boyle 
Associate Member, Garden Club of Cleveland 

The discovery of the Dahlia is probably one of the few benefits 
Spain conferred upon the world in the conquest of Mexico. It was 
found indigenous on the sandy plains of that war-stricken countr}^ 
and brought to Spain. But it remained to England, where it was 
introduced from Spain in the latter part of the eighteenth century, to 
develop it into the remarkable flower it is today. This development 
has affected not only color but structure as well. In its native state it 
is described as "single with dull scarlet rays and yellow disk." It is 
impossible in a brief paper of this nature to cover all the work of the 
"wizards" in nature in producing from this wild, foreign, insignificant 
waif the wide range of the present Dahha. 

In its cultivation in this region (northern Ohio) I know of no more 
illusive plant — no two growers seem to agree on their "cultivation 
notes." I have attempted to test every theory and have met with 
success or failure not so much by reason of the notes as the cUmatic 
conditions in the various years. The Dahha loves a moist, cool 
atmosphere. We find it reaching perfection in the seaboard states of 
New England where it gathers moisture from heavy dews and fogs and 
is invigorated by the cool nights. England's cHmate is ideal in this 
respect. Travehng through rural England in August, 1914, I found 
the rarest varieties growing four to six feet in height and covered with 
perfect blooms. Here, our plants are apt to get such a set-back during 
the dry heat of July and August that they barely recover in time to 
come in bloom shortly before frost. It seems to be a simple thing to 
grow them in the eastern states referred to, but in the central states 
success will be measured b)^ the extent to which one can overcome this 
setback. 

Generally speaking, any good loam or garden soil is proper for 
Dahlias, provided it is cultivated deeply and well drained. The 
tubers should be placed flat about six inches below the surface and 
three feet between plants and rows. There is considerable controversy 
as to when to plant, some favoring early and others late. In this 
region I prefer the month of June, and preferably the first half. It is of 
the utmost importance to have the plants well established before the 
hot summer months. After the plant is well up, cultivation should 
begin and be kept up until near blooming period. If irrigation is 
necessary the ground should be thoroughly soaked once a week, or 
twice a week if cultivation is not systematically carried out. A slight 

10 



wetting of the ground is of no use. The plants are benefited by having 
the foUage washed with the hose occasionally. If the plants are of 
slow growth they will be aided by an application of liquid manure or 
nitrate of soda, either used sparingly in crystals on the ground, or the 
ground sprayed with a solution of one tablespoonful of crystals to a 
gallon of water. As the plants are coming into bud, I recommend a 
mulch of fine, well rotted manure three or four inches deep. This will 
supply the stimulant needed for blooming, and at the same time keep 
the ground cool and moist. 

There are two principal methods of training: the staking and the 
branching. The first is practiced by eliminating all but one stalk and 
securely fastening it to a well planted stake. The dahlia stalk is hollow 
and tender when mature and is easily broken by the wind or its own 
weight. Show flowers may be developed from such a stock by nipping 
ofT some of the flower buds. In the second method, the plant is nipped 
back so as to give it a low branching habit. This delays the flowering 
slightly (probably two weeks), but renders staking unnecessary and 
decreases the danger of losing a whole plant by the breaking of one 
main stem. This "nipping" process is done when the first two sets of 
leaves are formed by cutting out the stem down to these leaves. 
This results in four flower stocks, one at the base of each leaf, each 
capable of producing as much bloom as the one staUc of the staking 
method. A third method is the massing system, where the tubers are 
planted in rows a foot or two apart. The plants being close together 
are supposed to be self-supporting. By trying out these methods one 
can soon find which to adopt. Personally I prefer the branching 
method. 

Propagation is by tubers, slips or seed. It is quite easy to raise 
Dahlias from slips. The tuber is placed in the hot bed in the spring 
and when the sprouts from it are three inches high, they are cut off 
and planted singly in small pots with fine, sandy soil and placed in 
moderate heat. They root quickly. Transfer to large pots of light, 
rich soil. These slips, of course, come true to the mother plant. By 
this method one can, with moderate expense, secure a number of 
plants of the new and rare productions of each year, or of some 
favorite variety. Frequently the slip plants bloom more quickly and 
better than those raised from the tubers. 

Seed should be sown early in spring in the hot-bed or boxes in the 
house, and the plants transferred into pots in the manner of handling 
slips. The flowers seldom come true, but the chance of developing 
something new adds to the charm of this method. 

When the tubers are lifted in the fall, six or eight inches of the 
stalk should be left on and the tubers prDperly dried and packed in a 

II 



dry, cool cellar. They should not be allowed to shrivel. They should 
be separated just before planting, care being taken to have at least one 
eye to each tuber. Tubers without eyes may be thrown away as use- 
less. Plant but one tuber in a hill — its size makes little difference in the 
final development of the plant. 

A troublesome insect is the little greenish white fly or tlirips which 
operates on the underside of the leaves during July and August. By 
its destructive work the leaves curl and growth is retarded. Spray 
frequently on the underside of the leaves with solution of nicotine. 
This is not entirely effective, and I know of nothing which will abso- 
lutely control this pest. If any one in the Garden Club knows the 
remedy it would be a God-send to all lovers of this wonderful flower to 
have it widely published. It does its most injurious work during the 
months of July and August, when the vitality of the plant in this 
region is at its lowest ebb. I have observed that during favorable 
years when the plant can be kept growing and is vigorous, the injury 
done is not so great. Little injury is dohe by this insect after 
September ist. 

The Cultivation of Dahlias 
Mks. J. Horace Harding, Rumson Garden Club 

In Philadelphia lives a very noted Rosarian — Dr. Robert Huey — 
and, curiously enough, it was through him that I first learned to take 
an interest in Dahlias, for he grows them and loves them almost as 
ardently as his roses. 

One cultivates a Dahlia, and receives more satisfaction, in my 
opinion, than from any other flower. Roses are so difficult to culti- 
vate — so capricious — need such nurturing care: they have to be 
protected from so many pests and blights. Phlox seems to me to be 
one long struggle to keep it true to color; it does so love to be magenta, 
and is so horrid to look at in that unbecoming condition. Peonies are 
gorgeous — superb — but blossom so short a time. 

It is not the best praise, I know, to offer condemning comparisons 
to prove the value of an object praised, but I could not resist. The 
Dahlia grows easily in almost any soil — ^indeed, some one said it could 
grow in an ash heap — ;is attacked by comparatively few pests, and will 
blossom from July to heavy frost, if you plant it early enough. Of 
course, in making these general statements, I am not speaking of 
prize Dahlias; to grow the finest one must have carefully prepared soil. 

The Dahlia derives its name from the Swedish botanist, Dr. Dahl. 
It was first discovered in 1657, but was first grown as a double flower 
in 181 2, when it became immensely popular. 

12 



The Dahlia loves an open, sunny situation, and a rich, mellow 
soil is preferable. However, it possesses an easy-going, happy dis- 
position and will grow anywhere, except in dense shade or in wet, 
sour soil. 

The thing to remember is that cultivation is first in importance 
and location second. The location chosen should be prepared for 
planting by digging deep — the deeper the better — and, if possible, in 
the fall. If the soil is poor, a little well-rotted manure should be 
worked in. Too heavy fertiUzation produces a rank, sappy growth of 
foliage and gives the plant no time to think of flowers. Another evil 
follows — the thick foliage is much too comfortable a home for insect 
pests, which harbor and breed there. 

If the soil is capable of producing a rank growth of weeds, little, 
if any, fertilizer is needed. For a heavy or medium soil, I would use 
rather coarse manure with wood ashes or a light dressing of coarse 
bone meal. Soils that are low and inclined to be wet must have lime. 

An excellent plan on all soils is to spread a mulching of barnyard 
manure over the surface and around the plants after the last hoeing 
and cultivating. This will prevent the soil baking, and permit the 
small fibrous roots to come to the surface. 

In planting tubers, lay the tuber in a horizontal position. This 
permits the new growth to begin at once the formation of new roots, 
which are, in turn, to become the tubers of next year. As you know, 
each Dahlia root produces from three to five new tubers each year, so 
that your original stock is enormously increased. If the tuber is 
planted perpendicularly, the new stalk will draw its strength through 
the old tuber, which will seriously handicap the plant. 

Plant about five inches deep and cover firmly with soil. Dahlias 
can be planted as soon as the ground is dry — as early as May 15th 
and as late as June 20th — with good results. I generally do three 
plantings: Ma)' 15th, June ist, and June 15th. 

The most important thing to remember in Dahlia cultivation is the 
use of the hoe. As soon as the sprouts appear above the surface of 
the earth, the soil must be kept loose and mellow — never allowed to 
form a crust. This should be kept up until the first bloom appears, at 
which time, if tools have been properly used, there should be a slight 
hillock around each plant, or a slight ridge along each row, so that 
water will not lie around the plants. Water can be used sparingly, 
except in case of a long dry spell. Too much water produces rank foli- 
age and small flowers. 

When I first became interested in Dahlia-culture, I motored one 
day in September from Philadelphia to Berlin, N. J., south of Camden, 
to see Mr. Peacock's Dahlia Farm. The Dahlias were then in their 

13 



glory. Mr. Peacock is perhaps the largest of all the growers, and has 
taken so many prizes that he is not allowed to exhibit in competition 
for a prize. It was on Sunday and there were hundreds of people, but 
I was fortunate to meet him that afternoon, and for half an hour he 
showed me the proper method of disbudding, which I will repeat to 
you. 

From each tuber planted, several stalks appear above ground. 
When these are firmly established, perhaps five inches above ground, 
Mr. Peacock cuts off every stalk but one, throwing all the strength 
into one stalk. If you have very few plants, however, I would advise 
leaving two stalks, in case of accident, but not more. These stalks 
must be carefully tied to stakes, in several places, as they are growing, 
to avoid breaking. Cover each bleeding stalk with a fine powdering of 
earth, to hasten coagulation and sa^'e the sap. This is important. It 
is also important to place the stakes when you are planting the tuber, 
as many a tuber has been ruined by having a stake driven through 
it. The tubers grow in a long, straggling way, and it is hard to know 
just where they are underground. When they are beginning to bud, 
and you can really see an evidence of the terminal bud, pinch (not cut) 
out the shoots in each section, three rows down, leaving the terminal 
bud to develop on a nice long stem. This method of disbudding causes 
the plant to bush out at the bottom, and, as each spray grows, the 
same method of disbudding should be carried out. When I want very 
large flowers, I pinch down four sections, and last year got Minnie 
Burgles nine inches across, with stems a yard long. In pinching off 
buds and sprays in sections, I sprinkle the oozing ends with powdered 
earth and save all the sap possible. 

My real inspiration in Dahlia growing has been Dr. Theodore W. 
Moses, who lent me many helpful pamphlets on the Dahlia, and told 
me about a small periodical that keeps Dahlia lovers very much 
up-to-date — "The Bulletin of the American Dahlia Society." 

Practical Suggestions for Growing Dahlias 
Mrs. Paul L. Cort, Trenton Garden Club 

We cannot all grow Dahlias from cuttings, first because we have 
not greenhouses to start them in, second because they are expensive 
to buy, and third because we that have tubers, and have enjoyed their 
flowers before, are attached to them and want to grow them the next 
year. 

If we have last year's tubers, don't think of planting the whole 
thing, but separate each tuber very carefully. 

14 



In April spread the bulbs out on the floor of the cellar, cover them 
with newspapers, sprinkle the papers with water, and keep them 
moist until the tubers sprout. When the sprouts are fairly visible, it is 
time to separate the tubers with a sharp knife. Not all tubers produce 
eyes, and the largest tubers do not always produce the strongest plant, 
so don't discard your little tubers, but plant them, and they may give 
you the best blooms. 

After the tubers have been separated, pack them away again in a 
box covered with sawdust or dry moss, and do not plant until June 
first or even the middle of June. 

Dahlias must have an open sunny place with plenty of air and 
light. The soil must be poor, light soil. Sand and gravel seems to be 
ideal since mine do so well, though my ground is exceedingly poor, 
with plenty of brickbats and all sized stone. Rich and manured soil, 
which will make all foliage and few flowers, must be avoided. Simply 
spade and turn over the ground. The soil around the plants must never 
cake. 

Every plant should have a space of three feet between the plants, 
and four feet between the rows. Always grow" dahlias by themselves. 

The roots should be placed horizontally in an opening three inches 
deep, and the sprout or eye should always face upward. No manure 
of any kind should be placed underneath the tuber. It is better to 
place pebbles underneath for drainage. 

It is very necessary to stake every plant and keep them well tied 
with raffia. 

In July, when your plants are about eighteen inches high, cut the 
to'p right off, down to twelve inches from the ground. Then all the 
growth will be flowering, and they will not be over your head. Dahlias 
will grow beyond reach if they are not cut off. Allow only one stalk to 
grQw and keep the little young ones pulled out. 

After the buds appear it is time then to feed the plants, so as to get 
better bloom, larger flowers and bright colors. Keep the soil open, 
all weeds out and feed them once a week, first with manure water, 
next with ground bone, and the following week with Clay's Fertilizer 
and nitrate of soda. This must be used very carefully in small doses, 
or you will kill the plant. Apply the ground bone and Clay's Fertilizer 
dry, work it into the ground, then wash it in. 

I am a great believer in watering, and plenty of it, for the Dahlia 
is a moisture loving plant. Spray the foliage late in the evening and 
water the ground well too. But if you start to water you must keep it up. 

Dahlias do very well at the seashore, on account of the heavy dew 
during the night and the salt air. Weak lime water — a handful of 
lime in a barrel of water — ^will brighten the color. 

' 15 



To make your flowers last longer, cut the flowers in the evening, 
and plunge the stems into hot water for a few minutes, afterward 
into cool water. Put them away in a cool cellar for the night. Arrange 
in the morning and your flowers will last several days. 

Of course Dahhas have a few pests, but I think very few. I am not 
troubled with any, and I think one reason why mi^e are so healthy is 
because I spray the foliage nearly every evening, and they are kept 
clean. The cut worm works under groiind so you can not keep him 
washed off, but to catch him soak the ground with ''Vermine" before 
your tubers are set out. It only takes six tablespoonfuls to twelve 
quarts of water, and should be applied on a rainy day. Then there is 
a borer that forces his way up through the stalk. To catch him, plug 
up his entrance with some cotton, make a solution of Paris Green, 
and through a small opening on the uppermost part of the stalk, made 
with a small oil-can, let the solution run down the stalk. Let it remain 
fifteen minutes, then remove the cotton. The poison will run out 
leaving the borer dead. 

The White Fly stunts the growth of the plant and the leaves turn 
yellow. To get rid of him, cut your plant back within an inch of the 
ground, mulch with well decayed stable manure, and keep moist. 

Late in October, when the faithful plants are through blooming, 
they must have a good touch of frost before the tops are cut off. Then 
dig up the bulbs Carefully on a clear day, let them dry in the sun for 
half a day, then store thern in a box and cover with earth. Keep 
them air tight and prevent them from shrivelhng, and your bulbs 
will be ready for the next season and give you as good flowers as ever. 

The Dahlia Hybridizing of Mrs. Samuel H. Taft 
Jane H. Anderson, Garden Club of Cincinnati 

Now|that the war is over and people can once more devote a part 
of their time to flowers, I would hke to give to the members of the 
Garden Club, through the Bulletin, a short account of the really 
wonderful success achieved in the cultivation of Dahlias by Mrs. 
Samuel H. Taft, the President of the Cincinnati Garden Club. 

Mrs. Taft is such an ardent lover of flowers that she succeeds with 
all flowers, but her greatest successes have been with Dahlias. She 
not only thoroughly understands the cultivation, fertilizing, dis- 
budding and pruning of this plant, but has been highly successful as a 
hybridizer. 

I will give below a hst and description of Mrs. Taft's best seedUngs, 
but I wish my readers could see these flowers in all their magnificence. 

i6 



To read on a printed page that a flower "measures 8 to 9 inches in 
diameter and is a blending in color of carmine and ivory" can not 
possibly bring to your eyes the beauty of a large plant covered with 
such flowers. 

Mrs. Taft is an honorary member of the Dahlia Society of Cali- 
fornia, and has had several Dahlias named for her, one of which, 
from the "Bessie Boston Dahlia Farm" has taken prizes whenever 
shown. 

On the occasion of the \dsit of the Queen of the Belgians to Cin- 
cinnati, at a concert given in the Cincinnati Music Hall in honor of 
the Queen, she wore, pinned to her dress, two magnificent blooms of 
" Meyerbeer " grown by Mrs. Taft, and cordially consented to have her 
name "Elizabeth" given to one of Mrs, Taft's seedlings. 

Seedling Dahlias Raised by 

Mrs. Samuel H. Taft 
President Garden Club of Cmcinnati 

1. Mrs. Nicholas Longworth, 191 7 Seedling. 

Type — Peony. 

Height— 4 feet. 

Stem — Straight and slender. 

Flower — 4 to 6 inches in diameter, comparatively double and flat. 

Color — Bright Carmine, lighted with garance. 

2. Mrs. James H. Perkins, 191 7 Seedling. 

Type — Peony. 

Height — 4 feet. 

Stem — Flexuous. 

Flower — 5 to 7 inches in diameter, semi-double with petals curling and feather-like. 

Color — Shades of Old Rose, Strawberry and Ivory. 

3. John D. Wareham, 191 8 Seedling. 

Type — Peony. 
Height — 5 feet. 

Stem — straight, strong, and rigid. 
Flower — 8 to 9 inches in diameter, and very deep. 

Color — A most superb blending of Carmine and Ivorj', both the color and texture suggest- 
ing old Venetian brocade. 

4. Mrs. Frank Perin, 191 8 Seedling. 

Type — Decorative, Peony Hybrid. 

Height — 5 feet. 

Stem — Rigid and cane-like. 

Flower — 7 to g inches in diameter and 3 inches in depth. 

Color — Apricot and Salmon Pink, changing to vivid Shrimp Pink. 

5. Golden Pheasant, 1919 Seedling. 

Type — Hybrid Decorative, showing Peony and Cactus blood. 

Height — About 4 feet. 

Stem — Large and good. 

Flower — 9 to 10 inches in diameter, very double, with petals curling and folded, showing 

the color on the reverse side. 
Color — Face of petals Scarlet; reverse of same and Golden Yellow. 

17 



6. Mourning Dove, igig Own Seedling. Cross of Attraction and 

Meyerbeer. 

Type — Semi-double Peony. 

Height — 4 feet. 

Stem — Straight and good quality. 

Flower — Very large, 7 to 8 inches in diameter. 

Color — Toned Cobalt Violet, Mauve Pink. Sad. 

7. Golden Lustre, 1919 Own Seedling. Cross of Schiff and Corban. 

TjTie — ^Peony, full of deep curling and twisted petals. 
Height — 4 feet. Good growth, free bloomer. 
Stem — Medium good, slightly fle.icuous. 
Flower — Very large and heavy. 

Color — Shades of Chrome and Lemon Yellow on face of petal, reverse side being Old Red 
and Reddish Salmon. Texture, crj'staline and glistening. Exquisite. 



8. Azora — 1919 Seedling. 



Type — Decorative, slight show of Cactus strain, having narrow pointed petals, verj' ful 

and double. 
Height— 6 to 7 feet. 
Stem — Straight and cane-like. 
Flower — Medium sized. 
Color — Very striking, being deep Cobalt Violet, verging on Blue. 

9. Angelus, 19 19 Seedling. 

Type — Peony, with indications of decorative blood (Peony Decorative Hybrid). 

Height — 3 feet. 

Stem — Medium size, straight and rigid. 

Flower — Very large, petals slightly curling and not showing centre, very double. 

Color — Bright Canarj- at the centre. Maize or Maples Yellow at outer circle of petals. 

10. Frank Duveneck, 191 9 Own Seedlings, Meyerbeer cross. 

Type — Peony, regular, crimpled petals. 
Height — 4 feet. Several stalks. 
Stem— Straight and rigid. 
Flower — Large. 

Color — Rich, dark Maroon, shaded with Scarlet; back of petals Carmine; open centre. 
Yellow; Texture, velvety. 

11. Mrs. Charles Anderson, 19 19 Seedlings. 

Type — Decorative, Peony strain. 

Height — 9 to 12 feet. 

Stem — Large and comparatively straight. 

Flower^Very large and deep, with 8 or lo blooms at one lime. 

Color — Shades of deep Rose, Pink and Mauve. Superb. 



12. Scarlet Tanager, 19 19 Seedling. 



Type — Peony Hybrid, Cactus strain. 

Height — 4 to s feet. 

Stem — Medium, straight, not large. 

Flower — Medium. 

Color — Velvety Scarlet, Crimson, evidently seedling from Minnie Burgle. 



13. Margaret Spaulding, 19 19 Seedling. 



Type — Decorative, with Peony strain. 

Height — 4 feet. 

Stem — Straight and cane-like. 

Flower — 6 to 7 inches in diameter; very deep and double, with pointed overlapping 

feather-like petals. 
Color — Amber center, shading outwardly through Salmon Pinks to deep Rose Pink, the 
whole enveloped in a bloom of Mauve Pink. 

18 



Life History of the Honey Bee 

Letitia E. Wright, Jr. 

Every colony of bees has a queen, many thousand workers and 
some drone bees. The queen is the mother, the drones the male 
bees, and the workers, as the name implies, the bees who do all the 
work. 

A colony of bees may live in a hive, a hollow tree or the eaves of a 
house. 

In every colony during the spring and summer you may find some 
drones, the male bees, and they are large and noisy fellows with 
enormous eyes. They do not sting, in fact they have no stings and for 
protection have loud voices and look more deadly than the worker 
bee. Drones are idle, they cannot gather nectar from the flowers, but 
eat the honey that has been stored away by the industrious worker 
bees. Only while the hive is prosperous and honey is coming in, are 
the drones tolerated. At the approach of fall or a sudden cessation of 
the honey flow in the summer, the drones are killed. The worker bees 
drive them from the hives, the sentinels at the doorway forbid their 
entrance, and they die of hunger and weakness. 

Drones have large eyes, and strong wings because, it is the swiftest 
of flight and the keenest of sight who weds the queen bee. 

In a colony of bees there may be many hundred drones, where only- 
one is needed. In this, nature is seemingly very wasteful. 

A good bee-keeper does not allow his hives to raise many drones. 
(How to control the production of drones will be gone into in one of 
the articles on bee-keeping to follow.) 

The worker bees form the great seething, boiling mass that fas- 
cinate and terrify you when you first lift the lid of a hive. 

The workers protect the hive, they provide for the colony, they 
A^entilate during the heat of summer, appearing like tiny electric fans, 
their wings vibrating too quickly to be seen. They are living furnaces, 
when the cold penetrates through their protection in winter. Bees do 
not, strictly speaking, hibernate, but, being warm-blooded animals, 
when the temperation drops, they exercise to bring up the heat, and in 
order to do this, they consume honey, for no furnace, even a live one, 
can produce heat without fuel. 

The worker bees feed the young, clean the hive, make the wax and 
build the comb, gather the pollen in their pollen baskets and the 
nectar in their honey stomachs. They hunt for a new home, and when 
a swarm comes from a hive, those workers who have done scout duty 
lead the swarm to the new home. 

19 



A great deal of life's responsibility and a heavy burden falls upon the 
worker bee and she is literally worked to death. Six weeks is her aver- 
age life in the busy season. If, however, she emerges from her cell in 
the fall, she lives over the winter and until the labors of spring kill her. 
The worker bee is an undeveloped female, stunted in her growth and 
physical development by the kind of food fed her by the worker bees. 

The worker cannot mate, but under certain conditions lays eggs. 
The sting which nature has given her is her weapon of defense. In 
using it she loses her life, but she never hesitates if there is need. 

The queen looks very different from drones or worker bees: she 
has a long abdomen, is slightly lighter in color, and in the Italian 
stock she does not have the distinct bands the workers have. The 
queen starts life as a tiny egg in the bottom of a wax cell, such as 
honey is stored in, but very much enlarged by tearing down the cells 
adjacent to it. This egg is surrounded by chyle, a predigested food 
put there for the young larva, which is due to hatch in three days. 
This, the larva eats ravenously and grows proportionately, being 
thus fed for five and one-half days. The queen cell, too, has been built 
longer until it looks somewhat like a pearmt on the comb. The work- 
ers now seal the larva in and it spins a cocoon and remains as a pupa 
for seven and one-half days. Thus sixteen days after the egg is laid, 
the full grown queen bee emerges from the cell. She eats a little and 
runs about in search of any rival, for if two queens meet there is a 
deadly battle. Bees raise queens when they intend to swarm, and in 
that case the old queen and the swarm go off just before the young 
queen emerges from her cell. They raise queens when the old one dies, 
or an accident happens to her. If the bee-keeper wants more queens, 
all he has to do is to remove the queen, and the bees start to raise others 
to replace her. If honey is coming in, a great many queen cells will be 
started, an^'where from ten to twenty, but fewer if the weather is not 
auspicious and honey scarce. Of these numerous queens only one lives 
on in the hive, the others are killed by the first queen to hatch and the 
bees themselves tear down the incomplete cells. They will raise queens 
to supersede a failing queen. A failing queen can lay only drone eggs, 
and of course a hive of drones could not exist. In this case there are 
sometimes found two queens in a hive, mother and daughter, for the 
sense of rivalry does not seem to exist where one queen is failing. 

When the young queen is about four or five days old she usually 
takes her wedding trip. Before this she flies a little each day before 
the hive to get her bearings, for she must return to the hive she 
belongs to. She meets the drone in the air and he dies after mating, 
as his organs are attached to the queen. Shortly after this the queen 
starts to lay. She is fed chyle by the workers, and this concentrated 

20 



food causes her to produce large quantities of eggs, over 3,000 a day 
when honey is coming in. When there is a scarcity of honey, fewer 
eggs are laid. Drone eggs are not fertilized; they are laid in larger cells 
than the worker eggs. This ability of reproduction without fertiliza- 
tion is called parthenogenesis. 

The development of the drone is a longer process : the drone egg is laid 
in a large cell and remains an egg for three days; the larva is fed for six 
and one-half days, then the cell is sealed and remains this wa}^ for four- 
teen and one-half days. Then the drone emerges to Uve his carefree life. 

The worker bee develops in a small cell, in fact just the size of the 
cells the honey is stored in. She is an egg for tliree days, a larva for 
six and a pupa for twelve, making in all twenty-one days from egg 
to bee. She is only fed chyle at first, then bee bread, a coarser honey 
food, and pollen. This method of feeding stunts her physical develop- 
ment, and causes undeveloped reproductive organs. 

For a few days after emerging, the worker bee walks about and 
eats honey, then she starts feeding the young larva, making wax and 
cleaning house. In other words, she does housework for about two 
weeks, flying in front of the hive entrance a little while each day, to get 
her bearings, and at the end of two weeks she becomes a field worker. 

A bee in her lifetime produces about a teaspoonful of honey. This 
gives a slight idea of the thousands of these little insects who have labored 
and died before a colony has stored 100 pounds of honey for its owner. 

Swarms are caused by honey coming in very fast, and filling up 
the hive. When honey comes in this way, the egg laying of the queen 
is increased greatly, so that very soon there is no more room in the 
hive. Then queen cells are started and a swarm is sure to follow. 

Many and curious customs are connected with the care and man- 
agement of bees; among these is the saying that any news in the 
family must be told to the bees; also that they will not prosper with a 
quarrelsome family. In Brittany, P ranee, the hives are decorated with 
scarlet for a wedding and with black when there is a death in the 
family. These customs are most charmingly told in the '"Bee Boy's 
Song," by Kipling, one verse of wliich I quote: 

"Alarriage, birth or burryin^ 
News across the sea. 
All you're sad or merry in, 
You must tell the bees. 
Tell 'em coming in and out 
Where the famiers fan, 
'Cause the bees are just about 
As curious as a man." 
21 



The Professional Gardener 

Martin C. Ebel, Secretary, National Association of Gardeners 

The professional gardener, I fear, is a very much misjudged individ- 
ual. Only as recently as last fall Dr. Sidney S. Wilson, vice-president 
of the Associated Advertising Clubs of the World, in addressing a 
convention of professional gardeners, confessed that up to the time 
he had been invited to address the meeting he was totally ignorant of 
the fact that such a thing existed as a gardening profession; that his 
definition of a gardener, until he was enhghtened, was, "One who 
labored in a garden." He said that he believed that his definition was 
one universally accepted by the public and that it rested with the 
gardener to make his profession more widely known. 

The gardener who has acquired his knowledge of the different 
branches of gardening through lifelong practice and study is assuredly 
entitled to greater consideration than the garden laborer, though he 
does not always receive it. Instances are not uncommon where the 
gardener does not receive as much compensation at the present time 
for his services as does the laborer whom he employs to work under 
his direction. That "the laborer is worthy of his hire" is a present- 
day truism as far as it concerns the ordinary laborer, but it is not so 
with the average professional gardener. 

While a liberal salary is something always much desired by one 
who works for another, receiving adequate remuneration alone for 
his services does not content the gardener who engages in his voca- 
tion, not merely for what he can get out of it, but because he loves it. 
An occasional expression of appreciation for the efforts he puts forth 
and the recognition that he is more than a menial means much to the 
man who has made gardening his life work. It fills him mth inspira- 
tion and encourages him to produce better than before. 

The most serious draw-back to the proper up-keep of a country 
estate is usually the lack of interest which the owner manifests in the 
undertakings of his gardener, and the lack of confidence which he 
bestows on him, while continually criticizing where credit is due. 
Na.turally this must be disconcerting to the conscientious worker and 
hinders him from giving the best that is in him. It results in depriving 
the employer of much of the pleasure he should derive from his 
gardens, and in making the gardener discontented with the position 
he occupies. A professional gardener is more than a servant though 
unfortunately he is so regarded by many employers. 

WTienever an estate owner finds that his gardener does not meet 
the requirements the position he fills demand of him, it would be far 

22 



better for all concerned if instead of tolerating the gardener's in- 
efficiency, he were replaced with one possessing the necessary abihty, 
for the disposed-of gardener, if he has the qualifications to entitle 
him to the calling of gardener, will find his right place. 

That the gardener, in common with those of some of the other pro- 
fessions, has not found the dollar the cheapest thing to acquire, as the 
workers of the protected industries proclaim it is, but instead is feeling 
the sting of the high cost of everything, is generally true. His com- 
pensation is practically the same as it was before war conditions ad- 
vanced the wage of labor and the consequent cost of living. Yet he 
finds he must pay the same price for his baby's shoes as the eight 
dollar a day mechanic of the thirty-six working hour week, on a salary 
which makes it a problem to the gardener how to make both ends 
meet. 

^\^ile it is justly claimed that the average gardener does not receive 
in monetary consideration the equivalent per month that the laborer 
on the estate receives, ranging from $3.25 to $5.00 a day, according to 
the locality, for eight to nine hours work, it is also conceded that the 
gardener has his cottage and other privileges in the nature of products 
raised on the place, but for these privileges the employer usually 
acquires the gardener's presence on the place for practically twenty- 
four hours a day for thirty days of the month. Possibty the gardener 
has himself to blame for being over-looked in the readjustment of 
affairs that has brought about an increase in the cost of practically 
everything. He is, as a rule, inclined to hesitancy, whereas if he were 
to approach his employer in a business-like manner on matters con- 
cerning himself, he could expect treatment in accordance. 

I have refrained from referring to the gardener-superintendent in 
charge of the management of extensive countr}'' estates. As he must 
possess so much knowledge outside of the various phases of horti- 
culture, such as agriculture, construction, and often engineering, 
besides executive ability, he should also possess the initiative to 
negotiate with his employer for remuneration according to the value 
of the service he is called upon to render, without the necessity of 
another pleading his cause. 

Some of the highly esteemed professions have not always borne 
the high standard they bear today, and they still possess their short- 
comings. The profession of gardening is striving to elevate its standard 
and those who have followed its progress during recent years, must 
agree that it has met with some measure of success. 

The future of the profession now confronts a situation, however, 
that concerns the owner of the country estate, as much as it does the 
professional gardener. This is the matter of providing the material 

23 



to replace those to-day engaged in the profession. Europe has in the 
past supplied the young gardeners who in time grew up to assume the 
head gardeners' positions. There is probably no other vocation where 
the response to the call to arms was in proportion to that of the 
young men engaged in the gardening profession both here and abroad. 
A large number now rest "In Flanders' fields where poppies grow." 
Europe can not suppty young gardeners to us as in the past, and so it 
remains with us in this country to attempt to arouse the interest of our 
young men in the work. There are many young men, both of Ameri- 
can and of foreign birth, who, on being graduated from school, do not 
want to enter the office or shop but would welcome a call to the 
great out-doors. Others, desiring to take up a profession, find that 
they cannot do so owing to their lack of resources, but gardening 
presents an opportunity to engage in a profession and "earn while you 
learn." 

To arouse the interest of these young men a carefully planned 
campaign is essential; first, to inform the educational sources of the 
country concerning the opportunity that professional gardening offers 
young men whose leaning is towards the art; second, to provide places 
on country estates where young men who desire to take up the work 
would be acceptable. Many estates have the facilities, or could readily 
install them, to house and board the young men. It has been sug- 
gested that community houses providing rooms, board, and study 
quarters, might be established where young gardeners who could not 
be cared for on the places, could be accommodated. 

There are advantages in employing these young men; first, from 
the point of view of economy, for the salary at which such young men 
couM be secured as apprentices, including their board, would be less 
than is paid to the laborer; second, a group of clean-cut young chaps 
with a good school training behind them and interested in their 
chosen vocation, would present a more pleasing adjunct to the sur- 
roundings than a gang of ignorant foreign laborers working in the 
garden, and they certainly should produce more satisfactory results. 
It remains with some one to start the movement to interest our young 
men in gardening as a profession. Who shall it be? 

Wliat is most necessary today to develop better and finer American 
gardens is a greater spirit of co-operation between garden owners 
and those men who are earnestly endeavoring to place their profession 
where it properly belongs as the oldest of all professions, in the front 
ranks of the sciences and arts. The question that is still unsolved is 
what would be the most desirable agency to bring about such co- 
operation. Possibly some member of the Garden Club of America 
can answer this question. 

24 



Pruning Points for Poor Pruners 
.\nxe T. Stewaet, Short Hills Garden Cluh 

Why do not amateurs prune their own shrubs? The answer comes 
promptly, we're afraid. Don't fear, if you make a mistake, Nature 
will rectify it in no time. Much pleasure may be obtained at the 
expense of little work; you care for your shrubs twice a year and there 
is your garden. Prune in February; prune in June. 

In February cut out. When a shrub is leafless you can see its 
skeleton. Cut out all dead wood at the ground ; cut out all old wood 
at the ground, or where there is an especially vigorous shoot a short 
way up, cut the old wood just above that shoot. Cut out lateral 
branches where they cross toward the center. Cut off nothing. 

In June cut off. The shrubs that flowered on last year's wood are 
crying for help; as much \dtality is needed to produce a seed as a flower; 
you don't need the seeds, why exhaust your shrubs? Just below the 
bloom on each branch new shoots appear; cut off the spray that has 
bloomed just above one or the other of these shoots, as you want your 
shrub tall or short, leaving preferably the one pointing out. The 
shrubs will look scraggly for a few weeks, but after that they wdll 
smile their gratitude. 

A hedge of lilac, the old but satisfying Syringa Vulgaris, was the 

despair of its owner, all legs below, all bloom out of reach. In June 

the hedge was cut literally in two, legs remaining. Nature flew to the 

rescue, stout shoots appearing ever^'where. The next Spring no 

•bloom; the succeeding Spring — fear not. 

Contest 

The plan of a typical house lot in our rural districts has been 
submitted by the Farm Journal, Washington Square, Philadelphia. 

This magazine receives constant requests for planting plans and 
suggestions for just such places and has asked that the Garden Cltjb 
to help it to help its readers. To quote from the letter of Mr. Charles P. 
Shoffner, Associate Editor, "We know w^hat this Club can do if the 
subject can be properly presented before the people. You will have 
the consolation of knowing that at least three million of Our Folks 
will see the plans for a front garden. I am taking the average frontage, 
which seems to be about 90 feet, and the majority of houses in rural 
districts, and in our country homes are set back 50 feet. Very few 
houses have enough of the evergreens and we would like some of these 
mentioned, together with the native shrubs, etc." 






u ^ 



^ O/^TT 




DEPTH OF LOT 150 JO 200 



The rules of the contest are as follows: 

Only easily obtained trees, shrubs and herbaceous plants may be 
used, and in all cases approximate cost of plant material must be 
given. These will vary somewhat in different localities, but as ex- 
pensive and rare material is not desired the variation will be slight. 

A wall, hedge or fence may be used but economy must be con- 
sidered and it would be better to make the plan adaptable to an}- 
form of enclosure that may already exist. The plans will un- 

26 



doubtedly be used for old yards as well as in connection with 
newly constructed houses. 

Plans will be judged from the point of view of suitability, sim- 
plicity, economy and ease of up-keep. 

Solutions must reach the Bulletin on or before February 20th, 1920. 
Only the winning plan will be illustrated in the Bulletin but the 
Farm Journal may wish to print several solutions. Contestants are 
urged to remember that their plans are designed to meet a practical 
need. The right plans will be of great value to a large and interested 
public. 

The November Contest 

The November Bulletin should have been issued on November 
I St but owing to strike conditions was in the hands of the printer for 
seven weeks. This left only ten days for a solution of the garden 
problem submitted by Miss Nichols. Plans may therefore be sent in 
at any time up to February' 15th, 1920. 



Book Reviews 

Reviewing Committee 

Mrs. William K. Walbridge, Cbairman. Mrs. T. H. B. McKnight 

Miss Jessie Frothingham Mrs. Henry A. Prince 

Mrs. S. Edson Gage Mrs. Charles H. Stout 

(All books marked (*), whether new or old, are among those con- 
sidered suitable for a permanent Ubrar^^) 

The Book of the Home Garden, by Edith Loring Fuller ton, D. 
Appleton & Co., 1919. Price, $2.50. 

There is probably no one better fitted than Mrs. Fullerton to 
write such a book as this. A woman, the larger part of whose life has 
been devoted to the study of gardening, a mother who understands 
the hearts of little children — it is no wonder that her chapters appeal 
not only to the little readers for whom they are intended, but to big 
ones too. 

It is a book unique, because the deepest fundamental knowledge is 
given in words so simple that any child can grasp it; and many grown- 
ups who have groped among technical expressions may suddenly see 
daylight. A primer, perhaps, a book to study carefully, and one so 
well edited that it may be taken from the shelf at any time to be used 
for reference. 

Dahlias, by George Gkjrdon, President National Dahlia Society of 
Great Britain. Frederick A. Stokes Co., 1919. Price, $0.50. 

27 



This is probably the only book of its kind on the subject. Much has 
been -written of Dahlias, and many are the opinions thereon; but this 
is the first time which the most marvelous of all flowers has had a 
whole book devoted to it alone. 

Covering a period of some three hundred years, a few pages gives 
the history of the Dahlia. It then describes the evolution through 
hybridization from the modest single flowers of the Mexican plateaux 
to the gorgeous blooms of the present day. 

The classifications of the National Dahlia Society differ shghtly 
from that of the American Dahha Society. Our Cactus class is already 
divided in two parts — Cactus and Hybrid Cactus — and there is some 
talk of dividing the Decorative class in a similar manner. The 
National Dahha Society, however, ignores this subdivision. 

Many of the varieties hsted are strangers to us, and some I know 
do not do as well here as in the cool, damp climate of Great Britain. I 
remember the remark of a visitor to one of our shows some years ago 
Avhen he beheld that most popular Enghsh Cactus Dahlia,' Glory of 
Wilts, ''Well, that Dahlia was well named!" 

While cultural directions given can be followed in a general way, 
climatic differences between Great Britain and America should 
always be taken into consideration. As a handbook it is nevertheless 
most valuable, and ever\^ Dahlia grower should have a copy in his 
library. Henrietta M. Stout. 

*Colour in the Flower Garden, by Gertrude Jekyll. Country Life 
Library. 

On one of the wise pages of this book. Miss Jekyll observes that 
"All gardening involves constant change." Well for us that the same 
is not true of all gardening books; for here is one to live as it is for 
decades to come. It is difficult to speak in moderate terms of a work 
like this. It represents the highest achievement in the gardening art. 
It leads the entranced reader to believe that he or she can also create 
pictures in flowers. I beheve I am right in thinking that this volume of 
Miss Jekyll's was the first to lay before an EngHsh-speaking pubhc 
the matter of colour-arrangement in the garden at such length and with 
such fulness of detail; certainly it has become a vade mectim- for all who 
would create pictures in growing flowers. The measured tone of the 
book, the clear fine style, the absence of the unessential word, especial- 
ly of the adjective, all this adds to its soundness as a guide. It seems 
to me a sort of double triumph in garden books because of this re- 
straint of manner. I myself approach the subject of flowers, whether 
planning, planting, gathering or writing, in a sort of happy tumult; and 
I marvel at the atmosphere of balance in Miss Jekyll's writing. It is 

28 



due of course to a long life of study and practice, to that quiet born 
of knowledge. Yet enthusiasm pervades each page. Speaking of the 
quality of hght as it affects flower-groups on certain days we read: 
"When these days come I know them and am filled with gladness." 
Again; "I am truly glad to have that space (ten acres) to treat with 
reverent thankfulness and watchful care." On the second page of 
Colour in the Flower Garden, in that paragraph beginning " Coming 
down towards the garden" is as lovely an example of Miss Jekyll's 
delight in beauty as is to be found in any of her books. And following 
this, we find in one sentence what one might call her creed, — "To 
devise these living pictures with simple well-known flowers, seems to 
me the best thing to do in gardening." 

The photographs of the book are delightful, the plans for borders 
and for gardens as valuable as such things can be. Witness that for 
the Lupine and Iris border, another for Michaelmas Daisies, for a 
border of Spring bulbs — these are guides to the utmost loveliness for 
ourselves. 

Miss Margaret Waterfield's Garden Colour (E. P. Button & Com- 
pany) published some three years before Miss Jekyll's volume on the 
same subject is a useful and charming book by five writers for those 
interested in such matters; and Mrs. S. A. Brown's Gar dens to Color and 
Individual Gardens (Knickerbocker Press), though a less ambitious 
book, is a capital small guide by an American, with excellent con- 
densed lists of flowers and plants. 

To Miss Jekyll, however, every amateur in this country and in 
Britain bows the knee ; and I doubt if she will ever realize the untold 
number of those whose feet she has set upon the path of beauty in 
gardening, or the simple fact that all who read her, become her fol- 
lowers and her friends as well. Louisa Y. King, 

*The Well Considered Garden, by Mrs. Francis King. Charles 
Scribner's Sons. Price, $2.50. 

Quaint old books of garden designers show us that much more was 
contained in a garden two centuries ago, than now, it had many more 
adjuncts and furnishings, but it is not told us that there was the 
harmony of shade and color that Mrs. Francis King describes so 
beautifully for us in her, "Well Considered Garden.''^ 

Verbal magic is indeed Mrs. King's, when she tells us of the lovely 
combinations wh^ch she has planned, beginning with the earliest 
spring flowers, and carrying the pictures through the season's months 
of bloom. 

The writer is indebted to Mrs. King, for much inspiration, and a 
number of lovely color effects, effects which however, never exactly 

29 



repeat themselves, as each season some varieties in every combina- 
tion of plants, seem to be more vigorous than the rest, thus lending the 
emphasis of theix stronger color to the picture. 

Mrs. King does not discourage those of us who have small gardens, 
by telling of unattainable expanses of bloom, but shows us how a tiny 
space may be made delightful, by the use of plants which give proper 
color values, and herein lies one of the books greatest assets. 

The word garden is a never ceasing delight to us all, a delight 
possibly transmitted to us from our grandmother Eve, and Mrs. King 
gives us food for dreams, when our gardens are taking their long 
sleep, and enables us to carry about our daily tasks, a subconscious- 
ness of something pleasant. 

Margaret L. Gage, Litchfield Garden Club. 

Color in My Garden, by Louise Beebe Wilder. Illustrated in color 
by Anna Winegar. Doubleday, Page & Co. Price, $10.00. 

Among recent garden books none is more beautifully produced than 
this. The plantings illustrated by lovely color plates are described on 
the opposite page making their study easy. 

Mrs. Wilder is an adept in getting a succession of bloom. How she 
achieves her success is clearly described. G. S. W. 

'^'The Garden Month by Month, by Mabel Cabot Sedgewick. Pub- 
lished by Frederick A. Stokes. Price, $4.50. 

This book is probably known to most members of the Garden Club 
OP America, but no list of helpful gardening books would be complete 
which did not contain it. It- is an indispensable book- 

The "Months" are from March to September inclusive, and all 
the desirable hardy herbaceous perennials blooming within those 
months are described as to appearance, color, dates of bloom, height, 
and proper cultivation. There are over two hundred half tone en- 
gravings from photographs; also an excellent color chart. 

Now is the time to plan the summer's garden. The books on color 
planting mentioned in the previous reviews cover this field very fully. 
The '' Garden Month by Month" will be found invaluable for refer- 
ence in planning future plantings. G. S. W. 

The following list of English periodicals was supplied by Brentano's, 
New York, and can be subscribed for through them at the prices 
given, including postage: 

Amateur Gardening, weekly $4.00 

The Garden, weekly 4 . 00 

Garden Life, weekly 4 . 00 

30 



Gardener, weekly 4 . oo 

Gardener^ s Chronicle, week-y 7 . oo 

Gardening Illustrat-ed, weekly 4.00 

Horticultural Trade Jourjial. nionthh- 2 . 50 

Irish Gardening, monthly 3 • 00 

My Garden Illustrated, monthly 3 .00 

Orchid Reviru), monthly 3 • 00 

American Periodicals 

Country Life, Garden City, New York. 

House ayid Garden, Conde Xast & Co., Inc., 19 West 44th Street, X. Y. 

Garden Magazine, Doubleday, Page & Co., Garden City, N. Y. 

Gardeners Chronicle, 2S6 Fifth Avenue, Xew York, X. Y. 

The Flowergrower, Calcium, Xew York. 

The Agronomist, Edited by Mrs. H. B. Fullerton, Huntington, X. Y. 

Weekly Neivs Letter of the U. S. Department of Agriculture. Write 

to Government Printing Ofl&ce, Bureau of Public Documents, 

Washington, D. C, enclosing 50c. 
Bulletin of Popular Information of the Arnold Arboretum, Jamaica 

Plain, Mass. 

A List oe Trade Papers 

These periodicals do not accept subscriptions from amateurs. 
They contain, however, a great deal of useful information not found 
elsewhere, and subscription ma}- be placed in the names of gardeners 
or superintendents. 

Harticidture, 78 Devonshire Street, Boston, ]Mass. 
The Florists^ Exchange, Box 100, Times Square Station, Xew York, X.Y. 
The American Florist, 440 South Dearborn Street. Chicago, HI. 
The Canadian Florist, Peterboro. Ontario. 

How TO Rux A Horticultural Exhibit 

A most valuable, practical and interesting publication has been 
prepared by F. L. Mulford of the U. S. Bureau of Plant Industry and 
issued by the Department of Agriculture as Circidar 62, on Horti- 
cultural Exhibitions and Garden Competitions. 

This circular outlines a course of procedure from the first steps of 
organization through the making of a schedule, the staging and 
judging of the exhibits, and the awarding of prizes to the general 
application of the results to the good of the community'. 



Of course any club, society or other organization that has ever held 
a competition of any sort has learned much that is here advised, 
through more or less difficult experience. Nevertheless there are 
undoubtedly a number of hints that can prove of real help even in the 
case of bodies that have been at it for years, for the bulletin is the 
result of a study of many successes and endeavors. 

Of special value for reference purposes are the suggested schedules 
for various kinds of shows including Spring and Fall shows (general), 
vegetable and fruit shows, Narcissus, Iris, Peony, Rose, Sweet Pea, 
Gladiolus, Dahlia and Hardy Chrysanthemum shows; and also score 
cards for judging practically all classes that might be shown at such 
events. 

Copies of the circular may be obtained free, as long as the 
supply holds out, by writing to the Secretary of Agriculture at 
Washington, D. C. 

From The Florists^ Exchange. 



Departments 

J.4^. 4, 1920 
The The Primula Denticulata, both in lavender and white, may be had 

Garden at the Nurseries of the Lowthorp School, Groton, Mass. This variety 
Miscellany is generally very hard to get. 

Ceonothus Gloire de Versailles is reported as an exquisite background 
for September borders. It can be had at Bobbink & Atkins, Rutherford 
N.J. 

Viburnum Carlesii (very sweet scented) is reported as hardy as 
far north as Maine, and should be in every garden. It is sometimes 
grafted on the Common Hobble bush, so look out for the suckers and 
cut them off close to the roots. 

Have any of our readers used the common Sea Buckthorn as a 
background for mauve flowers, and will they report on its success? 
We have been preparing the following list of Nurserymen, 
Seedsmen and Specialists from the personal recommendation of our 
Club members, hoping in time to have a complete list of the best 
men in the country. Necessarily the list is still incomplete but we 
expect to add to it from time to time. The Miscellany would be 
glad to have any new names of firms that you can personally rec- 
ommend; or would be equally interested to hear complaints of 
any firms on the hst. 

The Bulb lists will be printed later. 

Anna G. Hill 

32 



The Garden Club of America List of 
Nurseries and Seedsmen 

(Subject To Addition axd Re\'I5iox) 



Nurseries 



Amawalb Nurseries 'Trees.) 

Amawalk, Westchester Co., N. Y. 
Adams Nursery Co., 

Springfield, Mass. 
Bay State Nurseries, 

Abbington, Mass. 
Cottage Gardens. 

Hollis, Long Island, N. Y. 

Cedar Hills Nurserj' 0-i.i. T. A_. Havermeyeri 

BrookviUe. Long Island, N . Y. 
(Glen Head P.O.) 
Elliott, J. Wilkinson. 

Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Elm Leigh Farm Nurseries (Phlox), 

Putney, Vermont- 
Farqiihar & Co.. 

Boston, Mass. 

(Special catalog of rarer plants on request, ■ 

GiUette, Edward, 

Southwick, Mass. 
Horsiord, F. K.. 

Charlotte, Vermont. 
Klem's Nursery, 

Naper\Tl!e, Illinois. 
Little Tree Farms, f.\merican Forestry- Co. , 

15 Beacon St., Boston, Mass. 
Mayo, J. G. & Co., 

Rochester, N. Y. 
Naper\-iUe Nurseries, 

Naper\ilie, Ulinois. 
Peterson, George H., 

Fairlawn, N. J. 
Schling, AfaT 

24 East 59th St., New York Cir>". 
Totty, Charles H. : Amaryllis', 

Madison, N. J. 



.\ndorra Nurseries 'Trees and Shrubs 

Chestnut Hii!, Philadelphia, Pi. 
Bar Harbor Nurseries. 

Bar Harbor, Maine. 
Bohlender. Peter. 

Tippecanoe City, Ohio. 
Childs. J. Lewis, 

Floral Park, N. Y. 
Dreer. Henrv A., 

Philadelphia. Pa. 
Elizabeth Nurseri^ (Xarge Shrubs), 

Elizabeth, N. J. ' 

Farr, Bertram H. Iris and Paeonies), 

Wyomissing. Pa. 
Garden Nurseries .'Cherri^ and Crabs 

Narbeth, Pa. 
Hicks & Son (Tree mo\-ing specialists 

Westbury, L. I. 
Hunt. Chester J. ■:BuIb3), 

Little Falls, N. J. 
Henderson, Peter, 

Cortlandt St., New York City. 
Kohankie, Martin. 

Paines\-ille. Ohio. 
Morris Nurserj' Co., 

Westchester, Pa. 
Moon & Co., 

Morris\Tlle, Pa. 

Pierson. A. N., 

Cromwell, Conn. 
Palisade Nurseries. 

Sparkjii. N. Y. 
Scheepers, John, 

2 Stone St., New York City. 
Twin Larch« Nurseries. 

Westchester, Pa. 



Flower Seeds 



Burpee, W. Atlee, 'Sweet Peas'. 

Philadelphia, Pa. 
Burnett Seeds, 

Philadeiphia, Pa. 
Henderson, Peter, 

Cortlandt St., New York Citj-. 
MicheU, Heni>-, 

51a Market St., Philadelphia, Pa. 
\'auglian's Seed Store, 

SI W. Rf.ndo!ph St., Chicago, 111. 



Boddington, & Co., 

i;S Chambers St., New York City. 
Dreer. Hearv' A.., 

Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Meehan. Thosnas, 

Geraiantown, Pa. 
Thorbum & Co., 

Barclay St., New York City. 
Weeber & Donn. 

Chambers St.. New York City. 



California Seeds 



Purdy, Call, 

L'kiah, Cal. 
Shepherd, Theodosia B., 

Ventura, Cal. 



Ra%Tie, Theodore, 

' 345 S. Main St., Los .-iiageles, Ca! 



specialties 



Chrysanthemums 
Thomas, Sadie A., 

Stevenson Ave., Pasadena, Cal. 
Sunny Brook Farm Garden, 

Eatontown, N. J. 

Peonies 

Babcock Peony Garden, 

R. F. D., 79 Jamestown, N. Y. 
Brand Nursery Co., 

Faribault, Minn. 
Lyman H. Hoysradt 

Pine Plains, N. Y. 
Mohegan Peony Garden, 

Sinking Spring, Pa. 
Harris, S. G., 

Tarrytown, N. Y. 
Ruff, D. W. C, 

Bald Eagle Lake,"Minnesota. 
Peterson, George H., 

Fairlawn, N. J. 

Pansy Seed 

Steele's Pansy Seed, 
Portland, Oregon. 

Rock Gardens 

Logan Nurseries, 

Logan P. O., Pa, 
Wolcott Nurseries, 

Jackson, Michigan 
Roses 

Conard & Jones, 

West Grove, Pa., 
Howard & Smith, 

Los Angeles, Cal. 
Pierson, A. N., 

Cromwell, Conn. 
Walsh, M. H., 

Wood's Hole, 
Geraniums 

Vincent, Richard, 

White Marsh, Marj'land. 



Northborough Dahlia Gardens, 

Northborough, Mass. 
. Broomall, J. J., 

Eagle Rock, Cal. 
West Hampton Dahlia Farm, 

Westhampton, L. I., N. Y., 
Iris 

Dean, Mrs., 

Moneta, Cal. 
Movilla Gardens, 

Haverford, Pa. 
Glen Road Iris Gardens, (Mrs. Sturtevant 

Wellesley Farms, Mass. 
Jackson, R. T., 

Peterborough, N. H. 
Gladioli 

Decorah Gladiolis^'Gardens, 

Decorah, Iowa. 
A. E. Kundred. 

Goshen, Ind. 
Tracy, B. H., 

Wenham, Mass. 
Diener, Richard^ 

Kenfield, Miarion Co., Cal. 
Wing Seed Co., 

Mechanicsburgh, Ohio, 

Wild Flowers 

Botanical Nursery Co., 

Lapeer, Michigan. 
Coolidge Rare Plant Nurseries, 

Pasadena, Cal. 
Gillette, Edward, 

Southwick, Mass. 
Verbenas 

DiUon, J. L., 

Bloomsburgh, Pa. 
Petunias 

Dienier, Richard, 

Kentfield, Marin Co., Cal. 
Heubler, Herman, (Blue) 

Grotoa, Mass. 



English Seeds 



Barr & Sons, 

2 King St., Covent Garden, London, Eng. 

Carter's Tested Seeds (American Agency), 

I02 Chamber of Commerce, 
Boston, Mass. 
Eckford, Henry, 

Wem, Shropshire, England. 

Kelway & Sons, 

Langport, Somerset, England. 
Sutton & Sons, 

Reading, England. 
(American Agent: H. P. Winter & Co., 64 Wall 

Street, New York City.) 
Thompson & Morgan, (Seeds), 

5 Carr St., Ipswich, England. 



Blackmore & Langdon, 

(Delphinium), 

Bath, England. 
Dobbie & Co., 

Edinborough, England. 
Forbes, John (Phlox), 

Hawick, Scotland. 
Perry's Hardy Plant Farm, 

Enfield, Middesex, England. 
.Sydenham, Robert Ltd., 

Tenby St., Birmingham, England. 
Wallace, R. & Co., 

Colchester, England. 



French Seeds 



Vilmorin, Andrieux & Cie., (the verj' best), 
4 Quai de la Megisserie, 
Paris, France. 



34 



New Years Day! And with the fresh-turned page of 1920, all piant 
bright with promise, came that most promising of all literature, a Material 
Seed Catalogue! Nothing else comes to me by mail that gives me 
quite the thrill I get from the first catalogue. I devour its contents, 
gloat over its monstrosities, believe its wildest statements (yes, Mr. 
Phillpotts, even to the length of cucumbers), take it to bed with me 
at night, and dream that I possess each pictured beauty. For me, 
the spring has come! 

Alas, this year my ardour cooled at the first page, — the High 
Cost of Living has lifted many of my favorites to dizzy heights. The 
better seeds have soared, but that can be endured, for most of us 
plant many more seed than we need to plant — but Gladioli, think of 
it, 100% increase in the price of the one I love the best, and almost 
as great a rise in the price of my other favorites. The Galtonia, 
usually called Hyacinthus candicans in our catalogues, is offered in 
this catalogue for just five times as much as I paid for it last year. 

Galtonia is one of the loveliest plants we can grow for mid and 
late-summer blooming. It occupies little root space, and its long 
amaryllis-like leaves are a beautiful green all summer. In late July 
the straight, tall, graceful spike of blossoms, more lilce Snowdrops 
than Hyacinth flowers, is one of the most admired inhabitants of the 
garden. My soil is hea\y clay, and we seldom have snow all winter, so 
I have given up trying to call it a hardy perennial, and treat it like a 
Gladiolus, except that I plant all the bulbs as early in the spring as 
possible, instead of planting for succession. I like it better in groups 
than singly, and I take the same precaution to have the same propor- 
tion of large, medium and small size bulbs in each group that I do in 
planting Gladioli. Then I am reasonably sure that the groups will 
have about the same flower value at the same time. I take them up, 
as I do Gladioli, after the first heavy frost, and store them in baskets, 
in a frost-proof cellar. I have never saved the off-shoots, but with 
the tremendous increase in cost of the large bulbs, I shall certainly try 
to do so in the future 

Some of the seedsmen, among them Vaughan in Chicago, and 
Farquhar in Boston, list seed of Annual Holly-hock. According to 
Bailey, the Holly-hock is biennial or perennial, depending on the 
climate and soil in which it is grown, but if sown early enough, will 
bloom the first year from seed. A large proportion of the Holly-hocks 
I have grown as annuals have lived and bloomed a second season, so 
no doubt Bailey is right. I am very fond of Holly-hocks, and depend 
on them for certain effects in the garden. For years I struggled with 
each and every remedy for the ruinous rust, but all to no avail, until 
I discovered the annual Holly-hock advertised in a seed catalogue. 

35 



1 tried it, and found it immune from rust. I have grown it now for 
years, and I am beginning to save the seed so that I may grow the 
separate colors. It is not as tall as the usual perennial variety, but is 
quite tall enough for any garden use; the blooms single and gracefully 
set on the long stalk, and of lovely colors, with black-maroon, lemon, 
and amber (the color of Amber Queen Snapdragon) predominating. 
The pink is a good shade, and the red, a good glowing red without a 
trace of scarlet. As I do not like the fat, crepe-papery double Holly- 
hocks, the ones I grow as annuals satisfy me completely. Sow the 
seed the first of April in the cold-frame, give them more room in which 
to develop, otherwise treat as you would Zinnias or Asters. 

This spring I shall buy seed of Holly-hocks in separate colors, 
plant it as the annual seed, and watch it with great interest to see if 
it will bloom the first season, and if it will prove free from rust as does 
the annual. If the two big " ifs " materialize, what a neat little theory 
we can work out, of age and immunity, and so forth ! 

Speaking of rust, I have had a certain measure of success with the 
two following remedies for the rust on Snapdragon. First, I wash the 
seed, just before sowing, with a one half of one per cent solution of 
formaldehyde, then I water the plants with one teaspoonful of house- 
hold ammonia to one gallon of water a dozen times during the season. 
Always water first with clear water before using the ammonia water, 
and do not use the ammonia water right after transplanting. Last 
summer I noticed in a friend's garden that all her tall and mediijm 
Snapdragon were badly rusted, but that the dwarf Snapdragons that 
filled the center beds were free from rust. It will be interesting to see 
if the dwarf proves free again this summer. 

In The Well Considered Garden Mrs. King speaks highly of 
the annual Statice, varieties, bonduelli, and s'muata. The seed seems 
difficult to get, but can be bought as follows: — Statice sinuata, blue, 
simtata alba, bonduelli, and incana, of the Carter Seed Co., io6 
Chamber of Commerce Building, Boston, Mass. — Statice bonduelli, 
and sinuata blue, rose (which Mrs, King rightly calls mauve), and 
white, of Vaughan's Seed Store, 3 1 W. Randolph street, Chicago. You 
can also buy of Vaughan the Russian Statice which I have never 
tried out of doors, but which is most lovely under glass. I am told 
that Statice incana, though a perennial, will bloom the first year from 
seed. 

If I could have but one annual (perish the thought, for I cannot 
imagine a garden of any size with less than six) that one would be the 
Ageratum Mexicanum coeruleum because it has the longest season 
of bloom of any annual we grow, because its foliage is as lovely as its 
flowers, and it slips in and out of the perennial border until it fills 

36 



even,- yawning gap with its soft blue flowers of a shade that has been 
so aptly called the garden's solvent. Because it is the easiest of any 
annual to grow, and so far as I know, has no enemies except Jack 
Frost. It minds our dry. hot summers less than any other annual, and 
is truly charming to pick. It I could have two, the second would be 
Petunia — Royal Purple, Snowball, and Rosy Morn — and I would 
have a garden glo^^ing and beautiful with color, cool with soft green 
and so satisf}-ing with the exquisite form of the Petunia blossom 
that I wonder why I should yearn for a third, which would be Zinnia, 
of many shades of rosy salmon, best obtained by planting the medium 
sized Zinnia- Old Rose. Then, of course, you must leave out the 
Rosy ^lorn Petunia, and what a fine color scheme you have, and how 
it fairly pleads for now and then a clump of sulphur }-ellow Calendula ; 
— and there we have the fourth I I should like to go on planting this 
garden, but I am infringing on another department! Petunias I 
have found almost as easy to grow as Ageratum. I have no green- 
house, so sow the seed about ^March first, in shallow pans in a south 
window, one packet each of the best obtainable dark purple, that used 
to be called Karlsruhe Rathaus, and is now called by different dealers, 
Black Prince, Royal Purple, Purple King, or Dark Purple, but always 
recognizable because the seed is expensive — the pure white bedding 
Petunia usually called Snowball, and Rosy ^Morn. selected seed. 
From the three packets you will have, by the first of April, thousands 
of seedlings to be pricked off into flats, and set into the cold frames. 
Transplant again the first of 2^Iay, if possible into pots, and more 
than hah" of them will bloom by the first week in June. I have found 
the purple aU true to color, the Rosy Morn -^ith only an occasional 
one off color, but the white vnR often have an ugly bluish-purple 
stripe, and those I carefully reject. LonsE S. Huee-^sc. 

Spraying Fruit Trees 

Spray with lime-sulphur in February. Garden 

Later on, use a niodined lime-sulphur solution Vvitn the addition 
of arsenate of lead in the following proportions: 

214 gallons lime-sidphur loo gallons water. 

4 lbs. Arsenate of lead 

This should be appHed: 

1. When the buds show color 3. Two weeks later 

2. Just when the blossoms fall 4. Nine weeks after that. 

This should keep the trees in excellent condition, destroving 
insects and all fungus growths. 

37 



Pests 

and 

Remedies 



For mildew on roses and phlox and for blight on Delphiniums, 
begin earl}* in the season and spray once a week with Fungine. 

Care must be used not to spray with Fungine in greenhouses, nor 
in trellises, as it takes off the paint. 

An excellent gardener tells me he prefers a Fungicide called 
" Copperdine,' ' or any of the Copper solutions sold by reliable nursery 
men for Holly-hocks and Phlox, rather than Fungine. This Copper 
solution is also very effective for "Black Spot" on tomatoes. 

Diseases and insect pests of currants and gooseberries. 

San Jose scale, frequently found on these bushes, is best treated 
by spraying each year during the dormant period with lime-sulphur- 
concentrate at the rate of i gallon to 8 gallons of water. 

The Currant Worm — which attacks gooseberries as well as currants 
— is about ^ of an inch long and is green with yellowish ends. It is 
a greedy feeder — will quickly strip a plant of its foliage— hence 
treatment should be given as soon as its presence is suspected. If 
left to their own sweet will three broods will often appear in one season. 
The}' are readily destroyed with arsenate of lead — used at the rate 
of 2 lbs. of paste to 50 gallons of water. This should be applied in the 
spring just after the leaves appear. If it is found necessarv' to treat 
for a second brood, when the fruit is ripening, powdered hellebore 
should be used as a spray — i oz. to i gallon of water or dusted on 
diluted with flour 5 to 8 times. 

The Currant Aphis curls the leaves of currants and gooseberries 
and makes little pockets on the lower leaf surface. This is best con- 
trolled by spraying just when the leaf buds open with a nicotine 
solution, using i ounce to 8 gallons of water. 

No variety of currant or gooseberry appears to be immune to the 
White Pine Blister Rust. This is a fungus which grows on the leaves 
of these fruits and then attacks and kills five-needled pines. Spraying 
has not proved successful in preventing infection, or in killing the 
fungus after it is present. Therefore, if the disease exists in localities 
where it is desirable to grow white pines, it is necessary to destroy all 
currant and gooseberry bushes, both cultivated and wild, also orna- 
mental and flowering currants, within a third of a mile of the pines. 
The BHster Rust first attacks the twigs of a pine tree then gradually 
works into the larger branches and the trunk. It kills by girdling 
the bark. No tree infected with this disease has been known to 
recover. Fortunately it cannot go from one tree to another — but 
requires a period of incubation on the leaf of a gooseberry or currant, 
where it undergoes several changes before it can again attack pines. 

' 3H 



lis growth on gooseberries and currants is so vigorous that by the 
end of a growing season, it may have spread to most of the bushes 
within a radius of several miles of the infected pines on which it 
originated. 

When white pines grow near infected bushes, the disease passes back 
and forth from one host to the other until all of the trees are killed. 

New York State limits the propagation of gooseberries and cur- 
rants to certain districts and doubtless other states will follow in 
time with strict quarantine regulations. From Farmers' Bulletin 1024. 

Any personal experiences regarding troubles in the garden or 
practical suggestions on remedies will be appreciated by this depart- 
ment. All questions will be answered as far as possible and members 
are urged to assist in making this a medium of interchange of garden 
knowledge. Romayne Latta Warren. 



Southern Dahlia Society 

IF. E. Claflin, Sec'y., College Park, Md. 

American Gladiolus Society 

A. C. Beals, Sec'y., Ithaca, N . Y . 

American Peony Society 

A. P. Saunders, Sec'y., Clinton, N. V. 

American Rose Society 

Prot'. E. A. White, Sec'y., Cornell Universilv, 

Ithaca, iV. F. 

American Sweet Pea Society 

William Gray, Sec'y., Bellevuc Rd.. 

Newport, R. I. 



Special 

Plant 

Societies 



American Carkation Society 

A.F.J. Bauer, Sec'y., Indianapolis, Ind. 

Chrysanthemum Society of America 

C. W. Johnson, Sec'y., 2242 W. looth St., 

Chicago, III. 

American Dahlia Society 

E. C. Vick, Sec'y., 130 Nassau St., 

New York City 

National Dahlia Society 

R. W. Gill, Sec'y., Portland, Oregon 

California Dahlia Society 

.V. /•'. Vanderbilt, Sec'y., "25 Fifth St., 

San Rafael, Cal. 

A meeting to organize a National Iris Society will be held at the 
Museum of the New York Botanic Garden, Bronx Park, New Y^ork 
City, at II a. m., Thursday, January 29th, 1920. 

All persons interested are invited to correspond with the Secretary, 
Dr. H. A. Gleason,^New York Botanic Garden, Bronx Park, New York 
City. 

The Peony Society is enjo\dng great prosperity. The membership American 
list is growing fast and the annual meetings and shows attract more Peony 
and more attention every year. 

Last spring's show was in Detroit, Enthusiastic Peony growers 
came there from all parts of the country to see what was new in tlie 
Peony w^orld. T. C. Thurlow's Sons made a fine display of standard 
sorts, and staged also a few fine new seedlings. Mr. L. R. Bonnewitz, 
the President of the Society also brought from his home in Van Wert, 
Ohio, a grand collection of blooms. There were of course many other 
exhibitors; and indeed the competition in some of the classes was 
exceedingly keen. 

The Peony Society now publishes four bulletins a year. These 
take up all phases of Peony culture, and give also accounts of meetings 
and shows, and miscellaneous Peony gossip. The number of Peony 

39 



Society 



enthusiasts grows year by year, and when they cannot be talking of 
their hobby, they hke to read about it. 

Next year's show is to be at Reading, Pa., and the great attraction 
there will be the opportunity^ of seeing Mr. Farr's nursery of Peonies 
and Irises. The meeting will be set at the time when the plants are 
at their best, and what between the plants in the fields and the select 
blooms staged in the exhibition room, Peony lovers will have a chance 
there, for once, of seeing all the Peonies they want. 

A. P. Saunders, Secretary. 
Clinton, N, Y. 

Chrysan- The Chrysanthemum Society of America was organized in Buffalo, 
themum N. Y., in 1890, its object being to encourage the growth and improve- 
Society ment of Chrysanthemums, both hardy and grown under glass. 

of Previous to its organization most of the varieties were of Japanese 
America origin, but through the work of the Society, gardeners and florists 
have greatly progressed in hybridizing, until now the American 
Chrysanthemum is the peer of all Chrysanthemums. 

In five of the largest cities committees are appointed to examine 
new varieties on each Saturday in the months of October and Novem- 
ber. These new varieties, many of which have heretofore been raised 
in Europe and Australia and then grown in this country, are scored 
by these committees for Chrysanthemum Society certificates of 
merit. 

Since the advent of the numerous Garden Clubs, great impetus 
has been given the outdoor culture of Chrysanthemums, but the ease 
with which seedlings can be produced makes it necessary that the 
rules governing their certification be rigidly enforced. 

The officers are always willing to give information pertaining to 
the objects of the Society and the growth of Chrysanthemums. 

The membership consists of the many enthusiasts of this country, 
Canada and some from Europe. The dues are $2 per annum. New 
members are desired, and any one interested may become a member 
by paying the annual dues. 
25 West 39th Street, N. Y., November 5-7. 

Charles W. Johnson, Secretary. 

American Not so very long ago, the American Dahlia Society made a classi- 

Dahlia fication of the different types of Dahlias, resulting in the establish- 

Society ment of a number of classes embracing as many distinct formations 

in the Dahlia species. Since that time many beautiful hybrid forms 

have been introduced, some of them with such intermixture of type 

that judges at the various shows this year have been at a loss to classi^(y 

40 



them as of one t^"pe or another. As a consequence, it is quite likely 
that the official classification will have to be amended or changed. 
The Paeony-flowered, Decorative and Cactus types this year have 
showed some remarkable Mendings of character, and already the 
terms "Hybrid Paeony" and ''Hybrid Cactus" have been used for 
purposes of differentiation. 

The Dahlia, beyond all other plants, promises surprises to the 
enthusiastic culturist who seeks originations. The delight of pro- 
ducing seedlings is shared by commercial and amateur growers alike. 
A well-known commercial grower remarked at a recent show, ''Of mv 
seventy acres of Dahlias, I find that, when making a tour of them for 
inspection, my steps invariably lead me, first of all, to my planting of 
two thousand seedlings, which are to me my chief attraction, even 
though I may not retain, as this year, more than five." 

This year the new varieties presented are mostly of the Paeony- 
flowered type. While especially suited for garden purposes, flowers 
of this type are excellent for cutting, and last well in the home. The 
strong colors to be found in this type appeal to many, and who do 
not mind the exposed yellow centre characteristic of most varieties in 
the class. 

