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Full text of "Bulletin of the International Bureau of the American Republics"

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http://www.archive.org/details/bulletinofintern2909inte 



INTERNATIONAL UNION OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS 



BULLETIN 

OF THE INTERNATIONAL UNION OF THE 



AMERICAN 
REPUBLICS 



VOL. XXIX 

Nos. 1-3 

JULY-SEPTEMBER, 1909 




WASHINGTON 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
1909 



ft-r 

? \ ñ 



INTERNATIONAL UNION OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS 



BULLETIN 

OF THE INTERNATIONAL UNION OF THE 

AMERICAN 
REPUBLICS 



JULY 



1909 



Annual Revieja) Number 




NO. 2 JACKSON PLACE, WASHINGTON, D. C, U. S. A. 

CABLE ADDRESS for BUREAU and BULLETIN, "IBAR," WASHINGTON 



INTERNATIONAL 

B u fle.au of the 

AMERICAN REPUBLICS 




SUBSCRIPTION R./VTES FOR THE BULLETIN 

English Section, $2 per year in all countries of the International Union; 
in other countries, $2.50 per year. Single number, 25 cents. 

Spanish-Portuguese-French Section, $2 per year in all countries of the 
International Union; in other countries, $2.50 per year. Single number, 
25 cents. 

Double number (Bulletin in English, Spanish, Portuguese, and French), 
$3 per year in all countries of the International Union; in other coun- 
tries, $4. Single number, 40 cents. 



WASHINGTON : GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : 1909 



GOVE.R.1MI1MG-B O A.FLD-OF-XHE 
INTERNA.TI0N:A.L- BUREAU -OF 
AMER.IC AN • R^E-PCTB LiCfi 



^■^^ 



Philander C. 



Knox, Secretary of State of the United States, 
Chairman ex officio. 

AMBASSADORS EXTRAORDINARY AND PLENIPOTENTIARY. 

Brazil Mr. Jo aqitim Nabuco, 

Summer Office of Embassy, Mancliester-by-tlLe-Sea, Mass. 

Mexico Señor Don Francisco L. de la Barra, 

Office of Embassy, 1415 I street, Washington, D. C. 

ENVOYS EXTRAORDINARY AND MINISTERS PLENIPOTENTIARY. 

Argentine Republic Señor Don Epifânio Portela, 

Summer Office oí Legation, Magnolia, Ma,ssachusetts. 

Bolivia Señor Don Ignacio Ca lderón, « 

Office of Legation, No. 2 Stone street. New York. 

Chile Señor Don Aníbal Cruz, 

Office of Legation, 1529 New Hampshire avenue, Wa.shington, D. C. 

Colombia Señor Don Enrique Cortés, 

Absent. 

Costa Rica Señor Don Joaquín Bernardo Calvo, 

Office of Legation, 1329 Eighteenth street, Washington, D. C. 

Cuba Señor Don Carlos García Velez, 

Office of Legation, "The Wyoming," Washington, D. C. 

Ecuador Señor Don Luis Felipe CarbOj^ 

Summer address, Blue Ridge Summit, Pennsylvania. 

Guatemala Señor Dr. Luis Toledo Herrarte, 

Office of Legation, "The Highlands," Washington, D. C. 

Haiti Mr. H. Pauléus Sannon, 

Office of Legation, 1429 Rhode Island avenue, Washington, D. C. 

Honduras Señor Dr. Luis Lazo Arriaga, 

Summer Office of Legation, 66 Beaver street. New York, N. Y. 

Nicaragua Señor Dr. Rodolfo Espinosa R., 

Office of Legation, 2003 O street, Washington, D. C. 

Panama Señor Don C. C. Arosemena, 

Office of Legation, "The Highlands," Washington, D. C. 

Peru Señor Don Felipe Pardo, 

Absent. 

Salvador Señor Don Federico Mejí a. 

Office of Legation, " The Portland," Washington, D. C. 

Uruguay Señor Dr. Luis Melian Lafinur, 

Absent. 

Venezuela Señor Dr. Pedro Ezequiel Rojas, 

Office of Legation, The New Willard, Washington, D. C. 

CHARGÉS D'AFFAIRES AD INTERIM. 

Colombia Señor Don Pomponio Guzman, 

Office of Legation, 1728 N street, Washington, D. C. 

: Dominican Republic Señor Don Arturo L. Fiallo, 

Office of Legation, "The Burlington," Washington, D. C. 
Peru Señor Don Manuel de Freyre y San- 
tander, 
Summer Office of Legation, 96 Farwell avenue, Milwaukee, Wis. 

U ruguay Señor Don Alberto Nin- Frias, 

Summer Office of Legation, 430 West 118th street. New York, N. Y. 
[Paraguay has at present no representative on the Governing Board.] 
«Absent. Ill 



V?>1 



UNITELD STATES 
RI1FKESENTAT1VE3 IN THE 
LATIN AMERICAN REPUBLICS 



^3 




AMBASSADORS EXTRAORDINARY AND PLENIPOTENTIARY. 

Brazil Irving B. Dudley, Rio de Janeiro. 

Mexico - David E. Thompscñt, Mexico. 

ENVOYS EXTRAORDINARY AND MINISTERS PLENIPOTENTIARY. 

Argentine Republic Charles H. Sherrill. 

Bolivia Jamls F. Stutesman, La Paz. 

Chile ■ Thomas C. Dawson, Santiago. 

Colombia Elliott C. Northcott, Bogotá. 

Costa Rica. - William L. Merry, San José. 

Cuba Edwin V. Morgan, Havana. 

Ecuador "Williams C. Fox, Quito. 

Guatemala William Heimke, Guatemala City. 

Haiti Henry W. Furniss, Port au Prince. 

Honduras Philip ]M Brown, Tegucigalpa. 

ÎÎ icaragua Horace G. Knowles, Managua. 

Panama Herbert G. Squiers, Panama. 

Paraguay (Same as Uruguay.) 

Peru Leslie Combs, Lima. 

Salvador 

Uruguay Edward C. O'Briex, Montevideo. 

Venezuela William W. Russell, Caracas. 

minister RESIDENT AND CONSUL-GENERAL. 

Dominican Republic Fenton R. McCreery, Santo Domingo 

IV 



:T ir ■ 



Review of Latin America in 1908 2 

Argentine Republic 8 

BoliAda 31 

Brazil..... : 43 

Chile 72 

Colombia - 88 

Costa Rica - 109 

Cuba - 121 

Dominican Republic 133 

Ecuador - 148 

Guatemala 159' 

Haiti 171 

Honduras - - 181 

Mexico.' - - 192 

Nicaragua 218 

Panama ---- - 229 

Paraguay 240 

Peru , 250 

Salvador 264 

Uruguay 273 

Venezuela 286 

V 



METRIC WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. 



METRIC WEIGHTS. 

Milligram (xoW gram) equals 0.0154 grain. 

Centigram (j^g^ gram) equals 0.1543 grain. 

Decigram (^^ gram) equals 1.5432 grains. 

Gram equals 15.432 grains. 

Decagram (10 grams) equals 0.3527 ounce. 

Hectogram (100 grams) equals 3.5274 ounces. 

Kilogram (1,000 grams) equals 2.2046 pounds. 

Myriagram (10,000 grams) equals 22.046 pounds. 

Quintal (100,000 grams) equals 220.46 pounds. 

Millier or tonneau — ton (1,000,000 grams) equals 2,204.6 pounds. 

METRIC DRY MEASURE. 

Milliliter (ïoïïo- liter) equals 0.061 cubic inch. 
Centiliter {j^^y liter) equals 0.6102 cubic inch. 
Deciliter ( Jg liter) equals 6.1022 cubic inches. 
Liter equals 0.908 quart. 
Decaliter (10 liters) equals 9.08 quarts. 
Hectoliter (100 liters) equals 2.838 bushels. 
Kiloliter (1,000 liters) equals 1.308 cubic yards. 

METRIC LIQUID MEASURE. 

Millimeter (xõVõ liter) equals 0.27 fluid dram: 

Centiliter (^^o liter) equals 0.338 fluid ounce. 

Deciliter (jV liter) equals 0.845 gill. 

Liter equals 1.0567 quarts. 

Decaliter (10 liters) equals 2.6417 gallons. 

HectoHter (100 liters) equals 26.417 gallons. 

Kiloliter (1,000 Hters) equals 264.17 gallons. 

METRIC MEASURES OF LENGTH. 

Millimeter (yoõõ meter) equals 0.0394 inch. 

Centimeter (x^õ meter) equals 0.3937 inch. 

Decimeter (jV meter) equals 3.937 inches. 

Meter equals 39.37 inches. 

Decameter (10 meters) equals 393.7 inches. 

Hectometer (100 meters) equals 328 feet 1 inch. 

Kilometer (1,000 meters) equals 0.62137 mile (3,280 feet 10 inches). 

Myriameter (10,000 meters) equals 6.2137 miles.) 

METRIC SURFACE MEASURE. 

Centare (1 square meter) equals 1,550 square inches. 
Are (100 square meters) equals 119.6 square yards. 
Hectare (10,000 square meters) equals 2.471 acres. 

The metric system has been adopted by all of the twenty-one republics consti- 
tuting the International Union of the American Republics. 



WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. 



The following table gives the chief weights and measures in commercial use in 
Mexico and the republics of Central and South America, and their equivalents in 
the United States : 



Denomination. 



Where used. 



United States equivalents. 



Are 

Arobe 

Arroba (dry) 

Do...; 

Do 

Do 

Arroba (liquid) 

Barril 

Carga 

Centaro 

Cuadra 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Cubic meter 

•Fanega (drv) 

Do....'. 

Do 

Do.: 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Frasco 

Do 

Gram 

Hectare 

Hectoliter (dry) . . . 
Hectoliter (liquid). 

Kilogram (kilo) 

Kilometer 

League (land) 

Libra 

Do...... 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Liter 

Manzana 

Marc 

Meter - 

Pie 

Quintal 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Suerte 



Vara. 



Do. 



Metric 

Paraguay 

Argentine Republic 

Brazil 

Cuba 

Venezuela 

Cuba and Venezuela 

Argentine Republic and Mexico. 

Mexico and Salvador 

Central America 

Argentine Republic 

Paraguay 

Paraguay (square) 

Uruguay 

Metric 

Central America 

Chile 

Cuba 

Mexico 

Uruguay (double) 

L^ruguay (single) 

Venezuela 

Argentine Republic 

Mexico 

Metric 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

Paraguay 

Argentine Republic 

Central America 

Chile 

Cuba 

Mexico 

Peru 

Uruguay 

Venezuela 

Metric 

Costa Rica 

Bolivia. 

Metric 

Argentine Republic 

do 

Brazil 

Chile, Mexico, and Peru 

Paraguay 

Metric 

Uruguay 



Argentine Republic. 
Central America . . . . 



Do ! Chile and Peru. 

Do \ Cuba 

Do ; Mexico 

Do I Paraguay 

Do 1 Venezuela 



0.02471 acre. 
25 pounds. 
25.3171 pounds. 
32.38 pounds. 
25.3664 pounds. 
25.4024 pounds. 
4.263 gallons. 
20.0787 gallons. 
300 pounds. 
4.2631 gallons. 
4.2 acres. 
78.9 yards. 
8.077 square feet. 
2 acres (nearly). 
35.3 cubic feet. 
1.5745 bushels. 
2.575 bushels. 
1.599 bushels. 
1.54728 bushels. 
7.776 bushels. 
3.888 bushels. 
1.599 bushels. 
2.5096 quarts. 
2.5 quarts. 
15.432 grains. 
2.471 acres. 
2.838 bushels. 
26.417 gallons. 
2.2046 pounds. 
0.621376 mile. 
4.633 acres. 
1.0127 pounds. 
1.043 pounds. 
1.014 pounds. 
1.0161 pounds. 
1.01465 pounds. 
1.0143 pounds. 
1.0143 pounds. 
1.0161 pounds. 
1.0567 quarts. 
1| acres. 
0.507 pound. 
39.37 inches. 
0.9478 foot. 
101.42 pounds. 
130.06 pounds. 
101.61 pounds. 
100 pounds. 
220.46 pounds. 
2,700 cuadras. (See Cu- 
adra.) 
34.1208 inches. 
33.874 inches. 
33.367 inches. 
33.384 inches. 

33 inches. 

34 inches. 
33.384 inches. 



■POPUL-ATIOKOr THE AMLHICAN KEPUBUCS 



UNITED ST/XES! e4:2is.ooo 



ME.KICO 

AEGENTMEREPUSX 

PERU 

COL-OI^BIA 

CHILE 

VENE2:UE1-A 

BOI-IVIA 

CUBA 

CUATE MALA 

SAUVAOOR 

MAITI 

ECUADOR 

URUGUAV 

HONDURAS 

PARA.GUA.V 

DOMINICAN EEPDBUC 

KICAPEASUA 

PANAMA 

COSTA RICA 







"r 



!.! 



:-;- 



■;-; 



Si. 



v^ J 
.v^^ / 

/y 



.^"^ „^^ 



POPULATIQM ,<îi^ SQUARE MILE 






/ 






0^ 0^ ^^ 



0^ fií' 






O/XA^ 






ni 



'zZG7zB\lÍ77z5\ALiT\^Z-l\2S.\2.ò.Z\\7.7\lG.l\]5^Zl\í^Ze\]Zz | l^. |lU£|n.l| 773|£.3|¿72|£.4|4^|4.1 I^Tl 




GENERAL JUAN VICENTE GOMEZ, 
President of Venezuela. 




VOL. XXIX. 



JULY, 1909. 



NO. I. 



THIS issue, the July number of the M0NTHI.Y Buli^ETin, is devoted 
exclusively to the carefully compiled annual review data, for the 
year 1908, covering the twenty Latin-American Republics of the 
International Union. The usual editorial comment, booknotes, 
magazine references, Latin -American notes, historical dates, and special 
articles are omitted to give space for this revievv^ There was such a 
large demand last year for the corresponding résumé for 1907 that an 
extra effort has been put forth by the International Bureau to make the 
report for 1908 complete, succinct, and accurate. To review the material 
conditions of twenty nations is no small task, and the compilation must 
necessarily omit much of interest and value or exceed the inexorable 
limitations of space, but sufficient facts are included to answer the great 
majority of questions concerning Latin America which are continually 
sent to the Bureau from all parts of the world. 

Some mistakes or errors may have been accidentally or unintentionally 
incorporated in the text, but these will be corrected in a subsequent issue 
if pointed out. The data, moreover, of some countries are much more 
comprehensive than of others, but this is no fault of the Bureau, for a 
special effort has been exerted to get the latest and fullest information 
from every country. Unfortunately, however, it has been so difficult 
to secure up-to-date reports from a few governments that the résumés 
thereof are not as timely and complete as might be wished. 

Viewed as a whole, it is the best general survey of its kind of the Latin- 
American Republics which has yet been prepared by the Bureau, and 
the reader who wishes to be informed about the progress and material 
development of Pan- America will find in these pages much of real edu- 
cational and practical value. 

It is a source of regret that this review can not contain also a state- 
ment of the work of the International Bureau during 1908, as compared 
with that of 1907 and 1906. Notable facts in this connection are the 
remarkable growth of interest throughout the United States in Latin 
America; the great increase in the correspondence of the Bureau and in 
the demand for its publications; the marked improvement and popu- 
larity of the Bulletin; and the large number of manufacturers, students, 
. writers, statesmen, travelers, and men of all callings who are seeking an 
endless variety of information concerning these wonderful lands. 



ATÎM AM.EKICA IN 1908 



El/l r%,ãJÍ.M„^MX.M.\^r%. 3,Ji,/% M.. :^ \J%.Iy 

A JXÍ^ V lí!^ ff s^ ^ 



13 



THE spirit of internationalism in its broadest application was 
the pervading characteristic of relations between the va- 
rious countries of America during 1908. 
The year was marked b}^ numerous gatherings of the 
representative elements of national life both in Latin America and 
the United States, and on all occasions indications of a unanimity 
of sentiment and communit}^ of interest were markedly displayed. 

Of paramount importance was the carrying into effect of the va- 
rious conventions of the Washington Peace Conference of 1907 en- 
tered into by the Republics of Central America. In accordance with 
these conventions, the Central American Court of Justice held its 
first session in May, 1908, at Cartago, Costa Rica, the first judicial 
decision being rendered in December. On September 15 the Central 
American Bureau was inaugurated in the capital of Guatemala for 
the furtherance of reciprocal interests among the nations of Central 
America, and with the assembling of the First Central American Con- 
ference at Tegucigalpa, Honduras, in the first month of 1909, addi- 
tional emphasis is given to the intention of the nations interested 
to embrace all feasible means for the development of their material 
possibilities. 

The participation of Pan-America was a feature of the Lake Mo- 
honk Conferences of 1908 and 1909, and active interest was indicated 
in such industrial assemblies as the International Fisheries Congress, 
the Irrigation Congress, the Trans-Mississippi Commercial Congress, 
the Rivers and Harbors Congress, and the Conservation Congress, all 
of which were held in the United States and attended by delegates 
from the Republics to the south. 

In the field of science, the Fifth Pan-American Medical Congress 
meeting in Guatemala City during August was an event of note, 
and the gathering of savants of the AVestern Hemisphere in Santiago 
de Chile in December, for the purpose of holding the First Pan- 
American Scientific Congress, marked the entry of the United States 
into the realm of intellectual activity covered by the four Latin- 
American Scientific Congresses previously held. As a compliment to 
this cooperative action, Washington was selected for the next meeting 
place of the Congress, in 1912. 
2 





O i 


uo.ooo. 


000 






30.000.000 


50 


















1 MEXICO 1 


fî46. 463.044 














1 C UBA 


42.451.E£4 












^ 


lARGEÍlTlIStñ. 


33.519.955 




^^^^ 






^ 




1 E,R.í\Z-ILj 


16.973.977 






^_ 




üi 










1 p'jPosi a-m:í=v 


16.799.630 










121 




' 










n 






1 T'HRU 


5.815.495 




i) 
II 






1 CHII-E/ 


5.373.911 










• 




1 ■CO'LiOMZlK 


3.690.014 


11 












1 HAITI 


3.500.775 


-J 




1 UKUGUAV 


3.134=.694 


.^ 


-^p^ oR.Tr s ^ 


iDOMINICftHTlEP. 


2.723.406 


—Ü 


[_ FKOM THE- U.S.] 


1 VENEZUELA 


B.566.0ZZ, 


3 




IcQSTa-RrcA 


2.19G.459 


^ 












1 ECUADOR 


1.814:.434 


Jl 




1 GUATEMALA 


1.743.839 


^ 




1 HONDURAS 


i.54o.aeo 


^ 




' 








[SALVADOR 


1.4,04.575 


J) 




INICARRGUA 


l.a97.163 


:ii 




1 BOLIVIA. 


€.87,307. 


í 


' 




ù 




1 ■PATÎAGUKf 


55.2^9 





- UNITLD STATES - 
TRADE. "WITH LATIM AMERICA ÎM130S 



BRAZIL 181.039.224. 



CU B/S. 



79.114.972,. 



M:E,XIC0 i 4e.854.972.L 



|AEGENTIT<rA| 13.155.4=6aL 



CHILE/ la. 494.122. 



VENEZUELAl 7.028.180L 



I Colombia] 6.897.4931 



PER.U 



5.857.a21.L 



POMINICAU REPJ 5. 279.47 7. 



COSTARICA 



,4.0O4:.&a9J_Jj 



I E,CUADOFl I a.lf g. 1 ^1 ^^ 

URUGUAY I a. 1 "^ Q^^QH 

HONDURAS I 1.9-^ P- ft^^=»^^ 

IgUATEMALAI l. Oin:^ Qn ¿J| 

PAtíAMA I 1.447. 5 £5^ 

|NICAT?AG.UA| 1.0S4.13liIl 

[salvador i 1.033.350^1 



I ?^AiT r 



447.18e [Il 



I PARAGUAY I 16.547.111 



I BOLIVIA 
TB7T7?. 



385 




'^ I "M P' O "R T3»^ 

[TO THZ, -a.s^ 



/ 



4 IXTEEXATIOXAL BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

Intellectual stimulus has been aroused through the holding of 
students' congresses, and the year 1908 was marked by an increased 
number of Latin- American students in United States' universities 
as well as by a vasth^ augmented interest on the part of the United 
States in the applied educational methods of Latin-American coun- 
tries. 

Xot the least contributing factor in this interest is the better knowl- 
edge being daily acquired through the tide of travel which is setting 
toward Latin America and for which improved communication facil- 
ities are largely responsible. 

With the assembling of the Fourth International Conference of 
American States in Buenos Aires in 1910, the common interests of 
the American nations will be still further accentuated, and the results 
of the previous meetings at Washington, Mexico, and Rio de Janeiro 
reported on in the light of recent events demonstrating the status of 
America as a whole in world affairs. 

TRADE OF AMERICA IN 1908. 



Argentine Republic . 

Bolivia 

Brazil 

Chile 

Colombia 

Costa Rica.. 

Cuba 

Dominican Republic 

Ecuador 

Guatemala 

Haiti 

Honduras 

Mexico 

N.caragua 

Panama 

Paraguay 

Peru (estimated ) 

Salvador 

United States 

Uruguay 

Venezuela 



Imports. 



16, 
17?: 

97: 

13 
5, 

86: 
5, 
6 
5 
4, 
2 
110 
3 
7 
3 

25 

4 

,116 

34 
9 



972, 736 
323, 000 
450, 000 
551,421 
513, 892 
629, 405 
218, 391 
127, 463 
950, 256 
811, 586 
701, 160 
829, 979 
800, 000 
000, 000 
806, 811 
929, 724 
000, 000 
240, 560 
449, 681 
618, 804 
778, 810 



2, 009, 703, 679 



Exports 



17 

220 
116 

14: 
7, 

94: 
9: 



1 

121 
4 
1 
3 
27 
5, 
1, 752 
37 
14 



005, 341 
514,000 
475, 000 
489, 411 

998. 744 
757, 525 
603, 324 
486, 344 
346, 371 
756, 143 
478, 848 
834, 060 
370, 000 
500, 000 
757, 135 

731. 745 
750, 000 
787, 677 
833, 247 
280, 523 
560, 830 



Total. 



33, 

397, 

214, 

28, 

13, 

179, 

l-l, 

15, 

1^, 

8, 

4, 

232, 

7, 

9, 

7, 

52, 

10, 

2, 869, 

71, 

24, 



978, 077 
837, 000 
925, 000 
040, 832 
512, 636 
386, 930 
821,715 
613, 807 
296, 627 
567, 729 
180, 008 
664, 039 
170. 000 
500, 000 
563, 946 
661,724 
750, 000 
028, 237 
282, 928 
899, 327 
339, 640 



2,837,316,268 4,847,019,947 



The aggregate of trade for the various countries composing the 
International Union of American Republics during 1908 was 
$4,847,019,91:7, against $5,415,798,197 in the preceding year. This loss 
of over $550,000,000 is attributable to well-known economic causes 
which affected commercial centers throughout the world. 

In the total for the jeav the share of the United States is repre- 
sented by $2,869,282,928, composed of imports, $1,116,449,681, and 
exports, $1,752,833,247, as compared with $3,346,596,025, composed 
of $1,423,169,820 and $1,923,426,205 for imports and exports, respec- 
tively, in 1907, a decrease of $477,313,097 being indicated. 

Latin America figured in the grand total for $1,977,737,019, show- 
ing a decline of $89,647,589 in the trade volume as compared with 
the previous year. 



ik- ESTIMATED 



AKGEKTIMA 366.0O5.341. 



BRAZIL ZZOA75.000. 



MEXICO 
CHILE 
CUBA 
URUGUAY 
■PERU * 

BOLIVIA 



11 6.489.4 11, 

94.603.324 

37. 280, 5ZZ>. 

£7,750.000 

17.514.000 

COLOMBIA 14- «398.744 

VEHEZUE.LA 14. 560.830 

■DOMINICAN REP 9- 486.344 

COSTA RICA 7. 757. 5£6 

GUATEMALA 6.756.143 

ECUADOR 6.346.371. 

SALVAPOR 5.787.677 

NICARAGUA 4.500.000 

PARAGUAY 3.731.745 

HAITI 3.47Ô.848 

HOMDURAS 1.834.060 

PANAMA 1.757.135 



HONDURAS ^. 8 29.879 
NICARAGUA 3.OOO.O00 
PARAGUAY 3.92.9.724 
SALVADOR 4.E40.56O 
HAITI -4.701.16O 
DOMINICATÍREP 5,127.463 
COSTA "RICA 5.6X9.405 



GUATE,KALA 
ECUADOR 
PANAMA 

VENEZITELA 



5.811.586 
6.<950.£56 

7.806.811 
9.77S.aio 



COLOMBIA 13.513.892. 

BOLt-viA 16.3Z3.000 

•PERU * S5.0O0.OOO 

URUGUAY 34.619.804 

CUBA 85.218.391 

CHILE 97.551.421 

•MEXICO 110.800,000 

BRAZIL 177.450.000 
ARGENTINA 272.972.736 



■^ 




6 INTERNATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

Imports into all of Latin America during 1908 amounted in value 
to $893,253,998, against $1,000,297,852 in 1907, the indicated decline 
for this branch of trade being $107,043,854. 

On the other hand exports, with a total valuation of $1,084,483,021. 
show a gain of $15,578,701 over the figures for 1907, when Latin- 
American merchandise was shipped abroad to the value of $1,068,- 
904,320. 

From the foregoing statement it is seen that in spite of certain 
adverse conditions in the financial world the demand for articles of 
Latin-American origin created a trade balance in favor of the pro- 
ducing countries to the extent of $191,229,023, in which sum the ex- 
ports for the year exceeded the imports. 

In the 3^ear's trade total for Latin America, the United States 
share was $468,216,455, as compared with $558,279,201 in 1907, re- 
ceipts of Latin-American merchandise figuring on the trade lists of 
the countr}?^ for $271,498,425 and shipments of United States goods 
to those countries being represented by $196,718,030, as compared 
with imports worth $317,726,133 and exports $240,553,068 in 1907. 

With Central America, trade values in 1908 aggregated $36,352,328, 
against $45,087,355 in the year previous; with Mexico a total of 
$89,318,016 is recorded, as compared with $124,698,413; with South 
America, $209,029,069, a decline from $233,293,351 in 1907; with 
Cuba, $121,566,196, against $144,973,116 ; with Haiti, $3,947,961, com- 
pared with $4,366,273 ; and with thé Dominican Eepublic, $8,002,885 
in 1908 and $5,860,693 in 1907. 

In considering the figures given above, adverse conclusions must 
not be drawn as to the value of the Latin- American field of trade. 
The falling off in the exchange of commodities for the year 1908 with 
the United States, as already suggested, was due almost entirely to 
unfavorable and unusual economic conditions. The reliable measure 
of such value is determined by comparing the statistics of the present 
with those of ten years ago, and here a great increase is shown. 
The outlook, moreover, for the coming jeãr is good, and there is an 
awakening, largely due to the efforts of the International Bureau, 
among business men in both North and South America to the possi- 
bilities of trade exchange heretofore undeveloped which must have 
a beneficial effect on Pan-American commerce. 



- LATIM AMERICA. - 



1-tItE.S 




.0000 




NICAKAGUA 



BRAZIL 



E-CUAÜOR 



HONDURAS 



•PERTJ 



T^ANAMA 



VEKEZUELA 



COLOMBIA 
■PARAGUAY 



BOï-IVIA 



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.00 14- 



.0009 



.0009 
.0009 



.0005 



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II 



PROPORTION or MIUE.S 
Or.KAIIJWAV TO ÎLACH SQUAIRZj 
MILE, OF TERRITORY IN THÏL 
- LATm AMERÎGAUREPUBI-ICS — 



:7S>55P. 



/ 



ARGENTINE REPUBLIC 



The Argentine Republic, the third largest of the American Repub- 
lics, is situated between latitude 22° and 56° south and longitude 
west of Greenwich 53° and 5T°, being bounded by the Republics of 
Chile, Bolivia, Paraguay, Brazil, Uruguay, and the Atlantic Ocean. 
It has an area of 1,135,840 square miles, equal to about one-half the 
total area of the United States of America, and a population of 
6,100,361, or 5.4 per square mile, as against 23.2 in the United States 
of America. 

Stretching over 34° of latitude, the country presents a variety of 
climate and products, ranging from tropical in the north to arctic 
in the south, but the larger part of its territory lies within the 
temj)erate zone. The broad, fertile plains extending from the At- 
lantic to the foot of the Andes, occasionally broken b}^ a series of low 
mountains, afford excellent pasturage for thousands of cattle, and 
nearly all cereals, especially wheat, corn, and oats, are successfully 
cultivated. Other industrial articles. produced in export quantities are 
hides and skins of all kinds, and the valuable quebracho wood and its 
extract. Sugar, cotton, tobacco, and grapes are largely grown, but 
mostly tor home consumption. The mountains contain rich deposits 
of silver, copper, and gold, which are as yet exploited to a limited 
extent only. 

HISTORICAL SKETCH. 

The Spanish navigator, Juan de Solis, in search of a passage to 
the Pacific Ocean, was the first European to explore the Rio de la 
Plata, in the year 1508 and again in 1515. Sebastian Cabot sub- 
sequently explored the country, sailing up the Parana and Paraguay 
rivers in 1526. 

Pedro de Mendoza was appointed Governor of the country by the 
Spanish Crown in 1536, and founded what is now the city of Buenos 
Aires. The settlement was, however, destroyed by the Indians, and 
it was not until the year 1576, when Juan de Garay became Gov- 
ernor, that any serious attempt was again made to colonize the coun- 
try. The Province of Uruguay, as the entire territory was then 
called, was placed under the jurisdiction of the Viceroy of Peru, but 
in 1776 the La Plata country had become of sufficient importance to 
warrant the establishment of a separate viceroyalty, and Don Pedro 
BE Cevallos was appointed Viceroy of the Rio de la Plata Provinces. 

In the year 1805 Great Britain, then at Avar with Spain, attempted 
to seize the city of Buenos Aires, which had become an important 



AEGENTINE EEPUBLIC. 



9 



trade center, but the British troops were unsuccessful, and in the fol- 
lowing year they temporarily abandoned the contest. Within less 
than a year, however, the attempt was again made to capture the city, 
the British being again and finally defeated on July 6, 1807. 

The war for independence from Spanish rule began on May 25, 
1810, Don Manuel Belgrano, General San Martin, and Admiral 
Guillermo Brown being among the distinguished patriots engaged 
in the struggle. The Spanish troops were defeated both by water and 
by land on June 22, 1814, and were obliged to abandon the fort of 
Montevideo, their last stronghold in the La Plata Provinces. 

A constitutional Assembly, which convened at Tucuman, formally 
"declared the independence of the " Provincias Unidas del Rio de la 
Plata " (United Provinces of the La Plata River), on July 9, 1816, 
and vested the executive authority in a Supreme Director ; Don Juan 
Martin de Pueyrredon being elected to that position. The title of 
Republic was subsequently changed to that of Argentine Republic 
and later to Argentine Confederation and finally, in the year 1860, to 
Argentine Nation, which is now its official designation. In the year 
1824 the executive power was vested in a President of the Republic, 
and Don Bernardo Rivadavia was inaugurated as the first executive 
of this office on February 7, 1825. 

The incorporation of the territory now constituting the Republic 
of Uruguay into the Argentine Confederation resulted in war with 
Brazil. This war began on December 10, 1825, and lasted until 1827, 
when a treaty of peace was concluded, on February 20, whereby the 
independence of Uruguay was guaranteed. 

Among the great men of the Argentine Nation may be mentioned Don 
Bartolomé Mitre, author, statesman, soldier, and patriot, who com- 
manded the allied forces in the war with 
Paraguay; Don Domingo Faustino Sarmi- 
ento, the great educator, who organized the 
school system of the Republic; Don Nicolas 
Avellaneda, who stimulated commerce and 
industries; and Don Julio Roca, who sub- 
dued the troublesome Indians of the Chaco 
and successfully averted a war with Chile 
which threatened to eventuate as the result of 
a boundary dispute. 

Don Manuel Quintana was inaugurated 
President of the Republic on October 12, 1904, 
but died on March 12, 1906, before the expira- 
tion of his term of office. He was succeeded by the then Vice- 
President, Dr. José Figueroa Alcorta, whose term of office will 
expire on October 11, 1910. 

560— Bull. 1—09 2 




Dr, PON JOSE FIGUEROA ALCORTA, PRES- 
IDENT OF THE Argentine Republic. 



10 INTERNATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 
CONSTITUTION AND GOVERNMENT. 

The Argentine Republic is one of the five American Republics 
which have adopted the Federal Union of States as its form of 
government, the others being the United States of America, the 
United States of Brazil, the United Mexican States, and the United 
States of Venezuela. All the other American Republics have a unitary 
or centralized form of government. 

The constitution adopted May 1, 1853, modeled closely after that 
of the United States of America, provides for the usual three branches 
of government — the legislative, executive, and judicial. 

The legislative power is vested in the National Congress, consisting 
of the Senate and the Chamber of Deputies, the former with 30 mem- 
bers and the latter with 120. Senators are elected by the legislatures 
of the States, usually called " provinces," and in the federal district 
by a special body of electors, for a term of nine years, two senators 
being named for each province and two for the federal district. The 
Senate is, however, renewed by thirds every three years. Deputies 
are elected by direct popular vote, for a term of four years, in the 
proportion of one for every 33,000 inhabitants. The Chamber of 
Deputies is renewed by halves every two years. 

The President of the Republic, assisted by a cabinet of eight min- 
isters or secretaries of state, exercises the executive authority. The 
President and Vice-President are elected indirectly, as in the United 
States, by electors chosen by the people for that purpose, and for a 
term of six years. Neither the President nor the Vice-President may 
be elected for a second term immediately following their incumbency 
of the office. The Vice-President is the President of the Senate. 

The judiciary is composed of a national supreme court for courts 
of appeals and courts of first instance. Each province has its own 
judiciary. The supreme court is composed of five judges and the 
courts of appeals of three judges each, appointed by the President of 
the Republic. 

President Dr. José Figueroa Alcoeta. 

Minister of the Interior Dr. Marco Avellaneda. 

Minister of Foreign Affairs Dr. Victorino de la Plaza. 

Minister of the Treasury Dr. Manuel de Ieiondo. 

Minister of Justice and Public Instruction Dr. S. S. Naón, 

Minister of Public Works Dr. Exeqtjiel Ramos Mexí a. 

Minister of Agriculture Sr. Pedro Ezcurra. 

Minister of War Sr. General Rafael M. Aguirre. 

Minister of Marine Hear-Admiral Onofre Beteeder. 

Note. — List of cabinet officers corrected to July 20, 1909. 

The salary of the President is ^72,000 ($36,000) per annum. 

INTERIOR GOVERNMENT. 

The Argentine Republic is divided into 14 provinces, 10 territories, 
and 1 federal district, the provinces being autonomous in their in- 



AKGENTINE EEPUBLIC. 11 

terior government, while the executive authority in the territories is 
vested in a Governor appointed by the President of the Republic. 
The federal district is administered by an intendente, or mayor, who 
is likewise appointed by the President, and assisted by a municipal 
council elected by the people. 

The following are the political divisions of the Argentine Republic: 
Federal district of Buenos Aires, capital of the Republic. 
Province of — " Capital. 

Buenos Aires La Plata. 

Catamarca Catamarca. 

Cordoba Cordoba. 

Corrientes Corrientes. 

Entre Rios Parana. 

Jujuy Jujuy. 

Mendoza Mendoza. 

Rioja La Rioja. 

Salta Salta. 

San Juan San Juan. 

Santa Fe. Santa Fe. 

Santiago del Estero : Santiago del Estero. 

San Luis San Luis. 

Tucuman Tucuman. 

Territory of — 

Chaco Resistencia. 

Chubut Rawson. 

Formosa __-Formosa. 

Los Andes San Antonio de los Cobres. 

Misiones Posadas. 

Neuquen Cbos-Malal. 

Pampa Central General Acba. 

Rio Negro Viedma, 

Santa Cruz Puerto Gallegos. 

Tierra del Fuego Usbuaia. 

AKMY AND NAVY. 

Under a law enacted in 1901, military service in the Argentine 
Republic is compulsory. All able-bodied citizens must serve from 
their twentieth to their forty-fifth year, nominally for a period of 
twenty-five years, although the actual service rarely extends beyond 
one year. There are two reserve corps — the National Guard, com- 
prising all citizens between the ages of 28 and 40 years, and the 
Territorial Guard, composed of citizens over 40 years of age. Those 
under 28 and over 20 serve for one year with the colors. Naturalized 
citizens are exempt from military duty for a term of ten years after 
their naturalization. 

The Republic is divided into five military districts, each with a 
district commander. In case of mobilization each district must pro- 
vide two divisions, making a total of ten divisions of 12,000 men 
each. This does not include the National or Territorial Guards. 
























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ARGENTINE REPUBLIC. 



13 



On a peace footing the Argentine army consists of 1,560 officers 
and 16,000 men. 

Education of army officers is provided for at the Military College 
at San Martin, a short distance from Buenos Aires, where ample 
opportunities for a thorough training are afforded, while the Naval 




CAVALRYMAN, ARGENTINE REPUBLIC. 

The cavalry branch of Argentina's standing army consists of eleven regiments. The men are 
expert horsemen, and this branch of the national service appeals to them. The mounts are of 
small stature, strong, hardy, and high spirited, but very tractable. 

Academy, located in a beautiful park, in the suburb of Flores, pro- 
vides education for officers of the naval service. 

The Argentine navy consists of 4 armored cruisers of the first 
class, of 6,840 tons each, the San Martin^ General Belgrano^ PueyoTe- 



14 INTEENATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

don, and Garibaldi; 3 ironclads, the Almirante Brown, of 4,200 tons, 
the Libertad, and Independencia, of 2,300 tons each; 2 monitors, 
El Plata and Los Andes, of 1,535 tons each; 4 cruisers of the second 
class, the Buenos Aires, 9 de Julio, 25 de Mayo, and Patagonia^ of 
4,700, 3,560, 3,200, and 1,530 tons, respectively; also 3 destroyers, 2 
torpedo cruisers, 24 torpedo boats, 1 school-ship, 5 transports, and a 
number of auxiliary vessels. 

The officers of the navy number 493, including engineers, while 
the number of enlisted men varies from 5,000 to 6,000, according to 
the number of conscripts recruited annually. 

THE ARGENTINE REPUBLIC IN 1908. 

The 3^ear 1908 was one of steady progress and prosperity in the 
history of the Argentine Republic. Agriculture, which forms the 
basis of the nation's wealth, made signally prosperous returns; the 
wheat crop was the largest ever harvested; linseed exports made a 
new record ; and though maize suffered somewhat from the effects of 
drought, large shipments were reported, and in the status of oats on 
the export returns, a gain of 150 per cent was reported. The pastoral 
industries also made satisfactory returns, exports of frozen meats 
showing considerable advance over the preceding year, though ship- 
ments of live cattle still remain in an unsatisfactory condition. 

The producing capacity of the country is steadily increasing, and 
in cereal production its status is evidenced by the fact that as a corn 
exporter the Argentine Eepublic took first rank in 1908, occupying 
the place formerly held by the United States. In the production of 
this foodstuff the country ranks third, and as a wheat grower fifth. 
It is first as an exporter of frozen meat and second as a shipper of 
wool. 

In the number of its cattle the Republic holds third place among 
the nations, being ranked by India and the United States. Russia 
and the United States exceed it in number of horses, and Australia 
alone has a greater number of sheep. 

The large trade balance of the country is ample indication of the 
year's prosperity, exports showing a great advance over the preceding 
year and an excess, as compared with imports, of nearly $100,000,000. 
The decline in imports, as compared with 1907, is due largely to 
decreased receipts of railway material, of which the companies laid 
in large quantities prior to the operations of the Mitre law, which 
unified the privileges accorded to the corporations. 

Industrial advancement is indicated by the increased number of 
mills and factories in operation; immigration figures surpassed all 
previous records; railroad connections were extended; and financial 
conditions generally were satisfactory. 



AEGENTINE KEPUBLIC. 15 



FOREIGN AFFAIRS. 



Among the affairs of importance in the administration of the for- 
eign policies of the Government no event of the year takes rank over 
the general arbitration treaty with Brazil, which was promulgated in 
November. The Republic also participated in the Refrigeration 
Congress held in Paris in October, and the recommendations and 
reports of the Argentine delegates on pasteurization, shipment, and 
distribution of milk were well received. The dairy industry is at- 
tracting attention throughout the country, and Argentine butter is 
taking its place on the export lists of the country. 

Buenos Aires has been selected as the place of meeting for the next 
Congress of Americanists, adjourned in Vienna in September, 1908. 
The conference will be held in 1910, the year of the centennial cele- 
bration of the country's independence. 

The exposition of national industries, scheduled in connection with 
the centennial festivities, is to make a feature of transportation 
methods, all nations being invited to participate in a display of rail- 
way equipment and land transport generally. 

The same year and place has been selected for the Fourth Interna- 
tional Conference of the American Republics, for which active prep- 
arations are going forward throughout the republics interested. 

The work of the Carnegie Institute is to be continued in the Argen- 
tine Republic under the direction of Prof. Lewis Boss. The assist- 
ance rendered by the Argentine Government has greatly aided in 
the advancement of this work. 

Progress in matters of public utility during the year was very 
satisfactory. Numerous concessions granted were to increase existing 
railway lines, to supply new harbor accommodations at Buenos Aires, 
and for water and drainage works. 

FINANCE. 

The financial situation remains satisfactory, the national revenues 
being ample for the ordinary requirements, and the public debt 
service was promptly met without recourse to the credit available at 
the Argentine National Bank. At the close of the year the total lia- 
bilities of the Government were $378,500,000. The Province of 
Buenos Aires successfully floated a loan for the completion of a 
reclamation project by which a large area of arable land will become 
available. 

The report of the Minister of Finance showed treasury receipts for 
the year amounting to $112,000,000 derived from customs receipts and 
internal-revenue taxes. Import duties figured in the receipts to the 
extent of nearly $57,000,000, divided among Buenos Aires, Rosario, 
La Plata, and Bahia Blanca in the order named. All of these ports. 



16 INTERNATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

with the exception of Rosario, showed an increase in imports over 
1907. The expenditures reached a total of $103,000,000, leaving a 
surplus of $9,000,000. 

The budget for 1909 as approved by the National Congress pro- 
vides for expenditures of $25,907,777 gold and f=l 98,344,400, with 
estimated revenues of $67,820,433 and ^100,639,516. Bank deposits 
in the Republic on January 31, 1908, aggregated $23,538,215 and 
?=811, 026,530, while the cash on hand on the same date amounted to 
$47,570,137 and ^230,161,400. The Government gold reserve for the 
conversion of national currency amounted to $126,482,515.76, an in- 
crease of $21,368,644.26 over 1907. 

The capital of the Bank of the Argentine Nation was increased 
by a law authorizing the issue of bonds to the amount of $17,177,000 
gold, secured by the general revenues of the Republic. 

British capital continued to figure prominently in various enter- 
prises to the extent of £243,000,000, railways proving the principal 
attraction for investors, with government bonds in second place. 

COMMERCE. 

The Argentine Republic was one of the few countries of the world 
reporting advanced trade values for the year 1908, a gain of over 
$56,000,000 being reported. The immense grain crops of the year, 
which swelled the exports of the country, accounted for this gratify- 
ing result. The total valuation of the foreign commerce of the Re- 
public for 1908 was $638,978,077, as compared with $582,065,052 in 
1907. This increase is to be credited entirely to the side of exports, 
amounting to $366,005,341, as compared with $296,204,469 in 1907, 
a gain of $69,800,972; while imports worth $272,972,736 declined 
by $12,887,947, the figures for the previous year having been 
$285,860,683. Only for one year has the reported trade balance of 
$93,022,605 been exceeded, when in 1905 the exports were greater 
than imports by over $117,000,000. 

The countries of origin for imports during the year under review, 
with the respective valuations furnished by each in comparison with 
the preceding year, were as follows: Great Britain, $93,371,396, a 
decline of $4,564,347 ; Germany, $37,847,076, a decline of $7,964,094 ; 
United States, $35,597,004, a decline of $3,245,273; France, $26,- 
476,917, an advance of $1,008,891; Italy $24,913,248, an advance of 
$910,007; and Belgium, $12,753,373, a loss of $3,143,477. From the 
above figures it will be noted that the three ranking countries de- 
creased their sales, while the two next in order increased their ship- 
ments. Great Britain holds first place, with 34.2 per cent, while 
Germany and the United States follow, with 13.9 and 13.2 per cent, 
respectively. 



GREAT-BRITAIN 

BELGIUM 

GERMANY 

FKANCE. 

BRAZiIL^ 

UNITED STATES 

ITALY 

NETHEHLAKDS 

SPAÎU 

CANADA 

CHILE 

AUSTRIA-HCIWGflîîï 

URUGUAY 

BOLIVIA 

OTHERS- 



OTHERS 
BOLIVIA 
CHILE, 
PARAGUAY] 
NETHERLANDS 
URUGUAY 
AUSTEIA-HÜNGMY 
BRAZIL. 
SPAIM 
BELGIUM 
ITALY 
FRANCE 
"UNITED STñlESl 
GERMANY 

GEEAT BRITAIN! 




18 INTEENATIOISTAL, BUEEAU OF THE AMEEICAIST EEPUBLICS. 

A classification of the imports for the year gives textiles and manu- 
factured goods the first place with a total of $49,911,338, followed 
by transport appliances and vehicles, $30,700,337; iron and manu- 
factures of, $30,075,484; pottery, ceramics, etc., $24,897,435; food- 
stuffs, $23,549,097; building materials, $21,182,426; agricultural im- 
plements, $15,839,838; wines and liquors, $13,279,781; and mineral 
and vegetable oils, $11,051,723. A comparison of these figures with 
those for the previous year shows the following gains : Pottery and 
ceramics, $4,264,645 ; oils, $2,966,952 ; foodstuffs, $2,615,908 ; textiles, 
$2,563,830; metals (other than iron), $1,064,495; chemical and phar- 
maceutical products, $1,000,658; and wines and liquors, $646,042. 
On the other hand, a decline was noted in the following: Vehicles, 
$21,620,413 ; iron, etc., $3,085,655 ; agricultural implements, $2,701,731 ; 
and building materials, $1,837,967. 

A review of the export values, as compared with 1907, shows 
Great Britain to have received $78,324,723, a decline of $24,608,571 ; 
Belgium, $35,778,188, an advance of $6,186,055; Germany, 
$34,751,994, a decline of $1,671,062 ; France, $28,913,730, a decline of 
$8,848,316; Brazil, $15,095,578, an advance of $1,077,147; United 
States, $13,023,238, an advance of $2,082,802. ^Vhile Great Britain 
is credited with 21.4 per cent of the export values, it must also be 
borne in mind that 37 per cent of these figures represent grain ship- 
ments subject to distribution in accordance with subsequent orders, 
most of which finds a sale in British markets. Belgium follows 
with 9.8 per cent; Germany, 9.5; France, 7.9; Brazil, 4.1, and the 
United States, 3.6. 

A classification of the exports into six general divisions show agri- 
cultural products worth $241,677,164, a gain of $77,585,543 over 1907; 
live-stock products $115,118,457, a decline of $8,701,748 ; forest prod- 
ucts $6,347,234, an increase of $1,004,877 ; fish and game $498,612, an 
increase of $330,947. 

Exports of cereals showed a gain over 1907, wheat taking the lead 
with 3,636,294 tons, an increase of 955,492 tons ; corn coming second 
with 1,711,804 tons, an advance of 455,492 tons; linseed third with 
1,055,650 tons, or 291,914 tons more than the previous year, while 
oats, although fourth with 440,041 tons, showed a gain of 296,475 
tons over 1907. This is accounted for by the fact that the United 
States, owing to a short crop, was a large importer of Argentine oats, 
receipts being reported of 4,000,000 bushels in twelve months. Ar- 
gentine corn also figured in the country's trade lists for 200,000 bush- 
els. Wool exports showed an increase of 20,728 tons over 1907, the 
total shipments for the year amounting to 175,538 tons ; frozen beef 
reached a total of 180,915 tons, an increase of 42,593 tons; while 
in jerked beef there was a decline of 3,999 tons, amounting to only 



AEGENTINE REPUBLIC. 19 

6,650 tons in 1908. Hay showed a decrease of 14,799 tons, the ex- 
ports of this article reaching only 32,078 tons, while quebracho wood 
and quebracho extract amounted to 254,571 tons and 48,162 tons, re- 
spectively, an advance over the previous year of 8,057 and 19,967 tons. 
In shipments of hides there was a healthy increase, and of those ex- 
ported in 1908, the United States took 1,466,143, Germany 1,200,696, 
and Italy 654,716. Exports of sheepskins showed a gratifying in- 
crease, 76,371 bales being exported as against 59,260 in 1907, France 
was the principal consumer, taking 55,262 bales, and the United 
States 7,669. 

In pastoral products the following articles showed the increased 
valuations recorded: Frozen and chilled meats, $5,275,000; tanned 
sheepskins, $281,600; butter, $206,000; tallow and melted fat, 
$1,224,000 ; margarine, $205,000; goatskins, $300,000; bones, $296,000; 
while the following articles decreased in the amounts stated : Live ani- 
mals, $314,000; hair, $136,500; hides, $900,000; sheepskins, $2,600,- 
000; wool, $12,000,000; jerked beef, $405,000; meat extract, $411,000. 

The increased valuations noted for agricultural products were: 
Oats, $6,104,000; barley, $436,000; linseed, $12,923,483; maize, $11,- 
902,886; wheat, $46,114,863; flour, $436,400; bran, $146,500; and 
various seeds, $410,000. The only considerable decrease was $170,000 
in hay and $808,000 in canary seed. 

From investigation of the trade lists of other countries, it is found 
that five countries — Great Britain, Germany, Belgium, the Nether- 
lands, and Brazil — take more than 90 per cent of the Argentine ship- 
ments of wheat, flax, maize, and quebracho, other countries merely 
supplementing short crops or supplying temporary necessities. 

Shipments of live stock during the year comprised 4,032 steers, 
37,951 wethers, 3,487 horses, and 1,042 mules. Steers and wethers 
showed an increase of nearly 2,000 each, Brazil taking over one-half 
of the steers and Belgium practically all of the wethers. Horses de- 
creased by nearly 1,000 and mules by 14,500. South Africa and 
Brazil still lead in the import of Argentine horses, 1,255 and 1,228, 
respectively, being credited to the two countries. 

The Eepublic has done much to cement firmer trade relations with 
countries heretofore occupying unimportant positions on its trade list, 
as is shown by increased imports from Italy, Spain, Austro-Hungary, 
France, the Netherlands, and Chile. 

INDUSTRIES. 

The paramount importance of agriculture among the industries of 
the Republic is demonstrated by the trade returns for the year 1908. 
The production of cereals for the year was estimated at about 5,250>- 
000 tons. The crops for the year were : Wheat, 5,263,705 tons ; lin- 



20 INTEKjSTATIOjSTAL bureau of the AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

seed, 1,100,700 tons; and oats, 492,770 tons. Corn exports represent 
practically the entire crop of 1,711,804 tons. 

The general area of cereals under cultivation in 1908 was 39,500,000 
acres, the area under wheat, linseed, and maize and oats being 15,- 
000,000, 3,835,000, 7,434,000, 1,393,000 acres, respectively. 

The agricultural area under cultivation in 1908, as compared with 
1895, has increased 216 per cent. A large portion of this increase is 
due to the increase in the cultivation of wheat, the area of which 
shows an increase of 195 per cent as compared with 1895. During 
the same period the linseed area increased 295 per cent, and the maize 
area 138 per cent. A phenomenal increase is noted in the cultivation 
of oats. The cultivation of alfalfa has also largely increased during 
the past decade, and it is estimated that the 1,782,000 acres of alfalfa 
under cultivation in 1895 increased to over 10,000,000 in 1908. Viti- 
culture has also largely increased, and the area now under this culti- 
vation is estimated at 140,000 acres. 

Under careful government regulation and the application of the 
latest and most approved scientific methods the Republic maintained 
its place among the countries of the world engaged in stock raising. 
This is especially true with regard to cattle, as the last returns from 
seven provinces showed $536,800,000 invested in this industry. A re- 
cent agricultural and pastoral census of the Republic showed live 
stock in the following quantities : Cattle, 29,116,625 ; horses, 7,531,376 ; 
mules, 465,037; donkeys, 285,088; sheep, 67,211,754; goats, 3,245,086; 
and hogs, 1,403,591, representing a total valuation of $645,000,000. 
Annual expositions of live stock held at Palermo, in the vicinity of 
the capital, show a constant improvement in breeding and selection 
of stock, and the promulgation of the executive decree of May 8, 1908, 
enforcing rigid quarantine regulations in regard to imported live 
stock, clearly indicates the attitude of the Government in the protec- 
tion of one of the country's principal industries. 

The Republic now occupies first place among the countries of the 
world as a purveyor of frozen meat, though the industry is as yet 
practically in its infancy, and with the cheapest and most excellent 
raw material in the world at hand in inexhaustible quantities it will 
undoubtedly reach proportions greatly in excess of the present. This 
industry in 1907 represented over $35,000,000 and gave employment 
in various establishments to nearly 5,000 workmen. In the beef- 
salting factories of the River Plate region the cattle slaughtered num- 
bered 1,426,800 in 1908. Uruguay furnished 754,300 ; Brazil, 425,000 ; 
and the Argentine Republic, 247,500. This field has attracted the 
attention of United States capitalists, and the packing interests are 
said to be investing large sums in Argentine establishments. 

The sugar output, of which the Province of Tucuman is the pro- 
ducing center, amounted to nearly 120,000 tons which, although 



AKGEÎÎTINE EEPUBLIC. 21 

not entirely satisfactory, showed a considerable increase over ¡previous 
years. Domestic consumption is 140,000 tons necessitating importa- 
tions to the extent of some 20,000' tons to meet the demands of the 
home market. The wine industry, at the beginning of 1908, repre- 
sented capital aggregating $59,000,000 with an average annual output 
of 1,890,000 hectoliters valued at $12,500,000. This industry also is 
as yet in its infancy. In the Provinces of Mendoza and San Juan 
the vintage for the past year was placed at 1,200,000 barrels. 

The recent industrial census taken in the Republic showed tobacco 
manufacturing to be one of the most prosperous and flourishing in- 
dustries of the country, occupying third place. The bulk of the im- 
ported leaf is used in the manufacture of fine cigars and cigarettes, 
the tobacco grown in the country being employed largely for smoking 
tobacco. During the five years, from 1903 to 1907, inclusive, imports 
of tobacco aggregated 10,468 tons, of which 2,925 tons were imported 
in 1907. There are 77 tobacco factories in the country, of which 46 
belong to foreigners. These represent an investment of $3,440,272 
and a yearly output valued at $12,783,158. 

Nearly $7,000,000 were spent during the year in importations of 
textile goods, the twine and sacking used in harvesting figuring 
largely in the total. Much of the material heretofore imported can 
be produced to advantage in the country where the large areas of 
easily accessible and fertile lands should attract capitalists and 
stimulate the cultivation of fibrous plants, thus giving an impetus 
to an industry of great profit to the country. This matter has 
already been taken up in a small way in the town of Brugo, Province 
of Entre Rios, where the manufacture of twine, cord, and sacking 
has been commenced. The article produced competes advantageously 
with the products of foreign looms. 

Progress in silk culture, another of the infant industries of the 
Republic, for the year 1908, while not entirely satisfactory, is full of 
hope for the future. The raw material produced has been pro- 
nounced by European experts to be of excellent quality, and the 
Government assists in spreading a knowledge of the possibilities of 
this industry. A total of 11,500,000 mulberry trees is reported in 
the Republic, of which Santa Fé has 5,200,000, Cordoba 4,500,000, 
Entre Rios 1,500,000, and other provinces 250,000. 

At the beginning of 1908 the wheat milling industry showed a 
total of 350 establishments of which 47 commenced operation during 
the previous year. As a result of the modern methods employed in 
most of the mills the yield of flour increased from 64.5 per cent in 
1895 to 68.3 in 1907. 

The cultivation of maté is being fostered by the Government, 
and 50,000 plants have been purchased for distribution to settlers on 
easy terms with full instructions as to their cultivation. 



22 



INTERNATIONAL BUEEAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



Many causes contribute to the noticeable lack of interest shown in 
the exploitation of the mineral resources of the Eepublic, chief of 
which are lack of available capital, difficulties of transportation, and 
the high price of fuel. Official statistics show gold exports from 1903 
to 1907 to have reached a total of $1,910,912, or a yearly average of 
about $382,000. Copper figured prominently in the mineral produc- 
tions and marble showed a steady increase from 1895 to 1901, after 
which it remained stationary. Salt is mined in quantities insufficient 
for local consumption and other mineral deposits exploited in a 
small way. The future of this branch of industry is bright, however, 




WHEAT AWAITING TRANSPORTATION, ARGENTINE REPUBLIC. 

The production of wheat in the Republic is about five and a half million tons a year, of which 
over four million tons are exported, mostly to Europe. 

as many of the precious metals abound in the Republic, requiring only 
the necessary capital to develop them and add to the resources of the 
nation. 

Industrial companies and public-utility corporations reported a 
prosperous year ; capital so employed represented an aggregate invest- 
ment of $133,199,631, with a total yearly output of $267,322,462 and a 
working force of 118,315 workmen. 

The most important industrial enterprises, other than agricultural 
and pastoral, from the point of view of capital, are meat packing and 
refrigerating plants, $31,136,973 ; breweries, $16,950,000 ; flour mills, 
$11,357,022 ; paper mills, $6,489,000. 

Of the public-utility corporations in the capital, the seven street- 
railway companies represented a total mileage of 608 kilometers, with 



ARGENTINE REPUBLIC. 23 

5,778 operatives and 1,665 cars. The city lighting represented an 
output of 28,105,103 kilowatts of current, and for private consump- 
tion three gas companies furnished 37,000,000 cubic meters of gas. 
The royalties accruing to the municipality of Buenos Aires for the 
last quarter of 1908 from the German electric company amounted to 
$181,245 on a basis of 6 per cent for the period indicated. Other 
public utilities in contemplation are an underground railroad, the 
enlargement of the port of Buenos Aires by the construction of a 
deep-water canal to connect with the Parana de las Palmas Biver, to 
cost $47,000,000, and a custom-house at Buenos Aires to be erected 
at an expense of $1,650,000. 

Real-estate transfers recorded during the year amounted to $98,- 
811,621, as compared with $88,627,961 in 1907, while mortgage trans- 
actions covered 6,577 properties, representing 3,844,059 square meters, 
held as security for loans aggregating $42,246,289. 

Land companies in the Republic had a prosperous year, as is shown 
by their yearly reports. 

The public domain of the Republic in March, 1907, was 203,798,650 
acres available for settlement and which the Government holds at $1 
per hectare. 

RAILWAYS. 

The Argentine Republic is practically covered with a network of 
railways, which extend in every direction and connect the capital 
with all points north and south, and the ports of Bahia Blanca, 
Rosario, Parana, Santa Fe, and San Nicolas with the interior. 
The railway extending north from Buenos Aires via Rosario, Santa 
Fe, Tucuman, Salta, and Jujuy connects with the Bolivian Railway, 
and will, when completed, establish direct communication with the 
capital of Bolivia. The Buenos Aires and Pacific Railway, between 
Buenos Aires and Mendoza, makes connection with the Transandino 
Railway at the latter point, which railway, when completed, will 
establish the much-needed railway connection between Chile and 
Argentina. 

At present there are in operation in the country 15,476 miles of rail- 
ways, representing a capitalization of over $788,964,416. Nearly 1,000 
miles were added in 1908. Receipts from operating roads during the 
year are estimated at $101,391,000 and expenses at $61,368,000, leav- 
ing a profit to the companies interested of $40,023,000. The number 
of passengers carried was 48,593,600, and freight transported 
amounted to 31,930,600 tons. 

The majority of these lines are owned and operated by private 
companies, although three of the lines, viz, the Central Norte, Argen- 
tino del Norte, and the Andine railways, are owned and operated by 
the Argentine Government. These last have a total mileage of 1,838 
miles. 



24 INTEENATIONAL BUEEAU OF THE AMEEICAN EEPUBLICS. 

Buenos Aires, the capital, is the center of the Argentine railway 
system, and from this city, trunk lines extend to the city of Rosario, 
186 miles ; to the city of San Juan, capital of the Province of San Juan, 
745 miles, which line also connects with the city of Mendoza, tapping 
the fertile wine district, as well as with the Transandine Railway ; to 
the city of Cordoba, the capital of the province of the same name, 
known as the city of churches and universities, a distance of 433 miles. 
Another trunk line extends from Buenos Aires in a southwesterly 
direction, connecting all the more important points in the Province of 
Buenos Aires with the capital, and extending into the Territories of 
Neuquen and Pampa, Y85 miles long. 

From Rosario a trunk line extends to the cities of Salta and Jujuy, 
in the extreme north, connecting at Tucuman, the center of the sugar 
industry, with a total length of 810 miles. This line runs through 
the grain belt of the Argentine Republic, of which Rosario may 
be called the center, handling the largest percentage of the grain 
exports, and second only to Buenos Aires in its total foreign trade. 
From Corrientes, the capital of the province of the same name, a rail- 
way, 330 miles in length, extends in a southeasterly direction through 
the Province of Corrientes and the fertile region of the Province of 
Entre Rios, as far as the cities of Concordia and Gualeguaychu, a 
branch line connecting with the city of Parana, on the Parana River. 

The progressive spirit of the nation is shown by the fact that 
during the past year Congress granted concessions for the construc- 
tion of new railway lines representing nearly 3,125 miles of railway, 
the building of which will involve an expenditure of nearly 
$25,000,000, and for which the President has been authorized to issue 
bonds. Existing lines were extended and connections established via 
Rosario with the northern limits of the Province of Santa Fe, and a 
French company has begun work on a line to connect with the rail- 
road between Rosario and Point Belgrano, which will tap a rich sec- 
tion of land suitable for agriculture and stock raising. To the south 
also the work of extending existing mileage showed progress, and the 
appointment of two committees for the survey of new railroad lines 
in that direction gave ample assurance that the Government was fully 
alive to the immense possibilities of Patagonia, Improvement of 
fluvial navigation also figured in the government project for the bet- 
terment of the national transport, an appropriation of $3,850,000 
having been made for that purpose. 

STEAMSHIPS. 

The principal port in the Argentine Republic, at which most of the 
foreign vessels enter and clear, is the port of Buenos Aires, while 
Rosario de Santa Fé is the second in size. Bahia Blanca and La 



ARGENTINE REPUBLIC. 25 

Plata, in the Province of Buenos Aires, are also accessible for ocean- 
going vessels and have considerable import and export trade. 

Five steamship lines ply between ports of the United States and 
Buenos Aires, viz, the Lamport & Holt Steamship Company, the 
Prince Line, the Norton Line, the Houston Line, and the United 
States and River Plate Steamship Company. Of these only the first- 
named company has a regular passenger service between New York 
and Buenos Aires, steamers leaving New York once a month, making 
the run in twenty-four to twenty-six days. The other four lines have 
only foreign boats, with limited passenger accommodation in this 
service, leaving New York or New Orleans at irregular intervals, and 
occupying from twenty-eight to forty days in the voyage. First- 
class passage on the Lamport and Holt steamers ranges from $190 to 
$250 one way, while the rates on the other four steamship lines vary 
from $125 to $160. ^ 

An excellent service, for both passengers and freight, is, however, 
maintained with all European ports, there being three Italian, two 
French, two English, two German, one Spanish, and Danish line with 
regular weekly or biweekly service between the ports of Genoa, 
Bordeaux, Marseilles, Liverpool, Hamburg, Bremen, Barcelona, etc., 
and Buenos Aires. These steamers take from fifteen to twenty- 
five days for the trip, the passenger rates varying from $135 to $250 
one way. The Royal Mail Steamship Company and the Hamburg 
South American Steamship Company have the fastest and most ele- 
gantly equipped steamers in this service, and usually take from six- 
teen to eighteen days between Southampton and Buenos Aires, while 
the Italian liners make the run from Genoa to Buenos Aires in about 
the same time. 

The Pacific Steam Navigation Company's passengers are trans- 
shipped at Montevideo (whence these steamers proceed directly to 
the West Coast) , at which port the White Star Line's steamers also 
touch, establishing communication with Australia and New Zealand. 

With Rio de Janeiro and all Brazilian ports connection is made 
by the Lloyd Brazileiro steamers, while the Hamburg South Ameri- 
can Company has established a regular line of steamers, flying the 
Argentine flag, between Buenos Aires and all points south as far as 
Puerto Gallegos. 

Three lines of steamers ply between Buenos Aires and Montevideo, 
making the run in one night, and regular service is maintained by the 
Mihanovich line, recentl}^ acquired by an English syndicate, between 
Buenos Aires and points on the Parana, Uruguay, and Paraguay 
River as far as Asuncion, the capital of Paraguay, five days being 
required for the entire trip. 
560— Bull. 1—09 3 



26 INTERNATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

The shipping for the year showed arrivals of vessels numbering 
2,232, representing a total tonnage of 4,888,741 tons, which as com- 
pared with 1907 is an increase in steam tonnage of 998,978 tons, and 
of sailing veFsels 10,931 tons. Of this total tonnage the United States 
was credited with 4,074 tons, represented by four small sailing 
vessels. 

WATERWAYS. 

The Argentine Republic has been endowed by nature with a num- 
ber of excellent waterways, some of which form the means of trans- 
portation and communication for several provinces, and connection 
with Paraguay and Bolivia, as well as with Uruguay and the interior 
of Brazil. 

There are a number of interior ports, such as Concordia, Concep- 
ción del Uruguay, Corrientes, La Paz, San Nicholas, Parana, Santa 
Fe, and Campana, all of which afford good anchorage for ocean- 
going vessels. 

Among the rivers are the Uruguay, navigable^ up to the city of 
Concordia for large steamers; the Parana, navigable for ships of 
12 feet draft as far as the city of Corrientes; the Paraguay, navi- 
gable for vessels of 12 feet draft as far as the city of Asuncion, in 
Paraguay, and for light-draft vessels almost in its entire length of 
1,800 miles; while the Pilcomayo and the Bermejo are both navigable 
for short distances. 

The Rio Negro is likewise navigable for vessels of light draft for 
a considerable length, as are the Chubut, Senguer, Deseado, Rio Chico, 
Santa Cruz, and Gallegos rivers. These afford the means of trans- 
portation for the southern provinces and territories. 

Five companies operating river steamers establish communication 
between the different ports and cities on the Paraguay, Uruguay, and 
Parana River, as well as on the estuary of the mighty La Plata, 
or River Plate, formed by the confluence of these three rivers, which 
is 150 miles wide at its mouth in the Atlantic Ocean near Montevideo, 
and extends for some 200 miles inland, narrowing down to only 35 
miles wide, where the Parana and Uruguay empty into it. 

A number of picturesque lakes are to be found in the southern jjart 
of the country, among which Lake Nahuel Huapi, which has a total 
area of 309 square miles and on which there are 26 little islands. 
Other lakes of importance are San Martin, Viedma, and Argentino, 
all of which are notable for their scenic beauty, and are navigable 
for small craft. 

Among the port improvements in contemplation by the Govern- 
ment are included the widening of the channel at Rosario, the con- 
struction of a ship canal at Buenos Aires, irrigation works on the 
Tercero River, and the construction of a port at the mouth of the 



AEGENTINE KEPUBLIC. 27 

Quequen Grande Kiver. In addition to the foregoing, Congress has 
authorized a special loan of $420,000 for dredging the Gualeguaychu 
River and $175,000 for the construction of a road bridge over the 
Tunuyan River. 

POSTS AND TELEGRAPHS. 

The postal service of the country at the close of 1908 included 
2,377 offices, handling mail matter aggregating 705,000,000 pieces 
and parcels to the number of 2,020,000, and showed receipts amount- 
ing to $8,328,988.67, an increase of 7 per cent over 1907. The tele- 
graph system at the end of the same year showed a mileage of 15,900 
miles, transmitted 10,840,000 messages over 30,500 miles of wire, gave 
employment to 9,457 persons, and showed receipts amounting to 
$2,476,140.11. New lines covered 240 miles, and the Government is 
ãt present considering the laying of a direct cable line with Europe. 
The erection of new buildings for the use of the postal and telegraph 
systems as contemplated by the Government in the Province of San 
Juan involved an expenditure of ^250,000 and ?=50,000 is to be spent 
for the extension of existing telegraph lines in that district. 

The Argentine Government has established a number of wireless 
stations along the coast, which have been operated with flattering- 
success. 

The tide of immigration still flows toward the Republic. The 
figures for 1908 showed 303,112 arrivals, an increase of 46,607 over 
the preceding twelve months. Five pastoral colonies are to be laid 
out by the Government, under agreement with a German syndicate, 
in the territory of Santa Cruz, of which a proportion will be reserved 
for immigrant families to be introduced directly from Germany by 
the company. 

EDUCATION. 

Public instruction in the Argentine Republic is divided into three 
classes— primary, secondary, and higher education. Primary educa- 
tion is compulsory and free for children between 6 and 14 years of 
age. There are 5,250 public schools for primary instruction in the 
Argentine Republic maintained by the Federal Government, aside 
from the numerous schools supported by the provinces. The schools 
in the capital and in the territories are under the supervision of a 
National Council of Education, which occupies a handsome building 
in the city of Buenos Aires. 

Secondary education is not compulsory, but it is practically free, 
there being only a small fee charged for registration, etc. Sixteen 
lyceums and 35 normal schools, situated in all the larger cities of the 
Republic, provide for secondary or preparatory education. 

The national universities at Cordoba and Buenos Aires and the 
provincial universities at La Plata, Santa Fe, and Parana provide 



28 



INTERNATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



higher education, with faculties for law and social sciences, medicine, 
exact, physical, and natural sciences, and philosophy and literature. 
A National School of Commerce, situated in the city of Buenos 
Aires, instructs expert accountants and translators, while a School 
of Mines (in the city of San Juan), the Agrarian and Veterinary 
School at Santa Catalina (Province of Bueno:s Aires), the Viticul- 
tural School at Mendoza, the National School of Pilots, and the com- 
mercial schools at Cordoba and Bahia Blanca are either maintained 
or subsidized by the National Government. 




PRESIDENT MITRE SCHOOL, BUENOS AIRES, ARGENTINE REPUBLIC. 

This commodious and well-equipped edifice was specially constructed by the Federal Government for 
use of the primary and grammar grades. The public school system of Buenos Aires is under the 
control of a school board, and primary instruction is obligatory. 

A number of scholars from each province are annually sent abroad 
at the expense of the Government to complete their studies at the 
various colleges and universities of the United States, England, Ger 
many, France, and Italy, there being at the present time 30 of 
these students in the various universities and colleges of the United 
States. 

Numerous private schools established in every section of the 
country also provide educational advantages. 

The Industrial School of Buenos Aires, which has recently re- 
moved to new and extensive quarters, is also maintained by the 
National Government. It has elaborate workshops, and provides 



AKGENTINE REPUBLIC. 29 

for the teaching of all trades and crafts, being equipped with all the 
necessary machinery and appliances. 

The National Conservatory of Music and the School of Drawing, 
as well as the School of Art, are other institutions enjoying the 
official support of the Argentine Government, while a number of 
libraries are open to the public. The National Museum of History, 
the Museum of Fine Arts, and the Museum of Natural History at 
Buenos Aires and the famous Museum of La Plata are other interest- 
ing institutions. 

The Government maintains agricultural stations at Tucuman, Bella 
Vista, San Juan, and Terna. A well-kept botanical garden, situated 
in the Park of Palermo, Buenos Aires, affords opportunity for the 
study of horticulture, and the Zoological Garden, in which can be 
found representatives of all species of animals from all parts of the 
globe, is one of the most popular resorts of the people of Buenos Aires. 

Numerous literary, scientific, industrial, commercial, and agricul- 
tural societies exist throughout the country, some of which publish 
bulletins containing valuable information and arrange lectures and 
debates, while others, such as the Sociedad Rurale^ hold annual 
expositions, attended by all the well-to-do Argentinians, and forming 
a social event of the year. 

The press is well represented in the Republic, there being several 
newspai3ers printed in even the smallest towns, while in the city of 
Buenos Aires there are 472 publications of all kinds, 66 of which are 
dailies, 16 triweeklies, 44 biweeklies, 191 weeklies, and 64 monthlies, 
others being irregularly issued. The press of the city of Buenos 
Aires is the most polyglot of any city in the world, there being 
412 publications in the language of the country (Spanish), 22 in 
Italian, 8 in French, 8 in English, 8 in German, and 1 in Arabic. The 
Danish, Norwegian, Swedish, Basque, Russian, Dutch, etc., colonies 
all have their resj)ective organs. 

"Z(2 Prensa,'''' a Buenos Aires daily, holds high rank among the 
world's publications. Next in importance is " La Nación,^'' founded in 
the year 1870 by the famous Argentine statesman, Don Batolome 
Mitre, while "i^Z Diario " is the principal evening paper. Other 
Spanish papers of importance are "^Z Pais,'''' '"''La Razón^'' '"''La Argen- 
tina,''' '•'•Tribuna,'' ''El Tiempo," ''El Puello," etc. The largest Eng- 
lish dailies are " The Standard," " The Buenos Aires Herald," and 
" The Southern Cross." Among the English weeklies " The Review 
of the River Plate " and " The Times of Argentina " are the more 
important, both of these being devoted to the shipping and financial 
interests of the country. Among the weeklies printed in Spanish, 
"Caras y Caretas " deserves especial mention, being, as it is, an en- 
tirely unique production, which is extremely popular in Argentina, 
with a circulation of about 80,000. "La Ilustración Sud-Ameri- 
cana,'" a handsomely illustrated monthly, is one of the best produc- 



30 



INTEENATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMEEICAN EEPUBLICS. 



tions of its kind, while "Za Revista de Derecho^ Historia y Letras " is 
a literary production of the highest order. 




A PRIVATE RESIDENCE OP BUENOS AIRES. 

Buenos Aires is noted for the beauty of private residences. Wealthy landowners and ranchers of the 
interior spend a large portion of the year in the capital, and to a large extent business manage- 
ment of the country is concentrated in this city, which is embellished, in consequence, with 
magnificent and costly private homes. 

The Centennial Exposition to be held in Buenos Aires in 1910 will 
give the world an opportunity to observe at close range the vast pos- 
sibilities of the country as well as its purchasing power. 




GRAND STAND, RACE COURSE, BUENOS AIRES. 




BOLIVIA 




The Eepublic of Bolivia, the third largest of the South American 
Republics, is one of the two countries on the American continent 
which possess no seacoast. Completelj^ surrounded by the Repub- 
lics of Peru, Chile, Argentina, Paraguay, and Brazil it extends over 
709,000 square miles, equal to the combined area of Washington, 
Oregon, California, Nevada, Utah, Idaho, and Arizona. It has 
a population of 2,267,935, or 3.2 per square mile, as against 23.2 
per square mile in the United States of America, and is the most 
sparsely populated of any of the American Republics. The vast 
plateau which extends in length over 500 miles, at an average altitude 
of 12,000 feet above sea level, and on which are situated most of the 
larger cities of the Republic, is the most noted topographical feature 
of the country. 

The mountains of Bolivia abound in mineral wealth, tin, silver, 
gold, copper, etc., and these form the principal products of export. 
Coffee, cacao, tobacco, sugar cane, and other crops are successfully 
cultivated. The forests contain numerous species of valuable woods, 
best known of which are the hevea hrasiliensis and the castilloa 
elástica^ from which india rubber is gathered; the erythroxylon 
coca^ the leaves of which are used for medicinal purposes; and the 
well-known cinchona tree, the bark of which is used for the manufac- 
ture of quinine. 

HISTORICAL SKETCH. 

PizARKO having conquered the Inca Empire, invaded the territory 
of what is now Bolivia in 1532, finding there a race of peaceable In- 
dians, whom he subdued with comparative ease. He divided the 
country between his brothers, Hernando and Gonzalo Pizarro, who 
soon enforced the customary system of " encomiendas," whereby a 
certain number of Indian slaves was granted to each settler, and 
these unfortunates made to labor for the benefit of their oppressor. 
When the rich silver mines were discovered the country was rapidly 
settled by numerous adventurers, but so cruel and exacting became 
the settlers in their greed for gold and silver that the Indians re- 
volted, and in the year 1870, led by Tupac Amaru, the last descendant 
of the Incas, killed the Spanish authorities and drove some of the 
settlers out of the country. They were, however, ultimately over- 
come, and Tupac Amaru and all of his family executed in the most 
barbarous manner. 

The first and the last blood spent in the struggle of the Spanish 
colonies against Spain for independence was shed on Bolivian soil. 

31 



32 



INTERNATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



This contest began on March 25, 1809, when the inhabitants of La Paz 
deposed the Spanish authorities, and ended when independence was 
finally achieved in the year 1825 through the combined efforts of 
Bolivar, San Martin, and Sucre. 

The battle of Aj^acucho, December 9, 1824, in which the Spanish 
forces were almost annihilated, practically decided the fate of Bolivia, 
and on April 1, 1825, General Sucre completely routed the last 
Spanish forces in Upper Peru (Bolivia), compelling them to abandon 
the country. 

A constitutional congress met at Chuquisaca on August 6, 1825, and, 
declaring that upper Peru should thereafter be free and independent, 
adopted the name of Bolivia, in honor of Gen. Simón Bolivar, the 
liberator. The constitution, which had been drafted by Bolivar, was 
adopted w^ith some amendments and formally proclaimed on Novem- 
ber 19, 1826, General Sucre being elected 
President for a term of two years. He was 
succeeded by General Santa Cruz, who, in the 
year 1835, involved Bolivia in the first war 
with Chile, Avliich ended in 1838. Bolivia was 
not, however, to enjoy peace for any length of 
time, for under the Presidency of General 
Daza, in the year 1879, war again broke out 
with the Eepublic of Chile, being formally 
declared by Bolivia on April 5, 1879. A 
treaty of peace was signed between the two 
countries on November 24, 1884, whereby 
Bolivia ceded to Chile the Province of Anto- 
fogasta. On March 21, 1905, a further treaty was negotiated between 
the two countries, whereby Chile agreed to build a railway from the 
port of Arica to the city of La Paz, the capital of Bolivia, which will 
become an important outlet for the products of Bolivia. 

On November 17, 1903, Bolivia ceded to Brazil the territory of the 
Acre for a consideration of $10,000,000. This sum is now being 
invested by Bolivia in railways and other public works. 

Dr. Fernando E. Guachalla was elected President for the term 
beginning August 6, 1904, but died before he could assume the duties 
of the office, and José Ismael Montos was designated by Congress to 
retain the position pending a new election. Dr. Eliodoro Villazón 
was elected to assume the office on August 6, 1909. 




sr. Don eliodoro viluazon, 
President of Bolivia. 



constitution and government. 



Under the constitution, which was promulgated on October 17, 
1880, the Eepublic of Bolivia adopted the democratic representative 
form of government, the people delegating their power to three dis- 



BOLIVIA. 33 

tinct and coordinate branches of government — legislative, executive, 
and judicial. 

The Legislature consists of two houses, the Senate and the Chamber 
of Deputies, the former consisting of 16 and the latter of 72 members. 
Senators are elected for six years and deputies for four years, but 
both houses are renewed every two years, the Senate by thirds and the 
Chamber of Deputies by halves. Both senators and deputies are 
elected by direct vote of the people. 

The President and two Vice-Presidents are elected for a term of 
four years and may not be reelected for the term immediately follow- 
ing the incumbency of their respective offices. 

The judiciary consists of one national supreme court composed of 
seven judges, the superior district courts (one in each department), 
the provincial courts, and parochial courts. 

President Dr. Eliodoro Yillazón. 

First Vice-President, President of tlie Senate Dr. Macario Pinilla. 

Second Vice-President Dr. J. Misael Saracho. 

Minister of Foreign Affairs Sr. Benedicto Goytía. 

Minister of Development and Promotion Dr. José Carrasco. 

Minister of Treasury and Industry Dr. A. Diez de Medina. 

Minister of Justice and Public Instruction Dr. D. Sanchez Bustamente. 

Minister of Colonization and Agriculture Dr. Isaac Aranibar. 

Note. — List of cabinet officers corrected to July 20, 1909. 

The salary of the president is Bs 18,000 per annum ($7,200). 

INTERIOR GOVERNMENT. 

For administrative purposes the country is divided into eight 
Departments, which are again divided into provinces, the latter into 
cantones or districts, and these again into municipalities. 

The Departments are governed by a prefect, appointed by the 
President of the Bepublic for a term of four years, while the prov- 
inces are governed by a subprefect, also appointed by the President 
for a term of four years, as are the other authorities. A consejo 
municipal or municipal board is elected by the people for each 
municipal district or town, to assist the authorities appointed by the 
President. 

The following are the Departments of Bolivia and their respective 
capitals : 

Department of — Capital. 

Beni Trinidad. 

Chuquisaca Sucre. 

Cochabamba Cochabamba. 

La Paz La Paz. 

Potosí Potosí. 

Oruro Oruro. 

Santa Cruz Santa Cruz. 

Tarija Tarija. 



34 INTERNATIONAL BUREAU OE THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

The largest city and commercial center of Bolivia is the city of La 
Paz, with a population of 80,000. Other cities with a population of 
over 20,000 are Sucre, Cochabamba, Santa Cruz, and Oruro. 

BOLIVIA IN 1908. 

Bolivia's economic advance under President Montes, whose term 
of office expired in 1908, was noteworthy and the continuance of his 
enlightened policies seems secured under the administration of Presi- 
dent YiLLAzÓN. Cordial relations were maintained with the nations 
of the Old and New "World, and satisfactory conditions characterized 
the commercial and industrial position of the country. 

FOREIGN AFFAIRS. 

In July, a commercial treat}'' with Germany was arranged providing 
for reciprocal favored nation treatment in all matters relating to 
import, export, and transit conditions. The treaty is to remain in 
effect for ten years unless denounced within a specified period. Other 
international pacts entered into are a commercial treaty with Great 
Britain, an extradition treaty with Belgium, and adherence by the 
Government to the International Telegraphic Convention of St. 
Petersburg, through all of which important advantages were ob- 
tained. 

The evidence in the boundary question with Peru has been sub- 
mitted, and the arbitral award in the case made by the Argentine 
President. The convention of January 30, 1908, regulating trade in 
transit through Peru is now in force, a custom-house at the Peruvian 
port of Moliendo having been constructed solely for the use of 
Bolivian trade. 

The work of delimiting the frontier with Brazil made satisfactory 
progress, and the development of closer relations with that republic 
is to be fostered through the conclusion of a commercial treaty. 

New regulations to the great advantage of Bolivian traffic have 
been made for the transit trade through Argentine territory. A con- 
sequent stimulus to business between the two countries will result. 

In recapitulating the results of the last presidential period no fact 
is more noteworthy than the provision made for the outlet of Boliv- 
ian products both on the Pacific and Atlantic through treaties and 
conventions made and projected with the neighboring Republics of 
Chile, Peru, Brazil, and the Argentine. 

FINANCE. 

The budget for the year 1908 showed revenues of $8,000.000 and 
expenses of $9,000,000, leaving a deficit of $1,000,000. The revenues 
for 1909 are estimated at $6,283,000. 



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36 INTERNATIONAL BUEEAXJ OF THE AMERICAN EEPUBLTCS. 

Bolivia has in effect adopted tlie pound sterling as the monetary 
basis, the boliviano being valued at 19^d. Since the year 1905 the 
pound sterling has been current at this rate, now fixed by law. Mone- 
tary reform made further progress in 1908 through another act of 
Congress which declared silver currencj^ simply an adjunct of gold, 
reserved to the Government the right to coin silver for circulation to 
the extent of 4,000,000 hoUvianos. The Government secured a loan 
of $2,500,000, the proceeds of which were used in the payment of the 
internal debt, the installation of machinery in the mint, and the erec- 
tion of public buildings. A special sinking fund amounting to 
603,300 bolivianos annually was created to meet the interest and 
amortization of the bonds. Under decree of the Government the 
exportation of gold coins free of duty was permitted and a further 
decree fixed the proportion of customs duties payable in gold, assess- 
ing the value of the Peruvian pound when tendered in settlement 
of these duties at 12.50 hoUvianos. 

On December 31, 1908, the five principal banks of Bolivia had 
silver coin on hand to the value of $516,600. 

COMMERCE. 

For the past four years Bolivia has enjoyed a period of steadily 
increasing commercial activity. AVhile the aggregate of transactions 
for 1908 did not reach the proportions of the previous year, the trade 
balance remained still in favor of the Republic. The trade volume 
totaled $33,837,000, exports amounting to $17,514,000 and imports 
to $16,323,000. Although these figures as compared with 1907 
showed a decline of $1,454,600, the gain in imports was a notable 
feature of the year's transactions. The fact that, despite the de- 
crease in value of its own products in foreign markets and resultant 
falling off in its exports, Bolivia was able to increase its purchasing 
power by over $1,000,000 may be taken as ample evidence of its 
economic development. 

Tin, the most important item on the list, was shipped abroad to the 
value of $13,800,000, a decline of $156,400 as compared with the pre- 
vious year. Silver shipments showed an increase of $209,400, reach- 
ing a total of $2,802,000. Rubber shipments showed a decline 
amounting to nearly 50 per cent, the valuation for 1908 being given as 
$1,962,000, an indicated loss of $1,574,000. The amount shipped in 
1908 was 1,640 tons, approximately 830 tons going to Great Britain, 
485 to Germany, 165 to Belgium, 120 to France, and 25 to the United 
States. Exports of copper showed a decrease of $531,700; bismuth, 
$123,200; while gold showed a gain of $20,000. 

Bolivia's imports from the United States showed a total of $687,307 
as compared with $1,502,622 for the previous year. This decline, 



BOLIVIA. 37 

however, may be attributed to a natural result of world-wide economic 
conditions, from which conditions the figures for imports in January, 
1909 ($98,000), indicated a speedy recovery. Trade with Germany 
shows a satisfactory increass during recent years, Bolivian ex- 
ports to that country, entering through the port of Hamburg, having 
advanced from $1,781,000 in 1905 to $3,404,000 in 1907. 

Of the importations for 1907, Germany furnished 16 per cent, the 
United States 14 per cent, Great Britain 10 per cent, Chile 7 per cent, 
France 5 per cent, Peru 4 per cent, and Belgiimi and Italy 3 per cent 
each, with other countries in a diminishing ratio. 

PRODUCTION AND INDUSTRIES. 

It is upon her mineral wealth that the Republic mainly depends, 
and present conditions all point to increased activity in the exploita- 
tion of these resources through the constantly increasing foreign 
demand for the mine products of the country. 

The mineral wealth of Bolivia, including nearly all known 
metals, is widely distributed and very rich and abundant. Great 
veins of ore containing the precious metals are found in the mountains 
of the Republic, and while their exploitation is carried on on a con- 
siderable scale, yet, due to the lack of labor and capital and adequate 
transportation facilities, they are not fully developed and in many 
instances remain entirely virgin. The copper mines of Corocoro and 
the tin and bismuth mines of the Republic are among the richest in the 
world. 

Bolivian tin, assaying 60 per cent pure, is regulated in price by the 
Straits product, and the first decline in the price of the latter, reported 
early in 1908, resulted in a consequent reduction in the value of the 
country's output. The yield for the year was given as 30,000 tons, 
worth $10,756,800, as compared with 28,000 tons, worth $11,956,800, 
in 1907, the decreased valuation being caused by a 25 per cent decline 
in price. 

The chief tin-mining center is Huanuni and the leader in produc- 
tion in 1908 was the San Salvadora mine, a small property adjoining 
the Llalagua. The latter has a monthly output of 400 tons. Much 
of the ore produced carried silver in small quantities. The Govern- 
ment has imposed an export duty on copper and bismuth, payable 
fortnightly, under the direction of the Secretary of the Treasury. 

The principal mineral zones now being exploited on a large scale 
are: First, the extensive region which, commencing in the basin of 
the Inambary river, extends from the western confines of the country 
to Upper Paraguay, and contains within its boundaries the famous 
placers of San Juan del Oro, Suches, Tipuani, and a number of 
others equally important. The second district commences in Lipez 



38 INTERNATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

and continues southward through Chaj^anta, Sur Chichas, Méndez^ 
Cinti, and Acero and terminates in the plains of Santa Cruz. The 
third zone, which is the richest and most important, extends to Cara- 
baya Peru, and to the sources of the Madre de Dios, Acre, and Purus 
rivers. 

From 1540 to 1750, a period of two hundred and ten years, the gold 
mines of Bolivia produced $2,100,000,000. From 1750 to the begin- 
ning of the nineteenth century, the mines and placers situated in the 
provinces of Larecaja and Caupolican produced $14,000,000, gold^ 
and from 1818 to 1868 the output was 150,770 ounces of gold. The 
product of the other mines and placers of the nation, from the middle 
of the eighteenth to the latter part of the nineteenth century, is esti- 
mated at $125,000,000. The annual gold production of Bolivia may- 
be calculated at 17,460 troy ounces, which, at $20 an ounce, gives a 
value of $349,200. The 1907 shipments of bismuth aggregated 153> 
tons ; of cojjper ingots and ore 3,469 tons ; and of silver 149 tons. 

Although the production of India rubber showed a very marked 
decline from the previous year, this industry must still be counted as 
one of the most important and certain sources of national wealth. 
The largest rubber-producing districts are located in the national 
territory of Colonias, the Departments of Beni and Santa Cruz and 
portions of La Paz and Cochabamba. The two last-named districts 
also cultivate cacao and coffee while the two former contribute other 
valuable vegetable products. Upland rice is grown to some extent 
in the provinces of Azero and Cordillera. A large area of the Re- 
public is well suited to the cultivation of wheat which might be 
grown in quantities sufficient to meet the needs of the home market^ 
but as yet this branch of agricultural development has been little 
exploited. This cereal was formerly grown to a considerable extent 
in the District of Cochabamba, but of late years, due to drought and 
other causes, cultivation has practically ceased. The present Gov- 
ernment, impressed with the importance of stimulating agriculture 
in the Republic, has imported wheat of superior quality from the 
United States and Argentine Republic for the purpose of supplying: 
a high grade of seed to home growers. 

Cattle, sheep, and llamas are abundant, and to foment the live- 
stock industry of the country, on February 1, 1909, the Secretary of 
Colonization and Agriculture inaugurated the National Veterinary 
Institute. 

KAILAVATS. 

The present extent of railway in the Republic is about 400 miles 
of trunk lines, permitting direct travel from Lake Titicaca to Anto- 
f agasta, via Oruro, on the coast of Chile. Branch lines are being con- 
structed from Oruro to Cochabamba and Potosi, and new lines have 



BOLIVIA. 39 

been located from Potosi to Tupiza and from La Paz to Puerto 
Pando. Preliminary work on the railway from Brazil to the Beni 
region, in the northern part of the Republic, has been commenced. 
The road as projected will be about 308 miles in length and penetrate 
a country rich in rubber, cabinet woods, and other forms of natural 
wealth. The road from Arica, Chile, to La Paz is now under con- 
struction, work being carried on in five sections of the line, of which 
335 kilometers are in Chilean territory. A joint commission was 
appointed to inspect the completed section of the line and to examine 
the construction of the remainder. 

On December 1, 1908, President Montes signed the law recently 
passed by the Bolivian Congress embodying the changes in the Bo- 
livian Railway Company's concession asked for by the syndicate of 
capitalists interested in this enterprise. This law will permit the 
consummation of an agreement between the syndicate and the Anto- 
fagasta Railway of Chile and Bolivia. 

Communication is carried on between Moliendo, on the Pacific, and 
La Paz by means of a railroad running from Moliendo to Puno, 
Peru, on Lake Titicaca, and from thence by boat to Guaqui, Bolivia, 
and by rail and tramway from the latter point to La Paz. 

There is river communication from Villa Bella, Bolivia, to Para, 
Brazil, on the Amazon River, near the Atlantic Ocean, a distance 
2,516 miles, the trip being made in three hundred and fourteen hours. 
From Para to Lisbon, which is distant 3,263 maritime miles, the 
journey is made in twelve days. 

Communication is had with Montevideo and Buenos Aires by 
means of the Plate, the Parana, and Paraguay rivers to the Bolivian 
Port of Suarez, a distance of 1,Y40 miles, eight days being required 
for the journey. From Puerto Suarez to Santa Cruz, a distance 
of 391 miles, there is a wagon road, and from the latter place to 
Sucre, the capital of the Republic, a distance of 342 miles, the trip 
can be made on horseback in seven days. 

There is rail communication from Buenos Aires to Quiaca on the 
Bolivian frontier, and from thence a journey of three days can be 
made in wagons to Tupiza, Bolivia. 

The different industrial centers of the Republic are at the present 
time connected with each other by 1,807 miles of wagon roads. 

Bolivia, being entirely landlocked, is naturally dependent on her 
neighbors for external means of communication. The country may 
be reached either by way of the west coast, with one of the many 
steamers calling at the ports of Moliendo, in Peru, or Arica and 
Antofagasta, in Chile, or via the east coast, by means of one of the 
numerous steamers calling at the ports of Para, in Brazil, or at 
Buenos Aires, in the Argentine Republic. 



40 INTERNATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

The principal routes to the interior of the country are as follows: 

Moliendo route. — From Moliendo to Puno, by rail, 324 miles, 
twenty-two hours; from Puno to Guaqui, by steamer, crossing Lake 
Titicaca, 180 miles, sixteen hours; from Guaqui to La Paz, 59 miles, 
by rail, three hours ; or a total distance of 563 miles covered in three 
and one-half days. 

Amca route. — From Arica to La Paz the distance is 337 miles, 
which is made in seven days, as follows : Arica to Tacna, by rail, 39 
miles; Tacna to Viacha, 280 miles, by mule, donkey, or llama; Viacha 
to La Paz, 18 miles, by rail. 

Antofagasta route. — The total distance from the port of Anto- 
fagasta to Oruro is 573 miles, which can be covered in three days, by 
rail. The railway is divided into two sections — ^the Chilean section, 
from Antofagasta to Ollague, and the Bolivian section, from OUague 
to Oruro, via Uyuni. 

Amazon route. — From the port of Para, in Brazil, to Villa Bella 
and Puerto Acre, a distance of 2,152 miles from the former and 
2,533 miles from the latter point, covered in two hundred and six- 
teen and two hundred and fortj^-four hours, respectively. The 
entire trip is made in vessels along the navigable rivers of Brazil and 
Bolivia. 

Argentine route. — From Buenos Aires, by rail, to the Bolivian 
frontier town of La Quiaca, and thence by mule train to Tupiza and 
Tarija, a total distance of 1,850 miles. From Buenos Aires the trip 
can also be made by water, steamers sailing up the Paraguay River 
to Puerto Pacheco, Puerto Suarez, and La Gaiba, in Bolivia, being 
1,553, 1,741, and 1.908 miles, respectively, distant from Buenos Aires. 
From Puerto Pacheco to La Paz the distance is 1,169 miles, from 
Puerto Suarez, 1,125, and from La Gaiba, 1,158 miles, respectively, 
to the city of La Paz, roads and bridle paths leading from these 
ports to the said city. 

The time required to make the trip from New York to La Paz, via 
Moliendo or Antofagasta, is fifty-six days by direct steamer, or 
thirty-seven days with transshipment at Panama. From San Fran- 
cisco to La Paz the trip can be made in forty-three days by direct 
steamer. 

Bolivia has a net of rivers, which afford excellent means of trans- 
portation and communication, the entire length of her navigable 
rivers being about 12,000 miles. Of these, the Paraguay River is 
navigable for some 1,100 miles for steamers of 8 to 10 feet draft, the 
Itenes for 1,000 miles, the Beni likewise, but for steamers of 6 feet 
draft only, while the Pilcomayo, Mamore, Madre de Dios, Itonama, 
Sara, Orton, Baures, Inambary, Paragua, Pirai, Chapare, Abuna, 
Yacuma, and Rio Desaguadero are all navigable for light-draft 
vessels for distances varying from 200 to 1,000 miles. 



BOLIVIA. 41 

A regular line of steamers is maintained on Lake Titicaca, situated 
at an altitude of 12,900 feet and having an area of 4,000 square miles, 
being thus not only the highest, but also one of the largest lakes on 
the American continent. Lake Aullagas is connected with Lake 
Titicaca by means of the Rio Desaguadero. The principal open ports 
on Lake Titicaca are Escoma, Ancoraimes, Huata, Puerto Perez, 
Carabuco, and Guaqui or Huaqui. 

A number of steamers, launches, and other river craft afford 
.transport on nearly all of the navigable rivers, especially on the 
Madre de Dios, Béni, Mamore, and their respective tributaries, while 
on the Bermejo River a regular line of steamers plies between the 
cities of Esquina Grande and Rivaclavia, thus establishing connection 
with the Argentine Republic. 

A decree dated November 13, 1908, authorizes the establishing and 
maintenance, for a period of ten years, of an automobile service for 
the carriage of goods between the points at present reached by the 
Central Northern Argentine Railway in La Quiaca and the towns of 
Uyuni, Tupiza, Potosi, and Sucre. No import duties will be levied 
on the importation of any material necessary for the service during 
the term of the concession. 

POSTS AND TELEGRAPHS. 

The postal and telegraph services showed satisfactory progress 
during 1908 and various improvements were marked by increased 
eíRciency in both departments. In the postal service new offices were 
created in different parts of the Republic, and in the telegraphic 
service the reconstruction and repair of existing lines, the construc- 
tion of numerous additions to existing mileage, and the opening of 
5 wireless telegraph stations marked the progressive spirit of the 
Government. 

Bolivia is a member of the Universal Postal Union, and correspond- 
ence is dispatched to all countries belonging to that Union. There 
are 27T postal employees and 192 post-offices in the Republic, the main 
post-office being at La Paz. In 1908 the number of pieces of foreign 
mail matter received was 988,923, and the number of pieces sent 
abroad during the same period aggregated 375,318. 

The telegrajoh system of the Republic comprises 2,986 miles, 2,088 
miles of which are the property of the State, operating 113 ofiices. 
Telegraph lines run to all the capitals of the Departments, and the 
Government has under consideration the equipment of several high- 
power wireless stations. 

Bolivia does not belong to the Universal Telegraphic Union. 
Telegraphic communication is had with Peru, Chile, and the Argen- 
tine Republic, and cable communication over the lines of the Central 

560— Bull. 1—09 1 



42 inteenatiojStal bureau of the ameeican eepublics. 

and South American Telegraph Company, via Iquique, the West 
Coast American Telegraph Company (Limited), via Moliendo, and 
the overland route via Tupiza and Buenos Aires. 

Immigration of a desirable class is being encouraged. A pamphlet 
concerning the immigration laws of the Republic has been translated 
into German and widely distributed throughout the Empire with a 
view of attracting German immigrants, and a decree, under date of 
January 29, 1909, provided for the founding of the " Colonia 
Warnes " for foreign immigrants in the neighborhood of Puerto 
Suarez, Chiquitos Province, Department of Santa Cruz. A town 
covering an area of 19 hectares has been laid out in lots which, after 
reservation has been made of land for public purposes, will be 
awarded to colonists. Provision has been made for 64 families by the 
Department of Agriculture on the basis of an allotment of 100 
hectares to each familv. 




GOVERNMENT BUILDING IN SUCRE, ONE OF THE PRINCIPAL CITIES OF BOLIVIA. 




BRAZIL 




The Republic of the United States of Brazil is the largest of the 
South American countries and the second largest of the American 
Republics, extending over an area of 3,218,130 square miles, or about 
380,000 square miles less than the United States of America with 
Alaska. Not including Alaska the area of the United States is about 
200,000 square miles less than Brazil, which thus becomes the 
largest of the American countries. It is situated between latitude 
4° 22' north and 33° 45' south and longitude 34° 40' and 73° 15' 
west, being bounded by British, French, and Dutch Guiana, the Re- 
publics of Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Paraguay, 
Uruguay, the Argentine Republic, and the Atlantic Ocean. Brazil 
has a population of 19,910,646, equal to 6.2 per square mile, or some- 
thing more than one-fourth the population per square mile of the 
United States of America. 

Lying almost entirely within the torrid or tropical zone, the climate 
of Brazil is nevertheless considerably modified by the numerous high 
table-lands and mountain chains, as well as by its vast and extensive 
hydrographie system. These extensive, fertile plains produce all of 
the fruits of the Tropics and contain luxuriant and almost impene- 
trable forests. Coffee, rubber, cacao, and the excellent red dyewood 
known as "Brazil wood " are the principal articles of export, while 
cotton, sugar cane, tobacco, yerba maté, oranges, and other fruits are 
also extensively shipped. The forest wealth of Brazil has as yet 
hardly been tapped, and it is said that no other region in the world 
contains such a variety of useful and ornamental timber and medici- 
nal plants. A number of precious metals and minerals are found, 
and it is one of the few countries possessing diamond mines. 

HISTORICAL SKETCH. 

Pedro Alvarez Cabral, a Portuguese navigator, is usually given 
the credit of having discovered Brazil, when, on April 22, 1500, he 
landed not far from the j^resent site of the city of Bahia, although 
several other navigators are said to have touched the Brazilian coast 
some years before. Cabral named the country " Terra da Santa 
Cruz," or " Land of the Holy Cross," and taking possession of it in 
the name of the King of Portugal proceeded to explore it, but no 
attempt was made to settle the country until the year 1549, when 
Thomas de Souza was appointed governor-general. The country 
had then become known as Brazil from the red dyewood found in 
its forests, which, at that time was brought from the East and was 

43 



44 INTEENATIONAL BUKEAU OF THE AMEEICAN EEPUBLICS. 

commercially known as " Brazil wood," which name it has retained 
ever since. 

The Portuguese Crown divided the country, making grants of land 
to Portuguese nobles, who were to settle and colonize and who re- 
ceived a number of Indian slaves in addition to the land. With 
Thomas de Souza came the first Jesuits, who soon became important 
factors in the history of Brazil, and who succeeded in obtaining com- 
plete control over the aborigines, gathering them in their missions 
and colonies. To prevent the Indians being enslaved by the colonists, 
the Jesuits recommended and fostered the importation of African 
slaves, thousands of whom were imported from the African coast 
during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. 

Between the years 1555 and 1640, the country suffered numerous 
invasions from the French, Dutch, and British, who sought to gain 
a foothold on Brazilian soil. In the former year Admiral Ville- 
GAiGNON established a colony of French Huguenots on an island in 
the Bay of Kio de Janeiro, which island now bears his name. He 
maintained himself here until the year 1560. The most important 
of these invasions, however, was that of the Dutch, who, in the year 
1631, took possession of Pernambuco, also called Recife, and gradually 
extended their power over a considerable portion of Brazil. Prince 
Maurice of Nassau was appointed governor of the Dutch possessions 
in Brazil in 1636, and it was not until the year 1648 that the Dutch 
were finally forced to evacute Pernambuco and abandon the country. 

In 1640 Brazil became a viceroyalty, with the Marquis de Montalvo 
viceroy and Pio de Janeiro the capital. AAHien, early in the nine- 
teenth century. Napoleon invaded Spain and Portugal, the ruler of 
the latter country. King John, preferred to retire to his American 
kingdom. He arrived at Rio de Janeiro on March 8, 1808, with all 
of his family and court and opened the ports of the country to the 
commerce of the world. The centennial of this opening has recently 
been celebrated in Rio de Janeiro by an exhibition of Brazilian prod- 
ucts. King John established schools and in general promoted the 
interests of his colony. When, in the year 1821, he returned to Portu- 
gal, he appointed his eldest son, Dom Pedro, regent of Brazil. Dom 
Pedro was in sympathy with the movement for independence from 
Portugal, which he encouraged and fostered. On September 7, 1822, 
he formally proclaimed Brazil to be free and independent, and was, 
on October 12, 1822, solemnly crowned as Emperor. Under his wise 
rule and that of his able prime minister, José Bonifacio D'Andrade, 
Brazil prospered and developed her vast natural resources. Dom 
Pedro I reigned for nine years, and on April 7, 1831, abdicated the 
throne in favor of his infant son, Dom Pedro II. A regency was 
appointed, which continued until the year 1840, when the young 
Emperor became of age and was crowned. 



rs2 




46 



IISrTEKNATTONAL BUEEAU OF THE AMEEICAN EEPUBLICS. 



Dom Pedro II reigned until the year 1889, when the people of 
Brazil resolved to change their form of government from a monarchy 
to a republic. This was accomplished without bloodshed on Novem- 
ber 15, 1889, when the Emperor abdicated and 
the Eepnblic was proclaimed. 

Marshal Deodoro da Fonseca was placed 
at the head of the provisional government. 
This government remained in control until a 
constitutional congress which met at Rio cle 
Janeiro proclaimed the constitution of the 
United States of Brazil on the 24th of Feb- 
ruary, 1891, and elected Marshal da Fonseca 
President of the Republic. Fonseca resigned 
his office on November 23 of the same year in 
favor of the Vice-President, Don Floriano 
Peixoto, who was succeeded in 1894 by Dr. 
Prudente de Moraes Barros, in 1896 by Dr. Campos Salles, and in 
1902 by Dr. Rodriguez Alves. The present incumbent. Dr. Nilo 
Peçanha, succeeded to office on the death of President Aefonso 
Penna, in June, 1909. 




dr. nilo pecanha, 
President of Brazil. 



CONSTITUTION AND GOVERNMENT. 

Under the constitution of the Republic of the United States of 
Brazil the Government is a federal union of states, republican, and 
representative. Brazil is thus one of the five federated republics of 
the American Continent, the other four being the United States, 
Mexico, Venezuela, and the Argentine Republic. 

The Federal Government is divided into the legislative, executive, 
and judicial branches, the former consisting of two houses, the Senate 
and the Chamber of Deputies. The Senate has 63 members, 3 for 
each State and 3 for the federal district, elected by direct vote of 
the people for a term of nine years, but the Senate is renewed by 
thirds every three years. The Chamber of Deputies has 212 mem- 
bers, elected in the same manner as are the senators and in the propor- 
tion of one for every 70,000 inhabitants, for a term of three years. 

The executive power is vested in a President, assisted by a Cabinet 
of six secretaries of state. The President and Vice-President are 
elected for a term of four years, by direct vote, and may not be 
reelected for the term immediately following their own. All male 
citizens over 21 years of age are entitled to vote. 

The judicial power is vested in the national supreme court and the 
superior courts, one of which latter is located in the capital of each 
State. The former court is comj^osed of 15 justices, appointed by 
the President of the Republic with the advice and consent of the 



BRAZIL. 47 

Senate, while the members of the latter courts are appointed upon 
recommendation of the supreme court. All federal judges hold office 
for life. 

The union is composed of 20 States, 1 national territory, and the 
federal district. The States are entirely autonomous in their in- 
terior administration, even to the extent of levying their own export 
duties. The Federal Government is entitled to collect import duties, 
and also stamp taxes, postal rates, etc. The federal district, which 
includes the city of Rio de Janeiro, is governed by a prefect, ap- 
pointed by the President of the Republic for a term of four years. 
The prefect is assisted by a municipal council, elected by the people. 

Following are the States with their respective capitals : 

State of — Capital. 

Alagoas Maceió. 

Amazonas Manâos. 

Bahia Batiia or São Salvador. 

Ceara Fortaleza. 

Espirito Santo Victoria. 

Goyaz Goyaz. 

Maranhão Maranhão. 

Matto Grosso Cuyabá. 

Minas Geraes Belle Horizonte. 

Para Belém or Para. 

Parahyba do Norte Parahyba. 

Parana Curitiba. 

Pernambuco Pernambuco or Recife. 

Piauhy Therezina. 

Rio Grande do Norte Natal. 

Rio Grande do Sul Porto Alegre. 

Rio de Janeiro Nictheroy. 

Santa Catharina Florianópolis or Desterro. 

São Paulo São Paulo. 

Sergipe Aracaju. 

Federal district Rio de Janeiro. 

The national territory, ordinarily known as the Acre country, was 
acquired from Bolivia by the treaty of November 17, 1903, and in 
consideration of the sum of $10.000,000. 

President Dr. Nilo Peçanho. 

Minister of Foreign Affairs Baron do Rio Branco. 

Minister of War _' Gen. Carlos Eugenio de A. Guimarães. 

Minister of Marine Admiral Alexandrino Faria de Alencar. 

Minister of Finance Dr. Leopoldo Bulhões. 

Minister of Justice and the Interior Dr. Esmeraldino Bandeira. 

Minister of Industry and Public Works Dr. Francisco Sa. 

Minister of Agriculture Dr. Candido Rodrigues. 

Note. — List of cabinet officers corrected to July 20, 1909. 

The salary of the President is 120,000 milreis, equivalent to 
$40,000 gold per annum. 



48 INTERNATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

BRAZIL IN 1908. 

For Brazil the year 1908 was both pacific and prosperous, and in 
the most important elements of national strength this important 
South American Kepublic made decided progress under the able and 
careful administration of Dr. Affonso Penna, whose death in June, 
1909, was a distinct loss to the nation. His successor in office. Dr. 
NiLO Peçanha, had previously filled the office of Vice-President. 
Brazil is admittedly one of the most munificently endowed countries 
on the globe, and during the twelve months much was done in the 
way of development of natural resources, particularly through the 
construction of railroads and harbor improvements. The ratification 
of the general arbitration treaty with the Argentine Republic and the 
adjustment of the boundary question with Dutch Guiana marked the 
satisfactory arrangement of two matters of political significance, 
while the floating of the São Paulo coffee loan indicated clearly 
the policy of the Government in maintaining in the world's markets 
the position occupied by the country's greatest product. The merits 
of the project have naturally given rise to considerable discussion, 
and it is yet to be seen whether the results will be beneficial to the 
Brazilian planters, and to those of São Paulo in particular. The 
actual receipts from the project, including loans and taxes, amounted 
to upward of $100,100,000. The State of Sao Paulo is also the owner 
of 8,400,000 bags of coffee stored principally in foreign ports. The 
crop for the season of 1907-8 was slightly in excess of 10,000,000 bags, 
as compared with 20,000,000 the previous year. The estimate for 
1908-9 fixes the production at from 10,000,000 to 13,000,000 bags. 
While officially claiming that valorization has maintained the price of 
coffee, the financial situation engendered by the project is frankly 
faced by the São Paulo government and the necessity of the loan and 
the new tax fully realized. 

One of the events of historical and commercial significance of the 
year was the National Exposition held at Rio de Janeiro in commemo- 
ration of the centenary of the opening of the ports of Brazil to inter- 
national commerce. The exposition was a valuable demonstration of 
the growing activities of Brazilian production and led to a discussion 
of the advisability of celebrating, in 1922, the centenary of the inde- 
pendence of the country by an international exposition, in which the 
nations of the world will be invited to participate. 

Consideration of the unprotected situation of the extensive sea- 
board of the Republic has resulted in steps being taken by the Govern- 
ment to materially increase the naval strength of the country by the 
construction of new war ships of the most advanced type. Orders 
have been placed in England for 30 new vessels, including 4 battle 



BRAZIL. 49 

ships of the " Dreadnought " type, 26 cruisers, gunboats, and torpedo 
boats. 

Apart from the measures for the protection of the great coffee out- 
put of the Republic, other projects of public utility were carried to a 
successful termination. Not the least in importance was the grant- 
ing of a concession for the establishment of a trans- Atlantic cable 
service with Europe and South Africa, with the stipulation that the 
service must be in operation within three years. 

The continuation of the tariff reduction on certain articles imported 
from the United States in accordance with the preferential tariff law 
of December, 1905, was announced by the Government, thus provid- 
ing for the maintenance of the present trade current between the two 
countries. 

FOREIGN RELATIONS. 

The ratifications of the arbitration treaty between Brazil and the 
Argentine Republic, signed at Rio de Janeiro, September 7, 1905, 
were exchanged at Buenos Aires December 5, 1908, and during the 
year -arbitration agreements were signed with the United States, 
Portugal, France, Spain, Mexico, Honduras, Venezuela, and Panama. 
Other conventions will shortly be concluded with Great Britain, 
Switzerland, and other European countries. The exchange of the 
ratifications of the boundary treaty, signed at Rio de Janeiro May 5, 
1906, between Brazil and Holland, took place at The Hague on Sep- 
tember 15, 1908. The Mixed Commission appointed to mark the 
boundary between Brazil and Bolivia, in accordance with the treaty 
of Petrópolis of November 17, 1903, has completed its labors, sub- 
ject to the approval of the two Governments, while the French Gov- 
ernment has manifested its willingness to proceed with the demarca- 
tion of the frontier along the Oyapock, in accordance with the arbitral 
decision of the Swiss Federal Council of December 1, 1900. Nego- 
tiations are in progress for a boundary treaty with Peru. Naviga- 
tion and commercial treaties with Ecuador, Peru, and Colombia were 
concluded during the year, subject to the approval of their respective 
Governments, and similar treaties are in negotiation with Bolivia, 
Chile, and Peru. The conventions providing for an International 
Bureau of Public Health at Paris and an International Institute of 
Agriculture at Rome were approved by the Brazilian Government, 
as well as the Convention on Wireless Telegraphy, together with the 
protocol and respective regulations, signed at Berlin November 3, 
1905. 

Brazil was represented at the following congresses held during 
1908: At the Ninth International Geographic Congress, held at 
Geneva in August; the Pan-American Medical Congress, held at 
Guatemala in August; the International Congress of Historical 



50 INTERNATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

Science, held at Berlin in August ; the Fourteenth Congress of Ameri- 
canists, held at Vienna in September ; the Fourth International Fish- 
eries Congress, held at Washington in September ; the Sixteenth In- 
ternational Irrigation Congress, held at Albuquerque, N. Mex., in 
September; the First International Congress of the Cold Storage 
Industry, held at Paris in October ; the First International Congress 
on Electric Standards, held at London in October; the First Pan- 
American Scientific Congress at Santiago de Chile in December; 
and at the International Telegraphic Conference, held at Lisbon in 
May. The Government will send delegates to the Conference on 
International Maritime Law in Brussels, also to the conference to 
be held at The Hague to establish uniformity of rates on international 
bills of exchange. 

