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J. H. Holland. 

Nigeria comprises the two colonies of Southern Nigeria 
and Northern Nigeria. The combined territories lie approxi- 
mately between the parallels 4° to 14° N. and the meridians 2°.30 / 
to 14° E. and cover in all an area of 335,000 square miles. The 
main boundaries are : on the North, the French Sudan ; on the 
South, the Atlantic Ocean ; on the East, Lake Chad and the 
German Cameroons ; and on the West, the Colony and Hinterland 
of French Dahomey. 

This area was formerly divided into the Colony of Lagos, the 
Niger Coast Protectorate (also known as the Oil Rivers Protectorate, 
1884-1893), and the territory administered by the Royal Niger 
Company under a Royal Charter. Lagos was proclaimed a West 
African Settlement, under the control of the Governor of Sierra 
Leone, in 1866 ; it became part of the Gold Coast Colony in 1874, 
and a separate colony in 1886. In 1906 it was made the Western 
Province of Southern Nigei ia. 

The Niger Coast Protectorate was formed in May, 1893, and 
included the land lying between the Lagos Colony and the 
Cameroons. The coast line extended from Ogbo at the south-east 
corner of the Lagos Colony to the Forcados river, and again from 
the Nun mouth of the Niger, near Akassa to the Rio del Rey ; the 
northern boundary extended from Akure (80 miles or so inland 
from Ogbo) through Idah on the Niger (about 200 miles from the 
mouth of the river) to the German boundary. The Protectorate 
was renamed Southern Nigeria on January 1st, 1900. 

The territories of the Royal Niger Company included what is now 
Northern Nigeria and the river Niger with a certain stretch of land 
on each side, divided approximately by the coast line from Forcados 
river to the Nun mouth of the Niger. The Charter of the Company 
was granted on July 10th, 1886, and the territories were governed 

1000 Wt 13178 12/08 D&S 29 33385 

by a Council in London. The area south of Idah was transferred 
to. Southern Nigeria in 1900 simultaneously with the establishment 
of the Protectorate of Northern Nigeria, which included the country 
north of this boundary under the control of the Company. 

Southern Nigeria was constituted January 1st, 1900, and in- 
cludes the territory of the Royal Niger Company south of Idah, 
together with the Lagos Colony. The inclusion of Lagos was 
proclaimed on May 1st, 1906. The headquarters of Southern 
Nigeria have been transferred from Old Calabar to Lagos. The 
total area of the territory is about 77,000 square miles. 

It is unnecessary to enter into details as to the original adminis- 
trative divisions of the Colony, it will be sufficient to state the 
present arrangements. 

There are three Provinces : — 1. The Western Province, which is 
coincident with the old Lagos Colony ; 2. The Central or Niger 
Province, and 3. The Eastern or Old Calabar Province. Each 
Province is divided into Districts. 

1. The Western Province contains the Districts of Ibadan, Oyo, 
Ilesha, Ondo, Epe, Jebu-Ode, Ikorodu, Badagry, Meko and 

2. The Central or Niger Province is divided into the Districts 
of Warri, Sapele, Benin City, Ifon, Forcados, Aboh, Idah, Onitsha, 
Udi, Asaba, Ishan, Kwale, Agbor, and Oka. 

3. The Eastern Province contains the Districts of Calabar, Oban, 
Ikom, Obubra, Abakalliki, Afikpo, Bendi, Aro-Chuku, Ikot-Ekpene, 
Uyo, Eket, Opobo, Bonny, Aba, Ibi, Owerri, Ahoada, Degema, 
and Brass. 

Each Province is controlled by a Provincial Commissioner and 
each District is placed under the charge of a District Commissioner. 

The Revenues on Exports and Imports are collected by Southern 
Nigeria for the whole of Nigeria. Northern Nigeria having no 
sea-board receives annually a stated proportion of the dues from 
the Southern Colony ; * the amount of which is determined by the 
Secretary of State. 

The principal Customs Stations are Lagos, in the Western 
Province ; Forcados, Warri, Sapele, Benin, (Koko Town) in the 
Central Province ; Calabar, Abokam, Ikang, Opobo, Egwanga, 
Bonny, Bakana, Degema, Buguma, Brass and Akassa in the 
Eastern Province. 

Physical Features. 

The configuration of Southern Nigeria is in detail subject 
to some uncertainty. Until the whole area has been fully explored 
and properly mapped accurate information can only be given as to 
the parts actually visited. All the maps constructed so far have 
been compiled in England from sketches made at various times by 
numerous surveyors independently of each other. A systematic 
survey of the whole Colony is now in progress by the Department 
of Surveys. 

* This contribution was £57,500 in 1901 ; £78,750 in 1905 ; £75,000 in 1906. 

The most marked feature of the country is the low-lying belt of 
land along the coast line, which consists of swamps with rank 
vegetation made up almost entirely of mangroves on the outer 
fringe ; behind this there is a belt of mixed vegetation growing 
on the ground which has been built up to a large extent by 
the mangroves in the course of ages. On the somewhat higher 
ground extensive forests of mixed trees are found interset with 
farms, open grass lands (not pastures), and jungle bush, which 
consists generally of neglected or spent farm lands. The man- 
grove swamps may extend 50 to 100 miles inland, along the 
banks of all the rivers, as far as the tidal influence is felt. 

The geological features of the country have been described by 
Parkinson.* There appears to be a mass of crystalline rocks 
forming a rude semi-ellipse indented on the east by the complex 
of the Oban hills and crossing the Niger in Lat. 7° 19' N. The 
cretaceous rocks which have been found in the Cameroon have 
been traced westwards round the base of the Oban hills up the 
Cross river to Abakalliki, and probably extend further northward 
and westward. To the westward from Asaba to Benin City and 
Ifon and through the Ijebu country to Abeokuta, the country is 
an undulating plain consisting entirely of rocks later than 
cretaceous in age. 

There are four well marked types of country. The first is that 
built up of complexes of crystalline rock, the second that formed 
by the cretaceous strata, the third composed of tertiary beds, the 
most conspicuous of which are the red sandy clays typical of 
Ijebu and Benin, and the fourth, which is still in process of 
formation, is the type of the delta and mangrove swamp. Each 
of these four types exhibits physical features peculiar to itself and 
not shared by any other member of the series. 

The salient characteristics are briefly as follows. The Oban 
hills belonging to type (I) form an unorientated group of peaks 
attaining an elevation of rather over 15,000 ft., and are charac- 
terized by steep slopes, drained by a rejuvenated river system. 
The best example of the second type of scenery is that between 
Afikpo and Abakalliki, where the effects of erosion on a group 
of strata of varying hardness folded by a north and south move- 
ment are admirably seen. It is an open country of the 
orchard type, most assiduously cultivated, but on the northern 
and southern slopes of the Oban hills the cretaceous rocks are 
covered with dense bush which masks the physical features. 
The country formed by the softer red tertiary loams and sands, 
characteristic of parts of the central and western provinces, is 
exceedingly monotonous ; it is covered with heavy bush and 
drained by a very mature river system. The water courses, 
however, are greatly encumbered by sand banks. Near Asaba 
low hills occur, but for the most part, e.g., between Ifon and Sapele, 
the surface of the country is gently undulating. 

With regard to the delta region, it is probably in reality not so 
flat as it appears from the sea, for not uncommonly inliers of the 
red sands of Benin form low hills which are surrounded by 
mangrove swamps. 

* Report. British Association, L906, p. 622. 

:;:5385 A 2 

There appears to be no elevation that could be fitly described 
as a mountain, although in certain parts the land rises to a height 
of 3,000 ft. or so above sea level. 

Rivers and Waterways. 

The water courses are very numerous. In the western province 
there are no oceanic rivers of any importance, but near the coast 
there is an extensive system of lagoons and creeks, fed by the 
rivers Ogun, Odo-Ona, Oshun, Oni, and several smaller streams. 

The most extensive lagoons are the Lagos and Lekki. The latter, 
which is about 30 miles long by 15 miles broad in its widest part, 
is a beautiful sheet of water dotted with forest-covered islands. 
The only opening for steamers of shallow draft is at Lagos, 
although small craft can sail through these lagoons from the 
western limit of the province to the Benin river, a distance of 
more than 200 miles. Passengers for Lagos are transferred from 
the ocean-going steamers to branch boats in Lagos roads, and 
cargo is transhipped in Forcados river. 

To the eastward, the coast line of the central and eastern 
provinces is one long series of river mouths. These rivers are 
navigable by ocean-going steamers for certain distances, and all 
of them are more or less connected with each other by an 
extensive system of creeks which can be navigated by means of 
launches or canoes as far, at least, as the Opobo river. 

The Benin river is the first of the series. Steamers drawing 
more than 10 or 12 ft. of water cannot enter by the mouth, but 
large steamers can proceed to Sapele through the creek from the 
Forcados river. The river Escravos has a shallow bar. The 
Forcados river is navigable along the Warri branch to Warri (a 
distance of about 50 miles) for large steamers, and for smaller 
craft through the Warri creek to the Niger of which river it 
forms one of the principal outlets. The rivers Ramos, Dodo, 
Penington and Middleton all have bars which do not admit the 
passage of vessels drawing more than 8-10 ft. of water. The Nun 
is the principal outlet of the Niger, which is the largest river in the 
Colony. The Niger is navigable in the rainy season for large 
steamers as far as Jebba (a distance of about 450 miles), but in the 
dry season only as far as Lokoja (about 250 miles) though vessels 
of shallow draft can go about as far as Mureji near the Kaduna 
river and from there onwards navigation is only possible by canoe. 
The Brass river has a shallow bar, but some ocean vessels can 
cross with safety. The St. Nicholas, St. Barbara, St. Bartholomew 
and Sombreiro all have bars too shallow to allow the passage of 
ocean steamers. The Bonny river is navigable only for a short 
distance from the sea (the town of Bonny is 8 miles from the 
mouth). The Andoni has a shallow bar, and the Opobo a shallow 
but navigable bar. The Kwa-obo entrance, suitable for small 
steamers only, and the Calabar estuary into which the Cross 
river the Akwayafe and Qwa rivers flow before reaching the sea, 
complete the series. The Cross river is sometimes regarded 
as the principal outlet and the other rivers as tributaries; this 
would appear to be the more correct view, as the Cross river 
is by far the largest of the group. Large steamers can get 

conveniently to Old Calabar town, about 45 miles from the sea 
and for 10 or 20 miles beyond. The Cross river is navigable 
nearly to the German boundary in the wet season by launch, and 
in the dry season only as far as Itu (a distance of about 50 miles 
from the junction with the Old Calabar river). In the dry 
season it is possible to travel the whole distance by canoe, but in 
places, owing to the numerous sand banks in the bed of the river, 
it is a matter of much difficulty. 

The Engenni river is an inland stream which takes its rise in 
the Oguta lake, about 110 miles to the north from the sea coast, 
and meets the Sombreiro near Degema, about 30 miles from the 
sea. An idea of the strength of the current may be gained from 
the fact that it takes 3 days to ascend by canoe as far as Idu, 80 
miles or so from Degema, paddling hard against the stream ; 
whilst paddling hard with the stream it is possible to descend 
the same distance in one day. 

Northern Nigeria was constituted January 1st, 1900, being- 
proclaimed at the same time as the Southern Colony, and was 
made to include the country north of Idah on the Niger. The 
total area of the territory is about 258,000 sq. miles. 

It is divided for Administrative purposes into 1*1 Provinces, 
viz. : — Sokoto, Kano, Bornu, Borgu, Kontagora, Zaria, Bauchi, Yola, 
Nupe, Nassarawa, Muri, Ilorin, Kabba and Bassa. 

An outline of the History and Progress of each Province is 
given in the High Commissioner's Report for 1904,* and from this 
and other sources, the following brief particulars are quoted. 
Sokoto has an approximate area of 35,000 sq. miles. Horse-breeding 
and cattle raising form the chief sources of wealth, and it is 
estimated that there are some 100,000 head of cattle and 40,000 
sheep in the province. Ostrich farming is carried on in the 
north. Except in areas where lack of water precludes cultivation, 
there is extensive agriculture including rice and cotton. Special 
crops are grown in the river valleys by irrigation. Weaving, 
dyeing, and tanning are the principal native industries. 

The province of Kano comprises an area of about 31,000 square 
miles and includes the emirates of Kano, Katsena and Daura, which 
are among the most ancient of the Hausa States. 

The industries which have made Kano famous throughout and 
beyond the Sudan have remained unchanged, and the weaving 
and embroidery of cloths, the tanning of goat skins, and orna- 
mental leather work, with other minor trades form to-day its 
staple industries, as they did centuries ago. Its large market is the 
commercial centre of the Western Sudan, the destination and the 
starting point of the caravans which traverse the country in all 
directions. The imports of local origin are chiefly : 1. Salt from 
the north and east (Asben and Manga); 2. Natron from 
Damageram and the east; 3. Cattle and horses from Sokoto an I 
Bornu ; 4. Kolas from Ganja and Lagos ; and 5. Antimony from the 
Benue. Imports of European origin are : 1. From Tripoli. English 
cloth, magenta-coloured thread, beads, sugar, scent, mirrors, 
needles, spices, pepper, burnooses, horse-trappings, and writing 

* Col. Rep., Ann. No. 176, VJor,. 

paper ; 2. From the south, English cloth, salt, German dyes and 
Austrian beads. Exports to Europe are leather, ivory, and 
feathers, the bulk of which go to Tripoli. 

For a radius of 30 miles round the city of Kano, the country is 
closely cultivated and densely populated. There are many 
streams but water is obtained chiefly from wells 15 to 40 ft. deep. 
The drainage is to the Wobe river, which flows into Lake Chad. 
All the African grain crops are grown, "dawa" (Andropogon 
Sorghum, Brot., var. vulgaris. Hack.) and "gero" Pennisetum 
typlioideum, Rich.) being the staples, the latter especially in the 
north. Irrigation is practised along the river banks, and crops of 
wheat, ob ions, tobacco, sugar-cane, cassava, and other valuable 
products are raised. 

Sir William Wallace* gives an interesting account of the iron 
smelting industry at Fawa, one of the chief towns in the 

The province of Bomu has an area of about 33,000 square miles. 
It is mainly a vast plain, stoneless, except for rare outcrops of 
ironstone, and consists of porous fissured black earth, known 
as " cotton soil " in India, alternating with or more probably over- 
laid by sand and broken only by sand dunes. Water is apparently 
found everywhere at a depth of 54 ft. corresponding to the level 
of Lake Chad. On the northern boundary of the province is a 
remarkable Salt desertf described by Lt.-Col. Elliot, R.E.,as follows : 
u The meridian that ascends northward from the parallel of 
13° 20' N. to 14° N. passes roughly through the middle of it. It is 
covered with grass about 4 ft. high, diversified here and there by 
lines of Borassus palms, which mark the course of the depressions 
where water is usually to be found at a small depth below the 
surface, even if they do not contain pools. Deposits, sometimes 
of potash, sometimes of what the African is pleased to call table 
salt, are left wherever the water dries. These deposits are worked 
by the natives who come from long distances at the end of the 
rains and establish themselves at the workings in temporary 
shelters made of palm leaves or grass. They scrape up the soil 
newly impregnated by the evaporated and infiltrated water, carry 
it off and fill it into strong baskets, placed in a frame above an 
earthen pot, water is poured over to dissolve out the salt, and when 
the receiver below is full of brine it is taken away and evaporated 
by boiling. The salt thus obtained is not pleasant to European 
taste nor is it advisable to indulge freely in it. It is neatly 
packed in mats made of palm leaves and carried long distances to 

* Geog. Journ., Vol. viii., 1896, p. 214 ; ' ; Notes on a journey through the Sokoto 
Empire and Borgu " in 1894. 

f This region is called by Capt. Cochrane, the Salt Lake Area, where the 
natives come in the cool season (October to March) to make salt. Be found 
numerous lakes occupying depressions of the ground surrounded by a few palm 
trees (Geog. Journ., Vol. xxiii., 1904, p. 127). In a report on some samples of 
salt from the Bomu Province, examined at the Imperial Institute, it is stated 
that the area in which the salt is produced appears to extend over about 500 square 
miles, and to be due west of Kuka, and about 70 miles from the shores of Lake 
Chad, part of the area lving in French territory (Col. Rep., Misc., No. 46, 1908, 
p. 2). 

X Geog. Journ., Vol. xxiv,, 1904, p. 517, "The Anglo-French Niger-Chad 
Boundary Commission.'' 

Borgu province has an area of 12,000 square iniies. In South 
Borgu the people are agricultural, but are not industrious, and 
show no desire to acquire wealth or to trade. In the North the 
settlements of Fulani from Gando rear cattle, while the Baribas 
are agricultural. The industries are confined to the simple wants 
of the people, and there is little trade. The soil appears to be 
rich black loam singularly free from the white ant pest. 

Kontagora province has an area of 14,500 square miles. 

In the province of Zaria, with an area of 22,000 square miles, 
the chief crop appears to be cotton, which is exported to Kano. 
The altitude of Zaria station is 2,250 ft., and its climate is conse- 
quently one of the most healthy in Nigeria ; during part of the 
year it may be even called bracing and delightful. The great 
disadvantage is that tsetse fly has been found to exist. 

The province of Bauchi has an area of 23,200 square miles. 
The city of Bauchi was once a great centre of the slave trade, and 
owed such prosperity as it possessed to this fact. The inhabitants 
are, generally speaking, wonderfully good and industrious 
agriculturists, rich in flocks and herds, but are lawless and 
independent. There are tin mines in the neighbourhood of 
Naraguta, to which a route was opened up during 1905-06 ; starting 
from Loko on the Benue, 110 miles from Lokoja, it traverses the 
Nassarawa Province, first northwards to Keffi, thence north east 
to Darroro, and over the Assab, Sura, or Kibyen Plateau. This 
Plateau is described as " extensive and well watered, with a 
surprisingly fertile soil," having a general elevation of at least 
3,800 feet, and peopled by agricultural Pagans. " These Pagans, 
though at present mostly cannibals, are manly, straightforward, 
and industrious. It is probable that this district may have a great 
future as a local sanatorium, not only for Northern Nigeria, but 
also for the Coast Administrations."* 

Yola province has an area of 16,000 square miles. 

The province of Nupe has an area of 6,100 square miles. Bida, 
one of its chief towns, is most advantageously situated as to means 
of transport. The Niger flows immediately to the south and other 
navigable rivers, the Kaduna on the west and the Bako on the 
east, are in its immediate vicinity. 

Nassarawa province, with an area of 18,000 square miles, is 
concerned with iron smelting as its principal industry and salt 
also is obtained in the Kiana district. 

The province of Muri has an area of 25,800 square miles. The 
three main trade routes of the country converge at Wase, viz., 
from the salt district at Awe, from the kola-growing centres of 
Kentu and Bafum in the Cameroons, and from Gashaka, via A mar, 
for cattle. The climate here is good but the actual valley of 
the Benue, which runs through th« centre of the province, is 
infested with mosquitos and tsetse fly. 

The salt from the brine springs ai Awe and elsewhere lias been 
analysed at the Imperial Institute, and it appears probable that ;i 

* Col. Rep., Ann., No. 516. 11)07. p. 41. 

nearly pure salt could be prepared without difficulty. The 
output in 1904 was estimated at 277 tons per annum, obtained 
during the dry season only." 

Ilorin, with an area of 6,300 square miles, is a province rich in 
agricultural and sylvan products. Among the former, in addition 
to the usual crops, are tobacco, cotton, rice, pepper, ground 
nuts, and kolas ; the latter include great quantities of shea 
{Buty rasper mu)i Parkii, Kotschy), as well as of palm oil and 
rubber. The people are good agriculturists. The city of Ilorin 
is, next to Kano, probably the largest trade centre in the country. 

The province of . Kabba, with an area of 7,800 square miles, 
consists of healthy uplands and fertile valleys. The industries 
are merely such as supply the wants of a primitive people. It is 
in this province that Lokoja, once the headquarters of Nigeria, is 
situated. Kola nuts, English cotton goods, and native cloth, natron 
and live stock, are the chief objects of trade. The native 
products are palm oil, shea, rubber, and cotton. 

Bassa has an area of 7,000 square miles. This province is 
probably richer in natural products than any other in the 

Physical Features. 

The general altitude of NORTHERN NIGERIA is not great, but in 
the neighbourhood of Bauchi an elevation of 3,000 feet and 
upwards is attained. To the south of this province is the 
Murchison range, whose southern slopes are drained by the 

Some idea of the character of the country may be gained from 
the altitudes of the following places : — 

Loko, on the Benue about 400 miles from the sea is about 
425 feet above sea level, thence almost due north to Kano the 
following approximate altitudes have been observed. f Kern 
about the centre of Nassarawa province, 100 miles distant from 
Loko ; 1,000 feet. Katill in Zaria province, 100 miles north of 
Keffi, is 2,530 feet above sea level, and is said to be one of the 
highest districts in the whole of the Hausa States ; the town of 
Zaria 50 miles further north is 2,250 feet, and Kano, about 
80 miles distant, 1,690 feet. Sir Frederick LugardJ has described 
Zaria as being situated on a plateau which falls away on all 
sides except towards the east where it rises into highlands 
of which Bauchi is the centre, the latter place being surrounded 
by mountains of much greater altitude. He gives the altitude 
of Yola (200 miles or so south-east of Bauchi) as about 800 
or 900 feet; Lokoja on the Niger nearly 300 miles south-west 
of Bauchi, as not more than 300 feet above the sea ; Jebba, 
about 250 miles south-west of the Zaria plateau, 500 feet, and Illo 

* An account of this manufacture is given in Col. Rep., Mi?c, No. 46. 1908, 
pp. 10-14, and on p. 24 the product is stated to be "of good quality and suitable 
for culinary purposes." According to the analysis it compares favourably with 
much of the salt used in Europe. 

f See Geog. Journ., Vol. viii., 1896, p. 202, " The Hausa Territories," by Rev. 
C. H. Robinson. 

X Geog. Journ., Vol. xxiii., 1904, p. 13, N. Nigeria. 


on the French frontier, some 250 miles east of the Zaria plateau 
as about 1,000 feet. The same author* describes the "two Hydro- 
graphic Systems " of Northern Nigeria, that of the Niger and that 
of which Lake Chad is the centre, the watershed being more 
or less along the line from Kano to Katsena, and along the northern 
slopes of the Bauchi hills. 

The Principal Rivers. 

The Niger in its lower course, from the western boundary 
near Illo to Southern Nigeria, is the principal river. On the 
north the chief tributaries are the Gulbin draining the province 
of Sokoto, the Kaduna on which Zungeru is situated (navigable 
for about 75 miles as far as Wushishi) draining the provinces of 
Zaria and Nupe, and the Guarara, along the north and west of the 
province of Nassarawa which " offers no facilities for navigation.'' f 
On the south there are the Wessa, OH, and Teshi in Borgu. 

The river Benue, which flows in from the German boundary 
near Garua and Yola, unites with the Niger near Lokoja ; its chief 
tributaries are on the north the Gongola in Yola, navigable by 
steam launch as far as Nafada (Bauchi), the Ankwe in Muri, 
and the Modu in Nassarawa. On the south the Teraba is said 
to be 200 yards across at its widest part ; it is navigable in the wet 
season by powerful light draught launches, but in the dry season 
only by canoe.J There are also the Donga and Katsena in the 
province of Muri. 

The rivers draining the basin of Lake Chad may be best 
described in connection with the lake. An account of the 
drainage system of this region was published recently in the 
N. Nigeria Gazette, § and is as follows : — 

" The lagoons, which lie in the depression known under the 
name of Lake Chad, receive their water from various rivers, from 
the West, South- West and South. 

' k No water comes from the sandy desert to the North and 
North-East ; and to the South-East some uneven country prevents 
the Batta from reaching Chad with the waters from Wadai. 

"The Baharel-Gazal to the East, with its continuation to the 
Bodele and Egei county, lies lower than the level of the Chad 
and may therefore be regarded as the outlet of the Chad lagoons, 
probably once the open continuation of the rivers flowing into 
Chad. To the East, we have at present no proof of its connection 
with Chad, except the great amount of water, found everywhere 
in the valley, at a very low depth, which can come from nowhere 
but the lagoons to the West. 

" The two chief tributaries of Chad are the Kommadugu of 
Yo, or ' River Wobe,' to give its otficial title in Northern Nigeria, 
and the Shari. 

* Geog. Journ., Vol. xxiii., 1904. p. 13, N. Nigeria, 
t Geog. Journ., Vol. xxiii.. 1904, p. 10. N. Nigeria. 

X Geog. Journ., Vol. xiv.. 1899. p. 631, "Regions of the Benue," L. H. Moseley. 
§ N. Nigeria Gaz.. Vol. iii.. No. fi. 1907, pp. 57-58, Report on Lake Chad, by 
Mr. Hans Viacher. 


" The first originates in the Eastern Hausa states, and, traversing 
about 300 miles, from West to East, flows into Chad near Yo, on 
the West shore. It receives no water from Bornu proper, and is a 
flowing stream for the greater part of the year, carrying most 
water at the end of December. 

" The Shari is the greatest river of the Chad system. Not far 
from its mouth it unites with the Logone, and for a great distance 
is a navigable stream, carrying actually a small flotilla of French 
steamers. It flows into Chad on ics Southern corner, divided into 
several arms. 

" For some distance the Shari marks the frontier between the 
French and German territories. 

" Between Shari and Kommadugu of Yo, there is the Yedseram. 
It collects its waters from the Western slope of the Mandara Hills 
and from the Margin country, flows due North for a considerable 
distance, when it turns East and vanishes into a swamp near 

" The rivers near Ullgo and Wobbio, as well as the channel near 
Missene, appear to be the continuation of the Yedseram, but these 
water-channels only have a riverlike appearance for a short way, 
ending, as they begin, in a swamp. 

" The Alo lagoon near Konduga, British Bornu, to a great extent 
receives its waters from the Yedseram. 

" The Maiduguri river is in connection with this lagoon. 
Former travellers called it the Ngadda. It flows for some months 
in the year from South to North to disappear in the swamps near 
Chad, a little West of the Yedseram." 

Lake Chad is the only known lake of importance in Nigeria, but 
it is regarded more as " a permanent inundation than a lake in the 
true sense of the term," and has no outlet to the sea. It is about 
1,150 ft. above sea-level, and only 20 ft. deep in the deepest parts, 
with an area, in the dry season, of 10,000 square miles and of 
50,000 square miles in the wet season. The ancients called this 
water Libya Palus, and judging from this name they also must 
have regarded it as more of a swamp than a lake. This was in the 
days when Africa was thought to be a province bordering on the 
Mediterranean Sea and Libya was the name for the then known 
portion of the continent. 

The administrative divisions, and the topography of the separate 
Colonies having been briefly described, a few particulars as to the 
Climate, Peoples, Means of Communication, Transport 
and CURRENCY, for the whole Protectorate now^follow. 


The whole area of NIGERIA falls within the tropics, and having 
said this it will only be necessary to give a few figures illustrative 
of the general climate. These have been taken from records made 
by careful observers in various parts, and the following details are 
taken from the Official Reports. 

Temperature.— " The mean temperature for the year 190b* at 
Lagos Observatory was 80*3°. The highest shade temperature 99° 


was recorded at Onitsha (Central province), and Afikpo (Eastern 
province) in March, at Asaba (Central province) in February, and 
Benin City (Central province) in March, and the lowest 54*5° at 
Benin City in January."* 

" The mean temperature of Old Calabar (Eastern province) in 
1905 was 81*21°, and the mean daily range 15*4°. The highest and 
lowest shade temperatures were recorded at Bonny (Eastern 
province) in February, being 96*21° and 62*13° respectively. "f 

The Principal Medical Officer reports that " the highest temper- 
ature recorded in Northern Nigeria during the year 1905 was 
118° at Maifoni (Bornu), on April 8th, and the lowest 39° at Kano, 
on February 2nd, the highest mean temperature for the year 
being at Kontagora, 82°, and the lowest at Zaria, 74°. The mean 
temperature in 1905 at Zungeru (headquarters) was 80°4 The 
temperature in Bornu although reaching 106° in the shade dnring 
the hot season is liable to fall at times (in December and January) 
so low as to cause occasional frosts, more particularly in the region 
of Lake Chad. In western Bauchi (Bukuru) " the temperature in 
the dry season is stated rarely to exceed 85°, and in November and 
December it falls below freezing point."§ 

Rainfall.— In Southern Nigeria, during 1906, "the maximum 
rainfall was 251*49 ins. at Egwanga (Eastern province), and the 
minimum 40*92 ins. at Oloke Meji (Western province). The rain- 
fall at Lagos was 74*76 ins., at Calabar 156*64 ins., and at Bonny 
142*26 ins."|| These places, with the exception of Oloke Meji are 
all on or near the coast, where the heaviest rainfall usually occurs. 

In Northern Nigeria in the year 1905-06, "the greatest 
rainfall was at Zaria with 51*27 ins., and the lowest, Sokoto, with 
33*32 ins., the maximum fall on one day being at Ilorin on 
June 2nd., 4*04 ins."i In Bornu the rainfall, which is generally 
regarded as being uncertain and small (May to October), was 
considered exceptionally good during the same year, 25 ins. being 
registered at Maifoni. 4 ^ 

There are two well marked seasons, the wet and the dry. The 
wet season may be regarded as from March to October and the 
dry season as through the remainder of the year, although 
tornados, more particularly between the seasons, are of frequent 

The Harmattan, a wind which more or less affects the whole of 
the coast of Guinea is prevalent during the dry season. Its usual 
course is from the north-east, across the Sahara desert, with 
varying degrees of force ; sometimes it blows with great violence, 
whilst at others it is not more than a gentle breeze. This wind is 
characterized, moreover, by excessive dryness, and by a thick haze 
attributable in a large measure to the fine particles of sand which it 
draws with it. The nights at these times are cold and often some- 
what trying, even though the temperature may not fall below 65°. 

* Col. Rep., Ann., No. 554, 1908, for 1906, S. Nigeria, p. 54. 

+ Col. Rep., Ann., No. 512, 1906, S. Nigeria, p. 36. 

% Col. Rep., Ann., No. 516, 1907, N. Nigeria, p. 105. 

§ Col. Rep., Ann., No. 516, 1907, N. Nigeria, p. 42. 

|i Col. Rep., Ann., No. 554. 1908. for 1906, S. Nigeria, p. 55. 

i I.e., p. 32. 



The native inhabitants of NIGERIA are in general typical negroes, 
but the tribal and intertribal divisions are so numerous that to give 
a full and satisfactory description would be a task of exceptional 
difficulty. Several important works * on the people of this region 
have been published in recent years, and most writers on the 
country have given some information about the natives with 
whom they have come in contact, but these scattered references 
require to be properly collated and a comprehensive survey to be 
made of the nation as a whole. 

The superior races appear to occupy the interior of the country, 
and as one passes inland from the delta of the Niger they gradually 
improve. Some of the more prominent tribes in Southern 
Nigeria are the Yorubas, extending to Ilorin in the Western 
province ; the Jekris and Sobos in the Central province : 
and the Ibos, Eifiks, Kwas and Akuna-Kunas in the Eastern 
province. They are Pagans for the most part, but some few, 
especially amongst the Eifiks, have embraced the Christian 

In Northern Nigeria, Hausa is the predominating native 
race, more particularly in the northern states, and the Fulani the 
predominating invading, and ruling race ; both of these races are 
Mahommedans. Other prominent tribes are the Nupes and Yorubas 
(of Ilorin), also more or less followers of Mahomet. In addition 
there are numerous Pagan tribes. 

The Hausas and Yorubas are in general industrious, and are 
traders and soldiers ; the native regiments are largely if not 
entirely recruited from these two races. 

Language.— Only a few of the languages have been reduced to 
writing and of these the Hausa language is the most important as it 
is the commercial language of the country. The Rev. C. H. Robinson, 
lately lecturer in Hausa at Cambridge University states,t that " it 
is possibly, the most spoken language on the Continent of Africa. 
Its only rivals in numbers are Swahili and Arabic. It has been 
reduced to writing for at least a century and possibly much longer, 
and according to history now existing in writing, Kano has been 
occupied as a Hausa town for about 950 years." He further states 
that four languages and four only will dominate the whole of the 
continent of Africa : — kt Arabic in the north ; English in the south ; 
Swahili in Eastern Tropical ; and Hausa in Western Tropical 

Eifik in the Eastern province, or more particularly in Old 
Calabar was reduced to writing by the earlier missionaries of the 
United Presbyterian Mission at Old Calabar some fifty years ago. 

These two languages, and in addition, Ibo, Uziado, Yoruba and 
Jekri, have now been made the subjects of written and colloquial 
examination in the Colony. 

* See Appendix I. 

t Geog. Journ., Vol. viii.. 1'596, pp. 208, 209. 


Education.— Elementary, Secondary, and Technical Education is 
now being provided for in the schools established by the Govern- 
ment (Bonny, Benin, Warri, Sapele, Cross river, &c.) ; the 
Church Missionary Society (Lagos, Brass, Bonny, Degma, Opobo 
and Bida), and the United Free Church of Scotland (Calabar and 
Cross river). The Hope Waddell Institute of this latter Mission, 
erected at Old Calabar by the Government at a cost of £12,000, is 
one of the largest secondary schools in the Colony. The Wesleyan 
Mission (Lagos, Ibadan), and the Roman Catholic Missions (Lagos, 
Onitsha, and Calabar), have also established schools. 

Slavery, once the curse of the country, has been proclaimed 
illegal in both Colonies. 

Population.— The native population of SOUTHERN NIGERIA in 
1906 was estimated as follows* : — 

Western province 
Eastern „ 





The Europeans in the three provinces numbered 1,022. 

The approximate returns for NORTHERN NIGERIA for the same 
year werej : — 





































Kontagora ... 












Nassarawa ... 












Grand Total 

3,422 : 2eO 



These totals give an average of 79 persons per square mile for 
Southern, and 27 per square mile for Northern Nigeria. 

Transport.— Three of the greatest drawbacks to the development 
of Nigeria in the past have been difficulties of transport, 
slavery and the varying currency; the one in manj* instances 
depending on the other. Formerly the inland carrying was done 
by natives who carried a load of GO lbs. or so on their heads. 
This method is still indispensable in certain districts not, y.i 
under effective control, more particularly in those parts of 

* Col. Rep., Ann., No. 554, 1908, p. 56. 
f Col. Rep., Ann.. No. 551. 1907. p. 99. 


Southern Nigeria, where there are no beasts of burden and where 
wheeled traffic is not possible. The same method is also current 
in Northern Nigeria, but in certain provinces mules, bullocks, 
horses and asses are used for the purpose. " It is reported that 
the introduction of animal transport is gradually taking the place 
of carriers, but until suitably bridged and metalled roads are 
constructed, it will be an impossibility wholly to substitute animal 
transport during the rains."" 

In the dry season both cart and pack transport are in use 
throughout the road from Zungeru to Kano, and in the Bornu 
province. The tsetse fly in several provinces — Zaria, Yola, &c, 
causes much loss amongst these animals. Carts have been 
introduced, but it is said that the climate is detrimental, as the 
following report seems to indicate. " Out of 100 carts made in 
England, 80 had, after 18 months' service in Northern Nigeria, to 
be practically rebuilt, and of the balance 12 were condemned as 
unfit for further use."f 

" Pack transport has been worked with good results in the 
Sokoto and Kano provinces, while pack camels have taken the 
place of pack bullocks at Zaria and Kano with excellent results." J 

Transport near the coast with such magnificent waterways is, as 
can be readily understood, comparatively easy, and the Marine 
Department controls an extensive fleet of steam and motor vessels 
and other craft adapted to the regular mail, passenger, and trans- 
port services which have been organized. The first railway in 
the country was opened to the public in March, 1901, between 
Iddo island at Lagos and Ibadan, this has since been extended to 
Abeokuta and Oshogbo, 186 miles in all, the intermediate stations 
being fixed at Ebute-Metta, Agege, Otta, Ifo, Arigbajo, Itori, 
Wasimi, Owowo, Aro, Abeokuta, Sanushi, Opeji, Eruwa road, 
Oloke Meji, Ogunshileh, Ilugun, Adio, Ibadan, Oyo road, Olodo, 
Lalupon, I wo, Origo and Ede. This line is now being extended 
to Northern Nigeria by way of Ilorin and Jebba, on the Niger. 
A light railway has been constructed from the Kaduna river (at 
Barijuko) to Zungeru. 

This brief note on the transport may be fittingly concluded 
with a reference to the ancient caravan routes, between Tripoli 
and Kano — still the most important market centre in Nigeria — 
across the Sahara desert, by way of Ghat, Asben and Zinder, or by 
way of Murzuk, Bilma and Lake Chad, a distance of about 1,800 
miles ; the first mentioned route is the one more usually followed. 
It is not unlikely that much of the trade will be diverted from 
this route as the conditions of transport improve southwards to 
the sea. Dr. Cargill has reported that "the journey from Tripoli 
to Ghat takes 40 days, and costs from £2 to £3 per camel load. 
At this point there is always a delay of some weeks to procure 
fresh camels ; and from thence it is a journey of six or seven 
weeks to Kano, costing £4 to £6. The French levy $2 for each 
load of skins, and $4 per load of ivory or feathers at Zinder. 
Roughly, therefore, it may be said that goods take nearly five 

* Col. Rep.. Ann., No. 551, 1907, p. 56, N. Nigeria, 
f Col. Rep.', Ann., No. 551, 1907, p. 57. 
X 1. c p. 56. 


months at a cost of about £40 per ton by the desert route." * An 
Arab trader from Tripoli was induced in 1905 to try the route 
from Kano via the caravan road to Zungeru, and thence by the 
Lagos railway and steamer to Algeria. He was afforded every 
facility and was well satisfied with the security and advantages 
of" this route. The journey occupied only two months, against 
the five and sometimes seven months taken over the journey 
through the desert. 

Postal Service.— An efficient postal system is established between 
most of the places under European control, and telegraphic 
communication has been effected, connecting some of the most 
distant outposts in both Colonies, with offices at the following 
places : — 

In Southern Nigeria, Akure, Ibadan, Ilesha, Iseyin, Lagos, 
Leckie, Ogbomosho, Oshogbo, Oyo, Saki, in the Western province, 
and at all the railway stations previously mentioned. 

Agbor, Asaba, Benin City, Burutu, Fishtown (Benin River), 
Forcados, Ifon, Oka, Onitsha, Owo, Sapele, Warri, in the Central 
province. Aba, Bonny, Calabar, Eket, Ikot-Ekpene, Itu, Opobo, 
Oguta, Owerri, Uwet and Uyo, in the Eastern province. 

In NORTHERN NIGERIA, Amar (Muri province), Barrijuko 
(Zaria), Bauchi, Baro, Bida (Nupe), Egga (Kabba), Ibi (Muri), 
llorin, Jebba (Nupe), Jegga (Sokoto), Kano, Keffi (Nassarawa), 
Kontagora, Kuta, Lau (Muri), Lokoja (Kabba), Loko (Nassarawa), 
Maiduguri (Bornu), Nafada (Bauchi), Patiji (llorin), Sokoto, 
Yelwa (Kontagora), Yola, Zaria and Zungeru (Zaria). 

This progress in the telegraphic system has been accomplished 
since about the beginning of 1905, when, with the exception of a 
short inland line — from Bonny to Old Calabar, a distance of about 
117 miles— constructed but a short time before, the Colony was in 
communication with Europe only, by cable from Lagos, Brass 
and Bonny. 

Currency.— The coin of the realm is legal tender everywhere, 
but in certain parts which are not yet under effective control and 
where the natives are shy of its acceptance, the currency of the 
country, regulated by law, is permitted to continue. The Native 
currency consists of brass rods and copper wire, in Old Calabar, 
and the Cross river districts ; Manillas {see below), in Bonny and 
the Niger delta ; the Maria Theresa dollarf (Province of Bornu 
chiefly, mean value 3s. in 1906) ; slaves and cowries in Northern 
Nigeria, cowries in Southern Nigeria, tobacco, cloth, mirrors, &c. 
are also used for exchange. 

* Col. Rep., Ann., No. 476, 1905, p. 88, N. Nigeria. 

f The Maria Theresa dollar is of Austrian origin, and is the currency of 
Abyssinia, Eritrea, and the Eastern Sudan. According to Professor W. 
Ridge way (Origin of Currency, and Weight Standards, 1892, p. 56), " The 
Arabs of the Sudan will not take gold as payment, in consequence of 
which our army in the late expedition had to take with them large and incon- 
venient supplies of silver dollars, coined for the purpose. The Maria Theresa 
dollar is the recognized currency in that region, not because of any notions as 
regards currency, properly speaking, but because the Arab's taste lies in silver 
ornaments for himself, his weapons, and his horse. Gold he cannot employ to 
the same advantage." 


The rate of exchange for brass rods is 3d. each or four to the 
shilling, and 19 copper wires (Citims) are equal in value to one 
brass rod * ; Manillas f are of different values, Abbie or Prince 
Manillas and Atorni or Wa-a-hono Manillas are valued at the rate 
of 12 for one shilling, Ama-ogono at 24 for a shilling and 
Awirawu Manillas at 6 for a shilling sterling, Cowries also vary 
in value, 1,000-2,000, and even as many as 3,000 may be reckoned 
for one shilling. The slave currency in Northern Nigeria was 
usually only employed over large deals, and this form will now 
pass away automatically with the abolition cf slavery. 

Further importations of all the metallic forms of currency have 
been prohibited and also the cowries. With a view to their 
ultimate replacement, a subsidiary coinage of nickel-bronze 
pennies (Nigerian pennies) and aluminium tenths of a penny 
has recently been approved and circulated. 


The Niger Flora, by Sir W. J. Hooker and Mr. George Bentham, 
published in 1819, was the first important work in connection 
with Tropical Africa. It was based chiefly on the collections made 
by Dr. Theodore Vogel and Mr. Ansell during the Niger Expedi- 
tion of 1811, and the plants described therein are now embodied 
in the Flora of Tropical Africa. 

The preparation of the Flora of Tropical Africa, at the Royal 
Botanic Gardens, Kew, was sanctioned by the Treasury in 1864, 
and three volumes were published under the editorship of 
Professor D. Oliver between 1868 and 1877. The work then fell 
into abeyance, but in 1891, at the request of Lord Salisbury, its 
preparation was resumed under the editorship of Sir W. T. 
Thiselton-Dyer. Seven of the nine volumes (one being in two 
sections) have now been published, and the two remaining volumes, 
6 and 9, are in course of preparation. 

The following brief summaryj of the whole work shows the 
condition and progress made up to 1906 : — 

" The conclusion of the fourth Volume of the Flora of Tropical 
Africa affords an opportunity for briefly summarising the whole 
of its contents with regard to the progress which it marks in the 
botanical survey of tropical Africa. 

" When, in 1891, it was decided to resume the preparation of the 
Flora of Tropical Africa, one volume was assigned to the orders 
Oleaceae to Pedaliaceae of Bentham and Hooker's 'Genera 

* The difficulties of transport are much enhanced by currency of this 
nature. The Rods weigh each 8 ozs., and are approx. ^-inch wire, 3 ft. long and 
bent round to a length of 18 ins. Calculating 60 lbs. to a load for one man 
this would mean 120 rods (30s.), but being dead weight, 100 rods so far as I 
remember, were considered sufficient for a load. The wires are about 2 ft. 6 ins. 
long bent in half like the rods, and weigh barely half an ounce, the 19 weighing 
just about 8 ozs. 

fThe Manilla resembles an ancient Irish Bronze Fibula. 

X Kew Bulletin, 1906, pp. 210-241 


Plantarum.* At that time the number of species of those 
orders recorded as occurring in Tropical Africa might have been 
estimated at somewhat over 700. Volume III. contains 1,134 
species. Allotting to volume IV. approximately the same number 
of species, there was therefore a margin for 400 additional species, 
corresponding to an increase of 60 per cent. But so extraordinary 
was the accession of new material during the progress of the 
preparation of volume IV., that in the end the number of species 
of the orders reserved for it rose to 2,176, double the original 
estimate. That, of course, necessitated the subdivision of the 
volume into two parts, each equalling in size an ordinary volume. 
The increase was very unequal in different orders — as will be 
seen from the list given below — varying in the larger orders (of 
over 100 species) from slightly over 50 per cent, in Solqjiaceae to 
well over 300 per cent, in Apocynaceae, and almost 600 per cent, 
in Loganiaceae. The significance of these figures will perhaps 
more readily be grasped when we consider that the increase from 
813* species known before 1891 to 2,176 known at present means 
that for every three species then known, five species have since been 
added ; and if we assume that the same proportions hold good in 
the case of the orders dealt with in the first three volumes of the 
Flora of Tropical Africa, these orders would, if worked out at 
present, fill at least eight volumes. That this is by no means an 
exaggerated view may be seen from the fact that the Tropical 
African Myrsinaceae and Sapotaceae, which in the third volume 
(1877) numbered 11 and 23 species respectively, are, in recently 
published monographs, represented by 36 and 92 species respec- 

"This phenomenal increase of our knowledge of the flora of 
Tropical Africa since 1891 has been due to several causes. Old 
collections of very considerable extent which had only casually 
and partially been studied have now been worked up systemati- 
cally {e.g., Barter's West African, Schweinfurth's Sudan, and 
Welwitsch's Angola collections) ; fresh collections have poured in 
as new countries were opened up or the establishment of botanical 
stations in the older colonies facilitated a more exhaustive 
exploration of their neighbourhood ; finally it was just then that 
Germany started with remarkable and well-directed energy on the 
botanical survey of her colonies, with the result that in not a few 
orders 50 per cent, or more of all the additions from recent 
collections are due to her enterprise." 

Since it is of the first importance from the practical point of 
view, that plants of commercial value should be identified both 
botanically and under their native names, it is necessary that all 
specimens collected in the country should be preserved as carefully 
as possible and that the native names should in all cases be 

* These figures include a number of species which, although known prior 
to 1891, were not recorded from Tropical Africa until after 1890. To make out 
their exact number would have taken more time than could reasonably In- 
spared ; but it probably does not exceed 70 or 80, so that the species of the 
orders inquestion which were known from Tropical Africa at the end of 1 891 1 
may be estimated as somewhat over 7 ( »'V 

3338S JJ 


The following details as to methods of collecting are therefore 
included : — 

Collection of Specimens. 

I. Horticultural Department. 

Plants for cultivation may be introduced : (1). As Seeds, Bulbs, 
Tubers, or Rhizomes, all of which are easily collected and trans- 
mitted. Seeds should be collected when quite ripe, and each kind 
packed separately in paper or other material so as to insure their 
not becoming mixed with others. Small seeds of a dry nature 
containing little or no oil may be packed in small paper or canvas 
bags, and sent by parcel post. This is by far the best means of 
sending home small quantities of seeds, &c, on account of their 
early despatch and delivery. Oily seeds, such as those of most of 
the Magnoliaceae, many of the Palms and Leguminosae, and also 
of Para Rubber, quickly lose their power of germination. These 
are best transmitted in tin or other close-fitting boxes, packed in 
moist but not wet soil. Bulbs, Tubers, and Rhizomes, should be 
dug up when the foliage has withered at the end of the growing 
season, and packed in a dry state in a wooden box in such a 
manner that they cannot move about, as they are very liable to 
damage if bruised during transit. 

(2). Cuttings.— Ripened growth of many succulent plants such 
as Cacti, Euphorbias, Senecios, Stapelias, &c, may be safely 
collected and sent home in this way. The cuttings should be 
taken off where there is a constriction or articulation of the stem, 
and laid out in the sun for a short time to free them from 
extraneous moisture, and should then be tightly packed in a stout 
box in dry paper or some other elastic substance to keep them from 
bruising one another. Wood shavings, if carefully dried, are an 
excellent material for this purpose. 

(3). Rooted Plants.— Many succulent plants, such as Cacti, 
Aloes, Agaves, Bromeliads, and Cycads, also many Orchids, will 
safely undergo a long journey if prepared and packed in the 
way advised for cuttings. Many plants, however, cannot be 
treated in this way, such as those of slender growth and evergreen 
habit which are not capable of retaining sufficient moisture in 
their stems or roots to enable them to withstand a long journey. 
On account of the great difficulty experienced in transmitting this 
class of plants, they should be packed in a small portable green- 
house, known as a Wardian case. The bottom of the case should 
be covered with 4 in. to 6 in. of soil, and the young plants planted 
in it in rows and watered carefully until established. When 
ready for despatch the surface of the soil should be tightly fastened 
down by strips of wood carefully nailed in position. The object 
of this is to prevent the soil and plants from being displaced should 
the case be overturned. It is important that this operation should 
be done carefully, otherwise the plants may shake loose and suffer 
much damage during transit. The glazed lid should then be 
fastened on with screws and putty, and the address carefully 
written or stamped on the end, adding also the words " On DECK 
UNDER AWNING." The plants should require no water or attention 
unless the glass be broken during the voyage. 


//. Museum Department. 

Among the objects which should be collected for Museum 
purposes are : — 

1. Fruits and Seeds, especially those which are of large size, or 
possess any peculiarity of form or structure entitling them to 
notice. Many of these are naturally dry and require little care 
(except to be freed from moisture) previous to packing. Those 
that, when ripe, burst open into valves, or separate by their scales, 
as Pine-cones, &c, should be bound round with pack-thread. The 
soft and fleshy fruits can only be preserved in wide-mouthed 
bottles, or jars, or casks (according to size) in alcohol, as rum, 
arrack, or in diluted pyroligneous acid or strong brine. Formalin 
is also a very convenient medium, a 5 per cent, solution or 20 
parts water to 1 of Formalin, being generally sufficient. 

2. Entire Plants, or parts of them. Many have a very fleshy 
character and ought to be preserved entire in alcohol ; or 
portions of the stems and branches (according to their size) with 
flowers and fruit ; such as those of Palms, Stapelia, Rafflesia, and 
others of a similar kind. 

3. Trunks of Trees, portions and sections of them, especially 
when they exhibit any remarkable structure : as Palms, and many 
other Monocotyledonous plants, and Tree Ferns. Specimens of 
wood should be in sections, a foot or more long, and about the 
average diameter of the tree. The kinds used in commerce for 
veneering, cabinet-work, or other useful purposes, or such as 
recommend themselves by their beauty, hardness, or any other 
valuable quality, are particularly desired. The scientific or other 
names, if known, should be attached, and specimens of the leaves 
and flowers should be sent so as to admit of their identification. 

4. Gums, Resins, and Vegetable Waxes, especially those em- 
ployed in the Arts or in Domestic Economy. 

5. Dye Stuffs of various kinds. 

6. Medicinal Substances. These are of vast importance, and merit 
the attention of travellers in every country. With regard to many 
it is not yet known, except by the natives who collect and prepare 
them, what are the particular plants that afford them, nor how 
they are prepared. 

7. General Products of Vegetables ; in the state of the raw 
material, and manufactured. It would be extremely difficult, not 
to say impossible, to enumerate all of these which a Museum 
ought to contain ; but the enlightened traveller can form a pretty 
correct judgment. Such as are useful to mankind cannot fail to 
be interesting. It would be idle to send every well-known object 
of this kind, tea, sugar, coffee, cocoa, chocolate, pepper, textiles, 
plaiting, basket-work, clothing, &c. ; but there are states even of 
these familiar articles which may j)rove both useful and instructive. 

In case of samples of timber, of various fibres, dye-stuffs, drugs, or 
any other vegetable product, it is of the first importance that there 
should be sent along with each example a dried specimen of the 
leaves and flowers of the tree or plant affording the same, marked 
distinctly with a corresponding number, so that the source of the 
product may be scientifically determined. Through want of such 

33385 B 2 


dried specimens accompanying the timbers, drugs, fibres, &c, 
which have been sent to the Royal Gardens, a large number are 
absolutely useless. 

III. Herbarium Department. 

Collecting;.— For the collection of specimens a tin box or vascu- 
lum, made to shut close, to prevent evaporation, is necessary. 
Such boxes can be made of aluminium, and are much lighter than 
those usually sold for the purpose. A portfolio containing some 
sheets of drying- paper is also useful for certain plants, like some 
Scitamineae or Iridaceae, with very delicate flowers, which should 
be placed under pressure when gathered. Each specimen should 
consist of as much of the plant as will adequately represent its 
habit, foliage, flowers, and fruit, where possible ; if small, the 
whole plant including the root should be obtained ; if large, 
portions which can be laid upon a sheet of paper 16 ins. long by 
10 ins. broad should be procured. Tall plants or slender stems, 
such as grasses, sedges, fern-fronds, &c, may be doubled once or 
twice into J 6 in. lengths. Specimens without flowers or fruit are 
worthless and should not be collected. If the specimens are wet 
when gathered, the moisture should be allowed to evaporate 
before placing them in the press ; otherwise, they are very liable 
to be spoilt by mildew. 

Labelling'.— Every species collected should be accompanied by a 
label bearing a number and particulars as to locality, altitude, 
colour of the flowers and any character of the plant which the 
specimen does not show, such as whether it may be a branch from 
a tall tree or from a small shrub, the date when collected and 
name of the collector. A collector should never use the same 
number twice, and each specimen should have a different number. 
If several specimens of the same plant, collected at the same place 
are put in the press together, only one of them need be labelled, 
but the number upon the label should be written upon pieces of 
paper and placed with the other specimens, so that when dried all 
can be referred to the same label. 

Labels should be after the pattern and size shown below : — 

Flora of Southern Nigeria. 



Veen a cvla e Na me. 

[Space for notes by collector as to colour, scent, 
habit, time of flowering , fruiting , uses, dec.'] 


Collector's Name. 


The locality should be given in such a way as to be at least 
approximately noted on a good map. 

Drying. — To preserve plants for permanent collections, the 
collector should endeavour to thoroughly dry the specimens in 
such a manner that the natural pose and colours of the plant are 
preserved as far as possible, and sufficient pressure should be 
applied to prevent them from shrivelling or curling up whilst 
drying. For this purpose a quantity of stout, moderately absorbent 
paper of ordinary demy size (17 in. by 10) when folded, and two 
or more stout frames of wire grating of the size of the paper are 
required, or the frames may be of wood lattice-work, made of 
strips of wood | in. thick, crossing each other at right angles and 
nailed together. 

To form the press, first make the pressing paper up into pads of 
two or three folded sheets placed inside one another. Place a pad 
upon one of the wire or wooden frames, arrange upon the pad 
(not between its folds) the specimen to be dried, or as many 
specimens as the size of the pad will permit, side by side, never 
one upon another, then arrange pads and specimens in alternating 
layers. Care should be taken to turn some of the leaves of the 
specimens to show the undersurface, and also, when possible, to 
spread out the parts of some of the flowers. In the case of plants 
with very delicate petals it is desirable to dry some of the flowers 
separately and place them in a capsule bearing the same number 
as the corresponding complete specimens. Upon the top of the 
pile thus formed place another wire or wooden frame, and apply 
pressure. A heavy weight may be used for this purpose, but it is 
far better to use a pair of strong leather straps. With the latter 
method the bundle can be placed at any angle to the sun's rays, 
or be swung in the open air, so that the wind can carry off the 
moisture. The perfection of a npecimen depends upon the 
rapidity with which it is dried. During the rainy season in the 
tropics it is often necessary to dry the plants near a fire. The 
paper pads will require changing with more or less frequency, 
according to the nature of the plant, and the damp pads must be 
spread out to dry. Grasses, sedges, many ferns, mosses, and many 
cryptogamic plants are easily and quickly dried, and give very 
little trouble. Water plants should be changed into dry pads 
about two hours after being placed in the press, when three-fourths 
of the water about them will be absorbed by the pads between 
which they were first placed, and they then dry quickly and with 
less liability to be destroyed by mildew. Succulent plants, or 
those with thick or more or less fleshy stems or leaves, often 
require changing every day ; but experience is the only guide in 
such cases. Plants with thick fleshy stems, like Cacti and some 
Euphorbias, should be prepared for pressing, as follows : — First 
cut a few thin transverse slices of the stem to show its form, press 
these separately, and under considerable pressure to prevent 
distortion ; next make a thin longitudinal section, which should 
include two opposite angles with their spines, &c, if such arc 
present ; the cut-off sides should also be preserved with as much 
as possible of their pulp cut away. Thick stems of Orchids or 
other plants should also be cut in half longitudinally. Plants 
with tuberous or bulbous roots should have a central longitudinal 


slice taken through the tuber or bulb with the stem and leaves 
attached — this reduces thickness, and the outer coats or skin of 
the parts cut away should also be preserved. Thick leaves like 
those of Agave and Aloe should have a few thin transverse 
sections made at the base and middle, then a leaf should be laid 
with its upper surface downwards, and the under skin and all the 
pulp of the leaf removed, leaving only the upper surface of the 
leaf ; care should be taken that the margin and any prickles upon 
it remain intact ; the sections and upper surface of the leaf are all 
that it is necessary to preserve. If the leaf is over 16 in. long it 
may be cut into 16 in. lengths and the pieces numbered in ink, so 
that it may be reconstructed when dry. Succulents prepared in 
this way dry better and much more quickly than if unprep ired. 
Seaweeds should be slightly washed in fresh water, and the 
delicate kinds should be floated out upon sheets of white paper 
before they are subjected to pressure. 

The pile composing the press should not be too thick, it is 
better to have two or three thin presses than one very thick one. 
Plants that are partly dried should be kept separated from those 
freshly placed in the press by the intervention of another frame 
or other means. When the specimens are perfectly dry, remove 
them from the press, place upon sheets of paper (newspaper will 
do) with their labels, tie up in bundles and keep in a perfectly dry 
place. In order to prevent the destruction of the specimens by 
insects it is advisable to sprinkle powdered naphthalene between 
the sheets of each bundle in some quantity. For transmission 
the bundles should be tightly wrapped in oiled cloth. 

Collectors in Nigeria. 

In the following list are given the names of the collectors who 
have contributed specimens from Nigeria, either to the Royal 
Gardens, Kew, or to the British Museum. Although the period 
covered is from the early part of the XlXth Century to the 
present time the list is by no means a long one. 

Any genera named in honour of these collectors are also given 
in brackets under the names. 

Mungo Park, A.L.S. (Travelled in Africa, 1795-7, 1801-5) ; 
died on the Niger, 1805. [Parkia, R. Br.] 

Captain Hugh Clapperton, R.N. (1822-1824) died April 13, 
1827, buried at Jungeri, Sokoto province ; was the first 
European to visit Sokoto, March 16, 1821. \_Clapper- 
tonia. Meisn.= Ho?icJcenya, Willd.] 

Lieut.-Col. Dixon Denham (1822-1824), died, Sierra Leone, 
May 8, 1828. [Denhamia, Schoti = Culcasia, R.Br.] 

Walter Oudney, M.D. (1821-24) collected in Bornu ; died 
at Murmur, W. Sudan, January 12, 1884. [Oudney a, 
R. Br.] 

Dr. Theodore Vogel (1841) collected chiefly near Lokoja. 

John Ansell (1841) collected with Dr. Vogel on the Niger 
Expedition. [Ansellia, Lindl.] 

Edward Vogel (1851-55) collected in Bornu. 


Edward George Irving, M.D., Surgeon, R.N. (1844-1855) col- 
lected in Abeokuta, &c. [Irvingia, Hook, f.] 

Miss Gurney (1855) Lagos. 

Dr. William Balfour Baikie (1855-64) collected in Nape, &c. 
[Baikiaea, Hook, f.] 

Charles Barter (1857-1859) collected in the neighbourhood of 
Rabba, Nupe and Borgu ; died at Rabba, July, 1859. 
[Barter ia, Hook, f.] 

Gustav Mann (1860) collected in Old Calabar, Bonny, &c. 

Rev. William C. Thomson (1863) collected chiefly about Old 

William Grant Milne (1862-66) collected on West Coast of 
Africa ; died at Creektown, Old Calabar, May 3, 1866. 

W. Kalbreyer (1877-1884) collected in the Niger Delta. 

Rev. Hugh Goldie (1888) collected chiefly in Old Calabar district 
and first brought to notice the remarkable Aristolchia 
Goldieana ; died and buried at Creektown, Old Calabar. 

Sir H. H. Johnston, G.C.M.G. (1888) Cross River. 

Walter Higginson (1890) Lagos. 

Alvan Millson (1890-1891) Lagos and Yoruba. 

Dr. John William Rowland (1890-93) collected in Lagos. 

Sir George Chardin Denton, K.C.M.G. (1895) when Deputy 
Governor of Lagos. 

Sir Alfred Moloney, K.C.M.G. (1882-1896) collected in Lagos 
when Governor of that Colony. 

Henry Millen (1892-96) Curator of the Botanic Garden, 

Horace Walter Leigh ton Billington (1893-1897) First Curator 
of Botanic Gardens, Old Calabar, died Old Calabar, 
November, 1897. 

John Henry Holland (1897-1900) Curator, Botanic Gardens, 
Old Calabar, 1897-1901. 

Captain Arthur Johnstone Richardson (1898) collected chiefly 
near Lokoja. 

Harold Buchan Lloyd (1898) Assistant Curator, Botanic 
Gardens, Old Calabar. 

Dr. Ernest Ule (1899) Old Calabar. 

T. B. Dawodu (1899) Lagos. 

Cyril Punch (1900) First Superintendent of Forests, Lagos. 

L. Kentish Rankin (1901) Northern Nigeria. 

Sir William MacGregor (1901) when Governor of Lagos. 

W. R. Elliott (1903) Conservator of Forests, Northern Nigeria ; 
collected in various parts from the Lagos frontier to Lake 
Chad. Died March 13, 1908, at Bedford whilst on have. 


P. H. Talbot (1904) Northern Nigeria, collected on a surveying 
expedition from lbi on the Benue to Lake Chad, through 

Captain G. B. Gosling (1904) Northern Nigeria. Benue to 
Lake Chad. 

Dr. J. M. Dalziel (1905) collected at Lokoja, Zungeru, Konta- 
gora, &c. 

Norman C. MacLeod (1905) Deputy Conservator of Forests, 
Southern Nigeria. 

H. N. Thompson (1906) Conservator of Forests, Southern 

Dr. A. H. Unwin (1906) Assistant Conservator of Forests, 
Southern Nigeria. 

E. W. Foster (1906) Curator, Botanical Department, Lagos, 
afterwards Assistant Conservator of Forests. 

J. C. Leslie (1906) Assistant Conservator of Forests, Asaba, 
Southern Nigeria. 

Col. E. J. Lugard, D.S.O. (1907) Zungeru and Lokoja, Northern 

G. C. Dudgeon (1907) Superintendent of Agriculture, West 
Coast of Africa. 

R. E. Dennet (1907) Assistant Conservator of Forests, Southern 

H. Dodd (1908) Curator, Botanical Department, Southern 

The result of the efforts of recent collectors may be seen by 
reference to the Kew Bulletin (No. 6, 1907) in which the accession 
of Tropical African Plants to the Herbarium from 1899-1906 is 
given, for it appears from this report that 14,627 specimens in all 
were received, 10,000 of which were unnamed and had to be 
identified. A good proportion of these were from Nigeria. The 
lower Cryptogams (Mosses, Liverworts, Algae, Lichens, Fungi) are 
not included in the figures given, for the simple reason that they 
have been almost completely neglected by the collectors. 

Botanic Gardens. 

The Botanic Station at Lagos was formed in 1887, and was the 
first of its kind established on the West Coast of Africa. 

In a memorandum drawn up by Capt. (now Sir Alfred) Moloney, 
the Governor, together with Mr. (now Sir William) Thiselton- 
Dyer, Director of the Royal Gardens, Kew, the objects were stated 
to be : — 

" The growth of specimens of indigenous trees and plants of 
marketable value (or likely to prove so) that may serve on 
development as visible means of instruction to the natives of the 
Colony, and of the interior Kingdoms who visit the Government 
from time to time." 


" A Practical Agricultural School to be the means of diverting 
some of the young blood of the country in the direction of 
Agricultural pursuits and so lessen the general tendency of the 
rising educated youths to become ' merchants and clerks.' 

"An established centre for the introduction and subsequent 
development of alien elements of Economic botany of commercial 
importance elsewhere." 

" A nursery for Economic tropical plants of commercial 

" Such an enterprise must anticipate what commercial benefit 
may in a few years be brought about by the steady distribution of 
young trees of Economic value among the Chiefs and people of 
the many villages that border the network of water which 
permeates the Colony and its neighbourhood." 

Further the Superintendent was to direct his efforts to — 
" (a) Promotion of extension of growth of the Cocoa-nut palm. 
(b) Introduction of a better class of Cotton and its extended 

(a) Culture of the naturalized tobacco and improvement 
therein by importation of suitable seed. 

(d) Growth of ginger, cacao, pepper (red), and coffee. 

(e) Development of the rubber, gum, and resin trees, and of 

(/) Growth and judicious planting of Eucalyptus, Melaleucas, 

and the Casuarinas. 
(//) Model Kitchen Gardening." 

He was also to consider the apprenticeship of Refugee (ex- 
slave) boys ; the industrial education of sons of Chiefs ; sale of 
plants ; and the gratuitous distribution under the authority in 
writing of the Governor, whenever of advantage to the general 

The site selected was at Ebute Metta on the mainland, and the 
area of land enclosed was 3f acres. 

Mr. James McXair, from the Hope Nurseries, Kingston, Jamaica, 
commenced his duties as the first Superintendent on the 
8th November, 1887. 

The original cost of the Department was moderate. The yearly 
estimate was about £300, including salary of Superintendent 
£100-£150 (with Quarters), Gardener £30 ; two labourers Is. per 
day each ; tools and incidental expenses. 

Particulars of the Economic plants mentioned in the scheme of 
operations and in later reports will be given under the botanical 
name of each subject. The general progress of the garden 
during its first year is shown by the following report. On the 
12th November, 1888, Sir Alfred Moloney in a despatch to 
Lord Knutsford, states, "Your Lordship will observe that the 
reasons advanced in favour of the establishment of a botanic 
centre in this Colony have been within a year supported by the 
attainment of the objects on account of which the institution was 

* Kew Bulletin. 1888, pp. 151, 152. 


advocated." * The Superintendent in his report for the quarter 
ending 30th September, 1888, records the fact that an important part 
of the original scheme had been carried out by the establishment of 
a model Kitchen Garden. Twenty large beds had been laid out 
and planted. A contractor had been found to take for one quarter 
the vegetables in excess of the requirements of the Superintendent 
at a nominal rate of £2 per month. 

"The issue of plants from the garden for the quarter under 
consideration reached a total of 4,569 ; of this number 3,770 were 
purchased, and payment to the sum of £7 17s. Id. made accord- 
ingly into the Treasury, the balance represented free issues. 

" For instruction in accordance with the original scheme there 
was introduced into the Garden on the 14th September one Gbami, 
the nephew of Chief Manuah of Itebu."t 

Some additional evidence of the demand for such an insti- 
tution is afforded in the following extract from a despatch by 
Mr. F. Evans, C.M.G., acting Administrator of Lagos to the 
Secretary of State, dated the 27th of May, 1887, on the possibilities 
of a trade in fruit. It was stated, " there is not sufficient fruit of 
any kind grown in or near Lagos to enable exportation for trade 
purposes to take place, and what is grown is mostly of an inferior 
quality, no attention being paid to its cultivation, and although 
limes, sweet oranges, and tamarinds might possibly be extensively 
cultivated and preserved for exportation, the length of the voyage 
between here and Europe precludes the possibility of fresh fruit." 
The Kew Bulletin for 1888 states^ that "fruits grown in the 
Colony are capable of being produced in much larger quantities, 
but the natives do not understand the cultivation or the method 
of preserving ; and consequently there is no inducement among 
the local traders to open up or extend a trade in fresh or preserved 

At the end of 1890 Mr. James McNair resigned, and was 
succeeded by Mr. Henry Millen from the Royal Gardens, Kew.§ 

In 1892 it was recorded! of the department that since the 
inception in 1887 considerable success had been attained in 
cultivating plants received from Kew and elsewhere, and large 
numbers possessing industrial value had been distributed, and 
thati'under the joint authorship of Mr. Millen and Dr. Rowland, 
the Colonial Surgeon, a printed list was published of the plants 
(443 in number) cultivated at the station. 

Perhaps the next stage worth noting in the history of the 
botanic station was a suggestion to convert it after ten years of 
useful work into a model farm, and the following extracts from 
official correspondence on the subject will convey sufficient 
evidence as to the reasons advanced for and against the change. 

Col. Sir Henry McCallum, the Governor of Lagos, in a despatch 
to the Secretary' of State for the Colonies, dated 19th of August, 

* Kew Bulletin, 1889, p. 69. 

t I.e., pp. 70, 71. 

X Kew Bulletin, 1888, pp. 224, 225. 

§ Kew Bulletin, 1891, p. 46. 

|| Kew Bulletin, 1892, p. 314. 


1897,* stated, "as regards the cultivation of tropical products I 
am sorry to say that the result of enquiries in the best informed 
quarters is a general opinion that we shall be unable to get the 
natives to take up anything of commercial importance until they 
actually see plantations of the same growing, and in some cases 
yielding returns under Government control and supervision. At 
present they are, as a rule, content with forest produce, and with 
planting fast-growing food stuffs for immediate consumption. 

