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Kirtland's Warbler — Group Frontispiece 

The Discovery of the Breeding Area of Kirtland's 
Warbler \llhistrated by the author) . By Nor- 
man A. Wood 3 

Migration Route of Kirtland's Warbler {3 jnaps) 

By Chas. C. Adams 14 

Prof. A. H. Griffith (halftone) 22 

Editorial 23 

Recent Literature 25 

Correspondence 26 

Audubon Department 27 

Notes from the Field and Museum (5 short articles) 28 


is published on the fifteenth of March, June, September 
and December, by the Michig^an Ornithologfical Club, at 
Detroit, Mich. 

Subscription : Fifty cents a year, including postage, 
strictly in advance. Single numbers, fifteen cents. Free 
to members of the Club not in arrears for dues. 

Articles and communications intended for publica- 
tion and all publications and books for notice should be 
addressed to the Editor, Alexander W. Blain, Jr., 131 
Elmwood Avenue, Detroit, Mich. 

Dues, subscriptions and communications of a busi- 
ness nature should be addressed to the Business Manager, 
Chas. E. Wisner, 1115 Brooklyn Avenue, Detroit, Mich. 

Articles of general interest relating to the bird life of 
the Great Lake Region are solicited. They should be in 
the hands of the editor not later than the 20th of the 
month preceding publication. 

Entered April aoth, 1903, st Detroit, Mich., as seco«d-class mail matter under the Act ol 

Congress July x6th, 1894. 


A Bi-Monthly Magazine Devoted to the Study and Protection of Bird, 

Published for the National Committee of the Audubon Societies, as the official organ ot the Societies. 


Audubon Department edited by MABEL OSGOOD WRIGHT and WILLIAM DUTCHER 
BIRD-LORE'S Motto: A Bird in the Bush is Worth Two in the Hand 

IN ** BIRD-LORE**' Its pages are filled with descriptions of experiences witl 
birds in field and forest from the pens of writers who have won world-wide fam( 
as literary naturalists. Among the contributors to Bird-Lore are 

John Burroughs Ernest Thompson Seton J. A. Allen 

Dr. Henry van Dyke Olive Thorne Miller William Brewster 

Bradford Torrey Florence Merriam Bailey Robert Ridgway 

and numerous other writers known both for their powers of observation and des 

In addition to general descriptive articles, Bird-Lore has departments " Foi 
Teachers and Students, ' wherein are are given useful liints in bird-study, and **Fo] 
Young Observers, ' designed to develop the love of birds inherent in all children, 
These, with review^s of current ornithological literature, editorials, teachers' leaflets, 
and reports of the work of the Audubon Societies, make a magazine which no bird 
lover can do without. 

Not less deligfhtful and entertaining than the text are Bird-Lore's illustra 
tions, which include actual photographs of the birds in their haunts, showing then 
at rest and in motion, brooding their eggs, or feeding their young, as well a: 
drawings. A feature of the coming year will be a series of plates by Bruce Horsfal 
accurately illustrating 

THE warblers IN COLOR 

with figures of the male, female, and young (when their plumages differ) of everj 
North American member of this fascinating family. 

The text accompanying these beautiful pictures will be by Professor W. W, 
Cooke, from data in the possession of the Biological Survey at Washington, and wil 
give the times of arrival and departure of the Warblers from hundreds of localities 
throughout their ranges. 


I' HE MACMILLAX COMPANY, Publishers for the Audtihon Society 

Crescent and Mulberry Sts., Harrisburg, Pa., or 66 Fifth Ave., New York Cit] 

Please find enclosed One Dollar, for which mail vie BIRD-LORE for the yea ^ 
heginjiing - 

Volume VI begins 
Feb. J, 1904 




Annual Subscription, $K00; Single Numbers, 20 cents. 

From BIRD-LORE'S Series of North American Warblers. 

1. Hooded Warpler, Male. 

3. Hooded Warbler, Young Female. 

2. Hooded Warbler, Adult Female. 
4. Yellow-breasted Chat, Adult. 







ADOLPHE U. COVERT, f'^^'^^'^'^'^'^^'^' 

VOLUME IV--1903. 

published by the club at 
Detroit, Miohigan. 




Albino Grackle at Plymouth, An.. 
Avifauna of Kalamazoo County, 

Addition to the 

Bailey's Handbook of J3iids of the 

Western United States, reviewed.... 

I'ittern Episode, A 

Bird Distribution, .\n Announcement 


Black Tern, Notes on the 

Book Notes, Magazines, etc. ..26, 55, 80, 
IJofaurus Leiitigosus in (Jakland County 

in Winter 

Bubo Virginuiniis in Michigan 

Cardinal Grosbeak in Irtgham County, 

Michigan, Nesting of the 

Cardinals near .\nn Arbor and Other 

Notes. A l^lock of 

Cassinia, No. VI, reviewed 

Chimney Swift. Another Note on the. . 

Chimney Swifts Nesting in Barns 

Corresi)ondence. Bird .Migration; Club 

I'rosjK'cts for 1 004 

Detroit Museum of Art, Ilannbook of 

the. reviewed ' 

Editorial 2:'., .")2, 77, 

Fisher, I-one .\ 

General Notes 

Grackles' Change in Nesting Habits, 

The _• 

Grasshoi)per Si)arrow in St. Clair 

County, Breeding of the 

Grebe I'^ggs, A Large Set of 

Handbook of the Detroit Museum of 

Art. reviewed 

Henslow's Sparrow in Calhoun County, 

Breeding of the - 

TTeronies, Local 

Hints, Some for B.ird Study 

Huntington's Handbook of North .\mer- 

ican Game Birds, reviewed 

Jacobs' The Story of a Martin Colony, 


King Rail in St. Clair County in Win- 









9. -J 









Kirtland's Warbler. Wood's Discovery 
of thf" Breeding .\rea of 

Kirtland's Warbler from Michigan. 

Kirtland's Warbler in Michigan. Re- 
marks on the Recent Capture of a.. 

Land Birds of Southeastern Michigan, 
A List of the 14, 

Loons of Oakland -ounty. Michigan, 
With the 

]McIlwraith, Thomas — In Memoriam.... 

Merganser Aiuericaiius Nesting at Sagi- 
naw Bay, Michigan. 1902 and 1903.. 

Michigan .Academy of Science 

^fichigan Ornithological Club — 

Committees of 

Constitution of 












Meetings of 29, 01 

^Members of 

Officers of 

Re-or<ranization of 

Minutes of Club Meetings. . .29, Ol, ,S4, 

Migration of Birds, Sugirestions for a 
Method of Studying the 

Mourning Dove, A Set oi Four Eggs 
of the 

Nest, A Twice Used 

Notes on the Warbles at Ann Arbor. . 

Notes from the l-"ield and Museum De- 
partment 26, 56, 81, 

Nuttall's J fandboo , reviewed 

Pigeon in the Early Days of ^lichigan, 
The I'assenger 

Personals 22, 

Piping Plover on Big Charitv Island, 
Michigan, Nesting of the 

Prothonotary Warbler in Michigan, The 

I'urple Martin Notes from Waynesburg. 

Randoms, 1 90.'! 

Ked-shouidered Hawk. Large Sets of 

Red-winged Blackbird at Drayton Plains 
During the Winter, 1901-2 

Sandhill Crane in Michigan, Nesting 
of the 

Saw-whet Owl. Records of the 

Slate-colored Junco at Detroit in Sum- 
mer, A 

Some Irregularities in Moults 

Song of a Nest Robber 

Storv of a Hummer and its Sequel, 

Stray Notes 

Surf Scoter on the Detroit Rive", A. . 

Swamp Sparrow at the St. Clair Flats, 
Breeding of the 

Walter's Wild Birds in City Parks, re- 

Warblers, Some Rare Washlenaw 
County , 

Water Thrush, Small-billed in Wayne 

White-breasted Nuthatch, Breeding of 

\\'ild Pigeon, A Recent Record of the. 

Whistling Swan in Washtenaw County 

Winkenwerder's Migration of Birds, re- 

Winter Birds, 1902-1903, A Fe,w Notes 
on Our ■ 

Work for Micliieran Ornithologists to 
Do. Some 

Yellow-breasted Chat in Wayne County, 
Breeding of the 

Yellow-breasted Chat in Michigan. Our 
Present Knowledge of the Distribu- 
tion of the 

























ADAMS. DR. CI. AS. C. An Announce- 
ment Concerninjf Bird Distribution, ~'9. 

.\RN()LD, EDWWKD. I'.rcedinK of the 
Henslow's Sparrow in Callioun County. 
27: Bubo iirginionus in Michigan 45, 
Merganser aiiiericanits Nesting at Sag- 
inaw ]iay, Micliigan, 19U2 and 1903, 71; 
Nesting of the Piping I'lover on l»is 
Charity Island, ^lichigan, 11)03, 74. 
Nesting of the Sandhill Crane in Mich- 
igan, 86; Book review by 23. 

I'.LAIN. ALKXANDKR W.. JR. Editorial 
by, 23, .52, 77, 90. Botaitrus Iciitigiii- 
osiis in Oakland County in Winter. 27; 
(icneral Notes, 51; Minutes of Club 
Meetings, 02; Norman A. Wood's Dis- 
covery of the Breeding Area of Kirt- 
land's Warbler, G;{ ; Breeding of the 
Swamp Snarrow at the St. Clair Flats, 
82. Correspondence from !»4. Another 
Parasitic Jaeger from Michigan, 94; A 
Slate Colored Juno at Detroit in Sum- 
mer, 95; Book Reviews bv 24, 54, 91. 

Hints for Bird Study. 10; Nesting of 
the Cardinal Grosbeak in Ingham Coun- 
ty, Michigan. 94. 

COLE. LEON 7. Suggestions for n 
Method of Studying the Migrations of 
Birds, 19; P>ook review by, 79; Corre- 
spondence trom. 93. 

COVERT. .\DOLPIIE B. Whistling 
Swan in Washtenaw County, 27; Re- 
marks on the Recent Capture of a 
Kirtland's Warbler in Michigan, 47: 
Book review by. 55; The Prothonotary 
Warbler in Michigan. GO; Our Present 
Knowledge of the Breeding of the 
Yellow-breasted Chat in Michigan, GO. 

DUTCH ER, WILLIAM. Some Work for 
Michigan Ornithologists to Do, 6; Cor 
respondencc from, 78. 

EPPTNGER. LOUIS L, King Rail at St. 
Clair County in Winter, 56; Records of 
the Saw-whet Owl, 9G. 

FREIBURGER. C. F.. JR., A Lone Fish- 
er, 28. 

Kirtland's Warbler from Michigan, 61. 

GIBBS. MORRIS. ■NI. D., An Addition to 
the Avifauna of Kalamazoo County, 27. 
The Grockles Change in Nesting Habit, 

Eggs of the Mourning Dove, 58; With 
the Loons of Oakland County, Mich- 
igan, 72; I'reeding of the Grasshopper 
'^narrow in St. Clair County, 75; Chim- 
ney Swifts Nesting in Barns, 82; Min- 
utes of Club Meetings, 84. 

JACOBS. J. W.\RREN. I'urple Martin 
Notes from Waynesburg, Pa., 87. 

MOODY. DR. PHILIP E., A Recent Rec 
ord of the Wild I'igeon, 81 ; The Story 
of a Hummer and its Seouel, 83; Strav 
Notes, 97. 

MUMMERY, EDWIN G., Small-billed 
Water-thrust in Wayne County, 56; 
Nesting of the White-breasted Nut 
hatch, 85. 

PURDY. TAMES B. A Few Notes on 
Our Winter Birds, 1902-3, 57; Tlie 
Passenger Pigeon in the Early Days of 
Michigan, 09; An Albino Gracklc at 
Plymouth, 82. 

S.\UNDERS. WILLI A.M E.. In Memori- 
am — Thomas Mel 1 wraith, 1. 

STOWELL. BERT. A Red-winged Black- 
bird at Draton Planes During the Win- 
ter 19U1-2, 26; A Twice Used Nest, 56. 

SW.\LES, BRADSH.XW II., A of the 
Land-birds of Southeastern Michigan. 
14, 35; Minutes of Club Meetings, 29, 
Gl. 98. 

WTSNER, CHARLES E.. Breeding of the 
Yellow-breasted Chat in Wayne Coun- 
ty, 57. 

WOOD, J. CLAIRE. Editorial, 24; Local 
Heroines, 40; A. Bittern Episode, 58; 
Song of a Nest Robber, 67; 1903 Ran- 
doms. 81 ; Large Sets of Red-shoulder 
Hawk, 83; Another Note on the Chim- 
ney Swift, 95; A Surf Scoter on the 
Detroit River, 96; Some Irregularities 
in Moults, 97. 

WOOD, WALTER C. Notes on the Black 
Tern, 28; A Larfe Set of Grebe Eggs, 

WOOi:), N0R:\IAN a.. Notes on the War- 
blers at Ann Arbor, 59. Some Rare 
Washtenaw County Warblers, 81 ; A 
Flock of Cardinals near Ann Arbor and 
Other Notes, 97. 


Thomas Mcllwraith Frontispiece 

Northern Raven ''^.ouis Agassiz 

Fuertes) 9 

Ring-billed Gull (Louis Agassiz 

Fuertes) 13 

Adolphe B. Covert 18 

Detroit ^Museum of Art 34 

A Tree at the Clarkston Heronv (R. 

W. Grenell) 42 

Dr. Philip E. Moodv 50 

Tames B. Purdv 50 

J. Qaire Wood 50 

Norman A. Wood 50 

In the Haunts of the Red-shouldered 

Hawk CF. C. IIubeD 69 

Eggs of the Red-tailed Hawk (J. War- 
ren Jacobs) 68 

Edward Arnold . . T 76 

Prof. II. L. Clark 76 

Newell A Eddy 7e- 

Louis J. Eppinger 76 

Nest and Eggs of the Ruby-throaieJ 

Humming-bird (J. Warren Jacobs).. S8 
Nest and Eggs of the White-breasted 

Nuthatch (E. G. Mummery) 85 

Martin House, No. 4 (J. Warren Ja- 
cobs) ". f8 

Prof. Walter B. Barrows 89 

Leon J. Cole 89 

Bradshaw H. Swales 89 

Walter C. Wood 89 

Partridge Shooting — Scattered Birds 

(D. W. Huntington) 92 

Museum, University of Michigan 98 


Group"Museum University of Michigan. 
Norman A. Wood, Taxidermist. 



Michigan Ornithological Club 

Published QaARTKRLY ix TifE Interests of Ornithology 

IN THE Great Lake Region. 

Vol. V. MARCH, 1904. No. 1. 




Early in June, 1903, the Museum assistant, Mr. E. H. Frothingham, 
with a friend, Mr. T. G. Gale, went to Oscoda County, Michigan, to fish the 
An Sable river. On one of their short trips Mr. Frothingham, who is an 
experienced held ornithologist, heard a bird song which he did not recog- 
nize. Mr. Gale shot the bird. The skin was preserved and was found on 
their return to be a male Dendroica kirtlandi. It was labeled "4 mile plains 
north of the Au Sable. T. G. Gale, June loth, 1903." On questioning Mr. 
Frothingham with regard to this bird, he said : 'Tt was there in sOme 
numbers and in full song. The song and the bird were new to me and I 
thought best to secure a specimen by which to identify it." I asked him 
why he did not take more, and he said 'T knew they had nests and hated to 
take breeding birds. I never thought of its being J^irtland's Warbler." 
This is not to be wondered at on account of its rarity. 

In many discussions on this subject Mr. A. B. Covert and I had decided 
that this bird would be found breeding in north Michigan. I was of the 
opinion that it bred in the Upper Peninsula, north of Mackinac. He said, 
"If it were not for the Mackinac record I should also look for it in the 
Canadian zone of the Lower Peninsula." Time has shown his assertion to 
be correct, and I believe more time will also confirm my opinion. Mr. A. W. 
Butler (Birds of Indiana, p. 1072), says: "The summer home of this 
warbler would seem to be northern Michigan and Wisconsin." This is the 
only record I have found expressing this opinion. ♦ 

When I saw this skin of Kirtland's Warbler, taken in northern Michi- 
gan, I concluded there was its summer home, and there it would be found 
breeding. I took the skin to the Curator, Mr. Chas. C. Adams, who also 
saw the importance of the discovery, and the necessity of sending a man 
to the spot at once I was honored with this commission, and at 4 :45 
P. M. of June 20th, T boarded the Toledo, Ann Arbor and Northern 
R. R. train, bound for Roscommon, in the extreme north of that county. 
I arrived at this old lumber town at 4 A. M. June 30th, after a tedious 


night's travel, due to two changes of cars. After some inquiry I found thai 
my objective point was thirty-five miles to the northeast, and that the best 
way to reach this point was by the river. The South branch, one of the 
main feeders of the Au Sable, runs near the town. At 7 A. jVI. I was on 
l)oard a row boat on a sixty mile run down the river. Roscommon county 
is one of the high counties of this part of the State. The Muskegon, the 
Tittabawasse and the South Branch all have their sources here. "J'his county 
consists of high ridges and plains, formerly covered with white pine {Piiius 
strobus), Norway pine (Pitius rcsinosa .lit.), jack pine (Pi)iiis hanksiana 
Lamb.), some hemlock (I'suf^a cmiadcnsi's, Linn.), yellow birch (Bctula 
lutca Michx. f.), and paper birch (Bcliila papyrifcra Marsh.). While float- 
ing uown the river I saw spruce {Picca alba, Link.), balsam fir (.Ibics bal- 
saiiica Linn.), and great swamps of tamarack (Lan'x amcricana Michx.), 





iA i— . ' ^ iJBL 




Fig. 1. Site of the first Known nest of Kirtland's Warbler, Oscoda 
Co., Mich. The view also shows the general character of 

white cedar {Chamaccypans ihyoidcs Linn.), balm of Gilead (Popiilus bal- 
sam, f era Linn.), basswood (Tilia amcricana Linn.) and red maple (Acer 
rubrum Linn.). I noticed also the white elm (Ulmits amcricana Linn.) and 
a few black ash (Fraxinns nigra The river here is from three to 
four rods wide with a sandy, gravelly bottom and the current is quite swift. 
In places the banks are high and covered with Norway and jack pine. The 

Michigan Ornithological Club 5 

ground is covered with a thick growth of sweet-fern (Coniptonia asplcnifolia, 
Ail.) and hlne-berry bushes (I'accinium), with occasional plants of the dwarf 
morning-glory {Coiivolvulus spitliamaciis L.), harebell {Campanula rotundi- 
folia L.), and the wood lily (Lilinin philadclphicuni L.). 

This country is wild and very interesting, and the songs of many birds 
cheered me, as with note-book in hand 1 tioated along. I saw a hooded 
merganser {LopJiudytcs cucullatus Linn.) with her brood of young. These 
young were not able to fiy ; but they tried it, and by using both feet and 
wings kept out of gun-shot until tired out — then they hid under bushes 
along the bank until I passed. The female then rose and flew back to 
them, i made a list of forty species of birds observed the first day. By ti 
P. Al. 1 reached a fishing camp, "Camp Douglas''; here I spent the night, 
ha\ing made thirty-five miles by water. It is eighteen miles overland to 
Roscommon. Leaving "Camp Douglas" the next morning I floated on, find- 
ing the river wider, deeper, and somewhat swifter. On the banks were 
noticed two oaks, red oak (Qiicrcus rubra Linn.) and yellow oak (Quercus 
lincluria Bartr.), also wild red cherry (Pruiius pciuisyhanica Linn.) and 
aspen (Populus trcinuloidcs Michx.). hi places cedar trees overhang the 
river and, due to undercutting, have settled into the water, making "sweep- 
ers.'' These have to be watched or they will overturn one's boat. As I 
glided along I threw a cast of flies — "Red Ibis." "Dark Coachman" and 
"White Miller" — and took "here and there a lusty trout, and here and there 
a grayling." I'his was once the Grayling river, but since the introduction of 
the rainbow and German brown trout the grayling has become scarce. 
Swinging around a sharp bend I once came suddenly upon a pair of bald 
eagles (Haliactus Icucocephalus Linn.) also fishing. A few great blue herons 
(Ardea herodius Linn.) fly up as T near them, and some crows (Corvus 
aiiicricanus And.), noisy as usual. Cedar birds (Anipclis ccdroruni Vieill.) 
are very common. At G P. M. I neared the Butler Bridge, a new steel 
structure over the Au Sable in Oscoda county, and the end of my journey, 
by w^ater sixty miles, by road it is thirty-five. Hauling my boat upon the 
shore. I searched for a place to stay, near the home of the bird I came so 
far to find. 

On July 2d, at A. M., I started out and crossing the river bottom I 
came to a steep terrace which forms the edge of the "Norway" plains. This 
slope is very wet. and in places fine springs seep out. Here also is a dense 
growth of cedar with tamarack near the foot of the terrace. Fir, balm of 
Gilead and birch make up the timber. Climbing this slope I found a rather 
level plain with scattering Norway and jack pines. In places these have 
been cut off, and in their stead there has sprung up a more or less thick 
growth of small jack pines, yellow oak and poplar (Populus grandidentata 
Michx.). The ground is covered with a mat of wintergreen (Gaultheria 
procuiuhois L.). sweetfern and trailing arbutus (Epigaea repens L.). I 
was walking slowly through this, watching the junco (Junco hyemalis Linn.), 
song sparrow (Mclospiza fasci'afa Gmel.). chipping sparrow (Spiaella so- 
cialis Wils.) and the vesper sparrow (Poocactes gramincus Gmel.) — the most 
common bird of these plains — when suddenly I heard a new song, loud, 

6 Bulletin of thk 

clear, joyous and full of sweet uielody. This song may be described as fol- 
lows : U'cchc clu\'-chcc-clu\'-r-r-r. The "r" sound is (|uite prolojiged and 
loud. The hrst two notes are low. then the notes gradually increase in vol- 
ume to the cud. 1 thought it a Kirtland, although 1 had ne\-er before 
heard its song. 1 heard this song repeated at intervals of about :>() seconds, 
and from different directions. 1 tried to catch a glimpse of the singer, 
but for a long time failed to do .so, as he kept among the thick jack pines 
and scrub oaks. I repeatedly tried to' go where he sang last, and finally 
saw him Hit fr(jm a bush to a yellow oak scrub and light about three feet 
aijove the ground. As 1 watched him he sat quite erect, threw forward his 
head and the wonderful song rang out. This song was remarkable because 
of its volume and rich melody. I was sure this was the bird for which 1 
was in search ; but in order to make certain the identity 1 shot it. A mo- 
ment later I held in my hand a fmc adult male of Kirtland's warbler. 1 then 
looked over the ground very carefully, but failed to find either the female or 
the nest. Although 1 repeatedly searched this locality I never found them. 
On the morning of July '.\d 1 made a second trip to the plains to search 
for the mate of the Kirtland which I shot on the 2d, but failed -to find 
her. One half mile farther west I heard a male singing, but the wind blew 
so strong and the bird was so shy I failed to even get a glimpse of him, 
although it was some encouragement to know there were more in the 
vicinity. I spent the day in working this locality, but my search was in vain. 
July 6th I started out to explore the country to the west of the spot 
where I found the other birds, and after walking four miles I was rewarded 
by hearing the now familiar song of D. kirtlandi. In trying to locate the 
singer I flushed a female from the ground. 1 went to the spot and dropping 
on my hands and knees commenced to search for her nest. The female 
came and lit upon a small pile of brush not four feet away, fluttering her 
wings, chipping and by every action showing great excitement. Her call 
"chip-chip" brought the male, who came within five feet of me and scolded 
me with the same, only louder, ''chip-chip." All these actions led me to 
think the nest was near by. I then carefully went over the ground about 
me, foot by foot, and later extended my search to include many square rods. 
The female was very anxious and kept near me, but she was not at all 
shy and went to gleaning worms "like a warbler" and catching moths "like 
a fly-catcher." After a time the male came and chased her about low 
down through the pines. This pair of birds ate all the worms and moths 
T saw them catch, and these facts led me to think they did not have young. 
I spent the day looking for the nest and watching these birds. The male 
went to the top of an old burnt stub (about tw-enty feet high) near by, 
and sang: zvichy. chec-chcc-chcr-v-r. The song of this male was not so 
loud and ringing, was not so full of melody as the first, but was very 
sweet and clear. Tt made me think of the song of the Maryland yellow- 
throat (Geothlypis frichas. T.inn.), only the notes were shorter. I was not 
able to locate the nest, although T looked high and low, in all the jack pines 
and on the ground where, from the actions of the birds. T thought they 
nested. I saw the female on the ground several times, and she seemed per-> 

Michigan Ornithological Club 7 

fectly "at home" there. The next day (July 7th), I returned to the same 
place, and hoped this time to surprise the female on the nest. T therefore 
very cautiously approached the spot, and while still a few rods away, flushed 
her from the ground. She flew a few feet and rested on a small jack 
pine. I examined the spot where I flushed her, but found no nest. She 
acted the same as the day before, fluttering her wings and tumbling to the 
ground, all the time uttering a faint chip-chip. I searched the ground care- 
fully for several rods around this spot, but failed to find the nest. I did 
find a place at the base of a small jack pine which looked as if hollowed 
out for a nest. T have not been able to account for the peculiar actions of 
this female at the two places unless this hollow was the beginning of the 

Fig. 2. The first known nest of Kirtland's Warbler. 

nest. I visited this spot a few days later, but failed to find either bird. This 
pair of birds made five birds that I had seen and heard. The first colony 
contained two pair of birds, and this colony two pair more. I saw three 
birds here. 

On the morning of July 8th T started in company with Mr. J. A. 
Parmalee to drive to the North Branch of the Au Sable, about seven miles 
distant. Mr. Parmalee was with Mr. Gale when he shot the Kirtland 
Warbler on June loth. The valley of the Au Sable is from three to five 
miles wide at this place, and is terraced. The first terrace is about fifteen 

8 Bulletin ok the 

feet above the river, the second about thirty feet above the first, and the 
third abont twenty-live feet above the second. Beyond the valley extends 
the high nplands. We started from Mr. Parmalee's home at the foot of 
the second terrace and climbed to the level of the second, where we turned 
to the west and followed this terrace north of the river for one half mile, 
passing through Norway and jack pine plains. After a drive of about live 
miles we came to a large tract of several hundred acres which had been 
burned over about six years ago as I learned from Mr. R. L^raser, a resident. 
Scattered burnt aiid dead stubs reach above the younger growth (mostly 
jack pine) which is from three to ten feet high. In some places this 
growth is dense, and in others more open. The ground is covered by a 
more or less luxuriant growth of sweetfern, three varieties of blueberry, 
trailing arbutus, and the wood lily. Here also grows the dwarf morning- 
glory, and the golden-rod just ready to bloom. 

We had nearly reached the line of Crawford county when 1 heard a 
song and on stopping, soon saw a male Kirtlandi singing from his favorite 
tree. 1 sli])ped from the wagon and secured this male. Driving on one half 
mile I saw a male fly to a dead tree (Fig. 1) near the road. This bird had 
a worm in his mouth, so I concluded that his nest was near by, and that 
he would go to it with the worm. T went to the side of a large stub, and 

Fig. 3. Egg Kirtland's Warbler>>only egg Known, natural size. 

while I was watching, .saw this male assume the erect singing position, throw 
forward his head and try to sing, still holding the worm in his mouth. This 
song may be written thus: cli-ch-chc-cJic-cJic-a (the ''a'' long drawn out). 
Me sang a number of times at intervals of about sixty seconds — but still 
held the worm. He soon spied me and seemed rather uneasy, wagging his 
tail after the fashion of /). f^almanDii. Now his song seemed to take an 
anxious or scolding tone and sounded like cJia. cha cJic-chcc wicha-a-a. 
After watching me a few minutes he dropped from the tree (on a long 
glide) to the east about three rods. I .suspected he was going to the nest, 
so T hurried to the spot, but when T reached it he was not there; so I stood 
still and waited. In a few nn'nutes he was at his place on the old tree with 
another worm, .\gain he sang and wagged his tail and then dove down, but 
this time two rods to the west of the tree. T started to go there, when just 
south of the tree T flushed the female from the ground and after a close 
look, saw the nest (Fig. 2). Tt may be imagined with what delight T 
beheld the first nest of this rare bird ever seen, and with what eagerness I 
dropped to my knees beside it to make a closer examination of its contents. 
There were two young birds, perhaps ten days old, and a perfect egg (Fig. 
.i) ; this proved to be the only egg found. 