FINANCE. 

Governmental receipts for the fiscal year 1908 amounted to 
$144,300,664 and expenditures to $143,632,368, thus showing a balance 
of $668,296. 

The foreign debt on December 31, 1908, was $369,087,633.38.. 

The gold deposits existing in the Caixa de Conversão on December 
31, 1908, amounted to $27,154,141.92, which shows a decrease of 
$3,233,542.68 over the deposits on the same date of last year. 

The imports of gold coins amounted to $688,537, while gold exports 
were only $100,602. 

Exchange was maintained throughout the year at an average of 
15 5/32 per cent. 

In the annual budget of expenditures for 1909, amounting to 
$140,268,923, the appropriations of the previous year were increased 
by $5,600,000. The bulk of this sum represented increased expendi- 
tures in the Departments of the Treasury, Navy, War, and Industry. 
The allotment for the latter department provides bounties for the 
encouragement of native industries, while the state legislatures have 
also taken measures to promote local enterprises in new directions. 
The progress of the republic justifies the increased federal expendi- 
tures, a large part of which is being spent on railways, the telegraph 
service, water supply, fortifications, ports, reduction of debt service, 
retirement of currency, public buildings, and strengthening the army 
and navy. 

The estimated receipts are placed at $125,782.952 from ordinary 
sources and miscellaneous receipts at $13,631,880, a total of $139,- 
414,832, leaving an indicated deficit of $854,091. These may be classi- 
fied as follows: Import duties, $79,659,000; wharf and light dues, 
$246,000 ; 20 per cent of the export duties on Acre rubber, $3,900,000 ; 
internal revenue, $23,577,900 ; excise taxes, $10,486,500 ; miscellaneous 
revenue, $4,330,366. Of the total receipts, the estimated apportion- 



BRAZIL. 51 

ment for the retirement of paper money is placed at $6,773,186 ; sinli- 
ing fund for the redemption of railway bonds, $836,400; fund for 
ammortization of internal loans, $924,000. The proceeds from the tax 
destined to the port improvement fund are estimated at $5,004,000. 

The movement throughout Brazil in favor of a revision of the tariff 
system, which has been under consideration by the Government, has 
taken definite form in the appointment of a commission to formulate 
a report on the subject to be presented to the Brazilian Congress at its 
May session. The tariff system of Brazil of the present day rests 
upon an act of the Congress of Brazil passed in 1900, but is, as a 
matter of fact, a system entirely different from the original act as a 
result of changes made from year to year in the annual budget or ap- 
propriation laws passed by the successive congresses. In the law of 
1900 a tariff schedule was established which contemplated the collec- 
tion of duties as therein set forth on an ad valorem basis as to certain 
goods and a specific duty as to others. The act was drawn much after 
the order of the Dingley tariff act of the United States except that 
the fact that Brazil's currency was at that time fluctuating in value 
beween wide extremes led to a number of changes which were of vast 
and controlling importance. 

The securities of the Republic continue to be regarded favorably 
by investors, and the national credit has been firmly established by 
an uninterrupted and punctual satisfaction of financial obligations. 
The successful floating of the coffee loan for $60,000,000 and the 
subscription of $20,000,000 for the Brazilian loan authorized by the 
decree of July 1, 1908, within twenty-four hours showed conclusively 
that the country has excellent credit for its requirements. 

Conspicuous success has attended the efforts of the Government to 
raise the credit of the country to its present high standard and to 
appreciate the current value of its paper currency; in the first place 
through gradual withdrawal from circulation and incineration, and 
later, in December, 1906, through a fixed conversion by the creation 
of the Caixa de Conversão, which has now been in operation for a 
sufficient length of time to permit of conclusions being formed as to 
its influence upon the general prosperity of the Republic. 

British capital invested in Brazil has proved of great benefit in 
developing the railroads, mines, and other industries of the country. 
English banks occupy the first place in Rio and in other great com- 
mercial centers of the Republic. 

COMMERCE. 

Published figures of Brazilian trade for the year 1908 show a 
total valuation of $397,925,000, exclusive of specie, as compared 
with $427,000,000 of the preceding year. Specie imports for the two 
periods are reported as $708,000 and $22,000,000, respectively. 



52 INTEENATIONAL BUEEAU OF THE AMEEICAN EEPUBLICS. 

Import values were $177,450,000, against $202,000,000 in 1907, and 
exports figured for $220,475,000, as compared with $270,000,000 in 
the year previous. The trade balance for the year, in spite of the 
general lowering of commercial values throughout the world's mar- 
kets, showed the gratifying total of $43,000,000. 

The staple export items showed the following valuations: Coffee, 
$115,000,000 ; rubber, $56,000,000 ; cacao, $9,000,000 ; maté, $8,000,000 : 
tobacco, $4,000,000; sugar, $1,400,000; and cotton, $1,000,000. As 
compared with the record of 1907, coffee declined 9.3 per cent, rub- 
ber 12, tobacco 34.4, cacao 7.7, cotton 88.1, while exports of maté 











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PICKING COFFEE IN BRAZIL. 

The coffee harvest begins, as a rule, in May, and the largest crops are harvested by September. To 
preserve the health of the pickers, the work is done in dry M'eather as far as possible. The picking 
is by hand, the berries being deposited in wicker baskets, which, when filled, are conveyed to the 
mill. In modern plantations the berries are conveyed to the curing house by running water 
through galvanized-iron spouting. 

advanced 1.1 per cent and those of sugar 113.6. During the closing 
months of the year commercial prospects greatly improved, and the 
outlook for 1909 justifies the anticipation of a general recovery of 
values and trade returns. 

The results, during 1908, of the special preferential rates accorded 
by Brazil to certain specified imports from the United States form 
the one encouraging feature of the year's commerce between the two 
countries. In spite of the fact that the total imports of Brazil for 
1908 were about 12 per cent less than those of 1907 and that the im- 
ports of Brazil from the United States showed a loss of $4,081,785, 
or about 16.5 per cent, as compared with 1907, the goods imported 



BRAZIL. 



53 



subject to preferential treatment in 1908 amounted to $2,387,593, as 
compared with $2,351,326 in the preceding year, thus showing an 
actual gain of $36,267, or 1.5 per cent. This gain was made in face of 
the fact that the imports of similar goods from all countries showed 
a decrease of about 5 per cent in 1908. The past two years are the 
only successive years in which the preferential rates have been ac- 
corded throughout the entire twelve months. 

The shipments of coffee from Brazil during the crop year ending 
June 30, 1908, in bags, were as follows: Rio de Janeiro and Minas, 




LOADING COFFEE AT SANTOS, BRAZIL. 

Santos is the seaport of the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil, and the largest coffee-exporting center in the 
world. For the vear ending June 30, 1908, the shipments of this article reached the enormous total 
of 8,456,000 bags of 132 pounds each, or a total of 1,116,192,000 pounds. The illustration shows the 
method of transferring the coffee from the warehouse to the wharf, each feeing stamped with the 
name of the shipper as the stevedore flies past the entrance. 

3,761,296; Santos, 8,456,017; Victoria, 482,553; Bahia, 230,051; other 
ports, 23,655 ; a total of 12,953,572 bags, 1,670,652,324 pounds. The 
total number of bags compared with 12,782,783 as the average ship- 
ments from Brazil for the last eight crop years. 

Of the shipments during the season, 57 per cent went to Europe 
and 43 per cent to the United States. Much of the coffee sent to 
Europe was for deliveries in other parts of the world, while of the 
shipments to the United States two-thirds, as usual, went to New 



54 INTERNATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

York. The deliveries of coffee of all sorts in the United States dur- 
ing the year aggregated 7,043,595 bags, or 938,559,889 pounds, 
worth $71,807,994, of which 5,710,194 bags, or 732,181,131 pounds, 
worth $51,356,841, and representing a little over 81 per cent of the 
total, were from Brazil. These figures were practically the same as 
those reported for 1906-7. The deliveries in Europe for the past two 
years have been practically the same, in round numbers 10,500,000 
bags, so that 17,500,000 bags represents the average annual consump- 
tion of this product in these two imj^orting sections. 

The Brazilian crop for the season of 1907-8 is reported as slightly 
in excess of 10,000,000 bags, against nearly 20,000,000 in the preceding 
year, the influence of this smaller crop being shown by the decline in 
the visible supply in contrast to the reported increase of 6,500,000 
bags in the season of 1906-7. 

The total quantity of rubber shipped from the Amazonas region in 
1908, including the Bolivian and Peruvian districts, was 38,160 tons, 
of which 20,630 tons were sent to Europe and 17,530 to the United 
States. The world's production for the jesir was 65,000 tons, against 
69,000 tons in 1907, consumption being estimated at 67,500 tons. 

Rubber values suffered somewhat from the financial depression of 
the year, the first three months of 1908 showing a difference in the 
valuation of shipments amounting to $9,500,000. The exports of the 
1907-8 crop shipped from the ports of Iquitos, Manaos, and Para 
aggregated about 37,500 tons, of which approximately 16,852 tons 
went to Liverpool, 14,658 to New York, 3,376 to Havre, 1,519 to Ham- 
burg, the remainder to Antwerp and Bremen. "While these figures 
showed a slight increase in quantity over the previous year, market 
conditions showed a decline in values. 

In cacao the country took first rank as a producer, the output for 
1908 being nearly 70,000,000 pounds, as compared with 54,000,000 
in 1907; the estimated crop for 1909 is 72,000,000 pounds. This in- 
dustry in Brazil at the present time is little more than the gathering 
of cacao beans from semiwild trees, there being little or no cultiva- 
tion in most places and not even regular employment of workmen in 
some. Of the 613,316 bags of cacao received at New York in 1908, 
Bahia supplied 107,447 bags and Para 12,113, Brazil as a whole 
supplying substantially 20 per cent of the total receipts. 

Shipments of Brazil nuts amounted to 480,602 bushels, valued at 
$1,121,278, in 1908, as compared with 512,237 bushels, worth $1,219,- 
778, in the preceding year. Of this output, the United States re- 
ceived 255,310 bushels, England 195,332, and continental Europe 
the remainder. The principal ports of distribution of this product 
are Manaos, Itacoatiara, and Para, the last-named being the most 
important port of shipment, and the whole trade being confined 
practically to the Amazon district. 



BRAZIL. 55 

The exports of hides, the chief item in the trade of Rio Grande do 
Sul, were about 2^ per cent larger than the year before, and other 
animal products were exported in proportion. Shipments of salted 
hides to Europe for 1908 numbered 470,719, as compared with 500,543 
the previous year; of dry hides, Europe received 235,465 in 1907 
and 275,674 in 1908, while imports into the United States amounted 
only to 10,000 in 1907 and 20,100 in 1908. About half of the total 
increase in the shipments of hides of 1908 over 1907 went to the 
United States, the increased shipments being of dried hides only. 

Of special note on the import list of the country are wheat and 
flour, both of which are supplied largely by the Argentine Republic. 
The Government of Brazil has encouraged the erection of flour mills, 
and Argentine wheat is imported in ever-increasing quantities for 
local milling. 

Imports of jerked beef show a marked decline through the im- 
position of duties designed to protect that industry in Rio Grande 
do Sul. 

PRODUCTION AND INDUSTRIES. 

Agriculture still holds first place among the industries of the 
country. Coffee, the principal crop, is grown in the southern States 
of Minas Geraes and São Paulo, which furnish more than four-fifths 
of the world's production. Other crops include cacao, sugar cane, 
tobacco, hay, cereals, beans, roots, and tubers of all kinds, cotton of 
the best quality, maté, tea, fruits, and vegetables. Rice culture 
is now reaching an extraordinary stage of development, the im- 
portation of this article, which a few years ago amounted to more 
than 2,000,000 bags, having now stopped almost entirely. Market 
vegetables and fruits of unsurpassed flavor in great abundance may 
be counted among the exports of the future. Cabinet and dyewoods 
abound in the Amazon forests, while large areas of rubber trees fur- 
nish a product that is shipped in enormous quantities to all parts of 
the world. 

Since 1902 no coffee trees have been planted in Sao Paulo, and as it 
takes from four to six years for coffee to bear, the only elements of 
production are the trees in existence, almost all of which are in 
bearing at present. The last trees planted will be at their best and 
full bearing in the course of the current quadrenniuin, while the in- 
fluence of replanting exhausted areas, as well as of the intensive 
cultivation lately followed, will also reach its climax during this 
period. Under such circumstances it seems reasonable to suppose 
that the average production during the years 1909-1912 will be the 
same as for the previous quadrennium, plus 5 per cent increase from 
freshly bearing trees, or in all about 10,000,000 bags per annum. 



56 INTEENATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

Twenty years ago consumption was between 9,000,000 and 
10,000,000 bags, ten years later it had risen to 13,000,000, and for 
1908 it is estimated at 17,500,000 bags. At this rate, at the close of 
1912 current consumption should reach 19,000,000, especially if the 
official propaganda should be as effective as is expected. 

The visible supply of the world on June 30, 1908, was over 14,000,000 
bags and the production of the ensuing year estimated as follows: 
Brazil, by ports— Santos, 8,250,000; Eio, 2,750,000; Victoria, 300,000; 
Bahia, 200,000 ; a total for the Republic of 11,500,000 bags. Other 
countries, Central America, 1,500,000; Colombia and Venezuela, 
950,000 ; Haiti, 350,000 ; other West Indies, 50,000 ; East Indies and 
Java, 697,000 ; total of other countries than Brazil, 3,967,000 ; grand 
total, 15,197,000 bags. 

Recognizing the preeminence of the rubber industry the Govern- 
ment has decided to inaugurate local, industrial application of the raw 
material, and in support of this purpose a bill was introduced into the 
National Congress exempting from import duties for a term of three 
years all material and machinery required for the establishment of 
rubber factories. 

Sugar growing is one of the oldest industries of the country. It 
is carried on in three distinct zones, of which the northern, with the 
State of Pernambuco as its center, is the most important. This State 
produces about half of the total yield and has 47 central sugar mills, 
with 1,500 plantations, and a total production of 156,000 tons. The 
total production for the season 1907-8 was 130,000 tons, while the 
estimated output for 1908-9 is placed at 210,000 tons. By a decree 
of March 27, 1908, the duty on sugar of all kinds originating in coun- 
tries which do not pay any bounty on that article was increased by 
the Government from $0.077 to $0.154 per 2.2 pounds. 

In connection with the advance of 113.6 per cent noted for Bra- 
zilian sugar exports for the year 1908 as compared with the preceding 
year, it is stated that a movement is in progress throughout the Re- 
public to increase the price of cane sugar, whose production has suf- 
fered in competition with beet sugar. 

The Brussels Sugar Convention has added the Republic to the list 
of countries considered as according bounties on production or expor- 
tation of sugar. 

Tobacco production in Brazil is confined principally to Bahia, 
while the cigar-making industry includes Rio Grande do Sul, these 
two districts furnishing the best known of the local brands, others 
coming from Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo. The tobacco used in the 
better grade of cigars is largely imported, mainly from the Dutch 
colonies, Sumatra and Dutch Guiana, and the finer grades from Cuba, 
either directly or through the United States and Germany. 



BEAZIL. 57 

The possibilities of growing fine tobacco in Para and certain other 
portions of the Republic have been discussed by local agriculturists 
for years and at different times have attracted the attention of foreign 
interests. Of late some of the leading men of Para, including the 
present governor, have made special trips of investigation through 
the tobacco districts of Cuba with a view of comparing the best to- 
bacco country of that island with sections of Para known to be suit- 
able for the growing of the best tobacco leaf. The exports of leaf 
tobacco from Brazil form one of the chief items of the country's 
trade, of which Bahia furnishes 99,^ per cent and Germany takes 96 
per cent. 

A legislative decree dated December 31, 1908, authorized the Presi- 
dent to grant an annual bounty of 15 contos ($4,500) to agricultural 
syndicates which shall engage in the cultivation of wheat in the Re- 
public. This bounty is offered for a period of five years, and will be 
paid in quarterly installments. To enjoy the advantages of this law, 
the company must be organized under the laws of Brazil, and must 
cultivate an area of over 200 hectares under the direction of an expert 
of proved ability. A bounty of equal amount is offered for the erec- 
tion of flour mills having a capacity of not less than 11,356 bushels of 
wheat. To five or more companies which shall jointly establish ex- 
periment stations and laboratories for the study of entomology and 
agricultural chemistry a bounty of 20 contos ($6,000) is to be granted. 

Agricultural machinery and implements, fertilizers, insect destroy- 
ers, etc., imported for the exclusive use of the companies, are ex- 
empted from the payment of customs duties. The Government will 
endeavor to obtain from railway and steamship lines a reduction on 
the freight rates for wheat. 

The status of flour milling as a national industry is shown by the 
fact that in 1906 importation furnished 48.7 per cent of the total 
consumption and the local mills 51.3 per cent, while in the ensuing 
year the percentage of importation reached 49.6, with a resultant de- 
cline in national production to 50.4 per cent. Of the flour imports, 
the Argentine Republic furnishes nearly 75 per cent, and of wheat used 
in the mills nearly the entire amount. In competing for this trade the 
United States is at the disadvantage of being remote from the popu- 
lous portions of the country, which are to the south, although a gain 
has been made and held in the northern sections. The prosperity of 
the Brazilian national mills grinding Argentine wheat continues, 
and to stimulate the trade in mandioca flour a state government is 
offering prizes of $300, $180, and $120 for the best 5 tons or more of 
this article delivered in the European market within a specified time. 

The production of rice in the Republic, which, more or less, has 
been taking the place of the large imports during the last half decade, 

560— Bull. 1—09 5 



58 INTERNATIONAL BUEEAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

has been made possible by a protective tariff. The record of de- 
creased imports is measured almost exactly by the record of the in- 
creased customs duties on the grain. While importations of rice in 

1907 were about one-fifth of those six years ago, the importations of 

1908 amounted to only one-ninth of the average for the six jDrevious 
years. 

In a general way, so far as distribution is concerned, this change 
represents the development of rice production in Brazil. Practically 
the whole of the recent revival of rice growing in the country has 
been in the States of Rio Janeiro, Minas Geraes, São Paulo, Santa 
Catharina, Parana, and Rio Grande do Sul, the imports of rice in 
the northern ports, except where they are affected by the very high 
price of the food to consumers, continunig at about the old figures. 

There are two distinct lines of rice production in the country at 
the present time. One is that of the modern culture of the grain at 
two points in Sao Paulo and at one or two places in Rio de Janeiro 
and Minas, more or less under the direction of the expert from the 
United States; and the other is the old-time native system of pro- 
duction, which embraces practically all of the real rice production 
of the country. The methods of the former are simply those of the 
best type in the United States, in Louisiana and Texas. 

The production of maté in Brazil during the last five years has in- 
creased progressively, the leading centers being Paranaguá, Antonina, 
São Francisco, Porto Murtinho, and Porto Alegre. The principal 
consumers are, in order of importance, the Argentine Republic, Uru- 
guay, and Chile, in South America, followed by Italy, France, Portu- 
gal, Germany, and Belgium, in Europe. 

An earnest effort is being made by the Government to stimulate the 
production of silk, and the national budget contains provisions for 
bounties, not only to producers of cocoons, but to persons estab- 
lishing silk factories under prescribed conditions. The irregular cul- 
tivation of the silkworm, which has continued in Brazil for many 
years, has given promise that under favorable conditions the industry 
in the country might be profitable. Several of the state govern- 
ments, especially those of Minas Geraes and Sao Paulo, have given 
notable support to the movement. The Government pays 1 milreis 
(about 30 cents) per kilogram (2.2 pounds) to the producers of co- 
coons who present their claims therefor, also premiums of $600, $300, 
and $150 for fields of not less than 2,000 trees of mulberry which best 
meet requirements. A premium of $15,000 was also offered to the first 
silk weaving factories of certain grade using Brazilian silk exclu- 
sively in their manufacture. 

Manufacturing establishments of all kinds in the Republic, with 
123,391 employees, number 2,292, capitalized at $162,000,000, with an 
annual production averaging $190,000,000. The total number of tex- 



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60 INTERNATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

tile mills is 13T, capitalized for $60,000,000 and employing 41,108 
operatives, the manufacture of cotton goods representing one-third 
of the total capital invested in mechanical industries. The propor- 
tion of these enterprises to the whole industry of the country is com- 
paratively small. 

Noteworthy development is, however, in progress, many factories 
for the production of articles formerly imported having been estab- 
lished in consequence of the wider application of electricity to manu- 
facturing. A large number of miscellaneous establishments, such as 
furniture factories, manufactories of candles, soap, beer, chocolate, 
paints, shoes, hats, and clothing are in successful operation. The list 
includes saw and planing mills and a similar class of concerns not 
ordinarily counted as industrial establishments, embracing millinery 
shops, j^rinting offices, artificial ñower factories, and the like. São 
Paulo and E,io Grande contain meat and fruit packing establishments, 
Eio Janeiro and São Paulo flour mills, while a number of the states 
contain plants for the elaboration of sugar. 

An industry of national importance is that of cotton manufactur- 
ing. The native fiber is of fine quality and grows in many sections. 
The consumption of raw cotton by the Brazilian mills reaches 143,000 
bales per annum, while the total cDnsumption in the Kepublic is about 
285,000 bales. The entire business of cotton manufacture rests upon 
the exceedingly high tariff rates on cotton imports. Textile manufac- 
turers in Brazil are subject to a so-called " consumption tax " col- 
lected by affixing a revenue stamp to each bundle of cloth as it is man- 
ufactured and prepared for market. The cit}^ of Rio Janeiro alone 
during the year 1908 yielded over $500,000 from this source collected 
upon a total output from the mills of the Federal District of 01,802,037 
yards. Cotton factories in the Republic, as a rule, have all of the 
machinery on the ground floor, combining spinning, weaving, and 
dyeing in one building, the spindles keeping the looms busy and the 
latter the dyehouse. The raw product is stored at one end of the 
building and the finished product delivered and warehoused at the 
other. Not only is immense advance shown in the textile industries 
along established lines, such as the weaving of cottons and silks, but 
the valuable perini fiber, or linen plant, is gradually being placed on 
a commercial footing. 

In accordance with the regulations prescribed by the Brazilian 
budget for 1909, the Executive is authorized to grant exemption from 
duty on many classes of machinery and articles to be used in the 
establishment of new industries and the upbuilding of those already 
in operation. 

The national and state governments are also devoting more atten- 
tion to the pastoral pursuits of the country, particularly to the intro- 



BRAZIL. 61 

duction of live, stock into the Republic and to the improvement of 
the native breeds. Several of the state governments have experiment 
stations for breeding purposes, notably in Minas Geraes, much of the 
stock being received from the United States. A registration system 
for imported and improved stock has been established, and not only 
are such cattle admitted free of duty, but the expenses incident to 
their introduction are defrayed. In the State of Matto Grosso the 
number of cattle is estimated at not less than 3,000,000 head, and in 
the State of Goyaz at a slightly lower figure. In both of these States 
cattle grazing is carried on upon an extensive scale, many of the 
ranches being hundreds of miles in extent, with herds of cattle num- 
bering from 120,000 to 200,000 head. The States of Rio Grande do 
Sul, Santa Catharina, Sao Paulo, Matto Grosso, Goyaz, Minas Geraes^ 
and Bahia have the advantage in natural resources for the proper 
development of the pastoral industries. 

An enterprise in the State of Piauhy capitalized at $6,000,000 has 
for its object the extensive breeding of cattle and the crossing of the 
foreign with the domestic stock. It is also proposed to acquire 100 
kilometers of fallow lands for pasture and to engage in rubber plant- 
ing as well as the preparation of jerked beef and the export of fresh 
meat. 

Sheep raising has proven profitable in the States of Rio Grande do 
Sul, Parana, Santa Catharina, Sao Paulo, and elsewhere in the south- 
ern half of the Republic. The plains of Goyaz and Matto Grosso oífer 
splendid opportunities for the development of the wool-growing in- 
dustry, and with the protection afforded by the Brazilian tariff for 
the manufacture of woolen goods this industry should be greatly 
developed. 

Pork packing is gradually being placed upon a practical and mod- 
ern basis in the States of Rio Grande do Sul and Sao Paulo, and as a 
natural sequence more hogs are being grown each year. The State 
of Minas Geraes affords unusually good advantages in this particular, 
and there is on foot at the present time a movement for the establish- 
ment of a large packing plant in the capital of that State. 

Until recent years Brazil, with its vast plains suitable for the graz- 
ing of cattle where they might graze the year round with but little 
attention from their owners, has been a large importer of dairj^- prod- 
ucts, and particularly butter and cheese. This is still true of the 
northern parts of the Republic, but in the States of Minas Geraes, 
São Paulo, and Rio de Janeiro well established dairies have been in 
successful operation for years with a constantly increasing output. 
The first mentioned State leads in production, particularly of cheese, 
which has long been its important product, while the State of Rio 
Janeiro is now furnishing the cities within its own boundaries and 



62 INTERNATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

those of the neighboring State of São Paulo an almost equal amount 
of milk and butter. 

A government zootechnical and agronomical institute, dedicated 
to the study of stock raising and agricultural experiments, is to be 
established at Rio de Janeiro. 

MINE AND MINERALS. 

The State of Bahia, the richest of the Brazilian States in mineral 
deposits, is desirous of stimulating the promotion of this important 
branch of national industry. In the promulgation of mining regu- 
lations the state government makes liberal provisions for the rights 
of landowners, but at the same time provides the necessary impetus 
for the exploitation of the mineral resources of the property either 
by the holders or possible lessees. 

Old Portuguese records fixed the annual gold product of the coun- 
try at over $5,000,000 annually, a large proportion of which was 
obtained from Bahia, while the 1,700 tons of monazite sand and the 
16,000 tons of manganese ore shipped from the State in 1907 demon- 
strate its possibilities along these lines. 

The oiScial value of diamonds and carbons exported from Bahia in 
1907 was given as equivalent to $50,000, but it is more than probable 
that this amount represented but a very small portion of the total 
value of these articles mined and exported. 

Brazil also furnishes the greater part of the world's supply of 
monazite. The deposits lie along the coast of the States of Bahia 
and Espirito Santo in the sand banks and dunes on the beaches. 
Gravel deposits along certain of the rivers in the interior are being 
worked for monazite. The latest statistics in regard to exports of 
this product report shipments in 1907 of 4,437 tons, as compared with 
4,352 tons in 1906. 

The coal formations of the country, the existence of which has been 
known for over half a century, have been thoroughly studied by geolo- 
gists of repute from the United States, and it has been proved that a 
ojviboniferous vein extends from the south of the State of São Paulo 
to Rio Grande do Sul. The beds dip to the south and the coal seams 
increase in thickness in that direction. Tried on the railroads, Bra- 
zilian coal has proved to be of good quality, an analysis made in the 
United States giving the following results: Moisture, 2.62; volatile 
matter, 29.54; ash, 29.22; sulphur, 11.08; phosphorus, 0.012; fixed 
carbon, 38.62. The analysis made in 1906 in the Escola de Minas 
gave, hygrométrie moisture, 7.7 ; volatile matter, 32 ; ash, 8.5 ; equiva- 
lent carbon, 51.8 ; and calorific power, 5,400 calories. 

A very rich deposit of surface gold was recently discovered at a 
point called Olho de Agua, 8 kilometers from the city of Montes 
Claros, in the northern part of the State of Minas, Brazil, and pros- 



BEAZIL, 63 

pectors to the number of 3,000 are in the field. Gold to the value of 
about $150,000 has been secured in flakes varying from 100 to 720 
grams each. One of the latter, owing to its unusual weight, was ex- 
hibited in the National Exposition in Rio Janeiro. Discoveries were 
also reported of bismuth in Campo Alegre and diamonds in Abbadia 
dos Dourados. A clear white stone weighing 4-| carats was found, as 
well as a ruby weighing one-half carat. 

The most important placer is the basin of gold-bearing gravel below 
Guanay, reached by descending the Beni or Kaka River. This placer 
has been exploited to a considerable extent. The Incahuara basin, on 
the Beni River, and the gold-bearing gravel found on the banks of 
the Inambari River are also rich deposits, the gold being obtained 
from a black sand. Samples assayed ran over 80 ounces to the ton. 

Work has commenced on the mercury mine recently discovered in 
the State of Minas Geraes. Brazil is one of the few countries pos- 
sessing mines of this useful metal. 

COMMUNICATION. 

The total length of railways in operation in Brazil at the close of 
1908 was 11,940 miles; there having been added during the year 633 
miles, which exceeds the amount added in any previous year. Of 
the total increase in new mileage the federal government is credited 
with 487 miles and state governments with 146 miles. 

The construction of the Madeira-Mamore Railway, the line which 
will connect the Mamore River with the Madeira River, passing 
around the falls which have heretofore made a direct commercial 
route from Bolivia to the Atlantic Ocean an impracticable matter, 
is being pushed with all the rapidity possible. Between 3,000 and 
4,000 men are now working on a section 25 miles long, a large part 
being ready for the laying of the rails, of which about 12,000 tons 
have been received. This raihvay is being constructed by the Brazil- 
ian Government under the treaty of Petrópolis, in which Bolivia 
•ceded, for a consideration, all its rights in the Acre territory to 
Brazil, and the latter, among other considerations, agreed to build 
the railway, of which about 56 miles have been constructed, and the 
extension of which can be rapidly pushed. The first section which 
it is planned to deliver runs from Porto San Antonio, on the Madeira 
River, to Jacy Paran farther up the river. A presidential decree has 
heen issued authorizing a contract of lease for sixty years from Janu- 
ary 1, 1912, with the Madeira-Mamore Railway Company, the Ameri- 
can construction concessionaire. 

An executive decree of February 4, 1909, authorized the Brazilian 
Minister of the Treasury to issue bonds to the value of $6,000,000 to 
meet the payments due the current fiscal year to the companies under 



64 INTEENATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

contract to build the Madeira and Mamore Railwa}^, the extension of 
the Sobral Railway, and other lines connecting the States. The 
bonds are of the face value of 1.000 milreis each and bear 5 per cent 
interest. 

The railroad lines of Brazil are rapidly being extended as the im- 
portance of this branch of national life is thoroughly appreciated as 
a factor in the general progress of the Republic. 

STEAMSHIPS AND WATERWAYS. 

The favorable geographical position of Brazil, in the center of 
South America, places it within easy reach not only of the other 
countries of South and those of Central America, but also of the 
United States, of Europe, and even of Africa, it being but a few days 
by one of the fast liners from the African to the Brazilian coast. 
With a coast line on the Atlantic Ocean of more than 5,000 miles, 
Brazil possesses a number of excellent bays and harbors, among 
which the port of Rio de Janeiro, world renowned for its scenic 
beauty, is the largest. The other ports on the Atlantic are Santos, 
Para or Belem, Bahia or São Salvador, Pernambuco or Recife, Rio 
Grande do Sul, Paranaguá, Porto Alegre, Victoria, Maceió, Forta- 
leza, Maranham or Maranhão, .Parahyba, Antonina, Desterro or 
Florianópolis, São Francisco, Pelotas, Natal, Aracaju, Parnahyba, 
Estancia, Aracaty, Itajahy, Penedo, Mossoro or Santa Luzia, São 
Jorge dos Ilheos, Macau, Laguna, Barra do São João, Itapemirim, 
Cabo Frio, Santa Cruz, Camocim, Santa Victoria do Palmar, Macahe, 
Iguape, Angra dos Reis, Caravellas, Cannavieras, Alcobaça, Ubatuba, 
Paraty, São Matheus, and São Christovao. Among the river ports 
the most important are Manaos, on the Amazon River, 1,000 miles in- 
land; Corumbá, on the Paraguay; Uruayana, on the Uruguay; and 
Cuy aba, on the Cuy aba. 

Four steamship companies ply regularly between New York and 
Brazilian ports, viz, the Lamport and Holt Steamship Company, 
which has placed five new steamers on the service; the Lloyd 
Brazileiro; the Atlas service of the Hamburg- American Line; and 
the Prince Line. The first named makes the run in twenty-three days, 
and the other three in from twenty-six to twenty-eight days. First- 
class passage on the Lamport and Holt Line is from $190 to $220, 
while the Lloyd Brazileiro and Prince Line charge $135 and the 
Hamburg- American Line $60. In addition to these four, the Booth 
Steamship Company plies between New York and the ports of Para, 
Maranhão, Ceara, Paranahyba, and Manaos, the cost to Para for first- 
class passage being $60. 

Some of the fastest and most elegantly equipped steamers ply be- 
tween Rio de Janeiro and European ports, making the run from 



BEAZIL. 65 

Southampton to Eio de Janeiro in from fourteen to sixteen days. 
Through connection can be made with the Royal Mail Steamship 
Company, leaving New York every alternate Saturday for Southamp- 
ton, whence one of this company's direct steamers to Rio de Janeiro 
can be taken, the entire trip being made at a cost of from $250 to $300, 
and the time employed being twenty- four days. 

Brazil has been favored by nature with a most wonderful sj^stem of 
fluvial arteries. It has within its territory not only the largest river 
basin, both in area and in length, in the world, but has also perhaps 
more navigable rivers than any other country. The mighty Amazon 
is navigable almost in its entire length, as are most of its affluents, 
while in the southern part of Brazil the Paraguay, Uruguay, and 
Parana rivers are all navigable. 

Brazil thus has over 10,000 miles of navigable waterways open 
to river steamers and ocean-going vessels, and 20,000 miles additional 
navigable for light-draft vessels and ñat-bottom boats only. 

Several steamship companies maintain a regular service between 
points on these rivers, viz, the Amazon Steam Navigation Company, 
plying on the rivers Amazon, Rio Negro, Purus, Madeira, Tapajoz, 
Para, and Jurua; the Para and Amazon Steamship Company runs 
steamers on all of these rivers, as well as on the Yavary River. The 
Maranhão Company operates a line of steamers between Para and 
Óbidos, on the Amazon River, and the Marajó Company on the 
Araguary River from the city of Belem to inland points. The 
" Navigation Company of the Guama and Tocantins Rivers " and the 
Empreza Viação navigate these rivers and the River Sao Francisco, 
while the Compañía Paraense maintains a service both on the Ama- 
zon River and on the coast. The Lloyd Brazileiro has also steam- 
ers plying at regular intervals on the coast. Other companies 
engaged in the coastal service are the Compañía Nacional Nave- 
gação Costería, the Empreza Esperança Marítima, the Companhia 
Bahiana, Companhia Pernambuco de Navegação, and the Com- 
panhia Maranhão de Costeria. 

The most important of the Brazilian lakes are the Lagoa dos Patos 
and the Lagoa Merim. These two lakes form part of the boundary 
line with Uruguay, and together make a considerable body of navi- 
gable water. 

The Brazilian Congress, at the session which closed December 31, 
1908, renewed the contract of the Government with the Lloyd Bra- 
zileiro, the company which has enjoyed a subsidy arrangement with 
Brazil for the past three years. The renewal is to run for six years. 
In connection with it the Brazilian company agrees to revise and 
lower its coasting freight rates and to extend its service in a number 
of lines. At present the company offers the sole means of communi- 
cation between many parts of Brazil. A better service between Rio 



66 INTEENATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

Janeiro and New York has been established through the addition of 
two new ships to the fleet. They are well-equipped vessels, giving 
high-class service, and capable of a speed of 14 knots. Under the 
Brazilian law they will continue to call at ports along the coast, 
greatly improving the service between these points and New York. 
The contract between the Government and the steamship company 
practically vests the ownership of these vessels in the Government. 
Already the company, in connection with the Government, has two 
attractive and good-sized ships in the service between Rio de Janeiro 
and Manaos on the Amazon, a trip almost as long as that from Rio 
de Janeiro to New York. The vessels for the Rio de Janeiro-New 
York service are the largest and most modern of the company's fleet, 
and may be taken as an exemplification of the steady development in 
the tonnage and speed of the vessels engaged in the South American 
trade which has been going on for the past two and one-half years. 
Both the British and Italian companies in the South American trade 
are increasing their fleets with larger and speedier vessels, while the 
tonnage and average speed of vessels plying between Europe and 
Brazil for the second half of 1908 showed an increase of fully 20 per 
cent in the former and 12 per cent in the latter over the record for the 
first half of the year, which in itself is beyond all previous records. 
In 1908 English steamships transported the largest tonnage and the 
greatest number of passengers in the commerce of Brazil, German, 
Italian, and French steamers following in the order mentioned. 

A rapid passenger and freight steamship service is to be inaugu- 
rated between Montevideo and Corumbá, State of Matto Grosso, the 
service to extend as far as Cuyaba, the capital of that State. The 
distance in a direct water line from Rio de Janeiro to Cuyaba is about 
870 miles. 

Under the terms of the contract signed January 28, 1909, between 
the Minister of Public Works of Brazil and the Bahia Navigation 
Company, the latter company has inaugurated two new coast services, 
one to the north between Bahia and Belem, Para, and the other to the 
south between Bahia and Mucury. The company is also bound to 
establish within the year a monthly service between Bahia and Bel- 
monte. The Federal Government will pay to the company an annual 
subsidy of $90,000 in monthly installments. 

A steam navigation service between the ports of Recife and Amar- 
ração, Recife and Bahia, and Recife and Fernando de Noronha has 
been contracted for. Various companies for inland navigation were 
also formed during the year, many of which were subsidized by the 
Government and successfully operated. The report of the Amazon 
Steam Navigation Company, covering a period of eighteen months 
ending June 30, 1908, showed that after adding to the reserve fund 
the sum of £20,000 the company had a surplus of £50,086, including 



BKAZIL. 67 

£4,158 brought forward from the preceding fiscal year. The com- 
pany paid a dividend of 2 per cent. 

By the annual budget law the President of the Eepublic is author- 
ized to supply government aid in the construction of highways, the 
plan of communication outlined in the law referring particularly to 
a number of projects in different portions of the country, notably in 
Rio Grande do Sul and in the north of Minas Geraes. The subsidy 
amounts to about $1,200 per mile. 

The transfer of freight and passengers in several of the rural dis- 
tricts by automobile is under consideration. Electric transport sys- 
tems are the rule in the larger cities. 

A new suburban line, organized with Brazilian capital to connect 
Petrópolis with the capital, and costing $1,800,000, has secured a con- 
cession from the Government. The line must be completed within 
four years. 

POSTS AND TELEGRAPH. 

Many reforms are in contemplation with a view to increasing the 
efficiency of this branch of the Government. Brazilian post-offices 
number about 3,000, and the business of the post-office department 
for the year 1908 exceeded that of any other year, receipts showing 
an advance of $261,019 over 1907, mail matter transmitted amounting 
to 567,817,151 pieces. The conventions concluded with England and 
Canada for the exchange of international money orders went into 
effect during the year, and the Government hopes shortly to conclude 
parcel agreements with France, England, Germany, Italy, and the 
United States. 

At the beginning of the year the total length of the telegraph lines 
of the Eepublic was 43,153 miles of wire, with an extent of over 
17,000 miles, there having been added during the year 1,315 miles. 
The number of telegrams transmitted during the year was 2,216,491, 
as against 1,929,705 in 1907, or an increase of 13 per cent. A reduc- 
tion was made in the telegraph rates. 

A concession to German interests for the laying of a new telegraph 
cable between Brazil, Europe, and South Africa was granted bj the 
Government. The plans of the company as announced include the 
laying of a cable from Germany to Teneriffe, thence to Liberia and 
German West and Southwest Africa, and from Teneriffe to Brazil. 
The German Government is granting a subsidy which will guarantee 
the interest and ammortization of the debentures issued by the com- 
pany. Wireless stations have been established by both the Govern- 
ment and private companies at Para, Santarém, Manaos, Eio de 
Janeiro (2), Ilha Grande, Fort Santa Cruz, Ilha das Cobras, Ilha 
Mocangue, and Villegagnon, where government and public business 
is accepted. Ponta Negra, Ilha Raza, Guarabiba, and a number of 
other stations are to be completed and opened for business shortly. 



68 



IXTEKNATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMEEICAN EEPUBLICS. 



The Brazilian Government has undertaken the gigantic task of 
connecting the Amazon territory, telegraphically, with the southern 
districts; but, owing to the nature of the ground to be traversed and 
the probable time required to complete the work, slow progress is 




PALM AVENUK, PARA, BRAZIL. 

Thi.-i avenue is locally known as "Dezeseis de Novembro" (16th of November), named in honor of a 

national holiday. 

being made, and wireless telegraphy has been suggested as the only 
system adapted to the situation, and one which could be rapidly 
installed at reasonable expense. The length of this line, as contem- 
plated, will be about 1,200 miles. 



BRAZIL. 69 



IMMIGRATION AND COLONIZATION. 



Up to the present time Germany has predominated in contributing- 
to the immigrant population of the Republic, although efforts are 
being made to introduce settlers from other countries. Bureaus of 
immigration and colonization have been established, offering every 
guaranty and facility to prospective settlers. In 1908, 94,695 immi- 
grants arrived in the country, 45,000 of whom entered through the 
port of Eio de Janeiro. These figures show an increase of 40 per 
cent as compared with 1907. 

The first lot of Japanese immigrants arriving in Brazil under the 
arrangement concluded between the Japanese and Brazilian govern- 
ments Avas landed at Santos, for the State of Sao Paulo, on June 18, 
1908. The transportation company having the matter in charge 
projects the formation of a South American association with a very 
wide field of enterprise, the purpose of which is the promotion of 
commercial, industrial, and social intercourse between Japan and the 
States of South America. 



PUBLIC WORKS. 



The Brazilian budget for the present fiscal year authorizes the 
expenditure of large sums for educational purposes, for public works 
and improvements, including appropriations for the advancement of 
technical and professional education. At the beginning of the year 
1908 there were 624,064 matriculated students enrolled at the various 
public and private institutions of learning in the Republic. The 
primary schools numbered 11,216, witK an enrollment of 569,372; 
secondary schools numbered 328, with 30,897 pupils; professional 
schools, 116, with 17,966 ; schools of superior education, 25, with 5,829 ; 
normal and pedagogical schools, 44, with 5,021 ; industrial schools, 26, 
with 7,334; agricultural schools, 3, with 166; and 9 commercial 
schools, with 736 pupils. Among the professional and technical in- 
stitutions of learning the enrollment was as follows : Law schools, 
2,451 ; medical schools, 2,905 ; and polytechnic schools, 438. 

The Government has authorized the expenditure of $300,000 in 
irrigation works in the northern States of Brazil, while another 
project aims at opening up and improving river navigation, irrigating 
arid lands, reclamation of swamps, and preventing inundations 
through the regulation of water courses. 

The first section of the great dock system of Rio de Janeiro is near- 
ing completion. Over a mile of finished work has been accepted by 
the Government and 1,312 feet more have been completed. This sec- 
tion includes modern warehouses and all other needful appliances for 
the economical operation of the port. About $57.000,000 have been 



70 INTEENATIONAL. BUEEAU OP THE AMEKICAN EEPUBLICS. 

expended in the improvements, including the amounts spent on the 
Avenida Central, while on the dock proper the expenditure reached a. 
total of $44,660,000. It is the intention of the Government to lease 
the entire dock system, although formal bids will not be called for 
until legislation has been secured. The lease of the Santos dock has 
been a profitable venture for the grantee company, being regarded as 
the most lucrative enterprise of its kind in South America. 

The port works of Santos and Bahia are being vigorously prose- 
cuted, those of Para are begun, and arrangements have been made for 
inaugurating work at Rio Grande do Sul and Victoria. The Per- 
nambuco port works have been contracted for to be begun in July, 
1909, and other similar improvements are under survey. 

In the general improvement plans will be included the construction 
of a great floating dry dock for the Rio harbor to accommodate war 
and merchant vessels, and especially the new war ships of the Dread- 
nought type now being built in England for the Brazilian Govern- 
ment. Bids for this dock were opened in April, 1909. Two steel 
floating docks built for the port works now under way at Para have 
been launched from the British yards having the construction '\vl 
charge. They are to form part of an extensive ship-repairing depot,, 
including machine fitters, platers, carpenters, smith's shops, and 
foundry, and are furnished with the latest type of machinery witL 
which the works are to be equipped. 

The budget for 1909 under the heading of "light-houses and the 
buoying of ports " carries an appropriation of $15,900. 

In connection with the Fourth Latin American Medical Congress,, 
to be held in Rio de Janeiro in the summer of 1909, it has been 
arranged to hold an international exposition of sanitary appliances, 
medical foods and drugs models of sanitary establishments, and of all 
articles connected with medicine and hygiene. The date for this 
exposition has been fixed for the period from August 1 to September 
30, 1909. 

New waterworks were inaugurated at Rio de Janeiro during the 
year, thus doubling the water supply of the city which now receives 
213,000 cubic meters daily. The length of pipes laid was 284,897, 

The new supreme court building at Rio de Janeiro was finished 
and inaugurated in April. Other public buildings in course of con- 
struction at Rio are the new Fine Arts Building, the Electrical and 
Technical Institute, and the National Library. Other public works 
comprise a smokeless powder factory at Piquete, in the State of 
São Paulo; a wagon road connecting Villa União da Victoria and 
Palmas, in the State of Parana, and another road between Guara- 
puava and Iguassu colony in the same State, of which 35 kilometers 
were completed during the year. 



BRAZIL, 



71 



The Government has entered upon a plan of extensive public im- 
provements in the Acre Territory, such as the construction of wagon 
roads, public buildings, professional schools, the establishment of 
colonial centers, etc. 

Plans have been prepared for port improvement works at Itaqui, 
near the capital of the State of Maranhão, and at Camocim and 
Fortaleza. Dredging operations were carried on in the channel of 
the port of Natal, thereby greatly improving this port. 





CHILE 




The Eejoublic of Chile extends over more than thirty-eight degrees 
of latitude, from 17° 57' to 55° 59' south, stretching from the Samu 
River to Cape Horn, occupying a long, narrow strip of land between 
the Andean mountain range and the Pacific Ocean, with a coast line 
of nearly 3,000 miles and an average width of only 90 miles. The 
Republic has a total area of 291,500 square miles, with a population 
of 3,249,279. 

By reason of its peculiar shape easy access is afforded to the entire 
territory, and the exploitation of its vast mineral and other resources 
is both easy and profitable. As a mineral-producing country Chile 
is best known for her vast nitrate fields, from which the excellent 
fertilizer known as nitrate of soda is procured. Copper, gold, silver, 
and iron are also found. In the central and southern divisions of 
the Republic, agriculture, viticulture, apiculture, and fisheries thrive, 
while extensive forests furnish various kinds of cabinet and other 
woods. 

HISTORICAL SKETCH. 

Francisco Pizarro having conquered Peru, Diego de Almagro, 
one of his lieutenants, was dispatched with an army to the south to 
explore the country and take possession of it in the name of the King 
of Spain. He crossed the desert, which is now the great nitrate dis- 
trict, and after considerable difficulty managed to advance as far as 
the river Maule. There, however, he encountered the warlike Indian 
tribe of Araucanians and was obliged to retreat. Another expedi- 
tion was sent by Pizarro in the year 1540, commanded by his quarter- 
master, Pedro de Valdivia, who was more successful than his prede- 
cessor, Almagro, and although continually harassed by the Indians, 
was able to advance as far south as the present site of Santiago. 
Here he founded the city which is to-day the capital of the Republic. 

Although Spanish colonists in numbers came to Chile, but little 
progress was made, owing to the continual attacks to which the settle- 
ments were subjected from the indomitable Araucanians. These 
attacks continued until the year 1640 when the Spanish governor con- 
cluded a treaty with the Indians. By this treaty the river Bio-Bio 
was recognized as the boundary line between the whites and the 
Indians, and the aid of the latter was enlisted in defending the coun- 
try against the invasions of the English and Dutch buccaneers. 

AVhen, in the early part of the nineteenth century, the spirit of 
independence aroused the South American Continent, Chile in re- 

72 



CHILE. 



73 



sponse, on September 18, 1810, deposed the Spanish authorities and 
created a provisional government. 

Spain, however, was not willing thus easily to be deprived of its 
South American colonies and poured troops into Chile from Peru, 
the royalist stronghold. Finally, through the aid of the Argentine 
patriot and soldier, General San Martín, the Spaniards were de- 
feated at the battle of Maipú on April 5, 1818, thus practically ending 
the Spanish power in Chile. 

General O'Higgins, avIio had distinguished 
himself in the war for independence, was ap- 
pointed supreme dictator of the Chilean 
nation, and on October 23, 1818, a constitu- 
tion which had been drafted by a committee 
appointed by O'Higgins was formally adopted 
by the people. 

Among the great men who contributed to 
the final molding of the Republic in its pres- 
ent shape one of the greatest is Don Diego 
Portales, who was Minister of State under 
President Prieto (1831-1841). Portales set 
the national finances in order and was largely 
responsible for the present constitution. The present incumbent of 
the presidency, Señor Don Pedro Montt, was inaugurated on Sep- 
tember 18, 1906, for a term expiring in 1911. 




SR. DON PEDRO MONTT. PRESIDENT OF 
CHILE. 



CONSTITUTION AND GOVERNMENT. 



The present Constitution of the Eepublic of Chile was formally 
adopted on May 25, 1833. Under it Chile has a single, republican 
form of government, with the customary division into legislative, 
executive, and judicial branches. 

The President, whose term of office is five years, is chosen by 
electors, who, in their turn, are elected by direct vote. The President 
can not serve for two consecutive terms, and he may not leave the 
country during his term of office or for one year after the expiration 
of the same, except with the consent of the Congress. 

He is assisted by a Council of State, consisting of 11 members, 6 
of whom are appointed by Congress and 5 by the President, and who 
are directly responsible to the Congress. He is further assisted b}'^ a 
Cabinet of 6 ministers or secretaries, who, although appointed by the 
President, are likewise responsible to Congress, and may at any time 
be forced to resign, if Congress passes a vote of lack of confidence. 

The legislative power is vested in the national Congress, consisting 
of a Senate and Chamber of Deputies, the former composed of 32 and 
the latter of 94 members. Senators are elected by direct accumulative 
560— Bull. 1—09 6 



74 



INTERNATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



vote, in the proportion of one for every three deputies, for a term of 
six years, but the Senate is partially renewed every three years. 
Deputies are elected by direct vote, one for every 30,000 inhabitants 
or fraction thereof not less than 15,000, for a period of three years. 

During the recess of Congress a standing committee consisting of 
14 members, of which 7 are Senators and 7 Deputies, acts for the 
Congress and is consulted by the President upon all matters of 
importance. 

The judiciary of the country consists of a national Supreme Court 
of 7 members, convening at the city of Santiago, 6 courts of appeals 
located at Santiago, Valparaiso, Tacna, Serena, Talca, and Concep- 
ción, consisting of 5 members each, with the exception of those at 
Concepción and Santiago, which have 8 and 12 members, respectively. 
There are also a number of minor courts located in the different 
provinces and districts. 

The Eepublic of Chile is divided into 23 provinces and 1 national 
territory, which are again divided into departments, districts, and 
municipalities. The provinces are governed by an intendente ap- 
pointed by the President of the Eepublic, while the departments are 
governed by a governor and the districts by inspectors. The popular 
element is represented by municipal councils elected by direct vote 
in each municipality. 

Following are the provinces of Chile with their respective capitals : 



Province. 


Capital. 


Province. 


Capital. 


Antofagasta 

Aconcagua 


Antofagasta. 

San Felipe. 

Copiapo. 

Lebu. 

Los Angeles. 

Temueo. 

Ancud. 

San Fernando. 

Concepción. 

La Serena. 

Curico. 

Linares. 

Puerto Montt. 


Malleco 


Angol. 


M-ule 


Cauquenes. 


Nuble 


Chilian. 






Rancagua. 


Bio-Bio 


Santiago 


Santiago (also capi- 


Cautin 




tal of theRepublic ) . 
Tacna. 




Talca 


Talca. 




Tarapaca 


Iquique. 




Valdivia 


Valdivia. 




Valparaiso 


Valparaiso. 




Magallanes (Territory) 


Punta Arenas. 











President Señor Don Pedro Montt. 

Minister of the Interior and Chair- 
man of the Cabinet Señor Enrique Rodriguez. 

Minister of Foreign Affairs Señor Agustín Edwards. 

Minister of Justice and Public Instruc- 
tion Señor Domingo Amunátegui Soler. 

Minister of War and Marine —Señor Roberto Huneeus. 

Minister of the Treasury Señor Joaquin Figueroa. 

Minister of Industry and Public Works- Señor Pedro García de la Huerta. 
Note. — List of cabinet officers corrected to July 20, 1909. 
The President is allowed a salary of $6,750 per annum and an allot- 
ment of $3,500 for expenses. 



CHILE. 75 

CHILE IN 1908. 

No better evidence characteristic of Chilean energy can be offered 
than the activity prevailing in the construction of communication 
facilities during the year 1908. The award of the contract for the 
completion of the Arica-La Paz Railway, the construction of the 
Chilean section of the Trans- Andine line to the mouth of the Cumbres 
tunnel, and the anticipated junction with the Argentine section in the 
near future, with its possible inauguration in 1910, as well as the 
activity prevailing in lesser construction work in the Republic, all 
foreshadow the national purpose to meet the increased opportunities 
to be offered the western coast of South America through the com- 
pletion of the Panama Canal. Commercial transactions show a gain 
of more than $4,000,000 in 1908 over those of the preceding year, for 
although importations declined, mineral and vegetable production 
notably advanced, with corresponding increased exportation. 
The harvest yield in the wheat-producing sections for 1909 is esti- 
mated at from 20 to 25 per cent increase over the preceding year. 
The crops of the country are being improved both in quantity and 
quality by the general application of modern methods of culture and 
irrigation, while greater interest than ever before is being manifested 
in the development of industrial life, and the manufacture of articles 
hitherto imported will be a development of the future. 

Progress is being made on the port works of Valdivia, Corral, and 
Valparaiso. The government projects adopted for colonizing the 
unsettled sections of the Republic are giving satisfactory results. 

The nitrate association, a continuation of the combination of pro- 
ducers entered into in 1900 and renewed in 1906, was dissolved on 
March 31, 1909, and its renewal for a further period was adversely 
decided upon. 

FOREIGN AFFAIRS. 

At the opening of the Chilean Congress on June 1, 1909, President 
MoNTT addressed the National Assembly felicitating the Republic on 
the conditions prevailing throughout the country, stating that the 
efforts of the Government would be directed toward the maintenance 
of peaceful relations with other nations. 

Pending questions with Peru are tending toward a final adjustment, 
various conventions having been signed in Lima for the reciprocal 
benefit of the two countries, while the construction of the Arica-La 
Paz Railroad, in consequence of an arrangement with the Bolivian 
Government, is progressing as a national enterprise. With Ecuador 
the long-standing friendly relations are maintained, and since the set- 
tlement of the boundary question with the Argentine Republic the 



76 INTERNATIONAL BUEEAU OF THE AMEEICAN EEPUBLICS, 

common interests of both countries are being advanced in a spirit of 
concord and fraternity. A commercial treaty for the furtherance of 
these ends is under consideration between the two Republics. 

The traditional friendship with Brazil continues unbroken, while 
intercourse with the other nations of Latin America is proceeding 
along lines of mutual esteem and fellowship. 

With the United States an arbitration treaty has been signed, and 
relations with that country are maintained on a most cordial basis. 

Possibly the most prominent event in the history of the year was 
the assembling of the Pan-American Scientific Congress at Santiago 
in December. The cordial welcome tendered the delegates from the 
countries of South America and the Republic of the North was 
an indication of the international spirit of comity which will control 
the relations of the Republic. This spirit is further manifested in 
the appointment by the Chilean Government of the Pan-American 
Committee to prepare for participation in the Fourth International 
Conference of American States, to be held at Buenos Aires in 1910. 

FINANCE. 

Notwithstanding adverse exchange conditions, the financial posi- 
tion of Chile continued satisfactory during 1908. This was largely 
due to the fact that duties and revenue are mostly collected on a fixed 
exchange value, so that the Government does not feel the brunt of the 
decline in exchange. The recent issue of $15,000,000 of 5 per cent 
bonds, underwritten by Messrs. Rothschild, may be taken as a fair 
indication of the rapid readjustment of the financial status of the 
Republic. 

The revenues of the Government for 1908 were $51,108,000 and the 
ordinary expenditures amounted to $48,825,000, a margin of receipts 
over expenditures of $2,283,000 being shown. The duty on nitrate 
is the largest single item in the list of revenues. 

Extraordinary expenditures comprised in the rebuilding of Val- 
paraiso, railway construction, etc., were met by the loan for $15,- 
000,000, from which a balance of over $8,000,000 was reported on 
hand at the close of the year. 

Many notable changes have been made in the rates levied on im- 
ports by the Chilean Government. Sugar, boots and shoes, and 
various articles of textile manufacture are included in this tariff-rate 
reduction, which began to take effect progressively on July 1, 1908. 

Duties collected on exports for the year are given at $6,888,431.15 
Chilean gold (18d.) and $6,079,581.22 currency; import duties being 
reckoned as $19,859 Chilean gold and $5,895,404.41 currency. 

The external debt on June 1, 1909, amounted to $101,900,000 gold. 
The internal debt is represented by paper currency issued by the 



CHILE. 77 

Chilean Government, which, if redeemed at its face value, would 
mean $48,077,308 United States gold in excess of the value of the 
redemption bonds held to cover a portion of the currency, and would 
increase the public debt by $24,038,654. To redeem the paper cur- 
rency of Chile there is now on deposit in European and American 
banks about $25,000,000 United States gold. These deposits are draw- 
ing interest and will be available for the purpose specified on and 
after January 1, 1910. On August 13, 1908, a laAV was promulgated 
imposing an export duty of 40 per cent on silver bullion assaying 0.5 
or less. 

At the beginning of the year, the savings banks of Chile held de- 
posits aggregating $19,966,774.61, representing 174,791 accounts, 
while on June 30, 1908, the number of depositors had increased to 
198,419, and the deposits to $22,876,141.65, a gain during a period of 
six months of 23,628 depositors and $2,909,367.04 in deposits. 

COMMERCE. 

The foreign commerce of Chile in 1908 amounted to $214,040,832 
gold, an increase of $4,617,489 over 1907. Of this amount imports 
figured to the extent of $97,551,421, a loss of $9,642,456, and exports 
$116,489,411, a gain of $14,259,945. The figures for 1907 are : Total 
trade, $209,423,343; imports, $107,193,887; and exports, $102,229,466. 

The principal articles of import that decreased in 1908, as compared 
with 1907, were, in the order of their importance, textiles, mineral, 
vegetable, and animal products, arms, ammunition, and explosives, 
perfumes, pharmaceutical and chemical products. The decrease in 
textiles was $4,591,533 ; in mineral products, $4,263,341 ; in vegetable 
products, $3,159,535; and in animal products, $858,470. The prin- 
cipal articles of import that increased in 1908, as compared with 1907, 
were petroleum, fuel, machinery, paper, and paper products. Oil and 
fuel increased to the amount of $2,039,780, and machinery, tools, and 
apparatus $1,912,427. 

The exports for 1908 comprised mineral products, $99,082,573; 
vegetable products, $8,936,729 ; animal products, $6,091,551 ; sundry 
products, $473,664; wines and liquors, $71,762; and coin, $53,764. 

The only item of export which decreased in 1908, as compared with 
1907, was coin, $548,485. Mineral products increased to the extent of 
$10,741,533, and vegetable products to the amount of $4,077,690. 

The largest class of exports was mineral products, the principal 
items of which were: Nitrates, 20,336,122 quintals valued at $85,- 
350,882 ; copper bullion and bars, 29,539,235 kilos, $6,409,132 ; copper 
ore, 64,684,579 kilos, $2,568,590; borate of lime, 31,740,650 kilos, 
$1,621,947; iodine, 330,090 kilos, $1,433,745; and 1,162,913 kilos of 
gold and silver ores valued at $923,353. 



78 INTEENATIONAL BUEEAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

The countries of origin of Chilean imports were, in the order of 
values, Great Britain, Germany, United States, France, Belgium, 
and the Argentine Republic, and of destination of exports Great 
Britain, Germany, United States, France, Holland, and Belgium. 

Important as the progress of the last few decades has been, Chile 
is a country with a still greater commercial future. The United 
States is recognized as England's foremost competitor for Chilian 
trade, notwithstanding the fact that Germany last year exported to 
Chile about two and one-half times more than did the United States, 
American goods are well received, and with the more progressive 
methods adopted by American exporters the coming decade may see 
gains as marvelous as those of the past ten years, which showed an 
increase of American imports into Chile of more than 430 per cent. 
For 1908, however. United States statistics note receipts of Chilean 
merchandise to the value of $12,494,122, and exports to that country 
valued at $5,373,911, the decline in both branches of trade being 
very great. 

PRODUCTION AND INDUSTRIES. 

Mining, due to the extensive working of the great nitrate of soda 
deposits, takes first place among the industries of the republic. The 
association which for many years has controlled the output and export 
of Chilean nitrate, the ranking product of the country, decided to 
discontinue operations as a company from A]3ril 1, 1909. The year's 
production was slightly in excess of the 2,000,000 tons fixed as the ex- 
ploitable quota, being 42,847,267 Spanish quintals of 101 pounds, 
while exports also exceeded the estimate, figuring for 2,250,000 tons. 
The Government has appointed a commission for the collection and 
distribution of information bearing upon this industry so important 
to the national life, and will carry on an active propaganda in its 
behalf at home and abroad. 

The official board of engineers has reported to the Chilean Govern- 
ment that there are undeniably in sight 4,483,000,000 quintals of 
nitrate in the deposits of the country. Antofagasta is credited with 
4,103,000,000 and Tarapacá with 740,000,000 quintals. With an an- 
nual exportation of 35,000,000 quintals, this shows sufficient to supply 
the entire world's consumption for one hundred and thirty years. A 
previous estimate had fixed the amount at 1,603,000,000 quintals. 
The nitrate fields of South America exported in 1830, the first year 
they were worked, 8,348 tons of crude mineral. 

Borate production is placed at 28,000 tons annually, with a valua- 
tion of $4,000,000, and so extensive are the deposits that Chile could 
easily supply the whole world. 

Sulphur production does not meet the necessities of the home mar- 
ket, although large deposits are known to exist in the Provinces of 



CHILE. 79 

Tacna and Coquimbo. Extensive deposits of sodium chloride are 
under development, notably those of Tarapacá, where a bed with a 
depth of 20 meters extends over a large area. 

Giiano has been preserved to satisfy national consumption, and 
the deposits are being worked in accordance with agricultural re- 
quirements. 

Sulphuric acid is produced in the Guayacan factory, the cataliptic 
system being employed, and the product being largely used for 
metallurgical purposes. 

Coal mining, with a production of 900,000 tons, does not meet the 
country's requirement, and there is consequently a yearly importa- 
tion of about 1,500,000 tons, mainly from Australia and England. A 
strong effort is being made to open up the very extensive coal fields of 
the Province of Arauco, south of Coronel. A much better grade of 
coal is found in the interior of that Province that has hitherto been 
mined in Chile for commercial purposes. It is said to be very good 
coking coal and suitable for use in the Chilean navy. The state rail- 
ways of Chile consume annually from 350,000 to 400,000 tons of coal, 
of which about one-half is imported. 

Gold mining is less actively carried on in late years than was form- 
erly the case, although the exploitation of placer gold is increasing. 
These deposits have a great future, particularly in Cautin, Valdivia, 
and Magellan in the southern part of the Republic. Hydraulic 
and dredge systems have recently been installed, but as the work 
has been largely experimental the best results have not yet been 
attained. • In 1907 the total output of gold was 1,500,000 grams, 
amounting in value to nearly $1,000,000. Near Vallenar a gold de- 
posit has lately been discovered assaying nearly 200 ounces of pure 
gold per ton. This is the old gold mining region of Chile, 

Silver production, although it showed a slight advance in 1907, 
when the output amounted to 10,433 kilograms, does not receive the 
attention warranted by the known value of the deposits. 

The mining energies of the countrj^ have been directed largely to 
copper, the production of which for 1908 was given as 35,000 tons of 
refined metal, as compared with 28,854 tons in 1907. The mean copper 
percentage of ores worked in Chile during 1907 was 9^, a portion of 
which, with an average percentage of 20 per cent, is sent abroad as ore 
for treatment. The old mines of Teniente are being successfully 
worked and the development of workings in CoUahuasi, Calama, and 
Chiquicamata, as well as the exploitation of certain lower-grade de- 
posits, have occasioned a greater activity in copper mining. The 
greatest depth arrived at in the Republic is about 1,000 meters at the 
Dulcinea mine in Copiapo. but as a rule the operations are not carried 
on below 200 to 500 meters. Large copper mines and smelting estab- 
lishments are located at Cerro Blanco, Carizal Alto, Jarilla, and As- 



80 INTEENATIONAL BUEEAU OF THE AMEEICAJST EEPUBLICS. 

tilla and other smelting works have recently been established at 
Chañarcillo in the Department of Copiapo, giving considerable im- 
pulse to copi^er mining in that district. All of these districts have 
rail connection with the nearest ports, thus affording easy means of 
transportation and communication. 

Petroleum and natural gas have been discovered in the township 
of Carelmapu, in the Province of Llanquihue, about 500 miles south 
of Valparaiso. This discovery was made in the vicinity of a fairly 
rich gold mining district and not very far from the site of the ex- 
tensive steel works being built near Corral. 

The production of nonmetallic substances, such as lime, cement, 
chalks, marble, clay, etc., is sufficient for national needs, and earthen- 




ICEBERG IN MAGELLAN STRAIT. 

The route traversed bv the trans-Atlantic liners includes the Strait of Magellan proper, Smyth 
Channel, Victoria, Sarmiento, Los Inocentes, Concepción channels. Canal Ancho, and Messier 
Channel, covering in all 365 miles in length, the width varying from 2 to 25 miles, and being 
one of the most picturesque maritime routes in the world. 

ware factories are in operation at Lota, and cement factories are suc- 
cessfully operated at La Calera and El Melon. 

In accordance with the law of July 16, 1908, the Chilean mining 
code establishes three classes of mines, viz, (1) gold, silver, copper, 
and similar mines, the acquisition of which is free; (2) coal mines 
and mines containing similar fossils; and (3) mines containing min- 
erals situated on uncultivated state or municipal lands. Gold, silver, 
copper, and similar mines pay a tax of $3.50 per hectare, and coal 
mines and mines containing similar substances which formerly paid 
a tax of $1.75 per hectare now pay $0.07 per hectare. 

Stock farming, and agriculture generally, represent important 
branches of Chilean industry, and though primitive methods are 



CHILE. 81 

employed on the average haciendas, modern machinery is coming 
into very general use in most districts. The United States supplies 
the greater part of this, the light, ornately finished implements of 
that country being regarded as exactly suited to Chilean conditions, 
but when strong and heavy machines, such as mowers, are required, 
they are generally obtained from Great Britain. During 1907 farm 
and dairy machinery to the value of $1,556,884 was imported, of 
which the United States furnished $925,912. The lumber industry in 
the far south of Chile also merits special attention at this time, as it 
is in an active stage of development. 

Recent estimates by reliable authorities place the number of farms 
in Chile at about 50,000 and an assessed valuation of $365,000,000 
United States gold. 

The harvest for 1908 was, in general, quite satisfactory. The north 
central portion suffered, but farther south the crops were better than 
usual, owing to the lighter rainfall, for as a usual thing that portion 
of the country has too much rain to produce the best results. 

The wheat yield of over 25,000,000 bushels was about the same as 
for last year, when there was a surplus of about 5,000,000 bushels, 
and the quality in the main was superior. The barley crop was a 
little short of average, 5,500,000, but will be sufficient to meet home 
demands, while the fruit crop was good and the yield more than 
sufficient to meet the demand. Wine production was greater than 
in 1907. The vineyards of the Republic yield more than enough to 
supply the home needs, and the wines of the country, if properly 
exploited, have a bright future abroad. 

The cultivation of flax is being encouraged by the Government 
and will, it is anticipated, form a valuable source of wealth for the 
nation. Some tobacco of very good quality is also grown in the 
country, but it will be some years before the supply will be equal to 
the demand for this article. 

The future looks promising for the development of agriculture, as 
the Government is doing much to open up heretofore undeveloped 
sections of the country by building railways, assisting irrigation 
enterprises, bettering wagon roads, and encouraging immigration. 
The soil of Chile is very fertile, but its yield could be increased from 
200 to 300 per cent by the application of more modern methods and 
the use of up-to-date machinery. 

The pastoral industry of the country, as a result of better trans- 
portation facilities, is being developed. The Territory of Magellan, 
the southernmost political division of the Republic, is an excellent 
field for stock raising. This extensive territory, comprising about 
one-fourth of the total area of Chile, contains approximately 
48,000,000 acres of land and owes its present prosperity principally 
to sheep raising and the working of its placer mines. Some idea 



82 



INTERNATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



of the fortunes obtained from the former industry may be had when 
it is remembered that j^ersons engaging in this occupation ten or 
fifteen years ago with a capital of from $6,000 to $10,000 are now the 
owners of flocks ranging from 60,000 to 90,000 sheep. 

It is estimated that there were 1,873,709 head of sheep, 37,804 
head of horned cattle. 23,888 horses, and about 1,000 hogs, mules, and 
goats in the Territory of Magellan in 1907. The wool exported from 
Punta Arenas in 1906 amounted to 16,500,000 pounds, valued at 
$3,009,371. Practically all of the wool and hides shipped from 
southern Chile in 1906 went to Great Britain, Germany, and Bel- 




PENGUINS ON SANTA MARTA ISLAND. 

Santa Marta, a small island in the Strait of Magellan, a short distance from Punta Arenas, is one 
of the islands on which is found the penguin, a bird peculiar to the southern extremity of the 
American Continentand in the Antarctic regions. Antarctic explorers have frequently subsisted 
on the flesh of these birds for months, when their supply of food had been exhausted. 

gium, the former country receiving about four-fifths of the entire 
output of these two products. 

The raising of horses is also a profitable industry in the Territory 
of Magellan. The native horse is descended from Andalusian stock 
and is hardy, docile, intelligent, and vigorous and, it is said, is capa- 
ble of doing more work with less food and care than the European or 
American horse. During the last twenty years the native stock 
has been considerably improved by the introduction of stallions from 
England, Germany, and France. 

More attention is now oeing given to manufacturing industries in 
Chile than ever before. During the year 1908 shops and factories 
to the number of 2,829 were in operation in the 16 leading prov- 



CHILE. 83 

inces, aside from that of Valparaiso. Invested capital amounted to 
$46,114,424 gold, and employment was given to 51,353 persons, of 
whom 32,795 were men, 14,114 women, and 4,114 children. The 
value of raw material consumed by these plants during the year was 
$34,464,766.50, of which $25,682,864.50 was domestic and $8,781,902 
imported. The output of the factories was valued at $62,500,000, 
leaving a surplus applicable to labor, other expenses, and profits of 
$28,036,233.50. 

The motive power employed represented an equivalent of 26,000 
horsepower, of which 10,600 horsepower was hydraulic. Water 
power commands much attention in the country by reason of the high 
price of coal and other fuel. The import duty on most manufactured 
articles, with the exception of machinery, ranges from 30 to 60 per 
cent. 

The manufacture of shoes by machinery is increasing rapidly in 
Chile. A short time ago the first shoe factory employing machinery 
was opened at Valdivia, and now there are 22 well-equipped factories 
of various sizes located in different cities of the country. A large 
percentage of the shoe machinery in use in Chile is from the United 
States. France comes next, followed by England. 

Several industries closely allied with and depending upon stock 
raising are now being exploited in the Territory of Magellan. In 
1906 there were seven tallow factories in the territory, having a 
capital of $155,125 and an annual output valued at $704,405. There 
are two refrigerating plants, one of which, in 1907, exported 120,000 
frozen wethers. The plant at Punta Delgada is the only meat- 
canning establishment now in operation in the territory. The capital 
invested is $225,000. There are also stearin, soap, and salted-meat 
factories in successful operation. 

Salmon is being introduced into the rivers in the southern parts of 
the country with very good results, but this new industry will not 
show any results for some years, and at present large quantities are 
being brought in direct from California and sold at reasonable 
prices, the customs duties on this article being about half what it is 
on lobsters. The latter are packed at the island of Juan Fernandez 
and are sold at very high prices, owing to the prohibitive duties levied 
to protect this so-called native industry. Fresh fish, of which there 
is an abundance, is daily offered in the markets, and oysters are 
plentiful in the southern part of the country, where they are canned 
for shipment to the northern provinces. 

RAILWAY AND STEAMSHIP LINES. 

The railways of the Republic in actual operation, under construc- 
tion, or in contemplation on January 1, 1908, represented a total of 
3,646 miles, of which 1,590 were in actual operation, 612 under con- 



84 INTERNATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

struction, and 1,444 miles projected. During 1908, G48 miles of gov- 
ernment railways were constructed, of which 482 miles were built 
under government supervision and 165 miles by contractors employed 
by the Government. The construction of these lines represented an 
outlay of $9,837,189. 

According to the latest information from the most authentic 
sources, the entire Trans-Andine Railway system is to be completed 
and open to through public traffic not later than March, 1911. With 
reference to other important lines the following developments are 
reported : 

On February 1, 1909, bids for the construction of the section of 
the longitudinal railway between Cabildo and San Marcos, covering 
a distance of 127.38 miles, were opened in the capital of the Republic 
and in the legations of Chile in Europe and the United States. The 
only bid received in Chile was that of a London company, the amount 
being £1,900,000 and the time required for the construction three 
years. 

Tenders for the construction of the remainder of the railway from 
Arica to La Paz, a distance of 350 miles, were opened in the Depart- 
ment of Industry and Public Works, at Santiago, on March 1, 1909, 
the award being made to a British firm. 

Owing to its Pacific coast line of nearly 3,000 miles, every part of 
Chile can be easily reached hj water, there being no less than 59 
ports in the country, 14 of which are the so-called major ports, which 
are ports of entry with custom-houses, and upon which the minor 
ports are dependent. The major ports are Pisagua, Iquique, Toco- 
pilla. Ant of agasta. Taltal, Caldera, Carrizal Bajo, Coquimbo, Val- 
paraiso, Talcahuano, Coronel, Valdivia, Puerto Montt, and Ancud. 

Punta Arenas, in the Straits of Magellan, is a free port, where 
merchandise may be imported and exported free of duty. 

There are a number of navigable rivers, among which the Bueno, 
the Maule, the Cautin, the Bio-bio, and the Valdivia are the most 
important, being navigable for distances varying from 23 to 150 
miles, the total navigable length of the Chilean rivers being 972 miles. 

Chile can be reached either directly from New York by one of 
the three steamship companies maintaining direct lines: via Buenos 
Aires and the Cordillera, via Panama and the west coast, or via San 
Francisco and the west coast. 

The New York and Pacific Steamship Company, the West Coast 
Line, and the Barber Line run steamers between New York and 
Chilean ports, employing from 41 to 55 days to Valparaiso, but hav- 
ing limited accommodations for passengers. 

By way of Panama the trip is made with the Panama Railroad 
Company's vessels, having regular weekly sailings from New York, 
thence across the Isthmus, and from Panama by one of the lines ply- 



CHILE. 



85 



mg on the west coast, it being possible to make the trip by this route 

in 35 days, at a cost of $204 for first-class passage. 

The steamship lines plying regularly along the Pacific coast are: 
The Pacific Steam Navigation Company, calling at all the major 




L-^A.r^^^KJ^agiwBgag'ZBSig.--^ - 



A MOUNTAIN SCENE ON THE TRANSANDINE RAILWAY. 

The scenery along the line of the mountainous sections of this railroad is as fine as can be found any- 
where in the world. The higher peaks of the snow-covered cordillera are constantly in view and 
an ever-changing panorama of mountain, valley, and gorge is presented to the traveler. 

ports of Chile; the Compañía Sud- Americana de Vapores^ call- 
ing at all the Chilean ports ; the Kosmos Line, plying between San 
Francisco, California, and Hamburg, Germany, calling at all the 
more important ports of the west coast, and the Compañía de Nave- 



86 INTEENATIONAL BUREAU OP THE AMEEICAN EEPUBLICS. 

gación y Diques Secos Peruanos^ which has recently inaugurated a 
fast service between Panama and Valparaiso, Chile. By a decree of 
September 25, 1908, the Chilean Steamship Company was authorized 
to operate in the Republic. This company has a capital of $625,000, 
with headquarters at Valparaiso. 

Maritime transport increase is indicated by the addition of 35 
vessels, with 17,740 tons burden, during the year, the total merchant 
marine now consisting of 172 ships and 98,722 registered tons. 

During the year 1908 steamers to the number of 387 and 18 ships 
touched at Valparaiso, discharging 715,304 packages and loading 
762,900. Packages to the number of 2,500 were reembarked and 1,874 
sold to pay storage charges. 

The Government has 28 bridges of different types under construc- 
tion, at a total cost of $1,017,510 United States gold, with 31 more 
under consideration at a cost of $1,390,103 United States gold. 

POSTS AND TELEGRAPHS. 

The postal movement for 1907 covered 78,016,179 pieces of mail 
matter which, although less than the estimate made, is greater by 
nearly 1,000,000 pieces than the year preceding. Parcels post values 
were $1,000,750. Of the 323 telegraph offices in the Republic, 10 were 
added during the year. The telegraph offices transmitted 2,035,291 
messages for domestic and 83,547 for foreign service. During the 
year the line between Iquique and Zapiga was opened and a new com- 
munication between Olera and Santiago. Telegraph and telephone 
lines are respectively about 11,836 and 8,000 miles in extent. 

The Government has erected wireless stations on the island of Juan 
Fernandez, over 400 miles from the coast, and at Valparaiso, which 
have been most satisfactorily operated. Plans for wireless connec- 
tion with the Territory of Magellan were completed. 

At the beginning of 1909 there were 15 industrial schools, giving 
instruction to about 3,300 pupils. Of these schools 8 were located in 
Santiago and the others in the various provinces. Much interest is 
being taken in these schools and their work is telling for good in the 
industrial development of the country. They are well equipped with 
up-to-date appliances, much of which is from the United States. 

There are only three foreign life insurance companies doing busi- 
ness in Chile, two from the United States and one from Canada. In 
1907 the United States companies did a business of $293,433 and paid 
losses amounting to $127,440, showing a profit of $165,993. 

PUBLIC WORKS. 

The Government has under construction buildings valued at 
$4,895,273 United States gold, all of which are scheduled for comple- 
tion before the close of 1909. 



CHILE. 



87 



In a special message to the Federal Congress the President of the 
Republic of Chile has recommended that $800,000 be appropriated 
for the purpose of celebrating the centennial of Chilean independence 
in 1910. The committee appointed to draft a programme recom- 
mends that the exhibit of arts and crafts be held in the new Palace 
of Fine Arts; that the agricultural exhibit take place at the Quinta 
Nacional ; and that the exhibit of industry, commerce, and education 
be held in a building to be constructed for the School of Mines in the 
Quinta Normal. The committee recommends the erection in Cousiño 
Park, Santiago, of the Centennial Building, in which the exhibition 
of the Historical Museum of the Republic will be held. 

In honor of the occasion the opening of several new streets and 
avenues is recommended, as is also the erection of a statue to Camilo 
Henriquez, the founder of Chilean journalism. In addition to the 
foregoing celebration and erection of buildings, to take place in the 
capital, the committee recommends construction of public buildings 
in various sections. 




The Eepublic of Colombia, occupying the northwestern corner of 
South America, extends from latitude 2° 40' south to 12° 25' north 
and from 68° to 79° west longitude, covering an area of 438,436 
square miles, equal to that of the States of Louisiana, Texas, Kansas, 
and Arkansas, with a population of 4,000,000, equal to 9 inhabitants 
per square mile or less than one-half the population per square mile 
of the United States of America. 

Three chains of mountains which cross the country occasion a 
variety of climate, ranging from temperate to tropical. Coffee, cacao, 
sugar cane, tobacco, and bananas are successfully grown and largely 
exported, and the extensive forests contain a number of valuable 
cabinet and other useful woods and medicinal plants. Vegetable 
ivory and india rubber are other products of export, also " Panama " 
hats, in the manufacture of which the natives have acquired consid- 
erable skill. The mineral wealth of the country has been but little 
exploited, although its emerald mines furnish the world's chief supply 
of these gems. Gold, silver, and other precious metals are also to be 
found in the Hequblic. 

HISTORICAL SKETCH. 

'When Columbus, on his fourth and last voj^age, had discovered 
Cape Gracias a Dios, on September 14, 1502, he sailed along the 
Colombian coast for a considerable distance, but did not make any 
attempt to settle the country or conquer the aborigines. It was left 
for Alonso de Ojeda, who in the year 1508 was granted the land 
lying east of the river Darien, which was termed the Province of 
Uraba, to attempt the conquest of the country. Ojeda succeeded in 
establishing himself firmly along the coast, battling continually with 
the Indians ; but all of his attempts to conquer the Chibcha Kingdom, 
situated on the high plateau, were fruitless. In the year 1536 
Jimenez de Quesada undertook the subjugation of the Chibchas and 
at the same time two other expeditions, for the same purpose, 
started from other points, that of Frederman and of Pizarro's first 
lieutenant, Benalcazar. These three expeditions met on the plateau, 
and it was due only to the tact and diplomacy of Quesada that strife 
was avoided. Having succeeded in this, he established friendly 
relations with the aborigines, a highly civilized people, similar to 
the Incas of Peru. He established his capital, the present city of 
Bogota, on the site of the old Chibcha capital and explored the 
country in all directions. 

A Governor-General was appointed by Spain and the name 
changed to the Province of New Granada, and in the year 1718 it 



COLOMBIA. 



89 



was made a viceroyalty. The first viceroy was Antonio de la 
Pedrosa y Guerrero, and New Granada was successively governed 
by twelve viceroys until in the year 1810, the last, Don Antonio 
Aynar y Borbon, was deposed by the citizens of Bogota. Revolu- 
tionary movements had previously been initiated in various parts of 
the country, but the war against Spain took definite form in July of 
that year. 

A long and bitter struggle ensued which lasted for nearly nine 
years, ending in the year 1819, when, on August 7, the patriots under 
the able leadership of Gen. Simon Bolivar utterly defeated the roy- 
alist forces at Boyaca. 

Bolivar succeeded in effecting a union between Venezuela and the 
former viceroyalty of New Granada, and on the ITth of December, 
1819, the new Republic formally adopted the 
title of the Republic of Colombia. On July 
12, 1821, a constituent congress met at Cucuta 
and elected Simon Bolivar as the first Presi- 
dent of the " Greater Colombia." The " In- 
tendencia de Quito," now the Republic of 
Ecuador, joined the union in the year 1829, 
but when, on December 17, 1830, Bolivar 
died, the union was dissolved, and New Gra- 
nada adopted the title of the Republic of New 
Granada on November 17, 1831. This title 
was subsequently changed to that of the 
Granadine Confederation, later to that of the 
United States of Colombia, and lastly to the 
Republic of Colombia. The change of name indicates the various 
phases of the development of the country, Colombia having finally 
resolved to adopt the unitary republican form of government, which 
experience has taught it to be the best fitted for the country. 

Gen. Rafael Reyes, the present President, was inaugurated August 
7, 1904, for a term of ten years. 

CONSTITUTION AND GOVERNMENT. 

By the constitution adopted August 4, 1886, the Republic of 
Colombia abolished the Federal Union and the sovereignty of the 
several States and adopted the unitary republican form of Govern- 
ment, with legislative, executive, and judicial branches. 

The Senate and the House of Representatives, constituting the 
National Congress, are intrusted with the legislative power, the 
former chamber consisting of 27 members, 3 for each department, 
and the latter of a varying number of members, 1 for every 50,000 
inhabitants. Senators are elected indirectly by electors chosen for the 
purpose for a term of four years, and Representatives are elected by 
direct vote of the people for the same term. 
560— Bull. 1—09 7 




General RAFAEL REYES, Presiden 

OF COLOMBIA. 



90 INTEEISTATIONAL BUEEAU OF THE AMERICAN EEPUBLICS, 

The President is elected for four years, by indirect vote, in the 
same manner as the Senators. The term of office of the present in- 
cumbent has been extended to ten years, at the expiration of which 
term, however, it is to be only four years, as heretofore. 

The President of the Republic is assisted by six Ministers, or 
Secretaries of State, one of whom represents the President during his 
absence or disability, there being no Vice-President. 

The Judiciary comprises one supreme court, located at Bogota, a 
superior tribunal for each Department, and a number of minor 
courts. The supreme court is composed of seven members, appointed 
by the President of the Republic for a term of five years, while the 
justices of the superior courts are appointed for a term of four years. 

INTERIOK GOVERNMENT. 

The Republic is divided for administrative purposes into nine 
Departments, which are again divided into provinces, and these into 
municipal districts. In the Departments executive authority is 
vested in a Governor, appointed by the President of the Republic, 
and legislative authority in a departmental assembly elected by 
popular vote at the rate of one deputy for every 12,000 inhabitants. 
The provincial and district executive authorities are likewise ap- 
pointed by the President, but municipal councils are elected by direct 
vote of the people. 

^ ^ TERRITORIAL DIVISIONS. 

Under a decree issued on the 27th of March, 1909, the political divi- 
sions of the Republic of Colombia are as follows : 
Department of — Capital. 

Barranquilla Barranqiiilla. 

Bucaramanga Bucaramanga. 

Cartagena Cartagena. 

Facatativa Facatativa. 

Manizales Manizales. 

Medellin Medellin. 

Pasto Pasto. 

Popayan Popayan. 

Tunja ^ Tunja, 

The capital of the Republic is Bogota. 

President (General Kafael Reyes. 

Acting President General Jorge Holguin. 

Minister of the Government Señor Enrique Argaez, Assistant Sec- 
retary in Ciiarge. 

Minister of Foreign Affairs Señor Euclides de Angulo. 

Minister of the Treasury ——Señor Fidel Cano. 

Minister of War Señor Roberto Urdaneta, Assistant 

Secretary in Charge. 

Minister of Public Instruction Señor José María Gonzales Valencia. 

Minister of Public Works Señor Rafael Ortiz. 

Note. — List of cabinet officers corrected to July 20, 1909. 

The salary of the President is $18,000 per annum. 



COLOMBIA. 91 

COLOMBIA IN 1908. 

Colombia is another country of Latin America which, like the 
Argentine Kepublic and Chile, showed increased trade returns for 
1908, nearly $3,000,000 excess of commerce being reported for the 
year over 1907. In national finances, as a consequence of a revised 
expenditure list, the Government was enabled to report a gold sur- 
plus at the close of the fiscal year amounting to over $2,000,000, and 
indications of a betterment of financial conditions were found in 
lower rates for loans, the satisfactory letting of the contract for the 
exploitation of the famous Muzo emerald mines, and in renewed 
activity in railroad construction. 

Rail connection between Bogota, the capital, and the headwaters 
of the Magdalena River was initiated in February, 1909, through the 
extension of the line from Girardot, at the head of navigation, as far 
as Factativa, at which point union is made with the Sabana road to 
Bogota, which has been in operation for many years. 

Capital is being attracted to the Republic and invested in railway, 
mining, and other industrial developments. Public works are pro- 
gressing, notably the construction of roads and railways. 

FOREIGN AFFAIRS. 

President Reyes, in his last message to the Colombian Congress, 
reported at length concerning the cordial relations existing between 
Colombia and her sister Republics. 

The National Assembly during the year 1908 ratified an industrial 
property convention with Great Britain and treaties of amity and 
commerce with Switzerland and Japan. It also formally ratified 
the convention supplementing the boundary treaty with Ecuador. 
Other matters which engaged attention were the modification of the 
supplementary convention to the concordat made between the Min- 
ister of Foreign Affairs and the Apostolic Delegate concerning the 
fulfillment of article 25 of the concordat ; the convention on pecuniary 
claims concluded at the Third International Conference of American 
States, held at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 1906; the convention of 
Mexico on the same subject, signed at the Second International Con- 
ference of American States in the city of Mexico in 1902 ; the conven- 
tion on exchange of official and other publications also signed at 
Mexico; the Sanitary Convention concluded at the Second Sanitary 
Congress of the American Republics in Washington October 14, 1905, 
signed by the delegates of Colombia at the Third Congress, held in 
Mexico in December, 1907 ; the convention establishing the status of 
naturalized citizens who again take up their residence in the country 
of their origin, concluded August 13, 1906, at the Third International 
Conference of American States, held in Rio de Janeiro. The con- 



92 INTERNATIONAL BUEEAU OF THE AMERICAN EEPUBLICS. 

ventions of the last Postal Congress, held in Rome, were ratified by 
the Government and a division established in the Department of 
Posts to carry out its provisions relating to the exchange of foreign 
mail. Members of the Pan-American Committee and of the Perma- 
nent Court of Arbitration at The Hague were appointed. 

FINANCE. 

The credit of the Republic abroad continued stable throughout the 
year. Interest on the foreign debt was paid regularly and the Re- 
public continued the discharge of her obligations to the bondholders. 
Up to March, 1908, 70 per cent had been paid. 

The total issue of the floating internal debt of Colombia up to 
June 30, 1908, amounted to $22,419,172.75, of which sum $19,356,160.60 
has been paid, leaving $3,063,012.15 as the outstanding internal debt 
of the Republic on the date mentioned. 

The promptness with which the Government has met the payment 
of interest due on its foreign loans has strengthened public confidence 
in the ability of the Republic to meet its obligations, and resulted in 
Colombian foreign debt securities being quoted at higher prices in 
the financial centers of the world. 

At a session of the Council of Ministers held March 5, 1908, the 
Government resolved to introduce important economies in expendi- 
tures for the year, as a result of which the original appropriation 
was reduced from $16,244,384.20 to $14,237,997.08, thus effecting a 
total saving of $2,006,315.12. The budget in detail, as presented to 
Congress by the Secretary of Finance and of the Treasury, estimated 
revenues at $16,600,000. 

Important among the legislative acts of the Government was the 
passing of a customs tariff amplifying and amending the existing 
law, with a view to improving commercial and industrial conditions. 

COMMERCE. 

Figures of the foreign trade of Colombia during 1908 placed the 
valuation of imports and exports at $28,512,636, as compared with 
$25,880,005 in 1907. Of the reported total, exports amounted to 
$14,998,744.47, as compared with $13,791,442 in 1907, while imports 
for the two periods were $13,513,891.65 and $12,088,563, respectively. 
Wliile the trade balance, amounting to $1,484,852.82, was not so great 
as that noted for the previous year, the generally improved com- 
mercial position of the country is manifest. 

The United States figures covering trade with Colombia gave the 
value of goods received from that Republic during 1908 as $6,897,493, 
while United States merchandise shipped thither was valued at 
$3,690,014, a gain in the two branches of trade of over $400,000 and 
$500,000, respectively, as compared with 1907 being shown. 



COLOMBIA. 93 

In consequence of the operations of the Colombian Bureau of Infor- 
mation, established in New York in 1906, an impetus has been given 
to trade intercourse between the Republics interested. The adequate 
exposition of the varied possibilities of Colombia has excited the 
increased interest of business men of the United States, with the 
result that companies are being formed for the capitalization and 
working of many hitherto unvalued resources of the country. The 
information furnished by the New York bureau is supplemented by 
the valuable reports received from the United States consuls stationed 
in Colombia. 

At the ports of New Orleans and San Francisco, Colombian prod- 
ucts are received to the value of about $2,000,000 annually, the greater 
part of the banana shipments going to the former place. 

The principal items shipped from Cartagena to the United States 
was coffee, valued at $1,310,769, which showed a gain of $170,000, 
gold ranking next, with a value of $789,241.33, followed by hides, 
$171,860.67; hats, $121,617.16; rubber, $82,585.93; cedar and mahog- 
any, $65,674.89; ivory nuts, $46,715.21; platinum, $24,107.10; and 
ipecac, $20,516.17. In comparison with 1907, shipments of hats 
showed a small decline of about $4,000, cedar and mahogany some- 
thing over $7,000, and platinum, ipecac, and rubber decreased export 
values. On the other hand, a gain of about $15,000 was noted in 
exports of ivory nuts, while shipments of hides, since the removal 
of the government monopoly, have increased to $171,860.67, as com- 
pared with $49,995 in 1907. The decline in shipments of platinum 
from $93,539 in 1907 is partly explainable by the decrease in price 
and by the withdrawal by the Government of the right of filing on 
platinum ground. 

Coffee, cattle, hides, rubber, tobacco, ivory nuts, and mineral prod- 
ucts compose the bulk of the country's exports. Of the coffee exports 
of the Republic about 67 per cent goes to the United States, most of 
the tobacco to Germany, and the cotton to Liverpool or Havre. The 
principal imports are flour, lard, petroleum, and cotton goods from 
the United States ; sugar, rice, and potatoes from Germany, and cot- 
ton textiles from Great Britain. 

PRODUCTION AND INDUSTRIES. 

Many measures are under consideration by the Government for 
the development of the natural sources of wealth. The value of the 
country as a producer of cacao, rubber, and bananas is well estab- 
lished and cotton growing has been the subject of a favorable experi- 
mental enterprise. The cultivation of bananas, wheat, and maize is 
regarded as more desirable at the present time, as quicker returns 
are yielded than from coffee, sugar, etc. Railways are much needed 



94 INTERNATIONAL BUEEAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

for the opening up of new and fertile regions, while the mineral 
resources of the country are well worth exploitation. For the pur- 
pose of aiding national enterprises, modifications have been made in 
the customs tariff on articles for railway construction, mills, agricul- 
ture, etc., all of which have been placed on the free list. Reduction 
in duties has been effected on other articles of common consumption. 

Colombia, with its tropical and temperate climatic zones, should 
be able to vie with any country in the nature of its products. Its 
cacao is equal to that of Guayaquil, its rubber compares favorably 
with that of Brazil, and the native banana is unsurpassed by those 
of any other land. Experiments in cotton have demonstrated that 
there are areas in the country suitable for this class of production, 
and the tariff protection afforded by the Government to manufactures 
of the native cotton have greatly stimulated both the culture and the 
working of the product. 

The coasts and hot regions produce corn, sugar cane, sea island 
cotton, rubber, cacao, bananas, fibers, tropical fruits, and vegetables, 
while the mountains and uplands yield coffee, apples, peaches, pota- 
toes, wheat, barley, and all of the products of the temperate zone. 
The entire country is suitable for stock raising, the pastures in many 
sections remaining green the year round. Few countries contain the 
latent wealth and favorable conditions for developing and exploiting 
it to such a degree as does the Republic of Colombia. 

As regards banana cultivation, the lands between the Santa Marta 
and the Fundación rivers, which are connected by 90 miles of rail- 
road, are of particular fertility, and the Government is preparing to 
develop them through an extensive system of irrigation. 

The town of Santa Marta is situated east of Santa Marta Bay on 
the Caribbean coast, and is the northern terminus of the Santa Marta 
Railway, which runs southward for 58 miles over a coastal plain, or 
the great banana-raising region of Colombia. During the year 1908 
this road carried 51,397 tons of bananas alone. At present the com- 
mercial importance of Santa Marta depends almost entirely upon its 
large and increasing shipments of this fruit to the United States. 

The first shipment of bananas was made in 1891, and for thirteen 
years the amount exported never reached 500,000 bunches in any one 
year. In 1904 there were exported 787,244 bunches, and in 1908 the 
number reached 2,241,580. It is estimated that within four or five 
years not less than 5,000,000 bunches of bananas will be exported 
annually. 

A textile plant of commercial value has been discovered in the 
Colombian forests of Carare by José Maria Lindo, a naturalist of 
Bogota. The plant has been assigned to the Bromiliaceous family 
and is said to furnish a fiber especially suitable for use in the manu- 
facture of curtains and other textiles for household adornment. 



COLOMBIA. 95 

On the Magdalena, which is navigable by means of river craft for 
1,400 miles, adequate labor supply is obtainable for large plantations 
of cacao and rubber, and with a sufficient population the Santa Marta 
district could within three years increase its production tenfold. The 
valleys of the rivers Leon and Atrato have long been recognized as 
having proper characteristics for the cultivation of this fruit. On 
the Sinu River there is also much good banana land, as well as an 
area suited to the cultivation of oranges, pineapples, alligator pears, 
and many other tropical products. This is the great cattle belt, as it 
is also the source of the cedar and mahogany exported from Colombia. 
In this valley are both coal and petroleum awaiting capital for their 
development. 

The coffee crop of the Republic yields- annually about 600,000 
bags. About 25,000 bags are retained for home consumption, the 
remainder going to the United States and Europe, and meeting with 
increased favor in those markets. The principal coffee districts 
are the Department of Cudinamarca, which produces the renowned 
Bogota brand; the Department of Santander in the Ocana, Cucuta, 
and Bucaramanga districts, and in the Tolima and smaller valleys of 
the Cordilleras. The bean may be grown in almost all parts of the 
Republic where the temperature varies from about 59° to 77° F. 
In the hotter climate the bean is larger, but requires shading, while 
in a colder region a smaller bean is produced with less care. 

United States capitalists are showing considerable interest in the 
exploitation of rubber; in the operation of gold, silver, platinum, 
and other mines ; and in the development of the agricultural resources 
of the Republic. A Boston syndicate of capitalists has organized the 
Colombian Development Company, which proposes to exploit a 
number of industries in the country. Other capitalists are becoming 
interested in the Republic, and especially in the forest, mining, and 
agricultural resources of the Department of Magdalena, where bodies 
of most excellent timber, Spanish cedar, and mahogany of the finest 
quality and other valuable trees of beautiful grain have been dis- 
covered, much of which is of easy access by the Magdalena River. 

The new mining code and law relating to public lands, promul- 
gated during the year, are prominent factors in the stimulation of the 
activities along the lines indicated. 

In some Departments, notably Antioquia, the mineral industry 
is well established, while the Marmato and Riosucio gold deposits 
are said to be equal to those of the Transvaal. A French company 
has been organized for the exploitation of the surface veins of Alta, 
Baja, and Vetas in the Department of Santander. Large quantities 
of machinery and material have been sent to the country for the 
equipment of the plant, and engineers have arrived for the immediate 
installation of the works. 



96 



INTEENATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMEEICAIST REPUBLICS. 



The Choco district is of recognized importance, and at present 
native and foreign companies are engaged in the development of the 
region. It is said that the entire Pacific coast of Colombia has been 
formed b}^ gold-bearing alluvial, so that with more effective develop- 
ment a great mining center will be established. Near Tuquerres and 
Samaniego, in the Department of ISTariño, gold deposits are being 
profitably worked, while in the Central Cordillera region exploitation 
has scarcely begun. Abundant deposits of coal, iron, copper, lead, 
and cinnabar are known to exist on both sloj)es, so that Colombia 
may be regarded as a rich storehouse of minerals, as well as a vast 
area of agricultural and pastoral resources. 




A DREDGER AT WORK IN ANTIOQUIA DISTRICT, COLOMBIA. 

These dredges have a capacity of 150 cubic yards of alluvial gravel per hour. Their operation 
is so economical that a yield of gold to the value of 15 cents per yard will net a profit of 30 to 
60 per cent. A large part of the gold fields of Colombia are of such a character as to make 
these machines peculiarly adaptable for the development of the industry. 

The great gold-bearing region is found in the lofty cordilleras of 
the Choco and Antioquia provinces and in the mountain ranges that 
separate the Cauca and Magdalena rivers. In this large area of 
many thousands of square miles, wherever there is gravel there is 
gold, and back in the mountains where the rock has been laid bare 
veins are found everywhere. These veins contain vast treasures of 
gold that can be extracted by the systematic use of modern machinery 
and methods. Many hundreds of miles of this rich territory have 
never been explored except by the Indian hunter. 

The Choco placer region has twice as much territory as both the 
California and New Zealand regions together, and the possibilities 



COLOMBIA. 97 

for development are infinite. The construction of the Colombia Cen- 
tral Eailroad will greatly stimulate mining in this part of the Repub- 
lic, its northern terminal being opposite the mouth of the Atrato 
river. Much of the gravel of the river beds of the gold-bearing 
rivers of Colombia can not be worked, because it is impossible to 
divert the streams, and the huge boulders and hard bed rock, together 
with torrential currents, often render dredging impossible by any of 
the methods known to the mining industry of the present day. 

Eecent gold discoveries near Neiva, on the upper Magdalena River, 
have opened up a new section of the gold belt. It is known that the 
State of Nariño, bordering on the Ecuador line, is rich in gold. Gold 
nuggets are found in the gravel beds of all the rivers of this section 
flowing into the Pacific Ocean. 

The development of the quartz mining depends almost entirely 
upon transportation. The extension of the Dorado Railroad and the 
Tolima Railroad will facilitate transport to some of the mines of 
the eastern slopes of the gold belt of the Rej)ublic, and the Co- 
lombia Central Railroad, when completed, will pass through the very 
heart of the gold region and, in addition, will provide direct trans- 
portation from the coast. 

Discoveries have been made of rich gold-bearing quartz on the 
headwaters of the Andagueda and Chirvigo rivers, distant about 
125 miles from Quibdo, one ledge being reported 18 feet wide, run- 
ning about $50 gold per ton, and other veins, one carrying about 8 to 
10 per cent copper, range from 6 to 8 feet in width. 

Russia is the only country whose platinum output exceeds that of 
Colombia. This metal, which is always found mixed with gold, 
comes from the gravels of the Choco, its main source being the Pla- 
tina and Condoto rivers, which are tributary to the San Juan River. 
It is also obtained from some of the streams that flow into the Atrato 
River. 

Government returns covering platinum exploitation have not been 
published for a more recent period than 1905, but from records in 
the Bureau of Statistics of Bogota the total yield for exploitation 
during 1907 amounted to about 245 ounces. There is undoubtedly a 
great future for this branch of mining industry in the Republic, and 
concessions recently granted foreshadow the intention to adequately 
exploit it as a source of national wealth. 

The emerald mines of Colombia are among the most valuable prop- 
erties within the Republic. At the time of the Spanish conquest 
the Muzo and other deposits were exploited in a primitive manner by 
the Indians, and since that period the stones from Colombian mines 
have been unequalled in richness of color and brilliancy. The 
Colombian gems exhibit in the highest degree the qualities of color, 
brilliancy, flawlessness, and size characteristic of the best emeralds. 



98 INTERNATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

and the Muzo district is at present the principal source of supply. ' 
The exploitation is under control of the Government, and these mines 
have recently been leased to an English syndicate, which agrees to 
sell at least $1,250,000 worth of stones each year for twenty years. 
The lease in the original call for bids was valued at $360,000 annu- 
ally. The sales are to be under government inspection, and compe- 
tition is practically impossible by reason of legislation forbidding 
the sale of uncut stones and the imposition of taxes on privately 
exploited mines. 

This lease will justify the installation of labor-saving machinery 
and improving the water supply with a view to securing a more 
uniform output, which improvements would not be profitable under 
a shorter lease. 

According to the latest report, for the year 1907, the government 
receipts from the Muzo and Cosquez mines amounted to $371,301.10. 
The Muzo mines are situated about 75 miles north of Bogota, in the 
State of Boyaca, and have an area of 140,000 acres, of which only 
about 50 acres have been exploited in the last twenty-five years. 
Close by is the Cosquez group, though at a somewhat greater eleva- 
tion, covering an area of nearly 5,000 acres. It is from these mines 
that the Spaniards obtained many of their gems, but the exact loca- 
tion of the valuable deposits has been lost. The Cuincha mines are 
about 6 miles southeast from the Muzo group and about 78 miles 
north of Bogota, at an altitude of 1,950 feet, covering an area of 
1,100 acres. This group has been favorably reported on, but not 
yet worked. The Somondoco group consists of five separate mines 
about 80 miles northeast of Bogota and situated at an elevation of 
6,500 feet above sea level. 

Coal is found nearly everywhere in the cordilleras, lignite on the 
coasts, and coking and steam coal in the interior. Valuable deposits 
have recently been discovered between the Atrato and Leon rivers; 
in short, the Colombian coal fields are well located to take advantage 
of the market facilities which will become available with the com- 
pletion of the Panama Canal. In the absence of definite statistics 
it is impossible to give even an approximate computation of the 
country's coal deposits, which form a valuable asset as yet almost 
untouched and very little explored, the mines which have been opened 
being worked only in a superficial way. 

The petroleum deposits of Colombia resemble those of the Beau- 
mont (Tex.) oil fields. The oil has an asphalt base. Natural 
petroleum springs are frequent, one having been encountered near 
the Atrato and Leon rivers, which yields about a pint of petroleum 
an hour. Without doubt this section is an extension of the coal 
and oil belt heretofore known to exist, reaching from near Cartagena 
to the valley of the Sinu River. A concession has been granted for 



COLOMBIA. 99 

a term of thirty years for the exploitation of the petroleum and for 
the operation of oil-refining works in a specified section of the 
Department of Santander, included within an area 100 miles in length 
by 60 miles in width. The concessionaires agree to invest in one or 
more refineries within a period of five years all the capital which 
may be necessary for effective working, and during that period the 
■Government agrees to admit, duty free, all necessary materials. 

Iron ores are abundant in the Republic, while the provinces of 
Antioquia, Cauca, Tolima, Boyaca, and Cundinamarca contain veins 
of copper ore. Much of this ore is of high grade, but owing to lack 
of transportation facilities the deposits, except in rare instances, 
remain unworked. Nitrate beds are also encountered in the district 
■east of the capital, and shipments of high-grade asphalt are made 
from Santander. 

At Zapaquira, near Bogota, and in the hills bordering the Ubia 
Hiver, there are large deposits of rock salt. The Government holds 
a monopoly on salt mining, the returns from this industry, together 
v^ith marine salt, in 1907 amounting to $704,284.95 net. For the 
first six months of 1908 the mines yielded $321,081.60, the net reve- 
nues to the Government from the Zapaquira mines for the year being 
•$375,554. The salt obtained from sea water is under the administra- 
tion of the Central Bank, which receives 5 per cent of the net receipts. 

During 1908 the output of the Galera Zamba works amounted to 
^8,000 bags of 62^ kilograms each, worth $382,000, while those of 
Magdalena, Santa Maria, and Eio Hacha yielded about 120,000 bags, 
Talued at $480,000, a total valuation of $862,000, the net returns to 
the government revenues exceeding one-half of the gross amount. 
None of the salt produced in the country is refined or ground, being 
sold in crude form to retailers, some of whom have it ground for 
table use, but a small quantity of it is shipped abroad. Duties de- 
signed to protect the native product have been levied at various times. 

The development of manufacturing industries is the object of gov- 
•ernment interest, and manj^ concessions granted during the year pro- 
vide for the installation of flour and sugar mills, textile and other 
factories, in many cases the necessary machinery and implements 
being admitted into the country free of duty. The flour milling in- 
dustry is new to the Caribbean coast country, where formerly practi- 
cally all the wheat flour used was imported from the United States, but 
in the uplands of the interior, where wheat can be successfully grown, 
the industry has flourished for some time. American machinery, 
once tried in the mills there, has competed so successfully with that of 
other countries as to establish to the satisfaction of millers in Colombia 
its superiority over all others, with the result that machinery from 
other countries is now rarely seen in the mills of the Rejjublic. A new 
mill with a capacity of 100 barrels daily, the second mill equipped 



100 INTERNATIONAL BUEEAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

with American machinery to be established in Barranquilla within 
three years, has recently been started. Wheat from the United States 
will be ground in the mill. The milling industry in Colombia seems 
a most remunerative one, yet the flour supply in the coast country 
never equals the demand, and though the establishment of new flour- 
ing mills should eventually care for the entire local market, at present 
large amounts of American flour are being imported. 

At Sincerin a sugar factory has been grinding the cane from 3,000 
acres, the first harvest of which produced 12,000 metric tons, or 
265,000 bags, of sugar. Thirteen hundred men are engaged in instal- 
lation of the plant and extending the plantation. The establishment 
of other factories of this character await only the development of 
transportation facilities. 

The hosiery factory recently erected at Medellin is reported to be 
turning out good weaves. The machinery and yarns employed were 
of United States origin, while another mill which began operations 
at the close of 1908 received its stock entirely from Great Britain. A. 
spinning mill is to be added to this establishment. 

About a year ago a concession for the founding of a match factory 
in Bogota was granted. For the purpose of encouraging this new 
industry the Government permitted part of the machinery and raw 
materials used in the manufacture of matches to enter the Republic 
free of duty. At the present time the factory employs about 40' 
operatives, many of whom are women, and is manufacturing as good 
a quality of matches as those obtained from abroad, being able to sell 
them at a lower price than is charged for the foreign article. The 
output of the plant is constantly increasing, the factory now having 
almost the entire trade of the capital and vicinity and is extending 
its business into other sections of Colombia. 

The monopoly of production and sale of liquors by the Govern- 
ment was introduced in 1905, and the transfer of its administration 
to the Government is under consideration. This monopoly produced 
$2,095,001.21 in 1907. 

A concession has been granted to a number of Colombian citizens 
conveying to them the exclusive privilege of the manufacture of 
denatured alcohol for a period of five years in the district of Bogota 
and the Department of Cundinamarca. 

It is the desire of the Colombian Government that the growers and 
producers of cane sugar should interest themselves in the manufac- 
ture of this product, and with this end in view they will be given the 
preference in the subscription to stock in the company to be organized 
in connection with the concession. 

The monopoly on hides was abolished in the early part of 1908^ 
and replaced by a slaughter tax on cattle of $2.50 for everj^ ox and 
$3 for every cow. 



COLOMBIA. 101 

RAILWAY AND STEAMSHIP COMMUNICATION. 

At no time in her history has Colombia given as much attention 
to the development and extension of means of communication as at 
the present time. Branch lines of the existing railways and new 
roads and highways are being constructed in nearly every section of 
the country, thus affording the vast mineral wealth and other natu- 
ral resources of the country means of transport to the coast. The 
total extent in 1907 was 450 miles, concessions covering 1,570 miles 
additional having been granted. 

In February, 1909, the Girardot Railway joined the Sabana Eail- 
way at Factativa, thus connecting Bogota with Girardot, on the Mag- 
dalena River, and establishing a direct communication Avith the coast. 
This road is, of course, of the utmost importance to Colombia, as it 
connects the capital of the Republic with the coast ; but another rail- 
way of considerable importance is the Pacific Railway, which will 
connect the port of Buenaventura, on the Pacific coast, with Cali 
and which has recently been opened as far as Papagayeros. It is 
expected that in July, 1910, the railway will be completed as far as 
Cali, whence it will be continued to Palmira, thus opening up the 
fertile valley of Cauca. 

Foreign banks have offered the Buenaventura Railway Company 
funds with which to complete its line to Cali and for its extension 
to Popayan and Cartago, and money can now be obtained in London 
for the construction of the Puerto Wilches Railroad. Work on the 
railway from Puerto Berrio, on the lower Magdalena River, which is 
to be extended as far as Medellin, has been resumed, the Colombian 
Government having negotiated a loan for that purpose during the 
year. 

The condition of the railways of the Republic on July 20, 1908, 
was as follows: 

Sabana Railway. — This railway is equipped with first-class rolling 
stock and in sufficient quantity to meet the demands of traffic. It is 
under the direction of the Central Bank, which looks after the 
service and attends to the preservation of the road. The profits de- 
rived from this line are a source of considerable revenue to the 
Government. 

Southern Railway. — This road is the property of the nation, but 
since September, 1907, in accordance with the contract made with the 
Government, it has been under the direction of an English company. 
Negotiations are now under way looking to a sale of the road. 

Northern, Railway. — The section of this railway from Bogota to 
Zapaquira is in the hands of the Colombian Northern Railway 
(Limited), an English company having offices in the capital, and 
which has complied with the terms of the concession. The section 



102 INTERNATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

from Zapaquira to Chiquinqiiira is under the direction of tlie Colom- 
bian Central Eailway Company (Limited). Work lias been tem- 
porarily suspended on this line from Nemocon toward the terminal 
point. The Government is at present considering a modification of 
the concession. 

Girardot Railway. — The Government has shown particular in- 
terest in this road, not only because it is a shareholder but prin- 
cipally on account of the necessity of this line to the material develop- 




North side of the San Carlos Palace, Bogota, Colombia, which contains the offices of the Ministry of 
Foreign Affairs of the Kepublic. The historic window which shows the memorial stone is the one 
from which Liberator Simon Bolivar escaped from attempted assassination, September 25, 1828. 

ment of the interior of the Republic. The road is in exploitation, 
from Girardot to Factativa. 

Dorada to Honda Railway and extension to Ambalema. — The first 
section of this railway was opened to traffic by the Dorada Railway 
Company (Limited) several years ago, since which time branch lines 
have been built and the roadbed and bridges improved. The exten- 
sion of the National Western Railway of Colombia by the Dorada 
Extension Railway Company (Limited) was completed in 1907 and 
opened to traffic by the President of the Republic in September of 
that year. 



COLOMBIA. 103 

Junction of the Girardot with the Dorada Railway. — Negotiations 
are in progress for the construction of a railway uniting the Girardot 
with the Dorada Eailway, so that in a short time it will be possible 
to travel by train from Bogota to a point on the Magdalena River, 
and thence by boat down that stream to the coast. 

Cauca Railway. — Work is rapidly progressing on this line, and it 
is hoped that it will be completed to Cali on July 20, 1910. 

Great Northern Central Railway. — The survey and plans of this 
line have been completed. Money is being raised for the construc- 
tion of the line, and engineers have already been sent from London 
with sufficient material to begin the building of the road. 

Puerto Berrio and Medellin Railway. — This line has been con- 
structed to kilometer 102, from which place it is being built toward 
the terminal point as rapidly as the available funds will allow. Up 
to the present time the Government has furnished $116,000, and nego- 
tiations are now under way looking to the completion of the line to 
Medellin as soon as possible. 