" A few trees and shrubs in a botanical garden give them no 
idea of how the same should be worked and cultivated as a 
plantation, and when they do purchase coffee or cocoa plants they 
generally soon lose them from sheer neglect. 

" I propose for your consideration that in 1898 we should select 
a well-watered fertile tract of ground in a conveniently central 
situation, and that we should establish there an experimental 
model farm, at which there should be blocks of from two to four 
acres each of such crops as different sorts of rubber, tobacco, 
coffee, pepper, gambier, kola nut, tapioca, cotton and indigo. 

" Such a farm would not only be an object lesson for the 
instruction of the natives, but would be the distributing centre for 
plants and seeds for extension and development of such agricultural 
enterprises as might be found suitable and successful." 

The expenses for the year (1898) were estimated at £2,000 for 
the model farm and £2,000 for the encouragement of agricultural 

The Secretary of State, while appreciating the importance of 
the subject, considered that it was doubtful whether it would be 
possible to incur any new charges of the kind suggested, having 
regard to the other pecuniary liabilities which the Colony was 
then assuming. 

Reviewing these suggestions the Director of Kewf considered 
the scheme likely to prove a costly one and beyond the financial 
resources of the colony. 

The establishment of a model farm was left in abeyance till 
November, 1899, when it was taken up again by Sir William Mac- 
Gregor, the next Governor of Lagos, who, in a despatch to the 
Colonial OfficeJ with' reference to the subject in conjunction 
with the botanic station, stated : " It appears to me somewhat 
doubtful whether the finances of the Colony could bear the 
continuance of this establishment (botanic station) concurrently 
with the model farms. 

In view, however, of the clearly expressed opinion of Sir W. T. 
Thiselton-Dyer that the botanic station should be maintained, 
the vote has been continued. It is intended to establish a new 
botanical station at some suitable place, as Ebute Metta is now 
cut up by the railway. The spot selected will be, if possible, 
contiguous to the model farm to be opened in Abeokuta territory, 
so that the two Managers could assist or relieve each other." 

* Botanical Enterprise in West Africa, 1889-1901, p. 46. 

t Botanical Enterprise in W.Africa, 1889-1901, pp. 49, 50 and 51. Letter 
to Colonial Office, Dec. 31st, 1897. 

X Botanical Enterprise in West Africa, 1889-1901, p. 159. 


A model farm had already been started (1899) in conjunction 
with a forest reserve (about 4,000 acres of forest land) at Ibadan, 
on a smaller scale than that previously described, and although 
it was intended to serve as an object lesson to the natives, its chief 
aim lay in the propagation of rubber and timber trees for 
reafforestation. The farm was under the superintendence of 
Mr. Cyril Punch, who had some time before been constituted 
Inspector of Forests. 

Ultimately another model farm was founded (1901) at Oloke- 
Meji, in the Abeokuta territory, about 93 miles from Lagos, and it 
was at this place also that the site for the new botanic station 
was selected. Mr. Edgar William Foster of the Royal Gardens, 
Kew, was appointed Curator of the Department, March, 1901. 

Mr. Millen, it may be mentioned, resigned in 1908 and was 
appointed Curator of the Botanic Station at Tobago. The 
Ebute Metta Station had in the meantime been looked after by 
Messrs. Leigh and Dawodu, the assistant Curators, natives of the 
Colony, who had received their training in the West Indies and at 
Kew. Mr. Foster was transferred to the Forestry Department as 
Assistant Conservator, in 1906, and was succeeded (1906) as Curator 
by Mr. John Lloyd Williams, of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 
The Department came under the control of the present Con- 
servator of Forests (Mr. H. N. Thompson) on the amalgamation of 
the Forestry Departments of Lagos and Southern Nigeria, 28th June, 

Some idea of the nature of the work being done in 1905 may 
be gathered from the following extract from the report for that 
year ;* and incidentally it shows that the original botanic station 
had not been entirely abandoned. 

" The Botanical Gardens both at Oloke-Meji and Ebute Metta 
were well maintained during the year, especially the former, 
which is being increased and has supplied the bulk of the plants 
distributed. The work of distribution is becoming heavier every 
year, and it alone practically takes up the whole time of one 
European Officer." Again, in 1906, it is reported f that " a large 
number of plants of economic importance were distributed during 
the year from the Oloke-Meji Gardens to farmers ancj others in- 
terested in their cultivation. }, 

It is also satisfactory to note in the same report that a systematic 
course of instruction is given at the Gardens. The course covers 
a period of three years, and the pupils are instructed " in the 
propagation of plants, the essential conditions requisite for good 
growth, pruning, elementary botany, farming, and plantation work 
in the forests." 

" After the completion of the course the best pupils are given 
appointments in the more important Native States and Districts." j 

* Col. Rep., Ann., No. 507, S. Nigeria, 1906. for 1905, p. 25. 

t „ „ „ No. 55-1, .,, 1908, for 1906, p. 41. 

X It is of interest to notice in this connection that four pupils are now (1908) 
wanted for the Forestry and Agricultural Department, Western Province, at a 
salary of £20 per annum. Govt. Gaz., S. Nigeria, Sept. 23rd. 1908. 


/ ' ♦« 

♦™. ^ 



Old Calabar. 

The Botanic Garden at Old Calabar was formed in 1893. 

Mr. Horace Walter Lcighton Killing!.. n iv;is appoint..! the 

Curator, and when ho arrived on tli>- '.'Oil, March. ISM, the sue 

was r..ver.d u ith dense Imsli wlneli i! look 30 Calabar labour. -is 

two months to clear. 

The establishment, like that of Lagos, began well under the 
auspices of a favourable administration. Sir Claud.' MucDonal.l. 
ill.- C.iiiMil.ticneral, baviiiL' founded ii •• tn the end that e»erv 
i-nroiiraiieiuent bo itivon lo the cnliivat and coll,rli..u ..f various 

in Kndish 

nil acres. To this was added the rare ..I I he planl^ mxer nl 

Hill, inel inline a larye orchard, en v. i in- anniher .*.n acres or so, hul 

prison lal ■ was allowed for . iniiii- mass an. I cleaning generally 

in this portion. 

I'p I., lllis period no definite policy hail been formulated, 
alth.iiiL'h lh.' D.-pailinenl in its relations lo the I'rnt.-etorate ha. I 
perhaps done its duty. With tie- object of placing ihe work ..■■ 

.1 i. ..■■j:u/. -I basis, the followiiu.' selielile was approve. I by lie- 

ilnn Acting Conenl-General (Lient.-Col. II. L. Qallwej i. 

Sclwm$for the Organization >./ the li' lh/„n/»u>ni. 

"Section I. — Agriculture : To introduce and cultivate plains 
from other Tropical Countries, iiiviug parlicular allmitioii lo 

those Ilia! are likely to be ol vail .liiinnreially or for 

consumption in the 1'roieetorate. 


To devote attention to improving and extending the 
cultivation of the most useful known plants, already existing 
in the country, whether for food or for manufactural purposes. 

Section II. — Botany and Horticulture : To form and maintain, 
in as interesting and as systematic a manner as possible, a 
named collection of Economic and Ornamental plants, both 
Native and Exotic. 

Section III. — Nursery : To propagate Economic and Orna- 
mental plants for sale or free distribution, giving preference 
to those of Economic value. 

Section IV. — Vegetable Garden : To cultivate experiment- 
ally such vegetables that are likely to adapt themselves to the 

Miscellaneous. — To prepare Circulars on Soils, Cultivation 
of Plants, or any subject estimated to be of service in 
improving the condition of Agriculture or Horticulture in the 

To correspond with Planters, or anyone in the Protectorate 
who may be interested in the cultivation of plants, or in the 
development of new cultural industries. 

To correspond with other Botanic Gardens, with a view to 
exchanging plants and seeds. 

To investigate the diseases and insects destructive to 
cultivated plants. 

To organize Agri-Horticultural Shows. 

To collect indigenous plants, for the purpose of obtaining 
the names of those that are unknown, and- preserving them for 
future reference. 

To obtain reports on the value and utility of new or 
little-known products. 

To pay occasional visits to the Native Farms for the 
purpose of affording practical instruction in planting, pruning, 
tillage of the soil, &c. 

To train Native boys in Agricultural and Botanical work 
generally, with a view to fitting them eventually for positions 
of trust in other parts of the Protectorate. 

To plant and maintain somewhat after the manner of a 
Park, Consulate Hill ; responsibility to extend no further 
than what is required for the proper treatment of the plants 
and trees alone, which exist outside Private Gardens." 

It will be understood that such a scheme could not be followed 
with mathematical accuracy, but given men, means, and time, it 
ought to form the basis of all the necessary operations and to meet 
all the requirements of the country and its people in the direction 

In May, 1898, Mr. Harold Buchan Lloyd was appointed Assistant 
Curator by the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs on the 
recommendation of Kew. He arrived at the Gardens in June, but 
unfortunately after little moi*e than a year's service ho was 
permanently invalided. 


In August, 1897, arrangements had been made with the Principal 
of the Hope Waddell Institute at Old Calabar to train some of the 
boys in agricultural work. To commence with, four boys were 
given a trial ; two shortly afterwards resigned, and the two 
remaining (Oghomaru and Ekoke) came regularly each morning 
to the Gardens, and continued their studies at the Institute during 
the afternoon and evening of each day. 

They continued to give satisfaction, and after about 2^ years' 
training a small allowance was given them from the labour vote. 
They were still connected with the Mission Institute, and in view 
of the fact that they would soon be completing their studies there it 
was desirable to have something definite arranged as to theii future. 
Nothing, however, was done during the writer's term of office, 
and no details are available as to what has been done since, except 
that Oghomaru, the elder of the two, was made a Native Court 
clerk. They were both earnest and trustworthy and likely to do 
the Institute credit as an educational establishment. 

In October, 1900, the Curator went on leave, and as no successor 
to Mr. Lloyd had been appointed, the Department was again 
handed over to the care of the Principal Medical Officer, 
Dr. Allman, who had always taken special interest in the work. 

On the retirement of the writer from the service of the Pro- 
tectorate in 1901, on appointment to an Assistantship (Museums) 
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, no Curator was appointed until a 
change occurred in the Administration, the place in the meantime 
being maintained " on the grounds of sanitation and health." 

In 1905 the Governor (Sir Walter Egerton) reports* "The 
Botanical Gardens, Calabar, have been sadly neglected in the past 
for the want of a properly qualified Curator. 

" Mr. Don,t however, from the Gold Coast was appointed Curator 
towards the end of the year (1905), and it is to be hoped that great 
developments will now follow and make them really useful for 
the cultivation and distribution of important Economic plants." 

A considerable extension to the Gardens has recently been 
made, and has been planted with various Rubber-producing trees.J 

The Department is now (since June 1 905) incorporated with 
that of the Forestry. 


The general principle of Agriculture in Nigeria is " extensive," 
thai is to say the Native cultivates as much ground as he thinks 
will bring in a sufficient quantity of Yams, Cassava, &c, without 
any more labour or trouble than simply cleaning and working the 
soil. If a larger crop is wanted he cultivates more ground, and 
when one piece of ground is exhausted, he clears more bush and 
starts afresh on another piece. 

* Col. Rep., Ann., No. 512, 11)00, for 1905, p. 20. 

| Curator of the Tarkwa branch of the Hot. and Agri. Dept., Aburi. 
| Col. Rep, Ann.. 'No 554, 1908, for 1906, p. 11, and Rep. on the Botanical Gardens 
for Quarter ended .Tunc :tt)th. 1907. Suppl. to Gazette No. 45 of Ang. 28th, 1907, 


There is but little restriction as to space for the Native Chiefs 
and their people in Nigeria, and in some ways this is unfortunate 
and bad for the country in general. 

It has been stated by Mr. Punch,* with regard to Lagos, that, 
"The accepted doctrine that private ownership of land is against 
African Custom is a disadvantage. 

" The farmer does not look on the land as permanently his 
property, to be improved and developed, but crops it without rest 
or rotation until absolutely exhausted, and then sacrifices more 

" I think it would be good if forest land were vested in the 
acknowledged native authorities, that farmers were encouraged to 
register their farms, and that burning of new forest were utterly 

"That quite sufficient forest land has been cleared for the 
agricultural needs of the people is proved by the enormous tracts 
of Isale t bush, showing the position of abandoned farms." 

The boundaries of the native plantations should be settled in 
the first instance officially by Europeans, and as the soil, however 
good it may be at the start, will eventually become poor and 
ineffective, the " intensive " method of cultivation shculd be 
adopted instead of clearing another area, and work should be 
conducted on scientific principles towards the improvement of the 
soil by manuring and effective tillage. 

The simple requirements of the native cultivator, or at least all 
that has been so far aspired to, are a matchet, a pointed stick, a 
box of matches, and a hoe ; these are his capital, and of the other 
agents of production, land, with the natural adjuncts of heat and 
moisture, are freely and fully supplied, and labour is to be had in 
sufficiency, either individually or at the command of the Native 

No accurate measure of the fertility of the soil under these 
conditions can be given, but its producing powers are remarkable. 
The soil usually is not worked to any depth greater than that of 
the hoe-blade, 6 to 9 inches or a foot at the most, and manure is 
never used. There are extensive areas under cultivation in the 
Old Calabar and Cross river districts, particularly inland from 

With reference to the country lying between Zaria and Kano, 
Sir Frederick LugardJ has mentioned that " the method of culti- 
vation is more thorough and more advanced than is usual in Africa. 
The soil is worked to a depth of over a foot, and here and there 
rude forms of irrigation are employed, while for the first time in 
Africa I saw with surprise that the fields are manured." 

Lieut.-Col. Mockler-Ferryman§ describes the Agriculture of the 
province of Kano as follows. 

* Rep. February 9, 1890, Botanical Enterprise in W. Africa, 1889-1901, p. 98. 
1 Native term for abandoned farm land, " Igboro " is twice-grown scrub. 
% Geog. Journ., Vol. xxiii , 1901. p. 22, Northern Nigeria. 
§ "British Nigeria " (1902), p. 170. 


" In the neighbourhood of the capital and for a distance of even 
eighty to a hundred miles in all directions, is a perfect garden, 
and nothing strikes the traveller to Kano so much as this vast 
expanse of cultivation. Whether he approaches the great city 
from the north, south, east, or west, the same sight greets him ; 
hitherto he has seen, nothing like it in Africa, for the most fertile 
lands in other parts are mere patches of cultivation compared 
with the province of Kano. Acres of Guinea corn are succeeded 
by acres of Indian corn, wheat, rice, or other cereals ; then 
follows a stretch of cotton and millet, the two sown together in 
alternate rows, so that the latter may protect the former when 
young from the fierce rays of the sun ; here is a field of indigo, 
there a plantation of cassava (manioc) or of ground nuts ; while 
beyond again is a veritable kitchen garden, well stocked with 
peas, beans, bananas, sweet potatoes, onions, and every variety of 
vegetable and herb. All these crops are produced with little 
actual labour beyond sowing and reaping. The hoe is the only 
agricultural implement, and the soil is hardly turned, and never 
dressed, the rest being left to nature. Valuable trees also stand 
scattered among the cornfields, and from them the farmer obtains, 
simply for the gathering, many saleable articles. Such are the 
shea-butter tree, the locust, the gambier, the tamarind, the baobab, 
and a species of plum tree. Silkworms feed on the tamarind 
leaves, and bees in great quantities nest in the trees near the 
villages, being carefully preserved for the sake of their honey and 
wax ; while the pastoral tribes possess large herds and flocks." 

Mr. (now Sir William) Wallace,* in describing the Sokoto 
Empire and Borgu, states that " most of the land is under culti- 
vation with the exception of perhaps a fourth lying fallow in its 
turn. Much of the ground in the neighbourhood of the towns is 
divided into fields by raised earth-work dykes, or hedges mostly 
of cactus." 

" After the first rain they sow corn. The ground is not cleared, 
indeed it hardly requires it, for undergrowth there is none, and 
with the exception of such stumps of last year's crops as have not 
been pulled up and used for fuel the ground is as bare as the palm 
of one's hand. I did expect, however, that the soil would in some 
manner get a turnover, but even this was not usually necessary, 
the old furrows being used again and again. The corn is sown on 
the top of them in the spaces between last year's stumps, which 
are on an average about 3 ft. apart, while the width of the furrows 
is generally about the same ; but this distance varies from 1 to 4 ft., 
according to the richness or poverty of the soil. The furrows are 
barred across with earth every 20 to 40 ft., to retain the rain, so 
that after a heavy shower the whole country appears as if covered 
with innumerable little reservoirs. One labourer walks with a 
light hoe, with which he lifts small clods out at the regulation 
distance. The sower follows him and drops six to twelve grains 
of the cereal into each hole, pressing back the clod on top of the 
grain with his foot. The grain ripens in from four to seven 
months, according to the variety, the Guinea grain taking the 
longest ; during this time the ground requires cleaning three or 
four times. All the population are farmers, with the exception of 

* Geop:. Journ., Vol. viii., 1S96, p. 212. 
33385 C 


a few people in the larger towns. The principal crops raised are 
Guinea corn, Indian corn, a small cereal called gero, wheat, 
cassava, rice, onions, cotton, indigo, peas and beans of various sorts, 
sweet potato, ground-nuts, and various kitchen vegetables and 
herbs. The Guinea corn is most prolific, a good head yielding 
from 3,000 to 4,000 grains." 

The first efforts by Europeans to improve the condition of 
agriculture in Nigeria were made in 1841, when a Model Farm 
was started near the confluence of the Niger and the Chad da 
(Benue) under the protection of the Admiralty Expedition sent 
out in that year. The ground (some 300 acres) formed part of a 
territory of 100 square miles purchased on behalf of Her Majesty's 
Government for seven hundred thousand cowries or nearly £45 ; 
one-fifth of this amount was paid on the signature of the Deed of 
Transfer, and the remainder was to be paid, if the Government 
were desirous of retaining the land, after twelve months. Payment 
was to be completed in one or five instalments as might be most 
convenient to the Queen of Great Britain. The Commissioners 
for the purchase were the Officers commanding the Expedition, 
Capt. H. D. Trotter, R.N., and Capt. William Allen, R.N., and the 
amount referred to was paid to the Attah of Eggarah. 

Dr. Vogel (Botanist) and Dr. Stanger (Geologist) selected the 
site. They had been sent out with the Expedition in question by 
the African Civilization Society, to whom the land for the Model 
Farm was granted on a rental of one penny per acre, and payment 
was to be paid into Her Majesty's Treasury by the Model Farm 
Society, of Mincing Lane, London (an auxiliary of the A.C.S.), 
who controlled the farm. The Superintendent was a West Indian, 
Mr. Alfred Carr, and the Admiralty had granted him a passage 
with the Expedition. 

All the efforts, however, to establish the farm ended disastrously, 
for in less than a year after the commencement it was considered 
advisable to abandon the settlement, and discretionary power in 
the matter was given by Capt. Allen, the Senior Commissioner, to 
Lieut. Webb, of the " Wilberforce," * after Her Majesty's Govern- 
ment had declared the Niger Expedition at an end. 

At the time of Lieut. Webb's visit (July, 1842) it was found that 
the most complete disorganisation amongst the workmen had taken 
place, and it was believed that there was '* no prospect of matters 
amending without some European of ability and firmness to direct 
the affairs." 

Mr. Carr had been compelled to leave his post for a time owing 
to severe illness. He never returned, and his fate could never be 
rightly ascertained but it was presumed on good authority that he 
was murdered when on the way back to his post. 

The operations were clearly of a limited nature, for it is statedf 
that " at the time of giving up the model farm there were about 
twenty acres of land under cultivation and in good order, chiefly 

* Lieut. Webb's authority was conveyed in a letter written by Capt. Allen, of 
the " Wilberforce," at Clarence Cove, Fernando Po, June 29th, 1842 (see " A 
Narrative of the Expedition sent by Her Majesty's Government to the Niger. 
1841," Allen and Thomson). 

t " A Narrative of the Expedition to the Niger, 1841," Allen and Thomson. 


planted with cotton and a few yams. The first cropping with corn 
and cotton had entirely failed, due it was supposed to the seed 
having got damaged on the voyage from England. The crops then 
growing were the produce of country seed and were very 

In 1888 the Royal Niger Company, whose trading operations 
extended as far inland as Gando and Sokoto, began some cultural 
work at Asaba. In their Annual Report for the year ending 
31st December, 1888, it is recorded that " with the valuable 
assistance of Mr. Thiselton-Dyer, Director of the Royal Gardens 
at Kew, the Council have established a public botanical plantation 
on a small scale at Asaba, where experiments in the commercial 
botany of the territories are conducted, and from which it is 
intended that suitable plants and seeds may shortly be supplied at 
a moderate price to native and European cultivators and settlers. 
" They have also established in the neighbourhood of Abutshi a 
second experimental Administrative plantation for the growth of 
coffee and cocoa, for the purpose of similar distribution to all who 
may desire to cultivate those products." * 

In January, 1889, the Company applied to Kew for a man to 
take charge of the botanical work on Plantation No. 1 at Asaba, 
and Mr. George Woodruff was appointed. 

In July, 1889, a second man was applied for from Kew, and 
Mr. Harold Edmund Bartlett was appointed with the special 
charge of No. 2 Plantation at Abutshi. Plantation No. 1 at 
Asaba did not prove satisfactory owing to the too great dryness 
and lightness of the soil, and Mr. Woodruff was transferred about 
the end of September, 1889, to a plantation with richer soil in the 
immediate vicinity of the one at Abutshi. 

On the 16th March, 1890, Bartlettf wrote to a friend at Kew :— 
" I have got about 1,000 acres of land which has to be all opened 
up and planted. The name of the plantation is the Nkissi Creek 
Plantation, so named after the Nkissi river which runs through it. 

"About 20,000 coffee and cocoa plants and 130 pods of cocoa 
seed arrived three days ago from Lagos as a first instalment for a 
plantation. The plants I took out are doing very well. The coffee 
plants at Abutshi are very promising, cocoa and cotton likewise 
show up well. Woodruff is planting Sansevieria hemp now." 

Two months later (May 16th, 1890) Mr. Bartlett died of 
hasmaturic (Blackwater) fever. 

On the 20th May, 1890, Woodruff,* writing to a friend at Kew, 
mentioned that his plantation was about 8j acres, and that he 
hoped by the end of that year to have it all planted ; but a few 
months later (on the 2nd January, 1891) Mr. Woodruff also died 
of Blackwater fever. 

The early and sudden decease of these two officers was much to 
be regretted. It is recorded that the Company did everything in 

* Kew Bulletin, 181)1, pp. 86-87. 

f Kew Bulletin, 1891, p. 90. 

X Kew Bulletin, 1891, p. 93. where Woodruff's letter is given in full. 

33385 C 2 


its power to promote their health and comfort. In the Kew 
Bulletin for 1891,* where this untoward result is chronicled in 
greater detail, it is stated that " it seems only just to place some 
account of the work in which they perished on record. If Kew 
sent them to Africa, where they met their death in the attempt to 
do something to extend the resources of the Empire, it may at least 
rescue their names and memory from complete oblivion." 

These plantations were eventually transferred to the Govern- 
ment of Southern Nigeria. The High Commissioner (Sir Ralph 
Moor), after an inspection on the Niger in December, 1900 and 
January, 190J, was sanguine that with proper management these 
plantations, which were taken over at considerable expense, could be 
made at least to pay their way and considered that some small initial 
outlay to make the attempt was advisable. An Assistant District 
Commissioner in the service of the Protectorate, of considerable 
experience in work of this nature, who had assisted in preparing 
the estimates was recommended to take charge of the plantations 
and to become manager in subsequent years should the success 
warrant such expenditure. For the first year 10 per cent, on the 
gross returns was to be allowed as an inducement to the officer to 
do all in his power to make the plantations a success. The course 
proposed was sanctioned by the Secretary of State. 

The Acting High Commissioner's (Lieut.-Col. H. L. Gallwey) 
report for 1900f gives the position for that year. 

It was reported that the plantations of the Royal Niger 
Company on the Niger had been taken over by the Protectorate 
during the year, and the number of trees at each place was given 
as follows : — 

Name of Plantation. 


Permanent Places. 

In Beds. 


Liberian Coffee ... 







Liberian Coffee ... 



Arabian Coffee ... 




Rio Pongo Coffee 






Akpakka ... 

Liberian Coffee... 



Arabian Coffee ... 






The Creek 

Liberian Coffee ... 



At the Onitsha Station extensive developments were in progress 
under the supervision of a European officer of practical experience. 
The necessary machinery had been arranged for and satisfactory 
progress generally had been made. Coffee was sold and exported 
to England in small quantities and a satisfactory increase in this 
respect was looked for under the efficient supervision then given 
to it.J 

* Kew Bulletin, 1891. p. 86. 

t Col. Rep.. Ann., No. 353, 1901. for 1900, p. 13, S. Nigeria. 

+ Col. Rep.. Ann., No. 381, 1902', for 1901, S. Nigeria. 



The ultimate result, however, of all these praiseworthy efforts to 
make the plantations at Onitsha pay evidently did not succeed to 
the extent anticipated, as will be shown in the course of the 
following record* : — 

"The total area of the Onitsha plantation is 450 acres (1904). 
The bulk of this is planted with coffee, only a few acres being 
devoted to cocoa." 

" The total expenditure for the three years 1901-2, 1902-3, and 
1903-4 was £3,258, while for the same period the revenue was 
approximately £1,260, showing a loss on working of £1,998, or 
calculated on an average for the period there was an annual 
recurrent expenditure of £900, with an annual loss of about 

" In considering the value of this plantation it would be unsound 
to pass judgment on the ' will-it-pay ' principle, for experience 
gained as to the unsuitability of specific products to local climate 
and soil conditions may form a good investment, although the 
actual financial results may at first sight seem disappointing. It 
has, however, been deemed prudent to carry out experiments on a 
somewhat restricted scale and to put the plantation in charge of 
the Forestry Department." 

" With the abandonment of the coffee plantation the work of 
experimental cultivation will not however cease. Arrangements 
have been made and ground prepared for carrying out a com- 
prehensive series of experiments." 

" Plots of ground will be sown with native cotton, with and 
without manure, with ground-nuts alone, and with native corn. 
Various native beans, indigenous and exotic, tobacco, tea, and 
indigo will also be subjects of experiment." 

During 1905 we are toldf that the Onitsha plantations yielded 
38,100 lbs. of coffee, of which 20,180 lbs. were cleaned and ready 
for shipment at the end of the year ; that the cultivation of cocoa 
had not been a success, owing to the unsuitability of the soil ; 
that the planting of Hevea braslliensis, Ficus elastica, and 
Funtumia elastlca was commenced, but the latter proved a 
failure, probably owing to the unsuitability of climate, — the other 
two species were doing well : that cotton was a complete failure ; 
that castor oil, Virginia tobacco, and several kinds of English 
vegetables and flowers had been grown successfully, and that 
coffee plants (1,400), cocoa (400), and fruit trees (40) were dis- 
tributed from the nurseries. 

Following on the formation of the plantations at Onitsha came 
in 1899, the establishment of the Model Farm at lbadan, under 
the superintendence of Mr. Cyril Punch. Its main object was 
primarily the propagation of rubber trees, but it was hoped that 
it would be possible to introduce the plough, drawn by oxen, to 
raise better breeds of animals, and generally to improve the 

* Col. Rep., Ann.. No. 459, 1904, S. Nigeria. Sec also Rep. on Govt. Plantations 
at Onitsha, in S. Nigeria Gove. Gaz., No. 22. J uly 21st. 1905, pp. 388-393. 
t Col. Rep.. Ann., No. 512, 1906, p. 25. 


methods of agriculture. The Governor of Lagos (Sir William 
MacGregor) describes * (November 17th, 1899) this Model Farm as 
follows : " The headquarters are on a suitable site, a low ridge 
about a fourth of a mile from the creek Ono, and a little more than 
four miles from the Ibadan road. The farm lands march with 
the Ibadan Forest Reserve on one side. They are sufficiently ex- 
tensive, embracing about 4,000 acres. The soil is of a fair quality 
and is evidently the home of the rubber tree. There is generally 
about a foot of humus, merging into brownish clay or into fine 
gravel at a depth of two or three feet. It is slightly undulating 
and all covered by forest. It is fairly well watered for this 
country. Mr. Punch has established a nursery of three acres, very 
well situated on the creek, in which are set out some 10,000 plants, 
of which 8,000 are the Ire rubber, enough to plant 40 acres of 
forest when the planting season, May and June, arrives." 

In 1902 another Model Farm was founded at Oloke-Meji, about 
93 miles inland to the north of Lagos, and at this place, as already 
mentioned, the principal operations of the Botanical Department 
were centred. 

By 1903 Agriculture appeared to be making good progress, and 
in that year a new Director of Agriculture (and Forests), Mr. J. H. J. 
Farquhar, B.Sc. was appointed. 

In November, 1903, the Governor (Sir William MacGregor) was 
in a position to advise the Secretary of State of the formation of 
an Agricultural Union, with a central council in Lagos, and to 
request sanction to a vote of £250 for the following year for the 
purposes of the Agricultural board. The " objects " were stated 
to be, the introduction and distribution of new and improved seeds, 
plants, implements and domestic animals, to give assistance by 
means of experimental farms and gardens ; the encouragement and 
development of agriculture by teaching, promoting shows, and by 
any means at command. Experiments instituted by the Board 
would be carried out at the Model Farm at Oloke-Meji, and 
farmers and others could join the Union without paying any 

This movement was one of the outcomes of the Agricultural 
Show held at Lagos on the 11th and 12th of November, 1903: 
the first of its kind ever held in the Colony or indeed in West 
Africa. The show was opened by the Governor, who, in the course 
of his speech, pointed out that the producers of the country 
are the natives of the land and that the main object of the 
Show was to facilitate and increase the products they raise from 
the soil, since it was on the soil that the future of the land 

It is recorded that 20,000 people at least, including many of the 
Native Chiefs, attended this show on each of the two days. 

At the present time planting operations under European 
supervision, other than those undertaken by the Government, are 
not extensive. The African Association have had plantations 

* Botanical Enterprise in West Africa, 1899-1901, No. 132, p. 162, Sir William 
MacGregor, Lagos, No. 17, 1899, to Mr. Chamberlain. 


established for several years at Adiabo (Calabar river), Fket (Qwo 
Obo river) and recently in the Central province of Southern 
Nigeria. Messrs. Alex. Miller Bros. & Co. have taken up the 
cultivation of Para rubber on a plantation at Sapele, Central 
province, Southern Nigeria. The British Cotton Growing 
Association have land under cultivation in various parts of the 
two Colonies. 

It is recorded that (1898) the Ilaro Plantations, Ltd., had 
over 300 acres cleared and planted up with coffee, then 3 to 4 
years old.* 

The Oil Rivers Company have t a plantation well established of 
coffee and cocoa at Buguma in the New Calabar district. 

Mr. Elliott reported (1907) J that there were no planting opera- 
tions of a private nature in Northern Nigeria with the exception 
of the work of the British Cotton Growing Association's Model 
Farm near Lokoja. 


Southern Nigeria. — The first mention of Forest Conservancy 
in Nigeria appears to have originated with Sir George Denton, § 
in 1897, when Acting Governor of Lagos, in a letter to the 
Colonial Office. The subject was suggested owing to the effects 
of the destructive methods of tapping rubber trees, then 
beginning to make themselves apparent. He wrote as follows : 
" I think myself that a Forest Department established on some- 
what similar lines to that in India, but of course limited in its 
dimensions, is an urgent need, and I would recommend that the 
Director of the Royal Gardens, Kew, be consulted on the subject. 
Both Mr. Thiselton-Dyer and Dr. Morris have given us valuable 
assistance in the past and take a great interest in Lagos, and I feel 
sure that they will do their best to suggest to us a practical way 
out of the difficulty." 

In his reply to the Colonial Office on the subject the Director of 
the Royal Gardens, Kew,| remarked : " How far any system of 
forest conservation can be applied to the rubber-yielding districts 
is a matter on which it is difficult to express an opinion. To 
carry out the measures of a Forest Department, a system of forest 
guards is necessary and this requires a revenue. Whether the 
administration of the rubber-producing area has reached a stage 
of development sufficiently advanced to admit of this is a matter 
for the Local Government to consider. But that the question is one 
of the greatest importance for the future prosperity of our West 
African Possessions there can be no doubt." 

The recommendations of Captain Denton as to the necessity of 
a Forest Department were endorsed by the Governor (Sir 

*Sir George Denton (Acting Governor); Lagos, Dec. 10th, 1898, to Mr. 
Chamberlain. Botanical Enterprise in West Africa, 1880-1001, p 81. 

tThis was so, at least, in Sept., 1808. when it was visited by the writer. 

j Kew Bulletin, 1007, p. 240. 

§ Botanical Enterprise in West Africa, 1880 1001, p. 30. 

|| l.c, p. 32. 


Henry McCallum), who went further, and preferred " that it 
should be an Economic Department, whose duty would be not 
only to protect existing forests, and reafforestate denuded districts, 
but also to develop new experimental agricultural industries, so 
that the prosperity of the Colony should not be entirely 
dependent on the price of and demand for palm oil and palm 

Following on these recommendations Mr. Cyril Punch was 
appointed on the approval of the Secretary of State for the 
Colonies, Inspector of Forests (October, 1897). 

The first Bill to provide for the establishment and regulation of 
the Forestry Department and for the proper regulation of the 
forests of the Colony was drafted in 1897. It was introduced to 
the Local Legislative Council on November 3rd, 1897, and passed 
the second reading on November 11th, without any serious 
criticism. It was, however, objected to so strongly by a large 
number of the native community, who appeared to regard it as 
interfering too much with their rights of land tenure, that its 
Proclamation was deferred, and finally the Secretary of State 
considered it should be withdrawn and legislation on the subject 
deferred until a Land Ordinance had been passed defining the 
rights of native chiefs in regard to land, including the forests. 

The first Forest Reserve was constituted at Ibadan in August, 

This reserve had for its object the preservation of timber and 
the improvement of the rubber yield. A set of Rules were 
passed by the Ibadan Council, and although some forestry rules 
made by the native authorities had been drawn up in December, 
1898, for the protection of rubber and timber, the Regulations * 
made in connection with the Ibadan Forest Reserve appear to 
have been the first real and successful attempt at forest 

These rules came into force on the 1st of October, 1899. The 
area set apart was bounded on the north and west by the Odo Ona 
river ; on the east by the Ibadan-Mamu road ; on the south by 
Jebu territory, covering in all about 100 square miles. 

A Deed of Gift was signed by eleven of the influential Chiefs 
of Ibadan on the 8th day of October, 1899, ceding the Mamu 
Forest Reserve,! as a token of friendship and goodwill towards 
the Government of Her Majesty the Queen of Great Britain and 

Then followed the lease by the Alake of Abeokuta and 
authorities of the Egba nation for 99 years, of the Oloke-Meji 
Forest ReserveJ ; the first quarterly payment (annual sum £25) 
being made on the 25th December, 1900. 

Next came the formation of the Oshun river Forest Reserve § 
about 100 square miles in extent granted 22nd January, 1904, by the 

*See Govt. Gaz., S. Nigeria, Vol. 2, No. 63, Nov. 20th, 1907, p. 2239, for a 
copy of the Regulations. 
fCopy in Govt. Gaz., No. 63, Vol. 2, Nov. 20th, 1907, p. 223S. 
I Copy of Indenture, I.e., p. 2246. 
§ Copy of Agreement, I.e., p. 2244. 


Awujale and Chiefs of Jebu-Ode to the Government in perpetuity. 

A. temporary agreement for this Reserve had been made 3rd 

December, 1900. The situation was regarded as excellent ; the 

forest line, and of mature age. 

The Ilaro Forest Reserve* in the Badagry district was granted 
55th April, 1904, for a term of fifty years subject to renewal 
;om time to time. A Deed of Grant for this land had been 
lade on the 11th June, 1901, but owing to some misunder- 
sunding of the covenants as to tribal ownership, this was 
c&icelled and the new indenture drawn up accordingly. 

''he condition of these Reserves in 1905 may be gathered 
froi the following extract from a Colonial Office Reportf : — 

"luring the year frequent visits were made to all the Govern- 

nien reserved forests, their boundaries were inspected, roads 

clears and new ones made, farming and hunting registers 

cheeky and the planting in them of economic plants, such as 

Para ubber, Funtumia elastica, Iroko (Chloroplwra excelsa), 

mahogriy, &c., undertaken systematically. In this respect the 

Mamu *d Oloke-Meji reserves are more advanced than the others. 

The fo ner have been divided up into compartments that are 

cleared F undergrowth, the large trees being left as standards, 

and a c<$ain number planted every year with the indigenous 

rubber trV Funtumia elastica. Up to date, seven compartments, 

amounting 150 acres, have been completely stocked with that 

species wh^ clearing operations were carried out during the year 

for further ' an ti n g in 1906. The Oloke-Meji reserve, owing to its 

proximity t^he railway, is the most valuable one we possess. 

lne rorests re ma inly of the 'deciduous' type, but 'mixed 1 

ones are also De f oun d along the banks of the Ogun river and 

on the shady yp ec t s f the hills. Valuable species, such as the 

West African ahoganies and cedars, are to be met with here. 

A certain amou f restriction has been placed on farming,' and 

the natives wert lduced to plant up the fallow l an d with rubber, 

Iroko, and othey a j uaole pj an ts. The Oshun river reserve is 

much cut up w farming and, owing to its inaccessibility, 

difficult to manage The plantimf of the indigenous rubber tree 

was started here di, ^ vear> 

" In the Iliaro re^ e g roup regeneration under the wild rubber 
trees was begun, ana e planting of six acres with that spec i es 
accomplished, whilst land wag prepai . ed for planting during 
1 906. Besides these ur reserveeu which ai . e either leased to 
( iovemment or belong u outright (Mamu reserve), the Depart- 
ment has, conjointly wi the Ibadan authorities, the management 
of the Ibadan btate reser Thig wag adequately pi . tected during 
the year. 

« The forests in the M and ndo districts are regarded by 
the Conservator as being % hegt in the whole of the Western 

Reservation in Southern N Qutside L wag vm ^ 

being kept in view. Accoid it^ ^ Colonial Secretary's Report J 

* Copy of Indenture, I.e., tTI 
f Col. Rep., Ann.. No. 507,** l - |QnB _ „. . 
t Col. Rep.. Ann.. No. 512, i\*or 1905, S. Nigeria, p. 24. 
V. Nigeria, p. 24. 


for that year " there is one Reserve in the Protectorate, situated on 
the Alabetta river, which is exploited to feed the Government 
saw mills at Onitsha, on the river Niger. Other areas have, 
during the past year, been selected for reservation. In the Benin 
district the native Chiefs and Councils have agreed to reserve tlic 
forests for 1,000 yards along both banks of every river, and for 
100 yards on each side of every main road. This is a very decided 
step in the right direction, as the indiscriminate destruction of th' 
forest for farming if allowed to continue unchecked, would resut 
in irreparable loss." * 

Following this process of Reservation, which prepared he 
way somewhat for the more comprehensive system of Conse na- 
tion, the following extracts from official correspondence and fher 
sources, mark the beginning and general progress of the prsent 
Forestry Department of Southern Nigeria, the inceptia of 
which may be fairly accredited to the energy and foresjht of 
Sir Ralph Moor, when High Commissioner. The Director «-" Kew 
(Sir W. T. Thiselton-Dyer), writing February 21st, 1900/ to the 
Colonial Office on the subject of Forestry in West Afric? stated 
that : — 

" These territories can never, properly speaking, be olonised. 
Nor will they, in all probability, afford much scope }r British 
planting enterprise, at least not until the higher le 3 * 8 °f the 
interior have been made accessible by railways. . J the same 
time peace and order have to be maintained ; a reve* 16 must be 
obtained and trade developed in order to meet the^pense, an d 
the moral development of the population must \ encouraged. 
The methods of Indian administration seem to . t0rt * the only 

" Those methods involve a much more energe' motion on the 
part of the Government than is usual or perhV desirable in a 
colony properly so-called. This is especially tl case . in regard to 
forest conservation. The immediate effect owning U P these 
African territories has been to rapidly exha y . e resources of 
their accessible forests. At first I was under ie im P ression that 
these were so considerable that the risk of e austl0n was of little 
moment compared with the indirect benefit ™ an export trade. 
But it is now evident that this is not so, tnat an important 
natural asset is being rapidly used up. ° use _ tne Governor's 
words, the ultimate result will be for tl and t0 become naked, 
and to possess only its bare agricultural 3 U1 °es. 

" It scarcely requires argument to e ™ that such a state of 
things is eminently undesirable, and iua . not be creditable to 
British administration. I gather fro^Jf 7101 *? P a Pers, and from 
conversation with Mr. Punch, that i >s , Deen *oped that it might 
be obviated by utilising the ar' nty ot th ? na . tlve chiefs. 
Mr. Punch, who seems to me to ™ a v f * . clear msi S h t into 
the merits and defects of the na^ c C ^ racter ' 1S ^ mte cle ar that 
nothing is to be expected in this 

* Reserves have how (1908) been r in the ° ban and Idah distri <^- Gk>Yt. 
Gaz., S. Nigeria, Nos. 31 & 66, 1908. rfgy-iyoj p ]80 
f Botanical Enterprise in W. Air ' 


" It appears to me that, sooner or later, the Secretary of State 
will have to adopt the Indian system of Forest Conservation. 
Experience has shown that this system not merely preserves 
the resources of the forests, but also yields a very important 

u This system involves the expropriation by the Government of 
the land of reserved forests. Mr. Punch pointed out to me that this 
might meet with some protest from thci natives. He appeared, 
however, to think that the difficulty was rather theoretical than 
real. In any case it has been overcome in India, the people of 
which have cheerfully acquiesced in the result. 

" The work which Mr. Punch is carrying on, under the direction 
of Sir William MacGregor, appears to me in every respect excellent, 
but it is clear he is dealing with practically exhausted forest, and 
the process is necessarily somewhat expensive. The fundamental 
principle of efficient forest management is to draw from a forest 
an annual crop which represents its natural increment, and never 
diminishes its capital value. Experience in India shows that this 
can be done, but the appropriate methods vary in different cases, 
and it requires a skilled expert to work them out locally. 

" 1 am of opinion, therefore, that the time has come when the 
vast territories under British rule in West Africa require the 
services of two or three experienced forest officers, who should be 
drawn from the Indian Forest Service. Probably the time is not 
ripe for the creation of a regular trained forest service, though 1 
cannot doubt that that will eventually be necessary. What I at 
present suggest is the employment of a few skilled inspectors who 
would travel about, select the forests which it is desirable to 
preserve, work out schemes for their economical but efficient 
management, and generally advise the local Governments. I must 
point out that such advice as Kew can afford to the Secretary of 
State on papers submitted to it can only be of a vague and general 
kind. A man of trained experience, brought face to face with the 
problem on the spot, is in a very different and more effective 

"The first point which these inspectors would attack, and it 
cannot be too soon undertaken, is, to use the words of a dis- 
tinguished Indian forest officer which I have already quoted in 
another communication, k to take stock of the forest lantls still at 
the disposal of the Government, select the most suitable, demarcate 
off with well-marked boundaries, ascertain if any rights exist, 
and settle them, and then, after careful examination, draw up a 
scheme of working suitable to each.' 

" I have entered into these considerations because they appear 
to me to be the only ones upon which any satisfactory results can 
be based in dealing with the forest question in our tropical 
possessions in West Africa." 

Subsequent to this a considerable amount of correspondence and 
discussion took place on the proposed Forestry Department, and 
on the advisability of amalgamating the Botanical Departments 

already in existence, both in the Lagos Colony and Southern 
Nigeria, with the Forestry Department. It may perhaps be 


sufficient here to give a few extracts from the letter,* addressed by 
the Secretary of State for the Colonies, to the Secretary of State 
for India, requesting the services of a few Forestry Officers with 
Indian training and experience, and in which the various proposals 
took a more definite form. The final result was the amalgamation 
of the Botanical and Forestry Departments of the two Colonies, 
Lagos and Southern Nigeria, under one head. 

It may be mentioned that it was not considered possible at this 
period for any effective action to be taken in the same scheme 
with regard to Northern Nigeria. 

In the course of the communication referred to it was stated 
that '* The Director of the Royal Gardens at Kew, who is the 
regular adviser of this Department in such matters, is strongly of 
opinion that in order to secure the economical and efficient 
working of the valuable rubber and timber forests which exist in 
West Africa, the methods of forest administration which are so 
successfully used in India should be applied to them, and. it is 
desired to organize a Forest Department in Southern Nigeria for 
this purpose. Sir W. T. Thiselton-Dyer and Sir R. Moor have been 
in semi-official communication on the subject with Mr. H. C. Hill, 
the Conservator-General of Forests in India, and it is understood 
that Mr. Hill has been good enough to express his willingness to 
select the officers required." 

" The duties of the Department, so far as it is possible to detail 
them at present, would be as follows : — 

" (a) The conservation of the forests in the Protectorate and 
the prospecting of the forest areas with a view to 
ascertaining the value of vegetable economic products. 

"(//) The protection of all trees and plants affording known 
economic products, and the exploitation of such as 
may afford economic products now unknown. 

"(c*) The supervision of concessions that may be granted for 
the exploitation of vegetable economic products. 

"(d) The creation of Government reservations and the 

planting of them. 
" (e) The reafforesting of exhausted areas. 
"(/) The preparation of the scheme of legislation necessary 

to deal with the forests generally, and particularly 

such trees and plants as are known to afford economic 

" (g) The management and care of existing Botanic Stations 

and experimental planting therein with a view to 

the introduction of further economic trees and plants. 

(There are plantations of coffee at these stations 

amounting in all to about 100,000 trees now bearing.) 
"(h) Improvement in the methods of extracting and 

obtaining vegetable products and preparing them for 

" (i) The training of the native staff for forestry and botanical 

w T ork, and the general instruction of apprentices. 

* Colonial Office, Sept. 21st, 1901. See Botanical Enterprise in W. Africa, 
1889-1901, p. 306. 


" The foregoing points are given as an indication, which should 
not, however, be regarded as exhaustive, of the work of the 
Department in order to enable the Government of India to select 
suitable officers." 

Special attention was directed to the manner in which the 
rubber and timber forests, chiefly in Lagos, had been impoverished 
by reckless tapping and cutting, and it was urged that one of the 
main objects of the Department should be to prevent a similar 
exhaustion of natural resources in Southern Nigeria. 

In response to the request of the Colonial Office, Mr. H. X. 
Thompson, of the Indian Forestry Service, was appointed 
Conservator of Forests, Southern Nigeria (original area), in 1902, 
and later (June, 1905) his authority was extended to Lagos, now 
the Western province of Southern Nigeria. The Forestry and 
Agricultural Departments of Lagos were embodied in the Forestry 
and Botanical Department of Southern Nigeria, on the 28th June, 

Mr. P. Hitchens had been Inspector of Forests since 1899, and 
had done good work in laying the foundation for the protection 
and development of the rubber and timber industries, more 
especially in the Benin districts. On the appointment of Mr. H. 
N. Thompson as Conservator, Mr. Hitchens was appointed an 
Assistant Conservator of Forests, first grade, and afterwards as 
the Department developed he became Provincial Forest Officer of 
the Eastern province. 

Rules of Procedure and Forest Organization * were made 
(January, 1905) before the amalgamation above mentioned was 
effected, and no reference therefore is made in them of the 
Western province. They were drawn up by the Conservator and 
shew the general and effective lines on which the Department is 

The scheme dealt with the organization of the Staff, European 
and Native ; Collection of Herbarium Specimens ; Inspection 
and Supervision of Timber Concessions ; Rubber Nurseries and 
Plantations ; Reports and other Official Returns, and the Organiza- 
tion of Administrative and Executive Charges. 

The investigation of the Sylvicultural requirements of the more 
important species of plants was regarded as one of the most im- 
portant duties of the Forest Officer, and special attention was 
directed to those species which supply valuable and durable 
timber to the Natives, or furnish produce of economic value. 

Legislative measures had been put into operation before this, 
for the preservation of the forests. Rubber had for some time 
been provided for in a separate Proclamation and again under the 
first General Forestry Proclamation of 1901. Both the Timber 
and Rubber Regulations made under this Proclamation have since 
been repealed by Rules No. 6 and 7 of 1905, under the Forestry 
Proclamations of 1901 and ly()5, all of which were published 
in the Southern Nigeria Government Gazette of August IStli, 1905. 

* These Rules are published in full in the Southern Nigeria Gazette, X<». 18. 
May 12th, 1906, pp. 255-264. 


It is satisfactory to note that in 1905,* less than five years after 
its inception, the Revenue of the Department was : — 

" (a) For major forest produce (timber), £6,302 17 4 
" (b) For minor forest produce (rubber), £653 10 

giving a total of £6,956 Is. 4d. against an expenditure during the 
same period of £8,444. 

The position as regards Northern Nigeria is conveyed in the 
following note communicated to the Director of Kew in May, 1907, 
by Mr. W. R. Elliott, the Conservator of Forests :— " A piece of 
Forest situated near Lokoja was declared a Forest Reserve and our 
main efforts have been devoted so far to the propagation and 
planting of the different rubbers, especially Funtumia elastica. 

" At the beginning of 1907 large nurseries of Funtumia were 
formed, and later on over 100 acres of the Lokoja Reserve, which 
is about 250 acres in extent, were planted up and the remainder 
will be done this year. In addition to this 40 acres of forest were 
planted up on the Guara river where we have a Reserve of over 
100 square miles, and a further 40 acres in Dakino in the Bassa 
province. The idea we are working on is to get the natives to 
plant up the forest surrounding their towns and villages with 

" Our Forest Reserve on the Guara river is full of splendid 
mahogany (Khaya senegalensis) and ebony {Diospyros mespili- 
f or mis), as well as many other valuable timber trees. By the 
new Forestry Proclamation the cutting of these trees is forbidden 
excepting under the supervision of the Forestry Department, and 
it is hoped that a stop will be put to the cutting of the young 
trees for firewood." 

Speaking generally of the forests, Mr. Elliott says :— " They are 
mostly found in the provinces south of the Benue and Niger, 
viz. : Illorin, Kabba, and Bassa ; in the Nassarawa province, which 
is north of the Benue, and on the banks of some of the larger 
rivers, such as the Niger, Benue, and the Guara. They do not 
cover such enormous stretches as they do in the Niger delta, 
and every effort should be made to preserve them. It is in 
these southern provinces that I consider most useful work can 
be done at once by the Forestry Department, and the formation 
of reserves of both timber and rubber should be taken in hand."| 

The vacancy in the office of Conservator of Forests, owing to 
Mr. Elliott's death in March, 1908, has been filled by the appoint- 
ment of Mr. B. E. B. Shaw, formerly Assistant Conservator. The 
latter post has been filled by the appointment of Mr. A. M. McKee. 

The Protection of the Forests and Forest Produce in Northern 
Nigeria is now provided for in Proclamation No. 6, 1906, enacted 
by the High Commissioner (Sir Frederick Lugard), which came 
into operation on the 25th April, 1906. 

Col. Rep., Ann., No. 512, 1906, for 1905, p. 27. 
Kew Bulletin, 1907, p. 248. 




Clematis, Linn. 

Clematis grandiflora, DC. ; Fl. Trop. Afr. I. p. 7. 
Obeyon, Cross River. 

In Sierra Leone the bruised leaves are used as a vesicant 
(Mus. Kew). 

Clematis Thunbergii, Steud.; Fl. Trop. Afr. I. p. 6. 

///.—Harvey, Thes. Cap. i. t. 8. 


Used like preceding (Herb. Kew). 



Tetracera alnifolia, Wittd. ; Fl. Trop. Afr. I. p. 12. 

III.— Pobeguin, Fl. Guin. Franc., t. 42. 


Stems when cut transversely yield a supply of potable fluid 
(Pobeguin, Essai sur la Flore de la Guinee Francaise, p. 195). 

Tetracera potatoria, Afzl. ex G. Don, Gen. Syst. I. p. 69. — T. 
ohtusata, Planch, in Fl. Trop. Afr. I. p. 12. 

Lagos, Abeokuta. 

Used like preceding (Stapf, in Johnston, Liberia, ii. p. 574). 


ANONA, Linn. 

Anona Cherimolia, Mill. ; Fl. Trop. Afr. I. p. 16. 

III.— Bot. Mag. t, 2011 (A. tripetala) ; Gard. Chron. xviii., 1895, 
pp. 734-735, xxviii.. 1900, p. 4G0 : Rev. Hort. 1905, pp. 86-87 ; 
Sem. Hort. 1899, pp. 237 and 239 ; Le Jard. 1889, p. 90. 

Fructo do Condo (Loanda, Welwitsch) ; Cherimoyer. 

Native of the Andes of Ecuador and Peru. Cultivated in 
the Botanic Gardens of S. Nigeria. 

The flowers have a perfume resembling that of Magnolia 
fitscata, and are said to be put into snuff as a substitute for the 
Tonquin Bean. The pulp is employed as a medicine lor the 
alleviation of inflamed ulcers and for the maturing of abscesses. 
The seeds of this as well as of other species of Anona, when 
reduced to powder, are used as an insecticide. The fruit is much 
esteemed for dessert, and said to be superior in this reaped bo all 
other Anonas. 


Plants may be propagated from seed. A fairly rich soil, plenty 
of moisture, and a climate approaching to sub-tropical, are 
conditions required for the cultivation. The hilly districts of 
Nigeria would perhaps meet these requirements. 

ife/.— " Cherimoyer," Kew Bull. Aug. 1887, pp. 15 and 16. 
Anona muricata, Linn. ; Fl. Trop. Afr. I. p. 16. 

III.— Buchoz. Herb, tt. 7, 88 ; Nooten, PL Java, t. 33 ; Plenck, 
Ic. t. 461 ; Contr. U.S. Nat, Herb. ix. t. 33 ; Le Jard. 1889, 
p. 167. 


Introduced from the West Indies. Cultivated in gardens and 

The fruit is eaten by the natives and Europeans, and is 
commonly sold in the markets. A decoction of the root is said to 
be an antidote against fish-poison (Fawcett, Economic Products, 
Jamaica, p. 10), and an infusion of the leaves is used as a remedy 
for dysentery (Cook & Collins, Economic Plants of Porto Rico, 
P . 81). 

May be propagated from seed ; plants grow and fruit freely in 
almost any soil. 

Anona palustris, Linn. ; Fl. Trop. Afr. I. p. 16. 

III.— Bot. Mag. t. 4226 ; St. Hil PL us. Bres. t. 30. 

Alligator apple ; Monkey apple; Corkwood. 

The fruit is said to be narcotic and sometimes poisonous. 
Alligators and cattle are said to like it (Mus. Kew). The wood is 
employed for stopping casks and bottles and for lining boxes 
(Mus. Kew) ; in Jamaica it is used as floats for fishing nets, and 
as stoppers for mouths of Calabash vessels (Fawcett, Econ. Prod. 
Jamaica, p. 11) ; and in Porto Rico for rafts (Cook & Collins, 
Econ. PL Porto Rico, p. 81). The soft and porous roots are used 
in Cuba as razor strops (1. c. p. 81). 

The plant could be propagated by seeds ; it thrives on swampy 
ground, muddy river banks, &c. 

Anona reticulata, Linn. ; Fl. Trop. Afr. I. p. 15. 

JZZ.— Bot. Mag. tt. 2911-12 ; Nooten, FL Java, t. 32 ; Tuss. Ant. i. 
t. 29 ; Le Jard. 1889, p. 125. 

Custard apple ; Bullock's heart. 

Introduced from the West Indies. 

The fruit is eatable and is an antidysenteric and a vermifuge. 
The dry unripe fruit yields a black dye ; the leaves, from which 
a good quality of Indigo may be obtained, and the young twigs 
are used in India for tanning ; also a good fibre may be prepared 
from the bark of the young twigs (Watt, Diet. Econ. Prod. Ind.). 

Propagation from seed. 

Anona senegalensis, Pers. ; Fl. Trop. Afr. I. p. 16. 

III.— Deless. Ic. i. t. 86. 

Vernac. names. — Diorgud (Gambia, Kew Bull. 1893, p. 371) 
Maiolo, Malolo (Angola, Cat. Welw. Afr. PL i. p. 8). 


Niger ; Bornu ; Lagos. 

The fruit is edible. On the Gambia the leaves, heated and 
soaked in water, are used as a cure for diarrhoea (Kew Bull. 1893, 
p. 371). In Senegal the bark of the stem and roots is used as a 
vermifuge ; the powdered root for the cure of sores caused by 
Guinea worm, and both branches and roots are utilized to make 
a drink in pectoral affections (Sebire, PI. Util. Senegal, p. 3). 
On the Zambesi the root-bark is used as a remedy for snake-bite 
(Herb. Kew). The petals are used on the Niger for flavouring 
country dishes (Kew Bull. 1893, p. 371). 

Propagation may be effected by seeds. The nature of the soil 
appears to be of secondary consideration. Scott Elliot refers to it 
as growing on hard dry laterite in Sierra Leone (Herb. Kew), 
and Welwitsch mentions a dwarf Anona (attributed by Hiern, 
Cat. Welw. Afr. PI. i. p. 6, to this species) which he had observed 
in Huilla at an altitude of 4,000 feet and upwards, and which 
appeared to spread over most of the mountainous regions of 
Tropical South Africa. 

Anona squamosa, Linn. ; Fl. Trop. Afr. I. p. 16. 

III.— Bot. Mag. t. 3095 ; Tuss. Ant. iii. t. 4 ; Blume, Java, i. t. 
53 ; Nooten, Fl. Java, t. 5 ; Plenck, Ic. t. 462 ; Contr. U. S. N. 
Herb. ix. t. 34 ; Diet, Sc. Nat. t. 118 ; Lam. Encycl. t. 494 ; Le 
Jard. 1889, p. 125. 

Sweet-sop or Sugar-apple (West Indies) ; Custard-apple (India). 

Native of South America ; introduced from the West Indies. 

The fruit has a pleasant flavour but is inferior to the Sour-sop. 
Medicinally it is used as a maturant for malignant tumours. In 
India the juice is used to flavour ice puddings ; the dried unripe 
fruit, powdered and mixed with gram flour, is used to destroy 
vermin ; the root is a purgative ; the leaves are an anthelmintic, 
and are used for the extraction of Guinea worm (Watt, Diet. 
Econ. Prod. Ind.). 

Plants propagated from seed are of quick growth and come into 
bearing in about three years. A deep stony soil, enriched with 
humus, and good drainage are the conditions essential to 
successful cultivation. 

In India the tree grows to perfection in the most rocky, hot 
and barren parts of the country, and in a purely wild state it 
sometimes grows out of crevices of rocks and old walls (Woodrow, 
Gardening in India, p. 144). 

Uvaria, Linn. 

Uvaria Chamae, P. de Beau v. ; Fl. Trop. Afr. I. p. 22. 

111.— Pal. de Beauv. Fl. Ow. Ben. ii. t. 83 ; Guillem. Perr. Rich. 
Fl. Senegamb. t. 3, tig. 2; Engl. Monogr. Afr. Pflam Anonac. 
t. 3. 

Vernac. names. — Eruiju (Lagos, Dawodu) ; Arogu (Lagos, 

Nupe ; Lagos. 

:;:;;585 i> 


Wood used for oars on river Casamance in Senegal ; infusion of 
leaves employed as an eye-wash (Sebire, PI. Util. Senegal, p. 7). 
Decoction of root said to be drunk in Lagos and also used 
as lotion for swellings (Millen, Herb. Kew). This plant is said 
to be an ingredient in " Agbo " a popular medicine in Lagos (see 
under Xylopia aethiopica). 

Hexalobus, A. DC. 

Hexalobus senegalensis, A. DC; Fl. Trop. Afr. I. p. 27. 
III.— Guillem. Perr. Rich. Fl. Senegamb. t. 2 ; Engl. Monogr. 
Afr. Pflan. Anonac. t. 20, f.B {Hexalobus monopetalus, Engl.). 


The roots, stem and leaves, used in Senegal as expectorants, and 
for the cure of diarrhoea (Sebire, PI. Util. Senegal, p. 7 ; Uvaria 
monopetala, Guill. et Perr.). 

Xylopia, Linn. 

Xylopia aethiopica, A. Rich. ; Fl. Trop. Afr. I. p. 30. 

III. — Engl. Monogr. Afr. Pflan. Anonac. t. 21. 

Vernac names, — Eru (Lagos, Dawodu) ; Chufani (Nupe, 
Dalziel) ; Kimba (Hausa, Dalziel) ; Sabongo, Cabella (Angola, 
Welwitsch) ; Ogano, Okola (Congo, De Wildeman) ; African 

Lagos ; Old Calabar ; Eppah, Niger. 

The black quill-like, aromatic and pungent fruits are used as a 
condiment, and in medicine as a stimulant ; commonly sold in the 
native markets (Mus. Kew). The fruits according to De Roche- 
brune, contain an essential oil, a resin and a new alkaloid 
" Anonaceine," which crystallizes in well-formed prisms. The 
volatile oil is described as possessing an agreeable, aromatic, 
cinnamon-like odour and taste, occurring in the bark, leaves and 
bast as well as in the fruit (Pharm. Journ. [4] xiii. p. 640). In 
France the fruits have been used with success for bronchitis, 
gonorrhoea, and other mucous discharges (Pharm. Journ. [3] 
xvii. p. 328). 

The plant appears to be the chief ingredient of " Agbo " a 
decoction of leaves and roots, used in Lagos as a medicine for 
children. Specimens of plants used in the preparation of this 
medicine were sent (1901) to Kew for determination : no plants 
containing any poisonous principle were identified ; the most 
important from a medicinal point of view were Xylopia aethiopica. 
— a stimulant ; Uvaria Chamae — a purgative ; Waltheria ameri- 
cana — a febrifuge ; and Vernonia cinerea — also a febrifuge. It 
is difficult to understand the principles underlying its application, 
since the composition varies in different towns, and with different 
tribes, and also according to the complaint for which some 
particular plant of the mixture is considered a specific remedy 
(Dawodu, Report to Governor of Lagos, 21st April, 1901). 

A special Commission appointed to inquire into the infantile 
mortality in Lagos, regarded the indiscriminate use of Agbo as one 
very direct and serious cause, although they considered it to be 


harmless if properly prepared by a competent person and adminis- 
tered as a medicine only, and as an aid to digestion. A great fault 
appears to lie in its substitution at times for mother's milk. 

The wood has been described as light and easy to work ; used in 
French Guinea for planks and furniture (Pobeguin, PI. Guin. 
Franc, p. 58). 

Enantia polycarpa, Engl, et Diels in Engl. Monogr. Afr. Pflan. 
Anonac. p. 69. 

[Xylopia polycarpa, Oliv. in Fl. Trop. Afr. I. p. 32.] 

Vernac. names. — Gbeido, Geybido ; Abeokuta bark ; Cantar or 
Kanda bark ; Yellow Gbeyido. 


An extract is used for dyeing skins and mats a yellow colour 
(Technologist, 1865, p. 562) ; applied by the natives as a specific 
for ulcers (id. 1863, p. 364). In Sierra Leone an extract of the 
bark is used as an unguent for sores (Herb. Kew). 

Monodora, Dunal. 

Monodora angolensis, Weliv. ; Fl. Trop. Afr. I. p. 38. 

III. — Engl. Monogr. Afr. Pflan. Anonac. t. 29; Trans. Linn. 
Soc. xxvii. t. 

Vernac. names. — Gipepe (Jipepa or Xipepe) de Songa (Angola, 

Old Calabar. 

The seeds are used like those of M. Myristica (Welwitsch). 

Monodora Myristica, Dun. ; Fl. Trop. Afr. I. p. 37, and var. 
grandiflora, Oliv. in Fl. Trop. Afr. I. p. 38. 

111.— Bot. Mag. t. 3059 ; Engl. Monogr. Afr. Pflan. Anonac. t. 
30 ; (var. grandiflora) Benth. Trans. Linn. Soc. xxiii. tt. 52, 53 ; 
Bot. Mag. t. 7260. 

Vernac. names. — Mpoussa, (Congo, De Wildeman) ; Lakose 
(Lagos, Punch, var. grandiflora). — Calabash Nutmeg ; Muscades 
de Calabash ; American Nutmeg. 

Old Calabar ; Ibadan. 

The seeds are aromatic ; used by the natives as a condiment 
(Mus. Kew) and for making various tonic, stimulating and 
stomachic medicines (Welwitsch). H. Thorns has found that the 
seeds yield 7 per cent, of a yellov essential oil with a greenish 
fluorescence, and a very pleasant odour, and that no myristicin, or 
other phenolic esters, such as occur in nutmeg or mace, can bo 
detected in them (Pharm. Journ. [4] xviii. p. 617). 

The wood is hard and fine-grained ; bark grey and ruggod, 
5-8 mm. in thickness (Mus. Kew, specimen from Uganda). 

Monodora tenuifolia, Benth. ; Fl. Trop. Afr. I. p. 38. 
III.— Engl. Monogr. Afr. Pflan. Anonac. t. 28, f. B. 
Eppah, Aghamia on the Niger ; Old Calabar. 
Fruits as in M. Myristica. 

3S386 D 2 



Cocculus, DC. 

Cocculus Leaeba, DC. ; Fl. Trop. Afr. I. p. 44. 

Ill— Thornier, Bltitenpfl. Afr. t. 48. 

Vernac. name. — Sangol (Senegal). 

Kouka ; Bure, near Lake Ohad. 

The root is used by the natives in Senegal and in the French 
Sudan for the cure of periodic fevers. Heckel and Schlagden- 
hauffen have found in it about 2 per cent, of pelosine and about 
3 per cent, of a new crystalline alkaloid, "sangoline." The root 
also contains columbin, and it is very similar to Pareira Brava, 
both in appearance and properties (Pharm. Journ. [4] iii. p. 293). 
Used in Sind and Afghanistan in intermittent fevers and as a 
substitute for the "Cocculus Indicus" (Anamirta panicukUa, 
Oolebr.), and said to be used as a partial substitute for hops in 
Indian beer (Diet. Econ. Prod. Tnd.). 

Ref. — " Sangol {Cocculus Leaeba) du Senegal et du Soudan," 
Heckel et Schlagdenhauffen, in Ann. Inst. Col. Marseille, 1895, 
pp. 51-64. 


Cissampelos Pareira, Linn. ; Fl. Trop. Afr. I. p. 45. 

III.— Bentl. and Trimen, Med. PI. t, 15 ; Spach, Suites, t. 62 ; 
Good, Fam. Fl. t. 93 ; Plenck, Ic. t. 723 ; Collett, Fl. Si ml. p. 19 ; 
Vidal, Fl. For. Filip. t. lc. 

False Pareira Brava ; Velvet Leaf ; Ice Vine. 

Lagos ; Old Calabar ; Bornu. 

The dried root, which is aromatic and bitter, is used in India as 
a mild tonic and diuretic, and for various medicinal purposes, 
generally administered as a decoction and extract ; applied 
externally to cuts, snake-bites, and scorpion stings. The leaves 
are applied to abscesses (Diet. Econ. Prod. Ind.). In British 
Central Africa the trailing stems are used to bind the rims of 
baskets (Cameron, Herb. Kew). 

Var. owariensis, Oliv. Fl. Trop. Afr. I. p. 46. 

Vernac. name. — Je-in-Joko or Jo-Ko-Je (Yoruba, Millson), 

Lagos ; Yoruba. 

Used in Yoruba as an anti-emmenagogue (Kew Bull. 1891, 
p. 208). 

Re/.— Fam. Fl. and Mat, Med. Peter P. Good, ii. No. 93. 


Nymphaea, Linn. 

Nymphaea Lotus, Linn. ; Fl. Trop. Afr. I. p. 52. 

ni.—Bot. Mag. tt. 797, 1280 (N. rubra), 1364 (AT. rubra rosea), 
4665 (N. devoniensis) ; Delile, Egypte t. 60 f. 1 ; Pal. de Beauv. Fl. 
Ow. Ben. ii. t. 88 ; Andr. Rep. vi. t. 391 ; Desc. Ant. viii. t. 597 ; 
Hchb, Exot, i. t, 14, 


Oware ; Niger ; Old Calabar. 

In Angola the plant is used for food (Welwitsch) ; in Senegal 
for various medicinal purposes (Sebire, PL Util. Senegal, p. 12). 
In India the roots, boiled or raw, flowering stems, cooked in 
curries, young fruits, as vegetable, and the roasted seeds are all 
used for food (Diet. Econ. Prod. Ind.). In Lagoa de Quilanda. 
according to Welwitsch, the plant grows in such enormous 
quantities, together with Lemnaceae — especially Lemna arrhisa; 
and Pistia Strut iotes — that the natives make heaps on the banks to 
serve as manure (Hiern, Cat. Welw. Afr. PI. i. p. 22). 