This egg was a delicate pinkish- white (since the contents were removed 
it has faded to a dull white) thinly sprinkled with several shades of brown 

Michigan Ornithological Club 9 

spots forming a sort of wreath at the larger end. This egg is .72 x .56 
inches or 18 by 14 mm., and contained no embryo. The nest was built in 
a depression in the ground, at the foot of a jack pine about tive feet tall, and 
was only live feet from the road. It was partly covered with low blueberries 
and sweetfern plants. The nest is two inches inside diameter and the 
same in depth, very neat and compact, and is composed of strips of soft 
bark and some vegetable fiber, thickly lined with fine dead grass and pine 
needles. A few hairs from horses mane or tail complete the lining. 

The young nestlings may be described as follows : above dark slate 
color, lighter on the head, each feather tipped with light sepia brown; those 
of the mantle broadly edged with whitish spots; those of the back, with 
bufTy white; wings and tail dark, slightly edged with light brown; the 
lesser and middle coverts were like the back; the greater coverts broadly 
edged with buffy brown, making distinct bars; lores, sepia brown; sides of 
head otherwise similar in color to the upper parts, but rather paler, fading 
gradually into pale buffy brown on the chin and throat, this gradually 
changing to light brown on chest, sides and flank; each feather of the chest 
and sides with a dark center, widening at the tip, giving a distinct striped 
effect ; abdomen, pale buffy, tinged with yellov;.* 

As I sat near the nest the female came and alighted on the branch of 
the jack pine just back of the nest. She was not at all shy. Once she came 
with a worm in her mouth, but would not feed the young while I was so 
near. The male also came, but not so close. Both birds were very restless 
and uneasy — only a few seconds in a place — which made it very difficult to 
take photographs of them. 

T made Fraser's on the North branch. Crawford county, my head- 
quarters for a few days so that I might be near this colony of Kirtlands. I 
saw (July 9th) a third female and took a male, but I wished to locate all 
the nests T could, so T did not shoot the females. I made a second trip 
to the nest and found both parents feeding the young. After watching 
them a short time 1 tried to locate the boundary of this colony to the east. 
.^ short distance east of the nest T heard another male singing and tried 
to locate his nest, but failed to do so. Tn fact the jack pine is so thick, the 
ground so covered with old logs, tree tops and vegetation, that it w^as only 
by the closest kind of work T could hope to find them, and even then only 
by watching the male and flushing the female from the nest. At 11.30 
A. ]\T. on my return to camp T heard another male singing zvicli chc-che- 
chrcr-r-r-r. I soon located him and found he also had a caterpillar in his 

*T wish to call attention to the published cuts of the adult birds. Of the three 
that 1 have seen that by Mr. C. T. Maynard (Birds of Eastern North America, PI. 
XVIL") is the best. This cut fairly represents the trim form and the very characteristic 
u])right singing- attitude. ^^'hile the coloring is not perfect, nor the markings so good, 
as in the plate by :\Ir. L. .\. Fuertes (Auk. '98, Vol. XV., PI. IV.). This is'^a beautiful 
plate, but does not give a true idea of the bird. In this plate the yellow of the under 
side is too extensive and a shade too bright, the brown of the upper parts too intense. 
The eye is nearly encircled by white, while in life it is only a narrow line above and 
below. The head and neck are too short and thick and the body too full, giving the 
idea of a sparroz<.'-Ukc form, while on the other hand Kirtlaiidi in life is a true warbler 
in form and action. The same criticism of head and neck is true of the figure in Chap- 
man and Reed's "Color Key To North American Birds," p. 191, Fig. 070. The color 
effect is very good but it seems to me that this is below the average for the warblers 
in this useful work. 

10 Bulletin of the 

mouth, and knew from his actions that his nest was near. He acted just as 
did the other one, going to the nest by diving downward when a few rods 
away from it and then cither creeping or tiying low down into the nest. 
The cover was so thick i could not hnd out which method was used. 1 
often saw these birds light on the ground, and think them to be as ter- 
restial as Dcndroica palmaruiii. However, 1 soon Ihished the female from 
the ground and very carefully located the spot, but it was so completely 
covered with shrubs and plants, that only by parting them could I see the 
nest, which was built exactly like the lirst, only one half inch deeper and 
wider, and more cup-shaped, with the edges incurved, especially at the 
rear. This nest contained live young about ten days old. The number of 
eggs in a set is perhaps three to live. This pair of birds was shy and it was 
difficult to get a snap-shot of them. I spent the day in watching them and 
in taking notes on habits, song and habitat. 1 also made a list of the birds 
that live with them. This list will be published later. The junco is common, 
and breeds, as is shown by the occurrence of young. 

On the morning of July loth i walked two miles west of North branch 
in search of the warblers, and found the conditions different. The plains 
are here wooded with older jack pines. 'J'he food of this warbler seemed to 
be span-worms, living upon jack pines, and a small light-colored span- 
worm moth (Diastictis inccptata, Walk.). 1 saw the warblers capture these 
moths during flight. 1 also shot a male Kirtland that came to nest No. :l 
with a deer fly in his mouth, so that flics and other insects, as well 
as the span-worms may compose their foqd. I consider the 
North branch the western boundary of this colony of Kirtland's 
warbler, but on describing the bird, its food and its habits to a young man 
who lives a few miles north west on the North branch, he said the birds 
were there and were called ''the jack pine bird." T consider this a very 
appropriate name, as most of their time is spent on these trees and the 
bulk of their food is gleaned from them. Tt is not, however, every jack 
pine plain that is the home of a colony, as T examined himdreds of acres 
where the conditions seemed all right, and found none. 

In the afternoon I went to nest No. 1 to make, if possible, more observa- 
tions upon the home life of these birds. I found the parents at home, the 
male singing, as usual, although he seems to share equally with the female 
the care of the young. I heard his chip chip chc che chcc a a repeated at 
short interxals, from fifty to sixty seconds. I And these birds very quick 
and restless, with a direct, slightly undulating flight. When they go from 
their perch on a tree or stub, they seem to dive down, and while perching 
and feeding have a short, jerky motion of the tail. I watched them for 
hours, gleaning worms from the low jack pines, very often jumping from 
a limb to fly a few feet and catch a moth or fly on the wing, always return- 
ing to the same tree or stub to rest or sing before dropping down to the 
nest to feed the young, apparently always approaching the nest from the 
same direction, as there was a path beaten only on one side, and the young 
T always found facing in that direction. 

On the morning of July 11th I secured a male, but could not find the 

Michigan Ornithological Club 


female or nest. In the afternoon Mr. Parmalee came with tools and wagon 
to help me take up the nest and get it ready to ship. I found the young 
quite well feathered and very timid. They scrambled out of the nest and 
hid in the plants several feet away when I attempted to photograph them, 
thus making it difficult to get a picture. The female came with a worm in 
her mouth to within two feet of me. She also alighted on the toe of Mr. 
Parmalee's shoe, but did not pose long enough for a photograph. After 
getting a photograph of the nest and its vicinity I shot the pair of birds 
and kept the young alive. We dug up the nest and started for Mr. Parma- 
lee's, ariving after dark. I kept the young alive, by feeding them house- 
flies, until the 13th. Then they died, and I made skins of them, preserving 
the bodies. I had hoped to rear these young, at least to keep them alive 
until I reached Ann Arbor. I evidently did not have the variety of food 
required, although they ate from six to ten flies each at a time and then went 
to sleep very contentedly. 

■ •'9 

■ .-^ .v.« -V t^^'^-'! 

■;Srr- -- ^. 

Fig. 4. Site of the second Known nest of Kirtland's Warbler, 
Craw^ford County, Mich. 

On the morning of July 14th Mr. Parmalee and I drove to North 
branch again, as I wished to secure the second nest, and the birds. I took 
a few snap-shots of the nest (Fig. 4), then dug it up with its beautiful sur- 
roundings. I brought the five young birds back alive, but they died the next 


day. These were the last ones taken or seen, as the next day I spent in 
packing" for a thirty-live mile ride to Roscommon. This day really ended 
a very interesting and successful licld trip after Kirtland warblers, in 
tneir sunnner home in Crawford and Oscoda counties, during which 1 
had heard and seen sixteen adult birds. In ten days 1 had secured two 
pair of birds with their nests, seven young and one egg; also fcjur adult 
males, making lifteen birds in all. 

We may then estimate that the colony contained thirteen pairs of birds, 
with their increase, and assuyiing that each nest contained on an average 
four young, we have iifty-two young birds. Adding to this the number of 
the parents, twenty-six, gives an estimated total of seventy-eight (78) birds 
in the area described. Taking from this the number of birds secured leaves 
sixty-three, the number estimated to 1k' left in the colony, although it is 
hardly probable that 1 found all the birds in this colony. 

Whether they return to this location next year, no one can say, as they 
have not nested here for more than three, or at the most four years, because 
it was all burned over six years ago (about 1897) and everything destroyed 
but a few old trees and stubs. Next spring another hre is liable to occur, 
in which case this colony will liaxe to choose another nesting site, which 
will probably be the place nearest to their site of this year where the con- 
ditions are favorable. 

On the morning of July IGth it was very cold, (an overcoat being neces- 
sary for comfort) as we returned overland to Roscommon. T had hoped 
to see or hear more of D. hirtlcmdi. I did see spots where the conditions 
seemed very favorable, but 1 did not see or hear the birds. In concluding 
this life history of these birds I am inclined to think the Au Sable river is 
the southern boundary of their breeding area and that this area extends 
over the greater part of the Canadian zone of Michigan, Wisconsin and 
perhaps Minnesota. They will probably be found breeding in favorable 
localities in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, but 1 should not expect them 
north of Lake Superior. 

I still consider this bird as rare, and only to be found breeding in small 
colonies, and only in the jack pine plains in favorable localities. .\11 that I 
found were on the first and second terraces north of the Au Sable river. 
One pair was only one-fourth mile from the river, and the farthest two 
miles. All of these birds were near some road that was used by teams 
or stock, and they seem to prefer such places for nesting and breedin.i?. 
They sing constantly in June and July by the roadside, so they may be 
easily found by driving through the plains at this time. I did not find a bird 
over one-fourth of a mile from a road, or under conditions other than those 
described. This history of the Kirtland's warbler is in the main copied from 
my field notes, written with the birds before me. 

In concluding this paper 1 give the data for 2!! birds, all taken in Michi- 
gan and records of 8 others seen, thus making a total of ?,\ birrls. This 
number of records surpasses that of all other states. 

1 & 2—1870, Purdie, TT. A., Bull. NuH. Orn. Club, TV, 1870. pp. I-S.k Two 
females coll. by A. P>. Covert. Ann Arb(-)r. Mich., May ]5, 1875 and 

. May 16, 1879. 

Michigan Ornithological Club 13 

3— 1S84, Ridgway, Robt., Auk, I, 1S84, pp. 389. Male coll. by N. Y. 

Green, Battle Creek, ^lich. May 11, 1883. 
4—1885, Merriam,- C. H., Auk, IJ, 1885, pp. 376. Male coll. by Wm. Mar- 
shall, Straits of Mackinaw, Alich. May 21, 1885. 
5— 1889,' Washburn, F. U, Auk, VI, 1889, p. 279. Male coll. by Leverage 
Knapp, Ann Arbor, Mich., iMay IS, 1888. I'hc sex and date of this 
. specimen as is usually published is incorrect. U. of M. Museum. No. 
B. 1029. 
6—1898, Gibbs, Dr. Morris. Bull.. Mich. Orn. Club, II, pp. 7.. Coll. by F. 

H. Chapin, Kalamazoo Co., Mich. 
7—1902, Wood, N. A., Auk, XIX, pp. 291, Ad. female coll. by N. A. Wood, 

Ann Arbor, Mich., j\Iay 14, 1902. 
8—1903, Frothingham, E. H. Bull. Mich. Orn. Club, IV, pp. 61. Ad. male 
coll. by T. G. Gale, near Luzerne, Oscoda Co., Mich., June 15, 1903. 
U. of M. Museum No. 30938. 
9— July 2, 1903. Ad. male, near Luzerne, Oscoda Co., Mich. N. A. Wood, 
collector. U. of M. Museum No. 30966. 
10— July 7, J 903. Ad. female Oscoda Co., Mich. N. A. Wood, collector. 

U. of M. :Museum No. 30070. 
11— July 8, 1903. Ad. male, Oscoda Co., Mich. N. A. Wood, collector. U. 

of 'M. :\Iuseum No. 30968. 
12 — July 11, 1903. Ad. male, near Luzerne, Crawford Co., Mich. N. A. Wood, 

collector. U. of M. iMuseum No. 30967. 
13— July 11. 1903. Ad. female, Oscoda Co., Mich. N. A. W^ood, collector. 

U. of M. Museum No. 31284. 
14— July 11, 1903. Ad. male. Oscoda Co., Mich. N. A. Wood, collector. 

U. of M. Museum No. 31285. 
15— July 13, 1903. Young (nestling). Oscoda Co., Mich. N. A. Wood, 

collector. U. of M. Museum No. 312S6. 
16— July 13. 1903. Young Cnestling). Oscoda Co.. Mich. N. A. Wood, 

collector. U. of M. Museum No. 31287. 
17— July 14, 1903. Ad. male, Crawford Co.. Mich. N. A. Wood, collector. 

U. of M. ]\Iuseum No. 30969. 
18- July 14. 1903. Ad. female shot but lost. 

10, 20, 21, 22. 23— July 15, 1903. Five young nestlings, Crawford Co.. Mich. 
N. A. Wood, collector. LI. of M. Museum No. 30689. 

24— July 3, 1903. Ad. male, Oscoda Co., Mich. 

25— July 4, 1003. Ad. male, Oscoda Co., Mich. 

26— July 6, 1903. Ad. male, Oscoda Co.. Mich. 

27— July 8, 1903. Ad. male, Oscoda Co., Mich. 

28— July 8, 1903. Ad. male, Oscoda Co., Mich. 

20— July 9, 1003. Ad. male, Crawford Co., Mich. 

30— July 10. 1003. Ad. male. Crawford Co., Mich. 

31— July 11, 1003. Ad. male. Crawford Co., Mich. 

The last eight birds were seen or heard but not captured. 

University Museum. Uuiirrsity of Michigan. Ann Arbor, Mick. 




About a year ago the relations suggested in this paper gradually took 
shape and were written out in practically their present form. But at thai 
time the breeding area or summer home of Kirtlands Warbler was un- 
known. Since that time the discoveries of Mr. E. 11. Frothingham and 
Mr. N. A. Wood, in Oscoda and Crawford counties. ^Michigan, have made 
« it necessary to modify certain statements as they were originally written 
and at the same time they have added information tending to reinforce 
others. During the past year more has been added to our knowledge of this 
bird than during all of the preceding fifty-three years which had elapsed since 
its discovery. 

At present we are only concerned with the records of the spring Mi- 
grants, as emphasis is laid upon migration routes and their bearing upon 
the distribution of the localities from which these migrants have been 
recorded. The scattered localities from which the birds have been reported 
seems at first glance, to be very chaotic. This apparent irregularity has 
been very confusing. 

In the study of bird migration, the routes taken by such birds is of 
great importance and of special importance in the present case. The only 
known breeding ground for Kirtlandi is in Oscoda and Crawford Counties. 
Michigan. Its winter home is in the Bahama Islands. By what routes then 
docs it pass from its winter home to its summer breeding grounds in the 
North ? It will be safe to assume that practically all our spring records 
ot these birds are those of the migrants advancing toward their breeding 
grounds. In these records then we have exact data as to the migration 
routes of this species. Migration routes and their significance have been 
Ciiampioned in this country by Dr. Leonhard Stejneger. of the National 
Museum, who has said ('99, p. 68) concerning the route of this bird: " The. 
importance of this question [summer home and migration route] is very 
great, for. seemingly at least, the distribution of this Warbler suggests a 
migration route almost unique. Yet, if we accept as our working theory of 
migration, the only rational one which has been offered to the present day. 
viz., Palmen's, that the annual migration route of a species indicates thr 
way by which it originally immigrated unto its present breeding home, 
how are we going to explain the apparent uniqueness of the route of 

Dcndroica kirtlandi? It will now be seen how desirable it is 

to trace step by step the progress of this species from the Bahamas to ^lichi- 
gan, and possibly beyond. Here is a species so very strongly differentiated 
3S not to be mistaken for any other, and so limited in numbers that it 
probably follows only a single narrowly limited route. When we shall 
have solved this problem we shall also know a good deal more about the 
roan by which in past ages part of our fauna entered their present habitat." 

It is not only a point of interest, but also one of importance, as one 
may see from the foregoing quotation, if we can come to a better under- 
standing of the facts alreadv known concerning this interesting bird. T 

Michigan Ornithological Club 15 

have only met \vith the opinion of two authors who have attempted to indi- 
cate the spring route of migration. Chapman ('99, p. 290) says : "Thus 
during the winter Kirtland's Warbler apparently ranges throughout the 
Bahamas, having been found from Caicos to Abaco, though it has not 
as yet been recorded from Inagua. Its northward migration begins in April, 
South Carolina being reached toward the end of the month, either by direct 
flight from the Bahamas, or, what is more probable, by advancing northward 
along the Southeast Atlantic Coast (St. Helena April 29, Worthington). 
This is the most northern, spring cis-Alleghanian record, the migratory 
route of the species now leading it northwestward into the Mississippi 

The other author referring to the Spring route is Butler ('97, p. 1072) 
who says : "The line of its spring movements seems to be a narrow route 
from the Bahamas past the western end of Lake Erie toward Lake Superior." 

It is unfortunate that so little is known about this bird south of the 
Ohio river. The above quotations clearly emphasize this lack of data and 
show the desirability of further light upon this subject. 

After coming to Ann Arbor jSIr. A. B. Covert called my attention to 
this bird and its relative abundance in this locality, four specimens havings 
been taken here. And being familiar with the idea of migration routes T 
was led to infer that Ann Arbor was located on such a route. This idea 
seemed to be in harmony with the fact that the number of birds recorded 
from here is not due to the relative numbers of collectors in the field, because 
only two specimens have been recorded from the vicinity of Chicago, with 
its nuich greater number of collectors, but to its favorable location on an 
important migration route. 

The geographically scattered records of Kirtlandi suggested to me the 
similarity of their occurrence to that of stragglers of other species and the 
routes followed by such birds. For example, in southern Michigan the 
Prothonotary Warbler is generally speaking rare, although it breeds in 
abundance along the St. Joseph river in the southwestern part of the State 
Stragglers have been found elsewhere in the State and have been known to 
breed, but in general there is a definiteness in the occurrence of these 
stragglers, as will be seen later. The similarity of this straggling phen- 
omena to the occurrence of the migrant Kirtland's suggested to me a pos- 
sible analogy in the migration routes of the two species. The farther this 
comparison was carried the more significant it appeared to become. Louck's 
paper ('95) on the geographical distribution of the Prothonotary Warbler in 
Illinois and Lidiana has been used as the basis for the comparison, supple- 
mented by a few other records. But in order to understand this com- 
parison some of the general facts of the distribution of the Prothonotarv 
Warbler must be fresh in mind. For this reason I have adapted and 
supplemented Louck's map of this species to show especially the occurrence 
of stragglers and isolated colonies. An examination of the map w^ill show 
how closely this swamp warbler is restricted to the streams. Tn addition 
to the shaded area in which it is known to breed regularly, it occurs also 
as a .*;traggler in the northivard eontimiatious of the same valleys, as indi- 



caicd by the arrows. For example, the continuous breeding area ends 
about Davenport, Iowa, on the Mississippi river, while an isolated colony is 
found in the northward extension of this drainage valley at Red Wing, 
Minnesota, (Louck, *95, p. 17; Roberts, '90. p. 2'AQ>). The occurrence of 
the birds in southern Wisconsin will doubtless follow the same law. Up 
the Illinois river valley above Ottawa, the bird occurs as a rare resident in 
the vicinity of Chicago, and an isolated colony breeds abundantly in the 
KanlAkee swamps of northern Indiana. Up the Wabash valley, above 
Delphi, it seems to have spread into southeastern Michigan, and has been 

^ V^cuPtRl 

Fig. 1. Breeding area, shaded, of Prothonotary Warbler in Upper 
Mississippi Valley. Stragglers and route of dispersal in* 
dicated by broken lines and arrpws respectively. 

taken breeding .in Oakland County, l^iidiigan (A. B. Covert, May 8, 1S96, 
South Lyon). From near the head of the Wa])ash, down the Mauniee 
valley, others have spread along tlie south shore of Lake Erie to the 
vicinity of Cleveland. ( Rutler, '«T, p. 1023). TW Prothonotary Warblers of 
southwestern Michigan, reach tlve Stal-e by way of the Kankakee swamps of 
nothem Indiajia. and these swamps are reached 1>y t^ie Illinois atid WaJiash 
bottoms, or both, as stiggeste4 by Rutler. It is very significant to laotice 
that the stragglers and the new colonies c(wtinne ii*p the valleys in which 
tne species normally breeds. The map -of the breeding area is also a nutp 
showing the path of spring migration, and also, in all probability tliae pa^lh 

MicHiGAx Ornithological Club 


by which the present species has found its way to its present breeding area 
since the Ice Age. From this point of \'iew stragglers have more than usual 
interest, ikot because they are i-ai-c, but because they show the possibilities 
oi tuture lines of dispersal and show how dispersal qy extension of the 
breeding range of a s])ecics is taking place at the present time. Of course 
tnis does not apply to all stragglers into any region, but it is especially 
suggestive in the case of birds which normally breed along a highway 
south of the region invaded by the stragglers. 

Fig. 2. Probable migration route of Kirtland's Warbler. Arrows 
indicate location of records and broken lines probable 

The paths or liiglnvays by which it seems that the Prothonotary Warb- 
lers (and also many other animals) have invaded Michigan, thus seem 
to be as follows : Those in the southwestern part of the State have pushed 
up from the Kankakee swamps of northern Indiana to the St. Joseph river 
and then have spread along its course and over southwestern Michigan. 
These birds may have reached the Kankakee swamps either by the Illinois 
or Wabash river bottoms, or both, as has been mentioned. The birds of 
southeastern Michigan and northwestern Ohio, via the Upper Wabash and 
extinct lake bottoms bordering Lake Erie. 

Let us now consider the bearing which, these facts have upon the dis- 
tribution of Kirtland's Warbler. When comparing the distribution of these 
two birds one must not press the analogy too close, but must be contcntj 
with general resemblances. But if the general principles or resemblances 


Will hold, that will he of some advantage. IMie map showing the distribution 
of the Prothonotary Warbler has been discussed. A similar map, Fig. 2, 
of the migraut records of Kirtlondi. has been prepared for purposes of com- 
parison. The approximate localities are indicated by the arrows. As it is 
well known that valleys are highways of migration for many species, as in 
the case of the Prothonotary Warbler. 1 have therefore connected the 
arrows by the broken lines, to indicate approximatel}' the supposed routes. 
Dr. Stejnegcr has suggested that the limited number of birds favors the 
idea of a single narrowly limited route. This is especially likely to be the 
case south of the mouth of the Ohio river. Above that place the route 
apparently l)ranches, but it is highly probable that a narrow route is fol- 
lowed. Our lack of data from South Carolina to St. Louis leaves a great 
gap in the route. As the bird breeds among conifers it may be influenced 
by such tree's in its migration, in which case the pine barrens of the Coastal 
Plain and the cypress swamps of the Mississippi valley, to the mouth of 
the Ohio, may be shown some preference. I do not understand the South 
Carolina records: perhaps they are stragglers from the general Gulf Coast 
pnie barren route to the Mississippi river. Further data is necessary to 
settle this point. At least it would be worth while to search the pine 
barrens of the (iulf Coast during the last of April or the first week of 
^[ay for the bird. So much for a working hypothesis. From the foregoing 
remarks it will be seen that the estimated route is somewhat as follows : 
The birds spend their winters in the Bahamas, reach the coast of the United 
States about the latter half of April (West Jupiter. Florida, April 19. 27: 
St. Helena Island. South Carolina, April 27. May :>), and pass west via 
the Pine Barrens to the Mississippi, up which they ascend and reach the 
vicinity of the Ohio valley about the first week in May (St. Louis, May S: 
Cnicinnati. first week in May: Wabash. Indiana. May 4 and 7) and reach 
the latitude of northern Ohio and southern Michigan about the second or 
third week in May (Morgan Park. Illinois. May 21; Glen Ellyn, ^Liy 7: 
Rockford. May 2.') : Lake Koshkonong. Wisconsin. May 24 ; Battle Creek. 
Michigan. May 11: Kalamazoo, May 15;* Ann Arbor. May 14. 1.'). 10. is; 
Cleveland. Ohio. May 4. 12, 13, 15 and June (?) ; Oberlin, May 11) and are 
l)reeding in Oscoda and Crawford Counties, Michigan, early in June ^Mncic-.- 
nac, May 21 : Luzerne. June 15.) The Minneapolis (May 13) and Toronto 
CMay 16) captures. As the routes do not converge, it suggests that the 
breeding area may be extensive. What is the destination of the birds along 
the south Shore of Lake Erie? 

There remains to be considered another factor Avhich has apparently 
influenced the location of the migration routes. This is a factor whose 
influence could not have been estimated but for the careful and detailed 
studiov nf the glacial geologists, particularly the work of Mr. Frank Leverett 

*Mr. F. TT. Cliapin writes me as follows concerning the capture of his Kalamazoo 
specimen: "This Kirtland W'arhler I secured within the city limits, early in the morn- 
ing of May 1.5. 188."). The specimen I have marked as a female. It was shot at very 
short range and consequently was somewhat mutilated. It was in a small pine tree in 
company with other warblers. I remember that the motions of the bird were rather 
slow and not so active as most warblers. It was very tame." 

Michigan Ornithological Club 19 

in Illinois, Indiana, Ohio and Michigan (*99, '02). In his reports Mr. 
Lcverett gives maps showing the ancient glacial lakes and drainage lines, i 
have adapted from his maps and from snggestions made by him the 
following outline map. Fig. ::, which shows the most important lines of 
glacial drainage, and such old shore lines as concern us at present. It is 
not intended that these topographic features were of contemiioraneous age 
as it is definitely known that such was not the case, but it is of significance 
to know their origin and their infiuence upon bird life. To those who have 
not seen these topographic features or given them any thought it may be 
a surprise to learn that they form conspicuous features of the topography. 
The beach ridges may in many cases be followed for many miles as a very 
marked feature of the landscape. These drainage valleys have wide open 
valleys or deep gorges so that they are very conspicuous. It should be 
remembered that these are in a relatively level country, which tends to 
exaggerate even slight topographic features. In this connection it is of 
interest to note that two important highways of bird migration into the 
lower peninsula of Michigan have been influenced to a large degree by glacial 
drainage. In glacial times the St. Joseph river from South Bend, Ind.. 
(Leverett. '97, p. 4:J8) flowed down the Kankakee river and emptied in turn 
into the Illinois. This southwestern highway into Michigan has been sup- 
plemented by contributions from the Wabash valley. The other highway 
into southeastern Michigan has been by way of the Upper Wabash and 
Maumee valleys. In glacial times the Wabash valley below Fort Wayne 
formed the outlet of Lake Maumee (whose descendant in part, is Lake 
Erie). Thus the forking of migration routes, at the western end of Lake 
Erie, is apparently of ancient origin and in all probability began in early 
post-glacial times. 