Santa Marta Railway. — The exploitation of the part of the Santa 
Marta Eailway already constructed and the extension of the line to 
Port Banco, the terminal point on the Magdalena River, is under the 
direction of the Santa Marta Railway Company (Limited) , an Eng- 
lish corporation. The section open to traffic is 95 miles long. The 
Government is negotiating with the company for the construction of 
branch lines to different banana plantations, and is endeavoring to 
obtain the lowest freight rates possible for the transportation of that 
fruit. 

Tundama Railway. — The option on the railway contract made by 
the Government with Tomas G. Ribon in February, 1907, expired in 
August last. 

Other railways. — ^The Cartagena, Barranquilla, and Cucuta rail- 
ways, which have been in operation for several years, have continued 
to be exploited in accordance with the various contracts and con- 
cessions under which they were constructed. The preservation of 
the line of each of these railways has been properly attended to. 

The following lines are in contemplation : 

Vraba Railroad. — To connect the mouth of the Atrato River, on 
the Caribbean, with the city of Medellin, capital of Antioquia. 

Northern Central Railroad. — To connect Nemocon with Santa Rosa 
de Viterbo, capital of the Department of Tundama. 

Riochacha Railroad. — From Riochacha, on the Atlantic, to Valle- 
dupar. 

Tamalameque Railroad. — From the port of that name, on the 
Magdalena River, to Cucuta. 

Nariño Railroad. — From the Pacific Ocean to Pasto, capital of the 
Department of Nariño. 



104 INTERNATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

Amaga Railroad. — From Amaga to Medellin, capital of the De- 
partment of Antioquia. 

Santander Railroad. — From Puerto AVilches, on the Magdalena, 
to Bucaramanga, capital of the Department of Santander. 

Among the important proposals recently made by President Reyes 
was one suggesting the construction of a railway to connect with the 
Cartagena Railway, leading southward parallel to the Caribbean 
coast, passing through Sincerin, where the new sugar manufactory is 
in operation, to the town of Tolú, on the Gulf of Morrosquillo. This 
route would open to transportation one of the richest agricultural 
districts of the hot zone of Colombia, a territory which has produced 
11,000,000 pounds of tobacco for export during the past two years, 
many thousand cattle, much rice and cotton, and which, in an ex- 
panse of 98,840 acres of land tributary thereto, could be made to 
produce great quantities of sugar and bananas. The proposed rail- 
way would be in time a branch of the transcontinental system leading 
from Santa Marta, on the northeast, to Colon, at the mouth of the 
Panama Canal. 

The Government of Colombia and the commercial interests of 
Cartagena are again considering the dredging and reopening to 
traffic of the canal leading from the Magdalena River at Calamar to 
the opening into the bay of Cartagena, with a view to reestablishing 
direct steamboat connection between this port and the ports of the 
Magdalena. 

STEAMSHIPS. 

The principal port of Colombia is Barranquilla, situated at the 
mouth of the Magdalena River. Other ports are Cartagena, Santa 
Marta, Rio Hacha, and Sabanilla, on the Caribbean Sea, and Buena- 
ventura and Tumaco, on the Pacific Ocean. 

The Hamburg-American Steamship Company (Atlas Line) main- 
tains a regular weekly service between New York and the ports of 
Sabanilla, Cartagena, and Santa Marta, and the Royal Mail Steam 
Packet Company's steamer's call fortnightly at Sabanilla and Car- 
tagena, both lines employing from ten to eleven days for the trip, 
their rate for first-class passage being $50. 

From New York the Pacific ports of Buenaventura and Tumaco 
can be reached either, by way of the Isthmus of Panama or by way 
of San Francisco. Both the Pacific Steam Navigation Company and 
the Kosmos Line call regularly at these ports. From Panama it takes 
two days to Buenaventura and four days to Tumaco. The rates for 
first-class passage are $32 and $40, respectively, to which are added 
the cost of transportation from New York to Panama, which is $76.05, 
including railway transportation from Panama to Colon. 



COLOMBIA. 



105 



Colombia has a fine system of interior waterways, the most im- 
portant of which is the Magdalena River, navigable by vessels of 
considerable draft for a distance of over 800 miles and by smaller 
craft 600 miles farther. The Cesar, the Canea, the Nechi, the Le- 
brija, the Sogamoso, and some of the smaller tributaries are all navi- 
gable for various distances. The Atrato is navigable for 220 miles 
inland, and the Sinu for 110 miles. Five steamship companies, with 
42 vessels, maintain communication between the various river and 
coast ports. 




INTERIOR OF A RETAIL STORE IN BARRàNQUILLA, COLOMBIA. 
Display of imported goods. 

The city of Bogota is best reached via Barranquilla, from which 
point a regular steamship service is maintained with Girardot, on 
the Magdalena Eiver, whence there is railway connection by way of 
Factativa. 

The Louis Goeseken Navigation Enterprise and the Magdalena 
River Steamboat Company (Limited) , with fleets of 21 and 15 steam- 
ers, respectively, are engaged in the service of navigation on the Mag- 
dalena River. In addition to these two, another company, operating 
as the Compañía Antioqueña de Transportes^ has been organized. It 
will enjoy all the rights and privileges accorded the two older com- 
panies, with the exception of the mail-carrying contract and its 

560— Bull. 1—09 8 



106 INTEENATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMEEICAN REPUBLICS. 

attendant subsidy. The company is capitalized at $300,000, of which 
90 per cent was subscribed in Medellin and the remainder in Bogota, 
Barranquilla, and Manizales. 

The inauguration of the new company may be taken as indicative 
of the business prosperity enjoyed by the Republic during 1908, in 
comparison with previous years, when traffic on the river was not 
considered sufficient to warrant the operation of three companies. 

During the last four years all means of communication in the 
Republic — railways, wagon roads, and navigation — have been notably 
improved and new highways extended in every direction. The most 
important of these is the road from Bogota to Soata, in the Depart- 
ment of Boyaca, which has been completed as far as Belen, a distance 
of 50 leagues from Bogota. 

Under date of January T, 1909, the President of Colombia issued 
an important decree concerning the construction, repair, and con- 
servation of public highways. The decree provides for the appoint- 
ment by the President of Government engineers and inspectors to 
superintend construction, inspection, and repair of highways. 

The Central Highway of the North, which has been completed for 
a distance of more than 250 kilometers, is being extended to Piede- 
cuesta. The highways in the Medellin A^'alley are being repaired, 
and the Government is active in the construction and repair of pub- 
lic roads in the various departments of Colombia. 

The Compañía del Tranvía de Barranquilla has undertaken to sub- 
stitute electric for animal traction on all of the tramways of the town 
of Barranquilla. In carrying out the work the company will enjoy 
the privilège of importing free of duty all such materials and appli- 
ances as may be necessary. This company has also undertaken to 
extend the electric tramway system of Barranquilla as far as Soledad. 

POSTS AND TELEGRAPHS. 

The Government of Colombia has encouraged the betterment of 
the postal and telegraph service of the Republic, and during the 
last few years the mail service and telegraph system have been 
extended and greatly improved throughout the country. During 
the first half of 1908 the total number of pieces of mail matter 
handled was 389,240, consisting of 83,702 pieces of foreign mail and 
305,538 pieces of domestic mail, representing an increase of nearly 
100 per cent as compared with 1904. In 1907 the receipts from posts 
and telegraphs amounted to $335,644.57, and expenses of operation 
to $889,076.35, resulting in a deficit for the year of $553,431.78. 
On March 31, 1907, there were 9,161 miles of telegraph lines in the 
Republic. From that time to July 20, 1908, 1,168 miles of lines have 
been erected, increasing the mileage to 10,328 miles. The Govern- 
ment, for the purpose of bettering the service, has decided to separate 



COLOMBIA. 107 

the department of posts from that of telegraph and telephones, and in 
future the two Departments will be conducted as separate bureaus. 
A wireless station at Santa Marta has been opened and a high- 
power equipment installed, and in connection with a contract made 
in 1906 for the management and operation of the telegraph systems 
of the Republic it was provided that a theoretical and practical school 
of instruction in wireless telegraphy be established at Bogota. 

INSTRUCTION. 

A great improvement is to be noted in the extent and efficiency 
of public instruction throughout the Republic, not only in the centers 
of population, but also in the rural districts, where numerous public 
schools have been established. Evening manual training schools are 
conducted in various parts of the country, and this system of public 
instruction is receiving the earnest support of the Government. The 
Department, which has under its charge and supervision all of the 
normal schools that formerly existed, has decreed the establishment 
of five new normal schools, and has founded a national school of 
commerce on the most modern and up-to-date basis. 

An executive decree of January 16, 1908, made provision for ele- 
mentary instruction in hygiene, physiology, and physical culture in 
the public schools of the country to include colleges, manual training 
schools, and other institutions supported by the Government. 

The number of pupils in attendance at the public schools during 
the scholastic year 1908 was 236,985, as compared with 223,425 in 
1907. It is the intention of the Government to investigate the school 
systems of other countries, more especially the organization of pri- 
mary schools, schools of commerce, and universities, for the purpose 
of improving those within the country. 

In the national and departmental schools a period of six years' 
study is required to receive the degree of doctor of medicine or sur- 
gery. Diplomas for the practice of homeopathic medicine are 
granted only to those holding certificates showing that they have 
passed the studies of the first year in the course of medicine, anatomy, 
physiology, and pathology. Pharmacists are required to furnish 
certificates from a medical faculty or proof of two years' practice 
in some well-known pharmaceutical establishment before a permit 
for the establishment of a pharmacy will be granted. Physicians, 
dentists, and surgeons holding the degree of doctor of medicine 
granted by foreign faculties of recognized competence may, without 
further examination, practice their respective professions, and for- 
eigners not possessing the degree may obtain leave to practice by sub- 
mitting themselves to an examination by the Faculty of Medicine of 
the University of Bogota. 



108 INTEENATIONAL BUEEAU OF THE AMERICAN EEPUBLICS. 

A decree dated March 14, 1908, created the office of sanitary in- 
spector for the ports of Cartagena, Barranquilla, and Santa Marta 
on the Atlantic, this official to be intrusted with the supervision of 
public health at the points designated. The government of the 
Department of Cartagena has appropriated $42,700 for the sanitation 
of its capital city. The funds were available September 1, 1908, and 
the work of sanitation commenced by the municipal authorities. 

The repair and improvement of public buildings during the admin- 
istration of President Reyes has been noteworthy, and many measures 
have been taken along other lines looking to the application of 
modern systems of hygiene in the ports and inland cities. 




The Republic of Costa Rica, the southernmost of the Central 
American Republics, is geographically situated between latitude 8° 
and 11° IC north and longitude 81° 40' and 85° 40' west of Green- 
wich. The Republic extends over an area of 18,400 square miles, 
and, although one of the smaller of the American Republics, it is 
larger in area than the States of Maryland, Massachusetts, and Dela- 
ware combined. Costa Rica has a population of 360,326. 

The topography of Costa Rica is similar to that of other Central 
American Republics, inasmuch as the mountain range, which crosses 
its territory almost in its entirety, and which reaches considerable 
altitude, is the predominant feature. This mountain range influences 
the climate, making it pleasant on the plateaus, and, at higher eleva- 
tions, quite cold at certain times of the year. It is due to this di- 
versity of climate that such a variety of products is to be found in 
Costa Rica, tobacco, cacao, sugar, indigo, rice, and coffee being suc- 
cessfully grown, while bananas form one of its principal products of 
export. India rubber and cocoanuts are also gathered in the forests. 

HISTORICAL SKETCH. 

When CoLUMBTJS, on his fourth and last voyage, had doubled Cape 
Gracias á Dios on September 12, 1502, after a stormy and eventful 
voyage, he sailed along the coast of Nicaragua and Costa Rica and 
landed on the coast of the latter country on October 5, 1502. The 
aborigines, who were at ñrst disposed to treat the Spaniards kindly, 
soon became incensed at their treachery and destroyed the small 
settlement which Columbus founded. No further attempts were 
made to settle the country at the time and Columbus, after losing 
a considerable number of men and one of his ships, abandoned the 
attempt and returned to Spain. Other explorers who followed in 
his wake were no more fortunate, the Indians opposing an effect- 
ive resistance and repeatedly destroying the colonies of Spaniards. 
Hernán Sanchez de Badajoz was the first to even partially sub- 
due the Indians and, in the year 1540, founded the city of Bada- 
joz. In the year 1565 Juan Vazquez Coronado was appointed 
Governor of Neuva Cartago, as the country was then called, and 
finally established Spanish rule over practically all the country. 
He was ably assisted by the Bishop of Chiapas, Bartholomew de las 
Casas, who was ever active in favor of the Indians. When the; 

109 



lio INTEENATIONAL BUKEAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS, 

captain-generalcy of Guatemala was established Costa Rica was in- 
corporated therewith and later, with Guatemala, formed a part of 
the viceroyalty of New Spain. As such its history is largely inter- 
woven with the history of this viceroyalty. 

Revolutionary movements, which sprang up in Costa Rica from 
time to time between the years 1811 and 1821, were suppressed with 
great severity by the Spanish authorities, but when, on September 15, 
1821, the independence of the Central American States was declared 
at Guatemala, the news was received with great joy by the people of 
Costa Rica, and on November 12, 1821, the last Spanish Governor, 
Don Juan Manuel de Cañas, was obliged to resign his office. 

Upon the formation of the Central American Republic, Costa Rica 
became a State of the Union, and with it, in the year 1822, was an- 
nexed by the Emperor of Mexico, Agustín Iturbide. With the fall 
of that short-lived empire the Central American States were once 
more free to adopt their own form of Government. A Constitutional 
Congress, which met in Guatemala, proclaimed on November 22, 1824, 
the constitution of the Central American Federation. Afterwards, as 
the States composing the Federation one by one withdrew, Costa Rica 
-declared her independence on April 1, 1829. 

Several attempts were made by the Central American States to 
Teestablish the Federation, but without result, and on January 21, 
1847, Costa Rica proclaimed her constitution and formally adopted 
the title of the Republic of Costa Rica. The constitution provided, 
however, that if the Central American Republic was ever reestab- 
lished the constitution should be amended or abolished to conform to 
that of the Federal Republic. Since that time the Costa Rican Re- 
public has progressed in peace and prosperity. Such changes in the 
constitution as were found necessary have been made without internal 
disturbance and the sovereignty of the state has been maintained at 
home and abroad. 

constitution and government. 

The present constitution of the Republic of Costa Rica was pro- 
claimed on December 7, 1871, and has been in force ever since, some 
slight amendments being added from time to time. 

The Government is divided into the customary legislative, execu- 
tive, and judicial branches with functions similar to those of the same 
branches in other American republics. 

The Congress of the Republic is composed of one chamber, the 
Chamber of Deputies, elected by indirect vote of electors chosen by 
the people for that purpose, at the rate of 1 deputy for every 8,000 
inhabitants or fraction exceeding 4,000. The Deputies serve for a 
term of four years, but the chamber is renewed by halves every two 
years. 



112 INTEENATIONAL BUEEAU OF THE AMEEICAN EEPUELICS, 

A permanent committee composed of 5 deputies represents Congress 
during its recess and assists the President of the Republic in the in- 
terpretation of laws. This committee, in addition, prepares and puts 
in order business remaining unfinished from an adjourned Congress, 
or may formulate new bills in order to facilitate the proceedings of 
the coming session. It may, on the request of the Executive, issue 
urgent decrees, which, however, are subject to the approval of Con- 
gress in regular session. It may, when so invited, form a part of the 
Council of Government, although as such it acts only in an advisory 
capacit5^ 

The President of the Eepublic is elected in the same manner as the 
deputies, i. e., by an electoral college chosen by popular vote, all 
citizens over 20 years of age being entitled to suffrage. The Presi- 
dent's term of office is four years, and he may not be reelected for a 
second consecutive term. Three designados^ known as first, second, 
and third, are named by Congress to represent the President in case 
of his death, absence from the country, resignation, or inability to 
exercise authority. The designados assume and exercise office in the 
order of their appointment. 

A Council of Government assists the President, composed of mem- 
bers of his cabinet and such other citizens as the President may from 
time to time appoint. Four ministers or secretaries of state form the 
Cabinet. 

The judicial powers are vested in a National Supreme Court, two 
Courts of Appeals, several criminal and civil courts, as well as a 
number of district and municipal courts and justices of the peace. 
The 5 justices of the Supreme Court are chosen by the Congress, 
while the other justices are appointed by the Supreme Court, for a 
term of four years. 

The territory of the Eepublic is divided politically into five 
provinces and two comarcas, which are again divided into cantons 
and these into districts and municipalities. The provinces and 
comarcas are administered by governors appointed by the President 
of the Republic. Upon recommendation of the governors the can- 
ton and district chiefs are appointed and are assisted by municipal 
councils, elected by popular vote. 

The provinces and comarcas of the Republic, with their respective 
capitals, are: 

Province of — Capital. 

San Juan San José.» 

Alajuela Alajuela. 

Heredia Heredia. 

Cartago Cartago. 

Guanacaste Liberia. 

"Also tlie capital of tiae liepubJic. 



COSTA EICA. 



113 



Comarca of — Capital. 

Puntarenas Puntareuas. 

Limon Limon. 

President Señor Cleto González Víquez. 

Secretary of Foreign Affairs. Justice, and 

Public Instruction Señor Ricakdo Fernandez Guardia. 

Secretary of the Government and Police Señor Alfredo Volio. 

Secretary of the Treasury, Commerce, and 

Fomento Señor Oscar F. IIohrmoser. 

Secretary of War and Marine Señor Vidal Quiros. 

Note. — List of cabinet officers corrected to Julj' 20, 1909. 

The salary of the President is $8,350 per annum. 



COSTA EICA IN 1908. 

Politically, Costa Rica's history during 1908 was one of peace and 
tranquillity, affairs under the continued administration of President 
González Víquez demonstrating the advantages accruing from the 
application of the principles of an exalted patriotism. Adverse 
natural conditions, however, militated against 
the high standard of material prosperity so 
abundantly maintained during the preceding 
year. 

Disastrous storms caused comparative fail- 
ures in the most important crops, followed by 
a natural decline in commercial transactions 
which entailed losses in business enterprises, 
all of which conditions brought to bear upon 
the public treasury the inevitable consequence 
of economic depression. Total trade declined 
by about $3,500,000, the loss in imports fig- 
uring for something over $2,000,000, while 
exports showed a decrease of over $1,000,000. 

An epoch-marking event transpired on December 19, 1908, when 
the Central American Court of Justice, sitting at Cartago, Costa 
Rica, rendered its first decision in the settlement of Central Ameri- 
can questions. This tribunal, inaugurated through the action of the 
Peace Conference held in Washington in the closing month of 1907 
has led to the application of the term " The Hague of the New 
World " to the town of Costa Rica in which the court holds session. 
The court was inaugurated in May, 1908, and its beneficent influence 
has been felt in Central America. Mr, Andrew Carnegie, who con- 
tributed $100,000 for the erection of a suitable edifice for the holding 
of the sessions, received the sincere thanks of the Government for his 
generous gift. Work has already been commenced upon the struc- 
ture and it is hoped that a few months more will see its completion^ 




DON CLETO GONZALEZ VIQUEZ, 

PRESIDENT OF COSTA RiCA. 



114 INTEENATIOÍTAL, BUEEAU OF THE AMEEICAN EEPUBLICS. 

FOREIGN AFFAIRS. 

The relations of the Republic with other nations continued cordial 
and friendly. Reciprocating the courtesy of the United States and 
Mexico, which Governments sent representatives to attend the in- 
auguration of the Central American Court of Justice, the Republic 
accredited Mr. Louis Anderson, Minister of Foreign Affairs, as 
Special Envoy to the Governments mentioned, and the cordial 
manner in which he was received afforded great satisfaction to the 
country. 

The Third International Sanitary Conference of the American 
RejDublics, held in Mexico December, 1907, chose San José, Costa 
Rica, as the meeting j)lace of the next conference, to be held in De- 
cember, 1909, and elected as President of that Conference a dis- 
tinguished Costa Rican, Dr. Juan J. Ulloa. 

On October 26, 1908, the Republic of Costa Rica approved the 
treaties of arbitration for pecuniary claims of Patents of Invention, 
Drawings and Industrial Models, Trade-Marks, and Literary and 
Artistic property, of Status of Naturalized Citizens and of Interna- 
tional Law, signed at the Third International Conference of the 
American States held at Rio de Janeiro in 1906. 

A postal convention ad referendum with Jamaica was signed in 
San José on June 25, 1908, by the representatives of Great Britain 
and Costa Rica, and was approved by President González Yíquez 
on August 4, 1908. The exchange of postal money orders was the 
principal feature of the convention. The convention with Italy for 
the exchange of parcels by post became effective by Executive decree 
on July 1, 1908. The value of such parcels was limited to 500 francs. 

finance. 

The desire of Costa Rica to settle the exterior obligations of the 
country was evidenced by the expressions of the President in his 
annual message to Congress in 1907, and although two projects were 
submitted during 1908 it was found impossible to come to any definite 
adjustment of the matter. The service of the internal debt has been 
regularly maintained and large sums of money devoted to internal 
improvements. 

The revenue for the fiscal year ended March 31, 1908, amounted to 
$3,787,000, and expenditures to $4,398,000, the deficit being occasioned 
by such extraordinary expenses as railway construction, construction 
of public buildings, and the establishment of the liquor monopoly by 
the Government. 

The estimated expenses for the year 1908-9 were placed by the 
Congress at $3,458,730, and revenue from all sources at $3,541,450. 
The customs receipts from April 1 to December 31, 1908, amounted 
to $1,453,203; receipts from consular tax, $36,798; tax on liquors. 



COSTA RICA. 115 

$646,280 ; sealed paper, $155,273 ; from the Pacific Railway, $87,844 ; 
and from sundry sources, $42,866. The receipts as a whole were 
$222,735 less than the amount estimated in the budget. 

On March 31, 1909, the banks of issue in the Republic held 
$512,185 in bank bills and a reserve fund of $237,392. A comparison 
of the cash on hand in the banks of issue in December, 1906, with 
the balances maintained in December, 1908, showed the domestic and 
foreign gold reserve to have decreased in the latter year as compared 
with the former to the extent of about $279,000. The decrease is 
accounted for by the short crops of previous years, which necessitated 
gold shipments to meet deficits in trade abroad. A new banking 
institution under the name of Banco Mercantil de Gosta Rica with a 
capital of $500,000 was recently established in the capital and is con- 
ducting a successful business. 

With a view to improving sanitary conditions in San José, the 
capital and, in the municipalities of Heredia, Santo Domingo and 
Barba, the Department of Finance resolved, on January 9, 1909, 
to issue two series of municipal sanitation bonds. 

The Government has suppressed the fees charged abroad for Costa 
Rican consular invoices, but a surcharge of 2 per cent on the amount 
of import duty levied on merchandise is collected by the customs 
authorities at the port of entry. 

COMMERCE. 

Commercial transactions aggregating $13,386,930 in 1908 decreased 
by $3,556,950 as compared with 1907, the imports amounting to 
$5,629,405, or nearly 25 per cent less than those of 1907, and exports 
to $7,757,525, a loss of over 10 per cent. 

In imports the United States occupied first place with 46.5 per 
cent. Great Britain second with 22.8 per cent, Germany third with 
15.05 per cent, and France fourth with 7.7 per cent. The United 
States also figured first in the export list with 52.77 per cent, and 
Great Britain second with 43.03 per cent. Of the total trade, exclu- 
sive of cattle, 52 per cent was with the United States, and 32 per cent 
with Great Britain. The commerce of the United States with the 
Republic is constantly increasing. 

Receipts of merchandise from the United States were valued at 
$2,617,673.47; from Great Britain, $1,282,378.53; Germany, $647,- 
225.50, and other countries $882,127.82. Export values were dis- 
tributed as follows: United States, $4,095,560.08; Great Britain, 
$3,338,505.16 ; other countries, $325,460.01. 

The imports for 1908 in the order of their importance were: 
Fabrics, $1,276,409; flour, $380,412; live stock, $239,498; and ma- 
chinery, $181,427. The imports by parcels posts for the same year 
amounted to $366,004, of which 32 per cent came from Germany, 28 



116 TNTEENATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMEEICAN REPUBLICS. 

per cent from France, 19 per cent from the United States, and 15 per 
cent from Great Britain. 

The exports for 1908 in the order of importance were: Bananas,. 
$5,030,004; coffee, $2,199,545; gold and silver bullion, $738,858; 
cacao, $79,518; lumber, $76,413; hides and skins, $02,652, and other 
articles, $54,536. 

Coffee exports were scarcely 52 per cent of those recorded for the 
preceding j^ear, shipments for the year being something less than. 
8,977,531 kilos against 17,325,531 in 1907. The exports for the year 
1909 are estimated at 200,000 bags. 

During the year the banana industry suffered a loss estimated at 
2,000,000 bunches, due to the effects of violent winds and storms. 




BANANA PLANTS. 

Practically all of the fruit is shipped to United States ports, but an 
extensive propaganda with satisfactory results is being made ta 
introduce Costa Rican bananas into European ports. 

On October 29, 1908, a duty of 1 cent gold, per bunch, was placed 
upon exports of bananas, provided the United Fruit Company would 
renounce its franchise. This the company refused to do, and there- 
fore remains in the enjoyment of its franchise until October 29, 1910. 
At the present time the fruit company admits no restrictions that 
bind it to fixed prices and conditions, and exercises the same liberty 
in its dealings with producers as any other trader in any other prod- 
uct with the result that the state receives no benefit from its opera- 
tions. 



COSTA RICA. 117 

Cabinet and dye wood shipments for 1908 showed a decrease as 
•compared with those of 1907, amounting to $148,59G, while shipments 
•of gold and silver bullion increased by $153,132. Exports of cacao 
in 1908 showed an increase over those of 1907 although the price 
•obtained was slightly lower than that of the previous year. 

The number of horned cattle imported during 1908 was 8,613 as 
compared with 27,539 in 1907. 

The cattle imported into the Republic after January 1, 1909, were 
•exempt from duty, and at the same time the state ceased paying a 
bounty on cows and heifers brought in for breeding purposes. The 
state will, however, until December 31, 1911, continue to pay the 
maritime and land freight on fine breed cows and bulls imported 
from Europe and the United States. Exportations of fine cattle are 
now subject to a tax of $11.63 per head and in the event of the animal 
■exported being one brought in at the expense of the state the export 
charges shall be increased by the amount of the freight charges 
■originally paid upon the animal. Other important regulations in 
Teference to the shipment of live stock have been promulgated. The 
National Society of Agriculture is interested in the improvement of 
this branch of national industry, the establishment of pedigree regis- 
ters, and the holding of agricultural and stock fairs. The society 
also interests itself in securing seed of the best grades for the use of 
agriculturists and recommends the importation of agricultural ma- 
chinery of the best type and of fertilizers. 

The mining industry is in a flourishing condition, and is being 
encouraged and stimulated by the Government by the free importa- 
tion of mining machinery, tools, implements, and materials required 
in the exploitation of mines. 

COMMUNICATION FACILITIES. 

About 400 miles represents the extent of Costa Rican railways. 

With the completion of the Pacific Railway, of which the final 12 
miles are under contract to be completed in the closing months of 
1909, Costa Rica will have an interoceanic line 170 miles in length, 
in two divisions — the Atlantic section. Port Limon to San José, 103 
miles, and the Pacific section, San José to Puntarenas, 67 miles. 
The Atlantic section is owned by the Costa Rica Railway Company, 
.an English corporation, and is leased to the Costa Rica Northern 
Hailroad, an American corporation owned by the United Fruit Com- 
pany. The Pacific section is owned by the Costa Rica Government. 
Both roads have a gauge of 3 feet 6 inches, are well constructed, with 
steel and iron bridges, suitable stations, and side tracks, and are main- 
tained in good condition. The terminal at Port Limon has two large 
wharves, which can accommodate 6 large and 2 small steamships. 



118 INTEENATIONAL BUEEAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

At Puntarenas the harbor has only 15 feet of water at low tide, neces- 
sitating the handling of cargoes by lighters. 

If contractors comply with the promises made to the Government 
the Pacific Eailway will be completed early in 1910. Wlien this line 
is opened to traffic, and the Panama Canal finished, Puntarenas will 
be in a position to rival the port of Limon, and an outlet for coffee 
shipments via the Pacific will be available. 

The Northern Railway Company, operating the Costa Rica Rail- 
way Company's lines under a working agreement, have extended 
various branch lines for the service of the banana industry, and have 
carried out important improvements, notably the remodeling of the 
Limon freight yard and various sectional developments. The rolling 
stock has also been increased by 7 new 76-ton engines and 200 
freight cars. The mileage of lines terminating at Limon is as fol- 
lows : Costa Rica Railway, main line 137.47 miles, branches and sid- 
ings, 63.36 miles; and Northern Railway, main line, 43.48 miles^ 
branches and sidings, 87.34 miles. 

The Government has opened for travel a bridge over the Barranca 
River and another over the Rio Grande at Paso del Alumbre. 

The importation free of federal, state, and municipal duties of 
necessary materials, supplies, and rolling stock for the construction, 
and operation of an electric tramway between Cartago and San José 
has been authorized by the Government. 

STEAMSHIPS AND WATERWAYS. 

Costa Rica, with a seacoast on both the Caribbean Sea and the 
Pacific Ocean, can be reached easily from New York and the Gulf 
ports, as well as from San Francisco and the West Coast. 

The principal port on the Atlantic seaboard is Port Limon and 
on the Pacific coast Puntarenas, other ports on the Pacific being: 
Golfo Dulce, Port Ingles, Port -Mantas, Caldera, Culebra, Santa 
Elena, and Salinas. The only other port of any importance on the 
Caribbean Sea is the port of Matina. 

Port Limon can be reached from New York with the steamers 
of the Panama Railroad Company or the Atlas Line. The former 
leave New York regularly every five days for Colon, at which latter 
point connection for Limon is made with the steamers of the Royal 
Mail Steamship Company, the entire trip being made in eight days 
at a cost of $90 for first-class passage. The Atlas Line steamers 
leave New York once a week directly for Port Limon, the time being 
the same as that by the Panama Railroad Company Line, while the 
fare is only $80 for first-class passage. 

The United Fruit Company's steamers leave New Orleans regu- 
larly every Saturday for Port Limon, the time employed being five 



COSTA EICA. 119 

days and the fare $50. Another line of the same company plies be- 
tween Boston and the Central American ports, fourteen days being 
usually required to make the trip to Port Limon. 

From San Francisco the trip can be made either by the Pacific 
Mail Steamship Company Line or the Kosmos Line, both lines leav- 
ing the former port regularly every ten days, making the run to 
Puntarenas in about twenty-three days, the cost for first-class passage 
being $120. 

The capital of the country, San José, is best reached via Port 
Limon, from which port a railway runs via Cartago to San José. 
On the Pacific side the railway connecting Puntarenas with the 
capital is partially completed. 

There are no less than 16 navigable rivers in the Republic, some 
of which are navigable for a considerable distance inland, the most 
important of these being the Rio San Juan and its tributaries, which 
are largely utilized for the transportation of the natural products, 
several small steamers as well as numerous small craft plying regu- 
larly between the coast and inland ports. 

This river, which flows along the northern boundary of Costa Rica, 
communicates with the beautiful Lake Nicaragua, situated in the 
Republic of Nicaragua on the border of Costa Rica, navigable for 
large vessels and affording the means of communication for points 
along its shores. 

POSTS AND TELEGRAPH. 

During 1908, the postal service of the Republic was carried on 
through 73 post-offices with a mail movement of 5,891,636 pieces. 

The telegraph system in 1907 had a total length of 1,207 English 
miles. Over these wires 521,131 messages were sent from 107 offices. 
Wireless telegraphy is also becoming an important factor in the 
development of interstate communication, the Government having 
established a station at Boca del Colorado for the transmission of 
government and public messages. The United Fruit Company have 
equipped a station at Port Limon for intercommunication with their 
other stations and for public business. This is said to be one of the 
best equipped and most efficient stations in Central America. 

PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. 

The matter of education and general improvement of the public 
school system of the Republic is receiving the serious consideration of 
the Government. At the close of the year 1908, the primary schools 
numbered 357, with an enrollment of 27,452 pupils and 887 teachers, 
and new schools have since been added and the corps of teachers in- 
creased to 931. This branch of public instruction carries an annual 
appropriation of $325,000, the cost to the Government per pupil being 



120 INTERNATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

computed at $12.09. Tentative arrangements have also been made 
looking to the establishment within the Eepublic of a Central Ameri- 
can normal school, the plans for which have already been prepared 
and the course of instruction arranged. The other Central American 
Republics will be invited to cooperate in the project. The towns of 
Barba and Alajuela, respectively, have been chosen as sites for the 
two branches of the school. 

For the purpose of encouraging industrial schools a decree, under 
date of July 16, 1908, provided for the payment of a monthly subsidy 
of $232.50 to the municipality of the central canton of the Province 
of Alajuela for the founding and support of a school to give instruc- 
tion in the manufacture of all kinds of woven fabrics. 

To meet the increasing expense of maintaining the primary schools 
a law was passed on September 24, 19U8, establishing a tax of 10 
cents per liter on alcohol and other liquors sold in the national fac- 
tory and its branches, the revenue thereby derived to go to a fund 
known as the " national educational fund." 



y COSTARICA ^ 
COMMZ^RCE. IQOSs 




VsTOODS I 76.AÍ5I 



IHIDES/SKINS I 62.65¿1 
IT0RT0I5L5HELL5 1 IO.tZsI 




I^ACHIKERY 181.42.71 



IBHT?. 



PRIMCIPf\L EXPORTS 



PRINCIPAL lî^PQRTS 



# 



Cuba, the largest of the Antilles, is geographically situated be- 
tween 19° 40' and 23° 33' latitude north and 74° and 85° longitude 
west, in length over 730 miles, with an average width of 50 miles. It 
has an area of 45,883 square miles, exceeding the area of the State of 
Pennsylvania by more than 600 square miles, and a population of 
2,048,980, equal to about 44 per square mile, almost double the popu- 
lation per square mile of the United States of America (23.2), being 
one of the most densely populated of the American Republics. 

. A number of irregular mountain chains cross the territory of Cuba 
in various directions, forming between them a number of extremely 
fertile and healthful plateaus and valleys, in which nearly all the 
products of the Tropics are successfully raised. The Eepublic is espe- 
cially noted for the excellence of its tobacco and sugar, which consti- 
tute the most important articles of export. 

HISTORICAL SKETCH. 

The island of Cuba was discovered by Columbus on his first voyage 
of exploration, on October 28, 1492. He landed at what is now called 
the Bay of Nuevitas and took possession of the country in the name of 
the King of Spain. The country was called successively Juana, 
¡Santiago, and Ave Maria, finally regaining its original Indian name 
of Cuba. Diego Velasquez was appointed governor of the island in 
the year 1511, and to him fell the task of subduing the aborigines, the 
warlike and savage Caribs and Nahacs. Cuba was important to the 
Spaniards as a strategical point. From the island numerous expedi- 
tions started for the mainland, among the most important being that 
of CoRTEZ, which resulted in the conquest of Mexico. Later on, the 
vast mineral wealth of Mexico and Peru having been made known, 
Havana became the rendezvous for the treasure ships. From Havana 
they sailed under protection of the war vessels for Spain. 

It was due to the importance of Havana that the French, Dutch, 
and British buccaneers during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries 
attempted on several occasions to capture the port ; while unsuccessful, 
they succeeded in more than one attempt in carrying off valuable 
booty. 

When Spain was at war with Great Britain and France, in the 
year 1762, a strong British army was sent out to conquer Cuba. 
After a siege of two months, Havana surrendered to Lord Albemarle 
on August 12, 1762. The British retained possession of the island 

560— Bull. 1—09 9 121 



122 INTEEISTATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



until the year following, when by the treaty concluded between the 
three powers Cuba was once more restored to the Spanish authorities 
on June 6, 1763. 

Although the movement for independence was initiated in Cuba 
early in the nineteenth century, she was to suffer more and obtain her 
independence later than any of the other American Eepublics, the 
Spanish Government being determined to retain control of the Pearl 
of the Antilles. In none of the Spanish- American countries, perhaps, 
was the war for independence more fiercely contested than in Cuba, 
in spite of which such indefatigable patriots as José Marti, Bar- 
tolomé Masó, Maximo Gomez, and others continued the struggle, 
until at last the people of the United States of America were roused 
by the atrocities committed by the Spanish 
General Weyler, and the intervention of the 
latter country resulted in the war with Spain 
in the year 1898. When, by the treaty of 
Paris, December 10, 1898, the war was ended, 
Cuba became free and independent, and Tomas 
Estrada Palma was inaugurated President of 
the Eepublic of Cuba on May 20, 1902. Thus 
the struggle for independence, which lasted 
eighty years, but which may be said to have 
taken definite form with the famous proclama- 
tion of the patriots on October 10, 1868, known 
as the " Declaration of Yara," was brought 
to a successful end. 
President Estrada Palma resigned his office on September 28, 
1906, and the United States of America temporarily intervened until 
new elections could be held. Gen. José Miguel Gomez was elected 
President and Alfredo Zayas Vice-President in December, 1908, 
and were formally inaugurated on January 28, 1909, when the Pro- 
visional Governor, Charles E. Magoon, withdrew. 




SR. General JOSE MIGUEL GOMEZ, 
President of Cuba. 



constitution and government. 

The constitution of the Eepublic of Cuba, proclaimed on February 
21, 1901, provides for a republican, representative form of govern- 
ment, with the usual division into legislative, executive, and judicial 
branches. 

The Senate and the House of Representatives, forming together the 
National Congress, are intrusted with the legislative power. The for- 
mer consists of 24 and the latter of 64 members. Senators are elected 
indirectly for a term of eight years, at the rate of four Senators for 
each province, and the whole Senate is renewed by halves every four 
years. Eepresentatives are elected by popular vote, every citizen over 



CUBA, 123 

21 years of age having the right of suffrage. They are elected for a 
term of four years, at the rate of 1 for every 25,000 inhabitants, and 
the House of Representatives is renewed by halves every two years. 

The President of the Eepublic, assisted by a Cabinet of 8 Ministers 
or Secretaries of State, exercises the executive power. Cabinet Min- 
isters are appointed by the President, but are responsible to Congress 
for their acts. The President and Vice-President are elected indi- 
rectly, in the same manner as are the Senators, by an electoral college 
chosen by the people for that purpose. They are elected for a term 
of four years, and may not serve more than two consecutive terms. 

The judicial power of the country is vested in a National Supreme 
Court, 6 Superior Courts, 1 for each province, 36 courts of the First 
Instance, and a number of minor courts. The justices of the Supreme 
Court are appointed by the President of the Republic, with the ad- 
vice and consent of the Senate. 

INTERIOR GOVERNMENT. 

Cuba is politically divided into six provinces, which are again 
divided into municipal districts. The administration of the province 
is in the hands of a Governor, assisted by a provincial council, both 
elected by po^Dular vote for a term of four years, while the municipal 
districts are administered by a Mayor and a municipal council, like- 
wise elected by popular vote. 

The provinces of Cuba and their respective capitals are : 

rrovince of — Capital. 

Pinar del Rio Pinar del Rio. 

Havana Havana.*^ 

Matanzas Matanzas. 

Santa Clara Santa Clara. 

Camaguey Camaguey. 

Oriente Santiago de Cuba. 

President Gen. José Miguel Gomez. 

Vice-President Sr. Don Alfredo Zayas. 

Secretary of State Sr. Don Justo García Vêlez. 

Secretary of Justice Sr. Dr. Luis Octavio Divinó. 

Secretary of Government Sr. Dr. Nicolás Alberdí. 

Secretary of Promotion Sr. Don Marcelino Diaz de Villegas. 

Secretary of Healtn and Cliarities Sr. Dr. Matias Duque. 

Secretary of Public Instruction and Fine 

Arts Sr. Dr. Ramón Meza. 

Secretary of Public Works Sr. Don Benito Lagueruela. 

Secretary of Agriculture. Commerce, and 

Labor Sr. Don Ortelio Foyo. 

Note. — List of cabinet officers corrected to July 20, 1909. 

The salary of the President is $15,000. 

"Also capital of the Republic. 



124 INTERNATIONAL BLTEEAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

CUBA IN 1908. 

Progress and good will characterize the published utterances of 
the new Cuban Executive. President Gomez, on taking office, sur- 
rounded himself with able advisers and expressed his desire to carry- 
forward the work of national advancement along lines of policy of 
proven value. His references to the administration of Hon. Charles 
E. Magoon have been marked by an appreciation of the onerous 
nature of the task undertaken, and in a statement of the policy of 
the administration it is announced that the President will seek bene- 
ficial reforms and improvements, such as the establishment of agri- 
cultural banks, labor legislation, and the maintenance of proper high- 
ways. ^Yliile the jear 1908 showed a falling off in trade and customs 
receipts, as compared with the previous twelve months, the reported 
large crops of sugar and tobacco for the present season will offset the 
temporar}^ loss. 

The presidential election held on November 14, 1908, was in ac- 
cordance with the provisions of the decree of April 1, 1908, and 
under the supervision of the central and provincial election boards. 

FINANCE. 

The Cuban budget for 1908-9 estimated expenditures at $34,220,- 
'644.15. In this are included ordinary expenditures, $24,285,303, and 
additions thereto, $207,495; fixed charges, $2,088,162, and additions 
thereto, $501,660, to which sum of $27,082,620 must be added $7, 137,- 
424.15, the amount of extraordinary expenditures by virtue of de- 
crees of the Provisional Government. 

For 1909-10, expenditures are estimated at $33,800,000. As in the 
preceding year, expenditures are divided into ordinary and extra- 
ordinary. The ordinary expenditures are $26,427,855.94, and extra- 
ordinary $6,872,144.06, with $500,000 additional for agriculture. 

The financial condition of the island is considered fairly satisfac- 
tory; the balance on hand March 27, 1909, amounted to $2,515,363, 
with outstanding obligations amounting to $12,856,000, including 
credits authorized under preceding administrations. It is antici- 
pated that the customs receipts will provide sufficient revenue to 
cover these obligations without recourse to the bond issue authorized 
by the Provisional Government. 

In view of the fact that the revenue derived from imports will be 
sufficient to meet the service of the foreign debt, it is proposed to 
suspend the export duties on sugar, tobacco, and liquors and to enter 
into a new commercial treaty with the United States providing for 
a reduction of import duties on certain necessaries of life and agri- 
cultural machinery. The total customs receipts at the ports of the 



CUBA. 125 

island during the year aggregated $22,231,707.46 showing a decline 
of $4,079,889.40 as compared with 1907. 

American capital in the island represents a total investment of 
$141,000,000, distributed as follows : Railways, $34,000,000 ; sugar and 
tobacco, $68,000,000; real estate, $18,000,000; banks, $5,000,000; agri- 
cultural industries (other than those specifically mentioned), $4,000,- 
000; mortgages, $3,500,000; navigation companies, $1,500,000; and 
miscellaneous investments, $7,000,000. The English capital invested 
in the island amounts to nearly $90,000,000, about $5,000,000 of which 
is in steamships, $5,000,000 in real estate, and the balance mostly in 
railway interests, aggregating nearly $80,000,000. 

COMMERCE. 

Figures of the foreign trade for the calendar year 1908 showed 
total imports amounting to $85,218,391, and exports to $94,603,324, 
exclusive of specie. The countries participating in this trade in the 
order of their importance were: United States, imports $41,576,980, 
exports, $78,868,490; Great Britain, imports $11,724,029, exports 
$4,775,966; Germany, imports $7,172,358, exports $4,711,164; Spain 
imports $7,454,933, exports $958,207; other American countries, 
imports $7,256,708, exports $2,257,077; other European countries, 
imports $3,548,662, exports $978,084; and other countries, imports 
$1,455,229, and exports $652,339. The specie imports during the year 
amounted to $1,150,376 and exports to $4,245,767. 

Tobacco and sugar comprised the bulk of Cuban exports, for which 
the United States is the principal market. The tobacco crop for 1908 
was valued at $42,321,306.92, and showed a slight decline as compared 
with 1907, the number of bales being 563,059. The value of tobacco 
exported is given as $31,056,921.53, as compared with $28,645,908.60 
in 1907, the remaining $11,264,385 representing home consumption. 
Of the exports, leaf tobacco amounted to $18,354,420.21; cigars, 
$12,275,040.96; cigarettes, $295,883.98 and picadura or leaf cut, 
$131,576.38. 

The year 1908 showed a gain of 1| per cent in exports of cigars 
from the port of Havana as compared with 1907. The United States, 
which had held first place in consumption of the article fell to second 
place. Great Britain going to first. The principal countries which 
received cigars from Cuba showed the following difference for the 
two years: Great Britain, (1908) 70,677,528, (1907) 56,699,274; 
United States, (1908) 47,550,742, (1907) 61,869,131; Germany, (1908) 
24,183,131, (1907) 23,205,411; France, (1908) 11,418,782, (1907) 
10,638,875; Canada, (1908) 7,084,020, (1907) 10,271,013, and Austra- 
lia, (1908) 6,906,042, (1907) 4,261,173. The exports of leaf tobacco 
to the United States increased heavily, the total number of bales ex;- 
ported in 1908 being 65 per cent greater than in 1907. The six prin- 



126 INTERNATIONAL BUEEAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

cipal countries receiving Havana pure leaf compared as follows: 
United States, 236,849 bales in 1908, as compared with 180,274 in 
1907; Germany, 51,590, as compared with 6,945; Spain, 18,720, as 
compared with 2,950 ; Austria, 6,901, as compared with 2,930 ; Argen- 
tine Republic, 6,555, as compared with 1,671, and Canada, 3,563, as 
compared with 3,361. 

The total output of sugar in the Republic for 1908 was placed at 
nearly 1,000,000 tons, and up to March 1, 1909, statistics of exporta- 
tion and stock of sugar in the producing season of 1909 showed a 
total of 593,848 tons, indicating a crop slightly in excess of 1,400,000 
tons. 

An advancing trade in the fruits of the country for the year is 
reported, shipments of pineapples and oranges to the New York mar- 




A READER IN A CIGAR FACTORY IN CUBA. 

ket being particularly noteworthy. The larger part of the cedar and 
mahogan}^ exported from the island also goes to the same market. 

Speaking generally of the agricultural exports of the island, they 
show the following average annual values: Raw and refined sugar, 
$38,000,000; leaf tobacco, $12,000,000; fruits, $2,000,000; grains and 
vegetables, $600,000. Of the exports the United States takes 84.9 
per cent; England, 6.2; Germany, 3.7; France, 1.2; other American 
countries, 1.8; Spain, 1, and other European and other countries a 
smaller ratio. 

PRODUCTION AND INDUSTRIES. 

The two great staples of Cuba's agricultural production, sugar and 
tobacco, showed satisfactory returns for 1908, with a favorable out- 
look for the ensuing season. 



CUBA. 



127 



The tobacco-producing provinces and their output in bales for the 
year were as follows: Vuelta Abajo, 261,095; Semivuelta, 25,024; 
Partidos, 64,360; Matanzas, 445; Eemedios, 194,929; Puerto Prin- 
cipe, 5,228 ; Santiago de Cuba, 12,878, a total of 563,959 bales, as com- 
pared with 440,745 in 1907. 

The sugar crop for 1908 was placed at 6,790,851 bags and the 1909 
crop at 10,082,500 bags. Cane growing covers 7| per cent of the total 
area of the 6 provinces of Pinar del Pio, Havana, Matanzas, Santa 




SUGAR PR0DUCTÎOU 



YEAR «PROVINCE. • BAGS • 



1909 


SAMTA. 


3.575.000. 


11 


1908 


2.490.794. 


» 



Í908 



MATA-NZAS 



E. ■330.000. 



1.515.318. 



!l909 



J1908 



ORIENTE 



2.240.0 0. 



1.548.403. 



¡1909 



11908 



HAVANA 



1.555.000. 



794.796. 



1909 



1908 



CA'MA.GUEY 



560. OOO, 



£76.247. 



1909 



1908 



PlKATi 
rJE,L -RIO 



£22.000. 



163.0 00. 



NOTE: 

1909 PRODUCTION IS AN ESTIMATE. 



IBOK 



CTg 



Clara, Camaguey, and Oriente, while of the 186 plantations in opera- 
tion 72 are owned by Cubans, 38 by citizens of the United States, and 
76 by English, French, and Spanish proprietors. Santa Clara has 70 
working plantations; Matanzas, 56; Oriente, 27; Havana, 27; Pinar 
del Pio, 7, and Camaguey, 5. The mills of the island produce 
annually from 1,000,000 to 1,500,000 tons of sugar, 4,139,052 gallons 
of molasses of the first class and 39,765,326 of the second, 321,140 gal- 
lons of alcohol, and 1,763,810 gallons of aguardiente. Sugar refining 



128 INTERNATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

is confined practically to Cardenas, where there are three refineries. 
There are other small plants for local consumption though of no im- 
portance commercially. 

The orange crop for 1908 was the largest in the history of the coun- 
try, reaching an output of nearly half a million crates, while ship- 
ments of pineapples aggregated approximately 1,000,000 crates, nearly 
all of which went to New York. The value of pineapples shipped in 
1908 was placed at $904,117, and of this.amount the United States re- 
ceived $903,540, as compared with 1907 shipments which aggregated 
$660,873, of which $658,870 went to the United States. 

The cultivation of cacao in the island during the fiscal year 1907-8 
was carried forward on 1,137 plantations with 1,960,246 trees, as com- 




THE NEW PRODUCE EXCHANGE BUILDING IN THE CITY OF HAVANA— IT COST $600,000 
GOLD AND WAS OPENED IN MARCH, 1909. 

pared with 745 plantations and 1,860,300 trees in 1906-7. The pro- 
duction declined, however, from 9,380,900 pounds to 6,023,700 pounds 
by reason of lack of rain, although when this crop is compared with 
that of 1902, which amounted to 3,122,600 pounds, the growing im- 
portance of this industry is apparent. Exports during the last six 
months of 1907 represented a value of $477,000, over half of which 
was shipped to the United States, France, Spain, and Germany tak- 
ing 983,759, 277,346, and 241,206 pounds, respectively. The quantity 
sent to Great Britain shows a steady decrease. Experimental sowings 
have been made with seeds from Guayaquil, Trinidad, and San Carlos 
de Costa Rica, the latter giving the best results. 

The consumption of sisal hemp in Cuba is about 5,000,000 pounds 
per annum and of Manila hemp about 2,500,000 pounds, all of which 



CUBA. 129 

is imported. In addition about 500,000 pounds of ixtle, jute, and 
other similar fibers are supplied by other countries. 

Special legislation, was enacted during the year providing for the 
importation of cattle for breeding purposes, and by a decree of Jan- 
uary 21, 1908, article 7 of the law of September 15, 1902, prohibiting 
the exportation of cattle from Cuba was repealed. The number of 
cattle in the island increased from 999,862 head in 1902 to 2,579,492 
in 1906 ; and the number of horses in the same period increased 139.65 
per cent; mules, 65.85 per cent; and asses, 43.36 per cent. 

Mineral exploitation for 1908 is represented by iron shipments of 
570,310 tons, valued at $1,726,698; manganese, 1,470 tons, valued at 
$13,489; copper, 45,381 tons, valued at $469,540; and smaller ship- 
ments of gold, petroleum, and asphalt. 

The acquisition by the Bethlehem Steel Company of the United 
States of an important iron-ore deposit located near Santiago, Cuba, 
has been reported as a feature in the development of the mineral 
resources of the Republic. The ore beds have been measured up by 
engineers as embracing 75,000,000 tons, a peculiarity of the deposit 
consisting in the fact that it contains 2 per cent nickel and 1 per 
cent chromium. The tract covers an area of 875 acres and lies about 
12 miles east of Santiago. Another deposit of even greater extent 
has been located in the province of Oriente, 27,000 acres being the 
reported area with 600,000,000 tons. It is regarded by experts as the 
most important discovery of iron-ore deposits made within twenty 
years. 

Valuable deposits of salt have been reported in the province of 
Matanzas which it is expected will figure in the future economic 
development of the island. At present the annual importations of 
this article aggregate about 280,000 sacks. The salt taken from the 
Matanzas mine is pure product, and it is hoped ultimately to increase 
the output suiRciently to meet the needs of the home market. 

COMMUNICATIONS. 

The extent of railways in the Republic is 2,329 miles and of high- 
ways 631 miles with 140 bridges, 57 of which are steel and 12 concrete. 
A subsidy of $1,500,000 has been granted for the purpose of extending 
the Cuba railway for a distance of 155 miles. The annual report of 
this corporation for the year ended June 30, 1908, showed gross earn- 
ings of $2,039,467.95 and operating expenses of $1,318,180.36, the net 
earnings figuring for $721,287.59. The cash surplus at the close of 
the year was reported as $1,093,286.66. 

The expenditures of the Provisional Government in the construc- 
tion of macadamized roads was stated by President Gomez, in a 
recently delivered message, to have been $9,448,170.52. The esti- 
mated cost of completing the 300 miles of road now under construc- 
tion is placed at $1,500,000. 



130 INTEENATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMEEICAIST EEPUBLICS. 



STEAMSHIPS AND WATERWAYS. 



The island of Cuba is within easy reach of the United States, and 
numerous steamship lines ply regularly between the various ports 
of the two countries, as well as between Havana and European ports. 

The principal port is Havana, but a number of other ports and 
bays afford excellent anchorage and shelter for ocean-going vessels, 
among which Matanzas, Cienfuegos, Santiago de Cuba, and Guan- 
tanamo are the most important. 




THE TOURING CAR IN CUBA. 

Three steamship lines have regular sailings from New York for 
Havana and other Cuban ports, viz: New York and Cuban Mail 
Steamship Company, Ward Line, twice every week; the Munson 
Steamship Company, fortnightly, and the Compañía Transatlántica, 
once every month, making the run in from four to five days, first- 
class joassage being from $30 to $60. The Munson Steamship Com- 
pany has steamers leaving Mobile, Alabama, fortnightlj^, while the 
Southern Pacific Company maintains a regular service between New 



CUBA. 131 

Orleans and Havana, sailing every five days, and making the run 
in one day. The Peninsular and Occidental Steamship Company's 
steamers leave Port Tampa and Key West three times a week for 
Havana and the Commercial Union Navigation Company's steamers 
sail every alternate Friday from Galveston. 

The Boston-Cuba Steamship Company is scheduled to inaugurate 
a service in August, 1909; and a possible shipping route discussed 
is that from Havana to Savannah, Georgia, a line which would afford 
quick communication with the manufacturing South and a speedy 
transit of passengers and freight to and from populous districts south 
and north of the Ohio Eiver. The cargo for Cuba originating in 
Georgia and the eastern South is already of very large volume and is 
increasing steadily. 

Although there are a number of rivers in Cuba, some of them with 
a considerable volume of water, they are usually too short and swift 
to be of any service to navigation. The largest of these, the E-iver 
Cauto, is navigable for a distance of about 50 miles for light-draft 
vessels only, while the Sagua la Grande is navigable for about 20 
miles, and several of the other streams are navigable only for a few 
miles inland. 

The convention pertaining to the exchange of postal money orders 
between the Pepublic of Cuba and the United States became effective 
on July 3, 1908, and a series of regulations in regard to consular fees 
were put in effect on January 1, 1909. 

POSTS AND TELEGRAPHS. 

There are 418 post-offices and 147 telegraph offices, with 5,065 miles 
of line in operation. 

The following wireless stations have been completed and accepted 
by the Cuban Government : Pinar del Rio, Santa Clara, Morro Castle, 
Havana, and Nueva Gerona, Isle of Pines. Stations at Camaguey, 
Baracoa, Santiago de Cuba, Bayamo, Havana, Guantanamo, and 
Cape San Antonio are also completed and open for government and 
public service. 

According to the official record of 1908, the country's population 
numbered 2,048,980, while on the registration lists the number of 
foreigners entitled to vote for President was given as 6,954, nearly 
two-thirds of whom are residents of Habana. 

During the year a special commission was named to proceed to 
Europe for the purpose of making a study of immigration and, if 
possible, to devise means to divert the flow of Old World emigrants 
toward the Republic. To better facilitate this, the Department of 
the Treasury on April 9, 1908, issued a circular modifying the 
immigration laws. 

General health conditions in Havana for 1908 showed a marked im- 
provement, the number of deaths reported for 1907 being 6,708, as 



132 INTEKNATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMEEICAN REPUBLICS. 

compared with 5,994 in 1908. The public schools are systematically 
inspected as to sanitary condition, and over 6,000 persons were vac- 
cinated as a preventive against smallpox. New regulations govern- 
ing the practice of pharmacy are also being compiled. 

Many public works were contracted for, notably the system of 
waterworks at Cienfuegos, and a new wharf at Havana, while an 
appropriation of $100,000 was made for the preliminary work in 
connection with the work of dredging the harbor of Sagua. It is 
estimated that the total cost of this work will reach $2,000,000, the 
project including a 30-foot channel to allow the free entrance and 
exit of heavily laden vessels. 




GOVERNMENT HOSPITAL. 



The President of the Kepublic, in his message to the National Con- 
gress, delivered on April 21, 1909, proposed public improvements at 
an estimated cost of $6,500,000. The items covered in the plan 
include a Presidential Palace, $1,300,000; congressional building, 
$1,400,000 ; a Palace of Justice, $600,000 ; buildings for the Depart- 
ments of State, Justice, Interior, Public Instruction, Public Works 
and Sanitation, at a cost of $400,000 each ; a provincial institute and 
school, $300,000; a jail, $300,000; and an appropriation of $200,000 
for the purpose of making the building at present devoted to the De- 
partment of Education available for the Department of Posts and 
Telegraphs. 



DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 



The Dominican Republic, occupying the eastern and larger half 
of the island of Santo Domingo or Haiti, has a total area of 18,045 
square miles and a population of 610,000 inhabitants. Its area is 
thus equal to that of the States of Maryland, Connecticut, and Rhode 
Island, while its density of population is 34 per square mile, or one- 
half more than that of the United States (23.2 per square mile). 

The island is the second largest of the Antilles lying between Cuba 
and Porto Rico, separated from the former by the Windward Pas- 
sage and by Mona Passage from the latter. Its territory is divided 
between the Dominican Republic and the Republic of Haiti. 

Its topography shows numerous elevations forming four almost 
parallel mountain ranges which considerably modify the otherwise 
tropical climate, and together with the sea breezes give Santa Do- 
mingo a most delightful and pleasant climate. Mount Tina, 10,300 
feet above sea level, is the highest peak on the island and in the 
West Indies. 

Nearly all the fruits of the Tropics and many of the Temperate 
Zone are successfully grown on the island. Cacao, sugar, coffee, 
bananas, and other fruits, cabinet, structural, and dye woods, among 
the latter the well-known divi-divi, are largely exported. 

HISTORICAL SKETCH. 

Columbus on his first voyage having discovered Guanahani and 
Cuba, first sighted Santo Domingo on December 6, 1492, and taking 
possession of the island in the name of the King of Spain called it 
" La Isla Española " or Hispañola, because of its similarity to certain 
regions of Spain. 

The territory now forming the Dominican Republic was then 
occupied by an inoffensive, peaceable race of Indians who had divided 
the island into five kingdoms, and whom the Spaniards easily sub- 
dued and enslaved. 

Santo Domingo for more than a century formed the base of 
operations for the Spanish explorers and conquistadores, and the 
capital of the present Dominican Republic may justly lay claim 
to have been the metropolis of the vast colonial empire of Spain. 

The hard work and cruel treatment to which the Indians were 
subjected caused them to die in large numbers, and the introduction 
of slaves from Africa was begun as early as 1517 when 4,000 were 
introduced in one year. 

133 



134 INTEKNATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



During the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries French, Dutch, 
and British buccaneers established themselves in the West Indies, 
first on St. Christopher and afterwards on Tortuga, lying a few 
miles off the northwest coast of what is now the Republic of Haiti. 
In 1630 these buccaneers, mostly French, invaded the adjoining 
island and planted a colony of such importance on Santo Domingo 
that the jjrotection of the home Government was sought and ob- 
tained. A period of constant strife ensued between the French and 
settlers, until by the treaty of Ryswick, in 1697, France obtained pos- 
session of the western half of the island, and by the treaty of Basle, 
in 1795, the entire island was ceded to that country. 

In the year 1809, Spain being at war with France, the combined 
Spanish and British forces captured the island on July 11 and 
Spanish rule was once more established. 

In 1821 the inhabitants of the Spanish part of the island declared 
their independence of SjDain and desired their country's incorporation 
as a State of Greater Colombia, hoping to se- 
cure the assistance of Siision Bolivae. Colom- 
bia could not assist the new State and so Jean 
Pierre Buyer, President of Haiti, in 1822 was 
able to extend his government over the whole 
island. The Haitian dominion lasted until 
the year ISM when, on February 27, the people 
rose in arms against the Government and in 
1846 again established an independent State. 
In the year 1861, through constant fear of 
foreign invasion, the Republic appealed to 
Spain for protection, and on March 18, 1861, 
was formally annexed to that country. This 
rule, however, soon became intolerable and a revolution, initiated at 
Capotillo on August 16, 1863, resulted in the restoration of the 
Dominican Republic, the Spanish Crown relinquishing all claim to 
the country on May 1, 1865. 

Geni. Ramón Cáceres, the present incumbent of the Presidency, 
was inaugurated on July 1, 1908, for a term of four years. 




General RAMON CÁCERES, President 

OF THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC. 



CONSTITUTION AND GOVERNMENT. 



The present constitution of the Dominican Republic went into 
effect on April 1, 1908. It provides for a republican, democratic, 
and representative form of government, divided into three branches, 
legislative, executive, and judicial. The National Assembly is com- 
posed of two branches, the Senate and Chamber of Deputies. Sena- 
tors are elected one for each province or district, 12 in all, by indirect 
vote for a term of six years. As in the United States, the Senate is 
renewed one-third every two years. Deputies are elected in propor- 



136 INTERNATIONAL BUEEAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

tion to the population by direct vote for a term of four years, the 
Chamber being renewed by half every two years. 

In the President, assisted by a Cabinet, is vested the executive 
authority of the Republic. He is elected for a term of six years by 
indirect vote. 

The judiciary is composed of a Supreme Court sitting at Santo 
Domingo, two Courts of Appeals located at the capital and Santiago 
respectively, and lesser tribunals throughout the Republic, courts of 
first instance, and in the various municipalities. 

INTERIOR GOVERNMENT. 

' For administrative purposes the Dominican Republic is divided 
into 6 provinces and 6 districts, which are subdivided into com- 
munes, cantons, and sections. The provinces are administered by a 
Governor, appointed by the President of the Republic for a term of 
four years, as are also the chief executive officers of the other politi- 
cal divisions. A Municipal Board, elected by direct vote, represents 
the people in the various municipalities, who regulate the budget of 
the said districts, vote upon improvements, and in general cooperate 
with the executive head of the district. 

The following are the provinces and districts, with their respective 
capitals : 
Province of — Capital. 

Santo Domingo Santo Domingo.í^ 

Seybo Santa Cruz del Seybo. 

Azua Azua. 

Santiago Santiago de los Caballeros. 

Espaillat Moca. 

Le Vega Concepción de la Vega. 

District of — 

San Pedro Macoris San Pedro Macoris. 

Barahona Barabona. 

Samana Santa Barbara de Samana. 

Pacificador San Francisco de Macoris. 

Puerto Plata San Felipe de Puerto Plata. 

Monte Cristi San Fernando de Monte Cristi. 

President Gen. Ramon Cáceres. 

Minister of Interior and Police Señor Miguel A. Román, hijo. 

Minister of Foreign Affairs José Makia Cabral y Baez. 

Minister of the Treasury and Commerce Federico Velasquez Hernandez, 

Minister of War and Marine Manuel Garcia. 

Minister of Justice and Public Instruction Emilio C. Joubert. 

Minister of Agriculture and Immigration Ricardo Limardo. 

Minister of Fomento and Communication Emilio Tejera Bonetti. 

Note. — List of cabinet officers corrected to July 20, 1909. 

The President is allowed a salary of $7,200 per annum. 

"Also capital of tbe Republic. 



DOMINICAN REPUBLIC. 137 

THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC IN 1908. 

The prosperity prevailing in the Dominican Republic at the close 
of 1908 was amply demonstrated by the trade volume of the year in 
which a gain of nearly $2,000,000 was recorded as compared with 
1907. This was entirely on the side of exports. Cacao, sugar, and 
cofl'ee which, with tobacco and bananas, constitute over 91 per cent 
of the total exports, showed notable increases, shipments of cacao 
being reported as nearly double those of the year previous. The sum 
of $1,529,729.05 was deposited in New York for the service of the 
foreign debt and a generally favorable condition was noted in all 
lines of progress. 

Not only is the Dominican Government formulating extensive 
irrigation plans for the adequate cultivation of its land areas, but 
has also under consideration the construction of such railways as will 
place the products of the country within reach of the coast, special 
funds from the government revenues being set aside for this purpose. 
The recent establishment of an Academy of Fine Arts in the capital 
of the Eepublic is an earnest of the stimulus given by the Govern- 
ment to higher education. 

The declaration of amnesty for political offenders resulted in the 
return of many citizens to peaceful occupations in the country, thus 
assisting in the development of the resources of the Eepublic. 

On July 1, 1908, General Cáceres, who had been reelected Presi- 
dent of the Dominican Republic under the new Constitution, formally 
took the oath of office as the Executive in the presence of members of 
the Senate and Chamber of Deputies. 

FOREIGN AFFAIRS. 

At the beginning of 1909 the Republic was at peace with all 
foreign nations, maintaining with them amicable relations, cemented 
by the strongest bonds of cordiality and harmony. In order that the 
foreign relations of the country might be productive of the greatest 
good, the President recommends the extensive use of the consular 
service in disseminating useful information concerning the com- 
mercial, industrial, and natural resources of the country. 

At the present time the diplomatic service of the Dominican Re- 
public consists of ten legations, four of which are now filled — the 
United States, Haiti, Cuba, and Germany. It has been recom- 
mended that France, Germany, and Italy be combined under the 
direction of a single minister and a chargé d'affaires appointed near 
the Government of Spain. Owing to the increasing commercial re- 
lations with Panama and Central America, the legation at Caracas, 
Venezuela, may be transferred to Panama and the legation at Guate- 

560— Bull. 1—09 10 




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GOnUN STEEL '^^'-^ ÏLOUE SIONS ^^^^ rffiKï.5 



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TI3H 
PRODUGTS 



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SUGAR & 

COHFECT 
lOftE-RY 



OTHER 
IMP0KT5 



*Manufactnred product. 



DOMINICAlSr EEPUBLIC. 139 

mala be entrusted with the representation of the Dominican Republic 
for all the Republics of Central America, and a legation established 
at Bogota, Colombia. The consular service of the Republic consists 
of 25 consuls-general and 151 consular representatives of lower 
grades. 

FINANCE. 

Financial conditions are in every way prosperous, and ample capital 
is available for the exploitation of the public works undertaken by 
the Government. On January 1, 1909, the Republic was carrying in 
New York a credit balance of $6,616,850 in bonds and $947,973 in 
cash. 

The revenues of the Republic in 1908 amounted to $4,175,033.24, of 
which sum $3,232,889.93 represented the amount of customs receipts, 
from which collections the receivership transmitted for deposit with 
the Morton Trust Company, in New York, the fiscal agent and desig- 
nated depositary of the Dominican Loan, the sum of $1,529,729.05 to 
apply to the service of the debt. Of this sum $1,200,000 was for pay- 
ment of interest and ammortization of the 5 per cent customs admin- 
istration sinking-fund gold bonds, as authorized by the terms of the 
American-Dominican convention. 

The Dominican National Congress has estimated the public re- 
ceipts and expenditures of the Republic for the fiscal year 1908-9 at 
$3,984,300. From customs it is estimated that $3,239,200 will be re- 
ceived; from internal taxes, $388,800; communication, $44,000; con- 
sular dues, $14,500; stamp tax, $60,000; and from certain specified 
state properties, $237,800. 

These receipts are distributed among the various administrative 
departments, the sum of $1,808,708 being assigned to the Depart- 
ment of Treasury and Commerce, of which $30,000 is to be expended 
in taking a census of the Republic. The sum of $76,800 is also 
appropriated for extending existing railway construction and $75,000 
for irrigation works in Monte Cristi Province. The building of 
roads, the construction and repair of light-houses, and other public 
improvements were authorized. 

COMMERCE. 

Predictions heretofore made as to the betterment of trade condi- 
tions in the Republic have been fully justified. The trade volum^e 
for the year was $14,613,807, as compared with $12,794,657 in 1907. 
Exports amounted to $9,486,344 and imports to $5,127,463. The gain 
indicated for the total commerce was entirely on the side of exports, 
imports showing an inconsiderable decline. 

The United States, Germany, and France, as in 1907, purchased the 
bulk of Dominican exports, while the same countries, with Great 



140 INTERNATIONAL BUEEAU OF THE AMEEICAN EEPUBLICS. 

Britain, were tlie principal sources of imports. These countries 
figured in the order of values as follows: United States, exports 
$4,212,449, imports $2,891,722 ; Germany, exports $4,220,289, imports 
$868,230 ; France, exports $907,898, imports $212,002 ; Great Britain, 
imports $788,621 ; and other countries, exports $145,708, imports 
$366,888. 

The leading article of export was cacao, valued at $4,269,047 and 
amounting to 41,903,470 pounds, of which over two-thirds went to 
Germany, the remainder being equally divided between the United 
States and France, The yield was nearly double that of the preced- 
ing year. 




STREET SCENE IN SANTO DOMINGO, DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 

Next in point of value is sugar, amounting to 69,703 tons and 
valued at $3,092,429 ; tobacco, 18,665,594 pounds, valued at $1,009,608 ; 
coffee to the value of $325,153, of which France took 1,845,572 pounds 
and Germany 1,546,528 pounds. Banana shipments amounted to 
454,010 bunches, valued at $234,002, a decline of $85,498 as compared 
with 1907. The five articles mentioned constitute somewhat more 
than 94 per cent of the exports of the country, all of which, with the 
exception of tobacco and bananas, showed increased values for the 
year. 

Other items shipped in small consignments were animals, dj^es, 
cocoanuts, copra, gums, resins, hides and skins, honey, vegetable 
fibers, wax, and woods, to a total value of $556,105. 



DOMINICAN REPUBLIC. 141 

On the import list cotton manufactures occupied first place, being 
valued at $1,186,551, of which the United States and Great Britain 
furnished $501,646 and $466,031, respectively, while of the next rank- 
ing item, iron and steel manufactures, valued at $605,246, the United 
States supplied about 64 per cent, or $386,994, a slight advance over 
1907, though the greatest gain in this classification was made by 
Great Britain. Steel rails, barbed wire, machinery, and galvanized 
roofing formed the bulk of the imports of this class. 

Eice, which forms a staple article of diet in the Republic, was 
imported to the amount of 16,221,141 pounds, valued at $360,728, of 
which 94.5 per cent was received from Germany, a slight decline in 
the total being noted in comparison with the preceding year. Flour 
receipts, exclusively from the United States, declined from 66,460 
barrels to 56,115, a corresponding loss in value being recorded. 
Other items covering mainly foodstuffs, leather, sacking, and oils 
showed slight fluctuations as compared with 1907, but in no case 
exceeded $250,000 in value. 

The natural market for the products of the Dominican Republic 
is the United States, and that country is also the main source of 
supply for the merchandise purchased abroad. 

PRODUCTION AND INDUSTRIES. 

The Government of the Dominican Republic is thoroughly alive to 
the importance of encouraging and developing the live stock and 
agricultural industries of the country, and proposes to assist as far 
as practicable in the introduction of new and scientific methods, the 
importation of brood animals, and the selection of the best seeds and 
plants for purposes of propagation in the various branches of agri- 
culture. A careful investigation will be made of the conditions under 
which these industries may best be fostered to the end that the re- 
sources of the Republic may be developed to their fullest extent. 
The Department of Agriculture and Immigration has under con- 
sideration the establishing of a Bureau of Cultivation to act in 
cooperation with the agricultural schools and experiment stations of 
the Republic for the purpose of increasing the quality and quantity 
of the agricultural productions of the country. The leading crops 
are cacao, sugar, tobacco, coffee, and bananas in the order named. 

The implements used by the Dominican farmer in planting and 
harvesting his crops are practically the same as were used on the 
island one hundred years ago. Improved agricultural and farm 
machinery are at present being introduced, and its use is urged by the 
Government. 

During the last 10 years the Dominican Republic has exported 
cabinet and construction woods, mahogany, lignum-vitse, satinwood, 



142 INTERNATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

etc., to the value of considerably over half a million dollars. On the 
other hand it has imported, during the same period, practically all 
of the lumber used for building purposes, costing in round numbers 
about $2,000,000. This condition exists in spite of the fact that 
there are on the island great forests of excellent building woods. 
These include many varieties of great economic value, but the one 
which is best known to the lumberman and which probably exists in 
the largest quantity is the yellow pine. It has been variously esti- 
mated that there are from 1,000,000 to 1,500,000 acres of merchant- 
able pine in the Republic. 



•DOMIKLICAK I^HPUBLIC 



^o-xf^V^esQ.^^ 




POKTD RICO $32.523. 
CUBA. a3.S99. 

IXAUY ll.ei7. 

SPAIN 4.329. 

OTHER COUNTHIES 68.431. 



^;^Uf9.4e.6.^ 



EXPORTS 



PORTO RICO JA3.595. 
CUBA 12.8S3. 

BELGIUM 6.102 

OTMEaa COUNTRII.S 36.353 



CUBA. 
PORTO RICO 
ITAJ-Y 
SPAIN 

OTHER C0DNTHIES«6.003 



■c>TAX-$5.i5e.iei . 



IMPOT^TS 




PORTO RICO Î72.Q83. 
CUBA. 3.T?2. 

BELGIUM 3.356. 

OTHER COUNTEŒS 4 7. 1 5 5 . 



ITALY 4116.428. 
SPAIN 123.194. 



This pine is very rich in resin. One of the varieties which goes by 
the local name of " suaba " is so saturated with resin that it is used by 
the country people for torches. Pieces of wood may be lighted with 
an ordinary match and burn freely. Other giims and resins are found 
in fairly large quantities, some of which produce a good grade of 
rubber. The Guayacan resin is found in certain districts in the in- 
terior and also a gum which in burning produces a smoke similar to 
incense. 

As a special and important branch of the Department of Agri- 
culture the stock-raising industry of the country receives particular 



DOMINICAN REPUBLIC. 



143 



attention. Apiculture also is carefully fostered. Demonstrators are 
detailed by the Government to show apiculturists the best methods of 
producing and conserving bees and advise farmers to engage in that 
industry. 

The steady onward movement of the country is evidenced in the 
government propaganda with reference to the contemplated construc- 
tion of a series of irrigation canals at a cost of $500,000, for the pur- 
pose of reclaiming a large tract of fertile land extending from the 
territory watered by the Caño del Estero on the south, northward to 
Monte Cristi Bay, and from the Yaque westward to Manzanilla Bay. 
The land is comparatively level and could easily be put in proper con- 
dition at moderate expense. 




CENTRAL PARK, LA VEGA, DOMINICAN REPUBLIC. 

Veins of auriferous quartz are found all along the central mountain 
claim, and alluvial gold is found in numerous places in the north. 
Copper is next in importance on account of the quantities in which 
it is found. Iron is found in immense quantities in several sections 
of the country and coal deposits abound in the extensive valley lying 
between the central range, or the Gran .Cordillera and the Cordillera 
Septentrional, or Monte Cristi chain, those of the Pacificador district 
being the best known. 

The petroleum belt measures over 190 square miles in area, oil 
being found in abundance in the Province of Azua. 

Silver has been obtained in a very pure state from the Tanci mine 
in the Puerto Plata municipality and deposits of this metal are found 
in other sections of the country, as well as deposits of platinum, 
quicksilver, and tin. Large salt deposits also exist in the mountains 



144 INTEENATIONAL BUEEAU OF THE AMERICAN EEPUBLJCS. 

west of Neyba, the salt being perfectly pure, and the deposits give 
evidence of containing salt in inexhaustible quantities. At Caldera 
Bay salt is obtained from sea water by solar evaporation. 

RAILWAY AND STEAMSHIP LINES. 

The railway mileage of the Republic has an extent of 150 miles 
approximately. 

A law of the Dominican Government provides that 30 i^er cent of 
the internal revenues be applied to the payment of interest on capital 
invested in the building of railroads, whether by private corporations 
or borrowed by the Government. It further provides that interest 
may be paid up to 6 per cent ; that a bonus of $2,000 be allowed for 
each kilometer constructed and that this portion of the revenues shall 
not be used for any other purpose. 

The Dominican Central Railway, which formerly belonged to an 
American company, became, by virtue of a contract made by the 
Government in February, 1908, the property of the Republic. This 
road connects the two important cities of Puerto Plata and Santiago 
and has a length of 42 miles, 28 of which run through broken and 
mountainous lands. Traffic over this railway in 1908 increased 12.4 
per cent as compared with 1907 and the receipts of the former year 
were 92 per cent greater than those of the latter, notwithstanding the 
fact that all of the construction material for the Santiago to Moca 
railway was carried over the line free of charge. The increase in 
cacao and coffee transported over this road in 1908, as compared with 
1907, was 144.3 per cent and 110.7 per cent, respectively, while tobacco 
decreased 14.1 per cent. 

The Santiago to Moca Railway, which may be considered an 
extension of the Puerto Plata to Santiago Railway, runs from San- 
tiago to the Moca River, a distance of 16 miles. 

It is proposed to construct a road from Seybo to La Romana, an 
appropriation of 30 per cent of the internal revenues having been 
made for that purpose. 

The S amana to Santiago Railway belongs to a private company. 
The country through which it passes has been greatly developed 
since the construction of the line. A branch road is being built to 
Salcedo, from whence it will be continued to Moca. 

The line from Sanchez, on Samana Bay, to La Vega, a distance 
of 82 miles, with a 9-mile branch from Baird station to San Fran- 
cisco de Macoris, is owned by a Scotch capitalist. 

The Dominican Republic has a number of splendid bays and 
inlets, forming excellent natural harbors and affording anchorage 
and shelter for the largest ocean-going vessels. The principal ports 
are: Puerto Plata, Sanchez, Santo Domingo, Macoris, Samana, 



DOMINICAN EEPUBLIC. 



145 



Monte Cristi, and Barahona. The magnificent bay of Samana, also 
called Golfo de las Flechas, is áO miles in length, with an average 
width of 15 miles, and is fully protected from the winds and storms 
and is one of the finest natural harbors of the world. The Bay of Neiba 
is 15 miles long, with an average width of 10 miles, and likewise 
affords safe anchorage for the largest ocean-going ships, as do also 
the bays of Ocoa and Manzanillo, and several others. Santo Do- 
mingo, the capital of the Republic, is situated at the mouth of the 
Ozama Eiver, which is navigable for a considerable distance inland, 
as are also the rivers Yaque, Yaque del Sur, Yuna, Iguamo, and 
several others, some of them, however, only for vessels of light draft. 
The Clyde Steamship Company maintains a line of steamships 
running from New York to the ports of Santo Domingo, Monte 
Cristi, Puerto Plata, Samana, Sanchez, Macoris, and Azua, sailing 
every second week from New York. The time and fare to the 
various ports is as follows: 



Time. 


Fare. 




Time. 


Pare. 


Days. 
Santo Domingo ' 8 


S60 
60 
60 
70 


Monte Cristi 


Days. 
10 
11 
11 
12 


860 


Azua 9 


Macoris 


70 


Samana 9 


Sanchez 


70 


Puerto Plata 10 




75 









Total entries of vessels at the various ports of the Republic during 
1908 numbered 206 sailing and 546 steamships, while clearances were 
201 and 511, respectively. Tonnage entries and clearances were 849,- 
687 and 781,169 tons, respectively. Ships of American registry bring- 
ing cargo to the Republic brought 57 per cent of all the imports, or 
to the amount of $2,920,999, increasing their tonnage over 1907, while 
those of German registry, though continuing in second place, trans- 
ported but 28 per cent, or $1,452,158, and British bottoms increased 
their carrying from $106,599 to $208,530. 

The major portion of the exports were carried by vessels of Ameri- 
can registry, 38 per cent, or $3,634,394, being thus classified, German 
ships ranking next with $2,630,985, or 27.5 per cent. Norwegian and 
French vessels increased their export tonnage, and the remainder of 
the export trade was handled by British, Dutch, Cuban, and Domin- 
ican vessels. 

In 1908 the Department of Public Works estimated that $300,000 
would be needed for the improvement of the ports of the Republic. 
In June of the same year the work of removing the bar from the 
mouth of the river at the j)ort of Santo Domingo was begun, and by 
July, 1908, the minimum depth had been increased from 7 to 14|^ feet, 
at a cost of $40,000. The Department of Public Works is contemplat- 
ing the improvement of other ports of the Republic. 



146 INTEENATIOISTAL BUEEAU OF THE AMEEICAIST EEPUBLICS. 

Work was commenced on the highway from the capital of the Re- 
public to San Cristobal and is being pushed to conclusion as rapidly 
as possible. 

POSTS AND TELEGRAPHS. 

The receipts from the postal service in 1908 were $25,547.96, against 
$23,999 in the preceding year. 

The Government has signified its adherence to the postal conven- 
tion of Rome and many new offices were established for the further- 
ance of international communication. 

The national telegraph and telephone system is satisfactory, both 
in organization and service, the year's receipts being $17,524.23. The 




PUERTO PLATA, LOOKING TOWARD THE SEA. 

Government has contracted with the United Wireless Telegraph 
Company for the installation of the De Forrest system of wireless 
telegraph stations in the Republic. The first station is to be erected 
in the capital at a cost of $8,450, and smaller stations at other points 
at a cost not to exceed $2,765 each. A^^ien the chain is complete 
communication can be rapidly effected between all the surrounding 
islands. 

The Government recognizes the advisability and need of secur- 
ing desirable immigration into the Republic, and is prepared to 
offer every inducement to immigrants to colonize the country. For- 
eigners coming into the country for the purpose of legitimate invest- 
ment are given absolutely the same rights as Dominicans, with the 
exception that they are not granted special concessions or privileges. 



DOMINICAN KEPUBLIC. 



147 



The matter of public instruction receives the particular attention 
of the Government. In accordance with the provisions of the budget 
the Academy of Drawing, Painting, and Sculpture was established 
in the capital in December, 1908. This institution, for which $3,000 
was appropriated, is under the control of the Departments of State, 
Justice, and Public Instruction. The academy is open to both sexes 
and makes no charge for tuition. A graded course of instruction 




BAY OF SAMANA, SANTO DOMINGO. 

has been adopted, covering a period of four years, and provisions 
are made for both day and night classes. 

A new sanitary law was promulgated during the year, and the 
departmental authorities empowered to import, free of duty, such 
articles of public utility as are designed for the services of hygiene 
and sanitation, instruction, and general development. 

Among the notable public works undertaken during the year are 
the Monte Cristi irrigation project, the railroad from Santiago to 
Moca, the port works of the capital, and the public highway to San 
Cristobal. 




ECUADOR 




The Republic of Ecuador, so called because of its situation under 
the equator, is bounded by the Pacific Ocean, the Republic of Colom- 
bia, Brazil, and Peru. Its area is estimated at about 420,000 square 
miles, including the Galapagos Islands, and is equal to the combined 
area of the States of California and Texas. Its population of 
1,500,000 is less than that of the city of Philadelphia. 

Ecuador, like Peru, may be divided into four distinct regions, with 
as many varieties of climate, soil, and products. In the lowlands 
cacao, sugar cane, tobacco, coffee, and cotton are grown, while on the 
high " paramos,^'' or plateaux, wheat and other cereals and potatoes 
are successfully cultivated. The extensive forests contain numerous 
species of useful trees, among them the phytelephas Tnacrocarpa, 
yielding the commercial product known as vegetable ivory, and the 
carludovica páÍTnata^ furnishing the fiber from which Panama hats 
are made. In spite of the name, these hats come mostly from Ecua- 
dor and Colombia, especially the former country, the natives having 
acquired considerable skill in their manufacture. Other valuable 
trees are the cinchona, from whose bark quinine is obtained ; the man- 
grove, used for tanning purposes ; and the hornba ceiba, or silk cotton 
tree, yielding the valuable commercial product known as kapok. 

Ecuador's four zones are called, respectively, tierras calientes, 
the hot lowlands; templadas, at an altitude of from 6,000 to 9,000 
feet; frias, which embrace the fertile plateau of Quito, on which is 
located the capital of the country, 9,371 feet above sea level, and the 
nevados, comprising the snow-capped Andes, among which the peaks 
of Chimborazo, 20,498 feet, and Cotopaxi, 19,613 feet, are the highest. 
The Cordillera in Ecuador branches off into two distinct mountain 
chains, forming a number of high plateaux crossed by spurs or nudos, 
which give the country a most peculiar aspect topographically, not 
unlike a ladder, the nudos forming the rungs. 

HISTORICAL SKETCH. 

When, in the beginning of the sixteenth century, Francisco 
Pizarro had conquered the great Inca empire and executed the Inca 
king, Atahtjalpa, he dispatched his lieutenant, Sebastian de Ben- 
alcazar, to the north in order that he might conquer the Kingdom of 
Quito, inhabited by the Caras, a people with social and political in- 
stitutions similar to those of the Incas. With comparative ease the 
Spaniards took possession of the country, and on December 6, 1534, 
Benalcazar entered the capital of Quito. 
148 



ECUADOR. 149 

Gonzalo Pizarro was appointed Governor of the Province of 
Quito, and the Spaniards then pursued their usual policy of appor- 
tioning the land among themselves and establishing feudal estates. 

^Vlien the viceroyalty of Peru was established, in 1542, the terri- 
tory now included in the Kepublic of Ecuador was made a part 
thereof. Subsequently, in 1718, on the establishment of the vice- 
royalty of New Granada, with Bogota as capital, the territory was 
divided between the two, reverting finally to Peru. 

The movement for independence began in Ecuador on August 10, 
1809, when the citizens of Quito deposed the Spanish governor, Don 
Euiz DE Castilla, and established a revolutionary junta. The Span- 
iards soon regained control and retained it until October 9, 1820, 
when the citizens of Guayaquil declared their independence. This 
movement was successful, and the complete 
victory obtained over the Eoyalist forces by 
General Sucre at the battle of Pichincha on 
May 24, 1822, assured the independence of the 
country. 

An assembly called by General Sucre five 
days after this battle declared that the terri- 
tory of the former presidency of Quito should 
be incorporated with the Greater Colombia of 
Simon Bolivar, composing what are now the 
Republics of Colombia, Panama, Venezuela, 
and Ecuador. 

__, . ' . -, . i 1 • jT -< r>i1,-\ GENERAL ELOY ALFARO, PRESIDENT OF 

This union was disrupted m the year 1830 ecuador. 

when a Constitutional Congress, which met at 

Riobamba on August 14, proclaimed the constitution of the Republic 
of Ecuador. General Flores was elected the first President of the 
Republic, and was succeeded in the year 1835 by the able statesman, 
General Vicente Rocafuerte, under whose administration the coun- 
try enjoyed peace and prosperity. 

General Eloy Alfaro, the present President, was inaugurated on 
January 1, 1907, for a term of four years. 

constitution and government. 

The present constitution of the Republic was adopted in 1897. 
Ecuador is a centralized republic with the usual division of powers 
into legislative, executive, and judicial branches. 

The National Congress consists of the Senate and Chamber of 
Deputies. The former is composed of 32 members, 2 for each prov- 
ince, and the latter of 41 members, 1 for every 30,000 citizens or 
fraction over 15,000. Senators as well as deputies are elected by 
direct vote, every citizen over 18 years of age who can read and write 




150 INTEENATIONAL BUEEAU OF THE AMERICAN EEPUBLICS. 

being entitled to vote. Senators are elected for a term of four and 
deputies for two years. 

The President and Vice-President of the Republic are elected for 
a term of four years each, by direct vote and neither may be re- 
elected except after a lapse of two terms. The President may not 
leave the Republic without the consent of Congress during his term 
of office nor for one year thereafter. 

In addition to a cabinet, consisting of five Secretaries of State 
appointed by the President, there is a Council of State presided over 
by the Vice-President made up of the five Secretaries of State, the 
Attorney-General, the Chief Justice of the Court of Accounts, the 
Rector of the Central University, two Senators, two Deputies, and 
two other citizens. The seven last-mentioned councilors are elected by 
Congress. 

The Supreme Court, located at Quito, the capital, is the highest 
tribunal, and consists of five justices elected by Congress for a term 
of six years. The Superior Courts are located at Quito, Guayaquil, 
Cuenca, Riobamba, Loja, and Portoviejo, the first three named being 
composed of six judges and the last three of three judges each, 
all elected by Congress for six years. There are also five courts in 
the country, dealing with commercial matters only, as well as a Court 
of Accounts, several mining courts, provincial, county, and district 
courts. 

The Court of Accounts is empowered to audit and investigate all 
public accounts and expenditures, its members, like those of the 
Supreme Court and the Superior Courts, being elected by Congress 
for a term of six years. 

The territory of the Republic is divided politically into sixteen 
Provinces and one territory, and subdivided into cantones and par- 
ishes. The administration of the provinces is in the hands of a gov- 
ernor who is appointed by the President of the Republic, as are also 
the other executive officers of the cantones. In the parishes the coun- 
selors are elected by direct vote of the people, and have the right of 
regulating the budget and to recommend and vote improvements. 

The Provinces of Ecuador and their capitals are : 

Province of — Capital. 

Azuay Cuneca. 

Bolivar Guaranda. 

Canar Azogues. 

Carchi Tulcan. 

Chimborazo Riobamba. 

Esmeraldas Esmeraldas. 

Guayas Guayaquil. 

Imbabura Ibarra. 

Leon Latacunga. 

Loja Loja. 



ECUADOK. 151 

Province of— Capital. 

Manabi Portoviejo. 

Oriente Ahuano. 

El Oro Maclaala. 

Pichincha Quito.<* 

Los Rios Babahoyo. 

Tunguragua , Amabato. 

Territory of Galapagos, composed of the Galapagos Islands. 

President Gen. Aloy Alfaro. 

Minister of Interior and Public Works Dr. Alejandro Reyes V. 

Minister of Foreign Affairs and Justice Dr. Francisco X. Agxjirre Jado. 

Minister of Treasury and Public Credit Dr.CÈSAR Borja. 

Minister of Public Instruction, Posts, and 

Telegraphs Dr. Francisco J. Martinez Aguirre. 

Minister of War and Marine Dr. Wilfrido Venegas. 

. Note. — List of cabinet oiBcers corrected to July 20, 1909. 
The salary of the President is $6,000. 

ECUADOR IN 1908. 

President Eloy Alfaero in his message delivered to the National 
Congress on August 12, 1908, outlined the conditions prevailing 
throughout the country during 1907 and the first part of the year 
1908. The Guayaquil-to-Quito line was successfully inaugurated in 
the course of the year and in August preliminary work was begun 
on the road from Huigra to Cuenca, with the prospect of opening up 
the rich mining and agricultural districts of the southern sections of 
the Republic within two years. 

The entry of the first train from the coast over the newly completed 
road to Quito on June 25, 1908, was made the occasion of great re- 
joicing in the national capital. 

Other lines are contemplated, one from the interior to the Pacific 
having a terminal on the coast nearer the Panama Canal, and the 
other a branch of the Guayaquil-Quito line to tap a fertile district 
producing cacao, rubber, and bananas. The development of the coal 
fields of the Republic is another outgrowth of the railroad building 
which is characterizing Ecuador's economic development. 

The Government plans to celebrate the centenary of its independ- 
ence in the summer of 1909 by a national exposition in Quito in which 
a number of countries have decided to participate. 

FOREIGN AFFAIRS. 

The strongest ties of friendship and good will continue to exist 
between Ecuador and the countries of Europe and America, due 
largely to the satisfactory services rendered abroad by the able diplo- 

"Also capital of the Republic. 



152 INTERNATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

matic corps of the Republic. In the administration of foreign affairs 
it has been the aim. of the Government to cultivate, strengthen, and 
extend cordial relations with other powers. The arbitral award of 
the boundary question with Peru is to be pronounced by the King 
of Spain at the earliest practicable date and the boundary dispute 
with Colombia settled by amicable and direct negotiations of the 
two Republics, a treaty relating to that subject being submitted for 
the consideration of Congress by the Minister of Foreign Relations. 
The commercial treaty with Chile has been approved by the Con- 
gress of the Republic, and a sanitary convention, based on the Sani- 
tary Convention of Washington, and subject to the ratification of 
the governments of Ecuador and Panama, was negotiated in Quito 
on September 26, 1908. When this convention becomes operative it 
will have a most salutary effect upon the hygiene of the ports of the 
two countries in interest. 

FINANCE. 

With an income for the year 1907 of $6,683,288 and expenditures 
of $7,892,000 a deficit was reported at the beginning of 1908, to meet 
which a loan of $1,500,000 was negotiated. The operating expenses 
of the Government for the year. 1907 were actually $6,634,000, the 
difference between these figures and those reported above having 
been used principally for disbursements on account of the Southern 
Railway. The Executive therefore decreed, under date of August 
29, 1908, that until the end of the year all the special funds of the 
Republic, except those specified in the Constitution, should be used 
for the payment of administrative expenses. The appropriations for 
the Guayaquil and Quito waterworks, the parks in Quito, the water- 
works at Máchala, and public roads in general were diverted until 
January 1, 1909, into a fund to be used for the payment of the cur- 
rent expenses of administration. 

The most important financial event in the transactions of the 
year was the settlement of the external debt of Ecuador as represented 
by the bonds of the Guayaquil and Quito Railway Company. An 
arrangement was made which, though necessitating important conces- 
sions on the part of the bondholders, indicated the purpose of the 
Government to maintain its credit, and daily deposits have been made 
since January 1, 1909, on the service of the debt. The foreign debt 
in December, 1908, was $5,400,000 and the interior obligations about 
$4,000,000. 

On November 8, 1908, the President, with the authorization of the 
National Congress, negotiated a loan of $4,870,000 for the payment 
of that part of the public debt guaranteed by the federal revenues. 
The President has also been authorized to impose a duty on exports 



ECUADOE. 153 

of silver coin, or to forbid said exports, should he deem it desirable. 
At the present price of bar silver the intrinsic value of Ecuadoran 
silver coin is greater than the coin value of the same, and legislation 
was required to prevent the Republic from being deprived of its 
silver currency. 

Municipal expenditures in Guayaquil were reduced by the suspen- 
sion of certain public works. 

COMMERCE. 

Foreign commerce for 1908 was represented by $15,296,627, imports 
amounting to $6,950,256 and exports $8,346,371. These figures are 
lower than those of the preceding year, when the foreign commerce 
of Ecuador showed an increased valuation of nearly $1,500,000 over 
1906. This is the more remarkable from the fact that the increase 
was on the side of imports entirely, thus showing the improvement in 
the purchasing power of the country. Total trade values in 1907, the 
latest year for which details are available, were $21,643,200, France 
taking first rank as a receiver of exports and Great Britain retaining 
her place as supplier of imports. 

The United States occupied second place on both the export and 
import lists of the countr}^ United States statistics give $2,196,131 
as the value of imports from Ecuador in 1908, with shipments thither 
to the value of $1,814,434. 

Cacao, the most important commercial commodity on the export 
list, was shipped abroad in 1908 to the extent of 64,000,000 pounds, 
valued at $6,400,000. Of this quantity the United States took 11,381,- 
460 pounds, while the visible supply in the warehouses of the Repub- 
lic on January 1, 1909, was estimated at 1,000,000 pounds. Cacao 
figured for more than half of the total exports, and 50 per cent of 
that product was shipped to France. 

Other important items of export are toquilla straw hats, known 
commercially as " Panama " hats, india rubber, coffee, hides, and 
vegetable ivory. The export value of hats is placed at about $1,000,- 
000 yearly, the hats ranging in price from $1 to $125 each. The 
center of this industry is the town of Jipijapa. 

Vegetable ivory, the trade name for the corozo or tagua nut is 
exported annually to the extent of about 20,000 tons, Germany taking 
one-half, United States one-fourth, and Italy, France, and other 
European countries the remainder of the output. The value of this 
product shipped to the United States in 1908 was $142,000, as com- 
pared with $204,350 for the year 1907. 

In addition to the large shipments of cacao from Guayaquil in 
1908 there were exported 68,241 hides of neat cattle valued at $135,- 

560— Bull. 1—09 11 



154 INTEENATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMEEICAN REPUBLICS. 

000; 4,964,000 pounds of coffee valued at $273,000; 3,400,000 pounds 
of vegetable ivory worth $102,000, and 470,000 pounds of rubber 
valued at $235,000. Of the hides exported the United States took 
54,982; Great Britain, 6,114; France, 4,265; and Germany, 2,880. 
The imports from the United States were chiefly flour, wine, rope, 
machinery, codfish and salmon, sugar, brooms, and lumber. 

For 1907 the total exports amounted to $11,793,213, and imports 
to $9,849,987. As compared with the preceding year exports showed 
a gain of $102,970, and imports the remarkable increase of $1,344,187. 

The principal articles of export were: Cacao, 43,348,369 pounds, 
worth $6,934,257; ivory nuts, 47,131,627 pounds, worth $1,358,056; 
hats to the value of $1,171,043; rubber, 1,031,510 pounds, worth 
$777,544 ; hides, 2,622,497 pounds, worth $351,344 ; gold coin, $117,550 ; 
and toquilla straw, to the value of $90,253. 

The leading items of the import list were : Textiles other than silk, 
$2,622,885; food products, $1,535,907; gold and silver coin, $1,084,444; 
iron and hardware, $640,886; wines and liquors, $444,063; minerals 
(coal), $413,284; machinery, $363,634; clothing, $327,583; drugs and 
medicines, $292,147 ; and shoes and findings, $166,387. The distribu- 
tion of this trade showed the following values: United States, ex- 
ports $3,347,185, imports $2,349,182; Great Britain, exports 
$1,165,397, imports $3,540,996; France, exports $4,046,380, imports 
$598,300; Germany, exports $1,483,627, imports $1,800,000; Peru, 
exports $441,299, imports $147,022 ; and Chile, exports $348,260, and 
imports $162,008. 

PRODUCTION AND INDUSTRIES. 

The chief occupation of the inhabitants of the Republic is agri- 
culture, the raising of cacao being extensively engaged in as is indi- 
cated by the premier position of that article on the export list of 
the country. Rubber, sugar, coffee, bananas, and rice are also 
cultivated. The estimated annual production of the last mentioned 
product is in the neighborhood of 40,000,000 pounds, which is not 
quite sufficient to meet the demands of the home market necessitating 
importations from various foreign countries. 

The growing of sugar cane is of considerable importance, the out- 
put of the various plantations aggregating in the neighborhood of 
160,000 bags (of 100 pounds), which is about sufficient for the home 
market although there is some traffic in this article with outside 
countries. 

The coffee crop is estimated to be about 7,000,000 pounds annually, 
and the output of vegetable ivory nuts, of which Ecuador exports 
a considerable quantity, is placed at 48,000,000 pounds, all of which is. 
exported. 



ECUADOR. 155 

Rubber is gathered and brought to market during all the months 
of the year, something more than 1,000,000 pounds representing the 
annual yield. 

In order to encourage the development of the grape industry the 
National Congress has exempted domestic grape products from the 
payment of federal and municipal taxes, and for the general promo- 
tion of agricultural development the Government has recommended 
the establishment of boards of agriculture in Quito, Guayaquil, and 
Cuenca. These boards Avill work in conjunction with the Govern- 
ment for the development and improvement of stock raising, irriga- 
tion, planting and fertilizing of lands, the harvesting of crops, and 
the improvement of the means of communication. The importation 
of useful seeds, plants, and animals will be encouraged and premiums 
offered for the best results obtained in the agricultural and stock- 
raising industries of the Eepublic. Included in this plan are the 
founding of agricultural schools and the establishment of meteoro- 
logical observatories. 

Other than the plaiting of hats, to protect which an export duty is 
placed on shipments of toquilla straw, manufacturing industries are 
represented by foundries, ice plants, sugar refineries, and a number 
of fluor mills. Several small establishments are also engaged in the 
manufacture of woolen and cotton blankets, ponchos, bayetas, com- 
mon carpets, felt hats, etc. Laces, embroideries, shoes, furniture, 
matting, saddles, wagons, and carts are made by hand, and a small 
shoe factory is being installed. 

The principal industries of Guayaquil of long standing cover such 
important articles of consumption as vermicelli, chocolate, biscuits, 
beer, ice, soap, candles, and liquor, while the more recent industries 
consist of the manufacture of bags, wafers, cotton fabrics, mosaics, 
and a well-equipped tannery. The manufacture of matches has been 
particularly successful in the Republic, and the quality and price 
of this product compare most favorably with matches of foreign 
manufacture. 

In .Quito manufacturing interests are represented by seven flour 
mills, one foundry, one ice factory, and two sugar refineries. Shoes 
are made by hand. Other industries, such as the making of blankets, 
ponchos, carpets, saddles, hats, furniture, and pottery, are represented 
in a small way. The capital is also noted for the large amount of 
religious painting and sculpture done within its limits and exported 
to other countries. The making and coloring of small articles from 
vegetable ivory and the curing of the skins of small birds, particu- 
larly humming birds, are carried on to some extent in the city. 

The mineral deposits in the country have as yet been only slightly 
exploited. The country is known to be rich in copper, iron, lead, and 
coal, while silver ore deposits have been found but not worked, and 



156 IIS^TEENATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMEEICAX EEPUBLICS. 

at Esmeraldas platinum has been found in variable quantities. Sul- 
phur also is known to exist in large quantities in the Pichincha dis- 
trict and in the Galapagos Islands. Lack of transportation facilities 
only retards the development of the coal deposits in the interior of 
the Republic. 

COMMUNICATIOX TACILITIES. 

The total extent of railway lines in operation in 1908 was given 
as a little over 316 miles. The Guayaquil and Quito Railway Com- 
pany completed the construction of its line from Guayaquil to Quito 
on June 25, 1908, and since that date trains, both passenger and 
freight, have been running regularly between the two cities. The reg- 
ular passenger trains only run during the day and make the trip (297 
miles) in two days when formerly, by mules and on foot it was not 
nncommon to require twelve and fifteen daj^s in going over the same 
route. Since the completion of the railway the people of Quito, and 
of the whole Republic are looking forward to a new era of progress. 
The operation of the newly opened line is rendered expensive through 
the necessity of importing coal from Australia, though coal fields, 
equal in extent to those of West Virginia, exist within 40 miles of 
the main road. An arrangement has been entered into by the rail- 
road company for the exploitation of these deposits, it being esti- 
mated that the cost of constructing a branch to them will be about 
$1,500,000. The completion of this project will make the whole line 
pay handsomely. 

On August 6, 1908, preliminar}^ work was begun on the railway 
from Huigra to Cuenca, which is to be completed within twentj^- 
eight months, and when finished will open the rich mining and agri- 
cultural district of southern Ecuador. This road not only traverses 
coal fields of enormous value but is an important link in the Inter- 
continental Railway, opening up the vast plateau of southern Ecuador 
and connecting Cuenca, the third city of the Republic, with Quito 
and Guaj^aquil. The President advocates the extension of the 
Guayaquil and Quito Railway to Ibarra and Tulcan, thus placing the 
principal port of the Republic in rapid communication with the rich 
and fertile provinces of Imbabura and Carchi. 

Another contemplated line is that from Bahia de Caraquez to Quito 
which would practically parallel the Guayaquil to Quito line and 
have its outlet 100 miles north of Guayaquil at a point provided with 
a fine harbor and capable of adequate development. The Govern- 
ment has recently renewed the contract for the line which expired by 
limitation. 

The company operating the street car line in Guayaquil increased 
its capital stock from $250,000 to $375,000 on January 1, 1908, at 
which time it had a trackage of 26 miles. The present motive power 



ECUADOR. 157 

is animal, but the company plans to electrify its lines in the near 
future. Electric tramway lines are also under consideration in 
Quito to be operated in conjunction with the city lighting plant. 

Ecuador is accessible practically only from the Pacific Ocean, com- 
munication by land with the neighboring Republics of Brazil and 
Colombia being well-nigh impossible, owing to the dense forests and 
the high altitudes of the mountain ranges. On the Pacific coast, 
however, Ecuador has a number of good ports, affording anchorage 
and shelter for the largest ocean-going vessels, the most important 
of which is Guayaquil, connected by rail with the capital, Quito. 
Other ports of importance are Bahia de Caraquez, Manto, Puerto 
Bolivar, and Esmeraldas, which may be reached either directly from 
New York by way of Magellan Straits or via Panama or San 
Francisco. 

Two steamship lines ply between New York and Guayaquil, the 
New York and Pacific Steamship Company and the West Coast Line^ 
with irregular sailings about once a month, employing from sixty 
to seventy-four days in the trip, and having mostly freight boats 
in this service. 

From Panama connection can be made with the Pacific Steam 
Navigation Company, the Compañía Sud- Americana de Vapores, or 
the Peruvian Steamship and Dock Company of Callao, with regular 
weekly sailings, employing from five to six days from Panama to 
Guayaquil, the cost of first-class passage being $68 from Panama. 

The Kosmos Line maintains a regular fortnightly service on the 
Pacific coast, touching at all the more important ports between San. 
Francisco and Magellan Straits, their steamers making the trip from 
San Francisco to Guaj^quil in from twenty-one to twenty-six days, 
while various other lines maintain regular services between European 
and Ecuadorean ports. 

Some twenty steamers, as well as a number of sailing vessels and 
freight canoes, maintain an active coast and river service, most of the 
numerous rivers of Ecuador being navigable for considerable dis- 
tances inland and affording excellent means of transportation. The 
Guayas River, at the mouth of which is the city and port of Guaya- 
quil, is the most important of these waterways, being navigable for 
river steamers as far as Bodegas, 40 miles from Guayaquil, while 
smaller vessels can, during the wet season, reach Zapotal, some 200 
miles inland. The River Daule is navigable for some 60 miles, the 
Vinces for 50 miles, while the Esmeraldas, Rio de Naranjal, Santa 
Rosa, Santiago, and Mira rivers are all navigable, during the rainy 
season, for short distances, varying from 10 to 60 miles or more. The 
Amazon River, which in Ecuador is given the name of Marañon 
River, is navigable almost in its entirety, and thus the eastern slope 



158 INTEENATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMEEICAN EEPUBLICS. 

of the Ecuadorean Andes may be reached by way of Brazil and the 
Amazon River and its tributaries. 

Port entries at Guayaquil during 1907 show a total of 202 steam- 
ers and 8 sailing vessels, with a registry of 422,344 tons. More than 
half were British, 57 were Chilean, 37 German, 3 French, 1 Peru- 
vian, and 1 American. 

The total extent of the telegraph system is 2,564 miles, with 60 
stations. A telephone service is maintained in the city of Quito and 
suburbs, with long-distance connection with Guayaquil and other cities 
of the Republic. The line to Guayaquil is to be reconstructed with 
modern equipment and the service in the capital equipped with 
up-to-date apparatus. Wireless telegraph stations are planned for 
Guayaquil and Isla de Puna. 

PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. 

The public-school system of the Republic is being markedly im- 
proved, and the modern methods adopted have produced flattering 
results. Quito has 5 colleges (one of them a military college), 2 
normal institutes (one of which is for girls), a university, a medical 
school, 2 seminaries, a theological school, an institute of science, 
a school of arts and trades, 3 schools for young women, and 3 kinder- 
gartens. 

There are 6 monasteries, 7 convents, 2 seminaries, 7 parochial 
churches, 15 conventual churches, a cathedral, a basilica, and 13 
chapels, covering nearly one-fourth of the area of the city. The 
Franciscan monastery, which covers several acres, is said to be the 
largest in the world. 

The Government is keenly aware of the effect upon the economic 
future of the Republic to be brought about by the completion of the 
Panama Canal, and measures are being taken for the proper sanita- 
tion of Ecuadoran ports to meet future trade requirements. The 
chairman of the sanitation is Dr. B. J. Lloyd, of the Marine-Hospital 
Service of the United States. 

Many foreigners are expected in the Republic during the progress 
of the exposition to be held in Quito throughout the summer of 1909, 
and measures taken to provide hygienic conditions have received 
active municipal and government aid. 

Quito, the capital, has a population of 75,000, and that of Guaya- 
quil is estimated at from 75,000 to 80,000. 




GUATEMALA 




The Eepublic of Guatemala, the northernmost of the Central 
American Republics, is bounded by the Pacific Ocean, Mexico, 
British Honduras, the Gulf of Honduras, and the Republics of Hon- 
duras and Salvador. It has a total area of 48,290 square miles, equal 
to that of the States of Kentucky and New Jersey, and an estimated 
population of 1,991,261. 

With the exception of a small strip along the coast, Guatemala 
lies at an altitude of from 4,000 to 11,500 feet, its capital, Guatemala 
Gity, being 4,850 feet above the level of the sea. The chain of moun- 
tains which traverses its territory and sends out a number of spurs, 
forms several ¡Dlateaux, which are extremei}^ healthful and fertile, 
and on which products of tropical and temperate zones are success- 
fully grown. The coffee exported from Guatemala is noted for its 
excellence, and sugar, cacao, tobacco, and bananas are also grown for 
shipment. A limited trade is carried on in india rubber from the 
product of the castilloa elástica^ and various classes of cabinet and 
other woods. 

HISTORICAL SKETCH. 

Pedeo de Alv arado, a lieutenant of Cortez, was the first to attempt 
seriously the conquest of Guatemala, then inhabited by the Quichés, 
Caribs, and other warlike Indian tribes. Due to constant strife 
among the natives the Spaniards easily succeeded in conquering and 
enslaving them, and in the year 1524 Alvarado, in order to firmly 
establish his authority, had the two kings of the Quichés executed. 
Guatemala, which at that time comprised all the territory now known 
as Central America, as well as the Mexican States of Chiapas and 
Yucatan, became a captain-generalcy, at first independent, but later 
under the authority of the Viceroy of Mexico. 

In July, 1527, Alvarado founded the City of Guatemala. This 
first city was short lived and in the year 1542 it was rebuilt on the 
site of what is now the old city, which was itself in turn destroyed 
by an earthquake in the year 1773. In 1776 the present city was laid 
out at a site 25 miles northeast of La Antigua, the old city. 

After several unsuccessful attempts, independence was finally 
achieved by the countries comprising the former Kingdom of Guate- 
mala on September 15, 1821. The Spanish Governor, Gabino Gainza, 
who was in favor of the revolution, was elected President of the 
Provisional Junta. In January of the following year, however, 

159 



160 INTEEÎsTATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMEEICAN EEPUBLICS. 



Guatemala became a part of the Empire of Mexico. Wlien, in tlie 
year 1823, Iturbide was forced to abdicate the throne of Mexico and 
the latter countrj^ became a Republic, Guatemala was once more at 
liberty to chose a form of government, and a Constituent Congress, 
which had been summoned by General Filosola, the Mexican Gov- 
ernor of Guatemala, declared on July 1, 1823, that the old Kingdom 
of Guatemala should henceforth be free and independent from Spain, 
Mexico, or any other nation, and should form an independent nation 
under the title of the Central American Fed- 
eration, embracing the present Republics of 
Guatemala, Honduras, Salvador, Nicaragua, 
and Costa Rica. General José Arce was the 
first President of the Federation. 

The Union did not, however, prove prac- 
tical, and one by one the States seceded and 
formed independent Republics, Guatemala 
finally establishing an independent Govern- 
ment on April 17, 1839, under the title State 
of Guatemala, which name was changed on 
March 21, 1847, to that of the Republic of 
Guatemala. 

Several attempts have from time to time 
been made by the different Republics to reestablish the Central Ameri- 
can Union, but these have failed. An arrangement was brought 
about by the Central American Peace Conference, held in Washing- 
ton in December, 1907, the result of which has been the establishment 
of an International Court of Justice at Cartago, Costa Rica, and an 
International Bureau at Guatemala to promote the industries, com- 
merce, and agriculture of the Central American Republics. 

President Manuel Estrada Cabrera was inaugurated March 15, 
1905, for a term of six years. 




SR. Don MANUEL ESTRADA CABRERA, 
PRESIDENT OF GUATEMALA. 



CONSTITUTION AND GOVERNMENT. 



Upon separation from the other Central American States, Guate- 
mala adopted the unitary, republican form of government, with 
powers vested in the legislative, executive, and judicial branches. 

The National Assemblj^ consists of one chamber only, composed of 
69 deputies, one for every 20,000 inhabitants or fraction thereof over 
10,000, elected by direct vote of the people for a term of four j^ears. 

During recess the Assembly is represented by a permanent com- 
mittee of seven members, appointed by the Assembly, whose business 
it is to prepare all legislation for the next session and to advise the 
I^xecutive, 



GUATEMALA, 161 

The President of the Kepublic is elected by direct vote, all citizens 
over 21 years of age, who are able to read and write, being entitled 
to vote. His term of office is six years, and he may not be reelected 
except after the expiration of at least one intervening term. There 
is no Vice-President, but two designados are elected at the same time 
as the President, who take the place of the Chief Executive, in case 
of his death or disability, in their respective order. 

A cabinet of six Secretaries of State assist the President in the 
administration of affairs of the Republic, and also a Council of State 
composed of fifteen members, of which the six Secretaries of State 
form part ex officio, five councillors being elected by the Assembly 
and four appointed by the President. 

The national supreme court, six courts of appeals, and a number of 
district or municipal courts comprise the judiciary of the country. 
The supreme court has five members and the courts of appeals three 
members each, all of whom are elected by direct vote of the people. 

Guatemala is divided politically into 21 departments, each of which 
is again subdivided into districts or municipios. The Jefe Politico 
or Political Chief is the highest authority in the department. The 
alcaldes are the administrators of the districts and are elected by 
direct vote, as are also the rigidores or aldermen. 