The plant is under cultivation at Kew, together with the 
varieties dentata (Bot. Mag. t. 4257), devoniensis (Bot. Mag. t. 4665) 
monstrosa, Ortgiesiana, pubescens, rubra (Bot. Mag. t. 1280) 
and thermulis. N. Lotus var. Vosgiesiana is a variety recorded 
from Northern Nigeria. 

Nymphaea stellata, Willd, ; Fl. Trop. Afr. I. p. 52. 

Ill— Bot. Mag. t. 2058 ; Andr. Rep. v. t. 330 ; Fl. d. Serres. 
t. 854 ; Wight Ic. PI. Ind. or. i. t. 178 ; Wood, Nat. PI. i. t, 33. 

Vernac. name. — Izibo (Zululand). 


In Zululand and Natal the tuber, after being boiled, is eaten 
by the natives in times of scarcity (Kew Bull. 1898, p. 53). 

In India the roots and seeds are eaten in times of scarcity (Diet. 
Econ. Prod. Ind.). In Senegal the seeds are eaten made up like 
" Couscous " [an Arabian dish consisting of very small balls of 
minced meat and flour, fried in oil]. The fleshy rhizomes are 
said to yield a dye finer than that obtained from Logwood (Sebire, 
PL Util. Senegal, p. 12). 

This plant and four varieties are in cultivation at Kew : — viz., 
var. albiflora, coerulea (Delile, Egypte t. 60, f . 2 ; Bot. Mag. t. 552). 
scutifolia, and zunzibarensis (Bot. Mag. t. 6843 ; Rev. Hort. 1897, 
p. 328). 


Argemone mexicana, Linn.; Fl. Trop. Afr. I. p. 54. 

111.— Bot. Mag. t, 243 ; Lam. Encycl. t. 452 ; Schk. Handb. 
1. 141 ; Desc. Ant. v. t. 380 ; Wight, Illust. t. 11 ; Gray, Gen. t. 47 : 
Bailey, Pois. PL p. 3 ; Agric. Gaz. N. S. Wales, ii. t. 23 ; Transv. 
Agric. Journ. v. t. 227. 

Vernac. names. — Akawn-Ekkun (Yoruba, Millsun) ; Mexican 
or Prickly Poppy ; Golden Thistle ot Peru ; Devil's Fig. 

Oshogbo, Yoruba. Introduced ; the plant is widely distributed 
in the Tropics both of the Old and New World. 

The seeds possess acrid, emetic, and cathartic properties, and 
are poisonous in large quantities. They yield an oil used for 
medicinal purposes in India, West Indies, Senegal, Yorubaland, 
&c. ; but considered unlit for food on account of its laxative 
character and acrid taste. The oil may be useful as an 


illuminant or for soap-making (Pharm. Journ. [4] xxiii. p. 590) ; 
and also as a preventive against the attacks of the white ants and 
borers (Agric. Ledg. No. 5, 1907, p. 37). In Mexico it is used for 
furniture polish (Loudon, Encycl. PL p. 1056), and in S. America 
where it is also employed by painters (Agric. Ledg. No. 5, 1907, 
p. 37). Two samples of oil from Bengal, examined at the Imperial 
Institute, were classed as drying oils. (For analysis see Tech. 
Rep. and Sci. Papers, Imp. Inst. pp. 126-127.) 

The plant is a common weed in many places, and its culti- 
vation would doubtless be easy. A light rich soil is most suitable. 
It is remarkable for standing drought well, and for the ample 
production of seed. 

Ref. — Diet. Econ. Prod. Ind. — " An Account of the Genus 
Argemone," Prain, in Journ. Bot. 1895, pp. 209, 308.—" The Seeds 
and Oil of the Mexican Poppy," D. Hooper, in Agric. Ledg., No. 5, 
1907, pp. 35-39.—" The Weeds of New South Wales " (Argemone 
mexicana), Agric. Gaz. N.S. Wales, April, 1891, p. 175. 


Gynandropsis, DC. 
Gynandropsis pentaphylla, DC. ; Fl. Trop. Afr. I. p. 82. 

IiL— Rheede, Hort. Mai. ix. t. 24 ; Gray, Gen. t. 78 ; Mart. Fl. 
Bras. xiii. pt. i. t. 58. 

Vernac. names. — Ekuya (Yoruba, Millson) ; Mozembue or 
Mozambue (Loanda, Welwitsch). 

Oshogbo, Yoruba ; Niger ; Kouka ; Bornu. Cosmopolitan in 
the Tropics. 

In Yoruba the natives use the roasted leaves as a cure for ear- 
ache, the juice also is mixed with palm-kernel oil and squeezed 
into the ear. The leaves are used as a pot-herb in Nigeria and 
in India (Watt), and eaten like spinach by the natives of Loanda 

The seeds are anthelmintic, and together with the leaves are 
applied to various medicinal purposes in India (Watt). 

The plant is said to yield an acrid volatile oil, having the pro- 
perties of garlic or mustard oil ; and to possess the antiscorbutic 
properties of Nasturtium and Cochlearia (Planchon & Collin, 
Drog. Simpl. ii. p. 822). 

Maerua, Forsk. 

Maerua angolensis, DO. ; Fl. Trop. Afr. I. p. 86. 

III. — Guillem. Perr. Rich. Fl. Senegamb. t. 7 (m. seneyalensis) ; 
Deless. Ic. iii. t. 13. 


The wood is yellowish, of fine close grain, very hard and heavy, 
suitable for joinery work, and capable of taking a fine polish 
(De Wildeman, PI. Util. Congo, Art. xxvi. p. 379). 


Cadaba, Forsk. 

Cadaba farinosa, Forsk. ; Fl. Trop. Afr. I. p. 89. 

77/. — Deless. Ic. iii. t. 8. 

Bornu, Kouka. 

In Senegal a decoction or an infusion is used in pulmonary 
affections, dysentery, fever, and rheumatics (Sebire, PI. TJ til. 
Senegal, p. 17). 


Boscia senegalensis, Lam. ; Fl. Trop. Afr. I. p. 92. 

III. — Lam. Encycl. t. 395. 


In Senegal the natives eat the fruits cooked like "Couscous" 
(see under Nymphaea stellata) ; the parched seeds form a sub- 
stitute for coffee, and the leaves with salt make poultices for the 
cure of swellings (Sebire, PI. Util. Senegal, p. 17). 


Crataeva religiosa, Forst. ; Fl. Trop. Afr. I. p. 99. 

Ill,— Lam. Encycl. t. 395; Bedd. Fl. Sylv. t. 116 ; Vidal,Fl. For. 
Filip. t. 6c. 


The bark boiled in oil is considered good for rheumatism (Mus. 
Kew). In India the bark is used for various medicinal purposes, 
and the leaves, bruised with vinegar, lime-juice, or hot water, 
made into a poultice, are considered superior, as a rubefacient and 
vesicant, to both the mustard seeds and the mustard flour imported 
from Europe (Diet. Econ. Prod. Ind.). The fruit is edible. The 
pulp mixed with mortar makes a cement, and the rind is used as 
a mordant in dyeing. The wood is yellowish-white, when old 
turning light brown ; moderately hard, and even grained ; not 
very durable and very liable to attacks of boring beetles ; used in 
India for drums, models, writing boards, combs, and in turnery 
(Gamble, Man. Ind. Timb. 2nd ed. p. 32). 



Moringa pterygosperma, Gaertn. ; Fl. Trop. Afr. I. p. 101. 

///.— Rheede, Hort. Mai. vi. t. 11 ; Wight, Illust. t. 77 ; Bedd. Fl. 
Sylv. t. 80 ; Vidal, FL For. Filio. t. 38 ; Journ. Bomb. N.H. Sue. ix. 
t. 50 ; Greshoff, Nutt. Ind. PL t. 17 ; Contr. U.S. Nat, Herb. ix. 
t. 58 ; Pobeguin, Fl. Guin. Franc, t. 27. 

Horse-radish tree. 

N. Nigeria. Introduced to West Africa. Wild in the forests of 
W. Himalaya and Oudh. Cultivated in other parts of India, 
Burma, and the W. Indies. 

Liquid portiou. 

Solid portion. 






. 7-7 % 

, 189-2 


, 173-9 





From the seeds an oil known as " Oil of Ben " is obtained, suit- 
able for lubricating watch springs, and other delicate machinery. 
It is stated to be valuable for ointments, since it keeps for almost 
any length of time without becoming oxidized. This property, 
combined with the clear colour, absence of smell and taste, renders 
it of considerable value for the extraction of perfumes. 

A sample of seeds from Northern Nigeria was examined (1904) 
at the Imperial Institute and was found to contain 38 per cent, 
of an almost odorless, pale-yellow oil, with a bland, agreeable 
taste. The oil consisted of a liquid and a solid portion, with the 
following composition : — 

Specific gravity 

Acid value 

Free fatty acids (calculated as 

oleic acid) 

Saponification value 

Ether value 

Iodine value 

The seeds were valued at about £7 per ton, delivered in London, 
and it was considered that the oil might be able to compete with 
American refined cotton-seed oil, for edible and culinary pur- 
poses (Bull. Imp. Inst. 1904, pp. 118-119). 

The root is commonly used in India as a substitute for the 
ordinary horse-radish (Cochlearia Armoracia). 

The leaves^ flowers, and pods are used with various condiments, 
and as pot herbs ; the twigs and leaves are good fodder. 

Various medicinal virtues are attributed to the different parts of 
the tree, the root being considered to be the most important. An 
oil which exudes from incisions in the trunk is said to be good for 
rheumatism (Beddome, Fl. Sylv. t. 80). A gum obtained from the 
stem is used in calico printing and native medicine (Mus. Kew). 

The bark is classed as a tanning material by Christy (New 
Comm. PI. & Drugs, No. 5, 1882, p. 45) ; and it is stated to yield a 
coarse fibre, suitable for the preparation of paper or cordage 
(Diet, Econ. Prod. Ind.). 

Plants are readily raised from seed ; they grow rapidly and 
come to maturity early. The soil does not, apparently, require to 
be of any special character, the tree growing well in rich or poor 
soil. The tree is said to stand drought well. 

Ref. — " On the Moringa pterygosperma, or Oil of Ben Tree and 
its Uses, Economical and Officinal " by W. Hamilton, M.B., in 
Pharm. Journ. [i] v. 1845, pp. 58-59.— "Oil of Ben" in Kew 
Bull. No. 1, 1887, pp. 7-9 ; id. 1892, p. 284.— Moringa pterygos- 
jterma, Gaertn., The Horse Radish Tree, in Diet. Econ. Prod. Ind. v. 
Part i. 1891, pp. 276-279.— " Semences de Ben, Noix de Ben " in 
Les Drogues Simples d*origine Vegetale, Planchon & Collin, 1896, 
ii. pp. 823-824 ; with illustration shewing anatomical structure 
of the seed. — "The Nature and Commercial Uses of Ben Oil" 
(oil of " Ben " or " Behen," a fixed oil expressed from the seeds 
of Moringa pterygosperma and Moringa aptera), Bull. Imp. Inst, 
ii. 1904, pp. 117-120. 



Sauvagesia erecta, Linn. ; Fl. Trop. Afr. I. p. 111. 

///.— Aublet, Guiana, t. 100. f. b. ; St. Hil. PL remarq. Bres. 
t. 3 f. A. ; Mem. Mus. Paris, xi. t. 6 ; Desc. Ant. iv. t. 220 ; Spach, 
Suites t. d2 ; Browne, Janiaic. t. 12. f. 3. 

Herb of St. Martin. 


The plant is very mucilaginous. Uses : — eye complaints in 
Brazil ; bowel complaints in Peru ; and diuretic in the West 
Indies (Treasury of Botany). 



Cochlospermum tinctorium, Rich. ; Fl. Trop. Afr. I. p. 113. 

Ill— Guillem. Perr. Rich. Fl. Senegamb. t. 21. 

Vernac. names. — Feru ; Rawaye (Yoruba, Mittson) ; Foosca 
(Gambia, Kew Bull. 1893, p. 371). 

Yoruba ; Nupe ; and the Hausa States in general. 

The roots yield a yellow dye well known in the Soudan (Kew 
Bull. 1893, p. 371), and used by the Hausas in conjunction with 
Elu (Indigo) for making the sacred green dye, which is a secret 
trade of certain Hausa families (Kew Bull. 1891, p. 219;. The 
bark makes good rope, largely used by Yorubas and Hausas, and 
is said to be in sufficient quantity for exportation (Kew Bull. 
1891, p. 219). 

Uncultivated ; said to be very common on a rocky soil. 

BlXA, Linn. 

Bixa Orellana, Linn. ; Fl. Trop. Afr. I. p. 111. 

III.— Berg, Charact. t, 82, n. 587 ; Spach, Suites, t. 44 ; Mart. Fl. 
Bras. xiii. part 1, t. 87 ; Becld. Fl. Sylv. t. 79 ; Buchoz, Herb. 
Col. Ameriq. t. 83 ; Vidal, Fl. For. Filip. t. 7 A ; GreshofT, Nutt. 
Ind. PI. t. 14 ; Cat. PI. Hort. Col. Brux. p. 44 ; Plenck, Ic. t. 428; 
Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. ix. t. 39. 

Vernac. names. — Qnisafu (Angola, Welwitscli) ; Arnatto, 
Annatto or Annotto. 

Native of Tropical America. Widely distributed in most 
tropical countries ; naturalized in West Africa. 

The seeds yield the Annatto of commerce, an orange or yellow 
dye, used for dyeing silks and cotton goods, feathers, &c. ; for 
colouring cheese, butter, jellies, and other foods ; plasters, 
ointments ; and brown-leather polish. 

The natives of Angola according to Welwitscli (Hiern, Cat. 
Welw. Afr. PI. i. p. 38) use* the dye for various purposes, amongst 
them the dyeing of " balagos " or small baskets, made from the 
straw of a species of Eleusine, the manufacture of which forms 
one or the most valuable industrial productions of the people. 


In India, as a dye it is sometimes used in combination with the 
red powder of Mallotus philippinensis, producing a deep orange 
red (Diet. Econ. Prod. Ind.). 

For colouring food-stuffs the Annatto has to undergo special 
preparation in order to make it perfectly pure and harmless. 

The cultivation is comparatively easy, a temperature of about 
75° F. with an abundant rainfall being required. It succeeds in 
almost any well-drained soil, in moist, warm situations, from sea- 
level to an altitude of about 2,000 feet. It has been grown 
successfully in the Botanic Garden at Old Calabar, at Abutshi 
(Woodruff, Rep. to Roy. Niger Co., Nov. 30th, 1889), and at Lagos 
where it has established itself with little or no cultivation 
(McNair, Kew Bull. 1890, p. 162). 

Plants are easily raised from seed, which may either be sown in 
nursery beds, and transplanted when about 6 inches high, or 
sown in permanent places ; the distance apart of plants in 
permanent situations would be approximately 15 feet. Judicious 
pruning is advisable to keep the plants bushy and to ensure a 
continuous supply of flowers and seed. It would probably be 
sufficient, when gathering the ripe fruits, to cut off a portion of 
each branch at the same time. The plants begin to bear seed 
when about two years old and continue prolific for several years. 
It has been estimated that one acre will produce 5 cwt. and 
upwards of seed, and that one pound of seed will yield approxi- 
mately 1-5 ozs. of dye (Agric. Ledg. No. 12, 1904, p. 178). 

The handsome appearance of the shrub makes it a desirable 
subject for ornamental purposes, and especially as a hedge plant, 
since cattle and goats are said not to eat the leaves. 

The price of Annatto on the London market varies from 
Is. to 2s. per lb., and of Annatto seeds 4|<1 to Qd. per lb. A 
sample of seed grown at Onitsha was recently valued in London 
at about bd. per lb. The cultivation is worthy of little or no 
extension since competition with other sources does not appear 
to be advisable. 

The demand for the commodity is more or less stationary and 
has always been distinctly limited. 

Details of preparation of the dye and full particulars will be 
found in the following papers. 

Be/.— Kew Bull. No. 7, 1887, pp. 1-8.— No. 9, 1887, pp. 1-4.— 
No. 43, 1890, pp. 141-144.— Diet. Econ. Prod. Ind.i.pp, 454-457.— 
" Rocou " in Les Drogues Simples d'origine vegetale, Planchon & 
Collin, 1896, ii. pp. 786-788.—" The Annatto Dye Plant," I. H. 
Burkill in Agric. Ledg. No. 12, 1904, pp. 177-187.—" Cultivation 
and Utilisation of Annatto " in Bull. Imp. Inst. 1908, pp. 171- 

ONCOBA, Forsk. 
Oncoba spinosa, Forsk. ; Fl. Trop. Afr. I. p. 115. 

HI— Guillem. Perr. Rich. Fl. Senegamb. t. 10 ; Lam. Encycl. 
t. 471 ; Harvey, Thes. Cap. ii. t. 142, 

Vernac. name.— Shauga (Yoruba, Millsori). 


Abeokuta ; Yoraba ; Lagos ; Benin ; Nupe. 

Fruits edible, used as ornaments by the natives in most parts of 
Africa. Snuff-boxes are made from the fruits and used by the 
Zulus in Natal (Mus. Kew). 

In Senegal a decoction of the roots is used in cases of dysentery, 
and an infusion taken each morniner, as an antilithic and diuretic 
(Sebire, PI. Util. Senegal, p. 19). 


Flacourtia flavescens, Willd. ; Fl. Trop. Afr. I. p. 121. 


Berry edible. 

Flacourtia Ramontchi, VUerit. ; Fl. Trop. Afr. I. p. 120. 

Ill — L'Herit. Stirp. Nov. t. 30, 30B ; Lam. Encycl. t. 826: 
Wight, Ic. PI. Ind. or. i. t. 85 ; Brandis, Indian Trees, p. 40 ; 
Thonner, Bliitenpfl. Afr. t. 105. 

Batoko Plum (Zambesi) ; Madagascar Plum. 

Abeokuta ; Niger. 

The fruits, about the size of a plum, are eaten either raw or 
cooked. They are considered good for jaundice and enlarged 

In India the leaves are used as cattle fodder ; the thorns for 
breaking the pustules of small-pox ; the gum with other ingre- 
dients for cholera ; and the bark is applied to the body with that 
of Albizzia, in cases of intermittent fever (Diet. Econ. Prod. Ind.). 

The wood is red, hard, close and even-grained, durable, splits 
but does not warp ; weight about 50-55 lbs. per cubic foot ; used 
for turning, and for agricultural implements (Gamble, Man. Ind. 
Timb. 2nd ed. p. 10). 

The thorny branches suggest its suitability as a hedge plant ; 
propagated by seed, or by stout branches placed firmly in the 
ground. It grows in poor, dry, rocky soil. 

Securidaca longipedunculata, Fres. ; Fl. Trop. Afr. I. p. 134. 

III.— Rich. Tent. Fl. Abyss, t. 10 {Lophostijlis august if olia) ; 
Peters, Mozamb. t. 22 (Lophostylis pallida) ; Thonner, Blutenpil. 
Afr. t. 79. 

Vernac. names. — Womagunguna ; Saingia (Kontagora, Dalziel) ; 
Jalu (S. Nigeria) ; Jodo (E. Africa, Scott Elliot) ; Buaze (Zambesi, 


This plant yields two kinds of fibre, one from the bark of the 
twigs, known as " Buaze fibre," and the other from the stem — a 
fibrous bark which becomes enveloped by layers of the wood. 


The latter is of low value, but it might be used for the manufacture 
of rough bags (Bull. Imp. Inst. 1903, p. 20). The Buaze fibre is 
used by the natives of the Moravi country for stringing beads, 
according to Livingstone (Kew Bull. Add. Ser. ii. p. 7) ; and 
fishing nets are made from it in British Central Africa. 

The fibre from the twigs is difficult to extract, and no efficient 
process of degumming has been discovered. The best results 
might be obtained if the thin bark were scraped on the spot ; and 
the scraped fibre could then be degummed later (Bull. Imp. Inst. 
1908, p. 21). The natives of British Central Africa scrape off a 
small quantity of the fibre and chew it thoroughly until all the 
gum is removed (Davy, Bot. Dept. Zomba). 

From experiments carried out at the Imperial Institute (Bull. 
Imp. Inst. 1908, pp. 19-22) it appears that the bark from the twigs 
is capable of yielding about 37 per cent, of clean fibre. The 
irregularity in the length of the fibre, due to the much-branched 
character of the twigs, is a bad feature of the material. It could 
be used in the place of flax tow. If suitable means of getting 
rid of the gums can be found, this fibre will be of a useful 

The seeds contain a drying oil. In certain parts of Africa the 
following uses have been attributed to the root : — as a remedy for 
snake-bite and hydrophobia ; as an ingredient in an antidote 
against the Issa arrow poison prepared from the seeds of 
Strophanthus gratus ; and as a remedy for stomach complaints; 
the leaves are considered to be a remedy for snake-bite (Pharm. 
Journ. [4], xxi. p. 833). 

The plant is stated to grow freely in a wild state, but it does 
not appear to have been cultivated systematically anywhere. 
Propagation could be readily effected by means of seed. As the 
best fibre is obtained from the twigs growth in coppice is 
indicated. Dr. Livingstone and others have noticed that it grows 
in poor soil among the rocky hills in East and British Central 

Ref.— Kew Bull. Add. Ser. II. 1901, pp. 7-8,— Bull. Imp. Inst. 
1908, pp. 19-22. 

Cakpolobia, G. Don. 

Carpolobia alba, Don; lfl. Trop. Afr. I. p. 135. 

Old Calabar. 

The fruit is edible according to Welwitsch (Hiern, Cat. Welw. 
Afr. PI. i. p. 48). 

Carpolobia lutea, Don; Fl. Trop. Afr. I. p. 136. 

Vernac. name. — Oshun-Shun (Yoruba, Millsori). 

Lagos ; Abeokuta ; Niger ; Old Calabar. 

The wood is very hard, resists the white ant, and is used for 
house posts and walking-sticks. In Yoruba a decoction of the 
bark, applied externally and internally is used as a cure for 
rheumatism. Fruit edible. (Kew Bull. 1891, p. 210.) 




Portulaca oleracea, Linn. ; Fl. Trop. Afr. I. p. 148. 

III.— Rheede, Hort. Mai. x. t. 36 ; Schk. Handb. t. 130 : Tratt. 
Archiv. ii. t. 13 ; Sibth. Fl. gr. t. 457 ; DC. PI. grass, t. 123 ; Lam. 
Encycl. t. 402 ; Gray, Gen. t. 99 ; U.S. Dept, Agric. Rep. Bot. 
1887, t, 6 ; Duthie, Field Crops, t. 93 ; Clarke & Fletcher, Farm 
Weeds, Canada, t. 18 ; Turner, Forage PI. Austral, p. 7 ; Plenck, 
Ic. t. 361 ; Bull. Econ. Indo-Chin. 1905, p. 1107. 

Purslane ; Pigweed. 

A potherb. The young shoots make good salad, and the plant 
is regarded as a good vegetable, with antiscorbutic properties. 

On the Congo the plant is considered good fodder for cattle 
(De Wildeman, PI. Util. Congo, Art. xxxi. p. 547) ; eaten readily 
by all kinds of stock (Turner, Forage PL Austral, p. 7). 

The seeds are largely used for food by the natives of Australia 
(Maiden, Austral. Nat. PI. p. 53). They are said to be a vermi- 
fuge, and for this purpose a preparation is recommended 
consisting of leaves and twigs 2*8 gram., fresh Papaw root 
0'75 gram., water 48 oz., the whole boiled down to 32 oz. (Christy, 
New Comm. PL & Drugs, No. 10, 1889, p. 82). 

Various medicinal uses are attributed to the leaves and seeds. 
Cultivation is easy ; propagated by seeds and grown in light 
sandy soil. 

Portulaca quadrifida, Linn. ,• Fl. Trop. Afr. I. p. 149. 

111.— Jacq. Collect, ii. t, 17, f. 4 ; Wight, Illust. t, 309. 

Lagos ; Niger. 

In Lagos the plant is used medicinally. In Egypt the bruised 
leaves are used as an anticephalic (Planchon & Collin, Drog. 
Simpl. ii. p. 762). 

Uses and culture similar to the preceding species. 

Talintjm, Adans. 

Talinum triangulare, Witld. (T. crassifolium.WiUd.)', Fl.Trop. 
Afr. I. p. 150. 

III. — Plumier, Ic. Burm. t. 150, f. 2 {Portulaca foli is oho rath). 

Vernac. name. — Etinyon Mbkara (Eifik). 

Niger ; Old Calabar. 

Used for salads and as a culinary vegetable. 

Propagated readily from seeds and grows in light, rich soil. 
Cultivated in native farms and gardens. 



Psorospermum febrifugum, Spaclt ; Fl. Trop. Afr. I. p. 158. 


The bark is used by the natives of Angola as a febrifuge, and in 
cases of leprosy (Hiern, Cat, Welw. Afr. PI. i. p. 57). 


Haronga, Thouars. 

Haronga madagascarien&is, Chois. ; Fl. Trop. Afr. I. p. 160. 

III. — Lam. Encycl. t. 645 {Harungana Madagascar lens is); 
Drake, Hist. Madagas. t. 336 A. 

Vernac. name.— Fasua (Gold Coast, Johnson). 

Old Calabar. 

The leaves are used, on the Gold Coast, for chest complaints 
(Johnson, Herb. Kew), and in Madagascar as a cure for dysentery 
(Parker, Mus. Kew). 

The fruit is edible and its flavour is said to resemble that of 
raisins. The seeds are used in cookery in French Guinea, and a 
beverage like cider is made from them (Pobeguin, Fl. Guin. 
Franc, p. 82). 

A yellow dye is obtained from the inner bark of the tree, 
(Purves, Mus. Kew). 

The wood is used by the natives for posts in houses, It is of 
great beauty, pale citron in colour with a lustrous surface, and 
prominent and boldly contrasted silver grain. It takes an 
excellent polish, but the delicate citron colour disappears and the 
wood becomes brownish. It works very well and smoothly by 
saw, planing machine, and lathe. It is as soft as deal, rather 
fissile, splits straight and finishes without trouble. The structure 
of this wood has a very remarkable resemblance to that of many 
Proteaceous plants. If means could be devised to produce a 
satisfactory finish, otherwise than by French polish, and thus 
preserve the colour, the wood might be appreciated in England, 
but in the absence of such a finish its importation could not be 
recommended. Weight 31*25 lbs. per cubic foot. (Stone, Mus. 

Symphonia, Linn, f . 

Symphonia globulifera, Linn. ; Fl. Trop. Afr. I. p. 163. 

///.—Mart, Fl. Bras. xii. part 1. t. 108. 

Hog Gum ; Doctor's Gum ; Karamanni Wax. 

Old Calabar. 

A wax made by mixing the gum with bees wax and powdered 
charcoal is used by the Indians in British Guiana for cementing 
arrow-heads and for joining wood (Im Thurn, Mus. Kew). The 
yellow resin, found at the roots of old trees, is used as a vulnerary 
and diuretic in topical applications to wounds, in gout plasters 
and as a substitute for Copaiba (Moloney, Forestry, W. Africa, 
p. 279). The tree yields a gum-resin like gamboge (Barter, Mus. 

Pentadesma, Sabine. 
Pentadesma butyracea, Don ; Fl. Trop. Afr. I. p. 161. 
7/Z __Heckel, Kolas Afr. pp. 114-116 ; Hook. Ic, PI. t. 2465, 


Vernac. names. — Kamoot (S. Leone, Cole) \ Lamy (French 
W. Africa) ; Ngoumi (Congo, De Wildemari) ; Kanya (Hecke!) : 
Butter and Tallow Tree. 

Niger River. 

The seed of this tree yields an edible fat, which first came 
into notice in this country as a possible article of commerce 
in 1895, when some specimens of the tree and samples of seed 
were submitted to Kew by the Government of Sierra Leone. The 
seeds were found to contain 41 per cent, of oil, which, though not 
of high quality, was considered suitable for soap making (Kew 
Bull. 1897, p. 324). 

According to a later report (Cons. Rep. Ann. No. 2876, 1902, 
p. 4) Lamy is worth £8 per ton on the European market, and is 
employed in candle and margarine manufacture. 

These seeds are stated to have been found as an adulterant of 
Kola nuts (Cola acuminata), but they do not contain theine, and 
differ from the true kola in yielding a certain percentage of fat, 
and a small quantity of tannin (Year Book, Pharm. 1888, p. 165). 

In Sierra Leone the natives use the oil for cooking in the same 
way as palm-oil. The oil is extracted by drying the seeds and 
parching them over a fire. They are then pounded in a mortar, 
water is added, and the whole boiled, the fat or oil is skimmed off 
as it rises to the surface (Kew Bull. 1897, p. 322). 

Propagation by means of seeds. 

Ref. — " Beurre de Kanya," or " Oddjendje." Les Drogues 
Simples d'origine vegetale, Planchon & Collin, 1896, ii. p. 752. 
Hook. Tc. Plant. 1896, t. 2465.—" Beurre de Kanya," in Ann. Inst. 
Col. Marseille, 1897, pp. 161-170.—" Butter and Tallow Tree of 
Sierra Leone," Kew Bull. 1897, pp. 320-325. 

Garcinia Kola, Heckel, in Journ. Pharm. et Chim. viii. p. 88 (1883). 

Ill— Journ. Bot, 1875, t. 160. 

Vernac. names. — Efrie (Uwet, McLeod) ; Bitter Kola ; False 
Kola ; Male Kola ; Orogbo Kola-nut. 

Tree, 20-30 feet (Masters), 10-20 feet (Heckel). 

Branches subterete, glabrous, swollen at the nodes ; leaf bases 
prominent, persistent ; branchlets green, ascending. Leaves 
distant, about 6 ins. long, 3 ins. broad, subcoriaceous, glabrous, 
shining above, paler beneath, ovate oblong, (or elliptic oblong) t 
entire, narrowed at both ends, shortly acuminate, subcuneate at 
the base ; midrib sunk on the upper surface and prominent on the 
lower ; lateral nerves fairly close together, parallel, arching near 
the margin, intermediate veins densely reticulate. Petioles J-§ in. 
long, corky. Mature fruit baccate, obscurely 4-celled about 
3 ins. long and 2^ ins. across, oblong-ovoid, or obovoid, apex 
obtuse, with remains of the styles at the apex and of five 
imbricate sepals at the base. Rind subcoriaceous, pubescent, 
apricot-coloured, resiniferous, covering a juicy, orange acid pulp. 
Immature fruit cuboid, very obtuse at both ends, deeply 4-lobed. 
Seed exalbuminous, solitary in each cell, two of them aborting ; 
mature s^-cds 1 \ in. long, J in. across, terete-oblong, obtuse at both 
ends, \\\[\\ a brown parchment-like coat. Embryo fleshy, bitter, 


resiniferous undivided, tubercled. Cotyledon and radicle not 
developed till germination (Masters, in Journ. Bot. 1875, p. 65). 

Lagos ; Agege ; Uwet ; Old Calabar. Distributed throughout 
West Africa, between 10° N. and 5° S. lat. (De Candolle, Monogr. 
Phanerog. viii. 1893, p. 487). 

Dr. Masters in 1875 was able to determine that the Bitter Kola 
was a species of Garcinia and placed on record the more prominent 
characteristics of the plant, though he did not venture on a 
specific name (Journ. Bot. iv. 1875, p. 65). 

According to Milton (Journ. Bot. iv. 1875, p. 65), the newly 
dried nuts are esteemed by the natives as a remedy in cases of 
cough, and are said to improve the voice of the singer. The 
bitter principle is agreeable and free from the astringency of the 
common red and white Colas, and it imparts to water a pleasant 
sweet taste. The Bitter Kola is also said to be a good restorative 
after sea-sickness ; it is eaten by the natives to enhance the flavour 
of liquor (McLeod, Herb. Kew) and used as a remedy for dysentery 
(Monteiro, Mus. Kew). 

The " Bitter Kola " of Sierra Leone, collected by Scott Elliot, 
belongs to a very different species, obviously allied to G. punctata, 
Stapf, and probably undescribed. 

Vesque in De Candolle's Monograph of the Guttiferae (viii. 1893, 
p. 487) keeps the " Bitter Kola " of Masters separate from that of 
Heckel, and records it as G. floribunda, but states that the two 
plants are possibly identical. There appears therefore to be some 
uncertainty as to the exact botanical identity of the Bitter Kola, 
and while giving Heckel's specific name it is considered preferable 
to give the original description of Masters, as applying more 
particularly to the Lagos plant, until flowering specimens have 
been obtained from W. Africa. 

The seeds of the Bitter Kola do not appear to possess the same 
stimulating properties as those of the true Kola (Cola acuminata), 
and are of less commercial importance. The fresh nuts of Bitter 
Kola (Garcinia Kola) in West Africa are worth 2s. for 200 nuts, 
whilst the value of the nuts of Coke acuminata is 3s. to 4s. Qd. for 
200 (von Bernegau in Der Tropenflanzer, 1904, p. 361). 

The tree is said to flourish under the same conditions as are 
required for Cola acuminata, q.v. 

Bef.—" Male Kola or Bitter Kola," Heckel & F. Schlagden- 
hauffen, in Journ. Pharm. Chimie, Ser. 5, viii. 1883, pp. 87-91 : 
Translation in Pharm. Journ. [3] xiv. 1884, p. 586, and in 
Christy's " New Comm. PI. and Drugs," No. 8, 1885, pp. 11-12.— 
" Composition of False Cola," C. Kr., in Just, Jahresb. 1884, 
ii. p. 92. — " Export of Bitter Cola from Lagos," Warburg, in Der 
Tropenpflanzer, 1898, pp. 221-223. 

Garcinia Mangostana, Linn. ; Sp PI. p. 443. 

A small tree 20-30 feet, branches many, decussate. Leaves 
6-10 in. long, 2^-4J in. broad ; very coriaceous ; nerves regular, 
close, inarching with an intra -marginal one. Male flowers in 3-9 
flowered terminal fascicles ; pedicels short. Berry as large as an 
orange, smooth dark-purple ; pericarp firm, spongy. Seeds large, 
flattened ; aril very fleshy, white, juicy (Fl. Brit. Ind. i. p. 260). 


III. — Rumpf, Amb. i. t. 43 ; Lam. Encycl. t. 405 ; Desc. Ant. i. t. 
23 ; Lodd. Cab. t, 845 ; Vidal, Fl. For. Filip. t. 11 F ; Nooten, Fl. 
Java, t. 8 ; Le Jard. 1888, p. 187 ; Bot. Mag. t. 4847 ; Gard. Chron. 
Nov. 20th, 1875, pp. 656 & 657 ; Nov. 6th, 1897, pp. 325 & 327 ; 
Dec. 17th, 1904, pp. 426 & 428 ; Fl. d. Serres, t. 2359-60 ; Pierre, 
Fl. For. Cochin, t. 54 ; Plenck, Ic. t. 360. 

The Mangosteen. 

Native of the Malay Peninsula ; cultivated in Ceylon, parts of 
India, and the West Indies. 

The cultivation of this choice fruit in Nigeria may not yet have 
extended beyond the Botanic Gardens. Plants have been intro- 
duced to Lagos and Old Calabar, through the Royal Botanic 
Gardens, Kew, and although these have not arrived at maturity, 
their successful development is of sufficient interest and impor- 
tance to merit some details of the plant being given here. 

In Ceylon, Madras, Straits Settlements, Java, and the West 
Indies the cultivation appears to have been carried to a successful 
issue, and it is reasonable to expect that it will succeed in Nigeria, 
more especially in the Southern Colony. 

The fruit is regalaiiy shipped from Singapore to Calcutta, but 
the establishment of a trade between any of the countries of pro- 
duction and the European markets has so far not been accom- 

A box containing nine fruits of Mangosteen was received at Kew 
from the Royal Botanic Gardens, Trinidad, in 1897. Each fruit 
was separately packed in a compartment with pine wool, and owing 
to the firm consistency of the outer wall of the fruit it travelled 
well, and was favourably reported on (Kew Bull. 1898, p. 26). 
Fruits imported in 1904 were, however, not favourably reported 
on (Gard. Chron. Dec. 17th, 1901, p. 427). 

The rind is said to yield a valuable tanning material, and in 
India it is used in combination 'with the fruits of Terminalia 
Oatappa as a black dye. A decoction of the rind is considered 
useful in cases of chronic dysentery and diarrhoea, and is said to 
possess other medicinal virtues (Diet. Econ. Prod. Ind.). 

The seeds, although they do not retain their vitality for long, 
germinate quickly when sown in a fresh state. Plants may be 
raised in nursery beds or in bamboo pots, and planted out in 
permanent places when about a year old, at distances of from 
18-20 feet. A tropical temperature, heavy rainfall, and an open, 
rich, loamy soil are indispensable to satisfactory growth. 

Garcinia ovalifolia, Oliv, ; Fl. Trop. Afr. I. p. 166. 
111.— Pierre, Fl. For. Cochin, t. 88 C. ; Yidal, Fl. For. Filip. 1. 11 A. 
Vernac. name. — Bolong (Congo). 

The wood is used on the Congo for making canoes (De Wilde- 
man, PI. Util. Congo, Art. xxvi. p. 356). 

Ochrocarpus, Thouars. 

Ochrocarpus africanus, Oliv. ; Fl. Trop. Afr. I. p. 169 
African Mammee Apple. 

The pulp of the fruit is eaten by the natives (Mann, Mns. Kew). 
33386 E 

Sida, Linn. 

Sida carpinifolia, Linn. ; PL Trop. Afr. I. p. 180. 

Ill.—Cav. Diss. t. 134 ; Tidal, Fl. For. Filip. t. 16 A ; St. Hil. 
PI. us. Bres. t. 50. 

Vernac. name. — Oshekpotufunfua (Yoruba, Millson). 


The stem yields an excellent fibre suitable for making rope 
(Mus. Kew). In Yoruba the bruised stems are used as soap, and 
the plant is also used in cases of gonorrhoea, applied both 
internally and externally (Kew Bull. 1891, p. 213). 

The roots are used in native medicine (Moloney, For. W. Afr. 
p. 280). 

Sida rhombifolia, Linn. ; Fl. Trop. Afr. I. p. 181. 

III. — Cav. Diss. t. 3, f. 4 (S. retusa) ; Bailey, Poison. PI. p. 5 ; 
Mart, FL Bras. xii. pt. 3, t, 63 ; Agric. Gaz/N. S. Wales, 1894, 
p. 537 ; 111. Hort. Ser. 6, iii. 1896, p. 173, f. 19. 

Vernac. names. — Den ji (Nyasaland, McClounie) ; Escoba 
(Venezuela). — Sida Hemp ; Paddy's Lucerne ; Queensland Hemp ; 
Tea Plant (U.S. Amer.). 

Widely distributed in Tropical Africa and in the Tropics of the 
Old and New Worlds. 

The fibre is considered superior to Jute (Corcliorns capsularis), 
and it has also been suggested as a substitute for Flax {Linum 
usitatissimum) (Diet, Econ. Prod. Ind.). The percentage of cellu- 
lose is relatively high, the best samples having been found to 
contain as much as 83 per cent. For spinning purposes it has 
been valued at £12 and upwards per ton, according to quality 
(Bull. Imp. Inst, 1905, p. 25). The method of preparation may 
be regarded as being much the same as that for Jute (q.v.). It 
has been found that the ribbons are easily detached from the 
woody stem, and after 14 days immersion in standing water, the 
fibre is readily separated from the pulp (McClounie, Mus. Kew). 

The plant is regarded as good fodder for cattle, sheep, and hogs. 
Horses do not seem to relish it much, but cattle appear to thrive 
on it (Dodge, Cat, Fib. PL p. 298). On the Congo it is used as 
forage for horses and cows (De Wildeman, PL Util. Congo 
Art. xxxi. p. 548). It is said to be detrimental to young fowls, 
bul in nowise hurtful to stock (Bailey, Pois. PL p. 5). 

The mucilaginous stems are used in India as a demulcent and 
as an emollient (Diet, Econ. Prod. Ind.). 

The cultivation would in all probability be easy, since the plant 
is so widely distiibuted. The plant is a perennial, but it could be 
grown as an annual. Seeds germinate, if sown when fresh, in 
about 10 15 days. For the production of fibre they may be sown 
broadcast, and it is advisable to sow thickly to prevent branch- 
ing near the base of the stem. McClounie (Zomba) records an 
exceptional growth of 8-9 feet in a year, from seedlings, but the 


general height would in most cases be considerably less. The 
soil requires to be rich and deep. The best time to cut the stem 
for fibre appears to be either when the plants are in flower or 
while the capsules are still green. 

Be/,— Diet. Econ. Prod. Ind. vi. pt. 2B, pp. 681-686.— "Paddy's 
Lucerne or Queensland Hemp," Maiden, in Agric. Gaz. N. S. Wales, 
Aug. 1894, pp. 537-544.— Bull. Imp. Inst. 1905, pp. 23-24, with an 
analysis of a sample from Nyasaland, in comparison with Indian 
Jute. — Sida rhombifoUa, Linn, in Comm. Prod. Ind. Watt, 1908, 
pp. 991-992. 

Sida urens, Linn. ; Fl. 'Trop. Afr. I. p. 179. 

///.—Mart. Fl. Bras. xii. pt. 3, t. 60. 

Widely distributed in Trop. Africa, the West Indies, Peru , 
Brazil, &c. 

Stem yields a good fibre (Mus. Kew). 

WlSSADULA, Medik. 
Wissadula rostrata, Planch. ; Fl. Trop. Afr. I. p. 182. 
///.—Mart. Fl. Bras. xii. pt, 3, t. 77 ( W. periplocifolia). 
Vernac. name. — Cahembia-hembia (Angola, Welwitsch). 
Cosmopolitan in the Tropics. 

This plant yields a fibre of good quality. A sample from 
Trinidad, submitted to Kew (1889), was valued in London at £17 
per ton, and with some improvement in colour at £20. Another 
sample from Grenada (J 891) was estimated at £14 per ton ; while 
further samples from Trinidad (1899) were valued at from 
£15-£16 per ton (Mus. Kew). 

Commercially the fibre is classed as Jute, and the preparation 
may be effected in the same way (see Corchorus capsularis). 

Under cultivation the plant appears to grow freely, producing 
straight stems 9-10 feet high, from which a fibre can be obtained 
at least 8 feet long (Mus. Kew). The following particulars of the 
period of growth and yield per acre have been estimated at the 
Royal Botanic Gardens, Trinidad : — Seed sown March 15th, 1898 ; 
crop cut April 28th, 1899 ; yield per acre, raw strippings, dried, 
1*089 tons ; yield per acre of clean bast fibre, 9] cwts. ; clean 
material, 42 per cent, of raw strippings, retted four days, then 
scraped and dried (Kew Bull. 1899, p. 226). 

The plant is sai'l to thrive in a barren and rocky soil, the land 
being prepared simply by burning, and the seeds sown broadcasi ; 
the stems are ready to cut in the course of about a year (Dodge, 
Cat, Fib. PI. p. 38). 

Ref. — " Maholtine (Abutilon periplocifolium) as a New Fibre 
Plant,'' Hart, in Agric. Rec. Trinidad, i. pp. 217-219.— AbuiUon 
periplocifolium, in Descr. Cat. Useful Fib. PL of the World, Dodge, 

Rep. No. 9, 1897, U.S. Dept. Agric. Fiber Investigations. — I\V\v 
Bull. 1899, pp. 226-227. 



ABUTILON, Gaertn. 

Abutilon asiaticum, Don ; Fl. Trop. Afr. I. p. 184. 

III. — Cav. Diss. t. 128, f. 1 (Sida asiatica). 

Country Mallow. 


The stem contains a good fibre suitable for cordage (Cross, 
Bevan and King, Rep. Ind. Fib. p. 34). 

See A. indicum, for particulars also applicable in this case. 

Abutilon indicum, Don ; Fl. Trop. Afr. I. p. 186. 

III.— Wight, Ic. PL Ind, or. i. t. 12. 

Country Mallow. 

Niger ; Abeokuta. 

The fibre is considered good for cordage ; equal to Chinese Jute 
(Abutilon Avlcennae) ; superior to Indian Jute (Gorchorus capsu- 
laris) ; and finer than Manila Hemp (Musa textilis) (Diet. Econ. 
Prod. Ind.). Its preparation could doubtless be accomplished in 
the same way as Chinese Jute above mentioned. The method 
is, in brief, as follows : — The bundles of stems, tied loosely at the 
tips, are placed upright in standing water, the root half only, 
being submerged, for two days ; the bundles are afterwards com- 
pletely submerged. When the bark is sufficiently retted, which 
may be in four or five days, it is stripped off, washed in clean 
water, and the fibre spread out in the sun to dry (Kew. Bull. Add. 
Ser. ii. p. 267). 

In India a mucilaginous extract from the leaves is used as a 
demulcent ; an infusion of the roots is used in fevers as a cooling 
remedy, and said also to be useful in the treatment of leprosy ; 
the seeds are used as a cough remedy, and the bark as a diuretic 
(Diet. Econ. Prod. Ind.). Various other medicinal uses have 
been attributed to the plant. 

Under cultivation the plant may be regarded as an annual, and 
would probably come to maturity in from four to five months. 
The seeds may be sown broadcast, or several together at intervals 
of about 9 inches to a foot ; the seedlings eventually should 
be thinned out to about 1 foot apart. The soil requires to be 
rich and in good tilth. 

Urbna, Linn. 
Urena lobata, Linn. ; Fl. Trop. Afr. I. p. 189. 

III.— C-&V. Diss, t, 185, f. 1 ; Lam. Encycl. t. 583 (Urena) f. 1 ; 
St. Hil. PL us. Bros. t. 56 : Desc. Ant. iv. t, 271 ; Bot, Mag. t, 3043 ; 
U.S. Dept. Agric. Fiber Investigations, Rep. 6, 1894, t. 2. 

Vernac. names. — Ake-iri (Yoruba, Millsori) ; Bubo-bubo 
(Gambia, Lester) ; Toja (Lagos, Moloney) ; Horse Whip (Sierra 
Leone, Cole) ; Guaxima or Uaixyma, Aramina, Carrapicho 
(Brazil) ; Banochra (India) ; Caesar Weed (Florida). 

Yoruba ; Widely distributed in the Tropical and Sub-tropical 
regions of both hemispheres. 


The bark yields a fibre of good quality, suitable for the manu- 
facture of bags, twine, &c, and in every way a good substitute for 
Jute. It is also regarded as a fair substitute for Flax (Diet. Econ. 
Prod. Ind.). Samples sent to Kew in 3889 were valued at from 
£17-£18 per ton (Morris, Comm. Fib. Journ. Soc. Arts, 1895, 
p. 907). Samples that have been examined at the Imperial 
Institute, show that it contains over 75 per cent, of cellulose ; 
has a staple of from 3-6 feet, and length of ultimate fibre 
l*5-3*5 mm. The market value of the samples examined was 
given at approximately £17-£18 per ton (Bull. Imp. Inst. 1903, 
p. 24 ; 1908, p. 134). 

This plant is believed to be the source of " Aramina " fibre, a 
comparatively new substitute for Jute in the manufacture of 
Coffee bags. These bags are considered especially valuable for 
the purpose, inasmuch as they have no influence on the aroma of 
the Coffee (De Wildeman, PI. Util. Congo, Art. xvi. p. 205). 

At the factory at Sao Paulo, Brazil, for the manufacture of goods 
from Aramina fibre ; the price paid is about Id. per lb. or about 
£9 10s. per ton (Cons. Rep. Ann. No. 2928, 1903, p. 11). 

The bark is used in Yoruba to make ropes, and also as a tying 
material in house-building (Kew Bull. 1891, p. 212), similarly in 
Angola (Hiern, Cat. Welw. Afr. PI. i. p. 67). The root, applied 
externally, is a remedy for rheumatism (Diet. Econ. Prod. Ind.). 

The plant is used medicinally as a mucilage (Moloney, For. 
W. Afr. p. 282) ; and it has been mentioned as forage for cattle 
(De Wildeman, PI. Util. Congo, Art. xxxi. p. 548). 

The cultivation would in all probability be easy, on somewhat 
similar lines to those advised for Abutilon indicum or Gorchorus 
capsular is. The plant is very common on waste ground, and on 
abandoned farms. Dr. Lester of the Gambia Delimitation Com- 
mission observed the plant growing in dry sandy soil, and in flat 
swampy country ; common everywhere (Kew Bull. 1891, p. 269). 

Kef. — "Aramina Fibre from the Carrapicho Plant of Brazil," 
in Bull. Imp. Inst, 1903, pp. 24-25 ; 1905, p. 262 ; 1907, pp. 9-10. 

Urena sinuata, Linn. ; Fl. Trop. Afr. I. p. 189 (Urena lobata). 

111.— Rheede, Hort. Mai. x. t. 2 ; Burman, Thes. Zeyl. t, 69 f 2. 
(Malvinda foliis, &c.) ; Cav. Diss. t. 185, f. 2 ; Lam. Encycl. 
t, 583. 

Vernac. name. — Rama (Nupe, Dudgeon). 

Bida, N. Nigeria. Found throughout India. 

Uses and cultivation as Urena lobata. Cultivated in the Niger 
districts for the sake of its fibre (Barter, Fl. Trop. Afr. i. p. 189). 

Hibiscus, Medik. 

Hibiscus Abelmoschus, Linn. • Fl. Trop. Afr. I. p. 207. 

JZZ.— Rheede, Hort. Mai. ii. t. 38; Rumpf, Amb. iv. t. 15 j 
Plenck, Ic. t. 543 ; Desc. Ant. v. t. 361 ; Blanco, Fl. Filip. t. 245. 

Musk Mallow ; Grains d'ambrette. 

Cultivated throughout West Africa and most tropical countries. 


Yields a strong fibre of good quality — percentage of cellulose 
approximately 78 ; length of staple 3-5 feet ; length of ultimate 
fibre 3-4*5 mm. (Tech. Rep. and Sci. Papers, Imp. Inst. 1903, 
p. 68). The breaking strain of either wet or dry fibre has been 
estimated by Dr. Roxburgh at 107 lbs. 

The present commercial value of the plant appears to lie in the 
aromatic seeds, which are used by perfumers to give a musky 
odour to satchets and hair powder (Mus. Kew). It is believed 
that the chief users of musk seed are the manufacturers of 
vermouth in France and Italy (Piesse, Agric. News, Barbados, 
1901, p. 93). There is, however, not a large demand for the seeds ; 
they are occasionally imported from the West Indies to London ; 
from Java to Holland, and from Martinique to France, at prices 
varying from about Is. to 2s. per lb. 

Cultivation as Hibiscus esculentus (q.v.). 

Ref.—Blct Econ. Prod. Ind. iv. pp. 229-231.— Agric. Ledg. 
No. 6, 1896, pp. 29-31.—" Oil of Ambrette Seeds," in The Volatile 
Oils, Gildemeister & Hoffman, 1900, p. 501. — Tech. Rep. and Sci. 
Papers, Imp. Inst. 1903, pp. 68-69 ; with an analysis of the fibre 
from plants when in seed (retted for 13 days), and an analysis of 
fibre from stems cut when in flower (retted for 10 days). — " Musk 
Seed," Jackson, in Agric. News, Barbados, 1904, p. 93. 

Hibiscus cannabinus, Linn. ; Fl. Trop. Afr. I. p. 204. 

III.— Roxb. PI. Corom. t. 190 ; Rchb. Icon. Hort. Bot. t. 164 ; 
Duthie, Field Crops, t. 22. 

Vernac. names. — Kanaff, Kanabe or Kanaspe (Persia, Murray) ; 
Wild Saur (Gambia, Lester) ; Ambari or Ambasi Hemp ; Hemp- 
leaved Hibiscus ; Deccan Hemp ; Indian Hemp ; Bastard Jute ; 
Bimlipatam Jute. 

Niger ; Nupe ; Lagos. 

This is the most important fibre-producing Hibiscus in Nigeria. 
The fibre is understood to be as good as, and possibly superior to 
average Jute, for which it forms an efficient substitute in the 
manufacture of cordage, sacking, or any of the coarser textiles. 
Bleached materials made of this fibre may be dyed in every 
shade of colour, and chemical bleaching is said not to injure the 
texture (Kew Bull. Add. Ser. ii. p. 10). Cellulose percentage 
about 75 ; length of staple 3-7 feet ; length of ultimate fibre 
1*5-4 mm. (Tech. Rep. and Sci. Papers, Imp. Inst. 1903, p. 70 ; 
Bull. Imp. Inst. 1905, p. 260). 

Bimlipatam Jute is identical with this fibre. This fibre has 
been a regular article of commerce since about 1901 (Tech. 
Rep. & Sci. Papers, Imp. Inst. 1903, p. 87). Its cultivation appears 
to be chiefly centred in the Madras Presidency, and the area 
under cultivation has been estimated at from 37,171 acres, pro- 
ducing 80,000 bales of fibre (in 1905), to 68,201 acres, with a 
production of fibre in proportion (in 1906) (U.S. Cons. Rep. 
Washington, May, 1907, p. 210). Hibiscus cannabinus is also 
cultivated in other parts of India, and, owing to the great simil- 
arity in the fibre, it is not unlikely that it often occurs as an 
adulterant of Jute a. v. for methods of preparation. 


In 1891 the value of the fibre was estimated at about £18 pei* 
ton (Kew Bull, Add. Ser. ii. p. 10). In 1901 it was selling at 
£11-V12 per ton (Tech. Rep. & Sci. Papers, Imp. Inst. 1903, p. 87, 
Bimlipatam Jute); in 1906 at £18 12s. 6d. per ton (Mon. Circ. 
Ide & Christie, 15th June, 1906, Madras Jute. — Bimlipatam ; and 
at the present time it is realising £12-£13 per ton (I.e. 15th Jan. 

The seeds are said to contain 15-20 per cent, of a clear limpid 
oil, suitable for lubricating and illuminating purposes. In India 
the roasted seeds are eaten by the natives, and the young leaves 
are used as a pot-herb (Diet. Econ. Prod. Ind.). An infusion of 
the leaves is used on the Gambia as a remedy for coughs (Kew 
Bull. 1891, p. 269). 

A rich, loose soil is the most suitable, but the plant has been 
described as doing well on dry lands, in red loams and gravels, 
and in marshes. The seed may be sown broadcast, fairly thickly, 
and thinned out to several inches according to evidence of 
development. For fibre production the plant requires about three 
or four months to come to maturity. The stems are usually cut 
at the flowering stage ; but they are said to yield a stronger fibre 
when mature. 

The yield per acre has been given as nearly 3 tons calculating 
640,000 stems, each 100 stems producing one lb. of fibre (Diet. 
Econ. Prod. Ind.). Another estimate has been put at nearly 
1^ tons per acre (Spon's Encycl. p. 961). 

Re/.— Diet. Econ. Prod. Ind. iv., pp. 231-236.— Descr. Cat. 
Useful Fib. PI. of the World, Dodge, Rep. No. 9, 1897, pp. 192-193, 
Fibre Investigations, ll.S. Dept. of Agric. — "Kanaff or Deccan 
Hemp," in Kew Bull. Add. Ser. ii. 1901, pp. 9-11.— Agric. Ledg. 
No. 11, 1903, pp. 239-214.— Comm. Prod. Ind. Watt, 1908, 
pp. 630-631. 

Hibiscus esculentus, Linn. ; Fl. Trop. Afr. I. p. 207. 

///. — Cav. Diss. t. 61 f. 2 ; Gilii & Xuarez, Rome, t. 3; Tuss. 
Ant. i. t. 10 ; Desc. Ant. iv. t, 269 ; Bentl. & Trim. Med. PI. t. 36. 

Vernac. names. — Kubaiwa or Kubewa (Uausa, Dalziel) ; Bendi- 
Kai ; Ochro, Okra (W. Africa, W. Indies) ; Gobbo ; Gumbo 
(S. United States) ; Quimbombo (Cuba). — Edible Hibiscus ; Lady's 

Native of India ; distributed over the whole of Tropical Africa ; 
naturalized in all tropical and many sub-tropical countries. 

The stem yields a good fibre, for particulars as to uses, prepara- 
tion, &c, see the preceding species. 

A sample, grown in Cuba, submitted to Kew in 1890, was 
valued in London at £18 to £20 per ton, described as moderately 
stronger than Jute (Kew Bull. Add. Ser. ii. p. 9), and a sample 
grown in S. Nigeria, recently submitted to the Imperial Institute, 
was valued at £18 per ton ; described as white, lustrous, and 
rather harsh, the latter quality being due, it was suggested, to 
the plants being old (Bull. Imp. Inst. 1908, p. 128). 

The young pods are used everywhere as a vegetable; they make 
good pickles and, being very mucilaginous, are largely used for 


thickening soups. The roasted seeds have been used as a sub- 
stitute for coffee (Mus. Kew), and they are said to be used as a 
substitute for pearl barley. The mucilage of both fruits and 
seeds is used medicinally as a demulcent. The mature fruits form 
a constituent of curry. The leaves are recommended for cattle 
fodder, and the dried stalks as fuel (Diet. Econ. Prod. Ind.). 

Under cultivation as a vegetable two varieties are distinguished 
— the long-fruited green and the round-fruited (Kew Bull. Add. 
Ser. ii. p. 8). The plant is cultivated in nearly every native 
garden or farm as a vegetable. When grown as a vegetable the 
young plants should have the tops pinched out when about a foot 
high. It takes from 5 to 10 lb. of seed to sow an acre, at intervals 
of about a foot, on ridges 3 feet apart, and the yield of fruit may 
vary from about 5,000 to 6,000 lbs. (Watt, Comm. Prod. 
Ind. p. 631). For cultivation as a fibre plant see the preceding 

Ref.— Diet. Econ. Prod, iv, pp. 237-240.— Dodge, I.e. pp. 194- 
195.— Kew Bull. Add. Ser. ii. pp. 8-9.— Med. PI. Bentl. and Trim. 
No. 36. — "Okra, Culture and Uses," Beattie, U.S. Dept. Agric. 
Farmers' Bull. 232, 1905, pp. 1-16.— " Fibres of British W. 
Africa," and " Jute Substitutes," in Bull. Imp. Inst. 1907, pp. 8-9 ; 
1908, pp. 128-130.— Comm. Prod. Ind. Watt, 1908, pp. 631-632. 

Hibiscus lunariifolius, Willd. ; Fl. Trop. Afr. I. p. 202. 

III.— Bot. Reg. t. 917 (H. racemosus) ; Wight, Ic. PI Ind. or. i. 
t. 6. 

Vernac. names. — Ramma or Rama (Kontagora, Dalziel). 
Kontagora. Native of India ; widely distributed in Africa. 

Yields a good fibre, commercially described as Jute, hard and 
similar to that received from China, likely to sell freely at £12 to 
£13 per ton (Kew Bull. 1899, p. 139). 

A sample of fibre believed to be obtained from this'species was 
recently submitted to the Imperial Institute from N. Nigeria. It 
was valued at £12 per ton (with common Jute at £11-12), and 
described as of good lustre and strength ; length 3-7 feet ; capable 
of resisting the prolonged action of water ; too harsh for use as a 
Jute substitute, but would make strong and durable ropes. The 
sample had the following composition : — Moisture 8*5 per cent. ; 
ash *4 per cent. ; («) hydrolysis (loss) 7 # 4 per cent. ; (6) hydro- 
lysis (loss) 10*2 per cent. ; acid purification (loss) *4 per cent. ; 
cellulose 76*8 per cent. 

Rama bark ribbons, six feet long, have been valued at £4 per 
ton, and the fibre in this condition is considered fit only for 
paper-making (Bull. Imp. Inst. 1908, p. 132). 

For cultivation and preparation see H. cannabinus. 

Hibiscus mutabilis, Linn. Sp. PI. p. 694. 

A small tree, without prickles. Leaves 2 in., nearly or quite 
glabrous ; petiole short. Peduncle shorter than the petiole. 
Bracteoles 6-7, linear. Sepals ovate-lanceolate, longer than the 
bracteoles. Petals obovate, longer than the calyx. Anthers in 
whorls all the way up the column. Capsule oblong, obtuse, 
slightly hispid. Seeds pilose (Fl. Brit. Ind. i. p. 344). 


111— Rheede, Horfc. Mai. vi. tt, 38-42 ; Rumpf, Amb. ix. t, 9 ; 
Andr. Rep. iv. t. 228 (Var. fl. plena) ; Bot. Reg. t, 589 ; Desc. 
Ant. iv. t. 270 ; Savi. Fl. Ital. ii. t, 71. 

The changeable Rose Hibiscus ; White Mahoe ; Changing Rose 

Native of China ; cultivated in the Botanic Gardens of the 

The bark yields a strong fibre. Cellulose percentage 72, length 
of ultimate fibre 1*5 to 2*4 mm. (Tech. Rep. & Sci. Papers, Imp. 
Inst. 1903, p. 93, q.v. for complete analysis). 

Propagation, from cuttings : grows freely in rich soil ; the 
plant is very ornamental, and is remarkable for the changes in 
the colour of the flowers — from white in the morning to red in 
the evening. 

Hibiscus physaloides, Gulll. et Perr. ; Fl. Trop. Afr. I. p. 199. 
///.—Wood, Nat. PL iv. t. 319. 

Vernac names.— Akese or Ake, Wongo (Yoruba, Higginson). 

Yields a fibre described as short and white (Higginson, Herb. 

Hibiscus Rosa-sinensis, Linn. Sp. PI. p. 694. 

An ornamental shrub ; 6 to 10 feet high. Stem woody, branched, 
not prickly. Leaves entire at the base, coarsely toothed at the 
apex. Stipules ensiform. Bracteoles 6, 7, linear, hale the length 
of the bell-shaped calyx. Sepals f in., lanceolate, connate below 
the middle. Corolla 3 in. diam., red. Capsule rounded, many 
seeded (Fl. Brit. Ind. i. p. 344). 

III. — Rheede, Hort. Mai. ii. t. 17 (double flower), vi. t. 43 (single 
flower). Bot. Mag. t. 158 ; Bot, Reg. t. 1826 ; Gard. Chron. Oct. 
29th, 1887, p. 529, f. 105. 


Native of China ; cultivated in the Botanic Gardens, in most 
private gardens, belonging to Europeans, and in many native 
gardens of Nigeria. 

In India and China the petals are used to blacken shoes (hence 
perhaps the English name), and the Chinese also make from them 
a black dye for darkening their hair and eyebrows. Various 
medicinal uses are attributed to the flowers and leaves, and the 
bark is said to yield a good fibre (Diet. Econ. Prod. Ind.). 

Propagation, by cuttings. It is unusual for seeds to ripen under 
cultivation, but the several handsome varieties show that seeds 
may ripen under suitable conditions. 

Re/.— Journ. Bomb. Nat, Hist. Soc. 1892-3, pp. 512-515. 

Hibiscus rostellatus, Guill. et Perr. ; Fl. Trop. Afr. I. p. 201. 
Vernacname. — Darwaso (Gambia, Bull. Imp. Inst. 19(>7, p. 159), 
Ebute Metta. 
Yields a jute-like fibre (Col. Rep. Ann. No. 576, 1908. p. 28). 


Hibiscus Sabdariffa, Linn. ; Fl. Trop. Afr. I. p. 204. 

III.— Cav. Diss. t. 198 f. 1 ; Bonpland, PI. Rar. Malm. t. 29 ; 
Desc. Ant. i. t. 31 ; Herb. Amat. v. t. 296 ; Drapiez, Herb. Amat. 
de Fleurs, v. t. 373 ; U.S. Dept. Agric. Farmers' Bull. 307, 1907, 
f. 1. 

Vemac. names. — Tusure, Yakua (Hausa, Dalziel) ; Amukai or 
Isepa (Yoruba, Higginson) ; Masha (Beri-beri, Bull. Imp. Inst. 
1907, p. 329) ; Sour-sour (Sierra Leone, Haydori) ; Rozelle or Red 
Sorrel (W. Indies). — Rozelle Hemp ; Indian Sorrel. 

Kontagora ; cultivated in Trop. Africa and most tropical 

The stems yield a strong silky fibre, resembling Jute, suitable 
for gunny-bags, cordage, &c, and possibly for paper manufacture. 
Cellulose percentage 72, staple from 6-7 feet, length of ultimate 
fibre from 1*6 to 3*1 mm. (Tech. Rep. and Sci. Papei'3, Imp. Inst. 
1903, p. 96). Preparation may be effected by ordinary retting 
and washing. 

The leaves are used as a pot-herb for flavouring soup, &c, and 
are commonly sold in the markets. The seeds are good food for 
cattle (Mus. Kew), and are said to be aphrodisiac (Fl. Trop. Afr. i. 
p. 204). The fleshy calyces are made into preserves, and a 
refreshing beverage (Sorrel drink) may be made from them — 
prepared by boiling with water until they become pulpy, 
sweetening and spicing to taste. In the course of a day or so 
the clear fluid is strained off and bottled, and is ready for use 
after slight fermentation has occurred (Kew Bull. 1888, p. 203). 

The leaves, seeds and ripe calyces possess antiscorbutic and 
other medicinal properties. 

An infusion of the leaves and calyces has been recommended, 
amongst other agents of vegetable origin, as giving the best results 
for the coagulation of the latex of Landolphia Heudelotii (War- 
burg, PI. Caoutch. 1902, p. 242). 

An infusion of the leaves has also been recommended for the 
coagulation of the latex of Landolphia owariensis (Haydon, Rep. 
Bot. Stn. Sierra Leone, 1899). 

Propagation from seed ; the soil required is a rich sandy loam. 
To grow for fruit (calyces) the plants should be allowed a distance 
of about 4 feet ; a bushy habit should be induced by pinching out 
the young tops occasionally. Plants come to maturity in about 
three or four months. For use as a vegetable in salads, &c, the 
leaves would be ready in about a month after germination. The 
plant, although it may succeed best in a moist climate, is well 
adapted to culture under irrigation, and would probably be 
suitable for cultivation in parts of Northern Nigeria, where the 
rainfall is uncertain and small. 

Cultivation for fibre is the same as for H. cannabinus, q.v. 

Ref. — Diet. Econ. Prod. Ind. iv. pp. 243-246, wiih chemical 
analysis of the fleshv calyx.- — Descr. Cat. Useful Fib. PI. of the 
World, Dodge, Rep. No. 9, 1897, p. 197, U.S. Dept. of Agric. 
Fiber Investigations. — Tech. Rep. and Sci. Papers, Imp. Inst. 1903, 
pp. 96-97, with an analysis of the fibre. — " Rozelle, Culture and 


Uses," Wester, U.S. Dept. Agric. Farmers' Bulletin 307, 1907, 
pp. 1-6, figs. 6. 

Hibiscus surattensis, Linn. ; Fl. Trop. Afr. I. p. 201. 

III.— Rumpf, Amb. iv. t. 16 ; Cav. Diss. t. 53, f. 1 ; Bot, Mag. 
t, 1356 ; Rchb. Icon. Hort. Bot. t. 141 ; Wight, Ic. PI. Ind. or. 
i. t, 197 ; Gard. Chron. April 25th, 1891, p. 529, f. 105 ; Wood, Nat. 
PI. iv. t, 358. 

Vernac. name. — Wongo (Lagos, Dawodu ; Oloke-Meji, Foster) ; 
Awon-Ekun (Yoruba, Higginson). 

Old Calabar ; Lagos ; Oloke-Meji ; Brass. 

Yields a good fibre (Mus. Kew). Leaves acid, eaten in salads 
(Loudon, Eucycl. PI. p. 587). A very handsome decorative plant, 
figured in Gardener's Chronicle (I.e.) from plants flowered at the 
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Propagation by seeds or cuttings. 
Common in open dry places (Scott Elliot, Herb. Kew) ; open bush 
and Cassava fields (Bates, Herb. Kew). 

Hibiscus tiliaceus, Linn. ; Fl. Trop. Afr. I. p. 207. 

///.—Rumpf, Amb. ii. t, 73 ; Bot. Reg. t. 232 ; Tuss. Ant. ii. 
t. 5 ; Desc. Ant. ii. t, 148 ; Bedd. Fl. Sylv. (Anal. Gen.) t. 4, f. 1 ; 
Viclal, Fl. For. Filip. iv. t. 16 B ; Sinclair, Indig. Fl. Hawaiian Is. 
t. 1 ; Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. ix. t. 61 (Pariti tiliaceum) ; Karst. & 
Schenck, veg. bild. iii. t. 42 ; Brandis, Ind. Trees, p. 75 ; Sim, 
For. Fl. Cape Col. t. 14. 

Vernac. names. — Milolo (Luabo, Kirk) ; Umlolwa (Kaffir, Sim) ; 
Majagua (Panama, Safford) ; Fau (Samoa, Tahiti, Safford) ; Pago 
(Guam, Safford) ; Hau (Hawaia, Simla ir).- -Corkwood ; Lime 
tree leaved Hibiscus. 

Niger ; Brass. Widely distributed in the Tropics. 

A useful fibre is obtained from this plant, a special feature of 
which appears to be its durability under water. Tarring is said 
to increase the strength. Suitable for making cordage, mats, &c, 
and a likely substitute for Jute. The bark is of some value 
medicinally ; the root possesses febrifugal properties, and is used 
in the preparation of embrocation. The wood is light, durable, 
and flexible. In Tahiti and Samoa it is said to be used for 
planking and in the construction of light boats (Safford, PI. Guam, 
p. 347) ; in India its chief use is for fuel (Diet. Econ. Prod. Ind.). 