It is generally accepted that as the great continental ice sheet of the 
Ice Age spread over northeastern North America, life was compelled to 
extend its range to the south before it or become extermmated, and as the 
ice melted away there began a return piovement. Such a statement has been 
challenged, apparently on the basis that birds, as other organisms, do not 
retreat from adverse conditions. This is the position maintained by Dixon 
('97, p. 20) in a very suggestive book on the bird migration. He further 
maintains that the birds of the Northern Hemisphere never extend their 
breedmg range soutliii'ard, and that southward extension of breeding range 
during" the advance of the ice sheet is a myth. Even if it were granted that 
organisms do not retreat from adverse conditions, it docs not necessarily 
follow that there was no southward extension of the breeding range with 
the southward advance of the ice. There can be but little doubt that there 
were definite zones of conditions, similar to those of the boreal regions 
to-day, which migrated to the south at that time. Such conditions are to-day 
favorable for many birds, and in all probability were at that time. Under 
such circumstances what would prevent the southward extension of such 
forms as found their favorable conditions moving south? Dixon fur- 
ther (p. 19) maintains that "the only forms that survived this several 
times repeated glacial invasion, were those whose pre-glacial breeding 


Bulletin oi* nut 

range extended beyond its intluence." 1 see no reason why the class of 
birds just mentioned should have been so restricted. Kirtlundi may well 
be taken as a representative of the class of birds, just referred to. It is a 
bird which breeds in the northern coniferous /.one. In general, it seems safe 
to infer that those migratory birds, which now have their breeding grounds 
in the north^ were among the early migrants which pushed back with the 
retreat of the ice. Can it be that the evident northern breeding area of 
Kirtlandi indicates that it was one of these carlv invaders? And can its 

Fig. 3. Lines of Glacial Drainage or Shore Lines. To show rela= 
tion of those topographic features to bird migration routes. 

Border of the last ice sheet v Wisconsin), indicated by 

apparent adherence to glacial highways indicate that its dispersal dates back 
to early post-glacial times? Habits of migration may preserve records when 
fossils are lacking. If tliis was one of the early species to push north, 
it is but natin-al that it should follow such highways, as it is along such 
valleys and shore lines, at that time, that the vegetation would make its 
most rapid extension northward. A comparison of maps (Figures 1 and ?>) 
is suggestive in this connection. The ma]) of the Prothonotary Warbler 
(Figure 1) shows the present distribution of a distinctly southern type 
of bird, which is extending its range northward, and suggests the method 
and stage which Kirllandi has long ago passed through as it extended its 
breeding range northward with the amelioration of the glacial climate. These 
valleys and shores, (Figure .3) as has been mentioned, were in early post- 
glacial times, as to-day, highways of dispersal. The breeding range of 

Michigan Ornithological Club 21 

k'irilaiidi is in the coniferous region of llie n(jrtb, and yet, if this point is 
view is correct, it slavishly follows the old ancestral paths in its spring mi- 
grations. It should be remembered that in early post-glacial times the 
conifers extended much farther south than at the present time, so that in all 
probability there was not as great a break between the northern and southern 
conifer belts as there is to-day. 

At least, it seems worth while, as a working hypothesis, to consider the 
present point of view, and see to what degree the migration routes of the 
northern migratory birds have been iniluenced by glacial drainage lines and 
laKe shores. One would not expect uniformity in this respect any more than 
we may expect uniform results upon diverse material even to-day, and yet 
certain types of routes may find their explanation in early post-glacial con- 
ditions as- suggested by Kirtlandi. 


1898. Butler, A. IV. The Birds of Indiana. Ind. Dept. Geol. and Nat. Re- 

sources. 22nd Ann. Rep. pp. ."il.'i-llS?. 

]89S. Chat^man, F. M. Kirtland's Warbler {Dcudroica Kirtlandi). Auk. 
Vol. XV. pp. 289-293. 

]S9:5. Cook, J. J. Birds of Michigan. Bull. No. 94, Mich. Agr. Exp. Sta- 
tion pp. 1-148. 

1897. Dixon. Chas. The Migration of Birds. London. Amended Edition. 

190:;. Jours, Lyuds. The Birds of Ohio. Ohio Acad. Science. Special Pa- 
pers No. 0. 

190:;. Knmlicn. L. and Ilollistcr, X. The Birds of Wisconsin. Bull. Wis. 
Nat. His. Soc. (N. S.) Vol. HI, pp. 1-14:]. 

1897. Leveret t, F. Wafer Resources of Indiana and Ohio. Eighteenth Ann. 
Rep. U. S. G. S. Pt. IV, pp. 419-559. 

:I899. . The Illinois Glacial Lobe, ^lonog. XXXVllI, U. S. 

Geol. Survey. 

1902. . Glacial Formations and Drainage Features of the 

Erie and Ohio Basins. Monog. XLT, U. S. Geol. Survey. 

189.'). Louchs, JJ\ E. The Life History and Distribution of the Prothono- 
tary Warbler in Illinois. Bull. 111. St. Lab. Nat. His. Vol. TV, pp. 
10-38, also Osprey, Vol. II, 1S9S. 

1902. Ridgway, R. Birds of North and Middle America. Bull. 50, U. S. 
Nat. Museum. Part II, pp. 60:;-G05. 

1899. Roberts, T. S. The Prothonotary or Golden Swamp Warbler (Pro- 
tonotaria citrea) a Common Summer Resident in Southeastern ^Minnesota. 

Auk. Vol. XVI, pp. 236-246. 
1899. .Stejneger. L. The Birds of Indiana. Amer. Nat. Vol. XXXIII. pp. 
University Museum, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. 


Director of the Detroit Museum of Art. 



flDicbigan iSmitbological Club 




131 Elmwood Avenue, - Detroit, Mich. 


J. Claire Wood, - - - Detroit, Mich. 

Adolphe B. Covert, - - - Ann Arbor, Mich. 

Detroit, Mich.. ^NIarch. 1904. 

Subscription: In North America, fifty rents a year, strictly in advance. Single copies, fifteen 
cents. Foreign Subscription: Seventy-five cents a year to all countries in the l'ni\ersal Postal Union. 
Free to Members of the Club nf>t in arrears for dues. 

Exchanges and Mss. should be sent to the P^ditor. Dues, subscriptions and communications of a 
business nature should be sent to Chas. E. Wisner, 1115 Brooklyn A\e., Detroit, Mich. 


With thi.s issue the Bulletin enters upon its fifth voknne, making the 
ninth ornithological pubhcation in this country to have reached that age. As 
is the case with other similar journals, its path has not heen entirely strewn 
with flowers, but tbose in charge at different times, since the beginning, have 
had to fight the many difficulties which are constantly arising. 

Thanks to the deep interest of the ornithologists in the state, as well 
as to those in the surrounding states and Canada, the Bulletin is now well 
on its feet. May it live and prosper long after its present friends are in the 
land with the souls of the. songsters which lie in their cabinets. 

Owing to the length and importance of the papers on the Kirtland's 
warbler, published in this issue, we have been forced to defer many articles, 
notes, the Club minutes, and list of members to the June issue. While the 
general plan has been slightly deranged, we nevertheless feel that all will 
be well pleased with the present issue. 

The organization of a Michigan Audobon Society is a step in the right 
direction in the line of legitimate bird protection in this state, and we wish 
it all possible success. At the first quarterly meeting of the Club for 1904, 

24 Bulletin oi" thic 

held at tlu- Dolroil Aluscuiii of Art. on I'rhniary .')lli, it was decided to devote 
one i)age of each issue of this journal to the interests of the new society. 
This will not interfere with the policy of the Bulletin, which has been carried 
(Ml in the past. i. e., to finnish readers with notes fresh from the held and 
nuiseuni on the birds of the region about the (ireat Lakes. We are pleased 
to the views of W'ni. Dutcher, chairman of the Protection Committee 
of the American Ornithologists' Union. 

"Regarding" scientific collecting: 1 am not opposed to real scientihc col- 
lecting in the slightest degree; in fact 1 think it is absolutely necessary for 
real ornithologists to have birds to study; however, I am opposed to indis- 
criminate collecting of birds' nests and eggs by boys and pseudo scientific col- 

"I he real ornithologists in this country, i. e., men who have the interest 
of ornithology at heart, are the ones who have brought bird protection to its 
present prominence. They were the ones who first discovered that the birds 
were being rapidly exterminated and arc the ones who formed the first bird- 
protection society in the United States, and who have continued to agitate 
the subject and are still doing so. I'he whole Audubon movement is the 
outgrowth of the real ornithologist's love of nature and his desire to preserve 
the birds." 

The twenty-fifth congress of the American Ornithologists' Union was 
held at the Academy of Natural Sciences at Philadelphia, on November in, 
17, 18 and 11), lOO.'J. The meeting was one if not the most successful ever 
held by the Union. We are pleased to note that many Michigan men were 
elected associate members. This state is still far from being well represented 
in the Union and at the coming congress many others should join its ranks. 

The Bulletin woidd call the attention of Club meml)ers to the Patron 
class. Ten have already joined, but there still remains many in the state 
who could well afford and should join this class. The annual dues for 
Patrons is five dollars a year. All should remember that the Bulletin is run 
for no financial end and that none of the ofificers of the Club are paid for 
their services. The list of Patrons will be published in the next issue. Will 
your name be among them ? 


Our thanks are due to ]\Ir. P. Kinder, of the Detroit Museum of Art, for 
designing the attractive engraving which adorns the front cover of this 
issue. The figure represents the Kirtland's Warbler in its northern home 
among the pines. 

The next meeting of the Club will be held at the Museum of the Uni- 
versity of Michigan, at Ann Arbor, on Saturday, April 2nd. The annual 
meeting of the Michigan Academy of vScience will be held at Ann Arbor at 
the same time. Tliis will be the annual meeting of the Club, and it hoped 
that many of the members will be present. 

Michigan Ornithological Club 25 


Key to North American Birds. 1^'ifth edition, entirely revised. By Elliot 

Cones, Boston : Dana Estcs & Co., 190o. Two volnmes, royal 8 vo., 

xli., 1152 pages, 747 black and white illustrations in the text and two 

colored plates. Price, $10.00. 

In so great a degree is the development of American ornithology due 
to Coues' "Key" that detailed comment upon the general nature of the new 
(fifth) edition is unnecessary. 

The introductory portion is the same that has served as the text book 
for a generation of ornithologists, while the main text is on the same plan 
as that followed in the earlier editions. It has, however, been brought thor- 
oughly up to date and the nomenclature is for the most part in accordance 
with the American Ornithologists' Union Check-list. The serial numbers 
arc, however, unfortunately omitted and the order remains reversed, the 
Thrushes heading the line. 

To Mr. J. A. Farley, who has edited Dr. Coues' manuscript and made 
the many changes and additions rendered necessary by the progress of the 
science since the time of the author's death, great credit is due ; and the work 
is no doubt as nearly what Dr. Coues had in mind as it was possible to make 
it under the circumstances. The differences in nomenclature, etc., between 
the "Key'' and the A. O. U. list are in the main intentional on the part of 
the author. The printing is good and the work forms two handsome royal 
octavo volumes. 

So far as illustrations go they are in some respects disappointing. The 
prospectus with its sample colored plate led many to infer that there were 
a number of such illustrations, there is, however, only one— a frontispiece — 
in each qi the two volumes, and the mmierous excellent figuYes by Fuertes, 
which supplement the familiar cuts of the earlier editions lose a great deal 
of their beauty by being printed upon soft-finish paper. These slight defects, 
however, deduct but little from what has always been and for years will be 
a standard and indispensible work for the American ornithologist. 

A portrait of Dr. Coues and Mr. Elliot's masterly address upon his life 
and work reprinted from the Auk form a suitable preface, while a list of 
differences in nomenclature between the "Key" and the A. O. U. list by Mr. 
I'arley is a useful feature. — W. S. 

The Bird.s of Ohio: A Complete, Scientific and Popular Description of the 
320 Species of Birds found in the State. By William Leon Dawson, A. 
M.. B. D. With Introduction and Analytical Keys by Lynds Jones, M. 
Sc. The Wheaton Publishing Co., Columbus, 1903. xlvii -f- 660 pages 
-}- Index. 80 colored plates and over 200 original halftones. Sold only 
by subscription. 

The Birds of Ohio. By Lynds Jones, M. Sc. (Obcrlin College). Special 
Paper, No. 6. Ohio State Academy of Science, 1003. 8 vo., 241 pages, 
1 map. 

26 Bulletin ok the 

Proceedings of the Nebraska Orkitholckjists' Union. 1, II, ill, 1899- 
100:2 ;^ index. Dr. Robt. 11. VVolcott, Kditc^r, Lincoln, Neb. 

The Birds of Fergus County, Montana. By P. M. Silloway. Bull. No. 1. 
Fergus County Free High School, Lewiston, Mont., 190:5. 8 vo, 77 pages, 
17 half-tone plates. 

Birds of a Maryland FAR^F ; A, Study of Economic Ornithology. 
By Sylvester D. Judd, Ph. 1)., Bull. No. 17, Div. Biol. Survey, U. S. 
Dept. of Agric, Washington, 1902. 116 pages, 17 plates, 41 text-cuts. 

The Birds of Wisconsin. By L. Kumliedr and N. Hollister, Bull. Wis. Nat. 
Hist. Soc, vol. II (new series), Nos. 1, 2 and 3. Published with the 
co-operation of the Milwaukee Public Museum, 190:>. 8 vo., 143 pages, 
8 half-tone plates. 

We are in receipt of Cassiin'a, (A Bird Animal), the Proceedings (No. 
VII) of the Delaware Valley Ornithological Club, of Philadelphia, for 190:!. 
Lack of space forbids a review, but it will suffice to say that the high stand- 
ard of the proceeding issues is maintained and the volume is some twenty 
pages larger than the precedings of 1902. The earnest work done by this 
society is especially manifest in its report on migration and similar clubs in 
this country would do well to undertake work of this character. 



Editor of the "Bulletin:" 

For the past ten years I have been collecting material toward a bulletin 
on the Birds of Michigan, to be published by the Agricultural College, and 
the work is now nearing completion. The co-operation of the Michigan Orni- 
thological Club was sought and promised several years ago, and I am indebted 
already to several members for valuable aid. A circular of inquiry will be 
sent out .soon; meanwhile I would like to ask each member of the Club and 
each reader of the Bulletin the following questions : 

1. Do you know of any misstatements, omissions or inaccuracies in 
Cook's bulletin, Birds of Michigan, published in 1893? 

2. Do you know of the capture of other good record, published or un- 
published, of any of the rarer birds of the state since 1893? 

3. Do you know personally of any unidentified specimens of local birds 
in any collection, public or private, in the state? 

4. Do you know personally of the lecent occurrence in the state of the 
wild turkey, prairie chicken, passenger pigeon raven, whooping crane? 

Information on any of the above points will be greatly received and suit- 
ably acknowledged in the Bulletin when published. Correspondence in regard 
to any of our Michigan birds is solicited. 

Agricultural College P. O., Mich., March, 1904. Walter B. Barrows, 

Michigan Ornithological Club 



(Organized Kf-bruaiy 27, 1904.) 


Map showing shaded) States having Audubon Societies. 

This department will be a permanent feature of the Bulletin and will be 
devoted to the interests of bird protection in the state. It is hoped that local 
chapters will be formed in every town or at least every county. The list of 
officers of the organization were received too late for publication in this issue. 
Copies of the constitution and literature on bird-protection, etc., may be 
secured by addressing the State Secretary, Mr. Jefferson Butler, 79 Home 
Bank Building, Detroit, 

7'he Michigan Audubon Society was organized at Detroit on February 
27th, as an auxiliary to the Michigan Ornithological Club. Its objects are 
as follows: (1) l\i disseminate information respecting" the economic value of 
birds to agriculture, and their importance to the welfare of man ; (2) To dis- 
courage the purchase or use of the feathers of any birds for ornamentation, 
except those of the Ostrich and domesticated fowls; (3) To discourage the 
destruction of wild birds and their eggs (except for scientific purposes). (4) 
To establish Bird Day exercises in the schools of the State of Michigan, in 
connection with the celebration of Arbor Day, and to encourage the intro- 
duction of bird study in schools. 

Bird-Lore, a bi-monthly magazine (published for the Audubon Societies 
by the MacMillan Company, Harrisburg, Pa., edited by Frank M. Chapman) 
is the official organ of the x\udubon Societies and should be in the hands of 
all bird-protectionists. 

The report of the American Ornithologists' Union Committee on the 
Protection of North American Birds for 1903 by the chairman, Wm. Dutcher, 
is printed as i. "supplement" to the Auk for January and consists of over a 
hundred pages showing the good work which was accomplished during the 
past year. 

The National Committee of Audubon Societies' "Educational Leaflet," 
No. 7, treats of the Snowy Heron and should have a wide circulation in this 

2S Bulletin oi- the ' 



At Menomonie in the norih-ccntral part of Wisconsin, during the winter 
and spring of lUO.J, 1 had the pleasure of observing the habits of a flock of 
Evening Grosbeaks {Coccothraiisics vespcrtinus.) One perfect winter day, 
about the middle of January, when the blue shadows of the morning lay 
across stretches of almost unbroken snow, and the air was full of sparkling 
crystals, my walk was interrupted by a chorus of sharp bird notes, and in 
a tree near by, 1 saw a flock of some sixteen of these striking beauties. 

The black crown of the adult males shades off on the side of the head 
to a grecmsh-brown, and on the neck and body to a beautiful greenish- 
yellow. There is a bright yellow mask over the eyes. The long feathers of 
the wings and tail are black, and some of the short feathers of the wings are 
snow white, making a round white spot on the upper part of them. In the 
younger males the coloring" is not so bright, and the females are grey with a 
slightly sulphurish wash, while the black and the white feathers of the 
wings and tail are more or less intermingled. The characteristic which en- 
abled me to identify these strangers was their immense heavy bills. These bird.-; 
measure two inches shorter than a robin, but the larger body and shorter 
tail make ihcm look like a larger bird. They are much like a parrot in 
shape and movement, sitting erect, and moving slowly, except in their flight, 
which is very swift. Their principal article of diet was the winged seeds of 
the box elder which cling' to the trees all winter, though I saw them 
occasionally in cedar-trees. 

One of the neighbors had a box of sand in her yard, at the south side of 
the house, where it was sheltered from the snow and warmed by the sun, 
and here the birds came frequently to nestle in the sand, like barn-yard fowl. 
They were very tame when they first appeared, permitting a close approach, 
but I soon found that "man's dominion had broken nature's holy union," 
and some cruel experience had taught them to beware of human kind. I 
saw the flock in one part of the city or another all winter, but by the last 
of April, as the nesting season approached, they became more or less scat- 
tered, and I frequently saw one or two alone. They remained until about 
the middle of May and then flew away to the woods of Canada to nest. 

Edith Van Valkenburch. 
Grand Rapids, Mich.. January, nth, IQ04. 

[The winter of 190:>-4 has been marked by a flight of both the Evenings 
and Pine Cirosbeaks, and records have been received from many points 
throughout the Great Lake region. Mr. Ruthven Deane, of Chicago, writes •. 
"We have had a sprinkling of both Pine and Evening Grosbeaks this winter. 
I saw a Robin December 2r)th some twenty-five miles north of the city — 
temperature at the time was ten below zero." Last winter there was a 
great flight of the Snowy Owl, but no records of the Pine Grosbeak. This 
winter it has just been vice-versa. — Edk.] 

Michigan Ornithological Club 29 


One day in November, 190:;, while walking through a second growth of 
woods about a mile and a half from this place I found myself in the midst 
of a large flock of Bohemian Wax-wings {Ampclis garrulus) an instant 
most interesting to me as it was my first meeting with ihem in lower ^Michigan. 

Their constant jumping about the trees, noisy chatter and handsome ap- 
pearance, render them very interesting indeed, much more so than the com- 
mon Cedar W^ax-wing, which is b}' no means lacking in interest. 

Having been disabled most of the winter, 1 have been unable to revisit 
ihe locality, but owing to their wandering habits, I suppose they long since 
left the vicinity. Wilfred A. Brothekton. 

Rochester, Mich. 

Thursday, February 25th, a bitter cold day, I left Augusta, Mich., at 2 
P. M., and about 4 P. M. found a nest of the Great Horned Owl {Bubo 
virginiaiius). Nest was seventy feet up in tip top of a large sycamore. A 
Great Blue Heron hatched her eggs in it last year. There were three heron 
nests in the treet, of which this was the center one. 

The nest contained three eggs. The last evidently had just been laid. 

Edward Arnold. 
Battle Creek, Mich. 


Some time last autumn a Red-eyed Vireo {Virco olivaccus) was brought 
to me for identification. The person did not think it could be of that 
species because the eyes were black. Fortunately I had "gathered in" a 
family or two dunng past vears and was able to explain that all the young 
of-the-year have black eyes. 

Detroit, Mich. J. Claire Woor 

Two male and two female American Goldeneyes (Glauctouetfa clangula 
americana) have wintered here on a piece of open rapidly running water on 
the Speed. They are very active and spend much of their time diving after 

Giielph, Ontario. A. B. Klugh. 


At the fifty-third annual meeting of the American Association for the 
Advancement of Science, held at St. Louis from December 26th, 1903, to Jan- 
uary 1st, 1904, two M. O. C. members were elected fellows of the Associa- 
tion: Prof. Hubert Lyman Clark, of Olivet, and 'Prof. Jacob Reighard, of 
Ann Arbor. 
















THE CONDOR is an illustrated bi-monthly magazine published bv 
the Cooper Ornithological Club of California. During- 1904 THE CON- 
DOR will be profusely illustrated with pictures of wild birds taken 
directly from nature, and will number among- its contributors man^- of 
the best known bird men of the country. A feature of the present 
volume is the series of portraits of American ornithologists. THE 
CONDOR ii now in its sixth volume, and is better in every way than 
ever before. 


Perhaps you have not seen THE CONDOR 

Subscription: $1.00 Per Year. Sample Copy 20 cents. 

Order of JOSEPH GRINNELL, Business Manager, 


Published by The Mayflower Publishing Co. 

A little bi-monthly magazine devoted to the study of our 
native birds, with a view to setting^ forth their useful- 
ness, especialh^ in the orchard and garden, and to agri- 
culture in general, that people may learn how important 
it is to protect them from slaughter. It will be very 
useful and interesting to the whole family, but especially 
to the children. SUBSCRIPTION ONLY 30c. FOR 2 YEARS. 

Official Or^an of the Lon^ Island Natural History Club. 




The Bulletin is certainly creditaljle, and I am sure it will be a 
success. — Witmer Stone. 

Should receive the support of all the ornithologists in Central and 
Southern Ontario.— Gueloh Daily Herald, Canada. 

The last issue was a good one.— Walter K. Fisher, Editor of the 
Condor, Calif. 

This worthj'' work deserves the active support of all bird students.— 
Sports-Afield, Chicago. 

Vol. I, II and III are out of print. We can still supply Vol. 4 (1903) , 
at 50 cents per Volume. . 

Address CHAS. E. WISNER, Business Manager, 

1115 Brooklyn Ave., DETROIT, MICH. 


is the oldest and cheapest monthly devoted to birds in America. It is 
now in its twenty- first voUime. 

Are yon forming: a collection ? If so, you need our exchangee 
columns. Note what one of our subscribers says: " I think your offer 
is rr; V liberal. I have worn the cover off the sample cop3' and have 
had it'but one day."— L. S.. Cortland, N. Y. 


Write tor sample copy. Address 

ERNEST H. SHORT, Editor and Manager, CHILI, N. Y. 


Now in its sixth volume. You should have Mr. Arthur H. 
Norton's series of papers on "The Finches Found in Maine," 
also the series on "The Warblers F^ound in Maine," by 
Messrs. Knijjht, Swain, Spinney and Powers of the Society. 

Subscription, 50 Cents Per Annum. ^ 15 Cents Per Copy. 

!»end Stamt) for sample Copi| to 

J. MERTON SWAIN. Editor and Bus. Mgr., FtlRFIElD. MAINE 


A New Departure in Bird Books. 


A happy combination of accurate dHvSCRIPTIon' of plumag-es with in- 
terestingly written SKETCHES OE Lii'E HISTORIES. The bird may be 
certainly determined, and one's own observations may then be corrobo- 
rated in the popular part of the text. This is the only book which 
combines these features. The text is written by W. Leon Dawson, 
who combines a college and university education with a life spent in 
the study of living birds in many parts of the country and eleven years 
in Ohio. He is both field and closet student, in sj^mpathy with the 
living birds, but recognizing the necessity of accurate identification. 

The introduction and analytical keys are prepared by Lynds Jones, 
who has a wide reputation as a careful ornithologist. 

Fully illustrated by 80 PLATES IN COLORS selected from the 
choicest of the color-photographs, representing the acme of perfection 
in color photography, and 200 ORIGINAL HALF-TONES from 
photographs taken in Ohio, showing the wild birds, their homes, and 
their haunts. 

The book contains 720 Pages exclusive of the color plates, mak- 
ing a sumptuous volume, the best of its class, yet within the reach 
of all. No library will be complete without it. 

Specimen pages on application to 



^ac/» member of the Club, not in arrears for dues y is entitled to two exchange 
notices, of thirty words each, during the year; other subscribers one 
such notice. 

OLD BIRD MAGAZINES WA^fTED.— I will be glad to receive a list 
of any duplicate bird magazines or old .bird books you may have and can 
offer either cash or good exchaVige tor them. I have the following to dis- 
pose of : BendireV Life Histories Vols. I and II, Pacific R. R. Survey, the 
four vols., which contain all the bird writings of the survey, with 38 colored 
plates; a complete set of the Nuttall Bulletin (8 vols.), unbound, and num- 
erous other bird magazines, etc. I want Bull. Mich. Orn. Club., Yo\s. I, II 
and Hi; the G.. 6- p.. Vols. I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII. W. Lcc 
Chambers, Santa Monica, Gal. 

FOR SALE OR EXCHANGE.— Ghoice Southern sets with full; accurate 
and standard data; very cheap fcir cash. Sets bf warblers especially desired. 
Satisfaction guaranteed. List for stamp. Doctor M. T. Cleckley, 457 Greene 
Street, Augusta, Ga. 

WANTED. — To buy collections of specimens or books, any size, for 
prompt cash. Will take singles in any quantity, in exchange for specimens 
or books. Walter F. Webb, 416 Grand Ave., Rochester^ N. Y. 

V^Am:ti>. —Bulletin of the Michigan Ornithological Club, Vols. I., II. 
and III. ; any number. State condition and cash price. All answered. A. W. 
Blain Jr., 131 jd,lmwood Ave.> Detroit, Mich. 

WANTED. — ^First-class sets of eggs. Can offer in exchange some fine 
things, including rare warblers, cranes, falcons, etc., for desirable sets. 
Edward Arnold, Battle Creek, Mich. 

TGi AlXCHAxnGE.— Bird si^ms and sets for sets. J. Claire Wood, 179^ 
17th Street, Detroit, Mich. 

COLLLCTORS.— I have issued a 16-page booklet containing a digest of 
the Michigan game laws for 1903-04 and other useful information for collect- 
ors and sportsmen, which I will mail upon request. Louis J. Eppin'ger, 516 
Chene Street, Detroit, Mich. 

WANTED.— Sets of eggs containing abnormal specimens, such as runts 
albinos, monstrosities, abnormally colored or shaped eggs. Will give :caish or 
good exchange. ^. Warren Jacobs, Wayn^sburg, Pa. 

: — __ — . /r--^' i : . •■' ,' '''' ^.\ ' ' ' /■'.'' - ' ' ■ ^ 

WANTED. — Every dealer and collector to send me his address that I 
may send out sample sheets of my Standard Field Note and Data Blank Books, 
endorsed by advanced collectors and dealers. Recommended by Ornithologi- 
cal Clubs/ "All answeredv" Geo. W. Morse, Box 230, Ashley, Ind. 

TO EXCHANGE.— A few good sets of Motintain Plover for sets new to 
my collection. Fred M. Dille, Longmont, Colorado, R. F. D. 

TO EXCHANGE.— A series of Common Tern and other common water 
birds for sets not common to this locality. CIhaS. E. Wisner, 1115 Brooklyn 
Ave., Detroit, Mich. 




©3F TM 



Vumshed Quarierly in Ihe imeFesiS or -^ 
Onaihoh^y in the Great LaKe Pe^ion. 