Following are the Departments of Guatemala with their respective 
capitals : 

Department of — Capital. 

Alta Verapaz Coban. 

Amatitlan Amatitlan. 

Baja Verapaz Salama. 

Chimalteuango Chimaltenango. 

Cñiquimula Cliiquimula. 

Escuintla Escuintla. 

Guatemala Guatemala.*^ 

Huehuetenango Huehuetenango. 

Izabal Izabal. 

Jalapa- Jalapa. 

Jutiapa Jutiapa. 

Peten Flores. 

Quezaltenango Quezaltenango. 

Quiche Santa Cruz del Quiche. 

Retalhuleu Retalhuleu. 

Sacatepequez Antigua Guatemala. 

San Marcos San Marcos. 

Santa Rosa Cuajiniquilapa. 

Solóla Solóla. 

Suchitepequez Mazatenango. 

Totonicapam Totonicapam. 

Zacapa Zacapa. 

<*Also Capital of the Republic 



162 INTEKNATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS, 

President Señor Manuel Estrada Cabrera. 

Secretary of Foreign Affairs Señor Juan Barrios M. 

Secretary of Government and Justice Señor José M. Reina Andrade. 

Secretary of the Treasury and Public Credit Señor Guillermo Aguirre (in 

charge of Foreign Affairs). 

Secretary of War Señor Luis Molina. 

Secretary of Public Instruction Señor Angel M. Bocanegra. 

Secretary of Fomento Señor Joaquin Méndez (in 

charge of Public Instruction) . 

Note. — List of cabinet otiicers corrected to July 20, 1909. 

The President is allowed a salary of 30,000 pesos (about $10,500) 
per annum. 

GUATEMALA IN 1908. 

The favorable status enjoyed by Guatemalan affairs during 1908 
and the prospective continuance of the same during 1909 are dwelt 
upon in a message delivered by President Estrada Cabrera to the 
National Assembly on March 1 of the latter year. 

A surplus is credited to public revenues and increased earnings 
noted for various public enterprises. The new mining code, pro- 
mulgated in June, 1908, was productive of augmented activity in 
this field, and increased yields of bananas, rubber, sugar, and hard 
woods are features of the year's industrial life. 

The gathering of medical men of the Western Continent in the 
capital of Guatemala during the month of August was made the 
occasion of many notable celebrations, both of a social and official 
character. That the Pan-American Medical Congress as a feature 
of international development is fully appreciated is evidenced by the 
utterances of the delegates, all of whom paid tribute to the unity of 
interests developed by the frequent meetings of American scientists. 
Especially appropriate remarks were made at the opening of the 
Congress by the delegate from the United States, who called atten- 
tion to the fact that the first Congress was held in Washington to 
commemorate the four hundredth anniversary of the discovery 
of America. Representatives were present from practically all the 
countries of Latin America. 

Another important event of the year was the inauguration in the 
city of Guatemala on September 15 of the International Central 
American Bureau, in accordance with the Washington Convention of 
December 20, 1907. The personnel of the Bureau embraces repre- 
sentatives from the five Republics of Central America. 

The Government is taking steps to establish adequate hygienic 
measures in the country through the opening of a National Pasteur 
Institute in Quezaltenango and by the requirement that entry into 
Government employ and also into certain specified private enterprises 
shall be made only by persons who have been vaccinated. The 



GUATEMALA. 163 

sanitation of Puerto Barrios is another organized etïort in the same 
direction. 

This port is the Caribbean terminus of the country's interoceanic 
railway, which was completed and opened in January, 1908, with im- 
posing ceremonials. 

The development of railway communication with the adjacent 
Hepublics is another forecast of progress in this enterprising Repub- 
lic, measures for connection by rail with the Salvador and Mexican 
frontiers being the subject of recent contracts. 

On Februar}^ 15, 1909, the Government ratified the conventions 
adopted by the Third International Conference of American States 
held in Eio de Janerio in 1906, covering the status of naturalized 
citizens who return to their own country after a foreign residence, 
international law, patents of invention, trade-marks, and literary and 
artistic property. 

FINANCE. 

The budget of expenditures for 1909-10 is fixed at $13,000,000. 

The general revenues of the country in 1908 amounted to $14,- 
000,984, as compared with a budget estimate of $10,312,500, and 
expenditures were $16,848,657 instead of the estimated sum of 
$12,071,436. From customs $9,578,310 were received, whereas the 
budget estimate had fixed the receipts from this source at $6,656,250, 
and from liquors and articles controlled b}^ the Government $2,634,848 
were collected, exceeding the budget estimate by nearly $400,000. 
From other taxes $1,202,575 were received, and from posts and tele- 
graphs, $586,857. 

The budget for the fiscal year commencing with July, 1908, esti- 
mated government expenditures for the twelve months at $13,308,039. 

On December 31, 1908, the debt of the Republic was represented by 
$13,694,445 gold and $71,884,744 national currency. The necessity 
of applying all available funds toward the completion of the Northern 
Railway and the maintenance of increased armaments have in the 
immediate past diverted large sums from the external debt service, 
but with the completion of this important railroad in January and 
the satisfactory settlement of certain vexed questions with neighbor- 
ing States, funds will be liberated for the requirements of the bond- 
holders. 

COMMERCE. 

The total value of the foreign commerce of the country in 1908 
was $12,567,729.20, consisting of imports $5,811,586.07 and exports 
$6,756,143.13. As compared with 1907 a general decline in trade to 
the amount of $4,923,331.20 is noted, of which the larger j)ortion is 
to be credited to decreased exports, caused by the small coffee cro]3. 



164 INTEENATIONAL BUEEAU OF THE AMEEICAÎT EEPUBLICS. 

Among the countries of origin for imports, the United States occu- 
pied first place, followed by Germany, England, France, in the order 
named. The valuations furnished by these countries and other 
jDrincipal contributing markets were: United States, $1,718,660; 
Germany, $1,258,193; England, $1,061,843; France, $209,947; Japan 
and China, $118,415; Belgium, $93,309; Mexico, $2y,640; Central 
America, $8,941. 

Of exports, the United States and Germany took the bulk, the 
former country being credited with $1,776,676, and the latter with 
$3,939,207. Next in rank as a receiver of Guatemalan exports is 
France with $713,765, followed by British Honduras, $105,807; 
Austria-Hungary, $92,026; Mexico, $62,325; and South America, 
$26,252, smaller valuations being shipped to various other points. 

Merchandise and goods imported free of duty declined from 
$640,532.65 to $251,204.29, the decrease being in the main attributable 
to the falling off in receipts of railway material. Imports of cotton 
fabrics were valued at $1,389,576 ; linen, flax, and jute goods, $167,- 
879; woolen fabrics, $178,836; and silk manufactures, $211,613, all 
the items mentioned showing decreased valuations as compared with 
the preceding year. 

Increased imports are to be noted of wire, raw cotton, electrical 
materials and apparatus, barlej^, iron beams and bars, cotton yarns, 
printing paper, and hides. Iron, coal, distilled waters, druggists' 
supplies, wines, starch, rice, beer, lard, salt, and wheat also declined 
in import ratios. From August 20 the proportion of import duties 
to be paid in gold on all goods cleared through the customs of the 
Republic was fixed at 50 per cent, payable in American gold coin 
or in negotiable bills of like value. 

On the export list coffee occupied the first place, being shipped to 
the amount of 60,722,000 pounds, worth $5,697,183 ; hides, valued at 
$266,707, coming next, followed by 668,246 bunches of bananas, 
worth $200,474 ; sugar, $186,788 ; rubber, $158,573 ; woods, $144,349 ; 
chicle, $59,710; skins, $24,576; and other vegetable and industrial 
products, $15,506, sundries figuring for $2,274. Sugar, bananas, and 
hides showed advanced valuations as compared with the preceding 
year, and of sugar it is reported that the years 1899 and 1900 alone 
showed greater shipments. 

In the distribution of exports Germany took 58.31 per cent, the 
United States 26.30, England 10.56, and other countries 4.83. 

The bulk of the coffee shipments were sent to Germany, that coun- 
try figuring for 35,725,100 pounds on the export list, followed by the 
United States, 13,965,900 pounds, and England, 5,903,100. Of the 
sugar exported, 3,998,100 pounds went to England, 1,917,800 pounds 
to the United States, and 41,300 pounds to Germany. Eubber ship- 



GUATEMALA. 165 

merits were made to Germany of 196,300 pounds, and the United 
States, 118,000. To the same countries were sent the greater part of 
the woods, 504,609 feet going to the United States and 283,647 to 
Germany. All of the bananas were sent to the United States. 

PRODUCTION AND INDUSTRIES. 

Coffee, which is the leading article of Guatemalan production and 
export, is produced annually to the amount of about 70,000,000 
pounds. For 1908 the total output was smaller than in the three 
preceding years, the export quantity being over 60,000,000 pounds, 
as against 68,000,000 and 90,000,000 pounds in 1906 and 1907. The 
estimate for 1908-9 places the output at about 81,000,000 pounds. 
The coffee year is reckoned from October 1 to September 30 following. 

Sugar and bananas are profitably grown in increasing quantities, 
and cotton cultivation has been rendered practically compulsory on 
suitably conditioned lands by a presidential decree of July. 

The encouragement of agriculture in all its branches is the sub- 
ject of governmental aid, it being desired not only to improve the 
methods of cultivation employed in the growing of such staples as 
coffee, bananas, cacao, and sugar, but also to introduce new cultures. 
The establishment of experimental gardens and stations for the culti- 
vation and distribution of native and foreign plants for private en- 
terprises, the opening of agricultural expositions for the display 
of the various animal and vegetable products of the country, and the 
protection afforded to coffee growers are all parts of this paternal 
policy. 

The exploitation of the timber reserves of the country is also 
occupying official attention, valuable concessions having been recently 
granted covering the cutting and export of cabinet and dyewoods, 
the extraction of chicle and other gums, and the adequate develop- 
ment of the rubber industry. 

With the purpose of developing the well-known mineral resources 
of the Republic, the President, on June 30, 1908, promulgated a new 
code of laws regulating the acquisition and exploitation of mines. 
The law carries with it the creation of a Bureau of Mines, under the 
Department of Fomento, which is charged with supervisory direction 
of measures for the acquisition of new properties, the development of 
old ones, and all transactions tending to promote the mining industry 
in the Republic. 

Mines of gold, silver, copper, iron, lead, zinc, antimony, etc., are 
known to exist in various sections, but have hitherto been inade- 
quately exploited. The lack of development of this important branch 
of industry has been hitherto attributable in a great degree to insuffi- 



166 IXTEEXATIOXAL BUREAU OF THE AMERICAX REPUBLICS. 

cient transport facilities, which condition is, however, being rapidly 
overcome. 

The manufacturing interests of the country are largely confined 
to the textile industry, raw cotton and cotton yarns "figuring largely 
on the import list. A large factory near Quezaltenango employs 250 
operatives and consumes about 2,500,000 pounds of cotton annually. 
Breweries, sugar mills, and tanneries also are profitably conducted. 

COMMUNICATION FACILITIES. 

Railways in the Republic have a total extent of about 480 miles. 

Apart from the completion of the Northern Railway between 
Puerto Barrios and San Jose, 195 miles long, which signalized the 
opening month of the year, and opened a new interoceanic line in 
America, communication facilities showed noteworthy progress 
during the year. Roads and bridges for the accommodation of the 
traveling public were constructed and extensive surveys made for 
new rail routes. 

Notable among these projected roads are connections between 
Zacapa and the Salvador frontier and between Quezaltenango and 
San Felipe, another line being projected to Ayutla, on the Mexican 
frontier. 

The main line will run in an easterly direction from Quezaltenango, 
in the western part of Guatemala, through the great central region of 
the country to Zacapa, 55 miles from the boundary line with Salvador, 
thence to the frontier, where it will connect with the Santa Ana line 
of the latter country. The road is to be completed within two years 
at an estimated cost of $3,000,000. 

Connection at the Mexican border would give Guatemala through 
railroad communication with the United States, and the recently 
transferred concession for the construction of a railway from 
Caballo Blanco on the Occidental Railroad to Coatepeque, from 
which point extension is to be made to Ayutla, completes the 40-mile 
gap in the Pan-American chain. 

The Ocos Railway, though only 24 miles in length, handles over 
15,000,000 pounds of coiïee annually, connecting the port of Ocos 
with the rich producing districts of Tumbador and San Marcos. 
It is proposed to establish connection by rail with the capital over 
this route, and lines opening up new agricultural and mining regions, 
are under consideration. 

All existing Guatemalan railroads are 3-foot gauge. 

In 1908 entries at the ports of the Republic totaled 624 vessels, 
carrying 2,651 passengers and 35,545,360 kilograms of freight, clear- 
ances being reported of 601 vessels, with 2,663 passengers and 61,858,- 
530 kilograms of freight. 



GUATEMALA. 167 

The Republic of Guatemala is accessible both from the Atlantic 
and from the Pacific Ocean, its principal ports on the Atlantic sea- 
board (Gulf of Honduras) being Puerto Barrios and Livingston 
and on the Pacific San José de Guatemala, Champerico, and Ocos. 
The Hamburg- American, Harrison Line, and occasionally the Eoyal 
Mail steamers stop at Atlantic ports, and from New York the Atlan- 
tic ports of Guatemala may be reached with the United Fruit Com- 
pany's steamers, which leave New York twice a month, occupying 
about ten days to Puerto Barrios, first-class passage $70. 

The same company also has regular sailings from New Orleans 
for the Guatemalan ports, making the trip in five days, at a cost of 
$30 for first-class passage, and the Orr Laubenheimer Company has 
a regular weekly service between Mobile and Guatemala, the time and 
rate being the same as on the New Orleans line. 

The Pacific ports may be reached either from New York, with 
transshipment at Panama, or via San Francisco, the Pacific Mail 
Steamship Company and the Kosmos Line having regular sailings 
from San Francisco every ten days, calling at Ocos, Champerico. and 
San José, making the run in from fourteen to seventeen days; first- 
class passage $75 and $100. 

The interior waterways of Guatemala are very extensive, embrac- 
ing a considerable number of rivers and lakes, some of which are 
navigable and form important means of communication and trans- 
portation. Among the rivers the Usumacinta River is the most 
important; the greatest length of this river, however, flows through 
Mexican territory and. owing to the numerous bars, is only navigable 
for small craft. The Motagua is navigable for over 100 miles for 
small vessels, and the Polichic is navigable as far as the inland 
port of Panzos. This river empties into the Izabal Lake, the larg- 
est lake in Guatemala, which in turn communicates with the River 
Dulce, emptying into the Gulf of Honduras, near the port of Liv- 
ingston, and thus the three combined form an important water- 
way. Lake Izabal is 58 miles long by 12 miles wide, with a depth of 
nearly 40 feet throughout. Other lakes are the beautiful Atitlan, 
situated at an altitude of 5,245 feet, and completely surrounded by 
mountains; the Amatitlan, the Peten or Itzal, and numerous others. 
The inland ports are Izabal, on Lake Izabal ; Panzos, on the River 
Polochic; and Gualan, on the Motagua River, none of which, how- 
ever, can be reached by ocean-going vessels, owing to the bars at the 
mouths of the rivers, and they are therefore accessible only for vessels 
of light draft. 

Guatemala City is connected by rail with the ports of San Jose on 
the Pacific side and with Puerto Barrios on the Atlantic side, being 
75 miles distant from the former and 189 miles from the latter point. 



168 INTEENATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 
POSTS AND TELEGRAPHS. 

The receipts from posts in 1908 were $165,745, an increase of 
$33,000 over 1907. In 1908, postage stamps of the denominations 
of 1, 2, and 6 cents were issued to the number of 1,200,000, and to 
the vahie of $15,375, and surcharged stamps were placed on sale to the 
value of $79,875. 

The telegraph and telephone lines were kept in good repair, and 
new lines are being constructed between Zacapa, Puerto Barrios, and 
Guatemala City, in accordance with the recommendations of an execu- 
tive order of March 31, 1908. The receipts of the telegraph and 
telephone service in 1908 were $395,978. The number of telegraph 
messages sent in was 1,205,261. The total length of the telegraph 
system of the Republic on December 31, 1908, was 3,697 miles, and the 
aggTegate length of the telephone lines on the same date was 384 
miles. 

IMMIGRATION AND PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. 

Immigration and colonization are being encouraged, and with the 
object of attracting new currents of immigrants a committee has 
been appointed under the direction of the Department of Fomento 
to take active measures in regard to acquainting the world with the 
opportunities offered in the Eepublic for industrial enterprises. 

A new law promulgated April 30, 1909, makes ample provisions 
for the care of colonists. 

The value of higher education is thoroughly appreciated by the 
present executive, and it is to his initiative that the festivals of 
Minerva, which mark the close of the scholastic year throughout the 
country, are due. 

In 1908 there were 1,330 schools in the country, attended by 51,280 
]3upils, showing an increase of 68 schools and 780 scholars as com- 
pared with 1907. 

The higher educational institutions established at Guatemala City 
and Quezaltenango include schools of law, medicine, surgery, den- 
tistry, pharmacy, and commerce. These schools, especially that of 
medicine, under whose auspices the Pan-American Medical Congress 
met during the year, enjoy a high reputation throughout Latin 
America, and attract many students from the neighboring Republics. 
There are also night schools for artisans, the pupils of which are ex- 
empt from military service. 

The Minister of Instruction has a special portfolio in the Presi- 
dent's cabinet and many Guatemalan youths are educated abroad at 
government expense. The country maintains a national conservatory 
of music and a school of fine arts, in both of which the instructors 




560— Bull. 1—09- 



-12 



170 INTEKNATIOISTAL BUEEAU OF THE AMEEICAIST EEPUBLICS. 

are largely European and American artists. Especial encouragement 
is given in the schools to manual and mechanical training. 

Among the various municipal improvements undertaken during 
the course of the year were the erection of markets, educational build- 
ings of various kinds, notably the Temples of Minerva ; a handsome 
new post-oiRce in the capital; numerous hospitals and asylums; in 
addition to which public gardens and parks were opened, improve- 
ments made to public edifices, and monuments of artistic merit placed 
in position. 

Other public measures include the drafting of a law for the regula- 
tion of labor, exemption from military service granted to certain 
towns, and the organization in the capital of a mineralogical museum 
for the display of specimens of the mineral wealth of the Republic. 




The Republic of Haiti, which occupies the western half of the 
island of the same name, has an area of 10,200 square miles, equal to 
the States of New Hampshire and Rhode Island, and a population 
of 2,000,000. Haiti is one of the most populous of the American 
republics, taking into account its area, with 236 inhabitants to the 
square mile. 

Haiti is a land of mountains and valleys, shaped like an immense 
U with the arms pointing westward and inclosing the Gulf of 
Gonaives. In the center of the gulf is the island of Gonaives and 
around its margin are dozens of fine natural harbors where the 
largest ocean-going ships may find shelter. 

The principal products of Haiti are coffee, cacao, cotton, tobacco, 
and sugar. In the dense forests which cover the mountains, and the 
deep valleys intervening, there is a wealth of flora unsurpassed in the 
western world. The cabinet woods are well known, and there is an 
abundance of timber for structural purposes. 

HISTORICAL SKETCH. 

The island was discovered by Columbus on his first voyage, and 
remained as a whole under Spanish dominion for two hundred years. 
But this dominion, as regards the western end, was not uncontested. 
The buccaneers, English, Dutch, and French, but chiefly French, 
after the destruction of their first rendezvous on St. Christopher's 
seized, in 1530, the small island of Tortuga, a few miles off the north- 
west coast of Haiti, and from this stronghold the Spaniards were 
unable to dislodge them. On the contrary, the buccaneers made con- 
stant incursions to the mainland and even attempted settlements 
thereon. These settlements became permanent about 1630, and from 
then to the date of the treaty of Ryswick, in 1697, the hold of the 
French adventurers on the western half of Haiti became stronger 
and stronger. By the treaty of Ryswick, Spain ceded the country 
held by the adventurers to France, but the line of demarcation be- 
tween the French and Spanish parts of the island was not accurately 
laid out until 1770. 

Within a little more than fifty years following the first Spanish 
settlement of the island the native inhabitants were practically 
exterminated. This led to the introduction of negro slaves from 
Africa, who were needed to take the place of the Indians in the 
mines and particularly in the fields, for during the seventeenth and 

171 



172 INTERNATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

eighteenth centuries Haiti had become a country of large plantations 
owned by rich French landholders. At the beginning of the French 
revolution the population of Haiti was overwhelmingly black, but 
slave, and controlled by a handful of white French soldiers, land- 
owners, and oA^erseers. 

In 1793, France being then at war with England, the English 
General Whitelocke invaded the country. Freedom was offered by 
the French authorities to all slaves who would enroll themselves in 
the army against the enemy. This was followed soon afterwards, 
in August of the same year, by a decree abolishing slavery. As a 
result of the military assistance rendered by the blacks the English 
were forced to evacuate the island. 

The principal credit for successñil resistance to the English was 
due to Toussaint l'Ouverture, a former runaway slave, who upon 
the publication of the emancipation proclamation returned from 
the Spanish part of the island to assist and finally to lead his fellow 
freedmen against the invaders. Toussaint was at first honored by 
the French and even made military governor, but afterwards fell 
under suspicion. In May, 1801, a constitution was promulgated by 
Toussaint, which act was treated by Napoleon as rebellion. From 
this date began the struggle for independence which lasted nearly 
three years. In 1802, Toussaint, Rigaud, and other leaders were 
induced by Leclekc, the French commander, to surrender under 
guarantees. Faith was not kept by the French, and Toussaint was 
sent as a prisoner to France, where he died. The blacks again arose 
under Dessalines and Christophe, and in December, 1803, the 
French abandoned the contest. 

Dessalines, on January 1, 1804, promulgated the declaration of 
Haitian independence and was himself proclaimed Emperor. He 
ruled until November, 1806, when he was assassinated. Henri 
Christophe was in the following month elected President under a 
new constitution establishing the Republic. He refused the presi- 
dency and proclaimed himself king with the title of Henri I. This 
led to civil war and a division of the country, Henri I ruling as king 
in the north and Alexandre Petion as president in the south. 
PÉTION died in 1818 and was succeeded by Jean Pierre Boyer. 
Henri I committed suicide in 1820, and Boxer became President of 
the whole country. He extended his authority also over the Spanish 
end of the island, now the Dominican Republic. In 1844 the Domini- 
cans threw off the yoke of Haiti and became independent. In 1853 
Faustin Souloque reestablished the Empire with himself as Em- 
peror Faustin I, but six years later, on January 15, 1859, Faustin 
fled, and the Republic was once more established. 

The present incumbent of the presidency is Gen. Antoine F. C. 
Simon, inaugurated December 17, 1908. 



174 INTEENATIONAL BUEEAU OF THE AMEEICAN EEPUBLIOS. 




General Antoine f. c. simon, 
president of haiti. 



CONSTITUTION AND GOVERNMENT. 

The constitution of the Republic of Haiti was proclaimed on the 
9th day of October, 1889, and by its provisions the unitary, republi- 
can form of government was adopted, the administration of which is 
vested in the legislative, executive, and judicial branches. 

The Legislature is composed of two chambers, a Chamber of Repre- 
sentatives and a Senate, the two together composing a National 
Assembly. The Chamber of Representatives consists of 96 mem- 
bers, elected by the people for a term of three 
years, and the Senate of 39 members, chosen by 
the Representatives from lists furnished by a 
board of electors and by the President of the 
Republic, for a term of six years. The Senate 
is renewed by thirds every two years. 

A permanent committee of seven Senators is 
elected annually by the Senate to represent the 
National Assembly during recess and to pre- 
pare all unfinished business. 

The President of the Republic is elected by 
the National Assembly for a term of seven 
years and can not be reelected except after an 
interval of at least one term. In case of death, 
resignation, or disability, the executive power rests in the Secretaries 
of State, acting as a body, who exercise authority until new elections 
can be held. 

The cabinet consists of six Ministers or Secretaries of State. 
The Supreme Court is the highest tribunal of justice. There are 
also five Courts of Appeals, one for each Department, a number of 
district and municipal courts and other tribunals of special jurisdic- 
tion. 

INTERIOR GOVERNMENT. 

The country is divided into five Departments, which are again 
divided into " arrondissements^^'' these into " communes ^^"^ and the 
latter into sections or districts. The Governor and other executive 
officers of the Department are appointed by the President of the 
Republic. The district and communal councils are elected bj^ direct 
vote, the councils having charge of the financial administration of 
the commune or district and being consulted by the executive officer 
on all matters of importance. 

The Departments of Haiti and their respective capitals are : 
Department of the— Capital. 

North Cape Haitian. 

Northwest Port de Paix. 

Arbonite Gonaives. 

West Port au Prince. 

South Les Cayes. 



HAITI. 175 

Port au Prince is the capital of the Republic. 

Presideut Gen. Antoine Simon. 

Minister of Foreign Relations and Public In- 
struction M. MuEAT Claude. 

Minister of War and Marine Gen. Septimus Marius. 

Minister of Interior and Police M. Jeremie. 

Minister of Finance and Commerce M. Candelon Rigaud. 

Minister of Justice and Religion M. J. B. Artaud. 

Minister of Public Works and Agriculture Pierre Andre. 

Note. — List of cabinet officers corrected to July 20, 1909. 

The President receives a salary of $24,000 per annum and the secre- 
taries $6,000 each. 

HAITI IN 1908. 

The year 1908 was one of political unrest in the Republic. With 
the formal entry of Gen. Antoine F. C. Simon into the executive 
office, by legislative action, in December, 1908, the country entered 
upon a new historical epoch. High tribute was paid the new Presi- 
dent by the National Assembly in communicating the result of their 
electoral vote, and stress was laid upon the opportunities for patriotic 
service in the Republic. 

The numerous concessions granted by the Government for the ex- 
ploitation of railways and industries within the Republic indicate 
the efforts being made to develop the resources of the country. Many 
of the concessions are held by companies in the United States and 
much of the equipment and machinery furnished by American con- 
cerns. 

FINANCE. 

In the budget law of the Haitian Government for the year 1908-9, 
approved May 11, 1908, by the Haitian National Assembly, the 
estimated receipts for the year were given as $4,242,596.35 and 
estimated expenditures at $4,234,478.59. Among the latter the public 
debt figures for $1,906,714.84; foreign affairs, $105,956.02; finance 
and commerce, $199,581.68; public instruction, $243,497.60; public 
works, $156,148, and agriculture, $56,372. 

COMMERCE. 

The country's commerce for the Haitian fiscal year ending Sep- 
tember 30, 1908, shows a total of $8,180,008, composed of imports, 
$4,701,160, and exports, $3,478,848. 

The commerce of the Republic with the United States, the princi- 
pal country of origin for Haitian imports, for the year 1908 is 
marked by a substantial gain in imports, figuring for $3,500,775 in 



176 INTEEKATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

1908 as compared with $3,145,853 in 1907, but exports to that country- 
declined from $1,220,420 to $447,186. 

Imports into the Republic in the first quarter of 1908-9 were 
valued at $1,177, 508 and exports at $960,000. 

The import commerce of the Republic for the first three months of 
the year 1907-8 amounted to $1,577,317.17, distributed among the 
countries of origin as follows: United States, $1,061,426.60; France, 
$202,899.32 ; England, $184,930.38 ; Germany, $55,002.88 ; other coun- 
tries, $72,957.99. The imports of specie from the United States 
during the period amounted to $281,000, as compared with $227,550 
in the same i^eriod of the preceding year, an increase of $53,450. 

The exports amounted to $896,683.13, as compared with $835,240.31 
in the first quarter of the preceding J^ear, or an increase of $61,442.81. 

France is the greatest market for Haitian products, receiving two- 
thirds of the total exports. Germany takes second place. 

According to statistics recently published by the Chamber of 
Commerce at Port au Prince on the commerce of the Republic during 
the year '1906-7, the total amount of coffee exported amounted to 
59,824,869 pounds, showing an increase of 2,155,832 pounds over the 
year 1905-6; of cacao to 4,829,737 pounds, an increase of 1,233,533 
pounds over the preceding year ; and cotton seed, a product in great 
demand, amounted to 7,909,960 pounds. In the export of wood, log- 
wood figured for 114,458,880 pounds, an increase of 28,420,374 pounds. 
The exports of logwood roots decreased 4,702,956 pounds, the total ex- 
ports amounting to 44,076,320 pounds, while exports of gaiac and 
yellow wood amounted to 9,393,369 and 44,000 feet, respectively, and 
the exports of mahogany to 30,195 feet. Exports of ox and cow hides 
amounted to 283,328 and goatskins to 289,370. Wax and honey 
figured in the exports for 182,998 pounds and 451,428 gallons, re- 
spectively, and gaiac gum and orange peel for 11,193 and 408,802 
pounds, respectively. 

Almost the entire coffee crop is shipped to Europe, although Amer- 
ican consumption of the article is increasing, the same being true of 
Haitian cotton and cacao, the latter article showing a slight increase 
in production. Some attention has also been given to rubber plant- 
ing. The production of sugar is increasing steadil}^, the home market 
being well supplied by native growers, although none of the manu- 
factured product is exported. All machinery for the mills is bought 
in the United States, and, owing to the increasing production, impor- 
tation of the refined article has fallen off. 

Importations of dry goods from the United States continue to 
occupy first place, provisions and household articles coming princi- 
pally from that country also. The financial depression of the past 
year was reflected in diminished purchases in foreign markets. 



HAITI. 177 

A commercial convention between the Republic and the German 
Government was promulgated August 25, 1908, under which recip- 
rocal advantages are guaranteed upon certain specified products of 
both countries. Customs concessions were also granted upon certain 
items of import from the United States. 

PRODUCTION AND INDUSTRIES. 

The industries of the country are mainly agricultural, the most im- 
portant product being coffee of excellent quality, but the export duty 
levied upon this article greatly hinders the development of this 
branch of industry. The estimated area in the Republic devoted to 
coffee is placed at 125,000 acres, the plant having been introduced 
into the country some two hundred years ago. The period of pro- 
duction of each plantation is estimated to be about twelve years. 
Climatic and soil conditions are wonderfully favorable to the ex- 
ploitation of the industry, and exports to the amount of 100,000,000 
pounds annually were formerly made by Haitian growers. At pres- 
ent shipments do not total more than half of that amount. 

Cacao is also grown extensively, the output for 1908 figuring for 
6,000,000 pounds, and cotton is exported in increasing quantities. 
Of the cotton grown in Haiti the fiber is not so long as that of the 
United States, although this is a condition that could be improved by 
proper seed selection and cultivation. Cheap lands and cheap labor 
make this branch of industry an attractive and remunerative one if 
undertaken on a large scale. 

The culture of pite (American agave) has been taken up. The 
cultivation of tobacco is extending and the manufacture of cigars and 
cigarettes has been successfully engaged in. 

The soil of the country is well suited for tobacco growing. Only 
a small quantity of this article is raised, however. One plantation, 
conducted on scientific principles, is producing tobacco of a fine grade. 

There are numerous sugar plantations in the country but no re- 
fineries. Rum and other spirits are distilled but not imported. Log- 
wood is the most important of the many valuable woods shipped from 
the Republic. Soap, candles, and matches are manufactured in the 
country, while three- fourths of the meat consumed comes from the 
Dominican Republic. The production of sisal hemp, the bulk of 
which goes to the United States, has declined recently. 

The building of the proposed railroads will open to commercial, 
agricultural, and industrial activity the richest part of the country, 
which hitherto has been of no benefit to the Republic, because it was 
inaccessible except by pack animals. Part of the territory which 
will be opened by these railroads is covered by forests of the best 
cabinet and dye woods. Good pasturage abounds on the plateaus of 



178 IXTEENATIONAL BUKEAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

the interior, and on the plains are rich agricultural soils with health- 
ful climate suitable for the growing of cereals and cotton, while in the 
vicinity of Cape Haiti, Ounaminthe, and Port au Prince are rich 
banana and sugar soils. The new land thus brought within the 
practical range of the markets is plentiful and cheap, and labor at 
moderate wages may be secured without difficulty, offering an inviting 
field for capital. 

The mineral resources of the Eepublic, consisting of gold, silver, 
copper, iron, antimony, tin, sulphur, coal, kaolin, nickel, gypsum, 
and limestone, are as yet undeveloped. Remains of an ancient gold 
mine have recently been discovered near Ouanminthe on the Do- 
minican frontier and iron deposits are known to exist in the same 
locality, while at Fort Dauphin and in the Limonade district, re- 
spectively, deposits of copper and iron oxide have deen discovered. 
Near Lescahobes considerable outcroppings of soft coal are reported 
and at Camp Perrin, some 7 leagues inland, there is a coal mine 
showing numerous rich veins. In the vicinity of Jacmel there are 
copper and silver deposits which have never been worked, and at 
Terreneuve, distant about four hours' travel from Gonaives, a copper 
mine is in exploitation by a syndicate of Haitians of German descent. 

It is the policy of the Government to aid so far as possible enter- 
prises having for their object the development of the agricultural 
and industrial resources of the nation, and with this purpose in view 
a concession was recently granted to encourage the development of 
the textile industry in the Republic. The grantee secures for a term 
of forty years the right to gather textile plants growing on public 
lands, leased to him at a low rental. The raw material indispensable 
in running the machinery of the factory, such as coal, kerosene, and 
lubricating oil, will be admitted free of duty. The grantee agrees 
to pay into the National Treasury $2 gold on each ton of product 
exported. 

The manufacture of shoes within the Republic has reached a point 
where the output is nearly sufficient to meet the needs of the home 
market, with the result that importations of foreign shoes have al- 
most entirely ceased within the past eight years. Previous to that 
period nearly all of the finer grades of shoes for men, women, and 
children were imported from France, the United States furnishing 
some of the cheaper grades for women. One of the largest estab- 
lishments of this kind in the Republic employs all Haitian work- 
men, the proprietor superintending the cutting and fitting. The 
tannery in connection with this plant furnishes employment to some 
200 hands, all of whom are Haitians with the exception of the pro- 
prietor. 

The chrome and combined dj^es are all imported from the United 
States, althoufifh the bark used bv the smaller tanneries, of which 



HAITI. 179 

there are many, is the mangrove, native of the country, and which is 
considered to possess fine tanning qualities. Difficulty is found in 
obtaining the native bark in sufficient quantity, which necessitates 
the importation of oak bark from the United States. Due to the 
fact that the supplj^ is limited, the price for raw hides is nearly on 
a par with that in the United States. Goat, calf, and sheep skins 
are plentiful at low prices. 

The Government has recently revised the law relating to taxes 
imposed upon those exercising professions or engaged in commerce 
in the Republic. 

COMMUNICATION. 

Among the more important Government measures, and which bear 
directly upon the development of the country, are to be mentioned 
the numerous railroad concessions which have been granted to con- 
nect Gonaives with Hinche (open as far as Passarelle), Cape Haitien 
with Port au Prince, Gauthier with Fonds Parisien, Port au Prince 
with Leogane, Leogane with Aux Cayes, Cape Haitien with Ouane- 
minthe, and Aux Cayes with Perrin. The line from Aux Cayes to 
Perrin, 1T| miles in extent, has been contracted for. There is at 
present a line of railway from Cape Haitien to Grand Riviere, a 
distance of 15 miles, from which point a line will be constructed to 
Port au Prince. A light railway has been constructed from Port au 
Prince to Lake Assuel, a distance of 28 miles, this railway being in- 
tended ultimately to connect the capitals of Haiti and the Dominican 
Republic. Port au Prince has 5 miles of tramway. 

STEAMSHIPS AND WATERWAYS. 

The Republic of Haiti has eleven ports, viz. Port au Prince, the 
capital of the Republic and the trade center. Cape Haitien, Port de 
Paix, Gonaives, situated on the great bay of the same name, St. Marc, 
Petit Goave, Miragoane, Jeremie, Aux Cayes, Aquin, and Jacmel. 

Haiti can be reached from New York by the Atlas Line steamers, 
which sail every two weeks and call at most of the ports of Haiti, or 
by the Royal Dutch "West India Mail, sailing every two weeks and 
calling at the Haitian ports of Port au Prince, St. Marc, Petit Goave, 
Aux Cayes, and Jacmel. The time employed between New York and 
Port au Prince is six days, first-class passage being $60, while the fare 
to the other ports is either higher or lower according to the distance, 
ranging between $50 and $70. 

Among the numerous rivers of Haiti the Artibonite, the Trois- 
Rivieres, and the Grande Anse are the most important. The Arti- 
bonite, the largest stream on the island, is navigable for some 100 
miles and forms an important waterway, a regular line of steamers 



180 INTEENATIONAL BUEEAU OF THE AMERICAîi^ EEPUBLIGS. 

{Compagnie fluvial de VArbonite) plying between Grande Saline, at 
its mouth, and the interior. The other rivers, owing to their swift 
currents, are not navigable. Lake Etangsale, 22 miles long and 60 
miles wide, is the largest of the lakes and is navigable. 

A number of small islands belong to the territory of the Republic 
of Haiti, La Gonaives, in the bay of the same name, about 40 miles 
long. La Tortue, near Port de Paix, 22 miles long. La Saona, about 
the same size as La Tortue, Alta Vela, Les Caimites, and a number 
of smaller islands. 

POSTS AND TELEGRAPHS. 

The Republic became an adherent of the Postal Union in 1880. 
There are in operation 31 post-offices, and the principal towns are 
connected by a system of telegraphs. A cable connects with Cuba, 
the Dominican Republic, and South America. 

A concession conveying the exclusive right for the operation of 
wireless telegraphy in the Republic was granted July 15, 1908, to run 
for fifty years from October 1 of that year and subject to renewal at 
the option of the contracting parties. The grantees were allowed a 
further interval until April 1, 1909, for beginning the work of instal- 
lation under the franchise. 




Honduras, the third largest of the Central American Republics, 
lies between the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Honduras, the Re- 
public of Nicaragua, the Pacific Ocean (Gulf of Fonseca), and the 
Republics of Salvador and Guatemala, extending from longitude 83° 
20' to 89° 30' west, and from latitude 13° 10' north to 16° north, with 
a seacoast of more than 400 miles. It has an area of 46,250 square 
miles, equal to that of Pennsylvania and Rhode Island, with a popu- 
lation estimated at 745,000, or 16.1 per square mile. 

The territory of Honduras is mountainous throughout and re- 
sembles that of Costa Rica, with a similar diversity of climate, soil, 
and products. Its large and fertile plateaux and valleys, among them 
the plain of Comayagua, 40 miles in length, produce nearly all the 
tropical fruits and offer excellent pasturage for numerous herds of 
cattle. The forests contain several varieties of cabinet and other 
woods, of which mahogany is the most important. Bananas are an 
important article of export, coffee, cacao, cocoanuts, india rubber, 
indigo, precious metals, and other mineral products being also 
shipped. Honduras is the country of the sarsaparilla, the product 
of the smilax medica^ of which considerable quanties are annually 
exported to the United States. 

HISTORICAL SKETCH. 

"When CoLTJMBTJS, on his fourth and last voyage, discovered on 
August 14, 1502, what is now known as " Cape Honduras," he 
founded the town of Trujillo, on the bay of the same name. Several 
years later the country was explored by Pedro de Alvarado and 
Cristobal de Olid, two of Cortez's lieutenants, who were successful 
in subduing the native Indians, the warlike Caribs and Sambos, but 
it was not until Cortez himself, in the year 1524, after having con- 
quered Mexico, came to Honduras, that the country was finally 
brought under Spanish rule. It was subsequently made a part of 
the captain-generalcy of Guatemala, comprising all of the territory 
formerly under the control of the Quiche Kingdom of Guatemala. 

Honduras, together with the other Spanish countries of South and 
Central America and the West Indies, suffered numerous attacks 
from the French, British, and Dutch buccaneers during the six- 
teenth and seventeenth centuries. The famous pirate, François 
l'Olonnois, for a time in the year 1660 held possession of the country. 

In the eighteenth century the Sambos, or Misskiti, Indians retired 
to what is now known as the " Mosquito Coast," and having, with 

181 



182 TISTTEENATIONAL BUEEAU OF THE AMEEICAN EEPUBLICS. 

the aid of British settlers, defeated the Spanish forces, they applied 
to Great Britain for protection. This was granted, and in the year 
1740 British forces occupied the Mosquito Coast. By agreement 
with Spain in 1T86 there was a readjustment of British territory to 
include parts of Yucatan and Honduras, noAV known as " British 
Honduras," or Belize. 

The great ware of emancipation which swept over the American 
continent early in the nineteenth centurj^ found its echo in Central 
America. On September 15, 1821, the independence of the States 
comprising the Kingdom of Guatemala Avas declared in Guatemala 
City. This revolution was accomplished without bloodshed, owing 
to the fact that the Governor-General, Gabino Gainza, supported 
the movement. 

The history of Honduras is closely interwoven with that of the 
other Central American States from this date 
on, it being part of the jNIexican Empire with 
them during the year 1822 and subsequently, 
upon the downfall of the Empire of Iturbide, 
one of the States of the Central American 
Federation. 

Honduras, as earlj^ as July 1, 1824, adopted 
an independent constitution, which, however, 
recognized the federation. 

On October 28, 1838, Honduras finally de- 
clared its secession and absolute independence 
from the other States. Three consejeros, 
Felipe Medina, José Alvarado, and Liko 
Matute, exercised the executive authority for 
a time, until in the year 1839 José M. Bustillo was appointed Presi- 
dent ad interim and Francisco Ferrara elected President. On Jan- 
uary 1, 1841, he was inaugurated as the first constitutional President 
of Honduras. 

The present Executive, Gen. Miguel R. Dávila. assumed pro- 
visional charge of the presidency April 18, 1907, and became Presi- 
dent early in the following j^ear. 

constitution and government. 




General MIGUEL R. DAVIUA, 

PRESIDENT OF HONDURAS. 



'\^Tien Honduras seceded from the Central American Federation, it 
adopted the unitary, republican form of government; the Constitu- 
tion expressly providing, however, that the said instrument shall by 
no means bar the Eepublic from again becoming a State of the 
Federation and that the Constitution may at any time, for that pur- 
pose, be abolished or amended b}^ Congress. 



HONDURAS. 183 

The usual division of the Government into legislative, executive, 
and judicial branches is retained ; the first named being composed of 
a single chamber of 42 members, elected by direct vote for a term 
of four years. 

The President and Vice-President are also elected by direct vote 
for a term of four years and may not be reelected for the next con- 
secutive term. All citizens over 21 years of age, or over 18 years 
of age if married, and who can read and write are entitled to vote, 
suffrage being not only universal but compulsory. 

A cabinet of six Ministers, or Secretaries of State, appointed by 
the President, but responsible to both the President and Congress, 
assists in the administration of the Government. 

The Supreme Court is the highest tribunal of justice in the coun- 
try. It is composed of five justices, who meet in the capital, Teguci- 
galpa, and are elected by popular vote for a period of four years. 
A number of minor justices are appointed by the Supreme Court. 
Justices of the peace are elected by popular vote. 

INTERIOR GOVERNMENT. 

The Republic of Honduras is politically divided into sixteen De- 
partments and one Territory, which are again divided into districts. 
The administration of the Department is in the hands of a Governor 
appointed by the President. Municipal councils are elected, by direct 
vote of the people. 

The Departments and their respective capitals are: 

Department of — Capital. 

Tegucigalpa Tegucigalpa.'^ 

Comayagua Comayagua. 

Cortes San Pedro Sula. 

Santa Barbara Santa Barbara. 

Copan Santa Rosa. 

Gracias Gracias. 

Intibuca La Esperanza. 

La Paz La Paz. 

Valle Nacaome. 

Choluteca Cboluteca. 

El Paraiso Tuscaran. 

Olancho Juticalpa. 

Colon Trujillo. 

Yoro Yoro. 

Atlântida La Ceiba. 

Islas de la Bahia Reatan. 

The Territory of Mosquitia, although the second largest territorial 
division, is but sparsely inhabited and but little explored, being 

"Also capital of the Republic. 



184 INTERNATIONAL BUEEAU OF THE AMEEICAN EEPUBLICS. 

covered with dense, impenetrable forests. The largest Department 
is that of Olancho, with about 12,000 square miles. 

President Geu. Miguel E. Dávila. 

Minister of Foreign Affairs Dr. José María Ochoa Velasquez. 

Minister of Government, Justice and 

Fomento Dr. Marcos Carías. 

Minister of Public Instruction and Agri- 
culture Dr. Vicente Mejía Colindres. 

Minister of War Gen. Rafael Lopez G. 

Minister of the Treasury and Public Credit Dr. Rosendo Contreras. 

Xote. — List of cabinet officers corrected to July 20, 1909. 

The President is allowed a salary of 24,000 pesos per annum, 
equivalent to $9,600 gold. 

HONDURAS IN 1908. 

Upon the accession, early in 1908, of President DIvila to the office 
of Chief Executive of the Republic, the policy of the administration 
manifested itself in the appointment of officials of high personal 
attainments and a cordial invitation to capital and immigration of 
the better class to enter the country, with the assurance that every 
economic opportunity compatible with the welfare of the country 
Avould be afforded. 

General conditions for the year showed a progressive movement, 
imports for the fiscal year 1907-8 being $500,000 in excess of the 
preceding twelve months, and although government statistics indi- 
cated a slight decline in export valuations, shipments to the United 
States alone figured for nearly $3,000,000 in the calendar year 1908. 
Works of public improvement were undertaken and commercial trea- 
ties entered into in furtherance of trade development. 

Tariff rates remained the same, but from August 1, 1909, modifica- 
tions of certain duties were decreed. Exchange for the year averaged 
for the United States, 155 per cent; London, 153; Paris, 151; and 
Hamburg, 149. 

Various concessions were granted for railroad construction and the 
exploitation of the natural resources of the country, so that while 
on the whole the year showed no remarkable economic gains the out- 
look for the future is promising. 

In accordance with the convention of Washington, signed December 
20, 1907, the First Central American Congress met in Tegucigalpa 
on January 1, 1909, and closed its sessions on the 21st of the same 
month. 

The Pan-American Committee to prepare for the participation of 
the Republic in the Fourth Conference, to be held in Buenos Aires 
in 1910, was appointed in conformity with the resolution adopted 
August 13, 1906, at the Third Conference, held in Rio de Janeiro. 



HONDURAS, 
FOREIGN AFFAIRS. 



185 



On March 24, 1908, a postal convention was celebrated in the City 
of Mexico between Mexico and Honduras, which Avas ratified by the 
Congress of the Eepublic on May 27, 1908, and promulgated by the 
President on May 29 of the same year. Other conventions and 
treaties acted upon during the year included a treaty of friendship, 
commerce, and navigation with Mexico, and a convention on natu- 
ralization with the United States. A treaty of commerce, subject to 




BALL ROOM, GOVERNMENT PALACE, TEGUCIGALPA, HONDURAS. 

State balls are held in this apartment. Tegucigalpa, founded in 1579, was made the capital of the 

Republic in 1880. 

the ratification of the Congresses of the respective nations, was, on 
November 4, 1908, entered into with the Government of Nicaragua, 
by the terms of which the national and agricultural products and 
domestic manufactures of the two countries, with the exception of 
those subject to government monopoly, enjoy reciprocal free entry, 
special provisions being made for the free exchange of live stock be- 
tween the two countries. The treaty will remain in force for ten 
years from the date of the exchange of ratifications. 

560— Bull. 1—09 13 



186 INTEKNATIONAL BUEEAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

FINANCE. 

The revenues of the Government from all sources for the fiscal 
year 1907-8 amounted to $3,442,476 and disbursements to $3,391,965. 
The total debt of the country on July 31, 1908, was placed at 
$1,500,000. 

During the year 1908 the Government granted a concession to an 
American syndicate for the establishment of a bank with branches 
throughout the Republic. This proposition was satisfactorily 
financed and branches opened at various points. 

The Government, with a view to initiating certain economic re- 
forms, has appointed a commission to make a careful study of the 
system of weights and measures, custom-houses, currency, and other 
fiscal matters as compared with those of other countries. On Janu- 
ary 20, 1909, the delegates of the Governments of the Central Ameri- 
can Republics entered into a convention to unify their monetary 
system, customs duties, weights and measures, fiscal laws, and con- 
sular service. 

COMMERCE. 

Import values for the fiscal period ending July 31, 1908, amounted 
to $2,829,979, as compared with $2,331,398 for 1907 ; while exports 
for the two years amounted to $1,834,060 and $2,012,407, respectively. 
On the trade lists of the Republic the following countries figured 
in the allotment of export values in the order of their importance: 
United States, $1,591,351; Germany, $90,160; Salvador, $54,399; 
British Honduras, $33,040; Great Britain, $32,131; Guatemala, 
$12,320, and Cuba, $12,096 ; and of imports as follows : United States, 
$1,878,942; Great Britain, $339,746; Germany, $248,650; British 
Honduras, $108,735 ; France, $97,540, and Italy, $15,038. 

The classification of exports includes vegetable products valued at 
$1,050,420 ; minerals, $578,939 ; animal products, $197,135, and manu- 
factures, $7,516. In the third class, hides, cattle, cheese, deerskins, 
and mules were the leading articles, while under the classification of 
vegetable exports, bananas to the value of $768,508 took first rank 
with coifee, cocoanuts, mahogany, rubber, sarsaparilla, and woods 
following in the order named. From May 1, 1908, the exportation of 
coffee from the country Avas declared free of fiscal and municipal 
taxation. 

Under the head of minerals, cyanide products figured for $204,862 ; 
ore, for $167,360 ; coined silver, $98,280 ; silver in bars, $85,912, and 
gold, $18,360. Straw hats were the leading item under manufactured 
exports to the value of $3,949, other articles figuring to a lesser 
amount. 



HONDURAS. 187 

PRODUCTION AND INDUSTRIES. 

The agricultural possibilities of the country are extensive. Cacao, 
cotton, sugîir cane, coffee, tobacco, and other tropical and subtropical 
products can be grown in immense quantities and of the finest quality, 
while the forests supply abundant timber, pitch pine, and dyewoods 
and the uplands furnish excellent pasture. On the lowlands on the 
Atlantic side banana culture is increasing, and in the more temperate 
climate offered by the table-lands in the interior cereals, fruits, and 
vegetables of the more northern latitudes can be grown readilj^ Due 
to unfavorable climatic conditions in 1908, the output of bananas 
dropped to 4,310,538 bunches, as compared with over 5,000,000 in the 
years 1906 and 1907. Concessions covering nearly 30,000 acres of 
the public domain to be given over to the further exploitation of the 
banana industry were granted during the year, and enterprises look- 
ing to the commercial utilization of balsam and chicle were under- 
taken with grants from the Government. The interest of the Gov- 
ernment in the tobacco industry was also evidenced by the establishing 
of a practical school for its cultivation in the District of Danli. The 
output of this province is noted for its delicate flavor and, when 
properly cured, the rich coloring of the leaf. 

The opening of the Ulua was followed by renewed activity in that 
district, seven large American companies and innumerable planters 
being at work, while some large transactions, including operations in 
timber, pine, and turpentine by capitalists from the United States, 
were reported. 

During 1908 an arrangement was effected with interests in New 
Orleans to supply that market with Honduras cattle, but the same 
has not become effective pending an adjustment of the sanitary regu- 
lations prohibiting the importation of cattle from Central America. 

Mining operations for the year 1908 were signalized by the loca- 
tion of valuable deposits at Minas de Oro, Macuelizo, and within 
12 miles of San Pedro de Sula. 

The Eosario property, which is said to be the best in the country, 
has yielded over $12,000,000 worth of ore, and with the application 
of modern methods it is confidently predicted that the output of this 
and other properties can be largely increased. The plant was first 
constructed to treat ores by pan-amalgamation; later the treatment 
was changed to concentration and amalgamation, and now the cyanide 
process is used, the company claiming a 9G per cent extraction. 

It is a well-known fact that gold, platinum, silver, copper, iron, 
lead, zinc, tin, quicksilver, and more or less coal of varying quality 
occur in Honduras and that they have never been adequately ex- 
ploited. Gold is found in either quartz veins or alluvial deposits. 



188 IXTEENATIONAL BUKEAL" OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

The most important gold mines are on the south coast of the country, 
several good prospects being only a few miles from the sea. 

Silver ores are found in all the Departments, occurring in quartz 
veins carrying sulphides, galena, and zinc-blende, with some gold 
values; in blanket veins carrying free silver with small quantities of 
sulphides, but with no gold values; and in leacl-zinc veins, mostly 
blanket with some sulphides and no gold values. There are also de- 
posits of antimony and lead carbonates carrjãng silver in the ratio 
of 20 to 40 ounces to the ton, with no gold values. Desi)ite the fact 
that copper lode formations are not currently supposed to exist in 




SORTING GOLD ORE IN HONDURAS. 

Gold-bearing ore is found in many parts of the country, and placer mining along the rivers of the 
Atlantic Coast has been carried on for many years. 

Honduras, outcrops and old works have been found in several of the 
Departments. 

Deposits of iron ore have been worked to a ver}^ limited extent, 
although the existence is reported of an extensive area of magnetite 
of fine quality. All of the lead ores are worked for their silver con- 
tent, and though platinum finds have been reported the pure metal 
has not been discovered. Antimony and lead carbonates are found 
in some of the Departments, but owing to the difficulty in extracting 
the silver values little attention has been paid to them. Kecord of 



HONDURAS, 189 

a rich cinnabar vein in the Department of Comayagua was made 
during the Spanish occupation, but no further exploitation has been 
carried out. A large vein of bismuth has been exposed in the Depart- 
ment of Tegucigalpa. No coal mining has been done, and the appli- 
cation of modern methods to the mining industry of the country is 
as yet very limited. 

The denouncement of a mining claim may be made by any indi- 
vidual to a zone to the extent of 1,000 hectares, which, six months 
afterwards, is measured and taxes paid upon it for the first year 
amounting to 50 cents silver per hectare. Free entry through the 
customs is granted for all needful equipment, freight destined for 
the mines being introduced by way of Amapala. 

As yet the mineral and agricultural resources of the Republic 
have not been adequately developed, due to lack of proper means of 
communication. 

COMMUNICATION. 

During the first year of the administration of President Davila 
the Government devoted much attention to the transportation ques- 
tion, which involved the settlement of the foreign debt, the extension 
of the transcontinental railroad to the Pacific side, and the building 
of some 71 miles of new road across the Republic to constitute the 
Honduras link in Pan-American road. 

Various concessions were granted for the navigation of rivers and 
contracts let for the construction of railway lines on the Atlantic 
coast, the- most important of which was the contract for the building 
of a railway from Trujillo Bay to Juticalpa, with a branch line to 
Tegucigalpa. The enterprise has been incorporated into a stock com- 
pany with a capital of $10,000,000. The road when completed will 
be about 350 miles in length, of standard gauge, modern equipment, 
and rolling stock of United States manufacture. It will include, 
in addition to the main route, branches to many interior cities, thus 
giving communication and transportation facilities to a practically 
virgin territory. The section to be penetrated is reported rich in gold, 
silver, and other minerals, and hard woods. The harbor facilities at 
Trujillo, the terminal of the line, provide ample facilities for the 
increased traffic to result from the line. 

The railway from Puerto Cortez to La Pimienta, 57 miles in 
length, has been leased, subject to the approval of Congress, and the 
lease of the wharf at Puerto Cortez has been extended. 

Among the railway contracts recently approved by the Govern- 
ment are the following: A standard-gauge line, 80 kilometers in 
length, in the Department of Atlântida, from Puerto Sal or Tela to 
the shores of the Camayagua River, the sum of $7,000 gold to be 
deposited as a guaranty for the fulfillment of the contract; a line 



190 INTERNATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

in the Department of Cortes from the Ba}' of Omoa for a distance 
of about TO kilometers to a point on the River Cuyamel and along 
the Chamelecon Valley; a contract with the Squire Syndicate and 
Corj)oration of Foreign Bondholders for the repair and conclusion 
of the Interoceanic Railway and amortization of the foreign debt of 
the country; and a line of railroad from Cola on Lake Quemada to 
Puerto Sal, on the Atlantic coast of Honduras. Early in 1908 the 
Vaccaro Company, of New Orleans, completed and opened to public 
traffic the first 32 miles of road they have been constructing into the 
banana lands near Ceiba. 

With a coast line of over 400 miles on the Atlantic seaboard Hon- 
duras affords ample opportunities for commerce and navigation, 
while on the Pacific coast the Gulf or Bay of Fonseca gives access 
to the largest ocean-going vessels. The principal port of Honduras 
on the Atlantic side is Puerto Cortes, other ports of minor im- 
portance being La Ceiba, Omoa, Roatan, and Trujillo, while on the 
Pacific side the largest is Amapala, on Tigre Island. San Lorenzo 
and La Paz are smaller ports on the Bay of Fonseca. 

The United Fruit Company's steamers leave New Orleans for 
Puerto Cortes every Thursday, making the run in five days, first- 
class passage being $30 ; the Hubbard-Zemurray Steamship Company 
has regular weekly sailings from Mobile, Alabama, for the same 
port, and the Central American Steamship Company from both of 
these ports, first-class passage on any of these steamers being $30. 
The United Fruit Company has also a line of steamers plying between 
Mobile and Ceiba, sailing from the former port every Saturday. 

The Pacific ports may be reached either via San Francisco or 
Panama, the Pacific Mail Steamship Company's steamers calling 
regularly at Amapala, as do also the Kosmos Line steamers, making 
the run from San Francisco in from twenty to twenty-two days, 
first-class passage $105. With the Panama Railroad Company's 
steamers from New York to Colon, thence across the Isthmus and 
from Panama to Amapala by the Pacific Mail Steamship Company, 
the trip can be made in sixteen days at a cost of $120. 

A line of coastwise steamers maintains a regular service between 
the ports of Honduras and other Central American and Cuban 
ports. 

Of the numerous rivers of Honduras the Chamelecon, Ulua, Lean, 
Aguan, Tinto, Patuca, Wanks or Segovia, Choluteca, Nacaome, and 
Goascoran are the most important, being more or less navigable, and 
some of them forming important means of communication and trans- 
portation. The Government of Honduras is giving considerable 
attention to the development of these natural transportation routes 
and has given various concessions for the building of railway lines 
connecting points along the rivers. 



HONDURAS. 191 

A regular line of steamers plies on the Ulua River for a distance 
of 125 miles, from its mouth to Progreso, owned and operated by 
the Monte Vista Steamboat Company. The Aguan, Negro, Patuco, 
and Segovia are navigated by vessels of light draft for short 
distances. 

The principal lake of Honduras is the Yojoa, which is 25 miles in 
length by 6 miles wide and is navigable for steamers. It communi- 
cates with the Ulua River by means of its tributary, the River 
Blanco, thus giving water communication between the coast and the 
interior, the mouth of the Ulua River being not far from Honduras's 
principal port, Puerto Cortes. 

By a decree of May 12, 1908, the exclusive right of navigation on 
Lake Yojoa was granted to an American. At Puerto Cortes the 
harbor works and the reclamation of the lowlands has been under- 
taken by an American syndicate. This work when completed will 
place Puerto Cortes in the front rank of Caribbean ports, and it is 
the plan of those having the work in charge to erect a first-class hotel 
and place the city on the itinerary of high-class tourist travel. 

The Government is devoting particular attention to the construc- 
tion of wagon roads and bridges and to the upkeep of those already 
established, while it has at different times financially assisted the 
different municipalities in the construction of roads within their 
own limits. 

There are 2,840 miles of telegraph line in the Republic and 188 
offices. The telephone companies operate 100 miles of line and 95 
stations in the capital and other towns. 

On December 19, 1908, the President of the Republic approved the 
contract for the erection of a wireless telegraph station in the neigh- 
borhood of Tegucigalpa and various substations along the coast of 
the Republic. Work under the contract is to be begun within six 
months from the date of its execution and completed within a year. 
The existing telegraph lines have been extended by the Government 
and a school of instruction in telegraphy for both sexes opened. 




MEXICO 




The United Mexican States {Estados Unidos Mexicanos) form the 
third largest of the American Republics as regards population and 
fourth largest as regards territor}^, having an area of 767,000 square 
miles and a population of 13,607,260, or 17.7 per square mile. Situ- 
ated between the United States of America, the Gulf of Mexico and 
the Caribbean Sea, British Honduras, the Republic of Guatemala, 
and the Pacific Ocean, Mexico extends from latitude 14° 30' 42''' to 
32° 42' north and from longitude 86° 46' 8" to 117° 7' 31" west of 
Greenwich. 

Two mountain chains traverse the entire territory, forming between 
them a number of valleys and mesas or plateaux of various altitudes. 
That of Anahuac, on which is situated the capital of the Republic, 
is the largest and most important. 

The varying altitudes as well as its situation, partly in the tropical 
and partly in the Temperate Zone, give to Mexico a diversity of 
climate and products. Its mineral wealth in silver and gold, copper, 
and lead is proverbial. The extensive forests, both of the lowlands, 
the tierras calientes^ and of the mountain country are among the 
most valuable assets of the country. These contain in abundance 
woods suitable for building, for cabinet making, dyewoods, and 
medicinal plants. The rubber-producing castilloa is also found in 
considerable quantity in the low coast lands. Chicle, used so exten- 
sively in the manufacture of chewing gum, is a Mexican product. 

In addition to its mineral exports, henequén, coffee, tobacco, cacao, 
vanilla, and sugar are exported in large quantities. Cotton, which is 
largely grown, is consumed in the domestic mills which, in addition, 
import cotton from the United States. 

HISTORICAL SKETCH. 

Prior to the coming of Hernán Cortes, the Mexican conqueror, 
Don Diego Velasquez, Governor of Cuba, had in 1517 sent Francisco 
Hernandez de Cordova and Juan de Grijalva to explore the Mexi- 
can coast. The reports received by the Governor were so favorable 
that Cortes was sent to make a conquest of the country. He landed 
first on April 12, 1519, on the little island of Ulua in the harbor of 
Veracruz. From this point, with the powerful aid of tribes hostile to 
the Aztecs, he gradually succeeded in conquering the country, and by 
force and treachery made himself master. The great Aztec Empire 
was destroyed by the invaders, its emperors Montezuma II and the 
heroic Cuahtemoc perished, and the Indians were enslaved and 
forced to exploit the mines and other natural resources for the benefit 
of the conquerors. 
192 



MEXICO. 



193 




PORFIRIO DIAZ, PRESIDENT 
OF MEXICO. 



Hernán Cortes was appointed Governor of New Spain, as it was 
then called, in the year 1522, but was soon recalled and succeeded by 
another Governor, and in the year 1535 the viceroyalty of New Spain 
was created, including all of the Spanish possessions in North and 
Central America, Don Antonio de Mendoza being appointed viceroy. 

New Spain was successively governed by 62 viceroys, the last being 
Don Juan O'Donoju, who withdrew in the year 1821. 

A Mexican priest, Don Miguel Hidalgo y 
Costilla, was the leader of the movement for 
independence. On September 16, 1810, he is- 
sued what is known as "^Z grito de Do- 
loTes^'' and subsequently succeeded in gaining 
several victories over the Royalists. He was 
finally defeated and executed on July 30, 1811. 
The patriotic cause was taken up by others, 
among them another priest, Don José Maria 
MoRELOS, who was likewise executed on De- 
cember 22, 1815. General Iturbide, who was 
to finally decide the struggle in favor of the 
patriots, entered the City of Mexico on Sep- 
tember 27, 1821, at the head of the patriot 
army. Here was evolved what was known as " the plan of Iguala," 
whereby a King was to be elected for Mexico. To this plan the Vice- 
roy O'Donoju agreed. 

In the meantime a congress of Mexican patriots at Chilpancingo, 
on November 6, 1813, had formally declared the independence of 
Mexico from Spain. 

Under the plan of Iguala, General Iturbide was elected Emperor 
of Mexico, and on July 21, 1822, was crowned at the City of Mexico, 
adopting the title of Agustín I. The Empire was but short lived. 
Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Ana proclaimed the Republic on 
December 6, 1822, and the Emperor was forced to abdicate on March 
19, 1823, and to leave the country. Upon his return, in the year 
following, he was sentenced to death and executed at Padilla on 
July 19, 1824. 

Gen. Guadalupe Victoria became the President of the Republic on 
October 10, 1824. In 1829 Spain sought once more to regain control 
of her former possession, and landing a strong force at Tampico, in 
July, 1829, marched to the capital. The Spaniards were, however, 
completely routed by the patriots on September 10 of the same year, 
and on December 28, 1836, Spain finally recognized the Republic. 

In 1836 Texas seceded from the Mexican Union, and defeating the 
Mexican troops under Santa Ana on April 21, 1836, established the 
Independent Republic of Texas, which in December, 1845, was ad- 
mitted to the Union of the United States of America. This led to 
the war with the United States in April, 1846, which was finally 



194 INTEENATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMEEICAN REPUBLICS. 

settled by the treaty of Guadalupe of February 2, 1848, whereby 
the United States of America acquired all the territory belonging to 
Mexico north and east of the Eio Grande for the sum of $15,000,000. 

The intervention of the European powers, France, England, and 
Spain, occurred in 1862, during President Juarez's term, and resulted 
in the establishment of the Mexican Empire by Napoleon III, who 
placed the Austrian Prince, Maximilian, upon the throne of Mexico. 
He was crowned on June 12, 1864, but being deserted by Napoleon 
he was finally defeated and executed at Queretaro, together with his 
generals, Miramon and Mejía, June 19, 1867. 

Don Benito Juarez then served as President till his death, July 
18, 1872, and was succeeded by Sebastian Lerdo de Tejada, who, 
in 1877, was succeeded by President Porfirio Diaz, now serving his 
seventh term as President of the United Mexican States. President 
Diaz's term will expire November 30, 1910. 

CONSTITUTION AND GOVERNMENT. 

The Constitution of the Mexican Republic, adopted February 5, 
1857, provides for a republican, representative, federal form of gov- 
ernment, similar to that of the United States, the various States of 
the Union being free to regulate their internal affairs. The National 
Government is vested in the legislative, executive, and judicial 
branches. 

The National Congress is composed of the Senate and Chamber of 
Deputies, the former consisting of 56 members, two for each State 
and the Federal District, elected indirectly for a term of four years, 
one-half of the Senate being renewed every two years. Deputies are 
elected in a like manner, but for a term of two years, at the rate of 
one deputy for every 40,000 inhabitants or fraction exceeding 20,000. 

A permanent committee consisting of 15 Deputies and 14 Senators 
represents Congress during recess and is consulted by the President 
on all matters affecting legislation. 

The President and Vice-President of the Republic are chosen hj 
electors for a term of six years, the President being assisted by a 
Cabinet of 8 Ministers, or Secretaries. 

A Supreme Court, 3 circuit courts, and 32 district courts comprise 
the national judiciary. The Supreme Court justices, 11 in number, 
are elected by indirect vote of the people for a term of six years and 
receive a salarj'^ of $5,000 each per annum. 

Mexico is divided politically into 27 States, 3 Territories, and 1 
Federal District. Governors of the States are elected in the same 
manner as the President of the Republic, as are also the legislatures 
and the judiciary of each State. The Territories are administered by 
a Governor appointed by the President of the Republic, while the 
Government of the Federal District is in the hands of three officials, 
likewise appointed by the President. 



196 IISTTEENATIOXAL BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

The States and Territories are subdivided into municipalidades- 
which elect their own administrative councils and mayors. 

The States and Territories and their respective capitals are the; 
following : 

Capital. 

Federal District Mexico City. 

State of— 

Aguascalientes Aguascalientes. 

Campeche Campeche. 

Chiapas Tuxtla-Gutierre^ 

Chihuahua Chihuahua. 

Coahuila ^•- Saltillo. 

Colima Colima. 

Durango Duraugo. 

Guanajuato Guanajuato. 

Guerrero Chilpancingo. 

Hidalgo Pachuca. 

Jalisco . Guadalajara. 

Mexico Toluca. 

Michoacan Morelia. 

Morelos Cuerna vaca. 

Nuevo Leon Monterey. 

Oaxaca Oaxaca. 

Puebla Puebla. 

Queretaro _' Queretaro. 

San Luis Potosí San Luis Potosi. 

Sinaloa Culiacan. 

Sonora Hermosillo. 

Tabasco San Juan Bautista.. 

Tamaulipas Ciudad Victoria. 

Tlaxcala Tlaxcala. 

Veracruz Jalapa. 

Yucatan Merida. 

Zacatecas Zacatecas. 

Territory of — 

Baja California La Paz. 

Tepic Tepic. 

Quintana Roo Santa Cruz de Bravo_ 

President Gen. Porfirio Diaz. 

Vice-President Sr. Lie. Eamón Corral. 

Secretary of Foreign Affairs Sr. Lie. Ignacio H. Mariscal. 

Secretary of Government Sr. Lie. Ramón Corral. 

Secretary of Justice Sr. Lie. Justino Fernandez. 

Secretary of Public Instruction Sr. Lie. Justo Sierra. 

Secretary of Fomento, Colonization, and Industry_.Sr. Lie. Olegario Molina. 

Secretary of Communication and Public Works Sr. LEANDr.o Fernandez. 

Secretary of the Treasury and Public Credit Sr. Lie. José Ives Limantour. 

Secretary of War and Marine Gen. Manuel Gonzalez Cosío.. 

Xote. — List of cabinet officers corrected to July 20, 1909. 

The President receives a salary of 50,000 2>&sos annually, equal to> 
$25,000, while the Secretaries receive 15,000 jJ&sos eacli. 



MEXICO. 197 



MEXICO IN 1908. 

The message of President Diaz delivered to the Mexican Con- 
gress on April 1, 1909, covering conditions in the preceding half 
year, indicated the recovery, of the industrial life of the Republic 
from the effects of the financial crisis of 1908. Internal affairs were 
administered with due respect to public order. Immigration was 
encouraged and new administrative measures enacted for the regu- 
lation thereof, the revised law going into effect on March 1, 1909. 

The rapid strides made by the country in economic development is 
a matter of widespread interest, further evidenced by the extension 
of steamship communications with the Orient and by the diversified 
nationality of the various mining and industrial enterprises located 
within the Republic. The volume of trade for the fiscal year ended 
June 30, 1908, showed a decline of something over $8,000,000, of 
which sum over $5,000,000 was due to a falling off in imports. Since 
the bulk of the exports of the country are of raw material, for which 
the demand in foreign markets was smaller and at lower prices, due 
to the business depression then prevailing, the reason for the decline 
in export values for the year is obvious. These conditions naturally 
reacted upon Mexican purchases abroad for home consumption, re- 
sulting in a corresponding decrease in imports. Furthermore, 
although Mexican trade values for the first six months of the fiscal 
year 1908-9 showed a decline of nearly $35,000,000 gold, as compared 
with the. corresponding period of the year 1907-8, this shrinkage 
was the result of conditions which had previously existed and were 
rapidly disappearing. On the other hand, it is worthy of note that 
export values exceeded the total imports by over $18,000,000 gold. 
A considerable part of the decline in export values was represented 
by reduced shipments of precious metals, the largest item in this 
category being silver pesos, of which no shipments were made during 
the six months. The same is true of gold coin. 

FOREIGN AFFAIRS. 

Cordial relations with foreign powers continued to mark the diplo- 
matic life of the nation, and the adjustment of certain questions with 
France and Holland pertaining to citizenship and extradition, re- 
spectively, was effected by the ratification of treaties. The principles 
of maritime law as embodied in the Declaration of Paris of April 16, 
1856, received the formal adherence of the Mexican Government in 
December, 1908, and modifications of the postal convention with 
England were approved in the same month, the ratifications of 
which were exchanged on March 13, 1909. 



198 INTERNATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

A treaty of arbitration was concluded with the United States, 
becoming effective in June, 1908, and a treaty of friendship, com- 
merce, and navigation with the Republic of Honduras for the main- 
tenance of friendly relations between the two countries. 

The Government participated in various events abroad, among 
them the inauguration of the International Agronomical Institute 
at Rome; the Washington Conference for the conservation of the 
natural resources of North America ; the meeting of the International 
Congress at Paris in October, 1908 ; the First International Congress 
on Moral and Social Education at London in September, 1908; the 
International Tuberculosis Congress at Washington; and the First 
Pan-American Scientific Congress at Santiago, Chile, in December. 
Many invitations have been received to assist at various other inter- 
national functions in the future. In a number of cases the Govern- 
ment has accepted these invitations, and delegates are already 
selected. 

The Mexican exhibit at the Crystal Palace in London was formally 
opened to the public by the Lord Mayor of the city on June 26, 1908, 
assisted by the Mexican Minister to Great Britain, the Mexican 
Consul-General in London, and a number of other prominent persons 
and officials. The section devoted to exhibits of sugar and tobacco 
was most effective and interesting. 

FINANCE. 

For the fiscal year 1907-8 the ordinary receipts and disbursements 
of the Government amounted to $55,885,900 and $46,588,700, respec- 
tively, leaving a balance in favor of receipts of $9,297,200. The extra- 
ordinary expenditures during the fiscal jesiv amounted to $5,850,600, 
and pending accounts due at the beginning of the year $270,300 more, 
making the net balance of receipts over expenditures $3,176,300. The 
budget for the fiscal year 1908-9 estimated expenditures at $48,537,- 
000. The figures in the budget for the year 1909-10 are placed at 
$48,630,500 for receipts, and for disbursements at $48,467,700, an 
indicated surplus of $162,800. The estimate of expenditures for the 
year 1909-10 shows a decline of $3,552,457, as compared with appro- 
priations made for 1908-9, when $52,020,100 were expended. 

The customs receipts for the fiscal year 1907-8 aggregated $13,561,- 
200, exceeding the budget estimate by more than $2,000,000. 

The net diminution of the public debt during 1908 was $1,486,000. 
The total figures, including interest, on June 30, 1907, and June 30, 
1908, were $222,268,300 and $220,782,300 respectively. Excluding 
interest, the principal of the debt was reduced by $1,327,200. 

The report of the Exchange and Monetary Commission of the Re- 
public shows that the total coinage from May 1, 1905, to June 30, 



MEXICO. 199 

1908, inclusive, amounted to $59,782,590, in the following proportion : 
Gold, $40,813,250; silver, $18,100,272; and fractional currency 
(nickel and copper), $869,068. The stock of gold, silver pesos, frac- 
tional domestic and foreign coin in the possession of the Commission 
on June 30, 1908, was $4,665,959. The fractional silver and copper 
coins of the old issue, retired from circulation between May 1, 1905, 
and June 30, 1908, amounted to $5,137,224 and $125,576, respectively. 

In 1908 there were thirty-four banks operating in Mexico, repre- 
senting a combined capital of $88,000,000. Thirty of these were 
banks of issue, among which the following are the principal institu- 
tions : The National Bank, with a capital of $16,000,000 ; the Central 
Bank, $15,000,000; Bank of London and Mexico, $10,750,000; Pen- 
insular Bank, $8,250,000 ; Mexican Bank of Commerce and Industry, 
$5,000,000; and the Oriental Bank, $3,000,000. 

The assets and liabilities of the various banks of issue in the Re- 
public, at the end of June, 1908, were balanced at $306,655,900, as 
compared with $301,430,200 of the year previous ; the banks of encour- 
agement at $52,347,600, as compared with $44,029,396 in 1907; and 
the mortgage banks at $19,257,500, as compared with $16,422,152 for 
1907, a substantial gain under all three classifications being noted. 
The paid-up capital in all of the banks of the Republic under fed- 
eral concessions aggregated $82,430,700, a net increase of $5,431,500 
over 1907; reserve and emergency funds amounting to $28,596,400, 
an increase of $597,700, as compared with 1907. Gold and silver 
minted during the year amounted to $12,001,800, of which $8,300,000 
was gold and $3,701,800 silver. The total coinage for the fiscal year 
1906-7 amounted to $23,967,800 and since 1905 to $59,782,500. 
Making allowance for exportations of specie, which to June 30, 1907, 
amounted to $37,708,100, and for the fiscal year to June 30, 1908, to 
$5,327,500, and also for old coin reminted, amounting to $8,521,700, 
the circulating medium during the three years is shown to have in- 
creased $8,225,200. 

A noteworthy occurrence in banking circles was the opening of a 
bank of rediscount, an incident which marked a forward step in the 
progressive banking methods of the country. The establishment of 
this institution, in which many of the chartered banks participated, 
filled a long-felt want and was cordially received by the financial 
interests of the Republic. 

For the purpose of enabling manufacturers and agriculturists to 
extend the scope of their activities a new credit institution making 
a specialty of this class of loans was opened in June, 1908, and in 
September of the same year the Minister of Fomento granted a con- 
cession for the establishment of a bank in the Mexican capital for 
the purpose of aiding irrigation enterprises for the agricultural devel- 
opment of the country. 



200 INTERNATIONAL BUEEAU OF THE AMEEICAN EEPUBLICS. 

Various modifications in the customs tariff were enacted during the 
year affecting the following articles : Tobacco, steel and iron, building 
materials, clothing, and carriages, while the budget law provided 
for the imposition of export duties on grass fodder, chicle, guayule, 
hemp fiber or sisal, raw hides, and skins. It was found expedient to 
continue the reduced duty on wheat imports as decreed in November. 
1908, by reason of the almost total failure of the wheat crop. This 
lower rate has recently been canceled, as the new crop is reported as 
unexpectedly large. A presidential decree was also issued extending 
until June 30, 1909, the time allowed for the free entry of merchan- 
dise into Quintana Roo for consumption in that Territory. 

COMMERCE. 

For the first six months of the fiscal year 1908-9 (July to Decem- 
ber, 1908) the total foreign trade of the Republic was $90,859,805.98, 
as compared with $125,415,644.07 for the same period of 1907, show- 
ing a decline of $34,555,838.09. In this total, imports figured for 
$36,340,800, and exports for $54,518,900, showing a decline in both 
branches of trade of $25,185,900.12 and $9,369,900, respectively. 

An interesting feature in the analysis of these statistics is the large 
excess of exports over imports, amounting to $18,178,100, which excess 
was greater than that recorded for the whole year 1907-8 by 
$7,686,700 and for 1906-7 by $10,283,900. 

A classification of imports for the first six months of the year 
showed the following values in the order of their importance: Min- 
eral substances, $10,448,700; machinery and apparatus, $5,500,000; 
vegetable substances, $5,458,300; textiles and manufactures, $3,773,- 
300; animal substances, $3,253,500; chemical and pharmaceutical 
products, $2,233,500; miscellaneous, $1,731,300; wines, liquors, etc., 
$1,314,000 ; and paper and manuf actureres, $1,116,200, all of the items 
showing a decline. The countries of origin for these imports were: 
North America, $20,046,500; Europe, $15,474,300; Asia, $518,600 (a 
gain of $30,100 over the same period of 1907-8) ; South America, 
$170,600; Oceania, $65,200 (a gain of $3,700 over the same period of 
1907-8) ; West Indies, $35,900 (a gain of $2,100 over the same period 
■of 1907-8) ; and Central America, $8,500. 

Exports for the first six months of the year showed the following 
values: Mineral substances, $35,162,600; vegetable substances, 
$14,648,900; animal substances, $3,237,200 (a gain of over $1,000,000 
gold over 1907-8) ; manufactured products, $618,200; and miscella- 
neous, $851,900. The countries of destination were: North America, 
$40,327,200; Europe, $13,454,500; the West Indies, $458,400; Central 
America, $258,400 (a gain of $31,000 over the same period of 1907-8) ; 
and South America, $19,800. 



MEXICO. 201 

The trade of the Eepublic for the fiscal year 1907-8 amounted 
to $232,170,000, as compared with $240,123,700 for the previous year. 
In this total, imports figured to the extent of $110,800,000 and exports 
to the extent of $121,370,000, as compared with $116,114,700 and 
$124,009,000, respectively, for the preceding year. A decline is thus 
indicated in both branches of foreign trade, the loss on imports 
amounting to $5,314,700 and on exports to $2,639,000. The balance 
of trade in favor of the Republic, as indicated by the excess of exports 
over imports, was $10,570,000, which is a favorable showing as com- 
pared with the preceding fiscal year, when the trade balance figured 
for $7,894,300. 

Generally classified, the countries of origin were: North America, 
$59,400,000; Europe, $49,580,000; Asia, $1,112,000; South America, 
$348,000; Oceania, $181,000; the West Indies, $71,000 ; and Central 
America, $59,400. Of the imports from North America, the United 
States furnished $59,000,000 ; and Canada, $410,800. The European 
countries contributing to imports were : Great Britain, $16,370,000 ; 
Germany, $14,160,000; France, $9,800,000; Spain, $3,700,000; Bel- 
gium, $1,600,000 ; Italy, $960,000 ; and Austria, $813,400. 

Export values figured as follows: North America, $85,150,000; 
Europe, $34,745,000 ; South America, $24,374 ; Central America, $414,- 
000 ; and the West Indies, $1,030,000. Of the exports to North Amer- 
ica, the United States received $85,000,000, and Canada, $93,500 ; of 
those to Europe, Great Britain, $13,107,000; Germany, $11,190,000; 
France, $6,196,000; Belgium, $3,018,000; and Spain, $1,165,000. 

The only item on the import list on which a marked increase is 
noted is textiles and manufactures thereof, which showed a gain of 
$2,400,000 for the year 1907-8. While minerals and metals decreased 
in import value by $6,492,000, it is noteworthy that iron and 
steel for building and industrial purposes showed an advance of 
$1,683,000. Although imports showed an indicated decline of over 
$5,000,000, it should be borne in mind that the returns for the year 
1906-7 included some $11,500,000 of Mexican gold and silver coin 
minted in the United States, whereas in 1907-8 only $1,800,000 Mexi- 
can silver coin and $1,500,000 of foreign gold were imported ; so that 
the specie imports for the year showed a falling off of $8,250,000, 
approximately. As such importations of specie are not due to the 
natural operation of the trade balance, but to accidental circum- 
stances, it may be assumed that the imports for 1907-8 were in reality 
$3,000,000 in excess of those of 1906-7. 

The mineral exports of the Republic for the year 1907-8, as shown 
by the reports of the Bureau of Statistics, amounted to $79,215,000 
as compared with $80,123,000 for 1906-7. 

560— B ul 1 . 1—09 14 



202 INTEKNATIONAL BUKEAU OF THE AMERICAN EEPUBLICS. 

The exports of vegetable products of the country were valued at 
$35,102,400, animal products at $4,828,300, and manufactures at 
$1,504,700, while those classified as miscellaneous were valued at 

$728,400. 

Mineral exports were distributed as follows: Silver, $46,517,300; 
gold, $15,960,500; copper, $12,417,000; lead, $2,672,200; antimony, 
$845,500; zinc, $444,200; and other metals, $358,100. 

Gold shipments increased $4,023,600 and those of silver declined 
by $3,413,500, so that precious metals together advanced $610,100. 

It is also worthy of note that while shipments of silver coin were 
nearly $14,000,000 less than in 1907, the exportation of bar silver, 
silver ore, cyanides, sulphides, etc., increased by $7,000,000, the in- 
crease in the exportation of bar silver being greater than the increase 
in the exportation of ore, which demonstrates the impetus given to 
home smelting and refining. 

The decline in copper exports was caused by the depression of the 
market for that metal, which antedated by some months that of the 
silver market. Many of the mines were forced to suspend operations 
owing to this condition, but work has recently been resumed, the 
federal authorities contributing to the resumption of work by grant- 
ing the free importation of fuel oil, thus cheapening the cost of pro- 
duction. Lead and zinc also participated in the decline caused by a 
fluctuating market. 

"\^niile the contribution of vegetable products to export values was 
lower by $812,000 than in 1906-7, certain items, among them coffee, 
tobacco, chicle, rubber, and broom root, showed advanced valuations. 
Coffee shipments show a gain of $677,400; rubber, $1,106,300; and 
guayule, $585,700. 

Shipments of tobacco showed an increase in value amounting to 
$371,400, while other nati^^e products — such as cotton, wheat, rice, 
corn, and beans — were subject to greater domestic demand, thus 
necessitating a cutting off of exports. 

The total exports of henequén during the year amounted to 394,816 
bales, or 244,150,750 pounds, representing a valuation of $13,509,670. 
While the output for the year was greater by 588,632 pounds than 
that of 1906-7, more favorable market conditions in 1906-7 enabled 
the planters to secure better prices for their crop, which, although 
aggregating only 243,562,118 pounds as compared with that of 
1907-8, represented a valuation of $15,720,100, or $2,210,430 more 
than the larger crop of the latter year. 

Although sugar exports showed a decrease as compared with 
1906-7, the output has unquestionably increased from year to year, 
and it was to the decline of 1908, coupled with decreased exports of 
palmetto hats, that the lower figures reported for exports of manu- 



MEXICO. 203 

factured products were mainly attributable. A lowering in price of 
some of the commodities figuring in the export list of the country 
also accounted in some degree for the decline in aggregate values. 

The exportation of cattle regained to some extent the ground lost 
during the preceding year, showing a gain both in value and numbers, 
although hides fell off to the low level reached in 1904-5. The Gov- 
ernment has interested itself in the encouragement of this industry 
and has recently granted concessions to packing companies which de- 
pend on native stock raisers for their product, 

PRODUCTION AND INDUSTRIES. 

The mines of Mexico are the principal source of national wealth 
and one of the leading fields of industry in the Republic. Calcu- 
lated from exportation figures, which constitute the only available 
index to production values. Señor Limantour, Minister of Finance, 
gives the mineral production for 1907-8 at $83,071,500 in the fol- 
lowing distribution: Silver, $42,723,500; gold, $19,048,000; cop- 
per, $12,400,000; coal, $3,500,000; lead, $2,700,000; other metals, 
$1,700,000; and mineral oil, $1,000,000. The annual increase in the 
output of gold is a matter of great satisfaction, the present figures 
showing a marked advance over the output of $7,000,000 in 1898. 
The best paying gold mine in North and South America is the Espe- 
ranza at El Oro, Mexico, which paid its owners during the year 1908 
$1,180,000, and since its incorporation the sum of $9,427,500, or 419 
per cent on a capitalization of $2,250,000. The property is controlled 
by United States and British investors. 

Notwithstanding the low price of silver since the middle of 1907, 
the operation of silver mines showed no decline during the latest 
fiscal year, and an increase was made both in quantity and value of 
the output, despite the fact that the average price per kilogram 
dropped from $22 to less than $20. 

An estimate of the value of mining properties held by foreign com- 
panies and individuals in Mexico places the amount at $350,000,000, 
and a compilation covering a period of nine months in 1908 showed 
that dividends of $6,723,061 were declared by 28 gold, silver, copper, 
and lead mines and smelters. These same properties, which have an 
outstanding capitalization of $60,653,385, have since their incorpora- 
tion yielded $45,324,041, or a return of 75 per cent on the invested 
capital. 

The exploitation of the petroleum deposits in northwestern Mexico 
will give a great impetus to the development of that part of the 
Republic, and will enable manufacturing and mining operations to be 
carried on upon a larger scale than ever before. The Mexican oil 



204 INTERNATIONAL BUEEAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

fields, which cover an area of over 800 square miles, increased their 
output in 1908, as against that of 1907, by more than 500 per cent, 
and under existing conditions the production for the year 1909 will 
xmdoubtedly be still further increased. The yield for 1907 was esti- 
mated at about 1,000,000 barrels, which came principally from the 
Ebano field and was of the fuel variety. 

The petroliferous lands extend from the hacienda of San Jose de 
las Ruinas, in Central Tamaulipas, to the district of Valles, in San 
ÜJiús Potosi (where the Ebano oil deposits are being worked) , through 
the counties of Uzuluama, Tuxpan, and Papantla, in Veracruz. 
Farther to the south is a region which embraces the Veracruz coun- 
ties of Acayucan and Minatitlan and extends southward through the 
States of Tabasco, Campeche, and Chiapas. Petroleum has also been 
found in small quantities in the Federal District, in Jalisco and 
Oaxaca, and at other points along the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. Some 
recent discoveries in the States of Chihuahua and Coahuila show the 
existence of paraffin oil in that district. 

The use of fuel oil in mining operations having proved profitable 
to the company originally granted the concession to import petro- 
leum free, the privilege was subsequently accorded other companies 
for the purpose of offsetting adverse market conditions by cheapening 
the handling of lower grade ores.' 

The recent increase in transport rates on imported coal and coke 
was designed to afford equitable protection to the native product, it 
being claimed by coal producers that the national mines are able, 
w^ith adequate protection, to compete with the foreign article in the 
«ountry's markets, and that the output of coke might within a short 
time be brought up to the requirements of the market. 

The possible production under present conditions, exclusive of the 
mines which supply the railroads, is estimated at 70,000 tons of com- 
mercial coal per month, plus the 40,000 tons which are converted into 
20,000 tons of coke, while the additional 20,000 tons needed to supply 
the coal demand could easily be obtained. With respect to coke the 
national companies still fall short by about 110,000 tons per annum 
in supplying the Republic, but it is claimed that proper government 
aid would produce an immediate increase in the output. Much of 
the coke consumed in normal times is supplied from the United States, 
as owing to the greater cost of transportation from European ports 
Oerman and English producers are not able to compete with the 
United States. A few years ago, during an extended strike in the 
coal fields of the United States, considerable coke was imported from 
Germany, and recent shipments are reported from England. 

The proposed new mining law of Mexico, while it prohibits foreign 
companies from acquiring mines in the Republic in their own right, 



MEXICO. 205 

does not affect the requirements as to registration, such companies, 
still remaining subject to the provisions of article 24 of the Commer- 
cial Code, which provides that — 

Foreign corporations v/tiicli desire to become established or to create branches 
in the Republic shall present and cause to be recorded in the Commercial 
Registry, in addition to a protocolized copy of their statutes, contracts and 
other documents relating to their incorporation, an inventory, or their latest 
balance sheet, if they have any, as well as a certificate proving that they have 
been organized and authorized to do business under the laws of their respective 
countries, said certificate being issued by the Minister of the Republic accredited 
to each country, or if there be no Minister, by the Mexican Consul. 

During the fiscal year 1907-8, title deeds to mining properties to the number 
of 6,600 and covering 119,634 hectares were issued ; in the succeeding half year 
2,100 deeds were issued covering 39,987 hectares. 

The annual value of cereal crops, fruits, and other products of the 
soil, and of cattle marketed, is slightly in excess of $200,000,000. Of 
this amount the following are the chief items in the order of their 
importance and represent a fair average crop: Corn, $50,000,000; 
cotton, $17,000,000 ; henequén, $16,000,000 ; wheat, $13,000,000 ; sugar 
and molasses, $13,000,000; spirits, $10,000,000; coffee, $8,000,000; 
beans, $6,000,000; and woods, $5,000,000. 

The coffee crop for 1906 and 1907 fell far below the average 
(88,000,000 pounds), the 1908 crop being estimated at 42,000,000 
pounds, as compared with 45,000,000, the estimated production for 
1907. The estimates for 1909- place the crop at 81,000,000 pounds. 
The best grades of Mexican coffee come from Oaxaca, Cuantepec, 
Cordova, Orizaba, and Sierra. 

The year's output of sugar, 123,000 tons, showed a gain of 4,000 
tons as compared with the previous year, and for the year 1908-9 
the crop is placed at 125,000 tons. The shipment of raw sugars to 
England is being profitably carried on and the acreage under cultiva- 
tion is increasing each year. The sugar industry is protected by a 
law in force from February 15, 1908, making raw sugar, sugar candy, 
and refined sugar of all classes subject to an import tax of 2^ cents per 
kilogram, gross weight. 

In accordance with the provisions of the Brussels sugar convention, 
a special duty on Mexican sugar has been levied in all the countries 
represented in that convention. This duty is imposed on account of 
the increase made in 1908 by the Mexican Government in its tariff 
on foreign sugar imported into the Republic by which the duty of 
$1.25 gold per 100 kilograms was raised to $2.50 per 100 kilograms. 

One of the immediate benefits to be derived from the construction 
of the Nazas River dam at San Fernandez will be an immensely 
increased cotton yield in the Laguna district. This section of Mexico 
is a level basin with wonderfully fertile lands, suitable for the culture 



206 INTEENATIONAL BUEEAU OF THE AMERICAIST KEPIJBLICS. 

of cotton. The district is dotted with factories and traversed by 
railroads for the transport of both raw and manufactured products, 
while the surrounding mountains contain valuable mineral deposits. 
European experts claim that the Laguna cotton is of remarkably 
strong fiber and of excellent texture and color. The total crop of 
the Eepublic for 1907 was 80,000 bales, and as the consumption in 
the mills was about 155,000 bales, large quantities were imported to 
meet the needs of the home market. The imports of textile fibers 
by Mexico for the fiscal year 1907-8 were nearly double in value 
those reported for the year 1906-7, the annual imports from the 
United States being estimated at about 50,000 bales. 

In 1906 the cotton yield was far in excess of the demand and 50,000 
bales were shipped to Europe, but lacking sufficient and regular 
water supply the growers are unable to accurately gauge the out- 
put from year to year. This uncertainty, however, will be overcome 
by the agency of the San Fernandez dam. 

The growing of the so-called tree cotton is attended with profitable 
results. 

For the half year, July to December, 1908, the 119 textile 
factories in the Eepublic paid governmental taxes amounting to 
$161,800. 

The cultivation of rubber has passed the experimental stage, sta- 
tistics showing that the rubber locally produced for export has 
increased from 7,000 pounds in 1900 to 182,219 pounds in 1907, of 
which not more than 4,000 pounds were of the wild variety. Those 
sections of the States of Tabasco and Chiapas lying in what is known 
as the rubber belt, possess all the climatic and physical conditions 
required for the development of this culture, while the projected 
opening up of the district b}'' a new railway line will contribute 
powerfully to the stimulation of capitalized interest. The second 
convention of the Rubber Planters' Association of Mexico held its 
session at San Gerónimo, State of Oaxaca during the month of 
August, 1908, and measures were projected for the material advance- 
ment of this branch of national industry. 

The growth and commercial development of allied products are 
also being stimulated and in connection with the increased shipments 
of guayule from Mexico during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1908, 
when the valuation was given as over $500,000 in excess of 1907, it 
is significant that receipts in the United States of rubber from 
Mexico, mainly guayule, showed a steady increase. 

Since the exploitation of the guayule industry, with its attendant 
financial success, prospectors have been investigating other rubber- 
producing plants and trees in Mexico in the hope of meeting with 
similar good fortune. They confidently expect to more than duplicate 
present achievements with the guayule plant by utilizing the polo 



MEXICO. 



207 



colorado. They claim that the sap of this tree contains over 33^ per 
cent pure caoutchouc. The Mexican Government has contracted for 
the establishment of a factory to extract, refine, 



and. manufacture 




A CIGARETTK FACTORY IN MEXICO. 

Cigarettes are to-day made largely by machinery, which has to a great extent displaced the hand 
labor, once the universal rule in factories. Machines are even made to place the cigarettes m tùe 
box ready for the consumer, but the employment of women for this purpose is still customary in 
the older centers of the trade. This is altogether piecework, and women become marvelously 
expert in their occupation. 

the rubber obtained from the falo amarillo and amate trees. Included 
in the concession for the exploitation of this industry is the privilege 
of introducing duty free all of the necessary material, machinery, 



208 INTEENATIONAL BUEEAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

and appliances for the installation of the factory and exemption from 
taxation during the life of the concession, viz, ten years. 

Fruits of various kinds, mainly of the citrus family, have a promis- 
ing future, "while in many sections the soil is excellently adapted to 
the cultivation of cacao. The cacao grown in Tabasco has a world- 
wide reputation, being highly prized by connoisseurs for its rich 
flavor and nourishing qualities. Three crops of cacao beans are 
gathered during the year, and it is estimated that 1,000 trees have an 
average production of 600 pounds, the price in this market at whole- 
sale beinsf 25 to 30 cents o-old. The local demand absorbs the entire 
crop which, according to the most reliable information, amounts to 
2,000,000 pounds. 

It is estimated that the growing of pecans in the Eepublic repre- 
sents a production of $400,000 annually, or 100 carloads, most of 
which go to the United States. 

Hard woods are abundant in the forests, and another item of com- 
mercial importance is the recently discovered wax-producing quality 
of the candelilla plant. 

Statistics relating to the tobacco industry of Mexico showed 995 
tobacco factories in the Republic, which in 1907 produced 525,259,735 
packages of cigarettes, 134,055,669 cigars, 164,308 kilos of smoking 
tobacco, and 27,800 kilos of snuif. 

The live-stock industry in the Republic, according to the latest 
federal statistics, represented 5,142,457 cattle, valued at $40,540,994; 
3,424,430 sheep, valued at $3,006,578 ; 616,139 hogs, valued at $1,024,- 
929 ; 4,206,041 goats, valued at $3,610,714. The States of Chihuahua 
and Veracruz lead in number of cattle, with 396,023 and 392,858, 
respectively; Zacatecas and San Luis Potosi in sheep, with 826,704 
and 415,697 ; Tepic and Jalisco in hogs, with 86,523 and 76,529 ; and 
Coahuila, Durango, and San Luis Potosi in goats, with 615,144, 
534,304, and 519,844, respectively. 

Authority to allow free importation of agricultural implements, 
cattle for breeding purposes, machinery, seeds, etc., was granted for 
a period of ten years, dating from June 17, 1908. A concession to 
this effect will be granted by the Minister of Fomento when, in the 
opinion of the Department, it is impossible for the concessionaire to 
obtain similar articles on as good terms in the home markets. 

The Mexican Congress extended for a period of five years from 
November 10, 1908, the authority of the Executive to grant conces- 
sions to new industries, with exemption from duties and federal taxes 
for periods of five to ten years. The original law was enacted in 
1898 and extended in 1903. By virtue of its provisions the Executive 
has the privilege of issuing concessions to companies guaranteeing 
investment of sums of money in national enterprises exceeding 
$50,000 gold. 



MEXICO. 209 

The establishment of a large canning factory and packing estab- 
lishment in 1905 in Mexico City was regarded as the inception of a 
great enterprise, but the prospectus of the reorganized company 
announces the opening of two auxiliary plants, making a total of 
four under the management of the national packing company and the 
monopoly of the beef packing business of Mexico. About 400 
cattle and 450 sheep are slaughtered daily in the city and since the 
purchase of the slaughterhouse this business will be exclusively in the 
hands of the packing company. 

By the terms of its concession from the Government the company 
is to receive all of its tin plate and supplies of machinery free of 
duty for a period of twenty years. 

In the general policy of the Mexican Government to stimulate the 
development of the native industries, as evidenced by special legis- 
lative concessions to the promoters thereof, a significant demonstra- 
tion was made in the placing of an order for 20,000 tons of steel rails 
with the company at Monterey. The control by the Government of 
a large portion of the railways of the Republic and the higher duty 
recently placed upon imports of steel and iron are significant factors 
in this order. 

A law promulgated June 17, 1908, authorized the expenditure by 
the Executive, through the medium of contracts effected by the De- 
partment of Fomonto, of $12,500,000 in irrigation works designed 
for the betterment of agricultural and pastoral industries. Conces- 
sions obtained under this law are regarded as works of public utility 
and carry with them the free admission of such machinery, imple- 
ments, seed, and stock as may be required for the adequate develop- 
ment of the enterprise, the object of the concession. 

A noteworthy feature of the economic development of the Republic 
within the past few years has been the number of concessions for water 
privileges granted in connection with manufacturing and industrial 
enterprises. The applications considered during the last half of the 
year numbered 142. 

At the Necaxa Reservoir, where a dozen small streams are collected 
for the use of the electric plants and the daily use of half a million 
people in the Federal District of Mexico, there will ultimately be 
available 236,000 horsepower. For five years a force of 6,000 men 
has been engaged upon this project, and there still remains much 
work to be done. The Necaxa River, in length scarcely 25 miles, has 
a total gradient of 1 mile from its source to the power house, and 
included within that distance are two falls, one of 460 feet and the 
other of 740 feet. 



210 INTEENATIONAL BUEEAU OF THE AMERICAN EEPUBLICS. 
COMMUNICATION FACILITIES. 

The railway system of government-controlled lines covers an exten- 
sion of 11,850 miles, which, together with the mileage under the juris- 
diction of the different States, brings the total up to 14,857 miles, 
During the year 1907-8 the number of passengers carried by the vari- 
ous railroads of the country reached a total of 10,747,128, as compared 
with 10,000,031 for the fiscal year 1906-7. Freight shipments were 
given as aggregating 10,042,144 tons, as compared with 9,124,040 tons 
for the two periods, respectively. The gross earnings of the railway 
lines for the fiscal year 1907-8 were given as $37,184,825, in which 
freight traffic figured to the extent of $28,966,576 and passenger traf- 
fic to the extent of $8,218,429, as compared with total earnings 
amounting to $34,192,336 for 1906-7, composed of freight traffic to 
the amount of $26,431,770 and passenger traffic to the amount of 
$7,760,566, a gain of $2,534,806 and $457,683 in the respective 
branches of traffic. 

With the operation of the railway merger of Mexican railways, 
which became effective on and after midnight, January 31, 1909, a 
most important step in the direction of the control of public utilities 
was taken by the Mexican Government. The extent of road under 
the working of the merger is 7,012 miles, in addition to which there 
are 265 miles of track on the Veracruz-Pacific route and 206 miles of 
the Tehuantepec National, which are controlled by the Government. 
Of the board of directors, 12 reside in Mexico and 9 in New York. 
This progressive move is part of the general effort being made 
throughout Mexico to arrange for adequate land and sea transport 
of her products. New lines of railway are being opened up in the 
interior and on the west coast to meet the requirements of new steam- 
ship connections, either established or projected. Additional steamers 
are being put upon services already operating, and branch connec- 
tions are being made over new land routes. The Tehuantepec Rail- 
way, which crosses the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, carrying freights 
received from the steamship lines plying between the great ports of 
the United States and the eastern and western termini, transported 
during the year 1907, the first year of its operation, merchandise to 
the value of between $25,000,000 and $30,000,000, and in the second 
year to the value of $38,000,000. This road, which is nearly 190 miles 
in length, was constructed chiefly with British capital and controlled, 
in part at least, by the Mexican Government, and was built for the 
specific purpose of handling freight between the Atlantic and Pacific 
oceans. The harbor of Santa Cruz, the Pacific terminus of this rail- 
way, is equipped with breakwaters inclosing a harbor area of over 
130 acres, of which 96 have a depth of 33 feet, and a dry dock capable 
of accommodating the largest ship in the Pacific Ocean. The 



MEXICO. • 211 

wharves, furnished with electric derricks and every modern appliance 
for the handling of the enormous traific of the Tehuantepec line, rep- 
resent an expenditure of many millions of dollars. It is estimated 
that $6,000,000 more will be required to complete the work in prospect. 

The corporation which represents the railway merger and is known 
as the " National Railways of Mexico," and which is a consolidation 
of the Mexican Central and Mexican National Railways, is capital- 
ized at $230,000,000, composed of $30,000,000 first preferred, $125,- 
■000,000 second preferred, and $75,000,000 ordinary stock. The Mexi- 
■can Government holds $10,000,000 of the first preferred shares ; $10,- 
278,290 of the second preferred shares received in exchange for second 
preferred stock of the National Railroad, $20,000,000 of second pre- 
ferred shares received in exchange for Mexican Central Railway 
stock; $10,994,000 of ordinary shares received in exchange for 
preferred stock of the National Railroad, and $63,730,000 ordinary 
shares received as part compensation of the Government's guaranty ; 
or a total interest of $115,002,290, This is a majority of the capi- 
tal stock and makes the Government the deciding factor in the 
corporation. 

The immense impetus given to transportation enterprises through- 
out the Republic of Mexico by the construction of the Tehuantepec 
line is being supplemented by the opening of additional rail 
connections. 

In many respects the greatest event in the history of Mazatlan and 
the State of Sinaloa was the completion of the Southern Pacific Rail- 
way to that point on April 18, 1909. The operating company has 
secured concessions for the construction and operation of about 
1,500 miles of road receiving subsidies to the amount of about 
$10,000,000. 

On December 12, 1908, President Diaz formally opened the new 
railroad from Guadalajara to Manzanillo. 

The rail communication established between Guadalajara and 
Oolima and thence over the line already in operation to Manzanillo 
^ives Mexico a second transcontinental railway connecting the two 
oceans. The Tehuantepec Railway is of course the principal and 
shortest route across the continent, but now it becomes possible to 
leave the steamer at Tampico or Veracruz and to travel overland 
through Guadalajara to Manzanillo with only two changes of cars. 
As a result of the communication thus established. Colima, a small 
but richly resourceful section of the country, is provided with an 
Atlantic outlet for its products through the port of Tampico on the 
Gulf, while the importance of the Pacific port of Manzanillo is 
largely enhanced. 

Increased exports of native products, including hats, rice, and 
sugar, are reported since the opening of the rail connection to the 



212 INTEENATIONAL BUEEAU OF THE AMERICAN EEPUBLICS. 

coast, and large shipments of wheat are being received via Guadala- 
jara and Zapotlan. Steamship communication with Pacific ports 
and those of China and Japan are being inaugurated and Manza- 
nillo, as a port of entry, will receive much merchandise which formerly 
had to be forwarded overland from Tampico. 

In the opening of the railroad extension from San Jerónimo, on 
the Tehuantepec road, to Tapachula, in Chiapas, another link in the 
great Pan-American Eailway was completed. The inauguration on 
May 5, 1908, was made the occasion of great rejoicing in the State 
of Chiapas, being presided over by the governor and celebrated 
with enthusiasm by the inhabitants. This branch is 46 miles long, 
forming part of the 305 miles now under operation on Mexican terri- 
tory. The Federal Government paid the constructing company a sub- 
sidy of $19,200 per mile and, according to the terms of the concession, 
granted the sole right of operation for a period of ninety -nine years. 
The line passes through a district containing fine coffee lands, the 
production of the region traversed being estimated at 40,000 tons 
annually, and it is from the transport of this commodity that the 
operating company hopes to pay the construction cost. At San 
Jerónimo the coffee will be shipped over the Tehuantepec road and 
thence to Puerto Mexico, to be sent finally to Germany, the leading 
market for this product. 

The best of material has been employed in the construction of the 
line, steel rails of 56 pounds being used for the first 125 miles and 60 
pounds for the rest. Steel bridges are also used and attractive 
stations have been constructed of brick and cement. Connection 
with the Guatemalan line is being pushed from the boundary of that 
Republic. 

The standardizing of the interoceanic line is in contemplation 
during 1909. 

Within a coast line of 2,800 miles on the Pacific and of 1,600 miles 
on the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea, Mexico has no less than 
24 ports on the Gulf of Mexico and 31 on the Pacific Ocean. Most 
of the natural harbors of Mexico are on the Pacific side, among them 
the splendid bay of Acapulco, considered one of the most beautiful 
bays of the world. '\^^iile the Atlantic side offers but few natural 
ports, some of them, especially Vera Cruz and Tampico, have been 
improved and made accessible, so much so that these two ports are 
now the most important commercial centers. 

Following are the ports of entry open to foreign trade, the other 
ports being open to the coastwise trade only : 

Gulf ports: Campeche, Coatzacoalcos (Puerto Mexico), Chetumal, 
Frontera, Isla del Carmen, Isla de Mujeres, Progreso, Puerto Morelos, 
Tampico, Tuxpam, and Vera Cruz. 



MEXICO. 213 

Pacific ports: Acapulco, Altata, Bahia de la Magdalena, Guaya- 
mas, La Paz, Manzanillo, Mazatlan, Puerto Ángel, Salina Cruz, San 
Blas, San José del Cabo, Santa Rosalia, Todos los Santos, Tonala, 
and San Benito. 

Mexico may be reached from the sea by several lines either from 
ISTew York or the Gulf ports of the United States or via San Fran- 
cisco or one of the numerous lines plying between European and 
Mexican ports. 

The New York and Cuba Mail Steamship Company, Ward Line, 
maintains a regular service between New York and Vera Cruz and 
other Mexican ports and between New Orleans and the Mexican 
ports. The run from New Orleans to Vera Cruz is made in four 
days, first-class passage being $34.55. 

. The Mexican-American Steamship Company leaves New Orleans 
and Galveston in alternate weeks for Tampico and Vera Cruz, The 
Wolvin Line between Texas City and Vera Cruz calls at Puerto 
Mexico and Progreso with sailings every twelve days. 

The Gompañia Transatlántica and the Compañía Mexicana de 
Navegación ply between New York and the Gulf ports of the United 
States and Mexican ports. The American-Hawaiian Steamship 
Company has established a regular line of steamers between New 
York and Puerto Mexico, from whence transshipment is made via the 
Isthmus of Tehuantepec to Salina Cruz and thence to Hawaii. 

Arrangements have been made for the lease of the Mexican Ameri- 
can Steamship Company by the Wolvin Line, which will permit the 
latter company to practically control the business between Mexican 
and Gulf ports and the United States. The volume of trade is con- 
stantly increasing and the company contemplates improvements in 
both its passenger and freight service. 

The Hamburg-American Line has added Puerto Mexico to its 
itinerary, steamers of this line calling at Havana, Veracruz, and 
Tampico. The Eoyal Mail Steam Packet Company also contemplate 
making Puerto Mexico a port of call. 

The Munson Steamship Line to Cuba and Mexico has contracted 
with the Mexican Government for a service of at least two round 
trips per month between ports of the United States on the Atlantic 
coast or the Gulf of Mexico and one or more Mexican gulf ports. 
The term of the contract is for three years from January, 1909. 

On the Pacific side, the Pacific Mail Steamship Company, the 
Pacific Coast Steamship Company, and the Kosmos Line provide 
the means of communication, the Pacific Mail sailing regularly every 
ten days from San Francisco, calling at Mazatlan, San Bias, Man- 
zanillo, Acapulco, and Salina Cruz, making the run from San Fran- 
cisco to Salina Cruz in eleven days, first-class passage being $90, 



214 INTEENATIONAL BUEEAU OF THE AMERICAN EEPUBLICS. 

while the time employed between San Francisco and the other ports 
varies according to their respective distances, the charge being ac- 
cordingly more or less. 

The Pacific Coast Steamship Company's vessels leave San Francisco 
on the Tth of every month, calling at Ensenada, Magdalena Bay, San. 
Juan del Cabo, Mazatlan, Altata, La Paz, Topolomampo, Santa 
Eosalia, and Guaymas. The steamers of the Kosmos Line sail from 
San Francisco every two or three weeks and call at Mazatlan, San 
Bias, Manzanillo, Acapulco, Salina Cruz, Tonala, and San Benito. 

The Jebsen Line, a new steamship company on the Pacific coast, 
has recently issued an announcement to the effect that its steamers- 
are now running without change between Puget Sound and British 
Columbian ports to Mexico, Guatemala, Salvador, Honduras, and 
Panama, making the trip in twenty-two days from Seattle to Panama. 
The company issues through bills of lading to all interior points, and 
has passenger tickets into Mexico via the newly opened railway from 
Manzanillo. 

The rivers of Mexico, although numerous and some of them of 
considerable length, afford but scanty means of navigation, due ta 
their small volume of water and the fact that they are apt to ris& 
suddenly during the rainy season and fall rapidly during the dry 
season. The Rio Grande, the Lerma, in which are the beautiful 
Falls of Juanacatlan, the Rio Panuco, and the Mexcala or Rio de laa 
Balsas are navigable for short distances only. 

Mexico has a number of beautiful and extensive lakes, among" 
which Chápala, 100 miles long by 35 miles wide, presents the most 
picturesque scenery. Small steamers iplj on it and small craft on_ 
Lake Cuitzeo and on Lakes Patzcuaro, Zumpango, Xaltocan, San 
Cristobal, Texcoco, Chalco, and Xochimilco in the valley of Mexico,, 
near the capital of the Republic. 

Several lines of steamers maintain a regular coastwise service be- 
tween the different ports of Mexico, the most important of these being 
the Campania Naviera del Pacífico^ which is subsidized by the Mex- 
ican Government. 

The French steamship company Gomyagnie Genérale Transat- 
lantique^ has inaugurated a regular freight service between France 
and Puerto Mexico, the Atlantic terminal of the Tehuantepec Rail- 
way', the first steamer arriving in March, 1909. It is the intention of 
the company to establish a monthly service with two 5,000-ton steam- 
ers, and later to add passenger steamers to touch at French ports,, 
Havana, Puerto Mexico, Veracruz, and Progreso. 

The Italian Navigation Company of Genoa also has in contempla- 
tion a steamer service to Puerto Mexico. 

It is from this port that Hawaiian sugar, shipped over the isthmian, 
route, is forwarded on the Atlantic side. The sugar is carried by 



MEXICO. 215 

the American Hawaiian Steamship Company to Salina Cruz on a 
schedule providing for three steamers a month with an average cargo 
of 12,000 tons each. It is estimated that over 375,000 tons of sugar 
were handled over the Tehuantepec Railroad in 1908. Additional 
ships are to be added to the Honolulu, San Francisco, and Salina 
Cruz service as the requirements of the traffic make such necessary. 

Manzanillo is one of the oldest and most celebrated ports of the 
Republic. It lies almost due west of the City of Mexico, 500 miles 
south of Mazatlan, 900 miles north of Salina Cruz, and 400 north of 
Acapulco. When the important port works at Manzanillo are termi- 
nated it will be one of the best-equipped and most desirable ports on 
the Pacific coast. These works have been in course of construction 
since 1899, and when completed will give the harbor an area of 165 
acres and a depth of 39 feet, thus enabling it to accommodate seagoing 
vessels of deep draft. The breakwater is one of the largest of its 
kind in the world, surpassing those of Cherbourg, France, and 
Plymouth, England. It is 400 meters long, 100 wide, and 24 deep, 
constructed of large stones and granite blocks weighing from 50 to 60 
tons each. 

The first two sections of the work for protecting the banks of the 
Bravo River above Ciudad Juarez and the strengthening of the 
embanlanent of the river have been completed and the Tampico 
canal extended to within 3 kilometers of the town of Tamiahua. 

POSTS AND TELEGRAPHS. 