In the Decorative class, most popular for all purposes, some 
splendid originations have been noticed, embodying the qualities of 
good size and proportionate substance. Strange to say, color has 
seemed to run to buffs, amber, and deep gold, some with suffusions of 
deeper colors, but all beautiful. Pink shades in the varieties produced . 
have shown very little advance over existing sorts. The old Delice 
still reigns as head of the pink varieties in point of color. 

The Show Dahlia, which in recent years has fallen behind in the 
estimation of garden lovers, seems to be recovering lost ground. 
Some very beautiful varieties have been put forward which e\'idence 
marked improvement in color and form. 

No striking advance has been noticed in the Single class, nor in the 
Collarette section; and no notable additions appear to have been 
made in the Pompon section, where size has been the chief aim, with a 
flower of "button" proportions the mark. 

John H. Pepper. 

The bulletin of the Dahlia Society was issued on January ist, and 
will appear promptly on the first of each quarter hereafter; and an 
effort will be made by the officers of the Society to make it the most 
\aluable thing of the kind published. 

Membership fee is $2 a year, and that is the only charge. 

E. C. \[iCK, Secretary. 
41 



(Statement October 5, 1919) 
Southern During the seasons of 1913-14-15, a number of dahlia enthusiasts, 
Dahlia particularly those living in the suburbs of Washington in the nearby 
Association ;^/jaj-yjand counties, decided it would be desirable to have some sort 
of organization and a general getting together of persons especially 
interested in these beautiful and wonderful flowers. Accordingly in 
February, 1916, the Southern DahUa Association was organized, with 
Prof. J. B. S. Norton as President, and W. E. Claflin, Secretary- 
Treasurer. 

The principal objects of the Association are to foster a general 
interest in the growing of DahHas, the promotion of exhibits and 
interest therein, to secure the exchange of varieties among the mem- 
bers, and the introduction of new varieties for distribution. 

W. E. Claflin, Secretary. 

Special Plant Societies who desire to announce shows, give de- 
scriptions of recent introductions, explain membership requirements, 
etc, should communicate with 

Mrs. John A. Stewart, Jr., Chairman, 

Short Hills, N. J. 

Slides Committee 

Mrs. Samuel Sloan, Chairman 

At the'meeting of the Garden Club on December ist, it was the 
opinion of the Clubs that a collection of slides made from photographs 
of member's gardens would be of great interest and of considerable 
educational value to all. These collections would, upon request, 
be loaned to Member Clubs. 

The Slides Committee asks that all Clubs co-operate to make this 
plan a success by sending a small or large collection of slides of border, 
shrub, tree or evergreen plantings, architectural designs, garden plans, 
gateways, trelHses, etc. 

To facilitate arrangements for these collections, the Garden Club 
has been divided into zones and zonal chairmen have been appointed. 
The names of chairmen and Hsts of Clubs falling within each zone 
follows. No exact arrangements as to the duties of Zonal Chairmen in 
relation with the General Chairman have as yet been made. This will 
be announced in the next issue of the Bulletin and Club presidents will 
be notified as soon as possible that work may begin in the various 
Clubs. 

A large collection cannot be expected before summer but that 
members who already have suitable photographs may have slides 
made, the foUo-^ing details are given. 

42 



Slides may be made from photographs, lihiis or negatives and 
must be standard size, 3x4 inches. Making of slide from print or 
photograph costs 50 cents, from negative, 25 cents. The coloring 
costs from 25 cents to 90 cents per shde. Indi\'iduals may make or 
color their own shdes. 

Good results have been obtained from E. Van Altena, 6 E. Thirty- 
ninth Street, New York City. Other firms are being tried and results 
vnR be announced later. K„\therine C. Sloax. 

Atl.JlNtic Zone 
!Mrs. Junius Alorgan. Chairman, 

Princeton, New Jersey. 

Bedford Garden Club Rumson Garden Club 

Easthampton Garden Club Rve Garden Club 

Millbrook Garden Club Short Hills Garden Club 

Morristown Garden Club Somerset Hills Garden Club 

North Country Garden Club Southampton Garden Club 

Orange and Dutchess Counties Garden Club Trenton Garden Club 

Philipstown Garden Club Lister Garden Club 
Princeton Garden Club 

New Exgl.\xd Zone 

Mrs. S. Edson Gage, Chairman, 

309 Sanford Avenue, Flushing, Long Island. 

Chestnut Hill Gardea Society New-port Garden Club 

Hartford Garden Club North Shore Garden Club 

Litchfield Garden Club Ridgefield Garden Club 

Lenox Garden Club Washington Garden Club 

Central Zone 
Mrs. John Newberry, Chairman, 
Grosse Pointe Farms, Michigan. 

Cincinnati Garden Club Michigan Garden Club 

Cleveland Garden Club Santa Barbara Garden Club 

Illinois Garden Club 

Southern Zone 
(No Chairman) 

Albemarle Garden Club ilontgomery and Delaware Counties Garden 

Allegheny County Garden Club Club 

Amateur Gardeners Philadelphia Garden Club 

Fauquier and Louden Garden Club Twenty Garden Club 

Green Spring Valley Garden Club ^\'arrenton Garden Club 

Harford Countj' Garden Club Weeders, The 

A New Department at the American Academy in Rome 

The American Academy at Rome has decided to estabhsh three 
fellowships in Landscape Architecture, to be open, as the Directors 
have recently decided, not only to men but to women. The late Mr. 
J. Pierpont Morgan held a mortgage of 8375,000 on the Academy 

43 



buildings, which his son has generously offered to cancel if a similar 
sum can be raised to endow departments of music and landscape 
architecture. $220,000 has already been contributed, but $155,000 
more must be added before May ist in order to take advantage of 
Mr. Morgan's offer. 

Would not the members of the Garden Club of America like to 
show their appreciation of this new departure by sending contribu- 
tions from each of the Associated Clubs? It might be suggested that 
their money should be appHed to the new building for housing women 
which is to be erected on the grounds. The treasurer is Mr. William 
A. Boring, 52 Vanderbilt Avenue, New York. 

The fellowships will include a stay of three years in Italy and inten- 
sive study of the wonderful examples of landscape design in various 
parts of the country. With their analytic study of these masterpieces, 
the Fellows will carry on constructive essays in design. They will 
work not in classes, but each on his or her own responsibility to make 
the very utmost of the extraordinary opportunity, enabling them to 
concentrate on the single aim of quality in their chosen art. They 
will work in collaboration with architects, painters and sculptors, 
learning the hmitations and possibiHties of the kindred arts. 

During the third year, as the Fellows in Architecture are sent to 
Greece, the Fellows in Landscape Architecture will be sent to France 
and to England to see how the same principles have been applied to 
other forms of landscape design, differing from the stately formal 
Italian villas, because interpreting human needs based on a different 
economic and social life under a more northern sky. 

The benefit these Fellows receive will be returned to us tenfold 
by raising the standards of landscape architecture in this country 
and spreading the desire for beautiful gardens. Does not each of us 
wish to give some practical expression of enthusiasm for this move- 
ment? Rose Standish Nichols. ■ 

The Society of Little Gardens 

On reading the very interesting minutes of the Fifth Annual meeting 
of the Garden Club of America, one notes the dominant desire to 
enlarge and multiply the beautiful spots of the earth and to bring flowers 
more readily within the reach of all. 

Add to this the objects of the Garden Club as read at the meeting: 
"The objects of this association shall be to stimulate the knowledge and 
love of gardening among amateurs; to share the advantages of associa- 
tion, through conference and correspondence in this country and abroad, 
to aid in the protection of native plants and birds and to encourage civic 
planting." 

44 



Add further the lines by Emerson quoted b)' the President in opening 
the meeting, 

''Along the city's paved street. 
Plant gardens lined with flowers sweet"; 

and one has, in brief, the principal idea with which the Society of Little 
Gardens was founded and the lines on which it is working. 

The original plan of its founders was the creation of a very small city 
garden club, but so many were the applications for membership, that 
before it was six months old the Society boasted over two hundred mem- 
bers and had branches in more than a dozen States, since increased to 
twenty. 

It now oilers to all those whose gardens are on a most limited scale, 
such advantages of co-operation and inspiration as are already given by 
the G.\RDEN Club to those who are eligible to their membership. 

It aims to promote wayside, especially street, planting, the cultivation 
of small and otherw^ise barren spots, the guardianship of old gardens and 
the protection of fine trees and vines. 

Had there been an active association of this kind in existence when 
Bartram's Garden was first offered for sale, it is safe to assume that that 
once lovely spot might yet have been an earthly paradise. 

The local work of the Society has met with much interest and sym- 
pathy. Sale of flowers and plants have been held in the poorer parts of 
the city, teachers and lecturers have been sent to small communities to 
give instruction in the planting of gardens and growing of vegetables, a 
window box movement has been successfully inaugurated and valuable 
work has been done in street tree-planting and in the Memorial Tree 
movement. Assistance has also been given in local movements towards 
bird protection, bee-keeping and the study of aquaria. 

The past sad years have emphasized the need of all the comfort and 
support that beauty can give and taught us the value of trees and growing 
things. 

If all those who realize this need could be linked together with some 
chain — 'no matter how sHght — -what might not be accomplished I 

The Society of Little Gardens offers itself as this link and invites 
all garden lovers, as well as all small societies to join its ranks and work 
together for the wayside beautiful, making the towns, the villages, the 
school yards, the waste places, the country church yards, and the ugly 
back-yards, the restful and lovely places they should be, worthy of this 
great country and its people. 

Information is gladly given by the Secretary to anyone who cares to 
learn further particulars concerning the aims of the Society. 

Bertha A. Clark. 

Secretary of the Society of Little Gardens and Associate Member of 
the Garden Cll^ of America. 
(Mrs. Charles Davis Cl.\rk, 2215 Spruce Street, Philadelphia.) 

45 



Garden Club News 
Garden Club Meeting December ist, 1919 

Much interest was manifested at the meeting of the Garden Club 
at the Colony Club, New York, on December i, 1919. Twenty-nine 
Member Clubs were represented and there was a lively exchange of 
opinions. 

Many of the decisions reached are recorded under committee 

reports, general information, etc. A resume follows of replies to 

the questionnaire sent out in the autumn to all Clubs. 

Replies In reply to the first question asking, whether a general program 

to for each year's work to be followed by all Clubs would be acceptable, 

Ques- the consensus of opinions was that each Club preferred to be re- 

tionnaire sponsible for its own programs. 

The second suggestion, that each Club make a collection of garden 
slides, met with great enthusiasm and the progress made by the 
committee is recorded elsewhere. 

The matter of visiting cards, proposed in the third suggestion, 
is welcomed by most of the Clubs, but as a very careful plan must be 
made, the final report was deferred until all suggestions could be 
carefully tabulated and details worked out. A book will undoubtedly 
be issued giving the names of gardens that may be visited, how they 
may be reached and at what hour they mil be open. 

Answers to the fourth question disclosed the fact that few original 
papers are being written by members, a result which Mrs. Martin 
deplored. 

There has been little objection on the part of Member Clubs, to 
paying the per capita assessment of $1.50 to meet Garden Club 
expenses. Only four Clubs have felt unable to send the additional 
amount. 
Resolu- The following Resolution, which explains itself, was unhesitatingly 
tions adopted: 
- Against 

Billboards Resolution for the Garden Club of America Against 

Billboard Campaign of the Society of American Florists 

Whereas, The Society of American Florists. John Young, Secretar}% 
1170 Broadway, New York City, has begun an advertising campaign with 
billboards twenty feet long by seven feet high, bearing their slogan "Sav 
It with Flowers" to be placed in conspicuous places over this country. 
and; 

Whereas, Eighty-seven of these Ijillboards have already been ordered 
and the society is urging all its members to buy and set them up over 
America; 

46 



Resolved, That the Garden Club of America, which, through a com- 
mon interest in flowers, is one of the florists' best friends, stands firmly 
against this misguided movement to deface our landscape and disfigure the 
streets of our towns and cities, and hereby respectfully protests against 
that movement; 

Also Resolved, That a copy of this resolution be sent to Mr. Young 
and to every Member Club of the G.\rden Club of America with a 
request that each Club take action in this matter and fors-ard a similar 
protest to Mr. Young, Secretary of the Society of American Florists. 

Proposed by Mrs. Francis King, Garden Club of Michigan. 

Seconded by Mrs. William A. Hutcheson, Somerset Hills Garden Club. 



It was announced that the Short Hills Garden Club had a 
fund raised through the sale of Dahlias originated by Mrs. Stout. 
This money has hitherto been used as a war fund but it is proposed 
now to appropriate it to a medal in memory of Mrs. Renwick, through 
whose death the Gaiiden Club lost one of its most intelligent, inter- 
ested and beloved members. This medal \\ill be awarded to the 
G.\RDEN Club member who during each year achieves distinction in 
the advancement of horticultural interests. It could not be put to a 
more beautiful or appropriate use or one more appreciated by Gardex 
Club members. 

A meeting will be held in connection with the International 
Flower Show which vnll open at the Grand Central Palace, New York, 
on March 15th. Arrangements have been made for space at the Show 
where meetings and lectures may be held. A number of well-known 
nurser}'men will be asked to speak with a view to bringing about a 
better understanding between amateur and conmiercial interests. 
You are urged to make plans to attend this meeting which will be an 
important and interesting one. 

A general protest was made against the wanton destruction of 
young trees for Christmas trees. So strong was the feeling that some 
advocated doing away with Christmas trees altogether. Other sug- 
gestions, such as growing trees which may be replanted, were made 
but it was agreed that it was too late to accomplish anything this 
year. Will members, before this matter passes out of our minds, and 
before it is too late to achieve possible results next year, give some 
thought to the matter and send any suggestions they may wish to 
make to the Bulletix that a campaign may be organized to 
save our trees through improved methods of cutting or through sat- 
isfactory- substitutes. 

After the business meeting and Imicheon, Mr. George Pratt, 
Forest Coramissioner of New Y^ork, gave an interesting illustrated 
talk on the work accomplished by the Commission, clearly demon- 

47 



The 

Emily D. 
Renwick 
Medal 



Spring 
Meeting 



Christmas 
Trees 



Mr. Pratt's 
Lecture 



Historical 
Gardens 



New 

Club 

Members 



strating the value of this work in the results cited. The fact that the 
damage from forest fires in New York has been reduced from $800,000 
in looS to less than $5,000 in iqig is the best proof of its importance. 
His account of the Park Preserves, illustrated by beautiful moving 
pictures was most inspiring. 

Will members send in the names and photographs, if possible, of 
historical gardens in their respective neighborhoods? The informa- 
tion, which should be somewhat in detail may be sent to Mrs. Pratt 
who will forward it to the Committee on Historical Gardens. 

The Garden Club of Chestnut Hill, Mass., has been elected to 
membership in the Garden Club of America. Its officers are as 
follows: 

Frcsidenl— Mr. R. M. Saltonstall, Chestnut Hill, Mass. 

Secretary — Mrs. George B. Baker, Chestnut Hill, Mass. 

Treasurer — ISIrs. George Dike, Chestnut Hill, Mass. 



Quarantine No. 37 

Whatever may be our opinion of Quarantine 37 certain of its 
aspects are so illogical and unconsidered that tliey should be 
enumerated without complicating details. 

Quarantine 37 permits the importation of sLx varieties of bulbs, 
provided they are free from "sand, soil or earth." These are Lilies, 
Lilies of the Valley, Narcissus, Hyacinths, Tulips and Crocuses, the 
argument being that these varieties are practically immune. They 
are, and so are more than a hundred other varieties of bulbs, corms, 
rhizomes and tubers which are barred. Another argument sets forth 
the fact that this small percentage of varieties rnay be carefully 
watched but these six varieties constitute 88 per cent of all the bulbs 
imported. The claim may be made that since we may still have 88 
per cent of our bulbs there need be no cause for complaint but the 
fact remains that the remaining 12 per cent are quite as harmless 
and equally needed for good gardening, and that one allowable variety, 
Lily of the Valle}', is the most difficult of all bulbs to examine and the 
most likely, because of its formation, to harbor insects. Scillas, Snow- 
drops, Gladioli, Dahlias and Spanish and English Iris we may not 
have. Neither may we have a valid reason why. 

Quarantine 37 permits stock, cuttings, scions and buds of fruits 
for propagating. If these through proper examination may be kept 
free from pests and diseases, why may not the fruit trees themselves 
or other deciduous trees and shrubs? It permits also Manetti, Multi- 
flora, Briar Rose and Rosa Rugosa, if the roots are free from "sand, 

4S 



soil or earth," but no named roses. Up to 1912 these came in without 
any inspection. Since 191 2 no taint of disease has been found on the 
millions imported }-early. Mr. Harry B. Weiss, State Inspector of 
New Jersey since 191 1, through whose hands possibly 50 per cent of 
all rose importations have passed, states that he has never found a 
rose or rose stock infested with a dangerous pest. 

Quarantine 37 excludes Orchids though a method of fumigating 
these plants has been found and used by the Department of Agricul- 
ture. Pineapples, bananas and other tropical fruits are admitted. 
Why bar tropical plants, which cannot be raised in America and which 
a little care would render more completely harmless? 

It ^^-il] be noticed that all bulbs and plants admitted must be free 
of "sand, soil or earth." The amount required for packing is small 
and might easily and with the willing co-operation of other countries 
be sterilized. Are the thousands of tons of clay, sand and gravel 
brought each year to America as ballast from all parts of the world 
sterilized? This clay is sold to potteries, the sand and gravel are used 
for filling and sold indiscriminately to any bidder. None is dumped 
in the sea. Does it seem quite reasonable? 

No further examples of inconsistency need be given, but there are 
two commercial aspects claimed by the F. H. B. and the friends of 
Quarantine 37 to be advantageous. The first is the elimination or 
minimizing of foreign competition. Contemplation of this advantage 
leaves the American nurseryman cold. He realizes that commercial 
growing has been an art in certain European countries for centuries: 
that it will take many years to train men adequately for this highly 
specialized occupation and that the material for such traim'ng is 
scarce; that land values, wages and climate will raise prices ex- 
orbitantly and curtail profit and production. He also knows that it 
requires from five to fifteen years to create an adequate commercial 
stock and that although the form of our government may be fixed, 
those who administer it are not. Who will finance him during the lean 
years while seeds are germinating, types are being fixed, cuttings are 
taking root and plants reaching a marketable size? Certainly no 
bank or indi\idual with an eye to business because at the end of those 
years a new Federal Horticultural Board may raise the quarantine 
and admit a flood of more cheaply grown foreign bulbs, plants and 
trees. They would be better grown, too, because in Europe they have 
done for centuries what we should have to learn almost from the 
beginning. Instead of improving the lot of the American nurseryman, 
Quarantine 37 has placed him in a serious financial dilemma. 

Another business fallacy is the claim that it is better for America 
to be self-contained and produce her own nursery stock as well as 

49 



other commodities. This would be true if we could produce it better 
and more cheaply than we can obtain it from abroad but since con- 
ditions, wages, training, climate and customs forbid this we do our- 
selves a commercial and economic injury in attempting to create 
artificially a new American industry. No country can afiford to be 
self-contained, least of all one that has much to sell and hopes to 
increase its foreign trade. 

The issue will not be confused by giving a mass of detail but it 
may be interesting to know that the cotton boll weevil mentioned 
as a striking illustration of damage by foreign pests simply migrated 
across the border from Mexico. 

Can we believe that countries like Holland who, commercially, 
are largely dependent upon nursery products would not do every- 
thing in their power to keep their products free from pests and in- 
fection? French and English growers are notoriously painstaking in 
this particular and all European countries that have not quarantines 
deemed adequate by the F. H. B. would undoubtedly comply with 
any suggested precautions. 

Will Garden Club members consider the points here set forth, 
inform themselves upon others and be ready at the next meetings to 
take formal action? 

Finally Quarantine 37 is not a Quarantine at all but an em- 
bargo. America once had a Tea Party. Is it getting ready for a 
Garden Party? 
Plant The Federal Horticultural Board issues the following specific 
Importa- statement as to just what kind of "personal use" certain plants may, 
tions under special permits, be imported for. 
^^^ In the recent explanation of Regulation 14 of the regulations as 
Personal amended under Quarantine 37 it is stated that "in exceptional cases 
^® the importation of novelties (i. e., new varieties) may be made for 
personal use, but not for sale." This is intended to provide for the 
importation of such new varieties by directors of botanical gardens, 
collectors and growers of special collections of plants of recognized 
standing, but was not intended to apply to importations which may 
be desired for personal use other than as indicated or for the adorn- 
ment of private estates. In case such public gardens, collectors or 
growers of special collections are not known to the experts of this 
department, they may be required to furnish evidence of their status. 
Quarantine I daresay that Quarantine 37 prevented many of these wonders 
37 Through (a remarkable collection of orchids recently sold in England) from 
English migrating across the water. I could not but smile at Chairman 
Eyes Marlatt's guile in assuming U. S. growers might raise and flower 
orchids of value in five years. Presumably he has never seen the 

SO 



man-elous things raised on this side, the results, maybe, of crossing 
and inter-crossing during the last loo years or so. 

Regarding novelties, what would, I wonder, constitute a novelty 
in the Orchid or even Daffodil line? The famous Rosefield collection 
sold recently, contained no less than 20 plants of Odontoglossitm 
triumphans Lionel Crawshay. Only one plant of this wonder had 
ever been sold before by ^Ir. Crawshay, so that it may be classed 
as a new thing, yet I dare say it was raised fully 20 years ago. 

Take Daffodils also. They take 10 years to develop fully repre- 
sentative flowers from seed, and if of any class another 20 years 
elapses before they become anything like a commercial proposition. 

It is to be hoped that the F. H. B. does not delude itseh into 
assuming that seedling raising is going to form the gateway whereby 
your trade will level things up. If everything seeded as easily and 
freely as Groundsel matters would quickh- adjust themselves, but 
they don't. 

We Europeans smUe at the fear of the earwig. We do not care at 
all about insects that so readily lend themselves to trapping. It is 
wretches that cannot be seen, and the uncontrollable diseases, that 
worry us, and I dare say that not a few such pests have reached us 
from your side from time to time. 

F. A. Westox in The Florists' Exchange. 



News and Views 

This department is dedicated to the Member Clubs and to our individ- 
ual members. It is designed to hold short accounts of tmusual meetings, 
stirring events, interesting anecdotes, successful shows and pleasant 
garden experiences. Contributions should be signed and the name of the 
Club from which they come should also be given. Personal news is wel- 
come and if we might have an occasional controversy, so much the better. 
The name of the Column Conductor will be announced in the next issue of 
the Bulletin. 

Since the new law has gone into effect preventing the importation Attentioa ! 

of plants and shrubs, it seems to me that the opportunity has arrived Garden 
for the garden clubs of America to become creative hybridizers and Clubs 
developers of new varieties of plants; and shrubs. We at present have 
but few hybridizers in this cotmtr}- and have depended almost entirely 
on Europe for our plants; this is probably due to the scarcity and 
high price of labor. Now that we are unable to import any more, how 
long will these plants remain true to color, to name and to type? 
The nurserymen foreseeing a shortage have imported thousands of 
roots, but as you probably know from sad experience when you have 

51 



ordered a PMox or Dahlia from several nurseries under the same 
name you were disappointed sometimes to find them different in 
color or shape from what you anticipated. Last spring needing more 
Anton Mercier Phlox I ordered several dozen from the same lirm 
from whom I had ordered the year before; later, when they bloomed 
only a few were what I expected them to be. Why would it not be a 
simple but very far reaching matter, if every Garden Club throughout 
the country were to undertake to perfect one annual, one perennial 
and one native plant, choosing of course those which do unusually 
well in their district? 

Think how far reaching this would prove and what results might 
be obtained should we all work in unison. Suppose for instance the 
Garden Club of Easthampton should grow a true Belladonna Del- 
phinium, a pale pink Zinnia, and our own native Asclepias Tuberosa 
or butterfly weed; that in a few )'ears we could be depended on to 
supply perfect seeds and plants of one color, one name and one tj^je, 
that we in turn could also procure perhaps a mauve Phlox and a cream 
Snapdragon from the Lake Forest Club, and a blue Petunia and a pink 
Michaelmas Aster from Lenox and so on throughout the country? 
It does not seem to me too much to say that in a few years the Clubs 
could trade or sell plants and seeds to each other and also to the 
nurserymen who in their turn could grow fields of known varieties 
and sell them to the general public. 

The Garden Club of Easthampton has already formed an en- 
thusiastic committee to try to carry out this idea, which I am sure 
will entail but little trouble and expense. We have already sent to 
several firms in England for the Belladonna Delphiniimi seeds and 
from the softest pink Zinnia seeds we have saved ourselves we hope 
to make a beginning this spring. We have also chosen as our native 
plant the Asclepias Tuberosa whose gorgeous orange shines so magnifi- 
cently along our roadsides and in our fields. 

The Garden Clubs have accomplished so much in the past, why 
cannot they become true gardeners in the future, real gardeners per- 
fecting and creating? Harriet Shelton Hollister, 

Garden Club of Easthampton. 

A Notable An exceptional exhibition of Begonias was recently enjoyed by 
Begonia lovers of this plant when Edwin S. Webster of Chestnut Hill, Mass., 

Collection invited a number of those interested to view his choice collection. 
This collection was started about nine years ago and since then the 
latest introductions, imported from England and France, have been 
added from time to time. Strict selection of the best varieties and 
careful treatment under the intelligent direction of Peter Arnott, 



head gardener, are responsible for the wonderful results. The plants, 
mostly in 7-inch pots, were in the pink of perfection and finely 
flowered. The cuttings were made about a year ago, both leaf and 
stem cuttings being used, and the plants regularly fed with weak 
manure water. In other years Clay's Fertilizer has mainly been de- 
pended upon, but this year, this fertilizer not being available, manure 
water had to take its place and has proved entirely satisfactory. 

Mr. Webster is a member of our new Club, the Garden Club of 
Chestnut Hill, Mass. 

National and sectional dayhght saving legislation is to be pushed Daylight 
in Congress following the conclusion of the holiday recess which will Saving 
terminate January 5th. Congressman Darrow, of Pennsylvania, has 
reintroduced the national act, which was recently repealed, and Con- 
gressman Dallinger of Massachusetts, acting for the New England 
States, has introduced a bUl similar to the one sponsored by former 
Congressman John F. Fitzgerald of Boston. 

The legislation referred to as affecting the New England States is 
contemplated in the DalHnger bill which provides that within the 
first zone as established by the National Daylight Saving law, the 
time shall be advanced one hour at 2 o'clock in the morning of the last 
Sunday in April of each year and retarded one hour at 2 o'clock in the 
morning of the last Sunday in September of each year, thereby return- 
ing to the mean astronomical time of the degree of longitude governing 
this zone. 

The Darrow bill is similar in language except that the change in 
time would be applicable to all sections of the country between the 
last Sunday in April and the last Sunday in September of each year. 

E. A. D. 

The foregoing appeared recently in the Florists^ Exchange and 
since many Garden Club members have asked if anything could 
be accomplished by the Club in this direction it is reprinted to revive 
a fading hope. 

Any suggestion of a method by which the Garden Club of 
America may assist in bringing about the desired result will be very 
welcome. The National Daylight Saving Association, 200 Fifth Ave. , 
New York, will be glad to hear from interested clubs. 

Seventh Annual International Flower Show 

Grand Central Palace, New York, March 15-21, 1920. 

PreUminary arrangements for the show are practically completed 
even at this early date, and prospects are bright for another highly 
successful show. The final schedule of premiums is now in press. 

53 



Columbia University Horticultural Courses 
O. S. Morgan, Professor 

Beginning in February and running to June, Professor Hugh 
Findlay, formerly in charge of the Department of Horticulture in 
Syracuse University, New York, offers horticultural courses as 
follows: 

On Monday evenings, Orchard and Small Fruit Management, 

fee $12. 
On Thursday evenings, for the same period, Fruit and Vegetable 

Varieties for Home and Commercial Plantings, fee $12. 
On Monday and Thursday afternoons, for the same period, from 

4:20 to 6 p. M., a course in Vegetable Raising, fee $12. 
In these courses greenhouse practice will be an essential accom- 
paniment. 
Another course that is fundamental to any work with soil is that 
given by Professor Morgan on Soil Management and Fertilizers, from 
February to June on Wednesday evenings or on Thursday afternoons. 
The fee is $12 or $18 for the course, depending on whether or not 
students register for only the lectures or for both lectures and labora- 
tory work. 

Other courses in Agriculture offered at the University are Field 
Crops and Farm Management and graduate courses on Crops and 
Soils. 

Short courses, $10 each, are offered as follows: 
In February, Feeding and Management of Farm Livestock. 
In March, the Management of Farm Poultry. 
In AprO, Farm Machinery and Tractors. 

These short courses are offered in co-operation with the State 
College of Agriculture and with the Department of Farms and 
Markets. 

My Garden 

Marion McF addon; Aged 8 

I have a little garden 

Down by an apple tree. 

'Tis cared for by God in Heaven 

As well as little me. 

There are many others like it 

But none so dear to me 

As my tiny Httle garden 

Behind the Academy. 

54 



Membership List of 
The Garden Club of America 

Giving Names and Addresses of Presidents for 1919-1920 



Albemarxe 

Mrs. Samuel H. Marshall, "Morven," 

Simeon Postoffice, Virginia 

Allegheny County 

Mrs. Henry Rea, Sewickley, Pennsylvania 

Amateur Gardeners of Baltimore 

Miss Dora L. Murdoch, 245 West Biddle Street, 

Baltimore, Md. 

Bedford 

Mrs. Rollin Saltus, Mount Kisco, 

New York 

Chestnut Hill 

Mr. R. M. Saltonstall, Chestnut Hill, 

Massachusetts 

CruaNNATi 
Mrs. Samuel H. Taft, 3329 Morrison Avenue, 
Clifton, Cincinnati, Ohio 
Cleveland 
Mrs. John E. Newell, West Mentor, Ohio 
Easthampton 
Mrs. William A. Lockwood, 780 Park Avenue, 
N. Y., and Easthampton, L. I. 
Fauquier & Loudoun 
Mrs. Fairfax Harrison, Belvoir House, 
Belvoir, Va. 
Green Spring Valley 
Mrs. William V. Elder, Glyndon, Maryland 

Harford County 
Sec'y., Miss E. Rush Williams, Bel Air, Md. 

Hartford 

Mrs. Robert W. Gray, Weekapaug, R. I. and 

54 Huntington Street, Hartford, Connecticut 

Illinois 
Mrs. Horace H. Martin, Lake Forest, Illinois 

Litchfield 

Mrs. S. Edson Gage, 309 Sanford Avenue, 

Flushing, L. I., and West Morris, Conn. 

Lenox 
Miss Heloise Meyer, Lenox, Mass. 
Michigan 
Mrs. John Newbeny, Grosse Pointe Farms, 
" Michigan 

MiLLBROOK 

Mrs. Oakleigh Thorne, Millbrook, N. Y., 

and Santa Barbara, California 

Montgomery and Delaware Counties 

Mrs. Horace BuUock, Ardmore, Pennsylvania 

Morristown 

Mrs. Gustav E. Kissel,_ 12 East 53d Street, 

New York, and Morristown, New Jersey 

Newport 

Miss Wetmore, 640 Park Avenue, 

New York City, and Newport, R. I. 



North Country 

Mrs. Beekman Winthrop, 38 E. 37th Street 

New York City and Groton Farm, Westbury. 

L. I. 

North Shore 

Mrs. S. V. R. Crosby, 95 Beacon Street, 

Boston, Mass., and Manchester, Mass. 

Orange and Dutchess Counties 

Dr. Edward L. Partridge, 19 Fifth Avenue, 

New York and Cornwall-on-Hudson, N. Y. 

Philadelphia 
Mrs. Charles Biddle, Andalusia, Pennsylvania 

Philipstown 
Mrs. Samuel Sloan, 45 East S3d Street, 
New York and Garrison, New York 
Princeton 
Mrs. George A. Armour, Princeton, New Jersey 

Ridgefield 

Mrs. A. Barton Hepburn, 630 Park Avenue, 

New York City and Ridgefield, Conn. 

RUMSON 

Mrs. Harding Crawford, 41 W. S7th Street 

New York and Rumson, New Jersey 

Rye 

Mrs. A. William Putnam, Rye, New York 

Santa Barbara 

Mrs. Edwin H. Sawyer, 200 West Victoria St. 

Santa Barbara, California 

Short Hills 

Mrs. John A. Stewart, Jr., 

Short HiUs, New Jersey 

Somerset Hills 

Mrs. Francis G. Lloyd, 157 East 71st Street 

New York and Bemardsville, New Jersey 

Southampton 

Mrs. Harry Pelham Robbins, 19 East 80th St.. 

New York and Southampton, L, I. 

Trenton 

Miss Frances M. Dickinson, 479 W. State St. 

Trenton, New Jersey 

Twenty 

Mrs. W. Irving Keyser, 

Stevenson, Maryland 

Ulster County 

Mrs. John Washburn, Saugerties, New York 

Warrenton 
Mrs. Samuel A. Appleton, Warrenton, Virginia 

Washington, Connecticut 

Mrs. Arthur Shipman, 1967 Asylum Street , 

Hartford and Washington, Connecticut 

Weeders 

Mrs. AUred Stengel, 1728 Spruce Street. 

PhDadelphia and Newton Square, Pa. 



Important Notice. This list has been cornpiled from lists received 
by the Secretary during the last two months. If any errors in names 
or addresses occur, kindly notify the Secretary immediately that 
correction may be made both in the Club file and in the next issue of 
the Bulletin. 

55 



Bulletin Information 



At the meeting of the Garden Club on December ist it was 
decided that members should be allowed to subscribe to the Bulletin 
for non-members. This will not throw open our subscription list to 
the pubhc but it will make it possible for anyone really interested to 
receive it regularly. The discussion which led to this decision is too 
long to give in detail, but if you wish to subscribe for some friend, as 
a gift, or sponsor the subscription of some non-member you may do so. 

The subscription price is $1.50. The name and address of the 
subscriber and the member through whom the subscription is sent 
should be forwarded to the editor, together with a check made pay- 
able to the Garden Club oe America. 

Extra copies of the Bulletin may be had for 25 cents each. 

It is found that some copies of each issue of the Bulletin go 

astray. To save time it has been decided to send to each Club secre- 

Important ^^^^ three extra copies to be given to any members of their Club who 

fail to receive their copy. Please explain this to your Club at your 

next meeting. 

To When your copy of the Bulletin does not reach you please apply 

Club to the Secretary of 3^our Club who will have extra copies for replacing 

Members those lost in the mail. 



To Club 
Secre- 
taries : 



Board of Editors 

(Incomplete) 



CItairman 
MRS. WALTER S. BREWSTER, 

Lake Forest, III., and 1220 Lake 
Shore Drive, Chicago 

The Gardener's Miscellany 
MRS. ROBERT C. HILL 

Easthampton, L. L, and q6o 
Park Ave., New York 

Plant Material 
MRS. CHARLES W. HUBBARD 

WiKNETKA, III. 



Secretary (Ex-officio) 
MRS. HAROLD I. PRATT 

Glen Cove, L. L, and 820 Fifth 

Ave., New York 
Garden Literature 
MRS. WILLIAM K. WALLBRIDGE 
Short Hills, N. J., and 33 W. 

5 1 ST, New York 
Garden Pests and Remedies 
MRS. BENJAMIN WARREN 
Grosse Pointe Shores, Mich. 
Special Plant Societies 
MRS. JOHN A. STEWART, JR. 
Short Hills, N. J. 



Bulletin of 



tCbe (3arben Club 



of Hmertca 



March, 1920 



No^ 1 1 (New Series) 



President 
MRS. J. WILLIS MARTIN 

Chestnut Hill, Phtt.adelphl^, Pa. 

Treasurer 
MRS. H. D. AUCHINCLOSS 

33 E. 67TH Street, New York and 
Newport, R. I. 

Secretary 
MRS. HAROLD I. PRATT 

820 Fifth A\"e., New York and 
Glen Cove, L. I. 

Librarian 
MRS. FREDERICK L. RHODES 

Short Hills, N. J. 



Vice-President 
MRS. FRANCIS KING 
Alma, Michigan 

MRS. JOHN E. NEWELL 
West Mentor, Ohio 

MRS. OAKLEIGH THORNE 
Millbrook, N. Y. and 
S.\2s^A B.\rbara, Cal. 



MRS. SAilUEL SLOAN 

45 East 53d Street, New York .\nd 
Garrison, N. Y. 
Editor 
MRS. W.ALTER S. BREWSTER 
IZ20 Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, .^nd Lake Forest, Illinois 



The objects of this association shall be: to stimulate the knowledge and love of gardening among 
amateurs; to share the advantages of association, through conference and correspondence in this 
countr>- and abroad; to aid in the protection of native plants and birds; and to encourage civic planting 



And hark! how blithe the Throstle sings! 

He, too, is no mean preacher: 
Come forth into the light of things, 

Let Nature be your teacher. 



One impulse from a vernal wood 
May teach you more of man. 

Of moral evil and of good. 
Than all the sages can. 



She has a world of ready wealth, 
Our minds and hearts to bless — 

Spontaneous wisdom breathed by health 
Truth breathed by cheerfulness. 



Sweet is the lore which Nature brings: 

Our meddling intellect 
Misshapes the beauteous form of things 

We murder to dissect. 



Enough of Science and of Art; 

Close up these barren leaves; 
Come forth, and bring with you a heart 

That watches and receives. 

William Wordsworth. 



This is the Spring Planting number of the Bulletin. We hope 
that it finds you impatient for Spring. 

But since this is written on a zero day and the catalogue garden- 
ing of the editor is completed she has determined to do a little edi- 
torial Spring Planting not inconsistent with the cold and piercing 
weather. 

Dear fellow-members, have you a little corner in your mind where 
one might plant a meek suggestion that when you write to the editor 
reproving her for wrongly addressing your Bulletin, that you do 
not write on your Club paper giving no further address and signing 
yourself Mary Q. Smith? Will it take root in ground, too rich, per- 
haps, for so ordinary a plant? 

Is there a sunny stretch in your heart where co-operation seeds 
would germinate promptly and well? The Bulletin doesn't want 
to be one of those houses that will look all right when the vines and 
shrubs get a good start. It wants something from you to make it 
always gay and interesting and constructively sound. 

Have you a stony place in your character where a few sharp 
criticisms might flourish for a season? We shall not let them grow 
unheeded but unless you tell us where they are hidden we cannot root 
them out. 

There are other dehcate flowers and noxious weeds for which 
Trial Grounds are editorially sought. Will you think yourself over 
and forward, carefully packed, coherently worded, samples to show 
past accomplishments, offers to promote future experiments? 

K.L.B. 

A Letter from Mr. E. H. Wilson 

Arnold Arboretum 

Harvard University, Feb. gth, ig2o. 
Dear Mrs. Brewster: — Replying to yours of February 6th, re- 
Quarantine No. 37, I gladly avail myself of the opportunity to set 
before you, and through you the Garden Club of America, the 
effect of this drastic measure on American horticulture as I see it. 
For more than twenty years I have been engaged in introducing to 
the gardens of this country and Europe new plant material and was 
under the impression that the work was beneficial to this and future 
generations until I was abruptly brought face to face with the ruhngs 
of the Federal Horticultural Board. I feel that the far-reaching effect 
of Quarantine No. 37 is not properly understood by the amateur nor 
by the Horticultural Societies whose interests are his. It is these 
interests that are threatened with extinction for, just as it is impossible 



to make bricks without clay, so it is impossible to build gardens with- 
out plant material. The cutting-oS of raw supplies can lead to no 
other end than the furnishing of all our gardens with the common 
material most cheaply and easily produced. As aU know well, the 
nursery business of this coimtr>- is backward and prefers to deal in 
quantity rather than quahty. But even were it otherwise, the business 
caimot be maintained, extended and developed as the necessities of 
American gardens demand unless it has at its command the world's 
supply. The Federal Horticultural Board apparently considers that 
the so-called special import permits admit of this, but those of ex- 
perience know fuU well that they do not, they can not, and that they 
v,ill not. The facihties at Washington, D, C._, are utterly inadequate to 
cope with such a situation. Further, this country' is so large that it 
is impossible to import all its necessar}' horticultural material through 
one port. As the law now stands Seattle must draw any new Japanese 
material it needs by way of Washington! 

No plant lover has the remotest desire to introduce any plant pest. 
He believes in rigorous Inspection and if it be found necessary, in 
quarantine, too, but he is and must be utterly and absolutely opposed 
to plant exclusion, and to dictation as to what he may or may not grow 
and enjoy the beauty of in his garden. He objects to being allowed a 
Hyacinth and to not being allowed a Snow-drop. 

The object supposed to be obtained by Quarantine No. 37 is the 
exclusion of pests dangerous to vegetable growth of all kinds. This 
object is impossible of accomplishment in its entirety since such pests 
as are of a bacterial nature and others of fungoid origin may be dis- 
seminated by air currents even as was the germ of the recent influenza 
epidemic. Those of insect character can travel on material other than 
li\Tng plants. Witness the Corn-borer now alarming New England 
farmers and the Wood-borer found in American packing cases and 
about which AustraUa is just now agitated. The logical end of such. 
legislation is to cut off all international trade and intercourse. This 
new quarantine act will not effectively keep out diseases; it wiU 
accompHsh no more in that direction than proper inspection at ports 
of import would do and have done in the past. 

In the matter of disease it should be remembered that we our- 
selves and our forebears by the rapid settlement of this countr}', 
by the destruction of its forests and by the congregation of people in 
cities and \-illages vrith. all their insanitation have disturbed the bal- 
ance of nature and the price will be exacted until the balance be read- 
justed. The damage wrought by pests is glibly stated in miUions and 
bihions of dollars — the figures loosely estimated and used solely 
for effect — but never a word is said of the real billions of dollars the 



country owes to its alien plant material. Witness the apple and peach 
crop of this country — apples and peaches are aliens. 

As a matter of fact there is not an iota of proof of a single prevent- 
able disease being brought into this country which proper inspection 
could not have kept out. The Arnold Arboretum of Harvard Uni- 
versity was established in 1872 as a botanical garden in which to grow 
every woody plant which could withstand the cUmate of Massa- 
chusetts. To date this institution has introduced more kinds of hardy 
woody plants than all other institutions in this country combined. 
The plants have come from all parts of the world and no plant pest, 
not one, has ever been brought in by this institution. The Arnold 
Arboretum is the great pioneer in the matter of garnering and testing 
the quahties of plant material for the country, and its influence is 
international. The effect of Quarantine No. 37 is to so curtail the 
activities of this institution that in a few years it must cease to function, 
for if it be prevented, as now is the case, from drawing supphes of new 
and rare plants from distant lands it cannot even maintain, much less 
increase, its collections. 

To further and develop the garden art in this country it is necessary 
that the country have free access to the world's supply of plant ma- 
terial. This should be allowed to enter at recognized ports, say 
Boston, Ne?w York, Philadelphia, Galveston, San Francisco and Seattle, 
and at others if it be found necessary. At each port a proper inspection 
staff should be maintained and a Quarantine station also. Some sort 
of control of quantities may be necessary but none in variety. Plant 
material of all kinds should be admitted, subject to proper inspection. 
The present Federal Horticultural Board is composed of Plant Pathol- 
ogists and Entomologists and has neither knowledge of nor interest 
in the development of Garden Art and all that it means to America. 
In fact, by its action it has shown itself antagonistic. No good purpose 
can be served in petitioning this Board; what is needed is that the 
Horticultural Societies of the country unite on a common poUcy and 
on the advent of a new Administration at Washington present their 
plea. 

Thanks very largely to the efforts of ladies individually and through 
their Garden Clubs, the interest in gardens and Garden Art in this 
country has progressed by leaps the last few years. It is unthinkable 
that their efforts, and that of institutions like the Arnold Arboretum 
should end in futility. The art of gardening has ever been considered 
among the civilizing influences of all ages. It inculates tidiness, thrift, 
and love of home. Nay, it makes homes, which is one of the great needs 
of this and every other country. It is the duty of the statesmen of every 
country to further by all means in their power evtry civilizing in- 

4 



fluence. We lovers of gardens claim that such is our art and appeal 
to our statesmen for the recognition of our just and simple rights. 

With compliments and cordial good wishes I am, Dear Mrs. 
Brewster, 

Very truly yours, 

E. H. Wilson. 



The Flower Border 

Gertrude Jekyll — V. M. H. 

This is the simplest name for the border that is to hold and display 
the best of our hardy flowers with any admixture of tender plants 
that may be desirable. Quite commonly it is called the herbaceous 
border, but many of its indispensable occupants are not herbaceous; or 
it is called the hardy flower border, but that name, too, loses its justi- 
fication when we fill up with tender plants and half-hardy annuals. 
Therefore it had better be simply — the Flower Border. The border 
itself may be of any size or length and should be considered and treated 
accordingly. Sometimes it is a double border with flowers on each 
side of the path, and this is, in many cases, a convenient arrangement. 
Where a plot of ground is of small size — anything under an acre — and, 
as is so often the case in suburban lots, in form a parallelogram with 
the shorter measurement next the road, it is a good plan to set the 
house only a little way back and then to devote a space at the back 
of the house (except for the width of a road or path of access), to a 
lawn set round with shrubs and flowers and any small trees that may 
be needed for shade. T'hen in the middle of this space, in a line with 
the longer axis of the ground, to drive a straight path straight along 
with a flower border to right and left, backed by an evergreen hedge. 
At the end there should be a good summer-house and all the rest of 
the space behind the two hedges can be kitchen garden, well screened 
from view. In larger places there is more scope, and perhaps a simple 
flower border, of ample width and length, backed by a high wall, 
is the way in which we may best show and enjoy our flowers. Such a 
border may well be one hundred and fifty feet long and something 
like eighteen feet from the wall to the path. This will aUow for a space 
of four feet for shrubs trained to the wall and then for a narrow alley — 
not a made path, but just a way to go along — convenient for access 
to the wall and for getting at the plants in the back of the border. 
In front it is convenient to have a hard path, whether of gravel or 
paving, but if next to the path there is a certain amount of lawn space 
it is a great advantage, as it enables the whole effect of the flower border 

5 



to be seen from various distances and from many different points of 
view. 

A long life of gardening, and some early training in the fine arts, 
have taught me the supreme importance of having the flowers well 
arranged for colours, so that the whole border becomes a picture 
instead of a scattered collection of unrelated colourings. I have found 
it the most convenient, as well as the most effective plan, to have at the 
two ends plants of cool colouring and to come gradually, by a pro- 
gression of related colour harmonies, to a culmination of gorgeousness 
in the region of the middle of the length. Thus, supposing the border 
to face nearly south, we begin at the western end with some good blues 
in bold groups — Delphinium and Anchusa, to be followed by the 
steel-blue of Eryngium. There is something about flowers of pure blue 
colouring that seems to demand a treatment with a contrast, so that 
just here the rule that in general seems the safest to follow, that of 
harmonious sequence, is in abeyance, and though there- is nothing 
against treating the pure blues with a progression of violet and purple, 
they are to me more enjoyable if they are given a distinct contrast 
of palest yellow and white. Here we have a pure white Foxglove, 
the tall yellow ThaHctrum, MuUein and Oenothera Lamarckiana. The 
two last are specially suited for the place I have in mind, as it is 
partly shaded by a high wall and a large Spanish Chestnut that stands 
not far off, and neither of these plants are at their best in hot sunshine. 

The pale yellows in the border are followed by the deeper yellow 
of Coreopsis, Helenium, and some of the less weedy of the perennial 
Sunflowers. Soon we come to the splendid deep orange of African 
Marigolds and the rich mahogany browns of the French Marigolds, 
both tall and dwarf. Then come deep orange DahHas backing fier>- 
clumps of Tritomas, passing on to the pure scarlet of DahHas and 
Cannas, Salvias, GladioH and bedding Geraniums. The use of these 
grand summer plants is one reason why the border had better not 
be called hardy or herbaceous, for there are no hardy plants that will 
answer the same purpose. It is true that there are Monarda and 
Lobelia cardinalis and some grand Phloxes, but the border is too dry 
for the two first, which are happier in almost boggy ground, and the 
scarlet Phloxes brown badly in hot sunshine — moreover it is certainly 
more important that the border shall be beautiful than that it should 
be either strictly hardy or herbaceous. 

' At the back of the mass of rich red is a group of towering Holly- 
hocks, blood-red, with a few of a rich, dark claret colour. The whole 
of the red region has also an interplanting of the red-leaved form 
of Atriplex horiensis, and, nearer the front, of a French form of annual 
Amaranthus with dull red flowers of a pleasant quality and red-tinted 

6 



leaves; a much better plant than the commoner form with magenta 
flowers. The colouring of the border now returns to orange, then 
passing again to yellow and on to the cooler colours. But at the eastern 
end we favour purple rather than blue. The wall here has a Wistaria, 
and in the back of the border there are some Clematis Jackmanni, to 
be trained forward into their proper place, and some of the September 
Asters; in the middle spaces there are Galega, Erigeron and Salvia 
virgata. One large drift is of the useful old garden plant Clary (Salvia 
Sclarea). As it comes freely from seed and we always have plants in 
reserve, we dig it right up when the best of its beauty is over and 
drop in some Hydrangas in pots in the same place. With the purple 
there are also white flowers — again the pure white Foxglove, the tall 
white Daisy (Pyrethrum uliginosum), the fine white garden form of 
Campanula macrantha and a good quantity of grey foUage, Rue, San- 
tolina, Artemisia and Cineraria maritima. At this end we have no 
yellow — only purple, pink and white. At both extreme ends the border 
is a little raised, and there we have groups of Yucca; the taUer Yucca 
gloriosa and Yucca recurva, and the shorter growing Yucca filamentosa; 
telling objects when seen from a distance or from either end. There 
are many other plants in the border, but only enough are mentioned 
to illustrate the method of colouring, and even those only as a sugges- 
tion, for you may have others that in your own gardens may do the 
same work better and be more easily available. 

As it is not possible to have any one border fuU of bloom for the 
whole summer, we plant so that the display begiiis only about the 
middle of June and is in some sort of beauty till the end of September. 

There is no attempt to have all high plants at the back of the 
border; in fact some of the taUest are pulled right down, as I shaU hope 
to describe in a later article. The effect is all the better if something 
tall, such as a group of Hollyhocks, shoots up Hke a mountain peak 
only here and there along the length, and it is all the better if some 
plants of fair height such as the Mulleins and Foxgloves advance into 
the middle of the border; there should be no monotony of evenly 
graded heights. I have found the disadvantage of such monotony 
when a special border for September was first made. It is mainly 
for the early Michaelmas Daisies, and though they vary in height 
from two and a half to seven feet, yet this was not enough, and the 
borders, though quite satisfactorily f uU of flower, had a certain dullness 
of form. In later years this was remedied by some tall DahUas and 
white Hollyhocks, and, best of all, by a little silvery Willow that soon 
went up ten feet and had planted just behind it a Clematis Flammula, 
which grows up through its branches and flings down a cataract of 
its pretty cream-white blooms among the purple Daisies. 



The front edge of the main flower border should also have care- 
ful consideration. The natural tendency is to plant it with small 
things, but in a border of considerable size, something of bold and soUd 
appearance is helpful. Here is a chance for a good use of the Broad- 
leaved Saxifrages (Megasea). The best for foHage is the major form 
of Megasea cordifolia, with grand leathery leaves that stand all through 
the winter. The bloom comes early in the year and is a rank magenta 
pink, but it is easy to cut it out. Then there are the Funkias; the 
best being the bright green-leaved Funkia grandiflora and the 
glaucous Funkia Sieboldii. Funkia grandiflora is best placed where 
there is slight shade as the leaves are apt to burn in hot sunshine, 
but Funkia Sieboldii has foliage of stouter build that stands sun well. 
A useful front edge plant, though not wide leaved, is the crested form 
of the Common Tansy. The multiplication of the leaf divisions seems 
to intensity the colour of the whole plant whose feathery masses are 
of a splendid deep green. But the bloom stems should be carefully 
cut out and the leaf tufts themselves cut back at least once in the 
summer, in order to keep it in good form and under a foot in height. 

There are many useful ways of arranging and contriving that 
have come to my mind from time to time during many years' work 
among flowering plants — ^work which stimulates invention and the de- 
vising of means to meet the various needs that are constantly occurring. 
These I shall hope to say something about in a later article. 

How To Start Beekeeping 

Letitia E. Wright, Jr. 

After deciding to keep bees, purchase your hive with its colony 
of bees from a reUable Bee-keeper. Ask for Italian bees, as they resist 
disease better than the black or the hybrid bees, and are the most 
popular bees in this country, although Carniolans are bred in some 
places here. The Carniolans are very gentle but given to excessive 
swarming, and this with their black color, which makes them hard 
to distinguish from the German or black bee, has kept them from 
the popularity they might otherwise have gained. The German bees 
build very beautiful combs, and cap the section boxes over with the 
whitest of wax; but they are nervous and excitable when their hive 
is opened, and they do not resist disease as well as the Italians do. 

Do not buy your bees from too great a distance, nor yet from too 
near home. In the first place unless you are going to get something 
better than you could obtain nearer, you are running a risk of losing 
many bees on the way. Bees suffer for air and water when they are 

8 



shut in too long. Of course a good Bee-keeper would pack his bees 
up for shipping so they would not suffer for a reasonable time, but 
in these days no one can estimate the length of time it will take an 
article to reach its destination. If on the other hand you buy your 
bees from a near neighbor, you will loose half of those you buy, for 
bees are like homing pigeons and all the old ones will return home. 
About three miles radius is the average range of the bees, but they 
can go a greater distance. Three miles away is far enough to purchase 
bees safely. Then when they are Hberated the surroundings even 
when the bees are high in the air are so changed, that they will mark 
their new location carefully before flying out to the fields, and thus 
return to their new home. If bought from a very near neighbor, or 
moved a short distance, the general surroundings are so famihar that 
the old bees, with the cares of the hive on their shoulders, and the 
instinct of labor inherited for so many thousands of years, fly out to 
work, mount in the air and seeing trees, mountains, or streams as 
the case may be, much as usual fail to note the short distance the hive 
has been moved. They gather their loads in distant fields and fly 
home, only to find the spot where their hive stood, vacant, and bare. 
Then the poor bees gather disconsolately at the spot, and if there is 
no hive at hand they perish. If there is a hive very close at hand 
and the bees have nectar they will go to this hive in safety. If it 
happens to be a time of dearth, or the end of a honey flow, and they 
come empty handed to a strange hive, they will be killed by the senti- 
nel bees. 

For the reason that bees are difi&cult to move you must consider 
carefully where your hive is to be placed. If you have a number of 
places to choose from, find the spot where the hive will be sheltered 
from the prevaiUng winter winds. Place it facing south with the ground 
sloping away from it and with woods, hedge, or stone wall in the rear 
as wind break; but first consider whether this place, so suitable for the 
bees, is going to interfere with your children, your neighbors, your 
garden, your am'mals or the public highway. If your bees are going 
to interfere with any of the above, do not hesitate to place them 
elsewhere, as it will be easier than placing them first and moving them 
later. An artificial wind break of boards or corn stalks can be made 
for hives which are placed in exposed positions. It is of course only 
necessary to have a wind break in cold weather. 

If the yard of the prospective beekeeper is too small for the hive, 
the children, and the clothes hne, place the hive on the roof of the 
garage or house. This will ehminate contentions, one of the greatest 
difl&culties of bee-keeping at close quarters. One of Solon's laws, 
made in the sixth century B. C, dealt with the placing of hiyes. It 



was deemed unlawful then to place hives nearer your neighbor than 
300 feet. 

Improving the stock in an apiary is very easy, as there are many 
queen breeders all over the United States, and queens can be mailed 
to you by first class mail. In this way the queen bee and her retinue 
in their tiny cage, come to your very door by the fastest and surest 
method. A bee-keeper can easily change the whole character of an 
apiary by introducing pure bred queens. If he kills a Black queen 
and introduces a Golden Italian queen, it will be almost a month before 
any yellow bees appear. At first there will seem very few, then, as 
the days pass they will increase in number and the Blacks decrease 
until all the bees in that hive are yellow. A beginner in apiculture 
should not attempt this, unless under the personal supervision of 
one who has had practical experience. 

After the hive of bees is bought it is necessary to get the following 
equipment: — 

I Pair of bee gloves 

I Black veil 

I Smoker, a devise for blowing smoke 

1 Hive tool, (a screw driver will do.) 

I Extra hive complete, ready to house a swarm should the new 

hive of bees cast one. 
3 Supers, with section boxes, each box with a full sheet of 

foundation. 

A super is an additional story to the hive and is where the honey 
we eat is stored. The lower part of the hive is called the hive body, 
and in it the queen lives, and deposits her eggs in some of the wax 
cells, the worker bees deposit honey in the cells surrounding those 
with the eggs in them. This is to insure food close at hand when the 
young bee emerges from her cell. In the super there are no eggs, only 
honey. 

A section box is one of those Kttle wooden boxes that comb honey 
comes in. 

A sheet of foundation is a thin piece of bees-wax, pressed by ma- 
chinery into hexagonal markings. On this foundation, the bees build 
their comb on each side. This insures a perfect comb and a more 
saleable article, than when the bees build combs without foundation. 

If you should Hve in a neighborhood of many fruit trees, your bees 
may gather a surplus crop of honey from the orchards and you will 
have to place a super on your hive at the time the orchards are in 
bloom, or your bees will not have sufiicient room and will swarm. 

10 



If there are only scattered fruit trees, or the weather is cold at the 
time they bloom, there will be no surplus honey, for the bees will 
need all for their numerous young. 

In working -vvath bees, care should be taken that }-our veil be 
secure and tight. Bees crawl under and up as do flies in a trap, and 
a veil that traps bees is most disconcerting to a beginner. A man 
will find bicycle cHps on his trousers a great protection, and the cos- 
tume of the Woman's Land Army, worn with the smock tucked in 
or tied tightly about the waist is a good way for a woman to dress. 
It is best to work with bees about the middle of the day, or at least 
when it is warm and sunny, and above all when there is nectar in the 
flowers. The bees then are in a good himior and one can very often 
work without gloves. Light colored cotton clothes are recommended 
because the work is warm and because the bees prefer them to dark 
colors. Woolen materials attract stings. 

Before opening a hive, blow a httle smoke in at the entrance, and 
tap several times on the hive. This disorganizes and confuses the bees 
so that they do not take so much notice of you when you open it. 
Stand to one side or behind the hive so you will not interfere with the 
bees flpng to and from the fields. Then pry the Hd off gently. Avoid 
sudden or quick motions when working vrith. bees. When the Hd is 
lifted quantities of these little insects will be seen crawHng about in 
the hive, and many will fly up in the air, and about your head. Do 
not try to dodge them, nor slap at them with your hand; just ignore 
them, and gently pry one of the end frames loose so it can be lifted 
out. In ever}' hive body there are eight or ten frames, holding a 
large comb, and in these combs the life history of the bee can be seen 
and studied, step by step, through the various stages of its develop- 
ment, ^■yter examining the hive, if it is found necessary to have a super, 
place one on top of the hive body, and the lid on top of that. In a 
week look at the bees again, and if the cells are being capped with wax, 
along the upper part of the combs in the super, it is time for a second 
super. This time it is placed between the hive body and the first 
super, instead of on top. When again time for a third super, it is 
placed just over the hive body, with the two former supers on top. 
When it is time to take the honey away, or as soon as the first super 
is finished, and the cells all sealed with wax, a de\ise, called a honey 
board, is shpped betw-een the top and lower super. In this honey board 
is a trap, which prevents the bees from going into the super, but 
allows those in it to escape. If the board is left on the hive for twenty- 
four hours or more all the bees wiQ leave, and the super can be carried 
into the house. Here the boxes can be pried apart and put away, 
?iot in the refrigerator but in a warm, dry place, protected from mice, 

II 



flies, ants and bees. The bees will come after their honey and carry 
it all back to their hive again if they can find it. 

And who can blame them for this when Zeus himseK gave them 
the privilege of carrying it from Mt. Olympus and storing it away. 
When an infant, Zeus was hidden by his mother on the Island of Crete 
and cared for there by the nymph Mehssa, who fed him on goats' 
milk and honey. The honey, "nectar of the Gods", was carried drop 
by drop from Mt. Olympus to baby Zeus by the faithful bees and it 
was for this service that he rewarded them. We can always remember 
the nymph and her connection with bees because the honey bee has 
been called Apis Mellifica, after Melissa. 

The following notes may be useful to the prospective bee-keeper: 
United States Department of Agriculture 
Bureau of Entomology 
Washington, D. C. 
Bulletins for free distribution: 
Farmers Bui. 447, Bees 

" " 503, Comb Honey 

" " 653, Honey and its Uses in the Home, 

" ** 695, Outdoor Wintering of Bees 

Bee- Journals Published in the United States 
American Bee Journal, Hamilton, 111. 
Gleanings in Bee Culture, Medina, Ohio. 
Domestic Beekeeper, North Star, Mich. 
The Western Honey Bee, Covena, Cal. 
Beekeeper^ s Item, New Braunfels, Texas. 

Books of Interest to Beekeepers 

ABC and XYZ of Bee Culture, A. I. and E. R. Root 

Beekeeping, E. F. Phillips 

Productive Beekeeping, F. C. Pellet 

Short Courses in Beekeeping 

School of Horticulture for Women, Ambler, Pa. 

Short courses with practical work starts in April, also during the winter 

at University of Missouri, Columbia, Mo., New York State College of 

Agriculture, Ithaca, N. Y., and Ontario Agricultural College, Guelph, Ont. 



The Kew Flagstaff 

Extensive preparations are being made for the erection of this 
gigantic flagstaff. Experts have been engaged for the work, and it is 
hoped that it will be up in a few weeks' time. This magnificent speci- 
men of Douglas Fir, which is 214 feet long, will arouse great interest 
when it is erected, as it is the largest flagstaff in the world. — The Garden. 

12 



My Garden 

Anne Higginson Spicer, Garden Club of Illinois 

Sometime this March — I wish I remembered the date — my little 
garden will come of age. This coming of age in a human being is 
general!}' a time for a sort of stock-taking; the parents of the twenty- 
one year old are permitted to become reminiscently historical, even 
sentimentally lyric ! 

The editor of the Bulletin has asked me to be the former, but has 
exphcitly denied me the pri\-ilege of the latter, which is of course the 
easier way for one to write of what one loves. If what remains after 
the impulse toward lyricism is extracted be a mere skeleton of as- 
sembled facts, blame her, not me. 

Twenty-one years ago, then, a certain woman started her garden 
in what was a piece of native prairie woodland. Although within the 
limits of a suburban town, there were no houses near, no road was cut 
through, and conditions seemed quite ideally primitive. A lot loo 
by 175 feet may seem an immense estate, if there is nothing to limit 
the view. Later on as houses crept in upon us, the lot has appeared to 
dwindle and dwindle. I am correspondingly glad (undwindlingly!) 
that the inspiration of work I had liked of Frederick Law Olmstead's, 
and, nearer home, of Mr. Symonds, led me to conserve every possible 
sprig of the lovely native shrubs we found on the place. 

Lea\dng quite a thicket between us and the part of the next lot 
to the south where a house might conceivably be built, I had a team 
come and plough a broad cur\dng border in front of this thicket. 
This was the beginning of what is still my garden border. A sturdy 
colored boy with a spade (he is still my gardener) and a sturdy 
young woman with a shovel (who is still my head gardener) pro- 
ceeded to steal from the neighboring woods attractive and well- 
shaped Httle thorn-trees, kinnikinnik, \dbumum, and, trickiest of 
all, a number of small sassafras trees. These were planted wher- 
ever the thicket looked straggly, and across the front of the lot as 
a hedge. 

For a year the woman nursed and tended her beginning of a garden, 
experimenting with vegetables in the low border, and filling all the 
thickets with T^ild flower-roots from all through Cook County. This 
experience was invaluable, as she learned that while the wdld-flowers 
took to the spot jo}^ully, it needed drainage before seeds would grow ; 
so the back of the lot was all tile-drained, and the long border dug 
out below clay level, a layer of brickbats, ashes, bottles and tin-cans 
put in (because they were cheaper than gravel, being like the poor, 
always with us), the clay was broken, mixed with manure and reset 

13 



in the bed, and the black soil replaced. Then the few cherished peren- 
nials, gifts from father's and grandfather's gardens, and those begged, 
borrowed atid almost stolen from friends, were set out by the hands 
of the young woman. From that day to this she has never allowed 
any other hands to plant a seed or a root in the garden, and very 
seldom has any other hand done any of the weeding. 

(Of course her own hands were a sight years ago and she has won 
a reputation for crankiness among all the temporary gardeners who 
have tried to work for her in the interregna when the original and 
only Lawrence has been iU or reft from her by the war.) 

Now, as Daisy Ashford would probably put it, we wiU skip twenty- 
one years. 

The garden has had its ups and downs. It once spread out for 
six years into twice its size, when the corner lot was added, then di- 
minished again when the comer lot was built on and sold. During 
five years tenants held sway while the woman gardener was in tem- 
porary exile — BUT — and this is to my thinking her greatest triumph, 
the native wild flowers have estabhshed themselves, and bloom as 
faithfully as though they were not in the midst of a busy, well-drained 
little suburb, ahd the general layout of the beds and borders, although 
modified here and there, is basically the same. 

Little miracles have happened. Twelve roots of Mertensia, brought 
from the Desplaines River bottoms at Riverside have spread so that 
they make a sheet of blue that is worth a special trip to see, and last 
year a sign in the village post office resulted in friends with baskets 
carrying away thirty-five dozen husky roots, without any evidences 
that the place had been disturbed. TriUiums, Hepaticas, Jacks-in-the 
Pulpit — no use enumerating. They all flourish, and from the Shadberry 
and wild Plum through the gamut of Viburnum, various Dogwoods 
and Thorns, wild Cherry and Crab until late June brings the Elder 
blossoms, there is always white bloom in the thicket. 

In the borders and the beds at the rear of the lot, from late Feb- 
bruaty, when Eranthis hiemalis once hfted golden cups through the 
snow on Washington's birthday, tUl late November's last Chrysanthe- 
mum has opened, there is always bloom in the httle garden. 

I shall not make a list of what bulbs and perennials and annuals I 
have used in these twenty-one years. Take the catalogue alphabetical- 
ly, and choose every other one listed, and you will get a fair idea. 
As I grow older I experiment less, for the garden is a shady one and 
many things that do not do well I have eliminated. 

Lest I be accused of catering only to the aesthetic, let me assure 
the scoffer that I have currant bushes to make enough jelly for my 
family, and a dozen Industry gooseberry bushes, a tiny strawberry 

14 



patch, a cherry tree, and a small kitchen garden in which I raise every 
thing we need except corn and peas, and often have things to give 
away. I neglected to say that my perennials may point wnth pride 
to their offspring and grand offspring in half the gardens in town. 
Wheelbarrow-loads depart ever>' spring, especially of Iris, which loves 
this soil so that they w:ould overrim the place. The ordinary Prim- 
roses, too, I di\dde and subdixdde indefinitely. 

The amount of grass space about the house has decreased as the 
years have increased, because I have kept adding more beds and making 
the old ones bigger. I would rather have flowers than grass any day. 
Of course this has increased my work, as no man may touch these 
beds. I will not even let any man trim the edges (they do it so dis- 
gustingly symmetrically) though my ideal method is to do the edging 
and weeding, wdth a man with rake and wheelbarrow following after 
to pick up the refuse. All this refuse, of course, goes into a hidden 
comer to be spaded into beds the following spring. 

You may have guessed by this time that this is not a very ex- 
pensive little garden. I am rather severe with myself and only allow 
myself so much, no more. When the garden was a baby this was 
necessary. WTien I came back to it after the war broke out, it seemed 
wicked to spend money on one's own pleasure, and now — I hope I'm 
not miserly, but I have got into the habit of garden economy. 

I allow myself a half-day a week of Lawrence's time, except in 
case of tremendous emergency — as for example the \dsit of the Gar- 
den Club — when he and I scratched roimd excitedly for days. I 
aUow myself ten dollars for new bulbs each year, and each year I try 
a few expensive new perennials (as for example. Campanula Marian 
Gehring, seventy-five cents and well worth it! There are five Httle 
Marians now. Mother was a hybrid, so had to be root-divided!) 
Five dollars easily covers seeds. Allowing then ten dollars a month 
for Lawrence — and this includes the grass-cutting, which he accom- 
phshes hke a Marathon race, in order to get at the ''real gardening", 
and allowing six months of gardening weather, it is easy to make the 
entire care and expense of a Httle garden like mine come well under 
a hundred dollars a year. 

The reason I go into these sordid details is, that any woman with 
a little initiative should not deprive herself of a garden because of 
the cost. I know I could sell perennials enough to pay a good part of 
this expense if need were. Many a woman, too, will waste a hundred 
dollars on a lot of fooHshness that will not bring the health and hap- 
piness a little garden brings. Of course, it is work. I cannot systema- 
tize the work. There are weeks when except for pulling a weed here 
and there and patting things, I need not touch the garden. There are 

15 



frantic days when I work from morning till night, just as the house- 
keeper will have frantic days of decorating and cleaning. There are 
catastrophic days when I rise at dawn, or go out in the rain by the 
hght of the porch lamp to tie things up after storms, just as there are 
nights when you stay awake with baby's croup. 

A garden is a Uving thing to be loved and you cannot love by rule. 
But it repays for every bit of care a thousandfold. 

List of Naturalized Wild Flowers 
(All Natives of Cook County, Illinois) 



Hepaticas 




Vines 


Claytonia Virginica 




Bttter Sweet 


Smilacema racemosa and stellata 


Wild Grape 


Jack-in-the-Pulpit 




Wild Smilax 


Green Dragon 




Menospermum 


Sweet Ctcely 




Red Honeysuckle 


Wtnd Anemone 






Buttercups 
Asarum 




Shrubs 
Vibernum 


Bloodroot 




Dogwood {four varieties) 


Rue Anemone 




Wild Rose 


Blue Phlox 




Elder 


White Dog-tooth Violets 




Wild Plum 


Yellow Violets 




Wild Cherry 


Blue Violets 




Wild Crab 


Mitella {three varieties) 




Shad Bush 


Whiti Trillium {two varieties) 


Hazel 


Wake Robins (Dark Red Trillium) 


Sassafras 


Dutchman's Breeches 




Feb^s 


Squirrel Corn 




Royal 

Interrupted 

Osmunda 


Uvularia 
Twin-leaf 




Ajuga Replans 
Dodocatheon 




Maiden Hair 


Columbine 




Native Trees 


Wild Geranium 




Elm {two varieties) 


Mertensia 




Cottonwood 


Lobelia syphilitica 




White Oak 


Pentstemon Barbalus 




Mulberry {self sown) 


Butter and Eggs 




Thorn {three varieties) 


Blue Cohosh 




Sumach {two varieties) 


Eellenium 






Rudbeckia {three varieties) 




Cultivated Shrubs 


Eupatorium Ageratoides 


{three varieties) 


Spiraea Van Houttet 


Joe Pye Weed 




Common Lilac 


Golden Rod {five varieties) 




Cut-leaved Persian Lilac 


Blue Aster {six varieties) 




Forsythia suspensa 


Michaelmas Asters — white 


{four varieties) 


Flowering Almond 



Some Late-Blooming Peonies 

Mrs. Edward Harding. 

It gives me much pleasure to send you a list of late-blooming 
Peonies for pubHcation in the Bulletin or the Garden Club of 
America, This Hst of fifteen is made for the benefit of those gardeners 
who, for various reasons, cannot have the earlier varieties, but would 
not miss the Peony season entirely. 

All of these roots, except Solange, are of moderate cost. Solange, 
however, is so wonderfully beautiful and of such rare colouring that 
I have included it. 

16 



The thick overlapping petals of Solange are of deep cream — the 
heavy cream of a Jersey thoroughbred — with a tinge of amber shading 
throughout, and at the heart is a bewitching touch of salmon pink. 
If I might have but six Peonies Solange would surely be one — maybe 
two! 