'i.' '■ -■■- ■■:- ■■ ■ ■'--.:■ ■' r^..'^■'^:;.v••■.■A:;^v■'V:- •^;"^...-;>j>:^ 



The x^merican Redstart. By Louis Agfassiz 

Fuertes Frontispiece 

Some Notes on the Life History of the American 

Redstart. By J. Claire Wood 33 

Birds in Decoration (1 halftone). By A. H. Griffith 35 

A List of the Land Birds of Southeastern Michig^an. 

By Bradshaw H. Swales 37 

Editorial 44 

Michigfan Academy of Science 45 

Michig^an Ornithologfists {5th series). Halftones 
of Bryant Walker, Maj. A. H. Boies, Fred'k 

C. Hubel, Wm. H. Dunham 46 

Recent Literature 47 

Audubon Department 49 

Correspondence 50 

Minutes of Club Meeting^s 51 

Notes from the Field and Museum {3" 5^«?r/ articles) 53 

M. O. C. Officers, Committees, Members 56 


is published on the fifteenth of March, June, September 
and December, by the Michigan Ornithological Club, at 
Detroit, Mich. 

Subscription : Fifty cents a year, including postage, 
strictly in advance. Single numbers, fifteen cents. Free 
to members of the Club not in arrears for dues. 

Articles and communications intended for publica- 
tion and all publications and books for notice should be 
addressed to the Editor, Alexander W. Blain, Jr., 131 
Elmwood Avenue, Detroit, Mich. 

Dues, subscriptions and communications of a busi- 
ness nature should be addressed to the Business Manager, 
Chas. E. Wisner, 1115 Brooklyn Avenue, Detroit, Mich. 

Articles of general interest relating to the bird life of 
the Great Lake Region are solicited. They should be in 
the hands of the editor not later than the 20th of the 
month preceding publication. 

Entered A*prU-20th, 1903, at Detroit, Mich., as second-class mail matter under the Act ot 

Congress July i6th, 1894. 





Michigan Ornithological Club 

PaBLisHED Quarterly in the Interests of" Ornithology 

IN THE Great Ijake Recjion. 

Vol.. V. JUNE, 1904. No. 2. 




Here in the County of Wayne, the Redstart {Sctophaga ruticilla) is sur- 
passed in abundance only by the Yellow Warbler {Dendroica oestiva) , and as 
it is a common species throughout the eastern United States and well 
* known to every bird student, I will not dwell upon the much written subject 
of its general characteristics and song but limit myself to some personal 
observations regarding its nesting habits. Exclusive of the present season I 
have found 143 nests containing eggs (nothing said of young) and have 
examined as many more found by other members of our field party, and 

upon this data the following is based : 

The typical nesting site is about seven feet above the ground in the 

main upright fork of a sapling amid the dense second growth in the heart 

of a large woods. It is also commonly placed in the crotch formed by a 

limb branching from the main trunk. Not more than a dozen were upon 

horizontal forks and I recollect only two cases of nests being saddled to 

a limb without other support. The most remarkable situation was in a 

grape vine. This vine reached downward about ten feet from the first limb 

of a large oak and thence upward to within a foot of the starting point, 

forming a swing, and at the bottom of this loop the nest was placed. It 

was a windy day and the nest swung over a space of five feet, but madam 

clung to her treasure perfectly unconcerned. Another nest, worthy of 

mention, was placed within an old one of the Red-eyed Vireo (Vireo 

olivaceus), and yet another was partly sunken into the ground at the base 

of a gooseberry bush, between two logs. The other extreme was fully 70 

feet up a great oak, but only five per cent, of all the nests were more than 

30 feet above the ground. Many were found along the forest margin, but 

none in the open bush land 300 yards beyond. The average nest is three 

inches in exterior depth, but where the crotch is narrow the birds continue 

to build until a sufficient height is reached to give a satisfactory width, and 

34 Bulletin of the 

this height seldom exceeds five inches. The interior varies but little from 
1% inches in depth by 1^ in width. The nest is a firm, compact structure 
composed of various plant and bark fibres and flexible grass stems, lined 
with fine grasses, weed and bark fibres and an occasional horse hair. The 
exterior is often tastefully ornamented with vegetable down, spider silk, 
etc., but there is no attempt at interior decoration beyond a few feathers, 
those of Tanager, Indigo and Goldfinch being eagerly secured because of 
their brilliant colors. A very beautiful nest looked like a snow ball stuck 
in a sapling crotch and could be seen a long distance through the woods. 
The exterior was almost entirely composed of cotton dumped from a collect- 
ing box two weeks previous. 

The first sets consist of four eggs, rarely more or less, but if these are 
destroyed a new nest is constructed as soon as possible and another set 
deposited, which rarely exceeds three eggs, and very often but two. As is 
the case with many species, locality influences the number per set. Of eight 
nests found in Springfield Township, Oakland County, three contained five 
eggs and one of the two sets from Greenfield Township, Wayne County, 
consisted of that number. All the remaining sets were noted in Grosse 
Pointe Township, and not one contained more than four eggs, with the 
exception of a nest with seven, but this was a case of two birds occupying 
the same nest. When found one female was upon the nest and the other 
perched close beside it. They were equally demonstrative of anxiety as I 
ascended the tree. The eggs were in two layers and slightly incubated. 
Being of two distinct types there was no difficulty in separating them into 
sets of three and four. This was not a case of polygamy, as both males 
were present. All four were living in perfect harmony and understanding, 
which is remarkable from the fact that the males are inclined to pugnacity 
and fiercely attack all intruders of their kind that invade their chosen 
territory. I have often regretted that lack of time prevented my watching 
this establishment and have wondered how the duties of incubation were 
shared and if so many young could have reached maturity in such a small 

The time of nesting is influenced by the season. During favorable 
years I have found eggs on May 15. The present season has been the 
most backward in my experience and of the twenty nests found on May 
29 but seven contained eggs and none complete sets. 

If I recollect correctly, Ernest H. Short, writing in the Oologist some 
ten years ago, speaks of frequently finding Cowbird's eggs in the nest of 
the Redstart. This is contrary to my experience, only two cases coming 
under rny notice. From the time a nest is finished until the set is complete 
most birds remain near the nest no longer than is necessary to deposit one 
egg. This is not so of the Redstart. The female is ever in the vicinity 
and always on the watch, and being fearless undoubtedly attacks and drives 
away this parasitic pest. More than once has a Cowbird dashed by me 
with several Redstarts in pursuit. 

Michigan Ornithological Club 35 

Whenever my thoughts wander back to days in the big woods during 
those charming months of wild flowers and bird song — May and June — I 
hear again the silvery chimes of the Wood Thrush, the echoing melody of 
the Ovenbird, the prolonged warbles of the Grosbeak and above them all, 
because more constant, the loud trilling music of the Redstart. It matters 
not how dense and gloomy is the woods the pleasing notes pour in upon 
you from every side and ring in your ears for many days to relieve the 
routine of office work, like the eternal piping of the Black Tern and voluble 
outpourings of the Marsh Wren in the land of reeds and rushes. Cheerful, 
noisy and musical is this busy little fellow and always in evidence to welcome 
you with his company, and I, for one, wish him a long and happy existence 
and rejoice that his enemies are few, and look forward in pleasant antici- 
pation, to our next meeting at his sylvan home. 

Detroit, Michigan. 



The grace of form, the many changing attitudes, the glory of color 
would all suggest themselves to the decorator and it is not to be wondered 
that very early use was made of bird life in the many schemes of decoration. 
The stone cutter who must rely entirely on form found birds either copied 
direct from nature or conventionalized of the greatest use, particularly in that 
age of Gothic work when so many forms borrowed from nature entered into 
the decoration of churches. The dove, of course, came in among the first, 
perhaps because of its association with Biblical lore. In the most ancient 

mosaics, notably that known as Pliny's doves, found at Pompeii, are found 
splendid examples of the use made of birds. Raphael introduced them innum- 
erable times in his frescoes as may be still seen in the faded ornamentation 
of the loggia at the Vatican. 

But one must turn to Japan and to the Japanese artist and artisan to 
find the greatest work in this line. Everywhere, on embroideries, inlays, 
lacquers, and kakamonies, may be found the numerous varieties of birds 
which must be a part of their natural history. Indeed they seem never to 
tire of giving a representation of the feathered tribe in some form. The 
sacred Ho bird, with its immense tail feathers, ofttimes comprises the sole 
ornament of some splendid box or plate. All their themes drawn from 
nature would naturally form a part, or background, one might say, for their 
bird life. The bronze castings will show with what loving care they repre- 
sent every feather, and all with such marvelous grace and lightness as to 
cause one to question the material. 

Going further round the world one finds in India a constant use of birds 
for decorative purposes. The brass work of Benares is generously loaded 
with birds, oftentimes with the peacock, which might not perhaps be termed 
a bird, but belongs to the tribe. The peacock throne of India was one of 
the wonders of the world, the body formed of gold, it glittered in a wealth 


Bulletin of the 

of the rarest gems, some of which to-day form a part of the priceless gems 
that decorate the 'crowns of European monarchs. 

Among the carvers of Switzerland birds are perhaps their greatest de- 
light. On almost every piece, clocks, frames or ornaments, they may be 
found peeping from behind some bit of leaf work or foliage, sometimes 
hovering over a nest in pairs, again they quarrel over a piece of fruit, 
always so naturally life like that one must not only admire the skill of work- 
manship but the love shown by the designer for his subject. vases and plaque 

Frederick Stearns Collection, Detroit Museum of Art. 

Birds form a part of many national symbols, such as the eagle of Prussia, 
Austria, France and America, and the story of old Abe, the pet eagle that 
followed an Illinois regiment throughout the war between the North and 
South, would make an interesting romance of itself. 

Again, to return to America, the bird forms a very important part of 
the lore and naturally the decorations found on the various articles made 
by the American Indian. 'Tis true the American artisans so far have made 
but small use of birds, and it seems somewhat strange that this should be 
so amidst such a wealth of material. Still we must not forget that we are 
still in a formative period — by and by the workman will awaken to the un- 
limited opportunities offered by our natural fauna and bird life for the 
blending of the two into a harmonious whole which shall be a delight to the 
eye and yet keep, or rather create, a national type of design suitable for 
many purposes for which heretofore we have borrowed from other sources. 

Detroit Museum of Art, Detroit, Michigan. 

Michigan Ornithological Club 37 



{Concluded from Vol. IV. page 40). 

89. Zamelodia ludoviciana (Linn.) Rose-breasted Grosbeak. — Abundant 
summer resident in favorable localities. Usually arrives during the first 
week in May — my earliest record is April 30, (1896). Departs from the mid- 
dle to the latter part of September. I saw my latest bird October 21, 1893. 

90. Cyanospisa cyanea (Linn.) Indigo Bunting. — Common summer resi- 
dent. Arrives May 3-13th, remaining until late September. 

91. Spisa americana (Gmel.) Dickcissel. — A somewhat rare summer 
resident in Wayne county, but more abundant in the surrounding counties. 
J. Claire Wood met with a flock July 30, 1899, in the reeds bordering the 
River Rouge, but I have heard of none being seen since. Purdy found two 
nests in 1891 at Plymouth, but stated that the bird is quite rare. I have found 
it breeding in St. Clair county. 

92. Piranga erythromelas (Vieill.) Scarlet Tanager. — Fairly abundant 
summer resident. Arrives from April 27 (1902) to May 10 (1891). The 
bulk of the species have departed by the middle of September. I have 
never seen the bird later than October 2 (1893). 

93. Petrochelidon lunifrons (Say) Cliff Swallow. — Fairly common from 
May 1st to September 1st. Breeds in colonies in suitable localities. 

94. Progne subis (Linn.) Purple Martin. — This is a common bird in 
certain sections, in others is entirely absent. Numbers are resident in the 
heart of the business section of Detroit, rare in the suburbs. Arrives from 
April 9 (1889) to April 26 (1896). In 1902 the first Martins appeared April 
24, in 1903 on April 19th. Depart around September 1st. 

95. Hirundo erythrogastcr (Bodd.) Barn Swallow. — An extremely 
abundant summer resident. My extreme dates for this bird's appearance 
arc April 10, 1899, April 29, 1900. Last seen September 29, in 1893. 

96. Iridoprocne bicolor (Vieill.) Tree Swallow. — An abundant sum- 
mer resident, generally here by the 15th of April. In 1901 I noted a few 
unusually early birds coursing over the River Rouge on March 27th. The 
main body are gone by late September ; I have noted them as late as Oc- 
tober 18 (1890). 

97. Clivicola riparia (Linn.) Bank Swallow. — Abundant, breeds in 
large colonies along the river, and at the St. Clair Flats, and suitable situa- 
tions inland. Arrives during late April, remaining well into September. 

98. Stelgidopteryx serripennis (Aud.) Rough-winged Swallow. — Not 
common, and rarely observed. I know of but one breeding resort where 
a few pairs occupy a sand blufT in connection with bank swallows. Arrive 
about May 1st. 

99. Aihpclis cedrorum (Vieill.) Cedar Waxwing. — A common summer 
resident, a few are occasionally observed in winter. Arrives from March 
11, (1890) to April 8, (1895). In the open pasture scrub lands this bird 
breeds well into September, much later than the orchard birds. Departs 
about October 15th. * 

38 Bulletin of the 

100. Ampclis garni lus (Linn.) Bohemian Wax wing. — I have no record 
of this erratic bird's occurrence in Wayne county. W. A. Brotherton has re- 
cently noted a large flock at Rochester, Oakland county, in November, 1903. 

{Bull. Mich. Orn. Club, v. 29). 

101. Lanius horealis (Vieill.) Northern Shrike. — An irregular winter 
visitor from November 1, (1901) to March 15, (1903). Some winters pass 
and apparently none are here. 

102. Lanius ludovicianus migrans (Palmer) Migrant Shrike. — Common 
summer resident, arrives generally about March 15th, sometimes during 
late P'ebruary. Remains until late October. 

103. Vireo olivaceus (Linn.) Red-eyed Vireo. — Abundant summer resi- 
dent. Arrives from April 28, (1895), to May 7, (1889). Departs in late 
September. A few linger as late as October 16 (1889), October 9 (1893). 

104. Vireo philadclphicus (Cass.) Philadelphia Vireo. — A rare, and irre- 
gular migrant. Personally I have never seen it in Wayne county, but I 
shot one male at St. Clair August 28, 1896 {Auk, 1904, p. 84). J. B. Purdy 
has taken one bird at Plymouth. J. Claire Wood has seen several in late 

105. Vireo gilvus (Vieill.) Warbling Vireo. — An abundant little song- 
ster ranking next to V. olivaceus. Arrives from April 27, (1896) to May 7, 
(1889). I have never observed it later than the 28th of September (1889), 
generally gone by the 15th, 

106. Vireo Havifrons (Vieill.) Yellow-throated Vireo. — Not common as 
compared with V. olivaceus, and gilvus. Summer resident, arrives from 
May 1st to the 10th. Departs in early September. 

107. Vireo solitarius (Wils.) Blue-headed Vireo. — Fairly abundant bird 
during the migrations. In spring it arrives here during the first week in 
May, passing north by the 15th. Returns on its passage south about Sep- 
tember 5th, a few lingering throughout the month. 

108. Mniotilta varia (Linn.) Black and White Warbler. — An abundant 
warbler during the migrations. A few pairs remain throughout the summer. 
J. Claire Wood has found several nests at Grosse Pointe Farms, Wayne 
county. One nest we inspected May 30, 1900, was cunningly situated in a 
crevice in the roots of a large oak. The female allowed herself to be caught 
without difficulty on the nest, which contained four eggs. Arrives from April 
24, (1889) to May 13, (1900) lingering as late as October 2, (1893). 

109. Protonotaria citrea (Bodd.) Prothonotary Warbler. — One record 
only, A. B. Covert identified one male at Grosse Pointe Farms May 9, 1903, 
while out with A. W. Blain, Jr. (See Bull. M. O. C. iv, p. 60). 

110. Helminthophila pinus (Linn.) Blue-winged Warbler. — A rare mi- 
grant. I have been able to learn of but one record. J. Claire Wood ob- 
served a pair May 29, 1902. Mr. Purdy has not met with it at Plymouth. 

111. Helminthophila chrysoptera (Linn.) Golden-winged Warbler. — A 
rather common summer resident. Arrives generally during the first week 
in May, remaining until the middle of September. 

112. Hclminthophi\a rubricapilla (Wis.) Nashville Warbler. — Common 

Michigan OrnithologicaIv Club 39 

migrant. Arrives from April 26 to May 3rd, remaining until the middle of 
May. Returns again in early September, remaining throughout the month. 

113. Helminthophila peregrina (W/ils.) Tennessee Warbler. — Fairly 
abundant during the fall migration, rare in the spring. Arrives about May 
10th, remaining as late as the 20th. In September it appears again, lingering 
until early October. In the fall of 1893 this was a very abundant warbler. 

114. Dendroica tigrina (Gmel.) Cape May Warbler. — A rare migrant, 
May and September. I believe that this warbler is more often observed in 
autumn. Mr. Purdy has never observed it at Plymouth. In 1903 I observed 
but one bird, a male, on May 12th, 

115. Dendroica aestiva (Gmel.) Yellow Warbler. — An abundant sum- 
mer resident. A uniform bird in its dates of arrival as the following dem- 
onstrates: April 27, 1889;- May 3, 1890; April 28, 1891; April 29, 1892; May 
1, 1893; April 28, 1894; April 25, 1895; April 18, 1896; April 26, 
1897; April 25, 1899; April 29, 1900; May 2, 1901; April 26, 1902; April 
29, 1903. The bulk of the species have departed by the first of September. 

116. Dendroica caerulescens (Gmel.) Black-throated Blue Warbler. — 
A fairly common migrant. Arrives from May 3rd, remaining as late as 
the 22nd in 1901, and the 17th in 1903. Reappears in early September, re- 
maining as late as October 4th, in 1893. 

117. Dendroica coronata (Linn.) Myrtle Warbler. — One of the most 
abundant migratory warblers. I have seen it as early as April 11, (1891), 
and as late as May 11, (1902). Returning in late September, remains well 
through October. In 1893 I observed several November 25th, an unusually 
late date. 

118. Dendroica maculosa (Gmel.) Magnolia Warbler. — Abundant mi- 
grant. Arrives in the first week of May, remaining about ten days. In 
1903 I saw one male May 24. Returns again September 1st, lingering until 
the 20th, occasionally later — in 1902, October 1st. 

119. Dendroica rara (Wils.) Cerulean Warbler. — A common summer 
resident. Arrived May 3rd, 1891, 1896; May 7, 1899; May 8, 1897. Departs 
September 15-10. TTiis species has been found breeding by several parties 
around Detroit. 

120. Dendroica pensylvanica (Linn.) Chestnut-sided Warbler. — A fairly 
abundant summer resident. Arrives about May 6th, remaining well into 

121. Dendroica castanea (Wils.) Bay-breasted Warbler. — Not a com- 
mon migrant. Arrives May 6-lOth, remaining but a few days. Again in 
September. In fall it is doubtless confused with D. striata, and as a result 
not recorded. I was able to secure several on May 8th, 15th, and 20th, 1904. 

122. Dendroica striata (Forst.) Blackpoll Warbler. — Common during 
the migrations, much more so in fall than in spring. Arrives May 10-15, 
and apparently lingers but a few days. Returns again around September 
10th, and remains through the first; week of October — a few occasionally 
are noted even later. 

123. Dendroica hlackhurniae (Gmel.) Blackburnian Warbler. — Fairly 

40 Bulletin ok the 

abundant migrant. 1 have seen it from May 3, (1903) until May 21, (1899). 
Again in September, in 189:5, remaining until the 30th. 

124. Dcndroica dotiiinica albilora (Ridg.) Sycamore Warbler. — From 
personal observation I know little of this warbler. Walter C. Wood secured 
a pair in July, 1899, and is of the opinion that they were breeding. {Auk, 
xvii, 1900, p. 391). Mr. Purdy has never met with it at Plymouth. 

12.'). Dcndroica vircns (Gmel.) Black-throated Green Warbler. — One of 
the abundant migratory warblers from May 1st to as late as the 20th, gen- 
erally the bulk are gone by the 10th. The re^iurn movement commences 
around the first of September, a few remaining as late as October 7th. 

12G. Dcndroica vigorsii (Aud.) Pine Warbler. — I have observed this 
bird but rarely in the May migrations, never in fall. Mr. Purdy says ''an 
occasional migrant." Careful, and extended observation is needed on the 
local warblers by competent observers before the abundance and extent of 
migrations can be definitely stated. 

127. Dcndroica palmarum (Gmel.) Palm Warbler. — Fairly abundant mi- 
grant, apparently more so in spring than in fall. I have notfed it from late 
.^pril until May 4th. Purdy has found it fairly abundant at Plymouth. Ar- 
rived May 4, 1902; May 2, 1903; May 1, 1904. 

128. Dcndroica discolor (Vieill.) Prairie Warbler. — 1 have never ob- 
served this personally, and J. Claire Wood and J. B. Purdy have similar 
experiences. W. A. Davidson states {Oologist, xii, p. 53) that he found it 
nesting near Detroit May 27, 1894, but the bird was not secured. 

129. Sciurns aurocapillus (Linn.) Ovenbird. — A common summer resi- 
dent. Arrives April 24th, in 1891, to May 7th, in 1901. Departs during the 
latter part of September. Octo'ber 5th, in 1893, is the latest autumnal record 
I have. 

130. Sciurus novcboraccnsis (Gmel.) Water Thrush. — 1 have not found 
this a common bird except during the period of its arrival. It reaches here 
during the first week in May, remaining until late September. In 1889 I 
noticed one October 8th. 

131. Sciurus motacilla (Vieill.) Louisiana Water Thrush. — Fairly com- 
mon species in spring, reaching here a little in advance of S. novcboraccnsis 
— April 20th — May 1st. Of late years I have found this to be more common, 
and have located a number of pairs. The song is exceptionally sweet, wild, 
and ringing, and the birds shy. Several nests have been found by local 
observers near Detroit. 

132. Gcothlypis Philadelphia (Wils.) Mourning Warbler. — Fairly abun- 
dant warbler during the migrations in May. J. Claire Wood met with a pair 
July 28, 1903, which might indicate tha* the birds had been breeding. I 
have not seen it in fall. 

133. Gcothlypis trichas brachidactyla (Swain) Northern Yellow-throat. 
— Abundant summer resident. Arrives from the 4th to the 10th of May. 
Departs in late September. In 1901 T observed several October 8th. 

134. Ictcria vircns (Linn.) Yellow-breasted Chat. — Locally a rare sum- 
mer resident. I have never met with it personally, and know of but two 

Michigan Ornithological Club 41 

instances of its occurrence here — both in May. W. A. Davidson found a 
pair breeding May 29, 1898, and on May 30, 1903, Chas. E. Wisner secured 
a set at Grosse Pointe Farms. The bird was not secured in either instance. 
135. Wilsonia mitrata (Gmel.) Hooded Warbler. — A rare migrant. 
"Rare at: Plymouth,'' Jas. B. Purdy. "Occasionally seen in fall,'' J. Claire 
Wood. I have met with but one bird, a male, September 19, 1903, at Belle 
Isle, Detroit River. 

136. JVilsonm pusilla (Wils.) Wilson's Warbler. — A rare bird locally. 
J. Claire Wood added this species to our Wayne County list on June 7, 1903, 
when he observed three birds. I have not seen it personally and it has not 
been taken at Plymouth. 

137. Wilsonia canadensis (Linn.) Canadian Warbler. — i have met with 
this species sparingly during the migrations. Arrives by May 10th, remaining 
but a few days. Again appears in fall by September 1st, lingering as late as 
September 30th in 1893. 

138. Sctophaga' ruticilla (Linn.) American Redstart. — This species 
rani s next to D. acstiva as our most abundant warbler. Arrives April 27- 
May 7i.h, departs September 23-30th. Breeds very abundantly in favorable 
localities as Grosse Pointe Farms. 

139. Anthus pcnsihanicus (Lath.) American Pipit. — Fairly abundant 
during the migrations but irregular. Sometimes appears in large flocks in 
the fields bordering the city in April and October. Seldom noted later than 
November 1st. 

140. Galcoscuptcs carolincnsis (Linn.) Catbird. — Abundant summer resi- 
dent. Arrives April 23 (1894) -May 13 (1900), usually here by May 1st. 
Departs September 21 (1902) -October 7 (1893.) 

141. Toxostoma rufiim (Linn.) Brown Thrasher. — A fairly common 
summer resident. Arrives April 2 (1889) -April 25 (1891), generally here by 
the middle of the month. Departs September 26-October 6th. 

142. Troglodytes acdon (Vieill) House Wren. — An abundant little bird, 
both in the country and city, especially in the parks. Arrives during the 
latter part of April, common by May 1st. Departs about September 20th. I 
have seen several as late as October 9th, in 1889. 

143. Olbiorchihis hyemalis (Vieill.) Winter Wren. — A fairly abundant 
migrant. Observed from March 10th to May 10th in spring, in fall September 
20th to October 6th. 

144. Tclmatodytes palustris (Wils.) Long-billed Marsh Wren. — An 
abundant summer resident in the river, and inland lake marshes, and at the 
St. Clair Flats. I have noted it as early as April 18th (1903) and as late as 
October 2n.d (1893.) 

145. Cistothorus stellaris (Licht.) Short-billed Marsh Wren. — Not a 
common summer resident. J. B. Purdy has found tw^o small colonies breeding 
near Plymouth. I have not met with it personally as yet. 

146. Certhia familiaris americana (Bonap.) Brown Creeper. — A fairly 
abundant migrant. Generally appears in September, remaining until about 
the middle of May. 

42 Bulletin of the 

147. Sitta carolincnsis (Lath.) W)hite-breasted Nuthatch. Abundant 
resident. Breeds in late /\pril, and early May. 

148. Sitta canadensis (Linn.) Red-breasted Nuthatch. — A fairly 
abundant migrant, occasionally seen in winter. Appears usually in early Sep- 
tember, sometimes during the latter part of August, remaining until Novem- 
ber. Becomes abundant again in early March-May 10. 

149. Bacolophiis bicolor (Linn.) Tufted Titmouse. — Common migrant 
in spring, not so abundant in fall. Is most numerous in February, March, 
and April, remaining well into May. A number remain throughout the win- 
ter. Does not breed to my knowledge. 

150. Parus atricapillus (Linn.) Chickadee. Common resident, breeds. 

151. Rcgulus satrapa (Licht.) Golden-crowned Kinglet. — An abundant 
migrant in early spring and fall, an irregular winter resident. Arrives from 
the north in late September, remaining until November 1st. In spring, March 
and April are the months of its greatest abundance. Seldom remains later 
than May 3rd. 

152. Rcgulus calendula (Linn.) Ruby-crowned Kinglet. — A common 
migrant, more abundant some years than in others. Arrives in late April, 
remaining until around May 10th. Returns in early September, finally depart- 
ing in October. 

153. Polioptila cacrulca (Linn.) Blue-gray Gnatcatcher. — Common sum- 
mer resident in some sections, in others not often observed. Arrives about 
April 28th, remaining until September 10th. 

154. Hylocichla mustclina (Gmel.) Wood Thrush. — Common summer 
resident. Arrives between the 23rd arrd 28th of April, common by May 1st. 
The bulk have left by October 1st, but I have observed several as late as 
October 19th, in 1902. 

155. Hylocichla fuscescens (Steph.) Wilson's Thrush. — An abundant 
summer resident. My extreme dates in spring of this bird's appearance are 
April 22 (1900) -May 4 (1902). Departs during the latter part of September, 
fatest record October 10th, in 1893. 

156. Hylocichla aliciac (Baird) Gray-checked Tlirush. — A not uncom- 
mon migrant. Arrives April 27th-May 21st, again in September. Careful 

notes on this bird here afe much to be desired, as it is confused with the 
olive-backed More extended work during the migrations will doubt- 
less find aliciae more common. First taken here in 1898 by J. Claire Wood. 