There are 2,946 post-offices in Mexico, which, during the fiscal year 
1907-8, handled 195,000,000 pieces of mail matter and issued $25,477,- 
500 domestic and $2,618,500 foreign money orders. The total earnings 
of the Department for the twelve months were $2,100,000. During 
the six months from July to December, 1908, the ordinary receipts 
amounted to $1,062,500 and the mail matter handled aggregated 
89,000,000 pieces. Domestic money orders were issued to the amount 
of $12,450,000 (an increase of 1^ per cent) and on points out of the 
Republic to the amount of $1,140,500. Postal drafts aggregating 
$116,500 were paid to publishers. 

In the month of November, 1908, Congress passed a law establish- 
ing a system of receipts for postal money orders both at home and 
abroad, the former being inaugurated February 1, 1909, and the 
latter, embracing Canada, Germany, France, Great Britain, and 
Salvador, on March 1, 1909. Through the German service a system 
of postal money orders was also established between Mexico and 
Turkey, and the parcels-post rates with Germany were modified. 

The federal telegraph lines in the Republic have an extension of 
40,640 miles, and new offices are being opened in accordance with the 



216 INTERNATIONAL BUEEAU OE THE AMEEICAN EEPUBLICS. 

needs of the service. Government adherence to the International 
Wireless Convention, signed at Berlin, Germany, November 30, 1906, 
has been announced. Wireless-telegraph stations have been installed 
in Lower California, placing that district in communication with the 
rest of the Eepublic. 

Probably in no other country has wireless telegraphy been more 
satisfactorily used than in Mexico. Stations are now in operation at 
Cabo Haro, Santa Rosalia, Mazatlan, San José del Cabo, Payo, 
Obispo, and Xcalac. A number of other stations have been projected 
and are in course of erection. 




A HOLIDAY PROCESSION IN MEXICO CITY. 

The new immigration law of Mexico, passed by the National Con- 
gress on December 22, 1908, went into effect on March 1, 1909. The 
arrivals in the country, including not only immigrants but all others, 
from July to December, 1908, numbered 24,500, the number of 
Americans being given as slightly in excess of 11,000. 

The promotion of immigration and colonization is receiving the 
serious consideration of the Government, and a land company has 
recently acquired 300,000 acres of land in the Territory of Tepic for 
the establishment of American agricultural colonies. During the 
year the Department of Fomento issued 2,851 title deeds covering an 
area of 698,520 hectares, for which the federal exchequer received 



MEXICO. 217 

$253,518. Irrigation methods and works were improved and 
extended. 

Patents of invention to the number of 1,074 were issued and 1,033 
trade-marks registered. 

Education was also advanced by the Government through the 
erection of new school buildings and the establishment of agricul- 
tural farms and schools. The Department of Public Instruction and 
Fine Arts of Mexico is taking active measures to secure the preser- 
vation of the archseologic monuments of the Republic. Stringent 
orders have been given to prevent the excavation, alteration, or trans- 
portation of such monuments except under the authority of the 
department. Exportation of archseologic remains is prohibited. 

The municipal improvements in the City of Mexico during the year 
include sanitation, paving works, the opening of public gardens, estab- 
lishment of a crematory, and the erection of new market buildings. 

The National School of Arts and Crafts for Women was installed 
in new quarters, the home of the Conservatory of Music changed, 
and improvements effected in the National Library. The expansion 
of the Department of Archseology into the National Museum has 
necessitated the acquisition of larger accommodations. 

Transactions of record at the Registry of Property in the City of 
Mexico for the year aggregated nearly $500,000,000. 

Measures were taken for the adequate equipment of the military 
establishments of the Republic ; smokeless powder and cartridge fac- 
tories were started under proper supervision, and work is proceeding 
at the National Arsenal on such artillery as is necessary. 




560— Bull. 1—09—15 




c==«5E:SÇ^sá*=°^ 




NICARAGUA 



Mcaragua, the largest of the Central American Republics, is 
situated between Honduras on the north, Costa Rica on the south, 
the Caribbean Sea, and the Pacific Ocean. Its territory extends over 
an area of 49,200 square miles, equal to that of the State of New 
York, with a population estimated at about 600,000. 

Two mountain ranges traverse its entire territory. Due to this 
fact it enjoys a diversity of climate, products, and soil. The fertile 
plateaux are extremely healthful and pleasant, but the lowlands are 
hot and tropical. Coffee, cacao, and bananas are the principal arti- 
cles of exj^ort, but sugar cane, tobacco, cotton, maize, and wheat are 
successfully grown. Numerous minerals and precious metals are 
found in the mountains. The vast forests contain over 40 differ- 
ent species of trees furnishing oils and extracts used for industrial 
and medicinal purposes. Mahogany and other valuable cabinet 
woods are largely exported. 

In the lacustrine depression, in which are situated the picturesque 
lakes Nicaragua and Managua, are extensive plains affording excel- 
lent pasturage for cattle, and it is in this part of the country that 
most of the larger cities are to be found. The east coast, commonly 
known as the Mosquito coast, is but sparsely settled. The Indians 
inhabiting the Mosquito country are noted for their unique indus- 
tries, such as the manufacture of various kinds of jewelry, especially 
the so-called Panama gold chains, hammocks, straw hats, and pot- 
tery, all of which find a ready market. 

HISTORICAL SKETCH. 

Columbus, on his fourth and last voyage, in exploring the coast of 
Central America, and after touching at Cape Honduras, was driven 
by the stress of weather to take shelter where the coast line turns 
abruptly from west to south. This point, which he named Cape 
Gracias a Dios (Thanks to God), is in Nicaragua, and it has retained 
ever since the name given by Columbus. On September 25, 1502, 
he landed at the mouth of the Rama and took possession of the coun- 
try in the name of the Spanish Crown. 

In 1524 Hernandez de Cordoba was dispatched from Panama to 

bring the country under subjugation. This he did, defeating the 

Indians and making several settlements. Some years prior to this 

Gil Gonzalez had explored the country and had discovered Lake 

218 



NICARAGUA. 



219 



Nicaragua. In 15T0 Nicaragua became a part of the captain-gen- 
eralcy of Guatemala. 

Among the numerous invasions which Nicaragua, together with 
other Central American States, suffered during the sixteenth and 
seventeenth centuries, those of Sir Francis Drake and Henry 
Morgan are the most noteworthy. In 1740 the British invaded the 
Mosquito coast, and, establishing friendly relations with the war- 
like Misskito or Sambos Indians, who had never submitted to the 
Spanish invaders, took possession of that part of Nicaragua. They 
retained possession of this territory until the year 1786, when, by a 
treaty with Spain, it was exchanged for what is now known as 
British Honduras, or Belize, and the land was 
restored to Spain. The Mosquito Indians sub- 
sequently acknowledged the sovereignty of 
Nicaragua. 

On the 15th of September, 1821, the inde- 
pendence of the Federación de G entro- Amer- 
ica having been declared in Guatemala City, 
Nicaragua became a State of the Federation, 
and with it, in the year 1822, a part of 
Iturbide's Empire of Mexico. With the fall 
of the Empire it again formed part of the 
federation. 

Upon the dissolution of the federation, Nic- 
aragua declared its absolute independence on 
April 30, 1838, and the constitution of the Republic of Nicaragua 
was formally proclaimed on November 30 of the same year. 

Gen. José Santos Zelaya was inaugurated President on April 17, 
1906. 

CONSTITUTION AND GOVERNMENT. 




Sr. Don JOSÉ SANTOS ZELAYA, PRESI- 
DENT OF Nicaragua. 



The present constitution was promulgated March 30, 1905. Under 
it the legislative power is vested in a National Assembly composed 
of one chamber, the members of which are elected by popular vote 
for a term of six years, the chamber being, however, partially renewed 
every two years. 

The executive power is exercised by the President of the Republic, 
assisted by a Cabinet of five ministers, or Secretaries of State. The 
President is elected by direct vote for a term of six years, every 
citizen over 18 years being not only entitled but obliged to vote. 
There is no Vice-President, but the Assembly elects three so-called 
designados^ one of whom takes the President's place in case of 
absence or disability. The Secretaries of State are appointed by the 
President and are responsible both to the President and the Assembly. 



220 INTERNATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

The National Supreme Court, two Courts of Appeals, and a num- 
ber of minor courts form the judiciary of the country. The justices 
for these courts are elected b}^ the National Assembly for a term of 
six years. 

INTERIOR GOVERNMENT. 

For administrative purposes the country is divided into thirteen 
Departments, three districts, and two comarcas^ which are again 
subdivided into municipalities. The Governors of these Depart- 
ments, districts, and comarcas are appointed by the President of the 
Republic. The governing boards of the municipalities are elected 
by popular vote. The Departments of Nicaragua are : 

Department of — Capital. 

Managua Managua, also capital of the Republic. 

Leon León. 

Granada Granada. 

Masaj-a Masaya. 

CMnandega Chinandega. 

Matagalpa Matagalpa. 

Carazo Jinotepe. 

Nueva Segovia Somoto. 

Jinotega Jinotega. 

Rivas ílivas. 

Esteli Esteli. 

Jerez Boaca. 

Zelaya Bluefields. 

District of — 

Rio Grande Barra de Rio Grande. 

Prinzapolka Barra de Prinzapolka. 

Siquia Rama. 

Comarca of — 

San Juan del Norte San Juan. 

Cape Gracias a Dios Gracias a Dios. 

The capital of the Republic is the city of Managua, with a popula- 
tion of 40,000; but the city of Leon, with 60,000 inhabitants, is the 
commercial center. 

President Gen. José Santos Zelaya. 

Minister of Foreign Affairs and Public Instruction Dr. Federico Sacasa. 

Minister of Government, Justice and Police Dr. Gregorio Abaunza. 

Minister of Treasury and Public Credit Dr. Julian Irias. 

Minister of War and Marine Col. Horacio Zelaya. 

Note. — List of cabinet ofBcers corrected to July 20, 1909. 

The salary of the president is $9,600 per annum. 



NICARAGUA. 221 

NICARAGUA IN 1908. 

The administration of Nicaraguan affairs during 1908 was con- 
tinued under the direction of President Zelaya, and relations both 
at home and abroad were maintained on an amicable basis. 

Measures were taken to adjust such difficulties with neighboring 
States as were susceptible of friendly settlement, and the nation par- 
ticipated in the various congresses and conventions growing out of 
the Washington Conference. 

FINANCE. 

For the two years 1906 and 1907 the revenues and expenditures of . 
the country were estimated at $4,086,000 and $4,188,000, respectively ; 
later figures are not available. 

The total outstanding obligations in July, 1909, were about 
$3,875,000 and the internal debt $5,127,990 (13,674,650 pesos). 

The service of the public debt was continued during 1908 and by 
a loan, floated in May, 1909, under the law of September, 1908, 
$5,750,000 are available for the settlement of various obligations of 
the Republic. Part of this is to settle the British loan of 1886 and 
part is to be applied to the New Orleans loan, the remainder to be 
used in continuing the Atlantic Eailroad, starting from the port of 
San Miguelito, on the Lake of Nicaragua, and ending at Monkey 
Point, on the Caribbean Sea. 

The new customs tariff law of December became effective upon its 
promulgation and was supplemented by a decree of March 6, 1909, 
whereby, in order to counteract the disastrous effects of inundations 
in the Atlantic coast regions and for the purpose of stimulating the 
commercial transactions, certain articles were permitted entry through 
Atlantic ports at a reduction of 30 per cent from the fixed rates. 

Government monopoly of the match industry was decreed from 
January 8. 

COMMERCE. 

Figures of the foreign trade of the country for 1908 show a total 
valuation of $7,500,000, comprising imports to the value of $3,000,000 
and exports $4,500,000. The commercial transactions with the United 
States occupy first place, from which country imports were received 
during 1908 to the value of $1,297,163 ; Nicaraguan merchandise being 
shipped thither valued at $1,034,131, according to United States 
statistics. Both branches of trade show a slight decline as compared 
with the preceding year. 

Consular statements report shipments from Bluefields to the United 
States of 1,298,000 bunches of bananas, valued at $531,133. Other 



222 INTERNATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

articles exported included 24,970 ounces of gold, worth $389,357; 
166,152 pounds of rubber, $89,275; amalgam (gold), $65,691; and 
cocoanuts numbering 173,100, valued at $4,589. Exports to the value 
of $311,010 were made from the port of Cape Gracias á Dios and 
included gold, $292,421 ; hides, $3,036 ; and rubber, $15,552. 

In 1906, the latest year for which commercial details are avail- 
able, Nicaragua's total trade values aggregated $7,639,877.53, exports 
accounting for $4,231,047.88 and imports for $3,408,829.65. The 
United States, England, Germany, and France are the leading factors 



■MICARAGUA- 



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in the trade of the country, receiving and furnishing the following 
valuations : 

Exports: United States, $2,492,485; England, $452,142; Germany, 
$458,718 ; France, $480,502. 

Imports: United States, $1,914,961; England, $776,133; Germany, 
$400,389 ; France, $193,661. 

With the adjoining countries of Central America about $300,000 
cover the value of the exchange of commodities. 

Coffee constitutes the leading item of export, 19,378,216 pounds 
being shipped in 1906, valued at $1,375,679. Bananas occupy second 



NICAHAGUA. 223 

place with 1,401,595 bunches, valued at $700,069; followed by gold 
bullion, $527,423; gold amalgam, $343,546; rubber, $385,472; ma- 
hogany, $284,320 ; cattle, $133,044 ; hides, $120,367 ; cocoanuts, $90,953 ; 
silver coin, $44,220 ; sugar, $23,467 ; and cedar, $41,465. 

PRODUCTION AND INDUSTRIES. 

Agriculture and mining are the principal sources of national 
wealth. The area under cultivation has increased in recent years, 
the chief product being coffee. Nicaraguan coffee is of superior 
quality and commands good prices, the finest plantations lying in 
the western districts. In Matagalpa and Jinotega the crops are 
worked by colonies of Americans and Germans, who apply the natu- 
ral water power of the country to the operation of such machinery 
as is required. 

The coffee yield for 1907-8 was about 14,000,000 pounds and the 
estimate for 1908-9 is 16,800,000 pounds. 

A decree of November 24, 1908, reestablishes the general tax on 
coffee exports at the rate of 40 cents gold per hundredweight. 

Sugar growing is profitably exploited; the production in 1907, 
including the by-products, molasses, aguardiente, and alcohol, showing 
a total valuation of $1,122,400, the plantations being estimated as 
worth $1,650,000. These plantations had 931 wooden and 225 iron 
mills in operation and turned out nearly 4,000 tons of refined sugar. 

Although cacao ranks in importance after both coffee and sugar 
among the cultivated resources of western Nicaragua, it is recognized 
as a remunerative product. At present the entire output is consumed 
in the country, the selling price being from 20 to 25 cents gold per 
pound. Two varieties of cacao trees are grown, and the Govern- 
ment is encouraging the industry by granting premiums for every 
planted tree coming into bearing. The average yield from each tree 
is about 2 pounds when in full bearing, or about 600 pounds to the 
acre. 

Bananas are grown in large quantities in the Bluefields region and 
shipped to New Orleans. A tract of land about 15,000 acres in extent, 
growing 100,000 banana plants, is one of the recently granted con- 
cessions on the Atlantic coast, and another more extensive grant of 
land is to be opened up on the west coast. The cost of planting and 
maintaining 200 acres with 35,000 plants is about $4,000. 

Tobacco is grown in several districts, the best being produced on 
the island of Omotepe, in Lake Nicaragua. Tobacco growing is 
regulated by the Government, which has leased to a syndicate the 
fiscal revenues obtained therefrom for a period of twenty-four years 
from January 1, 1908. The contract covers all kinds of tobacco, 
domestic or foreign, in whatever form it may be handled, planted. 



224 INTEKNATIONAL BUEEAU OF THE AMERICAIST EEPUBLICS. 

manufactured, used, imported, or sold. In exchange the syndicate 
is to pay to the Government the sum of $200,000 annually, 

Kubber is collected in the forests and there are young plantations 
on the coasts. In accordance with a decree issued on July 18, 1908, 
owners of rubber lands must register them, stating the names of 
properties, situation, approximate extent, number and age of trees, 
stage of development, and estimated annual product. The exporta- 
tion of rubber is also subjected to certain formalities, the violation 
of which subjects the exporter and the customs administrator who 
permits the shipment to a fine of not less than 50 per cent of the 
value of the rubber exported. 

The forests also contain mahogany and cedar which figure largely 
in the country's exports, many valuable timbers, dyewoods, and 



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COMMERCIAL STREET, BLUEFIELDS, NICARAGUA. 

Blueflelds occupies a height overlooking the capacious landlocked harbor at the mouth of the Rama 
River, which empties into the Caribbean Sea. Large quantities of bananas are grown in the 
vicinity and shipped to New Orleans. Blueflelds is also the center of a considerable mining 
industry. 



medicinal plants. Gums and resins abound, and the native camphor 
tree is said to yield a variety equal to that produced in the Far East. 
Vanilla of an excellent quality grows freely, and senna is a native 
product. 

Cattle, horses, and swine are reared, the number of cattle being 
estimated at about 1,200,000. 

Manufacturing industries are confined mainly to articles of domes- 
tic consumption, and include the manufacture of furniture, boots 
and shoes, sugar, rum, beer, candles, cigars, cigarettes, and soap. 

Of the more than 500 mines registered in the Bureau of Statistics 
of the Republic, 494 are producers of gold, while silver, copper, and 
quarries of valuable stone are scattered throughout the country. 



NICARAGUA. 225 

These resources are being exploited as rapidly as possible under vari- 
ous concessions held by natives and foreigners. 

The latest mining law modifies in some important particulars the 
law of 1906, and its provisions are adapted to the encouragement of 
immigration. 

The importance of Nicaragua as a mining country has been recog- 
nized, more particularly by American capitalists, who have, during 
the last few years, prospected the various fields and invested large 
sums of money in development work and machinery. 

A few English companies have secured mining concessions in vari- 
ous districts, and it is probable that increased investments will be 
made by them in the mines of the country. A number of the prin- 
cipal mines on the West Coast, included in which are the Santa Fran- 
cisca, San Lucas, Amaya, San Cristobal, Quilali, and San Juan Tetel- 
paneca, are in the hands of English capitalists, while the Leonesa 
mine, near Matagalpa, has recently been acquired by a company 
largely interested in West Australian mining properties. 

The Atlantic slope is the great placer-mining district of the coun- 
try, Prinzapolka being the center of active operations at present. 
There are rich quartz mines in this district, among which are La 
Luz and Los Angeles, owned by Americans. In the district of Le- 
guoia large gold-bearing reefs are kown to exist, but they are at pres- 
ent undeveloped. The quartz veins of the West Coast contain from 
one-half ounce to 2 ounces per ton gold. Some London companies — 
the Leon Syndicate and the Santa Francisca Company — are exten- 
sively engaged in operations there. 

An estimate of the gold exports of Nicaragua for 1908 fixes the 
valuation at $933,171. Duties on gold are paid in export bonds. 

Several mines are not operated at present, owing to a change in 
machinery, but those of La Libertad, Santo Domingo, and in the 
Matagalpa district are being successfully worked, shipments being 
made from the Pacific side with destinations at San Francisco, Eng- 
land, and Germany. 

About 100 square miles of fine mining property are held by the 
La Villebeuvre concession, and the United States and Nicaraguan 
Company have property rights in several thousand square miles of 
ground, covering mining, railroad, telegraph, and river navigation 
claims, on which they have spent $1,000,000. Another company holds 
mineral rights to about 45,000 acres, also concessions for dredging 
the three small rivers between Bluefields and Greytown, along which 
the lands lie. 

The outlook for an increased development of this industry is very 
encouraging, and some concessions which have withdrawn from the 
public vast areas of valuable lands may shortly be declared forfeited 
for failure to comply with the terms of the grant. A railway to 



226 INTEENATIONAL BUEEAU OF THE AMEEICAN EEPUBLICS. 

penetrate the heart of the mining district, passing through a rich 
agricultural section, is projected, and will be a contributing factor to 
an increased mineral production. 

COMMUNICATION FACILITIES. 

About 200 miles comprise the railway extension in the Eepublic. 
In the surveys for an Intercontinental Railroad from New York to 
Buenos Aires, the National Railroad of Nicaragua was accepted as 
one of the integral parts of the system, the portion embraced extend- 
ing from Corinto to Granada. This is a narrow-gauge line, 171^ 
miles long, the invoiced value of which is $3,155,941. 

Since 1903 the railway has been leased to a company, and notable 
improvements have been made. Receipts from the line in 1906 
were $2,251,233 and expenditures, including repairs, were $2,369,692. 
The rolling stock consists of 15 large and 3 small locomotives, 3 
baggage cars, 46 box cars, 10 first-class and 13 second-class passenger 
coaches, and 77 platform and other cars. Repair shops are at 
Managua and Ameya. 

From Monkey Point, on the Atlantic, a railroad is under construc- 
tion to extend to San Miguelito, a distance of 116 miles, and a road 
has been surveyed from Momotombo, on Lake Managua, to Mata- 
galpa. Connection is now made from Momotombo to Managua by 
steamers. 

Tramway lines are in operation in Granada, Rivas, and San Juan 
del Norte. 

With a coast line of nearly 300 miles on the Caribbean Sea and of 
200 miles on the Pacific Ocean, Nicaragua has been favored by nature 
with a number of excellent bays and ports, affording ample facilities 
for the handling of the numerous products of export and import. On 
the Atlantic side the principal ports are Gracias a Dios, Bluefields, 
and San Juan del Norte, or Greytown, while on the Pacific side are 
Corinto and San Juan del Sur. 

The Atlantic ports can be reached either from New York, New 
Orleans, or Mobile by the steamers of the Atlas Line or the Bluefields 
Steamship Company, the latter maintaining a regular fortnightly 
service between New Orleans and Nicaraguan ports, making the run 
in four days, and charging $40 for first-class passage. 

The Pacific ports can be reached via San Francisco by the Pacific 
Mail Steamship Company or the Kosmos Line, both of which main- 
tain a regular service on the West Coast, sailing from San Francisco 
about every ten days. The time employed by either of these steamers 
between San Francisco and Corinto or San Juan del Sur is from 
twenty-three to twenty-four days, the charge being $110. 



NICARAGUA. 



227 



A new line of German steamers has been established to ply between 
Corinto, Nicaragua, and Seattle, Washington, touching at the prin- 
cipal Central American ports of the Pacific coast and at San Fran- 
cisco. A monthly service will be maintained. 

A five-year concession grants the right to introduce Chinese and 
Japanese immigrants into Nicaragua for employment as laborers in 
connection with plantations and other industries in the country. 
This concession, however, is conditioned on the establishment by the 
concessionaires, within the period of one year, of a line of steamers 
from Hongkong, touching at Shanghai, San Francisco, Salina Cruz, 
and Central American ports, including Corinto and San Juan del Sur. 




AMERICAN LEGATION AT MANAGUA, NICARAGUA. 

Three gunboats of the Nicaraguan navy are to be disarmed and 
used for passenger and freight traffic between Puntarenas, Costa 
Eica, and Acajutla, in Salvador, touching at all the intermediate 
ports. 

The hydrograj)hic system of Nicaragua is very extensive, and its 
numerous rivers, together with its large lakes, give excellent facilities 
for transportation and communication. 

The most important of these is the river San Juan, which has a 
total length of 140 miles and is navigable almost in its entirety, flow- 
ing into the Nicaragua Lake, and by means of which communication 



228 INTEENATIONAL BUEEAU OF THE AMEBIC AN KEPUBLICS. 

is established with the important cities in that region, as well as with 
the capital itself. A regular triweekly steamship service is main- 
tained on the San Juan River between San Juan del Norte, at the 
mouth, and the city of Granada, on Lake Nicaragua. From Gran- 
ada a railway extends to Managua, Leon, and the Pacific port of 
Corinto. 

The Rio Coco, Wanks, or Segovia is navigable for some 240 miles, 
the last 110 miles of which, however, are only navigable for small 
vessels of light draft, and the Rama is navigable for some 40 miles, 
as far as the city of Rama, while the Rio Grande, although one of the 
largest streams, is navigable only partially, owing to its rapids, 
which make navigation dangerous and difficult. 

Lake Nicaragua has an extension of 96 by 40 miles, is navigable 
throughout for large vessels, and contains a number of islands, of 
which the island of Ometepe, 12 miles in length, is the largest. It is 
one of the prettiest and most picturesque lakes of America and the 
largest in Central America. 

Lake Managua, situated but a short distance from Lake Nicaragua, 
with which it is connected by the Tipitapa River, is 38 miles long and 
from 10 to 16 miles wide, it being likewise navigable. The capital of 
the Republic, Managua, as well as a number of smaller towns, are 
situated on its shores. 

Post-offices number 135, and telegraph wires have an extent of 
3,150 miles. The United States Government has installed a wireless 
telegraph station, with a range of over 500 miles, at Swan Island, off 
the coast of Nicaragua, and the United Fruit Company has active 
stations at Bluefields and Rama, which are both of high efficiency. 



The Isthmus of Panama, which comprises the Republic of Panama 
and the Canal Zone, forms the connecting link between Central and 
South America. It is bounded on the north by Costa Rica and on 
the south by Colombia. 

It has an area of 32,380 square miles, nearly equal to that of the 
State of Maine, and a population of 361,000, or 11.1 per square mile, 
being less than one-half the population per square mile of the United 
States of America. 

Two mountain chains traverse the territory of the Republic, in- 
closing various valleys and plains which afford excellent pasturage 
for cattle and in which all the products of the Tropical Zone are 
raised. The slopes of the mountains are covered with extensive 
forests. 

Among the products for export, bananas, cacao, indigo, tobacco, 
sugar cane, india rubber, vegetable ivory, turtle shells, pearls, and 
mahogany are the most important. 

HISTORICAL SKETCH. 

Rodrigo de Bastida is said to have first discovered the coast of 
Panama, but it was left for Columbus to explore the country and 
attempt a settlement. On November 2, 1502, he entered the harbor 
of what is now Puerto Bello and planted a colony. The Indians, 
unlike those of most other American localities, opposed the invaders, 
destroyed the settlement, and forced the colonists to take to their 
ships. Other settlements which from time to time were attempted 
fared no better, and it was not until 1510, when Diego de Nicuesa 
was appointed Governor of the Province of Castilla del Oro, extend- 
ing from the Gulf of Darien to Cape Gracias a Dios, that the Span- 
iards succeeded in firmly establishing themselves on the Isthmus at 
Nombre de Dios. Enciso, who succeeded Nicuesa, shortly after- 
wards founded Santa Maria la Antigua del Darien, which was to 
be the basis of operations for many years to come. Subsequently, 
Vasco Nunez de Balboa crossed the Isthmus of Panama after a 
journey of twenty-six days and discovered the Pacific Ocean on 
September 26, 1513. He claimed possession in the name of the King 
of Spain of the ocean and all the lands washed by it. 

Don Pedro Arias Davila, popularly called Pedrarias, became 
Governor of Castilla del Oro in 1514, and in the year 1518 founded 

the city of Panama. 

229 



230 INTEENATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

Panama and Darien became the treasure ports from which all the 
gold of Peru was shipped to Spain. This naturally attracted the 
numerous buccaneers who at that time infested the waters of the West 
Indies, and both of these cities were many times attacked during the 
sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Among these the most formid- 
able was Henry Morgan, who in the year 1671 captured the city of 
Panama and completei}^ destroyed it. It was refounded, however, on 
January 21, 1673, by the then Governor Don Fernandez de Cordova 
Y Mendoza, some 3 miles distant from the old site. 

William Patterson, a Scotchman, also attempted a settlement on 
the Isthmus, having been granted letters patent from the Scotch Par- 
liament. On November 2, 1689, he landed at a place near what is now 
known as Puerto Escosez with 1,200 settlers. The colony did not 
prove successful, and in the year 1700 the Spanish authorities forced 
its abandonment. 

In 1718 the viceroyalty of New Granada was created, Panama being 
incorporated therewith. 

On November 28, 1821, Panama declared her independence of 
Spain, and, owing to the fact that the Spanish military governor, Don 
José de Fabrega, was in sympathy with the revolutionary movement, 
independence was secured without bloodshed, Panama becoming a 
State of the Republic of Colombia: 

Movements for independence were at different times initiated, but 
it was not until the year 1903 that the independent Republic of Pan- 
ama was born. On November 3 of that year the people of the city of 
Panama declared themselves free from Colombia. This revolution, 
like the first, was bloodless, and thus the youngest Republic presents 
the unique spectacle of having accomplished both her independence 
from Spain and her secession from Colombia peaceably. 

According to the treaty signed between the Republic of Panama 
and the United States of America on November 18, 1903, the latter 
country acquired the necessary land to build a ship canal from ocean 
to ocean, and a strip of land 5 miles on each side of the center line of 
the route of the canal to be constructed. The proposed canal is to 
be 50 miles in length and extends from the city of Colon, or Aspin- 
wall, to the city of Panama. The United States of America also ac- 
quired possession of the small islands of Perico, Naos, Culebra, and 
Flamenco, in the Bay of Panama. 

On February 13, 1904, the constitution of Panama was promul- 
gated, and on February 20, 1904, Manuel Amador Guerrero was 
inaugurated as first President of the Republic. 



PANAMA. 231 

CONSTITUTION AND GOVERNMENT. 

Under the constitution the legislative power is vested in the Na- 
tional Assembly, composed of one chamber with 32 members. Dep- 
uties are elected by direct vote for a term of four years in the propor- 
tion of one for every 10,000 inhabitants or fraction over 5,000. 

The President is likewise elected for a term of four years by popu- 
lar vote, every citizen over 21 years of age being entitled to suffrage. 
He may not be reelected for the term immediately following his 
own. There is no Vice-President, but the assembly appoints three 
designados every two years, the first designado taking the place of 
the President in the event of his absence or disability. 

There is a sujDreme court of five judges appointed by the President 
for a term of four years, a superior court, several circuit courts, and 
a number of municipal courts. The judges of the superior and cir- 
cuit courts are appointed by the supreme court for four years and 
the municipal judges by the judges of the circuit courts for a term of 
one year, 

INTERIOR GOVERNMENT. 

Panama is politically divided into seven Provinces, which are 
again subdivided into municipalities, the former being administered 
by a Governor, appointed by the President of the Republic for a 
term of one year, while the latter are governed by a Consejo Munici- 
pal^ elected by direct vote for a term of two years, arid an alcalde, or 
mayor, appointed by the Governor of the Province for a term of 
one year. 

The Provinces and their capitals are: 

Capital. 

Province of Panama Panama.*' 

Colon Colon. 

Code Penonome. 

Los Santos Los Santos. 

Veraguas Santiago. 

Chiriqui David. 

Bocas del Toro Bocas del Toro. 

President Señor D. José Domingo de Obaldía. 

Secretary of Foreign Affairs Señor D. Samuel Lewis. 

Secretary of Government and Justice Señor Dk. Ramón M. Valdês. 

Secretary of the Treasury Señor Dk. Carlos A. Mendoza. 

Secretary of Fomento Señor D. José E, Lefevee, 

Secretary of Public Instruction Señor Dk. Eusébio A. Mokales. 

Note. — List of cabinet officers corrected to July 20, 1909. 

The salary of the President is $18,000 per annum. 
''Also capital of the Republic. 



232 INTERNATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



PANAMA IN 1908. 

The late President of Panama, Dr. M. Amador Guerrero, who 
was succeeded in October, 1908, by the present executive. Señor 
Domingo de Obaldía, delivered an interesting message to the Na- 
tional Assembly on September 1, 1908, in which a resume of the 
general conditions existent throughout the country showed a satis- 
factory status for the young Republic. The desire on the part of 
the Government to adequately exploit the resources of the country 
is evidenced by the granting of concessions, the establishment of 
telegraph and telephone lines, opening of new steamship services, and 
such revisions of the tariff as the economic conditions demand, while 
the operations of the new land law promulgated in January, 1909, 
will throw open large tracts of desirable prop- 
erties to settlement. 

FOREIGN AFFAIRS. 

The Republic continued to maintain amica- 
ble relations with the nations of the world and 
was represented at the Second International 
Peace Conference held at The Hague, while 
the negotiation of treaties with the United 
States and Colombia is an earnest of future 
prosperity and of amity with the Republics 
concerned. Improved trade conditions are re- 
sulting from the application of beneficial con- 
cessions, and the arbitral settlement of international questions is in 
keeping with the standard of civic virtue required by the new ideas of 
civilization. 

The final report of the Commissioners appointed by the Govern- 
ments of the United States and Panama, in accordance with the 
treaty of November 18, 1903, concerning claims arising out of the 
construction and conservation of the Panama Canal, was made dur- 
ing the year. 

A postal convention concluded with Italy in January, 1909, pro- 
vides for the exchange of postal parcels of specific weight and dimen- 
sions and money orders, considerably enlarging the scope of this 
branch of the Government service, and the appointment of the Pan- 
American committee, charged with the preparation of Panama's 
participation in the Fourth Pan-American Conference to be held 
in Buenos Aires during 1910, indicates the interest of the Govern- 
ment in world affairs. 

FINANCE. 

The report of the Secretary of the Treasury for the six months 
ending June 30, 1908, showed the total cash assets of the Government 




SR. DON DOMINGO DE OBALDIA 
PRESIDENT OF PANAMA. 



PANAMA. 233 

on that date to be $7,860,696.68, of which $6,000,000 gold was invested 
in first mortgages on real estate in New York City at 4^ and 5 per 
cent interest. In addition the Republic was carrying in account cur- 
rent $1,505,307.03 in the same city. 

The national receipts during the six months covered by the report 
amounted to $1,259,574.15, while the balance, after paying the ex- 
penses of the Government for the same period, amounted to $105,- 
307.03, turned into the National Treasury. The revenues for 1907, 
accruing principally from customs duties and excise taxes, amounted 
to $2,439,302. 

The budget for the period from January 1, 1909, to December 31, 
1910, estimates the total revenues for the two years $4,492,000, and 
expenditures at $6,877,469.65. The revenues are made up from the 
following items : Import and export duties, taxes on liquors, tobacco, 
matches, coffee, opium, salt, steamship companies, and money 
changers, $2,714,000; consular fees, manufacture and sale of liquors 
at retail, slaughterhouses, mines, patents, sealed paper and stamps, 
registration, real estate, lotteries, pearl fisheries, sale of federal prop- 
erties, including lots and light-houses, $988,000 ; posts and telegraphs, 
parcels post, public market of Panama, public land, and various other 
sources, $207,000 ; and interest on $7,700,000 to the amount of $583,000. 
The estimated disbursements are placed at the following figures: 
Department of Interior and Justice, $2,632,004; Foreign Eclations, 
$499,220; Treasury, $720,882.50; Public Works, $1,902,430.35, and 
Public Instruction, $1,122,932.80. 

The many public improvements undertaken by the Government 
of Panama and the establishment of new industries render signifi- 
cant the fact that in the disbursement of moneys for 1909 public 
works and public instruction, taken conjointly, are apportioned the 
largest share of the budget expenditure. The Assembly has further- 
more appropriated the sum of $85,000 for defraying the expense of 
a census, work on which has already begun. 

During the past four years the disbursements of government funds 
for current expenses and public improvements was only $1,859,320.66 
in excess of the receipts from the regular sources of revenue, which 
are import duties on foreign merchandise and internal taxes on 
liquors. This excess represents improvements of a substantial nature 
made throughout the entire country. 

COMMERCE. 

The total trade for 1908 aggregated $9,563,946, of which im- 
ports amounted to $7,806,811, and exports were estimated at 
$1,757,135. Of the imports the principal commodities were: Vege- 
table products, $1,879,296.72; agricultural products, $1,258,900.72; 
textiles, $1,187,802.38; mineral products, $788,068.67; wines and 

560— Bull. 1—09 16 



234 INTEENATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMEKICAN EEPUBLICS,. 

liquors, $675,703.20. As a country of origin for imports, the United 
States leads in all articles except textiles, Great Britain ranking 
first as country of origin for this product. 

A classification of exports for 1908 showed vegetable products to 
the amount of $1,539,395.45; animal products to the value of 
$135,207.15; mineral products in the sum of $79,620.59, and miscel- 
laneous products amounting to $2,912.34. 

The export destinations for the year 1908 were: United States, 
$1,587,216.69; Great Britain, $113,037.71; Germany, $34,495.35; 
France, $11,639.50; Spanish America, $8,413.28; and Austria-Hun- 
gary, $2,333, a total of $1,757,135.53. 

The total trade for the year with the United States, according to 
the trade statistics of that country, amounted to $18,247,155, of 




GOVERNMENT PALACE, CITY OF PANAMA, PANAMA. 

which import values, including canal supplies, figured for $16,799,630, 
and exports for $1,447,525. 

For the year 1907 the imports from the United States, not including 
shipments for use by the Isthmian Canal Commission, amounted to 
$5,196,964, and from other countries $4,367,486, a total of $9,564,450. 
To this should be added goods imported free of duty for use by the 
Isthmian Canal Commission amounting to $13,468,359. The exports 
for the year reached a total of $1,960,665.70, over 70 per cent of the 
total value being represented by bananas. The shipments of bananas 
during 1908 reached a total of nearly 4,000,000 bunches, most of 
which were shipped from Bocas del Toro. These form the largest 
single item in the exports of the Republic and are practically all 
shipped to the United States. Other items on the export list are 
hides, rubber, cocoanuts, limes, native curios, and quaqua bark. 



PANAMA. 235 

In anticipation of banana shipments to Europe and of increased 
commerce with Panama, the Hamburg- American Line has equipped 
its vessels with refrigerating apparatus. 

PRODUCTION AND INDUSTRIES. 

The soil of the Kepublic is of marked fertility, and climatic condi- 
tions induce a luxuriant growth of tropical vegetation. Only a 
small part of the area of the Republic is under cultivation, although 
the Government, alive to the importance of agriculture as a factor in 
the development of the resources of the country, is interesting itself 
in promoting the cultivation of coffee, cacao, cocoanuts, rubber, 
vanilla, and sugar cane, all of which articles are exempt from taxa- 
tion. Inducements have been offered to Spanish and Italian agri- 
culturists to settle in various parts of the Republic. 

The cultivation of bananas is the principal industry, and the acre- 
age devoted to the production of this fruit shows a steady increase 
from year to year. Attention is also being given to the cultivation of 
other products. Cacao is at present grown only on a small scale, the 
export value reaching only about $6,000, while rubber, which is 
now produced on a scale similar to cacao, could easily be developed 
into an extensive and profitable industry. It grows wild in the 
interior of the Bocas del Toro district, where it is gathered by In- 
dians and brought to Bocas del Toro for shipment. Sarsaparilla 
is not cultivated, but grows wild in great abundance, and coffee is 
grown in the Province of Chiriqui near the Costa Rican frontier. 
In the Province of Code, on the Atlantic coast, an agricultural enter- 
prise financed by German capital has undertaken the cultivation of 
cacao, coffee, and rubber, and returns are already being received. 
Sugar cane is cultivated to some extent and grows wild in many parts 
of the country, and could be cultivated to advantage. The Govern- 
ment has recently made a contract with an American citizen provid- 
ing for the erection of a sugar mill on the public lands of the Re- 
public and the establishment of a sugar refinery to be operated in 
conjunction with the same. The tariff on sugar products to be used 
in the manufacture of liquors has been raised to $2.50 per 110 pounds. 

Another refinery at the capital, with a capacity of 500 tons, or an 
output of 1,000 bags of 100 pounds of refined sugar daily, has been 
contracted for. This refinery is to be exempt from national and 
municipal taxes on the sugar produced, in addition to which the 
Government agrees to admit free of duty all requisite material, ma- 
chinery, and implements to be used in construction. The concession 
carries with it a large grant of land and provides for a gradual in- 
crease of the acreage planted on a progressive scale. The plans also 
provide for a post-office and school and for a comprehensive study of 



236 INTEENATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMEEICAN REPUBLICS. 

the industry by students assigned to the refinery for that purpose by 
the Government. 

The forests of the Republic contain an abundance of cabinet, dye, 
and building woods which under proper exploitation could be a 
profitable field of enterprise. 

The stock-raising industry is also being encouraged by the importa- 
tion, free of duty, of blooded animals for breeding purposes from the 
United States, England, and Jamaica. Statistics place the live stock 
in the Republic at 114,500 head in the following distribution : Cattle, 
65,000; hogs, 28,000; horses, 17,000; goats, 3,000; and mules, 1,500. 

In mining the Republic is being extensively prospected, and 40 
new claims were announced in 1907 as compared with 31 in 1906. 
Many of the rivers and points near the seashore contain gold in small 
quantities, while some of the deposits in the interior might be profit- 
ably worked. Gold bullion was shipped from mining properties near 
Darien in 1907 to the amount of $170,000. 

Deposits of coal of a good grade and of copper have been located in 
the interior of the Republic. 

COMMUNICATION. 

The railroad from Colon to Panama, 47 miles in length, is the most 
important transportation route of the Panama Isthmus. 

This road, operated largely in behalf of work on the canal, trans- 
ported in 1907 merchandise from the United States to the value of 
$12,000,000, and in 1908 to the value of $9,500,000. Of merchandise 
hauled over this railway, $8,500,000 moved from the Atlantic to the 
Pacific, of which $2,750,000 was destined for western ports of the 
United States and $5,750,000 for foreign countries on the Pacific 
coast of North and South America. Of this amount, Ecuador, Peru, 
and Salvador took $1,000,000 each; Panama, $750,000; Honduras 
and Nicaragua, nearly $500,000 each; and $333,000 each to both 
Colombia and the western coast of Mexico. Of the $2,750,000 from 
the eastern to western coast of the United States by way of the 
Panama Railway, practically all originated in New York and was 
shipped to San Francisco. The eastbound merchandise passing 
through Panama amounted to a little more than $1,000,000 and was 
shipped exclusively from San Francisco, all of it to New York City. 
Interest in the construction of the canal across the Isthmus has been 
heightened by its announced completion in 1915. 

The favorable position of the Republic of Panama, almost in the 
center of the American Continent, places it within easy reach not 
only of North and South as well as Central America, but also of 
Europe, and numerous steamship lines on both the Atlantic and 
Pacific oceans maintain a regular service with the ports of the 
Republic. 



PANAMA. 237 

A number of large bays and ports furnish ample facilities for the 
largest ocean-going vessels, those on the Caribbean Sea being Colon 
or Aspinwall, Bocas del Toro, Chagres, Porto Bello, Bastimenios, 
Nombre de Dios, Palenque, and Escribanos, and on the Pacific side 
Panama, Pedregal, Puerto Muits, Chitre, Mensabe, Puerto, Posada, 
San Carlos, Aguadulce, and Real de Santa Maria. 

The city of Colon is but 1,382 miles distant from New Orleans, 
and 1,972 miles from New York, while Panama is 3,277 miles distant 
from San Francisco. 

The Panama Railroad Company's steamers leave New York every 
fifth day for Colon, making the run in six days, the charge being 
$70 for the first-class passage, the charge to Panama, including rail- 
road fare from Colon being $76.05. 

The Royal Mail Steamship Company maintains a regular service 
between New York and Colon, leaving the former port every alter- 
nate Saturday, the time and fare being the same as that of the 
Panama Railroad Company. The Atlas Line steamers leave New 
York once a week for Colon. 

The United Fruit Company's steamers, sailing from New York, 
New Orleans, and Mobile, call at both Colon and Bocas del Toro, 
the time employed between New Orleans and the latter port being 
five days, and the charge $35. 

On the Pacific coast the Pacific Mail Steamship Company and the 
Kosmos Line have regular communication between San Francisco 
and Panama, making the run in from twenty-one to twenty-three 
days. Vessels of the Pacific Steam Navigaticii Company and of the 
Compañía Sud-Americana run between Panama and ports of 
Ecuador, Peru, Chile, and the first-named line on to Buenos Aires 
and Montevideo. It is reported that the Pacific Mail Steamship 
Company is about to discontinue its Panama service. 

Several of the rivers of Panama might afford navigation facili- 
ties were it not that owing to tropical rains they are apt to rise sud- 
denly, rendering transport difficult and dangerous. The Tuyra is 
navigable for small vessels for about 100 miles, and the Chagres, the 
Bayamo, the Code, Calabebora, Tarire, and Los Indios are all navi- 
gable for small craft from 20 to 75 miles. 

A number of almost land-locked lagoons are found along the shores. 
Belonging to the Republic, aside from the islands in Panama Bay 
ceded to the United States of America, there are the islands of Taboga, 
nearly 2 miles long; Taboguilla, Urava, Chame, Valladolid, Coiba, 
Chepillo Cebaco, and Las Perlas, so called owing to the valuable 
pearls found there. The Las Perlas group is composed of 39 islands 
and some 70 islets, most of which are fertile and covered with forests, 
presenting a most pleasing aspect. 



238 USTTEEjSTATIONAL BUEEAU of the AMEEICAlSr EEPUBLICS. 

On the Atlantic side the largest islands are the island of Man- 
zanillo, Escudo de Veraguas, and the archipelagos of Las Mulatas and 
Bocas del Toro. 

The encouragement of steam navigation by the administration has 
been marked by the subsidizing of a company to establish a service on 
the Pacific coast, which is being operated with satisfactory results. 
The company operating between David and Panama has five steamers 
on the line and the enterprise is proving a paying one. 

POSTS AND TELEGRAPH. 

The foreign postal service is being operated in a satisfactory man- 
ner and in accordance with the provisions of the Universal Postal 
Union, and the Republic has from time to time celebrated a number of 
postal conventions with different countries of Europe and America. 
Interior postal facilities are ample for present wants, but measures 
are to be enacted for the extension and betterment of the service to 
meet the growing demands of the country. 

The National Assembly has authorized the President to complete 
the double-wire telegraph line from Panama to Veraguas, to construct 
new lines, and extend the telephone system. An appropriation of 
$100,000 was made for this purpose. 

At Colon the United States Government has a high-power wireless 
telegraph station in operation, and the United Fruit Company has 
a station at Bocas del Toro in connection with their stations in the 
neighboring countries. The Central and South American Cable Com- 
pany has increased its equipment by an overland cable between Colon 
and Panama, thus creating an all-cable service between Buenos Aires, 
Valparaiso, and the west coast of South America, the United States, 
and Europe. A connection has also been established with Guan- 
tanamo, Cuba. 

INSTRUCTION AND PUBLIC WORKS. 

A keen interest is manifested in public education, and there has 
been considerable improvement in primary instruction in the Kepub- 
lic. In the capital a School of Arts and Trades has been established 
which promises to become one of the most useful institutions in the 
country. A training school has also been established to supply teach- 
ers for the education of the aborigines. Schoolhouses and public 
buildings have been erected in the principal towns, and the active 
cooperation of the Government is marked by many improvements 
in educational methods. 

An appropriation of $10,000 has been made by the National Assem- 
bly for establishing agricultural colonies in the Republic, and ar- 
rangements have been made for the introduction of suitable immi- 
grants. The civilization of the savage tribes of Indians inhabiting 



PANAMA. 



239 



parts of the country has also been undertaken. The colonization 
project of the Government includes the grant of suitable lands to 
families or individuals settling at places designated by the Govern- 
ment and supplying them with seed, tools, stock, and other indis- 
pensable articles. Fifteen scholarships in the School of Arts and 
Trades in the city of Panama have been established for the natives 
of the coast of San Bias and Darien and a sum of $5,000 set aside 
for the purchase of antiquities representing the work of the aborigines 
of America. 

The new patent and trade-mark law of the Eepublic was promul- 
gated November 14, 1908. 

Many public works have been successfully terminated, the most 
important of which are the Government Palace and the National 
Theater, erected at a cost of a little over $700,000. The former is 
already in use and the latter will soon be opened to the public. Water- 
works and sewerage systems have been established at Panama and 
Colon, roads constructed, and streets paved. Other improvements 
contemplated by the administration include better harbor facilities 
and the installation of electric power plants for municipal lighting 
and transportation. 

On December 26, 1908, a law was promulgated by the President 
providing for free entry of articles for use in the development of the 
agricultural and pastoral industries; for purposes of public educa- 
tion; by the Canal Commission under the terms of the treaty of 
November 18, 1903, and certain other articles expressly provided for 
by contracts now in force. 




The Eepublic of Paraguaj^, one of the two inland countries of 
America, is situated between latitude 22° 4' and 27° 30' south and 
longitude 54° 32' and 61° 20' west of Greenwich, between the Re- 
publics of Bolivia, Brazil, and Argentina. 

Paraguay has an area of 196,000 square miles, equal to that of the 
States of California and Maine, and a population of 636,000 inhab- 
itants. 

With a tropical climate considerably modified and made healthful 
by several mountain chains and an extensive hydrographie system, 
most of the products of the tropical and temperate zones are success- 
fully cultivated. The extensive valley of the Gran Chaco affords 
excellent pasturage for cattle, and the slopes of the mountains are 
covered with luxuriant forests, where many useful woods and medici- 
nal plants are to be found. 

The valuable quebracho wood, used extensively for tanning and 
also as railway ties, and maté, or Paraguay tea (the leaves of the 
Ilex paraguay ensis) ^ are the most important articles of export, the 
latter going mostly to the other South American Republics, where it 
is a popular beverage. Lapacho, curupay, and cedar are valuable 
woods found in considerable quantities, while oranges, tobacco, coffee, 
rice, cotton, manioc, and sugar are exported. 

HISTORICAL SKETCH. 

The country now comprising the Republic of Paraguay was first 
discovered by Sebastian Cabot, who, in the year 1526-27, explored 
the upper Parana and Paraguay rivers and the adjacent country. 
He was followed by Juan de Ayolas and Domingo Irala, who, on 
August 15, 1536, founded a settlement on the present site of Asuncion, 
the capital of the Republic. 

Subsequently Alvaro Nunez Cabeza de Vaca, famous for his ex- 
plorations in North America, was appointed Governor of the Prov- 
ince of Paraguay, which at that time comprised all of the country 
drained by the La Plata, and disembarking in the year 1542 at Santa 
Catharina in Brazil, proceeded overland to his destination. He 
reached Asuncion after a journey of one hundred and thirty days, 
having traversed more than 1,000 miles of hitherto unexplored and 
practically unknown territory. 
240 



PARAGUAY. 241 

Don Hernando Arias de Saavedra became Governor in 1591, and 
at his invitation the Jesuit missionaries came to Paraguay, arriving 
in 1608. They treated the Indians kindly, and by founding schools 
and missions soon gathered thousands of the aborigines around them, 
forming practically an independent State which thrived for many 
years. Their power was finally broken in the year 1769, when the 
King issued a decree expelling all Jesuits from the Spanish colonies 
in America. 

Paraguay was then nominally under the jurisdiction of the Viceroy 
of Peru, but in 1TY6 the viceroyalty of the La Plata Province was 
created, including Paraguay. 

When, in the year 1810, the Argentine Republic declared its inde- 
pendence from Spain it was the intention to include in the United 
Provinces of the Eio de la Plata all of the country which had for- 
merly been under the jurisdiction of the viceroyalty of that name. 
The inhabitants of Paraguay, however, desired to establish an inde- 
pendent Eepublic and defeated the Argentine army sent against them, 
declaring their independence on August 14, 1811. The Spanish Gov- 
ernor Velasco was in sympathy with the movement and was elected 
a member of the provisional Junta or Governing Board. A constitu- 
ent Congress, which met on October 1, 1813, adopted a national flag 
and vested the administrative power in two consuls, Don José Gaspar 
EoDRiGUEz Francia and Don Fulgencio Yerges. In 1844 the form 
of Government was changed, the executive power being vested in a 
President, elected for a term of ten years. Don Carlos Antonio 
Lopez was the first President and upon the completion of his term 
was reelected. He died before completing his second term, on Sep- 
tember 10, 1862, and was succeeded by his son Don Francisco Solano 
Lopez. The latter involved the country in a disastrous war with 
Brazil, the Argentine Republic, and Uruguay which lasted for five 
years and terminated only upon the death of Lopez, on March 1, 1870. 

A committee of 21 then undertook to reorganize the country. It 
negotiated a treaty of peace with the allied powers, which was signed 
on June 20, 1870. A congress of representatives of the people was 
convened which, on November 25, 1870, proclaimed a new constitu- 
tion abrogating some of the powers of the President, and completely 
reorganizing the government. A triumvirate composed of Don Cirilo 
Antonio Rivarola, Don Carlos Loizaga, and Don José Diaz Bedoy, 
was intrusted with the enforcement of these measures, and in the 
following year Don José Salvador Jovellanos was elected President 
and was inaugurated December 18, 1871. Under his wise administra- 
tion and those of his successors Paraguay has gradually taken its place 
among the nations of America. 



242 INTEElSTATIOISrAL BUEEAU OF THE AMEEICAN EEPUBLICS. 
CONSTITUTION AND GOVERNMENT. 

The constitution of Paraguay provides for a republican form of 
government, with the usual division of legislative, executive, and 
judicial authority. 

The National Congress is composed of the Senate and the Chamber 
of Deputies, both elected by direct, popular vote, all citizens over 18 
years of age being entitled to vote. Senators are elected for a term 
of six years, in the proportion of 1 for every 12,000 inhabitants or 
fraction exceeding 8,000. The Senate is renewed by thirds every 
two years. Deputies are elected for a term of four years, 1 for 
every 6,000 inhabitants or fraction exceeding 3,000. The Chamber 
of Deputies is renewed by halves every two years. 

The President and Vice-President of the Republic are elected by 
electors chosen for that purpose, for a term of four years. The 
President is assisted by a cabinet of five Ministers or Secretaries. 

Congress is represented during recess by a Standing Committee 
composed of two Senators and four Deputies, which assists the Presi- 
dent and is consulted by him on all matters pertaining to Congress. 

The Judiciary includes a Superior Court, two Courts of Appeals, 
and a number of minor tribunals. The Superior Court is composed 
of three Justices, appointed by the President, with the consent of 
the Senate, for a term of four years. 

INTERIOR GOVERNMENT. 

For administrative purposes the country is divided into depart- 
ments, each under a Jefe Politico appointed by the President for a 
term of four years. These departments are again divided into mu- 
nicipalities, governed by an intendente and Municipal Council elected 
by direct vote of the people. 

For electoral purposes the country is divided into twenty-four elec- 
toral districts. 

The capital of the Republic is the city of Asuncion, with a popula- 
tion of 52,000. Other towns of some importance are : Villa Rica and 
Villa Concepción, with 8,000 inhabitants each; Villa Encarnación, 
with 8,200, and San Estanislao and Caazapa, with 7,000 inhabitants 
each. 

President Dr. Emiliano Gonzalez Navebo. 

Minister of the Interior Señor D. Manuel Gondea. 

Minister of the Treasury Señor D. Gtjalberto Cardùs Huerta. 

Minister of Justice, Worship, and Public 

Instruction JDr. Manuel Franco. 

Minister of War and Marine Lieut. Col. Albino Jara. 

Minister of Foreign Affairs Señor D. Eusébio Ayala. 

Note. — List of cabinet officers corrected to July 20, 1909. 

The president is allowed a salary of $7,000 per annum. 



PARAGUAY. 



243 



PARAGUAY IN 1908. 

Following the change of administration in July, 1908, and the 
assumption of the Executive office by President Navero in succession 
to General Ferreira, peace was completely restored throughout Para- 
guay and the best efforts of the Government were devoted to the 
reestablishment of economic and financial stability. National ex- 
penditures were reduced, and the President has recommended still 
further retrenchment in all branches of the Government. 



FOREIGN AFFAIRS. 

During 1908 the Ministry of Foreign Relations negotiated several 
treaties, among them one providing for the interchange of cattle with 
the Argentine Republic. Treaties of extradition were arranged with 
Great Britain, Austria Hungary, Italy, and the United States of 
America. A treaty of arbitration was also 
concluded with the latter country and the Min- 
istry is engaged upon projected treaties with 
Germany and Russia, a consular convention, 
and a treaty of extradition with Belgium. 

The boundary question with Bolivia, despite 
the desire of both Governments to have it 
adjusted, remains unsettled. 

JSTotwithstanding the financial difficulties of 
the Republic, the Government was enabled to 
meet the service of its foreign debt throughout 
the year. The balance of the London loan, 
which represents the greater part of the coun- 
try's indebtedness, amounts to $4,139,717.64 
gold. Bills are before the National Congress for the authorization of 
a new loan of $10,000,000 and to fix the gold standard as the legal 
basis for monetary transactions. 

The internal-revenue receipts for the year 1908 amounted to 
$288,389.75, an increase of $13,450.37 as compared with 1907 ; while 
customs receipts for the same period showed a decline of $455,624.89, 
amounting to $1,471,844.49 for the year. The expenditures for 1907 
reached a total of $2,189,565, and in accordance with the policy of 
retrenchment outlined by the Executive, this amount was reduced 
during the year 1908. 

The new tariff of export valuations upon the products of the 
country became effective on January 1, 1909. 




Sr. don EMILIANO GONZALEZ NAVERO 
President of Paraguay. 



COMMERCE. 



The country's trade in 1908 shows a total of $7,661,469, of which 
exports represented $3,731,745 and imports $3,929,724. 



244 INTEENATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

The total value of exports of agricultural products from the Re- 
public during the first nine months of 1908 amounted to $1,500,000, 
consisting of citrus fruits to the value of $302,000 ; tobacco, $1,020,000 ; 
oil of petit grain (an extract of orange leaves), $150,000; and fruits 
and vegetables, $27,500. In 1907 there were exported from the Re- 
public 51,690,000 oranges and 1,861,500 mandarins, while the exports 
from January 1 to September 30, 1908, inclusive, of these same ar- 
ticles numbered 123,804,000 and 6,213,580, respectively. The exports 
of bananas in 1908 to Rosario consisted of 13,200 bunches, valued at 
$1,600. The Paraguayan banana is well received in the market of 
Buenos Aires and the demand for it is constantly growing, leading to 
increased shipments from the Republic. 

The exports of essence of petit grain amounted to 21,212 kilograms 
for the first nine months of 1908 as compared with 10,872 kilograms 
for the year 1907 and 9,968 kilograms for the year 1906. 

The foreign commerce of the Republic for the year 1907, the latest 
full year for which figures are available, amounted to $12,233,823, 
of which imports figured for $8,077,414 and exports for $4,156,409, 
the trade with the United States figuring for $170,893 and $7,261, 
respectively. Both branches of trade showed advances over the pre- 
ceding year, imports in the sum of $1,450,220 and exports $1,461,320. 
The trade of the Republic for 1908 with the United States amounted 
to $71,665, of which imports amounted to $55,229 and exports to 
$16,347. 

Of the exports in 1907, the Argentine Republic took $1,850,610; 
Germany, $566,700; Uruguay, $475,624, and Belgium, $268,650. 

On the export list of the country in 1907 cattle products figure for 
$1,000,000, covering hides, jerked beef, tallow, etc., while forest prod- 
ucts to the value of $750,000 included various hard woods and medic- 
inal plants. Extract industries represent a valuation of $1,000,000, 
in which maté and quebracho extract are the principal items, and 
in agricultural products the leading item is tobacco to the extent of 
3,500,000 kilograms. 

The Argentine Republic is the principal consumer of the country's 
exports, offering a ready market for maté, oranges, hides, tobacco, and 
lumber. Germany is a generous consumer of leaf tobacco, hides, 
timber, and quebracho extract, while hides and other products find 
their way into Uruguay in transit for European ports. Belgium 
takes tobacco and hides and Great Britain and France essence of petit 
grain and small amounts of leaf tobacco. 

Data concerning the countries of origin of imports are not readily 
obtainable, although Great Britain is credited with furnishing one- 
half of the total, with Germany second on the list, the principal items 
being cotton textiles, groceries, tinned provisions, hardware, spirits, 
drugs, and haberdashery. Agricultural machinery, machetes, axes, 



PARAGUAY. 



245 



and kerosene are imported in small quantities from the United States, 
with increased purchases noted in American dressed hides and leather 
for boots and shoes. Imports of leather into the Republic average 
about $38,600 annually, of which France supplies nearly one-half, 
with the Argentine Eepublic and Germany following in the order 
named. 

The commerce of Asuncion is handled by 674 mercantile establish- 
ments, the majority being in the hands of foreigners — Germans, 
French, Italians, and Spaniards. There are two British firms in 



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A MILITARY PARADE ON PALMA STREET, ASUNCION, PARAGUAY. 
The army of Paraguay is divided into infantry, cavalry, and artillery, and consists of 3,200 soldiers. 

the capital and 1,Y28 firms of various nationalities engaged in busi- 
ness throughout the country. 



PRODUCTION AND INDUSTRIES. 

The resources of the Republic at present are confined mostly to 
the production of raw material, the industries being few in number. 
The principal crop is maté, of which about 17,600,000 pounds are 
treated annually. About one-half of this amount is exported. The 
plant grows wild in immense tracts in the northern and eastern sec- 
tions of the Republic, being found most abundantly in the districts 



246 INTEKNATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

of Panadero, Igatimi, San Pedro, Villa Concepción, Caaguazu, Jesus, 
and Tacurupucu. 

The climate and soil of the Republic are suited for all tropical 
growths ; and rubber is grown to some extent, exports of this article 
in 1907 amounting to 4,400 pounds, sent principally to France. Cot- 
ton grows abundantly, and tobacco with little effort, while indigo 
and sugar cane yield easily to cultivation, and the forests contain 
many different grades of cabinet and dye woods, resins and balsams, 
while a native fiber plant know as mapajo is used by the Indians in 
the manufacture of a coarse textile for garments. 

Tobacco is one of the leading crops, the quantity grown being esti- 
mated at 6,000,000 pounds annually. One-half of this is exported 
and the remainder consumed in the country. The Agricultural Bank, 
a Government institution, is interesting itself in improving the qual- 
ity of the crop, with the idea of securing better prices, by the distribu- 
tion of selected seed among the planters and erecting drying sheds 
for the curing of the leaf in the several districts. The leaf is graded 
into seven classes, ranging from the mild variety known as pito^ and 
largely exported to Europe, to the coarse, strong grade called para^ in 
demand in Uruguay and the Argentine Republic. The intermediate 
grades are consumed locally. Tha manufacture of cigars and ciga- 
rettes is carried on in a small way, the cigars being manufactured by 
one factory and selling at a low price. 

The possibilities of the Republic as a cotton producer are immense, 
the rich and fertile soil assuring a large yield per acre. As early as 
1863 there were estimated to be 58,000,000 cotton plants under culti- 
vation in the country. The native cotton has a long, silky fiber and 
enjoys excellent reputation in Germany, England, and Holland on 
account of its fine weaving qualities. 

The production of the oil of petit grain extracted from the leaves 
of a native orange tree is being conducted on an increasing scale, 
but as yet in a primitive fashion, the principal distilling plants being 
located about 50 miles from Asuncion, in the orange-growing district 
of Yaguaron. It is estimated that 300 to 350 pounds of orange leaves 
yield about 1 pound of essence, this product being used as a basis 
for various perfumes and in the manufacture of flavoring extracts. 

The production of rice in the Republic is being stimulated by the 
National Agricultural Society, which has offered a premium of 1,000 
pesos for the best grades. 

Among the forest products of value is the curupay tree, which 
grows in eastern Paraguay, furnishing a hard and durable wood, in 
demand for railroad ties, piles, and construction work. The bark of 
this tree also contains tannin in sufficient quantities (from 14 to 26 
per cent) to make it of commercial value in the United States and 
Europe. 



PABAGUAY. 247 

The live-stock industry in the Republic is constantly increasing, 
many cattlemen from the Argentine Republic and Brazil having 
located in the country in recent years. The exports of meats and 
jerked beef are well known in foreign markets, principally Brazil, 
Cuba, and Spain, and the hides exported to Europe command good 
prices. The number of stock on the various ranges shows the follow- 
ing distribution: Cattle, 2,800,000; horses, 187,000; sheep, 2U,000; 
goats, 24,000 ; mules and asses, 8,000. The free importation of cattle 
from the Argentine Republic and the State of Matto Grosso, Brazil, 
is permitted, if there is no disease at the point of origin of shipments 
and the sanitary laws of the Republic are complied with. 

A law promulgated July 7, 1908, to run until 1935, provides for 
the granting of franchises to companies engaged in the elaboration 
and canning of meat products, permitting the free importation of 
machinery and materials to be used in the erection of the plant and 
the preparation of its output. 

The tanneries in the Republic limit their output to sole leather, 
with the exception of one at Asuncion, which turns out a limited line 
of calf, kid, saddle, and harness leather. 

The Government is interesting itself in attracting immigration, 
and an Italian colony has been established near the capital. The 
introduction of Asiatic labor is under consideration, it being regarded 
as feasible to employ coolies in the cultivation of rice, sugar, and 
tobacco throughout the Republic. 

A report by the directors of The Anglo Paraguayan Company 
(Limited) submitted June 23, 1908, showed a surplus of receipts over 
disbursements. All of the lands of the company have been sold and 
the money received, with the exception of £2,600 for a stretch of 
13,000 leagues, title to which is not clearly established. 

Various minerals are found in the Republic, such as quartz, agate, 
opals, kaolin, iron, manganese, copper, and mercury. 

COMMUNICATION. 

The satisfactory settlement of the affairs of the Paraguay Central 
Railroad, which is the only line in operation through the interior, 
has given a new stimulus to business and the development of local 
resources. The length of this line is 155 miles, and the projected 
extension of the service for 70 miles to Encarnación will effect a 
junction with the Argentine Northern Railway which is now being 
extended to Pasadas. The surveys for this extension have been com- 
pleted and the plans presented to the Government in July, 1908, 
Construction will commence as soon as they are approved, the neces- 
sary material being already on the ground. It is expected that the 
new line will be completed before July, 1912, by which time it is 



248 INTEENATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMERICAlSr REPUBLICS. 

probable the Argentine Northeastern Railway will have been ex- 
tended to meet it. 

Another project covers a concession from the Government for a 
new railroad line to run from Asuncion in a southeasterly direction 
to the banks of the Alto Parana, in the vicinity of the Falls of 
Yguazu. 

Paraguay is practically dependent on its waterways for means of 
communication and transportation, which, however, afford an efficient 
and convenient outlet for its products. 

It lies between the rivers Paraguay and Parana, which join their 
waters at or near Curupaiti, at the extreme southern end of Paraguay, 
and together with the Uruguay River, form the mighty estuary of the 
Rio de la Plata, one of the largest bodies of water in the world. 

The Parana River has a total length of 2,043 miles from its source 
in the Goyaz Mountain, Brazil, to its junction with the Uruguay, 
and is navigable for vessels of 12 feet draft as far as the city of Cor- 
rientes, a distance of 676 miles, from that city to the Guayara Falls, 
a distance of 600 miles, for small vessels, but beyond that point 
navigation is impeded by the Falls. 

The Paraguay River is the most important waterway of the Re- 
public, being navigable for vessels of 12 feet draft as far as the city 
of Asuncion and Villa Concepción, and beyond that for smaller ves- 
sels almost in its entire length of 1,800 miles. 

A number of the affluents of the Paraguay River, such as the Pil- 
comayo, the Jejuy, and the Tibicuary River, are navigable for short 
distances. 

The principal shipping points of the Republic on the Paraguay 
River are Asuncion, the capital, situated near the confluence of the 
Pilcomayo River; Villa Concepción, and Humaita. The city of most 
importance on the Parana River is Villa Encarnación. 

Six lines of steamers maintain a regular steamship service between 
Buenos Aires and Montevideo, whence transhipment is made to the 
Paraguayan River ports, the Compañía de Navegación Mihanovich 
having regular weekly sailings from Buenos Aires to Asuncion, the 
time employed being five days ; first-class fare, $25. The Lloyd Bra- 
zileiro, which now operates a regular line of steamers between New 
York and Brazilian ports, is expected to shortly extend its service to 
Buenos Aires and Matto Grosso, in Brazil, 3,000 miles inland, calling 
en route at Asuncion and other ports on the Paraguay River. At 
Asuncion connection is made with the railway, which extends inland 
as far as Pirapo, and which is now being extended beyond that point. 

Among the lakes the most important are the Ipoa and Ipacarai, 
the former covering an area of over 100 square miles, neither of these 
being, however, navigable. 



PARAGUAY. 



249 



The service of posts and telegraphs has been improved in many 
respects. The volume of business handled during 1908 was in excess 
of that for 1907 and the receipts showed a corresponding increase. 
Various new post-offices were established and the lines of the national 
telegraph now reach all points on the southern frontier. It is hoped 
shortly to extend the service northward to the boundary with Brazil. 
The telegraph service, at the opening of the year 1908, had an extent 
of nearly 2,000 miles, 249 of which were added in 1907. 

There are in Paraguay at the present time 400 public and private 
schools for both sexes, attended by 40,000 pupils and employing a 
faculty of 850 teachers. The course of primary instruction covers a 
period of six years. There are two normal schools. Higher education 
is provided for in the University of Asuncion, which offers a six 
years' course in law, social sciences, and medicine. Shorter courses 
in pharmacy and other branches have recently been added. The 
capital city also has a library of 10,000 volumes, many pamphlets, 
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560— Bull. 1—09- 



The Republic of Peru, occupying territory on the Pacific Ocean, 
about 1,000 miles in length by TOO miles in width, between the Repub- 
lics of Ecuador, Bolivia, Brazil, and Chile, extends over 679,600 
square miles, being equal in size to the combined area of the States 
of Texas, Nevada, and Utah, and the Territories of Arizona and 
New Mexico. It has a population of approximately 4,500,000, or 
6.5 per square mile, being less than one-third the population per 
square mile of the United States. 

Peru may be geographically divided into three distinct zones, with 
as many varieties of climate, products, and soil. The zona seca^ or 
dry zone, extends along the coast to the foot of the Andes, and in it 
practically nothing can be raised without irrigation, although the 
majority of the larger commercial centers are there located. Between 
the three mountain ranges are the extremely fertile and healthful 
plateaux, or table-lands, crowned by various high and snow-clad 
peaks. On the eastern slopes of the mountains are the vast, luxuriant 
forests, with an innumerable variety of useful woods and medicinal 
plants. 

Coffee, cacao, sugar cane and the excellent Peruvian cotton, are 
the principal agricultural products for export. The mines produce 
gold, silver, copper, iron, coal, and petroleum in considerable quan- 
tities, especially in the Cerro de Pasco district, with its almost inex- 
haustible supply of copper, gold, and silver. Among the forest prod- 
ucts are india rubber and the cinchona bark. The alpaca, a native 
animal of Peru, furnishes an excellent grade of wool, of which large 
quantities are annually exported. 

HISTORICAL SKETCH. 

Frakcisco Pizarro, after several unsuccessful attempts, finally 
reached the coast of Peru in 1532. The vast Inca Empire at that 
time is said to have extended over more than one-half of the entire 
South American continent. Pizarro found a people highly civi- 
lized, with excellent social and political institutions, who had de- 
veloped agriculture to a very high degree. He was received with 
great courtesy by the Emperor, and having been invited to visit him 
in Cajamarca, Pizarro entered the city on November 15, 1532, and 
made the unsuspecting Inca a prisoner in his own capital. By this 
bold stroke he at once obtained complete control over the natives, who, 
accustomed to being ruled in a paternal fashion, easily submitted to 
250 



PEEU. 251 

the invaders. When Pizarro had put Atahualpa, the Emperor of 
the Incas, to death, after a mock trial, on August 29, 1533, he en- 
slaved the Indians, forcing them to work in the mines for the benefit 
of the conquerors, and they soon perished by thousands under the ex- 
actions of their cruel masters. -- 

Pizarro was appointed governor of the newly acquired territory 
and founded the city of Lima, the present capital of the Republic of 
Peru, on January 16, 1535, naming it the City of the Kings. He 
governed the country until his death by assassination on June 26, 
1541. 

Don Cristobal de Vaca was Governor until the year 1544, when 
the Viceroyalty of Peru was created. The first Viceroy, Don Blasco 
ISTuÑEZ Vela, arrived at Lima on May 17, 1544, and was received 
with great honors and rejoicing. His jurisdiction at that time ex- 
tended over the entire continent of South America, but the territory 
was subsequently divided into three viceroyalties, that of New 
Granada being created in 1T18 and of the Rio de la Plata in 1776. 

Forty viceroys succeeded Blasco Nunez in the government of Peru, 
under whose rule the enslavement of the Indians and the destruction 
of their ancient civilization was continued. Although the King of 
Spain issued laws for the better treatment of the aborigines, due 
to the unceasing efforts of Bishop Las Casas, their lot was not im- 
proved to any considerable extent. 

The movement for independence began early in the nineteentb 
century in Peru, which was at that time the stronghold of Spanish 
power, but the various attempts were repressed with the greatest 
severity, the first martyrs to Peruvian independence being Ubaldo 
and Aguilar. Other patriots, however, took up the cause, and the 
struggle continued with varying success until in the year 1820 San 
Martín, the great Argentine general, came to the aid of the Peru- 
vians. He was ably assisted by the Admiral Lord Cochrane, having 
command of the Chilean fleet, who captured and destroyed the Span- 
ish ships and attacked the fort at Callao. On July 9, 1821, San 
Martín made his triumphal entrance into Lima, and on July 28, 
1821, the independence of Peru was formally declared. On September 
20, 1822, a constituent congress met and on February 28, 1823, the 
first President of Peru, Don José de la Riva Agüero, was inaugu- 
rated. La Serna, the last viceroy, continued, however, to resist the 
newly installed government, and it was due only to the combined 
efforts of General San Martín and Simon Bolivar that the country 
was finally freed of the enemy. General Sucré, Bolivar's able lieu- 
tenant, defeated and completely routed the Royalists at the battle 
of Ayacucho on December 9, 1824. 

In 1879 Peru and Bolivia became involved in war with Chile, 
which lasted for five years and which was finally settled as between 



252 INTEENATIONAL BUEEAU OF THE AMERICAN EEPUBMCS. 

Peru and Chile b}^ the treaty of March 8, 1884, whereby Peru ceded 
to Chile the Province of Tarapaca and the Territories of Tacna and 
Arica for a jjeriod of ten years, at the end of which term a plebiscite 
was to decide to which country the territories were to belong. 

The Kepublic of Peru has since that time gradually and peacefully 
developed her numerous natural resources. 

Dr. Agusto B. Leguia, the present incumbent of the presidency, 
was inaugurated on September 24, 1908, for a term of four years. 




Dr. augusto b. leguia, President of 
Peru. 



CONSTITUTION AjSID GOVERNMENT. 

The present constitution of the Pepublic of Peru was proclaimed on 
November 10, 1860. The usual division of the administration into 
the legislative, executive, and judicial branches 
is followed. 

The National Congress consists of two 
chambers, the Senate and the House of Repre- 
sentatives, the former composed of 51 members 
and the latter of IIG. Both Senators and 
Deputies are elected by direct popular vote for 
a term of six years, deputies in the proportion 
of one for every 30,000 inhabitants or fraction 
exceeding 15,000, Both chambers are renewed 
by thirds every two j^ears. 

Every citizen, over 21 years of age, who can 
read and write is entitled to vote. 
The President of the Republic and two Vice- 
Presidents are also elected by popular vote for a term of four years 
and may not be reelected for a second consecutive term. 

A Cabinet of six Ministers, or Secretaries of State, assists the 
President. 

The National Supreme Court, the Superior Courts, the Courts of 
First Instance, and the Municipal Courts compose the judiciary of 
the Republic. The Justices of the Supreme Court are elected by the 
Congress, and the other Justices appointed by the President of the 
Republic. 

INTERIOR GOVERNMENT. 

Peru is politically divided into 19 Departments, two Provincias 
litorales^ and one Provincia constitucional^ which are subdivided into 
districts. The executive authority of the Department is vested in a 
Prefect appointed by the President of the Republic, while the Sub- 
prefect governs the Province and the Governor the district. These 
authorities are assisted by the departmental, provincial, and mu- 
nicipal councils, which are elected by direct vote and represent the 
people. 



PEKU. 253 

The Departments, with, their respective capitals, are : 

Department of — Capital. 

Amazonas Chachapoyas. 

Ancachs Hauras. 

Apurimac Abancay. 

Arequipa Arequipa. 

Ayacucho Ayacucho. 

Cajamarca Cajamarca. 

Cuzco Cuzco. 

Huancavelica Huanca vélica. 

Huanuco Huanuco. 

lea lea. 

Junin Cerro de Pasco. 

Lambayeque Chiclayo. 

La Libertad Trujillo. 

Lima Lima." 

Loreto Iquitos. 

Piura Piura. 

Puno Puno. 

San Martin Moyobamba. 

Tacna ^ Tacna. 

Provincia constitutional of Callao Callao. 

Provincia litoral of Moquegua Moquegua. 

Provincia litoral of Tumbes Tumbes. 

President Sr. D. Augusto B. Leguia. 

President of the Council and Minister of 

the Government and Police Dr. Rafael Villanueva. 

Minister of Foreign Affairs Dr. Melitón F. Pokeas. 

Minister of the Treasury and Commerce Dr. Augustín La Toree González. 

Minister of Justice and Public Instruction-, Dr. Matías Leon. 

Minister of War and Marine Dr. Ernesto Zapata. 

Minister of Public Works Dr. David Matto. 

Note. — List of cabinet officials corrected to July 20, 1909. 

The President receives a salary of $15,000 per annum and an allow- 
ance of $9,000 for expenses. 

PERU IN 1908. 

An event of importance in the history of Peru during 1908 was the 
installation of Señor Don Augusto B. Leguia in the presidential 
office, in succession to President Pardo. At the opening of Congress 
the new Executive delivered a forcible address in which he lauded 
the work of the preceding administration and reiterated his expressed 
intention of following the wise and progressive policies previously 
inaugurated. 

Foreign and national affairs are in a flourishing condition and 
though details of the year's commercial transactions are not avail- 

«Also capital of the Republic. 

* The Department of Tacna is, as stated above, occupied by Chile. 



254 INTEKNATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

able, the reported foreign trade in 1907 showed an advance of more 
than $2,000,000 over the preceding year. Mineral development, which 
forms the basis of the country's resources, is evidenced by the fact that 
production under this head was greater in value by more than 
$5,000,000 in 1907 than in 1906, and that the number of claims al- 
lowed in the first six months of 1908 were double those of the preced- 
ing half-year. 

The arrival and installation in the harbor of Callao of the dry 
dock constructed for Peru in Europe marks a feature in the devel- 
opment of transit enterprises, and this is supplemented by the grant- 
ing of a subsidy for fast steamer service between that port and Pan- 
ama, recently granted by the national congress. It is further reported 
that a contract has been entered into between the Government and a 
German enterprise for the survey of an all-rail route from Paita 
to a point on the Marañon River, on which construction work is to 
begin in 1910. 

FOREIGN AFFAIRS, 

During the year the relations of the Republic with other nations 
were cordial and friendly. 

The new trade regulations for Bolivian goods received and shipped 
via Moliendo went into effect and 'preliminary steps for the settle- 
ment of the boundary question with Bolivia were taken. In July, 
1909, the President of Argentina rendered his award. Maj^ 31, 
1909, was the date fixed for the final settlement of the territorial 
controversy with Brazil, and in April of the same year a pact was 
entered into with Colombia looking to the final arrangement of the 
boundaries of the two Republics. With Ecuador, the boundary 
award is to be decided without appeal by the King of Spain. Con- 
ventions were signed with Chile covering the practice of liberal pro- 
fessions, consular regulations, and the exchange of publications, the 
two first named requiring further congressional action. A consular 
convention with the Netherlands, promulgated on July 18, 1908, looks 
to an extension of trade relations with that country and concedes 
mutual advantages to the contracting nations 

FINANCE. 

The gold standard is operative throughout Peru, the Peruvian 
pound, which is the unit of value for commercial transactions, being 
equivalent to the English pound sterling. 

The revenues for 1908 were £2,997,433 and expenditures were 
somewhat in excess of that amount, figuring for £3,043,032, and for 
1909 government ajopropriations are made for £3,001,193. 

Peru has recently arranged for a loan of £400,000, guaranteed by 
the internal revenue on alcohols, the proceeds to be devoted mainly 
to the canceling of the present debts. 



PERU. 255 

The foreign debt of the country in 1889 amounted to £22,998,051. 

By an agreement made with the bondholders the following year it 
was agreed to cancel the debt in exchange for state properties in rail- 
roads, guano deposits, etc. This agreement was not perfected, but 
a new agreement was entered into in April, 1907. In accordance 
with the terms of this agreement, the Government is to pay the sum 
of £80,000 annually in monthly installments during thirty years from 
July, 1907. The internal liabilities of the country consist of a debt 
of £2,660,045, bearing interest at 1 per cent, and a non-interest bearing 
debt of £471,355. 

The bank balances on June 30, 1908, showed total assets of £6,920,- 
179, as compared with £6,101,597 a year previous. During the twelve 
months 350 bars of gold bullion, valued at £222,285, were received 
at the Mint, and gold coins to the value of £214,004 issued. From 
November, 1900, to March 30, 1908, the Government purchased silver 
bullion valued at £114,157 and coined silver to the value of £104,050. 
Coined gold was imported during 1907 to the amount of £580,013 
and stock companies represented a total investment of £2,081,284. 

Import duties in the country are covered by a customs duty levied 
in accordance with tariff rates, supplemented by an addition of 8 per 
cent, applied to the current service ; an addition of 2 per cent for the 
exclusive benefit of the municipalities of Callao and Lima, and a 
third addition of 1 per cent applied to the service of fiscal ware- 
houses. The first three items are collected by the Callao customs 
service and the fourth by the National Salt Company, which has had 
charge of the government warehouses since January 1, 1908. 

COMMERCE. 

Foreign commerce continued satisfactory during the J^ear, for the 
first six months of 1908 total trade values being reported of £5,204,- 
540, as compared with £5,089,301 in the corresponding period of the 
preceding year, and with £11,202,518 for the whole of 1907. During 
the last-named period imports were valued at £5,514,787 and exports 
at £5,747,732. Based on the foregoing figures an estimate of the trade 
for 1908 gives a total valuation of £10,550,000, composed of imports 
£5,000,000 and exports £5,550,000. 

During 1908 total commercial transactions with the United States 
aggregated $11,090,710, against $13,974,515 in 1907, imports from that 
country figuring for $5,815,495, as compared with $0,870,217 in the 
preceding year, and exports being valued at $5,875,221 and $7,098,298 
in the two periods, respectively. 

Great Britain remains the foremost factor in the trade of the 
Eepublic, followed by the United States, Germany, France, Belgium, 
and Chile, in the order named. 



256 INTEENATION^AL BUEEAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

In 1907, the latest year for which figures are available, £4,949,961 
represented the total trade value with Great Britain, composed of 
exports, £2,786,034, and imports, £2,163,927. 

PRODUCTION AND INDUSTRIES. 

The great sources of national wealth are agriculture and mining, 
with mining in the first place. 

For 1907 the total mineral output of the country was valued at 
£3,499,057, a gain as compared with the preceding year of £888,483. 
Copper occupies first place, with a production worth £1,709,275, fol- 




GOLD MINING AT POTO, PERU, 16,000 FEET ABOVE SEA LEVEL. 

Enormous deposits of auriferous gravel are washed by hydraulic methods. Peru's mineral output 
for 1907 amounted to $18,000,000. 

lowed by silver, £1,229,951; crude petroleum, £250,440; coal, £106,000; 
gold, £93,229; lead, £34,669; and other minerals in diminishing 
proportions. 

The Department of Junin, in which is located the celebrated Cerro 
de Pasco mining district, stands at the head of producing sections, 
the silver output for 1907 being 108,026 kilograms, 17,151 tons of 
copper, 169,368 tons of coal, and 4,970 tons of lead. 

Increased numbers of petitions for denouncements of mining 
claims mark the development of the industry throughout the Repub- 
lic, the adjudicated claims in the first half of 1908 exceeding those, 
of the preceding half year by 3,334, while mineral exports to the 
United States alone in 1907 were valued at $5,203,613, against $665,438 



PERU. 257 

in the preceding year. The superficial area conceded for mining 
purposes, as stated in the " Código de Minería " for 1906-T, was about 
275 square miles, though this amount is much greater at present. 

The developments in copper mining are particularly numerous 
and important. The company operating at Cerro de Pasco produces 
approximately 40 tons of copper daily, or an annual output of 15,000 
tons, the national output for 1907 being 20,681 tons, and it is esti- 
mated that within a short time the yearly shipments will amount to 
50,000 tons, thus bringing the country to third place as a producer. 
The famous ore bodies of Cerro de Pasco are situated at the junction 
of the East and West Cordilleras and contain copper, silver, lead, 
gold, and several other minerals, among which is vanadium, recently 
discovered. 

Silver is found throughout the Peruvian Andean region, commonly 
associated with lead or copper and frequently with both. The 1907 
production was somewhat less than that of the preceding year and 
aggregated 6,687,301 troy ounces. 

" Cascajo," without metallic brilliancy and of reddish color, is a 
silver -bearing mineral peculiar to Peru, and, with copper, forms the 
great deposit of the Cerro de Pasco district. 

Gold production showed a decline for 1907, the 28 districts in 12 
Departments yielding 25,013 troy ounces, or 12,089 ounces less than 
in 1906. Puno produces 70 per cent of the total gold of the Republic, 
its deposits being very rich, though inadequately exploited. 

Petroleum production for 1907 was 100,184 metric tons, an increase 
over the previous year of 29,352 tons, the total number of wells in 
exploitation being 569. Of these, 275 were located in Zorritos, 40 in 
Lobitos, 250 in Negritos, and 4 in Pirin. Petroleum is found in the 
neighborhood of Chimbóte, in the Province of lea ; in the Department 
of Puno, in southern Peru, near Lake Titicaca, and other localities. 
It has long been known that there were immense deposits in some of 
the coast districts, but there has until recently been no systematic 
exploitation of them. 

The yield of coal during 1907 was 185,565 metric tons, a gain over 
1906 of 105,596 tons, the greater portion being obtained from the 
Cerro de Pasco Company's mines and used in their copper-smelting 
works. Anthracite is found in the Chimbóte and Huarez districts, 
in Otuzco, Huamachuco, and elsewhere, and bituminous coal is to be 
found in Cajamarca, Ancachs, lea. Arequipa, Puno, and Moquega. 

A sulphur company in the Department of Piura is the only pro- 
ducer of this mineral, the plant having a capacity of 150 tons daily, 
and besides the 80 tons of refined sulphur produced in 1907, there 
were 4,500 tons of mineral in stock at the close of the year containing 
1,800 tons of sulphur. 



258 INTEEXATIONAL BUEEAU OF THE AMEEICAÎ^T EEPUBLICS 

The discovery of vanadium Tvas made in 1901, and from June, 
1906, to January, 1909, there ^Yere produced and shipped to the 
United States 1,800 tons of oxidized ores, containing 20 per cent 
vanadic oxide. 

Exploitation of the guano deposits of the Kepublic constitutes an 
im23ortant branch of industry, and within tlie last eighteen years 
the Peruvian Corporation has extracted a third of the 3,000,000 tons 
allowed under its contract. The exports of this product in 1907 were 
about 80,000 tons, 26,000 tons forming the amount used locally. The 
Government is very desirous of applying this fertilizer to the agri- 
cultural development of the country", and has authorized a company 
capitalized at £30,000 to operate in the Eepublic for the supply of 
guano to the farmers just as it is taken from the deposits. 

During 1909 the Peruvian Corporation will only extract guano 
from the islands north of Callao, the deposits to the south being re- 
served for the uses of national agriculture. 



A BUILDING ON THE CHIQUITA SUGAR PLANTATION, CHICAMA VALLEY, PERU. 

The Chicama Valley is one of the most fertile regions in Peru, and is especially adapted to the culti- 
vation of sugar cane. The annual production of sugar in the Republic in 1907 was valued at 
85,7'J0,000. 

On the south coast in the neighboring islands are immense nitrate 
deposits, and in the Bay of Sechura pearl fisheries are being ex- 
ploited profitably under government concession. 

Metallurgical plants in operation number 89, of which 19 are for 
amalgamation, 32 for lixiviation, 23 smelters, and 12 combination. 
There are also 2 petroleum refineries and 1 for sulphur. 

At the beginning of 1908 there were 177 mining camps in actual 
production, the total number of employees being 16,936. All mate- 
rials and machinery for the exploitation of mining properties are free 
of import dut}^, and liberal grants are made to interested purchasers. 

Peru's leading crops — sugar, cotton, and rice — are irrigation crops. 

Sugar-growing is carried on chiefly on the coast regions, the total 
area devoted to the industry being about 200,000 acres. The crop 



PERU. 259 

of 1907 was valued at £1,124,723, and for 1907-8 exports were made 
of 104,000 tons, which, added to the local consumption of 31,000 tons, 
brought the total output for the season up to 135,000 tons, some- 
what less than the annual average of 150,000 tons. ' There are about 
50 plantations, the product being largely exported to England and 
Chile for refining. The plantations in the vicinity of Lima furnish 
about 20,000 tons of white sugar annually, and 10,000 ton? of chan- 
caca, a product obtained by boiling down the juice to a thick sirup 
and allowing it to solidify by cooling. 

The cotton crop in 1907 of 15,000 tons, valued at £584,4-11, showed 
an advance over the preceding year, and for 1908 the outlook was 
reported as most favorable. The best grades are grown near Piura 
and shipped from Paita, the high quality being attributable to the 
peculiarities of soil and climate for which this narrow belt of coast 
land is noted. Five good crops may be obtained from one planting, 
the third year representing the maximum yield. Irrigation is being 
applied to increasing the cultivable areas in the Departments of Piura 
and of Lima, a canal 22 miles long forming the base of distribution 
in the former locality. 

Cotton manufacturing is carried on in five well-equipped factories 
in Lima; one being also operated in Arequipa and another at lea. 
The annual consumption of raAV material is about 3,000 tons, the 
native product being classed as superior to the imported article. The 
Government encourages the industry hj the distribution of seeds to 
cotton planters and by legislation favorable to the factories. 

The wool product in 1907 represented a valuation of £456,669, the 
export quantity being over 4,000 tons. Alpacas, sheep, and llamas 
are the wool-bearing animals of the country. The introduction of 
Patagonian sheep for crossbreeding is one of the recent developments 
of the pastoral industrj^, and a British enterprise conducts a sheep 
ranch extending over 130 square miles. Hides of various kinds are 
estimated at an annual valuation of about £150,000. 

Five woolen factories are operated, giving employment to a large 
number of workmen, and preparing about 600,000 kilograms of wool 
for the market annually. The total output, however, fails to meet 
local demands, and there is a large import trade under this head. 

Rubber, whose production in 1907 was stated as worth £954,582, 
is collected in large quantities in the forest regions and shipped down 
the Amazon. 

Pending the enactment of a law for the protection of the rubber 
industry, legislative measures are in effect whereby all decrees and 
resolutions of a general character concerning the exploitation of 
leased lands in the Montaña containing timber and rubber trees are 
abrogated. 



260 INTEENATIOlSrAL BUEEAU OF THE AMEEICAN EEPUBLICS. 

The coca output is valued at £125,757, the most imiDortant growing 
section being the Province of Otuzco in the Department of La Liber- 
tad. For the manufacture of cocaine, there are 24 small factories. 
the 1907 product being 5,914 kilograms, worth £66,630. 

Coffee is grown in central Peru, the chief producing districts being 
Chancaamayo, Perene, and Paucartambo, also in the Huanua district. 
Production in 1907 was valued at £42,106. 

Cacao culture is increasing, about 200,000 trees having been planted 
in the Perene region. 

Rice, tobacco, wheat, ramie, and maize are also grown, and silk 
culture and viticulture are engaging the attention of industrial enter- 




LOADED LLAMAS IN THE HIGHLANDS OF PERU. 

The llama belongs to the family of the Camelidx, and was the only beast of burden in the 
Western Hemisphere before the coming of the Spaniards. It is still extensively used in the 
Andes. 

prises. Thousands of square miles of lands are available for coloni- 
zation on the eastern slopes of the Andes, affording fertile areas for 
the cultivation of foodstuffs and textile plants, and extensive ranges 
for wool-bearing animals. 

The Government is desirous of promoting the immigration of agri- 
culturists and artisans. 

COMMUNICATION FACILITIES. 



Railways in operation in the Republic have an extent of 1,471 
miles, of which 844 miles were managed by the Peruvian Corporation. 



PEKU. 261 

The Central Railway is the most important line, running from 
Callao to Oroya over 140 miles of track, with branch lines to the 
Cerro de Pasco district and to Huancayo on the route to Ayacucho. 
The building of the Huancayo-Ayacucho connection is included in 
the ultimate purpose to extend the line to Cuzco. 

Second in importance is the Southern Railway extending from 
Moliendo to Puno on Lake Titicaca, a distance of over 300 miles, 
from which point it connects with a line of steamers running to the 
Bolivian lake port of Guaqui. From Juliaca, near the shore of Lake 
Titicaca, a branch extending 125 miles to Sicuani has been open for 
some years, and the route is in process of extension to Cuzco. The 
rails reached that point on September 13, 1908, so that the linking of 
the Central and Southern lines only requires 300 miles of construc- 
tion between Cuzco and Huancayo. 

A road from Lima to Huacho is projected with an extent of 157 
miles, at an estimated cost of £722,185, including rolling stock. 

Other roads in operation comprise spurs running from minor ports 
up the various river valleys for comparatively short distances and are 
available for the transport of agricultural products to the coast. 

Rolling stock is supplied almost entirely from the United States, 
the heaviest buyer being the Peruvian Corporation, which, through 
an arrangement with the Government is extending several of the 
lines. 

The contract has been let for the construction of the Ilo to Moquega 
railway at a cost of £23,286 and surveys have been made over the 
route from Cerro de Pasco to the Ucayali and from Lima to Pisco. 

The construction of a railway in the eastern part of Peru connect- 
ing with river transport on the Marañon is under consideration, the 
beneficial effects of this outlet for Peruvian resources being 
thoroughly appreciated by the Government. 

Numerous highways are under construction, one of the most im- 
portant extending between Paucartambo and the Madre de Dios 
River, a distance of 125 miles, the cost of which is estimated at 
£34,000. 

STEAMSHIPS AND WATERWAYS. 

The coast of Peru has a number of indentations with good bays 
offering shelter and anchorage for ocean-going vessels. The ports 
on the Pacific Ocean at which steamers call regularly are Tumbez, 
Paita, Eten, Pacasmayo, Salaverry, Chimbóte, Huacho, Puerto 
Ancón, Callao, Pisco, Moliendo, and Ho. The most important of 
these is Callao, 10 miles from Lima, the capital of the Republic. 

The ports of Peru can be reached either from New York direct 
via the straits of Magellan, via Panama, or via San Francisco and 
the West Coast. The New York and Pacific Steamship Company 



262 INTEENAÏIONAL BUEEAU OF THE AMERICAN EEPUBLICS. 

and the West Coast Line maintain a regular service between New 
York and Peruvian ports, with limited accommodation for pas- 
sengers, taking about sixty daj^s to make the run, with irregular 
sailings from New York. The Panama Railroad Company's steamers 
leave New York every five days for Colon, whence the trip is made by 
rail across the Isthmus to Panama, and from Panama by one of the 
steamers of the Pacific Steam Navigation Company or the Compañía 
Sud-Americana de Vapores^ or the steamers of the recently inaugu- 
rated Compañía Peruana de Vapores, all of which make the run 
between Callao and Panama in six to seven days ; first-class passage, 
$136. 

From San Francisco direct the steamers of the Kosmos Line, which 
leave San Francisco regularly every ten days and touch at all the 
ports on the Pacific coast, can be taken. 

There are several companies having large and modernly equipped 
steamers which ply regularly between Callao and European ports. 

Aside from its long coast line and numerous bays and ports on the 
Pacific, Peru has been favored by nature with an extensive ñuvial 
sj^stem, affording a convenient outlet for her products on the Atlantic 
side. It is estimated that there are from 3,000 to 4,000 miles of 
rivers in Peru navigable for vessels of from 8 to 20 feet draft. The 
port of Iquitos, on the Upper Amazon, the principal inland port, can 
be reached in twenty-six days from New York by the steamers of 
the Booth Line, sailing from New York for Iquitos every forty days. 
The fare is $140. Other inland ports of some importance are 
Yurimaguas, on the Huallaga River, Contamana, on the Ucayali 
River, and Puerto Bermudez, On Lake Titicaca, Puno is the im- 
portant port on the Peruvian side. 

The majority of Peru's navigable rivers are on the east side of the 
Andes, the rivers ñowing into the Pacific Ocean being of but little 
use as fluvial arteries; the Tumbez and the Chira are the only two 
that are navigable even for short distances. 

The Upper Amazon, or, as it is called in Peru, the Marañon, with 
its numerous tributaries, of which the principal ones are the Ucayali 
and the Huallaga, form the extensive river system of eastern Peru, 
the Amazon River being navigable in its entire length in Brazil and 
in Peru. A number of steamship companies maintain a regular 
service on the various affluents of the Amazon as far as the port of 
Mayro, but 325 miles distant from Lima. 

Peru is favored by nature with a number of large and beautiful 
lakes, among which the largest is Lake Titicaca, on the boundary line 
between Peru and Bolivia, and the highest lake in the world 
navigated by steamers. In Peru proper are, among others, Lake 
Chinchay-Cono, 37 miles in length by 7 miles wide, situated at an 
altitude of 13,800 feet, and Lake Lauricocha, at 14,270 feet above the 
level of the sea, said to be the source of the Amazon River. 



PERU. 263 

Telegraph lines have an extent of 3,360 miles under state owner- 
ship and 1,180 corporation-owned. Submarine cables maintain com- 
munication with the adjoining Republics and a telephone system 
3,000 miles in extent connects the various sections of the country. 
Wireless stations are operated at Puerto Bermudez, Massisea, Iquitos, 
Requena, and Orellana, and an appropriation of £7,000 has been made 
for the establishment of wireless connections through the Montaña 
or forest region on the eastern slopes of the Andes. 

Receipts from posts and telegraphs in 1907 were £72,829 and 
£18,788, respectively, the amounts in both instances being consider- 
ably in excess of the budget estimates. 

Public instruction in the country is represented by 2,410 schools 
and 3,160 teachers. The number of educational institutions is con- 
tinually being increased through government aid. In the budget for 
1908 the appropriation for public instruction amounted to £61,244, 
as compared with £44,222 in the preceding year, and the appropria- 
tion for school furniture, books, and apparatus was £23,000. The 
Central Manual Training and Physical Culture School, established 
in Lima in June, 1907, has a roster of 120 pupils. 

An executive decree of January 2, 1909, provides for the annual 
appointment of four students in the learned professions to continue 
their studies abroad at the expense of the Government, it being pro- 
vided that at the expiration of two years they should serve in gov- 
ernment service. 

Experts have been employed to make extensive investigation on 
the irrigation possibilities of the Republic. It is determined that 
the coast region contains approximately 2,500,000 acres available for 
cultivation under improved conditions. 

A census of the province and city of Lima taken on June 26, 1908, 
showed a population of 172,927, the city being credited with 140,884 
inhabitants. 

Sanitary regulations are in effect in the principal ports and cities 
of the Republic and modern improvements are being introduced in 
municijDal organization. The trolley system of transport is employed 
in the capital and is being extended to other centers of population. 



The Republic of El Salvador, sometimes erroneously called San 
Salvador, the name of its capital, is the smallest of the 21 American 
Republics. It is the only one of the Central American States lying 
wholly on the Pacific Ocean and is bordered on the land side by 
Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua. Salvador has an area of 
7,225 square miles, somewhat less than the State of New Jersey, and 
enjoys the distinction of being the most densely populated country 
on the American Continent, with 1,707,000 inhabitants, or 236 per 
square mile, which is more than ten times the population per square 
mile of the United States of America (23.2), and nearly equal to 
that of Italy. 

Two mountain chains cross the country almost in its entire length, 
sending out numerous spurs and attaining considerable altitudes. 
Inclosed by these ranges are numerous valleys, among which that of 
the River Lempa is the most important. Coffee, cacao, tobacco, in- 
digo, india rubber, and the so-called " Peruvian balsam," the product 
of the Myroxylon pereirœ^ are the most important products. Gold 
and silver are at present the only mineral products exported. 

HISTORICAL SKETCH. 

When Cortez had completed the conquest of Mexico, he dispatched 
his lieutenants in all directions to explore the country to the south 
and bring it under the Spanish domain. To Pedro Alvarado fell 
the task of exploring what is now the Republic of Salvador, and in 
the year 1524 he invaded the country, defeated the natives, and early 
in the year 1525 captured their capital, Cuscatlan. Salvador then 
became a part of the captain-generalcy of Guatemala and later of the 
vice-royalty of Mexico. It was governed by the Spanish authorities 
residing in Guatemala City. 

Although Salvador suffered less from Spanish rule than some of 
the other countries, being farther removed from the central seat of 
authority, it nevertheless gladly adhered to the movement for inde- 
pendence, which had been initiated in Guatemala on September 15, 
1821, and joined the Central American Federation. A^Hien the fed- 
eration was incorporated into the Mexican Empire, in the year fol- 
lowing, Salvador protested vehemently against this annexation, and 
264 



SALVADOE. 265 

a resolution was adopted by which the people declared themselves in 
favor of annexation to the United States rather than to Mexico. On 
the fall of Iturbide's short-lived empire in 1822, Salvador became 
once more a State of the Central American Federation. 

A constituent congress adopted a constitution on November 22, 
1824. In 1839 the Central American Federation was dissolved, but 
it was not until the year 1841 that Salvador formally withdrew, and 
on February 18 of that year declared its independence and separa- 
tion from the federation. The various efforts to reestablish the 
union which have been made from time to time have not been 
successful. 

Gen. Fernando Figueroa was inaugurated as President of the 
Republic on March 1, 1907, for four years. 

CONSTITUTION AND GOVERNMENT. 

The constitution of Salvador now in force was promulgated on 
August 13, 1886. 

The legislative power is vested in the National Assembly, composed 
of one chamber, called the National Assembly of Deputies, It has 
42 members, 3 deputies being elected for each Department by direct 
popular vote for a term of one year. Every citizen over 18 years of 
age is not only entitled but obliged to vote. 

The President and Vice-President of the Republic are elected by 
popular vote for a term of four years. A Cabinet of four Ministers 
or Secretaries assists the President in the administration of the affairs 
of the country. Its members are appointed by the President, but are 
also responsible to the National Assembly. 

The judiciary of the country is composed of a National Supreme 
Court, several courts of first and second instance, and a number of 
minor courts. The justices of the Supreme Court are elected by the 
National Assembly for a term of two years and the judges of the 
first and second instance are appointed by the Supreme Court for a 
term of two years. The justices of the minor courts are elected by 
popular vote. 

INTERIOR GOVERNMENT. 

The Republic is divided politically into 14 Departments, sub- 
divided into districts, and these into towns and municipalities. The 
governors of the Departments are appointed by the President for a 
term of four years, as are also the executive chiefs of the districts. 
The mayors and municipal councils of the cities are elected b}^ direct 
vote. 

560— Bull. 1—09 18 



266 INTEENATIONAL BUEEAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

The Departments of El Salvador and their respective capitals are : 

Capital. 

San Salvador San Salvador (also tlie capital of the Republic). 

La Libertad Santa Tecla. 

Sonsonate Sonsouate. 

Alinacbapan Alinachapan. 

Santa Ana 1 Santa Ana. 

Chalatenaugo Chalatenango. 

Cuscatlan Cojntepeque. 

Cabanas Sensnntepeque. 

San Vincente San Vicente. 

La Paz : Zacateeolnca. 

Usulutan L'sulutan. 

San Miguel San Miguel. 

Morazan San Francisco. 

La Union La Union. 

President Gen. Fernando Figueroa. 

Minister of Foreign Affairs and Justice Dr. Salvador Rodriguez G. 

Minister of the Treasury and Public 

Credit Señor D. Manuel Lopez Mencia, 

pro tern. 
Minister of Public Instruction, Public 

Works, and Government Dr. Nicolas Angulo. 

Minister of War and Marine Dr. Eusébio Bracamonte, Assistant 

Secretary. 

Note. — List of cabinet officials corrected to July 20, 1909. 

The salary of the President is $9,600 per annum. 

SALVADOR IN 1908. 



Gen. Fernando Figueroa, President of the Republic of Salvador, 
in his message to the Congress, delivered on February 20, 1909, spoke 
of the period of evolution through "which the 
Republic was passing, stating that the Govern- 
ment had done its best to enable the country 
to enlarge its agricultural resources, increase 
the volume of its commerce, develop its arts 
and sciences, improve the customs and culture 
of its people, strengthen the good name of the 
nation abroad, and insure international and 
domestic justice in the affairs of the Republic. 
The results have been most gratifA'ing. 

The published returns of the trade for the 
year 1908 recorded an increase in total valua- 
tions amounting to $500.000 as compared with 
the preceding year, the balance in favor of the Republic being over 
$1,000,000. With the improvement of communication facilities with 
the United States a still further increase in the volume of commerce 
between the two countries is looked for. 




general fernando figueroa, 
President of Salvador 



SALVAD OE. 267 

FOREIGN AFFAIRS. 

The relations of Salvador with the countries of Europe and 
America continue to be friendly and amicable, those with the United 
States being still further strengthened during the year by a Conven- 
tion of Arbitration approved by the National Assembly of the Re- 
public on May 1, 1909. Salvador participated in the Fifth Pan- 
American Medical Congress, which met in the neighboring Republic 
of Guatemala, early in 1908, in the inauguration of the Central 
American International Bureau in the city of Guatemala, on Septem- 
ber 15, 1908, and in the opening of the Central American Court of 
Justice at Cartago, Costa Rica. Delegates were also sent to the First 
Central American Conference which met at the capital of Honduras 
on January 1, 1909. The next meeting of this body is fixed for 
January 1, 1910, at San Salvador. 

On July 13, 1908, the Republic ratified all of the conventions of 
the Third Pan-American Conference, and on July 20 of the same year 
signed a naturalization treaty with the United States. 

Foreign trade relations were strengthened by a commercial treaty 
with Germany concluded in April, 1908, the contracting parties agree- 
ing to a most-favorecl-nation clause with reference to commercial, 
maritime, and consular matters. 

The adherence of the Republic to the Universal Postal Union of 
Rome, May 26, 1906, was announced by decree dated May 22, 1908. 

FINANCE. 

The financial condition of the country is ver}^ satisfactory, the 
credit of the nation at home and abroad having been strengthened by 
a judicious disbursement of the public funds. The debt of the Re- 
public at the close of 1908 was reported as $11,283,185, while the 
revenues for the year amounted to $4,003,626, showing an increase 
over the j^ear 1907 of $752,861. As a result of the conservative ad- 
ministration of 1908 the Republic was enabled to enter upon the year 
1909 with a credit balance of $208,981. The budget law for the year 
1908-9 estimates receipts at $6,799,200 and disbursements at $6,865,711. 
Estimated receipts are classified as follows: Imports, $930,000; ex- 
ports, $717,862. Internal taxes: Liquors, $937,500; stamps, $86,250; 
miscellaneous, $246,750 ; and proceeds of the £1,000,000 loan at 75 per 
cent are placed at $3,375,000. 

A decree of April 7, 1908, imposed a tax of one-half of 1 per cent 
on all sales of real estate in the Republic, the proceeds to be devoted 
to the construction of public works in accordance with the judgment 
of the departmental governors and the Executive. 



268 INTEENATIONAL BUKEAU OF THE AMEKICAIST EEPUBLICS. 

COMMERCE. 

In its foreign commerce for the year 1908 Salvador enjoyed a 
period of prosperity, the total trade values reported amounting to 
$10,028,237.^8, of which imports figured for $4,240,580.21 and ex- 
ports for $5,787,677.34, an increase in trade of over $500,000 as com- 
pared with 1907, when imports amounted to $3,440,721.23 and exports 
to $6,065.383.88. 

The leading countries of origin for imports, in the order of their 
importance, were Great Britain, United States, Germany, France, 
Italy, Belgium, and Honduras; the principal articles being cotton 
manufactured goods, hardware, flour, drugs and medicines, boots and 
shoes, silk fabrics, and woolen goods. 

Tlie countries of destination of the exports from the Republic dur- 
ing the year were: United States, $1,984,000; Germany, $993,221; 
France, $971,813 ; Great Britain, $429,003 ; Italy, $243,762 ; and Aus- 
tria, $211,917. Of the coffee exported from the country, France takes 
something over 37 per cent; the United States, 18 per cent; Germany, 
15 per cent; followed by Italy, Great Britain, Austria, and Spain in 
diminishing ratios. 

Exports in the order of their importance were: Coiïee, 55,215,110 
pounds, $3,899,430; minerals, 66,068 pounds, $1,235,831; sugar, 7,042,- 
178 pounds, $251,076.75; indigo, 421,350 pounds, $197,036.11; balsam, 
143,678 pounds, $77,473.86; other items shipped were hides, tobacco, 
rubber, and rice, aggregating 3,927,708 pounds, worth $338,200. 
Shipments to the United States for the year amounted to $1,984,000, 
showing a slight decrease as compared with 1907, when they amounted 
to $2,018,459. For the same period the United States reports ship- 
ments to Salvador amounting to $1,404,573, as compared with 
$1,592,473 in 1907. 

The shipments to the United States were made up in part as fol- 
lows : Gold bullion, $822,181 ; coffee, $719,455 ; gold and silver, $387,- 
902 ; sugar, $26,680 ; rubber, $10,595 ; indigo and hides about $10,000 ; 
and other articles in lesser valuations. Substantial gains were noted 
in shipments of gold and silver bullion, rubber, sugar, and indigo; 
balsam, copper, and miscellaneous items remaining stationar}^; while 
in hides and lead there was a considerable decline. As the develop- 
ment of the mining resources of the country increases, larger ship- 
ments of gold and silver bullion will undoubtedly be made to the 
United States. The coffee of the country has always found its best 
market in Europe. 

PRODUCTION AND INDUSTRIES. 

The interests of the country are essentially agricultural, the prin- 
cipal crop being coffee, of which the annual output amounts to 37,500 



SALVADOE. 269 

tons, valued at approximately $5,000,000. A number of articles are 
cultivated more or less extensively, among them cacao, rubber, balsam, 
sugar, indigo, tobacco, and bananas. Formerly cotton ranked as a 
crop of importance among the agricultural products of the Republic, 
about $700,000 of this staple being exported, but shipments have 
gradually declined, the crop yielding in importance first to indigo 
and later to coffee. The forests of the Republic contain cabinet and 
hard woods of different grades and qualities, mahogany, cedar, mul- 
berry, ironwood, walnut, and laurel; also dyewoods, barks, balsams, 
gums, and resins. Among the textile fibers produced are henequén, 
ramie, escobilla, cocoanut, and capulin. 

Mining is a profitable branch of enterprise conducted to some 
extent in different sections. Numerous valuable deposits of copper, 
iron, lead, gold, and silver are being exploited, while other minerals 
have been located in different parts of the country. The richest 
mineral section of the Republic is the Department of Santa Ana, 
where numerous veins of iron, copper, lead, gold, and silver ores are 
known to exist, particularly lead and copper. Smelters in the district 
are few and the methods employed for treating the ore antiquated. 

Of the gold-mining properties the San Sebastian, owned by an 
English company and situated in La Union, is reputed to be the 
richest. The Tabanco mine, the property of a French syndicate, the 
San Bartolo, Eva, and Copetillo, the latter properties being owned 
by American interests, also produce a high grade of ore. The San 
Miguel district contains several mines producing ore of high grade. 

The manufacturing industries, though of less importance, have at- 
tained a degree of progress in the following articles : Fiber ropes and 
hammocks, cigars and cigarettes made of native tobacco, palm-leaf 
mats and hats, saddlery, confectioner}^, and dairy products. The 
manufacture of textiles is successfully conducted, the value of the 
cotton and silk tissues made in the country amounting to about 
$80,000 per year. The cotton thread employed in ^he elaboration of 
the product comes principally from England. Forge iron, furniture, 
boots and shoes, and tanned leather are also manufactured to some 
extent. 

Cattle and horses are bred with profit, especially near the seacoast. 

COMMUNICATION. 

Progress in railway construction during the year in the Republic 
was satisfactory, new lines being undertaken and negotiations entered 
into with a view to still further increasing the existing mileage of 
the country. The present railway system in operation is about 100 
miles in extent and includes a line from the capital to the port of 
Acajutla with branch connection to the city of Santa Ana, while 



270 INTERNATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

another line runs from the capital to Santa Tecla. Work on the 
road between Santa Ana and the Guatemalan frontier has been con- 
tracted for and negotiations are in progress looking to the construc- 
tion of a line from the capital to San Miguel and La Union. The 
importance of this contract lies in the fact that it covers the section 
of the Pan-American line belonging to Salvador, as defined in the 
convention signed in Washington on December 20, 1907, on the 
occasion of the Central American Peace Conference. The road leav- 
ing the port of La Union will connect with the cities of Usulutan, San 
Vicente, and Cojutepec, and, uniting with the line already built 
between the capital and Santa Ana, proceed to the Guatemalan 
frontier to make connection with the Atlantic railway of that country 
recently inaugurated. Government aid is guaranteed in the building 
of the line and free entry for material needed in construction granted. 

Other contemplated extensions include a line from Santa Ana to 
Ahuachapan via Chalchuapa and Atiquizaya, and a union of the Cen- 
tral Railway of Salvador with the Northern Guatemala. The former 
carries a subsidy of $10,000 per annum for the life of the grant, which 
is thirtj^-five j^ears, and the latter ofiers an advantageous connection, 
in that it would greatlj^ stimulate the mining industry in the entire 
western section of the Republic. 

The Republic of Salvador is accessible by water only from the 
Pacific Ocean, its ports being La Union, Espíritu Santo, La Con- 
cordia, La Libertad, and Acajutla, of which La Union is the most 
important and the commercial center of the Republic. La Libertad 
and Acajutla are the remaining two ports at which ocean-going ves- 
sels call, the other ports being used for the coastwise trade onl}^ 

The Pacific Mail Steamship Companj^ and the Kosmos Line call 
regularly at the three ports mentioned, employing from nineteen to 
twenty-one days in the trip from San Francisco, from which port 
they sail regularly every ten days, first-class passage being $100 to 
any one of these ports. The capital of the Republic, San Salvador, 
can best be reached by rail from the port of Acjutla. 