This plant is propagated readily from seed. It will grow freely 
in low lying swampy ground. It is plentiful in the Sunderbuns 
of India, on the river banks of Burma, Ceylon, and is found near the 
coast-line of many tropical and sub-tropical countries in both the 
Old and the New World. 

The cultivation should therefore be easy, and worthy of con- 
sideration in the delta of the Niger, where the plant already 
exists in a wild state ; Barter (Herb. Kew) found it growing 12 feet 
high on the sea shore at Brass. Sim (For. Fl. Cape Col. p. 143) 
mentions that the tree is largely planted in the streets of Durban, 
and that it grows to a height of from 20 to 30 feet. 

Re£.—"P(wifi tiliaceum" Safford, in Useful Plants of Guam, 
(Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. ix. 1905) pp. 346-347.— Manson, in Indian 
Forester, 1905, pp. 347-350. 


Hibiscus vitifolius, Linn. ; PL Trop. Afr. I. p. 197. 
A,— Rheede, Hort. Mai. vi. t, 46. 

Vernac. name. — Ofo-odon (Yoruba, Millson). 

Yoruba ; Abeokuta ; Jebba, and throughout Tropical Africa. 
Found also in India and Australia. 

The bark affords a strong silvery fibre (Diet. Econ. Prod. Ind.). 
The plant, however, does not appear to be of any special value, 
but it may be worth recording as a handsome decorative plant, 
deserving more attention, for horticultural purposes. 

The cultivation would probably present no difficulty. It 
grows on the roadsides, and in abandoned yam farms. Kurz 
describes it as common in India, along the borders of fields, in 
shrubberies, waste places around villages, &c. and in dry forests. 

Gossypium arboreum, Linn. ; Fl. Trop. Afr. I. p. 211. 

III.— Cav. Diss. t. 165 ; Royle, 111. Him. Bot. t. 23, f. 2 ; Wight, 
Ic. PL Ind. or. i. t. 10 ; Todaro, Relaz. Cult. Cot. t. 1 A ; Watt, 
Cotton PL tt. 7, 8. 

Tree Cotton (India and Africa). 

According to Watt there are many cultivated states of this 
species found all over India and Africa. The seeds have a greenish- 
grey fuzz, white silky floss, approaching khaki colour in wild 

Var. negleeta, Watt, Cotton PL (1907) p. 95. 

///. — Rheede, Hort. Mai. i. t. 31 (Alcea malabarensis) ; Hill, 
Veg. Syst, xv. t. 19, f. 4 (((r. liirsutum) ; Roxb. PL Corom. iii. 
t. 269 {G. herbaceum) ; Royle, 111. Him. Bot. t, 23, f. 1, Cotton 
Ind. tt, 2. 3, f. 1 {G. indicum) ; Pari. Sp. Cot, t, 1 ; Duthie, Field 
Crops, t. 18 (G. herbaceum) ; Engl. & Prantl. Pflan. iii. pt. 6, f. 25 
(G. aboreum) ; Watt, Cotton PL tt. 10, 11, 12. 

Cultivated in India, and Burma ; distributed by cultivation to 
Africa, West Indies, &c. 

The seeds are small, beaked, with a brownish or greenish fuzz 
and a large quantity of coarse, harsh, woolly and very short 

Var. sanguinea, Watt, Cotton PL (1907) p. 91. 

III. — Jacq. Eclogae PL Rar. ii. t. 134 (G. puniceum) ; Todaro , 
Relaz. Cult. Cot. t. 1 ; Watt, Cotton PL t. 9. 
Vernac. name, — Akese (Abeokuta, Irving). 

Abeokuta (Irving, Herb. Kew) ; Lagos (Rowland, Herb. Kew) ; 
Niger (Baikie, Barter, Herb. Kew). 

Seeds with grey or slightly greenish fuzz ; staple long and of 
good quality. 

Grossypium barbadense, Linn. ; FL Trop. Afr. I. p. 210. 

Ill— Desc. Ant. iv. t. 278 ; Wight, Illust. t. 28 B ; Royle, Cotton 
Ind. t. 3, f. 3 ; Pari. Sp. Cot. t. 3 ; Mart. Fl. Bras. xii. pt. 3, t, 114 ; 
Engl. & Prantl. Pflan. iii. pt. 6, f. 24 (after Pari. 1. c.) ; Bentl. & 
Trimen, Med. PL t. 37 ; Watt, Cotton PL t. 46. 


Ikure, S. Nigeria (Holland, Herb. Kew). 

A perennial plant, but under cultivation it is usually treated as 
an annual. The seeds have no fuzz, and the lint, which is easily 
detached from them, is long, very fine, and silky. 

In the report of the British Cotton-Growing Association for 
1906-07 mention is made of an indigenous variety locally known 
as black-seeded, the cotton of which, purchased in the Benue and 
Guara districts, has been highly approved in the Lancashire trade. 

Var. maritima, Watt, Cotton PI. (1907) p. ,275. 

III. — Todaro, Relaz. Cult. Cot. t. 7 (6r. maritimum), t. 8 (G. mari- 
timum, var. polycarpum) ; Pari. Sp. Cot. t. 3 (G. barbadense) ; 
Tropenpfl. 1905, p. 175 ; Watt, Cotton PI. tt, 46c, 47, 48. 

Sea Island Cotton proper of commerce ; Gallini Cotton (Egypt). 

The chief sources of supply, which do not appear equal to the 
demand, are Georgia, Carolina, Egypt, West Indies, &c. Culti- 
vated experimentally in Nigeria, and many other parts of Africa. 
This variety appears to be suitable for cultivation only in regions 
near the sea, 30 to 50 miles inland being considered approximately 
the limit of the successful area. 

The seeds have no fuzz, and the cotton is easily detached ; the 
staple (1J to 2 inches) is the longest, strongest and, perhaps, the 
best in quality of all the cultivated forms of cotton. 

Gossypium brasiliense, Mac/, El. Jam. (1837) I. p. 72. 

///.— Velloso, FJ. Flum. vii. t. 49 (G. arborenm) ; Pari. Sp. Cot. 
t. 4 ; Wight, Illust. t. 27 (G. acuminatum) ; Todaro, Relaz. Cult. 
Cot. t. 9, t. 12, f. 35 ; Watt, Cotton PI. tt. 49, 50. 

Chain Cotton ; Kidney Cotton ; Stone Cotton ; Tree Cotton. 

Lagos (Millen, Herb. Kew). Native of Brazil, from whence 
it comes into commerce as Bahia and Pernambuco Cotton. Culti- 
vated in many parts of the tropics of both hemispheres. 

The seeds are tufted with a reddish fuzz, but are otherwise 
naked. The lint is plentiful and usually very fine and silky. 

Gossypium herbaceum, Linn. Fl. Trop. Afr. I. p. 211. 

111.— Pari. Sp. Cot. t. 2 ; Engl. & Prantl, Pflan. iii. pt. 6, f. 22 
(after Pari. 1. c.) ; Watt, Cotton PL tt, 24, 25. 

The source of the Syrian, Levant, Maltese, Arabian, some of the 
short staple American Cottons, and possibly of Abyssinian and 
some of the Egyptian Cotton. 

Seeds with a grey fuzz, and harsh greyish- white lint. The plant 
is an annual, and does not appear to be known except Under 

Gossypium hirsutum, Linn. Sp. PL ed. 2 (1763) II. p. 975. 

\G. herbaceum, Oliv. Fl. Trop. Afr. i. p. 211, in part.] 

III. — Nov. Comm. Gott, vii. t. 1 (G. lati folium) \ Wight, Illust. 
t. 28 C (G. harbadense) ; Rovle, Cotton Ind. t. 3, f. 1 ; Pail. Sp. ( Jot 
t, 5 ; Engl. & Prantl, Pflan. iii. pt, (*>, f. 23 (after Pari. I.e.) ; Wan 
Cotton, PI. tt, 29, 30, 31, 


Vernac. name. — Tonje-manga (Zambesi, Kirk). — Short Staple 
American (New Orleans and Georgian) ; American Upland Cotton. 

Seeds with a greyish, rusty or green fuzz, and yielding a fibre 
of good quality. 

Gossypium mexicanum, Tod. Relaz. Cult. Cot. (1877) p. 193. 
III.— Todaro, I.e. tt. 7, 11, f. 32 ; Watt, Cotton PI. tt. 39, 40. 
Mexican Cotton ; Upland American. 

Niger (Barter, Herb. Kew). Probably native of Mexico ; culti- 
vated in many countries, in many varieties {see Burkett & Poe, 
" Cotton " ; True, " The Cotton Plant " ; Watt, in " Cotton Plants 
of the World "). Described on Barter's specimen, No. 1184, as 
ordinary cultivated kind. 

The seeds are covered with a fuzz of various shades of colour , 
affording an ample quantity of lint, 

Gossypium Nanking, Meyen, Reise, (1836) II. p. 323. 

III. — Cav. Diss. t. 169 (G. indicum) ; Todaro, Relaz. Cult. Cot. 
t, 3, f. 1 (G. indicum) ; Watt, Cotton PI. t. 15. 

Nankin Cotton ; Chinese Cotton ; Siam Cotton ; Khaki Cotton. 
Cultivated in Africa and Asia. 

Seeds covered with a rusty fuzz lint silky, of a more or less 
reddish colour. 

Var. Bani, Watt, Cotton PI. p. 131 ; an annual plant known 
only under cultivation ; furnishing a high-grade staple. 

Var. Nadam, Watt, 1. c. p. 128 ; a perennial plant, yielding a 
low-grade staple. 

Var. Roji, Watt, I.e. p. 134 ; a perennial bush ; staple short and 

Var. soudanensis, Watt, 1. c. p. 138 ; a large perennial bush, 
furnishing a fair quantity of harsh woolly floss. 

These varieties are all recorded from Africa, and it is probable 
that they occur in Nigeria. 

Gossypium obtusifolium, Boxb. Fl. Ind. (1832) III. p. 183. 

///._Watt, Cotton PI. tt. 19, 20. 

Vernac. names. — Mokho (Senegambia, Henry) ; Rimo (Senegal, 

The source of the Surat, Broach, Kathiawar and Kumpta Cotton 
of India, and widely distributed in the East. Occurs in Upper 
Egypt and other parts of Africa. 

The seeds have a rufous or greyish fuzz, and coarse reddish- 
white wool. 

Var. africana, Watt, Cotton PI. p. 153. 

///._Watt, I.e. t. 23. 

Vernac. name. — Akese (Abeokuta, Irving). 

Abeokuta (Irving, Herb. Kew) ; Nupe (Barter, Herb. Kew) ; 
Banks of Komadugu, Waube near Geidam, N. Bornu (Elliott, 
Herb. Kew). 

Seeds with a white or grey fuzz ; lint ample and fine. 


Var. Wightiana, Watt, I.e. p. 143. [G. herbaceum, Oliv. Fi. 
Trop. Afr. i. p. 211, in part]. 

III.— Todaro, Relaz. Cult. Cot. t. 4, ff. 1-9 (G. Wightianum) ; 
Wight, Ic. PI. Ind. or. t. 9 (G. herbaceum) ; Watt, Cotton PI. 
tt. 21, 22. 

Seeds with a short greyish fuzz ; staple long and good. Culti- 
vated as an annual. 

Gossypium microcarpum, Tod. Hort. Bot. Pan. (1876) I. p. 63. 

III.— Todaro, I.e. t. 14, Relaz. Cult. Cot, t, 11, f. 16 (seed only) ; 
Watt, Cotton PI. t. 36. 

Red Peruvian Cotton. 

Gold Coast (Johnson, Mus. Kew) ; recorded also from Mexico, 
Peru, Brazil, Malaya, &c. 

The seeds have a rusty or greenish-brown fuzz. The plant 
according to Spruce (Cult, Cotton, Peru, pp. 63-4) is capable of 
producing nearly 50 per cent, of lint. 

Gossypium peruvianum, Gav. Diss. (1785-90) p. 313. 

[G. barbadense, Oliv. Fl. Trop. Afr. i. p. 210, in part,] 
///.— Cav. Diss, t, 168 ; Watt, Cotton PI. tt. 37, 38. 

Vernac. names. — Own (Abeokuta, ' Irving) ; Ukoko (Congo, 
Burton) ; Bazazula (Batoka, Kirk), — S. American ; Peruvian or 
Andes Cotton ; Egyptian Cotton (Ashmouni, Mitafifi, Zafiri, 
Abassi, Bahmieh or Bamia, &c). 

Abeokuta (Irving, Herb. Kew) ; Niger (Barter, Herb. Kew) ; 
Lagos. Widely distributed in Africa and other countries by 

Seeds with a fuzz varying in colour, grey, rufous, or greenish, 
yielding a good quantity of lint. 

Gossypium punctatum, Sch. et. Thon. Beskr. Guin. PI. (1827), 
pp. 309-10 [_G. barbadense, Oliv. Fl. Trop. Afr. i. p. 210, in part,] 

III.— Watt, Cotton PI. tt. 27, 28. 

Vernac. name*. — X'Dargna (Senegambia, Henry) ; Lado (Sene- 
gal, Henry) ; Kota-Kota (Nvasaland, Webb) ; Hindi (Egvpt, 

Wild in Nigeria, Gold Coast, Senegal, Angola, America, and the 
West Indies. 

Seeds with a fuzz, and white silky tioss. 

Var. nigeria, Watt, Cotton PI. p. 170. 
///.—Watt, I.e. tt. 27, 28 a. 

Badagry (G. Don, Herb. Brit. Mas.) ; Kouka (Vogel, Herb. Kew I. 
Found also in the Transvaal (Mus. Kew). 

Seeds with white fuzz, and a good quantity of lint. 

Gossypium vitifolium, Lamk. Encycl. Meth. Bot, (1786) ii. p. 135. 

[G. barbadense, Oliv. Fl. Trop. Afr. i. p. 210, in part.] 

///.— Rumpf, Amb. i. t. 13 (G. lati/olium) ; Cav. Diss. t. 166: 
Bot, Rolt. t. 84 (G. barbadense) ; Tuss. Ant. ii. t. 17 (G. tricu. 
spidatam) ; Watt, Cotton PI. tt. 1, 45, 


Kidney Cotton (Sittam, Ashantee, Dudgeon) ; Black-seeded 
Cotton (Labolabo, Dudgeon). — Vine-leaved Cotton. 

Probably native of S. America ; distributed by cultivation to 
Africa, S. United States of America, West Indies, &c. 

Seeds without a fuzz, that is, black naked ; lint long and silky, 
readily detached. 

It is difficult to distinguish between this species and G. barba- 
dense, with which it is regarded as identical. 

They are separated by Watt (1. c. p. 266) on industrial rather than 
on botanical grounds, and as this authority has been followed in 
the other species and varieties enumerated G. vitifolium and 
G. barbadense are maintained as distinct species. 

As a rale botanical delimitations are rarely recognized in culti- 
vation, and the numerous hybrids and varieties are usually 
classified by cotton growers without reference to parentage. 

Indigenous cottons of Nigeria have been spoken of as u black- 
seeded lowland" (cf. G. barbadense and vitifolium), and "woolly- 
seeded upland" (cf. G. arboreum, var. sanguinea; G. mexicanum ; 
G. obtusifolium, var. africana ; G. peruvianum ; G. punctatum, 
var. nigeria). The black-seeded cotton has been stated to be 
better suited to the Lancashire trade than the upland white or 
woolly-seeded kinds which have been reported on by brokers as 
useful, and about equal to middling American (Brit. Cotton 
Assoc. Rep. 1906-07). 

The essential conditions of cultivation and preparation appear 
to be careful selection of seed ; a rich black, or alluvial well- 
drained soil ; adequate rainfall (50-80 inches) or irrigation during 
growth ; dry weather and clear skies during the opening period ; 
good tillage and manuring up to the time when the bolls begin to 
form ; careful picking, drying, ginning, and baling. 

In Lagos, July is considered a good month for sowing (Brit. 
Cotton Assoc. Rep. No. 20, August, 1907). The seed should be 
disinfected beforehand, and the following method has been found 
successful in the West Indies. 

" A wooden tub should be carefully washed out, and a solution 
of 1 in 1,000 corrosive sublimate made up in it. This should 
then be covered and allowed to stand. After a few days (say a 
week), when the reaction between the wood and the corrosive 
sublimate has finished, this solution should be run away, and a 
fresh supply made up by dissolving 1 oz. of corrosive sublimate 
to every 7 gallons of water. It is estimated that 1 gallon of the 
solution should be sufficient to disinfect 12 lb. of seed at a cost of 
a little more than lc. The cotton seed is soaked in this solution 
for twenty minutes, then removed and spread in a thin layer, on 
a clean floor, or a clean canvas, to dry, either in the shade or in 
the sun. While drying, the seed should be turned several times, 
and when thoroughly dry it will be ready for planting, or may be 
put into bags and stored for some time. No seed should be 
planted without first being thoroughly dried. It is advisable to 
use a new solution for each new batch of seed. 

" It has been shown that it is unnecessary to wash in pure 
water after soaking in corrosive sublimate if the seed is not to be 


kept for more than a few days before planting. If the seed is to 
be stored for any considerable length of time, it might be advisable 
to wash in pure water for ten minutes after taking from the 
disinfectant solution. 

" The germination of the seeds, after disinfection for twenty 
minutes, would appear to be in no way affected, and, in some 
instances, germination has been somewhat hastened by the 
soaking." (Agric. News, Barbados, 1907, p. 183, reprinted in Kew 
Bull. 1907, p. 299). 

Stationary gins of large capacity are more economical than 
small or portable gins. The bales should be carefully covered 
with a good quality gunny cloth, and distinctly marked and 
numbered ; the former to prevent loss in transit ; the latter to 
prevent confusion in different lots arriving by the same steamer. 
The size of the commercial bale varies considerably. The British 
Cotton Growing Association ensure that their bales weigh 400 lb., 
with a density of about 28 lbs. per cubic foot (Manchester 
Guardian, 8th June, 1907). For dock charges, see Eriodendron 

The seed is a valuable product. When cotton first came into 
commerce the bulk of the seed was wasted, and some growers 
were so improvident as to disregard its value as a fertilizer. It 
yields on crushing a yellow oil largely used for soapmaking ; 
when refined, it is used in the manufacture of oleo-margarine, 
as a salad oil, and as a substitute for olive oil ; when bleached it 
is used in the preparation of a substitute for lard. The cake 
made from the seeds after the expression of the oil is a valuable 
feeding material for cattle, as also is the meal mixed with the 
hulls (about 20 per cent, of meal and 80 per cent, hulls). As a 
fertilizer the refuse, after the oil has been extracted, is of especial 
value, and wherever possible the oil should be expressed locally, 
in conjunction with the ginning and baling operations, and the 
refuse (meal and hulls) returned to the land either directly or 
indirectly as manure from stock fed on the material. It is not 
good husbandry to use the actual seed entirely for fertilizing 
because the oil has little or no manurial value, and would only be 
wasted, nor can the meal or hulls be effective without first being 
reduced to humus, either by exposure or, as already indicated, by 
feeding to stock. Machinery for crushing cotton seed was erected 
at Lagos in 1906 (Brit. Cotton Assoc. Rep. No. 16, 1906, p. 29) and 
may be expected to exercise an important influence on the 

The growing of other crops (catch crops) with cotton is perhaps 
not a good practice, but rotation crops are essential. 

Ratooning, or treating cotton as a perennial, is not likely to be 
satisfactory. The plants being very liable to fungous diseases and 
insect pests, the ground ought to be thoroughly cleared after each 
crop in order to reduce the risk of disease as much as possible. 

The cultivation of cotton in Nigeria, under the supervision of 
Europeans, has received attention for many years. In 1811 (see 
p. 34) experiments were undertaken, though with little success, 
near the confluence of the Benue and the Niger. In 1856 'it is 

33385 F 


recorded that more than 100,000 lbs. of seeded cotton were sent 
from Abeokuta to Manchester, where it sold at 6d. per lb. Prior 
to this it was not considered worthy of the notice of European 
merchants ; the natives for want of proper machinery could not 
prepare it satisfactorily for the European markets. Accordingly 
gins and presses were sent out to Abeokuta, and the natiyes were 
encouraged to collect and prepare cotton for exportation. An 
Industrial Institution was established at Abeokuta by the aid of 
the Native Agency Committee (established 18 J 5) in conjunction 
with the Church Missionary Society. The establishment ^vas 
conducted by two native young men who had been instructed in 
England, one of whom had spent eighteen months in a Manchester 
cotton mill. Any native was allowed to send cotton or other 
produce to be prepared for the European markets (Rev. H. Venn, 
Memo. Encouragement of Native Agriculture, Dec. 1856). In 
1857, 1,250 bales were bought from the natives of Abeokuta for 
the English market, the rate of purchase being ^d. per lb. in the 
seed. In the same year it was reported that from 1,000 to 2,000 
packages of from 70-80 lbs. each were offered for sale at Ila near 
Ilorin on large market days (about every 1th day), for use an the 
manufacture of native cloth (Dr. Baikie, Jebba, 12th Dec. 1857, 
to the Sec. of State for Foreign Affairs). According to MacGregor 
Laird (Memo. Assoc. Cent. Africa Co. Ltd., 10th April, 1858) 
the cotton country of Central Africa, extending from Lake Chad 
to within 50 miles of the Bight of Benin, then produced large 
quantities for local use, but little for export, owing to the expense 
of land carriage for so bulky an article. 

In 1869 the cotton exported amounted in value to £76,957, and 
the exports for ten years following, gradually went down to 
£526 (in 1879). The principal supply came from the Egba 
country (Col. Rep. Ann. No. 400, 1902, Agric. Lagos). In 1889 
the Royal Niger Company were growing cotton at Abutshi, and 
Mr. Woodruff reported that it would do well there on good soil, 
but only one crop could be obtained in a year ; the plants then 
growing (Nov. 30th) were flowering. In 1890 the Director of the 
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, sent to Lagos a supply of Egyptian 
Cotton, the varieties " Ashmouni " and " Bahmieh " (cf. G. 
peruvianum). Particulars of this attempt to revive the industry 
are given in the Kew Bulletin (Add. Ser. ii. pp. 11-19). In 1902 
he had occasion to urge that the most effective method of dealing 
with the cotton problem was to secure the temporary services of 
an expert from Egypt or America. About the end of the same 
year, through the interest of Messrs. Elder, Dempster & Co., an 
expert was appointed to S. Nigeria, and since that period the 
British Cotton Growing Association have established plantations 
and ginning centres in various parts of the two colonies (see also 
Bull. Imp. Inst. 1904, p. 13). The production for export has, 
accordingly, within the course of the past few years, expanded 
yearly from £150 in 1902 (Brit. Cotton Assoc. Rep. No. 16, 1906, 
p. 26), to £72,277 in 1906 (Govt. Gaz. S. Nigeria, 2'ind. May, 1907, 
app. B. 1). In 1907 the value of the amount exported was £97,043 
(11,147 bales, or 4,089,530 lbs.) Cotton seed to the value of 
£10,938 (93,820 bags, or 10,416,143 lbs.) was also exported (I.e. 
Feb, 19th, 1908, p. 319). The figures for 1906 and 1907 include 


the returns for N. Nigeria, where it is quite possible that up to 
the present time, considerably more cotton has been grown for 
local use than for export. It is in the Northern Colony that 
future expansion of the industry may be expected to occur ; the 
climate and soil are eminently suitable, and when to these condi- 
tions are added the improvements in methods of cultivation, 
preparation and transport now in progress, there is reason to 
anticipate that it may eventually be an industry of great 
importance. The natural selection of the native cottons is likely 
to lead to greater success than the acclimatisation of exotic 
varieties, in both of which directions experiments are being con- 
ducted by the Botanical Department at Oloke-Meji, and other 
centres, and by the British Cotton Growing Association, on their 
plantations at Lagos, &c. 

Under the Cotton Statistics Enactment of 1868, warehousers of 
cotton at all ports in the United Kingdom make periodical returns 
to the Board of Trade for general information. These statistics 
are published weekly in the Board's Journal. The returns issued 
on Jan. 2nd, 1908, show that 4,695,485 bales were imported into 
the United Kingdom during 1907, the greater proportion (3,565,816) 
being American, the remainder including Egyptian, East Indian, 
Brazilian, and British Colonies. 

Statistics of the growing crop and final yield in the Cotton 
States of America are provided by the United States Department 
of Agriculture. From these guides abnormal states of the cotton 
market can therefore usually be traced to the excess, shortage, or 
absolute failure of some particular crop. 

The Botanical, Agricultural, and Commercial aspects of the 
Cotton Industry have each been the subject of expert study and 
have led to an extensive literature, most of it readily accessible. 
The references now given may serve as guides to the more 
important contributions. 

Bef. — "Gossypium barbadenee " in Med. PI. Bentley & Trimen, 
1880, No. 37.— The Cotton Plant ; Its History, Botany, Chemistry, 
Cultivation, Enemies, and Uses, prepared under the supervision 
of Dr. A. C. True, United States Dept. of Agriculture, Bulletin 
No. 33, 1896, pp. 1-433.— Kew Bulletin, Vegetable Fibres, Add. 
Series ii. 1901, pp. 11-27. — "Cotton" ; containing information on 
Cultivation, Distribution, and Varieties of Sea Island ; Improve- 
ment by Seed Selection ; Agricultural Chemistry ; Fungoid 
Diseases ; Insect Pests, &c, in West Indian Bulletin, iv. No. 3, 

1903, pp. 195-286 (Bowen & Sons, Bridgetown, Barbados, and 
Dulau & Co., London). — " Sea Island Cotton in the United States 
and the West Indies " ; containing information on Mission to 
Cotton Districts of U.S. America ; Sea Islands of South Carolina ; 
Sea Island Cotton on James Island ; Yield and Cost of Produc- 
tion ; Cotton Ginneries in the United States and W. Indies ; 
Recent Sales of West Indian Sea Island Cotton ; Cotton-oil 
Factories ; Treatment of Cotton Seed for feeding purposes, &c, in 
West Indian Bulletin iv. No. 1, 1904, p} . 287-374.— Report on 
the Habits of the Kelep or Guatemalan Cotton-Boll-Weevil Ant, 
Cook, Bureau of Entomology, U.S. Dept. of Agric. Bulletin No.49, 

1904, pp, 1-15. — Cotton Improvement, Sir G. Watt, in The West 

33385 F 2 


India Committee Circular, April 23rd, 1904, pp. 139-158.— 
Prospects of Growing Cotton in the East Africa Protectorate, 
Brand, in Dip. & Cons. Rep. Misc. No. 606, 1904, pp. 1-10.— Le 
Coton dans l'Afrique Occidentale Francaise, Yves Henry ; 
Bibliotheque d' Agriculture Coloniale Series, pp. 1-199 (Challamel, 
Paris, 1904).— Cotton Movement and Fluctuation, 1899-1904, 31st 
Annual Ed. pp. 176, with 6 plates (Latham, Alexander & Co., 
New York, 1904).— The Commercial Cotton Crops of 1900-1903, 
Watkins, U.S. Dept. of Agric. Bureau of Statistics, Bull. No. 28, 
1904, pp. 1-83 ; including Statistics of the World's Cotton 
Spindles and Consumption ; Cotton imported into Great Britain, 
1895 to 1902 ; The World's Cotton Crop, 1865 to 1902, &c— The 
Commercial Cotton Crop of 1903-1904, Ibid, Bull. No. 34, 1905, 
pp. 1-101. — " Cotton Growing in Northern Nigeria," in Bulletin, 
Imperial Institute, 1905, pp. 49-55. — " Fungoid Diseases of the 
Cotton Plant," I.e. pp. 60-62. — " Cotton Cultivation in the United 
States of America," dealing with Cotton Soils ; Varieties of 
Cotton ; Manures ; Rotation Crops ; Seed Selection ; Systematic 
Production of Hybrids and the Prevention of Degeneration in 
standard types of Cotton ; Insect and Fungoid Pests, with Pre- 
ventive Measures ; Egyptian Cotton in U.S.A. ; Recent Improve- 
ment in Ginning and Baling, and Machinery for Picking, &c. ; 
Dudgeon, I.e. 1905, pp. 334-345. — Cotton Cultivation, De Silva, 
2nd Ed. Revised pp. 14, (Ferguson, Colombo, 1905). — "Cotton 
Improvement, W. African," in Bull. Imp. Inst. 1906, pp. 349-351. — 
Le Coton ; A. Laliere, pp. 250 ; pis. 24, figs. 15 ; dgms. 2, one 
map (Challamel, Paris, 1906). Treating of the importance of raw 
cotton in the cotton industry ; the culture and preparation — 
ginning, baling, &c. ; the characters of the plant ; uses of the 
fibre, seed and other products ; the principal cotton growing 
countries, and the recent extension of cotton culture in various 
European Dependencies. — Cotton, Burkett and Poe (Doubleday, 
Page & Co., New York, and Constable & Co., London, 1906), 
331 pages, 63 pages of illustrations, dealing with the Cultivation 
and Preparation ; Cotton Seed, Oil, Meal and Hulls ; Classification 
of Varieties ; the Ills that Cotton is heir to ; Insect Enemies ; 
Marketing ; Manufacture ; and the Problems of the Cotton 
World, &c. — Cotton Seed and Cotton Cake Meal, Pamphlet No. 43, 
1906, pp. 1-13, issued by the Commissioner, Imp. Dept. of Agric. 
W. Indies (Dulau & Co., London).—" Cotton," Mee & Willis, Roy. 
Bot. Gdn. Ceylon, Circ. No. 18, 1906, pp. 243-261.— Wild and 
Cultivated Cotton Plants of the World ; a Revision of the Genus 
Gossypium, Sir George Watt ; with 53 plates, 9 of which are 
coloured, pp. xiv. + 406 (Longmans, Green & Co., London, 1907). 
The work treats of the following subjects : History of the Cotton 
Plant and of the Cotton Industry ; The Cotton Fibre ; Species, 
Varieties, and Races of the Cotton Plant ; Improvement of the 
Cotton Plant ; African Cottons, are referred to in pp. 168-182. — 
A. B. C. of Cotton Planting ; Pamphlet No. 45, 1907, pp. 1-98, 
issued by the Commissioner, Imperial Dept. of Agriculture for the 
West Indies (Dulau & Co., London). In 6 parts, dealing with the 
Cultivation ; Insect Pests and their Treatment ; Blights ; Manuring ; 
By-Products, &c. — Indian Cottons, Gammie, in Mem. Dept. Agric. 
India, ii. No. 2, 1907, pp. 1-23, pi. i-xiv. — "Cotton-growing in 
Algeria," in Bull. Imp. Inst. 1907, pp. 269-273 — " Studies of 


Egyptian Cotton," Lawrence Balls in Year Book, Khedivial Agric. 
Soc. Cairo, 1907, pp. 91-111.— The Cotton Plant ; its Development 
and Structure, and the Evolution and Structure of the Cotton Fibre, 
Flatters, pp. J 12, with numerous plates (Sherratt and Hughes, 
London, and Manchester, 1907). — The Structure of the Cotton Fibre 
in its Relation to Technical Application, Bowman, pp. xx + 470, 
with many coloured and other illustrations (MacMillan & Co., 
London, 1908). — British Cotton Cultivation, Dunstan, Col. Rep. 
Misc. No. 50, 1908, pp. 1-46. — Indian Cotton Seed, Its Industrial 
Possibilities, Noel-Paton, Comm. Intellig. Agency, Calcutta, 1908, 
pp. 1-28. — Comm. Prod. India, Watt, pp. 569-624. — Reports of 
the British Cotton Growing Association, various. 


Adansonia digitata, B. Juss. ; Fl. Trop. Afr. I. p. 212. 

III.— Cav. Diss. t. 157 ; Lam. Encycl. t. 588 ; Tuss. Ant. iii. 
tt. 33, 34 ; Desc. Ant. iv. t. 291 ; Bot. Mag. tt. 2791, 2792 ; Rchb. 
Exot. v. t. 350 ; Belgique Hortic. ix. 1859, p. 76, f. 6 (tree), p. 79, 
f. 7 (fl. br.), p. 81, f. 8 (fruit) ; Bot. Centralb. lix. 1894, t. 1, f. 3 
(fruit) ; Engl. Pflan. Ost. Afr. B, f. 16 ; Baillon, Hist. Madagas. t. 
71 B, f. 3 ; Gard. Chron. Jan. 27th, 1900, p. 57 ; Sem. Hort. 1900, 
p. 29, f. 11; Ann. Inst. Col. Marseille, 1902, f. 1 ; Goetze & Engl. 
Vegetationsansichten Deut. Ost.-Afr. f . 4 ; De Wildeman, PI. Util. 
Congo, t. 12 ; Pobeguin, Fl. Guin. Franc, t. 17 ; Transv. Agric. 
Journ. iv. t. 7, v. t. 169 ; Karst. & Schenck, veg. bild. v. t. 42. 

Vernac. names. — Kuka (Kontagora, Dalziel) ; Oshe (Lagos, 
Dawodu) ; Nbondo, Imbondeiro (Angola, Welwitsch) ; Gongalasu 
(Khartoum, Colville). — Baobab ; Sour Gourd ; Cork Tree ; Cream 
of Tartar Tree ; Monkey Bread Tree ; Maputa. 

Niger ; Idda ; Nupe ; Kontagora ; Lagos ; Old Calabar, and in 
all parts of the Colony. Native of Tropical Africa ; common in 
India, and introduced to the West Indies. 

The inner bark yields a strong useful fibre, used in Africa for 
making nets, rope, twine, sacking, and cloth (Mus. Kew). It is 
much used as a coarse textile and for various domestic purposes in 
Kontagora (Dalziel, Bull. Imp. Inst. 1907, p. 260). Sacking and 
wrappers made of this fibre are largely used in'Angola for the 
conveyance of cotton, gum copal, and orchella weed (Cat.. Welw. 
Afr. PL i. p. 80). In India it is used for making elephant saddles, 
&c. (Diet. Econ. Prod. Ind.). In England Maputa cloth was 
formerly used for paper making, chiefly strong packing papers : 
but its use for this purpose is now superseded by that of wood 
pulp (Bull. Imp. Inst, 1906, p. 277). 

As a material for papermaking it is considered remarkable for 
its strength and toughness, the papers showing a resistance to 
tearing not unlike that of the Japanese papers (Hiibner, in Journ. 
Soc. Arts, 1903, p. 837). Helmets, caps, and ladies 1 hats have also 
been made from this material (Mus. Kew). The trade in this 
fibre has always been somewhat limited. Supplies come chiefly 
from Portuguese West Africa, but the importations in L896 
amounted to only 2 tons ; 190 tons were imported in 1887 (Dodge, 
Cat. Fib. PI. p. 41). It comes occasionally into Liverpool in bales 
held together by hoop-iron (Hillier, Kew Bull. 1907, p. 63). 


The method of preparation in Senegal is first to chop away the 
rough outer bark, strip off the inner bark in large sheets, 
thoroughly beat this to remove the pithy matter, dry the cleaned 
fibre in the sun, and press into bales (Spon's Encycl. p. 912). 
Welwitsch describes a somewhat similar method in Angola 
(Cat. Welw. Afr. PL i. p. 79). 

The bark, medicinally, is an antiperiodic, and is regarded as a 
useful substitute for quinine. An ounce may be boiled in a pint 
to a pint and a half of water, and the whole taken in the course 
of a day (Diet. Econ. Prod. Ind.). The natives of the Umnyati 
River, S. Africa, use the bark like quinine in cases of fever 
(Baines, Mus. Kew). The leaves, powdered, are used as a condi- 
ment in soups and sauces, &c. (Barter, Mus. Kew). Medicinally 
they are astringent and prophylactic against fevers. A sample 
of the leaves from Sierra Leone has been examined at the 
Imperial Institute, and found to contain sodium chloride, potas- 
sium acid tartrate and tannin, to which constituents the medicinal 
value is doubtless due (Bull. Imp. Inst. 1906, p. 252). 

The mucilaginous pulp of the fruit has a pleasant, somewhat 
acid taste, and makes a cooling drink in cases of fever. According 
to Heckel and Schlagdenhauffen it is successfully used by the 
natives as a remedy for dysentery, containing 12 per cent, of 
potassium bitartrate, and 2 per cent, of free tartaric acid, besides 
tannin, gum, mucilage, and glucose (Year Book, Pharm. 1889, 
p. 1G9). The pulp has also been examined at the Imperial Insti- 
tute with a like result (Bull. Imp. Inst. 19U6, p. 252). Various 
other medicinal uses in India and Africa are attributed to the 
fruit, including the seeds, which are stated to contain albuminous 
matter associated with 38 per cent, of fat (Year Book, Pharm. I.e.). 
The dried fruits are used for various domestic purposes, floats for 
fishing nets (Watt), pipes (Welwitsch), and water bottles (Baines). 

The wood is light, soft, and porous, used like cork (De Wilde- 
man), for canoes (Pobeguin), and provision boxes (Welwitsch). 

Ref. — " Notice sur le Baobab," in La Belgique Horticole, ix. 1859, 
pp. 75-82.— Diet. Econ. Prod. Ind. i. 1889, pp. 105-107.— " Baobab 
ou Adansonia digitata," De Wildeman, in PI. Util. du Congo, 
Art. xiii. pp. 156-163. — " A propos da Baobab," I.e. Art. xxiii. 
pp. 298-301.— " L'huile de Baobab," I.e. Art. xxxii. pp. 561-563.— 
" Etude sur la graine du Baobab," in L'Agric. pratique des pays 
chauds. iii. 1903-01, pp. 658-662.— " Leaves and Fruit of the 
Baobab Tree" (medicinal value) in Bull. Imp. Inst. 1906, p. 252. 

Bombax, Linn. 

Bombax buonopozense, Beauv. ; El. Trop. Afr. I. p. 213. 

A deciduous tree, about 40 feet high. Leaflets obovate, abruptly 
acuminate. Calyx almost glabrous outside. Petals 2-2£ inches 
long. Stigmas diverging, not reflexed except at the apex. 

111.— Pal. de Beauv. El. Ow. Ben. ii. t. 83, f. 1. 

Vernan. names. — Eso, Pompola (Yoruba, Millson) ; Gurijia 
(Kontagora, Dalziel). — Silk Cotton Tree. 

Yoruba ; Kontagora ; Nupe ; Borgu. 


The fruits contain a silky fibre similar to Kapok {Eriodendron 
anfractuosum). The Yorubas use a decoction of the bark as an 
emmenagogue, and a powder made from the prickles mixed with 
oil as a remedy for " craw-craw " : — a common skin disease (Mill- 
son, Kew Bull. 1891, p. 215). In Kontagora the bark is used 
mixed with tobacco flowers to improve the appearance of the 
teeth (Dalziel, Bull. Imp. Inst. 1907, p. 263). 

The wood is soft and light, and is used by the natives of French 
Guinea for planks, doors, canoes, tom-toms, and household utensils 
(Pobeguin, Fl. Gain. Franc, p. 37). 

Cultivation could probably be carried out on the same lines as 
that of Eriodendron (q.v.). The tree flowers in December and 
January (Elliott, Barter, Herb. Kew), before the end of the 
Harmattan (Dalziel, I.e.). 

Bombax reflexum, Sprague, in Journ. Linn. Soc. xxxvii. p. 500 ; 
[B. buonopozensis, Hiern, Cat. Welw. Afr. PI. i. p. 80, non Beauv.] 

A deciduous tree, about 90-100 feet high ; trunk 4-10 feet in 
diameter. Leaflets oblanceolate, acuminate. Calyx pubescent 
outside. Petals 2^-3 inches. Stigmas reflexed. 

Vernac. name. — Obokha (Benin, Unwiri): 

Benin ; known also from Uganda and Angola. Barter on his 
specimen (No. 731, Herb. Kew) drew a distinction between two 
trees : one 40 feet high, flowering in December (in Borgu and 
Nupe), and the other (which he did not collect) 100 feet high, 
flowering in April (at Onitsha). The latter may have been 
B. reflexum, and material of Bombax from Onitsha would be 
acceptable at Kew. 

The general information given under B. buonopozense may 
apply to B. reflexum, although Unwin (No. 184, Mus. Kew) 
mentions that the tree is not used in the Benin district. 

Eriodendron, DC. 

Eriodendron orientale, Steud. Nomencl. Ed. 2, I. p. 587. 

\_E. anfractuosum, Mast, in Oliv. Fl. Trop. Afr. i. (1868), p. 214 ; 
E. anfractuosum, var. indicum, DC. Prodr. i. (1824), p. 479 ; var. 
africannm, I.e. ; Bombax pentandrum, Linn. Sp. PI. (1753), 
p. 959 ; Ceiba Casearia, Hiern, Cat, Welw. Afr. PI. i. (1896), p. 80; 
Ceiba pentandra, Gaertn. ; Engl. & Prantl, Pflan. iii. (1895), 
pt. 6, p. 63.] 

///.— Rheede, Hort. Mai. iii. tt, 49-51 ; Rumpf, Amb. i. t. 80 ; 
Lam. Encvcl. t. 851 ; Bot. Mag. t. 3360 ; Wight, Ic. PI. Ind. or. ii. 
t. 400 ; Bedd. Fl. Sylv. (Anal. Gen.), t. 4, f . 2 ; Blanco, Fl. Filip. 
t. 238 ; Vidal, Fl. For. Filip. t. 17a ; Greshoff, Nutt. Ind. PI. t. 42 ; 
De Wildeman, PI. Util. Congo, t. 29 ; L'Agric. prat, des pays 
chauds, 1905, p. 24 (group of trees), p. 27 (fruit), p. 33, f. 1 (fibre 
magnified) ; Pobeguin, Fl. Gnin. Franc, t. 18 ; Brandis, Indian 
Trees, p. 77 (E. anfractuosum). 

Vernac. names. — Eggun (Lagos, Foster, Dawodu) ; Okha (Benin, 
Unwin); Akbo (Ibo, Thompson): Rimi (Kontagora, Dalziel); 
Mal'uma, Maf unieira \ Suma-I T ina (Angola, Welwitsch) ; Kapok 
(Dutch) ; Fromager (French Guinea). — Cotton Tree ; White 
Silk Cotton. 


Benin, Lagos, Kontagora, and widely distributed in West 
Tropical Africa ; found also in India, Ceylon, East Indies, &c. 

The floss surrounding the seeds is an important commercial 
product. It is known generally as " Kapok," and used for stuffing 
cushions, pillows, mattresses, chairs, &c. It is now being used in 
the manufacture of lifebelts, lifebuoys, &c. It has also been 
suggested for use in medicine, in place of ordinary cotton (Pharm. 
Journ. [4] xix. p. 609). The fibre does not appear to be of use 
for textile purposes owing to shortness of staple and other 
mechanical defects which make it unsuitable for spinning, and 
to the low percentage of cellulose (Bull. Imp. Inst. 1905, p. 224). 
In a sample of Kapok from the Gold Coast the staple was from 
0*8 inch to 1*1 inch long, and the diameter of the fibres 0*0006 to 
0-0011 inch (1. c. 1908, p. 242). 

The seed yields an edible oil, suitable for soapmaking, and cake 
made from the residue after crushing compares very favourably 
with ordinary cottonseed cake for feeding cattle. The ash of 
Kapok seed is considered a good manure, since it contains 28*5 per 
cent, of phosphoric acid and 24*6 per cent, of potash (Diet. Econ. 
Prod. Ind.). 

The wood is light, about 30 lbs. per cubic foot. It is used in 
parts of Nigeria for making canoes and various domestic utensils, 
and for similar purposes in Angola (Welwitsch), French Guinea 
(Pobeguin), and the Congo (De Wildeman). A few years ago 
(1900) the Government of Lagos sent to the Royal Gardens, Kew, 
some samples of wood for report as to its value in the manufacture 
of paper, and as bottle wrappers. As a paper-making material the 
wood was reported on by Mr. Quirin Wirtz, Consulting Chemist 
to Messrs. John Dickinson & Co., Ltd., Croxley Mills, Watford, 
who summarises his report as follows : — 

" The pulp cannot be considered a very desirable product. 
Generally I come to the conclusion that the production of pulp 
from the ' Silk Cotton Tree ' cannot be a commercial success ; 
1st, on account of the quality of the fibre ; 2nd, owing to the large 
expenditure in soda and bleach, and the hard boiling necessary ; 
3rd, owing to the bad yield of fibres " (Director, Royal Gardens, 
Kew, to Colonial Office, Sept. 6th, 1900). For use as bottle- 
wrappers, it was considered that there was little chance of 
successful competition with straw (1. a). 

In India the wood is stated to be used for tanning leather, and 
from the bark a medicinal gum is obtained (Watt, Comm. Prod. 
Ind. p. 522). The leaves are sometimes used as a substitute for 
Ochro {Hibiscus esculentus) (Moloney, For. W. Afr. p. 286). 

The cultivation of Kapok in the Dutch East Indies is carried on 
in regular plantations, or by planting along the road-sides. Pro- 
pagation is effected by seed and by cuttings. The plants are 
usually put out at distances of 18 feet, and increase by cuttings 
is preferred as the plants yield a quicker return (Kapok, by 
J. C. Klutgen, Rotterdam, 1883). Propagation by seed has been 
found to be cheap and effective in the Philippine Islands for 
planting on a large scale. Trees raised from seed, when 20 months 


old, were over 6 metres in height and 40 centimetres in girth at 
30 centimetres from the ground (Philippine Agric. Review, Jan. 
1908, p. 40). 

In Mysore the tree is grown from cuttings, as a support for the 
betel vine in Areca plantations (Gamble, Man. Ind. Timb. 
p. 92). The plants begin to bear fruit at the age of 2 years, and 
at the age of 5 years each tree may give about 300 fruits, capable 
of yielding 1'500 kilog. of Kapok. For a fully developed tree as 
much as 5,000 fruits may be expected, each yielding 4-5 grammes 
of cotton, or from 20-25 kilog. in all (De Wildeman, PI. Util. 
Congo, Art. xxxiii. p. 566). Kliitgen (1. c.) gives the number of 
fruits yielded by one tree yearly as 1,500, producing 22 per cent, 
of pure Kapok, 29 per cent, of seeds, and 49 per cent, of waste. 

The pods ought to be gathered just as they are about to burst, 
and, as with cotton, careful picking, drying, ginning and baling is 
essential. The trees in Nigeria are somewhat scattered and 
usually occur in association with other trees. It is possible, 
therefore, that the collection of the bolls would be one of some 
difficulty, and at times impossible in any quantity, much less on a 
commercial scale. Under systematic cultivation, however, these 
difficulties would be removed. 

Ginning is done largely by machinery, in Java, and to a certain 
extent by hand. When baling it is not advisable to press so 
tightly as in the case of cotton. Hydraulic or steam-press packing 
is liable to damage the fibre, and to destroy its elasticity. A " Silk 
Cotton Press," constructed by Stork & Co., has been found satis- 
factory. A bale of Java Kapok weighs about 80 lb. ; Ceylon 200 lb., 
and a bale of Indian about 400 lb. The lighter bales realise the 
best price (Kew Bull. 1896, pp. 205 and 206). 

The Dutch East Indies have always been the chief source of 
Kapok, the trade having commenced about 1877. Ceylon and 
India have also contributed to the trade, although the Indian 
product is more often that of Simul {Bombax malabaricum). 
The exports from Java and Madura during 1904 amounted to 
77,464 bales, in 1905 to 56,377 bales, and in 1906 to 47,678 bales ; 
early and excessive rains were stated to be the cause in some 
measure for the reduction in the 1906 crop (Dip. & Cons. Rep. 
Ann. No. 3820, 1907, pp. 7 and 20). 

In 1896 Kapok was coming regularly into London to the extent 
of 100 bales a month from India and Ceylon, the value then being 
2\d. to 4a'. per lb. (Kew Bull. 1896, p. 207). 

The dock charges on Kapok are : for landing, in bales, press or 
box packed, not exceeding 5 feet cube to the cwt., 4s. per ton ; 
above 5 feet and not exceeding 12 feet, 6s. per ton ; exceeding 
12 feet or in bags or mats, Is. Qd. per ton ; for reweighing, 
repiling or rehousing, Is. 6<7., 2s. 66?., 3s. per ton ; for delivery to 
land conveyance, 2s., 2s. 9r/., 6s, Gd. per ton ; for delivery to water 
conveyance, 3s., 4s. 9c/., 5a. tie/, per ton ; rent, bd., 6<7., (ul. per ton 
per week, respectively for the dimensions given above (Table of 
Rates, &c., London & India Docks Co. 1904, p. 36). 

Re/.— Diet. Econ. Prod. Ind. iii. 1890, pp. 258-264.— Descr. Cat. 
Useful Fib. PI. of the World, Dodge, U.S. Dept. of Agric. Fibre 


Investig. Rep. No. 9, 1897, p. 160.— " Kapok," in Kew Bull. Add. 
Ser. ii. (1901), pp. 27-30.— " Kapok," in PI. Util. Congo. 1903, 
Art. xxxiii. pp. 564—587. — "Kapok Fibre in Medicine," Pharm. 
Journ. [4] xix. p. 609. — "Vegetable Flosses or Silk Cottons," in 
Bull. Imp. Inst. 1905, pp. 222-225.— " Des Produits Utiles des 
Bombax et en particulier, du Kapok," Perrot, in L'Agric. Prat, 
des pays chauds, 1905, pp. 22-39. — Bull. Imp. Inst. 1907, 
pp. 120-121.— The Comm. Prod. India, Watt 1908, pp. 521-523. 

Sterculia cinerea, Rich. ; PL Trop. Afr. I. p. 218. 

///.—Rich. Tent. Fl. Abyss, t. 16 ; Engl. Monogr. Afr. Pflan. 
Sterculiaceae, t. 9, f. A. 

Vernac. names. — Kookoomboya (S.W. Trop. Afr. Baines) ; 
M'loolooma (Madi, Grant) ; Tartar Tree (Soudan, Broun). 

Strips of the bark from young plants are used as cordage, and 
the wood makes good poles for tents (Moloney, For. W. Afr. 
p. 287). The bark is used for a similar purpose in Madi and Bari, 
and the seeds are eaten during famine (Speke & Grant Exped. 
Journ. Linn. Soc. xxix. p. 38). 

Sterculia rhinopetala, K. Schum. in Engl. Monogr. Afr. Pflan. 
Sterculiaceae, p. 102. 

A tree, 80-100 ft. high, with a large dense head. Branchlets 
rather stout, tomentellous when young, soon becoming glabrous. 
Leaves entire, oblong-lanceolate or obovate-oblong, rounded or 
subcordate at the base, rounded obtuse, or subacute at the apex, 
5-9 in. long, 2-4 in. broad, coriaceous, glabrous ; petioles 1^-3 in. 
long. Calyx yellowish-green, J in. long, lobed to below the 
middle, lobes appendiculate. Anthers arranged in two irregular 
rows. Seeds 7-12 in each follicle. 

Lagos ; the distribution extending to the Cameroons. 

According to Zenker, the seeds are used like those of Cola by 
the natives at Yaunde in the Cameroons. 

Sterculia tomentosa, Guillem. et Perr. ; Fl. Trop. Afr. 1. p. 217. 
///. — Guillem. Perr. Rich. Fl. Senegamb. t. 16 ; Engl. Monogr. 
Afr. Pflan. Sterculiaceae, t. 9, f. G (anclroecium). 

Vernac. name. — Chixe (Loanda, Wehvitsch). 

Niger ; extending to S.W. Africa and the Soudan. 

Very abundant in dry situations. The thick trunk yields a gum, 
like Gum Tragacanth ; eaten as food by tiie natives of Loanda, in 
times of great famine (Hiern. Cat. Welw. Afr. PI. i. p. 82). 

Sterculia Tragacantha, Lindl. ; Fl. Trop. Afr. I. p. 216. 

III. — Bot. Reg. t. 1353 ; Engl. Monogr. Afr. Pflan. Sterculiaceae, 
t. 9, f. F. 

Vernac. names. — Popripo (Benin, Thompson) ; Nespera or 
Nespera d'obo (St. Thomas, Moller) ; Quimdembia (Angola, Wel- 
witsch). — African Tragacanth. 


Yields a gum closely resembling Tragacanth (Astragalus 
gummifer), and often comes into commerce as an adulterant of 
Gum Arabic (Acacia arabica and A. Senegal). In French Guinea 
the roasted seeds are used as a medicine for stomach complaints, 
and the bark of the young branches is used as a tying material. 
The wood is used for planks, posts, and constructive work 
(Pobeguin, Fl. Guin. Franc, p. 74). 

The specific gravity of the dry wood is 0*8. In St. Thomas the 
wood is sold at prices varying from 30 to 40 milreis (Is. 3d. to Is. 8c/. 
approx.) per cubic metre (Moller, Tropenpfl. 1902, p. 373). 

Firmiana, Marsigli. 

Firmiana Barteri, K. Schum. in Engl. & Prantl, Pflan. iii. pt. 6> 
1895, p. 97. 

[Sterculia Barteri, Mast, in Oliv. Fl. Trop. A6r. i. 1868, p. 218.] 

///.—Hook. Ic. PI. t. 2277 (Sterculia Barteri). 

Vernac. name. — Eso or Esho (S. Nigeria, Bull. Imp. Inst. 1908, 
p. 316). 

Yields a fibre, a sample of which, examined at the Imperial 
Institute, has been described as strong, harsh and woody, with a 
possible value of about £L5 to £20 per ton, for ropemaking (Bull. 
Imp. Inst. I.e.). Rope made of the fibre is extensively employed 
by the natives for tying up bundles of Cola nuts (Col. Rep. Misc. 
No. 51, 1908, p. 62). 

The wood is light, and used for fish-net floats (Barter, Herb. 

Cola, Schott. 

Cola acuminata, Schott. & Endl. ; Fl. Trop. Afr. I. p. 220. 

[Cola vera, K. Schum. Sterculiaceae, Afr. 1900, p* 125.] 

Ill, — Pal. de Beauv. Fl. Ow. Ben. i. t. 24 (Sterculia, acuminata) ; 
Karst. Fl. Columb. i. t. 69 (Siphoniopsis monoica) ; Bot. Mag. 
t. 5699 ; Heckel, Kolas Afr. p. 22 (group of trees), p. 24, and t. 1, 
ff. 1-7 (Cotyledons and their structure), t. 2 (young plant), t. 3, 
ff. 17-20; Ibid in Ann. Inst, Col. Marseille, 1893; Christy, New 
Coram. V\. and Drugs, No. 3, 1880, p. 20 (Sterculia acuminata), 
No. 8, 1885, p. 5 ; Engl. & Prantl, Pflan. iii. pt. 6, f. 50 (after 
Karst. Fl. Columb.) ; Kohler, Med. Pflan. iii. tt, 19-20 ; Tropenpfl. 

1900, p. 220 (Cola vera) ; Cat. PL Hort. Col. Brux. p. 67 ; Engl. 
Monogr. Afr. Pflan. Sterculiaceae, p. 126, f. 3 (after Karst, Fl. 
Columb.) ; Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berl. iii. 1900, t. 1 A-F ; Tropenpfl. 

1901, p. 356, f. 3 (fruit of Gbanja-Kola) ; p. 363, f. 5 (tree of Gbanja- 
Kola, 2 years old) ; p. 365, f. 7 (tree of Abata-Kola, 5 years old) ; 
Pobeguin, Fl. Guin. Franc, t. 67 ; Karst. & Schenck, Veg. bild. iv. 
t. 30 (Sterculia acuminata). 

Vernac. names. — Gonja (Foulah, Barter) ; Atara (Kabba, 
Elliott) ; Gbanjakola, Abatakola (Yoruba, Bemegau, Dawodu) ; 
Coleira (Angola, De Wildeman), Noix de Gouro (Ivory Coast, 
Pobeguin, Kohler, Planchon tt' Collin) ; Ombene (PUmchon A 
Collin, Kohle?*) ; Byssi (Jamaica, Morris). 


S. Nigeria, all Provinces. N. Nigeria, Labosbi, Fashi, Yakudi, 
Gbaki, Patchiko, Kimbokuin, Bete, Bitagi. Koda, &c. — Native 
of West Africa. Introduced to most tropical countries, and 
naturalized in tbe West Indies. From 1880 onwards tbe plant 
bas been propagated at Kew and distributed to Botanic Gardens 
in tbose parts of tbe Empire where its cultivation is likely to meet 
with success (Kew Bull. 1890, p. 254). 

The seed of this tree is the Kola nut of commerce. The nuts of 
some other species have also been used for the same purposes, 
viz., Cola verticillata, Stapf, C. Johnsonii, Stapf (Trop. Life, 
June, 1907, p. 84), C. lepidota, G. anomala (Year Book Pharm. 
1900, p. 136), and G. Ballayi (Bull. Imp. Inst. 1903, p. 93). The 
seed of the true Kola may be usually distinguished by having 
only two divisions or cotyledons, whereas in other species there 
are generally more. Johnson has found two cotyledons in 68*18 
per cent, of the seeds of G. acuminata ; in 2*95 per cent, of those 
of C. verticillata y and in 6*97 per cent, of those of G. Johnsonii 
(Trop. Life, I.e.). 

The Kola nut is used chiefly as a stimulant. It forms an 
important item in the daily life of the West African socially and 
dietetically. In Europe preparations of the nut are efficient sub- 
stitutes for tea or coffee. 

The seeds vary in colour, usually white or red, or sometimes an 
intermediate shade. 

The Kola nut contains 2*348 per cent, of caffeine, 0*023 per 
cent, of theobromine, and 1*618 per cent, of tannin (Heckel, Kolas 
Afr. 1893, p. 206). The proportion of caffeine in samples examined 
at the Imperial Institute was found to be a little higher in the 
dry than in the fresh seeds ; the different coloured seeds showed 
but little difference in the amount of caffeine present (Bull. Imp. 
Inst. 1907, p. 22). 

Goris and Arnould have stated that the therapeutical value of 
fresh seeds is much superior to that of the dried seeds. They 
have proposed the following method of preparing a powdered 
Kola from the fresh seeds suitable for use in Pharmacy. The 
fresh seeds entire or separated into their cotyledons, are spread 
in thin layers on wire baskets ; these are introduced into an 
autoclave previously heated to 100° ; the temperature is then 
raised to 105°-110° for 5 to 10 minutes ; the seeds are then 
taken out, cut into small pieces and dried either by exposure to 
the air or in a drying cupboard. White seeds remain white with 
the exception of a slight pink tinge on the surface, but red seeds 
turn violet. It is essential that the temperature of the seeds is 
rapidly raised from 15° to 100°. The powder thus obtained gave 
an excellent yield of Kolatin, and may be employed for the 
preparation of tablets, cachets, &c. (Pharm. Journ. [4] xxiv. 1907, 
p. 527). 

Carles in 1900 suggested a process of beating the fresh nuts to 
pulp with an equal weight of lump sugar, by which it was main- 
tained that all the constituents of the nut were preserved in an 
unaltered condition (I.e. p. 837). For export to countries out- 
side Africa the nuts, after being skinned, are usually carefully and 


thoroughly dried ; although to certain places, Brazil for instance, 
a trade in the fresh nuts has been developed (see Kew Bull. 
1890, p. 258). 

In West Africa the nuts are kept in as fresh a condition as 
possible. The seeds after being carefully removed from the 
husk and freed from the episperm, are carefully picked over, and 
a selection made of those only which are sound. They are then 
packed with moist " bal " leaves (Cola cordifolia), or packed 
with the leaves of Thaumatococcus Danielli, Benth. in broad 
baskets made of palm leaves (I.e. 1906, p. 91). To keep the seeds 
fresh it is necessary to pick them over, wash in fresh water and 
repack in fresh leaves about every 30 days (I.e. 1890, p. 256). For 
trade purposes the packages are constructed to contain about 
3 cwt. of seeds, or 750 to 1000 kilog. (Tropenpfl. 1904, p. 353), 
and on board ship they are usually carried as deck cargo. 
For transport overland, other than by rail, the packages are 
considerably reduced in size, and are conveyed on pack-animals 
to Kano and other centres of trade in Nigeria, extending to 
Tripoli via Mursuk, and to Morocco via Timbuctoo. Fresh Kola 
nuts are imported into Tripoli via Marseilles, bought at the rate 
of 6 francs per kilog. (Tropenpfl. 1904, p. 357). The Hausas 
often barter salt for Kolas, the rate of exchange being 1 lb. of 
salt (value about 6d.) for 100 nuts (Kew Bull. 1906, p. 91). In 
Nupe white nuts realize about 2s. 3d. per 100, and red nuts Is. 6d. 
to Is. 9d. per 100 (Bernegau, Tropenpfl. 1904, p. 357). The price 
of fresh Kolas in countries of production may vary from 3d. to 
Is. per 100, increasing in value according to the distance conveyed 
and cost of transport (Kew Bull. 1906, p. 91). In Bahia they are 
sold at 2d. to M. each according to freshness (I.e. 1890, p. 259). 
In the markets of Liverpool and London the dried nuts realize 
about 2\d. per lb. 

The internal trade of Nigeria in these nuts is much greater than 
the external by sea. Lagos is probably the most important market 
for fresh nuts on the West Coast of Africa, and the imports for 
the year ending Dec. 31st, 1906, were 3,001,277 lbs., value £53,384, 
and for the same period into other Provinces of S. Nigeria, 
3,729,815 lbs., value £59,074, whereas the exports from S. Nigeria 
for the same year were only valued at £3,716 (Govt. Gaz. S. Nigeria, 
May 22nd, 1907, App. A and B). 

The Dock Charges in London for Kola nuts are : landing, 
%d. per cwt. ; reweighing, refilling or rehousing, 2\d. per cwt. ; 
delivery to land conveyance, id. per cwt. ; delivery to water 
conveyance, 6d. per cwt. ; rent per week, %d. per cwt. (Rates 
and Charges, London and India Docks Co., 1904, p. 36). 

The chief cultural requirements are a tropical climate, a rainfall 
of 50 inches and upwards, a deep, rich and well-drained soil, and 
moderate shade. 

Plants may be propagated by seeds, which germinate in about a 
month, cuttings or layers. Young plants may be raised in nursery 
beds, but they do not transplant well, and it is best to establish 
them in bamboo pots until large enough to plant out in permanent 
places. They require to be planted at distances of from 20 to 


30 feet, or wide enough apart to admit of shade trees being inter- 
mixed. Bananas make good shade in the early stages of growth, 
and later large trees such as Albizzia Lebbek, Ptthecolobium 
Saman, &c., may be used. Trees raised from seed begin to bear 
a small amount of fruit when 5 or 6 years old, the produce 
increasing yearly until the tree matures. A tree planted in the 
Botanic Station, Lagos, in 1888, fruited for the first time in March, 
1896 (Millen, Rep. Bot. St. 30th June, 1896). A remunerative 
crop may be expected after about 10 years, when it is stated that 
a single tree will yield an average of 120 lbs. annuallv (Kew Bull. 
1890, p. 255). 

In Yoruba the tree yields two crops, a large one from September 
to January, and a small one from May to August (Tropenpfl. 
1904, p. 353). 

According to Leigh and Dawodu the cultivation (of the Abata 
variety) is brought to a great state of perfection by the natives in 
the Ekiti country, where it is hilly and well covered with forests 
(Kew Bull. 1898, p. 139). In the Labogie district (Province of 
Nupe, N. Nigeria) Elliot states that the Kola plantations are 
situated in sheltered valleys at an elevation of from 450 to 550 feet 
above the sea. The soil is a deep black, sandy loam, kept in a 
continuous state of moisture by the streams that are found in each 
valley. Very little care is taken of the trees, and they are found 
growing with the Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis). The rainfall of 
the district is probably between 40 and 50 in., but it is stated that 
no rain falls between December and April. The traders of the 
Soudan, according to Count Zech, prize the Kola from Labogie 
more than that from Ashanti (Kew Bull. 1906, p. 89). 

The King of Nupe owns a plantation of 8 acres, and there is 
another large plantation at Agege containing 2,000 trees {see 
Tropenpfl. ]904, p. 357). Trees grow wild in the forests of Ilaro 
(Millen, Kew Bull. 1893, p. 183), and in the neighbourhood of 
Itele there are many fine trees planted by the natives (Millson, in 
Rep. Bot. St. Lagos, 30th Sept. 1890, App. B). They are grown 
largely in the districts of Warri and Benin (H. N. Thompson, to 
Director, Kew, 19th April, 1906), and are also grown at Great 
Bafum ; Takum is the Kola Market for all the Lower Benue States 
(Moseley, in Geog. Journ. xiv. 18:^9, p. 633). 

It would seem that the cultivation of Kola in the Niger Region 
is of a comparatively recent date. Barter in 1859 stated that he 
had seen no living trees of " Gonja " (Foulah) the Kola with the 
two cotyledons, and understood that those he saw in trade came 
from Ashanti. A nut from which he raised a plant to send to the 
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, was obtained from a caravan at 
Rabba returning from the coast. He had observed the species 
with four cotyledons called " Fatak " by the Foulahs, and found 
that it was common in many parts of the Lower Niger, and 
abundant at Onitsha. The former realized in the Nupe Country 
100 cowries each nut, and the latter about 80, the cowrie then 
being valued at the rate of 2,500 for the dollar at 4s. 4d. He 
mentions that immense quantities of Kola nuts were conveyed 
from the coast to the interior during the dry season ; about 1,000 


donkeys monthly passing through Rabba, each laden with about 
100 lbs. of nuts (Journ. Linn. Soc. iv. 1860, p. 18, Letter to 
Sir Wm. Hooker, dated Jan. 2nd. 1859). 

Ref.—" Kola Nut Tree," in New Comm. PI. and Drugs, Christy, 
No. 3, 1880, pp. 21-23; No. 8, 1885, pp. 5-14.— Kew Bull. 1890, 
pp. 253-260 ; " Synonymy of Cola acuminata " and the Labos:ie 
Cola, I.e. 1906, pp. 89-91.— "Les Kolas Africains,' Heckel, "in 
Ann. Inst. Col. Marseille, 1893, pp. 1-406.— Ibid, Paris, 1893, 
Monographie botanique, chimique, therapeutique et pharmaco- 
logique, &c. — " The Properties of the Kola Nut," in Journ. Soc. 
Arts, xliii. 1895, p. 831. — " Noix de Kola-Gourou-Ombene-Nan- 
goue," in Les Drogues Simples d'origine vegetale, Planchon & 
Collin, 1896, ii. pp. 715-720.—" Cola acuminata, R.Br." in Medizinal 
Pflanzen, Kohler, iii. — " Uber die Stammpflanzer der Kolanufs," 
von K. Schumann, in Der Tropenpflanzer, 1900, pp. 219-223. — 
" Kola Nuts," Holme?, in Pharm. Journ. [4] x. pp. 665-666, 
Illustrated. — " Varieties of Kola Seeds," Pharm. Journ. [4] xvi. 
p. 266.— " Kola Nuts," in West Indian Bulletin, iv. No. 3, 1903, 
pp. 182-188. — "Studien Uber die Kolanuss im Yorubalande," von 
L. Bernegau, in Der Tropenpfl. 1904, pp. 353-373, illustrated. — 
" Les Kolatiers et les Kolas," Jean Vuillet, in L'Agric. prat, pays 
chauds, vi. 1, 1906, pp. 129-136.—" Kola Seeds from the Gold 
Coast," in Bull. Imp. Inst. 1907, pp. 20-22, with analyses of red 
and white seeds. — " Kola in West Africa," S. Nigeria Govt. Gaz. 
July 21st, 1908, suppl. pp. vi.-viii. 

Dombeya, Cav. 
Dombeya Buettneri, K. Schnm. in Engl. Jahrb. xv. p. 133. 

A shrub, 7-15 ft. high, branchlets villous-hispid when young, 
afterwards becoming glabrous. Leaves suborbicular, more or less 
evidently 3-5 lobed, deeply cordate at the base, pubescent above, 
tomentellous or pubescent below, margin crenate-serrate ; petiole 
3-6 in. long. Cymes long-peduncled, dense-flowered ; peduncle 
and pedicels hispid. Flowers about I in. in diameter, white with 
pink or reddish centre. Style 5-branched. 

III. — Engl. Monogr. Afr. Pflan. Sterculiaceae, t. 2, f. B, a-f. 

Vernac. name.— Ewe Ofo (S. Nigeria, Bull. Imp. Inst. 1908, 
p. 316). 

Abeokuta (Irving, Herb. Kew). 

A sample of the fibrous bark was recently submitted to the 
Imperial Institute. It was described as narrow brownish ribbons, 
harsh, woody and rather weak, which tended to break up on 
hackling ; value £7 to £8 per ton (Bull. Imp. Inst. I.e.). 

Walthekia, Linn. 

Waltheria americana, Linn. ; Fl. Trop. Afr. I. p. 235. 

III. — Cav. Diss. t. 170 {W. arhorescens, microphylla), t. 171 
( W. elliptica) ; Sinclair, Indig. Fl. Hawaiian Is. t. 38 ; Engl. 
Monogr. Afr. Pflan. Sterculiaceae, t. 3, f. J. 