I want to call attention also to Gismonda. This Peony does not 
seem to be very well known, which is a pity, for it has much distinction 
as well as beauty. The flower is large, full, and deliciously fragrant. 
The individual petals are wide and deep, and the cut bloom lasts well. 
The colouring is a joy — the upper half of the flower being a deep 
flesh pink and the lower half palest rose. It is one of my favorite 
Peonies and I am increasing the number in my garden as rapidly as 
may be. 

Grandiflora is, of course, well known, and its extreme lateness 
gives it an added value. Its bending stems, which are a draw-back 
in the garden, make it a most graceful and amenable subject for use 
as a cut flower. In disbudding Grandiflora it is a good plan to leave 
one lateral bud in addition to the terminal. Then when the terminal 
has expanded into a large soft mass of exquisite pink, the lateral bud 
is beside it, half-grown, graceful and of a fine elongated form. 

Mireille is a white peony of exceptional beauty. The plant is tall 
and robust, with strong stems and large dark green leaves. The flower 
is creamy white, with a rosy tint in the centre for a short time after 
opening. The petals are of such a wonderful substance and so charm- 
ingly arranged that the bloom seems to have been carved out of solid 
ivory. Mireille does best in cool and cloudy weather. It dislikes heat, 
and fails in unseasonably warm weather. 

Milton Hill is one of the world's great Peonies. The flower is 
large (I have had blooms eight inches in diameter on plants a year 
old) and the petals are well arranged. The colour is a very rich, soft 
pink, which excels the colour of both La France and Venus in loveli- 
ness. The plant is shapely, the foliage beautiful and unusual. Milton 
Hill shares with Mireille a dislike for unseasonably hot weather. 

For the sake of brevity I have placed only short descriptions after 
the names of the other ten peonies on the list. All are valuable addi- 
tions to the garden. 

PINK 

1. Albert Crousse (Crousse) 

Medium light pink, large and full, tall, free bloomer. 

2. Gismonda (Crousse) 

Two shades of light pink, very fragrant, excellent for cutting. 

J. Grandiflora (Richardson) 

Palest pmk, large flat bloom, very late, especially fine for cutting. 

17 



4- Mme. Boulanger (Crousse) 

Large full flower. Glossy pink. Beautiful and inexpensive. 

5. Milton Hill (Richardson) 

Large bloom of soft flesh colour. Beautiful form. Very fine for cutting. 

6. Sarah Bernhardt (Lemoine) 

Large well-formed flower of moderately deep pink. Good for both garden and cutting. 

WHITE 

1. Avalanche (Crousse) 

Milk white, compact, fragrant flower. Very free bloomer. Valuable for both garden and cut- 
ting. 

2. Baroness Schroeder (Keiway) 

Globular flower of large white petals, tinged with palest pink. On established plants this is a 
wonderful flower. Garden and cutting. 

J, Couronne d'Or (Caiot) 

Fine inexpensive white. Full flower with ring of golden stamens around centre tuft of petals. 
Good for both garden and cutting. 1 

4. Marie Lemoine (Caiot) 

Massive, compact, ball-shaped white of great beauty. Not a tree bloomer, but very fine and 
especially valuable because of its lateness. 

5. Mireille (Crousse) 

Fragrant, massive, compact white. Tall, handsome plant, foliage particularly large and strik- 
ing. 

6. Solange (Lemoine) 

Cream white, tinted amber and salmon. Most unusual and exquisite colouring. Compact 
and high-built bloom. Distractingly lovely. No mere description can do it justice. 

RED 

1. Delachei (Delache) 

Good shade of red. Free bloomer, good for massing, inexpensive. 

2. Grover Cleveland (Terry) 

Large compact flower. Good shade of red, and valuable because late. Not, however, one of 
the freest bloomers. 

J. Rubra Superba (Richardson) 

Clear dark red. Very late. Valuable for colour and season, but slow to get established and 
not a free bloomer on young plants. 



Iris in the Hardy Border 

Anna Gilman Hill, Garden Club of Easthampton 

The Fleur de Lys has at last come into its own in America and 
with the starting of the American Iris Society on March 29th it takes 
its rightful place with the Peony, Dahlia, Carnation, Rose, Gladiolus, 
Sweet Pea and Chrysanthemum, all of which have had their own 
Societies of enthusiastic admirers. We never expected to "root for 
the German Flag", but we have to blame Linnaeus for our seemingly 
verbal disloyalty while the Peace Treaty is unsigned, for it was he who 

18 



in 1743 named the Fleur de Lys of France the German Flag. We 
cannot go back on the Father of Botany, but we can remember that 
only three or four varieties are correctly classed as Iris Germanica, 
mainly the early purple and its varieties. The other 799 species (and 
57 genera) are from Asia and America, while most of the Hybrids 
came from England and France. 

In American Country Life for June, 19 19, there was an excellent 
monograph on the Iris by Mr. B. Y. Morrison; illustrated in colors 
and covering just the ground that we are all so anxious to study. The 
Classification of the Hybrid Iris in Mr. Bertram H. Farr's catalogue, 
pages 3 to 18, are most helpful to the bewildered Iris student. In 
"In My Garden", by Eden Phillpots, the chapters on Iris are es- 
pecially helpful, while for the advanced Iriser, Mr. Wister's papers 
during the past summer in the English Garden Magazine on new Iris 
in the English and French Nurseries will be found alluring Ipiough 
tantalizing on account of Quarantine 37. 

The high water mark in Iris literature is reached in the large 
work on Iris (illustrated in color) by Mr. W. R. Dykes, who carried 
out the collecting and hybridizing begun by the late Sir Michael 
Foster. We dehght to see that in the catalogue of Miss Grace Sturte- 
vant's Iris Garden at Wellesley, Mass., she has used the Ridgeway 
Color Chart in the description of the standards and falls of her seedlings. 
It is hoped that the Iris Society will follow this method of identi- 
fication which makes ordering Iris from a catalogue a certain joy to 
the colour gardener. Nevertheless it is much safer, if you care for 
exact color, to go yourself to the nurseries at Iris time. May 15 th to 
June 15 th, and bring the plants home while in bloom. 

Mr. Clutton-Brock in his inimitable Studies in Gardening says: 
"There is something strange and remote in even so familiar a flower 
as the Iris Germanica. Its beauty, compared with the Rose, is like 
the beauty of the sea compared to the beauty of the earth. Every- 
thing about it seems mutable and unsubstantial, as if made for en- 
chantment and might vanish by the same means. Iris colors are 
liquid or cloudy. It has got its very name from a Beauty of the Sky. " 
"Leaves of the Iris are of lasting beauty; their upright growth hold 
a planting together. " 

German Iris are best planted in long drifts in front of feathery 
flowers, such as Hesperis; or in clumps in the center of the border 
associated with complimentary plants (i. e., those whose form of 
growth are a distinct contrast to the upright lines of Iris leaves) 
or in irregular oblong groups on the lawn, the colours kept distinct, 
the darker, taller varieties placed in the rear groups. In the border 
they should have low growing, later flowering plants in front of them, 

19 



such as Nepeta, Delphinium Chinensis, Oenothera, Garden Pinks 
(Dianthus phimarius), Dicentra spectabilis, Iberis, Myosotis, Sedums 
or Violas. Iris keep their handsome foliage so late that they do not need 
to be hidden back of taller plants. Phlox is the best perennial to plant 
near Iris for continuous bloom in the border. Given these two val- 
uable plants in their varieties you can. keep your border in fine bloom 
from April until frost. They make their debut with Iris Putnila 
Lutea and Phlox Suhulata Lilacea; or Iris Pumila Caerulea and 
Alyssum Saxatile {Sutton's Silver Queen) on April 15th and the finale 
would be when Phlox {Jean Barth) and the second blooming of Phlox 
(Antonin Mercie), are cut down by frost in October. 

The predominating colour in a bed of mixed Iris, especially the 
Hybrids, is a curious tan-mauve, Hke the duller parts of a fire opal. 
Beautiful as it is, it does not register in the border. We find the best 
planters use the clearer Iris in contrasting colours, duets or trios, 
keeping the greyish- white, lilac and purple varieties together; and 
the yellows, bronze-yellows, pink and cream white by themselves. 

Iris Phcata, such as Madame Chereau, though beautiful in detail 
does not look well with other Iris. Their tone is too diffused; they 
are best by themselves or with strong Oriental Poppies, or used as 
cut flowers. The Squalens Group of Iris with standards of copper, 
bronze or fawn, also do not look well in the ordinary border unless 
very sparingly used and always with a clump of good yellow, such 
as Aurea or Sherwin Wright beside them. Never place the Squalens 
Iris near the cool purple or lavenders. Fortunately Iris Germanica 
thrives on a dry hillside, bank or terrace. I find I have best results 
in planting or dividing it immediately after flowering. Divide every 
three years. On page 45 in Miss Jekyll's Color in the Flower Garden, . 
there is a description of a border of Iris and Lupine, and a planting 
plan which brings out this very point; it is well worth minute study. 

Japanese Iris is not an ideal plant for the borders; it should have 
a special bed of its own, a httle sunken, so as to hold the summer 
moisture. They can have a dressing of loam or litter in the very late 
fall to fill up the depression and keep the water from setthng about 
the rhizomes, but this is seldom necessary except in moist places. 
Wet in summer and dry in winter is the plea of the Kaempferi. The 
clear-toned selfs are important for the border from the garden col- 
ourist's point of view. Therefore we must use a few clumps of them 
for July blooming in front of Thalictrum or Delphinium Moerheimi. 
The deep blue of the Japanese Iris is too blue to look well with the 
average July border where there are generally so many milky purples; 
it needs white with it or pale yellow. As it is almost impossible to 
find the shade of colour you want from the catalogues I would suggest 

20 



that you go in July to the Nursery and select some fine three-petal 
white, some clear violet, a deep plum and its pink-plum mate, and 
the white one with the mauve halo. These will go well in the border, 
if fed and watered. The following are some good combinations for 
Japanese Iris: 

Plum Iris Kaempferi with Pink Canterbury Bells, Mauve Opium 
Poppies and Lavender Candytuft. (Keep all Violas, Campanulas 
and purples away from this group.) 

Blue Iris Kaempferi with White Annual or Perennial Lupine, 
Yellow Iceland or Cahfornia Poppies in front. 

Digitalis Grandiflora (Yellow Foxgloves), Bella Donna Seedling 
Delphinium with purple Iris Kaempferi, Veronica Incana in front. 

Clematis Jackmanii and white Rose {Gardenia) with a planting 
of white and deep purple Iris Kaempferi below it. 

Miss Jekyll says on Page 3 in her Color in the Flower Garden, 
that " to devise living pictures with simple well known flowers is the 
best thing to do in gardening. " The following are pictures from my 
neighbor's gardens, as well as my own, all using Iris Germanica as 
the main subject. 

I know a border 10 feet by 60 feet where the Iris are planted in 
irregular bias bands from back to front, (three feet between the bands) 
first, German Iris in pale blues for June, then Japanese Iris in sim- 
ilar shades for July, again German in purple and three feet further 
Japanese, in purple. The pattern is repeated by two white, a yellow 
and a plum band, then large bronze Germans at the end. Between 
these bands are generous clumps of Phlox, Anchusa, Campanulas, 
Delphinium, HemerocalUs,etc.,but the character is given to the border 
by the irregular bands of flowers and foHage sloping away from the 
grass path, and which are decorative, whether in or out of bloom. 
It is the framework of the border. Note — See paragraph on ''Frame- 
work in Design," on Page 189, Studies in Gardening, by Clutton- 
Brock. 

Another Iris picture, I know, is a curving double terrace under 
some low hanging branches of Dogwood and Elm trees. The upper 
terrace is planted with blue and violet shades of Iris, mostly the 
PaUida and bluish Neglecta groups, with some standard Bechtel's 
Crabs among them. The lower terrace is planted with pale yellow 
Iris Flavescens, Iris Aurea, the pink Her Majesty, pink and rose 
Princess Victoria Louise and Jacquesiana, maroon, with standards 
of the French lilac, Ludwig Spathe. Later in the year the terraces 
have Phlox and late annuals which do not disturb the Iris. 

A group of tall white Foxgloves and Dropmore Anchusa that I 
know has associated with it blue and white Lupine and white Spirea 

21 



Aruncus, while in the foreground are groups of tall Iris Aurea and 
the late violet and purple Iris Trojana. 

Wiegelia Rosea, the well known shrub, is good, associated with 
Pallida Dalmatica and Cerastium as a border. 

A grouping of Iris Mrs. Neuhronner (warm yellow). Iris In- 
nocenza (cream white) and Heuchera Richardson and yellow Violas 
sings with its unusal coloring. 

A background of Amsonia (Tabernaemontanum) and Bleeding 
Hearts {Dicentra Spectabilis), with Iris Queen of May (Cattleya pink) 
and Iris Innocenza, and border of white Violas is one of our yearly 
delights. 

Anchusa Opal (pure hght blue) and Iris FlaDcscens and Iris In- 
nocenza are a thrilling combination. 

Thahctrum foHage is particularly beautiful with Iris, and clumps 
of Columbine, especially the late flowering Chrysantna, are most 
valuable neighbors for Iris. 

Iris Queen of May (Cattleya pink) with Iris Flavescens (pale 
canary) bordered by Phlox Didaricata Laphami and Alyssum Saxatile 
{Siher Queen). 

Other good combinations are: 

Iris Rose Unique (Farr Hybrid .75) with Kochii, plum-colored, 
both early. Keep these away from the common purple Iris. 

Clematis Recta (the foam white bush Clematis, blooming in 
June and July) with the latest Iris, such as Trojana or blue Iris 
Siherica or Black Prince. 

Iris Orientalis Snow Queen (an entirely separate species of Iris) 
with Bella Donna Seedling Larkspurs. 

Iris Pumila, Snow Cup, in front of Gesnerianna TuHps. 

For the beginner in Iris collecting we have compiled this an- 
thology of the best varieties of the older less expensive Iris. These 
range from $1.50 to $2.50 a dozen, except where noted, whereas 
often the rare hybrids are justly priced at $10.00 or $25.00 apiece. 
But with Iris, the most beautiful are not always the most expen- 
sive and no hybrid has ever been found more superb and yet ethe- 
real than the true Pallida Dalmatica. 

GARDEN IRIS 

Best Pinkish: 

Her Majesty, 24 inches high, nearest pink $ .35 

Queen ofMay^z " " as 

Wyotnissing, creamy white and pink 75 

Rose Unique, early 75 

Pinkish Lavender: 

Lohengrin, tall 50 

Best Purple: 

A/wr^at, early, 30 inches high 25 

Best Dark and Light Violet: 

Crusader, deep bluish violet (Ridgeway Color Chart) 1.25 

Orijlamme, 42 inches in height (Bobbink & Atkins) r . 00 

22 



Best White: 

La Neige and Kashmir are veiy expensive and rare. 

Innocema, pure white, unmarked, yellow beard. 

Mrs. Darwin, white purple veins, 24 inches. 

Florentina, grey white. 
Best Yellow: 

Aurea, 2 feet (Clear yellow, unmarked) 25 

Mrs. Newbronner 35 

Shermin Wright 50 

Flavescens, exquisite pale canary 25 

Best Yellow marked with Rose: 

Princess Victoria Louise 50 

Darius, 20 inches 25 

Best Yellow and Maroon: 

Maori King, i& inches 25 

Best Light Violet: 

Pallida Dalmatica, 40 inches high. The true variety hard to get, but all the Pallida Hybrids 
are desirable and among our finest Iris 35 

Cengialti, sweet scented, 24 inches 25 

The following table gives the approximate time of blooming and 
is taken from records kept at Beech Gate during the past i8 years. 

The date would be a fortnight later for Boston or the Eastern 
end of Long Island. 

April 15th JrisPumila 

April isth " Intermedia 

April 20th " Germanica Type {Early Purple) 

April 20th " Florentina 

May ist " G. Variety Kharput 

" " " Kochii 

" " " Flavescens 
May 15 th Most of the Hybrid Germanicas 

May 15 th " Tectorum 

" " Album 

" Chrysographes 
May 20th Earliest Pallida, Queen of May 

Iris G. Var. Mrs. H. Darwin 
May 30th " Pallida Dalmatica (blooms till June loth) 

June 1st " Eybrida, Crusader 

" " _ Trojana 

June 5th " Germanica, Var. Black Knight 

(this is the las, Germanica to bloom) 
June 10th " Sibirica 

" Alba 
June 15th " Orienlalis , Snow Queen 

" Xipium, Spanish Bulb 
July 4th to 24th " Kaempheri or Japanese Iris. 

Some or the Best Iris Nurseries in America 

Mrs. Dean's Iris Garden Peterson Nurseries 

Moneta, Cal. (near Los Angeles.) Chicago, 111. 

Bertram H. Farr Movilla Gardens 

Wyomissing, Pa. Haverford, Pa. 

The Fryer Iris Garden Rainbow Iris Gardens 

Mantorville, Minn. St. Paul, Minn. 

R. T. Jackson Shroup Iris Gardens 

Peterborough, N. H. Dayton, Ohio 

Mrs. P. J. MiUs r Wing Seed Co. 

Des Moines, Iowa Mechanicsburgh, Ohio 

Farquhar, Dreer, Bobbink & Atkins, Horsford, and Hicks all have superb collections. 



2Z 



The Evansia or Crested Iris 

Frances E, Cleveland, Rumson Garden Club 

It is surprising that the hardier forms of the Evansia Iris are not 
better known. They are quite distinct from Iris Germanica and have 
great decorative value, either in the hardy border or for in-door use. 

All the Evansias are distinguished by a jagged crest in place of 
the "Beard" of the Germanica type. 

There are only seven members of this family, four of which are 
well adapted for use in the hardy garden in the vicinity of New York; 
but Fimbriata (sometimes called Chinensis or Japonica) Milesii and 
Speculetrix must be avoided by the amateur who has no greenhouse. 

The useful Evansias from the hardy-gardener's point of view are 
(and let me pause to urge everyone to try a few of these, for I know that 
once established in the borders they will win their spurs against all 
comers) : 

Iris Tectorum — the roof Iris of China, where it grows on the thatches 
and blooms abundantly without any care, fertilizers or much moisture. 
The flower is a beautiful violet, the falls mottled with a darker shade. 
The 'Xrest" stands high and is white, spotted with purple, while 
both standards and falls are dehcately crimped or fluted. 

Iris Tectorum Alba — a marvelous vision; its crest flecked with 
gold. Both of these come readily from seed, the white always coming 
true to type. It would be interesting to cross these two, trying for 
the intermediate shades of lavender and mauve. They should be 
planted in the front of the border or in front of a hedge or windbreak 
of some kind where they are perfectly hardy and very floriferous, 
blooming about the first of June. 

Iris Gracilipes — a miniature plant from Japan and resembles the 
large Japanese Iris in its flattened shape but the flowers are only about 
two inches across, of a deUcate pinkish Hlac and with the characteristic 
crest on the falls. The slender grass-like leaves grow nine inches to a 
foot in height, and the thin flower stalk is wiry and strong. The whole 
plant is dehghtf ully graceful and commands admiration from all who 
see it in my garden. The rhizomes are so small and frail that it should 
be transplanted only immediately after flowering (June 15 th) so 
that it may become well estabHshed before frost. It prefers a cool 
position that is shaded from the sun for part of the day, and a fairly 
light soil. 

Iris Cristala and Iris Lacustris — both natives of North America, 
growing wild in damp gravel beside the streams in the Central States. 
Lacustris is merely a dwarfer copy of Cristata. They spread rapidly 

24 



and in my garden are planted in dry sandy soil, flourishing and pro- 
ducing in May quantities of lilac flowers 2 inches across, the whole 
plant only four inches in height. Although it is a most dainty Uttle 
plant, it has not the decorative value of the first two, Tectorum and 
Gracilipes. 

Any one who will try these exquisitely beautiful plants will be 
amply rewarded by their new friends in the Iris family. A few blos- 
soms of Gracilipes or Tectrum Alba in a shallow bowl on the table will 
excite the keenest admiration and wonder. 

Iris Tectorum and Tectorum Alba can be obtained from Bertram 
H. Farr, Wyomissing, Penna.; and Sunnybrook Iris Farm, Eaton 
Town, N. J. 

Iris Gracilipes from Henry Dreer, Philadelphia, Sunnybrook 
Farm, and Clarence Lown, Poughkeepsie, N. Y, 

Iris Cristata and Iris Lacustris from Charles H. Totty, Madison, 
N. J., Dreer, Farr, and Sunnybrook Farm. 



Exhibition of Natxire Studies of the 

Chicago Chapter of the Wild Flower 

Preservation Society of America 

Frances K. Hutchinson, Lake Geneva Garden Club 

The Chicago Chapter of the Wild Flower Preservation Society 
of America held its Second Annual Exhibition of Nature Studies at 
the Art Institute from the 6th to the 22nd of January. These studies 
were collected by members and friends of the Society and were so 
varied in character that most persons entering the East Galleries 
found something stimulating and enjoyable. 

It was amusing to see the casual \dsitor with that perfunctory 
"Museum" look on his face, which hundreds of pictures almost 
invariably produce, stop at the entrance in amused surprise as he 
exclaimed, "Wild Flowers!" Yes, Wild Flowers, in photographs, in 
water colors, in etchings, in blue prints! He or she discovered the so- 
called weeds of childhood, smiled at special favorites, read with glee 
oftimes forgotten names and stood in amazement before the pictorial 
possibiHties of the dandehon or the tumble-weed. 

An appreciative visitor from Texas remarked; "Why, they're 
mighty pretty. We've got lots of wild flowers in Texas, but I never 
paid no attention to 'em. " Upon being questioned as to their names 
she said, "I don't know their names; they're just wild." Before she 

25 



left the galleries she had half promised to compile a list for us of the 
Texan Wild Flowers. 

But not only wild flowers did our new acquaintances find but 
the seeds and seed-pods, rare revelations in beauty and variety of 
form. What more extraordinary than the insect galls? Or more 
curious than the woody fungi? Mushrooms in photographs and 
water colors vied with the actual spore-prints in interest. Grasses 
and sedges and rushes, mounted as if summer breezes still Hngered 
among them, attracted true Nature lovers. Mosses and lichens de- 
lighted many a woodsman and enhghtened many a child. 

One morning a rather rough, middle-aged man stood so long before 
the mosses that one of the hostesses asked tentatively: "Would you 
like a Ust of the exhibits?" He turned and demanded: "Are there 
any trees around Chicago?" "Oh! yes," was the answer, and a map 
of our newly acquired and proudly cherished Forest Preserve was 
displayed. "Naw, I mean timber. I'm in the lumber business and I 
go through the mountains huntin' for good timber. That's where I 
see all this stuff," waving his hand toward the mosses and hchens. 
"What did you get up this show for?" he asked. "Do you Hke it?" 
"Sure." "Well, perhaps that's one reason. Why do you Hke it?" 
"Oh! I don't know," as his gaze wandered from flower to bird, from 
berry to butterfly, "it just makes you feel sort of good." 

One constant source of dehght was the Automatic Stereopticon, 
showing wild flowers in color where they grew, by the stream, beside 
the pool, in the woods and open meadows. As each slide was labeled, 
the children unconsciously read the name as the flower appeared 
before them. Standing spell-bound before these ghmpses into the 
woodland a handsome youth exclaimed, "Is this exhibition going 
to New York?" Somewhat dazed by the audacity of such a thought 
the hostess for the day murmured that she believed not. The boy's 
face fell. " I did so want my mother to see it. She loves wild flowers. " 

The butterflies and moths were always the centre of an admiring 
group, while the collection of Insects loaned by Dr. Hancock with his 
famous pink Katydid, gave the children a thrill that they will not 
forget. 

For the children came by scores to see the Nature Studies and 
asked intelhgent questions and planned intensive searches into Na- 
ture's secrets during the coming summer. 

Mrs. Moffatt's remarkable photographs of spiders and their homes 
was supplemented by a talk illustrated with sUdes one Saturday after- 
noon in Fullerton Hall. 

Mr. Patterson of Dayton, Ohio, donated another Saturday after- 
noon entertainment for the children, in which was included that 

26 



marvellous series of moving pictures depicting the growth of the seed 
in the ground, the groping of the rootlets, the rising of the stem into 
the air, the developement of the leaves and the exquisite unfolding 
of the flower itself. 

There was a friendly atmosphere in that pretty East Gallery with 
its baskets of berries and plumed grasses, its comfortable benches, 
its long table at one end where chairs and books of reference invited 
a moment's repose. Here through the courtesy of the many Garden 
Clubs and kindred organizations in and around Chicago, there was 
always some one to welcome visitors, to hunt up information in the 
big encyclopedias or to answer questions of all kinds. 

The Wild Flower Preservation Society is making plans for a larger 
and even more interesting exhibition next year. News of any available 
collections may be sent to the secretary- treasurer, Mrs. Charles S. 
Eaton, 5744 Kimbark Ave., Chicago. 

Book Reviews 

Reviewing Committee 

Mrs. William K. Wallbridge, Chairman Mrs. Henry A. Prince 

Mrs. S. Edson Gage Mrs. Charles H. Stout 

Mrs. T. H. B. McKnight 

(All books marked (*), whether new or old, are among those con- 
sidered suitable for a permanent Hbrary.) 

^Studies in Gardening by A. Clutton-Brock, with preface and 
notes by Mrs. Frances King. Published by Charles Scribner's Sons, 
New York. Price $2 . 50. 

Mention of this book has already been made in the Bulletin, but 
its merit is so great that the Literary Committee has thought best to 
review it again with the recommendation that it be included in the 
list of very valuable books on gardening. 

The Studies appeared originally in the form of letters to the London 
Times and should be read, or rather studied, as a collection of essays 
on widely differing subjects, covering very fully the field of flower 
gardening. 

The book is unillustrated and the person who thinks of a gardening 
book as something to look at rather than to study, will find the 
Studies rather stiff reading, but as Mrs. King says "for those who 
think about gardening, within these pages is matter for consideration. " 

Anyone planning a new garden should read the two chapters on the 
"Theory of Garden Design" and the chapter on "The House and 
Garden". 

The author is an enthusiastic rock gardener and five of the chapters 
are devoted to this fascinating subject. He describes in detail the 

27 



' 50 best rock plants, " and even though all of these may not be hardy 
here, comparison of this Hst with the catalogues of American nurseries 
specializing in rock plants would give a fair indication of those which 
can be grown in our climate. 

A chapter each is devoted to Campanulas, Columbines and Pinks, 
the best varieties being given. 

The chapter on LiHes is inspiring. 

The causes for our failures with many of the rarer sorts are pointed 
out; a lifetime of experience with these difficult and lovely flowers 
is put at our disposal. 

The "Best Method of Raising Perennials from Seed," "How to 
Garden in Heavy Soils," "The Right Use of Flowering Shrubs," 
are some of the subjects treated. 

In whatever form of gardening one is interested he (or she) will 
find in this noteworthy book helpful and interesting information. 

G.S.W. 

Spring Flowers at Behoir Castle by W. H. Divers. Longmans, 
Green Co., London. Price 5/ net. 

A valuable book written by the head gardener to the Duke of 
Rutland. It is filled with suggestions for color combinations which 
have been tried out successfully by him, and each plant mentioned 
has a photograph to itself on cultivation and propagation. 

There are numerous "tricks of the trade" described which would 
be of great help to the inexperienced amateur. It is just such knack 
which saves many a precious plant from ignominious death. 

Annuals and Biennials by Gertrude Jekyll. "Country Life 
Library." Price $3. 

This excellent little book fills a long felt want. We have many 
books on hardy gardens; but on this subject there seems to be very 
little written. 

The first few chapters deal with the uses of various types of annuals, 
colour schemes for planting, and general directions for cultivation. 

The second part is a condensed encyclopedia of varieties, with 
cultural directions in detail; and the third is a series of charts group- 
ing heights, colour, plants for shade and sun, and for greenhouse 
culture. 

English it is, however, and we who sow our balsam and celosia 
seed in the hot sunny border, always sure of bloom from them, must 
smile at seeing their names listed among the greenhouse plants. 

Perhaps as a companion to Miss Jekyll's book, it would be well 
to have a new book by H. H. Thomas, called "The Book of Hardy 
Flowers, ^^ (Funk and Wagnalls. Price $3.) 

28 



It is a splendid encyclopedia of 500 pages, with 3 1 coloured plates, 
nearly two hundred photographs, and endless drawings. The subjects 
include ornamental trees and shrubs, herbaceous plants, bulbs and 
hardy annuals — in fact, all the growing things which make the garden 
beautiful, giving cultural directions for each. 

At this season, when the catalogues come in containing such 
glowing descriptions of everything, it is well to have such a book as 
this at one's elbow to fortify before ordering or discarding. 

There is another value to this book. Though it measures 6x9, 
and is more than three inches thick, the edition I have weighs but 
two pounds ! H. M. S . 

"Last Words: A Final Collection of Stories^' by Juliana Horatio 
Ewing. Little, Brown & Company, New York. (50 cents.) 

We are glad the Literary Committee on Book Reviews permits 
both the discovery of new delights, and the awakening of those dor- 
mant. 

To garden lovers whose whimsical humour has not been too heavily 
mulched by the dead leaves of fretting detail we recommend for spring 
inspiration this old book, especially two narratives in the collection, 
"Mary's Meadow" and "Letters from a Little Garden." It will 
require a wise adult to transcend the triumphant unselfishness of 
the little maiden in "Mary's Meadow" who patterned her gardening 
after that of the old English herbalist, John Parkinson. He it was 
who planted his favorites outside his own demesne "in the wildest 
and least frequented spots," that he might "enjoy beforehand and 
in imagination the pleasure and surprise which the solitary stroller 
will experience when he meets with these beautiful flowers and delic- 
ious fruits. " 

Mary finds also that old John evolved a private Wild Flower 
Society, and she acts upon one sentence from his writings which is 
worth quoting: 

"The Honisucle that groweth wilde in every hedge, although it be 
very sweete, yet doe I not bring it into my garden, but let it reste 
in his owne place to serve their senses that travel! by it or have no 
garden. " 

To Mary's title of "Travelers' Joy" given her by acclamation we 
might worthily aspire by more lavish giving, and less selfish taking. 

"Letters from a Little Garden" might be called "Letters from 
a Temperate Zone, " so restfully do they breathe patience, content- 
ment with small achievement, and a dignified leisure in awaiting the 
same. 

It will be of interest to Garden Clubs to know that the Parkinson 

29 



Society formed in England in 1884 had its origin in these stories and 
names among its objects "to search out and cultivate old garden 
flowers which have become scarce; to plant waste places with hardy- 
flowers; to try and prevent the extermination of rare wild flowers as 
well as of garden treasures. " 

Mildred C. Prince. 

The Genus Iris. By W. R. Dykes. England: Cambridge Uni- 
versity Press. 1913. New York: C. S. McKinney Co., 5 Nassau 
St., N. Y. 245 pp. iij5^xi7JE^, haK morocco. $27. 50. Transportation 
extra. 

An authoritative monograph on the Iris is welcomed by all 
garden enthusiasts and particularly by lovers of this genus of plants, 
conspicuous for its beauty and broad range of usefulness in the garden 
picture. 

Mr. Dykes has spared no pains in gathering into available form 
all known facts of history, distribution and cultural requirements of 
the many species. 

The forty-eight life-sized colored plates are reproduced from or- 
iginals, drawn with delicacy and faithfulness to form and color, from 
the living plants in his own garden. 

The text is packed full of information both for the botanist and the 
grower of Irises. 

In the words of one of our prominent garden editors, " the Iris is 
just getting its foot over the threshold of American gardens and, 
because of its wide adaptabiUty, is, in many ways, I believe, destined 
to become one of the great American garden flowers. " 

No Hbrary in gardening communities, or comprehensive collection 
of garden books should be without this book. 

E.P.McK. 

In response to a request for the titles of Miss Gertrude Jekyll's 
works, the following list is given: 

Annuals and Biennials $3. 00 

Color Schemes in the Flower Garden 6. 50 

Garden Ornament 32. 00 

Gardens for Small Country Houses (Jekyll & Weaver). 

Now being reprinted. 

Children &" Gardens 3 • 00 

Wall and Water Gardens 6. 00 

The above are pubHshed by Charles Scribner's Sons, New York. 
Home and Garden 2 . 50 

30 



Wood and Garden 2 . 50 

English Gardens (Jekyll & Elgood) I5- 00 

The above are published by Longmans, Green & Co. , New York. 
Flower Decoration in the House, 6/- 
Liliesfor English Gardens, 8/6 
Roses for English Gardens (Gertrude and Mawley Jekyll) 12/6. 

The above are published in England and may be imported 
through booksellers. The prices given are the former EngHsh prices 
which would probably have to be doubled to arrive at the cost here. 

Two ver>' interesting publications dealing with California flowers 
are as follows: Professor Wickson's "California Garden Flowers," 
pubUshed by the Pacific Rural Press, San Francisco; and a pamphlet 
to be had from the Department of Horticulture, University of CaH- 
fomia (Berkeley), entitled "Annotated List of the Wild Flowers of Cali- 
fornia" by Professor P. B. Kennedy. 



Departments 

It has been a bitter fact to the "Mis" of the ^Miscellany that the 
printers' strike has delayed most of the Seed Catalogues. The cold 
winter evenings have not been enlivened by the great game of 
"3 pkts. of No. 2773 ©.IS = .45." Indeed there has been little 
of this exquisite pleasure to help you through an attack of the flu. 
However, Farquhar's Catalogue appeared this morning just as we are 
going to press and the others are on their way. Meanwhile it has 
given us an opportunity to become better acquainted with some new 
friends, as there seems to have been no printers' strike in England 
or California. 

We have learnt that most of our pansy seed is grown in Oregon, 
where the climate is similar to England;. and that the seed of the 
marvelous new Petunias, all ruffled and yellow throated and true to 
color, are grown for the w^holesale trade in California. The dry long 
summers of Lower California are ideal for thorough ripening of flower 
seed, which is getting to be a great industr}'' there. 

The EngUsh Catalogues are safe hunting grounds for us if we do 
not let ourselves be carried away by the pictures of Godetia, Clarkia, 
Calceolarias and Schizanthus which thrive near the Gulf Stream 
but which cannot be expected to flourish here in the average garden. 
Even the Nemesias, which do moderately well for us if started in a 
hot bed, pricked off into flats and set out in June, bloom for such a 
short time under our broiling sun that they are hardly worth the 

31 



trouble while we have the new Verbenas, Large-Flowered Phlox 
Drummondi and Diener's Ruflfled Petunias to take their place. 

But the Single Asters, (Sutton's Mame Gem, for instance) and 
the double delicate Pink Silenes, Annual Lupines, Statice Bonduelliy 
and the Blue Marguerite {Agatha Coelestis) are all English annuals 
that thrive with us, and are a little difi&cult to obtain. 

As for the seeds of choice perennials, Quarantine 37 has made it 
necessary for us to take the long, long road towards replenishing our 
war-worn borders. I hope that the nurserymen of America are 
working up a stock of the choicest varieties of the old French and 
Enghsh Garden Perennials, and that they will not present them to us 
as "Smith's Colossal New Giant Lupine" or "Schneider's Favorite 
Ncoelty Holly-hock Intincible" when the right name is Lupinus 
Arboreus and Althea Ficifolia. 

But seriously, this year we should have our perennial seed bed 
well stocked with the following, the seeds of which are hard to get in 
America: Aconitum Wilsoni; Alyssum Saxatile (Sutton's Silver 
Queen) Aquilegia {Long Spurred Hybrids and Munstead Giant White) 
Campanula Persicijolia "Telham Beauty"; Campanula Lactifiora; 
Campanula Grandiflora; True blue Catananche Caerulea; Delphinium; 
Lunaria Biennis, the White Variety only; Verbascum; Primrose, 
Munstead Variety; and Althea Ficifolia, which is used so much by 
Miss Jekyll. 

Conard & Jones' Catalogue has come and on page 49, after all the 
alluring Roses are listed, you will find a little "Seed Germination 
Table " which tells you at a glance how long it will be before you can 
expect to see your Httle seed friends' heads popping up through the soil. 
I have not seen such a table in a seed catalogue for years and it is a 
real help, for Bailey's Encyclopedia is far too large a volume to take 
out to the seed bed. 

We find a note in our Garden Diary dated last June which says: 
" Remember to order extra packages of the following for filling up bare 
spaces in the Hardy Border: AgeratumMexicanum; Alyssum; Pink 
Balsams; Calendula Meteor; Annual Baby's Breath; Candytuft." 
All these can be sowed on May first after the border is in order, in 
places they are to flower, simply thinning out if too thick. 

Rafi&a, too, has felt theH. C. L. Get a pound of it and a package 
of Rainbow green dye. After having soaked the Raffia first, boil it in 
an ordinary clothes boiler. It will make an inconspicuous dyeing ma- 
terial and does not come off on your hands. 

Every gardener has his or her favorite tool. Mine is the Eureka 
Weeder. Given that and a Ladies'-size Spade, $1 . 50, and the French 

32 



shears, one should be able, after the ground is once dug, to do all that 
is seemly in a Flower Garden, for I hold that no woman over 38 
should mow the grass, rake, hoe or edge paths. The ideal person to 
assist the lady of 38 is a small boy, biddable and bossable, freckled, 
red haired and Irish, if obtainable. 

Don't forget to put out your fresh Wren houses early. 

Anna Oilman Hill, 

960 Park Ave,, New York. 
Mrs. Robert C. Hill, 

960 Park Ave., New York. 

Our members are still sending in names of Nurserymen and Seeds- 
men who have served them satisfactorily but whose names did not 
appear in the Hst published in the January Bulletin. It often happens 
that in sending out wedding invitations, the nearest friend's names 
are left out because they are so near, so it happened that some of our 
tried and true Garden Friends were omitted from the first list. 



The Garden Club of America List of 
Nurseries and Seedsmen 

(continued) 
(Subject to addition and revision) 

NURSERIES 
Kelsey, Harlan P. Thuriow & Sons, 

Salem, Massachusetts. West Newbury, Mass. 

Rea, F. J. (phlox) 
Norwood, Mass. 

FLOWER SEEDS 

Stumpp & Walter, 
30 Barclay Street, 
New York City. 

DAHLIA SPECIALISTS 

Huntington, Ralph Sloco'ibe J. H. 

Painesville, Ohio. 555 Towsend Avenue, 

New Haven, Conn. 
Stillman, G. L. 
Westerly, R. I. 

ROSE GROWERS (10 very reliable firms) 

Bobbink & Atkins, Dreer, Henry, 

Rutherford, N. J. Philadelphia, Pa. 

R. & J. Farquhar, How.\rd Rose CoiiPANY, 

Boston, Mass. Hermit, Cal. 

Howard & Smtih, Peterson, George A. 

Los Angeles, Cal. Cromwell, Conn. 

Peterson, George A. Storrs & Harrison, 

Fairlawn, N. J. Painesville, Ohio. 

Totty, Charles H. Walsh, M. H. 

Madison, N. J. Wood's Hole, Mass. 

The following questions and answers in a recent copy of the Plant 
English Garden interested me deeply: Material 

33 



Delphiniums I should be glad of advice on the following problems relating to 

the cultivation of Delphiniums. 

(i) The vexed question as to the division of the plant at stated 
intervals. Some say that it should, as a matter of routine, be divided 
not less often than every three years; while others claim that so long 
as the plant is doing well it should on no account be touched, 

(2) The question of degeneration of promising forms. I raise 
several hundred plants every year (or did before the war), and I was 
greatly impressed by the way that forms which bid fair in their second 
or third year to be of high value often degenerated and became so 
poor that they had to be scrapped. The plants in question had good 
soil, situation, and adequate watering and mulching. 

(3) The cause of etiolation of apparently good plants in a normal 
season and with proper treatment. 

(4) The use of superphosphate in soils that need it. This is, of 
course, a question of soil analysis. 

(5) The value of obtaining a new strain of choice seed from time to 
time, and not using your own seed year by year. 

(6) It is high time that Delphiniums were classified according to 
nature of growth. I divide mine into three classes. I used to have 
long descriptive labels, but now each selected plant is numbered by 
a permanent label and described in a record book, one copy of which 
is kept in the gardener's shed and the other in my library. One can 
watch the progress or degeneration by glancing at the yearly entries. 

A. W. R. 

[The question of the division of these plants at stated intervals is 
one that each cultivator must settle for himself. Divided not less 
often than every three years ensures a welcome increase of stock and, 
in the year following the replanting, that class of spike which provides 
the finest flowers. It does not follow, however, that a particularly 
good display may be not forthcoming by any other means. It often is. 
Only a few yards from where this note is penned there are, indeed, the 
evidences of it: plants of 8 feet high that have been in their position 
seven years without manure of any kind, organic, liquid or artificial, 
and none given even at planting-time, having made a glorious display. 
At the same time it has to be admitted that, in the case of soUtary 
plants, only soUtary clumps remain; whereas, if these had been divided 
and replanted three years ago, the clumps might easily have been 
increased four-fold, whUe their size to-day would hardly be less than 
those which had remained undivided twice as long. Moreover, it is 
'' the long undivided plant which suffers most when deterioration sets 
in, and which takes the longest time to recover. In short, periodical 

34 



division every tliree years or so is calculated to ensure the best com- 
bined results of \-igour and increase without the risk of deterioration 
eventually. It will, however, of necessity var>- with soils and other 
local conditions, also varieties. 

Regarding spring or autumn di\'i5ion of the plants, we say un- 
hesitatingly that spring is unquestionably the best tinu, taking the work 
in hand when new growth is 3 inches to 4 inches long, since it is at 
that time also that root acti\-ity starts anew and enables the plant 
early to regain its grip upon the soil. That being the best time for 
division, it follows, naturally, that spring is also the best time for trans- 
planting, and for the same reason. The Delphinium is, however, so 
hardy and accommodating that no harm ensues from early autumn 
planting, September and October being good for the work. Done at 
this time and the earUer the better, the plants have a chance of rooting 
afresh before colder times arrive; whereas, if late planted, few new 
root fibres are formed before spring, particularly in the hea\ier classes 
of soils. In aU planting we studiously keep the crowns of the plants 
2 inches to 3 inches below the ground, where they are safe from the 
attacks of the slug. 

As to degeneration, where a two year old or three year old seedling 
of earher promise shows that it is lacking in constitution, the only way 
is to discard it, since, without that good garden attribute, constitution, 
it would be useless wasting time upon it. As to the cause of disease, 
it is not easy to say. Inherent weakness, through constant inter- 
breeding, and the growing of the plants continuously within the limits 
of one set of conditions might in any case prove to be predisposing 
causes, while not all the varieties of any group would, be alike robust 
or capable of resisting disease. In this connection, too, doubtless 
the introduction of new variedes of known \-igour and consritution 
and the exclusive use only of such sorts in the raising of new varieties 
might abo prove helpful. Not a few of the finest modem Delphiniums 
have stunted or imperfectly finished spikes, the aforetime spire-hke, 
attenuated character with fiowers and buds to the tip being aU but lost, 
Laxer, looser-habited spikes with the fiowers on longer pedicels, so 
that each flower is seen to advantage, would also be far more efiective, 
both in the garden and in the picture, than many we see to-day, 
whose flower beauty is only hah' revealed because of the density of 
their setting upon the columnar spikes which bear them. In these and 
in other ways there is room for much needed improvements and ample 
scope for the raiser. Much more might be said on the subject, while 
attention might weU be directed to the raising of mildew-proof varieties 
of these plants. — E. HL Jexkts'S.] 

I have had the greatest success increasing mv stock of choice 



Bleeding 
Hearts 



varieties of delphinium by making cuttings from the second growth, 
in mid- summer. I do not care for the second blooming in the border; 
it is spindling at best, in my locaHty, and apt to be overshadowed by 
its more vigorous neighbors, so I am quite wilhng to sacrifice it for 
the sturdy plants it will give me the following year. After the glorious 
bloom has faded, I watch closely for the second shoots to appear. When 
they are from four to six inches long, I turn a gentle stream of water 
from the hose on the base of the plant until the earth is well puddled, 
then slip my finger^ into the mud around the base of one shoot, and 
pull and twist until it breaks off. According to the age and vigor of 
the parent plant, I take off one, two, or three shoots, never more. 
The shoots will root easily and quickly, if planted in a seed-bed in the 
shade, and never allowed to get dry, and the plants will be larger and 
thriftier the following season than if raised from seed, and of course, 
true to variety. 

I don't think I should ever have the courage to deliberately dig 
up a great plant of Delphinium, and chop it into bits, but this year 
that is what I must do to my precious Bleeding-heart, for, alas, since 
the tragic Quarantine has taken effect. Bleeding-heart has all but 
vanished from the nurseries. I searched in vain last fall for even a few 
plants, and so far this spring, in vain. One of our biggest nurserymen 
told me to tell everyone to dig up at least one old plant this spring 
when the shoots are three to four inches long, and separate it into as 
many pieces as there are shoots, plant the pieces where they may 
remain undisturbed for two years, when one will have fine large plants 
with which to replenish ones own border, or to share with those poor 
unfortunates who have none. 

I like to think of that wonderful return from Chusam, when Robert 
Fortune brought with him the Bleeding-heart, the pink Weigelia, 
and the parent of the Pompon Chrysanthemums. What an acquisition 
to the flora of the Western World. 



Phlox 
Drummondi 



According to Vilmorin a few colors of Phlox Drummondi are 
absolutely fixed, so that if you can get seed from a reHable firm, you 
can be sure that the following will come true to color: — 

White Red striped with white 

Chamois pink Purple striped with white 

Magenta Variegated 

Pink with white eye 

I have found the lovely IsabelUna so nearly true that the few 
plants that bloom off-color can easily be pulled out of the planting 
and never be missed. All Annual Phlox is so much more lovely if 

36 



sown where it is to bloom, rather than sown early in the frames, and 
transplanted. It is bushier, therefore has more terminal branches to 
bloom, and makes more of a color mass: it lasts longer in the garden, 
and because there is more of it there is more to pick, and oh! it is so 
lovely to pick! 



Many seeds of annuals are slow to germinate, usually because of 
their hard shell. Try treating them as many of us do our Sweet Peas, 
that is, put them to soak in water as hot as the hand can bear, and 
leave them over night in the water. It is especially effective with 
Portulaca, and my much loved Cleome. 

I liked so much last season a Zinnia new to me, named IsabelHna — 
a buff Zinnia, tall, and not too large. Seed may be got from Vaughan, 
31 West Randolph Street, Chicago, It is probably named from the 
Phlox Drummondi Isabelhna and is like the latter in hue, — a cream- 
color sHghtly tinged with brown; a dehghtful companion, naturally, 
for almost any other flower. 

Louisa Yeomans King. 



Seed Germi- 
nation 



Zinnia Isa- 
bellina 



For a bedding plant, where a rather low effect is desired, Torenias 
may be used to good advantage, Torenia Fourmeri grandiflora, the 
blue or speciosa, the "Bride" and the large flowering pink with white 
Torenia. Seed sown the middle or end of February wiU make good 
sized 2,y2 in. pot plants in flower by the time you are ready for planting 
out. Some growers sow later and grow the plants on in a hotbed, 
which is a good way, but you can grow them in the greenhouse, giving 
them the same treatment as a Petunia. 

Mrs. Charles W. Hubbard Louise S. Hubbard. 

Winnetka, 111, 



Torenia as a 

Bedding 

Plant 



Spray, Spray, 
Don't delay — 
Now is the time 
For sulphur and lime. 



Garden 
Pests and 
Remedies 



Do you know that four generations of San Jose scale insects are 
born in a summer, and that each female is, therefore, responsible for 
the production of about 3,200,000,000 others during the season? 

While trees are still dormant, scrape off loose bark and spray wnth 
a strong solution of hme suphur, 6% gallons to 50 gal. water. This 
is effective against oyster shell scale, walnut scale, scurfy scale, cherry 

37 



San Jose 
Scale 



scale, white-red spider, etc. Be careful to use this strength only 

while trees are dormant. For plants in foliage, i}4 gal. to 50 gal. water. 

In the last Bulletin advice was given for the treatment of (A) 

Biting and chewing insects. (B) Sucking insects. It may interest 

readers to know a few of each: 

Biting and Biting insects: Beetles (both adult and larva stages), grasshoppers 

Chewing a^^ crickets, caterpillars, saw-flies, pear slugs (adult and larva stages, 

Insects bees, etc. These can be killed by poisons taken into the stomach, of 

which there are arsenical poisons, hellebore, alkaloid poisons. 

Sucking insects: Plant lice, scale insects, leaf hoppers and all true 
bugs. These must be killed by contact sprays, which have corroding 
action, and which penetrate into the breathing pores. Some of these 
are lime sulphur, oil emulsions, nicotine solution, caustic soda, carboUc 
acid poisons, pyrethreum, resin washes, sulphur sprays. 

Both types of insect may be killed by fumigants, hydrocyanic 
acid gas, carbon disulphide, sulphur dioxide. These must be used 
with great care as they are deadly poisons and are dangerous for 
humans to inhale as well. 

The adult form of the wire worm is the famiUar "chck beetle" 
(firefly). The adult form of that fat white grub, which we find at the 
roots of our most prized plants, is the common buzzing flapping 
"June bug." Both these beetles have similar histories, their larval 
stage continuing for from three to five years during which time they 
remain underground. For small areas the use of carbon bisulphide 
put into a hole which is immediately afterwards stopped up, has been 
advised. For fields, plow late in the summer to expose larva and break 
up cells. It is also suggested not to raise a grass crop more than one 
season, where the soil is infested with wire worms and white grubs. 



Aphis For Crataegus, 

» Pyrus 
Prunes 
Maple 
Currant 



{one pound of 
whale oil soap 
to 8 gal. water 



For rose aphis reduce strength — i lb. of soap to 10-12 gal. water. 

For Roses Dissolve }^ lb. finely shaved whale oil soap in one qt. of boiling 

water. Add two quarts of kerosene and churn with bicycle pump 
(or egg-beater) till it becomes creamy white. Reduce with fifteen 

38 



times the volume of water for roses. Apply when sun is off the roses 
being careful to spray the underneath side of the foHage. 

Sarah W. Hendrie, 
Grosse Point Farms, Mich. 



Take four pounds of unslacked lime, put in a gaUon of boiling 
water; add one pound of tobacco dust, mixing thoroughly. Add 
enough water to make five gallons. Apply to the roots of the plants, 
one teacupful at a time, being sure that the soil is well loosened 
around the roots before pouring on the mixture. When we cannot get 
tobacco dust, we use tobacco stems, soaking those till the water is 
very brown, and then mixing with the lime water. We begin these 
treatments when plants are about six inches high in the Spring; two 
or three applications for a week or two, then discontinue, and start 
again in two or three weeks or when we see signs of the bhght. 

This is usually the most rehable remedy for that deadly attack 
on the blue of our gardens. It came originally from Miss McGregor 
of Springfield, Ohio to the Garden Magazine, and is a balm in Gilead 
to those who gaze with dismay at the crumpHng and darkening of 
sky-blue buds before their time. It is Miss McGregor who practices 
cutting back her Ampelopsis Veitchii to five feet each year, — a sug- 
gestion which I have followed with a consequent reward in deUcacy 
of growth not secured in any other way. 



Remedy for 
Delphinium 
Bli^t 



The most common trouble in the raising of plants by seed, es- 
pecially in boxes or flats, is the damping off of the young plants. 

This is the rotting off of the seedHngs near the surface of the soil, 
and is the work of fungi. Cause, too much moisture. 

Prevention is worth more than cure. Some authorities recommend 
covering the soil with a thin layer of fine white sand or finely sifted 
coal ashes. Seeds to be sown in this and covered according to need. 
The sand counteracting the tendency to damping off. 

See that the soil is wet clear through, not wet on top and dry 
beneath. Keep it as dry as possible on the surface. 

Should damping off threaten, a crochet hook or hat pin, if plants 
are not too close together, may be used to scrape the fungus off the 
earth, as this slight disturbance often serves to destroy the fungus. 
Set in an airy place, till surface has dried, or if soil gets too dry, water 
from the bottom by setting flat in pan of tepid water. 

In severe cases lift seedUngs carefully with a sharpened splinter, 
and replant quickly in fresh earth, continuing the treatment as in the 
first germination of the seed. 

39 



"Damping 
Off" 



Seed Germi- 
nation 



Many seeds are slow in germinating and it is often a good plan 
to sprout them before sowing, one method is given as follows: 

Pour the seeds on the end of a piece of common burlap, fold from 
both sides and roll up. Then in a pan containing half a pint of warm, 
not hot water, drop three drops of spirits of camphor. Place the roll 
in this twenty minutes, press out lightly so there will be no dripping, 
wrap in four thicknesses of old newspaper, and place where the tem- 
perature is regular and about 75 degrees. 

Examine daily and if dry, wet with luke-warm water. As soon as 
the germ shows, plant at once. 

An old Gardener says that this method will produce seedlings 
of especially good vigor. It might be interesting to try it. 

Mrs. Frederic Towle 



"Damping Off" is largely caused by careless watering and im- 
proper ventilation. 
More About ^^ seeds are planted in flats they should be gently sprayed with a 

•'Damping fine syringe, never allowing them to get really dried out, and being 
Off" sure to have the soil moist when seeds are first planted. If the flat 

is shaded, until germination takes place, no trouble should follow. 

If seeds are planted in pots, the best way to water is by standing 
the pot in a pail of water, to within an inch of its top, until the soil 
has absorbed sufficient moisture. Never water seedling with a water- 
ing-pot or hose. 

As to fresh air, every day the weather will permit, the sash should 
be opened slightly and allow the dampness to be absorbed by the sun 
and air. 

Mrs. Benjamin Warren Romayne Warren 

Crosse Pointe Shores, Michigan 



Special 

Plant 

Societies 



American Carnation Society 
A.F.J. Bauer, Sec'y, Indianapolis, Ind. 

Chrysanthemum Society of America 

C. W. Johnson, Sec'y, 2242 W. logih St., 

Chicago, III. 

American Dahlia Society 
E. C. Vick, Sec'y, igo Nassau St., 
New York Ctty 

National Dahlia Society 
R. W. Gill, Sec'y, Portland, Oregon 

California Dahlia Soctety 
N. F. Vanderbilt, Sec'y, 725 Fifth St., 
San Rafael, Cal. 

Southern Dahlia Soctety 
W. E. Clajiin, Sec'y, College Park, Md. 



American Gladiolus Society 
A. C. Beat, Sec'y, Ithaca, N. Y. 
American Iris Society 
R. S. Sturlevant, Sec'y 
Wellesley Farms, Mass. 

American Peony Society 
A. P. Saunders, Sec'y, Clinton, N. Y. 

American Rose Society 

Prof. E. A . White, Sec'y, Cornell University, 

Ithaca, N. Y. 

American Sweet Pea Society 
William Gray, Sec'y, Bellevue Rd., 
Newport, R. I. 



40 



The American Iris Society 
John C. Wister, President R. S. Sturtevant, Sec'y. 

At a meeting held in the Museum Building of the New York 
Botanical Garden, Bronx Park, New York City, January 29th, 1920, 
there was organized a new Plant Society. Our beautiful Iris, the 
lovely Fleur de Lys of France, her stately foliage rusthng, her beautiful 
blossoms palpitating with excitement, stepped from the semi-ob- 
scurity of the Nurseryman's Hst into the dignity of a society of her 
own under the name of The American Iris Society, whose object shall 
be to promote the culture and improvement of the Iris. 

The New York Botanical Garden, through its Director-in-Chief, 
Dr. Britton, offers for an Iris Garden several acres of land traversed 
by a brook, where the best conditions may be met; gentle dry slopes, 
flat moist stretches, and when the brook has lent itself to expert 
guidance, pools, near whose margins Japanese Iris will find ideal spots 
for their development and marshy places where yellow and violet 
flags will flourish, an ensemble that must call forth enthusiasm in all 
observers. 

The cost of the initial construction work will not exceed $3000 and 
will be accompUshed by the use of part of the Botanical Garden 
Special Development Fund of 1920, under the direction and super- 
vision of Dr. Henry AUan Gleason, Assistant Director. 
The officers elected were: 

President — Mr. John C. Wister, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Vice-Pres., — Mr. W. A. Peterson, Chicago, 111. 
Secretary — Mr. R. S. Sturtevant, Wellesley Farms, Mass. 
Treasurer — Mr. F. H. Presby, Montclair, N. J, 

Regional Vice-Presidents 
Eastern Region — Mr. B. Y, Morrison, Washington, D. C. 
Pacific Region — Mr. S. V. Mitchell, Berkeley, Cal. 
Central Region — Mrs. Samuel Taft, Cincinnati, Ohio 
Western Region — Mr. T. A. Kenning, Minneapolis, Minn. 
Southern Region — Mr. Floyd BraUiar, 
Canadian Region — Dr. F. E. Bennett, St. Thomas, Ontario 

Board of Directors 
Mr. I. S. Hendrickson — Flowerfieid, N. Y. 
Mr. B. H. Farr — Wyomissing, Pa. 
Mrs. James Boyd — Philadelphia, Pa. 
Mr. H. A. Gleason — New York City 
Mr. E. C. Shaw — Akron, Ohio 
Mr, H. A. Norton — Quebec, Canada 

41 



The formation of these Regional Districts would seem to solve 
the problem of making the Society really National. They may elect 
their Vice-President and committees, hold their shows, and conduct 
their own business, all, of course, subject to the approval of the Board 
of Directors. Thus all parts of the country will have Iris interests, 
though the Central Iris Collection will be at the Botanical Garden 
in New York City, where originators of new varieties should send 
roots of their seedKngs to be proved side by side with standard sorts. 
Work of this kind has already been started at Cornell University, 
and it is felt to be very desirable to co-operatfe with that work and to 
establish collections at available centers. 

Anyone interested in the Iris is eligible to nomination to active 
membership, paying a membership fee of $3 . 00 per year, or a sum 
of $25.00 makes any active member a life member. The money 
received from life memberships shall be invested and the interest 
only expended by the Society. Persons who have rendered dis- 
tinguished service to the development of the Iris may, at the discre- 
tion of the Board of Directors, be elected honorary members for life. 
They may not hold ofi&ce, or vote, or be required to pay fees. A sub- 
scription to The Flower Grower accompanies every active member- 
ship. 

Between the morning and afternoon sessions a delicious luncheon 
was served, seating sixty-five guests, in the fine old dining room of 
the LoriUard Mansion. 

Could arrangements be made that would enable clubs to be 
afiiiUated with the Iris Society, it might prove of mutual benefit. 

These plans should stimulate interest in growing the Iris. We 
aU have it in our gardens, though beyond dividing every two or three 
years Httle attention has been paid to it; but now when we find it 
suddenly in the public eye, let us take notice and join the Society, 
thus securing all the knowledge that has heretofore passed us by, 
and see what we can do, if not in hybridizing, at least by giving in- 
telligent care to what others have worked hard to produce. 



Co-operation 
witb Special 
Plant Socie- 
ties 



We are becoming convinced that the Special Plant Societies are 
not receiving the support that they have the right to expect from 
garden lovers. It is doubtful if many realize what these groups of 
experts are doing to develop and improve the special flowers they 
have selected for their hobbies. They labor year after year and feel 
rewarded if they have discovered some new way of routing a pest, 
established a new variety, cleared up a muddy and ineffective shade 
and made it a thing of beauty, and all apparently for their own satis- 
faction; for they receive very little encouragement even from those 

42 



who most admire the results, without at all grasping the patience, 
devotion and continuous labor required to achieve the smallest 
success. 

Now seems to be our time to step in with enthusiasm, put our 
shoulders to the wheel and really help. If our importations are re- 
stricted, what more logical than to aid those who are working to make 
our own flowers wonders in the eyes of the world. 

What they all need is pubHcity and financial support, membership 
being in most cases the only source of income. The members of the 
GAiiDEN Club of America can do much — they are scattered from 
ocean to ocean — by joining aU or some of these Special Plant Societies, 
the dues are small, they awaken interest in horticulture in all parts 
of our countr}% Their membership brings them the bulletins issued 
by these societies, which are of distinct value to those who really wish 
to have the best in their gardens. 

Perhaps it would be the most satisfactory method of enjoying 
the benefits of these organizations, if our Member Clubs would be- 
come affihated with the different Societies at the reduced cost pro\'ided 
for under their rules. 

The American Rose Society announces the immediate issue of the 
Rose Annual for 1920, promising the finest edition so far published. 

We have in our hands the Bulletin and Schedule of the American 
Sweet Pea Society, the editor stating that while the edition lasted 
it would be sent on appHcation. 

Anne T. Stewart 



The American Sweet Pea Society organized in 1908 holds each 
summer a convention and exhibition. It claims the distinction of 
being the only Society whose activities are devoted to promoting the 
culture of an annual flower, and of having brought about better 
methods of growing it, as a comparison of the product of today with 
that of 1908 will show. The work of the hybridists, both here and 
abroad, have become better known and their fine productions de- 
servedly popular through our exhibitions. 

Our yearly pubhcation. The Bulletin and Schedule, gives expert 
advice on sweet peas from the pens of the most practical men. The 
1920 Bulletin will contain articles on Growing Sweet Peas in tubs. 
Growing Sweet Peas in clumps for garden decoration and cutting, 
notes on new varieties, color classification, and Fall and Spring sowing. 
The distribution of the Bulletin is not confined to members; a request 
will bring it to any one interested. 

The 1920 Convention and Exhibition will be held in Horticultural 
Hall, Boston, Mass., July lo-ii, and it is confidently expected that 

43 



American 
Sweet Pea 
Society 



the quality and number of the exhibits will eclipse all our former 
efforts. 

William Grey, 

Secretary. 

Special Plant Societies who desire to announce shows, give de- 
scriptions of recent introductions, explain membership requirements, 
etc., should communicate with 

Mrs. John A. Stewart, Jr., Chairman, 
Short Hills, N. J. 



Woman's National Farm and Garden Association 
Notes on Council Meeting 

At the meeting of the Council of the Woman's National Farm 
and Garden Association held in New York, February 5, Signora 
Olivia Rossetti Agresti, who has been connected with the International 
Institute of Agriculture at Rome for fourteen years, was elected an 
Honorary Member of the Association. Signora Agresti has been in 
this country some months, coming at the time of the International 
Industrial Conference to act as interpreter for the Itahan delegation. 
She has lectured on the International Institute of Agriculture in 
New York and Boston and many other places in New England under 
the auspices of the Association, of agricultural colleges and of farmers' 
and business men's organizations. 

The Land Service Committee reported that thirty-six agricultural 
scholarships had been awarded since September, 1918, and that an 
exchange scholarship with England is under consideration. 

The report from the New England Branch included a statement 
of the Christmas sale at which $2,500 worth of members' products 
were sold in two days. Some members had nothing to send to the 
sale because they had sold everything through orders received as a 
result of being listed in the New England Branch monthly leaflet. 
The National Association is considering publishing two or three times 
a year for distribution to its members a list of all producing members 
to help the woman who wants to buy and the woman who has some- 
thing to sell. 



44 



Garden Club News 



Meeting of the Executive Committee, February 4th, 1920 

A meeting of the Executive Committee was held at the residence 
of Mrs. Harold Irving Pratt, "Secretary, on the afternoon of February 
4th, 1920. 

A discussion took place as to whether the Bulletin should be 
sent to the Clubs who felt that for this year they could not pay the 
special assessment. The following motion was drawn up by Mrs. Pratt, 
moved by Mrs Sloan, seconded by Mrs. Morgan and unanimously 
carried: That in justice to the Clubs that have already paid the 
extra $1 . 50 per member, to cover the added expense of publishing the 
Bulletin for 1919-1920, the Bulletin be sent only to members of 
those Clubs which have agreed to remit the extra assessment accepted 
by the majority of Member Clubs of the Garden Club of America. 
As the official organ of the Garden Club or America, the Bulletin 
will be sent to the presidents and secretaries of those Clubs which 
have been unable to meet the increased expense for the year 1919-1920. 

The names of four new Clubs desirous of joining the Garden 
Club of America were read but in no case was the proposal properly 
or adequately made. Through carelessness or misunderstanding the 
questionnaires attached to the appHcations are not answered and the 
proposing and seconding Clubs seem to be confused as to their part 
in the matter. If Member Clubs will bear in mind that exactly the 
same plan should be followed in proposing Clubs that is followed in 
proposing individuals for organizations where the membership is indivi- 
dual, less confusion would arise. We would not propose for member- 
ship in any club an individual of whose characteristics, achievements 
and suitabihty we knew nothing. Before proposing a new Club 
Member we should take pains to inform ourselves as fully as possible 
in regard to its membership, activities and willingness to work with 
the Garden Club of America. The following explanation has been 
prepared with the hope that it will clarify the situation and hasten 
the election of Clubs already or about to be proposed. 

Order of business for proposing a Garden Club for membership to 
the Garden Club of America. 

I. The proposing Club should carefully investigate the applicant 
Club, in regard to garden interests and congeniaHty, and should 
bring about a personal acquaintance with the Officers of the seconding 
Club, so that they will be qualified to make their own investigations. 

II. The proposing Club should write to the Secretary of the Gar- 
den Club of America to send a membership application blank to 
the applicant Club with instructions to forward it when filled out to 

45 



Special 
Assessment 



Proper 
Method of 
Proposing 
Clubs for 
Membership 



the President of the proposing Club. If satisfied with the question- 
naire, the President of the proposing Club should then forward this 
blank to the President of the seconding Club, with two letters of en- 
dorsement from her membership. In turn the President of the second- 
ing Club when satisfied with the questionnaire should sign the mem- 
bership blank and return it with the two letters of endorsement of the 
proposing Club and two letters of endorsement from the seconding 
Club, to the Secretary of the Garden Club of America. Upon 
acceptance by the Executive Committee the name of the Club and 
its President will be sent to the Presidents of the Member Clubs of 
the Garden Club of America for election. 



The 1920 
Annual 
Meeting in 
Boston 



After some discussion as to the entertainment of delegates and 
non-delegates at the General Meeting in Boston, it was decided to 
ask Mrs. S. V. R. Crosby, President of the Hostess Club, to give 
Mrs. Brewster the details necessary for publication in the March 
issue of the Bulletin. 



Resolution 
in Regard to 
the Enter- 
tainment of 
Delegates 
and Non- 
Delegates 



The following Resolution was proposed by Mrs. Brewster and 
seconded by Mrs. Hill: (This resolution was first passed at the Ex- 
ecutive Committee Meeting, December 8th 1919.) That owing to 
the increasing size of the Garden Club of America, it has been 
found necessary to make some slight changes in the hitherto informal 
arrangements for the Annual Meeting. As this is the occasion most 
interesting to Garden Club members, the Executive Comittee hopes 
for a large attendance and feels that as many members as possible 
should attend the meeting. 

The business oi^ganization of the meeting allows for two delegates, 
one of whom is the president or her alternate, from each Club, the 
other a duly appointed delegate from that Club. The members of 
the Executive Committee of the Garden Club of America are also 
invited. All other members may attend as non-delegates and are very 
welcome, as their presence is an evidence of interest and enthusiasm. 

In response to requests from many members, to facihtate future 
arrangements and to meet the convenience of both delegates and 
non-delegates, the following motion has been passed by the Executive 
Committee : That Officers of the Garden Club of America and duly 
appointed delegates shall be the official guests of the Hostess Club. 

That non-delegates are cordially urged to attend the Annual 
Meeting unofi&cially and shall be welcome to all gardens open to the 
Club and may attend the Business Meetings, though they may not 
vote. 

That a special committee of the Hostess Club shall form a Com- 
mittee on Arrangements for non-delegates, the duties of said Com- 

46 



mittee to be to give information on hotel accommodations, routes, 
meals and so forth. 

The Spring Meeting will be held at the Colony Club, New York, The Spring 
on March 17th, 1920. This date was chosen because the International -Meeting 
Flower Show will take place at the Grand Central Palace, New York 
from March 15th to March 21st, to which the Garden Club has 
been invited. 

Since the Executive Committee has received many requests for Program of 
more time to discuss business matters at our meetings, the hour has *^® Meeting 
been set at 10 a. m. Those not interested in business details may come 
at 1 2 o'clock in time to hear the addresses. 

The purpose of the meeting is to bring about a better understand- 
ing between the Garden Clubs and the nurserymen and gardeners of 
the country and to perfect the plans for the Annual Meeting in June 
in Boston, Mass. The program is as follows: 

PROGRAM 

10 a.m. 

General Business Meeting, Wednesday, March 17th at the Colony 

Club, Park Ave. & 62nd St. 

Address by the President. 

Minutes of the last meeting. 

New Business. 

Plans for the Annual Meeting of 1920. 
12 m. 

Address by Mr. William N. Craig, Superintendent of Faulkner 

Farms, Brookline, Mass.; representing the National Society of 

Gardeners. Subject : The Professional Gardener. 

Mr. Martin C. Ebel, Secretary of the Society, will be in attendance 

to answer questions which may foUow the lecture. 

Address by Mr. J. Edward Moon, President of the American 

Association of Nurserymen. 

Mr. Moon will answer questions at the conclusion of his address. 
1.30 p.m. Luncheon. 

During luncheon, Mr. John C. Wister will speak on "Present Con- 
ditions in the Nurseries of France and England." 
3. p. m. Adjournment to Flower Show. 

Mrs. Hill stated emphatically that she thought the question of Quarantine 
Quarantine 37 should be brought up at the Spring Meeting and sug- No. 37 
gested that only professionals be allowed to present the subject. It 
was decided to refer the question to a special committee. 

47 



Mrs. Pratt asked permission to write to the Rose Society in the 
name of the Garden Club of America presenting a suggestion for 
co-operation. 

Slides Mrs. Samuel Sloan, Chairman of the SHdes Committee reports 

Committee that sHdes are beginning to come in. Some are useful; all are pretty. 

Lectures'and A Hst of both lecturers and Club papers is being prepared, but 

Club Papers is not yet ready for pubHcation. Member Clubs who are anxious 
to make up their programs for the coming year may write direct to 
the Librarian, Mrs. Frederick Rhodes, Short HiUs, N. J., who will 
give information both in regard to lecturers who have been acceptable 
to the Clubs and as to the available papers. 

New Club Five new Clubs have been elected to membership in the Garden 

Members Club of America. Their names, with presidents and secretaries 

follow: 

Greenwich Garden Club. 
President — Mrs. Franklin Edson, Greenwich, Conn. 
Secretary — Mrs. Sartell Prentice, Greenwich, Conn. 
Lake Geneva Garden Club. 
President — Mrs. E. A. Potter, Chicago Beach Hotel, Chicago 

and Lake Geneva, Wis. 
Secretary — Miss Katherine Lefens, 60 Scott St., Chicago and 
Lake Geneva, Wis. 
New Canaan Garden Club. 
President — Mrs. Henry W. Chappel, 117 E. 64th St. New York 

and High Ridge Road, New Canaan, Conn. 
Corresponding Secretary — Mrs. John V. Irwin, 130 E. 67th St. 
New York and Eonoke Ave., New Canaan, Conn. 
Hardy Garden Club of Ruxton. 
President — Mrs. Ernest L. Dinning, Ruxton, Baltimore 

County, Maryland. 
Secretary — Mrs. Louis O'Donnell, Ruxton, Md. 
Shaker Lakes Garden Club 
President — Mrs. James H. Rogers, 1920 E. 93d St. Cleveland, 

Ohio. 
Secretary — Mrs. Louis Myers, 16740 So. Park Blvd., Cleve- 
land, Ohio. 



48 



News and Views 



This department is dedicated to the Member Clubs and to our in- 
dividual members. It is designed to hold short accounts of unusual 
meetings, stirring events, interesting anecdotes, successful shows and 
pleasant garden experiences. Contributions should be signed and the 
name of the Club from which they come should also be given. Personal 
news is welcome and if we might have an occasional controversy, 
so much the better. The name of the Column Conductor will be 
announced in the next issue of the Bulletin. This last statement has 
been made hopefully in three issues. A Garden Club news gatherer 
is not easy to find but we do not despair. In the meantime please 
send any piece of news in regard to your Club or individual members 
of your Club to the editor. 