Among the numerous rivers of Salvador the most important are the 
Lempa, the Paza, and the San Miguel, the first mentioned flowing 
through the entire territory of the Republic, but all navigable only 
for small craft. 

A number of picturesque lakes are in the country, Lake Guijar, 
the largest, being 15 miles long and 5 miles wide. Lake Ilopango is 
9 miles long and 3 miles wide. All are navigable for small vessels of 
light draft. 

Along the coast are a number of islands which belong to the Repub- 
lic, viz. Punta Zacate, Conchaguita, Meanguera, Martin Perez, Perico 
Chuchito, Conejo, Irca, and Meanguerita, most of these being located 



SALVADOE. 271 

in the Gulf of Fonseca. The largest of these is Punta Zacate, 30 miles 
in length. 

A new tramway line has been opened to traffic in the capital of the 
Eepublic. 

Internal improvements have also occupied the attention of the Gov- 
ernment. To the 2,000 miles of highroads already in existence new 




THE IZALCO VOLCANO NEAR SAN SALVADOR, SALVADOR. 

This volcano is almost continuously active. In 1798 it rose out of the plain and gradually attained 
an elevation of about 6,000 feet. Is sometimes called the "Safety valve of Salvador," also the 
" Light-house of Salvador." 

roads have been added and repairs made, bridges built and repaired 
and new construction projected; public buildings have been inspected 
and repaired ; the schools of the country reorganized ; modern methods 
of instruction introduced, and modern sanitary laws promulgated 
throughout the Republic. 



272 IjSTTEENATIONAL BUEEAU of the AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

The postal service of the Republic is satisfactorily administered, 
the post-offices being graded according to the population of the dif- 
ferent cities. Offices of the first class other than the capital are 
Santa Ana, San Miguel, Sonsonate, Santa Tecla, Cojutepeque, and 
San Vicente. The latest figures available showed that at the begin- 
ning of 1907 there were 82 post-offices in the Eepublic and 200 tele- 
graph offices, operating 2,400 miles of wire, over which 1,039,778 tele- 
grams were sent. The telephone system represented 100 stations and 
1,924 miles of line. 





URUGUAY 




The Oriental Eepublic of Uruguay lies between the Atlantic Ocean, 
the Rio de la Plata (River Plate) , Brazil, and the Argentine Repub- 
lic. It is separated from Brazil by the rivers Cuareim and Yaguaron 
and Lake Merim and from the Argentine Republic by the Rio de la 
Plata and the Uruguay River. 

Uruguay has an area of 72,210 square miles, and, although the 
smallest independent State in South America, it is yet larger than 
New York and West Virginia combined. It has a population of 
1,111,758, or 15.4 per square mile, which is one-third less than the 
population per square mile of the United States of America. 

The most notable feature of Uruguay is its extent of long, rolling 
plains, comprising almost the entire length of the country, occasion- 
ally broken by low mountain ranges and copiously watered by numer- 
ous streams. 

By reason of its peculiar topography the Republic is naturally 
suited for stock raising, which is its principal industry. ISTumerous 
meat-packing houses are located throughout its territory, the best 
known of which is, perhaps, the Liebig's Extract of Meat Company. 
Agriculture is practiced to a considerable extent, nearly all of the 
cereals being raised, although mostly for home consumption, only a 
small quantity being until recently available for export. In the 
forests are found a number of excellent cabinet and other woods, 
noted for their beauty and durability, while the mountains contain 
silver, copper, and gold. 

HISTORICAL SKETCH. 

To Juan Diaz de Solis is usually given the credit of having dis- 
covered the Rio de la Plata in the year 1515, and it was he who first 
landed on Uruguayan soil and took possession of the country in the 
name of the King of Spain. This act cost him his life, the savage 
Chauras, who at that time inhabited the country, attacking and 
killing him and all his party. 

The country was explored by several other Spaniards and Portu- 
guese, none or whom, however, succeeded in conquering the aborigines, 
and it was not until the Jesuits arrived in the year 1624 that perma- 
nent settlements were established. The territory was then placed 
under the jurisdiction of the Governor of Paraguay and later under 
the Viceroy of the Rio de la Plata. 

Portugal, however, laid claim to the territory of Uruguay, basing 
her claims on the terms of the treaty of Tordesilla of June 7, 1494. 

273 



274 INTERNATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



The country Avas for nearly two centuries a matter of contention be- 
tween the two powers, Colonia and later Montevideo being succes- 
sively occupied and evacuated by the troops of both Spain and 
Portugal. The territory was ceded to Spain October 1, 1777, by the 
treaty of San Ildefonso. 

In the year 1806, Great Britain being at war with Spain, a fleet 
was dispatched to the Eio de la Plata, under Sir Home Poham, who 
attacked Montevideo but was repulsed. A second attempt, made in 
the year following with a stronger force, was more successful, and 
on Januar}^ 23, 1807, the British captured the fort of Montevideo 
after a seige of eight days. They were obliged, however, to evacuate 
their position a few months later when General Whitelocke was 
defeated at Buenos Aires. 

The movement for independence in Uruguay may be said to have 
begun with the declaration of independence at Buenos Aires on May 
23, 1810. Uruguay was declared a part of the 
United Provinces of Rio de la Plata, and on 
Ma}^ 18, 1811, the Spanish troops were de- 
feated and utterly routed by the Uruguayan, 
Gen. José Artigas. 

Brazil, however, now claimed the territory 
of Uruguay,' and, sending a strong force to 

occupy the country, took possession of it, and 

j[ ^\ ^^^H on May 9, 1824, the Emperor of Brazil de- 
^^m ~ S^^^m clared the territory to be incorporated into 

■Hp- ~^^^^M Brazil as the Cisplatine State. The patriots, 

ably assisted by the Argentine Republic, de- 
ep Uruguay, feated the Brazilian troops on October 12, 
1825. This led to a war between Brazil and the Argentine Re- 
jDublic, which was ended by the treatj?^ of August 27, 1828, whereby 
both countries recognized the independence of Uruguay. A Con- 
stitutional Congress met in November of the same year and ap- 
pointed General Rondeau provisional Governor. The constitution 
having been promulgated on July 18, 1830, Gen. José Rivera was 
elected the first President of the Republic and inaugurated on No- 
vember 6 of the same year. 

Dr. Claudio Williman, the present Chief Executive, was inaugu- 
rated March 1, 1907, for a term of four years. 




CONSTITUTION AND GOVERNMENT. 



The constitution of Uruguay was promulgated on July 18, 1830, 
and, with some slight amendments, is still in force. 

The Senate and House of Representatives compose the General 
Assembly, in which all legislative power is vested. Representatives 



UKTJGUAY. 275 

are elected directly by popular vote in the proportion of 1 for every 
3,000 inhabitants or fraction exceeding 2,000, and for a term of three 
years. Senators are elected indirectly for a term of six years, one 
for. each Department. The Senate is renewed by thirds every two 
years. 

Every citizen over 20 years of age, who is physically and mentally 
able to do so, is entitled to vote. 

A permanent committee, composed of two Senators and five Repre- 
sentatives, represents the Congress during recess, whose duty it is to 
assist and advise the President on all matters legislative, and to act 
for the General Assembly. 

The President is chosen by the General Assembly for a term of 
four 3^ears and may not be reelected for the term immecliateh^ fol- 
lowing his own. In case of the President's disability or death, the 
presiding officer of the Senate assumes the Presidency. 

A cabinet having charge of six Executive Departments is ap- 
pointed b}^ the President and is directly responsible to him and to 
the Legislature. The latter bod}^ ma}^ demand the resignation of the 
cabinet. 

The judiciary is composed of a High Court of Justice, courts of 
appeal, courts of First Instance, and justice of peace courts. The 
justices of the High Court of Justice are elected by the National 
Assemblj^, while the judges of the other courts are appointed by the 
High Court of Justice. 

INTERIOR GOVERNMENT. 

The Republic is divided politicallj^ into 19 Departments, which 
are subdivided into sections and districts. The chief executive of the 
Department is the jefe folitico^ appointed by the President of the 
Eepublic. He is assisted by an administrative council, the members 
of which are elected by direct vote. 

The Departments of Uruguay and their respective capitals are : 

Department of — Capital. 

Artigas San Eugenio. 

Canelones Villa Guadalupe. 

Cerro-Largo Melo. 

Durazno Durazno. 

Flores Trinidad or Porongos. 

Florida Florida. 

La Colonia Colonia del Sacramento. 

Maldonado Maldonado. 

Minas Minas. 

Montevideo Montevideo ; also capital of the Republic. 

Paysandu Paysandu. 

Rio Negro Fray Bentos or Independencia. 

Rivera Rivera. 

Rocha Rocha. 



276 INTERNATIONAL BUEEAU OF THE AMERICAN EEPUBLICS. 

Department of — Capital. 

Salto Salto. 

San Jose San Jose. 

Soriano Mercedes. 

Tacuarembó Tacuarembó or San Fructuoso. 

Treinta y Tres Treinta y Tres. 

President Dr. Claudio Willima]S". 

Minister of the Interior Dr. José Espaltee. 

Minister of Foreign Affairs Dr. Antonio Bachini. 

Minister of Public Works Señor D. Juan Lamolle. 

Minister of Public Instruction and Industry Dr. Alfredo Giribaldi. 

Minister of War and Marine Lieut. Gen. Eduardo Vazquez, 

Minister of the Treasury Dr. Blas Vidal. 

Note. — List of cabinet officials corrected to July 20, 1909. 

The salary of the President is $36,000 per annum. 



URUGUAY IN 1908. 

President Williman, in his message to the General Assembly deliv- 
ered on February 19, 1909, took occasion to refer to the prosperity 
enjoyed b}^ the Republic during the year 1908, which was an epoch- 
marking one for the country in inany respects. Everj' branch of 
commerce and national industry reported unequaled prosperitj^ ; crops 
and prices were greater than ever before, customs receipts reached a 
figure in excess of all previous records, municipal traffic increased 100 
per cent over 1907, and the profits reported for banking institutions 
were enormous. A recently enacted mining law (April 30, 1909) is 
designed to develop greater interest in this branch of national indus- 
try by permitting the free entry of requisite equipment. 

FOREIGN AFFAIRS. 

Pelations with other countries continued on a friendly and cordial 
basis, as evidenced by the visits of foreign fleets on missions of friend- 
ship and by beneficial arrangements of outstanding questions with 
adjoining Republics. The Brazilian Government conceded naviga- 
tion privileges on the River Yaguaron and Lake Merim, and the solu- 
tion of certain questions with the Argentine Republic was effected, 
A criminal extradition treaty with the United States was concluded 
and a naturalization treaty with the same country arranged, subject 
to legislative approval. 

FINANCE. 

The estimated expenditures for the financial year 1909, as presented 
to the General Assembly, fixed the amount at approximately $20,- 
000,000, which is an increase over 1908 of $1,647,000. The fiscal year 



URUGUAY. 277 

ended June 30, 1908, showed a surplus of $2,027,166, while the 
steadiness of revenue receipts and continued progress in all branches 
of national activity justify the prediction of a surplus of nearly 
$1,500,000 for the year 1908-9. The custom-house receipts showed 
a consistent and steady increase, the aggregate revenue from this 
source during the year 1907-8 reaching the total of $13,365,525 and 
exceeding by $399,796 the receipts for 1906-7. The monthly receipts 
averaged $1,113,794, the actual figures showing less than $1,000,000 
in only two months of the twelve. The receipts from this source for 
the year 1908-9 are estimated at $12,045,000, and a revision of the 
existing tariff, now under consideration by the Ministry of Finance, 
is expected to still further augment the national income through this 
source of revenue. 

The public debt of the nation at the beginning of the year 1908 
amounted to $128,138,917, and by December 31 of the same year it had 
risen to $130,157,089. The service of the debt was punctually dis- 
charged and during the year new bonds issued. The Bank of the 
Republic, which, since its establishment in 1897, has realized profits 
amounting to $5,183,916.52, reported for 1908 the most prosperous 
year of its existence, the surplus reaching the total of $1,054,899.21. 
Of this amount 10 per cent has been added to the reserve fund, 10 
per cent allotted to the discharge of bonus shares, $485,980 applied to 
the 1896 loan, $51,700 for the legislative palace, and the remainder 
applied to the paid-up capital of the bank. 

COMMERCE. 

The foreign commerce of the Republic for the year was represented 
by $71,899,324, as compared with $69,576,000 in 1907, for which, 
until the delivery of the President's message, only a general estimate 
had been obtainable. Imports are reported as $34,618,804 and exports 
$37,280,523, respectively, as compared with $34,425,000 and $35,- 
151,000 for the year 1907. According to statistics of the United 
States, that country figured in the export trade of the Republic for 
$2,106,943 in 1908 and $2,902,085 in 1907, and in the import trade for 
$3,134,694 and $3,971,001, respectively. Ninety-four per cent of the 
country's exports consisted of live-stock products — ^hides, jerked beef, 
frozen meat, meat extracts, and tallow. Dairy products are gradu- 
ally taking an important place on the export list, Buenos Aires and 
European cities being the leading purchasers. 

The wool-exporting season for Uruguay, which closed on Sep- 
tember 30, 1908, recorded shipments for the preceding twelve months 
amounting to 94,418 bales, while shipments for the season of 1907 
amounted to 81,534 bales and in 1906, 74,636 bales. The principal 
ports of destination were Marseilles, Bordeaux, Hamburg, Bremen, 



278 INTERNATIONAL BUEEAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

Dunkirk, Antwerp, Havre, and Liverpool. In this record advanced 
shipments were noted for all of these ports, whereas shipments to 
Xew York declined to 1,599 bales in 1908, as against 5,359 in 1907. 

Exports of hides and skins aggregated 1,752,975, being practically 
the same as in 1906-7. Of this product the United States took 
452,142, Belgium 344,386, Germany 323,261, France 198,234, and other 
European countries, exclusive of Great Britain, 362,914. Other 
articles of export were 23,317 sheep, 288 cattle, 304 mules, 94,028 
quarters of beef. 510,760 bales jerked beef, 2,723 tons of bones, 77,725 
bales of hair, 15,224 hogsheads of tallow, 15,939 pipes and casks 
of same, 122,132 carcasses, and 1,408 mutton quarters. 

Shipments to the United States and Porto Kico, as recorded on 
the consular files, comprised hides to the value of $2,674,172.34 ; wool, 
$553,398; dried beef, $137,776.74; bones, $62,751.27; feathers, 
$24,031.73; and glue stock, $6,599.97. Although complete detailed 
export statistics are not available, there were shipped abroad through 
the port of Montevideo in 1908, 34,662 tons of wdieat, 7,799 tons of 
bran, 6,928 tons of flour, 692 tons of corn, and 143 tons of barley. 
This is significant in view of the fact that a few years ago Uruguay 
imported cereals and flour. 

The latest statistics (1906) showing the participation of other coun- 
tries in trade with Uruguay credits to Great Britain 17.03 per cent, 
or $12,300,000 ; France, 16.66 per cent, or $12,020,000 ; Germany, 14.28 
per cent, or $10,300,000; and the United States 7.89 per cent, or 
$5,695,000. In the imj^ort trade Great Britain is represented by 
28.32 per cent ; France, 11.65 ; Germany, 15.67 ; and the United States, 
over 9 per cent ; while of the exports Great Britain received 5.41 ; 
France, 21.79; Germany, 12.84; and the United States, 5.97 per cent. 

With the establishment of the free zone a large transit trade will 
be opened up with neighboring countries, as the relations existing 
between many of the business houses of Montevideo and those of 
Paraguay, Argentine Republic, Chile, and Brazil are such as to 
insure beneficial results for all interested. 

The live-stock trade of the country was greatly stimulated by the 
cancellation of the duties imposed on cattle, mules, horses, sheep, and 
goats by the Brazilian Government. 

PRODUCTION AND INDUSTRIES. 

At present the leading products of the country are agricultural 
and pastoral, the former including wheat, flour, corn, linseed, barley, 
hay, and tobacco, and the latter representing a total of about 
30,000,000 head of stock, embracing approximately 7,000,000 cattle, 
20,000,000 sheep, 600,000 horses, 100,000 hogs and mules and goats. 
There were imported into the Republic during the year, through the 



URUGUAY. 



279 



j)ort of Montevideo for breeding purposes, over 1,500 head, and 16,123 
head through other ports. Exports for the year numbered 253,851, 
of which 33,960 head were shipped through Montevideo. An appro- 
priation of $40,000 was made during the year for the support of 
live-stock exhibits for the purpose of stimulating the industry to 
the greatest possible extent. 

Of the great estancias or grass farms devoted to the raising of 
live stock, the Liebig Company owns seven in Uruguay for the sup- 
ply of its extract factory at Fray Bentos. The killing season com- 
mences early in January and lasts until June, and during the year 




LIVE STOCK EXPOSITION AT MONTEVIDEO, URUGUAY. 

Cattle raising is one of the leading industries of the country. In 1908 the Republic exported 175,636 

head of cattle. 

1907, 252,630 cattle were slaughtered. The killing is done under the 
inspection of an expert of the company, and great care is used in the 
selection of the animals. 

The cereals under cultivation in the Republic during the year 
1907-8 represented areas as follows: Wheat, 617,000 acres; flax, 
64,000; oats, 8,000; barley, 5,000; and alpiste or canary seed, 700. 
The wheat production for the year was 202,208 tons, and flax 18,372 
tons. The production of corn was 3,011,726 bushels, grown on 410,068 
acres. Experiments with this crop are being conducted at the agri- 
cultural experiment station of the University of Montevideo, utiliz- 
ing new methods and modern machinery. 



280 IXTEENATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

Wine production amounted to 4,904,321 gallons. Shipments of 
fruits, reaching thousands of tons, were made to Buenos Aires and 
Brazilian ports. Vegetables, medicinal plants, and tobacco were 
grown in moderate quantities. Experiments conducted with the mul- 
berry tree show that silk culture might be undertaken to advantage 
in the country. 

A topographical survey is being made by the Government with 
the view of thoroughly investigating the climatic and soil conditions 
of the country for the purpose of encouraging the crops most suited 
to the different sections. 

The development of the native flax is assured under the law revok- 
ing the import duties on the machinery and apparatus used in the 
extraction of this fiber and its elaboration. The law further pro- 
vides that no export tax shall be levied on the manufactured prod- 
ucts of this industry for a period of three years from the date of the 
promulgation of the law. 

Dairy interests are likewise receiving the support of the Govern- 
ment, factories and requisite machinery being exempted from taxa- 
tion for ten years, and the sum of $20,000 appropriated for a Na- 
tional Exhibition of Dairy Products to be held during the winter 
of 1910. 

^"Vliile Uruguay produces in great abundance raw materials and 
foodstuffs, mostly animal products, the establishment of manufac- 
turing industries on a large scale is hindered hj reason of insuffi- 
cient supplies of fuels and materials, not because the country has not 
the one and can not produce the other, but because production in 
both lines is inadequately exploited. The country is rich in minerals, 
and commercial coal has been discovered in various localities, but 
dependence is placed on foreign fuel, machinery, and a large number 
of primary and secondary materials needed in the manufacturing 
industries. 

During 1908 the gold mining works of Cuñapiru crushed 20,515 
tons of ore, yielding 102.395 kilograms of gold worth $45,056. Allu- 
vial deposits and quartz have been found in the Departments of 
Minas, Treinta y Tres, Montevideo, and Rivera, although only two 
mines are in operation, yielding, during 1908, 20,514 tons of ore and 
2,708 ounces of metal, worth $46,585.63. 

The Uruguay Mining Syndicate, an English company, has secured 
four gold-bearing concessions called, collectively, the Zapuca mines, 
and four others, called Grupo Independencia, in the Department of 
Cerro Largo. They are to be worked by four distinct companies, 
each being capitalized at $2,433,250. 

Coal, whose existence in commercial quantities has frequently been 
reported, is mined in the Departments of Montevideo, Santa Lucia, 



URUGUAY. 



281 



and Cerro Largo. In the latter instance a company has been formed 
for the adequate exploitation of the beds. The Cerro Largo coal, 
as well as that of Santa Lucia, is of good quality. Peat coal is found 
in Maldonado and Montevideo, and peat alone also exists near the 
Bay of Maldonado. 

Petroleum, while of known existence, has not been found as yet in 
paying quantities. 



UF^tJC^UA-Y- 




BCWDEfiUJ 
S*.4la BALES 




ZB.O03 SAI.CS 




Zl.SOl BALES 




i7.s::e bau:s 




1.Z.S53 BALES 




vrooL, SHIPT^EMTS IN 130a 



I.OOS SALES 



Asbestos, antimony, graphite, copper-silver, and copper-iron, as 
well as iron, are found in various sections. 

The Government is liberal in the privileges it offers for the ade- 
quate development of its mineral resources, allowing the free importa- 
tion of requisite machinery and implements and granting ample 
protection to investing companies. 

Gems and various semiprecious stones are also known to abound 
in the Republic. 

560— Bull. 1—09 19 



282 INTEENATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

COMMUNICATION . 

Railroads in operation during the year had a total mileage of 1,447 
miles, of which 780 miles were under State guaranty. The Central 
Uruguay Eastern extension opened two sections in May and Novem- 
ber and another is scheduled for opening in May, 1909. Work was 
begun on the Midland branch from Algorta to Fray Bentos and on 
the Eastern extension to La Sierra and Maldonado. 

The rolling stock of the lines comprised 146 locomotives, 136 pas- 
senger coaches, 81 luggage vans, and 2,580 cargo and cattle trucks. 
Cargo was transported to the amount of 1,211,861 tons and passen- 
gers were carried to the number of 1,157,875. Gross revenues were 
$4,362,666, with profits of $1,783,057. 

The total amount of railwaj^ capital now guaranteed is $28,195,399. 

A bill has been introduced in Congress providing for the construc- 
tion of a section of railroad connecting the port of Colonia with the 
Brazilian railway system. The completion of this line will insure 
direct communication between E,io de Janeiro and Montevideo and 
will reduce the journey to four days. It is also proposed to improve 
the harbor at Colonia. 

In the capital, transition has been made from animal to electric 
traction in the tramway service,, the total car mileage for the year 
being 4,716,906. The tram line between the Santa Lucia saladeros 
and Montevideo has an extent of 21.75 miles, part steam and part 
animal traction. 

STEAMSHIPS AND WATERWAYS. 

Uruguay is easily accessible both from the Atlantic Ocean or from 
the Rio de la Plata (River Plate) and Uruguay River, possessing 
numerous ports along the latter, which afford an easy and con- 
venient outlet for its products. 

Its principal port and commercial center is Montevideo, the capital, 
situated on the estuary of the Rio de la Plata, at its mouth in the 
Atlantic Ocean, where the largest ocean-going vessels may enter. 
The other ports on the Atlantic are Maldonado and La Paloma, while 
on the Rio de la Plata are Colonia, Puerto Sauce, Conchillas, and 
Martin Chico; and on the Uruguay River there are as many as ten 
ports open to interoceanic trade, viz, Carmelo, Nueva Palmira, 
Soriano, Fray Bentos, Nuevo Berlin, Casa Blanca, Paysandu, Nuevo 
Paysandu, Salto, and Santa Rosa. On the Rio Negro is the interior 
port of Mercedes and on the San Salvador River the port of the 
same name. 

Montevideo is reached from New York either hj the Lamport & 
Holt Line, sailing on the 20th of each month and making the run to 
Montevideo in twenty-one days, fare, $190 to $250; by the steamers 
of the Lloyd Brazileiro, or by the Prince Line boats. The last two 



URUGUAY. 283 

named employ from twenty-five to twenty-eight days, charging $135' 
for first-class passage. The Barber Line, the Norton Line, and the- 
Hoiilder Line steamships also ply between New York and Montevideo,, 
with irregular sailings and but limited passenger accommodation. 

The Lamport & Holt Steamship Company maintains a service be- 
tween Rio de Janeiro and New York, sailing three times a month and 
transferring its passengers for Montevideo or Buenos Aires to the 
steamers of the Eoyal Mail Steamship Company at Rio de Janeiro. 

With the West Coast connection is maintained by means of the 
Kosmos Line and the Pacific Steam Navigation Company, the former 
plying between San Francisco and Hamburg and the latter between 
Panama and Liverpool. With European ports a number of fast and 
elegantly fitted steamers establish direct communication, plying regu- 
larly between Montevideo and Liverpool, Southampton, Marseilles,, 
Bordeaux, Genoa, Naples, Barcelona, Vigo, Hamburg, Bremen, Ant- 
werp, and Rotterdam; the New Zealand Steamship Company main- 
tains a regular service with New Zealand and Australia. 

The excellent and extensive river system of Uruguay provides the 
country with over TOO miles of navigable rivers, the most important 
being the Rio de la Plata and Uruguay River, which together fur- 
nish over 500 miles. The Uruguay River is navigable for vessels 
of 14 feet draft as far as the city of Paysandu, and above that for 
vessels of 9 feet draft. The Rio Negro is navigable for ocean-going 
vessels as far as the city of Mercedes, and above that for light-draft 
vessels ; and the Cuareim, Yi, Tacuarembó, Queguay, Arapej^, Ceboll- 
ati, Santa Lucia, San Jose, Yaguaron, Olimar, Tacuari, Dayman, San 
Salvador, and San Luis are all navigable short distances for ocean- 
going vessels and for small craft into the interior of the country. 

The only lake of any importance is Lake Merim, situated on the 
border of Brazil, and on which a regular line of steamers maintains 
communication with the different towns along its shores. 

The Compañía de Navegación Mihanovich has established a regular 
service between Montevideo and Buenos Aires and ports on the Uru- 
guay and Paraguay rivers. The city of Asuncion, Paraguay, is 
reached from Montevideo by one of the steamers of this company in 
six days. 

Of the steamship lines calling at Montevideo, 18 are under British 
register, T German, 3 French, 4 Italian, 2 Spanish, 1 Swedish, 1 
Dutch, 1 Austrian, and 1 Brazilian. Of these, 7 freight and 2 
passenger and freight lines run to United States ports. 

The total number of steamers entering the port of Montevideo dur- 
ing the year was 3,064, with a tonnage of 6,783,788 ; and of sailing ves- 
sels 259 with 148,925 tons burden; clearances reported being 3,014 
with 6,642,128 tons and 295 with 160,157 tons for the two classes of 
vessels, respectively. In the former class British ships predominated, 



284 INTEKaSTATIONAL BUEEAU OF THE AMERICAN EEPUBLICS, 

while in the latter Argentine vessels outranked other nationalities, 
followed by Italian and native registers. 

At interior ports 380 steamers arrived with 243,871 tons burden, 
clearing to the number of 394 with 260,864 tons ; while sailing vessels 
to the number of 1,076 with 39,227 tons entered and 1.078 with 48,541 
tons cleared. 

In the shipping lists Uruguayan vessels figure largely, 102 steamers 
and 50 sailing vessels having entered Montevideo during 1908 under 
national register, and at interior ports 194 steamers and 973 sailers. 

The Uruguayan Government is desirous of encouraging the re- 
pairing and building of vessels in the Republic, and in accordance 
with a recently enacted law free entry through the customs is allowed 
for such materials as are required for the construction, installation, 
working, and preserving of the dockyards, shipyards, and dry docks 
existing or to be established during the ensuing twenty-five years. 

Engineering works under government supervision progressed satis- 
factorily. Of the 35 bridges planned, 12 were completed, 7 com- 
menced, and 10 more are in course of construction. The Montevideo 
port works made normal progress. The construction of the moles is 
proceeding. Sanitary works are to be completed during 1909. 

The general scheme for the necessary installations of the new port 
have been approved and $500,000 voted for the work. 

In addition to continuation on the work of harbor improvements 
at Montevideo, for which a supplementary appropriation of $1,375,- 
000 was made on April 15, 1909, in conjunction with the apj^roval of 
the contract therefor, the Government has decided to develop the port 
of La Palma, about 150 miles to the east, and about $1,000,000 are to 
be expended on improvements at Colonia, provided the proposed Pan- 
American extension from Pernambuco is completed. 

There still remain unexpended over $3,500,000 for transit works, 
to which the Chambers have been asked to add $5,170,000, so that 
not only the original plans may be carried out, but also valuable 
additions made. Several new bridges are to be built and the canaliza- 
tion of the Rio N'egro effected. For sanitary works in the interior 
$517,000 have been appropriated and other improvements provided 
for, including $20,680 as a bonus for the establishment of a sugar 
refinery at La Sierra. 

POSTS AND TELEGRAPHS. 

At the close of 1908 post and telegraph offices in the Republic 
numbered 1,025, of which 13 new branches, 53 agencies, and 3 tele- 
graphic offices had been established during the year. The movement 
of correspondence was 108,113,772 pieces, an increase of 11,667.055 
pieces over 1907. Telegrams were transmitted to the number of 



UEUGTJAY. 



285 



283,528, showing an increase of 35,375. Postal revenues amounted 
to $595,391, an increase for the year of $17,298, and being $40,000 
more than the budget estimate. 

Wireless equipment for telegraphic communication has been es- 
tablished at Montevideo and Punta del Este and a station is under 
construction on Lobos Island. A national telephone service is to be 
opened in the capital. 

The number of public schools at the close of 1908 was 1,781, an 
increase of 110 over the previous year, and an increased attendance 
of 7,000 is reported. Private schools in the capital numbered 180 
and evening schools and industrial courses are included in many of 
the educational institutions. In December the faculty of commerce 
at the University of Montevideo was established as a school of 
commerce. 

Colonization projects occupied the attention of the Government 
and the employment bureau did valuable work. Preliminary study 
of a pension bill and of a child and female labor law is being 
made, and sanitary works have been made the object of a large 
appropriation. 





VENEZUELA 

The United States of Venezuela occupj^ the northernmost part of 
the South American continent, stretching in a northwesterly direc- 
tion along the Atlantic Ocean and the Caribbean Sea and bounded on 
the land side by Colombia, Brazil, and British Guiana, The country 
has an area of 593,950 square miles, equal to the combined area of 
the States of Wisconsin, Michigan, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Missouri, 
Arkansas, Kentuckj^, Tennessee, Mississippi, and Alabama, with 
sufficient space left for several States the size of Rhode Island. Over 
this vast area there is distributed a population of 2,644,298, Vene- 
zuela being one of the most sparsely populated countries in South 
A.merica. 

Venezuela Taa.j be geographically divided into three distinct zones, 
viz: The extensive plains and river vallej^s, known as the llanos, 
affording excellent pasturage for numerous herds of cattle; the 
mountain section, formed by the three mountain ranges; and the dry 
and healthful table-lands or plateaus. 

This variety of physical features produces an equal variety of 
climate, products, and soil. Coffee, cacao, tobacco, and sugar cane 
are largely grown and exported, and wheat and other cereals thrive, 
but are mostly used for home consumption. The slopes of the moun- 
tains are heavily wooded and contain quantities of timber and many 
useful trees and plants, among them divi-divi {Cœsalpinia coriaria), 
the pods furnishing an excellent material for tanning; fustic {Ma- 
dura tinctorea) , yielding an excellent yellow dye ; Indigofera anil 
and Indigofera tinctorea^ jáelding indigo; Castilloa elástica and 
Hevea hrasilensis, yielding rubber, and numerous cabinet and other 
useful woods. The mines produce precious and useful metals, gold, 
silver, copper, and lead, the various asphalt lakes jield the best 
qualities of asphaltum, and along the coast pearls are found at dif- 
ferent points. The princij)al exports of Venezuela are hides and 
skins, live cattle, coffee, and cacao. 

HISTORICAL SKETCH. 

The Venezuelan coast was first sighted by Columbus on August 1, 
1498, on his third voyage, and was successively explored by Alonso 
DE Ojeda, Alonso Niño, and others. The country at that time was 
inhabited by no less than 150 tribes of Indians, speaking 11 different 
languages and 150 dialects, among which the Caribs and Teques 
286 



VENEZUELA. 287 

were the most warlike and savage. They succeeded for many years 
in preventing the permanent settlement of the country, and it was 
here that the Spaniards encountered more difficulty and fiercer re- 
sistance from the aborigines than anywhere else in America. 

In 1527, the Emperor Charles V granted the Province of Venezuela 
to the Belzaees famih% who dispatched Ambkosio de Aleixger to 
bring it under subjection. Alfingek and his successors did not, how- 
ever, succeed in establishing Spanish authority bej^ond the coast strip, 
and it was not until the year 1545, when the Spanish Crown dis- 
patched Juan db Carvajal and annulled the concession of the 
Belzares family, that any permanent settlement in the interior 
was effected. The Spanish dominion was then gradually extended 
over the whole country, the Indians being enslaved wherever this was 
possible and treated with the utmost cruelty. This led to numerous 
rebellions, the Indians of Venezuela not being of the pacific, sub- 
missive character of those of Peru and other countries. 

The British, French, and Dutch buccaneers added to the difficulties 
of the Spanish authorities by frequent attacks on the coast towns. 

In 1718 the viceroyalty of New Granada was created and the 
territorj^ of what is now Venezuela passed under the jurisdiction of 
the Viceroy at Bogota. 

The first movement for independence was initiated in Venezuela as 
early as the year 1797 by the patriots Gaul and España, but, like 
many others which were to follow, it failed, the initiators being con- 
demned either to death or banishment. Gen. Francisco Miranda's 
first efforts to free the country from the Spanish yoke likewise 
failed. In the year 1810 the citizens of Caracas rose against the Span- 
ish authorities, and on the 19th of April deposed the Spanish Gov- 
ernor, Don Vicente Emparan. A Constitutional Congress met on 
March 2, 1811, and on July 5 of the same year formally declared the 
independence of the United Provinces of Venezuela. The war of this 
first revolution lasted until 1812, when Miranda was defeated by 
the Spanish troops and Spanish authority again reestablished. In 
the year following Simón Bolivar took up arms against the Span- 
ish authorities and war was waged with varying success until Bolivar 
defeated the Koyalists at the battle of Boyaca on August 7, 1819. This 
defeat ended the Spanish dominion in northern South America, the 
Viceroy, Samano, fleeing from Bogota shortly after Boyaca. 

On December 17, 1819, Venezuela became a j)art of Bolivar's 
Greater Colombia, and upon the disruption of the Federation, Ven- 
ezuela declared its secession and absolute independence on September 
22, 1830. 

Gen. José Paez was elected the first President of the Eepublic. 
Under succeeding Presidents several attempts were made to change 



288 INTEEKATIONAL BUEEAU OF THE AMEEICAN EEPUBLICS. 

the form of government, and on February 20, 1859, by vote of a 
majority of its citizens Venezuela declared itself in favor of a Federal 
Republic, which form of government was finally and definitely 
adopted. The present Constitution of Venezuela was promulgated 
April 27, 1904. 

Gen. Juan Vicente Gomez, the present incumbent of the Presi- 
dency, assumed the office in 1908, upon the retirement of Gen. 
Cipriano Castro. His term of office will expire May 22, 1911. 

CONSTITUTION AND GOVERNMENT. 

Venezuela, officially termed The United States of Venezuela, is one 

of the five federal unions of America, which have adopted the federal, 
representative, republican form of govern- 
ment. The several States of Venezuela are au- 
tonomous in their internal government with 
certain limited powers only vested in the 
Federal Government. 

Legislative power is vested in the National 
Congress, composed of two chambers, the Sen- 
ate and the House of Deputies. The members 
of the former are elected by the legislatures of 
the States, two Senators to represent each 
State, for a term of six years. Deputies are 
elected by direct vote for a term of six years, 
every citizen over 21 years of age being enti- 
tled to vote. 
The President and two Vice-Presidents are elected for a term of 

six years by an electoral body chosen by the people for that purpose. 

They may not be reelected for a term in direct succession. 

A Cabinet of seven Ministers or Secretaries of State assists the 

President in the administration of the Government. The Cabinet is 

appointed by the President and is responsible to him alone. 

The Federal judiciary comprises a Supreme Federal and Appellate 

Court, several courts of appeals, and a number of minor courts. 

The justices of the Supreme Court, seven in number, are elected by 

the National Congress for a term of seven years. 




General J. VICENTE GOMEZ, 
President of Venezuela. 



INTERIOR GOVERNMENT. 



Thirteen States, five Territories, and a Federal District comprise 
the United States of Venezuela, the States electing their own execu- 
tive, legislative, and judicial authorities. The Territories are admin- 
istered by a Governor appointed by the President of the Republic, as 
is also the Federal District, the Governor of the latter having, how- 
ever, a Municipal Council, elected by the people, to assist him. 



VENEZUELA. 289 

The States and Territories with their respective capitals are : 

State of — Capital. 

Aragua La Victoria. 

Bermudez Cumana. 

Bolivar -Ciudad Bolivar. 

Carabobo Valencia. 

Falcon Coro. 

Guarico Calabozo. 

Lara : Barquisimeto. 

Merida Merida. 

Miranda Ocumare. 

Tachira San Cristobal. 

Trujillo Trujillo. 

Zamora _.San Carlos. 

Zulia Maracaibo. 

Territory of — 

Amazonas San Fernando de Atabapo. 

Colon Gran Roque. 

Cristobal Colon Cristobal Colon. 

Delta Amacuro San Jose de Amacuro. 

Yuruari Guacipati. 

The Federal District comprises the city of Caracas, the capital of 
the Republic. 

President Gen. Juan Vicente Gomez. 

Minister of the Interior Gen. Francisco Linares Alcántara. 

Minister of Foreign Affairs Dr. Francisco Gonzalez Guiñan. 

Minister of tbe Treasury and Public Credit_Dr. Jesus Muñoz Tebar. 

Minister of War and Marine Gen. M. V. Castro Zavala. 

Minister of Fomento Gen. Rafael Marcía Carabaño. 

Minister of Public v^orks Dr. Roberto Vargas. 

Minister of Public Instruction Dr. Samuel Darío Maldonado. 

Xote. — List of cabinet officiais corrected to July 20, 1909. 

The salary of the President is $12,000 per annum. 

VENEZUELA IN 1908. 

During 1908 the presidential office in Venezuela was transferred 
from Gen. Cipriano Castro to President Juan Vicente Gomez, who 
had joreviously held the office of Vice-President. 

Despite certain internal disturbances, the country faithfully dis- 
charged its obligations to the bondholders under the financial ar- 
rangement of 1905 and effected the payment of the various claims of 
the Powers under the protocol of 1903. The payments on account of 
the foreign debt during the last six months of 1908 aggregated 
$564,000. 

Numerous decrees recently issued provide for conditions whereby 
certain restrictions on trade and industry throughout the Republic 
are removed and distribution made of certain moneys for public 
expenditure in different States. In May, 1909, the export duties on 
coffee, cacao, and hides were removed, and during 1908 such modifica- 



290 INTERNATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

tions were made in the tariff law of January of that year as national 
exigencies demanded. 

A commission has been appointed charged with the revision of 
the legal code of the Eepublic, and commerce with the neighboring 
countries is being developed through the repealing of fluvial regula- 
tions, Avhich have been found detrimental to transit trade. 

The cable service with Europe was resumed under the contract with 
the French company made in May, 1909, and an arbitration treaty 
with Brazil has been signed, to become effective upon the exchange 
of ratifications by the two Governments. 

The relations of the States of the Kepublic among themselves and 
with the National Government continue most cordial, and the decree 
of January 26, 1909, repealing the decree of August 2, 1907, has con- 
tributed to the further strengthening of these bonds. 

FOREIGN RELATIONS. 

Friendly relations have been renewed with Holland, from which 
country a confidential agent has been accredited near the Govern- 
ment of Venezuela and a protocol concluded on April 19, 1909. 

The United States of North America, after having closed its lega- 
tion in Caracas, subsequently sent a Peace Commissioner to Vene- 
zuela, and the result of his negotiations was the protocols of February 
13, 1909, and the reestablishment of the legations of both countries 
in their respective capitals. 

Colombia has also accredited a special representative, and negotia- 
tions are being made for the celebration of a treaty of navigation, 
boundary, and commerce. 

The friendly and equitable adjustment of the differences with 
France and the favorable progress of the negotiations with the repre- 
sentative of that countr}^ give rise to the hope that in a short time 
the two nations will resume most cordial and reciprocal relations. 

Eclations with Germany are being strengthened, as is shown by the 
kind reception given by the Emperor to the special mission recently 
accredited to that country, and the pact of amity, commerce, and 
navigation made on January 28, 1909. 

The acceptance of the arbitral decision of the claim of the Caracas 
Water Company removed all differences existing between that 
country and Belgium. 

The protocols of December 9, 1905, concerning the boundary with 
Brazil, have been approved by the Brazilian Congress, but the 
exchange of ratifications has not yet been made. 

The first general arbitration convention celebrated with a neighbor- 
ing State is that made with Brazil in Caracas on April 30, 1909. 

Venezuela was represented in the Second Peace Conference of The 
Hague, and a number of pacts were subscribed to by her delegates to 
that conference. 



VENEZUELA. 291 

FINANCE. 

In July, 1907, Venezuela's obligation to Great Britain, Germany, 
and Italy, by virtue of the protocols of Washington, was canceled, 
the total sum paid having aggregated $3,567,000. 

Since August, 1907, Venezuela has paid to the countries not enjoy- 
ing preferential treatment 30 per cent of the customs receipts of 
La Guaira and Puerto Cabello, amounting to, up to Maj^ 1, 1909, 
$1,199,148. 

The financial obligations of the Republic and the agreements made 
by the Government have been strictly complied with. During the 
fiscal years 1907 and 1908, the expenditures of the Government on 
account of these obligations amounted to $3,904,000, and from Janu- 
ary 1 to March 31, 1909, $484,000, or a total outlay of $4,388,000, all 
of which, in accordance with the protocols of Washington, went to 
the foreign powers, the 3 per cent diplomatic debt of 1905, the 
debt contracted on account of diplomatic agreements, and the non- 
amortized d'plomatic agreement debt. The payments on account of 
the internal debt from January 1, 1907, to March 31, 1909, amounted 
to $1,216,703. 

The outstanding internal 3 per cent debt on March 31, 1909, was 
$12,040,000, and the outstanding external debt on the same date was 
$26,253,000, or a total of $38,293,000. 

COMMERCE. 

The commercial transactions for the twelve months show a total of 
$24,339,640. In the preceding year an aggregate of $26,540,905 was 
reported. 

Import values were $9,778,810 and exports $14,560,830. The 
principal receiving countries were the United States, $5,550,073; 
France, $5,496,627; Great Britain, $1,447,784; Germany, $908,260; 
the Netherlands, $763,642 ; Cuba, $604,102 ; and Spain, $589,560. 

United States statistics note receipts of Venezuelan merchandise 
during the calendar year 1908 to the value of $7,028,180 and ship- 
ments to the Eepublic to the amount of $2,566,022, the values being 
practically the same as in the preceding twelve months. 

The commerce of the country for the first half of the fiscal year 
1907-8 consisted of exports valued at $8,613,000 and imports, $4,- 
984,000. Imports were received as follows: From Great Britain, 
$1,804,000; United States, $1,256,000; Germany, $823,800; and the 
Netherlands, $462,400. Shipments were made to France, $3,409,000; 
United States, $3,097,000; Great Britain, $622,000; Germany, 
$485,000 ; the Netherlands, $365,000 ; and Spain, $325,000. 



292 INTERNATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

The principal exports for the period were: Coffee, 58,489,200 
pounds; cacao, 22,598,021 pounds; divi-divi, 8,714,255 pounds; cattle 
and asphalt. Rubber shipments aggregated 869,591 pounds, and ox- 
hides and goatskins together, 2,481,298 pounds. 

PRODUCTION AND INDUSTRIES. 

The exploitation of native products forms the basis of Venezuela's 
industrial life. The area under coffee is estimated at about 200,000 
acres, the number of estates being over 33,000, and the product in 
1907, 42,806 tons. Cacao growers operate 5,000 estates, 14,000 tons 
being exported, and sugar planters about 11,000, the annual produc- 
tion being about 3,000 tons. Cotton is grown in exportable quanti- 
ties and the forest regions abound in rubber and fine timber. A 
contract for the exploitation of the forests of the Orinoco Delta has 
been approved by the Government and concessions covering the Eio 
Negro and El Caura rubber sections contain special stipulations 
against the willful destruction of the trees. The cultivation and 
manufacture of tobacco is an important branch of industrial life, and 
rice-growing is made the subject of special bounties in certain States. 

New enterprises are covered by recently granted concessions for 
the culture of fiber plants and the development of the textile industry, 
also for linseed oil factories, paper mills, and cement works. 

The live stock of the country is estimated at over 6,000,000 head, 
including 2,000 oxen, 1,600,000 goats, and 1,600,000 pigs. 

The country is rich in minerals ; gold, copper, silver, iron, and salt 
being profitabl}^ mined. Asphalt is exported to the United States in 
large quantities. 

The coal output in 1906 was over 14,000 tons, and newly discovered 
deposits in the States of Zulia and Merida are exploited under a con- 
cession granted in April, 1908, 20 per cent of the profits being paid 
to the Government. Salt is a government monopoly, the mines being 
operated, in accordance with the decree of January 27, 1909, by agents 
of the Federal Government. The yearly rental is $700,000. 

The threatened extinction of the pearl beds on account of over 
exploitation has necessitated the repeal, for an indefinite time, of the 
pearl-fishery concession and the prohibition of oyster fishing. 

COMMUNICATION FACILITIES. 

The total length of railways in operation in the Republic is about 
540 miles. The number of lines, according to latest information, was 
12, with an invested capital of over $40,000,000. Receipts for the 
first half of 1908 were about $800,000 and expenditures $600,000. In 
connection with the lines there have been constructed 716 bridges 
and 109 tunnels. 



VENEZUELA. 293 

The Central Railway Company of Venezuela continues the laying 
of its tracks toward Santa Lucia, notwithstanding the fact that the 
questions between the company and the Government have not yet 
been settled. 

With its favorable geographical position on the Caribbean Sea and 
the Atlantic Ocean and with a coast line of more than 2,000 miles, 
Venezuela possesses no less than 50 baj^s and 32 ports, the most 
Important of which are La Guaira, the principal port and com- 
mercial center, Puerto Cabello, Guanta, and Cumana, at which ocean- 
going vessels call regularly. Ciudad Bolivar, on the Orinoco River, 
373 miles inland, and Maracaibo, on Lake Maracaibo, are the most 
important inland ports of Venezuela. 

The Atlas Line, the Roj^al Dutch West India Line, and the Red D 
Line maintain a regular service between New York and Venezuelan 
ports, the Atlas Line calling at La Guaira and Puerto Cabello, the 
Royal Dutch West India Line at Puerto Cabello, La Guaira, Guanta, 
Cumana, Carupano, and Margarita Island, and the Red D Line at 
La Guaira, Puerto Cabello, and Maracaibo. These steamers take 
from seven to nine days to make the trip from New York to Vene- 
zuelan ports, first-class passage being $60 to $75. 

The waterways of Venezuela form important means of communi- 
cation and transportation, there being no less than 70 navigable rivers 
in the country, with a total navigable length of over 6,000 miles, of 
which the mighty Orinoco, the third largest river in South America, 
with its tributaries, furnishes nearlj^ 4,000 miles. The more im- 
portant of the other navigable rivers are the Meta, the Apure, the 
Portuguesa, and the Yaracuy, all of which are navigated by steam- 
ships for considerable distances. The Catatumbo River flows into 
Lake Maracaibo, and is navigable for small steamers, while the 
majority of the other rivers are navigable for steam launches and 
flat-bottom boats only. 

A regular steamship service is maintained on the Orinoco, Apure, 
and Portuguesa between Ciudad Bolivar, the principal port on the 
Orinoco and the interior, as well as points along the coast. Ocean- 
going vessels enter Lake Maracaibo, which covers an area of 8,000 
square miles and is navigable in its entiret}^ Lake Maracaibo is 
connected with the Gulf of Venezuela and the Caribbean Sea by 
means of a strait 34 miles in length and from 5 to 9 miles wide. 
Numerous other lakes are found throughout the country, Lake 
Valencia being the most important of these, owing to its favorable 
situation between Puerto Cabello and La Guaira and Caracas. It 
is navigated by small steamers. 

The Escalante River has been opened to free navigation. 



294 INTEENATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

Steamships are engaged in the coastwise trade along the coast of 
Venezuela, and call regularly at the islands of Margarita, Guraçao, 
and Trinidad. 

The capital of the Republic, Caracas, can be reached either from 
La Guaira or Puerto Cabello, with both of which it is connected by 
rail, the former being but 22 miles from Caracas. 

POSTS AND TELEGRAPHS. 

From the close of 1907 to March 31, 1909, 14 new post-offices were 
established in the Republic, and 21 discontinued post-oiRces reestab- 
lished. Tîie cost of the maintenance of the post-offices from 1907 to 
March 31, 1909, was $138,000. The expense of transporting the mails 
during the same period was $237,000. The Red D Line has reduced 
the charge for the transportation of the mails, and important changes 
have been made in the rules governing the importations of postal 
parcels. 

Ten new telegraph offices were opened during the fifteen months, 
four new telegraph lines constructed, and two lines are in process of 
construction. The receipts from the telegraph service from 1907 to 
March, 1909, were $148,000. 

The dispute with the French Submarine Cable Company has been 
settled, the Government acquiring the coastwise cable system and a 
reduction in the rates. 

The telegraph system comprises an extent of 4,552 miles with 161 
offices. During the first six months of 1908 the Government extended 
the system by 26 miles, repaired 735 miles, and rebuilt 556 miles 
of wires. At Willemstad, on the island of Curaçao, the Nether- 
lands Government has established a wireless station with a range of 
300 miles, open for government and public business. This station is 
to be connected with projected establishments in Venezuela. 

PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. 

In December, 1908, the number of public schools in the Republic 
was 716, which number was increased, by virtue of a decree of 
February 23, 1909, to 1,019. Recently, new school buildings have 
been constructed, old ones repaired, and plans have been made for 
the establishment of agricultural, veterinary, mining, and commercial 
colleges. Reforms and improvements have been made in the uni- 
versities of the Republic, the Institute of Fine Arts, and in the nor- 
mal schools. The total number of federal, municipal, and private 
primary schools in the country is 1,525, of secondary instruction 88, 
and of higher instruction 2 — the University of Caracas and the Uni- 
versity of Los Andes. 



VENEZUELA. 295 

In 1907 the total amount collected, for school purposes was $761 ,000, 
as compared with $776,000 in 1908. 

On June 30, 1908, a total enrollment of 35,777 pupils was reported. 

PUBLIC WORKS. 

From May 1, 1907, to December 31, 1908, the Government spent 
$628,000 in public work. A special commission of engineers is exam- 
ining the port and wharves at La Guaira and a special inspector the 
Puerto Cabello to Valencia railroad, for the purpose of recommend- 
ing the necessary improvements. The Government has purchased 
the works, rights, and shares of the AVharf Company at Maracaibo 
for $48,000. The Executive has refused to receive the wharf at 
Puerto Sucre, the same not having been constructed in accordance 
with the provisions of the contract. 

The new lease of the Caracas waterworks, made for a period of 
three years, produces $10,000 per annum more than the former lease, 
and the Government has acquired the springs which supply the 
Barquisimiento Aqueduct. 

The Government advocates the betterment of the service for the 
collection of statistics, and the Department of Public Works proposes 
to improve the collection and compilation of federal statistics. 

The Government is desirous of attracting a good class of immi- 
grants and many measures for the promotion of colonizing enter- 
prises are under consideration. Hygienic methods are being applied 
in the centers of population, vaccination being obligatory since May, 
1909, arid stringent regulations are enforced in regard to the sanitary 
condition of arriving and departing steamers. By an Executive 
decree of March 17, 1909, a commission of public hygiene has charge 
of the sanitation of the capital, and all matters concerning the public 
health are submitted to its consideration. 




O 





lucB of ïatin-o^mcrican 




INTERNATIONAL UNION OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS 



BULLETIN 

OF THE INTERNATIONAL UNION OF THE 

AMERICAN 
REPUBLICS 



AUGUST 



1909 




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Double number (Bulletin in English, Spanish, Portuguese, and French), 
$3 per year in all countries of the International Union; in other coun- 
tries, $4. Single number, 40 cents. 



WASHINGTON : GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : 190SÎ 



GOVE-RTMIISLG-B O A.R.D-OF-THE 
INTERNATIONA^L- BUREAU -OF 
AMERICAN - R^EiPüB LlCfi 



¡53 



Philander 0. Knox, Secretary of State of the United States, 
Chairman ex officio. 

AMBASSADORS EXTRAORDINARY AND PLENIPOTENTIARY. 

Brazil Mr. Joaquim Nabuco, 

Summer Office of Embassy, Manchester-by-the-Sea, Mass. 

Mexico Señor Don Francisco L. de la Bakra, 

OíRce of Embassy, 1415 I street, Washington, D. C. 

ENVOYS EXTRAORDINARY AND MINISTERS PLENIPOTENTIARY. 

Argentine Republic ...Señor Don Epifânio Portela, 
Summer Office of Legation, Magnolia, Massachusetts. 

Bolivia Señor Don Ignacio Calderón, « 

Office of Legation, No. 2 Stone street. New York. 

Chile Señor Don Aníbal Cruz, 

Office of Legation, 1529 New Hampshire avenue, Washington, D. C. 

Colombia Señor Don Enrique Cortés, 

Absent. 

Costa Eica Señor Don Joaquín Bernardo Calvo, 

Office of Legation, 1329 Eighteenth street, Washington, D. C. 

Cuba Señor Don Carlos García Velez, 

Office of Legation, "The Wyoming," Washhigton, D. C. 

Ecuador Sen or Don LuiS Felipe Carbo, « 

Summer address, Blue Ridge Summit, Pennsylvania. 

Guatemala _ .Señor Dr. Luis Toledo Herrarte, 

Office of Legation, "The Highlands," Washington, D. C. 

Haiti Mr. H. Pauléus Sannon, 

Off-ce of Legation, 1429 Rhode Island avenue, Washington, D. C. 

Honduras Señor Dr. Luis Lazo Arriaga, 

Summer Office of Legation, 66 Beaver street, New York, N. Y. 

Nicaragua Señor Dr. Rodolfo Espinosa E. , 

Office of Legation, 2003 O street, Washington, D. C. 

Panama Señor Don C. C. Arosemena, 

Office of Legation, "The Highlands," Washington, D. C. 

I'eru Señor Don Felipe Pardo, 

The Shoreham, Washington, D. C. 

Salvador Señor Don Federico Mejía, 

Office of Legation, " The Portland," Washington, D. C. 

Uruguay Señor Dr. Luis Melián Lapinur, 

Absent. 

Venezuela Señor Dr. Pedro Ezequiel Rojas, 

Office of Legation, care Venezuelan Consulate, New York City. 

CHARGÉS D'AFFAIRES AD INTERIM. 

Colombia Señor Don Pomponio Guzman, 

Office of Legation, 1728 N street, Washington, D. C. 

^ Dominican Republic Señor Don Arturo L. Fiallo, 

Office of Legation, "The Burlington," Washington, D. C. 

Uruguay Señor Don Alberto Nin-Frias, 

Summer Office of Legation, 430 West 118th street. New York, N. Y. 
[Paraguay has at present no representative on the Governing Board.] 
«Absent. m 




UNITED STATES 

RILFRILSENTATIVE3 IN THE' 

LATIN AMERICAN I{EPUBLIC3 



€3- 



AMBASSADORS EXTRAORDINARY AND PLENIPOTENTIARY. 

Brazil Irving B. Dudley, Rio de Janeiro. 

Mexico David E. Thompson, Mexico. 

ENVOYS EXTRAORDINARY AND MINISTERS PLENIPOTENTIARY. 

Argentine Republic Charles H. Sherrill, Buenos Aires. 

Bolivia James F. Stutesman, La Paz. 

Chile Thomas C. Dawson, Santiago. 

Colombia Elliott. C. Northcott, Bogota. 

Costa Rica. - William L. Merry, San José. 

Cuba Edwin V. Morgan, Havana. 

Ecuador Williams C. Fox, Quito. 

Guatemala William F. Sands. 

Haiti Henry W. Furniss, Port au Prince. 

Honduras Philip M. Brown, Tegucigalpa. 

N icaragua Horace G. Knowles, Managua. 

Panama Herbert G. Squiers, Panama. 

Paraguay (Same as Uruguay.) 

Peru Leslie Combs, Lima. 

Salvador William Heimke, San Salvador. 

Uruguay Edward C. O'Brien, Montevideo. 

Venezuela William W. Russell, Caracas. 

MINISTER RESIDENT AND CONSUL-GENERAL. 

Dominican Republic Fenton R. McCreery, Santo Domingo. 

IV 



Page. 
Editorial Section 297 

Demand for July Bulletin — Features of August Bulletin — Venezuela's 
Minister of Foreign Relations — Next International Sanitary Confer- 
ence — Mexican diploma for an American scientist — International Pan- 
American Bank — Improved steamship service — A railroad president's 
interest in Latin America — Death of Emilio Mitre — Latin America at 
western gatherings — Progress of the new home of the Bureau — The Pan- 
American exhibit at Seattle — A new southern route for travelers — Ar- 
gentine trade gains — Consul-General of Brazil in the United States — 
Brazilian industries — Chilean railways — Consul-General of Peru in New 
York— Costa Pica's participation in Hudson River Tercentenary — Bu- 
reau of Information in Cuba — Dr. Felicísimo Lopez, Consul-General of 
Ecuador in New York — Prize fund for cacao treatise — United States 
Consul at Montevideo, Uruguay — Hispanic- American Club at Cornell — 
United States Consul at Puerto Plata, Dominican Republic — Two months' 
postponement of the Pan-American Conference. 

Book Notes 314 

Mexico — Pharmacopoeia of the United States — Presidential excursions — 
Argentine official publications — Development of international law — 
Mines and mineral resources of Colombia — Spanish- American Directory 
of New York — Payment of foreign debt — Mineral resources of Bahia — 
Cultivation of henequén — Sketch of General Bolivar — Dialect studies of 
Guatemala and Mexico. 

Magazine Articles 320 

Germans in Argentina — Latin- American articles in "Sud und Mittel 
Âmerika" — Use of cinematograph by salesmen — Mexico in the financial 
-world — Farthest south — Antarctic explorations of Lieutenant Shackle- 
ton — Argentina and its progress — Dormant resources of Peru — Paa- 
American affairs discussed in the "Outlook" — The world's highest alti- 
tudes — " Spanish Engineering Magazine" — Independence celebrations in 
Latin America — German emigrants in Brazil — The southernmost people 
in the world — The markets of Mexico and Central America — Diamonds 
in Bahia — Spanish edition of the "American Druggist" — The rubber sys- 
tem of the Amazon — The ascent of Mount Huascaran — Mexican mines 
and mining — Report of the Central American Bureau — Silver mines of 
Batopilas, Mexico — The guayule industry— Mineral-bearing regions of 
Latin America — Latin- American affairs treated of in the "Economist" — 
Beyond the Mexican Sierras — Creole society in Santo Domingo — Min- 
eral resources of Haiti — Cuba's future — Mexico and Porfirio Diaz in 
1909 — South America and her commerce — Winning trade of South 
America — Agricultural Bank of Brazil. 

Latin-American Notes 331 

The Months of Jidy and August in Pan-American History 334, 336 

The New President of Brazil . 338 

V 



VI CONTENTS. 

Page. 
Honoring the Independence Day of the United States in the American Re- 
publics 340 

Annual Review of the Argentine Navy 351 

The Quito Exposition 356 

Diplomatic Instruction 361 

Cuban Development 365 

Municipal Organization of Capitals of Latin America — Caracas 372 

The Hard Woods of the Americas — Mahogany 386 

Natural Resources of Panama 403 

Value of Latin-American Trade in the Opinion of Hon. William Sulzer 412 

Two Great Congresses 414 

The Argentine Republic in the International Institute at Rome 416 

The New Mining Code of Guatemala 418 

Subject-matter of Consular Reports 420 

Argentine Republic 424 

Foreign commerce, first quarter of 1909 — International American Congress 
of Medicine and Hygiene — Trade figures with Great Britain — Bond issue 
for Irrigation works — Cereal estimate for 1909 — New steamers for the 
Bermejo River service — Exclusion of Paraguay live stock — Fishery 
regulations. 

Bolivia 430 

Foreign commerce, first quarter of 1909. 

Brazil 430 

Industrial statistics — Foreign commerce, first quarter of 1909 — Bahia, the 
cacao-producing State — Operation of the immigration service— Rail- 
ways — Iron ore in the Republic — Apiculture in the Republic — Indus- 
trial notes. 

Chile 440 

Terms of the Arica-La Paz Railway contract — Report of the Nitrate 
Advisory Board — Export movement, first quarter of 1909 — Industrial 
development — The iron industry. 

Colombia 443 

English reading room at Medillin — International Students' Congress — Oil 
refinery at Cartagena — Rubber and forestry concession — Finance in the 
Republic. 

Costa Rica 446 

Approval of arbitration convention — Reduction of gold reserve in banks 
of issue. 

Cuba 447 

Amended budget for 1909-10. 

Ecuador 447 

Railway extension — Improved steamship facilities — Drainage and water 
supply at Bahia de Caraquez. 

Dominican Republic 450 

Development notes. 



CONTENTS. VII 

Paga 
Guatemala 450 

Intercontinental railway connection — New immigration law — Budget for 
1909-10 — Participation in the Brussels Exposition — Sanitary bakeries — 
Approval of The Hague conventions. 

Haiti 454 

Irrigation works — New wharf at Port au Prince — Guano concession. 

Honduras 456 

Shipping regulations — Modification of tariff rates. 

Mexico 459 

Foreign commerce, nine months of 1908-9 — Canadian colonization con- 
cession — Development of sericulture — Coal deposits of Guadalajara — 
Exports of chicle — Tax on textile industries — Time extension for Man- 
zanillo port works — Bounties for fruit exports — Development of oil 
fields — Extradition treaty with Holland — Transfer of fishing conces- 
sion — Miscellaneous notes. 

Nicaragua 465 

New Bank at Managua — Opening of wharf at the Bluff. 

Panama 466 

Lands thrown open to immigration. 

Paraguay 468 

Patent medicine regulations. 

Peru 469 

Railway extension — The Chimbóte railroad and the coal fields of the 
Republic. 

Salvador 470 

The practice of pharmacy — Budget for 1909-10 — Port movement, first 
quarter of 3909 — Regulation of industries. 

Uruguay - 471 

Distribution of exports — Naturalization treaty with the United States — 
Labor accidents law — Reclamation work at Montevideo — Regulations 
for docks and shipyards — Customs receipts, nine months of 1908-9. 

Venezuela 475 

Tariff modifications — Concession for banana plantation — Lease of mining 
lands — Peace protocol with Holland. 




DOCTOR NILO PEÇANHA, 
President of Brazil. 




VOL. XXIX. 



AUGUST, 1909. 



NO. 



THE great demand for the July issue of the Bulletin, which 
contained the annual review of commercial and general condi- 
tions in the Latin-American Republics, commenced even before 
it had gone to press. The corresponding number of 1908 at- 
tracted so much attention, and was so useful to all interested 
in Latin America, that it evidently prompted an advance call for the 
1909 review. An extra edition of this issue has been printed in order to 
meet this demand which has come from all parts of the world. Those 
who have not read it through carefully should do so, because it is an 
instructive and interesting statement of the prosperity and progress of 
the American Republics. No one who has looked doubtfully toward 
Latin America, or who has questioned its material opportunities, can any 
longer be skeptical in his views after studying the contents of the July 
Bulletin. To meet the demand for information about particular coun- 
tries, reprints have been made in pamphlet form of the articles on each 
country. These will be forwarded to all persons who may inform the 
Bureau that they wish to receive copies. 



SPECIAL FEATURES OP THE AUGUST BULLETIN. 



Among the special features of this issue of the Bulletin are articles 
on the following subjects: "Honoring the independence of the United 
States of America in the other Republics." "The new president of 
Brazil." "Annual review tactics of the Argentine navy." "Cuban 
development." "The natural resources of Panama." "Municipal 
organizations in Latin- American capitals — Caracas. " "The hard woods 
of the American Republics — mahogany." "Gold mining in Guatemala, 
and the new mining law." 

This list of subjects gives a fair idea of the comprehensive character 
of the Bulletin under its present direction. The Bureau is following 
the feature of special articles because of their great popularity. The 

297 



298 INTEBNATIONAL BUEEAU OF THE AMEEICAN REPUBLICS. 

majority of them are either copied entirely or quoted in considerable 
part by a surprisingly large number of magazines and newspapers in 
all parts of the world. Hundreds of letters have been received by the 
Bureau from competent critics in both North and South America, stating 
that they find the Bulletin as interesting and instructive as the best 
magazines, and that they read it with the same interest and with even 
more care than they do the average popular magazine. This fact is not 
mentioned in the editorial columns of the Bulletin for the purpose of 
praising its own work, but as a justification for changing the Bulletin 
from its old prosaic and uninteresting character to its present form. 



The demand for LATIN-AMERICAN DATA. 

The demand for matter descriptive of the American Republics has 
grown to such large proportions that the Bureau has been driven to the 
very limit of its means to provide what is wanted. Following the issuing of 
a new pamphlet in regard to some country or some feature of Latin- Ameri- 
can commerce, progress, or development, the supply is soon exhausted, 
owing to the quantities that must be sent out in response to requests for it. 
There could be no better evidence of the growing interest in Latin America 
than this widespread desire to read publications and pamphlets descrip- 
tive of the southern Republics. It is no exaggeration to state that the 
number of individual requests coming into the Bureau from all over the 
world for printed descriptive matter is nearly i ,000 per cent greater than 
it was a little over two 3^ears ago when the present administration of the 
Bureau began. If this interest continues to increase in the same way in 
the future that it has in the past, the ignorance that has prevailed in one 
Pan-American country regarding another will soon disappear. 



VENEZUELA'S MINISTER OF FOREIGN RELATIONS. 

Dr. Francisco González Guiñan, the present Minister of Foreign 
Relations of the United States of Venezuela, was born in the city of 
Valencia of that Republic on October 3, 1841. He received his prepara- 
tory and academic instruction in the College of Carabobo, commencing 
the study of jurisprudence in that institution and completing his legal 
education in the University of Caracas. At an early age he engaged in 
politics, journalism, and in the government of his country. He has been 
Governor of the State of Carabobo, a member and chairman of both legis- 
lative houses, Federal Attorney, Minister of Interior, of Fomento, of 
Public Instruction, and is now Minister of Foreign Relations of the 
Republic. 




DR. FRANCISCO GONZALEZ GUIÑAN, 
Minister of Foreign Affairs of Venezuela. 



300 INTERNATIONAL BUEEAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS, 
THE NEXT INTERNATIONAL SANITARY CONFERENCE- 

The Minister of Costa Rica, Mr. Joaquín Bernardo Calvo, kindly 
informs the Bureau that his Government has issued invitations to all the 
Governments of the American Republics to participate in the Fourth 
International Sanitary Conference, which will be held in San Jose, Costa 
Rica, from December 25, 1909, to January 2, 1910. In view of the attrac- 
tions of the city of San Jose, which is one of the most healthful and 
beautiful in all Latin America, and of the proverbial hospitality of the 
Costa Rican Government and people, there is no doubt that this confer- 
ence will be a success. It certainly should be largely attended by repre- 
sentative medical men from the United States and other Republics. 



MEXICAN DIPLOMA FOR AN AMERICAN SCIENTIST. 

The Mexican Society of Geography and Statistics, a well-known scien- 
tific organization of Mexico, has presented Dr. L. S. RowE, of the Univer- 
sity of Pennsylvania, with a diploma of honorary membership. The pre- 
sentation took place at a session which was held Thursday, July 22, 1909, 
in the City of Mexico. Lie. Félix Romero, President of the Supreme 
Court of Mexico, who is also president of the society, bestowed the di- 
ploma in the presence of a representative gathering of the society. An 
appropriate address of acknowledgment was made by Doctor RowE, 
who is spending some time in the City of Mexico for the purpose of secur- 
ing closer cooperation between the scientific and literary societies of that 
country and the United States. 



THE PROSPECT FOR AN INTERNATIONAL PAN-AMERICAN BANK. 

Among the many efforts which the International Bureau has been 
making during the last two years to develop closer trade relations between 
North and South America is that of establishing in New York City a great 
international bank, which will have its headquarters there, with branches 
in the principal cities of Latin America. The Director personally has 
given much attention to this undertaking, and has repeatedly urged the 
large financial interests of the United States to consider the advisability 
of the plan. He has pointed out the surprising fact that there is not a 
single bank south of Panama which is controlled or directed by United 
States capital, but that in nearly every important city and port of that 
part of the world are banks controlled by the capital of the principal 
European countries. The Director does not take the position that a 
United States bank should be organized for the purpose of antagonizing 
European banks or attempting to drive them out of the field, but simply 
to get the share of business to which it is entitled. There is an abundance 
of room in Latin America for all countries to advance their legitimate 



INTEKNATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN EEPUBJLICS. 301 

business interests with worthy rivalry and without harmful antagonism. 
This programme for an international bank is now being carefully dis- 
cussed by the principal financial interests of New York, and it is not 
improbable that an actual organization will be perfected early in the fall. 
As now outlined, as far as South America proper is concerned, there 
would be a central bank in New York City, with branches in Rio de 
Janeiro, Montevideo, Buenos Aires, Santiago, or Valparaiso, and Lima, 
with agencies possibly at such points as Para, São Paulo, Rosario, La 
Paz, Guayaquil, Bogota, and Caracas. Corresponding branches and 
agencies would be established also in the Central American and Caribbean 
countries. 



THE MOVEMENT FOR IMPROVED STEAMSHIP SERVICE. 

All indications now point to a vigorous campaign being made before 
the Congress of the United States at its session next winter for govern- 
ment cooperation in improving the mail steamship communication be- 
tween the United States and Latin American Republics. There is no 
question that sentiment is growing all over the United States in favor of 
ending the conditions which now exist. The issue of subvention in some 
respects is secondary; the real problem is that of securing the neces- 
sary steamship service — that is, vessels suitable for carrying mails, pas- 
sengers, and express requiring immediate delivery — which will make the 
journey at a reasonably fast speed, with accommodations for passengers, 
and thus lead to the development of travel. In view of the international 
character of the Bureau, an institution supported by all the American 
Republics, it is not for it to say that it favors alone ships flying the 
United States flag, but it does take the position that there must be 
improved facilities if commerce and communication between the American 
Republics are to be developed in accordance with the best interests of 
all the countries concerned. The United States can not expect South 
Americans to visit it, nor can South America expect travelers from the 
United States to go there, unless there are fast and commodious steamers 
to carry those who make the journey. It is just as illogical to expect 
commerce to be developed between two countries by slow-going freight 
vessels as it is to expect that commerce would be developed on land 
between cities with only slow freight trains communicating them. There 
must be fast steamers to carry mails and passengers over the seas, as 
there must be fast express trains to do the same work on land. 



A RAILROAD president's INTEREST IN LATIN AMERICA. 

The International Bureau is pleased to note the interest President W. W. 
FiNLEY of the great Southern Railroad Company of the United States 
is taking in the development of closer relations of trade between the 



302 INTEKNATIONAL BUEEAU OF THE AMERICAN KEPUBLICS. 

United States and the Republics to the south of it. He realizes fully the 
truth of the contention of the International Bureau, which it has advanced 
for several years, that the Southern States of the United States are more 
concerned than any other section in promoting commerce with the south- 
ern Republics, and in gaining the advantages which may come from the 
construction of the Panama Canal. From time to time President FinlEy 
issues circular letters which appear in the newspapers published in the 
cities along the lines of his company, reaching from Washington all the 
way to Ne w O rleans . Recently he has published an exceptionally interest- 
ing circular, pointing out the necessity of developing improved steamship 
communication between the southern ports of the United States and the 
Latin American countries in order that the products of these two sections 
of the world may be properly exchanged. In connection with this circu- 
lar he has published an instructive chart, showing the steamship lines from 
the United States and Europe to the southern and western ports of South 
America. From this it can be noted that from New York to Bahia, Rio 
de Janeiro, and Santos there are 6 steamers per month, in contrast to 14 
steamers from European ports to the same points ; 7 steamers per month 
from New York to the River Plate, in contrast to 18 steamers from 
European ports; 3 or 4 steamers per month from New York to the west 
coast of South America, against 3 steamers per month from European 
ports to that section. The chart, however, does not point out that among 
these steamers coming from Europe are a large number of vessels con- 
taining the highest class passenger accommodations, whereas there is 
practically only one line out of New York that gives this kind of facilities. 



CONSUL-GENERAL OF PERU IN NEW YORK. 

Eduardo Higginson, Consul-General of Peru in New" York, was born 
in Callao, Peru, on March 5, 1862. He was educated at the Institute of 
Lima, one of the foremost colleges of the country, and after graduating, 
served in the war between Peru and Chile, 1 879-1 881, attaining the rank 
of lieutenant in the National Guard. In 1893 Mr. Higginson entered 
the Consular Service, his first appointment being that of Consular Agent 
at London, England. Up to the year 1900, he had been advanced first 
to the Chancellorship and later to the post of Vice-Consul, when he was 
sent to take a similar position at Liverpool. In 1901 he was made Consul 
at Southampton, where, for the following two years, his work not only in 
England but throughout Europe was the means of greatly increasing 
trade and strengthening relations between that Continent and Peru. 
The promotion of Mr. Higginson to his present position was made in 
1903, from which time to the present he has carried on an active cam- 
paign to promote the financial, industrial, and commercial relations 
between the United States and Peru. 




SEÑOR DON EDUARDO HIGGINSON, 
Cónsul-General of Peru to the United States at New York. 



304 INTEENATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



DEATH OF EMILIO MITRE. 

The distinguished Argentine statesman, Seflor Emilio Mitre, who 
died in May of this year, had gained renown in many fields of endeavor. 
Not only was he a civil engineer of more than ordinary endowments, 
but during a brilliant political career had earned distinction by his great 
talent and patriotic integrity. In recent years his name has been asso- 
ciated with the railway bill which bears his name and which had so 




SENOR DON EMILIO MITRE. 

important a bearing upon the betterment of communication facilities in 
the Argentine Republic. At the time of his death he was a member of 
the National Congress, where his public utterances always commanded 
attention, and also editor of "La Nación," one of the leading newspapers 
of the continent. Señor Mitre was a worthy son of one of the famous 
men of Latin America, Gen. Bartolomé Mitre. 



INTERJSTATIONAL BUEEATJ OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 305 
LATIN AMERICA AT WESTERN GATHERINGS. 

During this month there are two important gatherings in the United 
States where Latin America, in one phase or another, will be a leading 
subject of discussion. There will assemble in Spokane, in the State of 
Washington, between the 8th and 14th of August, the National Irriga- 
tion Congress, to which most foreign countries have been invited to send 
delegates. Only a few have availed themselves of this invitation, but 
arrangements have been made through the International Bureau so 
that the Director and possibly one or two of the Latin-American Minis- 
ters will be present to describe what is being done in irrigation through- 
out the southern Republics. There will also be a discussion of what 
-benefits will come to the irrigated country of the West from the con- 
struction of the Panama Canal. Following the Irrigation Congress at 
Spokane will be the great annual Trans-Mississippi Congress, which 
meets this year in Denver, Colorado. The Director and the Latin-Ameri- 
can Ambassadors and Ministers have been invited to attend and discuss 
the development of close relations of commerce and friendship between 
Latin America and the United States, with especial reference to the 
trans-Mississippi section. The general announcement of the Trans- 
Mississippi Congress states that particular attention will be given to 
Pan-American affairs and to the consideration of possible benefits that 
may come from the Panama Canal. While it will be very difficult for 
many of the Latin-American diplomats to attend, on account of their 
absence from the country or their spending the hot season at the seashore 
and mountains, it is hoped that a sufficient number will be present to 
give character to the discussions that will take place. 



PROGRESS ON THE NEW HOME OF THE BUREAU. 

Although some unavoidable conditions have delayed the work on the 
new building of the International Bureau, the general construction is 
going ahead in a way to emphasize the beauty and utility of the edifice 
as it will appear when it is completed. Being now entirely roofed in, 
with all of the external marble in place and the carving and sculpture 
work begun, it plainly shows its imposing and handsome, but unconven- 
tional, style of architecture. It will be in many respects the unique 
building of W-ashington. While it is not as large or as costly as many 
others, it will be altogether different from the average office building of 
the Capital. It will have a character entirely its own, the strength of 
which will be enhanced by its excellent location at the corner of Potomac 
Park and the White Lot. It will please everybody concerned with the 
welfare of the Bureau to know that Mr. Root, although no longer 
Secretary of State, shows the deepest interest as Senator in the Bureau 
1650— Bull. 2—09 2 



306 INTEEjSTATIONAL BUEEAU of the AMERICAN BEPUBLICS. 

and in the new building. The Senator was largely responsible for 
calling the attention of Mr. CarnEGIS to the work and scope of the 
Bureau, so that he gave $750,000 toward its construction. It is fortunate 
that the institution holds the interest of such a powerful friend as Mr. 
Root. The Director hopes that the new building will be ready for 
occupancy not later than the ist of November. 



THE PAN-AMERICAN EXHIBIT AT THE SEATTLE EXPOSITION. 

The exhibit of the International Bureau at the Alaska- Yukon-Pacific 
Exposition in Seattle, Washington, is attracting a great deal of atten- 
tion on the Pacific coast. It is the first opportunity that the people of 
that section have had to see at close hand what the Bureau is accom- 
plishing in a practical way for the promotion of Pan-American commerce 
and comity. The exhibit is in charge of Wileiam J. Kolb, of the Bureau 
staff, assisted by Alered E. Hart. Aside from describing the exhibit 
and explaining the plan and scope of the Bureau carefully to callers, 
they are delivering a series of lectures at the Exposition and in neigh- 
boring cities upon the Latin-American Republics, thus doing a good 
educational work. It is possible that a Pan-American day may be 
celebrated at the Exposition some time in August, but this will depend 
upon the presence at the Exposition of one or more of the Latin- American 
Ambassadors and Ministers. 



A NEW SOUTHERN ROUTE FOR TRAVELERS. 

Mr. Henri L. Gueydan, of New Orleans, who takes a great interest in 
everything pertaining to Latin America, has submitted to the Interna- 
tional Bureau a suggestion for a proposed trip for travelers which would 
prove interesting and could be comfortably made during the summer 
months. It is as follows: ''Start from New Orleans; touch at Belize; 
disembark at Puerto Barrios; take in the Quirigua ruins; climb by rail 
to Guatemala City; take a trip by coach to Antigua to see its 45 churches 
in ruins, its fine baths (Antigua lies in probably the most beautiful and 
most salubrious valley in the world, around which three towering vol- 
canoes stand guard — in 1773 it had 70,000 inhabitants and was therefore 
more populous at that time than our own New York City); ascend the 
Agua Volcano; take coach drive to Palin, where railroad connection could 
be made for Escuintla, Mazatenango, Champerico ; here go by steamer to 
Salina Cruz, thence by rail across the Isthmus of Tehuantepec to Coatza- 
coalcos, thence by steamer to Veracruz, and thence by rail to Mexico 
City and the United States." 



international bureau of the american republics. 307 

argentine; trade; gains. 

Every classification of exports shipped from the Argentine Republic 
during the first quarter of 1909 shows increased valuations, and in the 
total of $140,231,340 a gain of nearly $25,000,000 is reported as com- 
pared with the corresponding quarter of the preceding year. These 
figures are the more remarkable inasmuch as the export volume for 
1908 was unusually great, and present indications point to an even 
greater amount for the present year. In imports, also, the quarterly 
returns show a healthy increase, so that it is reasonable to predict that 
Argentine prosperity will continue on the ascending scale during 1909. 



consul-gene;raIv of brazii^ in the; unite;d state;s. 

Jose Joaouim Gomes dos Santos was born in the city of São Salvador, 
capital of the State of Bahia, where he received his education and after 
completing his studies entered the service of his country. His diplo- 
matic career covers a period of thirty-five years, during which time he 
served in the Argentine Republic, Uruguay, Spain, England, and Chile, 
whence he came to the United States in December, 1906, as Consul- 
General of Brazil, with headquarters at New York. 



BRAZILIAN INDUSTRIES. 

With a total capitalization of nearly $200,000,000, Brazilian manu- 
facturing industries have an annual output valued at nearly $222,500,000. 
Forty per cent of the capital is invested in textile mills, the output being 
of good quality. Flour milling is also an important branch of industrial 
development, and many new enterprises tending to the adequate devel- 
opment of national resources are the recipients of government subsidies. 



CHILEAN RAILWAYS. 

In connection with the awarding of the contract for the Arica-La Paz 
Railway extension, it is of interest to note that the United States Consul 
at Valparaiso, Mr. Alfred A. Winslow, reports that the Government is 
pushing work on the longitudinal line to the north of that city. A force 
of 1,700 men is at work and draft automobiles capable of handling 10 
cars each have been employed with great success. 



308 INTERNATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

COSTA RIGA'S PARTICIPATION IN HUDSON RIVER TERCENTENARY. 

The Consul-General of Costa Rica in New York, Señor Don Juan J. 
Ulloa, has been formally designated by his Government as its repre- 
sentative on the occasion of the celebration of the three hundredth 
anniversary of the discovery of the Hudson River and the centenary of 
the successful navigation of the stream by Robert Fulton. As an 
indication of the desire of Costa Rica to actively share in the event, the 
Secretary of State of the Republic forwarded to the Consul-General 
several bags of the coffee for which the country is renowned that it 
might be used at the different banquets to be given during the Hudson- 
Fulton celebration. 



BUREAU OF INFORMATION IN CUBA. 

With the beginning of the present fiscal year the Republic of Cuba 
established a bureau of information, President Gomez appointing Leon 
J. Canova, an American newspaper man, who has resided in Cuba 
eleven years and has a wide acquaintance with the island, as its director. 

Persons wishing information of any nature concerning Cuba can 
obtain same, free of charge, by writing to lyEON J. Canova, Utility and 
Information Bureau, Department of Agriculture, Commerce and Labor,^ 
Havana, Cuba. 



DR. FELICÍSIMO LÓPEZ, CONSUL-GENERAL OF ECUADOR IN NEW YORK. 

Dr. Felicísimo López, Consul-General of Ecuador in New York, was 
born in Quito, capital of the Republic, in 1847. In 1872 he was gradu- 
ated as doctor in medicine from the Central University of Quito, and a 
short time thereafter went to the Province of Manabi where he prac- 
ticed his profession for many years. In 1895, when the Liberal party 
came into power, he was appointed collector of revenues in the Province 
of Guayas. He attended the convention of 1896 as representative of 
the Province of Manabi. In 1900 he was appointed Consul-General of 
Ecuador in New York, and a short time afterwards was made Minister 
Resident of Ecuador near the Government of Venezuela. In 1901 he 
was Secretary of Fomento in Quito, and in 1906 was appointed the 
second time Consul-General of Ecuador in New York, which post he 
still holds. Doctor López is the author of several pamphlets and essays 
which have been widely read, and for some years was the editor of the 
"Diario de Avisos.'' The latest works of the Consul-General of Ecuador 
in New York are an Atlas of Ecuador prepared for use in the schools of 
the Republic, and a work entitled "Virutas." 




SEÑOR DON felicísimo LOPEZ, 
Consul-General of Ecuador to the United States at New York. 



310 INTERNATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 
PRIZE F'UND FOR CACAO TREATISE. 

"Tropical Life" of lyondon has underway the raising of a prize fund to 
be awarded to the writer of the best treatise on the fermentation of cacao. 
During the last twenty years several improvements have been introduced 
in the systems employed in drying cacao, but as regards fermentation it 
is stated that planters have much to learn. With the purpose of aug- 
menting the fund of knowledge in this branch of preparing chocolate for 
the market, the magazine has headed the list of subscribers for a prize 
fund, and numerous other interested persons have also subscribed in 
various amounts. The terms of the competition have not as yet been 
arranged for, but as Latin America produces the bulk of the world's sup- 
ply of cacao the subject is a matter of interest. Among producing 
countries Brazil ranks first, followed by Ecuador, while various other 
countries of South and Central America occupy relatively high positions. 



CONSUL OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA AT MONTEVIDEO, URUGUAY. 

Frederic Webster Goding, diplomat and inventor, was born at Hyde 
Park, Massachusetts, May 9, 1 858. His ancestry on both sides dates from 
the Pilgrim Fathers, among the noted connections being Hon. Salmon 
P. Chase, Secretary of the Treasury in Lincoln's Cabinet and later Chief 
Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. Mr. Goding acquired 
his early education in the public schools of Chicago, and later entered the 
medical department of the Northwestern University, where he earned the 
degree of M. D. in 1882, having previously taught in the public schools of 
Illinois. He practiced medicine until 1898, during which time he studied 
for and received the degree of Ph. D. from Bethel College. He was a 
delegate to the Republican state conventions of Illinois in 1886 and 1896, 
served as delegate to various county and congressional conventions, and 
was an active member of the Lasalle County (Illinois) Republican central 
committee for eight years. He was mayor of Rutland, IlUnois, from 
1887 to 1897. During 1885-86 he filled the chair of natural science in 
Loudon College, Tennessee. He was assistant to the state entomologist 
of Illinois in 1884-85, and held a similar position in Tennessee. In 1898 
he was appointed Consul to the northern half of New South Wales and 
Queensland, Australia, where he was also in charge of the affairs of 
Panama and Cuba. He was appointed on August 15, 1907, to his present 
position as Consul at Montevideo. Doctor Goding, while residing in Aus- 
tralia, prepared many reports upon the commerce and industry of that 
country which have been instrumental in increasing trade between the 
two continents. He has also published many papers on biology and 
entomology, and in 1890 discovered the secret of tempering copper, as 
well as devising, in 1897, a means for welding copper with steel which has 
been thoroughly tested by the United States Government. Since he took 
charge of the consulate at Montevideo he has prepared many reports on 
the commerce, industries, and social conditions of Uruguay which have 
been well received by the business men of that Republic. 




DR. FREDERIC W. GODINQ, 
Consul of the United States of America at Montevideo, Uruguay. 



312 INTERNATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

HISPANIC-AMERICAN CLUB AT CORNELL. 

The Director of the International Bureau has been advised of his elec- 
tion as a member of the Hispanic-American Club of Cornell University. 
This club aims to promote such friendly relations between the Spanish- 
American students of the university that on their return to their native 
lands they may be stimulated to maintain the cordial sympathies of their 
youth and to further develop a Pan-American spirit. At an oratorical 
contest held near the close of the scholastic year, Rudolfo Roth, an 
Argentine member of the club, chose as the subject of his address "The 
United States and South America.' ' 



CONSUL of UNITED STATES OF AMERICA AT PUERTO PLATA, DOMINICAN 

REPUBLIC. 

Ralph James Totten was born in Nashville, Tennessee, educated in the 
Montgomery Bell Academy and the University of Nashville, and after his 
graduation employed for several years by the Plant Line at Tampa, 
Florida. He returned to Nashville in 1897 and was commissioned first 
lieutenant of the Tennessee regiment sent to the Philippines during the 
Spanish-American war. He was later designated by President RoosEVELT 
to take the examination for second lieutenant in the regular army, but 
failed to pass the physical test on a technicality. On July i, 1908, Mr. 
Totten was appointed Consul at Puerto Plata, which position he still 
holds. 



Two months' postponement of the PAN-AMERICAN CONFERENCE. 

As a result of views exchanged between the Foreign Minister of the 
Argentine Republic and Hon. Charles H. Sherrill, United States 
Minister, the date for the opening of the Fourth Pan-American Conference 
at Buenos Aires in 1910 has been changed from May 10 to July 9. Minis- 
ter Sherrill was impressed with the advisability of setting a little later 
date than the one in May because it would be very difficult for the dele- 
gates of the United States to leave in time for a meeting in May. The 
possibility of getting representative men to serve on the delegation is 
much better on account of their being able to sail from the United States 
practically at the beginning of summer than if it was held so that they 
would be obliged to leave early in the spring when Congress is still in ses- 
sion and business matters are in full swing. It is the desire, moreover, 
of Minister Sherrill, who is imbued with the excellent idea of bringing 
the United States and Argentina closer together, of getting prominent 
business men of the United States and a considerable quota of travelers, 
who generally go to Europe and the Orient, to visit Buenos Aires at the 
time of the Pan-American Conference and when the Argentine Centennial 
Exposition is open. 




RALPH JAMES TOTTEN, 
Consul of the United States of America at Puerto Plata, Dominican Republic. 




qgsiîjsp 



BOOK NOTES 




Mexico, by C. Reginald Enock, F. R. G. S., with an introduction 
by Martin Hume, published by T. Fisher Unwin (London), imported 
by Charles Scribner's Sons (New York). $3. This book, the third 
in the South American series being issued through the house of 
T. Fisher Unwin and edited byMr.]\lAE,TiN Hume, reviews the country 
as a whole in the opening ''reconnaissance" and then, chapter by 
chapter, narrates the history of its development from the time of the 
Toltecs and Aztecs to the present state of modern civilization. While 
no new facts are brought to light in the course of the narration, a 
readable and interesting volume is presented to the public. Of 
special importance are the sections devoted to present-day life in 
the great Republic. The capital is described as a handsome and 
attractive city with fine institutions and public buildings; extensive 
boulevards and parks and whose characteristic life may be classified 
as Americo-Parisian. In contrast with these modern surroundings, 
the remarkable ruins of a former ciyilization as embodied in temples, 
palaces, etc., showing not only skill in construction but also artistic 
taste of the highest order, are scattered throughout the country. The 
accounts of the ancient peoples whose handiwork is represented b}^ 
these ruins aré by no means the least valuable portions of the volume. 
The fall of the Lake City, the capital of Montezuma; the régime of 
the Spanish viceroys when native industries were subordinated to 
Spanish interests; the monarchical period; the crowning and execu- 
tion of Maximilian and the phenomenal rise of Porfirio Diaz are 
detailed with a spirit of appreciative veracity. Of President Diaz, 
Mr. Enock is naturally laudatory in the extreme. Of him and his 
policies he states : 

The strong man appeared in the very antithesis of monarchy — Porfirio Diaz; 
and the autocratic régime, almost monarchical except in name — in the military-civil 
government which followed . 

* * * A certain main and important condition presented itself to the comprehen- 
sion of Diaz early in his administration, and compliance with it has been one of the 
principal contributing causes to his success. This was the necessity for bettering 
the means of communication of the country. Roads, railways, and telegraphs mul- 
tiplied accordingly under the fostering work of the Diaz governments, mainly by 
inducements held out to foreign capitalists; partly by the expenditure of national 
funds. "When troops and messages can be moved and flashed about rapidly pronun- 
ciamientos tend to diminish. * * * The man and the hour arrived together and 
Diaz deserves to rank among the historic statesmen of the world. 

Of the great mineral industry of the Republic it is stated that it 
is not possible to determine when man began to dig for the earth's 
treasures in Mexico. It has been afiirmed that the method of recov- 
314 



BOOK NOTES. 315 

ering gold by amalgamation with quicksilver must have been known 
to the Maya civilization which preceded that of the Aztecs. This is 
adduced from the fact that a vessel containing quicksilver was found 
in the celebrated ruins of Palenque in Chiapas. The present pre- 
eminent status of the country as a silver producer and its advancing 
value in gold and copper mining are well-established matters and the 
fullest exploitation for all natural sources of wealth is assured under 
existing conditions. The established credit and prosperity of the 
country has enabled the Government to move with a certain spirit 
of independence of late years as regards foreign investors, it being 
regarded as a sound economic policy that greater benefits for the 
nation should result from the development of native industries. In 
brief, the commercial and industrial life of Mexico has entered upon 
a course whose present surroundings seem favorable and well founded. 



^ '' Farmacopea de los Estados Unidos de América" (Pharmacopœa of 
the United States of America), eighth decennial revision, Spanish 
translation. The edition in Spanish of the official ''Pharmacopœa 
of the United States," marks a real epoch in the intimacy between 
the United States and Latin America. It shows in the first place 
the efforts being made to extend a knowledge of our scientific progress, 
and in the second place the growing demand among the Republics 
of America for an authority which will interpret for them the stand 
taken by American pharmacology and medicine of the day. This 
translation just completed by Prof. José Guillermo Díaz, of the 
University of Havana, Cuba, assisted by Dr. Plácido Biosga, was 
authorized by the board of trustees of the United States Pharma- 
copœial Convention, and is, therefore, official in every sense of the 
word. That it will be of great value to all practitioners of medicine 
and pharmacy wherever Spanish is spoken, and there is a desire to 
follow American instead of European methods, can not be doubted. 

The book is an octavo volume of 715 pages. The order followed is 
that of the original, but where changes were necessitated by differ- 
ences of spelling or nomenclature between Spanish and English, these 
variations have been clearly marked. Under each preparation or 
drug the Latin designation is given first, then the Spanish, then 
the English; thus making the text easy of reference to all students 
alike. References to the American edition are preserved, and in 
the index both Spanish and English terms are entered. This trans- 
lation is even more advanced than the original, because it has 
been possible to include therein the changes made necessary by the 
national food and drugs act passed June 30, 1906. For the excel- 
lence of the work and the genuine ambition manifested by both Eng- 
lish and Spanish editors to make it a reflex of modern pharmacology, 



316 INTERNATIONAL, BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

the Bulletin takes pleasure in calling attention to it. The pub- 
lishers, American Druggist Publishing Company, New York, and the 
secretary of the board of trustees of the United States Pharmacopceial 
Convention (who can be addressed at 1841 Summit avenue, Wash- 
ington, D. C), have kindly placed a limited number of copies at the 
disposal of the Bureau. It may be purchased through the usual 
trade channels for $5 in cloth, $5.50 in sheep, or $6 in flexible leather 
or interleaved and bound in cloth. 



Under the title ''■ Excursiones Presidenciales,^' Gen. P. A. Pedraza, 
Commandant of the National Constabulary (Gendarmería Nacional) 
of Colombia, has compiled the daily record of the tours made by 
President Rafael Reyes through the Atlantic Department of Antio- 
quia in the spring and autumn months of 1908. The purpose of 
these expeditions was to make a personal report on the natural 
resources of the sections visited and to promote such development 
thereof as might be found feasible. The banana interests were espe- 
cially investigated and the wonderful availability of Colombian 
soil for the commercial production of tropical fruits and plants 
thoroughly demonstrated. Prior tb his departure from Bogota, 
President Reyes delivered a lecture before an assembly of distin- 
guished fellow-countrymen and foreigners, outlining the economic 
conditions of the Republic and setting forth in detail the desires of 
the Government, extracts from wliich appeared in the Bulletin 
for June, 1908. On his return a similar event took place, as reported 
in the Bulletin for August, the two papers forming a valuable 
résumé of Colombian afl^airs. In the present volume are incorporated 
not only the two addresses in reference and the various oflicial 
reports in connection, but also a complete account of the happenings 
of the journeys, with abundant and beautiful photographs of the 
scenes, industrial plants, inhabitants, and localities of the Depart- 
ment. Reproductions of the many public edifices in the cities of 
Cartagena, Medillin, etc., and the popular demonstrations held there- 
in in honor of the visiting Chief Executive are of peculiar interest. 
The railway report which closes the volume covers the various im- 
provements made and projected in communication facilities, and the 
journey itself was a demonstration of the progress made of late in 
this important branch of national growth. 



A recent act of the Government of the Argentine Republic author- 
ized the establishment of a publication in which should be given not 
only the laws, regulations, legal decisions, etc., of the fiscal organiza- 
tion, but also various references, illustrations, and precedents which 



BOOK NOTES. 817 

might tend to better popular understanding of the financial proced- 
ures of the State. The first number of this Boletín de Hacienda 
has just been received by the library of the Bureau, and bears the 
date of May 1, 1909. It is issued from Buenos Aires, has 74 pages 
almost imperial octavo, and is divided into four sections: Explana- 
tory, administrative, statistical, and illustrative (doctrinaria, admin- 
istrativa, estadistica, información extranjera). The articles bear the 
titles: ''The national coasting trade" {El cabotaje nacional); "Free 
imports to railways" {La franquicia aduanera á los ferrocarriles); 
"Smuggling by post" {El contarhando por correo); "New organiza- 
tion of the Minister of Treasury" {Neueva organización del Ministro 
de Hacienda) ; ' ' Government balances in the conversion office and 
national loan bank" {Balances del hanco de la nación, caja de con- 
-versión y hanco hipotecario nacional); "Paper money of Chile" {El 
papel moneda en Chile) . As official or semiofficial announcements 
this and subsequent numbers of the Boletín de Hacienda will be of 
great value to those interested in economic conditions in the Argen- 
tine Reüublic. 



'^ Evolução do Direito Internacional^^ Treatise by JoÃo Cabral. 
Published by the '^Jornal do Commercio/' of Rio de Janeiro, 1908. 

The purpose of the volume, as the author states in the prefatory 
note, is to acquaint Brazilian students with the progress which has 
Tecently been made in international law and justice. In the first 
part of the work the author gives the opinions of the different schools 
as to the foundation of international law and traces its development 
from ancient to modern times. A careful analysis is made of the work 
of the Pan-American conferences and the two Hague conferences. 
'The second part of the work contains the texts of the conventions 
and resolutions adopted by the Third Pan-American Conference, as 
well as those formulated by the Second Hague Conference. 



No. 677 of the miscellaneous series of "Diplomatic and Consular 
Reports," published by the British Foreign Office, covers the "Mines 
and mineral resources of Colombia," as reported on by Mr. Francis 
Strange, the British Minister at Bogota. Each of the larger mining 
companies is treated in turn, so that exhaustive information is avail- 
able for those interested in the subject. The gold and silver mines of 
•Colombia are of well-established value and in the old Spanish days 
they were worked by slave labor and yielded large product. At 
present transport is the main difficulty to be met in the adequate 
■exploitation of the mines, as the mining laws are liberal and Colom- 
.bians are well disposed toward foreigners. 



318 INTERNATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

Of great value to the merchant of Latin America is the "Spanish- 
American Directory and Buyers' Guide of New York," recently issued 
by Prof. AcEVADO, of Colombia University. $2. Published in 
Spanish, Portuguese, and English it is especially useful to the Spanish- 
American traveler. It contains the names and addresses of persons 
having Spanish interests and a list of the most important commercial 
and manuf acturmg houses of the country having business connections 
with import and export trade between the United States and Latin 
countries. The volume also contains a general description of the city 
of New York, its means of communication, places of amusement, etc., 
with a vocabulary of English and Spanish phrases most necessary to 
the traveler. 



Don Federico Sáenz de Tejada, one of the leading international 
lawyers of Guatemala, has pubHshed in pamphlet form a lecture 
given by him not long ago before the faculty of law and notariat of 
Guatemala, the subject of the lecture being "May a state exact from 
another, manu militari, the payment of debts due to said state or to 
its citizens?" Mr. Sáenz de Tejada shows in his work his thorough 
mastery of the subject-matter, which makes this pamphlet a valuable 
addition to any library of international law. 



"Riquezas Mineraes do Estado da Baliia," by Antonio Joaquin 
de Souza Carneio, civil engineer and professor of mineralogy, geol- 
ogy, and paleontology in the Polytechnic School of Baliia. Pub- 
Hshed by Reis & Co., of Bahia; 1908. This is a small volume giving 
the number, classification, and geographical distribution of mines in 
the State of Bahia, with numerous maps and diagrams. The work 
is supplemented by the mining law of the State of Bahia and a map 
of the State showing the principal railways. 



A pamphlet of 19 pages on the "Cultivation of Henequén" 
(Apuntes sohre el Cultivo y la Explotación del Henequén), by José I. 
Rivas Font, of Merida, Yucatan, has just been received in the library 
of the Bureau. Wliile making no claim that his remarks should take 
the place of a scientific study from the agriculturist's point of view, 
yet the author modestly states that his thirty years of practical 
experience in the actual field has given him certain definite knowl- 
edge which he hopes he may pass on to friendly readers and planters. 



BOOK NOTES. 



319 



The appro acliing centennial of the general movement for inde- 
pendence throughout Latin America renders of peculiar interest all 
data bearing upon the lives of the promoters of the cause of liberty. 
From the Colombian press (Bogota-Imprenta Moderna) comes a 
succint but thoroughly adequate sketch of the career of Gen. Simon 
Bolivar, 'Hhe Liberator/' prepared by Soledad Acosta de Samper. 



Under the title ^^ Estudios Linguisticos'^ the original tongues of the 
natives of certain sections of Guatemala and Mexico are discussed 
by Dr. Eustorjio Calderón. The subject-matter originally ap- 
peared in "Repertorio Salvadoreño," from whose pages, with slight 
alterations, the present text is reproduced. 




WHAT IS IN THE MAGAZINES 



''The Germans in Argentina" is the title of a series of articles (in 
German) which the author, Hermann Schroff of Buenos Aires, has 
recently contributed to "Sud- und Mittel-Amerika," the last chapter 
appearing in the number of that semimonthly pubhcation for June 
15, 1909. In addition to the interesting description of the country 
conveying a distinctive local color to the sketches, Herr Schroff 
gives a clear understanding of the accompHshments of the Germans 
in Argentine commercial life, in the industries, technical arts, and 
professions. Undoubtedly, however, the sahent feature of the 
sketches is the emphasis he lays upon the opportunities in Argentina. 
His statements can be studied and appUed not only by Germans, 
but also by every class of colonist or settler hoping to better condi- 
tions by migrating to Argentina. Herr Schroff, while using plain 
terms and denouncing the idler who thinks that in the region of the 
River Plate fortunes can be made without work, is nevertheless 
emphatic in declaring that for the man who will throw aside his old 
world habits and prejudices, begin at the bottom and have material 
success his chief goal, the country is full of opportunit}^, and offers 
as glowing a future for the ''hustler" as the United States of North 
America. Several illustrations are given of Germans who went 
penniless into the "camp" determined to win and did win. 



This "Sua- una Mittel-Amerika" has been particularly rich, within 
the last few months, in clear cut articles of the above character, 
deahng not only with commercial conditions in Latin America, but 
with descriptions of the resources of many of the Republics there. 
Herr O. Sperber has contributed a connected series of this nature, 
beginning in the number for August 31, 1908, and continued through 
that for April 29, 1909. The author writes from New York, and is 
able therefore to combine with the information he gives for Germans 
certain experiences which aid them in estimating the future develop- 
ment of Latin America under North America influences. They are 
on this account of peculiar value to American readers. The first 
article (August 31, 1908) examines the " Rubber resources of South 
America," with special reference to the newer areas for rubber, and 
to the present and future means of transport. The second (Septem- 
ber 30, 1908), "Gold resources of South America," is a presentation of 
the production of that metal from earliest times, with an enthusi- 
astic statement that in Peru, Bolivia. Colombia, and Ecuador there 
320 



WHAT IS IN THE MAGAZINES. 321 

is still abundant gold in sight to meet the world's demand for a long 
time to come, and that a careful study of local conditions is all that 
is needed to make the industry advance very rapidly. ''Peru of to- 
day" is the third article (January 30, 1909), containing a general 
résumé of agricultural, industrial, and social conditions in that 
RepubHc. In the number for March 15, 1909, "Venezuela" is treated 
with the same careful pen. and there is besides a well illustrated 
description of the "Weaving and woven fabrics of the native Indians 
of Spanish America." This series may be said to have its conclusion 
in an article (February 15, 1909) headed ''Advice for the exporter to 
Latin America." It is interesting to note that the author cautions 
the Germans to beware of the same errors into which Americans so 
frequently fall, namely, insecure packing, unwiUingness to recognize 
the importance of meeting the tastes of the consumer instead of 
trying to thrust upon him the just-as-good article of the foreigner, 
and necessity of conforming with credit arrangements that rule 
among the merchants of Latin America. 



An additional contribution from the above author, Herr O, 
Sperber, appears in the ^'Deutsche Export-Revue" (Berlin) for Feb- 
ruary 10, 1909. It is a suggestion that traveling salesmen might 
materially extend their sales by giving demonstrations of manu- 
facturing and use of all kinds of goods on the cinematograph. Any 
one familiar with the extent to which this instrument has penetrated 
into the outskirts of civilization and the childhke pleasure with which 
all classes enjoy its pictures will be convinced of the value of the 
advice. 



' ' The advanced position that Mexico has taken in many economic 
matters is one of the most encouraging facts concerning her future." 
It is thus that Charles F. Speare writing of the finances of Mexico 
in the June number of the ' ' Review of Reviews ' ' sums up Mexican 
poKcies. The whole bent of the workers and thinkers who formulate 
the nation's pohcies is toward increasing native production so as to 
cheapen the food supply, to provide a liberal surplus for export, and 
to so guide pubhc utihties that they may be the efficient servants of 
the people. In lauding the enhghtened administration of President 
Diaz and the marvelous ability of his finance minister. Señor 
LiMANTOUR, Mr. Speare states that ' ' no commercial conquest, how- 
ever, that the Diaz administration has made, compared with the 
control obtained over the most important railroad lines in the 
Republic. The story of this conquest is one of the most fascinating 
and romantic in the history of finance. * * * gy what almost 
1650— Bull. 2—09 3 



322 INTEENATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

seems a process of financial legerdemain the Government secured 
control of tliis vast sj^stem with an annual earning capacity of 
$30,000,000 and an authorized capitaKzation of $650,000,000 at 
practically no outlay of money." The new commercial life of Mexico 
follovv^ed closely upon the adoption of the gold standard in 1904 and 
at present the bonds of the Government command highest respect in 
the markets of the world. Nearly all her obHgations are payable in 
gold and fluctuations of exchange are no longer occasions of dismay 
to the foreign merchant or trader in the country. 

In the section discussing the leading articles of the month, com- 
ments on and extracts from the article on ''Wireless telegraphy in 
the American Repubhcs," written by Russell Hastings Mill ward 
for the April number of the Bulletin of the International Union 
OF THE American Republics find extended space. The gradual 
emancipation of Latin-American authors from European influences 
as noted by Señor Manuel Ugarte in "Nuestro tiempo,' ' of Madrid 
also forms the subject of literary comment. 



The interest excited by the achievements of Lieutenant Shackle- 
ton in antarctic regions has kindled a desire to know more of previous 
expeditions for the discovery of the South Pole. Consequently 
"Farthest south," as the article on the subject is called, contributed 
by William S. Bruce to ''The World To-Day" for July, meets a 
public demand for information. Mr. Bruce acted as naturalist with 
the Dundee antarctic expedition in 1892-93; was zoologist with the 
Jackson-Harmsworth expedition in 1896-97, and, in addition to north 
polar experiences, was the leader of the Scottish national antarctic 
expedition in 1902, and subsequently, in 1906-7, explored and sur- 
veyed Charles Foreland and Spitzbergen. The Dundee expedition 
was first in the field when the renewal of interest in antarctic explora- 
tion began in 1892, four ships being dispatched on a voyage of dis- 
covery. Norway, stimulated by Scotland's enterprise also sent a 
vessel. The observations made during this voyage have served as a 
basis of recent antarctic meteorology. In 1897 Belgium fitted out 
an expedition, and the explorers, a thoroughly trained volunteer staff, 
spent the winter in the antarctic regions, being the first human beings 
to furnish a concrete account of the climate and weather for a period 
extending over more than a year. With the beginning of a new cen- 
tury the Swedish antarctic expedition in the Antarctic and English 
in the Discovery, a Scottish in the Scotia, and a German in the Gauss, 
sailed for the South Pole. The writer of the article was leader of 
the Scotia party, special work being accomplished in oceanography. 
The results of the expedition were the richest biological collection 
ever made in antarctic seas, a complete revolutionizing of the map of 



WHAT IS IN THE MAGAZINES. 323 

the South Atlantic Ocean and Weddell Seas, the fixing of the antarc- 
tic continent 700 miles farther north than it was supposed to exist, 
and. valuable contributions to meteorology and physics. Doctor 
Charcot, the leader of the French expedition of 1908, is still on the 
scene of his labors. 

Judged by so distinguished an authority as Maj . Gen. A. TV. Greelt, 
U. S. Army, and commander of the United States arctic expedition of 
1881-1884, the discoveries made by Lieut. Ernest Shackleton in 
the antarctic explorations of 1908-9 are the most important ever 
made within the Antarctic Circle. The comments of General Greely 
concerning the expedition which determined the location of the mag- 
netic pole, largely increased the known area of the southern continent, 
virtually reached the South Pole, and added materially to general 
knowledge of those regions, are published under the title ^'Shackleton 
and the South Pole, " in the "Century Magazine " for July. Concern- 
ing the hitherto practically unknown lands surrounding the pole, he 
writes: 

Strange have been the historical vicissitudes of the antarctic continent. A figment 
of geographic fancy evolved by Ortelius in 1570, the great Captain Cook thought that 
he had demolished it in 1773. Resuscitated by an American sealer, N. B. Palmer, 
in 1820, it took form and definite location under Wilkes's daring and persistent explo- 
rations of 1840, supplemented by those of D'Urvíxle,Enderby, and Kemp. Ross 
eliminated Wilkes's discoveries from his charts, but the continent was theoretically 
and scientifically reconstructed by the great physicists, Carpenter and Murray. 
Slowly evolving its tangible shape through the discoveries of the German Drygalski, 
the Scotsman Bruce, the Belgian Gerlache, the Frenchman Charcot, the Norwegian 
Larsen, and the Englishman Scott, through the late labors of Shackleton, the antarc- 
tic continent now appears to extend from Victoria Land west to Enderby Land, and 
from Wilkes Land across the South Pole to Palmer Land. 

Under the title "Mexico, " the same magazine publishes a charming 
series of pictures, drawn and engraved by Howard McCormick: 
"Mother and child" (in color), "Chato," "The picador," "The 
toreador, " and "The tortilla vender. " 



In the new South American series of papers prepared by Prof. 
Paul S. Reinsch for the ''World To-Day," Argentina is the subject 
for the June issue of the magazine. As is inevitable in considering 
the conditions of the Republic, much space is devoted to the capital 
city, Buenos Aires, with its cosmopohtan population, its beautiful 
streets and edifices, and its commerce-distributing water front. The 
country of which this remarkable city is the center is in itself no less 
marvelous in the variety of its resources and the assured promise of 
its future. The rank of the Republic as a cattle grower and grain 
producer is well established, but in considering the future industrial 



324 INTEENATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMEEICAN KEPUBIylCS. 

development of Argentina vast lumber and mineral supplies must be 
given place, and in the opening of means of communication through 
previously untraversed tracts and the increase of population for 
the culture of vast arable areas Professor Reinsch sees important 
requisites in the nation's progress. No less important factor is the 
estabhsliment of a bank which shall deal with North American 
interests. The recent visit of the writer to South America as a mem- 
ber of the Pan-American Commission enabled him to note the con- 
ditions and to write comprehensively of the great changes being 
wrought in the southern half of the continent. 

The July number of the same pubhcation treats of the "Dormant 
resources of Peru," by the same author. Within the national 
boundaries of the RepubHc such a variety of conditions and resources 
is stated to exist that Peru might be considered as an epitome of the 
wealth and opportimities of the world. From this standpoint Pro- 
fessor Reinsch surveys the vast Montaña, the wonderful mineral- 
bearing mountains, and the coast strip made fertile and wealth 
producing through irrigation. 



Current numbers of the "Outlook" devote considerable space to 
Pan-American affairs. Much importance is attached to the scientific 
congress held in Santiago de Chile in 1908, of which it is stated in 
the issue for May 8 that "perhaps the greatest achievement of the 
congress was to give to ' Pan- Americanism ' a meaning and a purpose 
more definite than it has ever possessed before." Tribute to the 
press is rendered in the number of May 29, Senhor José Carlos 
Rodrigues, editor and proprietor of the Brazilian daily, the "Journal 
do Commercio," being characterized as "one of the makers of 
Brazil." The mutual advantage accruing through the interchange 
of educational influences between the Americas is emphasized in the 
July 3 "Outlook." The visit of Secretary Root to Latin America, 
the energetic work of the International Bureau of the American 
Republics, and the numerous Pan-American congresses are regarded 
as effective agents in assisting to a wider material development and 
to a better understanding of international obligations, but the crea- 
tion of a uniform mental attitude is regarded as essential to an 
absolute comprehension of racial differences. For this purpose the 
interchange of professors between the universities of the Americas 
is counseled, and Doctor Rowe, who speaks with authority on the 
subject, has declared that United States investigators would receive 
a peculiarly hearty welcome throughout the Latin America. The 
desire is now to make all higher education conform more nearly to 
United States standards, and the work of educational reorganization 
in South America will be largely the result of the influence of North 
American education. 



WHAT IS IlSr THE MAGAZINES. 325 

In a consideration of "The world's highest altitudes and first 
ascents/' by Charles E. Fay, A. M., Litt. D., published in the 
''National Geographic Magazine" for June, 1909, attention is given 
to the conquering of the Andean peaks. The ascent of Mount Chim- 
borazo by Humboldt in 1802 to a height of over 19,000 feet was suc- 
ceeded by a similar climb a generation later, in 1831, by Boussin- 
GAULT, a French naturalist, but attention was called afresh to the 
Andes when in 1879-80 Mr. Edward Whymper ascended, measured, 
and mapped not only Chimborazo, but also the active volcano Coto- 
paxi, .'^tisana, Cayamba, and several other peaks over 15,000 feet 
high. To the south the names of E. A. Fitzgerald and Sir Martin" 
Conway acquired new fame as mountain climbers. In 1897 the 
former scaled Aconcagua and climbed Tupungato, while in 1898 Con- 
way ascended Illimani and Aconcagua. These expeditions have 
recently been capped by the achievements of Miss Annie Peck, who 
in the summer of 1908 made the ascent of Mount Huascaran in the 
conviction that it was the highest peak of the Andes, attaining an ele- 
vation estimated at approximately 20,500 feet, probably within 600 
or 800 feet of the summit. 