157. Hylocichla szvainsonii (Cab ) Olive-bicked Thrush. — A fairly com- 
mon migrant April 30th to May 15th. Again in September. 

158. Hylocichla guttata pallasii (Cab.) Hermit Thrush. — Common mi- 
grant. Arrives as a rule about the 18th of April; in 1S89 the first was ob- 
served April 3rd. Lingers until May 1st. In autumn appears in the latter 
part of September, a few remaining occasionally into November. 

159. Morula migratoria (Linn.) American Robin. — An abundant summer 
resident, a few remain throughout the winter. Arrives February 26-March 24, 
departs October 27-November 9. 

160. Sialia sialis (Linn.) Bluebird. — Common summer resident. The 

Michigan Ornithoi.ogicai. Club 


earliest in spring I have observed this bird is February 21, 1891. J. C. Wood 
has seen it February 10, 1903. Latest arrivals March 24, in 1895 and 1896, 
the years of the great scarcity of the species. Departs around November 1st. 
In 1889 I noted one bird December 8th. 


161. Meleagris gallopavo syhestris (Vieill.) Wild Turkey. — Now ex- 
tinct. Jas. B. Purdy writes : "Formerly quite abundant, of late years entirely 
extinct. I once found a nest, and eggs here (Plymouth) and raised some 
young. These were very shy, especially of dogs. They would run with tame 
turkeys during the day but retire at night by themselves to roost." 

162. Ectopistes migratorius (Linn.) Passenger Pigeon. — Once extremely 
.numerous, now probably extinct. The last record I have been able to obtain 

is an immature bird taken September 14, 1898, at Chestnut Ridge. {Bull. 
Mich. O. Club, iv, p. 81.) 

163. • Ceophloeus pileatus abieticola (Bangs) Northern Pileated Wood- 
pecker. — "Formerly common, when a boy, now extinct." J. B. Purdy. J. C. 
Wood saw one about 1886. 

164. Pinicola enuclcator leucura (Mull.) Canadian Pine Grosbeak. — This 
bird was first taken in this section during the past winter, 1903-4. Novem- 
ber 9th, 1903, two were shot near Detroit, and sent in to Louis J. Eppinger 
{Bull. Mich. O. C, iv, p. 97). On March 6, 1904, I met with two in Highland 

165. Helminth ophila cclata (Say.) Orange-crowned Warbler. — Mr. 
Purdy writes me that this is "an occasional migrant at Plymouth." I have 
never seen it here. 

Detroit, Michigan. 

OCT A/ £-A5r^^/v 



flDicbiGan ©rnitbolOQical Club 




131 Elmwood Avenue, - Detroit, Mich. 


Walter B. Barrows, - Agricultural College, Mfch. 
J. Claire Wood, - - - Detroit, Mich. 

Detroit, Mich., June, 1904. 

Subscription: In North America, fitty cents a year, strictly in advance. Single copies, tittcen 
cents. Foreign Subscription: Seventy-five cents a year to all countries in the Universal Postal Union. 
Free to Members of the Club not in arrears for dues. 

Exchanges and Mss. should be sent to the Editor. Dues, subscriptions and communications of a 
business nature should be sent to Chas. E. Wisner, 1115 Biooklyn Ave., Detroit, Mich. 


The publication in 1893 of "Cook's Birds of Michigan"' marked a new- 
epoch in the ornithology of the state — its influence cannot be over-estimated. 
The work, however, was unfortunate in some respects, many of the records 
being entered on insufficient evidence, and still others, appare.-tly on none at 
all. It nevertheless has served as a guide to students in the past eleven 
years. So much for the work of the past. 

The announcement of a new book on the birds of the state will be wel- 
comed by all, and the fact that the foremost ornithologist of the state is to 
undertake the task is still more reason why it will be welcomed. Years of 
work in the field, eight years as one of the ornithologists of the United States 
Government, not to speak of his labors in the museum and classroom as a 
professor of zoology, in our opinion, renders Mr. Barrows the fittest to com- 
pile a list of the birds which have been recorded in this s^ate. He has already 
spent ten years on the work and an abundance of good material has accumu- 
lated, but there is still much to be desired in the way of local lists before the 
work goes to press. All Michigan students should take a personal interest in 
the work and extend to the author all possible aid in forwarding the pleas- 
antly anticipated work. 

Michigan Ornithological Club 45 

The cut of the Redstart, by America's foremost bird-artist, Louis 
Agassiz Fuertes, pictured as a frontispiece to this issue, was loaned us 
through the courtesy of Dana, Estes & Co., i^oston, tne pubhshers of Dr. 
Coues' classic "Key to North American Birds." 

The Rev. Wm. R. Lord's lecture on birds, presented at the Detroit 
Museum of Art on June '^^a, unaer tne auspices of tne State Audubon 
Society, proved of much interest to the large audience that greeted him. 
Other lectures have been arranged for tne coming autumn and much good 
work will probably be accomplished during the present year. 

Earl MuUiken, formerly connected witn this journal, has moved to 
California. At the recent annual meeting of the Cooper Ornithological Club 
he was elected junior vice-president. 

The Atik for April announces the death of Gurdon Trumbull, a fellow 
of the American Ornithologists' Union, at his home in Hartford, Conn., in 
his sixty-third year. 

The case of Wm. J. Long had begun to hll many pages of Science when 
the editor gently pulled down the curtain. The woodcock surgery question 
especially was becoming extremely interesting, and lovers of sensational 
news will probably be disappointed at the action of Science's editor. 


The tenth annual meeting of the Michigan Academy of Science was held 
at Ann Arbor on March 31, April 1 and 2. The following officers were elected: 
President — Dr. A. C. Lane, Lansing. 
Vice-Presidents : 

Section of Agriculture — Prof. W. J. Beal, Agricultural College. 

Section of Botany — Prof. J. B. Dandeno, Agricultural College. 

Section of Geography and Geology — Prof. M. S. W. Jefferson, Ypsilanti. 

Section of Sanitary Science — Dr. T. B. Cooley, Ann Arbor. 

Section of Science Teaching — Prof. W. H. Sherzer. Ypsilanti. 

Section of Zoology — Dr. Raymond Pearl, Ann Arbor. 
Librarian — Dr. G. P. Burns, Ann Arbor. 
Secretary-Treasurer — Dr. Charles E. Marshall, Agricultural College. 

Many interesting papers were presented at the zoological section. Prof. 
H. L. Clark urged upon the Academy in general, and the zoological section 
in particular, the desirability of at once beginning a systematic biological sur- 
vey of the state. A very thorough discussion of the subject followed the 
reading of this paper. From the discussion it appeared that all present were 
agreed as to the desirability of such a survey but there was a difference of 
opinion as to the practical possibility of carrying it on in a profitable way 
under existing conditions. A committee of the section, consisting of Mr. 
Bryant Walker, Prof. H. L. Clark, Prof. W. B. Barrows, and Mr. C. C. 
Adams was appointed to consider the matter and report at the next meeting. 


Bulletin of the 






Michigan Ornithologicai. Club 47 


Dawson's Birds of Ohio. — (See page 25, March issue.) 

So many are the popular nature books dealing with birds that the 
student is apt to be rather skeptical regarding the announcement of a "new 
book on popular ornithology." Such was probably the view taken by many 
of the Rev. Wm. Leon Dawson's announcement of a new book on the birds 
of the Buckeye State. This skepticism has proved to be without grounds, 
however, as he has given us one of the most notable books on popular, 
scientific ornithology which has as yet appeared in this country. 

The work is an imperial quarto, printed on fine paper and illustrated by 
eighty colored plates, exclusive of the 700 or more pages of text. It is the 
200 finely prepared text cuts which will appeal to the student who is already 
familiar with most of the birds dealt with in the work. 

"Our medical advisers," says Prof. Lynds Jones in the Introduction, "are 
always prescribing more out-door exercise, but without any other object 
than getting into the fresh air exercise is pretty stupid. Give one the zest 
of finding new things which must be searched for, something which requires 
going after and the necessity of exercise is forgotten in the interest aroused 
by every receding bird." The reader of this work will not need the M. D.'s 
advice to "seek exercise in the fresh air," for but a glance through its pages 
tends to give one spring fever. 

The beginner will find the "Analytical Keys," also written by Prof. 
Jones, of much value and assistance. Preceding each biography is a descrip- 
tion of the bird — special stress being laid upon the "Recognition Marks." 
Then we have descriptions of the nesting, the "Range in Ohio" and "General 

While the author has drawn to an extent upon other works for informa- 
tion, we have in the main original observations on the birds of the state, 
written in a charming manner by one who knows his subject well. In 
Appendix A we have a "Hypothetical List." Appendix B is a "Conjectural 
List" and contains a list of birds which have been reported from adjacent 
states and may "occur at least casually in Ohio." Appendix C is a check-list 
of Ohio birds, together with "Migration Tables" as observed at Cincinnati, 
Columbus and Cleveland. 

As we have already stated, Mr. Dawson has given us one of the greatest 
works on popular, scientific ornithology which has yet been written — every 
student in the Great Lake region will find it interesting and profitable read- 
ing.— A. Wl. B., Jr. 

Cooper Ornithological Club Publications. — One of the most prosperous 
of the ornithological clubs in this country is the Cooper Club of California. 
Organized in 1893 it has ever since remained active. Who is not familiar 
with the "Cooper boys" of the West? The publications of this society are of 
two series : The Condor is a beautiful bi-monthly teeming with the breath of 
western fields and mountains — for four years edited by the late lamented 
Chester Barlow; now under the able direction of Walter K. Fisher. 

48 Bulletin of the 

The Pacific Coast Avifauna, consisting of articles of too lengthy a nature 
lo appear in its official organ, forms the other series. No. 4, the "Birds of 
the Huachuca Mountains, Arizona," by Harry S. Swarth, has just reached 
us. It is a most excellent piece of work and casts credit upon the club as 
well as the author. The publications of the Cooper Club may be secured 
from the business manager, Joseph Grinnell, Pasadena. — A. W. B., Jr. 

The Haunts of the Golden-Winged Warbler. By J. Warren Jacobs. 8 vo., 
30 pp. Published by the author at Waynesburg, Penna., 1904. Price 35c. 
This paper forms the third number of an interesting series entitled 
Gleanings, which are "based chiefly on the author's research in ornithology 
and oology and published from time to time as material and data permits." 
No. I, "Oological Abnormalities," appeared in 1898; No. H, ''The Story of a 
Martin Colony," in 1903. 

While the present paper dees not attempt a complete life history of this 
species it nevertheless gives us much valuable and original information 
concerning Helminthophila chrysoptcra in its habits, migration, nest 
building, song, food, young, eggs, etc. Of the hundreds of egg-collectors 
which America has produced Mr. Jacobs is one of the few who have at- 
tempted to make a systematic study of oology. 

The present paper is illustrated by eight half-tones from photographs 
showing the eggs, nesting location, and nature of country, and a color chart 
showing the various colors displayed on the shell. The work is neatly printed 
and forms a welcome contribution to our knowledge of the species. — A. W. 
B.. Jr. 

Additional Notes to Summer Birds of Flathead Lake, with Special Ref- 
erence to Swan Lake. By Perley Milton Silloway. — Bull. Univ. of Mont., 
No. 18, Biolog. Series No. 6.) 

A Revision of the American Great Horned Owls. rJy Harry C. Ober- 
holser. {Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., XXVH, pp. 172-192.) 

Color Key to North American Birds. By Frank M. Chapman. With 
Upward of 800 Drawings by Chester A. Reed. New York : Doubleday, 
Page & Co., 1903. 8 vo., pp. VI -f 312. 

A Guide to the Birds of New England and Eastern New York. By 
Ralph Hoffman. Illustrated by L. A. Fuertes and others. Boston and 
New York: Houghton, Mifflin & Co., 1904. 12 mo. XIII-f357 pp. 

Michigan Ornithological Club 49 


(Organized February 27, 1904.) 


79 Home Bank Building, Detroit. 

Since taking up the work of bird protection, the Michigan Audubon 
Society has met witn much encouragement, sometimes where least expected, 
while on the other hand it has been retarded by those who should be helpers. 
Local secretaries at Grosse Pointe, Muskegon, Hillsdale, Greenville, Smith's 
Creek and the Counties of Jackson, Oakland and Macomb assert that bird 
destruction is common. Appeals to the deputy game warden have proved 
useless. Prosecuting attorneys and sheriffs have not awakened to the situa- 
tion and it seems no aid is to be expected from them for the present. Mr. 
Bryant Walker, attorney for the Society, is taking up this phase of the 

The Society feels that the work accomplished has been of good service. 
Five thousand educational leaflets, bulletins and notices have been dis- 
tributed and a large number of schools and teachers have been reached. Mr. 
Martindale, Superintendent of Schools for Detroit, is encouraging bird study 
and bird protection and the school authorities at Muskegon and Grosse 
Pointe are doing active work. The Biological Survey of the U. S. Depart- 
ment of Agriculture forwarded 600 bulletins on "Our Common Birds," etc., 
which have been sent out, while more are promised. 

The Secretary has spoken to four boys' clubs and two adult societies 
and has posted notices in the woods surrounding Detroit giving a synopsis 
of the law relating to the protection of birds and the penalties for their 
destruction. Through the generosity of Mrs. R. A. Newman a stereopticon 
lantern has been purchased and slides are now being prepared through Mr. 
Dutcher, the National' Chairman, who has kindly loaned his slides to our 
Society. One thousand copies of the by-laws of the organization have been 
distributed and we will be obliged to order more. With the exception of a 
contribution from Hon. W. B. Mershon of Saginaw, who became a patron, 
the state has not aided financially, though many promises have been received. 

Rev. Wm. R. Lord of Rockland, Mass., stopped on his way from the 
Pacific coast to give an illustrated lecture on the "Ministry of Birds," and 
Mr. Wm. Dutcher promises to give a lecture in the autumn when the 
Society meets to consider a revision of the state law, which we trust will be 
such as to commend itself to the next state legislature. For the work up 
to date especial mention is due Miss Clara F. Dyar of Grosse Pointe for her 
constant devotion to the work. Jefferson Butler, 

State Secretary and Treasurer. 

50 Bulletin of the 



Editor of the "Bulletin": 

The remarks on the above subject, made in a recent issue of the Bulletin 
by Mr. Leon J. Cole, calls attention to some work that promises great possi- 
bilities in the way of scientific returns. Very interesting awd valuable results 
would undoubtedly accrue if young birds ,and as many old ones as possible, 
were systematically tagged. Some work along these lines has been done 
abroad and a little of it in this country. Professor Cooke has matured a 
plan of this kind for observing the migrations of Chimney Swifts and the 
winter movements of Blue-jays. His scheme, however, necessitates unusual 
advantages and leisure, and so cannot be taken advantage of except by those 
located under peculiarly favorable conditions. 


{From Coufs' Key) 

If, however, each young bird the field workers of the country came across 
were tagged and the older ones systematically trapped in the shrubbery of the 
immediate neighborhood and treated in the same way the maximum amount 
of results could be attained with the minimum amount of time and labor. 
If even a few such birds should again turn up it would be well worth work- 
ing for. 

The tags for large birds are easily decided upon. Those for smaller ones, 
i. e., sparrows, etc., require more careful consideration. They must be light 
and small so as not to hamper the bearer and strong enough to resist the 
wear and tear, and of some inert substance that will not corrode, rust or 
cause inflammations and sores. And with all this they must be large enough 
to bear an inscription of some sort as a means of ready identification. 

I should suggest that aluminum bands be stamped with a number and bent 

Michigan Ornithological Club 51 

in the form of the letter C. These should be issued by some central body to 
avoid confusion and duplication of numbers, who would keep a record of the 
numbers and to whom sent. 

One of these slipped over a bird's tarsus and closed with the pressure 
of the thumb and finger seems to fulfill the before mentioned requirements. 
They are light, strong and non-corrosive. In the case of the smaller birds 
it seems impossible to put any more than a mere number on the tags. An 
address to which to send records would be desirable but hardly practicable. 

A record of each number attached, date, place and species thus marked 
would be made. If a bird turned up anywhere the central body would be 
notified. Their records would show to whom that number was issued and 
the field notes would complete the record. 

Such a scheme as this, if widely known and practiced, would in time lead 
to some very interesting results. It would require the co-operation of the 
ornithologists all over the continent to arrive at the highest degree of effi- 
ciency. But even one man would soon be able to decide such questions as 
whether a bird returns to the same locality or migrates by the same exact 
routes year after year. 

This seems to be one of the most promising fields open for ornithological 
work just now and I would greatly like to see the Michigan Ornithological 
Club take hold of something of the sort and make a start. I have had a few 
such bands made and am using them as above now. It is needless to say that 
I request that anyone taking such marked specimens will communicate with 
me. I should be pleased also to hear from anyone interested in the work. 

Detroit, May i8th. P. A. Taverner. 


The first Quarterly Meeting was held at the Detroit Museum of Art on 
February 5th, 1904. In the absence of the president, J. Claire Wood presided. 
The first paper was by A. B. Klugh of Guelph, Ontario, on "Our Winter 
Visitors" (published in the Oologist, Vol. XXI, p. 44). This paper was read 
by Mr. Blain in the absence of the author. A discussion followed on the 
Pine Grosbeak. Walter C. Wood spoke at length on his trip to the 
Cheneux Islands and Mackinac County in October, 1903. Among interesting 
notes were observations on the Pileated Woodpeckers, Pine Grosbeak, Am. 
Crossbills and Am. Scoters. Passenger Pigeons were reported to be still 
occasionally seen. Charles E. Wisner read a paper on a trip taken to the 
Hen and Chicken Islands in Lake Erie on June 3rd, 1903. Common Terns 
were found breeding in great numbers — over 1,200 pairs. J. Claire Wood 
read a paper on "Migration," which created much discussion. 

Discussion followed on the formation of a Michigan Audubon Society. 
Jefferson Butler was elected a representative of the Club to look into the 
matter. Letters of acceptance of honorary membership from Dr. J. A. Allen, 
Mr. Ridgway and Mr. Brewster were read by the Secretary. Adjourned. 

52 Bulletin of the 

The Annual Meeting was held at Ann Arbor on April 2nd, in the U. of 
M. Museum. A business session was called at 11 a. m. in the curator's 
office. In the absence of the President and Vice-President, Jefferson Butler 
presided. Reports were given by the Secretary, Treasurer and Editor. The 
election of officers for 1903-4 followed. (See page 56 of this issue.) Owing 
to the formation of an Audubon Society the Bird-Protection Committee was 
dropped. Other business matters were discussed. 

The afternoon session was held in the Museum lecture room. About 60 
members and visitors were present. The following papers were presented : 
"Notes on the Bald Eagle in Michigan," Wilfred A. Brotherton. "The Winter 
Birds Observed About Ypsilanti, Mich.," Dr. John Van Fessen (read by Max. 
M. Peet in the absence of the author). "The Birds of Michigm ' Prof. 
Walter B. Barrows. "The Migration Route of Kirtland's Warbler," Chas. C. 
Adams (published in this journal, Vol. V., pp. 14-21). "The Michigan 
Audubon Society," Jefferson Butler. "Notes on the Avifauna of OscoJa 
County, Mich.," Norman A. Wood. "The Future for Ornithological Work- 
in Michigan," Alex. W. Blain, Jr. Remarks followed by Prof. 11. L. Clark. 

After a social time the meeting adjourned. 

Bradshaw H. Swales, Secretary. 

1 he Second Ouarfcrly Meeting was held at the Detroit Museum of Art on 
May 6th. Vice-President Griffith in the chair; ten members present. In the 

absence of the Secretary, the undersigned was appointed acting Secretary. 

Adolph B. Covert read a paper on the John Lewis Childs Collection and 
his recent trip through the East. A. W. Blain, Jr., presented by title a paper on 
"Tw^o Rare Michigan Birds." Discussion followed on the Heath Hen, the 
Horned Larks and their sub-species, the Ow^ls, etc. Question raised by Mr. 
Covert: Where do the Michigan Red-bellied Woodpeckers breed? 

Business meeting followed. Prof. Wm. B. Hinsdale, Edward Arnold 
and P. A. Taverner were appointed a Membership Committee. 

Dr. C. Hart Merriam of Washington, D. C, and Dr. Jonathan Dwight, 
Jr., of New York City were elected to honorary membership. 

The following active members were elected: Rev. Alfred H. Barr, Roy 
J. Buell, Wm. H. Dunham, Walter Greenburg, Dr. W. A. Hart, Harry C. 
Oberholser, Miss Jessie Phelps, Otto M. Creary, A. B. Klugh, P. A. Taverner, 
Walter G. Kimball, Dr. Guy C. Rich, John E. Thayer, Dr. G. F. Richardson, 
Adolph E. Schulte, Wm. R. Hamilton. 

Meeting adjourned to August 5th, 1904. 

P. A. Taverner, Scc'y, pro tem. 

Michigan Ornithological Club 




The general museum occupies the larger part of the second floor of the 
Libi/ary and Museum Building, the rest of the upper floor holding the 
laboratories and lecture rooms of the Department of Zoology and Physiology. 
The main museum hall has sixteen large cases and fotir smaller ones con- 
taining collections of birds, mammals, reptiles, fishes, marine invertebrates, 
shells, insects, rocks, minerals and fossils. 

The collection of mounted birds, while not extraordinarily large, com- 
prises specimens of all the common Michigan species and many of the rarer 
ones. It occupies four of the large cases just mentioned and includes about 
600 specimens. Among the less common species are four good specimens of 
the Passenger Pigeon, two White Pelicans, a Brunnich's Murre (first record 
for the state), a Parasitic Jaeger (the first record for Michigan), as well as 
Holboell's Grebe, Northern Raven, and a fine Wild Turkey, taken in Clinton 
County, in 1871. Some of the best specimens were mounted by the late 

54 Bulletin of the 

Percy S. Selous of Greenville and show exceptionally good work. Many of 
the older specimens were mounted by College students at various times 
during the last thirty years and of course few of them are "in the highest 
style of the art," but are more valuable now, since the species have become 
rare. The collection includes one or more specimens of every species of 
owl known to inhabit the state, and each represented by specimens actually 
taken within its limits. Among these are a Barn Owl, two Hawk Owls, a 
Great Gray, and Richardson's. In addition to the mounted specimens the 
museum has nearly a thousand bird-skins, including some very nice series 
and a few record specimens. Among the latter is a Western Meadow-lark 
taken by Mr. O. B. Warren in Marquette County in 1897. The foundation 
of this collection of skins was laid in 1893, when the College obtained from 
Dr. Morris Gibbs of Kalamazoo his collection of about 500 specimens. In 
1897 one hundred more skins were obtained' from Mr. E. D. Sanderson of 
Lansing, and about 50 more from Mr. Warren of Marquette County. In 
1901 we acquired the bird collection of Leon J. Cole, some 200 skins, and 
each year since 1893 the officers and students of the College have been 
adding specimens to this collection. 

The collection of birds' eggs is by no means as complete as that of the 
birds themselves, but it contains several rarities and a large number of well 
authenticated sets. — W, B, B. 


Mr. Louis J. Eppinger, the taxidermist of this city, received during the 
past few months three specimens which are worthy of mention : 

Colymbus holhcellii (Holboell's Grebe.) — An adult female of this species 
was shot near Capac (St. Clair County), Michigan, February 15th, 1904, by 
W. J. Lester. This state has few records for this species but like other 
rare waterfowl many are shot by sportsmen and left to decay. The author 
met with this bird at Niagara Falls, the 20th of last September. (See Auk 
XXI, p. 276.) 

Nycticorax nycticorax naruius (Black-crowned Night Heron). — On May 
5th, 1904, an adult male "Quawk" was shot by Wm. Daily at the St. Clair 
Flats. This species is rarer in this state, I believe, than is generally sup- 
posed. Various reports have reached me from time to time of some herony 
of night herons, but investigation invariably proves them to be other jnem- 
bers of the family. This species, however, probably breeds in the state. 

Falco peregrinus anatum (Duck Hawk). — A beautiful female of the 
"Noble Peregrine" was shot on the outskirts of Detroit by A. B. Schroder 
on March 25th, 1904. It was probably following the wild fowl on the Detroit 
River. This species is commoner in the northern part of the state, where it 
possibly breeds. The above specimen makes the first record for Wayne 
County. Alexander W. Blain, Jr. 

Detroit, Mich. 

Michigan OrnithologicaIv Club 55 



Thave been much interested in the notes on the nesting of the Chimney 
Swifts {Chactura pclagica), published in recent issues of the Bulletin, (Vol. 
IV, pp. 82 and 95), by J. Claire Wood and Frederick C. Hubel. 

In my home county (Kalkaska Co., Mich.), in the northwestern part of 
the southern peninsula, it breeds very abundantly, but in altogether different 
locations from those mentioned by the two former authors. In former years 
this species occupied hollow trees and does yet to a certain extent, but its 
chief nesting site is the open wells, many of which are still in use. As 
the settlements are comparatively new there are few large buildings and 
consequently few chimneys suitable for nesting. 

The wells which they occupy are about 4 feet in diameter and from 20 
to 100 feet deep, their sides being curbed with boards and rising from 4 to 
6 feet above the ground. If the well is not too deep the -nest, which is 
located quite close to the water, can usually be seen by lowering a lantern 
to the level of the nest and using an opera glass, or by throwing light on 
the nest by means of a mirror. There are usually only one or two nests in 
a well, but nearly every open well has its pair of birds. 

Detroit College of Medicine. Wm. H. Dunham. 


I have received from Mr. Howard Skales, of Mount Forest, Ont., for 
identification a White-eyed Vireo {Virco noveborancensis) , sex undetermined. 
It was shot in a wild plum tree in an orchard in Mount Forest on Sept, 28th, 
1902, by Mr. Skales. 

This is the third record for Ontario ; the first being taken by Mr. W. L. 
Kells at Listowel in the middle of October, 1890, and the second by Mr. W. 
D. Hobson two miles from Woodstock on April 25, 1902. 

Guelph, Ontario. A. B. Klugh. 


When we consider the dates of nesting birds and flowering plants we 
find that the limit is in favor of the birds, though it is not generally under- 
stood so. Let us see. The first species of flower to appear in the spring, 
north of the 42nd parallel is acknowledged by all observers to be the Skunk 
Cabbage, which blooms, as a rule, in early April, but not rarely in March, 
while the latest flower to my finding, is the witch hazel, which sends out its 
inconspicuous blossoms in October. 

Now among the early nesting birds we have at least ten species which 
are known to nest in March and one, the Great Horned Owl, which lays its 
eggs in February as a rule and occasionally in January. As a legitimate nester 
in the autumn we have the Goldfinch, which is not rarely found to lay its 
eggs in September. Thus we find that the range of nesting birds is wider 
than the flowering time of our northern plants, though many will dispute this 
on first mention. 

Kalamazoo, Mich. Morris Gibbs, M. D. 

56 Bulletin of the 


President Walter B. Barrows, F. A. O U. 

Vice-Presidents A. H. GrirhtH, James B. Purdy, Norman A. Wood 

Secretary Bradshaw H. Swales 

Treasurer Charles E. Wisner 


Editor Alexander W. Blain, Jr. 

Associate Editors Walter B. Barrows, J. Claire Wood 


Charles C. Adams, Chairman, Bryant Walker 

A. D. Tinker, Norman A. Wood. 


W. B. Hinsdale, M. D., Chairman, Edward Arnold 

P. A. Taverner. 

Dr. J. A. Allen, Am. Mus. Nat. History, New York City. 
William Brewster, Cambridge, Mass. 

Dr Jonathan Dwight, Jr., 2 East 34th Street, New York City. 
Dr. C. Hart Merriam, Dept. of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. 
Robert Ridgway, Smithsonian Inst., Washington, D. C. 


Edward Arnold, Battle Creek. 

Charles C. Adams, Univ. of Mich. Museum, Ann Arbor. 

Andrew .A.llison, 630 Pine Street, New Orleans, La. 

Gerard A. Abbott, 945 Marquette Bldg., Chicago, 111. 

George E. Atkinson, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. 

Miss D. M. Brewster, 1115 Brooklyn Avenue, Detroit. 