Vernac. names. — Korikodi (Lagos, Dawodu) ; Hialoa (Hawaii, 


This plant has been determined as being one of the ingredients 
of the "Agbo" pot, of the Lagos Hinterland (see Xylopia 
aethiopica). In Surinam it is employed as a febrifuge (Moloney, 
For. W. Africa, p. 287). The natives of Hawaii use the 
pounded leaves for filling the seams and cracks of their canoes 
(Sinclair, I.e.). 


Theobroma Cacao, Linn. Sp. PI. ed. 1 (1753), p. 782. 

A tree of medium size, 20 feet and upwards, branching tricho- 
tomously at or near the base ; branches cylindric, bark smooth 
greyish or greyish-brown. Leaves alternate, entire, 8-9 inches long, 
2^-3 in. broad, sometimes larger, ovate-lanceolate, or ovate-oblong, 
acute, somewhat rounded at the base ; veins prominent beneath ; 
petiole 1 inch or so long, thickened at both ends ; stipules subulate- 
linear, acutely serrate. Flowers pale pink arising in clusters, or 
sometimes solitary, from the trunk and old wood of the branches, 
on slender, short pedicels. Fruit 5-celled, pendulous, solitary or 
grouped in twos or threes, corrugated, the furrows shallow, ridges 
blunt, usually numbering about 10, surface somewhat uneven, 
ovoid, oblate at the base, elongated towards the apex, major axis 
6-7 inches, and the minor axis 3-4 inches ; pericarp thick and 
firm, at first green, changing to yellow, and finally to red or 
purple. Seeds embedded in a sweet mucilaginous pulp, numerous, 
approximately 50 to 100 in each fruit according to the variety, 
slightly larger than almonds. 

III.— Plenck, Ic. t. 578 ; Lam. Encycl. t. 635 ; Lodd. Bot. Cab. 
t. 545 ; Hayne, Darst. Beschr. Gewasche, ix. t. 35 ; Guimpel, 
Abbild. Beschr. t. 75 : Desc. Ant. iv. t. 266 ; Nees von Esenbeck, 
Plant. Medic. Diisseld. t. 419 ; Wagner, Pharm. Medic. Bot. t. 227 ; 
Spach, Suites, t. 25 ; Mitscherlich, Cacao, tt. 1, 2 ; Berg. & Schmidt, 
Darst. & Beschr. Pharm. tt. 33e, 33f ; Nooten, Fl. Java, 1. 1, t. 40 (var. 
alba) ; Bernouilli, Theobroma, tt. 1, 2 ; Bentl. & Trimen, Med. PI. 
t. 38 (drawn from specimen flowered in the Royal Botanic Gardens. 
Kew ; fruit from a specimen in the British Museum) ; Zippel, 
Ausl. Handels. Niihrpflan. t. 3 ; Baillon, Diet. Bot. t. 30 ; Kohler, 
Med. Pflan. ii. tt. 157 i., 157 ii. ; Sem. Hort. 1897, p. 317, f. 122 
(tree in fruit) ; Preuss, Expedit. C«nt. und Siidamer. tt. 1, 2 (fruits, 
various forms) ; De Wildeman, PI. Util. Congo, tt. 16-19 ; Gard. 
Chron. Aug. 15th, 1903, p. 115 ; Dec. 17th, 1904, p. 429 (fruit) 
Journ. Roy. Hort. Soc. xxviii. 1903, Proc. p. 44 (tree bearing fruit, 
grown at Norfolk House, Beulah Hill, Upper Norwood) ; Tropenpfl. 
1904, tt. 9-12 ; Karst. & Schenck, Veg. bild. i. t. 14 ; L'Agric. prat, 
pays chauds, v. pp. 269-277 ; Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. ix. t. 67. 

Cocoa or Cacao ; Chocolate. 

Native of Tropical America ; cultivated in Nigeria, and in many 
other Tropical countries. 

The chief source of Commercial Cocoa may be attributed to this 
species and its varieties " Criollo " and " Forastero" 

Other sources, but to a smaller extent, are Theobroma bicolor, 
and Theobroma pentagona. 


The uses of the Cacao bean in the preparation of chocolate and 
as a beverage are well known. The outer integument of the bean, 
supplied by the manufacturers of chocolate, is used in large 
quantities in Ireland for making a drink. These shells (so-called) 
are imported from Italy under the name of " Miserable " (Mus. 
Kew). The beans contain a high percentage of fat which is 
officinal (Oleum Theobromae) in the British Pharmacopoeia, and 
its use in Pharmacy is appreciated on account of its very slight 
tendency to rancidity. The fat has a bland agreeable taste ; its 
specific gravity is 0*961, and melting point 20° to 30° C. (Watt, 
Comm. Prod. Ind. p. 1076). 

Cacao has been under cultivation in Nigeria for some 20 years, 
and shipments have been made since about 1891. The cultivation 
was not taken up seriously under European supervision until the 
commencement of operations by the Royal Niger Company. 
Plantations were established at Abutshi and Onitsha in 1899 
(Woodruff, Report, Nov. 1889), and in 1900 were taken over by the 
Government of S. Nigeria (see pp. 35-37). The plant has been 
cultivated at Lagos since the formation of the Botanic Station 
and distributed to various places in the colony. The work of 
distribution is now continued from Oloke-Meji. In 1895 it was 
reported that in the Lagos Colony much more attention seemed to 
be paid to the cultivation of Coffee than to that of Cocoa. A 
sample prepared on " Woodland " Estate, the property of Mr. 
J. P. L. Davis, then the largest and best plantation there, was 
valued at from 62s. to 65s. per cwt., with Ceylon at 70s. per cwt., 
and West Indian at 50s. to 52s. (Leigh, Report on Bot. St. Lagos, 
June, 1895). Cultivation and distribution was commenced at Old 
Calabar in 1893. In 1896 there were well-established plantations, 
belonging to the African Association at Eket (Quo Ibo), and 
Ikotombo on the Calabar River, and one plantation belonging to 
the Oil Rivers Company at Buguma (New Calabar). Of the 
plantations established by native chiefs may be mentioned one 
at Idua, the property of Chief Daniel Henshaw, and one at 
N'trukpom, near Isoninyan, the property of Prince Oyo Ita. The 
natives of Okenla, Egba, grow cocoa, and the region is considered 
an important one for the production (Punch, Lagos Govt. Gaz. 
Oct. 1902, p. 657). 

The chief cultural requirements are a mean temperature of about 
80^ F., a rainfall of 50 inches and upwards ; shelter from prevailing 
winds ; rich, deep, well-drained soil, free from all chance of 
being inundated with salt water, and moderate shade at all 

The soil at Old Calabar, in which the trees grew well, is an 
alluvium, originally covered with thick bush and decayed 
vegetable matter, but too sandy to last without manuring. In 
Trinidad, a loose clay, or clay with an admixture of sand and lime, 
is considered suitable (Hart, Cacao, p. 1). 

Propagation is usually effected by seed. The seed should be 
selected from the ripest and best developed fruits ; they may be 
sown about 6 in. x 6 in. apart in nursery beds, and transplanted 
when about a foot to 18 inches high, and seeds are sown where 
the plants are to be permanent ; about three seeds should be set a 

33385 G 


few inches apart, and the strongest plant only should be allowed 
to remain. Seeds may also be sown singly in bamboo pots, from 
which they can be readily transplanted when large enough into 
their permanent places. 

In the island of St. Thomas, on the older estates, three seeds 
are planted in a Palm-leaf basket, and the plants are transplanted 
when they are from 2 to 3 feet high. On the more modern 
plantations the land is first prepared by cutting down the trees 
and brushwood, which are afterwards burnt. The seeds are then 
planted in the ground among bananas (Cons. Rep. Ann. No. 3928, 
Angola, Sept. 1907, p. 33). 

It has always been a matter of some difficulty to convey seeds, 
except for very short distances, from place to place, and at the 
same time to preserve their germinating power. The usual 
method of distribution is by means of young plants in Wardian 
Cases. A method of conveying the seeds was recently tested at 
Kew and found successful. It consists of packing the seeds, 
from which the pulp has been for the most part removed, in 
material composed of equal parts of moist vegetable mould and 
finely ground or powdered charcoal (see Kew Bull. 1907, p. 297). 
For short distances, as a rule not extending over 10 or 14 days, 
seeds may be conveyed in the pods. It has been found, however, 
that seeds will germinate freely after being preserved in the pod 
for 17 days. In 1907 a consignment of 60 pods were sent from 
the Royal Botanic Gardens, Trinidad, to the Royal Botanic 
Gardens, Kew. They were despatched on the 24th June, 1907, 
and received at Kew on the 10th July. Nearly 100 per cent, of 
the seeds taken from clean pods germinated, and about 50 per 
cent, of those from pods Avhich had gone mouldy. 

Propagation by grafting has during the last few years been the 
subject of some experiments in various places. Hart (Trinidad) 
claims to have discovered in 1898 that Cacao can easily be grafted 
by approach or inarching. Jones (Dominica) finds that " Alligator 
Cacao" (Theobroma pentagoyia) united successfully on stocks of 
"Forastero," but that with stocks of "Tiger Cacao" (Theobroma 
bicolor) they were not successful. Evans (Gold Coast) reports the 
successful grafting of T. pentagona on to " Forastero " stocks 
(Report of the Bot. and Agric. Dept. Gold Coast, 1906, p. 10). 

For purposes of shade in the early stages, plantains, bananas, 
maize, pigeon pea, cassava, castor oil, &c, might be used, and for 
permanent shade, the " Bois Immortel " (Erythrina umbrosa) ; 
Erythrina lithosperrna ; "Madera" (Gliricidia maculata) — used 
for this purpose in Nicaragua, planted from seed about 13 feet 
apart, and allowed to grow for 18 months or 2 years before the 
cocoa is put in (Agric. News, Barbados, 1904, p. 135) ; and Guango 
(Pithecololdum Samari), planted 50-63 feet apart (Bull. Dept. 
Agric, Jamaica, 1903, p. 121). Various rubber trees, &c, have 
also been recommended. Among indigenous trees the Oil Palm 
(Elaeis guineensis), " Opachala " (Pentaclethra macrophylla) 
" Nete " (Parkia afrlcana) may be mentioned as being suitable 
for the purpose. Selection of the right plant, however, must be 
made according to local conditions. It may, in some localities, be 


found advisable to grow without shade. In Grenada this course 
has been attended with success (Proc. Agric. Soc. Trinidad, viii. 
1908, p. 85). 

Where manure is difficult or costly to procure it would be 
advisable to use plants or trees known to afford a supply of nitro- 
genous matter, often the one element of importance lacking in a 
tropical soil. Plants of approved value for green manuring are 
Erythrina lithosperma, Albizzia moluccana, Phaseolus spp., Cro- 
talaria striata, Arachis hypogaea (ground nut), Vigna Catiang 
(cow pea), Cajanus indicus (pigeon pea), and various other 
leguminous plants. 

The trees bear fruit on the old wood, and pruning should be 
very carefully attended to in the early stages, when all that is 
required can be done with a knife. The natural tendency of the 
tree is a trichotomous branching, and with this as a basis little 
difficulty should arise in controlling the development of a well- 
formed tree. An open centre, total height kept down to 15 or 
20 feet for convenience in gathering and shading, free access of 
air and tempered light, are results specially to be desired. When 
the saw is called into requisition, as it may be occasionally, more 
especially for diseased branches, tar or some other convenient 
styptic should be applied after the cuts have been made clean and 
smooth with a sharp knife. 

From the time of flowering the development and ripening of 
the pods occupies nearly six months. Collection is necessary at 
nearly all times of the year, the pods on each tree ripening at 
different times. Practical experience only will enable the culti- 
vator to select those properly matured. Usually, the pods of good 
colour, and which sound hollow on a tap from the knuckle or 
knife handle, or in which the contents can be heard to move 
slightly when shaken, are in a fit state to be cut. Each pod ought 
to be removed singly, and cut with a sharp knife or " machete." 

In Trinidad a special form of knife is used which enables the 
operator to separate the pod from the tree by an upward or side 
thrust (on a straight edge), or by a pull (on a nearly semicircular 
edge) (Mus. Kew). With a long shaft it is convenient for the 
removal of pods towards the top of the tree, but for those within 
easy reach an ordinary blade is considered the more convenient. 
Great care should be exercised to avoid injuring the wood of the 
stem at the point of attachment to the peduncle, as it is from 
near this place that the next batch of flowers will arise. 

The collected pods are split open with as little delay as possible 
and the contents put at once to ferment in heaps, covered with 
banana trash, or in a receptacle — box, barrel or specially con- 
structed tank — capable of containing not less than 500 lbs. 

The object of the fermentation is to remove the mucilaginous 
matter, to destroy the vitality of the seeds, and to give the requisite 
colour — light brown or cinnamon in the case of " Criollo," and 
dark brown for " Forastero " (Hamel Smith in the Confectioners 1 
Union, Jan. 15th, 1900) — flavour and aroma to the bean, and t<> 
procure the easy and fine "break" of* a well-cured cocoa-bean. 
The ideal bean should have the shell a nice bright red, with a 

33385 G 2 


slight tendency to purple ; " hardness of break," " flintiness," 
" soapiness," " grey colour," &c, all betoken insufficiency of 
ripeness and curing (I.e.). A blue fracture is said to give a bitter 
taste, and a brown fracture a sweet taste (Ann. Rep. Bot. Dept. 
Gold Coast, 1904). The process of fermentation may occupy from 
3 to 10 days, according to the variety, the condition of the bean 
when gathered, and the season — dry or rainy. The temperature 
of the mass during fermentation should be kept approximately at 
100° F. Due provision must be made in the fermenting 
receptacles for evaporation and the draining away of the acid 
liquor which is developed. 

After fermentation the beans are washed and dried gradually 
on mats, trestles, or trays, either in the open or in well-ventilated 
sheds specially erected for the purpose. The drying process 
under favourable conditions should be accomplished in about 
a week, 

Specially erected and permanent fermenting and drying houses 
become a necessity only where the produce is so great from large 
estates, as to create difficulty in meeting the exigencies of the 
weather during the period of preparation. Mid-day sun or rain 
are detrimental to the beans ; the one is likely to parch or crack 
them, and the other is productive of mould. 

A knowledge of the requirements will suggest the right kind of 
structure, having regard to the materials at hand, and in any case 
these need not be of a costly character. 

In some countries, more especially in the Western Tropics, the 
beans are dried and cleaned after fermentation by " claying." 
This process consists of rubbing the beans with finely powdered 
red clay from day to day until all the mucilage is removed and 
they are quite dry and ready for shipment. In Trinidad this 
process is adopted on some of the best estates (Kew Bull. 1890, 
p. 172). 

Much difference of opinion exists as to the value of these 
methods of washing and non-washing. In some parts of the 
West Indies the beans are in general neither washed nor rubbed ; 
the mucilage is allowed to dry upon them after fermentation 
(Kew Bull. 1890, p. 172). In Ceylon the fermented mucilage is 
removed by washing, producing a clean bright sample free from 
discoloration of any kind (I.e.). It has been suggested that the 
natural aroma of Ceylon Cocoa is impaired by washing, and that 
the standard would be considerably raised if the Trinidad method 
of fermentation were applied (Trop. Agric. Ceylon, 1905, p. 248). 
Some experiments conducted recently at Peradeniya with a view 
to effecting a good curing of seeds fermented inside the pod, and 
also to obtain a clean marketable seed without washing, show that 
the results obtained did not justify any change in the method of 
preparation (Circ. No. 4, April, 1903, Roy. Bot. Gdn. Ceylon, 
pp. 68-69). Johnson, late Director of Agriculture, Gold Coast, 
recommended as the result of some enquiries that it would be 
more profitable to prepare the cocoa for market without washing. 

Several samples of washed and unwashed Cocoa forwarded to 
the Royal Gardens, Kew, October, 1905, from the Gold Coast, 


were valueu by Messrs. Lewis & Peat at from 48s. to 51s. per cwt. 
for the washed samples, and 47s. to 49s. per cwt, for unwashed ; 
they advocated washing. The samples had been fermented for 
periods varying from 4 to 8 days (Mus. Kew). In some samples 
the higher values were associated with the longer periods of 
fermentation (50s. to 51s., 8 days) and in others with the shorter 
periods (50s., 4 days), and on the whole the figures given were not 
such as to admit of an accurate conclusion being drawn as to the 
value of the fermentative period in conjunction with the washing 
(see Johnson to Director, Roy. Bot. Gardens, Kew, Aug. 16th, 
1905, Gold Coast Bot. St. Records, 1862-1905, 313, and Bull. Imp. 
Inst, 1907, p. 361). 

One fundamental argument in favour of unwashed beans is that 
they are heavier, and it would appear that, true as this axiom may 
be, it is open to question whether it is in all cases sufficient to 
compensate for the loss in quality and generally unsatisfactory 
appearance. Taking Ceylon as a typical producer of washed 
cocoa, and the West Indies for unwashed, we find the average 
price per lb. of the former for 1906 is 6'5 pence (4,455,901 lbs. 
valued at £122,729), and of the latter 6<125 pence (13,560,501 lbs. 
valued at £346,137) [Trade of the United Kingdom, 1907, p. 267, 
Imports], figures which show T that there is much to be said in 
favour of both systems, more especially since Ceylon, which 
originally grew more " Criollo," now, according to authoritative 
reports, has a preponderance of " Forastero," a circumstance which 
brings the two sources more into line, and thus makes some 
approach to accuracy by comparison. The average price per lb. 
of Ecuador Cocoa for the same year was 7*25 pence (2,812,457 lbs. 
valued at £85,330) ; Venezuela 9*5 pence (127,625 lbs. valued at 
£5,144) in general non- washing countries ; B. W. Africa 4'175 
pence (2J.12,352 lbs. at £40,898) ; German West Africa 5*5 pence 
(242,051 lbs. at £5,484) [I.e.], perhaps chiefly if not entirely 
washed cocoas. These are facts whicli bear the same significance, 
and also indicate that factors other than washing must be taken 
into consideration ; which are, mainly, the variety growu, cultiva- 
tion, the fermentative organisms, conditions under storage, and 
the condition of the market at the time of sale. 

The trees begin to bear at their third or fourth year. At the 
sixth to ninth year they should be in fair bearing ; from the 
twelfth to the fifteenth year in their prime ; they may then be 
expected to yield remunerative returns for some fifty, eighty, or a 
hundred years (Morris, Cacao aud How to Cure It, 1882, p. 36). 

Hart gives 1*6 lb. per tree as a good yield, and as a poor yield 
0*8 lb. per tree (Cacao, p. 73). He gives the remarkable record of 
15 lbs. 9 oz. for one special tree during 1907 (Bull. Misc. Inf. 
Roy. Bot. Gardens, Trinidad, 1908, p. 20). It has been estimated 
that in Ecuador 4,827 plantations, with a total of 58,551,142 trees, 
yielded 41,134,900 lbs. (Consul-Gen. Dietrich, Guayaquil, U.S. 
Cons. Rep. May, 1907, p. 210) approximately, the poor yield 
above-mentioned taking the average per tree. Watt gives an 
estimate of 1-10 lbs. of dry nibs in a year (Coinm. Prod. Ind. 
p. 1076). Various estimates are given by Wright (Cacao, p. 193) 
from 1-8 lbs. 


The chief commercial sources of Cacao are Ecuador, Venezuela, 
Colombia, Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, Brazil, Guiana, West 
Indies, Ceylon, Java, Gold Coast, Nigeria, Cameroons, and Portu- 
guese Africa (St. Thomas, Principe, Angola). Ecuador is the 
largest producer. The total output of the World has been 
estimated (for 1906) at 151,000 metric tonnes (U.S. Cons. Rep. 
May, 1907, p. 211), equal to 61,091,600 lbs. The total amount of 
raw cocoa from all sources imported into the United Kingdom 
during 1906 was 51,670,321 lbs , value £1,335,107 (Trade of Unit, 
Kingdom, 1907, p. 267). In the same year the Western Province 
of Nigeria exported 1,153,439 lbs., value £20,893, and the Eastern 
and Central Provinces exported 466,548 lbs., value £6,151 
(S. Nigeria Govt. Gaz. No. 26, May 22nd, 1907, Append. Bi. and 
Bii.). This shows a marked increase on the returns for 1898, 
when the imports into the United Kingdom from the Niger Coast 
Protectorate were 139,220 lbs., value £2,980, and from Lagos 
52,391 lbs., value £1,058. 

The Dock Charges on Cocoa are : landing, 5d. per cwt. ; weighing, 
repiling, or rehousing, l\d. per cwt. ; delivery to land conveyance, 
3d. per cwt. ; delivery to water conveyance, \d. per cwt. ; and for 
rent, 6d. per ton per week (Table of Rates, &c. London and India 
Docks Co. 1904, p. 22). 

The literature on Cocoa is extensive, and the following list is 
representative of the more important works. 

Ref. — Le Cacao et le Chocolate, Botanique, Chimique, Physio- 
logique, Agricole, Commerciale, Industriel, et Economique, 
Mangin, pp. 1-331, Paris. 1860. — " Cocoa, Its Cultivation, Manu- 
facture and Uses ; Its Advantages and Value as an Article of 
Food," Mann, in Journ. Soc. Arts, viii. 1860, up. 775-780, 
785-790, 795-800, 805-810.— Cocoa, Its Growth and Culture, 
Manufacture and Modes of Preparation for the Table, Hewett, 
pp. 1-87 (E. & F. N. Spon, London, 1864).—" On Cocoa and Its 
Manufacture," Holm, in Journ. Soc. Arts, xxii. 1874, pp. 356-366. — 
" Oleum Cacao," in Pharrnacographia, Fluckiger & Hanbury, 
pp. 95-97 (Macmillan & Co., London, 1879).—" Cocoa or Cacao," 
in Spoil's Encyclopaedia, Div. ii. 1880, pp. 684-690. — Theobroma 
Cacao, in Medicinal Plants, Bentley & Trimen, No. 38 (J. & A. 
Churchill, London, 1880). — " Sur la Culture du Cacaoyer," 
Boussingault, in Journ. de Pharm. et de Chimie, July, 1883, 
pp. 20-24. — Cacao Planters' Manual, Bartelink, translation by 
H. J. Vogin, pp. 1-57 (Kirkland, Cope & Co., London, 1884).— 
Hints on Cocoa Planting, Tobago Agricultural Society, 1886, 
pp. 1-15. — Cacao, How to Grow and How to Cure It, Morris, 
Jamaica, pp. 1-42 (Aston, Gardner & Co., London, 1887). — 
" Cacao " in Tropical Agriculture, Nicholls, Dominica, pp. 110- 
122 (Macmillan & Co., London, 1892).— Cocoa : All About It, 
" Historicus," pp. 1-114, illustrated (Sampson Low, Marston & Co., 
London, LS92). — Kew Bulletin, " Cacao Cultivation in Ceylon," 
1890, pp. 170-173; "Cacao Cultivation in Grenada," 1893, pp. 136- 
139 ; " Cacao Cultivation, Gold Coast," with cost of clearing, 1895, 
pp. 13, 22 ; " Cacao in Ecuador," 1899, pp. 42-45 ; " Cacao Disease 
in Trinidad," with Plate, 1899, p. 1. — Theobroma Cacao, in Diet. 
Econ. Prod. Ind. Watt, vi. part iv. 1893, pp. 43-45.— " Cacao 


Drying," in Bull. Misc. Information, Roy. Bot. Gardens, Trinidad, 
1894, pp. 273-274, with a description of Hot-water apparatus.— 
" Cacaoyer," in Les PI. Industrielles, Heuze, pp. 228-244 (Libr. 
Agric. de la Maison Rustique, Paris, 1895).— "The Agricultural 
Chemistry of the Cacao {Theobroma Cacao) " in The Rocks and 
Soils of Grenada and Carriacou, &c, Harrison, pp. 30-56 (Waterlow 
& Sons, Ltd., 1896).— Le Cacaoyer et sa Culture, Lecomte et Chalot, 
pp. 1-121, illustrated (Curre et Naud, 3 Rue Racine, Paris, 1897). — 
" The Agricultural Chemistry of Cocoa," Jenman and Harrison, 
Brit, Guiana, in Bull. Bot/Dept. Jamaica, 1898, pp. 49-67 — 
" Cacao Cultivation in Ecuador," in United States Cons. Rep. 
No. 299, 1899, pp. 250-261, dealing with the Soil, Cultivation, 
Harvesting, Marketing, Cost of Production, Consumption, Uses, 
and Botany of Cacao as grown in Ecuador, with a table 
showing analyses of Cacao. — Hints on the Cultivation and 
Preparation of Cocoa, Johnson, pp. 1-15 (Silvanus Cole, Accra, 
1899).— Le Cacaoyer, Jumelle, pp. 1-211, 19 figs ; dealing with 
the Botany, Chemistry, Commerce, Culture, Insects and Diseases, 
and the Countries of Production (Challamel, Paris, 1900).— Cacao, 
A Treatise on the Cultivation' and Curing, Hart, Trinidad, 
pp. 1-117, illustrated (Davidson & Todd, Trinidad ; Wm. Wesley 
& Co., London, 1900).—" Cocoa, Cacao Fat, Chocolate," &c, in 
Bull. Misc. Information, Roy. Bot. Gardens, Trinidad, 1901, 
pp. 349-351. — Cocoa Planting in the West Indies, Hamel-Smith, 
pp. 1-70 (London, 1 901). — " Le Cacaoyer," in Les Cultures Colo- 
niales, Plantes Alimentaires, Jumelle, pp. 404-414 (Bailliere et Fils, 
Paris, 1901). — A Treatise on Cacao, Olivieri, Trinidad, pp. 1-101, 
illustrated (Mole Bros., Trinidad. 1903).—" Cocoa," in Bull. Dept, 
of Agric, Jamaica, 1903, pp. 73 76, 121-124, 169-171.— " Cacao 
Canker and Spraying," Wright, in Circ. and Agric. Journ. Roy. 
Bot. Gardens, Ceylon, No. 21, 1904, pp. 339-356.—" Le Sechage du 
Cacao a Temco," in PI. Util. Congo, De Wildeman, Art, xxiv. 
pp. 302-307. — Die Kultur des Kakaobaumes und Seine, Kindt, 
pp. 1-157, figs. 38, containing Cultural directions, Intercultural 
and Leguminous Crops and Shade Trees, Insects and Fungous 
Diseases (C. Boysen, Hamburg, 1904). — " Culture Pratique du 
Cacaoyer," Fauchere, in L' Agric. prat, pays chauds, v. 1, 1905, 
pp. 269-281, 378-388, 491-515 ; I.e. v. 2, 1905, pp. 186-211, 311- 
326, 377-394, 492-503 ; I.e. vi. 1, 1906, pp. 66-79.—" Theobroma 
Cacao;' in Useful PI. of Guam. (Contr. U.S. Nat, Herb. ix. 1905), 
Safford, pp. 385-388. -West Indian Bull. vi. No. 1, 1905, pp. 65-98, 
including "Experiments in Improving the Health and Productive- 
ness of Cacao Trees," Hart; "Cacao Cultivation and [ Green 
Dressing," Watts ; " Artificial Drying of Cacao," Whitfield Smith ; 
" The Immortel as a Shade Tree for Cacao," with Table of the 
Nitrogen Content of Immortel Flowers; "Fungoid Diseases oi 
Cacao," Lewton-Brain ; " Insects Attacking Cacao in the West 
Indies," Ballou. — " Importance of Humus in Cocoa Cultivation, " 
in Bull. Imp. Inst. 1906, pp. 351-353. — " Le Cacaoyer an Congo 
Franeais," Chalot & Luc, in L' Agric. prat, pays chauds, vi. 1. L906, 
pp. 283-294, including list of cultivated varieties, outline figures 
of fruits (pp. 290-291) ; I.e. pp. 390-402 and pp. 477-490 ; I.e. \ i. 2, 
1906, pp. 49-57. — Cocoa {Theobroma Cacao), Its Botany, Cultiva 
tion, Chemistry and Diseases, Wright, pp. L-249, IS plates and 
diagrams (Ferguson, Colombo, and London, 1907). — "Cacao Pests," 


Barrett, in Proc. Agric. Soc. Trinidad, vii. 1907 pp. 107-119 ; 
" Pruning and Soil Management," I.e. pp. 131-146 ; " Shade " for 
Cacao, I.e. pp. 167-174 ; « Cacao, General Culture," I.e. pp. 203-214 ; 
" Cacao Pests of Trinidad," &c, I.e. pp. 281-304 ; "Cocoa Estates 
of St. Thome and Principe," I.e. pp. 305-314. — " Sur quelques 
Parasites des Cacaoyers a San Thome (Golfe de Guinee), Gravier, 
in Bull. Mus. Nat. Hist. No. 3, 1907, pp. 213-218.— " Description 
of a Drying House for Cocoa," in Quarterly Journ. Inst. Comm. 
Research in the Tropics, Liverpool, ii. 1907, pp. 121-123, hot air 
heated by means of iron tubes, with sketch of the ground floor ; 
cost £300, and capable of drying 60 centals (6000 lb. avoir.) in 
from- 18 to 60 hours. — " Cocoa," in Maize, Cocoa, and Rubber ; 
Hints on their production in West Africa, Viscount Mountmorres, 
pp. 11-32 (Inst. Comm. Research in the Tropics, Liverpool Uni- 
versity, and Williams & Norgate, London, i 907). — " Cacao or 
Cocoa," in The World's Commercial Products, Freeman & 
Chandler, pp. 113-143, with 34 illustrations, including Growing, 
Harvesting, Sweating, Drying, Sweating and Drying Buildings 
and Machinery, Manufacture, Varieties of Cocoa, and Map of 
Cocoa Producing Countries (Sir Isaac Pitman & Sons, Ltd., 
London, 1907). — " Cocoa from the Gold Coast," in Bull. Imp. Inst. 
1907, pp. 361-369. — Fungus Diseases of Cacao and Sanitation of 
Cacao Orchards, Stockdale, Pamphlet No. 54, 1908, pp. 1-47 
(Substance of Paper in W.I. Bull. ix. 1908, pp. 166-189) issued by 
the Commissioner, Dept. of Agric, W. Indies (Dulau & Co., 
London). — The Future of Cacao Planting, with Introduction by 
Sir Daniel Morris (Tropical Life Publishing Dept., Bale, Sons, & 
Danielson, Ltd., London). — Le Cacaoyer dans Pouest Africain, 
Chevalier, pp. 1-245 (Challamel, Paris, 1908). — Tlieobroma Cacao, 
in Comm. Prod. India, Watt, pp. 1076-1077, 1908.— " Pruning 
Cacao," Cradwick, in Proc. Agric. Soc. Trinidad, viii. 1908, 
pp. 181-183.— " Shade or no Shade," I.e. pp. 229-233.— " Cacao 
Industry," in West Indian Bull. ix. No. 2, 1908, pp. 138-192, 
including " Manurial Experiments," Dominica, Dr. Watts ; 
11 Grafting Cacao," Jones ; " Experiments at Grenada," Anstead ; 
St. Lucia, Moore ; Brit. Guiana, Prof. Harrison ; " The Characters 
of Criollo Cocoa," Hart ; " Improvement of Cacao Planting in the 
West Indies," Hart ; "Fungus Diseases of Cacao and Sanitation of 
Cacao Orchards," Stockdale ; " Cacao Thrips," Ballou. 


Triplochiton, K. Schum. 

Triplochiton Johnsonii, C. H. Wright, in Hook. Ic. PL t. 2758. 

A tall soft-wooded tree. Leaves palmately 5-lobed, 5 in. long, 
1\ in. wide, obtuse, cordate at the base, at first obscurely pilose 
above, quite glabrous beneath ; lobes triangular-ovate ; secondary 
nerves pinnate ; reticulation fine ; petiole 3 in. long, cymes 
nxillary, about 20-llowered, shorter than the petioles. Calyx 
5-partite, 7 lin. in diam. densely and appressedly brownish-silky 
on both surfaces ; lobes ovate, acute, valvate, patent. Petals 
obcordate, broadly unguiculate, 7 lin. long and wide, pilose on 
both surfaces, white with a purplish base. Gynandrophore 1-2 lin. 
long, pubescent. Stamens about 20 ; filaments filiform, sometimes 


very shortly connate at the base ; anthers dorsifixed, oblong, 
curved, 2-celled, dehiscing by the rolling back from the centre of 
the cell-wail ; staminodes 5, broadly oval, concave, chaffy, quite 
glabrous, 1^ lin. long. Carpels 5, concealed by the staminodes, 
free, 1 lin. long, brownish-pubescent, style subulate ; ovules 4-6 
on the ventral suture. 

III.— Hook. Ic. PI. t. 2758. 

Vernac. names. — Owawa (Gold Coast, Johnson) ; Arere (Yoruba, 
Foster) ; Obeche (Benin, Foster). 


The wood, though soft, can be used for canoes, which, however, 
are not very lasting (For. Dept. S. Nigeria, Mus. Kew). 

Triplochiton nigericum, Sprague, in Kew Bull. 1909, p. 212. 

A deciduous tree. Leaves 7-lobed, 5-9 in. long, 6-10 in. wide ; 
lobes oblong ; petiole 2-3^ in. long. Stipules arcuate, \-\ in. long, 
with a terminal tuft of hairs. Stamens 10 or more. Otherwise 
like T. Johnsonii. 

Vernac. name. — Arere (Ibadan, Punch). 

Ibadan Forest Reserve ; Oloke-Meji ; Jebu-Ode. 

Wood white, used to make large canoes, but which are not very 
durable. Flowers December to January, and stated to be the 
commonest tree in the Lagos Forest (Punch, Herb. Kew). 

Triplochiton sp. 

Tree up to 25 feet in girth. 

Vernac. name. — Obeche (Cent. Province, Univiri). 


A common tree in many localities. 

A valuation of 2|d to Is. per foot was given for a sample of 
this wood in the Liverpool market where it was classified as 

The tree grows on high land with a good soil (Kew Bull. 1908, 
p. 195). 


GREWIA, Linn. 

Grewia tricolor, Juss., Ann. Mus. iv. (1804), p. 90. 

[G. salvifolia, Mast, in Fl. Trop. Afr. I. p. 247, not of Linn. f. 
nor of Heyne ex Roth.] 

Ill— Juss. I.e. t. 50, f. 2. 

Nupe ; Senegambia and confined so far as is known to Western 
Tropical Africa. Drummond states that the Indian and Abyssinian 
plants that have been identified with it are distinct. 

Fruits edible, though very small. 


Grewia mollis, Juss. ; Fl. Trop. Afr. I. p. 248. 

HI. — Trans. Linn. Soc. xxix. t. 17. 

Vernac. name. — M'Koma (Cent. Africa, Grant). 

Abo ; Nupe ; Mt. Patti, Lokoja. Distributed throughout Tropical 

The mucilaginous bark is used in soups (Barter, Fl. Trop. Afr. 
I.e.). The fruit, about the size of a pea, is edible, and pleasant 
to taste. The wood is made into bows and arrows by the natives. 
The outer wood is yellow, and the heart is dark resembling rose- 
wood (Grant, Trans. Linn. Soc. xxix. p. 10). 

Triumfetta, Linn. 

Triumfetta cordifolia, Guill. et Perr. Fl. Sengamb. (1831), p. 92. 

[T. semitriloba, Mast, in Fl. Trop. Afr. I. p. 256, non Jacq.] 

III.— Guillem. Perr. Rich. Fl. Senegamb. t. 18. 

Var. Hollandii, Sprague, Kew Bull. 1908, p. 232, differs from 
the type in having the stems and flower-buds hirsute, with long 
simple hairs. 

Vernac. name. — Esura (Lagos, Dawodu). 

Lagos; Abeokuta ; Epe; Oloke-Meji, in the Western Province ; 
Okuni, Eastern Province. 

Used in Lagos as a fibre plant (Kew Bull. 1908, p. 232). 

Samples of the fibre prepared on the Gold Coast, by the Cort 
Development Syndicate, Ltd., were valued, if clean and uniform 
in length and strength, at about £27 per ton (Kew Bull. 1906, 
p. 397, Triumfetta semitriloba, var. africana). The samples were 
prepared by retting, from 3 to 20 days. One sample had the bark 
scraped before retting (Mus. Kew). 

Var. typica, Sprague, Kew Bull. 1908, p. 231. 

Vernac. name. — Raka or Racca (Sierra Leone, Cole, Dudgeon). 


Yields a fibre (I.e.). 

Var. tomentosa, Sprague, Kew Bull. 1908, p. 232. 

Vernac. name. — Quibosa (Golungo Alto, Welwitsch). The fibre 
is used in Angola for making ropes and sacks (Hiern. Cat. Welw. 
Afr. PI. i. p. 97). 

Triumfetta rhomboidea, Jacq. ; Fl. Trop. Afr. I. p. 257. 

III. — Jacq. Id. t. 90 ; Bot. Reg. 1. 1058 (T. micropetala) ; Queens- 
land Agric. Journ. viii. 1901, p. Ill, t. 8. 

Vernac. name. — Ako-bolobolo (Lagos, Dawodu) ; Nesuwa 
(Yoruba, Higginson) ; Nzonogwi (Zomba, McClounie) ; Tsitia- 
moty (Madagascar, Heckel). — Chinese Burr. 

Lagos ; Yoruba ; Nupe ; Abokam ; Ikum, and widely distributed 
in Tropical Africa. 

The plant yields a soft glossy fibre (Diet. Econ. Prod. Ind.). 


"Extra Fine" 


Indian Jute. 

















2-0-2-8 mm. 

1-5-3-0 mm. 

0-08-0-11 in. 

0-06-0-12 in. 


A sample from Nyasaland examined at the Imperial Institute 
shewed the following characters. The analysis of a sample of 
extra fine Indian Jute is given for comparison : — 


Moisture per cent. ... 
Ash, per cent. 

a-Hydrolysis, loss per cent. 
^-Hydrolysis „ ,, 

Mercerisation „ „ 

Acid purification, loss per cent — 
Nitration, gain per cent. ... 
Cellulose, per cent. 

Length of ultimate fibre ... j 

(Bull. Imp. Inst. 1905, p. 25.) 

For spinning purposes the fibre is regarded as the same as that 
of Sida rliombifolia (q.v.). 

For preparation of the fibre the stems are cut close to the ground 
and scraped with a knife in order to remove the smaller branches 
and the rough hairy epidermis. The bark is readily stripped from 
the stems, and the ribbons so obtained have an average length of 
5 \ feet. After these ribbons have been immersed in water for 
14 days the fibre is easily separated from the pulp, then cleaned 
by washing, and afterwards dried by exposure to the sun for 
24 to 48 hours (Bull. Imp. Inst, 1905, p. 23). 

All the species belonging to this genus are mucilaginous and 
are used as demulcents, but this species is the one generally 
employed. The mucilage is said to make a serviceable injection 
for inveterate gonorrhoea. The burr-like fruit in India is believed 
to promote parturition. The plant is sometimes eaten as a pot- 
herb (Diet. Econ. Prod. Ind.). It is eaten by buffaloes (De Wilde- 
man, PI. Util. Congo, Art. xxxi. p. 548). 

For particulars of cultivation see Sida rliombifolia and Corchorus 
cajisularis. The plant is said to grow well on any marshy 
soil. It is one of the most troublesome weeds on the scrub lands 
of tropical Queensland (Bailey, in Queensland Agric. Journ. viii. 
1901, p. Ill) ; Grant described it as common everywhere (Trop. 
Africa, 5° S.) flowering in March (Botany of Speke and Grant Exp. 
Trans. Linn. Soc. xxix. p. 41) ; flowering, Cross River region, 
December and January (Holland, Herb. Kew). 

Be/.— " Nzonogwi Fibre," in Bull. Imp. Inst. 1905, pp. 24-25.— 
" Denje and Nzonogwi Fibres," in " Jute Substitutes from the 
Nyasaland Irotectorate," I.e. 1907, pp. 375-378. 


Honckenya ficifolia, Willd. ; Fl. Trop. Afr. I. p. 260. 

III. — Usteri, Delectus Opusc. Bot, ii. t, 4 ; Deless. Ic. v. t. 1 
{Clapper tonia Jicifoiia) ; Bot, Mag. t. 7836 (flowered at Kew 
September, 1901, seeds from Lagos). 


Vernac. name. — Bolo-bolo (Lagos, Moloney, Millson). Agbourin 
Ilasa (Yoruba, Moloney, Millson, Hiaginsori) ; Napunti (Sierra 
Leone, Bull. [mp. Inst. 1908, p. 132). 

Lagos ; Yoruba ; Old Calabar ; Cross River ; Benin ; Nupe ; 
Bassa. Not recorded from any locality outside West Africa. 

This is a valuable indigenous fibre plant. It was brought under 
notice perhaps for the first time by Mr. Alvan Millson, Com- 
missioner of the Western District of Lagos, who sent in November, 
18.S8, herbarium specimens, and a sample of the fibre to the Royal 
Botanic Gardens, Kew. The correspondence on the subject is 
given in the Kew Bulletin for 1889, p. 16. At that time Messrs. 
Ide & Christie considered there was a very wide field open to it 
commercially if it were capable of being produced in large 
quantities. Its market value would be regulated by that of jute, 
over which it would always command a higher price, and according 
to the prices then (December, 1888) ruling for jute, the bolo-bolo 
was valued at £16 per ton, with a possible advance to £20. In 
1898 samples, prepared at the Botanic Station, Old Calabar, 
were valued by brokers in London at £26 per ton in bales ; 
prices of all hemps, it was stated were then high, owing to 
shortage and speculation in Manila hemp. A report, from a 
manufacturer who described the fibre as jute, placed the value at 
£12 per ton (Report Bot. Garden, Old Calabar, 1898-99, and Bot. 
Enter, in W. Afr. 1889-1901, p. 171). 

In 1907, on a sample from Sierra Leone, the valuation was £20 
per ton ; the fibre was described as jute -like, and said to be nearly 
as rich in cellulose as extra quality Indian jute. An analysis 
made at the Imperial Institute showed the following composition : 
moisture, 9*6 per cent.; ash 0*32 per cent.; loss on hydrolysis 
(a) 6*0 per cent. ; loss on hydrolysis (b) 9*7 per cent. ; acid 
purification, 0*4 per cent ; cellulose, 78*3 per cent. ; length of 
ultimate fibres, 2*0 mm. to 3'6 mm. The sample examined 
consisted of uncombed bast ribbons varving in length from 4 
to 10 feet (Sierra Leone Gaz. February 9th, 1907, p. 64). The 
bast ribbons have been found suitable as a papermaking 
material, but the use for this purpose is considered prohibitive 
on account of the cost of production. It has been estimated 
that the ribbons cost about \d. per lb. to produce, and give 
about half their weight of " half stuff," the most advisable form 
for shipping, valued at £7 to £8 per ton (Bull. Imp. Inst. 1908, 
p. 134). Strips of the bark are commonly used by the natives for 
rope or " tie-tie." 

Under cultivation the plant may be propagated by seeds or by 
division of the roots, and requires a rich well-drained soil. The 
preparation of the fibre is the same as for jute (q.v.) ; the stems 
are best cut before the flowering is complete. In addition to its 
value as a fibre plant bolo-bolo is distinctly ornamental. 

Re/.— "Fibre from Lagos," in Kew Bull. 1889, pp. 15-16. 
Reprinted in Add. Series II. pp. 30-31. — Sierra Leone Royal 
Gazette, February 9th. 1907, pp 64-65.—" Jute and Jute Sub- 
stitutes from W. Africa," in Bull. Imp. Inst. 1908, Honcksnya 
ftcifolia, pp. 132-134. 



Corchorus capsularis, Linn., Sp. PL p. 529. 

Leaves 2-4 long, j-1 in. broad, glabrescent, oblong, acuminate, 
coarsely toothed, base generally prolonged into tail-like append- 
ages ; petiole 1^ in. Stipules J-J in. Capsules oblate, subglobose, 
wrinkled, muricate, 5-valved, valves without transverse septa. 
Seeds few in each cell (Fl. Br. Ind. i. 1875, p. 397). 

The globose capsule, without a beak, distinguishes it readily 
from C. olitorius, which has an elongated capsule with a beak. 

III.— Rumpf, Amb. v. t, 78 ; Lam. Encycl. t, 478. f. 3 (fruit) ; 
Wight, Ic. PL Ind. or. i. t, 311 ; Jacq. Eclogae PL Rar. ii. t. 119 ; 
Hook. Kew Journ. Bot. ii. 1850, t. 3 ; Schnizlein, Ic. t, 212, f. 24 ; 
Vidal, Fl. For. Filip. t. 20 B; Zippel, Ausl. Handels, Nahrpflan. 
t. 30 ; Journ. Proc. As. Soc. Beng. N.S. iii. December, 1907, 
p. 637, f. 7 (leaf in comparison with leaves of the varieties Mama 
figs. 1-3, corylifolia, f. 4, and pyrifolia, f . 5) . 


Cultivated experimentally in Nigeria, and other parts of Africa. 
Largely cultivated in North-East India ; country of origin 
uncertain. In 1895 the experimental cultivation of this plant was 
taken up ; large quantities of seed were supplied by Messrs. 
Elder, Dempster & Co. to Lagos and Old Calabar, in common with 
other places on the West Coast of Africa. The fibre produced 
at Old Calabar in 1896 was good, but short, owing to late season 
and poor soil. The seed was received in August, sown on the 
20th of this month, reaped in November, and samples (retted for 
about 12 days) despatched on the 1st December, 1896. Although 
sufficient to show that fibre of good quality could be produced in 
the country, the experiments were on too small a scale to prove 
the success of production on a commercial scale, and took no 
account of the labour and problems involved, other than the con- 
ditions of climate and soil. In the present instances the dry 
season was well advanced before growth was complete, and the 
soil was light and sandy, conditions that would cause the plants to 
flower and mature early. 

In 1905 the subject was renewed by the Chamber of Commerce, 
Dundee, who brought before the Colonial Office the efforts that 
had been made by those interested in the jute industry of 
Dundee to encourage the growth of jute in West Africa, with, up 
to then, only moderate success. Messrs. Elder, Dempster & Co. 
offered to give free passage to and fro, and Dundee manufacturers 
through their Jute Association, or otherwise, were prepared to 
assist in procuring seed, and to contribute to the necessary 
expenses. It was represented that the chief difficulty lay in 
finding suitable experts (Dundee Chamber of Commerce to 
Colonial Office, 30th March, 1905), but the late Director of Kew 
was of opinion that this could be met by the Bengal Dept. of 
Agriculture. This course he accordingly recommended (Kew to 
Colonial Office, 12th April, 1905), and it was subsequently urged 
by the present Director (Kew to Colonial Office, 17th February, 
1906). Jute seed was distributed, and a Memorandum on the 
Cultivation (by the Inspector-General of Agriculture, India) 


communicated to the West African Colonies, including Lagos, 
early in 1906 (Colonial Office to Kew, 14th February, 1906). 
Samples of fibre, subsequently submitted to the Imperial Institute 
from the Western Province of S. Nigeria, one (green stem) was 
reported on as being of very good quality — soft, well prepared, 
lustrous, of good length and strength, and regarded by commercial 
experts as equal to good medium Bengal jute, and worth £15 to 
£16 per ton (with " first marks" Calcutta jute at £14 per ton) ; 
another sample (red stem) was of similar quality, but somewhat 
darker in colour, valued at £13 to £14 per ton, and said to be 
saleable in any quantity (Bull. Imp. Inst. 1908, p. 126). 

A sample from N. Nigeria, grown from imported seed, was 
described as soft, fine, greyish, fairly lustrous, but not well 
cleaned ; about 4 feet long, worth £24 per ton (with medium 
jute at £23 to £25 per ton), and regarded as very suitable for the 
best purposes of jute spinning (I.e. p. 127). 

Jute is manufactured into carpets, carpet backings, tarpaulins, 
backing for floor cloths, curtains, shirtings, paper (chiefly from 
the " butts " or fibre from the base of the stem), cordage, an ad- 
mixture with and sometimes as a substitute for silk ; an admixture 
with flax goods and hempen goods ; and, perhaps the most 
important of all its uses, " gunny bags" or " gunnies." Wherever 
a trade in grain (wheat, rice, etc.) sugar, coffee, ground-nuts, 
potatoes and other products is carried on, it may in general be 
taken as the distribution of the gunny bag. Sir Alfred Moloney, 
under " Staple Articles of Trade," on a visit to the Eastern Limit 
of the Colony of Lagos (Benin River approximately), in 1881, 
notes that new or second-hand bags, after a rice voyage to Europe, 
are used for export of kernels, and that great loss in such bags is 
at times experienced from the ravages of the forest rats. 

The so-called " jute butts " and the various qualities of cloth 
made from jute, ultimately find their way into the paper mills. 
On account of the introduction of other fibrous materials such as 
brown mechanical wood pulp, wood cellulose, etc., for the manu- 
facture of wrapping papers, the demand for jute has diminished 
considerably, although it was formerly very extensively employed 
as a substitute for manila, which, on account of the extraordinary 
strength of the fibres, forms a very valuable paper-making raw 
material, especially for the manufacture of papers in which 
strength is of primary and colour of secondary importance 
(Hiibner, in Journ. Soc. Arts, li. 1903, p. 836). 

Amongst other uses to which the jute plant is put may be 
mentioned the dried leaves used medicinally in India, eaten at 
breakfast time with rice in cases of dysentery ; the seed when 
fried yields an oil chiefly used for lighting purposes (Diet. Econ. 
Prod. Ind.). Three varieties of the plant, Marua, corylifolia, and 
pyrifolia are eaten as vegetables in India (Burkill & Finlow, in 
Journ. Proc. As. Soc. Bengal, December, 1907, p. 633). 

The trade in jute in India from 1828 onwards appears to have 
always been continuous and steady. The beginning was small, 
the record being 364 cwt. for the imports to this country during 
the year mentioned, but it soon developed owing to the demand 
for the manufacture of gunny bags. Dundee wag the chief 


centre for this manufacture, and with proper machinery, succeeded 
in diverting this industry from the home of the plant in India, 
causing more attention to be given to the production than to 
the manufacture. The gradual introduction, however, of modern 
machinery in India and the erection of mills in Calcutta, added 
to an increase in the application of the jute fibre to various 
purposes, has had the effect of increasing the demand for 
the raw material and the consequent improvement in the price. 
This is made evident by the fact that the Dundee operatives 
are seeking fresh sources of supply, and attention has in 
consequence been drawn to West Africa as a likely field, not- 
withstanding that the imports of fibre into the United King- 
dom during 1906 from British India alone amounted to 
362,262 tons, valued at £8,195,715. It may be mentioned that 
of this amount 305,413 tons came from Bengal, valued at 
£6,917,481, beside which the figures for other parts of India 
and foreign countries are insignificant, and may be regarded as 
having little or no influence on the trade. The total from all 
sources, including other British Possessions and foreign countries, 
was 369,789 tons, value £8,311,232 (Trade of the United Kingdom, 
1907, p. 189). The foreign countries of the Customs Returns 
include Germany, Netherlands, France, Egypt, China and 
U.S. America. The European countries could only mean jute in 
course of transit ; the Chinese jute may have consisted entirely 
of the species under consideration or in part with Abutilon 
Avicennae and other species ; the Egyptian would be likely to be 
true jute, as also the American. 

It has been stated that the jute-producing districts of Bengal 
will soon have covered the extent of their productive power and 
will be quite unable to keep pace with the demand, and the 
Government of India are already taking steps to increase the area 
under jute in districts outside Bengal. The outlook for the 
production in West Africa appears therefore to be a good one, 
more particularly on the lower reaches of the Niger or the lagoon 
country of Nigeria. It seems reasonable to suppose that the 
delta of the Niger would be as suitable for the cultivation as the 
delta of the Ganges, the present chief commercial source. 

Jute at the present time realises good prices ; a recent return 
gives "good white to best" £23 to £28 per ton ; "good" £16 to 
£22; "medium" £13 to £15 10s.; "common" £10 to £12; 
"rejections" £7 to £10; "cuttings" £3 to £6 per ton (Mom 
Circ. Ide & Christie, 15th January, 1909). 

Amongst the suggested and possible substitutes for jute have 
been mentioned several Malvaceous (see p. 66) and Tiliaceous 
(see p. 105) fibres. 

The established competitors at the present time are Abutilon 
Avicennae, Urena lobata, and Hibiscus cannabinus ; the first 
mentioned is well known on the markets as a form of Chinese 
jute, the second as Aramina fibre, and the third as Bimlipatam 

The main requirements of jute under cultivation appear to be a 
tropical climate ; a rainfall of 50 inches and upwards ; a rich 
loam oi- dee}) alluvial soil, kept continually moist, though not 


stagnant, during the growing season, thoroughly tilled before 
sowing, and afterwards until the plants cover the ground. 

It has been said that the best quality of jute is obtained from 
loamy soils, the heaviest yield from clay soils, coarse fibre from 
sandy soils, and that inundated lands induce root-growth from the 
stem with corresponding detriment to the fibre (Watt, Comm. 
Prod. Ind. p. 413). 

In soils requiring manure, about 15 tons of well-decayed farm 
manure per acre has been recommended to be ploughed in before 
sowing (Mollison, Memo, to Col. Office, February, 1906) ; where 
silt is deposited annually very little manure is given, otherwise 
cultivators apply farmyard manure at the rate of 150 maunds per 
acre (maund = 82*3 lbs.) = 5J tons approx., and in experiments 
with bone meal, castor cake, saltpetre, superphosphates and cow- 
dung, it was found that cowdung gave the best results (Watt, I.e. 
p. 415). It has also been stated that an application of 100 maunds 
(4 tons approx.) of cowdung per acre will be found very efficacious 
(Smith, Agric. Journ. Ind. ii. 1907, pt. 2, p. 160). 

The seed may be sown broadcast, the amount required per acre 
being given as about 8 lbs. (Watt, I.e. p. 414), or at the rate of 10 to 
15 lbs. per acre (Mollison, I.e.). 

Germination takes place in a few days, and in about a fortnight 
the plants will be developing their second leaves. The plants are 
thinned out to a distance of from 4 to 6 inches, or kept sufficiently 
close to prevent branching. The crop may take from three to 
four months to come to maturity, and harvesting should be com- 
menced when the plants are partly in flower and partly in fruit. 

The stems are cut near the ground, tied into bundles, stooked 
for a few days, until the leaves dry, and then submerged in a tank 
or pool of clear water to ret or steep until the fibre is found to 
separate without difficulty from the stem. The retting may 
occupy from 10 to 25 days, according to the weather and to the 
condition of the plant, and it is important that the stems be 
removed at the right time as the fibre soon becomes impoverished 
and discoloured if allowed to remain in the water too long. 

The fibre is stripped from the stems, washed for preference in 
running water, until all the bark is removed, and then dried 
in the sun. 

When thoroughly dry the fibre is graded and baled for export. 
The rough ends (" jute butts"), six to eight inches approximately, 
are cut off and baled separately. The standard of baling is of 
importance, and shippers in Calcutta have the right to reject bales 
if it is found that out of five examined there are more than 2£ per 
cent, of cuttings (U.S. Cons. Rep. May, 1908, p. 142). The baling 
is usually done by machinery, and a commercial bale weighs 
400 lbs. 

A good crop is estimated at from 2,400 lb. to 2,600 lb. of 
fibre per acre (Mollison, Memo, to Col. Office, February, 1906). 
Another estimate is given as from 6-9 maunds (493-740 lb. approx.) 
to 36 maunds (2,962 lb.), or an average of 14 maunds (1,152 lb.) 
per acre (Watt, Comm. Prod. Ind. p. 415). 

The stems grow to a height of 10-12 feet (Mus. Kew). 


The dock charges on bales are : landing at the dock where 
the ship discharges, opening for Customs inspection, and delivery, 
3s. 9d. per ton ; weighing 10 per cent., for average 5s. per ton ; 
rent per week from breaking bulk of vessel, including insurance 
against fire, 3d. per ton. Working charges when ordered : weigh- 
ing 90 per cent. ; examining for damage, classifying damages, 
sampling, tightening, relashing, including materials— if ordered 
before landing, Is. per ton ; if ordered subsequently to landing, 
2s. 3d. per ton ; weighing at the time of delivery, Is. 6d. per ton ; 
examining for damage at the time of delivery, Id. per bale ; 
repiling when done, Is. 6d. per ton. When a percentage only of a 
parcel is ordered to be landed and weighed the following rate is 
applied : selecting, landing, weighing and delivery to craft, 
within 3 clear days of final weighing, and fire insurance, 5s. per 
ton (Table of Rates, &c. London & India Docks Co. 1904, p. 36). 

The quality and the causes of deterioration in jute have been 
at various times the subject of much discussion. 

It is stated that very little jute arrives in England in as good a 
condition as when shipped. Being a chemically sensitive substance 
it is considered that it requires to be dealt with much more 
carefully than does cotton, to prevent undesirable changes being 
established. The incipient fermentation which is set up by the 
treatment of retting is very liable to be renewed during packing 
and shipment (see Technical Reports and Scientific Papers, Im- 
perial Institute, p. 61, where several analyses are given showing 
the want of uniformity in jute fibre as imported into England). 

A series of experiments conducted at the Imperial Institute 
with stems cut before flowering, after budding, in flower, in pod, 
and when fully matured, shewed no very important variation in 
the chemical analysis, and demonstrated that there is no marked 
change in the nature of the bast fibre at critical stages in the 
growth. From experiments towards improvement in the methods 
of preparation it was concluded that attempts at special treatment 
of the fibre in India, before supply to the jute mills, or before 
shipment are not to be advocated (Tech. Rep. and Sci. Papers, 
Imp. Inst. pp. 63, 67). 

Watering the prepared jute is a common source of injury in 
India attributed to the dealers. It is possible that the quality 
varies according to the form grown under certain geographical 
conditions. Burkill & Finlow have distinguished 33 races of 
Corchorus capsularis, the primary distinctions based on the 
colour of the stem, red or green (Agric. Ledg. No. 6, 1907, 
p. 133). Smith recommends growing " Baran of Mymensingh " ; 
" Amonia of Faridpur " ; " Kakyabombai of Serajganj " ; 
" Deswal of Serajganj " ; " Barapat of Mymensingh " ; all green- 
stemmed forms (Agric. Journ. Ind. April, 1907, p. 15U). Watt 
states that the finest grade is said to be the "Uttariya," which 
is strong, long, and easily spun, brilliant in colour and of fine 
texture ; " Deswal " the next most valuable grade ; " Desi " or 
" Daisee," most generally used in the gunny trade, and " Deora " 
or " Dourah," used in, rope manufacture. He also specially 
mentions " Narainganji," an excellent fibre, long and soft ; 
" Serajganje," from Pabna, and kk Maimensingh " (Coram. Prod. 
33385 H 


Ind. p. 418). Prain states that a strain natural to or acclimatised 
in a particular district gives better results in that district than any 
freshly imported seed (I.e.). 

Rotation crops are advisable, but catch crops cannot be grown 
with jute. In India it is stated to grow very well in rotation with 
rice and potatoes. On low-lying land a good crop of Aman Paddy 
can be obtained, while on high irrigable land potatoes may be 
grown after jute in the same year (Smith, in Agric. Journ. Ind. 
April, 1907, p. 150). It would require some experiments before 
deciding on the best rotation crops suitable for Nigeria, although 
in view of the requirements of jute the choice would probably be 
a limited one. 

Ref. — Spon's Encycl. Industr. Arts, Div. iii. 1881, Cultivation, 
Preparation, &c, pp. 940-945; I.e. Div. i v. "Jute Manufactures," 
pp. 117C-1186, illustrated.— Diet. Econ. Prod. Ind. ii. 1889, pp. 535- 
539 ; I.e. iv. 1890, pp. 558-560, reproduced in Handbook No. 5, 
1892, Imp. Inst. Series, pp. 1-22.—" Comm. Fibres," Morris, in 
Journ. Soc. Arts, xliii. 1895, pp. 906-907. — " Systematic Account 
of the Jute Fibre as the typical lignocellulose," in Cellulose, an 
Outline of the Chemistry of the Structural Elements of Plants, 
Cross and Bevan, p. 109 (Longmans, Green & Co., London, 1895). — 
" Methods of Harvesting Jute and Preparing it for the Market," 
in Agric. Ledger No. 37, 1896, pp. l-38.-Descr. Cat, Useful Fib. 
PI. of the World, Dodge, Rep. No. 9, 1897, pp. 125-133, U.S. Dept. 
Agric. Fib. Investigations. — " Preparation of Jute," in Tech. Rep. 
and Sci. Papers, Imp. Inst. 1903, pp. 60-68. — " Two varieties of 
Indian Jute offered for sale on the London Market," I.e. pp. 86- 
88. — " Jute ou Gunny," in PL Util. Congo, De Wildeman, Art. xvi. 
pp. 199-221.—" The Cultivation of Jute and Similar Fibres," in 
Bull. Imp. Inst. 1905, pp. 251-262, with note on " The Prospects 
of Jute Growing in West Africa," and " Jute Substitutes." — 
" The extension of Jute Cultivation in India," Finlow, in Bull. 
Agric. Research Inst. Pusa, July, 1906, pp. 1-46. — " On three 
varieties of Corchorus cajmilaris, Linn., which are eaten," 
Burkill and Finlow, in Journ. and Proc. Asiatic Soc. Bengal, 1907, 
pp. 633-638. — " Insect Pests of Jute," Lefroy, in Agric. Journ. Ind. 
April, 1907, pp. 109-115, with illustrations of the Jute Semi Looper 
(Plate X.) and the Jute Weevil (Fig. 1, p. 115). — "Jute Experiments 
in Bengal," Smith, I.e. pp. 140-160.—" The Races of Jute," Burkill 
and Finlow, in Agric. Ledger, No. 6, 1907, pp. 41-137. — " Jute and 
Similar Fibres," in Bull. Imp. Inst. 1907, pp. 2-4.—" Extension of 
the Cultivation of Jute and Similar Fibres in India," I.e. pp. 266- 
269. — " Jute Substitutes from the Nyasaland Protectorate," I.e. 
pp. 374-378. — " Jute and Jute Substitutes from West Africa," I.e. 
1908, pp. 126-135.— Comm. Prod. Ind. Watt, 1908, pp. 405 427 ; 
dealing with the cultivation, areas of production, separation of 
the fibre, grading, baling, qualities, manufactures, trade, &c. 

Corchorus olitorius, Linn. ; Fl. Trop. Afr. I. p. 262. 

Ill— Trew, PI. rar. t. 4 ; Lam. Encycl. t. 478 ; Bot. Mag. t. 2810 ; 
Schnizlein, Ic. t. 212, f. 25 (fruit) ; Vidal, Fl. For. Filip. t. 20 A ; 
Zippel, Ausl. Handels. Nahrpflan. t. 30 ; Revue Cult. Col. i. 1897, 
p. 79 ; Journ. Proc. As. Soc. Beng. December 1907, p. 637 (leaf in 
comparison with capsularis and vars.). 


Vernac. names. — Eyo or Ayo (Yoruba, Cole) ; Ewedu (Lagos, 
Dawodu) ; Etinyon (Eifik, Holland) ; Eyo-Ganbi (Oloke-Meji, 
Dodd) ; Crin-Oin (Sierra Leone, Dudgeon) ; Ingle (Sierra Leone, 
Scott Elliot) ; Melokych (Arabic, Forskal). — Gemiise Corchorus ; 
Jews Mallow ; Bristlj leaved Corchorus ; Jute. 

Old Calabar ; Cross River ; Lagos ; Yoruba ; Oloke-Meji. 
Widely distributed throughout the Tropics, and many warm 

A source of jute, though according to Watt (Com. Prod. Ind. 
p. 409) it is said to yield a fibre inferior to that of the preceding 
species and is never cultivated where it is possible to grow 
C. capsularis. In India it is invariably found on high and 
dry land, preferring sandy loams, and taking longer to come to 

A specimen of the fibre of this species from the Onitsha Planta- 
tion was valued at £14 10s. per ton (with medium jute at £14- 
£16 per ton). It was described as harsh, of pale buff colour and 
fair lustre, of poor strength ; and it was suggested that the sample 
had been retted for too long a period (Bull. Imp. Inst. 1908, 
p. 126). 

A specimen of native jute described in the Bulletin of the 
Imperial Institute (1908, p. 127) probably belongs here. It was 
cultivated by riverside villagers in Borgu Province, N. Nigeria, 
and was described as nearly white, fairly well cleaned, rather 
harsh and weak ; about five feet long. The analysis showed the 
following composition : moisture, 9 per cent. ; ash, 0*3 per cent. ; 
(a) hydrolysis (loss), 9*8 per cent. ; (b) hydrolysis (loss), 15*1 per 
cent. ; acid purification (loss), 0'1 per cent. ; and cellulose 76*5 
per cent. On the whole it was considered of good quality, 
slightly inferior to a specimen of "extra fine quality" Indian jute, 
as it contained less cellulose and suffered a greater loss on 

For further particulars in connection with this plant for the 
production of fibre, see the preceding species. Burkill and Finlow 
distinguish between five races of C. olitorius (Agric. Ledger, No. 6, 
1907, p. 131). 

This species appears to be of importance as a vegetable, and is 
cultivated in many countries for this purpose. In Old Calabar 
and other parts of S. Nigeria the leaves are used in soups. It is 
cultivated for the same purpose in Uganda (Dawe, Herb. Kew), in 
Sierra Leone as a pot herb (Scott Elliot, Herb. Kew) ; in Liberia 
eaten as a vegetable (Stapf, in Liberian Flora ii. p. 583;, and in 
France the plant is cultivated in gardens, the young and tender 
leaves being used in salads (Vilmorin-Andrieux, Les PI. Potageres, 
1901, p. 198). In India, in addition to its use as a vegetable, it is 
used medicinally as a bitter tonic, &c. ; the stalks after the removal 
of the fibre, are used for making gunpowder charcoal, and in the 
manufacture of baskets (Diet. Econ. Prod. Ind.). 

Be/.— Diet. Econ. Prod. Ind. ii. 1889, pp. 540-51 L— " Jute from 
the Gambia," in Kew Bulletin, 1898, pp. 38-40, reprinted in Add. 
Series II. pp. 32-33.— Comm. Prod. Ind. Watt, 1908, p. 407.— See 
also many of the references to C. capsularis. 

33385 H 2 


Corchorus tridens, Linn. ; Fl. Trop. Afr. I. p. 264. 

III.— Burman, PI. Ind. t. 37, f. 2 (C. trilocularis). 

Vernac. names. — Quisanani or Quijanana (Angola, Welwitsch). 

Nupe ; Onitsha. Widely distributed in Tropical Africa, &c. 

The young tops, according to Welwitsch, are cooked with palm- 
oil, and used as spinach by the natives of Angola (Hiern. Cat. 
Welw. Afr. PL i. p. 101). 

The plant yields a fibre, but little seems to be known about it ; 
De Wildeman mentions it with other species under " Jute ou 
Gunny " (PI Util. Congo, Art. xvi. p. 203). Grows in yam fields 
at Onitsha, and about cultivated places in Nupe (Barter, Herb. 

Glyphaea, Hook. f. 

Glyphaea grewioides, Hook.f. ; Fl. Trop. Afr. I. p. 267. 

Ill— Hook. Ic. PL t. 760 ; Hook. Niger Fl. t. 22. 

Vernac. names. — Atorin, or A tori (Yoruba, Millson, Foster) ; 
Uweheyota, or Unweriotan (Benin, Thompson, Dennett). 

Yoruba ; Benin ; Guarara River ; Dekina, Bassa Province. 

The Yorubas use the plant as a remedy, taken internally, for 
gonorrhoea, and also as a tonic (Kew Bull. 1891, p. 217). 

Erythroxylon Coca, Lam., Encycl. ii. (1786) p. 393. 