Do you remember how many members asked for a Question and 
Answer department? We have arranged for not only one such depart- 
ment but several, and each member of the Board of Editors awaits 
a flood of questions on her own particular subject. Where are they? 
Send them to the Bulletin and they will be distributed. 



Questions 
and Answers 



During the winter The Weeders of Philadelphia have been taking The Weed- 

a course in architecture and landscape design under the guidance ers Course 

of J. Fletcher Street, Architect, 129 South Fifth Street, Philadelphia, in Landscape 

The course has fallen under the following heads and has been interest- Gardening 
ing and practical: The Theory and Style of Landscape Design, Land- 
scape Characteristics and Effects, Planting Designs, Types of Design. 



A cauhflower that tried to set an example for other vegetables in 
beating the high cost of living was placed on exhibition in the Board of 
Trade office today by W. T. Shield, gardener for Mrs. S. W. Allerton, 
1025 Highland Street. 

The cauhflower weighs 21 pounds and contains enough good food 
to serve as a vegetable for a large banquet. Mr. Shield has grown a 
number of cauhflowers weighing from 15 to 18 pounds, but this is the 
largest he has produced in his garden. 

Mrs. Allerton is a member of the Lake Geneva, Wis., Garden Club. 

For the convenience of our members a limited number of tickets 
for the Flower Show will be for sale at the meeting at the Colony Club 
on March 17 th. 

In Sutton's Order Sheet that accompanies their Spring Catalogue 
the shiUings and pence have been translated to dollars and cents for 
the comfort and convenience of the American gardeners. 

49 



The Cali- 
fornia 
Climate 



Tickets for 
the Flower 
Show 

Sutton's 
Catalogue 



Siberian One of our members brought over from England last fall seeds of 

Poppy-wort the blue Siberian Poppy -wort, Meconopsis Wallachi, which has taken 
the English Amateurs by storm. It is a hardy biennial from Siberia, 
and grows in a cool, well drained and semi-shaded spot. 

It is illustrated on page 41 in Miss Jekyll's Annuals and Biennals. 
The seeds are being started for us in some of the botanical gardens 
and in private greenhouses and if it does well this summer in American 
gardens it will be reported in these pages. 

Note the subtle compliment to our Mrs. Farrand in an article by 
the great William Robinson in the English Garden of January loth. 

Illinois Plant Governor Lowden of Illinois has issued a proclamation dated 

Quarantine January 2, 1920, declaring it will be unlawful on and after January 
20, 1920, to import into or within the State of Illinois, Corn, Broom 
Corn, Celery, Dahlias, Chrysanthemums, Gladioli and Geraniums 
grown in the states of Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachu- 
setts, Rhode Island, Connecticut and New York, on account of in- 
festation by the European Corn Borer. 

In Memoriam 

Mrs. Frederick Greeley 

Club Members who attended the last Annual Meeting of the 
Garden Club of America will appreciate the sorrow of the Garden 
Club of IlUnois in the death of its then president, Mrs. Frederick 
Greeley. Her deUcacy, charm and grace, reflected in her garden, must 
be to them a pleasant memory. To the members of her own Club she 
is more than a memory. Her mind, her person, her spirit are an ever- 
living influence. Her garden friends mourn her loss but rejoice that 
they have been privileged to call her friend. 



A Letter 

About 

Wallflowers 



Letters to the Bulletin 

Feb. loth, 1920 
My Dear Mrs. Brewster : 

My Bulletin of the Garden Club of America for January has 
just arrived, and as I always read it through at once, no matter what 
hour of the day, or what duty presses, may I not also write at once a 
note that may be of some use, in connection with Miss Jekyll's 
article — "A Garden of Spring Flowers." 

First let me say how charming it is to have the Bulletin once 
more, and with what deUghtful contentment one reads the foreword 
in this month's number enjoying in anticipation the happiness our 
gardens are going to give us this year after these many sad ones — 1918 

50 



was America's own sad one, and only in our garden's beauty can we 
in time forget. 

My note is about the Wall Flowers, which the editor says in the 
foot-note to Miss Jekyll's article, " can be used only as an Autumn 
flower unfortunately in America, and then are successful only when 
the first frost comes late in the season. " 

From my experience with wall-flowers in my Pennsylvania garden, 
one could follow out this planting plan with them as well as in England, 
only the plants would not be so large. 

Plant the seed in July; one could plant later as it germinates very 
quickly, but it is best to have the little plants well up and transplanted 
before the heat comes. " Spot them off in flats " as the gardeners say, 
when the third or fourth leaf develops, and then transplant them again 
to boxes 3 or 4 inches deep and about 3 inches apart each way. When 
the second transplanting is done, pinch the center or tap root, slightly. 
Leave the plants stand in these boxes the rest of summer, and place 
in cold frame over winter. In early spring plant them out and they 
will soon burst into bloom, even though they will only be a half foot 
high they make a brave show. 

One can also plant the seed in open ground in July, if one is a 
hurried gardener such as I am, or is going away for August as too 
many of us did in the old days. Then the planting in the shallow 
boxes and the pinching back of the root can take place in September 
if the plants are not too big. The point is to stunt them so they will 
not get too lanky. Some will be too big, by this method and will 
have to be lifted into a deep, cold frame for winter, where they may 
get killed off by low temperature. The little stocky woody ones are 
more immune. And they look very fascinating planted out in Spring 
between breeder Tulips and red shoots of up-coming Peonies. 

Frances Edge McIlvaine 
GlenlsleFarm ''The Weeders" 

Downingtown, Chester Co., Penna. 

February 13, 1920 
My Dear Mrs. Brewster, 

In connection with your note to Miss Jekyll's article in the Jan- 
uary Bulletin concerning wallflowers, in which you state that they 
can only be used for Autumn effects, and ask for suggestions as to a 
plant of similar form to use in their place, I am enclosing a brief 
account of my way of having wallflowers blooming in my beds in the 
spring which I think is not too troublesome for anyone who really 
cares for them. It took me several years to work it out, although it 
sounds simple, and it may save time for somebody else. 

Mary M. H. La Boiteaux 

51 



Wallflower Spring hardly ever wakes all the favorites in our borders, no 

For Spring matter with what care we have tucked them away, nor how kindly 
Blooming the snow has blanketed them. For years I struggled with wallflowers, 

led on by their heavenly fragrance, and by the fact that some few of 
them stood some winters, and repaid me for the many that were lost. 
At last I have hit upon a device, simple enough for anyone who has a 
cold frame. 

I raise the plants from seed the preceding summer, sowing in 
July, transplanting twice, finally into four inch pots. These are set 
in the tall end of the cold frame late in October, the pots being sunk 
in the ground. The plants are then about ten or twelve inches high 
and have room to make a little growth and set their buds in the early 
spring. 

When the borders are ready, so are the plants, and they are really 
most useful for fiUing in the bare spots which are sure to appear here 
and there. They never fade, having had their roots undisturbed, 
and there is no doubt of their doing well. 

In much the same way I start my season for primroses about 
two weeks ahead by wintering a good many plants in the frame, but 
these do not require pots as they do not wilt easily. 

With these two helps I can make a picture in my garden very early 
in the spring, and without much danger of loss, for both wallflowers 
and primroses stand a good deal of cold. The primroses which have 
wintered out begin to bloom a little before the forced ones are over, 
and my primrose season lasts about five weeks. 

Wallflowers placed among plants of Mertensia Virginica make 
a beautiful effect. 

Mary M. H. La Boiteaux 

The following letter from one of the most enterprising of our 
smaller nurseries deserves our consideration and respect: 

February 12 th, 1920 
Rare Plants I notice what you say regarding the necessity of gardeners in this 

country now trying to raise their own choice varieties of plants. May 
I not suggest that this is just what we have been trying to do for the 
American pubHc for the past five years? We have hsted Primula 
denticulata and P. d. alba, along with thirty other varieties, for a long 
time, but I noticed Mrs. Hill states it can be obtained at theLowthorp 
School. 

I am anxious to add to our collection just as fast as possible but 
unless the American public recognizes the privilege of obtaining these 
plants without the trouble and expense of importing, it is impossible 
for us to make the list as large as we would like to do, for it is very 

52 



expensive growing the choicer varieties of many plants and we are 
not a wealthy concern. Many things that we grow are two and three 
years germinating from seed, which is the only stock obtainable, and 
then more years are required to work up a stock. 

I feel that the Garden Clubs of this country should, in a measure, 
appreciate and encourage our efforts by their patronage. Am I not 
right? 

Very sincerely, 

Mabel Wolcott 
The Wolcott Nurser>% 
Jackson, Michigan 

Announcements 

Seventh Annual International Flower Show 

Grand Central Palace, New York, March 15-21, 1920. 

Orchid Exhibitions Revived 

by the 
Massachusetts Horticultural Society 
The Greatest to be held March 24—28, 1920 

This society has planned to make the year 1920 one memorable 
for its orchid exhibitions, and has arranged to have during 1920 
monthly exhibits of orchids so that the various different orchid plants 
may be seen in the halls of the society as they blossom from month to 
month throughout the year; from January to December. 

The exhibits will be given on the following dates: February 28th, 
March 27th, April loth. May 15th, June 19th, August 14th, Sep- 
tember nth, October 9th, November 6th and December i8th. 

The grand exhibition of orchids and other plants will be held 
March 24th to 28th, 1920, at Horticultural Hall, Boston. 

New York, February loth, 1920. 

Garden Statuary 

Mrs. Albert Sterner has kindly consented to assemble a collection 
of new and charming examples of garden statuary, fountains, sundials, 
and similar ornaments from the studios of some of our most gifted 
sculptors to be on exhibition at the Knoedler Galleries, 556 Fifth 
Avenue, New York, during Flower Show Week, March 15 th to 21st 
and the week following. 

The scarcity of good statuary small enough to be in scale with 
little gardens or really fine enough to be acceptable to the more ex- 

53 



tensive gardens, has been felt by us all. In asking Mrs. Sterner to 
arrange this exhibition for us we feel that it will be of real value to 
our members, who otherwise would have had to delve in the studios 
scattered all over the country to search out choice new fountains or 
other subjects. 

There have been in the last few years some rarely beautiful and 
appropriate garden figures created by our sculptors but naturally 
we hesitate to duplicate in our own garden the very one that we so 
admire in the garden of our friend, with the result that we have 
to abandon the idea of owning an original American work and use 
instead, the charming old EngHsh leaden statue so suitable to the 
formal gardens of the Georgian period. 

The charm of garden statuary depends largely on its placing and 
background. It cannot have decorative success no matter how much 
intrinsic merit, unless its surroundings are in keeping and its base 
carefully chosen. 

There will also be some paintings of gardens at the same exhibition. 
There is nothing we amateur gardeners are more critical of than 
pictures of flower gardens. We hope that Mrs. Sterner will be able 
to convince us that we have in America painters who can catch that 
fleeting spirituahty of a growing garden which is so sadly lacking in 
most of the pleasant but commonplace garden pictures of our exhibi- 
tions. 

A. G. H. 

The Tree 

By Joyce Kilmer 

I think I shall never see 
A poem as lovely as a tree. 
A tree whose hungry mouth is prest 
Against the earth's sweet flowing breast. 
A tree that looks at God all day 
And lifts its leafy arms to pray; 
A tree that may in summer wear 
A nest of robins in her hair; 
Upon whose bosom snow has lain; 
Who intimately lives with rain. 
Poems are made by fools like me, 
But only God can make a tree. 



54 



Membership List of 
The Garden Club of America 



Giving Names and Addresses of Presidents for 1919-1920 

Albemarle 
Mrs. Harry T. Marshall, 

University, Va. 

Allegheny County 

Mrs. Henry Rea, Sewickley, Pennsylvania 



North County 

Mrs. Beekman Winthrop, 38 E. 37th Street 

New York City and Groton Farm, Westbury 

L. I. 



Amateur Gardeners of Baltimore 

Miss Dora L. Murdoch, 245 West Biddle Street, 

Baltimore, Md. 

Bedford 

Mrs. Rollin Saltus, Mount Kisco, 

New York 

Chestnut Hill 

Mr. R. M. Saltonstall, Chestnut Hill, 

Massachusetts 

Cincinnati 

Mrs. Samuel H. Taft, 3329 Morrison Avenue, 

Clifton, Cincinnati, Ohio 

Cleveland 

Mrs. John E. Newell, West Mentor, Ohio 

Easthampton 

Mrs. William A. Lockwood, 780 Park Avenue, 

N. Y., and Easthampton, L. I. 

Fauquier &" Loudoun 

Mrs. Fairfax Harrison, Belvoir House, 

Belvoir, Va. 

Greenwich 

Mrs. Franklin Edson 

Greenwich, Conn. 

Green Spring Valley 

Mrs. William V. Elder, Glyndon, Maryland 

Harford County 
Sec'y., Miss E. Rush Williams, Bel Air, Md. 

Hartford 

Mrs. Robert W. Gray, Weekapaug. R. I. and 

54 Huntington Street, Hartford, Connecticut 

Illinois 

Mrs. Horace H. Martin, Lake Forest, Illinois 

Lake Geneva, Wis. 

Mrs. E. A. Potter, Chicago Beach Hotel, Chicago 

and Lake Geneva, Wis. 

Litchfield 

Mrs. S. Edson Gage, 309 Sanford Avenue, 

Flushing, L. I., and West Morris, Conn. 

Lenox 

Miss Heloise Meyer, Lenox, Mass. 

Michigan 

Mrs. John Newberry, Grosse Pointe Farms 

Michigan 

MiLLBROOK 

Mrs. Oakleigh Thome, Millbrook, N. Y. 

and Santa Barbara, California 

The Gardeners of 

Montgomery and Delaware Counties 

Mrs. Horace Bullock, Ardmore, Pennsylvania 

Morristown 

Mrs. Gustav E. Kissel 12 East S3d Street 

New York, and Morristown, New Jersey 

New Canaan 

Mrs. Henry W. Chappell, n? E. 64th St., 

New York and High Ridge Road 

New Canaan, Conn. 
Newport Garden Association 
Miss Wetmore, 630 Park Avenue, 
New York City, and Newport, R. I, 



North Shore 

Mrs. S. V. R. Crosby, 95 Beacon Street, 

Boston, Mass., and Manchester, Mass. 

Orange and Dutchess Counties 

Dr. Edward L. Partridge, 19 Fifth Avenue, 

New York and Cornwall-on-Hudson, N. Y. 

Philadelphia 
Mrs. Charles Biddle, Andalusia, Pennsylvania 

Philipstown 
Mrs. Samuel Sloan, 45 East S3d Street, 
New York and Garrison, New York 

Princeton 
Mrs. George A. Armour, Princeton, New Jersey 

Ridgefbeld 

Mrs. George Pratt Ingersoll, Ridgefield, Conn. 

and Stamford, Corm. 

RUMSON 

Mrs. Harding Crawford, 41 W. 5 7th Street 
New York and Rumson, New jersey 

Hardy Garden Club of Ruxton 

Mrs. Ernest H. Dinning, Ruxton, Baltimore 

Co., Md. 

Rye 

Mrs. A. William Putnam, Rye, New York 

Santa Barbara 

Mrs. Edwin H. Sawyer, 200 West Victoria St. 

Santa Barbara, California 

Shaker Lakes 

Mrs. James H. Rogers, 1920 E. 93d Street 

Cleveland, Ohio 

Short Hills 

Mrs. John A. Stewart, Jr., 

Short Hills, New Jersey 

Somerset Hills 

Mrs. Francis G. Lloyd, 157 East 71st Street 

New York and Bernardsville, New Jersey 

Southampton 
Mrs. Harry Pelham Robbins, 19 East Both St., 
New York and Southampton, L. I. 

Trenton 

Miss Frances M. Dickinson, 479 W. State St. 

Trenton, New Jersey 

Twenty 

Mrs. W. Irving Keyser 

Stevenson, Maryland 

Ulster County 

Mrs. John Washburn, Saugerties, New York 

Warrenton 
Mrs. Samuel A. Appleton, Warrenton, Virginia 

Washington, Connecticut 
Mrs. Arthur Shipman, 1067 Asylum Street. 
Hartford and Washington, Connecticut 
Weeders 
Mrs. Alfred Stengel, 1728 Spruce Street. 

Philadelphia and Newton Square, Pa. 



Important Notice. This list has been compiled from lists received 
by the Secretary. If any errors in names or addresses occur, kindly 
notify the Secretary immediately that correction may be made 
both in the Club file and in the next issue of the Bulletin. 



Bulletin Information 

Subscrip- At the meeting of the Garden Club on December ist it was 

tion to the decided that members should be allowed to subscribe to the Bulletin 
Bulletin for non-members. This will not throw open our subscription list to 

the public, but it will make it possible for anyone really interested to 
receive it regularly. The discussion which led to this decision is too 
long to give in detail, but if you wish to subscribe for some friend, as 
a gift, or sponsor the subscription of some non-member you may do so. 
The subscription price is $1.50. The name and address of the 
subscriber and the member through whom the subscription is sent 
should be forwarded to the editor, together with a check made pay- 
able to the Garden Club oe America, 

Extra copies of the Bulletin may be had for 25 cents each. 
To Club It is found that some copies of each issue of the Bulletin go 

Secretaries: astray. To save time it has been decided to send to each Club secre- 
Important tary three extra copies to be given to any members of their Club who 

fail to receive their copy. Please explain this to your Club at your 
next meeting. 
To Club When your copy of the Bulletin does not reach you please apply 

Members to the Secretary of your Club who will have extra copies for replacing 

those lost in the mail. 
Articles for The editor would be grateful for articles of from 500 to 2,500 

Publication words. In the November issue of the Bulletin a Hst of subjects of 
part'cular interest to our members was printed and we had hoped that 
contributions upon these and other subjects would be submitted. 
We must, however, make two stipulations; that all articles be type- 
written and that they reach us four weeks before the issue for which 
they are intended goes to press. 

In writing to the Bulletin please give your full name and ad- 
dress and also the name of the Member Club to which you belong. 
The Bulletin file is. arranged by Clubs and unless all informa- 
tion asked for above is given confusion may arise. 



Board of Editors 



Chairman 
MRS. WALTER S. BREWSTER, 

Lake Forest, III., and 1220 Lake 
Shore Drive, Chicago 

The Gardener's Miscellany 
MRS. ROBERT C. HILL 

EasTHAMPTON, L. I., ANT) 960 

Park Ave., New York 
Plant Material 
MRS. CHARLES W. HUBBARD 
WiNNETKA, III. 



(Incomplete) 

Secretary (Ex-officto) 
MRS. HAROLD I. PRATT 

Glen Cove, L. I., and 820 Fifth 

Ave., New York 
Garden Literature 
MRS. WILLIAM K. WALLBRIDGE 
Short Hills, N. J., and 33 W. 
51ST, New York 
Garden Pests and Remedies 
MRS. BENJAMIN WARREN 
Grosse Pointe Shores, Mich. 



Special Plant Societies 

MRS. JOHN A. STEWART, JR. 

Short Hills, N. J. 

56 



:' bulletin of • ^ - 

^be (3arbcn Club 

of Hmerica 

May, 1920 No. IV (New Series) 



President Vice-President 

MRS. J. WILLIS MARTIN MRS. FRANCIS KING 

Chestnxtt Hili,, Phuadelphxa, Pa. Alma, Michigan ■ :■ 
Treasurer 

MRS. H. D. AUCHINCLOSS MRS. JOHN E. NEWELL 

5Z E. 67TH Street, New York, and West Mentor, Ohio 
Newport, R. I. 

Secretary MRS. OAKLEIGH THORNE 

MRS. HAROLD I. PRATT Millbrook, N. Y., and 

820 Fifth Ave., New York, and Santa Barbara, Cal. 
Glen Cove, L. I. 

Librarian MRS. SAMUEL SLOAN 

MRS. FREDERICK L. RHODES 45 East S3d Street, New York, and 

Short Hills, N. J. Garrison, N. Y. 

Editor 

MRS. WALTER S. BREWSTER 

1220 Lake Shor? Drive, Chicago, and Lake Forest, Illinois 



The objects of this association shall be: to stimulate the knowledge and love of gardening among 
amateurs; to share the advantages of association, through conference and correspondence in this 
country and abroad; to aid in the protection of native plants and birds; and to encourage civic planting. 



Now wintry winds are banished from the sky, 
Gay laughs the blushing face of flowery spring: 
Now lays the land her duskier raiment by 
And dons her grass-green vest, for signal why 
Young plants may choose themselves apparelling. 

Now, drinking tender dews of generous morn, 
The meadows break into their summer smile, 
The rose unfolds her leaves; and glad, the while, 
In far-off hiUs the shepherd winds his horn, 
And his white brede the goatherd's heart beguile. 



Now tendrils curl and earth bursts forth anew — 
Now shepherds pipe and fleecy flocks are gay — 
Now sailors sail, and Bacchus gets his due — 
Now wild birds chirp and bees their toil pursue — 
Sing, poet, thou — and sing thy best for May. 

Meleager in The Greek Anthology. 



"On the amateur lady gardeners of America rests the future of 
horticulture in America." Mr. E. H. Wilson of the Arnold Arboretum 
made this statement with scheming conviction and not without con- 
sideration. 

It is rather a call to arms, isn't it, and we who have taken our 
stand not too publicly as exponents of better gardening, can we afford 
to ignore it? 

We must admit that the really good man horticulturist is rather 
better than the good woman horticulturist but as we think over the 
people we know who have gardens, we come to reaKze that it is 
usually the woman of the family who has the deepest and m.ost 
abiding interest in growing things. It is she who plans, orders, praises 
and complains. Her superintendent or gardener may be the medium 
through whom her likes and dislikes reach the nursery or seedsman 
but if she is any sort of a gardener, their expression is an ultimatum. 

There are manifold troubles besetting the gardener's path just 
now: scarcity of labor, results of enforced neglect during the war. 
Quarantine 37, enormously increased expense, and if we are downed 
by all these things our gardens and with them the gardens of the 
future mil go. We need not argue for or against the value of our 
craft. We stated our position and belief when we formed the Garden 
Club of America. Now the object of our association in that Club 
is to ensure the future of horticulture and fulfill our destiny. 

Increased expense is an economic question we cannot hope to 
solve as a separate issue but with what money we have to spend we 
can do a few good things instead of a number of insignificant ones. 
Our decreased labor we can use wisely, too; and have you thought 
how much our Member Clubs can do toward influencing and training 
young [gardeners? We can hold out, the hope of adequate pay 
for thoughtful and disinterested work. We can recognize gardening 
as the "oldest, most honorable and most elevating of callings" and, 
as such, a profession worthy to be studied and esteemed. Perhaps 
some of the things we lost through neglect were not worth having 
and surely we have found out what things we have really missed and 
cannot do without. And if we will just read the modest pages of the 
Bulletin we shall find out what Quarantine 37 is doing to us and 
what we can do about it. 

There are problems for us to solve and work for us to do and 
their solution and accomplishment will result not merely in small 
personal pleasures and attainments. If we will garden finely, acquir- 
ing knowledge, overcoming obstacles, restraining trivial likings, 
demanding right simpKcity, though the desert may be slow to blos- 
som our trail may soon be easily followed. 

For the little that each one of us can do a reward has been offered. 



In memory of Mrs. Renwick who truly gardened finely, the Short 
Hills Garden Club offers a medal, to be known as the "Emily D, 
Renwick Achievement Medal." Each year it will be awarded to the 
Garden Club member who best deserves it. It is worth working 
for and worth winning, but unless many of us work no one will be 
v/orth}^ of it. 

Our other medal, the Medal of Honor, will be ready, too, this 
year. It will go to the American who has achieved most in horticul- 
ture. That member, we assume might and should some day be a 
Club member. 

With these two honors to be won, with Mr. Wilson's assertion 
to spur us on, can we fail to unfurl our colors as the cham^pions of 
American Horticulture? K.L.B. 

Very Important 

The North Shore Garden Club 

of 

Massachusetts 

Proposed Programme for Annual Meeting 
June 29, 30 and July i, 1920 

June 28 Arrival of delegates. 

June 28 8 p.m. Executive Committee Meeting. 

June 29 10 a.m. Loj^ve Manchester Horticultural Hall in motors, 
visit ]Vft^~"©^e^e«se's and Mrs. Coolidge's, go to "Indian 
Hill," West Newbury, visit house and garden, go to Mrs. 
Moseley's, Newburyport. Luncheon by invitation of Mrs. 
Moseley. 

2 p.m. Business Meeting at Mrs. Moseley's. 
4 p.m. Visit the place and gardens and motor to Mrs. 
Crane's " Castle Hill," Visit the place and gardens. Dinner 
by invitation of Mrs. Crane. 

8 p.m. Council of Presidents^ ^^M%^a 

June 30 10 a.m. Business Meeting at JManchester (j^ace to be' 

announced). Visit North Shore Horticultural Society 
Flower Show in Horticultural Show, Manchester. Lunch- 
eon at Mrs. Crosby's, West Manchester, b}'- invitation of 
Mrs. Crosby. 

2 p.m. Leave Mrs. Crosby's by motor and go to Eastern 
Point, Gloucester. Visit Miss Davison's and Miss Hawley's 
place and several neighboring places. Return by motor 
as far as Crow Island Beach where we leave the motors 
and walk along the shore to Mrs. Hopkinson's, Miss Sturgis' 
and Mrs. Lane's. 



5 p.m. Tea by invitation of Mrs. Lane. 

5:30 p.m. Leave Mrs. Lane's by motor and go to 
Pride's Crossing. Walk up Miss Loring's avenue and 
across beach to Mrs. Shaw's, where motors will meet us and 
take us to Mrs. Moore's. 

7 p.m. Dinner by invitation of Mrs. Moore. 
July I 10 a.m. Leave Horticultural Hall, Manchester, and 

motor via Danvers, Salem and Nahant, visiting some of the 
old houses and gardens, to the Brookline Country Club for 
luncheon. 

Meetings of small committees. 

Visit the Arnold Arboretum. 

This programme is subject to slight changes. 

Instructions 

The Annual Meeting of the Garden Club of America for the 
year 1920 will be held at the invitation of the North Shore Garden 
Club of Massachusetts, Mrs. S. V. R. Crosby, President, Manchester, 
Massachusetts. 

It is hoped that the ofiScers and delegates will arrive in the late 
afternoon of Monday, June 28th. 

Arrangements will be made by the Hostess Club for the accom- 
modation of officers and delegates. If they have made plans to stop 
with friends they are asked to so indicate on the enclosed cards.* 

It will be helpful if officers and delegates, living within a reasonable 
distance, will bring their own motors. 

Since the distances on the North Shore are great and most of the 
places to be visited are inaccessible by train or trolley, it is suggested 
that non-delegates and members-at-large form motor parties. If 
it is impossible to bring their own motors, motors may be hired. 

To facilitate arrangements it is requested that only hand luggage 
be brought. No evening dresses will be needed. 

At a meeting of the Executive Committee on December 8, 1919, 
the following resolution was passed: 

That owing to the increasing size of the Garden Club of America, 
•// has been found necessary to make some slight changes in the hitherto in- 
formal arrangements for the Annual Meeting. As this is the occasion most 
interesting to Garden Club members, the Executive Committee hopes for 
a large attendance and feels that as many members as possible should attend 
the meeting. 

The business organisation of the meeting allows for two delegates , one of 
whom is the President, or her duly appointed alternate, from' each Club, the 
other a duly appointed delegate from that Club. The members of the Execu- 
tive Committee of the Garden Club of America, and members of the 

*The cards referred to throughout are being mailed, together with a letter, of 
which these Inslrticlions are a copy, to all Presidents of Member Clubs. 



Edilorial staff of the Bulletin are also invited. All other members may 
attend as non-delegates and are very welcome, as their presence is an evidence 
of interest and enthusiasm. 

In response to requests from many members, to facilitate future arrange- 
ments and to meet the convenience of both delegates and non-delegates the follow- 
ing motion has been passed by the Executive Committee: 

That officers of the Garden Club of America, members of the Editorial 
staff of the Bulletin, and duly appointed delegates shall be the official guests 
of the Hostess Club. The aforementioned members should address questions 
to Mrs. S. V. R. Crosby, Manchester, Massachusetts. 

That non-delegates and member s-at-large are cordially urged to attend 
the Annual Meeting unofficially and shall be welcome to all gardens open, 
to the Club and may attend the business meetings, though they may not vote. 

That a special committee of the Hostess Club shall form a Committee on 
Arrangements for non-delegates, and members-at-large, the duties of said 
committee to be to give information on hotel accommodations, rental of motors, 
routes, meals and so forth. This committee has been appointed tvith Mrs. 
Gardiner M. Lane, Manchester, Massachusetts, as Chairman, to whom, non- 
delegates and members-at-large should address questions. 

That all delegates and non-delegates, and members-at-large shall be 
responsible for their own hotel expenses. 

No member of the Garden Club of America will receive her 
badge unless she has sent her proper card of introduction to the Hostess 
Club, and presents in person the duplicate of the corresponding 
number at the office designated by the Hostess Club. Cards for 
presidents or alternates, duly appointed delegates, and non-delegates 
will be issued only upon application of the Presidents of the Member 
Clubs to the Secretary of the Garden Club of America, Mrs. 
Harold Irving Pratt, 820 Fifth Avenue, New York. Cards for the 
national officers and the Editorial staff of the Bulletin of the 
Garden Club of America and for members-at-large will be issued 
directly to them by the Secretary of the Garden Club of America. 

It is essential that all Club members who expect to attend the meeting 
notify the North Shore Garden Club not later than May 2jth. 

Wild Gardening '^ 

Gertrude Jekyll, V.M.H. 
It is only within the last forty years that we have become aware 
of the possibility of extending our gardening into the wild, and it 
seems strange that it should be so, because already in Tudor times 
it was foreshadowed as a regular garden practice. Thus, we read in 
Bacon's Essays, in his ordering of a stately garden of some thirty 
acres, there is first the quiet green forecourt leading to the house, 
then the main garden, and lastly the "Heath or Desart in the going 
forth." And though in this "heath," some of his planting, of standard 
roses and shaped evergreens is such as we should now reject, yet we 
cannot improve upon his counsel to have thickets of Sweetbriars and 
Honeysuckle and on the ground Thyme for its sweetness when crushed 
underfoot. 



It must not be supposed that wild gardening is easy; I am inclined 
to think that to do it worthily needs more knowledge of the ways 
of plants than is wanted for any other kind of garden work. But 
if one may attempt to formulate something in the way of rules, one 
of the first of these should certainly be to observe the necessity of 
moderation and restraint. The sentiment to be created and fostered 
is the charm of a succession of gentle surprises of delight, rather than 
a series of rude shocks of astonishment. This is where we are so 
greatly helped by the indications of nature, for our best conception 
of our subject is engendered by what we have seen in the wild. One 
at a time some lovely effect is noted — of a Dog Rose clambering 
through a Thorne; of a stretch of woodland rosy with its Flowering 
Willow;* of a copse floor blue with Bluebells** or closely studded 
with bosses of Primrose; of quiet stretches of purple-gray or ruddy 
heathland. In these and in many other examples of natui'e's garden- 
ing we see one thing at a time thoroughly well done — it is all large 
and simple. The plants may be only a few or they may be in tens of 
thousands, but they are absolutely rightly placed and in their proper 
environment. 

The character of the ground to be dealt with must needs govern 
the choice of plants. It may be a dry upland field, requiring some 
prehminary planting of trees and bushes, or it may be a cool meadow, 
or even a bit of boggy ground; or a rocky hillside or an old quarry, 
all demanding special treatment. Perhaps the most favorable state 
of things is where a garden joins some half open woodland, when the 
planting can go forward, changing its character almost imperceptibly 
from home to wild. 

It should be observed that the plants that by long association 
with the home garden are fixed in the mind as garden plants, are 
among the least suitable for putting out in the wild, and it so happens 
that, in the case of some kinds, the rule is just reversed in our two 
countries. Thus, the perennial Asters,*** commonly known as the 
Michaelmas Daisies, being wild plants in the States, are there suited 
for the wild garden, while with us they are exclusively garden plants, 
for, except for one species, common in the salt marshes but of no 
horticultural value, the genus is not represented in our island. The 
same may be said of the perennial Sunflowers. But there is no reason 
why the better kinds of the Asters may not come into the wild garden 
in the States; best of all some of the large-bloomed, free branching 
kinds derived from A. Novi Belgi. But here will come in the need 
for restraint, for the numbers of good kinds are now so many that it 

'^'Epilobium angustlJoUum. 
**ScUla feslalis — A gr aphis nutans. 
***Asters Novi-Belgi, Nova Anglice, etc. 

6 



may be difficult to make a choice. One kind in fair number, or two 
related kinds, to be seen at the same time, will be best. On the other 
hand we have in England vast stretches of moorland on poor, sandy 
soil — thousands of acres at a time even in the home coimties — while 
in the north it covers square miles without end. Therefore there is 
nothing more suitable, in our lighter soils, than a wild heath garden, 
where the native species form a groundwork for the Mediterranean, 
Spanish and Alpine kinds. 

As all of the possible phases of wild gardening cannot be dealt -v^dth 
within the compass of one article, let us take an example of a garden 
that extends to the edge of partly wooded ground, consider how it 
may be treated, taking separately one or two different paths from 
home garden to woodland, on a soil inclining to Hght. One of the 
paths passes through a plantation of Rhododendrons and the other 
through Azaleas, and though botanists now put Rhododendrons and 
Azaleas together, yet for garden purposes it is well to retain the 
separate names so as to keep them distinct; for, though they flower 
nearly at the same time, their habit — and in some way their uses are 
very dissimilar. For one thing Rhododendrons form a delightful 
\^inter shelter, and a seat somewhere among them may form an 
enjoyable winter sun-trap, while the Azaleas are quite bare of leaves. 
Then their colours do not always agree. Even among the Rhododen- 
drons alone there has to be a careful selection for color. It wiU be 
found best to keep the true purple, kinds that are near the t}^e 
ponticum, away from the hybrids of catawhiense, and these pontica 
being of large growth should be nearest the wild garden side. They 
also do well and look best in the near neighborhood and partial shade 
of trees and their foliage is the finest in -winter. Birches accompany 
them well, the silvery stems showing up finely among the dusk leaf 
masses. If the place is suitable for undershrubs there are Gaultheria 
shallon and Andromeda axillaris and some of the Vacciniums and the 
Candleberry Gale {Myrica cerifera). This deHghtful sweet-leaved 
shrub should occur often near the paths, so that a leaf or two may 
be readity picked and crushed in the hand for the sake of enjo}dng 
its incomparable scent. And, it may well be planted on each side of 
some very narrow secondary path where the passer-by must necessarily 
brush up against it. 

With the Birches there should be some common green Hollies, 
and by this time we are quite in the wild land. Soon the HoUies and 
Birches give place to Oaks and Hazels, but between them is a space 
of fairly open ground; here is a chance to plant some Daffodils of 
the yeUow or bicolor Trumpet kinds. We try to place them as nature 
plants and for a general rule this may be described as first a nucleus, 
where the bulbs are fairly close together, v.ith others more singly 



streaming away; but it may be easily shown by a diagram. Where 
there is a fair space, or nothing growing on the floor of the wood but 
its own thin grasses and mosses and other lowly plants, it has a good 
effect if the groups are in a series of nearly parallel drifts, preferably 
running north and south; for then in low evening sunlight, when 
yellow Daffodils look their best and the whole garden picture is 
mellowed with golden light, the level lines of nodding bloom are sur- 
prisingly beautiful. 

Where the trees give place to httle thickets of something between 
bush and small tree we plant in with it some rambling rose with single 
bloom — best of all the free growing EvangeKne, whose flowers are 
much like the wild Dog Rose in character, but are larger and of greater 
substance and borne in more generous clusters. It is a perfect Rose 
for the wild garden though the Himalayan Musk Rose (R. moschata) 
runs it very close. Other thickets would have Honeysuckle; such free 
growing kinds as what are known as the Early and Late Dutch 
Honeysuckle {Louicera Peridymenium Belgica and serotina) or some 
of the type Clematis such as Montana and Flammula or the wild Grape 
Vines Thunbergi and Coignetiae. The thickets themselves — ^in England 
usually of Whitethorn or Blackthorne,* with or without Holly, may 
be of any handsome fruiting bushes, such as Euonymus europaeus 
(Spindle Tree) the Siberian Crabs {Pyriis baccaia and P. prunifolia) 
the scarlet-fruited Thorn (Crataegus coccinia) and the Indian Coto- 
neaster frigida. Pretty small trees such as Amelanchier canadensis 
are also delightful things in the wild ground. 

The other path from the home garden that also leads to the wood- 
land passes first through ground where a natural growth of Birch 
and Holly comes next to the garden. The path lies in a sHght hollow 
with easy banks on each side and, here and there, a cool bay level with 
the path or even a little below it. On the banks are large groups of 
common hardy Ferns and there is a natural background of Bracken 
(Pteris aguilina) . The level and sunk bogs are deeply prepared with 
leaf mold; in one is the Wood Lily (Trillium), in another Bloodroot 
(Sanguinaria) and in the deepest and coolest the Royal Fern (Os- 
munda regalis). At the back there are wide-spreading patches of 
Solomon's Seal (Polygonatum officinale), a true wood plant, and, stand- 
ing up in the Bracken background, large groups of pure white Fox- 
glove. The walk goes gently uphill and presently comes to an open 
clearing some sixty feet across and a hundred and fifty long. The 
path now takes an easy winding line and here and there are the Azaleas. 
They are in sunlight more or less for the greater part of the day, but 
the surrounding trees shift the sunny places so that none are subject 
to a whole day's burning heat. They stand well apart, eight feet or 
*Crataegus oxyacantha and Prunus spinosa. 

8 



more from plant to plant, so that they have space to develop well 
and to grow into their small tree form. They are the hardy " Ghent" 
kind and, though no Azaleas actually clash for color, they are 
planted so that those of tender tinting are at the two ends, with a 
gorgeous mass of the reds and yellows towards the middle of the 
length. Planted ■v\dth them is again the sweet Candleberry Gale, 
and the Vacciniums that turn so fine a red in autumn when the 
Azalea leaves are also richly colored. Treated in this manner, 
almost by themselves in ground of a wild character,, these beautiful 
Azaleas are much more effective than in tamer garden use. 

The many bulbous plants, besides the Daffodils, that flower in 
the early year, are more enjoyable and show their truest beauty to 
much greater advantage in the wilder ground than in the restricted 
garden. The fine Dutch Crocuses, as well as several species, are at 
their best in their turf; Sundrops are happiest under trees in any 
strong soil; the Summer Snowflake {Leucojum aestmum) revels in 
moist ground. Spanish Squills {Scilla campanulata) are lovely with 
pale Primroses under trees, and the smaller Scillas and Chionodoxas 
in sunny banks. Then, besides the bulbous plants there are many 
that are better in the T\ild ground than in the garden, such as the 
blue Itahan Anemone appenina, the deeper blue Greek A. hlanda and 
all the varieties of the wood Anemone (.4. nemorosa). 

Dehghtful though the home garden may be there will be found 
in this kind of wild planting a whole new range of interest and percep- 
tion of beauty in the ways of growing and flowering things. 

Swarms and Their Management 

Letitia E. Wright, Jr. 

A swarm is the natural increase made by the bees during a season 
of plenty. It always takes place during a honey flow,* because at 
that time there is sure to be crowding in the hives. Not only are the 
combs in the super being filled with honey, but the queen is stimulated 
to lay a great quantity of eggs, more than a thousand a day so that the 
hive body or brood chamber also is soon completely crowded. A 
swarm is probably the most interesting sight of all the wonders con- 
nected with bees. 

Swarming can be controlled to a great extent by giving the bees 
plenty of room** wMle the honey flow lasts, and by looking carefully 
for queen cells*** and cutting them out. Exciting and interesting 

*Honey flow, a condition when nectar is so plentiful in the flowers that the 
bees store up more honey than they need for themselves. 
**Give more room by placing extra supers on as described in the last article. 
***Queen cells described in article on Life History of the Honey Bee. 



as swarms are, they prevent a maximum crop of honey because they 
take place during a honey flow. For a while the hive that is going to 
swarm is all excitement, then the swarm leaves with half the workers 
of that hive ; therefore, not nearly as much honey is gathered by them, 
as if the hive had kept its whole working force. Even if you catch 
the swarm and thus obtain another hive, you will not gain any honey, 
for the swarm must build its wax combs in which to store its honey 
and rear its young. By that time the honey flow will be over and the 
swarm well estabHshed in its new home, but in doing this it has used 
a great amount of honey and has stored up no surplus for you. 

Every now and then, in spite of care, a hive will cast a swarm. 
Then instead of the lazy contented hum in the apiary, a loud roar is 
heard, and countless numbers of bees are seen pouring out of the hive 
entrance almost like a cascade. Instead of the straight Hnes of bees 
flying to and fro from the clover fields, overhead the air is black with 
whirling eddies of bees. Soon, their general direction is seen and 
usually the limb of a tree is where they will settle. If the apiary is 
in an orchard the trees are fairly low. Sometimes the swarm will 
cling to the end of a lower branch which is bent down to the ground 
with its weight. Then they are easily hived, but if they swarm on a 
high branch the hive can be fastened up in the tree near them, though 
often it is easier to saw off the branch they are on and carry it down a 
ladder to the hive prepared for it. A board is arranged leading to the 
hive entrance, and the swarm is gently brushed or shaken on this, 
until it starts to go in ; then all is well, for just as quickly as the bees 
come out of the old hive, they will enter the new. Instead of rushing 
madly like a dashing torrent as they left their old home they flow 
evenly and smoothly into the new one, and instead of a roar, there is 
a high note probably made by the wings vibrating rapidly which 
seem to act as a band of music drawing the bees into the hive. Bees 
are not always content to remain in the hive in which you place them. 
To make the hive more attractive to them a frame of young is taken 
from another hive and the old bees shaken off before placing it in the 
hive the swarm is to occupy. Some of the workers will at once start 
to feed the young, others to hang in festoons preparatory to secreting 
wax with which to build new combs. Bees that swarm are gorged 
with honey when they leave the parent hive, for in this condition 
only can they secrete wax, which is the foundation for their new home. 
It is estimated that to produce one pound of wax, five pounds of 
honey are consumed by the bees. Swarming bees hang in a cluster 
varying lengths of time, from twenty minutes to two hours and 
longer. 

It is the custom in some places to beat gongs, ring bells, and make 
a din to keep the swarm from flying away before they are hived. This 



custom comes down to us from great antiquity. It is said that Bacchus 
and his followers were shouting and making music in the forest one 
day when the bees, attracted by the noise, gathered in a mass or 
swarm to Hsten, were seized by Bacchus, and placed in a hollow 
tree, to punish them for their insolence. Ever since then bees have 
lived a communal life, and ever since then they have been fascinated 
by clashing sounds. Another reason for noise at the time of swarm- 
ing was an ancient law made in the time of Alfred the Great. This 
law required that bells should be rung and gongs beaten to apprise 
the neighbors of the swarm, to call the men from the fields and to 
establish its ownership. This last item was most important for every 
farm and cottage had bees of its own. In those days sugar was not 
known and honey was the common sweet in use. A very common 
drink made in those days was mead made from fermented honey. 
The present day theory of making a noise at this time, is to upset 
and disorganize the bees so that they cannot follow their leaders. 
These leaders or scouts as they are called search for and find a new 
home before the swarm leaves the hive. A week or so before a swarm 
is cast, bee scouts may be seen investigating a disused hive, a hollow 
tree, or the eaves of a house. So careful and painstaking are these 
bees that they visit and re-visit the chosen place. Should you be so 
unfortunate as to fail to hive the swarm, the mass or cluster of bees 
\\-ill rise in the air and fly in a bee Hne to their new home. 

If you are an ambitious bee-keeper, one way to increase your 
colonies is to di\dde them up after the honey crop is over. This must 
be done with great care and requires some experience to accomplish 
successfully at this time. Buy some extra queens to introduce into 
the queenless hives, because good queens are not easily raised after 
the hone)'- flow has ceased. The best queens are produced under 
swarming conditions \-ia quantities of honey coming in and quantities 
of young and hatching brood. Your queens will be sent you in mailing 
cages and on the reverse side of the cardboard \\ith your name and 
address will be printed directions for introducing them.* Each queen 
and her retinue, about a dozen workers, will be in a separate cage. 
Do not dixdde your colonies before your queens have arrived, for that 
may cause the queenless colonies to start queen cells, and a colony 
vdth queen cells mil not accept a new queen. Place a cage in each of 
your queenless hives and arrange a feeder** in each hive. Feed the 
bees for about a week ; this •uill make them better tempered and more 
friendly with the new queen. The cage has ^^•ire cloth so the bees 
can become accustomed to the queen before she is liberated. At 

*See Introducing, in ABC and XYZ of Bee Culture. This book to the bee- 
keeper is what Bailey's Cyclopedia is to the horticulturist. 
**See Feeding; and Feeders in the ABC and XYZ of Bee Culture. 



one end of the cage is a mass of granulated candy. This candy feeds 
the bees on their journey, and when the cage is placed in the hive, a 
small cord is drawn and through this hole the candy is exposed to the 
bees in the hive. This they eat away and thus Hberate the queen. 
It takes many hours to do this, so the queen has time to make her 
presence known and be safely introduced. Do not disturb the bees 
for about a week after the new queen has been introduced. This will 
give her time to start laying before you look at them. Should you 
disturb them too soon they will ball* her and kill her. When a queen 
is balled she is surrounded by a crowd of bees who pull her to pieces. 
So thickly do they press about her that the mass looks like a black 
golf ball. If this happens while the bee-keeper is present, he can save 
the queen by dropping the ball of bees into a bucket of water. This 
makes them let go the queen to struggle in the water. By Hfting the 
queen out she can easily be caged again, for with her wings wet she 
is unable to fly away and escape from you. To save the mass of 
struggUng bees, tip the bucket over, the water will soak into the 
ground and the bees, when dry, will fly home. 

Balling occurs whenever bees do not wish to accept a new queen. 
For this reason great care must be taken when a queen is to be intro- 
duced — 

1. That the hive is queenless. 

2. That no queen-cells have been started. 

3. That honey is coming in, or else feed the bees with syrup. 

4. That there is no robbing** or fighting among the bees. 
Before dividing up the colonies of bees like this, after the main 

honey flow, one must be sure of a later flow from which the bees can 
store up suppHes of honey and rear quantities of young, so they will 
be in good condition for the winter. Otherwise the trouble and ex- 
pense of feeding them will be necessary. 

Three more bulletins for free distribution, United States Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, Bureau of Entomology, Washington, D. C. 
Farmers' Bulletin No. 1012, Preparation of Bees For Outdoor Winter- 
ing. 
" " " 1014, Wintering Bees In Cellars. 

" " " lo^g, Commercial Comb-Honey Production. 

Three more Bee Journals published in the United States: 
The Western Honeybee, 121 Temple St., Los Angeles, Cal. 
The California Honey Bowl, Riverside, Cal. 
Dixie Beekeeper, Waycross, Ga. 

*Balling of queens, see Queens, Queen Rearing and Introducing, in the ABC and 
XYZ of Bee Culture. 
**Robbing, see ABC and XYZ of Bee Culture. 



12 



Present Condition of the Nurseries of 
France and England 

Address to Garden Club of America 

Colony Club, New York 

March 17th, 1920. 

John C. Wister 

We have heard much in this country of the effect of the war on 
our own nurseries, of the shortage of labor and of nursery stock, 
stories which at best are discouraging, and at their worst appear to 
prophesy the end of all garden work. Let us stop and think a moment 
of what effect the war must have had in France. Consider that France 
with a population of httle more than one-third that of our country has 
lost in battle, killed or crippled, nearly two million men, or as many as 
our entire American Expeditionar}^ Forces, and that if we had lost 
men in the same proportion it would have meant the death, or per- 
manent disablement of over five million men, a number equal to the 
entire number of men who serv^ed with the American ]\Iihtary serv- 
ices at home or abroad. And even this is not all that is interfering 
with the normal industry of France, for today she is raising an army 
of two million men for defense against future attack by Germany. 
If we were to raise an army in the same proportion it would mean 
withdrawing from industry nearly nine miUion men, or to almost 
double our great effort during the war. 

You can see that all industry of France must be nearly wrecked, 
and it seems a miracle that nurseries which might be regarded as 
non-productive industries, have survived at all. The fact that they 
have survived, I beheve to be due to three causes: 

First, the universal love of flowers in France; second, the small 
size of the nurseries and the fact that the nursery business is almost 
entirely a family business; and third, the fact that the French peas- 
ant women are wilhng and able to do the heavy work which was 
formerly done by the men. 

The first of these reasons may seem trite to the members of the 
Garden Club of America who have seen the gardens of France 
before the war and who realize how much our American gardens owe 
to the skill of French gardeners and plant breeders. I was constantly 
impressed, however, by the fact that four and a half years of war did 
not stop the French people from growing their flowers, and I saw 
during my eighteen months in France beautiful flowers being grown 
from the Atlantic coast up to within five or ten miles of the German 
hnes. I remember particularly being in the city of Tours, the Satur- 

13 



day before Easter, 1918. It was the week of the beginning of the 
Hindenburg drive. Yet on that Saturday afternoon the boulevard 
in Tours was lined for a length of over half a mile with beautiful flowers 
which crowds of people were buying. There were hundreds if not 
thousands of lilacs forced in pots, forced I do not know how, for there 
was practically no wood or coal for artificial heat, but in quaHty they 
compared very favorably with lilacs that you see in the New York 
flower stores; there were also huge bunches of Golden Spur Narcis- 
sus being offered for sale with the bulb attached to the bottom of 
the stem, and big flats of pansies and forget-me-nots, carnations and 
other spring flowers. 

Curiously enough, the next time I saw fine flowers was again in a 
very critical period, about the first of June. For a week or more, the 
papers had been telling us about the glorious victories of the Allies 
and printing on the same page a map which each day showed the 
Germans to be nearer Paris. As a consequence no one believed the 
papers and there were constant terrible rumors in the air. On this 
particular Sunday, Paris papers had failed to come at all and imme- 
diately all the French people made up their minds that Paris had been 
captured by the Germans. I went that evening to call on a French 
family in the little village of Jonchery who had a really beautiful 
garden filled with all kinds of flowers. I found the two ladies of the 
family, who were by no means young, hoeing the garden, and as they 
greeted me they said "Well, if Paris has fallen, Paris has fallen; that 
does not mean that the war is over and we must continue to work in 
our garden." 

I would like to give you one more example of the French spirit 
of continuing gardening. For four and one-half years Emile Lemoine 
of Nancy, whose work you all know, lived subject to constant Ger- 
man air raids, never knowing at night whether he and his family 
would be killed in their beds before morning. For many months 
during this time he was within range of the shell fire of the German 
artillery. The Lemoine house bears marks on its plaster of fragments 
of a bomb which burst in front of it. Lemoine's sons were absent in 
the French army, but he and his wife continued to live there and to 
care for their plants and to ship them to America each year as in 
normal times. When I spoke to him about the war, his only comment 
was that the concussion of the anti-air craft guns had often broken 
the plants in the green houses. And then he turned to me and said: 
"Monsieur Wister, I am ashamed to show you my garden, it is so full 
of weeds." I am still wondering what manner of man it can be who 
can live through such a war almost on the verge of the German armies 
and really not knowing from month to month whether his city would 
be captured and suffer the fate of Belgium, and then calmly apologize 

14 



for weeds. Not a word as to what he had gone through or why he 
did not move to a safer place. 

The second reason I have given for the survival of the nurseries, 
has been their small size; in fact the first great contrast to be noticed 
between American and French nurseries is the fact that the French 
nurseries are so very small. There is nothing there to compare in 
size with such places as Bobbink & Atkins, Pierson's, Dreer's, An- 
dorra Nurseries and the like. While there are, of course, some large 
nurseries of 25, or 50, or 100 acres, the great bulk of the business is 
carried on by men cultivating not more than 3 or 4 or 5 acres, and 
they do the actual labor themselves with thq aid of their wives and 
children. In such a nursery, if the man of the family went to the war 
his wife and children carried it on almost as well as he had. Further- 
more in the larger nurseries where the actual fiteld work is not done 
by the owner's family, the managing and clerical end of the business 
is done, not by hired employees, but by the family. When I visited, 
for instance, one of the largest wholesale growers in France, E, Tur- 
bat & Co., of Orleans, a firm which has in the past exported millions 
of plants to America, and which has under cultivation besides the 
home nursery of about 5 acres, a number qf 10 acre patches outside 
of the city, I discovered why M. Turbat would never have to adver- 
tise in the Sunday paper for a nursery manager, a stenographer or 
bookkeeper, for he introduced me to his wife, his sister-in-law, his 
father-in-law and his two daughters, all of whom were working in the 
office with him, I was never able to find out what remuneration, if 
any, such families received, but it is clear that if there is any extra 
work to be done they stay and do it without charging time and half 
for overtime. When these daughters marry instead of leaving home it 
is more Hkely that their husbands will come and live with M. Turbat 
and work in his nurs*ery. You will see that even in the larger nur- 
series if the man of the family went into the army his wife understood 
the business as well as he did and was able to continue it, in fact one 
of the most important nurseries in Orleans, Gauguin & Company, 
was managed throughout the war by Mme. Gauguin, while her sons 
were fighting for France. You can see from the above facts, also, some 
of the reasons of the low cost of production of nursery stock in France, • 
to which must be added the fact that the French people of this class 
have but few needs, are satisfied to live in houses without light or 
heat or running water and consider automobiles and moving pictures 
only for the nobility and millionaires. 

Lastly, although many of their men have gone to the war never to 
return, the French peasant women are as able to work in the fields as 
the men were. They had been used in the nursery business before 
the war but not to a great extent, and therefore the loss of the men 

15 



has meant that the nurseries have not the skilled labor which they 
formerly had, but the women are available to take their places and 
will quickly become as skilled as the men were. Consequently, al- 
though the present period is a period of labor scarcity, the situation 
is not as serious as in England, where the women are not able to do 
such heavy labor. M. Turbat told me that 40 of his men had gone to 
the war and that after the armistice four of them were aUve to return. 
But he had, when I was there, plenty of peasant women, who were 
grafting the roses, digging the plants, packing and shipping. The 
fact that they were not used by long association to the large numbers 
of varieties which the French are growing, will be one of the reasons 
which will drive from the French nurseries within the next few years, 
many hundreds of varieties of plants, for it will be impossible mth 
labor new to the nursery business to label and keep such plants 
separated. This will be a blessing which will drive from commerce 
hundreds and thousands of antiquated and superseded varieties which 
the French have continued to grow for the same reason that they con- 
tinued to do everything else, namely, that the}^ had always done so 
before. They will make this change with reluctance, but it will 
be forced upon them now. There can be no reason to regret this, 
for such long lists of varieties are only a burden. I saw in Tours, 
at the time of the armistice, three nurseries and I beUeve that each 
one of them was growing more than a thousand varieties of chrysan- 
themums and the thousand that one man was growing was not the 
same that the next one was growing. This is the rule, not the excep- 
tion in France; some of the wholesale growers of Angers offer as 
many as 300 varieties of Pears, 100 varieties of Raspberries, 500 
varieties of Roses, 100 varieties of Lilacs, and so on. I saw in the 
spring of i9i8,in Chaumont, a florist growing Heliotropes under about 
20 different names, although there were not more than three distinct 
forms among them. 

The shortage of labor, in spite of the fact that they have woman 
labor, also will make it imperative to use machines where formerly 
work was done by hand. This change is already upon them, and I 
saw in the Vilmorin nurseries, near Paris, a Planet, Jr. cultivator being 
pulled by one woman and pushed by another. M. Millet, who was 
with me, stared at this machine with his mouth wide open, with very 
much the same spirit as the farmer at the circus who looked at the 
giraffe for half an hour and then remarked that there was no such 
animal — for he asked me confidentially afterwards whether it was 
true that such machines were used much in America and whether they 
were at all practical; and this man had been in the nursery business 
all his life, while the Vilmorin nurseries, where the machine was being 
tried, are the oldest and largest in France. 

16 



There is everywhere in Europe a great shortage of nursery stock 
and it will be a matter of many years before they can catch up with 
their former production. The fruit tree stocks, is but one-tenth of a 
crop this year, and the seedUngs have been quoted at $80 a thousand 
against a price of $5 a thousand a few years ago. The French catalogs 
continue to Hst large numbers of varieties which they have formerly 
grown, but it does not follow at all that they are growing them now. 
I tried last winter, for instance, to buy a collection of the large flowered 
Clematis and ordered them first from Turbat who Ksted about 50 
varieties. He wrote back politely that he was sorry but could not fill 
the order. Then I tried Georges Boucher, in Paris, but although he 
listed over 200 varieties he could not supply any and referred me to 
Leon Chenault, of Orleans. Thereupon I wrote M. Turbat again 
saying I heard that Chenault had these Clematis and would he get 
them for me and include them in his order, and I received a pohte 
reply intimating that if it were possible to get these Clematis in any 
nursery in France they would have secured them for me, but that 
every nursery which listed them, was unable to supply the plants. 

I would like to tell you something of the various plants I saw in 
various parts of France both during and after the war, and particu- 
larly during the two weeks after my discharge from the army, when I 
was free to travel where I wished. The first nursery I visited, was 
Jacotot of Dijon, the originator of the famous Gloire de Dijon Rose; 
a little nursery hardly an acre in extent having only three miserable 
Httle greenhouses, with the old-fashioned glass not more than six 
inches square, and when I was there in December 191 7 entirely cov- 
ered with straw mats to keep out the cold, for they had no artificial 
heat. Yet in these greenhouses I saw a better collection of plants 
than would be found in most American private greenhouses or florists. 
There was a large collection of ferns, many different varieties of 
Camelias, of Fuchias, Azahas, Rhododendrons, and many bulbs. 
It seems wonderful that from this little place should have come such 
a famous rose. 

I have already told you of the Turbat nurseries which I saw a year 
later, and from which have come many of our best Polyantha Roses, 
and many named Asters and Delphiniums. This nursery is one of 27 
large nurseries in the city of Orleans, nearly all of which are situated 
on one street, which is apparently built up as solidly as a city block. 
But the houses are only on the street front, and behind them nursery 
fields stretch out to a depth of about a thousand feet. The Turbat 
nursery is about 500 feet wide stretching behind the houses of the 
neighbors as well as behind the Turbat house, and here, thousands of 
tiny plants are growing in beds about 5 feet wide, the plants only 2 or 
3 inches apart, and the rows often not more than 5 inches apart, so 

17 



that an immense number of plants is grown in a small area. I do not 
know any nursery in this country where such a large variety of 
plants is grown. I noted among other things good stocks of nearly 
all the new Cotoneasters, which are so hard to get in this country, 
Berberis Wilsonae, Rosa Hugonis and other new and rare plants from 
China which in this country are found usually only in the Arnold 
Arboretum. Along with these were a large number of pine and spruce 
seedHngs and many species, and next to them a collection of over 50 
varieties of Asters. Here, also, were big beds of grafted roses, which 
in that mild climate can be planted directly in the field after being 
grafted in November and December, and which during the cold wea- 
ther are covered with hundreds of bell jars. In another field, nearly 
half an hour's walk away, M. Turbat showed me his roses — 14 acres 
of them, full of flower as late as November. In still another field were 
100 or so varieties of Lilacs and Specimen Evergreen, now rather over- 
grown on account of the lack of demand during the war. This nur- 
sery is typical of the 2'^ large wholesale nurseries of Orleans, and 
besides what they grow themselves they buy many of their specialties 
from nearly 500 smaller growers. The same condition exists in Angers; 
and these two towns supply practically all the young plants grown in 
France. 

I have told you already of how Lemoine stuck to his post during 
the war. His nursery is, as he said, very full of weeds, but so are all 
the nurseries of France, except the Vilmorins. His collection of plants 
is remarkable, including not only many rare shrubs from China and 
his own creations by hybridising these with other species, but in- 
numerable herbaceous plants, which in this country we do not know 
in their improved name varieties — plants Hke Heuchera, Herbaceous 
Clematis, Campanula, Delphiniums and many others. Besides this, 
he has the finest collection of Pelargoniums and Geraniums that I 
have ever seen, as well as many fine Begonias and other greenhouse 
plants. He remarked to me that before the war his work had been 
done by Germans, which would lead one to believe that the Germans 
were trying to learn his methods and take up plant breeding them- 
selves and then boast that it was their discovery, as they have done in 
so many other lines of business. 

Another nursery which would be of great interest to all American 
gardeners is that of Millet et Fils near Paris. His garden stretches 
out behind his house for about 800 feet and has a box-bordered walk 
going down the center, on each side of which an Herbaceous border 
is planted for exhibition, so that it presents a beautiful sweep of color. 
I had a lesson here in French thrift, for I saw an old woman picking 
flowers of HemerocaHs and M. Millet remarked that he was getting 
only 15 centimes a bunch for these and that he would not have over 

18 



30 bunches, but that such flowers must not be wasted. He, like all 
other Frenchmen, apologized for the looks of his nursery and it was 
only afterwards that I learned from some of his friends that he had 
served in the French army at the beginning of the war and that he 
had been sent home so badly crippled that he had been unable to 
walk for nearty a year. 

I spoke before about the Httle florist in Chaumont with the 20 
varieties of HeHotrope. His place is typical of the small local florist 
and nurseryman combined, which can be found in nearly every small 
town in France. He had three greenhouses, each about 50 feet long, 
with small glass, iron frame, iron doors and iron benches. During the 
winter, 19 18, he grew some very creditable specimens of Primula, 
Cineraria, and other of the hardier greenhouse plants, and during 
April his houses were a mass of bloom. In the frames he grew large 
quantities of bedding plants, such as Geraniums, HeHotropes, Salvia, 
Ageratum, Coleus, etc., as well as hundreds and thousands of lettuce 
and cauliflower plants. There was a constant display of herbaceous 
flowers the entire spring, beginning with Arabis and continuing until 
mid-summer when the Phlox and Roses were in full bloom. In a 
section of the country where the soil was naturally a stiff clay, the 
many years of cultivation of his place had given him a deep rich black 
soil full of humus. 

I have spent most of my time teUing you of France because I was 
there so long and learned to know their customs in the nursery business 
better than I was able to learn the Enghsh methods, for I was in 
England but two weeks and spent most of my time there visiting 
Iris gardens, rather than nurseries. As a whole, however, the nursery 
conditions in England appear more serious than those of France, due 
I think, to the fact that two of the three causes I have enumerated 
for the survival of the French nurseries, have not operated in England, 
In other words, their nurseries are larger and are conducted more on 
American Hnes and their women are not able to take the places of 
the men who have been killed. Furthermore, although England did 
not lose as many men as France in proportion, she e^ddently withdrew 
more men from industry for her war work. Amos Perry, for instance, 
had had his working staff reduced from 65 men to 5, and had himself 
been forced to work in munition factories part of the time. 

My first visit in England was to the famous nurseries of Robert 
W. Wallace in Colchester, which were in none too good condition. I 
heard it said afterwards in a joking way that before the war it had 
been Mr. Wallace's custom to offer his customers a shilling for every 
weed they could find in his nurseries. E\ddently it will be many 
years before the Enghsh nurseries return to such a condition. Mr. 
Wallace had lost his only son in the war and although Admiral Sims 

19 



and Mr. Hoover have given us within the past week a glimpse of the 
seriousness of the situation of the Alhes in 191 7, it will nevertheless, 
I beheve, be a shock to 3'^ou as it was to me, to learn that if the war had 
lasted two weeks more Mr. Wallace himself would have been drafted, 
as on November i, 191 8, he had been examined and passed. This 
does not sound so remarkable until I tell you his age, which was at 
that time 51, which shows you the conditions in England in that time 
better than any long dissertation. 

As I have told you, the great collections of Mr. Perry have been 
nearly wrecked, in fact he gave up trying to keep anything but his 
rare rock plants, and these have survived. It will, of course, be a 
simple matter for him to replenish his stock of the ordinary herbaceous 
plants for which he was famous, but he told me that he believed it 
would be easier for him to move to a new location than to attempt to 
straighten out the mess in his old nurseries. His nursery by the way, 
although far removed from the war, was situated so close to many of 
the munition districts, that it was subject to air raids. 

The Barr nurseries at Taplow were also full of weeds but here also 
Mr. Barr had succeeded in saving his best plants and they will un- 
doubtedly be as good as ever in a few years. The only really well-kept 
place I saw in England was Kew Gardens. It is perfectly evident, 
however, that large numbers of splendid flowers were being grown in 
both these countries, for I saw at the flower shows in Paris on June 5th 
and in London on June iSth, flowers which would be a credit in the 
great exhibition in New York today. 

I read during the war the French paper "Revue Horticole" and 
its columns seemed to be mostly devoted to enumerating the nursery- 
men who had been killed or wounded or cited in battle. It is some- 
what of a shock to an American who was used to certain French 
names in relation to a certain plant, to suddenly find that name appHed 
to some army ofl&cer who had died in battle. I remember distinctly 
when I had been in France but a short time the paper contained an 
account of a citation for bravery of Lieutenant Jean Viaud-Bruant. 
I had known this name for many years on a 5-inch wooden label in 
a pot of a splendid semi-double pink Geranium, and though I might 
vaguely have been expected to know that the Geranium had been 
named for a person, yet this name seemed to belong to a plant and 
not to a human being, and seemed entirely out of place in the army. 

I am glad I was able to visit these nurseries when I did for I was 
most hospitably treated everywhere, and an American going there 
today could hardly expect such treatment, for they feel and I beheve 
perfectly rightly, that they have a just grievance against us. When 
Quarantine 37 was first announced Auguste Dessert wrote to me and 
asked if it was possible that a friendly and allied nation such as 

20 



America wished to make such a stab at the prosperity of the French 
nurserymen, and he remarked rightly that the new law was " vilaine." 
All I could do was to answer him and tell him that I agreed with him 
and that being away from America I did not understand the reasons 
for it. When I was at Nancy, Lemoine remarked that the whole 
thing was "Boche," and that it could be interpreted in no other way 
by the French and Enghsh growers whose plants were prohibited, 
while bulbs were permitted to come from neutral pro-German Holland 
and LilUes-of-the- Valley from Berlin. 

I was much pleased to see the very able articles which appeared 
in the January and March numbers of the Bulletin and to hear of 
the resolution against the quarantine, which you passed at this morn- 
ing's meeting. There is no reason why five men, none of whom is a 
horticulturist, should have the. power of life or death over the florists 
and nurserymen in this country, and the power of preventing milHons 
of amateur gardeners from growing the plants which they desire. 
Under the pretext of excluding insects they have really arrogated to 
this Board powers which were never before given to a similar depart- 
ment, and which were never intended to be given to this Board under 
the act creating it, for when it sets itself up as a tariff board and 
virtually determines what plants shall or shall not be grown in the 
United States, it is taking authority wliich belongs to Congress alone. 

No one will deny that foreign pests have been and are a source of 
terror to this country, but if the danger is as great as is pictured by 
the Federal Horticultural Board and if their ability to control this 
danger by quarantine has been correctly stated, then there can be 
only one logical outcome — namely, to prohibit all commerce of any 
kind and all travel by people, and to make each village or town suffi- 
cient unto itself and communicating with the outside world only by 
telegraph or telephone. Even this has the fault of not being severe 
enough for it does not prohibit interstate travel by birds nor the blow- 
ing of spores of disease by the wind. 

The Federal Florticultural Board is not true to its ideals if it 
stops at anything less than the quarantine I have just outlined, for 
why should a gardener be prohibited from bringing in plants while 
materials like hemp, on which the corn borer originally came, is allowed 
to come in? Why the quarantine against plants with soil on the roots 
when whole shiploads of soil are brought constantly from Europe 
as ballast, and just why is a Crocus safe and a Colchicum dangerous, or 
why are grafted roses dangerous while Manetti seedlings are safe, 
and do you think that this latter fact has anything to do with the 
fact that one of our largest rose growers of the middle west believes 
in the present quarantine? He is honest enough to admit that he does, 
but there are ugly rumors around of several large nurserymen openly 

21 



opposing the quarantine but privately going to Washington and help- 
ing the present Board to enforce and to extend it. It is also said in 
the trade that it is not safe for a nurseryman to attack the present 
law, and as an example they will tell you of a nurseryman in New Jer- 
sey who was one of the most vigorous fighters against it, and then 
"wdll tell you of a strange coincidence that the Federal Horticultural 
Board suddenly discovered a very dangerous new plant pest in or 
near his nurseries, and attempted only a few weeks ago to quaran- 
tine the whole town in which the nursery was located forbidding 
any plant or part thereof to be shipped out, although still allowing 
trains and automobiles to travel freely through it. 

The Federal Government some years ago officially recognized the 
fact that gipsy and brown-tail moths would spread more quickly 
by faUing upon passing automobiles than by being transported by 
plants, for they sprayed all roadside trees in New England while 
allowing plants to be shipped out of there. 

Nothing that the ladies of the Garden Club or America can 
do can have as great an effect upon the future of gardening in this 
country as in their attitude against this quarantine, and their wiUing- 
ness to go on record and fight strongly against it. If it is allowed to 
stand and be added to from time to time it will be a question of but 
a few years when you will not be allowed to buy any plants except in 
your immediate neighborhood, which will mean not only very high 
prices but inadequate stock, and will mean to all intents and purposes 
the death of gardening in America. If my few remarks have done 
nothing else I hope they will arouse you to the necessity for action 
in this matter. 

BALM 

If you know pain, if you know sorrow, 

Go to the wood where May be-stirs her wings 

Hold out the red cup of your heart 

And catch the gold notes that a robin flings. 

George O'Neil. 



22 



The Point of View of the Professional Gardener 

William L. Craig 
Superintendent, Faulkner Farm, Brookline, Massachusetts 

Madam President and Members of the Garden Club of America : 
I feel very much honored in being asked to speak before your Club, 
which has done and is doing so much to advance horticulture in 
America. I would that one more eloquent than I, and one who could 
better voice the aims, aspirations and activities of the professional 
gardener, were addressing you, but in our profession we lack the 
sophistries of the poHtician and the platitudes of the office seeker. In 
our Association we labor without remuneration hoping that in the 
not distant future our humble efforts may lead to the placing of our 
organization and craft on a loftier plane. 

I may fair lay claim to being a representative professional gardener 
as were my father, grandfather and great-grandfather before me. I 
was born, brought up and started my horticultural career in a beauti- 
ful garden not, perhaps, unknown to some of you, Levens Hall with its 
matchless topiary gardens located in Westmoorland, England, near 
the Scottish border, a land of mountain, moor, lake and forest, with 
enchanting scenery on every hand, enough to make anyone a lover of 
Nature and particularly — :when he or she was born with a love of 
flowers in their veins. 

My parents were sturdy Scotch people and greatly desired that I 
should follow the legal profession, but the love of gardening was too 
deep in my veins and while today I may be poorer financially than if 
I had become a legal luminary, I have at least the satisfaction of 
knowing that the caUing I am following gives more real pleasure to the 
lover of the great outdoors than any other I can name, and it is be- 
cause I desire to see the profession of gardening more looked up to by 
all patrons of horticulture that I have for some years, in a very humble 
way, 'tis true, supported the excellent work being done by the National 
Association of Gardeners, of which my friend, Mr. Ebel, is the efficient 
Secretary. 

The professional gardener of today in America is very variable in 
t3^e. I prefer today to speak of those who are well-trained gardeners, 
and not the large floating class of men who claim to be such but whose 
limited gardening experience unfits them for filHng any responsible 
position, however competent they may be in carrying out such duties 
as lawn mowing, pruning such deciduous shrubs as Loniceras, Spiraeas 
and Forsythias into topiary forms, planting and caring for some of the 
more common flowers and vegetables and doing the miscellaneous 
work customarily performed by men we class as chore-men in New 
England. 

23 



The real gardener is one who has made gardening his life study 
here or abroad. The bulk of professional gardeners have at least some 
European training. This is advantageous as he is more Likely to re- 
ceive a thorough grounding in the rudimentary parts of the profession 
than here. American boys are singularly reluctant to follow a calling 
which may be beautiful and enjoyable but cannot be learned in a 
year or two, no matter how bright and receptive the workers are. For 
this reason, commercial floriculture with its greater financial pos- 
sibiHties, landscape gardening and the mechanical trades are now 
taking practically all of our young men, a portion at least of whom we 
had hoped would have been training to fill the positions we older men 
must ere long vacate, and we must admit that in almost any other call- 
ing the learner secures a more adequate remuneration than in gar- 
dening. 