Claude Barlow, Greenville. 
♦Alexander W. Blain, Jr., 131 Elmwood Ave., Detroit. 

Dr. J. Harvey Blain, Prescott, Arizona. 

A. Bertling, 23 Fitzroy Road, Regents Park, London, Eng. 

Rev. Alfred H. Barr, Jefferson Avenue, Detroit. 

Roy J. Buell, 191 Park St., Detroit. 

Wilfred A. Brotherton, Rochester. 

C. H. Burroughs, Museum of Art, Detroit. 

Bruce K. Burgess, 920 E. Washington. Ann Arbor. 
♦Jefferson Butler, 79 Home Bank Bldg., Detroit. 
*Prof. Walter B. Barrows, Agricultural College P. O. 

Maj. A. H. Boies, Hudson, Mich. 

Jesse T. Craven, 572 Hubbard Avenue, Detroit. 

Rev. J. A. Chapin, 432 Cadillac Avenue, Detroit. 

John Lewis Childs, Floral Park, N. Y. 

Leon J. Cole, 41 Wendell Street, Cambridge, Mass. 

Adolphe B. Covert, Ann Arbor. 

Michigan Ornitholgical Club 57 

Prof. Hubert Lyman Clark, Olivet College, Olivet. 

Mrs. S. W. Clarkson, 1816 Tappan Street, Ann Arbor. 

Dr. Theo. L. Chapman, Duluth, Minn. 

Wm. A. Davison, 383 Morrell Avenue, Detroit 

Ruthven Deane, 504 North State Street, Chicago, 111. 

Wm. H. Dunham, Detroit College of Medicine, Detroit. 

Miss Clara E. Dyar, Crosse Pointe Farms, 

Rev. W. Leon Dawson, Columbus, Ohio. 

Fred. M. Dille, 044 Gilkin Street, Denver, Colorado. 

Wm. Dutcher, 525 Manhattan Avenue, New York City, N. Y. 

Newell A. Eddy, 615 North Grant Street, Bay City. , 

♦Louis J. Eppinger, 516 Chene Street, Detroit. 

George J. Frederick, Hayell Valley Farm, Brooklyn. 

Earl H. Frothingham, Ann Arbor. 

Chas. F. Freiburger, Jr., 462 Cadillac Boulevard, Detroit. 

Dr. Morris Gibbs, Kalamazoo. 

Ed. H. Gillman, 91 Miami Avenue, Detroit. 

Ralph W. Grenell, 140 Breckenridge Avenue, Detroit. 

A. H. Griffith, Museum of Art, Detroit. 

Benjamin T. Gault, Glen Ellyn, 111. 

Wilbur H. Grant, 1414 Washtenaw Avenue, Ann Arbor. 

Dr. Neal A. Ga'es, Dexter. 

Mrs. George Gundrum, Ionia. 

Walter Greenburg, I.TIS Chamber of Commerce, Detroit. 

Wm. R. Hamilton, Detroit. 

Dr. W. A. Hart, Lapeer. 

Prof. W. B. Hinsdale, Oil Forest Street, Ann Arbor. 

Thomas L. Hankinson, Charleston, 111. 

Hugh A. Hackett, Box 245, Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, Md. 

Glenn V. Harris, 392 Bowen Street, Detroit. 
♦Frederick C. Hubel, 112 Alexandrine Avenue West, Detroit. 

Dr. Geo. M. Hull, Ypsilanti. 

J. Warren Jacobs, Waynesburg, Penna. • 

Prof. Lynds Jones, Oberlin, Ohio. 

A. B. Klugh, Guelph, Ontario. ' 

Walter G. Kimball, Canton, N. Y. 

Mrs. Franklin A. Kelsey, Holmcroft, Crosse Isle. 

F. H. Lord, Capac. 
*Edwin G. Mummery, 24 East Atwater Street, Detroit. 

Dr. Philip E. Moody, 693 Second Avenue, Detroit. 

Dr. Raymond E. Miller, 31 Winder Street. Detroit. 

George W. Morse, Ashley, Indiana. 

Miss Evangeline McMahon, 769 Jefferson Ave., Detroit. 

Otto M. Creary, 802 Oakland Avenue, Ann Arbor. 

T. F. Mcllwraith, Hamilton, On<-ario. 

Dr. Walter P. Manton, 32 Adams Avenue West, Detroit. 


58 Bulletin of the 

C. A. Newcomb, Jr., 1G4 Putnam Avenue, Detroit. 

Mrs. R. A. Newman, 1630 Jefferson Avenue, Detroit. 

Harry C. Oberholser, 1454 Sheridan Avenue N. W., Washington, D. C. 
Hon. Chase S. Osborn, Sault Ste. Marie. 

Harry K. Pomeroy, Kalamazoo. 

James B. Purdy, Plymouth. 

Arthur E. Price, Grant Park, 111. 

Rev. P. B. Peabody, Sundance, Wyoming. 

Clifford Preston, Dexter. 

Miss Jessie Phelps, Ypsilanti. 

Max M. Peet, 301 North Washington Street, Ypsilanti. 

Dr. G. F. Richardson, Mt. Pleasant. 

Dr. Guy C. Rich, Sioux City, Iowa. 

Archer F. Ritchie, 788 Champlain Street, Detroit. 
J. J. Ricks, Chicago, 111. 

Prof. Jacob Reighard, Univ. of Mich., Ann Arbor. 

A. G, Ruthven, Ann Arbor. 

Chas. B. Rarden, Greenville. 

Mrs. S. C. Rowison, 31 Madison Avenue, Grand Rapids. 

Hubert E. Sargent, Museum, Grand Rapids. 

Adolph E. Schulte, Austin, Texas. 

E. O. Scott, 519 St. Johns Street, Ypsilanti. 
Bert Stowell, Pontiac. 

Wm. E. Saunders, London, Ontario. 

Prof. P. M. Silloway, Lewistown, Montana. 
*Bradshaw H. Swales, 46 Earned Street West, Detroit. 

Miss Harriet W. Thompson, 318 North Ingalls Street, Ann Arbor. 

John E. Thayer, Lancaster, Mass. 
*P. A. Taverner, 95 N. W. Grand Boulevard, Detroit. 

A. .D. Tinker, 334 South State Street, Ann Arbor. 

Dr. John Van Fossen, Ypsilanti. 

Miss Bess. M. Voorman, Dowagiac, Mich. 

Hon. Peter White, Marquette, Mich. 
*J. Claire Wood, 179 17th Street, Detroit. 
*Norman A. Wood, Univ. of Mich. Museum, Ann Arbor. 
♦Walter C. Wood, 179 17th Street, Detroit. 

O. Widman, 5105 Morgan Street, St. Louis, Mo. 

L. D. Watkins, Manchester. 

L. Whitney Watkins, Manchester. 

Harry S. Warren, 149 Gladstone Avenue, Detroit. 

*Charles E. Wisner, 1115 Brooklyn Avenue, Detroit. 
♦Bryant Walker, 18 Moffat Bldg., Detroit. 

Dr. Robt. H. Wolcott, Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, Neb. 

Mrs. Lucy Williams, Lapeer, Mich. 

F. R. Williams, 598 South State Street, Ann Arbor. 


Michigan Ornithological Club 69 


Dr. Elliot Cones (Honorary) December 25, 1899 

H. G. Bailey '. March 23, 1899 

Roy G. Fitch July 18, 1895 

Dr. Manly Miles February 15, 1898 

Dewitt W. J. Oakley March 18, 1898 

Chief Simon Pokagon January 27, 1899 

Percy S. Selous April 7, 1900 


[From Coues' Key) 





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Oknitholoqical Club 

Qaar/erf^ in Ihe Werests of -* 

Omitliolo^y in the Great Lake PeJ'ion. 

MSSI'^tOl'iPc, S^e^MHiCiSM 



Cory's Lrcast Bittern and Least Bittern. By P. A. 

Taverner Frontispiece 

Birds of the Beaver Islands, Michigan. By Prof. 

W. B. Barrows 63 

Nesting: of Kirtland's Warbler in Northern Michi- 
gan, 1904. By E. Arnold 67 

Notes from the Field and Museum 

Cory'^s Bitierfi at the St, Clair Flats 68 

Curious Death of Some Tree Swallows 68 

Breeding of the Broad Winged Hawk 69 

Nesting of the Pine Siskin and Red* Breasted 

Nuthatch 69 

Editorial 70 

Michigan Ornithologists {6th series). Halftones 
of Prof. W. B. Hinsdale. Hon. L. Whitney 
Watkins, J. Wilbur Kay, Jesse T. Craven 72 

Audubon Department. By T. Jefferson Butler. ... 73 
Map of Michigan 74 


is published on the fifteenth of March, June, September 
and December, by the Michigan Ornithological Club, at 
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Entered April aoth, 1903, at Detroit, Mich., as secoad-class mail matter under the Act ot 

Congress July i6th, 1894. 







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Michigan Ornithological Club 

Published Quarterly in ti£e Interests of Ornithology 

IN THE Great Lake Region. 

Vol. V. SEPTEMBER, 1904. No. 3. 



The Beaver Island group consist of nine islands which occupy an irregu- 
larly oval space some thirty miles by twenty in northern Lake Michigan, 
the nearest point to the mainland being the eastern shore of Big Beaver 
island which is about eighteen and a half miles directly west of Cross Vil- 
lage, Emmet Co., Mich. The islands, however, belong to Charlevoix County. 
Big Beaver, the largest of the group, is about thirteen miles long from north 
to south and about six and a quarter miles east and west at its widest part. 
Near its extreme northern end lies its only harbor, on which is situated the 
thriving little town of St. James, with its lumber mill, stores, church, school. 
and numerous dwelling houses. The northern third of the island is sandy 
and rather barren, much of it being pastured with cattle and sheep, so that 
there are extensive sandy plains, in some places completely grassed over or 
coated with reindeer moss, but often thickly sprinkled with the circular 
patches of the ground-cedar or juniper {Juniperns communis), and with 
white and yellow pines here and there. In the hollows and along the shore 
there is a denser growth of evergreens among which the balsam spruce pre- 
dominates, though white cedar (arbor-vitae), white pine, and tamarack also 
occur. There are several dense tamarack swamps within a mile or two of 
St. James, and a beautiful little lake half a mile or more in diameter (Font 
Lake) gives an added picturesqueness to the place. 

The middle and southern parts of the island contain some good agricul- 
tural land, part of which is occupied by prosperous farms. The larger part, 
however, is still covered with timber, mainly beech, maple, hemlock, balsam, 
white cedar and tamarack., I spent most of two days in studying the birds 
of this island, and most of the land-birds noted were observed here. My 
observations, however, were confined to the northern third of the island and 
it is probable that many other species would have been found in the large 
stretches of hardwood further to the south. I found neither gulls nor 
terns nesting on this island. 

Three other islands are large enough to support good farmsj and two 

64 Bulletin of the 

of them, High Island and Garden Island, are fairly well populated. The 
third, Hog Island, is inhabited only by indians. 

The remaining five islands are much smaller, ranging from little more 
than a mile to considerably less than a half mile in diameter. All are sur- 
rounded by dangerous shoals and here and there a reef lifts its threatening 
head above the waves. Fishing, lumbering and farming, in the order named, 
are the principal pursuits of the people, and the Beavers are noted for the 
fine quality of their lake trout and whitefish. 

I spent nearly a week among the Beavers, arriving at St. James on 
Friday, July 8, 1904, and leaving the group on the following Wednesday, 
the 13th. My principal object was to ascertain the status of the colonies 
of gulls and terns which were supposed to exist there, but I also desired to 
compare the avifauna of these islands with that of the neighboring mainland 
of Emmet and Charlevoix counties. 

St. James proved to be the headquarters for the summer of one division 
of the U. S. Lake Survey and through the courtesy of the engineer in charge, 
Mr. W. J. Graves, of Detroit, and several of his assistants, I was able to 
ascertain without loss of time the character, size and accessibility of the 
various islands and reefs, as well as the location of the principal nesting 
•places of the water-birds. I am also greatly indebted to Capt. John Mc- 
Cann, of the tug Margaret McCann, and Capt. John A. Dahlmer, of the tug 
Knapp for transportation to and from the several islands, as well as for 
valuable information in regard to the natural history of the group. 

The field glass was used constantly, but specimens were shot whenever 
necessary for positive identification. In all fifty-three species were noted 
and with the exception of two species of ducks and a single hawk, of which 
no specimens were obtained, I saw no birds about which there was any ques- 
tion. Very little time was spent in nest hunting, for the date made it fairly 
certain that almost every species there was nesting. In fact I think this 
may be assumed for every species seen, with the possible exception of the 
White-winged Crossbill. ^ 

In the main the landbirds were the same as those of the Little Traverse 
Bay region nearby, but there were many surprising omissions, some of which 
can be accounted for on the ground that there was no suitable place for 
them in the territory which I covered, and that they may — and probably did — 
occur in more favorable spots on Big Beaver or on some of the islands 

This will not account, however, for the total absence of such species as 
the Brown Thrasher, Chewink, Catbird, Rose-breasted Grosbeak, Nighthawk, 
Chimney Swift and Downy Woodpecker, no one of which was observed 
though all are more or less common on the adjacent main land. True T 
was told by residents that the three latter species do occur; but the Swift 
and Nighthawk may be only migrants and the Downy Woodpecker is readily 
confounded with the Hairy. 

The following are the species actually observed : 

{The numbers in parentheses are those of the A. O. U. Check-list.) 

Michigan Ornithological Club 65 

1. (7). Loon, Gavia imher. Several pairs seen, one with two newly 
hatched young. 

2. (51). Herring Gull, Larus argentatiis. The only gull found about 
the islands; nesting in several places, though most of the nests were empty 
and very few young were seen. The nests were alwa^^s on the ground, in 
driftwood, or among grass or bushes, never on bushes or low trees although 
the old birds frequently alighted on the tops of the stunted evergreens near 
the nests. These were often bulky and well built and frequently lined in 
part at least with green moss and fresh weed stems or ferns. Nests in which 
young had been reared were comparatively scarce and it was evident that 
hundreds of nests had been robbed and abandoned. Among more than four 
hundred nests examined on one island all but two were empty, each of 
these containing a single fresh egg. Possibly a half dozen downy young 
were seen trotting about among the cornel bushes or hiding in the weeds 
and grass, while not more than a score at most were swimming about a few 
rods from shore, and less than a dozen already able to fly were wheeling 
about with the old ones overhead. There were not less than two thousand 
of these adults and it is to be hoped that some of them subsequently laid 
more eggs and reared young on the island. Doubtless human brutes were 
partly responsible for this state of affairs, but there is every probability that 
this island is overrun with foxes which naturally feast on young gulls and 
eggs as a change from the steady diet of rabbit which is their main depend- 
enc-e. I saw several rabbits (hares), and many remnants of rabbits and 
gulls, but did not see any foxes or find their tracks or burrows, but the 
island was about a mile in diameter, much of it densely wooded, and I wa^ 
able to spend only an hour on it. 

3. (64). Caspian Tern, Sterna caspia. This beautiful bird, the largest 
of the genus, is far from common. Just' before entering the Bay of St. 
James I heard its hoarse "quawk" and saw a single one flying high over 
the island. Subsequently several more were seen but the islanders did not 
seem tO' discriminate this species from the common Herring Gull, and it was 
several days before I could locate the breeding ground, a tiny ledge nearly 
a dozen miles away. At last I lamded on the little islet in a dense fog only 
to find a hundred or more empty nests and a flock of angry terns filling 
the air with their hoarse cries. As I drew my skiff up on the steep 
shingle I found scattered eggs of the Common Tern about my feet and soon 
noticed three large heaps of mixed eggs, more or less broken, w^here they 
had been hurriedly thrown together as they were collected from the nests. 
There were more than two hundred eggs of the Caspian Tern in these three 
heaps and probably half as many of the Common Tern. Evidently they had 
been collected in this way by someone who had done the work thoroughly, 
and with the intention of returning on the next day to collect the fresh-laid 
eggs for eating. The crew of the tug from which I had landed were unani- 
mous in attributing this dastardly work to some "Frenchmen" known to be 
haunting neighboring islands and living by fishing, wood-cutting and stealing. 
They scouted the idea that any "white fisherman," or even Indian, would be 
guilty of such meanness. 

66 Bulletin of the 

The ledge or reef was barely fifty-five yards long by about twenty 
broad, a mere bank of limestone pebbles without a handful of sand, and 
capped with a narrow flat bench of cement-like mud, evidently guano. On 
this flat top were the nests of the Caspian Tern, about one hundred and ten 
in all, often so close together that the sitting birds must have been able to 
touch each other. Each nest was a neat saucer-shaped hollow, a little less 
than seven inches in diameter, made of limestone pebbles about the size of 
chestnuts and neatly lined or paved with similar, but apparently flatter peb- 
bles. Sometimes there was an outer rim of pebbles raised a little above the 
surrounding level, sometimes the rim was flush with the surface. Not a 
stick or straw or fiber of any kind entered into the structure, and I found 
no vegetation of any kind on the reef. Not a single egg was found in any 
of these nests, although most of the nests of the Common Tern in the 
shingle close by contained one fresh egg each. Most of the eggs in the 
heaps were much incubated (the embryos dead but not much decomposed), 
and some of them must have been just ready to hatch when taken from 
the nests. Two newly hatched young were found burrowing among the 
coarse pebbles and from the fact that they were in a dying condition it is 
not unlikely that they were hatched after the eggs were removed from the 

The old birds were quite unsuspicious at first and constantly flew over 
and past me at distances of twenty yards or less and I watched them and 
the Common Terns carefully for an hour or more in the hope of finding 
some other species. Finally one of each kind was shot, after which the Cas- 
pians all withdrew to a neighboring island and did not return until after 
my departure. The fog was so dense that I was held prisoner for a couple 
of hours in spite of my desire to get away and let the troubled birds return. 
I fear that this was the only colony of this species in the Beaver group, and 
after such persecution it is scarcely likely that they will return to this place 
next season. 

4. (70). Common Tern; Wilson's Tern, Sterna hinindo. Known to 
the fishermen pretty generally as "Lake Erie Gull," and said to have ap- 
peared at the Beavers only within the last few years, but this is doubtless a 
mistake. Two small colonies only were found, about one hundred pairs in 
each, and on neighboring islands. On one island the nests were among 
the pebbles, on the other in the sand. Tn neither place was there any 
lining, merely a saucer-like depression in the pebbles or sand holding a 
single fresh egg. Doubtless the birds had been robbed as were the Caspian 

I searched in vain for other species of terns, as well as for the Ring- 
billed Gull. Larus delazvarensis ; the three species alread mentioned were the 
only members of the family of which I found any trace. 

{To be continued.) 

Michigan Ornithological Club 67 

GAN, 1904. 


On the 15th of June of the present year I found a nest and four fresh 
eggs of the rare Kirtland's Warbler {Dendroica kirtlandi) in Oscoda County, 
Michigan. This is the first set of eggs of this species known to science. 
With an assistant I put in a week of very hard work. Up before four o'clock 
every morning we spent the day constantly in the field, returning at dark, 
often going without dinner. The male of the Kirtland's Warbler is a beau- 
tiful singer, often singing close to the sitting female and occasionally quite 
a distance from her, sometimes perched on. the top of a jack pine, other 
times half-way down the tree and occasionally on the bottom branches. In 
singing the male will throw his head back, his throat will swell out and a 
note resembling Ter-ter-ter {ter-ter-ter) sir-wit-er-we , part enclosed fast, 
will outpour itself. 

The bird seems to throw his whole soul into the music. I have watched 
one sing for about thirty minutes at a stretch, usually, however, the male 
will sing for about five minutes, then feed a little, hopping about the tree 
and then down to the ground for a short time and back again to the top 
part of the tree for another song. 

I did not find the bird outside of the elevated portions of the sand land 
ridges. Here the jack pine grows abundantly and some of the dead ones 
tower up fifty or sixty feet. It was one of the latter that formed a suitable 
perch for a beautiful male. Here he would sing at different intervals all 
day excepting if the day was very hot the music would cease about 11 :30 a. 
m., until five or six in the afternoon. 

Besides the note I have given above, the male has three other distinct 
shorter songs. It is so unsatisfactory recording in English the notes of birds 
I will not inflict upon your readers my imitations of their songs. It took 
me several days to get into my head the first song I here record, and al- 
though it is as near as I can write it, is far from satisfactory to me. 

Contrary to Mr. Norman A. Wood's experience {Bull. Mich. Orn. Club, 
Vol. v., pp. 1-13), I found these birds ten miles distant from the Au Sable 
river and in full song so I am satisfied they breed a long distance from the 
river. The nest is very cunningly concealed in the dense vegetation and as 
it is down deep in the ground and the female a very close sitter, it is very 
difficult to find. After I found the nest 1 watched the male for hours and 
we did not once find the female, so I am satisfied that while the eggs are 
fresh the female feeds herself and leaves the eggs for that purpose. 
The nest I found June 15th, was at the foot of a small oak tree, which was 
surrounded by a number of small jack pines. It is composed of vegetable 
fibre, grasses, small weed stems and pine needles, and was surrounded by 
the small pines, deer vine, wintergreen and weeds. 

The eggs are of a delicate white color, spotted with shades of brown 
and pink, forming a ring near the larger end. The shells are very delicate 

68 Bulletin of the 

in texture and require careful handling. Average size of egg .1^ x .58 inches. 

I dug two square feet of soil with the nest and as the accompanying 
veg'etation was carefully preserved the group will probably be a most beau- 
tiful one. 

This is the type set of eggs and with the nest, surrounding vegetation, 
and both birds, is now in the grand collection of John Lewis Childs, of 
Floral Park, N. Y. 

Battle Creek, Mich. 



An adult male Cory's Least Bittern {Ardetta ueoxcna), (see frontis- 
piece) was taken at the St. Clair Flats, St. Clair County, Michigan, on May 
14th, 1904. The bird was shot by my brother, Ernest Craven, and given to 
me in the flesh. It is now in my collection. 

Detroit, Mich. Jesse T. Craven. 

This makes the second bird of this species taken in this State, and one 
of the few known to science. The first Michigan bird was captured by L. 
Whitney Watkins near Manchester on August 8th, 1894. — Editor. 


While rowing along the Clinton River on May 18, 1 noticed a small 
hole in the post of a fence which ran down to the water's edge. As I did 
not intend that anything should slip my notice, I stopped to investigate. A 
glance into the hole revealed the glossy-green back of a^Tree Swallow. A 
slight rap on the post failed to dislodge the bird, while more violent pound- 
ing met with the same result. So, deciding to use force, I inserted my fingers 
and to my surprise, drew out a dead bird. The bird appeared to have been 
dead about one week, as it had just started to decompose. 

My curiosity led me to again look into the hole, thinking that perhaps 
the bird died laying an egg. But instead of eggs, I saw a sight similar to 
the first, and drew out another dead Tree Swallow. This bird had been 
dead longer than the first and had reached a high state of decay. operations were repeated until I had withdrawn three more 
birds, making a total of five dead Tree Swallows taken from the hole. Each 
bird appeared to have been dead longer than the preceding one. w-hile the 
last one was merely a dried skeleton with feathers adhering to the back. 
The only reason I can assign for this curious circumstance is that the birds 
sought shelter in the hole from the severe cold snaps which we had this 
spring. However, if this be the case, they must have taken refuge there at 
diflFerent intervals which would account for the various stages of decay. 

Detroit, Mich. J. Wilrur Kav. 

Michigan Ornithological Club 69 


The Broad-winged Hawk (Bufeo platypterus) is not uncommon during 
certain seasons in Wayne County, Mich., but breeding records are apparently 
very rare. On April 29, 1893, 1 found a nest of this species near the village of 
Highland Park, Greenfield Township, which is, as far as I can learn, the 
first record for Wayne County. The nest was situated some fifty-five feet 
up in a beech tree and contained three eggs. I shot the female and now have 
it mounted in my collection. 

The identity of the specimen was not made known until a short time 
ago, which caused the delay in this record. 

Detroit, Mich. Bradshaw H. Swales. 


During the winter of 1898-99, the Pire Siskin, (Spinns pinus), was 
abundant in Kalkaska County, remaining well into the spring and breeding 
was fairly common. The first signs of nesting were observad April 14, when 
I saw a pair tearing an old cedarbird's nest to pieces and carrying away 
the finer parts. Later in the day, a pair was seen picking up hair near a 
scaffold back of the buildings, where hogs had been butchered the previous 
fall. The birds flew toward a clump of hemlocks in the woods just south of 
the house. About two weeks later I went out to the hemlocks to see if I 
could find the nests. After a short search I located one nest away out on 
the end of a swaying limb. It was about 40 feet from the ground and about 
20 feet from the trunk, and contained three fresh eggs. This was on x\pril 
27. On April 25, I also found a nest near East Lake. This was about 20 
feet up in a hemlock and well out on a limb. There were three fresh eggs. 

On May 10, 1899, at the east side of East Lake, I found a pair of Red- 
breasted Nuthatches (Sitta canadensis), building a nest in a small maple 
stub. I returned on May 17, and on approaching the place saw the bird 
leave the hole. On climbing the stub I found the nest contained four fresh 
eggs. The nest was about 30 feet above the ground. 

Detroit College of Medicine. Wm. H. Dunham. 

The next meeting of the M. O. C. will be held at the Detroit Museum 
of Art on December 2nd. Many interesting papers will be presented and 
we hope to have a goodly number of members in attendance. 

Among other exhibits of interest to bird-students at the St. Louis Fair 
is a collection of Pennsylvania Bird's Eggs owned by J. Warren Jacobs of 

Among the recent literature on the subject of migration is "A Discus 
sion of the Origin of Migration." by P. A. Taverner. (See Auk vol. xxl, 
1904, pp. 322-333. We are pleased to see such contributions from Michigan 



nDicbigan ©rnitbolOQical Club 




131 Elmwood Avenue, - Detroit, Mich. 


Walter B. Barrows, - Agricultural College, Mich. 
J. Claire Wood, - - - Detroit, Mich. 

Detroit, Mich., September, 1904. 

Subscription: In North America, fifty cents a year, strictly in advance. Single copies, fifteen 
cents. Foreign Subscription : Seventy-five cents a year to all countries in the Universal Postal Union. 
Free to Members of the Club not in arrears for dues. 

Exchanges and Mss. should be sent to the Editor. Dues, subscriptions and communications of a 
business nature should be sent to Chas. E. Wisner, 1115 Brooklyn Ave., Detroit, Mich. 


The announcement in a former number of this journal of the discovery 
of the nesting ground of Kirtland's Warbler created something of a sensa- 
tion in ornithological circles. As m.ight have been foreseen more than one 
collector planned to raid Oscoda County this summer and secure specimens 
of the coveted bird and its eggs. Reports of such intentions were current 
before the winter's snows had left the Au Sable region and many a bird- 
lover's blood grew hot at the thought of the certain persecution and possible 
extermination of the only known colony of this rare species. 

Knowledge of the impending danger reached the State Game Warden 
too late to forestall all attempts but with his customary promptness and 
energy he took m the situation and made a strong effort to protect the 
birds. About the 20th of June every permit to take birds for scientific pur- 
poses was revoked so far as this warbler was concerned, a special deputy was 
added to the force in the Au Sable region, and a reward was offered for 
the apprehension of anyone molesting Kirtland's Warbler in any way. Tlie 
effect was immediate and salutary, and every true ornithologist as well as 
every right minded citizen will thank Mr. Chapman for his prompt and 
vigorous action while regretting that it could not have taken effect at an 
earlier date. 

We are free to admit that the Bulletin made a serious mistake in pub- 
lishing the exact locality in which the birds had been found, but at the 
moment the interest in the discovery and the desire to give readers the 
fullest information on so important an event caused a temporary suspension 
of caution which can be readilv understood. The incident has caused some 

Michigan Ornithological Club 71 

unpleasant criticism, not all of which is justified. We cheerfully take ou: 
own share of blame and promise to be more discreet in future. 