A shrub or small tree 2-5 feet high, erect and moderately 
branched ; bark usually reddish brown, passing in older specimens 
into greyish brown ; branches scarred where the leaves have fallen 
off ; young twigs smooth. Leaves chiefly on upper branches, 
alternate, soon falling, one to three inches long, lanceolate or oval, 
sometimes attenuated into the petiole, but in the type more or less 
acute at both ends, apex mucronate, perfectly entire, dark green 
above, paler and glaucous beneath, quite glabrous, mid-rib pro- 
minent beneath, lateral veins numerous, faint, freely anastomosing, 
the areolated portion slightly concave, paler and extending from 
base to apex on each side of the mid-rib ; petiole from \-^ inch 
long ; stipules small, closely pressed to the stem, and united along 
their inner edge to form a single triangular, acute, toothed organ, 
intrapetiolar (placed between the petiole and the stem) very 
persistent, at first thin, greenish and transparent, becoming on 
old branches, brown, stiff and spinous. Flowers, small, white, 
inodorous, on slender drooping glabrous pedicels, about \ inch 
long, several together in the axils of the leaves, calyx very deeply 
cut into five triangular-ovate, acute, glabrous segments. Petals 
five, alternating with the calyx lobes. Stamens 10. Ovary 
superior. Fruit, a small indehiscent, red, smooth drupe, one- 
celled, one-seeded by suppression, about \ inch long, oblong-ovoid, 
pointed, when dry, furrowed. Seed filling the endocarp, testa 
thin, embryo straight, with a superior radicle and flat cotyledons 
(Kew Bulletin, 1889, p. 3.), 


III. — Cav. Diss. t. 229 ; Ruiz, Lopez and Pavon, Fl. Peruv. 
Tabulae ined. t. 398; Hook. Comp. Bot. Mag. ii. 1836, t. 21 j 
Martins, Beitr. Kennt. Gatt. Erythroxylon (Abh. Bayer. Akad. iii.) 
t. 6 ; Le Maout and Deeaisne, Botany (Hooker's Transl.) p. 295 ; 
Baillon, Hist, PL v. p. 50, ff. 80-87 ; Kew Bull. 1889, p. 4, f . 1 ; 
Teysmannia, Batavia, i. 1890, p. 419, 1. 1, f. 1 ; t. 3 (E. bolivianum) ; 
Journ. Linn. Soc. xxv. 1890, p. 382, f. 1 ; Nicholls, Trop. Agric. 
p. 235 ; Pharm. Journ. [3] xxii. p. 818, f. 4 (var. bolivianum), 
I.e. [4] viii. p. 484 ; I.e. xii. p. 3, ff. 1, 2, p. 4, f. 3. Bot. Mag. 
t. 7334 ; Engl, and Prantl, iii. p. 4, f. 34a ; Cat. PI. Hort. 
Col. Brux. p. 78 ; Druggists Circ and Chem. Gaz. November, 
1900, p. 220, ff. 1 and 3 (excluding fruit in fig. 1) ; Nat. Stand. 
Disp. 1905, p. 445 (leaf of Huanuco Coca) ; Engler, Das Pflan. iv. 
134, 1907, p. 84, f. 17 ; Teysmannia, Batavia, xix. 1908, pp. 420, 

Coca ; Huanuco Coca. 

Erythroxylon novogranatense (Morris) Hieronymus, in Engler 's 
Bot. Jahrb. xx. Beibl. n. 49 (1895), p. 35. 

IE. Coca, Lam., var. novo-granatense, Morris, in Kew Bull. 

1889, p. 5 ; E. Coca, Lam., var. Spruceana, Burck., in Teysmannia, 

1890, p. 456 ; E. truxillense, Rusbv, in Druggists' Circ. and Chem. 
Gazette, 1900, p. 220.] 

A leafy bushy plant, bark greyish brown, branches numerous 
and somewhat spreading (not erect as in E. Coca). Leaves usually 
smaller than E. Coca, 2 inches long, 1 inch broad, crowded, mem- 
braneous, bright green above, paler and glaucous beneath, obovate 
lanceolate, narrowly attenuated into the petiole, apex rounded, 
often emarginate, with a small apiculus in the notch (Kew Bull. 
1889, p. 5). 

III. — Regel, Gartenflora, xviii. 1869, t. 615 (E. mexicanum) ; 
The Garden, ix. 1876, p. 445 ; Bentl. and Trimen, Med. PI. t. 40 
(E. Coca) ; Kew Bull. 1889, p. 5, f. 2 (var. novo-granatense) ; 
Journ. Linn. Soc. xxv. 1890, p. 384, f. 2 (var. novo granatense) ; 
Teysmannia, Batavia, i. 1890, p. 449, t. 1, f. 2 (var. novo-grana- 
tense), t. 2 (var. Spruceanum) ; Pharm. Journ. [3] xxii. p. 818, 
f. 2 (var. novo-granatense), f. 3 (var. Spruceanum) ; I.e. [4] viii., 
p. 484 ; I.e. xii. p. 81 (E. truxillense), p. 82 (E. truxillense) ; 
Druggist's Circ. and Chem. Gaz. November, 1900, p. 222, f. 15 ; 
I.e. March, 1901, p. 49, ff. 1 and 2 (E. truxillense) ; Nat, Stand. 
Disp. 1905, p. 445 (leaves of Java and Truxillo Coca) ; Engler, 
Das Pflan. iv. 131, 1907, p. 86 ; Teysmannia, Batavia, xix, 1908, 
p. 421 (E. novo-granatense), p. 422 ("Java Coca," E. novo-grana- 

Coca, or Cuca (Peru, Peyritsch) ; Truxillo Coca. 

The Coca leaves of commerce are obtained from the plants 
above mentioned. Peruvian Coca is usually known as " Truxillo," 
and Bolivian as " Huanuco." Other important sources of the 
drug are Ceylon and Java. 

The leaves are used in Peru, Bolivia, Brazil and other parts of 
South America as a stimulant, in much the same way as the Cola 
nut is used in West Africa. They are officially recognised in the 
British Pharmacopoeia as •* Cocae foliae," as well as the alkaloid 


extract Cocaine. Coca wine and several other preparations are 
made from the leaves. The Huanuco leaves are used for making 
Cocaine, the important anaesthetic, and the Truxillo leaves for 
Coca wine and in Pharmacy ; the latter are as strong as the former 
in alkaloid, but the product will not crystallise (Burgoyne and 
Burbidge in Kew Bull. 1889, p. 13). The Indian's standard of 
distinction for leaves for chewing is sweet leaves, " Najas dulces," 
and bitter leaves, " Najas amargas " (I.e. p. 7). 

Coca is cultivated in the Botanic Gardens of Southern Nigeria 
and the plants grow freely. An equable and moist climate, with 
a temperature not lower than 60°, rich loamy soil, well drained, 
full sunlight, and judicious pruning, are the chief requirements 
under cultivation. E. Coca, grown mostly in Bolivia and Peru, is 
said to thrive best and to produce the best product at an altitude of 
3,500 to 6,000 feet (Nat. Stand. Disp. 1905, p. 141). It is found in 
Peru up to an altitude of 7,000 feet, and is principally produced 
in the Provinces of Otuzco, Huamachuco Huanuco, Tarma, 
Huanta, Cuzco, and Urubamba ; the last mentioned place produces 
the finest leaves, said to produce the best cocaine (Cons. Rep. 
Ann. No. 4074, 1908, p. 30). E. novo-granatense is believed to 
be more suitable for lower elevations approaching sea level. Plants 
may be raised from seed, and planted out when several inches 
high into permanent places 4 to 5 feet apart. The plants would 
probably grow much larger than this space allows, but since it is 
the leaf crop that is wanted, the cutting back necessary to keep 
them within bounds will be beneficial. 

In Peru the plants yield a crop after three years, and a full 
grown shrub may yield two or three good crops in the course of a 
year (Kew Bull. 1889, p. 7). It has been estimated that 100 plants 
willj yield 26 lbs. of leaves at a crop, and 800 lbs. of leaves is 
given as the yearly production of an acre (Spoil's Encycl. 
p. 1307). An average return in Java is given at 720 lbs. of leaves 
per acre, and the plantations are replanted after about 18 years 
(Agric. News, Barbados, 1907, p. 127, from Tropenpfl. February, 
1906). Rusby (Nat. Stand. Disp. 1905, p. 445) gives 60-80 lbs. of 
dried leaves per acre as a fair yield at a picking. 

The fully developed green leaves only are gathered for market. 
They are in good condition if they snap when doubled, and before 
they are ready to fall. 

Drying is the only preparation required, and the leaves are 
usually sun-dried, shade-dried, or artificially dried. Leaves dried 
gradually in the shade are considered the best, and if artificial 
drying is resorted to the temperature, according to Dr. Warden, 
should not be much higher than 150° F. (Kew Bull. 1889, p. 7). 

In S. America the leaves are dried quickly, within two or three 
hours, in hot sunshine, and not the least moisture is allowed to 
reach them. After lying in a loose pile in the coca house for two 
or three days they are again briefly exposed to the sun to dispose 
of any moisture which has accumulated ; they are then powerfully 
compressed into small bales called "cestos," nominally of 25 lbs. 
each. Two " cestos " are then sown into a raw hide and, when 
this is thoroughly dried, they are ready for transportation 


(Nat. Stand. Disp. 1905, p. 445). In Java it is usual to pack the 
powdered leaves in tins which hold about 165 lbs. (Agric. News, 
Barbados, 1907, p. 127). 

Coca leaves rapidly lose in cocaine percentage if exposed to 
damp air (Pharm. Journ. [4] ix. p. 496), and they deteriorate in 
proportion to length of time kept. 

The percentage of cocaine is very variable under cultivation, 
and cannot be depended upon to come up to a paying standard. 
It may vary according to altitude, soil, season, preparation, con- 
ditions under storage, &c. A good marketable percentage has been 
given as '6 to *8 per cent., this being characteristic of the leaves 
that come into London (Mus. Kew). A sample of leaves from 
Sierra Leone, collected from a plant 5 years old, was valued in 
London (1901) at 6d. to 9d. per lb. for shade-dried leaves, and hd. 
to 6d. per lb. for sun-dried leaves (I.e.). Leaves grown at the 
Victoria Botanic Gardens (Cameroons) were found to contain only 
•28 per cent, of total alkaloid. The low yield was attributed either 
to improper drying or to deterioration during the long voyage 
(Pharm. Journ. [4] xv. p. 463). 

Coca leaves may realize from lfd. to 9^d. per lb. In April, 1908, 
on the London market, fair green Ceylon (Huanuco character) 
sold at 6^d. ; thin green Ceylon (Truxillo character), rather broken, 
at 6^d. ; duller green at 4^e?., and common brown at l|d. per lb. in 
original bulk quantities (Chem. and Druggist, April 11th, 1908, 
p. 576). In February, 1909, 64 cases Ceylon-Huanuco sold at $d. 
for middling brownish to 9^d. for fair greenish (I.e. February 13th, 
1909, p. 273). Recently, fair to good green Ceylon-Huanuco sold 
at from Sd. to &Jd. per lb. (I.e. March 13th, 1909, p. 435). It is 
held that the Ceylon leaf brings higher prices than the South 
American, and is largely the standard of the market (Col. Rep. 
Ann. No. 527, 1907, p. 30). 

It would appear to be advisable and practicable, under certain 
conditions, to prepare the crude extract for shipment. 

Cocaine manufactories have been established in Peru for several 
years ; it is now manufactured in Lima, Callao, Otuzco, Cajamarca, 
Huanta, and Cuzco. The production from 25 lbs. of coca leaves 
is 1,466 grains of cocaine, and the exportation during 1904 was 
7,527-931 kilos, value £94,099; 1905, 6,778*498 kilos, value 
£116,590, and in 1906 5,914-307, value £79,071, SO per cent, being 
exported from Callao (Cons. Kep. Ann. No. 4074, 1908, p. 30). 
Crude cocaine has realized on the Hamburg market 260 m. (£13) 
per kilog. (Chem. and Druggist, August 8th, 1908, p. 246), and 
cocaine hydrochloride is valued in Hamburg at 280 in. (£14) per 
kilog. (Chem. and Druggist, March 13th, 1909, p. 436) ; 8.s\ i\d. to 
8s. lOd. per oz. (I.e. March 27th, 1909, p. 507). 

lief. — "Some Account of the Uses and Properties of Ooca»" 
Sir W. J. Hooker, in Comp. Hot. Mag. i. 1835, pp. 161 170.— 
"Note Sur la Cuture de UErythroxylon Coca" Martinet, in 
Bulletin de la Soc. d'Acclimatation, July, 1874, pp. 449-455. — 
44 A few further Notes on Coca Leaf," Simmonds, in the Chemisl 
and Druggist, May 15th, 1876, pp. 155-156. — " Erythroxylon 


Coca" in Medicinal Plants, Bentley & Trimen, i. No. 40 (J. & 
H. Churchill, London, 1880).—" Coca," " Cuca," or " Khoka," in 
Spon's Encycl. Div. iv., 1881, p. 1307. — La Coca du Perou, et ses 
Applications Therapeutiques, Dr. Lelong, pp. 1-15 (A. Clavel, 
Paris, 1883). — Coca, Its Source, Culture, Uses, &c, Dr. Bidie, 
pp. 1-13 (Higginbotham & Co., Madras, 1885).— " The Cultiva- 
tion of Coca," Dr. Rusby, in Pharm. Journ. [3] xvi. 1886, 
pp. 705-707. — The Coca of Peru and Its Immediate Principles, 
their Strengthening and Healing Powers, Dr. Thudicum (Balliere, 
Tindal & Cox, London, 1886), Review in Pharm. Journ. [3] xvi. 
1886, p. 719.—" Cocaine and Its Salts," Dr. Paul, in Pharm. Journ. 
[3] xviii. 1888, pp. 781-785. — " Note on Erythroxylon Coca grown 
in India," Dr. Warden, in Pharm. Journ. [3] xviii. 1888, pp. 1010- 
1012, and pp. 1027-1032 (reprinted from the Journ. of the Agric- 
Hortic. Soc. India. — "Note on Hygrine," Dr. Stockman, I.e. 
p. 701.—" Coca at Home and Abroad," Dr. Rusby, in The Thera- 
peutic Gaz. New York, March 1888, 14 pages. — " Coca " {Ery- 
throxylon Coca, Lamarck ; and E. Coca, var. novo-granatense), 
in Kew Bull. 1889, pp. 1-13, dealing with the History, Culture and 
Preparation of Coca Leaves, Analysis of Leaves, other species of 
Erythroxylon, and Value of Coca Leaves. — " Earliest Notice of 
Coca," I.e. pp. 221-222.— ■" Erythroxylon Coca" in Medizinal 
Pflanzen, Kohler, i. 2 pages. — " Erythroxylon Coca" in Diet. 
Econ. Prod. India, Watt, iii. 1890, pp. 270-276, Cultivation, Collec- 
tion, Manufacture, Medicine, Chemistry, Trade, &c. — " Coca 
Cultivation," Sir Clements Markham, in Imp. Inst. Journ. i. No. 1, 
p. 16. — " Opmerkingen overde onder den naam, van Erythr- 
oxylon Coca in Nederlandsch Indie Gecultiveerde Gewassen," 
Dr. Burck, in Teysmannia, Batavia, i. 1890, pp. 385-398; 449-464; 
Abstract in Pharm. Journ. [3] xxii. 1892, pp. 817-819. — Coca and 
Cocaine, their History, Medical, and Economic Uses, and Medicinal 
Preparations, Martindale, pp. 1-76 (H. K. Lewis, 136, Gower 
Street, London, 1892). — " Coca," in Tropical Agric. Nicholls, 
Dominica, pp. 234-237 (Macmillan & Co., London, 1892.)— "Cultiva- 
tion of Coca in India," in Kew Bull. 1894, p. 151. — " Ceylon Coca 
Leaves," with Analysis, I.e. p. 152. — " Coca du Perou," in Les 
PI. Industrielles, Heuze, iv. pp. 251-255 (Libr. Agric. de la Maison 
Rustique, Paris, 1895). — "The Determination of Total Alkaloids in 
Coca Leaves," Gunn, in Pharm. Journ. [4] iii. 1896, pp. 249-250. — 
" Coca," in Les Drogues Simples d'origine Vegetale, Planchon and 
Collin, ii. pp. 688-694 (Octave Doin, Paris, 1896).—" Coca " Erythr- 
oxylon Coca, Lam.), Bailey, in Queensland Agric. Journ. i. October, 
1897, pp. 330-331. — " Cocae Folia," Macroscopic and Microscopic 
Characters, in Pharm. Journ. [4] viii. 1899, pp. 484 — 485, with 
8 figures. — " Coca Leaves," in Pharm. Journ. [4] ix. 1899, p. 496. — 
" The Botanical Origin of Coca Leaves," Dr. Rusby, in the Drugg. 
Circ. and Chem. Gaz. November, 1900, pp. 220-223, with 16 figures, 
including cultivated and uncultivated species of Erythroxylon, 
and commercial forms of the leaves. — '* Cocae Folia," in Pharm. 
Journ. [4] x. 1900, p. 410. — " More Concerning Truxillo Coca 
Leaves," Dr. Rusby, I.e. March, 1901, pp. 48-49.—" The Botanical 
Source of Commercial Coca Leaves," Holmes, in Pharm. Journ. [4] 
xii. 1901, pp. 3-4 ; Ibid, pp. 81-82.—" Coca Leaves " (Vegetable 
Powders and their Diagnostic Characters), in Pharm. Journ. [4] 
xiii. 1901, p. 297.— "The Structure of Coca Leaves," Greenish, in 


Pharm. Journ. [4] xviii. 1904, pp. 493-496, with 9 figures. — 
" Coca," " Cocaine," " Cocaine Hydrochloride," in the National 
Standard Dispensatory, Hare, Caspari and Rusby, pp. 444-452 (Lea 
Bros. & Co., Philadelphia and New York, 1905).— " Uber die 
Kultur des Kokastrauches, besonders in Java," Dr. Winkler, in 
Tropenflanzer, February, 1906, pp. 69-81, Abstract in Agric. News, 
Barbados, 1907, p. 127. — " Komt in de Java-Coca Kristalliseerbare," 
K. de Jong, in Teysmannia, Batavia, xix. 1908, pp. 416, 418. — " De 
Cocaplanten," K. de Jong, I.e. pp. 419-421. — Ei^ythroxylon Coca, 
in Comm. Prod. India, Watt (John Murray, London, 1908), 
pp. 523-525. 


Aubrya, Baill. 

Aubrya gabonensis, Baill. ; Fl. Trop. Afr. I. p. 275. 

Vernac. names. — Ozonga, Issoua (Congo, De Wildemari). — 
Mahogany Bark Tree (Oldfield, Mus. Kew). 


The timber is good. White and easy to work (De Wildeman, 
PL Util. Congo, Art. xxvi. p. 337). 

A fermented drink (Stontou) is made from the fruits by the 
natives of the Gaboon (Moloney, For. W. Afr. p. 291). 



Biophytum sensitivum, DC. ; Fl. Trop. Afr. I. p. 297. 

III. — Rheede, Hort. Mai. ix. t. 19 ; Jacq. Monogr. Oxalis, t. 78, 
f. 4 (Oxalis sensitiva) \ Wight, Illust. t. 62 (B. Candolleanum) ; 
Bot. Reg. t. 68 (Oxalis sensitiva) ; Savi, Sul, Biophytum sensi- 
tivum, tt. 1, 2 ; Peters, Mozamb. t. 15 (B. Petersianum) ; Engl, 
and Pnntl, Pflan. iii. pt. 4, f. 14 G (fruit) ; Thonner, Bliitenpfl. 
Afr. t. 70. 

Vernac. name. — Patonmo (Ebute Metta, Millen). — Sensitive 
Wood Sorrel. 

Lagos : Niger. Cosmopolitan in the Tropics. 

In India the powdered seeds are applied to wounds, and with 
butter to abscesses to promote suppuration ; a decoction of the root 
is given in gonorrhoea and lithiasis (Pharmacog. Indica, i. p. 248). 
Used medicinally in Lagos, and said to be a charm for snakes 
(Millen, Herb. Kew). 

Ref. — Sul Biophytum sensitivum DC, Pietro Savi, Prof. Bot. 
Univ. Pavia, pp. 1-10 (Torino, Stamperia Reale, 1861). 

Zanthoxylum senegalense, DC. ; Fl. Trop. Afr. I. p. 305. 

Vernac. names. — Ughahan (Benin, Univin); Ata (Lagos, 
Foster, Dawodu) ; Artar (Pharm. Journ. [3] xx. p. 163).— Sabicu. 

Niger : Benin. 


Samples of the wood from Benin, believed to be of this species, 
have been valued on the Liverpool market at 2d. to 2\d. per foot, 
classified as mahogany (Kew Bull. 1908, p. 194). The wood is 
suitable for cabinet work (Les Bois Industr. i. p. 236). 

The bark is aromatic, sudorific, and stimulant ; reduced to a 
powder and soaked in water it is applied by the natives for the 
cure of rheumatic affections (Moloney, For. W. Afr. p. 293). 

The " Ata " or u Artar " Root (Bark) of W. Africa is attributed 
to this species. It has been examined by Giacosa and Soare who 
have found it to contain a fixed oil, a crystalline substance, 
melting at 120°, and three alkaloids, the principal being named 
" Artarine " (Pharm. Journ. [3] xx. p. 163, and Year Book, Pharm. 
1890, p. 150). 

The tree is found in the mixed forests of S. Nigeria (Thompson, 
Col. Rep. Misc. No. 51, 1908, p. 61). 

Citrus, Linn. 

Citrus Aurantium, Linn., Sp. PL (1753) p. 783. 

A small tree, up to 20 feet in height, usually with a straight 
trunk and well developed, spherical head. Leaves ovate-oblong, 
acuminate ; petioles winged. Flowers white. Fruit yellow or 
golden when ripe, globose, or oblate-sphaeroidal, from about 2\ to 
4 inches in diameter ; rind thin ; smooth or nearly so ; pulp 

III.— Rumpf, Amb. ii. t. 35 : Plenck, Ic. t. 580 ; Duhamel, Traite 
des Arbres, vii. tt. 33, 37 ; Woodv. Med. Bot. iii. t. 188 ; Diet. 
Sc. Nat. t. 159 ; Desc. Ant. i. t. 38 ; Tuss. Ant. iii. t. 14 ; Hayne, 
Darst. Beschr. Gewache, xi. t. 28 ; Guimpel, Abbild. Beschr. t. 71 ; 
Drapiez, Herb. Amat. de Fleurs, iv. t. 242 (var. melitense) ; Burnett, 
PI. Util. i. t. 3a ; Risso and Poiteau, Orangers, tt, 3-29 ; Bentl. 
and Trimen, Med. PI. t. 51 ; Nicholson, Diet. Gard. f . 460 ; Bonavia, 
Cult. Orang. and Lem. India, tt. 40-58 ; Sauvaigo, Les Cult. Medit. 
figs. 106 and 107 ; Freeman & Chandler, World's Comm. Prod, 
pp. 271, 273. 

Vernac. name. — Orombo (Lagos, Dawodu). — Sweet Orange. 

Var. Bigaradia, Duhamel, Traite des Arbres, vii. p. 99. 

Differs chiefly from the type in the longer spines, fruit rough 
skinned ; of deeper colour, bitter pulp, and aromatic rind. 

III. — Duhamel, Traite des Arbres, vii. tt. 25 (Bigaradia sinensis) 
32, 34 (Bigaradia- var. violacea) ; 36 (Bigaradia bizarre) ; Tuss. 
Ant. iii. t, 15 (Bigaradier Franc) ; Wagner, Pharm. Med. Bot. tt. 49, 
50 (C. Aurantium) ; Drapiez, Herb. Amat. de Fleurs, i. t. 56 
(var. violacea) ; Steph. and Ch. Med. Bot. t. 14 ; Wight, Spicil. 
Neilgh. i. t. 25 (C. vulgaris) ; Wight, Ic. PI. Ind. or. i. t. 957 
(C. vulgaris) ; Berg and Schmidt, Darst. and Beschr. Pharm. iv. 
t, 31e (C. vulgaris) ; Risso and Poiteau, Orangers tt. 30-52 ; 
Kohler, Med. Pflan. i. (G. vulgaris) ; Bonavia, Cult. Orang. and 
Lem. India, tt. 1-18. 

Bitter Orange ; Seville Orange ; Bigarade Orange. 

Old Calabar ; and in many other parts of the Colony. 


In 1898 some good varieties of the sweet orange were purchased 
through the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, from Messrs. T. Rivers 
and Son, Sawbridge worth. The collection included "Jaffa," 
"Tangerine," "St. Michael's," "Egg" (St. Michael's), "Embiguo," 
and " Maltese Blood." Messrs. Elder, Dempster & Co. conveyed 
the plants free from Liverpool. The plants arrived in excellent 
condition, and in 1900 they were with one exception going on 
well. The St. Michael's fruited in 1908 (Williams, Plant List, 
Old Calabar, J909). 

Orange plants are sold by the Botanical Department at Oloke- 
Meji, price Id. per plant (S. Nigeria Govt. Gaz., March 21th, 1909, 
p. 458). 

There are other well marked varieties readily distinguishable 
by the white flowers, and oblate spherical fruits which are 
characteristic of them all : — " Bergamot " orange (C Aurantium, 
var. Bergamia) ; " Portuguese " orange (C. Aurantium, var. lusi- 
tanica) ; " Blood Orange," " Maltese Blood," (C. Aurantium, 
var. melitensis), and "Kumquat" (C. Aurantium, v&v.japonica). 

There are also many cultivated forms, chief amongst which are 
"Jaffa," "Embiguo," "St, Michael's," "Mediterranean Sweet," 
"Majorca," " Navel," &c. Dr. W. C. Stubbs records 83 sorts (The 
Orange and other Citrus Fruits, p. 27), or including his list of 
Mandarins and Tangerines {Citrus Aurantium, var. nobilis) 92. 

According to Colby (California Oranges and Lemons, p. 103) 
the " Navel " is the largest of all oranges, although in the pro- 
port 1 on of skin to flesh it has no advantage over either the 
" Mediterranean Sweet " or " c>t. Michael's." The average 
" Navel " has nearly 72 per cent, of flesh, the " Mediterranean 
Sweet " and " Maltese Blood " 72 per cent., and " St. Michael's " 
80 per cent. Of a number of varieties examined by him for 
juiciness, " Navel " orange was the driest, " St. Michael's " had 
the largest proportion of juice, followed in proportion by 
" Mediterranean Sweet " and " Maltese Blood." 

" Tim Kom " is said to be the best orange in China ; it sells in 
Hong Kong at 13 c. per lb. (Agric. News, Barbados, 1906, p. 100). 

" Satsuma," a seedless Japanese orange, is, according to Stubbs 
(I.e. p. 37), the hardiest of all oranges. 

The orange is perhaps the most popular of the tropical fruits 
that come into the markets of the United Kingdom. The sweet 
orange as a dessert fruit, and the Seville or bitter orange for 
making marmalade and candied peel are well-known uses. The 
dried orange peel (Aurantii Cortex of the British Pharmacopoeia) 
is an aromatic tonic. Following the applications for dessert, 
preserves, and medicinal purposes, there are three essential oils 
produced : " Bergamot Oil," obtained from the fresh green peel of 
the Bergamot orange, "Oil of Neroli," from the fresh flowers of 
the sweet and bitter oranges, obtained by distillation, and "Orange 
Oil " from the fresh peel of the same, obtained by expression or 
by the " Ecuelle " (sponge) process. The latter is remarkable in 
possessing the highest optical rotation of all essential oils ; it 
ranges between + 96° and + 98° at 20° C. in 100 mm. tube 
(Schimmel & Co. Semi-Ann. Rep. October, 1896, p. 48). The 


rotation of Neroli oil (sweet orange flowers) is given as -f 16° to 
+ 29°, that of Neroli oil (bitter orange flowers) as + 10°, and 
that of bergamot oil + 9° to + 15°, all at 20° C., and in 100 mm. 
tube (I.e. April, 1897, p. 34). The yield of Neroli oil has been 
given as 0*1 per cent., according to Schimmel (I.e. p. 34), and 
0*6 to 0*7 from flowers of the bitter orange, and half the amount 
from flowers of the sweet orange, according to Poiteau and Risso 
(Hist. Nat. des Orangers, p. 211). The yield of bergamot oil is 
2-J to 3 ozs. from 100 fruits (Fliickiger and llanbury Pharmacogr. 
p. 122). The market price of bergamot oil is 17s. to 20s. 6d. per lb. 
(Chem. and Druggist, April 17th, 1909, p. 608), that of sweet 
orange oil 7s. 2d. to 8s. lOd. per lb., and that of bitter orange oil 
7s. Id. to 8s. 6d. per lb. (I.e. p. 609). 

Essence of bergamot comes largely from Messina and Palermo, 
and its chief use is in perfumery. The flower oils come chiefly 
from the South of France (Grasse, Cannes, and Nice) ; the use is 
almost confined to perfumery, for which purpose the oil from the 
bitter orange flowers is considered the best. The peel oils are used 
in perfumery and for liqueur making. Orange oil deteriorates by 
keeping unless kept in air-tight vials, in cool dark rooms. 

Other products that may be mentioned are "Orange Flower 
Water," the water remaining after the removal of the oil of 
Neroli after distillation. It is used in medicine to give an 
agreeable odour to various preparations. " Essence of Petit 
Grain," originally obtained by distillation from small immature 
oranges, but now produced from the leaves and shoots of the bitter 
and sweet oranges, is used in perfumery and in the manufacture of 
Eau de Cologne. 

The wood is described as heavy, hard, strong, of very close 
grain, and susceptible of a smooth polish, of a light lemon yellow 
colour, little difference being seen between the heart-wood and 
sap-wood ; admirably suited for turnery (Hough, American 
Woods, v. No. 103, p. 25). The young saplings make good walking 
sticks (Mus. Kew). 

Oranges may be propagated from seed, by cuttings, layering, 
budding and grafting. The raising of orange trees from seed has 
often been a subject of discussion, based on the question of their 
breeding true or otherwise. Seeds germinate readily. They 
should be selected from the best fruits, and sown immediately 
after removal from the fruit ; to preserve the seeds until 
sown Lelong advises keeping them in moist sand (Citrus and 
Deciduous Trees from Seed, p. 8). 

To maintain a certain stock without variation the best methods 
are budding and grafting. 

The stocks may be either the sweet orange itself ; the bitter 
orange ; grape fruit (Citrus decumana L., var. " Grape Fruit "), 
Lime (Citrus medica, var. acida and var. limetta), or Citron 
(Citrus medica). They may be budded at anything from 2 or 
3 inches to a foot from the ground. 

Some experiments in budding have been carried out at Oloke- 
Meji, the bitter orange being used as a stock for buds of the Navel 


Orange and Grape Fruit. The results with the Navel Orange 
were not (1906) satisfactory, but the Grape Fruit was very- 
successful (Williams, Rep. Bot. Dept. Oloke-Meji, 1906, in 
S. Nigeria Govt. Gaz. Dec. 11th, 1907, p. 16). 

The sweet lime and citron are used in India. Trees on the 
sweet lime stock have sweeter fruits with thin adherent skins, 
while those on the citron stock have loose jacketed fruits,]come 
into bearing more quickly, and have a somewhat longer life. The 
seedlings are ready for budding when about two years old, at 
which time they are about 2 feet high. Planted out a year or so 
later they bear fruit in the fourth year from budding (Agric. 
Journ. India, January, 1907, p. 64). 

At the Orange Conference (see Bull. Bot. Dept. Jamaica, 1902, 
p. 8) in Jamaica, December, 1901, the best stock was considered to 
be the Seville orange. 

Seedlings when about 18 inches high (six months old) were 
transplanted from the nursery beds to distances of 4 feet by 13 feet, 
or 7,0 '0 trees per acre. Budded three months later, or when nine 
months old, they were considered ready for planting out in 
permanent places when 15 to 18 months old. 

The common sour orange for budding the better sorts has also 
been recommended in Dominica as being the most vigorous and 
better able to resist " collar rot " or " mal-di-gomma " (Hesketh 
Bell, Cult, of Orang. Dominica, Pamph. No. 37, 1905, Imp. Dept. 
of Agric. W. Indies, p. 22). The same system has also been 
adopted in Jamaica. 

According to Stubbs (The Orange and other Citrus Fruits, 
pp. 19-20) the choice of sweet or sour orange stock resolves itself 
into a question of "mal-di-gomma" or no "mal-di-gomma." 
This disease he states "has caused the abandonment of sweet 
stock in all the orange-growing districts of Europe " ; and that 
" it invariably appears sooner or later in every orange-growing 
district where sweet stock is used." He also states that " the sour 
stock has the objection of frequent attacks when in the nursery 
of 'leaf scab,' though when once budded all danger is over, as 
the sweet top is proof against the disease." 

Apart from the uncertainty of fruit developed from seeds in 
the first instance, the liability of the sweet orange to "foot rot," 
" stem rot," " collar rot," " sore shin," or " mal-di-gomma," as the 
disease is variously called, should be a sufficient objection to its 
use as a stock, giving preference to that of the more reliable sour 
orange for this purpose, and perhaps other stocks, the merits of 
which I am here unable to discuss. 

Grafting does not appear to be nearly so generally practised as 
budding, although the orange is regarded as an easy subject on the 
usual principles. The Sicilians and Calabrians bud their trees, and 
adopt " grafting by approach " as a secondary measure. (See 
Cons. Rep. Ann. Ser., No. 1770, Palermo, 1896, p. 30, where the 
budding is described as the " Scutcheon Method of Grafting.") 

A rich deep soil, with thorough drainage, is essential to success 
in orange cultivation. More attention should perhaps be given to 


the physical condition of the soil than to its chemical con- 
stituents, although it is advisable to avoid soils containing salt. 
Irrigation may at times be necessary. 

Any distance apart, from about 12 to 20 feet, may be required 
oy the trees at maturity. 

Due regard to pruning, tillage, manuring, and thinning the fruits 
are points of which a skilled cultivator need not be reminded 
In pruning the well regulated head with open centre ; in tillage 
light surface forking in order not to injure the roots ; and in 
manuring care not to induce rank growth at the expense of fruit. 

It has been observed in Dominica that " the use of pen 
manures for citrus trees results in increasing the size of the fruit 
at the expense of the texture, and orange trees bear fruits of 
enormous size with very thick skins, woody pulp and little 
flavour " (Agric. News, Barbados, 1901, p. 100). 

According to analyses, which show much variation in the com- 
position of the fruits investigated by V. Olivieri and F. Guerrieri 
(Staz. Sper. Agric. Ital. 28, 1895, No. 5, pp. 287-301), the following 
fertilizer is recommended for citrus fruits in general in the 
province of Palermo ; muriate of potash, 900 gm. ; Thomas [basic J 
slag, 1,000 gm. ; and sulphate of ammonia, 3,530 gm., for each tree. 
(See Exp. St. Record, U.S. Dept. of Agric. vii. 1895-96, p. 582.) 

A fertilizer containing two parts of potash, one of phosphoric 
acid and two of nitrogen is recommended in Louisiana for bearing 
trees (Stubbs, The Orange and other Citrus Fruits, p. 26). 

In the Botanical Gardens, Oloke-Meji, Nagpur oranges have 
been grown from seeds imported from India, and are reported 
(1908) to be doing well (Col. Rep. Misc. No. 51, 1908, p. 47). The 
Nagpur orange has a good reputation, and the strain is kept true 
by budding. In five years from the time of planting the trees 
are said to give a fall crop, which continues for some eight to 
ten years, after which the yield gradually lessens, and new planta- 
tions are recommended. The tree averages in Nagpur a height of 
about 16 feet, and the average number of fruits borne by a tree 
in full bearing is estimated at about 1,000 (Joshi, Agric. Journ. 
India, January, 1907, p. 67). 

The annual production in Porto Rico from trees five years old 
has been given at 35,000 oranges per acre (70 trees per acre) or 
500 oranges per tree. These figures, according to Spons' Ency- 
clopaedia, (p. 1026) are equal to the average annual yield per tree 
in Jamaica, and the Neapolitan Provinces, increasing sometimes 
to 1,000 and even 2,000 per tree. 

Jamaica oranges in London realize 6s. to 9s. per box, and 
Florida oranges in New York $1.50 to $2.00 per box (Agric. News, 
Barbados, April 3rd, 1909, p. 112). The total imports of oranges 
into the United Kingdom from all sources during 1907 were 
6,120,185 cwts., value £2,454,569 ; the greater proportion was 
contributed by Spain (5,303,525 cwts., value £1,994,339), the 
remainder coming from Turkey (Asiatic), Italy, B. W. Indies, 
U.S. America, Egypt, Portugal, France, Germany, Azores, Australia, 
Malta and Gozo, Canary Islands and Natal (Trade of the United 
Kingdom, 1908, p. 179). 


Bef. — " Some Remarks on the Genus Citrus, cultivated in 
Jamaica," Dr. Macfadyen, in Hooker's Bot. Miscell. 1830, pp. 295- 
304. — On the Introduction, Cultivation and Economic Uses of 
the Orange, and others of the Citron Tribe in N.S. Wales, 
Dr. Bennett, pp. 1-35 ; Reprint from the Indust. Progress of 
N.S. Wales, Inter. Col. Exhib. Sydney, 1870, pp. 663-697 (Govt. 
Printer, Sydney, 1871). — Histoire et Culture des Orangers, Risso 
and Poiteau, pp. 1-228, with 109 large coloured plates (Henri Plon 
and G. Masson, Paris, 1872). — " Products of the Orange Family," in 
Tropical Agric. Simmonds, pp. 438-448 (E. & F. N. Spon, London, 
1877). — " Oleum Bergamottae " (Citrus Bergamia, var. vulgaris, 
Risso), History, Production, Description, Chemical Composition, 
Commerce, Uses, Adulteration, in Pharmacographia, Fltickiger and 
Hanbury, pp. 121-124 (Macmillan & Co., London, 1879).— " Oleum 
Neroli " (Citrus vulgaris, Risso), I.e. pp. 126-128. — " Cortex 
Aurantii " (Citrus vulgaris, Risso), I.e. pp. 124-126. — u Citrus 
vulgaris" (Bitter orange, Seville orange, Bigarade orange), in 
Med. PI. Bentley and Trimen, No. 50, 3 pages (Churchill, London, 
1880). — " Citrus Aurantium " (Sweet orange, China orange, Portu- 
gal orange), I.e. No. 51, 5 pages. — " Citrus Bergamia " (Bergamot), 
I.e. No. 52, 5 pages. — " Oranges," in Spon's Encycl. Div. iii. 1881, 
pp. 1025-1027. — The Cultivated Oranges and Lemons, etc., of 
India and Ceylon, Dr. Bonavia, pp. 1-365, with an Atlas containing 
259 plates (W. H. Allen & Co., London, 1890).— Citrus Fruits, Gar- 
celon and Lelong, pp. 1-38, with analyses of the Orange (Supdt. 
State Printing, Sacramento, 1891). — " Orange Scale " (Aspidiotus 
Aurantii), in Kew Bull. 1891, pp. 221-230, with plate.—" Cali- 
fornia Oranges and Lemons," Colby, in Rep. 1891-2, Agric. Exp. 
St. Univ. of California, pp. 99-113, giving tabulated proximate 
analyses of 18 samples of Oranges and nine samples of Lemons ; a 
continuation of Bull. No. 93, 1891, of the Agric. Station. — The 
Rearing of Citrus and Deciduous Trees from Seed, Lelong, 
pp. 1-38 ; Orange Propagation from Seed, p. 8 ; Budding the Orange, 
p. 19 ; figs. 10-15 (Supdt. State Printing, Sacramento, 1892).— " The 
Orange " in Tropical Agric. Dr. Nicholls, pp. 144-153 (Macmillan 
& Co., London, 1892). — Treatise and Handbook of Orange Culture 
in Florida, Louisiana and California, Rev. J. W. Moore, pp. 1-189 
(Pelton & Co., New York ; Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co., 
Ltd., London, 1892). — The Orange and other Citrus Fruits, 
Dr. Stubbs, pp. 1-110, with nine figures illustrating budding, and 
dealing with the botany, methods of propagation, comparative 
methods of the different kinds of stock, planting and growing, 
composition of oranges and lemons, fertilizers for the orange, 
and list of varieties of the orange, lemon, shaddock, pomelo or 
grape fruit, citron, cumquat, &c, including a report by Prof. 
Morgan on the Scale Insects of the Orange, illustrated (Bureau of 
Agric. Louisiana, 1893). — Cultivo y Exploitacion del Naranjo, 
F. Atristain, in Boletin de Agric. Mineria e Industrias, Mexico, 
April, 1894, pp. 1-46. — "Orangers," in Les Cultures sur le littoral 
de la Mediterranee, Dr. Sauvaigo, pp. 249-259 (Bailliere et Fils, 
Paris, 1894). — " Citrus Aurantium," in The American Woods, 
Hough, v. No. 103, pp. 25, 26, with sections — transverse, radial. 
and tangential — of the wood (Published by the Author, Lowvillo, 
New York, 1894).— "Jaffa Orange," in Kew Bull. 1894, pp. 117- 
119. — "Orange Growing in Florida and Jamaica," I.e. 1895. 


pp. 125-126. — " Oranges and Lemons," in Dip. and Cons. Rep. Ann. 
No, 1544, .1895, an Account of the Orange and Lemon Industry in 
Sicily ; extract in Kew Bull. 1895, pp. 266-271 ; abstract in Journ. 
Soc. Arts, xliv. 1896, pp. 279-282.—" Essential Oils of the Orange," 
in Bull. Bot. Dept, Jamaica, 1895, pp. 177-180.— " Effects of 
Fertilization on Citrus Fruits," Colby & Hilgard in California Sta. 
Rep. 1895-1897, pp. 163-181.— " Methods of Propagating the 
Orange and other Citrus Fruits," Webber, in U.S. Dept. Agric. 
Year Book, 1896, pp. 471-488 ; with 13 figures. Reprint in Bull. 
Bot. Dept. Jamaica, 1898, pp. 75-87. — "Reproduction of the Orange 
from Seed," Webber, in Gard. Chron. June 27th, 1896, pp. 784- 
785 ; July 4th, p. 10. — " Condition and Treatment of Orange 
Groves," Moremen, in Bull. No. 33, 1896, Florida Agric. Experi- 
ment Station, pp. 209-236. — "Report on the Cultivation of Oranges, 
Lemons, Citrons, and Bergamots, as practised in Sicily and the 
Calabrie, in Dip. and Cons. Rep. Ann. No. 1770, 1896, pp. 26-48 ; 
dealing with the seed plot, nurseries, grafting, plantation, asso- 
ciation of fruit and vegetables or cereals, pruning, manuring, 
gathering the fruit, defects and diseases, manufactured products, 
from the timber, leaves, flowers and fruit. — The Principal Diseases 
of Citrus Fruits in Florida, Swingle and Webber, Bull. No. 8, 
1896, U.S. Dept. of Agric. pp. 1-10, illustrated.— Sooty Mould of the 
Orange and Its Treatment, Webber, Bull No. 13, 1897, U.S. Dept. 
of Agric. pp. 1-34, illustrated. — " Citrus Aurantium," in Diet. 
Econ. Prod. India, Watt, ii. 1899, pp. 335-348.—' Budding Orange 
Trees," Cradwick, in Bull. Bot. Dept, Jamaica, 1900, pp. 169-172, 
fig. i., describing the preparation of lemon, shaddock, and large 
sour orange trees for budding, the condition of the trees from 
which sweet orange buds are taken, and methods of budding. — 
"Orange Culture and Diseases in Malta," Borg, in Bull. Bot. 
Dept. Jamaica, 1900, pp. 129-142.— Culture of the Citrus in Cali- 
fornia, Lelong, pp. 1-260, illustrated (Supdt. State Printing, 
Sacramento, 1900). — " The Cultivation of Oranges," Senor Alino, 
in Journ. Roy. Hort. Soc. xxv. 1901, pp. 341-352, dealing entirely 
with manuring ; Summary in West Indian Bull. iii. 1902, pp. 230- 
233. — " The Cultivation of the Jaffa Orange," in Journ. Soc. Arts, 
xlix. 1901, p. 639. — Orange and Lemon Rot, Woodworth, Bull. 
No. 139, 1902, Agric. Exp. St. Univ. of California, pp. 1-12, illus- 
trated (Supdt. State Printing, Sacramento, 1902). — Red Spider of 
Citrus Trees, Woodworth, Bull. No. 145, 1902, Agric. Exp. St. 
Univ. of California, pp. 1-19, illustrated (The Univ. Press, 
Berkeley, 1902).— " Orange Conference," in Bull. Bot. Dept. 
Jamaica, 1902, pp. 1-25, dealing with varieties ; situation for 
grove ; propagation ; treatment in grove ; insect and other pests. — 
Propagation and Marketing of Oranges in Porto Rico, Henricksen, 
in Bull. No. 4, 1904, Porto Rico Agric. Exp. Station, pp. 1-24, 
including details of propagation by seeds and budding ; planting 
a grove, working over old trees ; by crown grafting, top grafting, 
top budding, dormant budding, inarching and bridge grafting ; 
marketing ; picking and curing, grading, sizing, packing, and 
shipping ; with illustrations of the various methods of budding 
and grafting (6 plates), and figures in the text of pruning and 
budding tools, grafts covered up, orange sizer, and method of 
packing oranges. — Wither Tip and other Diseases of Citrous Trees 
and Fruits, Rolfs, Bull, No. 52, 1904, U.S. Dept. of Agric. Bureau 


of PI. Industry, pp. 1-20 ; plates i-vi. — Cultivation of Oranges in 
Dominica, Hesketh Bell, Pamphlet No. 37, 1905, pp. 1-52 ; issued 
by the Commissioner, Imp. Dept. of Agric. W. Indies (Dulau & Co., 
London) ; Abstract in Journ. Soc. Arts, liii. 1905, pp. 901-904. — 
" Orange Trees," in Journ. Jamaica Agric. Soc. October, 1906, 
pp. 390-394.— Citrus Fruit Growing in the Gulf States, Rolfs, 
Farmers' Bull. No. 238, 1906, pp. 1-48, illustrated (Govt. Printing 
Office, Washington, D.C., 1906).— " Orange Cultivation in the 
Central Provinces," R. S. Joshi, Rai Bahadur in Agric. Journ. 
India, January, 1907, pp. 64^69. pis. viii. and ix. — Citrus Fruits 
and their Culture, Hume, pp. 1-587 ; illustrated (Orange Judd 
Co., New York, 1907). — " A Treatise on Citrus Culture from Seed 
to Fruit " ; shewing the Influence of the Stock, Masters, in The 
Agric. Journ. Cape of Good Hope, xxx. 1907, pp. 155-172 ; 
pp. 307-325 ; pp. 437-453 ; pp. 605-630 ; and pp. 751-763, illus- 
trated. — The Decay of Oranges while in transit from California, 
Powell, in Bull. No. 123, 1908, U.S. Dept. Agric. Bureau PI. Ind. 
pp. 1-79, with 9 plates shewing orange groves ; packing house ; 
brushing, sizing and washing machines, &c. ; 26 figures in the 
text. — " The Citrus Fruit Industry of California," in Journ. Soc. 
Arts, lvi. 1908, pp. 798-799.—" Essential Oils " from citrus fruits, 
sweet oranges, Seville oranges, limes and lemons, with particulars 
of orange rinders (15s. to 20s. each), in Journ. Jamaica Agric. Soc. 
December, 1908, pp. 410-412. — "Gum Disease of Citrus Trees in 
California," Smith & Butler, in Bull. No. 200, 1908, Agric. Exp. 
St. Univ. of California, pp. 236-270, illustrated (Supdt. State 
Printing, Sacramento, 1908). 

Citrus decumana, Murr. Syst. ed. xiii. (1774) p. 508. 

A small tree, 20 feet high and upwards, branches spreading, 
spiny, sometimes spineless ; young shoots pubescent ; leaves, ovate, 
obtuse, or emarginate, pubescent on the under side, petiole broadly 
winged ; flowers white ; fruit large, sometimes several pounds in 
weight, globose or pyriform, pals yellow, rind thick, pulp pale, 
pink or red, sweet or acid, vesicles easily separated. 

III. — Rumpf, Amb. ii. t. 24 ; Duhamel, Traite des Arbres, vii. 
tt. 38, 42 ; Tuss. Ant, iii. tt. 17, 18 ; Nooten, Fl. Java, t. 3 ; Risso 
and Poiteau, Orangers, tt. 61-66 ; Nicholson, Diet. Gard. f. 461 ; 
Bonavia, Cult. Oranges and Lemons, India, tt. 59-92 ; Garden and 
Forest, April 22nd, 1896, p. 163, ff. 23 and 24 (Fruit of Pumelow 
or Shaddock), f. 25 (Grape Fruit, as sold in New York), f. 26 
(Forbidden Fruit, as sold in New York) ; Hume, Pomelos, 
tt. 1-7 ; Freeman and Chandler, World's Comm. Prod. p. 277. 

Shaddock (Western Tropics) ; Pumelo (Eastern Tropics) ; Pam- 
pelmouse (French) ; Giant Citrus ; Forbidden Fruit ; Grape Fruit 
(from the fruit growing in clusters like grapes). 

Tropical Asia, Malayan and Polynesian Islands ; commonly 
cultivated in India, West Indies, Tropical America, &c. 

The Shaddock fruited in the Botanic Garden at Old Calabar 
in 1899, the tree being then about 5 years old. Several plants 
of " Grape Fruit " were received at Old Calabar in April, 1897, 
from the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Young plants of this 

33385 I 


Citrus may now be obtained from the Botanical Department 
Oloke-Meji at the rate of Id. per plant (S. Nigeria Govt. Gaz. 
March 24th, 1909, p. 458). 

Shaddocks, Pomelos, or Grape Fruits find a ready sale in 
America, and their popularity in this country is increasing. The 
fruits are regarded as more wholesome, more refreshing, and of 
greater medicinal value than those of the orange or citron, having 
been recommended by the medical faculty for their tonic 
properties, and as a specific for dyspepsia. 

Hume has enumerated 15 varieties of Pomelo ; dividing those 
described according to strength of flavour : "De Soto," "Duncan," 
" Excelsior," " Hall," " Josselyn," " xManville," " McKinley," 
" Pernambuco," " Standard," and " Walters," have the flavour 
pronounced ; the " Triumph," and " Marsh " are not so charac- 
teristic, but both are very desirable ; "Aurantium," "Royal," and 
" Nocatee " cannot be classed as characteristic Pomelos, and all 
are probably hybrids. The characteristic pomelo flavour is 
described as a pleasant commingling of bitterness, sweetness, and 
acidity. Classifying according to size, " De Soto," " Duncan," 
" Excelsior," " Hall," " McKinley," " Pernambuco," " Standard," 
and " Walters " rank as large (4-5 inches diam. approx.) ; 
" Triumph," medium (3-4 inches diam. approx.) ; " Josselyn," 
" Aurantium," " Royal," and " Nocatee," small (2-3 inches diam. 
approx.) (Pomelos, Bull. No. 58 1901, Florida Exp. St. pp. 392- 

The Grape Fruit of Barbados is Citrus paradisi, Macfad., var. 
piriformis ; and the Forbidden Fruit, Citrus paradisi, Macfad. 
(Bot. Misc. Hooker, i. 1830, p. 304) now referable to the above 
species. Morris states that the term " grape-fruit " has become so 
general that any moderately large fruit, provided the skin is pale- 
yellow, thin, and smooth, and the pulp of a delicate flavour, is 
designated by it, and tjiat the fruit commonly called grape-fruit 
in New York is really the forbidden fruit of the West Indies 
(West Indian Bull. vi. 1905, p. 286). 

The best kind in India, according to Bonavia, is the red pumelo 
of the Bombay markets ; it is globose, thin-skinned, juicy, and 
has pulp of the color of raw beef (Cult. Orang. and Lem. India, 
p. 167). 

The cultivation of this group will be much the same as that of 
the orange, but unlike this, according to Macfadyen (Bot. Misc. 
Hooker, i. 1830, p. 304), the best shaddocks are observed to grow 
in the wet districts. Against this view, however, according to 
Stubbs (The Orange and other Citrus Fruits, p. 45) the shaddock 
is said to be unable to withstand the action of water about its 
roots, and to have a tendency to " sore shin," for which reasons it 
is not recommended as a stock for budding purposes. Opinions 
also vary as to the value of grape fruit as a stock ; in Florida it is 
held in high esteem, and is much used ; others regard it as being 
as tender as that of the swe^et orange (I.e.). " Grape Fruit " has 
been budded very successfully on stocks of the bitter orange, at 
Oloke-Meji (Williams, Rep. Bot. Dept. Oloke-Meji, 1906, in S. Nig. 
Govt. Gaz. Dec. 11th, 1907, Suppl. p. 16). 


Grape Fruits sell in London at 5s. 6d. to 9s. per box, and in 
New York at $1*50 to $2'25 per box (Agric. News, Barbados, 
April 3rd, 1909, p. 112). 

Ref. — " The Coming Fruit," in Gardeners' Chronicle, July 11th, 
1896, p. 46.— "Grape Fruit and Shaddock," Sir D. Morris in 
Garden and Forest, New York, April 22nd, 1896, pp. 163-164 ; 
reprinted in West Indian Bull. vi. 1905, pp. 284-287 ; and in 
Bull. Bot. Dept. Jamaica, February, 1906, pp. 36-38 (See also 
pp. 39-44 of this Bulletin) ; Summary in Agric. News, Barbados, 
1905, p. 357.— Ibid, in West Indian Bull. vi. 1905, pp. 284-292 
(Dulau & Co., London).—" Pomelos," Hume, in Bull. No. 58, 1901, 
Florida Agric. Exp. Station, pp. 385-421, with 4 figures in the 
text, and plates i. to viii., illustrating many of the sorts above- 
mentioned, giving a description of the tree and varieties, analyses, 
and information on fertilizers (The H. & W. B. Drew Co., Jackson- 
ville, Fla. 1901).— "The Pomelo," in U.S. Cons. Rep. September, 
1905, Washington, pp. 101-103, giving particulars of the cultiva- 
tion of the " Chinese Grape Fruit," and its introduction to the 
United States. 

Citrus Medica, Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) p. 782. 

A small tree. Leaves large, serrated ; petioles without wings. 
Flowers pink, or purplish in bud. Fruit large, 4 inches long and 
upwards, ovate, with a protuberance at the tip ; pulp white, acid ; 
rind yellow, thick, firm, irregular in outline and surface ; some- 
times lobed like fingers. 

III. — Duhamel, Traite des Arbres, vii. t. 22 ; Desc. Ant. i. t. 7 ; 
Wagner, Pharm. Med. Bot. tt. 47, 48 ; Guimpel, Abbild. Beschr. 
t. 70 ; Drapiez, Herb. Amat. de Fleurs, vii. t. 491 ; Pereira, Mat. 
Med. ii. f . 393 ; Risso and Poiteau, Orangers, tt. 96-107 ; Bentl. 
and Trimen, Med. PI. t. 53 ; Nicholson, Diet. Gard. f. 463 ; 
Bonavia, Cult. Oranges and Lemons, India, tt. 139-177 ; Gard. 
Chron. February 13th, 1904, p. 101, f. 45 (fruit). 

Vernac. name. — Osan Lakuregbe (Lagos, Daivodu). — Citron. 

Cultivated in Palestine, Italy and other parts of S. Europe. 

The chief use is for the rind or peel, usually imported into this 
country in a salted state, and afterwards candied for dessert and 
confectionery purposes. 

Plants of the Citron were sent out from Kew to Nigeria in 
1898, and young plants may now be obtained from the Botanical 
Dept. at Oloke-Meji (See S. Nigeria Gazette, March 3rd, 1909, 
p. 308). 

Ref.—" Citrus Medica," in Medic. PI. Bentley and Trimen, 
No. 53.— "The Citron in Commerce," Kew Bull. 1894, pp. 177-182. 

Var. acida, Brandts. 

A small spiny tree. Leaves oval ; petioles winged linear or 
obovate. Flowers white. Fruit globose, about 1^ to two inches 
in diam., with a blunt protuberance ; pulp pale, acid. 

III. — Rumpf, Amb. ii. t. 29 (Limonellus or Liinotenuis, thin- 
skinned lemon) ; Wight, Spicil. Neilgh. t. 26 (G. Limonum) ; 
Wight, Ic. PL Ind. or. t. 958 (C. Limetta) ; Bot. Mag. t. 6745 ; 

33385 I 2 


Bonavia, Cult. Oranges and Lemons, India, tt. 225-233 ; Kew Bull. 
1894, p. 116 ; Agric. News, Barbados, vii. 1908, p. 229 f. 5 
(Ordinary Lime Tree), f. 6 (Spineless Lime Tree). 

Vernac. name. — Orombe wewe (Lagos, Dawodu). — Lime ; Sour 

Naturalized in Nigeria and Tropical Africa. Cultivated in the 
the West Indies (Jamaica, Montserrat, Dominica), and in many 
other tropical countries. 

The fruit is invaluable for " Lime drinks " and flavouring, but 
beyond this nothing appears to be done with it in Nigeria. The 
commercial value of the lime is invested in the green fruits ; 
ripe fruits — pickled in salt or sea water ; raw juice ; concentrated 
juice ; oil obtained by pressure and by distillation, and citrate of 
of lime. The fresh and pickled fruits are an efficient substitute 
for the lemon, and the trade in them is one of growing importance, 
chiefly between the West Indies and the American and European 
markets, New York and London more directly. 

The green fruits require to be gathered, handled, wrapped and 
packed as carefully as oranges, and the ripe yellow fruits intended 
for shipment are pickled by placing them in vats of sea water, 
which is run off and renewed at intervals of 2 or 3 days for 
several times ; they are then packed in casks of strong brine. 

The raw juice, as used for making cordials and flavouring is care- 
fully prepared from ripe fruits, by crushing in mills or otherwise, 
straining and filling into casks for export. To prevent fermenta- 
tion, Nicholls (Trop. Agric. p. 157) recommends \ an ounce of 
salicylic acid to 50 gallons of juice. A barrel of limes (1,400 to 
1,600 fruits) yields 7^ to 8 gallons of juice (A. B. C. of Lime Cult. 
Imp. Dept. Agric. W. Indies, p. 25). 

Concentrated juice is shipped entirely for the production of 
citric acid, the degree of concentration being about 10 per cent, of 
the raw product, reduced by boiling. A density of 60° as indicated 
by a citrometer (in the juice at boiling point) or when the specific 
gravity is 1*243 (ascertained by a specific gravity hydrometer) is 
considered the right degree. Further concentration is not con- 
sidered profitable as it is liable to reduce the citric acid content. 
Seventy-five barrels of limes (about 120,000 fruits) produce 
50 gallons of concentrated juice (I.e. p. 34). 

Distilled lime oil or " Oil of Limes " is a by-product obtained 
in the preparation of the concentrated article. According to 
Gildemeister and Hoffmann (The Volatile Oils, p. 477) it is entirely 
different from the oil obtained by expression. Its odour is 
unpleasant, terebinthate. and does not remind one of citral ; the 
specific gravity is 0*865 to 0*868, and the boiling point between 
175° and 220° ; the oil obtained from the peel of the fruit by 
expression, they describe as of a golden yellow colour, hardly 
distinguishable from good lemon oil by its odour ; its most 
important constituent is citral, and the specific gravity 0*873 at 
29° C. to 0*882 at 15° C. A barrel of limes will give from 3-4^ ozs. 
of oil by expression, and 3-5 ozs. by distillation (Lime Cult. 
Pamph. 53, Imp. Dept. of Agric. W. Indies, p. 40). 

Lime oil is used in perfumery and soap manufacture. 


Distilled Lime Oil from the West Indies sold on the London 
market, April 1909, at 1*. 9d. to Is. lid. per lb. (Chem. and 
Druggist, April 24th, 1909, p. 656). Lime juice on the London 
market was realizing in March, 1909, Is. ?>d. per gallon for the 
raw product ; £18 per cask of 108 gallons for concentrated juice 
(Agric. News, Barbados, April 3rd, 1909, p. 112). 

Lemons, limes and citrons are classified together in the Customs 
Returns, and the total amount imported into the United Kingdom 
in 1907, from Germany, Spain, Italy, West Indies, &c, was 
882,193 cwts., value £421,599 (Trade of the Unit. Kingdom, i. 1908, 
p. 178). The Returns tor lime and lemon juice are also figured 
together, and the total amount for 1907, chiefly from Italy 
(138,361 gallon3, probably lemon, value £23,225) and British 
W. Indies (413,507 gallons, probably lime, £46,389) was 552,462 
gallons, value £69,671 (I.e. p. 181). 

The lime is usually raised from seed, which should be washed, 
dried, and sown as early as possible after removal from the fruit. 
The seedlings are ready for planting out in permanent places when 
about a foot or two high, in from 9 to 12 months after sowing. 
They may be planted from 12 to 20 feet apart, according to 
richness of soil or locality, but each tree should be subject to full 
sunlight at all times. The main requirements are a rich well- 
drained soil, sheltered position, and a rainfall approximating to 
100 inches. In Dominica the best results are obtained on the rich 
coastal and valley lands, possessing a light black soil ; the plants 
are also said to succeed in comparatively shallow soils overlying 
heavy clays, and in red soil (Lime Cult. Pamph. 53, Imp. Dept. 
Agric. W. Indies, p. 7). The rainfall is stated to have an effect 
on the citric acid content and the yield of oil (from the rind) — 
60 to 100 inches increasing the former and lowering the latter, 
and 130 to 200 inches conducing to the reverse of these conditions 
(I.e. p. 40). 

Protection from wind is important, and if there are no natural 
shelter belts of trees, or rising ground in the neighbourhood of 
the plantation, provision should be made by planting suitable 
trees. In Montserrat "White Cedar" (Tecoma Icucoxylon) is used 
for this purpose, planted at distances of about 150 yards, either in 
single rows, or in double rows about 4 feet apart (I.e. p. 45). 
" Galba " (Calophyllum Calaba) in Dominica has been found 
suitable for main shelter belts, and Pois doux {Inga laurina) 
has been recommended for subsidiary hedges, the prunings of 
which make excellent mulch (I.e. p. 9). 

Tillage, pruning, manuring, &c, much the same as for the 
orange ; although for manuring it has been recommended by 
Sefior Alino (Journ. Roy. Hort. Soc. xxv. 1901, p. 352) that from 
10-12 per cent, more of nitrogenous fertilizer should be used. 

The ordinary Lime is usually very spiny, but a spineless form 
has been developed in Dominica, which is considered superior in 
its bearing qualities and in the citric acid content of the fruits. 
(See Rep. Bot. St. Dominica, 1906 07, and Lime Cult. I.e. p. 4.) 

The machinery required for dealing with lime-juice is a t lure- 
roller mill (the rollers made of granite when the juice is to be 


used for making cordial — iron may be used when the juice is to be 
concentrated), driven by steam, water, or cattle ; a press for 
extracting any juice that may be left in the skins after passing 
through the mill ; storage vats ; a copper still ; three copper 
tayches in which to boil the juice, and coolers. (See Lime Cult. 
Pamph. 53, Imp. Dept. Agric. W. Indies, p. 26, and for estimates of 
the cost of requirements totalling £305 for an estate of 10-12 acres, 
and £1,500 for an estate of 50-60 acres, p. 27.) 

The extraction of citrate on the spot appears to be new outside 
Sicily and S. Italy, and other countries where it is produced from the 
Lemon, and it is not unlikely that the manufacture will supersede 
that of concentrated juice, especially when freight is an important 
consideration. In this connection it may be of interest to 
remember the artificial production of Citric Acid which a few 
years ago created some anxiety amongst cultivators of the Lemon 
and Lime. It was then (1891) stated by an eminent firm of 
wholesale pharmacists that, although it had certainly been pro- 
duced, this was more as a scientific experiment, and it was not 
likely to become an article of commerce ; in other words, they 
did not believe that "an artificial would ever supersede the 
natural acid." (See Kew Bull. 1894, pp. 103-108, and pp. 199-200.) 
The progress of the synthetic product does not appear, so far, to 
have gathered any more force. 

The preparation of " Citrate of Lime " is fully detailed in the 
Pamphlet No. 53, Imp. Dept. Agric. W. Indies, pp. 41-44. (See 
refs. below.) 

Ref. — "The Lime Industry in Dominica," Dr. Nicholls, in 
Timehri, Demerara, ii. 1883, pp. 81-97. — " Lime Juice, Its 
Properties and Uses," Conroy, in Pharm. Journ. [3] xiii. 1883, 
pp. 606-608. — " On the Probable Source of the whole Group of 
Cultivated True Limes," Dr. Bonavia, in Journ. Linn. Soc. xxii. 
1887, pp. 213-218.—" The Sour Lime of India," in Diet. Econ. 
Prod. India, Watt, ii. 1889, pp. 355-357.—" The Lime," in Tropical 
Agric. Dr. Nicholls, pp. 153-158 (Macmillan & Co., London, 1892). 
— "Limes," in Bull. Bot. Dept. Jamaica, Nov. 1892, pp. 11-12. — 
"West Indian Lime," in Kew Bull. 1894, pp. 113-116.— " Artificial 
Production of Citric Acid," Lc. pp. 103-108 and pp. 199-200.— 
"Distilling the Essential Oil of Limes," in Bull. Bot. Dept. 
Jamaica, 1895, pp. 97-98. — " Oil of Limette" (West Indian Limette 
Oil, Citrus medica, var. acida ; Italian Limette Oil, Citrus Limetta, 
Risso, distinguished from that of the W. Indian by its sweet juice), 
in The Volatile Oils, Gildemeister & Hoffmann, pp. 477-478 (Mil- 
waukee Pharmaceutical Review Publishing Co., 1900). — " Cultiva- 
tion of Limes in the West Indies," in West Indian Bull. ii. 1901, 
pp. 308-318. — " Citrate of Lime, preparation of," I.e. iii. 1902, p. 152. 
— " Concentrated Lime Juice " (ascertaining its strength by means 
of a hydrometer) I.e. v. 1904, p. 236. — " Citrate of Lime and 
Concentrated Juice," I.e. vi. 1905, p. 308. — " Citrate of Lime," 
I.e. vii. 1906, pp. 331-337. — " Citrate of Lime and Concentrated 
Juice," I.e. viii. 1907, pp. 167-172, with sketch-plan of a Citrate 
Factory. — " The West Indian Lime," Brooks, in Journ. Roy. Hort. 
Soc. xxxii. 1908, pp. 172-188, illustrated ; dealing with the 
History ; Cultivation ; Insect and Fungoid Pests ; Products ; 


Improvement of the Lime, <fcc. — A. B. C. of Lime Cultivation, 
Pamphlet No. 53, 1908, pp. 1-48, issued by the Commissioner, 
Imp. Dept. Agric. W. Indies (Dulau & Co., London), covering the 
Cultivation ; Products — Green Limes, Pickled Limes, Raw and 
Concentrated Lime Juice, Citrate of Lime, Hand-pressed Lime 
Oil, Distilled Lime Oil, &c— The Lancet, March 28th, 1908, giving 
an analysis of the juice of the Lime, compared with that of the 
Lemon. — Various Papers in the Agric. News, Barbados. — See also 
various references under Citrus Aurantium. 

Var. limonum, Brandis. 

Small tree 8-10 feet. Leaves oval-oblong crenulated, petioles 
somewhat winged or without wings. Fruit elongated, with thin 
yellow rind which adheres to the acid pulp. 

III. — Duhamel, Traite des Arbres, vii. tt. 27, 28 ; Woodville, 
Med. Bot. iii. t. 189 {C. Medico) ; Tuss. Ant. ii. t. 19 (Limonier 
ordinaire) ; Hayne, Darst. Beschr. Gewache, xi. t. 27 {Citrus 
Medico) ; Burnett, PI. Util. i. t. 8a ; Berg & Schmidt, Darst. & 
Beschr. Pharm. iv. t. 31f ; Risso & Poiteau, Orangers, tt. 70-95 ; 
Bentl. & Trimen, Med. PI. t. 54 ; Zippel, Ausl. Handels, Nahrpn. 
t. 22 ; Kohler, Med. Pflan. i. ; Bonavia, Cult. Oranges & Lemons, 
India, tt. 178-224 ; Sauvaigo, Les Cult. Medit. f . 108. 


Cultivated in the Botanic Gardens of the Colony. 

A large form " Metfords Lemon " {see Kew Bull. 1900, pp. 28-29), 
sent out from the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, is also grown. 
Largely cultivated in the Mediterranean Region, Spain, Portugal, 
Azores, and the Canaries. 

The candied rind (Lemon Peel) is an important article of 
commerce, and grafting or budding on the bitter orange is 
advisable (Kew Bull. 1895, p. 271), otherwise the uses and cultiva- 
tion are much the same as those of the Lime {q.v.). The method 
of curing the whole fruit is somewhat different. 

Lemons are not allowed to ripen on the tree, but are stem cut 
just before they begin to show yellow. They are then piled or 
heaped on the floor in a dark, close room, and covered with 
blankets for forty-eight hours, which will cause them to sweat 
profusely. After being wiped dry they are put in single layers 
on shelves iaa dark room, and left for a week or ten days until 
they begin to show a clear, straw colour. They should then be 
sized carefully, since they are sold by size, and packed like 
oranges, in boxes. Lemons so prepared for market will keep for 
months in a perfect condition, and there is no trouble about their 
going bad in the way oranges do (Journ. Jamaica Agric. Soc. 
Jan. 1906, p. 20). 

To pickle lemons for export they are first cut in two and 
immersed in salt water for from three to eight days ; they arc 
then placed in casks with alternate layers of salt; salt water is 
then introduced to fill up the spaces and the cask closed up (Kew 
Bull. 1895, p. 271). 


Lemons at Covent Garden, London, May 26th, 1909, were 
realizing 8s.-10s. per box of 300, and 9s.-12s. per box of 360 
(Messina), and 17s.-23s. per case for fruit from Naples (Gard. 
Chron. May 29th, 1909, p. 356). 