In the publication of the initial number of ''Ingeniería" (Moderna 
Panamericana) for July, 1909, the editors announce that one of the 
objects of their highest ambition has been attained. It is stated that 
the purpose of the magazine is to provide for I^atin countries a scien- 
tific illustrated review of corresponding rating as the ''Domestic 
Engineering Magazine," published under the same auspices. Included 
in the general classification of subjects to be treated are: Industries 
and mining, hygiene and sanitation, iron working and foundries, 
municipal engineering, lighting, building and materials therefor, heat- 
ing and ventilation, electricity and its various energizing ramifica- 
tions, and such other kindred matters as occasion and necessity 
require. 



In its discussion of the leading articles of the month, the "Review 
of Reviews " for July comments at length on an article in the ' ' Figaro " 
of Paris concerning the centennial celebrations of national independ- 
ence shortly to be held throughout Latin America. Washington, 
Bolivar and San Martin are placed side by side in the annals of 
American liberty, the two last named being characterized as the 
emancipators of the southern half of the continent. San Martin's 
crossing of the Andes is ranked with the passage of the Alps by 
Hannibal and Napoleon, and Bolivar's invasion of New Granada, 
and the founding of Colombia created a new era in American history. 



326 INTEENATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS, 

In the same section of the magazine extensive excerpts are repro- 
duced from the article of Maj. J. Orton" Kerbey, pubHshed in the 
April number of the Bulletin of the International Union of 
American Republics, describing the city of Para, the distributing 
point for nearly $50,000,000 worth of trade annually. 



In ''Sud Amenkanische Bundscliau" (Berlin) for July 1, 1909, is a 
presentation of the opportunities in Brazil, in the German colonies 
in Africa, for the German emigrant, contrasted with the conditions 
offered him, to which his country prefers that he should go. The 
sketch is an attractive one, and shows, with full statement of fact, 
that the individual settler in many parts of Brazil has only himself 
to blame if he does not attain a thorough success in his undertaking. 
The Brazilian Government stands ready to aid him in many material 
ways; land is given him, money loaned without interest, and free 
seed for the year's crop advanced. The State of São Paulo has been 
particularly active in this regard, so that the man}^ German colonists 
settled there recently express themselves as entirely satisfied with 
their adopted country. 



The Yahgan inhabitants of the Fuegian Archipelago are called by 
Charles Wellington Furlong, F, R. G. S., the "southernmost 
people of the world," in his article published in "Harper's Monthly 
Magazine" for June. The gradual passing away of this independent 
race of islanders is demonstrated by the statement that twenty-eight 
years ago 3,000 Yahgans paddled their canoes in the waters of 
Patagonia, whereas it is doubtful if at the present time their number 
exceeds 175. This remnant maintains its independence in the very 
face of its destiny. The community life of these people, their daily 
habits and customs — survivals from a remote and impenetrable past — 
are described with charm and interest by the writer, and the numerous 
photographs give an adequate impression of the wild picturesqueness 
of the surroundings and of the personal characteristics of the people. 



In discussing the opening of new markets in Mexico and Central 
America in the issue of ' 'Commercial Intelligence' ' for April 21, 1909, 
the Director of the International Bureau of the American Republics, 
Mr. John Barrett, states that the key to the situation lies in the 
remarkable railway development that is in progress between the 
United States-Mexican frontier and the old line of transit across the 
Isthmus of Panama. Accessibility means progress and stability, and 



WHAT IS IN THE MAGAZINES. 327 

in the operation of the Tehuantepec Line in Mexico, the Northen Rail- 
way in Guatemala, the Interoceanic route in Costa Rica, the traversing 
of Salvador by rail, and the linking up of the various sections of the 
intercontinental route, the writer forecasts the realization of the 
Pan-American vision. 



The diamond bearing highlands of the Brazilian State of Bahia are 
exhaustively discussed in the ' 'Engineering and Mining Journal" for 
May 15 and 22 by J. C. Branner, who states that he takes this 
opportunity to correct much misinformation published in regard to 
the deposits and their environment. The economic importance and 
scientific interest attached to this section are dwelt upon and the 
geologic formation and methods of exploitation described. The 
paper is a valuable addition to the literature on the subject. Numer- 
ous illustrations show the character of the country, the means of 
reaching the mines, and the various operations used in obtaining 
the products. 



The ''American Druggist" publishes as Number 1 of its Volume 
XIV, June 15, 1909, a Spanish edition entitled ^^ Revista Americana 
de Farmacia y Medicina." It is desired that the columns of the 
review shall represent medical and pharmaceutical interests of Latin 
America, for which purpose typical articles and illustrations will be 
reproduced when submitted. Among the subject-matter of the present 
issue are papers deahng with "The University of Havana," "The 
College of Pharmacy of Philadelphia," "Typical American drug 
stores of New York," "The bubonic plague in Japan, and the methods 
of overcoming it," and a "Sketch of the International Bureau of the 
American Republics," by its present Director, Mr. John Barrett. 



An intelligent survey of "The rubber system of the Amazon," as 
published in the "India Rubber World" for July 1, 1909, is made by 
GusTAV Heinsohn of Para in May of that year. Primarily designed 
as a clear statement of the writer's views in regard to the so-called 
rubber valorization project, many instructive facts as to the gathering 
and marketing of this valuable commodit}" are furnished. It also 
corrects a mistake too prevalent abroad that "Amazon rubber is 
obtained by haphazard methods by ignorant denizens of the forest." 
To support the contention it is asked: "If it were not for a well- 
organized system how could Para show a certain and well-sustained 
and annually growing export of rubber?" 



328 INTERNATIONAL BXJEEAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

The ''Bulletin of the American Geographical Society" for June, 
1909, reproduces the story of the ascent of Mount Huascaran by Miss 
Annie S. Peck as told by her before the society on February 23, 1909. 
In the course of her lecture Miss Peck defends her use of the term 
" Huascaran " instead of " Huascan ' ' in naming the mountain, stating 
that the latter is manifestly an error, and further citing the fact that 
the medal presented to her by the Peruvian Government in honor of 
her achievement bears the name "Huascaran." The American Geo- 
graphic Board in April, 1909, also adopted it as the correct name. 



The "Mining World " for July 3, 1909, is issued as a special Mexican 
number and is replete with interesting information concerning the 
Republic and its leading industry. "The geological formation of 
Mexico's silver mines," "The effect of the Southern Pacific on the 
development of the country," "The laws governing corporations," 
and "A digest of the new mining law" are among the important 
matters treated. A table of statistics covering the mineral output 
during thirty-one years shows a total of nearly $2,000,000,000 (Mexi- 
can currency) as the value of gold and silver produced, the valuation 
of gold being $334,228,518, and of silver $1,649,528,978. 



The first semiannual report of the Central American International 
Bureau of Guatemala appears in the April number of " Centro-Amér- 
ica,^' the ofiicial organ of the Bureau. The report covers the inaugu- 
ration and organization of the Bureau; the library report, in which 
special mention is made of the reception of publications from the 
International Bureau at Washington; general reports on commerce 
and finance and the work of the Bureau. The various official mes- 
sages exchanged on the occasion of the inauguration of the Bureau in 
September, 1908, are also reproduced. 



The history of the native silver mines of Batopilas, Mexico, and their 
present status are authoritatively treated by Walter M. Brodie, min- 
ing engineer, in the numbers of the "Mining World" for June 12 and 
26. The remarkable development work accomplished by the late 
Alexander R. Shepherd is noted, and the statement made that 
"from January 1, 1880, to the opening of 1909, covering the period of 
his administration and a few years subsequent, the total output has 
certainly been not less than $25,000,000. 



WHAT IS IN THE MAGAZINES. 329 

The "Scientific American" for July 10 devotes considerable space 
to a consideration of the guayule industry and its bearing upon the 
future output of rubber. The writer, J. E. Kirkwood, expresses 
some doubts as to the permanent effect of the plant upon the world's 
rubber supply and states that "the only hope of prolonging the 
business seems to be in so harvesting the plants that the roots are 
left in the ground." At present it consi tutes one of the most impor- 
tant Mexican products. 



The issues of the "Mining Journal" (London) for May and June, 
1909, contain valuable papers concerning various mineral-bearing 
regions of Latin America, notably the following: "Some petroleum 
bearing regions of Mexico," May 15; "The ore deposits of the Sierra 
de Cordoba, Argentine Republic," May 29; "The borate deposits of 
the Atacama Desert, Argentine Republic, June 12; and "The min- 
eral deposits of southern Matto Grosso, Brazil," June 19. The latter 
also furnishes interesting sketches and notes on the emerald mines 
of Colombia. 



''The Economist" (London) in its issues for June 12 and 19 devotes 
much space to Latin-American matters. "Factories of Lima and the 
Peruvian Corporation," "The mines and minerals of Colombia," 
"Ecuador and its port," and "The industries of Peru" being among 
the subjects discussed, while in financial and business notes and cor- 
respondence the "Presidency of Brazil," "The Cordoba Central of 
the Argentine Republic, Ecuador and the Guayaquil and Quito Line, " 
and "Argentina, " are reported on. 



The "Outing Magazine" for June and July continues the charming 
accounts of Dillon Wallace concerning his travels "Beyond the 
Mexican Sierras." The capital city of Tepic is visited and described 
in the first, and the region of Mexcaltatan and the Lagunas in the 
second. The running commentary on events by the way is supple- 
mented by photographs illustrative of native life and scenery. 



In its section devoted to Reviews of Books, the "American Histori- 
cal Review" for July, 1909, makes appreciative comment of "Saint 
Domingue: La Société et la Vie Créole sous V Ancien Régime" (1629- 
1789), by PiEERE DE Vaissière. Paris, Perrin et Cie. The writer 
has been enabled by a long and diligent study of colonial archives at 
Paris to adequately depict the social life in the Dominican Republic 
under the French régime. 



330 lîfTEENATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMEEICAN REPUBLICS. 

A contribution of value to Haitian interests is a paper published in 
the ''Mining World" for July 10, 1909, treating of the mineral 
resources of Haiti, by Edward W. Fergusox, mining engineer. 
Deposits of iron, manganese, lignite, oil and bitumen, gypsum, and 
copper are located and described. 



In considering Cuba's future, H. A. Austin, in the "North Ameri- 
can Keview" for June, 1909, states that with a "stable government 
and peaceful conditions existing on the island, with its fertile soil 
and other natural conditions, Cuba, in reality, as well as in name, would 
become the "Pearl of the Antilles." 



The monthly review ''America," published in Spanish, has as its 
initial article for June, 1909, an illustrated account of "Mexico and 
Porfirio Diaz in 1909," followed by an illuminative description, also 
profusely illustrated, of the "City of Mexico under various aspects." 



In "World Events" for May, 1909, under the title "South America 
and her commerce, some things we do not know about our neighboring 
Republics" are narrated by Hon. Charles B. Landis. 



"Machinery News" for June publishes a paper b}^ Maj. J. Oeton 
Kerbey concerning the way to win the trade of South America, in 
which valuable suggestions are made for the business man. 



The "Banker and Investor Magazine" for July reprints a valuable 
report furnished by United States Consul-General Anderson at Rio 
de Janeiro in regard to the agricultural bank established by the Fed- 
eral Government of Brazil in 1907. 



LATIN-AMERICAN NOTES 



Venezuela has placed all materials used for disinfecting purposes 
on the free list. 

The first Mothers' Club in the Argentine Republic was recently 
opened in Buenos Aires. 

The city of Guadalajara, Mexico, has decided that all electrical 
wires shall be placed undergound. 

The population of Buenos Aires, Argentine Republic, on March 31 
was 1,198,802, or 58,525 more than a year previous. 

The University of La Plata, Argentine Republic, is to institute a 
six-year course for the training of hydraulic engineers. 

The University of Cordoba, Argentine Republic, founded in 1613, 
is organizing courses in university extension, and is about to erect a 
new building. 

The new members of the Cuban Cabinet are: Secretary of Gov- 
ernment, Señor Francisco Lopez Leiva; Secretary of Public Works, 
Señor Joaquín Chalons. 

Shipment over the Tehuantepec-Orient route was inaugurated 
between Hongkong and New York in April, the first cargo arriving 
in New York after a voyage of fifty-three days. 

There has recently been held in Berlm, Germany, an exhibit of paint- 
ings in Brazil, both landscape and city life, made by a Munich artist 
who decorated the new steamers of the Hamburg-American Line. 

Plans are on foot for holding an Agricultural and Corn Exposition 
in Mexico. This may assume the shape of an agricultural congress 
to be held in September, 1910, as a part of the celebration of the Mexi- 
can Centennial. 

The exports of manganese ore from Brazil in 1908 were valued at 
$1,200,868, against $2,442,984 in 1907. The exports of the ore to the 
United States in 1908 amounted to only $140,648, as compared with 
$521,581 in 1907. 

The Bulletin is informed by the United Fruit Company that they 
are at present operating over 150 miles of railway in the Republic 
of Panama, one half of which is used for the transportation of both 
freight and passengers. 

A decree of May 10, 1909, provides for the exemption from taxation 
of lands in Panama devoted to bananas and cacao when grown to the 
exclusion of other crops. In other instances they are subject to taxa- 
tion as by statute provided. 

331 



332 INTEENATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMEEICAN EEPUBLICS. 

The British Vice-Consul at Maldonado, VrugusLj, has been awarded 
a government bonus of $3,000 for having been the first to set out a. 
plantation of over 10,000 maritime pines. This prize was awarded 
under the Uruguayan afforestation act of July, 1897. 

An executive decree promulgated by President Diaz, of Mexico, 
under date of June 1, 1909, continues in force for the term of one year 
the exemption from duty on foreign merchandise introduced into the 
Territory of Quintana Roo for consumption in that district. 

The American and Rio Plata steamship line, operating a fort- 
nightly service between New York and the River Plata, will carry 
samples and exhibits for the railway exposition to be held in Buenos 
Aires in 1910, at a reduction of 33 J per cent from the regular freight 
tariff. 

Brazil has been compelled to import a very large portion of its food 
supply, in spite of the fact that many sections of the Republic are 
suitable for its production, but the development of agriculture is 
already showing its effect in the decreased imports of foodstuffs and 
forage. 

The Astronomical Society of Mexico issued invitations to a special 
meeting on May 12, 1909, in order "to celebrate the tercentenary of 
the invention of the telescope, which was first made in 1609. It 
would seem that a Republic of Latin America is the only nation to 
make formal recognition of this great event in science. 

The fiftieth anniversary of the death of Alexander, von Hum- 
boldt — May 6, 1859 — was observed in Germany with befitting cere- 
monies. This remarkable man, who, with Goethe, ranks as the 
highest product of Germany's intellectual genius, did in his time more 
than any one person to call the world's attention to the wonderful 
resources of Latin America. 

Brazil is taking a keen interest in the Dry Farming Congress to be 
held in Bulings, Montana, October 26 to 28, 1909, and is to be repre- 
sented by exhibits and delegates. Arrangements are to be made for 
a branch of the Congress in Brazil at the expense of the Government, 
by which all discussions in America may be translated into Portu- 
guese and all discussions in Brazil irrny be translated into English. 

The new President of Brazil, within a few days after assuming office, 
appointed Dr. Candido Rodrigues, of the State of São Paulo, to or- 
ganize the Department of Agriculture, Industry, and Commerce, 
wlfich was created by the law of December 29, 1906. The appoint- 
ment of Doctor Rodrigues to tliis important office is regarded by the 
press of Rio as a guaranty that this new department ^^^ll be ably 
administered. 



LATIN-AMERICAlSr NOTES. 333 

A new company, composed of Americans and Brazilians, is negotiat- 
ing for a franchise to operate a line of street cars in Santos, Brazil, 
to be constructed up Monte Serrate and to the beach, and Doctor 
Perreira DOS Santos, chief of the Bureau of Telegraphy, is negotiat- 
ing for the installation of a wireless station on Monte Serrate, over- 
looking both sea and city. The greatest difficulty in the project 
.seems to be in obtaining motor power. 

A chamber of commerce was organized in the Argentine city of 
Bahia Blanca in April, supplanting the active commercial organiza- 
tion that had existed in that city since 1901. American trade jour- 
nals printed in Spanish, and advertising matter, also in that language, 
may be sent to the Secretary of the Chamber of Commerce, Bahia 
Blanca, Argentina, where there is a growing market for American 
lumber, structural steel, building materials, and railway supplies of 
all kinds. 

The largest engine ever operated in Mexico has recently been de- 
livered to the Mexican Central Railroad by the Baldwin Locomotive 
Works for use on the line from Cardenas to Tamasopo. The track 
■over which it will work ascends 3,200 feet in a distance of 30 miles. 
The engine is a Mallet compound oil burner, and, with tender, weighs 
338,000 pounds. Fifty-three days were required for it to reach its 
destination from Philadelphia and several bridges between that city 
and Aguascalientes had to be reenforced before the monster locomo- 
tive could pass over them. 

The Fuller Argentine Package Express is the name of a company 
Tecently established in the city of Buenos Aires, Argentine Republic, 
■Calle Maipú, 71. In addition to a regular express service for small 
packages with the United States, where they have an office in the 
Produce Exchange, New York, it is their intention to keep on ffie in 
^Buenos Aires as complete a list as possible of catalogues of American 
manufacturers for free consultation by Argentine importers. It is 
Tequested, therefore, that advertisements of this character be sent to 
them liberally by all those interested in such publicity. 

In the July issue of the Monthly Bulletin some errors were made 
in connection with the steamship service of the United Fruit Com- 
pany. According to their latest sailing schedules, the voyage from New 
Orleans to Guatemalan ports takes less than four days. The service 
of that company between New Orleans and Ceiba, Honduras, has been 
■discontinued. The company operates steamships from New Orleans 
to Colon and from New Orleans and New York to Bocas del Toro, 
Panama. The fare from New Orleans to Bocas del Toro is $50, and 
from New York to the same point, $60. They also maintain a line 
. from Boston to Port Limon, Costa Rica, the voyage consuming eight 
■days. 



THE MONTH OF JULY IN 



M. 



ííí"'%. 



p'%1 i'''"-^ i '"^ P P P P--^ ^ 



July 1, 1904. — The ratifications of the treaty between the United States and Cuba 

are exchanged at Washington. 
1860. — A convention between the United States and Costa Rica is signed 

at San Jose, by the terms of which all pending claims are referred 

to arbitration. 
July 2, 1881. — ^James A. Garfield, the twentieth President of the United States, 

is shot by a political fanatic at Washington. 
July 3, 1898. — Admiral Cervera's squadron is destroyed off Santiago de Cuba by 

Admiral Sampson's fleet. 
July 4, 1776. — The representatives of the 13 colonies, constituted as the United 

States of America, unanimously adopt the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence. 
1826. — Thomas Jefferson, patriot and third President of the United States, 

dies at Monticello, Va. 
1851. — The fii-st railway in South America, built by William Wheelright, 

between Caldera and Copiapo, Chile, is opened to the public. 
July 5, 1811. — Declaration of independence of the Republic of Venezuela. 
July 6, 1807. — The British troops, under General Whitelocke, are defeated by 

the Spanish and Argentine forces in their second attempt to cap- 

tm-e Buenos Aii-es. 
1908.— T/je Roosevelt, Commander Peary's ship, starts on a polar expe- 
dition. 
July 7, 1519. — On the plains of Otumba, Cortes decides the fate of Mexico by de- 
feating the great Aztec army, which had driven his forces out 

of the city, after a gallant defense of seventy -five days. 
1898. — The Republic of Hawaii is annexed to the United States at the 

request of the citizens of the former. 
July 8, 1628. — A Spanish treasm-e fleet is captm'ed in the Bahamas Islands by the 

Dutch Admiral Peter Heyne. 
July 9, 1816. — The fii'st congress of the United Provinces of the Rio de la Plata 

adopts a declaration of independence. 
July 10, 1528. — The famous Spanish explorer, Alvaro Nunez Cabeza de Vaca, 

reaches the coast of Texas. 
July 11, 1809. — The combined forces of Spain and Great Britain besiege and capture 

the city of Santo Domingo from the French. 
July 12, 1784. — Don Juan Mora y Fernández, first President of the Republic of 

Costa Rica, is born at San Jose. 
July 13, 1584. — Sir Walter Raleigh's expedition lands on the island of Wocokon, 

and takes possession, naming it Virginia, after the Virgin Queen. 
July 14, 1816. — Francisco Miranda, Venezuelan patriot and soldier, and retired 

general of the French army, dies at Cadiz, Spain. 
July 15, 1712. — The province of Louisiana is granted by the French King to Antoine 

Crozat for a period of twelve years. 
July 17, 1852. — The Argentine Republic recognizes the indei^endence of Paraguay. 
334 



THE MONTH OF JULY IN PAN-AMEEICAN HISTORY. 335 

July 18, 1830. — The constitution of the newly established Republic of Uruguay is 
sworn to and put in operation. 
1872. — Benito Juarez, Mexican patriot and statesman, dies in Mexico 
City. 
July 19, 1800. — Gen. José Juan Flores, first President of the Republic of Ecuador, 
is born at Puerto Cabello. 
1824. — Emperor Iturbide (Agustín I) of Mexico is executed at Padilla. 
July 20, 1810. — The revolution against Spain in the viceroyalty breaks out in the 
capital, Bogota, the viceroy is deposed, and a provisional board of 
government is established. 
July 21, 1608. — Capt. John Smith returns to Jamestown after the first exploration of 
the Chesapeake Bay and its tributaries. 
1822. — Iturbide, under the name of Agustín I, is crowned as Emperor of 
Mexico. 
July 22, 1795. — Signing of the treaty of Basel, whereby Spain cedes the entire island 

of Haiti to France. 
July 23, 1840. — Don Pedro II is declared of age and crowned Emperor of Brazil. 

1906. — The Third Conference of American Republics is formally opened at 
Rio de Janeiro. 
July 24, 1783. — The Liberator, Simon Bolivar, is born at Caracas. 

1823. — The Republic of Chile declares the emancipation of slaves. 
1847. — Brigham Young founds Salt Lake City. 
July 25, 1524. — Alv arado, one of Cortes's lieutenants, having defeated the Quiche 
Indians and conquered Guatemala, founds the city of Tecpan, 
Guatemala. 
1535. — Sebastián de Benalcazar, one of Pizarro's lieutenants, founds 
the city of Guayaquil. 
July 26, 1565. — The Spaniard Menendez destroys the colony of the French Hugue- 
nots in Florida, hanging all the inhabitants as heretics. 
1810. — The independence day of the Republic of Colombia. 
1822. — An interview between the two Liberators, Bolivar and San Martin, 
takes place at Guayaquil. 
July 27, 1610. — Sir Thomas Smythe discovers Delaware Bay. 

1811. — Don Miguel Hidalgo y Castillo, Mexican patriot, priest, and sol- 
dier, is shot at Chihuahua. 
1853. — A treaty of amity, commerce, and navigation is concluded between 
the Argentine Confederation and the United States. 
July 28, 1821. — The independence of Peru is formally proclaimed at Lima. 

1906. — Elihu Root, Secretary of State of the United States, arrives at Rio 
de Janeiro on board the U. S. S. Charleston. 
July 30, 1502. — Columbus, on his fourth and last voyage, discovers the island of 
Guanaja or Bonaca, naming it "Isla de Pinos" (Isle of Pines). 
1619. — The House of Burgesses meets at Jamestown, the first colonial legis- 
lature in the New World. 
1777. — ^^^ashington crosses the Delaware to Germantown with his army. 
July 31, 1498. — Columbus, in his third voyage of exploration, discovers the Island 
of Trinidad. 



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August 1, 1498. 

August 2, 1868. 
August 3, 1492. 



1821.— I 

August 4, 1886. 
August 6, 1824. 

1825.- 





1826. 




1908. 


August 7, 


1538. 




1819. 




1892. 


August 8, 


1621. 




1828. 


August 10, 


1809. 



1909. 

August 11, 1908. 

August 12, 1806. 

August 13, 1521. 
August 14, 1502. 

336 



Columbus discovers the mouth of the Orinoco on his third voyage 

of exploration. 
Don José Balta is elected first President of the Republic of Peru. 
Columbus sails from Palos, Spain, with three caravels, the"5a7iia 

Maria," the "Pinta" and the "Niña," on his first voyage in 

search of a passage to the Indies, which resulted in the discovery 

of America. 
Gen. San Martin is proclaimed by the Peruvians Protector of 

Peru. 
-The present constitution of the Republic of Colombia is adopted. 
-The patriot forces, under the lead of General Bolivar, defeat the 

Spanish at the battle of Junin. 
-The provinces of Upper Peru declare their independence from 

Spain and form a Republic under the name of Bolivia, in honor 

of the Liberator. 
-Inauguration of the first President of Bolivia, Gen. Antonio José 

DE Sucre. 
-The Fifth Pan-American Medical Congress opens at Guatemala 

City. 
-The Spanish explorer, Jiménez de Quesada, founds the city of 

Bogota. 
-General Bolivar defeats the Spanish troops at the battle of Boyaca. 
-Chile and the United States sign a convention agreeing to submit 

the claims of the citizens of the latter against the former to a 

commission. 
-Creation of the University of Cordoba, Argentine Republic, by 

Pope Gregory XV. 
-The present constitution of Chile is promulgated. 
-The first cry for independence in South America is given out in 

Quito. 
-Opening of the National Exposition of Quito, Ecuador, in com- 
memoration of the one hundredth anniversary of the declara- 
tion of independence. 
-Inauguration of the National Exposition of Rio de Janeiro, in 

commemoration of the one-hundredth anniversary of the opening 

of Brazil's ports to the commerce of the world. 
-The city of Buenos Aires, which had been captured by the British 

under Beresford, is retaken by the Spaniards under Santiago 

de Linares. 
-Cortes, having built and transported a fleet, launches it on the 

Lake of Mexico, and takes the city after a long siege. 
-Columbus, on his fourth and last voyage, discovers the coast of 

Honduras, landing at what is known as the Cape of Honduras. 



THE MONTH OF AUGUST IN PAN-AMEEICAN HISTORY. 337 

August 14, 1811. — The movement for independence in Paraguay is initiated at Asun- 
cion by Don Pedro Juan Caballero. 
1906. — Elihu Root, Secretary of State of the United States, arrives 

at Buenos Aires. 
August 15, 1519. — Governor Pedrarias founds the city of Panama, which formed 

the basis for the exploration of the west coast. 
1536. — Juan de Ayolas, Spanish soldier and explorer, founds the city of 

Asuncion, Paraguay. 
August 16, 1853. — The inhabitants of Santo Domingo revolt against the Spanish, 

who had again taken possession of the island. This was the first 

movement toward the definite establishment of the Dominican 

Republic. 
1858. — The first cable message is sent across the Atlantic Ocean. 
August 17, 1850.^General San Martin, the liberator, dies at Boulogne-sur-mer, 

France. 
1874. — An arbitration treaty is signed between the United States and 

Colombia. 
August 18, 1648. — The Portuguese defeat the Dutch at the battle of Guarapes, Brazil. 
August 20, 1780. — The Chilean patriot and soldier, Don Bernardo de O'Higgins, is 

born at Chilian, Chile. 
August 21, 1521. — CuAHUTEMOc, the Aztec emperor, having been captured by the 

Spaniards under Cortes, and refusing to reveal the hiding place 

of his treasures, is subjected to torments. 
August 23, 1892. — Gen. Deodoro da Fonseca, first President of Brazil, dies. 
August 24, 1777. — Washington's army passes through Philadelphia for the Chesapeake. 
August 25, 1825. — The Republic of Uruguay declares its independence and separation 

from Brazil. 
August 26, 1906.^The Third Pan-American Congress, at Rio de Janeiro, adjourns its 

sessions, and recommends that the next meeting be held within 

five years at Buenos Aires. 
August 27, 1828. — A treaty of peace is signed between Argentine Republic and 

Brazil guaranteeing the independence of Uruguay. 
August 28, 1821. — General San Martin, Protector of Peru, founds a library at Lima. 
August 29, 1533. — After raising a ransom valued at $17,500,000, Pizarro puts Atahu- 

ALPA, the captive Inca, to death at Caxamarca. 
1565. — ^The town of St. Augustine, Fla., the oldest European town in the 

United States, is founded by Menendez, a Spanish soldier. 
1793.— The French Commissioner, Polverel, issues a decree abolishing 

slavery in Haiti. 
August 30, 1498. — Columbus discovers the islands of Cubagua and Margarita, off the 

coast of Venezuela, which afterwards became renowned for their 

pearl fisheries. 
1857. — The first railway in the Argentine Republic, running from Buenos 

Aires to Las Flores, is opened to the public. 
August 31, 1848. — The Republic of Costa Rica (having previously seceded from the 

Central American Union) adopts its constitution. 
1867. — The Republic of Peru adopts its constitution. 

1650— Bull. 2—09 4 









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ON June 14. 1909, Dr. Nilo Peçanha, Vice-President of the 
United States of Brazil under the administration of Presi- 
dent ArroNSO Penna, who died in office, assumed the presi- 
dential chair for the remainder of Doctor Penna's term. 

The rapidity with which President Peçanha has risen to high 
political honors has been remarkable — a Federal Deputy at the age of 
21, a Senator and Governor of his State at 35, Vice-President of the 
Republic at 38, and finally President of the Republic at 41. 

He was born in the city of Campos, State of Rio cle Janeiro, and 
after completing his primary and secondary studies he matriculated 
in the Law School of Pernambuco, where he graduated with honors. 

With the advent of the Republic, the 5^oung law graduate was 
elected Deputy to the Constitutional Assembly, being the author of 
several articles of the present constitution of Brazil, among them the 
article providing for compulsory arbitration of international dis- 
putes. After serving twelve years as Deputy from the State of 
Rio cle Janeiro, he was elected Senator and then Governor of his 
State. 

The great work he accomplished in reorganizing the government 
and finances of the State of Rio de Janeiro while Governor is proof 
of his remarkable administrative ability. When he announced his 
candidacy for the office of Governor, the State was in the throes of 
a great financial and economic crisis, and even his warmest friends 
and admirers doubted his ability to successfully cope with the situa- 
tion. The State was financially insolvent and its autonomy was 
threatened. One of his first official acts after assuming office was to 
cable the State financial agent in Europe to suspend the negotiations 
then ill progress for a large State loan. During the four years of his 
administration he rendered inestimable services to his State and re- 
vealed himself to be a statesman and administrator of a high order. 
He reorganized and consolidated the public departments and abol- 
ished many offices which he regarded as unnecessary or useless. He 
reduced the salaries of public officers, beginning his campaign of 
economy by making a reduction of 25 per cent in his own salar3^ 
He annulled or modified existing contracts with the resultant 
economy to the State of large sums. He improved public instruction 
and established professional schools and promoted the development 
338 



NEW PRESIDENT OF BEAZIL. 



339 



of the agricultural, pastoral, and mining industries. He made a 
reduction in all export duties and sought and obtained from the 
railway companies a considerable reduction in freight rates. 




THE PALACE OF THE PRESIDENT, RIO DE JANEIRO, BRAZIL. 

At the close of the second year of his administration, the receipts 
for the first time in eleven years exceeded the expenditures, and in the 
last year of his administration there was a surplus in the Treasury 
of over 1,000 contos^ after having promptly met all its obligations. 




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THE Fourth of Jul}^ represents a distinct epoch in history. 
In fact, it has lost its significance as a elate in the annual 
calendar and, used in its special sense, refers altogether to 
the event of which the phrase is symbolic. Historically 
it indicates the day in 1776 when the Declaration of Independence 
of the " United Colonies " (now the United States of America) was 
declared; its broader meaning, however, is taken by all civilization 
to be the beginning of the severance of the new world from the old, 
the denial in America of the European doctrine of the divine right 
of kings. 

The term " Independence Day " is often used, especially in solemn 
and intensive oratory, and it is necessary to explain to the foreigner 
that the Fourth of July is the independence day, the birthday, of the 
first American nation. It will be acknowledged, when attention is 
called to it, that America really has national birthdays, to which 
the finger of time can point with as clear precision as to the date of 
a great battle, or, what is of higher analogy, to the hour when a cor- 
ner stone was laid for some building that is to be used for the benefit 
of a whole people. Other nations grew slowly into their present 
degree of civilization, and have passed from one system of govern- 
ment into another only by a slow process of evolution. In some 
instances there has been an indistinctly defined revolt, dragging its 
protest through a crisis of months and years. England, to be sure, 
340 



342 INTERNATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

had its Magna Cliarta day, France celebrates the fall of the Bastile, 
and Switzerland attaches its reverence for liberty to the names of 
Tell and Winkelried. But a natal day for a nation is distinctly 
American. Every republic on the Western Hemisphere is proud of 
its natal day. Ecuador and Bolivia enjoy a friendly rivalry among 
the Republics of Latin America, as having been the first provinces 
to declare, in 1809, an independence from Spain. Argentina, Mexico, 
Chile, and others followed in 1810 ; Brazil, by a bloodless revolution, 
joined the republican ranks in 1889. Each republic therefore cele- 
brates its own day of independence as one of the great fiestas of the 
people. 

One graceful feature of all of these Republics, peculiarly character- 
istic of Latin and Latin- American courtliness, is the honor paid to 
the Fourth of July, in the sense that it is not only the great national 
holiday of the United States, but also. the date of the first concerted 
movement in America asserting a determination to establish on the 
Western Hemisphere a republican form of government. 

In Mexico, both by custom and by law, the national flag is dis- 
played from public buildings in honor of the Fourth of July, and 
congratulatory telegrams are sent from the capital to Washington. 
Each year, moreover, some special tribute is paid to the day by a 
union of national officials with those American residents celebrating 
the event. This j^ear the holiday was felicitously recognized by the 
President of Mexico, Gen. Porfirio Diaz, who attended with his staff 
a splendid breakfast on the Fourth of July given by the American 
colony of Mexico. Just before this hour a reception had been held by 
the American Ambassador, the Consul-General, and the members of 
the society, with President Diaz and Vice-President Corral as guests 
of honor, at which a hapj)y address was delivered by Mr. Arnold 
Shanklin, Consul-General, and a cordial response acknowledged by 
the President. Members of the various foreign diplomatic corps 
were also ¡Dresent, and took part with equal sincerity in the formal 
proceedings, watching also with interest the sports and amusements 
generally indulged in by loyal Americans on this day in whatever 
portion of the world they happen to be. Similar celebrations have 
been held in the City of Mexico for many years, and wherever within 
the Republic Americans can gather together on that day they are 
joined by Mexicans who rejoice with them in calling the Fourth of 
July one of the great days of America. 

It is natural to suppose that on the Canal Zone in Panama there 
would be a genuine celebration by the 5,000 or more Americans there, 
and good proof of this is given in the issue of " The Canal Record " 
for June 30, 1909. Almost an entire page is devoted to the day's pro- 
gramme, which includes amateur athletic events, parades, fireworks, 
several concerts, exhibitions, and tournaments, ending in a grand ball 



INDEPENDENCE DAY OF THE UNITED STATES. 



343 



to which the whole colony was invited. But in addition to the spirit 
of patriotism on the part of native-born Americans there was a deli- 
cate act of courtesy shown by the Eepublic of Panama to the Govern- 




X Col. Felix Diaz. 



X I'l-e.sident Diaz. 



■The President of Mexico was received by a committee just outside of the grounds in which tlie 
''fSTjuIv'- celebration was held. The photograph shows the distinguished guest and his 
son, who is a co"lonel in the Mexican Army. 

ment of the United States through the Isthmian Canal Commission 
which is noteworthy. In recognition of a similar courtesy manifested 



344 INTEENATIOKAL BUKEAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

by the commission on the anniversary of the natal day of the Republic 
of Panama, November 3, which had been set apart as a holiday 
throughout the Canal Zone, President Obaldia, through the Secre- 
tary of Government and Justice, designated the Fourth of July 
(actually the 5th in this instance) as a civic holiday within the cities 
of Colon and Panama. 




lion. Arnold Slianklin, Consul-General in the City of Mexico, delivering the "Fourth oí July, 
address before the American residents and olflcial Mexican guests. Mr. Shanklin spoke in botii 
English and Spanish. Directly back of him are General Porfirio Diaz, the President of the Republie 
of Mexico, Hon. David E. Thompson, American Ambassador to Mexico, and Señor Ramón Corral, 
Vice-President of Mexico. 

But the Eei^ublics far removed from the United States by distance 
and social intimac}' were glad to embrace this opportunity to show 
that such barriers disappeared before the inspiration of sentiment 
and fraternal affection which, on this day above all others, demon- 
strates the real vitalitj^ of Americanism. In Lima, the capital of the 
Republic of Peru, a ceremony of the same nature as that in Mexico 
was heartily carried out. The American legation held a reception 



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346 INTEENATIONAL BXJKEAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS, 

for citizens of the United States fortunate enough to be in tlie neigh- 
borhood, and President Leguia of Peru was among the visitors eager 
to honor this Independence Day and the country to which it gave 
birth. In La Paz, the capital of Bolivia, where to be sure there are 
not many American citizens, but where the ties of friendship have 
been materially strengthened during the last few years, equal respect 
was paid to the flag and to the day. One of the local papers, which 
published a photograph of President Taft, concluded its remarks 
upon the Fourth of July in the following tribute : " The United 
States is a land of men and genius, and has gained the admiration of 
the world not for its military glories, which are few, but for its scien- 
tific conquests, which are many. Increased prosperity to the sister 
Eej)ublic of the North means in the end increased prosperity to all 
the Eepublics of Latin America." In Urugua3% the American Minis- 
ter was the host for his countrj^men at a banquet, given on the Fourth 
of July. Among his guests also were many distinguished " Ori- 
entales,'' Uruguayans, who took the occasion to pa}^ their respects both 
to General O'Beiex and the nation he represented. 

In Argentine Rej^ublic, which is geographically the farthest re- 
moved from the United States of all the American Eepublics, there is 
firmly founded one of the most patriotic societies in the world. Its 
name is the North xVmerican Society of the Eiver Plate (see Bulletin, 
April, 1909, p. 679) , and one of its chief objects is to offer to all North 
American residents of the region of the Eiver Plate an opportunity 
to celebrate the Fourth of Jul}^ Oddly enough, many members of the 
society are Canadians, while not a few are South Americans who 
have spent several years in the United States. This year a banquet 
was given in which Hon. Charles H. Sherrill, the newly arrived 
American minister to Argentina, delivered a splendid address to that 
Eepublic. A unique feature of the àaj in Buenos Aires Avas a Fourth 
of Jul}" concert given b}" an English organization. The Argentine 
national hymn and the American national h3"mn were sung one after 
the other, and the English combined the words of " God Save the 
King " with "America "' in beautiful accord. The government officials 
never omit to pay their respects, either b}" personal calls of state or 
by formal tribute of flowers and congratulations, to the minister and 
consul of the United States of America, and the Argentine daily 
papers always mention this international fiesta in words of friendship. 

In fact, the attention called to the Fourth of July by all the news- 
papers of Latin America is a sincere testimony to the lasting respect 
in which this crisis in the history of the Western Hemisphere is held. 
On this great anniversary there is sure to be some paragraph or even 
more extensive sketch of the history of the event ; some notice of its 
general significance or particular celebration in some locality or by 



=^ H 



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2 O 



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348 INTEENATIONAL BUEEAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

some local association. In Pará, Brazil, for instance, this year there 
was a pleasant reception held at the American consulate attended by 
the principal magistrates of the city. In Rio de Janeiro the Amer- 
ican Association of Rio de Janeiro held a celebration out of doors, 
one of the features of the entertainment being a baseball game which, 
for almost the first time, could be played in Brazil by real American 
talent. To this game the English Cricket Club was invited, and the 
Revolution of 1776 was thereby completely buried in a friendly 
rivalry between the sports of the Old World and those of the New. 

It is evident that wherever Americans are most numerously settled 
they will be most active in promoting, among themselves at least, a 
celebration of their great national holiday. This by no means im- 
plies any influence upon the officials of the governments in which they 
for the time being are living. On the contrary, the presence of only 
one or two Americans suffices to bring out all marks of delicate 
courtesy from the representatives of foreign governments, to demon- 
strate that they are not isolated in sentiment because they happen to 
be separated from their fellow-countrymen. But Americans must 
have their Fourth of July, and the more to en j oy it the merrier. The 
last few years in Cuba have shown a decided increase in the number 
of residents and settlers in that beautiful island, and consequently 
they have taken their holiday with them. This year, how^ever, there 
was a most cordial combination of the American idea with the Latin 
habit of recognizing its significance befittingly. The headline called 
the event " Cuban-American Confraternity," The particular act 
around which interest centered was the review of certain regiments 
of the Cuban army, directed by Maj. Gen, Faustino Guerra, and 
the reception by them of a set of standards presented by a body of 
little American girls through the same number of little Cuban boys. 
The president of the American Club of Havana made the dedicatory 
address, and the acceptance was acknowledged by General Guerra. 

AU these ceremonies and celebrations have one other feature, be- 
sides the decided feeling of friendship of Latin America for the 
United States, in common. This is the absence of noise and explo- 
sion, and the substitution therefor of games, parades, concerts, social 
gatherings, and dances. In other words, Latin America has taught 
us the pleasure to be derived from a " safe and sane Fourth." This 
does not mean that no fireworks were displayed, or that salutes were 
not fired on proper occasion. There was plenty of both, but due 
caution and control were exercised. It does mean that American 
children and American adults can have as much fun, and show their 
loyalty with as much enthusiasm, both abroad and at home, without 
that lawlessness which hitherto has been, imfortunately, too char- 
acteristic of the Fourth of July. 



s ç 




350 INTERNATIONAL BUEEAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

Washington, the capital of the United States, was, the Bulletin 
is proud to say, a leader in the movement to rej)ress the noisj' and 
degrading side of the national celebration and to set before the 
country an example of what a really patriotic Fourth of July could be. 
Not a person was injured in all Washington; not one serious fire was 




THE PROCESSION OF FLOWERS PASSING UP PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE FROM THE 
CAPITOL, WASHINGTON, D. C. 

The " Fourth of July" in Washington, D. C was celebrated with all the enthusiasm necessary 
to show a true loyalty in the hearts of Americans, but without noise or disaster. Fireworks 
were displayed in the evening, which were attended and enjoyed by thousands. During the 
day, besides the open-air ceremonies in the public places, a very pretty procession of flower 
decorated automobiles was organized, and delighted the people who took part in or viewed it. 

recorded during the twenty-four hours of this natal day. Therefore, 
in insisting that America continue to celebrate with all the joy im- 
plied by the term '" Independence Day." it is well to be grateful for 
these instances of courtesy which can be found in every Republic of 
Latin America. 




1 11 



AIGEMTINE NA¥T 



THE annual review of the Argentine fleet took place May 29, 
30, and 31, ofiE Puerto Militar, the naval station adjoining the 
city of Bahia Blanca. 

The President and committee, with the Minister of Marine, 
arrived from Buenos Aires on the 29th, and were met by a guard of 
honor composed of detachments from the fleet, coast artillery, and 
naval cadets. 

The new port works were inspected with the workshops, naval 
stores, hospital, and dry docks, all of which were found in perfect 
order. His Excellency then boarded the frigate Sarmiento and 
reviewed the squadron drawn up in order of battle. 

The sight was an impressive one. As the white frigate steamed 
slowly between the graj^ hulls of war ships, each in turn burst into 
flame with the thunderous presidential salute of 21 guns, bet^^een the 
discharges the assembled crowd ringing out the shout " Viva la 
Republica." 

After the salute the President transferred his flag to the battle ship 
Bélgtcmo^ flagship of the squadron, whence he witnessed boat exer- 
cises and maneuvers by the torpedo fleet, which later engaged in a 
mimic night attack upon the larger ships. 

The following day the squadron steamed 40 miles out to sea and 
gave an exhibition of target practice at full speed, averaging 70 per 
cent of centers at ranges varying from 3,700 to 2,500 meters. The 
gunners in every case were young conscripts, yet so perfect was the 
marksmanship that the remains of the target, shattered by the first 
ship which opened fire, could not be seen at times for the spouts of 
foam lifted by the projectiles. 



°' By Louis Coffin. 



351 



352 INTERNATIONAL BUEEAU OF THE AMEEICAN REPUBLICS. 

Trials of speed succeeded the target practice, after which the fleet 
returned to Puerto Militar. 

The third day the shore batteries fired upon a moving blank, and 
later a sham engagement took place between these and the squadron, 
entering in single file and replying to the fire of the batteries, afford- 
ing the spectator a splendid sight. 




FRIGATE "SARMIENTO, 



WITH YARDS MANNED, AWAITING THE ARRIVAL OF THE 
PRESIDENT. 



One still finer was enjoyed in the afternoon when a force of 2,500 
men and 4 guns were landed and occupied the beach, defended by 
1,000 men with field artillery. 

The inauguration of a new proving ground for heavy guns, with 
various tests of penetration, velocity, and rapidity of fire, closed a 
programme most enjoyable and most interesting. 




1650— Bull. 2—09 5 



354 INTEENATIONAL BUEEAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

A fact worthy of note throughout the maneuvers is that the 
majority of the rank and file engaged were youths of 20 and 21, 
rendering their two year's service as required by law. Recruited 
almost wholly from the inland Provinces, they take to the sea as 
though born to it ; a life on the Pampas or among the Cordilleras makes 
an excellent preparation for the stern discipline of a man-of-war. 




TARGET PRACTICE. BATTERY VI, ON SHORE, DISCHARGING ITS POUR CM. GUNS 
AT A TARGET TOWED BY A TUG. 

The high averages of the gunners probably are due in great part to 
previous training of the eye with rifle or lasso. 

Besides being thus excellently manned, the perfect precision and 
accuracy of movements observable throughout shows the fleet to 
have been equally well equipped. 

In a word, the review evoked from those who saw it a high tribute 
of praise for all the Departments of the Argentine Navy. 




THE exposition opened in Quito on August 10, 1909, has 
awakened more than usual interest, not only throughout 
Ecuador but also in the neighboring Eepublics and the 
United States. 
Active participation on the part of sister nations has been assured 
by the erection of buildings devoted to a display of the products of 
the respective countries, and the completion of the Guayaquil-Quito 
Railroad has placed the capital of Ecuador in easy reach of the coast 
both for passengers and exhibits. 




Transporting the United States Government exhibits in bullock carts from the railroad station 
at Chimbacalle to the Exposition Grounds. 

The United States has displayed particular activity in preparing 
to share in Ecuador's national celebration of her independence. On 
June 11 the U. S. S. Saturn^ which transported the United States ex- 
hibits from Panama to Guayaquil, was cordiallj^ welcomed by the 
fleets in the harbor, being the first ship fljáng the American flag seen 
in Ecuadoran waters for a long time. The exhibits, prepared in 
Washington under the supervision of Commissioner-General Wands, 
reached the exposition grounds in good condition in spite of the 
many transshipments to which they had been subjected. 
356 




(Photo by Harris & Ewing.) 

HON. ERNEST H. WANDS, 

Commissioner-General of the United States to the National Exposition of Ecuador. 



358 INTERNATIONAL BUEEAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

In addition to an adequate display of the leading features of 
United States development through the installation of the exhibits in 
a speciallj^ designed building, an object lesson in the methods of 
national progress has been provided through a complete motion- 
picture ajDparatus. B}^ this means, life in the northern Eepublic — the 
system of receiving immigrants, of cultivating the soil, of manufac- 
turing raw materials, amusements, etc. — is to be depicted for the 
benefit of Ecuador's people. From the International Bureau an inter- 
esting souvenir is to be distributed in the form of a postcard bearing 
the flags of the Eepublics of America, 50,000 of which have been 
shipped. 




The United States Government Building at the National Ecuadorian Exposition, showing 
progress of construction. Photo taken June 15. 

Of the status of the grounds surrounding the exposition and the 
approach thereto, Commissioner-General Wanüs reports that the 
northern terminal of the Guayaquil and Quito Kailroad is at Chim- 
bacalle. This is really a part of Quito, but it is intended only as a 
temporary station until the municipality decides on a more convenient 
terminal. 

The road from Chimbacalle to the exposition site is, like all high- 
ways in and around Quito, rather hilly, and though the grades have 
recently been lessened by some deep cuts, much work remains to be 
done in order to facilitate transportation of goods from the railroad 
to the center of the city. Passengers are carried to and from the 



THE QUITO EXPOSITION, 



359 



station in automobiles. The transportation of freight, however, is 
still in the primitive stage; milk, forage, and other agricultural 
produce are still carried along the road on the backs of mules, and 
long trains of these animals may be seen at any time during the day. 
A few two-wheeled carts are employed for hauling larger pieces of 
freight to the stores in Quito, The last steep hill on the way to the 
exposition grounds is now being macadamized under the direction 
of the Ecuadoran Government, and its condition for heavy traîne 
has been greatly improved. AVith the extension of the excellent road 
improvements that are now being undertaken hj the Government, 
this highway will soon be in first-class condition, and the transporta- 
tion of freight to the stores in Quito will be greatly facilitated. 




The Ecuadorian Building at the National Ecuadorian Exposition. Photo taken July 1. 

The city of Guayaquil is some forty-odd miles up the Guayas Hiver, 
Pizarro entered the harbor of Guayaquil on his first and second 
expeditions, although no attempt to found a settlement was made 
until after his return from Spain with official authority to seize and 
hold the new country. On his third voj^age he camped on the island 
of Puna, in the Gulf of Guayaquil, All steamers going to Guaya- 
quil to-day anchor off that island to take on a pilot and customs 
oificials. 

Quito, the capital of Ecuador, is almost on the equator and has an 
altitude of 9,400 feet. For ^/ears it was one of the most isolated 
cities in South America, but a few months ago the people celebrated 
the completion of the railroad connecting this ancient Inca city wdth 



360 INTEENATIONAL BUEEAU OF THE AMERICAN KEPUBLIÇS. 

the coast. Following the line of the railroad, the distance from 
Guayaquil to the capital is 286 miles. 




View of the buildings at the National Ecuadorian Exposition; the Colombian Building on the 
right, the Chilean Building on the left, and the Ecuadorian Building in the background. 
Photo taken July 1. 

'When the Panama Canal is opened to navigation, the water route 
from Xew York to Guayaquil will be 2,864 miles. At present freight 
shipped by wa}^ of Cape Horn is subject to a voyage of 11,470 miles. 







JUNE 1, 1909, the Department of State in Washington undertook 
a new method in dispatching to their posts the newly appointed 
representatives of the Government of tlie United States in the 
diplomatic and consular services. The reorganization act of 
April 5, 1906, effected a radical change for the better in the 
consular system ; the scarcely less important executive order of June 
27, 1906, and the regulations of the Department of State based 
thereon, mark an epoch in consular history. Changes .of this char- 
acter, radical as they proved themselves to be, produced a system 
that was intended to elevate these services into careers commensurate 
with their importance. The interest displayed by Senator Egot 
when he was Secretary of State gave increased vigor to the demand 
that diplomatic and consular officers must adequately represent the 
dignity and rank of the United States in the world's work; he intro- 
duced many reforms and encouraged those officers already appointed 
to a praiseworthy activity. Secretary Knox brought his energ}^ and 
farsightedness to this field of his new duties and perpetuated the 
plans already instituted during the former régime. 

Nevertheless, it was discovered that, according to standards recog- 
nized by all the most progressive and experienced nations, there was 
still one step which would add materially to the efficiency and pre- 
paredness of those who were beginning their diplomatic or consular 
careers. This addition to the routine already established — the pre- 
liminary examination under rules analogous to civil-service appoint- 
ments, and designation to positions only after these examinations 
had been successfully passed — was an intermediate step put into 
active operation by Secretary Knox with the class just ready on the 
date above mentioned, June 1, 1909. 

The word " class " is used intentionally, because the formation of 
the two bodies, the appointees to vacancies in the diplomatic and 
consular services, was as systematically arranged as it is in the mili- 
tary and naval academies. On June 1, 1909, the Department of State 
of the United States began to give instruction in rules and regula- 
tions, diplomatic usage, international law and official custom, and 
other matters pertaining to the services, to these appointees. 

For the diplomatic corps, whose term extended through the month 
of June, special attention was laid upon such questions as would 
be frequently brought before them. Subjects of international law, 
national and international conventions, maritime conferences, re- 
ceived particular emphasis. Assistant Secretary of State Hunt- 
ington Wilson and Mr, John Gregory, Jr., outlined the course of 

361 




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DIPLOMATIC INSTEUCTIOjSr. 363 

studies and delivered lectures to the appointees. Experts in several 
lines addressed them, and they were expected to make themselves 
familiar with the departments of the Government and personallj^ to 
visit the various bureaus for the purposes of learning their working 
methods. 

For the consular corps, whose term extended through the month 
of July, a very careful programme was prepared and j^rinted, as this 
w^as the first time that they had ever, in such a formal way, been assem- 
bled for actual class-room work. This programme included a review 
of the history of the consular service, study of consular regulations 
with regard to privileges and powers, passports, citizenship, merchant 
vessels and relief of seamen, fees, accounts, immigration, quarantine, 
inquiries and reports. The ground was thoroughly covered by exami- 
nations, while sample reports and dispatches were written on the 
typewriter. Associated with Mr. Augustus E. Ingraham were Mr. 
Wilbur J. Carr, Chief Clerk of the Department of State, and Mr. 
Herbert C. Hejstgstler, Chief of the Consular Bureau of that Depart- 
ment, all of whom had been instrumental in establishing the courses. 
Lectures and addresses were delivered also by Mr. Shand, Chief of 
the Bureau of Appointments; Doctor Buck, Chief of the Bureau of 
Indexes and Archives; Mr. Flournoy, Chief of the Bureau of Citi- 
zenship; Mr. Chamberlain, Commissioner of Navigation; Mr. 
Werber, of Auditor's OíRce ; Mr. Morrison, Chief of the Bureau of 
Accounts ; Mr. Baker, of the Far-Eastern Division ; Mr. John Bar- 
rett, the Director of the International Bureau of the American He- 
publics; Mr. O. P. Austin, Chief of the Bureau of Statistics, Depart- 
ment of Commerce and Labor ; Mr. Osborne, Chief of the Bureau of 
Trade Relations; Doctor Scott, Solicitor for the Department of 
State; and Doctor Wiley, Department of Agriculture. There were 
visits to the Secretaries of the Department of State, to the other 
Departments, and they were cordially received by the President, who 
had all along manifested a cordial interest in their work. The final 
address was given these fortunate Consuls of the United States of 
America, as their title is henceforth to be, by Mr. Caer. 

They are surely to be congratulated, and the Bulletin wishes to 
voice the general opinion that the United States, whom they are to 
represent, and the countries to which they are accredited will be 
drawn into closer relations of friendship and commerce by these first 
beneficiaries of the new sj'stem. As many of these Secretaries and 
Consuls have received appointments to positions in Latin America, 
the Bulletin will be able to follow them in their future career. It 
takes the opportunity, therefore, of wishing them Godspeed on their 
journey, a profitable field for their energy, and to assure them that 
on their return they will always be welcome in the International 
Bureau of the American Eepublics. 




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THE United States correspondent °' of " La LucTia^^ one of the 
oldest papers of Havana, in contributing the following 
interesting information regarding the Cuban Republic, 
states that the possibilities of the island are daily awak- 
ening greater interest from the viewpoint both of investors and health 
seekers. He adds that never before in the history of the country have 
so many successful financial men from the New York world of finance 
been among the visiting public. 

. Continuing with a summary of the things which have been done 
in the past year, the correspondent tells of the new roads through the 
center of the island and said that with one stretch of roadway in 
Santa Clara Province just at the Matanzas Province line, completed, 
it would be possible to go from Mantua, the extreme w^estern point 
of the island, to the eastern limits of Santa Clara Province, a distance 
of 325 miles. President Gomez promised Governor Magoon that 
this uncompleted section of roadway would be one of the first works 
undertaken, as soon as the new Department of Public Works w-as in 
smooth running order. 

In Pinar del Rio, the $100,000 government building, the "Audi- 
encia," stands as a mark of progress, as it is a work of modern build- 
ing type. • In Havana, the new fire department headquarters, mark- 
ing the establishment of the paid fire department, are noticeable. The 
improvements in the city hospitals and the penitentiary on Principe 
Hill will make the buildings valuable for many years to come. At 
Mazorra, the national insane asylum, the new buildings, and the 
repairs to the old ones show the keen interest the American oíRcers 
had in the w^ork of making the lives of the unfortunate more bearable. 
At Matanzas the dredging of the harbor and the opening of the 
new custom-house mark a new era of progress for that old city. This 
port is an important sugar-shipping point. The new buildings in the 
city, in general, and the opening of the immense storage plant of the 
Matanzas Terminal and Warehouse Company, which recently ac- 
quired the molasses interests of R. Truffin & Co. for $3,000,000, indi- 
cate a wave of prosperity of good proportions. 

Cienfuegos, after a battle royal on the sewer and Avaterworks ques- 
tion, is now in the hands of the contractors for that essential work. 
'The docks' improvements there are indicators of the anticipated 
business now about due in that whole section. The new bank build- 
ing of the National Bank of Cuba has been opened for business there. 

" Edgae W. Dennison, Secretary Publicity League of Cuba. 

365 



366 INTEENATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMEEICAN REPUBLICS. 

Santa Clara has had many miles of new calzadas or highways 
added to the surrounding country, and these have been a great help 
to the people, in many cases reducing the cost of living one-half, 
according to the statements of the natives. A new concrete govern- 
ment building on the square will house all the provincial, civil, and 
municipal officers. This building will tend to expedite the transaction 
of all government business on account of the departments being 
formerly located in half a dozen different buildings in the city. The 
installation of a new electric light plant, the enlargement of the gas 
plant, the installation of the ice plant, and the proposed street-railway 
system all tend to brighten up that city. 

Camaguey, which is the most American of the cities of Cuba, out- 
side of Santiago de Cuba, is continually developing. The location of 
the city, at the middle distance point on the Havana-Santiago run, 
and the finest hotel on the island outside the city of Havana, make 
it a good stopping place for the tourists. The waterworks system 
will soon be in operation throughout the city and the surrounding 
section near the mains. 

Santiago de Cuba probably presents as a whole as much progressive 
spirit as any cit}^ on the island, largely on account of the cooperation 
of the Cuban railroad officials with the provincial Governor Manduley 
and the municipal officers as well. The new quarter-million-dollar 
custom-house is ready for occupancy. The new building of the 
National Bank of Cuba has been opened for business, and the celebra- 
tion was entered into by the whole cit}?'. 

The National Bank of Cuba last year handled $671,000,000 in cash 
in and out of its Havana main offi.ce, the money being represented by 
Spanish gold and silver, French gold, English gold, and American 
gold and silver. The amount represents more in bulk in cash than 
any bank in New York City handled last year. This does not include 
the cash passing in and out of the fifteen branch banks on the island. 
It does not include the checks handled through the foreign exchange 
department. Their new building in Havana has an average of 3,000 
people per day who use the elevators. 

The railroads in general are doing things in spite of the fact that 
the sugar crop of last year was not up to the standard of former years. 
The United Railways of Havana are almost through with the relay- 
ing of their heav}^ steel between Mantanzas and Santa Clara on the 
route of the Havana -Santiago express. The Western Railway of 
Havana has surveys completed to the Remates section of the Province 
of Pinar del Rio, where the Havana Tobacco Company have 225.000 
acres of land planted with their standard crops. This railroad also 
has extensions planned to the United States naval reservation on 
the north coast, Bahia Honda and also Cabanas. The Cuban Cen- 



368 IjSrTEENATIONAL BTJEEAU OF THE AMEEICAN REPUBLICS. 

tral Eailway, which operates in the central section of the island, has 
made more extensive preparations for the handling of the business 
of this year than ever before in the history of the road. They have 
planned many extensions to nearby sugar mills, and in many cases 
the lines have been completed. Their new dock facilities at Sagua 
la Grande, Port Isabella, and at Cienfuegos are now in service. The 
Cuba Eailroad has replaced 200 small bridges and has made extensive 
repairs to the permanent way. The}^ have extensions under way to 
Bayamo and Manzanillo, the line to Bayamo already being in opera- 
tion to Palma Soriano, a distance of about 20 miles from San Luis, the 
junction point for the extension. They have built half a dozen new 
railroad stations in the past year, the standard concrete station being 
used. At Santiago de Cuba the new concrete passenger station and 
the extensive freight stations and docks attest the permanence of the 
improvements being made by this system. The officers of the Cuba 
Eailroad do not seem to regard the situation in Cuba as anything 
but good, tlieir recommendations for improvements on the line and 
new industries to be fostered by the railroad bearing out the stand 
they take in the matter. At Antilla, on Nipe Bay, where the terminal 
warehouses and docks have only recently been completed, work has 
already started on tripling the present number of warehouses and 
docks. This terminal has had a steady increase in tonnage and it is 
apparent that other large interests are arranging to locate on Nipe 
Bay. 

The farewell trip of Governor Magoon to the eastern end of the 
island on his last look at the improved conditions served to bring 
out the importance of the mining industries in the Province of 
Santiago de Cuba or Oriente, recently named. The trip to 
Felton, on Nipe Baj", where the iron-ore deposits of the Spanish- 
American Iron Company are being developed, was one of the 
most enjoyable of the ten days' journey. It was my good 
fortune to be one of the guests of the Governor, and to me 
this end of the trip was the best. The iron deposit on which the 
company is spending over $5,000,000 to develop was found after the 
best mineralogists in the world had investigated the properties and 
reported ore of insufficient quantities to pay for working out. 
Almost the whole of the $5,000,000 has been expended, the building 
of 3 villages, 13 miles of railroad, 25 bridges (one 720 feet long), 
loading incline railway system, drag-line system for economically 
loading the iron ore, docks and unloading system, power house, and 
various other important parts for prompt handling being the items 
on which this sum was spent. The capacity per day under the 
present schedule of operation is 12,000 tons, it being possible to take 
up three 60-ton cars at one time on the incline, the loaded cars going 



' C; < 




1650— Bull. 2—09 6 



370 INTEENATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMEEICAN EEPUBLICS. 

doAvn pulling up the empty cars. The ore deposit is on a high table- 
land 11 to 13 miles back from the terminal docks, on Nipe Bay, at 
Felton. Jennings S. Cox, Jr., the general manager of the Spanish- 
American Iron Companj^, was the discoverer of the iron-ore deposit, 
which has been proven by the boring tests to contain more than 
600,000,000 tons of iron ore. No discovery of iron ore in the history 
of the world has been as important as this discovery, coupled with 
those at Moa containing a like amount of iron ore, and also one at 
Baracoa, which is said to contain 600,000,000 tons, making a total in 
the three deposits of 1,800,000,000 tons of iron ore, in the Province of 
Santiago de Cuba, not considering the amount contained in the older 
discoveries, which are in operation there. The old copper mines of 
this same province have been worked for the past hundred years, 
and many of the old iron mines have, been in operation for the past 
fifty years. The recent discoveries of gold in this province are inter- 
esting, and in one case the Santiago-Holguin Gold Mining Company, 
under the direction of Jose M. Govin, the editor of the Spanish 
newspaper " El Mmido^'' in Havana, has been producing from $18.000 
to $20,000 per month for the past year, the gold being shipped in 
bars from Havana to New York. ' 

Out of the 187 sugar mills on the island there are 170 active, the 
crop this 3^ear giving promise of good returns. The estimated amount 
of sugar production for this 3'^ear is set at 1,500,000 tons. The cane 
in nearly all the Provinces shows a decided gain, and there are a 
number of estates on which the planting has increased the produc- 
tion to a marked degree. Santiago, or " Oriente Province," as it is 
called to-day, shows the greatest gain in new cane planted, and it will 
on this account run Havana Province a close second on the sugar 
production for this season. 

First mortgages in Havana and the surrounding country, as well 
as the interior cities and plantations, show considerable activity. 
City mortgages on good security with good title are paying 8 to 10 
per cent per annum. Country mortgages on tobacco lands and cane 
lands in nearly all the Provinces pay from 12 to 18 per cent per 
annum with one-third valuation on the property and the title un- 
questioned. A recent addition to the financial companies of the 
city of Havana is a title guaranty company, which is looked upon 
with marked favor on account of the large number of foreign in- 
vestors interested in Cuba at this time. A first-mortgage company 
formed by capitalists from the United States is another of the new 
financial entrants, the issuance of debenture bonds against the Span- 
ish first mortgages being a feature of the plan proposed to bring in 
foreign development money, the same as the plan followed in the 
northwest and southwest United States development. There seems 
to be a place for just such a company in Cuba at this time. 



CUBAN DEVELOPMENT. 



371 



The success of the Havanese in handling the large crowds for the 
inauguration and the winter carnival has had much to do with the 
coming of a big crowd for the winter carnival next year. The 
newspapers in the United States have been exceedingly kind to the 
people of the new Republic, and a bureau of publicity has been or- 
ganized so that news in reference to the island may be issued to the 
press with a regular schedule and also from reliable sources. The 
Havanese give full credit to the press for all their publicity, even if 
it is not absolutelv correct. 




. <^ji 



mp 



ÜNICIPAL OIGANIZA 



OF LATIN AMEIICA 



CAEACAS. 

THE capital of the United States of Venezuela deserves to 
be known better than it is as one of the most charming- 
cities to visit and one of the most healthful and pleasant 
places of residence on the American Continent. In the 
Torrid Zone and at no excessive elevation, only about 3,000 feet, it 
enjoys an almost entire springtime the year around. There is no 
winter; at the coldest it never approaches nearer than 30° to frost. 
There is a touch of summer at times, but not the sweltering heat of 
the Tropics nor even the heat of our Atlantic seaboard cities of the 
United States, but rather the summer of the south downs of Devon 
in England. The thermometer may occasionally reach 90° F., 
although this occurs but seldom. For the most of the year there 
is only spring, and that is one of the most beautiful little valleys 
of Venezuela or of any other land. 

One may sail around the world, but nowhere else will he find so 
bold a shore as that presented to the Caribbean on the north coast 
of Venezuela in the vicinity of Caracas. Here the coast range of 
mountains rise straight up from the sea from a mile to a mile and 
three-quarters in height. There are higher mountains than these, 
but none that looks so high. Mount Naiguatá. on the sea front a 
few miles away from Caracas, is 9,430 feet high. This is the main 
turret of this cyclopean wall of granite rising sheer from the water's 
edge. Flanking Naiguatá is La Silla, the saddle, second in height, 
8,629 feet. Behind La Silla and onl}^ 6 miles away from the sea lies 
Caracas. On the sea front of La Silla and clinging to the foot of 
the cliif is La Guaira, the seaport. Short as is the distance in a 
direct line between the two cities, the connecting railway is 24 miles 
long. It starts winding up the face of the mighty wall with a grade 
of 4 per cent in a path cut out of the solid rock until it reaches the 
lowest point in the barrier, a pass of 5,000 feet, over which it goes 
and descends down into the valley and to Caracas. 

The valley is only 3 or 4 miles broad, is watered by four small 
rivers, three of which, Anauco, Catuche, Caroata, flow into the fourth, 
372 




VIEW OF CARACAS, VENEZUELA, LOOKING WEST FROM CALVARIO HILL. 

Many of the houses of Caracas are covered with stucco and painted in delicate tints 
of yellow, blue, red, and green. The buildings are flush with the streets and have 
no chimneys. Caracas is one of the most picturesque and naturally beautiful capi- 
tals of the New World. 



374 INTEENATIONAL BUEEAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

the Guaire. Looking from the house tops in the center of the city it 
seems to be entirely surrounded by mountain peaks, highest on the 
north rising to 9,000 feet or over and on the south to about half that 
height. 

Caracas is not located wholly in the valley proper, but lies in a 
pocket of the hills. It is situated on the southern slope of La Silla 
and extends eastward and westward down into the plain to the Eio 
Guaire and the true valley. It is very regular in structure, even 
more regular than the majority of South American cities, which in 
this respect are far better planned than North American or European 
cities. The streets of Caracas cross at right angles, running north 
and south and east and west. 




MUNICIPAL THEATER, CARACAS, VENEZUELA. 

This large theater, facing a beautiful square and surrounded by lovely gardens, was erected In 1881. 
It is the property of the city, and has its own electric plant. The interior is handsomely decorated. 
Its spacious auditorium is richly furnished and has a seating capacity for about 2,000 persons. 

With some exceptions the streets are narrow, usuall}^ not exceeding 
30 feet from curb to curb, but are for the most part well paved 
with a hard concrete. As in Washington, the streets are numbered 
and lettered from a central point, the Capitol, so in Caracas the 
enumeration starts from the Cathedral or northeast corner of the 
Plaza Bolivar, but this beautiful little park in the Venezuelan capital 
is nearer the center of that city than is the stately building in the 
North American capital the center of Washington. From the Plaza 
Bolivar run, very nearly in a true line with the cardinal points of the 
compass, four avenues — North Avenue, South Avenue, East Avenue, 
and West Avenue. To the east of the line of North and South Ave- 
nues the streets running parallel thereto are named, on the north of 




CATHEDRAL, CARACAS. 



376 INTEENATIONAL BUEEATJ OF THE AMEEICAIST EEPUBLICS. 



East Avenue, First, Third, Fifth Streets North, and to the south of 
East Avenue, First, Third, Fifth Streets South. To the west of the line 
of North and South Avenues the streets are numbered in the same man- 
ner, Second, Fourth, Sixth, North or South, as they are above or below 
the line of Avenue West. So also with the streets running east and 
west. Those to the north of the Plaza Bolivar are numbered First, 
Third, Fifth East or West, as they may lie east or west of North Ave- 
nue, and to the south of the Plaza are Second, Fourth, Sixth East 
or West, as they may lie east or west of South Avenue. 




CENTRAL UNIVERSITY OF CARACAS. 

The method of naming the streets is similar to that adopted in Salt 
Lake City, Utah, with the exception that in Salt Lake the central 
point being the Temple, the streets running along the four sides of 
Temple block are called North Temple, South Temple, East Temple 
(or Main), and West Temple. South Temple and First South Streets 
in Salt Lake therefore run east and west, while in Caracas, South 
Avenue and First Street South run north and south and together 
with North Avenue and First Street North form continuous streets. 

To a traveler from the United States Caracas presents an unfa- 
miliar appearance. In parts it is very Old World and very Spanish 



CARACAS. 377 

in architecture. There is a sameness in the houses, one a little larger 
or a little smaller, but all more or less alike, with colored walls and 
tiled roofs. These walls remind one somewhat of Havana, colored 
as they are in dull oriental blues, greens, j^ellows, and reds, but the 
material is different. In Havana it is solid stone foundation ; here it 
is most often brick covered with mortar or a tinted stucco. 

In Caracas the houses often present their worst side to the street. 
The interior may be quite handsome, with sumptuously furnished 
drawing rooms, ¡parlors, library, and dining rooms, and a patio to 
excite admiration with fountains, often works of art and roses and 
palms, oleanders, and orange trees, but the exterior of the house will 
be most unattractive, low, and squat, but often covering a considerable 
area of ground. The Caraqueño builds his house not for the stran- 
ger and passer-by, but for himself and friends who enter it. There 
is even an echo of the old time when a man's house was his castle, and 
the English and French freebooters cruised along the Spanish Main. 
This dread of attack was no idle fear, for in 1595 Sir Francis Drake 
and in 1679 the French sacked Caracas. Drake carried off more 
than a million dollars in treasure and destroyed several times this 
amount in his three days' occupancy of the city. Since these times 
there has been more than one occasion where every house in the city 
was a fortress armed and provisioned against attack. 

Venezuela is a federal republic like the United States, Mexico, 
Brazil, and Argentina, a union of sovereign States. Caracas is the 
cajiital of the union, and, like Washington, Buenos Aires, Rio de 
Janeiro, and Mexico, is not located in any one of the States composing 
the union, but in a Federal District especially set apart as the seat of 
government. The executive of the district is a governor, appointed 
by the President of Venezuela, and the city has a municipal council 
elected by the qualified voters resident therein. The municipal council 
consists of eight members elected one from each of the parishes into 
which the city is divided. The governor is the presiding officer, but 
in his absence the president of the council, elected from among its 
members by the council, takes his place. The present governor of 
Caracas is Aquiles Ituribe. Unlike the District of Columbia, in 
the United States, the Federal District of Venezuela — and this is also 
the case in Mexico, Brazil, and Argentina — has its proportionate rep- 
resentation in the National Congress. There are marked differences 
in the system of government for the federal districts in the five' 
federal republics. In Washington the form is the least democratic, 
citizens of the District of Columbia not exercising the right of suf- 
frage for any purpose, nor having any voice in government, either as 
to measures or men. In Rio the form is the most democratic, the 
Federal District of Brazil having in form most of the attributes of 
a State of the Union. In reality the differences are more on the 



378 INTEENATIONAL BUEEAU OF THE AMERICAN EEPUBLICS. 

surface than in the substance. In all cases the President and Na- 
tional Congress are in effect the real government, the local agents 
acting in an advisory capacitj^ merelj^, and being often appointees of 
the central power. In Caracas the President of Venezuela is the 
source of government. Among the powers of the President enumer- 
ated in the constitution is : " To administer the government of the 
Federal District according to law and to act therein as the chief civil 
and political authority." It is also provided that everything regard- 
ing the general administration of the national government not vested 
b}^ the constitution in any other authority is within the jurisdiction 
of the President. 




NATK^XAL THEATER, CARACAS, VENEZUELA, 

The National Theater was constructed and inaugurated under the administration of President Castro. 
One side of the building faces Washington Square, in which stands the monument erected by 
Venezuela in honor of George Washington. 

Caracas was founded in 1567 by the Spanish captain Diego de 
LozADA. Its principal claim to historical distinction is that it is the 
birthplace of Miranda and of Bolivar. Gen. Francisco Miranda, 
born in 1752, served with distinction on Washington's staff and with 
the patriots in the French revolution and organized and commanded 
the first serious attempt against Spanish rule in the Western Hemi- 
sphere. Gen. Simon Bolivar, the most splendid figure in South 
American history, born in 1783, after first serving under Miranda, be- 
came the general in chief of the forces against Spain and the liber- 
ator of Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia. 

Caracas is now a city of something less than 100,000 inhabitants, 
neither very modern nor yet very ancient in appearance, less attract- 
ive in buildings, but more beautiful in its environment than most of 




BOLIVAR'S STATUE, BOLIVAR SQUARE, CARACAS. 



380 INTERNATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

the Spanish American capitals. Surrounded by picturesque moun- 
tains and in one of the prettiest little valleys, it has à charm not 
possessed b}^ more pretentious capitals. The valley of the Guaire 
is a garden spot and one of the richest in natural fertility in the 
world. The rich lands are under a high state of cultivation, the 
cane and coffee plantations beginning at the edge of the city. The 
valley, somewhat long and narrow, viewed from any elevation, as 
El Calvario, seems covered with a checkered carpet of green in vary- 
ing tints, surrounded by soberer-hued hills and mountains and 
threaded through and through by silver strands of dancing light, 
the Guaire and its affluents. 

The city is lighted with electricity^ and gas. It has a complete tele- 
phone system and other modern conveniences. Some of the avenues 
are broad and shaded by tropical trees, with here and there handsome 
buildings of modern architecture, bits of Caracas which compare 
favorably with the larger and more stately capitals of Mexico, Brazil, 
Argentina, or Uruguay. A little farther along and the solid built 
squat houses, with more or less repellant exteriors, carry one back to 
Paris in the days of the League or Rome under the last of the 
Tribunes, when a man's house was? a fortress and his neighbor an 
enemy. The contrast of the old and the new is not without charm, 
and on the whole the city is attractive, sometimes beautiful, and 
always picturesque. One of the chief charms of Caracas, and to a 
stranger perhaps its chiefest, is the people themselves. It is no libel 
on the rest of Spanish America to say that Caracas is the most hos- 
pitable spot on the American continent. The Caraqueño is proud of 
his race, of his city and its history, but proudest of all of its reputa- 
tion for hospitality to strangers, and determined that this reputation 
shall not suffer at his hands. 

The principal streets of the city are traversed by trolley cars, which 
reach all the main points of interest and amusement. The chief 
theaters are the Municipal, the National, the Caracas, and the 
Calcaño Theater. The first is a large and comfortable building 
erected in 1881, situated two blocks south of the University, and fac- 
ing a pretty little square surrounded by gardens. Its outside appear- 
ance is elegant and the interior is very beautifully decorated. It 
accommodates about 2,000 people and is the home of the opera com- 
panies subsidized every season by the Government. The National, 
facing Washington Square, is a new theater erected during the admin- 
istration of President Castro. It is devoted principally to the 
drama. The Caracas is the oldest theater in the capital. 

The principal square in Caracas is the Plaza Bolivar, in the heart 
of the city, and containing four handsome bronze fountains. The 
walks are mosaic and the intervening spaces are little gardens set 
out with tropical plants and flowers. In the center is the equestrian 



CARACAS. 



381 



statue of Bolivar on a handsome granite pedestal. Plaza Bolivar is 
the place of rendezvous of Caracas society. Twice a week and on 
holidays in the evenings a military band gives concerts. 

Washington Square, opposite the church of Santa Teresa, with 
very pretty flower plats and some very fine trees, contains in the 
center a statue of George Washington. Pantheon Square, in the 
northern section of the city, is larger than either the Bolivar or 
Washington squares. It contains a statue of Miranda, the martyr 
of independence, who died in the Spanish fortress of Ceuta a prisoner 
of war on July 14, 1816. The Park of Carabobo is named after the 




STATUE OP WASmNGTON, CARACAS, VENEZUELA. 

This statue is sitxiated in the center of Washington Square. It was unveiled in 1883, at the time of 
tlie centennial celebration of the birth of Simon Bolivar. 

famous battle, fought in 1821, in which 6,000 patriots under Bolivar 
and Paez attacked Murillo's 9,000 Spaniards, almost impregnably 
intrenched on the plain of Carabobo, and defeated them in one of 
the bloodiest battles of American history and the decisive event 
Avhich shattered forever Spanish power in the western world. The 
parks is sometimes known as the " Plaza cle la Misericordia." 

The April Square, or Capuchinos, is a triangular park in the south- 
western section of Caracas. It contains a statue of General Zamora, 
one of the founders of the federation, who was killed in the attack 
on San Carlos in 1859. The Altagracia Park, opposite the church of 
the same name, contains a statue of Marshal Falcon, the leader of 



382 INTEKNATIONAL BUEEAU OF THE AMERICAN EEPUBLICS. 

the federation and elected President of Venezuela in 1863. Other 
less noted plazas are the Candelaria, containing a statue of Monagas, 
the liberator of the slaves in Venezuela, the Pastora, La Merced, and 
the Ricaurte and Girardot. 

The Calvar}^ or Paseo de la Independencia is the real park of 
Caracas. It is a beautiful hill on the extreme western edge of the 
city and opposite and south of the station of the La Guaira Railway. 
It commands the whole city. "Winding roads lead i^ast beautifully 
laid-out gardens and flower plats to points on the crest of the hill 
where Caracas and the valley of the Guaire may be viewed to the 
best advantage. Above the steps called Escalinata is a statue of Co- 
lumbus. Higher up is the statue of Bolivar upon a concrete ped- 
estal and leading from this is the most attractive part of El Calvario, 
the promenade, cement paved, shaded by fine large trees and bordered 
by a luxuriant growth of tropical vegetation. The German Railway 
to Valencia passes under El Calvario through a tunnel. 

The Avenida del Paraiso extends along the south bank of the 
Guaire, and is reached by the old iron bridge and other bridges. 
This section will no doubt in time become the most attractive resi- 
dence part of the cit}^ 

The Federal Palace and the Capitol together occupy the entire 
block to the southwest of the Plaza Bolivar. They are the two most 
important modern structures in Caracas. The Federal Palace in 
Corinthian stjde occupies the northern half of the block. It is the 
home of several of the executive departments of the Government and 
of the High Federal Court. It has two entrances and its most 
notable feature is the large central parlor called the " Eliptical Sa- 
lon," used for official receptions. The Salon in its longest diameter is 
150 feet and 40 feet at its shortest. The pavement is a very beautiful, 
wood mosaic composed of nearly -40 native woods. The dome shows 
the battle of Carabobo, the east ceiling the battle of Boyaca, and the 
west the battle of Junin. Along the walls are portraits of the famous 
men of Venezuela. 

The Capitol is an imposing building of the Doric style of architec- 
ture. It contains the halls of the Chamber of Deputies and of the 
Senate. The interior court or patio between the Capitol and the 
Federal Palace is quite handsomely laid out. On the east and west 
are covered archways connecting the two buildings. In the block north 
of the Federal Palace and facing the northwest corner of the Plaza 
Bolivar stands the Casa Amarilla, the Yellow House, official residence 
of the Venezuelan President, now used chiefly for diplomatic recep- 
tions and cabinet meetings. The Yellow House is known widely for 
its three large and beautifully furnished parlors, the yellow, blue, and 
red, colors of the Venezuelan flag. Before the war of independence 
the Yellow House was the residence of the Spanish captains-general. 



384 INTEEISTATIONAL, BUEEAU OF THE AMEEICAISr EEPUBLICS. 

It has been entirely reconstructed in modern times. The cathedral is 
located at the northeast corner of the Plaza. Its architecture is of 
the Tuscan style. 

In Caracas it is customary to give locations by esquinas or street 
corners, each of which has a district name, thus the Capital is located 
from San Francisco to Bolsa, the Federal Palace from Monjas to 
Padre Sierra, the Casa Amarilla at el Principal, the Treasury at las 
Carmelitas, giving always the name of the street corner and rarely the 
name of the street. The cathedral corner called la Torre is the center 
of Caracas, the meeting point of the four avenues which divide the 
city into four sections. 

Other of the more important buildings are the exhibition, city hall, 
the national library, the post-office, the archbishoj^'s palace, and the 
national pantheon, all except the last in the immediate vicinity of the 
Plaza Bolivar. The University of Caracas, la Ilustre Universidad 
Central, is in the block just south of and facing the capitol and 
occupies the larger portion of the square. It is a beautiful building 
in the Gothic style. The university is one of the most celebrated and 
one of the best institutions of learning in Latin America. It was 
founded in 1696 with nine professional chairs as a college-seminary 
for ecclesiastics. There was not at this time, nor for manj years 
afterwards, an institution of higher education open to laymen in 
Venezuela. These, if they were rich enough, might go to Spain or 
to universities of Santo Domingo of Mexico, or San Marcos of Lima, 
but for the others there was no opportunity exce^Dt for rudimentary 
instruction, since the seminaries at Caracas and Merida were closed 
to all except students for the priesthood. The citizens of both these 
towns again and again petitioned for a change, and in 1724 the peti- 
tion of Caracas was granted and the seminary converted hj royal 
charter into a university, and this charter was confirmed the next 
year by Pope Innocent XII. The citizens of Merida did not fare so 
well. Charles TV refused their petition " because his majesty did not 
think it proper that education should become general in America." 
The University of Caracas has a fine library of over 50,000 volumes. 







1650— Bull. 2—09 7 



THE HAID WOODS OF THE 






MAHOGANY. 

THERE is no such thing as a forest of mahogany. The pine 
tree loves its own kind, and never thrives better than wlien 
planted by nature or by man, one tree next to the other, 
over mile after mile of plain or mountain. Other trees are 
found in groves or clumps, seeming to form little settlements within 
the woods. The mahogany tree, however, lives by and for itself 
alone. It stands solitary of its species surrounded by the smaller 
trees and dense undergrowth of the tropical forest, rearing its head 
high above its neighbors. 

Mahogany is a popular name for the timber of several unrelated 
trees, among which are various species of eucalyptus of Australia, of 
myrtles, and so-called cedars. There is a valley mahogany and a 
mountain mahogany in the Rocky Mountains, neither of which is the 
genuine tree. Africa, in addition to the real, exports also a false 
mahogany, and from East India comes the toona, which often reaches 
the importer as mahogan}^, although clearly belonging to another 
order of plant. 

True mahogany is the only species of the Swietenia m.aliogani, and 
is distinctly a native of tropical America, but occasionally small 
specimens have been found in southern Florida, and a similar tree, 
never reaching the height of the American relative, however, has been 
located in India. This swietenia has been planted in southern 
Florida, southern California, and parts of Mexico, but only as an 
ornamental tree, however, because it is of such slow growth and re- 
quires for full maturity such natural surroundings, that for com- 
merical purposes it would seem impossible of cultivation. It is a 
giant among even the giants of a tropical forest. It towers some- 
times to a height of 100 feet. The trunk alone is often 50 feet in 
length and 12 feet in diameter, and it divides into so many hugh arms 
and throws the shade of its shining green leaA'es over so A^ast an extent 
of surface that a more magnificent or more useful object is not to 
be met with in the vegetable w^orld. The precise period of its growth 
is not accurately known, but as, when large, it changes little during 
the life of man, the time of its arriving at maturity is probably not 
less than 200 years. The name " Swietenia " Avas given to malioganj?^ 
in honor of the celebrated Baron a^on Savieten, physician to Maria 
3SG 



388 INTEENATIONAL BUEEAU OF TKE AMEEICAIST EEPUBLICS. 

Theresa. The earl}^ Spanish called the tree "'' Ceclrela,"' a species not 
unlike the mahogany in many respects, and found also in about the 
same natural surroundings, but the English mistook that name for 
cedar, apjjljdng it directly to mahogany, the result being that " Span- 
ish cedar'' is a term still heard occasionally or read without true 
understanding in ancient books of travel and discovery along the 
Spanish Main. 

The mahogan}^ tree has a definite locale of growth. The region 
in which the genuine siuietenia is most abundant and found to the 
greatest perfection is comprised between the latitudes 11° and 23° 
10' north. Within these parallels lie Jamaica, Cuba, Hispaniola 




THE GREAT STUMP OF THE MAHOGANY TREE. 

This stump contains some of the finest grain of the entire wood, and in earlier days this M'as com- 
pletely wasted, because no means was at hand to saw below the platform that was erected on which 
the workmen handled their instruments. To-day, however, better tools enable the workmen to 
obtain better results. 

(the Dominican and Haitian Republics), parts of Colombia and 
Venezuela, all of Central America, in which is of course included the 
mahogany areas of Honduras, and the lower part of Mexico. The 
mahogany found nearer the Equator than the limits given is not 
usually of such a fine quality as that found within the belt just men- 
tioned. Exception to this statement may, however, be made to small 
areas in Panama and to the more recently exploited sources of sup- 
ply in Africa. Very fine timber has been exported from Nigeria 
within recent years, especially since the almost denudation of many 
of the older sources in the West Indies, but even Nigeria lies north 
of the Equator and, to that extent at least, follows the rule. It is 




THE MAHOGANY TREE IN THE FOREST. 

It is a giant among tropic growths. The usual tree of mature age is 4 to 5 feet in diameter, and stands 
a solid shaft for 50 feet before the flrst branches are given off. The bark resembles the black oak 
of the north, and the foliage is like that of the wild cherry. The most valuable wood of the trunk 
is found just below the first branching. 



390 INTERNATIONAL BUEEAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

therefore a curious fact that very little mahogany is found growing 
south of the equatorial line, although climate and elevation may in 
many places seem to be quite suited to it. 

Two trees to the acre is a liberal estimate for mahogany " finds." 
More frequently, perhaps, only one tree will be found over a larger 
stretch of territory, and one instance is on record where a company, 
after securing a concession to cut the timber within an area of 
40 square miles, found only 60 trees, an average of less than one tree 
to 400 acres. Elevation, too, is an important factor in the tree's 
value. It prefers low-lying, moist, rich, almost swampy land. 




A MAHOGANY LOG FELLED BY MEN FROM THE UNITED STATES. 

The mahogany log has hitherto been hewn into a square shape bj' native workmen, because it was 
thus more in demand by the foreign markets of London or Hamburg. Americans prefer to leave 
the log in its natural condition, as more wood is preserved thereby and the sawing can be better 
performed when it reaches the northern mill. 

Good specimens have been found as high as 1,500 feet in Jamaica, 
where much of the wood first came from and where it was so ruth- 
lessly destroyed. As a rule, however, it hugs the coast, or the edges 
of rivers that have no great fall from their source to their entrance 
into the sea. While in one sense, therefore, transportation is not 
complicated by the problem of moving the giant logs down the 
mountain, this advantage is overcome by the fact that passage 
through the troi^ic jungle is costly and difficult. 

The mahogany tree from an early period was used by the Span- 
iards for shipbuilding. The first mention of it occurs shortly after 
the discovery of the New World, when Cortes and his companions, 



s 
> 

I 
o 

> 

ÍJQ < 

r 

O 




392 INTERNATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

bstATeen the years 1521 and 151:0, emiDloyed it in the construction 
of ships nsed in their voyages of discovery after their conquest of 
Mexico. In 1597 Sir Walter Raleigh found it excellent for re- 
pairing his ships in the "West Indies, and from that time on for 
generations no hard wood could compare with mahogany in ship- 
building for firmness and durabilitj^ The wood was first imported 
into England in its unmanufactured state in 1724. For house con- 
struction it was rejected by the workmen as too hard; but, partly as 
an experiment, partly as pastime, it was used by a man named Wol- 
LASTON, a well-known cabinetmaker, in fashioning a candle box. Its 
beautj^ attracted general attention, and shortly afterwards it became 




A MAHOGANY LOG LOADED IN THE FOREST UPON ITS CART. 

After the log has been felled and sawed, it is loaded upon a primitive but strong truck called (in 
Mexico) trinquival. This is an evenly balanced two-wheeled cart, well adapted for its purpose. 

the popular wood from which to make furniture and other articles 
of luxury. 

Even as late as 1850 mahogany was commercially valued chiefly on 
account of its excellence in shipbuilding, but it has been displaced in 
this regard, and to-day a vessel of mahogaii}^ would be a marvel of 
extravagance and senseless waste. The two factors were the advent 
of steam, which required iron instead of wooden ships, and the 
increasing scarcity of mahogan}^ combined with the greater demand 
for it in all kinds of cabinetwork. 

Collecting the mahogany tree has made little advances during the 
past century, and the methods in vogue are as primitive now as they 



THE HAED WOODS OP THE AMERICAS. 



393 



were when the native Caribs felled the giant of the forest and dragged 
it to the water's edge for their marvelous canoes. The season for 
cutting mahogany usually commences early in the rainy season, and 
from June to January the crew of workmen is engaged in the forest. 
The "huntsman " cuts his way through the thicket to the tallest tree 
he meets, which he climbs, and from the top of which he surveys the 
surrounding countr3^ At the cutting season the leaves of the ma- 
hoganj^ tree are of a yellow reddish hue, and the accustomed eye can 
from a great distance discern the place where it will be found. He 
then descends and, with the subtle sense of the woodsman, goes 
directly to the spot he had located from his lofty point of observation. 




THE MULE CART OF MEXICO. 

The haul from the forest to the river may be long or short, but it is sure to be laborious, and the mules 
or oxen needed to accomplish the tusk may number from four to twenty. The native workmen, 
whether in Honduras or Cuba, are skillful in elevating the mahogany log to the cart and balancing 
it during the journey. 

A trail is then blazed by the others of the force from the road to the 
tree, and cutting is begun. The tree is commonly cut about 10 or 12 
feet from the ground, some of the finest figures in the wood being 
thus lost, although modern saws and training have been able to save 
much of the timber formerly wasted. It takes the labor of two men 
the best part of a day to saw through a tree, and these are the highest 
paid laborers. Sometimes the trunk measures 12 feet in diameter, 
and it may be understood, therefore, that the task is by no means an 
easy one. 

The roads to the trees have meanwhile been constructed. Logs are 
hauled from their place of growth to the river during the dry season, 



ímésmmsàiní'. 




X,L^~C ■^-i-&„^' — - 



THE HARD WOODS OF THE AMERICAS. 395 

"because at that time onl}^ is it possible to transport them, as the 
groimd for all the rest of the year is too soft for heavily laden trucks. 
Much of this work is done at night. In fact, the felling of the tree 
is begun by the waning moon, partly on account of the superstition 
of the cutters, who have always been led to believe that moonlight 
offers the really proper illumination for such a ceremony ; partly 
also because the experienced woodsman has demonstrated that the 
mahogany tree is then freer from sap, sounder, and of a richer 
color than when felled before the full moon. The practical reason 
for carrying on the more arduous labor at night is that neither men 
nor cattle could withstand the intense heat of the jungle through 
which the sim]3le roads are cut. 



THE AMERICAN LOG RAILWAY. 

American ingenuity has penetrated the tropical forest with its lumber railway, and most of the 
American mahogany companies operating in Mexico have hauled out their lumber on logging 
trains. They seem able to expedite transportation by this means, but it is questionable whether 
there has been any saving in expense, compared to the traditional way, by mule or ox cart. 

The immediate destination of the loads hauled by the ox or mule 
teams is the bank of the nearest stream, for once the immense logs 
can be tipped into the water the most difficult task is then accom- 
2)lished. It is always planned, however, to reach the stream about 
the beginning of the rainy season, so that there will be sufficient water 
to float the logs; otherwise they might lie unmoved for months. 
When the river becomes wide enough the logs are gathered into rafts, 
the entire process being quite similar to the logging methods of the 
United States and Canada. Although no harm results from immer- 
sion in the fresh water of the rivers, every effort is made to remove 



396 INTERNATIONAL, BUEEATJ OF TPIE AMEKICAN EEPUBLICS. 

the logs from salt ^^'ater, because they must not be exposed to the 
ravages of the toredo^ the boring animal so destructive to anything 
v.-ithin its reach in tropical salt water. Therefore, as soon as the 
steamer side is reached it is lifted on board and made ready for the 
voyage. 

Only the best and biggest logs are exported ; the smaller ones and 
the remnants of the sawed timber are utilized as ordinary lumber on 
the spot for the construction of houses or the decoration of small 
A'-essels, so that in the tropics there can still be seen the solid mahogany 
furniture which originall}^ made the wood so famous. 




THE END OF THE LAND JOURNEY. 

When the mahogany log is finally at the water's edge, it is unloaded from the cart and sent down- 
stream. Each log" receives the distinctive mark of the owner or contractor, and is finally separated 
only when they approach the steamer's side. Mahogany floats, althongh it is a heavy wood, weigh- 
ing õ^ pounds à foot, when green, and when dry 4î pounds a foot, board measurement. 

London is the mahogany center of the world. Here prices are set 
and the character of wood decided. All mahogany does not grade 
alike, although there is not nearly so much variation in quality as is 
presented by other woods. Several features are, however, so well 
recognized in the trade that they form the distinguishing marks by 
which it is graded. Beauty of grain is, of course, the chief character- 
istic, and that which at once ranks it above other woods either for 
constructive or decorative purposes ; allied to beauty is figure or pat- 
tern, and when the two are combined, mahogany then becomes su- 
preme. An advantage possessed by few other woods is that this 
beauty enhances rather than deteriorates by age. Size is also a prop- 
erty of value, for from a mahogany log can be made various decora- 




SAWING THE LOG INTO LUMBER. 

If the local dealer in hard woods thinks that the mahogany log is not fit for the foreign market it is 
sawed by primitive methods, illustrated here, into boards as soon as it is brought out of the forest 
and this lumber is used for the construction of houses on the spot, just as pine is used in the woods 
of Michigan or Canada. In such dwellings or on locally built vessels for navigation on contiguous 
waters in Latin America is the only place where mahogany as a wood can be found to-day All 
that is seen in Europe or America is veneer. 



398 INTERNATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 





CONSTRUCTION OF A MAHOGANY RAFT. 

As a rule, logs are collected into rafts, since this method of transportation saves time in the final dis- 
position of them after reaching saltwater. If a few hundred logs are gathered into one raft, a small 
fortune will be represented. Measured in values of timber, mahogany is one of the most expensive 
woods in the world, but estimated in terms of what can be accomplished by it, it is in reality one 
of the cheapest. 





A MAHUGANY KAFT AT THE STEAMEif; 



ilDE. 



When the logs are once in salt water, they must be immediately removed from it and placed in the 
steamer's hold. Fresh water does mahogany no harm, but the destructive insect — toredo — which 
lives only in salt water, attacks and destroysthe value of mahogany quite as readily as it does other 
woods of a softer structure. 



THE HAED WOODS OF THE AMEEICAS. 



399 



tions scarcely possible from other woods. Mahogany seasons well; 
it does not warp, twist, nor split, and it lasts indefinitely after once 
being made up into permanent shape. A more recent quality of 
wood, demanded since the development of delicate veneering machin- 
ery, is its capacity for taking glue, and this quality inheres in 
mahogany to a remarkable degree. Moreover, it has uniform grain, 
which makes it well adapted for polishing. It is also noninflammable ; 
it takes paint and enamel very well, and, all things considered, it 
ranks as one of the lowest priced woods obtainable. 




VENEER FROM A MAHOGANY LOG. 

Mahogany shows very beautiful natural grain, and when cut into veneers of uniform size, the sheets 
can bê arranged into even more beautiful patterns over large surfaces. 

The unsual facility Avith which mahogany can be veneered is, 
perhaps, the one characteristic which keeps it constantly in such com- 
mercial demand. Veneering is by no means a modern art, the prac- 
tice of cutting or slicing woods or ivory into very thin strips for 
inlaying, or for mounting upon less costly material, having been well 
known to the ancients. It has, nevertheless, been brought to the 
present stage of excellence only within relatively recent years. Sheets 
of mahogany of wonderful thinness can be cut from the parent log, 
with very little loss. In sawing there is, of course, the waste of saw- 



400 INTERNATIONAL BUEEAU OF THE AMERICAN EEPUBLICS. 

dust to be considered, but b}^ planing, this loss is not encountered. 
"When it is stated that, by modern machiner}^, upward of 200 sheets 
to the inch can be obtained from a log, it will be understood hoAv 
remarkably extensive the applications of mahogany may become. 

Selling mahogany logs by auction is still the habit in vogue in the 
great center — London — of the trade, a custom inherited from genera- 
tions of buying and selling. To these principal markets in Eng- 
land merchants come from every direction, for the pick of the forests 
can always be found there. In fact, the best class of logs from trop- 
ical America are carried first to England, many of them sold to 




PLANTING MAHOGANY AMONG INDIA-llUBBER TREES. 

Uesidents of Latin America have traditions of trees more than two hundred years. Therefore to 
hope to plant it as a commercial product from which the present generation could reap a reward 
would he out of the question. Attempts have been made, however, and with some success, to grow 
mahogany along with india-rubber trees on plantations in Mexico and Central America, because 
when they reach a good height in early youth they will offer good shade to the rubber, and when 
they become mature, after having served" a useful purpose, they will be a source of proflt to some 
future generation. 

manufacturers in the United States, to be finally imported through 
the Atlantic seaboard, thus having traveled twice across the ocean 
in their journey from the forest to the factory. For this reason the 
statistics of imports into the United States appear misleading, as 
due credit can not be given the producing country so long as Eng- 
land is seemingly the country of origin. For the same reason, too, 
African mahogany is confused in trade reports with that coming 
from America. It is true that the supply from Africa, especially 
Nigeria, has increased rapidly, and that it now occupies equal place 
in the imports into Europe with the supply from America. Never- 
theless, the area of the Caribbean Sea, Mexico, Central America, 



190S 
THB UNITED STATELS 
IMPDHTED MAHAGOKV p-ROl^ 





7.175-M.Feet 



$766,805. 



5. a48-M.'Feet 




!|117. 507. 



1.495-M.-Feet 



$91,191. 



COLOMBIA 



485,-M.?eet, 



18.670. 



VE^NILZUILL^ 



445-Kreet 



^30.4£3. 



GUATZ/lylALA 



335.-Vl.Teet 



419.578. 



GELRlylAKLV 



5ia-M.Teet 
I £7. £86." 



DOMINICAN. REPUBLIC 



193-M.reet 



f 13.048. 



ITSLD lA 



180-M.Teet 



$15.955. 



PAMA "M. A 



155-M.reet 



6.775. 



COSTA R.ICi\. 



71-M.Feet 



.2.664. 



DUTCH WDST IHDIELS 



61-M.reet 



1 3. 747. 



HA.ITI 



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45.500. 



rHA."MCE, 



aS-M.Feet. 



#895. 



BRITISH VÍE.ST IN.D1Ï13 



ll-M.Teet 



I 677 



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E)ALVA.IDOR 



# 



4-M.Feet 



1^74 



The sources oí origin of the imports of mahogany into the United States for the last reported fiscal 
year. It must be noted that, although the greatest quantity of the wood came from Mexico, the 
largest sum was paid to England. The explanation is that England is the world's market, and the 
choicest logs, commanding the highest prices, go first to England, to be distributed thence to con- 
sumers in other countries. 

ItíõO— Bull. 2—09 S 



402 INTEENATIONAL BUEEAU OF THE AMERICAN EEPUBLICS. 

Panama, Colombia, Venezuela, Cuba, Haiti, and the Dominican 
Republic have been and always will be the great source from which 
the world derives its cherished mahogany. Cherished, however, only 
in the sense that marks its use. The mahogany trees of the tropical 
forests are being slowly but none the less surely cut down. No effort 
is made to preserve the timber lands or to foster the growth of the 
younger trees. The waste in stump age and in tops is enormous, and 
the demand increases constantly. Yet all the governments of Latin 
America are alive to the question of conservation, and will undoubt- 
edly meet the danger of deforestation before it is too late. 




à,.È.áÍA k%. È.\„ à,. CJ JAi"â,.,á»^ Èxàíji\3\j ^'¡yJ £s<X^à,Íj, 






WÉ rñMñ.WÍA 



THE Eepiiblic of Panama occupies the narrow neck of land 
which connects the continents of North and South America. 
This isthmus contains about 32,000 square miles, is 430 
miles in extreme length, and has an average breadth of 
70 miles. Its inland borders, dividing it from Costa Rica on one 
hand and Colombia on the other, aggregate less than 350 miles, while 
its coast line totals 1,245 miles, of which considerably more than 
half faces the Pacific Ocean. The peculiar formation of the terri- 
tory insures two important advantages. Either coast is easily ac- 
cessible from anj^ point in the country and the entire area might 




POKTION OF WATER FRONT, CITY OF PANAMA. 

be brought within the scope of a railroad more readily and at less 
expense than could the domain of any other nation in the world. 
The proximity of the oceans to all parts of Panama has the effect 
of tempering the climate and rendering it unusually equable. There 
is complete absence of aridity and the scorching heat that withers 
vegetation during the dry season in almost all tropical countries. 
In Panama the rainy period extends from the beginning of May to 
the end of December, but during the other four months a sufficient 
amount of moisture is precipitated to keep the foilage green. At 
the close of last April, for instance, the grass was fresh and succulent 

" By Forbes Lindsay, author of " Panama : The Isthmus aud the Canal." 

403 



404 INTERNATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

and the streams copious enough to aiïord ample water to the live 
stock. The mean temperature is about 80°, from which the extreme 
fluctuations clo not depart more than 10 degrees in either direction. 
The climate, far from being rigorous, is one in which Americans can 
perform active labor and maintain perfect health. 

A broken range of mountains intersects the Isthmus longitudinally. 
Two peaks in the Province of Chiriqui — El Volcan and Pico Blanco — • 
attain an altitude exceeding 11,000 feet. Rising in this mountain 
system, 150 streams run into the Caribbean Sea and more than twice 
that number into the Pacific Ocean. The utility of the latter for 
commercial purjDOses is restricted by the great tidal fluctuation of 
the Pacific, the extreme oscillations of which embrace a range of 20 
feet. The ports on this coast are all situated up rivers, and long- 
delays are usually entailed in reaching and leaving them. There 
is one i^oint upon the Pacific littoral admirably suited for an outside 
harbor. That is Charco Azul, near the Costa Rican border. Here is 
a large sea hole with depth varying from 60 to 105 fathoms and hav- 
ing anchorage around its inner edge. Charco Azul must ultimately 
become the principal Pacific port of Panama west of the canal. It 
is situated in the section of country where the earliest and greatest 
development will take place, and it is the only harbor on the coast 
which is always navigable regardless of. tidal conditions. The coast- 
Avise traffic which will be generated by the Canal will demand such a 
port, and decline to enter rivers navigable only at high tide, and then 
solely by vessels having no more than 8 feet of draft. On the 
Atlantic coast are several good harbors, but, excepting for Bocas del 
Toro and Colon, that side of the Isthmus is undeveloped and prom- 
ises little prospect of settlement. 

Upon the Atlantic side of the divide the countr}^ is, for the most 
l^art, covered with heavy forest, which extends down to the water 
line and is composed of great trees of valuable hard wood, rising out 
of undergrowth so dense as to be impenetrable without the aid of the 
machete. This territory presents a fine field for lumbering, but the 
industry can not be profitably pursued except by corporations with 
large capital at command. Until the land is thus cleared, the Atlan- 
tic belt must remain uninhabited wilderness. Even when opened to 
agriculture it will, owing to its excessive rainfall, be less attractive 
to settlers than land upon the Pacific coast. 

The' San Bias country, east of the Canal Zone, is practically terra 
incognita. Its Indian inhabitants have ever been inimical to white 
men, and Sj^ain failed to bring them under subjection. They acknowl- 
edge allegiance to the Panama Government and consult the President 
in the election of their chief, but otherwise are permitted to manage 
their own affairs. With the exception of coming into Colon for salt 



THE NATURAL EESOTJECES OF PANAMA. 



405 



and other necessities, and bringing in large quantities of cocoanuts, 
they hokl no intercourse with tlie outer world. 

The Darien section is wild, forest clad, and uninhabited, save for a 
sprinkling of Indians. It contains the greatest extent of natural 
rubber grow^th in the Isthmus, but otherwise presents less promise of 
development than does the territory to the west of the Canal Zone. 
An English syndicate is operating a large rubber tract in Darien, 
the product of which is of excellent quality. Another large tract, 
worked by an American company, extends 20 miles on either side of 
Mariato Point. The tree is also systematically cultivated by a cor- 
poration located at Las Cascadas, a few miles from the canal line. 




UNLOADING PILES AT COLON, PANAMA, FOR USE IN BUILDING WHARVES AND DOCKS 
FOR THE PANAMA RAILROAD. 

The rubber tree is found wild in every part of the country, and the 
species called Castilla will thrive anywhere, if planted under proper 
conditions and provided with the shade essential to its healthy devel- 
opment. At one time large quantities of rubber were shipped from 
Chiriqui, but, as it was gathered by the old native method of cutting 
down the tree, and replanting was neglected, the valuable stands of 
the Province disappeared, and now the trees are to be found only in 
scattered specimens, which, however, exhibit a vigor that indicates 
the results to be expected from scientific culture. The commercial 
cultivation of rubber is, of course, practicable only for the capitalist. 
The individual of small means, even though he should be able to meet 



406 INTERNATIONAL BUEEAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

the initial expense, could not afford to wait for the returns which a 
rubber plantation will not begin to yield before the seventh or eighth 
year. 

There is an ample amount of latent water power at various points 
in the country. In the vicinity of David a very simple and inexpen- 
sive development is possible, and a sufficient demand already exists 
to make it economically feasible. Sawmills, leather factories, distill- 
eries, sugar refineries, etc., might be profitably operated by such 
power, which could be also utilized to supply the city with electric 
light. 

All the freight in the interior is carried in bullock carts or on 
pack animals, by far the greater part of it, aside from the banana 
shipments, reaching one or other of the ports on the Pacific. Except 
for Bocas del Toro, the depot of the United Fruit Company, David 
is the principal shipping point in the interior, but Remedios, Sona, 
and Aguadulce, as well as some smaller ports, have a fair export 
trade. The city of David has about 5,000 inhabitants and is growing 
apace. It is situated some 9 miles from the coast and 3 from the 
river port of Pedregal, which is the outlet for its exports. There are 
a number of industrial plants in the place, such as wood and leather 
factories, distilleries, coffee mills, etc. Two lines, each running two 
steamboats, maintain a regular service between David and Panama, 
calling at intermediate points with sufficient frequency to meet the 
demands of traffic. An additional vessel, designed to make the jour- 
ney between these points in twenty-four hours, will be put on in a 
few weeks' time. There are also a number of small luggers carry- 
ing passengers and freight up and down the coast. 

The stretch of country lying to the south of the divide and to the 
west of the Canal Zone is much more open than that in other parts of 
the Isthmus. The growth is mainly what the natives term " monte " — 
that is, plants of moderate size with here and there a large tree. 
Trails and cart roads can be made through it with ease and it is 
readily cleared with the machete. At frequent intervals this jungle 
gives place to extensive expanses of savanna, or llano, as it is commonly 
called " up-country." Numerous streams present almost the only diffi- 
cult places in a continuous road from Aguadulce to David and beyond. 
Bridges, to which additions are constantly being made, span many 
of them. It is in this section of the country only that any agri- 
cultural and industrial progress has been made. Along this stretch 
are several towns and hundreds of hamlets, but the population is 
very sparse and must increase many fold before the splendid re- 
sources of this region can be adequately exploited. This lack is the 
most serious disadvantage under which the country rests. The entire 
population of the Eepublic, including that of the Canal Zone, is no 




THE NEW GOVERNMENT BUILDING AT DAVID, PROVINCE OF CHIRIQUI, PANAMA. 




THE RANCH OF PRESIDENT OBALDIA, DAVID. 



THE NATURAL EESOURCES OF PANAMA. 407 

more than 300,000. Of these perhaps one-half are to be found scat- 
tered over the interior. Chiriqui, the richest and most important 
Province from the agricultural viewpoint, has fewer than 100,000 
inhabitants. The Indians can not be counted on to meet the demands 
of labor and only a. small proportion of the Panamans are available as 
farm hands. Extensive immigration must be induced and, fortunately, 
an immediate source of supply is at hand. There are thousands of 
hardy Spaniards and Italians engaged on the canal who will shortly 
be released. It is probable that a large proportion of these will be 
glad to remain in the country and take up land. They make excel- 
lent farmers and will furnish a desirable new element in the general 
population. 

There is nowhere in the world richer land than that of the Republic 
of Panama, and the Pacific section of the Province of Chiriqui sur- 
passes all other parts in fertility of soil, salubrity of climate, scenic 
beauty, and conditions adapted to agricultural pursuits. The section 
about David is an ideal farming countr3^ From the coast the land 
gradually rises to the mountains, about 40 miles inland. Stretches of 
monte alternate with large tracts of gently rolling llano, reminding 
one of the famous '' blue-grass " country in the neighborhood of 
Lexington, Ky., and covered with a thick mat of similar grass. Fre- 
quent streams and clumps of woodland lend diversity to the land- 
scape, which has an ever-present background of mountain peaks whose 
heads penetrate the clouds. Finer land for cattle raising it would bo 
impossible to imagine. The llanos furnish ample range of the best 
kind and rich potreros, filled with heavier growth, are fenced in upon 
the bottom lands. 

Cattle raising is the only agricultural industry to which any intelli- 
gence and care have been devoted by the natives. Bj constant ex- 
periment and selection over a long period of years an excellent breed 
of cattle has been produced. At 4 years of age an average Chiriqui 
steer will yield about 400 pounds of meat and fetch from $30 to $35 
gold at David. The home market is not yet sufficiently supplied and 
it will be considerably enlarged with the opening of the Canal. The 
present method of shipment, which involves a steamboat journey of 
three or four days, prevents the delivery of the animals in Panama in 
the best condition, but with the establishment of the railroad from 
the capital to David this difficulty Avill be obviated. There is an 
abundance of nutritious food in the district. Guinea grass grows 
in tall bunches and savoya with a high broad blade. Del Para is a 
sort of creeper, introduced from Brazil. Jujuca is an extremely suc- 
culent grass that abounds in the river bottoms and can be depended 
on in the driest seasons. Jenjebrillo is similar to "blue grass," and 
gives a blade 5 inches in length during the rains. Sieta is a kind of 



408 INTERNATIONAL EUEEAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

sage, highly nutritious, that grows on sandy soih Without doubt 
alfalfa would thrive in this section, where the soil is a loose loam 
precisely adapted to deep-rooting plants. 

Horse raising is not carried on to anj^thing like the extent that it 
might be with profit. The Panama market is far from being fully 
supplied. Onl}^ stallions are used for draft and riding, the mares 
being left upon the range for breeding purposes. The native horse 
is not large but stocky, and has great endurance. Even more promis- 
ing than horse raising is the breeding of mules, which are of greater 
service and command a considerably higher price. 

Throughout this section the top soil is 6 feet or more in depth and 
of marvelous fertility. This extreme richness accounts for the fact 




CROSSING THE SAVANAS (PLAINS) OF THE PROVINCE OF CHIRIQUI, PANAMA 
The government telegraph hne marks the way for over a hundred miles. 

that cultivation is entireh^ neglected. The natives cut down the 
monte and burn it where it lies. The ground is then ready for plant- 
ing. The surface is scratched with a machete and seed dropped in. 
The crojD is then allowed to take care of itself. There is no plowing 
or rooting, no weeding or pruning, and despite this haphazard 
method the resultant crops are such as few parts of the earth can 
produce under intense cultivation. Sugar cane has been harvested 
continuously for fifteen years from the same field without replanting, 
and the yield weighs 18 pounds and sometimes more to the stalk. 
There are patches in Chiriqui where Kaffir corn has grown continu- 
ously for twenty years without attention, and fine potatoes are gath- 
ered from ground sown fourteen years ago. The tobacco plant is 
neither topped nor trimmed, but is allowed to grow in unaided contest 



THE NATUKAL BESOUECES OF PANAMA. 409 

with weeds. AA^ien cut it is hung in a hut to dry preparatory to 
shipping. Scientific curing is quite unknown; nevertheless, the leaf 
compares favorably with that of Pennsylvania, for instance. There 
is every reason for believing that with proper management a high 
grade of tobacco can be raised in Chiriqui and not improbable that 
an excellent wrapper leaf may be groAvn under cover. 

Coffee grows wild all over the Pacific coast region. Its systematic 
cultivation is limited to the Boquete Valley, on the southern slope 
of the Volcan. The industry is in the hands of a few Americans and 
Englishmen who are producing a bean of superlative quality which 
sells for 15 cents gold a pound in Panama. Trial shijoments to New 
York brought the highest prices, but, since the output is far from 
equaling the domestic demand, there is no inducement to export. 
Cacao thrives with ordinary attention and is not subject to the wind- 
storms which cause so much damage to plantations in other parts of 
the world. Little effort has been devoted to the cultivation of this 
valuable crop and only one plantation is maintained under proper 
management. The owner of this alwa3^s secures the best prices for 
his product in the London market. A short-fiber cotton grows exten- 
sively in Chiriqui. Small quantities of it are exported and sell at 
good figures owing to the excellence of the qualit3\ Fiber cultiva- 
tion has not yet been entered upon, although many parts of the 
country are well adapted to the growth of such plants, and several 
species of- commercial Avalué are found in a wild state. Specimen 
fibers sent to England and Germany have been pronounced by experts 
to be stronger than hemp. 