In this connection it may be well to call attention to the fact that in 
Michigan the collecting of birds' eggs is strictly illegal except in the case 
of such species as are themselves outlaws. The scientist or student, after 
compliance with certain requirements, may obtain from the State Game 
Warden a permit which allows him to take a certain number of birds pro- 
tected by law. But the statute makes no provision for the legal collection 
of their eggs but provides a penalty for each instance in which such eggs 
"are taken. Under this law^ last year the holder of such a permit might 
lawfully kill a pair of Kirtland's Warblers or a pair of Robins but were he 
to take the nest or eggs of these same birds he would be liable to the 
penalty provided. It has been claimed that the intent of the law was to 
allow the taking of eggs by persons holding permits to collect the parents, 
but this is certainly not warranted by anything in the statute- and if the 
authorities seem to have winked at the technical violation of the law here- 
tofore it is nevertheless unsafe to expect that they will always do so. Espe- 
cially unsafe is the action of a permit-holder who collects large numbers of 
eggs without any pretense of collecting birds, merely taking a bird occa- 
sionally in order to "authenticate" a set of eggs. Definite provision should 
be made by law for the collection of eggs for strictly scientific purposes and 
then the ordinary collector who is robbing for pleasure or especially for 
profit should be summarily put out of business. An amendment to the present 
law which will accomplish this end is something which the legislature at its 
coming season should be asked, and pressed, to enact. — W. B. B. 

The Bulletin recently received much free advertising in Michigan's lead- 
ing newspaper, from a series of articles penned by a Detroit gentleman. He 
possibly has the interest of the birds at heart but would do well in th? 
future . to take up their study before further condemning oriiithological 

Any one who has studied birds can not help but be impressed with 
their great value to mankind and all such are, we believe, in favor of sane 
protection. Our newspapers are one of the protectionist's main helps toward 
the accomplishment of his unselfish end, but let us hope that the newspaper 
in question will hereafter select contributors who are students — not faddists. 

The Bulletin stands for the protection of birds, even though it is not con- 
stantly quoting the views of Beal, Barrows, Fisher, • Merriam and others on 
their great value to agriculture. The taking of a few birds and sets of eggs 
is as absolutely necessary to the scientific student of birds as the dissecting of 
a cadaver is to the prospective surgeon. Yet it is these same "bird killers" 
and "nest robbers" who have done and are still doing the most for the pro- 
tection of our birds. 

We doubt if there will be all told five hundred birds taken for scientific 
specimens in the whole of Michigan during 1904 — and even this would be less 
than one bird for every hundred square miles of territory. — A. W. B., Jr. 


Bulletin of the 

Ann Arbor. 






Michigan Ornithological Club 



(Organized February 27, 1904.) 


79 Home Bank Building, Detroit. 

Since the last report to the Bulletin as much active work as was ex- 
pected has not been done. It has been difficult to arouse interest, due 
mainly to the fact that tfie Audubonis.ts have been traveling or visiting. The 
writer, upon a visit to the St. Clair Flats, was informed the shooting of 
gull took place occasionally in the morning about 3 :30 or 4 o'clock. But 
few shots were heard at any one time, the "sportsmen" fearing detection. 
The gull skins were sent to New York for millinery purposes. Mrs. A. S. 
Hudson, of Chesaning, writes that a man has gone into the trade of supply- 
ing humming birds for a firm at Bay City. When informed that he was 
liable to punishment under the law he promised to stop the shooting. So 
far as can be ascertained the heronry of Great Blues at Clarkston is enjoy- 
ing a rest. An effort has been made to bring the question of bird protec- 
tion before the Assembly at Bay View and also the religious bodies meeting 
at Orion. Much good work may be done by visiting these bodies personally 
as was done at Orion. 

Rev. Wm. C. Covert, of Saginaw, writes that he will undertake the or- 
ganization of a local Audubon society in that city. Mr. Frank Morton Kel- 
logg, of Battle Creek, promises to bring the protection question before the 
Nature Study Club. Mr. Walter H. French. Deputy Superintendent of 
Public Instruction, undertakes to distribute what literature we may forward. 
Since the last report more than twelve hundred pieces of literature have 
been distributed and the demand is increasing. 

The local Audubon society, of Detroit, expect to meet early in September 
and take up active work. It is to be expected that there will be more work 
to be done during the autumn when the shooting of game birds is permitted. 
Anticipating this the secretary is outlining a number of letters to officials 
and others in the state and is preparing to forward all literature now on 
hand. "The Gateway" magazine is publishing an epitome of our work 
which we expect will be circulated throughout the state. The Detroit 
Tribune is helping by weekly articles and we trust we will eventually com- 
mand the interest of the "Detroit Free Press." Mr. Mosely, Sunday editor 
of the ''Free Press," says that so far as his experience has gone he has been 
unable to discover any great interest in birds in Michigan. The writer has 
found sufficient interest but finds it difficult to arouse it into activity. We 
need the assistance of the press. 

Jefferson Butler, 
State Secretary and Treasurer. 


Bulletin of the Michigan Ornithological Club 

The "Fourth Report of the Michigan Academy of Science" was dis- 
tributed early in July. It is a volume of over two hundred pages and con- 
tains an account of the annual meeting held at Ann Arbor. March 27, 28 
and 29. 1902. Besides the official minutes, constitution and by-laws, and a 
list of members, the report contains many valuable scientific contributions 
along various lines of research. Dr. Victor C. Vaughan contributes a mas- 
terly addre.^s upon "The Value of Scientific Research to the State." Prof. 
Hubert Lyman Clark gives some "Notes on the Reptiles and Batrachian^ of 
Eaton County," listing .10 species. Leon J. Cole and H. C. Tosker present a 
most careful study of the "Habits of the Muskrat in Captivity." There are 
other interesting biological papers. The Report was edited by Dr. James B. 
Pollock of Ann Arbor.— A. W. B., Jr. 

I L L I N I 


[As many of the notes published in the Biilletiii refer to counties, the 
present map will prove a means of reference.] 


is the oldest and cheapest monthly devoted to birds in America. It is 
now in its twenty-first volume. 

Are you forming^ a collection ? If so, you need our exchang'e 
columns. Note what one of our subscribers says : "I think your offer 
is very liberal. I have worn the cover off the sample copy and have 
had it but one day,"— L. S., Cortland, N. B. 


Write for sample copy. Address 
ERNErST H. SHORT. Bditor and Manager, CHILI, N. Y. 


Now in its sixth volume. You should have Mr. Arthur H. 
Norton's series of papers on "The Finches Found in Maine," 
also the series on "The Warblers Found in Maine," by 
Messrs. Knight, Swain, Spinney and Powers of the Society. 

Subscription, 50 Cents Per Annum. ^ 15 Cents Per Copy. 

Send Stamp for Sample Copi| to 

J. WEtlTOII SWAIM, Ediwr and Bus. Mgi., FAIRFIELD, WAIHE. 


Published by the Mlayf lower Publishing Co. 

A little bi-monthly magazine devoted to the study of our 
native birds, with a view to setting forth their useful- 
ness, especially in the orchard and garden, and to agri- 
culture in general, that people may learn how important 
it is to protect them from slaughter. It will be very 
useful and interesting to the whole family, but especially 
to the children. SUBSCRIPTION ONLY 30c. FOR 1 YEARS. 

Official Or^an of tfce Long Island Natural tlistory Club. 


1 - ^ 

WE can teach you to mount all kinds of birds 
and animals true to lif^. Every bird-lover, 
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know this art.. More fascinating than the 
camera, more profitable than any other recrea- 
tion. Decorate your home, school, or den. Save 
those fine specimens. If interested, ask for our 
illustrated catalog. Sent Free to Readers 
OF THE Bui^LETiN. Write Today. 


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Omaha, Nebraska. 


r> ^c •::-■:■ J: ^'■}-'X;^'^~:.i-^:-T:<iW^^l:^-'*-i4,m>i:^^ 

The Warblers in Color 

Bird' Lore is publishinfi^ a series of beautifully colored plates, drawn by 
Louis A. Fuertes and Bruce Horsfall, accurately representing all the 
plumagfes of North American Warblers, with text from records in the 
Biological Survey, giving the dates of migration of Warblers at hun- 
dreds of localities. 

The December number, with a Christmas card, will be sent free to 
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THE CONDOR is an illustrated bi-monthly magazine published by 
the Cooper Ornithological Club of California. During 1904 THE CON- 
DOR will be profusely illustrated with pictures of wild birds taken 
directly from nature, and will number among its contributors many of 
the best known bird men of the country. A • feature of the present 
volume is the series of portraits of American ornithologists. THE 
CONDOR is now in its sixth volume, and is better in every way than 
ever before. 

Perhaps yo« have not seen THE CONDOR 

Subscription: $I«M Per Year. Sample Copy 20 cents. 

Order of JOSEPH GRINNELL, Business Manager, 




JLr ©If Tmm 


Ornithological Club 

PabJisned Quarterfy' in the imsresiS or ^ 
Onaibeh^y in the Great Lake Pe^ion. 





The Sparrow Hawk. By Dr. Robert W. Shu- 

feldt Frontispiece 

*An Unusual Flight of Sparrow Hawks in Michigan 

in 1904. By Prof. Frank Smith 77 

Birds of the Beaver Islands, Michigan. By Prof. 

Walter B. Barrows 78 

A Natural History Expedition to Northern Michi- 
gan. By Chas. C. Adams 82 

Michigan Ornithologists {7th series). Halftones 
of Jerome Trombley, Dr. H. A. Atkins, Prof. 
A. J. Cook and Percy Selous 84 

Editorial 85 

Recent lyiterature 86 

Audubon Department. By Jefferson Butler 87 

Notes from the Field and Museum 

Addttio7ial Records for the Barn Owl in Michi- 
gan 88 

So77ie Notes on the Cowbird 88 

Recent Michigan Records 91 

Minutes of M. O. C. Meetings 92 


is published on the fifteenth of March, June, September 
and December, by the Michigan Ornithological Club, at 
Detroit, Mich. 

Subscription : Fifty cents a year, including postage, 
strictly in advance. Single numbers, fifteen cents. Free 
to members of the Club not in arrears for dues. 

Articles and communications intended for publica- 
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Entered April 20th, 1903. at Detroit, Mich., as secoad-class mail matter under the Act ot 

Congress July i6th, 1894. 


A Bi-Monthly Magazine Devoted to the Study and Protection of Birds 

Publislied for the National Committee ot the Audubon Societies*, as the official organ of the Societies. 


Audubon Department edited by MABEL OSGOOD WRIGHT and WILLIAM DUTCHKR 
BIRD-LORE'S Motto: A Bird itt the Bush tx IVorfh 'I'-a'o in the Hand 

IN ^* BIRD-LORE.^ Its pages are filled with descriptions of experiences with 
birds in field and forest Irom the pens of writers who have won world-wide fame 
as literary naturalists. Among the contributors to Bird-Lore are 

John Blrroughs Ernest Thompson Seton J. A. Allen 

Dr. Henry van Dyke Olive Thorne Miller William Brewster 

Bradford Torrey Florence Merriam Bailey Robert Ridgway 

and numerous other writers known both for their powers of observation and des- 

In addition to general descriptive articles, Bird-Lore has departments "For 
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These, with reviews of current ornithological literature, editorials, teacher's leaflets, 
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Not less delightful and entertaining than the text arc Bird-Lore's illustra- 
tions, which include actual photographs of the birds in their haunts, showing them 
at rest and in motion, brooding their eggs, or feeding their young, as well as 
drawings. A feature of the coming year will be a series of plates by Bruce Horsfall 
and Louis Agassiz Fuertes, accurately illustrating 

THE warblers IN COLOR 


with figures of the male, female, and young (when their plumages differ) of every 
North American member of this fascinating family. 

The text accompanying these beautiful pictures will be by Professor W. W. 
Cooke, from data in the possession of the Biological Survey at Washington, and will 
give the times of arrival and departure of the Warblers from hundreds of localities 
throughout their ranges. 


THE MACMILLAX COMPANY, Publishers for the Audubon Society 

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Please find enclosed One Dollar, for which mail me BIRD-LORE for the year 


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O 03 

Annual Subscriirtion, $J.00j Single Numbers, 20 cents. 

From BIRD-LORE'S Series of North American Warblers. 

1. Blacx-throated Green Warbler. Adult Male. 

2. Black-throated Green Warbler, Adult Female. 
3 Black-throated Green Warbler. Young Female. 

4. Golden-cheeked Warbler. Adult Male. 

5. Golden-cheeked Warbler, Adult Female. 

6. Golden-cheeked Warbler, Young Female. 

.one-half natural size. 


{Faico sparVerius) 



Michigan Ornithological Club 

Published QtJAR'i'ERX.Y in the Interests of Ornithology 

IN THE Great Ijake Region. 

Vol. V. DECEMBER, 1904. No. 4. 


IN 1904. 


Macatawa, Michigan, is a summer resort on the east shore of Lake Michi- 
gan, southwest from Grand Rapids. During a few weeks' stay at this place 
last August, I had an opportunity to witness an unusual flight of hawks. I 
was much interested in the occurrence, in part, because of the novelty of the 
experience, but chiefly because the accompanying circumstances seemed to 
throw light on the causes of such movements. The weather maps for August 
29 and 30 show that moderately strong winds from the northeast prevailed 
over the southern peninsula dufing those days and the preceding nights. On 
the morning of the 29th a great increase in the number of warblers and fly- 
catchers showed that an extensive movement had occurred the night before, 
forming the first pronounced *'wave" of the fall migration. On the morning 
of the 30th so many small hawks were noticed flying southward that I was 
led to ascend one of the highest sand dures of the vicinity, from the summit 
of which I looked to the westward directly over Lake Michigan, and to the 
eastward over a strip of heavy timber with open country beyond. From this 
vantage ground, with the aid of a good prism glass. I counted the hawks that 
came within range, and identified a considerable number of them. 

During a period of one and Oiie-half hours, beq^inning at 9:13 a. m., eighty 
sparrow hawks passed near enough for positive identification. Two hundred 
seventy-one other small hawks, which were probably nearly all sparrow hawks, 
and thirty-one larger hawks, were also recorded, making a total of three 
hundred eighty-two individuals. As the movement continued uninterruptedly 
from about 6 a. m. until 1 p. m., there must have been more than one thousand 
individuals which passed that point of observation during the day. After 2 

78 Bulletin of the 

p. m. but few hawks were seen flying, though large numbers were perched in 
tree-tops. Many of these were identified, and all proved to be sparrow hawks. 
During the forenoon flight many of the hawks flew over the lake at a short 
distance from shore, but almost none were seen farther out than a distance 
of one hundred or two hundred yards ; and in fact many were noticed coming 
from over the water as though returning to the land after venturing a short 
distance from it. 

It seems to me quite probable that many of these hawks may have started 
from points inland, and at considerable distances from the lake shore, but thit 
in their flight they were influenced by the direction of the northeast wind and 
thus reached the lake shore, which they followed southward, so that there 
resulted a concentrated stream of hawks, including individuals, that under 
other circumstances might have been distributed over a strip of territory many 
miles in width. 

The general circumstances attending this hawk movement were similar to 
those described by Trowbridge^ as accompanying hawk flights studied by him 
on the shore of Long Island Sound, and they seem to quite satisfactorily 
accord with his assumption that the d'rection of the wind is a very important 
factor in the initiation and the determination of the direction of such extensive 
movements. In the particular instance described above, the temperature 
changes were comparatively slight. 

University of Illinois, November i, 1904. 



(Concluded from Page 66.) 

[Red-breasted Merganser. Merganser serrator. Several small squads and 
one considerable flock of ducks were seen from the fish tugs at various times 
in going and coming amojig the islands, but no specimen was taken and while 
I have no doubt the birds belonged to this species, I do not care to include 
it in the list without an actual specimen. The species, however, might 
fairly be included, since Chas. L. Cass took a nest of this species in 1807 on 
Hat Island, one of the Beavers, and the previous year he saw several broods 
of young about that island. On Font Lake, Great Beaver Island, I saw 
three half-grown ducks which certainly w^ere not mergansers. I suppo.sed 
them to be Lesser Blue-bills. Ayrhya afUnis, but ?s no specimen was obtained, 
I am not positive.] 

5. (194). Great Blue Heron, Ardea herodias. Seen frequently at vari 
ous places. A "rookery" of some size is said to exist in the interior of 
Hog Island, but I did not visit it. 

6. (263). Spotted Sandpiper; Tip-up. Acfitis macularia. A pair to 
every mile or two of beach, but by no means abundant. 

^The Relation of Wind to Bird Migration, C- C Trowbridge, American Nat- 
uralist, Sept.. 1900, pp. 735-753. 

Michigan Ornithological Club 79 

7. (273). Killdeer, Oxyechus vociferus. A few pairs on Big Beaver 

8. (277). Piping Plover, Aegialitis meloda. A single bird, found near 
the lighthouse at St. James, had young or eggs without doubt, as she could 
not be driven away from the spot, but I watched her for an hour without 
being able to find the nest. As she allowed me to study her at leisure through 
the field glass at less than ten yards distance, I was sure that she was not 
circunicincta and so was relieved of the necessity of killing her. 

9. (332). Sharp-shinned Hawk, Accipiter velox. A single one passed 
very close to me on Big Beaver, carrying a small bird in its claws. 

10. (364). Fish Hawk, Pandion haliaetus carolinensis. A single one 
seen fishing at a distance. Said to nest regularly on the islands. 

11. (390). Kingfisher, Ceryle alcyon. Abundant. Young just able to 
fly were seen on Font Lake, July 10. 

12. (393). Hairy Woodpecker, Dry abates villosus. Rather common on 
Big Beaver. Full grown young following parents July 10. (In spite of care- 
ful hunting I failed to find a single specimen of the Downy Woodpecker.) 

13. (412a). Flicker, Colaptes auratus lutcus. One of the most abundant 
and conspicuous species.' Young full grown. 

14. (444). Kingbird, Tyrannus tyrannus. Abundant. 

15. (461). Wood Pewee, Contopus virens. In all suitable places. 

16. (466a). Alder Flycatcher, Empidonax traillii alnorum. A single 
specimen found in the alders along the edge of Font Lake, July 10. 

17. (477). Blue Jay, Cyanocitta cristata. A few seen; said to be abun- 
dant in autumn. 

18. (488). Crow, Corvus hrachyrhynchos. Far too abundant and im- 
pertinently tame. When^trying to locate small birds by their songs, the Crows 
followed me in squads of three to ten, perching within twenty feet 
and keeping up such a clamor that nothing else could be heard. Many 
of their nests were not more than fifteen or twenty feet from the ground, but 
I think the young were all on the wing. On the beach at one of the nesting 
places of tho Herring Gull I found a full grown Crow minus one eye and 
otherwise injured, evidently by the gulls. At the same place I drove a Her- 
ring Gull off a nest of three eggs, and a few moments later saw the gulls 
attacking a single Crow close to the nest, while another was flying rapidly 
away. Going back to the nest I found but two eggs in it, and a few yards 
away w^ere the fragments of the third egg, from which the chick had just 
been extracted. I was told by many residents that the Crows were nearly 
as plentiful on Big Beaver in winter as in summer. (Inquiries as to the 
Raven elicited no information.) 

19. (494). Bobolink, Dolichonyx orysivorus. A single female was 
found in a field of clover and daisies near Font Lake, where she was cer- 
tainly feeding young; but although I saw her tw^ice, on different days, no 
male could be found. 

20. (495). Cowbird, Molothrus ater. Superabundant. 

21. (501). Meadowlark, Sturnella magna. Fairly common on the farms 
of Big Beaver and said to occur on the other large islands, which I did not 

80 Bulletin of the 

22. (517), Purple Finch, Carfodacus purpurcui. Not uncommon on 
Big Beaver and still in full song. Undoubledly nesting. 

2.i. (.)22). White-winged Crossbill, Loxia Icucoptcra. Just as I was 
leaving Big Beaver Island, on July 13, a small squad of these birds flew over 
my head and alighted near by. An adult male and female perched on the top 
of a low balsam at a distance of ten yards, and allowed a close exami- 
nation. There were either four or five others in the squad, but they kept 
so w-ell hidden among the evergreens that I was not able to tell whether they 
were old or young. The adult male was in high plumage. As this species 
is said to nest in April or earlier, it is likely that this was a family party, 
consisting of a pair of adults and four or five young. 

24. (529). Goldfinch, Astragaluius tristis. Common everywhere 

25. (540). Vesper Sparrow, Pocccactcs gra)ni)iciis. Seen orly on Big 
Beaver, where it was fairly common on the farming lands. None seen on the 
grassy barrens at the north end of the island. 

2G. ( ). English Sparrow. Passer donicsiicus. Abundant in the vil- 
lage of St. James, and a few seen at farm houses outside. 

27. (558). White-throated Sparrow, Zonotriclua alb.'collis. Common and 
nesting about the edges of the tamarack and cedar swamps. I found several 
pairs with young just out of the nest. 

28. (560). Chipping Sparrow, Spicclla socialis. One of the abundant 

29. (567). Junco ; Slate-colored Snowbird. Junco hycmalis. Apparently 
not common. I found it but once, among the hemlocks and cedars of the 
gorges, between the sand dunes on the west shore of Big Beaver. One of the 
birds seen was hardly more than a week from the nest. This is one of the 
characteristic summer birds of the adjacent mainland,^ 

30. (581). Song Sparrow, Melospica cinerea niclodia. Abu dant. 

31. (598). Indigo Bird, Cya}iospica cyanca. Apparently not common. A 
single male in full song was seen on Gull Island, but no other record of the 
species was made. ! ' 

32. (613). Barn Swallow, Hirundo crythrogastcr. A1)undant about the 
docks at St. James, where the birds had nests under the wharves, w^ithin two 
or three feet of the water. Others were nesting as usual in barns and sheds. 

33. (614). White-bellied Swallow, Iridoprocnc bicolor. A few seen on 
Big Beaver and one or two of the other islands, but no favorable nesting 
ground was visited. 

34. (616). Bank Swallow, Riparia riparia. No colony was found, but 
single birds were seen here and there. 

35. (619). Cedar Waxwing, Ampelis ccdrorum. Abundant. 

36. (624). Red-eyed Vireo, Vireo olivaccus. One of the birds whose 
voice could be heard at almost any time from dnylight to dark. Every little 
grove of cottonwoods or birches had its vireo, and T spent hours in listening 
and watching for the Philadelphia Vireo — but without success. 

37. (636). Black and White W^arbler, Mniotilfa 7'aria. One of the 
abundant and characteristic warblers, seemingly much more plentiful than on 
the mainland. 

Michigan Ornithological Club 81 

38. (652). Yellow Warbler, Dendroica aestiva. Abundant. 

39. (655). Yellow-rumped Warbler, Dendroica coronata. Two males 
were found at widely separated points on Big Beaver, and doubtless they 
had nests in the vicinity. Others were heard singing occasionally, but they 
were far from plentiful. 

40. (657). Black and Yellow Warbler, Dendroica maculosa. Rather 
more numerous than the preceding, but not common. Seen as often among 
the low, dense evergreens as in the deciduous tree s. 

41. (667). Black-throated Green Warbler, Dendroica virens. The most 
abundant and characteristic of all the warblers. On Big Beaver one was 
rarely out of hearing of its leisurely song. 

42. (674). Oven Bird, Seiurus aurocapillus. Fairly plentiful. 

43. (681d). Northern Yellow-throat, Geothlypis trichas brachidactyla. 
Not common, but five or six were found on Big Beaver. 

44. (687). Redstart, Setophaga ruticilla.. Next to the Black-throated 
Green the most abundant warbler. 

45. (721). House Wren, Troglodytes aedon. Omnipresent, and as likely 
to be found in the depths of the swamp, or among the wooded sand dunes, 
as about the village. 

46. (722). Winter Wren, Olbiorcliilus hiemalis. Seen but once or twice 
(on Big Beaver), but its remarkable song was heard from every tamarack 
swamp visited. Widmann speaks of the song as "unmusical," but it certainly 
has far greater charm for my ear than that of any so-called warbler. 

47. (726). Brown Creeper, Certhia familiaris americana. Only a single 
bird seen, in a burnt tract where all the low growth had been killed and a 
few giant hemlocks rose fair and green above the blackened thickets (Big 

48. (728). Red-bellied Nuthatch, Sitta canadensis. Common in the 
locality just mentioned and seen once or twice in the tamaracks. (The White- 
bellied Nuthatch was; not seen at all). 

49. (735). Chickadee, Parus atricapillus. Two or three small parties 
seen, including some young birds. 

50. (758a). Olive-backed Thrush, Hyloci^chla ustulata szvainsoni. A 
single bird sang for an hour or more from a tamarack swamp near St. James, 
and although I succeeded in getting within a few yards of him several times, 
it was impossible to get a shot or even to get a satisfactory look at him. 
Nevertheless I am fully satisfied that it was none other than the Olive-back. 
No others were seen or heard. 

51. (759b). Hermit Thrush, Hylocichla guttata pallasi. The common 
woodland thrush of the islands, its beautiful song heard at intervals even dur- 
ing the middle of the day^ and almost continuously toward night. In spite of. 
its abundance it proved to be a hard bird to see, and of scores whose voices 
were heard only two or three were seen. (I looked and listened in vain for 
both the Wood Thrush and the Veery.) 

52. (761). Robin, Merula migratoria. Not uncommon in suitable places, 
yet by no means abundant. 

53. (766). Sialia sialis. Bkiebird. A few pairs were found nesting on 
Big Beaver — probably rearing their second broods, 

Agricultural College, Mich, 

82 * Bulletin of the 




During the past summer tne University Museum of the University of 
Michigan sent a party to Northern Michigan. The aim of the expedition was 
to study and collect samples of the animal and plant life of the Porcupine 
Mountains in Ontonagon County and on Isle Royale. The Porcupine Moun- 
tains are about 120 miles west of Marquette, on the south shore of Lakf 
Superior. Isle Royale, an island in Lake Superior, is near ihe north or 
Canadian shore. Almost nothing has been known of the Natural History of 
these localities, and collections from these regions have been almost com- 
pletely lacking in the Museum. Civilization has already exterminated a 
large number of plants and animals from Lower Michigan, so that it is 
especially desirable that records be made of these northern regions ere u 
becomes too late through the encroachments of civilization. 

The expedition was made possible through the generosity of certain public 
spirited friends of the University. The funds of the Museum are too limited 
to carry on this very important line of work, without special aid. The 
major part of the funds were the combined gifts of Mr. Bryant Walker, of 
Detroit, Hon. Peter White and Mr. N. M. Kaufman, of Marquette. The 
Board of Regents of the University generously contributed the expense of 
transportation, not otherwise provided. Through the efforts of Mr. White 
the party received transportation or special rates in the Northern Peninsula. 
The Duluth, South Shore & Atlantic R. R. gave a special rate to the party, 
and the White Line Transportation Co., through Mr. W. H. Singer, general 
manager, gave free transportation to the party to and from Isle Royale. 
Through Mr. Henry Russel, the Michigan Cntral R. R. also gave the party a 
special rate. The Washington Club of Duluth, through Mr. John Panton. 
provided the party with excellent field headquarters upon their private 
grounds on Isle Royale. The Marble Axe Co., of Gladstone, Mich., pre- " 
sented the party with a set of useful camp articles. It is thus evident that 
many friends have aided the expedition, in addition to the services of the 
volunteer members of the party. 

The field party was in charge of N. A. Wood, the Museum taxidermist. 
He was assisted by A. G. Ruthven, who had. charge of the scientific work, 
and who directed it along lines outlined by the writer. The other mem- 
bers of the party were Messrs. Otto McCreary, N. A. MacDufif, Max M. 
Peet and W. A. Maclean. All members of the party, except the leader, were 
volunteers, and thus their contribution to the success of the expedition was 
of a very substantial nature. Without their aid nothing could have been 
accomplished. Upon Messrs. Wood and Ruthven fell the responsibility of 
the party in the field, and to their care and foresight is due, in a large meas- 
ure, the success of the expedition. 

The field party left Ann Arbor, July 11, after three weeks of unfortu- 
nate and unavoidable delay, and explored the Porcupine Mountains imtil 
.August 13. These mountains rise rather abruptly from the south shore of 
Lake Superior, and in a succession of ridges reach the height of nbout 1400 

Michigan Ornithological Club 83 

feet, at about two miles in the interior. The entire region is inhabited only 
by scattered trappers, and the forests are practically in their original condition. 
The few trails in the region make traveling very difficult, and all baggage had 
to be carried as packs. 