Ref. — "Fructus Limonis," in Pharmacographia, Fliickiger & 
Hanbury, pp. 114-118 ; " Oleum Limonis," pp. 118-121 (Macmillan 
& Co., London, 1879).—" Citrus limonum," in Medicinal PI. Bentley 
& Trimen, No. 51 (Churchill, London, 1880).—" Fifteen years with 
the Lemon," Garcelon, in Citrus Fruits, part i. pp. 1-17. {See ref. 
under G. Aurantium). — " Citrus Fruits in Sicily " ; Commerce ; 
Cultivation ; Extracting Essence and Lemon Juice ; Production ; 
Packing, &c, in Kew Bull. 1895, pp. 266-271.— " Metford's 
Lemon," I.e. 1900, pp. 28-29.— "On the Cultivation of Lemons 
within the Tropics," Dr. Neish, in Journ. Jamaica Agric. Soc. 
July, 1901, pp. 275-281.— The Brown Rot of the Lemon, Smith, 
Bull. No. 190, Agric. Kxp. St. Univ. of California, pp. 1-72, 
illustrated (Supdt. State Printing, Sacramento, 1907). — " Curing 
the Lemon," in Agric. Journ. Cape of Good Hope, xxxii. 1908, 
pp. 220-223, with illustrations of Cured and Uncured Lemons ; 
Curing Sheds and Packing House ; Single Grader Machine, and 
Fruit Brushing Machines. — See also various references under 
C. Aurantium and G. Medica var, acida. 

Aegle, Coit. 

Aegle Barteri, Hook./, ex. Oliv. in Ic. PI. t. 2285. 

A small tree. Branches spiny ; spines straight, slender, axillary, 
shorter than the petioles. Leaves trifoliolate ; leaflets shortly 
stalked, obovate or elliptic, papery, pellucid-dotted. Racemes 
1-2-in. long. Stamens 15-20, inserted outside a lobed disc. Ovary 
8-celled, cells many-ovuled ; stigma subsessile, oblong. Fruit 
spherical, 3-4 in. in diameter ; pericarp woody J-in. thick. Seeds 
very numerous, much flattened. 

III.— Hook. I.e. 

Ogbomosha, Abeokuta and Oyo, in W. Prov. S. Nigeria,. 

The hard shell of the fruit is used for making calabashes 
(Barter, Herb. Kew). 

A shade tree, Ogbomosha (Rowland, Herb. Kew). 

Hannoa, Planch. 

Hannoa undulata, Planch. ; Fl. Trop. Afr. I. p. 309. 

III. — Guillem. Perr. Rich. Fl. Senegamb. t. 34 {Simaba ? 

Vernac. name. — Igbo Lagos, {Dawodu). 

Niger ; Lagos ; Nupe. 

In French Guinea the oleaginous kernel is used by the natives 
for making soap, and the light white wood for firewood (Pobeguin, 
Fl. Guin. Franc, p. 47). Used for fever in Lagos (Dawodu, Herb. 


IRVINGIA, Hook. f. 

Irvingia Barteri, Hook./. ; Fl. Trop. Afr. I. p. 314. 

Z/Z.-Hook. Ic. PL t. 1246 ; Ann. Inst. Col. Marseille, 1893, t, 4 
(I. gabonensis) ; Ann. Fac. Sc. Marseille, iii. 1893, t. 13 (/. gabon- 
ensis) ; Engl. & Prantl, Pflan. iii. pt. 4, f. 132 (/. gabonensis) ; 
Thornier, Bliitenpfl. Afr. t, 75 ; Drabble, in Journ. A-H Inst. 
Comm. Res. Tropics, Liverpool Univ. Jan. 1908, p. 20 (Seeds /. 

Vernac. names. — Oro (Lagos, Rowland, Dawodu, Miilen) ; Oro 
(Yoruba Moloney) ; Okerli (Benin, Unuiri) ; O'Dika, Dika, or 
Udika (Gaboon, Heckel, Mann) ; Iba or Oba (M'Pongwe, Heckel) ; 
N'Dogo or Endogo (Pahouin, Heckel) ; Ndisok (Old Calabar, 
Holland) ; Ujio {Drabble). — Dika Bread : Dika Nut ; Gaboon 
Chocolate ; Wild Mango. 

Abeokuta ; Lagos ; Yoruba ; Asaba ; Old Calabar ; Cross River, 
and throughout W. Africa. 

The fruit is edible, in flavour somewhat like the ordinary 
Mango (Mangifera indica) but very inferior. The natives eat it, 
but they attach greater importance to the kernel, from which they 
make the so-called " Dika " or " Udika " bread, which consists of 
the bruised kernels warmed and pressed into a cake. It is used 
largely, when scraped or grated, in stews, and, in general, forms a 
staple article of food amongst the natives (Mus. Kew). Dika 
bread is sometimes mixed with the roasted seeds of Pentaclethra 
macrophylla (Mus. Kew) and Fegimanra africana (Drabble, 
Journ. Inst. Comm. Res. Tropics, Liverpool Univ. Jan. 1908, 
p. 20). 

Lewkowitsch finds decorticated seeds — sun-dried kernels — from 
8. Nigeria to contain 54*3 per cent, of solid fat, having a specific 
gravity of 0'914 at 40° C. ; melting point 38*9° C. ; saponification 
value 244-5 ; iodine value 5'2 (Year Book of Pharm. 1906, p. 30). 
The fat is considered suitable for soap and candle-making, for 
which purposes its value is regarded as equal to that of Palm- 
kernel oil — £27 5s. per ton (Bull. Imp. Inst. 1908, p. 375, where a 
complete analysis is given) — and if it could be obtained perfectly 
fresh and pure, might also equal some of the present substitutes 
for butter and lard. 

The commercial valuation of the fat (from sun-dried kernels) 
has been given at from £25 to £27 per ton, and that of the kernels 
probably £10 to £12 per ton. Messrs. Miller Bros.' machine for 
cracking Palm Nuts (Elaeis guineensis) has been tried at the 
Imperial Institute with u Dika " Nuts, and when used with care 
1 appears to be suitable for extracting the kernels (Bull. Imp. Inst. 
1906, p. 20). It is not considered advisable to ship the nuts whole. 
In a supply of unshelled nuts (50 lb.) from S. Nigeria received at 
the Imperial Institute, only 5 per cent, were fit for use. It is 
recommended that the oil should be extracted on the spot, or sun- 
dried kernels shipped (I.e. p. 21). A small trade was done in the 
seeds by some of- the trading houses in the R. Province of 
S. Nigeria during 1906 (Col. Rep. Misc. No. 51, 1908, p. 41). 


The tree could be propagated by seeds, and it appears to thrive 
in any soil. It is said to be confined to the moist evergreen 

Be/.— "On the Nutritive Value of Dika Bread," Attfield, in 
Pharm. Journ. [2] iii. 1862, p. 445.—" Etudes sur L'Herbier du 
Gaboon" (Mangifera gabonensis), Baillon, in Adansonia viii. 
pp, 82-88. — " Sur les Vegetaux qui Produiscent le Beurre et le Pam 
D' O'Dika du Gabon-Congo," Heckel, in Ann. de l'lnst. Col. de 
Marseille i. 1893, pp .1-31. — Ibid, in Ann. Fac. 8c. Marseille, iii. 
1893, pp. 1-35. — " Irvingia gabonensis, Dika du Gabon," in Les 
Bois industriels, indigenes et exotiques, Grisard & Vanden-Berghe, 
Ed. 2, i. pp. 247-248.— " Dika Nuts from Southern Nigeria," in 
Bull. Imp. Inst, 1906, pp. 19-22.— Ibid, 1908, pp. 374-375.— 
" Irvingia gabonensis," Drabble, in Quarterly Journ. Inst. Comm. 
Res. Tropics, Liverpool Univ. Jan. 1908, p. 20. 

Irvingia Smithii, Hook. /., Fl. Trop. Afr. I. p. 314. 


The fruit is of no value ; it is eaten, according to Barter, by 
monkeys (Fl. Trop. Afr. i. p. 314). The wood is white, very hard, 
and is used on the French Congo in construction work (De Wilde- 
man, PI. Util. Congo, Art. xxvi. p. 379). 

Balanites, Delile. 

Balanites aegyptiaca, Delile ; Fl. Trop. Afr. I. p. 315. 

III. — Delile, Egypte, t. 28, f. 1 ; Baillon, Adansonia, ii. t. 10, 
ff. 9, 10 (flower) ; Schnizlein, Ic. iii. t. 223* ; Haynald, PI. 
Gommes, Resines, dans les livres Saints, t. 3 ; Ann. Inst. Col. 
Marseille, 1902, p. 133, f. 10 ; Thonner, Blutenpfl. Afr. t. 73. 

Vernac. names. — Morotodi (Foulah, Barter [Nupe]) ; Kuge 
(Arabic, Barter [Nupe]) ; Betu (Beriberi, Bull. Imp. Inst. 1907, 
p. 332) ; Adua (Hausa, I.e.) ; M'choonchoo (Madi, Grant) ; Lol 
(Senegal, Sebire) ; Soump, or Soumpa (Senegal, Sebire, Chevalier, 
Grisard & Vanden-Berghe) ; Zaccone, Zacon, or Zachun (Arabic, 
Grisard & Vanden-Berghe) ; Heglik or Heglisk (Arabic, Muriel 
[Kordofan], Golville) ; Kha (Kordofan, Muriel) ; Lalloba (Arabic 
for fruit, Muriel TKordofan]) ; Lalo (Congo, De Wildeman) ; 
Mutenti (Kibero, Uganda, Dawe). — Egyptian Myrobalans ; Desert 
Date ; Central African Date. 

Niger ; Nupe ; Bornu ; Lake Chad Region ; and common in 
other Northern Provinces of N. Nigeria. 

Fruit edible. It has a bitter sweet flavour and aperient qualities ; 
the natives in the neighbourhood of Fashoda are very fond of it 
(Colville, Mus. Kew). In Nupe the fruits are eaten and used to 
make an intoxicating drink (Barter, Herb, Kew). On the Congo 4 
the fruits are eaten, and an alcoholic liquor is also made from them. 
The leaves, according to Barth, are used in Bornu as a vegetable. 
The root, bark, and leaves are purgative and vermifuge in moderate 
doses (De Wildeman, PI, Util. Congo, Art. viii. pp. 50, 53). 

The kernels yield an oil known as " Oil of Betu," and as 
" Zachun Oil," obtained by boiling ; used by the natives to rub on 
their bodies, and also for food. The natives of Madi eat the fruit 


and extract oil from the kernel by roasting ; they mix the oil 
with red clay and use the mixture as an unguent for the body 
(Grant, Trans. Linn. Soc. xxix. p. 43). " Balaninum," one of the 
ingredients (on the authority of Pliny) in the celebrated Spikenard 
perfume, is believed to have been furnished by this tree (Sawer, 
Odorographia, p. 278). 

A sample of oil from N. Nigeria examined at the Imperial 
Institute had the following characters : — Specific gravity 0*919 ; 
acid value 5'0 ; saponification value 1967 : iodine value 92*5 ; 
Hehner value 95*2 ; unsaponifiable matter 06 per cent, approx. ; 
percentage of oil in kernels 58*7 (Bull. Imp. Inst. 1908, p. 365). 
Its colour and taste is said to prevent its use for edible purposes, 
but as it closely resembles cotton-seed oil it may be utilised in 
soap-making, for which purpose it has been valued at from £23 10s. 
to £25 per ton. The oil is regarded by the natives of Uganda as a 
specific for sleeping sickness, but it has been shown by Prof. Cushny 
that it is of no value in the treatment of this disease (I.e. p. 366). 

The wood is described as hard, compact, and fine-grained ; used 
in Abyssinia for making ploughs, clubs, and walking sticks (De 
Wildeman, PI. Util. Congo, Art. viii. p. 51) ; also for carpentry 
and turnery work (I.e. Art. xxvi. p. 365). Suitable for joists, 
rafters, framework, cabinet work, pestles and mortars (Grisard & 
Vanden-Berghe, Les bois industriels, p. 216). The bark of the 
young trees yields a very strong fibre of white colour (Grant, 
Trans. Linn. Soc. xxix. p. 43). 

The tree in Egypt flourishes in a black soil (Sawer, Odoro- 
graphia, p. 472) ; found growing in Kibero, Uganda, at an approxi- 
mate altitude of 2,300 feet (Da we, Herb. Kew). 

Ref. — " Balanites aegyptiaca," in Flore d'Egypte, Delile, 1812, 
pp. 77-85. — Ibid, in Les Bois Industriels, indigenes et exotiques, 
Grisard & Vanden-Berghe, i. pp. 216-247 (Soc. Nat. d'Acclimata- 
tion, Paris, 1890 ?). — " Lalo ou Balanites aegyptiaca," in Les PI. 
Util. du Congo, De Wildeman, Art. viii. pp. 50-54. — " Balanites 
aegyptiaca Oil," in Bull. Imp. Inst. 1908, pp. 364-366. 


Lophira, Banks. 

Lophira alata, Banks ; Fl. Trop. Afr. I. p. 174. 

III.— Gaertner, Fruct. Sem. PI. iii. t, 188 ; Guillem. Perr. Rich. 
Fl. Senegamb. t. 24 ; Chevalier, Geog. Bot. Fl. Econ. Senegal et 
Soudan, 1900, p. 205 ; Ann. Inst. Col. Marseille, i. 1903, p. 5, f. 29 
(A fruit, B graine, C jeune plantule) ; Stone, Timb. Comm. 1. 1, f. 6 
(Photo-micro, trans, section of wood x 3) ; Drabble, in Journ. Inst. 
Comm. Res. Tropics, Liverpool Univ. Sept. 1907, p. 125. 

Vernac. names. — Eki, or Ekki (Lagos, Moloney, Punch) ; Meni 
(Niger, Goldie, Billingtori) ; Gara (Cross River, BiUingtori) ; 
Zawa (Sudan, Bull. Imp. Inst, 1908, p. 366) ; Mana (Mai hike, Fr. 
Guinea, Pobeguin ; Bambarra, Chevalier) ; Mene (Soussou, Fr. 
Guinea, Pobeguin) ; Kako (Gold Coast, De Rothschild) ; Laintlain- 
tain (Sierra Leone, Sebire) ; Millai or Mille (Sierra Leone, Stone, 
Scott-Elliott) ; Nungka (Sierra Leone, Smythe) ; Niam {Drabble) 
— African Oak ; Scrubby Oak ; Dwarf Ironwood. 


Lagos ; Ifon ; Brass ; Benin ; Cross River ; Nupe. 

The seeds yield an oil known as " Niam Fat " or " Meni Oil." 
It is used by the natives of Central and West Africa for cooking 
purposes and as hair oil (Mus. Kew), also in Senegal (Sebire, PI. 
Util. Senegal, p. 41). 

It h^s been found possible to extract 43 per cent, of oil from the 
kernels, said to be suitable for soap-making, and for this purpose 
valued at £24 to £25 per ton. The kernels have been valued at 
about £10 per ton, c.i.f. at Liverpool (Bull. Imp. Inst. 1908, p. 245 ; 
a complete analvsis is given p. 244 and p. 367). 

The bark is used by the Hausa and Yoruba troops as a remedy 
for malarial fever (Fletcher, Herb. Kew). 

The wood is very hard and heavy (specific gravity 1*0208 = about 
65 lbs. per cubic foot) ; described in the trade as a first-class heavy 
fancy wood ; used for furniture and turnery (Mus. Kew). 
Admiralty experts have valued it as better than Teak (Teclona 
grandis, at about Sd. per foot (Punch, Herb. Kew). The market 
for this wood being already open it may be snipped without 
risk. (See Report on Lagos Woods, Stone, Imp. Inst. Journ. 1 902, 
p. 96 ; and Tech. Rep. & Sci. Papers, Imp. Inst. p. 297.) 

The tree is reported as being confined to the dry open forests of 
the hinterland, where it is very plentiful (Col. Rep. No. 5 J, 1908, 
S. Nigeria, p. 41) ; found growing on poor rocky soil between Iwo 
and Ede (I.e. p. 6) ; observed in Benin Territories (lat. 6°-50 / N. ; 
long. 5°-50' E.) on an upland plain, at an altitude of probably 
1000 feet, covered with long grass, over which the trees were 
scattered like an orchard at home (Fletcher, I.e.) ; very common 
and characteristic of laterite hills from 500-4000 feet in Sierra 
Leone (Scott Elliott, Herb. Kew) ; in forests and common in grass 
fields, Sierra Leone (Smythe, Herb. Kew) ; plentiful in the woods 
of Madi, Central Africa, where it flowers in December (Grant, 
Trans. Linn. Soc. xxix. p. 33). 

Ref — " Huile de Mene ou Meni du Senegal et de la Cote 
occidentale d'Af rique (Lophira alata) " in Ann. Inst. Col. Marseille, 
i. 1903, pp. 1-12. — " Lophira alata, African Oak," in The Timbers of 
Commerce and their Identification, Stone, pp. 6-7 (Rider & Son, 
Ltd., London, 1904). — " Analysis of Fat from Lophira alata Seeds," 
Edie, in Quarterlv Journ. Inst. Comm. Res. Tropics, Liverpool 
Univ. Sept. 1907, p. 124.—" The Fruits of Lophira alata," Dr. Drabble, 
I.e. p. 125. — " Seeds of Lophira alata from Sierra Leone," in Bull. 
Imp. Inst. 1908, pp. 243-245.—" Zawa Oil from the Sudan," l.c 
pp. 366-367. 

Commiphora, Jacq. 

Commiphora africanum, Engl, in DC. Monogr. Phan. iv. (1883) 
p. 14 [Balsamodendron africanum, Am. ; Fl. Trop. Afr. i. 
p. 325]. 

III. — Guillem. Perr. Rich. Fl. Senegamb. t. 39 (Heudelotia 
africana) ; Baillon, Adansonia, viii. t. 2 (Balsamodendrum 
africanum, anatomical, f. 1 transverse section of stem ; f, 2 
microscopic transverse section, and f. 3 vertical section, consider 
ably enlarged) ; Holmes, in Pharm. Journ. [4] xxii. p. 257 (Seed). 


Vernac. names. — Omel Barka (Kuka, VogeT) ; Kadige (Kuka, 
Elliott) ; Oanka (Somali, Holmes) ; M'gazoo and Katatee (Ugami, 
Cent. Africa, Grant). — African Bdellium ; African Myrrh ; Le 
Baumier Bdellium (Sebire). 

Kuka, Bornu ; Kworra (Niger). 

This tree is one of the sources of African myrrh or bdellium, a 
drug resembling the true myrrh {Commiphora myrrha, and other 
species). It is a gum-resin obtained largely in Senegal and 
Abyssinia ; from the latter place it is exported via Berbera to 
Bombay, and thence to London. From Senegal and French 
Guinea it is exported chiefly to France. It comes sometimes 
mixed with Gum Arabic (Acacia arabica). According to Parker 
(Pharm. Journ. [3] x. p. 82) it is one of the spurious gums found 
in Myrrh as imported, and is met with in large tears like opaque 
bdellium, but the granulation is less coarse, and the surface is 
traversed by deep cracks ; it is very hard, the conchoidal fracture 
appears slightly opaque, of a dull bluish stony hue, with a 
characteristic resinous margin ; reddish and translucent in thin 
layers ; almost odourless, and of feebly bitter taste. 

Like the Myrrhs in general it yields a volatile oil. 

African bdellium is used in Pharmacy for making plasters 
(Planchon & Collin, Drog. Simpl. ii. p. 552). Both African and 
Indian bdellium are sometimes in demand among varnish makers 
(Holmes, in Pharrn. Journ. [4] vii. 1898, p. 365). 

The wood is burnt by Beriberi women of Bornu, for the purpose 
of fumigating their clothes (Elliott, Herb. Kew) ; a similar use is 
also recorded on a specimen of the gum-resin collected by Dr. Vogel, 
near Kuka (Mus. Kew). 

According to Grant (Trans. Linn. Soc. xxix. p. 44) the tree has 
the appearance of the English Blackthorn (Prunus spinosa), but 
more stunted, and is used in Central Africa for making fences. 

Ref. — " Myrrh, Its Composition and Impurities," Parker, in 
Pharm. Journ. [3] x. 1879, pp. 81-81.— " Myrrh," in Pharma- 
cographia, Fluckiger & Haubury, pp. 110-116 (Macmillan & Co., 
London, 1879). — " Myrrh and Bdellium" in Kew Bull. 1896, 
pp. 86-95. — " Bdellium d'Afrique," in Les Drogues Simples 
d'origine Vegetale, Planchon & Collin, ii. p. 552 (Octave Doin, 
Paris, 1896). — " Myrrh and Bdellium," Holmes, in Pharm. Journ. 
[4] vii. 1898, pp. 547-548 ; viii. 1899, pp. 26-28 and pp. 77-80, 
reprinted in pamphlet form by the Pharmaceutical Society. — 
"Myrrh and its Official Preparations," Alcock, in Pharm. Journ. 
[4] xix. 1904, pp. 894-896.—" Trade in Aloes. Civet, Myrrh, and 
Incense" from Aden, in Journ. Soc. Arts, lii. 1904, pp. 763-761. — 
" The Identity of the Myrrh Tree," Holmes, in Pharm. Journ. [4] 
xxii. 1906, pp. 254-257, illustrated. 

Pachylobus, G. Don. 

Pachylobus edulis, Don ; Fl. Trop. Afr. I. p. 327 [Ganarium 
edule, Hook, f., in Oliver Fl. Trop. Afr. i. p. 327]. 

III.— Engl. Bot. Jahrb. xv. 1893, p. 100, t. 3 (Canarium Saphu, 
fruit) ; Engl. & Prantl, Pflan. iii. pt. 4, p. 212 {Pachylobus Saphu, 
fruit, as in preceding) ; Hook. Ic. PI. tt. 2566, 2567 ; Thonner, 
Blutenpfl. Afr. t. 76, 


Vernac. names. — Eben or Eban (Old Calabar, Thomson, Holland-, 
Uwet, McLeod ; Creektown, Goldie) ; Onumu (Benin, Col. Rep. 
Misc. No. 51, 1908, p. 88); Safn (St. Thomas, Don) ; N'Safu 
(Congo, Bentley). 

Old Calabar ; Uwet ; Okuni, Ikum, Cross River. 

Fruit edible ; the natives eat the outer portion boiled or roasted. 

The wood is described as white and hard ; used for framework 
and joinery (De Wildeman, PI. Util. Congo, Art. xxvi. p. 339). 

The tree may be propagated from, seeds. It is commonly 
cultivated at Old Calabar, along the roadsides near Uwet (McLeod, 
Herb. Kew), in the Cameroons (Mann, Herb. Kew), and from 
St. Thomas to the Congo (Hook. Ic. PI. tt. 2566, 2567). 

Re/.— Hook. Ic. PI. 1899, tt. 2566, 2567.—" The Eben Tree of 
Old Calabar," in Kew Bull. 1906, pp. 172-173. 

Canarium, Linn. 
Canarium Schweinfurthii, Engl, in DC. Monogr. Phan. iv. p. 145. 

A large tree, leaves over 2 ft. long, imparipinnate ; leaflets 
11-13 pairs, lj-l^ inches apart, shortly stalked, oblong, slightly 
cordate at the base, acuminate, the upper ones 6-7 inches long, 
H-2 J- inches broad, the lower hardly more than half as long ; 
lateral nerves 17-23 on each side of the midrib ; veins densely 
reticulate, prominent below. Panicles up to 1 ft. long ; lateral 
branchlets few-flowered, up to H inches long. Flowers over 
^ inch long ; pedicel and calyx greyish or yellowish pubescent. 
Drupes obovoid. 

Vernac. names. — Onanakuku (W. Prov. S. Nigeria, Thompson) ; 
Mubafo (Angola, Welwitsch) ; Mpafu (Tanganyika, Kirk, Thomson)-, 
Mwafu (Uganda, Mahon, Dawe) ; Mombele (Congo, De Wildeman). 
— African Elemi. 

Modakeke, S. Nigeria (Foster, Herb. Kew) ; W. Prov. S. Nigeria 
(Thompson, Herb. Kew). 

The so-called African Elemi has been attributed to the preceding 
species. See Planchon & Collin, in " Les Drogues Simples," ii. p. 558, 
Canarium edule, Hook. f. ; Moloney, " Forestry of West Africa," 
p. 295, Canarium edule, Hook, f., "Mpafu" or " Mubafo"; Hiern., 
" Catalogue of Welwitsch's Atrican Plants," i. 127 (stated here to 
also yield an oil), Canarium edule, Hook, f., more especially with 
reference to the specimens named " Mutafo " or " Nbafo " ; but 
these statements, together with the note under " * Mpafu ' tree of 
Tropical Africa," Canarium sp., in Kew Report, 1880, p. 50, 
probably apply to Canarium Schweinfurthii, Engl., the " Mpafu " 
of Uganda, " Mbaf u " of Tanganyika, " Mupafu " of Mukenge, and 
" Mubaf u " of Angola, as in Engler, " Pflanzenwelt Ost-Afrikas," 
B. p. 199, where the matter relating to the Elemi and oil seems to 
be, perhaps for the first time, accurately put. There are several 
specimens of Canarium Schweinfurthii in the Museum which 
bear out this view (Kew Bull. 1906, p. 172). 

" Canarium Schweinfurthii, Engl., a genuine Canarium having 
a thick, exceedingly dense and hard endocarp, has been confused 


with Pachylobus edulis, G. Don. Both trees yield an edible fruit 
and bear similar or perhaps in some districts the same name, .and 
the leaves are sufficiently alike to deceive a superficial observer. 
The first-named is evidently very wide-spread, ranging from near 
the West Coast, eastward to the lakes and northward to Uganda 
(Hook. Ic. PI. tt. 2566, 2567). 

It seems probable that African Elemi is also obtained from other 
species ; there are five other species of Canarium known from 
Tropical Africa at the present time : C. Buettneri, Engl., and 
C. velutinum, Guillaumin, from the Gaboon ; C. Liebertianum, 
Engl., from E. Africa ; C. macrophyllum, Oliv. from Small Kobi 
Island, Gulf of Guinea, and C. ThoUonicum, Guillaumin, from 
Oubanghi (Modzaka) ; two of which are described as giving a resin. 
— C. Buettneri and C. velutinum, the former, with an odour of 
turpentine and camphor, and the latter a whitish resin (see 
Guillaumin, Bull. Soc. Bot. France, viii. 1908, pp. 261 and 267). 
The main source of Elemi is Canarium luzonicum, A. Gray, 
" Manila Elemi " or " Brea," from the Philippine Islands. 

Elemi is used in medicine, in the preparation of ointment and 
plasters, and in the manufacture of printing inks and varnishes. 
In the Philippines it is used for caulking boats and for making 
torches (Mus. Kew). In West Africa it is said to be used for 
roofing (Monteiro, Mus. Kew) ; in Uganda it is used in the Roman 
Catholic Churches as incense (Dawe, Rep. Bot. Mission, Uganda 
Protectorate, 1906, p. 40), occasionally burnt for the sake of its 
pleasant odour and as an illuminant (Mahon, Mus. Kew) ; the 
Waganda (Victoria Nyanza) use it, ground down with fat, for 
rubbing over the body (Engl. Pflan. Ost. Afr. B. p. 412), and the 
natives of Cazengo employ the resin in the form of a plaster to 
cure wounds (Hiern, Cat. Welw. Afr. PI. i. p. 127). The powdered 
bark is used by the natives of Angola in the treatment of syphilitic 
and scorbutic ulcers (I.e.). The Elemi is obtained by making 
incisions in the trunk, and according to Mahon (Mus. Kew) it 
exudes as a thin very oily fluid, almost transparent, but with a 
grey tinge and having a rather acrid odour. Manila Elemi realises 
on an average about £3 per cwt., but the demand is limited. 

Samples of Elemi from S. Nigeria and Uganda have been 
examined at the Imperial Institute, and the data obtained go to 
show that they resemble in properties the Manila Elemi, but 
give a smaller yield of volatile oil. It has been suggested that 
the African Elemi, if carefully collected and stored so that it 
could be put on the market in a soft, clean condition, comparable 
with that of Manila Elemi, would be equally serviceable as an 
ingredient in the manufacture of printing inks and varnishes 
(Bull. Imp. Inst. 1908, p. 255). 

A fragrant pleasant smelling oil is obtained from the outer 
portion of the fruit. According to Cameron {see Engler, Pflan. 
Ost. Afr. B. p. 474) it is extracted by soaking the fruits in water 
in large receptacles for some days, the oil as it collects on the 
surface being skimmed off. The fruit soaked in water is used as 
a condiment with various foods (I.e. p. 199) ; a similar use is 
attributed to the fruits in Angola (Hiern. Cat. Welw. Afr. PI. i 
p. 127). 


The wood is said to be proof against borers, &c. ; it is described 
as light, hard, of a pale yellow colour, and excellent for the 
construction of canoes (De Wildeman, PI. Util. Congo, Art. xxvi. 
p. 367). 

Bef. — " Canarium Schweinfurthii," in Pflan. Ost Afrikas, 
Dr. Engler, B. pp. 199-200 (Dietrich Reimer, Berlin, 1895).— 
" Elemi Resin from Liberia," in Bull. Imp. Inst. 1907, pp. 186-187, 
— "African Elemi," including "Elemi from S. Nigeria," and 
" Uganda Elemi from Canarium Schweinfurthii,'''' in Bull. Imp. 
Inst. 1908, pp. 252-255. 

Santiriopsis, Engl. 

Santiriopsis Klaineana, Pierre, in Bull. Soc. Linn. Paris, ii. 
p. 1282. 

A small tree. Branches over 1 in. in diameter, young parts 
scaly, puberulous. Leaves alternate, imparipinnate ; common 
petiole 2 in. long ; leaflets 1.-3 pairs ; partial petioles J-§ in. long ; 
blade 2-5 in. long, 1-2^ in. broad, oblong-lanceolate, acute at the 
base, rather obtuse at the apex, coriaceous, glabrous, in a dried 
state brown above, shining and somewhat reddish below ; lateral 
nerves 11, prominent on both surfaces, midrib sinuate, veins 
closely reticulate. Racemes 7 in. long, axillary, puberulous ; 
branches very short or reduced to almost sessile clusters of 
flowers. Flowers trimerous. Sepals elliptic, 1 lin. long. Petals 
scaly on both surfaces. Filaments glabrous, inserted at the base 
of the disc. Anthers elliptic, glandular on the back. Ovary 
2- jelled, pubescent ; ovules 2 in each cell. Drupe straight ; 
exocarp fleshy, endocarp crustaceous. Seed solitary ; cotyledons 
deeply lobed. 

Vernac. name. — Odonomokyuku (Benin, Tho?npson). 


The wood of this species resembles Panama Mahogany in 
structure ; saws about as hard as oak, giving off a pungent smell ; 
planes badly, being cross-grained and woolly ; polishes fairly 
well, and takes nails well. It is considered a wood of poor 
quality, not ornamental, and of no use for export (Bull. Imp. Inst. 
1908, p. 148). The weight per cubic foot is 43*8 lbs. (I.e. p. 147, 
q.v. for other physical properties). 


Melia, Linn. 

Melia Azedarach, Linn. ; Fl. Trop. Afr. I. p. 332. 

III. — Commelin, Hort. Med. Amstel. PL t. 76 (Azadirachta 
indica) ; Cav. Diss. t. 207 ; Bot. Mag. t. 1066 ; Chaumeton, Fl. 
Med. i. t. 50; Lam. Encycl. t. 35/, f. 2; Duhamel, Traite des 
Arbres, vi. t. 21 ; Desc. Ant. i. t. 46 ; Bot. Reg. t. 643 (M. semper- 
virens) ; Mem. Mus. Paris, xix. 1. 13, f. 4 ; Wight, Ic. PL Ind. or. i. 
t. 160 ; Schnizlein, Ic. t. 225 (M. sempervirens) ; Rev. Hort. 1872, 
p. 470 (M. ftoribunda) ; Baillon, Hist. PL v. p, 470, f. 462, p. 471, 
ff, 463, 464) ; Bedd. Fl. Sylv. t. 13 ; De Candoile, Monogr. 


Phanerog. i. t. 6, f . 9 ; Mart. Fl. Bras. xi. pt. 1, t. 50 ; Belgique 
Hortic. 1880, t. 9 (var floribunda) ; Vidal, Fl. For. Filip. t. 29e ; 
Engl. & Prantl, Pflan. iii. pt. 4, f. 160A-L. 

Vernac. names. — Ekc-Oyibo (Oloke-Meji, Dodd) ; Eke-Oyinbo 
(Lagos, Dawodu) ; Kurna-na-sara (Kontagora, DalzieD. — Persian 
Lilac ; Bead Tree ; West Indian Bead Tree ; Pride of India ; 
China Berry ; Bastard Cedar ; Tree of Paradise. 

Oloke Meji ; Kontagora ; Yoruba. Widely distributed in 
Tropical Africa and commonly cultivated in many other tropical 
and sub-tropical countries. 

All parts of the plant appear to be used for various medicinal 
purposes (India, America, &c). The leaves and flowers applied 
as a poultice are used in India to relieve nervous headaches ; and 
the juice of the leaves as an anthelmintic, antilithic, diuretic, and 
emmenagogue (Diet. Econ. Prod. Ind.). The root bark, which is 
very bitter, is used in America as a cathartic and emetic (Goodale, 
Mus. Kew), and the stem bark possesses anthelmintic, stimulant, 
antispasmodic and tonic properties (Mus. Kew). The fruit is 
poisonous and the bark and leaves are also said to possess toxic 
properties. Loudon states that the fruit is poisonous in a high 
degree, and mixed with grease will kill dogs (Encycl. PI. p. 352). 
The stones are sometimes used for making rosaries and necklaces. 
Royle states that the seeds are emetic, laxative and anthelmintic 
(111. Bot. Himal. p. 144). The kernels yield an oil described as 
similar to that of the Neem or Margosa (Melia Azadirachta) — 
fixed, acrid, bitter, deep yellow, and of a strong disagreeable 
flavour, used in India as an anthelmintic and antiseptic, also for 
burning in lamps, but said to smoke offensively (Diet. Econ. Prod. 
Ind.). The tree yields a brown adhesive gum, but this, as also 
the oil, is not considered important (Watt, Comm. Prod. India, 
p. 781). The oil has been examined by Fendler, who gives the 
specific weight as 0*9253 at 15° C. ; Fusion point — 3° C. ; Solidifica- 
tion point 12° C. ; Fusion point of the acid fat 22° C. ; Solidification 
point of acid fat 19° C. (De Wildeman, PI. Util. Congo, Art. xxx. 
p. 487). 

The wood is recorded by Hough as weighing 38 lbs. to 40 lbs. 
per cubic foot (iVmerican Woods, v. No. 105), by Gamble 35-3S- 
40 lbs. per cubic foot (Man. Ind. Timb., p. 145) ; a good cabinet 
wood not unlike teak (Dalziel, Bull. Imp. Inst. 1907, p. 261). It 
is used for furniture, and takes a good polish (Mus. Kew) ; 
apparently little used in America, although described as very 
appropriate for nice furniture, and similar in properties to 
mahogany (Hough, I.e.) ; used with success at the Imperial Forest 
School, Dehra Dun, India, for museum cases and other furniture 
(Camble, I.e.). In Oloke-Meji the wood is used for roofing houses 
(Dodd, Herb. Kew). 

Under cultivation the seeds germinate freely, and the plants 
grow rapidly. The very ornamental appearance of the tree for 
avenues, &c, is regarded by many as the foundation of its real 
value. In India, where it is commonly cultivated, it is met with 
up to an altitude of 0,000 feet (Watt, Comm. Prod. India, p. 781). 
In Kontagora it is common in native compounds ; flowers in 

33385 K 


October ; subject, during growth, to injury by white ants, and its 
leaves to attacks by insects of the genus Batocera (Dalziel, I.e.). 

Ref.— U Melia Azedarach," in Diet. Econ. Prod. India, Watt, v. 
pt. 1, 1891, pp. 221-223.—" Melia Azedarach," in The American 
Woods, Hough, v. No. 105, pp. 28-29, with sections— transverse, 
radial, and tangential — of the wood (published by the Author, 
Lowville, New York, 1894).— ' k Melia Azedarach," in Manual of 
Indian Timbers, Gamble, pp. 144-145 (Sampson, Low, Marston & 
Co., Ltd., London, 1902). — " Melia Azedarach on Lilas des Falls," 
in PI. Util. Congo, Art. vii. pp. 42-49. — " A Propos du Melia Aze- 
darach," I.e. Art. xxx. pp. 486-488. — " Melia Azedarach," in Der 
Tropenpflanzer, 1904, pp. 578-580. 

Guarea Thompsonii, Sprague & Hutchinson, in Kew Bull. 1906, 
p. 245. 

A tree. Branchlets glabrous below, minutely puberulous above, 
J in. in diameter or more. Leaves pinnate, 1^ ft. long or more, 
glabrous ; leaflets shortly stalked, oblong or obovate oblong, more 
rarely oblanceolate, 4-8 in. long, 2-3 in. broad, obtuse or very 
shortly acuminate at the apex, rounded or obtusely cuneate at the 
base, chartaceous ; veins and veinlets inconspicuous on the upper 
surface, slightly raised on the lower ; lateral nerves 11-14 on each 
side of the midrib. Panicles axillary, borne several together 
towards the ends of the branchlets, pyramidal, 6 in. to 1 ft. long ; 
rhachis puberulous. Flowers over ^ in. long. Calyx cupular, 
hardly toothed. Petals 5 or 6, imbricate, oblong. Staminal tube 
slightly swollen about the middle, terminated by 10-15 small 
lobes ; anthers 10-15, inserted inside the tube a little below its 
apex. Ovary oblong, hairy, 4-5-celled, ovules 2 in each cell ; 
style glabrous ; stigma peltate. 


Cedar ; Benin Mahogany. 

Wood exported to Europe under the trade names given above. 

The species of Guarea are found in the moist evergreen forests 
(Thompson, Col. Rep. Misc. No. 51, 1908, p. 24). 


Trichilia emetica, Vahl. ; Fl. Trop. Afr. I. p. 335. 

III. — Bertoloni, Misc. Bot. ix. t. 2 (Mafureira oleifera) ; Trans. 
Linn. Soc. xxix. t. 20 ; Wood, Nat. PI. i. t. 80 ; Sim, For. Fl. 
Cape Col. t, 27 ; Sim, For. Fl. Port. E. Afr. 1. 15. 

Vernac. names. — Mafoureira ; Baf ureira (Portuguese Mozam- 
bique, Ficalho) ; Tsikiri (Mozambique, Johnson) ; Elcaja (Arabia, 
Ficalho) ; Guimbi (Engoche, Tala Mngongo, Ficalho) ; Mahura 
(Kalahari, S.E. Africa, Burchell) ; Mafura (Inhambane, Kirk) ; 
Pao Cachique (Golungo Alto, Welwitsch) ; Motsakiri (S.W. Trop. 
Africa, Baines) ; Esschenhout (Dutch, in Pondoland and Natal, 
Sim) ; Um-Kuhlu (Kafir, Sim, Wood). — Cape Mahogany ; Manubi 
Mahogany ; Natal Mahogany. 

Kontagora, Borgu, N. Nigeria, and widely distributed in Tropical 
Africa, from Senegambia through Abyssinia to Mozambique. 


The seeds contain about 60 per cent, of a fatty oil used by the 
natives in cookery and suitable for the manufacture of soaps and 
candles. The fat, owing to its acidity, is not considered suitable 
for edible, pharmaceutical, or lubricating purposes without special 
treatment. From samples examined at the Imperial Institute it 
has been found that the kernels amount to 88 per cent, and the 
shells to 12 per cent, of the whole seed, the former yielding 
68 per cent, of oil and the latter 14 per cent. 

The oily constituents of the nut are solid at the ordinary 
temperature, and in this respect resemble fats of the same class as 
palm oil, cocoanut oil, etc. They are chiefly composed of palmitin 
and olein, together with some free fatty acid, chiefly oleic. 

A chemical examination furnished the following results : — 

Melting I ™y 




; Saponifica' 




Fat from the entire 

Fat from kernels only 

37° C. 

40° C. 

20-25° C. 
25-30° C. 






The commercial value of the Mafoureira nut has been estimated 
at from £8 to £9 per ton delivered in Hull, in consignments of 
not less than from 50 to 100 tons, but it is recommended that the oil 
should be expressed in the countries of production in preference 
to shipping the raw material (Bull. Imp. Inst. 1903, p. 28). 

At Inhambane the seed can be bought for little more than \d. 
per kilo, (about 42s. per ton), and it sells in Marseilles for £8 per 
ton, freight costing (1901) 50s. per ton (Cons. Rep. Ann. No. 2630, 
1901, p. 4). A sample of seeds sent to Kew (October, 1906) by 
Mr. W. H. Johnson from Mozambique was valued in London 
at £9 10s. per ton (Mas. Kew). The cake is said to contain 
nearly the same percentage of nitrogen compounds as linseed cake 
{Linxim usitatissimum) (Bull. Imp. Inst. l.c p. 29). 

In 1900, 270 tons of Beed were shipped from Inhambane to 
Marseilles and 2 tons to Hamburg (Cons. Rep. Ann. No. 2630, 
1901, p. 4). 

The wood does not readily warp or shrink, and sound planks 
3-4 feet wide may be cut, though it is apt to become worm eaten 
within a year or two ; it is used in Cape Colony for yokes and 
general purposes ; polishes well and makes very pretty furniture, 
and several shades of colour can be obtained from the same species 
(Sim, For. Fl. Cape Col. p. 161). In South Tropical Africa it is 
used for making small canoes, etc. (Baines, Mus. Kew). In 
Zanzibar it is used for making platters and small canoes (Kirk, 
Mus. Kew). 

According to Grant, the bark in the neighbourhood of Madi. 
Central Africa, is used as a cure for syphilis, and the natives 
obtain from the tree a liquid which they use as a sauce (Trans. 
Linn. Soc. xxix. p. 45) ; the bark is said to be poisonous ; used by 
the natives of Cape Colony as an emetic in small doses (Sim, I.e.). 
33385 K l" 


The tree may be readily propagated by seeds, but like other 
oily seeds they are not likely to retain their vitality for any length 
of time. In Mozambique it grows wild all over the country 
(Cons. Rep. Ann. No. 2630, 1901, p. 4). In Unyoro, Uganda, it 
has been found growing on open land (Dawe, Herb. Kew). In 
Cape Colony it grows on rich alluvial soil about 15 miles from the 
sea, but not on the sea dunes, and is less abundant on shallow 
shale soils (Sim, I.e. p. 160). Wood describes it as one of the 
handsomest trees indigenous to Natal, where it grows in the Coast 
districts (Nat. PI. i. p. 66). 

Ref. — "Trichilia emetica," in Trans. Linn. Soc. xxix. 1875, 
p. 44.—" Trichilia emetica," " Mafoureira," " Maforia," " Motsa- 
kiri," " Mafurra," " Mafutratalg," in Pflanzenwelt, Deutsch Ost. 
Afrika, Dr. Engler, B. pp. 475-476 (Dietrich Reimer, Berlin, 1895). 
— " Mafoureira Nuts from Portuguese East Africa," in Bull. Imp. 
Inst. 1903, pp. 26-29.— Forest Flora, Cape Colony, Sim, pp. 160-161 
(Taylor & Henderson, Aberdeen, 1907). 

Trichilia Heudelotii, Planch. ; Fl. Trop. Afr. 1. p. 334. 

Vernac names. — Ovala (Benin, Thompson) ; Jauwi (Sierra 
Leone, Scott Elliott). 

The bark furnishes a red dye used for cloth by the natives at 
Kafogo, Sierra Leone (Scott Elliott, Col. Rep. Misc. No. 3, 1893, 
p. 31). 

Trichilia Prieuriana, Juss. ; Fl. Trop. Afr. I. p. 334. 

III.— Guillem. Perr. Rich. Fl. Senegamb. t, 30. 

Vernac. names. — Awe (Lagos, Punch). — Monkey Apple (Sierra 
Leone, Scott Elliott). 

Lagos ; Old Calabar. 

A handsome decorative tree. Wood very hard and red (Punch, 
Herb. Kew). 

Carapa, Aubl. 

Carapa guianeensis, Aubl. ; Fl. Trop. Afr. I. p. 336. 

Ill— Aublet, Guiana, t. 387 ; Lam. Encycl. t. 301, f. 2 ; Desc. 
Ant. vi. t. 446 ; Mem. Mus. Paris, xix. t. 20 ; De Candolle, Monogr. 
Phanerog. i. t. 9, f. 2 ; Mart. Fl. Bras. xi. pt. 1, t. 64 ; Engl. & 
Prantl, Pflau. iii. pt. 4, f. 156 F-H ; Stone, Timb. Comm. t. 3, f. 24 
(Photo-Micro, trans, sec. of wood x 3) ; Journ. Inst. Comm. Res. 
Tropics, Liverpool Univ. Jan. 1908, p. 24, f. 6 (Seed). 

Vernac. names. — Koudou (Ivory Coast, Pobeguin) ; Kobi 
(Bambara, Pobeguin) ; Gobi (Soussou, Pobeguin). — Crabwood ; 
Crab Tree. 

Eppah, Niger ; common in British Guiana and other parts of 
Trop. America. 

The seeds yield an oil known in commerce as " Carap " or 
" Crab oil." It is reputed to possess anthelmintic properties and 
to be a powerful insecticide. Insects are said not to go near trees 
daubed with the oil. Soap made from the oil dissolved in water 
is an efficient insecticide for greenhouse or outdoor plants. The 

, 149 

oil has also been recommended for soap and candle-making if it 
can be produced at a reasonable cost (Gane, Pharm. Journ. [3] 
xxv. p. 1150). 

Administered internally the oil is said to possess slight purgative 
properties, but the taste is too nauseous to admit of its employ- 
ment for this purpose (I.e.). The very bitter taste would also 
prevent its use as a food. In British Guiana it is used for dress- 
ing the hair, as an anthelmintic, for healing wounds, and for 
burning in lamps (Mus. Kew). 

The constituents of the oil have been defined as : free fatty 
acid, glycerates of oleic, palmitic and stearic acids, and a small 
amount of a bitter principle of an alkaloidal character ; the melt- 
ing point at about 20° C, and the specific gravity at 15° C. as 0*923 
(Gane, I.e.). 

The bark of the tree is also very bitter, and is considered a good 

The wood, according to Laslett, is used as a substitute for plain 
and inferior mahogany (Timber and Timber Trees, p. 410), but is 
unsuitable for important works of construction on account of a 
strong tendency to split and tear during seasoning (I.e. p. 277). 
Stone found a log about 18 inches in diameter to work up very 
well (Timb. Comm. p. 39). Used in British Guiana for mill and 
mortar-beds, ordnance, house framing, etc. (I.e.) ; for furniture, 
shingles, and the masts and spars of vessels (Mus. Kew). 
A specimen at Kew is light brown in colour ; it is stated to take a 
fine polish and to make most durable furniture ; specific gravity 
•667 (=41*6 lbs. per cubic foot). In 1886 it was selling at 9d. to 
Is. 3d. per cubic foot, f.o.b. Demerara River ; shipped in logs 10 
to 20 inches square (Cat. Woods, Brit. Guiana, suitable for cabinet 
making. Exhibit by Park and Cunningham, Demerara, at the 
Col. and Indian Exhib. 1886, S. Kensington, p. 11, No. 42). This 
specimen now shows a specific gravity of '5858=36*6 lbs. per 
cubic foot (Mus. Kew). 

Be/. — " Fixed Oil of Carapa guianensis," Gane, in Pharm. Journ. 
[3] xxv. 1895, p. 1150. — " Huile de Carapa de la Guyane," Heckel 
in Ann. Inst. Col. Marseille, v. 1898, 2nd fasc. (Graines Grasses nouv. 
Coh Franc.) pp. 141-152.— " Carapa Oil from Trinidad," in Tech. 
Rep. & Sci. Papers, Imp. Inst. 1903, pp. 135-136.— " Andiroba 
Nuts from Sergipe, Brazil, received through the Foreign Office," 
I.e. pp. 136-137. — Mechanical Properties of the Wood, I.e. p. 285. — 
" Crabwood " in Timbers of Commerce, Stone, pp. 38, 39 (W. Rider 
& Son, Ltd., London, 1904). 

Carapa procera, DC. Prod. i. (1878), p. 626. 

A tree, 70-80 ft. high or less. Leaves paripinnate, 1.1—2 ft. long ; 
leaflets 6-12 pairs, shortly stalked obovate-oblong or elliptic-oblong, 
shortly acuminate to the apex, cuneate at the base, 8-12 in. long, 
2-3 in. broad, coriaceous, glabrous, shining on the upper surface, 
dull on the lower. Panicles lax, many-flowered, equalling the 
leaves. Flowers pinkish, pentamerous, J in. long, glabrous. 
Sepals rounded. Petals obovate. Staminal tube ovoid, obtusely 
10-toothed ; anthers 10, just within the tube, alternating with the 


teeth. Disc fleshy. Ovary 5-celled, equalling the style ; stigma 
discoid. Capsule subglobose, 5-celled, 5-valved ; valves crested- 
tuberculate. Seeds trigonous, about 6 in each cell. 

III. — Engl. & Prantl, iii. pt. 4, f. 156 A-E ; Journ. Inst. Comni. 
Res. Tropics, Liverpool Univ. Jan. 1908, p. 24. 

Vernac. name. — Ibegogo (Cent. Prov. S. Nigeria, Unwin). 

The seeds of this species are believed to yield the " Touloucouna " 
oil of West Africa, although, in view of the general similarity of 
the oil of several of the known species of Carapa, it is possible 
that the name may be largely a geographical one. The uses in 
Africa appear to be identical with those of the preceding species. 
The seeds, under the name of " Krufie," have recently been 
received at Kew from West Africa, where the oil, which is 
extracted by grinding and boiling, is used for the cure of yaws, 
burns, and mosquito bites (Mus. Kew). In Marseilles the oil is 
used for soap-making (Planchon & Collin, Drog. Simpl. ii. 
p. 670). 

Heckel gives an analysis of " Touloucouna " oil, in comparison 
with that of " Carapa " oil, and is of the opinion that they are 
distinct products. {See Les Graines Grasses Nouvelles ou peu 
connues des Colonies Francaises, Paris, 1902, pp. 141-153.) 

Lewko witsch, however, is of the opinion that there is not sn fficient 
justification for considering " Carapa " oil and " Touloucouna" oil 
as two different individuals in view of the uncertainty attaching 
to the origin and to the original condition of the fats. {See Carapa 
oil in the Analyst, May, 1908.) 

The bark possesses tonic and febrifugal properties. 

There is no specimen of the wood at Kew, but it is possible that 
it is somewhat similar to that of C. guianensis — the only other 
known species of Carapa {C. grandiflord) from Tropical Africa has 
much the same appearance and general characters. It is strong, 
durable, and capable of taking a good polish. The specific gravity 
by experiment is *6061, and the weight per cubic foot by calculation 
is 37*8 lbs. (Mus. Kewj. Wood believed to belong to C. procera 
has been valued on the English market at 2^cl to 3^d. per foot, as 
a timber with some of the qualities of both cedar and mahogany, j 

Seeds are said to be produced very freely, and the tree is very 
common in the Central Province (Kew Bull. 1908, p. 194). 

fief.— " Kundoo " oil, in Technologist, 1862, pp. 343-345.— 
" Beurre de Touloucouna," Heckel in Ann. Inst. Col. Mar- 
seille, v. 1898, 2nd fasc. (Graines Grasses nouv. Col. Franc.) 
pp. 153-160.—" Un Febrifuge du Congo " in PI. Utiles du Congo, 
De Wildeman, No. 1, 1903, pp. 55-62 (Spineux & Co., Brussels).— 
" Carapa procera, an oil-yielding tree of West Africa," Dr. Drabble 
in Journ. Inst. Comm. Research in the Tropics, Liverpool Univ. 
iii. 1908, pp. 21-24.—" Carapa oil," Dr. Lewkowitsch, pp. 1-4 ; 
Reprint from the Analyst, May, 1908, giving an analysis of 
" Carapa oil," " Touloucouna oil," and oil from the seeds of Carapa 
grandiflora, Sprague, including a commercial valuation of the 
kernels and oil. 


Entandrophragma, C. DC. 

Entandrophragma Candollei, Harms, in Notizbl. Bot. Gart. 
Berlin, i. 1896, p. 181. 

A tree, 100 ft. high or more. Bark smooth, ashy grey. Leaves 
alternate, abruptly pinnate, over 1 ft. long ; leaflets 6-7 pairs, 
sessile, oblong or obovate-oblong, shortly and abruptly acuminate 
at the apex, unequally cuneate at the base, 3-4^ in. long, about 
1\ in. broad, slightly puberulous on the nerves of the lower 
surface, otherwise glabrous ; lateral nerves 12-18 on each side of 
the midrib, prominent below ; petiole and rhachis sparingly rusty- 
pubescent. Panicles about 1 ft. long, many-flowered, pubescent. 
Flowers about \ in. long. Calyx cupular, 4-6-toothed. Petals 
4-6, usually 5, oblong. Staminal tube glabrous or nearly so, 
divided above into 10 anther-bearing segments, joined in its lower 
part to the gynophore by means of membranous ribs. Ovary 
seated on a short gynophore, ovoid, 5-ceiled ; ovules 8-10 in 
each cell. 

Vernac. name. — Ikwapobo (Benin, Thompson) ; Atore (Calabar, 
Sheriff). — Unscented Mahogany ; Long-capsuled Mahogany. 

Benin ; Old Calabar. 

The wood is valued at about 3d. to 4d. per superficial foot. The 
tree is said to furnish a high percentage of figured logs, and to get 
this timber in good condition the Forestry Department advise 
girdling the trees, thus allowing them to die off gradually and 
season effectually, otherwise the wood is disliked by the trade, 
being rather scummy and unsuitable for veneers. (See Col. Rep. 
Misc. No. 51, 1908, p. 24, and Kew Bull. 1908, p. 189.) 

According to tests made by Unwin and Dalby on specimens 
obtained from S. Nigeria, the timber has the following characters : 
Weight per cubic foot, 42*1 lbs. ; coefficient of transverse strength 
in lbs. per sq. inch, 6,319 ; stress at elastic limit in lbs. per sq. 
inch, 3,315 ; coefficiency of elasticity in lbs. per sq. inch, 985,500 ; 
load at centre in lbs., 7,000 ; deflection in inches, # 438 ; shearing 
stress in lbs. per sq. inch, 895 ; crushing stress in tons per sq. inch, 
1-92 (Bull. Imp. Inst. 1908, p. 147). 

The working properties of the timber, according to Stone, are 
that it is both ornamental and useful, and valuable for export ; 
that it resembles African Mahogany in all respects and would pass 
as such ; it saws as hard as elm, with an unpleasant spicy smell ; 
planes fairly well, but inclined to be cross-grained ; takes nails 
badly ; fissile and cleaves with a smooth shining surface, and 
takes an excellent finish when polished. It is weak and brittle, 
and the fracture is biscuit-like and splintery (I.e. p. 152). 

The trees are found in the evergreen forests of the plains, and on 
account of their size they have not usually been destroyed by the 
natives when cutting new forest for farming purposes ; it is to this 
exposure to light, leading to the development of adventitious buds, 
that the fine figure of many of the logs is probably due (Thompson, 
Col. Rep. I.e. p. 58). It is plentiful in the drainage areas of the 
Jamieson and Ethiope Rivers, and is always found on high land 


(Kew Bull. I.e. p. 190) ; found in the forests of Jebu-Ode, Ife, and 
Ilesha (Thompson, Col. Rep. I.e. p. 6), in the forest reserve of the 
Oban Hills, and in the Cross River region (I.e. pp. 7, 8). 

Khaya, A. Juss. 
Khaya grandis, Stapf. 

A glabrous tree. Leaves pinnate, with 4 pairs of leaflets ; leaflets 
oblong or subovate-oblong, often oblique, shortly and frequently 
obscurely apiculate, rounded to shortly cuneate at the base ; 7-9 in. 
long, 4-5 in. wide, papery, margin more or less undulate ; common 
rhachis (inclusive of petiole), about 9 in. long ; petiolules 6 lin. 
long. Panicles 3-6 in. long, 3-4 in. wide, very loose, pedicels 
very short or up to 1^ lin. long. Flowers pentamerous (only 
known in the hermaphradite condition). Calyx flat, 1 lin. in 
diameter ; sepals rotundate. Petals 2 lin. long. Staminal tube 
globose-urceolate, hardly constricted below the mouth, about 
If lin. long. Anthers \ lin. long. Ovary adnate to a crenulate 
disc ; stigma sessile, disciform, crenulate ; ovules about 15 in 
two rows. 

Vernac. name.— Ogwangu (Benin, Thompson).— Benin Mahogany. 

Jebu-Ode, Ife, Ilesha, Mamu, Western Province, S. Nigeria. 

The timber is a regular article of export. 

Found in the forests of the localities mentioned though not very 
plentiful in Mamu (Thompson, Col. Rep. Misc. No. 51, 1898, 
pp. 4, 6). 

See under Khaya senegalensis. 

Khaya Punchii, Stapf. 

A glabrous tree. Leaves pinnate with 3 or less, often 4, pairs of 
leaflets ; leaflets ovate-oblong to oblong, shortly and often abruptly 
acuminate, rounded or very shortly and broadly cuneate at the 
base ; 4-7 in. long, 2-4 in. wide, papery, margin more or less 
undulate ; common rhachis (inclusive of petiole) 6-12 in. long ; 
petiolules 3-6 lin. long. Panicles 6-9 in. long, 3-4 in. wide, rather 
loose ; pedicels very short. Flowers pentamerous (only known in 
the androdynamous state ; that is they are apparently hermaphro- 
dite but are actually male). Calyx flat, 1 lin. or less in diameter ; 
sepals rotundate. Petals 2-2^ lin. long. Staminal tube, globose- 
urceolate, hardly constricted below the mouth, about 2,\ lin. long. 
Anthers \ lin. long. Ovary surrounded at the base by an adnate 
disc ; style cylindric, as long as the ovary ; stigma disciform ; 
ovules very minute, barren. 

Vernac. name. — Ogwangu (Benin, Thompson, Unwiri). ; Eggo 
(I bo, Thompson) ; Oganwo (Lagos, Punch). — Benin Mahogany. 

Ibadan Forest Reserve, Lagos ; Benin. 

The timber realises good prices and is much in demand. The 
tree is said to be found in areas that are under water for several 
months in the year (Thompson, Col. Rep. Misc. No. 51, 1908, p. 24, 
and Kew. Bull. 1908, p. 189) ; found in the swamp forests between 
the Forcados, Ramos, and Dodo Rivers (Col. Rep. I.e. p. 7). 

See also under Khaya senegalensis. 

[Tofctf:ep 153. 


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Khaya senegalensis, A. Juss. ; Fl. Trop. Afr. I. p. 338. 

III.— Mem. Mus. Paris, xix. 1830, t. 21 ; Guillem. Perr. Rich. 
Fl. Senegamb. t. 32 ; De Candolle, Monogr. Phanerog. i. 1878, t. 8, 
f. 10 ; Engl. & Prantl, Pflan. iii. pt, 4, f . 152A-J. 

Vernac. names. — Ogwango or Ogwangu (Benin, Thompson) ; 
Gadeau (Yoruba, Thompson) ; Kail (French Guinea, Pobeguin) ; 
Cail (Senegambia, Kew Bull. 1890, p. 169) ; Dubin or Dubini 
(Gold Coast, Ds Rothschild, Johnson) ; Bele (Golo, Sudan, Bull. 
Imp. Inst. 1909, p. 21). — Cail-Cedra (French) ; African Mahogany. 

All Provinces, S. Nigeria ; Zungeru, Katagum, Guarara River, 
in N. Nigeria, and widely distributed in Tropical Africa. 

African Mahogany includes several species of widely different 
origin to those already mentioned under Meliaceae. There is 
little doubt, however, that it was the wood of this species which 
first found its way into commerce as West African Mahogany. 
The Liverpool trade in the wood originated on the Gambia, from 
which colony specimens were first sent to Kew and proved to be 
Khaya senegalensis. According to Mr. James Irvine the export 
began in the autumn of 1886 with about 250 tons (Kew Bull. 1894, 
p. 8) ; by 1895 the trade had increased to such an extent that the 
important mahogany industries of British Honduras and neigh- 
bouring countries were seriously affected ; shipments were also 
then being made to the United States (Kew Ball. 1895, p. 80). In 
1904 the trade in the West African wood was on such a scale that 
it could be stated (Timber Trades Journal, 1904, p. 571), " It has 
made this country largely independent of the production of the 
West Indies, and it is in this direction that we now and in the 
future will have to rely for our importations of mahogany." Of 
a total import (in 1903) from all sources of about 20,000,000 feet, 
nearly 18,000,0 JO feet was received from West Africa (Chaloner's 
Report, Liverpool, Jan. 2nd, 1905). The development of the 
trade with Southern Nigeria and the United Kingdom is shown 
in the accompanying chart, compiled from Annual Statements of 
the Trade of the United Kingdom prepared at the Custom House. 
The figures are given under Lagos and Niger Protectorates 
throughout for the 14 years represented. 

In 1908 the exports from N. and S. Nigeria amounted to 
28,750 tons, value £260,994 (Trade of the United Kingdom, 
i. 1909, p. 281). 

The proportion in which the total exports from S. Nigeria are 
distributed to various countries is shewn in the following figures 
taken from S. Nigeria Govt. Gaz. Extraordinary, July 3rd, 1908, 
App. B, p. 932 :— 

Quantity. Value. 

Logs. c. ft. £ £ 

( United Kingdom ... 12,864 + 552,708 44,913 + 11,360 

1906 1 Germany 2,488+ 8,587 11,893+ 416 

( Other Countries ... 382 — 136 

( United Kingdom ... 14,500 + 170,652 51,7; > .l + 6,128 

1907 | Germany 2,737+ 5,376 11,103+ 279 

( Other Countries ... — — — — 

1906 ^ Cent. Prov.... 

(E. Prov. ... 

(W. Prov. ... 

J 907 ^ Cent. Prov. ... 

E. Prov. ... 


£ £ 
8,975 + 10,209 
47,467 + 1,560 
499 + 8 

7,637 + 
55,197 + 



The proportion of the total export from S. Nigeria attributed 
to each province is shown in the following figures (J.c. Appen- 
dices B, i. ii. and iii.) : — 

Logs. c. ft. 

W. Prov 1,566 + 533,943 

14,067 + 27,067 

101 + 285 

1,465 + 162,823 

15,772 + 6,265 

— 7,300 

The trade descriptions would be Benin Mahogany, Sapele 
Mahogany, Lagos Mahogany, etc., following the port of shipment. 
According to a recent trade report (Chaloner & Co., Liverpool, 
Jan. 1st, 1906), the total supplv of Mahogany from the West 
Coast of Africa during 1905 was 16,965,137 feet, of which the 
proportion from Southern Nigerian ports is shown in the 
following figures : — 

Feet. Logs. 

Benin 3,889,809 = 6,488 

Lagos 1,978,060 = 3,629 

Sapele 896,772 = 1,109 

Bakana 58,521= 58 

The value of Lagos Mahogany (1st Jan., 1906) was ?>\d. to Id. 
per foot of 1-inch, and that of African Mahogany '6\d. to Sd. (I.e.) ; 
exactly the same prices were recorded for 1905 (I.e.), and this 
would appear to be about the normal value of West African 
Mahogany. Some big prices have occasionally been given for logs. 
According to the Timber News (Feb. 18th, 1889, p. 31) a finely 
figured log was sold at Messrs. Edward Chaloner & Co.'s sale, the 
10th Feb., 1889, for £408 5s. Sd. (3s. Sd. per foot), and the Timber 
Trades Journal (March 12th, 1904, p. 571) recorded the sale on the 
28th Nov., 1903, by the same firm, of a log which realized the 
remarkable price of £1,046 5s. (12s. 6d. per foot). 

It is of interest to note the difference in the supply price, 
prime cost of production or export price, and the demand or 
import price on the wholesale markets of the United Kingdom. 
Taking, for example, the year 1907, the return in value of the 
quantities shipped from S. Nigeria to the United Kingdom, 
expressed in tons (Trade of the Unit. Kingdom, i. 1908, p. 264), is 
£254,848, and the return in value of the quantities, which it may 
be fairly assumed are the same, though expressed in logs and 
cubic feet (S. Nig. Gov. Gaz., I.e.), is £57,859. These figures show 
a difference of £196,989, or nearly £200,000 to be accounted for 
in freight, market and other charges, and profits. 

The wood cuts out into very fine planks, and for joinery and 
cabinet work it is most valuable. It has much the appearance 
in colour of the Spanish or Honduras Mahogany (Swietenia 
MaJiagoni), but rather softer, with a less cdmpact grain (Kew 
Bull. 1890, p. 168). 

Canoes made of Mahogany are common in the waters of Degema 
and Brass, where a large trade is done in them with other parts of 
the colony. 


A series of tests with Mahogany and other woods from Lagos, 
were made by the Admiralty at the Chatham Dockyard in 1897, 
the results of which are published in the correspondence relating 
to Botanical and Forestry Matters in West Africa, 1889-1901, 
Colonial Office, p. 83. The specimens to which these tests related, 
were transferred from the Museum of the Royal Botanic Gardens, 
Kew, to the Imperial Institute in March, 1905. 

A sample of Lagos Mahogany in the Kew Museum has a 
specific gravity *51, weight per cubic foot^ 31*5 lbs. ; Sapele 
Mahogany, sp. gr. "61, weight per cubic foot 38*125 lbs. ; Benin 
Mahogany, sp. gr. *516, weight per cubic foot 32*5 lbs. The 
specific gravity was estimated by experiment and the weight per 
cubic foot by calculation. A sample of " ogwango " examined 
for the Imperial Institute weighed 32 lbs. per cubic foot {See Bull. 
Imp. Inst. 1908, pp. 117 and 152, where the wood is reported on by 
Mr. Herbert Stone, and a series of u mechanical " tests recorded, 
as carried out by Professors Unwin and Dalby). 

A specimen of the wood of Gambia Mahogany in the Kew 
Museum has a specific gravity of *7935, equivalent to an approxi- 
mate weight per cubic foot of 49*5 lbs. ; this wood is without 
doubt that of Khaya senegalensis ; it was sent to Kew by 
Sir Gilbert Carter in 1890, with the herbarium specimens on 
which the name was determined. In another sample of the wood 
of Khaya senegalensis from the Gold Coast the specific gravity is 
•4847, and the approximate weight per cubic foot, 30 lbs. (Mus. 

The tree appears to be of little importance beyond its value for 
timber. The gum has been used as a substitute or an adulterant 
of the Gum Arabic of commerce, but it has little or no value. A 
sample from Sierra Leone, submitted to Kew in 1890, was stated 
to be of little strength, and a consignment would not be likely to 
realize sufficient to cover freight and charges (Mus. Kew). 

The bark is bitter, and is used by the natives as a febrifuge. 

The tree is propagated by means of seeds. The natural and 
artificial regeneration of this tree with other species of African 
Mahogany mentioned, receives special attention by the Forestry 
Department in all Forest Reserves {see p. 40), and the protection 
of standing trees is provided for in the Forestry Proclamations 
mentioned on pp. 45 and 46. 

Ref.— "Gambia Mahogany" in Kew Bull. 1890, pp. 168-170.— 
"West African Mahogany," I.e. 1894, pp. 8-9.— " Ecorce de Cail 
Cedra," in Les Drog. Simpl. d'origine vegetale, Planchon and 
Collin, ii. pp. 668-670 (Octave Doin, Paris, 1896). — " Afrikanisches 
Mahagoni " ineDer Tropenpflanzer i. 1897, pp. 317-318. — " Report 
on the Mahogany found near the Ramos River in the Warri ami 
Forcados Districts," Unwin, in Suppl. to S. Nigeria Gazette, 
Dec. 11th, 1907, pp. 1-3. 

Pseudocedrela, Harms. 

Pseudrocedrela Kotschyi, Harms, in Bot. Jahrb. xxii. (1895), 
p. 154. 

///.— Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin, V. 1909, f. 9. 

A tree, usually 20-30 ft. high, occasionally much taller. Leaves 
paripinnate or imparipinnate, 1 ft. or more long ; leatk'ts 5-9 pairs, 


subsessile, straight or slightly curved, oblong or oblong-lanceolate, 
obtuse at the apex, rounded, truncate or subcordate at the base, 
2J-6 in. long, 1-2 in. broad, margin wavy, in a young state pubescent 
on both surfaces, the upper surface eventually becoming glabrous 
and shining. Panicles axillary, many-flowered, 6-8 in. long. 
Sepals 4-5, ovate or ovate-oblong, connate at the base. Petals 4-5, 
oblong-spathulate. Staminal tube urceolate, about half as long as 
the petals, 5-lobed above ; lobes 2- toothed, bearing an anther 
between the teeth. Discus fleshy, cupular. Ovary 5-celled ; 
ovules several in each cell ; style short, cylindric ; stigma discoid. 
Capsule erect, oblong, 3-4 in. long, splitting septic iclally into 
5 valves from the apex downwards ; valves joined by a fibrous 
network ; central column 5-angled. Seeds about 5 in each cell, 
winged below. 