I have had assistants, in some cases purely unskilled laborers, who 
during the war made $40 to $75 per week in government work. Very 
few of these are returning to their old calling, now that more nearly 
normal conditions prevail, and in common with every man who has 
charge of a private estate I find it increasingly difficult to secure not 
only competent assistants, but laborers to perform the necessary work. 
Thousands of young gardeners joined the colors in the late European 
War and a large proportion were killed or maimed, and a decreasing 
number both here and abroad are taking up gardening as a profession. 
The "call of the wild" seems to be in the blood of many young men, 
and having helped to "save the world for democracy" they have 
greater visions and ambitions and seem unable to content themselves 
with so humble and humdrum a calling as gardening. 

How can we change these things? How can we induce some of our 
growing youths to follow a calling which is at once ancient and 
honorable? All honest labor is honorable we must admit, and can any 
work be more so than the tilling of the brown soil? What are some of 
the reasons that hold men back from following the profession of 
gardening? 

First. — It takes too long to acquire a knowledge of it which will 
bring the man (or woman) following it a moderate income. 

Second. — The fact that the gardener's life is in many respects a 
quiet not to say a lonely one for a large part of the year must be con- 
sidered. He is in many places situated long distances from towns, 
villages, churches, schools, railroads and places of amusement, and 
employers in many places are not very considerate in providing neces- 
sary locomotion to those thus situated. 

Third. — The gardener of whatever degree he may be is classed as 
a domestic servant, and oftimes treated with but scant courtesy. He 
is expected to be on hand three hundred sixty-five days in the year, 

24 



to labor long hours and uncomplainingly. He is criticised for small 
omissions often infinitesimal in character, blamed for crop failures and 
starved for want of a Httle encouragement for work well done. 

Fourth. — ^The competent professional gardener does not as a rule 
receive compensation equivalent to ser^•ices rendered. Since 1914 
how few gardeners have been voluntarily offered a fair advance in 
salary! and are there not many penurious employers who have ad- 
vanced salaries grudgingly and others who have threatened to close 
their estabHshments if any advance in gardeners" salaries was sug- 
gested? 

Fifth. — There does not exist, unfortunately, that good fellowship 
which should exist between employer and employee. I presume 
you ^-iU admit that a competent gardener who takes pride in his 
work and studies his employer's ^^ishes and interests should be 
treated with courtesy, consideration and kindhness. A man who aims 
in every possible way to please his employer by introducing new 
plants, and new features to add interest to the gardens under his care 
should, I consider, be treated with deference and respect. 

Abroad such noted patrons of horticulture as the Duke of Port- 
land, The Hon. Vicary Gibbs, Sir Jeremiah Cohnan, Sir Geo. Holford, 
Mr. Leopold de Rothschild, and others I could name are proud to call 
their gardeners friends and to refer to them as such at pubHc horti- 
cultural functions. I feel that in this great Republic where democracy 
is supposed to rule, we should not lag behind any of the older lands in 
such matters as these. 

It would help considerably if on estates where a number of men 
are kept, in addition to comfortable H\-ing quarters, a small library, 
containing horticultin-al and other works and some weekly periodicals 
were pro\ided. I am glad this is done on some estates; others might 
profitably do like-^dse, the expense would not be great and such 
allowances would be appreciated. 

I have referred to some of the drawbacks and discouragements 
which confront the professional gardener, and can you name any 
caUing which requires a greater amount of care and forethought than 
gardening? The man who possesses a good knowledge of the culture of 
plants, flowers, fruits and vegetables under glass and outdoors, prun- 
ing, propagation, road making, lawn tennis and other forms of con- 
struction, tree surgery and how to fight numerous insect pests and 
diseases, and who can plan and plant shrubberies, flower, rock, wild 
and aquatic gardens and often more artistically than the highly paid 
landscape architects, must have skiU of no mean degree, and often 
when as in an increasing number of cases he successfiflly cares for 
horses, cattle, sheep and poultry and houses hay, silage, ice, cereal and 
other crops, and in addition oversees the plumbing, painting, heating, 



Kghting, carpentry and general construction work on a private estate, 
I believe you are all ready to admit that such a man merits a good 
salary, a much better one than he in the majority of instances receives 
today. 

The serious question confronting us today' is: Where are the 
gardeners of the future to come from? All advices from abroad in- 
dicate that the great estates as a result of the war are employing far 
fewer men, also that few youths are entering the profession owing to 
superior financial inducements in other industries. Personally, I have 
tried young agricultural coUege men and high-school boys, but it 
has proved rather discouraging work. Boys were helpful the past two 
or three years but alas! they who have seen the cities think gardening 
is prosaic, dull and uninteresting. "A back to the land" movement is 
necessary and is bound to come sooner or later, and if the professional 
gardeners, the National Association of Gardeners, and your .esteemed 
Garden Clubs co-operate, you will surely find some solution. 

Horticulture has made good advances here of late years, and for 
the tired city man, manufacturer or merchant what is there in the 
world so fascinating, satisfying and stimulating as gardening? Shake- 
speare well said, "This is an art that doth mend Nature, change it 
rather, but the art itself is Nature." What joy there is to see the 
first snowdrops, crocus, scillas or Christmas roses unfold their flowers 
as the sun melts the last hngering snow covering them! What de- 
Kghts are ours as the procession of floral beauties unfold themselves 
before our eyes through Spring, Summer and Autumn until even 
when "chill November's surly blasts make fields and forests bare" 
there are still in sheltered spots Japanese Anenomes and Pompon- 
Chrysanthemums, Dianthus, Pansies, Roses and other hardy subjects 
with a secondary crop of flowers or some deciduous shrubs to cheer 
our hearts and the added assurance that even though snow and ice 
may bury our beloved plants, they will grow, bloom and cheer us 
again in God's good season. 

In this way do I look upon gardening as do many of my fellow 
gardeners and I feel positive that the nearer we all get to Nature the 
richer our lives will be and the better you mil appreciate the true 
worth of the professional gardener. I hope I have not wearied you. 
I have spoken plainly just as my heart feels. If I have seemed some- 
what pessimistic I am still a thorough optimist and hope I have given 
you a httle insight into the drawbacks, discouragements, hopes and 
aspirations of the oldest, most honorable and most elevating of all 
calhngs, that of the true gardener. 



26 



Mr. Moon's Address at the Spring Meeting 

The foregoing articles are the speeches made by Mr. Wister and 
Mr. Craig at the Spring Meeting on March i yth. A no less interesting 
talk was given by Mr. J. Edward Moon, President of the National 
Association of Nurserymen, but we did not secure a copy of it. 

Mr. Moon spoke of the growth of his Association both in im- 
portance and numbers. It now includes 400 firms dealing in all 
branches; forest trees, fruits, ornamental trees and shrubs, citrus 
crops, reforestation, etc. He told of two committees which should be 
particularly interesting to members of the Garden Club; the Vigi- 
lance Committee which keeps a sharp lookout for unethical practices 
and invites complaints; and a committee which on apphcation will 
search out among the many nurseries rare, scarce and unusual plants, 
not catalogued, possibly because of the small supply or because they 
are tucked off in some forgotten corner or because the demand is so 
infrequent. Requests for service by this committee should be ad- 
dressed to the Bureau for Unusual Plants and sent to John Watson, 
Executive Secretary, Princeton, New Jersey, to whom any com- 
plaints for the Vigilance Committee should also be sent. 

Mr. Moon spoke of the serious effect of Quarantine 37 upon 
the nurseries of the country and deplored the epidemic of state 
quarantines recently established. He admitted that the motive 
was justifiable but felt that in many cases these local quaran- 
tines were unnecesary and the methods of enforcing them unwise. 
The nursery business is necessarily one of long time investments. 
Unless the nurseryman can be sure of a market when his stock reaches 
maturity he cannot risk the initial cost. Government methods 
have made so uncertain the ultimate market that progress and im- 
provement are endangered. He spoke of one nursery that had suffered 
a loss of $100,000. another $30,000 through State Quarantines, while 
the loss to all nurseries has been upward of $1,000,000. Since nurseries 
are not capitalized on a large scale these figures are, on a percentage 
basis, very large. Combined horticultural interests must find some 
way to meet the crisis produced by Quarantine 37 but the same in- 
terests must give equal attention to the State Quarantines which 
are manifestly unfair in that a quarantined state may send out in- 
fected stock but closes its borders to all importation. Some of the 
states most insistent upon the Quarantine are flagrant offenders in 
this particular. 

Mr. Moon's address inspired great confidence in the organization 
which he represented and formed a basis for cordial relations be- 
tween the amateur, professional, and commercial interests which 
hitherto, perhaps, have understood each other too httle. 

K. L. B. 
27 



The Effect of Quarantine No. 37 upon the 
Nurseries of Holland 

P. M. KOSTER 

"Lone par les uns, blame par les 
autres je me hdte, d'en rire, de 
peur d'etre oblige d'en pleurer" 

Until last year September, I have been living in Boskoop (Holland). 
I was brought up between plants (it was in Father's nurseries that 
Koster's Blue Spruce originated) , and I was raised in a community 
where 700 nurseries were established and 7,000 inhabitants made a 
living on these nurseries. 

Many changes I have seen in these nurseries, a number of which 
were conducted successfully since a couple of centuries ! From a small 
village, supplying fruit trees, shrubs and shade trees to the- Holland 
consumers, Boskoop developed into a world-known nursery center, 
visited by numerous foreigners including many Americans. They did 
not only come to buy the products they needed, they also came to 
study what was grown and how it was grown, and no propagating 
house was ever closed to such visitors, all information was cheerfully 
given. 

Not only foreigners came to Boskoop but also many nurserymen 
from Boskoop made annual trips to almost every country where 
plants were bought, and these trips were greatly beneficial to the 
horticultural importance of Boskoop. 

Were we not proud to have discovered a plant, for which we knew 
a demand could be created, in Veitch's, or Lemoine's or Spath's 
nurseries, or in the Arnold Arboretum, the Jardin des Plantes, the 
Holland House and Temple Flower Shows or — some small 
nursery, as sometimes happened — a plant which had escaped the 
attention of our friends — competitors? 

Was it not a glorious time when the Boskoop nurserymen could 
show the products of their efforts in hybridizing: the splendid new 
Azaleas, Anthony Rosier, J. C. van Tol, Hollandia; the new Conifers, 
the new Lilacs? 

So many beautiful things were grown and grown to such perfection 
that we nurserymen were proud to show our products abroad and the 
visitors to the Great International Flower Shows of Diisseldorf, Ber- 
lin, Petrograd, London and San Francisco will undoubtedly remember 
the splendid collective-exhibits Holland made at these shows. 

In 1911 and 1913 great Flower Shows were held at Boskoop, 
horticulturists from more than a dozen foreign countries, including a 
very well known American nurseryman, came to Boskoop to judge the 
products grown and thousands of visitors, including royalty, admired 

28 



the glorious exhibits, and experts from every part of the globe met in 
the Horticultural Center of the World ! . . . . 

In 1 9 14 the first thunderbolt came from a blue sky. Shipping 
plants to Austria, Belgium, France, Germany ceased; with great 
difiSculties shipping to America was continued until in Spring 191 7 all 
shipping stopped. 

The nurserymen then were facing a most difficult situation; unlike 
an industrial plant, a factory, nurseries can not be closed, they must 
be kept clean, plants must be transplanted or they are ruined. 

However, the nurserymen did not lose courage. Would not the 
war be over soon now that America came to the assistance of the 
AUies; and would not America, with its uncalculable wealth, buy ail 
plants that could be offered for sale, all plants suitable for American 
gardens? Consequently many nurseries were kept in first class shape; 
only the very best plants were planted in order to have sufficient 
room, everything that was not first class was discarded. Some nurs- 
eries never were in finer shape ! 

In June, 1918, the Horticultural Trade Papers brought the news 
that a hearing had been held in Washington; that a law was under 
consideration to stop the importation of some plants in 19 19, of others 
in 1925. After that date no importation of plants would be possible, 
with some exceptions of Httle importance to the wholesale trade. 

Some American horticultural papers did not take this intended law 
seriously and .... we nurserymen? We never had any warning, 
neither from our American friends, nor from the Holland Government; 
we could not beheve that such a thing could be possible. Did not the 
American nurserymen need our Rhododendron, our Azalea, our Coni- 
fers, our Lilacs, would we not be able to ship the many things which 
we actually had grown on verbal contracts, which were ready now 
to ship after so many years of cultivation? 

. November 13, 1918, we learned from the papers (letters at that 
time took several weeks to come over) that Quarantine No. 37 had 
been sent to the Secretary of Agriculture for his signature and Decem- 
ber 5th, we received a cable stating that the Secretary of Agriculture 
had signed the new Regulation which excluded all plants for im- 
mediate sale with the exception of fruit stocks and rose stocks, two 
articles, almost without importance to the Boskoop nurseries. The 
original idea to allow the importation of Azalea and Rhododendron 
until June, 1925, even had been abandoned. 

Grabbing, what we thought was the last straw, the writer of this 
letter was sent over to America by the Holland Government to try 
to get exceptions or modffications, but .... all in vain. 

Since Quarantine No. 37 became effective, several Holland 
nurserymen are facing ruin, Europe can not buy their products; their 

29 



life long devotion to their business, to their interests in Horticulture is 
crushed. A race of thoroughbred nurserymen is thrown out of oc- 
cupation, making bonfires of their plants, after trying to dispose of 
them at any price; plants grown with so much care, plants in which a 
great deal of their capital, if not all, was invested. Thousands of 
Rhododendrons, of Azalea, Enkianthus, Conifers, Viburnums and 
numerous other plants were burned . . . every plant a specimen. 

"Je me hate d'en rire, de peur d'etre oblige d'en pleurer" La 
Rochefoucauld did not know that his words would be used by nursery- 
men to conceal their feeUngs! ! 

I still cannot believe that Quarantine No. 37 is final; I still be- 
lieve that means can be found to restore the Horticultural inter- 
course and as a nurseryman and a lover of plants, I feel it my duty to 
fight for this restoration ..." loue par les uns, blame par les 
autres"! 

The New York Flower Show 

There were charming exhibits at this year's New York Show, but 
none more lovely than the arrangement of Acacias and CHvias shown 
by Mrs. F. A. Constable, Mamaroneck, N. Y. These filled a large 
space; and amid the feathery yellow of beautifully grown Acacias of a 
number of varieties, were set great tubs of handsome, vividly orange 
CUvias. Mrs. Constable also showed a magnificent Fish-Tail Palm. 

Another interesting display and very beautiful in its massed 
color effect was that of CameUias, shown by Mr. WilHam R. Coe, 
Planting Fields, Oyster Bay. There were forty eight varieties ranging 
from the purest, softest white to velvety carmine red. There was 
great variation in form as well; from flowers so perfect as to seem 
artificial, to great, loose Hibiscus-like blooms. The flowers were cut 
and arranged in a glowing flat mass. Some of the more lovely varieties 
were Patti, single pink; Princess Bachionchi, semi-double pink, red- 
striped; Preston Rose, a faultless rose-color; Imperatrice Eugenie, a 
perfect white, and Kelvington rubra, a large, loose red. The collection 
of plants from which these were picked must be a magnificent one. 

A tiny and charming Rock Garden arranged by Mrs. Chanler and 
Mr. Clarence Lown was an inconspicuous but very interesting exhibit. 
It was the one really educational feature of the Show, and repaid 
close inspection. The little plants were all named and though some 
were resentful at being brought to so sophisticated a place, they gave 
much pleasure to such as knew how to enjoy them. 

There was another larger Rock Garden well arranged by the 
Detmer Nurseries of Tarrytown, N. Y. It contained many interesting 
plants and showed taste and discrimination. 

30 



Scheeper's Bulb Garden was one of the prettiest things in the 
Show and for color effect, perfection of growth and arrangement 
deserved great praise. It was so well done that one wished he had 
made a truly and possible Bulb Garden of it, using such things as 
bloom at the same time. Perhaps he will next year. One thing that 
he had in quantity was that loveliest of Tulips, Clusiana, or the Lady 
Tulip. Evidently these are Httle known to the gardener and Mr. 
Scheepers deserves credit for making conspicuous so modest a flower. 

There were other massed flower arrangements scarcely to be called 
gardens but very gay and pretty. These were exhibited by Mr. 
Adolph Lewisohn, Mrs. Harry Payne Whitney and others, and showed 
a profusion of beautifully grown plants representing every season, 
every clime and every taste. One pitied the beginning gardener who 
might take them as his or her ideal, foreseeing the bitter disappoint- 
ments that the future hid. Magnificent Daffodils were shown by 
the same two exhibitors and good Darwin and Breeder Tulips in pots. 
Their Primulas and other specimen plants were profuse and finely 
grown. Mr. Lewisohn's Nemesjas attracted interest and enthusiasm 

Two Rose Gardens were arranged by the rival Piersons and were 
pretty, if unconvincing, to the rose gardener. The Cromwell, Conn 
Pierson showed the new yellow cUmbing Rose, E mily_Grey , which wil 
be ready for distribution in 192 1. Its foliage, habit and bloom are all 
delightful and it claims to be hardy. Try it next year — but order it 
this. It is so pretty that you must not risk being without it. Other 
new roses shown were Frank Dunlop, a magnificent great pink flower, 
larger than American Beauty and with longer stems, but lacking that 
blowsy flower's vulgarity. Qdmnbia, which we have known as a 
florist's Rose these past two years, was shown in perfection by both 
Piersons and praised as a garden Rose; and Premier, Mrs. Robert Cook 
and Crusader were other beautiful novelties. 

The Tarrytown Pierson had a delightful exhibition of Ferns ar- 
ranged about a fountain in which colored Water-Lillies floated. The 
soft, quiet green was beautiful in the midst of the riot of color sur- 
rounding it. 

The exhibitions of Orchids by James B. Duke, Manda and Lager & 
Hurrell were good and "our" Mrs. Pratt took several prizes in this 
class for beautiful specimen plants. She had other prizes besides, for 
cut flowers and plants. 

No better Sweet Peas were ever shown than those exhibited late 
in the week. Burpee's exhibit was magnificent and among the many 
varieties, the following were especially delectable: Mrs^JK^errj^j^YiiiW 
salmon, Fair^, primrose pink, A_^ricot, New Cerise /Improved Snojjo- 
storm, Llauve Beauty and Ca nary Bi rd. M. Malheron, of Baldwin, N. 
^., showed beautiful white, mauve and pink flowers, 100 sprays of 

31 




each, and another of our members, Mrs. F. E. Lewis, of Ridgeiield, 
Conn., took a special prize for a vase of superb, very dark purple 
flowers. 

Among the novelties was a liew Carnation called MepigiHe Frau- 
caise. Send for a description to "Marinelli Carnations,*' P. O. Box 
205, Montvale, N. J. You will be interested in this flower though you 
may not wish to grow it. It is just being put on the market and is still 
very expensive. The exhibition at the Show enbraced many varieties 
though but one is, as yet, available. 

Another "novelty" easier to have is Leptosyne Maritima. You 
have all seen its name in catalogues, but did you know it was a beautiful 
tall yellow annual, so like a glorified yellow Cosmos, that its real name 
is scarcely behevable? Its habits in the garden are unknown to the 
writer but forced in pots it is most engaging. 

The garden appHances at the New York Show are always inter- 
esting and a particularly intriguing one was the Kirkspray which 
attaches to a hose and sprays the garden with any sort of a bug or 
disease kiUer it may happen to need. These are canned so alluringly 
that you covet them for the bath room cupboard. Send for the 
catalogue at 98 Chambers Street, New York. You should buy a 
miniature garden tractor, too, and a motor lawn mower and if you 
would like a really good garden ornament or bird bath, you can find 
them in concrete, very inexpensive, at the J. C. ICraus Cast Stone 
Works, Inc., 363 Lexington Ave., New York. 

This year the Garden Club of America was offered space at the 
Flower Show for any exhibits they chose to make. Can't we take this 
space if the same opportunity is given us next year and show Flower 
Arrangements, Table Decorations, good uses of easily grown things, 
and prove that the amateur with taste has something to teach, that 
even specimen flowers can be ugly if ill-used, while insignificant blooms 
are lovely if understood? 

TRANSGRESSION 

I meant to do my work today. 

But a brown bird sang in the apple tree 

And a butterfly flitted across the field 

And all the leaves were calling me. 

And the wind went sighing o'er the land, 

Tossing the grasses to and fro. 

And a rainbow held out its shining hand. 

So what could I do, but laugh and go. 

Richard Le Galliene. 



32 



Orchid Show of the Massachusetts Horticul- 
tural Society 

Held in Horticultural Hall, Boston, March 24th.-28th 

I suppose there are words delicate but colorful and vivid enough 
to describe the flowers exhibited in the recent Boston Orchid Show. 
The hall was transformed into a place so charming that four days 
seemed too short an existance. The arrangement was perfect; no 
crowding, no artificial showiness, no huddling together of seasonable 
and unseasonable plants. 

Being an unpretentious, out-door gardener to whom Orchids meant 
three Cattleyeas tied with mauve ribbon and set off with a Maiden- 
hair Fern or two, or a few gaunt Cypropediums suspended in wooden 
cages from the roof of an affluent friend's green-house, the sight of 
thousands of Orchids in hundreds of varieties was truly thrilling. I 
found a new and unsuspected object for enthusiasm. 

In the Lecture Hall were the Orchids of Mr. Albert C. Burrage of 
Orchidvale, Beverly Farms. In the centre had been made great 
trees, bark and moss-covered, and on these were growing the Epiphytal 
or Tree-growing Orchids, many varieties of Phalaenopsis, long, 
graceful sprays of mauve or white. Professor Sargent's favorite and 
mine; Cattleyeas, Dendrodiums, Laelias, Oncidiums, Odontoglossis, 
not crowded together but springing here and there from the rough, 
gray trunks, set off by Httle ferns and vines. Along one side was a 
bank and there grew the Terrestrial Orchids, the most showy of 
which were the Cymbidiums whose sprays two and three feet long 
were topped with many cream, faun and tawny yellow flowers, 
splashed and dotted with color. I had not known this beautiful 
variety which combines exotic perfection with a certain wholesome 
beauty of habit and texture. The Cj^ropediums were growing on 
the bank and other varieties though not so many as on the trees. 

Across from this bank was another, reaching from floor to ceiling, 
where were grouped all the hundreds of varieties grown by Mr. 
Burrage. There was a true, rich, blue Vanda Caerulea, charming 
Laelia-Cattleyeasin salmon-rose and bronzy orange tones, the bright, 
sharp scarlet of Sophronitis Grandiflora and all the creamy whites, 
pinky mauves and greenish yellows that the texture of the Orchid so 
beautifully shows. Seemingly floating over all was a strange, comet- 
like flower, strangely called Angraecum sesquepedale. 

On the third side of the room were specimen plants, Cattleyeas 
with fifty or more, great, perfect blooms, Cymbidiums with twenty 
stalks of primrose flowers, all perfectly grown and perfectly shown. 
There was an exhibit, too of Orchids from the smallest seedhngs, 
through the various stages to a ripe old age. 

33 



This was but one exhibit of Orchids. Julius Roehrs had an excel- 
lent and large collection and the most beautiful blooms of all were 
displayed by Mr. Arthur L. Cooky of Pittsfield. These were cut and 
arranged in vases. Mrs. Ernest B. Dane showed a wonderful collec- 
tion of Cypropediums. I hope other Garden Club members know 
better than did I how beautiful and innumerable Orchids can be. 
Otherwise their imaginations cannot expand a rather feeble descrip- 
tion into a realization of what the exhibit really was. 

A rival in interest to the Orchids were the Kurume Azaleas brought 
from Japan to the Arboretum by Mr. Wilson. They were in the per- 
fection of bloom, their colors the whole range of shades shown by 
Sweet Peas. They were charming, umbrella-shaped little trees, the 
youngest about thirty, the oldest about seventy years old. As you 
looked down upon them from the steps that led into the main hall 
you understood the unwillingness to part with them of the old man 
who had trained them though all those years and his sorrow when a 
commercially-minded son carried his point and sold them. A letter 
from Boston says they have been sold again for $ioo each. If you 
wish to know all about these lovely small trees, write to the Massachu- 
setts Horticultural Society for their leaflet about them. 

On each side of the Azaleas were massed the wonderful Acacias of 
Thomas Roland of Nahant. The airy charm of these plants is im- 
possible to describe. The collection is unique and unless you have 
seen Mr. Roland's Acacias, you do not know how beautiful yellow 
flowers can be. The arrangements against and among pine boughs 
gave added charm. 

At the end of the hall was Farquhar's exhibit of LiKum Regale and 
Azalea Kaempheri with a background of Cedars. The pinkish buds of 
the Lihes and the red tips of the Cedars made a charming harmony 
with the clear salmon of the Azaleas. No doubt there were many 
things that Mr. Farquhar might have shown. Instead he chose to 
make a tasteful, restrained and altogether successful display of a few 
good things. 

From Mr. Walter Hunnewell's place at Wellesley, came a delight- 
ful group of Rhodendrons, Miss Louise Hunnewell, a cross between 
R. Japonica and R. Chinensis, which has resulted in a perfectly hardy, 
vivid orange form which is very beautiful. Both parents were present, 
gratified, no doubt, by the silver medal awarded to their child as the 
best plant of American origin in the show. This exhibit was another 
example of beautiful arrangement. White heather was used to cover the 
pots and set off the color of the plants displayed. Another beautiful 
Rhodendron was R. Formosum, a very fine white form but not hardy. 

From Faulkner Farms came Laburnum, Lilacs and other flowering 
shrubs and plants, dehghtfully grouped. 

34 



Among the smaller groups were some really wonderful Cinerarias 
and Schyzanthus shown by Mrs. C. G. Weld. The color, quality, 
size and foHage of these were extraordinary. Mrs. Weld also showed 
Carnations, Laddie, and cut flowers. 

There were few cut flowers or bulbs but many plants and groups 
of plants shown both by amateurs and professionals. It would be im- 
possible to tell about them all and impossible not to be regretful that 
every member of the Garden Club could not see them all. Every 
day the rooms were full of people breathless with admiration and on 
Sunday the Show was open to children, the only grown people allowed 
being the teachers who came with them. 

In the entrance hall were beautifully illustrated books from Mr. 
Burrage's Orchid library, but painted flowers were at a disadvantage 
and the very fine collection of books was rather neglected for the 
enchanting collection of flowers within. 

When the eye is satisfied it is difiicult to translate that satisfac- 
tion into written words. The Boston Orchid Show was so completely 
beautiful that a description is worthless but necessary, that when 
another comes you may journey from the ends of the earth to see it. 

K. L. B. 



Some of Mrs. Stout's Notable Dahlias 

Effie Chandler Rhodes, Short Hills Garden Club 

The Short Hills Garden Club has long been noted for its Dahhas. 
Its annual Dahlia Show attracts the attention not only of amateurs 
but also of professional growers. 

Much of our prominence and reputation in this respect is due to 
the skill, knowledge and industry of our Secretary, Mrs. Charles H. 
Stout. For years she has not been content with merely raising the 
Dahhas developed by others, but she has experimented with her own. 
The results have been most satisfactory. She has developed many 
new and very beautiful varieties. 

I think the readers of the Bulletin will be interested to see a 
list of Mrs. Stout's achievements. 

Mrs. Stout has been awarded the following prizes at various 
DahHa Shows: Ten silver medals, twenty-four silver cups, first prize 
of the American Dahlia Society for collection of seedlings of 191 9, 
silver medal of the New York Horticultural Society for collection of 
her own hybrids. 

Mrs. Stout has an interesting and very instructive lecture on 
Dahhas and their culture, with many slides. 

35 



List of Dahlias Grown by 

Mrs. Charles H. Stout 

5 VNSHINE Golden Duplex, petals broad and rounded, tall and vigorous. Won the first Certificate 

of Merit ever issued by the American Dahlia Society, 1015. 

Garden Magazine Achievement Medal, 1915. 

Certificate New York Horticultural Society, 1916. 

Certificate Florists' Society, 1916. 

Two Blue Ribbons and Sweepstakes Prize over all at Portland, Oregon, 1916. 

Has won first in every class and show where exhibited. 
GERTRUDE DAHL Opalescent pink Peony flowered. Early bloomer, medium height, exceptionally 

free flowering. Of slender, refined habit. 

Certificate American Dahlia Society, 1916. 

Silver Cup American Dahlia Society, for the best new Dahlia, and named by the Society for 

Gertrude Dahl Mordecai, direct descendant of Andree Dahl, for whom all Dahlias are named 1916. 

Certificate New York Horticultural Society, igrS. 
EMILY D. RENWICK. Rose Decorative, base of petals pale yellow, giving them a transparent 

appearance, frilled edges. Plants are large, of medium height, very free bloomer. Cut flowers will 

keep ten days or more in water. 

Certificate American Dahlia Society, 1918. 

Certificate New Yoik Horticultural Society, 1919. 

Silver Medal, Short Hills Dahlia Show (Garden Club) 1918. 

Entire stock has been bought by up Geo. Smith & Sons, East Orange, N. J. 
J. HARRISON DICK Hybrid cactus dahlia, pale corn colored, edges of petals are picoted with 

delicate lavender. Heads are held upright so that back petals hang down in a showei like a 

chrysanthemum. Long stems. 

Certificate American Dahlia Society, 1918. 

Winner 191 6 American Dahlia Society, for best unnamed "tested" seedling Dahlia, to be named 

by the Society for their late Secretary, Mr. J. Harrison Dick. 

This Dahlia is now the property of the American Dahlia Society, from whom plants may be 

purchased, $2.00 each. Address Richard Vincent, Jr., Pres., White Marsh, Maryland. 
LUCY LANGDON. Pale pinkish lavender Decorative. Vigorous grower, very free bloomer. Strong 

stems. 

Certificate American Dahlia Society, 1918. 
MINNESINK Large deep red Decorative. Strong grower, free bloomer, flowers have stiff stems 

Certificate American Dahlia Society, 1919. 

At Short Hills Show, 1918 exhibited as a seedling, it was taken out of its class and given the 

Silver medal as the finest Dahlia in the Show. 
PENELOPE VAN PRINCES Short stocky plants, bearing enormous salmon scarlet hybrid cactus 

blooms. 

Certificate, American Dahlia Society, 1919. 
AMERICAN BEA UTY Heavy hybrid cactus Dahlia, of true American Beauty color.Free bloomer, 

but needs severe disbudding. 
BLUSH Enormous pale pink Decorative, almost white at the center. Very long stems, blooms freely. 
APPLE BLOOSOM Charming pink single on long graceful stem. Flowers very freely, resembling 

its name. 
NINE OF SPADES Enormous blood red peony Dahlia, with splendid stem. Not very free bloomer 

causing the flowers to grow to great size. 

Four of the above have not yet been submitted for Certificates. 
SHANTUNG Seedling of 1919. Exhibited only at Short Mills. Geisha coloring, peony Dahlia. 

Stems four feet long, stiff as walking sticks. Blooms average ten inches across. Very free flower- 
ing. Was able to show six blooms at the Show, and cut four more the next day from one plant, 

of course. Silver Medal, Short Hills Garden Club, 1919. 



" Say it with the Flowers," the Sign-board lowers. 

Jarring on rustic scene. 

Obedient, I murmur, enigmatically 

Daisy 

Aster 

Mallow 

Nicotine. !!! 

A. G. H. 



36 



Solution of the Garden Problem Offered in 
the November Bulletin 

The editor takes great pride in announcing that Miss Nichols has 
chosen as the winning plan that submitted by Mrs. Robert C. Hill, 
East Hampton Garden Club. This pride is occasioned by the fact 
that the editor knew enough to choose Mrs. Hill as an associate 
editor. She is not surprised at the result of the competition but she is 
gratified to prove so promptly to the Garden Club of America that 
while she attempts to find congenial minds she indubitably knows 
how to pick winners. 

Unfortunately this Bulletin is so crowded that we cannot give 
the planting plan and description but since it is too late for spring 
planting and to early for fall the postponement is not serious. 

The Farm Journal has also made its awards for the Second Prize 
Contest. The first prize, $20.00, was awarded to Mrs. Francis King, 
the second prize, $10.00, (this is recorded with profound embarrass- 
ment) to Mrs. Walter S. Brewster, and the third prize of $5.00 to 
Mrs. Roy Sturtevant of the Garden Club of IlHnois. The winning 
plans will be printed in the Farm Journal for September, October 
and November and will also be reproduced in an issue of the Bulletin. 

Book Reviews 

Reviewing Committee 

Mrs. William K. Walbridge, Chairman. Mrs. T. H. B. McKnight 

Mrs. S. Edson Gage Mrs. Henry A. Prince 

Mrs. Charles H. Stout 

(All books marked (*), whether new or old, are among those con- 
sidered suitable for a permanent library.) 

*The Flower and the Bee: Plant Life and Pollination, by John H. 
Lovell. Charles Scribner's Sons. Price $2.00. 

An adequate review of the absorbing story of the Birth of Plants 
could only be a literal transcript of the book itseK, as it is almost 
impossible to select for comment or criticism from such a wealth of 
material. 

For Mr. Lovell's book impresses us as being itself a selection from 
an inexhaustible store-house of intimate knowledge, written as if 
in breathless haste to share with us the amazing universal interest into 
which we are being initiated — the interest in, and knowledge of, the 
link between animate and inanimate Nature. 

Too often, these have been kept carefully apart. We have studied, 
some of us superficially, botany and entomology, and having disposed 

37 



of them in their separate spheres, we emerge from our rudimentary 
education with a collection of whoUy detached facts which being 
unrelated, set up a perpetual ferment in our mental digestive organs. 

This separation is, of course, the danger confronting all specialists 
in any field, who in their divisions and sub-divisions, fail to take into 
account the relation of one part of a subject to another. Humanly 
speaking, one man announces that his special field of knowledge ends 
at the chin; the next possibly, has studied from the collar bones to 
the diaphragm; and so detaching one part from another, the human 
frame is mapped out into arbitrary portions. So speciaKsts continue 
to specialize, ignoring the contention of Mr. Dooley, who trium- 
phantly proves the co-relation of some of the remoter parts of our anat- 
omy by announcing that a Japanese can break a man's ankle by blow- 
ing on his eye-ball ! This co-relation is what, by analogy, Mr. Lovell 
does for us. He gathers together his specialized knowledge in at least 
three different fields. His book is botany — and not wholly botany; it 
is entomology — and not wholly entomology; in the last analysis, it 
is Floral Biology. A book of technical knowledge, inexhaustible re- 
search, and personal observation; fact upon fact, piled in an edifice of 
absolute certainty, abundant description of insect and flower and 
field, a wealth of anecdote and quotation, a mountain of statistics 
from which we view the wonders of the world, and are swept on again 
by a torrent of words, comparing, sifting, tabulating, quoting. 

Let it be admitted at once that the book is no "best seller," it is 
not Hght reading in any sense; and more, the reader must be literally 
strong in arm, for no doubt owing to the copious and beautiful illus- 
trations, it is printed on glazed American paper heavy with clay, and 
it is very tiring to hold. Nor is the reader to be carried to the skies 
(intellectually) on flowery beds of ease, — the author pelts him from 
the start, with hard facts and harder words. He must needs provide 
himself with a sturdy mental umbrella as a shelter against the hail- 
storm of such staggering terms as gymnospermous, symbiotic, cycad- 
phytes, amenophily and oligotropisml And there are tables toward the 
end of the book which would shatter the average nerve. 

Yet Mr. Lovell's book can be read by the amateur in gardens, at 
least once, with pleasure; it is a book which can be read many times 
by the worker in gardens, with profit. And it is worthy, not only of 
a star, but a place upon the book shelves of every lover of gardens, and 
of every lover of Nature. 

With the sudden eruption of blue-birds in New York last winter, 
there was danger that we might forget the masterpiece of the Belgian 
poet, — the wonderful story of the Bee. And Mr. Lovell has given us 
keys with which to unlock further mysteries in this fascinating sub- 
ject. Bee monogamy. Why the bee recognizes color. Why bee- 

38 



flowers are generally blue. Flower fidelity. Why the rose, supposedly 
the sweetest of flowers, yields no nectar. We instantly want to know 
more of these exquisite democratic joys which we call flowers; bee- 
flowers, wind-flowers, and bird-flowers, and of those Bees who serve 
them, in the ever-recurring cycle of Life. 

M. H. B. McK. 

A Little Garden the Year Round, by Gardner Teall. E, P. Button 
& Co. Price $2.00. 

Anyone with the priceless gift of imagination, and possessing 
a small plot of ground where-on to make a garden, — or even one al- 
ready established, — would do well to read Mr. Teall's book. 

I say imagination, because though written with meticulous care 
and most pleasantly expressed, there is no very great originaHty of 
suggestion. 

The chapters are short and full of practical information, and 
though it does not inspire one to fly out ^vith hoe and spade before the 
book is half read, yet it makes one feel the charm of a garden not too 
large for personal care. M. H. B. McK. 

Aristocrats of the Garden, by Ernest H. Wilson. Doubleday, Page 
& Co. Price $5.00. 

All who know what Mr. Wilson has accomplished for the world 
of horticulture will appreciate that this book has behind it an endless 
fund of knowledge on the subject. 

A Blue Book of the Garden, a floral Burke's Peerage, maybe; 
it contains the family histories of the best in Garden Society. Even 
the family skeletons are discussed, which makes for spicy reading. 

To quote Mr. Wilson himself, "How many garden lovers ever 
pause to think of the means whereby their gardens become endowed 
with multifarious variety from distant lands and climes. . . Could 
the denizens of our gardens give speech, their story would be more 
engrossing and more romantic than that conceived by the authors of 
the best sellers." 

The book is worth the price if only for the sake of the last Chapter, 
describing the quest of the now famous Davidia Tree. 

Sand Dunes and Salt Marshes, by Charles Wendell Townsend, 
M. D. The Page Company, Boston, Mass., 1913. 

It breathes of salt spray and dancing sunlight. An ideal book to 
take along if a summer by the sea is planned. H. M. S. 

*Rock Gardening for Amateurs, by H. H. Thomas. Cassell & Co., 
New York. 

39 



A book essential to all garden lovers, whether amateur or pro- 
fessional, whether the owner of rocks or just plain garden. A very- 
encyclopedia of alpine plants with plenty of information regarding 
most of the hardy perennials. It is crammed full of photographs both 
in colour and black and white, with sketches and diagrams illustrating 
methods of planting, habit of growth and root systems of the flowers 
discussed. 

Put it on your nine-foot shelf. H. M. S. 

Every Day in My Garden, by Virginia E. Verplanck. Price, $1.75. 

Mrs. Verplanck has filled a long-felt want with this garden diary. 
The introduction is full of the most helpful suggestions, the fruit of 
years of practical experience. 

There follows a calendar with directions for work in the garden for 
each day. A blank page for notes is left at the end of each month. 

Receipts for soil preparations, f ertihzers, and insecticides are given 
and numbered for reference with the preceding text. 

The whole book is practical and helpful. We all owe a debt of 
gratitude to our fellow member for having produced it. 

The Bulletin will gladly take orders for this book which both 
fellowship and interest should lead us to make a part of our library. 

A Book of Sundials, published by T. N. Fouhs, London. Price, $1.75. 

This Httle book is very charmingly done. The reading matter by 
Launcelot Cross is dehghtful and the thirty-six drawings of some 
famous Sundials by Warrington Hogg are very lovely. 

There are also eight illustrations in color. The latter half of the 
book is devoted to mottoes, some three hundred in number. 

G. S. W. 

Those who are not members of the American Rose Society, miss 
the privilege of having the "American Rose Annual'^ in their Ubraries. 
These books have been issued each year (there are now four, and one 
coming), and they include much valuable information on roses and 
many interesting articles by the foremost rosarians of this country. 
The illustrations are beautiful, and the volumes are substantially 
bound. 

Back numbers may be bought by members through the secretary, 
Mr. E. A. White, Ithaca, New York, at two dollars each. The first 
issue, that of 191 6, will soon be out of print. H. M. S. 



40 



Departments 



The Garden Club of America's List of Nurseries and Seedsmen 

(Subject to addition and revision.) 

Nurseries 

Reasoner Brothers, Royal Pa!m Nurseries, Oneco, Florida. Palms, Shrubs, Trees, Vines and Plants 

suitable for planting in Florida or in Cool Greenhouses in the North. 
Julius Roehrs , Rutherford, New Jersey. Popular Catalogue of Stock Divided by Tens. (For the 

wholly ignorant beginner.) 

Seedsmen 

S. F. Stokes & Co., Moorestown, New Jersey. (Unusually good Catalogue) 



Chester Jay Hunt 
Little Falls, New Jersey. 



Bulb Specialists 

John Scheepers 

2 Stone Street, 

New York. 



A. T. Boddington Co. 

1 28 Chambers Street, 

New York. 



(All the larger Seedsmen carry bulbs and send out special bulb catalogues. It is more important 
than ever to order bulbs early for September delivery because of the shortage caused by the Quarantine.) 

We have been asked the name of the large perennial Scarlet 
Ground Cherry that is dried for winter decorations. It is Physalis 
Franchetti. An easily grown, satisfactory plant which is Hsted by most 
of our Nurserymen. It is better to get the plants if the pods are wanted 
for this Christmas, but it is also easily grown from seeds which if sown 
out of doors in May will bear their " Chinese Lanterns" the following 
year. 

Our members are. reahzing the decorative qualities of the Hybrid 
MuUeins, or Verbascums, which are used so much in England. Sutton 
carries the seed which germinates easily and the young plants are 
simple to raise, needing only a sunny well-drained spot and plenty of 
room to spread. The Wolcott Nurseries, Jackson, Michigan, have 
ten choice varieties of which A. M. Burnie and Miss Wilmott are 
especially beautiful. 

Mulleins should be used as exclamation points at the end of a 
border or in isolated groups against a wall or a group of cedars; but 
seldom dotted around in a mixed border as they are very tall, con- 
spicuous and need thoughtful placing. Their large velvety leaves 
of a beautiful shade of grey are very telUng planted in front of Climax 
Michaelmas Daisies, 

We have had some queries about the six most useful varieties 
of Aconite or Monkshood. All are of easy culture near the sea or in 
any sandy soil. The earhest blue variety is the old Napellus, ob- 
tainable everywhere. Its dull grey-purplish-blue flowers open towards 
the end of June. There is a whitish variety also. The pale yellow 
Aconitum Lycoctunum blooms about this time and is good with the 
darkest larkspurs. 

Neither of the above are as valuable as the dark purple branching 
variety called "Spark's" which blooms the latter part of Juty, just 



The 

Garden 

Miscellany 



Physali 



Verbascums 



Aconites 



41 



Cinerarias 



Excursions 



when dark purple perennials are much needed in the border. It 
attains the height of five to six feet after it gets well established. 

Aconitum Autumnale is the old-fashioned September blooming 
kind. It is very like Napellus and seldom more than three feet high. 
It has also a greenish white variety which is rather poor. 

Aconitum Fischeri is a large-flowered, semi-dwarf variety. It 
comes late in September. Its pale greyish-blue blossoms are larger 
than any others. It is fine planted with Gladiolus America. Aconitum 
Wilsoni is the latest variety to bloom. It was brought from China by 
Professor Wilson and is a great favorite in the gardens that are not 
threatened by early frosts. It is Ksted as the only Aconite that is 
permissable in the Blue Border as all the others have a decided tinge 
of warm purple. It often reaches six feet. 

All Aconites prefer a semi- shaded position although they grow 
well in the open border if they have plenty of moisture. They are 
listed as shade lovers and therefore are often given the worst position 
in the garden overhung by shrubs or starved by tree roots, but when 
given proper situation they are simply stunning. 

Those of us who are fortunate enough to be able to attend the 
Annual Meeting in June will see Aconites in perfection in the delect- 
able Httle garden at "Villa Latomia." 

The fact that Aconite roots are deadly poison to eat has kept 
many people from using this valuable plant. One never eats one's 
Holly-hock roots which look exactly like Horse-radish, nor chews 
DigitaUs stalks, nor munches poppy seed, all of which would make one 
deathly sick; therefore, why would even a child be hkely to make a 
meal of these queer Httle roundish roots? I ask you ! 

The great admiration expressed for the exquisite colors of the 
hybrid Star Cinerarias at the New York Flower Show, has brought 
us a number of queries about the possibility of using these ideal plants 
in our Spring borders. We have taken up the question with various 
growers and are sorry to have to report that it is not possible to use 
them out-of-doors in this chmate even with the help of the green- 
house. I have seen them growing luxuriantly out under the Live Oak 
trees in a garden in Santa Barbara where they seeded themselves 
year after year but their silvery-blue-grey clouds are not for us except 
as greenhouse pets. Sutton makes a specialty of the seed of these 
Star Cinerarias in separate colors thus protecting the unwary pur- 
chaser from those screaming magentas and violent ultramarines which 
have kept us from realizing what this gem of winter flowers can be. 

For those who are near New York City in these spring months we 
suggest an excursion to the Bronx Botanical Garden in April, when the 
spring bulbs planted by Scheepers are at their height and again when 
the Weeping Cherries are in bloom (about the middle of May). 



42 



Mr. Chester Jay Hunt, at Madison, N. J., makes us all very wel- 
come at Narcissus time (April 15 th to 20th) and again at Tulip time 
(May 15th to 30th). It is a very easy trip by train or motor. 

Mr. T. A, Havermeyer's Lilac gardens near Roslyn, Long Island, 
are open to members of our Club. The celebrated Lilacs of Rochester 
are at their height in early June. 

But it is my heart's great desire that every one of our 2750 mem- 
bers will visit their nearest Iris nurseries during May and study this 
most ethereal flower as they have never studied it before. Those 
lucky enough to be near Philadelphia, on June ist, can see Iris in its 
glory at the First Annual Iris Show in the Wanamaker Auditorium. 
We are hoping that our club members will be among the prize winners; 
although the Iris Aristocracy wiU be out in full regalia. 

Chesterton somewhere remarks on the strange vagaries of " Family The Incom- 
Life." He asks who could be a more utter stranger to you than your jjotany ^^ '^ 
maiden Aunt, or who so temperamentally opposite than your cousins. 
He must have been thinking of the Ranunculus Family. It has always 
bewldered me to be assured that a Thalictrum is a first cousin to a 
Buttercup; or a Monkshood to an Anemone or a Clematis to a Colimi- 
bine and all six of them nieces of Love-in-a-Mist ! They neither look 
ahke, act alike, nor have they a taste in common. They are a bit 
acrid to be sure, although they seem to be more or less cut up about 
their leaving, but they all have their pistils distinct and unconnected 
and ready for a family feud. But wouldn't you hate to have to Hve 
in a family just because you happened to be Anatropous, which 
seems to mean "inverted and straight with your Mycrophyle next 
your hilHum and your radicle consequently inferior"? 

Anna Oilman Hell. 

The following article, reprinted in part from "Horticulture," Plant 
sounds so promising, that it would be well worth while to try a few Material 
plants of the St. Martin berry, I have looked through a dozen cata- 
logues for it, in vain, but still hope I can get it somewhere. 

"At recent exhibitions in Boston visitors have been greatly inter- |*- Martin 
ested in a remarkable new strawberry exhibited in bottles by Mr. 
Lewis Graton, of Whitman, a strawberry grower of long experience. 
It is with pleasure that I learn of Mr. Graton's intention to put this 
strawberry on the market this season, for it seems to me that it has 
great possibiHties. Mr. Graton, himself, is not an extensive commercial 
grower, but has spent many j^ears in perfecting this particular variety, 
hoping to make it the finest strawberry on the market. 

The large berries are a dark, rich red clear to the center, and are 
without green tips. The flavor is delicious, just the flavor looked for 
in a high class strawberry. 

43 



Sixteen St. Martins have filled a quart basket, and it holds its 
large size to the last picking. Fourteen berries have heaped a pint 
basket at the twenty-fourth picking of the season. It is excellent for 
canning, and it retains its high quahties in the jar. 

It has a perfect blossom, and it makes an abundance of long, strong 
runners. One plant set in April had fifty well-rooted plants on Novem- 
ber first of the same year. 

This great strawberry was not developed by strictly scientific 
processes of pollenization, but is the result of a seed sown with some 
others at Trumansburg, N. Y., in 1909. The seeds were taken from 
well-ripened, typical specimens of the following varieties: Brandy- 
wine, Ridgeway, Miller, Glen Mary, Commonwealth, and New York. 
The resultant seedHngs were gradually cut down to the one that is now 
the St. Martin. 

The original work on the St. Martin was done in New York state, 
but some years ago Mr. Graton moved to Massachusetts, bringing the 
plants with him. In 19 19, it received the silver medal at the Straw- 
berry Exhibition of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society. 

Altogether eleven years have been required to bring the new berry 
to a point where it would be put on the market, and it seems to me that 
the faithful, conscientious application which Mr. Graton has given 
the task, entitles him to the reward which he now seems likely to re- 
ceive." 
Propagating One fears that some of the best of the old Double Rockets will 
the ^o^^l® soon be things of the past. That lovely old flower, the Double Scotch 
White Rocket — greatly superior to the Double French Rocket — is 
becoming very scarce. To secure a stock it is necessary to cut down 
the plants without allowing them to flower until a fair number is ob- 
tained. If the plant is allowed to flower, it is difficult to obtain any 
offsets; only very few are produced under specially favorable condi- 
tions, and sometimes none at all. If the flower spikes are cut soon after 
they are seen, offsets or cuttings will form. These should be taken off 
and put into sandy soil and covered with a hand-hght or frame. A 
dozen or more plants of the Double Scotch Rocket will form a de- 
lightful feature of a border in summer; the pure white flowers are 
fragrant. S. A. M., Popular Gardening. 

"Fillers" It is only as the tuHps fade that we acutely realize the gaps that 
the winter has made in our borders, gaps that few annuals can fill, for 
so few of them have the foliage beauty of the lost perennials. In one 
of Miss Jekyll's books she suggests ruthlessly chopping off the heads 
of such perennial seedlings as escape the eye of the gardener during 
one season, a,nd confront him the next, sturdy and unashamed, in 
the very front of the border when they should be in the back. The 

44 



idea delighted me, a^d not content with seedHngs, I fill gaps ever>-- 
where in the border with small plants of Boltonia, preferably latis- 
quama; Michaelmas Daisies, named varieties, and our own beautiful 
wild Asters, which grow in almost endless shades of violet and mauve 
on our beloved Skokie. There is one in particular of which I am very 
fond, an almost pure white aster with flowers as small as the florists' 
Stevia, and so many, that when cut back and used in the front of the 
border, it has almost the efl'ect of a belated Gypsophila. Many Campa- 
nulas can be cut back successfully, as can all the beautiful Helem'ums, 
but of the latter, beware, for there are few borders that can happily 
assimilate their strong colors. I have not tried perennial Phlox, but 
I have often seen a stalk bloom near the ground when it was ac- 
cidentally broken off, so I think it could be used in clumps, cut low, 
in the front of the border. And what a lovely \'ista such a planting 
opens! How enchantingly we could arrange the soft mauves and 
pinks, with the wonder-purples of the new French Phloxes. Why have 
I never tried it? Perhaps because I have never truly loved Phlox. 
It has always seemed to be just the wrong height to be so flat, and so 
thick. Of course I recognize all its virtues, that it blooms in August, 
that it does not need staking, that it increases with almost too great 
abandon; and yet it leaves me cold. I have seen a Phlox border that 
was beautiful, and I have seen a first year's planting that was a joy, 
but when Phlox becomes estabHshed in a mixed border, there is 
almost always too much of it; it has what I can only describe as a 
"quality of thickness" that I do not like. It is the vice of its very 
virtues. 

So many of the perennials can be bought in pots nowadays, that 
one has the embarrassment of choice. Buddleya can be potted in 
larger sized pots when received from the nursery the last of April, the 
pots sunk in the ground, and if planted in the border on a cloudy 
day, or at evening, and shaded for several days, can be set out as 
late as the middle of June. Thalictrum glaucum, and Thalictrum 
dipterocarpum also come in pots, and though I have never tried to hold 
them late in the season, can be used till the middle of May for filhng 
gaps. 

For fiUing in the Rose Garden, three new roses are especially New Roses 
recommended, and as they come in pots, they can be planted at any 
time in the spring. Columbia, of a most luscious shade of "Raspberry 
Ice-cream pink" blooms well in the garden, and far into the autmnn. 
The stems are long, the flowers and buds of lovely form. The fohage 
is very dark and thick, and for so high-bred a rose, it is unusually free 
from all pests. Do look at the picture of it in Dreer's catalogue, and 
I am sure you will succtmib I Premier, fragrant, long-stemmed, healthy 
thornless, a beautiful pink, and unusually free flowering, — what more 

45 



could one ask of a rose? The third is Mrs. John Cook, a descendant of 
Ophelia. I do not know it, but I have read great things in its praise: 
that it is more beautiful than its parent, more robust, more prolific 
in the garden, and more fragrant. It certainly sounds promising. 

Louise S. Hubbard. 



Garden 

Pests 

and 

Remedies 



Lilacs and 

Their 

Troubles 



Lilacs are particularly easy to grow and for this reason are usually 
neglected and left to take care of themselves. 

They appreciate a deeply cultivated and well-manured soil. They 
thrive in plenty of air and sunlight and resent being wedged in by 
evergreens in crowded shrubbery. 

When lilacs fail to bloom it is frequently due to the wood not 
having ripened, owing to the overcrowding of the growth. 

The pruning of Klacs is simple. It consists of cutting, away the 
old flower heads and thinning out the weak shoots as soon as the 
flowering season is over. 

The suckers constantly thrown up by lilacs should be grubbed 
up at all seasons of the year. Choice varieties are frequently grafted 
on common stock, and if the suckers are allowed to grow, they will 
soon over-run the weaker graft. 

From The Garden. 



Special Plant 
Societies 



American Carnation Society 

A. F. J. Bauer, Sec'y, Indianapolis, Ind. 

Chrysanthemum Society of America 

C. W. Johnson, Sec'y, 2242 W. logth St., 

Chicago, III. 

American Dahlia Society 

E. C. Vick, Sec'y, 203 Elmwood Ave., 

Newark, N. J. 

National Dahlia Society 

R. W. Gill, Sec'y, Portland, Oregon 

California Dahlia Society 

JV. F. Vanderbilt, Sec'y., 725 Fifth St., 

San Rafael, Cal. 

Southern Dahlia Society 

W. E. Claftin, Secy, College Park, Md. 



American Gladolius Society 
A. C. Seals, Sec'y, Ithaca, N. Y. 
American Iris Society 
R. S. Sturtevant, Sec'y, Wellesley Farms, Mass. 
American Peony Society 
A. P. Saunders, Sec'y., Clinton, N. Y. 
Northwestern Peony and Iris Society 
W . F. Christman, Sec'y, 3804 Fifth Ave. 
Minneapolis, Minn. 
American Rose Sooety 
Prof. E. A. White, Sec'y, Cornell University, 
Ithaca, N. Y. 
American Sweet Pea Society 
William Gray, Sec'y, Bellevue, Rd. 
Newport, R. I. 



Preliminary arrangements are being made for exhibitions of both 

the Peony and Iris this Spring. 

Northwestern The Iris is grown extensively in the Northwest and especially at 

Peony and points tributary to the Twin Cities of MinneapoHs and St. Paul, Minn. 

s bociety rj^YiQ Ins Show will be held in MinneapoHs and a special Peony Show 

is being arranged for St. Paul. Definite dates have not as yet been 

announced. 

Many new varieties of both Peony and Iris will appear at these 
Shows, and a report of them will be found in the Bulletin of The 
Garden Club and in the American's Peony Society's "Bulletin." 

An article on "Some of the Newer Peonies" has been prepared by 
the writer, and will be presented in the May issue of the "Flower 

46 



Grower." This article contains a list of the new varieties and a 
number that are not as generally known as they should be; and many 
of the finest peonies originated in this country in recent years will 
be found therein. 

The Northwestern Peony and Iris Society has only been in exist- 
ence a few years, but has been exceedingly active in creating an in- 
terest in those flowers. Its members are scattered over fifteen states 
and additions are constantly being made to its membership roll. 

The Prehminary Schedule for the Eastern Show of the American Iris Society 
Iris Society is in our hands. As it is subject to change, all persons 
intending to exhibit should notify the Secretary, Mr. R. S. Sturte- 
vant, Wellesley Farms 95, Mass., in order to receive the Official 
Schedule giving all details which will be ready May 15th. 

The Show will be held in University Hall, Wanamaker's Store, 
Philadelphia, June ist and 2d, 1920 (date subject to change). 

Lack of space permits but a glimpse of the attractions offered to 
exhibitors. The classes will be divided into four Groups. Groups i and 
2 are open to any exhibitor. Group 3 is open only to amateurs, and 
Group 4 is open to members of Garden Clubs only. The Hst of prizes, 
contains medals of the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society, money, 
ribbons and plants of rare Iris, well worth trying for if interest in 
Iris were not a sufficient incentive. 

It is earnestly hoped that Garden Club members will exhibit. 
There is a Group especially for them, though they may also exhibit 
in Group i. This courtesy on the part of the officials of the American 
Iris Society should receive an enthusiastic response. And it is urged 
that there be many exhibits from and a large attendance of Garden 
Club of America members. 

Always cut twice as many, if possible, as you expect to use, select- Suggestions 
ing stalks on which buds are in different stages of development; cut H^^Kng*of Iris 
late in the afternoon before the Show and keep in water in a cool, dark for Exhibition 
place. 

For long distances the stalks may be transported in shallow boxes, 
packed in tissue paper with moist cotton around the ends of the 
stems. Opening buds may be tied with soft wool. 

Full-blown flowers cannot be carried in this way, and it should be 
remembered that Iris cut in bud invariably open smaller and often 
paler in color, and so do not truly represent the variety. 

A moderate number of full-blown flowers can be packed in boxes 
8x12x48 inches, with strips of cotton cloth run through the sides at 
various distances, each stalk being laid in separately and the cloth 
strip pinned on each side of the stalk so there should be no chance of 
slipping. 

The American Iris Society asks those who have handled these 

47 



fragile flowers to give its members the benefit of their experience, so 
that the safest methods of packing and transportation may reach the 
greatest number. 

Woman^s National Farm and Garden Association 

The Conference of the Mid-west Branch of the Association 
whose offices are at 1730 Stevens Building, Chicago, was held in 
Chicago at the Fortnightly Rooms in the Fine Arts Building, on 
Monday and Tuesday, March 2 2d and 23d. The programme allotted 
a day each to gardening and to farming with important lectures in 
addition — Old New England Gardens, Mr. Loring Underwood of 
Boston; and Edible and Poisonous Mushrooms, Dr. W. A. Murrill of 
the New York Botanical Gardens. These were illustrated with colored 
slides. Among the speakers on the two days' programme were Mrs. 
Francis King on Lilacs and Other Spring Flowers; Mrs.- Bertram J. 
Kahn on Flower Arrangement; and papers on Succession of Bloom, 
Mrs. F. W. Harnwell, and Small Gardens, Mrs. W. R. Corlett. These 
with the two lectures, filled the first day. 

Mrs. Charles W. Hubbard led off the second days' subjects with 
A Short Talk on Asparagus; Mr. W. J. Kittle spoke on The National 
Board of Farm Organizations, dwelling particularly on the question of 
Milk Production and price; Mr. Clement S. Houghton of Boston, took 
the place of the President of the Association's New England Branch, 
Mrs. George U. Crocker, in describing the great activity of that 
Branch in direct marketing and in other ways; and The Future of the 
Mid-West Branch was discussed by Mrs. Bertram W. Rosenstone, 
one of the staunchest supporters of the Branch from its beginning. That 
evening Miss Lena May McCauley spoke on Gardening of the Com- 
munity, and the general agricultural situation was set forth by an 
authority on soils and fertilizers. Professor Rand. 

Mrs. Russell Tyson, President of the Mid- West Branch, and Mrs. 
Francis King, presided over the sessions which were attended by very 
large and interested groups; discussion was free and fruitful, and the 
Conference brought seventy-four new members into the Branch, of 
which, it is timely as well as pleasant to add, Mrs, Frank 0. Lowden 
is Honorary President. 

The Annual Meeting of the National Association will be held at 
the New York Botanical Gardens, Bronx Park, New York City, on 
Tuesday, May 25th; business and the annual elections will take up the 
morning, luncheon will be served at the Lorillard Mansion, and after 
one or two fine speakers on farming and gardening have been heard, 
guides will direct the members and their guests through the Gardens 
which should be in full Spring beauty. All interested are warmly in- 
vited to this meeting. 

48 



Garden Club News 

Spring Meeting of The Garden Club of America 
March 17, 1920 

The Spring Meeting of the Garden Club of America was held 
at the Colony Club, at a quarter past ten, March 17, 1920. Thirty- 
five Clubs answered to the roll-call. 

The President, Mrs. J. WiUis Martin opened the meeting with a 
few words of welcome to the members present, and addressed a 
special welcome to the representatives of the Clubs admitted since 
the last meeting. 

On motion duly carried the reading of the Minutes was omitted. 

The Treasurer read her report which was accepted and placed on 
file. The reading of the Treasurer's report showed that though with 
one exception the Member Clubs of the G-Arjdex Club of America 
had accepted the additional amount of $1.50 per member as an 
additional due to the Garden Club of America, twenty-one of the 
Clubs had failed to remit this amount to the Treasurer. It was sug- 
gested that the Treasurer send out notices calling attention to this 
fact. 

Upon recommendation of the Executive Committee the following 
Clubs: 

The James River Garden Club, Virginia. 

The Garden Club of Middletown, Connecticut. 

The Summit Garden Club, New Jersey. 

The Wilmington Garden Club, Delaware, were presented for 
election to membership of the Garden Club of America. Upon 
motion duly made and carried the Secretary was empowered to cast 
the ballot for the election of those Clubs, and their election was an- 
nounced by the President. 

The question of the Emily D. Renwick Merit Medal was dis- 
cussed. Appreciation was expressed for the inspiration for indi\ddual 
work which the awarding of this Medal would bring to the members 
of the Garden Club of America. 

It was suggested that the President consult the Short HiUs Garden 
Club, which has so generously given this medal, in regard to a Commit- 
tee of Award. 

Mrs. Francis King was asked to give a report of the Committee 
on the Medal of Honorary Award. This cormnittee was appointed in 
1916 and has so far collected $1140.00, lea^dng a balance of $360 yet 
to be collected. 

Mrs. King asked for contributions to this fund, as it is hoped to 
have the medal presented at the Annual Meeting in June. Upon 
motion of Mrs. William A. Hutcheson, Somerset Hills Garden Club, 

49 



seconded, and duly carried, it was decided that the first Medal should 
be presented to Professor Charles S. Sargent, of the Arnold Arbor- 
etum. 
Bill Board The president called for a report of the Billboard Committee. 
Resolution Mrs. King reported upon the results which followed the sending of 
the resolutions, adopted in December, 1919, upon the "Billboard 
Advertising Campaign of the Society of American Florists." 

The resolutions were as follows : Whereas, The Society of American 
Florists, John Young, Secretary, 1170 Broadway, New York City, has 
begun an advertising campaign with billboards twenty feet long by 
seven high, bearing the slogan "Say it with Flowers" to be placed in 
conspicuous places over this country, and; Whereas, Eighty-seven 
of these billboards have already been ordered and the society is urging 
all its members to buy and set them up over America; Resolved, That 
the Garden Club or America, which, through a common interest in 
flowers, is one of the florists best friends, stands firmly against this 
misguided movement to deface our landscape and disfigure the 
streets of our towns and cities, and hereby respectfully protests against 
that movement; Also resolved, That a copy of this resolution be sent to 
Mr. Young and to every Member Club of the Garden Club of 
America with a request that each Club take action in this matter 
and forward a similar protest to Mr. Young, Secretary of the Society 
of American Florists. 

It is understood that these resolutions never reached the Society 
of American Florists, as a body, and the Secretary expressed the view 
that the Resolutions represented the action of a small number of people, 
not representative of the Garden Club of America. 

The President called upon Doctor Partridge to speak to this 
subject. 
Dr. Partridge's Doctor Partridge spoke as follows: "The Resolution adopted 
Address at the December meeting expresses a feehng which exists throughout 
the country against a growing offense, 

" Undistorted scenery is an asset to which the traveling public is 
entitled, in view of large taxes paid annually for expensive construc- 
tion and maintenance of ftoir highways. 

"For the State, or Federal Government to spend large amounts 
of money for the purpose of creating beautiful parks, and reservations, 
and wonderful highways, affording scenic effects, and then to permit 
these approaches to be disfigured by innumerable, commercial and 
unattractive signs, offending taste by size, color and crudeness, seems 
to be, on its face, a very poor business proceeding. 

"Advertisers follow a lead in this kind of highway advertising, 
usually set by those who place and profit by the erection of these signs. 
They do this without knowledge of the value to them. There is no 

SO 



way of testing the advantage to the trade which the signs are sup- 
posed to benefit. 

"State regulation would be generally approved, and the pohce t 

power of the State may be properly invoked to regulate or abolish an 
offense under which highway, river, lake and railway scenery suffiers. 

"Information for the benefit of the traveler is proper. Let this 
be given upon signs, advantageously placed upon approach to city 
or village, limited as to size and character. 

"Some one must move in this matter. I believe that general 
approval will follow, with assistance from many directions. 

"Under the circumstances, as related, in view of apparent doubt 
regarding the strength of opinion on the part of the Gaeden Club 
OE America, I offer the following: "Resolved, That the Garden Club 
OF America, at this, its Spring Meeting of 1920, reaffirms the resolu- 
tion adopted in December, 19 19." 

With a comment upon the travesty of having flowers presented to Important 
the public in such a manner, the resolution was unanimously carried. 

It was further moved and unanimously carried that the resolution 
and the fact of its reiteration be sent by each Member Club, to the 
Officers, Directors and members of the Publicity Committee of the 
Society of American Florists. For this purpose, copies of the Resolu- 
tion and a letter to accompany it are in preparation and will be sent to 
the Member Clubs to be signed and forwarded. 

Mrs. Stephen V. R. Crosby, President of the North Shore Garden Plans for 
Club, was asked to speak about the arrangements for the Annual °""^ ^^ "^^ 
Meeting. Mrs. Crosby expressed the welcome of her Club to the large 
attendance which her Club expected to be present at the Annual 
Meeting. She. outHned in general the plans which will be definitely 
presented in the Bulletin, and made an especial point of promptness 
of reply on the part of those who expected to attend the meeting. 

The matter of Daylight Saving was discussed, and upon motion, 
duly made and carried, it was decided that Mrs. King draw up a 
resolution, which should be forwarded to the proper authorities by the 
Secretary. 

Mrs. Martin announced the appointment of the following com- Committee 
mittees: Appomtments 

The Committee to co-operate with the Massachusetts Horticul- 
tural Society in the discussion of Quarantine No. 37: 

Mrs. Edward Harding, Member at large. 

Mr. Frederick Newbold, Garden Club of Orange and Dutches; 
Counties. 

Mr. Richard Saltonstall, President of the Chestnut Hill Garden 
Society. 
The Committee on the Revision of the Constitution and By-Laws: 

51 



Mrs. William Pierson Hamilton, Chairman, Garden Club of 
Orange and Dutchess Counties. 

Mrs. Samuel Sloan, President of the Philipstown Garden Club. 

Mrs. Horatio Gates Lloyd, Garden Club of Montgomery and 
Delaware Counties. 

Mrs. Harold Irving Pratt, North Country Garden Club. 

Mrs. Hugh D. Auchincloss, Garden Association in Newport. 
The Nominating Committee: 

Mrs, Benjamin Fairchild, Chairman, Garden Club of Orange 
and Dutchess Counties. 

Mrs. S. Edson Gage, Litchfield Garden Club. 

Mrs. Benjamin Warren, Garden Club of Michigan. 
The business meeting having been concluded, the President in- 
troduced Mr. J. Edward Moon, President of the American Association 
of Nurserymen, who presented the aims and progress of his Association. 
At the conclusion of Mr. Moon's speech, Mrs. Stewart, President 
of the Short Hills Garden Club, presented the following Resolution: 

Quarantine 37 RESOLVED: — ^That the Garden Club of America appoint a 
Resolution committee whose chairman shall attend the Meeting called by the 
Massachusetts Horticultural Society to discuss the action taken by the 
Federal Horticultural Board and known as Quarantine No. 37. That 
said Committee be instructed to report that the Garden Club of 
America deplores and disapproves of Quarantine No. 37 in its present 
form and will enthusiastically cooperate with the Massachusetts 
Horticultural Society and other organizations represented, in any 
effort to mitigate the conditions imposed by the action under dis- 
cussion. That the Massachusetts Horticultural Society be immediate- 
ly informed of the desire and intention of the Garden Club of 
America to so cooperate. 

which was seconded by Dr. Partridge, President of the Garden Club 
of Orange and Dutchess Counties and was duly carried. The members 
of the committee appointed are named above. 

Mr. William N. Craig, of the National Association of Gardeners 
next spoke on "The Point of View of the Professional Gardener," and 
upon co-operation between the gardener and the employer. 

At the conclusion of Mr. Craig's speech, the meeting adjourned for 
luncheon. After luncheon Mr. John C. Wister, President of the Iris 
Society spoke on the "Present Conditions in the Nurseries of France 
and England." 

At the conclusion of Mr. Wister's speech, on motion the Club 
adjourned, and a large proportion of those present attended the 
Flower Show at the Grand Central Palace. 

Harriet Pratt, Secretary. 

52 



At the 19 18 Dahlia ShoAv of the Short Hills Garden Club, Mrs. 
Charles H. Stout won the silver medal of the American Dahlia Society 
for the best new DahHa originated by the exhibitor. This DahKa was 
then named "Emily D. Renmck," after the late President of the 
Short Hills Garden Club. 

In 1919, the entire stock was bought from Mrs. Stout. She donated 
the money to the club as a nucleus for a fund to perpetuate Mrs. 
Renwick's name in a fitting manner. 

The Short Hills Garden Club has now presented to the G.\rden 
Club of America a medal known as the " Emily D. Renwick Achieve- 
ment Medal." It is to be awarded annually to a member of the 
Garden Club or America for the best achievement in gardening, or 
pertaining to gardening, during the current year. 

The medal is now ready and will be awarded for the first time at 
the Annual Meeting. Mrs. Martin has appointed a committee to 
arrange details and settle the method of award: 

Since the Spring Meeting many contributions have been made to 
the Medal Fund and the financial goal almost reached. Mr. John 
Flanagan, whose design was accepted before the War, interrupted the 
consummation of our plan, has been asked to complete his work in time 
for the Annual Meeting on June 29th. 

The names, with Presidents, of the four new Clubs elected to 
membership in the G.arden Club of America at the Spring Meeting, 
follow: 

James River Garden Club. 
President — Mrs. Thomas S. Wheelwright, Buckhead Spring, 
Chesterfield County, Virginia. 
G.ARDEN Club of Middletown. 
President— Mx^. Robert H. Fife, 287 High St., Middletown, 
Connecticut. 
Summit Garden Club. 
President — Mrs. John R. Todd, West Riding, Summit, New 
Jersey. 
Wilmington Garden Club. 

President — Mrs. W. K. Dupont, Wilmington, Delaware. 



"Emily D. Ren- 
wick Achieve- 
ment Medal" 



Medal of Hon- 
orary Award 



New Club 
Members 



News and Views 

"Fellow Members of the G.^rden Club of America, Ladies, and 
a very few Gentlemen: 

The representation of the "Big Four," of the various States of the 
Union, containing, as it now does, the frequent membership and 
presence of women, seems some justification for the presence of a 

S2> 



"mere man" to meet you, and, in the name of the Garden Club of 
Orange and Dutchess Counties, of the State of New York, to introduce 
to you another "mere man." 

With apology, I might add that, early in history, we are told of the 
presence of a man in the Garden of Eden. 