In this connection it is of interest to know how the field party worked. 
Camp was made at an abandoned mine, where a large substantial shack 
furnished excellent field quarters, not only as a shelter, but also as a place in 
which to prepare and preserve collections. The field work was carried on 
through a detailed study of selected localities. After a preliminary examina- 
tion of the region, Mr. Ruthven selected a series of representative habitats 
beginning at the lake and extending southward across the mountains. The 
various members of the party then visited these stations, where they made 
observations and collections. In this way not only were specimens collected 
but the conditions under which they were found was thus definitely recorded. 

From the Porcupines (August 13) the party went to Isle Royale, about 
60 miles northwest of Houghton, where they made a hasty examination of 
the lower end of the island. The party remained here until September 5th. 
The lateness of the season furnished an excellent opportunity to make obser- 
vations on the fall migration of the birds, and these notes are of peculiar 
interest on account of the island location. The loWer end of the Isle is 
densely covered by a growth of the original forest of balsam-fir- and spruce. 
During the winter this region is only inhabited by a few trappers and fisher- 

A brief statement of the results of the expedition w'ill be of interest. 
A detailed report on the observations and collections is now in process 
of preparation, so that at this time it will only be necessary to call attention 
to some of the general results. No effort was made to make a complete col- 
lection of the animal and plant life in general, but special attention was given 
to the trees and shrubs, molluscs, fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mam- 
mals. This is apparently a long list, but it must be remembered that so far to 
the north the variety of fish, reptiles and amphibians is quite limited, so that 
atention was mainly devoted to the trees and shrubs, molkises, birds and 
mammals. About 90 species of birds were observed in the Porcupines, and 
about 80 at Isle Royale. Of the birds recorded several are now breeding 
records for Michigan, and two appear to be for the United States. About 20 
species of manuals were collected, and notes were secured on about the 
same number which were not collected. 

In addition to the value of the records of occurrence an important result 
is the observations on the ecological relations f the animals — in other words, 
the relation of the animals to their surroundings. This is a phase of such 
work which generally receives but little attention because only a relatively 
small number of students are interested in it. * 

The limited time devoted to this survey made it necessarily of a pre- 
liminary nature, and yet it was of a kind needed ui many parts of Michigan. 
It is to be regretted that more time could not be spent on Isle Royale, but it 
is hoped that during another season this work may be continued. 

University Museum, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. 


Bulletin of the 




Agricultural College. Petersburg. 



(This issue will complete, for the present, our series of Michigan 
Students. An account of the life of the late Dr. Atkins and Percy 
Selous will appear in a later issue.] 



flDicbigan ©rnitbological Club 




131 Elmwood Avenue, - Detroit, Mich. 


Walter B. Barrows, - Agricultural College, Mich. 
J. Claire Wood, - - - Detroit, Mich. 

Detroit, Mich., December, 1904. 

Subscription: In North America, fifty cents a year, strictly in advance. Single copies, fifteen 
cents. Foreign Subscription : Seventy-five cents a year to all countries in the Universal Postal Union. 
Free to Members of the Club not in arrears for dues. 

Exchanges and Mss. should be sent to the Editor. Dues, subscriptions and communications of a 
business nature should be sent to Chas. E. Wisner, 1115 Brooklyn Ave., Detroit, Mich. 


Friends, the work of another year is finished, completing the fifth volume 
of the Bulletin. Little need be said lof the past. More ornithological work 
has probably been accomplished during 3 904 than has ever been done in the 
state before in the same length of time. The publication of the work of 
Wood, Arnold and Frothingham in Oscoda and surrounding counties deserves 
special notice. Barrows' work on the Birds of Michigan has been prepared 
for the press. The Michigan Audubon Society has sprung into existence and 
is doing much for the protection of our birds. The results of the U. of M. 
northern expedition will soon be published. Taverner and Swales secured 
several important additional records to our fauna and other students have 
T)een working long various lines. The meetings have all been successful, 
especially the annual meeting, an event every member should try to attend in 
the future. We have thus reason to congratulate ourselves as a society. 

Of the future we can expect still greater advance and improvement. 
During 1905 the Bulletin will contain many interesting papers on our birds. 
The original drawings and photographs of birds, their nests and eggs, will 
be of no less interest. Let us as members strive to make 1905 a more eventful 
year than ever before. 

Married: Mr. Ed\vard Arnold, of Battle Creek, was married to Miss 
Alta Simons, of that city, on November 29, 1904. Mr. Arnold is Lost Freight 
Agent for the Grand Trunk, and is well known to Michigan students for 
his fine oological collection. We have already published many of Mr. 
Arnold's notes on his rarer "takes," and wish to congratulate him on hi 
latest one. 

86 Bulletin of the 

The Twenty-second Congress of the A. O, U. was held at Cambridge, 

Mass., on November 28, 29, 30, and December 1. Three Michigan students 
were elected associates. 

Our thanks are due Mr. Ruthven Deane, of Chicago, for loaning the 
photographs of Dr. Atkins and Prof. Cook, which are published in this 
issue, also to Mr. Frederick C. Hubel for compiling the index which accom- 
panies this issue. 

Ernest T. Seton (Bird-Lore vi. pp. 181-182) has republished his excellent 
suggestions on how to study birds. The article has been revised and will 
undoubtedly be a great help to hundreds of bird-students. Some of us, 
however, will probably disagree with the author in his statement that the 
experts of our museums are the only ones who should be allowed to collect 
bird-skins today." 

Walter Raine (Ottawa Naturalist, 1904, pp. 135-138) announces the 
discovery of the eggs of the Solitary Sandpiper by Evan T. Thompson in 
Northern Alberta,, during the present season. Three sets of four eggs each 
were secured. The eggs are unlike any other American sandpiper and are 
deposited in the nests of other birds (Robin, Cedar Wax-wing and Bronzed 
Brackle). This fills in another gap in our list of "nest and eggs unknown." 


Catalogue of Canadian Birds, Part III. By John Macoun, Ottawa, 1904. 
Price 10 cents. 8vo., pp. iv.-f 415— 733-|-xxiii. 

A Preliminary Review of the Birds of Nebraska, with Synopsis. By Law- 
rence Bruner, R. H. Wolcott. Omake, 1904; pp. 1.— 116-j-index. 

Taylor's Standard American Egg Catalogue, 2nd ed. Alameda, Cal. 
1904. Price 25 cents. Pp. 92. 

Distribution and Migration of North American Warblers. By Wells W. 
Cook, U. S. Dept. of Agric.,' Divis. Biol. Survey, Bull. No.. 18, 8vo., pp. 142. 

A New Material for Sutureg and Ligatures (Tendons from the Leg of 
the Crane) Chas. F. Kieffer. M. D. Reprinted from Journ. Am. Med. Assn, 
Nov. 19, 1904. 

The Economic Value of the Bob-white By Sylvester D. Judd, reprinted 
from Yearbook U. S. Dep. of Agric, for 1903. Pp. 193-204; 1 plate. 

Some New Facts About the Migration of Birds By Wells W. Cook. 
Reprinted from Yearbook U. S. Dept. of Agric. for 1*903, pp. 371-386. 

The following periodicals for J904 were received: Am. Ornithology, The 
Auk, Bird-Lore, The Condor^ Forestry and Irrigation, Journ. Maine Orn. 
Soc, The Ooligist, Recreation, Science, Univ. of Mich. Nezus-Letter, The 
Warbler, Zool. Quar. Bull. Penna. Dept. Agric, The Wilson Bulletin. 

Michigan Ornithological Club 




(Organized February 27, 1904.) 


79 Home Bank Building, Detroit. 

Since the appearance of the last Bulletin, hopes of a strong Audubon 
Society for Saginaw have been entertained. Several letters offering coopration 
have been received from Saginaw and vicinity. Mr. John C. Nape, Commis- 
sioner of Schools for Saginaw County, is undertaking the distribution of 
literature. Rev. Wm. C. Covert promises to take charge of active work in 
the city, and Dr. Waldon De Clarenze is helping in the county. Plans are 
under way to form an Audubon Society at the Bay View Assembly next sum- 
mer, and some active workers at Jackson expect to organize in the interest 
of bird protection. 

A most successful lecture was given before the Detroit society by Prof. 
Walter B. Barrows, of the Agricultural College. Audubonists appreciate the 
fact that Prof. Barrows is not a mere collector, but is working in the interest 


of the birds as well as man. The thanks of the society are due Rev. A. H. Barr 
and the trustees of the Presbyterian Church for the loan of the chapel without 
cost. Mr. Norrhan A. Wood, of the University museum, Ann Arbor, gave an 
excellent talk on "Winter Birds,'' Dec. 9th. The officers regret that more 
were not present as the speaker was interesting, and the subject treated clearly 
and forcibly. 

The society will issue tickets early for the lecture of Mr. Wm. Dutcher, 

88 ' Bulletin ok the 

whom we expect about the middle or last of Febuary. Negotiations are being 
opened with Mr. Oldys, of the U. S. Biological Survey, for the purpose of 
giving class and field work in the early spring. The Secretary will be pleased 
to hear from those desiring to take up this work. An attempt wiil be made to 
have the legislature give more power to the deputy game wardens, and to 
have the Audubonists represented in the state by i deputy appointed by the 
society, as is done in some states. It is hoped that sufficient funds will be 
raised by Mr. Dutcher's lecture to cover the expense of issuing a report, for 
the year. Since the last report 500 leaflets on how to organize Audubon 
societies have been sent out in the state. Ihis was compiled by the Secretary 
from similar leaflets. Jefferson Butler. 



The following records for the Barn Owl, Striv pratincola, show that this 
species is not so rare in the state as we have supposed. I find in the museum 
catalogue of the Michigan Agricultural College that a specimen was taken at 
Lansing in October, 1869, and donated to the museum by James Satterlee. 
This specimen disappeared from the Museum previous to 1894. Prof. 
H. L. Clark, of Olivet, informs me that they have a mounted specimen 
in Olivet College museum taken at that place. Another specimen was captured 
alive in a barn in Johnstown Township, Barry County, Michigan, September 
21, 1904. It was exhibited alive for some time in the window of an under- 
taker's shop in Battle Creek, and then was mountq^d for Mr. Warren J. More- 
house, of that city. A fourth specimen was killed October 2, 1904, from a duck 
boat at the mouth of the Saginaw river, near Saginaw, by Emory Townsend, 
and is now in his possession. I examined this specimen November 14. 

Walter B. Barrows. 

Agricultural College, Mich. 


It is now generally acknowledged among ornithologists that the Cowbird 
(Molotlirus ater) is the means of exterminating more valuable birds than any 
other one species. Our observations in this locality certainly verify this state- 
ment. One incident which stands out vividly in my mind is in connection with 
the Indigo Bunting (Passcrina cyanea). On June 2:kl, 1904, we discovered 
an Indigo's nest well hidden away in a thick growth of red-raspberry bushes, 
one and one-half feet above the ground. But although well hidden from the 
eyes of man, it probably fell an easy victim to the all searching eyes of this 
pest, as it contained one young cowbird and one young Bunting about one 
week old. The Cowbird was nearly three times the size of the Bunting, while 
the aperture of its mouth seemed even larger in proportion. 

Upon my approach the Cowbird opened this member of its anatomy, and, 
by actual time, kept it opened for ten minutes, during which the Bunting 
opened its mouth three times, keeping it opened for a few seconds each time 

Michigan Ornithological Club 89 

and then dropping exhausted to the bottom of the nest. We then retired to a 
distance and watched proceedings through the glasses. For three-quarters of 
an hour the Bunting did not get a particle of food, both parents being busy 
trying to fill up the bottomless pit inside of the intruder. A visit to the nest 
two weeks later discovered that the Cowbird had gone, but also that the Bunt- 
ing was dead. Here, then, is a case where the life of one Cowbird destroyed 
the lives of four Indigo Buntings, for the remaining three eggs which go to 
make up a normal set of this species, must have been pushed out by the adult 

A Vireo's nest, found on June 12th, 1904, and shown in the accom- 
panying photograph, was placed about six feet from the ground amidst 
a thick growth of underbrush and mosquitos, practically impregnable to man. 
But again the birds had a worse enemy than man, as ' the nest contained 
three eggs of the Cowbird and three of the Vireo. The nest being full, one 

Vireo Nest Showing Three Cowbird Eggs. 

of the latter was piled on top of he rest and consequently one side was 
smashed in. This fact alone would prevent it from hatching, while the 
remaining two Vireos would soon have been crowded out of existence by the 
three Cowbirds. 

But this intrusion is not only during the period in the nest, but lasts until 
the young Cowbirds can fly and are apparently able to take care of themselves. 
Tn this connection I have watched a male Black and White Warbler (Mniotilta 
varia) continually feed a young Cowbird for an hour without intermission, 
during which time the Cowbird flew around immediately after the warbler 
with its mouth open, ready to receive the food as fast as its foster-parent 
could find it. 

I have watched this same performance with the Black and White Warbler. 
Redstart, Red-eyed Vireo, Yellow Warbler, and Wood Pewee. In the latter 
case both parent Pewees did nothing brt feed the Cowbird. I was unable 
to find their nest, in order to discover what condition the young birds were in. 

90 Bulletin of the 

but it is certainly not hard to conjecture if the performance that we witnessed 
was maintained any length of time. 

Maijy other such incidents could be related which have come under our 
notice, but undoubtedly every ornithologist has had the same experience. 
However, it goes to show the number of different lines along which this pest 
does harm. Many hawks, such as the Red-shouldered, are not protected 
because they are supposed to destroy song birds and make depredations on the 
farmyard, but if a record could be kept of the devastation wrought by the 
Cowbird, it would probably be found to rank first in the work of murder 
in the bird world. 

Detroit, Mich. J. Wilbur Kay. 


The Annual Meeting^ of the M. O. C. will be held in the U. of M. 
Museum, at Ann Arbor, on April 1, 1905. Those intending- to present 
papers will please send, as early as possible, the title, to J. Wilbur 
Kay, 62 Seldon Avenue, Detroit, Mich. 

Michigan Ornithological Club 91 


Am. Barn Owl (Strix pratincola). A male of this species was shot 
near South Lyon on September 18. This species is apparently on the 
increase in this state. It is to be wondered at that they have not been found 
breeding here. 

Double-crested Cormorant {Phalacrocorax dilophus). A young-of-the- 
year specimen was taken at Rockwood on October 4. I recently examined 
an adult of this species said to have been taken at the St. Clair Flats in the 
autumn of '86 or '87. 

Red-throated Loon {Gavia lumme). An immature bird of this species 
was shot near- Point Mouille on November 11. This is one of the few 
records of this species for the state. 

White-winged Scotei** {Oidcmia dcglandi). On November 11, an adult 
of this species was shot near Point Alouille, making the 'hrst record for 
Wsiyne County. I also recently examined a mounted specimen of this 
species said to have been shot at the lower end of the Detroit Rivgr. 

Surf Scoter (Oidemia perspicillata) . A female shot on October 13 at 
the St. Clair Flats makes the second record for Southeastern Michigan. 

I am indebted to Mr. Louis J. Eppinger, the Detroit taxidermist, for 
allowing me to examine the above specimens while in his studio. 

Short-billed Marsh Wren (Cistothorus stcllaris). On October 2, Bradshavv 
H. Swales shot a male of this species in Wayne County, making the second 
authentic record for this part of the state. 

Northern Parula Warbler {Compsothlypis amcricana usncac). A male 
of this species was taken September 25, by J. Claire Wood, making the 
first record for Wayne County. 

Henslow's Sparrow {Anunodramiis hcnsloivii). Two females were col- 
lected in St. Clair County on June 18, and one male in Wayne County on 
October 2, by P. A. Taverner and B. H. Swales. 

Savanna Sparrow {P. s. savanna). A colony of about six pairs were 
found breeding on June 18 near Pearl Beach, St. Clair County, by Mr. Taver- 

Lincoln's Sparrow (Melospica lincolni). On May 15 Mr. Taverner col- 
lected a male of this species near Palmer Park, Detroit. 

Wood Duck {Aix sponsa). Dr. Frank B. Allison found a 
pair of these birds breeding in a hollow tree on the edge of Orchard Lake, 
Oakland County. This was in late April. As the set was not disturbed it is 
to be hoped that the birds reached maturity. He later brought me an addled 
egg, which he found pushed to one side of the nest. This species is growing 
very rare in the state and a special law should be enacted for its protection. 

Red-backed Sandpiper (Pelidna alpina sakhalina). A speciment (sex 
undetermined) of this species was shot at the St. Clair Flats on November 
20, making an additional record for the Flats. As the bird, was new to 
me and in full winter plumage, it was sent to the National Museum, where it 
was identified by Dr. C. W. Richmond. The specimen is in the collection 
of J. T. Craven. When our marsh and water birds have been properly 
worked out many species now obscure will undoubtedly prove more common. 

Detroit College of Medicine. Alexander W. Blain, Jr. 

92 Bulletin of the Michigan Ornithological Club 

flDicbioan ©rnltbological Club 

©rijanizrri Hcc. 5th, 1894 
^ir-xirflanizcd ?s\x. 13th, 1903 

Bradshaw H. Swales, - Secretary, 

46 Lamed St. West, Detroit. 


The last quarterly meeting for 1904 was held at the Detroit Museum 
on Dec. 2. Dr. P. E. Moody in the chair ; ten members present. The fol- 
lowing programme was presented : 

•'Re Kirtland's Warbler," P. A. Taverner (read by F. C. Hubel). 

"Some Phases of the Life History of the House Wren," A. W. Blain, Jr. 

"Remarks on the Cowbird," J. Wilbur Kay. 

"Nesting of the Blue-gray Gnatcatcher in Wayne and Oakland Counties, 
Mich.," P. E. Moody, M. D. 

"Notes on a Great Horned Owl in Captivity," J. Claire Wood. • 

"Summer Birds of Puschlinch Lake, Ontario," A. B. Klugh (read by 
Mr. Blain). 

The following were presented by title : 

"Birds of the Beaver Islands, Mich.," Walter B. Barrows. 

"Birds' Nesting," Morris Gibbs, M. D. 

"A Preliminary List of the Birds of Kalkaska County, Mich.," Wm. H. 

"A Natural History Expedition to Northern Michigan," Chas. C. Ad ims. 

"An Unusual Might of the Sparrow Hawk in Michigan, 1904," Frank 

Discussion followed after each paper read. The meeting was one of the 
most successful in the history of the Club. 

A short business session followed. Hon. Joseph L. Hudson, J. Wilbur 
Kay, F. A. Hubel and W. G. Kay were elected patrons; of the society 

A. W. Blain. F. C. Hubel 'and J. W. Kay were appointed a committe? 
to arrange for a supper to be given William Dutcher, F. A. O. U., on his 
forthcoming visit to Detroit. Remarks on business and the welfare of 
the Club were made by Mr. Blain. The meeting adjourned to Friday even- 
ing, March 3, 1905. 

P. A. Taverxer, 
Secretary Pro Tcm. 


American Great Horned Owls, A Revis- 
ion of the, Notice of 48 

American Redstart, Some Notes on the 
Life History of the 33 

American Goldeneyes Wintering on the 
Speed 29 

Additional Records of the Barn Owl in 
Michigan 88 

Birds of Ohio, Reviewed 25 

Birds of Beaver Islands, Michigan. .<>:], 78 
Birds of I'ergus County, Montana, The 

Notice of 26 

Birds of a Maryland Farm, Notice of.. 26 
Birds of Wisconsin, The, Notice of.... 26 
Birds of New England and Eastern New 

York, A Guide to the, Notice of.... 48 

Birds in Decoration 35 

Birds vs. Wild Flowers 55 

Bohemian Waxwing in Oakland County, 

Michigan 29 

Broad-winged Hawk in Wayne County, 

Breeding of the 69 

Cassinia, Notice of 26 

Chimney Swift, Further Notes on the 
Nesting of the 55 

Cooper Ornithological Club Publica- 
tions, reviewed 47 

Correspondence, A F'orthcoming Bulletin 

on Michigan Birds 26 

The Tagging of Birds 50 

Corv's Least Bittern at the St. Clair 
Flats 68 

Cowbird, Some Notes on the 88 

Dawson's Birds of Ohio, reviewed. .. .47 

Editorial 23, 44, 70, 85 

Evening Grosbeakks, Notes on a Flock 
of 28 

Fact to be Remembered, A 29 

Jacobs', The Haunts of the Golden- 
winged Warbler, Reviewed 48 

Key to North American Birds, re- 
viewed 25 


Kirtland's Warbler, Discovery of the 
Breeding Area of 3 

Kirtland's Warbler, The Migration Route 
of 14 

Kirtland's Warbler in Northern Michi- 
gan, 1904, Nesting of 67 

Land Birds of Southeastern Michigan, A 
List of the 37 

Michigan Agricultural College Museum. 58 
Michigan Audubon Society. .27, 49, 73, 87 

Michigan Academy of Science 45, 74 

Michigan Birds, Three Rare 54 

Michigan Ornithological Club 

Committees of 56 

Meetings of 51 

Members of 56 

Officers of , 56 

Minutes of Club Meetings 51 

~ Nebraska Ornithologists' Union, The 

ceedings of the. Notice of 26 

Notes from the Field and Museum De- 
partment 28, 53, 68 

Pacific Coast Avifauna, Reviewed 48 

Personals 29 

Pine Siskin and Red-breasted Nuthatch 
in Kalkaska County, ^lichigan. Nest- 
ing of the 69 

Records, Recent Michigan 91 

Natural History Expedition to North- 
ern Michigan, A 82 

Sparrow Hawks in Michigan in 1904, 
An Unusual Flight of 77 

Summer Birds of Flathead Lake, Ad- 
ditional Notes to, notice of 48 

Tree Swallov.s, Curious Death of 
Some 68 

White-eyed \'ireo from Wellington Coun- 
ty, Ontario, A 55 


Page 67, line 19, should read: Scattered through this region, I found dpad pine 
trees, some of them 50 or 60 feet high. 

Page 67, line 8 from bottom, for "we did not one find," read, he did not once feed. 

Page 17, Fig. 2, Second sentence should read: "Arrows (excepting the one con- 
necting the W^abash and Kankakee drainage) indicate location of record and 
broken lines probable routes. 

Page 18, near end of first paragraph, should read: The Minneapolis (May 3 3-) and 
Toronto (May 16) captures are the extreme east and west localities. 

Page 24, line 21, "twenty-fifth" read 21. Page 26, line 13, "animal" read annual. 


ADAMS, CHAS. C. The Migration Rout.- 
of Kirtlatid's Warbler. 14; A Natural 
History Kxpedition to Northern Michi- 
gan, 82. 

ARNOLU, EDWARD. The Opening of 
the Season. 29; Nesting of Kirtland's 
Warbler in Northern Michigan. I!)n4, GT. 

Forthcoming Bulletin on Michigan Birds, 
26; Michigan .\gricultural College Mu- 
seum, 5;i; Birds of Beaver Islands, 
^lichigan, 63; 78 Editorial by, 70. Ad- 
ditional Records for the Barn Owl in 
Michigan, 88. 

torial by, 2.3, 44, 71, So. 
Book Reviews by, 25, 47. 
Three Rare Michigan Birds, .54. 
Recent Michigan Records, m 

Bohemian Wax-wing 
•Michigan, 29. 

bon Society, 4S», 7'-i, 87. 

tern at St. Clair Flats, 68. 

DUNH.UL WM. H., Further 
the Nesting of the Chimney 
Nesting of the Pine Siskin 


breasted Nuthatch 
Mich., 69. 

in Oakland County, 

Michigan Audu- 

Least P>it 

Notes on 
Swift, 5.5; 
and Red- 
in Kalkaska County, 

flowers, 55. 

M. 1)., Birds vs. Wild 

C.RII'I rni. A. IL, P.irds in Decoration, 

K.W, J. -WILBUR, Curious Death of 
Some Tree Swallows, 68; Some Notes 
on the Cowbird, 88. 

KLUCill, A. B., American Goldeneyes 
Wintering on the Si)eed, 29; A. White- 

eyed X'lreo 
Ontario, 55. 

from Wellington Couijty, 

l-'light of Sparrow Hawks in Michigan 
in ]9()4. 

STONE, WITMER, review of Coues' Key 
(5th edition), 25. 

the Land Birds of Southeastern Michi- 
gan, 37; Minutes of the Club Meetings, 
52; Breeding of the Broad-winged Hawk 
in Wayne County, 69. 

Birds. 50; Minutes 
52, 82. 

The Tagging of 
of Club Meetings, 

on a Flock of Evening Grosbeaks, 28. 

WOOD, J. Claire, A Fact to be Remem- 
bered, 29; Some Notes on the Life 
History of the American Redstart, 33. 

WOOD, NORMAN A., Discovery of the 
Breeding Area of Kirtland's Warbler, 3. 


The Second Nest of Kirtland's 
Warbler (Norman A. Wood) 


Site of the First Known Nest 
of Kirtland's Warbler (N. A. 
Wood) 4 

The First Known Nest of Kirt- 
land's Warbler (N. .\. Wood) 7 

Egg Kirtland's Warbler ( N. A. 

Wood) 8 

Site of Second Known Nest of 
Kirtland's Warbler (N. A. 

Wood) n 

Breeding .Area of Prothonotary Warbler 

in Upper Mississii)pi Valley (Map).. 16 
Probable Migration Route of Kirtland's 

Warbler (Map) 17 

Line of (ilacial Drainage or Shore 

Lines ( Majj) 20 

A. H. (;riffith 22 

Map showing States having Audubon 

Societies . . . .■ 27 

Towhee (Louis Agassiz Fuertes) 30 

Japanese N'ases and Plaque ,.. .S'J 

Map of Southeastern r^Iichigan 43 

Brvant Walker 46 

William H. Dunham 46 

A. H. Boies 46 

Lincoln's Sparrow (L. A. Fuertes) ... .50 

Frederick C. Hubel 46 

Michigan Agricultural College Mu- 
seum 53 

Snow Bunting (L. A. F'uertes) 59 

Least Bittern (P. R. Taverner) 62 

Cory Bittern (P. A. Taverner) 62 

Dr. Wm. B. Hinsdale 82 

Jesse T. Craven 72 

Hon. L. Whitney Watkins 72 

J. Wilbur Kay 

Map of Michigan . . . . ^ 74 

The American Sparrow Hawk (Dr. R. 

W. Shufeldt) 76 

Prof. A. J. Cook 84 

Terome Trombley 84 

Dr. H. A. Atkins 84 

Percy S. Selous 84 

Jefferson Butler 87 

\'ireo Nest Showing Cowbird Eggs.... 89 


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ERNEST H. SHORT. Editor and Manager, CHILI, N. Y. 



\Y7ITH 1905 
^f^ series which will 


Warbler begins a new 
contain many su- 

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[irtland and Olive Warbler, Carolina Par- 
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illustrations of Birds and Nests, and lead- 
ing articles by well known authorities. 

Published Quarterly, 32 Pages A Cover 


Eggs of Kirtland W^arbler will be figured 
in first issue (Jan. or Feb. )of the new series. 


OF j» j» 

Now in its sixth volume. You 
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Norton's series of papers on 
♦*TheFinches Found in Maine," 
also the series on V'The War- 
blers Found in Maine/' by 
Messrs. Knight, Swain, Spin- 
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THE CONDOR is an illustrated bi-monthly magazine published by 
the Cooper Ornithological Club of California. During 1905 THE CON- 
DOR will be profusely illustrated with pictures of wild birds taken 
directly from nature, and will number among its contributors many of 
the best known bird men of the country. A feature of the present 
volume is the series of portraits of European ornithologists. THE 
CONDOR is now in its seventh volume, and is better in every way than 
ever before. 


Perhap* you have not wen THE CONDOR 

§ub»cription : $l«00 Per YeAr, Sample Copy 20 cents. 

Order ot JOSEPH GRiNNELL, Business Manaoer. 
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