Vernac. names. — Tonam (Katagum, Dalziel) ; Alu (Togoland, 
Tropenpflan. x. 1906, Beihefte, p. 253). 

Jebba, Nupe in N. Nigeria ; S. Nigeria. 

Described as possessing a very pretty wood ; found in the dry 
open forests of S. Nigeria (Thompson, Col. Rep. Misc. No. 51, 
1908, p. 63). Yields a dark coloured gum saleable at a low price 
(Dunstan, Col. Rep. Ann. No. 601, 1909, p. 43). 

Chailletia, DC. 
Chailletia toxicaria, G. Don ; Fl. Trop. Afr. I. p. 311. 

Vernac. names. — Meme (Kafogo, Sierra Leone, Scott Elliott) ; 
Manunk (Sierra Leone, Smythe) ; Magberi (Mendi, Sierra Leone, 
Renner) ; Manak (Timne, Sierra Leone, Renner). — Ratsbane ; 

Found throughout West Africa. 

The seeds of this plant are used in West Africa, Sierra Leone 
more particularly, for destroying rats. They are sold in Freetown 
Market (Smythe, Herb. Kew). The plant is also regarded as 
being one of the sources of the many mysterious poisons used in 
West Africa. It is a common form of punishment, ordeal and 
means of revenge. The poisons find their best use in the de- 
struction of obnoxious animals, but in certain cases, Tephrosia 
Vogelii (q.v.) for instance, they can be used to obtain food by 
poisoning fish, &c, without any serious effects. 

According to Dr. Renner it is used amongst the Timnes and 
Mendis to poison well-water and streams which supply hostile 
villages. Domestic animals poisoned by it rush about in great 
excitement, as if in severe pain, they vomit and drag their hind 
legs, which ultimately become paralysed (Journ. African Soc. 
Oct. 1901, p. 111). On a specimen collected by Dr. Kirk, an 
antidote for this poison is said to be a pint of water (Herb. Kew). 

A chemical and physiological examination of the fruit, con- 
ducted by Dr. Power and Messrs. Tutin and Dale, at the Wellcome 
Chemical Research Laboratories, shows that it contains no alkaloid, 
cyanogenitic glucoside or soluble proteid, to which its highly 
poisonous properties could be attributed. It has been found that it 


contains at least two active principles, one of which causes cerebral 
depression or narcosis, and the other cerebral excitation, leading 
to epileptiform convulsions ; that the poison which causes con- 
vulsions is very slowly excreted, so that a cumulative effect is 
produced by the administration of a series of individually 
innocuous doses (Chem. & Physiol. Ex. Ghailletia toxicaria, 
pp. 1181, 1183). Although the genus is an extensive one, the only 
other species of Ghailletia that has so far been proved to be 
poisonous is C. cymosa, which has been found poisonous to trek 
oxen in the Transvaal (Kew Bull. 1901, p. 101). 

Ref. — " Native Poison, West Africa," Dr. Renner, in Journ. 
African Soc. Oct. 1904, pp. 109-111. — Chemical and Physiological 
examination of the Fruit of Chailletia toxicaria, Dr. Power, 
and F. Tutin, pp. 1171-1183, No. 63, Wellcome Chemical 
Research Laboratories ; a Reprint from Journ. American Chemical 
Soc. xxviii. Sept. 1906. 

XlMENlA, Linn. 
Ximenia americana, Linn. ; Fl. Trop. Afr. I. p. 346. 

III. — Plumier, Nov. Gen. Amer. t. 21 {X. aculeata) ; Plumier, 
Ic. Burm. t. 261 (X. aculeata) ; Aublet, Guiana, 1. 125 (Hci/massoli 
spinosa) ; Jacq. Icon. Select. Stirp. Amer. t. 177, f. 31 (X, multi- 
flora) ; Lam. Encycl. t, 297, f. 1 ; Desc. Ant. ii. t. 132 ; Baillon, 
Adansonia, ii. t. 9, ff. o-6 (flowers) ; Nuttall, N. Amer. Sylva, 
i. t. 36 ; Schnizlein, Ic. t. 223, f. 1 ; Giornale Bot. Italiano, Pisa, 
ix. t. 11, ff. 1-11 ; Mart. Fl. Bras. xii. pt. 2, t. 2, f. 1 ; Pierre, Fl. 
For. Cochin, t. 265 A. ; Engl. & Prantl, Pflan. iii. pt, 1, f. 150 A-B 
(flowers, &c. from Nature), C-F (fruits, &c. after Beccari) ; Ann. 
Inst, Col. Marseille, v. 1898, "Graines, Grasses," &c. p. 29, f. 5 
(kernels and seed), p. 31, f. 6 (young plant in pot), p. 32, f. 7 
(fruit), p. 33, f. 8 (after Engl. & Prantl, I.e.). 

Vernac. names. — Igo (Lagos, Macgregor) ; Osere (Lagos, 
Dawoda) ; Muhinge or Mohinge (Golungo Alto, Welwitsch) ; Um- 
peque (Mossamedes, Welwitsch); Elozy-Zegue (Gaboon, Heckel) ; 
Alimu (Sudan, Bull. Imp. Inst, 1907, p. 359) ; Alankoawe 
(Arabic, Muriel) ; Bibi (Hameg, Muriel). — Wild Olive ; Wild 
Lime ; Mountain Plum ; Seaside Plum ; Hog Plum ; Citron of 
the Sea ; Tallow Nut ; Sennet. 

Niger ; Lagos ; Yoruba ; widely distributed in Tropical Africa, 
India, Burma, Ceylon, Florida, Brazil, West Indies and Tropics 

The fruit is edible, about the size and shape of an olive. It has 
been described by various writers as having " a peculiar aromatic 
flavour and delicious perfume " (Bull. Bot. Dept. Jamaica) ; 
" smell of cyanic acid " (Welwitsch) ; " flavour like a citron and 
nearly as sour as anything in nature " (Schweinfurth) ; " watery 
pulp of a pleasant sweet subacid taste" (Nuttall). This variety 
of opinion appears to fit the common names enumerated above, 
but it is singular that according to Welwitsch no animal touches 
the fruit, In Guam, however, it is said to be much relished by 
the fruit pigeons (Saffiord, PI. Guam, p. 399). 


It is useful in cases of habitual constipation and gastric troubles, 
when the irritating action of drastic purgatives has to be avoided 
(Bull. Bot. Dept, Jamaica, 1898, p. 7-1). In Golungo Alto the 
crushed rind is frequently applied to the sores of domestic 
animals to keep off flies (Hiern, Cat. Welw. Afr. PI. i. p. 141). 
According to Sargent hydrocyanic acid can be obtained from the 
fruit (Woods of Unit. St. Jesup Coll. p. 11) ; the same property 
has been observed by the French in the Gaboon, and confirmed 
by Ernst of Caracas, near which place the plant abounds 
(Fllickiger & Hanbury, Pharmacog. p. 250). No prussic acid can 
be detected in the leaves (Dunstan, Col. Rep. Ann. No. 601, 1909, 
p. 44). 

The kernels are edible — "eaten and taste like filberts" (Gamble) ; 
"the soft nut-like kernel is eaten with the juicy pulp" (Schwein- 
f urth) ; u the seeds of the fruit contain a very savoury kernel " 
(Welwitsch). On the other hand we find it stated, " the kernel is 
more strongly purgative than the fruit " (Ball. Bot. Dept. 
Jamaica) ; " the seeds are purgative " (Sebire) ; " not edible, even 
poisonous " (Pobeguin). The term edible would appear to require 
some qualification, and " what is one man's food is another man's 
poison " appears in this instance to be amply justified. 

The kernels can be used in the making of a kind of Maras- 
quino ; they yield an oil which is employed by the natives of 
Mossamedes at the time of their feasts, also for anointing their 
bodies, and for daubing their hair (Hiern, Cat. Welw. Afr. PI. i. 
p. 141) ; said to be suitable for soap-making (Moloney, For. W. Afr. 
p. 298). " Citron of the Sea " oil or " Elozy-Z6gue " ; oil is 
obtained from these kernels (Ann. Inst. Col. Marseille, " Graines, 
Grasses," &c. v. 1898, p. 27). 

Heckel has obtained 69*3 per cent, of a yellow, rather thick and 
viscous non-drying oil (I.e. p. 36). The oil does not separate from 
the cake, and for commercial use would have to be extracted by 
means of solvents. Its chemical constitution is such that it 
would find a use for soap-making, especially in Europe, and in 
the countries of production ; he suggests it might be used in the 
fresh state for food, on account of its agreeable flavour, provided 
it is extracted from such seeds as are not purgative, and this is 
not easy to discover from the external characters of the seed. 
The oil-cake made from the seed gives a fairly high percentage of 
albuminoid matters, and it could therefore be used at least as 
manure whether it be obtained from purgative or edible seeds 
(I.e. p. 37). 

The wood is very heavy, tough, hard and close-grained. 
According to Sargent (Woods of Unit. St. Jesup Coll. p. Ill) the 
specific gravity of the dry wood is - 9196, and weight per cubic 
foot 57*31 lbs. ; according to Gamble (Man. Ind. Timb. p. 163) the 
weight per cubic foot is 67 lbs. ; this specimen, now in the 
Museum, Kew, has a specific gravity of -915 = 57 lbs. per cubic 
foot, and a specimen from Singapore in the Museum, Kew, has a 
specific gravity of *8927 = 56 lbs. per cubic foot. It is used 
according to Gamble (I.e.) as a substitute for sandal- wood by 
Brahmins in their religious ceremonies. 

The bark of this tree has recently been examined at the 
Imperial Institute in respect of its value as a tanning material. 


The sample was received (December, 1906) from Khartum under 
the native name "Alimu." It consisted of small pieces of reddish- 
brown bark, which was rather fibrous, and covered with a rough 
dark coloured scale. 

The analysis gave : — Moisture, 9*77 per cent. ; ash, 6*70 per 
cent. ; tannin, 16*9 per cent. ; extractive matter (non-tannin) 
6'0 per cent. 

The bark furnishes a soft leather with a rather reddish colour 
(Bull. Imp. Inst. 1907, p. 359). 

The tree appears to be fairly abundant everywhere, and judging 
by its wide distribution can be very easily propagated by seed, but 
unless the value of the oil for use, perhaps in soap manufacture, 
or the importance of the bark as a tanning material, can be 
extended, it seems open to question whether the cultivation of the 
tree would be w r orthy of more than ordinary attention. 

Ref. — " Huile de Citron cle Mer ou d'Elozy-Zegue," in " Graines 
Grasses Xouvelles ou peu connues des Col. Franc, Ann. Inst. Col. 
Marseille, v. 1898, pp. 27-39. 

COULA, Baillon. 
Coula edulis, Baill ; Fl. Trop. Afr. I. p. 351. 

III. — Baillon, Adansonia, iii. t. 3 ; Ann. Inst. Col. Marseille, v. 
3898, p. 6, f. 1 (fruits). 

Vemac. names. — Coula (Gaboon, Heckel) ; Koumounou (Loango, 
Heckel) ; Koumongou, Igoumon (Congo, De Wildeman) ; Xoyer 
du Gabon {Selnre). 

Widely distributed in West Africa. 

The kernels are edible, and when cooked, i.e., boiled in the nut, 
make an agreeable dessert nut. 

A sample of these nuts was submitted by Kew, in July, 1905, 
to Messrs. Praschkauer & Co., London, for commercial valuation, 
who reported that, owing to the shell, they are impossible for oil 
crushing ; the kernel also was very much shrivelled and partly 
decayed. If they could be sent over shelled the kernels would be 
worth about £7 per ton (Mus. Kew). 

A firm in Liverpool has examined the nuts, and is of opinion 
that they would yield a very nice edible oil. Some difficulty 
was found in obtaining a sufficient quantity (2 tons or so) to 
estimate the value on a commercial scale (I.e.). 

Sebire (PL Util. Senegal, p. 47) mentions that the nut is edible, 
and that it furnishes a good percentage of edible oil. Heckel in 
1898 regarded the oil as a scientific curiosity, but, like the oil of 
Ben, by reason of its delicacy and freedom from rancidity, it was 
suggested that it would be useful for oiling clocks and "watches. 
He considered the proportion of oil in the seed too small to be 
exploited profitably on a commercial scale for any large industry 
such as soap-making (Ann. Inst. Col. Marseille, v.*1898, p. 11). 

The wood is hard and reddish in colour ; suitable for wheel- 
wright's work and turnerv (De Wildeman, PI. Util. Congo, 1904, 
p. 337). 

Ref.— "Huile de Coula ou de Koumounou " Coula edulis, in 
" Graines Grasses Nouvelles ou peu connues des Col. Franc.," 
Ann. Inst. Col. Marseille, v. 1898, pp. 1-11. 



GYMNOSPORIA, Benth. & Hook. 

Gymnosporia senegalensis, Loes. in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. xvii. (1893), 
p. 541. 
[Celastrus senegalensis, Lam., Fl. Trop. Afr. i. p. 361.] 

Var. inermis, Loes., has been collected in Lagos [(Rowland), 
(Millen No. 117) Herb. Kew] ; in Borgu (Barter, No. 780 Herb. 
Kew), and in Northern Nigeria without precise locality (Talbot, 
Herb. Kew). 

III. — Guillem. Perr. Rich. Fl. Senegamb. t. 36 (Celastrus 
coriaceus) ; Wight, Ic. PI. Ind. or. ii. t. 382 (Celastrus montanus) ; 
Boissier, Voy. de Bot. Espagne, t. 38 (Celastrus europaeus) ; Bedd. 
PL Sylv. (Anal. Gen.) t. 10, f. 2 (C. senegalensis) ; Vidal Fl. For. 
Filip. t. 31 A (C. Montana). 

Vernac. name. — Guenoudeck (Senegal, Moloney). 

Borgu ; Kano. Widely distributed in Tropical Africa ; extend- 
ing to India and occurring in the Mediterranean region. 

In India the leaves are used for fodder, the branches as 
dunnage for the roofs of houses (Gamble, Man. Ind. Timb. 
p. 177), and the bark ground to a paste — mixed with mustard oil — 
as a dressing for the head (Diet. Econ. Prod. Ind.). 

The natives of Senegal and Senegambia use the root bark in the 
treatment of chronic dysentery (Moloney, For. W. Afr. p. 299 ; 
Sebire, PL Util. Senegal, p. 48). In Madi a decoction of the root 
is used to relieve pain at childbirth (Grant, Trans. Linn. Soc. 
xxix. p. 46). 

The wood is closed grained, hard and durable (Moloney, For. W. 
Afr. p. 298). According to Gamble it weighs 45 lb. per cubic foot, 
and the tree is found in India at altitudes up to 4000 feet (Man. 
Ind. Timbers, p. 177). 

Hippocratea indica, Willd. ; FL Trop. Afr. I. p. 368. 
III.— Roxb. PL Corom. ii. t, 130 ; Pierre, FL For. Cochin, t. 302 ; 
Brandis, Ind. Trees, p. 160. 

Vernac. name. — N'Gunbo (Golungo Alto, Welwitsch). 

Niger ; Nupe. Widely distributed in. Tropical Africa, India, etc. 

The very tough and twisted stem of this liane is used by the 
natives of Angola for the construction of pig-sties, the toughness 
of the stems offering a greater resistance to the pigs' teeth than 
other building woods (Hiern, Cat. Welw. Afr. PL i. p. 148). 

Hippocratea obtusifolia, Roxb. ; FL Trop. Afr. I. p. 369. 

III. — Guillem. Perr. Rich. Fl. Senegamb. t. 26 (H. Richard iana); 
Hook. Bot. Misc. iii. 1833, Suppl. t. 36 (Satacia laevigata) ; Blanco, 
Fl. Filip. t. 86 (Salacia sinensis) ; Wight 1c. PL Ind. or. iii. t. 963 ; 
Rich. Tent. Fl. Abyss, t. 22 (H. Schimperiana). 

Vernac. names.— Gwodeyi (Katagum, Dalziel) ; M'Comvay 
(Bahr-el-Ghazal, Brown) ; Tonke (Sierra Leone, Scott Elliott). 

Nupe ; Katagum. 


In Sierra Leone the root is used in the preparation of djendjeng 
— a native drink (Scott Elliott, Herb. Kew) ; stem used as tie tie, 
and not eaten by white ants (Dalziel, Herb. Kew). 


Salacia macrocarpa, Welw. ; Fl. Trop. Afr. I. p. 373. 
Old Calabar ; found also in other parts of Upper and Lower 

Fruit stated to be edible (Hiern. Cat. Welw. Afr. PL i. p. 150). 

Salacia senegalensis, DC, Fl. Trop. Afr, I. p. 374. 
III.— Guillem. Perr. Rich. Fl. Senegamb. t. 27. 
Vernac. name. — Kibbil (Yoloff, Barter). — Beacon Bush. 
Native Fruit (Barter, Herb. Kew). 



Zizyphus Jujuba, Lam. ; Fl. Trop. Afr. I. p. 379. 

///. — Rheede, Hort. Mai. iv. t. 41 ; Sonnerat, Nouv. Guinee, 
t. 94 (La Manssanas) ; Hook. Kew Journ. Bot. i. 1334, t. 140 ; 
Blanco, Fl. Filip. t. 59 ; Wight, Ic. PL Incl. or. i. t. 99 ; Table 
Fruits of India, (Ballin & Co., Calcutta, 1842) t. 3 ; Brandis, 
Illustr. For. Fl. India, t. 17 ; Bedd. Fl. Sylv. t. 149 ; Vidal, Fl. 
For. Filip. t. 32b. ; Sem. Hort. 1899, p. 447 ; Cat. PL Hort. Col. 
Brux. p. 120 ; Sim, For. FL Port, E. Afr. t, 24, f. A. 

Vernac. names. — Kurna (Kontagora, Dalziel) ; Kalembo, 
M'Konazee (Madi, Grant) ; Masson (Mauritius, Boutori) ; Massao 
or Massaou (Zambesi, Kirk, Meller) ; Bhere or Ber (India, Kew 
Bull. 1889, p. 23).— Indian Jujube ; Chinese Date ; Egg Plum. 

Niger ; Kontagora ; Katagum ; throughout Tropical Africa and 
in many other tropical countries. 

The fruit preserved in syrup forms an important food in China 
and other Eastern Countries. The fruits are also often dried and 
they have occasionally come into the London market, The fruit is 
sold in the markets of Khartoum and Berber (Grant, Trans. Linn. 
Soc. xxix. p. 47). In Abyssinia the fruit is pounded and made 
into a ball. The mashed fruit is thrown into the water for the 
purpose of bringing fish to the surface (I.e.). The leaves are good 
fodder for camels and goats (Gamble, Man. Ind. Timb. p. 181) ; 
Qrant (I.e.) also states that goats are very fond of the leaves. The 
Tusar Silkworm {Antheroea paphia, Linn.) is fed on the leaves, 
and sometimes also the Eri silkworm in Assam (Gamble, I.e.). 
The lac insect {Coccus laced) lives on the twigs of this tree (Mus. 

The root bark is used in India for tanning (I.e.), a decoction of 
the root for fever, and the powdered root as a dressing for ulcers 
and old wounds (Diet. Econ. Prod. Ind.). The bark is said to be 
a remedy for diarrhoea (I.e.). The tree coppices well and makes 
good fuel and charcoal. The wood is used for saddle trees, 
agricultural implements, sandals, bedstead legs, tent-pegs, oil- 
mills, golf clubs, and other purposes (Gamble. 1 c). 

33385 L 


Some experiments on the wood from Ceylon made by Prof. 
Unwin for the Imperial Institute, gave the following results : — 
Weight per cubic foot 48*87 lbs ; resistance to shearing along the 
fibres 1013*4 lbs. per sq. inch ; crushing stress 2*778 tons per 
sq. inch ; coefficient of transverse strength 3*479 tons per sq. inch ; 
Coefficient of elasticity 426*7 tons per sq. inch. (Tech. Rep. & Sci. 
Papers, Imp. Inst. pp. 249, 259, 260, 262, and Circ. No. 20, ii. 1904, 
p .331, Roy. Bot. Gdn. Ceylon). According to Beddome the wood, 
unseasoned, weighs 72-75 lbs. per cubic foot, and seasoned 58 lbs. 
per cubic foot (Fl. Sylv. No. 149). 

The tree is easily propagated by seed, grows freely and quickly, 
and succeeds in comparatively poor soil. It grows readily and 
seems to delight in the most arid soil, requiring no particular 
treatment (Bouton, Hook. Journ. Bot. i. p. 320). According to 
Grant, hedges are made of the thorny branches in parts of Central 
Africa (Trans. Linn. Soc. xxix. p. 47). In parts of West Africa it 
is used for a similar purpose. Under cultivation the fruit is 
much improved and there are several varieties, differing greatly 
in the shape and size of the leaves as also in the size and nature of 
the fruit. Of the fruits cultivated in Mauritius, Bouton (I.e.) has 
distinguished between varieties with the flesh adhering or not 
adhering to the nut, The variety Hysudricas is considered the 
most remarkable, and this according to Aitchison is always raised 
by grafting (Kew Bull. 1889, p. 23). Young plants are propagated 
and sold regularly by the Botanical Department at Oloke-Meji. 

Ref. — " Observations on the different varieties of Zizyphus 
Jujuba cultivated in the Mauritius," Bouton, in Hook. Journ. 
Bot. i. 1834, pp. 319-322.—" Ilanthai," in Colonial Timbers, Tech. 
Rep. & Sci. Papers, Imp. Inst. 1903, pp. 249, 259-262. 

Zizyphus mucronata, Willd. ; Fl. Trop. Afr. I. p. 380. 

III.— Guillem. Perr. Rich. Fl. Senegamb. t. 37 (Z. Baclei) ; 
Wood, Natal PI. i. t. 47 ; Sim. For. Fl. Cape Col. t. 36, f. 1. 

Vernac. names. — Tomburong (Gambia, Daniell) ; Umpafa(Katir, 
Sim) ; Buffalo Thorn (Cape, Pappe) ; Cut Thorn (Cape, Sim). 

Lagos ; Jebba ; Nupe ; Attah ; Bornu ; and throughout Tropical 
Africa extending to the Cape. 

Fruit edible. It is believed to be the Lotus mentioned by 
Mungo Park as being used for making into bread, which tastes 
like ginger-bread, and also for the preparation of a pleasant 
beverage (Z. Baclei in Treas. Botany). In S. Africa a paste made 
of the leaves is applied to glandular swellings. A decoction of 
the root is used in lumbago and taken internally for all scrofulous 
diseases and for swollen glands of the neck (Smith, Contr. to 
S. Afr. Mat. Med. pp. 88, 136). 

The wood is tough and used chiefly for wagon work (Pappe, 
Silva Capensis, p. 12) ; very little used except for yoke-keys (Sim. 
For. Fl. Cape Col. p. 178). 

The seeds are used by Musselmen to make rosaries (Barter, 
Mus. Kew). 

In Cape Colony the plant is occasionally used for hedges, but 
does not stand trimming well ; it requires deep alluvial soil 
(Sim, I.e.). 

. 163 

Zizyphus Spina-Christi, Willd. ; Fl. Trop. Afr. I. p. 380. 

Vernac. name. — Ailb (Hadramaut, Lunt). 

Nupe Rabba ; banks of Komadugu Waube, Dumjiri, N. Bornu. 

Fruit edible, with an agreeable flavour (Moloney, For. W. Afr. 
p. 300). 

The wood is hard, compact and heavy, considered a cabinet 
wood of the first quality (Grisard & Vanden Berghe, Les Bois 
Indust. Indig. Exot. p. 338). 

Vitis, Linn. 
Vitis aralioides, Welw. ; Fl. Trop. Afr. I. p. 411. 
\_Cissus aralioides, Planchon, Monogr. Ampelid. p. 513.] 

Fruit edible ; a remarkable ornament when in fruit ; grows in 
damp, dense, primitive woods, and favours especially riverside 
trees (Hiern, Cat. Welw. Afr. PI. i. p. 160). 

Vitis bombycina, Baker ; Fl. Trop. Afr. I. p. 399. 
[Ampelocissus bombycina, Planch. Monogr. Ampelid. p. 383.] 
Niger ; Nupe. 
Fruit eatable. 

Vitis caesia, Sabine ; Fl. Trop. Afr. I. p. 396. 

[Cissus caesia, Afzel. ; Planch. Monogr. Ampelid. p. 485.] 

Vernac. name. — Abekau Maru (Lagos, Phillips), 

Nupe ; Lagos. 

Country Grapes (Sierra Leone, Don, Moloney). 

The ripe fruits are acid and not very agreeable to Europeans, 
but are eaten by Negroes (Don, Hist. Dich. PI. i. p. 710 ; Moloney, 
For. W. Afr. p. 301). 

Vitis cornifolia, Baker ; Fl. Trop. Afr. I. p. 390. 
[Cissus cornifolia, Planch. Monogr. Ampelid. p. 492.] 
III. — Trans. Linn. Soc. xxix. t. 22. 

Vernac. name. — Rigar biri (Katagum, Dalziel) ; M'pungee- 
pungee (Madi, Grant). 
Nupe ; Katagum. 

Fruit edible (Fl. Trop. Afr. 1 c.) but not pleasant to eat (Grant, 
Trans. Linn. Soc. xxix. p. 47) ; flowering in November ; ripe at 
Madi in December. 

Vitis Lecardii, Carriere, Rev. Hort. 1881, p. 456. 
\_Ampelocissus Lecardii, Planch. Monogr. Ampelid. p. 386.] 
III.— Rev. Hort. 1881, p. 455 ; Fl. des Serres, t. 2452-3. 
Soudan Vine ; La Vigne de Nigritie (Carriere, Rev. Hort. 1881, 
p. 205). 

33385 L 2 


Banks of R. Niger, Hinterland of Sierra Leone 12° and 13° N. lat. 
(Gard. Chron. January 1st, 1881, p. 18). Senegambia (Planchon 

Fruits edible ; the best Vitis in Tropical Africa. 

M, Lecard, the discoverer, describes the fruit as excellent and 

It was suggested that this Tine might prove useful for stocks in 
the vine growing countries where Phylloxera was abundant, but 
it has been found in no way superior to American stocks. 

JRef. — '• Les Yignes du Soudan," Carriere, in Revue Horticole, 
1881,' pp. 352-355 ; 113-117 and 151-158.— Les Yignes du Sou Ian, 
Lavallee, pp. 1-13 ; Soc. Nat. d'Agric. France (Bouchard-Huzard, 
Paris, 1881). 

Vitis Leonensis, HooJc. /. ; Fl. Trop. Afr. I. p. 398. 

[Amjielocissus leonensis, Planch, in Journ. la Vigne, Amer. Jan. 
1885, p. 30 ; Monogr. Ampelid. p. 387.] 


Fruits red, edible. 

Vitis pallida, Wight & Am. ; Fl. Trop. Afr. I. p. 393, in part. 

[Cissus populnea, Guill. et Perr. ; Planch. Monogr. Ampelid. 
p. 479.] 

Vernac. name. — Dafara (Katagum, Dalziel). 

Lagos ; Nupe ; Katagum. 

Bark used to give viscid solution, mixed with native cement 
(Dalziel, Herb. Kew). 

Vitis palmatifida, Baker ; Fl. Trop. Afr. I. p. 397. 
\_Cissus palmatifida, Planch. Monogr. Ampelid. p. 473.] 
Niger ; Nupe. 
Fruits edible — like black currants. 

Vitis quadrangularis, Linn. ; Fl. Trop. Afr. I. p. 399. 

[Cissus quadrangular is, Planch. Monogr. Ampelid. p. 509.] 

III.— Rheede, Hort. Mai. vii. t. 41 ; Wight, Ic. PI. Ind. or. i. t. 51 ; 
Wood, Natal PI. iv. t. 393. 

Vernac. names. — Sassarau Kura (Katagum, Dalziel) ; Meeoleh- 
oleh (Unyoro, Grant). — Edible Stemmed Vine. 

Nupe ; Katagum ; widely distributed in Tropical Africa. Occurs 
also in Arabia, India, Ceylon, etc. 

Fruit edible. 

In India the stems are eaten by the natives in curries ; they 
become very acid with age. 

The leaves and young shoots, dried and powdered, are given in 
bowel complaints (Diet. Econ. Prod. Ind.). 

Generally found trailing over trees and bushes ; in rocky places, 
Nupe (Barter, Herb. Kew) ; on the mounds of the white ant in 
Senegambia (Fl. Trop. Afr. i. p. 400). 


Vitis Schimperiana, Baker ; Fl. Trop. Afr. I. p. 395, in part. 
\_Ampelocissus Bakeri, Planch. Monogr. Ampelid. p. 385.] 

Forest Grapes. 

Yoruba, and Togoland. 

Fruit like that of the Frontignac Grape (Barter, Herb. Kew), 

There are many other species of Yitis in Tropical Africa, and it 
is probable that more occur in Nigeria, with so-called edible fruit. 
Some species, especially Vitis pruriens, Welw. (Fl. Trop. Afr. i. 
p. 408) [Cissus pruriens, Planch. Monogr. Ampelid. p. 595], have 
very attractive fruits, but dangerous because they are covered 
with small stinging hairs, which cause a burning and itching 
sensation in the throat. McNair mentions a grape-vine called 
" Siling-Silame " (Hausa) and ;i Eteku " (Yoruba) which grows 
plentifully in all the Hausa country ; the bark and leaves are 
used by the Hausas as a medicine, in the form of a decoction, for 
fever. The fruit is sour, but is eaten by the native shepherds 
when they are very hungrv (Rep. Bot. St. Lagos, 31st March, 

Lee a, Linn. 

Leea sambucina, Willd. ; Fl. Trop. Afr. I. p. 415. 

\_Leea guineensis, Don.] 

III. — Rumpf, Amb. iv. t. 45 : Banks & Solander, Bot. Cook's 
Yoy. i. t. 4lA ; Blanco, Fl. Film. t. 60 ; Vidal, Fl. For. Filip. 
t. 33a. 

Vernac. names. — Aledo (Lagos, Dawodu) ; Bois de Sureau 
(Reunion, Wait). 

Lagos ; Abeokuta ; Onitsha ; widely distributed in Tropical 
Africa, India, Burma, Ceylon, Polynesia, etc. 

A decoction of the root is cooling and relieves thirst ; in India 
it is given in colic, and in Reunion used as a sudorific (Diet. 
Econ. Prod. Ind.). The roasted leaves are applied to the head in 
vertigo, and the juice of the young leaves is digestive. The plant 
is described as one of the greatest ornaments of the forest (Fl. 
Trop. Afr. i. p. 415). 

Cardiospermum, Linn. 

Cardiospermum Halicacabum, Linn. ; Fl. Trop. Afr. I. p. 417. 

III.— Rheede, Hort, Mai. viii. t. 28 ; Rumpf, Amb. vi. t. 24 : 
Gaertn. Fruct. Sem. PI. i. t. 79 (flower) ; Lam. Encvcl. t. 317, f. 2 ; 
Bot, Mag. t. 1049 ; Desc. Ant. iv. t, 241 ; Mem. Mus. Paris, xviii. 
1829, 1. 1, f. A ; Wight, Ic. PI. Ind. or. ii. t. 508 ; Gray, Gen. 1. 181 ; 
Schnizlein, Ic. t. 230. 

Vernac. names. — M'niolola (Unyoro, Grant) \ Iyantishmati 
(Sanskrit, Dymock). — Balloon Vine ; Heart Pea ; Heart Seed ; 
Smooth Heart Seed ; ^Vinter Cherry. 

Lagos ; widely distributed in Trop. Africa and throughout the 


The root is described as possessing emetic, laxative, stomachic, 
and rubefacient properties ; prescribed for rheumatism, nervous 
diseases, piles, etc. 

The leaves are used in amenorrhoea and, on the Malabar Coast, 
are administered in pulmonic complaints. The Hindus administer 
the leaves internally, rubbed up with castor oil, and also apply a 
paste made with them externally. A similar external application 
is used to reduce swellings and tumours of various kinds 
(Dymock, Pharm. Journ. [3] viii. 1878, p. 1002). 

The leaves, together with the young shoots, are sometimes 
cooked as a vegetable. The native name in Unyoro signifies 
chain-like, because when the plant is boiled as a vegetable it is 
stringy to eat (Grant, Trans. Linn. Soc. xxix. p. 48). 

The seed is used as a tonic in fever and a diaphoretic in 

Ref. — Gardiospermum Halicacabum in " Notes on Indian 
Drugs," Dymock, in Pharm. Journ. [3] viii. 1878, p. 1002. 

Paullinia, Linn. 

Paullinia pinnata, Linn, ; Fl. Trop. Afr. I. p. 419. 

111.— Gaertn. Fruct. Sem. PI. i. t. 79 ; Lam. Encyc. t. 318. 

Vernac. names.- — Kakasenla (Lagos, Dawodu) ; Aza (S. Nigeria, 
Bennett) ; Ebanka (Sierra Leone) ; Timbo (Brazil, Holmes). 

Old Calabar ; Zungeru ; Lokoja ; Dekina, Bassa ; widely 
distributed in Tropical Africa, and Tropical America. 

Leaves and roots used by the natives on the Gold Coast for 
dysentery (Johnson, Herb. Kew). 

The bark of the root is a narcotic poison. It has an aromatic 
odour slightly resembling musk. According to Martius it acts 
especially on the kidneys and brain ; he compares it to aconite 
and states that the natives of Brazil prepare a slow poison from it 
(Holmes, Pharm. Journ. [3] v. 1875, p. 986). In Brazil poultices 
are made from it with boiling water which are applied to the side 
in affections of the liver and often cause intense eruptions (Pharm. 
Journ. [3] vii. 1877, p. 1020). A decoction of the root more 
especially, is used for stupefying fish (Year Book of Pharm. 1892, 
p. 152), a property possessed by several Sapindaceous plants 
(Planchon & Collin Drog. Simpl. ii. p. 578). Timbonine is an 
alkaloid extract isolated by M. Martin, from the root bark. 

The seeds also, according to Macfadjen possess the property of 
intoxicating fish (Fawcett, Econ. Prod. Jamaica, p. 60). 

Found in the mixed forests (Thompson, Col. Rep. Misc. No. 51, 
1908, p. 61). 

Kef. — "Timbo Root" Holmes, in Pharm. Journ. [3] v. 1875, 
p. 986. — " Timbo, Its Properties and Composition " I.e. vii. 1877, 
p. 1020. — " Poisonous Constituents of Timbo," in Year Book of 
Pharmacy, 1892, pp. 152-153. 



Schmidelia africana, DC. ; PL Trop. Afr. I. p. 421. 

III.— Pal. de Beauv. Fl. Ow. Ben. ii. t, 107 (Allophyhis 
africanus) ; Rich. Tent. Fl. Abyss, t. 27 ; Sim, Fl. For. Cape Col. 
t. 33, f. 4. 

Vernac. names. — Azamara ; Souaria (Fl. Trop. Afr. I.e.) ; Ije 
eye (Lagos, Dawodu) ; Wo wo ? (Lagos, Phillips) ; Kakasemala 
(Lagos, MacGregor) ; In-Qala (Kafir, Four cade, Sim). 

Lagos ; Abeokuta ; Lokoja ; Zungeru ; Guarara River ; and 
many parts of tropical Africa. 

The fruits are used in Abyssinia as a remedy for tape-worm ; 
the dried fruits are pounded, mixed with flour, and then made 
into cakes (Moloney, For. W. Afr. p. 302). Used (part of plant 
not stated) in Sierra Leone to relieve toothache and headache 
(Holmes, Mus. Rep. Pharm. Soc. 1895, p. 88). 

The wood is described as very strong and close grained ; weight 
per cubic foot 46*8 lbs. (Sim, For. Fl. Cape Col. p. 170). 

The tree is found on the banks of the Guarara River, in forests 
near Lokoja, common on the banks of the Dago River, Zungeru 
(Elliot, Herb. Kew), and by streams Zungeru (Da]ziel, Herb. 

Blighia, Koenig. 

Blighia sapida, Koenig ; Fl. Trop. Afr. I. p. 426. 

Ill— Koniga Sims, Ann. Bot. ii., 1806, tt, 16-17. Tuss. Ant. i. t. 
3 (Akeesia africana) ; Lodd. Bot. Cab. t. 1484 ; Desc. Ant. viii. t. 
560 {Akeesia africana). 

Vernac. names. — Ishin (Lagos, Dawodu) ; Ishiri Jeje (Lagos, 
Williams) : Ukpe Lorphua (S. Nigeria, TJnwiri) ; Ukpi Nufwa 
(Benin, Thompson^ Unwiri) ; Okwikwiro (Ibo, Thom]jso?i).— Akee 

Native of West Africa ; distributed to the West Indies, abundant 
in Jamaica. 

The flowers are fragrant and the distilled water of the flowers is 
used as a cosmetic by the Creole ladies in the Antilles (Desc 
Ant. viii. p. 157). 

The white or creamy-white arillus in which the seeds are set is 
edible and when cooked affords a very palatable food ; salt fish 
and Akees form one of the most common breakfast dishes among 
all classes in Jamaica (Agric. News, Barbados, 1905, p. 359). Cases 
of poisoning by eating Akee apple are occasionally reported. 

The wholesomeness of the Akee as an article of food has been 
examined by Mr. J. J. Bowrey, F.C.S., F.I.C., Analytical Chemist 
to the Government of Jamaica. He found that : — 

" 1. Unripe Akees if eaten freely bring on vomiting. 2. Decay- 
ing Akees are decidedly unwholesome, and may be even very 
poisonous. This is true of many foods. 3. Fresh ripe Akees are 
good and harmless food, rather rich it is true, but to most persons 
quite wholesome. There may be individual idiosyncrasies 
with regard to Akee, as there are to such usually harmless foods 
as mutton, duck, pork, mushrooms, &c. 4. The red membrane of 
the Akee, so commonly believed to be poisonous is perfectly 


harmless. 5. If the fruit be ripe and fresh, which can be known 
by its being open, the edible portion firm, and the red part bright 
in colour, it may be considered a good and safe food. But if the 
fruit be not ripe, or if there are any signs of decay, such as 
mouldiness or softening of the edible portion, or a dingy colour in 
the ordinarily red part, the fruit should not be eaten." (Kew 
Bull. 1892. p. 109.) 

From the arillus an oil is obtained, described as a yellow, non- 
drying, butter-like fat at ordinary temperatures, consisting of a 
liquid portion, and a solid granular portion ; having a peculiar odour 
and somewhat unpleasant taste. It has been found by Garsed 
to have the following characters : — 


Q,wflo p •+ ) at 99°-100° C. = 0-857 ) 

Specific Gravity ... j Water ^ ^ Q = ± } 

Melting Point ... 25°-35° C. 

Solidifying Point ... 20° C. 

Hehner Value ... 93 

Saponification Value ... 194*6 

Reichert Value ... 0'9 

Iodine Value ... 49*1 

Acid Value ... 20'1 

Mixed Fatty Acids. 
Specific Gravity ..] at 99°-100° C. = 0*8365 

Melting Point ... 42°-46° C. 

Solidifying Point ... 40°-38° C. 

Saponification Value ... 207'7 

Iodine Value ... 58*4 

(Pharm. Journ. [4] xi. 1900, p. 691.) 

In Lagos the fruits are used to stupefy fish, and are pounded 
before being thrown into the stream (Dawodu). 

Eef. — " Notes on the Oil of Akee," Holmes, in Pharmaceutical 
Journal [4] xi. 1900, p. 691 ; " The Characters of Oil of Akee," 
Garsed, I.e. p. 691-692 ; A short extract in Year Book of Pharmacy, 
1901, p. 18 ; Reprint in Bull. Bot. Dept. Jamaica, 1901, pp. 74-77. 

Chytranthus, Hook. f. 

Chytranthus Mannii, Hook./. ; Fl. Trop. Afr. I. p. 430. 

Vernac. names. — Pecego (Princes Island, Welwitsch) ; Pece- 
gueiro (St. Thomas, Wehvitsch). — Peach Tree. 

Fruit edible ; eaten by the natives, Princes Island (Mann, Herb. 
Kew). Flowers occur near the base of the trunk. 


Anaphrenium, E. Mey. 

Anaphrenium abyssinicum, Hochsf. ; Engl, in DC. Monogr. 
Phanerog. iv. 1883, p. 357. 

\_Rhus insignis, Delile ; Fl. Trop. Afr. i. p. 437]. 

III. — Rich. Tent. Fl. Abyss, t. 32 {Anaphrenium abyssinicum) ; 
Ann. Sc. Nat. Paris, Ser. 2, xx. 1843, t. 1, f. 3 (Ozoroa insignis) ; 
Be Candolle, Monogr. Phanerog. iv. t. 13, ff. 15-18. 


Vernac. name. — Quit-undo (Pungo Andongo, Welwitsdi). 


A brilliant whitish resin is contained in the branches and trunk 
near the base. 

The natives of Pungo Andongo consider the charcoal made from 
the wood to be the best for use in the manufacture of the small 
copper and iron ornaments with which they are accustomed to 
adorn themselves (Hiern, Oat. Welw. Afr. PL i. p. 181). 


Mangifera africana, Oliv. \ Fl. Trop. Afr. I. p. 443. 

Vernac. name. — Ogwi (Benin, Unwiri). — Wild Mango. 

Benin, and found all over the Central Province and probably 
all over S. Nigeria, extending to N. Nigeria. 

Fruit eaten by the natives ; sold in the markets (Unwin, Repart 
(MSS.) on Ec. PL Benin, Sept. 1907). 

Mangifera indica, Linn. ; FL Trop. Afr. I. p. 442. 

Ill— Rheede, Hort. Mai. iv. tt. 1 & 2 ; Rumpf . Amb. i. tt. 25 & 26 ; 
Jacq. Jc. PL Rar. ii. t. 337 ; Lam. Encycl. t. 138, f. 1 ; Andr. Rep. 
vi. t. 425 ; Tuss. Ant. ii. t, 15 ; Desc. Ant. i. t. 25 ; Nova Acta 
Physico-Medico Academiae, Bonn, xii. t. 37 ; Diet. Sc. Nat. t. 262 ; 
Spach, Suites t, 11. ; L'Hort. Universel, Paris, iii. 1842, p. 193 ; 
Bot. Mag. t. 4510 ; Schacht. Madeira and Teneriff e, t. 4 ; N ooten, 
Fl. Java, t. 20 ; Schnizlein, Ic. iv. t, 245, f. 7 ; Bedd. Fl. Sylv. 
1. 162 ; Yidal, FL For. Filip. t. 36 D (flower) ; Zippel Ausl. Handels 
Nahrpfl. t. 60 ; Pierre FL For. Cochin, t. 361 (vars. comjjressa, cam- 
bodiana) ; Hart, Bull. Misc. Inf. Roy. Bot, Gardens, Trinidad, 1899 
(outline figures of fruits, see enumeration under refs.) ; Maries, 
Journ. Roy. Hort. Soc. xxvi. 1901-02, ff. 319-333 {see enumeration 
under refs.) ; Collins, U.S. Dept, Agric. Bull. No. 28, 1903 (see 
enumeration under refs.) ; U.S. Dept. Agric. Bureau PL Industry, 
Bull. No. 46, 1903, t. 1, If. 1 & 2 (Methods of Grafting, India), f. 3 
(Plants from India, showing condition of arrival in U.S.A.), t. 2 
(Methods of Budding), t. 3 (Germination, 8 plantlets from one 
seed) ; Firminger. Man. Gard. India [5th ed. Cameron], t, 2 (fruit 
of " Gathay Mar," " Raspberry," " Chittoor," " Badame"") ; Wood- 
row, The Mango, frontispiece ("Alphonse," fruit), p. 32 ("Totapari," 
fruit) ; Contr. U.S. Nat, Herb. ix. t. 28 ; Freeman and Chandler, 
World's Comm. Prod. pp. 265, 267, 272 ; Torreya, New York, 1907, 
p. 115, f. 1 (Germinating seeds ; polyembrony), p. 116, f. 2 (8 seed- 
lings from one seed, showing the blocks of nucellus each producing 
a seedling) ; Macmillan, Trop. Agric. Ceylon, 1908 (see enumeration 
under refs.) ; Bull. Dept. Agric. Jamaica, i. 1909, p. 48 (Budded 
Mango, four years old), p. 50 ("Alphonse " Mango ; budded mango 
" Bombay " ; young plantation budded mangoes). 


Native of the East Indies and Malaya. Naturalized in Tropical 
America, Asia, and Africa. 

In West Africa, although the fruit has a fine appearance, the 
characteristic flavour of turpentine is too much in evidence. The 
qualities of the Indian Mango are due to care in selection and 
hybridisation, the stock originally being the same as in Nigeria. 


In December, 1898, the Government of S. Nigeria received from 
the Botanical Department, Jamaica, a Wardian case of the 
" Governor " Mango ; these grew well, and have recently fruited 
in the Botanical Gardens at Old Calabar. 

In August, 1900, 50 plants of the following varieties were 
received from Trinidad : No. 11, Peach, Mistake, Gordon, Malda, 
and Peters. Both of these consignments were transmitted through 
the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, where they were examined 
before being sent on to Old Calabar. Of these 36 have survived 
and have recently fruited. 

The fruits are used in India in quantity in the manufacture of 
chutney, large quantities of which come into the American and 
English markets. 

Consignments of fresh fruits from Jamaica and India have 
proved that the Mango can be conveyed long distances with 
success, but they do not appear to be much appreciated in 
England. It is possible that as the Mango becomes better known 
the trade will develop. Jamaica Mangoes may at the present time 
be seen in fruiterers' shops in this country (Mus. Kew). 

Much will depend on selection of suitable varieties and on the 
condition of the fruit at the time of sale. 

The " Julie " Mango has been recommended very highly for 
export {see Bull. Misc. Inf. Trinidad, 1907, p. 185, and Queensland 
Agric. Journ. xviii. June, 1907, p. 338). In Ceylon the " Rupee " 
Mango is considered the largest and one of the best ; it realizes 
locally 20 to 25 cents each, the price for other sorts at 40 to 
50 cents per dozen (Macmillan, Circ. Rov. Bot. Gard. Ceylon, iii. 
1906, p. 211). The " Afooz," " Alfooz " or " Alphonse " Mango is 
very popular in Bombay. Other very superior sorts are " No. 11 ," 
" Peters " and " Malda." " Fuzhe," one of the best of the Buday 
sorts, can be bought in Calcutta in September sometimes at about 
8d. each ; it is a large, fine fruit weighing often 2 lb. Most of 
the good varieties" fetch from 6 to 10 rupees per 100 in Durbhungah 
Bazaar (Maries, Journ. Roy. Hort. Soc. xxvi. 1901, p. 756). 

The creation of an export trade in this fruit as it now exists in 
Nigeria would not be worth attempting, and it is very doubtful 
whether such a trade could ever be developed even with improved 
varieties, but there is no reason why the inhabitants of Nigeria 
should not in course of time enjoy the superior fruits which are 
cultivated in other countries. 

Other uses to which parts of the tree are put are of minor 
importance in comparison with its fruit. The seed is used as an 
anthelmintic (Nat. Stand. Disp. 1905, p. 174). The dried kernels of 
the seeds are pickled, used in curries, or made up into other pre- 
parations. A starch may be obtained from the green fruits and 
kernels, similar in properties to Arrowroot {M aranta arundinacea). 

The bark and leaves are astringent, and they yield a yellow dye 
of no special value. The juice of the tree is an antisyphilitic (I.e.). 
Piuri, a yellow colouring matter obtained from the urine of cows 
fed on Mango leaves, is imported into the United Kingdom from 
India (Mus. Kew). The bark contains tannin, and is used as such 
in parts of India. A sample examined at the Imperial Institute 


(1902) from Demerara gave 20'6 per cent, of tannin (air-dried 
material) and 23*8 per cent, for material dried at 105° C. A sample 
from Bengal gave 13*5 per cent, of tannin, and one from Pemba 
was found to contain the high percentage of 49*39, calculated on 
dried bark. It is stated that Mango bark possesses the peculiarity 
of communicating to leather a red tint which is not popular with 
English tanners, and the material is at present little known in this 
country (Tech. Rep. & Sci. Papers, Imp. Inst. p. 200). It also 
yields a gum-resin of some medicinal value, and which, according 
to Aitchison, is frequently sold as gum arabic. Hooper finds that 
an analysis of the clean gum-resin shews the following composi- 
tion : — Moisture, 4*34 ; resin, 79*16 ; gnm, 14*68 ; ash, 1*66 ; loss, 
0*16. A sample of gum-resin from another tree afforded 78*4 per 
cent, of resin (Pharm. Journ. [4] xxiv. p. 718). 

In Angola the skin of the root, which is very astringent and 
slightly aromatic, is occasionally used in the treatment of diarrhoea 
and dysentery (Hiern, Cat. Welw. Afr. PI. i. p. 174). 

The wood is used for planking, doors, window frames ; packing 
cases for indigo, opium and tea. Weight 42 lbs. per cubic foot 
(Gamble, Man. Ind. Timb. p. 212). 

The Mango can be readily raised from seed. Seeds soon lose their 
vitality and should be sown with as little delay as possible after 
removal from the fruit. They germinate quickly — in about a fort- 
night — and if sown in nurseries during the dry season about 
January, and kept watered, they would be ready for planting out 
in the following rainy season (June, July or August). They are 
best sown in bamboo pots or little baskets made of palm leaves. 
This avoids risk of injury to the roots when transplanted. A good 
method also is to sow at once in the position intended to be per- 
manent, the best time being just before the commencement of the 
rains. In this case, however, the labour of protecting is increased 
until the plants are large enough to look after themselves. 

The above refers more particularly to the common sort when 
grown for ornamental purposes, or as stocks for grafting. 

The choice varieties are usually propagated by grafting on the 
common stock ; the inarching method, with pot-grown plants 
about one year old, being generally considered the most practical 
way. Of the improved varieties that have been fount! nearly 
always to come true from seed in Jamaica, " No. 11," " Black 
Mango " and " Kidney Mango " are mentioned as exceptions to 
the general rule (Bull. Bot. Dept. Jamaica, 1901, p. 165). 

The propagation of the Mango by budding has only recently 
been brought into practice, and up to the present may be regarded 
as little more than experimental. The method has been found 
reliable in Jamaica ; the Director of the Botanical Department, in 
his Report for 1903-04, states that " trees of all sizes were budded, 
but it was found that as a rule the larger the trees the more readily 
and rapidly the bud grew." 

" Without doubt the quickest way to establish a Mango Orchard 
would be to transplant the stumps of trees, say 6-8 inches in 
diameter, previously cut down to within 3 feet of the ground," 
budding the new shoots. 


" One of the trees budded at Hope was a stump not less than 
50 years old." 

Harris recommends that the trees be cut down carefully to 
within 2 feet of the ground. The shoots are thinned out to three 
as near the top as possible. These he considers ready for budding 
when three-quarters of an inch in diameter at the base (Bull. 
Dept. Agric. Jamaica, 1903, p. 253). 

Oliver recommends two- or three-year old seedlings and 
moderate-sized trees as stocks on which to bud approved varieties 
of the Mango, the stems selected for the reception of the buds 
being at least an inch in diameter (The Propagation of Tropical 
Fruit Trees and other Plants, Bull. No. 46, 1903, U.S. Dept. of 
Agric. Bur. PI. Ind. p. 11). He illustrates the ordinary method 
of shield-budding, and a modification called the rectangular patch 
method (I.e.). 

Propagation may also be effected by layering. 

Grafted, budded, or layered trees come to maturity earlier by 
several years than do those raised from seed. Twenty to thirty feet, 
possibly more, will be required between each tree, when fully 
developed, for the coarser growing kinds, and for the finer varieties 
any distance from 12 or 15 feet and upwards may be required. 

A tropical or sub-tropical climate ; a rainfall of 50 inches and 
upwards ; rich deep and well-drained soil suits the Mango, and is 
essential to good growth, more particularly in the early stages, but 
if the soil is over rich at the time the trees are due to fruit they 
are apt to produce an excess of wood. 

Of greater importance than soil, perhaps, is a dry season of 
sufficient duration to admit of the fruiting wood being thoroughly 
ripened. In Singapore they do not succeed well owing to the 
short dry season (Derry). In moist regions, where the growth is 
continual, artificial means of checking it are resorted to, such as 
ring-barking the smaller branches, the application of salt, 10 lbs. 
to each tree (Woodrow, The Mango, p. 14) at the end of the rainy 
season, and root pruning. The latter method is perhaps the most 
efficacious and certainly the more practical way ; although in 
countries like Nigeria, subject to tornado seasons, it would be 
necessary to guard against the possibility of uprooting. 

Heavy rains at the time of flowering prevent pollination. 

The tree is one of the finest for making avenues. 

In the references to the literature some of the improved kinds 
dealt with by the various authors are mentioned. There are 
many excellent sorts. Maries collected in Durbhunga, N.W. 
Bengal, over 500 varieties, and by a judicious selection it is 
possible to have fruits in season for at least five months in the 
year. One variety — " Barmassia," the 12 months Mango — is said 
to be a perpetual bearer, but it is of very inferior quality (Journ. 
Roy. Hort. Soc. xxvi. 1901, p. 756). A variety known as the 
" Do-am " is said to fruit twice in one year. 

The fruit is ready for gathering when it separates easily from 
the tree ; a slight softening near the point of attachment is also a 


good indication. The ripening process may be completed on 
shelves in cool well-ventilated buildings. As with oranges, very 
careful handling is necessary. 

A method of preserving Mangoes and other fruits is noted in 
the Journal of the Jamaica Agricultural Society (1905, p. 22) — the 
fruit is covered with cold sterilized water, sealed in bottles, and 
heated for four hours at 150° to 155° F. 

Ref. — " Piuri or Indian Yellow," in Journ. Soc. Arts, xxxii. 1883, 
pp. 16-17. — " Mango " (Mangif era indica), in " Report on the Con- 
dition of Tropical and Semi-Tropical Fruits in the United States," in 
1887, Div. of Pomology, U.S. Dept. of Agric. Bulletin No. 1, 1888, 
pages 27-33, making mention, and in some instances describing, 
62 varieties. — " Mangifera indica, The Mango Tree," in Diet. 
Econ. Prod. India, v. part 1, 1891, pp. 146-156; giving habitat; 
history ; cultivation ; cultivated races, including a descriptive 
list of the following good sorts : " Afooz," " Kuabogh," 
" Durbhungah-Bombay," " Safada," " Gopalbogh," " Kakoria," 
" Kurrelna," " Banka " (twisted), " Ameercola," " Dilpusund," 
" Durma " or " Derrima," " Kishenbogh Durbhungah," " Kishen- 
bogh," " Lerrua " or " Lerrna," " Shah pusund " (generally called 
Malda), " Gowraya Malda," " Kumukht," " Buhpali," " Inerna " 
(this is the largest Mango, some specimens attaining a weight of 
4 lb.), " Kerbuza " (or Melon) Mangoes, including " Naroika," 
44 Mohedenugger " and " Dhoola walla kerbusa " ; Budaya Mangoes, 
including " Khari Budaya," " Terha Kellua," " Fuzlee Bewa," 
44 Jalli bund," 44 Durbhungah Budaya," " Nukkna Lungra," 44 Mo- 
hunbogh," 44 Mohur Thakoor," 44 Tars " (the native name of the 
Borassus Palm, the two fruits bearing some resemblance to each 
other). The economic uses of the various parts of the tree are 
described, and a statement of the chemical composition of the 
fruit is included. — 4 ' Preserving Mangoes," E. M. Shelton, of the 
Department of Agriculture, Queensland, in Bull. Bot. Dept. 
Jamaica, 1894, pp. Ill, 112 ; including instructions for canning, 
making marmalade and jelly. In the experiments 13 good-sized 
Mangoes gave one pint of jelly and five quarts of marmalade. — 
Ibid, in The Agricultural Record, Trinidad, v. Aug. 1891, pp. 76-78, 
being a Reprint from Leaflet issued by the Department of Agri- 
culture, Brisbane, 1891. — " Fabrication de l'eau-d-vie de Mangue," 
in Rev. Cult. Col. i. 1897, p. 151.— " The Mango" (Mangifera 
indica), in Bull. Misc. Information, Roy. Bot. Gardens, Trinidad, 
July, 1899, pp. 190-219. Cultural notes and descriptions of the 
following varieties, with an outline figure of each : " Gordon," 
44 Peters " (" Bombay " Mango of Jamaica), ' 4 Julie," " Father 
Louis," 44 No. 11 " of Jamaica or " Reine Amelie " of Martinique, 
44 Prestoe," "Mistake," "Golden Mango" or " Mango D'or," 
44 Grand Verte," " Calabash," " Baladooray " or " Big Massa " (the 
tree is the largest of all the Mangoes and grows to a very large 
size, but is by no means a good bearer), and " Belle Maria." — " Graft- 
ing the Mango Tree," Knight, in Queensland Agric. Journ. vii. 1900, 
pp. 41, 42.—" The Mango," Fawcett & Harris, in Bull. Bot. Dept. 
Jamaica, viii. 1901, pp. 161-178 ; to which is attached an article 
on " The Shipping of Mangoes and the Reason for their absence 
in the Markets of the United States," by John W. Harshberger, 
Ph.D., Philadelphia ; Ibid, in The Sugar Journal and Tropica] 


Cultivator, Sept. 15th, 1902, p. 51. — "Indian Mangos," Maries, in 
Journ. Roy. Hort. Soc. xxvi. 1901-02, pp. 755-770, with descrip- 
tions and illustrations of the following choice varieties : " Nak 
kua " or Nose Mango ; " Afooz " or " Alfonzo " ; " Durbhungah," 
Bombay ; " Fukura " or " Fakir Walla " Amun of Gwalior ; 
" Peary," " Pairi," " Peter," or " Perara," Bombay ; " Shah 
Pusund " ; " Ennurriva " ; " Ameer Golan " or " Gola," Madras ; 
" Yalajah Pusund," Madras ; " Dharma " ; " Buckley's Gowraya," 
Maldah and Durbhungah ; " Barka " ; " Rhari Budaya," Dur- 
bhungah ; and " Mohur Takoor." — " Mangifera indica," in Manual 
of Indian Timbers, Gamble, pp. 211, 212 (Sampson Low, Marston 
& Co., Ltd., London, 1902) ; including an Analysis of the Ash of 
Sapwood and Heartwood. — " The Mango in Porto Rico," Collins, 
U.S. Dept. of Agric. Bureau of Plant Industry, Bull. No. 28, 1903, 
pp. 1-36. Covering origin ; description ; culture, including 
methods of propagation by seed, inarching, layering and patch- 
budding, and uses. Descriptions and illustrations of the following 
forms : " Mango de Mayaguez," " Mangotina," " Melocoton," 
"Mango de rosa," " Pina," "Largo," "Mango," " Jobos," " Re- 
dondo," &c. Packing and shipping, with illustration showing 
method of packing and a few notes on the market ; 15 plates. — 
" The' Mango," in The Propagation of Tropical Fruit Trees and 
other Plants, Oliver, U.S. Dept. of Agric. Bull. No. 46, 1903, 
Bureau of Plant Industry, pp. 8-15 ; prospects as a fruit tree ; 
propagation in India ; propagating tests at the Department : best 
age for wood, thick bark of Mango an obstacle in budding, knife 
for budding the Mango, methods which show best results, apply- 
ing the buds, when to bud, selection of budding material, raising 
seedling stocks, transplanting young seedlings, importing Mango 
scions. — " Mango Bark from Demerara," with Chemical Analysis, 
in Tech. Rep. and Sci. Papers, Imp. Inst. 1903, pp. 200, 201.— 
"On the Budding of Mangos," Harris, Bull. Dept. Agric. Jamaica, 
1903, pp. 253-255.—" Mangoes," I.e. pp. 262-263, giving pro- 
portional parts of the fruit of "No. 11," "Yam," "Bombay," 
" Black," and chemical composition of same. — The Mango : 
Its Cultivation and Varieties, in Trop. Agric. Ceylon, 1903, 
pp. 156, 157. — " Mangifera indica," in Man. Gard. India, Fir- 
minger, pp. 256-261 (5th ed. Cameron ; Thacker Spink & Co., 
Calcutta, 1904). — "Starch of the Mango," Buttenshaw, in 
West Indian Bull. v. Iy04, pp. 20-22, with micrograph 
(f. 5) of starch of the Mango seed x 300 ; and micrograph 
(f . 6) of starch of the Green Mango x 300.—" The Mango : Its 
Culture and Varieties," Marshall Woodrow, pp. 1-32, including 
descriptions of 80 famous Mangoes ; illustrated (Alexander 
Gardner, Paisley ; H. G. Cook, 41, Wellington Street, Covent 
Garden, London, 1904). — " Mangos at the Colonial and Indian 
Exhibition," in Bull. Misc. Information, Roy. Bot. Gardens, 
Trinidad, .1 905, pp. 240, 241.—" The Mango Weevil " (Crypto- 
rhynchus mangiferae, Fabr.), Maxwell-Lefroy, in Agric. Journ. 
India, 1906, pp. 164, 165, with illustration of beetle. — " Le Greffage 
du Manguier," in Journ. d'Agric. Tropicale, Paris, May, 1906, 
pp. 138-140. — " Gum-Resin of the Mango," Hooper, in Pharm. 
Journ. [4] xxiv. 1907, p. 718. — " Mangifera indica," in Comm. 
Prod. India, Watt, pp. 764, 765 (John Murray, London, 1908).— 
" Mangoes in Ceylon," Macmillan, in Trop. Agric. Ceylon, 1908, 


pp. 135, 136, with descriptions and illustrations of the principal 
types of Mangoes grown in Ceylon ; " Rupee," "Jaffna," " Baittee " 
or Bombay, " Parrot," " Mi-amba " (Honey Mango), and " Etamba" 
(seed Mango). — " Mangoes for Export," Cousins, in Bull. Dept. 
Agric. Jamaica, i. 1909, pp. 48-51, illustrated. 


Anacardium occidental, Linn. ; Fl. Trop. Afr. I. p. 443. 

III. — Rheede, Hort. Mai. iii. t. 54 ; Rumpf. Amb. i. t. 69 ; Plenck. 
Ic. t. 319 ; Jacq. Icon. Select, Stirp. Am. t. 181, f . 35 (fruit) ; Tuss. 
Ant. iii. t. 13 ; Desc, Ant, vii. t, 507 ; Diet, Sc. Nat. t. 261 ; Berg. 
Charact. t. 73, No. 535 ; Blanco, Fl. Filip. t, 116 ; Nooten, Fl. Java, 
t. 25 ; Bedd. Fl. Sylv. t. 163 ; Baiilon, Hist. PI. v. ff. 322-324 ; 
Vidal, Fl. For. Filip. t. 36 B ; Kohler, Med. Pflan. iii. ; 111. Hort. 
1885, pp. 157-159 ; Le Jard. 1889, pp. 33, 34 ; Greshoff, Nutt. Ind. 
PL t. 2 ; Journ. Bomb. N.H. Soc. x. 1895, p. 88 ; Contr. U.S. Nat. 
Herb. ix. t. 29 ; Freeman & Chandler, World's Comm. Prod, 
p. 275 ; Sim, For. Fl. Port. E. Afr. t. 28. 

Vernac. names. — Kaju (Lagos, Daivodu) ; Cajueiro (Port, Angola, 
Welwitsch). — Cashew Nut ; Cashew Apple ; Noix de Kasjoe. 

Indigenous to South America and the West Indies. Introduced 
to Tropical Africa, Asia, and many warm countries. ♦ 

The roasted kernels are commonly eaten as dessert. The kernels 
yield by expression about 40 per cent, of a nutritious oil, the 
quality of which is considered equal to almond or olive oil. 

Cardol or Cashew Apple Oil is obtained from the shell of the 
nut ; it is black, acrid and vesicant ; a good preservative for wood- 
work, books, &c, being a good protection against white ants. 
According to Dymock, Cardol is prepared in large quantities in 
the Goa territory during the process of roasting the nuts, and is 
used there for tarring boats (Pharm. Journ. [3] vii. p. 730). In 
India it is used as an anaesthetic in leprosy and as a blister in 
warts, corns and ulcers (Watt, Diet. Econ. Prod. India). 

There is a fair amount of trade done in the nuts, and the demand 
seems good. The exports from India during 1907 amounted to 
8,507 cwts., valued at about R. 2 lakhs. The chief customers were 
France and the United Kingdom (Trop. Agric. Ceylon, 1908, p. 311). 
September and October has been advised as the best time for nuts 
to reach Marseilles (Agric. Bull. Sir. Sett. & Fed. Malay St. 1906, 
p. 377). Cashew Nuts are imported into Bombay from Goa in very 
considerable quantities ; the kernels are valued at about Rs. 18 per 
cwt. (Watt. Comm. Prod. India, p. m). 

Cashew Nuts or Cashew Kernels are charged for at the Docks as 
Pistachio Kernels : landing bd. per cwt. ; re -weighing, re-piling or 
re-housing "Z\d. per cwt. ; delivery to land conveyance 2$d. per 
cwt., to water conveyance 4<1 per cwt. ; rent 6r/. per ton per week 
(Table of Rates, &c, London & India Docks Co. 1904, p. 44). 

The tree yields a gum. A sample from S. Nigeria has 

been examined at the Imperial Institute ; it consisted of a 

mixture of small almost colourless tears, with masses of dark- 

brown or almost black gum, weighing about 2 ozs., with no 


marked taste or odour ; on burning it yielded 1 per cent, of ash. 
There would be no prospect of selling it in this country (Govt. 
Gaz. S. Nigeria, July 15th, 1908, Suppl. p. 3). 

The juicy fleshy pedicel may be eaten when ripe ; it makes a 
good preserve, and according to Watt (Diet. Econ. Prod. India) is 
a remedy for scurvy. From this part of the fruit a spirit may be 
distilled which in some localities is an important beverage. The 
Portuguese in Goa consider the spirit to be a valuable diuretic, and 
they apply it externally in rheumatism (Dymock, in Pharm. Journ. 
[3] vii. p. 731). In Mozambique, Portuguese East Africa, there 
is an area of about 12,000 acres where the tree grows freely, and 
the distillation of the spirit, subject to heavy taxation by the 
Portuguese Government, is an industry of some importance. It is 
stated that during the Cashew season (October, November, and 
December) the natives give themselves up to their favourite 
beverage, and during that time they become perfectly useless 
(Cons. Rep. Ann. No. 1463, 1894, p. 14). It does not appear that 
the distillation of Cashew spirit is anywhere more than of local 
importance. In Brazil a wine is made from it, closely resembling 
Madeira, with a reputation for use in so-called torpidity of the 
liver (Nat. Stand. Disp. 1905, p. 174). 

The sap of the tree is a natural and indelible marking ink. 

The bark contains tannin. Christy calls it " diabetes bark," and 
recommends an infusion in the treatment of " diabetes insipidus" 
(New & Rare Drugs, May, 1888, p. 6). 

The wood is used for packing-cases in Ceylon and Burma ; for 
boat-building and for making charcoal ; the weight is 30 to 38 lbs. 
per cubic foot (Gamble, Man. Ind. Timb. p. 214). 

The tree can be propagated by seed (nuts), but does not trans- 
plant readily ; the seeds may be sown in bamboo pots if raised in 
the nursery, or sown at once in positions intended to be permanent. 
It will nourish in comparatively dry soil and under an irregular 
rainfall. In the Mozambique region above mentioned, the aridity 
of the soil, irregularity of rains, as well as the absence of labour, 
are the chief causes of failure with produce other than Cashew 
trees, &c. (Cons. Rep. I.e.). In India it is established in the coast 
forests, especially in sandy places, and in S. India it has been 
found of value in coast-dune reclamation (Watt, Comm. Prod. 
India, p. 65). It does well in Palmyra Groves (Gamble, I.e.). 

Eef. — " Anacardium occidentale, Pomme d'Acajou ou de Kasjoe," 
in 111. Horticole, 1885, pp. 157-159.— Med. Pflan. Kohler, iii. 3^ pp. 
— " La Pomme et la Noix de Cajou," De Bois et P. Maury, in Le 
Jardin, 1889, pp. 33, 34,— Diet. Econ. Prod. India, i. 1889, pp. 232, 
233.— Nuttige Indische Planten, Dr. Greshoff, pp. 5-8 (J. H. De 
Bussy, Amsterdam, 1894). — " The Poisonous Plants of Bombay," 
Surg.-Major Kirtikar, in Journ. Bomb. N.H. Soc. x. 1895, pp. 88- 
107.— Dip. & Cons. Rep. Ann. No. 1463, 1894, Mozambique, pp. 14, 
15 ; Reprint (" Cashew Spirit ") in Kew Bull. 1898, pp. 28, 29.— 
" Anacardium occidentale," Dr. De Cordemoy, in Ann. Inst. Col. 
Marseille, vi. fasc. 2, 1899, " Gommes Resines," pp. 49, 50. — 
" Analysis of the Oil of Anacardium occidentale," in Tech. Rep. & 
Sci. Papers, Imp. Inst. 1903, p. 126. 

New York Botanical Garden Librar 


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