However, in spite of this seeming confusion, as President of the 
Garden Club of Orange and Dutchess Counties, I most cordially wel- 
come you. 

Our Club is proud to have opportunity to extend to this dis- 
tinguished gathering, the privilege and pleasure of listening to Mr. 
Wilson, and that I should be the one to represent our Club is, to me, 
a happy accident. 

Through the gift of $100,000 by the will of James Arnold, of New 
Bedford, in 1868, the Arnold Arboretum was made possible. I am 
told on good. New Bedford authority, that a woman, namely, Mrs. 
James Arnold, greatly encouraged, and probably suggested, the 
Arboretum idea. The love for, and devotion to their gardens, on the 
part of Mrs. Arnold and her sister, led to the interest of the men, — 
the latter were busy earning the means to make gardens. Toujours la 
Femme ! 

The Arnold Arboretum has a wonderful history, under the direc- 
tion of Professor Charles S. Sargent, since 1872, nearly fifty years 
ago, — and upon Professor Sargent honors have justly fallen from every 
part of the world. How Professor Sargent has regarded Mr. Wilson is 
well known. He has expressed the belief that, upon certain subjects, 
Mr. Wilson knows more than does any other person in the world. 
From Mr. Wilson's words will come inspiration. 

I have told you something about the Arboretum and Mr. Wilson. 
Now, I wish to inform him somewhat about the Garden Club of 
America. 

As an humble member, without the prejudice of holding office, I 
have observed, with great satisfaction, its development into an im- 
portant Organization, differing from many National organizations 
in that it has proceeded in its development in an even, balanced 
manner. It has not attempted to be •uUra-scientific, nor has the social 
side entered unduly. 

Its members are truly harmonious, — exhibit an esprit-de-corps, — 
and, as a body, it affords a good illustration of what a National 
Society can be. 

New England is very jealous of prestige. Those of us who are 
of New England descent take great pride in the fact. We were once 
shaken by the remark of a witty man of New York, who said that the 
"best thing out of Boston was the five o'clock train." 

We will agree that the best thing out of Boston was the five 

54 



o'clock train, yesterday, which brought to us Mr. Wilson! I present 
Mr. Wilson." 

The foregoing was the delightful introduction to a delightful 
entertainment offered by the Garden Club of Orange and Dutchess 
Counties to the Member Clubs of the Garden Club or America. 
The meeting took place in the ballroom of the Colony Club, New York, 
on March 19th. A large and enthusiastic audience listened to Mr. 
E. H. Wilson's interesting illustrated talk on "The Flowers and 
Gardens of Japan." Fortunately many distant members who were in 
New York for the Spring Meeting were able to stay over for this well- 
timed, enjoyable and generously hospitable occasion. 

You may be interested to know that the " Nine of Spades " was the The "Nine 

of Soades" 
original name of the Short Hills Garden Club, many years ago, when ^ 

only nine women formed it and worked in their own gardens. 

A dozen members of Easthampton and the Lenox Garden Clubs, ^^''l'^^ ™ Prac- 
have been taking a course in practical gardening at the New York 
Botanical Gardens, Bronx Park. They have been mixing soils, 
planting seeds in flats, thinning, transplanting, budding and pruning. 
They were especially interested in the work of budding roses on stock 
and hope to use their acquired knowledge in their own gardens this 
summer. They had two demonstrations of cross fertilization and 
hybridization and were shown the intricacies of keeping the records 
of these crosses. 

Indeed they were so fired with a desire to hybridize that their 
friends are apprehensive of the results; but, as out of 100 cross fer- 
tilizations only one or two ever show any great variation from the 
parents and even then it takes two years before 5^ou are sure of the 
strain, the Horticultural world need not be terribly agitated over 
the advent of a strange and weird new flora, the plants are much more 
apt to "revert to type." 

From Mrs. John A. Stewart, Jr. President of the Short Hills Gar- Suggestion 
1 y-,1 , 1 r n • , • for a Summer 

den Club comes the lollowmg suggestion: 

There may possibly be hostesses who, when they are notified that 
they are to have such a meeting, might be at a loss for an entertain- 
ment. In these days when so much is written and said about flower 
arrangement, the following plan might be amusing as well as in- 
structive. 

The hostess should gather flowers and foKage, both cultivated 
and wild, putting them in many containers so they may be easily 
handled — each member to provide her own receptacle and, before 
those present, make an artistic arrangement from the flowers pro- 
vided. Of course the advice and criticism of a professional would be 
very advantageous, but plenty of amusement may result and much 
may be learned from the friendly jeers or plaudits of the company. 

55 



Bulletin Correspondence 

Dear Mrs. Brewster: — I now send the fourth article for the Gar- 
den Club of America and a diagram, and hope it may be as you like. 
I am very grateful to you for so kindly sending the copies of the 
Bulletins containing the former articles. I should like to tell you 
how well got up I think the Bulletin is, and how full of useful, helpful 
matter. Also the decision to avoid advertisements gives the whole 
thing a higher and better tone. This also enables correspondents, when 
they find reason to praise the work or produce of any firm, to do so 
without hesitation — a thing we cannot do in our advertisement-loaded 
journals. 

I am much interested by your note at the end of my January 
article, but there is one which needs further explanation, and I am 
sorry that I did not make it clear. The Purple Sage of my spring 
garden is not Salvia Solaria, but- the common sage of the herb garden 
S. officinalis, the same plant whose leaves we use for flavouring 
sausages and stuffing for goose, only with purplish leaves. I am a 
little doubtful whether it would come true from seed, even if seed 
could be obtained, but I must leave some for seed this year and try 
it. In a general way it is not encouraged to flower as it is grown for 
the colour of the leaves. 

Yours very sincerely, 

(Signed) Gertrude Jekyll. 

The member who forwards this letter asks for comment and 
enUghtenment. Certainly we are all victims of this "superstition." 

My dear Madam: — ^The superstition about August planting of 
Lilium Candidum about which you write in your recent letter is very 
prevalent, and held by many otherwise expert gardeners. In the 
face of this superstition, it is our practice to plant every year from 
fifteen to twenty thousand of these bulbs on November ist. These 
bulbs are grown for the wholesale cut flower market. With us this 
November planting of Lilium Candidum is a cold-blooded business 
proposition. We do it to make money, and the fact that we con- 
tinue to plant in November is, we think, sufficient expression of our 
opinion on this subject. 

Very truly yours, 
Rhea F. Elliot, Elliott Nursery. 

Dear Madam: — I have read your Bulletin with such pleasure, 
as evidencing the real interest now being taken in all that appertains 
to horticulture in America. May I point out that the Purple Sage 

56 



that K. L. B. takes to be Sahaa Sclarea is a very different plant. It is 
merely a form of the old Sage, growing about six inches high, with 
leaves of a tender "bloomy " purple turning off to grey, with the young 
shoots of deHcious creamy pink. I am now using it as a carpet to a 
grouping of pink Fyrus-Malus, pink Tamarick, red-purple Japanese 
maples, and your dainty "CaKco" bush. Its flowers are insignificant, 
and oh, pinch off! The variety of "Salvia Sclarea^' alluded to sounds 
like a child of mine which made such a sensation at Olympia where I 
showed it, and of which I sent seeds to your Vice-President. The seeds 
came originally from the Vatican garden, and it is a much more 
beautiful thing than Salvia Sclarea as generally seen. With me it will 
grow five feet high mth rosy bracts and pale blue tubular flowers, 
the pink and blue together giving a dehcious mauve effect. One great 
advantage is that after the first flush of beauty is over, the bracts 
take on a silvery hue and remain good looking for many weeks. It 
is supposed to be a descendant of the old English " Clary" from which 
a wine beloved of cottagers was brewed, and it has a pungent and 
aromatic scent. 

It may interest your readers to hear that it has now been proved 
thatapow^der has more power over rust on Hollyhocks than any spray. 
This powder can be obtained from Mr. Vert, the Hollyhock raiser, 
Saffron Walden, Essex. He has the most glorious varieties including 
the great fig-leaved Hollyhocks with single flowers, and that needs 
to be planted six feet away from one another. You may have noticed 
that Hollyhocks near a dusty country road flourish in any cottager's 
garden, while they fair even vnth the most tender "nourishing"' in 
the big gardens close by. 

Pray forgive this long screed. I have such delightful memories 
of some of the garden clubs where I gave talks, — Lenox, Short HiUs, 
Southampton, Lake Forest and others, that I feel I am talking to 
many old friends. 

I was so grieved to learn through the "Bulletin" of the death 
of Mrs. Renwick. She had been so busy experimenting with dahlias 
when I last heard from her. She is a great loss to all flower friends. 
I fear when I come over again, which I hope to do next autumn, that I 
shall find many blanks, as I hear my kind friend Mrs. Boardman has 
passed on also. They would have loved a little garden I am now mak- 
ing, formal, in shape of a diamond, grass walls, beds laid with lavender 
both sides and filled with weeping trees of pink Roses and Madonna 
LiUies and all around Hollyhocks in mauve and sulphur yellow, and 
pale pink and purple masses of them against a background of dark 
and shining Rhododendrons of great height, and carpeted with that 
lovely Nepeta, a Catmint, of mauve and silvery grey. The nurseryman 
will teU you that it does not seed, but it used to sow itself in gravelly 

57 



soil with me in Berkshire, and as it grows both at Newport and 
BrookHne it should be obtainable in America. 

Yours faithfully, 

Alice Martineau, 
Broom Hall, Sunningdale, Berkshire, England. 

As a new member and as a professional, the Editor of the Bulletin 
has very considerately given me space to say a few words to the 
Garden Club of America. 

What a joy it is to turn again with clear consciences to the pleas- 
ures of the great outdoors. I say this guardedly, with the demoraliza- 
tion of War Conditions still hanging over us — the lack of trained 
gardeners, the high cost of labor and the scarcity of plant material, 
but, if we are forward looking, as all good gardeners are, we will over- 
look these immediate discouragements in the path of our ultimate 
achievements. 

Certainly few individual members of the Garden Club of 
America or individual Clubs could be accused of lack of appreciation 
of gardens and especially of flowers, and you are by your interest 
rendering fine service and by so doing raising the standard of horti- 
culture. The old rule of supply and demand works unerringly, and if 
you insist (as the English do) , in having the best varieties of plants 
for your gardens, you will get them. It will then become worth while 
for the nurserymen to offer stock for which there is real and permanent 
demand. They may begin by growing the simple things themselves, 
or if this is economically impossible, insist on raising the embargo on 
importation, so wdth the united demand of garden lovers and plant 
growers Quarantine No. 37 may before long disappear into the Umbo 
reserved for mistaken poHtical measures. 

All your efforts for better flower growing are well worth while, 
but beyond the high wall of your gardens proper, lies a wide field 
that is in need of just such interest and good work as you have been 
doing within. 

Many Garden Club members are so keen about flowers and have 
so concentrated upon them that they do not realize they are but a 
part of all the fine plant material we have to draw from. Few also 
realize the wonderful variety of our native trees and shrubs, unsur- 
passed by any country in the World. As we go to Europe for our 
flower novelties so Europe comes to us for the interest and variety 
and beauty of our native plants. 

Flowers, exquisite as they are, are but finishing touches to our 
pictures, we must first consider the framework and learn to use our 
materials outdoors as we would indoors, before beginning the furnish- 
ing of a house. To do this we want to develop our senses of ob- 

58 



servation and of beauty. Nature is endlessly and untiringly present- 
ing wonderful landscape and gardening compositions to our unseeing 
eyes. She is always trying to teach us the value of bigness, unity and 
simplicity of effect in her own large scale, which lessons, if we have 
but wit to see, we can follow in principle and reduce in scale for our 
own home grounds. Our gardens or grounds, be they formal or in- 
formal are but a part of a whole scheme, and that scheme is our special 
bit of land, its special opportunity for original development. 

May I speak as a Landscape Architect? We want you, who are our 
friends and often our cHents, to appreciate our aims and to help us by 
your appreciation, to carry out our ideals. We want you to work with 
us in the making of more lovely gardens, the laying out of Country 
Places, big or Httle, and of suburban plots or even tiny back yards. 
The planning of City Parks, Play Grounds and of Cemeteries. We 
want your interest and cooperation for the preservation of fine woods, 
groups of trees and other natural scenery as well as for the proper 
choosing and placing of War Memorials and other activities incidental 
to community life. 

Here is an opportunity for co-operation between the Garden Clubs, 
the Landscape Architects and the Local Village Improvement Societies 
which should open up all sorts of possibiHties in the future for achieve- 
ments of real value and real beauty. Can't we get together for some 
constructive work? 

Mariax C. Coffin. 
Fellow Am. Society of Landscape Architects. 
12 Upper Berkeley Street, W. I. 

Arnold Arboretum Calendar 

DATES OF FIRST FLOWERS OR BEST FLOWERING I'ERIOD 

First fis. Prunus nigra; April 30, 1896; May i, 1S99; May 2, 1900; 

May 6, 1914; May 8, 1916; April 28, 1919. 
First fis. Prunus aAdnum; April 25, 1897; May 9, 1901; May 4, 1904. 
First fls. Prunus pendula; April 25, 1897; April 30, 1898; April 29, 1900. 
First fis. Prunus sa.chalinensis; April 3, 1898; May 7, 1901; i\pril 21, 

1902; May 4, 1904; April 7, 1910; April 29, 1911; May i, 1914; 

May II, 1917; April 27, 1918; April 23, 1919. 

Prunus sachahnensis in about best bloom April 30, 19 19. 
Peach trees in about best and fullest bloom May 4, 1919. 
Malus baccata (at Motleys) JNIay 3, 1897; May 2, 1899; May i, 

1902. 
First fls. Malus sylvestris (Baldwin) May 10, 1897; May 14, 1898; 

May 9, 1899; May 13, 1900; May 21, 1901; May 6, 1902; 

May 9, 1905; May 18, 1907; May 12, 1912. 

59 



Apple trees generally in best bloom May i8, 1919, some passing. 
Pears in about best bloom May 9, 1919. 
Syringia vulgaris (at best) May 22, 1897; May 23, 1914. 
Forsythia (at about best) May 9, 1901; April 22, 1902. 
Kalmia latifolia, about best bloom June 16, 1919. 



Spring Calendar of the Rochester Parks 

Collection of Lilacs containing 310 varieties and species in good 
bloom about May 25th. 

Crab-apples begin to blossom about May 2otli and the different 
species and varieties maintain a very good show until about the 
first week in June. 

Azaleas probably in good bloom about June ist. They have not 
been injured by the winter but the Rhodendrons look badly o^ving to 
two severe winters, this year and two years ago. 

The large collection of Peonies will be in good condition from 
June 15th to 20th. 



The Garden Club of America's List of Lecturers 

Prepared by Mrs. Frederick L. Rhodes, Librarian 

(Subject to Addition and Revision) 

Miss Ltlian C. Alderson. 69 Lake Avenue, Greenwich, Connecticut. 

Garden Outlines and Their Values. (Lantern slides of Italian Gardens). Plant Propagation. Bulbs, 
Indoors and Out. Color in the Garden. Iris. An Amateur's Greenlwuse. Flowering Shrubs. Enemies 
and Diseases of Plants. What Women are Doing in Horticulture. The Fruit Garden. iRoses. The 
Herbaceous Border. How to Make a Rock Garden. Sweet Peas. Annuals and Biennials. The Possibil- 
ities of a Small Garden. (Lectures illustrated by flowers.) (Specimens and practical demonstration.) 

$2s.oo and expenses for a single lecture. 
Mr. F. W. Besley, M. F. D. Sc, Sis Calvert Bldg. Baltimore, Maryland. 

General Forestry and Forest Protection. Forestry in Maryland. Roadside Tree Planting and Memorial 
Tree Planting. Black and white, also colored lantern slides with all lectures. 

Only traveling expenses in Maryland. $25.00 and expenses outside of Maryland. 
Mrs. S. a. Brown. 155 We^t 58th Street, New York City. 

Color Planting and Correct Color Nomenclature. Attractive Weeds. Herbs— .A Garden of Enchantment. 
Herbs used in "Seasoning and in Medicine" in "Magic Romance" and Jor " Sweets" for "Beautifying 
the Body as Well as Satisfying the Senses." Ways and Means of Amateur Exhibitions. (Club organiza- 
tions and suggestion for Flower Shows.) When the East and ]^ est Meet in the Arrangement of Flowers. 
(Japanese arrangement.) 

Personality in the Garden (with the planting lists for the following gardens "Betwixt Thee and Me." 
A Boundary line). A Wayside Inn {for the winter birds). ''April Showers and September Dews" (for 
spring and fall effects). Italian Days and Cloudless Skies" (.4 garden of light and sitadows). The Under- 
ground World (soil and the preservation of nature's humus). Judging for Flower Shows, etc. 

$25.00. Prefers to lecture in vicinity. 

Mr. J. Wilkinson Eluot, Magee Building, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Gardens at Home and Abroad. i;o black and white, 75 colored lantern slides. 

$25.00 and travelling expenses. 
Mr. Bertrand H. Farr, Wyomissing, Pennsylvania. 

Peonies, Irises. Black and white also colored lantern slides with each lecture. Traveling and hotel 
expenses only. 
Mrs. Beatrix Farrand, 21 East nth Street, New York City. 

Problems in Garden Design (lantern slides). Rock and Wall Gardens. Design and Composition in 
Gardening. 

Immediate vicinity $75.00 and expenses. 250 miles or more special arrangement. 
Mr. John K. M. L. Farquhar, 6 South Market Street, Boston, Massachusetts. 

Lessons from Gardens Abroad on Construction and Planting. New Hardy Plants for American 
Gardens. Hardy Lilies and Other Bulbous and Tuberous Plants. Lantern slides, also colored slides with all 
lectures. Traveling expenses only. 

60 



Miss ADGUsxmE Haughton, Paoli, Pa., and 1624 Pine Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Songs appropriate to a Garden Club meeting. Singing atid explaining a programme of songs. 

Immediate vicinity %2S.oo and e.xpeoies. 250 miles, $50.00 and e.xpenses. 500 miles, $100.00 
and expenses. 
Mr. Herbert K. Job, 2qi Main Street, West Haven, Connecticut. 

"Wild Bird Life." "Knowing Our Wild Birds. ' "The C/iarm and Value of Wild Birds." "How 
to Attract and Propagate Birds." Colored slides, motion pictures, or both. 

$2s.oo and expenses. (Represents the National Association of Audobon Societies.) 
Mr. Charies E. Hunn, Landscape Art Dep't, X. Y. State College of Agriculture. Ithaca, New York. 

Propagation and Care of Shrubbery, (also material for demonstration and numercnis lantern slides.) 

$25.00 and expenses. 
Mr. Furman L. Mulford. Dept. of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. 

Beautifying the Farmstead. Beautifying Home Grounds, Street Trees. National Rose Test Garden, 
Roses for the Home. Annual Flowering Plants. (Many black and white, also colored slides with all lec- 
tures.) 

Expenses only when possible to go. 
Miss Rose Standish Nichols. 55 Mount Vernon Street, Boston, Massachusetts. 

The Rise of Gardens, etc. Garden Design. Gardens from a Practical and Aesthetic Standpoint. 
Color in the Garden. English, French and Italian Gardens. How to Group Annuals and Perennials. 
(Black and white, also colored lantern slides with each lecture.) Miss Nichols will adapt her lectures to the 
requirements of any club. 

S50.00 and expenses. 
Mr. T. Gilbert Pearson, 1974 Broadway, New York City. 

Bird Lift in the Garden. Life in tlu:. Nest. The Fight for American Bird Protection, Bringing Birds 
to the Home. (All lectures illustrated, when desired, with colored slides,^ or moving pictures or both.) 

Immediate vicinity S25.00, 250 miles, S30 and expenses. 500 miles, S50 and expenses. 
Miss Elsa Rehuan, Landscape .\rchitect. 492 Mount Prospect Avenue, Newark, N. J. 

Color and Succession of Bloom in the Garden (with lantern slides). The Small Place (with lantern 
slides). Special lectures prepared upon request. 

Immediate vicinity $25.00. 250 miles S50.00. 
Mr. Thomas B. Symons, Department of Agriculture. College Park, Maryland. 

Food Production, tite Relation Between the Producer and Consumer. Present Status of Agricultural 
Production in Relation to Consumption. Extension activities in Maryland. 
Miss Rosalie E. ZiMMERitAX, 1340 Pacific Street, Brooklyn N. Y. 

On Famous Gardens (colored slides.) American Gardens. Practical Talks. 

Immediate vicinity $25.00. 250 miles $40.00. 500 miles S50.00. The lectures can be on French, 
Italian, English and American Gardens, singly or on the most notable of all countries. 

Practical Talks include suggestions on landscape gardening and the planting of trees, shrubs and 
vegetables. 
Mrs. Ch.\rle3 H. Stout, Short Hills, New Jersey. 

Dahlias and their Culture. (Black and while and colored slides.) 

$25.00 and expenses. Fee goes to the war charities. 
Mr. Arthur Herrington, Madison, N. J. 

Iris, Lilacs, Trees, Evergreen Trees, Flowering Shrubs and Trees, Spring ^flowering Bulbs, (Black and 
white lantern slides, also colored slides with all lectures.) 

250 miles, $35.00. 500 miles, $50,00. Can furnish own lantern without cost. 
Mr. J. Horace McF.\rl.-\nd, ilt. Pleasant Press, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. 

Comman Trees and Their Uncommon Flowers. Flowers and Ferns in Their Haunts. American Roses 
and Other Roses. (Beauiifully colored lantern slides with all lectures.) 

Immediate vicinity §65.00, 250 miles, $90.00, 500 miles, $125.00. Price does not include lantern 
service. Must have at least one month's notice. 
Miss Marluj C. CoFFI>f, Landscape Architect. 830 Lexington Avenue, New York City. 

Garden Harmony and Succession in Planting (with slides). Gardening Through the Tear, in two 
Parts, Spring and Early Summer — Late Summer and Autumn (Illustrated.) The Country Place andils 
Treatment. Some Gardening "Dont's." Form and Color in tIte Garden (with slides). 

Immediate vicinity, $50,00. 100 miles, S75.00, 500 miles, $100.00 or more, expenses. 
Mr. J. Otto Thilow, Secretarj', Henry A. Dreer, Inc., 714 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Pennsyl- 
vania. 

Horticulture and Floriculture. Flowers from Snow to Snow. Alpine Flora of the Canadian Rockies. 
Life and Vegetation of Hawaiian Islands. Flora of Yellowstone Park. Bermuda, Cuba and Jamaica. .4 
Cruise to the South Sea Islands. (Black and white, also colored lantern slides.) 

Expenses only. 
Mr. Ernest N. Cory, College Park, ISIaryland. 

Insects Affecting Flowers and Ornamentals. Insects of the Orchard. Insects of the Garden. Beautiful 
and Interesting Denizens of our Countryside. 

No charge in Maryland, $50,00 and expenses outside of Marj'land. 
Mr. Richard Rothe, Clenside, Pennsylvania. 

Perennials and Perennial Gardens (js-100 slides, mostly in color). Rock Gardens (slides 100, colored 
slides go). Specialist in Rock Garden designing and building. Fascinating Problems in Outdoor Art 
(so to 75 slides in color). 

Immediate \'icinity, $10.00, Longer distances please correspond direct with Mr. Rothe. 
Mr. John Scheepers, No, 2 Stone Street, New York City. 

Tulips. Narcisses and Other Bulbs. Lilies. Iris. (Colored slides with all lectures.) 

Immediate vicinity $50.00, 250 miles Sioo.oo. 500 miles, $150.00. All expenses. 
Mr. Edward .\vis, 500 Fifth Ave., New York City, (Room 402). 

" Birdland" Lecture Recital, (too lantern slides.) 

Immediate vicinity, $50.00. 250 miles, $65.00. 500 mile.^, Sioo.oo. Program. 

Bird Mimic, The Morning Concert, violin and bird songs. Songs and Stories of the Birds. Twilight 
Hymns. A Woodlaiid Concert. The Canary's Song. .4 Meadow Trio. The Wood pewee and the "Country 
Church Organ." Nocturnal Sounds. A Noonday Concert. The Mocking Bird. An Imaginary Bird Trip. 
Vesper Songs. 

61 



Mr. Ernest Harold Baynes, Meriden, New Hampshire. 

Wild Birds and How to Atlracl Them. Our Wild Animal Neighbors. Our Animal Allies in the World 
War. {Lantern slides, part of them colored.) 

Immediate vicinity, $100.00. 250 miles.. $150.00. 500 miles, $200.00. 
Miss Nina L. Marsh.^ll, 718 Madison Avenue, New York City. Tel. 3050 Plaza. 

"The Flowers and Their Welcome hisect Giiesis." Models. "Seed and Fruit Travelers," (with 
models.) "The Story of the Honey Bee" (with model bee and living bees. Original slides to illustrate.) 
"Homes and Family Life of Bees, Birds and Flowers." " The Story of the Mushrooms " {100 slides, colored 
by hand from original photographs). 

Immediate vicinity, $30.00 and expenses. Longer distances, write to Miss Marshall. 
Prof. S. B. Sh.aw, College Park, Maryland. 

The Home Orchard. Production of Better Fruit. Preparation of Fruit for Market. (Colored lantern 
slides, also a motion picture film of three reels). "Apples and the County Agent''' (being used to encourage 
the production of better fruit). 

Only charge is for traveling and subsistence expenses. 
Mr. J. J. Levisoj-;, M. F., Sea Cliff, Long Island, New York. 

The Care and Planting of Trees on Private Estates. The Care and Planting of Trees on City Streets. 
Landscape Forestry for Estates and for Municipalities. 

Immediate vicinity, $25.00. 250 miles, $50.00. Or free, if necessary. 
Mrs. Jean Kane Fotilke, Bala Farm , West Chester, Pennsylvania. 

The Garden versus the Farm. Garden Wastes and Savings. Your Garden's Duty. 

Immediate vicinity, $10.00. 250 miles, $20.00. 500 mUes, $25.00. Also expenses. 
Miss Letitia E. Wright, Jr. "Waldheim," Logan, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 

Bees and Beekeeping. (Lantern slides can be used.) 

Vicinity $20.00. 250 miles, S25.00. And expenses. 
Mrs. Wtlliam A. Hutcheson (Martha Brookes Brown), .15 East .S2nd Street, N. Y.-City. June 1 to 

October i, Gladstone, N. J. 

The Flower Garden. (125 lantern slides.) Hedges, Arbors, Gateways. (125 lantern slides.) Some 
Elements in Good Village Planting, (i2S lantern slides.) 

\'icinity, $50.00, 250 miles, $75.00, 500 miles, $100.00. Also expenses. 
ilR. Herbert W. Fauxkner, Washington, Connecticut. 

Mysteries of the Flowers (with moving charts showing action of Insects. Slides and colored slides). 
Seeds Bewitched (with moving charts showing act of Seed Dispersal). After July 15, 1920, the following 
ecture will be ready: What Flowers Know (with moving charts showing how Flowers show Intelligence). 

Immediate vicinity, $50.00. 250 miles, $70.00. 500 miles, $100.00. 
Mr. Charles H. Totty, Madison, New Jersey. 

Any Horticultural subject. No slides. Lecture for benefit of my customers, jjtst for expenses of trip. 
Mr. Chester Jay Hunt, Little Falls, New Jersey. 

The Essentials of Ottt-door Bulb Culture. The Essentials of In-door Pulb Culture. The Planting of 
Tulips and the Selection of Varieties. The Planting of Dajfodils and the Selection of VariUies. The 
Spring Garden. Bulbs for Exhibition. The Romantic Tulip. Dafodilmania. Bloembollenkweekers. A 
Day in my Trial Gardens. No lantern slides with any lecture. 

Fee $20.00 and expenses. 
Mrs. B. Hammond Tracy, Cedar Acres, Wenham, Massachusetts. 

Gladioli (with lantern slides;) in summer with Cut Blooms). 

Immediate vicinity, $25.00, 250 miles, $35.00, 500 miles, $5000. Expenses also. 
Dr. Spencer L. Dawes, Room 703, Hail of Records. Centre and Chambers Streets, New York City. 

The Doctor's Garden (Photographs, life size, of medicinal plants and flowers. Lantern slides both black 
and colored.) 

Vicinity $25.00, 250 miles, $50.00, 500 miles, $50.00 and expenses. 
Miss Elizabeth Leighton Lee. Director School 01 Horticulture, Ambler, Pennsylvania. 

The History of Landscape Gardening. No slides. The Plan of the Grounds. Hints on planning and 
planting the garden. (Some lantern slides for the above lecture.) The School of Horticulture. Lantern slides. 
Charge travelling expenses only for this lecture. Small Trees and Shrubs Suitable for the Garden. The 
Design of the Garden. 

Vicinity $25.00, 250 miles, $35.00 and expenses. 500 miles, $40.00 and expenses. 
Mr. George T. Powell, Ghent, New York. 

Improvement of Trees and Plants through Bud Selection. (This includes fruit trees and flowers also 
garden vegetables. This gives most valuable results. Charts are used instead of slides.) 

Vicinity $25.00, 250 miles $35.00, 500 miles $40.00 and e.xpenses. 
Miss Frances Benjamin Johnston, 163 Lexington Avenue, New \''ork City. 

Americafi Gardens in Color, Gardens East and West. (150 colored slides.) Planning and Planting 
Gardens, (ijo to 200 slides, colored, with plans.) Garden Lore, Flower Legend, (iso to 200 historical 
slides.) 

Minimum fee $75.00 and expenses. Will make special terms where two or more lectures can be 
given in nearby places about the same date. 
Mr. a. P. Saunders, Clinton, New York. 

Peonies, (no slides.) 

Vicinity $25.00, 250 miles $25.00, 500 miles $25.00 and expenses. 
Mrs. William E. Verplanck, Mt. Gulian, Fishkill-on-Hudson, New York. November i5tb. to May 
— , Princeton, Nev/ Jersey. 

Roses. Garden Borders. Spring Work in the Flower Garden. Plant Diseases and Care of Orchards 
Fall Work in the Flower Garden. Spring Bulbs, Lilies and Summer Blooming Bulbs. Rock Work, Rock 
Plants^ Pools and Sundials. Planning and Planting Flower Gardens. 

Vicinity .$30.00 and expenses. 200 to 300 miles from N. Y., $35.00 and expenses. 

Two talks for beginners, on Planting the Vegetable and Flower Garden and Pruning. $30.00 for 
the two lectures. 



62 



Membership List of 
The Garden Club of America 

Giving Names and Addresses op Psesidents for 1919-1920 



ALBEiTAEXE 

Mrs. Harry T. Marshall, University, Va. 

Alleghen"y Couxty 
Mrs. Henry Rea, Sewickley, Pennsylvania 

Amateur Gardeners of Baltimore 

Miss Dora L. Murdoch, 245 West Biddle Street 

Baltimore, Md. 

Bedford 

Mrs. Rollin Saltus, Mount Kisco, New York 

Chestnt;t Hill 

Mr. R. M. Saltonstall, Chestnut Hill, 

Massachusetts 

ClNCINN.^TI 

Mrs. Samuel H. Taft, 332Q ^Morrison Avenue, 

Clifton, Cincinnati, Ohio 

Cle\tel.4nd 

Mrs. John E. Newell, West Mentor, Ohio 

Easthautton* 

Mrs. William A. Lockwood, 7S0 Park Avenue, 

N. Y., and Easthampton, L. I. 

Fauquier &" Loudoun 

Mrs. Fairfax Harrison, Belvoir House, 

Eelvoir, ^'a. 

GREEN"mCH 

Mrs. Franklin Edson, Greenwich, Conn. 

GREE>f Spring \" alley 

Mrs. William V. Elder, Gljmdon, Marj'land 

Harford County 
Sec'y-. Miss E. Rush Williams, Bel Air, Md. 

Hartford 

Mrs. Robert W. Gray, ^A'eekapaug, R. I. and 

54 Huntington Street, Hartford, Connecticut 

Illinois 

Mrs. Horace H. Martin, Lake Forest, Illinois 

J.AilES RrVER 

Mrs. Thomas S. Wheelwright, Buckhead 

Spring, Chesterfield Co., Virginia 

Lake Geneva 

Mrs. E. A. Potter, Chicago Beach Hotel, Chicago 

and Lake Geneva, Wis. 

Lenox 

Miss Heloise Meyer, Lenox, Mass. 

Litchfield 



Newport Garden Assoclvtion 

Miss Wetmore, 630 Park Avenue, 

New York City, and Newport, R. I. 

North County 

Mrs. Beekman Winthrop, 38 E. 37th Street 

New York City and Grotoa Farm, Westbury, L.I. 

North Shore 

Mrs. S. V. R. Crosby, 95 Beacon Street, 

Boston, Mass., and Manchester, Mass. 

Orange and Dutchess Cottnties 

Dr. Edward L. Partridge, 19 Fifth Avenue 

New York and Cornwall-on-Hudson, N. Y. 

Philadelpkl\ 

Mrs. Charles Biddle, Andalusia, Pennsylvania 

Philipstown 
Mrs. Samuel Sloan, 45 East 53d Street, 

New York and Garrison, New York 

Princeton 

Mrs. George A. Armour, Princeton, New Jersey 

Ridgefield 

Mrs. George Pratt IngersoU, Ridgefield, Conn. 

and Stamford, Conn. 

RuilSON 

Mrs. George G. Ward, Jr.. 71 W. 50th Street 
New York and Seabright, New Jersey 

Hardy Garden Club of Ruxton 

Mrs. Ernest H. Dinning, Ruxton, Baltimore 

Co., Md. 

Rye 

^Irs. A. William Putnam, Rye, New York 

Santa Barbara 

Mrs. Edwin H. Sa\\-yer. 200 West Victoria St. 

Santa Barbara, California 

SH.iKER L.vkes 

Mrs. James H. Rogers, 1920 E. 93d Street 

Cleveland, Ohio 

Short Hills 

Mrs. John A. Stewart, Jr., Short Hills, N. J. 

Somerset Hells 

Mrs. Francis G. Lloyd, 157 East 71st Street 

New York and Bemardsville, New Jersey 

Southampton 

Mrs. Harry Pelham Robbins, 19 East 80th St. 

New Y''ork and Southampton, L. I. 



Bulletin Information 

Extra copies of the Bulletin may be had for .35 cents each. 
It is found that some copies of each issue of the Bulletin go astray. To save 
To Club time it has been decided to send to each Club secretary three extra copies to be 
Secretaries : given to any members of their Club who fail to receive their copy. Please explain 
Important this to your Club at your next meeting. 

When your copy of the Bulletin does not reach you please apply to the Secre- 
To Club tary of your Club who will have extra copies for replacing those lost in the mail. 
Members The editor would be grateful for articles of from 500 to 2,500 words. In the 
Articles for November issue of the Bulletin a list of subjects of particular interest to our mem- 
Publication bers was printed and we had hoped that contributions upon these and other subjects 
would be submitted. We must, however, make two stipulations; that all articles be 
typewritten and that they reach us four weeks before the issue for which they are 
intended goes to press. 

In writing to the Bulletin please give your full name and address and also the 
name of the Member Club to which you belong. The Bulletin file is arranged by 
Clubs and unless all information asked for above is given confusion may arise. 

The March issue of the Bulletin was erroneously Number II (new series). Ob.viously it should 
have been Number III (new series). The editor is not sure who should apologize for this error. 

Board of Directors 



(Incomplete) 



Chairman 
MRS. WALTER S. BREWSTER, 

Lake Forest, III., and 1220 Lake Shore 
DRfVE, Chicago 

The Gardener's Miscellany 
MRS. ROBERT C. HILL 

EASTHAMPTON, L. I., AND 960 

Park Ave., New York 
Plant Material 
MRS. CHARLES W. HUBBARD 
Winnetka, III. 



Secretary (Ex-officid) 
MRS. HAROLD I. PRATT 

Glen Cove, L. I., and 820 Fifth 
Ave., New York 

Garden Literature 
MRS. WILLIAM K. WALLBRIDGE 

Short Hills, N. J. 

Garden Pests and Remedies 
MRS. BENJAMIN WARREN 
Grosse Pointe Shores, Mich. 



Special Plant Societies 

MRS. JOHN A. STEWART, JR. 

Short Hills, N. J. 

At the meeting of the Garden Club on December ist it was decided that mem- 
bers should be allowed to subscribe to the Bulletin for non-members. This will 
not throw open our subscription list to the public, but it will make it possible for 
anyone really interested to receive the Bulletin regularly. If you wish to subscribe 
for some friend, or sponsor the subscription of some non-member you may do so. 

The subscription price is $1.50. The name and address of the subscriber and 
the member through whom the subscription is sent should be forwarded to the 
editor, together with a check made payable to the Garden Club of America. 



Annual ^l^^pnrtB nf iH^mbrr Clubs 



OF 



Atttprtra 



1921 



ALBEMARLE GARDEN CLUB 

Failed to report. 

GARDEN CLUB OF ALLEGHENY COUNTY 

It is with great pleasure that I report a very active year for 
our Garden Club. We held ten meetings during the year and 
continued our more serious work, such as that among the farm 
women of the county, the restoration of the Historic Garden at 
Economy, and our gift to the City of Pittsburgh of a plan, sub- 
mitted by Mr. James L. Greenleaf , for planting the new entrance 
to Schenley Park. 

We gave 270 prizes, totaling $1200, for flowers and vege- 
ables, in rural schools and at community fairs ; twenty member- 
ships in the Woman's National Farm and Garden Association, 
and paid for the upkeep of an automobile for a County Farm 
Bureau representative. 

A very successful Dahlia Show was held in Sewickley. 

Our club feels especially honored at the appointment of 
Mrs. McKnight as Editor of the Bulletin. 

,This report may indicate that we are taking too much inter- 
est in matters outside the province of gardening as a fine art, 
but we find we can combine interest in our gardens with our 
more serious work and it has proved, to our complete satisfac- 
tion, that the program of each Club should be decided by its mem- 
bers according to social, financial and geographical conditions. 
Respectfully submitted, 

Edith Oliver Rea, 
(Mrs. Henry R. Rea) President. 

AMATEUR GARDENERS' CLUB, BALTIMORE, MD. 

We think that our club has had a successful and stimulating 
year. Our first important action was to establish a Wild Flower 
Committee with Mrs. Edward Bouton chairman. Through her 
energy and enthusiasm a Baltimore Chapter was formed of the 
National Association for the Preservation of Wild Flowers, an 
active propaganda started by means of lectures and publicity 
and plans made for protection and propagation of wild flowers 
which are becoming extinct. Monthly meetings of the club were 
held and well attended, at which papers were read by members 
upon gardens and allied subjects ; and lectures were given in con- 
junction with other clubs near Baltimore. 

Historic places and gardens were discussed and visited. In 
connection with other garden clubs, under the auspices of the 
Civic League we took part in a Flower Market giving the Alice 
Garrett Medal for the most artistic booth and the Wild Flower 

— 1 — 



Association in Washington entrusted us with a small but valu- 
able exhibit of native wild plants. 

We joined with other clubs for a Rose Show in June and in 
the same way held a Chrysanthemum Show and sale of plants in 
October. 

Respectfully submitted, 
Mrs. Lyman C. Josephs. Alice V. Josephs, President. 

October 25, 1921 

BEDFORD GARDEN CLUB 

There have been eight regular meetings during the year. 
Informal Flower Shows were held at five of these meetings. 

PROGRAM 
April: Growing, Preparing and Packing Flowers for 

Exhibition Mr. Isaac Henderson 

Spring spraying of Apple Trees 

Mrs. Edwin Holier 

May : Flower Arrangements Mrs. Allen Marquand 

June : Paeonies Mrs. Edward Harding 

The Club also took part in the Joint Flower Show 

held at Purchase, with the Rye, Greenwich, New 

Canaan and Ridgefield Clubs. 

July : Berries and Small Fruits Mr. James Wood 

Mr. Fletcher Steele 
August : Wild Flower Meeting. A visit to Mr. Benjamin 
Fairchild's Garden and informal talk by Mr. 
Fairchild on the use of native growths in plant- 
ing. 

September : Fall Flower Show, including exhibit of Flowers 
and Vegetables grown by school children. 1200 
packets of seed were distributed in the spring 
and the gardens visited by Club members dur- 
ing the summer. 
Chrysanthemums and other Autumn Flowers. 

Paper by Charles Totty 
October: Birds and Gardens Mr. Herbert Job 

Annual Meeting. 
The grounds of the Bedford Hills Community House have 
been planted by the Club. 

A Bird Bath Exhibit was made at the International Flower 
Show, in March ; also an Entry in the Window Box Competition 
of the City Gardens Club. 

Evelyn Noyes Saltus, 

President. 

— 2 — 



THE CHESTNUT HILL GARDEN SOCIETY 

During the year the Society held seven indoor meetings and 
visited several gardens. 

The annual May Flower Show was notable for the number, 
quality and beauty of the exhibits. It was open to members 
on the first day and the annual meeting of the Society was held 
in the evening in the main exhibition room. Thie following day 
the show was largely attended by friends of the members. 

The Horticultural Medal of the Garden Club of America 
was awarded to Mr. and Mrs. Edwin S. Webster for the best 
arranged collection of rare spring flowering plants. 

There was a lively competition in table decorations and many 
such decorations were original in conception and color scheme 
and well merited the high praise given them. 

At the invitation of Prof. Charles S. Sargent, a special meet- 
ing was held in May at the Arnold Arboretum. The members 
attended generally and were conducted through the Arboretum by 
Mr. John G. Jack, receiving much valuable information. 

The Club has replanted the grounds of the Railroad Sta- 
tion in Chestnut Hill under the direction of Mr. Guy Lee, its 
Garden Consultant, advised by Prof. Sargent. Many years ago 
these grounds were laid out by Mr. Frederick Law Olmsted, Sen- 
ior, and Planted by Prof. Sargent. It was a privilege to carry 
on the work begun by such eminent men. 

Jeanne N. Colt, Secretary, pro tern,. 

CINCINNATI GARDEN CLUB 

The Cincinnati Garden Club obtained permission to move 
the flowers from a beautiful wood where a factory was to be 
built, and The Wild Flower Society moved successfully, thirty- 
five varieties to the new East High School Wild Flower Preserve ; 
many native trees and shrubs were also planted. In May the 
Society had a creditable Wild Flower Exhibition, visited by ten 
thousand people. A direct result is a weekly course of lectures 
on wild flowers. 

In June, Mrs. W. C. Procter entertained members of all the 
neighboring Garden Clubs. It was decided to have a meeting 
every spring. 

In June also, at a fete for a local charity, the Club had a 
charming miniature garden where plants were sold ; the sum 
netted was over twelve hundred dollars. 

In July, Mrs. W. S. Rowe read an interesting monograph on 
some Historic Gardens in Ohio and Kentucky. 

On November sixth, the Club had an Amateur Dahlia Show 

— 3 — 



for the Public. The bronze medal of the Garden Club of Amer- 
ica was offered for an achievement in Dahlia growing ; the Judges 
unanimously awarded it to Mrs. S. H. Taft's "Elizabeth." 

Mrs. Hutchinson's delightful, illustrated talk on Wild Flow- 
ers was given in November. 

The support of the French Orphan is still continued. 

Mary L. S. Perkins, (Mrs. James H.) 

Secretary, pro tern. 



THE GARDEN CLUB OF CLEVELAND 

During the past year the Garden Club of Cleveland has held 
Seven Meetings with lectures and Five Meetings of the Board of 
Gardeners, 

Also, three afternoons were spent by the Members of the 
Shaker Lakes Club and The Garden Club of Cleveland, visiting 
gardens and planning for the coming visit of the Garden Club of 
America. 

A Wild Flower Garden has been started by the two Garden 
Clubs on land given by the City for a permanent Wild Flower 
Park and to be cared for by the City but to be under the super- 
vision of the two Garden Clubs. It is located at the foot of 
Shaker Lakes by an old miill where the Shakers originally set- 
tled. 

The two Clubs have been asked to take space in the National 
Flower Show to be given here in March. A Spring Garden 20 
by 50 feet has been designed to be entered in competition for the 
prize of $1000 offered by the Flower Show. 

The Club has increased its membership by 22 members. The 
following officers were elected for 1922 : 

Mrs. John E. Newell President 

Mrs. John D. Maclennan First Vice-President 

Mrs. Charles A. Otis Second Vice-President 

Mrs. Courteny Burton Third Vice-President 

Mrs. Belden Seymour Treasurer 

Miss Clara B. Sherwin Corresponding Secretary 

Mrs. Benedict Crowell Recording Secretary 

A special Committee from the Shaker Lakes Club and the 
Garden Club of Cleveland has been appointed to be in charge of 
the arrangements for the visit of the Garden Club of America 
in June 1922. 

Anne C. Newell 
Mrs. John E. Newell President. 

— 4 — 



GARDEN CLUB OF DENVER 

The Summer programs for the Denver Garden Club, dur- 
ing the months of June, July and the first part of August have 
been widely varied. Once a month we have had the history of 
Gardens, treated from an artistic, scientific and historical stand- 
point. Once a month we have had the study of the garden in the 
more purely botanical treatment; we have had as well, several 
botanising trips into the mountains, and one competitive problem 
in planting the new garden of one of our members. 
The calendar has been as follows : 
June 6th Primitive Garden Forms. 

June 20th A talk by Miss Schmall of the State Mu- 

seum of Natural History on the Eco- 
logical Botany of Colorado. 
June 26th A botanical trip to Estes Park for study 

of wild flowers. 
July 11th Roman Gardens. 

July 25th Study of the Competitive Project of the 

Garden Planting for Mrs. Kountze. 

August 1st Roman Gardens of the Renaissance. 

August 8th Botanical Expedition up Boulder Canon for 

study of trees and shrubs. 

In addition to our regular study we have had the usual 
amount of interchange of subjects dear to the heart of every 
gardener, pests, varieties and fertilizers, and have visited several 
of our loveliest gardens, those of Mrs. George Crammer, Mrs. 
Daniel Tears and Mrs. Hepburn Walker. 

June B, Benedict (Mrs. J. B.) President. 

GARDEN CLUB OF EASTHAMPTON 

Spring activities began in March when the Club competed 
by two entries, one for the best Table Decoration, the other for 
a Bird Bath, at the Flower Show of The New York Horticultural 
Society, and was fortunate in winning second place in the former 
class. 

Meetings were held fortnightly during the summer and lec- 
tures were given by Mrs. Charles Stout, Mr. Loring Underwood 
and Miss Koleman. At other meetings members addressed the 
Club. Exhibits of flowers and vegetables were shown regularly 
at the meetings and ribbons awarded as prizes. 

The Fifth Annual Flower Show in June and the Dahlia 
Show in August were most successful. 

The work of the Experimental Garden and that of the Wild- 

— 5 — 



flower Committee was carried on, and much interest was shown 
in the Lantern Slides made from photographs of a number of the 
gardens. 

The season closed with an experience meeting, many helpful 
suggestions being given by the members and summer experiences 
related. 

The Treasury showed such a good balance on hand that a 
contribution of fifty dollars was made, as in 1920, to Ambler 
Horticultural School, and a gift was also made to the East Hamp- 
ton Free Library. 

November 10, 1921. 

THE GARDEN CLUB OF EVANSTON, ILLINOIS 

January 1st ends the most successful year of the Garden 
Club of Evanston. 

Each month there has been a meeting consisting of a lecture, 
visits to gardens, or planning for the two big functions of the 
year — the Garden Market and the Aster Exhibit. 

The Garden Market comes the middle of May. This is vast 
in two directions. It brings new funds into the treasury and 
spreads an interest in gardening among the citizens of Evanston 
and the nearby villages. 

The Aster Exhibit is held the Friday after school opens in 
September. The aster seeds are distributed in spring among the 
school children. The children raise the asters themselves and 
in the fall bring the blossoms to their respective schools. Judges 
go from school to school, select the prize winners in each school, 
take them to a central point, and select the best of all. The 
plan now is to give a trophy to the school that has the best gen- 
eral exhibit. This fall some of the exhibits were beautiful. 

The big plan of the Garden Club of Evanston is to plant a 
memorial avenue of elms on the new High School grounds. 

Lydia K. Allen, 

Secretary. 

THE FAUQUIER AND LOUDOUN GARDEN CLUB 
OF VIRGINIA 

This year we have varied our programme by holding three 
Flower Shows in competition for the club cup, instead of bring- 
ing exhibits to every meeting as before, and since a new exhibitor 
won, the cup remains a potent influence towards further efforts 
in fine gardening. 

We have had two experience meetings and kept records of 
successful color combinations reported ; the Committee on Plant 

— 6 — 



Exchange has been very active and the Roadside Committee has 
rescued two giant white oak trees, which are to have tablets 
placed on them, setting forth that they are under the protection 
of this Garden Club. 

In May we made a pilgrimage to Mt. Vernon to study the 
grounds and gardens, and nothing can be more worthwhile for 
modern gardeners, especially after reading that admirable book 
of Mr. Wilstach, "Washington's Home." 

The most important event of the year came in June, when 
we had the pleasure of receiving the Virginia Federation of Gar- 
den Clubs for a day's tour of our gardens, after their annual 
meeting as guests of the Warrenton Garden Club. 

We have enjoyed some charming lectures, from Miss Averill 
in costume, on the Art of Japanese Flower Arrangement, Mr. 
Wister on Roses and Dr. Paul Bartsch of the Smithsonian 
Institute, with the assistance of Mrs. Minnegerode Andrews of 
Washington, on Native Wild Flowers and Ferns. 

And though we have not done any striking things, the feeling 
is unanimous that 1921 has been a happy and profitable year. 

Hetty Harrison, President. 

THE GREENWICH GARDEN CLUB 
October 1920 October 1921 

In addition to the regular meetings of the Club, held month- 
ly, from April to November, inclusive, there have been three 
field days devoted to study of special planting and to wild flowers. 
A committee, appointed by the President, exhibited a basket of 
flowers, in the class open to members of the Garden Club of 
America, in the International Flower Show, on March 16th, and 
were awarded the first prize in the class. On June 15th, the Club 
contributed eighty exhibits to the combined flower shows of 
Westchester and Fairfield Counties. Members were awarded 
eight first and five second prizes. On September 23d the Club 
made its annual show, a Dahlia Show, and offered prizes in six 
classes. A special club prize was awarded to the grower of the 
best seedling bloom. The members of the club were especially 
requested to bring to every meeting anything of special interest 
which they might have, a flower, seed-pod, diseased spray, any- 
thing which might be discussed. 

The Club has continued its care of a hardy border on the 
Hospital grounds, and added to this, a picking garden of annuals, 
for use in the Hospital. This fall, members are in charge of 
planting with shrubs and hardy plants the grounds of the local 

Mrs. L. V. Lockwood, President. 



GREEN SPRING VALLEY GARDEN CLUB, 
MARYLAND 

The work of our Club for the last year has been on the same 
lines as the preceding years : — Visiting gardens, enjoying some 
splendid lectures, working with the Maryland Chapter of the 
Wild Flower Preservation Society and helping to improve the 
community in planting. 

We had the honor of winning the prize for the most artisti- 
cally arranged basket of vegetables, fruits and flowers at the 
Baltimore Flower Market and with the Gardens Club of Twenty, 
the first prize for decorated booth. 

This Flower Market is held annually and draws a large 
crowd of Flower Lovers. 

LiNA PoE Elder, 

President. 



GARDEN CLUB OF HARFORD COUNTY, 
MARYLAND 

During the year ending September, 1921, The Garden Club 
of Harford County had nine meetings. 

One of these, which was held in co-operation with several 
other Maryland Garden Clubs, gave us an opportunity to hear 
Mrs. Nathaniel Britton, of the New York Botanical Gardens, on 
The Preservation of Wild Flowers. 

At another meeting, we listened to Mr. Swepson Earle's 
Lecture on Colonial Homes and Gardens in Southern Maryland, 
illustrated by very beautiful pictures with the lantern. 

At a third meeting, we heard Mr. Vincent talk to the Club 
on his specialty of growing Dahlias. 

Our members have continued the work of sending flowers 
from their gardens to the ill and the wounded soldiers at the 
Fort McHenry Hospital in Baltimore. 

With full attendance, and earnest discussion of our special 
problems, our Club has proved most helpful to the members, 
showing not its least usefulness, perhaps, in bringing together 
neighbors, many of whom live in the country all through the 
year, and in homes lying far apart. 

Emma James Johnson, 
Mrs. James Hemsley Johnson. President. 



GARDEN CLUB OF HARTFORD, CONNECTICUT 

1920-1921 

Practical talk by Mr. Sierman, Landscape Gardner. 

Exhibition of slides from The Garden Club of America. 
Five additional slides were shown from photographs of the gar- 
dens of our members. 

Lecture by Mr. Loring Underwood, "The Arnold Arbore- 
tum." 

Exhibited a basket of flowers at the International Flower 
Show in New York which received Honorable Mention. 

Sent $25 to the Committee of the G. C. of A. to mitigate the 
severities of Quarantine No. Z7 . 

Three papers on "Garden Ideals." 

Informal talk on "Spring-flowering Bulbs," Mr. Keser. 

Paper on "Friendship's Garden." Report of the Secretary, 
on the visit of the President and Delegate to the Annual Meeting 
in New York. 

Interesting visit at the invitation of The Garden Club of 
Middletown, and a return visit from that club. 

Visited gardens in Farmington. 

The Garden Club of Litchfield invited our members to a 
luncheon and a tour of its gardens. It was a day of supreme 
enjoyment. 

Cooperated with the Connecticut Horticultural Society at 
its June Show. 

Our members contributed bouquets of flowers arranged by 
themselves to the Hartford Public Library. The Flower Mis- 
sion also received contributions. 

The Club is gratified to report that Mrs. Howard Knapp, 
our correspondent to the Bulletin of the G. C. of A. has joined 
the Editorial staff of that Magazine. Her department is called 
"News and Views." 

Mary Gray 
(Mrs. R. W. Gray) 

President. 

— 9 — 



THE JAMES RIVER GARDEN CLUB, OF RICHMOND, 

VIRGINIA 

The James River Garden Club has completed a busy year 
enlarging its own garden knowledge and spreading the love 
for growing things. 

At four of the meetings slides were shown (a) Gardens 
of the Garden Club of America, (b) Arnold Arboretum, (c) 
American Iris Society, (d) Historic Homes of Virginia. 

Lecturers included : Mrs. Helen Fowler of the Acquatic 
Gardens, Washington, D. C. ; Mr. John C. Wister of Philadelphia 
on the Iris, and Mr. Grantham on Special Fertilizers for special 
plants. 

Papers by Club members included "The Dahlia," "October 
Gardens" and several on "Historic Gardens of Virginia." 

The Club held a Field Day and Basket Picnic at Buckhead 
Springs to see a natural planting of Iris. 

Among the civic activities of the Club : The establishment of 
a Wild Flower Preserve in Joseph Bryan Park : recommending 
the Iris for the City Flower — adopted by the City ; co-operation 
with Good Roads Movement, and with the Virginia Pageant As- 
sociation in planting 7500 Iris in the principal avenues and parks 
on the line of march of the Historical Pageant to be staged in 
Richmond next spring. 

Many Club members attended the meeting of the Virginia 
Garden Clubs in Warrenton in Fauquier and Loudoun Counties. 

In May the Club held its first Flower Festival and Iris Show 
— a marked success — the proceeds being used for promoting 
horticultural knowledge. 

Respectfully submitted, 
Mrs. Thos. S. Wheelwright President. 

THE GARDEN CLUB OF LAKE FOREST 

Programme 
Nov. 9, 1920... The Annual Meeting. 

April 16, 1921 . . "An Expression of Spring in Music." 

May 6 "Three Garden Chapters." 

May 27 "Gardening in the Sub-Tropics." 

June 4-5 A Flower Show by the Garden Club of 

Illinois in co-operation with the North 
Shore Horticultural Society. 

June 24 An afternoon of visiting gardens. 

July ( 1 "Wild-flowers" — An illustrated lecture by 

Mr. Norman Taylor. 

July 15 "Experiences in English Gardens." 

— 10 — 



July 23-24 A Flower Show in co-operation with the 

North Shore Horticultural Society. 
August 5 A luncheon followed by an informal dis- 
cussion of garden problems. 
September 7. ."Fungi of Our Fields and Woods," by Mr. 

L. H. Pray. 
September 30.. "Gardens here and there." 
October 13. . . ."Arboretums," by Mr. O. C. Simonds. 
Two lectures to school children on Wild-flower Preservation 
were given by Mrs. Albert A. Michelson. 

The Club co-operated with the Women's National Farm and 
Garden Association in making an exhibit of garden sculpture. 

The Public Libraries of Winnetka and Lake Forest were 
supplied with flowers arranged for effect. 

The Saturday morning Flower ]\Iarket, which was estab- 
lished last season, continued to be successfully maintained. The 
money earned by the Flower Market and a sum contributed 
from the Flower Show receipts were given for the purpose of 
planting a public Athletic Field and Playground. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Florence Martin President. 

THE LAKE GENEVA GARDEN CLUB 

The Lake Geneva Garden Club has enjoyed a very success- 
ful season. The first meeting was held at the residence of Mrs. 
^^"rigley. when the report of the Council of Presidents, held in 
in New York in May, was read. The next meeting, at the resi- 
dence of Mrs. Edw. E. Ayer, where a delightfully instructive 
paper was read by Mrs. Ayer on the " Redwoods of California," 
followed by views that she had taken. A week later a luncheon 
at thel Country Club with members of the Garden Club of Illi- 
nois and the Evanston Garden Club as guests, followed by an il- 
lustrated lecture by Mr. Jesse Lowe Smith on "The Milkweeds 
and Their Insect Guests." Mrs. Frank Rehm's garden was visit- 
ed and tea served in a most attractive way. 

Mrs. Charles L. Hutchinson had an afternoon with the Wild 
Flowers at her home. Each one present was asked to describe 
a wild flower and the others to guess its name. A stroll through 
their woods that abound with wild flowers was a treat that fol- 
lowed. 

Mrs. Samuel W. Allerton gave a most interesting description 
of colored views that she had collected of "Pasadena Gardens." 

Plans for beautifying the grounds around the railroad station 
are being considered. 

Respectfully submitted. 
(Mrs. Seymour Morris) Ida T. Morris, Presideni. 

— 11 — 



THE LENOX GARDEN CLUB, 1921 

The Lenox Garden Club had its usual eight meetings dur- 
ing the summer at four of which lectures were given and at two, 
papers by members were read. The Club regret very much the 
retirement of the President Miss Meyer, who held office for two 
years, but are rejoiced at welcoming back as Vice President, Dr. 
Wm. Oilman Thompson. In June the Club, by the kind invita- 
tion of the Millbrook Garden Club and Mrs. Oakleigh Thorne 
had a very charming day, lunching in the shade of Mrs. Thome's 
beautiful old trees and attending the lecture by Mr. Loring Un- 
derwood. In the hope of interesting the Lenox school children 
models and plans were made for small vegetable gardens, they 
proved rather difficult but a prize day was held and prizes, rib- 
bons, and ice cream were distributed. The models for next year 
have been simplified and the enrollment is to be more systema- 
tic through the help of one of the teachers. Members are to 
supervise a certain number of children and endeavor to over- 
come the opposition of some of the parents who consider the 
children's time wasted when not working for them and who are 
the most necessary to get hold of. 

(Miss) Georgiana W. Sargent 
November, 1921 President. 

THE LITCHFIELD GARDEN CLUB 

The Litchfield Garden Club has had a very successful sum- 
mer, and much interest has been shown at the meetings which 
have been held on alternate Thursdays from June to September. 
On June fifteenth we very much enjoyed the hospitality of the 
Millbrook Garden Club, with luncheon at beautiful Thorndale, 
and an illustrated lecture by Loring Underwood. 

On June twenty-third we had the pleasure of having as our 
guests the Hartford Garden Club, and were able to show them 
some of the Famous old Colonial Houses and Gardens of Litch- 
field. 

We have had several very interesting lectures, one from Miss 
Jay on French Gardens, one from Mr. Coe on Gardens of Ja- 
pan, and one from Miss Alderson on Herbaceous Borders. 

We also had the privilege of seeing the Herbarium of Mrs. 
Carey, and also a wonderful collection of pictures of wild flowers 
by Miss Luqueer. 

We had a very successful Flower Show in August with 
nearly fifty exhibits of baskets and arrangements of flowers, 
which was well attended and much enjoyed. 

— 12 — 



The Club has also done good work in keeping up the super- 
vision of the station planting at Litchfield, and in trying to in- 
terest the school children in the care and preservation of wild 
flowers. 

Margaret K. Busk 
(Mrs. Frederick T. Busk) 
President Litchfield Garden Club. 



THE GARDEN CLUB OF MICHIGAN 

The Garden Club of Michigan completes its tenth year with 
a full membership of one hundred members and a waiting list 
of many desirable applicants. 

The Board of Gardners planned an interesting and varied 
program for the year, of twelve meetings which included lectures, 
picnics, luncheons, garden-visits and teas. 

Our Annual Daffodil and Tulip Shows surpassed those of 
previous years in the exhibits of specimen blooms, artistic ar- 
rangements and collections. 

Fifty dollars was given to the U. S. General Hospital in 
Greenfield, South Carolina, for plants and seeds and seventy-five 
dollars paid for the planting of trees and shrubs in a community 
playground in Detroit. The Tau Beta Society was given twenty- 
five dollars for a hedge and vines and shrubs were given to the 
Children's Free Hospital. 

Six trees have been planted in one of the city parks in mem- 
ory of six young men (relatives of club members) who gave 
their lives in the World War. 

We have had a medal designed and plan to offer two or 
three each year where we feel competition for them will encour- 
age an interest in gardening. 

As a whole the past year has been a successful one and like 
all true gardners we are looking forward to a wonderful "next 
year." 

Eleanor Carroll Parker, President 
(Mrs. Edward H. Parker.) 

— 13 — 



THE GARDEN CLUB OF MIDDLETOWN, 
CONNECTICUT 

The Garden Club of Middletown has experienced another 
year of usefulness to its members and the community. A parti- 
cular impetus has resulted from our association with the Garden 
Club of America. The national meetings have been the greatest 
stimulous to those attending and their enthusiasm has been 
caught by those who had to remain at home. An open meeting 
with the beautiful slides from the G. C. A. brought pleasure to 
a large audience, and as a result of the Visitors Book many mem- 
bers have spent very delightful moments in many delightful gar- 
dens. 

Our flower booth at the Garden Fete was again so success- 
ful, we are realizing that we have created a demand for seedlings 
and garden accessories which will lead us to greater things. 

Papers of interest have been read, interesting talks given by 
those who have visited gardens in other lands and a very plea- 
sant interchange of hospitality with a nearby garden club and a 
pilgrimage to Mr. Gilletts wild flower sanctuary in Southwick, 
Mass., has had a place on our program. 

Our interest in collecting books for our Garden Shelf in the 
public library continues and we look forward to a year of greater 
pleasure and usefulness. 

Mrs. Samuel Russell, Jr. 

President. 

THE MILLBROOK GARDEN CLUB, INC.. 

The Millbrook Garden Club has had a year of very diversi- 
fied interests and closes its year with a feeling of contentment and 
satisfaction over the work accomplished. 

Our best horticultural achievement has been, probably, with 
the dahlia. The general interest taken in its culture by many 
of the members is a satisfaction. 

Our flower show, the first since the war, was excellent and 
the Children's Gardens showed a really good exhibit. 

The Tribute Garden, a small park of six acres which the 
Club is planting and maintaining for the benefit of the village, 
is developing into an actual fact and is finding a real place in 
the village life. Our pledge to plant only native material has led 
us into a most interesting field. The wild flowers do not seem 
to be such a closed book, but the shrubs, rock plants and ground 
covers fill a very large book of unknown facts which we are 
struggling to master. 

— 14 — 



We enjoyed welcoming six neighboring garden clubs to a 
garden party and lecture last June. The day was perfect and 
we all felt the charm of that golden chain, The Garden Club of 
America, which so delightfully binds us together. 

Helen S. Thorne 

President. 

THE GARDENERS OF MONTGOMERY AND 
DELAWARE COUNTIES, PENNSYLVANIA 

Report, 1920-1921 

During the past year Wild Flowers and their preservation 
have been our main object. 

Wister Woods in Germantown will be developed into a Wild 
Flower preservation, the Park is giving the ground. Mr. John 
Wister has drawn the plans for the planting, the expenses being 
defrayed by the Garden Club of Philadelphia, the Weeders and 
our Club. 

We had our usual Booth at the Rittenhouse Flower Market, 
in May. Owing to the efficiency of our Chairman Mrs. Louis 
Rodman Page and her aides, the returns from our table proved 
to be more than had been made by any booth since the starting 
of the Market. 

Mrs. Horatio Gates Lloyd has written two most interesting 
papers on "Putting the Garden to Sleep," and "Waking the Gar- 
den Up." We netted something over a hundred dollars in sell- 
ing copies of them at the Flower Market. 

Our members co-operated with the Garden Club of Philadel- 
phia, the Weeders and the Horticultural Society in opening our 
gardens to the public, Saturdays in May and June, charging fifty 
cents a person, for the benefit of the School of Horticulture, at 
Ambler. 

We have enlarged our membership and all seem interested 
and enthusiastic. 

Mrs. Horace Bullock 

President. 

MORRISTOWN NEW JERSEY GARDEN CLUB 

The Morristown (N. J.) Garden Club has increased its 
membership to eighty during the current year. It has held eight 
meetings, which have included a talk on Rock Gardens, an il- 
lustrated lecture on possibilities of planting in small gardens, 
a paper on wild flowers, an address by Dr. David H. McAlpin, Jr. 
on "Grains and Their Economic Values," and an address by 

— 15 — 



Prof. M. A. Blake, of the New Jersey Agricultural Experiment 
Stations, on Agriculture. The Club had a 'Tield Day," when the 
Gardens of a neighboring Club were visited, and co-operated 
with the Bernardsville Club in the June Rose Show, with the 
Short Hills Club in the September Dahlia Show, and with the 
Florists and Gardeners Association of Morristown in its annual 
Flower Show in October. The Club also held a spring and 
fall sale of the surplus stock of its members to augment the 
treasury. 

E. Mabel Clarke 

President. 

NEW CANAAN GARDEN CLUB 

The season of 1921 began with the Mid-winter meeting held 
in New York in January. At this meeting plans for the coming 
season as well as the Annual Show, were discussed and the new 
slides which had been prepared for the Garden Club of America, 
were shown. 

For 1921, the program committee provided the following 
lectures : 
May — "Pests (papers by members both from a serious as well as 

an amusing standpoint.) 
June — "Trees, Their Care and Diseases," Mr. J. J. Levison. 
July— "Dahlias," Mrs. Chas. H. Stout. 
August — "The Small Estate and How to Develop It," Miss Rose 

Greely. 
September — "Gardens in Prose and Poetry," Mrs. Waldo Rich- 
ards. 
October — "Preparing the Garden for Winter," (Papers by mem- 
bers.) 

One new departure was a combined flower show ; New Ca- 
naan uniting with Rye, Greenwich, Bedford and Ridgefield in 
a highly successful exhibit in June. 

Our own show in September aroused much interest owing 
to the fact that every class was open not only to members but to 
any resident of New Canaan and being held from 3 P. M. to 10 
P. M. the attendance was larger than ever before, many coming 
at night who otherwise could not have attended. 

One Field-day was held. The October meeting took the 
form of a picnic luncheon in the woods, the regular meeting being 
held indoors later. 

Myra Valentine 

President. 

— 16 — 



THE GARDEN ASSOCIATION IN NEWPORT 

The Newport Garden Association reflects in a measure gen- 
eral conditions : a little ''let-down" on the part of some members, 
and absence abroad of a good many others. Those who have 
worked, however, deserve greater praise than usual. 

Our chief interest and responsibility, the Trial Garden, has 
had several improvements made to it. A most successful and 
enlarged border with a new color scheme. Burbank's blue pe- 
tunia proved particularly successful, both for its flowering qual- 
ities and beautiful color. The roses were transplanted and 
another year will show if the change was a wise one. The visit 
in 1923 of the Garden Club of America to Newport gives us a 
fresh impetus for further beautifying of this place. 

A lecture by Miss Alderson on her herbaceous borders was 
given, and besides Mrs. Arthur Curtiss James invited the mem- 
bers to hear Mr. Scoville on "Every Day Adventures," and Mrs. 
Auchincloss showed at her house, slides of fellow-members" 
gardens. Finally a tea and later, a vegetable and flower sale, 
were given in the trial garden, and teas were also given in four 
members' places. 

The membership of the Garden Association is 114. 

Edith Wetmore President. 

THE NORTH COUNTRY GARDEN CLUB 
OF LONG ISLAND 

During 1921, several new Committees have been formed 
which have greatly increased the activities of our Garden Club. 

The Program and INIeeting Committee suggested a vegetable 
show and a competitive exhibition of floral table decorations — 
Lectures and horticultural subjects have been given. 

The Committee on Public Improvements is endeavoring to 
educate the people to respect private and public property, and to 
clean up picnic grounds. 

The Lantern Slide Committee has collected seventy-six slides 
of our gardens. Interchange of slides among member clubs will 
enable all parts of the country to become acquainted with the 
flora of different localities. 

The Visiting Committee has secured the names of twenty- 
two members of our Club who are willing to have their gardens 
visited by members of other Clubs. Members of South Side 
Club of Long Island were our guests at a meeting in June. The 
interchange of visits between clubs promotes interest in the work. 

The Committee on Garden Pests and Remedies, has only 
recently been organized, but its work will be of great value. 

The Wild Flower Committee is preparing a comprehensive 
policy to advance the planting and care of wild flowers. 
October 18th, 1921. Mrs. Beekman Winthrop President. 

— 17 — 



THE NORTH SHORE GARDEN CLUB 
OF MASSACHUSETTS 

The North Shore Garden Club sends in its annual report 
with some diffidence — it is so meagre and so unpublic-spirited in 
appearance! We have held ten meetings this year, to only one 
of which we can point with any civic pride — that given under the 
auspices of the Wild Flower Committees of both this Club and 
the Chestnut Hill Garden Society. It was given in Horticultural 
Hall, Boston, in the spring, and was a most interestingly illustrat- 
ed informal talk on wild flowers and birds, and the hall was 
crammed to overflowing. 

The other nine meetings were all of the simplest sort, original 
papers provided by the members, followed by more or less ani- 
mated discussion. 

When we read the reports of other clubs with the accounts 
of their excellent civic or neighborhood benevolences, their 
flower shows, their markets, their lectures, all their public activ- 
ities, we hang our heads, and have to remind ourselves that it is 
difficult to be neighborly — or civic — in eleven different townships 
and five large cities — the geographical confines of our member- 
ship ! 

Such local horticultural organizations as there are on the 
North Shore we do try to encourage ; but we feel that our club 
is of necessity primarily for the edification and pleasure of its 
own members — Hence, these short and simple annals ! 

Elinor Hopkinson 
(Mrs. Charles Hopkinson) 

THE ORANGE AND DUTCHESS COUNTIES 
GARDEN CLUB 

The meetings of the Club have numbered ten during the 
year. In July we made an exhibit, and sale of flowers and seed- 
lings for the benefit of the "Old Homestead" fair in Cornwall, 
with bestowal of prizes among such village folk as exhibited, 
which resulted to the advantage of the Homestead Association 
in a substantial amount. 

We responded to the appeal of the "National Plant, FhDwer 
and Fruit Guild," becoming financially responsible for five Gar- 
dens. These small gardens were conducted and cared for in the 
city by young persons of the poorer class who were supplied with 
tools, seeds, material for enrichment of the soil, etc. 

The lamentable condition of the highways, caused chiefly 
by motorists has been studied with regard law and expediency. 

We believe that much may be done by the "Mounted State 

— 18 — 



Constabulary" which has power of arrest, to be followed by 
fines. Those thus punished for disfiguring roads with paper 
and litter of every description, pass along the knowledge of the 
danger of meeting the law, and a decrease of this unsightly of- 
fense must follow. The state police are proceeding with this 
feature of their work with interest and energy. 

Edward L. Partridge 

President. 