In short, tropical plants of all descriptions, as well as many peculiar 
to the Temperate Zone, thrive in Panama. The varying character 
of the land, with its different soils and altitudes, makes it possible 
to raise the greatest A^ariety of crops in a comparatively small area. 
For instance, on a strip running back 25 or 30 miles from the Pacific 
Ocean, along the shore fine playa furnishes the best possible ground 
for cocoanut plantations. Back of this is excellent sugar land. Still 
farther back fibers and rubber thriA^e ; and so, in succession, tobacco, 
cacao, coffee, and, in the higher altitudes, the vegetables of the tem- 
perate regions. Along the Costa Rican border is a belt of tropical 
fruit land as rich as any in the world. While oranges, grape fruit, 
mangoes, pineapples, papayas, etc., grow wild in different parts of 
the country, they are not cultivated, and large quantities are imported 
from Jamaica. Even the supply of bananas, of Avhicli the consump- 
tion is great, is not met by the native production. 

Since the earliest settlement b}^ Spain a widespread belief has 
prevailed that rich deposits of the precious metals exist in the San 
Bias country, and the report of a recent scientific expedition seems 
to confirm this supposition. In the almost total absence of exact 



410 INTERNATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

information it is hazardous to express an opinion as to the mineral 
resources of Panama. The numerous gold ornaments that have been 
found in the ancient Indian graves indicate the presence at one time 
of large quantities of that metal. It is possible that a geological 
survey of the Isthmus would reveal unsuspected mineral wealth. 
Manganese has been discovered in several jDlaces and there is scientific 
authority for the statement that extensive coal deposits exist. Lig- 
nite of an excellent quality is distributed over a wide area. When 
transportation facilities are increased this will furnish fuel for indus- 
trial purposes and must prove an important factor in the development 
of the country. 

The Republic of Panama presents a splendid field for the invest- 
ment of American capital and the application of American energy 




OLD WATER-POWER SAW.^IILL IN THE PROVINCE OF CHIRIQUI. 

While timber of many varieties is plentiful in the Republic, the want of proper facilities for convert- 
ing it into material for building purposes has served to make the erection of Avooden houses 
expensive. 

and enterprise. Since the occupation of the Canal Zone hj the 
united States development has advanced appreciably in the interior 
and especially in Chiriqui. Many public imjjrovements are projected 
in this section and it will doubtless be well settled and extensively 
devoted to agriculture in the course of the next decade. The Govern- 
ment is disposed to offer ever}^ encouragement to American settlers 
and corporations may depend upon liberal treatment and the utmost 
security. The character of the vegetation and the lay of the land 
along the Pacific coast render clearing and road making compara- 
tively easy and inexpensive. At present ox carts and buggies run 
between David and Boquete, Bugaba, Divala, and other points. The 



THE NATTJEAL EESOUECES OF PANAMA. 



411 



construction of a railroad from Panama to David in the near future 
is practically assured and with rapid transportation available a 
large and profitable fruit industry should be established. The 
Panama Canal will bring the world's markets within easy reach of 
the various products of this section. Its sugar and its cocoanuts, 
to mention only two of the most assured exports, will find a ready 
sale. The only drawback to a speedy extension of agriculture is the 
paucity of labor and means of overcoming that difficulty are within 
reach. 

It requires no stretch of imagination to see for the Republic of 
Panama a wealthy and prosperous future with a happy and con- 
tented population. 










OF HOM. ?f ILLIAfi SULZEI^ 



UNITED STATES CONGRESSI^rAN WILLIAM SULZER, 
who has recently returned from an extended tour of 
Central America and Mexico, takes the countries visited 
as an index to the great and advancing value of Latin 
America in the commercial relations of the United States. Not 
only are these lands rich beyond belief in natural resources, but 
their historic past, their splendid ruins, and their present energetic 
development all combine to excite the inte'.Tst of the traveler and 
scholar. 

On the more material side, Mr. Sulzer speaks of Guatemala as a 
wonderful countr}", ricli in scenic wonders, rich in valuable hard 
timber, and one of the richest countries in the world in mineral 
resources. The climate and scener}^ are unsurpassed, and under the 
progressive administration of President Cabrera, Guatemala is rap- 
idly forging to the front. 

Of Mexico also and its ruler enthusiastic mention is made, and 
throughout the southern Republics the interest felt in the comple- 
tion of the Panama Canal is said to be second only to that displayed 
in the United States. 

Subsequent to his return Mr. Sulzer, in addressing the House of 
Representatives on the subject of trade between the United States 
and her neighbors, spoke as follows in regard to Latin America and 
its interests : 

•:;- * * * * w * 

I desire to reiterate the hope, so often expressed by me, that something will be 
done ere the tariff bill becomes a law to bring about closer political ties and freer 
commercial relations with the progressive people of our sister Republics in Mexico 
and in Central and South America. 

Here is the true field, it seems to me, for our legitimate expansion of trade, for 
broader markets, for our industrial endeavors, and for our commercial extension; and 
now is the time for an exhibition on our part, as the representatives in Congress of the 
people of the United States, of a little political sagacity and the exercise of good 
lousiness foresight in the enactment of this tariff legislation that will mean more and 
more commercially, as the years come and go, to our producers, to our merchants, to 
our manufacturers, and to all the people of our country. 

* * * * * * * ■ 

Canada, Mexico, Central and South America are our neighbors and our real friends, 
and they should be our best customers; and they would be our best cutsomers if we 
412 



VALUE OF LATIN-AMERICAN TRADE. 413 

only had the commercial sense and the political wisdom to deal with them above- 
board, in the spirit of trade equality, and treat them fairly and reciprocally along 
lines mutually advantageous. 

:;-**«** ■::• 

Statistics conclusively show that this trade at our very doors is growing more 
important and becoming more valuable every year. Why should we ignore it? 
European countries are doing their best to secure it, and the facts prove that they are 
getting the most of it at the present time, very much to our detriment and to our dis- 
advantage. Why -will our people always be blind commercially to their own best 
interests and to their own greatest opportunities? Why spend millions of dollars 
seeking trade in the Orient when the commerce of the Occident — richer than the 
Indies — is knocking at our door? Let us obliterate the obstacles, tear down the bar- 
riers, and open wide the doors to welcome the commerce of North and South and Cen- 
.tral Ameiãca, on land and sea, ere it is too late and the opportunity to secure it be 
lost forever. Now is the accepted time. These countries are anxiously awaiting the 
outcome of our deliberations. They are watching the enactment of this tariff legis- 
lation. They long for some evidence of our friendship and sincerity. They want 
to trade with us. They will meet us more than halfway. Shall we disappoint their 
most sanguine expectations? Shall we ignore this most valuable trade, these great 
commercial opportunités, and give these splendid markets wholly and entirely to 
Germany and to England and to France? 

Hence I repeat that I indulge the lingering hope that ere the pending tariff bill 
becomes a law a paragraph mil be written in its provisions for closer commercial rela- 
tions with these progressive countries, based on the principles of freer trade, closer 
political sympathy, and truer reciprocity. 

***** * * 

In this connection, sir, I want to commend the good work that is being done, and 
has been done, along these lines by the Hon. John Barrett, the very able and eíñ- 
cientand experienced Director of the Bureau of the American Republics. He is the 
right man in the right place. He knows the truth of what I am saying to-day. He 
is doing his part. His indefatigable labors are bearing fruit, but I am sorry to say that 
his earnest efforts are very little appreciated at home, though very generally applauded 
by the far-seeing statesmen of our sister Republics. 

******* 

Then, too, Mr. Speaker, in connection with the expansion of our trade and com- 
merce to our north and to the south, we should provide for adequate steamship service 
on the Atlantic and the Pacific by discriminating tonnage taxes in favor of American- 
bmlt ships, carrying the American flag, and manned by American sailors. This 
policy will go far to restore our merchant marine and give us a share in the deep-sea 
carrying trade of the world. Next to securing the trade is the ability to carry it. 







A T THE Seventeenth National Irrigation Congress to be held 

/\ at Spokane, State of Washington, from August 9, to 

/ % August 14, 1909, and at the twentieth annual session of 
the Trans-Mississippi Commercial Congress in Denver, 
from August 16 to 21, it is purposed to devote special attention to 
relations between the United States and Latin America. In the 
deliberations of the congresses, the participation of delegates from 
Latin America has been solicited, and the increased commercial 
status inevitably accruing to the various countries through the com- 
pletion of the Panama Canal will be dwelt upon. 

The purpose of the Irrigation Congress is to demonstrate the won- 
derful development possible through the solution of problems affect- 
ing the water supply for arid lands, the selection of Spokane being 
peculiarly fortunate for the practical demonstration of the matter. 
Within a few minutes ride of the city are in operation gravity canal 
systems, water distribution by pipes and the most modern of elec- 
trical pumping plants, while within a radius of 150 miles are some 
of the greatest projects ever attemj)ted on the continent. 

■ The association having the preliminaries for the congress in charge, 
anticipates a meeting of great importance, 3,500 delegates being ac- 
credited. It is expected that the President of the United States, 
Cabinet officers, government officials, foreign representatives, bankers, 
and delegates from not only the United States and Canada will 
attend, but that representatives from Europe, the Latin Republics, 
Japan, and China, will take part in the proceedings. 

The Trans-Mississippi Commercial Congress deals directly with 
public questions in which States west of the Mississippi are inter- 
ested, being the clearing house for western ideas. 

In widening its scoj^e to embrace Latin America, the executive com- 
mittee presents for careful consideration the question of closer com- 
merical relations between the people of the United States and those 
of the Latin Republics with special reference to the early completion 
of the Panama Canal and the resultant stimulating of the com- 
mercial development in the Trans-Mississippi States to which this 
international highway is directly tributary. The congress will con- 
414 



TWO GEEAT CONGRESSES. 



415 



vene at the geographical center of this section, where the matter may 
be discussed in a manner that will jorove of wide educational value in 
promoting public interest. 

The committee also specifically mentions as a further development 
along the same line a Pan-American Commercial Congress, to be 
composed of delegates selected from the commercial, industrial, and 
maritime centers of the United States and the Latin Kepublics to 
convene at an early date. 

President Taft will open the congress. 




1 íl-tL AMlj-tLrt 1 l,rtlî# MlS-i tJliUt 



i%.i 



1 1,1.1.^ 






UTE AT lOMl 



THE eminent j)osition occupied bj^ the Argentine Republic in 
the world of economics amply justifies the importance that 
is attached to the utterances of the country's representatives, 
especially when matters agricultural are being considered. 

Dr. Roque Saenz Peña, Argentine Minister to Italy and member 
of the Permanent Court of Arbitration of The Hague, is also the rep- 
resentative of the Argentine Republic in the International Agricul- 
tural Institute established at Rome. In the latter capacity. Dr. 
Saenz Peña has recently addressed a communication to the presi- 
dent of the institute for submission to the permanent committee, in 
which the condition of the workingman, and especially the emigrant 
laborer, is discussed. 

^^■liile according abundant praise to the collection and dissemina- 
tion of agricultural data, to the improvement of cultiu"es, and to the 
adequate exploitation of a country's resources. Dr. Saenz Peña íuids 
in the amelioration of the conditions surrounding the farmer and cul- 
tivator the true spring of agTicultural development. In particular 
he lu-ges the betterment of transport conditions for the emigrant, 
stating that in proportion as travel is made more luxiu-ious for the 
wealthy, the quarters assigned to the poorer classes become more 
circumscribed. 

The Argentine Government welcomes the intelligent emigrant to 
its shores, and through its bureau of immigTation affords ample pro- 
vision for the care and distribution of settlers. That the labors of 
these settlers shall be amply rewarded and protected is of vital impor- 
tance in the agricultural world, and for the fiu-therance of this pm-- 
pose the following project is submitted for the action of the institute: 

It is proposed that — 

Art. 1. The International Institute of Agriculture create a special bureau to be 
known as "Wage and Labor Bureau," and which mil be in charge of a chief clerk and 
will be under the institute . 

Art. 2. This bureau will keep in touch with the national bureaus through the 
organs of the institute, with a view of centralizing the international movement on 

416 



ARGENTINE EEPUBLIC IN INTEEISTATIONAL INSTITUTE. 



417 



wages, the variations which they undergo during the seasons, the labor conditions, 
and horns and laws which govern it in each country. 

Art. 3. Prior to each harvest the bureau, taking as basis the official reports on the 
probable results, will announce — 

(a) The amount and variations of wages in each country. 

(Ò) The extent of the crop. 

(c) The number of permanent hands upon which the next harvest can count. 

{d) The temporary immigration during the last harvest. 

(e) The number of hands calculated as necessary for the next harvest. 

Art. 4. The data contained in the preceding paragraphs will be published as infor- 
mation by means of the press, especially in the coimtries and ¡slaces of emigration and 
before the general exodus occasioned by each harvest takes place. 

Art. 5. The bureau will keep in touch with the emigration committees or with the 
navigation companies and will try to improve the conditions of travel for the immi- 
grants by enlarging the present quarters set aside for the third class or by trying to 
establish a special transportation service for the third class only. 




1650— Bull. 2—09 9 



uuiiil£MiiL.ii 



Ox June 30, 1908, President Estrada Cabrera, of Guatemala, 
signed and promulgated the new mining code, which is 
intended to give an imj)ulse to the mining industries of 
the countr}^ 

The principal wealth of Guatemala is and has been agricultural 
and forestal. Mining has for a long time occupied a secondary 
place, yet it is known that the mineral riches of the country are 
considerable and in the early days formed a source of great revenue 
to the state. The mining records of colonial days show that between 
the years 1627 and 1820 more than 1,300 mines of gold, silver, copper, 
tin, and lead were discovered and worked. At one time more than 
150 mining enterprises were profitably carried on, and from a single 
group the mint of Guatemala coined silver to the amount of 
$43,000,000. 

The best-known mining districts are located in the eastern section 
of the Eepublic, in the departments of Chiquimula and Yzabal. 
These districts are mountainous and isolated from communication 
with the other parts of the Republic. At present the mines of Que- 
bradas de Oro, on the Rio Bobos, in the Department of Yzabal, are 
giving good returns from placer gold working. In the Department 
of Chiquimula, between the Rio de Concepción and Rio de las Minas, 
is a very rich district, in which work is being carried on by a comjDany 
specially chartered in May, 1900. This company has secured nine 
mines or grouj)S of mines. Mines have been denounced in the De- 
partments of Alta Verapaz, near Rabinal and Pichec in Baja Vera- 
paz, at San Pedro in Guatemala (Department), in Santa Rosa, and 
at Zalcuapa and Joyabaj on the Rio Grande in El Quiche. 

On the western boundary, in the Department of Huehuetenango, 
near Chiantla, considerable explorations in search of copper are being- 
made. Lead and silver have both been found, the ore showing by 
assay 56 per cent lead and 40 ounces of silver per ton. Lead, copper, 
zinc, and silver are found in the Departments of Huehuetenango, 
Quiche, Alta and Baja Verapaz, Jalapa and Chiquimula. In the 
last Department the ore is a blend or argentiferous galena, in some 
places associated with copper. In the galena the content of lead 
varies from 20 to 65 per cent and the blends contain from 15 to 40 
per cent of zinc. The quantity of silver, according to locality, is 
418 



NEW MINING CODE IN GUATEMALA. 419 

from 200 grams to 14 kilograms per ton. The deposits of Jalapa 
extend into Santa Rosa and even into Guatemala, not far from the 
capital. Copper is found principally in the vicinity of Alotepeque in 
Chiquimula. In this locality is the celebrated mine, San Pantaleon, 
which was opened in 1866 by an English company and produced in 
eighteen or twenty years $40,000,000. 

According to the new mining code, owners and operators will enjoy 
many privileges in Guatemala, among these the right for the term of 
fifteen years to import, free of duty, state or municipal, such machin- 
ery and other articles necessary for the discovery and exploitation 
of mines as are not produced by the industries of Guatemala. Min- 
ing projjerty is subject to no other tax than the territorial contribu- 
tion of six per thousand, and the export of ores and other mineral 
products is free from state or municipal duties. 

It is decreed in the code that freight rates on the national railroads 
shall not be increased above the present schedules; that employees 
and workmen in actual service of the mines shall be exempt from 
municipal duties and military service in time of peace ; and that de- 
partmental and local authorities shall render any assistance required 
by mine owners, and shall protect mines and see that labor contracts 
are fulfilled. Exceptional privileges are granted for emigrants to 
be employed in the mines. Sulphur and saltpeter mines are excepted 
from the operation of the code. In order to work these, special ar- 
rangements must be made with the Government. 

A mining claim has a superficial area of 10 hectares, must be 
rectangular, with no side less than 100 meters in length. The hectare 
being 2.471 acres and the meter 39.37 inches, makes the claim nearly 
25 acres, rectangular in shape, with the short side at least 109 yards 
long. 

The discoverer of mines on lands where no other mines have been 
conceded and registered within a radius of 5 kilometers (about 3.1 
miles) is entitled to register three claims. In other cases he is 
entitled to take up but one claim, although others may be acquired 
and held by purchase from other claim owners. 

The bureau has received, through the courtesy of Señor Dr. Luis 
Toledo Herrarte, the Minister from Guatemala, a copy of the new 
code in English. It is hoped that a supply of the English edition 
will be obtained from the Government of Guatemala sufficient to dis- 
tribute the new law to all those specially interested in mining in that 
country. 



COffSULAl lEPOlTS 






REPORTS RECEIVED TO JULY 15, 1909. 



Date of 
report. 



ARGENTINE REPUBLIC. 



Argentine trade notes. 
Do 



Rural statistics of Argentine Republic ; Apr 

Progress of passenger trade between Europe and Ar- 
gentine Republic. Proposed establishment by the 
Seetransport Gesellschaft, of Hamburg, of a regular 
service between Marseilles and Montevideo, Buenos 
Aires and Rosario, calling at Genoa only. Launch- 
ing of the " Frisia, " a new steamer of the Argentine 
and Brazilian service. First voyage to Buenos 
Aires of the "Vasari," a new steamer of the I^am- 
port & Holt Line. Yield of the vineyards during 
the season of 1909. Preparation and collation of 
German exliibits for the various exhibitions to be 
held in Buenos Aires in 1910. Sales of Argentine 
horses in Europe. Importation by the Argentine 
Government of 10,000 oysters from Arcachón, 
France. New method of packing wool. 

Foundation of National Institute for the Blind in Ar- May 13 
gentine Republic. 

Population of Buenos Aires on May 1, 1909. Estab- ...do . 
lisliment of six years' course for the training of hy- 
draulic engineers in the L'niversity of La Plata. 
Increase in paper importations for newspapers into 
A_rgentine Republic. Annulment of negotiations 
recently begun between the municipality' of Buenos 
Aires and the agents of Baring Bros. & Co. for a loan. 
Proposed regulation of migration of labor from 
Europe. Wheat and alfalfa crops. Erection of 
three hospitals at Salta. Organization of courses In 
university extention in the University of Cordoba, 
and the erection of a new building. 

Transmitting several copies, in English and Spanish, 
of the prospectus of the international agricultural 
exposition to be held under the auspices of the Ar- 
gentine Government bv the Argentine Rural So- 
ciety from June 3 to July 31, 1910, in connection -with 
the centenary of the Argentine Declaration of 
Independence. 

Tenders for port works of Buenos Aires and ship canal . . .do — 
of Parana de las Palmas. 

Meat exports of .\rgentine Republic 

Forwarding copy of a list of all the catalogues of Amer- 
ican goods received by the Fuller Argentine Express 
Co. 

Tradenotes - May 26 



Apr. 20 


R. M. Bartleman, 




Buenos Aires. 


Apr. 28 


Do. 


Apr. 29 


Do. 


Mav 6 


Do. 



Consul-General, 



Engines, boilers, and accessories in Brazil. 



May 
Mav 



Agriculture in Brazil 

Cotton trade of Brazil in 1908 

.Vgricultural growth in Brazil 

Report on investigation by photographic expert . 

Trade situation in Brazil 



Review of foreign commerce of 1908 at Santos 

Trade notes. — Jute culture in the State of São Paulo. 
New harbor for Joinville, one of the principal export- 
ing and importing cities of the State of Santa Cath- 
arina. 

Plumbing supplies and sanitary fittings in Rio de 
Janeiro. 



Apr. 5 

....do... 
Apr. 10 
Apr. 12 

do... 

Apr. 13 
Apr. 14 



Do. 
Do. 



Do. 



Do. 



Do. 
Do. 



Do. 



G. E. Anderson, Consul-General, Rio 
de Janeiro. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
G. A. Chamberlain, Consul. Pernam- 
buco. 
G. E. Anderson. Consul-General, Rio 

de Janeiro. 
Dirk P. de Yoimg, Vice-Consul, Santos. 



Apr. 16 G. E. Anderson, Consul-General, Rio 
I de Janeiro. 



420 



SUBJECT MATTEE OF CONSULAE EEPOETS. 



421 



Reports received to July 15, 1909 — Contiunecl. 



Title. 



BRAZIL — continued . 
Crisis in Brazilian manganese mining. 
Orchid trade in Pernambuco 



Freight rates in Brazil 

Three pointers to American exporters 

Brazilian trade notes. — American sponge inter- 
ests in Brazil and other South American points. 
Concession to an American syndicate for the inau- 
guration of a telephone service between several 
cities of the State of Rio de Janeiro. Progress made 

■ in the electrification of the street railwaj'S of Rio de 
Janeiro. Development of the rice trade in the State 
of São Paulo. Proposed organization of the Terri- 
tory of Acre in Brazil into a self-governing territory. 
Imports and exports of the Santos or São Paulo dis- 
trict for the first three months of 1909. Indications 
of good sugar and cotton crops in Brazil during the 
current season. Improvement and increase in ship- 
ping between European and Brazilian ports. Con- 
tract for construction of a railway from São Sebastião 
to the frontier of the State of Minas. Shipments of 
coffee from the State of Victoria. Increased service 
of the São Paulo-Matto Gross Transportation Co. 
Letting of contract by the West of Minas Railway for 
rails, bridges, and materials. Freight rates from 
Brazilian ports to New York and New Orleans. 

Telephones in Brazil 

Brazilian and Portuguese cacao 

The drug trade of Bahia 

New coffee crop. Weather and prospects. Proposed 
establishment of mortgage bank. 

Exports of rubber from Para and Manaos to America 
during the month of April, 1909. 

Brazil's stupendous iron-ore deposits , 



Annual report on commerce and industries 

Bahian timbers 

Amount of cofi'ee carried by different ship companies. 

Santos port statistics, first quarter 1909; wireless-tele- 
graph station at Monte Serrate. 

Immigration in Brazil 

Motor boats in Brazil in 1900 

Forwarding circular relative to new steamship Vasari, 
of the Lamport & Holt Line. 

New import-tax law 

Glazed tiles prohibited 

Foreign banking in Brazil 



Date of 
report. 



Apr. 19 

Apr. 22 

Apr. 26 
...do... 

Apr. 27 



Apr. 28 
Apr. 29 
...do... 
Apr. 30 

May 1 

....do... 



American coal in Brazil 

Trade notes. — Dumont eoflee. New coflee crop. 
The "Mojollo," a primitive arrangement used for 
preparing corn meal. Discovery of petroleum. Silk- 
thread industry. Auto drays in Santos. 

Brazilian trade notes. — Brazilian budget for 1910. 
Common school education in Brazil. Government 
roads built in Acre in 1908. Consumption of cacao in 
Europe and United States in 1908. Tax on cofiec 
exported from São Paulo. Port works and railway 
extensions in progress of construction in Brazil. 

Exposition of sanitary appliances 

Statistics showing the exportation of crude rubber 
from Para for the month of May, 1909. 

Malt and hops in Brazil 



May 3 
May 8 
Mav 10 
...do..... 

May 12 
May 13 
May 19 

May 21 
...do..... 
May 25 



Shortage of railroad ties in Chile 

Chilean industrial improvement 

Production of tin in Bolivia 

Railroa I development in Chile 

Railroad construction during 1908 

Tannin extract for tanning 

Butterine 

A northern trans-Andean railway 

Trade in hides 

Lack of rain in Chile 

Unsettled condition of nitrate business. 



May 28 



May 29 



June 1 
June 12 

May 26 



Apr. 10 

...do 

...do 

...do 

Apr. 19 
Apr. 27 



G. E. Anderson, Consul-General, Rio 
de Janeiro. 

G. A. Chamberlain, Consul, Pernam- 
buco. 

Dirk P. de Young, Vice-Consul, Santos. 
Do. 

G. E. Anderson, Consul-General, Rio 
de Janeiro. 



May 13 
June 1 
...do 



Do. 

Do. 
T. B. Taylor, Vice-Consul, Bahia. 
Dirk P. de Yoimg, Vice-Consul, Santos. 

G. H. Pickerell, Consul, Para. 

G. E. Anderson, Consul-General, Rio 

de Janeiro. 
Dirk P. de Young, Vice-Consul, Santos. 
P. P. Demers, Consul, Bahia. 
Dirk P. de Young, Vice-Consul, Santos. 
Do. 

Do. 
Do. 
Do. 

G. A. Chamberlain, Pernambuco. 
Do. 

G. E. Anderson, Consul-General, Rio 
de Janeiro. 
Do. 
D. P. de Young, Vice-Consul, Santos. 



G. E. Anderson, ConsuKüeneral, Rio 
de Janeiro. 



Do. 
G. H. Pickerell, Consul, Para. 

G. E. Anderson, Consul-General, Rio 
de Janeiro. 



A. A. Winslow, Consul, Valparaiso. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 



422 INTERNATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 
Reports received to Julij J5, 1909 — Continued. 



Title. 



COLOMBIA. 



Platinum In Colombia 

Earthquakes in Colombia , 

Petroleum in Colombia 

Petroleum in Colombia (supplementing previous re- 
port of March 29). 

List of duties on whiskies, wines, liquors, etc 

Reduction in customs tariff on bicycles and velocipedes. 



Interesting facts about Colombia 

Perpetuity of trade-marks in Colombia 

Government publications, American periodicals, com- 
mercial reviews, and catalogues of American manu- 
facturers for the Medellin Consular Agency. 

Climatic conditions and prospects for fruit trees, forest- 
tree seedlings, and ornamental stock in Colombia. 

Colombian market for fertilizers and materials for 
their manufacture. 



Date of 
report. 



Mar. 4 

Mar. 25 

Mar. 29 

Mar. 31 

May 8 
May 18 

...do 

...do 

May 21 



June 5 
June 8 



Author. 



Jay White, Consul-General, Bogota. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 

E. Betts, Vice-Consul, Bogota. 

A. L. Bumell, Vice-Consul, Baran- 

quilla. 
E. Betts, Vice-Consul, Bogota. 

Do. 
A. L. Bumell, Vice-Consul, Baran- 

quilla. 

Do. 
Do. 



DOMINIC.\X REPUBLIC. 

Notes from Santo Domingo ! May 4 

ECUADOR. 1 

Vegetable ivory nut Apr. 5 

Market for men's ready-made clotiiin;; Apr. 8 

Duties on graphite products , . Apr. 12 

Information concerning Ecuador Apr. 19 

Contract granted for drainage and water supply of the | May 17 
port of Bahia de Caraquez. 

nONDUKAS. 



Ralph J. Totten, Consul. 



IT. R. Dietrich, Consul. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 



Changes in importation and exportation duties ' May 11 ¡ W. E. Alger, Consul, Tegucigalpa. 



Annual report for 1908 

Matamoros notes 

Market for canned peaches, apricots, and tomatoes 

Agricultural enterprises 

Mexican-grown tomatoes 

underground wires in Guadalajara 

Commerce and industries 

Annual commercial report 

Thesmall investor in Mexico 

Exports from Nuevo Laredo to the United States for 
the calendar years 1907 and 1908. 

NICARAGUA. 

Suspension of the law providing for the establishing of 
an office of chemical analysis in Nicaragua. 

Decree reforming tariff on kerosene in Nicaragua 

Requirements for the practice of medicine 



Apr. 20 
May 3 
May 4 
May 10 
May 18 
May 29 
Juñe 1 
June 11 
June 14 
June 17 



Apr. 29 

May 7 
May 12 



Reopening of a rubber plantation near the city of June 4 
Panama. 

PARAGUAY. 

Substitute for glue in organ manufacture; piano and 

organ trade of Paraguay. 

Dental supplies for Paraguay 

Translation of a bill presented for the consideration of 

the Paraguayan Congress establishing a monetary 

unit and introducing several modifications in the 

charter of the Bank of the Republic. 

Proposed loan for Paraguay 

Résumé of the message of the President of Paraguay 

delivered at the opening session of Congress, April Í, 

1909. 

Railway progress in Paraguay 

Trade of Paraguay in wines, spirits, l)eers, mineral 

waters, etc. 
"Waterproof garments, rubber overshoes, andumbrellas 

in Paraguay. 
Paraguay: Beef freezing and meat extract plant 



Apr. 3 

Apr. 5 
Apr. 6 



...do 

Apr. 12 



Apr. 19 
Apr. 21 

May 10 

May 19 



A. T. Haeberle, Consul, Manzanillo. 
S. T. Lee, Consul, Nogales. 

Do. 
P. M. Griffith, Consul, Tampico. 
S. T. Lee, Consul, Nogales. 
S. L. Magill, Consul, Guadalajara. 
L. Hostetter, Sonora. Mexico. 
C. L. Livingston, Salina Cruz. 
W. W. Canada, Consul, Veracruz. 
A. B. Garrett, Consul, Nuevo Laredo. 



J. de Olivares, Consul, Managua. 



Do. 
Do. 



C. E.Guyiuit, Consul-General, Panama. 



E. J. Norton, Consul, Asuncion. 

Do. 
Do. 



Do. 
Do. 



Do. 
Do. 



Do. 
Do. 



SUBJECT MATTEE OF CONSULAR REPORTS. 
Reports received to July 15, 1909 — Continued. 



423 



Title. 



Date of 
report. 



Author. 



PERU. 

Commerce and industries of Perufor 1908 

SALVADOR. 

Suggestion to shippers 

Exports to the United States 

URUGUAY. 

Rural Uruguay 

. The Guayaba, a luscious native Uruguayan table fruit 

Steamship communication of Uruguay 

Sources of imports into Uruguay for first quarter of 1909 

Perfumery trade in Uruguay 

Foreign vessels carry all American goods to Uruguay. 
New iabor-accident'law for Uruguay 

VENEZUELA. 

Contract for the construction of a pier and light-house 

at Adicora. 
Extension of period for free introduction of apparatus 

for calorification of alcohol. 

Tariff decisions in Venezuela 

Statistics of dry hides exported during the years 1907-8 

Rainy season ; locusts 

Export duties abolished on coSee, cocoa, and hides.. . 

Railway construction in Venezuela 

Importation from England at La Guaira by British 

ship from Liverpool. 



June 6 

May 3 
May 12 



Mar. 17 

Mar. 25 

Mar. 19 

Apr. 9 

Apr. 10 

Apr. 12 

May 7 



Apr. 28 

Apr. 26 

Apr. 28 
May 4 
May 14 
May 21 
June 3 
June 4 



S. M. Taylor, Consul-Gi neral, Callao. 



A. H. Erazier, Consul-General, San Sal- 
vador. 
Do. 



F. W. Goding, Montevideo. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 



I. .V. Manning, Consul, La Guaira. 
Do. 

Do. 

H. R. Wright, Consul, Puerto Cabello. 
E. H. Plumacher, Consul. 

Do. 
L. A. Manning, Consul, La Guaira. 

Do. 




ARGENTINE REPUBLIC 



FOREIGN COMMERCE, EIRST QUARTER OF 1909. 

Figures of the foreign commerce of the Argentine Republic for 
the first three months of 1909 show import valuations of $73,028,538 
and exports worth $140,231,340, both branches of trade indicating 
gains as compared with the corresponding period of the preceding 
year. In imports an advance of $2,188,318 is noted, and in exports, 
$24,603,508. 

Leading countries of origin for imports were: Great Britain, 
$23,899,885; Germany, $11,789,490; the United States, $8,987,317; 
France, $8,132,119; Italy, $6,940,562; Belgium, $3,497,577; Spain, 
$2,418,283, and Brazil, $1,857,735. All countries show decided in- 
creased shipments with Argentine destination, with the exception 
of Great Britain, from which countrj^ a decline of $1,470,206 is 
reported. On the other hand, receipts of French merchandise 
advanced $1,614,306; of United States goods, $824,025; of Italian, 
$488,019, and of Brazilian, $459,881. 

As a receiver of exjDorts from the Republic, Great Britain stands 
first with $28,453,174, a gain of $4,734,289, followed by France with 
$17,617,968, a gain of $8,526,949; Belgium, $13,122,235, a gain of 
$3,111,930; Germany, $12,171,651, a gain of $2,791,089; the United 
States, $6,868,980, a gain of $4,535,642 ; Italy, $4,429,899, a gain of 
$2,456,501, and Brazil, $3,906,733, a gain of $632,877. 

Shipments " for orders '' are represented by $47,983,370. 

The classification of imports embraces: Live animals, $402,103; 
foodstuffs, $5,226,351; tobacco and manufactures, $1,695,694; wines 
and liquors, $3,102,604; textiles, $17,273,537; oils, $2,722,032; chem- 
ical and pharmaceutical products, $2,764,769; paints and dyes, 
$434,554; wood and manufactures, $1,585,829; paper and manufac- 
tures, $1,668,891 ; leather and manufactures, $622,672 ; iron and manu- 
factures, $4,814,759; manufactures of iron and steel, $3,311,855; 
other metals and manufactures, $2,268,477; agricultural implements, 
$2,396,689 ; transport equipment, $8,271,724 ; glassware, earthenware, 
etc., $6,070,169; building materials, $5,474,598; electrical appliances, 
$945,140, and miscellaneous products, $1,976,868. 

Export items include: Live-stock products, $52,159,340. a gain of 
$21,831,443; agricultural products, $84,997,124, a gain of $1,642,854; 
forest products, $1,924,060, a gain of $683,014; minerals, $172,726, a 
gain of $78,495; game products, $106,750, a gain of $11,799, and mis- 
cellaneous products, $871,340, a gain of $355,903. 
424 



ARGENTINE REPUBLIC. 425 

INTERNATIONAL AMERICAN CONGRESS OF MEDICINE AND 

HYGIENE. 

The International Congress of Medicine and Hygiene of 1910 will 
take place in the city of Buenos Aires in the month of May, on the 
first centenary of the revolution of 1810, under the patronage of the 
President of the Argentine Kepublic. The executive committee has 
for its president Dr. Elíseo Cantón, dean of the medical faculty in 
Buenos Aires, and for general secretaries Drs. Luis Agote and Pedro 
Lacavera. The Congress is international in character, the Govern- 
ment and scientific men of the three Americas being invited. 

The project and programme of the Congress are as follows: 

PROJECT. 

The " General Exhibition of Hygiene " will be opened in the city 
of Buenos Aires in Ma}^, 1910. 

The " General Exhibition of Hygiene " will be universal with ref- 
erence to the exhibits in connection with hygiene and international 
with reference to its attendance. 

The " General Exhibition of Hygiene " will be divided with refer- 
ence to its attendance and its competition for prizes in the following 
manner : 

First. National competition. 

Second. International Latin- American competition. 

Third. General competition. 

The competitors in the national competition will be the exhibitors 
of the Argentine Republic with exhibits produced and manufactured 
exclusively in the country. 

The competitors in the International Latin- American competition 
will be those of all the Latin-American nations with exhibits pro- 
duced or manufactured exclusively in their respective countries. 

The competitors in the general competition will be those of all the 
other nations of the world and of the Argentine Republic and the 
other Latin- American nations who in an especial way manifest their 
desire to enter in it. 

The competitors of the Argentine Republic with exclusively 
national products and those of Latin America in the same conditions 
will receive the necessary space for their installations, covered and 
free of charge. The installations will be at their own expense. 

The competitors of the other nationalities will receive the space 
necessary for their installations free of charge, and in case they need 
covered space such will be at their own expense. 

The exhibition will be eminently practical and will occupj^ an ex- 
tensive piece of ground, with easy and frequent access, sufficient for 
all the installations and customary accessories in these exhibitions. 



426 IISTTEENATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

The Congress is divided into the following sections : 

SECTIONS. 

1. Biological and fundamental matters. — Bacteriology^, general and 

experimental pathology, descriptive topographical, pathological 
anatomy, physiology, embryology, histolog}^, and parasitology. 

2. Medicine and its clinics. — Medical, therapeutical, semeiological, 

pedriatical, nervous and mental clinic, criminal anthropology, 
epidemology, dermatology, and syfolology. 

3. Surgery and its clinics. — Surgical clinic, oto-rino-laryngological 

clinic, infantile surgery, oftamology, gynaecology, and genito- 
urinaria. 

4. Piiblic hygiene. — Public hygiene, dermography, sanitary organiza- 

tion, legal medicine, international sanitary prophylaxis, indus- 
trial hygiene, naval medicine and surgery, military medicine 
and surgery, scholastic hygiene, tuberculous dermography, tu- 
berculous statistics, and social defense. 

5. Pharmacy and chemistry. 

6. Sanitary technology. — Engineering and architectural sciences as 

applied to hygiene. 

7. Veterinary j^olice. — Contagious diseases, veterinary medicine. 

8. Dental pathology. 

9. Exhibition of hygiene. 

These sections can be, subdivided or united if necessary. 

Members of the Congress are medical men, pharmaceutical chem- 
ists, dentists, veterinary surgeons, engineers, architects, and all other 
professionals connected with the différent sections of the Congress or 
who express to the executive committee their adherence in writing. 
Adherence can be procured also by paying the sum of £1 or $5 
gold, especially those who desire later on to receive the publications 
and reports of the Congress. 

The papers for the Congress will be received only till the 1st of 
January, 1910, and if more convenient only the titles acompanied 
by a small extract in order to give facilities for the organization in 
time of the sections of the programme. 

The official languages are Spanish, French, Portuguese, and 
English. 

The executive committee has solicited from the national and for- 
eign companies of transport especial rates for the members of the 
Congress and their families. 

The official programme of the Congress has been supplemented by 
another of festivities, excursions, visits to public establishments, 
etc., as is usual in these cases. Very probably these latter will be of 
an especial brilliancy, taking into account that the date of the Con- 
gress coincides with the solemn commemoration by the Argentine 




FACSIMILE OF DESIGN USED ON POSTERS ADVERTISING THE CENTENNIAL EXPOSITION AND 
INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION OF RAILWAYS AND LAND TRANSPORT, TO BEHELD IN BUENOS 
AIRES, ARGENTINA, FROM MAY TO NOVEMBER, 1910. 

The Argentine Government has appropriated S6, 000,000 for this Exposition, and all the nations of 
the world have been invited to participate in exhibiting the various appliances used in rail- 
road and other means of land transportation. 



428 TNTEENATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMEEICAN EEPUBLICS. 

people and Government of the first centenary of the historic May 
revolution of 1810. 

The secretary (medical faculty of Buenos Aires) will send to any- 
one Avho solicits them the bulletins, programmes, forms of member- 
ship, etc., and all other particulars about the Congress. 

The Gexeral Secretaries. 

m. TRADE FIGURES WITH GREAT BRITAIN. 

The facts and figures contained in the report of Mr. Garcia 
Uriburu, Consul-General of the Argentine Republic in England, for 
the year 1908, serve to call attention to the preeminence of Great 
Britain in the trade of the Republic. During the year the importa- 
tions of Argentine products reached the total of $163,243,835. Of this 
amount, wheat headed the list with a value of $65,061,075, the Argen- 
tine Republic leading in importations of this article with a total of 
1,584,010.000 kilograms, nearly 30 per cent of the total imi^ortations 
and more than 2,000,000 kilograms in excess of its next competitor, the 
united States. The increase in .value as compared with 1907 
amounted to $5,337,895. 

The trade in frozen and refrigerated meats has grown to propor- 
tions that give this article a prominent place on the export list of the 
Republic. The United Kingdom is the principal consumer, its im- 
portations for the year 1908 amounting to $43,079,910. As com- 
pared Avith 1907 these figures represent a gain in this line of industry 
of $9,733,720. The importations for the year 1908 amounted to 
179,515,350 kilograms, more than 50 per cent of the total importa- 
tions into the United Kingdom from all sources, and more than twice 
the amount furnished by the United States, which took second place 
as purveyor of this article. 

Argentine corn shipped to Great Britain for the year amounted in 
value to $28,302,995, representing increased values as compared with 
1907 of $3,301,950. The shipments amounted to 922,890,000 kilograms, 
the Republic furnishing more than all other contributing nations 
combined, and nearly three times as much as its nearest competitor, 
the United States. 

Importations into the Argentine Republic from the United King- 
dom for the year 1908 amounted to $43,283,380. Of this total, cotton 
textiles figured for $11,707,430; coal for $9,820,580; galvanized iron, 
$4,706,955 ; rails $3,112,480, and other articles for lesser amounts. 

BOND ISSUE EOR IRRIGATION WORKS. 

A bill has been introduced into the Argentine Congress providing 
for extensive irrigation works to be carried out by the railway com- 
panies operating in the districts of the rivers Negro, Lima3^ Neuquen, 



ARGENTINE REPUBLIC. 429 

Tercero, Mendoza, Atuel, Diamante, Tunuyan, Salado, and Dulce. 
The ^\-ork is estimated to cost $25,000,000, to cover which an issue will 
be made of 5 per cent bonds. 

ESTIMATE OF CEREAL EXPORTS FOR 1909. 

An estimate of the cereal surplus available for export from the 
Argentine Republic during 1909 fixes shipments of wheat and ñour 
at 3,100,000 tons; linseed, 1,000,000 tons; maize, 2,600,000 tons, and 
oats, 800,000 tons. 

NEW STEAMERS FOR RIVER SERVICE. 

An executive decree, under date of April 14, 1909, carries the ap- 
proval of the Government of the contract entered into by the Director- 
General of Hydraulic Works and the Comj^afiia Alemana de Depósi- 
tos de Carbón {Limited)^ to furnish three new steamers for service 
on the Bermejo River. The German Coal Company acts as the repre- 
sentative of the Nordeutsche Maschinen und Armaturen Fabrich 
(Xorth German Machinery and Armature Company) of Bremen. 

EXCLUSION OF LIVE STOCK FROM PARAGUAY. 

In consequence of the reported presence of the foot-and-mouth 
disease in Paraguay the ports of the Argentine Republic have been 
temporarily closed against the importation of live stock of Para- 
guayan origin. 

The prohibitor}^ decree regulating the matter was issued on April 
28, 1909. 

FISHERY REGULATIONS. 

The Argentine Government has issued a decree regulating the 
exploitation of the fishing industry in the Republic. 

According to decree of April 16, 1909, all persons or enterprises 
engaged in maritime fisheries from the mouth of the River Plate to 
that of the Negro, shall obtain a permit through the Ministry of 
Agriculture, and the products shall be admitted at the ports of the 
Republic free of duty. 

The Ministry of Agriculture shall acquaint the Ministry of Finance 
with the particulars of the permits issued so that proper measures 
may be taken for the free entry of the fish as national products. 




BOLIVIA 




■z — ^ 

FOREIGN COMMERCE, FIRST QUARTER OF 1909. 

Figures issued by the Bolivian Department of Finance and In- 
dustry {Hacienda é Industria) report total exports from the Re- 
public during the first three months of 1909 valued at 10,274,819.10 
bolivianos ($4.109,000), a gain as compared with the corresponding 
period of the preceding year of 1,684,828.46 bolivianos ($773,000). 

During the same quarter imports figured for 4,365,163.86 bolivianos 
($1,745,000), a decline as compared with the first quarter of 1908 of 
3,717,598.48 5í?/2m'rt7í05 ($1.480,000). 




INDUSTRIAL STATISTICS. 

According to figures published in the " Jornal do C onimercio " of 
June 14, 1909, and compiled by the Industrial Association of Brazil, 
there are at the present time in the Republic 3,258 industrial estab- 
lishments, with a total capital of 665,576,603 milreis ($199,672,980) 
and employing 151,841 operatives. The total annual production is 
estimated at 741.536,108 milreis ($222,460,832). The distribution 
bv States is as follows : 



states. 



Number of 
industrial 
establish- 
ments. 



Capital. 



Federal District 

São Paulo 

Rio Grande do Sul. . . 

Rio de Janeiro 

Pernambuco 

Parana 

Minas Geraes 

Bahia 

Para 

Sergipe 

Santa Catharina 

Amazonas 

.\lagoas 

Maranhão 

Matto Grosso 

Parahyba 

Rio Grande do Norte 

Ceara 

Goyaz 

Piauhy 

Espirito Santo 



670 

326 

3U 

207 

118 

297 

531 

78 

54 

103 

173 

92 

45 

18 

15 

42 

15 

18 

135 

3 

4 



169, 989, 045 

127, 702, 191 

49,205,919 

86, 195, 457 

58, 724, 355 

20,841,000 

27, 750, 372 

27, 643, 200 

11,483,000 

14, 172, 858 

9, 674, 000 

5,484,000 

10, 787, 887 

13,245,250 

13,650,000 

5, 367, 751 

6,913,000 

3,521,000 

1,617,000 

1,310,878 

298, 000 



Dollars. 



50, 996, 713 

38, 310, 657 

14,761,775 

25,858,637 

17,617,306 

6, 252, 300 

8,325,111 

8,292,960 

3,444,900 

4,251,857 

2, 902, 200 

1,645,200 

3,236,366 

3, 973, 575 

4, 095, 000 

1,610,325 

2,073,900 

1,056,300 

485, 100 

393,263 

89, 400 



Production. 



Milreis. Dollars. 



223,928,542 

118,087,091 

99, 778, 820 

56,001,868 

55, 206, 293 

33, 085, 200 

32, 919, 694 

25, 077, 962 

18, 203, 000 

14,811,105 

14,144,410 

13,962,000 

10,366,310 

6, 840, 332 

4, 450, 000 

4,387,921 

3,086,485 

2,951,100 

2.476.500 

1,192,975 

578,500 



67, 178, 562 

35, 426, 127 

29, 933, b46 

16,800,560 

16,561,887 

9, 925, 560 

- 9,875,908 

7, 523, 388 

5, 460, 900 

4.443,331 

4,243,323 

4, 188, 600 

3,109,833 

2, 052, 003 

1,335,000 

1,316,376 

925,945 

885, 330 

742,950 

357,892 

173,650 



430 



BRAZIL. 



431 



The following table shows the capital ?nd production of 38 leading 
industries of Brazil : 



Industries. 



Capital. 



Textües ' 268, 870, 903 

Sugar , 74,061,589 



Beer. 

Smelters 

Matches 

Flour mills- 

Soap and candles 

Sawmills and carpentry shops — 

Maté 

Cigars 

Lime and cement 

.Potterj' 

Sugar reflneries : 

Hats 

Shoes 

Salt -... 

Tanneries 

Railway material 

Alcoholic and gaseous beverages 

Chemical products 

Dried beef 

Furniture 

Paper and paper articles 

Lard 

Oil and rosins 

Parasols 

Underwear 

Butter and cheese 

Glassware 

Wine 

Food pastes 

Harness and saddlery 

Chocolate 

Naval construction 

Biscuits 

Confectioneries 

Tiles 

Tin articles 



27,556,800 

22, 964, 000 

17,000,000 

16,416,300 

15, 145, 000 

14,488,000 

14, 250, 000 

12, 950, 912 

11,259,500 

10, 547, 300 

10,487,780 

10,417,000 

10,117,000 

9,461,000 

9,485,000 

8,420,000 

6, 630, 971 

6, 502, 000 

6,277,000 

6, 033, 000 

6, 083, 000 

4,350,000 

3,800,800 

3,221,000 

3, 151, 000 

2, 996, 700 

2, 075, 000 

2,877,500 

2,602,200 

2, 517, 000 

2,435,000 

2, 915, 000 

1,995,000 

1,998,000 

1,826,000 

1,740,000 



Production. 



Milreis. 

171,110,918 

67,257,368 

22, 686, 290 

31,625,240 

21,275,000 

39,359,500 

22, 089, 715 

31,379,000 

22,573,000 

20,318,785 

4, 976, 340 

10, 363, 000 

15,413,760 

15,381,200 

26, 726, 000 

3,126,368 

15,001,100 

11,013,884 

9,211,658 

10, 212, 000 

38,769,300 

11, 760, 000 

3, 987, 000 

13,485,000 

4,498,646 

3,720,000 

6, 208, 500 

6, 998, 740 

3, 638, 000 

4,870,340 

3,897,485 

4,448,000 

3,680,000 

5,786,000 

3,282,000 

4, 208, 000 

3,309,000 

3,669,000 



The capital invested in the textile industry represents 40 per cent 
of the total industrial capitalization of Brazil. The textile manu- 
factures comprise cotton, jute, woolen, linen, silk, and aramina 
fabrics. 

The number of cotton mills is stated as 161, with a capital of 
234,028,403 milreis ($70,208,520) and an annual production of 
135,025,668 7nilreis ($40,507,700). The number of mills and the 
amount invested in this industry in the different States is as follows : 
Minas Geraes, 36 mills, capital 17,284,372 milreis-; Sao Paulo, 23 
mills, capital, 38,946,190 milreis; Rio de Janeiro, 19 mills, capital, 
43,899,457 mAlreis; Federal District, 15 mills, capital, 70,452,259 mil- 
reis; Bahia, 12 mills, capital, 15,758,400 mAlreis; Maranhão, 12 mills, 
capital, 10,482,900 milreis; Ceara, 2,405,000 milreis. The remaining 
States have about 1,000,000 milreis each invested in this industry. 

The jute mills of Brazil are next to the cotton mills in importance, 
both as regards the number and amount invested. The total invest- 
ment in the jute industry is estimated at 15,799,500 m^ilreis^ with a 
total output valued at 22,389,730 milreis. 



- braz.il. — 



U.S. GOLD 



FEDEiRA-LDISTRICT 



SAN.TA FE. 



RIO DE. JANEIRO 



PEiTíNAMBUCO 



mo GE AUDE, 
DO SUI_. 




RIO GRAKDE 
DO NORTE 



AMAZONAS 



PATÍAKYBA. 
CEARÁ 

G OVAS 

PIAUHV 

ESPIRITO SMTQ 



i.6io.5as 



i 



742^950 



357.89E 



89.400 



175.550 



BEAZIL. 433 

The woolen industry occupies third place in textile manufactures, 
with a total capital of 14,848,000 milreis. According to statistics 
obtained from 15 woolen mills, the annual production is worth 
11,375,000 milreis^ and the number of employees is 1,957. 

The total amount invested in the silk industry in Brazil is esti- 
mated at 965,000 milreis. The annual output of the silk mills is 
valued at 1,042,320 milreis., while there are 244 persons employed in 
this industry. Of these mills, 2 are located in the State of Rio de 
Janeiro, 1 in Eio Grande do Sul, 1 in Sao Paulo, and 1 in Santa 
Catharina. 

There are 2 linen mills in operation, with a total capital of 1,230,000 
milreis., and a mill which manufactures the aramina fiber, with a 
capital of 1,500,000 milreis. 

The power employed in the operation of these industrial estab- 
lishments represents a total of 192,284 horsepower. The motive 
power used is electricity, steam, hydraulic power, gas, and kerosene. 

The following are the leading industries in the different States : 

Alagoas. — Cotton goods, sugar. 

Amazonas. — Foundries, sacks, and bags, tin-plate goods, craclvers and confec- 
tionery, cliemical products, sawmills and carpentry shops. 

Bahia. — Cotton goods, tobacco products, sugar, hats. 

Ceara. — Cotton goods. 

Federal District. — Cotton goods, flour mills, sawmills, carpentry shops, shoes, 
sugar refineries, foundries, railway material, beer, furniture, chemical 
products, alcoholic and gaseous beverages, hats, and parasols. 

Espirito Santo. — Cotton goods. 

Goyaz. — Sugar, butter and cheese, crackers, tobacco manufactures. 

Maranhão. — Cotton goods, sugar. 

Matto Grosso. — IMaté, dried beef, meat extract, sugar. 

Minas Geraes. — Cotton goods, butter and cheese, foundries, beer, tanneries, flour 
mills, pottery. 

Para. — Sawmills and carpentry shops, beer, butter and cheese, foundries, 
chocolate. 

Parahyòa. — Cotton goods, sugar. 

Parana. — Maté, matches, sawmills, and carpentry shops. 

Pernambuco. — Sugar, cotton goods, soap and candles, lime and cement, foun- 
dries, tobacco manufactures, sugar refineries, chemical products. 

Piauhy. — Cotton goods. 

Rio Grande do Norte. — Salt, cotton goods, sugar. 

Rio Grande do Sul. — Dried beef, lard, woolen goods, tanneries, wines, hats, fiour 
mills, beer, tobacco manufactures, cotton goods, shoes, canned meat and fish, 
foundries, soap and candles, furniture and decorations. 

Rio de Janeiro. — Cotton goods, sugar, matches, salt, foundries, tobacco manu- 
factures, naval construction, tanneries. 

Santa Catharina. — Maté, lard, biitter and cheese, foundries. 

São Paulo. — Cotton goods, jute goods, flour mills, foundries, sugar, shoes, pot- 
tery, hats, beer, sawmills and carpentry shops, matches, tanneries, paper 
and paper objects, glassware. 

Sergipe. — Sugar and cotton goods. 
1650— Bull. 2—09 10 



434 INTEENATIONAL BUKEAU OF THE AMEEICAN REPUBLICS. 

The production of flour is increasing constantly. Since 1904 the 
national production has exceeded the imports of this article, as may 
be seen from the followine: table : 



Year. 


Production. 


Imports. 


1904 




Kilos. 
135,712,944 
143,594,014 
165,461,436 
172,779,203 
181,963,315 


Kilos. 
131, 049, 121 


1905 " 


140,464,415 


1906 


153,946,007 


1907 




170, 252, 996 


1908 




151,076,077 









r^R^xixT^ 



\ PRODUCTION AND IMPORTS OF TLOUR^ 




FOREIGN COMMERCE, EIRST QUARTER OF 1909. 

Brazilian statistics report for the first quarter of 1909 imports into 
the Eepublic to the value of $43,200,000, as compared with $50,500,- 
000 in the same period of 1908, and exports for the U\o quarters of 
$81,500,000 and $56,500,000, respectively. 

Coiïee, rubber, tobacco, sugar, and hides and skins are the items 
responsible for the increased export valuations for the quarter of 
1909, as is shown by the following comparative statement of leading- 
exports : 



First quarter. 
190S. 1909. 



Coffee S28, 500, 000 

Rubber 17, 000, 000 

Tobacco 690, 000 

Sugar 85, 000 

Maté • 1,525, 000 

Cacao - : 3, 200, 000 

Cotton ■- I 550, 000 

Hides and skins : 2, 400, 000 



$40,500,000 

27,500,000 

2, 900, 000 

600, 000 

1,500,000 

2, 100, 000 

300, 000 

3,400,000 



BEAZIL. 435 

BAHIA, THE CACAO-PRODUCING STATE. 

From the State of Bahia comes fully 80 per cent of the cacao pro- 
duced in Brazil, whose exportable surplus in 1908 amounted to nearly 
70,000,000 pounds, or over one-fifth of the world's supply. For 1909 
it is estimated that this total will be exceeded by at least 2,000,000 
pounds, as for the first three months of the year exports were reported 
of over 18,000,000 pounds. 

The total area under this production is estimated at about 40,000 
acres, with 10,000,000 trees in bearing. The average yield of each 
tree in its maturity is about 6 pounds of dried beans each season 
under present condition, though the production might be greatly 
augmented by cultivation. One estate reports a yield of 30 pounds 
per tree under favorable conditions. 

The increase in output has been very marked for the past three 
years, and the area of land suitable for cacao growing in the State 
is practically unlimited, so that there is every reason to believe that 
the increase will be maintained. The culture entails a minimum of 
labor and trouble on the planter, but the transport of the product is 
handicapped by lack of facilities. 

The prepared cacao is conveyed on mule back to the nearest naviga- 
ble river, where it is embarked in canoes for conveyance to the mouth 
of the river, whence it is shipped, mostly in native sailing craft, to 
the city of Bahia, which is the distributing and receiving center for 
the industr3^ 

A railway line about 30 miles in length has been projected for the 
benefit of cacao transport, of which about one-half will be completed 
during the present year. The British Consul at Bahia reports that 
the government of the State will assist in the furtherance of any 
projected railroad destined to advance the industry by the granting 
of a substantial subsidy in connection with the necessary concession. 

OPERATION OF THE IMMIGRATION SERVICE. 

The elaborate immigration system of Brazil is satisfactory. The 
annual message of President Penna to the Brazilian Congress states 
that the number of persons entering the countiy in 1908 was 112,234, 
of which 17,539 were ordinary passengers and 94,695 were immi- 
grants. Compared with the previous year there was an increase of 
26,908 immigrants, or about 40 per cent. The number of immigrants 
coming on their own initiative was 74,999, and those brought in at 
the expense of the Union numbered 11,109. The growth in immigra- 
tion has continued into the present j^ear, as is seen by the figures for 
the first quarter in the port of Rio de Janeiro only, the number being 
13,580, as compared with 8,607 in 1908 and 5,943 in 1907. In spite of 
the meager sum appropriated for this service it has been carried on 



436 INTEENATIONAL BUKEAU OF THE AMEEICAN EEPUBLICS. 

with due regularity, both as to the reception of immigrants in the 
ports and as to their settlement in the States. 

RAILWAYS. 

The total increase in railway construction in Brazil during 1908 
amounted to 1,019 kilometers (633 miles). The total length of rail- 
y\ajs in operation in the Eepublic at the close of 1908 was nearly 
12,000 miles. 

Work progressed rapidly on the Madeira-Mamore Railwa}^, and 
its early completion is predicted. The Government has entered into 
a contract with the Madeira-Mamore Railway Company for the lease 
of this line. 

AYork is progressing on the railway connecting Alcobaça with 
Praia da Rainha, the first section, between Alcobaça and Breu Branco, 
43 kilometers (27 miles) in length, being already finished and open to 
traffic. 

Construction work on the railway between São Luiz and Caxias 
was begun on Januarj^ 24, 1909, and by the terms of the contract 
must be completed within forty months from this date. The line 
will have a length of 393.7 kilometers (244 miles). 

The surveys for the line from Cratheus to Therezina and branch to 
Amarração, having a total length of 595 kilometers (369 miles), have 
been approved. 

Construction work on the railwaj^ connecting Sobral with Cra- 
theus was begun June 11, 1908. 

Work has progressed rapidly on the extension of the Baturite Rail- 
way, and a section 48 kilometers (30 miles) in length has been 
opened to traffic. Surveys were made for lines connecting this rail- 
way with the Pernambuco and Bahia systems. Surveys were also 
made to connect with the Sobral and Rio Grande do Xorte Central 
railways, so as to establish direct communication along the coast 
between Rio de Janeiro and Maranhão. 

Work continued without interruption during 1908 on the Central 
Railway of Rio Grande do Norte. A section of this line has already 
been opened to traffic and another section 75 kilometers (46 miles) 
long is in process of construction. 

The Government has entered into a contract for the construction of 
the remaining sections of the Timbo-Propria line, of which 27 kilo- 
meters (16 miles) have already been concluded. 

The contracts for the lease of the Bahia-São Francisco Railway 
and the Bahia Central have been annulled. 

Surveys have been made for a line to connect Formosa, on the left 
bank of the Preto River, in the State of Bahia, with a point to be 
determined on the Balsas River in the State of Piauhy, and a branch 
in the State of Goyaz, for the purpose of connecting by rail the 



438 INTERNATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

valleys of the Tocantins and Parnahj^ba rivers with the valley of 
the São Francisco. 

The definite survey of the line between Jequie and Derrubadinha, 
connecting the Bahia and Minas Geraes systems, has been concluded, 
the original route, which was 1,052 kilometers (652 miles) long, 
having been shortened by 159 kilometers (98 miles). 

The railway connecting Victoria with Diamantina, of which 279 
kilometers (172 miles) are already in operation, will soon be finished 
as far as Derrubadinha. 

The Leopoldina Eailway Company has begun the construction of 
the line connecting Mathilde with Muniz Freire. 

Work is progressing satisfactorily on the extension of the Central 
Railway and on the branch line to Sant'Anna dos Ferros. 

The work of widening the gauge of the São Paulo Railway has 
been concluded. 

The defhiite surveys of the lines connecting Bello Horizonte with 
the Goyaz Railway and Carrancas with Cedro have been concluded. 
A contract was entered into for the construction of the sections 
between Bello Horizonte and Alberto Isaacson and between Car- 
rancas and Bom Jardim, work on the former having already been 
begun. 

A section of the Goyaz Railway extending from Formiga to Porto 
Real, having a length of C3 kilometers (39 miles), was opened to 
traffic during the year. 

The branch of the Sorocabana Railway extending to Itararé has 
been opened to traffic, thus establishing direct railway communica- 
tion between Rio de Janeiro and the southern States. Work is 
progressing rapidly on the Paranapanema line, a section being 
already in operation as far as Ilha Grande. 

Work on the São Paulo-Rio Grande Railway was prosecuted 
vigorously during the year, so that its termination within the time 
specified in the contract seems assured. 

Work was begun on the railway connecting Passo Fundo with the 
Uruguay River. This line must be in operation by September 30, 
1910. 

Work is progressing satisfactorily on the lines in Rio Grande do 
Sul, which are being built by the Compagnie Auxiliaire des Chemins 
de Fer au Brésil. It is expected that the line between Saycan and 
Santa Anna do Livramento will be concluded by the end of the 
present year. 

The first section of the line from Cruz Alta to the mouth of the 
Ijuhy will shortly be concluded. 

Work has progressed satisfactorily on the railway extending from 
Bauru to Itapura, which should be concluded by August of the 
present year. 



BKAZIL. 439 

Work on the line connecting Itapura with Corumbá has been 
begun at each end, and every precaution has been taken to enable the 
line to be concluded within contract time. 

IRON ORE IN THE REPUBLIC. 

United States Consul-General George E. Anderson reports that 
the Brazilian Government has just transmitted a report, for the use 
of the authorities having in charge the preliminary preparations for 
the International Geological Congress, which meets in 1910 in Stock- 
holm, covering certain iron-ore deposits in the Republic, the result of 
a survey sent out for the purpose, with a special expert at its head; 
and although the text of this rej^ort is withheld, pending the use to 
be made thereof by the authorities for whom it was prepared, enough 
of it has been secured by this office to predict that it will startle the 
iron world and be the sensation of the congress. 

The examination of the deposits in Minas Geraes located 52 out- 
croj)pings of ore which Avas from 60 to 75 per cent pure iron, free 
from all impurities which might interfere with its proper smelting. 
Of these outcroppings the expert selected 9, of average size and 
quality, which he carefully surveyed and measured, calculating their 
contents at a little less than 1,000,000,000 tons of very high-grade ore, 
on or near the surface and in situations ¡Dermitting easy working 
and economical handling. On the basis of the surveys made the 52 
deposits contain a little less than 6,000,000,000 tons of the highest 
grade ore. In addition, loose high-grade ore was located to an 
amount as large as that found in the outcrops, the total high-grade 
ore located thus amounting to 12,000,000,000 tons. 

As Brazil, for various reasons, will be unable to work these vast 
deposits, they have recently been visited by representatives of Ameri- 
can and British syndicates with a view to making contracts for 
ore shipments, in the immediate future, from Rio de Janeiro or 
from Victoria, about 300 miles north of Rio de Janeiro. The only 
result of these visits, as far as known, is the completion of a contract 
between a part of one of the British syndicates and the Victoria and 
Diamantina Railway Company for ore shipments via Victoria. 

APICULTURE IN THE REPUBLIC. 

It is stated by United States Consul-General George E. Anderson 
that considerable effort is being made by certain Brazilian States to 
develop the care and culture of bees throughout various districts. 
The country is, as a whole, admirably adapted to apiculture, and it 
is designed to advance the industry to the point of making its prod- 
ucts available for export. 



440 INTEENATIONAL BUEEAU OF THE AMEEICAN EEPUBLICS. 

Large profits are reported from the culture in Sao Paulo, Minas 
Geraes, Rio de Janeiro, Parana, Santa Catharina, Rio Grande do Sul, 
Maranhão, Ceara, and Piauhy. 

Exports of wax advanced from 0,932 pounds in 1901 to 15,675 in 
1907, and of honey from 107,700 pounds to 327,400 pounds in the 
interval under consideration. These shipments are from State to 
State, as but very little is sent abroad as yet, and that to Uruguay. 

INDUSTRIAL NOTES. 

An English company known as the " Maranhão Public Works 
Company (Limited)," with headquarters in London, has been au- 
thorized to operate in Brazil. The main object of the corporation is 
to acquire the property and stock of the gas company of the city of 
Maranhão and install a gas or electric light and power plant in that 
city and operate the same. 

An executive decree of March 18, 1909, authorizes the Minister of 
Industry and Public Works to sign a contract with Emilio Schnoor, 
for the construction of the section of railway between Alberto Isaac- 
son and Bello Horizonte. LTnder tile terms of the contract the work 
must be begun within two months from the date of the contract and 
finished within eighteen months. 




TERMS OF THE ARICA-LA PAZ RAILWAY CONTRACT. 

The contract awarded on May 1, 1909, for the completion of the 
railroad from Arica to La Paz to the London company of Sir John 
Jackson fixes the cost at £2,750,000, not including branch lines. 

The line is to be constructed in two sections: The Chilean, from 
Arica to the Bolivian frontier, at a cost of £1,645,000 ; and the Boliv- 
ian section, from the frontier to La Paz, at a cost of £1,105,000. 

It is stipulated that the entire work shall be completed in three 
years and the Chilean section in thirty months. A fine of £3,000 
is to be imposed for each month's delay in delivering the work and a 
corresponding premium paid for advance delivery. 

The materials required for the work and its exploitation are to be 
admitted free of duty both in Chile and Bolivia. 

REPORT OF THE ADVISORY BOARD OP THE NITRATE COMBINE. 

The report submitted by the advisory board of the Chilean nitrate 
combine recommends, among other things, the abolishing of the 



CHILE. 441 

export duty imposed by the Government on the output of the com- 
bine ; the creation of an arbitral board for the adjustment of pending 
questions; the continued exj)loitation of the present properties of 
the syndicate and the investigation of the new deposits at Tarapaca 
and Antof agasta ; the creation of a fund for the purpose of making 
a vigorous propaganda of the nitrate industry and opening new 
markets, the fund to be derived from an allotment of 1 penny per 
quintal on the output of the syndicate. 

EXPORT MOVEMENT, FIRST QUARTER OF 1909. 

Chilean exports during the first three months of 1909 had a valua- 
tion of ^61,601,804 ($22,484,608), against 1P82,541,954 ($30,128,013) 
in the corresponding period of the preceding year. A decline to the 
amount of $7,643,355 is thus indicated in the quarter's shipments. 

The decrease is largely attributable to the reduced exports of min- 
eral products (amounting to over $8,000,000), which showed a marked 
decline in Januar}'^ and February, though the March shij^ments 
equaled those of the same month in 1908. 

A falling off of 23 per cent is noted as regards nitrate shij)ments 
comj)ared with the same period of 1908. 

Vegetable' products sent abroad, on the other hand, shoAv a gain of 
$586,400 for the quarter. 

In customs receipts a 20 per cent decline is reported for the three 
months as compared with 1908, or a total loss of $2,797,300. 

Reporting on the trade outlook. United States Consul Alfred A. 
WiNSLow states that the present is a suitable time for United States 
enterprises to interest themselves in Chilean matters, as the feeling 
between the two countries is noticeably friendly, and that American 
interests are making a good showing in the country. 

INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT. 

In connection with the marked development in industrial enter- 
prises throughout Chile, United States Consul Alfred A. Winslow 
reports the construction of the first steel plant south of Mexico at 
Corral, which will be ready for operation early in 1910. The plant 
will have a capacity of 200 tons daily and represents the expenditure 
of $2,000,000. It is backed by French capital, and the machinery 
will be mainly obtained from France. 

Within 5 miles of the plant a fine quality of iron ore is obtained, 
and transport to the works will be made by means of an overhead 
cable. 

A few months ago a large cement plant was opened at Calera, with 
an output sufficient for home consumption, and it is hoped to estab- 
lish government car works, where all the rolling stock for state 



442 INTERNATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

railways can be manufactured. The Government is actively inter- 
ested in these developments, and at the present time machinery is on 
the free list of the country. 

It is noteworthy that machinery and fuel were import items show- 
ing an advance in 1908, in the first named an increase of $1,965,871 
being reported and in the second $1,916,579. 

THE IRON" INDUSTRY. 

Mr. Ch. Vattier, of Santiago, Chile, publishes an interesting arti- 
cle in the " Boletín de la Sociedad de Fomento Fabril,^'' of March 1, 
1909, on " Iron in Chile," in which he says that iron ore is pretty gen- 
erally distributed in that country, being more abundant in the north- 
ern than in the southern part of the Republic. Some of the princi- 
pal deposits are near Taltal and Copiapo, and the iron mines of the 
Departments of Vallenar and Freirina are said to be inexhaustible. 
Great iron deposits are also found in the Province of Coquimbo, near 
the port of the same name, and at Aguas Buenas, El Dorado, and 
Tofo, near the Cruz Grande Bay. Other iron outcroppings worthj^ 
of mention are those at Curico, near Illapel ; those of Pelhuen, in the 
Province of Santiago ; and at Dumuno, near Quinteros. 

Up to the present time little use has been made of Chilean iron ore, 
except to employ it as a flux in smelting certain grades of silver and 
copper ores. Many of the iron ores of the Republic contain a small 
percentage of copper. Ignacio Domeyko, a Polish scientist and 
teacher in Chile, used to say that " Many hills have heads of iron and 
hearts of copper " [Muchas sierras tienen sombreros de fierro y cora- 
zón de cobre), to indicate the tendency of the iron ores of Chile to in- 
crease their percentage of copper with the depth of the vein or de- 
posit. Chilean iron ores are especially desirable as fluxes for smelt- 
ing ores containing the precious metals, inasmuch as the former have 
■VQvy small percentages of silica, sulphur, and phosphorus. 

The smelting of iron ore in South America for commercial pur- 
poses was first established at Buena Esperanza, Province of Minas 
Geraes, Brazil. In 1885 the ''''Sociedad de Fomento Fabril'''' and 
later the '"''Sociedad de Blinería'''' advocated the smelting of iron ore 
in Chile, and finally its use for this purpose was begun under the 
administration of President José Manuel Balmaceda. After twenty 
years of study, trial, and experiment, the smelting of iron ore in the 
Republic seems to have become an established industry. An iron 
smelter is now being erected at the port of Corral, in the Province 
of Valdivia, where the production of pig iron, wrought iron, steel, 
and other kindred products will be carried on. The actual consump- 
tion of steel in Chile is estimated at about 100,000 tons annually, and 
this consumption will greatly increase with the construction of the 
longitudinal and other railways by the Chilean Government, and 
should there be a surplus after suplying the home needs, a ready 



COLOMBIA. 443 

market for the overproduction could be encountered in the Argentine 
Eepublic, which consumes more than 700,000 tons of iron and steel 
annually. 

With the development of the smelting industry in Chile, use will 
be found for the wolfram of Bolivia, and the vanadium and uranium 
of Peru. 

The Corral smelter will be producing iron ingots by the latter part 
of this year or early in 1910. Preparations are being made for the 
loading and unloading of vessels in the Valdivia Kiver at Corral, and 
ample railway transportation facilities are being arranged for. 
Buildings for the housing of workmen, and all the construction 
necessary for the erection and operation of a large smelting plant will 
be comi^leted at an estimated cost of more than 10,000,000 francs 
($1,930,000). Ore from the mines, which are 8 kilometers (5 miles) 
distant from Corral, and wood from the neighboring forests will be 
transported to the smelter by overhead cables, and the most modern 
methods and best facilities for mining, smelting, manufacturing, and 
handling of the products will be made use of. 



COLOMBIA 





ENGLISH READING ROOM AT MEDILLIN. 

The State Department at Washington has been informed by 
Albro L. Burnell, United States Vice-Consul at Barranquilla, that 
the Consular Agent at Medillin desires to establish a reading room 
in connection with the agency, for which purpose he solicits aid in 
furnishing suitable material. 

Government documents of various kinds, periodicals, commercial 
reviews, and catalogues of manufacturers and similar publications 
would in the opinion of the agent, Mr. Wright, be adapted to the 
needs of the community and also further trade interests. A room 
will be maintained for the use of the public. 

Medillin is the second city in size in the Republic, with a popula- 
tion of 56,000, and is located in the heart of one of the wealthiest 
and most progressive sections of the country. 

INTERNATIONAL STUDENTS' CONGRESS. 

Plans are being made for the assembling of the First International 
Students' Congress of America at Bogota, Colombia, the sessions to 
last from July 20, 1910, until August T. This organization has for 
its object the advancement of the educational movement in the Re- 
publics of Colombia, Ecuador, and Venezuela. Its membership is 
made up of students in the different universities of these three 



444 INTEENATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

Republics, who will be represented at the Congress by student dele- 
gates. The movement contemplates an annual congress to be held 
in different cities of South America. 

ESTABLISHMENT OF AN OIL REFINERY AT CARTAGENA. 

Local cajiital in the city of Cartagena has arranged for the erection 
of an oil refineiy and warehouse in that city and the elaboration and 
sale of petroleum, gasoline, benzine, paraffin, grease, and oil. The 
plans for the new plant include a refinery, a warehouse with a capacity 
of 25,000 cases, and quarters for emplo^^ees. The establishment of 
this plant represents the consummation of years of work on the part 
of the interests promoting it and an unshaken faith in the possibilities 
of this industry in Colombia. 

RUBBER AND FORESTRY CONCESSION. 

The Minister of Fomento and Public AVorks, on behalf of the 
Republic of Colombia, has entered into a contract with Miguel Ueibe 
HoLGUix, the representative of the French Companj^ of the Sinu 
River, for the exploitation of certain portions of the public domain 
for rubber and hard woods. The contract is made without prejudice 
to the right of the Government to make similar grants to other par- 
ties and carries with it the right of navigation, under the existing 
laws, of the waterways of the Republic. 

BANKS, BANKING, AND FINANCIAL CONDITIONS IN THE 

REPUBLIC. 

Consul-General Jay White, of Bogota, furnishes the following 
information concerning the monetary conditions in Colombia and 
the means taken to increase American trade there : 

Paper money, first issued in 1881, lias displaced gold and silver in Colombia, 
except small quantities of the latter, which are in circulation in certain dis- 
tricts remote from the capital. Although reliable data have not been obtained, 
it may be concluded that the present outstanding issue of paper money is over 
700,000,000 iJesos, equal to $7,000,000 gold, but some authorities place the 
amount as high as 1,000,000,000 pesos, equal to $10,000,000 gold. 

The government mint, from August, 1906, to June 30, 1908, coined silver to 
the amount of $1,017,580, all in 30-cent pieces, 0.835 fine. Some nickel coins, in 
1, 2, and 5 peso pieces, have also been put into circulation during the past two 
years. There is some old silver coinage in circulation, but the bankers do not 
consider the quantity large and say that it is impossible to give even an estimate 
of the amount. 

No gold has been coined by Colombia in recent years, and yet the terri- 
tory now comprising tlie Republic has coined during the last century over 
$100,000,000 gold and more than $10,000.000 silver. Some foreign gold is held 
by Colombian banks, and a limited amount thereof is in circulation, as well 
as foreign silver and bills. 

CURRENCY AND ITS FLUCTUATIONS. 

Many business men consider the existing currency insufficient for the needs 
of the country. Owing to the lack of means of rapid communication and the 



COLOMBIA. 445 

fact that the credit system is not well developed, a considerable quantity of 
the currency of the country is constantly being carried from one point to an- 
other by messengers on mule back, and these sums are not available for the 
ordinary purposes of local trade. 

Exchange has steadily advanced from par — that is, 1 jjeso equal to 96.50 
cents gold in 1874, to 189 pesos equal to $1 gold, in October, 1902. Since Janu- 
ary, 1907, exchange has varied from 9,850 to 12,900 paper pesos, equal to $100 
gold, but the greater portion of the time it has remained slightly above the 
present legal equivalent, 102 pesos=^l gold. 

COMMERCE AND BANKING. 

Six months is the approximate length of time granted before bills are due. 
Legally, extension is forbidden in the payment of drafts in Colombia. If, how- 
. ever, the creditor is willing, extension is granted for an indefinite time ; that 
is, payment is requested as usual of the drawee at his earliest convenience and 
interest charged. Six per cent is the usual discount for cash. The banks in 
Colombia are accustomed to charge a premium of 50 cents gold for any draft 
that is bought of them which does not amount to $5 gold. 

A law exists which grants the right of stipulation of the currency in which 
obligations shall be paid. If not otherwise provided by the contract, gold or 
Colombian currency at the legal rate (102 pesos=^l gold) is imposed. 

There are five banks in Bogota, viz : Banco de Colombia. Banco de Bogota, 
Banco de Exportadores, Banco de Agricultores, and Banco Central. 

The Banco Central is the fiscal agent of the Colombian Government. Its au- 
thorized capital is $8.000.000 gold, divided into 80.000 shares. The gold reserve 
is fixed at 50 per cent of its capital. It holds a franchise for 30 years for the 
exclusive issue of bank notes, has many special contracts with the Government 
for the collection of revenues, etc.. and is the medium employed for the issuance 
of new notes. 

The Banco de Colombia has a capital of $600,000 gold, divided into 12,000 
shares of $50 each ; reserve fund, $54.000 gold. 

The ïîanco de Bogota has a capital of $125.000 gold, divided into 5.000 shares 
of $25 gold each ; reserve fund, $54,000. 

The Banco de Exportadores has a sapital of $3,000,000 paper, divided into 
3.000 shares of $1,000 each. 

The Banco de Agricultores has a capital of $2.000,000 paper, divided into 
4,000 shares of $500 each. 

The following are the New York correspondents of the Bogota banks : The 
Chemical National Bank, the National Park Bank, the National City Bank, and 
the Battery Park Bank. 

Loans are made on mortgages at one-third the valuation of the property for 
short terms. 

Interest is charged on gold loans at 12 per cent per annum and on paper 
loans at 18 per cent to 24 per cent per annum. The business in bills of exchange 
is good. Time bills are discounted at the rate of 1 per cent net per month. 

There are few native or foreign private banks in Colombia. 

FACILITATING AMERICAN TRADE. 

The opening in Colombia of a branch of the International Banking Corpora- 
tion of New York, now doing business in a number of South American cities, or 
the establishment of an American institution similar to the British Rio Plata 
Bank in the Argentine and Brazilian Republics, would do much to foster and 
facilitate American trade relations in Colombia, 

The establishment of a branch of the American Express Company or of any 
institution selling small drafts would do much to facilitate mail-order business 



446 TNTEENATIONAL • BUEEAU OF THE AMEEICAIST EEPUBLICS. 

with the United States, as large quantities of goods are brought into Colombia 
by parcels post in order to avoid the Colombian invoice fees, which amount to 
$18 on goods not exceeding $200 in value. 

TARIFF MODIFICATIONS. 

According to a presidential decree of June 7, the surcharge hitherto 
collected on merchandise imported through the custom-house of 
Cúcuta will be reduced from TO to 35 per cent at the rate of 10 per 
cent monthh^, from July 1. 

From the same date, cacao and other national products of Vene- 
zuela will be admitted dutv free at the same custom-house. 




ARBITRATION CONVENTION. 

On May 25, 1909, at San José, Costa Eica, the Congress of the Re- 
public adopted a resolution approving the convention passed in 
Washington on January 13 of the same year, providing for the settle- 




THE MERCANTILE BANK OF COSTA. RICA, SAN JOSE. 
A newly established institution with a capital of $500,000. 

ment by arbitration of differences arising from the interpretation of 
existing treaties or of a legal character by The Hague Tribunal. The 
convention further stipulates the form in which matters at issue shall 



ECUADOR. 



447 



be submitted to the arbitration tribunal, and will materially strengthen 
the cordial relations already existing between the United States and 
Costa Rica. 

REDUCTION OF GOLD RESERVE IN BANKS OE ISSUE. 

A decree dated June 18, 1909, allows banks of issue throughout 
Costa Rica to issue notes secured by a gold reserve of 40 per cent of 
the total amount of outstanding notes, in place of 50 per cent, as for- 
merly provided. This concession is to run until December 31, 1919, 
and stipulates that banks enjoying it must be bona fide banks of issue 
on the date of the promulgation of the decree. Banks established 
during the life of the decree may avail themselves of its advantages 
only by special law to that effect. 

The Costa Rican minister, Sr. Don J. B. Calvo, has called the 
attention of the International Bureau to a historical misstatement 
made in the annual review number as regards Costa Rica. Through 
inadvertence in the compilation the following paragraph appears, 
which does not belong to Costa Rica : " Revolutionary movements 
which sprang up in Costa Rica from time to time between the years 
1811 and 1821 were suppressed with great severity by the Spanish 
authorities." 




AMENDED BUDGET EOR 1909-10. 

By a presidential decree issued on July 1, 1909, the Cuban estimate 
of expenditures for the ensuing twelve months, in the sum of $33,418,- 
302.85, was approved. Receipts for the fiscal year 1909-10 are esti- 
mated as $33,825,448.53, leaving an estimated surplus of $407,145.68. 

The surplus, according to the provisions of the decree, will be used 
in defraying the expenses of the municipal courts and to meet the 
obligations imposed by the reforms introduced in the personnel of 
the judiciary department and other obligations resulting from the 
laws enacted bv Congress. 





oc? o cog==aei— ^jfl----3es=aoc> o cao 

ECUADOR 

RAILWAY EXTENSION. 

London interests have secured a concession from the Government of 
Ecuador to build a railway from Ambato, the capital of the Province 
of Tungurahua, through the forest land of the Republic to the river 
Ara juno. The line contemplated under the terms of the concession 



448 INTERNATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

will have a gauge of 42 inches, the same as that of the Guayaquil- 
Quito Railway and make eight stops in the distance from Ambato to 
the river Arajuno. The concession also carries the right of eminent 
domain, witli the stipulation that the Government shall expropriate 
such private lands as may be needed for the location of the line. The 
Government further guarantees to the grantee a bonus of £4,000 
sterling for every kilometer of line constructed, payable in 6 per 
cent bonds guaranteed by the State, 

IMPROVED STEAMSHIP FACILITIES. 

With a view to bettering existing conditions in coastal navigation 
and for the development of the commerce of the Republic, a decree 




DOUBLE ZIGZAG TRACK FROM THE DEVILS NOSE NEAR ALAUSI ON THE GUAY- 
AQUIL AND QUITO RAILWAY. 

was issued by President Alfaro, under date of April 16, 1909, 
calling for the creation of a special commission in Guayaquil for the 
purpose of receiving proposals from the various navigation com- 
panies. 

The decree further stipulates that proposals must be in betterment 
of existing conditions, both as to tariff and itinerary. With a view 
to securing proposals from as many steamship lines as possible, the 
term of sixty days provided for in the decree will be extended to 
enable those companies located at a distance to file their bids. 

DRAINAGE AND WATER SUPPLY AT BAHIA DE CARAQUEZ. 

Drainage of the port of Bahia de Caraquez and the adequate 
supply of water for municipal usages are the subjects of a contract 




IGÕO— Bull. 2— OU 



450 INTERNATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

made between the Government of Ecuador and a citizen of France 
resident in Quito. The estimated cost of the work is $1,020,000, and 
the following comprise the items of labor provided for : 

The construction of a wharf of masonry; the building of ware- 
houses and shed ; the installation of mechanical apparatus for unload- 
ing; grading; installation of buoys and light-houses; establishment 
of railways along the wharf; dredging the sand bar; dredging the 
river to the depth requisite to provide anchorage; construction of 
waterworks to assure a greater volume of water in sewers and the 
bringing of drinking water to Bahia. 



DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 



DEVELOPMENT NOTES. 

United States Consul Ralph J. Totten sends, from Puerto Plata, 
the following items relating to progress in the Dominican Eepublic : 

It is estimated that the acreage of tobacco planted this season is 
nearly double that of last season. Practically all of the Dominican 
tobacco goes to Germany. 

The cacao crop promises to be a large one this season. Although 
much cacao has been shijDped and a large quantity is in the ware- 
houses in the seaports, the greater part of the crop is yet to be 
gathered. 

The government railway from Santiago to Moca, which has been 
under construction for some time, is now in operation. New pas- 
senger coaches for this line have just been received from the United 
States and are being set up in the government shops in Puerto Plata. 

The government engineers have completed the survey for changing 
the route of the railway from Puerto Plata to Santiago. The present 
line climbs directly up the side of the mountain by the aid of a cogged 
third rail. The new route will avoid this and will make the distance 
with nothing heavier than a 2^ per cent grade, besides saving time and 
operating expense. 



^S^==^^S:^==õfeí^ií?-«SJ3lei5P 




GUATEMALA 




CONTRACT FOR INTERCONTINENTAL RAILWAY CONNECTION. 

The contract made by the Government of Guatemala and Willard 
Parker Tisdel as representative of the Central Railway for the con- 
struction and exploitation of a railway from Coatepeque or an adja- 
cent localit}^ and the city of Ayutla or elsewhere on the frontier, as 



GUATEMALA. 451 

selected by common agreement, received the approval of the Executive 
on April 30, 1909. 

The purpose of this line is to effect junction between the Central 
Railway of Guatemala and the Intercontinental or Pan-American 
Railway. 

A government subsidy of $5,000 for each mile is granted, also free 
importation for all machinery and materials requisite for construc- 
tion and operation. Grants of national lands are made for the main 
and branch lines, and the right of exploitation is conceded for ninety- 
nine years, with preferential rights to the Government as a possible 
purchaser in case of sale. 

PEOVISIONS OF THE NEW IMMIGRATION LAW. 

Under date of April 30, 1909, a new immigration law was promul- 
gated in Guatemala. This law may be taken as an exposition of the 
policy of the administration with reference to the colonization of 
the Republic by desirable immigrants from European countries 
under careful supervision bj^ the Government when such immigra- 
tion is for its own account and carefully regulated by it when for 
account of private interests. 

The first chapter of the law is devoted to a definition of the status 
of immigrants and their classification under three heads. Persons 
of the Mongolian race are not accepted as immigrants under the 
provisions of the law. The liability of the company or interests 
bringing immigrants into the Republic is carefully defined, as are 
also the channels through which they may secure an interpretation 
of the contracts under which they come into the country. In the 
classification of immigrants, those of the first class enjoy certain privi- 
leges not granted to others, among which are exemption from pay- 
ment of duties on household effects and implements and consular 
fees. Provision is also made for all desirable immigrants to become 
citizens if they so wish. 

Allotments of land to desirable colonists in grants not to exceed 
45 hectares upon condition that portions of the land as stipulated 
in the grant be cultivated for the term of four years next succeeding 
the grant is provided for. 

The second chapter of the law is devoted to an exposition of the 
regulations under which immigrants shall be accepted for transport 
to Guatemala from foreign countries and provides for the establish- 
ment of proper representation of the Republic abroad through its 
consular officers or agents or through agents specially deputized for 
that purpose. Provision is also made for the care and housing of 
immigrants awaiting embarkation abroad and upon their arrival in 
the country and in the case of companies or corporations introducing 



452 INTERNATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

immigrants into the Republic in behalf of the Government for a 
suitable guaranty of good faith on the part of the company. 

The third and last chapter of the law provides for an active propa- 
ganda of the plans of the administration abroad through its con- 
sular officers and special agents, the dissemination of detailed infor- 
mation relative to the Republic and its resources by means of maps 
and other data, a careful supervision of the work of the special 
agents, the countersigning by the Department through its authorized 
representative of all documents and certificates concerning immi- 
grants or contractors and the careful scrutiny of all contracts under 
which their services are engaged, and also for the inspection of the 
ships transporting them to the Republic. 

The new law further provides for the repeal of the decree law 
No. 525, dated January 25, 1896, and the statute law No. 321, of 
April 18, of the same year. 

BUDGET FOR 1909-10. 

The budget of expenditures for the Government of Guatemala for 
the fiscal period from July 1, 1909, to June 30, 1910, as approved 
by the National Assembly carries an appropriation of 36,478,768.32 
pesos ($14,500,000), distributed as follows: 

Pesos. 

Government and Justice 4, 547, 604. 00 

Foreign relations 993, 039. 20 

Treasury 1, 678, 016. 00 

Public credit 22,000,000.00 

Promotion (Fomento) 2, 188, 542. 96 

War 2. 408. 415. 16 

Public instruction 2,195,121.00 

Arrears 468,030.00 

PARTICIPATION IN BRUSSELS EXPOSITION. 

The President of the Republic under date of June 1, 1909, accepted 
the invitation of the Belgian Government to participate in the inter- 
national exposition to be held at Brussels in 1910. The executive 
further confirms the policy of the administration in participating 
in such expositions at home and abroad as an approved method of 
accrediting the products of the Republic in the markets of the 
world. Provision is made in the decree for a representative exhibit 
of the country's products, and the dissemination of information and 
data concerning them, 

SANITARY BAKERIES. 

The progressive policy of the sanitary authorities of the Republic 
is bearing fruit in the promulgation of a decree regulating bakeries 



454 INTERNATIONAL BUEEAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

throughout the country. In addition to providing for the making 
of bread under sanitary conditions, the use of modern machinery 
and apparatus is recommended. 

APPROVAL or THE HAGUE CONVENTIONS. 

The Government of Guatemala on April 29, 1909, formally ap- 
proved the conventions subscribed to by the delegates of nations 
assembled at The Hague Conferences of 1907. 



^^^\ 





HAITI 

IRRIGATION WORKS. 

The " Moniteur Oficiei " of Haiti publishes in a recent issue a law 
of March 15, 1909, by which an appropriation of $200,000 American 
gold is granted the Agricultural Department for various irrigation 
works. 

The works are to include the building of a dam at the place called 
*' Bassin Général^'' and the reestablishment of the works and canals 
recognized as necessarj^ for the diversion of the Gray River {Riviere 
Grise) and for the irrigation of the Cul de Sac plain. This plain is, 
from an agricultural point of view, one of the richest regions of the 
Department of the West, but often suiïers from droughts. 

The stipulated sum of $200,000 will be guaranteed by an export 
tax on coiïee and will be payable in five installments, upon the open- 
ing of the construction sheds, during the work, and after its complete 
execution. 

In the thirty days following the signing of the contract the conces- 
sionnaire must deposit a guaranty of $5,000 American gold in the Na- 
tional Bank of Haiti. 

A delay of two years is granted for the execution of the work. 

The law provides for the free importation of the material, ma- 
chinery, etc., necessary for the enterprise, and stipulates that the 
personnel, including the engineers and laborers employed in any 
capacity whatsoever must be Haitian subjects. 

NEW WHARE AT PORT AU PRINCE. 

The '"'•Moniteur Officiel " of May 19, 1909, publishes the acts of incor- 
poration of a stock company to be known under the name of "Zo- 
Compagnie Haïtienne du Wharf de Port au Prince " (Haitian Port 
au Prince Wliarf Company). 



HAITI. 



455 



This company is organized for the purpose of building, maintain- 
ing, and exploiting a wharf at Port an Prince under the terms of 
article 11 of the concession granted by the Haitian Govenmaent Sep- 
tember 4, 1906, sanctioned and approved by a special law voted by 
the legislative body September 16, 1906^ and promulgated by the 
President of the Republic October 1, of the same year. 

The company will be capitalized at $600,000, divided into 6,000 
shares of $100 each. The private property of the stockholders can 
in no wise be assessed for the debts of the company. 




Photo by Hare, Collier's Weekly. 

FLOUR FROM THE UNITED STATES BEING UNLOADED FROM SHIPS AT MIR AGO ANE, 

HAITI. 

While the headquarters of the company will be at Port au Prince, 
an office will be maintained at Wilmington, Delaware, where it will 
be represented by the Corporation Trust Company of America. 

The concession runs until December 31, 1956. 



GUANO CONCESSION. 

The '"''Moniteur Officiél^^ of Haiti, publishes in its issue of May 19 
the text of a contract signed April 14 of the present year, by which 
the Haitian Government grants Vincent P. Tommins, of New York, 
a concession for the exclusive right to exploit the guano deposits 
which are found or may be found in the districts of Fort Liberte, 
Grand Riviere du Nord, Valliere, and especially at Cerca la Source. 

This concession is for nine years, dating from the signing of the 
contract, and may be renewed for a new period of nine years. 





456 INTERNATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

Before the beginning of the work the concessionnaire must deposit 
with the National Bank or National Treasury the sum of $800 as a 
guaranty of the execution of the contract, and in default of the 
undertaking of the enterprise within the stipulated six months the 
money will revert to the State and the contract be declared null and 
void. 

The machinery and other material necessary for exploitation will 
be admitted free of duty, although a list of the articles and machiner}' 
must previously be submitted to the proper officials. 

The guano will be exported through the Cap customs and a duty 
of $1.50 American gold will be levied on each ton for the benefit of 
the State. All the employees, with the exception of the technical 
personnel, must be Haitian subjects. 



HONDURAS 



TRANSPORT, STORAGE, AND DISPATCH OF MERCHANDISE. 

A decree numbered 56 and dated March 11, 1909, provides for the 
handling and delivery of merchandise at designated points in Hon- 
duras by the custom-house authorities for shipment to its destination. 
The expense incident thereto is for account of the Government, the 
discharge of the steamers being for account of the company. Excep- 
tion is made in the case of bananas, cocoanuts, live stock, and lumber. 

Coastwise trade in the Republic, according to a decree dated March 
11, 1909, must be conducted by native or naturalized citizens and in 
ships of domestic register. The decree also regulates the issuance of 
clearances by custom-houses throughout the Republic and becomes 
effective from the date of its promulgation. 

Another decree under date of April 1, 1909, provides for the 
nationalizing and gauging of shipping in the Republic, defines what 
ships may be held as of national register and the manner in which 
they may be gauged and nationalized. 

MODIFICATION OF TARIFF DUTIES. 

From August 1, 1909, in accordance with an executive decree, the 
following duties in gold values will be levied on national products 
exported from the Republic of Honduras : 

Mahogany and cedar, $5 per 1,000 feet; San Juan and Santa. 
Maria, $3 per 1,000 feet; cabinet and dyewoods, $5 per ton; sarsapa- 
rilla, $3 per quintal; rubber, $3 per quintal; hides, $1 per quintal;, 
and chicle, $2 per quintal. 

In May, a duty of 3 2^^808 per 1,000 was levied on cocoanuts. 



458 INTERNATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

By decree No. 45 the following articles are declared exempt from 
import duties, either state or municipal. Figures in parentheses rep- 
resent old duties per one-half kilogram (1.1 pounds) : 

Coal (free), gasoline ( 5 cents), carbide of calcium, wire for fences 
(2 cents), staples (2 cents), machinery and tools for roads (5 cents), 
agriculture (1 cent), mining (1 cent), or industries (5 cents), live 
animals ($5 each), seeds (1 cent), forage (1 cent), wheels for carts 
(1 cent), harnesses (10 cents), sacks for coffee (1 cent), iron tires for 
wheels (1 cent) , motors of all kinds (1 to 10 cents) , windmills (1 cent) , 
printing presses (1 cent), lightning rods (1 cent), live plants (1 cent), 
machines and material of iron for railroads and tramways, instru- 
ments for arts and industries (10 cents), printed books (2 cents). 
Lumber ($5 per 1,000 feet) for building purposes will enjoy same 
privilege only on the Atlantic coast, and then only until sawmills are 
established that will give sufficient lumber for the needs of the coast. 

DUTIABLE LIST. 

The following articles imported through the customs of the Repub- 
lic will be charged the following duties per one-half kilogram (1.1 
pounds) gross weight : 

Natural products: Rice (2 cents) and peas, 6 cents; corn, beans 
(1 cent), chick peas (2 cents), onions (2 cents), garlic, potatoes (2 
cents), vegetables and dried fruits (5 cents), 4 cents; cocoa, coffee 
(5 cents), peanuts (5 cents) and raw cotton (5 cents), 10 cents; leaf 
tobacco ($1), $1. These duties, as well as those that follow, are in 
silver, worth at present rate 0.375 cent. 

Industrial products : Cheese (10 cents), 25 cents; butter (10 cents), 
25 cents; condensed milk (10 cents), 25 cents; larci (10 cents), 20 
cents; salted and smoked meats (5 cents), 10 cents; meats in tin (15 
cents), 25 cents; starch (10 cents), 15 cents; fruits preserved in their 
juice (10 cents), 20 cents; preserves, dry or in sirup (10 cents), 20 
cents; soap, ordinary, without perfume (10 cents), 15 cents; tallow 
candles (3 cents), 20 cents; cigarettes ($1), $2; cigars ($1), $2; 
tobacco, cut or in powder ($1), $1.50; chewing tobacco ($1), $1.50; 
chocolate (10 cents), 25 cents; cordage (2 cents), 10 cents; furniture 
of wood (10 cents), 20 cents; straw hats (50 cents), $1; Panama hats 
($2), $3; saddles (50 cents), $1; shoes (60 cents), $1; windows (5 
cents) and doors (5 cents) and blinds (10 cents) of wood, 4 cents; 
wood for veneering, 6 cents; clothing of cotton (25 cents), 50 cents; 
clothing of hemp or linen (50 to 60 cents), $1; clothing of wool for 
external use ($2), $3. 

These duties are charged on gross weights and per one-half kilo- 
gram. The executive power can reduce or abolish payment of fore- 
going taxes in case of famine, epidemics, wars, etc. 



MEXICO. 459 

From April 2, 1909, the following tariff provisions became effective : 

Article 1. The importation of ordinary intoxicating liquors is proliibited. 

Art. 2. The following liquors are considered as ordinary, under the provisions 
of this law : Whisky, cognac, rum, aniseed, and gin, put up in casks, barrels, 
iegs, or demijohns. 

Art. 3. The above-mentioned liquors are also considered as ordinary liquors 
when put up in bottles containing less than 21° Carthier of alcoholic strength, 
or when, in the countries of their origin, their price be less than $1 (gold) a liter 
or $0.70 (gold) a bottle, or if their selling price does not exceed 60 per cent of 
that of brandy and of liquors on which there is a monopoly. 

Art. 4. The stock of the liquors referred to in the two preceding articles must 
be withdrawn from sale on July 31, 1909, to which end the revenue oflicials 
shall take note of such stock now on hand. 




FOREIGN COMMERCE, NINE MONTHS OF 1908-9. 

The valuation of imports into the Mexican Republic during the 
nine months of the fiscal year (July, 1908-March, 1909), is reported 
"by the Statistical Division of the Treasury Department as ^114,- 
791,627.13 ($57,395,813), a decline as compared with the correspond- 
ing period of the preceding year of ?=63,433,849.21 ($31,716,924). 

For the same period, exports were worth ?171,909,875.08 ($85,- 
^54,937), a decrease of ^=13,502,103.41 ($6,751,051). 

In consideration of the export list, the two most important fea- 
tures are the decline of ^15,615,193.82 ($7,800,000) in mineral ship- 
ments and the gain of ?=2,993,806.18 ($1,490,000) in exports of ani- 
mal products. Also, while vegetable products as a whole decreased 
by ^1,436,338.07 ($700,000) such items as coffee and guayule showed 
gains of ^1,778,058 ($880,000) and ?=2,361,361 ($1,180,000), respec- 
tively. 

CANADIAN COLONIZATION CONCESSION. 

A concession granted by the Mexican Government to a coloniza- 
tion enterprise under Canadian auspices carries with it the privilege 
of denouncement and purchase of 1,500,000 acres of land in the State 
■of Guerrero with a subvention of nearly $3,000,000 for irrigation 
purposes together with exemption from taxes and import duties to 
colonists. 

The Mexican Government also undertakes to establish an experi- 
mental farm within the boundaries of the colonized area for the 
;study of the most efficient methods of growing native and imported 

f 



460 INTERNATIONAL BUEEATJ OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

farm products. The lands which have been denounced are rich pro- 
ducers of cocoanuts, cotton, tobacco, corn, and tropical fruits. 

Provisions have been made for adequate steamship service between 
Canada and the port of Zihuatanejo and adjacent harbors, and it is 
anticipated that within the next seven years, the time limit set for 
the establishment of the immigrants, 10,000 Canadians will be settled 
in Guerrero. "While outside colonization will be largely confined to- 
Canadians, it is planned to provide for the settlement of Mexican 
citizens upon the company's grounds. 

DEVELOPMENT OF SERICULTURE. 

The Mexican Government is taking active measures to foment seri- 
culture throughout the Republic, as is. indicated by instructions re- 
cently issued to the Department of Fomento to provide adequate in- 
struction to all persons desirous of engaging in this industry. 

For cocoons in various classes premiums are to be awarded and 
mulberry trees will be distributed from the government agricultural 
school grounds in the Federal District. In the garden between Chu- 
rubusco and Coyoacan, 6,000,000 trees are to be planted, and when 
ready for propagation will be distributed throughout all the States 
of the Republic. 

It is also purposed to hold an exhibit of the silk weaving industry 
under the auspices of the Department of Fomento, when Señor Gon- 
zalez, the chief of the sericulture department, will furnish practical 
instruction to all persons interested in the care of silkworms and 
the weaving of silk from the cocoons. 

COAL DEPOSITS OF GUADALAJARA. 

United States Consul Samuel E. Magill, reporting concerning the 
Mexican coal deposits near Guadalajara, their quality, estimated out- 
put, and possible markets, states that the city of Guadalajara will 
consume much of the output, railways will consume some, although oil 
is their chief fuel at present, and some may be marketed through the 
port of Manzanillo, although coal from Japan, Australia, and British 
Columbia will compete therewith. 

The deposit is 18 miles east of Zapotiltic, a station 113 miles from. 
Guadalajara, on the Manzanillo branch of the Mexican Central Rail- 
way. Surveys made provide for 18 miles of railway to tap the 
Mexican Central at Zapotiltic. The maximum grade will be 4 per 
cent for 2^ miles of the distance, the remainder not exceeding 2^ per 
cent. The estimated cost of this branch line is $150,000, exclusive 
of rails. The curvature will be such as to necessitate Shay locomo- 
tives. The known area already developed with drills is 2,000 acres, 
and the estimated area, according to outcrop and direction of vein, 
6,000 acres more, making a total of 8,000 acres. 



^^. 05 



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¡3. m 




462 INTERN ATIOJSr AL BUEE AU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

The coal is a very superior form of lignite. The highest percentage 
of ash ever shown by analysis has been 8 per cent, and it has gone 
as low as 3^ per cent. In all cases the carbons are over 90 per cent. It 
is not a coking coal, as the field is too young, and it should not be 
represented as such ; it is probable that there is no coking coal in thi& 
part of the Republic. It is, however, an excellent steam coal, and 
also makes good gas, according to some American experts who ex- 
amined it for a company which holds the concession for a gas plant 
in Guadalajara. The coal has been used as fuel in the development 
of the work of the mine. 

The work of development is just beginning. Work had been car- 
ried on for about five months up to September, 1908, when the owners 
had some misunderstandings and ceased to operate. In June, 1908^ 
some explorations were made— in an old drift which Mexicans had 
worked on a 15 per cent incline — ^by cutting through the limestone 
reef, at which the Mexicans stopped, and continuing until the second 
vein was cut at 45 feet. A perpendicular shaft was then sunk until 
it cut the upper vein. A camp with wooden buildings was then 
established. 

EXPORTS OF CHICLE. 

The amount of chicle exported from Mexico during the fiscal year 
1907-8 was over 5,000,000 pounds, of which about 4,500,000 pounds 
found a market in the United States. The year's shipments were 
valued at $1,125,700, and that these figures are being maintained is 
indicated by the valuation of this product sent abroad during the 
first nine months of the fiscal year 1908-9, when exports of chicle 
are valued at $1,000,000. 

The annual consumption of this gum in the United States is be- 
tween 6,000,000 and 7,000,000 pounds, and though large quantities 
are credited to Canada and British Honduras on the import lists, 
the country of origin is mainly Mexico. The Canadian trade as- 
sumed such large proportions by reason of the former practice of 
shipping the Mexican products by way of Canada, so that the gum 
might undergo a drying-out process on the long voyage, with the 
consequent reduction of weight liable to duty. 

It is estimated that 1,000,000 pounds of crude chicle, losing 30 
per cent in shrinkage and cleaning and mixed with four times its 
weight in sugar and other ingredients, would figure in 3,500,000 
pounds of chewing gum. 

TAX ON TEXTILE INDUSTRIES. 

For the six months, July-December, 1909, the amount of the tax 
to be collected on the 121 cotton mills operating in the Mexican 
Republic is fixed at n,081,800 ($540,400). 



MEXICO. 463 

The importance of the industry in the country is demonstrated by 
the increased valuation assigned to imports of textile fibers during 
the first nine months of the fiscal year 1908-9, as compared with the 
same period of 1907-8, the totals being 1P2,059,626 ($1,029,800) and 
f=l,646,602 ($823,800), respectively. 

TIME EXTENSION EOR MANZANILLO PORT WORKS. 

An executive decree of June 8, 1909, extended until November 30, 
1909, the time limit for the completion of the improvement works in 
Manzanillo Harbor. These works are being done under contract 
between the Mexican Government and Engineer Edgar K. Smoot, 
and are designed to render the port of Manzanillo one of the safest 
and most commodious on the Pacific coast. 

BOUNTIES FOR ERUIT EXPORTS. 

A state paper recently issued by the Finance Minister of Mexico, 
Señor Limantoue, called attention to the possibilities of Mexico as a 
fruit exporter and urged the adequate development of this branch 
of trade. 

In furtherance of this policy, the State of Tabasco has passed a 
law establishing bounties for the shipment abroad of native fruits, 
the premiums being based upon local current prices. 

Tabasco is a large producer of bananas, cocoanuts, pineapples, and 
other fruits. 

DEVELOPMENT OP OIL FIELDS. 

Under date of May 11, 1909, the President of Mexico by an execu- 
tive decree confirmed the contract entered into on November 21, 1908, 
between the Government and the representative of the Mexican Oil 
Fields Company for the exploitation of oil fields in the States of 
Veracruz, Puebla, San Luis Potosi, and Tamaulipas. 

The decree further provides for the investment of $100,000 in the 
development of oil properties in the above-mentioned States within a 
term of seven years from the date of the contract and the furnishing 
of a bond of $5,000 as security. The royalties are assessed at 10 per 
cent of the net earnings, 1 per cent going to the National Government 
and 3 per cent to the State. 

The "Mexican Herald" of June 17 reports the formation of a 
new company for the development of the petroleum industry of 
Mexico. The Mexican Oil Company {Compañía Mexicana de 
Petróleo) " El Águila,^'' capitalized at $25,500,000, in acquiring the 
federal concessions held by the Pearson Company, will confine its 
operation to supplying the Mexican market with its product whereas 
the old company of S. Pearson & Son (Limited) Oil Fields will 
produce, refine, and export petroleum. 



464 INTEENATIONAL BUKEAÜ OF THE AMEEICAN EEPUBLICS, 

The concessions acquired by the company cover all the holdings 
of the Pearson Oil Fields department north and west of an imagi- 
nary line drawn at about 19° west from Washington, and extending 
from Veracruz in an almost direct line south to Puerto Angel on 
the Pacific in the State of Oaxaca. It includes the Dos Bocas field 
and such rights as the Pearson Company acquired from the Oil Fields 
Company. 

The Ebano field held by United States interests is unaiïected by 
the new firm. 

EXTRADITION TREATY WITH HOLLAND. 

By a decree dated May 30, 1909, the Government of Mexico con- 
firmed the treaty entered into on December 16, 1907, and amended 
on November 4, 1908, with the Kingdom of Holland, providing for 
the mutual extradition of fugitive criminals. The treat}' specifies 
the crimes for which extradition may be asked, stipulating simply 
that they must be extraditable offenses under the laws of each country, 

TRANSFER OF FISHING CONCESSION. 

The concessions covering fisheries of mother-of-pearl and pearl 
oysters, as well as all descriptions of sea fish, on certain parts of the 
Pacific coast of Mexico, formerly held by Señor Enrique Orozco, 
have been taken over by a company which undertakes to invest not 
less than $25,000 in the industry. 

It is purposed within two years to establish not less than three 
factories for curing the products of the fisheries, with shops for the 
sale of products in the cities of Mexico, Puebla, and Guadaloupe, 
and, furthermore, the company engages to sell its fish when in tins or 
other packages at not more than one-half the price of foreign goods. 

Free importation is permitted for the machinery required in the 
fish canning and packing establishments. 

MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 

A franchise for the construction of a railway to run from Ciudad 
Juarez through the towns of Galeana and Torrazas to Colonia 
Chichuapa, in the State of Chihuahua, was granted to Luis Eiba 
under date of April 21, 1909. The franchise calls for the completion 
of 10 kilometers of the road within eighteen months and at least 20 
kilometers in each succeeding year, all of the construction to be com- 
joleted within a term of ten years. 

A franchise has been granted to José Castellot for the construc- 
tion of a railroad in the States of Oaxaca, Guerrero, Michoacan, and 
Colima. It provides for the completion of 20 kilometers of line 
within two years from the date of the franchise and the completion 
of the entire line within twelve years. 




NICARAGUA 




CONCESSION FOR A BANK AT MANAGUA. 

The concession granted by the Government of Nicaragua to a citizen 
of the United States for the establishment of banking institutions 
in Managua and other cities of the Eepublic is the subject of a report 
made to his home Government by the United States Consul at Mana- 
gua, Mr. José de Olivares. 

The bank is to be conducted under the name of the "American 
Bank of Nicaragua," with a capital stock of $2,500,000, which may 
be increased to $10,000,000. 

The terms of the concession are to be in force for fifty years from 
January 1, 1910, or from such prior date as the bank mnj be opened 
to the jDublic. 

All operations corresponding to banks of issue are permitted, viz. 
to discount commercial documents, advance money on good securi- 
ties, receive deposits, issue notes ]3ayable to bearer on demand, buy 
and sell bills of exchange, telegraphic drafts, promissor}^ notes, and 
all other commercial documents. The bank may also issue bank 
notes to bearer payable on demand in gold coin, silver, or United 
States notes representative of gold. The notes issued by the bank 
will have a fixed value of 20 cents gold for each dollar issued by the 
bank, same being at the rate of exchange of 500 per cent. 

The Government contracts to issue bonds to the amount of $2,600.- 
000, redeemable in 25 per cent of the general duties on all importa- 
tions passing through the custom-houses of the Republic. These 
bonds will bear interest at the rate of 6 per cent per annum from the 
date of their issue, and the bank agrees to purchase the entire amount 
at 75 per cent of their nominal value. 

The Government binds itself to transact all its commercial and 
banking o^Derations through the institution, for which the latter will 
receive a commission not to exceed 5 per cent. It is further agreed 
that the Government will discharge all its foreign obligations through 
the bank. 

OPENING OF WHARF AT THE BLUFF, NICARAGUA. 

The new wharf at the Bluff, Nicaragua, although not entirely com- 
pleted, has been in part opened to the public. Under the terms of 
the decree authorizing the erection of this wharf its construction is 
provided for by an issue of $150,000 of bonds at 12 per cent, running 
in six series and in denominations of $50 and $10 each. The use of 
the wharf in connection with the commerce of the port is compulsory 
1650— Bull. 2—09—12 465 



466 INTEENATIONAL BUEEAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

and the special bonds issued to defray the construction expense may 
be tendered in payment of wharfage dues. The decree further pro- 
vides that such bonds as have not been retired at the expiration of 
three years shall be discharged at their face value in American gold 
with accrued interest and a bonus of 10 per cent. 




LANDS THROWN OPEN TO IMMIGRATION. ^ 

By law of January 2, 1909, passed by the National Assembly of 
Panama, immense tracts of the richest lands of the Republic are 
thrown open to acquisition by foreigners, which lands have here- 
tofore been held as commons of the various municipalities of the 
Isthmus — absolute title to which could never be acquired. 

in the year 1705 and 1735 certain towns of the " Colony of Tierra 
Firme," now the Republic of Panama, bought from the Crown of 
Spain all the lands lying within a certain area of the town that 
were not at the. time held by private owners. One of the stipula- 
tions of the contract of sale was that these lands should forever be 
held by the different towns as commons, never to be adjudicated to 
individuals. Usufructuary title could be acquired by settlement 
thereon and cultivation, but ultimately the lands reverted to the 
municipality. 

Such has been the law operating on these lands from 1705 up to 
the first of the present year. Thousands and thousands of acres of 
magnificent grazing and forest lands have been held under an edict 
of the Spanish Cortes of nearly two hundred years ago ; when by the 
passage of this new land law by the Panamanian Assembly they are 
released and thrown open to the world. These commons, as will be 
seen by a perusal of the present law, comprise nearly the Avhole of the 
Pacific slope of Panama, from the Costa Rican border to a short 
distance above the Canal Zone line. They are composed of rolling 
savannas and dense virgin forests, dotted here and there with small 
towns and settlements, all connected with the Canal Zone by cart 
roads and trails. 

The Provinces of Chiriqui and Veraguas are parth^ comprised 
within these commons, each having thousands and thousands of acres 
of magnificent open range, dotted here and there with herds of cattle 
and horses. All these lands are thrown open to settlers, to be acquired 

" Charles M. Browu. 



PANAMA. 467 

in absolute title, with the exception of the open range, which will still 
be held in common and on which settlers will have the right to graze 
their cattle. Small sections of the range can be acq