THE PASADENA GARDEN CLUB 

Outside the membership doors of the Pasadena Garden Club 
is a long line impatiently waiting admission (an evidence of the 
Club's vigorous condition). The limit of membership has been 
extended twice; first from 50 to 60, and recently from 60 to 70. 

Nine regular and two special meetings were held. On our 
programs appeared many well known names, among them : 

Mr. Edwin Tyler Miller, editor and author of works on 
garden subjects; Mrs. Alice Riley, Mr. Ralph Clarkson, Reverend 
Mr. Reginald Wheeler, of Peking, China ; Signora Oliva Rosseti 
Agresti, of Rome, and Mrs. Gene Stratton Porter who read a 
group of charming wild flower poems written in California last 
winter. Two illustrated talks were enjoyed; one on the gardens 
of China, by Mr. Wheeler, the other on "Italian Gardens and 
Fountains," by Signora Agresti. 

The influence of the Club has been effective along educa- 
tional lines leading to the preservation and cultivation of our 
wild flowers and plant life and an appreciation of their medicinal 
uses ; in protesting against unsightly billboards and the defacing 
of our mountainsides with disfiguring letters and figures ; in sup- 
porting the valuable work of the "Save the Redwoods League" 
through a contributing membership ; the efforts of the "Horticul- 
tural Society" by means of generous donations to the spring and 
fall Flower Shows, and in the supplying of greens and flowers 
for decorating the Community Play House. 

Grace M. Barnes 
Recording Secretary. 
Grace M. Barnes, 1051 San Rafael Ave., Pasadena, California. 

THE GARDEN CLUB OF PHILADELPHIA FOR 1921 

The past year has brought to the members of the Philadel- 
phia Garden Club much interest, profit and pleasure. The many 
meetings have been well attended, general interest stimulated by 
the "Five Minute Talks" on Native Wild Flowers. The year's 

— 19 — 



program included — Plant Exchange, Flower Market, Photo- 
graphic Contest, Lecture on Italian Gardens, Mr. Loring Under- 
wood's Slide Exhibit of trees and flowers and an illustrated talk 
on "French Chateau Gardens" by Mr. George Howe. 

Co-operation with the two adjacent Clubs — The Weeders 
and The Gardners resulted last spring in a Wild Flower Lecture 
Course at the Academy of Natural Sciences. This encouraged 
development of the year's great accomplishment. The Fair- 
mount Park Commission acted favorably on a suggestion made 
by the Philadelphia Garden Club. The three Clubs working in 
unison developed this suggestion into a definite achievement. The 
Clubs had Mr. John Wister prepare topographical maps and 
planting plans of Wister's Woods, one of the recent acquisitions 
of Fairmount Park. The Clubs jointly financed this work, pre- 
senting the detailed plans to the Park Commission who in accept- 
ing them, agreed to supply and plant the necessary trees and 
shrubs — guaranteeing police protection — thus preparing the way 
for the long desired Wild Flower Sanctuary in Fairmount Park. 

The Philadelphia Club shared with The Weeders and The 
Gardeners the honor of being Hostess for the Autumn Meeting of 
the Garden Club of America. It is hoped the guests enjoyed 
their too fleeting visit as much as the hostesses. 

Mrs. Bayard Henry, 
November 12th, 1921. President. 

THE PHILIPSTOWN GARDEN CLUB 

Eight meetings of the Club were held during the year. 

The programs of the meetings consisted of two business meet- 
ings, one in April and the annual meeting in October. Of a 
paper on "Bees, Their Care and Their Use in a Garden." Of 
an informal Flower Show, for Club members only, in June. 

A Literary Meeting at which three garden essays and quota- 
tions from garden poetry and prose dating from Solomon to the 
present time were read. The criticism by Miss Coykendal of the 
Ulster Club of plans drawn by members for perennial borders, 
one of the most instructive meetings we have ever held. A lunch, 
as guests of the Millbrook Club, at which an illustrated lecture 
was given by Mr. Underwood. Funds for the Club were raised 
at one meeting by the auction of Maddona Lily bulbs. 

The Annual Dahlia and Flower Show was successfully held 
October 22d at the Highlands Country Club at Garrisons. 

The Wild Flower Committee held a wild flower show in the 
spring for the school children, made a splendid exhibition at the 
Dahlia Show, and held a competition, with thirty three entries, 

— 20 — 



for the best composition by children on Wild Flower Preserva- 
tion. 

The Garden at Constitution Island has been maintained as 
before. 

Five new members and five new summer members have 
been admitted. 

Respectfully submitted, 

AlLEEN OSBORN WeBB 

President. 

THE GARDEN CLUB OF PRINCETON 

During the past year the Garden Club of Princeton has held 
its usual number of meetings — twelve in all — with varied and 
interesting papers written, in almost every instance, by our own 
members. The Club's activities have been carried on along 
lines similar to last year. The French Market was held, as here- 
tofore, in the public square on Saturday mornings during the 
spring months, and the proceeds devoted to the purchase of 
books on horticulture for the Public Library. The Memorial 
Path which was formally completed in the spring, has had val- 
uable additions to its planting, by our enterprising committee for 
the Preservation of Wild Flowers, and only the wild flowers 
indigenous to our locality, are planted. We, as a Club, have en- 
joyed participation with our sister Clubs of New Jersey, in their 
Flower Shows, and we are planning something similar for next 
spring. A member of our Club held a very successful and beauti- 
ful Rose Show in June, and one exhibitor was so fortunate as 
to win the Medal awarded by the American Rose Society. The 
Club is also undertaking the planting and improving of the 
grounds around our Princeton Hospital and the Nurses' Home. 
We feel that this will impart an atmosphere of cheer and com- 
fort so much needed in making these places inviting and attrac- 
tive. 

Mrs. George Armour 
(Harriette F. Armour) President. 

THE GARDEN CLUB OF RICHMOND 

The Garden Club of Richmond held its last meeting for the 
season on Tuesday, October the Fourth. Those forming its 
membership are residents of Pittsfield, Dalton, Adams, Williams- 
town and Richmond. It was founded six years ago by Mrs. W. 
Rockwood Gibbs of Richmond. 

Due possibly to the added stimulus of having become a mem- 
ber club of the Garden Club of America, this little club has had 

— 21 — 



the most interesting and progressive season in its history. Twelve 
meetings have been held, and at all but one the subject of the day 
has been handled by one of the club members. 

This organization is much interested in the great movement— 
the preservation of wild flowers, and to this end has purchased 
considerable literature for the furtherance of this work. Feel- 
ing that education along these lines must begin with the children, 
pamphlets and pledges have been given out to the various schools 
in Richmond Furnace and West Stockbridge by Mrs. Ray Wil- 
liams, in Dalton by Mrs. Zenas Crane, in Pittsfield by Mrs. Sam- 
uel D. Colt, in Adams by Mrs. Francis U. Stearns and in Rich- 
mond by Mrs. W. Rockwood Gibbs. 

The awards for the year were as follows : — ^Roses, Mrs. F. 
U. Stearns and Mrs. John Spoor ; Tulips, first, Mrs. Gibbs, sec- 
ond, Mrs. Charles Power ; Rock Flowers, Mrs. Samuel Colt : 
Peonies, Mrs. Gibbs ; Dahlias, first, Mrs. Henry Brewster, sec- 
ond, Mrs. Stearns, third, Mrs. Harry Russell ; Chrysanthemums, 
Mrs. Fred Crane ; Orchids, Mr. Arthur Cooley. 

The officers are : President, Mrs. W. Rockwood Gibbs ; Sec- 
retary, Miss Elizabeth Hinsdale ; Librarian, Mrs. Benjamin Ellis 
Martin. 

THE RIDGEFIELD GARDEN CLUB 

Our Club feels it has had a successful and profitable year. 

On June 15th, 1921, we joined for the first time the other 
garden clubs of Westchester and Fairfield Counties in a com- 
bined exhibition held at the Community House at Purchase, 
N. Y., which proved most stimulating in its interest to all com- 
peting clubs. 

Our Seventh Annual Exhibition was held in the Town Hall 
of Ridgefield on September 9th, 1921, and we were gratified to 
find that more members exhibited than ever before. 

At each monthly meeting of the Club during the summer, 
flower exhibitions have been held and, at the end of the season, 
a prize was given to the member who won the most number of 
times in these monthly competitions. 

At our September monthly meeting we held an exhibition 
of garden plans designed by some of our members which were 
judged by popular vote and also, from a profession?! standpoint, 
by Mr. Fletcher Steele of Boston who was most delightful and 
constructive in his criticisms. 

The Village Improvement Committee has vastly improved 
the appearance of the Town Hall by construction, as well as 

— 22 — 



planting, and their future plans include much that will help to 
beautify our town. 

Sarah Tod Bulkley, 
(Mrs. Jonathan Bulkley) President. 

THE RUMSON GARDEN CLUB, 
RUMSON, NEW JERSEY 

The last meeting of the season of the Rumson Garden Club 
was held on October 13th. We have had a very successful year. 
Two very good shows were held, one in June and one in Sep- 
tember. The June show was very remarkable for its Delphin- 
ium, which were unusually beautiful, very tall and well grown, 
also the roses which were very lovely. In the September show, 
the Dahlia was wonderfully represented with some new and very 
special varieties. 

Our Children's Garden for the Public School children com- 
menced in May with 72 children, ending with an exhibit of 45 
children showing vegetables for which the best received prizes. 
We feel this work can be continued with success, but not neces- 
sary to have a paid teacher as heretofore. We have had several 
Field Days, which were most charming, the hostesses opening 
their houses and gardens to the club members. In September, 
we had a very interesting lecture on Iris and Lilies given by 
Mr. Arthur Herrington. We now have 37 colored lantern slides 
in our collection, many of them very lovely views of the mem- 
bers' gardens. 

Francis T. Riker, 
(Mrs. Samuel Riker, Jr.) President. 

Nov. 14, 1921. 



HARDY GARDEN CLUB OF RUXTON, MARYLAND 

The Hardy Garden Club of Ruxton, has just ended a very 
active year. Fourteen meetings were held at which there were 
either special speakers or exhibitions, often both. There were 
twelve exhibitions altogether, three being in conjunction with 
other garden clubs, all culminating in the Flower Show to which 
certain other clubs were asked to join and ten competed for the 
Bronze Medal of the Garden Club of America. This was won 
by one of our own members, Mrs. Ernest Dinning. Incidently, 
it is the first time in Maryland that this award has been offered. 

We conducted a successful booth at the Annual Flower Mart 
of the Civic League in Baltimore, in the spring and won prizes at 

— 23 — 



Tiitionium County Fair in the fall, for exhibits of flowers and 

vegetables. 

This has been our first year under a revised set of by-laws. 
In addition, our President, Mrs. Louis O'Donnell, inaugurated 
a committee system of government by which the different activ- 
ities of the Club were looked after by six committees, each com- 
posed of a chairman and two members, thus creating a body of 
interested and active members larger than ever before. 

Mrs. Ernest D. Levering 

Recording Secretary. 



RYE GARDEN CLUB 

From March 1, 1921 to October 11th, 1921, inclusive, the 
Rye Garden Club held six regular and five special meetings. 

The regular meetings included : 

1. — A lecture by Miss Alderson. 

2. — A lecture by Mr. Gilbert Pearson on Birds — (to this the 
children of members were invited). 

3. — An illustrated lecture by Mr. Loring Underwood on 
the Arnold Arboretum. 

4. — A talk by Mr. Otto Thilow on Practical Gardening, and 

5. — A plant exchange held on June 1st, 1921. 

The special meetings consisted of two field days, an evening 
meeting to which the husbands of club members were invited, 
and at which colored slides were shown of the Rye, North Shore 
and Illinois Gardens, and two flower shows, one of which was 
the combined flower show held June 15, 1921 at the Purchase 
Community House participated in by the Garden Clubs of Rye, 
New Canaan, Ridgefield, Mt. Kisco and Greenwich. 

On May 15th, 1921 the Rye Garden Club acted as the host- 
ess club to the Garden Club of America. 

Under public enterprises a lecture was given at the Public 
School in Rye during the spring of 1921, on the preservation of 
wild flowers, and the Rye Library was supplied with flowers by 
club members during the three summer months. 

The Chairman of the Slides Committee has had fourteen 
aew colored slides prepared of the Rye Gardens, making twenty- 
seven slides in all now available. 

Grace W. T. Putnam, President. 
1920 and 1921. 

— 24 — 



THE SHAKER LAKES GARDEN CLUB 
OF CLEVELAND 

Our outstanding achievement this year has been the start- 
ing of our Wild Flower Preserve. A beautiful spot has been 
chosen. Many wild flowers, shrubs, vines, and trees are planted 
and plans made for many more. We feel it will one day be a 
lovely summer afternoon visits to members' gardens; delightful 
love, and preserve all wild growing things. 

We have had two flower shows — dahlia and chrysanthemum ; 
lovely summer afternoon visits to members' gardens ; delightful 
speakers — with slides — on "Iris," "Chrysanthemums," "Seeds," 
"Preservation of Wild Flowers," and "Small Gardens." 

Two original papers were given — one on "Dahlias" and one 
on "The History of the Art of Gardening." 

We have made a new constitution this year, increased our 
membership not to exceed 100 and our dues to $10.00. 

We have written Senators and Congressmen urging their 
vote against the desecration of parks and water ways. 

Our disapproval of the bill board resolution was voiced to 
advertisers. 

Money has been sent for maintainence of shipping stations 
when protests to Quarantine No. 37 were of no avail. 

Our connection with the Garden Club of America has widen- 
ed our interest. Visits to their meetings and gardens always in- 
spire us to greater and better efforts. 

Katharine F. Ball 
(Mrs. Flamen Ball) 

Secretary. 

GARDEN CLUB OF SANTA BARBARA AND 
MONTECITO 

Failed to Report 

THE SHORT HILLS GARDEN CLUB 

A review of our Club year indicates two things that stand 
out as worthy of notice. 

The raising of our dues to Ten Dollars for Active Members, 
Five Dollars for Associate Members and a small initiation fee. 
This was accomplished possibly against the judgment of some, 
but the result has been most happy, the Club is self-supporting. 

The Topics Committee has instilled new life and interest 

— 25 — 



by giving everyone something to do. For each meeting two 
members write, or otherwise prepare, articles from different 
angles of some timely subject, protesting, and urging lack of 
knowledge, they are answered by "You will know when you 
have prepared your subject." This research work brings our 
heretofore somewhat moss-grown library into active use. There 
will also be competitive Garden Designing for the winter months. 
Cooperation with other New Jersey Garden Clubs in two 
Flower Shows, our own Dahlia Show and exhibiting in Shows 
in which The Garden Club of America was interested brings what 
we feel to be our most successful year to a close. 

Anne P. Stewart 

President. 
October 5, 1921. Bernardsville, New Jersey 

THE GARDEN CLUB OF SOMERSET HILLS 

Eight regular meetings. 

Four special meetings. 

Two lectures with slides. 

One by Mrs. Nathaniel Britton ; subject. "Wild Flowers and 
Trees." 

One by Mr. Farrington ; subject, "Flowering Trees." 

Two Successful Sales of Surplus Stock. 

Questionnaire from which resulted schedule for 1921. 

Competed for the special prize offered by Mr. Newbold at 
the New York Horticultural Show for a Bird Bath with Plant- 
ing. 

Hostess Club for the North Jersey Rose Show on June 15th. 

Matilda H. Lloyd 
(Mrs. Francis G. Lloyd) 

SOUTHAMPTON GARDEN CLUB 

Schedule of the Southampton Garden Club Summer 1921 

Wednesday, June 22d — 

At the residence of the President at three o'clock. Busi- 
ness meeting, summer plans formed. 

Wednesday, July 13th — 

At the School House Auditorium. Large public meet- 
ing for children and grown-ups. Mrs. Sage, representing 
National Association of Audubon Societies spoke on our 
native and migratory bird neighbors. 

— 26 — 



Wednesday, July 27th — 

At Mrs. Peter B. Wyckoff's at which Mr. John C. Woos- 
ter, President of the American Iris Club, lectured and 
showed beautiful colored slides. 

Wednesday, August 10th — 

Interesting experience meeting at Mrs. Henderson's. 

Tuesday, August 30th — 

Joint Dahlia Show at East Hampton of the East Hamp- 
ton and Southampton Garden Clubs. Large display of 
beautiful flowers and good public attendance. Special 
classes for local and permanent residents. 

Wednesday, September 7th — 

Meeting at Mrs. Mulford's at which slides furnished by 
the Garden Club of America were shown. 

Saturday, September 17th — 

Business meeting at the President's house. Last meet- 
ing of the season. 

Emily Willis Robbins, 

(Mrs. Harry Pelham Robbins) President. 

SOUTH SIDE GARDEN CLUB OF LONG ISLAND 

The South Side Garden Club of Long Island has entered 
the sixth year of its existence, and the past year has been its most 
successful one. 

Five lectures, two Flower Shows and one Vegetable Show 
have been held. At one of the Flower Shows the Bronze Medal 
offered by The G. C. of A. was competed for and won by one of 
the members for a wonderful exhibition of Dahlias. 

We have found out what sort of lectures are most useful 
to the members, which was discovered by an expression of opin- 
ion of the members. We know we do not feel we get as much 
benefit from an illustrated lecture as we do from those which 
demonstrate some sort of planting, and handling of bulbs, plants, 
etc. by the lecturer. 

This last kind create the greater enthusiasm. 

It seems impossible to get hold of the interest of the entire 
Club, but more members are dong their "Bit" this year than last, 
and perhaps in time each and every one will take on some respon- 
sibility, as it is only in this manner that the Club members will 
realize that we are able to achieve greater success. 

In closing I can truthfully say that those members who have 
given their help, have been untiring in their work which has 
been of the best. 

Florence B. B. Lentilhor, President. 

— 27 — 



THE GARDEN CLUB OF ST. LOUIS 

The Garden Club of St. Louis held eight regular meetings 
during the year 1920-21 at which various subjects were discus- 
sed. 

On October 12th, 1920, Dr. Herman Von Schrenk gave a 
very interesting illustrated lecture on — 

"Trees of the Pacific Coast." 

On January 18th, 1921, Dr. George T. Moore of the Missouri 
Botanical Gardens addressed the Club on the subject of "Fertil- 
izers for Lawn and Garden." 

On Febrauary 15th, 1921, Mr. John Noyes of the Missouri 
Botanical Gardens gave a talk on — 

"Garden Decorations." 
illustrated. 

At the meeting of March 12th, 1921, two of our members 
made instructive talks. Mrs. R. H. Switzler on "Rose Culture," 
and Mr. E. H. Angert on "Iris." 

On April 19th, 1921, Dr. Herman Von Schrenk talked on 
"Garden Pests and their Prevention and Cure." 

May 17th, 1921, Mrs. O. K. Bovard read a very interesting 
and instructive paper on "Peonies." 

On May 21st and 22d the second annual Flower Show was 
held in the Floral Display House at Shaw's (The Missouri Bo- 
tanical) Garden. This show included both Commercial and 
Amateur growers and was very successful. 

Informal Garden meetings were held during May at the 
homes of Dr. Herman Von Schrenk and Mr. E. H. Angert. 

W. N. Matthews 

Secretary. 

THE SUMMIT GARDEN CLUB 

During the year the club has held ten regular meetings, and 
several special meetings. For speakers we have had Mr. Leonard 
Barron, Miss Elizabeth Leighton Lee, Director of the Ambler 
School of Horticulture and Mr. Farquhar of Boston. Papers 
were read from various sources including some from the Garden 
Club of America Library at Short Hills, New Jersey. 

Last winter our club received Honorable Mention for an 
exhibit in "The Competitive Section for a Vase or Basket of Cut 
Flowers" at the International Flower Show in New York. In 
June we won twelve ribbons and two prizes at the Somerset 
Hills' Rose Show. 

— 28 — 



On October 19th, The Club held its first flower show. The 
hearty co-operation we received from the Garden Clubs of Short 
Hills, Somerset Hills, Princeton, Rumson and Trenton was the 
greatest inspiration and made the show a very successful affair. 
There were seventy-three {72>) exhibitors; of these only 
seven were professionals. The proceeds from this show go to 
the "Lest We Forget Committee." 

No new members were admitted during the year and through 
deaths and resignations we have lost three members making our 
total twenty-three members with a limited membership of thirty. 

Helen Page Wodell 
(Mrs. Ruthven A. Wodell) Secretary. 

21 Edgewood Road 
Summit, N. J. November 12, 1921. 

THE GARDEN CLUB, TRENTON 

During the past year the Garden Club of Trenton has had 
seven regular meetings, with several papers written by members. 
At one meeting Mrs. Nathaniel Britton gave a delightful lecture 
on "The Preservation of Our Native Wild Flowers." The Wild 
Flower Preservation Committee obtained permission for the Club 
to establish a wild flower reservation in the park, and the April 
meeting was devoted to collecting and planting wild flowers in 
the ravine. 

A small Flower Show for Club members was held in May 
and there were six classes of exhibits. Ribbons were awarded, 
and some very creditable exhibits were shown. 

The Club collected money to supplement the planting started 
the year before around the Old Barracks. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Gertrude G. Vroom 

Secretary. 

THE GARDEN CLUB OF TWENTY 

The Garden Club of Twenty has completed a most success- 
ful year, and the members have shown great interest. The new 
Committee recently appointed by the Garden Club of America on 
"Co-operation and Suggestion" has given our Club a new impetus, 
and we have already formed a Committee and become active in 
endeavoring to suggest the planting of new trees in our most cher- 
ished Washington Square, where the trees are now dying, due to 
careless handling ; also we hope to boycott the billboard industry, 
where ever it interferes with the scenic beauty. 

— 29 — 



Our past activities have been chiefly work at the Flower 
Mart, where our booth received the Alice Whiteridge Garrett 
Medal for the best color scheme and plant arrangement. 

We exhibited at the Flower Show at Ruxton and competed 
for the bronze medal offered by the Garden Club of America, our 
club receiving a first and second prize for delphiniums. 

Our most successful effort is the judging of our gardens 
by an expert gardner in no way interested in our club. We 
compete for six prizes. 

Most Artistic Garden. 

Most Blooms in Garden. 

Best kept Garden. 

Color Scheme in Garden. 

Condition of Plants in Garden. 

Best Water Garden. 

Respectfully submitted, 
Mrs. W. Champlin Robinson 

President. 

ULSTER GARDEN CLUB 

An exhibit of garden slides of our own gardens, prepared 
and colored by one of our members, was given early in the spring, 
followed soon after by another exhibit of slides of wild flowers, 
prepared by the Short Hills Garden Club, and procured for us 
through generosity of one of our members. These slides were 
later shown at the High School. 

During the season the club made a gift of twenty window 
boxes, filled with flowers to the Tuberculosis Hospital. 

Competitive floral exhibits both for arrangement and for 
best specimens, have been held in the club during the summer. 
We have also had the privilege of exhibiting in one of the large 
store windows in Kingston. 

Through interest of one of our members, a "Little Gardens 
Club" has been started, and we have helped in mothering this 
club by distributing flowers and plants from surplus stock, and 
in showing our interest where needed. 

One of our members gave a delightful luncheon to the mem- 
bers of the Millbrook, Short Hills, Phillipstown and Ulster Gar- 
den Clubs after which local gardens were visited. Shortly after 
we motored to Millbrook for luncheon with the Millbrook Club 
at "Thornedale" and listened later to a delightful talk by Mr. 
Loring Underwood. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Isabel S. Warren 

Secretary. 

— 30 — 



THE WARRENTON GARDEN CLUB 

The Warrenton Garden Club has just completed its four- 
teenth year. We have had the usual variety of meetings and 
lectures, but our greatest pleasure was being hostess at the annual 
meeting of the Garden Clubs of Virginia, and the next day visit- 
ing the Fauquier and Loudoun gardens. 

There are nine Virginia clubs in -this Federation and one 
hundred and twenty members were present at the annual meeting. 

Our greatest achievement will be the planting of our Court 
House Square and Main Street with Norway maples. The trees 
are ordered and grudging permission from the town council se- 
cured, so the work should be done when this is in print. 

Fourteen colored slides were sent to the Garden Club of 
America and four members were present at the annual meeting 
in Philadelphia. 

Mary P. A. Appleton. 

President. 

WASHINGTON GARDEN CLUB 

Among the activities and privileges of the season 1920-21 
were the following: 

A delightful meeting with six other clubs at Thorndale at 
the invitation of Mrs. Oakleigh Thorne. 

A wild flower preservation meeting. 

Lecture on "What is New in the Garden" by Mr. Edward 
J. Farrington. (Valuable to all clubs). 

A meeting discussing Garden Club of America matters. 
Mrs. Gage of Litchfield assisted at this. 

A fascinating talk on ferns by Professor Evans of the Yale 
Botany Department. 

Newspaper publicity in regard to preserving wild flowers. 

A letter to the Society of Landscape Architects calling at- 
tention to the use of laurel in their last exhibition and the need 
of conserving it. A courteous reply came requesting literature 
on preservation. This was sent. 

Establishing the La Rue Holmes Nature League in the 
schools through the field agent Mrs. Turton, who spoke convinc- 
ingly and aroused the children's interest. 

Exhibition of slides showing gardens of sister clubs and 
discussion of books on garden subjects. 

Our "community work" took the form of presenting books 
to the village library and the village green with good looking 
waste paper baskets of iron. 

M. V. K. Shipman 

President, 1920-21. 

— 31 — 



THE "WEEDERS" 

The year 1921 has been a very active and successful one for 
the "Weeders." Our schedule, which included four lectures by 

outsiders, two club papers, three flower shows and two trips, 
proved most interesting. We have had meetings every two 
weeks, and the work of our Wild Flower Committee is espec- 
ially to be commended. This committee took a summer course 
on the study of Ferns and Wild Flowers, and the Club, as a 
whole, has co-operated with the two other local clubs, in contrib- 
uting and interesting themselves in a big piece of civic work — 
the planning and planting of a Wild Flower preserve in Wister's 
Woods, which is now under the control of the Fairmount Park 
Commission. The Slide Committee have so far twelve garden 
slides and hope to have more by spring. Interest still continues 
in the planting done by the Club in the corner lot next to the Pro- 
Cathedral Church. 

The Weeders had their usual booth at the Annual Ritten- 
house Square Flower Market last May, and helped largely to- 
wards making this the most successful year in its history. 

Our membership has been increased to fifty this year. We 
have attended both the spring and the fall meetings of the Gar- 
den Club of America, and enjoyed the privilege this year of act- 
ing as one of the hostesses at the business meeting of the Garden 
Club of America in Philadelphia. 

Martha Pepper Stengel 
(Mrs. Alfred) 

President. 



THE GARDEN CLUB OF WILMINGTON 

During the past year we have held twelve meetings. 

Columbine, Iris, Peonies, Roses, Sweet Peas and Dahlias 
have been shown in club competition. An arrangement of 
flowers in Vase was shown at the International Flower Show in 
New York. 

Illustrated lectures by Miss Emily Exley on Wild Flowers 
and Mr. Christian Van der Voet on Shrubs were given before 
the Club and a limited number of guests. 

Co-operating with The New Century Club and The Natural 
History Society, we had an open lecture on Birds by Mr. Ernest 
Harold Baynes. All schools were asked to send one teacher and 
a limited number of nature students. This lecture met with such 
an enthusiastic response that we hope to hold one similar this 
year. 

— 32 — 



We were asked by the Weeders of Philadelphia to meet with 
them at a Wild Flower meeting at Mrs. Clarence Warden's and 
were delightfully entertained at luncheon by our hostess preced- 
ing the meeting. 

Co-operating with the Park Board we are planting another 
triangle and have continued the work of The Community Gar- 
dens for the Cultivation of Vacant Lots. 

Sixteen of our members attended the very inspiring autumn 
meeting in Philadelphia of The Garden Club of America. 

Alice Lea Spruance 
(Mrs. William C. Spruance) 

President. 



— 33^ 



PRINTED IN U. S. A. LI8SO & HARTIG. N Y. 



ANNUAL MEETING NUMBER 
1920 

Bulletin ot 

Zhc (3ar6en Club 

of Hmerica 

July, 1920 No. V (New Series) 

President ist Vice-President 

MRS. S. V. R. CROSBY MRS. SAMUEL SLOAN 

OS Beacon Street, Boston and 4S E. 53d Street, New York, and 

Manchester, Mass. Garrison, New York 

Treasurer and Vice-President 

MRS. HUGH D. AUCHINCLOSS MRS. JOHN A. STEWART, Jr. 

33 E. 67TH Street, New York, and Short Hills^ New Jersey 

Newport, R. I. ^^d Vice-President 

Secretary MRS. SAMUEL H. TAFT 

MRS. HAROLD I. PRATT 3329 Morrison Avenue 

820 Fifth Ave., New York, and Clifton, Cincinnati, Ohio 

Glen Cove, L. I. ^i^, Vice-President 

Librarian MRS. FRANCIS B. CROWINSHIELD 

MRS. FREDERICK L. RHODES 164 Marlboro St., Boston, Mass., 

Short Hills, N. J. and Marblehead, Mass. 

Editor 

MRS. WALTER S. BREWSTER 

1220 Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, and Lake Forest, Illinois 

The objects of this association shall be: to stimulate the knowledge and love of gardening among 
amateurs; to share the advantages of association, through conference and correspondence in this 
country and abroad; to aid in the protection of native plants and birds; and to encourage civic planting. 

Midsummer. 

Bright falls the sunshine on the living land; 

It is the high tide of the happy year; 

The long, sweet days change into nights so clear 
That heaven seems leaning to our lifted hand. 
Each sentient creature in his measure knows 

The high tide of the utmost joy of life; 

No longer with the elements at strife. 
All revel in the bliss each hour bestows. 

The soft, deep grasses ripple like the sea; 
The south wind dreams among the fair, glad flowers; 
Thick plumes of verdure crown each stately tree; 

Birds come and go among the leafy bowers; 
And evermore we wonder: "Can it be 

That heaven is faire^ than this world of ours?^' 
— Poem quoted by the President in opening the first Business Meeting of the Annual 
Meeting of igzo. 



History of the Garden Club of America 

Since Its Foundation in May, 1913 

Read by the President, Mrs. Martin, at the First Business Meeting 

of the Annual Meeting of 1920 

Nearly sixteen years ago there swept across this Country a rage 
for gardening. Helena Rutherford Ely, one of the first Vice-Presidents 
of the Garden Club or America, had in the Woman's Hardy Garden 
inspired and bidden the women to care for and work in their 
gardens. The call was answered, and bedding-out plants (the joy 
of the professional gardener) disappeared, and in their places came 
Delphinium, Columbine, Fox-glove and hundreds of other charming 
plants which had once blossomed in our grandmothers' gardens but 
had long been neglected or forgotten. With our own hands we sowed 
the seeds and planted the tiny seedlings in the permanent borders, 
and had the joy of seeing them bloom; then we lived among the 
beauty of these new found friends. 

Rarely does it come to one to see visions and dream dreams, and 
have them come true. One day, while in her garden, to Ernestine 
Goodman (First Secretary of this Club) the vision was given of bring- 
ing together these women who were really interested in their gardens, 
and forming a club for mutual help and inspiration. Through her 
efforts, in April, 1904, the Garden Club of Philadelphia was organized, 
the first in this Country. Cuttings of its sturdy stock took root in 
many places, and others sprung up from the ground and grew in all 
parts of the land. 

I now quote from the Minutes of the first meeting: ''In 1913 
the Garden Club of Philadelphia sent a letter to the several Clubs, 
geographically chosen, inviting their representatives to be guests of 
the Garden Club of Philadelphia and share in the privilege of creating 
a national Garden Club. Thus was set up the loom on which, we hope, 
the Garden Clubs of the country may weave a many-colored fabric 
of beauty and deHght and knowledge. The invitations were accepted, 
the ladies came, courteously deferred to our seniority, and cordially 
seconded our effort. For two days they were whisked about from 
garden to garden and party to party, charming and charmed; and 
never did Philadelphia smile so sweetly or bloom so fragrantly. " 

The Amateur Gardeners of Baltimore, represented by Mrs. John 
Ridgeley, the Garden Club of Bedford, N. Y., represented by Mrs. 
Henry Marquand, the Gardeners of Montgomery and Delaware 
Counties, Pennsylvania, represented by Mrs. Charles H. Ludington, 
the Garden Club of Green Spring Valley, Maryland, represented by 
Miss Fanny McLane, the Garden Club of Illinois, represented by Mrs. 
Cyrus Hall McCormick and Mrs. Walter S. Brewster, the Garden 



Club of Michigan, represented by Mrs. Francis King, Mrs. Andrew H. 
Green and Mrs. W. J. Chittenden, the Garden Club of Orange and 
Dutchess Counties, New York, represented by Mrs. Alfred Ely, the 
Garden Club of Philadelphia, represented by Mrs. C. Stewart Patter- 
son, Mrs. J. WilHs Martin, Mrs. Charles Biddle, Mrs. Bayard Henry, 
Mrs. Henry Middleton Fisher, Mrs. B. Franklin Pepper, and Miss 
Ernestine Goodman, the Garden Club of Princeton, New Jersey, 
represented by Mrs. Archibald Russell and Mrs. Allan Marquand, the 
Short Hills Garden Club, New Jersey, represented by Mrs. John A. 
Stewart, Jr. and Mrs. Edward B. Ren wick, the Garden Club of War- 
renton, Virginia, represented by Mrs. Samuel A. Appleton and the 
Weeders of Pennsylvania, represented by Miss Ellen Wilhams, were 
the twelve founders. 

The prehminary meeting of god-mothers was held at Mrs. Bayard 
Henry's, after a most delicious luncheon fragrant with flowers, with 
pictures of beautiful old "Wick" at our places and the pinkest of 
tablets and pencils to make our notes couleur de rose. At dessert 
Mrs. Patterson graciously welcomed the guests and read Mrs. Wool- 
ston's poem — The Guild of the Gardeners — of which we are justly 
proud. A draft of the objects of the general Club was oflFered for 
discussion, and Mrs. Martin then presented two methods of organiza- 
tion; the first, on informal and strictly social Hnes, the other broadly 
undertaken in the certainty of great future expansion. The object 
of the Club was voted on as a whole and accepted. It was voted that 
each Club should keep its own type of membership. A plan to organize 
on a state basis was not approved on the ground of possible local 
jealousies. SimpUcity of organization was recommended. The title 
of the new League was discussed and several names proposed for 
ballot. The meaning of the word Guild was discussed. 

A ballot making Mrs. C. Stuart Patterson, Honorary President, 
Mrs. J. WilKs Martin, President, and Miss Goodman, Secretary and 
Treasurer, was carried. Mrs. Ely of New York, Mrs. Russell of 
New Jersey, Mrs. King of Michigan, and Mrs. Brewster of IlHnois 
were elected Vice-Presidents. 

It was voted to make the dues fifty cents per capita. All further 
organization was left to the Executive Committee. Here ended the 
first day, and the meeting adjourned to the motors, having stroUed 
in Mrs. Henry's garden with much pleasure before luncheon. 

Visiting first Mrs. Woodward's place, where the dog-woods and 
the wall garden were in magnificent bloom, then Mrs. Taylor's gardens, 
smnptuously enclosed in the great box- wood hedges.and passing through 
Mrs. Clark's lovely place of which we saw all too httle, we finally 
congregated for tea at Mrs. Willing's, where other ladies were invited 
to meet our guests. Surely never was any organization so agreeably 

3 



and harmoniously ushered into being; the garden rage achieved it, 
tempered by the garden peace, in its beginnings at least. The May-day 
festivities were no less successful. The new Executive Committee 
met at Stenton in the morning and were led reluctantly to lunch, 
still organizing, so congenial seemed their task. The first motion by 
Mrs. King, seconded by Mrs. Brewster, that the central organization 
remain permanently in Philadelphia, was carried. 

A motion was carried to take the following subjects for considera- 
tion during the first year: — Grass, Forestry and the Structural Use 
of Green in Grounds and Gardens. A motion was carried to encourage 
and press the use of the Color Chart. The exchange of calenders was 
advocated. It was voted that Clubs might be admitted at this meet- 
ing, and the following Clubs were accordingly elected: — Lenox Gar- 
den Club, Trenton Garden Club, Southampton Garden Club, Cleve- 
land Garden Club and Ann Arbor Garden Club. The meeting then 
adjourned. 

At luncheon an informal ballot was taken on several names 
suggested for the heroine of this tale, and Garden Guild was chosen, 
but owing to many objections the final settlement was reserved for 
further consideration. With the meeting at Stenton the conference 
ended and the delighted guests and their delighted hosts cast care to 
the winds. At the memorable feast then set forth, the Garden Club 
of Princeton were guests of honor, and the receiving ladies were 
honored by the assistance of several ladies of the Colonial Dames 
who have had in hand the good work of preserving Stenton and 
replanting the old garden. The tables laden with good things of the 
olden time, fulfilled the visions evoked by the quaint invitations and 
menu-cards which bore a sketch of the history of Stenton. 

On a May-day of divine beauty in the very home of ancestral 
garden culture, a banquet of enthusiastic friends, brought by Mrs. 
Wright's paper on the experiences of the Planter of Stenton to a 
realization of the noble past this young club is heir to. So was joy- 
ously ushered into being, the "Gaeden Club op America. " 

Immediately after its organization meeting, our glorious Bulletin 
had its humble beginning. Your President issued a four-page number 
and sent it on its way with these words : — " This Little Sheet goes forth 
in the hope that it will be the means of bringing into closer touch 
the Clubs composing the Garden Club of America. " It has not 
only become a medium of communication between our members, 
but to-day under the able editorship of Mrs. Brewster and her stafif, 
stands as the leading garden magazine in this country, and I know 
of none other across the water that can compare with it. 

On her trip around the world in January, 1914, Miss Mcllvaine 
of the Trenton Club, had the opportunity of starting the Garden Club 

4 



of Bombay, India. A delightful correspondence between its President 
and our Honorary President, Mrs. Patterson, ensued. 

The second Annual Meeting of the Garden Club of America 
washeldin Princeton, May,i9i4,at the house of Mrs, Archibald Russell, 
Vice-President. The Honorary President, Mrs. Stuart Patterson, 
opened the meeting with the poem — "The Month of Magic" — and 
spoke a few words of congratulation to the old and welcome to the 
new member Clubs. 

After the meeting, the delegates were entertained by Mrs. Russell 
at luncheon. Her bowls of fine alamanders and white lilacs with 
narcissus were a joy. During luncheon. Dr. Warthin, President of the 
Garden Club of Ann Arbor, Michigan, made a strong plea for giving 
the Club a democratic character, and the widest possible field of 
action, to insure its vitality and real usefulness. 

In the afternoon, we had the pleasure of seeing the charming 
gardens of Princeton. At Morven, Mrs. Stockton read to us her 
paper — A Quest for the Garden, — interestingly giving the history 
of 200 years of this home of her family. At the meeting the next day, 
the following committees were appointed — 

To encourage the use of a Color Chart; 

For Beautifying Settlements and Highways; 

Lecturers, and Garden Literature. 

The last two have become invaluable to the member Clubs. 

Dean West, at Mrs. Pyne's luncheon, gave a sketch of this fine 
old homestead. Then other gardens were visited, and we gathered at 
Old Nassau to hear from Mr. McElroy of the brave old days of this 
old town. Later, the Dean received us in his garden, where we heard 
Miss Mattheson recite exquisitely the Shakespeare Sonnet — " Shall I 
compare thee to a summer's day". After tea, we tore ourselves 
from the second delightful Annual Meeting of the Club. 

During the winter of 191 5 the war clouds hovering over our heads 
made us realize that the summer might bring forth a need for greater 
production of food for our Allies. Your President at the meeting of the 
Council of Presidents, appointed a Committee, with Mrs. Horace 
Sellers as Chairman, to prepare vegetable planting plans. Little 
did we think then that a short time later on when the need for con- 
servation of food in this country was great, that these plans would 
be issued by the thousands and sent throughout the country. 

With true Southern hospitality, Baltimore welcomed us to the 
third Annual Meeting (May, 1915) when we were the guests of the 
Amateur Gardeners. At the first day's meeting, Mr. William W. 
Renwick of Short Hills, received the prize given by the Club for the 
best essay on The Flower Garden in Relation to the House. Luncheon 
to the delegates was given by Mrs. Garrett, in her charming house, 

5 



which has later become through her generosity a Home for our bhnded 
soldiers. 

We visited many beautiful gardens, and had tea with Mrs. Ridgely, 
at wonderful old Hampton with its terraced gardens, ancient cedars 
and fine box. An account of this historic place was read by Mrs. 
Bruce. On the second day, we visited the far-famed Baltimore Flower 
Market and other attractive gardens, the members being particularly 
charmed by Mrs. Bouton's little open air theatre. 

In January, 1916, through the efforts of Mrs. Boardman, South- 
ampton Garden Club, the first exhibition of garden books was held 
at the New York Public Library. This was followed in March, when 
the Council of Presidents met in Philadelphia, by a loan exhibition 
of garden books in Philadelphia, arranged by Mrs. Wm. W. Frazier, 
Jr., under the auspices of the Garden Club of Philadelphia, where one 
bad the rare treat of examining Gerard's "Herbal" and other century 
old books. 

It was with peculiar pleasure we held the Fourth Annual Meeting 
at Lenox, Mass. (June 28th-29th, 1916), for here in the happy peace- 
fulness of midsummer, surrounded by the Berkshire Hills, we were 
inspired to bring forth in a truer and bigger way the objects of this 
association. After each of our business meetings we had the joy of 
seeing the great gardens of this wonderful country. Miss Kneeland 
welcomed us in her garden, designed and carried out by her own hands, 
and Mr. French's garden and studio showed us many charms never 
to be forgotten. Those who had the privilege of being received by 
Mr. Choate will ever remember his gracious hospitahty. We were 
hurried away from Mr. Clarke's picturesque garden, as well as from 
the charming gardens of Mrs. Parson, Mrs. Clarkson, and Mrs. 
Hoffman by the shrill whistle blown by Mr. Clarkson. 

Every member Club was represented at this meeting, and inspiring 
reports were made by the Presidents at the dinner at the Curtis House. 

igij — America was at War, and the Garden Club of America 
laid aside its pleasures and met its duties. Reluctantly we abandoned 
the privilege of holding the Fifth Annual Meeting as the guests of 
the Garden Club of IlHnois. 

At the meeting in March of the Council of Presidents the Clubs 
were called into the service of their country, and immediately they 
began planting vegetable gardens and established canning centers. 
It was strange to hold our Fifth Annual Meeting the middle of June, 
191 7, in New York City, but we met only to carry out the business of 
the Association. 

In July your President was called to Washington to represent 
this Club at a Meeting of the Woman's Committee of the Council of 
National Defense. It was interesting to find that out of 70 National 

6 



Organizations present, the Garden Club of America and the 
Woman's Farm and Garden Association were the only Organiza- 
tions which had turned all of their activities to the production of 
food. 

It was at the Meeting of the Council of Presidents in October, 191 7, 
that the War Work Council of the Garden Club of x\merica (Mrs. 
Newell, Mrs. Hill and Miss Marble)made its report in favor of organ- 
izing the Woman's Land Army of America. This Council was author- 
ized to confer with other Organizations to bring about the formation 
of the Army. Miss Marble and your President visited the Department 
of Agriculture to discuss the plan, and finally Miss Marble became the 
temporary Chairman. She, mth several members of the Garden 
Club of America (including your Secretary and President) as well as 
members of the Farm and Garden Association and others organized 
and carried on to the close of the war the Woman's Land Army of 
America. 

Nearly two Bulletins are devoted to the war work of the in- 
dividual Clubs; it is with just pride we record that notwithstanding 
the fact that nearly all of the Presidents were serving in executive 
positions with the National War Rehef Organization no Club failed 
to answer the patriotic call to service. 

It was at the meeting of the Council of Presidents in March, 1919, 
that Miss Morgan told us of the agricultural situation in Northern 
France, and Miss Geer, in the picturesque uniform of the Farmerette, 
spoke of the work of the Land Army from the standpoint of the worker. 

From the summer of 1918 until November, i9i9,we sorely missed 
the ever looked-for Bulletin. At Mrs. Brewster's request it was 
suspended by reason of her services being devoted to the Fatherless 
Children of France; later she was obliged to cross the seas in its 
interest. 

Again the Club had a general meeting in January, 19 19. Many 
worth while reports were made by the Standing Committees and 
Mrs. Hill's splendid report on the Woman's Land Army was greeted with 
great enthusiasm. Mr. Fairchild begged the Clubs to encourage the 
making of gardens and parks as War Memorials. At a meeting in 
New York in May, 1919, the future policy of the Club was discussed 
and Mrs. Hutcheson presented a plan to broaden its work, and with 
her far-reaching vision of the future she suggested we make it more 
national in scope. We agreed to this, though we felt it would take 
time, but we surely are advancing in this direction. 

The long-talked-of meeting in Lake Forest and Winnetka became 
a reahty in June, 1919. In what words can I describe it! Those of us 
who had the good fortune to live in those charming gardens during 
those all too short days, felt we had truly entered the Garden of Eden. 

7 



Mrs. Greeley, the President of the Garden Club of Illinois, in her 
sweet, gentle way bade us welcome, and in her own words said — "The 
freedom of the gardens is yours ". It was her hearty welcome and that 
of the members of the Club which made us enjoy to the limit our 
delightful stay with this Founder Club. 

It was during this Annual Meeting that members more fully 
realized the great work that lies before us — " to stimulate the knowl- 
edge and love of Gardening", and we woke to the realization of the 
part the Garden Club must take in beautifying America. A resolu- 
tion was passed endorsing a National Victory Forest. 

The second day's meeting held in the open at Mrs. McCormick's 
made us wish to throw all business aside and simply dream under 
the shade of her wonderful trees or watch the sparkling sun-hght as it 
shone on the great Lake at the foot of the lawn. We reluctantly left 
Lake Forest and Winnetka unable to express in words our deep 
appreciation of the gracious hospitality accorded to this large company 
of visitors. A few of us had the added pleasure of visiting Lake 
Geneva, Wisconsin, before we were compelled to speed homeward. 

The winter meeting was held in New York in December, 1919, for 
the purpose of discussing the Questionnaire which had previously been 
sent to the Member Clubs. All were in favor of the Slides to be col- 
lected and lent to Member Clubs and of the Cards for Visiting Gardens 
and nearly all felt the dues should be increased to cover overhead 
expenses. The fight against the Sign Boards began at this meeting 
as well as a renewal of the attack on Quarantine No. 37. Mrs. Rhodes 
presented an interesting report on her work as Librarian. After 
luncheon Mr. George Pratt, Forest Commissioner of New York State, 
gave an interesting illustrated talk on the work accomplished by the 
Commission. 

The Club was asked at its Spring Meeting (March, 1920) by the 
Massachusetts Horticultural Society to co-operate with it and other 
organizations in protesting against Quarantine No. 37. It is gratify- 
ing to find that more and more the other organizations are turning 
to the Garden Club for assistance. 

The Garden Club of Orange and Dutchess Counties was our Host- 
ess in March when we heard from Mr. Wilson of the wondrous beauty 
of the Japanese Gardens. We have the happy memory of Mrs. Fair- 
child enjoying with us the hopitality of her Club, on that day. 

I have tried to tell you in a simple way the story of the Garden 
Club's seven years of work; in them we have ploughed the ground and 
sown the seed. In the coming years it must be cultivated by each 
and every one of us if we are to reap the harvest of fine gardening in 
this Country. 

8 



Executive Meeting of The Garden Club of America 
of the Session of 1920 

A meeting of the Executive Committee of the Garden Club of 
America was held at the residence of Mrs. S. V. R. Crosby, Manches- 
ter, Massachusetts, June 28th, at 8:30 p. m. 

Those present were: Mrs. J. Willis Martin, Mrs Samuel Sloan, 
Mrs. Oakleigh Thome, Mrs. Hugh D. Auchincloss, Mrs. Walter S. 
Brewster, Mrs. S. V. R. Crosby, Mrs. F. L. Rhodes, and Mrs. Harold 
Irving Pratt. 

The minutes of the meeting of May 24th, were read by the Secre- 
tary, and ordered filed as read. 

A letter from Mrs. Francis King was read, suggesting that some 
method of co-operation between the Garden Club of America, and 
the Woman's National Farm & Garden Association, Inc., be adopted. 
Inasmuch as this seemed to be a question of policy which would 
establish a precedent, it was moved and seconded that this question 
be deferred until the meeting of the Council of Presidents on June 29th. 

A letter from Mrs. Charles Henry, of Philadelphia, was read asking 
that a leaflet from the school of Horticulture for Women, at Ambler, 
stating its cause with reference to its financial need, should be mailed 
with the Bulletin. It was moved by Mrs. Sloan, seconded by Mrs. 
Thorne, and carried, that the pohcy of the Garden Club of America 
would forbid the enclosure in the Bulletin of leaflets issued by outside 
organizations in which funds were soHcited. As this was a question 
of poHcy Mrs. Martin suggested that this Resolution be brought 
before the meeting of the Council of Presidents. 

The Garden Club of Pasadena, proposed by the Millbrook Garden 
Club, seconded by the Santa Barbara Garden Club, and The Garden 
Club of Denver, proposed by the Garden Club of Easthampton, 
seconded by the Garden Club of Santa Barbara, were submitted to 
the meeting. Inasmuch as these Clubs fulfilled all requirements of 
membership, they were unanimously recommended for election to 
the meeting of the Council of Presidents. 

The new Constitution was read, and compared with the old. 
Certain amendments were suggested which were to be presented at 
the Business Meeting of the Garden Club of America, on the morn- 
ing of June 29th. 

Inasmuch as non-delegates, even at this late date were asking 
that arrangements be made for their entertainment, the following 
resolution was passed for the protection of the Hostess Club: Re- 
solved: That no persons other than Presidents, Alternates, Dele- 
gates, and non-Delegates already provided with cards be admitted to 
any Garden or Meeting of the Garden Club of America now in session. 



The Secretary asked that a suggestion be made to the General 
Meeting that each Club send to Mrs. Brewster, and to the Secretary, 
the corrections In addresses of their membership list in card catalogue 
form, according to a formula which would be sent out from her office. 
This matter was referred to the Council of Presidents. Mrs. Brewster 
also asked that the question of sending the Bulletin in bulk package 
to the Presidents of each Club or individually to each member as is 
now the custom, should be discussed at the Meeting of the. Council 
of Presidents. 

There being no- further business, upon motion the meeting ad- 
journed. 

Secretary's Report 

The very delightful and instructive days which were spent in 
visiting the gardens of the members of the North Shore Garden Club 
of Massachusetts were begun by a visit to the garden of Mrs. Gordon 
Abbott, in West Manchester. The combination of luxuriant vegeta- 
tion with the rockbound shore of the Atlantic Ocean, formed a most 
unusual setting for Mrs. Abbott's place. Her garden, which was 
very carefully thought out in relation to colour scheme, had a lovely 
background of cedar and pine, and gave one a sense of intimacy. 

From Mrs. Abbott's we passed on to the farm of Mrs. H. F. Cool- 
idge in Pride's Crossing. In passing through the house our attention 
was somewhat distracted from out-of-doors, by an interesting collec- 
tion of Lowestoft. As we left the house we looked out upon well 
cultivated fields, and a charming little pond which was tenanted 
by graceful swans. The gardens nestled into the hillside, on the slope 
towards the pond. This pond was fed by a most active little brook, 
which we crossed on our way down to the farm buildings. 

We then motored through charming New England country, so 
full of suggestion of our early colonial days, to one of the most de- 
lightful and interesting historical landmarks in New England," Indian 
Hill" at West Newbury, owned and kept as a source of historical 
interest for his family and friends by Mr. Frederick S. Moseley of 
Boston. A grant of land was received by the Poor family in 1655. 
The house was erected in 1688. It has been added to constantly until 
it covers a large area of ground. It is filled with the furniture and 
costumes of the time, and when wandering about from room to room, 
it is possible to review our entire colonial history, as either many 
important figures of our history have stayed in this house, or there 
are collected here some of their possessions. The gardens in connection 
with the house, although much newer than the house, are appropriate 
to the setting. 

10 



We motored from thence to the home of Mr. and Mrs. Moseley, 
where delegates and non-delegates were graciously entertained at 
luncheon upon the lawn. The gardens of Mrs. Moseley were designed 
by one of the members of the Somerset Hills Garden Club, Mrs. 
William A. Hutcheson, who as Martha Brooks Brown, has done much 
professional work among the members of the North Shore Garden 
Club. The natural setting of the Moseley place is peculiarly beauti- 
ful. The house is situated upon a bluff overlooking the Merrimac 
River, surrounded by superb woodland, much of which is filled with 
Laurel of unusual size, which it was the privilege of the members of 
the Garden Club to see after the Business Meeting. 



First Business Meeting of the Garden Club of America 
of the Session of 1920 

The first business meeting of the Garden Club of America 
of the session of 1920, was held in the fragrant Pine Grove of Mrs. 
F. S. Moseley, at Newbur3^ort. 

On motion duly made, seconded and carried that the reading of 
Report of the Annual Meeting of 1920 be omitted, the President 
called for the Treasurer's Report, which was read as follows: 



By balance June i6th, 1919 $ 736.10 

Receipt since June i6th, 1919 — 

Albemarle $104 . 50 

Allegheny County . . 2 50 . 00 

Amateur Gardeners . 1 00 . 00 

Bedford 150.00 

Chestnut HiU Gar- 
den Society 200 . 00 

Cincinnati 45 • 00 

Cleveland 110.00 

East Hampton 97 . 00 

Fauquier & Lou- 
doun Counties ... 55 ■ 50 

Greenwich 30 . 00 

Green Spring Valley 65 . 00 

Hardy Garden Club 

of Ruxton 28 . 00 

Harford County. ... 52 . 00 

Hartford 66.00 

Illinois 73-5° 

James River 27 . 50 

Lake Geneva 47 • 00 

Litchfield 49 • 50 

Lenox 204.00 

Michigan 183 .50 

Middletown 14.00 

Millbrook 92 . 00 

Montgomery & Del- 
aware Cos 80 . 00 



Morristown 90 . 00 

New Canaan 78 . 00 

Newport Garden 

Association 218 . 50 

North Country, L. I. 63 . 50 

North Shore, Mass. 65.50 
Orange & Dutchess 

Cos 78 . 00 

Philadelphia 81 .00 

Philipstown 75 • 00 

Princeton 36 . 00 

Ridgefield 156.00 

Rumson 63 . 50 

Rye 118.00 

Santa Barbara 1 24 . 00 

Shaker Lakes 25.00 

Short Hills 61 . 50 

Somerset Hills 132 . 00 

Southampton 84.00 

Summit 13.00 

Trenton 47 • 00 

Twenty 28 . 50 

Ulster 60 . 00 

Warrenton 60 . 00 

Washington, Coim . . 2 2 . 00 

Weeders 77 50 

Wilmington 15 ■ 00 



Treasurer's 
Report 



$3996.50 



II 



Credits brought for- Luncheon March 

ward $4732.60 17,1920 506.25 

Received for Lunch- Paid to Miss Je- 

eon December kyll 400 . 00 

ist, 1919 $368.35 Bulletin-No v., 

Received for Lunch- 1919 467 . 57 

eon March 17, Bulletin-Jan., 1920. 59590 

1920 506. 25 Bulletin-March, 

Received for Gen- 1920 592.05 

eral Expense of Bulletin-May, 1920 709.55 

Bulletin 575 00 Stamps for May 

Received for Miss Bulletin 48 . 44 

Jekyll's Fund. . . . 500.00 

Received for Sub- $4512.45 

scriptions to Bui- Ex. on cheques — 

letin 66.75 June, 1919 . . . . 2.30 

Received for Mem- 

bers-at-large 55- 10 $4514-75 

Received for Rum- To Balance — Far- 
son G. C. for mers Loan & 
1920-1921 168.00 $2239.45 TrustCo $2457.30 

CREDITS $6972.05 $6972.05 $6972.05 

Bills paid since June i6th, 1919 — By balance — Farmers Loan 

Printing $561.44 &Tr. Co. June 20th, 1920.. $2457.30 

Office expenses. . . . 288 . 75 Check from Rumson Garden 
Luncheon Dec. i, Club for 1920-1921, not 

1919 342.50 deposited 42.00 

Garden Clubs that have not paid the extra assessment for 1919- 

1920 2 

Rumsdn Garden Club, and WashTngton, Connecticut, Garden Club. 

Respectfully submitted. 
(Signed) Emma B. Auchincloss, 
Treasurer. 
The report of the Treasurer was accepted, and ordered put on file. 
Mrs. S. V. R. Crosby, President of the North Shore Garden Club, 
Massachusetts, the Hostess Club, welcomed the members of the 
Garden Club of America. 

In response, Mrs. Martin spoke of the stupendous work it had 
been to prepare this Annual Meeting, and congratulated the Hostess 
Club upon the perfection of its arrangements. She remarked that 
as the Garden Club of America became more national in its scope, 
the arrangements for the Annual Meeting became increasingly difficult. 
Mrs. Martin expressed her own personal appreciation, the appreciation 
of her Officers, and of the members of the Garden Club of America 
for the generous hospitahty and courteous consideration of the Hostess 
Club. 

The President asked for a report from the Bulletin Committee. 
Mrs. Walter S. Brewster, Chairman of the Committee, and Editor 
of the Bulletin of the Garden Club of America, the official organ 
of the Organization, reported as follows: 

12 



Since the last Annual Meeting of the Garden Club of America Bulletin 
four numbers of the Bulletin have been issued. These four issues Report 
have been influenced by the answers received to the questionnaire 
sent to each individual member last August. These answers gave 
every evidence that the members were individual. They have been 
reported in detail elsewhere and the excellent advice, admonitions, 
commendations and vituperations they embodied have been given 
every consideration and some employment. 

You will all agree that the Bulletin has improved just as you 
will all admit that there was room for improvement. This improve- 
ment is largely due to the Editorial Board. Whatever may be your 
editor's short-comings, she has proved herself the possessor of one 
quality, the abiHty to choose able assistants. Some of them do not 
spell very well, but this is a defect of brilHant minds and adds to the 
editorial conviction that the Board is the Bulletin. A new member, 
Mrs. T. H. B. McKnight of the Garden Club of Allegheny County, 
has just been enhsted, so a still greater improvement may be 
expected. 

Unfortunately with the increase in interest has come an over- 
whelming increase in cost. This is partly due to the greater size of 
the Bulletin and the increased membership of the Club, but prin- 
cipally to the advance in the price of paper and printing. The expense 
of printing and maihng the four issues of the new series has been 
$2413 .51. Added to this are secretarial expenses and postage, amount- 
ing to $405 . 00, which have not been charged to the Garden Club. 
From this you will see that we cannot publish a magazine of the 
present size, six times a year for much less than $3750.00. 

You will remember, perhaps, that this was to be considered a 
trial year, so the time has now come to decide whether the Bulletin 
in its present form is to go on. It contains much now that purports 
to be of interest to the Club but has no direct bearing upon its business 
activities. The whole plan could be, changed to the printing of an 
eight-page report after each general meeting and an Annual Report 
which would contain Committee Reports and accounts of Member 
Club activities. This would be much less expensive and possibly more 
valuable. There are many magazines in circulation just now and un- 
less our members really want the Bulletin as it now is it is an extrava- 
gance of time and money to continue its pubHcation. The question 
should be decided to-day. 

As a help in this decision it might be said that the cost of extra 
copies for newly added Clubs does not greatly increase the expense 
of an issue. The same is true in the cost of extra copies for non- 
member subscribers. If enough of these at $2.00 or possibly $2.50 
a year could be secured by members it would be a material help. 

13 



So far about 40 people have availed themselves of the new opportunity 
for sponsored subscriptions. 500 or 1000 subscriptions could be 
cared for on a paying basis. If the Bulletin is worth anything it 
is interesting to non-members as well as members and although sub- 
scriptions should not be generally and pleadingly solicited a little 
judicious and genteel advertising would help. In this matter of sub- 
scriptions there seems to be a misunderstanding on the part of some 
members who feel that their dues are in payment of their subscription 
to the Bulletin. Instead their dues entitle them to the Bulletin 
as the official Club organ but the Bulletin is only one of the many 
expenses the Club must meet and all dues go to a general expense 
account, not to the editor. 

In case it is decided to continue the publication of the Bulletin, 
certain points should be more definitely understood. First, the 
editor should not be given a free hand. The Bulletin is a Club 
organ and should voice the policies, ideas and intentions of the Club, 
not of the editor. You leave too much to the discretion of your 
servant when you allow her utterances to speak for the Club ; you 
ask too much of your servant when you throw upon her an undivided 
responsibility. I think you do not realize how powerful an organ- 
ization the Garden Club of America has become. If the Bulletin 
is to persist with the present editor in charge, the Executive Com- 
mittee from whom she receives her appointment must issue her 
orders. 

Second, some financial plan must be made. As the Club increases 
its membership and if prices continue to mount the exact sum would 
have to be adjusted to necessities but an approximate amount should 
be stated and the editor instructed to keep within that amount. 

In the smaller matters of detail there are many things to be ar- 
ranged. A good many Bulletins seem to be lost in the mails. With 
so many changing addresses from winter to summer this is a difficult 
matter to adjust. With a mailing list of 3000 each name cannot receive 
individual attention and the issue mailed to a different address each 
time. The present method is to use summer addresses for the May, 
July and September issues, winter addresses for November, January 
and March. A suggestion has been made that enough copies of 
Bulletin be sent to the president of each Member Club for dis- 
tribution to its members. Would this be more satisfactory? Sugges- 
tions will be very welcome, but it has sometimes occurred to a sus- 
picious editor that the unpretentious, second class envelope within 
which the Bulletin hides its light is frequently consigned to the scrap 
basket without a second look. 

During the past year the Bulletin has added some twenty-five 
horticultural and agricultural libraries to its regular mailing Ust, 

14 



always at the request of the librarian. The Arnold Arboretum some 
time ago asked for a complete file and one was sent with ill-concealed 
pride. When, however, a similar request reached the editor from 
the Professor himself who had not been informed of the Hbrary's 
acquisition, pride stepped boldly forth and proclaimed itself. 

The following plan has been made for issuing the six numbers 
of the Bulletin: July or August, depending upon the date of the An- 
nual Meeting. This issue will contain a report of the Meeting, Com- 
mittee reports, accounts of Gardens visited, suggestions made, etc. 
About September 15th a Fall-Planting issue. About December ist an 
issue which will contain reports of the summer work of each Member- 
Club. Most of the Clubs have their Annual Meetings in October 
or November so at this time it should be possible to give lists of 
new officers and annual reports. The remaining three issues 
would be published January 15th, March 15th and May ist. For 
these spring numbers there is always interesting material. Do 
you approve of this schedule and if not what modification do you 
suggest? 

It may be well to remind you that the editor enjoys the Bulletin 
much as a mother does a troublesome pair of twins. The simile need 
not be elaborated. Impatience, affection, exhaustion and devotion 
are aU implied, but if you hke the Bulletin, satisfaction can be added 
to the list. 

Respectfully submitted. 
Kate L. Brewster, 

Editor 

The President asked for suggestions in regard to the continuation 
of the Bulletin under its present policy. With no discussion, it was 
moved, seconded, and carried that the policy of the Bulletin remain 
unchanged. The question of distribution was then discussed, in 
regard to mailing the Bulletin individually, or in bulk package to 
each Club for individual distribution to its members. It was asked that 
this question be brought before the meeting of the Council of Presi- 
dents. 

The President asked for a report from the Committee on Historic Committee 
Gardens. The Secretary explained that Mrs. Harry Groome, of the ^^ Historic 
Warrenton Garden Club, had been Chairman of this Committee, but Gardens 
had resigned last Autumn, and that no one had been appointed to 
succeed her. That during the year, several contributions to the 
work of this Committee had come to the Secretary's office. It was 
moved, seconded, and carried that this Committee be reorganized 
and its work carried on. 

15 



Committee The President asked for a report from the Committee of the 
ON THE Honourary Medal Award. The Secretary read a communication 
~r,^^^^. ^^ f^o^ -^^2- Francis King, of the Garden Club of Michigan, Chairman 
of this Committee, who through illness was unable to be present, 
asking for a dissolution of the Committee, explaining that its work 
of raising the money, and selecting the Medal, had been accomplished. 
The report of the Treasurer of the Committee, Mrs. Allan Marquand, 
of the Princeton Garden Club, was read as follows: 



Honourary 
Award 



Subscribers 

TO THE 

Medal of 

Honourary 

Award 



The North Cotjntry Garden Clxtb. 

Mrs. Emlen Roosevelt. 

Mrs. J. Willis Martin. 

Mrs. Wm. H. Hughes. 

Mrs. Allan Marqtjand. 

Newport Garden Association. 

Garden Club of Cincinnati. 

Millbrook Garden Club. 

Litchfield Garden Club. 

Garden Club of Allegheny Co. 

Miss Alice Driggs. 

Mrs.Francis King. 

Amateur Gardeners of Baltimore. 

Garden Club of Michigan. 

Garden Club of Princeton. 

Garden Club of Easthampton, L. I. 

North Shore Garden Club. 

Mrs. Oakleigh Thorne. 

Mrs. Harold Pratt, 

The Gardeners of Montgomery and 

Delaware Counties, Pa. 
The Short Hills Garden Club. 
The Garden Club of Illinois. 
The Hardy Garden Club of Rux- 

TON, Md. 

The Garden Club of Rye, N. Y. 

Mrs. Hugh D. Auchincloss. 

Mrs. M. B. Hutcheson. 

Mrs. Arnold Hague. 

Mrs. J. E. Newell. 

Mrs. Fuller. 

Mrs Junius Morgan. 

Miss Florence L. Pond. 

Garden Club of Southampton, L. I. 

The Bedford Garden Club. 

Mrs. W. p. Hamilton. 

The Morristown Garden Club. 

Mrs. John Sherwin. 

Mrs. C. a. Otis. 

Mrs. Max Farrand. 

The Weeders. 

Anonymous. 

The Garden Club of Hartford. 

The Shaker Lakes Garden Club. 



Mrs. Arthur Scribner. 
Greenwich Garden Club 
Fauquier and Loudoun 
Club. 



Garden 



From ten members of the New 
Canaan Club as follows: 
Mrs. Henry W. Chappell. 
Mrs. JtTLius Kruttschmitt. 
Mrs. Wm. H. Gary. 
Mrs. Edgar S. Auchincloss, Je. 
Mrs. John V. Irwin. 
Mrs. Jesse Hoyt. 
Mrs. H. J. Davenport. 
Miss Jane R. Faile 
Miss Annie F. Crane. 
Miss Myra Valentine. 

The following clubs have wished to 
subscribe, but our fund was more than 
complete. 
The Garden Club of Lake Geneva, 

Wisconsin. 
The Garden Club of Santa Barbara 

and montecito. 
The Garden Club of Washington, 

coiwecticut. 
Total on hand, June 22nd, 

1920 $1580.18 

Of this amount, we hold in bonds 

Of the 3rd Liberty Loan . . 650 . 00 

In a bond of the Victory- 
Loan 50 . 00 



Total amount in bonds. . . . 
Cash deposited with Prince- 
ton Bank & Trust Co. ... 



880.18 
$1580.. 18 



Eleanor C. Marquand, 
Treasurer of the Medal of Honourary 
Award Fund. 



Upon motion it was duly moved, seconded, and carried that as it 
had accomplished its work, the Committee upon the Selection of, 

16 



and Payment for the Medal of Honourary Award, be dissolved, with 
the understanding that its funds be turned over to the Treasurer of 
the Garden Club of America. 

The President asked for a report from the Committee on the Color Chart 
Colour Chart. The Secretary read a letter from Mrs. Francis King, Committee 
of the Garden Club of Michigan, Chairman of this Committee, stating 
that since communication could be taken up again with foreign 
countries, much could be accomplished in this Committee, and 
asked that it be continued. It was moved, seconded, and carried that 
this Committee be continued. 

The President asked for a report from the Conmiittee on Trades Committee 
Relations. Miss Rose Standish Nichols, Consultant Member of the on Trades 
Garden Club oe America, the Chairman of this Committee, re- Relations 
ported as follows : While the Committee may seem to have done very 
little work during the past year, it had laid the foundation for better 
work in the future. The American Association of Nurserymen had in- 
vited the Garden Club of America to send a representative to 
their Chicago Meeting, At this meeting it is intended to discuss the 
status of relationship between this Association and the Garden 
Club of America. At the Spring Meeting of the Garden Club of 
America, Mr. J. Edward Moon, President of the American Associa- 
tion of Nurserymen, expressed the views of the Association as an 
organization upon Quarantine 37. 

The President asked for a report from the Committee on Lectures 
and Original Papers. Mrs. Frederick L. Rhodes, the Librarian, and 
Chairman of this Committee, reported as follows : 

During the past year the Librarian has revised and brought up Report of 
to date the list of Lectures on subjects of interest to Garden Clubs. Librarian 
This has required correspondence with each lecturer, in order to 
obtain the latest information as to subjects, lantern slides, terms and 
other details. The revised list has been pubHshed, for the information 
of member clubs, in the Bulletin for May. Member Clubs are requested 
to send to the Librarian the names and addresses of lecturers, not 
included in the pubUshed list, whose work has been found to be 
satisfactory. 

The Library now contains 115 original papers, and 123 pamphlets 
including University of Illinois Bulletins of the Agricultural Ex- 
periment Station, also Bulletins of the Pennsylvania Department of 
Agriculture, and a complete file of the Bulletins of the Garden 
Club of America. A catalogue of the entire library has been prepared 
during the past year and a copy has been transmitted to the Editor 
of the Bulletin for pubhcation. During the year several requests for 
papers have been received from Member Clubs and the desired papers 
have been duly sent. 

17 



In order that the scope of the library may be extended, it is 
suggested that Clubs send to the Librarian copies of all worthy papers 
that may be prepared and presented before them by their members 
or others. 

Mrs. Fredeeick L. Rhodes, 
Librarian. 

The President asked for a report from the Committee on the 
Preservation of Wild Flowers. Mrs. H. W. Hack, of the Short Hills 
Garden Club, the Chairman of this Committee, who was unable to be 
present at this meeting, sent the follomhg report. It was read by the 
Secretary: 
Report of The report of the Wild Flower Committee is more in the nature 
THE Commit- of a recommendation than a report of work accompHshed. 
TEE ON THE A Committee was formed with representation from every Club 
Preservation in the Garden Club of America. 

OF Wild Several of the Clubs purchased lantern slides with which to 
Flowers instruct children about wild flowers. Many Clubs joined the Wild 
Flower Preservation Society, and put up posters urging the Protection 
of Wild Flowers. 

I was obliged to resign last fall and as no one was appointed to 
take my place the work was suspended. 

I sincerely hope that some one will be appointed to carry on this 
work. The people whom we most want to reach never see the Bul- 
letin. Much can be done locally by every Club, and there is a big 
field for legislative work such as has been done by the Audubon 
Societies. 

Respectfully submitted. 

Joanna H. Hack, 
Chairman. 

Upon motion duly made and carried it was voted to continue the 
work of this Committee. 

The Secretary was asked to read the following Resolution: 
Mrs. J. Willis Martin, 
Madame President : 
Wild Flower In all of our States and Counties there are many places of special 

Preservation beauty, and many flowers and trees of great loveHness that are in 
Resolution danger of being lost. Therefore, it seems that part of our obligation, 
as one of the specified objects of our Association, is to encourage the 
preservation of all woodland things, that the natural beauty spots 
of our country may not be destroyed. If through neglect, the cultivat- 
ed flowers in our gardens die, they can easily be replaced, but if the 
Crab-trees are torn, the Trillium, Lady Slippers and rare Ferns plucked 



to death, who will restore those to our wild gardens? Although there 
are active societies to push this work should we not help them, as we 
represent a strong and influential group of nature lovers? 

The question was raised last year as to how we could carry our 
interest and knowledge further and use it for the education of the 
public. 

We suggest three practical methods: 

1. To enlarge our own knowledge of wild plants, trees and birds. 
In most of our Clubs one program a year is devoted to the wild 

flowers. It is an interesting meeting to those who are familiar with 
the wild flowers, but to those who are not, and whose knowledge 
is somewhat limited to the cultivated plants, it is not always appealing. 
One yearly program seems hardly enough to stimulate this interest. 
Therefore, we suggest that at each meeting of the local Clubs several 
wild flowers be brought for exhibit, with a few words of description 
(not to exceed five minutes) given each time by different members of 
the Clubs. Trees, and sometimes birds, might be a part of the pro- 
gram. With this slight efi'ort we would become more familiar with 
our native growth, which is the first step towards an interest in its 
conservation. 

2. For our Annual Wild Flower Program let us have a strong 
meeting, to which the local Garden Clubs shall invite all nature- 
loving societies (Wild Flower Preservation Societies, Audubon So- 
cieties, etc.) to join with them in a conservation meeting, at which 
there might be speeches, exhibits, moving pictures, etc., — anything 
that a Club's ingenuity could devise to make the day a success. The 
meeting should be open to the public and held at a County Fair, a 
Public School, or in a Market Square, and it should be well advertised. 
The day should be recognized as "Wild Flower Conservation Day" 
by all of the Garden Clubs of America. 

3. To devote a part of the Bulletin to the cause of Wild Flower 
Preservation, every Club feeling its obligation to contribute reports 
and various items of interest. 

BELIEVING, THEREFORE, that there should be a more 
vigorous policy on the part of the Garden Club of America towards 
a national conservation of our native plants, trees and birds, 

WE MOVE the adoption of this plan by the Garden Club of 
America, and ask that a strong recommendation be sent from this 
body to the local Garden Clubs, urging their co-operation in this 
movement. 

(Signed) 

19 



Martha Mercer, Philadelphia G. C. 
Fanny D. Farwell, Illinois G. C. 
Kate L. Brewster, Illinois G. C. 
Alice H. Patterson, Illinois G. C. 
Anna Gilman Hill, Easthampton G. C. 
Florence H. Crane, North Shore G. C. 



Louise Crowninshield, North. Shore 

G.C. 
J. J. Henry, Philadelphia G. C. 
Katharine C. Sloan, Philipstown G. C. 
Anne T. Stewart, Short Hills G. C. 
Rose Standish Nichols, Consultant. 



TEE ON Visit 
ESTG Gardens 



Upon motion duly made and carried this Resolution was referred 
to the Committee on the Preservation of Wild Flowers. 

The President asked for a report from the Committee on Visiting 
Gardens. The Chairman, Mrs. Oakleigh Thorne, of the Millbrook 
Garden Club, reported as follows: 

Report of During the month of March a letter was sent to the Presidents of 
the Commit- the Clubs asking for an expression of opinion regarding an interchange 
of the privilege of visits to the gardens of the members of the various 
Member Clubs. It was early in the season and many of the Clubs 
were scattered, and while quite a number answered, others have 
not done so as yet, preferring probably to wait until the pleasure 
of the Clubs was ascertained. However, a commencement has been 
made and the summary of the answers received is as follows: 

19 Clubs endorsed the idea, several doing so most heartily. One 
President of a very constructive and large Club favors opening every 
garden, not only the three or four most effective ones, and thinks that 
this plan would prove a great incentive to intelligent gardening. 

Another President deferred her answer for the moment, fearing 
some difference of opinion among members. 

3 Presidents reported that they would send answers later in the 
season after the Clubs had had meetings. 

7 Clubs suggested cards of admission. One Club suggested that 
the Bulletin publish in a separate pamphlet a list of all Club members 
with their garden addresses, and such description or restriction 
after the names as each member desires. 

2 Clubs approving the idea will be pleased to abide by any system 
devised by the Garden Club of America. 

Several Clubs state that their gardens are of informal character, 
but that to any members wishing to visit them in an informal way a 
welcome will be accorded upon application to the local Secretaries. 

5 Clubs send hsts of gardens open to visit, and one President 
states that her Secretary will be prepared to furnish a list of gardens. 

The President asked for a report from the Committee on Photo- 
graphs and Shdes. Mrs. Samuel Sloan, of the Philipstown Garden 
Club, Chairman of this Committee, reported as follows: 



20 



June 30, 1920. Report of 
Atlantic Zone. the Slides 

Bedford Garden Club 23 Committee 

Short Hills Garden Club . . « 6 

Philipstown Garden Club jo 

49 

Central Zone. 

Shaker Lakes Garden Club 17 

Cincinnati Garden Club 12 

Garden Club of Michigan 11 

40 

Southern Zone. 

Philadelphia Garden Club 10 

Allegheny Garden Club 12 

Harford County Garden Club 9 

31 

New England Zone. 

None 
Total 120 

Atlantic Zone. 
Chairman, Mrs. Junius S. Morgan, Princeton, New Jersey. 
Bedford Garden Club 24 Shdes received 

PhiHpstown Garden Club 20 Shdes received 

Short Hills Garden Club 6 Shdes received 

Trenton Garden Club Reports cannot have shdes 

Rye Garden Club Slides being made 

Orange and Dutchess Counties 

Garden Club Interested 

East Hampton Garden Club Having Shdes made 
Millbrook Garden Club 25 Shdes being made 

Morristown Garden Club No report 

North Country Garden Club No report 

Princeton Garden Club Asked each member to take two pic- 

tures of their Gardens and their 
Committee will decide from these. 
Rumson Garden Club No report 

Somerset Garden Club Having Shdes made 

Southampton Garden Club No report 
Ulster Garden Club No report 

Summit Garden Club No report 

21 



New England Zone. 
Chairman, Mrs. S. Edson Gage, West Morris, Connecticut. 
Litchfield Garden Club Having Slides made 

Chestnut Hill Garden Society Interested 
Hartford Garden Club " 

Lenox Garden Club 
North Shore Garden Club " 

Ridgefield Garden Club *' 

Washington, Connecticut, Gar- 
den Club 
New Canaan Garden Club " 

Greenwich Garden Club No answer 

Newport Garden Association Interested 

Central Zone. 
Chairman, Mrs. John Newberry, Grosse Pointe, Michigan. 
Shaker Lakes Garden Club Received 17 Slides 
Cleveland Garden Club Will have Slides 

Illinois Garden Club Will have Slides 

Michigan Garden Club Received 1 1 Slides 

Santa Barbara Garden Club No report 
Lake Geneva Garden Club No report 
Cincinnati Garden Club Received 13 Slides 

Southern Zone. 
Chairman, Mrs. Willm.m V. Elder, Glyndon, Maryland. 
Weeders Expect to have Slides 

Garden Club of Twenty Cannot have Slides 

Warrenton Garden Club Are having Slides made 

Allegheny Garden Club Having Slides made. A special photog- 

rapher from Carnegie Institute. 8 
Slides received. 
Philadelphia Garden Club Having Slides made. 10 Slides rec'd. 
Harford County Garden Club 5 SHdes received 
Hardy Garden Club of Ruxton Expect to have Slides 
Amateur Gardeners Expect to have SHdes 

Green Spring Valley Garden 

Club Will have SHdes this summer 

Fauquier and Loudoun Coun- 
ties Garden Club Hope to have Slides 
Albermarle Garden Club No report 
Montgomery and Delaware 

Counties Garden Club Will have Slides 

James River Garden Club No report 

Wilmington Garden Club No report 

22 



The President asked for a report from the Committee on Bill- Committee ON 
boards. Dr. Edward L. Partridge, of the Orange & Dutchess Counties Bn-i- Boards 
Garden Club, Chairman of this Committee, reported as follows: 

At this moment propaganda is the most potent factor of combat- 
ing this evil. In order to obtain State legislation, it is necessary to 
create pubHc opinion. The National Association of Gardeners wrote 
a letter of protest against this evil. It would be helpful if other organ- 
izations would do likewise. As propaganda, photographs could be 
taken of an unsightly billboard, and of the view of which its erection 
deprived the passer-by. The Photographs and SHdes Committee 
might issue an appeal for this kind of propaganda. 

Mr. Fletcher Steele, representative of the Association of Land- 
scape Architects, suggested that in the same way that we have laws 
which place restrictions upon public nuisances created by sound and 
smell, so there should be a law to prevent offenses to the eye. Mr. 
Steele advised that the propaganda be directed to this end. 

The President then opened the meeting for general discussion 
asking for an expression of opinion from non-delegates. Miss Ernes- 
tine GooSman of the Garden Club of Philadelphia, directed the 
attention of the Organization to the value of fallen leaves as f ertiHzer, 
and suggested that the Organization use its influence to have these 
leaves allowed to form leaf mould in the pubKc parks, rather than 
be burned. 

Mrs. John Wood Stewart, Member-at-large, suggested that the 
Garden Club of America create pubhc opinion opposing the thought- 
less throwing of waste papers in the parks and pubhc roads. 

Upon motion the meeting adjourned. 

After the business meeting, we motored to the estate of Mrs. 
Richard T. Crane, Jr. As the drive wound up the long hill overlooking 
the sand dunes to the Ocean, the distant views were enchanting. 
Mrs. Crane's gardens were unusually beautiful. The borders of the 
herbaceous garden were full of color, charmingly set against the 
gray walls, and relieved by large spaces of turf. Through the herba- 
ceous garden we passed to the Rose Garden, where the roses were 
grown on a lower level, surrounded by a circular pergola on a raised 
terrace. The plants were unusually fine, and the standards were most 
interestingly grown, surrounded by hybrid perpetuals for the most 
part, which solved the question of the sun's rays upon the standard 
stem, a perplexing problem to many rose growers. The Rose Garden 
was one of most luxuriant growth, and is a great tribute to the knowl- 
edge of its superintendent, Miss Foote, who directs the culture 
of Mrs. Crane's roses. The dinner upon the terrace, which included 
the Presidents and the Delegates, gave one an opportunity to reaUze 
the extent and interest of the view from the terrace of " Castle Hill. " 

23 



After dinner, the meeting of the Council of Presidents was held 
in the large room in the swimming-pool Casino. 



Meeting of the Council of Presidents of the Garden Club of 
America of the Session of 1920. 

The meeting of the Council of Presidents was held on the evening 
of July 29th, at the residence of Mrs. Richard T. Crane, Jr. It was 
moved, seconded and carried that the Minutes of the meeting of the 
session of 1919 be omitted. The President stated that this meeting 
was called for the purpose of creating informal discussion among 
the Presidents in regard to their work, and to get from them an 
expression of opinion which would be helpful to the Directors in 
outHning the policy of the Organization. The question of correspond- 
ence between the National Office and the Member Clubs was dis- 
cussed. It was moved, seconded and carried that hereafter all cor- 
respondence should not only be directed to the Presidents, but should 
be answered by them rather than by the Secretaries of the local Clubs. 
That hereafter the Secretaries of the local Clubs should attend only 
to the forwarding of corrected addresses and the names and addresses 
of new members to the National Office. It was moved, seconded, 
and carried, after much discussion that a trial of one year be given 
to the following plan: That Member Clubs should send in their 
corrected addresses in type-written form, on standard card catalogue 
cards, according to a formula which would be sent to them, by the 
National Office. 

The question of the distribution of the Bulletin was again 
brought up, and the plan of bulk package distribution to the Clubs 
was generally disapproved. It was decided that the present plan of 
distribution be followed for the present. Mrs. Brewster requested 
that all correspondence be signed by the married, as well as the 
Christian name of the correspondent, and that in all cases, the name 
of the Member Club be included. The Secretary asked that the same 
plan be followed in the correspondence with the National Office. 

The Presidents were asked to bear in mind the following interests 
of the National Organization: to suggest candidates for the Medal 
of Honourary Award. These candidates would probably not be mem- 
bers of the Garden Club of America. To appoint Committees 
to search out Historic Gardens in the vicinity of their Clubs. 

The question of the Emily D. Renwick Medal was then discussed. 
The President stated that through the generosity of Mrs. Charles H. 
Stout, of the Short Hills Garden Club, the funds received for the 
Dahlia Prize of 1919 had been diverted to the selection of a Medal 

24 



which was to be awarded for the greatest achievement in gardening 
or anything pertaining to gardening accomplished by any member 
of the Garden Club of America. The general discussion in regard 
to this medal strongly emphasized the great stimulus which would 
be given to the Member Clubs, not only to realize the purpose of the 
Garden Club of America, but by so doing perpetuate the great 
contribution which Mrs. Emily D. Renwick gave to the National 
Organization, through the inspiration and leadership which she 
brought to her work in the Short Hills Garden Club. The feeling 
was generally expressed that the presentation of this Medal would 
bring about an impetus to work, and an enthusiasm which would be 
very helpful to the Member Clubs. 

The President stated that in the early Spring, before the death of 
Mrs. Benjamin T. Fairchild, of the Orange & Dutchess Counties 
Garden Club, the 1919-1920 Committee of the Emily D. Renwick 
Medal Award had thought that it would be appropriate to present this 
Medal to Mrs. Fairchild, who as Helena Rutherford Ely, had made an 
invaluable contribution to gardening in America through her book 
entitled. The Woman's Hardy Garden. Strong as the feeling was 
that this would be fitting, it was called to the attention of the Com- 
mittee that this award would not conform to the rules laid down by 
its donor, as the achievement for which the Medal should be presented 
should have taken place during the current year. It was therefore 
decided to defer the award of the Medal until 19a i. The President 
asked each President to bring the purpose of this Medal before their 
Clubs, and to send in the names of their candidates, to the National 
Office. 

Mrs. Oakleigh Thome, Chairman of the Committee on Visiting 
Gardens, expressed her enthusiasm for the work of her Committee. A 
discussion took place by which the privileges granted by this Commit- 
tee could be safe-guarded. Miss Wetmore, President of the Garden As- 
sociation of Newport, spoke of a plan approved by her Club. This 
plan is to be adopted, and sent out to the Presidents of the Member 
Clubs. In general it would be that each President send in to the 
Chairman of the Committee on Visiting Gardens the Ust and locahty 
of the gardens of her Club which would be open to members of the 
Garden Club or America. The President of each Club would be 
furnished with cards of introduction. If a member of any Club 
wished to visit the gardens outside of her Club, she would ask her 
President for a card, which would be countersigned by her President, 
and would make her own arrangements with the owner of the gar- 
den which she wished to visit by letter or by telephone. This plan 
is subject to amendment, and Mrs. Thome, expressed a desire to 
receive suggestions from Presidents of the Member Clubs, as she 

25 



felt this matter of arrangement and introduction was largely a ques- 
tion of preference on the part of each Member Club. 

A letter from Miss Jane B. Haines, President of the School of 
Horticulture for Women at Ambler was read. The purport of this 
letter was an appeal for funds. The cause was vouched for in a letter 
by Mrs. Charles Henry, of Philadelphia. As pertinent to the discus- 
sion, the Secretary then read a letter from Mrs. Francis King asking 
what was the proper channel through which to solicit contributions 
for outside interests from the Garden Club or America, A discus- 
sion followed upon the general policy of co-operation with other or- 
ganizations and a Resolution formed at the meeting of the Executive 
Committee, June 28th, was read: 

RESOLVED : That the policy of the Garden Club of America 
forbid the enclosure in the Bulletin of leaflets issued by outside 
organizations in which funds are solicited. 

This Resolution was unanimously adopted. 

A letter received by the Secretary from Mrs. Francis King was 
read, urging the co-operation" of the Garden Club of America with 
the Woman's National Farm & Garden Association, Inc., by having 
Farm & Garden Association Committees in all the Member Clubs, 
the members of said Committees to be members of both Organiza- 
tions, and to look out for the interests of the Farm & Garden Associa- 
tion in the Garden Club of America. It was stated the Allegheny 
Garden Club had some method of co-operation. The Allegheny 
Garden Club was asked to explain this relation. After much dis- 
cussion in which the aims of the two organizations were thoroughly 
discussed, it was decided that though the interest on the part of the 
ofi&cers and the individual members of the Garden Club of America 
for the Farm & Garden Association was sincere, it was deemed unwise 
to initiate a policy of co-operation with the Farm & Garden Associa- 
tion or any other organization. It was agreed that the Garden 
Club of America had a great and growing purpose, and that the 
interest of its members should be directed solely in the channels of 
its own organization. 

The Pasadena Garden Club proposed by the Millbrook Garden 
Club, and seconded by the Santa Barbara Club, was duly elected to 
membership in the Garden Club of America. 

The Denver Garden Club, proposed by the East Hampton Gar- 
den Club, and seconded by the Santa Barbara Garden Club was duly 
elected to membership in the Garden Club of America. 

Upon motion the meeting adjourned. 

The second day began with a visit to the home of Mrs. Walter S. 
Denegre, at West Manchester. The Court between the house and 
the large, informal ball-room was most interesting. The gardens 

26 



were for the most part on a hillside, and were filled with very interest- 
ing formations of rock. The members of the Club were loath to leave 
the grounds for the business meeting, which was called at half past ten. 

The Second Business Meeting of the Garden Club of America 
of the Session of 1920. 

The second business meeting of the session of 1920 of the Garden 
Club of America was held at the residence of Mrs. Walter Denegre, 
on June 30th, at 10:30 a. m. 

The President asked for a report from the Special Committee on 
Change of Name. Mrs. Francis B. Crowninshield, of the North Shore 
Garden Club presented a Resolution on the part of the Committee 
to serve as the basis of discussion. 

RESOLVED : That the name of the Garden Club of America 
be changed to the Garden Clubs of America. Much discussion ensued. 
Upon being duly put to vote, the motion was lost. 

The President asked for a report from the Special Committee Committee 
on Incorporation. Mrs. Randal Morgan, of the Weeders, reported as on Incorpor- 
f olio ws : ation 

After examination and consultation with lawyers, I believe in- 
corporation has a number of advantages. It gives a recognized status 
which it is difficult for an unincorporated association to acquire. 
The officers will have specific duties and powers which will be clearly 
defined, and members whose voting powers, dues, etc., can be definite- 
ly fixed. It also relieves the individual members from personal liability, 
the corporation's assets ajone being responsible for its indebtedness 
incurred in the ordinary course of its business. If money were given 
or a legacy left the Club to administer, it would very much simplify, 
matters having a legal entity of a definite character to take title. 
It would keep anyone from using this same title absolutely in the 
State in which it became incorporated, and say New York were used 
as that State (whose incorporating laws are not stringent) it would 
be quite unlikely any other organization would take this name. It 
would be necessary to name a place of residence or business — the address 
of a lawyer's office would answer the purpose. The cost would be 
about $250.00. These are as many facts as I have been able to glean 
from my consultation with la-wyers, but they were most decidedly 
of the opinion it would be the one and only course for us to pursue. 

As Chairman of the Committee on Incorporation I move that 
this Association be incorporated under the name of the Garden 
Club of America, and that the Chair be empowered to appoint a 
Committee to undertake the work. 

This motion was duly seconded and carried. 

27 



Mrs. Walter S. Brewster, Editor of the Bulletin, gave to the 
meeting a resume of the discussion which took place the preceding 
evening at the meeting of the Council of Presidents, upon the Emily 
D. Renwick Medal Award. Mrs. Brewster stated as her personal 
conviction, the great usefulness and impetus which the donation of 
this Medal would be to the whole Garden Club of America, and 
expressed the appreciation of the officers to Mrs. Charles H. Stout, 
for her generosity. 

The next business before the meeting was the revision of the 
Constitution & By-Laws. According to the Constitution & By-Laws 
which have governed the Garden Club of America, amendments 
can only be presented upon vote of a Member Club. These amend- 
ments were presented by the Montgomery & Delaware Counties 
Garden Club, by Mrs. Horatio Gates Lloyd, Chairman of the Com- 
mittee appointed by that Club. 

The Chairman of the Committee from the Montgomery & Delaware 
Counties Garden was requested to read the revised Constitution and 
By-Laws paragraph by paragraph. 



Revised Constitution of the Garden Club of America. 

Presented for consideration by the Garden Club of Montgomery 
& Delaware Counties at the Annual Meeting of 1920. 



L 

Name. 
The Name of this Association shall be the Garden Club of 
America. 

IL 

Object. 
The objects of this Association shall be, to stimulate knowledge 
and love of gardening among amateurs through conference and cor- 
respondence, in this country and abroad, to aid in the protection 
of native plants and birds, and to encourage civic planting. 

IIL 

Membership. 
Section I. — The membership of this Association shall consist of 
duly elected Amateur Garden Clubs as units, and of Members-at- 
large. 

28 



Section II. — The voting body of the Garden Club of America 
shall be the Board of Directors, the President of each Member Club 
or her duly appointed Alternate, and one duly appointed Delegate 
from each Member Club. 

Section III. — At all meetings of this Association the quorum shall 
consist of the duly appointed representatives of ten Member Clubs. 

IV. 

Officers. 

The Officers of the Garden Club of America shall be the Presi- 
dent, four Vice-Presidents, a Secretary, and a Treasurer who shall 
be elected at the Annual Meeting for the ensuing year, or until the 
conclusion of the meeting at which their successors are elected. 

AMENDED AS FOLLOWS: The Officers of the Garden Club 
OF America shall be an Honorary President, the President, four 
Vice-Presidents, a Secretary, and so forth. 

V. 

Directors. 

Section I. — ^The Board of Directors shall be composed of the 
Officers of this Association, the Editor of the Bulletin of the Gar- 
den Club of America, and fifteen Directors, one of whom shall be 
the Librarian. 

Section II. — ^The fifteen Directors shall be divided into three 
classes of five each, who shall each serve three, years, or until the 
conclusion of the meeting at which their successors are elected. Five 
shall be elected at each Annual Meeting to replace the outgoing class. 

Section 111. — Whenever an office in this Association shall be vacant 
the Board of Directors shall fill the vacancy for the remainder of the 
unexpired term. 

Section IV. — The Board of Directors shall direct the policy and 
have general charge of the affairs of the Club. 

Section V. — There shall be a meeting of the Board of Directors 
at the conclusion of the meeting at which they are elected. 

Section VI. — Meetings of the Board of Directors may be called by 
the President or at the request of three Directors, or at the request 
of five Member Clubs. 

Section VII. — Five members of this Board shall constitute a 
quorum. 

VL 

Meetings and Elections. 
Section I. — ^The Annual Meeting for the election of Officers and 
Directors, and for the transaction of business shall be held at such 

29 



place and such date as may be determined by the Board of Directors 
and the members of this Association shall be notified by mail at least 
one month before the meeting. 

Section II. — A ticket of candidates shall be submitted by the 
Nominating Committee to the Presidents of the Member Clubs at 
least one month before the Annual Meeting. 

Section III. — Upon vote of the duly appointed representatives 
of any five Member Clubs a second ticket of candidates may be pre- 
sented for election at the Annual Meeting. 

Section IV. — Meetings of this Association may be called by the 
President, or at the request of three Directors, or at the request of the 
Presidents of five Member Clubs. 

VII. 

Amendments. 
Any amendment to this Constitution may be proposed in due form 
by one Member Club, and must be submitted by the Secretary of the 
Garden Club of America to all Member Clubs at least one month 
before the Annual Meeting, and to be adopted must receive the votes 
of two-thirds of those authorized to vote. 

Revised By-Laws of the Garden Club of America. 

Presented for consideration by the Garden Club of Montgomery 
and Delaware Counties at the Annual Meeting of 1920. 



Duties or Officers. 

Section I. — The President, or in his or her absence the Vice- 
Presidents in order, shall preside at all meetings of the Board of the 
Directors, and of this Association. The President by virtue of his 
or her ofiice shall be a member of all Committees except the Nominat- 
ing Committee. 

Section II. — The Secretary shall keep a record of all proceedings 
of the Club, notify Member Clubs of their election, issue all notices, 
and perform such other duties as may be designated by the Board of 
Directors. 

Section III. — The Treasurer shall receive all money due the Club 
and receipt for the same, shall be responsible for the disbursement 
of the funds and shall keep the accounts, which shall be open at all 
times to the inspection of the Board of Directors, and shall report 
at the Annual Meeting. The accounts shall be audited by a Committee 
appointed by the President. 

30 



II. 

Committees. 
Executive Committee. 
Section I. — There shall be an Executive Committee of five appoint- 
ed by the Board of Directors from its own membership in which the 
powers of the Board shall be vested between its meetings. 
Nominating Committee. 
Section II. — ^There shall be a Nominating Committee of five 
appointed by the Executive Committee. The report of this Committee 
shall be submitted to the Presidents of the Member Clubs at least one 
month before the Annual Meeting. 

III. 

Standing Committees. 
Bulletin Committee. 
Section I. — ^There shall be a Bulletin Committee whose duty it 
shall be to issue the ofiicial pubUcation of the Association, the Bulletin 
of the Garden Club of America. The Chairman of this Committee 
shall be elected by the Board of Directors and shall form his or her 
own committee. 

Finance Committee. 

Section II. — There shall be a Finance Committee to advise in 
regard to the finance of the Garden Club of America. The Chairman 
of this Committee shall be elected by the Board of Directors, and 
shall form his or her own Committee. 

Section III. — The number of Standing Committees may be added 
to at the discretion of the Board of Directors. 



IV. 

Council of Presidents. 

Section I. — There shall be a Council of Presidents, representing 
the general interests of the Members, to act as an Advisory Council 
to the Board of Directors. 

Section II. — ^The Presidents of Member Clubs or their duly 
appointed Alternates, shall, by \'irtue of their office, be members of 
the Council of Presidents. 

Section III. — Meetings of this Council may be called by the 
President of this Association, or at the request of any three Presidents 
of any Member Clubs. 

31 



V. 

Membership. 

Section I. — Garden Clubs desiring to become members of the 
Garden Club of America shall be duly proposed, and seconded by- 
two Member Clubs of the Garden Club of America, according to 
the rules of membership. Their names shall be sent to the Secretary 
who shall submit them to the Board of Directors for election. 

Section II. — No Club shall be ehgible for membership unless it 
has been in existence for two years, and unless it has a membership 
of twenty persons. 

Section III. — Members-at-large are those who for geographical 
reasons may not belong to a Member Club of the Garden Club of 
America. They shall be duly proposed and seconded by two members 
of the Garden Club of America, according to the rules of member- 
ship. Their names shall be sent to the Secretary who shall submit 
them to the Board of Directors for election. More than one adverse 
baUot shall exclude. Such members shall enjoy all privileges of the 
Club excepting the power of vote, and nomination. 

Section IV. — A Member Club or a Member-at-large may be 
dropped by a majority vote of the Board of Directors for poHcies 
deemed to be injurious to the interests or opposed to the objects of 
the Garden Club of America. 

AMENDED AS FOLLOWS: Section II.— No Club shall be 
eligible for membership unless it has been in existence for two years, 
and unless it has a membership of not less than twenty persons. 

VI. 

Fiscal Year. 

The fiscal year of the Garden Club of America shall be from 
January ist to January ist. 

AMENDED AS FOLLOWS: The fiscal year of the Garden Club 
OF America shall be from July ist to July ist. 

VIL 

Dues. 

Section i. — The Annual dues of the Member Clubs shall be at 
the rate of $2 . oo per year for each individual member of each Member 
Club, which amount shall be paid by each Club collectively. 

Section II. — ^The Treasurer shall notify all Clubs of the amount 
of their dues during the month of January. Those Clubs whose dues 
are not paid by May ist shall be notified that they are in arrears, 
and that unless their dues be paid within two months they may be 
dropped from the roll. Members elected subsequent to July will pay 
only half dues. 

32 



AMENDED AS FOLLOWS: Section IL— The Treasurer shall 
notify all Clubs of the amount of their dues during the month of July. 
Those Clubs whose dues are not paid by November ist, shall be notified 
that they are in arrears, and that unless their dues be paid within 
two months they may be dropped from the roll. Members elected 
subsequent to January will pay only half dues. 

Section ni. — ^Annual dues of Members-at-large shall be $2.50. 
The Treasurer shaU notify Members-at-large of the amount of their 
dues during the month of January. Members-at-large whose dues 
are not paid by May ist, shall be notified that they are in arrears, and 
that unless their dues be paid within two months they may be dropped 
from the roll. Members-at-large elected subsequent to July will pay 
only half dues. 

AMENDED AS FOLLOWS: Section III.— Annual dues of 
Members-at-large shall be $5 . 00. The Treasurer shaU notify Members 
at-large of the amount of their dues during the month of July. Mem- 
bers-at-large whose dues are not paid by November ist, shaU be notified 
that they are in arrears, and that unless their dues be paid within two 
months they may be dropped from the roll. Members-at-large elected 
subsequent to January will pay only half dues. 

VIII. 

Amendments. 

Amendments to these By-Laws may be proposed by the Board of 
Directors, or by one Member Club, and may then be presented for 
vote at the Annual Meeting, or any meeting called specially for the 
purpose. 

It was moved, seconded, and unanimously carried that the revised 
Constitution & By-Laws, as amended, presented by the Garden Club 
of Montgomery & Delaware Counties be substituted for the Consti- 
tution adopted at Princeton, May 12,1914, and the By-Laws adopted 
at Baltimore, May 11, 1915, and amended at Philadelphia, February 
5,1916. 

Mrs. Charles Biddle of the Garden Club of Philadelphia asked 
permission of the Chair to present the following Resolution: 

It is with heartfelt sorrow and a deep sense of personal loss that In Memory 
the members of the Garden Club of America record the death ^'^ Mrs. 
of Mrs. Benjamin T. Fairchild, one of the Founders of the Club and Fairchild 
a Vice-President for five years. 

With her keen interest, practical knowledge, experience and 
originahty, Mrs. Fairchild brought to the Club great inspiration, 
and vitalizing energy, and gave lavishly and unreservedly of her time 

33 



and talents for the advancement and development of the Club. To 
her books much that is beautiful and satisfying in our gardens owes 
its existence. In the people of the country at large she re-awakened 
the sense of the possibility to create their own gardens and in her 
death they have lost a guide, a counsellor and friend. 

RESOLVED : That this Minute be entered on the records of the 
Club and copies sent to the members of Mrs. Fairchild's family. 
June 30, 1920. 

Proposed by: Mrs. Charles Biddle 

Seconded by: Mrs. Bayard Henry 

The meeting rose in acceptance of this Resolution. 

Miss Heloise Meyer, President of the Lenox Garden Club stated 
that the Lenox Garden Club would take pleasure in opening its gardens 
to any of the members of the Garden Club of America returning 
from the Annual Meeting. White flags would be posted. at the en- 
trances. 

Mrs. Oaldeigh Thorne, President of the Millbrook Garden Club 
stated that she would take pleasure in opening her gardens to the 
members of the Garden Club of America returning from the Annual 
Meeting, and graciously extended an invitation for luncheon or for 
dinner to those who were passing that way on Friday, July 2nd. 

The President asked for a report from the Nominating Committee. 
Mrs. Benjamin Warren, of the Garden Club of Michigan, reported as 
follows : 

Report of the Nominating Committee of the Garden Club of 
America. June, 1920. 

At the regular meeting of the Garden Club of America, held in 
New York, on March 17th, the Nominating Committee to prepare 
the ticket for the Annual Meeting, was appointed by Mrs. Martin, as 
follows: 

Chairman, Mrs. Benjamin T. Fairchild; Mrs. Benjamin Warren; 
Mrs. Samuel Edson Gage. 

One meeting was held at the residence of Mrs. Fairchild, at which 
the Committee were all present, and plans for the ticket outlined. 
Upon the illness and subsequent death of Mrs. Fairchild, the final 
preparation of the ticket devolved upon the undersigned, who begs 
to acknowledge the kind assistance of Mrs. Martin and Mrs. Pratt. 

The Committee wishes to record its sincere sorrow, and sense 
of loss in the death of the Chairman, Mrs. Fairchild. 

The ticket is herewith submitted. 

President, Dr. Edward L. Partridge, Orange & Dutchess Counties 
Garden Club; ist Vice-President, Mrs. Samuel Sloan, Philipstown 
Garden Club; 2nd Vice-President, Mrs. John A Stewart, Jr., Short 

34 



Hills Garden Club; 3rd Vice-President, Mrs. Samuel A. Taft, Cin- 
cinnati Garden Club; 4th Vice-President, Mrs. Francis B. Crownin- 
shield, North Shore Garden Club; Treasurer, Mrs. Hugh D. Auchin- 
closs, Newport Garden Association; Secretary, Mrs, Harold Irving 
Pratt, North Country Garden Club, 

Respectfully submitted, 
Margaret L. Gage, 

Chairman. 

The ticket was accepted as read with the following additions: 

A member of the Garden Club of Princeton nominated Mrs. J. 
Willis Martin as Honorary President. This nomination was accepted 
with applause. 

A member of the Summit Garden Club offered the following 
nomination: 

The member stated that while recognizing the qualities of Dr. 
Edward L. Partridge, of the Orange & Dutchess Counties Garden Club, 
as candidate for President, her Club begged to call the attention of 
the meeting to the fact that the Garden Club or America was 
largely a Woman's organization. She therefore begged to add to the 
ticket the name of Mrs. S. V. R. Crosby, President of the North Shore 
Garden Club, Massachusetts, as candidate for President of the Gar- 
den Club of America. 

Inasmuch as there were two nominations for the office of President, 
Mrs. Benjamin Warren, Chairman of the Nominating Committee, 
moved that the ticket be split, and that the Secretary be empowered 
to cast the ballot for the election of all officers with exception of the 
President. 

This motion was seconded and duly carried. 

Upon motion duly made, seconded, and carried, it was voted that 
the election for President should be by ballot. 

The result of the elections announced by the retiring President, 
Mrs. J. WDlis Martin, was as follows: 

President Mrs. S. V. R. Crosby, North Shore Garden Club. 

ist Vice-Pres. Mrs. Samuel Sloan, PhiKpstown Garden Club. 

2nd Vice-Pres. Mrs. John A. Stewart, Jr., Short Hills Garden Club. 

3rd Vice-Pres. Mrs. Samuel A. Taft, Cincinnati Garden Club. 

4th. Vice-Pres. Mrs. Francis B. Crowninshield, North Shore 
Garden Club. 

Treasurer. Mrs. Hugh D. Auchincloss, Newport Garden Associa- 
tion. 

Secretary. Mrs. Harold Irving Pratt, North Country Garden Club 
of L. I. 

Honorary President. Mrs. J. Willis Martin, Philadelphia Garden 
Club. 

35 



Retirement 



Mrs. George A. Armour, President of the Princeton Garden Club, 
asked permission to present the following Resolution: 
Resolution RESOLVED: That the retirement of Mrs. Martin as first and 
TiT^ ' * °^^ President of the Garden Club of America leaves us in large 
MARTINS jneasure disconsolate; that Mrs. Martin's leadership from the very 
beginning of our organization has been our mainstay. During the war, 
our President not only kept life in the Clubs, but made them powerful 
factors in food production. Since the war, she has most ably presided 
over the society in a time of rapid growth until now we properly call 
ourselves the most vivid, vital influence in all this land against out- 
of-door ugliness and for out-of-door beauty. To have built up such 
an organization is no small achievement. Throughout her years 
of office, Mrs. Martin has given us such able and devoted service as 
can only be matched by the affection and confidence in which we, the 
members of the Garden Club of America, hold and shall, ever hold 
her. As we grow, her counsel will be increasingly valuable to us, and 
we rejoice that this most happy leadership now resolves itself into 
an equally happy companionship, a companionship in which we shall 
all advance together in the pursuit of the loveliest of the creative arts. 

The meeting rose in acceptance of this Resolution, and manifested 
its appreciation in hearty applause. 

Upon motion the meeting adjoiurned. 

After the adjournment of the Business Meeting, the members were 
reminded of the Horticulture Show at Manchester, Massachusetts, 
which was well worth the visit. It was an exceedingly well arranged 
and well conceived Flower Show, and the gardeners, who were mem- 
bers of this organization received many congratulations from apprecia- 
tive members of the Garden Club of America. After the Flower 
Show, the members visited the garden of Mrs. Scott Fitz, who wel- 
comed the Garden Club of America personally. The garden was 
built with a superb oak tree as an axis, and was full of charming color 
combinations. There was a most interesting statue of St. Francis at 
the end of one of the paths, set so as to form a most quaint little bird 
fountain. 

The delegates were entertained at luncheon by our newly elected 
President, Mrs. S. V. R. Crosby, who had shown such unusual abiHty 
as an executive in her management of the many details of this Annual 
Meeting. Mrs. Crosby's garden was full of lovely color. Her under- 
standing of color was emphasized by charming combinations of potted 
plants which all enjoyed, upon the verandas. 

After luncheon we motored to Eastern Point, Gloucester, where 
we followed the little narrow path which led to the ItaHan Villa, 
"Latomia" (quarry) belonging to Miss Davison and Miss Hawley. 
This spot is unique in its beauty. The house is built on the edge 

36 



of a quarry which was suddenly rendered useless by being flooded 
by a spring. This water has found its natural outlet, and has formed 
a pond of amazing depth, which acts as a mirror to the Villa, the trees, 
and the vegetation which grow upon the highly colored rocks. The 
grounds are tiny to the point of minuteness, and Miss Davison and 
Miss Hawley are to be congratulated upon the harmony of treatment 
which pervades "Latomia. " The memory of this spot is one which 
is indelibly impressed upon the memory of the members of the Gar- 
den Club of America. 

The drive back to the beach at the foot of the place of Mr. White- 
house, at Manchester Cove, was made by way of a drive around 
Eastern Point. The walk along the shore revealed to us the rugged 
beauty of this Coast. The view from Mrs. Hopkinson's point is 
superb, and the composition and treatment of the wind-swept Austrian 
pines, against the bold rocks, looking through to the blue ocean, is one 
of very great beauty. 

From thence we passed through Miss Sturgis's place, and walked 
across the white sands of Dana's Beach, unusual in its breadth, to the 
place of Mrs. Gardner M. Lane. Mrs. Lane's place is most luxuriant 
in its vegetation, with very handsome trees, and a luxuriant growth 
of shrubs. The formal water garden was very beautiful in its design. 
We walked through the lower formal terrace to a most mysterious 
wood's walk covered with pine needles, which was edged with rare 
specimens of wild lilies and many plants native to the woods of Mass- 
achusetts. Mrs. Lane very graciously entertained the entire mem- 
bership at tea, which was much appreciated at this hour of the day. 

After leaving Mrs. Lane's by motor, we walked through the beau- 
tiful Avenue of Miss Loring, to the residence of Mrs. Shaw, where we 
found a delightfully intimate garden which showed the care and 
thoughtfulness of its owner. 

From Mrs. Shaw's we went to the estate of Mrs. William H. 
Moore whose path down the side of a hill, and whose Willow Walk 
were most interesting. The Willow Walk was very suggestive to the 
members of the Garden Club of America, and awakened much 
enthusiasm. Mrs. Moore entertained the Presidents and the Dele- 
gates at dinner upon her terrace. 



Conference of the Newly Elected Oflicers of the Garden Club of 
America on June 30th. 

An informal conference of the newly elected officers of the Garden 
Club of America which was held at the residence of Mrs. S. V. R. 
Crosby, on June 30, at 9:30 p. m., included Mrs. S. V. R. Crosby, 

37 



North Shore Garden Club, newly-elected President. Mrs. Samuel 
Sloan, Philipstown Garden Club, Mrs. Francis B. Crowninshield, 
North Shore Garden Club, Mrs. John A. Stewart, Jr., Short Hills 
Garden Club, Mrs. Hugh D. Auchincloss, Newport Garden Associa- 
tion, Mrs. Harold Irving Pratt, North Country Garden Club of L. I., 
Secretary of the Garden Club of America. 

According to Article V., Section 3, of the newly adopted Con- 
stitution: "Whenever an office in this Association shall be vacant, 
the Board of Directors shall fill the vacancy for the remainder of the 
unexpired term. Inasmuch as the newly-elected officers formed the 
nucleus of the Board of Directors, and represented a quorum, accord- 
ing to Article V., Section 7, the following Directors were elected 
Board of ^° ^^ ^^^ fifteen vacancies of the Board: 
Directors ^^^- Robert C. Hill, 960 Park Avenue, New York City, and East 

Hampton, L. I., East Hampton Garden Club. 
Mrs. Francis King, Alma, Michigan, Garden Club of Michigan. 
Mrs. Oakleigh Thorne, Millbrook, New York, and Santa Barbara, 

Cahfornia, Millbrook Garden Club. 
Mrs. J. WilHs Martin, Chestnut Hill, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 

Philadelphia Garden Club. 
Miss Deha Marble, Bedford, Nev/ York. Bedford Garden Club. 
Dr. Edward L Partridge, 19 Fifth Avenue, New York City, and 

Cornwall-on-Hudson Garden Club of Orange & Dutchess Counties. 
Mrs. Frederick L. Rhodes, Short Hills, New Jersey. Short Hills 

Garden Club. 
Mrs. Fairfax Harrison, Belvoir House, Belvoir, Fauquier County, 

Virginia, Garden Club of Fauquier & Loudoun Counties. 
Mrs. Henry Rea, Sewickley, Pennsylvania. Garden Club of Allegheny. 
Mrs. Francis C. Farwell, Lake Forest, Illinois. Garden Club of 

Illinois. 
Mrs. Horatio Gates Lloyd, Haverford, Pennsylvania. Garden Club 

of Montgomery & Delaware Counties. 
Mrs. Samuel Edson Gage, 309 Sanford Avenue, Flushing, L. I., and 

West Morris, Conn. Litchfield Garden Club. 
Mrs. William Pierson Hamilton, 32 East 36th Street, New York City, 

and Sterlington, N. Y. Garden Club of Orange & Dutchess Counties. 
Mrs. Allan Marquand, Guernsey Hall, Princeton, New Jersey. Prince- 
ton Garden Club. 
Mrs. A. S. Ingalls, Station H., Lake Shore Boulevard, Cleveland, Ohio. 

Cleveland Garden Club. 

Mrs. Walter S. Brewster was unanimously elected as Editor of 
the Bulletin of the Garden Club of America. 

Mrs. Frederick L. Rhodes was unanimously elected as Librarian 
of the Garden Club of America. 

38 



The Secretary was ordered to notify by mail those who could 
not be notified verbally of their election. 

Upon motion the meeting adjourned. 

On the third day we visited the place of Mrs. William C. Endicott, 
at Danvers, where the entrance avenue of elms was very beautiful. 
The Tea House, built in 1793, at the entrance of the rose garden was 
exceedingly picturesque, and we were much interested in the superb 
Tulip Tree in the center of the garden walk. 

The Lindens, fittingly named from the handsome avenue of 
Hndens at the entrance, is owned by Mrs. Ward Thoron. Here our 
interest was centered in the house itself which, built in 1753, was filled 
with most beautiful mantels and interesting old wall papers. 

We motored by way of Nahant, where we saw the charmingly 
terraced gardens of Mrs. Guild, and Mrs. Richardson, to the Brook- 
Hne Country Club, where we were the guests at luncheon of a large 
number of the members of the North Shore Garden Club. 

The enthusiasm of the members was greatly stimulated by the Annual 
announcement at this luncheon that at the Annual Meeting of 192 1, Meetings 
the Garden Club of America was invited to be the guest of the Al- of 1921 
bermarle Garden Club, at Charlottesville, Virginia. 

After luncheon, we motored to the Arnold Arboretum, where, 
at half past four o'clock, the first Medal of Honourary Award of the 
Garden Club of America was presented to Professor Charles Sprague 
Sargent, Director of the Arnold Arboretum. The presentation 
ceremony was held upon the steps of the Administration Building 
of the Arnold Arboretum. Mrs. Harold Irving Pratt, a member of the 
Committee for the selection of the Medal of Honourary Award, and 
Secretary of the Garden Club of America presented the Medal. 
Mrs. Pratt spoke as follows : 

Medal Presentation Speech 

In 1868, through the foresight of two of the Trustees of the estate 
of Benjamin Arnold of New Bedford, a bequest of 100,000 dollars was 
turned over to Harvard University, for the establishment of an 
Arboretum. The agreement read, that every tree and every shrub 
able to endure the climate of Massachusetts should be grown there. 
At the time Harvard received this bequest it already owned lands 
which could be used for the purpose. Fortunately these lands, and 
the adjoining tracts which were afterwards added, were picturesque, 
and included hills, and a lovely httle valley, meadow land, and wood- 
land with large primeval trees. 

In 1872 Harvard University created a Chair of Arboriculture and 
appointed its first Professor, Charles Sprague Sargent. Because of 

39 



the broad vision and persistent endeavor of this one man, there exists 
today an unusual contract between the City of Boston and Harvard 
University. This contract deeds to the City of Boston what is un- 
officially described as some 200 acres of meadow, hill, and valley, and 
in turn leases it to Harvard University for the rental of one dollar a 
year for the term of one thousand years from the date thereof, with 
the privilege of renewal. And so the Arnold Arboretum is guaranteed 
forever. 

The way of the path-finder is always a hard road to travel, and we 
can well imagine with what Httle sympathy this project met in its 
early days in the minds of practical New Englanders. Those who 
would have the greatest interest in the study of foreign languages and 
foreign customs might have seen little purpose in the study of foreign 
shrubs and trees. 

But perseverance won its way, and today we have, not a Botanical 
Garden of the usual pattern, but a tract of land devoted to the culture 
of trees, shrubs, and hardy vines. In purpose and in arrangement it 
is the most scientific of gardens, but in appearance one of the most 
lovely, most delightful, and most individual of parks. I shall not 
dwell upon its usefulness as a place where everyone, from the scientist 
to the schoolgirl, may gain knowledge, nor shall I describe at length 
how tree lovers may come here to find their particular variety of tree, 
and study at length their own variety. Nor shall I do more than state 
that in this Administration Building there exists a library where 
these students may find more than 33,000 volumes and 9,000 pamph- 
lets. I should like to describe the great service which the Arboretum 
renders by distributing seeds and plants, and by spreading knowledge 
about them in acting as a center of exchange with foreign gardens; 
and by sending out expeditions to search out new trees, new shrubs, 
and new hardy vines to the farthest corners of the earth, in order to 
bring back and test out here their discoveries in regard to their 
hardiness and their beauty. 

But I am not here to describe in detail the work of the Arnold 
Arboretum — I am here to pay tribute to the genius and the foresight 
of the man who, since 1872, has not only directed its development, but 
has had to create pubHc opinion, public appreciation and to build up 
and sustain the interest of those whom he has enlisted to work with 
him. Not only has he directed the scientific development, but upon 
his shoulders, too, has come for the most part the burden of the financial 
maintenance, and what he has not given himself, he has personally 
gathered from others. 

As truly as a great building is the work of the architect who designed 
it, even though he may have had many advisers, and though many 
helping hands may have aided in its erection, so is this Arboretum 

40 



the work of this one man. Even more so, for the architect may look 
to the past for his inspiration, and this Arboretum stands unique 
throughout the world. In the truest sense it is the creation and the 
monument of Charles Sprague Sargent. And is it not fitting that the 
Garden Club of America, this Organization of three thousand 
garden lovers as we are, should wish to bestow its first Medal of 
Honourary Award upon the man whose life achievement to such an 
immeasurable extent has enriched the purpose of our Organization? 

To scientists is known the name of Charles Sprague Sargent, 
Arnold Professor of Agriculture, of Harvard University. By all the 
lovers of nature the name of Professor Sargent of the Arnold Arbore- 
tum is held in reverence and in affection. It is to Professor Sargent 
of the Arnold Arboretum, to whom it is my honor, and my privilege, 
in the name of the Garden Club oe America, to present its first 
Medal of Honourary Award. 

First Meeting of the Newly Appointed Directors. 

After the presentation of the Medal of Honourary Award to 
Professor Charles Sprague Sargent, a meeting of the newly appointed 
Directors of the Garden Club of America was held in a hall of the 
Administration Building of the Arnold Arboretum. 

Those present were: 

Mrs. S. V. R. Crosby, President, North Shore Garden Club. 

Mrs. Samuel Sloan, Philipstown Garden Club. 

Mrs. John A. Stewart, Short Hills Garden Club. 

Mrs. Francis B. Crowninshield, North Shore Garden Club. 

Mrs. Walter S. Brewster, Illinois Garden Club. 

Mrs. Frederick L. Rhodes, Short Hills Garden Club. 

Mrs. Francis C. Farwell, Garden Club of Illinois. 

Mrs. Robert C. HiU, East Hampton Garden Club. 

Mrs. Oakleigh Thorne, Millbrook Garden Club. 

Mrs. J. Wilhs Martin, Philadelphia Garden Club. 

Mrs. Fairfax Harrison, Fauquier & Loudoun Counties Garden Club. 

Mrs. Samuel Edson Gage, Litchfield Garden Club. 

Mrs. Harold Irving Pratt, Secretary, North Country Garden Club. 

The first business of the meeting was the Roll Call of the newly 
elected Directors, and the appointment of the following Chairmen of 
Special and Standing Committees. 

Chairman of Committees. 
Colour Chart. Mrs. Francis King, Alma, Michigan. Garden Club 

of Michigan. 
Historic Gardens. Miss Deha Marble, Bedford, New York. 
Bedford Garden Club. 

41 



Preservation of Wild Flowers. Mrs. Francis C. Farwell, Lake 

Forest, Illinois. Garden Club of Illinois. 
Slides. Mrs. Samuel Sloan, 45 East 53rd Street, N. Y. C. and 

Garrison, N. Y. Philipstown Garden Club. 
Visiting Gardens. Mrs. Oakleigh Thorne, Millbrook, N. Y. and 

Santa Barbara, Calif. Millbrook Garden Club. 
Programme. Mrs. Robert C. HiU, 960 Park Avenue, N. Y. C. and 

East Hampton, L. I. East Hampton Garden Club. 
The Emily D. Renwick Medal Award. Mrs. Francis King, Alma, 

Michigan. Garden Club of Michigan. 
Finance. Mrs. Horatio Gates Lloyd, Haverford, Pennsylvania. 

Garden Club of Montgomery & Delaware Counties. 
International Relations. Mrs. Walter S. Brewster, 1220 Lake 

Shore Drive, Chicago, Illinois, and Lake Forest, 111. 
Legislative. Mrs. William Pierson Hamilton, 32 E. 36th-St. N. Y.C. 
and Sterlington, N. Y. Garden Club of Orange & Dutchess 
Counties. 
Arboretum. Mrs. Francis B. Crowninshield, 154 Marlboro 

Street, Boston, Mass. North Shore Garden Club. 
Upon motion duly made, seconded and carried the organization of 
these Committees was confirmed. 

Mrs. S. V. R. Crosby, of the North Shore Garden Club, Massachu- 
setts, newly elected President, expressed her appreciation of the 
honor which had been conferred upon her. She asked that the Direc- 
tors feel free to express their suggestions in regard to the policy of the 
Organization. 

The question of how knowledge could best be conveyed to the 
Member Clubs, in regard to the poUcy of the National Organization, 
was discussed. It was stated that the attention of the Presidents 
of the Member Clubs should be called to the fact that they were the 
clearing house of information from the National Organization to the 
members of their Clubs; that they, as far as possible, share this in- 
formation with their members, and recommended to them the read- 
ing of the Bulletin, so that each member of the Garden Club of 
America might keep in touch with the progress of the work of the 
National Organization. 

The Chair appointed Mrs. Oakleigh Thorne, of the Millbrook Gar- 
den Club, the Chairman of a Committee of five Presidents, the other 
four to be chosen by Mrs. Thorne to draw up a letter signed by this 
Committee which would outline to the Presidents in what way they 
could further the object of the Garden Club of America, and 
suggesting to them that they share the communications from the 
National Office with their members. 

There was a discussion as to how many general meetings should 

42 



be held during the year, other than the Annual Meeting. An Autumn 
and a Spring meeting were finally decided upon. 

The future policy of the Nominating Committee was discussed, 
but it was generally agreed that the provisions of the new By-Laws 
made it possible for the action of this Committee to be democratic 
and representative of the interests of the Organization as a whole. 

The question of the cost of the Garden Club of America was 
discussed. Mrs. Charles A. Stout, of the Short Hills Garden Club, 
and Mrs. Francis Farwell, of the Garden Club of Ilhnois stated that 
they felt it unfortunate that the business arrangements of the Club 
should be financed by the generosity of two or three members. Mrs. 
Harold Irving Pratt of the North Country Garden Club of Long 
Island, Secretary of the National Organization stated that every or- 
ganization had to have its beginning. That this Organization was only 
just starting its work, and that if it followed the policy outlined for 
it by the new Constitution, it would, in time, be self-supporting. 
Until then it was her pleasure, as Secretary, to defray the expenses 
of the clerical work for the ensuing year. Mrs. Brewster also expressed 
her willingness to follow the policy which has been her custom since 
her acceptance of the position as Editor of the Bulletin. Mrs. Pratt 
also stated that Mrs. Auchincloss, the Treasurer, who was unable to 
be present at this meeting, had stated her willingness to continue the 
present arrangement of the Treasurer's Office. It was pointed out 
that the greatest expense of the Organization was the Bulletin, 
which at the moment was not self-supporting, owing to the fact 
that it had been decided to discontinue advertising. It was felt, 
however, that this was the wise policy to pursue, and that owing to 
the growth of the Organization, and to the increasing numbers of 
outside subscribers, which are being added to the subscription list 
of the Bulletin, in time, it would reach a degree of self-support, 
which would be commensurate with the income of the Organization. 

An expression of appreciation was tendered to Mrs. Brewster for 
her work as Editor of the Bulletin. 

The question of the winter meeting of the Garden Club OF Ameri- Date of 
CA was then discussed. It was decided that as the President, Mrs. S. V. Autumn 
R. Crosby, was leaving for Europe, on the 9th of October, the first gen- Meeting 
eral meeting should be held before her departure. The date was 
finally arranged for the 7 th and 8th of October. The arrangements ' 
for the meeting were given over to Mrs. Robert C. Hill, of the East 
Hampton Garden Club, Chairman of the Programme Committee. 

After an expression of thanks to Mrs. Crosby, for the great 
personal interest which she had taken in the arrangements for this 
Annual Meeting, and sincere congratulations to her, for the success 
of her efforts, and of appreciation of what her acceptance of the 

43 



office of President meant to the Organization, upon motion the meeting 
adjourned. 

An invitation was extended for a fourth day, which was accepted 
by a number of our enthusiasts. The first visit was paid to the estate 
of Mr. Henry Hunnewell, in Wellesley, where unusual specimens of 
rhododendron were found. This is one of the oldest of our American 
estates. Its treatment along the lake is very suggestive of the old 
gardens of England. The Italian garden of Mrs. Larz Andersen was 
very beautiful with its superb specimens of clipped bays, and its 
luxuriant background of pine growth, dense in its shade, was of very 
great interest. 

Faulkner Farm, the estate of Mrs. Edward Brandigee showed a 
very personal feehng in the gardens. There was a most luxuriant 
growth of Euonymous Radicans, both as vine and ground cover, 
upon the upper slope facing the house, in a grove of sugar maples. 

The interest of the members of the Garden Club of America 
is proved by the success of this Annual Meeting. The Garden Club 
OF America may look forward to increased usefulness, and a very 
healthy growth, if the enthusiasm of the 390 members who attended 
this Annual Meeting may be used as evidence. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Harriet Pratt, 
Secretary of the Garden Club of America. 

An Account of the Gardens Visited During 
the Annual Meeting of 1920. 

How great an occasion our Annual Meeting has come to be is 
attested by the fact that when the roll was called at the First Business 
Meeting only one Club failed to respond, "Present" and together the 
Delegates and Non-delegates were almost 400 strong. They needed 
to be strong, too, as the report herewith submitted will show. 

But fatigue is small payment for perfect days and that Garden 

Club members who missed so rare an opportunity may realize 

what they missed and yet have a vicarious share in the meeting, the 

Bulletin Committee gives a short and inadequate description of each 

garden visited. 

Mrs. Gor- Pines, rugged cliffs, and sea! — It has been said that a garden 

DON Abbott's could not be made in such an environment, but those wiseacres must 

Garden hang their heads in shame when they see the work of the master hand. 

Pine trees gently pushed back to make room for sunlight and air to 

reach the glade where the flowers seemed but to have been waiting 

for a chance to grow. Masses of Foxgloves, pink and white, great 

clumps of purple Lupin, blue Anchusa here and there. 

44 



Past this brilliant mass of color, a shadowy path led one wandering 
on, still under the pines, where the eye was caught by Andromeda 
sprawling its bronzy leaves almost under foot, by great drifts of fern, 
and the myriad tiny wood plants that are doing their part in creating 
this perfection, until, through the thinning trees, one was reminded 
of the nearness of the sea. 

At the cliff edge the garden changed, and rock plants spread 
their tufts, nestling in the grey rocks as if nature had planted them 
herself almost the loveliest effect being obtained by the use of Flax, 
the grayness of the atmosphere lending color to its blue eyes. 

These are but impressions, the strongest being the respect paid 
to the natural beauty of the spot, and the magnificence of growth 
that shows the kindly hand of understanding. 

* m * # * 

An Englishman, perhaps, would be surprised at the surprise and Indian Hill 
pleasure of Americans in visiting an estate which has belonged for 
ten generations to the same family. The ecstasies of the Garden Club 
over Indian Hill might amuse him but we venture to say he would 
share them. The quaint and charming house with its extraordinary 
contents, the garden whose loveliness is a pattern for modern days, 
must win interest and admiration from any fortunate visitor. 

Certainly this house and garden should be enrolled among the 
Garden Club's historic gardens. The following short history which 
has been prepared by Mr. and Mrs. Moseley establishes its claim. 

Indian Hill. 

The history of Indian Hill, situated in West Newbury, Mass., is 
briefly this : 

The original deed was given by Great Tom, the Indian chief, to 
the Commoners of Newbury and by them to John Poore. From that 
time, 1655, it has always passed by will from one generation to another. 
My little grand-daughter, Ellen Poore Moseley, will be the tenth 
generation to inherit it. 

The early Poores like their neighbors were farmers and the original 
house, a part of the present building, was erected about 1688. One 
of these early Poores after visiting in England was imbued with 
the idea of changing the old house into a miniature Manor House 
and subsequent generations added to it. 

Major Ben Perley Poore, some seventy years ago after visiting at 
Abbotsford, the house of Sir Walter Scott, conceived the idea of adding 
the so-called Continental Rooms from parts af famous Colonial 
houses, the stairway being from the Prince house in Newburyport, 
where Washington, Talleyrand and Lafayette all were entertained, 
the paneling from the Province House (the old Governor's House in 

45 



Boston) and from the John Hancock house, Boston, the mantel from 
the Stuyvesant house in New York, the front door from the Edward 
House, Boston, etc. Here are collected the various fire-arms and a 
drum that was carried by the Newbury Company at Bunker Hill. 

In the fire-place of the old kitchen adjoining, are various cooking 
utensils of that period with an unusual collection of old pewter, china 
and early American furniture. Overhead is the old chamber fur- 
nished as it was at that date with the high-boy filled with family clothes 
also of the period. 

In one of the parlors is a set of chairs which was at Mt. Vernon 
in Washington's time and in a chamber a bed which belonged to and 
was slept in by Napoleon. 

The study is filled with interesting articles including the carpet 
on which Lincoln stood when taking his first oath of office as President 
in front of the speaker's desk in the Senate Chamber, a chair that 
was used by John Quincy Adams when a member of the House of Rep- 
resentatives after he was President and on which he was resting when 
he suffered the stroke of paralysis from which he died. 

The house is built entirely of brick and stone and is furnished 
throughout with early American furniture collected by the various 
owners. It contains over forty rooms and is still occupied in the 
summer time by the family. 

The garden which was laid out by English gardeners comprises a 
long walk up the hill, 800 yards long to a summer-house at the top 
and at one time was much more extensive with intersecting walks 
and beds. 

In 1857 the Massachusetts Society for Promoting Agriculture of- 
fered a prize of $1,000 for the best plantation of forest trees of not 
less than ten acres and ten years' growth for which Major Poore 
competed. He planted thirty acres and won the prize. This was the 
first systematic planting in this part of the country. All prizes awarded 
the farm have been, from time to time, put into silver which is used 
in the house. 

This modest account of past and present glories tells too little 
of the delightful hedge-walled garden gaily planted with Damask 
Roses and other plants from ancient herbals which border the central 
grass path, truly a tapis vert. It should go into detail and describe the 
striped brocade dress folded away in the high-boy and worn by a young 
Miss Poore of ancient days to her brother's Commencement at 
Harvard. Nor does it speak of the hair-cloth-covered parlor set 
perennially known as the "new furniture." It ought to tell of the 
astute Squire Poore who regretted the fact that his house stood so 
near the road and set about to effect a change. He invited the select- 

46 



men to spend an evening with him. In proper sequence he broached 
his plan for landscape improvement. The select-men wondered why 
they hadn't thought of it first and now the house sets well within its 
lawns with the road sweeping away at a respectful distance. 

A short drive from Indian Hill lies Mr. Moseley's other house Maudes- 
and garden overlooking the sea at Newburyport. Here luncheon leigh 
was served to all of the \dsitors and afterward the first Business 
Meeting was held in the Pine Grove. 

The great gardens were visited and admired and a beautiful 
exhibit of Thurlow's Peonies, arranged for the benefit of the Garden 
Club, excited much interest. 

The visit ended with a walk throug h the woods and along a Laurel- 
covered bank, a rare treat to western visitors who must journey a long 
way to see this most beautiful of native shrubs. Last year it bloomed 
so profusely that this year it has few flowers except at Maudesleigh 
where its pink ivory clusters were frequent enough to make a fine 
showing. This Laurel has grown in masses unexcelled anywhere in New 
England for more than a hundred years. In the old days it was a picnic 
grove used much by William Lloyd Garrison and the Abolitionists. 
The grove itself would be beautiful without the Laurels but with 
the mass of shining green leaves and exquisite flowers it is perfect. 

We walk across the sloping lawn to the west of the house, de- The Garden 
liberately turning our backs on that superb panorama of ocean, inlet, at Castle 
sound and salt marshes, and enter the cool, dark antechamber of Hill, Ipswich 
Laurel and conifers leading down to the Itahan Garden. 

Below us, as we descend the moss-grown steps, we catch ghmpses 
of old grey balustrades, parterres of gay flowers and shadows of tall 
evergreens lying across the closely clipped turf. The sparkle of a 
fountain seen through a narrow opening in the dark cedars at the 
extreme end reminds us of the old gardens of Florence. It is late in 
the afternoon, the time when all gardens look their best and the 
slanting Hght through the trees which overhang the sides of this 
enchanted ravine have a weird fairy effect. 

We emerge on a terrace overlooking the whole oval space. A 
wall fountain plashes beneath us unseen; birds are singing in the 
dense woods which surround this amphitheatre cut into the hillside; 
again we thrill at the long shadows l>'ing across flower-bed and grass. 
Here in this sheltered spot the fierce wind that we have been batthng 
with all the afternoon is only a faint sighing in the tree tops, secluded, 
protected, walled in on each side — was there ever such a setting for a 
flower garden? 

We hnger awhile and then leisurely proceed down one of the broad, 
low, curving flights of steps, which leads us to the side terraces which 

47 



run the length of the "plaisance. " Here and there on the wide steps 
are placed large jars of quaint Fuchsias, a choice collection. Never 
before have I seen the Scotch shrub Fuchsia with its diminutive blos- 
soms in America; here are the hoop-petticoat Fuchsias and the pale, 
waxy "ladies-eardrops" of our grandmothers' greenhouses, all growing 
luxuriantly in the moisture and half shade of the curving hillside. 
Large umbrella-shaped standards of that rare old greenhouse beauty 
the purple Laseandra, so seldom seen now-a-days, crown the pedestals 
of the stone balustrade; choice plants they are and marvelously 
trained to their dainty parasol frames, for Laseandra is really a vine. 

From this unusual gallery or side terrace which terminates the 
stairs we can step down into the central parterre by other flights 
of steps, but the gaUery itself is charmingly planted with a high, 
narrow border of vines, tall Delphinium, Foxglove, Sweet-peas and 
Lilies, which clamber or lean on the high stone retaining wall. 
On the side towards the parterre is the balustrade again with its 
border of rare, unusual flowers. We hang over its wide, inviting stone 
rail and study the incredibly light and airy planting of the central 
parterre in its carefully blended pale coloring. Now we reahze this 
is no "gardener's garden" nor yet one ordered from the best of the 
landscape-gardeners be they ever so talented (and rushed), but some 
woman has put her soul into the pale, deUcious coloring which holds 
you spellbound. A woman has studied and searched and loved this 
planting; corrected, waited, pulled out and re-planted and renounced 
the flower that she may have especially loved (she can have it else- 
where) for the sake of a perfect picture. This is good gardening! 
Mauve, lilac, lavender and purple ; grey, pale blue and turquoise ; white, 
cream, pale pink, warm pink and soft wine color; but carefully, oh, 
so carefully and wisely! Just the right amount and the right tone of 
soft, pale, warm yeUow and buff; what crimson there is never heavy 
or massed, but diffused so as to give the planting a rosy glow. 

Many rare and forgotten flowers are here. The frail Adlumia 
Cirrhosa, a plumey vine so seldom seen nowadays; gay blue and 
purple Torrenias used as borders; Enghsh Nemesias and a feathery 
(unknown) purplish plant like a spirea. LiHum Regale is here, cream 
and flesh pink ; clouds of long-spurred Hybrid Columbines and foamy 
ThaUctrum and Goats-rue all blended with a true sense of the color 
values. Is the garden all the sweeter that it is tended by dainty 
Uttle Farmerettes as under-gardeners? Indeed they add greatly to 
its charm. 

At the western end of this Italian Garden stands a curving vine- 
covered pergola. Dainty Fuchsias appear here again, this time in 
hanging baskets as well as in the oil-jars. We are naturally guided 
through its shadows into another dark antechamber of Rhododen- 

48 



dron and Pines, down a flight of steps to the brilliant Rose Garden 
beyond. 

This again is an amphitheatre cut into the hillside but rounder, 
a perfect " Rose-bowl. " 

The axis of the two gardens is the narrow straight vista which 
continues down the hill toward the sunset, where a hazy view of 
distant marsh-meadows prevents the feeling of being too shut in and 
in danger of suffocation from the overpowering beauty of the Roses. 
But a rose-garden is beyond my pen to describe. These superb stan- 
dard teas in full bloom belie the fact of our terrible winter of 1919. 
Winter is forgotten here and every bush is blooming its fullest for 
the delectation of their Garden Club guests. 

It is superb, so beautiful that it hurts, too perfect, too overpowering 
for me. I turn back alone and leave the delighted chorus of my beloved 
fellow-gardeners — retracing my steps I climb the stone stairway and 
sit alone awhile. The precious long shadows have moved on and 
deepened, the flowers have taken on an even softer tint, a thrush 
pours out his soul in liquid melody and I wonder if Heaven has 
anything in it as beautiful as this. 

W ^ * w ^ 

Thursday morning dawns bright and clear, our last day at the The Endi- 
North Shore, the harbor water dances brilliant blue and silver, the cott Gar- 
rugged old rocks seem to stand browner and firmer and the pines den at Dan- 
to wave greener and darker as we motor along the shore. We have vers 
torn ourselves away from the homes of our perfect hostesses, each 
sure in her heart of hearts that she was the luckiest woman in the 
Garden Club of America because her lot had fallen to her in that 
particular home. 

The motors turn inland, none of us visitors knowing or caring in 
what direction. We are safe as long as there is a Massachusetts li- 
cense on the car ahead! Across country we scurry and shortly the 
staid little town of Danvers appears. Here a turn to the right brings 
us to our welcoming green sentinel standing this time by an old 
stone gateway which guards a long avenue of old Elm trees. 

Under a grove of tall Pines stands the dignified old house, white 
and placid, where generations of Peabodys and Endicotts have 
lived and gardened. We have just time to note the charm of wide 
verandas, the entrancing detail of an iron hand-rail, the shady lawn 
and the pine grove where the oldest of old Buddhas nods as he has 
nodded for a hundred years, before we start out on our quest of the 
Garden. The ancient Evergreens sparkle in the brilliant morning 
light. As you cross the lawn the odor of warm pine needles reminds 
you of something once very dear to you, that long-forgotten mixture 
of Pine trees, Scotch Roses and Clove Pinks — where have you loved 

49 



that fragrance before? This breath of the garden lures you on through 
the shrubberies and then you know where you have first smelt that 
spicy restful odor. You are a little girl once more, in your long-for- 
gotten pink sunbonnet and pinafore, picking flowers in your grand- 
mother's garden. Ah, the blessedness of it! All about you are the 
old favorites, the old Spice-bushes, the Syringas, the Rockets, the 
Honey-suckles. Nothing modern is allowed to break the spell, for 
just what was blooming here a hundred and fifty years ago is bloom- 
ing gently still, as it has always bloomed every June since then. 
What a sense of repose it gives you — relaxation, too, and relief! 

A turn in the walk and you are confronted with an ancient Garden 
House, tall and narrow, with delectable details worked in its panelling 
by one of the great woodcarvers of Salem and surmounted by a 
perfect little figure of Corydon. Let me describe it to you in the 
words of pretty Eliza Southgate who visited it about 1800. 

"The tall summer house in the center of the garden has an arch 
through it with three doors on each side which open into small apart- 
ments, and one of them opens to a staircase, by which you ascend 
into a square room the whole size of the building; it has a fine airy ap- 
pearance and commands a view of the whole garden. . . .the air from 
the windows is always pure and cool . . . the room is ornamented 
with Chinese figures and seems calculated for serenity and peace. " 

This little gem of Colonial architecture was removed from its 
original setting at Peabody, Mass., and placed in its present position 
with great care and taste, and the Chinese figures are still here speak- 
ing to us of the first East India trade which was started in Salem 
by Hasket Derby the owner of the Garden House. Quaint cabinets 
set in the panelling of this upper room hold old Chinese bowls and 
fans, older ivories and strange embroideries from heathen lands. 
I imagine the consternation of the respectable ladies of Salem when 
these fat-bellied images first dawned upon their restricted horizon! 

On a table in the center of the room lie a number of alluring books 
telling of the early life in Salem and Newburyport, mentioning this 
very building, and a photograph hangs on the wall showing it in its 
original position and telling of its many devoted generations of owners. 

Through the open window floats up the odor of old-fashioned 
roses — for the Garden House is placed at the entrance of the 
semi-circular rose-garden. If only you had time to finger here, to 
explore the garden walks where you imdoubtedly would come upon 
rows of lavender, rue, dill and coriander. You feel sure that the attic 
holds bunches of these preCious herbs hanging above the hair-trunks 
and perforated tin foot-stoves. But you must go on with the others, 
and as you turn reluctantly away you feel that you have journeyed 

50 



back to the very core of Old New England and your pride in every 
drop of your New England blood is tempered by great humility as you 
realize how far you have wandered from the simphcity and dignity 
of a hundred and fifty years ago in gardening as well as in many 
deeper things. 

4? ^ ^ -ff w 

Our motor cavalcade is stopped again in Danvers by the welcome The Lindens, 
green signal. This time it is in front of a superb row of enormous century- D Anveb S 
old Lindens which lead the way from the shady old street to the dig- 
nified steps of an ancient stone Georgian house. A true mansion it is, 
imposing, severe, and architecturally perfect. One needs a caleche 
or at least hoop-skirts and a black lace parasol to make one's proper 
entry up this -wdde, long walk. One expects, too, an old colored butler 
such as Washington had at Mt. Vernon to open ceremoniously the 
heavy door. Here a pleasant surprise awaits us, for the gracious 
hostess stands herseK at the threshold, cordially welcoming us all, 
so understanding of the undue haste which seems to animate us and 
yet of our eager desire to drink to the last drop this rarest cup of 
delight. How could she but be happy in our intense, explosive ad- 
miration of one of the most architecturally perfect houses in America. 

The broad hall takes a crowd so easily, people look well here, 
it is par excellence a place for hospitahty and entertainment. The 
wide stairs are not crowded, though full of enthusiastic, appreciative 
women. But the wall-paper! No one could beheve it unless they 
have seen it! It was made for this hall in i860 and is an exact copy 
of the original one put on in 1753, when the house was first built. 
Such a dehcious melee of scenes from all quarters of the globe has 
never been on wall before or since, yet it is entirely in keeping with 
the heavy carved woodwork arid massive doors. One longs to ask a 
thousand questions about the history of the house, one hears a rumor 
that there is a whole book all about it, one aches to know if the en- 
trancing old French furnitur